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S I 1^9 Ob. "eO
Uatvarft College Xibratt
by direction of
•The Tfaintenance Coninittee*
The Philadelphia Bible Christian Church
( Vepetarian )
1023 Poulkrod Street
First Century of its Existence
1817 to 1917
THE MAINTENANCE COMMITTEE
Created for that and other purposes by a
resolution adopted at a Special Church
Meeting held May 6» I9i7«
J. B. LIPPINCOrr COMPANY
M.<^ Kcct ofc. ^0
r t r
> I .y I 1
In agcobdanoe with regular and farmal action
taken at a special meeting of the members of The
Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church held at the head-
quarters of the Church, 1023 Foulkrod Street, Frank-
ford> Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 8, 1917,
provision was made for the creation of a Mainten-
Prominent among otJier duties assigned to this Com-
mittee, was the preparation of a brief history of the
first century of the Church: 1817-1917 in Philadelphia.
It is proposed to deposit such history, together with
books, pamphlets and papers with the Historical Society
In compiling this little work the Committee has
made full use of the privilege of inspecting the official
Church records, and the greater portion of the informa-
tion presented is derived from these sources, the remain-
der being supplied either from letters and other Church
papers, or from the memories of some members of the
Committee, so that all herein set forth possesses at least
the virtue of being reliabla
In its personnel the Committee includes one m^nber
over ninety-two years of age, originally a member of
the Bible-Christian Church in England and for more
than forty-four years minister of the Philadelphia
Church ; there are six other members on the Committee,
all practically life-long members of the Church.
Our aim has been to set forth the f acts, rather than
to furnish a successful liteiary production; and with!
that object in view, we submit what foUows, vrith the
sincere hope and faith that the first one hundred years'
existence of The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church
has not been in vain, but has added and will continue to
add to the material and spiritual welfare of humanity.
Edwin F. Metcalfe, Chairman; !N'aomi Clubb, Sec-
retary ; Eev. Henry S. Clubb, Amy H. Cariss, Edmund
B. Lord, George M. Wright, Esther H. King.
BIBLICAL TESTIMONY AND INSTRUCTION
"And God said, Behold, I liave given you every
herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the
earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree
yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.'' — Gbn. 1
CHAP. 29 vs.
" But the flesh with the life thereof, which is the
blood thereof shall ye not eat." — Gsn. 9 chap. 4 vs.
" Be not among winebibbers, and riotous eaters of
flesh."— Peov. 28 chap. 20 vs.
" He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man." —
Isaiah 66 chap. 3 vs.
" It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine."
— ^BoMANB 14 chap. 21 vs.
^^ And when the children of Israel saw it, they said
one to another, it is manna : for they wist not what it
was. And Moses said unto them — ^This is the bread
whidh the Lord hath given you to eat." — ^Exodus 16
CHAP. 15 vs.
" Thou shalt not kill." — ^Exodus 22 chap. 13 vs.
Deutbbonomy 5 CHAP. 17 vs.
" And while the flesh was yet between their teeth,
ere it was chewed, the wrath of the Lord was kindled
against the people, and the Lord smote the people with!
a very great plague." — ^Numbbbs 11 chap. 33 vs.
vi BIBLICAL TESTmONY AND INSTRUCTION
^^ He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and
herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth
food out of the earth." — ^Psalm 104, 14 vs.
^^ And the cow and the bear shall feed : their young
ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat
straw like the ox." — ^Isaiah 11 chap. 7 vs.
" They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy
mountain : for the earth shall be full of the knowledge
of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." — Isatah 11
OHAP. 9 vs.
^^ Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the
fruit thereof or who f eedeth a flock, and eateth not of
the milk of the flock ?" — 1 Cob. 9 chap. 7 vs.
" Wherefore, if meat maketh my brother to offend,
I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I
make my brother to oflFend." — 1 Cob. 8 chap. 13 vs.
BZBUGAL AtTTHOBITT lOB THX ChTTBCB DoCTBINS OF
I. Tbb Chttbgh 1
n. Lnra OF Mkicbbbb with Datbb 7
III. LiBT OF Officbbb OF Chttbch AND TmoiB OF Sbbtxcb. . 15
IV. Thb MnnsTBBB 80
V. Thb Boabd of Dbaoonb 90
VI. Thb Boabd of Tbustbbs 112
Vn.. Thb Sundat-bchool 181
Vm. Thb Malb and Femalb Inbtitutb of thb B. C. Chpbch 140
IX. BZBLB ChBIBTIAN PHTBIOLOaiGAL SOCIBTT (IST AND 2ND
X. Thb Ladibb' Aid Socibtt 144
XI. Thb Vbobtabian Socibtt, Fbacb Socibtt 158
First Church Edifice, Third Street above Girard Avenue,
Second Church Edifice, Third Street above Girard Avenue,
Rev. William Metcalfe, Founder and Minister, 1817-1862 60
Interior of Third Street Church (second floor) 53
Rev. Joseph Metcalfe, Minister, 1862-1867 50
Dr. William Taylor, Minister, 1868-1873 65
Rev. Henry S. Clubb, Minister, 1876-1921 83
Jonathan Wright, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 00
Edmund Brooks, Vocal Leader, Deacon, Trustee 94
Henry Metcalfe Taylor, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 124
William Metcalfe Horrocks, Treasurer, Deacon, Trustee 125
Park Avenue Church, 1891-1916 126
Interior of Park Avenue Church 127
James Wright, First Sabbath School Superintendent 131
William Cariss, Sr., Sabbath School Superintendent, Deacon,
Charles F. Ko^g, Sabbath School Superintendent, Deacon,
George Metcalfe Wright, Great Grandson of the Founder
( Secretary, Deacon, Trustee) 186
The official Churdi books and records were of course
used by the Committee in compiling this history of the
first 100 years* existence of the Church in Philadelphia,
which history comprises the principal facts therein.
There is also, however, a great volume of unwritten
history — ^incidents and occurrences not shown in the
said records; the devoted efforts to promote and en-
courage the growth of Bible Christianity; the faithful
labor of sincere men and women to teach and exemplify
the humane principles advocated by the Church doc-
trines, persevered in year after year, oftentimes under
most discouraging conditions, but with the sincere belief
that kindness and consideration towards the humble and
useful domestic animals was as much a part of the
Oreat Creator's plan as was the divine announcement
" Peace on Earth, good will toward men.'*
It is not claimed that these creatures possess a soul,
or are even mentally endowed. We do not know; but
that they manifest some attributes and characteristics
of the human race, such as: affection, fear, anger,
St BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
pleasure^ paiii^ joy and sorrow is generally admitted,
and that under careful trainings most remarkable in-
telligence and cleverness is often manifested by them
so that the practice of killing these animals and eating
their flesh seems to be unoatural and barbarous.
This prominent feature iu the Church belief and
discipltiie, certainly produced no objectionable or un-
pleasant characteristics in the members and followers
of the faith; and although there was some opposition
shown by a few other religious denominations in the
early days, it did not long continue, and there is reason
for the opinion that, as individuals and also as an organ-
ization, they gradually acquired the respect and esteem
of the educated and enlightened portion of the commu-
nity, and of the church; and its ministers frequently
received most favorable comment in the public Press.
The entertainments, fairs, concerts and other public
functions were usually well and liberally patronized,
and many also who were not members were attracted
to the Church services in a most friendly and apprecia-
tive way. The Derbyshire family, engaged in the dyeing
business, were regular attendants and liberal contribu-
tors for many years; the Needhams (hosiery manu-
facturers), Mr. Bromley (carpet manufacturer), the
Gault family, the Wrightsons, the Gibsons, Mrs. Sing-
erly and numerous other Kensington and Frankford
residents are also remembered in this respect
At various periods the social sentiment of the or-
ganization was prominently featured; what were
termed Monthly Tea Meetings were held in the Sunday-
THE CHUBCH S
school room for a number of years, at wMdi topics of
general and religions interest were discussed, appro-
priate musical selections rendered and a plain but
enjoyable repast served.
The Annual Meetings on Whitmonday were not
restricted to business matters alone; the regular pro-
gramme for that day conmienced with a religious service
in the church proper, followed shortly after by a dinner,
served in the Sunday-school room, the ladies preparing
these feasts, starting their labors early in the morning.
For many years, there were on these festive occasions,
three long tables extending the full length of the room
which were beautifully decorated with flowers. Fre-
quently more than one hundred guests were present.
These feasts were served most bountiftdly with the
products of the fields, garden and orchard, and of course
without the sacrifice of any animal life, or the accom-
paniment of any intoxicating beverages. This feature of
the Annual General Assembly usually took place about
one o'clock p.m., continuing until about two or two-
thirty, after which the members would be occupied with
the consideration of Church business and affairs for the
rest of the afternoon. The reports of the Minister, of
the Boards of Deacons and Trustees, the Sunday-
school Superintendent and of regular and special Com-
mittees, giving a review of the events of the past year,
followed by the annual election, consumed several hours.
The day was essentially a very special and enjoyable
anniversary, and all members and many friends of the
Church made particular effort to be present..
4 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The modem question, Wbj do people (partioiilarly
men) not attend church services and religious meetings
more numerously ? Why is there less time and interest
devoted to these affairs than in former years? — ap-
plies to the Bible-Christian Church!, as it does to the
churches of other denominations. It has been the ex-
perience of this Church that the social features, the
lingering after service for a little sociable chat, between
those who did not meet during the week, the friendly
calling in at each other's homes, the regular attendance
at and interest taken in the service, at entertainments,
anniversaries and exercises, and also on the solemn
occasions of funerals, that prevailed years ago, gradu-
ally decreased and declined — ^Times indeed change and
men and women change with them.
If this condition of affairs indicates a change in in-
dividual thought and habit in regard to religiouB
matters^ it is not limited to the Bible Christians, but
appears to be almost universal. It is all part of the
secularization of modem life.
Whether the temperate and vegetarian mode of life
practised by the members* has not yet had sufficient
time to demonstrate all the advantages of such a system
we cannot say, but in health, longevity, cheerfulness,
mental and physical equipment, temperament and dis-
position, our members appear to be fully as well pro-
vided as those whose lives and bodies have been built
up on bl diet of animal flesh.
THE CHURCH 5
They have produced, muuBters, doctors, dentistfl,
flchool-teadiArs, musioionfl, artists, lecturers, reporters,
printers, publishers, editors, public legislators, railroad
builders, engineers^ machinists, laborers, teamsters,
accountants, farmers, gardeners, picture frame makers
and gilders, salesmen, saleswomen, dressmakers, in fact
have been represented- in most of the useful professions
and occupations, but there are no butchers or bar-tenders.
They have taken active ports in politics and public
affairs, also occasionally in military service and have
been faithful (most of them during their entire lives)
to the vegetarian discipline of the Church, thus refut-
ing the claim often made that flesh meat is necessary
to a proper development of the health and strength of
the human body and smuL
In the matter of longevity the Church records fur-
nish no specific table, but it is -well knovm that many,
probably the nmjority, of those constituting the mem-
bership passed beyond the allotted '^ three score years
and ten.'' The founder. Rev. William Metcalfe, reached
his seventy-fifth year, and the late pastor. Rev. Henry
S. Clubb, was in the enjoyment of good health and
spirits, and received the ' congratulations of many
friends when he completed his ninety-fourth year,
June 21, 1921.
One factor that is responsible to some extent for
the decrease in membership, apart from the natural
passing on of the older members to join the '^ church
in the skies," is the fact that many of the younger mem-
6 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
bers of families have been attracted to new associates
by the steady growth of the city and changes in neighbor-
hoods, and have formed acquaintances and friendships
outside of the old-time church circle, which transferred
their social interests and inclinations into other direc-
tions; marriages occurred, and gradually their attend-
ance at the " Shrine of their childhood '^ lessened or
ceased entirely. It is a noticeable fact, however, that
although alliances were formed with those who were
accustomed to a flesh diet, many of these former mem-
bers never relinquished their vegetarian mode of life,
ai»d frequently the children of such unions exhibited an
aversion to the eating of flesh f ood«
The sincere conviction of the members of the Church
is that the natural and Divinely appointed food for
mankind consists of the products of the soil, and therein
are found not only all the elements necessary for a
sound mind and body, but also an unlimited field for
the furnishing of a most enjoyable and delightful menu ;
a banquet free of the suffering, the bloodshed and
inhumanity necessary to provide the table of the
Truly and happily do they approve and live up to
Goldsmith's eloquent and humane poem, with the faith'
that sometime, somewhere, the universe wiU sing:
" No flocks that range the valley free
To slaughter I condemn ;
Taught by the Power that pities me
I learn to pity theuL*'
Ann ( From England )
John Philadelphia, Pa. 1827
(From England) Philadelphia, Pa. 1828
>9 99 n n jg28
99 99 99 99 lg28
99 99 W » 1828
Philadelphia, Pa. 1850
Henry S. (From England) Philadelphia, Pa. 1877
Anne B. H.
Bessie R. H.
*"... "It^ .'■T ■
Philadelphia, Pa. 1859
Mary Ann M.
Jeremiah (From England) Germantown, Pa.
Mary *' "
James Frankford, Pa.
William " "
John Germantown, Pa.
Mary Ann Frankford, Pa.
Harriet " "
Mary " "
William M. '* '*
Jeremiah Germantown, Pa.
Philadelphia, Pa. 1872
Philadelphia, Pa. 1865
Philadelphia, Pa. 1818
Philadelphia, Pa. 1867
Philadelphia, Pa. 1861
of J. T.
of E. B.
A Tine ( From England )
Fox Chase, Pa.
David (From England) Philadelphia, Pa.
Joshua " " "
Sarah " " " ''
Philadelphia, Pa. 1866
Dr. Henry (From England)
John ( From England )
Del. Co., Pa.
Joseph ( From England )
Hannah Henrietta "
Frank! ord, Pa.
OFFICERS, LENGTH OP SERVIOE
William Metcalfe, (founder) to 1862 45
(Rev. Joseph Wright officiated from August, 1856, to Sep-
tember, 1857, during William Metcalfe's visit to England) 2
Joseph Metcalfe, October 26, 1862, to December 1, 1867 « 5
William Taylor, January 5, 1868, to April 1, 1873 5
(William Cariss, 8r., served in Pulpit as reader, 1873
to 1876) 3
Henry 8. Clubb, 1876 to 1921 45
William Taylor, to 1831 13
James Wright, 1831 to 1850 19
Joseph Metcalfe, 1850 to 1859 9
William Taylor, 1859 to 1862 3
Henry M. Taylor, 1862 to 1869 7
James J. Horrocks, 1869 to 1871 2
Charles F. Koenig, 1871 to 1877 6
William C. Brooks, 1877 to 1883 6
*George W. Wright, 1883 to 1914 32
* Edwin F. Metcalfe, 7 months to 1915 1
♦ George M. Wright, 1916 —
* Recording secretary only (resolution January 6, 1886)
Jonathan Wright, 1832 to 1865 33
William Cariss, Sr., 1865 to 1869 4
Henry M. Taylor« 1869 to 1881 12
Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1881 to 1885, (first period) 4
William M. Horrocks, 1885 to 1910 25
Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1911 (second period) —
16 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUECH
SUNDAY-SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS: (School organized
James Wright, 1839 to 1841 2
Edward Lyons, 1841 to 1844 3
Joseph Metcalfe, 1844 to 1849 5
William Honrocks, 1849 to 1852 3
Emanuel Hey, 1852 to 1857 5
William Oariss, Sr., 1867 to 1860, (first period) 3
Joseph Metcalfe, 1860 to 1863 3
James Wright, 1863 to 1864 1
William Gariss, Sr., 1864 to 1876 (second period) 12
Charles F. Eoenig, 1876 to 1905 20
James Brooks, 1840 to 1843 3
Elijah Kothwell, 1843 to 1847, (first period) 4
Eliza Brooks, 1847 to 1853 6
Elijah Kothwell, 1853 to 1860, (second period) 7
WiUiam Taylor, 1860 to 1862 2
Elijah Bothwell, 1862 to 1866, (third period) 4
Samson Cariss, 1866 to 1916 50
Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1916— —
George Gihson, 1840 to 1841 1
James Wright, 1841 to 1843 2
James Brooks, 1843 to 1848, (first period) 5
Hugh Luckmaa, 1848 to 1849 1
James Brooks, 1849 to 1859, (second period) 10
Edmund Brooks, 1859 to 1860, (first period) 1
EUjah RothweU, 1860 to 1861 1
Edmund Brooks, 1861 to 1865, (second period) 4
William C. Brooks, 1865 to 1867, (first period) 2
Charles F. Koenig, 1867 to 1870 3
William 0. Brooks, 1870 to 1887, (second period) 17
J. Howard Horrocks, 1887 to 1911 24
Mrs. Enuna Cariss, 1911 to 1917 6
Mrs. Esther H. King, 1917— , —
OFFICERS, LENGTH OF SERVICE
Dr. Henry Taylor,
Hugh O. Lnckman,
Lewis H. Hoiigh,
Henry M. Taylor,
Charles F. Koenig,
J. Clifford Shoch,
WilHam C. Brooks,
827 to 1837.
827 to 1834.
827 to 1837 10
827 to 1845 18
827 to 1835 8
827 to 1866 39
827 to 1833 6
828 to 1832 4
828 to 1838 10
832 to 1835 (3), 1851 to 1864 (3) .. 6
832 to 1850 (18), 1865 to 1871 (16).. 34
833 to 1842 (9), 1855 to 1868 (3).. 12
834 to 1837 (3), 1842 to 1857 (15).. 18
835 to 1848 13
836 to 1839 3
836 to 1863 27
837 to 1854 (17), 1867 to 1860 (3).. 20
838 to 1854 (16), 1867 to 1880 (23).. 39
839 to 1842 3
842 to 1861 9
844 to 1854 10
848 to 1854 6
850 to 1852 (2), 1868 to 1876 (18).. 20
852 to 1864 2
866 to 1869 3
856 to 1877. 21
858 to 1869 11
855 to 1899 44
860 to 1898 38
863 to 1869. . . . .• 6
866 to 1868 (3), 1869 to 1908 (39).. 42
868 to 1911 43
869 to 1873 4
871 to 1876 (5), 1877 to 1888 (11).. 16
18 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUECH
Fithian Gray, 1873 to 1885 (12), 1888 to 1890 (2).. 14
Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1876 —
Samson Cariss, 1880 to 1916 36
James J. Horrocks, 1879 to 1888 9
George W. Wright, 1886 to 1916 30
Henry Horrocks, 1887 to 1902 16
WilUam Metcalfe, 1890 to 1902 (12), 1911 to 1915 (4).. 16
Horrocks, 1899 to 1903 portion of 3
Henry T. Cariss, 1899 to 1904 6
Horrocks, 1909 to 1916 6
Edmund B. Lord, 1914 —
George M. Wright, 1915 --i —
David Nuttall, 1828-1829 1
Jonathan Wright, 1828-1830; 1831-1866 36
John Chorlton, 1829-1830; 1834-1835; 1837-1838;
1839-1846; 1866-1867 11
John Taylor, 1830-1831; 1834-1836; 1836-1837;
John Lever, 1830-1834; 1835-1836 i 5
William Lever, 1832-1834; 1836-1838; 1840-1841;
Edward Lyons, 1836-1836; 1841-1842; 1843-1846;
Robert Martin, 1838-1840 2
Jeremiah Horrocks, 1842-1843 1
John Rest, 1846-1848; 1860-1854; 1867-1858 7
Elijah Eothwell, 1854-1869 15
Joseph Wright, 1856-1856 ; 1858-1869 2
Joseph Metcalfe, 1855-1861 6
James Wright, 1859-1871 12
Edmund Brooks, 1861-1876 15
James Horrocks, 1865-1866; 1868-1874 7
James Cunliffe, 1866-1867; 1876-1877; 1878-1879 3
William Taylor, 1867-1868 1
Henry M. Taylor, 1869-1870; 1877-1878; 1879-1899 21
OFFICERS, LENGTH OF SERVICE 19
William Cariss, 1870-1900 30
Emanuel H^, 187M873 ; 1874-1876 4
Fithian Grey, 1873-1874; 1876-1883 8
Charles P. Koenig, 1874-1886 : 1887-1908 33
William M. Horrocks, 1883-1911 28
William C. Brooks, 1886-1887 1
Edwin F. Metcalfe, 1899 —
George W. Wright, 1900-1914 15
Samson Cariss, 1908-1916 8
William Metcalfe, 1911-1916 6
Edmund B. Lord, 1914 —
George M. Wright, 1916 : —
Amy H. Cariss, 1916-1918 2
Naomi Clubb, 1918 —
The sincere conviction in the mind of the Rev.
William Cowherd that vegetaxianism was a method of
life taught in the letter and spirit of the Holy Scriptures
marks the establishment of the Bible-Christian Church
Mr. Cowherd was originally a minister of the Church
of England, a rector of Christ Church of Salford about
1790, and afterwards of St. John's Church, Manchester,
England. He is described as '^ possessing a strong and
vigorous intellect, an inquisitive and earnest desire after
truth and a deep sense of moral responsibility.''
He later withdrew from the established national
Church, and accepted the charge of the New Jerusalem
Church, in Peter Street, Manchester.
In the beginning of the year 1800 he opened the
church in King Street, Salford, which had been erected
principally through his personal efforts; consecrated
it to the service of " The only Wise God our
Saviour,'' and taught the doctrine that all religious
principles should be drawn directly from the Bible;
and required everyone who became a member of this
THE MINISTERS «1
ohureh to proclaim himself or herself simply a
In 1807 he began to inculcate the doctrine of absten-
tion from the flesh of animals as f ood^ and total absti-
nence from all intoxicating liquors, as religious duties.
He founded his principles on the testimony of the Bible,
and confirmed them by appeals to the facts tau^t by
physiology, anatomy and personal experience.
Among the persons who resorted to Dr. Cowherd's
church, was William Metcalfe a native of SproadgiU,
in the parish of Orton, Westmoreland County, England,
where he was bom March 11, 1788, the son of Jonathan
and Elizabeth Metcalfe.
At the age of nineteen years he became a derk in
an establishment near Keighly, Yorkshire. In this
village a congregation of Swedenbor^Lans met under
Eev. Joseph Wright, and young Metcalfe became at-
tached to the congregation.
His leisure hours appear to have been occupied in
literary pursuits ; and the Muses came in for a share of
his attentions. Bom and educated among the pastoral
hills of Westmoreland, his poetical efforts were dis-
tinguished for their rural simplicity and amiability.
In 1809 he paid, as he supposed, his farewell visit to
his boyhood's home. The following lines, bearing date
"Kendal, Sunday evening. May 21st, 1809," are a
transcript of his feelings and his style at that time.
They are headed:
22 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
ON LEAVING MY NATIVE PLACE.
Farewell, good f riendsy companions, youthful mates !
May comfort smile within your cheering gates !
Farewell those hours that bless'd the youthful scene
When mutual kindness echoed throu^ the green;
When gambols, harmless as the tender dove,
Endear'd our hearts, and oped the mind to love :
My Brothers, Sisters, Parents, — ^all adieu!
iWhat thanks can pay the debts I owe to you?
Ye happy cots, where Peace untroubled lives,
Where Heaven-made bounty each one's want relieves;
Within whose doors all happiness I've known;
In each one welcome, frown'd upon by none:
Each guileless eye beam'd on my youthful face,
And kindly hail'd me with an artless grace :
Ah ! can I from such friends, such kindness, part
Without the tribute of a grateful heart ?
Peace, health, to all I — ^and may your hearts receive
That joy and kindness they so gladly give: —
Whate'er my fortune in this world may be,
Whate'er kind Providence may do for me,
Whate'er my lot in life's uncertain scene,
Still I'll remember what with you I've been :
This look's my last, from off this well-known peak :
My feelings dictate, but I cannot speak.
THE MINISTEBS 23
The Kev, Joseph Wright peroeived talent in his c5on-
vert and persuaded him to study theology with a view to
The necessity of his studies led Mr. Metcalfe to an
academy at Salford over which Dr. Cowherd presided.
After being there about a year as a student, he became
head of the classical department of the school, contin-
uing so for two years during which time he dispensed
the doctrines of the Bible-Christians to a small congre-
gation at Addingham, Yorkshire, by which he was pre-
sented as a candidate for the ministry, and was ordained
on August 11, 1811, by Dr. Cowherd, at Salford. He
then gave up his position in the latter's school and
having had a handsome church building in which there
was a school-room, erected by a member of his congre-
gation at Addingham, he opened school there. Before
Mr. Metcalfe was ordained he had taken unto himself,
a wife. She was Susanna, daughter of Bev. Joseph
Wrigjht, and was Mr. Metcalfe's senior by some years.
They were married January 14, 1810. Mrs. Met-
calfe had become a strong vegetarian, and was in
perfect sympathy with her husband in relation to tem-
perance in eating, and to total abstinence from wines
and liquors in drinking. Mr. Metcalfe long afterwards
said, '^She studied to show our acquaintances, when-
ever they paid us a visit, that we could live in every
rational enjoyment without the use of flesh for food;
and, wife being an excellent cook, we were never at a
loss for what to eat, although we would not have meat.
24 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
We oommenced housekeeping in January 1810, and
from that day to the present time we have never had a
pound of flesh meat in our dwelling, and never have
patronized either slau^ter houses or grog shops."
It is not to be supposed that Mr. Metcalfe adopted a
vegetarian life without noeeting with the opposition of
those whom he respected and loved. In a letter des-
cribing this period of life, he gives the following his-
torical testimony :
'^ My friends laughed at me, and entreated me to
lay aside my foolish notions of a vegetable diet. They
assured me I was rapidly sinking into a consumption,
and tried various other methods to induce me to return
to the customary dietetic habits of society; but their
efforts proved ineffectual. Some predicted my deatU
in three or four months, and others, on hearing me
attempt to defend my course, hesitated not to teU me
I was certainly suffering from mental derangement, and,
if I continued to live without flesh-food much longer,
would unquestionably have to be shut up in some insane-
asylum. All was unavailing. Instead of sinking into
consumption, I gained several pounds in weight during
the first few weeks of my experiment. Instead of three
or four months bringing me to the silent grave, they
brought me to the matrimonial altar. I dared even to
get married; and I am thankful to 'Our Father in
heaven^ that my mental operations have, up to this
day, been such that I have never even seen the interior
of any insane-institution."
THE MINISTERS 25
Whilst engaged at Salf ord Mr. Metcalfe had formed
a desire to emigrate to America. Nor was he alone in
this desire. In one of his letters to a friend, Tirritten
shortly after his ordination, he says, '^ The civil and
religious freedom of the people of the United States
has been the topic of many an hour's conversation
among the teachers of the Salford Academy and the
members of the church.'' He speaks also of Dr. Cow*
herd as an enthusiastic admirer of the free institutions
of America. It appears that the then existing war
between the two countries caused them to suppress their
thoughts of removing; abandoned they were not, for
on the restoration of peace the desire again became
prominent. The arrangements for emigrating were>
however, once more temporarily suspended, by the
death of the Bev. Dr. Cowherd. This event took place
on the 29th of Mardi, 1816, and quite a gloom was
cast upon all who had connected themselves with the
Bible-Christian Church, by that bereavement.
The departure for America, the early efforts to es-
tablish The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church, and
a further account of the life of the Bev. William Met-
calfe written by his son and successor Bev. Joseph
Metcalfe in a volume entitled Out of the Clouds
published by J. B. Lippincott Co. in 1872, follows:
In the early part of the spring of 1817, a company of
forty-one persons, all members of the '^ible-Christian
Church," embarked from Liverpool for Philadelphia.
This little community comprised two ministers, — ^the
Bev. James Clark and the Bev. William Metcalfe, — ^vith
26 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
twenty other adults and nineteen children. After a tedious
voyage of eleven weeks^ they all landed safely and in
good health at the port of their destination, on the 15th
The crowning objects of these emigrants, as they pro-
fessed, were the propagation of their peculiar religious
doctrines and the establishment of the Bible-Christian
Church in this highly favored land. But, alas I how
frail and fickle are human purposes I Of the twenty-two
adults and their families, eleven adults and seven children
only were faithful when they reached Philadelphia. The
strong salt breeze of the Atlantic, or some other cause,
dissolved not only their purposes, but their practical pre-
cepts; and at the first opportunity they gave way to indul-
gences in eating and drinking those things which their
principles had forbidden. Some of these might possibly
have been reclaimed, had they been able to locate near
their more faithful brethren. But all were poor, depend-
ing for their daily bread upon their daily labor, and to
obtain employment they were necessarily scattered far
apart. Thus isolated from one another, in a strange
country, and among a people who had no sympathy with
their habits, but who advised them that "it .would be im-
possible to live in this hot climate without animal food,''
it is scarcely surprising that they relaxed their interest.
Their heroism to principle failed them, and the "crown-
ing objects*' of their emigration, with them, at least,
This apostasy was a source of great sorrow and mortifi-
cation to the faithful. They too were widely separated.
The Rev. James Clark and family, with two other families
who were his personal friends as well as strict members
of the Church^ determined to locate themselves as farmers.
Accordingly, they purchased some wild land in Lycoming
THE MINISTERS «7
County, Pennsylvania, and removed thither. They formed
a church and Sabbath-fichool;.but, not meeting with that
encouragement from the surroimding neighborhood which
Mr. Clark thought them worthy of receiving, he resolved
to remove. Ardent in temperament, he could not brook
coldness and indifference in others. The following spring
he went to Baltimore, leaving those who had devotedly
followed his lead into the wilderness, still there. After
much buffeting about, he finally settled as a farmer in the
state of Indiana. Although he remained faithful to
the principles of Bible-Christianity, he made no special
effort to organize a church. The Bev. James Clark died,
August 31, 1826, in the forty-seventh year of his age.
The Bev. William Metcalfe remained in Philaddphia,
intending, by the blessing of Providence, to support him-
self and family by school-teaching. He bought out the
good-will and fixtures from a teacher, and rented his
dwelling and school-room, in the rear of No. 10 North
Front street. In this arrangement he purposed also to
fulfill his ministerial duties, by preaching on the Sabbath-
day, like the apostle of old, ''in his own hired house,'' to
as many as were willing to listen to his testimony. The
meetings of the Bible-Christian Church were held in
his own school-room; and there were present at the first
administration of the Holy Supper five adults, including
the minister and his wife.
The day-school was opened under the most fiattering
prospects, and my father's most sanguine expectations
were more than realized. His academy was patronized
by some of the wealthiest families of the city, and my
mother's services were called into requisition by a class of
young ladies. In purchasing the good-will and fixtures
of the academy, only a portion of the money was to be
paid at the time, — ^the balance having to be paid within
the year. The rental for his house and school-room was
28 BIBLEKIHRISTIAN CHURCH
considered^ at that time, to be somewhat exorbitant; but
he was enabled to meet all his engagements, and he began
to think himself comfortably established. Just at this
time, however, the yellow fever broke out in the imme-
diate neighborhood of his residence, in the fall of 1818.
