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or TBI 







At», BD 





VOL. I. 




sTAsroic Run in> cbakdio oumb. 


Okly n few words BOcm neces^arj hy way of preTnce to Uie 
followiug trunslatioii. It vraa hetina lowiirda iho dose uf 
1840 ; but enrly [q th« present year Lho Translator having 
requested Dr. Neander to Civoor Uim with !Ui_y ccurectiou« 
or Kilditifios vliinli be tniglit h&vt mnde to the bbcoqi! edition 
(publtabod in ISSti), vaa tufuruied, iu rejily, tLat a tliird 
•dition was posiing through tlio pross: at tbe same time, nn 
«fier vraa mo^t kindly mnde of forwiirditig the prool'-sheeta, 
by wbi^ mcana tbo translation -will ayipcar 'mithin a few 
wwluaftor the original, in itä mcst npproved form. 

It may be pa-opor to atnte, tlmt tliere wer« oiicuiuBtanMs 
which renilorod it dcsimbb tbiit as Utile delay aa poEsible 
ibould occur in tho pntpiLmtiou of tho English work. Thi» 
dcmntid for expedition may baT9 perliapa oocosioiicil mon? 
ImidvcrteacleB than the modicuia of negntive r^putiktiun 
ftUottod to literary wotkuiauabip of this kind caa well aflbrd. 
Tko TnuuJut.or titinU, however, tWt lie bns, on the who)«, 
aicceeded in giving a tolerably coiTuct representaticm of the 
origpml, though, 1^ timo bean allowed tor a more Ciu^fiil 
evL^on, «Tcral toioor blemisheB might have bctiQ lumovud, 
the meaning of Bome paaaagea have been more disUnciIy 

Authoi's great and long-ealabliBhed reputation as an 
ical Historian, woiild rL'mk'r it unnerasMry, eveii if 
■omovhAt tmaeenily, lo ti&lier iu tliis woi-k with a 
nod doscont oa iU merits- The impartial and eaiiitsl 
niairer sflcr truth will not fail to he delighted uitb the 
marks it «v«ty vhera pratentit of unwearied rosearch, extended 
itn, and profound piety. Ko one would regret moru thau 
i6 no^leut nnthor, if tho froodom of bis inquirieg sbouhl 
:Te pahi to any of bis ChristiOin brethrea ; still his motto 
uit be, " Amicits iSocraK», viagU avitca Verilas" Ho ig 
At mae with the advocates of certain vie«^ vhich 





have lately boen giüiiing u diBuiiCroufi prevalence in this' 
Cüunlry. The deoided terms in which ho asstirtu thu noble 
equality «iid brothorhood of Christina uicn, in oppobitiob to 
tho aati-christiau tunet of a {nit^thuod, iu tlm iwuai' uot of 
roligiuiiB iustniutjjrs, but of eicludvc Cüaveyem of super- 
natural iulliwiice.' will bi- little ivlishoil hy those who would 
Bttümpt tu ahui-u thu in coiumuoi cable pi-crogativc3 of th^| 
"one Mediator." But, as Dr. N. justlj' rtfuutrks in ©no cfl| 
Lis cni'lior commuDicatioua (for all of whicli thu Tnuulator ia 
glad t)f an opportunity to express hi» hflorlfült (ciittitiitJe,) 
•'the gospel itself reats on an immomble r«clt, wbiie human 
syetems of thccJugy nre everywhere iiiiderjioing u purifying 
proce^ 1 Cor. iii, 12, 13. We uvb in tug ijmk or a nsBxt 

This traoBlntioD has hoeu prepared at a distance &om tboM 
halpn which vciuld beun within my reach iit im corlia 
period, and noou iiFter it change of residence had se(»arated 
from UirL-u Irii/iidB espotially, with wliom mfist of tho id 
portnrit topios in thcsu volumes hud been submitted to fruqueo 
nnd «aniest disuiission. Without the fonualily of a dedioi/-" 
tion, my ac-nse of the value »if thcip fiiondahip prompM naß to 
make this aUusion, whioli is eouu^octud with soiue of my most 
pleesing recoUeotions. I wish also to expreaa my obligation:^ 
to Dr. Edwaiil Miclielwon. cif tho University of Leipzig, vli^H 
not only gave up his iiitenliou of piihliahiug a tmoslation. <S^M 
this ivurk, ou bciiig inlbrinul that I wiis engaged iu a sioiilar 
undiTtrtkiug, but moat readily tiivour«! me with his opinion 
on various passages during the prepiiratioaof the luauuBOript. 
I huve received, tuo, fruui a fl-ioud of Dn Nennder, with 
«hwe name I am not acquainted, the results of a veryoarcful 
exatiiiuntii>n of the first six pri-of-Hiieeta, wliicb 1 gratflflJl]^ 
acknowledge, and only regret that tho whole work cuuld no 
bo BUbmitted to his review previouH to pnblioation. 

Ill Dr n« writin hu thli tsicr li«en morv ably miitflHd Uinn h; ArrhtiihO 
WluWI/tiiil [)r AriiiiM; li) lliv fornii.-r, iti "Ttic )!:iR<renrilntnniil»iii Iru-cU (utlifl 
ItfifliD in iLlnimn UjJtun> ;" oaii hv Uie Ull'^r, in Ifio ifilr«»rui.-liuM in ■ T%)Jumi af dli 
eaantn, UUlj jmblialtad vn 'M'lifl CliriaEian l,ir.*,""*'fo mvjTn tMjnut'a cbufnb Ur 

n^ l^,„i:l,nf n-il, il-orlft/hin'ifff Hut!lnii(lini:' ifd to »lUI« Ul "lliltniirlim 
Bi*n>t>nn>. chn \iuty. le ihu ilincliiiive u! ihr\t ptupor dutlai in it. mil Iu Die cunicUru 
neunt Uivlr paniuionnt lni;u[C»r>i'ii." i>, ii. 

J. E.K. 

HatatnuiTn, Kelfnttrt. IHtl. 






1 iTiut jou will PBuoiro tliis work wUli nil itn dvfecU lu la* 
nlTerltiic of n »inunni liiart; ui > «mull lukmi iif my cordial i\niu- 
ntiaa ud lave, uid of tJiit aincen.' giutiiuilo wliioL I have long 
Dill iapii lied (<i uiimia, fir the edißcalion 1 bnvn di'rtvod from your 
diKOUlM» Mar ■ ^moiouH Oud \nag alluw vuu to lubuur iinil sliluti 
sraoti|[iu ^»i" tlie welfiiri! <•( liU ehnruU. with Ilut holj energy »hicli he 
liAA 1>vB(i>vvd »[livQ jE^iJ, Willi l-hit spiif r, i>r C tiriAlijLii winiluEiiuiid ftvudiriu, 
tb«i<pilltoltnl« freedom exalted above all IbusLriA.- of luimna parLLc«,— 
wliiOD the Sod of Oud ^luuv bcstüw«, mid ^vhii^ti ie (»tti.';:i!klljr roqawlU 
for Die tpiidiuit^e of ilir chim-b In mir i.imi\% ägiUiicd und di.itracuil m 
tlidr an- t>)' bu luany i:i>viIlii;M I ThU It Ihc »iiruieht «lull of oac vbo 
Killi nil hie hcnrf-calltliiuiiwiryodca. 

thuA I Hrota on Uio 'J:id of Mny, 1^3*2, and aft«r nU yofirs 1 sKün 
np«&t wilh All my hciirl> the woni* enjirw^iire of dcdkiiUon. of gnlU- 
tude, ud of ^dVdUl wlrti« to ihn Oivur of nl I porfuin jtifw S"i« that 

rrUon oF time (luit uniuport&nt id o'tr iigiiutod asc] hu puucd anij', 
^^ liana Cr> tliiiik you, doar and iaraoitlj revered Miui, fjjr ainsiy iui- 
^BjiorUuil VDrds of tiliGeation and iiiAl.rucl.iun, wliioli 1 hnvc reuciv«il freni 
^■^uur li|Ui III piiUic, af niill Dx fct tlio proL-iiiiie gift ' Hhiuli liaa ofton od- 
^TininUtcied rcfreihmcat to tayaolr ntid olbcrtL Yds. irith nil my iiciLTt 
B 1 agrc« wllh clmiii; hvauiifiil acuLinieiiiä wUicU (uTia llie aoii) ol' your 
tlÜKoura:«^ aod biud in» witli aiuIi fcirce to vüur person. God graut 
thai we muj over liuinbly hdiI faiihlull.v liotd rast (lie tnitli wtiicli doui 
NPl M«k fur rtMUiiciiiriliuu iiiuMnt i^ontrarit'üvs, but i» iteti! imevtl^ht 
(ho lifilil moaa I Qod cmnt twttut u fur aliave nil ttieulogieitl di»put*- 
M tioUi) tbttt lliu lii|:bi;iil iLiiu ufaur laliuun miiy lit: tu fruducu Lliu iiua|{e 
^Kof CbrtH in ttio »nii!» iif niitn,— tbiii. U] our iiilcat lireuth wo niqr luep 
^Mlils object In view witlioul wavering, ImI liound (o U iu imo Iot«, oacn 
^Pnn« iit hi* awn (pliert!. unmoved by (bu liciMittide« of opinion and ihe 
■.«tUUleoM of mny I 

F Let me ud u ■ »ubordin&ta frish, that 7011 «onld wmn bi^mr m 
with A valum« of dUcnuno«, to l«£ti^ uf tliis "one thing <kit iit 

^K UaiMi'. «HI* Mat, 1*i*- 

^B from llie (iiloeu of my heart 1 oncQ mor« rcpFit tto wielid iind 
Ihatiht tMiFon eipreBBuil. aad tiJuIki: that it In in tuy power to dcdlcnto 
(he Uilrd «diiinp of Lhis vork to you, oiy iuiiiostly dear nnd n'vored 
feeiid. A. NninDka. 

Brbui.M^hjmI. 1111. 

(I) AUwillnj) f lebablf lo • roluma of Hgrmo» alcndj puhllihed. — Tk. 



I?WM cortidiily my Intontlnn to h»D dlowsd id; rDpnannUlion m 
tlio ClirUtlkn latigiou &d<1 uliun-h in the tpoalolio age to tallow üic 
eamplction of the whotc afiaj Chiircb ITIntor;, or at IcMt of thc^rmi«' 
liurL of it ; \>iil llkB »iBliiiH nud cnl.rvatlijii uf mniiy p:riK>iu, oi|ire«M<l '( 
ifotb in nrritlDE: aai\ by vroi'l of [, Imvc prcvaiici! ii]>cin me to alUV 
my [ilau. Tliomi. Imi, win* t<iük au iitt-.Tc-l in uiy uiuilu ft coacelving 
the ikvcJc.iiincnlof ClLriHLldnlty-wcTc jimiiSpii iniii^niiiniiin); an account 
i>f Llio aiuiiutT iti whicli 1 cunceiwd Llie niiahi ul' iliis [.rotiw», on «liicb 
tbe apitiidiiii or men on lo mucli liividod througli Lho conäiciinn 
»^^^.^^1] n BQoes of iho vktfuia thwlo,f;lca] leailcncies In llila critical perivil o( 
iTHr fliwiiiiii Ewnaoiiciil chuKh : and pisrhup», if it plcww tiod, n 
ihoroucUy mnturuij bnd (u&didly esprcMcd convictti>n on the tnbJMU 
iiBte dUi^ijHäcd. may fiiiiii^Ji muiy a ono wlio is Fiigagvd in (cokia^. 
witU a canneüdDi* link for tlio vompr(ilii<ii»iiMi of liin »wii «iuwk, wen if 
tli'iB repru'wnlJitJoiii tliO'ii;li ttiu result o{ i>!\Miviin\ uid dimcit luqatty, 
ihouli) contjiia do nair disglcKurrE. 

Ak for my nilai.ioii to iill wliu hold thu «oniiclioa. thut faith In Juut, 
tbo SiLTlour of sinlVil liumunity, de it hu shuii'a Ttwlf ttiiK'o llig firM 
l-iuoding »r Ihu Chridtlan diurcli to lie tic fonDlaln of divine lil'n, irill 
prove ii«elf tbe euuiu Iv tbc cii<l of eiIn•^, tuid tijut rruui itiie fiiitli a uuw 
uvsUon will arl«e ia the Clirii<iiMi cliurcli and in our purt ol' ibe woild, 
wtiiok Ime ttuco |iie[i:irin£ aiiiiilnt tiio aiariiia i>F BjiriD^' — Uj all audi 
jicTvon) I lit>pe \ii he liniiiicl hy '>)ii; himd nf ChriKUna fdlovihip, ibc 
Iwad of 'MAe trux Cai/ivik äpirU." as it ia lenoed by t.u excdlenl 
Knghsh t.hii(i|o)paTi o(!i^ntury.> Butlcaonnt njrriw with 
the conviction of thaw aTuoni; t.Iistii «lia tliiDk tiiat this ncir ereatioll 
will bu oqIj' s rapoLltioii of ivLut tonk pliii^o in tlio BlEtccnth at «cron- 
Ictsntb cciDtury, and that the wbolo doj^uli« i.;^Lom, und tbc CDtiie 

111 Wg niiwl «mil •bcati'iriil iin'i'impn «f lurtiik iplrlt In whol bu bnsn adlill> 
rably «dill b;^ 4 nH»^iv<j»ud ihcotiij^L^ni vJ Hi« SihtU'ir of FnartiU. Join^m J»Iit» (tumn v 
-' IL mn MArrdl^ b.. flvqki'l, Ehti In iliAL «*ric(y cr ailjiilnhlrtti^in, ilir^iinh whloh tlia 
•ftrlAjt prliid])!« at icUiiiclt >rv Cue ijig prvhnnl ^iDImilTfd la pMi^r 'A'T' U mmtk q/ d 
mii adtijil'ilifa III fj- r^-itretfiirniihij fariely if rnca/iiS ctM%iIitii-m Well, Eliviiiuw. mjix 
iiF tiLiH wirlt üiiirikfüluüu IikIuii Om lijitikiv arti urifc-ari'hnhlL' Btiiifi.^tm ul Aliour 
rrtaiiticu Mluwa lu »llti hit Iu'b. and UiruuKli Uie aivomiAud iiieaiuiii» u( nJiKiuii Ut 
vhlch Ul* nvar^ oIahiim at Irut (-hr)tlUni 't'« riiJtvrillViTlf HH'UAmnLrtcl, &■ «I1U 
«.iDUfld l0r«v««l Ul Ihflm All Mr «jTAd ^tUL^lnc.! Iteilr-nnvr. Hd iTiflbfn^EtliiJlf fooCar«^« 
inca 4'iit ntlh iii iihi/AlvOßPt ltül>U44> nn.! j44.'bi<v^" bist Obiarviitioii» uii Hi« Jiatlb- 
ilUihini! Vinm and PnMJct» of (ht SmI»)' a[ Prionili, br Jnx.pti Jntin tiurnr], t^. 
■Ii. LcinloTi. 1M4. VTonltnilaihiini; lluolocliini wliaari UutnliTB nilli lull Tor III* 
iri(f r uiM rormc. « If fliiUigtte dcpcadvil tlio «uvtin vf tvllgioai niAonlkcUtil i|f1rtl 
■re rouicd lo bud. 





h«f eontcmplstinK dirinu aai huniuii iliicg«,' miiRl tvturo a- ii 

ttlll* pobi, I Wiuul wrlh injr «liulo iniil tn wliat inviinvply r«vi>[rMl 
Bltd Lulovod Crlcod, Slctxld, 1al<;l}- «ipmicd, so doservini; of con^i- 
dention in out tinxiK, ajuj l]^Il<;viall.r iv be cbi&iaca<l«d I« llie attontlon 
of rar >'uiine llimlni:inn'>.' lie wlniii'ilil)' niumcka, " Dul eaaclly Ui» 
■nd <m\j tkin, u ihv |)teciuiDcncG of (lie one irath, Uiat iL malntaL&a lu 
Ulntnphaiil uii(kr»1l dmngcior fonii;" und Nicliiibr ü(tvi;tol 
in tin BKenie«* lu ivtlore« olil, an cas:i?mcM for tiovvlijr; " Wboii 
(be DwraltT of a ihinj; in nuni uwny by uiu. we at« ynae tu roium lu 
ih« old, aiiich ll\«n lABoonie« MW agAM, and tliu« tlw ball U tbrown 
haclcimtt!» und fartrjirdK.''' 

la truih. «liatevut I» aODnccUd with llio puRulinritiM a( llio hmt ot 

KnmaD ciiUivaüan, as tbuc change. g«c* tho wuy of all fleah ; but tlic 

'WenI df Gud, wbkh In dcsünitil by » pnrpctiinl youilirulnot af iiuwcr to 

nokc kII thing» neir— abulo» for over, Thus tlio tlifl'oruiioe cKiitia^' 

^^ balwoeo tlio>« jwmonii anil mj'MiIf, will oortalnly iliow lUvit in our con- 

^B«tpt)(iD of nuuiy impottanl polnta ia thi« <lppa,rlmeiil of liistory, but in 

^B^j' Jnrigmeat llittn dlffcTBiieca are ooly Bcleatifi-Ci-aod ought, not tu 

^Fdjiluib that ftill-vKship wUkh U abuvij nil e^'icacu. Sub 1 am aUu 

H transport mywK to ibo «tARdiag-iioint cf Ibote lo nbam tbtse objccu 

" Binat ftjipHar in a diil'uruiit ll^ht; fur tUu rise af antU diflVreiiWH is in 

tkta crilti.'al Ficrimi iiiinvnj<1iit>lc, and far better than tbo prevluu« 

Iiidiir«i<.'iR'i: attJ lifeleiw uiiiformily. Aud even ia teü fur u delluite 

Sana, 1 knonr bon- tn cHtedn uid to Inta a ical for the gsschco nUicli 

liM aL tlie hdtiam.' aad I can never Itav^ nnything in couiuiun witli 

ItiM« who will not dn joBtice ta sojIi Mal, or, inslaad of treating liwilh 

fbo TMpcct that it ttilu'ayn due to lonl and atl'cctioa for what in li.o1y. 

yr'ilb JmuHicu) «ralY iiiiii .-it roniluriiis olhore suBpiitted, by jiuputiug lu 

dicm »Inlitor motives md dö-igns. 

It wa« not toy iatcution to givu a nomplcl« history of ttio Ajwutulii.' 

ID W«1] nisbl U» nahl* «nciti Df Luib» hEamJlril l-ntliouj wh<i cilng lu üinuld 
lutlMi iiotti or > iMiTolillDii iiUiiHl by liuinun liaads. ju <r ilivy wure tiesilBrl fur >)ir 
dlTlnD buUiJInw. *' Wtira at ■ wlncJow 1 hrtvc gan.'il en Uia iLAri uf lica-rtfi, aitil r^t 
vtiak ItmitifiiJ Ydult ffhwvDn, knil imw nopLilAnün whlt^h tibi? buililcr Iijdü avl aiicJi 
vvi)(. vrl Oiv llfA*rni f«b1 ni>t in; AUdihut vault biUI ttaniLa Ill-Ill- Nnw itlpro i^ro 
^ fülle -«lin look aliDUl far tuoh ptll4f I, ami MOLtlä fain |<F^,,ji -iirkil reel iIll-e». BuI 
|4hflT ekrtiiriE daLlii», Ul«jrquftk< 4n4lUvuib]Q, u if tbe hcflVCDa ^oiitil rtrtnlntv 
Itu Atiii Cat uiftiütpt rvtHon tlua bnaUEC tlioy cniinoL gruii) or i*u tlm plUan; ir 
.' cnuld but lay btilil ol iliciii, llirii thii Lvavvut (tlKTy tliiuk) woulil itinil Dnn 

_TO I» tbc TubiiiMon Znlir*»-!/! /Kr r/iBoJoiji., isji. jiart i. p. .11. Dlrxpil Vt 
tatuoty tt Ijiift l>tlnvi>*l iikA», wlbo IdA tiki» tvurlil 4 fuw tnnnEh' ago, nncl 1k hd 
rta h* u(n in Ih» hnl>- hnn d nf pninlnLiiiU fur lliAIetiiop.liciil Imlh «Imli •■■ 
n.ttis nn(ri:. ui'l ihEioul of liii uliuiu lift.', ind Hie Sua mutioi ul' liti liupK in 

hi "Tlian 'i° r^*^'^ ^^^"i"vlf IV Ue vnu (if ili^Bu taU]L'\^L LcaclJCia of mJieuii it mil]' 

bff ■AKl — " wAi'tt fgi lit fi'tii'H', eiitiatutrtig tkt ^ffci b/ fArir convitmllnn." 

iy\ OfiB <if Ih« inan^ |[ialjT«i, ii<nl,-FiTi't nf ijiii ^rrnT in an in Ills itflTcn. af IvlkieJi w* 
■4uM rtdnilRitllil tllD kTVDfid tc^uma ««pncla-lly lii iN ymin^ Üitf<i]Qgiuit- 

(1) hsvldtd ll <i* tliu IFUD lul of ilmiilt.'lc;, whlrli iFcoinpiinii'l Luinilit7. ind 
■l>4re («(Ulif ^(t iiotf ndiimitiiiiiMivutiiliijpliL'ilyi lull \ij uomcmilliniiviil Khirh. 
Ii «iiplifi^ (b*u vlth lUn 1l^^•l<'rl1 ixiitonilfry of u Bupi'i-rannuil eilEitmiviij FoiloATüun 
•P kBiaoD tillJtetH ^vlth 11 !□ wMcli 11 U Inail uri;t|iir,]. In o'^vr ia Hnli«' Eh«]i> 
■«IjfUkUa to lltp «llUlf'l tula llmt lr]iLib«i u himiiio Ai^t-, and tliuk [irofuii liaawa tin- 
MaMdM«!. A nnui«» Jumbli nF IK? miiif niiiirnillt^lair slunKnii, ai «liloh c>i>i) 
•ssikI IMUn( iiiualicvulc. 

tfttfACE TO TOI. IT. 

■0^ lict ^/ "'■ft' ^> tute, bdviHfllj-Mlcctwl, iailifjiln. lh«*«pi» 
fixed to U Uiu liilr<»i>i<-'i»ii fn<ui Ui« ir«t voluiu« ut tnjr Cbnicb 
Hlatory, lawrriiif; tlio i M;iuiting gf ibo vlwlo work (or m Bov Mlilha, 
«bo aid Ood permit. 

lu nirerauou to tho untnircmcut of tbe vbala pUn, and the nmtial 
rtUiloii qf ttic (ittiU d( tlii' n.'|ir«iMntiiliuu. I mubi bej the nnlcr 
u> Muptftid Ui* juilicuitnt awbili;, tili the ramplciioii of llic wbole bjr the 
piihliraiimi nf tlit) Mcoud jmrl. 

It will Iju itiy »iiuuni nim lu cnrry on M if« coui-t mi ua IhovliDlatf 
liic «i>ilt 1 hüV« iinilpr'Ahi^n on t.ha liUlory of lb« Chuiuh, if God «n- 
linua to jrsnl ine ulrrnKtli «ml röoktion (oi the jicrpoje. M«ui«hilt, 
a brinf c<itri]icn<liiim i>( t'liiiicli llialory »n (lie princtt>lcB <4 inj vraiit«- 
ncDt, but ptinclici'l with liLernry hoül-cii. «ill l<u piibliEh«<L ily dtu 
fncad. rroti?uiL>rl'li.cmmiEii. iil' IliMiii.linvIng been prcTot«d hj bU n«* 
ilulJat Iroiii eitMiiüug ihia work, it hu Ikvu uiiclorlakiMi at mjr mpwrt 
Ir another of my rricnda, Mr. I.lcealiiitc Vogt.' alrcad? txmurMf 
knowa. to Lbotliooli>|{inl pitblScliybitiibanSa tJUiiis ibdEIomilariinB, 
■ad (Uli mar« oommondpd tn lIic public tütvoar \iy hu literary laboon 
oa the Pwudo-lJinivi'lu«, d»iI tlio Ufa Ulil TtmM of t^rMo, Ch«nc«)loi 
qf Pari«. Uay tiu receive frou> every quarter tliit publio favour lod 
«uaourRKCDicDii vtlilcli liia vliarscttr, auqiiiivuiciil*! aad pcrfanaUMi 
doBaive 1 • 

\. KiaiDii. 

HdUx, IVM Jf«B. It3l. 



I HATS only a fev •raritk to my in addition to the Prefkio nf tho Bnt 
volninu. Tliv mpuiiUiiu of duotrLnes irliicfa oeaiipte§ ttie prltictpöl f«R 
nf tha (ornnii lia^lf or IMa wnrli, 1 mtu obliged lu ragulula ik to «lunlilf 
by tha relation in ivIiiBh tliia work «tiuiri" U Ihd ^DOrvl blMory of IM 
CUunili, mill Ilia iimiiortiuij uhicb the liisloty of daclrioo in th* litter 
hii.n to iLu vhv'v. Hmv-e I liavi^ linca oMijroiI tx) loxvo uutoDoM^ 
jDony qiioiioiui which would oi'ciir to th? CbrUtiao ihedogian, 'b^H 
•h^voliijw iiid iitntiiirulHH ihu ucmilreute of the »iictfA mconli far cli* dMo(^| 
hin own time*: my ondoi.viMirs Iiiitb bwn c-onfincd to rn>iiMentin( 

ftrlmlttri! ChriRti unity acmntlng to iti prlai^lpnl mndQU of aaclrtna Ib 
W hiiitorimi ■■«wlupiDoiil. In vxccuIinK t">'-^' a itork, evorj mna mnM 
bo loiSucncod by hi* owa rcliglomand dti-itrinal •tandiof.coiQt, brtili 
Ticin of titt tianlilaot st! C'lirtiiiauity, IIh urigiii, uid iU roUtioa to tlw 
KCUQTal dcrclnpBiunl of lbs huiOBa neo. On ihii point no dcu can 

(h Now Dr- Vfifl. orpT^ntry iiFoftixvof Thiology, ukd fiutor At OrrUiWftT«]. 

Ill Till* wl»li fwr •" |Jtfl"i"ft'l> -li^t «MvdÖ, wh"iir jXT^nnjil Int^rrotinifi flo b*»i«- 
Aal«l bt itj h^^n. I nq lunjcr va]a^, bu b*Hn ftilriil^id Rut h]> si ulciplitHl l«^fintii 
vlllTut^rrnii Itlia to ■ccompli^h i\\t doilfn mflotioncil abovo, Yni it IL ^ui«1H>4 . 
•MLtif or my ^iiunit riiniil* «ill lit louui BiMÜ dir ilm ii»X. 

I II picavttoa _ 

micrAcx TO ma tsocero tDirtos. 

oCncT (or itllferinc »uni himnolf; Cur t, fure)y o^vtÜT^ 

I murk, dliipped of nil eDliJi<ativitj in it» r>;pivMiiilaI.i'>ii, 

H) by Iho iDCllridual notion» »I ttic writer, ii »n Kbmnliljr. 

Til« only qnMLiiiii in, «luit puiul of vkvi ia tlic cniiumpUUiMi of ibtw 

ohJcciA mnet ncurly cnrrRbpontl» to tho irath. »nii fn>ni this the cleaiMi 

concvpliuiis rill 1» foruifJ of thi) iuiujtia pn-jwiiiiHl iiihulury. Witbnut 

, ranaunctni;; ourtiiittirctivitj, nithwit kivitik iip our own wnxortbuiking 

^fetba dcvnuis of any tclmot wlii.'Ii t,)ii-' puity nrnnj-TUciu^ itf 111:111 wuiild kvi 
Ven the ibtao« of tbt> Wirng tiod. (for tliix «oul<l tic to (oi'fi.'it l.bc iliTino 
ftcodüiu Wi.n for us by Cliriet,! our cfloTtB must ho direotij to lb« 
cuuslanl puriltiattoD &11J etevaliuo of our tliiiiking lolljorwiKa tiiiUjoul 
I« ÜU aiiil error) bj tlie ipirit of truth. Free inquiry txjionn t*» 
the icouJn of liuumnily, liul it pre«up{)us«8 t\ii fr»« frEKiIom of tb« 
wbole 11)00. wbiuli camtcfnw^ ia the dispüsiLioD. wLicli hui iti scat in 
iW hoMt, Bnd It kniiw »beru ibis fi-^-doiu i« niouu W bi' IbiiniL Via 
know »bonm thnt frci^dom. uUds which by mL-iiaaof Lutlicr uid tbu 
Raformiulon )mik>i iba fetters of thu buuiuji mliid. VVc Iequw tint 
tliu4e «ba buiQ lUs beautiful dhdiv oiost Inf^tiuuli}' od Ihoir Ufa, oftuu 
ni«an If It oul.v nnothci kiud nf ikveiy. 

It will niiw lie my luimL curiiesL caw und ETKatCBl BaiinfucUoii, 
la dOTOCc tho limp und «[.ribiigtb mil, cmplnycd In my otRcinl Intiouni, in 
the ciXDllitiUilluii of tflj llinujry of thu Church. W Ha IcnulnnliOQ, fw 

Pr Ooil Kizinl mo tlie iiHEiatBDoij of hi« Spitil I 
A. Ku>i>BS. 


Uavuto, »» I bi'licvc. snIEcicutly Explained in tay formor pMfiiRo* 
thoobjiicl of ihiä work, und Üiä theological posilion it Lukes ia rolutiuD 
10 uther »tiiudiii^'-jmluu. I Uava liulu idhji-i; to add, Whnt I hnv« 
bei« «spnevd »ill wrvo to rxclifj' iieTcriii crrora which liovc iinou liopn 
di*e«v«niil, 10 pimlfy, as far bb |)i>sali)ie, various oompliiinls. Many 
Uijii^ ludcMl find t.hoir rocttluniion i,t «citlcniEnt outy in tbU 
«OOHAnt proccM of ilcrdopmcnC nnd piii'latnttiuti wliiuh in K*>'t)g i^» 
in ft urilli»! ue, Thure is u liru kludkih wlucli njiisl svimnite iu 
111« bnlliliii^ inal Ik fniindud i>n n ropk, l]ic iraoil, liiiy anii stubble. 
ftom nhftt u foruivU uf Iho prociuu» mcIuIä itml jrw-cls, There are 
inucÜUTjr want«, which mil <inl.v i cmnot m{\M'y, bill whifh 1 do nol 
wllh to nlUfy. 'i'h* aetlvlly nhmm ui' ImIo .veitre, in Biblii-jil iniiuiriB. 
and, tho kiailimd bnuichvu uf biiiory. Ihik I'linlilad i»o to correct and 
uaplify maay putit, und la Tindicat« ctlien ftcm otjestioni. 

A. Nbutdkk. 
Biaiip.suiKJifHV, \»u. 



Ab to wlukt 1 have Esid rcBpecting the position I hare takes in referenM 
to the controveraies which are eveij day waiing fiercer, and djgtract an 
age that longs after a new creation, I can only reaaaert iliat, if it pleased 
God, I hope Ut abide feithful to these principles to m; latest breath I 
the ground beneath our feet may be sh^en, but not the heavens above 
ns. We will adhere to that Üieologia pectoris, which ia likewise the 
true theology of the apirit, the German Üieolo^, as Luther calls iL 

The demand for this new editjon was a cult to improTe the work 
to the ntmoBt of my ability, and to iattodnce whatever new views 
appeared to me to be correct. 

Sound critioiam on particntar points will always he welcome to me; 
the oavilB of self-important sdoliata I shall always despise. 

A. 'SmtMBaM. 





CKim* Ii—n« CItrtttitm CtnTol on i" Pint Jppiamt» *i o J>Mls«l Sitlf4tti4 


lArUtccutptiuiiiiecftlio Holy Scitit «,_•-. » _ I — 1 

' ["("><' Ifot) »^iiiti 01) ihi Uiy of PontKiui _ _ ,.,.,~i~if 

ttcmipiBi „ „ _....7~lil 

Tel«^ dlKaune call l>.> (Aeti— Uli «11 lorciicnluu^c Wtb. and bnpiUin ... It — 10 

CbUIxB U,—TIk thrtl FomoJtMCIirUUatt rdfttiiuuil«, anil lAc FCrit flcrx n/l'» 
Cuiulit" Nan a/ (t' CAr ijriaii VUurc». 

TliC OrtDHtlDC cf > CDminutillT— Uni hIIcId of hltli— UapIlBOiInlo Jobiubi (hn 
HÜlWi— l^obaMy ijEiN vho tiApttaimil fornmlp — iTniicrfEcl kuuwMgn ud 

tdivd cliA»ulL'f of Lbv lir*l <i>nvrTU ^... ».».... ......_. ».»._ .*...*■'-■ 30| !1 

n« Ar*c form of th« ClirltiUn communllT ind woi»blp— The A^iipiQ '.>->-...•«•.. M 
iranmniiitj of foKla—lnllunnna oif Ch rmlliiiiitT nn «nolil tulaljani — Otiin a( 

I niMiUiOOd— ttieti-BliiiDnliini .'. ^ ~ - 34— ir 

fTlwcauof Aiunl« and aii'iii>lra ,„,„„ _ „...._ ~,.,. ST, IS 

hilhprvtcclo (lie 1'ernj>]p-4ui4h[;^ ......„.„. „^..,.„...,..^.,.^>,. ,....,,..... •.^k.^'..— 2lf, %il 

'\ie liiiiliuiMn nr I'Mmnt „ _ _ ID— 19 

h« IntiiluliDA (1^ TnAliytviiH— Oi^itl'i^llj f^ Üi-B porp^ifl of govcmmeul nllin 

Ul«n of iniinifltirm . ._ ..,.. ^._ _ 3J, SS 

Unn»trinilnir[l»ii— Tculjrni tiiimtiii:{a, fnui^iiTi^a, vaiiittAiiiii „. 3!. iS 

filidual uiuitlluo fium J uiUfiu la Clidtlluiiiy »..i... _ 3G, 10 

Ca^rUBlU TlUBuliMni Ci-nJiliiin vj tXi PrimitiH Church 1 J'frinniKaM aitif 

JThcconof [he iiTipoleEtt nun — petrruid Joha bioughi bofon th« G^nbcdrim — 

] Th«in(TMK orWfcvcri— PM«t'«iidJ»«« — Omnatlsl — 41 — If 

I'ChrlttlWiiir in dine! «mlllffl nllh Ph«iü«[ini — Bleplicc Iho (otcniiinor of Paul— 
RI>Ttc«iDtCluuDiuilijln<t|ipailtl<in lo Ilic ncnunneuci: u( Clio Muiulc iltuol— 
lllf AUcnin« btToro ilio Sinlwiliim — AUnjiuum, and lit eflci'i i )ü — )i 



' tuBittffr^lta r*tlAlouft atnte— TbD Goat» Blmoa—P^ilUp^ proMcUtnit uilS ndr«- 
dw—SImsa'i iapliim— P»l£[ anil Jolm Beul lo Sunt aril -PliVIJp'i labmM III 

XOispl^fte. - ,..- » «.^~.a7~H 



K.irTiiglloiiAfUiiitlltCliunlu-i— l^uIuTKert TlinedlwApHltiirrcdaffH kr 1» 
iiiin»)T»T(UIIon and aui«nnl tvrnli , .... li.i« 

TitCT't [«bouu nl Lytilit mill Jvpiia — CniDFliun lue Ccnliirlun — A pn<nnoii(ibt 
lloi« — II U pnnrr. nnrt fwrlnj; — Viiiim iif »n A>ttl — Pmk*» tIUvD — Hb 
wldnti let Conitftiua — TEia glct or Ilm llufy 'iiint 1>«wir»'] on the Ocablt 
tonv4iti— -.H-... ....— --..-....^,.,.«,-._..,.«......_,«._..,,w„_„ 


TIIK AroSTl.i; 1-AL'L. 

CiurtJi» I.— Pa-til'' P/rpitraltnn nxil Call 'a ii tKi JptclU •/ l^r Otmlila. 

Ful'iprculluiiDititotiinllie dDTilnptniniaf UioklnirilaiDirtUod — lIlipaitniM> 
jirvil nüE^i^^Eiuri— 'llLA HirlcT It^'ul piei;-— Ci>iu^>fciTa w"U L-utlicr................. fj— 41 

PeiuJ D vcdltniEi irrrHvriitiir of like <^hri4(l^n>— HU QitibcuLiiut ooii p*ral Mi — U j- 
miWI/^i-ury i^tjilanMU'ti mi iiaiiicil prliicJplna'-^ £«^fi<iiltfiid m inpn^ t»- 
t0rn4l-^,\ ti>a\ &|<p<:±rn.nrQ ^ritir r(Mn SuvLouT — 1 ti effect i..,....^...,^.^.^... BS—M 

raul iiTKirlii'! Ihr Uot^wi >I I'niniHii- — Uue' into Ardii* — llvlum loUunuctU 
-UHl jliKiii-Vlnli k) JiuuwUiu— Tiio ^-cuLu dEVul«;uicui uC Ut Rligltia 
vie»»— ndum laTuiua »....._,._»...._-•..._ ...«.■-.»-.__ ..._....».« M-M 

GiupTta II.— T-<tfCKo«<iHtM<i;n»4itfsl&iMrAyKA, «tf fa IMINmM 

BRmabai at .\Kt[iich— I'l» iitmtchnnui'i Hni rlytatobtlimtn — Contilbiillao) 
rriini ilic Cinirdi m AuHia^lifuiiiDCbiiioli aijuuialam— Fcni-gBiioi> bj Elvcud 
AfjfipM^ — pALil^t fitH 10 JpnjMipici — U'rk'tiLcr ihoixoir b% ihnt mtntloiiMl id 
Gill. Jj, I ,-~])aii]&b>4 A-niJ PciiL jitiui ftDtu Anlbcb to priEAch AiDoQ« Üit <r4iitUM 


CHikrilit III,— 7(i>i''i';Kij|ii<lii»B/CtHKla<Hi:y/ron ifMiocAI's ftmi a»£ Barmiai- 

rimirvliU loCypiui— CoimrnlonoTilio riwonnil Beiglui PmiIui— Th» Oo«» 
Uit'lniui— AiiU«:U in flxlillt— luutUum— LmiKi-^'ui« b( tin tune man— VI» 
A|vffeLI':i 9tj|h^)DiGil 1u Iw Zvui Ai>il UtitiUDi — TliE pu|tuUr luruttlt— Thcif THun 
CO Aoliijch...... ^.... _ _ _- _. lOb—IK 

lüiiirrEH IV —Tl-t n^t'^tiiiit 'irliptm flii Jrti-lili ami araliUChtiiliani. anil Ui wtlU- 
munt—lfic ta^lrjifnaml JlfirltpfiKil nf '«f CitriUIr C)ivrv>i. 

DibpuLo tn^lvtoii til? .loiiiih rviLtt f!f,ntJlo ChrlAtL&nn tvAporliiif; Olfoiimr^thrA — 
MtHloii n( Pjul anil BBtiiiilini u JttuiQlcm— Puui'i pifTiUeonfmnf«« »Wfi 
tlu ApuitlcH— llii A|iiutlEililii nrKtiu'nlFili;<>l-~Ili.<cuULn>TFn>)r'rltlillit Jnrlih 
teijcncrv. nml tivyt^iti'iii ii> ihc ciri'uiticiaiiTii tirTlLuf 114—114 

TAe Ap^tt'iiit ri-ii^cjJI'ipi.— Pel4.T'«LiIärceB — DumftW» nriEi r^iul nl'r ah b«oiiih 
orihflr «uON'rn* flminii^ tlic ticntllei— rTB|jn»al nf Jaiiii:! — The mnclThlion allij 
CH>nnitmturT "i^lrib of IVul jinl Jjtnicv— Epiallc la iL^r OrutHc CliriilUni fn 
Hyrln unJ t-'liicln— tlüturn uf Paul and BiraibJU tu Am tiicli— Tba impDTtinl 
rciuliiolilii« CuiitEnium _ _ lift— ISA 

CflArrm %'■ — Thr ConstilHUon oj tlit Chureh. ana Him RcelmniUvnt UiAgm tf At 

Gat'Ate Ctii-ttUuii'. 

The p«cuTUt it4turEE of t^c Ctfiitiaii <^oini:"i unity — All Chrli'lfln» Prlesi» — pfloflllfj 
tpUtUil ID ClirJiL — killl ill t, rrl^Iioii nf frAlumal Dntiallly Ed □neonat tie'.-. l?ff^lJll 

fb«1aJluviioi- flf Tlie Holy Sl>ltlt nii the 'ruriBLir» oiitfsiAil L'l>iirArLi:r jtnil riDtuiul 
ondar«Tni-n1fe-«Thu tO^aof ChnrlBHi«— I'ltf firtBr>rdiit(J^<<r.#fUJiid)T'paTa IRO^lll 

1< CliitriiinB or i^ilii foi llie intuitu} of Oit VTonl _...._ — >..~ lit— I to 




t. QnritmtlfllllfifBlihATnnnicni of iIif Clivreh. ■srrdfrn'ir.fitirin«.»— 
EMcrior nNM!iiniK|ii9ptci><--'i> or fiidio]«, vhgUiull; -.hi; »me— Ükiu- 

•innorf>eailiinMBiM«Sti'ir piicikii^i'ikiiig t-o^u? 

OHjinill* th™» *pdm of «««iiti«.— A[HUllr«, Kvinjtrllttt, T«rii«»— lUlnlio.. 

otthvUiluElilDnandOvtn«» „ 14! Ill 

Til* ninrr uT IincontwH . ini. j t 

Dtdlnrnlon — Eltctiim to irflka _..._ , ^.._ lei, im 

tloii of dijt— Nn cbiliilwi (Di.tii mcniian<<4 ii)' luu: „,— ^...... liin — 1» 

swnrly rammimMAtion of 'Kt ruxinv^Hfn „,„,. ..„ „ ISB — DO 

UapUim— Th( I'atntnt*— Sjnntialiciil iiiiMiri)iiiii>rihiii(tigrauliiiiri>li)i> inil ten«- 

(noffl] — Tlje bifluFhtti vf Ihe jiurri^Etü leWfCun o'» fliö nITti/i^nif of I'hrla- 

llani _ _ , _ ,„,„ (Bl— It« 

Tht Loid't Slipper _ _ „ _ „.,, „ liM 

AitnnUg« »HA ülsBjMDweM «f :hp Gt'nillpCon»gtU— P^>l*fltl"nll!ln■ll^(n' 
Sll a KCBidlon vf llie Oiinpel — liy • Kmt <i( KUilt nnil unlisiipliiru— Iti ihrcci 
»nl'wicty lu ifta[ti4nl>»i— DwiKiTirrctu the cu'ru^illon uf Muni*— (iiil lium 

pbllOWphJcAltpEOUljUIOlu». «..„.» ..,...».. -^^.-.„»»,.-pv.^-„.„..„« hG4)— lU 

CBiPttX VI.—Shdhi/ MIntutot» Joarnry ef Ik» Afmtia Ptul. 

Tbl iwpiitUion of P»ul »iirt Bniimhrs on npmunl of Mitli— P«'J «nd 811«» 
luu'lt «1(1 Milrtt*— M'L'l »llti Tlmoih): — l'lii>jlj — r.nliitln— Tioi»— Hilliiil 
^Bcptimnaf l,7clU^P«T>iTi)iL4in— C4iiLrcrdi(>n i>T ilip 1'hirii.,.iuafäai4l»r„, ICpb— I7fl 

Paul 411 Tbni^loulrii— AüLlini'i boih Jewt andOeniUe?— {>iinb ^ UvcIIIiipihI l>y 
Unl-iiiaiiii»— III« cxiwctktlDn« uf iliu nein nviiiiacli vf llir ggconü rj[nliig>< 
Chfiil- F±ii*Tli-»l u^ytnLtluJi uC l)"- Je km — Pluoprn » t(j Bcjru-b ,...„„,....„ UÜ — IBS 

lh# PlkSl'iKDii^m — The iTlttb>n or tlie StolfK luid |il|ik'ureAikt to Chri:' 
Btnlly- „ _ IFt-l»l 

faut'i diicourii«— Mil iiipcnl (<i Ills reltgluiit priiicliik' Itiipliiiicil In liiinisii 
UMun^Ili« AtUf lo ui uiikcovn Cud — I'vJyUiciBiii— Thv unt livjuij Gv<! — 
Aiicp4>iin*'''Li>rn1 fX fl. H^Ju-flirii-f—rue cifE^ci of lili «lisi'uurHt — t>ii.iij-9iui tlie 
Jl[«(jnllli>— Ttmothywiii lo Tii<.-ii>nlunlc.i IF»— IM 

^Ul ■! Corlnlla — Two clile-rolnIvtjltN \-i th4: (pi'cpildn uf llic fiunvcl — Kolirloc^ 
lir<pmilal)an — anil ftif ftrifiitiliniliil^Lini'ut — Mee-u viih Aqutlii mid Pri'trilla 
— The Chim-li rrjpiiicil iinuti|>HlIy ul Uuiitilc eQiuer«— TlirFiuciinml Culllu— 
Ptut'4 lAljoun Iti Arliala -„-,..-.-.- p. „„H._ H......-»,pp.,„p..,,...„„,,,H,.... [90— -SOI 

TlipHBiluoifD — liifdrniaTinn or llio *rai« nf ihe t'lm^ch liraugiit by liniudii — Iho 
Fint Ei'liLIc lu Die ThBMaloiiirn. — Fnlhiia^eitlti Iftnili^iiiile* — A Ibrff«! t|il<tlc 
— Tb* H*rand BjiitlJe (*' iUe Tkie^^mlunLiiiM— The aiRnt prsccf^lnf thvtrroiid 
■OtslagoECbilM— UarkioftgeiiuineeiMle ^ _ - tci—W 

Icaama Vit. — Tht Jpottli Fault Jwr-tr^ la Jiitta/t, antl hli ttnatid M-i-iityntri 

Lttaurt ^jBiinff Ike Urtthen- 

.] 10 Jutmilnn—llli »owipnil ufliriii « in ihaTtmulo V>1. tai 

_^ _ JDtlactI— HIb liji'ttiTix wilh bklTiAliai nnü Tpler— Ilia rrfrlLnnid tt 
TMtv~- itcilial uf in« (onliovHiy lirlwt»ii die Jewlih and (rt)i'fl-i 

<«rn , Will— SI 

pMl ««■ rhryfri» »nd cUiiltii.„._ ,. - - IIJ.:I* 

Paul U Ephniu— tilt libour» tinl in Iliir iTtiaicutlue— Tlicii nmoDK llie C'DIIln 

llH j¥T)lll Q'41«'.— lllpdiKi|il»or J'l^pn ih-c na|jtL4i Trt).iptlEiiil ,-.-.^.„ i\b^2li 
ftil« at (hr Gilktlun Cliur'l»' — fml's t^i^lill« ti> <lir Gglalmn* wililc» \-j bl* 
oira hmd-^Aiunriit tila Indvinniilcni aiivkOribiii— Sinid* Itic rvplslinn cf 
Cbii-! fu Judniiiii nnil HcJlftiMium — Unini Ihpin sm'MI '"'iini' "" 

JumlnMllon 111 (I" la" — lisle "1 1M> uipl'Ut Ii:i— MB 

tÜKoic Ike Cliuitli tl Coilnili— Cauti'g uf Mi i>l''nrd''iFi iiiijinlli'lalviiiivmkin, 

IGtnHftl (mmorftUCT, divAiiutii. oicMiniinl Ipy ffil**- ^«[«-►iL-n ^.- — .»«»'h- BS'. K28 

fml«« In iht Cnriiiililsij Cfturrfi— Tilt Pi'liln-' — Tl.« Pniillni— -Th« i' i|p^.u» 

— Ttuiorcbitii — .— ~ — - jJi^e« 

vol. L b 

jjp CONTEST«. 


DUputei in the Corinthian Cki.rch—Meat offerea In ««criflce ro idoli— M«ni»(re 
and celibacy— LitiKaÜon In healhen DDurta of Juiiice — IrKgulaiilici at Ihe 
CElebmlion otthe Agapie— Overvalualion ofestnordlnBry gifts— Oppoiition lo 
the doctrine of tiiQ reiurrectiün „..^^. ,,..,....„. ,..,..„„„„.....„ ...241 — 3SJ 

I'lui'i Becond tlilt id Coiint); — Kii lai-l Epistle la 11» Cednihlans ISS--2M 

Th« First Epistle to Ihe Coflnthiana — Occasioned bj certain queationB proposed 
by the Church, relative to the epistle not now extant — Its contents — Oa parties 
—On meat offered to idols — On mairiage snd celibacy — On slaTerj — Its 
date ?«— !M 

Pnut's nlani for hli future labours — Mission of Timothy to Uacedonia and 
Aciiala — Return ot Timothy — Titus sent lo Corinth— Popular Commotion at 
Ephesiu against Paul — Demetrius— Alexander— The Aaiaichi — Faul leaves 
Epheius „ _ 2H — 2T4 

Paul in Macedonia — Titua brinies InformatioD respecting the Cliurcb at Corinth — 
The Second Epistle lo the Corinthians _ _ 274—178 

PanI ill lllyria — In Achaia— Hia inlenlion of Tisillng Rome — His Epistle to the 
Romans — Sent by the deaconess PluElie — State of the Church at Some — con- 
tents of the eplBtlo 278— !SS 

Chaptbb Vill. — Tit fiflh oni* UhI Jnuriirt "f PbuI lo JminUm — lU iBimallare 
Cimstqatncei — Hit IiripritoKmmt in Pateittae. 

