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r 



S I 1^9 Ob. "eO 




Uatvarft College Xibratt 



Presented to 



/^'Tl XAAA-Cf^^^^ 




by direction of 
•The Tfaintenance Coninittee* 

of 
The Philadelphia Bible Christian Church 

( Vepetarian ) 
1023 Poulkrod Street 
yrankford Philadelphia 
Pennsylvania 



HISTORY OF 
THE PHILADELPHIA 
BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

For The 

First Century of its Existence 

From 

1817 to 1917 



Compiled by 

THE MAINTENANCE COMMITTEE 

Created for that and other purposes by a 

resolution adopted at a Special Church 

Meeting held May 6» I9i7« 



PRESS OF 

J. B. LIPPINCOrr COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA, 1922 



M.<^ Kcct ofc. ^0 




r t r 



,./, 



> I .y I 1 



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/ •,/ 



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»; .« 



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PREFACE 

In agcobdanoe with regular and farmal action 
taken at a special meeting of the members of The 
Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church held at the head- 
quarters of the Church, 1023 Foulkrod Street, Frank- 
ford> Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 8, 1917, 
provision was made for the creation of a Mainten- 
ance Committea 

Prominent among otJier duties assigned to this Com- 
mittee, was the preparation of a brief history of the 
first century of the Church: 1817-1917 in Philadelphia. 
It is proposed to deposit such history, together with 
books, pamphlets and papers with the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 

In compiling this little work the Committee has 
made full use of the privilege of inspecting the official 
Church records, and the greater portion of the informa- 
tion presented is derived from these sources, the remain- 
der being supplied either from letters and other Church 
papers, or from the memories of some members of the 
Committee, so that all herein set forth possesses at least 
the virtue of being reliabla 

In its personnel the Committee includes one m^nber 
over ninety-two years of age, originally a member of 
the Bible-Christian Church in England and for more 

••• 
Ul 



iv PREFACE 

than forty-four years minister of the Philadelphia 
Church ; there are six other members on the Committee, 
all practically life-long members of the Church. 

Our aim has been to set forth the f acts, rather than 
to furnish a successful liteiary production; and with! 
that object in view, we submit what foUows, vrith the 
sincere hope and faith that the first one hundred years' 
existence of The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church 
has not been in vain, but has added and will continue to 
add to the material and spiritual welfare of humanity. 
Edwin F. Metcalfe, Chairman; !N'aomi Clubb, Sec- 
retary ; Eev. Henry S. Clubb, Amy H. Cariss, Edmund 
B. Lord, George M. Wright, Esther H. King. 

Thb Oommittbb 



BIBLICAL TESTIMONY AND INSTRUCTION 

"And God said, Behold, I liave given you every 
herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the 
earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree 
yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.'' — Gbn. 1 
CHAP. 29 vs. 

" But the flesh with the life thereof, which is the 
blood thereof shall ye not eat." — Gsn. 9 chap. 4 vs. 

" Be not among winebibbers, and riotous eaters of 
flesh."— Peov. 28 chap. 20 vs. 

" He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man." — 
Isaiah 66 chap. 3 vs. 

" It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine." 
— ^BoMANB 14 chap. 21 vs. 

^^ And when the children of Israel saw it, they said 
one to another, it is manna : for they wist not what it 
was. And Moses said unto them — ^This is the bread 
whidh the Lord hath given you to eat." — ^Exodus 16 
CHAP. 15 vs. 

" Thou shalt not kill." — ^Exodus 22 chap. 13 vs. 
Deutbbonomy 5 CHAP. 17 vs. 

" And while the flesh was yet between their teeth, 
ere it was chewed, the wrath of the Lord was kindled 
against the people, and the Lord smote the people with! 
a very great plague." — ^Numbbbs 11 chap. 33 vs. 



vi BIBLICAL TESTmONY AND INSTRUCTION 

^^ He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and 
herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth 
food out of the earth." — ^Psalm 104, 14 vs. 

^^ And the cow and the bear shall feed : their young 
ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat 
straw like the ox." — ^Isaiah 11 chap. 7 vs. 

" They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy 
mountain : for the earth shall be full of the knowledge 
of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." — Isatah 11 
OHAP. 9 vs. 

^^ Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the 
fruit thereof or who f eedeth a flock, and eateth not of 
the milk of the flock ?" — 1 Cob. 9 chap. 7 vs. 

" Wherefore, if meat maketh my brother to offend, 
I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I 
make my brother to oflFend." — 1 Cob. 8 chap. 13 vs. 



CONTENTS 



CHAFTMB PAOB 

PRBFACB ill 

BZBUGAL AtTTHOBITT lOB THX ChTTBCB DoCTBINS OF 
VaOBlABIAinBM V 

I. Tbb Chttbgh 1 

n. Lnra OF Mkicbbbb with Datbb 7 

III. LiBT OF Officbbb OF Chttbch AND TmoiB OF Sbbtxcb. . 15 

IV. Thb MnnsTBBB 80 

V. Thb Boabd of Dbaoonb 90 

VI. Thb Boabd of Tbustbbs 112 

Vn.. Thb Sundat-bchool 181 

Vm. Thb Malb and Femalb Inbtitutb of thb B. C. Chpbch 140 

IX. BZBLB ChBIBTIAN PHTBIOLOaiGAL SOCIBTT (IST AND 2ND 

Rbfobt) 148 

X. Thb Ladibb' Aid Socibtt 144 

XI. Thb Vbobtabian Socibtt, Fbacb Socibtt 158 

MlBCBLLANBOUB 101 



vn 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGB 

First Church Edifice, Third Street above Girard Avenue, 
1823-1844 Frontiapieoe 

Second Church Edifice, Third Street above Girard Avenue, 

1845-1890 43 

Rev. William Metcalfe, Founder and Minister, 1817-1862 60 

Interior of Third Street Church (second floor) 53 

Rev. Joseph Metcalfe, Minister, 1862-1867 50 

Dr. William Taylor, Minister, 1868-1873 65 

Rev. Henry S. Clubb, Minister, 1876-1921 83 

Jonathan Wright, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 00 

Edmund Brooks, Vocal Leader, Deacon, Trustee 94 

Henry Metcalfe Taylor, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 124 

William Metcalfe Horrocks, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 125 

Park Avenue Church, 1891-1916 126 

Interior of Park Avenue Church 127 

James Wright, First Sabbath School Superintendent 131 

William Cariss, Sr., Sabbath School Superintendent, Deacon, 
Trustee 136 

Charles F. Ko^g, Sabbath School Superintendent, Deacon, 
Trustee 137 

George Metcalfe Wright, Great Grandson of the Founder 

( Secretary, Deacon, Trustee) 186 



IX 



HISTORY OF 
THE PHILADELPHIA 
BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

CHAPTEE I 
THE CHURCH 

The official Churdi books and records were of course 
used by the Committee in compiling this history of the 
first 100 years* existence of the Church in Philadelphia, 
which history comprises the principal facts therein. 

There is also, however, a great volume of unwritten 
history — ^incidents and occurrences not shown in the 
said records; the devoted efforts to promote and en- 
courage the growth of Bible Christianity; the faithful 
labor of sincere men and women to teach and exemplify 
the humane principles advocated by the Church doc- 
trines, persevered in year after year, oftentimes under 
most discouraging conditions, but with the sincere belief 
that kindness and consideration towards the humble and 
useful domestic animals was as much a part of the 
Oreat Creator's plan as was the divine announcement 
" Peace on Earth, good will toward men.'* 

It is not claimed that these creatures possess a soul, 
or are even mentally endowed. We do not know; but 
that they manifest some attributes and characteristics 
of the human race, such as: affection, fear, anger, 

1 



St BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

pleasure^ paiii^ joy and sorrow is generally admitted, 
and that under careful trainings most remarkable in- 
telligence and cleverness is often manifested by them 
so that the practice of killing these animals and eating 
their flesh seems to be unoatural and barbarous. 

This prominent feature iu the Church belief and 
discipltiie, certainly produced no objectionable or un- 
pleasant characteristics in the members and followers 
of the faith; and although there was some opposition 
shown by a few other religious denominations in the 
early days, it did not long continue, and there is reason 
for the opinion that, as individuals and also as an organ- 
ization, they gradually acquired the respect and esteem 
of the educated and enlightened portion of the commu- 
nity, and of the church; and its ministers frequently 
received most favorable comment in the public Press. 

The entertainments, fairs, concerts and other public 
functions were usually well and liberally patronized, 
and many also who were not members were attracted 
to the Church services in a most friendly and apprecia- 
tive way. The Derbyshire family, engaged in the dyeing 
business, were regular attendants and liberal contribu- 
tors for many years; the Needhams (hosiery manu- 
facturers), Mr. Bromley (carpet manufacturer), the 
Gault family, the Wrightsons, the Gibsons, Mrs. Sing- 
erly and numerous other Kensington and Frankford 
residents are also remembered in this respect 

At various periods the social sentiment of the or- 
ganization was prominently featured; what were 
termed Monthly Tea Meetings were held in the Sunday- 



THE CHUBCH S 

school room for a number of years, at wMdi topics of 
general and religions interest were discussed, appro- 
priate musical selections rendered and a plain but 
enjoyable repast served. 

The Annual Meetings on Whitmonday were not 
restricted to business matters alone; the regular pro- 
gramme for that day conmienced with a religious service 
in the church proper, followed shortly after by a dinner, 
served in the Sunday-school room, the ladies preparing 
these feasts, starting their labors early in the morning. 
For many years, there were on these festive occasions, 
three long tables extending the full length of the room 
which were beautifully decorated with flowers. Fre- 
quently more than one hundred guests were present. 
These feasts were served most bountiftdly with the 
products of the fields, garden and orchard, and of course 
without the sacrifice of any animal life, or the accom- 
paniment of any intoxicating beverages. This feature of 
the Annual General Assembly usually took place about 
one o'clock p.m., continuing until about two or two- 
thirty, after which the members would be occupied with 
the consideration of Church business and affairs for the 
rest of the afternoon. The reports of the Minister, of 
the Boards of Deacons and Trustees, the Sunday- 
school Superintendent and of regular and special Com- 
mittees, giving a review of the events of the past year, 
followed by the annual election, consumed several hours. 
The day was essentially a very special and enjoyable 
anniversary, and all members and many friends of the 
Church made particular effort to be present.. 



4 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

The modem question, Wbj do people (partioiilarly 
men) not attend church services and religious meetings 
more numerously ? Why is there less time and interest 
devoted to these affairs than in former years? — ap- 
plies to the Bible-Christian Church!, as it does to the 
churches of other denominations. It has been the ex- 
perience of this Church that the social features, the 
lingering after service for a little sociable chat, between 
those who did not meet during the week, the friendly 
calling in at each other's homes, the regular attendance 
at and interest taken in the service, at entertainments, 
anniversaries and exercises, and also on the solemn 
occasions of funerals, that prevailed years ago, gradu- 
ally decreased and declined — ^Times indeed change and 
men and women change with them. 

If this condition of affairs indicates a change in in- 
dividual thought and habit in regard to religiouB 
matters^ it is not limited to the Bible Christians, but 
appears to be almost universal. It is all part of the 
secularization of modem life. 

Whether the temperate and vegetarian mode of life 
practised by the members* has not yet had sufficient 
time to demonstrate all the advantages of such a system 
we cannot say, but in health, longevity, cheerfulness, 
mental and physical equipment, temperament and dis- 
position, our members appear to be fully as well pro- 
vided as those whose lives and bodies have been built 
up on bl diet of animal flesh. 



THE CHURCH 5 

They have produced, muuBters, doctors, dentistfl, 
flchool-teadiArs, musioionfl, artists, lecturers, reporters, 
printers, publishers, editors, public legislators, railroad 
builders, engineers^ machinists, laborers, teamsters, 
accountants, farmers, gardeners, picture frame makers 
and gilders, salesmen, saleswomen, dressmakers, in fact 
have been represented- in most of the useful professions 
and occupations, but there are no butchers or bar-tenders. 

They have taken active ports in politics and public 
affairs, also occasionally in military service and have 
been faithful (most of them during their entire lives) 
to the vegetarian discipline of the Church, thus refut- 
ing the claim often made that flesh meat is necessary 
to a proper development of the health and strength of 
the human body and smuL 

In the matter of longevity the Church records fur- 
nish no specific table, but it is -well knovm that many, 
probably the nmjority, of those constituting the mem- 
bership passed beyond the allotted '^ three score years 
and ten.'' The founder. Rev. William Metcalfe, reached 
his seventy-fifth year, and the late pastor. Rev. Henry 
S. Clubb, was in the enjoyment of good health and 
spirits, and received the ' congratulations of many 
friends when he completed his ninety-fourth year, 
June 21, 1921. 

One factor that is responsible to some extent for 
the decrease in membership, apart from the natural 
passing on of the older members to join the '^ church 
in the skies," is the fact that many of the younger mem- 



6 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

bers of families have been attracted to new associates 
by the steady growth of the city and changes in neighbor- 
hoods, and have formed acquaintances and friendships 
outside of the old-time church circle, which transferred 
their social interests and inclinations into other direc- 
tions; marriages occurred, and gradually their attend- 
ance at the " Shrine of their childhood '^ lessened or 
ceased entirely. It is a noticeable fact, however, that 
although alliances were formed with those who were 
accustomed to a flesh diet, many of these former mem- 
bers never relinquished their vegetarian mode of life, 
ai»d frequently the children of such unions exhibited an 
aversion to the eating of flesh f ood« 

The sincere conviction of the members of the Church 
is that the natural and Divinely appointed food for 
mankind consists of the products of the soil, and therein 
are found not only all the elements necessary for a 
sound mind and body, but also an unlimited field for 
the furnishing of a most enjoyable and delightful menu ; 
a banquet free of the suffering, the bloodshed and 
inhumanity necessary to provide the table of the 
flesh eater. 

Truly and happily do they approve and live up to 
Goldsmith's eloquent and humane poem, with the faith' 
that sometime, somewhere, the universe wiU sing: 

" No flocks that range the valley free 
To slaughter I condemn ; 
Taught by the Power that pities me 
I learn to pity theuL*' 



CHAPTER n 
MEMBEBS 











Date of 


Name 






Retidflnoe 


Membership 


Almond, 


John 




Germantown, Pa. 


1817 


» 


Joseph 




99 


99 


99 


»» 


WiUiam 




99 


99 


99 


Bamed, 


Mary W. 




Kensington, 


Pa. 


1860 


M 


Francena R. 




Philadelphia, " 


1867 


99 


Annie 




99 


99 


1860 


BeU, 


Ann ( From England ) 


Philadelphia, Pa. 




M 


David 


99 


99 


99 




M 


Elizabeth 


99 


99 


99 




99 


Sybil 


99 


99 


99 




Brooks, 


Harriet 




Frankford, 


Pa. 


1817 


M 


EUzabeth 




99 


99 


1818 


M 


James 




99 


99 


1828 


99 


Eliza 




99 


99 


1832 


99 


Martha F. 




99 


99 


1834 


99 


Edmund 




99 


99 


1836 


99 


William C. 




99 


99 


1836 


99 


Margaret 




99 


99 


1838 


99 


Mary 




99 


99 


1830 


99 


James H. 




99 


99 


1840 


99 

1 


Hannah C. 




99 


99 


1842 


99 


Jeremiah 




99 


99 


1843 


99 


Mary Ann 




99 


99 


1844 


»» 


Edmund (Jr.) 




99 


99 


1846 


99 


Francis Edmund 




Philadelphia 


I, Pa. 


1849 


99 


James Henry 




99 


99 


1840 


99 


Harriet 




99 


99 


1852 


99 


Lizzie Cariss 




99 


99 


1865 


99 


Horace Clinton 




99 


99 

7 


1867 



8 

Bury, 
Carissy 

n 

99 

» 

M 
M 
M 

99 
M 



Chorlton, 



BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

John Philadelphia, Pa. 1827 



Sampson 

William 

Hannah 

Mary A. 

William 

Francis 

Isabella 

William (Jr.) 

Sampson 

Henry Taylor 



Philadelphia, 


Pa 


1817 


99 


99 


1817 


99 


99 


1818 


99 


99 


1810 


99 


99 


1821 


99 


99 


1824 


99 


9f 


1824 


99 


99 


1847 


99 


99 


1849 


99 


99 


1850 



James 
John 
Robert 
Sarah 



(From England) Philadelphia, Pa. 1828 

>9 99 n n jg28 

99 99 99 99 lg28 

99 99 W » 1828 



Cill, 
Clubb, 



Richard S. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 1850 



Henry S. (From England) Philadelphia, Pa. 1877 



99 


Anne B. H. 


99 


Naomi 


99 


Bessie R. H. 


99 


Martha W. 


Cooper, 


Ann 


99 


Samuel 


Cimliffe, 


Isabella 


99 


James 


99 


John 


99 


Martha 


99 


Mary 


99 




99 


Jane 


Dickson, 


Ann 



*"... "It^ .'■T ■ 



99 99 


1887 


99 99 


1887 


9> M 


1887 


99 99 


1887 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1851 


99 99 


1851 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1852 


99 99 


1852 


99 99 


1852 


99 99 


1852 


99 99 


1852 


99 99 


1866 


99 99 


1866 



Philadelphia, Pa. 1859 



MEMBERS 



Ereeland, John 



Gibflon, 

9» 



99 

f» 

99 



Qray, 



Henrietta 
Joseph 
ISmiDft 
Hannah 
Mary Ann M. 
Henry Taylor 

Fithian 6. 



Greenwood, Abraham 



Hey, 



f9 

» 

99 

M 
W 



Higgs, 



99 



Horrocks, 

99 



9> 
M 
W 
M 
99 
99 



Moses 

Emanuel 

Hannah 

Mary 

Joseph 

Samuel 

Miary Elusa 

Elizabeth Haggas 

Lucretia* 

Emanuel (Jr.) 

Bertha 

Florence 

Elizabeth 
William 



Philadelphia, Pa. 
Frankford, Pa. 



99 
9* 
99 
99 
99 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Germantown, Pa. 
Manayunk, " 



99 



99 



99 



99 



Ejensington, 
Philadelphia, 



99 
99 
99 
«9 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Frankford, Pa. 

99 99 



Jeremiah (From England) Germantown, Pa. 
Mary *' " 

James Frankford, Pa. 
Eliza " 

William " " 

John Germantown, Pa. 

Mary Ann Frankford, Pa. 
Harriet " " 

Mary " " 

William M. '* '* 

Jeremiah Germantown, Pa. 



9 

1817 

1818 
1839 
1841 
1844 
1846 
1852 



Philadelphia, Pa. 1872 



1831 

1818 
1821 
1821 
1825 
1826 
1828 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1859 
1863 
1863 

1817 
1851 

1817 
1817 
1817 
1817 
1821 
1828 
1826 
1837 
1839 
1843 
1843 



10 



BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHmiCH 



Horrocks, 


Harriet 




Isabella 




Ellen 




Josephine 




George 




Thomas Haslam 




James Jeremiah 




EUzabeth 




Eliza Brooks 




Henry 




Albert 




Ellen Ann 




J. Howard 




Charles M. 




William B. 




Harriet E. 


Hough, 


Lewis S. 


Hunt, 


Elijah 


M 


Harriet 


M 


Sarah 


99 


Wm. Metcalfe 


Hyde, 


Amy 


James, 


William 


J<me8, 


Frank T. 


Koenig, 


Charles F. 


Lever, 


John 


» 


AUce 


M 


Isabella 


M 


William 


» 


Peter 


M 


George 



Frankford, 


Pa. 


1844 


99 


M 


1846 


99 


M 


1846 


» 


» 


1846 


99 


J* 


1848 


M 


M 


1848 


>» 


M 


1848 


»> 


M 


1851 


M 


M 


1853 


W 


M 


1851 


»f 


M 


1854 


W 


M 


1854 


M 


M 


1870 


M 


X> 


1875 


»« 


» 


1872 


» 


M 


1880 


Germantown, Pa. 


1860 


Frankford, 


Pa. 


1850 


» 


M 


1860 


M 


M 


1850 


M 


M 


1863 



Philadelphia, Pa. 1865 

Philadelphia, Pa. 1818 

Philadelphia, Pa. 1867 

Philadelphia, Pa. 1861 



Frankford, 


Pa. 


1827 


9> 


» 


1831 


M 


99 


1831 


M 


M 


1831 


P» 


M 


1833 


99 


M 


1848 







MEMBEKS 


1 




11 


Lord, 


Edmund Brooks 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


1873 


9» 


Elizabeth Eva 


(daughter 










of J. T. 


Lord) 


99 


99 


1880 


99 


Esther Harriet 




99 


99 


1011 


M 


Elizabeth Era 


(daughter 










of E. B. 


Lord) 


99 


99 


1012 


Lowe, 


AdMT* 






Philadelphia, Pa. 


1847 


Luckman, 


Henry 






Frankford, 


Pa. 


1846 


M 


Hugh 0. 






99 




1845 


M 


Mary Ann 






99 




1846 


M 


Rebecca 






99 




1846 


if 


Charles H. 






99 




1846 


9f 


Eliza 






99 




1848 


99 


Rebecca 






99 




1852 


Lyons, 


Edward 






Philadelphia, Pa. 


1832 


99 


Mary 






99 


99 


1832 


99 


Leah 






99 


99 


1833 


W 


Mary 






99 


99 


1840 


99 


Sarah 






99 


99 


1848 


Martin, 


A Tine ( From England ) 


Frankford, 


Pa. 


1836 


» 


Brotherton 


99 


99 


99 


99 


1836 


» 


Joseph 


99 


99 


99 


99 


1836 


M 


Robert 


99 


99 


99 


99 


1836 


»> 


Mary Helen 




99 


99 


1837 


» 


Victoria 






99 


99 


1840 


M 


Robert Harvey 




99 


99 


1842 


Metcalfe, 


William (From 


England) 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1817 


M 


Susanna 






99 


99 


1817 


»> 


Joseph 






99 


99 


1817 


M 


Mary 






99 


99 


1820 


99 


Elizabeth 






99 


99 


1828 


99 


John 






99 


99 


1837 


99 


Susanna 






99 


99 


1830 


99 


William 






99 


99 


1842 


V 


Surah 






n 


99 


1345 



12 


BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 


• 


Metcalfe, 

M 


Joseph 
James 
Ewin F. 




Frankford, Pa. 

M if 
M 99 


1847 
1851 
1853 


Moseley, 


Thomas 
WiUiam 




Manayunky Pa. 


1827 
1829 


MacHugh, 


William J. 
Bessie Metcalfe 
Margaret Eleanor 
Frances Elizabeth 




Philadelphia, Pa. 
Fox Chase, Pa. 

99 » 


1878 
1901 
1901 
1902 


Kuttall, 


David (From England) Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joshua " " " 

Martha 

Sarah " " " '' 

• 


1819 
1819 
1819 
1819 


Peterman, 


Mary A. 




Kensington, Pa. 




Peters, 


Edward W. 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


1878 


Rest, 


John 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


1829 


Richardson] 

M 
f> 


, Jane 
George 
Ann 
Lever 
Samuel 


Near 


Chester, Pa. 


1817 
1819 
1819 
1820 
1829 


Rothwell, 


EUjah 




Frankford, Pa. 


1829 


Royle, 


James 
Sarah 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


1827 
1827 


Shoch, 


J. Clifford 




Philadelphia, Pa. 


1864 


Singleton, 


Edwin 
Sarah 




Frankford, Pa. 


1865 
1865 



Speak, Josephus 



Philadelphia, Pa. 1866 





MEMBERS 


I 
) 


Id 


Steyenson, 


WilUam 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1867 


Taylor, 


Dr. Henry (From England) 


Frankford, Pa. 


1819 


99 


Rer. William 


99 99 




»9 


EUjah M. 


99 99 




M 


John 


99 99 




99 


Sarah 


99 99 




»» 


Martha 


99 99 




W 


William 


M 99 




99 


Henry M. 


99 99 


1837 


M 


TTa.miii.Ti 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1862 


M 


Eliza 


Frankford, Pa. 




99 


Sarah 


99 99 




99 


Susannah 


99 n 




M 


Charles 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


. r 


» 


Henry 


99 99 




J> 


Isahella 


99 M 




M 


William 


99 99 




Walker, 


John ( From England ) 


Providence, 








Del. Co., Pa. 


1819 


Winn, 


Samuel 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1827 


M 


Ann 


99 99 


1829 


» 


Elizabeth 


99 99 


1829 


Wright, 


Joseph ( From England ) 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1818 


M 


Margaret 


99 99 


1818 


» 


Hannah Henrietta " 


99 99 


1818 


» 


James 


99 99 


1820 


99 


Jonathan 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Hannah 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Jonathan (Jr.) 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Joseph 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Martha 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Robert 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Samuel 


99 99 


1821 


99 


William 


99 99 


1821 


99 


Mary 


99 99 


1842 


99 


Elizabeth A. 


Frankford, Pa. 


1860 



u 



BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 



Wright, 


Anna Maria 


$f 


John Benjamin 


99 


Anne 


99 


Jamea 


M 


James L. 


M 


Joseph Rohbine 


M 


George W. 


» 


George M. 


W 


Joseph William 



Philadelphia, Fa. 


1861 


>» M 


1861 


W M 


1866 


Frank! ord, Pa. 


1866 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1866 


*> » 


1867 


Frankford, Pa. 


1883 


M »> 


1884 


W » 


1887 



OHAPTEBin 
OFFICERS, LENGTH OP SERVIOE 

1 

MINI8TER8: Tean 

William Metcalfe, (founder) to 1862 45 

(Rev. Joseph Wright officiated from August, 1856, to Sep- 
tember, 1857, during William Metcalfe's visit to England) 2 

Joseph Metcalfe, October 26, 1862, to December 1, 1867 « 5 

William Taylor, January 5, 1868, to April 1, 1873 5 

(William Cariss, 8r., served in Pulpit as reader, 1873 

to 1876) 3 

Henry 8. Clubb, 1876 to 1921 45 

SECRETARIES: 

William Taylor, to 1831 13 

James Wright, 1831 to 1850 19 

Joseph Metcalfe, 1850 to 1859 9 

William Taylor, 1859 to 1862 3 

Henry M. Taylor, 1862 to 1869 7 

James J. Horrocks, 1869 to 1871 2 

Charles F. Koenig, 1871 to 1877 6 

William C. Brooks, 1877 to 1883 6 

*George W. Wright, 1883 to 1914 32 

* Edwin F. Metcalfe, 7 months to 1915 1 

♦ George M. Wright, 1916 — 

* Recording secretary only (resolution January 6, 1886) 

TREASURERS: 

Jonathan Wright, 1832 to 1865 33 

William Cariss, Sr., 1865 to 1869 4 

Henry M. Taylor« 1869 to 1881 12 

Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1881 to 1885, (first period) 4 

William M. Horrocks, 1885 to 1910 25 

Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1911 (second period) — 

15 



16 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUECH 

SUNDAY-SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS: (School organized 
1838) 

James Wright, 1839 to 1841 2 

Edward Lyons, 1841 to 1844 3 

Joseph Metcalfe, 1844 to 1849 5 

William Honrocks, 1849 to 1852 3 

Emanuel Hey, 1852 to 1857 5 

William Oariss, Sr., 1867 to 1860, (first period) 3 

Joseph Metcalfe, 1860 to 1863 3 

James Wright, 1863 to 1864 1 

William Gariss, Sr., 1864 to 1876 (second period) 12 

Charles F. Eoenig, 1876 to 1905 20 

OROANISTS: 

James Brooks, 1840 to 1843 3 

Elijah Kothwell, 1843 to 1847, (first period) 4 

Eliza Brooks, 1847 to 1853 6 

Elijah Kothwell, 1853 to 1860, (second period) 7 

WiUiam Taylor, 1860 to 1862 2 

Elijah Bothwell, 1862 to 1866, (third period) 4 

Samson Cariss, 1866 to 1916 50 

Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1916— — 

VOCAL LEADERS: 

George Gihson, 1840 to 1841 1 

James Wright, 1841 to 1843 2 

James Brooks, 1843 to 1848, (first period) 5 

Hugh Luckmaa, 1848 to 1849 1 

James Brooks, 1849 to 1859, (second period) 10 

Edmund Brooks, 1859 to 1860, (first period) 1 

EUjah RothweU, 1860 to 1861 1 

Edmund Brooks, 1861 to 1865, (second period) 4 

William C. Brooks, 1865 to 1867, (first period) 2 

Charles F. Koenig, 1867 to 1870 3 

William 0. Brooks, 1870 to 1887, (second period) 17 

J. Howard Horrocks, 1887 to 1911 24 

Mrs. Enuna Cariss, 1911 to 1917 6 

Mrs. Esther H. King, 1917— , — 



OFFICERS, LENGTH OF SERVICE 



TRUSTEES: 
James Royle, 
David Nuttall, 
George 

lUchardson^ 
Jeremiah 

Horrocks, 
Thomas Moseley, 
Jonathan Wright, 
Moses Hey, 
William Taylor, 
John Lever, 
William Lever, 
James Wright^ 
John Chorlton, 
Edward Lyons, 
Dr. Henry Taylor, 
John Taylor, 
Joseph Metcalfe, 
James Brooks, 
James Horrocks, 
James Boyle, 
John Rest^ 
WiUiam Horrocks, 
Hugh O. Lnckman, 
Emanuel H^, 
David BeU, 
Lewis H. Hoiigh, 
Edmund Brooks, 
EUjah Roihwell, 
William Oaris8,Sr., 
Henry M. Taylor, 
James Cunliffe, 
Charles F. Koenig, 
William M. 

Horrocks, 
J. Clifford Shoch, 
WilHam C. Brooks, 



827 to 1837. 
827 to 1834. 



17 

10 
7 



827 to 1837 10 

827 to 1845 18 

827 to 1835 8 

827 to 1866 39 

827 to 1833 6 

828 to 1832 4 

828 to 1838 10 

832 to 1835 (3), 1851 to 1864 (3) .. 6 

832 to 1850 (18), 1865 to 1871 (16).. 34 

833 to 1842 (9), 1855 to 1868 (3).. 12 

834 to 1837 (3), 1842 to 1857 (15).. 18 

835 to 1848 13 

836 to 1839 3 

836 to 1863 27 

837 to 1854 (17), 1867 to 1860 (3).. 20 

838 to 1854 (16), 1867 to 1880 (23).. 39 

839 to 1842 3 

842 to 1861 9 

844 to 1854 10 

848 to 1854 6 

850 to 1852 (2), 1868 to 1876 (18).. 20 

852 to 1864 2 

866 to 1869 3 

856 to 1877. 21 

858 to 1869 11 

855 to 1899 44 

860 to 1898 38 

863 to 1869. . . . .• 6 

866 to 1868 (3), 1869 to 1908 (39).. 42 

868 to 1911 43 

869 to 1873 4 

871 to 1876 (5), 1877 to 1888 (11).. 16 



18 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUECH 

Fithian Gray, 1873 to 1885 (12), 1888 to 1890 (2).. 14 

Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1876 — 

Samson Cariss, 1880 to 1916 36 

James J. Horrocks, 1879 to 1888 9 

George W. Wright, 1886 to 1916 30 

Henry Horrocks, 1887 to 1902 16 

WilUam Metcalfe, 1890 to 1902 (12), 1911 to 1915 (4).. 16 
WilUam B. 

Horrocks, 1899 to 1903 portion of 3 

Henry T. Cariss, 1899 to 1904 6 

J. Howard 

Horrocks, 1909 to 1916 6 

Edmund B. Lord, 1914 — 

George M. Wright, 1915 --i — 

DEACONS: 

David Nuttall, 1828-1829 1 

Jonathan Wright, 1828-1830; 1831-1866 36 

John Chorlton, 1829-1830; 1834-1835; 1837-1838; 

1839-1846; 1866-1867 11 

John Taylor, 1830-1831; 1834-1836; 1836-1837; 

1838-1839 4 

John Lever, 1830-1834; 1835-1836 i 5 

William Lever, 1832-1834; 1836-1838; 1840-1841; 

1846-1855 14 

Edward Lyons, 1836-1836; 1841-1842; 1843-1846; 

1848.1865 12 

Robert Martin, 1838-1840 2 

Jeremiah Horrocks, 1842-1843 1 

John Rest, 1846-1848; 1860-1854; 1867-1858 7 

Elijah Eothwell, 1854-1869 15 

Joseph Wright, 1856-1856 ; 1858-1869 2 

Joseph Metcalfe, 1855-1861 6 

James Wright, 1859-1871 12 

Edmund Brooks, 1861-1876 15 

James Horrocks, 1865-1866; 1868-1874 7 

James Cunliffe, 1866-1867; 1876-1877; 1878-1879 3 

William Taylor, 1867-1868 1 

Henry M. Taylor, 1869-1870; 1877-1878; 1879-1899 21 



OFFICERS, LENGTH OF SERVICE 19 

William Cariss, 1870-1900 30 

Emanuel H^, 187M873 ; 1874-1876 4 

Fithian Grey, 1873-1874; 1876-1883 8 

Charles P. Koenig, 1874-1886 : 1887-1908 33 

William M. Horrocks, 1883-1911 28 

William C. Brooks, 1886-1887 1 

Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1899 — 

George W. Wright, 1900-1914 15 

Samson Cariss, 1908-1916 8 

William Metcalfe, 1911-1916 6 

Edmund B. Lord, 1914 — 

George M. Wright, 1916 : — 

Amy H. Cariss, 1916-1918 2 

Naomi Clubb, 1918 — 



CHAPTER IV 
THE MINISTERS 

The sincere conviction in the mind of the Rev. 
William Cowherd that vegetaxianism was a method of 
life taught in the letter and spirit of the Holy Scriptures 
marks the establishment of the Bible-Christian Church 
in England. 

Mr. Cowherd was originally a minister of the Church 
of England, a rector of Christ Church of Salford about 
1790, and afterwards of St. John's Church, Manchester, 
England. He is described as '^ possessing a strong and 
vigorous intellect, an inquisitive and earnest desire after 
truth and a deep sense of moral responsibility.'' 

He later withdrew from the established national 
Church, and accepted the charge of the New Jerusalem 
Church, in Peter Street, Manchester. 

In the beginning of the year 1800 he opened the 
church in King Street, Salford, which had been erected 
principally through his personal efforts; consecrated 
it to the service of " The only Wise God our 
Saviour,'' and taught the doctrine that all religious 
principles should be drawn directly from the Bible; 
and required everyone who became a member of this 

20 



THE MINISTERS «1 

ohureh to proclaim himself or herself simply a 

" Bible-Christian.'* 

In 1807 he began to inculcate the doctrine of absten- 
tion from the flesh of animals as f ood^ and total absti- 
nence from all intoxicating liquors, as religious duties. 
He founded his principles on the testimony of the Bible, 
and confirmed them by appeals to the facts tau^t by 
physiology, anatomy and personal experience. 