His school was deserted by his pupils, and he was com-
pelled to keep it closed several weeks. Two or three of
his pupils died with the plague; and, on re-opening, so
many of them had been placed in other schools, that for
several weeks after he numbered only nine Bcholars. This
visitation was not the end of his troubles. The fever
again appeared in the summer and fall of 1819, and yet
again in 1820. My father was not prepared for these
heavy drawbacks. He was in actual poverty and want.
The proximity of his academy to this yearly contagious
visitant rendered it unsafe to send pupils to him for in-
struction, and he was entirely dependent upon his school
for a livelihood.
Dark and lowering as were the affairs of Mr. Metcalfe
at this time, he had nevertheless secured the friendship
of many influential persons. But their solicitude for him
only increased his troubles, and he might have exclaimed
with propriety, even in his poverty, "Save me from my
friends!^' Offers of an alluring character were made to
him; but they were so conditioned with objectionable
features that they aggravated, rather than ameliorated,
his condition. It was urged upon him that if he would
cease to present temperance and abstinence from flesh-
food as religious duties, and renounce his scheme to build
up the Bible-Christian Church, he would be certain of
support. One offer was an academy, with a regular, com-
fortable salary, under the patronage of a religious denomi-
nation, located a few miles from the city; and another was
the pastorship of an established congregation, insuring
him a respectable living, if he would conform to such
THE MINISTERS 29
stipulations. These and other offers somewhat similar
were doubtless made from honest and benevolent motives.
They were all, however, respectfully declined. In truth,
they tended rather to increase his estimation of Bible-
Christianity, and to make him labor even more earnestly
in its vineyard.
Now, it is not surprising that Mr. Metcalfe was ap-
proached in the manner just described. His talents would
have been an invaluable help to any ordinary religious
denomination, either as a preacher or teacher, if he could
have cramped himself to the creed. At this time he was
in the vigor of manhood, — ^just over thirty years of age, —
tall and commanding in person, mild and sociable in man-
ner. As a preacher, it is true, he was not what would
be called an orator; but his delivery was easy, plain, dis-
tinct, and impressive. His action was moderate and
graceful. He was never boisterous, never sensational,
and seldom allowed his imagination to display its powers
in the pulpit. His sermons were suggestive and instructivey
always including some teaching on practical, every-day
duties. He sought all fields for the Ulustration of Bible
truths, especially availing himself of the lights of modern
science and of ancient history in the elucidation of his
subjects. Owing, perhaps, to the peculiarity of his relig-
ious views and his earnest desire to leave a clear impres-
sion on the minds of his hearers, his style of pulpit-speaking
was that of a teacher more than that of a preacher.
In this description of Mr. Metcalfe^s preaching, I have
limited myself to a simple statement of his personal ap-
pearance and general style. However unadapted he might
be for a reformer, he would most certainly have become
a popular pastor, had he gone with a popular current.
This he would not do, though tempted at a time when
want and suffering were inmates of his dwelling and
contagious disease surrounded his household.
30 BIBLE^HRISTIAN CHURCH
Under these peculiarly trying circumstances, Mr. Met-
calfe industriously engaged himself in sowing the seeds
of those moral and religious reforms the cultivation of
which constituted the great work of his life. He adver-
tised the Sabbath-day services held in his school-room in
the newspapers and by cards. Bespectable audiences were
collected until the plague, — ^when^ like his school, the
church also became almost a vacant place. But even then
he continued to preach, and added to his labors by availing
himself of every social means, and also the newspaper-
press, and tracts, to diffuse a knowledge of the doctrines
It is well known that the churches of that day were
exceedingly tenacious of their traditional doctrines; and
preachers were expected to discourse with fervid zeal upon
the necessity of accepting their respective creeds in their
most exact literal expressions. No latitude was allowed
to rationalize any doctrine; and the non-acceptance of
them in the strict meaning of their words was deemed
to be rank infidelity. How far Mr. Metcalfe ran counter
to these views may be better understood from the follow-
ing abstract of his teachings, as enunciated by him at
that time in a series of discourses. Of course, this state-
ment must necessarily be very brief, and, consequently,
1. The Bible, being written by divine inspiration, open
vision, and audible dictation, contains a record of all truths
necessary to man's salvation. To interpret it aright in
its literal sense, a knowledge of the literature, customs,
geography, arts, and philosophy of the Bible nations and
times is of great value. Beyond its literal sense, there is
providentially contained within it a revelation of divine
and spiritual truths. These have existed within it from
the time it was first written, and have been successively
THE MINISTERS 81
developed under God, precisely when needed to re-estab-
lish or re-edify the Church, — ^just as the discoveries of
new principles or powers in creation (which have always
existed therein) were timed to the demands of the age in
which they were made available. Thus, the writings and
labors of St. Augustine, F^nelon, Luther, Calvin, Wesley,
Swedenborg, Priestley, and others have been and are helps
to devout religious minds, according to their varioius mental
conditions. But, with all the aid of these saints, seers,
and philosophers, it is not to be presumed that all of
Qod's wisdom has yet been developed from the sacred
pages of Bevelation. According to the earnestness and
need for further light, it will be manifested in greater and
brighter glory forever. The Bible, therefore, is the only
creed that a Scripture-founded Church ought to recognize
2. This Chtjbch, having no creed but the Bible, does
not constitute a sect or denomination, but simply a "BibU"
Christian Church;'* and its members daim to be in perfect
xmion and connection with the sincere and conscientious
members of all the various denominations of professing
Christians. This Church holds all the fimdamental doo-
trines, though not all the doctrinal opirUons or vietas, d
the different sects, so far as they are founded on the
obvious trutfis of the Bible. Thus, the antagonistic doc-
trines of the unity and the trinity of Gk)d, the manhood
and the divinity of Christ, the predestination and freedom
of man, the doctrine of faith and also that of works,
with other doctrines, are presented in a light reconcilable
to reason and harmonious to each other.
3. Odd is One in essence and in person. Whilst the
Bible nowhere says that there are three Persons in the
Godhead, it manifestly teaches that there is a threefold
combination in Deity, corresponding to that which dis-
8« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
tingtdsheB man, — ^namely, soul, body, and operative power.
In the Bible there is a threefold combination evidently
attributed to God, under the names of Father, Son, and
Holy Ohost. The Father is the Inmost or Essential Divine
Spirit, which is infinite love; the Son is the Great Wisdom,
or Word of God, effluxed by, and everywhere combining
with, the Father; and the Holy Spirit is the Divine Pro-
ceeding or Emanating Energy and Power of God.
4. *^GoD WAS IN Chbist." The Lord ^^gave not his
Spirit by measure to Jesus Chbist," — ^^'the Word made
flesh,*' — ^but dwelt in Him, in heaven, and in the imiverse
at one and the same time, — ^Onb Undivided God. He
assumed the spirit of man, which through sin had become
partially separated from its appropriate degree of connec-
tion with the Divine Spirit, so that he might meet the
Powers of Darkness on their own plain, combat with
them, and, by overcoming, redeem mankind to spiritual
freedom, and thereby enable the race to become reunited
with the Great Omnipotent of heaven and earth.
5. Pbovidence is the government of divine love and
wisdom, and has for its end the salvation of man, and the
formation of a heaven out of the human family. It is
universal and particular; and its laws are those of
Appointment and Permission.
6. Man is endowed with Freedom of Will to choose
good or evil. By virtue of this free will in spiritual things,
he can be conjoined to the Lord, and the Lord to him.
Thus, he has the capacity of being reformed, r^enerated,
and finally saved.
7. At Death, man puts off the material body, which,
being no longer needful, is never again reassumed. '^Flesh
and blood cannot enter the kingdom of heaven.'' Man's
spirit can never die: after death he rises in a spiritual
body into the spiritual world, in which he continues to
live forever, — ^in heaven, if he has lived a sincerely re-
THE MINISTERS 88
ligions and good life on earth; or in hell, if his ruling
thoughts^ affections, and life have been evil. ^^Like asso-
ciatee with like," of its own free will.
8. Thb Second Advent, or coming of the Lord, is a
coming, not in Person in the clouds of our atmosphere,
but in the power and spirit of the Lord^s own Divine
Truth. It is now, and ever has been, coming to every
willing mind that attains to the knowledge of Heavenly
Truth. The world will never be destroyed. *'One gen-
eration passeth away, and another cometh; but the earth
9. Ghbistian Discipline consists in obedience to the
appointed or eternal laws of the Lord, as revealed in his
Word and Works. These, unquestionably, enjoin worship
and love to the Lord supremely; honesty, truthfulness,
and affection towards all men; and purity of heart, under-
standing, and life in the individual. Besides the ordinary
virtues of Christian professors, the appointed laws revealed
in the Divine Word also require abstinence from the flesh
of animals as food, from all intoxicating liquors as bev-
erages, and from war, capital punishment, and slavery.
10. The Belioious Gekesmonies of the ^^Bible-Chris-
tian Church^' are two, — ^viz. : Baptism, by which persons are
admitted to church-membership; and the Holy Supper,
which, in the elements of bread and wine, symbolizes the
preparation made by the Lord for the strengthening and
refreshment of the souls of his people by his divine truth
and love. Both these sacraments are open and free to
all who desire to partake. The wine used in the Holy
Supper is unfermented, and, consequently, unintoxicating.
The observance of the Sabbath as a day of worship and
religious instruction is enjoined, as is also family and
Such, in brief, were the doctrinal views and church-
organization presented to the public of Philadelphia,
84 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
nearly fifty years ago, by the Rev. William Metcalfe.
Considering the rigid religious dogmas which prevailed
at that time^ it is not surprising that he met with a storm
of opposition. A religions monthly, published by an
Orthodox body in this city and edited by twelve of the
leading clergymen of the country, considered it necessary,
as they said, 'Ho unmask'* such an attempt to rationalize
religious doctrines. In a leading article, after speaking
of ^Volyes in sheep's clothing,'' the magazine says, —
''These remarks are occasioned liy the preaching of a man
who professed to be a 'Bible-Christian/ and who under this dis-
guise attacked the most plain and important doctrines of our
The article is too lengthy to republish here; but it
accuses the Bible-Christians with claiming their name
from self-righteous motives; it attempts to prove the
necessity for human creeds, and proclaims the doctrines of
its Church, such as the trirpersonality of Qod, the sacrifice
of the Son for the atonement of the Father, faith in the
imputation of Christ's righteousness, etc., as Scripture
doctrines ; and concludes with the following flourish :
''The design of these pretended reformers, notwithstanding
their professions, is to impose their own creed upon mankind, and
take away frcmi im the doctrines for which martyrs bled,---doc-
trines which possess exclusively the features of divine revelation,
— doctrines which, while they present the divine government in
awful purity and majesty, and stamp iniquity with deeper odium
than the increasing weight of eternal perdition ever could, exhibit
at the same time, in the aaorifice of Him who is over all, God
blessed forever, an atonement wliose solidity, riches, and excellence
can be measured only by the unchangeable existence, unlimited
fullness and dignity, of Him who dwells in light inaccessible and
full of glory."
To this article Mr. Metcalfe replied at length, in the
'iPreeman's Joumai/* After noticing the principal topics
THE MINISTERS 35
of a religious character, and anewering them, he concludes
by adverting to the uncharitable spirit betrayed in the
i^ide, saying, —
''They ought to know that religioiiB reformers in all ages of
the world have been accused as men who turned the world upside-
down/ as enemies to the 'traditions of the fathers/ and as authors
of 'innoyation.' Let them reflect that while they indulge them-
selves in calumniating the characters of men of whom they have
no knowledge, and in declaiming against doctrines of the nature
of which they are utterly ignorant, th^ are, in fact, betraying
the weakness of their cause, and displaying to every one their
want of Bible-Christian principles, wUch would induce them 'to
do to others as they would have others do to them.' If they really
wish information relative to the views and characters of Bible^
Christians, let them attend their meetings, which are open to all;
and we promise them a friendly welcome. If they are still dis-
satisfied, toe iwdte them to a free and oandid diaouaaUm. Truth
cannot suffer by the closest investigation; nor is its progress to
be arrested either by the fulminations of a body of priests or the
pointless censures of an association of reverend reviewers.'*
The challenge thus publicly given was never accepted,
— ^the "Magazine" not even deigning to notice the reply
or the Church. This was one mode of attack, varied by
shorter articles in the daily newspapers. Other modes
were resorted to, affecting him in his profession as a
teacher, which were even less creditable to their authors.
Even the unsubstantiated cry of ^'Skeptic !*' and ^^nfidel ?^
caused some to withdraw their patronage. A public
charge always called forth a prompt rejoinder from
Mr. Metcalfe; the latter modes were too far beneath the
considieration of sensible men for him to deem worthy
Besides the labors of school-teaching, Mr. Metcalfe was
employed as editor of a monthly periodical, entitled "The
Rural Magazine and Literary Evening Fireside/^ devoted,
as its title indicates, to agriculture and general literature.
36 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
It was published by his landlords^ Messrs. B. & G. Johnson^
No. 31 Market Street, but was discontinued at the close
On account of the repeated visits of the yellow fever to
the neighborhood of our residence, my father removed, in
the spring of 1821, to the northern suburb of the city, then
called West Kensington. He continued his school for a
time, however, in the central part of the city, — No. 7 Pear
Street. In the meantime, my mother opened a school at
our residence, which was numerously patronized, so that
my father's aid was absolutely needed. Accordingly, he
closed his school in the city, and took a building which
had been erected purposely for a school-house in the neigh-
borhood, and there opened his academy. From this time
he was quite successful in his avocation as a teacher.
The Church now began to assume some proportions of
size and strength. There had been an increase in its mem-
bership, by the return of the two families that had gone
out with the Eev. Mr. Clark, by emigrants from England,
and by new converts. But great inconvenience was ex-
perienced from the want of a permanent place of meeting.
After the school-room in Pear Street was given up by my
father, the Church was unlocalized, — ^sometimes meeting
at a public hall, sometimes in an engine-house, sometimes
in a school-room, and these widely distant from one
another. The only remedy for this unstable condition
was in the Church being itself the owner of a place of
meeting. This it resolved to do, poor as were its mem-
bers; and on May 21st, 1823, the lot of ground was pur-
chased on ground-rent which is now held in fee-simple by
the Church, situated in North Third Street above Girard
Avenue. A frame building, which had been used as a
Lancasterian school, in Coates Street, was purchased and
removed to the lot. It was rejuvenated with paint and
other alterations and fitted up in a plain and suitable
THE MINISTERS 87
style for the church-services. It was publicly opened and
dedicated, by the Eev. William Metcalfe, to the worship
of the Creator, Eedeemer, and Saviour of men, on Sunday,
December 21st of the same year.
Connected with the Church in its migratory experiences
was a Sunday-school, conducted and supported by the
church-members. This, also, with the Church, had at
length found a resting-place and a home, although it was
but an humble frame. The building, however, was in-
dicative of the charactei^ of the congregation who gathered
under its shelter, — ^plain, honest, and imostentatious. To
secure even such a religious home within little more than
six months from the time of the inception of the idea,
demanded from each individual member great personal
devotion, and evinces the fact that, though poor in worldly
wealth, they were rich in heavenly zeal. Their pastor, like
themselves, labored hard during the whole week, not alone
for the support of his family, but also to collect a congrega-
tion and to be prepared to give instruction on the Sabbath-
day in the truths of Bible-Christianity. And these truths,
practically presented, necessarily came into deadly hostility
to the popular sentiments and the perverted appetites of
the community around him; yet they were nevertheless
religiously reverential and pure in doctrine and in life.
Shortly after the church had been opened, an organ was
purchased; and the younger members composing the choir
were so earnest in their duties that the Church became
somewhat noted for its superior musical talent.
During the years 1820 and 1821, a series of tracts,
entitled "Letters on Religious Subjects," was republished
under the supervision of Mr. Metcalfe. They were ex-
planatory of the leading doctrines of the Bible-Christian
Church, and were mostly written by the Eev. Dr. Cowherd.
They were somewhat altered, so as to adapt them to the
wants of the people of this country.
88 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
It has already been stated that the Bible-Christian
Church, as early as 1809, tanght and enforced the prin-
ciple that abstinence from all intoQDicaiing beverages is a
necessary duty. So strictly was this principle carried ont,
that the wine used for sacramental purposes was expressly
made in such a manner as to remain unfermented and,
consequently, unintoxicating. Strictly speaking, therefore,
it was the first temperance society, based upon the total-
abstinence principle, in modem times. Among the tracts
published by Mr. Metcalfe at this period was one in regard
to "The Duty of Abstinence from all Intoxicating Drinks"
The vice of drinking intoxicating liquors in those days
was one of the most common customs of society. In the
transaction of business, in social gatherings o^ old or
young, male or female, or miscellaneously mixed, — ^whether
met for moral purposes or for mere pleasure, — ^to partake
of this liquid poison was considered absolutely essential.
Even the clergy were as much addicted to this habit as any
other class or profession. The little band of Bible-Chris-
tians set their faces sternly against this common custom,
and zealously sowed the seeds of those temperance organ-
izations which began to appear some ten or twelve years
afterwards. The tract alluded to says, —
''If this vice of intemperance is to be patronized, it is quite in
vain to erect places of worship, or to expect any thing but dis-
appointment in attempting to diffuse religious knowledge. There
remains only one effectual way of counteracting this evil, and
that is, for. all ministers of the gospel and all sincere reformers
to strike at the root of the g^igantic tree of intemperance, — ^not
alone by preaching, but by setting an example of entire abatinenoe
from thie h<meful liquor. In order to adopt any system, it is
desimble to see the practicability of it. In this case it is quite
easy. There only wants a beginning in the performance. The
accursed beverages ought neveb to gain admittance to our dweU-
ings, and, if possible, we should not even hear or see their names."
This was the language, word for word; and the tract
sustained its position with sound reason and considerable
THE MnaSTERS 39
learning. A large edition was printed and gratuitously
distributed. It was, we believe, the Pibst Total-
Abstinbncb Tract published in this country. When the
principles of temperance became more operative in the
community, Mr. Metcalfe freely contributed his aid and
influence in the organization of societies and in the support
But he was early convinced that the Dibtbtio Befobm
would be of a much slower growth than that of temperance.
The evil of drunkenness so openly manifests itself in the
fearful blight which falls upon its victims, that but little
effort was needed, he supposed, to call forth those who
would see and proclaim its wickedness. But eating the
flesh of animals — ^though really as criminal, as debasing,
and as barbarous as that or any other known evil — does
not manifest itself in the same heinousness outwasdly:
therefore its opponents, he was assured, would not be so
numerous nor so popular. He was satisfied, however,
that there is a desolation wrought in the soul by the sin
of flesh-eating more fearful than any outward ghastliness,
but which cannot be understood, because of the long and
unlimited prevalence of the custom. Hence a constant and
self-sacrificing devotion was needful on the part of those
who were enlightened in the principles of Vegetarianism,
to awaken the public mind to its enormity. Mr. Metcalfe
gave his time, talent, and means, unstintedly, to present
to the world this cause simply as a moral reform. In
1821, he published a tract on the subject of "Abstinence
from the Flesh of Animals,'' which was freely and exten-
sively distributed. He resorted to the columns of the
newspapers to excite public attention to the subject.
Articles were published in the "Saturday Evening Post,"
"The Philadelphia Gazette," "The American Sentinel,"
"The United States Oazette,** and other papers, from his
pen, at various intervals, to excite public attention to the
40 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
consideration of this humane reform. He also instituted
correspondence with any inquiring mind^ upon the least
appearance of interest in the principles which he had so
deeply at heart.
During the first ten or twelve years, his labors in this
direction appear to have been entirely unproductive of any
promising results. In 1830, Dr. Sylvester Graham was
employed as a temperance-lecturer, and was introduced to
some of the members of the Bible-Christian Church.
He was at this time earnestly studying human physiology,
as furnishing testimony upon the subject which was the
theme of his public lectures. He had arrived at some con-
clusions in regard to the dietetic character of man, by this
study. The mode of life adopted by his Bible-Christian
friends was made known to him; and this most probably
caused him to make a more searching investigation as to
the scientific grounds for such a course, and finally led him
to adopt its teachings and to become its champion. As
soon as my father became aware of his position, he ad-
dressed a letter of encouragement to him, and also one to
Dr. William A. Alcott, who had likewise publicly declared
his conviction that a vegetarian diet was the most proper
for mankind. This correspondence with them was con-
tinued through life, with much interest to all. The basis
of the dietetic reform was freely discussed, and projects
suggested for the propagation of its principles. In 1835,
Doctor Alcott commenced the "Moral Reformer," a
monthly periodical, which was afterwards substituted by the
''Library of Health" In 1838-39, the "Graham Journal"
was also published, in Boston, and physiological societies
were organized in several of the New England towns and
in Philadelphia, principally among the Bible-Christians.
The inquiry began to be agitated as to "The Bible Testi-
mony on Abstinence from the Flesh of Animals;^' and a
sermon with this title was preached and published by the
TBQB MINISTEBS 41
Sev. William Metcalfe. It had an extensive circulation
throughout the United States, and was generously reviewed,
pro and con, by the newspaper press generally.
It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the
varied projects in which Mr. Metcalfe engaged to promote
the cause of Vegetarianism. Su£9ce it to say that, next
to the Church, it had his most anxious thoughts and his
most constant labor.
But he was overtasking his strength by his dose and
constant application. School-teaching itself, at the time
he was engaged in it, was a health-destroying profession.
Then, the school-rooms were genersdly low, ill-ventilated
apartments; and his was greatly crowded. During fully
one-half the year he was employed with a day and an
evening sdiool, from eight o'clock in the morning until
ten at night; Saturday was devoted mainly to preparation
for his Sunday duties : so that he had no time for relaxa-
tion or bodily exercise. It is not surprising that he found
. his health failing, from his close confinement and labor in
a vitiated atmosphere.
After following the avocation of a school-teacher for
more than twenty years, as a change, he engaged, in 1832,
with the writer of this in the letter-press printing. We
published a weekly newspaper, entitled '^The Independent
Democrat/' — ^my father being editor and pressman. It
was political in its character, but a large portion of its
space was devoted to moral and literary artides. In 1838,
a daily newspaper was printed at our office, called *'The
Morning Star" The principal object of the projectors
of this paper was to secure the nomination and election
of General Habsison to the Presidency of the United
States; and we were assured by many of the leading
advocates throughout the country that the undertaking
would be amply sustained. The patronage it had was not
suffident, and the promises of the politicians were not
42 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
fulfilled. It finally ceased in 1841, and we were involved
in great pecuniary embarrassment. Although General
Harrison was no party to the promises which had led us
to undertake the publication, yet, being personally ac-
quainted with my father, he volunteered, after his election,
to assure him that we should be repaid. His death, a
month after his inauguration, put an end to this prospect.
Excepting the subordinate position of measurer in the
custom-house, — ^which my father held about two years, —
and a position in the post-oflSce by the writer, no recom-
pense was ever made.
My father, meanwhile, carried on the printing-business
himself, issuing from his office '*The Temperance Advo-
cate/^ This was also an unprofitable imdertaking; and
he resolved to direct his attention to another channel
He had always entertained the idea that the union of
the medical and ministerial duties was eminently proper
and desirable. With this view, he attended a course of
lectures in the college, as early as 1820-21, but was com-
pelled to abandon his intention for want of means. In
1845, with the advice and assistance of his son-in-law.
Dr. Henry Taylor, he recommenced the study of medicine,
under the homceopathic system. After private study, he
entered the college, and graduated as an M.D. in, 1852.
In 1844, the frame building in which the Bible-Chris-
tians held their meetings began to bear evident marks of
decay. Its repair was almost out of the question. The
trustees, therefore, commenced taking the necessary meas-
ures for the erection of a more substantial edifice. The
incumbrance on the ground had been extinguished; and a
fund was accumulating in anticipation of requiring a new
edifice. To aid this fund, the ladies of the church held a
fair, which realized a handsome sum. A subscription was
opened, and the members and friends of the church were
liberal in their contributions: so that the trustees felt
THE MINISTERS 4S
warranted in commencing the building. On the 4th of
Jxaie, 1846, the work was begun : the building was roofed
over, and the basement story finished, and formally opened
and set apart for church services, by the Bev. William
Metcalfe, on Sunday, November 2d, of the same year.
Nearly two years after, the whole building was completed
and furnished. The church proper, occupying the second
story, was dedicated, October 10th, 1847, to the Only
Wise God, our Saviour, The discourse by the pastor, the
Bev. William Metcalfe, was founded upon the twentieth
chapter of Exodus, and the ceremonies were interspersed
with appropriate music.
About this time Mr. Metcalfe received from Jambs
Simpson^ Esq., a member of the Bible-Christian Church
of Salford, Mimchester, England, several copies of pam-
phlets on the subject of Vegetarianism. He also received
from the same gentleman an encouraging letter as to the
progress of the cause in that kingdom, stating that its ad-
vocates designed forming associations for the propagation
of vegetarian principles as a moral reform. This was
subsequently accomplished, and James Simpson, Esq.,
was elected president of the Vegetarian Society of Great
Britain. Mr. Metcalfe immediately proposed the forma-
tion of a similar society here. He corresponded with
Drs. Graham, Alcott, Mussey, and others, and finally an
American Vegetarian Convention assembled in Clinton
Hall, New York, May 16th, 1850. This meeting brought
together friends of the cause who were personally strangers,
but who had, nevertheless, long known each other by cor-
respondence or repute. The Bev. William Metcalfe
was elected President of the Convention. Addresses
were made by Mr. Metcalfe, Drs. Graham, Alcott, and
others. The formation of the Vegetarian Society was
agreed to; a constitution and by-laws were presented, and
also the form of a declaration of abstinence from animal
44 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
food, — ^all of which were adopted. The Society was organ-
ized by electing Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, President, Kev.
William Mbtcalfb, Corresponding Secretary, and Dr. B.
T. Tball, Recording Secretary. The project of publishing
a Vegetarian magazine was canvassed; and it was deter-
mined to commence such a journal, as the organ of the
Society. Mr. Metcalfe was named the editor, to be assisted
by Dr. Wm. A. Alcott and others. The first number was
issued in November, 1850, under the title of the ''American
Vegetarian and Health Journal;" but its regular monthly
publication did not commence imtil 1851.
Having fully organized the Vegetarian reform, and
arranged for the organ of the cause, Mr. Metcalfe de-
termined to pay a visit to England. This resolution
becoming known^ he was ofQcially appointed as a delegate
from the American Vegetarian Society to the annual
meeting of the Vegetarian Society of Great Britain;
also as a delegate from the Pennsylvania Peace Society
to the World's Peace Convention, and as delegate from
the Pennsylvania Temperance Society to the Grand
Temperance Demonstration to be made in London in the
latter part of the month. He sailed from the port of New
York, on Saturday, July 6th, 1851, in the steamer Arctic,
and arrived in due time to take part in these several
gatherings. He also visited the Crystal Palace, which
had just been opened. But the most pleasing feature of
his visit was his reception from the members of Christ
Church, Salford, where forty years before he had received
holy orders. They gave him a most cordial welcome;
and he had the gratification of preaching twice, during his
brief stay, in the building where he had received ordina-
tion. On Sunday evening, August 10th, a ^'tea-party,**
comprising the whole congregation, convened in the
school-room connected with the church. It had been
arranged by the ladies as a means of testifying the respect
THE MINISTERS 45
which the members of the church entertained for the
Bev. Dr. Metcalfe. The tables were spread with chaste
el^ance^ and simplicity withal. Josbph Bbothebton^
Esq., member of Parliament, presided on the occasion.
In the course of his opening address, alluding to Mr.
Metcalfe, he said, "I can assure you, I feel diflScidty in
expressing my feelings towards him. I hail him as a
brother, and as a much-esteemed friend for his work's
sake.'' Another asked, ^^What was it that rendered Mr.
Metcalfe's visit a subject of such endearing interest to the
friends in England ? It was not wealth ; it was not literary
talent or eloquence merely; but it was the conviction that
Mr. Metcalfe was a living exemplar of certain great and
good principles, and the earnest promoter of the practices
which those principles inculcated/* The parting "Fabb-
well" was finally said; and Mr. Metcalfe returned in time
to participate in the proceedings of the second annual
meeting of the American Vegetarian Society, which^
convened in the Chinese Lecture-room, Philadelphia, on
the 10th of September.
In 1853, Mr. Metcalfe was called upon to suffer a severe
affiction, in the death of his wife. Mrs. Susan Metgalfb
died on the 3d of November, in the seventy-fourth year of
her age. For nearly forty-four years she had faithfully
encouraged and sustained her consort, as a minister of
Christianity, in his arduous undertaking of teaching duties
and doctrines of a higher character than the world was
willing to receive. Her hospitality was proverbial. Social
and frank in disposition, she was ever ready to cheer the
right, and to reprove in kindness those who were disposed
to go astray. Her removal was mourned by the whole
Churdi as that of a beloved mother.
Meanwhile, Mr. Metcalfe was not only the editor of the
American Vegetarian, but all the duties connected with
its publication were performed by him gratuitously. He
46 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
was proof-reader^ book-keeper^ folder, and mail-packer, —
besides being personally responsible to the printer for his
work. He had advanced money from his own resources,
and at considerable embarrassment, in order to have the
regular appearance of the '^Vegetarian" secured. His
statement was laid before the annual meeting of the Vege-
tarian Society in 1864, and the whole subject was referred
to a special committee, with full power to use their own
judgment in regard to its continuance. After canvassing
the matter, the committee deemed it advisable to suspend
its publication for a season, — hoping, if no other arrange-
ment could be made, to be able to secure for the Society a
hearing before the public through some other journal. Mr.
Metcalfe being shortly after called upon to labor in another
direction, no attempt was made by the others of the com-
mittee to resume its publication; and the volume of 1854
closed the ''American Vegetarian"
The ^'other direction*' in which Mr. Metcalfe was called
was England. The Bev. J. B. Strbttlbs, officiating
minister of Christ Church, Salford, Manchester, died in
the early part of 1866. Mr. Metcalfe received an invi-
tation to visit that church, if only for a short period, until
a suitable person could be obtained to occupy the pulpit
made vacant by the death of its late occupant. This invi-
tation Mr. Metcalfe presented to a meeting of the members
of his church, and solicited leave of absence to fulfill the
request of the bereaved church. The Eev. Joseph Wright,
his brother-in-law, who had been ordained by the Bev.