Paul at Phllippl— Meets the svetseera of the Ephealin Church at Uiletul — His 
farewell address SSi— 301) 

Paul'« Journey to Jerusalem— His conference with James and the eldMS of the 
Church- His Naiarile'svow — The rage of the Jews — Hij rescue by the Roman 
Tribune — His appearance before the Sanhedrim ..,...-,-,..,.--,,, ............301— 3(Ä 

Paul's imprisonment at Cs?aarca — His appearance before Felix — Appeals lo 
Cssar — AddrcsB lo King Agrippfr— Sent to Rome — Duration 01 bis con- 
Inement SHE— 311 

Chamkh IX. — Pa"! duripg Aft ßnt Coitfi*tment ai llomt, and the Dnelopmtnl 
during tkot period of the Churchet foani'td iif him. 

haul's rotation to the Rnman State— To the Church at Rome — And lo other 
Churches — His care of the Asiatic Churches— Date of the Eplatles to (he 
Colossians, Ephesians, and Philemon— Epapbiaa hii fellow-prisonet SH— 313 

False teaihera at Coloss» — Peculiarities of the party — The iterm of Judaiiing 
Ünoiticism— Allied to the lecl of Cerinihuj-Paul's Epistle to the Colossians 31S— 328 

Paul's £|]|Btlc to the >;pbeiians — Sent bf Tychicua — A geticial Epistle to the 
Churches in Lesser Asia 329 

Paul's Epistle Id the Phllippians 330, 331 

CiiiFTBB X.—Paiil'i LBbaun gfier hit Releaa,trom hltßrtt CovfintmeBt ol Rome, lo 
hit Martyrdom. 

Evldenco of Paul's release from hia first conllDement at Rome— Testimony of 
Clemens oC Rome — The Second Epistle lo limoihy— Causes of the Ncronlan 
liersecution 331 — 3S7 

Paula labours alter hi> relea-e— in Epheiua — In Macedonia— The Flr.t Epistle 
to Timothy— Paul in Crete — The Epistle lo Titus— Paul in Nicopolis — In 
Spain — His Ser-ond Imprisonment— The Second Ejiislle lu Timothy— The date 
of his maityrdom-'The E|dBile tii the Hebrews written by an apOBiclJc man of 
Ills Pauline ichatd „„ ~_ 3S8~M4 


BOOK rv. 


Cbaptbk I. — TluCkariintimif Jama — Bemarla m niiEjiiilli, 

f Aai 
tni«thei be T» * bTother or onlr n near relation d[ tha Lord, vid identic^ 

«tilh thE Apoitle t Di. SchnKlceDbargii'i h.vpothaaii that there va> onlr one 

Jaiues, ciamined ..'.'..-....„„„»..„..,....„......w ...... .,..„....„ .......m.- -^49— Sit 

Jan^es dUtingulahed by the Bttlctikfät ot hie Ure ; bence called Tha Jutt — Tho 

testimony of He^eatppua Vii — M6 

HlA epittte impDiCuit for illuttTHtia); the etat« of the Jenish Chrl&tlaa chuTches 

lit. 3Ji 
Reiaons for belleTliig tbat il «ai not itritieD with a reference to Fa'il's doctrinal 

vle*i 35 7—36) 

The epiitle addreieed to churches consisting entifFly or ciiiefly of Jcvrish 

believers, mostlj poor... _ „ 362—344 

Tl;e Christian doctrines imperrecv;; developed in it — It» importance In connexien 

with Uie other viii^nge in the Ife^T Teitament 361, 360 

The Hartyrdom of James ._ „ 366, 36' 

CaapTBi. H.—Tht Apatill Pelir. 

tlis porentaEte — Hatliral character — Call lo the apottleslilp se>— 3TI 

His lahours in propagating the GoBpe] .....,,,.-. 372, 373 

His First Epislle ._ »M, 375 

Probable i<puricmsnesi of the Becond Epistle ..,....„...,... ....,.„.. 376 

Traditions reipecUiig Feter*! martyrdom u Rome _ » 377— 3SI 



Hi) edacation — Maternal InDuence— Early plety^Oeneral character— Contem- 
plative yet ardent — His piety moulded by personal intercourse with the 

Saviour „ 3S4 — 3M 

Hi9 latiauis among the churches in Lesser Asia ....,S9&. 3S9 

Errors prevalent in these churciies, prnciieal end iheoreticjil — Especially the 

Judaiiinit— Th»Antiüomian,lheanli.Jud8iiinBfiiiostlc,«ndtlieCennlhiBn WO — 3n* 
Tradition of John^s banishment to Palmo^i — Amhor^hip of the Apocalypse ...396 — 399 

John'i nritingB — Their general character— His Ooipel 399 — tli3 

Hi) First Epislle _ 103-40» 

Hi^ Second £piatIe-.-In Junctions respecting intercourse wiüi false teachers.. .406, ifj 

Hi! Third Epistle— Diotrephes 403, 410 

Traditions respecting John's labours preserved by Clemens ALexandrinus and 
Jeiom* — Ttie close of the Apostolic Age 411 — 113 



The living QUity of the doctrine of Christ combined with a variety in th* fonsf 
of Its repreaentatlon^-Thtee ieadlnjt varieti^^^.— The Pauline, the Jacobean 
(with lbs intermMlUite Patriae), wid the Johaanean _ Ill 




1. Thx-iirinrilnn anil mniriHi of funri «rlli-r m'l Uimivilinr^nKrr «a- 
tkiiieil in ihr lavt^oT Ji.i,ii^..*fC'*i vid ^^.iv, «rhich lomt Ibo inotrtl j4Ul *t 

JiU ckinlrlno .- - - _ _ _. || 

ThKAiiiiiriniloq of III* (iirll'-i iiniKlliit'iininl ilr{iri"li'<l iii< IIif DlwrmnN «tibt 

Monal« lav (vd^rv^> '-Till- ChrhlUn ^,M„,n>rii>ji *r>A ^w,j «^rr« lAtlvp UV«a| h-» t% 
T]>Bfmii1vn>]iCAl priM'iiil* ttt lij« lau aiAnaJmif-pcliLE^Na Hfliu-onvnv« bjtbt 
wiiilisuf lln Uwavallablii Oclait a»]— S'u «n-MilUl rl£alliicclail iHtm«! CIM 
riliitl nrd moMl it^o riuat — I'hr jilcd(ill><' lif ■■ Ji >>nllyi m miivtM rila 
»rui'lliiii. rr^nirini; not f/ii:Iiuj;ul»iliiiiiric — A|i{ilkiUli uiIlieunlTvntI b« tt 

i'iin>cli>aci .„. _ „...«._ ,_ «K 

Wurkt iliD niurk» of (lie lEni« ur Iho <i>puAivLirtt : tallEie Uwcin eiTMi Dituhanj^ 

III lIlD 4il]icilLLIail -lli.-(|Ctf dpTa .'^M'?^ trr IL-I 1ft CüllIFDri lä J^q j^^ttCri IKih. 

il. 10! _..._ _„.._.„..._ _.,._.„_ tu 

The liff nsi diflelDni u s il«niiir<<af duty _-.. „„...„._„ (IB 

I Th<r i^nlr^l-iTOltiL at vhu PuuLIud Ulli Elf iij'i>Eufy—Sum4a naltue in «iwilijap 
tiiilm lA». 

4^ Thff njitii» nf Hin. 

o-lpf — nofKnii. — TTip (lliuiiluii In huiuoii niiuie nul ncccaur;— liiii 
TuEunrnry Bn^l hliimr^^rt-li.r w... .-.„.-r,-.-.-..«»— -,.. >^-..,^ »..-.,.,.,„_, i 

<T4UFiiFifFf Aofnt\ai iiti purl til iirvly EhfipraHuEiiinann of th« ■Diuva.air >#«iu4j 
■liligtile— KnincilinoiFqutvMlpni id 4>(iir,c.ln»p|H.iiiliiii iatli(ttiÜM>»w-i< 
bii.t (niiiFUiiiai [lie biiilj ni Um LitK>n urilnfui louilmicl«.^ _ Ul. 

». ortEin nr »in iia atath. 

Tlic i>iiri«i.^EüiuiEiri« uf tlfl aiiiE ttt Ibc ilecE i>f rvili-mptLuf^ pnftujipoanf nt ■ 
unlvviial (irii linni'ii ilirnHtln of Hlii Hlilmii mlvHii'd fu, but III« Idiaof 
an iirluiinililiiroriicifErtlaii, miil ihc vuluiiEtiy full o[ llic lint iiinn, lln 
M IhK lia>li ud'uiira ilix'lilni- , .,. , ._ 412, 11} 

I'll« ilT*i iiinTi niJE tlin rup^tnniaUYii at EiiLmitn nature Kvnfmllf ^TEi« 
DTliriEiuf ilnritl iEujUd Tixiih mpE'unnit 0iiL)ikk>u?Ml&cim. vil. 0|iiut icf^nüila 
tuAJnm iU 

ApiiirilEiid In Kiim. v. 19. ihmiiirul ilit'CIinii at 111« will urn iitiiilii(*il Ity 
Ailam'i taluTitiir KU f^om nriKtiiitl I'DlMiiieti. und cantlnuM luclt In tit 
wIieiId ilDVi^lopriiEriEDtthii Tnon«..-. „.-.-.,-..-..-, ,--,,--.---,-.-.....»....». 4tA, i|9 

Tluoü^Ei airi iltiitli cuinL<» iLjjuEi nü iiic-n. EiDt by bii t»ten(ial «Ubeik* Ifi Oit 
pEi)r:i]nJil t^fiFriiilf^Eion of ETijLiL. hii] In ntiin^* view ot dpaih— IlMih ■fipeir* 
nut m • (iitp In thcilvVi'lotiEtieiil i>r life, hul u a cunMqiunce of ih* Biih- 
tiriWDient of Itindlrlne Ills llirDunb iln ..._.„ 4!^, m 

#. SK|i|»rH«loo by tin of cha niiiiiral rei'fiTatlEiQ of Go^m 

Thpnrl^lnal nlflniiT lo tind rniE- ilc^iriiiffrl liiEE vnpEtE^'neJ — Tho iiMaf ftw 
■fnrliKii ert*iiiiii in aw^litnina flm wlifloiii initlnient — Hslielaui latetf- 
lllillily Itijurot by ilii— üio arik'lii uf Uloliirv— I'ul'-tlnraldD ul nuaitnaül 
tlAluriE, yut Heb pEiw^r iif CQiEVfitlciK^üUul iloliu^vil ..». ..„.'•—.■■..■• (M*— 410 

d. Tlie itile nrdiiunbn. 

TwV(?"niviidEriE{ -pdiifiplci Lti humnn natum — Sfiiril ^^A ^^'h — SUtr* at 
hiindHE;L>'Kiih»<r iiiiL^nntEiiiiL», liviiii« wHIeuuI Ihw^ uuiieibqIeil'ei. Eirlnr iiniltT 
tbelaiv— KiJiii. viu nuldiocailiiiE Eirimlli ilicieilawa. laLcn fmm f*u)'* uvii 
etporlffiEE-B, EiLit ApplLciktib la nil nmnklEEil— .«.,.»...-,..— .- 440— 4U 

I. PrE'prirAliTCfi ttl hflEOIEIllEJEin— Juit-liblEE Uli] JleaLhE^FiJEnL. 

a. JiEdiJiiin— PfEiiiEifUlve In two »n)t— Ily »«ntLomnean im>t»iy lot itdintp- 
[lon. Biiil by ijoliitlii^lo lliii iiicütii liy «liluli it vmiilil bs eiK^i'trd— Only one 
»Eiivur-B^l piiT]'Ei>iL« Eir üfiil, wiiir rfr^'ml» tilt T^drrifiEuij Kuttv Iei 1|> prmriEic 
ftnil lEk I'ulElIliifinE^'ritttlk, n^-- (jnEiTrtAjc<iji<tlEii)ii'^rEiH IhinilitrnrEiC«] niaf ji>|i 
lirilwFaii Oi'l iltieI mjLII GIQt ■EllarE'L] lir llllE Enw, «lllrrll MvrritEl pkTEIJ- tci »prH* 
lH(iD,iiliniEkliii;>oC*ia— IlirtI)' lncKiiti«tli»«aiuii>otwneu af <la_...» lU— Ul 

t. 11 041 ben}» III, 

iudiEmio 1 prfl^FtttlTf rpvEAEEin. ^iil tiflnihirntoin only a i1ott1rififrrf'n< t/f 
luEUEv— TlLfjEi^Ei Idukiitry 4'ipL>iv**acI Uie itfJ^EimJ nvvLEUlnii oi (iwi In Th« 






votti Ol Natut;. lUll lilt U« nt fimirii'iirR (rtiminiiit («r wlitrh Ih« Momuv 
li« im ■ «p«.»ni»iivBi, anil wltli ihm j »riniporihi-nwdef nijemiilion— 
Finisl ruin liui' III uf ibc U« by hotilliaiu....... „ „.,. tit — tn 

. Blndiuicci will condltlUdi or lalvaiiiin In tnilFi Jem uid lliullirni. 

Tl.c Etü»! KOnrllTar heathen tam—Tht iti:«J rlfitiicoiniipiii uf Jiidilim— 
Tlmlim-mWiifiifUi» J«w>, ami iliu -iiJB"i-mkl»K of rlw Üeaillin— Us- 

ltt«l]]jllDI> Ijieoljjffl or Ihfl Wliulu ZjIhIOIJ of llli:il(illE] — AITeHllIlDfU lo tilg 

imiTDivDl nvvtf «f rpi1«n}ptttm tn Chr1»l'# 01ieounv<4i rtcordail Inlhc llitr« 
Qui (li»i>tli ._ __._ .._ UV—ttt 

1. Tli< W«rkofR>i^FmiitltiD. 

A. In vreirpllilvinrni bj Cbrld. holh gn lively wid. puiWul) «. M — tH 

d, Tha llflpoT Chrlil vzblbIC* ch* dtnlTucUon of tln, and tha rokllutlnn of the 
U« In Uuman nvtuTO . ^^^-,^^-,,..^^^^- ,-,,,- ,-_--..^--^^i.^,^.,>,^».^,.^-^ »„. «A 

4t Tbt*uir[rIng>«fClicl>i|<oDiCanllr islKTtemil Inconiioiliiii iilUi hia ewn 
lift) — - 1<C — I« 

B> Tbtraiilticrlthe «Drli orChrlii- 

«. lUcailUlllliilinn lidi (ind. 

1%v1lr««iifl1 tbinarliigtnrrtirUt a tpvtlAllonof thp «lomtl lövpof God-» 
MbAp anoff Ibfl Diiumid* uf Gutl» bacoin« Ihrough ClirUl DbJ'ou of dUlne 
lot« ,_._..,— _..,.. _ _ „,-1*411, (JO 

F(iM<1inilya[Ki:vincaiiiitlnn «nittmly iiibji-nlvv— A chnnitr in llii dliw» 
iMnn otiMD lowultSidftlCctvdb; Ibe wriik of CliiliI— But ttcu sii UJ> 
fuppoatllDB the udf nitmnnl 1(1 tr,xa ta thqelTvcl, nnl t^f <'au»ei>f Gorl'i lovp^ 
I Cor. V. iO. _ _ _ til 

Bui tbii vEftH Inndci^ujitr tEinl UTilcuiibk-— Tliu iceimo cff the wr«th of Gad 
huantibJiiFllvebiul*~Anv<>liilliin uMtii' divine hoUneti - 4itv 

T1>r Ulltlnittlon iKlnrcn mjif mt mill üdioii ,.,. <ta, t>M 

Till rtlvine9)olin<>Bercvr9]e(i In cnitttlii a Inufolii iaiiiii>0[ ,. 1}t, III 

>. 4ffaXwpHtfii Ar>d 0wTprb>^Hi, frvf (li>in froTD iruilt ii.n1 punlihmcaf; tna Vidat 
WOH « cBbcttd oUjDcllviil) liy UKcld.aml mllicil In indlvlduali lu mtiits 
linlwtMnM _ „_ „._„ _ -.._« tag 

Th< Pjmlliial^jiiujHTiL-, MVtt ihc Jawfkh. Ena^iiAciihlF ham k portlf^iiAliiin tn 
»11 till prlvlli'ui»' of tlm Vlticrloin nf Gad— hul only \a be dbialtied ibrEUBh 
lUlmrnhlp null Cliflil, Ihr mili ;>trrcFi Aii<»«t.* 

Il<ii.n j,<..;.v.i iHp .iniiiciion lit 1 Ijplipvorin Chtiil into the itUtiun of 
4 ^titiavt ^ctatoaiitt Eha iLJi^rniicljitliin Df dLFlit'n riRhL^nuvQL^H aa iTl« 
otJntlVf imuil i>f TklcU. n> woli »■ ihr nuliJodU™ iiiinclpleof llfr; bonen 
lUDHMtarilr tU]l|WMd <ln|iikrtuie rroui o llfi u( iln, nnJ vnliani'B inlu llio 
lHlIr>l'^D(ChllRI ..„ „ WG, 4ST 

Ibd Appro; rill [on »( SslniloD I7 FlHh. 

d. no itiiure at Falih. 

TtM t«evv<lan otitlTlne rcycUtion hy un Intdtnul ilctcnnlnMinn of tlm 
villain llibrait»ct. «nil aol tn rBrar^nce to Ihr' btrjBCt, Abraham nssh ^iai- 
trfn of 1luMlK}it*ou<ri(n> lhMl> by [uih; Kmn. Iv. Ill _ Hi 

Cbitilinn fdih tnnilll!i>ri tiy lU object— A tAfuratd rvfcieuire to Cliiiet m 
tniolDid nndflira - _........,. _ _ 410 

A* «iwit tl.p rceullultyof tlteChrEttlanitaESilJne-paiutp lu (ti^tinction Irum tlie 
lmU\ It lfd. 

Tf\a Uw nqiilfi'» ov<n'lHSnir — hiitt Mlh ^vlrpÄilT ronfvlni r ftam, x. S„ 4^40,441 
TIw law lain litolf a [iL'iiill; k'ltri— rhD;jniipi!l'9l1fa-i:ivlnit ■plrtt— Inthc 

(cUstn.llic l«ir U "111 mi pIiMcI mrirly onilioirlcilirPi Iml ofpintltnl ln»r... 48| 
TbvUw u to fAf 4irifi>M4T4<d ritrljL-lldVun, itiil ilu-ir it-iRmotfi^rfi and (Huqarv 

IniltlxadoDi at It iliniTi^ fiiili. rram hIiIoii i^y. aV«*n ipimtanftivily 


Paul« appeali to the t^M"? "^ ™^y '^** '^^ outward Maflaic law la ui 
expreuion aftheeumal law of God .»....«.» » »— wp-*-». 4fit 

HftQce the term ba/jDv denotcj in a more general sense nhAt is cotntDOa to 
uotb JudAltm Hixd ChntlianKy ; in the one to ui ouCvArd, In ibe other to an 
inward Jaw „. _ _ „ ^ I6i,4« 

Undtr the Jetrlsh theocracy the service wu Elternal, if «aAatornn 
IfiaHfiarot — Under the Goepel inlernaJ^ ^v Kaiuörnri tm^m^itct — Its dpt^Eca 
Lüeatieol with itiaBtaia: the worship of the former ffaptturj. cf the l4(l'er 
TTMu^ioTifl^ ; in the one was Kara aApna. in the other ir nfLrj^.y .„.. „ 4G5, 46fi 

t. The New Life proceeding from Fallh^ 

a. The transformation af the Hlnful aattire by the Divine ; BccomplI«hed gra- 
dually i the aiitt^ oppneed not merely by the higher nature of man but by 

the Spirit of Christ (if Kcvfi a ajiof).,,^ ^^p.— ,.»-—...— -,^.-p— ..--'. ^-.. -.»>-> 46T 

All the mental and bodily powera iKcocno organs of grace— The Spirit of 
Christ peTTadeaall the peculiar talents of individuals i hence eharisms., 46S»1€S 
. Olijective JustUcation b9 an unchanji^eAhle ground of confii^ence. dtstin- 
guiahed ftomBuhJectlresanetiaoationi which is often an unoeriaia ground'- 470 

k. The principles of the new |Efe~Falth, £#0Tet Hope. 

iTJo-nr som«tEmeB deno'es the whole extent of ChrEatian ability — A^troTav 
Tp virrn relalaa pBTticularly to the JudjiEmenl formed by the Christian of 
outward things — Hence proceeds Cbrisiian freedom, which is shown even in 
submitting to outward restraint« ............ »....^. .................. ...».....„ 471—475 

Love the natuml eSiect uf falth^By the revelation of the love of God in 
rodemptlon, love to him is contLnually hlndled ,.. „.,........,......,...„..^..., iJi 

Faith and love partly relnte ta the hingdom of Ood as present, Out they 
have also a marked relation to the future, for the new life is in a state of 
constant progression, it longs after the perfect revelation of Che children 
of God .„ - 470—47» 

Hence hope neceBSarily belnnga to faith and luve — Peiaeveiance (n ihe 
work of faith is the practleal side of hope-....-,-.--....-... .......>„..,........ 47!> 

The knowledge of divine tEilags proceeds from faitlt— Proceeds from the 
■piritusl life— Dtfpeuds on the increue of love^Being neee^sarily defective 
in the present atate, ia connecied with the hope of perfect intuition 479, 434) 

Love the greatest of the ihree, because It alone abides for ever^ 1 Cor. 
liil. 13,« « „ 481,483 

c Special Christian virtues proceeding ftom PaJth, Love^ and Hope. 

a. rawtiiro^poavvrj distinguishes the Christian from the Heathen view of 
the world I only partial even on the Jewish standing-point; though Irs direct 
relaticn is to God alone, yet its eO^eta ate, oppwltion to all aeSf-eialCaiion, 
and moderation towards others -.»_...-. ...,.,........,„.,.».... 4^3 — i A 

ß- ata^poobi^n, sober-mindedness in conflict with the world, 2 Tim. L 7 ; 
and in sekf-eatimalLcn, Kom.xür 3 '..».... «.—...»....». \-<i 

f. ffo^ia^^The undersrauding undei the induence of folth— Wisdom and 
prudience .^.....,....^.,........ ......48G,4l7 

Analogy to the cardinal viriuea cf heathen philoBophea— Love occupies 
the place of diKoiod-uirri 187, 4AS 

T. The Church and Sacraments. 

The immediate relation of each individual to' Christ of primary import- 
ance — Hence the idea of a community founded on the unity of ibe Holy 
Spiritinhelievers. which counterbalances all DtherdiffercnccA. I^al. ill. 36. .469, 4^0 

The ^KnXniFia Isihebodyof Christ— Faith in Christ its foundation— Marks 
of iU unity, Eph, iv.4 400 

The Old Testament terms applied to Christians, aYio< denotes IteJr objec- 
tive CQUsecntion Joined with subjective eanctification — ii\moi the outnard 
and inward call considered as one— The Idea and the appeai«nco In general 
not separated by Paul 491 

But in particular instances, the spurious members are distmguiehed from 
tk« ge^iulne — Where the dilTercnce is pfrcr-ptihle the former are to tie 
excluded» iuothetcvea theteparation must be left to God ....».....,....>....>. 4M 



jAOHManditiuIiNii _ „ „ <M 

t 'I1ic Kirmmtntt— Bi]ititiii, mil Um SuppBt. 
Q. Ilaiillnn— ■■Hmilnir on CbilH"— In twofolfl Teftno« lil< III« floilJi Uli 

imiiimliiiii nCCIirtti: InaLuUfsi H'lcievf lo 1^c rittiirr snit inc Uol)' Üpttl i 
^-Th< oulwiT^ ftuü tljr liiwpL iir« > u]i puh^il Tu bei cunaLtucti«,,,.^^. ,..•».•» i'Ji,i'i>l 

Ar«aTt Df cMmniPmorstltin, I Cor, kl- Jt. t>t{* rataljmtlan E>f (Thrln'v milTor- 
Iftpi koit ft irJtilj:* ür<tni"iMil oüiiiniuiuon *v[iii kiiui; iarit = kl rtfrti^nt'^ 
Inrolvn mtsmnve lailia mulualQUDimualou»! )hU»ou - ..»llif— 41>& 

. TS* Klncdom vtUM ...»-„ „... - ».....» » 1» 

A, IUUM»nd riivnt. 
K. It( mUrvt M luirtutl» ptrEe^lt. 

Diriitiinll; ; ilic f^iiiiDi tuiiillila und iiniiuiiiLl, Ibe Ullsi (piillunl auil 
Ulilvofu] _ _ _ „ _ 100 

Bf (Altli 111 Cliiliil, Itie MFnilmik kli^KiIniii, llir aiwi ittWiDi u agipiiKit 
Ui IhK 4l«iv «pi'TUE nr «ritYVkVUfi bfij^oiii"« bijvei\'] ynstjit — llflnro ihp kin^nin 
oTOwk eujuculci wjtTi in« iil'n ejI tlL«i iiivtnlFilB cliurcia un mrlh -.., aaOiJiOl 

Ikjil Iti^ idm ■■ tILlI liiiiicrfi'tEly n'iili<i-ij --,..-.-..,.-.--.,,„..- ...,.-,-.-.... >U^ 

A IhrvtffriM npLiliimLiuii oT iTit »»-irn. ], Tlih jircicul iKicrnnl kiriiJonk 
rrl Docl, I Cur. iv. iOi Hitn. li». IT. ■!. Tlin (iiiuru nmiilelicpii o( It. 
1 Cur, iL IS. 3. The prtKnt os one nlib Ihe Euiuie, 1 Ttieu. ü. Ill 

» Tlieu. L 1 - M* 

A. Th« imainnly comiiiuuilj' vu-caiailiiif wIili lb« lutlilble cliuccb. 

l'liu kl<>i;<]om of Col (mliuici a. hlclii^c iplrltunl MDrEOi m which ll>« 
BfCl)<ij^ic of Ltic üliurcll i* lv-Ai\n'ti-^\\»iMsni tLED BlEllli^lJ tu tiUi li]f;lli<r 
Miirlil Uy Uio kilu-IeUlIt of Lud. i;|.ll. "i- 1=. l-'cil. 1. Hl. co!i>lJiin;il «Uli 
Epli. il. 14 _, _...„ .,.,._ so* 

CfiriAl U ihv ltti\i lit ihL« iiuitrrnjil rlkuioh. u uiilfintr Ih« divlnfl Aitil 
hunun iiaiuri:«— Tlio l!l«»ot ilw Lugu» — Nol iwlüoniully timntciftl *lili 
ü» p<c>un ulCbfbt — Kninn Inu ibiKuancn of UuiiUinity i-,*—iiSi 

B, Tb« fpfioaLtlonof Ihe k[HK<lunio/Civd 1« Itie kln^iEom nf rvU. 
Th* pivvileriot of iln Amniif: mnnkitid ^rtpunrntcd viEb ihe |irvvaLrni?« («f 

Dvil tu tl» tilebej wmM-^AU uua^n^^^nt** Eho pcntr cf 4 ajurkE whciac kluF' 
iSorV j* hfU» .X^rjr— FaTH ^Il4l» LIUl QVll ipifll- ^..AOD — .'^11 

l.'lir|pl r'tr rli'Hir'^yvr 'ir Ehis Uiij»^iliiin.-lliF iteaEli up) Nirfii Ely a ilfcEt^EiE, hnl 
Ir nullt) ■ 1 li'Eiii) — Cbiuliiiii' tJ>e Eiilii:ii> Drtiii liitiiig{i)i 312 

Tbl; <Dlll3it;^ vUli ^'"^ kJugdaiD af 'L?hÜ 4»rii4Mto[i bj' Cr.tlaliBiLa... .„,..... ...... &l;t 

C, TIi» i1tvt]c»[jmfnl oi ^iit kJnBdom of tinil tili Tlfi Eliial <:om;ilfEton. 
Th* ktvmiiplJjhiiLtfiil of ThcsEbmnk^of rcilMTJjjtiLri) « Work of ftfle^nce....... i^M 

a, AkOppiauiii t4 ipri^vDiJaciicc of naluriJ dvtiTi^nl «» »»»»...«.»» Ali 

^. Xt 0p}Taiin4 10 1«!^ llierlt*..,... » ..»....«.H.H..H... Mii,f(l& 

ApMUeni «IffiilMt uf firr :rlf-ä?i'milnutir>ii In hom, li., bitt niiE :he 
«l>Mllv*» Inl^i^IIoii l0f[Nc n «stiEHE^Et^ti^ ttimry— Bui >ti ubtilhcTumlfefcmica 
la Ihv arriitfinco iif tlif J«w> --....—.....-..-..-,..-..».»-....-........'<.-. -,.-,&14L — AIV 

Conliili'ii« ID Iliilf awn rlslileoutnnt Um «nuip uf Wir rejn^tlon of th* 
Jeni— i'hv ücnllli'B <iiii"'-<l a^iii«! iiteiiLRiiiliiiiua iclianccs un ilivlii« 

ftim — ..-.. 


10«»oiEiFCb'Im1iAr> n^inrLiInnce.Ibc jiika«Ej<rIcrorr<lQth«linnLW(Blill'{'oiLiiieE 
of dlTlii'toifr— Allutlt^m tu lEietQUAumaiLaliunorihn kin^ fUrui of CluiJ yiQ—^äX 

lt. Tin dntiitnt uf ibv Rmirrauibiii «iil ihi- SUte u^l^D 8»u] nfier UcJith. 
». Tütr dmtrmt ff iltr [tn;; fallet! DI3. 

Thf tplrounl aoiikitriinii iir 'Bith i pirpainElao tat tb< rutun— TVic Pi,i;n. 
SR1.-11S u[ u>luir, Kuiii. vill. tu. ._ .»..,- „...„ Mi,tit 

iEiM : aba nfi. i. n. Sk S Ita. IT. IS-as, 

■ tf I Ok IT. wMl CK. V. 1, B 

Da a4 <r Ac 

rical doTelopmeut of tlie Chrititiaii Chiirob as a body 

' to tKat of the Cliristiaii lifo in oach of ita meatUMTi. 

tb« latter vwm. Mm tnLueiliua fVum on uscliri.itian to a 

Christian Kt«to is not an event a]to.(?;ther sudden, and wicliout 

any Bropttrntorj- st<>p8, Mauy separat« rays of divine ligtl^ 

at diiEnrtut tiuica, vutvr the auul ; various iuflucnces of an-ak- 

^niog prepamtive grace are felt, lieforc the birth of that new 

Pdivina lifo by which the whole düiiw ter of nmn is dcBtined to 

be taken poseasuou vf, püT-vwi^il, nud tiiuiefoi-meU. The 

appeaittnce of a. new personality sanotitied by the disinu 

priuoiplc of life, neiieaxarily furms n great em in. lift;, but. tho 

comtaeocement of thia em is not niui'ked wit^h p^foot pim- 

eioti niul diBtiuctuesa ; ttic ii^w cmntiüii inanifoatH itself more 

))r IcNi gmiiuiiUy hj ita efttiota. " 'Vh<i wijid blowcth where it 

listeth, and tlioii hearest the sound tliersuf, but kiiowoat uul 

vlience it cometb, nor whither it i^th." Tlis same ina,y tie 

«fBrnUMi of Üie cäiiircli ccücctivcly. with this differeaca, how- 

erpT, ciwt liore the pomt of c»iiini«iice]uent is more vieibl? 

«id ■löti.tti.lly raiukod. 

L^ It i» tnio, tlmt Christ, during his ministry on earth, laid the 

Pkiuadotion «f tiic ;.utward siructiirc of liio ohurcii ; ho thüu 

' PiniMul thiit wifiTiiuiiity, thai spiri:iiid thoopriUiy, who!« 

m<TiidR-r» »cru huld to^uther by IkitJi ai niuit and a piofctaaioQ 

TUL. 1. 

k TUL. 1. 


of allegiance to him ta tbcir Kin;;; nad which vaa tha 
cboson yostvA for reociriiig nnd mnveyina to lül the triba «f 
the (>ai'th tliat diviue iuitwelliuc life, whicli he cam« to impait 
lo itic whole Liimiui ruco. 'l^i; foiinLaiii of diviiie life was 
Btill »hut U[i in him, and hiul not ditfused itaelT ahrond with 
tfiat energy und pectiüarily of dii-octioti, which wero caedntiol 
to tlie f<^rinatii>u uf thu ^hrletiao cbiircli. The a|<ostiuis them- 
oelvcs vave as yet confined to tlie hodily pivBcnoe and out> 
wnrd giiidnnce of tlio Rciloemer : thoiigh, liy the openOwn 
Christ, the somiunl )>iiuci}jle of a diviue lifo had heen di 
BJtfid !□ their btiurtg, find given itigna of germinatloit stil 
hiid Dot attiuned its full eipatmioii and jiemiliur (dinnictcr 
Jienoe it migltl be affiroiod, tlmt wltat coiiel.itiited the oni- 
inutiog 8|)int (itid the üssontial natiiivof tlii^Chmtian I'huich, 
an au nwocinlid« gntduallj <!Tjlargiiif; itself — (tin.- uiittjof n 
diviu« life nianifeaiin^ itöolf in a varietj of iudiridual peco- 
liarJtiea} hml nut yet appcjircd ; this event, indeed, ChriM had 
intimated would nut take plno« till pi-opamtion had been made 
for it by hiu euiEbringB and return to liis hcnv<.-nly Father. 

At hiH last interview with the disGipli>H. jiiet before his final 
fit^paration from ih«an, in answer to tbi?ir ini^iiiry res[>ectnu 
the coming of hie kiugdum, ho rcfurrL-d them lu tiio power ot 
the Holy Spirit, who woidd enn.blQ thorn rightly tfl iiiidcTOtODd 
the doctrine of his kingdom, and tVimi^h thrm with Bt i 
nicutu fur upretidin); it tliroiigh the world. AU the pro 
of the Saviour relate, it is true, not merely to oua fd 
cvniit, Ijiit to the wliüle of the influence of the Holy Spirit on 
the Apo8Ü08, and, tu n cotlaiu senas, on the UiÜTereal Chiudi 
founded by their tucatiN : yot the display of that infltienoe for 
tliC find time, furnis so dijrt.inguished an epoch iu Ui« lirw o( 
the Apostles, t}iat it uiny ]irü]>orIy Itc considonid as au e>^ 
oiftl fiilfilmcnl of these proiniscis, Clirist pointed out to tha 
AfOBÜe« auoh a |mli«ihle epocli. which would be att«iidod wttli 
a tiruj couriccioa of u giVRt iutäraal opvratioii cu their tii)Qd& 
«n unwavering consoiousiie&!« of tlie i II und initio ii itiipnHod by 
the Divine Spirit ; for, heforo liia final du^iwinrc, lie eiyoiaed 
Upon tliutn, iitjt to leave Jerusaleia till that [.'romt!« nas fill 
filled, and they had received tliat baptism of the Spiiit whieli 
wiiuld shortly tnka ]>liu;o. 

Qu account of this event, the Pentecost which the diacapki 
Ork-hrated soon after t tie Saviour'» departure, is of audi gi«t 



rne crrcisriAir 

iinpoiiiioDc, lu markiijji the (■ctnniRUCcnaniit of iLe Ai>witolJc 
Cburcli, ftiT liere it frniL |iubltc1y dia|iliivcd it« t«K;iitiul cbu- 
twter. Ni'it lo the a]it)eanui™ of the Sou of Cod hiin»«U 
Ml nutit, Uli«' Uta tliu ^-ruutcst vvi^nt, im llic cc>]n)ncnciD}( 
iwiiit of tlio now di^'iiio life, procei^diiiü ffuin Ijim to the 
tiuiiiiui nicv, which lia» &um spreHil utid i>|K>nitE(l tjirougk 
fcuuouaiivi: ngca, iinil wUI [oiiiiiiiie Iv »jx^mto until its fiiiaJ 
wl'jfvt is aUaJnGd, Mid all maukindare iruiitiforiueO iiitu tlic 
ImHgu of Christ If «u cuiit^niplut« t)iis gtvtit tiruiaoction 
fnini tlib«, its tnüy proju-r |ioiut of ■view, wc nliull tint bo 
(«CDptc^ to cxplaia tlic ^Tcnt^r li}* ths less ; wo shall not cuti* 
*idür it Btnuiyo Ihiil li* nmist woiiikTful uvciit in tfaü iiiuei 
lifij of lUitiikiiiU sliouIJ bo iieeijiijpjmied hy eslraortUimr^" out- 
«unt «ppntninct», us Rcniäbta iiiOicatiuaB of its eniälcDct*. 
Slill loss 8fi)kll we I« iuducfd to louk ujioii this groat truiis- 
action— tu which wb recognise the necessary hejnimiug of « 
oc« «poch, UD raeciitiAl iiitcmiuilint« Etup in tho rrlieinuc 
development of tliu AptiRtles, ivnd in the foi-matjou of I he 
Chuj-ch — as somethinj; jmrcly mjtViicaJ. 

lliu (liscijtlus tnua-t huvt; lui;kml forwnrU with inteunc cx- 
poottition to tho fiilfiliiiunt of tiiat proiniee, which the Saviour 

I WliDcier lookn Dpon Christ only sh li» hijjiiral lic'wg dwiiivpud 
turn ih« EWiD* iJtlH"''i"f Implanicd in hunmii miturc (aUbäugh au 
■baolalely liigli«tt Ircioa cannot lottivullj lir iiifiiin.i] iii ihc iltvcloji- 
■u<Bl cf hniDUi nilun: ttaai chU ■Uadlni^-iiolni), tan*l inkc on ohcdiI- 
il\j different view from ourx<Wi.>ii of ihv triiii'^uuCiuu of which h« mn: 
•pcakiifl, llioii^ii he nia; >p[>iDXlnialo Lo ua in llic mode of vlcwlDg 
iiurticular paiDU. Wbuu Ibuu, in liie £-vdv on tlic rir't Cliriaiinn 
iVolL'tiO'^tt ia ÜUS Scoiirui I'att o( Vi'luar'» ai:iliichriß /Ur leiariui'Aafl- 
tidte TJmiagit (Joutnal for Scientific Tiiculu^v'). Bu\n, "[hul b liuin 
mxf UTive wheD «hat i« tiie n;*iilt of fr<?t'il(iin in man ohall be 
coDiJilanHl M divine, und llx Holy Spirit :~ re rvnililv snuiL ihut auch 
t lim« h tomlur. or mhcr !• alrtia^ (^acna ; H buit ikl'ivuily reni'Letl lU 
lii«hiiut püiiil, friim «l>ii>h miut cnmie ä revolution in tho mods of 
lliinkici;. Wc cuODul.. liawi'rr. Iiulil thin viaw tu bu fht CliriftiiLU 
(•iiv, )>iit enllralj' o|'p'»!lc tn n^al C)iriBtiaiiit,y. IIi'W icrc^i^inciUbic It 
ia «!tli til? upDMAlii' licHuf. in uDpiijiLiliccil tliinktr. Bon lu muck, 
ttflliiXilKilgCK ill l>!ii llrlitjifM drr Vtmu^Jl (Itcllgliiii of Rcnxion). ji. IST. 
Tlie Uoljr Bpiril, in ihi^ CliriBtiui m.-:ih:, ii iicvir tbo itiriuo in (be 
twlur« ol inun, hut a cnnnniinicutlon liom Oixl In (lin niitiirc of uaD 
(inciMlilff of iuulf of rpnL'hiiiK ilx tii'iiul ilonii nation), wlildi InuoiuM 
llHntij nlwil to & butwr onlfr of life, lint ili)s(»|icmatiinLl ciiui- 
muiiiefttiiiii froiu (iod, ht no nitaiu muLmilii^iri an iii't;u-.<*'1i;<li:iui;ui of 
Uk dlrlna and of Cmeuom It ihc nature vt inun, buk ritiliur jm» 
MppoMH both. 

lialicMlly n-pmUfl.» Tut] iliij 
tiltär äual scpmiitioii (vom tbdr Diriuo MaittaT, wliuii lliat 

' Frofearar Hitzig. In hin Si'.jid/»Atri!»'n Olier 0*tem unif PfingMtn 
(LcMen on KaAt^r and Cmli^MAi). H^iüulberg, 1937. niainMiiu, lliu. 
llii» uvL-ni ucirurred nnt itt thq .Inriili TanliKwit. luti nitnc ilnj* earlier.! 
aTid th^ir.« diiy of tliu piviii;.' at Vau L^« from äiiii 1* uIm u» be Hxed] 
tHiiiiu Unyv curli'T i lliiil Acts iL 1, i>^ to tw nndi;r>:looil, " wbon Um ih}') 
uf P^'■nl.c('l)st ilri^w uear,'* and tberefore (t«noK* a time befor« th« aetiialf 
xeuTTcQcH «f thi* rennt. An ovidoiioi Utc lltfii MMilion, it t> Krourkvd 
\\»iii, in rareu G. uul; th«' Joni tetllfd in JeruB&l«n). those who c^t of all 
Um CDuntrio in which Limy wiirn (»lUtUiniil. haJ. luitltail In Jcrunloui 
Trum u «troiii; rt^ÜK'louB fwIinK. arc tu«IltioD<^J. oben, if ihg rcrcrcaco 
livl beiin to oiiij i>[ Üiv |>riiii;iijtil ftuM, llia muttltutla «l /or»iyn tcwit, 
who «IUI-- fiMiH all fiurlB, would htico bwn «■pcciillj' noli-wd. A^voM 
Ihn view w<^ hiiva (0 urgn iho fdllowlag ooiuldontlonji. The irardt 
Act" iL l, '■ Wlicii Ib« diiy o( L'ouUMMt watt fully como," wödM bo j 
BIO«; Dutumlly understood vt tho mIukI arriral of tlmi day. n» irAi4pa>» 
T0Ü xfi'"' or riiv doipdr, r.|ili. i. 10, kiid Qitl. iv. 4. ddioio t>liQ actual ' 
arriTil <jf apfiolDUrl i.lnio; iIioukIi we allow thiii, lu errlalu ooEi- ' 
acxion«. tlie^ mit)- dutiute ihti iieitr apiircach af «iine nntcioa {Mint of J 
timii, n« In Luke ix. 51, wtipro v«l IL U lo be notlooil Chat it In auP 
uid "tJie ilay!' tiul "CAe day»:" und tliii« iJie titnc of Ihc dopartcnl 
of Ohrist frum iho «iLrth, u-bii'b wus n«n uoluolly Br>prajKitiius. ^' 
Bikrkad in gvntral Uitin«. Ilnt »>■ to tha oannoiinn of thin |iaf»affvitt) 
tli« Act', if VC QK ineliDcd to undurauui! tliutu words onli of the near,] 
»pprokab r>f Pcniosott, vri| do iiut k«! wh/iiueh * ti^clIÄv.-ain» vt t^f 
litne ibonld have b«en tf>v«n. Had Luke thoaght that Iho d*)r of^ 
■jiving iliu Ijkw OD Slniii wui dillVrr^iit tTfia Lhal of Lha PciimcmI, il 
miglitlKi cxpwied that liawoul'l havo inurkcd mora preubeljr tiia nuin 
«aljjoct. Hnildn, ihcrc nn no Initio» ti> tic riiiinil, ilttvc it dkj in Mm- 
inemoTAUou of liio Kivinj; of tti« Low vi» ulisorvifd bji tbc Jew», But if 
WD iiudi.'1-xiMid tlic wotdH ivi rcfuniii^ lo ilie ttctuul nirlvnl uf l'ciitacm. 
thi; inif^irtniii» cirfiiin^ the xhuK; iii itilaiiuii t«üit! trordii imincdiatcljr 
folluwiuir. iiiiiJ l\i<: whulti üciiU'.ilot ibeuBinlire. U vct7 tppareut. Tliii 
foiiHt. H'>ii]id üt'L'anioii i)i» nbbiniililitiii of bvUgvcru al on early hour. Thf 
ward« m V(<rA(.' h, we iniiat. ('urtainly iiudcmlanil n)«nlj> of tueh j«w> v 
win MKidcnt in Jiiruiuleni.UKt nf niidi wliocnmo then« fir«tai. ilii» liac. 
But from n <^oiu|>ariiiuu witli lt>u yili vamp, it i* gvidi'nl tliut Kortuaü 
tt lint to bu iindcrvtooü alto^tliar lit i.hc siiao neiwo in libtli vfrMa ; tiul 
in ih« liLttor. ihon« ore iipuk«]i of who had tbnir rcKiiii-nvc cUcwbatd 
sud ware nnly ■njouming fc>r a «burt timo in Jariuiiloiii. ATid if w«J 
f^nuit thiLt tbc ^<cr»mi« xpokiu of bidnnueii to tlie iiumbvr of the if 
who forniKily dwolt In Mhcr liiDiiit, l■il^ ior a lonff lime put bud Mttt*dl 
tn Ji^ruulciu. ai* tkg Fujiiuil uf i\\a Tliooiiruey, then it la cloir that, br 
Lhu \iiiSriitoiytt 'PmiMw, we iiinni, iindvrilttnd «ucb a* fvr woio ^>KUl 
cinfi; wcTc jiut itduio tu JuruKtiuui. f uriliar, ihur« wera «Im tluw 
(lulled I'ruBuljim. w)il> «'ito (ijiiml tii urciit. nuiiiiicrs al Jenmkm. to 
HiHiio »tHtciai iiccuiriii, null ltd* could \Ki uu oilier tlijin Iho fcaat of iW 
tecML Uoubtleu, by "all tlic dni'lluni ai Jeruijilem,'' t. I|, «bo nt' 

THE eiiin9Tt.\!: «unicH tx ?*t.i3rw«, S 

iras celebrated, whoae object go nearly toui;Iii:d ttint 
tttliicli lAixmiJilly Ofcupknl tliclr iiiimk at. tin! tiiTiO, rti«l must 
tlittrurün- huve luiKud tJidr uuiiinin t-xjit-t'tiitliiiiB sUll liigliiT — 
the JcwiKh E'ciitccoBt, tho fvtust wliicb wiis hel<i seven weeks 

^l^ftw llio ToiHuTQr. Tim fuiiM. ticconliii^' to the ririgiiml 
MuBnio inBLitiition. reLit«d uiily to tliu Urst friiita of Uurv««t ; 
nor w any oihir ruoaoD Ibr Us cclobrntbii uUduceil by Jo»;- 
idm» und Philo — in this rr-spt^i^t, only n disluut reseniVjkin,'0 

■ cc'ii'iil be traced between the lirnt ü'iiit»i of the tintiind Cren- 
Bftiini, mid ttiun; i>r the new Spiritiiiil CrL^tioii; this aimlw^ry. 
lit is true, is often adverted to hy the »ncient Fathers of tJie 

■ Oim-cii, init Iiffiiro tho fidfilracnt of tlio Savioui-'R )iromi»e. 
luubt lutve bec^ ^'Cr/ t:ir fi-oin Um thuiighUi of ttie ditiui[)leH. 
But if we vctittire to cnedit tJia Jewish Tniditions.i tiiis fea« 
Jiiul uloo ti rvfeiviiui; to the giving; nf t}in lan> on Moutit Siiiui ^ 
lieiice, by way of distinction, it has hern «lil^d tho feast of llie 

[ly of the Tjtw.' If this be jwliiiitti.'d, llien tlie ^vnU <if 

t'brist nwpeotinit the new rfvtiiiition uf (JoJ [ij him. tho new 

Illation c»tal'li«hctl by him between ^^^d iu>d Ma», which ho 

Jitmwlf uiider Iht^ i!esi{:ijsitiyii i>f the Ni.iw Covenant' jihiced in 

i>|i]Kiedtii>ii to the Ol'L — iiiwbI hiive heou vividly «icilIIkI tu 

i\t! miitds of the d!gci]:ilcs by tiiC CJ'Iciji'fttion of this t'eaHt, n.Tid, 

i' rhe axmu time, their iiusIunk hn^f in^' wonld he nitire sti-oiiply 

3;dted fur that event, which, nci^urding tu jüa promiee, woidd 

«firm wid gloritj the New Uispeiisiitiun. As nil who pro- 

" to lie the Lord'» disciple» (^ipir uuinher ttien amoinited 

liiUllWtiUheil fniiii Ihe Jaw», are miüiu', all wlio wiirt f.hfii llvirifj at 

^unuDMin, willioDi deiormining wlicüicr Uic.v had ni^^iilcil llierc nUvnyr, 

hr odIj fur a hhurl time. Tlio wliule nurrative. lohj, pyia xhe luiprti^iiiu 

|ha( B (trcali:r mulliliiilc of pcraoD« ihaii u^iulI were iben smiciuIiIciI »t 


K'lticb BMy bo fntmd eolleirted in a DiBtierf.ntioii b<r J. M . D»nit, ill 

ben'i Novum TettAneotuiii o 'FalmiKla jlluetTulntu. p. 740. 