Among the persons who resorted to Dr. Cowherd's 
church, was William Metcalfe a native of SproadgiU, 
in the parish of Orton, Westmoreland County, England, 
where he was bom March 11, 1788, the son of Jonathan 
and Elizabeth Metcalfe. 

At the age of nineteen years he became a derk in 
an establishment near Keighly, Yorkshire. In this 
village a congregation of Swedenbor^Lans met under 
Eev. Joseph Wright, and young Metcalfe became at- 
tached to the congregation. 

His leisure hours appear to have been occupied in 
literary pursuits ; and the Muses came in for a share of 
his attentions. Bom and educated among the pastoral 
hills of Westmoreland, his poetical efforts were dis- 
tinguished for their rural simplicity and amiability. 
In 1809 he paid, as he supposed, his farewell visit to 
his boyhood's home. The following lines, bearing date 
"Kendal, Sunday evening. May 21st, 1809," are a 
transcript of his feelings and his style at that time. 
They are headed: 



22 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

ON LEAVING MY NATIVE PLACE. 

Farewell, good f riendsy companions, youthful mates ! 
May comfort smile within your cheering gates ! 
Farewell those hours that bless'd the youthful scene 
When mutual kindness echoed throu^ the green; 
When gambols, harmless as the tender dove, 
Endear'd our hearts, and oped the mind to love : 
My Brothers, Sisters, Parents, — ^all adieu! 
iWhat thanks can pay the debts I owe to you? 

Ye happy cots, where Peace untroubled lives, 
Where Heaven-made bounty each one's want relieves; 
Within whose doors all happiness I've known; 
In each one welcome, frown'd upon by none: 
Each guileless eye beam'd on my youthful face, 
And kindly hail'd me with an artless grace : 
Ah ! can I from such friends, such kindness, part 
Without the tribute of a grateful heart ? 

Peace, health, to all I — ^and may your hearts receive 
That joy and kindness they so gladly give: — 
Whate'er my fortune in this world may be, 
Whate'er kind Providence may do for me, 
Whate'er my lot in life's uncertain scene, 
Still I'll remember what with you I've been : 
This look's my last, from off this well-known peak : 
My feelings dictate, but I cannot speak. 



THE MINISTEBS 23 

The Kev, Joseph Wright peroeived talent in his c5on- 
vert and persuaded him to study theology with a view to 
the ministry. 

The necessity of his studies led Mr. Metcalfe to an 
academy at Salford over which Dr. Cowherd presided. 
After being there about a year as a student, he became 
head of the classical department of the school, contin- 
uing so for two years during which time he dispensed 
the doctrines of the Bible-Christians to a small congre- 
gation at Addingham, Yorkshire, by which he was pre- 
sented as a candidate for the ministry, and was ordained 
on August 11, 1811, by Dr. Cowherd, at Salford. He 
then gave up his position in the latter's school and 
having had a handsome church building in which there 
was a school-room, erected by a member of his congre- 
gation at Addingham, he opened school there. Before 
Mr. Metcalfe was ordained he had taken unto himself, 
a wife. She was Susanna, daughter of Bev. Joseph 
Wrigjht, and was Mr. Metcalfe's senior by some years. 
They were married January 14, 1810. Mrs. Met- 
calfe had become a strong vegetarian, and was in 
perfect sympathy with her husband in relation to tem- 
perance in eating, and to total abstinence from wines 
and liquors in drinking. Mr. Metcalfe long afterwards 
said, '^She studied to show our acquaintances, when- 
ever they paid us a visit, that we could live in every 
rational enjoyment without the use of flesh for food; 
and, wife being an excellent cook, we were never at a 
loss for what to eat, although we would not have meat. 



24 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

We oommenced housekeeping in January 1810, and 
from that day to the present time we have never had a 
pound of flesh meat in our dwelling, and never have 
patronized either slau^ter houses or grog shops." 

It is not to be supposed that Mr. Metcalfe adopted a 
vegetarian life without noeeting with the opposition of 
those whom he respected and loved. In a letter des- 
cribing this period of life, he gives the following his- 
torical testimony : 

'^ My friends laughed at me, and entreated me to 
lay aside my foolish notions of a vegetable diet. They 
assured me I was rapidly sinking into a consumption, 
and tried various other methods to induce me to return 
to the customary dietetic habits of society; but their 
efforts proved ineffectual. Some predicted my deatU 
in three or four months, and others, on hearing me 
attempt to defend my course, hesitated not to teU me 
I was certainly suffering from mental derangement, and, 
if I continued to live without flesh-food much longer, 
would unquestionably have to be shut up in some insane- 
asylum. All was unavailing. Instead of sinking into 
consumption, I gained several pounds in weight during 
the first few weeks of my experiment. Instead of three 
or four months bringing me to the silent grave, they 
brought me to the matrimonial altar. I dared even to 
get married; and I am thankful to 'Our Father in 
heaven^ that my mental operations have, up to this 
day, been such that I have never even seen the interior 
of any insane-institution." 



THE MINISTERS 25 

Whilst engaged at Salf ord Mr. Metcalfe had formed 
a desire to emigrate to America. Nor was he alone in 
this desire. In one of his letters to a friend, Tirritten 
shortly after his ordination, he says, '^ The civil and 
religious freedom of the people of the United States 
has been the topic of many an hour's conversation 
among the teachers of the Salford Academy and the 
members of the church.'' He speaks also of Dr. Cow* 
herd as an enthusiastic admirer of the free institutions 
of America. It appears that the then existing war 
between the two countries caused them to suppress their 
thoughts of removing; abandoned they were not, for 
on the restoration of peace the desire again became 
prominent. The arrangements for emigrating were> 
however, once more temporarily suspended, by the 
death of the Bev. Dr. Cowherd. This event took place 
on the 29th of Mardi, 1816, and quite a gloom was 
cast upon all who had connected themselves with the 
Bible-Christian Church, by that bereavement. 

The departure for America, the early efforts to es- 
tablish The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church, and 
a further account of the life of the Bev. William Met- 
calfe written by his son and successor Bev. Joseph 
Metcalfe in a volume entitled Out of the Clouds 
published by J. B. Lippincott Co. in 1872, follows: 

In the early part of the spring of 1817, a company of 
forty-one persons, all members of the '^ible-Christian 
Church," embarked from Liverpool for Philadelphia. 
This little community comprised two ministers, — ^the 
Bev. James Clark and the Bev. William Metcalfe, — ^vith 
8 ' 



26 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

twenty other adults and nineteen children. After a tedious 
voyage of eleven weeks^ they all landed safely and in 
good health at the port of their destination, on the 15th 
of June. 

The crowning objects of these emigrants, as they pro- 
fessed, were the propagation of their peculiar religious 
doctrines and the establishment of the Bible-Christian 
Church in this highly favored land. But, alas I how 
frail and fickle are human purposes I Of the twenty-two 
adults and their families, eleven adults and seven children 
only were faithful when they reached Philadelphia. The 
strong salt breeze of the Atlantic, or some other cause, 
dissolved not only their purposes, but their practical pre- 
cepts; and at the first opportunity they gave way to indul- 
gences in eating and drinking those things which their 
principles had forbidden. Some of these might possibly 
have been reclaimed, had they been able to locate near 
their more faithful brethren. But all were poor, depend- 
ing for their daily bread upon their daily labor, and to 
obtain employment they were necessarily scattered far 
apart. Thus isolated from one another, in a strange 
country, and among a people who had no sympathy with 
their habits, but who advised them that "it .would be im- 
possible to live in this hot climate without animal food,'' 
it is scarcely surprising that they relaxed their interest. 
Their heroism to principle failed them, and the "crown- 
ing objects*' of their emigration, with them, at least, 
were abandoned. 

This apostasy was a source of great sorrow and mortifi- 
cation to the faithful. They too were widely separated. 
The Rev. James Clark and family, with two other families 
who were his personal friends as well as strict members 
of the Church^ determined to locate themselves as farmers. 
Accordingly, they purchased some wild land in Lycoming 



THE MINISTERS «7 

County, Pennsylvania, and removed thither. They formed 
a church and Sabbath-fichool;.but, not meeting with that 
encouragement from the surroimding neighborhood which 
Mr. Clark thought them worthy of receiving, he resolved 
to remove. Ardent in temperament, he could not brook 
coldness and indifference in others. The following spring 
he went to Baltimore, leaving those who had devotedly 
followed his lead into the wilderness, still there. After 
much buffeting about, he finally settled as a farmer in the 
state of Indiana. Although he remained faithful to 
the principles of Bible-Christianity, he made no special 
effort to organize a church. The Bev. James Clark died, 
August 31, 1826, in the forty-seventh year of his age. 

The Bev. William Metcalfe remained in Philaddphia, 
intending, by the blessing of Providence, to support him- 
self and family by school-teaching. He bought out the 
good-will and fixtures from a teacher, and rented his 
dwelling and school-room, in the rear of No. 10 North 
Front street. In this arrangement he purposed also to 
fulfill his ministerial duties, by preaching on the Sabbath- 
day, like the apostle of old, ''in his own hired house,'' to 
as many as were willing to listen to his testimony. The 
meetings of the Bible-Christian Church were held in 
his own school-room; and there were present at the first 
administration of the Holy Supper five adults, including 
the minister and his wife. 

The day-school was opened under the most fiattering 
prospects, and my father's most sanguine expectations 
were more than realized. His academy was patronized 
by some of the wealthiest families of the city, and my 
mother's services were called into requisition by a class of 
young ladies. In purchasing the good-will and fixtures 
of the academy, only a portion of the money was to be 
paid at the time, — ^the balance having to be paid within 
the year. The rental for his house and school-room was 



28 BIBLEKIHRISTIAN CHURCH 

considered^ at that time, to be somewhat exorbitant; but 
he was enabled to meet all his engagements, and he began 
to think himself comfortably established. Just at this 
time, however, the yellow fever broke out in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of his residence, in the fall of 1818. 
His school was deserted by his pupils, and he was com- 
pelled to keep it closed several weeks. Two or three of 
his pupils died with the plague; and, on re-opening, so 
many of them had been placed in other schools, that for 
several weeks after he numbered only nine Bcholars. This 
visitation was not the end of his troubles. The fever 
again appeared in the summer and fall of 1819, and yet 
again in 1820. My father was not prepared for these 
heavy drawbacks. He was in actual poverty and want. 
The proximity of his academy to this yearly contagious 
visitant rendered it unsafe to send pupils to him for in- 
struction, and he was entirely dependent upon his school 
for a livelihood. 

Dark and lowering as were the affairs of Mr. Metcalfe 
at this time, he had nevertheless secured the friendship 
of many influential persons. But their solicitude for him 
only increased his troubles, and he might have exclaimed 
with propriety, even in his poverty, "Save me from my 
friends!^' Offers of an alluring character were made to 
him; but they were so conditioned with objectionable 
features that they aggravated, rather than ameliorated, 
his condition. It was urged upon him that if he would 
cease to present temperance and abstinence from flesh- 
food as religious duties, and renounce his scheme to build 
up the Bible-Christian Church, he would be certain of 
support. One offer was an academy, with a regular, com- 
fortable salary, under the patronage of a religious denomi- 
nation, located a few miles from the city; and another was 
the pastorship of an established congregation, insuring 
him a respectable living, if he would conform to such 



THE MINISTERS 29 

stipulations. These and other offers somewhat similar 
were doubtless made from honest and benevolent motives. 
They were all, however, respectfully declined. In truth, 
they tended rather to increase his estimation of Bible- 
Christianity, and to make him labor even more earnestly 
in its vineyard. 

Now, it is not surprising that Mr. Metcalfe was ap- 
proached in the manner just described. His talents would 
have been an invaluable help to any ordinary religious 
denomination, either as a preacher or teacher, if he could 
have cramped himself to the creed. At this time he was 
in the vigor of manhood, — ^just over thirty years of age, — 
tall and commanding in person, mild and sociable in man- 
ner. As a preacher, it is true, he was not what would 
be called an orator; but his delivery was easy, plain, dis- 
tinct, and impressive. His action was moderate and 
graceful. He was never boisterous, never sensational, 
and seldom allowed his imagination to display its powers 
in the pulpit. His sermons were suggestive and instructivey 
always including some teaching on practical, every-day 
duties. He sought all fields for the Ulustration of Bible 
truths, especially availing himself of the lights of modern 
science and of ancient history in the elucidation of his 
subjects. Owing, perhaps, to the peculiarity of his relig- 
ious views and his earnest desire to leave a clear impres- 
sion on the minds of his hearers, his style of pulpit-speaking 
was that of a teacher more than that of a preacher. 

In this description of Mr. Metcalfe^s preaching, I have 
limited myself to a simple statement of his personal ap- 
pearance and general style. However unadapted he might 
be for a reformer, he would most certainly have become 
a popular pastor, had he gone with a popular current. 
This he would not do, though tempted at a time when 
want and suffering were inmates of his dwelling and 
contagious disease surrounded his household. 



30 BIBLE^HRISTIAN CHURCH 

Under these peculiarly trying circumstances, Mr. Met- 
calfe industriously engaged himself in sowing the seeds 
of those moral and religious reforms the cultivation of 
which constituted the great work of his life. He adver- 
tised the Sabbath-day services held in his school-room in 
the newspapers and by cards. Bespectable audiences were 
collected until the plague, — ^when^ like his school, the 
church also became almost a vacant place. But even then 
he continued to preach, and added to his labors by availing 
himself of every social means, and also the newspaper- 
press, and tracts, to diffuse a knowledge of the doctrines 
of Bible-Christianity. 

It is well known that the churches of that day were 
exceedingly tenacious of their traditional doctrines; and 
preachers were expected to discourse with fervid zeal upon 
the necessity of accepting their respective creeds in their 
most exact literal expressions. No latitude was allowed 
to rationalize any doctrine; and the non-acceptance of 
them in the strict meaning of their words was deemed 
to be rank infidelity. How far Mr. Metcalfe ran counter 
to these views may be better understood from the follow- 
ing abstract of his teachings, as enunciated by him at 
that time in a series of discourses. Of course, this state- 
ment must necessarily be very brief, and, consequently, 
yery imperfect. 

1. The Bible, being written by divine inspiration, open 
vision, and audible dictation, contains a record of all truths 
necessary to man's salvation. To interpret it aright in 
its literal sense, a knowledge of the literature, customs, 
geography, arts, and philosophy of the Bible nations and 
times is of great value. Beyond its literal sense, there is 
providentially contained within it a revelation of divine 
and spiritual truths. These have existed within it from 
the time it was first written, and have been successively 



THE MINISTERS 81 

developed under God, precisely when needed to re-estab- 
lish or re-edify the Church, — ^just as the discoveries of 
new principles or powers in creation (which have always 
existed therein) were timed to the demands of the age in 
which they were made available. Thus, the writings and 
labors of St. Augustine, F^nelon, Luther, Calvin, Wesley, 
Swedenborg, Priestley, and others have been and are helps 
to devout religious minds, according to their varioius mental 
conditions. But, with all the aid of these saints, seers, 
and philosophers, it is not to be presumed that all of 
Qod's wisdom has yet been developed from the sacred 
pages of Bevelation. According to the earnestness and 
need for further light, it will be manifested in greater and 
brighter glory forever. The Bible, therefore, is the only 
creed that a Scripture-founded Church ought to recognize 
or espoiuse. 

2. This Chtjbch, having no creed but the Bible, does 
not constitute a sect or denomination, but simply a "BibU" 
Christian Church;'* and its members daim to be in perfect 
xmion and connection with the sincere and conscientious 
members of all the various denominations of professing 
Christians. This Church holds all the fimdamental doo- 
trines, though not all the doctrinal opirUons or vietas, d 
the different sects, so far as they are founded on the 
obvious trutfis of the Bible. Thus, the antagonistic doc- 
trines of the unity and the trinity of Gk)d, the manhood 
and the divinity of Christ, the predestination and freedom 
of man, the doctrine of faith and also that of works, 
with other doctrines, are presented in a light reconcilable 
to reason and harmonious to each other. 

3. Odd is One in essence and in person. Whilst the 
Bible nowhere says that there are three Persons in the 
Godhead, it manifestly teaches that there is a threefold 
combination in Deity, corresponding to that which dis- 



8« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

tingtdsheB man, — ^namely, soul, body, and operative power. 
In the Bible there is a threefold combination evidently 
attributed to God, under the names of Father, Son, and 
Holy Ohost. The Father is the Inmost or Essential Divine 
Spirit, which is infinite love; the Son is the Great Wisdom, 
or Word of God, effluxed by, and everywhere combining 
with, the Father; and the Holy Spirit is the Divine Pro- 
ceeding or Emanating Energy and Power of God. 

4. *^GoD WAS IN Chbist." The Lord ^^gave not his 
Spirit by measure to Jesus Chbist," — ^^'the Word made 
flesh,*' — ^but dwelt in Him, in heaven, and in the imiverse 
at one and the same time, — ^Onb Undivided God. He 
assumed the spirit of man, which through sin had become 
partially separated from its appropriate degree of connec- 
tion with the Divine Spirit, so that he might meet the 
Powers of Darkness on their own plain, combat with 
them, and, by overcoming, redeem mankind to spiritual 
freedom, and thereby enable the race to become reunited 
with the Great Omnipotent of heaven and earth. 

5. Pbovidence is the government of divine love and 
wisdom, and has for its end the salvation of man, and the 
formation of a heaven out of the human family. It is 
universal and particular; and its laws are those of 
Appointment and Permission. 

6. Man is endowed with Freedom of Will to choose 
good or evil. By virtue of this free will in spiritual things, 
he can be conjoined to the Lord, and the Lord to him. 
Thus, he has the capacity of being reformed, r^enerated, 
and finally saved. 

7. At Death, man puts off the material body, which, 
being no longer needful, is never again reassumed. '^Flesh 
and blood cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.'' Man's 
spirit can never die: after death he rises in a spiritual 
body into the spiritual world, in which he continues to 
live forever, — ^in heaven, if he has lived a sincerely re- 



THE MINISTERS 88 

ligions and good life on earth; or in hell, if his ruling 
thoughts^ affections, and life have been evil. ^^Like asso- 
ciatee with like," of its own free will. 

8. Thb Second Advent, or coming of the Lord, is a 
coming, not in Person in the clouds of our atmosphere, 
but in the power and spirit of the Lord^s own Divine 
Truth. It is now, and ever has been, coming to every 
willing mind that attains to the knowledge of Heavenly 
Truth. The world will never be destroyed. *'One gen- 
eration passeth away, and another cometh; but the earth 
abideth forever. 

9. Ghbistian Discipline consists in obedience to the 
appointed or eternal laws of the Lord, as revealed in his 
Word and Works. These, unquestionably, enjoin worship 
and love to the Lord supremely; honesty, truthfulness, 
and affection towards all men; and purity of heart, under- 
standing, and life in the individual. Besides the ordinary 
virtues of Christian professors, the appointed laws revealed 
in the Divine Word also require abstinence from the flesh 
of animals as food, from all intoxicating liquors as bev- 
erages, and from war, capital punishment, and slavery. 

10. The Belioious Gekesmonies of the ^^Bible-Chris- 
tian Church^' are two, — ^viz. : Baptism, by which persons are 
admitted to church-membership; and the Holy Supper, 
which, in the elements of bread and wine, symbolizes the 
preparation made by the Lord for the strengthening and 
refreshment of the souls of his people by his divine truth 
and love. Both these sacraments are open and free to 
all who desire to partake. The wine used in the Holy 
Supper is unfermented, and, consequently, unintoxicating. 
The observance of the Sabbath as a day of worship and 
religious instruction is enjoined, as is also family and 
private prayer. 

Such, in brief, were the doctrinal views and church- 
organization presented to the public of Philadelphia, 



84 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

nearly fifty years ago, by the Rev. William Metcalfe. 
Considering the rigid religious dogmas which prevailed 
at that time^ it is not surprising that he met with a storm 
of opposition. A religions monthly, published by an 
Orthodox body in this city and edited by twelve of the 
leading clergymen of the country, considered it necessary, 
as they said, 'Ho unmask'* such an attempt to rationalize 
religious doctrines. In a leading article, after speaking 
of ^Volyes in sheep's clothing,'' the magazine says, — 

''These remarks are occasioned liy the preaching of a man 
who professed to be a 'Bible-Christian/ and who under this dis- 
guise attacked the most plain and important doctrines of our 
holy religion/' 

The article is too lengthy to republish here; but it 
accuses the Bible-Christians with claiming their name 
from self-righteous motives; it attempts to prove the 
necessity for human creeds, and proclaims the doctrines of 
its Church, such as the trirpersonality of Qod, the sacrifice 
of the Son for the atonement of the Father, faith in the 
imputation of Christ's righteousness, etc., as Scripture 
doctrines ; and concludes with the following flourish : 

''The design of these pretended reformers, notwithstanding 
their professions, is to impose their own creed upon mankind, and 
take away frcmi im the doctrines for which martyrs bled,---doc- 
trines which possess exclusively the features of divine revelation, 
— doctrines which, while they present the divine government in 
awful purity and majesty, and stamp iniquity with deeper odium 
than the increasing weight of eternal perdition ever could, exhibit 
at the same time, in the aaorifice of Him who is over all, God 
blessed forever, an atonement wliose solidity, riches, and excellence 
can be measured only by the unchangeable existence, unlimited 
fullness and dignity, of Him who dwells in light inaccessible and 
full of glory." 

To this article Mr. Metcalfe replied at length, in the 
'iPreeman's Joumai/* After noticing the principal topics 



THE MINISTERS 35 

of a religious character, and anewering them, he concludes 
by adverting to the uncharitable spirit betrayed in the 
i^ide, saying, — 

''They ought to know that religioiiB reformers in all ages of 
the world have been accused as men who turned the world upside- 
down/ as enemies to the 'traditions of the fathers/ and as authors 
of 'innoyation.' Let them reflect that while they indulge them- 
selves in calumniating the characters of men of whom they have 
no knowledge, and in declaiming against doctrines of the nature 
of which they are utterly ignorant, th^ are, in fact, betraying 
the weakness of their cause, and displaying to every one their 
want of Bible-Christian principles, wUch would induce them 'to 
do to others as they would have others do to them.' If they really 
wish information relative to the views and characters of Bible^ 
Christians, let them attend their meetings, which are open to all; 
and we promise them a friendly welcome. If they are still dis- 
satisfied, toe iwdte them to a free and oandid diaouaaUm. Truth 
cannot suffer by the closest investigation; nor is its progress to 
be arrested either by the fulminations of a body of priests or the 
pointless censures of an association of reverend reviewers.'* 

The challenge thus publicly given was never accepted, 
— ^the "Magazine" not even deigning to notice the reply 
or the Church. This was one mode of attack, varied by 
shorter articles in the daily newspapers. Other modes 
were resorted to, affecting him in his profession as a 
teacher, which were even less creditable to their authors. 
Even the unsubstantiated cry of ^'Skeptic !*' and ^^nfidel ?^ 
caused some to withdraw their patronage. A public 
charge always called forth a prompt rejoinder from 
Mr. Metcalfe; the latter modes were too far beneath the 
considieration of sensible men for him to deem worthy 
of notice. 

Besides the labors of school-teaching, Mr. Metcalfe was 
employed as editor of a monthly periodical, entitled "The 
Rural Magazine and Literary Evening Fireside/^ devoted, 
as its title indicates, to agriculture and general literature. 



36 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

It was published by his landlords^ Messrs. B. & G. Johnson^ 
No. 31 Market Street, but was discontinued at the close 
of 1820. 

On account of the repeated visits of the yellow fever to 
the neighborhood of our residence, my father removed, in 
the spring of 1821, to the northern suburb of the city, then 
called West Kensington. He continued his school for a 
time, however, in the central part of the city, — No. 7 Pear 
Street. In the meantime, my mother opened a school at 
our residence, which was numerously patronized, so that 
my father's aid was absolutely needed. Accordingly, he 
closed his school in the city, and took a building which 
had been erected purposely for a school-house in the neigh- 
borhood, and there opened his academy. From this time 
he was quite successful in his avocation as a teacher. 

The Church now began to assume some proportions of 
size and strength. There had been an increase in its mem- 
bership, by the return of the two families that had gone 
out with the Eev. Mr. Clark, by emigrants from England, 
and by new converts. But great inconvenience was ex- 
perienced from the want of a permanent place of meeting. 
After the school-room in Pear Street was given up by my 
father, the Church was unlocalized, — ^sometimes meeting 
at a public hall, sometimes in an engine-house, sometimes 
in a school-room, and these widely distant from one 
another. The only remedy for this unstable condition 
was in the Church being itself the owner of a place of 
meeting. This it resolved to do, poor as were its mem- 
bers; and on May 21st, 1823, the lot of ground was pur- 
chased on ground-rent which is now held in fee-simple by 
the Church, situated in North Third Street above Girard 
Avenue. A frame building, which had been used as a 
Lancasterian school, in Coates Street, was purchased and 
removed to the lot. It was rejuvenated with paint and 
other alterations and fitted up in a plain and suitable 



THE MINISTERS 87 

style for the church-services. It was publicly opened and 
dedicated, by the Eev. William Metcalfe, to the worship 
of the Creator, Eedeemer, and Saviour of men, on Sunday, 
December 21st of the same year. 

Connected with the Church in its migratory experiences 
was a Sunday-school, conducted and supported by the 
church-members. This, also, with the Church, had at 
length found a resting-place and a home, although it was 
but an humble frame. The building, however, was in- 
dicative of the charactei^ of the congregation who gathered 
under its shelter, — ^plain, honest, and imostentatious. To 
secure even such a religious home within little more than 
six months from the time of the inception of the idea, 
demanded from each individual member great personal 
devotion, and evinces the fact that, though poor in worldly 
wealth, they were rich in heavenly zeal. Their pastor, like 
themselves, labored hard during the whole week, not alone 
for the support of his family, but also to collect a congrega- 
tion and to be prepared to give instruction on the Sabbath- 
day in the truths of Bible-Christianity. And these truths, 
practically presented, necessarily came into deadly hostility 
to the popular sentiments and the perverted appetites of 
the community around him; yet they were nevertheless 
religiously reverential and pure in doctrine and in life. 
Shortly after the church had been opened, an organ was 
purchased; and the younger members composing the choir 
were so earnest in their duties that the Church became 
somewhat noted for its superior musical talent. 

During the years 1820 and 1821, a series of tracts, 
entitled "Letters on Religious Subjects," was republished 
under the supervision of Mr. Metcalfe. They were ex- 
planatory of the leading doctrines of the Bible-Christian 
Church, and were mostly written by the Eev. Dr. Cowherd. 
They were somewhat altered, so as to adapt them to the 
wants of the people of this country. 



88 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

It has already been stated that the Bible-Christian 
Church, as early as 1809, tanght and enforced the prin- 
ciple that abstinence from all intoQDicaiing beverages is a 
necessary duty. So strictly was this principle carried ont, 
that the wine used for sacramental purposes was expressly 
made in such a manner as to remain unfermented and, 
consequently, unintoxicating. Strictly speaking, therefore, 
it was the first temperance society, based upon the total- 
abstinence principle, in modem times. Among the tracts 
published by Mr. Metcalfe at this period was one in regard 
to "The Duty of Abstinence from all Intoxicating Drinks" 
The vice of drinking intoxicating liquors in those days 
was one of the most common customs of society. In the 
transaction of business, in social gatherings o^ old or 
young, male or female, or miscellaneously mixed, — ^whether 
met for moral purposes or for mere pleasure, — ^to partake 
of this liquid poison was considered absolutely essential. 
Even the clergy were as much addicted to this habit as any 
other class or profession. The little band of Bible-Chris- 
tians set their faces sternly against this common custom, 
and zealously sowed the seeds of those temperance organ- 
izations which began to appear some ten or twelve years 
afterwards. The tract alluded to says, — 

''If this vice of intemperance is to be patronized, it is quite in 
vain to erect places of worship, or to expect any thing but dis- 
appointment in attempting to diffuse religious knowledge. There 
remains only one effectual way of counteracting this evil, and 
that is, for. all ministers of the gospel and all sincere reformers 
to strike at the root of the g^igantic tree of intemperance, — ^not 
alone by preaching, but by setting an example of entire abatinenoe 
from thie h<meful liquor. In order to adopt any system, it is 
desimble to see the practicability of it. In this case it is quite 
easy. There only wants a beginning in the performance. The 
accursed beverages ought neveb to gain admittance to our dweU- 
ings, and, if possible, we should not even hear or see their names." 

This was the language, word for word; and the tract 
sustained its position with sound reason and considerable 



THE MnaSTERS 39 

learning. A large edition was printed and gratuitously 
distributed. It was, we believe, the Pibst Total- 
Abstinbncb Tract published in this country. When the 
principles of temperance became more operative in the 
community, Mr. Metcalfe freely contributed his aid and 
influence in the organization of societies and in the support 
of lecturers. 

But he was early convinced that the Dibtbtio Befobm 
would be of a much slower growth than that of temperance. 
The evil of drunkenness so openly manifests itself in the 
fearful blight which falls upon its victims, that but little 
effort was needed, he supposed, to call forth those who 
would see and proclaim its wickedness. But eating the 
flesh of animals — ^though really as criminal, as debasing, 
and as barbarous as that or any other known evil — does 
not manifest itself in the same heinousness outwasdly: 
therefore its opponents, he was assured, would not be so 
numerous nor so popular. He was satisfied, however, 
that there is a desolation wrought in the soul by the sin 
of flesh-eating more fearful than any outward ghastliness, 
but which cannot be understood, because of the long and 
unlimited prevalence of the custom. Hence a constant and 
self-sacrificing devotion was needful on the part of those 
who were enlightened in the principles of Vegetarianism, 
to awaken the public mind to its enormity. Mr. Metcalfe 
gave his time, talent, and means, unstintedly, to present 
to the world this cause simply as a moral reform. In 
1821, he published a tract on the subject of "Abstinence 
from the Flesh of Animals,'' which was freely and exten- 
sively distributed. He resorted to the columns of the 
newspapers to excite public attention to the subject. 
Articles were published in the "Saturday Evening Post," 
"The Philadelphia Gazette," "The American Sentinel," 
"The United States Oazette,** and other papers, from his 
pen, at various intervals, to excite public attention to the 



40 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

consideration of this humane reform. He also instituted 
correspondence with any inquiring mind^ upon the least 
appearance of interest in the principles which he had so 
deeply at heart. 

During the first ten or twelve years, his labors in this 
direction appear to have been entirely unproductive of any 
promising results. In 1830, Dr. Sylvester Graham was 
employed as a temperance-lecturer, and was introduced to 
some of the members of the Bible-Christian Church. 
He was at this time earnestly studying human physiology, 
as furnishing testimony upon the subject which was the 
theme of his public lectures. He had arrived at some con- 
clusions in regard to the dietetic character of man, by this 
study. The mode of life adopted by his Bible-Christian 
friends was made known to him; and this most probably 
caused him to make a more searching investigation as to 
the scientific grounds for such a course, and finally led him 
to adopt its teachings and to become its champion. As 
soon as my father became aware of his position, he ad- 
dressed a letter of encouragement to him, and also one to 
Dr. William A. Alcott, who had likewise publicly declared 
his conviction that a vegetarian diet was the most proper 
for mankind. This correspondence with them was con- 
tinued through life, with much interest to all. The basis 
of the dietetic reform was freely discussed, and projects 
suggested for the propagation of its principles. In 1835, 
Doctor Alcott commenced the "Moral Reformer," a 
monthly periodical, which was afterwards substituted by the 
''Library of Health" In 1838-39, the "Graham Journal" 
was also published, in Boston, and physiological societies 
were organized in several of the New England towns and 
in Philadelphia, principally among the Bible-Christians. 
The inquiry began to be agitated as to "The Bible Testi- 
mony on Abstinence from the Flesh of Animals;^' and a 
sermon with this title was preached and published by the 



TBQB MINISTEBS 41 

Sev. William Metcalfe. It had an extensive circulation 
throughout the United States, and was generously reviewed, 
pro and con, by the newspaper press generally. 

It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the 
varied projects in which Mr. Metcalfe engaged to promote 
the cause of Vegetarianism. Su£9ce it to say that, next 
to the Church, it had his most anxious thoughts and his 
most constant labor. 

But he was overtasking his strength by his dose and 
constant application. School-teaching itself, at the time 
he was engaged in it, was a health-destroying profession. 
Then, the school-rooms were genersdly low, ill-ventilated 
apartments; and his was greatly crowded. During fully 
one-half the year he was employed with a day and an 
evening sdiool, from eight o'clock in the morning until 
ten at night; Saturday was devoted mainly to preparation 
for his Sunday duties : so that he had no time for relaxa- 
tion or bodily exercise. It is not surprising that he found 
. his health failing, from his close confinement and labor in 
a vitiated atmosphere. 

After following the avocation of a school-teacher for 
more than twenty years, as a change, he engaged, in 1832, 
with the writer of this in the letter-press printing. We 
published a weekly newspaper, entitled '^The Independent 
Democrat/' — ^my father being editor and pressman. It 
was political in its character, but a large portion of its 
space was devoted to moral and literary artides. In 1838, 
a daily newspaper was printed at our office, called *'The 
Morning Star" The principal object of the projectors 
of this paper was to secure the nomination and election 
of General Habsison to the Presidency of the United 
States; and we were assured by many of the leading 
advocates throughout the country that the undertaking 
would be amply sustained. The patronage it had was not 
suffident, and the promises of the politicians were not 

4 



42 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

fulfilled. It finally ceased in 1841, and we were involved 
in great pecuniary embarrassment. Although General 
Harrison was no party to the promises which had led us 
to undertake the publication, yet, being personally ac- 
quainted with my father, he volunteered, after his election, 
to assure him that we should be repaid. His death, a 
month after his inauguration, put an end to this prospect. 
Excepting the subordinate position of measurer in the 
custom-house, — ^which my father held about two years, — 
and a position in the post-oflSce by the writer, no recom- 
pense was ever made. 

My father, meanwhile, carried on the printing-business 
himself, issuing from his office '*The Temperance Advo- 
cate/^ This was also an unprofitable imdertaking; and 
he resolved to direct his attention to another channel 
for support. 

He had always entertained the idea that the union of 
the medical and ministerial duties was eminently proper 
and desirable. With this view, he attended a course of 
lectures in the college, as early as 1820-21, but was com- 
pelled to abandon his intention for want of means. In 
1845, with the advice and assistance of his son-in-law. 
Dr. Henry Taylor, he recommenced the study of medicine, 
under the homceopathic system. After private study, he 
entered the college, and graduated as an M.D. in, 1852. 