Dr. Cowherd, was a resident of Philadelphia and an active
member of the church ; to him he purposed to confide its
pastoral duties, if the church should grant his request.
The proposition, being urged with such an evident desire
to aid the sister church, was granted, the Bev. Joseph
Wright consenting to take upon himself the duties of tiie
ministry. Mr. Metealfe had recently been married to
THE MINISTERS 47
Miss Maby Casiss^ a lady who had been nurtured and
raised in the principles and discipline of the Bible-Chris-
tian Churchy and who was a faithful member. In the
latter part of July he and his wife embarked for Liverpool
from Philadelphia. They arrived safely^ and were imme-
diately waited upon by members of the church and cor-
The Bev. Dr. Metcalfe was immediately installed into
his pastoral duties^ establishing a free and friendly inti-
macy with all the members of the church. Again he was
cordially greeted by his old friend, Joseph Brotherton,
M.P., who, as the early minister of the Salford church,
was still looked to by its members as their chief adviser
in all difficulties. James Simpson, Esq., President of the
Vegetarian Society, also gave him hearty welcome, and
soon had him engaged in the Vegetarian cause as a lecturer.
He visited in this capacity not only many of the towns of
England, but, in company with Mr. Simpson, he also
addressed meetings in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and several
smaller towns of Scotland. He was peculiarly gratified
with the attention which was given by the large numbers
of the intelligent and sedate people of Scotland to the
cause of Vegetarianism and Temperance. In fact, all
his labors here appear to have been of an encourag-
But the prominent purpose which he ever kept in view
was that of supplying a worthy successor to the pulpit of
Christ Church, Salford. He assumed the duty of impart-
ing a systematic course of instruction to a class of young
men in Bible-Christian Theology. Of this class he ex-
pressed himself as quite sanguine, — ^its members evincing
superior intelligence and pious devotion in their studies.
He was the more earnest in this endeavor, as the church in
Philadelphia, which, under Divine Providence, he had been
instrumental in building up, was urging his speedy return.
48 BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
Whilst thus busUy engaged, he was startled by the
sudden death of his old and endeared friend, the Bev.
Joseph Brotheeton, who without any symptoms of
previous sickness, quietly and quickly passed from this
transitory state to the eternal world, on the morning of
January 8th, 1867. This was the most severe bereavement
that the Salford church had experienced since the death of
the Eev. Dr. Cowherd. Mr. Brotherton was highly esteemed
by the community at large. He had represented Salford in
Parliament for more than twenty years, and was other-
wise connected with its municipal government, as well as
being an active member of several of its benevolent,
literary, and scientific associations. The mournful duty
devolved upon the Sev. Dr. Metcalfe of performing the last
sad rites over the lifeless remains of his beloved friend.
On Sunday, January 18th, he delivered a discourse ''On
the Death of the late J. Brotherton, Esq., M.P.,*' in Christ
Church, Salford. Besides the mourning family and church-
members, there were in attendance members of Parliament,
the town-ofQcials, and a large concourse of citizens. By
request of the church-deacons, the address was published
in pamphlet form.
The time was now rapidly approaching when Mr.
Metcalfe would be at liberty to return to Philadelphia,
according to the terms of the agreement. But the congre-
gation were now, since their bereavement, more than ever
desirous of retaining him with them permanently. The
church in Philadelphia, however, pressed its claims upon
him, so that he declined to prolong his stay much beyond
the period fixed. Mr. Metcalfe and his wife made their
final arrangements for departure; and, in the early part
of August, they bade an affectionate farewell to their many
kind and dearly-beloved friends in England. They reached
the port of New York on the 24th of the same month,
where they were received by a committee of the church.
THE MINISTERS 49
They arrived at their own home on the evening of the
following day, where tea had been prepared for them and
the church members generally. The meeting and greetings
on both sides were most cordial and happy. Mr. Metcalfe
resumed his ministerial duties on Simday^ September Tth^
and preached to a large congregation. He was also called
upon by his old patients to recommence his medical
practice; and his labors in the cause of Temperance and
Vegetarianism were assumed as readily as though no
interruption had taken place.
As life sinks apace, we are called upon to mourn the
departure of friend after friend, in quicker succession than
we appeared to do in our earlier years^ This was Mr.
Metcalfe^s experience. Another friend and co-laborer in
the cause of Vegetarianism had been summoned by the
hand of Death from this world of shadows. Dr. William
A. Alcott, who had toiled so imwearyingly in the prosecu-
tion of philanthropic labors, and who had written so many
instructive books of a practical character, died on the 29th
of March, 1859, in the sixty-second year of his age, —
thirty-one of which had been more or less zealously de-
voted to the propagation and practice of Vegetarianism.
At the annual meeting of the Vegetarian Society, held
September 21st, Dr. Metcalfe was imanunously elected
president, which position had been so ably filled by Dr.
ilcott f^m the time of its organization/ On assling
the chair. Dr. Metcalfe delivered a fitting eulogy upon the
life, labors, and character of his deceased predecessor.
My beloved father had frequently, during many years
past, expressed great anxiety respecting his successor to
the ministry in the Church. On Simday morning, Sep-
tember 4th, 1859, he had the great gratification of engaging
in the solemn service of an ordination. His son, the
writer of this brief memoir, was presented to him by the
senior deacons of the church, Jonathan Wright and Elijah
50 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Bothwell; as a person whom the members of the church
unanimously desired to have introduced into the ministry.
After proper examination, the candidate was duly ordained
a minister of the word of Ood, by the venerable hands
of the ordaining minister, and the appropriate ceremonies
Another occasion which he considered himself as highly
favored in being privileged to enjoy, was the semi-centen-
nial celebration of his own ordination. In the providence
of Gk)d, this was granted to the Bev. William Metcalfe,
on Sunday, August 11th, 1861. After preaching an appro-
priate sermon on the afternoon of that day, the congre-
gation adjourned to the school-room of the church. Here,
aroimd long tables bountifully supplied with vegetarian
fare and profusely decorated with flowers, they consti-
tuted themselves into a large family tea-party, — ^the Bev.
Dr. Metcalfe, as the ^%ther in Israel,'' presiding. Beso-
lutions of a grateful and congratulatory character were
presented to their venerable minister, besides some other
tokens of esteem and affection. A copy of his discourse
on that occasion was solicited, which was published by
the committee. Thus my father continued to labor in the
service of the Lord, and, as he himself remarked, '^It was
his joy, — ^and most his joy when most laborious.*'
And now we approach the dose of this long life of
incessant activity. Since his return from England, my
father had enjoyed general good health. He had been
troubled somewhat during the past year with a polypus in
his nose: still, he had not been interrupted in any of his
ministerial or other duties. Even on the Sabbath before
his death he preached with all his accustomed vigor and
animation. He appeared to be hoarse, as if from a severe
cold: yet his delivery was as distinct as ever. Faithfully
and earnestly did he lay before his flock, morning and
afternoon of that day, the commandmentis of the Lord.
THE MINISTERS 61
That night he was taken ill with hemorrhage of the lungs,
and on the following morning, when the writer called to
see him, he expressed serious doubts of his ultimate re-
covery. Still he retained the buoyancy and cheerfulness
of his disposition; and on the succeeding morning he was
so much improved that he thought it possible he might
again recover. He continued to gain strength, and was
sitting up during most of the day. On Thursday he had
been visited by all his children, and his blessing had been
bestowed upon them with more than usual serenity.
Some remained and took tea with him. All but one had
departed, when, about eight o'clock, he prepared to retire
for the night. And now, like Jacob of old, "when he had
made an end of commanding his children,'* my beloved
father literally "gathered up his feet into the bed, and
yielded up the spirit, and was gathered unto his people.'*
His removal at last was, therefore, very sudden, and was
doubtless caused by a renewal of the hemorrhage. The
Bev. William Metcalfe died on Thursday evening, Octo-
ber 16th, 1862, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. The
silver cord was loosened, the golden bowl was broken,
and the wheel of action stood still in the exhausted cistern
of the mortal life of this truly good man; but the soul
soared away to the eternal kingdom of its Lord, to join
its friends, not lost, but gone before, and to become a more
efficient laborer in the cause of humanity, in which it was
so much interested.
The whole life of the Bev. William MetcaKe was one
of imremitting. labor for the good of others, and for the
establishment of the vital principles of Christianity in the
souls of his fellow-men. The specific work of his life was
that of sowing the seeds and cultivating the principles of
Temperance and Yegetabianism and permanently estab-
lishing the Bible-Christian Church in this country.
These were no small labors for one man's life ; and yet the
6i BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
Bev. William Metcalfe was the pbimabt agenoy^ under
Divine Providence, for the development and organization
of these moral and religious reforms in this hemisphere of
the world. He was not, it is true, a noisy, blustering,
passionate reformer. Such displays are generally evi-
dences of weakness, rather than of power and intelli-
gence. He who quietly resists the current of the times,
who stands up steadily against its corruptions and vices,
and who, from a firm conviction of principle and with a
confident reliance on Divine assistance, will not be carried
away by faction, opposition, or temptation, — ^he is the
strongest and most practical reformer. The Eev. William
Metcalfe thus stood and labored for Total Abstinence, for
Vegetarianism, and for Bible-Christianity, when there
were none but the few gathered friends around him, who
had as yet raised a voice in behalf of either.
No man ever shrunk from publicity more than the
Sev. Dr. Metcalfe; but his ardent zeal for truth impelled
him to antagonisms, even at the expense of his feelings
and of his own personal ease and comfort. He was
deeply reverential, and all his religious sentiments were
strong and pure, — ^thus uniting in himself the character
of the saint to that of the reformer. As a pastor and
preacher he was prompt and faithful to all his charges.
During his entire fifty-two years* ministry, whatever
might be his outward difficulties or embarrasments, with
but very few exceptions he was to be found in the pulpit
every Sabbath-day morning and afternoon, and sometimes
also in the evening. His general health was so uniform
that the exceptions occasioned by sickness did not number
more than five or six Sabbaths. The other exceptions
were during the periods when he was crossing the ocean ;
and even then he officiated as often as the opportunity
The Bev. William Metcalfe was beloved by his entire
congregation as a fond father, and an extensive circle of
THE MINISTEBS 58
acquaintances were sincerely attached to him in the bonds
of personal friendship. He retained the buoyancy and
cheerfulness of his disposition to the last; and the pleas-
ant humor and affectionate tendemesd of his social inter-
course, even on the day of his decease, were in beautifid
harmony with his life of temperance and piety. His re-
mains were interred in the burial-groimd attached to the
church which had been built under his auspices. The
services were performed by the Eev. E. A. Bbaman, who
also preached an eloquent and consolatory fimeral sermon,
on the following Sabbath, to a large congregation.
A TABLET has been erected in the church, immediately
behind the pulpit which he adorned so long. It is of
white Italian marble, placed in a recess having a black-
marbled background, thus forming a border to the tablet
of four or five inches. The top of the tablet is semicircu-
lar, having in it a raised Bible, with rays diverging from
it, and over which are the following words: — ^'^Thy
WoBD IS A Light unto my Path.'' Underneath the semi-
circle is a scroll, bearing the following inscriptions : — ^^^n
Memory of our Beloved Pastor, the Rev. WILLIAM
METCALFE, M.D., Founder of the first Bible-Chris^
tian Church in America: who departed this life October
16th, 1862, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He was a
faithful, enlightened, and exemplary minister of the Word
of God for fifty-two years. 'God is not the God of the
dead, but of the living.* — Matt. xxii. 32.*'
The periodicals of the day, in noticing the ,death of the
Bev. William Metcalfe, paid tribute to his many virtues as
a minister of religion and as a moral reformer. Numerous
letters were also received by the family, from public and
private sources, containing eloquent eulogies on his life
and character. Testimonials from the Bible-Christian
Church in Philadelphia, and also from Christ Church,
Salford, England, are herewith appended.
54 BIBLEKmniSTIAN CHURCH
TEIBUTB OF EESPBCT.
The congregation worshiping in the "BiBLE-CHBiBTiAn
Chubch," North Third Street, above Girard Avenue, Philadelphia,
aesembled in special meeting on the afternoon of Sunday, October
26th, 1862. Addresaes were delivered in regard to the bereavement
which the Church had experienced, and, among other proceedings,
the following Preamble and Resolutions were presented by
Mr. Kr.TjAH kothwell, which were unanimously adopted, and
ordered to be engrossed on the Church Journal:
"Whereaa, In the dispensation of our heavenly Father, our
beloved Pastor, the Rev. WILLIAM METCALFE, M.D., has been
removed by death from the scene of his labors in the external
Church, to perform higher services in the Spiritual Church of the
Lobd; and whereas we have long enjoyed the privilege of his
fatherly counsel, and have been intimately acquainted with his
many personal virtues and his great sacrifices for tiie cause of
Scripture-founded Christianity; and whereae we earnestly desire
and deem it our duty to place on record a true delineation of his
character: be it, therefore, hereby
"Resolved, Tha,t we behold in the character of our late ven-
erable Pastor that purity of life, that humilily of disposition, that
equanimity of temper, and that peaceful demeanor, which con-
stitute the necessary qualifications of a true apostle of oar
LOBD ASD SaVIOUB JeSUS ChBIST.
**Re8olved, That in the domestic circle we saw in the Rev. Dr.
Metcalfe a devoted husband and a loving father. In social life
he was kind and tender-hearted, and, consequently, was respected
and beloved b^ all who knew him. His love of usefulness caused
him to be active in aiding and assisting in all social and moral
reform; and his name, we are assured, is embalmed in unnumbered
hearts, who will transmit the memory of his virtues and useful-
ness to future generations.
"BesoVoed, That in his ministerial duties the Rev. William
Metcalfe was faithful and devoted to the service of his QsEi^T
EzEiCFLAB AND Teaoheb, — fearlessly opposing the vicious habits
and customs of society with all the ability of his talents and life,
— ^bearing unfaltering testimony of more than fifty-two years to
truth, justice, and mercy, and performing punctually, even to the
last Sabbath of his life on earth, the sacred duties of his mission
as a preacher of Bible-Christianity.
**Be8olved, That a committee be appointed to cause a suitable
monument to be erected over the remains of our beloved Pastor,
as a token of affection on behalf of the Church of which he was,
under Divine Providence, the founder in this country, and for
which he so long labored.
"Jonathan Wright, President,**
'^UANUBL Het, Secretary pro tern;
THE MINISTERS 55
Address from the Members of the *'Bible-Ohrisiian Ohurch,"
Salford, to their Brethren in Philadelphia, United States,
By letters from friends on your side of the Atlantic, and from
public prints received through the same channels, we are put In
possession of the knowledge &at your church has recently endured
a most distressing bereavement in the death of your faithful
friend and pa^r, the Rev. William Mbtgalfe. Bound to you
by the endearing ties of Ions service in the holiest things, associ-
ated in your recollections with the happiest and most interesting
events of your own and your children's lives, and in perhaps a
more sacred way with your troubles and losses, his removal hence
cannot fail to be a cause of deep sorrow to all your little fiock.
The child whom he had baptized and who had lived long enough
to recognize the benevolent expression of his countenance, reflect-
ing the light within, — ^the young man or maiden whom he has
received into the bosom of the Church, and to whom, under Qod,
he has ministered the bread of life and the living waters of
comfort and peace, — ^the devout servant of the Lord who has
waited on his ministrations and profited by the detail of his
heavenly experiences and emotions and his intimate acquaintance
with the divine truth, — each and all must feel conscious of a void
which cannot easily be supplied, — a loss which is all but irrep-
arable. In presence of such a calamity, we desire to offer you
our warmest sympathies, and the assurance of our unabated
attachment to yourselves and the principles we hold in common.
Our hearts unite in "weeping with them that weep," because of
the loss to the world in our dear friend's deatii, and particularly
for the loss the "Bible-Christian Church" has sustained therebj^.
Our own loss and our own sorrow are only second to yours in
this aflUcting dispensation of Divine Providence; but we desire
to encourage and to strengthen you as the Lord has taught us.
Whilst acknowledging in sadness that '^o chastening seemeth for
the present joyous, but ^evous," we also hope that this chastise-
ment will "afterwards yield the peaceable fruits of righteousness
to them that are exercised thereby." May our heavenly Father
so teach you and us that we may find that godly exercise in our
present grief, which shall yield us the peaceable frujts of right-
eousness! May we learn even now to say, The Lord is gracious
and merciful; his ways are good and right I He is the Father of
the fatherless, the Husband of the widow, the Friend of the friend-
less. In each of these relationshijis we humbly pray that Hb may
now be manifested to you, "carrying your little ones in his arms
as on eagle's wings," consoling the widowed Church with the
assurance of his protection and love, and supplying by the direct
influences of his Spirit the need created by the death of your
Our great comfort is that whatever is true or good cannot
perish. Its vitality is in the charge of Him who is the truth and
5« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
who alone is perfectly good. We have, therefore, no fear that
the principles of Bible-Christianity can die. Though they may
wane for a season through lack of zeal or the want of faithful
men, yet must they spring again, like seeds long buried in the
earth, when the needs of mankind lead them to remove the crust
of errors and evils that has overlaid the good and the true.
We sorrow not as those without hope, but as looking and
waiting ourselves for the great deliverance, when to die will be
gain, inasmuch as we shall be with the Lord. This hope, we
doubt not, abides with you, and our prayer to God on your behalf
is, that it may abound more and more until the day when faith
shall be lost in sight.
Praying that our heavenly Father may aid and comfort you
at all times, but especially at the present time of need, that He
will enlarge you and give you increased proofs of his regard
James Clabk, Minister,
Commiiiee of Oorreapondenee,
Jn reviewing the Church records from its establish-
ment up to the date of Dr. Metcalfe's death in 1862,
oovering the first forty-five years of its existence,
decided material progress is shown.
The old frame meeting-place, originally a small
school-house, gave way for a substantial two story rough-
cast building, well-lighted, commodious and furnished
with modem conveniences. A flourishing Sunday
School had been established.
From an attendance of five at the fibrst adminis-
tration of the Holy Communion, a fluctuating but grad-
ual increase is shown, so that the average attendance
in 1861, is shown to be about fifty and that at regular
service about ninety.
THE MINISTERS 57
Wlian oompared with other religious denommations
this may not appear particularly encouraging, but
taMng into consideration the very limited material
possessions of its founder and its early members and the
Let personal requirements of disoiplme for niember-
ship no lack of hopefulness for the future is manifest ;
on the contrary, an earnest interest in the affairs of the
Church, a faithfulness to its beliefs and abiding trust
in the righteousness of its doctrines, are indicated in
the annual reports of the minister and deacons.
The neighborhood of Third Street and Girard
Avenue during this period was occupied principally by
families in fair to moderate circumstanoes, small trades-
people and manufacturing establishments, the public
markets for farmers and butchers occupied the centre
of Girard Avenue and a sufficient number of saloons and
inns for the ^^ entertainment of man and beast " existed
in that section.
The residence of the minister waa directly opposite
the church on Third Street, and several families of
members resided near by; there were, however, about
twenty-five or thirty per cent of the members living
in Frankf ord, some four and a half miles distant.
The stage coach was practically the only public con-
veyance to carry these members to service, although
some had their private carriages, which, when there
was room, they would invite others to share. Frequently
the yoimg people would make the journey both ways,
"afoot,'' lessening the distance by short cuts through
the fields and woods, which at that time prevailed
through that section.
58 BIBLE-CHRISTUN CHURCH
The buildiiig of the Frankf ord and Southwark
Railroad^ in 1857, improved tlie travelling facili-
Some of the family names shown by the reoords^
applying to those active and valuable in the affairs and
management of the Church during this time are:
Almond, Earned, Bell, Brooks, Bury, Cariss, Chorlton,
Cooper, Cunliffe, Dixon, Gibson, Hey, Higgs, Horrocks,
Hough, Hunt, Koenig, Lever, Luckman, Lyons, Martin,
Metcalfe, Moseley, !N'uttall, Peterman, Best, Richardson,
Rothwell, Royle, Shoch, Taylor, Winn, Wri^t.
The dose personal companionship that existed
between the Rev. William Metcalfe and his son Joseph,
their sincere mutual interest in the material and spirit-
ual welfare of the Church, and their absolute faith
in the righteousness of its principles and doctrines,
combined to make Joseph Metcalfe the logical succes-
sor to the position.
Joseph Metcalfe was born October 16, 1810, at
Addingham, Yorkshire, England, and came to America
with the original Company of Bible Christians who
embarked from Liverpool in the early part of the
spring of 1817, arriving in Philadelphia, June 15th
of that year.
He married Elizabeth Chorlton, a daughter of John
Chorlton (who was also one of the early members of
the Church in Philadelphia).
He was associated with his father for several years
in the letter press printing business and held various
clerical and accounting positions. His ordination as a
minister in September, 1869, was in anticipation of
his assuming the position, and the hearty sentiment in
favor of it, prevailing throughout the congregation, is
shown by action taken at a special church meeting held
October 26, 1862, when on motion of Elijabi Bothwell,
seconded by Emanuel Hey, it was unanimously decided
by a standing vote '^ that Joseph Metcalfe be elected
to fill the high office of minister of the Bible-Christian
Church, 'N. 8rd Street, Philadelphia,'' and on further
motion of Mr. Bothwell, that ^^ the names of all present
be entered on the minutes.'' This list carried the
following names :
William Cariss, Jr.
William Horrocks, Jr.
Charles F. Koenig
William Metcalfe, Jr.
Mrs. Mary Metcalfe
60 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Joseph Metcalfe resided in Frankford, and in the
early part of his term as minister was occupied during
the week-days with a position in the XJ. S. Custom
House, Philadelphia, and later as a derk in the Penn-
sylvania Legislature at Harrisburg. Church services
were held Sunday morning and afternoon as formerly.
Mr. Metcalfe making the journey from Harrisburg to
his home in Frankfofd on Saturday evening (requiring
about 5 hours) and returning to Harrisburg, Mon-
The reports of the deacons and the other annual
reports rendered to the ajmual meetings during the
five years of Mr. Metcalfe's ministry indicate a jsatis-
factory and progressive condition, with some increase in
membership and in attendance at both regular and
A friendly and interested sentiment prevailed
throughout the Church; and social meetings, both at
the church and in the homes of the members, were of
An occasion, not included in the Church records,
but narrated in the Philadelphia Press of December
26, 1866, illustrates the cordial relations existing be-
tween the pastor and his flock. The article, after
mentioning the suburban location of his residence, states :
The pastor and his wife were seated in the parlor last
evening about 8 o'clock, conversing with a few friends,
when the sounds of a familiar Church hymn were heard
outside. On going to the door, the front yard, or lawn,
which occupies quite a large space, was seen to be well
THE MINISTERS 61
filled with people who were soon recognized as church
members and friends^ and invited to enter.
DifiScnlty was experienced when an attempt was made
to get into the other parts of the house, the connecting door
refosing to respond to efforts made to open it, for some
time. When it finally yielded, the pastor and his wife
were escorted to a table occupying the centre of the living-
room on which was arranged a beautiful silver tea pitcher,
appropriately inscribed, a handsome traveling satchel or
case completely furnished with the usual toilet articles
incident thereto. Another contingent of the "Surprise
Party,'* who had gained entrance through a rear door,
had attended to this part of the programme, and the
presentation was made in a few complimentary words by
one of the deacons, and responded to by the pastor as
well as his emotion would permit, after which, music, song,
and bountiful refreshments ended up a Merry Christ-
Several new names were added to the roll of member-
ship during Eev. Joseph Metcalfe's term, and among
those who attended the services, regularly practised
vegetarianism and contributed liberally, although not
members, vrere Samuel Needham, a hosiery & woolen
goods manufacturer in Frankford, and his family, and
a Mr. Derbyshire in the dyeing business in Philadelphia.
The great War of the Eebellion still continued
when Joseph Metcalfe entered upon his duties, and a
societj, known as the Ladies Aid Society of the Bible*
Christian Churchy was organized in 1862, intended
originally to assist the U. S. soldiers by work and
contributions of money and supplies. It afterwards
became a most useful and valuable Church affiliation.
62 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The record of the Whitmondaj Annual Meeting
June 6, 1865, refers to the '^ death of our venerable
and senior DeacoUi Jonathan Wright/' and also con-
tains a copy of a Preamble and Resolution expressing
the feelings of our Church ^^at the appalling calamity by
which the whole nation has suffered in the violent death
of Abraham Lincoln, the President of the. United
States, on April 14, 1866."
Although the Church was opposed to war, as an
abstract proposition, the unanimous sentiment of its
members during the great Southern Rebellion was
strongly in favor of the preservation of the Union of the
States and the abolition of Slavery, and several mem-
bers took part in the military service at that time.
The spiritual and material affairs of the Churchl
during the years of Rev. Joseph Metcalfe^s ministry
were regarded as generally satisfactory and encourag-
ing* There was a fair proportion of the older and
earlier members still active in helping along the Lord's
work, while there also existed in the younger generation
a sincere interest in the various affairs of the Chujrch
and Sunday School and a pleasure in performing their
A little more than five years constituted the com-
paratively brief period of Rev. Joseph Metcalfe's term
in the pulpit, after the death of his father; the termi-
nation being sudden and unexpected
On Sunday, December 1, 1867, a clear cold winter
morning, he arose about his usual time, fully expecting
to conduct the regular Church and Communion Services.
THE MINISTERS 6S
After breakfast a slightly opporessive sensation in the
head manifested itself, and upon consulting with his
wife and a sister who had called, he decided to remain
at home, a member of the family being dispatched to the
chnrch to notify the city members and friends.
Mr. Metcalfe's condition not improving, a physi-
cian waa summoned ; the symptoms grew more serious,
he became unconscions, and the end appeared to be
rapidly approaching ; the doctor on his arrival diagnosed
the case as apoplexy and administered the usual remedies
and restoratives without avail, and about ten o'clock the
great change, the wonderful yet inevitable simple devel-
opment from the natural to the spiritual existence, took
place apparently without any indication of pain or suffer-
ing, and the Bev. Joseph Metcalfe's labors in the Church
here on earth were j&nished, undoubtedly to be continued
with the friends and the cause he loved so well, in the
Church celestial and triumphant.
The year 1867 practically completed fifty years ex-
istence of The Bible-Christian Church in Philadelphia.
A brief abstract from an address delivered by the Bev.
William Metcalfe in August 1861 on the fiftieth anni-
versary of his ordination as a Minister (which took place
in England) may be appropriate as expressing the senti-
ment that prevailed in the hopeful hearts of the members
at this time:
The half-century is gone, — ^gone like the word just
spoken, for good or for evil, never to be recalled, — ^gone
as yesterday has gone. Yet why do I say they are gone?
Nothing is gone, whose influence remains with man or
M BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
woman. The Sabbaths, the prayers, the praises, the weeks,
the months, the whole half -century, that seem to us to
have passed away, live still, — ^live in the presence and
universe of our heavenly Father. Such have been the
religious principles I have taught for more than fifty years.
They lay, according to my apprehension, a foundation for
purer Christian attainments and a more intellectual form
of godliness. They are calculated — ^if adopted into prac-
tical life — ^to renew and to regenerate man's whole nature.
Practical religion, with love to Gtod and charity to man^
will sweeten all the hours, the years, and the scenes of
human life. The esteem of our friends in such case will
be sincere; our children will be found travelling with lis
heavenward by our side. We also shall continue to grow
in grace and in spiritual knowledge. The Church will be
nurtured, and midtiply in numbers. Cheerfidness and
gratitude to God will crown our worship ; a conscious sense
of a Christian spirit, and of progress in the regenerate life,
will strengthen our good purposes, and the fruits of love,
scattered along our pathway, will be to our souls vital and
evident proofs that the Lord our God is ever with us.
To Him— "The true God and Eternal Life''— be glory,
now and forever. Amen.
Although sorrow existed for the loss in the past few
years of many beloved and earnest workers in the Churchy
who had gone to join the " church in the skies/' and there
was some anxiety at this time as to what the future had
in store for the little organization, there was a feeling,
a faith that ^^ The Lord would provide;" and at a special
Church meeting held on January 5, 1868, Dr. Whl
Taylor, a grandson of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, was elected to
the Ministry of the Church, and on his acceptance of the
position, arrangements were made for his ordination^
THE MINISTERS 66
whioh was administered in the Ghurch on the nioming of
Sunday, February 2, 1868, Edmund Brooks, Deacon,
presenting Dr. Taylor, and Elijah Rothwell, senior
Deacon, conducting the ceremony. The Rev. Dr. Taylor
preadied his first sermon in that capacity and adminis-
tered the Sacrament on that date.
The outlook at the beginning of Dr. Taylor's term
as Minister was encouraging, there had been no inter-
ruption in carrying on the usual programme ; services
"were held every Sabbath morning and occasionally
evening services were conducted. Dr. Taylor was en-
dowed with considerable talent, being an eloquent and
attractive speaker, and the possessor of quite an ability
in the musical line, both vocal and instrumental
While his theological instruction had not been as
thorough and extensive as that of his predecessors, he
was entirely familiar with the doctrines and beliefs of
the Church, and his general school and medical edu-
cation made him a very acceptable candidate and fitted
him well for the position.
The average attendance at this time (1868) is given
as eig|hty-f our at the regular service and forty-eight at
the Communion Service.
Through the good efforts of the Ladies' Aid Society
a chandelier and side-brackets for illuminating gas were
installed in the church, and evening services were con-
ducted during the greater part of the year.
A few new members were added during 1868, 1869,
1870 and 1871, but not sufficient in number to fill the
66 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
vacandes caused by the departure for the Spiritual
world of many old and faithful members, the list of
adult miembers in 1871 oomporisiug about fifty names.
The financial condition of the Church at this time
was not satisfactory, the Treasurer's report showing a
deficiency at several annual meetings.
Dr. Taylor's medical practice was still limited, his
compensation from the Church was very moderate, and
the requirements of his family, consisting of a wife and
four growing children, probably induced him to seek
other and more remunerative employment. The records
show that his resignation was presented to an adjourned
semi-annual meeting, December 29, 1872, and accepted
to take effect April 1, 1873.
On April 6, 1873, a special meeting of the Churchy
pending the securing of a regular minister, ^^vested the
position in a reader," and senior Deacon, Wm. Cariss,
On April 28, 1873, a special Church meeting de-
cided ^^that the administration of the Holy Sacrament
should be observed as heretofore."
Mr. Cariss performed the duties of '^ reader " and
presided at the annual and semi-annual meetings for the
years 1873, 1874 and 1876, conscientiously and satis-
factorily, but conditions were not encouraging. Attend-
ance declined and interest in the affairs of the Church
was not as hearty or active as formerly, and on April 4,
1875, the first steps were taken towards securing the
services of Henry S. Clnbb of Orand Haven, Michigan.