■ ThAl th«f AKjDBLifieil iriDuvkiiii; Bucli u rerL'rcQi:c,iijii.yl>i,-cundii[lfd 

P^iu campaniii; bcdua xü. 1, utd six. 1. 
< Th« vord tis^mi, n-?\ vhicli lias been used to d«iiule ^uth die ÜliI 
*nd til* Now Ilia [H-'iuHt ion, is Ink«» Ti'niii )iuU]A,n relntkiua. »h liunify- 
liiic It eoicuatit or ugrrcmcDt, but in ii« npplicniion to lliu ritlHiiüii 
)l'vL»t^*i' Oail und luiui, lliL' ruuduuivij luL iilcu niiiHl ii«vor bo 1o-L sigbt 
|oi. HiUiiuly, LhnL of» rckt.iim in which iht-ir. in ? n )»<.■!. hi nu rudcrv»! «ud 
uuiJiiioDHl, a». In llilscaw, a uciiniiuiiik-jiUim iWm 'lail tu rnuu i< cuu- 
litlUBiitcil b)' ÜIC obirdieiicu at faith uu tlu: purl of ibu lutlfir. 


to ouc Iiuniired uixl twuiitv)' wuru wtnit tu mvet ilully fiir 
mutual odiflcatiun, »o ou thu sulonm day, tii«ty wem hbkiuIiIoiI 
in n chamber,' wliicti tioüonliii^ to Orlcntol ciMtoii« vm 
Hpeciall^ afiait^necl to iWutional «:icrcui«8. It waa tlie Grat 
aUAvi liuur of pmycr, about niiiu iu tlio morning uid. to- 
ci>r(liiij£ to iFhut A'u iiiii«i snipiiitsu wiui then the toiw of the 
ili«cij>li7s' fceliik^a, we tat^ tireauuo tliitt tli^-ir pmv«*!« turool 
to ttio wUjwl wliicli filled tJwir soulo— lliat im ilie tUv wlicn 
the Old Law Ijnd bL»«» promiiIf!Meii with such glorj, the New 
iiW might be glorified by the ciimnwiiiicnlion. of the |iri>nii, 
Spirit. Atid wlwt ibcir unlvnt (ttvHnM) tmi pv&yen eoiifcUl for, 
wnat their Lonl had jti-omiBwl. was ptMed. Tliej le 
i;loviitt'il tij !i non" hIuIc nf ininti, jjervftilt-l l>y k4^nt uf joy- 
ftiliic^ Aiid pov^er, to wLiuU tli«y liad liitliorio beca vtiui^^en^ 
RjJii KfiEod by an iiiBpirLii>; impubiu, to toilify th« ^nil* ^ 

' Wllhoul douljt, ilio^ cxpoiilurs »dupi Ibc ri^lit vi"ir «rh« «uppo«, 
thit nut merely Ihc apüMllu--^ liut &I1 lliu iMilkTcr* vvrc at Ihu 
vtwiiiUuili (it tht)ii;;li, in Al-U i '^>. llir upnalliM «tu priiiiui" 
ipnrloil, yet the iiaStpoi a>\\t\:i\vt\} renn tlie chief milyctt (i 
yihitiii tliu Sirun'ic at thr Iw^iiinin^ nl thu leroml chipt«! luii 
reten. Il by na meaiB liilluws. Limi tM.-i:au«c. in ch, ii. 14. the 
ilnnc arr rsfJivsenia'd sa Rpwham, th« wuninlily wax confinoil (o the« 
»lone: l.ut here, iw clwwhero, they bppMr the iMwIcn tnd ropreuBU- 
tivi:^ «r Uic wLuiu i^liiiriili, siiil difAinguUh thcnwelica from the (oA 
ill« iiemuar lael i.oeelhcr; Aet^ii. li. Th« KTsnl IcniiOlianiit of 
ftii^t »hiclx I'clar l>i'iii{(« forwurd iti hin iHioi'iinc. thitt tho giiU of tl 
Spiril, whjcb, onrW llie Old Covenant, ircn: iiii|ianBil nnly to ft W 
L'lua of jjcrfolis, »iioli sm Ihe pn>p!iele, — nnilcr ihe Kc* Covenotit, »hi«! 
romö»w every null nf «opuraiion in reference u> the hijbor lift), «t« «am- 
nmniuBtc'l withocil distiuniou w »Ü belicvrra— ihit gmlfiwt vauM bo 
nltOf(iith<ir luai. ^i.i;liC »r, if we i.-oi]<iu«d cvi'rj lUliiK hora muatloDvd 
(b« apntles. Tbriiiigbniit, the Actn, ulicrcTvr tlm iu:ciicj of the Spi 
If manir«lo<l tiy similar uliankci«nstiL-3 in iliuae irlio wen oouTened 
ft living fuitl), we pcivuive an eviilmt boturigcnoiiy with lliia firat grot 

> Suüh a eham)>er «tm Imllt in the %i^r.irn style, with • flai roof, snil 
e slairi-ase iewiiiDf Lu th* (yMirtryiirvl, inrip^oy. ;v;?, Acoordlntp 5o tiB 
lurrnii'T iu Ihi- Acta, we inuet auppoiE it io hare Kern a clwinlwr in k 
prival.u liiiuMi, But, fn iuelf, theiu it »ntliiiig to foiliiil nur Lup^Hwiiig 
(lint ibc difiuiplee met together in the Temple at ihe lint honr of pnyir 
during ill« I'auil.; llidr ]iro<.'e<Kllnire wmtld I.liim liuvc gnlnod ranch 1: 
HiiiorivtJ. thari|-h not In teal import&ni-c. as OIhIidumh mwnUiin* : fi 
it pcrfuiiiiy nmuirJtil witli l.lie i^uiiiiw of tlio Cbri^iiiiii I>itpcimi.(.jiin, iidI 
luiun r™iriutfd U> [jrirMouliir l.iiiiu* und (duci.-», a<n\ 'ihi'VfrMiaq Ihfl 
•iiilijiction or profsim; nnd saotwl. tii;il the tin-l offiipl*n of tfjc HotJ 
iplrlt *fc>ulil uiKv pluue, iiH in a tcmjilo, but to aa utJiuarj dwelliaj^ 




amptioii, oC whicb now for tlia liret Urne tliey hiid rii.'hl 
KMVcpUonn. Extnuinliniiiy njiptitmnora of iiiitiirc (a ckiii- 
^imctjon dmilar to wlmt haa ha|i|>ened in other JmjiortüuC 
epochs of tha hUtmy of immkiixl) awompaiiied tho p^t 
frWKU tlien going on iu tliu apiritunl worlä, nnd wcro myrn' 
bolio oT that which ÖUod their iumoHt Houk. An eiirthquitk» 
attended Ly s whirlwiixl sm.tik'iily sliook the building i& 
which tfaej were assembluü, u »ymbol to theni oF ihat Siiirit 
which moved tbcit ioncT mnn, Flaming lights in the (orm nt 
toiigiltK KLwajiiijii Uirmigh tli« dtiimbiT, ami floiiling down- 
iraraa settled an tlieir lieiula, a H^mbul of tiiu new tonpn« of 
II tbo fire of iuspircd emotion, wliJth streamed forth from tlie 
H h(^ flfimc that glou'oil within tlißm.' 

H The koocuut vf what took |j1:ic<? ou this occueloD, ienia un 

Hback at last to the dc[K)sitioiiH of those why were present, the 

jVoiily pvrrtoit» who votild ^ve dirbct. t^stimoLiy eoiicemiiig it. 

And it miglit happen, tliat the gloiy of the hmor life then 

imparted to them, mi^^ht m reflect its splendour on sorround- 

ing oiijnjtj«, that liy virtue of the interuiü iniraeli! (the tlova- 

tion of their inwaiil lilö and con»ciouan«§8, through the poww 

of the Divine spirit), the uhjects of outwurd [icroeptioa 

H nppeiuvd quite changed. AikI thus it is uot Lmpowbli?, that 

H nil which jircseattHl itself to them aa a perception of the out- 

" ward aettscs, might be, in fact, only a perc*ptiou of the pre- 

domiiuuit iuward mental ututt!, a tiausnous ohjectiveu^^^ of 

what wiw openitiug iuwardly witii divine power, similar to the 

ocfltatic visane which arv elsewhere meiittuued in Holy Writ. 

Wlutevur amy Iw thought of this explaoation, what uoa divine 

in tlie«reut remains the same, tor this wits an inward procoaa 

in the souls of the dist'iples, in relation to which ovcrythiiig 

DUtword i*TW only of fliihurdiimto siguificnnce. Still, there ia 

nothii^ ia the ncirutivo which rondera eiK'li n guppostloa 

nroGBHuy. And if wo lulniit. that thei'e watt really au cartli- 

'!Iinlw«4)iBh b^trhlsBBd. tlffi infaalntaats out of thoir hoaioB, it 

tu easily expluiiicd how, though It happened enrly in th* 

mumiiig oftht: fcust, a great multitude wuidd lie found in. tho 

•troets, and the attention of one and another being »tt.nustcil 

to tho extraordinary meeting of the disciples, by dtgiet^, a 

P' Oi«gDi7 tlie OriiiL beiulifiilly reirnirka; ■' ITino cat quod mpcr 
PM'ort* [irimna In )ingunnim »[keclci äpiritiia Snnctua inaeilil., ijuia 
nlmirum quo* TOf-^itril de se prottaiii la^uoite« lauil." Lib. L Ep. it. 

...I n 


gml <xov<i of pcrBODK, ctirioiiN 1» know wliat viOA going (M, 
would wllucl üTouud llie houee.' The question nuij i«- u^utl, 
By what waa the nstonUhineut ol" tliw bjirtjuidera e3]»eciany 
excit<Ki 1 At finst Riglifc, ih« won!» iti Aola iL 7 — 1 1 appear 
eueoeptiUt: of Imiwii- iiiieiEirotaUon, tliat tlw piumunt'liv wwo 
aahuUHhed at hearing IüiJÜciluk wlio knew no langunge but 
LIm!>t own, npcwk in n imrnliur of forei>,'n lAitgiiage^ vhid) 
llwy could nut have IohItoI in it natiirtil wny' — tbiit, thcrtfure, 
we miifitüonultiile liml tlio faculty whs imparted to hdievi 
l>y IUI cxtmonUiini'y opurutioii of Uiviite power, i>f speaking i 
foreigu Iaji|,'tU(,'e8 iK-t iic(]iiitTel by tlic iwc of tlicir iiatuiol 
fucultiea. Acounlinyly, »iiice the lliird ceiuuiy* il luis been 

I Tha qurstion i», How aro wn to oxplain Um dilliealt ««riU rfii fur^i 
rftJTi|>,m AcU ü. S) Tlii.' pronoun lavrti! loiuliiu« tu rehr lb.« worli (« 
what Immmlliiicljr precadeil, thit loii'I xiiiuikliig of the ponoiu MMaiblaL 
But tlica thp UK of the singular b remackiililu. Ami Biiioo v«nte 9 i» 
llic pHfu'ljial i-iiliji^uL, WIS III»/ t«r(>r ill« |)ruiiiiiit Turirqi la (liat; til* 
7n'i>f>/vt)]U[vvrH 6 aiievaaaltoUivO'mxpoud to the tyim oaf rerm 2. JTot 
onl}' L« U moro niU';^ to mfvr 1I19 iiruumiQ rairrii to »hat tminvillaUtfj 
piwudvi! in verm: 1. bat alto vcrK> Z and 4 nitbci Uuui v«tw 2, Mutujl 
ihcBiost Btrikijiu; facU) In tin- iiorruLiv«; It uIho entirely fftt^un lUi^ 

ci]ilei in f;'''iii^ vent in llidrfeelliijpi, and rnunt be Mkca axaoollectiirt'^ 
noun, HigiiiFvln^ n uüiifiiW illn, la tthiali (he ilUtlnutloa ol iudlvMiitl 
token woulii liG loat. 

' Thu wotJpi gu'u uA DO TctKon to BiippMO thilt th« fcy-dbuidtni look 
»iltines at lienriu^ tlin diu^ipl«!) iiicak uf divine tbiog» in a ilifitircnt 
biigitiit;!) ft-um lliu EAcrod u□<^ 

' Bj* muij .if t)>c nndcbia it ha* been nnppniicil — what n ItUml inlvi^ 
T>rul4ititiii ui tlic »..itils li. 9 v,'l11 allow, and eien farouta — that tW 
miriula romiitcd In llin. ttiji.t, tlmugh all anokn la niie auil tU« lam 
1iiii(;uii^, luicli uf tlio livarent li-.-lk<v-cti thul lis bcnrd lb«ni speak In hi* 
uwu . ititui /tie Jjitxciffiai flurV, noAA^ Si äicoi/iT0<u. (Ik^Ui:}' Niu;. urat. 
11, t 71S, vrli» ,vi:t dueB iii>l jjrnpDimil tliin i\av nii pcculiailj hit 
ovru. it bo« Utcl.T Viecu Ltroviulit roiwunl In a peculiar uianaer by 
Sohnockciiljur^r. In iiiü ßrilrilij-:n zur Kintfüwtn "i's A'fKn TfUtamnd 
(Ooulribuuons towatdu ati JutmiinL-llua tu the ^ew 'IVnitaiiirai). p. St. 
Tlie «peakur», by ilia power of iuapi ration, nprruwd w l"»w»^ 
taWf on tlio fcelioig« of thi>lT t^utiueptitilo hearers, that lh<^.v iDraliiii>_ 
torllj tmoilatfd whal wnnt ui thvir hcarl« ink) Ijitiir inutlinrluui^u 
aad uuilorAtontl it lu if it had hecn epokcn ia timi. |{; the oivmcnt 1 
lanpiration , tlio inward cainniuuian ul' t'-etllng via* »a Ki.rijiii;ly tirounliB 
(onb, tbul tliD liiiKtiu-I wall üf Etifpamiion wus iMiiiitOy iak<n ^ iny. ßuL 
in orilnr tii rfiilnnuine tho rorreetni-as of lliia iiioilc of wipluunlion. il" 
nwj hü of QU to inrplre, — If ihe Inmnui^n; In vhir'li the V' .>t ' 
addnnad wm qullc förci^ tu tbum, tlic natnral niiiitiniii of huuito in-S 
ISKuuno nrwild bn «liollj naatiog, and w«uld thu« be nompcaaiM) ij , 



ncrallj wimilted, that s. siiperHahiraJ gift of tongtics was 
nporUKl uu t)üä uc^HUHvu, by u'hjcti the nit^ru i*ii]>id prctnul- 
itioa of tbe (!W]i«l among the heathea was fiieiiitated aurl 
otnotol. It Iiiut licwt uiigcd tlmt aa in the uporf.olic «g«. 
Qjr tbiugs were «Hl'cU'd iitiiiii.-(liut«ly \<y tli« prcdoniiiialiag 
»tiw ugeacy of Uotl's Spirit, which, in later times, have 
un cflvctcl tliroiigh hiiiDiin menus ik]>pri'pnntv>l mid Nincti- 
ftcd by it J so^ in Ulis iiislanoe, iniiiicdial« iuai^nrutJc u sluud in 
tlie [iliHMi of thtiBQ naLuni) lingtml acquireumiiU, which in 
iuitr tiiuos buvt! eervcd for Lhu prujiOjUiitioii ol' tlic i(os[>i:l. 

uiitboIq wLiich jinxluced so ialenml uiidcmtjiuiliDgl Of «lu lb« 

krainalc luigunge of lh< Apenlcrs liot ultogcllicr farcign to ibc hcurtn, 

aljr uul to fimiiliar on ilitiir iQüUier-toiigue I Bill U wua un cflbci uf tL« 

amn) ruuiuiuuiiiu jiiiHluccd \>y tbi; jiower of »plrllual inltiiunuc, unit 

Itlic}- iD<ire coHilj uudsntovil lliuan »li« ^pukv ia a buguagu dijI (uuiliur 

ft« ibtm; lliQ wuil of liicullluriij' «11» noi leU. AVltal wuatlditMvil to 

Ftliem niLiM mlcUiKible na if »iMkuu t:i Uiuit mollRT-lntigiic. hi tlii« 

lyt}, ilLhüUi;li uu iLe lupucMllion of u powetriil »pirlLual iiitliiCDi^e, by 

(hich ltt««MinM uf Uia IVnluiiuetul ninclc Is not liuiiini! hitt pre^up- 

J, It would bean cxtilkublä |>iiVL'huli>t'iL'al fui.-:. Muu b|ii'ikkljii; wiih 

bo vdoar of itutpimtiun, itiu.<lu u> ^1I;p^l.>I^liiuIl »n iIiukit H'h<i wem tint 

ekpnbleofuuili'ritiiti'liiiKkUnguueofoTvif;» to tbeiu. »iiaiUr to wlutwa 

are told of Buriiaril'i äcmioiia on (be CniäulvH in (Icnisiuij' : "(JlhiiI 

Qama&ieia ctiam ^lopulU loqucus miTo suilicbutiic nfici^tui ctJsHrmonu 

tjai. qu«ii> iikitslliKi-rr. iil|iij>Ui ;ilu>rliie Ijn^tiu^ !i(-iiiiiii->. vuluhaui, 

niagls ^itain ci pciti.Utlnü ciijuiilibot posi cum toquouti» inl«rprati» in' 

tcllcclu lüCUliuiiL', M.iilili«ikn iUutom iluvotio viiWin'iir, i-iyii« rd I'Crt» 

Epotmlio ludBl» poclntuui. nmK vt rffii&io Incrimarum." Miiliillon. eil. 
pp. Beman). tom. ii. p.lUi'. And this woulil fur tlic irioHl p&rt »grva 
Viui the IntcrprcUtloD of nxy hoii^urtd friend Dr. Stciidd, Dut a* tc 
the finl mull« uf «(|i1ji[t»(.inn. wciluiu>i,BUc>tli>iL ('nii ulluwur jiiBlifyniir 
HtotltoltDK for the conimoii inicrrirctntitin of tlict miruulc In qiiL-«Llan 
anollicr. wliicli iloot nui toiiie m.Tir«r ih« pjnuholoitiual aiwlwgj, but, uu 
Ihe oomrary, I- luribor fmiii it, soil d.icE uiil ^o nii-lurslly cüiinoot ilMilf 
with tho Tuirrttive na n trbolu. W« «^unnat illow an apn«iil to tht 
■oaloflrr «illi tho pbououeiu al ti&iiii»! muKiiiMitiiii, iilthun^b, iu 
nÜBThiig to BUeb an nnalogj, vc und uotb ng objcctioaiiblc. utf tnorc 
than iu Kei]«n1 tii tlie aDaloKyWlivtwu iLi: aui-vtiuiiir^l au<l tlm natural, 

Sn>«ldoa ÜMilifiWotico of pajebitalciivuinniunceii, aii<I of ihacuunc^npio- 
DciB|[ tfcani,i>iliul lo«t ttirlit of. Dnl-elill. iu nuUir« urKivnci', wticm 
«vcij tbing muiit be well jp-aiiudcd, wc ■annnot itiaoh ■ value to *udi ■ 
dMiamanl uatll U i* K>-£OTialu(.il wliiit 1« mallj' truHtwurtlij In tin: au- 
eooots of <u«h plioounniin. An to the ■'»^^ud tnodo of int^jrprciBiioii, it 
aa volj ho DoaiiiuiiiiiMi liy our aduptiu^ tbo buppositioa. iliai wu ba«« 
Otn not a tradition fruui thv fini sourcu. bill cnly n rcprof iiution, 
«fcicfa oltiinaltlf dcf)ciid)- on Uie n'i«in ut ti-a-v'iiuvmiyi.fniii i! vi^ htiJiot 
kilov osrwlrci to difliiih'ui«h wbni tlie :iuÜior prüJ~<u«uilu«i>',frgm i(:<i 
Cttta Ij'ing U the bui» i-i his uairaiive. 

t BB 


10 TBK cHiimiA» cn(r)i.7n iti r>Ai.imm*K. 

But, iudeed, tlio utility of sucn n gift of to»^;\ieB for i 
spreiu) «r ilivinc tnitii iti the ai>oBtulic liuiM. will uppCAi* imt 
Ki Kivat, if u'o coiiKidiT thnt the gci^pcl hod iu tirst and chief 
Nphcro of nctin)!! ii[!)i:-ng ttto aativns belonging to thg Bccnaii 
Kiiqiiru, wlitru tliu kiionlcdgo «f tlie tinwk Aii<l hntia Imh 
^'iift;,'oit !iii!)\o>!l1 fi>r this purpow, and that the one or the other 
ol' those lAiigiiaL;e£, iia it whs emplojCKl in the iut«rooime vt 
iliiily ILfu, Dotdil imt be alloj^thor nttniigc to the Jews. As to 
the ilTfifM \n.\]{piiifio, the mtidc in which li\e aptiRtlcB enxreaml 
thcniselvea in it, llie tracts of their motlKr- tongue whtcli apr 
[lefir ill tli(.'ir iisc of it. pruvo tlutt, thcr liiul ohtmued a kno' 
Imitiic- of it. nodordiiiK to tlie niit.aml lava of lin^nutl acquiremi 
111 tho liistorj of the ftrat proiiaffntion of C]lri^til»lli^J, truce« 
iierur to be fouml of ii BLifR-nintural pft of tonguea for 
object. Ancient tmdition, which names certoiD penooft as 
interpreters uf tho »pestle's impliua the coiitJiiry.' Al; 
Afta liv. 1 1 shows tliat I'liiil pussweed no supernatural ^ft 
torigiioB. Tet rU thia does not authorize us to deny 
i'üliirencci to aiicih mi ondowmpiit lu the former {Skisoige of 
AoDt, if thu o^iidatMliuu of the whole [iiifsaj^c, both in dliigb' 
wurdHuud in its cuimprion. ia most fawunible to thU ititeN 
l>fcIiition. Nor do we venture to decide what opcrutions 
to \k calculateti according to iKiLunil Iiiwa c^iild lie edit:!«! 
liie power villi which tho new divine lift moved the 
depths of hunuHi nature ; whnt (.'^JCciüUjr coald bo 

tlleropo-H« in Kuiwbias. Ei?o.Iliii[,iil.S<>, cunipured »iLli jrviiii-nt. Hi. Ik 
Ths UoäilidUn« tay the game of nr>e GUimiaH, Ctcmeni'it StronuU, tÜ. 
TD5. O» aHnurias «very ihing, 1 miiet dtddo iKiinct llic mmuIIiIb io- 
IcTprr^tatloik or fliMbWM.£iLt«urm] hy dcvqrul üniinpnb iiio^ora rriUctt 
— that thoy iof>n fimply un cxpoütaT. one *ha icpcnicd tlio Inun» 
tionn of PoLcr In liU Gai4]>Gl, wiik exjilanulor^' wiiwrfc»] 4u r 
li&'j'tli'iii ofMnik i« nlira}^ prcüxecl la an'ounu of hU Ocwpcl.Biid A 
■iimc tima from the fnot of bis acting in thin cupiu'ii/ villi Pet«r, 
onjiubilily U mfartv<\ lo not« down the repurl niiiJo b/ him «f 
ISvuiiKclicnl lil^tor;. TIiuh t;ui'Uiialy ibo poeeage in l^piiui mufi ba 
imrtcmlecil ; MJpnot jüy ifurireirriit TltTpHu yrr6ii*ros. Sob inTTiuirtuatf 
itiußüs f Tlii; Hccoud fuel is ruuiiilei] on the &nl, (hat hn ao 
ciim[i:inl«a Filter as an inwriirpier .Snnie truth may Ii« M ihe bttsii of 
this (niiitiaii ; it might lie, llmt altlji>ii(;li Peler win not iffiiumiil of ilw 
Qwck laopiiiiW, ami wiil*! eipreaH liiiiisplf rn ir, ho yet. toot with him» 
dliiriMa »Tio «an thoroBgrhlj' miiBter of it, that ho might be^ bt 
hin Ib puliliiiiiing tbi> Oirspel niiK^nfr tbi>ii:< «ho B(ioke llmt luiguiige. 


TUB CQjimu:^ cntBcn vs puxbiisb. 


gh die c<iiiii«itni Wtwem Uie inu^rual life «f the S|iirit 
(iiu ivliich Hi» ue« ci^atiuii tiperatod iviili ft power before uu- 
known) nuil Um fnotittv of speech. A. plii'iuiindinii of this 
kind iiiijflit have 6iken place nnce, with a »viiilwlic riro|ihetir 
meaning, indicating thnt the now divino lite wi-.iiid reveal 
luioir in all tli« Iruigutigcs of miuikiiK-l, iih CliHaliiinily ij> 
destined to Imng under ita ewaj all the Vfirioua national 
poc«1i«ntic« I A worthy »ymbol of tliis great event ! 

But w« meet in tlie New Teiitiuueiit other ititimntiour 
Bticli It ^ft of the Sjjirit, wliicli an vory Himilar to the 
in the Act« ; itnd the explanation of those ]>%»»;:<» in 
''Stteaded with fewer dillicultieij lhn.ii that of tho Inttci'. If, 
thcreforo, wc do not. coiitrary to thu iml^ini! lawe of exL-gtsis, 
nttcmpt to explain the fkarer pnssfiges hv tlie mora ol«tcure, 
wo cannot tuM to ^letwivo thnt, in the section on spiritual 
pRa ill the Fintl EpiMtle to the Cuniitliiimn, »iitutilhiiigiilto- 
f^her different from such a sup^niatuml gift of tonguos is 
«jKikcti wf, Evid<tntly, the apr.Kile is tlicra tiTflliiig uf auch, 
«tiaooun» a» wniild nut ha gnuemily intelligililc, |iro«>t:iäing 
fnmi'mu ocstLitic state of mind whicli rose to an elevation fiur 
nlwAVo the k^giiiii-D oi '.irdlniUT coimniuiiciitiun. Wo may 
here ndduoo tffn 'pwtNi^nt;^ m the- Act^ which cnmnot pnsdbly 

I tie underBtoüd of speaVing in a foraign language ; i. 46. and 
jiix. G. How ciui wo imiigine ^ÜMt uieii, iii the first glow of 
cfinvereion, wliun first, fueized by tlie irn^wü^g influence of 
Christifin faith, iiiKteiul of pouring forth tho 'fcaUaga of 
which thuir heart» wcro full, throii^'U n medium so dtMirTind 
easy to them as their mother-toii^nio, coiil{l find plensiire 
lu That at tiiich a tim«; would he n mere epidoilttiG miracle, 
Uulesa tho effuut of licing filled with thi; Sjiiril wns to hurry 
them alonft as hlind inMlrumenta of a mugioal power, against 
iboir willg, and to conatviiin tlicm to mako nm of a diÖeront 
Uiigud^ rmiu that wliidi at ^Mch n time must luive buuii binf 
flttod for the «iprewicm of tlioir feeling T' 

' I oknnot ouiiipruljeiiil wtmli Froruuiir lljiiiiiiituin m^tiitiniii» In hb 
Bniajr on \\i\t (ulijtct, tn tlis Siu'/ii'it der ttiinjcluel'tn OtiMh'chieU 
H'ßrte'Hft'rsM (Simliun uf tlio Epiinuulital Clurty of " iiriembuntl, 
t!. 2. p. UP. " tliuii in ci^i'Min religlnii» mtntnl mmi^, t.ho üpeuklug in 
foreign languu|p:a ü by nn uieias unnnLi^ml." Il in \i\niii l\\M a inuii 
nay eitlljr fwl tiltoinlt iiii{H>llciI. nlicu itcl.tintBd by new kfXini» Htii< 
USM, ta form iww wuril» : u- fmni a now »piriiLal lif^, n new religlou« 
lUtKt ftrou itadir. Bui how, uoiler auuli cirtumataiKeB, U can La 


Tin cuRisrrjLH cHimoi Rc utsrmK 

BotI) theae suppoeitlutu) &re at variouo«) witlt l)»e spirit of 
tliB guiipol, nur does any Unna nimiUr apptair in tba first 
lii!it«ry of ('hrirttiiuiity. btucb txhiUitiou» vuuld bo pecv^ 
liivrly »uitcd to diuw nwiiy tlie mind frum that which Js tbd 
tissL'iiCL' ol" uinivcrsiui), aiiJ uiily tu furniali iilitnent for 
tmclü-iHtiiin viinity. On tlii^ other limid, tiii'i'e »ceiiui n prviJ 
pricf.y ill ri-frrrinjj; tbcso piuiwi)i;eB to the "tl"?i-Anoe of the nei 
tliiiijp« witli wiiidi tliL' luiiul would b« lilkil. in tliu new kn 
guaij;ii of a heurt glüwiug witii Chnatiau aeiitiiueiit.' Tlia» 
miiy be exjilniiioi hi>w, in the Hmt p.ij«nj^ (AcW x. 46), 
yKiiwaaitkiiiKrn' \^iii»iiiti:U:iiw'Ali " (iraijiiij; Gotl," '< jjraiMtJjj 
tJod witU the whole heart," when conscious ot havins tJiruugi 
liis gfiiuo ruo^vcd salviitioii ; utiil in t1i<! KCirrmd pasen^ 
AcUl xix. 0, with wpnipriTiiiiiv. But ax. in htii.!) ihute |nsKi)M 
it id plaiuly hIiowii that the ctiinniiinicntion of tlie Diviiu 
.Spirit viiLH iiidii-'iitud lij clinracUiriHtiwi siimiUir tu thota; of i« 
oi'iiiiiiiii cfTuHiou at Pentecost, we are furnished witli a 
iTihuililc duo to the right uuderHUindiiitj uf that cvoiit. 

II', lluMi, we exiitiiiiie iintrt) o)ubv,'1_v the lifBcrifilioii of wh 
trauspiri:d ou the day of runtecost, we aUall Üud 
t) liii^-» M'liicili fiiTotU' fi diff^runt inUrpneUtiou from th« i 
ijiiu, llciw could a iiumburorcarimlly-miiidfJ mi^ii be lod 
ex|tliiiu tiiti sfKHtkiiig of ifie djsniiilcs in foruigu hiigua^it«, : 
the oSaai of iDtosiuation I Acta li. 13.* How ilid it liap]: 

iiiiliiriil tci »jip'uk a 1aiii;uut;c iiltogvtber foruigo, I cnnnot pumivc. 
i^iiii I flnil onv Diuil(Tgy for U in other pHydiiüal plicnamcna. StitI 
tun liiilinil 111« fuiii|iiiri8«n «-Uli llie ruiiiafv-»l*tioiuuaiong tho follo' 
of Mr. Irv^lnK In Loii-lon. mnoti, aa fur uh aiy knowledge i;:tl4:iiilH. 1 
AUG iiotliiiig iu tilicau tnuiiircaUtiuiiii b;it Ük workiiij;» or an i:ni liiiMUM' 
vjtirlt, which »hukH lo cop; the apoAtoIic kKi u( tcnijjiKW ucconli 
l4 thu üüdiiiiun iiiLurjiretalion, nmi tUcrcfi>rc uwuuitil iliii ttulity of III. 

' S«e the Disaertution of Dr. David ScliitlK nn tbu Spiritual Oina<i( 
the firel Clirixtiuii». BresUu, 13US. 

' Althougli tliia snuy not l>i: cautidcrcil or. abtaliilcly niieciuaTy, for >t 
voaM oi;rlJiiii1y Im iimHililt, tliul fiivuliiin, i;ur[iull,vniiii(led iui;n wluj 
WKro diapoEcrt to rlilirulc wluti Üity did nol, UDticntand. mltflit not. 
olifen-« tlie plivii'nitii-nun (not I'xpliiuiUla Irfta cumiiion cnuaoa) of 
Rpiraking In n fovot^n i^uguage; It ia po«iblc Ihiit I'cur, afiar ha 
lind nhuwii Ihij auii'rntristjr of tho inBpirilioil at tli» njiiMtlo to 4 
•intc ol' latoxii:.ktlon, vr!ii<!li could IwrdLy Iibvd Utkcn plavo at th. 
liuur of i.liii dny, matuod of lulduciag titlicr murka xbiclt latib 
Eki^ruimt U. |<iif>v;d on ti vuinptirc iho phonomiMM <ni>h Iho pToplictio p. 
uIh' wkii-li wtu liutE fulliUjd. Vui it i« ut>[ at all jitubabk Uiu \'f 


TSR cnUSTtAÜ CBtnCR ts fOSmtTE. 


P«tor in tiiB kpologctic dücournc did not npiml to ibe 
^^^ riiii)ily iilincttlÖlU lULtUIV (if IUI oveiit liv vriiidi ilio 
fitgMtifMiB uf cieii uuBiisceptibIa of «hat woä diTiue mi^lit 
nwst wily be rofuwd I vfiij did fa« satisfv biuM-lf «ilU 
nstema^ tu tlii- )inji>betlG detä&ratioi» respectine an eitro- 
«rdinmr; reviral, nna aa efiusun «T the Spirit, whicfa wns tu 
take plocQ io tlu; timu at the Uetwah, wicliuul ev«u lulrvrt- 
iag to this p«uliar manifestsüoa I In the coiuitructioa of 
tbe whoU namÜT», «c find notlung that oblignt iif to adopt 
tlw notion oTa nu^eniatutul ^ft of tongues in the usual aeusc 
Tbe äama that settled oa tlieir heads iipiH^ar w the natural 
symbol» of tbo n»w tonguew, or now laiigiujijc of thnt holy 
ftn which iras kindled in the hearts of üie tUsciples, hv ttio 
(Hjwar of the Hrfy Spirit, and acoordingly it is taid, " ^'bey 
were all filled with the Holy Spirit, aad licgu» tu »jMitli witli 
oth<r tOD^oe«' as the Spirit gave them uttcranee ;" thta-cfoi-c 
t'»e tongtws of ill« Spirit wftt« the new furui for the new 
itpirit which auimated them. 

It iippdtra, inilocd, to milititte ngninst this iatorprotatiou, 

lul to «lUblijh liie coviimon oae, timt the tiicctntfins aie 

bed as expnsKiitg their ustonishnieut ut heuriii^ rnch 

in his oivn t<:<ii^iiii, these Gtüileiins who knew nQ foreitrn 

iiat», »iicaliiiit^ the wiiulerfiil works of Guil (Act» ii. S); 

more than tliis w« Imve tho viu'ious uatious diKttncily 
uomcd inwhoeo Wigtui^'s tin: njfoBtlua e[>oki). But we cannot 
HXKibly tMnk that all tlie«o natintis spoke ditTerent laiigiiii^s, 
liw it is certain tli:it, in tho cities of Cappadocia, foutua, 
LuMUr Aida, Piirygia, Pi^uipliylia, Cyreu«, mid in tiio part« 
nf Libya and i^Kyp* iuhaliittd by Grocian and Jewish 
OoloniiM, the Greuk would iit thiit tiuiv \n: in gcinomJ bcttj^r 
imderstood thnn the »udcnt litngitago i>f llie country, iiml lu 
Uli« miwl have bwii turn™ to tJie writer of the Acts, he 

I could ai>t Iwve intemied to specify bo »ismy dilfeitnt Inn- 
|t:il;^;CS- TixTB will romuiti c>ut of the wliolo cataioi,aie of 
laitgtuigt«, only the Tersian, Syriac, Aiubio, Greek aud Latin, 
tiaoe lie r*fcn< in llie liour of ilic itnj, in onl«r to rpful« liii« clmrgB f.l 
IttOxlMlion. »faoulil not uUü nrfcr to Lhat oLhor fusl (aupjiuiilig It 
I« ckmI), wliii:li Wiititil lijivo i^omjikicil liis jimfif. 

' TIm ward y^iliaaa. litC'.' iIJi? (•«rinan Zvarjr [nnrt tU« Gii|;Ii«li 

ffi\ ia uonl belli tor tlie bodily ortfiLa gf «pcecti, and far a laiuiut;« 



It iiInu clcKori-CM notioo, tliiit tlio JulmliitiititH ol' Jiidca ar 
tioued, wlio ei>uki; tlie t>u.uie laiiti:ua^ an ilie Gulileoiis, ouly 
witli a sliglit liiffüi-ence of iiruuuiiciatiou. Smoc, tlieu, to 
rittiiii] the niicieiit view of the gift of tongue« crvnttid di'ffi- 
cullies in tliia {lasBikge, wliii;h i» the ouly uue lliat uut tH.Ti'c to 
siijiport it ; while wvenil iJiirts of Uie imiTativö oppose it, oiid 
every tiling thnt ie said el^where of tliis gift {y'l'iff") ifstiAt 
to a very diftoi-eut i liter] n'eUtiou, llie mui-e itiiLJciit vitir 
Ijecomes rery uiicertaiii. though we cannot arrive at a iierft'cUy 
cleiir nud certain oouchiMon respeutiiig the fuct« whioli foim 
tilt- j,'niuadwurk of the iiarrativi;. rerhajis Hi« difficitlty iu 
tlie paaaiigo iiisiy 1* olDvint^d in this way. It was aot uniismii 
111 deBigiinte all tlitj discijiles of the Lord, Guliloiuiis, mid It 
might be iiilierred from tliis common agipellalion Unit llitTj 
wttre nil Galileans hy birth ; but it by no ineaiia folh-ws llat 
this WHS nt^ttiaUy tlie coec. Atnoiig the su-collcd Unlilcaiie, 
Nouie lüiglit be found whose mother-ton^o wiis not tlie 
Ualilean dialect, and who now felt tli(rmsclveB ini]>eUod tu 
oxpres th« fuliiQEa of tli«tr licarts it) their own piXfviuciuJ 
(iiiileyt, which throngh t'hriBtianity had becoaie « Kivrvd 
language to them, though liitlierto thoy had licen accustomed 
t-o conbider the Hebrirw only in that light;' und it uiight 
also hftppBii that some who lived on tho confines of CÄÜlec, 
had ]i>!inied ihe laugimgo of the adjawirit tribes, which lliey 
inpw made uso of, in urder ti» Ije better uiideriii.oiid by 
foreigiioT-s. Thus tiie speaking in foreign hingunges wnuld be 
<jnly Hoiiibthiiig aocidentid, iiud not the tsseutitd of tho new 
liuigmige uf the S]»ir'.' Tliia uew langiwge of llie 8j.iirit ia 
that which Christ ttron-iBed to his diBciples as one of the 
c-sseutial marks of tiie operation of the Holy Spirit oQ tlipir 
heiirtä. Indeed, the iiromise that they «bodtd aycitk uitti 
uew tongues' api>earH uuly in the «riticfdly 8U8|)e(;t«i addition 

' Sse Act« Jixil. 2. Wl'IbLciq or Acts ^■\. 1. On till» point llieviaitii 
or the I'lii^iKimiau ttieolngiaiiB would dilfer, nccordliig iw tliclr gonfii^ 
taadt orthltikin^ vns mom or las» raniracted. 

> Wliatuvor iiitcr(>räL'Ll.inii lie adopted of tbU paasucn. it will b« tiq 
lante than n ccuji-clurc far llie Bolution of that difficult}', nor oan my Iw 
nWea with ilip ikgr^c dF curtaint/ cijuul lo wbut tony l>« atticitk 
I'LTijicKliiig tlio gift o( longupB in a getiaral point of view. 

■' Tili« uvici cully ilcQOted bucL I.oii(tui» ur luoRimpes hb «oit not jfel i 
llii; wiiilil. liKil tlie fcraoQ wUo cummitled tlii? tiudii-ion t« wrllln 
lutcoOuil fDmifiu Iniigiin^csnal luijulrcd b^ütuily, liü would curtail' 
have audo uw of a difltrviil eijiriMlon- 

na ceiisnxx obcücb w PAUxtm. 




lO Gospel of Hark, bat it does not foU«w that a trn« 
tnulitioii docs HOC lie fit tlic hosn of it ; and if Clirist iu tlie 
utiier Gospels bu not liienilly tnuxle uae vf this expraanoo, 
EtiU we find what u ollkd to it in mcaoitig. wbcro be «pcsks 
of tlio lie« power* of iilK^mnoe nhicti waaid i« iniimniHl l>y 
tk« Uüly Spirit to the disciples. " 1 nill ^ve vua a iiio^itli and 
wbdom, Lukcxxi. 15. Tbut this «spcnaiv«, '- to Bpunk with 
new tonguo)," would nwnu, to a:])«k with such on^es n the 
Spirit ^vo tliom ; other tongues tluin thu«« hitherto xtaed, 
origiDiUlj' iotvu<le<i t>.> ui&rk the gnat rvrolutiun vfll-vtcd by 
Christiatiity in tlie dispositions ^ m«D wherexer it found 
entrance, amoitg tlio mitu ns well as tho cirilisod.' Yat we do 
nut Tuuituu to awuiue tlmt lb« ukuüii^ of the expreaicu 
Kmained iurariably tJie same, for tliis would be inounsisteut 
with it» use ill tlic Finrt Kpistic to Üie CoritiUttsiiK, of whieb 
w« tHiAÜ frpeak huiKäfWr. As the ori^aal form of llie exprw- 
noD iu tho CliristifLi) ptinifcology ^niduiLlIy nns Kliorlt'iied in 
Diany vmy»,' so likuwiw therv was a gnulua] alttiralJuu iii tl)o 

' Orogory tlic Gnat btautirolly remar^^ in hii Homil. in Rvsojc. 
1. iL U. SP : "Fidelca iguttjue, qui juin vhis vcUiris «««uluris verb> 
dsNÜDiiiitiat, mi«(n kuloin uiTEieria iiu»tin>iie. nonJIi^t!* m'l lauJea 
«t poteaUoin qnanlum pnovalont, iiMtBiii. <{uiil nliuil roviunt, uM 
uoTjii lie^i« loijuiiiiiitr I" 'rh« visv I liavo liorc ukon U nearly the 
noM •• UiU of Unrast \n hia TrMtisc on the PtiutccosUl Olit of 
Tcn^iMi^ — of HaM, anil pitrUmlurlv i>f limipr. In hi« Titlualila oAMjr OB 
Uw nitntoC in the 7^(in<^ JStiuchnjl fiiT JTieohyi«, 1S3U, pan li., 
(o which I aui iD[|iibi«d fur some mwlincaiiuQii o( my own view. My 
bcnouied frtccid Sl^uiict, in ihotaniuiKiriodtcal.niliiplHit YicircwonUslIy 
llic same. It has slau fuuiid an attrocsitv in Dr. Si.-hul«. With Uleek 
(tee tii> Itaninl ind wmte Dis^ertaLiona in tbo Studirn und KrilitrM 
I *gm in tlie ceueral view «f the nubjout. but not In the vx[>lHniiliou of 
Ibc word ykätrira. Ut.hcr groiinrie npnrt. ndduei^d by ttauer, it Bi>paars 
lo uio fu iijiire uutuml lo divhav tb« <)cMigiiii)iuD V>r l-lii« aiiw fotm of 
Chriatian impinition. in rcfcrenif In the H^bri'w i^il^ w wi'll iw lli« 
Croitk ylkäccB, fnim Uio Isngiia^i of common II To. mtlicr tliiui Troui Llie 
•ehoola of griLminnrlanti. But tlic que^lion. n-buthor, in tbia aotincslon, 
the word mii» ori^innlljr be uiiifcr«looil of the or^n of iHtiiiiiafce 
(uoordins to Bnn-Ti.orof the kind ol'InniniFigp. doe« not npposr to mo 
t» ba 10 Tcrv l[uv<ji''iiut- (of iu ilii» iaaUuce bulb njcaaln^« of tho word 
are chwdy allicit. 

* WInor justlj remark«. In la* e<lilion of liis Oi-aniTiiiir, p. S84, 
{Grommota de» yfu'fxiiwirnllidirn RpriuJddifim; Vh /'!<( . Lt'pmg, 
1630), Ihm, tn tho phrune 7AÜDcraiT AaA<7»>. u H'linl Ukc «atfart canltol 
Ingillinalvly be jiupplicd: but it may lio uuumt^I tliat, rtom tlje uri^iital 
ramplvio phmM. nfl^r it had onee nriiiircd a Kxaii mranlntr, n Bliorti?f 
lUil^eilphta8Eii'iL'fuini>i^d,»>.tli»ruw;i*oci>a»[)n tootnployllUequcDllj. 


lUL'antiij^ ; tlnit: ult<;i'uLiuii, iiiuiii^lv. of wliich inauy cxnmpl 
Rtv i-lv;whi;rc loiiiid in ttio Uiiiwryof bmguagc, ttiatavoi 
«hiuli lit TirHt vitu iiUngotlietr tbu gcavml eigii ol' ii wrt^n i> 
bMNune ia Lt.tur tiutu», iik -viiriuua ^indea uf nivuning wcro 
KtU<jlii;it to tUla idea, limited to ono p«irticular npiilicaiioii 
il. Tlmin iL witia' ti' |]!iss, lliut a» eiprewiiiii wliiuli (jnginal!^ 
rleuuted liso iiuw Imiguiige ui' ÜhriHtiaiis uuil^r Ü10 iuUuctico oi 
tliu t>pii'ii gcucmlly, iiHi.'rwurdEi, wliua vni-ious modiBcatiou 
of Kuch liirigiiii^i.1 litid Uion formed, IxKianic limited to (Jat 
kind ID u'ljj^'h Uifi iiiiiuetliate inäuoncea of tiii> !>j>irit |>nKluiiii* 
iiatc<ii and prcewiiUid it«.'lf in tbu higher self-contKioittnuM u 
tlu! f^iocially (.Hwtntic fürm,' while the diacurnve activity of 

' This oonliniiBd to li« lb« grneml um nf tli« C«rm tot tbe Bnt 1 
ccntnrlci, un;U, tliR lilntoilcnl cooncxlon ^th tha youttrul af^ or 
cliurvli bolng bwki^u, llio iiuUun or a> *ii|'iritȟir!il fift of UiDgoMi 
l^roic*!, Oil ihiK 110II1I U li wortb vhllv m i.*ompart «omo puugte 1 
livuKiu uiid 'l't:rLiiUmti, Iriwui» [lik v. c. [•) ciit« wluil faul mjs or 
tlic wii'ilom nf till) tififiK't, and llicn wlil«, Piiitl r.nllt Ihww perfect, ""Qol 
iietMiHrimt Sijiriium l)vi, cl (itniuliu!! liiiiium lu<|uuutur per Spiritnm 
]>i;i], qiicniii'lmniliiTn ot ipe^ l(i(|iiphiKlur, xaRut kbI 1Il^AAüv imötiim 
itiKfiüv if tli imr-Ktitl^ itpo<pTiriilk ynfuV^Ti) ixiyrw Hal *a<n)ta«ait 
AciAuiWoii' 5i^ TuD iTvair^atdi- >Aa){rtfu<r Hoi tA (rpi>^a T^y ^t^pttirw «il 
^arrffbv A'y6*'itvv JttI r^ uu^^ifniVTi ttaX Td fiVit^itpta tov &tov ^Kli^oa 
^■^»w», <iUH-fä CI »[ilrUüIci ;i{hOvTo1iifi voc^tj' 'riiori^h mxtiü |>crKrnM iblnl 
IImi l«nn usuiroimiiüi uiiilüiiliiivllj' riifo™ lu lliu luiigu:ii{i'a of vanou 
niuioi». I do »at sen lu.w Lliat cniv lie, nt'cordiug 10 its u« »lihnt lim« 
llthiigli lliu oripiiinl iiipniiiin; uf« »ni'J migJil lie hu u iiilBrBi.uO(l. II 
il luiriicuUiily «I'tiilhy ol iior.lm, ihiit trenroiiB repreieiiis ihi» pit, at ouaI 
of iliit ijBK'ntiul marks -uf Clinetlun porlteiion, n» » (^linradinrittii: of tlifj 
fpiritaii:^. Vie vaanol well wmpri'licml bow lie could «uppote Uijll 
»li iluljidicil imil Dci'idcnUl m apisukiiif; lu u'any Tursiga lADgnagcB,!*] 
«Uiiiil in *fl «lute unil nctriiinry n cinincxiDii with ihn cowocc of Cliri» 
Hau iiKF'tniUuD. Ik^liba. b? a|ieiike o{ il u one of tliow girii of tbt 
Sciiri', wliii^li colli I Til md to oxiai. in the chnroh even in biaovn limaL 
He M-itifntlj: eonsidens th« >Awiriran \a\eti' ns »omoihinB allwd ia 

wpo^ntTeCtir- To tJio laU^f. Irn AtfrtiiEiTCa Llic fju.^i]lly l^iF brinjfinj^ In 
hiilti rhc hi^lifi^n ihoitt,'1ttj» al' men. anii Llj Tht former that of pabliiiilaf 
diviiiii ttiv^U^i'it^An li*' '^oK iKithiiLi; Itut ihU lu llit: gili uf ton^njotil 
ilio clTuHoii of iho Holy Spirit, and. in rct'srcnvc ia tkut ovrjit, placM 
iii)(vlliiT " i'ioiiliüi.nii efi ln<|iii liiiguia," I. iü. a. 12. 'rcnullnw 
dum nil I In of Mot-iiin to poinl out nmoiig iaia followcra proob of octCalJi 
iri'^iiMlIon: " ßiint A!iE|iL<;m jiiijiliiuiiii, ilitftijiiii viptixivm, &tiqttMn 
uniiioiicui dim'miLi ■plriuinli^m in ccsMixi, i. v. umontio, nl qtui lingiui 
IntvTpruut iu nouvitcrli/' Uviduutly in tliin cutiucxiuii, tlic l«nn 
liHjruK cifiniiiiiig ^pl■1lkill^ in im ccUuy, nliich, liiii'u what in apokcu 
ill ilii« niiiiii ::iinn'>t lie '^cnumtly laL«lli|.'ilik'. uii iiiit-rpn'ULLinn 
iccoiujunr. Ti:ilailiui ilwt, in ihe same piMniig« iwlv. ilitmon,^ 


Tine CBKinU!« CBl-RCn K VtLBSaSE. 



nndcrstaiKling with the lower aclf-conscuniaDe» for the liioo 
kj donnfinL 

AfUr harii^ attempted to cteor up tbcM dif&nHit poutto, 
ve riiall be b«tter Kbln to giw r Bk.vtoh of tJie wbols Boene on 
tittt tnemoraUe 6&j. 