In 1844, the frame building in which the Bible-Chris- 
tians held their meetings began to bear evident marks of 
decay. Its repair was almost out of the question. The 
trustees, therefore, commenced taking the necessary meas- 
ures for the erection of a more substantial edifice. The 
incumbrance on the ground had been extinguished; and a 
fund was accumulating in anticipation of requiring a new 
edifice. To aid this fund, the ladies of the church held a 
fair, which realized a handsome sum. A subscription was 
opened, and the members and friends of the church were 
liberal in their contributions: so that the trustees felt 



THE MINISTERS 4S 

warranted in commencing the building. On the 4th of 
Jxaie, 1846, the work was begun : the building was roofed 
over, and the basement story finished, and formally opened 
and set apart for church services, by the Bev. William 
Metcalfe, on Sunday, November 2d, of the same year. 
Nearly two years after, the whole building was completed 
and furnished. The church proper, occupying the second 
story, was dedicated, October 10th, 1847, to the Only 
Wise God, our Saviour, The discourse by the pastor, the 
Bev. William Metcalfe, was founded upon the twentieth 
chapter of Exodus, and the ceremonies were interspersed 
with appropriate music. 

About this time Mr. Metcalfe received from Jambs 
Simpson^ Esq., a member of the Bible-Christian Church 
of Salford, Mimchester, England, several copies of pam- 
phlets on the subject of Vegetarianism. He also received 
from the same gentleman an encouraging letter as to the 
progress of the cause in that kingdom, stating that its ad- 
vocates designed forming associations for the propagation 
of vegetarian principles as a moral reform. This was 
subsequently accomplished, and James Simpson, Esq., 
was elected president of the Vegetarian Society of Great 
Britain. Mr. Metcalfe immediately proposed the forma- 
tion of a similar society here. He corresponded with 
Drs. Graham, Alcott, Mussey, and others, and finally an 
American Vegetarian Convention assembled in Clinton 
Hall, New York, May 16th, 1850. This meeting brought 
together friends of the cause who were personally strangers, 
but who had, nevertheless, long known each other by cor- 
respondence or repute. The Bev. William Metcalfe 
was elected President of the Convention. Addresses 
were made by Mr. Metcalfe, Drs. Graham, Alcott, and 
others. The formation of the Vegetarian Society was 
agreed to; a constitution and by-laws were presented, and 
also the form of a declaration of abstinence from animal 



44 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

food, — ^all of which were adopted. The Society was organ- 
ized by electing Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, President, Kev. 
William Mbtcalfb, Corresponding Secretary, and Dr. B. 
T. Tball, Recording Secretary. The project of publishing 
a Vegetarian magazine was canvassed; and it was deter- 
mined to commence such a journal, as the organ of the 
Society. Mr. Metcalfe was named the editor, to be assisted 
by Dr. Wm. A. Alcott and others. The first number was 
issued in November, 1850, under the title of the ''American 
Vegetarian and Health Journal;" but its regular monthly 
publication did not commence imtil 1851. 

Having fully organized the Vegetarian reform, and 
arranged for the organ of the cause, Mr. Metcalfe de- 
termined to pay a visit to England. This resolution 
becoming known^ he was ofQcially appointed as a delegate 
from the American Vegetarian Society to the annual 
meeting of the Vegetarian Society of Great Britain; 
also as a delegate from the Pennsylvania Peace Society 
to the World's Peace Convention, and as delegate from 
the Pennsylvania Temperance Society to the Grand 
Temperance Demonstration to be made in London in the 
latter part of the month. He sailed from the port of New 
York, on Saturday, July 6th, 1851, in the steamer Arctic, 
and arrived in due time to take part in these several 
gatherings. He also visited the Crystal Palace, which 
had just been opened. But the most pleasing feature of 
his visit was his reception from the members of Christ 
Church, Salford, where forty years before he had received 
holy orders. They gave him a most cordial welcome; 
and he had the gratification of preaching twice, during his 
brief stay, in the building where he had received ordina- 
tion. On Sunday evening, August 10th, a ^'tea-party,** 
comprising the whole congregation, convened in the 
school-room connected with the church. It had been 
arranged by the ladies as a means of testifying the respect 



THE MINISTERS 45 

which the members of the church entertained for the 
Bev. Dr. Metcalfe. The tables were spread with chaste 
el^ance^ and simplicity withal. Josbph Bbothebton^ 
Esq., member of Parliament, presided on the occasion. 
In the course of his opening address, alluding to Mr. 
Metcalfe, he said, "I can assure you, I feel diflScidty in 
expressing my feelings towards him. I hail him as a 
brother, and as a much-esteemed friend for his work's 
sake.'' Another asked, ^^What was it that rendered Mr. 
Metcalfe's visit a subject of such endearing interest to the 
friends in England ? It was not wealth ; it was not literary 
talent or eloquence merely; but it was the conviction that 
Mr. Metcalfe was a living exemplar of certain great and 
good principles, and the earnest promoter of the practices 
which those principles inculcated/* The parting "Fabb- 
well" was finally said; and Mr. Metcalfe returned in time 
to participate in the proceedings of the second annual 
meeting of the American Vegetarian Society, which^ 
convened in the Chinese Lecture-room, Philadelphia, on 
the 10th of September. 

In 1853, Mr. Metcalfe was called upon to suffer a severe 
affiction, in the death of his wife. Mrs. Susan Metgalfb 
died on the 3d of November, in the seventy-fourth year of 
her age. For nearly forty-four years she had faithfully 
encouraged and sustained her consort, as a minister of 
Christianity, in his arduous undertaking of teaching duties 
and doctrines of a higher character than the world was 
willing to receive. Her hospitality was proverbial. Social 
and frank in disposition, she was ever ready to cheer the 
right, and to reprove in kindness those who were disposed 
to go astray. Her removal was mourned by the whole 
Churdi as that of a beloved mother. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Metcalfe was not only the editor of the 
American Vegetarian, but all the duties connected with 
its publication were performed by him gratuitously. He 



46 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

was proof-reader^ book-keeper^ folder, and mail-packer, — 
besides being personally responsible to the printer for his 
work. He had advanced money from his own resources, 
and at considerable embarrassment, in order to have the 
regular appearance of the '^Vegetarian" secured. His 
statement was laid before the annual meeting of the Vege- 
tarian Society in 1864, and the whole subject was referred 
to a special committee, with full power to use their own 
judgment in regard to its continuance. After canvassing 
the matter, the committee deemed it advisable to suspend 
its publication for a season, — hoping, if no other arrange- 
ment could be made, to be able to secure for the Society a 
hearing before the public through some other journal. Mr. 
Metcalfe being shortly after called upon to labor in another 
direction, no attempt was made by the others of the com- 
mittee to resume its publication; and the volume of 1854 
closed the ''American Vegetarian" 

The ^'other direction*' in which Mr. Metcalfe was called 
was England. The Bev. J. B. Strbttlbs, officiating 
minister of Christ Church, Salford, Manchester, died in 
the early part of 1866. Mr. Metcalfe received an invi- 
tation to visit that church, if only for a short period, until 
a suitable person could be obtained to occupy the pulpit 
made vacant by the death of its late occupant. This invi- 
tation Mr. Metcalfe presented to a meeting of the members 
of his church, and solicited leave of absence to fulfill the 
request of the bereaved church. The Eev. Joseph Wright, 
his brother-in-law, who had been ordained by the Bev. 
Dr. Cowherd, was a resident of Philadelphia and an active 
member of the church ; to him he purposed to confide its 
pastoral duties, if the church should grant his request. 
The proposition, being urged with such an evident desire 
to aid the sister church, was granted, the Bev. Joseph 
Wright consenting to take upon himself the duties of tiie 
ministry. Mr. Metealfe had recently been married to 



THE MINISTERS 47 

Miss Maby Casiss^ a lady who had been nurtured and 
raised in the principles and discipline of the Bible-Chris- 
tian Churchy and who was a faithful member. In the 
latter part of July he and his wife embarked for Liverpool 
from Philadelphia. They arrived safely^ and were imme- 
diately waited upon by members of the church and cor- 
dially welcomed. 

The Bev. Dr. Metcalfe was immediately installed into 
his pastoral duties^ establishing a free and friendly inti- 
macy with all the members of the church. Again he was 
cordially greeted by his old friend, Joseph Brotherton, 
M.P., who, as the early minister of the Salford church, 
was still looked to by its members as their chief adviser 
in all difficulties. James Simpson, Esq., President of the 
Vegetarian Society, also gave him hearty welcome, and 
soon had him engaged in the Vegetarian cause as a lecturer. 
He visited in this capacity not only many of the towns of 
England, but, in company with Mr. Simpson, he also 
addressed meetings in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and several 
smaller towns of Scotland. He was peculiarly gratified 
with the attention which was given by the large numbers 
of the intelligent and sedate people of Scotland to the 
cause of Vegetarianism and Temperance. In fact, all 
his labors here appear to have been of an encourag- 
ing character. 

But the prominent purpose which he ever kept in view 
was that of supplying a worthy successor to the pulpit of 
Christ Church, Salford. He assumed the duty of impart- 
ing a systematic course of instruction to a class of young 
men in Bible-Christian Theology. Of this class he ex- 
pressed himself as quite sanguine, — ^its members evincing 
superior intelligence and pious devotion in their studies. 
He was the more earnest in this endeavor, as the church in 
Philadelphia, which, under Divine Providence, he had been 
instrumental in building up, was urging his speedy return. 



48 BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

Whilst thus busUy engaged, he was startled by the 
sudden death of his old and endeared friend, the Bev. 
Joseph Brotheeton, who without any symptoms of 
previous sickness, quietly and quickly passed from this 
transitory state to the eternal world, on the morning of 
January 8th, 1867. This was the most severe bereavement 
that the Salford church had experienced since the death of 
the Eev. Dr. Cowherd. Mr. Brotherton was highly esteemed 
by the community at large. He had represented Salford in 
Parliament for more than twenty years, and was other- 
wise connected with its municipal government, as well as 
being an active member of several of its benevolent, 
literary, and scientific associations. The mournful duty 
devolved upon the Sev. Dr. Metcalfe of performing the last 
sad rites over the lifeless remains of his beloved friend. 
On Sunday, January 18th, he delivered a discourse ''On 
the Death of the late J. Brotherton, Esq., M.P.,*' in Christ 
Church, Salford. Besides the mourning family and church- 
members, there were in attendance members of Parliament, 
the town-ofQcials, and a large concourse of citizens. By 
request of the church-deacons, the address was published 
in pamphlet form. 

The time was now rapidly approaching when Mr. 
Metcalfe would be at liberty to return to Philadelphia, 
according to the terms of the agreement. But the congre- 
gation were now, since their bereavement, more than ever 
desirous of retaining him with them permanently. The 
church in Philadelphia, however, pressed its claims upon 
him, so that he declined to prolong his stay much beyond 
the period fixed. Mr. Metcalfe and his wife made their 
final arrangements for departure; and, in the early part 
of August, they bade an affectionate farewell to their many 
kind and dearly-beloved friends in England. They reached 
the port of New York on the 24th of the same month, 
where they were received by a committee of the church. 



THE MINISTERS 49 

They arrived at their own home on the evening of the 
following day, where tea had been prepared for them and 
the church members generally. The meeting and greetings 
on both sides were most cordial and happy. Mr. Metcalfe 
resumed his ministerial duties on Simday^ September Tth^ 
and preached to a large congregation. He was also called 
upon by his old patients to recommence his medical 
practice; and his labors in the cause of Temperance and 
Vegetarianism were assumed as readily as though no 
interruption had taken place. 

As life sinks apace, we are called upon to mourn the 
departure of friend after friend, in quicker succession than 
we appeared to do in our earlier years^ This was Mr. 
Metcalfe^s experience. Another friend and co-laborer in 
the cause of Vegetarianism had been summoned by the 
hand of Death from this world of shadows. Dr. William 
A. Alcott, who had toiled so imwearyingly in the prosecu- 
tion of philanthropic labors, and who had written so many 
instructive books of a practical character, died on the 29th 
of March, 1859, in the sixty-second year of his age, — 
thirty-one of which had been more or less zealously de- 
voted to the propagation and practice of Vegetarianism. 
At the annual meeting of the Vegetarian Society, held 
September 21st, Dr. Metcalfe was imanunously elected 
president, which position had been so ably filled by Dr. 
ilcott f^m the time of its organization/ On assling 
the chair. Dr. Metcalfe delivered a fitting eulogy upon the 
life, labors, and character of his deceased predecessor. 

My beloved father had frequently, during many years 
past, expressed great anxiety respecting his successor to 
the ministry in the Church. On Simday morning, Sep- 
tember 4th, 1859, he had the great gratification of engaging 
in the solemn service of an ordination. His son, the 
writer of this brief memoir, was presented to him by the 
senior deacons of the church, Jonathan Wright and Elijah 



50 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Bothwell; as a person whom the members of the church 
unanimously desired to have introduced into the ministry. 
After proper examination, the candidate was duly ordained 
a minister of the word of Ood, by the venerable hands 
of the ordaining minister, and the appropriate ceremonies 
and charges. 

Another occasion which he considered himself as highly 
favored in being privileged to enjoy, was the semi-centen- 
nial celebration of his own ordination. In the providence 
of Gk)d, this was granted to the Bev. William Metcalfe, 
on Sunday, August 11th, 1861. After preaching an appro- 
priate sermon on the afternoon of that day, the congre- 
gation adjourned to the school-room of the church. Here, 
aroimd long tables bountifully supplied with vegetarian 
fare and profusely decorated with flowers, they consti- 
tuted themselves into a large family tea-party, — ^the Bev. 
Dr. Metcalfe, as the ^%ther in Israel,'' presiding. Beso- 
lutions of a grateful and congratulatory character were 
presented to their venerable minister, besides some other 
tokens of esteem and affection. A copy of his discourse 
on that occasion was solicited, which was published by 
the committee. Thus my father continued to labor in the 
service of the Lord, and, as he himself remarked, '^It was 
his joy, — ^and most his joy when most laborious.*' 

And now we approach the dose of this long life of 
incessant activity. Since his return from England, my 
father had enjoyed general good health. He had been 
troubled somewhat during the past year with a polypus in 
his nose: still, he had not been interrupted in any of his 
ministerial or other duties. Even on the Sabbath before 
his death he preached with all his accustomed vigor and 
animation. He appeared to be hoarse, as if from a severe 
cold: yet his delivery was as distinct as ever. Faithfully 
and earnestly did he lay before his flock, morning and 
afternoon of that day, the commandmentis of the Lord. 



THE MINISTERS 61 

That night he was taken ill with hemorrhage of the lungs, 
and on the following morning, when the writer called to 
see him, he expressed serious doubts of his ultimate re- 
covery. Still he retained the buoyancy and cheerfulness 
of his disposition; and on the succeeding morning he was 
so much improved that he thought it possible he might 
again recover. He continued to gain strength, and was 
sitting up during most of the day. On Thursday he had 
been visited by all his children, and his blessing had been 
bestowed upon them with more than usual serenity. 
Some remained and took tea with him. All but one had 
departed, when, about eight o'clock, he prepared to retire 
for the night. And now, like Jacob of old, "when he had 
made an end of commanding his children,'* my beloved 
father literally "gathered up his feet into the bed, and 
yielded up the spirit, and was gathered unto his people.'* 
His removal at last was, therefore, very sudden, and was 
doubtless caused by a renewal of the hemorrhage. The 
Bev. William Metcalfe died on Thursday evening, Octo- 
ber 16th, 1862, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. The 
silver cord was loosened, the golden bowl was broken, 
and the wheel of action stood still in the exhausted cistern 
of the mortal life of this truly good man; but the soul 
soared away to the eternal kingdom of its Lord, to join 
its friends, not lost, but gone before, and to become a more 
efficient laborer in the cause of humanity, in which it was 
so much interested. 

The whole life of the Bev. William MetcaKe was one 
of imremitting. labor for the good of others, and for the 
establishment of the vital principles of Christianity in the 
souls of his fellow-men. The specific work of his life was 
that of sowing the seeds and cultivating the principles of 
Temperance and Yegetabianism and permanently estab- 
lishing the Bible-Christian Church in this country. 
These were no small labors for one man's life ; and yet the 



6i BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

Bev. William Metcalfe was the pbimabt agenoy^ under 
Divine Providence, for the development and organization 
of these moral and religious reforms in this hemisphere of 
the world. He was not, it is true, a noisy, blustering, 
passionate reformer. Such displays are generally evi- 
dences of weakness, rather than of power and intelli- 
gence. He who quietly resists the current of the times, 
who stands up steadily against its corruptions and vices, 
and who, from a firm conviction of principle and with a 
confident reliance on Divine assistance, will not be carried 
away by faction, opposition, or temptation, — ^he is the 
strongest and most practical reformer. The Eev. William 
Metcalfe thus stood and labored for Total Abstinence, for 
Vegetarianism, and for Bible-Christianity, when there 
were none but the few gathered friends around him, who 
had as yet raised a voice in behalf of either. 

No man ever shrunk from publicity more than the 
Sev. Dr. Metcalfe; but his ardent zeal for truth impelled 
him to antagonisms, even at the expense of his feelings 
and of his own personal ease and comfort. He was 
deeply reverential, and all his religious sentiments were 
strong and pure, — ^thus uniting in himself the character 
of the saint to that of the reformer. As a pastor and 
preacher he was prompt and faithful to all his charges. 
During his entire fifty-two years* ministry, whatever 
might be his outward difficulties or embarrasments, with 
but very few exceptions he was to be found in the pulpit 
every Sabbath-day morning and afternoon, and sometimes 
also in the evening. His general health was so uniform 
that the exceptions occasioned by sickness did not number 
more than five or six Sabbaths. The other exceptions 
were during the periods when he was crossing the ocean ; 
and even then he officiated as often as the opportunity 
presented itself. 

The Bev. William Metcalfe was beloved by his entire 
congregation as a fond father, and an extensive circle of 



THE MINISTEBS 58 

acquaintances were sincerely attached to him in the bonds 
of personal friendship. He retained the buoyancy and 
cheerfulness of his disposition to the last; and the pleas- 
ant humor and affectionate tendemesd of his social inter- 
course, even on the day of his decease, were in beautifid 
harmony with his life of temperance and piety. His re- 
mains were interred in the burial-groimd attached to the 
church which had been built under his auspices. The 
services were performed by the Eev. E. A. Bbaman, who 
also preached an eloquent and consolatory fimeral sermon, 
on the following Sabbath, to a large congregation. 

A TABLET has been erected in the church, immediately 
behind the pulpit which he adorned so long. It is of 
white Italian marble, placed in a recess having a black- 
marbled background, thus forming a border to the tablet 
of four or five inches. The top of the tablet is semicircu- 
lar, having in it a raised Bible, with rays diverging from 
it, and over which are the following words: — ^'^Thy 
WoBD IS A Light unto my Path.'' Underneath the semi- 
circle is a scroll, bearing the following inscriptions : — ^^^n 
Memory of our Beloved Pastor, the Rev. WILLIAM 
METCALFE, M.D., Founder of the first Bible-Chris^ 
tian Church in America: who departed this life October 
16th, 1862, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He was a 
faithful, enlightened, and exemplary minister of the Word 
of God for fifty-two years. 'God is not the God of the 
dead, but of the living.* — Matt. xxii. 32.*' 

The periodicals of the day, in noticing the ,death of the 
Bev. William Metcalfe, paid tribute to his many virtues as 
a minister of religion and as a moral reformer. Numerous 
letters were also received by the family, from public and 
private sources, containing eloquent eulogies on his life 
and character. Testimonials from the Bible-Christian 
Church in Philadelphia, and also from Christ Church, 
Salford, England, are herewith appended. 



54 BIBLEKmniSTIAN CHURCH 

TEIBUTB OF EESPBCT. 



f 



The congregation worshiping in the "BiBLE-CHBiBTiAn 
Chubch," North Third Street, above Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, 
aesembled in special meeting on the afternoon of Sunday, October 
26th, 1862. Addresaes were delivered in regard to the bereavement 
which the Church had experienced, and, among other proceedings, 
the following Preamble and Resolutions were presented by 
Mr. Kr.TjAH kothwell, which were unanimously adopted, and 
ordered to be engrossed on the Church Journal: 

"Whereaa, In the dispensation of our heavenly Father, our 
beloved Pastor, the Rev. WILLIAM METCALFE, M.D., has been 
removed by death from the scene of his labors in the external 
Church, to perform higher services in the Spiritual Church of the 
Lobd; and whereas we have long enjoyed the privilege of his 
fatherly counsel, and have been intimately acquainted with his 
many personal virtues and his great sacrifices for tiie cause of 
Scripture-founded Christianity; and whereae we earnestly desire 
and deem it our duty to place on record a true delineation of his 
character: be it, therefore, hereby 

"Resolved, Tha,t we behold in the character of our late ven- 
erable Pastor that purity of life, that humilily of disposition, that 
equanimity of temper, and that peaceful demeanor, which con- 
stitute the necessary qualifications of a true apostle of oar 

LOBD ASD SaVIOUB JeSUS ChBIST. 

**Re8olved, That in the domestic circle we saw in the Rev. Dr. 
Metcalfe a devoted husband and a loving father. In social life 
he was kind and tender-hearted, and, consequently, was respected 
and beloved b^ all who knew him. His love of usefulness caused 
him to be active in aiding and assisting in all social and moral 
reform; and his name, we are assured, is embalmed in unnumbered 
hearts, who will transmit the memory of his virtues and useful- 
ness to future generations. 

"BesoVoed, That in his ministerial duties the Rev. William 
Metcalfe was faithful and devoted to the service of his QsEi^T 
EzEiCFLAB AND Teaoheb, — fearlessly opposing the vicious habits 
and customs of society with all the ability of his talents and life, 
— ^bearing unfaltering testimony of more than fifty-two years to 
truth, justice, and mercy, and performing punctually, even to the 
last Sabbath of his life on earth, the sacred duties of his mission 
as a preacher of Bible-Christianity. 

**Be8olved, That a committee be appointed to cause a suitable 
monument to be erected over the remains of our beloved Pastor, 
as a token of affection on behalf of the Church of which he was, 
under Divine Providence, the founder in this country, and for 
which he so long labored. 

"Jonathan Wright, President,** 



'^UANUBL Het, Secretary pro tern; 



M 



THE MINISTERS 55 

Address from the Members of the *'Bible-Ohrisiian Ohurch," 

Salford, to their Brethren in Philadelphia, United States, 
Christian Fbdeitdb: 

By letters from friends on your side of the Atlantic, and from 
public prints received through the same channels, we are put In 
possession of the knowledge &at your church has recently endured 
a most distressing bereavement in the death of your faithful 
friend and pa^r, the Rev. William Mbtgalfe. Bound to you 
by the endearing ties of Ions service in the holiest things, associ- 
ated in your recollections with the happiest and most interesting 
events of your own and your children's lives, and in perhaps a 
more sacred way with your troubles and losses, his removal hence 
cannot fail to be a cause of deep sorrow to all your little fiock. 
The child whom he had baptized and who had lived long enough 
to recognize the benevolent expression of his countenance, reflect- 
ing the light within, — ^the young man or maiden whom he has 
received into the bosom of the Church, and to whom, under Qod, 
he has ministered the bread of life and the living waters of 
comfort and peace, — ^the devout servant of the Lord who has 
waited on his ministrations and profited by the detail of his 
heavenly experiences and emotions and his intimate acquaintance 
with the divine truth, — each and all must feel conscious of a void 
which cannot easily be supplied, — a loss which is all but irrep- 
arable. In presence of such a calamity, we desire to offer you 
our warmest sympathies, and the assurance of our unabated 
attachment to yourselves and the principles we hold in common. 
Our hearts unite in "weeping with them that weep," because of 
the loss to the world in our dear friend's deatii, and particularly 
for the loss the "Bible-Christian Church" has sustained therebj^. 
Our own loss and our own sorrow are only second to yours in 
this aflUcting dispensation of Divine Providence; but we desire 
to encourage and to strengthen you as the Lord has taught us. 
Whilst acknowledging in sadness that '^o chastening seemeth for 
the present joyous, but ^evous," we also hope that this chastise- 
ment will "afterwards yield the peaceable fruits of righteousness 
to them that are exercised thereby." May our heavenly Father 
so teach you and us that we may find that godly exercise in our 
present grief, which shall yield us the peaceable frujts of right- 
eousness! May we learn even now to say, The Lord is gracious 
and merciful; his ways are good and right I He is the Father of 
the fatherless, the Husband of the widow, the Friend of the friend- 
less. In each of these relationshijis we humbly pray that Hb may 
now be manifested to you, "carrying your little ones in his arms 
as on eagle's wings," consoling the widowed Church with the 
assurance of his protection and love, and supplying by the direct 
influences of his Spirit the need created by the death of your 
revered minister. 

Our great comfort is that whatever is true or good cannot 
perish. Its vitality is in the charge of Him who is the truth and 



5« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

• 

who alone is perfectly good. We have, therefore, no fear that 
the principles of Bible-Christianity can die. Though they may 
wane for a season through lack of zeal or the want of faithful 
men, yet must they spring again, like seeds long buried in the 
earth, when the needs of mankind lead them to remove the crust 
of errors and evils that has overlaid the good and the true. 

We sorrow not as those without hope, but as looking and 
waiting ourselves for the great deliverance, when to die will be 
gain, inasmuch as we shall be with the Lord. This hope, we 
doubt not, abides with you, and our prayer to God on your behalf 
is, that it may abound more and more until the day when faith 
shall be lost in sight. 

Praying that our heavenly Father may aid and comfort you 
at all times, but especially at the present time of need, that He 
will enlarge you and give you increased proofs of his regard 
for you. 

We are, 

Christian friends. 
Yours affectionately, 

James Clabk, Minister, 

BOBEBT MiLNEB, 

Edwin Collxeb, 
Commiiiee of Oorreapondenee, 

Jn reviewing the Church records from its establish- 
ment up to the date of Dr. Metcalfe's death in 1862, 
oovering the first forty-five years of its existence, 
decided material progress is shown. 

The old frame meeting-place, originally a small 
school-house, gave way for a substantial two story rough- 
cast building, well-lighted, commodious and furnished 
with modem conveniences. A flourishing Sunday 
School had been established. 

From an attendance of five at the fibrst adminis- 
tration of the Holy Communion, a fluctuating but grad- 
ual increase is shown, so that the average attendance 
in 1861, is shown to be about fifty and that at regular 
service about ninety. 



THE MINISTERS 57 

Wlian oompared with other religious denommations 
this may not appear particularly encouraging, but 
taMng into consideration the very limited material 
possessions of its founder and its early members and the 
Let personal requirements of disoiplme for niember- 
ship no lack of hopefulness for the future is manifest ; 
on the contrary, an earnest interest in the affairs of the 
Church, a faithfulness to its beliefs and abiding trust 
in the righteousness of its doctrines, are indicated in 
the annual reports of the minister and deacons. 

The neighborhood of Third Street and Girard 
Avenue during this period was occupied principally by 
families in fair to moderate circumstanoes, small trades- 
people and manufacturing establishments, the public 
markets for farmers and butchers occupied the centre 
of Girard Avenue and a sufficient number of saloons and 
inns for the ^^ entertainment of man and beast " existed 
in that section. 

The residence of the minister waa directly opposite 
the church on Third Street, and several families of 
members resided near by; there were, however, about 
twenty-five or thirty per cent of the members living 
in Frankf ord, some four and a half miles distant. 

The stage coach was practically the only public con- 
veyance to carry these members to service, although 
some had their private carriages, which, when there 
was room, they would invite others to share. Frequently 
the yoimg people would make the journey both ways, 
"afoot,'' lessening the distance by short cuts through 
the fields and woods, which at that time prevailed 
through that section. 
5 



58 BIBLE-CHRISTUN CHURCH 

The buildiiig of the Frankf ord and Southwark 
Railroad^ in 1857, improved tlie travelling facili- 
ties somewhat. 

Some of the family names shown by the reoords^ 
applying to those active and valuable in the affairs and 
management of the Church during this time are: 
Almond, Earned, Bell, Brooks, Bury, Cariss, Chorlton, 
Cooper, Cunliffe, Dixon, Gibson, Hey, Higgs, Horrocks, 
Hough, Hunt, Koenig, Lever, Luckman, Lyons, Martin, 
Metcalfe, Moseley, !N'uttall, Peterman, Best, Richardson, 
Rothwell, Royle, Shoch, Taylor, Winn, Wri^t. 

The dose personal companionship that existed 
between the Rev. William Metcalfe and his son Joseph, 
their sincere mutual interest in the material and spirit- 
ual welfare of the Church, and their absolute faith 
in the righteousness of its principles and doctrines, 
combined to make Joseph Metcalfe the logical succes- 
sor to the position. 

Joseph Metcalfe was born October 16, 1810, at 
Addingham, Yorkshire, England, and came to America 
with the original Company of Bible Christians who 
embarked from Liverpool in the early part of the 
spring of 1817, arriving in Philadelphia, June 15th 
of that year. 

He married Elizabeth Chorlton, a daughter of John 
Chorlton (who was also one of the early members of 
the Church in Philadelphia). 

He was associated with his father for several years 
in the letter press printing business and held various 
clerical and accounting positions. His ordination as a 
minister in September, 1869, was in anticipation of 



THEMINISTEBS 



59 



his assuming the position, and the hearty sentiment in 
favor of it, prevailing throughout the congregation, is 
shown by action taken at a special church meeting held 
October 26, 1862, when on motion of Elijabi Bothwell, 
seconded by Emanuel Hey, it was unanimously decided 
by a standing vote '^ that Joseph Metcalfe be elected 
to fill the high office of minister of the Bible-Christian 
Church, 'N. 8rd Street, Philadelphia,'' and on further 
motion of Mr. Bothwell, that ^^ the names of all present 
be entered on the minutes.'' This list carried the 
following names : 



Jonathan Wright 
James Wright 
Elijah Bothwell 
Eobert Wright 
Samuel Wright 
Edmund Brooks 
William Brooks 
William Cariss, Jr. 
William Horrocks, Jr. 
Eliza Horrocks 
Elizabeth Brooks 
Hannah Taylor 
Emma Wright 
Mary Horrocks 
Susannah Metcalfe 
£ateOalt 
Annie Bamerd 
Sybil CunMe 
Bebeoca Large 



James Horrocks 
William Cariss 
William Taylor 
Charles F. Koenig 
James Cunliffe 
William Metcalfe, Jr. 
Moses Hey 
Emanuel Hey 
Martha Taylor 
Margaret Wright 
Isabella Cariss 
Martha Koenig 
Anne Horrocks 
Hannah Brooks 
Sallie Troughton 
Agnes Gait 
Mrs. Mary Metcalfe 
Anne Dickson 
Elizabeth Metcalfe 



60 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Joseph Metcalfe resided in Frankford, and in the 
early part of his term as minister was occupied during 
the week-days with a position in the XJ. S. Custom 
House, Philadelphia, and later as a derk in the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature at Harrisburg. Church services 
were held Sunday morning and afternoon as formerly. 
Mr. Metcalfe making the journey from Harrisburg to 
his home in Frankfofd on Saturday evening (requiring 
about 5 hours) and returning to Harrisburg, Mon- 
day morning. 

The reports of the deacons and the other annual 
reports rendered to the ajmual meetings during the 
five years of Mr. Metcalfe's ministry indicate a jsatis- 
factory and progressive condition, with some increase in 
membership and in attendance at both regular and 
sacramental services. 

A friendly and interested sentiment prevailed 
throughout the Church; and social meetings, both at 
the church and in the homes of the members, were of 
frequent occurrence. 

An occasion, not included in the Church records, 
but narrated in the Philadelphia Press of December 
26, 1866, illustrates the cordial relations existing be- 
tween the pastor and his flock. The article, after 
mentioning the suburban location of his residence, states : 

The pastor and his wife were seated in the parlor last 
evening about 8 o'clock, conversing with a few friends, 
when the sounds of a familiar Church hymn were heard 
outside. On going to the door, the front yard, or lawn, 
which occupies quite a large space, was seen to be well 



THE MINISTERS 61 

filled with people who were soon recognized as church 
members and friends^ and invited to enter. 

DifiScnlty was experienced when an attempt was made 
to get into the other parts of the house, the connecting door 
refosing to respond to efforts made to open it, for some 
time. When it finally yielded, the pastor and his wife 
were escorted to a table occupying the centre of the living- 
room on which was arranged a beautiful silver tea pitcher, 
appropriately inscribed, a handsome traveling satchel or 
case completely furnished with the usual toilet articles 
incident thereto. Another contingent of the "Surprise 
Party,'* who had gained entrance through a rear door, 
had attended to this part of the programme, and the 
presentation was made in a few complimentary words by 
one of the deacons, and responded to by the pastor as 
well as his emotion would permit, after which, music, song, 
and bountiful refreshments ended up a Merry Christ- 
mas day. 

Several new names were added to the roll of member- 
ship during Eev. Joseph Metcalfe's term, and among 
those who attended the services, regularly practised 
vegetarianism and contributed liberally, although not 
members, vrere Samuel Needham, a hosiery & woolen 
goods manufacturer in Frankford, and his family, and 
a Mr. Derbyshire in the dyeing business in Philadelphia. 

The great War of the Eebellion still continued 
when Joseph Metcalfe entered upon his duties, and a 
societj, known as the Ladies Aid Society of the Bible* 
Christian Churchy was organized in 1862, intended 
originally to assist the U. S. soldiers by work and 
contributions of money and supplies. It afterwards 
became a most useful and valuable Church affiliation. 



62 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

The record of the Whitmondaj Annual Meeting 
June 6, 1865, refers to the '^ death of our venerable 
and senior DeacoUi Jonathan Wright/' and also con- 
tains a copy of a Preamble and Resolution expressing 
the feelings of our Church ^^at the appalling calamity by 
which the whole nation has suffered in the violent death 
of Abraham Lincoln, the President of the. United 
States, on April 14, 1866." 

Although the Church was opposed to war, as an 
abstract proposition, the unanimous sentiment of its 
members during the great Southern Rebellion was 
strongly in favor of the preservation of the Union of the 
States and the abolition of Slavery, and several mem- 
bers took part in the military service at that time. 

The spiritual and material affairs of the Churchl 
during the years of Rev. Joseph Metcalfe^s ministry 
were regarded as generally satisfactory and encourag- 
ing* There was a fair proportion of the older and 
earlier members still active in helping along the Lord's 
work, while there also existed in the younger generation 
a sincere interest in the various affairs of the Chujrch 
and Sunday School and a pleasure in performing their 
part therein. 