THE MINISTEBS 67
Henry S. Clubb was bom at Colohester, EsseZy Eng-
land, June 21, 1827. He was the youngest of nine
children of Stephen and Elizabeth Clubb. Colchester is
about fifty-two miles northeast of London. The follow-
ing is a little description of his home town as written by
himself in March, 1905 :
The house where I was bom was a three-story brick
on North Street, Colchester, Essex, England, with a
windmill behind it. It was north of the river Colne,
which meandered through the town to the Hithe, where
ships came, but water mills prevented their coming farther
into the town. There was an old-fashioned brick bridge
of three arches, over which we had to walk in order to
reach the busiaess part of the town. South of this bridge
was what was called ^^Middleborough,'' a locality where the
street widened out; leaving room for stalls where, on
Saturdays, which were market days, fruit and vegetables
On crossing this bridge we would come to an old frame
building used as a small brush manufactory. It was
carried on by an old friend of my father, named Bowland.
Father used to go for an hour's gossip with his old friend,
who could listen to my father's talk while boring holes
in the wood pieces which were' thus prepared to receive
the bristles. The boring was done by a small lathe, and
it was my delight to stand and see the holes bored while
my father talked ^^Badical" reform to his friend Bowland,
who generally approved. While father was talking I would
sometimes slip away and explore the neighborhood.
Among my earliest recollections was, when five years
of age, going to see Mrs. Bowland, and she remarking that
as it was the longest day in the year (21st of June) she
would cut the longest piece of fruitcake for me. '
68 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
There was a neat row of brick dwellings, with gardens
in front, running at right angles with the street, the back
lots of which were gardens running down to the river on
the north. These gardens were my chief attraction. The
flowers in front of the houses were sometimes very beau-
tiful, especially in the spring season, while in the summer
the black-currant bushes growing along the river bank at
the north end of the gardens were still more attractive,
as they hung full of luscious fruit.
Henry S. Clubb became early impressed with the
^^ There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Eough-hew them how we wilL"
His education, like that of many English lads of the
time, was picked up from various sources: attending
evening school; studying Cobbett's Grammar and Pit-
man's phonography up to the age of twelve. At thirteen
he received the appointment of money-order derk in Her
Majesty^s service, in the Post Office of has native tov^n.
This was when Queen Victoria was known as the
" Young Queen of England," having ascended the throne
on Mr. Clubb's tenth birthday. His salary in this
position was first seven and afterwards nine shillings
per week, v\dth some additional perquisites obtained by
carefully distributing the morning mail to the prin-
cipal financial concerns that called at the office for
His parents were at first Unitarians and aftervmrds
became Swedenboxgians. They adopted vegetarianism
for a time and were members of the Vegetarian Society,
as was also his brother Robert.
THE MINISTERS 69
At this early age he had acquired the art of phonog-
raphy with some proficiency and, like Isaac Pitman,
the inventor of the art, was also a vegetarian.
The way he became a vegetarian was from listening
to the conversation of Wm. G. Ward, a commercial
traveller, who called at his father's home every three
months and usually spent the evenings there during
his Sitay in Colchester. Wnu Gibson Ward, as he was
afterwards knowQ, was an enthusiastic vegetarian, and
the way he described the horrors and cruelties of the
slaughter house and the dangers of eating the flesh of
animals killed there, under various degrees of suflfering
and disease, made such an impression upon Mr. Clubb
when a mere lad, that he determined to give vegetarian-
ism a fair trial.
It had been customary in the family to eat meat
once a da.y. His father used to grind their own wheat,
and whole-meal bread was made by his mother. This
was before Graham's advocacy of this kind of bread.
This bread and plenty of milk formed the principal diet
in his childhood days.
At the age of fifteen he went to live at the Con-
oordium. Ham Conxmon, Surrey, about twelve miles up
the Thames from London. The food there was wheat-
meal bread made with a liberal scattering of raisins,
and fruit and vegetables raised on the grounds attached
to Alcott House, and in production of which the mem-
bers of the Concordium found agreeable exercise, under
the direction of an experienced horticulturist and vege-
tarian named Scott*
70 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Here, in addition to the esthetic teaching of James
Pierrepont Greaves' System and Philosophy, the art
of raising strawberries, cherries, apples, pears and plums
was taught by a most competent and skillful master. He
also obtained some knowledge of printing and the pub-
lishing business, as the community issued a periodical
called The New Age. It was a vegetarian commun-
ity and living there confirmed him in vegetarian habits,
which he had conunenced at the age of nine years-
While there he found time to write articles which were
printed in The New Age and The Concordium Gazette.
The first of these appeared in the number for November,
1844, being an account of the Phonographic Corre-
spondence Society, and must have been written at the age
The Concordium was started early in 1841, and its
leading founders were James Pierrepont Greaves, Henry
Gkirdner Wright, Charles Land and William Oldham.
The house was named Alcott House because of Gxeaves's
friendship with Bronson Alc6tt. It was an attempt to
realize the beautiful ideal of presenting the right "love
conditions/' so that the spirit of love or of Christ could
operate and effect its beneficent purposes in the regen-
eration of the race. Greaves was a friend and congenial
co-operator with Pestalozzi, the great promoter of infant
education, by whom the kindergarten system, now so
extensively taught, was first promulgated. Greaves had
departed this life a few years before Mr. Clubb had
entered the school.
THE MINISTERS 71
Tho Conoordinm might have become a most valuable
educational institution if suitable teachers oould have
been obtained, but the conditions, requiring teachers to
labor without salary, did not produce the desired results,
and the Concordium, after a few years of somewhat
precarious existence, became only a memory of which
even history has made but little record. (An article on
Becollections of the Concordium and Alcott House was
written by Mr. Olubb for the Herald of Health,
London, England, June, July and August 1906.)
Bobert Aitkin, who was the baker at the Concordium,
was one of the few whom Mr. Clubb met in later years
who had remained true to his principles; he had be-
come an Elder of a family of Shakers at EnjGleld, Conn.
Mr. Clubb, after his arrival in the United States, was
invited to visit this Shaker Community, which. he did
on several occasions, enjoying the spiritual atmosphere
of these kindly people.
The Concordium experiment, like that of the Brook
Farm Association which started in New England about
the same time, although failing financially was, so far
as combining healthful out-of-door exercise with the
intellectual instruction and a simple diet, eminently
successful in promoting the physical and mental health
of all engaged, as they lived long, healthful and use-
The short time that Mr. Clubb spent at Ham Coimnon
made a lasting impression on him, and it wb3 al-
ways brought to his mind when hearing the old
78 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
song, commencing: "Oh come, come away from labor
now reposing," which was sung as a "grace before meals"
by the children.
The chief pursuit in which Mr. Clubb delighted
was reporting in shorthand. Phonography waa just
then becoming known as the best system of shorthand,
and Isaac Pitman became noted as its inventor and pro-
moter. Mr. Clubb became a correspondent in phonog-
raphy with Isaac Pitman. The first letter he wrote
to him in shorthand he also wrote in long hand, mistrust-
ing his own knowledge of the art, but Isaac Pitman
wrote to him that he need never do that again, aa his
phonetic writing was perfectly intelligible.
At this time phonography and the spelling reform
became the basis of a public movement. Isaac, Joseph
and Benn Pitman delivered lectures expounding the
science, and banquets were held at Ipswich and other
places. A society was organized in Colchester by Mr.
Clubb, consisting of learners and classes for the study
of phonography. It was lecturing and teaching phonog-
raphy which led Mr. Clubb, when but a boy in his teens,
to public speaking. An engagement in his native town
as a teacher of phonography to the pupils of a large
grammar and commercial school was the result. He
later became assistant to Mr. Johnson of London as
shorthand reporter, whose chief business was taking
verbatim reports of meetings in Exeter and other public
halls. He made reporting his profession, which he
found more remunerative than any previous occupation.
THE MINISTERS 7S
As a result of his writings in the Concordium Gar
zette Mr. Clubb^s articles on vegetarianism were sought
for, and they appeared in the Truth Tester, afterwards
the Vegetarian Advocate, both as editorials and contri-
butions; they also attracted the attention of James
Simpson, the President of the Vegetarian Society,
founded in 1847. His address was obtained from the
editor, and a correspondence ensued which resulted in
Mr. Clubb's engagement by Mr. Simpson in the literary
work of the movement.
The first banquet of the Society took place at Hay-
ward's Hotel, Manchester, July 28, 1846. The report
of the banquet was among Mr. Clubb's first literary
efforts for the then new Vegetarian Society, and he
wrote an account of the banquet for the readers of the
Vegetarian Advocate in a most attractive style. In
fact it was an event at which all vegetarians naturally
felt elated, as nothing had ever happened so well cal-
culated to bring vegetarianism into public notice. It
was also well reported in the Manchester papers, and
no expense wajs spared by Mr. Simpson to make this
event productive of abundant fruit in the vegetarian
vineyard. So the report of it was disseminated quite
extensively. Much could be quoted from this report
which would be valuable even now in the promulgation
of the vegetarian principles. The subject of this sketch,
although but twenty years of age, laid down his re-
porter's pencil and made his little speech, which was
well received. He spoke of the advantages children
raised on a vegetarian diet would have over those living
74 BIBLE-<:HRISTIAN CHURCH
on tlie flesh of animals in having their passions in
subjection and consequently better able to acquire
sciences and arts, and he predicted that when vege-
tarianism became generally adopted, instead of having
a Shakespeare in one age, a ITewton and Milton, and
a Pope and a Franklin in another, almost every parish
would have its poet, philosopher and inventor doing
their part to elevate, refine and bless mankind.
Mr. Clubb was engaged by Mr. Simpson to edit the
Vegetarian Messenger when started by the Vegetarian
Society in 1847, and the magazine still keeps at the top
of the title-page this motto by Pythagoras selected
"Fix upon that course of life which is best.
Custom will render it most delightful."
The work went on, Mr. Clubb lecturing in and
around Manchester and in his own native county of
Essex until the Second Annual Meeting of the V^e-
tarian Society, which was held at the Town Hall, Man-
chester, July 12, 1849, where another banquet was
served in a somewhat similar style to that of 1848, but
more especially under the management of the Society,
Mr. Simpson, the President of the Society, presiding.
The Vegetarian Messenger contained Mr. Clubb's
report of this banquet in its first issue. This was
followed by his two lectures on the vegetarian principle
which were subsequently translated into German and
circulated at Berlin, laying the foundation of the
vegetarian movement in Germany, where so much
THE MINISTERS 75
hsis been axxsompliahad in the establishment of vege-
After continuing the ^work in Eiigland in connection
with the Vegetarian Society until 1853, Mr. Clubb
emigrated to the United States and attended the Fourth
Annual Meeting and Festival of the American V^e-
tarian Society, August 24, 1853, at the Bible-Christian
Church, Third Street, Philadelphia, and in conjunc-
tion with a committee for the purpose compiled an
address " To the People of the United States." The
cholera was then raging in many of the cities, and that
became the foundation reason of the address to the
public, as Mr. Clubb stated at the banquet that in no
instance had a vegetarian died of cholera in England.
A record in the Bible of Edmund Brooks informs us
that Henry S. Clubb commented (^^ commenting " is
Brooks's word for pr:eaching, for he applies it tb both
the Metcalf es) on Isaiah XI, in the church on Christmas
Day, 1853. Another record introduces him as preach-
ing therein once more on Acts X, July 4, 1862.
Mr. Clubb was at this time one of the reportorial
staff of the New York Tribune when Horace Greeley,
Charles A. Dana and George Bipley were in their most
active years as editors of that great newspaper. When
Mr. Clubb first came to America he applied to Horace
Greeley for a position on the staff of the Tribune.
Speaking of his reception he said: "I remember well
how Mr. Greeley took me to Mr. Otterman, who was
then city editor of the Tribune and said : This is Mr,
76 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Clubb, a friend of mine. See that he has something to
do.' After that Mr. Greeley and I were warm friends."
He subsequently was engaged as Congressional re-
porter for the Washington Union the organ of the
Pierce administration. This brought him into politics,
as he was in Congress during the long session of 1853^
1854 in which the Kansas-Nebraska Bill was discussed
and the Missouri Compromise repealed*
The discovery in the Union office that he was in-
timate with Gerritt Smith, Joshua R. Giddings and
other leading abolitionists, prevented his engagement
for the U^ion the next term of Congress, the feeling
against abolitionists being exceedingly bitter in the
office of the Union. This was especially shown by
the striking out from Mr. Clubb's daily reports of re-
marks made by Gerritt Smith or Mr. Giddings, even
when those remarks were necessary to a correct under-
standing of the report.
Mr. Clubb's release from the Congressionxd labors
enabled him to resume his position on the New York
Tribune. The Kansas agitation in Congress having
given him some good opportunities to become ac-
quainted with Kansas affairs, he was entrusteld by
Horace Greeley to write a History of Kansas for th©
Mr. Clubb was married, November 15, 1855, to
Miss Anne Barbara Henderson of Allegan, Michigan,
having become acquainted through the temperance
question, Som^e of Miss Henderson's articlea on the
THE MINISTERS 77
position of Michigan on Temperance are included in
The History of the Maine Liquor Lam, which Mr, Clubb
published in 1856. This book gives the life of Neal Dow
and contains portraits of Neal Dow, Qerritt SmithI,
Horace Greeley, John Pierpont, Henry Ward Beecher,
Lyman Beecher and Lucretia Mott, all temper-
In 1855, The Philosophy of Sacred History Con-
sidered in Relation to Hwnum Ailment and the Wines
of Scripture by Sylvester Graham^ was edited by
In 1855, he published a Vegetarian Almanac which
contains an article by Eev. William Metcalfe on the
" First Arrival of Vegetarians in the United States,"
an account of William A Aloott, M. D., the President
of the American Vegetarian Society, a v^etarian story
by himself entitled "Alice, or the Lost Child." A
list of anniversaries and chronology o£ reforms and a
plan of the Vegetarian Kansas Emigration Company.
After a trip to Columbia, S. C, Mr. and Mrs. Clubb
lived for a while in New York City. On their way
from the south they stopped at Washington, D. C,
and at Philadelphia, and while in Philadelphia visited
the Bible Christians.
His interest in antislavery led Mr. Clubb to organ-
ize a small company who, with himself and wife, emi-
grated to Kansas in the spring of 1856, and they passed
through a good part of the struggle for freedom in that
territory. The object Mr. Clubb had in view was to
78 BIBMM^HRISTIAN CHURCH
start a vegetarian colony there. They csamped on the
banks of the ITeosho River until a flood caime and
compelled them to get further inland. Made wiser by
this experienoe they selected a site on a hill top. An
old Indian log cabin was selected by Mr. Clubb and
hiawife. However the fever from exposure to malaria
brought him down and he was taken out from Kansas
to a Chicago water-cure by his wife, where he was skill-
fully treated and gradually recovered.
Many were the experiences encountered while in
Eansasy and he and Mrs. Clubb could relate thrilling
tales of their life thera At one time Mrs. Clubb found
a live rattle-snake as a bed-fellow in the log cabin, and
Mr. Clubb was held up by Border Ruffians on his way
home from Fort Scott
After recovery he settled in Grand Haven, Mich-
igan, and in 1857 started the Clarion, the first Repub-
lican newspaper in Ottawa Co., Michigan, a very fine
political as well as literary paper, which was widely
quoted. He succeeded in transforming a Demo-
cratic strougihold into a staunch Republican county.
He was one of the most active men of western Michr
igan in those days and was interested in a number of
Mr. Clubb attended the Oreat ITational Republican
Convention held at the Monster Wigwam at Chicago,
May 16, 1860, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for
President of the United States.
THE MINISTERS 79
The Civil War, 186M865, deprived him of aU
assistants in the printing business, as all his printers
joined the army, end during the early days of the war,
Mrs. Clubb edited the Clarion. She afterwards fol-
lowed her husband to the south and was there through
much of the civil strife.
In 1862, he received a commision from Abraham
Lincoln as Asst. Quartermaster with the rank of Cap-
tain. He did not seek this position, but as it was offered
in all friendship and seemed of a less belligerent char-
acter than that of a line officer, he accepted it and served
in the volunteer army from June, 1862, until April,1866.
He occupied the position of aide-de-camp to Brigadier
General ITapoleon Buf ord during the battle of Corinth ;
was wounded in the side at that battle, granted leave of
absence for recovery and returned after three months.
The General remarked that Capt. Clubb appeared to be
bullet-proof, as the ball did not enter far, but it was be-
cause a pocket book with $2,000 of Government funds
intercepted it and undoubtedly saved his life. (The
wallet which contained this money was placed by Mr.
Clubb in the Military Museum in the State Capitol, Lan-
He joined Grant's Army at Grand Junction, in the
spring of 1863, and participated in both the Vicksburg
campaigns, the second siege being sucoessfuL During
the siege he had charge of Biver transportation and had
the pleasure of furnishing transportation to his old
80 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
friend Dana, who had then become Assistant Secretary
He was stationed in Vicksburg during the sununer
and winter of 1863-1864 and in the fall of '64 waa
ordered to report to Gen. Sherman at Savannah. The
journey around from Vicksburg to New York and along
the coast to Savannah was quite a long one. Oen.
Sherman had left that city when he arrived. He then
had to watch for Sherman to make his appearance at an
accessible point. He stayed some time at Charleston,
which had been evacuated and was now in great danger
of destruction, as it had been set on fire by the retreating
secessionists. However, the blue-coats kept the fire
within certain limits, chiefly to the cotton warehouses
and railroad stations, where cotton was stored, and
saved the city from entire destruction. It presented a
dilapidated appearance, and cows were feeding amid the
ruins of Secession Hall.
James Redpath was at Charleston and organized
colored schools. A procession was formed of the colored
schools and Capt. Clubb acted as marshal. The
procession sang the John Brown song, ^^Marching On,'*
through the streets of Charleston.
Capt. Clubb eventually reported to Gen. Sherman
at Baleigh, N. C, and was assigned to duty as acting
Quartermaster of the 17th Army Corps, under com-
mand of Gen. Frank Blair. This position he held
until the corps was mustered out at Louisville, Ky.,
after the dose of the war.
THE MINISTERS 81
He was then returned to Washington and ordered
to report to Gen. Sheridan at New Orleans, by whom
he was assigned to duty at San Antonio, Texas, where
he remained, using the old Alama for storage purposes,
imtil mustered out in April, 1866.
On settling his accounts with the Quartermaster's
Department he received a highly complimentary letter
from Quartermaster General Meigs, and in settlement
with the United States Treasury after a four years'
examination of his accounts, his balance last reported
on monthly statements was adopted as correct, and no
attorney had to be employed to effect a settlement.
In 1869, he founded the Grand Haven Herald,
at Grand Haven, Michigan, which vigorously advocated
the election of T. White Ferry as United States Sena-
tor. It also published information in regard to fruit
culture which led to the foundation of the State Pomo-
logical Society, the charter of which he drew up and
pushed through the Legislature, securing state aid in
the publication of its reports, amounting to about
$6,000 a year.
The result was the holding of fruit fairs. The
organization, with the State Pomological Society, held
the largest fair ever held in Michigan, there being as
many as 40,000 people at a time on the grounds near
In 1871, he was elected State Senator, resigning
the office of alderman to accept it ; he was also secretary
82 biblek:hristian church
of the Constitutional Convention, in which position he
further promoted the fruit interests of Michigan.
In 1876, having disposed of his printing business,
he visited the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia,
representing several prominent newspapers in Michigan.
This brought him into contact with the Bible-Christian
Church again, and being invited to conduct its services,
he was called to continue there as its pastor, which posi-
tion he has held ever since.
In 1886-1887 an attempt wasi made to renew the
Vegetarian Society which during the war had ceased
to exist. These e£Forts led to the organization of the
Vegetarian Society of America in 1886. In June,
1887, its first anniversary was held at Alnwick Park,
where there was a picnic of one hundred and twenty
five persons. Mr. dubb was elected President of the
Society. In 1888, the Vegetarian made its appear-
ance under his management, but the difficulty of obtain-
ing the postal privileges led to its abandonment, and in
1889, the Food, Home & Oarden, a more popular title,
was established and through many vicissitudes was con-
tinued until Januairy, 1900, a period much longer than
any periodical devoted to Vegetarianism had ever before
been maintained in America.
In 1898, Mr. Clubb attended the Vegetarian Con-
gress in connection with the World's Fair at Chicago.
Delegates from all over the world were present.
The year 1901 being the twenty-fifth anniversary
of Mr. Clubb's ministry in the Philadelphia Bible-
THE MDHSTERS 83
Christian Church, the members subscribed for the neces-
sary expenses of a trip to England by himself and
daughter Martha. Rev. James Clark, minister of the
Salf ord Bible-Christian Church had been very desirous
of this visit.
On August 11, 1901, before setting sail on the
Campavda, the vegetarian friends in New York ar-
ranged a luncheon at the Universal Food Company's
Office, for Mr. Clubb and friends who had come from
Philadelphia to see him off. On arriving at Liverpool
Mr. Clark and a number of vegetarians from Man-
chester were at the wharf to welcome him to England,
and a reception and lunch were held at Chapman's
After a few days rest in Liverpool with relatives
Mr. Clubb and daughter were conducted to Salford,
Manchester, the home of Mr. Clark and the location of
of the Bible-Christian Church. Their first stay in Sal-
ford was with Mr. Clark and daughter Bertha and after-
wards at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Tongue at Da Vinci
House, Ecdes. A number of parties and receptions
were given by different members of the Bible-Christian
Church — ^Mr. Clark, Mr. Tongue, Mr. Axon, Mr.
Harrison and Mr. Bradley, all doing their best to enter-
tain Mr. Clubb and his daughter. On September 9th,
Mr. Clubb accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Broadbent on a
trip to Scotland to attend the Glasgow Exhibition in
connection with which was held a Peace Congress
84 BIBLE-OHRISTIAN CHURCH
and also a Vegetarian Congress, and they participated
in the meetings.
A programme had been previously arranged for Mr.
Clubb's reception, and on his return from Scotland, he
proceeded to London where the London Vegetarian So-
ciety entertained him. A dinner was held at the Vic-
toria Vegetarian Restaurant, which was conducted by
Mr. Hills in very elaborate style. Mrs. Leigh Hunt
Wallace was tiiere and made a speech, also Mr. Forward,
and Mr. Clubb responded. A meeting was held at
Memorial Hall, Farrington Street, after the dinner.
Mr. Clubb and daughter visited relatives at Not-
tingham, but the time being limited he was prevented
from seeing again his native town of Colchester. This
was his only visit to England since coming to the United
States in 1853.
September 28, 1901, the homeward trip was taken
in the steamer Umbria and the Rev. James Clark and
daughter Bertha returned with them to Philadelphia.
On arriving home in Frankf ord, Sunday evening, Octo-
ber 6th, a reception was given by Mr. and Mrs. Wm. M.
Horrocks at their home, where the Clarks were enter-
tained during their visit here.
In 1904, Mr. Clubb attended the Vegetarian Con-
vention in connection with the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition at St. Louis, Mo.
On November 15, 1905, the Golden Wedding of Mr.
and Mrs. Clubb was celebrated in the evening at their
THE MINISTERS 85
home. The church presented them with fifty gold dol-
lars. There were over fifty persons present, members
of the Church and friends, some' coming from New York.
May 21, 1915, Mrs. ClubVs death occurred after
she had been an invalid for several years, owing to the
effect of a fall when her hip was broken. She was
eighty-two years of age. She was bom at Thurso, Scot-
land, coming to America in 1834 with her parents, Mr.
and Mrs. James D. Henderson, and settling in that early
period in Allegan, Michigan.
When the Bible-Christian Church edifice, located on
Park Avenue below Berks Street, was sold in 1916, Mr,
Clubb was becoming too feeble to continue conducting
services at that distance from his home, and since that
time meetings have been held at his residence in Prank-
ford. He, however, since March, 1917, has not felt
capable of discoursing. His last sermon was de-
livered Sunday, February 25, 1917, the subject of
which was "Q-eorge Washington," the text taken from
Isaiah, XXXV :1.
One of his friends in the vegetarian cause, William
E. A. Axon, of Manchester, England, when visiting this
country as delegate from the Vegetarian Society to the
St. Louis Exposition in September, 1904, went on a trip
to Atlantic City in company with Mr. Clubb and others,
on which occasion he wrote the following little poem
and presented it to Mr, Clubb.
86 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
"To his Friend Henry, S. Cluhh :
Blessed are the young in heart.
Life Eternal is their part ;
In the life that is they see
The glory of the life to be."
Mr. Clubb's ninety-fourth birthday anniversary, on
June 21, 1921, was observed as usual by friends calling
upon him, especially the children of the neighborhood,
to whom he seems, as the editor of the Frcvnkford
Oazette said, in an account published of one of his birth-
days, 'Qike good old Santa Claus all the year around."
On Saturday morning, October 29, 1921, Mr. Clubb
"passed on" to the spiritual life. He was taken sick on
September 5th with severe chills and fever. He lost
all appetite for any kind of food and gradually became
weaker until the end. He seemed to realize throughout
his sickness that he would not recover and remarked
several times that he was dying. All summer, although
able to enjoy little walks with the help of his cane and
one of his daughters accompanying him, he tired easily
and it was noticed that his strength was failing.
Miss Helen M. Rowland, of Frankford, a warm
friend of Mr. Clubb, was visiting his old home town in
Colchester, England, while he was nearing his end, and
she s^it him many postcards and photographs of old
familiar places there which he much enjoyed.
The Frankford Gazette, the Grand Haven Courier'
Journal, the Philadelphia daily papers, the Vegetarian
Messenger, of Manchester, England, and the West
THE MINISTERS 87
Suffolk Gazeiie published good accounts of his life and
a number included his picture in mentioning his deaih.
Quotations are taken from these.
Extract from the Frankford Gazette :
On Tuesday afternoon (November 2) that grand old
man of Northwood, Eev, Henry S. Clubb, was laid to rest
in Oakland Cemetery alongside of his dear wife, who pre-
ceded him to that eternal rest some years ago.
He had reached that good old age of 94 years, esteemed
and loved by all who knew him, because of his unblemished
character and his pleasant, genial manner to all. To the
children of the neighborhood, by reason of his snowy white
hair and flowing beard, he was their Santa Glaus all the
year round, always beaming with smiles and loving to chat
with them. Their floral offering to their dear old friend
on the day of the funeral was a beautiful basket of roses
and chrysanthemums. He loved nature, the trees and
beautiful flowers, and was always delighted to take walks.
He believed that the Boulevard and the streets of Frank-
ford should be lined with fruit trees bearing fruit for
everybody, as well as giving shade.
His funeral was largely attended and as his sweet, peace-
ful face lay amidst a great bank of roses, chrysanthemums
and other autumn flowers, Eev. John B. Laird, of the Prank-
ford Presbyterian Churdi, who knew him well, paid him
one of the finest tributes that could be bestowed on man.
Very truly a bright light has gone out of the community.
From the Gov/rier^oumal, Grand Haven, Michigan :
Word has been received in this city of the death in
Philadelphia, Saturday morning, October 29th, of the
Eev. Henry S. Clubb. Mr. Clubb was a pioneer publisher
of Orand Haven and was yery prominent in the early days
88 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
of Grand Haven as a municipality, being a member of
the first city council and taking a leading part in the
making of the city^s first charter.
He took a great interest in horticultural and agricul-
tural subjects, and it was largely through his efforts and
editorial expression that the Grand Haven region became
famous as a peach-growing section for several years.
Mr. Clubb visited Grand Haven many times after
leaving the city. Despite his advanced age, he was bright
and active up to his last illness in September.
The death of Henry S. Clubb marks the passing of a
man who contributed his share to the making of Grand
Haven, and his love and regard for the town was unshaken
despite the nearly half-century of residence elsewhere.
The Philadelphia Record:
He was a well-known figure about Frankf ord for years,
with his white, flowing beard and sturdy appearance, and
always attributed his good health and long life to the
The Vegetarian Messenger , Manchester, England:
Mr. Clubb was a Vice-president of the Vegetarian
Society (Manchester) and probably the last survivor of
those who formed the Society in 1847.
It was in 1853 that he emigrated to America, and
there, as journalist and speaker, took part in the anti-
slavery agitation. So annoyed were the slave owners with
one series of his articles that a reward was offered for
Mr. Clubb paid a visit to England in 1901, and vege-
tarians who had known him by name for many years had
the pleasure of meeting a veteran who retained to an
advanced age enthusiasm and hopefulness and energy.
THE MINISTERS 89
Throughout his long career in America Mr. Clubb was
ever to the fore in vegetarian propaganda. He was
President of the Vegetarian Society of America; he was
largely responsible for the success of the International
Conference of Vegetarians at the Chicago World's Fair in
1893^ and his pen and his editorial idkill were ever at the
service of the cause. He was a good speaker, and his
physical appearance was eloquent of the advantages of hiis
diet, for he was, a handsome old man with ruddy cheeks,
and a ma^ of white hair.
The West Suffolk Gazette, England :
Death of an Old Colchestrian
Rev. Henry S. Clubb
A Soldier who never carried arms.
One of the very oldest natives of Colchester, Rev. Henry
S. Clubb, has passed away at Frankford, Philadelphia,
IT. S. A., at the age of 94.
An extraordinary feature of his military career, which
was an extended one, was the fact that while he was in
the thick of the battles (in the Civil War) and had many
narrow escapes, he never carried arms even for self defence,
being conscientiously opposed to their use as a means of
protection even in periods of greatest danger. Perhaps
as a soldier this renders his career unique in the history
of the world.
AxTHouaH the By-laws adopted at the time of the
incorporation of the Church in April, 1830, provided
for the election of three Deacons annually the records
show the names of but two Deacons for each of the years
1828-1829-1880 and 1831.
The duties assigned to them cover matters of dis-
cipline eta^visiting members who fail to attend services
four successive Sabbaths, ascertaining the cause of
absence, "relieving the sick and needy," "distributing
the elem^ents at the Sacrament," "collecting the free wiU
offerings of the Congregation," and reporting their pro-
ceedings to the Minister and Trustees of the ChurcU
once a quarter, and yearly to the Annual Meeting.
From 1882 to 1849 inclusive, there were three mem-
bers elected annually, and an article in the By-laws gives
female members of eighteen years of age the privilege
of voting in the election of Deacons.
No person was qualified to serve as Deacon unless
he had been a member of the Church two years, and was
twenty-five years of age.
The first recorded report of the Deacons to the
Annual Church Meeting was made May 27, 1844, by
Jonathan Wright who reported verbally that "nothing
particular had occurred in the discharge of their duties
the past year."