Tho diock oT the earthqunka oootawns tbo cooeourse of 
inanj- person« in tJie 8ttw«tft (rvm variou» qiiart«rB, u tliit 
fOKtir&l bad bnu^t Jews aod proselybe from ull [«lis of UkO 
n-orld t<> Jeruanlem. The asaetaliUng of tliti diaclpjee attntots 
their naüoe ; bj degreea n crowd of cunou» iaquircre vt ovl- 
lectod, aaiij of wliom probaUj cnUtr tlii> asmnibly in order 
to infonn CbemaelTeB aceiirat«ly of tlie ull'air. Thi) difdplcs 
now turn to these Etrongcrs. and, oonstnum.'! by tlie impulne 
of itio Sjiiril, auiLOiiftoo to tlitmi what filt«d tlieir iicarta. 'Tita 
ünpreeedon luaclo by their words vxmi vith tbo di^^oütioiis 
of their honnn. Shme teet themaelT» affinted I ■)' the amtgf 
of infiplmtioD with nhich the disciples spake, but oau ffso no 
clear acoount of the impreewons made hy tho vrholo nffiiir. 
Itutniduf askiug ttiouMlviGa, "Whvuuu jjruceeds that pover 
with which we hear these men spook who wer« not oiluuuU'd in 
the JtchoiiU of the scribes 1" Ihsir wouder is din-ctud oitlj' Ui what 
waa most eiuoiuU. How ouiuoa it to puaa Ibut these <:!ulilean8 
, in foreign tongues I OtheiB, who hnvo been inipnjiwud 

L T. o. 6}. bppl^ving the «-ord» in [»«Jah x'l. S lu llio CliiiDllou i-liitn'h, 
'ialmpropjitiari Uii^im luqui, nud «tlribul^» butli U? Um Spirilut 
«jnrinoMM. the i»'tv^a7i'w««i. It funliur up|<iiii[« triiut whiU luw bvun 
Mid, ibai the sill of iuii(;uüa wa» cuiiiidpiDil a» sliU ciiHtiiiB in ilie 
chuicbi ftnd il ia stmiige Hint i.iiu Katliwm uCTcr r*fi:r id It iih)I<)- 
(CUctlty, DC an andciiiabLe cviilcui» tu tlic lientiirn uf tlic divino [laHcr 
MKniing^ iinioas ClinsilBiis. Iti ihn wnip iTia,nni<r &e'v ».piioiit t» ihe 
fifl of h«almg the sil^Ic, >:ir or cntrjng our. dümorw. nlthnuk'h ihv itbUiry 
to ipoik lb » VM^et? of UngiiaffOH wlilch <-i><ili! uui liu ui'tguirud in 
■ iMlural viif, miiBt Kavo (»»n tci? uionuhing ta ttc licsüitm. In 
Oriocn, ia vhoM timca the Chart Hiiiütu nl' i.lm iLiiuHtullc cliuivh liriniik 
Lt bo ec>ii>!<lDryl ju iuimi.'l.liitiü butrniHni' to llic [laiil. wo Cud tlio inil 
tnWM) ol ÜK opinlaa that hn* tiix^a >imn ]iii:vjiU-iiI. yut. «vbh Iii liicu lliii 
IWD tIov« arc mlnylinl, hh iiii^lit bu A'lav hj tlia t!iiilij»^tlaa of tlic Iwu- 
Tiitil mod« uf iDtorprvtnlion, ihc lltoin.! and thii xtilritiult. Cixiipare 
Ep. Ml Rosun. od. Ma la lliiu, i. tv. f. ITO. I. vii. f. OU'J, de OraLivuu, 
I 3, tom. i. f. I!)i>. The nppoiition to Montaiilam, wlikli h&i »alijvcicd 
ibo YA4(tf#«» AoAiTr t» ulm*D, n« In Ihc CariiiLlilwi Cliunili, Riighl i:ou- 
tribnie to «iak iuiv ubiiviuu ihc more rin^'knt tmrrprcintlon. Tbo 
(nsf ■rfii', Üic AbAhi' ^frfipiJi'Dii Ksl dA\9T|iiDT|)dir(i)i oktiii! I» lie cormidcnn' 
■a t luirkof ilt«iipiiriuuiiü!uuituü''t Innpiration, Euxib. Wht. finij. tJ 
VOL. I. c 


TH£ cuBotrtAx cnuficB I.V PAinrnnL 

witiicnit any preciaa conacioiuiicss, gire rent to tbdr i 
aunt in gmoiil cxpnestom, Wbat oau all thin motu I 

thoM vho' 


unsuMeptible and iigiit-mindod, : 
culü &iid rejtcl wltat tli<^' nre iiiiilM« to coinpreb«iul. 

Ttte it|>oKtkti luiM it to b6 their dutj- to deleivi the Cbrirtitto 
oginniUDtty Bguinst tLe reproaohw CMt ojioti it bj KUjxirficikl 
joilg«, aiid U> aviul themäelres of the impreasioiii viuch tbii 
apectoole had made on so many, to load them to fiüth in ILiia 
whone iltrino powiir «tiui lieru nitiuifectvd. Fet«r tamo fbrwun) 
nitli the rent of tlio elevon, and ns the apoBtbs spoke in tbc 
tumo of the whole church, so Voter spoke in the nuan of tfai 
apoHtl». Tilt! jiruDi|iütuJ<i a,ui eneT^gy whic^ made liim take 
tliQ lead in oxpixwiiig the Hcnlimcnte with which all wens 
nnimikt^, vpiK KpcdH eadowtaeats. founded on hi« mtanJ 
character ; hence the diatlnguiahod tilace which bo had already 
tAkm ninODg thi; disciples, and wbicD be ton^ &ft«r held iu Uio_ 
first church at Jcrugalcm. " Think not," eatd Peter.' "( ~ 
in ihctc uiivrtnitcil ujipeiinLtices you ikx tlio eHectsof incl 
Thtae nre the ßigns of thö Mesiiauio era, jiredict^d liy 
prophet iw\; the manifestations of an oxtniordinury emuia 
uf Uic Spirit, which ia nut. limited to au tutÜTidual licreuiil 
then^, tiio c1i<i«eii organ» of Üie Most High, but iu which all 
Hhiiro who hnve etitiM'&il into & n«w rektiuu to God bj' &ith 
in thu ^f [ssiuh. This Me^ianiü em «ill he diiitii^uüKcil, w 
the [jToithet forclold, by various estraordjnary ajppeantacea. w 
proeiirson* nflho last decisive epoch of the gcacnd juilgmcuL 
But whoever beiieT«^ in Uie MuBaiali lins no cause to !^ that 
judgment, but muv ho certain uf mlvalion. Thnt Joau tif 
Nasanrth. wiinse diviuo mission wdä verified to you by the 
mimclei; that atloudcd hie earthly courw, is the ver^ M«aäafa 
pioniiaed in the Old Testumeut. Lei not his iguoounioua 
ilwith ha urged as invaiidarting his cloims. It was ncccuu? 
'ur the rulfiltiii-jit of iiis work as the Mea^inh. nnd dcl«riuiD«l 
Ay tho etjunaol of God, Th» cvoiit« that tbIlow«d his deub 
tx& II prouf of this, ft>r ho tviäe trom the dead, of which se aiT 

' Bleek lias cotrwtly pcrceirt'd tnwci of a Hclirow otigtoal 1 
u, 24, nrben: tbi: contiMJiiu of the melaphor nmkcs JlMjiotf i»B t 
^■wj-ljnotVWr, p^tlm iviii. S mJ ß, wbipb tho AlcMinlrlMi 1 
I'.T iiKMt, nceording Iu tie niaining of Ihn Word ^. R« BI««V< 
iwlin or MujerliofPs Uisl, KritUcher Sinleiluruj in dit hdirttiKlul' 
Hdtri/ieH, iu the Shtdim und KritHm. 1S8S, W. 1021. 

TiAH CBunen im p-AL£»Tnn. 

'wibnorwciis und bns been csalicd to hi^nvcti liy the (livinv 

From tilt! extaKirtiiiiiLrj' a|i[iairaiii!i>3 wiiieli liave filled 

with astontHliinent, jou perceive, tlitit in bis gbritiud 

State litt ia now «[«mtiiig wjl.ti cijvine uavr^'j mauti^ Ümse 

fUo hclivTc on him. The hcaveulj" Father has ]ironiised that 

ii! Mi.':(Kiiüi sbiiU Uli (lit who )telii'\'u du liim wiDi tha yiuvvt 

if Uie diviiiu Spirit, auJ tbia pi'uuilse in uuw buiug üillillvd. 

A-um, Ü1V1U IJruia tbe% events, iii wbioli y^u bchubl the 

imphedesof the Old Tt'stixmont fbitilled, the unl!iiu],'ness of 

,11 that you hnvc attempted against him, smA know th»t t!od 

aa c'xiilttid hiiu M'hvm yvn cnicilit^d to hi> Messiah, the ruler 

if üod"s kingdom, aud that, through divine power» he will 

tiiruomi! nil hi» L-Qenucs." 

Tint wfrds or l^etdi- deeply iajpresaed ninüj, who unuoualy 
ikwl. What Dnist wu du ( PaltT called upon tliem to repeut 
r tlicir aiwa. to lK.di«vi! in Jobus tis the Messiah who umitd 
Dpnrt tu thora forpvonoss of siiia iuid fj-oodoni fi'cui ma, — iu 
liit faith tfi be b!i[jtii!ed, ami thui mitwanlly to juin tJio ucm- 
iiiutou of the Meaaiah ; then n'oulJ tho diviue power of fnith 
s inliiiiriHlod ill tlieiii, as il hiid iiJi'eadj heen ill the commil- 
tjT of Iwiievere ; they woidd ivoeive the sfiiue gifts of Ihe 
oly Spirit, tba bealowmeiit of wUch was simidtiiueoiis with 
lU ftirgiri-nose of sins, ftud ftvedoiii from siu ; Ibr the promise 
ilated to iUl lielievei-s without distinction, even tt> all iti 
labint partsof thi,' world, whom Godhy his j^iic' should lead 
I lielifve in Jiviiin lU t)iu .VU'^iah, 

A qtiustion miiy he niisxi, VVhuthci' by these last words 
tter intended only tlio Jews eüattured auioi^^ dist;itit natioDa, 
whellior ho tncludod those among tho hccitlieii ihemselvcM 
ight be hrouehl totlicfuith 1 As Pctcrat a subsequent 
opposed the projjagati.jii of th« giispel atiiiitij^ thu 
.Lthen, tburc would be an app:i.rt!i)t iucua^isCCDoy in hie »ow 
ikina such a roTcrcnce. Out there is really no siich coii- 
iction, for the Bcniple which clung bo closely to Pfter'ii 
il was foiijided only on Iiia hoUef tlmi htuthens rould not 
recoivL'd into tJio community of bellcvera, without first 
imiiiiiia Jcviiih Praitdj-tna, hy the exact (.bsemincc of the 
(•«tic l«w. Now, ftccririiinf; to the dcclar.itiuuB of the pro- 
lel», h« mif;ht expect that in thu Mofsumiu times tho 
'iilhen would be brought tu join in the worsiliip of Jt'hovaii, 
that this nnitiimiii* might occur to hica consistently with 

TB« «RKimiAir oBtmcn nr vxuaimm. 

ib« viowB h« th«n hold, und ho niiL'ht eipresa it witfaoot 
{^ving «.'fTttiioo t<i Lliti Jevrth Yet tiiis eiphiiiutiun in Dut 
aliaoluteiy uiiot'WMry, for iill Üia th»e dauaes (Acts ii. 3fl) 

might h» ubuiil »nly tii duncita the nggiv-gntu of tlic Jewish 
imtioQ iu ita full BXtaut ; and wo luight rathor expect tlii 
PcWr, who hiul hvuH 8|xuJ(ing (>f the Jews jireseot nud tb«ii 
JiiliWu, if lie hiid tliouyht oi" the höttlhwi alao, wuuld havft 
CurctuU}' diatm(,'iiiah«d them iVoia thu J*;Wit8. Oa tbc Otbo' 
huiid, tlitt liiMcrii ilicii), " All that are ufor oS^ eveii a» vatay m 
tiiä Ltinl L.ur <ioci shall call," appears too comprebenaive 
tu jiuslify lu in üuuSnin^ it W i>eR»Jun vrigitiully liütougiogtO 
thfi .ioivisii natitra, Hyuoe. it is most ya-obable, that in Peier'i 
miiiil, wlion ho iiscil thisexpressiüit, tl>«r<i flontcl sn inHi:>ti]>ct 
alliuivu \<j LfUovei's üxtiu other nawus, though It did not 
iLppeor of EiifliciotiC itiijiurtaiice tor him to give it u greBter 
|irc)iiiini!aoR u) bis mtdrßas, lut it wua his couvidiou, tliut 
ths QonvcrU to Christiouitf feom beathcniana must first 
liecorue Jews. 


TUB «ISST rcttu or tun cumstus ooioiciiitt. *»9 isi mar gns 
or TBS aoRBTtiifTioH of tub cuuiaiUH obvhcii. 

TfiB exiaieiioo and first development of tho ChristiaJi cbureii 
raBia on an hist.nriciil fuundutiuii — on the ncktiDwIi^d^^cnt tf 
tho fai't that .Icf^us was the Messinh — not on a certain system 
op ideas. Ui'iiuo, at lii'^^t, nil thutm who ncknnwlcdgod Joris 
IUI the Mcwinh, »L'piirati'd from lliQ muss cf the Jewiäi peoj'1% 
.nd formed ti]emi>«lTeg into m. clisticict uomin unity, la the 
Liounse of time, it hocame apimrent who wure tp-""!!!«!', find 
who wero false disciple« ; but all who acktiowledii^d JeniisM 
the Messiiih weru baptiMd without fuller or longer inntnictioii, 
«udi »A in htäf times h&s preceded baptiem. There vaa only 
QUO articio of fiiitli which formed ttia pemiUar roorlc of 
the Christian pnifession, and from thia [loiut belieycr» 
led to a clearer and perfect knowledge of the whole con 
of the OhriMian fidtb, b;r th» coutiutial enliglitening o 




ipirit. Believing th/it Jesu» was tlio Messiah, they 
to Iiim U[» wh'ile idea »r vliitt tlic M<jNiiiili was to Ui, 
to the niBtuiing au<l spirit of titi: Uld Tedtam&nt 
prcimiMuti, nghtly luiduntuiid ; they ikcktiuwkd^cd him aa 
the Redeemer from sin. the Kukr of tbo kiugduiu of God, to 
whom lliitir whiilu iivt* wctv I» ho d?v»'U'd, w!ii;eL' kwswere 
to bo foUuwi-d iu aU tbiug» ; whil« ha would maiiifait hiaisoK 
08 tbo Bulor of tiud'a kii^um, by the coiomuiiicatiua of a 
uew diriiio [itiuniiila of life, wbioh to tliose who ai'e i^dwinotl 
and governed by him imparts the coi'toiiitj of the for^iveiiesH 
of una. This divin« priuwple of lif-,* munt (ihcy bnjlicvcd) 
mould their whole lives tu a L-onformity with the laa's of thß 
Mmstäli knd LIh kingdom, and nc>iilrl l>e tlio pledge of i^ll the 
bkssii))^ to be impaItt^d w lliüiu iu the k.iii^<ii^m i>f Qod uutil 
it» ooiiBummiition. Whoever iioktiowli-dged Jesua ac the 
UuMuidi, rcc«ivcd him oniievquenlJy aa the tisfidlilile divino 
proplii^t, And implicitly eiibmitted to his iubtructions as com- 
iiiuniciUxl by tii« pentouul iniuiKtry, and afterward« by his 
iiisptittd orKöUB. tlit) apustlea. H«iiee baptism at tliis period, 
iu it« puciilior Christian meaiiin|/, n-fc-rrod to this one iirticlo 
i)f £utb, which ccmslitiited the esseiicB of (.'hriatianily, as 
buptiam into Jeaus, into tlic nan)« of Jchus; it nns the holy 
f'lto vhioh «ealed tJie ciinncxion wiCli Jl-hus mi tlie MuhiuuIi. 
From this »ignification of baptism w« cannot indued con- 
clude with certainty that t.hure wiis «iily oii-o furm nf haptism, 
ätill, it ia pmba-hle Uiat in the original apostulio fonuula 

^Do refcrcucc u'as iitudv cxucpt to this <»na nrttulü. This shurkr 
hapticnol Eormulii contains in iuelf every thing which iu 
further developed in tbe wordä used hy Christ itt die inslitii- 
tiuo vf iMptisui, lint wliich he did Lot iut^iud lo estiibhsli 
)tf aa exact fonuula : th« reforenc« to Ood, who has r^v^uled 
luid ebowu himsulT in aud by the Suu, va b, Father ; mid 
1^ lo tbe Spirit of the Father, wiiom Cliriat iinpaitfl to bclicvei-a 
■aa the new spirit of life ; Uie Sfiint of hotiu^ai, who by 
H virtti£ o( this iutervt^tiou is distiiifriiixhcd as the spii'it of 
B Christ. Thiit cue article of faith iududed, tltererore, tho 
" wholo of Christian docti-itie. But tlie distinct knowledge of 
its codtenta waa by no mcitOB deve]o[>ed in tbe minds of tlio 
fint coavurt«, or frci-'i fmui fin^iga adwixtureB rcaiiltiug fi-om 
Jetnab modos of tiiinking, n-fiich reqiiinjd tbiit itilijfiouB ideas 


vhicli thcy were covercil. An tW popular Jvwitth nol]i 
of ilie MüRfliali exciudt'tl many liiinjf» «tliicti vnnv chniao- 
teristic of Ldis i<toa, na t< ii-mcd »itA iiiidci-ttoocl in a Christi: 
H1--U1H), ituJ lu it iiiclmlfd iiuiny olfiiu-iiti« not iu stxici 
viitli OhriHtiaa views, ono iicjult vus. thai in tbe Ural Clt; 
tinti Giimmti nitida wliicii «i^rc furmorl nmntig the Jnws, 
disciird.iiU iijtitins i>f roliyioii \ii«rv uiiuglud ; there 
niiijiy utTLire tuisiti;,' IVom tLi; iirüvniling Jewish mode « 
thinkiug, somo of whli'li were by depi"«« ooirected, in lbs 
ciute of tlinsc who siinvnrltTcd tlicmiiclvcs to t1iv cxpntinra 
liiid j)i]riF)-iirg JuäuöiHi^ of Uie CtiriRtian sj>irit ; l>ut iu lltoee 
UYor whüui thiit spirit uould not uiiTt Eudi poKur. ibna 
t'rrore fomied iLu gcmi of tli« lalw Juu'igih-CliriNtiau (ihi 
i:iilled Kbiaaitiaii) doctriac, wltich büI itself in direct huetili 
U) llio puiv gowiieL 

Tbu» we lu« r.ot justified m aRsnzniug that tlie 
'IlKiuGiuid who vera uoiivtrtud ou ono day, )>ccania tratu- 
fttiTOcd nt oncü into Reauine Clirintiaiia. The Holy Sl 
opcmtcd then, as in all succeeding tigeci by tho piil>licatioD 
<i;vitK- ti-ulii, uoi with a auddi-u iriuiBfunuing tuagical pO'_ 
hilt according to Um mcitsure of iti« free wJf'^etcnniiiatiaOR 
the humtiii will. Hcncfl, ftlso, in tbi'w firKt Clmrtian societi 
us iu ull lutur uuus, tiJtL<jugli uh^-iuiitiug iu ho mighty 
operatiou of the Holy Spirit, the fürpigii and spiiriuiig » 
tuiiiglod with UiL' giMiuiiie. lii fm:t, in jiro|MirtJon to 
Dii^lit and oiiorgj" oi the opcrotioii, miuijf ptrsoiiK were tavni 
«udly L'ATriifd iiwuy hy the firat impn»Kioiis (if diviiiu trittlv 
wlio^ hearts uet'e not a bcdl H<üt«d fur the di-nne &eed to täkt 
dt'ep root ami develop itEolf ; and in outwnrd iippeoiniioc^ 
iheru were no infaliible marks of distinction betweeu (;»i>"ins 
ami merely ii,p[inrvtit conveisions, Tho csampl* of Ajinnin« 
and S,Mpj)ljiiu, and tbu dispul<!S of ilie Pulestiniau and Hi 
leuistii: Chrintiiin«, «viticc eveu at that early puriud, that thi 
ttg<!iicy of tho Spiril did not presfirvo tht- cliiii-cb «ntirt-ly [. 
fi-oio foreipn ntlmiituroa. It hnpppnpd then, ns iu the 
niligioiM r<;vivals nf other times, thin miuiy were boru« id< 
by tli4 force of excited fi>&ling§. nitbout having (as thtir tml 
K-qiiL-nt condiiet pruvoJ) thuir disposition dfcotuallv puni 
tnaicd by the iloly SpiiHt. 

The form of the Christian Cömrounity and of tho pttblie 
CLrlatiiui wurahip, the arahetype of all the later CUrifitii 

TBB cHRisnAX cncitni i» PAuamxB. 


!ii]tw«. «riieo at first, without any preconm?e(I plan, firom 
lie pMiiliiir n:ituro ot the liigb«r life that Iwlotiged to 
true Cbiiaiaiu. Itiero was, bowcrer, this dÜTcnüice, tlint 
|lie Ürxt Christian couiiuuiiity formod «g it were one familj ; 
J)»« er of Uta tuiwlv awakeaed ftwliiig of Cbrüitinn Icllov- 
diip, tlie tix^og of too oommun ^mcc of rodemptioa. out- 
e^hed all other persona] and public rec-lin^ and nil other 
bhvUpas woro aakordinated to this ono ^reat relotiuu. Bu^ 
In Inicr t'lnea, Üiq diatitic-tioii b^Lwwii tliu vhuruh uud the 
^«nily becnine more marked, and maiij tbiafrs wliicli wflm nt 
l^rst aMYimplkbed in thu chumh ax n faniilj' commiiiiity, 
BouM l.iitotly be duly attended to only iu the lurruwer 
^eomniuaion of Christian fimiily lift». 

The fimt CbriKtitvus asseialili-d ditily utthur in tlic Temple, 
iw in private Iionsc« ; in the liutcT «wc tbey met iu sEoali 
coiiipcmi^ »nee their nniulters were lUrattdy ton giwit for uiiu 
chftinlier to hold them alL Diöi;u«n«s oa the duetiiue of 
aalvittion wero adilrcsed to Iiel!i-vers and to tli-nsc who wcrti jii^t 
won orer lo the faitli. and prayers were (iffnired tip. As tJie 
prtrdominsnt coiisciousnes» of tho (^oyntont of vodoiiiptioii 
bruu^hl uiidtiF ibt iuäueuoe and aimetlfied the who!« of 
earthly life, notliiiiju: earthly could remain antransfomied by 
tili» rolatio» to a highor The daily rawd o( whioli 
believers (larLouk na int-mliera of ono fiunily wiis «iinMified by 
it^' Tlicy commemorated tho lust supptr of thu (hsciplcs 
with (Jiiri-st, and tliüir bivitheriy iiuion with one another. At 
tho clia^ of the mcfll, the presiiiont distributed brerid and wino 
to llie ptfi-si.tTis prfscnl, iis n memorial of'» nimiliir di»- 
trihntion to the disciples. Thus every mcai wna eouseerated 
the I-ord, nnrl, at the samn time, was a mcid of briitlicrly 
He««« lliß dtiöigiintiona afterwards clioRcn were, <^(7a»oy 
ivpio» and o'yairi).' 

' Tilt bvpalh«tM lately rorived. thnl *uob inBlilntioiui were borrowed 
from tho IwMiiiu<. !« Mil Riittrcly i;ru.tiiIt.ouHaH to n^iiuin: ni> rtifnlnilniu 
* I>< AoM ii. ii. wv tinA tlic fir^t güiienil noouiiiit »r wIiilI viuvtvil In 
be aiftemUloa at xUn firsl Chrlnliwis. Mnölielm [lilnk*. iliiüc every 
■pliM it jaonliiiiiL-il llml i« found in tiiM>r iiiwUiiir^ of lliu i^hurch, 
~" inerta refers to the enHoctiono Hiiido on tbetc oi^caaionn. Bui 
I ilfli'S nil favuiir Ihu lira o( Llie »onl ■omui'fB In s» rcjlrlelcd > 
iwt, which, therefore, if il were iho mcnning iiit«?niliMl, wuuld 
rvqvira t mora (i^Guilo I«rui. :i<:e Herur's Üuiuii]eiiiti.rr. Wc niny 

CnUlci it UK rafcn-inir lo Ihu wliulu of Llie buclhI Cbriv 




From oiKricnt times aa opimon has prevailed, which is ap- 
pamitl; Euvoured by maar paatam in the Act«, Umt Uie 
»pint uf brotliurly bve impellea the Öret Cbristüm 
nniuunce oll their ciirUilj poiwMnumi, sod to mtnUtdi 
(wrfcet inUrcommunity of ):;ood& Wlieti, in later time^ 
vm {lerceived how vury much thu ChriatiAn life had receded 
from tho model of this felluwahip of hrolherly love, ftn ooniest 
longing to rcgniu it wti» nwnkcnoil, to which wc miW attnbuto 
Honio atlempt.1 to efl«ct wTiat had hceii rotlixed hy the 
t'low of lovä in tho apostolic timea— «uch were the orden 
Moiiklioiiil, the Meufiiciint Friiir», tho Apturtolici, and 
Waldcnsta in tho l^th and 13th centuries. At all aTcn 
iiiipponing tili« opinion to be well foiindi-id, this pnctice of tlie 
apustAliu cliuruh ought not to be cunsidered as in a litenl 
Koiisc tliu ideal fur itnitntiui] in till micüücding ugcs ; it mutt 
hiivs bocii a d«7iAtioa from the nAtural couna of Sociil 
dcvolopmeiit, siich ns could af^roo only with the oxtnordituiy 
mnnifcKliUiiiii or the divine lifo in tiio humnn raoo ftt that 
partddilar period. Only the spirit and ditpontion ben 
iiiimifeHUjd in thiia amolgumiLting the cnrthlj pomcnions of 
Rtiruburs into one common luiid, »re the modelB for tha 
ehuroh in iti derolopnient through all ages, For as Chri»- 
tiniiity never snliverU th-e exialing niLturol Qoima of dovrlop- 
intiiC ill the liujunu raca, but, afuictifiea it by a new .tpirit. it 
iieL-eaaarily rocoguises tlio divisi'tn of wpaltb (baaed ot» tliat 
duvolopmont), tuid the iaequolitiee arisiug from It in the 

mA prayer, Luke menUon» pmyer last of lil, pmbalily tiecMwe it» 
connRiloii tiRt^nnn ihe oomiaon meal md ptnyar, wliicli tnsil« »n 
MBculial part cf lUe love-foiiHU, «is flunLing in his initiA OUIuwsea 
malDlaioA (acu Ms CommcnUuY. 2d ed. p, G29), tbut ttUa Inlcni»' 
talton i> iiiMihiiiuiblv, bUL-aiuö in lliia enumornlion, enr; thin; 
relatee to divine worship, as any tie inrerreil from the {>T«ceitlii{ 
espniiMion SiSax^- B"' ^^''* *<tp\ioM\\i}n u wKti'-ine in prnof. At> 
eonjlne t>) vlinl we have liefcrv) remarked, tlio uummimion of tbd 
cimlich. u)d of the family, war« uot at tbtii. tiofl sGiinratRd fran ona 
nriollirr: no «Irict lino of deinarcÄlion vu drtHrn belwcm» wh«! 
b«l(>nj(Qd to tlie CJiriaLiaa Cultui in n narro-nar «ODSc. and what wifttcd 
tu thr Climtlnn life and caiumouioti gBaorallj. Nor cftn thit tohMI 
nllftfti'ii bj OlsliauMn lie v&Liii, lli»'. if uiy ml«rprot»liiin were «oTTwl, 
iLc mini HDinnfa muel havabeeb plated firgt. for it is a1iij|(<.''Ü4rr in «nk* 
thait/uii sUould i)o plarofl firsl. wliioh alaao refera to iha directive ftjnp- 
lioiu of tbfi »[KiAileE. I.lmt U:ieii the tusmioii nhoulii fallow of ite 
TMiprocot CbriniKii ci^muiuninn uf a.11 ilie mcmlran wiiU aao uioiUer. 
ud ttuit of tliit caiuiQuiLiHiiiropartiDalari sUoutilb« «BpMialljr ai '' 

tjBttttmAV omFiuüB m rai 


■ocul reUti&UB wliil« it draog fW^n t.hcso inorjitalitio« 
matchiila Tur the furmolioD tuid civroiia) of Cliriaiiiui virniea 
ond RtrivtiS to lessen tbcm by the only true and cever-liiiling 
mesiis,* tbo povror, tuunoly, r>f love This, wo Rnd, ugrees 
with llio praoiic« of the clmrcliea Bul«oquei>tty fotmdcd by 
the apoittke, and with the dii-retinna giwn by Patil ibr (ho 
wwrcise of Christian libnmlity, 2 Cor. viiL 13. Still, itv.« ar» 
diapOBOd to oonstder this commuuity of t;oods ae only ths 
eflaot of a pociiliiu- nud tompuriuy ninniristutiou of OiristiHU 
mJ, aud furvign to the laUir devülopmvut of the dituuli, ws 
efnll find monr dlHiuulties even Ln this moile of viewing it« 
Tliu first CIiriiitianK tbrmad theniselvca intu no monkMi fra- 
bäiuiti««, nor lived a» benuitä a«clu'led &om che nnt of tba 
world, but, OS liivtory abons us, couüuuud in tbo »me ciril 
ivlattoug AH before their couvereiou ; uor hnve we any proofs 
that a oommutiity of goods was imiverent for n timt^, and was 
tb«o followed by a relunt to th« u^oiU arnui);eineuU cf 
Eooiety. On tha contran', eevend «srcumatances mentioDed in 
tbo Acts of tlie Af'Dstlvs, nre ut varin&ue with the notion of 
auch & relinquisbiiieul of private property. Peter sold ex- 
prcsly tu Ananiiifi thuc it depended on bimself to aell or to 
Inep his land, and that even iiüer tliu eale. tlic sum rotwiTod 
fiir It wueutirvly at liiaown diejitjsal, Aots v. i. In the Olh 
chapter of tlia vlcts. tharö is an lU'i^ount of ii diatribution of 
alma U> tlw wtdowo, but not a vonl ia faid uf a uonimoa xtock 

I influenae nhich Ctrirtinnily cisrciic» ov^r airinklod !■ not 
oin|iiinl{it HlLh > clcur diNcciiiiiiriit ot iie priiiuijilaHf tb«n> 

masy erroni'E-UH tcndeniricii, vhjcb, Ihough büiiilc Xa Chn»- 

tianll.v, ban d«ilv«d tlicir nonrnHliwcnt [rum ii.— litüf-Lrutli» Iura tnim 
their «ulUMXion with Itiu wlioli: liodv uf rureikleil Intlh, and licnco mift- 
uodcntood uid nilMppliciI ; «r Uiie, itic ^t, äLUiouluiia furuiili iiu 
emuplä. Tbe}' liud Imtutc üwm ■■m indistinct cuoncpiioii or ttie Ohri»- 
tion Moa of cqoaliiy; l>ul u il wns n<il understoud ia the Cbriiiiui 
Miwe, ihcjr litve attuinptad lo reulixe it io a diilWreut luannor, Tliei) 
havo «tnv«n lo aroompllnh by auttrar«! arraii^ui«»lfi. whai: Chri't.intiltr 
aimt at dtrtloping ^ruitixlljr ()iraiie:h thu mmd und dispii^ii.iuu, jind 

hivo ihut r*lion inlJ) «iKiinlitlo«. Chrimianily tenila by the »p ril i>r lot« 
to redaco tliu up|iuniiiun bulireutj tlic indlviiiii»! and tlie i-uiiiiiL»nily, 
and to produce ui liAriin-uioMii umuli^iuuLiuu of bolh. Si.. RimaiiiviKui, 
on tLe ouiilrsrf . innctiL-ally rat^nrivul^ llio [jiiiiliiciatlo tendciiL'^. of which 
the UicQiT U to I'lVTnlciit Id Oärmunj' in \ha imscut da]-; it aiuiribcM 
the imltviOuiil M lb« «ouuuuailf , and Uius d«|itLvi» th« Latter of tta in* 
*lul itnpotliaae. 



IttF the »iipport of tlic wliolo Imily <if ImjWuvi!!*. Wi- Gtnl 
Acut lii. 1 2, itiiit MatT puwcwcd a houiw at Jcrumlcm. «hie 
WB catiTifit Mlppose to iinve boon imrchiwcd M tJie gononü « 
T}iu>ii' ßicts iiluiuiy show, tliat wu uro uot to imagine, even id 
tliiä (irat Ciirisliau Hooioiy, a renunciation of all priraU; [ 
iwrt.y.' Tiierefüm, wlmii wi! are told, "The wliitlfl Tnultitt 
of believent were of otie lieEirt and of one eoul, &nd lutd &1I 
tl)iti4p) ooinmoii," &i:., it is unt ki l)c iindvrstooi) litentlly, bii^ 
n« a dosoriptiun of thnt brotherly love which repieesed " 
selfigh fecHiige, nnd caimcfl tlic wcaltJiW ht-licirer» to 
tlioir proiivr-iy fw IjitinHgiu^ to tlitnr neirfy Ijivlhivii, an nadf 
VüTß they to share it with them. And wh<ai it is added, "1' 
they srild t.hcjir pns^esr-inTts, iitkI (HKtributiuii irus iTOulc to ovur 
intiii a:.'(;iinlin^ a^ )i(r hiul need," it in to l>c understood i 
ini; to whu.t hiiH jtist been »lid. A iN^niinoD vlimt was eeUb 
lishüd, friitn-whiuh thü nct-c-üsitiu» i>f the puoi'er ineiulwn of I 
church »■ere Biipplied, imd porhopH o-'ruiin cipcuscs ii 
hy itie whvh etiiuHi, »ul'Ii iw tliß «eleliration of iho Agaf«t" 
wtTe de&Tiyed ; iiuj iu urdiT to increnso tbeir coninbuiiowk 
iiiiiny ftursutis piLTtotl ivith tbdr ratittcs. I'rubuMy, u uoioo if 
this kjiid (ixisij^d aiiiojitr tlio persons wlm attended th« Savii^ir, 
aud iniiiiätt-1-ud lu Uit> imuuKsiu««^ Luke fiii. & ; and a fuud fur 

' Or WD inuul nMumo, ihat an tho puwcr of the newly aw-akcned («linj: 
of Clii'lktlrin rdlnwohlji oviTviaiiitu I'Vcrv otiinr coiihlilmüi-ii, »iid «1111117 
rupnwxiil 1.I1U oth^r mirml rvUtiunn tlint nro IiihimI un tlie (»iiülItuTiDD 
at aiturc, wliiuli aftur 1. wlt!le rDeuuietl Lhoir rjgliln, »jiil t-coiaii 
uiijiniiiriHivil a« npi^L-itkl forme of Christuiu fellcweliiu, and ttant m 111« 
thuruli and family lile wera meUod into one, it votiUi well i^ftte vtib 
tliu ilevuk-jfiDoul u-raiilsln HODaturttl to Mil- iitr^nu^ of tlieeihuTch,ttA 
liy ilic ci^etjiowcri nff feeling of ChrUtinn fellon-ship. all tlietlncil<iB rf 
prupcrty bIiouIiI ui-u«;. wliii^h wuuld I« luvijinplUhsil troiii an innanl uu- 
|iiil'^<! uillioiit fitmiul coiiHiilUil.ion or 1(<g;^l proMTripMon. BulkDcr^zp»- 
ritinuc had aliown bow uatiMiabIc B\icb an urnn^cmBiit iru, Ihia anginal 
community ofgiinila nonlil grjiduully lend io tlii- funualion ofn PomuMn 
fund or rbc~i, «-hivli wouki not inteifcrc nitti tin.- liiaitn of privnta pia 
pcny. But in llic Aul« tliene Ivu irrudatluna in tin: lovlnl nrrHUKtniouw 
pf this «liiin;li might not be iliätiiiuU^ markLiI, nur voiilil it be In cut 
power to truce step hy ficp tlic pnwcM of dfii'dopTnent. SlIU, w« «alii 
i-uHidoiir, gwijintä for »liia »ssiimpLioiL The povM-ty of the chorek it 
Jonisnlcm. Una indpccllieen adduceii ae an ill ooniretjucnpi! of that original 
fnimmiuifj' of jjoiidft. But tliis inmnol h-B laton wi a *ui* {iroof o( tlia 
(act; for sine? Chris-liatiitj" ftt firit f>iincl nc-'cpinniNi anion g the pwr« 
clii'*«ci<, wl tlic diiitn.'M of tliu {luuplu at Ji.'ruii:iluiii iu tliuM limm mwi 
huv« Vccii exireinr, il can be cspliUDud withoui having tccauno 10 bust. 
k HippoHitiou. 



«niillAr piirpoacs was uftcrrnrds formed by public ccillectious in 
the «{iwtolic clmnilit'K. ' 

Tfiis praotice of t)io first ClirigUan», aa we liitve remarked, 
hftä hvKü rt:iiili.-n:il iiii.-n)L>rabL<,- bv thi: futc »r ADOuidJi and 
Sappiiira. Their e.taniplp show*, how fiir the iipuWica ivctro 
from wiwliiiu: tj> cKti>rt I'j- nntwnni ivqiiirciitiBntA what oiiytn 
to nrowc"! sfii'nUiueoU'jly ü"'iiii tlit- power of t!ii; 8|jiril ; tUijjr 
loosed only fi.r th« ÖT.* ac'tiuf.'B ijf a pure dispoRition. A 
mftii nbinpi) Anuiiiwv imil Inn witb Suppliu-ii. n-€.i'i> niixiniis at>t 
to Tie cORttiiervd liy the opoelles («id ihe chiircli aa iLiCirior lo 
uUiL-n in ttiL' lilKTiiJity of tlioir contriliiilluiis. Prubuhly, 
H sup«ntitiou» bi>lii>r in the nic>rit of »ocid wnrlu wu» iniii^läd 
with otlicr motives, eo ttisvt tlicy wighod lo be at tho sjime 
time nieriuirii)iipt io iiotVn si^lit. Tliey cinild nut, liouevvr, 
prevail ob tliotnaclvea lo suri-euder tbu wliuio of tliuir pn>- 
purty, but bn>ught a pnrt, Mid pntuiidoil t.Iiiit it wiik tltu 
whole. Peter delected the diiuiiDiilnLioii and liypntii'isy of 
Anniiins, vrliothor i*y a glniioo iiitu tlio secret i'üctr»^«» of lii»t 
li«tut. impiirtcd by tin? inimiülintu iiiHui^iiL'o i>f Gud'a Spirit, 
(IT by « miiund s^^iicity liarived Ihm» U»o simc source. 
»« csiiinftt decide witJi d-i-tainty früni tlie niiri'nlivc. Nor is 
it It ([««HlioQ of import,!!!««, fiir whci vaa wj exactly draw Jit« 
hne botwecu the diritie and tlie human, it; organs animated 
by the Tloly SpiritI Tin? iirittiiri.ilily of Ajiiinina did not 
fwuüisrt iu his uut deoidiiijt t" part wjtli tlie mhule iiiuount of 
Iiis propertj- ; for the words of Peter addriieed to hira show 
thftt no (txnct moivsuro of giving wiu^ prf»>:3'iViGd ; e!ic\i niu 
Its left to uoutrihute acoLinJiur; to his pocuiior circumstAiicea, 
atxl Lbi: d<.-gn!o of lovu tliiit uninmtcd liim. But the liypocrisy 
with which iic attcinptud tii nmlu.- n AiuV of greater luvi- tLuu 
he acnia-liy foil — the ßilswhtiod by whicli, whea it took pun- 
flHssioti of bis wjul, thi? CliriBtiaii life must have bLtiu utterly 
pulluted and adulteniliHi — this it was which Pet«r donouucea, 
jM a wnrk of tho spirit of Siit;ui, for fiilrieliood is the fuiiiitiuii 
(if all fvil. Pctirr cliiirged liiin witli l>'iiig to tho Uoty 
pint ; «ilii lying not to men but to flor! ; eindo ho niust 
i.ivc lirhdd in thi; iijiostlea iha organs of tho Huly Spirit 
;tking Mii\ iwtiriK in liud'a namc-^that tlod who was bim- 
lelf preoonl in the (UMOinbty of believers, aa a witneaä of his 

' Thi« i» wrreineilljc Bö atw view, but one aiiupUxl by IlcuDtiuu^ 
Jl«absiui, uitl ulLnn bufur« llicm. 

Tin: canaetu.Jt CHiiBaB ni ruLtsennw. 

iiit«iit!onH) — and jet thoitght ibal h« ouuld obtain 
lii.'f-jrt' Cnjd fbr liiB good works, Peter uttered his »>] 
ruhuku with u dirine con fit tu hoc, npriiigiujj from a 
to that hal^r cause which was to be presorvcd from all fiuvigo 
miituniH, fuid fimm rho äunsuiousnei« *.<( boiii^ in an office 
eutraated to bina by tlml, «nd in whidi he van supported by 
diriiiu power. When we reflect whiit I'elcrwn« in tlii; uyeBof 
AnunJAH, how the RuiKii^titioiu hyjHicrriK^ must have been fju- 
founded and tLnndenCrnck to soe his fnlsehood dotoctod, Im>w 
t)iti buly dcuiiuviutiuna vt' u mun itpeukiug to Ids cooacieooe 
with such divine confideoce must hare acted on iiis terrified 
fooling w<i Hhnll fiitd it tiot vnrv diHioult. to «oiu»ivc Üiut ÜiO 
wordfi of the ajiosUe w:>uld produce so great on effect. Tb< 
diviiie and the uattiml teem hero to have bwn timiig 
oouuecl^d. Wluit Paul ed conüdentJ; asserts in his EpiMlca 
to the Corinthians, of bis ability of iiifiicting jiuniKhmcnCi 
testifi^ of Uie cuusciutig jioKseiiaon by the npoKtI&i of iiocfa 
diviiie powor. Aud whou Sappliira, without aitspectiog 
hitd tuiteu pluce, thniti hours nfbvr, vuterud tb« luaeml 
Peter at firat endeavoured to roiue her oonsciouoe by 
int«rrogut!oii3 ; but einc(', instead of boing «roiiaod to 
»idcratiou und repentance, sbo was hnrdcued ia her by[K>crii^j 
Pi^lur flecused her of having concerted with bor busbuid, 
k) |>ut^ us it wore, the Bpint of Qod to the proof, vhotbor ha 
might uot be deceived by iheir hypocri^. He then mcaacej 
hur with the jiidgmcTit of God, wliidi hid just bccc itiAictdd 
on ber hushand. The words of the apostio wew in this 
in^tAiice Elided by the impre^oD of hei* biLshntid's f»Ce, and 
stiikiij^ the conacience of tlie hypocrite, iirmlui«d the suna 
eö'ett as on her husbnnd. So terrihU was this judgment, in 
order to guurd tlie firat opui-ation» of the Holy Spirit, bcfiirc tlis 
admixture of that poisoa which is always rnont prejudidal to 
tfao operations nf divine power on manJcind ; and to Mount a 
rererenoe for the apostolic authority, which was so important 
OS an extemul Kuvtirning puwer for the devolopmoDt of the 
primitive chui'L-h. until it kid advanced to an independeot 
Bt^a-l^tness niid niatiu'ity iu tli» fiutli. 

Tiie di»:ipluG hud Dot yet Attained a dear tmdcretanding cl 
that coli, «hieb Christ had already jiivoii them by ■> 
intinuitiuos. to form a Church entirely sepnrntod from 
Bxtäiin); Jewish eoonomy ; to tlial tconouy iIh»- adhe 



M nmeih u ponbl» ; «11 tbe tmu of the naticoaL t^eoemcr 
«era aihcceii ia tbör mini ii>, it aeemcii tbe natuial element of 
their RJigicns coasaoosuee^ ihougb * higbor principle of liHe 
tuki been impwifid, by trtdeh tlMi eootöonsaem was to b» 
progr wüi vely bi^tred and tntU8&)nii«d. They reaAtned out- 
«ikriily Jew«, ttttbon^ in pro p oftwo as tbcir bith in Jesus u 
tli£ Radeemfir beaune el«tier «nd atrooger, they wooM 
inwardly oeaee to be Jews, knd sll exienul rile« would Mmuau 
• diflättut nation to their intvniul life^ It was tbctr belief, 
that the enstitig religious forma would ooatinuc till the 
Kooud ooming of CSinst, whan a dvw and ki^Mr order ot 
tldnga would be eotabliihed, and this gnat dMnge they 
oxpectiMl voold efaortly lAke place. Ue»w tbe establiabneot 
of D dütini-t iDoda of wonliip was &r Crota catering thür 
tbooeh^ Altbou^ new ideas respactiiig tbe eesenoe of true 
«onuiip aruee in their minds from th« li^t of &uth in 
tbe Sedeeniisr, thin- fult aä grxstt an iutunst in tbe T«m]ilo 
^wnriiip M any derout Jcvb. Tbcr bcUerod, howeTer, that a 
H|Bftitig would Ulm pitted Auong tluT luemlidts of the tkeocru^ 
^mni) tliAt the b«tier pari would, by the iwiciiondcxt^ment 
ot Jeaua as the Mcsuuh, be iooorpantcd «ilh tbo Chnation 
oomiauiiity. A» Ihu Iwliova«, in Opposition to tlie laaatt of tlie 
Je>'i^ nation vhu räiuaintKl litu\l«UÄl in thoir unbalief, now 
fonocd a cuminuiiity intcnially bound together by the «no 
(Utb in JeaoB aa tbe Meeräah, and by tbe consciousnae of th« 
higher life rect'ired frotn him, it wae noccssuy that thta 
internal uoivu should awunK a «ertatu exieraal form. And 
a model for euch a Emaller oommunily «rithiii the great 
oationnl thi-ornu^y nlroidy existed tunoug tiie Jews, ulong 
with tbe Täiiiplä worsiiii-. i;anidy, tht Simagoyua. Th« 
means of ivligioiu i?<liti<.':akiti wuiuh th^y tuppUod, took 
aeecnutt of tiiu n;%iuiiH irelfu>i of iill. mitl coosistiyl of 
Boitod pnyen and the addr«sca of iDdi\')duiUa vbo applied 
thsniKelvuN to the stud}' of tlie Old Ti»lainent. "Uvsv ii)U(liih 
^_of editi(;atiou dowly corrü«iioQdod to the iiiitura of tliä iivir 
^Kbriatian wunhip- This IWrn of ovciui wonliip. m H won 
^^eopied in nil ttie religious oommuuitie« founded ou Judaisin, 
(such 8« the Bssencs,) wan nbio adopted to a. cort-ua <nt«nt at 
III« fint foruia^ou of the Christian ehurcti. Itut it may be 
disputecl. whether the ap(«th«, to vftioin Ohri»[ conimiUed 
ohicf diivctiuti uf k%irs, dcidgued froiii tUe brat 





br;liiTvers aliuulJ fomi a eociety exactly on xhc model 
till; )i^'iiik^>)iut.', anil, ill piinnjuiico ol' tliis pliui, iiutita 
jiarticiilar ofSceti for tlie goverumeul of the church oorff 
rc«iM>ii'ling tu that model — or whclliw, witJiout stich a 
proooiictivuil [dun, dtniiiiut offiue« «we appoiuted, as cir- 
cimistiuia'« rc(]uir»l, tu doiui^ which tlii?y wuiilit atiül them- 
tulvuH u£ tliu uumIuI of liic »yitugogue. vrith witiuli they 

The iwlvocitti.« of tli(! fn-sd. ncticriie <jvnrti(:iibrly Mo«li 
prucet.-d ou ihö iitj<l«iii;il>l^v current ajisuui)itiou. that 
exiKtuncc of uuitaiii pnwiilcnt-i fit tlm hciut i>f tho Clirinti: 
Bodelius, uihUt tliu iiaiiieuf EM^rs (Tr/tfo/äürdioi), must be ji 
8Up|ji:iäod. tliDii^ti theii ttppuiutnii^it is ai>t esprcsaly lae: 
ti>jiiuJ, IM ii|i|iL;ajii ii'uiii Ai:ts xi. 30. Tbu question iiriM^ 
Whether oven earlier tnic*s cannot be found of the eiistence 
of inch Pri>sb\-ttn>i ] TliC ftppoint.nieiit di dcitCdiut i» mA 
flret moutionMt lis döüifjned to uieel a special cmeryeuoVj l»i 
it secuia prubttblo timt ibcir uffici; wua ulreiuly in cxiatci)< 
It may be pi'esiiinfid, tlmt Che ajiostlca, in order not to 
oiJlivl off" from tlic ntoro wcjglity diitic» of their officii 
up|)DiuUjd frurti tlic bt'giiuiliig Biic^h aluiuiiers ; hub na tiivte 
t^tfidcis hithoitrt had bucn ch<iB«i only fiwin the notlrc JimHcIi 
Chrinliaim of ["iilLislino, the Clirittiaiie of Jcrish di>M«ul, who 
imirtc fiimi <>tln:T ptirl» of tliu Itomitii Empire, atiii to wlioin 
the iivoik wjis almost aa mnch their motlicr tocf^e ob the 
Aniniiiif, — till? Ilelleiiists »A they wpi-e lermed. — bplievn] that 
thoy wore uiyuntly treiitud On llioir roittoiiatiTuice, Aimooos 
of Hf'lloJiistiu descent were especially itp|)oiutail for then, 
a» ap])t.-iii-a by tliL'ir Greek tiamisR. As the apostlis detlonil 
Ümt they were aTcrso fi'uni being distniclcd in thoir purely 
BpirituaJ (tmi>loj-inciit of piaycr and priMieLitig tlio word W 
the distribiiiiou of money, we may reasonübly infer tluU evta 
befons this limi:, they hiul uot engugud in sticb buBiDus!> but 
liiid trausforrüd it to othor [wrjiong appointed for the pnrpo» 
Still earlier, iu Acts v., we l^nd mention mailo of perttx» 
under the litli; of vlm^l|^ol, nurlauii, who cmutiiih-rLlI nuoli aa 
emplojmeDt a» carrj'inj o. florpsie out of the Chrialian nseciu- 
bli™ for biiriiil ns belonging to their oföoe, so tbitt they «-«oi 
to liave böen no otUw tlmu dKaoons, And ff Uiv title 
tyuiinger stands in coutnu^t witli that of eldure in the cb 
the exieteoce at serrontä of the ohuroh {Stdixroi^. 



fif nüjig dtkre (irpc«/i«Tt«KH), •wmt bvn to be cqimllr 
]ioiiit<.<il Olli 

But though this supposition \\aa sn mucb pl.iiisiliilitr. ycC 

the ovidyiici; fvr it, wii clt-wr vxHiniiuilion. iiji PL-ill's b_v u<> 

tneons coudiisirc. Ii Li fur from cle-ir that in tiii! liat quoted 

fiiaKigo of the Act«, tite nnrnitivr iilhuIrA to ]H-rHnin lioldiii): 

ft dititliioi uffiiM ill tl«; cliuii'li ;' it uiaj verT nfttunillT Iw 

I linderst ocxl of the youugt-r member» who wiiv fitttil fitr «icii 

Itiiiuiua! «m{>loynicat, nithi>ut nay r)thur cli^ihititv tliita thu 

lß»ct of their agu »nd Ijoilily str«ii;lh. .\iul, ihei-efuPft wo «ro 

|iiut to Riipinise that a coiitnwi in int4aiiltii l)etweeii the 

[mi-vudU aud ruling Eiders of the church, hut simply betweeo 

youn^r and ohler UK'tnlicrs. Ai to thv Grecian nncacM 

Deren deacons, it ciiniiot lie iTiferreti with certainty 

this ciiiiu/nstan«' tlmt they all hotonsod to tho Hcllotiisl» 

i for it i« vtU fcuoini tlint the Jisws often tmri» doiiblo uomes, 

(«ne Uehrcir or Aramaic, and the other Ilcllciiistic Still it is 

wiUe, Miice the ruia]iliiiiits of thii pfirtijiJ (ii.itTihulion of 

cfuue from llie I lolliiiiiitlic |)ai't of tlm church, that, 

\er to infuse «inlideticc atnl fnliHfaiitii'.tu, piirtT Hi^llcuisla 

Fn-cre chöseo on thia »ccniiiiiii. Tint if fh^iwn iliim^ous wei« 

[appoluted only for lliy HL-UfuiKW, it wjuW hiivn IM-Min moat 

jnaturul to entrust tJicir election to the Uellcniatic piut uIoik;, 

mA not to the whole church. 