A little more than five years constituted the com- 
paratively brief period of Rev. Joseph Metcalfe's term 
in the pulpit, after the death of his father; the termi- 
nation being sudden and unexpected 

On Sunday, December 1, 1867, a clear cold winter 
morning, he arose about his usual time, fully expecting 
to conduct the regular Church and Communion Services. 



THE MINISTERS 6S 

After breakfast a slightly opporessive sensation in the 
head manifested itself, and upon consulting with his 
wife and a sister who had called, he decided to remain 
at home, a member of the family being dispatched to the 
chnrch to notify the city members and friends. 

Mr. Metcalfe's condition not improving, a physi- 
cian waa summoned ; the symptoms grew more serious, 
he became unconscions, and the end appeared to be 
rapidly approaching ; the doctor on his arrival diagnosed 
the case as apoplexy and administered the usual remedies 
and restoratives without avail, and about ten o'clock the 
great change, the wonderful yet inevitable simple devel- 
opment from the natural to the spiritual existence, took 
place apparently without any indication of pain or suffer- 
ing, and the Bev. Joseph Metcalfe's labors in the Church 
here on earth were j&nished, undoubtedly to be continued 
with the friends and the cause he loved so well, in the 
Church celestial and triumphant. 

The year 1867 practically completed fifty years ex- 
istence of The Bible-Christian Church in Philadelphia. 
A brief abstract from an address delivered by the Bev. 
William Metcalfe in August 1861 on the fiftieth anni- 
versary of his ordination as a Minister (which took place 
in England) may be appropriate as expressing the senti- 
ment that prevailed in the hopeful hearts of the members 
at this time: 

The half-century is gone, — ^gone like the word just 
spoken, for good or for evil, never to be recalled, — ^gone 
as yesterday has gone. Yet why do I say they are gone? 
Nothing is gone, whose influence remains with man or 



M BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

woman. The Sabbaths, the prayers, the praises, the weeks, 
the months, the whole half -century, that seem to us to 
have passed away, live still, — ^live in the presence and 
universe of our heavenly Father. Such have been the 
religious principles I have taught for more than fifty years. 
They lay, according to my apprehension, a foundation for 
purer Christian attainments and a more intellectual form 
of godliness. They are calculated — ^if adopted into prac- 
tical life — ^to renew and to regenerate man's whole nature. 
Practical religion, with love to Gtod and charity to man^ 
will sweeten all the hours, the years, and the scenes of 
human life. The esteem of our friends in such case will 
be sincere; our children will be found travelling with lis 
heavenward by our side. We also shall continue to grow 
in grace and in spiritual knowledge. The Church will be 
nurtured, and midtiply in numbers. Cheerfidness and 
gratitude to God will crown our worship ; a conscious sense 
of a Christian spirit, and of progress in the regenerate life, 
will strengthen our good purposes, and the fruits of love, 
scattered along our pathway, will be to our souls vital and 
evident proofs that the Lord our God is ever with us. 
To Him— "The true God and Eternal Life''— be glory, 
now and forever. Amen. 

Although sorrow existed for the loss in the past few 
years of many beloved and earnest workers in the Churchy 
who had gone to join the " church in the skies/' and there 
was some anxiety at this time as to what the future had 
in store for the little organization, there was a feeling, 
a faith that ^^ The Lord would provide;" and at a special 
Church meeting held on January 5, 1868, Dr. Whl 
Taylor, a grandson of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, was elected to 
the Ministry of the Church, and on his acceptance of the 
position, arrangements were made for his ordination^ 



THE MINISTERS 66 

whioh was administered in the Ghurch on the nioming of 
Sunday, February 2, 1868, Edmund Brooks, Deacon, 
presenting Dr. Taylor, and Elijah Rothwell, senior 
Deacon, conducting the ceremony. The Rev. Dr. Taylor 
preadied his first sermon in that capacity and adminis- 
tered the Sacrament on that date. 

The outlook at the beginning of Dr. Taylor's term 
as Minister was encouraging, there had been no inter- 
ruption in carrying on the usual programme ; services 
"were held every Sabbath morning and occasionally 
evening services were conducted. Dr. Taylor was en- 
dowed with considerable talent, being an eloquent and 
attractive speaker, and the possessor of quite an ability 
in the musical line, both vocal and instrumental 

While his theological instruction had not been as 
thorough and extensive as that of his predecessors, he 
was entirely familiar with the doctrines and beliefs of 
the Church, and his general school and medical edu- 
cation made him a very acceptable candidate and fitted 
him well for the position. 

The average attendance at this time (1868) is given 
as eig|hty-f our at the regular service and forty-eight at 
the Communion Service. 

Through the good efforts of the Ladies' Aid Society 
a chandelier and side-brackets for illuminating gas were 
installed in the church, and evening services were con- 
ducted during the greater part of the year. 

A few new members were added during 1868, 1869, 
1870 and 1871, but not sufficient in number to fill the 



66 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

vacandes caused by the departure for the Spiritual 
world of many old and faithful members, the list of 
adult miembers in 1871 oomporisiug about fifty names. 

The financial condition of the Church at this time 
was not satisfactory, the Treasurer's report showing a 
deficiency at several annual meetings. 

Dr. Taylor's medical practice was still limited, his 
compensation from the Church was very moderate, and 
the requirements of his family, consisting of a wife and 
four growing children, probably induced him to seek 
other and more remunerative employment. The records 
show that his resignation was presented to an adjourned 
semi-annual meeting, December 29, 1872, and accepted 
to take effect April 1, 1873. 

On April 6, 1873, a special meeting of the Churchy 
pending the securing of a regular minister, ^^vested the 
position in a reader," and senior Deacon, Wm. Cariss, 
v^aa chosen. 

On April 28, 1873, a special Church meeting de- 
cided ^^that the administration of the Holy Sacrament 
should be observed as heretofore." 

Mr. Cariss performed the duties of '^ reader " and 
presided at the annual and semi-annual meetings for the 
years 1873, 1874 and 1876, conscientiously and satis- 
factorily, but conditions were not encouraging. Attend- 
ance declined and interest in the affairs of the Church 
was not as hearty or active as formerly, and on April 4, 
1875, the first steps were taken towards securing the 
services of Henry S. Clnbb of Orand Haven, Michigan. 



THE MINISTEBS 67 

Henry S. Clubb was bom at Colohester, EsseZy Eng- 
land, June 21, 1827. He was the youngest of nine 
children of Stephen and Elizabeth Clubb. Colchester is 
about fifty-two miles northeast of London. The follow- 
ing is a little description of his home town as written by 
himself in March, 1905 : 

The house where I was bom was a three-story brick 
on North Street, Colchester, Essex, England, with a 
windmill behind it. It was north of the river Colne, 
which meandered through the town to the Hithe, where 
ships came, but water mills prevented their coming farther 
into the town. There was an old-fashioned brick bridge 
of three arches, over which we had to walk in order to 
reach the busiaess part of the town. South of this bridge 
was what was called ^^Middleborough,'' a locality where the 
street widened out; leaving room for stalls where, on 
Saturdays, which were market days, fruit and vegetables 
were sold. 

On crossing this bridge we would come to an old frame 
building used as a small brush manufactory. It was 
carried on by an old friend of my father, named Bowland. 
Father used to go for an hour's gossip with his old friend, 
who could listen to my father's talk while boring holes 
in the wood pieces which were' thus prepared to receive 
the bristles. The boring was done by a small lathe, and 
it was my delight to stand and see the holes bored while 
my father talked ^^Badical" reform to his friend Bowland, 
who generally approved. While father was talking I would 
sometimes slip away and explore the neighborhood. 

Among my earliest recollections was, when five years 
of age, going to see Mrs. Bowland, and she remarking that 
as it was the longest day in the year (21st of June) she 
would cut the longest piece of fruitcake for me. ' 



68 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

There was a neat row of brick dwellings, with gardens 
in front, running at right angles with the street, the back 
lots of which were gardens running down to the river on 
the north. These gardens were my chief attraction. The 
flowers in front of the houses were sometimes very beau- 
tiful, especially in the spring season, while in the summer 
the black-currant bushes growing along the river bank at 
the north end of the gardens were still more attractive, 
as they hung full of luscious fruit. 

Henry S. Clubb became early impressed with the 
truth : 

^^ There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Eough-hew them how we wilL" 

His education, like that of many English lads of the 
time, was picked up from various sources: attending 
evening school; studying Cobbett's Grammar and Pit- 
man's phonography up to the age of twelve. At thirteen 
he received the appointment of money-order derk in Her 
Majesty^s service, in the Post Office of has native tov^n. 
This was when Queen Victoria was known as the 
" Young Queen of England," having ascended the throne 
on Mr. Clubb's tenth birthday. His salary in this 
position was first seven and afterwards nine shillings 
per week, v\dth some additional perquisites obtained by 
carefully distributing the morning mail to the prin- 
cipal financial concerns that called at the office for 
their letters. 

His parents were at first Unitarians and aftervmrds 
became Swedenboxgians. They adopted vegetarianism 
for a time and were members of the Vegetarian Society, 
as was also his brother Robert. 



THE MINISTERS 69 

At this early age he had acquired the art of phonog- 
raphy with some proficiency and, like Isaac Pitman, 
the inventor of the art, was also a vegetarian. 

The way he became a vegetarian was from listening 
to the conversation of Wm. G. Ward, a commercial 
traveller, who called at his father's home every three 
months and usually spent the evenings there during 
his Sitay in Colchester. Wnu Gibson Ward, as he was 
afterwards knowQ, was an enthusiastic vegetarian, and 
the way he described the horrors and cruelties of the 
slaughter house and the dangers of eating the flesh of 
animals killed there, under various degrees of suflfering 
and disease, made such an impression upon Mr. Clubb 
when a mere lad, that he determined to give vegetarian- 
ism a fair trial. 

It had been customary in the family to eat meat 
once a da.y. His father used to grind their own wheat, 
and whole-meal bread was made by his mother. This 
was before Graham's advocacy of this kind of bread. 
This bread and plenty of milk formed the principal diet 
in his childhood days. 

At the age of fifteen he went to live at the Con- 
oordium. Ham Conxmon, Surrey, about twelve miles up 
the Thames from London. The food there was wheat- 
meal bread made with a liberal scattering of raisins, 
and fruit and vegetables raised on the grounds attached 
to Alcott House, and in production of which the mem- 
bers of the Concordium found agreeable exercise, under 
the direction of an experienced horticulturist and vege- 
tarian named Scott* 



70 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Here, in addition to the esthetic teaching of James 
Pierrepont Greaves' System and Philosophy, the art 
of raising strawberries, cherries, apples, pears and plums 
was taught by a most competent and skillful master. He 
also obtained some knowledge of printing and the pub- 
lishing business, as the community issued a periodical 
called The New Age. It was a vegetarian commun- 
ity and living there confirmed him in vegetarian habits, 
which he had conunenced at the age of nine years- 
While there he found time to write articles which were 
printed in The New Age and The Concordium Gazette. 
The first of these appeared in the number for November, 
1844, being an account of the Phonographic Corre- 
spondence Society, and must have been written at the age 
of sixteen. 

The Concordium was started early in 1841, and its 
leading founders were James Pierrepont Greaves, Henry 
Gkirdner Wright, Charles Land and William Oldham. 
The house was named Alcott House because of Gxeaves's 
friendship with Bronson Alc6tt. It was an attempt to 
realize the beautiful ideal of presenting the right "love 
conditions/' so that the spirit of love or of Christ could 
operate and effect its beneficent purposes in the regen- 
eration of the race. Greaves was a friend and congenial 
co-operator with Pestalozzi, the great promoter of infant 
education, by whom the kindergarten system, now so 
extensively taught, was first promulgated. Greaves had 
departed this life a few years before Mr. Clubb had 
entered the school. 



THE MINISTERS 71 

Tho Conoordinm might have become a most valuable 
educational institution if suitable teachers oould have 
been obtained, but the conditions, requiring teachers to 
labor without salary, did not produce the desired results, 
and the Concordium, after a few years of somewhat 
precarious existence, became only a memory of which 
even history has made but little record. (An article on 
Becollections of the Concordium and Alcott House was 
written by Mr. Olubb for the Herald of Health, 
London, England, June, July and August 1906.) 

Bobert Aitkin, who was the baker at the Concordium, 
was one of the few whom Mr. Clubb met in later years 
who had remained true to his principles; he had be- 
come an Elder of a family of Shakers at EnjGleld, Conn. 
Mr. Clubb, after his arrival in the United States, was 
invited to visit this Shaker Community, which. he did 
on several occasions, enjoying the spiritual atmosphere 
of these kindly people. 

The Concordium experiment, like that of the Brook 
Farm Association which started in New England about 
the same time, although failing financially was, so far 
as combining healthful out-of-door exercise with the 
intellectual instruction and a simple diet, eminently 
successful in promoting the physical and mental health 
of all engaged, as they lived long, healthful and use- 
ful lives. 

The short time that Mr. Clubb spent at Ham Coimnon 
made a lasting impression on him, and it wb3 al- 
ways brought to his mind when hearing the old 



78 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

song, commencing: "Oh come, come away from labor 
now reposing," which was sung as a "grace before meals" 
by the children. 

The chief pursuit in which Mr. Clubb delighted 
was reporting in shorthand. Phonography waa just 
then becoming known as the best system of shorthand, 
and Isaac Pitman became noted as its inventor and pro- 
moter. Mr. Clubb became a correspondent in phonog- 
raphy with Isaac Pitman. The first letter he wrote 
to him in shorthand he also wrote in long hand, mistrust- 
ing his own knowledge of the art, but Isaac Pitman 
wrote to him that he need never do that again, aa his 
phonetic writing was perfectly intelligible. 

At this time phonography and the spelling reform 
became the basis of a public movement. Isaac, Joseph 
and Benn Pitman delivered lectures expounding the 
science, and banquets were held at Ipswich and other 
places. A society was organized in Colchester by Mr. 
Clubb, consisting of learners and classes for the study 
of phonography. It was lecturing and teaching phonog- 
raphy which led Mr. Clubb, when but a boy in his teens, 
to public speaking. An engagement in his native town 
as a teacher of phonography to the pupils of a large 
grammar and commercial school was the result. He 
later became assistant to Mr. Johnson of London as 
shorthand reporter, whose chief business was taking 
verbatim reports of meetings in Exeter and other public 
halls. He made reporting his profession, which he 
found more remunerative than any previous occupation. 



THE MINISTERS 7S 

As a result of his writings in the Concordium Gar 
zette Mr. Clubb^s articles on vegetarianism were sought 
for, and they appeared in the Truth Tester, afterwards 
the Vegetarian Advocate, both as editorials and contri- 
butions; they also attracted the attention of James 
Simpson, the President of the Vegetarian Society, 
founded in 1847. His address was obtained from the 
editor, and a correspondence ensued which resulted in 
Mr. Clubb's engagement by Mr. Simpson in the literary 
work of the movement. 

The first banquet of the Society took place at Hay- 
ward's Hotel, Manchester, July 28, 1846. The report 
of the banquet was among Mr. Clubb's first literary 
efforts for the then new Vegetarian Society, and he 
wrote an account of the banquet for the readers of the 
Vegetarian Advocate in a most attractive style. In 
fact it was an event at which all vegetarians naturally 
felt elated, as nothing had ever happened so well cal- 
culated to bring vegetarianism into public notice. It 
was also well reported in the Manchester papers, and 
no expense wajs spared by Mr. Simpson to make this 
event productive of abundant fruit in the vegetarian 
vineyard. So the report of it was disseminated quite 
extensively. Much could be quoted from this report 
which would be valuable even now in the promulgation 
of the vegetarian principles. The subject of this sketch, 
although but twenty years of age, laid down his re- 
porter's pencil and made his little speech, which was 
well received. He spoke of the advantages children 
raised on a vegetarian diet would have over those living 



74 BIBLE-<:HRISTIAN CHURCH 

on tlie flesh of animals in having their passions in 
subjection and consequently better able to acquire 
sciences and arts, and he predicted that when vege- 
tarianism became generally adopted, instead of having 
a Shakespeare in one age, a ITewton and Milton, and 
a Pope and a Franklin in another, almost every parish 
would have its poet, philosopher and inventor doing 
their part to elevate, refine and bless mankind. 

Mr. Clubb was engaged by Mr. Simpson to edit the 
Vegetarian Messenger when started by the Vegetarian 
Society in 1847, and the magazine still keeps at the top 
of the title-page this motto by Pythagoras selected 
by him: 

"Fix upon that course of life which is best. 
Custom will render it most delightful." 

The work went on, Mr. Clubb lecturing in and 
around Manchester and in his own native county of 
Essex until the Second Annual Meeting of the V^e- 
tarian Society, which was held at the Town Hall, Man- 
chester, July 12, 1849, where another banquet was 
served in a somewhat similar style to that of 1848, but 
more especially under the management of the Society, 
Mr. Simpson, the President of the Society, presiding. 

The Vegetarian Messenger contained Mr. Clubb's 
report of this banquet in its first issue. This was 
followed by his two lectures on the vegetarian principle 
which were subsequently translated into German and 
circulated at Berlin, laying the foundation of the 
vegetarian movement in Germany, where so much 



THE MINISTERS 75 

hsis been axxsompliahad in the establishment of vege- 
tarian restaurants. 

After continuing the ^work in Eiigland in connection 
with the Vegetarian Society until 1853, Mr. Clubb 
emigrated to the United States and attended the Fourth 
Annual Meeting and Festival of the American V^e- 
tarian Society, August 24, 1853, at the Bible-Christian 
Church, Third Street, Philadelphia, and in conjunc- 
tion with a committee for the purpose compiled an 
address " To the People of the United States." The 
cholera was then raging in many of the cities, and that 
became the foundation reason of the address to the 
public, as Mr. Clubb stated at the banquet that in no 
instance had a vegetarian died of cholera in England. 

A record in the Bible of Edmund Brooks informs us 
that Henry S. Clubb commented (^^ commenting " is 
Brooks's word for pr:eaching, for he applies it tb both 
the Metcalf es) on Isaiah XI, in the church on Christmas 
Day, 1853. Another record introduces him as preach- 
ing therein once more on Acts X, July 4, 1862. 

Mr. Clubb was at this time one of the reportorial 
staff of the New York Tribune when Horace Greeley, 
Charles A. Dana and George Bipley were in their most 
active years as editors of that great newspaper. When 
Mr. Clubb first came to America he applied to Horace 
Greeley for a position on the staff of the Tribune. 
Speaking of his reception he said: "I remember well 
how Mr. Greeley took me to Mr. Otterman, who was 
then city editor of the Tribune and said : This is Mr, 



76 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Clubb, a friend of mine. See that he has something to 
do.' After that Mr. Greeley and I were warm friends." 

He subsequently was engaged as Congressional re- 
porter for the Washington Union the organ of the 
Pierce administration. This brought him into politics, 
as he was in Congress during the long session of 1853^ 
1854 in which the Kansas-Nebraska Bill was discussed 
and the Missouri Compromise repealed* 

The discovery in the Union office that he was in- 
timate with Gerritt Smith, Joshua R. Giddings and 
other leading abolitionists, prevented his engagement 
for the U^ion the next term of Congress, the feeling 
against abolitionists being exceedingly bitter in the 
office of the Union. This was especially shown by 
the striking out from Mr. Clubb's daily reports of re- 
marks made by Gerritt Smith or Mr. Giddings, even 
when those remarks were necessary to a correct under- 
standing of the report. 

Mr. Clubb's release from the Congressionxd labors 
enabled him to resume his position on the New York 
Tribune. The Kansas agitation in Congress having 
given him some good opportunities to become ac- 
quainted with Kansas affairs, he was entrusteld by 
Horace Greeley to write a History of Kansas for th© 
Tribune Almwruic, 

Mr. Clubb was married, November 15, 1855, to 
Miss Anne Barbara Henderson of Allegan, Michigan, 
having become acquainted through the temperance 
question, Som^e of Miss Henderson's articlea on the 



THE MINISTERS 77 

position of Michigan on Temperance are included in 
The History of the Maine Liquor Lam, which Mr, Clubb 
published in 1856. This book gives the life of Neal Dow 
and contains portraits of Neal Dow, Qerritt SmithI, 
Horace Greeley, John Pierpont, Henry Ward Beecher, 
Lyman Beecher and Lucretia Mott, all temper- 
ance advocates. 

In 1855, The Philosophy of Sacred History Con- 
sidered in Relation to Hwnum Ailment and the Wines 
of Scripture by Sylvester Graham^ was edited by 
Mr. Clubb. 

In 1855, he published a Vegetarian Almanac which 
contains an article by Eev. William Metcalfe on the 
" First Arrival of Vegetarians in the United States," 
an account of William A Aloott, M. D., the President 
of the American Vegetarian Society, a v^etarian story 
by himself entitled "Alice, or the Lost Child." A 
list of anniversaries and chronology o£ reforms and a 
plan of the Vegetarian Kansas Emigration Company. 

After a trip to Columbia, S. C, Mr. and Mrs. Clubb 
lived for a while in New York City. On their way 
from the south they stopped at Washington, D. C, 
and at Philadelphia, and while in Philadelphia visited 
the Bible Christians. 

His interest in antislavery led Mr. Clubb to organ- 
ize a small company who, with himself and wife, emi- 
grated to Kansas in the spring of 1856, and they passed 
through a good part of the struggle for freedom in that 
territory. The object Mr. Clubb had in view was to 



78 BIBMM^HRISTIAN CHURCH 

start a vegetarian colony there. They csamped on the 
banks of the ITeosho River until a flood caime and 
compelled them to get further inland. Made wiser by 
this experienoe they selected a site on a hill top. An 
old Indian log cabin was selected by Mr. Clubb and 
hiawife. However the fever from exposure to malaria 
brought him down and he was taken out from Kansas 
to a Chicago water-cure by his wife, where he was skill- 
fully treated and gradually recovered. 

Many were the experiences encountered while in 
Eansasy and he and Mrs. Clubb could relate thrilling 
tales of their life thera At one time Mrs. Clubb found 
a live rattle-snake as a bed-fellow in the log cabin, and 
Mr. Clubb was held up by Border Ruffians on his way 
home from Fort Scott 

After recovery he settled in Grand Haven, Mich- 
igan, and in 1857 started the Clarion, the first Repub- 
lican newspaper in Ottawa Co., Michigan, a very fine 
political as well as literary paper, which was widely 
quoted. He succeeded in transforming a Demo- 
cratic strougihold into a staunch Republican county. 
He was one of the most active men of western Michr 
igan in those days and was interested in a number of 
pioneer enterprises. 

Mr. Clubb attended the Oreat ITational Republican 
Convention held at the Monster Wigwam at Chicago, 
May 16, 1860, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for 
President of the United States. 



THE MINISTERS 79 

The Civil War, 186M865, deprived him of aU 
assistants in the printing business, as all his printers 
joined the army, end during the early days of the war, 
Mrs. Clubb edited the Clarion. She afterwards fol- 
lowed her husband to the south and was there through 
much of the civil strife. 

In 1862, he received a commision from Abraham 
Lincoln as Asst. Quartermaster with the rank of Cap- 
tain. He did not seek this position, but as it was offered 
in all friendship and seemed of a less belligerent char- 
acter than that of a line officer, he accepted it and served 
in the volunteer army from June, 1862, until April,1866. 
He occupied the position of aide-de-camp to Brigadier 
General ITapoleon Buf ord during the battle of Corinth ; 
was wounded in the side at that battle, granted leave of 
absence for recovery and returned after three months. 
The General remarked that Capt. Clubb appeared to be 
bullet-proof, as the ball did not enter far, but it was be- 
cause a pocket book with $2,000 of Government funds 
intercepted it and undoubtedly saved his life. (The 
wallet which contained this money was placed by Mr. 
Clubb in the Military Museum in the State Capitol, Lan- 
sing, Michigan.) 

He joined Grant's Army at Grand Junction, in the 
spring of 1863, and participated in both the Vicksburg 
campaigns, the second siege being sucoessfuL During 
the siege he had charge of Biver transportation and had 
the pleasure of furnishing transportation to his old 



80 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

friend Dana, who had then become Assistant Secretary 
of Wax. 

He was stationed in Vicksburg during the sununer 
and winter of 1863-1864 and in the fall of '64 waa 
ordered to report to Gen. Sherman at Savannah. The 
journey around from Vicksburg to New York and along 
the coast to Savannah was quite a long one. Oen. 
Sherman had left that city when he arrived. He then 
had to watch for Sherman to make his appearance at an 
accessible point. He stayed some time at Charleston, 
which had been evacuated and was now in great danger 
of destruction, as it had been set on fire by the retreating 
secessionists. However, the blue-coats kept the fire 
within certain limits, chiefly to the cotton warehouses 
and railroad stations, where cotton was stored, and 
saved the city from entire destruction. It presented a 
dilapidated appearance, and cows were feeding amid the 
ruins of Secession Hall. 

James Redpath was at Charleston and organized 
colored schools. A procession was formed of the colored 
schools and Capt. Clubb acted as marshal. The 
procession sang the John Brown song, ^^Marching On,'* 
through the streets of Charleston. 

Capt. Clubb eventually reported to Gen. Sherman 
at Baleigh, N. C, and was assigned to duty as acting 
Quartermaster of the 17th Army Corps, under com- 
mand of Gen. Frank Blair. This position he held 
until the corps was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
after the dose of the war. 



THE MINISTERS 81 

He was then returned to Washington and ordered 
to report to Gen. Sheridan at New Orleans, by whom 
he was assigned to duty at San Antonio, Texas, where 
he remained, using the old Alama for storage purposes, 
imtil mustered out in April, 1866. 

On settling his accounts with the Quartermaster's 
Department he received a highly complimentary letter 
from Quartermaster General Meigs, and in settlement 
with the United States Treasury after a four years' 
examination of his accounts, his balance last reported 
on monthly statements was adopted as correct, and no 
attorney had to be employed to effect a settlement. 

In 1869, he founded the Grand Haven Herald, 
at Grand Haven, Michigan, which vigorously advocated 
the election of T. White Ferry as United States Sena- 
tor. It also published information in regard to fruit 
culture which led to the foundation of the State Pomo- 
logical Society, the charter of which he drew up and 
pushed through the Legislature, securing state aid in 
the publication of its reports, amounting to about 
$6,000 a year. 

The result was the holding of fruit fairs. The 
organization, with the State Pomological Society, held 
the largest fair ever held in Michigan, there being as 
many as 40,000 people at a time on the grounds near 
Grand Rapids. 

In 1871, he was elected State Senator, resigning 
the office of alderman to accept it ; he was also secretary 



82 biblek:hristian church 

of the Constitutional Convention, in which position he 
further promoted the fruit interests of Michigan. 

In 1876, having disposed of his printing business, 
he visited the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, 
representing several prominent newspapers in Michigan. 
This brought him into contact with the Bible-Christian 
Church again, and being invited to conduct its services, 
he was called to continue there as its pastor, which posi- 
tion he has held ever since. 

In 1886-1887 an attempt wasi made to renew the 
Vegetarian Society which during the war had ceased 
to exist. These e£Forts led to the organization of the 
Vegetarian Society of America in 1886. In June, 
1887, its first anniversary was held at Alnwick Park, 
where there was a picnic of one hundred and twenty 
five persons. Mr. dubb was elected President of the 
Society. In 1888, the Vegetarian made its appear- 
ance under his management, but the difficulty of obtain- 
ing the postal privileges led to its abandonment, and in 
1889, the Food, Home & Oarden, a more popular title, 
was established and through many vicissitudes was con- 
tinued until Januairy, 1900, a period much longer than 
any periodical devoted to Vegetarianism had ever before 
been maintained in America. 

In 1898, Mr. Clubb attended the Vegetarian Con- 
gress in connection with the World's Fair at Chicago. 
Delegates from all over the world were present. 

The year 1901 being the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of Mr. Clubb's ministry in the Philadelphia Bible- 



THE MDHSTERS 83 

Christian Church, the members subscribed for the neces- 
sary expenses of a trip to England by himself and 
daughter Martha. Rev. James Clark, minister of the 
Salf ord Bible-Christian Church had been very desirous 
of this visit. 

On August 11, 1901, before setting sail on the 
Campavda, the vegetarian friends in New York ar- 
ranged a luncheon at the Universal Food Company's 
Office, for Mr. Clubb and friends who had come from 
Philadelphia to see him off. On arriving at Liverpool 
Mr. Clark and a number of vegetarians from Man- 
chester were at the wharf to welcome him to England, 
and a reception and lunch were held at Chapman's 
Vegetarian Restaurant. 

After a few days rest in Liverpool with relatives 
Mr. Clubb and daughter were conducted to Salford, 
Manchester, the home of Mr. Clark and the location of 
of the Bible-Christian Church. Their first stay in Sal- 
ford was with Mr. Clark and daughter Bertha and after- 
wards at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Tongue at Da Vinci 
House, Ecdes. A number of parties and receptions 
were given by different members of the Bible-Christian 
Church — ^Mr. Clark, Mr. Tongue, Mr. Axon, Mr. 
Harrison and Mr. Bradley, all doing their best to enter- 
tain Mr. Clubb and his daughter. On September 9th, 
Mr. Clubb accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Broadbent on a 
trip to Scotland to attend the Glasgow Exhibition in 
connection with which was held a Peace Congress 



84 BIBLE-OHRISTIAN CHURCH 

and also a Vegetarian Congress, and they participated 
in the meetings. 

A programme had been previously arranged for Mr. 
Clubb's reception, and on his return from Scotland, he 
proceeded to London where the London Vegetarian So- 
ciety entertained him. A dinner was held at the Vic- 
toria Vegetarian Restaurant, which was conducted by 
Mr. Hills in very elaborate style. Mrs. Leigh Hunt 
Wallace was tiiere and made a speech, also Mr. Forward, 
and Mr. Clubb responded. A meeting was held at 
Memorial Hall, Farrington Street, after the dinner. 

Mr. Clubb and daughter visited relatives at Not- 
tingham, but the time being limited he was prevented 
from seeing again his native town of Colchester. This 
was his only visit to England since coming to the United 
States in 1853. 

September 28, 1901, the homeward trip was taken 
in the steamer Umbria and the Rev. James Clark and 
daughter Bertha returned with them to Philadelphia. 
On arriving home in Frankf ord, Sunday evening, Octo- 
ber 6th, a reception was given by Mr. and Mrs. Wm. M. 
Horrocks at their home, where the Clarks were enter- 
tained during their visit here. 

In 1904, Mr. Clubb attended the Vegetarian Con- 
vention in connection with the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. Louis, Mo. 

On November 15, 1905, the Golden Wedding of Mr. 
and Mrs. Clubb was celebrated in the evening at their 



THE MINISTERS 85 

home. The church presented them with fifty gold dol- 
lars. There were over fifty persons present, members 
of the Church and friends, some' coming from New York. 

May 21, 1915, Mrs. ClubVs death occurred after 
she had been an invalid for several years, owing to the 
effect of a fall when her hip was broken. She was 
eighty-two years of age. She was bom at Thurso, Scot- 
land, coming to America in 1834 with her parents, Mr. 
and Mrs. James D. Henderson, and settling in that early 
period in Allegan, Michigan. 

When the Bible-Christian Church edifice, located on 
Park Avenue below Berks Street, was sold in 1916, Mr, 
Clubb was becoming too feeble to continue conducting 
services at that distance from his home, and since that 
time meetings have been held at his residence in Prank- 
ford. He, however, since March, 1917, has not felt 
capable of discoursing. His last sermon was de- 
livered Sunday, February 25, 1917, the subject of 
which was "Q-eorge Washington," the text taken from 
Isaiah, XXXV :1. 

One of his friends in the vegetarian cause, William 
E. A. Axon, of Manchester, England, when visiting this 
country as delegate from the Vegetarian Society to the 
St. Louis Exposition in September, 1904, went on a trip 
to Atlantic City in company with Mr. Clubb and others, 
on which occasion he wrote the following little poem 
and presented it to Mr, Clubb. 



86 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

"To his Friend Henry, S. Cluhh : 

Blessed are the young in heart. 
Life Eternal is their part ; 
In the life that is they see 
The glory of the life to be." 

Mr. Clubb's ninety-fourth birthday anniversary, on 
June 21, 1921, was observed as usual by friends calling 
upon him, especially the children of the neighborhood, 
to whom he seems, as the editor of the Frcvnkford 
Oazette said, in an account published of one of his birth- 
days, 'Qike good old Santa Claus all the year around." 

On Saturday morning, October 29, 1921, Mr. Clubb 
"passed on" to the spiritual life. He was taken sick on 
September 5th with severe chills and fever. He lost 
all appetite for any kind of food and gradually became 
weaker until the end. He seemed to realize throughout 
his sickness that he would not recover and remarked 
several times that he was dying. All summer, although 
able to enjoy little walks with the help of his cane and 
one of his daughters accompanying him, he tired easily 
and it was noticed that his strength was failing. 

Miss Helen M. Rowland, of Frankford, a warm 
friend of Mr. Clubb, was visiting his old home town in 
Colchester, England, while he was nearing his end, and 
she s^it him many postcards and photographs of old 
familiar places there which he much enjoyed. 

The Frankford Gazette, the Grand Haven Courier' 
Journal, the Philadelphia daily papers, the Vegetarian 
Messenger, of Manchester, England, and the West 



THE MINISTERS 87 

Suffolk Gazeiie published good accounts of his life and 
a number included his picture in mentioning his deaih. 
Quotations are taken from these. 

Extract from the Frankford Gazette : 

On Tuesday afternoon (November 2) that grand old 
man of Northwood, Eev, Henry S. Clubb, was laid to rest 
in Oakland Cemetery alongside of his dear wife, who pre- 
ceded him to that eternal rest some years ago. 

He had reached that good old age of 94 years, esteemed 
and loved by all who knew him, because of his unblemished 
character and his pleasant, genial manner to all. To the 
children of the neighborhood, by reason of his snowy white 
hair and flowing beard, he was their Santa Glaus all the 
year round, always beaming with smiles and loving to chat 
with them. Their floral offering to their dear old friend 
on the day of the funeral was a beautiful basket of roses 
and chrysanthemums. He loved nature, the trees and 
beautiful flowers, and was always delighted to take walks. 
He believed that the Boulevard and the streets of Frank- 
ford should be lined with fruit trees bearing fruit for 
everybody, as well as giving shade. 

His funeral was largely attended and as his sweet, peace- 
ful face lay amidst a great bank of roses, chrysanthemums 
and other autumn flowers, Eev. John B. Laird, of the Prank- 
ford Presbyterian Churdi, who knew him well, paid him 
one of the finest tributes that could be bestowed on man. 
Very truly a bright light has gone out of the community. 