THE DEACONS 91
Verbal reports oiJy, appear to have been made for
the years 1844-1845 and 1846. A written report pre-
sented to the Annual Meeting in 1847 refers to the death
of one male member seventy years of age and the addi*
tion of two female members, and written reports for 1848
and 1849 refer to the death of two adult members and
the admission of one new member. A revision of the
Rules and Begnlations provided for the election of four
Deacons, instead of three, at the Annual Meeting in
1850, and the report for that year shows sevi&n new
members and also three members from the Church in
England added to the list, similar reports for the years
1851-1852 and 1853 show slight changes in the member-
ship (four deaths, three new members admitted), and
refer to the attendance of members and visitors at the
services as being better than formerly.
In 1854 the question as to administering the
Sacrament to children and strangers arose, and was
referred by the Deacons to a Committee of the Church,
and a report on the subject was rendered and approved
by the Church as follows:
1st — It is in strict accordance with Scripture and with
a rational exposition of the Sacramental ordinance to
suffer little children to partake of the Holy Supper with
their parents or guardians.
2nd — It is in accordance with the Conmmnion ritual
and with Scriptures for the Sacrament to be administered
to all who desire to receive it, though they be not members
of this Church.
98 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
^ 3rd — Can we for moral or religious delinquencies cut
off an erring member? If we can, has it ever been done?
See new Rules and Regulations of Church Qovemment
which cover this, and which were adopted after the question
arose and which state : Sec. 5, Art. 2, ''The Deacons shall
distribute the Sacramental elements to all who remain,
and desire to receive the same.''
For the years 1855-1856 and 1857, the Deacons'
Annual Reports refer to a great '^falling off" in attend-
ance at the Church services, only about one-half the
average number for a period of several years past being
present. The regular minister, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, was
t^nporaxily officiating at the Bible-Christian Church in
Salford, England, a portion of this time, the Rev. Jos.
Wright acting in his absence.
From 1858 to 1863 the annual reports indicate a
revival of interest in Church affairs, with an improve-
ment in attendance, the regular services showing about
fifty to sixty, and the Communion, forty to fifty per-
I^umerous social meetings were held, and bi-
monthly, ^^tea-meetings" were inaugurated. Resolutions
in favor of the "Abolition of Slavery'* were offered and
adopted, and the giving of money for the purchase of
slaves' freedom was recomjnended. Special reference
is made to the death of the minister, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe,
which occurred in 1863.
An encouraging increase in attendance is mentioned
for the period 1865 to 1867 and an improved interest
manifested in Churcb affairs both by members
THE DEACONS 9S
Upon the death of Bev. Joseph Metcalfe, in 1867, the
Board of Deacons was authorized by the Churdh to per-
form the ^^rite" of ordination, and in view of this power,
which was unanimously conferred at the Semi-annual
Meeting, December 26, 1867, Dr. Wm. Taylor was for-
mally ordained as Minister, by the senior Deacon,
The Deacons' report for 1867 gives the average numr
ber attending services as eighty, including members and
non-members, and was about the maximum reached up
to that time. In 1868 an attempt to provide a future
"pulpit supply was made by the deacons selecting two
of the minor male members to receive instruction from
the newly installed pastor, Dr. Taylor, with a view to
participating in the ministerial work of the Church, but
after a few months' existence, the enterprise
A summary of the records from 1869 to 1875 indi-
cates a mixed or varying sentiment of chieerfulnesa
The forty years' existence since incorporation had
witnessed the passing on of many of the old and original
members — their deaths had been dhronided in the
annual reports of the deacons, though frequently with-
out mention of names, that feature being usually
incorporated in the ministers' reports. The ending of
the War of the Bebellion appeared to create new customs
and habits, and changes occurred in neighborhoods as
well as in people.
94 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
It "WBafor many years customary to elect and re-eleet
the older members to the position of deacon. Jonathan
Wright, John Chorlton^ William: Lever, Edward Lyons,
John Best, Elijah Bothwell, James Wright, Edmmid
Brooks, James Eorrocks, all at various times prominent
members of the Board of Deacons, and most of whom
died during the decade 1865 to 1S75, were all ^^gentle-
men of the old schooV sincerely interested in and de-
voted to the welfare of the Church and its doctrines. ,
The Board, at the time Dr. Taylor was installed
as minister, in 1868, consisted of Elijah Bothwell,
Edmund Brooks, James Wright and James Horrocks.
No Deacons' reports appear in the records for 1870-
1871-1872-1873-1874 or 1875.
At the Semi-annual Meeting, December 29, 1872,
Dr. Taylor presented his resignation as minister, to
take effect April 1, 1873, which was accepted. The
Board at this time consisted of Edmund Brooks, James
Horrocks, Wm. Cariss, Sr., and Emanuel Hey.
At a special Church Meeting on April 6, 1873, called
^'to consider the present condition of the Church and thia
vacancy in the pastorate" it was, on motion of Henry M.
Taylor, decided, "that the position of the minister be
vested in a reader'^, and William Cariss, Sr., was chosen
for the position, and at a special meeting, April 28,
1873, it was decided that the Sacramental service
should be continued by the deacons.
On April 4, 1875, the deacons were authorized to
^'correspond with Mr. Clubb in regard to the proposi-
THE DEACONS 95
tion of his accepting the ministry of the Ohuich." The
Board at this, date consisted of Edmund Brooks, Wm.
Carissy Sr., Emanuel Hey and Charles F. Eoenig.
No Deacons' report appears for 1876 but the result
of their correspondence with Mr. Clubb appears in the
minutes of the Whitmonday meeting in the information
given that its proceedings were conducted by Henry S»
Clubb, with whom a temporary arrangement had been
made to serve as minister.
The Deacons' report for 1878 refers to the fact that
threescore years have passed since the advent of fhe
Church, and expresses the belief that its views on relig-
ious subjects are being taken up by other churches.
The report for 1880 makes reference to the death
of James Horrocks^ James Cunliffe (a former deacon)
and Miss Annie Clubb, daughter of our noinister.
The Board of Deacons elected in 1885, consisted
of WuL Cariss, Sr., Henry M. Taylor, Charles F.
Eoenig and Wm. M. Horrocks. Their report in 1886
refers to the death of John Gait, ''an old friend and
regular attendant at Church services for many years."
Average attendance at Communion was eighteen
adults and elev^ children.
The report for 1887 refers to the great loss to the
Church and Sunday School during the past year, in the
death of Miss Mary Ann Horrocks and Wm. C. Brooks,
both life-long and active members; and that for 1888
to the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, a life-long mem-
ber, baptized by Bev. Joseph Brotherton in the Salf ord
Church, England, James J. Horrocks, son of James and
96 BIBLEr<!HRISTIAN CHURCH
Eliza HorrockB and grandson of the founder of the
Church, in his fortieth year, and Joseph W. Wright,
infant son of George W. and SaraJh M. Wright.
Mention is also made that March 11, 1888, was the
one-hundredth anniverary of Bev. Wm. Metealf e's birtL
The last regular Church service and Communion in
the Third Street church waa held on March 2, 1890, the
Board of Deacons on that date consisting of Wm. Cariss,
Sr., Charles F. Eoenig, Henry M. Taylor, and Whl
Services were held in a room on the second floor of
Columbia hall, Columbia Avenue and Ontario Street,
remaining Sundays in March, 1890, after which, upon
the invitation of senior Deacon Wm. Cariss, services
were held at his residence, 1537 Park Avenue, and so
continued until April 12, 1891, when the new church
building on Park Avenue below Berks Street was
completed and occupied.
The Deacons' report to the Annual Whitmonday
Meeting, May 18, 1891, the first in the Park Avenue
church, in referring to the Dedication services, expresses
the opinion that ^^the old creeds and landmarks of the va-
rious church denominations are being relaxed, division
giving place to unity, and complicated theology to
simple faith and forms of worship, and approves the
sentiment expressed by Eev. Chauncey Giles (Sweden-
borgian) that the church should be the home, the place
of refuge, the sanctuary for the weary and heavy laden."
THE DEACONS 97
The report for 1892 refers to the death of Emanuel
Hey, an old and formerly active member.
In the proceedings ^f the meeting Whitmonday,
May 22, 1898, reference is made to ^^he departure for
the spiritual world of Mrs. Eliza Horrodks, whiich
occurred September 18, 1892. She was the wife of
James Horrocks, a daughter of the Eev. Wm. Metcalfe
and held in deep affection by all who had ever come
under her delightful influence."
At the Whitmonday Meeting, June 8, 1895, the
Minister's and Deacons' reports refer to the death of
the oldest member, Mrs. Elizabeth Metcalfe, widow of
Eev. Joseph Metcalfe, which occurred during the past
year. She was in her eighty-third year and was received
into the Philadelphia Church from the Salford Church
The average attendance at Church services is given
as twenty-one out of a total membership of fifty.
Verbal reports by Charles P. Koenig on behalf of
the Board of Deacons were made for the years 1896-
1897-1898-1899 and 1900.
The Minister's report for 1900 makes special refer-
ence to the death of the senior Deacon, William Cariss,
who had just entered his seventy-ninth year; '^ was
received into the Church November 18, 1821, married
Isabella, the youngest daughter of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe,
and was a Trustee forty-four years. Deacon twenty-nine
years, Sunday-school Superintendent fifteen years, con*
stant and faithful."
98 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
At the Annual Meetings May 27, 1901, Wm. M.
Horrocks, Charles F. Koenig, Edwin P. Metcalfe and
George W. Wright were elected deacons.
A revision of the Church Charter, and also the Rules
and Regulations was arranged by a Committee
appointed for that purpose during 1901, and formally
approved at the Semi-annual Meeting held on Wednes-
day evening January 8, 1902. The revised Charts
was approved by the Court, January 7, 1908.
In accordance with action taken at the semi-Annual
Meeting January 8, 1902, a list of thirty-five names was
approved by the minister and Board of Deacons as con-
stituting the membership at that time.
At the Annual Meeting Whitmonday, May 19, 1902,
Mr. Koenig, for the Deacons, made a verbal report in
which he referred to the death of Mrs. Isabella Cariss,
one of the staunchest and most faithful of Bible
Christians, stating it was interesting to hear from her
lips the history of the early struggles of the Church;
she and Mrs. Elizabeth Metcalfe were contemporary
with the beginnings of the Church and both were good
historians. He also referred to the visit of Rev. James
Clark, of the English Church, as being productive of
pleasure, and had no doubt it would be beneficial to
On Whitmonday, 1903, Mr, Koenig, for the Dea-
cons, stated that the doctrines and principles of our
Church were spreading, independently of the efforts of
our members. He also referred to the "death of Henry
THE DEACONS 99
M. Taylor, which occurred on November 28, 1902, a
life-long member and a zealous worker in the cause to
which we are devoted.^'
At the Whitmonday Meeting, 1905, Mr. Koenig
made a verbal report for the Deacons in which he refer-
red to the departure of Mrs. Sarah M. Wright, July
26, 1904, and Mrs. Mary B. Taylor, June 6, 1905, two
most active members, whose lives were devoted to the
Church, and also to the death of Bev. James Clark, of
Salford, England, June 7, 1905, a man of charming,
manner, hearty, whole-souled, brilliant, and devoted to
the Church whose service he honored.
The Minister's and Deacons' reports, for Whitmon-
day, 1906, refer to the death of Joseph Metcalfe, son
of Bev. Joseph and Elizabeth Metcalfe, Hannah Cariss
Warrington, Mrs. Harriet Lord Parker and Mrs. Mary
Ann Cariss Metcalfe, the last named being the dau^ter
of William and Hannah Cariss. She was married to
the Bev. Wm. Metcalfe in 1855 and with him visited
the Church in England, where she made many lasting
friends. Her death occurred on the twenty-first of
February, 1906, at the advanced age of eighty-six years.
She was secretary of the Ladies' Aid Society since
At the Annual Meeting, Whitmonday, 1908, Wm.
M. Horrocks, for the Deacons, stated he had no report,
but that the Minister's report "covered the ground" for
100 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The report of the Minister referred to the death of
Henry Horrocks, which occurred October 11, 1907.
Quoting further from the Minister's report: "On
March 12, 1908, Francena Rosena Bamed, the be-
loved wife of our esteemed treasurer, Wul M.
Horrocks, was removed from this material world after
a protracted ilhiess which had gradually worn away the
strength of a hitherto robust constitution. The loss to
our Church organization, as to her family, is felt to be
irretrievable. Her life was so identified with the active
social life of the Church that the conviction that she was
its mainstay is unanimously adnutted. She waa the
daughter of Absalom and Hannah Barned, bom June
8, 1847. She was baptized into the Church by the Rev.
Jos. Metcalfe, Aug. 4, 1867 and was soon after married
to Wm. H. Horrocks who with three sons and one
daughter survive her."
The final paragraphs of the Minister's report for
the Annual Meeting of 1908 state, "This report as far
as above written was completed on Wednesday June 3,
1908. On that date Deacon Charles F. Koenig waa
taking the evening meal with his brother-in-law Wm.
M. Horrocks, at Frankf ord, who all at once noticed a
change of expression in his face, and Mr. Koenig fell
back. Mr. Horrocks caught him in his arms but he was
insensible, and was laid on a lounge in the library;
every effort was made to resuscitate him, but in vain; a
physician who was called in, after a thorough examinar
tion, stated he had died instantly when taken at the
THE DEACONS 101
^^Mr. Koenig had attained the age of seventy years.
He was baptized into the Bible-Christian Churchy Jan-
uary 6, 1861. He was married to Martha F., daughter
of Edmu]|^d and Elizabeth Brooks, who died Sept. 17,
1868, leaving one son about three years of age. On
April 6, 1870, Deacon Eoenig was married to
A special ^^Minute'' adopted at the Churdh Annual
Meeting states Mr. Eoenig ^'filled various official posi-
tions and was zealous in the performance of every duty
to which he was assigned. He wad secretary from
1871 to 1877—6 years; trustee, 1872 to 1908—36
years ; deacon 1874 to 1908 — 84 years.
"He was superintendent of the Sunday School from
1876 to 1908—32 years.
"He was a man of strong convictions and he advo-
cated the principles of the Churdh with force and
"He filled the pulpit in the absence of the minister
and acceptably preached the Word."
No report of the Deacons was rendered at the annual
meetings 1909, 1910 and 1911.
The Minister's report for 1909 refers to the death
of Wm. B. Horrodbs, thirty-seven years of age, son of
deacon, Wm. M. Horrocks, and that of 1910 to the
death of Jacob Bowers, seventy-three years of age, who
was not a member, but a frequent and interested attend-
ant at the services.
The following is quoted from the Minister's report
to the Whitmonday Meeting June 5, 1911, that being
102 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
the ninety-third anniversary, "(The church year which
has just concluded was one in which the Church
sustained the loss of one of its chief members
'"Wm. Metcalfe Horrooks was bom Feb. 21, 1843.
He was baptized into the Churchy a birthright member,
April 30, 1843, by Rev. Wm. Metcalfe. He was the
son of James and Eliza Horrooks, who came from Eng-
land and were members of the Salford Church. He
was entered among the members of the Church from the
date of his birth, so that he was always a member dur-
ing his whole life on earth, which terminated Nov. 20,
1910. His life was one of quiet, unostentatious devo-
tion to the interests of the Church.
*TE[e was a trustee over forty-two years, a deacon
twenty-eight years, and treasurer for nearly twenty-five
years; in all these positions he faithfully served, and
as treasurer he never allowed the Church to be in-
convenienced for want of funds."
The report also refers to the admission of one mem-
ber by baptism on Whitsunday, June 4, 1911.
The following amendment to the Rules and Regula-
tions was duly approved and adopted at the Semi-annual
Meeting of the Church Jan. 6, 1912: 'Troposals for
membership may be made to the minister or a deacon,
and if at the expiration of six months the applicant is
faithful, he or she shall, upon the written approval of
the Board of Deacons, be initiated by baptism, if not
previously baptized, enrolled on the list of members,
THE DEACONS 108
and ratify the event by attending, as soon as convenient,
the Commmuon servioe of tiie ChuroL''
As indicated in the reports of the Minister and Dea-
cons, serious inroads were made in the membership of
the Church by the deaths of many old and faithful
members during the past ten or twelve years. In addi-
tion to this, indifferent attitude on the part of some
of the younger members in the matter of attendance
at service caused the existence of a somewhat unsatis-
factory condition of affairs.
Differences of opinion as to the legal status of certain
candidates for trustees and deacons at the annual meet-
ing of 1911, resulted in a failure to hold an election for
those officials in 1912, and the Board of Deacons elected
in 1911, namely, WiUiam Metcalfe, Samson Cariss,
George W. Wright and E. F, Metcalfe, *%eld over''
for the ensuing year, from Whitmonday, 1912, to Whit-
In its report to the Anntial Meeting on Whitmonday,
May 12, 1913, the Board of Deacons stated, '^several
meetings had been held at which the subjects of Church-
membership, Attendance, Bules and Begulations, etc.,
were discussed, also type-written copies of the Amended
Charter and Constitution of the Church, Bules and
B^ulations, and Trustees By-laws had been provided,
and fumishfid to each family represented by Church
membership, nineteen copies being thus distributed dur-
ing June and July, 1912.''
104 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The average attendance at Conununion for the year
is stated as thirteen and seven-tenthfi.
The Deacons' report to the Annual Meeting J^t-
monday June 1, 1914, refers to the death of Susanna
M. Wright, which occurred Feb. 2, 1914. She was the
daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth Metcalfe, and widow
of Samuel Wright and waa a life-long and faith-
The report also gives the number of Communion
services attended by the male members of the Church
during the church year and expresses the opinion that
similar statements should be included in future annual
reports of the Deacons.
In a report made by a special Committee on "Gen-
eral Conditions" to a Church Meeting held April 11,
1915, it is stated: "That the list of members shows
names of twenty-one adults and one minor, and records
of Deacons show forty per cent, attend services reg-
ularly, ten per cent, attend occasionally, fifteen per cent,
prevented by illness, etc., and thirty-five per cent, have
not attended for over three years."
The report also states ^^e think the annual finan-
cial deficits will ev^atually necessitate the sale of the
church property and the acquisition of less expensive
quarters in which to continue the services, and with
the sole idea of perpetuating the existence of the Churdii
organization as long as possible, recommend that the
jiTrustees be requested to secure the necessary consent
of the members, and arrange for all legal requirements
THE DEACONS 105
necessary to offer the church for sale^ and to use their
best judgment in effecting a sale at «uch time, and under
such conditions as they deem to be for the permanent
material and spiritual welfare of the Church.''
The following is quoted from the reports of the Min-
ister and Board of Deacons to the Annual Meeting Whit-
monday^ May 24^ 1915 :
^'Two of our members have passed on to the spiritual
life since last Whitsuntide. Miss Mary Horrocks, who
died on June 24, 1914, was all her life a devoted mem-
ber of this Church, always faithful to its principles in
her personal experiences and daily practice, deeply
interested in its welfare and a regular contributor to its
resources. She was also a devoted member and treas-
urer of the Ladies' Aid Society.
''The other serious loss to our Church vras the dos-
ing of the earthly career of Qeorge Washington Wri^t,
who was bom August 80, 1864, and deceased October
19, 1914. He vras admitted a member of the Church
by baptism May 13, 1883. He was elected secretary
of the Church, Whitmonday May 14, 1888, elected
trustee, Whitmonday May 25, 1885, and performed
faithfully the duties of these offices until the sioikne^
preceding his death."
The Deacons' report also contains the following:
''The offering of the church property for sale, which
has been considered and recommended at a recent special
meeting of the Church will require the presentation of a
certified list of members, absolutely and tmquestionably
106 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH
qualified under the Bules of the Chntch. to hove a voioa
and vote on the subject, and if the members present at
this Annual Meeting have any thoughts or suggestions
to make, it might be an opportune time to give expres-
sion to them and perhaps to the Deacons, who may have
to act in the matter.''
In connection with the above subject the report of
the Deacons to the Annual Meeting Whitmonday, June
12, 1916, states that, after joint consideration by the
Boards of Deacons and Trustees, and consultation with
l^al counsel, notices were sent to all members on Octo-
ber 20, 1915 advising them that the church property
would be offered for sale, and, as the consent of two-
thirds of the members is requisite to make said sale,
it was deemed necessary that the membership be defi-
nitely fixed ; the Board regretted that in conducting the
transaction, and after giving all whose names were on
the roll of membership full and liberal opportunity to
qualify themselves as members in good standings it had
been compelled as provided for in Article 4, Section 1,
and Article 6, Section 3 to suspend three persons as
regular members of the Church, and until reinstated in
the manner prescribed by the Rules and Eegulations, to
debar them the privilege of holding Church o£Sc6 or
voting in the Church meetings.
It is also recorded that four of the old members had
paased from the material to the spiritual life within
a little over a year.
On May 21, 1915, just three days prior to Whit-
monday, Mrs. Anne Barbara dubb, the beloved wife of
THE DEACONS 107
Bev. Henry S. Clabb, passed from the material to the
spiritual ezistenoe. The usual Whitmonday Meeting
for 1915 was by action of a special Church meeting held
on Sunday, May 23, 1915, postponed for one week to
Memorial Day, May 31, 1915.
The Board of Deacons at a meeting in the church
parlor on the same date adopted the following ^^Minute/'
a transcript of which was delivered to our pastor : ''That
we desire briefly but most sincerely to record in our
Minutes, and to express to our beloved president and
pastor, and his family, our heartfelt sympathy and
affection in the great loss of a faithful and devoted wife
''May that spiritual consolation which he has taught
us so many years to seek, when our hearts be troubled,
be bountifully bestowed on him and give him the neces-
sary strength to bear bravely up even to this earthly
Mrs. Glubb was eighty-two years of age, and for
over forty years a faithful and devoted member of both
the Church and Ladies' Aid Society. The ftineral ser-
vice took place on Tuesday, May 25, 1915, at her late
residence 1023 Foulkrod Street, Bev. Harry H. Craw-
ford, a Frankford Presbyterian minister, officiating.
William Metcalfe, a life-long member, grandson of
the founder of the Church, a deacon and trustee for
some years, died on December 16, 1915.
Mrs. Anna Bamed Eoenig, widow of Deacon
Charles F. Koenig^ died on December 26, 1915. She
was an active and interested member for many years.
108 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Samson Cariss, who was bom May 25, 1849, and
baptized Aug. 12, 1849, died Jan. 8, 1916. He served
in the Church faithfuUy as organist over fifty years.
He was also a deacon and trustee for many years.
This proved to be the last annual meeting of the
Church held in the Park Avenue building. The prop-
erty wad sold to the Third Church of Christ, Scientist.
The last service in the church was held June 18, 1916,
and the annual report of the Board of Deacona for Whit-
monday May 28, 1917, was made to the annual meeting
held in the minister's residence, 1023 Foulkrod Street,
which had been regularly and formally arranged for
and agreed upon as the '^ead-quarters of the Church,"
and thus we find 'history repeating itself' in the fact
that, as the founder of the Church, the Eev. William
Metcalfe, on his arrival in Philadelphia in 1817,
"rented a dwelling in the rear of No. 10 North Front
Street" and *Qike the apostle of old, preached the gos-
pel in his own hired house (see Out of The Clouds pages
19 and 20) to as many as were willing to listen to his
testimony ;" so did the present minister, the Rev. Henry
S. Clubb, although now nearly ninety years of age, con-
tinue to preach the word of Ood on the Sabbatih-day/^ in
his own rented house," to all who would attend
During most of the first six years of The Philadel-
phia Bible-Christian Church, service was held in the
minister's home— 1817 to 1823.
THE DEACONS 109
The following sixty-eight years, 1823 to 1891, with
the exception of a few months, services were held in the
church on Third Street ahove Girard Avenue, and for
twenty-six years, from 1891 to 1917, the huilding
erected on Park Avenue below Berks Street was the
home of the Church, thus covering the first one himdred
years of its existence.
The last Communion Service in the Park Avenue
church was Sunday June 4, 1916, and the last regular
service, Sunday, June 18, 1916.
The Deacons' report to the Annual Meeting of the
Church held on Whitmonday May 28, 1917, at 1023
Foulkrod Street, Frankford, states ^^As indicated in
our last annual report and in accordance v^ith instruc-
tions, our Church secretary included the names of the
qualified adult women members on the list of those to be
voted for as deacons at the election on Whitmonday
1916, and the following Board of Deacons was chosen
for one year: Edmund B. Lord, George M. Wright,
Edwin F. Metcalfe and Mrs. Amy H. Cariss.
The report also refers to the passing on to the spirit-
ual life of Mrs. Isabel Horrocks Williams, after an ill-
ness of several years, her death taking place on June 25,
1916. In her earlier active years she was a valuable
helper in the affairs of the Church.
Note is also made that on Sunday Feb. 25, 1917, the
pastor, after the usual service, was taken with an attack
of hiccoughs which lasted over two weeks, and impaired
his st]:ength to such an extent that he has not felt able to
110 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
conduct service since that time. At a special meeting
of the Deacons on Sunday April 1, 1917| it was decided
that until otherwise arranged the Deacons would in turn
perform the regular service once eyery two weeks.
The record of the Board of Deacons for 1918-1919-
1920 and 1921, shows that the services were conducted
by the Deacons, each one in turn carrying out the
programme agreed upon, viz.: an opening hymn, the
alternate reading of a Psalm, prayer, another hymn,
followed by a chapter in the Bible, the singing of
another hymn, the reading of a sermon or article based
on discourses delivered by the Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, or
other writings in harmony with the principles and
doctrines of our Church, followed by the collection of
the offerings, the reading of notices, and a closing hymn
or song usually from the "Billy Sunday^' book, and
closing with the benediction, which was frequently pro-
nounced by the aged pastor, whose presence usually
favored the meetings.
The death of Mrs. Amy H. Cariss, widow of H^ory
T. Cariss, and the first Deaconess elected by the GhurobI
occurred on Oct. 3, 1917. She became a member in
her youth by baptism, on June 4, 1865, and for more
than fifty years was an active, faithful and interested
participant in the services and affairs of our Churchy the
Sunday School and the Ladies' Aid Society.
The Communion service was continued during the
years stated above, the senior Deacons usually officiat-
ing. The average attendance at Communion for 1918
THE DEACONS 111
The following^ elected to the Board of DeaooxiB Whit-
xaonday 1918^ viz.: Edwin F. Metcalfe, Edmund B.
Lord, George M. Wright, and Naomi Clnbb, were
re-elected in 1919 and 1920.
The death of Mrs. Emma Oariss, widow of organist,
Samson Cariss, on April 15, 1921, and that of Mr.
Horace 0. Williams, of Frankford, on May 3,'1921, are
worthy of record here as witnessing the passing on of
two who were for many years faithful friends of
The Board of Trustees has always been an impor-
tant branch or body in the Church Organization — being
responsible for the temporal concerns and posessions of
the Church ; its duties have naturally included the con-
sideration of a great variety of subjects, and while per-
haps not involving what in modem day finances and
operations are regarded or classed as extensive activities,
appear to have been performed with fidelity and good
judgment — ^generally keeping the Church free of debt
and clear of any serious complications or disputes.
The first steps to arrange for procuring a Charter
were taken at a special Meeting of the Trustees held at
the house of Jeremiah Horrocks, Frankford, on Christ-
mas day December 25, 1828. Present,
Eev. Wm. Metcalfe Moses Hey
Jeremiah Horrocks Thomas Hoseley
- -• Jonathan Wright
The original Charter of Incorporation was granted
at Harrisburg, April 6, 1830, "In the name and by
the authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
THE TRUSTEES 113
(reorge Wolf, Gk)vernor," enrolled in Charter Book No.
4, page 482, upon petition of the following members :
William Metcalfe, Minister Jonathan Wright
Jeremiah Horrocks Thomas Moseley
James Royle John Bury
James Wright Joseph Metcalfe
and the first Board of Trustees, as stated in said appli-
cation was constituted as follows :
Rev. William Metcalfe Thomas Moseley
James Royle Jonathan Wright
David Nuttall Moses Hey
George Richardson William Taylor
Jeremiah Horrocks John Lever
The official term was three years, the elections tak-
ing place at the Annual Church Meetings on Whit-
monday, and the original schedule was so arranged that
at the installation of the nine members constituting the
Board in 1830, they were divided into three dasses, and
only three members annually were to be elected or re-
elected ther^ftear. Only male members iiwenty-one
years of age were qualified to vote for Trustees under
the original Charter.
Copies of the '^Constitution and By-laws of The
Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church, ITorth Third
Street, West Kensington" printed by J. Metcalfe & Co.,
114 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
West Kensington, in 1834, were issued and distributed
to members and friends — ^a number of these pamphlets
are still in existence.
The official records of the Board of Trustees for the
period previous to the special Meeting of December 25,
1828, do not appear to be now in existence; since that
date their transactions are incorporated with the regular
Church Becorda until the year 1854, when new ^^ules
and Regulations for Church Government, and Trustees
By-laws" were adopted and a separate Book or
A pamphlet setting forth the Rules and Regulations,
together with the Constitution and Trustees By-laws^
printed at the FranJeford Herald office, Twenty-third
Ward, Philadelphia in 1855, was issued for circulation
among the members and friends of the Church. Copies
of tbis publication are also still in existence.
There were four stated meetings of the Board pro-
vided for, viz. : in September, December, March and on
Whitmonday, of every year.
The minister was, ex officio, a member of the Board
and was usually chosen as President The Board
elected a Treasurer and a Secretary, only regular male
members of the Church, ^^aocording to the rules, regu-
lations and discipline of the Church (which rules require
in particular that all members should abstain from
animal food, spirituous and intoxicating liquors; be
initiated by baptism, and come to the Sacrament),
THE TRUSTEES 116
twenty-one years of a^ and of at least two years' stand-
ing" were eligible as trustees.
The first specially important business of the Trus-
tees, after sec,^ tLe Carter, was arranging for the
purchase outright of the ground on North Third Street
on which the original frame church building stood, from
a Mr. Camac ; this was accomplished and reported to a
meeting on December 30, 1831, the Deed being recorded
in Deed Book A. M. No. 17, page 396-397.