' Rvm aft«r wli*t b.u bopn urgi-'H ''y Mijjot iinil OUliaii«!!, in iboiv 
''Coramniiliiric* un tli« AcU, ajtulnt^t l.lils view, 1 cannot give ll> up. In 
Bcvordaow with tliv rulutiuu in wiiii;!!, unviDiicJy, uod (Mpeciftlly ftmong 
llic Juvn, lbs 7('üi%- nioo'l Lo tbeir el4«rti, it wuutd follow ua a mntlar vf 
course, tlialr llio _vonMi,- »mniii iixi ii*wuihly wumlil bo raady to uerfortn 
Biij k'ttIoc whicb mighr, K- Teijnlrod. I do not »ee why m» Olnhauiou 
luaiuteiui.) uu tliiit ^'iptiL»;.iiton, Jiu.v othur tuna Ihnii vf^cp»! tliouKI 
btira bwMi n'Dil— fi>r, if Luke IjhiI wiehoil In itcsignntit iippniiiTuil imr 
^Tuntscf Ih« iihiiryb. he iroulil not have nae'l tliit indehnite appdU- 
tluu ;^if>r dm 1 fi-vl [.!io furi^ uf OUkauHuii'ii ol>j«di(iii, tlinl in that 
I^Of liiu AcI.E, tlic arlii'le K'ould not linve Ikii'U used. Ijut ilkc pro- 
Luke lnt<iiiiii:il lu uiitrk, no iloulit, n pai-ticuhir lilxM 
tW juunjiiT con1nllii!>^itlI;l>i&1]l:d f'l'om the eldc^r, withoiit 
eMrmtntng vhollici' all or niil^ nnnic lonl. Ibulf uiiaistniice. Bui Oib- 
laon imo bi riglil, llint ir tlioaa are lueuiUDd u> be TDjfulnrlj' niipuiiitutl 
vaatu of the cliurch, thpjr connnl. be cooiiiloräd ait ttii! rorcninncrs of 
hli« JMoniu obuni'l) Kl » luEor period, for njH.nif<-^ll}' (.btiHia voSr*»! Iialil 
br lower pliu:e, I un jtlixl- 'o ^n*! on nciilc ndvocjitv of the view 
have Uk«i> in Uutbe: em bi« wurk ou tlio (;oiuui(iuv<;uHDt of llis 
lirlftiui Chureb, p. lUä. 



HiiiKio TOO !irc ilJÄptiHed t« boiioTO, Lluit tlio cliurcli vim 
firat oonipuaed eutircly of iiiemlicrB »toudiug on lui «aualttj 
with one auotliur, aud tlutt the apoetlca alunu bdd a h>^: 
rank. Olid exercixed a. diroclin^ inHtiunoe oTcr tbe vhd 
which iLToeo from t)ie original position in which Chri>t 
placed thfjiu in rvltili"ii tu otlicr buliwvna : ao tliax tlie wlioi 
arrangement and adniinistmtion of the affaire of the cli 
pmccede.1 6t)iii tliiim, und thoy vktc first itidui^Ml bv pur* 
ticTilar circuiufttaiices to appoint other «hurch offioerai as in 
Ji« iaBtaiice of deiicoiis. 

As in tlif sjovornininit of tho ohurdi in tp>ti«ra] the npoetlea 
at finrt wtio tlip sol-j «liroctorn, a.11 the oonl.Tilmtionit townr^ 
the connttiijn fiiiid wrv depimjti»! with tlieiii (Acta v. 2), and 
it« dirilriKuLioii, nccurdin^ to the wants of in<livi<liinla, WM 
u.luijl^rthci' in iJiL'ir hiiniL«. I'Voi» AitIji vi. 2, it auuKit be 
jwftitively inferrwl, tliat the npostloi had lu: hitherto been 
»wnipifid witi) litis Boiiiilar comocra. Tliat poMAfpn triAV bt 
aii<len<loud tu iiHimii!« lliat thoy liwi biüicrt«> atUnd&d lo 
this busiiicBs without botDg diHtmctcd in their oilltng tm 
jiTOüchen »f t)>c Word, nn long Oft tli« ci^nfidoiu» uuivdwdi^ 
reposed in tbein, mid the tuiitj pervading the church, lighiencd 
thin labour ; but it Offitimcd d vcr}- diflvrL-nt aspect when 
ft oonßiüt of distinct intcro^U nrow isetwccm the lacnhen. 
Meanwhile, the number of the believers incretwed bo f;TC«Ujr, 
that it is probnblc, hod there bi.x;n no otlicr nason, tliat tfao 
apostles could not mannte th« distrihutian aJftne ; bat coii- 
ngnod A pnrt of tho biisiaess somotimes to one, suinctimas to 
tmotliev, who eitlicr olftrod themgelrtä ftjr Üie purpoa^ 
had shown themBtjlväB to be worthy of mich conßd«iiCC. 
thta depaiiment of labour hnd not yot recaved aujr 

Bnt as the viable chnrch rsccive^l into its bo»oin Tariotn 
(.»lemuntR, tiie oppoejldon existing in these element» pradiwlljr 
becume npp(irc3it, and threiitencd to d«struy the Chri; 
unity, until hy the tniglit of tiie Christian spirit this opi 
aitiuii could Ij* eounterbaIanced.andnhighür unity dcvolojiwl 
Tbe strongest oppiisition existing in tlie iiriiiiiti\-e diuTfli, 
wiut that biitween tlie Palestiniiui or purE^ly Jewiah. and tia 
Hell« a is tic convert», Äiid though Üi« [kiwot of (lirisiiiiii 
lova at tin^t m üji^d together tlio diajMwitiotu of tlt(«a («u 
parties, tliüt Üie cuntmriety bwiiuhI lust, yd tiiu unj^tttl 



didoTDnco 500Q m&do its aiipouunce. It alioired iteolf iii this 
nstpoct, thikt th'i HclicntKtR, diMatlcftiM «-itli the mcia of 
distriliuttii;^ tlie alms, wen mistrustful of d:io ot.tieni. ami 
iK)1iu%-(;il tliAb thuy lind oauso t«> cvitiipluiii ttiat t]it:ir uHi-ii pour 
mdo«B wero not takca suoh nood cnro nf in t.ho dsiily 
<iwtriI»ition,' n* tho wiiloweof the Palcstiniaa Jew* ; wlu-tlier 
tliu Tiicl nns, tliut tiiu upostke luuj tiitborlo ooumittcd tliis 
biuäuetts to I'alostiniau Jews, and tliene liad either juatiy or 
unjiMitly iiHmno'l ttio sns[>icion of purfiiility, or wliotber tlic 
want of n rt:<;utiu- xJiiii fur titi» l)Il^i11uM had Dcciutioiied miidi 
im'guliirity und negk>üt of itidividualB. or wiiother the com- 
jJniiit waa groiindod mwre tu llio iiivtnrol niiEtnist of tlio 
HelleiiiRtH than in ii real grifviinoo. must lio li;ft iindutwiaini'd. 
from t.iifi wiuit of iiioro e\iu'i iKfuriiiiilifuL Thcwn mmplaiiit*, 
however, iuducud Iho ujtostltB to uHtaUiali it regidiir plan for 
oouductiu^ this buniucsa. atid Biiu-o they cuuld not thomHelv«) 
(Kunbinc iJio Ktriot Dvors'iirht oi individiiaJ*, aiid tho wttiwftn'tl'ui 
of eacb one's want«.' wiih a proper nttentitm to the jn-iuuijiid 
objoct of tbuir ailHuK, tbi.'y tlmnglit iL liest ti.» iustitutc a piir- 
ticular office far tha juiqjii««, tho lirat I'OKiitar one for ndunni»- 
teriiig tho cone^eros of tbo cbin'ch. Actordingly, they re- 
ijuirod tbu oliurch Vj entrust t)iü busiitusi lu pursuiis who 
enjoyed the v-euci-al eunfiiäi-uflii, and were fitted for tlio oflitw, 
mated by (Jbristian zeal, sjul annod with Cliri&tia.ii prw- 
ScTuu BUdi iudividuals wviv cboüL-n ; tbu uuiiilwr 
iD(; ttociiloDtaJly filed upon aa n common one, or boiug 
'r»fl)tpt«(l to HCTOn sections of tho chtiroh. Thiia tlii» oRifio 
origicat«d in tlie iiambditilo w;uitti of the priiuttivi^ ^urcl), 

* Xtiilier Friim tba (.-xprcMloii ha.K<ir!a. vi. 1, nar (ram til« [ibr.i«« 
liajtwrl« rfwir^ait. tun it. In; iiifiirfitil wil.Ii nürluinljr UiilL thd spiMlUii 
•llud«<l duty iJ> liis diiiTibiilitiii or fouil itnionu' the pouT wiilnwn. We 
\M»f 1X1 ulli'HOit tj> BiiiipiMi.'. Lli^it lbi> VAt out}' ii^nc nf tlic Tnlilct of the 
«nrrjee Hvcf pcnfonnai:!, nnrl thiil It in irienlioti'.il to avf.rK iu>>n) 
poinUKll; tliv (11 a 1.1 hi; I Lim liutwucD thn oraralghl «I' eptrltunl, and thai of 
ntonlnr cotmenia 

»■ Tbu ilier <nro Tcqutrsd to umbriake lheTiiieiaeH«iLli>iio, liwUad 
of CEBirtutiius it III litpuiiui, luuniil 1>l- t^rovcd fnnii the liti^'uiit;^ hi tLv 
* Ael« rl. 3, The wiird TuDjia (vrhicH is the Irua rcndiiiK. f"* «7"« 
Rod rupi'au Bppe» t>i liu on!)' );loii4e«) dcnoiet lUnt laxiiiiTtUnn (or tlir 
tÄiiai; (i( the gtisjiei «hit-It is ri'iiiiiiiin fcit «vnrj' kiti'l ciffxerLiuiL for ill» 
kingdom of G»l: »»«iasignintM. thiil iiiatlly whioh 1« ounnntiiil for 
Ilhik oIRm in rA'ticnki'. atul in>;jiii'U in llic Kew I'tiLiumtnt, wiidum or 
YOU t B 


■niß OmiBTIAlf OHCBl-tt IN PALBSTm. 


snd iüi special mode of openttlon u-n;* marked out hf the 
peculiar Hibuttion af thi.i Bnl uiii<Mi »f \MiIieven, whicli tm 
in «cnuo point« lÜBsiinilAr U> thnt of the Jcnnnli synagjo^ne, 
of Iftler cliurebe». As it «ns callwil for by the iimwurv 
ciroamttauc««, it oertairü.v vim not int^BClcd to b« perlocU; 
oorrcsponilciit to an ofKno in Urn J«vH«Oa nyam^ygiio, 
can i>f no means be aoiundared pnrallcl to that of a 
common servant of tho ^nagogno (Luke it. SO), termed 
I!?, *V*i ""^ i?^' It ^»^ of higher im[)urt«aoe, fur 
at Ant it wus tbo only ona iu tho cbiirah besidea tJu 
iipostobc, luid roQiiirad a upafial capabitity in the mniugN 
meut of men's diapositionB, irhicb niij^t be emploje<'l in ser- 
vices of (1 higlitr kinrl, and wiut xuch ss witliout doubt 
l>clongcd to tbo general idta of aoijiia. Kcithor wiui tliii 
ofB.ce alto3?thor identical with tbnt wbich nt a later period 
liore tlie mmo nume,' but was suburdiiiato t« the offio; of 
proebytora. And yet it would be wrnng to d&ny tluit 
iiiUrr (;liiirc)li nfiicf of tliia ntirae dcvelojied ilsidf fi-om 
fimt, and Dii^lif, iiu tnii.'ed bm:k ta if .Mtliou^h, as is iini 
in sucli afttitm, vh«n tbo ouclcm&eticol syKtcm Iwcune 
iioinplex, many t^lian^s i:<]ok pluco in the of&«u vt dcnooat^ 
for exnmple, the originul siile ApiKiintuieut of doaooiis for 
distribution of abns, became afternrarda subordinate to tho 
iiiflueiice ot the presbyters, viha iissiiniL-d the wholu losnngtf- 
inent of churcli ufliiir«,' aud though mauy other wcniur 
oiaploym^iitB were aJded to the original oiu?. yot the (ud 
tnuutui priiiuijilo as wall us the :iiitiis of tbo ofBt'v rctnuinud.' 

' See Uotliu'« »iJminible KcmirkB, p. 186. 

* At Clirj'>oiLtH.i>n üliwrvu« in hl>t fuurtcQath Hamily on Ute A«tt, ( L 

* Ai tlio ScPonil Tnilknian Connoil, <i 18, which wm OMtuionen h 
a iinncUl nliJcRt, Uial tlie ntiiiil»! of iloacao» I'lir large U>wb» ulglili 
b« (imiu-d to »even. 

* Frciiii AuiK li. 30, iiothint; tnoT<> i< lo )'" infcfnd, thui tliM «bea 
prwbyUTH wpro »ppointc'l (o[lilcS';ln!nll«llpL^^ill'«lldlluce of the chtnb, 
Ilia c«nlil1iuttoui iulcutliid for tlic clinrcli won handpd «vcr to tJiom,M 
twmatlj to Ihn npmi.lcji. vhcn tlivy hd<l llie uxalaniTa inaiiii^iDvnl ot 
attaira. U mai tic raiflj' !i»|)po»)^l tlioi Um pr«abyicm rntniftiM tadl ■>f 
the dueaiiit with amim dul uf tlic uouitiiuu fumi for tliKlribution in kit 
own dejÄrlmoni. 

* t ftaA no roaiun (with K<it1in, p. 16S) to cloiiUt Uiiu ; for ibe mit 
WW well B'lnpUrl to d^nut« tl^cic pnrtidulnr «miilnyirienc. and M dl<- 
tingriii>li thnin frnm pcivon« »«ting in n more tubonünsto ciipiu.'i<.f. » 
Mipnm, Nur i« it nnj' ctypoliun lo thii, tkikt in Al^t« xxL S t)u7 >m 
Densly called TKt Scvtn, for b« the uuu« of draeon *ru than llie wbI 



In kt«r timtti. we »tiU Giid tnioixi of tlie dÜLribuüos bt ultm 
bciiiK couaidvn;U us the peculiar empluj-incat of dviMoius.* 
Hctv, m ill itiiuiy otli«r inslnDiii.« i u ilia liit^tary of the ohiircb, 
buiuan wcaliDiiisa au<l iinporttclioii eubscrved the divine 
wi*lwiii. wiJ jjrumyUd tlic iiit<:i\'sU of ÜK kiugJuiu uf Uuil ; 
fitr by this apiioinliiieui of deacoos for the Jielientntia pait of 
ttie ohnnJi, tlistinguiHlicd men of Hi;lioiii'it.ic iltjwont and 
uituuLliou weit- Ifi-uiylit iiit-J the jmhUc »crvicf of Üiv tImroL, 
anil tile HiilkiiisU, by tlieir freer nieotAl L-ulture, wera iii 
iiiauif nspLtrt» l>U'ttor qmilifi<J rightly t« luitluFKtiuxl iiml bt 
i)»blihh tlio gospel .^K the foiimialion of a nietliiixl of salvatiou 
iiidciH-iulciil of Jniiubiii, iind iiitemiecl fur M.U raun e(]tiuUy 
u'itboiit distiiiotioii. TLh im^jortuiit uoiiHcXauciiues n-sultitiij; 
^^iin thw tvcut will iippi-nr in the course i>f the history. 

The iiistilutii>n of the office of preshyUTH vim eiuiilitr in its 
origiu to that of dcncons. As the diiii'ch was coutiuuiLlIy m- 
cretaiog'm fixe, the douiilsoC its uiiunt^vmi-iit lOsu rnultii'liod ; 
" lO gnidiince of all its atfairs by the apostles cuuld no loii^er 
b«S coiwi'iiimitly comhiticd with the txerciw of tlioir peculiar 
ajtoatotic riiiictiong ; thoy t\lao wifiL^d, in nocot'dimi'ii with Üu- 
spiril. uf Ciiriatiauity, uot Ui govern iiloiic, hut jia-lurrcd that. 
tiic body of lielievera should govern themselves vmAlv tJu'ir 
giiid»3U'4f ; thus tlicj divided the goveniment of tJie cliuroh, 
wliidi hillR'rtii II11.7 hiul «(aTiwd jiimic. with triwl itifii, who 
formed u presidiui,' council of eldets, Bimilai- to that which 
Visa knoiii hi th» r«wi[ih synngogtiea uuder the tiile nf c-:]^. 
triimlivTtpui.' PiiHöthly, an the fomitJ uppointmeut of dcacom 

appellition of • aeruin «Im<h of oSiceri In tbe «hurcb, Luk« mat ibis 
I «xi>rvM<Uin i^i illülnRiiUh ihcm Iront otbars <if tha laue Daju«,juHi hh 
{I'm Ttetin duiiulvi ilie apiMtliu. 

H«D«c ai tiie apiiQiiii.iiitiii «f -^«acoiu, H via» itqultcil, Hint thty 
'i " not U- yrui'dv ift iilihy liicto," 1 Tim. iii. S, Origcn, in 
L xvi, { 2^, vi iiiiiavdi Kiancufiro Täiift inKKTjaiai xP^^to; and 
(Cyprian *ti>ii of Ibo dL-ucun FtÜetSBiuiUB, ;iftu(n*a' commMsit' sun' /ran- 
I lialor. Even in tlic Kpo'inlic age, ihe dcHcon'ii office ap\»Hin 1,0 hav* 
! cxlcndvd lu uiSMy«!' iiiiin'uTi employ' iiicMitB. and iiuuil pmbiibiy lliv 

I Viird ii^iX^i)>»it, ' ll»!pi^' diiuoU« tlio stirvtcaflliicn-.'ttn nf t.licii oflii.'o 

I I C«r. xii. ti*. 

' BaiMf liiv liti'lv mninUini-il, lli«.t tbo gttinfu,1 f^nviitiiiiin^nt of lliii 
1 rG^Im a! til« cbuL'oh (lid Dvi. cnlflr orif^innlly niid vnsotilijill)' iiitü ills 
■M«a of ^teB&Ttpait IjuI that orli^lnAllv i^vcrj' wftaß^tpaf [irDiidcd over 
!■ rninll (li-tiiittt Cbri-tiaii «üi:ii<-(y. Fr»iu M-, uiin ci>iiiKit|uuii<:u vxnilit 
irblct Bauer »t»o deduce» Oom iU tbnl not a repubHeaii, ha 



arooR fnjn) ft tr|iuuific uuluurd cM;caäion, ft eitnUar, tiiough to 
us uiikiinwn, event occhhi'IkhI Unit uP firohyUiT». 11>i-}' «en 
origiiiiilly clionen m in the SynMgo^e, nnl bo mucb for iha 
luHti-uctiorU aiid dditicatioo ot tho church, lU for taking tb« 
liiii'l ill it» gtiiiunJ giiix'1'iiiiit.-tit. 

But m lo tho proTinion made in th« iirimitiTC chnrcb At 
religions insT,nictii>ii und edification, wo have no predae iu* 

imiartTrhital ctuinuul eiiti!rcrl (irigiiinlly into tbe raintijiutjon of (he 
c)iufcb. It po»kjon ttom «liivli uiMt iuiporuni ci)iiu>'J'i«iiom ouuU 
Mlow. Itin. lufiiintt Iliin nawrliuu, wv ünvu iuhii.v ibiugi U ufft. 
Snipi' t.lin iipiKiliiMnnnC of preRbyiert In III? i.'hriaiitin «hirnh enttNlr 
cbrTenjionded «Uh Ihit *( i>r»ti>"teTi in the Jewish »na^^c.ut I<attia 
tlioir oriictiiJil ijüJiHUrulloii, a^i we titny cüuclmitft luHi tf u fXunlHy uT 
cMefi« «Tüo<l rtt tlic heiid of llic ijiiaf^rtMEii n. liiv uise tfus tte cAUi vitb 
l1ii> flm ClirintUn oliurc)]. Riii ■■ lIiu «jiisgi^gueumrdiKic lu th**s- 
cinil: Jc-wiih <.-i)aiititutioi]. won ürcimz<.-d on llic pliui«f iba ^rckt Soobp 
(li'lin aL Jcrtiaiilem. VD mlglil i'Kjii^i;t l.h;tl n wiioio intllcg« of «Idvni »onM 
liuv« till! (liri'dion «r the -yn^^-u^p«. u unith 1 «oU<ee of cMcnvM 
rcall/ at the hcml of llio Jowi in a. fUy. I.iika vll. 8. Th« ptsua)^ i 
wliiuti «ru- i» <rwUu|;tiinl»:'l 1j>* t.Uo tilttt of HfX^'^'^Tf*- I'liLetfi 

11, i»; xiii, 11, tnaj' HiKiilfy, thai, tlic InilivldiMl nicmloiit^ iioi-i . 
ibo hottd u( 111« JowUb ciJji^Ti'(;atlaii nx T^S"} Ml, aiul thill ilie [ocm i 
Suvernmtiat vm ntli«r uiDuarulikuL Kiii uiluiiitini; Ibis '■'til th* np-J 
poslilODof iicolleKeof ptMl)j'ier>. pitniiliu;; tut-r tUe «yiingitgocnaU' 
noE, lie inv&liilnlDil, aiooo ire mrci x plimlit; aT upx**'*^^" ■■ 
^f.KiBi^'ti"-Avt» 'ii^' ISiXviil, 8— 1)<. ^etvo iniut waUc theliniL*- 
ttan, ihat in kmallur (iliicc» u.» iiidivulmil. w in 1»rgRr towiu ■, 
• tiKKl Ht lIiu littud of i\iv i<)'ii]k);it^ui<. \l, is tno«t probiiblUi tlinc allEioBti 
(lU Jinabjlcm wt>ro tsllcj ücminWv»704, .tot (me wli« iil-IikI a» f<Tt*idcal 
vro» di»tlngiilftli£!(l hy l.ln!,!i: iif ifX"'"'''h'''y"t f Ifimm iaitr /rant- 
In t!vi(l(iuu<<] (i( t.liin, i'oiii|>uiv ihe üni pjMuig« i|iiii(.ci) Iriitii Liike vilk 
Mark V. 2'J. Thli ii iitt['i>i'l.titl. in rifi:!!'!»'« lo tlio .awr rvlatinu (/ 
biiiliopa !□ jir<Ml>}-t«ra. 1'lic 11111110x7 '■i t''" JcRUli iTQu^oitu« ajlo«! W 
t« <:oiicU>4e, t.hat tit llic hciid uCiIk linil vIiukIi at JtruHilnin, ftgouinl 
ildlilivnilivu uollu);» n'i>i< )'Iliui;<I frani I.W liceinniiiK; a noilou «kidi 
i» fiVdiirciil hy a ron:p«>i-'iii wlih Tin; colltj,-« of ajiiniUta: iiid in tb» 

»llci, tin rnirti-si'nialivcw of the chuTVh ai. JwuHulem. II luj- tiiic '»&r 
pust'J 10 iiiiiinUin, tbal «wh. ul thu«' pn'.d'j'UTs rcöirtnd omr ti imtlltf 
part of tlifi iriiureh »t iU »p^oUl infiolInK*, «till H niiwt be thenlir 
mlii1)ii<hBtl. thn.1 Bolwilhri Und 1115 th«« divided inefttins«, tlin «Koki 
Cnriiind a ivliul^, ovnf whioli llii- ilvlil>umi.)veoulWe of |<re»l-'irt«t» nn- 
«iidcd, and llierefure, tli<; form uf soi-eniinctit wa» «isll mpvililifun, m 
if h [* iirotiaMu I-luiL Ihu wliulu I'liun'li, «liUli rould ttnl aicct m ' 
jiliiL-e, rtiviilwl ilBBlr inlu eertml eompjuii«^ «ill tlic auiiiiiiitii.iti, tW 
fnini Uic Ircglnnliiii; 111* miralicr of |.r.'Hl-j(.*Tx »n» fqiial to ihu iiuni''i«' 
of |>Wi» 'if »s^'Uililiiiß. Hiid tu thvft KUbdiriüiniu of Hia coIImUv« bojr 
«f liclistan, is ctiiirely grsandlsu, and in tbv bijjlimt degree impntol'l* 

TDK CilRISIliy cQcncu IK Pi1.EsnXB. 


Jbrnutioti. If v« an; jiutifiod in alsnmiii^ that the mode 
«J«t>t«d in tbe asunnltliui «f < :«iiti)e Chrixliiuis — uhkli, in luv 
cortiaooo widi the cülighteDöl Hiirii aud nature of Chris- 
titnitr, w«9 not confinol to one stAtioTi of lite, or to on« form 
of m«iiul culLiv-iiUou — »iw iiIhij tlie uriginul oae. wc might 
from Üätit cotidiiili', thnt from the tirat, auy one who had tbe 
fihilitv nnd au inn-iLTil tail to iitbT his thoLehfcc «n ('timtiiut 
l>j]iii~!t in » [)iiblio oaaembly. wua peririiltod to s|)eak fur the 
giiiKiu) itiipruvi-imiit uD'J ciiitiu^tioii/ but thu lin»t duircli 
dtfKm^ti li-ora Üie cIiukIi« Rut>KL>i]uenily formetl anwuc ths 
Ocnlilo« in niic ini^"">rtant respect, thü-t in tlte liittcr tbora 
»ero 110 teacher» v( l\ni.t. tlcgriw <A illuruiiiation, nnd ilidmitig 
that respect tu which the npo>cttea ha,;! n. rii^ht, from the poai- 
tinu ia which ('liriKt )iiinj^'1f Knd J>1nu;J tlicin. Mi-n.awhilc^ 
Ü)0ti8;h tlie aiKMitli^a |irin('i{.iu]],v iitlvu<1td tu the ndvaitt^omcnt 
of ChriäiAD kuo«-lßd(^ aud as t^uchens pussps«oil u prepou- 
(kirktii^ nnd dixt.ingiii.shvd iaflii(.ti(!i', it hy no mcuiia lolluw^ 
thai- thoj monnpolized tho right of iiiaCriictitiK the church. In 
projwrtiow an ihoy wüim influenced by the spirit of tim (Jtixpcl. 
it uniHt luve Ihx-ij tlmir ttlin to Itnid bL-lii-wra by ilieir ttittoh- 
iug to that npiriiiinl nmturlLy, which would enable tlieni to 
coiitribiitu (by virtue of tlio diviiio lito ooiniTiiinioiitod to nil 
hy tJi« Holy IJpiril) to tlmir iiiuliml iiM'iiki,-niiig. iri&tnwtiou. 
Jind improvoment. Viewing the occuncntca cf the day of 
I'&tttMXiO. Us ii[i ilhiHtrutioii of ihu iiiruiicy "f the Diviuf^ Sjiirit 
111 tlie new d!H]n;tiH:iliuu, we might i-ouclude that, on Biilise- 
iliient OL-ai^ioiis, thut Ejiiritiiol cxcit-uniciit which imfx'lluc 
bt'l^i.ivort to ti'--rt,iry nf tht; divinc. lifu, cwild not htt i-oiifinoil to 
iht upo«tl«e. A«;oi-Jiin.'ly, vjq tiad ihnt individiuils cüijic for- 
ward, whii hiid ulrividy duvuled tliüHiBulvnü tu« Htmly mid 
iii(cr|tn^iation of tiio Old Tastanient, and to nieditntiou i«i 
divine tliinj^ ; and whtn. I'J tht illnmiDiition of tlio Holy 
Spirit, tlivr lind btü'onn: ttmihur with tlm natura uf thiJ ^<.':?jiL'l, 
Utey cotdd with comparaüve ease devtilop and ajipty ita tratha 
^a puhlio addr»ram. They received the gift For «liich tlioro 

^K* That in Ih« Jeoixli Cliriitiin chnrches. pulilic appaking in their ov 
^fcblic« WM not routined u> cvriuu s.i]i.liqn».'>l r«leon^ u «vident from 
^n Tact. 1>AL Jmiiut. iii attilrpimitt^' buliuvum uf thnl lAw^ «hu wuil- Ion 
Mpt Ift Mb<(i('i[<9 UilkliiJt fi)r|irfti;tiiiini*.'''"n'iiri?d theni, Ihv^iirb m many 

ttilli.iul u) ictnirj eali. pr<iinpff<l Lj- ntlfcuiiL-Kii, |-ut tiiülunclve» 1'^J^ 

vonl in llitir ntn»aibliiM us luni'lim 

Tm nFfiimjur rtmw nc mij 

WOH an adaptation m th«ir miiula — tlie YOfnafia ttZatm 
ati<l, ill oouscquence of it, wov iufecior oiuy tu tbu np> >«[! 
iiptitiide fur inking public instructino. Bodd» that oo>iin< 
Uitel1c«ttia] davelcpnMiit of tmifa, tbere were ako nM' 
which iiriMxeded not to tnucfa liuin lui apuiew of tlii: tiiv 
8tan<iing iiapnved hj eierotse, and actnm vhh a oertaiu u: 
formit^ (if o|>ernt!<>n, an frv/nt nn mi>taiitaRi>c>aK, immcdia; 
iuniirJ utrakenin^ hy the povr«r uf the Holj 8|iirit, iu wb» 
tt ilivini) aflbitus v.-il% fdt buth bir the cpoikpr »nil hoaron : to 
tlHH ^siasa Ireloii^-U Üii! rpi}4i}r«irii. tlte j^iifta^a sixif t^rfiuc. To 

the prophets alio vero nscnbed the exbortatiotu (rctf)BKA4«t it)< 
which KtTDi:^ with tho for» oT iastmitiutuoiis tmiawnnn ea 
the Clinda uf the itearera.' The ftia^taXoi might also jxHses 
tlic gift of ^puaifTtiii. but not all vho uttered porticubu- iu- 
RtnutnneoaR ciIiortAtions aa prophets in the i^nrch, vtre 
capablo of holding the office of ttlim! -Xm.* Wo havo do pro- 
oiM iuforamtioucououniing the n.-IiitioD of the itiüirtuMi to 
tho preabyteps m the primttive cfanrcb, whether in the ip- 
[Hiiiitmoot of prcxliytcn*, cnrc was takoD Hint only thow lAo 
wert) fumiaUed with tlii.> ^A of t<«chiuf; should ho adiuilttd 
into the coUbku of prvsbytcrs. Yet, in all awes. tho uvonötAl 
of tJio prof«igiitioii of the Christian fhith — of the mlminMn»- 
tiou of ti!'u;liiii^ aud uf derotloutil cserciscs in iLw wdil 
mcGtitii^ of bolievori, beloiti^eJ to that gHii'ntl euperitit^ndiüiw 
(if tho chtircli which wus entrusted t<> tlii-tn, as in tlui J<:«'i>b 
B>ii[^Qg»Q3 ; although it waa uot the special and excluciro 
iitfioe of tlie eldere to give poblic exhortalioiiit, jet vrlioimr 
mii^iit siJt'ak in tln?ir »awmblic«, they ex«rclaed a« iiiB[».fliixi 
ovi^r them. Acts xiii. id. lu nn ofiistln vrittcii towjinis tbo 
end of the apostolic era to au early church eompowd «f Ctirifr 
tiai)» of Jewish deacoot in Palestine (the Epiatlo to tlno Uebrewii)^ 
it in presupp'jscd tJiat tlio rulers of the church had from th* 
first provided for the tlelivery of dirine truth, and wntchpd 
over tliD apirituail nehitre of the church, «nil tbcrcforo had tlw 
caie of 8oul& 

üremt* in tho ohntch, vne reokopM unoDB: tht iirofifMU. and hBti< 

Uiia it 



mWcA hy thn »postlMn^U ^ BoptJflat. And 

AoU (Iv. 3Cl vÄhl «4fiuV^(T«Di< "== tiii^t 'i-a^ifrrtiai. 

* In Acta xii. 6, u a muiifeiiiktlou of itie av'iri'ual ci^ tbat fotlsiTOl 
eonTontfin. ■^afr^iütiv in put next to ^KieltaIt AaAiü. 

TUB CRRIR1AM cnrncn fit pausttkil 


Itclotivo ki the »pmid of ChnKtintiitj' lunong tlie Jews, t)>e 

Enunt remorkabte feature is the grftdua) tranntion from Jwiiüxin 

to ChrisHuiity as a new indepondont creation, Christiitnity 

prvwiiiliug ilsetf ati tlie orovoiug-puint uf Judaiam in ita «ou- 

summation occomplisliod by the Uessiab ; tbe tnuiEfiguration 

and «piritualimtion of Judaism, the rutv, pi^rfect lav given by 

tiie Mesuoli a§ tbo fiilüiling of the oM ; tlie new epirtt of tlie 

■ kigticT life commiiiiicdtcd liy the Messiah, grailiialty devclupiiii; 

^Kit^lf ill the old religious fonna, to whifh it gave a real vitnJity. 

^KSiich is that iwprcspiilation of Otirisilifinit.y itticli Is given iii 

VtheSemitiiiou th« Mount. Fiimofull, Peter appcarelwforuws, 

p' and then after he had [«ased over the Umitfi of the old national 

thttOCTKOy to piiMiah goüpel lunung the heathen, JntnC!« 

preeenia himaelf aa tliu re|in»eutative of tliis fii-st atcp in tlie 

deTelopmotit of Christianity in ita most perfücl form. 

The tnuisition from Jiidmstn to Clirislianily in genemJ 
graditally developed itaclf, hcginning with the acliaowlodg- 
meiit of Jcs<u as tlie lte«ii!»h iimniieüd iu tlie Old TostJiiEciit ; 
Mid li&aoe mauy erroiiBuua uiixtiirca of tJie r«ligioiia spirit 
prevoJciit oinoiig the Jews were formed with thrisliniiity. in 
«hioli Ü10 .lowiah clomont prodcmiimlnd, and tlie Christian 
priiicipli* «'US diijircssed and hiiidL>red from distiuctly uiifoldiag 
itaclü There were nwiuy to whom feith in the Mtsaialiship of 
Joeoa. wns added to thtiip former rtJÜgious views, only as an 
iDSulat«d outward fiu?t. without de vo loping a new principle in 
ibeir iuward life and disposition — baptized Jewswbo aeknow- 
ledged Jewia as tlie Metsiali, and espeetod his Kjieedy return 
for tho cetnhlialiment of the MesHiouii; kiugdom in a tenipornl 
^_ form, aa they Hr«re wout lo repreaaut it to Ibumselvtis from 
^B their canud Jewish Htandliig-point ; thoy rcefivGd some aevi 
^^ prcLiiiit-i frum Him aa so many positive commands, without 
rightly uudi-'iataudiug tlioir acuao and spiiit, and were littlo 
distiiignished iti thpir llren fivm the cumniiin Jews. That 
Jvaua fitiUifully ohserveil the form of the Jewish law, waa 

IDsstimod by them us a proof that that form would alwayn 
Ktniuitavaluä. Theyduag lothe letter, tlie spirit was always 
h myrtpry: tbey could not understand in what sense he dcclni"cd 
tliat hv come not ti> destroy tli<} liiw, hut to fulfil it. They 
adhered to «of deitmpng it accortUng to tlie letter, withoiit 
undontanding what thi« meant itccurding to tli« Bpirit, sluca 
what was meant hy /u/ßl' <.H<f it was uuUaJly uukuowa to them. 


SucH peraunB «ouM easily fiJl Av*y from ttie ßüth wnzcli had 

tiovcr bLijn in them a triüy livuig one, wht-u they found 

that tlieir ctLnml (?xpc{!tntiniiR were not üillilkd, as is implied 

ia tb*i lanpiaj^ of tlio Rpirtlo to th« (ii?V«icwR, As Uio con». 

irioii JfwUli B|iirir. matiiWk'il ilaelf tij In; ii onowded attadi- 

lauiiL to extcrnalH i» rulij^oii. a oIghviiij; to the letter lud 

«utwnnt forms, witliimt. miy devi-lopniimt wul iipprupriiiliOD 

of the Rjiiiit, ft [imrtirGnce for tiie »bell without tlio kcrael ; w 

it Rppt^ni-ed iti the Jews as mi op]KHiL'tit to tho ru»ptio» «f the 

giiMpi;!, ttiiii to the renovation of tlio !itsirt hy it, a» an ovei* 

viiliiaiion of tho outwai-d obscrvimco of the kw, wbi;th«r ' 

otTViHoiiii,'» or ill a wrtiiiii (lulwiirii |jr'>t>riet)', and an und 

estiaiatiöti of u merely hialoriual fnith, t>om»tbiQC esteroal * 

the soul. L-ouänting only iu uutvrard proTcteiou, fiÜxT of ftüb' 

in una God lut iircatiiFanii Lrnvcmnr, oriu Jcsiia nsthe Mean^ 

as if tho essenue of reliijiüu were placed in cither one or tie 

ülhuT, or tia if u rightoouKiiosi licforo G«d uguld be theivbf 

ohtained. The (nonius of the gospel presented itself in opj» 

nitiin to hoth kiails of opim oprrnlrim nnd ik-|M:tidciiue oti 

wurlu, aa wc sliull ouu iu thu ^i|Ut.-l. At fint it wo« the <^ 

mant of FhariKnie .ludfliwn. whieii miiipled ilself with, aniJ 

diatiirbod tlio piira t'hnKi.iiin truth ; nt n Ut<?r period 

tiaiiity nrou^ed thi^ ult^titiiju vf thodü uiyalical or thcoeopli 

tetiduiicioH which Imd develiipinl tlieniKetvi:« in up|)iicatiOB < 

the I'huristiism d»«.viii[i rigidly tii ih» ietti'r. luwl it 

JudKsm, pnrtly aud mure iuuiieilintcly fw a ivftctiim from 1 

inirard religious elumuiit iitid spirit of Judaism, partly i 

the iiiflueui^ of OriouUil uud tJn.ii.'iau iiifiitd tendenc»«» tiy 

■n'hicih tbe imheudin^ und riiggvil Jndiumn wtui we&kt:;uud ond 

modified; and from ttii» i)um-tcr other erroneous miiturei 

«-ith Christianity proceedod, which ciunipcd «utd «Ic 

the pure iieTt]opiui.'ul of tho "Wurd und SjiiriU 

We shull DOW pass on from tlie tiret intemiU devclofHue 
of thu Cliriatiiui Church umotig the Jons to itji 6Utniinl COD- 





tnx antvAW coronios or tki ■•■tmriTa oncmnii m rnLSxconoaa 
ASP nMiK oom^imcKi 

It doee not np[>«Ar Hint the Pliarüc««, though the; boA token 
Ütc Wtl in tlio cnutilcm nation of Clirist, v«re eai^, aft«r that 
event, Ui iwreecub: iiis foDover^ Tltev Iwiki-d on tlie illite- 
rate CaJilt-!Oia as worthy of no further utlunlioti, «sjiCGitilly 
j MUX tlirv siriilly otisor%'e<l tho cvrcni^'nial Un-, nnd at first 
aiMtoineil fri'iu tuiitnjrcrtiiig the jHtuliw tciiet» iif tlicir 
party i they aliowed them U> remain uHdisltirljcil, like sumo 

I other inicw by whom ihoir own interest« wcno nut nffoctcd. 
Meanwhile, Üip ühiiruh wiw wiablod oDiiliniuüIy to eiilargo 
itself. An uiuii.'asiiig nuiiilicr wuro ntti'utitcd uitd won by the 
overpovonng puergr of spiritual intliumce whioh was nuiui- 
fested in the (irimitive church ; Uie uposti«« iHm, by tlie 
Toiraclee thuj wrtnight in tliu coiitidiTiiuv und power of Itiith, 
finitnrotucd the attention of carnal men, and tli>.'U mftilc iikc of 
this iinpreffiioii to brint; theiu to «i ackiiuw1filyTti(*tit of tbe 
divine jKmiT «f Him in wlmsn :inino »nnh woiiJi»™ uiirc jicr- 
furmcti, ami ty hold him furlh to ihuin as llie (Iclivcncr from 

IeviL Puler, csjx^isilly, pussossi'il in :in «stnwnlinary dpfin-u 
thai K'ft of fsill» which i!niihl<'d him tn purfuriii l-iiims. dF wliiuh 
a rvmarkal)]» «lauiple is raoorded iu the tliird cbnvtor of 
the A.jl.'i. 

Whöii Piititr !ujd Join;, n.t one of tlio iiKiiril Iwui« uf pmi'er, 

L nhout tlirpc in the aftcnioon, wore p^ing into tlio temple, tiioy 

B^uuil fit one of tlm fjiiU« of ihn ti_'mpk» (wlio«i precincls, n« 

^ ofterwarda thoHo of Chrialiiin ohiiTches, v/t-rc a eomuiuu reaurt 

of boRKon) a man wliu hnd bocD laaio Irom his birth. While 

I ho wnj* loukitig fur altiis from tJiom, Pet«r utt.üred tiio niomor- 
anl« wordti, \thhh jiliiinly testified Üic conaduiis poaseaeion of 
ft divino power that could go üir beyond tbo oominoii powen 
of man mid of tiuliiix- ; mid wliiub, pi-otinuaMd wtlli such cou- 
fldenoe, can-ied tli« pludjra of their fulfilmuiit : '' Sil vor und 
gold la«To I nono ; but Bicb n» I liavc, Rivo I thi-e ; Tn th» 
mune of Josus of Nnanrcth, rise uji and walk." Wticn the 
man. who had been uiiivi>rsi»lly kiiuwn aa n lamo bfj^gnr, wiw 
wuu »tuudiug nitli joy by the aide of lua two benufiratoi'a^ to 

vttB oninnTAS ctfoncn tw MAffniK 

wtlofn lie d'liiK willi orerflowii^ gmtittide, • crowd fiall 
iriinmltjr mitl niftoiiitlitaent coHecterl arottnd tiie tpasüm 
llinjr u'urii liiavititf tin: tomplc, itnd wiore im^y *<> [x'T Uieia 
limnii^t nM [•l^^HOll» uf pwuLinr sauctitv. But Peter said la 
tliiiiii, " Wtiy lb you IiKik Inll of wond«r od lu, as if we had 
itiLiii tU\» l>y our (iwu jiüwer and boliiussil It ia not onr 
W(H-k, linl llici work of tli« Holy On« whom yo nijcwt"! am 
ilclii'in-il u]i Ui tin; lli'iilila«, wliopu clcftlh ye ilmiuinded. linHijr 
It limttliu» }ui\if- widliutl to lot him go, ioA f>lt compelled la 
iwkm>wUil;pi In« iimixK-iKiC." Wu hons lucwt wiüi ttwi ulinrys 
wliiiili fvui' nincKi tlw ilay of Fontooodl^ IV'tcr bad bcoit used U 
I'rin^ fl)rn'lil^1, iti miUir to lond tli« Jem to a ooiisc^ioiunnai of 
llioir i^iilt, to rapoiitaiioo, and to &ith.i "God himself has by 
utlwKiiioiit wuiil« jn»lilii<il Him wliom yu condemued, and 
proTtHt yftur ciiilt Thut (lod who voa with our fttheiB, and 
iwrpftlwl hi« |«w*'iicw by mtnu-iilona crvnts, liu now rovcolui 
hiuiwirby ill« ifliMrittcAllon of Him vhom re ooitdcniued. Yo 
liBV» ]Mit hitn to deuth, «rhom tiod dtetiiiea tlieroto, to bo»ljM 
«U m a diviuo liTu t^f nvurlniitüig blaeedac» ; bu( (iud nuwd 
htm ftum UM daid, mad «m •» Üia ej^-ntamau of bis ntar- 
iwiiion. Tha tNUoving eonAdflnee mplaaUd in aur Iioarts 
by biin, ItM cBbctw^ this mitack bdbn your «Tca." P«t<ff 
«\Mikl bav« amkui to a difibnot itiiä to olatisMte luil)«- 
SevM«. But ho« bo boptd le nett with mind» open lo 
«oMvietian. He thenfiw« ATotded Myiag «liat would only 
ml tvpd ihoir fixtingt. After be bad eatid what 
to KMntnoe tbnn vf their goih, he adofited s tmUcr 
taa^ to JuAeat ««Mnk« «ad to iwm« tbe ooatziSe. Be 
bwHj i to Ktwud «tel M^ be «äd in «mmkmo of tboea, 
«te imi wtibni u Am ' 
towMK« tlHT kad dnM Üb» 
4rT Mi tMr i^m kwl K«e4 te 
«MMNvfah^EberanMara. h 
ftiAtha tWM«,^ li I ill irfa ftrtfc* 

yw to nwi^ *M ywt >tw mnd. e^y 

in-iix r M *«»*» M* «hM WtotWk>aM|Mält7 . 
I>to*to««>to*a«w4%i «aae^ at Nhm w bm« «w Wv 

^ te «Wta*v<rt «itaM «*^«*atoiMvbKito^^iai 

«äd in «MMOKMo of tboea^ 

SiHHb.-* aad ib^ » far^ 

to wmmmat.'tt'nm in ««»fl 

»K TKB coRimA^ OHüBn] or palbstixe. 

ySa Dvw idlov TDursclvcü to Iw hroufiht to u sense of jour 
lutT^jhteouRnes» hy clii) fiiut of wliioh yoii ant witneeoi; it 
jrou now repent aod lieiii-ve in Jeeiu aa tlie Mesnoh, and «eck 
II tliruugli liiiu llukt fi>rgivcuca of joux ma wbicb b« m leadv 
B to 1)c^>ir. ThuH oiity^'ou cttn ex]Kt;t dclirentnce fitna u1 
H enl. And full aahnti"» ; for he is now bi'liU-ii from jour bodily 
H vym, Aod, exalted to heaven, nroü« hiaucir w iaviäbly effi- 
B cient by miracles, such as thoni you httve witoened; but 
whci) Um timo turivoa for tlie completion of nil things, that 
gn»l period to which nil thu prophtoLuB of the Old TeatAiueut 
point from the bc^niiiK, tliaa will be appear tij/faa on «artti 
to «t&ct thnt complotioii ; for Mcwc»' nacfÜia |>rop{i«U luiru 
spokeu beforehand of wbaL is to be ]>crfunaed by tbe Meaoab, 
as tite coiLHummntiou of all thiDgn. And yoa are the peTW>iui 
to whom thuso jnMniUas of tho prophots will I>u ftillillod ; to 
you bekms the prooiises which Cud ^w to your Sutber», tbo 
promiiw givcu to Abraham, that ibntugb his ptisti^rity nil thu 
ßnnilicti uf t)i« imHJ) hIiduIiI be hiciscd.' As one day a bloieüug 
from thi« pr»tDi»cd Kei of Abmbiuu shall est«ud to all tho 
oatiotH of the <!!ii-tli,' VÜ «liikll it tint bL> fullilläd to yovi, If J'Ou 
turn friiin your ninrt tn liim. 

The cumiiU'lion produced amoii;.' the people who gath(.vr(^ 
Tuuud tho ap.wtli.« in tliu pivtiiiiuts of ibo tuiuple, iit liiffl 
nratiwd tlm itttiiuticjti unci KUHpicion of tim prieaU, whoac 
offico it vraa to perform th« service in tbo temple, and to 
prownre order tnere. TIig twu iipoetk'H, with tlie cured 
erippls wbo kept etoau to them, vcru appivLeudad, and aa it 

* PeCcr bera uppedi ta Uie pMsige in DauUiruDuui; rriiL 13, I&, 
wheva cntaintf. mccordlui; to llio connexion, onl; ibo prnphi^C« In 
CetwmU by wbom (rod eantiniuill;^«nlighi.ened and ^ideu his people, 
are ooalnuA«! villi tlin falar «uutliuT^n aii<l niii4r><ii>'ii^ ^f iiiiilntroun 
■uiuo*. But ynt, u tlic M^tuith wm the Lisi of ilicso piomLicd 
proplwt«. ia litt fnÜiiwvil liy no oili«t, in whom ilie wlmlo iimpliBiiu 
fT*i4<& foitncl iU ctiliro Dud coDfimnmaüoa, so far tliiH pFiua^ in it^ 
spirit Tfiay ia^tlj im appliijcj lt> Ih» Musculi : liaoii^h we canuor. ftffirm 
tul Potor blnucir ma dUtinotlj' niTare ol' Iho ditterenpo l)Gtwe«ii the 
rigbt intvrprvulion »f Ihe Ixtter, wnnrdiaj^ l» gmniuiali^nl nail logii^kl 
TUCi. kod lU i^limtioQ Id apirii, aoi atbilntry indooil, l>ui groiinilcd 
OD na UsMrlui,! occcteity. 

* T1iiiiproi)>üie>Qtn. iil.S: xTÜi. 18 1 ixli. IS.Moanling Ic italiijtbMk 
rpiation, «hieb inii>t b« toiind in ilie (iri»nic doralapiDcnt of Ih« kio^ 
ilom of <kxi, it fulGlliHl by thn Mcuiali. 