From the Gov/rier^oumal, Grand Haven, Michigan : 

Word has been received in this city of the death in 
Philadelphia, Saturday morning, October 29th, of the 
Eev. Henry S. Clubb. Mr. Clubb was a pioneer publisher 
of Orand Haven and was yery prominent in the early days 



88 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

of Grand Haven as a municipality, being a member of 
the first city council and taking a leading part in the 
making of the city^s first charter. 

He took a great interest in horticultural and agricul- 
tural subjects, and it was largely through his efforts and 
editorial expression that the Grand Haven region became 
famous as a peach-growing section for several years. 

Mr. Clubb visited Grand Haven many times after 
leaving the city. Despite his advanced age, he was bright 
and active up to his last illness in September. 

The death of Henry S. Clubb marks the passing of a 
man who contributed his share to the making of Grand 
Haven, and his love and regard for the town was unshaken 
despite the nearly half-century of residence elsewhere. 

The Philadelphia Record: 

He was a well-known figure about Frankf ord for years, 
with his white, flowing beard and sturdy appearance, and 
always attributed his good health and long life to the 
vegetarian diet. 

The Vegetarian Messenger , Manchester, England: 

Mr. Clubb was a Vice-president of the Vegetarian 
Society (Manchester) and probably the last survivor of 
those who formed the Society in 1847. 

It was in 1853 that he emigrated to America, and 
there, as journalist and speaker, took part in the anti- 
slavery agitation. So annoyed were the slave owners with 
one series of his articles that a reward was offered for 
his capture. 

Mr. Clubb paid a visit to England in 1901, and vege- 
tarians who had known him by name for many years had 
the pleasure of meeting a veteran who retained to an 
advanced age enthusiasm and hopefulness and energy. 



THE MINISTERS 89 

Throughout his long career in America Mr. Clubb was 
ever to the fore in vegetarian propaganda. He was 
President of the Vegetarian Society of America; he was 
largely responsible for the success of the International 
Conference of Vegetarians at the Chicago World's Fair in 
1893^ and his pen and his editorial idkill were ever at the 
service of the cause. He was a good speaker, and his 
physical appearance was eloquent of the advantages of hiis 
diet, for he was, a handsome old man with ruddy cheeks, 
and a ma^ of white hair. 

The West Suffolk Gazette, England : 

Death of an Old Colchestrian 

Rev. Henry S. Clubb 

A Soldier who never carried arms. 

One of the very oldest natives of Colchester, Rev. Henry 

S. Clubb, has passed away at Frankford, Philadelphia, 

IT. S. A., at the age of 94. 

An extraordinary feature of his military career, which 
was an extended one, was the fact that while he was in 
the thick of the battles (in the Civil War) and had many 
narrow escapes, he never carried arms even for self defence, 
being conscientiously opposed to their use as a means of 
protection even in periods of greatest danger. Perhaps 
as a soldier this renders his career unique in the history 
of the world. 



CHAPTER V 
THE DEACONS 

AxTHouaH the By-laws adopted at the time of the 
incorporation of the Church in April, 1830, provided 
for the election of three Deacons annually the records 
show the names of but two Deacons for each of the years 
1828-1829-1880 and 1831. 

The duties assigned to them cover matters of dis- 
cipline eta^visiting members who fail to attend services 
four successive Sabbaths, ascertaining the cause of 
absence, "relieving the sick and needy," "distributing 
the elem^ents at the Sacrament," "collecting the free wiU 
offerings of the Congregation," and reporting their pro- 
ceedings to the Minister and Trustees of the ChurcU 
once a quarter, and yearly to the Annual Meeting. 

From 1882 to 1849 inclusive, there were three mem- 
bers elected annually, and an article in the By-laws gives 
female members of eighteen years of age the privilege 
of voting in the election of Deacons. 

No person was qualified to serve as Deacon unless 
he had been a member of the Church two years, and was 
twenty-five years of age. 

The first recorded report of the Deacons to the 
Annual Church Meeting was made May 27, 1844, by 
Jonathan Wright who reported verbally that "nothing 
particular had occurred in the discharge of their duties 
the past year." 

90 



THE DEACONS 91 

Verbal reports oiJy, appear to have been made for 
the years 1844-1845 and 1846. A written report pre- 
sented to the Annual Meeting in 1847 refers to the death 
of one male member seventy years of age and the addi* 
tion of two female members, and written reports for 1848 
and 1849 refer to the death of two adult members and 
the admission of one new member. A revision of the 
Rules and Begnlations provided for the election of four 
Deacons, instead of three, at the Annual Meeting in 
1850, and the report for that year shows sevi&n new 
members and also three members from the Church in 
England added to the list, similar reports for the years 
1851-1852 and 1853 show slight changes in the member- 
ship (four deaths, three new members admitted), and 
refer to the attendance of members and visitors at the 
services as being better than formerly. 

In 1854 the question as to administering the 
Sacrament to children and strangers arose, and was 
referred by the Deacons to a Committee of the Church, 
and a report on the subject was rendered and approved 
by the Church as follows: 

1st — It is in strict accordance with Scripture and with 
a rational exposition of the Sacramental ordinance to 
suffer little children to partake of the Holy Supper with 
their parents or guardians. 

2nd — It is in accordance with the Conmmnion ritual 
and with Scriptures for the Sacrament to be administered 
to all who desire to receive it, though they be not members 
of this Church. 



98 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

^ 3rd — Can we for moral or religious delinquencies cut 
off an erring member? If we can, has it ever been done? 
See new Rules and Regulations of Church Qovemment 
which cover this, and which were adopted after the question 
arose and which state : Sec. 5, Art. 2, ''The Deacons shall 
distribute the Sacramental elements to all who remain, 
and desire to receive the same.'' 

For the years 1855-1856 and 1857, the Deacons' 
Annual Reports refer to a great '^falling off" in attend- 
ance at the Church services, only about one-half the 
average number for a period of several years past being 
present. The regular minister, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, was 
t^nporaxily officiating at the Bible-Christian Church in 
Salford, England, a portion of this time, the Rev. Jos. 
Wright acting in his absence. 

From 1858 to 1863 the annual reports indicate a 
revival of interest in Church affairs, with an improve- 
ment in attendance, the regular services showing about 
fifty to sixty, and the Communion, forty to fifty per- 
sons present. 

I^umerous social meetings were held, and bi- 
monthly, ^^tea-meetings" were inaugurated. Resolutions 
in favor of the "Abolition of Slavery'* were offered and 
adopted, and the giving of money for the purchase of 
slaves' freedom was recomjnended. Special reference 
is made to the death of the minister, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, 
which occurred in 1863. 

An encouraging increase in attendance is mentioned 
for the period 1865 to 1867 and an improved interest 
manifested in Churcb affairs both by members 
and friends.. 



THE DEACONS 9S 

Upon the death of Bev. Joseph Metcalfe, in 1867, the 
Board of Deacons was authorized by the Churdh to per- 
form the ^^rite" of ordination, and in view of this power, 
which was unanimously conferred at the Semi-annual 
Meeting, December 26, 1867, Dr. Wm. Taylor was for- 
mally ordained as Minister, by the senior Deacon, 
Elijah Bothwell. 

The Deacons' report for 1867 gives the average numr 
ber attending services as eighty, including members and 
non-members, and was about the maximum reached up 
to that time. In 1868 an attempt to provide a future 
"pulpit supply was made by the deacons selecting two 
of the minor male members to receive instruction from 
the newly installed pastor, Dr. Taylor, with a view to 
participating in the ministerial work of the Church, but 
after a few months' existence, the enterprise 
waa discontinued. 

A summary of the records from 1869 to 1875 indi- 
cates a mixed or varying sentiment of chieerfulnesa 
and depression. 

The forty years' existence since incorporation had 
witnessed the passing on of many of the old and original 
members — their deaths had been dhronided in the 
annual reports of the deacons, though frequently with- 
out mention of names, that feature being usually 
incorporated in the ministers' reports. The ending of 
the War of the Bebellion appeared to create new customs 
and habits, and changes occurred in neighborhoods as 
well as in people. 



94 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

It "WBafor many years customary to elect and re-eleet 
the older members to the position of deacon. Jonathan 
Wright, John Chorlton^ William: Lever, Edward Lyons, 
John Best, Elijah Bothwell, James Wright, Edmmid 
Brooks, James Eorrocks, all at various times prominent 
members of the Board of Deacons, and most of whom 
died during the decade 1865 to 1S75, were all ^^gentle- 
men of the old schooV sincerely interested in and de- 
voted to the welfare of the Church and its doctrines. , 

The Board, at the time Dr. Taylor was installed 
as minister, in 1868, consisted of Elijah Bothwell, 
Edmund Brooks, James Wright and James Horrocks. 

No Deacons' reports appear in the records for 1870- 
1871-1872-1873-1874 or 1875. 

At the Semi-annual Meeting, December 29, 1872, 
Dr. Taylor presented his resignation as minister, to 
take effect April 1, 1873, which was accepted. The 
Board at this time consisted of Edmund Brooks, James 
Horrocks, Wm. Cariss, Sr., and Emanuel Hey. 

At a special Church Meeting on April 6, 1873, called 
^'to consider the present condition of the Church and thia 
vacancy in the pastorate" it was, on motion of Henry M. 
Taylor, decided, "that the position of the minister be 
vested in a reader'^, and William Cariss, Sr., was chosen 
for the position, and at a special meeting, April 28, 
1873, it was decided that the Sacramental service 
should be continued by the deacons. 

On April 4, 1875, the deacons were authorized to 
^'correspond with Mr. Clubb in regard to the proposi- 



THE DEACONS 95 

tion of his accepting the ministry of the Ohuich." The 
Board at this, date consisted of Edmund Brooks, Wm. 
Carissy Sr., Emanuel Hey and Charles F. Eoenig. 

No Deacons' report appears for 1876 but the result 
of their correspondence with Mr. Clubb appears in the 
minutes of the Whitmonday meeting in the information 
given that its proceedings were conducted by Henry S» 
Clubb, with whom a temporary arrangement had been 
made to serve as minister. 

The Deacons' report for 1878 refers to the fact that 
threescore years have passed since the advent of fhe 
Church, and expresses the belief that its views on relig- 
ious subjects are being taken up by other churches. 

The report for 1880 makes reference to the death 
of James Horrocks^ James Cunliffe (a former deacon) 
and Miss Annie Clubb, daughter of our noinister. 

The Board of Deacons elected in 1885, consisted 
of WuL Cariss, Sr., Henry M. Taylor, Charles F. 
Eoenig and Wm. M. Horrocks. Their report in 1886 
refers to the death of John Gait, ''an old friend and 
regular attendant at Church services for many years." 

Average attendance at Communion was eighteen 
adults and elev^ children. 

The report for 1887 refers to the great loss to the 
Church and Sunday School during the past year, in the 
death of Miss Mary Ann Horrocks and Wm. C. Brooks, 
both life-long and active members; and that for 1888 
to the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, a life-long mem- 
ber, baptized by Bev. Joseph Brotherton in the Salf ord 
Church, England, James J. Horrocks, son of James and 



96 BIBLEr<!HRISTIAN CHURCH 

Eliza HorrockB and grandson of the founder of the 
Church, in his fortieth year, and Joseph W. Wright, 
infant son of George W. and SaraJh M. Wright. 

Mention is also made that March 11, 1888, was the 
one-hundredth anniverary of Bev. Wm. Metealf e's birtL 

The last regular Church service and Communion in 
the Third Street church waa held on March 2, 1890, the 
Board of Deacons on that date consisting of Wm. Cariss, 
Sr., Charles F. Eoenig, Henry M. Taylor, and Whl 
M. Horrocks. 

Services were held in a room on the second floor of 
Columbia hall, Columbia Avenue and Ontario Street, 
remaining Sundays in March, 1890, after which, upon 
the invitation of senior Deacon Wm. Cariss, services 
were held at his residence, 1537 Park Avenue, and so 
continued until April 12, 1891, when the new church 
building on Park Avenue below Berks Street was 
completed and occupied. 

The Deacons' report to the Annual Whitmonday 
Meeting, May 18, 1891, the first in the Park Avenue 
church, in referring to the Dedication services, expresses 
the opinion that ^^the old creeds and landmarks of the va- 
rious church denominations are being relaxed, division 
giving place to unity, and complicated theology to 
simple faith and forms of worship, and approves the 
sentiment expressed by Eev. Chauncey Giles (Sweden- 
borgian) that the church should be the home, the place 
of refuge, the sanctuary for the weary and heavy laden." 



THE DEACONS 97 

The report for 1892 refers to the death of Emanuel 
Hey, an old and formerly active member. 

In the proceedings ^f the meeting Whitmonday, 
May 22, 1898, reference is made to ^^he departure for 
the spiritual world of Mrs. Eliza Horrodks, whiich 
occurred September 18, 1892. She was the wife of 
James Horrocks, a daughter of the Eev. Wm. Metcalfe 
and held in deep affection by all who had ever come 
under her delightful influence." 

At the Whitmonday Meeting, June 8, 1895, the 
Minister's and Deacons' reports refer to the death of 
the oldest member, Mrs. Elizabeth Metcalfe, widow of 
Eev. Joseph Metcalfe, which occurred during the past 
year. She was in her eighty-third year and was received 
into the Philadelphia Church from the Salford Church 
in 1828. 

The average attendance at Church services is given 
as twenty-one out of a total membership of fifty. 

Verbal reports by Charles P. Koenig on behalf of 
the Board of Deacons were made for the years 1896- 
1897-1898-1899 and 1900. 

The Minister's report for 1900 makes special refer- 
ence to the death of the senior Deacon, William Cariss, 
who had just entered his seventy-ninth year; '^ was 
received into the Church November 18, 1821, married 
Isabella, the youngest daughter of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, 
and was a Trustee forty-four years. Deacon twenty-nine 
years, Sunday-school Superintendent fifteen years, con* 
stant and faithful." 



98 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

At the Annual Meetings May 27, 1901, Wm. M. 
Horrocks, Charles F. Koenig, Edwin P. Metcalfe and 
George W. Wright were elected deacons. 

A revision of the Church Charter, and also the Rules 
and Regulations was arranged by a Committee 
appointed for that purpose during 1901, and formally 
approved at the Semi-annual Meeting held on Wednes- 
day evening January 8, 1902. The revised Charts 
was approved by the Court, January 7, 1908. 

In accordance with action taken at the semi-Annual 
Meeting January 8, 1902, a list of thirty-five names was 
approved by the minister and Board of Deacons as con- 
stituting the membership at that time. 

At the Annual Meeting Whitmonday, May 19, 1902, 
Mr. Koenig, for the Deacons, made a verbal report in 
which he referred to the death of Mrs. Isabella Cariss, 
one of the staunchest and most faithful of Bible 
Christians, stating it was interesting to hear from her 
lips the history of the early struggles of the Church; 
she and Mrs. Elizabeth Metcalfe were contemporary 
with the beginnings of the Church and both were good 
historians. He also referred to the visit of Rev. James 
Clark, of the English Church, as being productive of 
pleasure, and had no doubt it would be beneficial to 
both Churches. 

On Whitmonday, 1903, Mr, Koenig, for the Dea- 
cons, stated that the doctrines and principles of our 
Church were spreading, independently of the efforts of 
our members. He also referred to the "death of Henry 



THE DEACONS 99 

M. Taylor, which occurred on November 28, 1902, a 
life-long member and a zealous worker in the cause to 
which we are devoted.^' 

At the Whitmonday Meeting, 1905, Mr. Koenig 
made a verbal report for the Deacons in which he refer- 
red to the departure of Mrs. Sarah M. Wright, July 
26, 1904, and Mrs. Mary B. Taylor, June 6, 1905, two 
most active members, whose lives were devoted to the 
Church, and also to the death of Bev. James Clark, of 
Salford, England, June 7, 1905, a man of charming, 
manner, hearty, whole-souled, brilliant, and devoted to 
the Church whose service he honored. 

The Minister's and Deacons' reports, for Whitmon- 
day, 1906, refer to the death of Joseph Metcalfe, son 
of Bev. Joseph and Elizabeth Metcalfe, Hannah Cariss 
Warrington, Mrs. Harriet Lord Parker and Mrs. Mary 
Ann Cariss Metcalfe, the last named being the dau^ter 
of William and Hannah Cariss. She was married to 
the Bev. Wm. Metcalfe in 1855 and with him visited 
the Church in England, where she made many lasting 
friends. Her death occurred on the twenty-first of 
February, 1906, at the advanced age of eighty-six years. 
She was secretary of the Ladies' Aid Society since 
its organization. 

At the Annual Meeting, Whitmonday, 1908, Wm. 
M. Horrocks, for the Deacons, stated he had no report, 
but that the Minister's report "covered the ground" for 
the period. 



100 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

The report of the Minister referred to the death of 
Henry Horrocks, which occurred October 11, 1907. 

Quoting further from the Minister's report: "On 
March 12, 1908, Francena Rosena Bamed, the be- 
loved wife of our esteemed treasurer, Wul M. 
Horrocks, was removed from this material world after 
a protracted ilhiess which had gradually worn away the 
strength of a hitherto robust constitution. The loss to 
our Church organization, as to her family, is felt to be 
irretrievable. Her life was so identified with the active 
social life of the Church that the conviction that she was 
its mainstay is unanimously adnutted. She waa the 
daughter of Absalom and Hannah Barned, bom June 
8, 1847. She was baptized into the Church by the Rev. 
Jos. Metcalfe, Aug. 4, 1867 and was soon after married 
to Wm. H. Horrocks who with three sons and one 
daughter survive her." 

The final paragraphs of the Minister's report for 
the Annual Meeting of 1908 state, "This report as far 
as above written was completed on Wednesday June 3, 
1908. On that date Deacon Charles F. Koenig waa 
taking the evening meal with his brother-in-law Wm. 
M. Horrocks, at Frankf ord, who all at once noticed a 
change of expression in his face, and Mr. Koenig fell 
back. Mr. Horrocks caught him in his arms but he was 
insensible, and was laid on a lounge in the library; 
every effort was made to resuscitate him, but in vain; a 
physician who was called in, after a thorough examinar 
tion, stated he had died instantly when taken at the 
supper table. 



THE DEACONS 101 

^^Mr. Koenig had attained the age of seventy years. 
He was baptized into the Bible-Christian Churchy Jan- 
uary 6, 1861. He was married to Martha F., daughter 
of Edmu]|^d and Elizabeth Brooks, who died Sept. 17, 
1868, leaving one son about three years of age. On 
April 6, 1870, Deacon Eoenig was married to 
Annie Bamed*'' 

A special ^^Minute'' adopted at the Churdh Annual 
Meeting states Mr. Eoenig ^'filled various official posi- 
tions and was zealous in the performance of every duty 
to which he was assigned. He wad secretary from 
1871 to 1877—6 years; trustee, 1872 to 1908—36 
years ; deacon 1874 to 1908 — 84 years. 

"He was superintendent of the Sunday School from 
1876 to 1908—32 years. 

"He was a man of strong convictions and he advo- 
cated the principles of the Churdh with force and 
logical earnestness. 

"He filled the pulpit in the absence of the minister 
and acceptably preached the Word." 

No report of the Deacons was rendered at the annual 
meetings 1909, 1910 and 1911. 

The Minister's report for 1909 refers to the death 
of Wm. B. Horrodbs, thirty-seven years of age, son of 
deacon, Wm. M. Horrocks, and that of 1910 to the 
death of Jacob Bowers, seventy-three years of age, who 
was not a member, but a frequent and interested attend- 
ant at the services. 

The following is quoted from the Minister's report 
to the Whitmonday Meeting June 5, 1911, that being 



102 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

the ninety-third anniversary, "(The church year which 
has just concluded was one in which the Church 
sustained the loss of one of its chief members 
and supporters. 

'"Wm. Metcalfe Horrooks was bom Feb. 21, 1843. 
He was baptized into the Churchy a birthright member, 
April 30, 1843, by Rev. Wm. Metcalfe. He was the 
son of James and Eliza Horrooks, who came from Eng- 
land and were members of the Salford Church. He 
was entered among the members of the Church from the 
date of his birth, so that he was always a member dur- 
ing his whole life on earth, which terminated Nov. 20, 
1910. His life was one of quiet, unostentatious devo- 
tion to the interests of the Church. 

*TE[e was a trustee over forty-two years, a deacon 
twenty-eight years, and treasurer for nearly twenty-five 
years; in all these positions he faithfully served, and 
as treasurer he never allowed the Church to be in- 
convenienced for want of funds." 

The report also refers to the admission of one mem- 
ber by baptism on Whitsunday, June 4, 1911. 

The following amendment to the Rules and Regula- 
tions was duly approved and adopted at the Semi-annual 
Meeting of the Church Jan. 6, 1912: 'Troposals for 
membership may be made to the minister or a deacon, 
and if at the expiration of six months the applicant is 
faithful, he or she shall, upon the written approval of 
the Board of Deacons, be initiated by baptism, if not 
previously baptized, enrolled on the list of members, 



THE DEACONS 108 

and ratify the event by attending, as soon as convenient, 
the Commmuon servioe of tiie ChuroL'' 

As indicated in the reports of the Minister and Dea- 
cons, serious inroads were made in the membership of 
the Church by the deaths of many old and faithful 
members during the past ten or twelve years. In addi- 
tion to this, indifferent attitude on the part of some 
of the younger members in the matter of attendance 
at service caused the existence of a somewhat unsatis- 
factory condition of affairs. 

Differences of opinion as to the legal status of certain 
candidates for trustees and deacons at the annual meet- 
ing of 1911, resulted in a failure to hold an election for 
those officials in 1912, and the Board of Deacons elected 
in 1911, namely, WiUiam Metcalfe, Samson Cariss, 
George W. Wright and E. F, Metcalfe, *%eld over'' 
for the ensuing year, from Whitmonday, 1912, to Whit- 
monday, 1913. 

In its report to the Anntial Meeting on Whitmonday, 
May 12, 1913, the Board of Deacons stated, '^several 
meetings had been held at which the subjects of Church- 
membership, Attendance, Bules and Begulations, etc., 
were discussed, also type-written copies of the Amended 
Charter and Constitution of the Church, Bules and 
B^ulations, and Trustees By-laws had been provided, 
and fumishfid to each family represented by Church 
membership, nineteen copies being thus distributed dur- 
ing June and July, 1912.'' 



104 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

The average attendance at Conununion for the year 
is stated as thirteen and seven-tenthfi. 

The Deacons' report to the Annual Meeting J^t- 
monday June 1, 1914, refers to the death of Susanna 
M. Wright, which occurred Feb. 2, 1914. She was the 
daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth Metcalfe, and widow 
of Samuel Wright and waa a life-long and faith- 
ful member. 

The report also gives the number of Communion 
services attended by the male members of the Church 
during the church year and expresses the opinion that 
similar statements should be included in future annual 
reports of the Deacons. 

In a report made by a special Committee on "Gen- 
eral Conditions" to a Church Meeting held April 11, 
1915, it is stated: "That the list of members shows 
names of twenty-one adults and one minor, and records 
of Deacons show forty per cent, attend services reg- 
ularly, ten per cent, attend occasionally, fifteen per cent, 
prevented by illness, etc., and thirty-five per cent, have 
not attended for over three years." 

The report also states ^^e think the annual finan- 
cial deficits will ev^atually necessitate the sale of the 
church property and the acquisition of less expensive 
quarters in which to continue the services, and with 
the sole idea of perpetuating the existence of the Churdii 
organization as long as possible, recommend that the 
jiTrustees be requested to secure the necessary consent 
of the members, and arrange for all legal requirements 



THE DEACONS 105 

necessary to offer the church for sale^ and to use their 
best judgment in effecting a sale at «uch time, and under 
such conditions as they deem to be for the permanent 
material and spiritual welfare of the Church.'' 

The following is quoted from the reports of the Min- 
ister and Board of Deacons to the Annual Meeting Whit- 
monday^ May 24^ 1915 : 

^'Two of our members have passed on to the spiritual 
life since last Whitsuntide. Miss Mary Horrocks, who 
died on June 24, 1914, was all her life a devoted mem- 
ber of this Church, always faithful to its principles in 
her personal experiences and daily practice, deeply 
interested in its welfare and a regular contributor to its 
resources. She was also a devoted member and treas- 
urer of the Ladies' Aid Society. 

''The other serious loss to our Church vras the dos- 
ing of the earthly career of Qeorge Washington Wri^t, 
who was bom August 80, 1864, and deceased October 
19, 1914. He vras admitted a member of the Church 
by baptism May 13, 1883. He was elected secretary 
of the Church, Whitmonday May 14, 1888, elected 
trustee, Whitmonday May 25, 1885, and performed 
faithfully the duties of these offices until the sioikne^ 
preceding his death." 

The Deacons' report also contains the following: 
''The offering of the church property for sale, which 
has been considered and recommended at a recent special 
meeting of the Church will require the presentation of a 
certified list of members, absolutely and tmquestionably 
8 



106 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH 

qualified under the Bules of the Chntch. to hove a voioa 
and vote on the subject, and if the members present at 
this Annual Meeting have any thoughts or suggestions 
to make, it might be an opportune time to give expres- 
sion to them and perhaps to the Deacons, who may have 
to act in the matter.'' 

In connection with the above subject the report of 
the Deacons to the Annual Meeting Whitmonday, June 
12, 1916, states that, after joint consideration by the 
Boards of Deacons and Trustees, and consultation with 
l^al counsel, notices were sent to all members on Octo- 
ber 20, 1915 advising them that the church property 
would be offered for sale, and, as the consent of two- 
thirds of the members is requisite to make said sale, 
it was deemed necessary that the membership be defi- 
nitely fixed ; the Board regretted that in conducting the 
transaction, and after giving all whose names were on 
the roll of membership full and liberal opportunity to 
qualify themselves as members in good standings it had 
been compelled as provided for in Article 4, Section 1, 
and Article 6, Section 3 to suspend three persons as 
regular members of the Church, and until reinstated in 
the manner prescribed by the Rules and Eegulations, to 
debar them the privilege of holding Church o£Sc6 or 
voting in the Church meetings. 

It is also recorded that four of the old members had 
paased from the material to the spiritual life within 
a little over a year. 

On May 21, 1915, just three days prior to Whit- 
monday, Mrs. Anne Barbara dubb, the beloved wife of 



THE DEACONS 107 

Bev. Henry S. Clabb, passed from the material to the 
spiritual ezistenoe. The usual Whitmonday Meeting 
for 1915 was by action of a special Church meeting held 
on Sunday, May 23, 1915, postponed for one week to 
Memorial Day, May 31, 1915. 

The Board of Deacons at a meeting in the church 
parlor on the same date adopted the following ^^Minute/' 
a transcript of which was delivered to our pastor : ''That 
we desire briefly but most sincerely to record in our 
Minutes, and to express to our beloved president and 
pastor, and his family, our heartfelt sympathy and 
affection in the great loss of a faithful and devoted wife 
and mother. 

''May that spiritual consolation which he has taught 
us so many years to seek, when our hearts be troubled, 
be bountifully bestowed on him and give him the neces- 
sary strength to bear bravely up even to this earthly 
journey's end." 

Mrs. Glubb was eighty-two years of age, and for 
over forty years a faithful and devoted member of both 
the Church and Ladies' Aid Society. The ftineral ser- 
vice took place on Tuesday, May 25, 1915, at her late 
residence 1023 Foulkrod Street, Bev. Harry H. Craw- 
ford, a Frankford Presbyterian minister, officiating. 

William Metcalfe, a life-long member, grandson of 
the founder of the Church, a deacon and trustee for 
some years, died on December 16, 1915. 

Mrs. Anna Bamed Eoenig, widow of Deacon 
Charles F. Koenig^ died on December 26, 1915. She 
was an active and interested member for many years. 



108 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Samson Cariss, who was bom May 25, 1849, and 
baptized Aug. 12, 1849, died Jan. 8, 1916. He served 
in the Church faithfuUy as organist over fifty years. 
He was also a deacon and trustee for many years. 

This proved to be the last annual meeting of the 
Church held in the Park Avenue building. The prop- 
erty wad sold to the Third Church of Christ, Scientist. 
The last service in the church was held June 18, 1916, 
and the annual report of the Board of Deacona for Whit- 
monday May 28, 1917, was made to the annual meeting 
held in the minister's residence, 1023 Foulkrod Street, 
which had been regularly and formally arranged for 
and agreed upon as the '^ead-quarters of the Church," 
and thus we find 'history repeating itself' in the fact 
that, as the founder of the Church, the Eev. William 
Metcalfe, on his arrival in Philadelphia in 1817, 
"rented a dwelling in the rear of No. 10 North Front 
Street" and *Qike the apostle of old, preached the gos- 
pel in his own hired house (see Out of The Clouds pages 
19 and 20) to as many as were willing to listen to his 
testimony ;" so did the present minister, the Rev. Henry 
S. Clubb, although now nearly ninety years of age, con- 
tinue to preach the word of Ood on the Sabbatih-day/^ in 
his own rented house," to all who would attend 
the service. 

During most of the first six years of The Philadel- 
phia Bible-Christian Church, service was held in the 
minister's home— 1817 to 1823. 



THE DEACONS 109 

The following sixty-eight years, 1823 to 1891, with 
the exception of a few months, services were held in the 
church on Third Street ahove Girard Avenue, and for 
twenty-six years, from 1891 to 1917, the huilding 
erected on Park Avenue below Berks Street was the 
home of the Church, thus covering the first one himdred 
years of its existence. 

The last Communion Service in the Park Avenue 
church was Sunday June 4, 1916, and the last regular 
service, Sunday, June 18, 1916. 

The Deacons' report to the Annual Meeting of the 
Church held on Whitmonday May 28, 1917, at 1023 
Foulkrod Street, Frankford, states ^^As indicated in 
our last annual report and in accordance v^ith instruc- 
tions, our Church secretary included the names of the 
qualified adult women members on the list of those to be 
voted for as deacons at the election on Whitmonday 
1916, and the following Board of Deacons was chosen 
for one year: Edmund B. Lord, George M. Wright, 
Edwin F. Metcalfe and Mrs. Amy H. Cariss. 

The report also refers to the passing on to the spirit- 
ual life of Mrs. Isabel Horrocks Williams, after an ill- 
ness of several years, her death taking place on June 25, 
1916. In her earlier active years she was a valuable 
helper in the affairs of the Church. 

Note is also made that on Sunday Feb. 25, 1917, the 
pastor, after the usual service, was taken with an attack 
of hiccoughs which lasted over two weeks, and impaired 
his st]:ength to such an extent that he has not felt able to 



110 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

conduct service since that time. At a special meeting 
of the Deacons on Sunday April 1, 1917| it was decided 
that until otherwise arranged the Deacons would in turn 
perform the regular service once eyery two weeks. 

The record of the Board of Deacons for 1918-1919- 
1920 and 1921, shows that the services were conducted 
by the Deacons, each one in turn carrying out the 
programme agreed upon, viz.: an opening hymn, the 
alternate reading of a Psalm, prayer, another hymn, 
followed by a chapter in the Bible, the singing of 
another hymn, the reading of a sermon or article based 
on discourses delivered by the Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, or 
other writings in harmony with the principles and 
doctrines of our Church, followed by the collection of 
the offerings, the reading of notices, and a closing hymn 
or song usually from the "Billy Sunday^' book, and 
closing with the benediction, which was frequently pro- 
nounced by the aged pastor, whose presence usually 
favored the meetings. 

The death of Mrs. Amy H. Cariss, widow of H^ory 
T. Cariss, and the first Deaconess elected by the GhurobI 
occurred on Oct. 3, 1917. She became a member in 
her youth by baptism, on June 4, 1865, and for more 
than fifty years was an active, faithful and interested 
participant in the services and affairs of our Churchy the 
Sunday School and the Ladies' Aid Society. 

The Communion service was continued during the 
years stated above, the senior Deacons usually officiat- 
ing. The average attendance at Communion for 1918 
was nine. 



THE DEACONS 111 

The following^ elected to the Board of DeaooxiB Whit- 
xaonday 1918^ viz.: Edwin F. Metcalfe, Edmund B. 
Lord, George M. Wright, and Naomi Clnbb, were 
re-elected in 1919 and 1920. 

The death of Mrs. Emma Oariss, widow of organist, 
Samson Cariss, on April 15, 1921, and that of Mr. 
Horace 0. Williams, of Frankford, on May 3,'1921, are 
worthy of record here as witnessing the passing on of 
two who were for many years faithful friends of 
the Church. 



CHAPTEE VI 

THE TEUSTEES 

The Board of Trustees has always been an impor- 
tant branch or body in the Church Organization — being 
responsible for the temporal concerns and posessions of 
the Church ; its duties have naturally included the con- 
sideration of a great variety of subjects, and while per- 
haps not involving what in modem day finances and 
operations are regarded or classed as extensive activities, 
appear to have been performed with fidelity and good 
judgment — ^generally keeping the Church free of debt 
and clear of any serious complications or disputes. 

The first steps to arrange for procuring a Charter 
were taken at a special Meeting of the Trustees held at 
the house of Jeremiah Horrocks, Frankford, on Christ- 
mas day December 25, 1828. Present, 

Eev. Wm. Metcalfe Moses Hey 

Jeremiah Horrocks Thomas Hoseley 

- -• Jonathan Wright 

The original Charter of Incorporation was granted 
at Harrisburg, April 6, 1830, "In the name and by 
the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 

112 



THE TRUSTEES 113 

(reorge Wolf, Gk)vernor," enrolled in Charter Book No. 
4, page 482, upon petition of the following members : 

William Metcalfe, Minister Jonathan Wright 
Jeremiah Horrocks Thomas Moseley 

James Royle John Bury 

James Wright Joseph Metcalfe 

Samuel Winn 

and the first Board of Trustees, as stated in said appli- 
cation was constituted as follows : 

Rev. William Metcalfe Thomas Moseley 

James Royle Jonathan Wright 

David Nuttall Moses Hey 

George Richardson William Taylor 

Jeremiah Horrocks John Lever 

The official term was three years, the elections tak- 
ing place at the Annual Church Meetings on Whit- 
monday, and the original schedule was so arranged that 
at the installation of the nine members constituting the 
Board in 1830, they were divided into three dasses, and 
only three members annually were to be elected or re- 
elected ther^ftear. Only male members iiwenty-one 
years of age were qualified to vote for Trustees under 
the original Charter. 

Copies of the '^Constitution and By-laws of The 
Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church, ITorth Third 
Street, West Kensington" printed by J. Metcalfe & Co., 



114 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

West Kensington, in 1834, were issued and distributed 
to members and friends — ^a number of these pamphlets 
are still in existence. 