Apart from the usual duties of devising ways and
means of providing for the current expenses, caring for
the church ground and building, no business of special
importance claimed the attention of the Board until
about 1845, when, in conjunction with the other mem-
bers of the Church, active steps were taken for the
erection of a new church building. The Board at this
time consisted of :
Bev. Wmu Metcalfe, President John Best
James Wright, Secretary Edward Lyons
Jonathan Wright, Treasurer Joseph Metcalfe
Dr. Henry Taylor Wm. Horrocks
James Horrocks James Brooks
As illustrating the general harmonious and hopeful
spirit prevailing in the Church at the annual meetings
in the years 1844 to 1848 the following is a brief out-
line of Church proceedings in connection with the ereo-
tion of the new church building on Third Street above
116 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHimCH
Franklin Street (Girard Avenue) Eensmgton, Phila-
delphia^ at that time ; at the Annual Meeting on Whit-
monday May 27, 1844 a Committee was appointed to
consider "the expediency and practicability of building
a new and permanent church, and to devise means for
accomplishing the same as early as possible/' This
Committee retired and later returned, making the fol-
lowing report to the same Annual Meeting:
Your Committee, aware that they have not had time
to make all the inquiries that the importance of the subject
referred to them requires, recommend however, the appoint-
ment of a Building Committee, whose business it shall
be to devise ways and means to aid the Philadelphia
Bible-Christian Church in the erection of a suitable build-
ing for public worship.
Your Committee do not urge the immediate commence-
ment of such a building, but rather suggest leaving the
Building Committee to determine, in conjunction with
the Trustees, the time of commencement, plans of
Your Committee would further recommend that the
Committee on Correspondence be authorized by this
Assembly to make an appeal to the Churches in England,
and to their friends elsewhere, for such assistance as they
msLj respectively feel disposed to extend to the im^dertaking.
The report of the Committee was accepted and the
following members elected as the Building Committee:
James Brooks, Joseph Metcalfe, James Horrocks,
Edward Lyons, and Jonathan Wright.
In the "Minutes" of the Annual Meeting, Whit*
monday May 12, 1845, is found the following:
THE TRUSTEES 117
We^ the undersigned^ appointed as a Building Com-
mittee at the last Annual Meeting of the Churchy having
deliberated on the subject entrusted to us^ beg leave to
offer a few remarks in the hope of eliciting your counsel
and exciting your sympathy in the work we have in view.
The Church will doubtless agree with the Committee
that the erection of a new brick building by our small body
is a serious undertaking; yet the importance, we might
almost say the necessity, for the erection of a substantial
building in place of the one we now occupy, will be as
readily assented to.
The first matter of inquiry, after the organization of
the Conmuttee, was, therefore, as to what means the Church
possessed with which to accomplish the object. In answer,
it appeared that after the payment of the annual sub-
scriptions at our next Annual Meeting the building fund
would amount to upwards of $1,000; inquiries developed
that from three to four thousand dollars would be required
to complete a suitable building, leaving a deficit of two or
three thousand dollars to be raised by some other method.
With these facts before them, the Committee consulted
together, and, being imanimously of opinion that it would
be bad policy, if not morally wrong, to involve the Church
in debt^ resolved to present the following recommendation
for your consideration :
First — ^We recommend the commencement of buUding a
new church during the ensuing season, but that the finish-
ing be deferred until after the building is roofed in and the
basement story finished, if the receipts do not warrant the
entire completion, leaving the style of the building open
for further consideration; we present the second recom-
mendation as to the size of the building; it is as large as
we think our past history would warrant us in considering
118 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
essential^ and will be a great saving in the expense of
erection in comparison with that of a larger edifice.
Second — ^We recommend that the proposed building be
thirty feet front by forty feet deep, with an additional
depth of six feet as a recess, all clear within the walls.
Whilst, however, we would be cautions in guarding the
Church from debt, we would by no means create the im-
pression that a sufficiency cannot be raised for the entire
completion of such a building; by a united, harmonious
and spirited effort of our members doubtless much more
might be done than has yet been effected for so desirable
Estimating the wisdom and the love communicated to
our souls in Gk>d'8 Word, through the Church of Christ,
as beyond all price, we feel that if each of us would but
reflect a moment, how our moral and intellectual faculties
have been educated by the Church, and how this education
has been the means of placing each of us in a higher state
of society than we could possibly have attained, destitute
of such aid, we should see that even in a worldly point
of view alone we were indebted to the Church more than
we were able to repay.
Believing that you would feel the full force of these
and other considerations, the following heading of a
Subscription lost was drawn up for the purpose of ascer-
taining what might be depended upon for the xmdertaking,
viz.: The undersigned hereby agree to pay the sums re-
spectively attached to their names to aid in building a
new church for the use of the Bible Christians, in place
of the one now used by them, the said sums to be paid within
three months after laying the foundation, either in monthly,
or such other instalments or payments as may suit the
signers and at the same time accommodate the wants of
THE TRUSTEES 119
PreviouB to the organization of this Committee for
business^ our sister members undertook to get up a Fair,
the proceeds to be appropriated to the building fund of
the Church. like women in the primitive days of
Christianity, who were the first to go forth searching
for the earthly tabernacle of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ, they also have come unto us with tidings of joy,
infusing confidence and hope into the breast of the most
despondent of our brethren; the spirit of persevering
energy and devotion which they have manifested from the
oonmiencement to the completion of their undertaking was
truly heart-cheering and woman-like; the result of this
Fair, held eight days, partly at Frankf ord, and the other
part in Philadelphia, is as nearly as can be at present
ascertained, about $600. During the last day or two, of the
Fair, the subscription paper was opened, and a number of
our members and friends present subscribed the amounts
opposite their respective names.
In conclusion we would call upon each and all of you
to examine the facts herewith set forth, to refiect upon
the recommendations, and to aid both by word and action,
whatever may tend to the permanent establishment of pure
All of which we submit.
At the same Annual Meeting 1845, a voluntary report
from a Committee of ladies of ihe Church was presented,
and read as follows :
1«0 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
A number of the members of the Bible-Christian
Church being on a visit at the house of James Horrocks on
New Years Day, 1845, it was resolved by the ladies present
to get up a Fair, the proceeds of which should be appro-
priated to aid in building a new church in place of the
edifice now used for religious worship; to carry this reso-
lution into effect the subscribers were appointed managers.
They entered on the duties assigned to them, and col-
lected in money as donations, in Frankf ord, the sum of
$50.37^, all of which was expended in goods for the Fair.
In Philadelphia they also collected from various sources,
as donations in cash, the sum of $56.71, which was laid out
in like manner, the particulars of which are all specified
in their Account Books.
The subscribers have the pleasure of stating to the
Annual General Ass^nbly of the Bible-Christian Church
that the net proceeds of the Fair in Frankford, after
paying all expenses, amounted to $280.45.
The Fair in Philadelphia three weeks afterward (in
Easter week) yielded also the net sum of $381.83, all
expenses being deducted; the two together being $662.28.
Of this amount, the subscribers deposited $603.13 in
the hands of Dr. Henry Taylor, for safe keeping until
the Annual General Assembly afforded them a suitable
opportunity of presenting the amount of their efforts to
the Trustees of the Church. Besides what has been turned
over to Doctor Taylor, they have in cash since received
$14.84 and there are bills yet to be collected $44.31, all
of which will be handed oyer to the Treasurer as soon
The subscribers, on behalf of themselves, and the ladies
of the Church generally, all of whom have taken a very
active part in accomplishing what has been done, beg to
present the result and amount of their efforts to the
Trustees to aid in erecting a new church.
THE TRUSTEES 121
The subscribers also think it a duty to acknowledge
their obligation to the teachers and scholars of the Sunday
School attached to the Church, for their aid in preparing
and furnishing articles for the Fair.
In presenting these results the subscribers beg to ex-
press their hopes that the Trustees will be enabled to carry
into effect the purposes for which they have been laboring,
with as little delay as possible.
May 12, 1845
Mary Ann Horrocks
Mary A. Gariss
The concluding chapter of the building and furnish-
ing of the new church is found in the proceedings of
the Annual Meeting Whitmonday Tune 12, 1848,
as follows :
The undersigned, a Committee appointed by the
Church at a meeting held in September, 1847, to furnish,
and make the necessary arrangements for opening the
church proper, beg leave to report that they attended to
the duties assigned to them. Annexed will be found a
statement of monies expended; in addition to which we
may observe that the Font and Altar Stools were presented
by members of the Church.
On Sunday, the 10th of October following, (1847) the
church was solemnly consecrated to the *TVorship of The
Only Wise God our Saviour*' by our pastor, the Rev.
William Metcalfe. His discourse was founded upon the
20th Chapter of Exodus. The ceremonies were interspersed
with beautiful and appropriate music, during both the
morning and evening services.
122 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
That this place may be ever held sacred to the pnrposes
for which it was consecrated is the earnest prayer of
Mary A. Cariss
Mary A. Horrocks
The Trustees reported to the Annual Church Meet-
ing Whitmonday June 12, 1848, that the board had
^^effected a temporary loan, completed the Ghurdb; in
which we are assembled, secured permanent insurance
on the building, and a yearly insurance on the furniture,
In 1854, the Trustees By-laws were approved and
adopted by special Church Meetings, and as before
stated, were, on February 18, 1855, ordered to be
printed in pamphlet form in connection with Rules and
Regulations for Church Gbvemmant together with the
Constitution of the Philadelphia BiUe-Christian
Church, North- Third Street, West Kensington.
In July 1865, the Trustees recommended to the
Church that a leave of absence for six months be granted
to the minister, Rev. Wmu Metcalfe, in order to visit
and take temporary charge of the Bible-Christian
Church in Salford, England, and that the Rev. Joseph
Wrigiht, appointed and licensed by Rev. Wm. Metcalfe,
officiate in his absence.
THE TRUSTEES 123
The Board at this time oonsisted of Bev. Jos.
Wright, Jonathan Wright, Elijah Eothwell, Eman-
uel Hey, James Wright, Treas., Lewis S. Hough,
Whl Cariss, Edmund Brooks, Jos. Metcalfe, Secy.,
During the absence of Bev. Wm. Metcalfe in Eng-
land for nearly two years, Bey. Jos. Wright usually
served as Chairman of the Board.
No business of unusual interest occupied the Board's
attention for several years. The occasional dropping
out of a familiar name in the membership of the Board
was usually an indication of the passage of time and also
the passing on of an individual from the material to
the spiritual world ; as the duties with which the Trus-
tees were charged were of a material character, and in-
volved only the temporal concerns of the Church it is
very rarely that any reference to the decease of its
members appears in the records of the Board, such
occurrences being included in the annual reports of the
minister and deacons.
At the time of the death of the Bev. Wm. Metcalfe,
which occurred October 16, 1862, the following nanoies
appear as constituting the Board: James Horrocks,
Henry Taylor, James Wrigiht, Elijah BothweU,
Emanuel Hey, Edmund Brooks, Wul Cariss, Jonathan
Wright, Treas., Joseph Metcalfe, Secy.
March 12, 1865, reference is made to the death of
Jonathan Wright, who had been Treasurer since the
124 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
incorporation of the Church, 1830, and to the election
of Wm. Cariss to fill the vacancy.
In 1865 and again in 1866, Robert Wright, a memr
ber of the Church, and son of Jonathan Wright, submit-
ted plans for the erection of ^^five cottage houses" on.
the rear of the church ground. A committee was ap-
pointed to consider same, but no further action resulted.
Rot. Joseph Metcalfe, President of the Board,
died in December, 1867, and was succeeded by Rev.
Whitmonday 1869, the Board consisted of :
James Wri^t, Edmund Brooks, Emanuel Hey,
WuL Carissy Jaines Horrocks, Wm. M. Horrocks, Chas*
F. Koenig, J. ClifFord Shoch, Rev. Wm. Taylor, Pres.,
Henry M. Taylor, Treas., James J. Horrocks, Seqr*
In Sept., 1872, the Board was informed that J. B.
Lippincott & Co. had completed publication of the ser-
mon book of Rev. Wul Metcalfe Out of the Olovds, same
was ready for sale, and the price was fixed at $1.50
to members of the Congregation, and $1.75 to others.
On Whitmonday, June 2, 1873, the Chairmanship
of the Board was conferred on Wm. Cariss, who was
conducting services in the church dunng a vacancy caused
by the resignation of Dr. Wm. Taylor. Chas. P.
Koenig had been elected Secretary of the Board, Whit-
monday 1871, and Henry M. Taylor was Treasurer.
These officials continued until Whitmonday 1876,
when Henry S. Clubb, who had been engaged as min-
ister, became President.
THE TRUSTEES 126
On Whitmonday, 1877, Wm. Cariss again became
President and Wm. 0. Brooks, Secretary, and on
Whitmonday, 1878, Eer. Henry S. Clubb was again
elected President and has continued in that position
to the present date, 1921. The Board in 1880 was
constituted as follows:
Eev, H. S. Clubb, Chairman, Wm. Cariss, Sr.,
James Horrociks, Fithi^i S. Oray, Wul H. Horrocks,
Cha& F. Koenig, Jas. T. Horrocks, Edwin F. Metcalfe,
WnL C. Brooks, Se<^., H. M. Taylor,Trea8. There was
a Committee on Church and Lecture Boom, a Finance
Committee and a Committee on Church Yard, three
members on each Committee.
During 1880 and 1881, about fifty meetings of the
Board were held principally in connection with the sub-
ject of building five dwellings on the rear of the church
groimd, Charlotte Street front, which were completed
in May, 1881. A mortgage was created thereon to pro-
vide sufficient fimds.
The personnel of the Board continued as above until
about 1890 excepting that £. F. Metcalfe was elected
Treasurer, Whitmonday 1881, Oteo. W. Wright, Secre-
tary, Whitmonday 1883, Samson Cariss elected a mem-
ber on Whitmonday, May 17, 1880, to fill a vacancy
caused by the death of Jas. Horrocks, and Wm. M.
Horrocks elected Treasurer, Jan. 17, 1886
The special duties attended to during this time were
the removal of bodies from the church yard to outlying
cemeteries, the greater number being transferred to
126 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Cedar Hill, Frankford; also taking measures for sale
of the cliTirch property, with a view of removing to a
more satisfaotory locality, the adjoining property being
used as an abattoir, making it particularly unpleasant
for those attending the Church services.
The following deaths of Trustees are recorded : Wm.
C. Brooks 1887, Jas. J. Horrocks 1888, Fithian S.
Qxay 1890. Henry Horrocks was elected Trustee in
1887 and Whl Metcalfe in 1890.
Arrangements were made at a meeting, October 14,
1888, for the purchase of a lot on west side of Park
Avenue below Berks Street (50 x 90 feet) bb a site for
a new church building.
On January 5, 1890, the sale of the entire Third
Street church property was announced and approved at
a meeting of the Board, and the last meeting of the
Board in the Third Street church was held on March
Ifumerous meetings of the Trustees were held at
the residence of Wm. Cariss, Sr., 1537 Park Avenue
during 1890, principally in connection with the build-
ing of the new church which was under the supervision
of a Building Committee, and the first meeting of the
Board in the new church was on May 18, 1891.
On September 15, 1891, the completion of a Sunday-
school building in the rear of the diurch (with a cellar
kitchen) was announced, and action taken ^^to pay the
bill for same."
The Trustees had arranged for the removal of the
organ from the Third Street church to the new Park
THE TRUSTEES 127
Avenue cburch, where an appropriate place near the
pnlpit was provided for it. At this time the property
oonsisted of the main church building of stone; a con-
venient parlor v^ith door leading into the body of the
church and another to the pulpit ; an outside stone porch
or entrance with a hallway leading to Sundaynschool
room and a door into the parlor. An iron fence, with
gate, enclosed a small front and side-yard in which was
located the main entrance door to the chureh, a good
size lot VTith grass and trees in the rear, with a wooden
fence and gfite leading to Watt Street on the opposite
side of which were located the buildings and university
of the Temple Baptist Church, fronting on Broad Street.
Permission was granted by the Trustees to various
Peace, Literary, Vegetarian and other reform and edu-
cational societies and institutions to use the Sunday-
school room and parlor for their meetings and classes,
usually free, or at a charge little more than necessary
to cover light, heat, janitor services, etc This -practice
was continued as long as the church remained at
On October 23, 1899, Wul Cariss, Sr., the oldest
member of the Board, in length of service, died ; he was
a Trustee over forty-four years and special record of
the event is made in the ^^Minutes" of a meeting held
October 29, 1899.
It had been deemed advisable for some time past,
that in view of the decreasing number of candidates
available for the position of trustee, as well as for
other reasons, some changes should be made in the
128 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Church Charter and Rules. A oomznittee had pre-
pared and after approval by the Church, had submitted
to the Court of Common Pleas No. 3, County of Phila-
delphia, March Term 1902, No. 2186, an application
for an amended or revised Charter changing the name
of the Organization from ^^The Philadelphia Bible-
Christian Church, North Third Street, West Kensing-
ton," to "The PhUadelphia Bible-Christian Church,"
decreasing the number of Trustees from nine to five;
ail persons (twenty-one years of age and one year's
standing) to be entitled to vote for same instead of
The Board at this time consisted of: Rev. H. S.
Clubb, Pres., Gteorge W. Wright, Secy., Wmu M.
Horrocks^ Treas., Chas. F. Koenig, Wm. Metcalfe,
Samson Cariss^, Henry T. Cariss, E. F. Metcalfe,
Heniy Horrocks, Wm. B. Horrocks.
A Meeting December 7, 1902, records the death of
Henry M. Taylor a trustee for thirty-nine years.
The operation of the Revised Charter was in
effect Whitmonday June 1, 1903, and the following
Board of five members was elected: Chas. F. £oenig,
E. F. Metcalfe, Samson Cariss, George W. Wright,
Secy., Wm. M. Horrocks, Treas., Rev. H. S. Clubb,
Pres., ex officio.
The record of the Board from 1903 up to 1914 is
largely one of the usual routine, viz., looking after the
collection of funds and the payment of current expenses.
THE TRUSTEES 129
keeping the property in repair, etc., and, in general, at-
tending to the ^'temporalities'' of the ChurcL
During thaa time Charles F. Koenig, Wm. M.
Horrocks and George W. Wright, trustees for many
years, died — ^Mr. Koenig June 3, 1908, Mr. Horrocks
Nov. 20, 1910, and Mr. Wright Oct. 19, 1914.
After the Church annual election on Whitmouday
May 31, 1915, the Board consisted of the following
members: Henry S. Clubb, President, Samson Cariss,
Wm. MetcaKe, Edwin F. Metcalfe, Edmund B. Lord
and Oeorge M. Wright. At the Board organization
meeting on the same date, E. F. Metcalfe was elected
Secretary and Treasurer.
In October, 1915, the Board took preliminary meas-
ures to offer the church property on Park Avenue for
sale, in the course of which developed the necessity of
fixing positively the status of members and their legal
right to consent to or oppose such sale, and under
legal advice notices relative to the matter were sent to
The expressed desire to sell the property being prac-
tically unanimous by the members of both the Church
and Board of Trustees, it was offered to various persons
who had given indication of being possible purchasers,
but nothing in that way materialized until April, 1916,
when negotations were opened with a Committee of the
Third Church of Christ, Scientist, and after numerous
meetings and discussions, a sale was finally consum-
mated on July 5^ 1916, the last meeting of the Trustees
130 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH
in the Park Avenue church taking place on July 1,
1916. A new Corporate Seal of the Church was for-
mally adopted at a Meeting June 11, 1916.
WnL Metcalf Oy a member of the Board, died on
December 16, 1915, and Samson Cariss, a member of
the Board, on January 8, 1916.
After the sale of the Park Avenue property, the
residence of the minister Ber. Henry S. Clubb, 1023
Foulkrod Street, Frankford, was, at a meeting of the
Board held July 9, 1916, decided upon and constituted
the headquarters and meeting place of The Philadelphia
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL
Thb first mention of establishing a Sunday School
appears in the Minutes of the twentieth Annual Meet-
ing^ held on June 4, 1838, when a motion by James
Brooks^ seconded by Dr. Henry Taylor, that a
'^Committee be appointed to consider the propriety of
establishing a Sunday School" (which had been recom-
mended in the pastor's sermon that morning) was
adopted, and the Committee, appointed by the chair-
man, consisting of James Brooks, Dr. Henry Taylor,
Joseph Metcalfe, Samuel Wright and James Wright,
were instructed to report in one month.
The action of this Committee was apparently favor-
able, as the record of the Annual Meeting of May 20,
1839, refers to a verbal report made by ^^The oonduotor
of the Sunday School — Jaimes Wright'' and arranges for
a Library in connection with the School, and in the Min-
utes of the Annual Meeting 1840, there is inxsluded a
written report signed by James Wright, superintendent,
stating among other matters that the School was ^ Wgan-
ized and opened on Sunday, Oct. 21, 1838, about twenty
scholars, male and female, were in attendance, and in
the course of six months t^is number was increased to
fifty, and at the present time (1840) is about eighty" —
^'There are four female and four male teachers namely :
132 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Mary Ann Cariss, Isabella Metcalfe, TTaTiTiah Wright,
Alice Lever, and John Lever, James Gibson, Wm.
Horroeks and Lever Richardson. An interesting para-
graph in this report is herewith reproduced as indicat-
ing its general style and spirit: ^^Among the many
pleasing incidents that have occurred during the past
year I must beg leave to mention a visit by the School
and teachers to Frankf ord on the invitation of Mr. and
Mrs. Jeremiah Horroeks on the fourth of July last. I
need not say that all the children were highly delighted
with that visit, their smiling faces and bright eyes spoke
a language more powerful than words, and the day was
spent in reasonable recreation and pleasure by all. In
the name of the School and teachers, I am authorized to
offer their heartfelt thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Horroeks,
and to which I beg leave to add my own."
This was the first Summer Excursion of the Sun-
day School and inaugurated a custom that was continued
annually, to various suburban places, almost as long
as the School existed.
In 1841, Edward Lyons was elected Superintendent
and James Wright, Singing Master, in the Sunday
School, and the annual reports up to 1844, indicate a
continuance of the interest taken in the affairs of the
School, and although the average attendance had de-
clined slightly, being about sixty, it was attributed
in part to the lack of suitable accommodations, the
body of the church being the only available place for
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL ISS
In 1844, Joaepli Metcalfe was elected Superintend-
ent and continued until 1849, when William Horrocks
was elected to that position.
A new church building had been erected, and a good
size lecture room on the first floor provided an excel-
lent place in which the sessions of the Sunday School
The nulnber of scholars in 1851, is given as eighty-
five — ^twenty-five boys and sixty girls — and the number
of teachers increased to sixteen, namely: Maxy Ann
Horrocks, Elizabeth A. Wright, Mary A. Cariss, Martha
Wright, Frances Gault, Eliza Brooks, Mary Earned,
Jane Martin, Hannah Wright, Elizabeth Kest, Edward
Lyons, Lewis S. Hough, John Best, D. M. Hambleton,
James Horrocks, Hugh O. Luckman. The Librarian
was Wm. Cariss, Secretary, Joseph Metcalfe, Vocal
Leader, James Brooks.
At the Annual Meeting Whitmonday May ,31, 1852,
Emanuel Hey was elected Superintendent and served
in that capacity until Whitmonday, June 1, 1857. Dur-
ing that period special attention was given to increas-
ing and improving the Sunday-school Library, over one
hundred new books were added, suited more particxdarly
to the use and interest of the scholars, and a number of
the old and dilapidated volumes discarded, the number
in use being about three hundred. Sef erence is made
to the fact that numerous new scholars were enrolled
and a4;tended a few weeks, but the average attendance of
both scholars and teachers continued about the same^
184 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
that of the girls and female teachers predominating.
The church organist and the vocal leader elected at the
Whitmonday Meetings usually served in the Sunday-
school services also.
William Cariss was elected Sunday-school Superin-
tendent on June 1, 1857, and served until Whitmonday,
1860, when Joseph Metcalfe was again elected to the
position, he having served previously from 1844 to 1849.
The annual reports of Mr. Cariss showed a contin-
uing prosperous condition of the School, and makes
reference to the enjoyable summer excursions during
Joseph Metcalfe served as Sunday-school Superin-
tendent from Whitmonday 1860, to Whitmonday 1863.
The annual reports show the number of scholars to be
Edmund Brooks was Vocal Leader and Wm. 0.
Brooks, Librarian. The male teachers were Wm. Cariss,
Chas. F. Koenig, Henry M. Taylor, Wm. M. Horrocks
and Wm. Metcalfe, Jr. The female teachers were Mrs.
Mattie Eoenig and the Misses Annie Bamed, Mary
Horrocks, Mary Ann Horrocks, Agnes Gault, Eliza
Taylor, Sarah Taylor and Hannah Brooks.
The Christmaa exercises of the School are referred
to as very pleasant occasions; they were conducted in
a large room on the first floor of the church building,
and took place during this period on Christmas Eve.
Pieces or addresses, and sometimes dialogues^ (involving
several) were delivered from the platform, the sdiolars
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 135
being seated on a series of temporary steps reaching
almost to the ceiling, the boys on one side of the plat-
form, the girls on the other. Songs appropriate to the
occasion was rendered, a generous supply of candy
and refreshments distributed, and a general '^good
time" indulged in.
James Wrigjbt was chosen Superintendent Whit-
monday, 1863, his second term in that office; his
annual report in 1864 refers to the acquisition of "A
musical instrulment called the Harmonium:, well
adapted to assist the scholars in their musical exercises."
Mr. Wrigjht who was well advanced in years, re-
quested release from further services on account of
poor health, and on Whitmbnday, 1864, William Cariss
waa elected Superintendent.
Mr. Cariss was continued in the position until 1876,
he had previously served for three years in that capac-
ity, 1857-1860, and was in thorough and sincere
accord with the requirements and duties of the posi-
tion. Of a cheerful, congenial disposition, always
greatly interested in the services and celebrations of
the Sunday School, their summer excursions to the
'Ibanks of the Wissahlckon" and other rural sections,
their Christmas exercises and entertainments, eta, he
was a general favorite with the scholars and teachers.
The annual reports indicate that in the number of
scholars the School probably reached its maximum
during this period, the number enrolled being stated as
one hundred and thirty in 1870. Mr. Cariss resided
136 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
for many years on Third Street opposite to the church
building and had a large and friendly acquaintance '
among the residents of that neighborhood, which fur-
nished the greater projwrtion of those attending the
School. Many who were scholars there during their
youth, have in later life expressed their appreciation of
^'those happy days" and sympathy with the humane and
kindly principles always taught at the Bible-Christian
The records do not furnish the number or names of
the teachers in office Whitmonday June 5, 1876, but on
that date Mr. Charles F. Eoenig, who had for several
years been a teacher was elected Superintendent
The centre of population in Philadelphia had been
gradually moving westward, and this change, accel-
erated somewhat by the great Centenial Exposition
which occurred this year at Belmont Plateau in Fair-
mount Park, resulted in the removal of numerous
families from the neighborhood of the church to newer
sections of the city and a slow but rather continuous
decline in the number attending both the Church and
the Sunday School.
The number of scholars enrolled Whitmonday, May
17, 1880, is stated as eighty-five and of teachers eleven,
and the number of books in the Library as six hundred.
In 1886 the number of scholars temporarily increased
to one hundred and twenty-eight and increased activity
and interest is indicated. Considerable relief and diari-
table work is mentioned and numerous occasions of
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 137
entertainments, etc. In 1887 the number of enrolled
scholars had fallen to seventy-six. The death of Wm,
C. Brooks, long a vocal leader and librarian in the
school is referred to in the Superintendent's ATim tftl
report of the year. The Deacons' Annual report on
Whitmonday, June 10, 1889, strongly urged the neces-
sity of removing to a more desirable neighborhood,
referring to the discouraging condition of affairs and
stating "The best evidence for the removal is the con-
dition of the Sabbath School. In former years we had
the pick of the children of the neighborhood but of late
neither love or money has afforded us means to
In 1890 the church property on Third Street was sold,
and pending the securing of a new building the Sunday-
school activities were practically suspended. At the
Whitmonday meeting, June 6, 1892, the superintend-
ent, Charles F. Eoenig reported "The services in our
own new Sabbath-school building (Park Avenue below
Berks Street) were commenced October 4, 1891." No
statement is given of the number of scholars, but in the
report of 1893, the average attendance of teachers and
scholars is given as twenty-five.
Mr. Eoenig always took special interest in the musi-
cal features and vocal exercises of the school and his
annual reports make frequent reference to the joyous
Christmas Carols, the beautiful Easter music, etc
Begular relief and charitable work was performed by
the School and considerable amounts were also collected
188 BIBLEKJHRISTIAN CHURCH
and devoted to f unushing and improving tbie school
room and the church building.
The Whitmonday report for 1898 mentions the
pleasure derived from the presence of Bev. James Clark
and his daughter Bertha, of the English Bible-Christian
Church, at a number of sessions during the year.
While the removal of the Sunday School from Third
Street to Park Avenue had a somewhat stimulating or
reviving effect, it proved to be only temporary, the new
neighborhood, from Twelfth Street west and from Oir-
axd Avenue north to York Street was plentifully supplied
with churches of all denominations, and connected with
them were large and flourishing Sabbath Schools with
big memberships. These offered attractions and induce-
ments for the attendance of young people, that were
beyond the facilities of our modest little institution, and
the natural inevitable result was a gradual decline in
the number of scholars. This continued to such an ex-
tent that even the optimistic spirit of superintendent
Eoenig was unable to find sufficient encouragement for
further efforts to prolong its existence and on Whit-
monday, June 11, 1905, the last session was held.
While acknowledging the thanks and appreciation due
to Mr. Koenig for his unselfish and faithful services, the
Annual Meeting of Whitmonday June 12, 1905, re-
luctantly agreed to the disbanding of the Sunday School.
In its sixty-seven years of existence there were seven
Superintendents, namely: James Wright, Edward
THE SUNDAY SCHOOL 1S9
Lyons, Joseph! Metcalfe, William Horrocks, Emanuel
Hey, William Cariss and Charles F. Eoenig.
These men devoted their best efforts to instil the
Christian principles of kindness, gentleness and hnmau-
ity into the hearts and lives of the young people, and
to encourage in the scholars an interest in, and a proper
miderstanding of, the importance of the truths and pre-
cepts contained in the Sacred Scriptures. That they
received the cordial and sincere support of the teach-
ers and other officers of the School is demonstrated in
the annual reports rendered to the Church and though
it was a matter of siujcere regret that circunstances be-
yond control seemed to make the disbandment of the
School a necessary or desirable course, there is no doubt
that it had a good and worthy influence on many young
lives, an influence that was beneficial physically, men-
tally and spiritually, and an experience on which they
could look back in later years vcdth pleasure and
The following Resolution appears in the Minutes
of the eleventh annual meeting of the Church Whit-
monday May 26, 1828.