* On the MnM ia wlilcb. at tbut. time, I'eter undontood ibis, wt 


munmuf anrnca m PAturiwiL 

WIM nov evening, too liOe tor aov judicial urooeedings 
put iti oüiiüiicuion tili the ucxt <lny.' WIicd brought befoc 
the ätuihedrim. pL-tür, full of holy inftpiniüoii, Mid raised 
it al«)vc the font' of riiaD, t4}8tißt>il lo tlic niler* nf the Je 
tialhu tliat only liy Ihc might ol' Him wbotn tiii-y liftd crucP 
lif'ii, hut whom GtA bud rai*.fl from Ihe dead, it had come 
]iiuw, that thuy hphold this mmi stan'lin™ in prrfoot «•jiiinlnt 
Uil'urc tbeio. Hu vaa lliu »tuiiu ilunpitwil by Ute biiik' 

' OftttttT i-tnicliiM that he can ihow that thU ourallve wm onlf | 
Jsj^ndary ncilio «f Ifac unniinui in thn Ciocq>nU. a ImiuicWDc« of ih 

uiira^ti-B of C'liriiil lo thu Dpostlai, miii ofWii applies this himIo of isUp 
oretation ta tlio (trat piul ii[ Lbn Acu. Thu» lio mninlklns llinl 
wunlii ID AoU ir. 7. " liy what power anil by what naato kan? ye i 
tliUI" lue niiptiid Ttum tlio (lueRtloin aililru»M:il m Cbrinl, Luku X) 
" Tell un by wliat autboritjr thou doiwl tiaoBe ihtDg«r anil tlmi lii» it 
pTavwl U> bii a TalM: trunafumiic«, boeamiD tho ciiihIIod ■land* in iu 
rU'Ut fituc« ill Uiv UciipcL biitor^, but cot id tbo uumtivg of Uie Aelt; 
" rcir, wcurdiiih' to itic JcvifL ij(>U«>ii^. crerf one uiIkIiI cure diKwe^* 
Itut ihuugii iliu cure of n diacona titud nuL oicuiun na.r furtihnr in- 
quiries, yet a cuTB, whkti appi.fkrcd to lie aiMximrili»bei1 liv tiijivmiiianl 
power, riiijiiil pru|ierl)r call ftirtli th« intiuir*. \^ li«rioe diil he nlio prt- 
rormcii It profeB lo repotve Iho power! .^b n -km naiontood by ytur. 
tlu> 'jiicHunn iiivdiiwl au iiiiL<u3utiun that \ie profuwud to bavo rcf jm 
power for pcrforroio^ sut^li OiiH^, llituuirh hit oonni^Iiiiii irilh an imli- 
viiliisl \tIii> )>»>1 li-'iiii, uiiud-ituuKii bjr LIiQ Saiilii.*iiriin. This i^iaituloii hi* 
intoadad t» ouU forth u cunfFuiiuD of in^ilt, Gquatlj erouadlcu ii 
OlVüivr'x »upii'ultloii, tliat iLu ijiititation III AcU iv II, "TtiU U i!i? 
Btuna whicli vrid «.'t it nought of }-oa buUdvni.'* nfen to Malt.- Ki). I;!. 
and am ouiy Im utidimtODil liy auch a retorcnca. 'I'hn caanexiou of lli* 
pii.wuL.-e in explicit, and ii ati faltuws: ** If f« call us tt 
iiiK-ount fur Lbe tcsllutiiuy v"^ ^i'ax Uk JesiiR ai th« Mowlali, yv will 
verify wiiat «KB prediijwd in ttial pasBa«;imt tU« Pciiltuft. The^coviaf 
XiuraKLli ci>ndeuiQe(l li.v iIk lii:ud* uf tliü Jcwl«li pullt.v. Is liouuttrvd I'.r 
Und to Tic miwle the fmitiüatioa on which liic whok kiiindoBi of Ood 
räsU. He Lm n<ci'ivHd from Üod tlia [oouer lij wblcti we tUVct lui-li 

QfrSrer fartlitsr romarkH, that tbs plainest proof that tbU namilvc U 
dfifoctir« in hittörical truth line ioTeTBc 1Ö. "What iihail we dato \i.:-! 

nitffi? for tliat liid>teil h noLible ttitrui-'li! hath liäcn don« by lh?ia i> 
mRnifciit IQ all tlicm thut dwell in Jerusalem, and wo tnnnoi dcit> l > ,' 
ho Baiwrta that llii»« pui^ona «oiild not have »o «iprawwd lliiTiii-iln». 
DuL if iho author of this at^caunt bus put in iho luDUtli of the S.111I11- 
(irim what bo bi-^liuvu-d uiit^bl. b» [>Tu?tami>d la l^ ttitt tlioii^hU ibU 
influenced Ihrii condnct. oan it on Umtatwunt b« rcaBua>blf iDfemd, 
ttint iJis lurrativB is In Iti« uiniti 'iiiliiKl<iri-:An lln tlic wumt |iIab \ij 
"■higb iJiriStvt ibiokF be aaa »liow tint mieli narrniin--« in Ubo AcU m 
oiiiy tuiitutiuuEi of lliuBiJ iu tbu Uo'pvK nc mighl «n»tl,v nuUi^ 1 
In Ut«r history, a» ncruly lugondarj- coplca of Lurliet hiMary. 




tboae vho imhtid tu be tlie luuten uf Uud^M poufJu. irbo 
would bvuvtuc cLc fuuu'lAtion oa irbioli tbc nlinle buildinc; of 
GihV« kii^iiora w<iulrl n*u Pmalnt exviii, 22, Tliurv wiia no 
oUicr means of obtiiJuin;* aalvatiuu. but ßutli iu Uim aIouu. 
'ilw lacuibuni of thu tiiuiiii.'dniii n-crc astouiiüicd to licar men, 
wlio had Diit been diIui'jiIikI in [lii> Jt^ui.-^i s^cli^oil:«, ami wliuiu 
th«y des^i^ed as illittTute. ejteak wiÜ> audi cijufidtiiica uwl 
powtff, UDii Ürny kuuw iiol wiiut to OKtki: of llic uaduuiablo 
fact, the cure of the lame man ; but thoir prejudice and 
epiritiitü pride would ii»t: nllow them to invi.'«tignb> uiure 
gluÄ-ly llie vxttitK of Ih« incl wLich luid Uikcn pluc« btfolD 
their ere«. They only wiste-l to suppreis the eidteraeiii 
wlitvli ihi; rvcnt biul occ!isii>iiod, fiir tlicj coiiM not charge any 
(äiaa ducu-iiic uii llio ajioatlud, who taught a atricl obeummuu 
of tbi? law. I'erhaps h!so tha seci-et though not altogether 
ilccidufi iWcnds, whom the ciliiimi of CKriitt h.vl rnim tho fint 
among clio nicDibei^ uf the SSiuihediim, exerbod au. iiiduunuo 
ill fnvoiiruf lliL- uuctinKl. Tlio »cbism likewiBo botneun the 
PliariHuio a»d thu ^^ddduou-au pirtto» m thu äotiliudrim, iiü^ht 
ham n fovoiLnthlo iiiHitciKC on th« conduct of that owoaibly 
tonurdg the Ctirisli;iii-. Tli« Siuldwcw«, who wen exaspentted 
with ll«! t>]iiisll'i!S for so awiitldualy «.(Jvucatiug the doutrinn of 
the re)txuTioctii.>n, and who wero the chief authors of the Tnachi- 
uations ii)5iiiist tliom at this tim^^ v,eiv yot m> far obÜf.i.'ii to 
yield to Qui |nvviilent iKijiiihir buliot', iia not to veatmx! to 
sllui^ tlint a^ikiiiiit Cbc di^ciplos which most excited tbcjr 
«uiDtty- Htnicc- u'ithoiit umkii%' aii_v f^iMcillu dai'i^j »ipiinitC 
apoatles, they FUktiflliod tliciu^uhx-s with im|iu8iii^ xUertuu 
tfaam I)j a prrcmplciry :njwnliite ; wliioh, iifuoriling to 
tliQ ezLstiug eoi'lefliiL^tioil cuiutitutian of tho .taw», tlio ^luih»- 
diim was coiti[H3tDnt to iiuuo, bciu^ tbo hi^Li^t tribunal in 
nattunt of fuitti, without whose saiiotioa uo otiv uould l>o 
ociuiowledgäd aa having a divine comniiKsion. The a[xmüeii 
protcstrd that thoy could not oomiJy with a htiman it^iiuc- 
tioQ, if it vaa ai vai-iiuico witlk the laws of Clod, uud tliut 
they couJd nL-t be silent reaix^titiiig whut tliey hail Hiun aild 
htiurd i the Sjinliudriiii, bowtrvcr, ntfK-atcn! tlio prohibition, 
and nddol thruats of panultruaiit ia cono of disolwdieiic-e. 

ML-anwIiilv tbiM niii'iu;lv, bo publicly nroiiyht— tjia fore« of 
Poter'n addi-oä — and tlio vain attonipt to ailo&oo him I>y 
tliroata, had llu: vfKsüt of incmasiag tho nuialer of ChriKtiaa 


m» «ntmnjut ouiincH at m 


pTofesors to About twü iKou^uiid Aa the apostke, ^tt 
firing thuuiiwh'«) iiny cunixni about Uic itijuiiotiuu of ibsl^ 
SaohodriiD. lubonrod fiocuriliiy to the iolcutioa they had' 
publicly jivomi-il, hoth by wiird ami ilccd. for tbo Kjircod of tbo 
Bos]Ti>l, it in not fliir[)riMtig thüt llioy wtre Boim lirou^t 
in.^loro thu Saiiheiirim as üontumacious. Wlieii Uw pT 
leiiriKiohoii them f«r tJmir iliHolii'iliciie«, l'ütfC renewed 
fuitucr prtrtüBtatioa. " W» niiiHt olwy God luthor thia i 
\tu\ tliu Co'lof our ftil.licrs," iw pninvdoU to »ly, "u lie «bo 
liaa cuilod us tu töKtif)' or what ye Lave forbidile» ua to «peak. 
By liis iMunipotciiCL'. be ho» nüscd tbut Jecas wbum y« end- 
fiod, iui<j httx I'lultRil him to ba the leader and redeemer of I 
people, find thri>ii<;ii liiiw all ruay Ijc callcil to rrpcntanv^ : 
receive fi-oiu hiia Üie turgiveueas ut" tlieir slus. Tbia we te*ffU^|| 
niid this the Holy Spirit testifies in the hearts of tliose wbq 
l)clicve ou him."' Thase wards of Pirtcr ut tinau uruuacd 
vrmih of tlio Sudduccea s.ud I'anutics, and maiiy ol tbeui wen] 
ulainorons tor putting the a{io«tli<s tu duuüi ; but amidst t>i 
thrring of infiiriiitiid zwdots, one vuitse of temj>eratc wtudoo 
might ho licwd. (iiimalie!, one of the eeven most distältglÜB)'«)' 

it^atliei's (if the Lhw (the Hatibauitn), thus addraswd lU 

iiifjiiher» of tbo SiLnheHlriia : '* Coiisidttr wt'Il «'but yo do 
these nieit. ^[»lly foimders of sects and [wu-ty-lcadcre hav 
aiipmreil in oiu- day ; they have at first acquired givut Dot 
rit-ty, but iu a bliurt time ihuy and their cxaiei» b&ve com« 
nolhiug." He provtsd hia ae»>rl,ioii by aiivecal oxampl«« 

' Thet-c woiiIb (Ai^U v. RS) arc fafnuuiy undcnloiMl, w Uhj the uim 
ffifafX«'''^« ''1"^ apiMl.lDfl WTC inMndcd, lUiil im if Lbu wiik of tlio (a*- 
Bpi^ewere thi« : We tcittfyof llicM thing«, ua the cj-«-"illn«tc»i eho«en' 
Him -. iiiiii Lliu Huly Spirit, iu wIium iiowHrwu Imve }H}rfutiiit!<l ihitcvi 
teitiflc^ by llii: ivork« which wc iici:c>m[iliili In liit nsinc. audi aa iBU^ 

givlalluii it ccituiiily po^iLIe. ilut It 1» mum mtuial. &• we sppty 
rut ctniiKc to tlic »piistlcr^, to upply tlic »cc:<jiid to Xlune «ho tKctr<d 
tbcir iiicniiH^L- in ruitli. aiiit tu wli«iu tbc truth of thU moiaaee wu Tcri 
tied, indvjichdrntly »r tbcir hutnati luitiiaoriy. i>y tlii; ilivine trilMM of 
tlie II «ty H^itil In tlieii hcatu : to vhoui the llal.v Spirit htoiwir gavt 
ft pliiil|t>^ tliul. hy fnitii In J»-uä. tUvy h»d rociiiv(id (or^ivunou <■( dw 
and a dtvinti life 1'bi$ interpretation I» ale» to be iin>fsrr«d. bcAOM 
I', -iftpf thcduy of pontecnsl, wnanlwaj^ «ont to nj.pctt! to tliMcb- 
•ticl.ivu IrMtii'ioii^ wliK'li l,lio IIiplj Sjiiril j^nMliifed iii all Ix-hcvor». It 
tho Hrat intctprouv'.ion were correct, the omphMi» would Ho <-a i(«">— 
inc. and I.Ko H.ily ^l),irU \>y ue; iiiiloci!, Iliu Wl vkuM »l;uulil lure liMU 
tiiA Toll viiOa^xotvat. 


TOR cRiuaTiAS cnvRcn is i-aliatise. 


ninoiirxiH ikuil insurnEicliotis wLicb li:iv>)K''>''''i olxxit that 
pur'i'jil iinvi.njj tliu Ji'WH.' Tliuy iniyiit «ift-ly lw»ve this nl&ir 
aKi to ib«If. If of human origin, it would EpcuiiUy cumc to 
«11 Rtiil ; liul. if il, Ukouli] lie sooidlliiug divinii, mn would be 
Uie att4tn[it to ]»it it down by huiiuui power, mid let tliom 
«c to it, thiit iLcy wv-ru hot piilty of n.-lx'lli'm nguiiiHt God. 

^T(M) miK'L liAs befiu alli'ilmted lo thee« words of Uitmiiliitl, 
licn it linn Iwon iufionfil froiTi them, timi he wiw u «.-crct 
u'Uioveut of Uie ^oaiiel ;' llii,- cumit^xioii lie kayt up with tha 
Jouist) Bcijooh of lLeici!i);^ [irecliide« such a KUpposilioii. By 
lliß tnidition« of the Ottiinni wi; utv ju«lifiiyi in eniiaidei'iMg 
tiim ns one of tho frvo think iii;^ Jcnisli tlicolofpttns, which wo 
also learn ft'oiii his l.i(?iii|; in fiivoiir of tlm niltiviLtion of 
Grecinn litomture ;" ami frmii liin (feculiiir tut-iitoJ coiiätitiitiou 
Wü iitiglit lilti^wih«! itil'iT, Ihiil hi? cotdd Ui moro oimily moved 
by an iaipression of the divine, oven in appearajiccs which did 
iM>t baar tJio shinip of hin party. But many of lii« cspiwwion» 
which «re pit-surv«! in the Minima, uiark liim plainly ejioiijih 
to liaTD tx-uii u strict I'Lurisoc, such a-s ho is doticiibcd by tiis 
nunil l^aiil ; the grent respect, too, in whioh ho lu« övor been 
opfd hy ihc Jews is n. sufiicicitt proof that tlioy never doobtod 
the soiiiidnosof his creed, tlmthu uuuldoot boacouscd of tiny 
enspidoua connexion with tho hcrwtictd ecct. On the oiio 
hsntl, liohad a clear perceptiou of tho fact, that «II fanatical 
uiQTetnents are geueiiilly rmidereil moro violent by oppusitiuii, 

B ' The inanilon or Tlicudaa In OujjaliaV« a^euch. ncuHfiona, ne ia veil 
^tinwii, a ir^nai ilifHriili.y, ninr.R hh iri:<iirm!tl(m tii^in» n* II' li could be 
DO üclicr iliiiii Um innRiluiiudli}' JiML-pliUH. Aui.ii]. ii. ß, ] i liub loudmit 
lliia nuuld iuvulin nn udiinlimni'iii. It i> ri:ry pnH.ililc Uiai., lU ililferent 
ttmM, tu« jipnniis aainvd Tbomliu miLed a »üd:tloii nmoti^ tJii> Jc^wi. lui 
the name w*« by no mcin« iinpommon. Ori^i-Ti (.inniuKi, CiOgu«, i, 57) 
uentiolic a Tlivudus Iwrurc- tue birtli ol' CliriiLt, but lim louniimy in not 
of «vat wriEÜt.foT perhaps he flxnd Uio timn hy um mi^imuX in l,fiu AuU, 
H (■ alu) {iiTuiliU iIihL L»k<'. in tin.' rvl»i.i"ii ol' iliv cvcni wliitli lia had 
boforo liim, faiiod thü cinmplc of Tlicudus oiiiliirad mt miiii^iiIjIiiic ]lti]i1i>- 
gou», or Ihnt oni nainv liii< liii[>jit^(ii)il Ui bu iiiilMtitutcd Tor unotbvr. In 
eitlwroMc it i» of 1 J III« imporrnnpc. 

* In UiD Clumi'iitiiii», i. (16, uii tliu priiicii.-la of /ntu« pier, It !■ aiip- 

pM«<l that, by« ailvi« of the npmUo», he ri;innintd a mtmbcr of Ihc 

' goubrdrliiCaod muucalcd his rua.i Taith ia urilcrioavc fur tho udvantag« 

, «( Uw Qirif liun«, and to givv thuiii ei-crat infumiuUoniioi'BU tlio doeignf 

CMtalut ibeiQ. 
iiM't üiWiT] oftlic Unw'iiU:!. vol. iit. |i. 1>0, 


iLHcl titiit wlint in itaclf w intiigiiiliaiRt. in (•(U.-a nuM^ into in 
mitaaco by forcibitj attamptn to eupprass it. On t)io ollit 
tiiLiid, tliD tiiaiitu^r ill ivliicK Iho a|>(>!<t1i'« ^)nke oiid nctod 
Mjtue imj'nsKMiL'ii on u. uian nut wholly projiidic>^ ; while tho 
outct vl^vrvauco >jt Uio law, lutii tKialili; aliiiutiv Iv« 
SadduoeeiBm, must have cijnpoaed him more stronsly in thcö^ 
favciiir, 1111(1 hciLCU tlio thought TniQ;tit nriw in hin niiixL, tlial 
aftor all tLtira viia aonieüiiu); diviue iu the cniim ttiej 
sdvoctiteil. ilts L'Dtiii«^ previuied ; qo bcavivr ptiTiixhtnviit 
tlinii auour^nj; wiis irifliutod oil tlio upuätlua for tliüir di»- 
obodicnTO, nud tlicy were <lisini)wod oftur tJw formcar prtJiiU- 
tioii had liet'U reju'iiKHi. 

Op to lliis time, tlio members uf (be Dew nect. b^in;^ strict 
Qhiwrvcnt <il' t.lie lnw, iiutl tigr^sniiy ■oith tl^l^ I'Iuxtihcvm in lii(« 
oppnsition to the Stidiluc^cs. appeared in a Easoiiiuble lii^it 
to at Iciist the inodof.'tto of tlic former.' But this amt«tlilo 
relotiuu waa at mi eiid an eooii us thoj cat»e, or thre»t«iic>! lo 
oaiBC, into o]iai »mäict with Dil* priDd])lc« ot Phuriaaiifl) 
itself; when Öie spint of the new doctrine was more diatiscciT 
jblt in that quatlcr, an effect pi-od'icod by an indirijuo) 
tnemottthle on this iiccuunt in tlit: uorly annals or Clirintiaiiilfi 
thfl pTOtn-miutyr Stephen. 

Tlio dcucotiB, jifl wo have already romwltwä, woro primarily 
apiioinlwl Tiir a «yuiilar object, Imt in the dlscbargo erf (heir 
Bppcial duty frequently came in contact with home and fonipi 
Jck'B; tuiil ahiKC iitvu hnd bceti chofL-ii for t.hU »ffittt wbu 
yiGte fUll of (.'hriatian zeal, ftdl of Clinstinn f^th, and tad of 
Ctiriytiiiu wisiiniii *\iid pniddooflt they i)in**.'«*(l Ixilb the 
inward call, and thü ability to make use i>f these numcrodl 
oppwrtiiuities fur the aprcful of the trtirspcl nmuiitj the JDit» 
In the§o attomptK, Slcplioii piirlioularij diKtingui.-dvcd hiiMtli 
As n tnan of HellcinKdc <1ce<«nt and education, bo was bvtlur 
fitted than ii luitivi! uf Paltatiiiu for eiiltirijig into the rio»^ rf 
thoeo fornigii Jews who had synayoguos for their exehueivc n*e 
at JeniHi-di-m. and tlinii Iriiiling tUax. t-o rcc«ivo the p.>-]>4 
Tbc Holy S|)irit, nhu liitliurto luid empluyed ta Liwlnui,' :ii- 
for llio spi-L'iuI of the gi-mpel only Pak'Htiuiati Jewa, now t-.t^i'i 
tut liiH nervicu an iniltviduid uf very diÜLTciit mciital triii-i.ri.'. 

■ Sec äehn<eli?n1inn^r'i) Ensay in bin BeiCragen air BMeitmia iV« 
STrut TfKammt. p. ST. 



the Hitllcnialic Su^heu ; Mvi tlto result uf tliis choice wat 

very iiupurUut Allboti^^lt the Holy S\>int «Jotie, itcoording 

J to the Snriiiur'« pmaiDW, ooulil lead tho apostles to n clear 

ercxjition of the coDt«iiUi of the whole triitli ' tnnouiu^ by 

kitnsclf ; y«t the qnickcr f>r&ton«rdeveloi>moi]tof thisperccp- 

uii wuH \a man}' rvapuotM <lc![>e»iilciit on the mental peculiiu'itir, 

id the sficcUd atandin^-pomt of geonnü und religious culture^ 

at the individtuU« who wci-o thus to ho ejilightcn«! hj- th« 

' Holy Spirit In one iudividuul, lUe dev«lüi>muiit of Christian 

kn^wlragi) «08 prepared for by his prcviciis stnndJQg-poiui ; 

nad henoe, under tho influctiee fif tho Holy Spirit, a kiiowled^w 

{yi-iüffic) of Christian truth rapidly dovelopcd itself fivm 

Jtli (iriffTn) ; whernas, fur (hhjIIilt tu uttiiin the same iusighl, 

JO boiinda which CGrtinöd his previoua fttanding-poiat muBt 

I finst IjTotieti down by the power of the Hnly Spirit opcnitinj; 

Pill a mure iiiiniediat« itiamicr, by n new adilitii-uiul re\'dation 

(nV'it.-aXini.if.) When ChrJBt Hpoke t-j his npoBtlou of «ertuin 

tilings whit-'h they could aot yet contiiixihoiid, but wlduh must 

be first revealed to tliem l>y Üic Holy Spirit, ho, no doubt. 

rofunx'd Ift lliö easeuoe uf religion, to Ihiil w-ursliipjjiii^ offiod 

ill spirit and in truth, wliiäi is not ueceaaitrily confiDed to 

pliu» OT time, or to any kind whntovor of oiitward obaor- 

wiees; tuid with which Ihu idiolitiuu of the Mnmic ocro- 

ilnonial hiw (that widl of wparatiou hutwoon the chosen people 

W Oud luid other itatioii», Eph. ii, H)> nnd Uie uiuoQ of 

11 nations iu one spiritual worahiji and one faith — were closely 

>iuiactcd. The apostlpt had hy thia time undpivitood, t)iroiich 

10 Uliuuiiiiitiou of tbo Holy Spirit, th« n»tur« uf ihu apiritunl 

irondiip I'uundod oa fiiitb. but the uousoqueiKioH äowinj; from 

it in rctutiou to »utmird .Imlaisiu they tiitil not yet clcurly 

api>rebeiidfid. In this i-QS|)cct. tlicir KtmidinK-p^iut rcBcmlvlod 

iltlicr'H — alW ho !i;id jiMnirmil u living ruitli in jimüriciitioii, 

Mferooce to outwuid Cuthulieiani. eve he liad. by the fui'ther 

Fnuttuiing o( hi« ChriäCitui kuo^-ludKc, ubjurt^d thut alüo — uud 

[Hint of many who liefura and tdneo th« ttoformatioii have 

titajned to vitaJ Christianity, tbongii still to a dottrcu cji- 

Jed iu the fetters of Catholicism. Tliiw tlio upoBtlt« first 

* Christ did not promlM the aiKNtlea indeflnlUily that the Hol; 
pjrit ibouid päA« Ihvui liiVi itll iliin^ Imt iiiiu ilia whole o( th« 
iith. whi4h ho csino ti.> uDamincQ for ibo salvutioa of luouklnU; 
fokn xtL 13. 

vou L R 



atUiiutKl tu a full dc'veluijnieut of tkeir Ctiiiatian knonk 

to ft oli-tir i)>;ri!<!|itii,iii or tlio triitli on tlii» "iJo, wlitm by Uie 


power of tho Holy Spirit tliey were freed from llie Mlvi« 
liii'ir »trictly JwwiKli tisiiuiuf,'. wLicti oltscurvd tliis percejili' 
Ou Uio ötlier Laud, Üiu üt-llotiinüc Stupliuii ui-cdcd i><A 
attain thin mrntnl frcciJcini by n new immctliatc optmtioQ of 
IJio Holy S|iii-ir^ for lie wn« lüreiidy, by lii» early (Icveloptnetii 
iti Uellcnistic oiiltiii'o, more li-co from these tHters. he waa ooi 
«d much. iMilimgiuil in Jl-uikIi uiilioiiiility, iinil tiencc hin Cli: 
tlan kuowlod^ coulil on this sido mora coaily and quick! 
attain to cliuiniuiw of pciv^ption. In nhert, Stephen muit 
foryniuiier of tlie ;j3"oal Pmd, iii hia peroeptiou of CUristi 
truth dud tbu toHtiininiiy hi- boiv to it, aa wdl us In liis ctiuflii 
fnr it with the ainial Jown, who obstinateiy adhered to th 
ancient Btaniling-prjint- It is higtdy pi-olinblc tha.t he wa» 
tliM. itidiia'd by hi» (ilnpiilAtiDim with the IldV-iiinLs t>i 
piv^oiit the gospel on thv side uf its oppoeilion to the Mc-siic 
law ; tj i;iiiiibiit Llit- belief iti the ucocüMty uf that hi« (at t!ie 
jusiifioition and siuctificaliou uf men. and, what was oon- 
\\i.-cU>ä tlicrewith, its (wrpotiuj ohligftlioti, miii llwu tosliow 
that the new sjnrit of the gospel ftwd it altogetlwr irom tbo 
outward foi-ms of Judaiem ; that the new spirif, of reli^on 
iTqiiircil iin eiilii'oly new fomi. An, agroejibly to tlio prnjilii-ffr 
uf Christ, the di^stnictiou of the temple at JeruaalvU), witli 
wLiuh thu Jews itud hithui-to cuuajilcrud thu worddp of 0«il B 
TiecGssarily oud eaaeutially comiected, was now about to wks 
pliec liy mea.ns of the diviue judgmruts on tho dcgeUBIlit« 
t:artbly kiuj^'dum uf God, thr»u4,'h the victorious dii'ioii power 
of the Mus»iidi. exalted to the ri^rht luuid of Iiis bfikveulv 
Father — -an would the whole outwnrd Byslom of Judniiun &11 
with thia ita oidy earthly saucluary. and thu theocracy *riw 
yliji'ified and siiiiitualiKe^ from its eai'ihly tiuitiinel». Wu 
Ciuiuot diiilcnuiiie with ponUdQiicf. to what eiteut Slopheu, io 
hin disputiitivim witli thu Juwii,duvdo)H-d idl tbla, butwvnaj 
infer witli certainty from the oonscqueiicea. thai it wouM 
bo itiQK or li'KR PYplicitly utivtwl by this mlightoned man. 
Hc'uee it caiue to piise, that thu ta^ü yf the Pharisv-ea wü4 nvw 
(jxcited, aa it Imd never yet been against the proniuignlora of 
, tlic ntiw dot-triue ; hetiei.' it» aueiiiuitioit sufih on luid never yet 
m brought a^^inst Uieni — that Sle[>hon hiid utlered IJj*- 
diemou« words «{^aiiist Jeltu\-ali and against Mu»o«. W« «e 


told, indeed, that false mtnesses deposed against him that he 
ceased not to epeak against the Holy City (the Temple) and 
the Law — that he had declared that Jesus of Nazareth woul<i 
destroy the Temple, and abrogate the usages handed down 
fi-om Moses, But although these accusations ai-e represented 
aa the depositions of fahe witnesses, it does not follow, that 
all that they said was a fabrication, but only that they had, 
on many pomts, distorted the assertions of Stephen, with an 
evil intention. Tliey accused him of attacking the divine 
origin and holiness of the law, and of blaspheming Moses ; all 
which was very tkr from his design. Yet he must, by what 
he said, have given them some ground for their misrepres>sn- 
tittions, for before this time, nothing similar had been brought 
against the publishers of the gospel ; hence we may make use 
of their allegations to find out what Stephen really said. 
And his defence plainly indicates that he by no means 
intended to repel the accusation as altogether a falsity, but 
rather to ackuowledge that there was truth mised up with it ; 
that what he had really spoken, and what was already so 
obnoxious to the Jews, he had no wish to deny, but only 
to develop and establish it in its right connexion. And thus 
we gain the true point of view for understanding this 
memorable and often misunderstood speech. 

Stephen was seized by his embittered enemies, brought 
before the Sanhedrim, and accused of blasphemy. But though 
the minds of his judges were so deeply prejudiced by the 
reports spread against him, aud they waited with intense 
eagerness to see the man who had uttered such unheard-iif 
things— when he actually catiic before them, and began to 
speak, they were struck with the commanding expression 
of bia whole figure, with the inspired confidence^tho 
heavenly repose and serenity which beamed in all his features. 
In the Acts we are told, that he stood before them with a 
glorified countenance, " as it were the face of an angel ;" and 
it is very probable, that many membera of the Sanhedrim had 
thus described tho impression which his appeai-ance made 
upon them. The topics and arrangement of his discourse 
were suited to confirm Üiis impression, aud to turn it to 
good account, to fix the attention of his judges, and to put 
their minds in a more favourable position towards the 
speaker, thus gradually preparing them for that which he 

n Ttir niiirecnAX ciirnrn i\ pAurjinxs. 

ir[Bh4)d to make the mnin siilijcct of hüi dbttwunu. Tluit i 
ooiinw porte4;t1y i:urTt>«|K)Li']s witL tlie Imdiog qiulitiM i 
to iim chiuiictur ta the Acts. In his fiunli miuuwr 
pnjaiin){ wlint hn Iind Inmit hy tho light of tlie Üiriiu) : 
WQ recogiuM iJie man full of tlio poner of fhitb, nrithoitt ' 
four uf mail, ur dufL-runcv tu hiiiri»» opiiiüui ; in lij« iiuuincrc 
etiiiHtaiitly koo|)iu^ one ca<l in view, and yet, iatttead 
fcliniptly iirvpii}:; it, gradnslly prcpiiriag hi» licarvi« for it, wu 
reooguiae ilui miiii fiiii of Ohrinliim pnideaue. 

The object ul' St^en*a discüiirse was not simple but rom- 
f)1i3S J yvt it wn.i mj conrtnicted, thut tliu diflTi-rvut lupic» tav 
linked togiittier in tlie cloeeet nianucr. Ite primoi'y til) 
wttH certainly »{vologeticnl, but ns bu fiirgot binHolf in t: 
auhject witli whicli b« wiut iuspiivd, biet apologeüu vITu 
relate to tiie truths mnintaincd bv him, ond impawned by tii 
iidvorsftrie«, nUlitT Ibaii to Jiiiimtlf ; liciioo. not «itigfiod nith 
defending, Jie developed und ouforced tlie tj-utbs Ite bad [«o- 
ulaiiocd i and at Uiu niuio titnu, cuiidcinSiKl tbu cvnal 
un^Eodly tenipor of the Jiiwh, vbioh wnH little disposed lo 
receive the truth. Thiw with the apologetic element, tfc« 
diducltc aud polciiiiv wi-re (M^mbiucd. Sti-pUut; tiist Rfutcs 
the churyuj muilc ngnitist him of enmity a^HUuit the pK>]>Iu 
Gild, of contempt of their cacred iiwtitutiona, and of 
ptK-uiiii); Miiiics. He tniw» tlie proiwdure of tbi; divine pi 
videuce. in guiding the peopla of (iod from the tinics of 
proiti-HitorÄ ; tie noiicee the promises and tbi-ir prognsÄivefi: 
tilmeQt, to the end tif all the promises, the cud ot Ute vth'ih 
dfvelnpnieiU of the theocmcy — the ndvcnt of tlie Meaäah. ami 
tlie »urk tu Im ni'cooiiiiiehcd hj liitn. But with tbi» mimlivr, 
ho blends bis cliargua ju^'ainst the Joiri^b natioD. He nbova 
thill thitir in^i'iiiiuiili.Miiid uuliohef, pruiM^dii^ frotn a carnsl 
mind, uäuaitie ninrv dii^imit iu proportion a» the prumisai vena 
fultilkd, or pycn ynih greater fiiuiicM ; imd thcit cooduct ia 
the variouR preceding jioriixiH of tbo developnteiit of God's 
kingdom, vas a epecimsa of tbo disposition tWy do« erineed 
tuwunU tbo [lublicatioii of tbv goopd.' Tha fint promisa 

' In ihii ipccics of pnlnnilcitl i^lBROulnti, Stephen raa a rorvrvniMr <il 
PatiL Dv Weite jo'iif niiijoot, »■ a |KM;aU&rii/ »f Ittc ttcbre« noli^qi 
itiatcniweinnccnaiiiiii^iraaUvaamon^ them than anj nüier jicaplii < j ~ 
lnil«c(l, Ru evil outincii'tin^ tlia fecliiiju; of cnilt, tbc fwliiig of )' 
e4Iic« ftiMznG<l i<) It *bicb it etnnM »1)4 « not rclmqalab, (be I 
% »chUu bctiTMi kaowledgu lib« Uv) auO Ui« iii'\ *o tbu eia aaeöi 




whicli Oml mftdc to tli« pAfxiarolLs, wiw t)mt rv.ipi.>cli)ig tlta 

liui't whicii ho would give tu their jioetorily Poi' h pcneeeaioii, 

where they were to worehi;) hitn. lu fuitli. t)i« pntriurclia 

, WDt forth iitLiIcT the constant guiiiaitcc of (>oil liininciti wliic)^ 

however, did not bntig itieia to ttiö ftillilmciit i>f tlie juxunihe. 

; This pntaiBO ma biv»iight to tho eve c( it» !iouui]i!>Ii»hiiiGnt Uy 

, Uo«e>> UiB divine citll, thv niimclea Ciix.! w]'i>u|.'1it f<ir him 

' and by liim, are espodaliy brouj^ht for-ward, and Jikewise the 

conduot of the Jow8 whilo «iidcr liis guiilmicp. (Lsmihtilieviiig, 

ungratci^il and rtbtllioiis tow^Mvis tliis hiyiily aoiTecliteil 

I aer%'»iit of God, throuj^h whom tJicy had rccoivtd sucii grtui 

I beoelita: and yot Moses waa nut thu ond of tho di\iiiG rovdiu- 

I tion. His calling vas to point to thut prophet whinn God 

Jd raiae up after iiim, wlioni they were to obey like him- 

The oourluct of tho Juws towimla Moses ie Iherefura ft 

I of their oouduct towurds tliat hurt gixiat pruphet wlioin lie 

InnDOiinccd and prefigured, Tho Jdwb guvo thcrcHelTcs up t*i 

idolutrv, wlioD Goil fiist (SbtbliHliL'd among tbctn by Miisea a 

Mymboliad sanctiuiry for Ids worship. This saucluary »vua in 

tlie BtrictcBt ECDäß of divine origin. Moses supwinteudtid its 

^notion acuordiug to tim patturu shown ta him by God, in a 

, lyinlinliu liighcr iii;uii!üstu.ttcni. ' The isonuliiary wiis fi niove- 

laldti one, till at last Sobuioii wnspenuitted to erect an abiiiiug 

|edtfioe for divine wonbip on a similar pka With this ids- 

rioo] iiurvpy, Stepiien oonutudea Ills urgiiiiient ugainat tlio 

l'Bui'eiiititious reveruncß for tho leuiplö felt by the oamidly- 

Imitidud Jews, ihoir iiarrow-heartod wnsuoiia tündcticy to oon- 

1 fintj thu easemw of religion to the teaiplu-woi'sliiji. Having 

[expressed this in the worcia of tho prophet Isuiah, it w;ia it 

jnntiintl tniTisitinn to apetilt of the es-seutial nntnr« of true 

Ivpii-itual womliip, and of thu prupLeta wlio in opposition to the 

[«titf-uccltcd, cai-uol diupMsitions of the Jews liad teatiflefl oon- 

ling it, uid til» M<^siiili by whom it vaj> to be cstflbliehed 

and (»met dUtinctlj- intoriew; Bom. v. 20. 8co " Studirn «lid 
I Kritiken," 183T, i>. 1003, Ou IhU mrcount, tlie Uinuirj of the Hutircw 
I'lutlvn i> ÜI« tvpu of tlie liivtory of maakiuil. uud of oicu in ^«ncroJ. 
I ' Slcplica jiTubably wislioii lu iniiuiaLe ilml. In order ti> sunnl ainiiniit 
lldolWTV, Id wliii-ii tho Jow« were bo prone, U wa» uei'EHsa.iy W cauflna 
llbe wuraiiij) of Uud w » fiitd vUiiile naro-'tuarj, and, on the Qllier liuid, 
Ivblcli i» an Jdna th;u pnn'ailes t.lie K.[ii9lle r.o Hcbieits, Hut tlii» 
InoHaary ojdM nut uuuiuiuiilcjiLu tUe iJI vine, but cuultl ouly repruncnt it 
thi ft SKuro. 


anijng the whole human race, A vast prospect now openea 
before liim ; but he could not complete the deliiieation of the 
august vision jf the divine dispensations which was present to 
his imagination ; while gazing at it, the emotions it excited 
oaiTied him away ; his holy indifjnatiou gushed forth iu a 
toiTent of rebuke against the ungodJy, »mbelieving, hypocritical 
disposition of the Jews, whose conduct in reference to the 
divine eommunicationa had been the same from the time of 
Moses up to that very moment, " Ye stiff-necked, althoxigh 
boasting of your circumcision, yet «ho have never received 
the true cirouracisiou. Ye uncircumcised in heart and eax (who 
want the disposition to feel and to understand what is divine), 
ye always withstand the workings of the Holy Ghost, Ye do 
as your fathers did. As your fiithers murdered the prophets 
who predicted the appearance of the Holy One, so have ye 
yourselves given Him up to the Gentiles, and thus are become 
his murderers. Ye who boast of a law given by God through 
the ministry of angels, ' (as organs of making known the divine 
will,) and yet are so little observant of this law !" 

Till this rebuke was uttered, Stephen had been quietly 
heard. But aa soon as they perceived the drift of his dis- 
course, their blind zeal and spiritual pride were roused. He 
observed the syuiptoms of their rage, but instead of being terri- 
fied thereby, he looked up to heaven, fiill of beheving eonfidenee 
in the power of Him of whom he testified, and saw with a 
prophetic glance, iu opposition to the machinations of men 
against the cause of God, the glorified Messiah, denied by 
these men, but exalted to heaven, armed with divine power, 
and about to conquer all who dared to oppoee his kingdom. 
This prophetic view was presented to him in the form of a 
symbolic vision. As he looked up to heaven it appeared w 
open before his eyes. In more than earthly spleudour, thers 
appeared to him a form of divino majesty ; he beheld Chriet 
{wliose glorious image was probably present to him from 
actual early recollection) glorified and enthroned at the right 

' Tliia VHS CDDfc?»edty a frequent mode among the Juwg af marking 
tlie nnpccliuman oriLcin of the law; go tbat, according to Jo»ephna, Herod, 
ill a Bjieecli to tlie Jewish srmy, made use of tliis nnicersatly ackDon- 
Tt-dged fact, that llic Jewa had received their law from God {5i' iyyiAup 
i-a^fi TQÜ i&cQÜ /loiäiti^uy), in order to show how holy the ambassadors sent 
to them must be, who filled the same ofüce as that of the angela betveef 
God and oiec ; &7^'iXoi= ■w^daßtu, idigvuti. Joseph, Antiq. xv. 6, 3. 


iT^cHuS^n^pÄBwwi^^ BS 

hani »f (ind Alrea/ly in spirit miwd t*> heaven, ho teftljßftl 
with fiiil cciiifideitüo of wlmt ho Injlit'li.!. lu ull jjctiixIb of tlio 
ahuivli, u Illind ZQal for ädliemiic^i to the letter itiiJ cci-onioniul 
»crvifx» liii« luxti wont to interpret n, liiglity spiritunl staW, 
wtticti will DoC fuUow the nüoö uf llie vei^'tiiu^' t-lieulogiuil 
scbool, nur cufTur it ti> hu viufui&l by miuiout iniuimä, oa mere 
faiiikticixiu ■>r bliisptii^uiy ;' und &<> tt wiin utt this oocn&ion. 
Tiiu mcmijci's uf tliu Suiubcüriui stuppuJ tLinr cars, that they 
tnifcbt not he di'hlcHl liy hü« su|iEi(iKcii h1ii.s|i]ii/tuio«. They 
threw thoTUAolvcA on Steplieii, auif dca^'jcd him out of the 
city iti order U> «tvno him an u blivtt'lii,'nn,-r. It wiia isonteaou 
and executioa all at once ; an act ot viuloncö without re^lnr 
jtkliciiLl c.xamiHutioii ; tii;siiliw, tliad iM:i:iTnii)ig to tlip existing 
lanr^ tlie Sanhodriui "»iild dt'ciJo «loly uti diatiiiflüiai-y puuiah- 
Diont, but WM not iillowud to e^euuto a uipit»! senlftiia' with- 
«Ut Uie conourreiiciü of the Roman goToriiur, With tho kiliiio 
eoiifi<lRnoo with which .Stepheo, umiJst th<j rago and fiiry of 
ha eueinids )^iw the Saviour of irliom he testitiixl, niliiig vic- 
torious — with the same confitlcuce he (lirect^d hia eyea t&wariäit 
him iu thu prcBpeot of death, ojiJ »vid, " Loi'd Jesus, re«cive 
my S[iirit !" And as ho had only Him l>cfore his eyes, it wa« 
hia Spirit wliich led hira. to ailopt tho Saviour's la«b words, 
thus iiKiiiiiig him a pattern in lieath, as he hud been in life 
He who. wiien carried away with holy ncnJ for the cause of 
Oi)i1, liiul so eniphfirjaally o^iisured tlie h.iot-nOiS of titc Jews, 
now thfit thdr l\iry attacked his o«'a person, prayed only for 
ilii^ tliiit thdr aims might be fnrj^iTL'ii, 

Thus we apo in the death of Steplien the uew devclo|)mtnt 
of Chriirtinii tnith nppnrcntly i5tn]i|uid ; he diod » martyr, not 
unly for tlie truth of thß gusiid iu j^cral, Lmt in particular 
for thin free and wider application of it, which hogita with 
hiiu luid wicmud tocxpire with him. Yet from the hef^iunin;^, 
it baa been the law of tho development of tho Christian life. 
.nd will eontiniie to he tho »imo down to the last gtorioua 
lilt, which will cousuinniat« the whide with tl»e final 
triumph «vnr death — tlial oui ofd^ath a nevj lifo comes forth, 
and martyM-im Jor Ott divine truth, hath in its general and 
j-artiiyuinr formt, prrparr» tu victory. .Such wna the issuo 
tiera This firrt new developmtrnt of evangelical truth wsra 

I' Tbus. al tliQ Cogneil trf ConsUnoe, it wn« i<ui<il<:uiiied m a vioUtiun 
eeelMiuttcd Miboiilinixtlun, ihut Hiiss \ad dareil to Appeal to OliriaU 




ohcukoil in Üia gunn iii order li> nliciot fgrÜi witlt 
vigour, Bad to n ivi<lor cxtont, id tho iiärson of Paiil, and 
martyrdom of SUnli«ii was one step iti tliu prooiuH. If tli: 
new developmeut Ii&d boen fully exhibited at tU« tiine, 
otlior puliliKiiuni (if thu goHfx;! would hiivc bocn fotind iiii 
pared for it, and uot yet cnpable of receiving it. But iti ü 
meantime, thcso poraons, by & vnriotj of driMimstaiuies oon- 
ourriug iii ii uutunil way luidu lliu ooimlaut j^üdauoc of tlia 
Holy Spirit, were prcpareA for tMs dtxpa insght into tiie 

Tbo luartynioin of Stephen wiis important !ii ita dire 
elftiuts for tho BpremiitJg of Üie fuilli, niuoo it might bo u 
pected that, under tho immociiatc impreBson lUd^ by 
aight uf sitah n v-ttiK-n!, iLud of euch a deiitlij mnny niißiw ni 
altogether misii8oo|itiiiie, nor aitogothor deluded by the [lowi 
of error, would Iw led to the fnith ; but yet the indirect co' 
»eijuenüeB werir etill more iuipoi-tant, by wLieh tho thinl 
violent peiKccutJoa waa raised oguinst the aewctiurd] at Jem* 
salem. This persecution mii»t hava been mora 8cv«rc niid 
oxtonsive than tho formor ; for by tho muDiter in whii 
8täphea cutered iutv coiifllcl witii Ptiaxiaüsui, liu Ititd n 
to hostilities i^mnst tho teaoliers of tlie new doctrine tlie 
of tho Phariacee, who Iiad tlio tnort credit witli tJie ooniiiii 
peuplt), and were powerful aud ueliye, und ready to IcavB 
means untried to attain their objoft ■tthntover it mif^t 
The persocutioa proceeding from tlii« quiirttr would iintandli 
mark iw its gpcoial victims those who were c^llcn^es iB offi^' 
with äto]iho[i, an deuct-iua, »nd who rtweuibled him in tinir 
Melleuintio origiu luid education. It was. however, tlie ooor 
sip» of eprendiiig tho ^»üpcl l>eyond the boiiiido uf JcruraJctn 
and Judea. and even among the Geiilües. With tiiis prosTCft- 
Bivo ontwnrd dcvplüinneui of the gospel was also ConDCclcd 
U progressive inward development, the consdousneus of tlie 
independence aud intrinHit' oapabiiity of Christisnily as a dofr 
trine destiucd without fm-c-l^i liid to iiupikrt divine UG) and 
Balvation to nil rucii, ;uiioi;g »ll iintioiiK without distinction. 
Hltc, then, wc .stJind uu tlie Itouiidiiry-Iine uf a new em, both 
if Uio outward and inward dovoloptaent of Christiauity. 




Samaria, which lind bceu a accn« of Cliriat'^ personal 

ministry, was tho fii-Bt pliico out of Jutlea wliere iho gospel 

was prtMclied by liis «poBiies, Tiiougli tho jiDuiile of this 

4Xiinitr7 received no part of the Old Testament aa eaored ei- 

Oeptii^ tin: TexitaXcixcU, yat rnita this portion of tht Scripttirw 

thojr formed themselvcä to fiiith in a Messiah who iaiui to 

coiue ; on Lim thoy pluced thoip liopes, im the ponKmiigü wlio 

iraa to bring back, all thiugB tu thi'ir right tvlatiotis, and thu« 

to tw tliu univei'sul Itenlorer. Pciliticol cuusideraticms did aot 

here, nsiunong the .Igwh, obstruct the right apprehensioD of 

the idea <•( the MoasiaJi ; an idea which was specially awakeued 

j amuag tliis po^jp!« by Jcehiiga of inental and budily misery, 

■ tIii>U({b they were deficient in tliat right undersfciiiding of it 

j^f which could only be olitniitad from its pmgruBsive develiipmont 

ill the Old Tcslumenl ; uyr could tho deep feeling tif the weed 

of redumption und restoration he ukarly developed among 

them. A lively but iiidafinitö obucure eioitement of the 

^— roligioiw feeling, ftlwiiys exposes men. ti> a variety uf daBgeroua 

^■dalusioiui. Tili« was the awe with tlie iSaniaritan». As at thiit 

^Vtim«^ in otlx.'i i<!\.rtii of the Hlast, a. »imilar indciünit« longtug 

H aJWr a new cnniiuuuioutiun from Huavou, — an oniiiiotts rcsl- 

^ loasDeaiiii the minds of men. sticii asgenenUly preoodes grcnt 

chnnguw in tli« hJstoi'j of mankind, was ditbisod abroad ; eo 

tliia indiatiiicl Anxiety did ii<it fnil t.o lead a£tmy and t9 ducclvu 

niany, who wire not rightly prupired for it, while they a/Jepted 

I« ühö method of allaying it, A miiture of iinüOQBoiouH Belf- 

TdcisTptioti mid intcntiuiMÜ falsehood roovod certain GoL-lac, who, 

[with inyaticiil ideaa, proceetiiug frum au amalgamation of 

[Jewifih, Oriental, and Grecian eiemeiits, beosled of a special 


Titu rnmsTM-v nKV*tes Vi ^Atv 

cuitncxion ^itVi ttic iimällo worlJ ; ani Ivf taking aänkittA^ 
(if t!iü unkiR'wii jKiwers of nnturü, ami hy \TiiirhH9art8of eiti- 
junxtioii, excit.od the nstniiiithnicDt of creilwluua peojJe, and 
'jbtjiiiic'l credit for their hoastful [.rrlcmöon* Siicli pcnwiw 
i\jM\d al thiit time an vany acMS« Ui tliu Snumriwiih in tliei| 
state of nit'iital GEcitümctit. To thin dass of lueit t:«lDnp£vl i 
Jpwuli or RnmnrilflU ftiii-i", niinioti S5ni<iij, wh<i, hy hi» cxt 
liiiijiry iiiayicuil imwers, so fiac'aated iJie jieojilo, tituc tlity 
lio ititi5t Ija more thttii man. thiil liti was Iht- grost power 
i-niiiiuitciil from tliu iiivisililo GuJ, hy wiiicK ho brotiglit 
Irtie itnivereo, now appünring nn oartli in a bodilj" fenn.* 

TJia iik'a of sufU iiu Imttligciict! oiiimiiU.iny from Ot>«!. 
]iruue«diiig from t.ljo fiwit act of iho diviue sölf-revt-lution. t 
tiral link iu Iho chiiin uf developed lifo W!\a sprmiil, abriiwl i: 
viii-iiiiis oririitjil-Aloxnridrinu iin<l Aloxuridnaii-friiMitJil fi>nri 
The idt-a. also ^if llie iut'itruation of hiu;!ior iutelliyeuces jft' 
rtxlly, 1411(1 of this iiitolligcnuo in |)articuhu-, wua li; tiu niuuis 
Pirficii to til« notion« pruvnlcjrt in tlioso prtM». Wn en 
liariUy cojisi<i«r tverytfiing of ttiis kind as fi mere copy of tb»' 
Cliri.-rtiiiu idL'ji of tiiv iucuniutioii, ur rocu^ut.'K.-iu itnp^-inpt< 
of Ihc tmiififoniiinK pnwi>r whidi the now rhristiiHi Kjiirii 
L'SL'rc!(*cl ovi.>r tlio lutuUeotuiJ world ; for we find cani<p 
inicL^ of !^iich idi'iui.' IJiit thu prevalence of such i<iats 
pnivf« iKil.liiiiL' apiimt the orijrinftlity of Rta-istianity, or 
auy of iiB ^liu-liouliir doctfiiies. On the oiio baud, we 


■ Po»illi1y tbo wordaof vhlch tbia OoSs mndo we. »n ooctaliud ia 
the itpai'npb^l ivritttiL,'3 of the Slmoniann: MC Jutoina'a UoiuiaeiiM; 
im Matt, ixiv. " K^o twa termo Uci id X^oOi ^o nim «pcdtm^ 
rn(i ]j:iraclefii«.'— (.acuonliog lij PInb. tlin Lup« Advocate, «ofEÜiwr». 
iMJrni. ihrqiigli thu <1mne ttft^an Tureatiiiu itwif in the phenonii''iui 

WM'lii (the vniiTirv aagöSd-Kui toS kiJuiuui.), foma the ContlClioB hct*«« 
(tiid hikI (be ;>li[Miniii<.'Da. irhiit I« del'i-FUvL' in til« IttUcr U i41iI>i>I>ihI, D> 
Viu.Miwiii,i.iii. 0(3 ; Do Mlgralianc ALrahftmi, JOÖ.t— c?o ouinipalcn*, 
ran umniii, Dui (uraorrliiii'lu I'liilu Ihn Lugo» ia ihii ^«p-pnirakij irwraw TW 
Ivvii^tuy TuS StoD), Sliil thi« la unoerl.niB. for tbc Mvlof the Slnionuiu 
Giigiit efwilj* Lorroiv (lic«c cxjirvwl'iu«, an lliejr liwl liurruwinl ulhd 
iliinj», trnm Chiisliaiuiy, ttnil nt.trllmt« them i« SlmoD. 