The official records of the Board of Trustees for the 
period previous to the special Meeting of December 25, 
1828, do not appear to be now in existence; since that 
date their transactions are incorporated with the regular 
Church Becorda until the year 1854, when new ^^ules 
and Regulations for Church Government, and Trustees 
By-laws" were adopted and a separate Book or 
Record commenced. 

A pamphlet setting forth the Rules and Regulations, 
together with the Constitution and Trustees By-laws^ 
printed at the FranJeford Herald office, Twenty-third 
Ward, Philadelphia in 1855, was issued for circulation 
among the members and friends of the Church. Copies 
of tbis publication are also still in existence. 

There were four stated meetings of the Board pro- 
vided for, viz. : in September, December, March and on 
Whitmonday, of every year. 

The minister was, ex officio, a member of the Board 
and was usually chosen as President The Board 
elected a Treasurer and a Secretary, only regular male 
members of the Church, ^^aocording to the rules, regu- 
lations and discipline of the Church (which rules require 
in particular that all members should abstain from 
animal food, spirituous and intoxicating liquors; be 
initiated by baptism, and come to the Sacrament), 



THE TRUSTEES 116 

twenty-one years of a^ and of at least two years' stand- 
ing" were eligible as trustees. 

The first specially important business of the Trus- 
tees, after sec,^ tLe Carter, was arranging for the 
purchase outright of the ground on North Third Street 
on which the original frame church building stood, from 
a Mr. Camac ; this was accomplished and reported to a 
meeting on December 30, 1831, the Deed being recorded 
in Deed Book A. M. No. 17, page 396-397. 

Apart from the usual duties of devising ways and 
means of providing for the current expenses, caring for 
the church ground and building, no business of special 
importance claimed the attention of the Board until 
about 1845, when, in conjunction with the other mem- 
bers of the Church, active steps were taken for the 
erection of a new church building. The Board at this 
time consisted of : 

Bev. Wmu Metcalfe, President John Best 

James Wright, Secretary Edward Lyons 

Jonathan Wright, Treasurer Joseph Metcalfe 

Dr. Henry Taylor Wm. Horrocks 

James Horrocks James Brooks 

As illustrating the general harmonious and hopeful 
spirit prevailing in the Church at the annual meetings 
in the years 1844 to 1848 the following is a brief out- 
line of Church proceedings in connection with the ereo- 
tion of the new church building on Third Street above 



116 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHimCH 

Franklin Street (Girard Avenue) Eensmgton, Phila- 
delphia^ at that time ; at the Annual Meeting on Whit- 
monday May 27, 1844 a Committee was appointed to 
consider "the expediency and practicability of building 
a new and permanent church, and to devise means for 
accomplishing the same as early as possible/' This 
Committee retired and later returned, making the fol- 
lowing report to the same Annual Meeting: 

Your Committee, aware that they have not had time 
to make all the inquiries that the importance of the subject 
referred to them requires, recommend however, the appoint- 
ment of a Building Committee, whose business it shall 
be to devise ways and means to aid the Philadelphia 
Bible-Christian Church in the erection of a suitable build- 
ing for public worship. 

Your Committee do not urge the immediate commence- 
ment of such a building, but rather suggest leaving the 
Building Committee to determine, in conjunction with 
the Trustees, the time of commencement, plans of 
building, etc. 

Your Committee would further recommend that the 
Committee on Correspondence be authorized by this 
Assembly to make an appeal to the Churches in England, 
and to their friends elsewhere, for such assistance as they 
msLj respectively feel disposed to extend to the im^dertaking. 

The report of the Committee was accepted and the 
following members elected as the Building Committee: 
James Brooks, Joseph Metcalfe, James Horrocks, 
Edward Lyons, and Jonathan Wright. 

In the "Minutes" of the Annual Meeting, Whit* 
monday May 12, 1845, is found the following: 



THE TRUSTEES 117 

We^ the undersigned^ appointed as a Building Com- 
mittee at the last Annual Meeting of the Churchy having 
deliberated on the subject entrusted to us^ beg leave to 
offer a few remarks in the hope of eliciting your counsel 
and exciting your sympathy in the work we have in view. 

The Church will doubtless agree with the Committee 
that the erection of a new brick building by our small body 
is a serious undertaking; yet the importance, we might 
almost say the necessity, for the erection of a substantial 
building in place of the one we now occupy, will be as 
readily assented to. 

The first matter of inquiry, after the organization of 
the Conmuttee, was, therefore, as to what means the Church 
possessed with which to accomplish the object. In answer, 
it appeared that after the payment of the annual sub- 
scriptions at our next Annual Meeting the building fund 
would amount to upwards of $1,000; inquiries developed 
that from three to four thousand dollars would be required 
to complete a suitable building, leaving a deficit of two or 
three thousand dollars to be raised by some other method. 

With these facts before them, the Committee consulted 
together, and, being imanimously of opinion that it would 
be bad policy, if not morally wrong, to involve the Church 
in debt^ resolved to present the following recommendation 
for your consideration : 

First — ^We recommend the commencement of buUding a 
new church during the ensuing season, but that the finish- 
ing be deferred until after the building is roofed in and the 
basement story finished, if the receipts do not warrant the 
entire completion, leaving the style of the building open 
for further consideration; we present the second recom- 
mendation as to the size of the building; it is as large as 
we think our past history would warrant us in considering 



118 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

essential^ and will be a great saving in the expense of 
erection in comparison with that of a larger edifice. 

Second — ^We recommend that the proposed building be 
thirty feet front by forty feet deep, with an additional 
depth of six feet as a recess, all clear within the walls. 
Whilst, however, we would be cautions in guarding the 
Church from debt, we would by no means create the im- 
pression that a sufficiency cannot be raised for the entire 
completion of such a building; by a united, harmonious 
and spirited effort of our members doubtless much more 
might be done than has yet been effected for so desirable 
an object. 

Estimating the wisdom and the love communicated to 
our souls in Gk>d'8 Word, through the Church of Christ, 
as beyond all price, we feel that if each of us would but 
reflect a moment, how our moral and intellectual faculties 
have been educated by the Church, and how this education 
has been the means of placing each of us in a higher state 
of society than we could possibly have attained, destitute 
of such aid, we should see that even in a worldly point 
of view alone we were indebted to the Church more than 
we were able to repay. 

Believing that you would feel the full force of these 
and other considerations, the following heading of a 
Subscription lost was drawn up for the purpose of ascer- 
taining what might be depended upon for the xmdertaking, 
viz.: The undersigned hereby agree to pay the sums re- 
spectively attached to their names to aid in building a 
new church for the use of the Bible Christians, in place 
of the one now used by them, the said sums to be paid within 
three months after laying the foundation, either in monthly, 
or such other instalments or payments as may suit the 
signers and at the same time accommodate the wants of 
the Treasury. 



THE TRUSTEES 119 

PreviouB to the organization of this Committee for 
business^ our sister members undertook to get up a Fair, 
the proceeds to be appropriated to the building fund of 
the Church. like women in the primitive days of 
Christianity, who were the first to go forth searching 
for the earthly tabernacle of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ, they also have come unto us with tidings of joy, 
infusing confidence and hope into the breast of the most 
despondent of our brethren; the spirit of persevering 
energy and devotion which they have manifested from the 
oonmiencement to the completion of their undertaking was 
truly heart-cheering and woman-like; the result of this 
Fair, held eight days, partly at Frankf ord, and the other 
part in Philadelphia, is as nearly as can be at present 
ascertained, about $600. During the last day or two, of the 
Fair, the subscription paper was opened, and a number of 
our members and friends present subscribed the amounts 
opposite their respective names. 

In conclusion we would call upon each and all of you 
to examine the facts herewith set forth, to refiect upon 
the recommendations, and to aid both by word and action, 
whatever may tend to the permanent establishment of pure 
Bible Christianity. 

All of which we submit. 



James Brooks 



f . 



Joseph Metcalfe 
James Horrocks 
Edward Lyons 
Jonathan Wright 



Building 
Committee 



At the same Annual Meeting 1845, a voluntary report 
from a Committee of ladies of ihe Church was presented, 
and read as follows : 



1«0 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

A number of the members of the Bible-Christian 
Church being on a visit at the house of James Horrocks on 
New Years Day, 1845, it was resolved by the ladies present 
to get up a Fair, the proceeds of which should be appro- 
priated to aid in building a new church in place of the 
edifice now used for religious worship; to carry this reso- 
lution into effect the subscribers were appointed managers. 

They entered on the duties assigned to them, and col- 
lected in money as donations, in Frankf ord, the sum of 
$50.37^, all of which was expended in goods for the Fair. 
In Philadelphia they also collected from various sources, 
as donations in cash, the sum of $56.71, which was laid out 
in like manner, the particulars of which are all specified 
in their Account Books. 

The subscribers have the pleasure of stating to the 
Annual General Ass^nbly of the Bible-Christian Church 
that the net proceeds of the Fair in Frankford, after 
paying all expenses, amounted to $280.45. 

The Fair in Philadelphia three weeks afterward (in 
Easter week) yielded also the net sum of $381.83, all 
expenses being deducted; the two together being $662.28. 

Of this amount, the subscribers deposited $603.13 in 
the hands of Dr. Henry Taylor, for safe keeping until 
the Annual General Assembly afforded them a suitable 
opportunity of presenting the amount of their efforts to 
the Trustees of the Church. Besides what has been turned 
over to Doctor Taylor, they have in cash since received 
$14.84 and there are bills yet to be collected $44.31, all 
of which will be handed oyer to the Treasurer as soon 
as received. 

The subscribers, on behalf of themselves, and the ladies 
of the Church generally, all of whom have taken a very 
active part in accomplishing what has been done, beg to 
present the result and amount of their efforts to the 
Trustees to aid in erecting a new church. 



THE TRUSTEES 121 

The subscribers also think it a duty to acknowledge 
their obligation to the teachers and scholars of the Sunday 
School attached to the Church, for their aid in preparing 
and furnishing articles for the Fair. 

In presenting these results the subscribers beg to ex- 
press their hopes that the Trustees will be enabled to carry 
into effect the purposes for which they have been laboring, 
with as little delay as possible. 
Signed : 
May 12, 1845 

Mary Ann Horrocks 
Isabella Metcalfe 
Mary A. Gariss 

The concluding chapter of the building and furnish- 
ing of the new church is found in the proceedings of 
the Annual Meeting Whitmonday Tune 12, 1848, 
as follows : 

The undersigned, a Committee appointed by the 
Church at a meeting held in September, 1847, to furnish, 
and make the necessary arrangements for opening the 
church proper, beg leave to report that they attended to 
the duties assigned to them. Annexed will be found a 
statement of monies expended; in addition to which we 
may observe that the Font and Altar Stools were presented 
by members of the Church. 

On Sunday, the 10th of October following, (1847) the 
church was solemnly consecrated to the *TVorship of The 
Only Wise God our Saviour*' by our pastor, the Rev. 
William Metcalfe. His discourse was founded upon the 
20th Chapter of Exodus. The ceremonies were interspersed 
with beautiful and appropriate music, during both the 
morning and evening services. 

I 9 



122 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

That this place may be ever held sacred to the pnrposes 
for which it was consecrated is the earnest prayer of 
your Committee. 
Signed : 

William Horrocks 

Joseph Metcalfe 

Harriet Brooks 

Isabella Cariss 

Mary A. Cariss 

Mary A. Horrocks 

John Best 



Furnishing 
Committee 



The Trustees reported to the Annual Church Meet- 
ing Whitmonday June 12, 1848, that the board had 
^^effected a temporary loan, completed the Ghurdb; in 
which we are assembled, secured permanent insurance 
on the building, and a yearly insurance on the furniture, 
organ, etc/' 

In 1854, the Trustees By-laws were approved and 
adopted by special Church Meetings, and as before 
stated, were, on February 18, 1855, ordered to be 
printed in pamphlet form in connection with Rules and 
Regulations for Church Gbvemmant together with the 
Constitution of the Philadelphia BiUe-Christian 
Church, North- Third Street, West Kensington. 

In July 1865, the Trustees recommended to the 
Church that a leave of absence for six months be granted 
to the minister, Rev. Wmu Metcalfe, in order to visit 
and take temporary charge of the Bible-Christian 
Church in Salford, England, and that the Rev. Joseph 
Wrigiht, appointed and licensed by Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, 
officiate in his absence. 



THE TRUSTEES 123 

The Board at this time oonsisted of Bev. Jos. 
Wright, Jonathan Wright, Elijah Eothwell, Eman- 
uel Hey, James Wright, Treas., Lewis S. Hough, 
Whl Cariss, Edmund Brooks, Jos. Metcalfe, Secy., 
John Chorlton. 

During the absence of Bev. Wm. Metcalfe in Eng- 
land for nearly two years, Bey. Jos. Wright usually 
served as Chairman of the Board. 

No business of unusual interest occupied the Board's 
attention for several years. The occasional dropping 
out of a familiar name in the membership of the Board 
was usually an indication of the passage of time and also 
the passing on of an individual from the material to 
the spiritual world ; as the duties with which the Trus- 
tees were charged were of a material character, and in- 
volved only the temporal concerns of the Church it is 
very rarely that any reference to the decease of its 
members appears in the records of the Board, such 
occurrences being included in the annual reports of the 
minister and deacons. 

At the time of the death of the Bev. Wm. Metcalfe, 
which occurred October 16, 1862, the following nanoies 
appear as constituting the Board: James Horrocks, 
Henry Taylor, James Wrigiht, Elijah BothweU, 
Emanuel Hey, Edmund Brooks, Wul Cariss, Jonathan 
Wright, Treas., Joseph Metcalfe, Secy. 

March 12, 1865, reference is made to the death of 
Jonathan Wright, who had been Treasurer since the 



124 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

incorporation of the Church, 1830, and to the election 
of Wm. Cariss to fill the vacancy. 

In 1865 and again in 1866, Robert Wright, a memr 
ber of the Church, and son of Jonathan Wright, submit- 
ted plans for the erection of ^^five cottage houses" on. 
the rear of the church ground. A committee was ap- 
pointed to consider same, but no further action resulted. 

Rot. Joseph Metcalfe, President of the Board, 
died in December, 1867, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Wm. Taylor. 

Whitmonday 1869, the Board consisted of : 

James Wri^t, Edmund Brooks, Emanuel Hey, 
WuL Carissy Jaines Horrocks, Wm. M. Horrocks, Chas* 
F. Koenig, J. ClifFord Shoch, Rev. Wm. Taylor, Pres., 
Henry M. Taylor, Treas., James J. Horrocks, Seqr* 

In Sept., 1872, the Board was informed that J. B. 
Lippincott & Co. had completed publication of the ser- 
mon book of Rev. Wul Metcalfe Out of the Olovds, same 
was ready for sale, and the price was fixed at $1.50 
to members of the Congregation, and $1.75 to others. 

On Whitmonday, June 2, 1873, the Chairmanship 
of the Board was conferred on Wm. Cariss, who was 
conducting services in the church dunng a vacancy caused 
by the resignation of Dr. Wm. Taylor. Chas. P. 
Koenig had been elected Secretary of the Board, Whit- 
monday 1871, and Henry M. Taylor was Treasurer. 

These officials continued until Whitmonday 1876, 
when Henry S. Clubb, who had been engaged as min- 
ister, became President. 



THE TRUSTEES 126 

On Whitmonday, 1877, Wm. Cariss again became 
President and Wm. 0. Brooks, Secretary, and on 
Whitmonday, 1878, Eer. Henry S. Clubb was again 
elected President and has continued in that position 
to the present date, 1921. The Board in 1880 was 
constituted as follows: 

Eev, H. S. Clubb, Chairman, Wm. Cariss, Sr., 
James Horrociks, Fithi^i S. Oray, Wul H. Horrocks, 
Cha& F. Koenig, Jas. T. Horrocks, Edwin F. Metcalfe, 
WnL C. Brooks, Se<^., H. M. Taylor,Trea8. There was 
a Committee on Church and Lecture Boom, a Finance 
Committee and a Committee on Church Yard, three 
members on each Committee. 

During 1880 and 1881, about fifty meetings of the 
Board were held principally in connection with the sub- 
ject of building five dwellings on the rear of the church 
groimd, Charlotte Street front, which were completed 
in May, 1881. A mortgage was created thereon to pro- 
vide sufficient fimds. 

The personnel of the Board continued as above until 
about 1890 excepting that £. F. Metcalfe was elected 
Treasurer, Whitmonday 1881, Oteo. W. Wright, Secre- 
tary, Whitmonday 1883, Samson Cariss elected a mem- 
ber on Whitmonday, May 17, 1880, to fill a vacancy 
caused by the death of Jas. Horrocks, and Wm. M. 
Horrocks elected Treasurer, Jan. 17, 1886 

The special duties attended to during this time were 
the removal of bodies from the church yard to outlying 
cemeteries, the greater number being transferred to 



126 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Cedar Hill, Frankford; also taking measures for sale 
of the cliTirch property, with a view of removing to a 
more satisfaotory locality, the adjoining property being 
used as an abattoir, making it particularly unpleasant 
for those attending the Church services. 

The following deaths of Trustees are recorded : Wm. 
C. Brooks 1887, Jas. J. Horrocks 1888, Fithian S. 
Qxay 1890. Henry Horrocks was elected Trustee in 
1887 and Whl Metcalfe in 1890. 

Arrangements were made at a meeting, October 14, 
1888, for the purchase of a lot on west side of Park 
Avenue below Berks Street (50 x 90 feet) bb a site for 
a new church building. 

On January 5, 1890, the sale of the entire Third 
Street church property was announced and approved at 
a meeting of the Board, and the last meeting of the 
Board in the Third Street church was held on March 
3, 1890. 

Ifumerous meetings of the Trustees were held at 
the residence of Wm. Cariss, Sr., 1537 Park Avenue 
during 1890, principally in connection with the build- 
ing of the new church which was under the supervision 
of a Building Committee, and the first meeting of the 
Board in the new church was on May 18, 1891. 

On September 15, 1891, the completion of a Sunday- 
school building in the rear of the diurch (with a cellar 
kitchen) was announced, and action taken ^^to pay the 
bill for same." 

The Trustees had arranged for the removal of the 
organ from the Third Street church to the new Park 



THE TRUSTEES 127 

Avenue cburch, where an appropriate place near the 
pnlpit was provided for it. At this time the property 
oonsisted of the main church building of stone; a con- 
venient parlor v^ith door leading into the body of the 
church and another to the pulpit ; an outside stone porch 
or entrance with a hallway leading to Sundaynschool 
room and a door into the parlor. An iron fence, with 
gate, enclosed a small front and side-yard in which was 
located the main entrance door to the chureh, a good 
size lot VTith grass and trees in the rear, with a wooden 
fence and gfite leading to Watt Street on the opposite 
side of which were located the buildings and university 
of the Temple Baptist Church, fronting on Broad Street. 

Permission was granted by the Trustees to various 
Peace, Literary, Vegetarian and other reform and edu- 
cational societies and institutions to use the Sunday- 
school room and parlor for their meetings and classes, 
usually free, or at a charge little more than necessary 
to cover light, heat, janitor services, etc This -practice 
was continued as long as the church remained at 
Park Avenue. 

On October 23, 1899, Wul Cariss, Sr., the oldest 
member of the Board, in length of service, died ; he was 
a Trustee over forty-four years and special record of 
the event is made in the ^^Minutes" of a meeting held 
October 29, 1899. 

It had been deemed advisable for some time past, 
that in view of the decreasing number of candidates 
available for the position of trustee, as well as for 
other reasons, some changes should be made in the 



128 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Church Charter and Rules. A oomznittee had pre- 
pared and after approval by the Church, had submitted 
to the Court of Common Pleas No. 3, County of Phila- 
delphia, March Term 1902, No. 2186, an application 
for an amended or revised Charter changing the name 
of the Organization from ^^The Philadelphia Bible- 
Christian Church, North Third Street, West Kensing- 
ton," to "The PhUadelphia Bible-Christian Church," 
decreasing the number of Trustees from nine to five; 
ail persons (twenty-one years of age and one year's 
standing) to be entitled to vote for same instead of 
only males. 

The Board at this time consisted of: Rev. H. S. 
Clubb, Pres., Gteorge W. Wright, Secy., Wmu M. 
Horrocks^ Treas., Chas. F. Koenig, Wm. Metcalfe, 
Samson Cariss^, Henry T. Cariss, E. F. Metcalfe, 
Heniy Horrocks, Wm. B. Horrocks. 

A Meeting December 7, 1902, records the death of 
Henry M. Taylor a trustee for thirty-nine years. 

The operation of the Revised Charter was in 
effect Whitmonday June 1, 1903, and the following 
Board of five members was elected: Chas. F. £oenig, 
E. F. Metcalfe, Samson Cariss, George W. Wright, 
Secy., Wm. M. Horrocks, Treas., Rev. H. S. Clubb, 
Pres., ex officio. 

The record of the Board from 1903 up to 1914 is 
largely one of the usual routine, viz., looking after the 
collection of funds and the payment of current expenses. 



THE TRUSTEES 129 

keeping the property in repair, etc., and, in general, at- 
tending to the ^'temporalities'' of the ChurcL 

During thaa time Charles F. Koenig, Wm. M. 
Horrocks and George W. Wright, trustees for many 
years, died — ^Mr. Koenig June 3, 1908, Mr. Horrocks 
Nov. 20, 1910, and Mr. Wright Oct. 19, 1914. 

After the Church annual election on Whitmouday 
May 31, 1915, the Board consisted of the following 
members: Henry S. Clubb, President, Samson Cariss, 
Wm. MetcaKe, Edwin F. Metcalfe, Edmund B. Lord 
and Oeorge M. Wright. At the Board organization 
meeting on the same date, E. F. Metcalfe was elected 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

In October, 1915, the Board took preliminary meas- 
ures to offer the church property on Park Avenue for 
sale, in the course of which developed the necessity of 
fixing positively the status of members and their legal 
right to consent to or oppose such sale, and under 
legal advice notices relative to the matter were sent to 
all members. 

The expressed desire to sell the property being prac- 
tically unanimous by the members of both the Church 
• 

and Board of Trustees, it was offered to various persons 
who had given indication of being possible purchasers, 
but nothing in that way materialized until April, 1916, 
when negotations were opened with a Committee of the 
Third Church of Christ, Scientist, and after numerous 
meetings and discussions, a sale was finally consum- 
mated on July 5^ 1916, the last meeting of the Trustees 



130 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH 

in the Park Avenue church taking place on July 1, 
1916. A new Corporate Seal of the Church was for- 
mally adopted at a Meeting June 11, 1916. 

WnL Metcalf Oy a member of the Board, died on 
December 16, 1915, and Samson Cariss, a member of 
the Board, on January 8, 1916. 

After the sale of the Park Avenue property, the 
residence of the minister Ber. Henry S. Clubb, 1023 
Foulkrod Street, Frankford, was, at a meeting of the 
Board held July 9, 1916, decided upon and constituted 
the headquarters and meeting place of The Philadelphia 
Bible-Christian Church. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 

Thb first mention of establishing a Sunday School 
appears in the Minutes of the twentieth Annual Meet- 
ing^ held on June 4, 1838, when a motion by James 
Brooks^ seconded by Dr. Henry Taylor, that a 
'^Committee be appointed to consider the propriety of 
establishing a Sunday School" (which had been recom- 
mended in the pastor's sermon that morning) was 
adopted, and the Committee, appointed by the chair- 
man, consisting of James Brooks, Dr. Henry Taylor, 
Joseph Metcalfe, Samuel Wright and James Wright, 
were instructed to report in one month. 

The action of this Committee was apparently favor- 
able, as the record of the Annual Meeting of May 20, 
1839, refers to a verbal report made by ^^The oonduotor 
of the Sunday School — Jaimes Wright'' and arranges for 
a Library in connection with the School, and in the Min- 
utes of the Annual Meeting 1840, there is inxsluded a 
written report signed by James Wright, superintendent, 
stating among other matters that the School was ^ Wgan- 
ized and opened on Sunday, Oct. 21, 1838, about twenty 
scholars, male and female, were in attendance, and in 
the course of six months t^is number was increased to 
fifty, and at the present time (1840) is about eighty" — 
^'There are four female and four male teachers namely : 

181 



132 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Mary Ann Cariss, Isabella Metcalfe, TTaTiTiah Wright, 
Alice Lever, and John Lever, James Gibson, Wm. 
Horroeks and Lever Richardson. An interesting para- 
graph in this report is herewith reproduced as indicat- 
ing its general style and spirit: ^^Among the many 
pleasing incidents that have occurred during the past 
year I must beg leave to mention a visit by the School 
and teachers to Frankf ord on the invitation of Mr. and 
Mrs. Jeremiah Horroeks on the fourth of July last. I 
need not say that all the children were highly delighted 
with that visit, their smiling faces and bright eyes spoke 
a language more powerful than words, and the day was 
spent in reasonable recreation and pleasure by all. In 
the name of the School and teachers, I am authorized to 
offer their heartfelt thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Horroeks, 
and to which I beg leave to add my own." 

This was the first Summer Excursion of the Sun- 
day School and inaugurated a custom that was continued 
annually, to various suburban places, almost as long 
as the School existed. 

In 1841, Edward Lyons was elected Superintendent 
and James Wright, Singing Master, in the Sunday 
School, and the annual reports up to 1844, indicate a 
continuance of the interest taken in the affairs of the 
School, and although the average attendance had de- 
clined slightly, being about sixty, it was attributed 
in part to the lack of suitable accommodations, the 
body of the church being the only available place for 
the purpose. 



THE SUNDAY SCHOOL ISS 

In 1844, Joaepli Metcalfe was elected Superintend- 
ent and continued until 1849, when William Horrocks 
was elected to that position. 

A new church building had been erected, and a good 
size lecture room on the first floor provided an excel- 
lent place in which the sessions of the Sunday School 
were held. 

The nulnber of scholars in 1851, is given as eighty- 
five — ^twenty-five boys and sixty girls — and the number 
of teachers increased to sixteen, namely: Maxy Ann 
Horrocks, Elizabeth A. Wright, Mary A. Cariss, Martha 
Wright, Frances Gault, Eliza Brooks, Mary Earned, 
Jane Martin, Hannah Wright, Elizabeth Kest, Edward 
Lyons, Lewis S. Hough, John Best, D. M. Hambleton, 
James Horrocks, Hugh O. Luckman. The Librarian 
was Wm. Cariss, Secretary, Joseph Metcalfe, Vocal 
Leader, James Brooks. 

At the Annual Meeting Whitmonday May ,31, 1852, 
Emanuel Hey was elected Superintendent and served 
in that capacity until Whitmonday, June 1, 1857. Dur- 
ing that period special attention was given to increas- 
ing and improving the Sunday-school Library, over one 
hundred new books were added, suited more particxdarly 
to the use and interest of the scholars, and a number of 
the old and dilapidated volumes discarded, the number 
in use being about three hundred. Sef erence is made 
to the fact that numerous new scholars were enrolled 
and a4;tended a few weeks, but the average attendance of 
both scholars and teachers continued about the same^ 



184 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

that of the girls and female teachers predominating. 
The church organist and the vocal leader elected at the 
Whitmonday Meetings usually served in the Sunday- 
school services also. 

William Cariss was elected Sunday-school Superin- 
tendent on June 1, 1857, and served until Whitmonday, 
1860, when Joseph Metcalfe was again elected to the 
position, he having served previously from 1844 to 1849. 

The annual reports of Mr. Cariss showed a contin- 
uing prosperous condition of the School, and makes 
reference to the enjoyable summer excursions during 
his term. 

Joseph Metcalfe served as Sunday-school Superin- 
tendent from Whitmonday 1860, to Whitmonday 1863. 
The annual reports show the number of scholars to be 
about sixty. 

Edmund Brooks was Vocal Leader and Wm. 0. 
Brooks, Librarian. The male teachers were Wm. Cariss, 
Chas. F. Koenig, Henry M. Taylor, Wm. M. Horrocks 
and Wm. Metcalfe, Jr. The female teachers were Mrs. 
Mattie Eoenig and the Misses Annie Bamed, Mary 
Horrocks, Mary Ann Horrocks, Agnes Gault, Eliza 
Taylor, Sarah Taylor and Hannah Brooks. 

The Christmaa exercises of the School are referred 
to as very pleasant occasions; they were conducted in 
a large room on the first floor of the church building, 
and took place during this period on Christmas Eve. 
Pieces or addresses, and sometimes dialogues^ (involving 
several) were delivered from the platform, the sdiolars 



THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 135 

being seated on a series of temporary steps reaching 
almost to the ceiling, the boys on one side of the plat- 
form, the girls on the other. Songs appropriate to the 
occasion was rendered, a generous supply of candy 
and refreshments distributed, and a general '^good 
time" indulged in. 

James Wrigjbt was chosen Superintendent Whit- 
monday, 1863, his second term in that office; his 
annual report in 1864 refers to the acquisition of "A 
musical instrulment called the Harmonium:, well 
adapted to assist the scholars in their musical exercises." 
Mr. Wrigjht who was well advanced in years, re- 
quested release from further services on account of 
poor health, and on Whitmbnday, 1864, William Cariss 
waa elected Superintendent. 

Mr. Cariss was continued in the position until 1876, 
he had previously served for three years in that capac- 
ity, 1857-1860, and was in thorough and sincere 
accord with the requirements and duties of the posi- 
tion. Of a cheerful, congenial disposition, always 
greatly interested in the services and celebrations of 
the Sunday School, their summer excursions to the 
'Ibanks of the Wissahlckon" and other rural sections, 
their Christmas exercises and entertainments, eta, he 
was a general favorite with the scholars and teachers. 
The annual reports indicate that in the number of 
scholars the School probably reached its maximum 
during this period, the number enrolled being stated as 
one hundred and thirty in 1870. Mr. Cariss resided 



136 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

for many years on Third Street opposite to the church 
building and had a large and friendly acquaintance ' 
among the residents of that neighborhood, which fur- 
nished the greater projwrtion of those attending the 
School. Many who were scholars there during their 
youth, have in later life expressed their appreciation of 
^'those happy days" and sympathy with the humane and 
kindly principles always taught at the Bible-Christian 
Sunday School. 

The records do not furnish the number or names of 
the teachers in office Whitmonday June 5, 1876, but on 
that date Mr. Charles F. Eoenig, who had for several 
years been a teacher was elected Superintendent 

The centre of population in Philadelphia had been 
gradually moving westward, and this change, accel- 
erated somewhat by the great Centenial Exposition 
which occurred this year at Belmont Plateau in Fair- 
mount Park, resulted in the removal of numerous 
families from the neighborhood of the church to newer 
sections of the city and a slow but rather continuous 
decline in the number attending both the Church and 
the Sunday School. 

The number of scholars enrolled Whitmonday, May 
17, 1880, is stated as eighty-five and of teachers eleven, 
and the number of books in the Library as six hundred. 
In 1886 the number of scholars temporarily increased 
to one hundred and twenty-eight and increased activity 
and interest is indicated. Considerable relief and diari- 
table work is mentioned and numerous occasions of 



THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 137 

entertainments, etc. In 1887 the number of enrolled 
scholars had fallen to seventy-six. The death of Wm, 
C. Brooks, long a vocal leader and librarian in the 
school is referred to in the Superintendent's ATim tftl 
report of the year. The Deacons' Annual report on 
Whitmonday, June 10, 1889, strongly urged the neces- 
sity of removing to a more desirable neighborhood, 
referring to the discouraging condition of affairs and 
stating "The best evidence for the removal is the con- 
dition of the Sabbath School. In former years we had 
the pick of the children of the neighborhood but of late 
neither love or money has afforded us means to 
obtain scholars." 

In 1890 the church property on Third Street was sold, 
and pending the securing of a new building the Sunday- 
school activities were practically suspended. At the 
Whitmonday meeting, June 6, 1892, the superintend- 
ent, Charles F. Eoenig reported "The services in our 
own new Sabbath-school building (Park Avenue below 
Berks Street) were commenced October 4, 1891." No 
statement is given of the number of scholars, but in the 
report of 1893, the average attendance of teachers and 
scholars is given as twenty-five. 

Mr. Eoenig always took special interest in the musi- 
cal features and vocal exercises of the school and his 
annual reports make frequent reference to the joyous 
Christmas Carols, the beautiful Easter music, etc 
Begular relief and charitable work was performed by 
the School and considerable amounts were also collected 

10. 



188 BIBLEKJHRISTIAN CHURCH 

and devoted to f unushing and improving tbie school 
room and the church building. 

The Whitmonday report for 1898 mentions the 
pleasure derived from the presence of Bev. James Clark 
and his daughter Bertha, of the English Bible-Christian 
Church, at a number of sessions during the year. 

While the removal of the Sunday School from Third 
Street to Park Avenue had a somewhat stimulating or 
reviving effect, it proved to be only temporary, the new 
neighborhood, from Twelfth Street west and from Oir- 
axd Avenue north to York Street was plentifully supplied 
with churches of all denominations, and connected with 
them were large and flourishing Sabbath Schools with 
big memberships. These offered attractions and induce- 
ments for the attendance of young people, that were 
beyond the facilities of our modest little institution, and 
the natural inevitable result was a gradual decline in 
the number of scholars. This continued to such an ex- 
tent that even the optimistic spirit of superintendent 
Eoenig was unable to find sufficient encouragement for 
further efforts to prolong its existence and on Whit- 
monday, June 11, 1905, the last session was held. 
While acknowledging the thanks and appreciation due 
to Mr. Koenig for his unselfish and faithful services, the 
Annual Meeting of Whitmonday June 12, 1905, re- 
luctantly agreed to the disbanding of the Sunday School. 

In its sixty-seven years of existence there were seven 
Superintendents, namely: James Wright, Edward 



THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 1S9 

Lyons, Joseph! Metcalfe, William Horrocks, Emanuel 
Hey, William Cariss and Charles F. Eoenig. 

These men devoted their best efforts to instil the 
Christian principles of kindness, gentleness and hnmau- 
ity into the hearts and lives of the young people, and 
to encourage in the scholars an interest in, and a proper 
miderstanding of, the importance of the truths and pre- 
cepts contained in the Sacred Scriptures. That they 
received the cordial and sincere support of the teach- 
ers and other officers of the School is demonstrated in 
the annual reports rendered to the Church and though 
it was a matter of siujcere regret that circunstances be- 
yond control seemed to make the disbandment of the 
School a necessary or desirable course, there is no doubt 
that it had a good and worthy influence on many young 
lives, an influence that was beneficial physically, men- 
tally and spiritually, and an experience on which they 
could look back in later years vcdth pleasure and 
appreciation. ' 



CHAPTER Vin 

THE INSTITUTE 

The following Resolution appears in the Minutes 
of the eleventh annual meeting of the Church Whit- 
monday May 26, 1828. 