Moved by Mr. Taylor, seconded by Mr. Jonathan
Wright, and: Resolved, That a Sick Club be formed of
members of the Bible-Christian Church alone, male and
female, and that Mr. Metcalfe, Mr. Horrocks, Mr. Nuttall,
Mr. Wright and Mr. Taylor be appointed a Committee to
draw up a Constitution, and otherwise provide for the same
as may be deemed necessary, and that the said Committee
report on the subject to a special meeting to be held one
month from the date hereof.
The Members of the Bible-Christian Church Male and
Female luBtitution, Organized Whitsuntide,
The object of this Institution was to take care of
the sick. Entrance fee $.50; Dues $.75 quarterly;
Sick Benefits $3.00 weekly; Death Benefits $20.00.
It was discontinued at the beginning of the Civil
The Officers consisted of a President, Secretary,
Treasurer, Stewards (two male and two female). The
f oUowiiig is a chronological list of these officers :
Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, 1828-1830
Wm. Taylor, 1828-1830
James Wright, 1828-1830
James Eoyle, 1830-1831
Jonathan Wright, 1830-31, (Pres. 1856-61)
Eev. Wm. MetcaKe, 1831-1856, (1868-1861)
Edmunfl Brooks, 1859-1861
1829 — 6 months
142 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHUBCH
Mrs. Metcalfe, 1829-1880
Mrs. Boyle, 1829-1830
Mrs. M. Horrocks, 1847-1848
Mrs. S. Metcalfe, 184M848
Miss E. Horrocks, 1849-1851
Mrs. I. Cariss, 1849-1869
il' Mrs. E. A. Wright, 1863-1864
, Miss H. Brooks, 1862 —
;. Mrs. M. Taylor, 1866-1859
Bible-Cfaristian Physiological Society
' ■ . ■■■
Dec. 25, 1840 and 1841
SooDBTY was orgfuiized August 16, 1840, and was
in existence apparently about two years, being devoted
to the giving of lectures and public discussions on the
advantages of VegetarianisnL The Officers and Mem-
bers consisted principally of Bible-Christian Church
Members and others in sympathy with or interested in
the subject of Vegetarianism.
THE LADIES' AID SOOIETT
Befobs tlie final word of the one-himdred year his-
tory of The Philadelphia Bible-Christian Chureh has
been said, the Conmiittee desires to give a brief ezpres*
sion of admiration for what has been an affiliated organ-
ization of the Church, to offer a most insufficient but
sincere tribute to the wonderful value and importance
of the work, labor and influence of the Ladies'
The regular proceedings of the meetings as set forth
in the records of the Society will of course occupy a
prominent place in the history, and interesting though
the information may be, it cannot adequately express the
faithfulness, patience, kindliness and genuine Christian
effort and accomplishment typified in the career of this
Organized during the early and dark days of the
great Civil War, in 1863, it has continued the even tenor
of its existence for more than half a century, devoting
its time, labor, thought and money to the welfare of
the Church, to the assistance of the needy, to public and
private charity, to the social enjoyment and improve-
nient of young and old, to help and consolation on many
occasions of sickness and bereavement, most truly has
THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 145
it been in the fiillest and best eenae of the words a
"I^adies^ Aid Society."
The mothers, grandmothers and great-grandinxothjers
of some of the present members were active, devoted,
faithful members of the Society in past years. Its Boll
Book contains the names of many who were not "Bible
Christians/' but who had a decided feeling of friend-
ship for the Church and its members, and in all its
years of labor and usefulness, in days of prosperity
and in times of depression and discouragement, it has
exemplified and practised those great Christian princi-
pies, Faith, Hope and Charity, aud in any true esti-
mate that is made of the activities, philanthropy and
benefits conferred by The Philadelphia Bible-Christian
Church a generous appreciation must be given to the
officers and members of its Ladies' Aid Society.
The Ladies' Aid Society was organized July 15,
1863, at the home of Bev. Joseph Metcalfe.
At the commencement it was called the Soldiers'
Aid Society, and its object was to aid the sick and
wounded soldiers in the War of the Bebellion«
Its first work was to sew articles of clothing and send
to Gettysburg cases of these for the sick and wounded.
These were distributed by one of the pastors of the
Church and his wife, Dr. and Mrs. William Taylor,
who were doing useful work among the suffering sol-
diers there at that time.
The meetings of the Society were held at the homes
of the different members.
14« BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
At the organization of the Society there were soYen-
teen members as follows:
Mrs. Martha Taylor (Rothwell) President
Mrs. Sprat Mrs. Schoch
Mrs. Wilson Mrs. Needham
Mrs. James Horrocks Miss M. A. Horrooks
Mrs. Isabelle Cariss Miss E. Wri^t
Mrs. Margaret Wright Miss Susanna Metcalfe
3frs. Edmund Brooks Miss Maiy Horrooks
Mrs. M. Koenig Mrs. Joseph Metcalfe
Mrs. Henry Taylor Mrs. M. 0. Metcalfe
In September 1863, the Society decided to extend
its sphere of usefulness to the Church as well as to
the soldiers and it was henceforth to be known as
the Ladies' Aid Sociely, instead of the Soldiers'
In 1864 aprons were made by the ladies and sold
for the benefit of the Church.
On Whitmonday, May 16, 1864, the Ladies' Aid
Society reported that they had been making and dispos-
ing of salable articles and intended to work in concert
with the Trustees of the Church and devote a part of
their funds to furnishing the church with Venetian shut-
ters inside. Notice is given in Church report for
Whitmonday June 5, 1865, that ''The Ladies' Aid So-
ciety which has been a vital organization in our little
Cougr^ation, has had neat, convenient and pleasant
Venetian window shutters placed within the church at
THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 147
each window. This is mentioned that credit may be
given where it is due. We feel thankful, as Trustees,
to the Ladies' Aid Society for this generous contribution
to the church, and hope the ladies may long enjoy the
great improvement they have made in our little Temple
Lti January, 1866, the ladies collected for a Tablet
for the church to the memory of the paBtor, Bev.
Tea parties were occasionally held in the early days
by which considerable money was raised, and strawberry
festivals also in the early summer seajston. Dinners at
Whitsuntide were gotten up by the ladies and the pro-
ceeds therefrom placed in the Ladies' Aid funds. Fairs
were held at different times, and on Sunday-school pic-
nics the ladies sold refreshments.
In 1867, the ladies paid Bobert Wright for placing
railing in front of the church, also paid him at another
time the same year for a new style of brick for paving
in front of the church.
In February 1869, the ladies paid for gas put into
At Ohristmas times the ladies paid for and super^
vised decorating the church with greens and holly.
In 1870 the ladies had the wood work of the church
painted and the pews cushioned and floor carpeted and
Belative to the cushioning of the church pews by the
members of the Ladies' Aid, we quote verbatim from
148 BIBLB-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
report of the secretary (1871) Mary C. Metcalfe:
^To-day we have the heartfelt satisfactioii of seeing as
the result of our labors, the church presenting an
appearance that attracts general attention and appro-
bation from all its visitors and in seeing our congrega-
tion comfortably seated; the poorest as well as the
wealthiest, all provided for in. their worship/'
In June, 1871 at the Annual Excursion by the Sun-
day School to Eddington, the ladies supplied refresh-
ments, and the Society had a picnic at Bockdale in
At different times mention is made of sums of money
being given by the Society to the Church for permanent
maintenance of the church, September, 1882, the So-
ciety paid $50.00 toward perpetual insurance on
Sometimes quilts were made by the ladies of the
Society. In October, 1883, fourteen quilts had been
made for which $18.00 was realized, and in December,
1886, two quilts were made and sold at $1.00 each.
December 11, 1886, occurred the death of Miss
Mary Ann Horrocks. She was one of the charter mem-
bers and very active and faithful.
November, 1887, Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, a worthy
and devoted member died.
In 1888 a Pink Tea Meeting was held on Thanks-
giving evening and $28.72 was raised.
In 1889 Tableaux were given on Washington's
Birthday and $29.65 raised.
THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 149
In 1890 a Fair was held at Easter time on Saturday
and Monday afternoons and evenings and $202.42 real-
ized and presented to the Trustees of the Ohureh.
June 28, 1890, "Tombola" held at which $270.75
was realised and handed over to the Church for
In January, 1891, mention is made of sale of two-
hundred copies of Vegetarian Cook Books, realizing
$11.00 thereby. This Cook Book was prepared and
published by the ladies of the church for the benefit
of the Society.
September 2, 1891, a Fruit festival held and $37.55
realized to go toward fund for Sunday-school room*
September 18, 1892, the death of Mrs. Eliza
Horrocks occurred. She had been treasurer of the
Society for twenty-nine years and was one whose counsel
was always depended upon for its vsdsdom, and she
personally retained the undivided affection of all the
The wine for Sacrament was made by lilrs. Mary C.
Metcalfe for a great many years. It was the pure grape
juice, unfermented. In October, 1894, the making of
the wine was transferred from Mrs. M. C. Metcalfe to
Mrs. H. S. Clubb. This was always in the earlier days
a gratuitous service, the grapes and sugar being paid
for by the Ladies' Aid Society.
In 1895 the Ladies' Aid made clothes which were
given to poor children.
150 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
March 30, 1896, the death of Mrs. Elizabeth
Metcalfe, aged eighty-two, occurred. She was one of the
origmal members and an active worker in the Society.
She was the widow of the Rev. Joseph Metcalfe.
In November, 1898, the ladies decided to sew for
a ^'Basket" as proposed by Mxs. Chas. F. Koenig, for
the benefit of the Society. Material for aprons was
pnrohased at different times by the Society and the
ladies made the aprons at the meetings and sold them.
Mrs. Oeorge W. Wright kept the Erankford Basket at
first, and, later, Mrs. Edwin E. Metcalfe. One was
kept in the city as well, by Mrs. Henry T. Cariss. The
proceeds for one hundred and eleven aprons amounted
to $13.92 for one year in 1903.
In 1900, pillow cases and sheets and outing flannel
were donated by the Society to the Medioo-Chirurgi*
In June 1900, Miss Martha W. Clubb was elected
Assistant Secretary — ^Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe being
In Eebruary, 1901, the ladies purchased three and
one-half dozen knives and forks for $14.88, for use at
Whitsuntide dinners and similar affairs.
In July, 1901, the Society contributed $15.00 for
the Church Special Fund in sending Rev. Henry S.
Clubb and daughter Martha W. to England to visit the
Bible-Christian Church in Salford.
On September 18, 1901, oocurred the death of Mrs.
IsabeUe M. Cariss, one of the original and evw faith-
THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY 151
ful members of the Society. She had ooBBiderable
ability in making beautiful things, having classes where
she taught embroidery and painting on fabrics for
October 18, 1901, an Engjlish Tea Party was held
in honor of the Bev. James Clark of Salford Church,
England, and his daugihter Bertha. The proceeds from
this Tea Party went towards a gift for Mr. Clark, pre-
sented to him by the Church.
In July, 1902, mention is made that ^'twenty-six
members are on roll in good standing."
December 25, 1903, the death of Mrs. Elizabeth
Otley occurred. She was for over thirty years a mem-
ber of the Society.
July 26, 1904, occurred the death of Mrs. G^rge
W. Wright. Her whole life had been devoted to the
interest of the Sunday School, Church and the Ladies'
On June 5, 1905, the death of Mrs. Mary B. Taylor
occurred. She was president of the Society and
one of the original members.
Mrs. Anne B. Clubb acted aa President until the
January yearly meeting 1906, when Mrs. Anna B.
Koenig was elected.
On Eebruary 21, 1906, occurred the death of Mrs.
Mary C. Metcalfe. She had been the secretary of
the Society since its organization. She was bom
December 16, 1819.
152 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
In May, 1906, Miss Martha W. Clubb was
December 5, 1906, the Society contributed
$25.00 toward the Bev. James Clark Memorial Fund
January, 1907, the Society donated clothing to the
Christ's Home for Children located at Cheltenham, Pa.
March 12, 1908, occurred the death of Mrs. Francena
Earned Horrocks. Her life was one of sincere and
earnest devotion to the interests of the Bible-Christian
Church and of this Society.
The Society in several instances gave financial assist-
ance to its own and the Church members.
At Easter times it was customary for the Society
to purchase flowers for decorating the church.
June 24, 1914, the death of Miss Mary Horrod[S
occurred. She was the treasurer for many years, one
of the charter members and her life was one of sincere
and earnest devotion to the interests of the Ohurcb,
July 8, 1914, Miss Eliza B. Horrocks was elected
treasurer to fill vacancy caused by the death of her sister
Miss Mary Horrocks.
December 26, 1915, the death of Mrs. Anna B.
Koenig occurred. She was president of the Sociely and
always devoted to its interests.
February 9, 1916, Mrs. E. F. Metcalfe was made
president 7the Sodely.
June 12, 1916, the last Whitmonday Yearly meet-
ing at the church on Park Avenue took place before
THE LADIES' AH) SOCIETY 15S
the sale of the church property waa completed. A din-
ner was served by the ladies and Mrs. James E. Myers
made "Pea Pies" in accordance with the old time cusr
tom for that day. These pies had formerly been
made by Mrs. Isabelle Cariss and later by Miss
On October 3, 1917, occnrred the death of Mrs, Amy
H. Cariss, a long and faithful member.
In February 1918, Miss Eliza B. Horrocks resigned
as Treasurer and Miss Naomi Clubb was elected in
Meetings of the Society have continued to be held
in a very pleasant, social way at the homes of its mem-
bers and refreshments served by the hostess. Usually
in July a picnic is the order as a winding up for the
year and then no meetings are held until October.
Offigebs of The Ladies' Aid Society
Mrs. Martha T. Bothwell, July 16, 1863— April 28, 1882
Mrs. Mary B. Taylor, June, 1882— June 6, 1906
Mrs. Anne B. Clubb, June 12, 1906— Jan. 10, 1906
Mrs. Anna B. Eoenig, Jan. 10, 1906— -Dec. 26, 1916
Mrs. Edwin P. Metcalfe, Jan. 1916
Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe, July 16, 1863— Feb. 21, 1906
Miss Martha W. Clubb, May 9, 1906
Mrs. Eliza Horrocks, July 16, 186a— Sept. 18, 1892
Miss Mary Horrocks, Oct. 1892 — June 24, 1914
Miss Eliza B. Horrocks, July 8, 1914— Feb. 7, 1918
Miss Naomi Clubb, Feb. 7, 1918
154 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
List of Mbmbbbs of Thb Ladibs' Aid Sooibty
Fboic 1863 TO 1921
Bothwell^ Mrs. Martha
1863— April 28, 1882, (death)
Horrocks^ Mrs. Eliza
1863— Sept. 18, 1892, (death)
Horrocks^ Mrs. Elizabeth
1863— Mch. 12, 1905, (death)
Cariss^ Mrs. Isabelle M.
1863— Sept. 18, 1901, (death)
Wright^ Mrs. Margaret
Brooks, Mrs. Elizabeth
1863— Oct. 18, 1887, (death)
Schoch, Mrs. Eliza
1863— July, 1872, (death)
Taylor, Mrs. Henry M.
1863— June 6, 1905, (death)
Eoenig, Mrs. Mattie F.
1863 July, 1872, (death)
MetcaUe, Mrs. Elizabeth
1863— Mch. 30, 1895, (death)
Wright, Mrs. Susanna
1863— Feb. 2, 1914, (death)
Horrocks, Miss Mary
1863— June 24, 1914, (death)
Horrocks, Miss Mary Ann
1863— Dec. 11, 1886, (death)
Wright, Mrs. Bobert
Tronghton, Miss Sallie
Hey, Mrs. Emanuel
Oalt, Miss Agnes
Oalt, Miss Kate
MetcAlfe, Mrs. Mary G.
1863— Feb. 21, 1906, (death)
Shoemaker, Mrs. M.
Jones, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm.
Taylor, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm.
Cariss, Mrs. Henry T.
1866--Oct. 9, 1917, (death)
3' AID SOT, 1 KIT
Wright, Mrs. J,
Brooks, Miss Hannah
Hey, Miss Hannah
Bamed, Miss Annie
1867— Dec. 26, 1916,
Mrs. Francena Bamed
1869— Mch. 12, 1908,
Prince, Miss Lizzie
Wright, Mrs. George W.
1871— July 86, 1904,
Brooks, Mrs. Wm. G.
Prince, Miss Maggie
Gariss, Mrs. Emma
1871— April 15, 1921,
Lord, Mrs. Harriet
Mrs. Isabelle Horrocks
1872— June 26, 1916,
Briggs, Mrs. Susie
Cooper, Miss Maggie
Mrs. Lizzie Brooks
Horrocks, Miss Eliza B.
Glubb, Mrs. Anne B.
1877— May 21, 1916,
Glubb, Miss Annie
1877— April 16, 1880,
Horrocks, Mrs. James J.
Peters, Mrs. Jennie CiuiliSel878
156 bible<;hristian church
Qoold, Mi88 Eliza
1878— Sept. 10, 1904, (death)
Myers^ Mrs. Ida
Himmelwriglit, Mrs. W.
Bothwell, Mrs. Jane
Buckley, Mrs. (Dr.) Wm. C.1890
Metcalfe, Mrs. Edwin F.
Otley, Mrs. Elizabeth
1890— Dec. 26, 1903, (death)
Otley, Miss Dora
Both, Miss Annie
Brown, Miss Amelia
1893— Nov. 2, 1900, (death)
Horrocks, Mrs. J. Howard
Horrocks, Mrs. Charles
HorrocJcR, Miss Harriet
Rowland, Mrs. Lynford
Sidebotham, Mrs. John B.
Gnilbert, Mrs. N. B.
Wright, Miss Bertha C.
Clubb, Miss Martha W.
Oentner, Mrs. Frederick
Fenton, Mrs. Harry
Clnbb, Miss Bessie R.
Lord, Mrs. Edmund B.
Mann, Mrs. Wm.
Myers, Mrs. James E.
Lauer, Mrs. Esther
Clubb, Miss Naomi
DeFeiber, Miss Lena
THE LADIES' AID SOCIETY
Hill, Mrs. Harry 1916
Scheibner, Mrs. Lawrence 1916
King, Mrs. Esther H.
Twesten, Mrs. Emily 1920
MacWade, Mrs. Othelia 1921
List op Active Membees on the Boll July, 1922
Metcalfe, Mrs. Edwin F.
Myers, Mrs. Tyson
Gnilbert, Mrs. Nicholas B.
MacHngh, Mrs. Wm.
Centner, Mrs. Frederick
Fenton, Mrs. Harry
Mann, Mrs. Wm.
Scheibner, Mrs. Lawrence
Lord, Mrs. Edmnnd B.
Lord, Miss E.
Lauer, Mrs. Esther
Myers, Mrs. James E.
King, Mrs. Esther H.
Twesten, Mrs. Emily
MacWade, Mrs. Othelia
DeFeiber, Miss Lena
Clubb, Miss Naomi
Glubb, Miss Bessie B.
Clubb, Miss Martha W.
THE AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY
The American Vegetarian Society was organized
May 15, ISSO, by personB who believed in and practised
a v^tarian method of life, induced by hygLenie,
religions, humanitarian or other motives. Many memr
bers of the Bible-Christian Church connected them-
selves with the Society. Accounts of meetings, banquets
etc. held by this organization, taken from their literary
organ. The American Vegetaaian and Health Journal,
are submitted herewith.
Pbocebdinos of The Amebicak Vsqbtabiak
Agreeably to public notice, a Convention of Vege-
tarians and others friendly to the cause of Dietetic
Beform, was held at Clinton Hall, New York, May 15,
1850. Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather,
there was a fair concourse assembled on the occasion.
Soon after 10 o'clock a.m.. Dr. William A. Alcott, of
West Newton, Mass., called the meeting to order by
nominating Dr. Joel Shew, of New York, as President
pro-tem., and Mr. Joseph Wright, A.M., of Camden, N. J.,
On taking the chair. Doctor Shew called on the Bev.
William Metcalfe, of Philadelphia, who read letters from
a number of persons who could not be present.
AMERICAN VEGETAEIAN SOCIETY 159
The objects of the Convention were stated by Eey.
Some discnssion followed and Mr. Jonathan Wright^ of
Philadelphia^ gave his experience.
The Gonyention re-assembled at 3 o'clock p.m.
On motion, the Preamble and Constitution were con-
sidered, consecutively, and after some remarks by P.
P. Stewart, of Troy, objecting to the term 'Vegetarian,*'
which were replied to by Doctor Alcott and Doctor l^ichols,
both were finally adopted as follows :
Pbisahblb. — ^Ob ject : The object of this Association is
to induce habits of abstinence from the flesh of animals
as food, by the dissemination of information upon the
subject, by means of verbal discussions, tracts, essays,
lectures, exhibiting the many advantages of a physical,
intellectual, and moral character, resulting from vege-
tarian habits of diet, and thus to secure through the
association, example, and efforts of its members/ the adop-
tion of a principle which will tend essentially to true
civilization, to imiversal brotherhood, and to the increase
of human happiness generally.
CoNSTiTUTiOK : This Society is constituted of a Presi-
dent; nine Vice-presidents; a Treasurer; a Corresponding
Secretary; a Secording Secretary; and an unlimited num-
ber of members in America, and Honorary members
abroad, who have signed the Declaration of the Society.
Dbolabation : ^'I hereby declare that I have abstained
from the Flesh of Animals as Food for one month and
upwards; and that I desire to become a member of the
Vegetarian Society; and to co-operate with that Body in
promulgating the knowledge of the advantages of a Vege-
160 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Mode and Tebms of Admission: Persons; male or
female^ desiring to become members^ having abstained
one month or upwards upon sending the above Declaration,
duly signed, to the Corresponding Secretary, together
with twenty-five cents, (free of postage) will be enrolled
as members. The Annual Subscription of active members
shall be one dollar; and the payment of twenty dollars
at once shall constitute a Life Member of the Society.
Ofhokbs of Thb Ambbioan Yeqetabian Sogibtt
Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, West Newton,
Sev. Wm. Metcalfe, Kensington,
Philadelphia, Pa., 1869-1862
Dr. B. D. Mussey, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1860-61-62-63-64-56
Sylvester Graham, Northampton,
P. P. Stewart, Troy, N. Y., 1860
H. H. Hite, Middletown, Frederic
Co., Va., 1860-61-52
Dr. David H. Prince, St. Louis, Mo., 1850
Joseph Wright, A.M., Camden, N. J., 1850
Dr. Joel Shew, New York, 1850
William C. Chapin, Tiverton, E. I., 1850
Joseph Metcalfe, Frankford,
Philadelphia, Pa., 1850-51
0. S. Fowler, Esq., 131 Nassau St.,
New York, 1851
Dr. John Grimes, Boonton, N. J., 1861-62-63-64-66
Dr. T. L. Nichols, 91 Clinton Place,
New York, 1851-52
AMERICAN VEGETABIAN SOCIETY 161
Dr, T. E. Brown, Galveston, Texas, 1851
Dr. Charles H. Cleveland,
Waterbnry, Vt., 1851
J. H. Hanaford, Esq., Newton
Upper Palls, Mass., 1851-52-53-54-55
James Brooks, Esq., Frankford,
Philadelphia, Pa., 1852
Dr. E. T. TraU, New York, 1852-53-64-55
Edward Lyons, Philadelphia, Pa., 1852
Eev, Danl. Lott, Lottville, Pa., 1853-54-55
C. H. DeWolfE, Esq., Oldtown, Maine, 1853-54-55
A. W. Scales, M.D.,
Harrodsbnrg, Ky., 1853-54-55
Jonathan Wright, Philadelphia, Pa., 1853
M. P. Baldwin, Esq., New York, 1853
Lewis S. Hongh, Orlando, Pla., 1854-55
C. H. LeBaron, Esq., New York, 1854-55
Dr. E. T. TraU, 16 Laight St.,
New York, 1850
Joseph Wright, A.M., Camden, N. J., 1851-52
Eev. Wm. Metcalfe, M.D.,
Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa., 1860-61-52-53-64-55
Samuel E. Wells, New York, 1850
James Horrocks, Esq., Frankford,
Philadelphia, Pa., 1861-62-53-54-56
FOBEIQK COBBESPONDING SECBBTABIES
Henry S. Clnhh, Manchester,
E. T. Cluhb, Liverpool, England, 1854-66
162 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The oonvention met again at 7.30 o^olook in iihe
evening, and Doctor Alcott, as President of the Vege-
tarian Society took the chair. The Constitution was
read to the meeting, and an opportunity afforded for
any who wished to sign it.
Addresses were delivered by Doctor Alcott and Dr.
The Fibst Autitivibbsabt
Amebioan Vegbtabian Society
The first Anniversary of the American Vegetarian
Society was held in the Lecture room of the Chinese
Museum^ Philadelphia, on Wednesday, September 4,
1850, according to a resolution of the Society at its
meeting held in New York on the 16th of May last
Dr. WnL A Alcott of Massachusetts, presided, and in
the absence of the Secretary, Dr. B. T. Trail of ITew*
York, Joseph Wright A. M., of Camden, N. J., was
appointed Secretary pro-tem.
Morning, afternoon and evening sessions were held.
Letters from members not present were read and an
address from the English V^tarian Society, Manchesr
ter, also read.
Addresses of an interesting character were delivered
by several speakers, members of the Society — ^Doctor
Alcott, Lewis S. Hough, A. M., among others*
On Thursday, the following day at 2 o'dodi^ Dr.
Wm. A. Alcott announced the organization of the
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 168
Sooietj for the transaction of business. The Com-
mittee on a Vegetarian Periodical reported favorably
to the cause of Vegetarianism and Physiology generally.
The rejport vras accepted and on motion the Bev. Wm.
Metcalfe and Joseph Wri^t, A. M., were appointed
to the Committee on Publication, with power to estab-
lishi such an organ if encouragement be sufficient to
warrant the undertaking.
Notice was now given that the feast was in read-
iness, and the Society accordingjly adjourned to the
room prepared for the occasion. The banquet room
was very tastefully decorated with heavy festoons of
evergreens, flowers and fruits. At the back of the table
appropriated to the officers of the Society was the
following motto, printed in large letters:
Gk)d Said ^^ Behold I have given you every herb,
bearing seed^ and every tree in the which is the fruit
of a tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat." —
Obn. 1: 29.
The tables were tastefully arranged and well supplied
with that which was " pleasant to the sight and good
for food." There were, we understand upwards of
thirty cooked varieties of food, not including preserves
and other side-dishes. The first course consisted of
savory dishes of various kinds; potatoes, bread, etc.,
the second course comprised fruit pies, custards, pud-
dings, moulded farina etc. The dessert was then placed
on the table, consisting of peaches, apples, melons,
plums, nuts, cakes etc. A richer and more luxurious
164 BIBLE-€HRISTIAN CHURCH
dinner could scarcely be prepared, the whole showing
oondusively that the vegetable kingdom affords ^^ Plenty
to eat, without any meat/'
During the session sentiments and remarks were
given by Doctor Alcott, J. Wright, A, M., Ker. Wm.
Metcalfe, Doctor Grimes, Mr. Harrison, Wm, B.
Elliott and Cyrus M. Burleigh.
Thb Sbookd ANiniAL MsxTiNa
Ambeioaw Vegbtaeian Society.
The second Annual Meeting of the American
Vegetarian Society was held on the 10th of September,
1851, in the Lecture room of the Chinese Museum,
Philadelphia, and three sessions were held.
The reading of letters from absent members came
after the election of officers.
The evening session was devoted to addresses by
Dr. W. A. Alcott, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, Cyrus M. Bur-
leigh, Esq., Lewis S. Hough, A. M., Thomas Hembleton
of Chester Co. Pa., and Mr. Hiram Ward.
The Vegetarian Society re-assembled the next day in
the Bible-Christian churchy in the aftemooUi After
a business meeting a festival was held at 3 o'clock.
The following persons constituted a Committee for
the purpose of preparing the festival
Mrs. M. Wright Mrs. Isabella Cariss
Mrs. H. Brooks Mrs. E. Horrocks
Mrs. M. Taylor Mrs^ M. Peterman
AMiatlCAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 165
Miss M. A. Horrocks Miss E. A. Wright
Miss Mary Gariss Miss Eliza Brooks
Miss Mary Bamed Miss M. Wright
Bill of Fabb
Omelet Pie Potato Pie
Savory Pie Egg Plant
Tomatoes Omelet Fritters
Blange Bice and Custards
Vegetarian Mince Pie
Peaches, Apples, Grapes, Water Melons, Cantaloupes, etc.
Pure Ice Water
About one hundred and fifty members and friends
were present at the festival.
The proceedings were oonmienced by the Bev.
William Metcalfe asking a blessing at the Throne of
Grace as follows :
" We solicit Thy blessing, Oh Heavenly Father
upon the provision that has been prepared for us on
this interesting occasion. May we partake thereof with
such attention to Thy laws, as to promote our health,
strength and usefulness to our fellow-beings, and
whether we eat or drink, or whatsoever we do, may we
glorify thy holy name. Amen*"
166 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Remarks followed the festival by Dr. Wm. A.
Alcott, Dr. T. L. Nichols, Rev. Wm. Metcalfe and
The third Annual Meeting convened on the 15th
of September, 1852, in Clinton Hall, New York.
At the evening session remarks were made by Doctor
Aloott, Dr. S. L. Nichols, Mr. WiUiam Tebb from
England, Prof. Mussey and Dr. C. H. De Wolfe.
The Rev. Wm. Metcalfe though in the city was
prevented from attending by a severe but temporary
FOUBTH AkNUAL MEBTINa
Amebioak Vbgbtabian Sooibty
On Wednesday morning, August 24, 1853^ the
American Vegetarian Society convened in Aunual
Assembly at the Lecture room of the Chinese Museum ;
Dr. WuL A. Aloott, President of the Society, com-
menced the meeting by stating that he rejoiced exceed-
ingly to see so many assembled at this early hour, for it
showed the interest and zeal the mmnbers of the Society
and its friends took in the good cause.
Letters from absent members were read by Rev.
The afternoon session was devoted to the election
At the evening session addresses were given by Dr.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 167
W. A. Alcott Mr. Henry 8. Clubb and Dr. C. K
An adjourned meeting was held in the Bible-
Christian church North Third Street, the next day,
Thursday afternoon, after which a festival was held.
The Managers of the festival were as follows:
James Brooks Mrs. Harriet Brooks
James Horrocks Mrs. Margaret Wright
James Wright Mrs. Isabelle Cariss
Emanuel Hey Mrs. Martha Taylor
William Horrocks Mrs. H. H. Gibson
William Higgs, Jr. Mrs. Eliza Wright
George Gibson Mrs. Mary Lyons
Joseph Metcalfe Miss Jane Laughlin
Bill of Fabb
First Course :
Vegetable Soup, Savory Omelet, Fried Egg Plant,
Baked Potatoes, Mashed Potatoes, Baked Sweet Potatoes,
Lima Beans, Green Com, Tomatoes, Parsley Sauce,
Pickled Lemons Pickled Martins Pickled Beets
Graham Bread White Bread Ice Water
Second Course :
Mince Pie, Cheese Custard, Peach Pie, Cocoanut Custard,
Moulded Prepared Com
Moulded Farina Moulded Sice Cream
Fruits^ Water Melons, Cantaloupes, Peaches, Apples.