JuL'Ob is rci>rtfüGnl«'<I m aq lJ^i;arn»I.i>oa of Iho highcat I'PU'U UviQ£ in 
lim priiKMoi: of tlic divlnu On^n»l BcId);* wUdm tnii) divine iiiuii> «u 
'lirjia))^, aHifi fiiiä)" Sthr, Ihn viivnt^gwi TÖrrot {'^v {(MMfijiw AwtldA^J 
Umiibr rxprc.uinn* lo llin^ imeil by I'liilo rci)i<;uMii;^ the IjOfHkVlllS 
Wii« Ixiiüollcn belgi'« all ai^geit, i if irpoüTinv Cidü htitpv^fihT vpvm ^ 
Se« Utigtii, t. ii. Job. 3 2fi. 


FiiiBT 8pn^_^D nv rRRiSTUsrrr. 



realise to aclinovledge wlint cotiM nlrentij' form itself 

frutn tlio gcriiiü nttviuly givcii i:i thu Oti) Ti-ntamciil, which 

(as tJic prcjMiralive cnvcriuR of the New, nr Ironi its sjiirit 

nd Iftiiliiit; iilefis, which vert dirftftpH to Chrint o» th« ond of 

«11 tl«: liiviiiu reVL'lalioiiH. On Uiu otter liaiiJ, ivü luiist 

■ollect, that a» from the new creation effected bj Chrisli- 
nni^, n powcrftii oxcilcmcnt «11* omw^l Mth *jf kimlnül fiiid 
' .«(tile uiiu'la, Kii 111*] It givat exiiitttnwil uf tliese miniU pre- 
thc gi'cni ltIhs, uncJiisciouMiy uiitiuipntiii^ mid yciu'iiiiig 
it ; 1 jtrownfjivipiit tli>it lh<'i'(; wc»ul(I In' siii:h (i n^veliiti^ia 

th« spiriliud wui'W i\& ImiJ uot yet Ibjoj] imitlt' i«l£il!og !(■ 
the (leatiiikö ot' the luiniiiii mci;. j\rnl iVi'm il (uloulogiail 
-point of viavr, we recogniFw (^In'istianity as iho final nini cf 
Dirine Wiwlotn in coiidiiclinjr llio oihh-bo of linmaii iJeveloji- 
tneiit, wlieii at this piriixl wc tiiid the Rpiriliml »linoBiiIierö 
pr^fpant mth ideaa. which sorved to prepare a moi-e Kuscep- 
tiMv soil for CliriÄtinnity siihI itH lcjiiHti<,' dootriucs, mid to 
(brra a back-grc"i)d fnr giving ri'lii'f to Uia exLiliitiua of the 
divine IrsinKict ions which it aiiuomiced. 

PJiilip llie Duiuiiin, licliig i;i:iiujh;I1wI tu Imvo Jeiiisalem ly 
the jwnscnntion 'wliinh onmicd i>ii Slo["ilicn"H dtatli, mia induced 
to tsukc rwfiifte in Samaria. He «imo ti> a city of lltat 
country, ' wliuru Siiimu wns univi^rsolly eslvL'inL-d, imd lookoil 
ujjmn with wondor and reveveiico as a su[tei'iiiitijnd being, 
tt'tiuii Lo eiiw till.' fH-'f-plo 81.1 dcvotud \o a düstnietive dtliisiiin, 
he felt im[«Ili'd hy his Bful for the caiit« of Ood aiid the 
sUrutioii uf men, to impart that t» t)ieiii ^vhich ulonc cuultl 
_^ve iiiiliHtatilinl rytitf to tlioir spirituiil necessities. But men 
ill lliiü sittialioii w&ri> not yut suiicoptiMo of the spiritual 
powtT of truth ; it wiii^ needful lt> [wi-ve ti wiiy to IJicir iieiirls 
hy prejMLPatory improasions on the aeraea, Aa l'liiüp, l)y tho 
itUvittv uid, performed thing« whieh Simon witli all his inni^c«i 
arts could not «Ifvot, u^peciiUly lii:idiii^ the »ick (wLitli lia 
iiaplished by prayer and eLdling on tlie uamo of Christ), 

tbiM atti^iutud iIl» iittnatioii of m>eu to Htm in vrliceo nnms 

< It is not i|niU' clojir thiit the city of äivniiiria is iiiiendud 1 fuj" iLera 
' no rdwon, wiih saino oipaiiton ofAoi-i viii 5, in ('iin^iiilcf th« i^iii- 
Itir« ,iH lirn ti^rn of np|iriiiit.i»n. A^ in the wlioU rhiiptoi'. Snmiirin U ilia 
lri*-hij;i)j|Mirn of i\w i.'uiiuiry. it i« iiii>h(j lAJiLni'^tl lo LLiid4M'>t]ln4 It tut in 
Illiii jmua^. In tbc Hth vunc. b,v äiiiimrin in vcrlajiilj- uivsnt th« 
LMDutry. ■Ill) ym it iluün ii»i Llluw tliul ulwuluul^ lli« vliul« innJ 'ud 
bnceircHl the gospel. 


Bud povur lie liiiJ uftlttvtl nucli Uiiti^ ftw tlictn. 
Kiylii ; lie theu UkjIc (icca«oD to diKcounie more fi 
Ilia works o-tirl tito kingilnin that ho btid catAblUhiM atnmig 
iinrii, and liy dejin-o« tli« divUw power of trulli Ijiid IioM ol 
their h«arta. Wbeu Simon saw his fulluwi^ni desertiug him, 
fuid WAK Idmw-ir oAtoiinili'il n.t tKo nurkn (icrformMl l>y I'hilip, 
he tLou^'lit it LioBt to ockiiowledp* a )>oiT«r ao eiijierior to lun 
uwn. ilu therelbre pruffssed hiuiBeJI' ;i disciple ui' I'ldiip, ajiJ_ 
van htpthoii lij- liirn like the test ; bill as tbe sequel prove 
we cannot infor frism tliis, that tl»c pulilicration of thi- jjc 
liud iiiiul« nn im|)rt:Msioii ou Li» bii^tirt; il »pni» m<«l pniUtil^ 
thut lie secretly interpreted what bud octurivd Aocurdiiig 
hi« own Tiow». Ttie tuiraulus jipribmicd by l'hili|> hud le 
bini to the conviction, tliat he wiut iu lengue «ich some HUf 
hiitiiaii spirit ; he looked on baptism as an initiutioii into tJM 
csonipiiut, uiid hnpod th».t, liy fonuiiig suuL o, cuiupftcc, 
niigbt obtain an iutcrest iu such liifiber power, hdJ use it : 
hin ri-mt omli«; bo wished, in «lutit, to combine the new run 
tir OiouTjjy wilh bin owu. As we have already ranarlied, it 
wua B. Ktuudiiig regiiliilion in prindtivc tiiDL-», tbut oU 
•wlio profoKwd trt l-«lieve the nnnonnwmcnt of it»» M 
ML-siiib nliuulil bu baptised. Aud wboii Simon ronoiUKtf 
luN ma^^ioLl atis. which were now quite uut ul' rupiitC, tbOO 
wius III» yiomid for tojiwtinc him. 

Tilt- information tha.t dospisod Saroaria vnx the ßnst pi»- 
vince out of JulIc» where tlic gonpet found a(x%-;)bin«e, ckitatd 
great siiriOTse among tlie ChristianB at Jeniaiilera, As tint 
UTicieut prejudice ngaJUEt the SAiniiritiuia liiid not <|ti]t« xixira 
a«iij, nnd no »couunt Lad been i^ceivcd llial. nrntniji.' tlio 
baptized beliovere, those wondcrftil works were manifevtod 
which, Ktncu the Jiiy of Pentecost, wca'o coiiBidt--red us !«-■«»- 
amy coiicomitanta of a reception Into tJic Cbristian oomniu- 
nioii, the (ipoNttos Pot(ir and Jolm wtre stnt thitLor to 
iiiveatigatö wliat Imd trAiiBpired, aud, by virtue vf their 
apoBtolic calling, to complete wliatever rai^bt bt- wiinting &ff 
the catnhliahtDent of n Chrintitin eoinramiity. We find. In 
tlic murative of the Acts, uo rcnson to impiitc the wanr. oJ 
thcHo oiicratious of the Divinu Spirit arnoug the SAinnribUB 
in nny dtwroe to Philip's being only a deucou. an if bfl ti -T i 
Tint foimd n Obristiau society, and by preiichiiig tho g'r.-l. 
iuid by pmyer in ibe luune of Cbrist, produco eSecta 

HUUltt i 

rtnsi sPKCvn ftp cnniKTiAKrrr. 


! these wrouyUl \>y tlie apoetlea. But a« in tlw reverse case, 

ely, till; oonvcnioii of Comüliiw, wlicn the cflVct« tbac 

anioiil; followi'ii IjiLptimn tlien followed the preaohing of 

' tilg iForA, and jireeedod iMipt.ism, there w;m tin iatcraid rvtutoa 

fur tJiu onltr obiwrvml ; a Iwigvr i>ivpareil iniBCt'[jtiIjility uf 

I dispostiun proiDOted the more operations of liring 

I In-itl) ; s» vo nafiimlly Kci.-k un intcmiil röiwoii fora difTciviit 

prooediiro ainuitL; tlie Siinuiritaiia. The elferts to wliicl» wb 

njl«r pmoiodeil thmi the power of alivini: cciiwioiistieaii of 

I wd«rii|)li(iii i.bLniuod. and iit the coinmetic<-'iaöiit of tbe new 

Hpirituitl ori\tf.i'tn were a looi'b of vital Chriat.ianity, If all 

twere uot Ittfiiiciiced io iin erjnal dej,'iw, yet all were to & 

Itiu extent movad bj tlie piiwür ol' tlie Divine, and suscep- 

vnnugii to ho vitally nriiiiw<l anA hunio nlotig by tlie 

[iiupreasjon of tbat Chrifitiaix inspimtion which tliey saw 

jlicfoi'c them, for the jjurm with mliich I,hi.'se mniiircKtiition» of 

Itlie Spirit oiiiiecwd tbeni8clve« alro^iily exinl^d in tboir 

Ibiisoms. Il- was. iu a opiritaiul TL-Bjjeot, m wlien n, fliimc once 

broken forth detöots and kindles all the infliimniable mitto- 

Krinis !d its ceighbrnii-hooii. But among these SiLmoiitAna, 

yJte ffeliiig tif Uieir religioiw »ud moral uticeaaities. whicli 

jth ill the Redeemer preeiippoBeH aiid unites with, 

yet awiikenei!, in ooaap^jiieiice of ilieir being ilrnwn 

' and disturbed by iho iiifliionce of Simon. At first, 

they boliüvwi the liccluratioiis of I'liUip iis tbey hiul liuliovod 

iit the Biik^ial illusioiiH of Simon, since tbtwe frroBs Heiittibln 

miracles dcniiLO'k-d tbulr belief. Thoso who hod ihiiB attained 

to fiiiih, wfiro still omirelj dapendont on the persou df Philip 

■ oa a worker of mir.uilcs. Tliey hiid not yet attained the cou- 

^Lsciuunrivw uf it viUil wtiimuninn with the Ohnst minim Philip 

^M prenchcd. nor yet to thu «onsuiotisiiüst of a pBreoiial diviuo 

^■lifc. Tho iudwL'Uini; of tbu Spirit wiis ns jot something 

P foreien in them, knuwn only by the wtmderful ojiei'atioiia 

vhicD tbuy saw Uikiiiij; ]Aikü ariiund tboin. Wo ham not a 

, fall ocoouut ill the Acte uf wlmt vms done by Peter and John. 

Ibut niinply the getierul rustiits. ^o doubt ihvw npuatlos 

^■»rriüit on iho wink of Philip by preaching and prayer. 

tRer such n prvparatiiin, the believere were lusoiubled, and 

bbc apostl« pruy<Kl that ChrUt might glorify himself iu ttiein, 

. in all believers, by maik« of the coinmmiifJition of divina 

jhfo, employing ttio usual mga of ClirlsDOU coDfiOoration, Üut 


lnying on of haiiJa, Manifeatitions uow followefl fiiinilar to 
those on the Any of Pentecost, and the believers were thus 
recognised and attested to he a Christian chui-ch, standing in 
an equal rank, with the first church at Jerusalem. But 
Simon was naturally incapahie of understanding the spiritual 
connexion of these manifestations ; he saw in all of them 
merely the workings of magical forms and charms, a magic 
differing not in nature hut only in d^r^e from what he 
practised himself. Hence he imagined, that the apostles 
might communicate these magical powers to him ako, by 
virtue of which al! those on whom he laid hands would 
become filled with divine power, and with this view he offered 
them money. Peter spurned tiiis proposal with detestation, 
aud uow first saw in its ti-ue light the real ch;\racter of 
Simon, who, in joining himself to hehevers, had pretended to 
be what he was not, Peter's terrible rebuke presents him to 
us as a faithful preacher of the gi^pel, insisting most impres- 
sively on the supreme importance of disposition in everything 
which is imparted by Christianity, in direct opposition to the 
art of magic, which disregards the necessary connexion of 
the divine ajid supematm-al with the disposition of the heart, 
drags them down into the circle of the natural, and attempts 
to appropriate to itself divine power by means of something else 
than that which is allied to it in human nature, and the only 
possible point of connexion for it.' These were Peter's 
wonla : " Thy gold, with which thou attemptest to trafiüc in 
impiety, perish witii thee. Do not deceive thyself, as if with 
this disposition thou couldst have any part in what is pro- 
mised to believei-s. Thon hast no share in this matter,' for 
God, who sees what ia within, is not deceived by thy hypo- 

' The poetical fancies of Christian antiquity, ivhich make Peter Ih« 
represcDtative of the principle of simple liiith in revelation, and Simnn 
the representative of the magical and theosophic tendency intbebnnun 
mind, have important truths for their basU. ^ 

' I canuot i^ree with ihoae who understand Kiyo^ (Acts viü. 21) in 
the sense of the Hehrew lyj = ^/»a, and euppose that Pet*r onlj 
told Simon that he could have no share in that thing, in tbaC highcf 
povver which he hankered after. In this general sense, prina is iadsed 
used in the New Teatament, bnt not the more definite term \6yei- 
And according to this interpretation, Peter would say leas than tba 
contest requires; for looking al the connexion of v. 21 with 20anJ 
22, it is plain, be did not merely «ay, that Simon with such » disposi 
tion waa excluded fron, participating in this higher power, but nit 

nicsr sniiuß up cHnisnAKirv, 



SritJuiI pro[t:EBious. Uafon iiia c^'u» thj iutoiiti'^us arc matii- 
fitit. With siiiwro ropi-iiUuu-o fi"' Miitli ftiokedues», ptay w> 
(lud tiaiit tie would ha j>loa«uci to furgivo tJioo this wickcil 
dusii^oi-" Tliia rcbiiliciniido ;» graxl iinjji-^HDi-jii at tliä tiiwe 
VII Siniüii"« ooasciencfl, iiioliueii majre lo superetitioii llian to 
taiiii, «Hid awakoaod a fecliiij; not of rcjicntimc« for tho sinful. 
QCSS vf ilia ^ispusiliijti, but of tippii-t:iicii)iioii of tho dlvjua 
vcitgeonoe. He entreated tlie apostles tbat thoy would prny 
ito the Lortl for him, t)int wkut t!ii:y liud Üiraatf tied liitu \vitlk 
miglit not coiae to ptf». 

As is ustial witii such sinlilm impnismons on the äi>iise«, tlia 
eflnct on Sinioii wus uiily tmusient, fur all liie liirtlier iiotdcta 
w« have of him show that he sgon wtiiriicl to hi« formcr 
countu;. AliLiiit ten or twenty yaitw iatcr, we meet witii 
a Simuu iu tlie ctimiwiuy of Felix the Uoiuaii I'ruüumtor of 
FaJo«tino, nil rtLri kindly rcncnildin^ thiii ninii, that vro nro 
(«nipled to rriusiiier them as identical. Tlwlattftr Simon' 
appeals &s a liearÜes» ni&giciaii,' to whoDi tUl peraoiia, wha.t- 
«ver Uwir obum«tei-, were walcome, pcuvidud Htcy )(iivo crv^tit 

Froia Uie kiandom of Qod. and lli<ttvby hrini; oundnmniliiiti on liimu^lf. 
Hcnoa WB unJionlAnd the word Xivoi in l.lit ooiiinioo New TogUmtnt 
mOMiIng (if llic ^U'liti! donLrliis — -" th<t ilniariiii: or I-rnlli uimoimcoil hy 
as* — nt Uls «Line Cini'i iDcludiiie auffxjtox'iu-f, nil T.lint a parson iroula 
Im QuthortiuJ to mcnlvn l>; Iilic nj>pro|>iiuliim of tliia düctrlnc. I itm 
not couvinocii h<f wlint Mi.'yui' In iii-< cumtiiunturf urg^s iiuainat lliiii 
iDlcrpFCULIon, tlial Ic Itnt vnnnnuc wltli tlin ciiniifi^Um, in >vliii;1> th^iM 
is n« ineutiuu miid» of tliu doctrine. I'ur iu tliv uiiud •>( the tponliei', 
the poircr of woTklnK mlrnck* could not be M:)Mniiud I'rora ilic pulili- 
nUoD of tlioroapcl »nil ruitb I» il: mid a> .Simon in i.lie iliipa«itbn iit 
his mind wm nr fhim the gwipcl, mid could stand In no mni ttf fctlon'' 
•liip with it, il followi'it as 'i tiutu-r of »iutk:, th:iL li« could huvK net 
ihftni ia tbo ahiliiy lo work aii<-h mimolos. 

' On thfl oth<r hand, tliere is the diflcrooeeof coiinlry.fnr thn Rlmfin 

wtMm wo rafuir. und wlxnc Jnuplimt tEKinliom 'Autitg, IkioIe xi. cIl 

53), »IU a Jew Irani Cypru» : but Öimon Miigii», !»i\!iiTdlng lo 

'wtln Martjr. hlitimilr «, Jintivc tiT S.tiii.irl:i, wu» him tit a. ['luce unllcil 

lOttCim. iu Sciiiinriu, Yctlhituvidpiic^L-ionat douUh'r.for » tiudlt.ion an 

•A«r ills tlnw, tl>t>u^h |lTDV[l1lin^ In 1.I1D i-'niinlry Kburv Simiin uindu 

Appa>iaut-p, might be l-itoiiuijus, Whiit hni becu lald oliioe I wrulo 

b« al>iivc. i^aiiiKt Ike Idciilliyof tik» tWL'SiiiuiiiH, in iliiiiudhiTHtlvi.', 

.hou^irli 1 willliigl^ iilloir, llint «uw llio dmec of S»iii>n wasiiTM_v 

iiimua one among iho Jon'«, und sucli Uinuniiit 76^-01 tvvro u<h 

i;Moai lo he tiiat vitb, lliu Utile uW nuL pcrfuotly ngrccing, iht 

iinlitv Qin«c he left nillwr doiitdfitl. 

' )i^or thai aKTirtAtuvm, xu^.i JuMphiw. 


hO or aistSTuxRT. 

llii» , 

Ui lux HKhaDtuenU. ^Vith equal uroguxe, Jte disclai 
ill nif|iect Cor Um aocietit Ecnns of rcli^nti. umI for tlio Inwft 
of Riorotity. He wm » coofidiuit vf tli« Bonum Pro« 
Felix, simI tberefore could nerer have oppoeed bin viaoi 
iuclituUkiiM, but oil th« wmtrary miulc Hu tnnKic nuhiierviei 
U> their graüficntkiD ; tko thos bound liint mora donclj to 
himwlf, m s idoj^ eumplc vill »how. Tbo iniiDural Felix 
Wl iodui^inl n piUMoEi fur UnuiUa. nster of Kiiif; Herod 
Apijip«, 4uid wife of King Anins of Eidoul Simon nllovi-ed 
luiiiftelf fo Ije tlic UxA fS Felix. Tor gnitif^ing Im unlavM 
d«sires. Ue persuaded Drusilla that by bis sui)erlininaB 
power kc ciiuld cnMire grcut iuippincct for licr, jiriiviilcd, slie 
married Felix, and manned to oTerctttne her aeruples of caa 
tdonoa against marrThig a heathen. TIm dtaroictcr of Ulis 
SiEOou is tiluai|i«d oii thi: later tlieoauphii: goHic eect vf 
Simoiiiuiis. «lioHe teoets ittn « müturc of tbc UriCDMl, 
Jc\Tiiih. Stinnntiin, luid Gntcinn nIigio<i« olcmcnta. Th6 fi<em 
of tbeir piinciplea inay be plainly traced back to this Simon, 
tliiiogh wv lauinot uttributc to him tbo complete ByBtcin of 
this scot SlU it Gxintiid in tho aecood ccmtutj. 

Tbo two apoitli« returned agaiu to JonxsaloiQ, and as «hat 
thcj liud wttnciascd ccnviiiocd them of the Buscoptibllitj of 
the SiuuAi-itiinii tor reocinng the gOitpcI, they arcuKid thieoi- 
Nc^lvcH of the opportunitv «f pubÜEhing it in nil the parts of 
the ixniiitry tbruugli wbioh they {«iteeiL Bub Thilip cxtL'tukd 
his iniäsionary journey further, and became tiic instrument 
lit britigiiig tliE! iirst Bi;«da of tbe gospel into Ktbiopia, (Üie 
kiti^'Ioiii iiT CiiuiIhu! itt Merue,] though, as fiu- as otir )in»w- 
bdgi.* (if lii»ifory go^' without any important conseriueDDCS. 
Hut, what is more il<si;rviiig nt uoticcy lio jnihliMhcd tlie 
tjoajjcl ia the cities of Pakstiiie, on tlic eoutheru and iKutlicn 
«KiMis of tito Moi^itcrmnoui, till M laat, probubly Aft«r a «od- 
siilci'nblo time, ho iwttled at dvaarija Stratuiih^ «'here uu hi» 

' It U »til! a qudntkn whether tho InlroductiniL of ChriMlanliy wm 
Mil iKtrtiii])^ TDAtlc Icfora (tie mlMioo of FTumaDtlus on aDotbor ijd ~ 
niiiL in u didurdiil ]»iil nf Blhiupu: wlietlier mmj thine« In <' 
ilwirlnc and iii<ti;a« of ihe ^^«»01 Ali^mlnlan ehtircli, niih wh 
wo iiavu liueri IicUit auiuuiuteii by iitouw of (JulititV Joiinial. dopd 
inilioalJj a JinriHli-Clinarinn origin. If I Ma nol. miiUken, tLb U5 
itclt.ii; hit» bn>ui;hl forwird these qnaxtiani in llie " tHudiita unij Kit 
tU-^i.'' I'tii-liaji» intcsriTuursK wit!» thai »noitnit ohtuck will «yw ' 
M v-juto lourcuD of uilijrtmtiioa For uuimriiig tbim. 

rmsT itrsuj) or CEfusnAinrr. 


■mraS be fouud & Christian aodety already formed, vhidi lie 
built up in th« lä.;th. 

Tliough tlie Cliriiliaiia of JewüHi desoeot, who were drrnu 

bj perBDcution frain Jerusalem, were by that event induced U> 

. Boread tha gospel in Syria and the neig^ibnimng distrifTt«. yet 

I tneir Uboum were confined to Sews. Ou the odier tam!, tlic 

I Hdleeiat^ auch as Plitlip aiid othefs, who originally came 

from Cyprus and Cyreuo, uiaile their nay among the Oemtiles' 

nlao, Ui whom tliey were allied in languag« aud educatttuu, 

which -wna net the case with the Jews. They presented tbom 

vrith tite gospel itid(;[)eiuleDt of the blosiüi! luv, witliout 

[ nttompting to make tlicm Jon» before the-j became Oliriatiaua. 

fTbua the piiuciptee held by tho cnli^'litQiied Stephen, the 

tmtha For which, ia part, he Imd Buffea-d martyitlom. were by 

thorn firet brought into pmctice niid realized. AqiI if in thi> 

f, iodepeudeutiy of the eiertiüua of the apo^tlee iu Judtia, 

1 tliL- deTelopment of Chriatiiinity in a Jowidi lorm, chiircliea 

hiaea nüaeä of purely Helleiiietio materials among t.lw 

tiOftthnn, ftoe altogether i'rem Judaism, and if Paid had thea 

, tfipeared to Qbuärm and exteud this twtde of oponitiuu, one 

I eooBequence «light have beon. that tho older itposilvs would 

have nuLiataiosd with greater stiffnesB their foTmer staading- 

j pmnt, iu oppuaition to this freer dirwsüün of Christianity, and 

I thtu; by the overweight of huoian peeuliariiiea in tlio first 

IpuUbberH of the goapel, a violent and traxwnuileablB oppo- 

■tioD might have divided tlic cliurch into two lioatile parties. 

It oould not have biip]>enud otherwise if the germinating dif- 

let, left altogether lo iheuiaelves, a^ in. Inter times, had 

> been so developeri as to exclude all hopes of a reconoiliatiou ; 

BDd the idea of an universal ohurcli, overcoming by its higher 

aoity nil human differences, could never have been rontized. 

■ But thia disturbing iiiflutuee, with which the self-sockjug aud 

oae-sided biaa of liuuiim naturothfeatened from the be^'inningr 

fio denroy the unity ot the diviiu: wurk, vraa couut^ncted by 

the Still ttiii^lilier influence of iJic Holy Spirit, who never 

allow« hmuiiii chft'erences to develop thcm?elvoä to anch au 

eJtreme, but ia ahlo to inalutriln unity in manifoldueas. Wo 

may ditttinetly reoo^ise tbL- attractive divine power wbJoh 

' In Acti xi. 20. llio cunimon reuüin^ jAAitruiroi in cvii)eQtl,v la If. 
Wjtctql. aa I'uruicd rroiu a tilsti glcue, au'l tlic reuiliiig ffliiuh nkn M 
Nw OaoliiM lt>-kii'at) lanftt 1>e iubstiuue<l u uiiduulitcillf cotrccl. 
_TOU I. 


givea BOO])« to ttie btx agencnr oT miui, but knovit eiwrtl^ 
vhoD it is ooedfol, for tbe suocca of ttio divina iwrk, to 
impart ita immediace iDuniiuAlion, if w» o1)8orve tb>t at tlw 
proem taom«Dt when the apMÜM needed & wid«r derelo])- 
Bieat of th«ir Clui^iAn koowledg« fcpr llio exercise «f tlmr 
calling, and their ronner cootnetad vtevt would have been 
highl; iiijitrioun, whut hnil been liitKerto'Kiiotnig:iriui imparted 
to thorn, by ft momornblo coiaciieaoe of an iutemol nväation 
witb a tiain of oufmird drcumstances. Tbe RpoflUe Paler 
mt the ohoeen iustrtmuiat ou this occuduu. 

Petor nwlc a viNtnlion from JenuoJcm to the dinrclMi 
founded in Judra, Sainnrta, aud lovardä tlie ireat Detr the 
Medit«Tfai)tan, Tbo carea eSectod hj Lim in Christ's Dkuie 
ill tbu Uir^ town of Lyddo,' And in tlie ctiy of Joppa (Ja£b), 
B few miles distant^ drew upon him the univenol attention of 
thfit VC17 pofutMis ftiid cxt«n^ve district on tho COUt of Ihe 
Mediteirrantiaji, (the pla.iu of Saron.) Many wwe coaTcrted 
by liira to Christianity, uid tli« city of Jopp» becuno tbe 
icentml point of hia laboara. As the noblioüioa of hit luv 
ductnne nuido encli on impresöon in these port«, infbrmaticn 
reRjKctiiig it Tould easily spread to Cteaare» Stratoois, a tom 
CO the sea-eoost oboat eight miles distant. In tbe Koman 
cohort vhich fonofd the garrison of tliia plncv, wns a coo* 
turioQ, Coi-oelius' by name, a Gentile who^ diamttafled vilb 

< AiKOFilini; to Jouphiu (Antiq. tt. 6. 1 2), a wwn at Umwaeiir, 
in Iktet tiniMSoonnclärable cilj under the name of JltoqioJia, 

' Wo must h«re taVe ctrtif« at whal QfrSrcr alli^K«« walnit tht 

lilBtoriciil trutli of this onmtiTe- He nmint«!»», " that the e«indi>lA 
tUat the lieaLliens weru to be liicorp<ii»t<iil with the CliH»t.ian obsrEb tn 
liapbinn, irilhuui tho ahtwvan«« of tb« Uowo Utr, «w first «nnMM 
by I^iul, und tlsal Peler waa tironght 10 Mtknovlsdf^ it Uj kU dullMBm. 
Til« riMidtiit of Peter at AnUodi, w it is deKcrilicd in tbe Zi diipMr«! 
Dir EpiKile U) tLe OalaiLaiUt ia itmplinbk. ii li«aluinod biaun^ 
led^ oa Liim iulijcct, in an indepeodcnl maaiiar, bjadiviiwrctclatioa 
ir, nn i.Le cootrarj, it vas onlj imprefwd upon him from «iihotiU bj 
thu jireiiandernting iuflucnci: of Paul, ii. U then asj tt> account for ha 
»Bain wHreriDg un-l« tti^ OjiposltP inHnenc*» of the adiietantt «f 
Junii?4." Bat wlioever andemtanite tlie relution of the divine aad Ikt 
hiinina In noe mnlhor, fn tj}n devalopment of th» rGliK^noa life, caltMt 
he nurpriMd. if in tho Eonl of A mivn. who ia geDenl held a Iratlt «ilk 
liriDC <y>iifiijitniv- nmi d<!Aracfa, the appKhebtiiiiQ of it «Lould, iaia 
(iifavoanib)« nianient. nndeT^o 3 Lnuntimt abec^uration. by Uio inSutWl 
e( foreign cIimiiciiIii, vliich would afterwanls bo rcmoTcd hjr th« rtUoa 1 
if (lititiB linhi. liut Ilia bjruo moaiu oiidcut, Umt Ptt«i Ai tbtil 




old populiir rulijpüa. «üd seekiiin afler one that ««miIiI 
luuliic Ilia niiiid, mtw lod by luxiuuinumoo with JiidnUm 
'the fuundatioii uf a liring faith in tJie one God. Hnviug 
wth bin wbob lätdily professed the worship of Jehovalj, lie 
tertißol t>r KU bviic&otiotiH the e^iapuUiv he felt with UU 
fellowr-woi-siiififiere of tho Jewish uation, and obsorvcd tlie 
' kuura of prayer cwstomniy to tlie Jew«; no that thrro is 
' warpulj unv room to dcjiibt that he belciuj^'cd to the cIiim of 
PrOKlytes of tho üntu. Nur cn>i »s iiifcT (liu uuiitivijry fi'Lua 

k4M as nToocciu onvictian. It «n> oniy the violi^iicc «f a «iidiicn 
iiaiirewiioo, wkiah, U)ruuj;li lilt puuutiurit^r ul Uia imtural Uioiwiamgnt, 
liM luo iniii'h poffor ovnr I'ctci. nnd inndc him priv:t.ic<ill)' JiLittiln» 
tu Uio« piiiii;i;j|eii wliicli li« lad by no uibuliii übaiittuiivil (vMU 
detlbeisu rodmlian, T.iul even repraiiclied liiiii with thtm nctinff in 
MnträdietiDii Ui bU priut^iplt«, ttiHi lie uUo uns liviug' il« & Ooiiiile 
'Mruiit^i), now pnotitnlly kid m injimunoii on ihu Gutitils Chriit- 
UiiD>. tLii tiify m<ut lutiuiil to lb<.' Mumio Uw, t'ei'tüiily, & j;rciit 
cbkll« iniiat iinvo jukMod on Pelcr. if lie liiid lieen brought »o IÖ net, 
■balPsnl «Dulil KL} M biin tliut be hiiixelf liad inxu tiviiigiiia.(lcutil«. 
But U till) wai iKit eoDDiKtcil w{[b eame prvvlou» prupaTiitioa Id the 
pMuiür rcliKiui» ih'vvlqiiiiirul of P<?t«r. it voutJ budifGciilt to sUriliul« 
IL i^uUly to I'tiul'i InfluoDcs. I'uul nQWhure iu»rl> tlvat PeMr wiw QnL 
Ifrtl by him tu iu1t)[>l thirj^ «i<{WH : im tbi; i^uiil.rHry» be Aiii^iLka nf m r9v^ 
IiuIm» mntlu by Üsr. Divliiu Splfit on tbU (loirit to Uta npu^tlc^ and pro- 
pbcls. Ep!i. iii. Ü. If wv luuk »t- the quuativu incv purei)'p'*;i'butu^i':ui 
po!ui ol t1«w, irc may indeed pieeuui«, that Peter could uut iinve 
urited at a couvictiimofCbristiau inilli un ilitB point, »itliuut 3.»i;vore 
iLCUtal »inixglf ; itiiil in ihis ttiiigs;lc of the diviiiu iiii'l ihi; hiirn.« in til« 
itoui. lliRIi ectlULic liiiciu wuiild lind its nat>iiii1 poiiit af cucuexiuu. and 
DfcoT at a i:hDcul Jiinnturti. to :ic;^omphsh tlie victory of Clinniitta iriilb. 
over Ibe reafilua of Lid Jcivtih iii>udo uf tlimkiii^. ^^cir i^uu I vitli 
orrOrer mkc'itc in Act» xL S the tnici'« of a mnra i-nrreol lu^count l>eiir- 
lu; evlnenue ofinliiiit ittt namtiv«. That I'ct>:r nude no ecruplc of 

iucorpotating UciitUcH by hnptl^tQ witli llif Chrittisii rLurcIi. mi^lil, 
lin<)UMti«anbly bo infirruil. 11' h>i eliunnffii nnt t'l cut, uiliI drintc with 
tkAin. Still, wu nughl with equul confidcnc-c Inl^r, tbiit ii Juh1>Ii 
IMcbw, wbi> hul no Mniple to luliainieler bapfiain t-> Ornl.iffl', ml^lic 
not eoni« to th« «oocliULon to consider tlitm of e<{uiil mnk in ihu 
CliHiitiaii Iluocrac]', and niimit Uicnrt to e*cry kiiul »t iitl«n'i>iirBv. lliit 
tbaugh Pster arifmnnl» rcpkone<l the jiubHautioa of the g<}Kpcl nmoTls 
ill« bfAthen m ibc epcv-lnl cilling of Puul. »ud iLu (jiiblk'äiloii dI It 
siMiBg nalin JuwHiu liiii uwu, il is l)y no mean« con trndictur}', that in, 
«hen a spociitl dnnnni:! wjus ninde upon bim. hljDiilJ l:Iotl■ieuill«lnlni^t^f 
kBQOC the Uenlili'i ; jual lu Pitul. ulthuii,^!) Ibu iipustle of tlie l)i;uijlc'!', 
gladly etobnicit-i l.ljit i>pp»riunii;t, vIicd he could find in ciitraac« 
raoRg the J««s Uut lu Ai:ts xi. S t, diH'erüni Htiiril Mpeulu frbtn that 
of ikiw Pntrin« pnrty. from whutn. imcordiiig tu Ufriirer, ihla uamlivi^ 
~ 1b geiieni Uii< lirtt port of tha AoU, wu« •icrivi34 



the drcumBfiuux thitt Fcter uid llw stricter Jewisb Chritlii 
looked on (JuruoliuH as an andeui person, and to 
r6a|>ecU tito saiuä em a hcnthcn. Thn Pt-oacljrtcii of tho Cat« ' 
were «urtuiuly permitted to attend the sjtiagogOd woreliip. 
which waA a means of gradually bringiDg tbem to & fuQ 
reception of Yet the Jew» wlio adopted Ui« Ktriclur 
maiitiiB of the Pharisa», placed all the tin circumcised ia 
the da» uf the imcleaa, ftnil avoided hviug and eating irith 
Hucli |>ersun3 as (ktiltn^. Unleaa we Buppoae this to have 
bcca the ouSü, what nfi«rwards omnured in reference to the 
Btrioter phariaaical-uii tided Jewish Cimstiaua. and the Gentile 
Christiana who hnd boeii partly Proselytea of the date, vould 
appeitr Altogether eniginuticul. 

As ti> the remarkable manner in which this devout truth* 
aoekiug rniui (in whose heart God's Si>int had awakoned en 
lively a souse of his spiritual ne^ieBBitit's) was led to raeutal 
pcaw, hi order trj have a clear conueption of the whole jso* 
occdtng. we mnst bear in iniiid that tlie Acts of the Apoitlw 
is not iiitendei] to devc^Iup all the circU-instnnces whic^ beloDg 
to the represeutatlon of tite exact, historical oonneiioa m 
events; and that in raference to the manner in which Come- 
]iii8 wiw pruDipted to seek Dut Pet^r, his own narxatjve is the 
only- iiaiuL'diiite Büiirce of information. But we are not justi- 
tiell to assume that Comolins, who certainly could beet testifr 
uf the fw'tB reliitiiig to hia own state of mlud, of «bat he hid 
hiuuwlf L'S per if need, ^'os equally eapable of clearly distinguidi- 
■ng tliQ objective, the eiternaJ umtter-of.tiict from tlio siibj«>- 
tive of his own mental «tat«!, in what presented itself to him 
aa an uhjeot cf hia urn experiwce and perception. It wai 
natuRil also for him not to think of tmuing out the eoti- 
uexion of the higher revelatione made to him, with the pro- 
poralive natural circucastancca ; but tliat cho divine In tha 
fiffaif which wholly occupied liis thoughts aliould remain alons 
iu his remembrance, and be brought forward ia hia tuimitjie, 
while the pn^paratives in the natural connexion of cauaea and 
eU'ects retired into the baoli-ground. We are also pctmjttixl 
and justilnod to supply majiy ciroumatancos, wlücb, tltoogh not 
ex|jreuHly iuei)ü<.'näd, are ^e^t to be eupposed ; not in oratr tv 
obHCUre what waa divine in the event, but to glorify the niani* 
fuld wifldotn of tiod its shown in the way men are led to ■ 
[wticipatjoQ of redemption, in tlie connexion of the divine 




Uli the Datoral, and 


M! Imnnoaj tliM aubtdnts iMtweeaa 
nMurc and gnoe; £pb. til 10. 

Coinelim hod deroted himself for earn« d^a to JSuting and 
pmjTcr.wbicb w«refreqii«Dt]j used conjointly b; theJ««« aad 
firat Cliristtaus — the former aa the uwiu) af nu fcin g tlio aonl 
more capable (by detaching it teom eeose) for uodistarbed eon- 
rtno with divine thii-gs. This the^r were woot to do «hmi, 
ia OD emergcocT from iovard or outvanl diätnaa, they sought 
Tctief oud inummatioD from God. Wk may, thorolbre, prwuuifl 
tlmt SMoething eimilar vas the oas^ with Cornelius ; aud mi* 
turally aik, What it was that &i troubled him 1 From tbo 
iFfaole narrative ve Eee that bis anieDtiüngLUg was far reliijious 
truth that would bring peace and reposo to hie heart, lleuca 
it ie uottt probable, t^t on tiiat ocooimt he sought illumina- 
tion from God by ferveut prayer. And what occasioned his 
audcing it precisely at this time f From the words of tho 
angel to CorneliuB, it is by do means oertoia chat the apoatla 
P«t«r was wholly unknowa to bim. Peter himself, iu Id« dis> 
course bufbra the fiunily of ComelluB, Aats x. 37, «ppoiiro tu 
bavo preeitmed that be had already beard of the doctrine of 
Cbrät h is also probable, that a matter whiuli bad already 
excited nuch great attentinn iii. this ctistriut, and ivhtuh wua so 
«loaely related to his religious waute, had not c-scaped his notice. 
Ho bikd probably heard very varioufi opinions respectlug 
Christianity ; Irum muuy zealous Jews Judguidnts altogether 
conilonmutory ; frota others^ sentiments whiuh led him to 

I expect that iu the new doctrine he would at list find wbrtt be 
had baen » long seeking : thus a coofiict would oatiu-ally arise 
In his cnlnd which would impel him to seek ilium i nation from 
God on a question tliat m atixiousiy occupied his thoughu. 
It van the fourth duy ' since GomelliiB liad been in thitt niabi 


• U »itl be proper bore lo give ilia righl interprvuiion of Apta x. SO. 
f'lbny I*'* interprnteJ tlie wurda us ecjuinleut Ij — '* Tour ilaya agn I 
; fctUd U thia tliup." — luiniolj.the ninth >iour wh^n hcwasspiMlcitti;. und 
I lkeB«al70IMfss^d^:r vu kepi by Cnrnalina. in the aiiith hour of which 
ItU« iMppeneJ. Ttiis agrees pt^rfecllr wiLb tite reukuniai; of thi< tiiu«. 
iBat th» mekning of i-ri fnvnura aur rendering Itie pasw^. " 1 faat&d lo 
[the Binth hour <tt tho fourth dnj," la wbiuL lIiih liiipiki^ueJ, Kiiiiii)cl'« 
(»biectloa Co thii interpr«tiit.ioli it aot peTtinenl ; for. fiata tbo ir) laucr in 
LWhiidl Ourueliu« tipmaaeii himtair, it oiiiat be eviilepl. tliul 'he lialon 
laUMBed on the niatb haiir at (he (ourtb (lUirdiij'. Now, lliia pä^üitc« 
IlBB M mulBnUiail tu mean, either tbat ComcliuB waa itant ^ (ntl foul 
I dafa UiroagUoDt lo Ibree o'clock, or tbab for liiiir äa}» be Fluted outiietl 



of mind, wlicti. aliniit three in tJie nfternoon, one i>f 
eustumary Jewish lioure of pnirer, whilo be was calling odOdiJ 
with earnest Ewpplicntinn, he reccivoil by n Tnicc frnm htfm 
AU iwiswer to Iiib prayei-s. The üppiiaraiice of the aaji;«! majr' 
oonoiilcrod aa an objective event Tho rool buItMiga in 
tnnmoa to ft li>i;:h£r thiin Üie sccnhle nnd tflmpcrol onler 
thiiigS) and Done but a. cootracted &nd arro^nt reaeon 
fieuy the jmsi^ibility of a commuuication belwciai the 
world and the &oul which is allied to it by its vary noliire. 
Tlia Holy Scriptures tench tis, tbnt wich com muni es lions finni 
n liigber Bpiril^unl wtirld to iuiiividuiila iiw«! to oooTir ill the 
historj* of mnakind, until the otutml point of all oommunim- 
tions from heaven to enrth, the Divine Fouutnin of life iixlt, 
B[H«ared among ue, and thereby ratabliftlted for ercr the omii- 
niutiioiL betweon hoavon and earth : John i. 52. We need ntit 
HuppoRQ any seimible appettniiici>, for we Ituoiv not wkctW a 
higher spirit cannot communicut« ilsoJf to men livini: in 
A worhl of aeiise. by an opeiiitioti on tht? inward scmse, so tJttt 
tliia Gomnitinlcatio]! should appour under the fonii of S 
senauoiis perception. Meanwhile, Coraclim biiDi>e!f is th* 
loniy witiiLias fur tho objective reality of the angetii: j^>|)ce^ 
nnec, and be caii only ha ttikcn iw a cru-dnile witiiisw of wLtti 
he Mievcxt that he had perceived. By tho iotliienn« of the 
Divine Spirit, au elcvnlioo of mind might ba naturalis 
iCJiiuectod witli his devotion, in which the iatemal ooin- 
iiiunif.ilioa from heaven might be reprceentod to the hi^iS 
»<e!f-eo!i3ciouaue8a under tlie farm of a vision. ■ Altlioitgh, ia 
tho words of the angol, " Thy prsyisw and alma are eoiue ap 
belure God," &c., the expression ie antliropopiLthic, and ndaptoa 
to the then Jawish mode of eipression, thia relates only to the 
form of the exprt'.'eion. It is the divine in human fona. It 
is marked tliroughout by the thought «o worthy of Ood. tlinl 
the striving of the dovout anxiety of Cornelius, which tib 
■hown to the eitenl of hiaability by prayer and works of low 

111 iKe lUDtL ho'iir of tli( Fourth <Inj. itli«ii l.liix ^K]l[1Cll'!'l. Hal ■äst*.**' 
cording to tlie Je«-i»b CliriEtiitQ mode of ipmking. did not Imfiy ■> 
Oalire »IjBtincm'D from all UMirialiineiil. I tiiimot. »jttvfi with iXejrt'iii^ 
tBrpreUli»i],iu I iinili.-rauind U, thiti Tctcr muAnt. thut hn had tutcd fm 
d&y)'. ätiü oa ti;D fuurtli ^y, risckoniue bflchwuTiI», \\ia\, in, tlie ilsj 09 
■w\iU:h the fiwt, licKo-n, nbuiit IhreB u'clonl;, thin evi:iit liiijiprnM. 
' Th« «oril igaixa lAcla », 8) tannoi. here be dL-cisni.-. Hiito; ti, 
UMil in «iicultitii; oruii e»LiLtii:ri«ioaorof k vUion mho oh)catin' 

rrasv epiteui or CHRranümr. 

I (owsr^ the «onbippen of Jthoviih. — of this gorni of e»d- 
a, the fostering faUkerlr lave of God had not beeo uamind- 
fiiL.— 4faat ß«d bad heard the [>ntjrcr of bis looKing nJW 
beftvenly tratb, and had kdI hJut, in the person of Poter, a 
teacher of this truth. FVointhenlioleic>miofthi8iiarTativ(<,it 
Inay bo iiüerrod that Comnliiw Boruidered tbo poiuting out of 
Pctei^s place of rogtilence, not as something that came to his 
knowledge in a nntiiral va,j, bal bj a supenmhinJ communi* 
cation. It is inde*xl posaible that lie had hcird it mentioned 
by uLlu-nt caaually in «ODversntioiL, but, as ha lind not tJiought 
further about it, it liad complelely escaped his recollection, 
and now- in thia elorfi,t«d atato of mind what hnd boc^ for- 
gotten VU& bruu^iit blick ngain to liis ooneciouaDe^ without 
his thinkioK of the natural connexion. After all, this is only 
possiltle, and «c arc by no means justifi<:d in considering it 
Ih noccMuy. Tbo possibility tboteCn« romciins, that this intbr- 
^ftniation wns communicatra Jn a Hapcmatuml way. 
H No Booner bud C^malius obtained thia important and joyful 
^m oertuinty, thno he sent two of Iiia »laves, and a soldier that 
" wnited ou him, who also -wm a, Prtiaelyte uf the Gate, to fi-tch 
t3i9 longed-for teacher of divino truth. But thia divine lüading 
would not have nt.taiincd it« end. Pet*r woidd not lutvp com- 
plied with the rei^utst of Coruelins, if he had not been pre- 
pared exuctly at th<« eama time, by the inward oiili^h tuning of 
tha Divine Spirit, to ucknciivk-dgL' and rightly interpret this 
outward call of God. In tlio conj iinntion of remiwkii'blfi dr- 
Ouumtanoes whieh it wa« necesairy shciuld nii.'et so criticiilly, 
in ordar to briiiij about this important rmult fur the historictil 
dcvolopniciit of Chrietinuity, the guidiug wisdom of eternal 
Love undoubtodly raanifests itaelf. 