Moved by Mr. Taylor, seconded by Mr. Jonathan 
Wright, and: Resolved, That a Sick Club be formed of 
members of the Bible-Christian Church alone, male and 
female, and that Mr. Metcalfe, Mr. Horrocks, Mr. Nuttall, 
Mr. Wright and Mr. Taylor be appointed a Committee to 
draw up a Constitution, and otherwise provide for the same 
as may be deemed necessary, and that the said Committee 
report on the subject to a special meeting to be held one 
month from the date hereof. 

The Members of the Bible-Christian Church Male and 
Female luBtitution, Organized Whitsuntide, 

June, 1828. 

9 

The object of this Institution was to take care of 
the sick. Entrance fee $.50; Dues $.75 quarterly; 
Sick Benefits $3.00 weekly; Death Benefits $20.00. 

It was discontinued at the beginning of the Civil 
War 1861. 

The Officers consisted of a President, Secretary, 

140 



THE INSTITUTE 



141 



Treasurer, Stewards (two male and two female). The 
f oUowiiig is a chronological list of these officers : 



President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 

President, 
Secretary, 



99 



Treasurer, 

President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 

President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 

President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 



Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, 1828-1830 
Wm. Taylor, 1828-1830 

James Wright, 1828-1830 

James Eoyle, 1830-1831 

Jonathan Wright, 1830-31, (Pres. 1856-61) 

Eev. Wm. MetcaKe, 1831-1856, (1868-1861) 



James Brooks, 

John Eest, 
Joseph Metcalfe, 
Samuel Winn, 



1830-1831, (1832-1869) 

1831-1836 
1866-1858 
1831-1832 



James Brooks, 
Edward Lyons, 



1832-1859 
1841-1854 



Edmunfl Brooks, 1859-1861 
STBWAEDS (MALE) 



Jonathan Wright, 
James Brooks, 
Thomas Mosely, 
John Eest, 
David Nuttall, 
Edward Lyons, 
John Lever, 
Nicholas Gregson, 
George Eichardson, 
Joseph Metcalfe, 
Ed)nund Brooks, 
William Gariss, 



1829-1831-1848 

1829-1831-1833 

1829 — 6 months 

1830—1 year 

1831—1 year 

1834-1836 

1837— 

1838-1841 

1842-1847 

1849-1861 

1862-1858 

1859-1861 



142 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH 

STEWABDS (FEMALE) 

Mrs. Metcalfe, 1829-1880 

Mrs. Boyle, 1829-1830 

Mrs. M. Horrocks, 1847-1848 

Mrs. S. Metcalfe, 184M848 

Miss E. Horrocks, 1849-1851 

Mrs. I. Cariss, 1849-1869 

il' Mrs. E. A. Wright, 1863-1864 

, Miss H. Brooks, 1862 — 

;. Mrs. M. Taylor, 1866-1859 



i 

r 



»\-^- 



CHAPTER IX 

PHTSIOLOGIOAL SOCIETY 

Bible-Cfaristian Physiological Society 
1840-1841-1842 

' ■ . ■■■ 

Annual Beports 
Dec. 25, 1840 and 1841 

SooDBTY was orgfuiized August 16, 1840, and was 
in existence apparently about two years, being devoted 
to the giving of lectures and public discussions on the 
advantages of VegetarianisnL The Officers and Mem- 
bers consisted principally of Bible-Christian Church 
Members and others in sympathy with or interested in 
the subject of Vegetarianism. 



148 



CHAPTER X 
THE LADIES' AID SOOIETT 

Befobs tlie final word of the one-himdred year his- 
tory of The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Chureh has 
been said, the Conmiittee desires to give a brief ezpres* 
sion of admiration for what has been an affiliated organ- 
ization of the Church, to offer a most insufficient but 
sincere tribute to the wonderful value and importance 
of the work, labor and influence of the Ladies' 
Aid Society. 

The regular proceedings of the meetings as set forth 
in the records of the Society will of course occupy a 
prominent place in the history, and interesting though 
the information may be, it cannot adequately express the 
faithfulness, patience, kindliness and genuine Christian 
effort and accomplishment typified in the career of this 
little association. 

Organized during the early and dark days of the 
great Civil War, in 1863, it has continued the even tenor 
of its existence for more than half a century, devoting 
its time, labor, thought and money to the welfare of 
the Church, to the assistance of the needy, to public and 
private charity, to the social enjoyment and improve- 
nient of young and old, to help and consolation on many 
occasions of sickness and bereavement, most truly has 

144 



THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 145 

it been in the fiillest and best eenae of the words a 
"I^adies^ Aid Society." 

The mothers, grandmothers and great-grandinxothjers 
of some of the present members were active, devoted, 
faithful members of the Society in past years. Its Boll 
Book contains the names of many who were not "Bible 
Christians/' but who had a decided feeling of friend- 
ship for the Church and its members, and in all its 
years of labor and usefulness, in days of prosperity 
and in times of depression and discouragement, it has 
exemplified and practised those great Christian princi- 
pies, Faith, Hope and Charity, aud in any true esti- 
mate that is made of the activities, philanthropy and 
benefits conferred by The Philadelphia Bible-Christian 
Church a generous appreciation must be given to the 
officers and members of its Ladies' Aid Society. 

The Ladies' Aid Society was organized July 15, 
1863, at the home of Bev. Joseph Metcalfe. 

At the commencement it was called the Soldiers' 
Aid Society, and its object was to aid the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the War of the Bebellion« 

Its first work was to sew articles of clothing and send 
to Gettysburg cases of these for the sick and wounded. 
These were distributed by one of the pastors of the 
Church and his wife, Dr. and Mrs. William Taylor, 
who were doing useful work among the suffering sol- 
diers there at that time. 

The meetings of the Society were held at the homes 
of the different members. 



14« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

At the organization of the Society there were soYen- 
teen members as follows: 

Mrs. Martha Taylor (Rothwell) President 

Mrs. Sprat Mrs. Schoch 

Mrs. Wilson Mrs. Needham 

Mrs. James Horrocks Miss M. A. Horrooks 

Mrs. Isabelle Cariss Miss E. Wri^t 

Mrs. Margaret Wright Miss Susanna Metcalfe 

3frs. Edmund Brooks Miss Maiy Horrooks 

Mrs. M. Koenig Mrs. Joseph Metcalfe 

Mrs. Henry Taylor Mrs. M. 0. Metcalfe 

In September 1863, the Society decided to extend 
its sphere of usefulness to the Church as well as to 
the soldiers and it was henceforth to be known as 
the Ladies' Aid Sociely, instead of the Soldiers' 
Aid Society. 

In 1864 aprons were made by the ladies and sold 
for the benefit of the Church. 

On Whitmonday, May 16, 1864, the Ladies' Aid 
Society reported that they had been making and dispos- 
ing of salable articles and intended to work in concert 
with the Trustees of the Church and devote a part of 
their funds to furnishing the church with Venetian shut- 
ters inside. Notice is given in Church report for 
Whitmonday June 5, 1865, that ''The Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety which has been a vital organization in our little 
Cougr^ation, has had neat, convenient and pleasant 
Venetian window shutters placed within the church at 



THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 147 

each window. This is mentioned that credit may be 
given where it is due. We feel thankful, as Trustees, 
to the Ladies' Aid Society for this generous contribution 
to the church, and hope the ladies may long enjoy the 
great improvement they have made in our little Temple 
of Worship." 

Lti January, 1866, the ladies collected for a Tablet 
for the church to the memory of the paBtor, Bev. 
William Metcalfe. 

Tea parties were occasionally held in the early days 
by which considerable money was raised, and strawberry 
festivals also in the early summer seajston. Dinners at 
Whitsuntide were gotten up by the ladies and the pro- 
ceeds therefrom placed in the Ladies' Aid funds. Fairs 
were held at different times, and on Sunday-school pic- 
nics the ladies sold refreshments. 

In 1867, the ladies paid Bobert Wright for placing 
railing in front of the church, also paid him at another 
time the same year for a new style of brick for paving 
in front of the church. 

In February 1869, the ladies paid for gas put into 
the church. 

At Ohristmas times the ladies paid for and super^ 
vised decorating the church with greens and holly. 

In 1870 the ladies had the wood work of the church 
painted and the pews cushioned and floor carpeted and 
tablets letteredr 

Belative to the cushioning of the church pews by the 
members of the Ladies' Aid, we quote verbatim from 



148 BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

report of the secretary (1871) Mary C. Metcalfe: 
^To-day we have the heartfelt satisfactioii of seeing as 
the result of our labors, the church presenting an 
appearance that attracts general attention and appro- 
bation from all its visitors and in seeing our congrega- 
tion comfortably seated; the poorest as well as the 
wealthiest, all provided for in. their worship/' 

In June, 1871 at the Annual Excursion by the Sun- 
day School to Eddington, the ladies supplied refresh- 
ments, and the Society had a picnic at Bockdale in 
August 1871. 

At different times mention is made of sums of money 
being given by the Society to the Church for permanent 
maintenance of the church, September, 1882, the So- 
ciety paid $50.00 toward perpetual insurance on 
church property. 

Sometimes quilts were made by the ladies of the 
Society. In October, 1883, fourteen quilts had been 
made for which $18.00 was realized, and in December, 
1886, two quilts were made and sold at $1.00 each. 

December 11, 1886, occurred the death of Miss 
Mary Ann Horrocks. She was one of the charter mem- 
bers and very active and faithful. 

November, 1887, Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, a worthy 
and devoted member died. 

In 1888 a Pink Tea Meeting was held on Thanks- 
giving evening and $28.72 was raised. 

In 1889 Tableaux were given on Washington's 
Birthday and $29.65 raised. 



THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 149 

In 1890 a Fair was held at Easter time on Saturday 
and Monday afternoons and evenings and $202.42 real- 
ized and presented to the Trustees of the Ohureh. 

June 28, 1890, "Tombola" held at which $270.75 
was realised and handed over to the Church for 
building purposes. 

In January, 1891, mention is made of sale of two- 
hundred copies of Vegetarian Cook Books, realizing 
$11.00 thereby. This Cook Book was prepared and 
published by the ladies of the church for the benefit 
of the Society. 

September 2, 1891, a Fruit festival held and $37.55 
realized to go toward fund for Sunday-school room* 

September 18, 1892, the death of Mrs. Eliza 
Horrocks occurred. She had been treasurer of the 
Society for twenty-nine years and was one whose counsel 
was always depended upon for its vsdsdom, and she 
personally retained the undivided affection of all the 
other members. 

The wine for Sacrament was made by lilrs. Mary C. 
Metcalfe for a great many years. It was the pure grape 
juice, unfermented. In October, 1894, the making of 
the wine was transferred from Mrs. M. C. Metcalfe to 
Mrs. H. S. Clubb. This was always in the earlier days 
a gratuitous service, the grapes and sugar being paid 
for by the Ladies' Aid Society. 

In 1895 the Ladies' Aid made clothes which were 
given to poor children. 



150 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

March 30, 1896, the death of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Metcalfe, aged eighty-two, occurred. She was one of the 
origmal members and an active worker in the Society. 
She was the widow of the Rev. Joseph Metcalfe. 

In November, 1898, the ladies decided to sew for 
a ^'Basket" as proposed by Mxs. Chas. F. Koenig, for 
the benefit of the Society. Material for aprons was 
pnrohased at different times by the Society and the 
ladies made the aprons at the meetings and sold them. 
Mrs. Oeorge W. Wright kept the Erankford Basket at 
first, and, later, Mrs. Edwin E. Metcalfe. One was 
kept in the city as well, by Mrs. Henry T. Cariss. The 
proceeds for one hundred and eleven aprons amounted 
to $13.92 for one year in 1903. 

In 1900, pillow cases and sheets and outing flannel 
were donated by the Society to the Medioo-Chirurgi* 
cal Hospital 

In June 1900, Miss Martha W. Clubb was elected 
Assistant Secretary — ^Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe being 
the Secretary. 

In Eebruary, 1901, the ladies purchased three and 
one-half dozen knives and forks for $14.88, for use at 
Whitsuntide dinners and similar affairs. 

In July, 1901, the Society contributed $15.00 for 
the Church Special Fund in sending Rev. Henry S. 
Clubb and daughter Martha W. to England to visit the 
Bible-Christian Church in Salford. 

On September 18, 1901, oocurred the death of Mrs. 
IsabeUe M. Cariss, one of the original and evw faith- 



THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 151 

ful members of the Society. She had ooBBiderable 
ability in making beautiful things, having classes where 
she taught embroidery and painting on fabrics for 
decorative purposes. 

October 18, 1901, an Engjlish Tea Party was held 
in honor of the Bev. James Clark of Salford Church, 
England, and his daugihter Bertha. The proceeds from 
this Tea Party went towards a gift for Mr. Clark, pre- 
sented to him by the Church. 

In July, 1902, mention is made that ^'twenty-six 
members are on roll in good standing." 

December 25, 1903, the death of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Otley occurred. She was for over thirty years a mem- 
ber of the Society. 

July 26, 1904, occurred the death of Mrs. G^rge 
W. Wright. Her whole life had been devoted to the 
interest of the Sunday School, Church and the Ladies' 
Aid Society. 

On June 5, 1905, the death of Mrs. Mary B. Taylor 
occurred. She was president of the Society and 
one of the original members. 

Mrs. Anne B. Clubb acted aa President until the 
January yearly meeting 1906, when Mrs. Anna B. 
Koenig was elected. 

On Eebruary 21, 1906, occurred the death of Mrs. 
Mary C. Metcalfe. She had been the secretary of 
the Society since its organization. She was bom 
December 16, 1819. 



152 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

In May, 1906, Miss Martha W. Clubb was 
elected secretary. 

December 5, 1906, the Society contributed 
$25.00 toward the Bev. James Clark Memorial Fund 
in Manchester. 

January, 1907, the Society donated clothing to the 
Christ's Home for Children located at Cheltenham, Pa. 

March 12, 1908, occurred the death of Mrs. Francena 
Earned Horrocks. Her life was one of sincere and 
earnest devotion to the interests of the Bible-Christian 
Church and of this Society. 

The Society in several instances gave financial assist- 
ance to its own and the Church members. 

At Easter times it was customary for the Society 
to purchase flowers for decorating the church. 

June 24, 1914, the death of Miss Mary Horrod[S 
occurred. She was the treasurer for many years, one 
of the charter members and her life was one of sincere 
and earnest devotion to the interests of the Ohurcb, 
and Society. 

July 8, 1914, Miss Eliza B. Horrocks was elected 
treasurer to fill vacancy caused by the death of her sister 
Miss Mary Horrocks. 

December 26, 1915, the death of Mrs. Anna B. 
Koenig occurred. She was president of the Sociely and 
always devoted to its interests. 

February 9, 1916, Mrs. E. F. Metcalfe was made 
president 7the Sodely. 

June 12, 1916, the last Whitmonday Yearly meet- 
ing at the church on Park Avenue took place before 



THE LADIES' AH) SOCIETY 15S 

the sale of the church property waa completed. A din- 
ner was served by the ladies and Mrs. James E. Myers 
made "Pea Pies" in accordance with the old time cusr 
tom for that day. These pies had formerly been 
made by Mrs. Isabelle Cariss and later by Miss 
Mary Horrocks. 

On October 3, 1917, occnrred the death of Mrs, Amy 
H. Cariss, a long and faithful member. 

In February 1918, Miss Eliza B. Horrocks resigned 
as Treasurer and Miss Naomi Clubb was elected in 
her place. 

Meetings of the Society have continued to be held 
in a very pleasant, social way at the homes of its mem- 
bers and refreshments served by the hostess. Usually 
in July a picnic is the order as a winding up for the 
year and then no meetings are held until October. 

Offigebs of The Ladies' Aid Society 

PRESIDENTS 

Mrs. Martha T. Bothwell, July 16, 1863— April 28, 1882 

Mrs. Mary B. Taylor, June, 1882— June 6, 1906 

Mrs. Anne B. Clubb, June 12, 1906— Jan. 10, 1906 

Mrs. Anna B. Eoenig, Jan. 10, 1906— -Dec. 26, 1916 

Mrs. Edwin P. Metcalfe, Jan. 1916 

SBCBETABIES 

Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe, July 16, 1863— Feb. 21, 1906 
Miss Martha W. Clubb, May 9, 1906 

TBBASUBEBS 

Mrs. Eliza Horrocks, July 16, 186a— Sept. 18, 1892 

Miss Mary Horrocks, Oct. 1892 — June 24, 1914 

Miss Eliza B. Horrocks, July 8, 1914— Feb. 7, 1918 

Miss Naomi Clubb, Feb. 7, 1918 

11 



154 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

List of Mbmbbbs of Thb Ladibs' Aid Sooibty 

Fboic 1863 TO 1921 



Bothwell^ Mrs. Martha 


1863— April 28, 1882, (death) 


Horrocks^ Mrs. Eliza 


1863— Sept. 18, 1892, (death) 


Horrocks^ Mrs. Elizabeth 


1863— Mch. 12, 1905, (death) 


Cariss^ Mrs. Isabelle M. 


1863— Sept. 18, 1901, (death) 


Wright^ Mrs. Margaret 


1863 


Brooks, Mrs. Elizabeth 


1863— Oct. 18, 1887, (death) 


Schoch, Mrs. Eliza 


1863— July, 1872, (death) 


Taylor, Mrs. Henry M. 


1863— June 6, 1905, (death) 


Eoenig, Mrs. Mattie F. 


1863 July, 1872, (death) 


MetcaUe, Mrs. Elizabeth 


1863— Mch. 30, 1895, (death) 


Wright, Mrs. Susanna 




(Metcalfe) 


1863— Feb. 2, 1914, (death) 


Horrocks, Miss Mary 


1863— June 24, 1914, (death) 


Horrocks, Miss Mary Ann 


1863— Dec. 11, 1886, (death) 


Wright, Mrs. Bobert 


1863 


Cunliffe, Mrs. 


1863—1880 


Needham, Mrs. 


1863 


Large, Mrs. 


1863 


Tronghton, Miss Sallie 


1863 


Hey, Mrs. Emanuel 


1863 


Oalt, Miss Agnes 


1863 


Oalt, Miss Kate 


• 


(Mrs. Styles) 


1863 


MetcAlfe, Mrs. Mary G. 


1863— Feb. 21, 1906, (death) 


Spratt, Mrs. 


1863 


Wilson, Mrs. 


1863 


Shoemaker, Mrs. M. 


1863 


Barned, Mrs. 


1863 


Powell, Mrs. 


1863 


Jones, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm. 


1864 


Taylor, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm. 


1866 


Cariss, Mrs. Henry T. 




(Hyde) 


1866--Oct. 9, 1917, (death) 



THE lADIE 


3' AID SOT, 1 KIT 


156 


Singleton^ Mrs. 


1866 




Wright, Mrs. J, 


1866 




Armstrong, Mrs. 


1866 




Gondee, Mrs. 


1866 




Brooks, Miss Hannah 






(Mrs. Warrington) 


1867 




Hey, Miss Hannah 


1867 




Bamed, Miss Annie 






(Mrs. Koenig) 


1867— Dec. 26, 1916, 


(death) 


Lowry, Mrs. 


1868 




McBride, Mrs. 


1868 




Derbyshire, Mrs. 


1868 




Horrocks, 






Mrs. Francena Bamed 


1869— Mch. 12, 1908, 


(death) 


Prince, Miss Lizzie 


1870 




Wright, Mrs. George W. 






(Metoalfe) 


1871— July 86, 1904, 


(death) 


Brooks, Mrs. Wm. G. 


1871 




Prince, Miss Maggie 


1871 




Gariss, Mrs. Emma 


1871— April 15, 1921, 


(death) 


Lord, Mrs. Harriet 


1871—1906, (death) 




Williams, 


- 




Mrs. Isabelle Horrocks 


1872— June 26, 1916, 


(death) 


Briggs, Mrs. Susie 






(Taylor) 


1873 




Cooper, Miss Maggie 


1874 




MaeHngh, 






Mrs. Lizzie Brooks 


1876 


. 


Horrocks, Miss Eliza B. 


1876 




Glubb, Mrs. Anne B. 


1877— May 21, 1916, 


(death) 


Glubb, Miss Annie 


1877— April 16, 1880, 


(death) 


Horrocks, Mrs. James J. 


1878 


• 


Peters, Mrs. Jennie CiuiliSel878 


*• 



156 bible<;hristian church 



Qoold, Mi88 Eliza 


1878— Sept. 10, 1904, (death) 


Myers^ Mrs. Ida 


1880 


Trainer, Mrs. 


1881 


Himmelwriglit, Mrs. W. 


1886 


Bothwell, Mrs. Jane 


1888 


Buckley, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm. C.1890 


Metcalfe, Mrs. Edwin F. 


1890 


Otley, Mrs. Elizabeth 


1890— Dec. 26, 1903, (death) 


Otley, Miss Dora 




(Mrs. Wright) 


1890 


Both, Miss Annie 


1892 


Brown, Miss Amelia 


1893— Nov. 2, 1900, (death) 


Horrocks, Mrs. J. Howard 


,1899—1909 


Horrocks, Mrs. Charles 


1899—1909 


HorrocJcR, Miss Harriet 


1899—1913 


Rowland, Mrs. Lynford 


1899—1914 


Sidebotham, Mrs. John B. 


1899—1914 


Gnilbert, Mrs. N. B. 




(Lord) 


1899 


Wright, Miss Bertha C. 


• 


Mrs. Crankshaw) 


1899—1908 


Clubb, Miss Martha W. 


1900 


Bobinson, Mrs. 


1901—1908 


Oentner, Mrs. Frederick 


1911 


Fenton, Mrs. Harry 


1911 


Clnbb, Miss Bessie R. 


1911 


Lord, Mrs. Edmund B. 


1911 


Mann, Mrs. Wm. 




(Elsie MacHugh) 


1913 


Myers, Mrs. James E. 


1913 


Lauer, Mrs. Esther 


1914 


Clubb, Miss Naomi 


1916 


DeFeiber, Miss Lena 


1916 



THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 



167 



Hill, Mrs. Harry 1916 

Scheibner, Mrs. Lawrence 1916 
King, Mrs. Esther H. 

(Lord) 1919 

Twesten, Mrs. Emily 1920 

MacWade, Mrs. Othelia 1921 

List op Active Membees on the Boll July, 1922 



Metcalfe, Mrs. Edwin F. 
Myers, Mrs. Tyson 
Gnilbert, Mrs. Nicholas B. 
MacHngh, Mrs. Wm. 
Centner, Mrs. Frederick 
Fenton, Mrs. Harry 
Mann, Mrs. Wm. 
Scheibner, Mrs. Lawrence 
Lord, Mrs. Edmnnd B. 

Lord, Miss E. 



Lauer, Mrs. Esther 
Myers, Mrs. James E. 
King, Mrs. Esther H. 
Twesten, Mrs. Emily 
MacWade, Mrs. Othelia 
DeFeiber, Miss Lena 
Clubb, Miss Naomi 
Glubb, Miss Bessie B. 
Clubb, Miss Martha W. 
Eva 



CHAPTER XI 

THE AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 

The American Vegetarian Society was organized 
May 15, ISSO, by personB who believed in and practised 
a v^tarian method of life, induced by hygLenie, 
religions, humanitarian or other motives. Many memr 
bers of the Bible-Christian Church connected them- 
selves with the Society. Accounts of meetings, banquets 
etc. held by this organization, taken from their literary 
organ. The American Vegetaaian and Health Journal, 
are submitted herewith. 

Pbocebdinos of The Amebicak Vsqbtabiak 

Convention 
First Session: 

Agreeably to public notice, a Convention of Vege- 
tarians and others friendly to the cause of Dietetic 
Beform, was held at Clinton Hall, New York, May 15, 
1850. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, 
there was a fair concourse assembled on the occasion. 
Soon after 10 o'clock a.m.. Dr. William A. Alcott, of 
West Newton, Mass., called the meeting to order by 
nominating Dr. Joel Shew, of New York, as President 
pro-tem., and Mr. Joseph Wright, A.M., of Camden, N. J., 
as Secretary. 

On taking the chair. Doctor Shew called on the Bev. 
William Metcalfe, of Philadelphia, who read letters from 
a number of persons who could not be present. 
15S 



AMERICAN VEGETAEIAN SOCIETY 159 

The objects of the Convention were stated by Eey. 
William Metcalfe. 

Some discnssion followed and Mr. Jonathan Wright^ of 
Philadelphia^ gave his experience. 

Second Session: 

The Gonyention re-assembled at 3 o'clock p.m. 

On motion, the Preamble and Constitution were con- 
sidered, consecutively, and after some remarks by P. 
P. Stewart, of Troy, objecting to the term 'Vegetarian,*' 
which were replied to by Doctor Alcott and Doctor l^ichols, 
both were finally adopted as follows : 

Pbisahblb. — ^Ob ject : The object of this Association is 
to induce habits of abstinence from the flesh of animals 
as food, by the dissemination of information upon the 
subject, by means of verbal discussions, tracts, essays, 
lectures, exhibiting the many advantages of a physical, 
intellectual, and moral character, resulting from vege- 
tarian habits of diet, and thus to secure through the 
association, example, and efforts of its members/ the adop- 
tion of a principle which will tend essentially to true 
civilization, to imiversal brotherhood, and to the increase 
of human happiness generally. 

CoNSTiTUTiOK : This Society is constituted of a Presi- 
dent; nine Vice-presidents; a Treasurer; a Corresponding 
Secretary; a Secording Secretary; and an unlimited num- 
ber of members in America, and Honorary members 
abroad, who have signed the Declaration of the Society. 

Dbolabation : ^'I hereby declare that I have abstained 
from the Flesh of Animals as Food for one month and 
upwards; and that I desire to become a member of the 
Vegetarian Society; and to co-operate with that Body in 
promulgating the knowledge of the advantages of a Vege- 
tarian Diet/' 



160 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Mode and Tebms of Admission: Persons; male or 
female^ desiring to become members^ having abstained 
one month or upwards upon sending the above Declaration, 
duly signed, to the Corresponding Secretary, together 
with twenty-five cents, (free of postage) will be enrolled 
as members. The Annual Subscription of active members 
shall be one dollar; and the payment of twenty dollars 
at once shall constitute a Life Member of the Society. 

Ofhokbs of Thb Ambbioan Yeqetabian Sogibtt 

fbbsidents 

Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, West Newton, 

Mass., 1860-1869 

Sev. Wm. Metcalfe, Kensington, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1869-1862 

VICE-FBESIDSNTS 

Dr. B. D. Mussey, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1860-61-62-63-64-56 
Sylvester Graham, Northampton, 

Mass., 1860 

P. P. Stewart, Troy, N. Y., 1860 
H. H. Hite, Middletown, Frederic 

Co., Va., 1860-61-52 

Dr. David H. Prince, St. Louis, Mo., 1850 
Joseph Wright, A.M., Camden, N. J., 1850 

Dr. Joel Shew, New York, 1850 

William C. Chapin, Tiverton, E. I., 1850 
Joseph Metcalfe, Frankford, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1850-51 
0. S. Fowler, Esq., 131 Nassau St., 

New York, 1851 

Dr. John Grimes, Boonton, N. J., 1861-62-63-64-66 
Dr. T. L. Nichols, 91 Clinton Place, 

New York, 1851-52 



AMERICAN VEGETABIAN SOCIETY 161 

Dr, T. E. Brown, Galveston, Texas, 1851 
Dr. Charles H. Cleveland, 

Waterbnry, Vt., 1851 
J. H. Hanaford, Esq., Newton 

Upper Palls, Mass., 1851-52-53-54-55 
James Brooks, Esq., Frankford, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1852 

Dr. E. T. TraU, New York, 1852-53-64-55 

Edward Lyons, Philadelphia, Pa., 1852 

Eev, Danl. Lott, Lottville, Pa., 1853-54-55 
C. H. DeWolfE, Esq., Oldtown, Maine, 1853-54-55 
A. W. Scales, M.D., 

Harrodsbnrg, Ky., 1853-54-55 

Jonathan Wright, Philadelphia, Pa., 1853 

M. P. Baldwin, Esq., New York, 1853 

Lewis S. Hongh, Orlando, Pla., 1854-55 

C. H. LeBaron, Esq., New York, 1854-55 

BECOBDINO 8EGBBTABIES 

Dr. E. T. TraU, 16 Laight St., 

New York, 1850 

Joseph Wright, A.M., Camden, N. J., 1851-52 

GOBBESPONOIKQ SEGBETABY 

Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, M.D., 

Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa., 1860-61-52-53-64-55 

TBEASUBEBS 

Samuel E. Wells, New York, 1850 

James Horrocks, Esq., Frankford, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 1861-62-53-54-56 

FOBEIQK COBBESPONDING SECBBTABIES 

Henry S. Clnhh, Manchester, 

England, 1852 

E. T. Cluhb, Liverpool, England, 1854-66 



162 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Third Session: 

The oonvention met again at 7.30 o^olook in iihe 

evening, and Doctor Alcott, as President of the Vege- 
tarian Society took the chair. The Constitution was 
read to the meeting, and an opportunity afforded for 
any who wished to sign it. 

Addresses were delivered by Doctor Alcott and Dr. 
Sylvester Graham. 

The Fibst Autitivibbsabt 

OF THB 

Amebioan Vegbtabian Society 

The first Anniversary of the American Vegetarian 
Society was held in the Lecture room of the Chinese 
Museum^ Philadelphia, on Wednesday, September 4, 
1850, according to a resolution of the Society at its 
meeting held in New York on the 16th of May last 
Dr. WnL A Alcott of Massachusetts, presided, and in 
the absence of the Secretary, Dr. B. T. Trail of ITew* 
York, Joseph Wright A. M., of Camden, N. J., was 
appointed Secretary pro-tem. 

Morning, afternoon and evening sessions were held. 

Letters from members not present were read and an 
address from the English V^tarian Society, Manchesr 
ter, also read. 

Addresses of an interesting character were delivered 
by several speakers, members of the Society — ^Doctor 
Alcott, Lewis S. Hough, A. M., among others* 

On Thursday, the following day at 2 o'dodi^ Dr. 
Wm. A. Alcott announced the organization of the 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 168 

Sooietj for the transaction of business. The Com- 
mittee on a Vegetarian Periodical reported favorably 
to the cause of Vegetarianism and Physiology generally. 
The rejport vras accepted and on motion the Bev. Wm. 
Metcalfe and Joseph Wri^t, A. M., were appointed 
to the Committee on Publication, with power to estab- 
lishi such an organ if encouragement be sufficient to 
warrant the undertaking. 

Notice was now given that the feast was in read- 
iness, and the Society accordingjly adjourned to the 
room prepared for the occasion. The banquet room 
was very tastefully decorated with heavy festoons of 
evergreens, flowers and fruits. At the back of the table 
appropriated to the officers of the Society was the 
following motto, printed in large letters: 

Gk)d Said ^^ Behold I have given you every herb, 
bearing seed^ and every tree in the which is the fruit 
of a tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat." — 
Obn. 1: 29. 

The tables were tastefully arranged and well supplied 
with that which was " pleasant to the sight and good 
for food." There were, we understand upwards of 
thirty cooked varieties of food, not including preserves 
and other side-dishes. The first course consisted of 
savory dishes of various kinds; potatoes, bread, etc., 
the second course comprised fruit pies, custards, pud- 
dings, moulded farina etc. The dessert was then placed 
on the table, consisting of peaches, apples, melons, 
plums, nuts, cakes etc. A richer and more luxurious 



164 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH 

dinner could scarcely be prepared, the whole showing 
oondusively that the vegetable kingdom affords ^^ Plenty 
to eat, without any meat/' 

During the session sentiments and remarks were 
given by Doctor Alcott, J. Wright, A, M., Ker. Wm. 
Metcalfe, Doctor Grimes, Mr. Harrison, Wm, B. 
Elliott and Cyrus M. Burleigh. 

Thb Sbookd ANiniAL MsxTiNa 

OF THE 

Ambeioaw Vegbtaeian Society. 

The second Annual Meeting of the American 
Vegetarian Society was held on the 10th of September, 
1851, in the Lecture room of the Chinese Museum, 
Philadelphia, and three sessions were held. 

The reading of letters from absent members came 
after the election of officers. 

The evening session was devoted to addresses by 
Dr. W. A. Alcott, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, Cyrus M. Bur- 
leigh, Esq., Lewis S. Hough, A. M., Thomas Hembleton 
of Chester Co. Pa., and Mr. Hiram Ward. 

The Vegetarian Society re-assembled the next day in 
the Bible-Christian churchy in the aftemooUi After 
a business meeting a festival was held at 3 o'clock. 

The following persons constituted a Committee for 
the purpose of preparing the festival 

HANAOEBS 

Mrs. M. Wright Mrs. Isabella Cariss 

Mrs. H. Brooks Mrs. E. Horrocks 

Mrs. M. Taylor Mrs^ M. Peterman 



AMiatlCAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 165 

OOMKITTEB 

Miss M. A. Horrocks Miss E. A. Wright 

Miss Mary Gariss Miss Eliza Brooks 

Miss Mary Bamed Miss M. Wright 

Bill of Fabb 

(Savory Dishes) 

Omelet Pie Potato Pie 

Savory Pie Egg Plant 

Tomatoes Omelet Fritters 

(Sweets) 

Blange Bice and Custards 
Vegetarian Mince Pie 
Cheese Cake 
Fruit Pie 
Moulded Farina 
(Fruits) 
Peaches, Apples, Grapes, Water Melons, Cantaloupes, etc. 

(Beverage) 
Pure Ice Water 

About one hundred and fifty members and friends 
were present at the festival. 

The proceedings were oonmienced by the Bev. 
William Metcalfe asking a blessing at the Throne of 
Grace as follows : 

* 

" We solicit Thy blessing, Oh Heavenly Father 
upon the provision that has been prepared for us on 
this interesting occasion. May we partake thereof with 
such attention to Thy laws, as to promote our health, 
strength and usefulness to our fellow-beings, and 
whether we eat or drink, or whatsoever we do, may we 
glorify thy holy name. Amen*" 



166 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Remarks followed the festival by Dr. Wm. A. 
Alcott, Dr. T. L. Nichols, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe and 
Doctor Elder. 

1852 

The third Annual Meeting convened on the 15th 
of September, 1852, in Clinton Hall, New York. 

At the evening session remarks were made by Doctor 
Aloott, Dr. S. L. Nichols, Mr. WiUiam Tebb from 
England, Prof. Mussey and Dr. C. H. De Wolfe. 

The Rev. Wm. Metcalfe though in the city was 
prevented from attending by a severe but temporary 
indisposition. 