The festival was served in the Leeture room of the
Altogether there were at least one hundred and
seventy persons present who participated in the festival.
Bemarks were made by Doctor Mussey and Mr.
Henry S. Clubb.
168 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
The Great Vegetariaii Banquet prepared by the
members of the New York Vegetarian Society in honor
of the Whole World's Temperance Convention took
place Saturday evening, September 3, 1853, at the
The tables were tastefully decorated. Upwards of
three hundred and fifty persons were present. There
were also about five hundred spectators in the gallery.
On the platform was a table for the orators and the
invited guests^ among whom were Bev. P. H. Shaw
of Williamsburg and lady, Bev. John Pierpont, Mrs.
Lucy Stone, Dr. Harriet K. Hunt, Mrs. If ichols, Mrs.
Lydia N. Fowler, Mrs. Amelia Bloomer, Mrs. Susan
B. Anthony, Dr. E. T. Trail and the Amphions. Mr.
Horace Greely and Mrs. Francis D« Ga^ were appointed
as presiding Officers.
The proceedings were commenced by the Amphions,
who sung the subjoined Song of Grace in a most
artistic manner :
Lo, the World is rich in blessings.
Thankful all, His praise repeat.
" Every herb and each, tree yielding.
Seed and fruit, shall be our meat.^'
If ature's banquet, pure and peaceful,
Is a ^^ feast of reason'' too;
Every healthful sense delighting,
Ever changing^ ever new.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 169
Bill of Fabb
Tomato Soup Bice Soup
Oraham Bread Mixed Fruit Cake Fruit Bread
Apple Biscuit Wheat-meal Cakes Moulded Bice
Com Blanc Mange Moulded Farina
Moulded Wheaten Grits
Baked Sweet Potatoes Stewed Cream Sqaush
Mixed Fruit Pie Pumpkin Pie
Melons, Apples, Peaches, Pears, Grapes, Pineapples
Plum Jelly Baked Apples
Coooanut Custard Fruited Ice Cream
Pure Cold Water
Rev. Mr. Ebaugh returned thanks. The Amphions
then came forward and sang a Temperance Ode.
Mr. Greely addressed the assembly^ also Dr. Jas.
C. Jackson of Glenhaven Water Care Establishment;
Mrs. Vaughan, Dr. Harriet K. Hunt, Miss Emily
Clarke, Mrs. 2Tichols and Mrs. Gage also spoke.
Thb Fifth Annval Mebtiito
AmEBIOAN VsaBTABIAN SOOIBTT
The fifth Annual Meeting of the American Vege-
tarian Society convened on Wednesday, August 30,
170 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
1854, in the Bible-Christian chnrdi, ITorth Third
Street^ Philadelphia^ at 10.30 o'clock a.m.
The President, Dr. Wnu A. Aloott being absent,
the chair was taken by Dr. IL D. Mussey, Cincin-
The Rev. WnL Metcalfe, Corresponding Secretary,
read letters from Dr. Wm. A. Alcott, Aubumdale,
Mass., the Vegetarian Club of Salmon Falls, K. H.,
Seth Hunt Esq., Northampton, Mass.
A festival vrsB held in the Lecture room of the
Bill of Fabb
First Course :
Potato Pie Green Com Savory Omelet
Baked Sweet Potatoes
Oraham Bread White Bread
Fried Egg Plant
Lima Beans Tomatoes Parsley Sauce
Pickled Beets Pickled Martenoes
Second Course :
Y^etarian Mince Pie Gocoanut Custard
Peach Pie Apple Custard Moulded Bice
Washington Cream Sauce Sweet Cakes
Peaches Water Melons Cantaloupes
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 171
SuBpended from the platform -was a baimer on whioii
the following text was inscribed :
Gtod said: ''Behold I have given you every herb
bearing seed, and every tree in the which is the fruit of
a tree, to you it shall be for meat." Gten. 1.29.
Around the table sat upwards of one hundred and
Mr. Joseph Metcalfe read an address from the
President of the Society, Doctor Alcott, and other ad-
dresses were delivered by the following:
Prof* W. J. Whitaker, Mr. H. S. Olubb, Rev. Wm.
Metcalfe, Joseph Wright, A.M., Doctor De Wolfe and
The Fsstivals at Boonton
Any one who has read of Oberlin and his secluded
labors, between the hills on the borders of France, in
civilizing a people who were otherwise far away from
the influence of instruction, may form some idea of the
labors of our valued friend. Doctor Grimes, in the little
romantic town between the hills of New Jersey, to
which he is certainly a Boon, and which is so far appro-
priately named Boonton. Doctor Grimes, in order to
teach his neighbors those principles of Domestic Econ-
omy, which include mercy and humanity, and which
render the use of animal flesh, or animal substances of
any kind unnecessary, prepared a Christmas festival, to
which his neigjhbors were invited to the number of about
fifty. He gave them ample refreshments of a gratify-
172 BIBLE-dHRISTIAN CHURCH
ing character, free of all cost to themselves, and what
appears almost miraculous, at a cost for provisions of
only five and one-half cents each. A Christmas dinner
for five and one-half cents !
Friday, December SO, 1853, vtbb the day appointed
for the festival of the present season and having erected
a Temperance Hall, among his other beneficent labors
for the advantage of the town, the festival was held
there, and at one o'clock in the day, the hall was filled
vdih hearty gaests, principally of the industrial class
employed at the iron works in the village, so that they
were not likely to be contented with merely glancing at
the feast, and tasting, but came prepared to enjoy a good
dinner in the most practical way.
The Hall was appropriately and tastefully decorated
with evergreens, and such flowers as the season afforded.
The principal motto was the 29th verse of the 1st
chapter of Genesis.
The Excelsior Brass Band consisting of about a
dozen instruments and excellent performers, enlivened
the company by their melody.
The Eev. Mr. Shaw of Williamsburgh, L. I.,
The following bill of fare, will show the character of
the feast, the principal novelty of which consists in the
fact that not a particle of animal substances of any
kind (even excluding milk, butter etc.) was employed on
the occasion, nor did these substances enter into the
composition of any of the dishes prepared*
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 17S
Bill of Fabb
Indian Com Bread Brown Wheaten Bread
White Wheaten Bread Boiled Split Peas
Boiled Cabbage Boiled and Baked Beans
White Turnips Mashed Potatoes
Stewed Peaches Stewed Apples
Stewed Cranberries Stewed Quinces
Bice Boiled with Fruit
Cold Sour Pickles Celery
Second Course :
Mince Pie Plum Pudding Apple Pie
Cranberry Tarts Lemon Tarts
Apples Fruit Ices Nuts
Mottoes containing sweetmeats of nuts covered with
candy, fruit, parched com, etc.
The mottoes in the sweetmeat packets were particularly
appropriate, such as :
"Take not away the life you cannot give;
For all things have an equal right to live/'
Addresses were delivered during the afternoon by
Mr. Cogswell, professor of mathematics etc. at the
New York Hygienic Institute, whose reasoning on
physiological principles was as indisputable as mathe-
matical problems; Mr. La Baron, Corresponding Seo-
retary of the New York Vegetarian Society, whose
remarks, though brief, were of the practical character;
174 BIBLE-€HBISTIAN CHUBCH
Mr. Hunt of N^ew York who displayed in his own good
humor, a powerful argument in favor of the principles
he earnestly advocated ; Doctor Dorrence, who spoke on
the general principles of progress; and Doctor Grimes,
whose calm benimity and genuine kindness of heart,
won greatly upon his guests
The afternoon was thus agreeably spent in the dis-
cussion of various sentiments and the band oonduded
the entertainment by performing Hail Columhia,
Yankee Doodle, eta
In the evening, a seoond feast was provided, to
which new guests were invited. Almost, as if by ma^c,
the tables were again loaded with abundance and variety,
similar to what was displayed at noon, with the follow-
ing additions to the dessert :
Tomato Preserve Quince Preserve
Grape Syrup Lemonade
Variety of Cakes, etc.
During the seoond feast, Mrs. Mary C. Vau^ian,
the well-known Apostle of Temperance in New York
State, and Mr. Henry S. Clubb, who had been
delegated by the friends at Philadelphia to attend the
festival, arrived, and were cordially welcomed by the
Jhe evening was agreeably spent in short speeches,
from Mr. Cogswell, who offered a number of senti-
ments, and acted as President of the meeting; Mrs.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 175
Mary C. Vangliaii who spoke in the highest terms of the
blessings of true temperance; Doctor Dorrence^ who
asked for facts in relation to Vegetarianism^ and spoke
of it aa a new system ; Mr. Henry S. Clubb, who showed
in reply to Poctor Dorrence that Vegetarianism was
the original order of creation^ and so far from its being
an innoyation, flesh eating was an innovation upon it^
which had its origin in the fallen condition of man and
his desire for the gratification of his grosser nature.
The Eev. Mr. Shaw made some excellent remarks,
showing that vegetarian practice prepared the way for
reoeption of religious truth.
A cordial vote of thanks unto Dinah^ the cook,
The evening was enlivened by appropriate song, and
the performances of the band, which concluded the
entertainment, with the usual national airs.
The next morning, the stage, which was engaged to
take some of the guests to the train, was already filled
with passengers, and only an hour was left for making
the five miles, over a slippery, hilly road of snow and
ice. Doctor Grimes with his usual kindness, drove his
chaise for two of the New York ladies ; Rev. Mr. Shaw,
Mr. Hunt and Mr. H. S. Clubb, travelled on foot, and
were at the railroad depot as soon as the horse and chaise,
determined to see if vegetarianism was not equal to an
emergency of that kind.
The publication of The American Vegetarian
and Health Journal, under the auspices of the
176 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Society was discontinued October, 1854, for want of
support. The Water Cure Journal published by Fowler
and Wells was then designated as the organ of
Rev. Wm. Metcalfe was president of the American
Vegetarian Society after the death of Dr. William A.
Aloott in 1859, and until his own death which occurred
October 16, 1862, during the Civil War, and no suc-
cessor was elected and the Society had no organic
existence, but after a period of twenty-six years a
Vegetarian Society entitled "The Vegetarian Society
of America" was started at Philadelphia.
The Vbgbtabian Sooibty
A convention was called at Alnwick Park, eleven
miles from the centre of Philadelphia, where a picnic
of Vegetarians took place, on the 24th of June, 1886,
the initiatory steps were taken for the formation of a
Vegetarian Society and a Committee appointed to re-
port a form of organiation at an adjourned meeting of
the Convention. In the course of the following winter
the organization was perfected, and a Constitution
drawn up and the following officers elected :
Eev. Henry S. Clubb, 2916 Fairhill St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Eighteen in all from different states
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 177
Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia
Robert J. Osborne, Philadelphia
(For term of 3 years)
Miss M. L. Morrison, Philadelphia
Henry M. Taylor, Philadelphia
Wilmer Atkinson, Philadelphia
(For term of 2 years)
Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia
Charles M. Stiles, Camden, N. J.
(For term of 1 year)
Mrs. Mary C. Metcalfe, Philadelphia
Harrison C. Sellers
Charles F. Koenig
The first Anniversary of the Society was held in a
pavilion at Alnwick Park on June 17, 1887, and a picnio
in which over one hundred and twenty-five persons,
mostly vegetarians, participated. A table was provided
for invited guests.
Bill of Fabb
Beet Sandwiches Green Pea Pie
Omelet Sandwiches Bice Fritters
Lettuce and Beet Salads
Cherry Pie Tea Biscuit
Com Starch Blanc Mange
Date Gems Strawberries
Sponge Cake Jelly Cake Lemonade
178 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHCECH
Bemarkfl were made by the following: Doctor
Halbrook, New York City, Hr. A. E. Hacbean, Lake-
wood, N. J., Doctor Exton, Clinton, N. J., Rev.
Wm. Penn Alcott, Bozford, Mass., Susanna W. Dodds,
M. D., St. Louis, Ho.
An address was read from Elder F. W. Evans, of
Lebanon, K. Y., who was not present
Bev. Henry S. Clubb, Philadelphia
Henry L. Pry, Cincinnati, Ohio
M. Augusta Fairchild, M. D., Hanibal, Mo.
P. W. Hurd, M.D., Experiment Mills, Pa.
Lewis S. Hough, A.M,, Media, Pa.
Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia
Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia
Mrs. M. C. Metcalfe, Philadelphia
Harrison G. Sellers, Philadelphia
Charles F. Eoenig, Philadelphia
To Fill Vacancy
Wright Smith, Philadelphia
In January, 1889, the first number of Food, Home
and Garden was started and edited by the President of
the Vegetarian Society of America, Henry S. Clubb.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 179
It was issued monthly, and continued until Januaxj,
1900, when the last number was published and it
was then consolidated with The Vegetarian Magazine
On a careful and impartial consideration of the subject,
it has been decided to consolidate Food, Homb akd
Oabden and The Vegetarian Magazine, in order to make
one good magazine, worthy of the great cause it is intended
to promote. The Vegetarian Magazine will continue to be
printed and published by the Vegetarian Company at
Chicago, and will also be published by the Vegetarian
Society of America, Philadelphia, of which it will be the
official organ. Those whose subscriptions to Food, Home
AND Gabdbk have not expired, will receive the Magazine
till the expiration of their term, and those who are already
subscribers to both periodicals can have their term ex-
tended so as to receive their full money's worth, if they
so desire. Those who are indebted will please remit as
early as possible to either office. Editorially, the consoli-
dated magazine will be imder the managament of Mr.
Shurtz, in Chicago, and of Bev. Henry S. Clubb, in Phila-
delphia, each taking a well-defined part in editorial and
contributive work. The reasons for this consolidation will,
we trust, become obvious, as the improvements to be thus
introduced shall become developed. We bespeak the kindly
and earnest co-operation of all Vegetarians and their
friends, with a view to make this magazine a great success,
both as a literary yenture and financially.
Heney S. Clubb,
Pres., Vegetarian Society of America.
Albert H. Sntdeb,
Manager, Vegetarian Company.
180 BIBU&-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Food, Home and Oarden afforded information as
to the best food to promote the physical^ moral and
spiritual welfare without destroying the lives of other
sensitive creatures. It contained accounts of the ex-
perience of those who had adopted the vegetarian
practice as well as the scientific facts on whicH the
system is based. The most delicate lunches, the most
enjoyable dinners and suppers could be prepared by
directions given in the magazine. It contained the
most recent discoveries of methods of producing fruit8>
vegetables and flowers.
On Tuesday evening, Feb. 19, 1889, an entertain-
ment under the auspices of the Vegetarian Society took
place at the residence of the Secretary, Dr. J. Harvey
Lovell, 936 Franklin Street, Philadelphia. Bemarks
were made by the President, Henry S. Clubb, Mr.
Albert J. Edmunds and Dr. J. Harvey LovelL
Mr. Edgar Bradford, "Nelton the Juggler," per-
formed feats of dexterity and skill in balancing balls,
seven being kept in motion at one time, and he also
read an elaborate essay in which he defended vege-
tarianism as one of the oldest, and yet, to many, one of
the latest subjects.
The meeting then became social in its character and
those presort were introduced to Miss Adalaide Johnson
of Washington, Mr. Silliman of Baltimore, Mrs. La
Baron, Miss English of Washington, D. C.
On June 19, 1889, the Vegetarian Society had an
excursion to Cape May on the steamer Bepuhlic.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 181
Over forty persons attended; some from Washing-
ton, Baltimore, Delaware^ New Jersey, New York
September 18, 1890, a reception to John Boooock of
Leeds, England, at Doctor Lovelies, 936 Franklin
Street. Mr. Boocock spoke on the progress of the v^e-
tarian principleij in England; he stated that there were
about forty vegetarian restaurants and hotels in London,
and a fair proportion in Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds,
Bristol and other prominent cities in England. The
meeting was also addressed by Doctor J. H. Lovell, Rev.
E. W. Rice of the Sunday-school Union and others.
October 27, 1890, a reception was given by the
Society at Doctor LovelPs to Mrs. Le Favre, President
of the Chicago Vegetarian Society. Mrs. Le Favre made
an earnest and eloquent appeal for the adoption of a
vegetarian diet and she explained the Delsartean System
which taught that the body should be fitted to the soul,
and that this could not be accomplished while subsist-
ing on animal flesh. She was dressed in a beautiful
In 1895, the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society was
organized as a branch of the Vegetarian Society
Officsbs op The Philadelphia Vegbtabian Society
Bev. A. T. de Learsy, Philadelphia
182 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
Mr. John A. Lindeman, 1896-1896
Miss Emma I. Bettes, 1896-1901
Dr. J. Harvey Lovell
Eev. H. S. Clubb, Frankford, Philadelphia
Mr. George M. Wright
SBCBETABY AND TBEASUBEB
Miss Martha W. Glubb
The Whole Wobld's
June 8, 9, 1898.
In connection with the World's Fair held in Chicago
in 1893^ were Congresses of different organizations^ one
of which was that of the Vegetarian Societies held on
June 8th and 9tL
A delegation to the Congress from Vegetarian Socie-
ties in England consisted of the following: the Kev.
James Clark, nunister of the Salford Bible-Christian
Church and son Mr. Ernest E. Clark, Mr. W. E. Axon
and Mrs. Axon from Manchester Vegetarian Society,
Mr. T. A. Hanson from the London, Portsmouth, Wool-
wich and liTorthem Heights Vegetarian Societies^ Mr.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 183
BeaT^ from Norwioh Vegetarian Society, and Mr.
Charles Dixon from Cambridge, Miss May Yates from
London. Some of those who attended, living in this
country, were Rev. Wm. Penn Aloott and Mrs. Alcott
of Massachusetts, Mrs. Le Favre and Miss Dnsenberry
of Chicago, Mr. Frank of Buffalo and Bev. Henry S.
Clubb of Philadelphia.
There were three sessions held each day, and Mr.
C. C. Bonn^ opened the Congress by a formal welcome
to the V^etarians. Addresses were delivered and
papers read by the different members^
The Chicago Herald in an artide about the Congress
stated that ^^ Although one of the smallest of the World's^
Congresses in point of numbers, it is also one of the most
representative of all the meetings that have thus far
come within the congressional range, for apparently all
states and nations where Vegetarianism has a foothold
are represented by the leading apostles of that belief."
It was chiefly through the liberality of Mr. Arnold
F. Hills, President of the Vegetarian Federal Union,
London, England, that the Whole World's Congress was
made possible. Mr. Hilb was well known in connection
with the construction of the British Navy. A paper
on "Vital Food" written by Mr. Hills was read at
February 28, 1894, a Vegetarian Banquet was given
by the "V Club" of New York at the St Denis Hotel,
11th Street and Broadway. One hundred and fifty per-
184 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
sons of whom the majority were vegetarians, partook of
the very elaborate menu. Appropriate addresses were
delivered by Mr. Arthur Haviland, Dr. E. B. Foote, Jr.,
Mr. C. A. Montgomery, Rev. Henry S. Clubb and
others. Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Lyman Abbott were among
The Philadelphia V^taxian Society held picnics
and excursions annually for a number of years, at
Willow Grove Park, Northwood Park, Frankf ord, and
at Wildwood, N. J., at which friends of the cause from
New York, Washington and Baltimore were present.
On some of these occasions meetings were held and ad-
dresses delivered by the prominent speakers present.
March 23, 1903, a dinner at the Hygeia Res-
taurant, 1017 Walnut Street, in celebration of the eighth
anniversary of the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society
was given by the Society and an interesting meeting
May 11, 1903, a May festival was given by the Phil-
adelphia Vegetarian Society at the Physical Culture
Oaf6, 428 Market St. The dinner was provided by the
Cafe Co., complimentary to the Society, and its mem-
bers and friends to the number of one hundred and
thirty partook. Mrs. Sarah T. Rorer, principal of
the Philadelphia Cooking School was present and made
some practical suggestions in regard to cooking.
Speeches from other npted food r^forraers followed.
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 185
AWNIVBESABY OF BeKJAMIN FbANKMN's BiETHBAY
On January 17, 1906, a dinner was given at the
Physical Culture Cafe. Professor Conrad of the
University of Pennsylvania gave an interesting account
of the improvements that science has made in refers
ence to the nutritive value of grains, especially wheat.
The President, Rev. Henry S. Clubb, made some
remarks relative to the anniversary of Benjamin Frank-
lin's birth and told some anecdotes relative to his
In September, 1904, a delegation from England
from the Bible-Christian Church and the Vegetarian
Societies arrived, to attend the Vegetarian St. Louis
International Congress in connection with the Louis-
iana Purchase Exposition. These representatives spent
some time in Philadelphia and were entertained by
members of the Philadelphia Bible-Christian Church
and the Philadelphia Vegetarian Society and also in
New York by the vegetarian friends there. Eev. H. S.
Clubb and Mr. George M. Wright attended this Coit-
gress from the Vegetarian Society of Philadelphia. The
Vegetarians from England were as follows : Bev. James
Clark and daughter Bertha, Mr. Nathaniel Bradley,
Mr. A. E. Axon, Mr. William Harrison and Mr. Albert
On November 3> 1905, a reception was held at the
Battle Creek Sanitarium on Wallace Street, by the
Philadelphia Vegetarian Society for Dr. J. H. Kellogg
of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Michigan. It was a
186 BIBLES-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
very pleasant occasion, about twenty-five friends being
present. Mr. Clubb opened the meeting by giving an
account of his summer outing with the Shakers at Mt.
Lebanon, "N. Y., a community of mostly vegetarians
Doctor Kellogg made some interesting remarks. He
said that it had always been a problem to him why God
should have created carnivorous beasts and he had at
last come to the conclusion that they were not originally
created so^ but that it was only when it became a matter
of necessity, in the times when the vegetable products
were destroyed by ice coming from the north that the
animals resorted to flesh food. He made the interesting
discovery that the so-called carnivorous teeth of the dog
are used for masticating nuts and it is his belief that
originally the animals used these teeth for pulling apart
the large pine cones containing nuts instead of using
them for destroying animals for food. He has found
that the so-called carnivorous animals soon adapt them-
selves to a vegetarian diet and thrive on it. Doctor Eice
of the Sunday-school Union next made a few remarks,
followed by Doctor Burleigh. Refreshments consisting
of vegetable gelatine, Battle Creek sherbet, and cake
were served and were pronounced excellent by alL
A number of interesting monthly meetings were held
at the headquarters of the Philadelphia Vegetarian
Society, 1023 Foulkrod Street, Frankford and were well
attended by members and friends. Some of those in
attendance were Frank Normart and wife, Friends, Rev.
Doctor MacPherson and wife, of the Swedenborgian
AMEMCAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 18t
Church, Doctor Davit Chidester and wife, Theosophists,
and also members of the Bible-Christian Church.
Ernest H. Crosby of New York, the well known
author, a member of the Society, contributed the follow-
ing for publication in Food^ Home and Garden,
THE SHADOW ON THE FAEM
Over the quiet afternoon pasture where the cows are
browsing with their leader at their head, each knowing
the place to which her courage and character entitle her, —
Over the flock of sheep on the other side of the rough
stone wall where the grey fleeces cluster thick to keep out
the November north wind, —
Over the peaceful barnyard yonder where the calves
are waiting for the tardy pail and the chickens are scratch-
ing for their supper, —
Over it all (as I gather nuts imder the clump of hickory
trees in the comer of the cow-pasture where the sluggish
brook winds its way, and the sun's rays slant brightly
through the trunks).
Over it all I see the dull, inevitable shadow of the
All nature round me is beautiful and suggestive and
full of interest.
The narrow path of the woodchuck in the grass leading
to his back-door and looking almost as if it had been
made by a single wheel, —
The wisp of hay still clinging to the stray apple-tree
where the hay loads passed four months ago, —
The half torpid bees haunting the sunshine in the
garden and kissing the chrysanthemums a last good-bye, —
The great procession of cawing crows pursuing their
regular avenue in the sky to the southwest, with bands of
188 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
How full it all is of life and mystery and romance
and solace I
But it cannot conceal the butcher's knife looming above
the farm and every farm.
The black cow is lowing uneasily toward the barn-yard,
and her calf, taken from her after a few hours of wonderful
common life, answers in a high note.
The calves are sucking each other's ears for want of
their dams and one of them has already one ear sucked
to half the size of the other.
In the pig-stye, in enforced filth and idleness, the pigs
wUl pass a wintry night in two inches of freezing slime,
without a dry spot to lie on.
Visions of cattle trains, f oodless and waterless, in frigid
cold and torrid heat for weary days,-r-of cattle ships in
storms, the maimed and dying thrown together, — of herds
of steers benumbed and starving in the snows of the North-
west,— of huge abattoirs with hardened men and boys in
bloody aprons and noble animals crazed with fright, — of
little slaughter houses in the country with their heaps of
offal and vile stenches polluting the meadows, — ^visions
such as these hang over the farm.
Death is natural, I own, and without it this world
would be cursed with life, but when it comes at the edge
of the cold and sharpened steel, at the behest of man's
perverted appetite and cruel will, and strikes the young
and lusty and vigorous, — when death is made the chief end
of life, and life becomes the handmaid of death, and nature
is prostituted to the express manufacture of fattened
corpses, then is death hideous indeed, —
And. over all the autumn beauties of sight and scent
and feel, broods lowering the shadow of the needless
AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY 189
OiVicERs OF The Vegetabian Society of Ahbbiga
Bev. Henry S. Clubb, Philadelphia, 1886*
Robert J. Osborne, Philadelphia, 1886
Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia, 1887-1893
Naomi Clubb, Philadelphia, 1893
Dr. J. Harvey Lovell, Philadelphia, 1886-1893-1908
Mrs. Brotherton, Philadelphia, 1887
Harrison C. Sellers, Philadelphia, 1889
Edwin P. Metcalfe, Philadelphia, 1910
Eev. Henry S. Clubb, the minister of the Bible-
Christian Church was associated with the Peace Socie-
ties in Philadelphia, and was a vice-president of the
Universal Peace Union of which Alfred H. Love
The Universal Peace Union was started in 1866,
with Alfred H. Love as president, the headquarters
being in Philadelphia. Alfred H. Love retained the
position as president until his death June 29, 1913.
There is still a rock in Mystic, Conn., where a
little band of peace-lovers in the year 1866 gathered
and consecrated their lives to the striving for the aboli-
tion of wars, and instead thereof having Courts of Arbi-
tration for the settlement of international difficulties.
Alfred H. Love was one of these peace-lovers.
* Deceased 1921.
190 BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
In 1896, the Universal Peace Union erected and
dedicated a Peace Temple at Mystic^ Conn., where is a
grove of ten acres belonging to the Society and where
yearly a Peace Convention is held.
Rev. Henry S. Clubb was at one time an active mem-
ber of this society, being frequently called upon to speak
at the meetings. He edited the society^s monthly
periodical for three years, 1883 to 188S, and changed
the name The Voice of Peace to the Peacemaker and
Court of Arbitration^
Mr. Clubb was also connected with the "Christian
Arbitration and Peace Society" of which Gteorge Dana
Boardman, D.D., was the president and John B. Wood
the secretary. The Christian Arbitraior was the maga-
zine published by that society.
MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, ETC.
(The following books, papers, etc. have been placed
with the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and may be
referred to on request to librarian.)
^ Letters on Religiou88nbjects,pamphlet8,onecopy,1821.
* Constitution and By-laws of the Bible-Christian
Church, Male and Female Institution, established
1828, revised 1846, pamphlet, one copy, 1828.
' Constitution and By-laws of the Philadelphia Bible-
Christian Church, pamphlets, 2 copies, 1834.
^ Address on Abstinence from Flesh of Animals as
Food, two copies, 1840.
■Bible-Christian Physiological Society, first annual
report, pamphlet, one copy, 1840.
Bible-Christian Physiological Society, second
annual report, pamphlet, one copy, 1841.
* Lecture on the First Step in Physical and Moral Be-
form, delivered before Kensington Physiological
Society, two copies, 1842.
^ Annual Address and Minutes of the Annual As-
sembly of the Bible-Christian Church, pamphlets,
seven copies 1844 to 1860.
* An Explanation of the Lord's Prayer and Ten Com-
mandments, for Use of Sunday Schools and Fam-
ilies, pamphlet, one copy, 1846.
•Address at Thirty-first Anniversary of the Bible-
Christian Church, Philadelphia, by Rev. Wm.
Metcalfe, pamphlet, one copy, 1849.
^® What Is Vegetarianism? London, one copy, 1849.
19£ BIBLE-CHRISTIAN CHURCH
^^ Visit of Eev. Wm. Metcalfe to the Bible-Christian
Church of Salford, England, 1851.
^^ Leading Doctrines of the Philadelphia Bible-Chris-
tian Church, pamphlet, one copy, 1855.
^' Bules and Regulations for Church Oovernment, pam-
phlets, two copies, 1855.
** Vegetarian Almanac by H. S. Clubb, one copy, 1855.
" Semi-centenai7 Sermon on the Fiftieth Anniversary
of Ordination of the Rev. Wm. Metcalfe, one
*• Out of the Clouds, Memoir of the Rev. Wm. Met-
calfe and discourses, compiled by his son Rev.
Joseph Metcalfe, bound book, one copy, 1872.
*^ The Cloud Broken, by Wm. Metcalfe, pamphlet, one
^® Synopsis of the Doctrines and Principles of the Phil-
adelphia Bible-Christian Church, one copy, 1884.
*• The Hygienic Review, containing account of the
World's Vegetarian Congress, 1893.
'^ The Vegetarian Principle, by H. S. Clubb, one copy,
** Thirty-nine Reasons Why I am a Vegetarian, by
Rev. H. S. Clubb, one copy, 1903.
*' The Bible Against Flesh Eating, by Wul Harrison,
Manchester, England, one copy, 1907.
** History of the Bible-Christian Church, Salf ord, Eng-
land, one copy, 1909.
** History of the first one hundred years of The Phila-
delphia Bible-Christian Church, two copies, 1923.
THE BORROWER WILL BE CHARGED
AN OVERDUE FEE IF THIS BOOK IS
NOT RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON
OR BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED
BELOW. NON-RECEIPT OF OVERDUE
NOTICES DOES NOT EXEMPT THE
BORROWER FROM OVERDUE FEES.
Harvard College Widener Library
Cambridge, MA 021 38 (61 7) 495-241 3