1858 

FOUBTH AkNUAL MEBTINa 
OF THB 

Amebioak Vbgbtabian Sooibty 

On Wednesday morning, August 24, 1853^ the 
American Vegetarian Society convened in Aunual 
Assembly at the Lecture room of the Chinese Museum ; 
Dr. WuL A. Aloott, President of the Society, com- 
menced the meeting by stating that he rejoiced exceed- 
ingly to see so many assembled at this early hour, for it 
showed the interest and zeal the mmnbers of the Society 
and its friends took in the good cause. 

Letters from absent members were read by Rev. 
Wm. Metcalfe. 

The afternoon session was devoted to the election 
of officers. 

At the evening session addresses were given by Dr. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 167 

W. A. Alcott Mr. Henry 8. Clubb and Dr. C. K 
DeWolfe. 

An adjourned meeting was held in the Bible- 
Christian church North Third Street, the next day, 
Thursday afternoon, after which a festival was held. 
The Managers of the festival were as follows: 

James Brooks Mrs. Harriet Brooks 

James Horrocks Mrs. Margaret Wright 

James Wright Mrs. Isabelle Cariss 

Emanuel Hey Mrs. Martha Taylor 

William Horrocks Mrs. H. H. Gibson 

William Higgs, Jr. Mrs. Eliza Wright 

George Gibson Mrs. Mary Lyons 

Joseph Metcalfe Miss Jane Laughlin 

Bill of Fabb 
First Course : 

Vegetable Soup, Savory Omelet, Fried Egg Plant, 
Baked Potatoes, Mashed Potatoes, Baked Sweet Potatoes, 

Lima Beans, Green Com, Tomatoes, Parsley Sauce, 

Pickled Lemons Pickled Martins Pickled Beets 

Graham Bread White Bread Ice Water 

Second Course : 

Mince Pie, Cheese Custard, Peach Pie, Cocoanut Custard, 

Moulded Prepared Com 

Moulded Farina Moulded Sice Cream 

Fruits^ Water Melons, Cantaloupes, Peaches, Apples. 

The festival was served in the Leeture room of the 
Bible-Christian church. 

Altogether there were at least one hundred and 
seventy persons present who participated in the festival. 

Bemarks were made by Doctor Mussey and Mr. 
Henry S. Clubb. 



168 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

The Great Vegetariaii Banquet prepared by the 
members of the New York Vegetarian Society in honor 
of the Whole World's Temperance Convention took 
place Saturday evening, September 3, 1853, at the 
Metropolitan Hall. 

The tables were tastefully decorated. Upwards of 
three hundred and fifty persons were present. There 
were also about five hundred spectators in the gallery. 

On the platform was a table for the orators and the 
invited guests^ among whom were Bev. P. H. Shaw 
of Williamsburg and lady, Bev. John Pierpont, Mrs. 
Lucy Stone, Dr. Harriet K. Hunt, Mrs. If ichols, Mrs. 
Lydia N. Fowler, Mrs. Amelia Bloomer, Mrs. Susan 
B. Anthony, Dr. E. T. Trail and the Amphions. Mr. 
Horace Greely and Mrs. Francis D« Ga^ were appointed 
as presiding Officers. 

The proceedings were commenced by the Amphions, 
who sung the subjoined Song of Grace in a most 
artistic manner : 

Lo, the World is rich in blessings. 

Thankful all, His praise repeat. 

" Every herb and each, tree yielding. 

Seed and fruit, shall be our meat.^' 

If ature's banquet, pure and peaceful, 

Is a ^^ feast of reason'' too; 
Every healthful sense delighting, 
Ever changing^ ever new. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 169 

Bill of Fabb 

Vegetable Soup 

Tomato Soup Bice Soup 

Farinacea 

Oraham Bread Mixed Fruit Cake Fruit Bread 

Apple Biscuit Wheat-meal Cakes Moulded Bice 

Com Blanc Mange Moulded Farina 

Moulded Wheaten Grits 

Vegetables 

Baked Sweet Potatoes Stewed Cream Sqaush 

Pastry 
Mixed Fruit Pie Pumpkin Pie 

Fruits 
Melons, Apples, Peaches, Pears, Grapes, Pineapples 

Cooked Fruits 

Plum Jelly Baked Apples 

Belishes 

Coooanut Custard Fruited Ice Cream 

Beverage 
Pure Cold Water 

Rev. Mr. Ebaugh returned thanks. The Amphions 
then came forward and sang a Temperance Ode. 

Mr. Greely addressed the assembly^ also Dr. Jas. 
C. Jackson of Glenhaven Water Care Establishment; 
Mrs. Vaughan, Dr. Harriet K. Hunt, Miss Emily 
Clarke, Mrs. 2Tichols and Mrs. Gage also spoke. 

1864 
Thb Fifth Annval Mebtiito 

OF THB 
AmEBIOAN VsaBTABIAN SOOIBTT 

The fifth Annual Meeting of the American Vege- 
tarian Society convened on Wednesday, August 30, 



170 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

1854, in the Bible-Christian chnrdi, ITorth Third 
Street^ Philadelphia^ at 10.30 o'clock a.m. 

The President, Dr. Wnu A. Aloott being absent, 
the chair was taken by Dr. IL D. Mussey, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

The Rev. WnL Metcalfe, Corresponding Secretary, 
read letters from Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, Aubumdale, 
Mass., the Vegetarian Club of Salmon Falls, K. H., 
Seth Hunt Esq., Northampton, Mass. 

A festival vrsB held in the Lecture room of the 
Bible-Christian churcL 

Bill of Fabb 

First Course : 

Potato Pie Green Com Savory Omelet 

Baked Sweet Potatoes 

Oraham Bread White Bread 

Fried Egg Plant 

Lima Beans Tomatoes Parsley Sauce 

Pickled Beets Pickled Martenoes 

Ice Water 
Second Course : 

Y^etarian Mince Pie Gocoanut Custard 

Cheese Cake 
Peach Pie Apple Custard Moulded Bice 

Fruit Pudding 
Washington Cream Sauce Sweet Cakes 

Apples 

Peaches Water Melons Cantaloupes 

Fruits Nuts 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 171 

SuBpended from the platform -was a baimer on whioii 
the following text was inscribed : 

Gtod said: ''Behold I have given you every herb 
bearing seed, and every tree in the which is the fruit of 
a tree, to you it shall be for meat." Gten. 1.29. 

Around the table sat upwards of one hundred and 
^^ffy guests. 

Mr. Joseph Metcalfe read an address from the 
President of the Society, Doctor Alcott, and other ad- 
dresses were delivered by the following: 

Prof* W. J. Whitaker, Mr. H. S. Olubb, Rev. Wm. 
Metcalfe, Joseph Wright, A.M., Doctor De Wolfe and 
Mr. Hou^ 

The Fsstivals at Boonton 

Any one who has read of Oberlin and his secluded 
labors, between the hills on the borders of France, in 
civilizing a people who were otherwise far away from 
the influence of instruction, may form some idea of the 
labors of our valued friend. Doctor Grimes, in the little 
romantic town between the hills of New Jersey, to 
which he is certainly a Boon, and which is so far appro- 
priately named Boonton. Doctor Grimes, in order to 
teach his neighbors those principles of Domestic Econ- 
omy, which include mercy and humanity, and which 
render the use of animal flesh, or animal substances of 
any kind unnecessary, prepared a Christmas festival, to 
which his neigjhbors were invited to the number of about 
fifty. He gave them ample refreshments of a gratify- 



172 BIBLE-dHRISTIAN CHURCH 

ing character, free of all cost to themselves, and what 
appears almost miraculous, at a cost for provisions of 
only five and one-half cents each. A Christmas dinner 
for five and one-half cents ! 

Friday, December SO, 1853, vtbb the day appointed 
for the festival of the present season and having erected 
a Temperance Hall, among his other beneficent labors 
for the advantage of the town, the festival was held 
there, and at one o'clock in the day, the hall was filled 
vdih hearty gaests, principally of the industrial class 
employed at the iron works in the village, so that they 
were not likely to be contented with merely glancing at 
the feast, and tasting, but came prepared to enjoy a good 
dinner in the most practical way. 

The Hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated 
with evergreens, and such flowers as the season afforded. 
The principal motto was the 29th verse of the 1st 
chapter of Genesis. 

The Excelsior Brass Band consisting of about a 
dozen instruments and excellent performers, enlivened 
the company by their melody. 

The Eev. Mr. Shaw of Williamsburgh, L. I., 
said grace. 

The following bill of fare, will show the character of 
the feast, the principal novelty of which consists in the 
fact that not a particle of animal substances of any 
kind (even excluding milk, butter etc.) was employed on 
the occasion, nor did these substances enter into the 
composition of any of the dishes prepared* 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 17S 

Bill of Fabb 
First Course: 

Indian Com Bread Brown Wheaten Bread 

White Wheaten Bread Boiled Split Peas 
Boiled Cabbage Boiled and Baked Beans 

White Turnips Mashed Potatoes 

Buta-baga Turnips 
Stewed Peaches Stewed Apples 

Stewed Cranberries Stewed Quinces 

Bice Boiled with Fruit 
Cold Sour Pickles Celery 

Second Course : 
Mince Pie Plum Pudding Apple Pie 

Cranberry Tarts Lemon Tarts 

Dessert 

Apples Fruit Ices Nuts 

Mottoes containing sweetmeats of nuts covered with 

candy, fruit, parched com, etc. 
The mottoes in the sweetmeat packets were particularly 
appropriate, such as : 

"Take not away the life you cannot give; 
For all things have an equal right to live/' 

Addresses were delivered during the afternoon by 
Mr. Cogswell, professor of mathematics etc. at the 
New York Hygienic Institute, whose reasoning on 
physiological principles was as indisputable as mathe- 
matical problems; Mr. La Baron, Corresponding Seo- 
retary of the New York Vegetarian Society, whose 
remarks, though brief, were of the practical character; 



174 BIBLE-€HBISTIAN CHUBCH 

Mr. Hunt of N^ew York who displayed in his own good 
humor, a powerful argument in favor of the principles 
he earnestly advocated ; Doctor Dorrence, who spoke on 
the general principles of progress; and Doctor Grimes, 
whose calm benimity and genuine kindness of heart, 
won greatly upon his guests 

The afternoon was thus agreeably spent in the dis- 
cussion of various sentiments and the band oonduded 
the entertainment by performing Hail Columhia, 
Yankee Doodle, eta 

In the evening, a seoond feast was provided, to 
which new guests were invited. Almost, as if by ma^c, 
the tables were again loaded with abundance and variety, 
similar to what was displayed at noon, with the follow- 
ing additions to the dessert : 

Peach Jelly 
Tomato Preserve Quince Preserve 

Baspberry Preserve 

Grape Syrup Lemonade 

Variety of Cakes, etc. 

During the seoond feast, Mrs. Mary C. Vau^ian, 
the well-known Apostle of Temperance in New York 
State, and Mr. Henry S. Clubb, who had been 
delegated by the friends at Philadelphia to attend the 
festival, arrived, and were cordially welcomed by the 
assembled guests. 

Jhe evening was agreeably spent in short speeches, 
from Mr. Cogswell, who offered a number of senti- 
ments, and acted as President of the meeting; Mrs. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 175 

Mary C. Vangliaii who spoke in the highest terms of the 
blessings of true temperance; Doctor Dorrence^ who 
asked for facts in relation to Vegetarianism^ and spoke 
of it aa a new system ; Mr. Henry S. Clubb, who showed 
in reply to Poctor Dorrence that Vegetarianism was 
the original order of creation^ and so far from its being 
an innoyation, flesh eating was an innovation upon it^ 
which had its origin in the fallen condition of man and 
his desire for the gratification of his grosser nature. 

The Eev. Mr. Shaw made some excellent remarks, 
showing that vegetarian practice prepared the way for 
reoeption of religious truth. 

A cordial vote of thanks unto Dinah^ the cook, 
was passed. 

The evening was enlivened by appropriate song, and 
the performances of the band, which concluded the 
entertainment, with the usual national airs. 

The next morning, the stage, which was engaged to 
take some of the guests to the train, was already filled 
with passengers, and only an hour was left for making 
the five miles, over a slippery, hilly road of snow and 
ice. Doctor Grimes with his usual kindness, drove his 
chaise for two of the New York ladies ; Rev. Mr. Shaw, 
Mr. Hunt and Mr. H. S. Clubb, travelled on foot, and 
were at the railroad depot as soon as the horse and chaise, 
determined to see if vegetarianism was not equal to an 
emergency of that kind. 

The publication of The American Vegetarian 
and Health Journal, under the auspices of the 



176 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Society was discontinued October, 1854, for want of 
support. The Water Cure Journal published by Fowler 
and Wells was then designated as the organ of 
the Society. 

Rev. Wm. Metcalfe was president of the American 
Vegetarian Society after the death of Dr. William A. 
Aloott in 1859, and until his own death which occurred 
October 16, 1862, during the Civil War, and no suc- 
cessor was elected and the Society had no organic 
existence, but after a period of twenty-six years a 
Vegetarian Society entitled "The Vegetarian Society 
of America" was started at Philadelphia. 

The Vbgbtabian Sooibty 

OF 
•AlCESIOA 

A convention was called at Alnwick Park, eleven 
miles from the centre of Philadelphia, where a picnic 
of Vegetarians took place, on the 24th of June, 1886, 
the initiatory steps were taken for the formation of a 
Vegetarian Society and a Committee appointed to re- 
port a form of organiation at an adjourned meeting of 
the Convention. In the course of the following winter 
the organization was perfected, and a Constitution 
drawn up and the following officers elected : 

PBESIDENT 

Eev. Henry S. Clubb, 2916 Fairhill St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

VICB-PEBSIDENTS 

Eighteen in all from different states 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 177 

TBBA8UBBR 

Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia 

fiECBBTABT 

Robert J. Osborne, Philadelphia 

BZEOUTIVB COMMITTEB 

(For term of 3 years) 
Miss M. L. Morrison, Philadelphia 
Henry M. Taylor, Philadelphia 
Wilmer Atkinson, Philadelphia 

(For term of 2 years) 
Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia 
Charles M. Stiles, Camden, N. J. 

(For term of 1 year) 
Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe, Philadelphia 
Harrison C. Sellers 
Charles F. Koenig 

The first Anniversary of the Society was held in a 
pavilion at Alnwick Park on June 17, 1887, and a picnio 
in which over one hundred and twenty-five persons, 
mostly vegetarians, participated. A table was provided 
for invited guests. 

Bill of Fabb 

Beet Sandwiches Green Pea Pie 

Omelet Sandwiches Bice Fritters 

Lettuce and Beet Salads 
Cherry Pie Tea Biscuit 

Com Starch Blanc Mange 

Oranges Bananas 

Graham Gems 

Date Gems Strawberries 

Sponge Cake Jelly Cake Lemonade 



178 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHCECH 

Bemarkfl were made by the following: Doctor 
Halbrook, New York City, Hr. A. E. Hacbean, Lake- 
wood, N. J., Doctor Exton, Clinton, N. J., Rev. 
Wm. Penn Alcott, Bozford, Mass., Susanna W. Dodds, 
M. D., St. Louis, Ho. 

An address was read from Elder F. W. Evans, of 
Lebanon, K. Y., who was not present 

Officbbs Elected 

pbesidbnt 
Bev. Henry S. Clubb, Philadelphia 

VICE-PBESIDBNTS 

Henry L. Pry, Cincinnati, Ohio 
M. Augusta Fairchild, M. D., Hanibal, Mo. 
P. W. Hurd, M.D., Experiment Mills, Pa. 
Lewis S. Hough, A.M,, Media, Pa. 

TBEASUBBB 

Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia 

SBCBBTAST 

Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia 

EXECUnVB COMIOTTBB 

Mrs. M. C. Metcalfe, Philadelphia 

Harrison G. Sellers, Philadelphia 

Charles F. Eoenig, Philadelphia 

To Fill Vacancy 

(One year) 

Wright Smith, Philadelphia 

In January, 1889, the first number of Food, Home 
and Garden was started and edited by the President of 
the Vegetarian Society of America, Henry S. Clubb. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 179 

It was issued monthly, and continued until Januaxj, 
1900, when the last number was published and it 
was then consolidated with The Vegetarian Magazine 
of Chicago. 

CONSOLIDATION 

On a careful and impartial consideration of the subject, 
it has been decided to consolidate Food, Homb akd 
Oabden and The Vegetarian Magazine, in order to make 
one good magazine, worthy of the great cause it is intended 
to promote. The Vegetarian Magazine will continue to be 
printed and published by the Vegetarian Company at 
Chicago, and will also be published by the Vegetarian 
Society of America, Philadelphia, of which it will be the 
official organ. Those whose subscriptions to Food, Home 
AND Gabdbk have not expired, will receive the Magazine 
till the expiration of their term, and those who are already 
subscribers to both periodicals can have their term ex- 
tended so as to receive their full money's worth, if they 
so desire. Those who are indebted will please remit as 
early as possible to either office. Editorially, the consoli- 
dated magazine will be imder the managament of Mr. 
Shurtz, in Chicago, and of Bev. Henry S. Clubb, in Phila- 
delphia, each taking a well-defined part in editorial and 
contributive work. The reasons for this consolidation will, 
we trust, become obvious, as the improvements to be thus 
introduced shall become developed. We bespeak the kindly 
and earnest co-operation of all Vegetarians and their 
friends, with a view to make this magazine a great success, 
both as a literary yenture and financially. 

Heney S. Clubb, 
Pres., Vegetarian Society of America. 

Albert H. Sntdeb, 
Manager, Vegetarian Company. 



180 BIBU&-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Food, Home and Oarden afforded information as 
to the best food to promote the physical^ moral and 
spiritual welfare without destroying the lives of other 
sensitive creatures. It contained accounts of the ex- 
perience of those who had adopted the vegetarian 
practice as well as the scientific facts on whicH the 
system is based. The most delicate lunches, the most 
enjoyable dinners and suppers could be prepared by 
directions given in the magazine. It contained the 
most recent discoveries of methods of producing fruit8> 
vegetables and flowers. 

On Tuesday evening, Feb. 19, 1889, an entertain- 
ment under the auspices of the Vegetarian Society took 
place at the residence of the Secretary, Dr. J. Harvey 
Lovell, 936 Franklin Street, Philadelphia. Bemarks 
were made by the President, Henry S. Clubb, Mr. 
Albert J. Edmunds and Dr. J. Harvey LovelL 

Mr. Edgar Bradford, "Nelton the Juggler," per- 
formed feats of dexterity and skill in balancing balls, 
seven being kept in motion at one time, and he also 
read an elaborate essay in which he defended vege- 
tarianism as one of the oldest, and yet, to many, one of 
the latest subjects. 

The meeting then became social in its character and 
those presort were introduced to Miss Adalaide Johnson 
of Washington, Mr. Silliman of Baltimore, Mrs. La 
Baron, Miss English of Washington, D. C. 

On June 19, 1889, the Vegetarian Society had an 
excursion to Cape May on the steamer Bepuhlic. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 181 

Over forty persons attended; some from Washing- 
ton, Baltimore, Delaware^ New Jersey, New York 
and Philadelphia. 

September 18, 1890, a reception to John Boooock of 
Leeds, England, at Doctor Lovelies, 936 Franklin 
Street. Mr. Boocock spoke on the progress of the v^e- 
tarian principleij in England; he stated that there were 
about forty vegetarian restaurants and hotels in London, 
and a fair proportion in Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, 
Bristol and other prominent cities in England. The 
meeting was also addressed by Doctor J. H. Lovell, Rev. 
E. W. Rice of the Sunday-school Union and others. 

October 27, 1890, a reception was given by the 
Society at Doctor LovelPs to Mrs. Le Favre, President 
of the Chicago Vegetarian Society. Mrs. Le Favre made 
an earnest and eloquent appeal for the adoption of a 
vegetarian diet and she explained the Delsartean System 
which taught that the body should be fitted to the soul, 
and that this could not be accomplished while subsist- 
ing on animal flesh. She was dressed in a beautiful 
Orecian costume. 

In 1895, the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society was 
organized as a branch of the Vegetarian Society 
of America. 

Officsbs op The Philadelphia Vegbtabian Society 

1895—1901 

PBBSIDBKT 

Bev. A. T. de Learsy, Philadelphia 



182 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

SEGBBTABIES 

Mr. John A. Lindeman, 1896-1896 
Miss Emma I. Bettes, 1896-1901 

TBEASUBEB 

Dr. J. Harvey Lovell 
1901 

PBE8IDBNT 

Eev. H. S. Clubb, Frankford, Philadelphia 

VIOB-PRBSIDBNTJ 

Mr. George M. Wright 

SBCBETABY AND TBEASUBEB 

Miss Martha W. Glubb 

The Whole Wobld's 

Yegetabian Congbesb 

June 8, 9, 1898. 

In connection with the World's Fair held in Chicago 
in 1893^ were Congresses of different organizations^ one 
of which was that of the Vegetarian Societies held on 
June 8th and 9tL 

A delegation to the Congress from Vegetarian Socie- 
ties in England consisted of the following: the Kev. 
James Clark, nunister of the Salford Bible-Christian 
Church and son Mr. Ernest E. Clark, Mr. W. E. Axon 
and Mrs. Axon from Manchester Vegetarian Society, 
Mr. T. A. Hanson from the London, Portsmouth, Wool- 
wich and liTorthem Heights Vegetarian Societies^ Mr. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 183 

BeaT^ from Norwioh Vegetarian Society, and Mr. 
Charles Dixon from Cambridge, Miss May Yates from 
London. Some of those who attended, living in this 
country, were Rev. Wm. Penn Aloott and Mrs. Alcott 
of Massachusetts, Mrs. Le Favre and Miss Dnsenberry 
of Chicago, Mr. Frank of Buffalo and Bev. Henry S. 
Clubb of Philadelphia. 

There were three sessions held each day, and Mr. 
C. C. Bonn^ opened the Congress by a formal welcome 
to the V^etarians. Addresses were delivered and 
papers read by the different members^ 

The Chicago Herald in an artide about the Congress 
stated that ^^ Although one of the smallest of the World's^ 
Congresses in point of numbers, it is also one of the most 
representative of all the meetings that have thus far 
come within the congressional range, for apparently all 
states and nations where Vegetarianism has a foothold 
are represented by the leading apostles of that belief." 

It was chiefly through the liberality of Mr. Arnold 
F. Hills, President of the Vegetarian Federal Union, 
London, England, that the Whole World's Congress was 
made possible. Mr. Hilb was well known in connection 
with the construction of the British Navy. A paper 
on "Vital Food" written by Mr. Hills was read at 
the Congress. 

February 28, 1894, a Vegetarian Banquet was given 
by the "V Club" of New York at the St Denis Hotel, 
11th Street and Broadway. One hundred and fifty per- 



184 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

sons of whom the majority were vegetarians, partook of 
the very elaborate menu. Appropriate addresses were 
delivered by Mr. Arthur Haviland, Dr. E. B. Foote, Jr., 
Mr. C. A. Montgomery, Rev. Henry S. Clubb and 
others. Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Lyman Abbott were among 
the guests. 

The Philadelphia V^taxian Society held picnics 
and excursions annually for a number of years, at 
Willow Grove Park, Northwood Park, Frankf ord, and 
at Wildwood, N. J., at which friends of the cause from 
New York, Washington and Baltimore were present. 
On some of these occasions meetings were held and ad- 
dresses delivered by the prominent speakers present. 

March 23, 1903, a dinner at the Hygeia Res- 
taurant, 1017 Walnut Street, in celebration of the eighth 
anniversary of the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society 
was given by the Society and an interesting meeting 
was held. 

May 11, 1903, a May festival was given by the Phil- 
adelphia Vegetarian Society at the Physical Culture 
Oaf6, 428 Market St. The dinner was provided by the 
Cafe Co., complimentary to the Society, and its mem- 
bers and friends to the number of one hundred and 
thirty partook. Mrs. Sarah T. Rorer, principal of 
the Philadelphia Cooking School was present and made 
some practical suggestions in regard to cooking. 
Speeches from other npted food r^forraers followed. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 185 

AWNIVBESABY OF BeKJAMIN FbANKMN's BiETHBAY 

On January 17, 1906, a dinner was given at the 
Physical Culture Cafe. Professor Conrad of the 
University of Pennsylvania gave an interesting account 
of the improvements that science has made in refers 
ence to the nutritive value of grains, especially wheat. 

The President, Rev. Henry S. Clubb, made some 
remarks relative to the anniversary of Benjamin Frank- 
lin's birth and told some anecdotes relative to his 
vegetarian practice. 

In September, 1904, a delegation from England 
from the Bible-Christian Church and the Vegetarian 
Societies arrived, to attend the Vegetarian St. Louis 
International Congress in connection with the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition. These representatives spent 
some time in Philadelphia and were entertained by 
members of the Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church 
and the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society and also in 
New York by the vegetarian friends there. Eev. H. S. 
Clubb and Mr. George M. Wright attended this Coit- 
gress from the Vegetarian Society of Philadelphia. The 
Vegetarians from England were as follows : Bev. James 
Clark and daughter Bertha, Mr. Nathaniel Bradley, 
Mr. A. E. Axon, Mr. William Harrison and Mr. Albert 
Broadbent. 

On November 3> 1905, a reception was held at the 
Battle Creek Sanitarium on Wallace Street, by the 
Philadelphia Vegetarian Society for Dr. J. H. Kellogg 
of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Michigan. It was a 

13 



186 BIBLES-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

very pleasant occasion, about twenty-five friends being 
present. Mr. Clubb opened the meeting by giving an 
account of his summer outing with the Shakers at Mt. 
Lebanon, "N. Y., a community of mostly vegetarians 
Doctor Kellogg made some interesting remarks. He 
said that it had always been a problem to him why God 
should have created carnivorous beasts and he had at 
last come to the conclusion that they were not originally 
created so^ but that it was only when it became a matter 
of necessity, in the times when the vegetable products 
were destroyed by ice coming from the north that the 
animals resorted to flesh food. He made the interesting 
discovery that the so-called carnivorous teeth of the dog 
are used for masticating nuts and it is his belief that 
originally the animals used these teeth for pulling apart 
the large pine cones containing nuts instead of using 
them for destroying animals for food. He has found 
that the so-called carnivorous animals soon adapt them- 
selves to a vegetarian diet and thrive on it. Doctor Eice 
of the Sunday-school Union next made a few remarks, 
followed by Doctor Burleigh. Refreshments consisting 
of vegetable gelatine, Battle Creek sherbet, and cake 
were served and were pronounced excellent by alL 

A number of interesting monthly meetings were held 
at the headquarters of the Philadelphia Vegetarian 
Society, 1023 Foulkrod Street, Frankford and were well 
attended by members and friends. Some of those in 
attendance were Frank Normart and wife, Friends, Rev. 
Doctor MacPherson and wife, of the Swedenborgian 



AMEMCAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 18t 

Church, Doctor Davit Chidester and wife, Theosophists, 
and also members of the Bible-Christian Church. 

Ernest H. Crosby of New York, the well known 
author, a member of the Society, contributed the follow- 
ing for publication in Food^ Home and Garden, 
January, 1900: 

THE SHADOW ON THE FAEM 

Over the quiet afternoon pasture where the cows are 
browsing with their leader at their head, each knowing 
the place to which her courage and character entitle her, — 

Over the flock of sheep on the other side of the rough 
stone wall where the grey fleeces cluster thick to keep out 
the November north wind, — 

Over the peaceful barnyard yonder where the calves 
are waiting for the tardy pail and the chickens are scratch- 
ing for their supper, — 

Over it all (as I gather nuts imder the clump of hickory 
trees in the comer of the cow-pasture where the sluggish 
brook winds its way, and the sun's rays slant brightly 
through the trunks). 

Over it all I see the dull, inevitable shadow of the 
butcher's knife. 

All nature round me is beautiful and suggestive and 
full of interest. 

The narrow path of the woodchuck in the grass leading 
to his back-door and looking almost as if it had been 
made by a single wheel, — 

The wisp of hay still clinging to the stray apple-tree 
where the hay loads passed four months ago, — 

The half torpid bees haunting the sunshine in the 
garden and kissing the chrysanthemums a last good-bye, — 

The great procession of cawing crows pursuing their 
regular avenue in the sky to the southwest, with bands of 
stragglers behind, 



188 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

How full it all is of life and mystery and romance 
and solace I 

But it cannot conceal the butcher's knife looming above 
the farm and every farm. 

The black cow is lowing uneasily toward the barn-yard, 
and her calf, taken from her after a few hours of wonderful 
common life, answers in a high note. 

The calves are sucking each other's ears for want of 
their dams and one of them has already one ear sucked 
to half the size of the other. 

In the pig-stye, in enforced filth and idleness, the pigs 
wUl pass a wintry night in two inches of freezing slime, 
without a dry spot to lie on. 

Visions of cattle trains, f oodless and waterless, in frigid 
cold and torrid heat for weary days,-r-of cattle ships in 
storms, the maimed and dying thrown together, — of herds 
of steers benumbed and starving in the snows of the North- 
west,— of huge abattoirs with hardened men and boys in 
bloody aprons and noble animals crazed with fright, — of 
little slaughter houses in the country with their heaps of 
offal and vile stenches polluting the meadows, — ^visions 
such as these hang over the farm. 

Death is natural, I own, and without it this world 
would be cursed with life, but when it comes at the edge 
of the cold and sharpened steel, at the behest of man's 
perverted appetite and cruel will, and strikes the young 
and lusty and vigorous, — when death is made the chief end 
of life, and life becomes the handmaid of death, and nature 
is prostituted to the express manufacture of fattened 
corpses, then is death hideous indeed, — 

And. over all the autumn beauties of sight and scent 
and feel, broods lowering the shadow of the needless 
butcher's knife. 



AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 189 

OiVicERs OF The Vegetabian Society of Ahbbiga 

PRESIDENT 

Bev. Henry S. Clubb, Philadelphia, 1886* 

SECBETABIBS 

Robert J. Osborne, Philadelphia, 1886 

Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia, 1887-1893 

Naomi Clubb, Philadelphia, 1893 

TBEASUBBBS 

Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia, 1886-1893-1908 
Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia, 1887 
Harrison C. Sellers, Philadelphia, 1889 
Edwin P. Metcalfe, Philadelphia, 1910 

Peace Sogistibs 

Eev. Henry S. Clubb, the minister of the Bible- 
Christian Church was associated with the Peace Socie- 
ties in Philadelphia, and was a vice-president of the 
Universal Peace Union of which Alfred H. Love 
was president. 

The Universal Peace Union was started in 1866, 
with Alfred H. Love as president, the headquarters 
being in Philadelphia. Alfred H. Love retained the 
position as president until his death June 29, 1913. 

There is still a rock in Mystic, Conn., where a 
little band of peace-lovers in the year 1866 gathered 
and consecrated their lives to the striving for the aboli- 
tion of wars, and instead thereof having Courts of Arbi- 
tration for the settlement of international difficulties. 
Alfred H. Love was one of these peace-lovers. 

* Deceased 1921. 



190 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

In 1896, the Universal Peace Union erected and 
dedicated a Peace Temple at Mystic^ Conn., where is a 
grove of ten acres belonging to the Society and where 
yearly a Peace Convention is held. 

Rev. Henry S. Clubb was at one time an active mem- 
ber of this society, being frequently called upon to speak 
at the meetings. He edited the society^s monthly 
periodical for three years, 1883 to 188S, and changed 
the name The Voice of Peace to the Peacemaker and 
Court of Arbitration^ 

Mr. Clubb was also connected with the "Christian 
Arbitration and Peace Society" of which Gteorge Dana 
Boardman, D.D., was the president and John B. Wood 
the secretary. The Christian Arbitraior was the maga- 
zine published by that society. 



MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, ETC. 
(The following books, papers, etc. have been placed 
with the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and may be 
referred to on request to librarian.) 
^ Letters on Religiou88nbjects,pamphlet8,onecopy,1821. 

* Constitution and By-laws of the Bible-Christian 

Church, Male and Female Institution, established 
1828, revised 1846, pamphlet, one copy, 1828. 

' Constitution and By-laws of the Philadelphia Bible- 
Christian Church, pamphlets, 2 copies, 1834. 

^ Address on Abstinence from Flesh of Animals as 
Food, two copies, 1840. 

■Bible-Christian Physiological Society, first annual 
report, pamphlet, one copy, 1840. 
Bible-Christian Physiological Society, second 
annual report, pamphlet, one copy, 1841. 

* Lecture on the First Step in Physical and Moral Be- 

form, delivered before Kensington Physiological 
Society, two copies, 1842. 
^ Annual Address and Minutes of the Annual As- 
sembly of the Bible-Christian Church, pamphlets, 
seven copies 1844 to 1860. 

* An Explanation of the Lord's Prayer and Ten Com- 

mandments, for Use of Sunday Schools and Fam- 
ilies, pamphlet, one copy, 1846. 
•Address at Thirty-first Anniversary of the Bible- 
Christian Church, Philadelphia, by Rev. Wm. 
Metcalfe, pamphlet, one copy, 1849. 
^® What Is Vegetarianism? London, one copy, 1849. 

101 



19£ BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

^^ Visit of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe to the Bible-Christian 
Church of Salford, England, 1851. 

^^ Leading Doctrines of the Philadelphia Bible-Chris- 
tian Church, pamphlet, one copy, 1855. 

^' Bules and Regulations for Church Oovernment, pam- 
phlets, two copies, 1855. 

** Vegetarian Almanac by H. S. Clubb, one copy, 1855. 

" Semi-centenai7 Sermon on the Fiftieth Anniversary 
of Ordination of the Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, one 
copy, 1861. 

*• Out of the Clouds, Memoir of the Rev. Wm. Met- 
calfe and discourses, compiled by his son Rev. 
Joseph Metcalfe, bound book, one copy, 1872. 

*^ The Cloud Broken, by Wm. Metcalfe, pamphlet, one 
copy, 1872. 

^® Synopsis of the Doctrines and Principles of the Phil- 
adelphia Bible-Christian Church, one copy, 1884. 

*• The Hygienic Review, containing account of the 
World's Vegetarian Congress, 1893. 

'^ The Vegetarian Principle, by H. S. Clubb, one copy, 
1896. 

** Thirty-nine Reasons Why I am a Vegetarian, by 
Rev. H. S. Clubb, one copy, 1903. 

*' The Bible Against Flesh Eating, by Wul Harrison, 
Manchester, England, one copy, 1907. 

** History of the Bible-Christian Church, Salf ord, Eng- 
land, one copy, 1909. 

** History of the first one hundred years of The Phila- 
delphia Bible-Christian Church, two copies, 1923. 




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