It was aWmt noon, on the nest day, when Petor withdrew 
to tho roof of t.liB huuao (liuilt out,, in the oriental style) 
where ho locli^yd at Joppit, in order to oSor up his mid-day 
devoüoua. W« cnn c;vsily aiippoae, that the prayer of the 
man who hod been so zs,tloualy occupied in pubUabiu^ the 
gospel in that rogiun, wmild {ispei^iiiily rülulo to this grout 
oI)j«ct, the extension of the kingdom of Clirist. He might 
huve beard ircquont reports thitt hero ond thor« hcntbon.t hud 
ibowD themaalva KUMientibla of tiie gospel, whon procJ^med 
to thom by the «cattoruil Chriatiau lletleniats ; tie raight Iulvu 
L«aUad to minil ni&ny intimations in the diacouises of Clirist i 


riBirr »PitEio or cHKisTiAwrrr. 

new iHawK respecting the «prcitd of tlic goepol mi^t 
(i|ieD«r] tu hU uilud ; but he vcuturt-d not to suneuder him* 
veXfto these imprcasioiiB, he wan ns yet too much fettcrtd by 
the power of Jen-inh prejiidicus, njiti hcncp, profeftWj-, a conflict 
was raised iu liia uüod. WTiile tliiia ücouin<?d ia prayer, Uta 
demands of aninml URtuie pressed upon liim. He arose Ear 
tho Donn-tide meiil, which niuBt. have becni jiirt rciuJy. In 
uieiin time, tlie meditHtuiia whith hiul occupi^ him 
pmyci-. abstracted him Irotn setiäble olijecta. Two tcndeoc 
of hiB nn.tiirc came into oi>Uisi'iu. TTie higher, th« power) 
tbu divitiu, Iia.ll the njaitety (ner Uia »pirit, ami the power i 
sensiious wauts over his lowtr nature. Tliue, it came to ymte. 
that tlio divitic tiud tho niitimd were miugled togotlicv,' tiftt 
BO lis ta obHiMirt! the diviiie ; hut the diviuc nvioled itself of 
the reflectioii of the naturn! aa sia imtigc, a symbolic Tcbiclc 
for the truth aliout to be revealed to Peter. The divine lis 
tliat was breaking tliruiii^h tho atmuBphoro of traditiuo 
rcpreseiita-tioas, and miLlung ita way to his spirity 
it*e!f iu tJie mirror of sensible images which proceeded 
tlie eiütiug atate of liia bodily frame. Absorbed in 
meditation!!, and forgetting himactf in the Dirinc, Peter 
heaven open, aiul from thcuoe a Vüfad, " ns it hod be«« 
grant eheet knit at four wirners,' «orrciporidiiig to the 
quarters of the heavens, was let down to the earth. In this ' 
Tessol he »aw birds, four-footed hcMt*, and edible creepifjj 
tilings of -vtuioUB kinds, oad ü voice from heaven ooUod u|k 

' Wlial PIutBTcTi anv^ of eiicb an nppeamncu uf ilid higher liTe i« i 
mukfttiJe : in ol Sirai läs Sua KimKip KxtWI"'!^'""' •nnftJittBi ein ■ 
ipataäat äcSufmi, hXXi KiatX(f ^)r 6w' &vii7K))i <ptBC)iivaiw. Kitv 5) f 14 

HoKiyii^ifms ipit-ov^iorrfiiii foiftt tii^it tlftu Ktif^atwv tun^^t ''hy i"f ^i 
Tiji ^*ixv^ ^a T^v ii Uli ti^uHf Hifoti^öritt' — U<] Pjth. OnM. c 31. 

' If tili] HordB ScG^^cvnv Hol (Aciti X. 11) are gi'Baltic, yel, UU coa 
pnring thoin with x\. 5, wo muM, with. Meyer, interpret tbem, ; 
" IjüutiJ t.o^eE.h*3r at t.ho Tour i^racrfi," Liut, " bomid Ui four oor 
But it ie a question, nhcthcr thuso »ord^, whlt^li nre «unting in 
Voll. Alei, p. e. and io t.ho Viilga.!,«, it«; ni)i Lo lic ciiasii!('nnl ui s do . 
ind left Olli, U4 In LiKhinun'E edition, und tbcii tbc claiue will btl 
«quivulent to " letling iueir üuhd at four cume^s fruok lickwn,'* h Itt 
ViilcHto irauBlfttc! It. "qiiatuprinii.iiä aubraiM.I lie oiiBlo," A tail vnot^ 
ilieiio frmr c«rncni wo not imlmpomini. A» tliEy coimpiindttd | 
four qourten of th» heaven«, ihej convey ^u intinia.i.ion ihat 1 
tb« north »nd «luih, cost und Lbe weil, wonld appear ae e\wi I 
God.aii<l he valUd to a partioipatlo-a «f th? kingdom uf God. 





im io tJity one or oüimt uf Umso (MViiiurChi, arid U> pi-egitti« 
them for food. But ugninst Lhis rci]^uiremenl Lis Jewieli 
UolioiH revülud, acctibtomed as he was to dislin;,ruiä)i between 
däaji anil uucloan mcate. Ho now heard a voice li-oai heaven 
wliioli refuted bin aoniplos witb tliesu rery signiiicaat words 
" What God hath cloanaed, thut call not thou common." It 
U dcjKT, that in the eiplmmtion oS th^e pregrumt word« 
many ciroutustaiicea conspired. First, in tlicir applLCfitiou to 
.ÜIO objeota hero sensibly represenleiL " Thou raiist not by 
hiinuin pervcraity make a diatiiicrtion of dean and unebnti 
IJGtwocii creatures, (i!l of wbich God lias Jeclnred to lie clean, 
by luttiwg them dowu to thee from havveu." This letting 
down from heaven is psirl-ly a symliol, that ail are alilte cloan 
a» being the creattu'ei of (Jod, — partly, that by the new rere- 
lation, the new creation from henven jircacnia all as piirc, 
Then thü liighor itjipliwition (if tlmse words intended by the 
Spirit of Ood, ts ia refet-uüce to the rolatiou of man to God, 
intimating that «vury diBtiootion of clean and unclean would 
Im taken away from among men ; that all lußu as the crcu- 
luras of QoA would bo considered ns aUke clean, and nj^aiii 
bocamo w as at their origiuid ureaUou, by the rcdeinptiou 
that n>lAt«d to oil. 

After P»ter had again osprovssd his ecrupl^ thia voic« woe 
repented u tliird time, and ho enw the yvsind tjiken up itgiiin 
to heaven. He now returned from the Btate of ecstatic vi.iion, 
to that of ordinary conBciousneaa. While he was eiidoavouring 
to ttftoe the Qouuexiun betwecu the vision and the Bubjvut of 
his hte meditations, tha event llmt now occarred taught him 
what the Sj'irit of God inteuded hj that vision. Voices of 
»trajt^'crs in tbo court of the hoiiäc. by whom Im own name 
was n?j«'-utüii, eicited his attention. They wero the three 
iQis«eiH-er» of L\jruelius who were inijuiring for him. They 
had left Cicsarea the day before at three o'clock, and arrived 
at Joppa that very day about noon. While Peter was 
oliaerving tlie men, who by tli«ir appearance' were eviileatly 

lOt Jcvra, tlic Spirit of Ciod importod to him ei knowledge of 
connexion between the symbolic «itiion and the errand of 

.MO ponwitia A voice within said, God hna sent tbeae men 

thee out, that thou nmyest preach the gospel to the 

Oo confidently with tb«m ; without dreading inter- 

.no «itb the Oentilea as unclean, for thou hast been taught 

nnsv sprkad or rmanriAr 

by tt rmca from liLtivcii, that tliou tount not dare to coniA 
those undomi wlmm üod himself liiia proiiomiccd dean, 
whom he now sontls tn tlicc. On thts ncit day, he <1 
with the inoHHcngt!» from Jopjisi, a(!eoriij>aJiied liy nix *tth 
t-'hristiaija of Jewiali dwicciU, tt' whom he had told wliat I 
hupiwiicd, ant! wlio awiiit*«! Üi« TMiilt with engcr cxportatioi 
Aa thu diHtuiice tor out- day's journey was too gn-nt, ll 
inodo two short days' jounicys of It^ On the day alter iln 
dspartmv, (tho fourth nftcr the tniwsmigi'rn hi\d hccn <!e- 
B[)aloUc-d by Corin.-liua,) ab-jut three ia the afLfnii>uri. thc-y 
arrived at Cicsarca. I'hcy found Oomelius nracmbled wiji 
his iiimily ii-rnl IVicndK, whom ho had informed of the expocteii 
arrival of the teacher sent to him from hwavfii ; for he 
duubtod not that he whom the voice of the angel had notice«! 
rw the u]ip>iiiit<id diviiw löodior, ivoittd olioy tlic divine calL 
Aile-r what liiid paased, Peter appeared to Coruolius as » 
Bupcr-ciutlJy being. Ho fell rcverentiidly bofuro him as be 
ciitcn^d tilt! «Iiiirnhcr ; but Potcr hado him fttiuid up, sod 
aaid, *' Stajid up. I myself alao am a man." He uarmk-d to 
tlio poTHons lUMcmblud, by whnt niiCatts be hud been icd 
tlöt to regard the comnmn Ber3]»lcs «f thß Jew« reepecti 
iiili>ru(>ursc witii hfuttiuas. aud exjiffastiil hia dc^rc to hi 
from Cornelius what had determined them to call him thiUn 
('omebiia explained this, and ended with «iij-itig, " Now tli 
foro ajB we all herü present bL-furo Cud, to hear «U tlii 
that are conunaiided tliea of God." Peter was astonished at 
the pure dJiqii^iitioQ ao susceptible of divine truth, nhich 
appeared iu the worda of Corueliiia, and formed ao striking a 
contrast to the oljstinate iinsusceptilälity of maiiy Jews ; ami 
perceived tlie hand of Cod in the way Cotneliii.i luid hoon lod, 
Bince iie had aouj;ht. tlie truths of salvntjon witJi upright 
döüire ; h« therefuns »aid. " Now I perceive of a troth that 
(ji)d i.t no r^ajiocter of persona ; but in every natjou, he tluit 
feareth him and worketh righteousnesa is accepted of hiin." 
As to thüse lueriiorublo worda of Peter, thct sense cannot ba 
tiiot ill iivi'ry n/jti'iTi. every one who only righlly otoploys hi* 
own moral power, will obUiin salvation ; for had Pflt'r metB-i 
tliis. he wout<l, in ivliiit Hb added, anuouiieing Jesus ss hin 
by whom nlonu iix^i'. cuuld uhtain furgivanew uf ün and ealn- 
tion, have contTO(lict«d himself. On tliat suppositioo, ht 
oitglu rUhcr to hu>'e totd Comuliiu, that bo biul onlr I» 


ItcnMÜt: in liü prcwDt «lü^ii^tioii, thitt «ax enon^i. and lie 
\ Dcctled 09 nev doccriiie of aalvation. Bot. ou tlio otbcr btiKl, 
h is intiKHäUB, Beoardiug to the ccmneiiuii. to nndentand hv 
"evfaj otas tlütt IbuMb God and voHtuth rt^teougne«, 
tbcvc who had Rtliincd tnie piM^r throi^ ChiuUaiiity, and 
to make tbe «rordg tnmn no nan tfaut tüts— that Cbiistians 
of all nxtioos ai« aoceptable to God : for the vorda ptaiol^ 
import thfttConiehus,oiiaccoa]itof hisupriglitpiousBtriTiiig, 
vaa deemed vcvtby of having hie pravere beard, and being 
led to fiutl) in the R«dc«(nier. Nor can thr«) vorda relate 
only w such who nlreiwlv bvli«^ in th« rBvolation of God in 
tin; Old TntaiDettt, and according to its t^<laiico, lionoured 
God, oad expectod the Messinh. But eiridcntly Peter spoke 

■ in nppoeitioa to the Jewish oatloiialism — God judgeth men 
: not accordiog to their diwoent or non-dwcent (roia tlie theo- 
erotic tiatiuu, but according to their disposition. All whOi 
tike Conwlitts, hononr God nprightlv according to the measun 
of the gitt entnisted to tliein, an aci:eptuhle to him, and he 
proparea by his grate a way for thoin, by whieli they nw led 
to (Hilh in Htm, who alone oan lie^ow tnUvuttou. Tbia i» 
vbiit Peter meant to announce to them. ' 

It was natural that, sine« the iiiiuds of these pcnoot wen 
so mUG^ more [)n.-g]tirvd than others for tlie appropriation et 
wring truth, and for living faith by their inward want and 

t earnest lon^n^, that the word woiiid make a mtich <itii(Aer 
and mono powerful imprefaioD on tliem. While Potcr wm 
»[leaking to them, Uicy were impelled to wprcM tJieir feelings 
ID inspired praiaes of that God, who in ko wimdcrAil a manner 

' CorDcliui liolongtiJ to tlint nine» of pcmoDfl who aro pointed «ut in 
JobailLSl. Wu »rt by uo ntitujiii BHilioriMd to niJttnuin that I'ulcr, fVoni 
ths gcavnil putiUou kid d'ln-ii b; Lmi, intriiilod 1.0 i!rntr thn infurouai, 
lliat Ood fToiilil cTdkiuiy \cMi lu salv»lion Ükiaü umutif; all uutloD». 10 
«bom ihe marks tieloo^d rliich hi: hier« «ipu^^ihüil, cvoit If llicy diil Iiul 
duriaif thciir earthly lite obiaiu « luiilivipalion in toilemplinn. IIr ci- 
prcaied thai ttulL. wljivli ai thu nicm>:ut miuiife^lfü iucir lo him La a 
CoaMiauBiieaa mliKlLlaned hy ilie Holy Spirit, vtlhout teScclin^ oti all 
Itad vonarqiicoci» iTediieibl« from it. Wc must, cvnr esicMiy <l\mBgnitih 
betri^Mi what eolighltnod man cnnayiously inlLnid to «ij, aecordiiiK ta 
liituj'iuHl couditioos, uid >□ rEUtiun u> iiiUMTäti iniiiip-!iat<^ly nfl'oAicd 
bj- ciialii^ circuantBneiiii. — ami wliiit form» clio <:iuiccnt* uf oUnuiJ 
tnitii, lo t« daveJuii-iI «ith all llic oan>cc|utDcea iii«ulvvil. Ti> dot^lop 

Cii in the province of cxr^T''-''' ""d hlKturiciU Bpprab«iuiuu ; tliu 
, that of Chria 

■Mood, that of Chriallaa duotrina und monk 


hod led them to EalvatioD. One ingpiration Beised oil, and 
with amazement the Jewish Cbristäaiis present beheld their 
prcjudicea against the Gentiles contradicted b; the &ct 
What an impresfdon must it have made upon them, when 
they heard the GentUo who had been considered by them as 
imdean, testify with such inspiration of Jehovah and the 
Messiah ! And now Peter eould appeal to this tranaacdon, 
in order to nullify all the Bcmplea of the Jews, respecting the 
baptism of such uncircumcised persons, and ask, " Who can 
forbid water that these should be baptized, who have already 
received the baptism of the Spirit like ourselves T And when 
he returned to Jerusalem, and the manner in which he had held 
intercouise with the Gentiles had raised a stumbling-block 
among the strict pbarisaical believers, he was able to älence 
them by a similar appeal. " Forasmuch then," said he, " as 
God gave them the like gift as he did unto ua, who beUeved 
on the liord Jesus Christ ; what waa I, tliat I could withstand 
God r Acts xi. 17. 

BOOK m. 



nci'F HSPUuiioN &1IC- oiUa I» B> IS! ^rusriit or 

I Itr tUs Eoaniier, CTiriatianitj, indspendently of Jmiaism, brgan 
I to be pi'i>{iit^tcd iLmuu^ tlie Gentiles ; the appoiutuient of 
■ the ^ospol aa 11 diatiimt moans ofloTmingall mitiaiiB for tlie 

klu^-ilom of (ioi, wiui now uckaowledged by the apoGtles ; nnd 

ooiisequeutly, oii ikvir yavt. no cppoaitioQ coiild bo made tu 
p employing it for this purposo. Wliilp, by tlie arrangoiiieTit« 
1. of the Divine wisdom, the priricipnl obfltacle to the conTtii>iim 

uf the heathen waa tukon otit of the way, und the first itapiiisü 
Lwns given to tlmt work ; by t!ie »ime wisdi.iiii, that great 
iinpion of ih« fiiith w-ho wiia to caiTy it ou. ttiid lay the 
adiition for the su-h-atioii of the heatiieti through all ages, 

wftji cnJIed forth, to tiike the ptiwtioii a«8igiied IUqi id tha 
I dovelopment of the kingdom of Uod. Thie was no other thai; 
LUie upoetW Pau] ; a maji distiiiguished, not only for Üie widu 
fMtent of his apostolic hibours, hut for his development of 
(the fimilmiental truths of the gospel in their living orgitnic 
1 eomiexion, und their formation into a, compact syetciu. The 
iwaanoe of tho gospc^I in relation to human niiture. on one 
juda aspiecially, the relatiop namely to its need of redemijtioH, 
Irmu net by hitn in the clearest light ; so thnt when tlie hi-iiw 
[of that net'd has been long lepfeHsed or perviürt<?d, and ii 

nrivol of ChriHti^in consciouenoss has followed ti atat« of 



«piiituid dcuÜ), Üie uvw]y awiikt>tiud Chruti&u lif«. nlicilicr t 
tlw chiirob at litrgc, or in hidividuAl^ hM altniyii ilnxrn i' 
nctiirishrnciit ft<tm Aw wriüugH, As ho baa prceciit«! Chri«: 

anity under tliis Rspoct n«j*cially, ta\A h« »> imprwsiwly 
shown the iiuuiediat« relatUai of reliij;ioua knowk-d^^ nixl 
oxporioncc to thu LvnJ Jveus. in opposition to ull dcpcndctwo 
on OD; human medialioti «butever, tbiu diswing tbe Uue 
domnron-tion Tnast. dciirly Wtvvrn tho Ohiiatioii und Jpwii 
stiuidiug-giuint ;^he may 1>e coiisideixd os tlw rcpreaEStali 
among tiie aposttoifuf Um Prnliwlunt principle, Aüd hi: 
Üioiigh it f\i)-nisii(!ä uiily a fun/ liiiitü Ti^Bpectiog the early It 
gf Paiil before bis call to the opt;stlcalup, bu nwordcd cpoi 
ui muke it oviiloiit, thnt hy the wbolo oourw ef his previoiia 
ilcvelopmoiit, lie «hh fumiod for vchftt lio wm to bccoow, atiil 
Cvr wititt hu wwt lu ijffuct. 

SliuI, or l'aiil {the furnier tli« origiual Hebrew, the lat 
tlw Hdleiii.-itiL' fonu tif hl» nnim-),' was a nntiv« uf thn et 
of Tarsus in Ui licia. This wc Icara from his own cxprcssioDi 

■ The Iftttcf wu hit umtal >ppc1IU.ton, (Vom Iba Um« oT his btln^ 
dcvottd ODtirvh' In t,Iie vnnvcnion of tiic tioathcD; Act« xilL t. 
AlUinugli tlic »nctciil lUiiposlllnD, itmt ti« chjutp!!! Iilh ami name tar 
Üjat Ol bii convort Ssrgiui I'buIuj, Uu bi.'ca reccatly otlvocjiu«! hf. 
Mcyci an<l Oinhudwu, 1 vaiMvi u\fot>ivQ oT iL 1 cannul iiiiui.''iiii; tlialT 
Ihr, rnnvcmioii »r a prucaimtl wuiilil tii: thn[iK)>t w innrh moruof lij 
hlm Ihan ibc «onvcnioii nf any ntlicr oian (aiid hc wai Tar rrum b«lsf1 
hi* fint cuiiv«n). BH tu iuilM'c liiiti tu axiiintt liii nnme. U )« inor 
iimuiMe lo tho litsgi? nf »neiont timw, (nr llip si-liokr lo he namf 
after hin t^iLulief, fus Cji.riuu af^i-r Cn'i'iliiii. Eu»cbiu( nfwr Painjihiloijl 
rather than for the tvonlicr to )ic D-sntnd afitr tho wlinl»: for no enM 
could tliiiik of fiuiliti^ i, psnill«) in lli« initanee of äfipio Afrioknui. 
And h]wl Uli« renlli^ Ixieii tlic tcoxiii why fiuil ft^iiuiod tb« iininc. «* 
uiiglit liiiie aipt'cteil, an it wir t-lniaW oonnectcd with tWe «hak aar- 
miivo. timt Liik« would have ci|iroKi)y ai»{piod lu Ainl Ciiu>itk< l> 
v,iirTiu:l in Eujin^ (stw hU Coiumpntiiry on lYia Kuutaiu, Prol«^. p. )]),■ 
thai, in this cmc, not Ai;t^ xiii. e. Imt xill. 11, would bavt- >>rcu » 
nitumi place for niuiil.uimnj; U. 81,111 I ainnot, with Frilwcho, think >|J 

frolinblc, that Lnke was nceiduninltj led, ly ih« roontlciii of 8«f]^id 
'uului, to rcniirk that Puul aku liuio Uia i-iuu« natJic. Thtf mofl 
nntural »n; nrvknitii,- the itULticTBccms tAi tte [lul^{; Liiki? hod hlÜMIti^ 
designated him i<y ihv. name wljicli lie ruiiuil in i.hi^ (iiem'.iii> ijiug hdbi 
hjia on the eaclj hisWiry of ChmiintiiU. lint he waa nnw indiictd i 
dUttDguish him h.V Utu name nliivh lie fouriil iri lli^ uiciiioini ufhU 
bihodis iitiojig <h<^ lieulht'u. mid liy wliiuh Im imd [icminaily knonn Unl 
during that, lalar ptirimi ; stid, tiion'fore, Wc^k llic qip..irtanit7 of f»- 
murk-ing. that this Paul vm do other tbnn the individual wtiuin bt baJ 
hithtrl« called ^nl. 


8TI.R ?aC 


ia Acts XXI. Sil, xxiL 3, uiid tho contrniliottiry truilitina 
npoft«! l>j Jtruine, Utut he wuh burn in ilie huiiiII towit i>f 
Gbchala, iu Uoliluis ui.uiiot uppair orodiMv, Uiougli it is not 
iiuprobnblc tlmt hi« jiiirinit-i oiicu ri.-siili.'ii thcrt,' whicli amy 
nuTO pmi ritte to iht- rejiort As wo (iu unt kii-uw baw long 

^be remoiiiBil uiulor t\w [1,'iU.TtmI rudf, it is iniposaibJu todeler- 
ntinc whral lulliwuce his ediiwiuou ia the melropoüa of Cilicja 
(which A& a »o&t «f litoiutm'ä vied with Atiicua and Alex- 
aitdri«) ' hml on tha foi'miilimi of his «hanujtur. Certainly, 
bU early auyuaiiitLiucu with tho lauguago and uatiüriol [it-ciu- 
liaritioa of too Gri.'uka »ns of suuie advaatage in preparing 
him to be A teiLchor of ('hiistiuniiy amoDg natluus of Gruuiiui 
ori^a. V«t the fetv po^sngi?» t'rani the (jlreek puetu viliiuh wu 
^^mool with in hie discourau at Atlicus, luid in hia Epistlce, do 
^tiiot prove that his education liad made liiin Tuuiiliar mtb 
^■Urscian literature : uor is it probivble that »uch uttuld be the 


!f no were JuBti fled in andtniantling wUU Puulus itn bU irnrk on 
ihe ApHHtln Piiiil't Epiellea ta tliu QuUliäna uii<l Kouiiuin. p. StS) thn 
«urd ispalei. I'tiil. lii. &, 2 Cor. li. 'ii, n» used ib coniradUtincLioD lu 
jAAririffT^t, U wmil<l terve to uoiilirm ltti< LmilUiuii, «me« il would 
.f Biplv thuL Paul uiiuid tjoaat af a degcent from n hilGnilnian-Jewtsh and 
iu>t {{«llBniBilc family, Mut tince Paul cutl« biumEir ißfulo!. tliougb 
bo «M coruiiily hy birtli i lielluiität, il in «vidt-ui, tlirtt iht vofd e&auol, 
bo uWmI id IUI rcMtrirWtl a «Ciiac; and in ihe ieociid p!isa]i);L' i.|ui>lod 
nhoTc. vbctc H b equivalcm to an larnelite, d drAi^'iniuat ul' AliiBbiiio, 
it pisinly ba« ■ wlJur nii.-anlDg ; aee JJlve&'e »dmii'nlilc loLriKluutJou (u 
lb« BpictU lo tli« llGl>r«»T!, )i. 32. fbin traditiun too, ropan«d by 
Jaroinu, i», hh FTlr.zM'.liu JustI/ remaiku, very bus [>i clous, nut only on 
■ecoaul of tLa grnn, viucrironlrita, wbkh itiakvh Ihc Ijiking of Giacfanla 
br tbe BoiuariH Ihu euuec ut PaiiTt removal thence wUb bin piLrunle, — 
■(dcc Iblc event liappDUvd niucb Intsr in the Juwbb war, liut lÜM 
liemmte Jerüwe, tit his Cammeniarv od Ihe Egiiakle tu I'bllciiioQ 
(T«rM S3). niaXm we of ibia tniditioii t» exulain wb; Paul, Lbnugb a 
eitizra uf Tuku."-, vivlla biniaelf, 3 Cor. xi. '1%, nulij), iil S, " üelirmui 
n Mflirmi'. ell iTmtent qu» ilium JudsBiun iaiiun>' ^udi^sat quutu "Far- 
««n»«m," whii'b yet, as we hav« remarked abiive. proirwdi oiilj fruni a 
uii«undanitiiDiüiif{i:-f Ibc Gpithät ivhicb L'nnl ippiic« ^ohiiQaclf. JcriiDii: 
Diuflt huTe, thisrclocc, tikea up this false acvouiit (" iuU'Id fubuluia 
IN« If ill! ut," arc bU own wordp), without proof, In n vary tbo-ugbtlctc 

' Ütraho. wba wrato in tbe üme of Auguaios. -plnoca Tureiin Id thli 

r^t T# ^AX4tTfffiap Ka^ r^H 4a\tj>' ^tfi^*f\(t>>' äwao-ü*' TrajBeiaK '^I'jw*»', 5ffff' 
IpyN^nrtu i(«i 'Ai*^rai «ol ' k\i^avfijnlat «at tlrrni lAAov i^oi 
Itwcrfrr tJvirr ^ $ VX'"^"' ""' 9MTf\ßai, •vi* f^AirirJfiwr '/(^j)' «rii 
h 11, D. 6. 

smBAb or cmifniAVtrr 

cutw. Ah hU parent« defilgsed liim to be a tcaolier of tli« U^ 
nr JewiRti tbeolot^an, bis ntadles must have bean u»tiliuw3 in 
Iiis wirly yoon to iho Old TeetnmaDt, tmd itboat the f^ of tu-ol v0 
or tliirteen, he must hav» entered ^e «cbotd of GanuJiel.' It 
i» posHible, thuugh, considering Paul's pharuoic seal, not pro 
buble, that tho raiiru lilicm] TJcm« of hi» tol«nuit<miuded 
toacher tinmolicl might indiico him to tiiru his nttcntion la 
Oreoian literature, A ukiu uf bis nieiitul eneray, whose »eal 
overcame ail dilfiaulties iu ias career, &ud nhoee wve TocattfpteA 
him to muke iiimHcll' funiiliar with all tho inciitiil hitbiladtK 
of the won among wh^m he laboured, that tic roi^ht sym 
puthiae more coRiplot^ly vith their wniits und inttrmiti 
might he induced, while unioii|r jitii>[>lü uf (>niciau culture, 
acquire some knowledgo of their principal writera. Bat 
tho stylo of his representation a, the Jewish element CTidca' 
prodoniiualea. His peculiar mode of ai^mectattou was not 
turmL^d in the Urccian, but iii the Jewish school. The oauia 
Saul, S*7,' tiic düäi'ed oai?, the one prayed for, periupa 
indic4ttǤ, that he was the fn-stborn of his paronts,* gmitvd 
ill «mwer to iheir earnest pmyers : and henc« It may he 
infeiTsd. thn-t lie was de^-ot^d by his father, a Phuriiwc, to the 
Borvice of rehgioii, mid sent in eai-ly youth to Jonualeni, »hsit 
he alight be trained to bocome a leajiied cipoundcr of the Iftw 
and of tradition ; not to add, that it was usual for the youth ot 
Tawua' to com plot« their education at somo foreign school. 
Most advantageoniily for liiin, he stcqnired in the pbariseio 
«ühüola at JeniBnlem that systenifttio form of int«llect, wtöA 
aftürwards rendered hitn such good servico iu developing the 
ountcitta of the Chi-istiau doctrioe ; so that, like Luther, he 
became thoroughly converaant «nth the theological ayat^ta. 
which afterwards, by tlic power of the goHjiel, he uprooted and 
dwitroyed. A youtii ao ardent and energetic as Paul, Tould 
throw his whole smü mto what.c'vor he undertook ; bis natnnl 
temperarneiit wuuid diajjuse him tu au overflowing iiup«ttioaa 
teiU, and for suoh & propeusity Fhorieaism supplied abunduit 


' äeo Tljulttck'a udmiralilc reuarh» in tbe Studie» und Krtllbak 
1335. 2d pan, p. auo, 
' We caanut aitiii;h iniieli im porUnt'e to so imcfsrtEin xn Infereaea 

* Like the anmQfl ThGwluriit, Tlieoitur»i,ctiiniiiDD aiuutig UbtiiUau ll 
tho fiwt wnwry. 

* See Sinibo. 



dimenL We nayiüso infer from hia i>9culiar dkpnaitioii. aa 
«nil) 9U from vnriuus iiittts he gives of liiinicll'. ttint in luenl 
piety, according to tbe notioos of tbe strictest Phariaaisiu. he 
slrovQ to go bejuiid all hi» uüDipaiiiuiis. But iu jjroportiuu to 
tlie mmwtiu:!» of his Ktririiig ufter lioIiiuM« — t^ mum he- 
oomb&ted tha rcfrMtory impalaea vf on nnleat uud powerful 
natura, whicli mfiiMci t/i Im hi^Id iu by the rains of tlii) law — 
ao uitcJi more am[jJe were iiia öpjiormiiitiea for imdei^öUmcliUi^ 
fruin bia own vxpcricticc tlio wvful tlisvupl in hiioian nutun: 
wliioli uHnett nlmn tiie munil RoasciQuniesK axHurLs its olainm iis 
a ciii(r<>llii)j^ law, while tlio nmii fccU himself coitHtaiit.lj' 
oarriu<i b«v«,v, in «lu&inw oi his hcttur Juiiv:iii^ und williufi;, b^ 
the force of mijjodlj inclination. Paul could not liave de|>ietc(1 
tJii* cwtditioii so strikingly and to the life, iii the s*voutli 
chapter uf thi:* Kpititlv tf> llic Kumum, if he ha^ tint ^•liuud thu 
kiiuvrleili^ of it tVoin pcrB-mid e.tjicriyiKie. It wan ndvtm. 
tagoouH for liiin thut ho passed nver to ChnKtlanity fri^ta n 
pwsitiQU <rbei'<2, by various arliücial ro&lraiats aud |iroiiibiti<>ii9, 
a» hail aUvinfjtml to giuux'. itgaisHt Uio incuriiiuiis of unlawful 
daiii'at and jiufiHiuu», and to compel himei'lf to goudiicas ; ' fi>r 
ihiM he »'«6 ciuib!^ to testify ifora liis own oxperjeuce, (iu 
uhiuh he »{ijjeurs as the i%pr(>»3ntutive of all men of dnoji 
Ilnrrul fueling.) iiovi deejily the »ju;«! of the nüed of reiletuptiiiii 
is ^vuudcd in tint nioi'ol couäliCutiun of man ; and thus tiki.- 
vtte from pw^sonal experioncp, ho coidd dei*criho the relation 
of that ilin-jU'd fruuiiom. which reaiilte froiu fiiith in redumption, 
to tlu! ncrvitiiili; iif tlw legal slamliug-poiLit, In his couliit-t 
with himself while! a PliuriE««, Paul'« e^^wiieuu^^s. rc^i^cuble 
Lutliurs in the cloifitert) of Erfurt : tLwigh in the Plmriwiio 
diulvotic« und uxpo»iti<>n of the law, he wa^ a zealous aud faith- 
ful disciple of (Jaiiiflliel, we caiuiol from this ciinolui!«? tlisit he 
iuihibo'I thiit spirit of modcratiou fur which his maater was nu 
dutin^iiinhL'd, ouJ wliioh be ihowed in Iüb jud^^meut of tlic 
new Hect at tlie first, beßire it came into direct coufliot with tiiij 
^MOlvgf of bisiJiirty. For tbe scholar, ea[)KciaUy a BtihoLir uCbu 
^hu^tic and tnujkod a oharoctjr, wuuld iiahibe tho uicniiil in- 

' A«, for cx'iiii|ilc. frnm ttie «isndiug-jioiiil u( Pilaris» iim. it hat hctui 
mil. " liutund ul Iflaviiit: every iliiii); lo t.ho free movemi-iiu uf lUit liiv 
piuitJOD, • tn:iii iltoiilil lurcu himself to ilu tlii« <ir ttiuL jiood by a diruüt 
Nt». VownnrutlicenuliwaroaufholmeM." rTO^> J-^p 3"iij. Sw Tirk« 
Jlrolh. i 13. 

VOL. t. ä 



fliittuoea of kis («a«Ker, only »n ütr as ll>e^ ucoordocJ wi th bk < 
pcculioritiGs. Uis lutvidtUng dispoütion, t}i(t tum of bin vaxm 
and tUu ßro of h» youtb, madu biin a. vehcmeut pereeeuL 
Mulut ai^aiust all who opposed tbe hvkUmu ÜLiit n-aa NLcrud io bS 
oj«. Aocordüi^yiitotoaiurdidtbeiicirdoclriiieiotbeluBdi' 
of Stex)b«a atBiune a boctil« axftoV sg-Jünst tbu Pbsrisaio tbeo- 

' Tbe «lueiiion bu Inwq nit«il. «rlieiJier Tiiul t»w suit Lenrd Jnix 
Hiiriuit hb urtlily lir«! Vi'v btvo niit the ditu for Htuworinti tlm qut» 
tina. In hii KpUt)««. w« find noihinc «ondluiLva tiihur oue way or Uit 
nlhvr. OUittuAcn (liiiittK tli,';it il ninylitf iiiferred ftom S Cor. v. 16.1' 

IVil loally kuow Jcsuidurins lii» earthly life. «uTi oi^it. Fkul.inti 

did fcnoif hiro. mvording to irm floili, iu liia bodiij- uKiilily ap«oiniii 
ytfi LLow I know hüu A<i »Ej uiurc/^ Ai^tubt tlii* tiiEcrjfrv^ttioiL 1 nil] t 
objciTi with Baur, in his Er»ti>i "Ou ihc i'nrt.v o( Cbrial m tlio Corinihuui 
('Imrvli," iu tliu Tul)iiip-ii Zt'l-tcJiri/f /ir TliisJvifir, 1S31, [lart Iv. u. ;.-, 
Iliut bu could QDt nicoa tbi>, Lijuaüs« it would buve bvcn uud«c^ui^ 
Cliiint Iu hie statu ifl biiiiiiioUou. »bkli wuulii liu iti i;uiitnH]ictln (u 
llionc puMsgui in nliirli liu iliU-ihiiic^ ^a llut oUtc ttic bighcflt nhidutg 
iint'£.ria[ioe.Mid *aj» la- is üeit-nniueil tu kuuw iiuitilui; wvc Cliriot ud 
him cniolBed. For thoiii^h liie rciueuibrnnce of Chii^i in tlie fonn «'■> 
«erviiit oould nuvur vmii>h fioui hit utiuj, iboujjili h* injivr could (on»i 
whAl ha owed ta Chriil clie CiMuiA^d, yui now he knor him na Uapr 
tM living in liitnian vcukncts. and >iii>jocl to dam.)', but m bavio^ rücn 
virturiuunl; from ik<iii.h. tlio Kloiificl ono, iiuW liviiii; in tlitin« |io<NC 
i,Dd maJcAty ; '2 Coi'. lii). 4 Tlic ivUtion ia ttbKli It no.ui<] havebKn 
jraHiUu tuiiin4ui loClirlit wlutt- bv liwd iu tliv furui oFa wrvanl »d canh. 
oouliL nn longer cxmt. No one cnuld now lUod nearer to btoi.tiinpii' foe 
boint; «. Juw \ iiu oil« could hold cunvcins wiih him iu an oubWhnl tuuuixr. 
tti M being preMni to xhe toiuict : hcnt^cforih it me otiljr poiuble to cumc 
itilu iiiii'ju Willi Clirinl an Ibd ^luriGvd ooti, a^ bo pc^watod bitnwlf i* 
tbe [<jli>,';ou^ ttoiiKciQuiDcw in ■ •piritaal, Jaunwl muuger, bT bdlciae 
uu hiiu as orai;itii<<i lur ihu tulvauou of uiiuilEiad. la thin raqmu. V»d 
migbt well wy thiLt muj thcni i^ould no lo<ie«r h* for hitn nuch " a kao» 
l«>luu iif Cbriii ullür tballwb," Aiut m gnuil Üialbe luigbt baTcnld 
kyiiolitfliraUsf, If 1 liiid bn<>wn Chrint bcrelofoTe aftar tho floth, had 1 
iitiiud In aii,v iiii<>li uulwurd coinrouniQO with h:in ii miknifMl in LbtfluK 
yci naif tuch a wininiiiiiion wtiiiM havn Wl nil iu iiuportum for DC 
(Miiih a vulua nn Lbcna Juclninn aUrtlmlc to it wbo Iiitko it theoga ol 
gouuiiio iipiMtitnliiph line ilokt 1 Lnow Clirixl afUr th« aptril. Ub* til 
ilionu vrliü ''iijo}' ipiriiuu.1 t^omtnuniaD with him. But p4Üt eoald ttij 
Juy till» In n purvly liTpiillielU'ttI farm, suppüAln^ Mimolliiof to b« wbltB 
reiLlly waa nob : for ullowiuj; that he hnd kcii and ]u»c4 Jcbiu wiib iiit 
lurlilj IKDH», hl> uppi>ncuu woiild have lioon for from attaoiiiiig iilijr Im- 
purla.iiuo to tavU kuiii;; and hcuriiig. lut it i;'0u1d hav« biMsti affirmodvlli 
eij'iai iniih of uiuuy Jc«>, whci ebui>d ia an iudiUvrvulut vvcn tMUl* 
pu^itiuu toward? Cbri-L Tiiu rufcrtiDci! in this paeog« otn be mij 
«Mih a" knowing »f ChrliLuficrtUcflcali.'aAbclotiii^d U) the etkr 





inIicbecH.:n<; it8 itioHt velißraeut pei-sccutor. AfUrthe 
tniütvi^iom of Stejilieti. wlion inatiy adhtrcins of tliu i,'i.i8jiei 
Bought for aifety liy äigiit. Pjiul foU liiiosi^ir nilltil to «ountör- 
vork tfaem iii th« üiiueil eity of Damiiacua. 1^'hc^c the new sect 
was gaiuit^ grouud. And lii.' Imstcricd lliitlwr, silUr rti-yiviug 
full pi>'«i;rB tor cotninittiiig «11 the ('hmliiiiiB ti> inintiii fujiii the 
Sauliedrini, who. a£ the highest cuclcsiii^iical luit Kority iimoiig 
thts ittva. wvTV !ilUiwi.'il hy tlw litnimiin to iririirt nil ttUci- 
plinnxy pmiabmenC agiiiimt the Tiolaf.ont of Ihc Unr.' 

As for the greu.t meatul chungv which Paul uspcritintt-d in 
llie «ourtie of rMi joiiriiey, undertaken for the exiiiiclidii of 
the Cbmtiaii Giith, ii is quite iiossiblo thnt thi§ ovent may 
BUikc na a» auddeu unil mairvdbua, only becuuttu the tiialory 
icoorda the luei'e fiict, without tbe Tariom preparatory njid 
ooatieeting circuiastancoa wliich led to it ; Inn, hy making 
u»e of tl^c lunto wbioh the uai-rati\e furuitJieii ti» Au ujf ihu 
outlio?. we may attempt to gaiu the explanation of the whcle, 
ut) purely tiritnnJ piiiiciplcs. 

Paul — (it Koold bo said by a })ei«ou adopting ilüs view ot 
the erpnt) — had received muiiy iniprussions which diatiul ed 
ihc Mpnjw of IjiK tnitii-iriving soul ; ho hail iieiail the tciii] e- 
rate cuunaL-la of liU r^^vci'tid iuntmcLur Caiualiäl ; ha UlA 
liBt«neil to the atldncEii of .Slt?piioa. to whom he was alhed ^n 
natuml t«nipi;m.iuu(it, mid hiul wit,m-.i<äcd his iiiciriyrilriii. 
But be was ätill loo deeply imbued with the spirit of Pturi- 

itlcK. sinoc ont^t In thii rnnlcl .inr religions viilnc he HtiAcliad mniini'l 
■ hkh I''iiil niij^lit ft'ji't LiLiisL'lbi.'4lli:il luiii'uUfiL Kur tlii^ rvamn I tnu"!' 
igTcf with Baut, «iio iinduMlrmilv xi"''''^^ ''""'. no' ^'f I'l" pBri-Dii (if 
JifMii. ttul "I tliL' M<!uiiih. a Mc>Hi;kli linown uJWr Ihe ti'.-^h. lu ircni the 
(9tI; Jtnitli ttundlng'pciint. 1 a1iC> )>i!lii!Vi? witli Haut.»i, \! I'aui Ii.kI 
Imtaadod * pnno'iial nrffmiou, liu voiilcl li&rc luid 'liiouüv xr""^**' i>"il 1 
MBHot ndisit tlic fiircD of the oiijfctioK wlili^li Olii|iriuHi<ii inaku* to thl« 
iKtartiraullcsi, ihsi li wvulJ rtiqiiiru tlio ttrti<.'te brlon xt'orhi', (»r i% 

Rtn* nal ifte Uosiiih dcfinlili-cl j. but ginorally « Miiwi^i'i. 

I ir [>aDU4oiu At tliul Uiu« «Uli Ikj1[>i>(;v(I lo t, Kiana.« provinro, Lti<- 
Stwbrdriin oonld escrclK lU authority lli(ir«, in v\nm nf th<! I'li^bt 
Mcurod evory whcm U> the J«"« i« ]>riic(iiiu Ihvlr worthip in ilwit miii 
'nuuiCT. ir tba cit}' wu brcnighc unitcr the tcovcrnmctit ur iliD A riibiuLi 
Kin^ ArvEoM, itio Sinh«dnm auuM «till leclLoa an tiie HUpp<ir<. in cuni'u- 
qoCDceor lb« ucmiiexigii ho hod (ormed 'Vith Ihe Jews; pirrliup» hu liim- 

■If hud conn swr w JudiiiKiu. The Jewi in Dimmiais miElii iltn 
grt;a iiiflut-iice b.v tnuaiw at the women, who »ere ulmiiil ail 

iTCtl* lo JutUliui. Jowphus. De Uell. Jud. il 20. 2. 


Brufen of onsmiAxnr 

B^Hni, to eiirreuder btmeelf to tti«sc iianreeeiona, bo 
t/i tliu prernJling bent of his mind. Ite forcibly' 
tlu-'ta ; li« rvjeuteil tlie tbongbts Unit invulnntarily roao m liW~ 
miud ID fiivgur of tho dcv äoctriac, as ibo saggoaiom oi 
Satan, wliom tie r^'iinled lut iho »jle ciiutrivcr of tb» rebel« 
lion aep^nat tbe auUioritj of tbe ancient tj^ktlitiona, ttad 
aci^i^nbiigly stt hiinavlf witli sg much tlii: ^jrvutvr unlour 
a>,nüiist the new riect. Yet be could not fiitcceitd ujtugeüicr iti 
suppressing tiiese rising thou^'ht». nii<l in Mlcncing tho tm« 
of coDsciericct, wtiicli rebuked bis fanaticisia. A ooinäicC i 
iu }m soul. While in tlii» sbte, an vutwanl imprcMiou 
added, which brought thä iutenul process to nmturtt;. Md 
fivr frr.m Dnniiisüus he and his follcfwtr» won- uwrtnkLti by ; 
vi^itnl stonu ; the %htatDg auiidc Paul, and he fell »enieP 
lo« to the ground. He attributed this ciitA«tr»pbo to ttiu 
av^ugiug pamee of the ^fet^ali, whom in the ]>en<ciu of hii 
dirwipl&t lie wfts pi^r^ecittin^, and. a>ufuimditig the ijbjcctiv 
aiid siilijoetive, convened this iutcrnfli im[.i-eaBi6ii ißlo 
ouiwni'd nfpeanmce of Cfaristto him : lilin^leil by tbe b;fht 
iiiiit:, mid fituuned by tJie fall, hL' came tii Dainnscus. — Bu 
admitting thia eiiplaiiation ua t.'oiTu.'t. how are we to expb 
by imtural causes the lucBtiiig of Pjiul with Aiiuninsi E«ii 
here wc tufty siii-jily uitiiiy pmrticiilars which are nut expcewlj 
iQvntiiiiioil ill the? Durnittvi!. Sinuo Aoaniits whs natM even 
among the JewB lu a nmu of strict Ifgal piety, it is not impro- 
bable thut bo ivtid Paul vcre ptx-vivMAy ai:quiüatcd with ons 
another at Jertu^tibm. At all ewnta, Pnul had beiird of tlio 
cstrnordinn.iy sjiirituid gifts siiid to bo poswiwod by AnautJM, 
and the tJiought uatundly aruae in liie uiiud, that a uiiui liuid 
in 6U niiich rtjputji nnioug the CliriHtiuiiB, might be abl« to 
hwJ hiiii lutd ruoover hini from his prtaeiit uiifin-tuuntc «on. 
ditivQ : nud while occupied nitb Hue tljougtit, bia imofniMtinn 
fornii.'d it into a viwüii. On tiie other bind, wo may aip- 
pose, tliiit Ananiiw had Jiiiitrd Bocncttuug qF the great cbun^ 
tliat bud tnkva i^nec iu Puul ; nud yet uitjfht nut give full 
cred«?»wt to the report, till a vision carr^pondioK to foul's 
lutd i-xplioidilu t>u Hiniilur j>nyoliula|poal priiicipb», bad ofo- 

T» riifcreiice to this eiplunatJun, wl« niuirt CVrtaitUy I 
tho piitotibility that a chau^-e lito that which toolc plai 
Puul might bava been propar^d hy iiitpntssions of tlie 




«ntiuu&d ; bnt tljd »ftrratirc vill nnt coiint^aanc^ oitlicr the 
•po.-wity or prob«t>ility of sudi a HU|ii>oBitioii. HUwry ftn^ 
iiiHtias ua witii numeraua esamplcÄ of the power of rcli^ouii 
f tiiftticifm over mJixl» thnt iti other niKpccU liave beun Riuntip- 
tililu if tlie true «nil tlie good, aitd yet, nhile under ila 
iDQucuou, liuTt: usei] tlioec very things to coiifinii llifltu in 
thrir deluaion which inii;ht mem fitted to rescue them from 
it. tt is. therefore, quite (.tjiisiiitetit witli the powerful nha- 
nicMrofPaui to '«lieve that, in the maityrdocu of Stephen, 
he saw only the power of the ovil spirit ovit the mind of ona 
nXui lud iiceu Ki>Ju(«d irum the [)ure fuith uf Lis &thei^.; and 
lh«t hcuoc lie felt a strauger impulse to counterwotk the pro- 
]i(t^fiiiii of a. iloutriDö which uould involve in siiuh mi» men 
tliBi.iiij-uiiiliL>il by llieir di»]>o«Jtioii und their latL'ot^. Boüdos, 
if only thu imprutuoD wliich a, stortn with its att«:udmit uir- 
cuiu!(taiic«B made upon him, wna the fant that f-:Tmod thg 
groundwork of thut vision of Christ, it noiüd ill ajree with 
this, that Pttul'ü follo;«e» hoUcvud thnt they pi-rvei^'t^d eome- 
tliing aimikr to what- liefcU him ; for this iü utily otltuissihl«, 
if wu tiup]io«u tlifiu to \te,ve hoeu like-minded tritb Puul, 
which could not be uiJistj they were ali-cady Ciiristimis, or on 
thti n^y to CliristrsLiiity. But siiuh perwns would hardly 
Sttjbcli themsolvu« to a, periieuiitor of 0iiri8l.iHU& ' 

Su'^h ilttcmpts nt explaining tho narrative are Buspiuioiis, 
boi;a>i:<e iinusuul natunl appeumuei« are made um; of to briii^' 

■ Tb« vuriulion» in Ibo onrraLiTe oS tbc«s evvnle cciuulocil in Aci* 
ix. nil. auJ xxv'i. peoTc iioUimtr n^alnet llio runlity <i( itiu ract, audi 
iinimpi'rUiit iliircrviiM« iuiL;hL enMiy aHh! in thu repetiüon ot ihn n»r- 
nitiTC of an eveiii, »y rcumv^d Irom ilio circle ot urilinary OfL-iu- 
nnoea; »nd Ihene tliffcri'iicc» jiMii not be ullribiiled u» all.crai.iiirii in 
III« OAmtiTo hy Paul Imnailf. I)\il. miiy bo oiippoa^il to □ri^'itiat« iii llie 
iii«aiT«Stn«M of otiwm in repeating it. As 1i>r the ri??t. If »e lUAumo 
llwt hi« ikttciiiiuiiU miiilicpil nnly II i^t^uanil iiiipr<i-aioa of ihu {>I><ini^ 
IJii-IMO. nat lo 'li.hiiite an P^iul'«. lor t;\iaia U was aumly inlendei) : ihlt 
l' ry MW a ii^ht, Imt no iiiu^'ive «hujio nr UgarL'; thuf. limy hiintil a 
vuoe^ irlttiont. 'li>iliui-iii>hiLi>- ...r DiiiliTHUn-iins tho wonU. — il is rur' 
IS perooivo, tliat vartnus reprcaviiTAtiuoJi would DuliiTu.lly- Iw glrcu of 
ilia eiTok A< l.Lis filheiiuiuuiKin. fniin ju very Duture. punnot b« 
jirdgod or iccQliIing to tlie law« of anllniiry eiutlitj- ciimuiuiiiuationK und 
|ierMp1i<>ii>> ilie diffitiüoi'« iu tlio pcn.-eplluTis uf Paul aud bin allundiitita 
■nnw* nothing auninat iM objective reality. W« are I'>o ignorant of 
"Clio !■«■* wbidi renulaic ih« cuinuiuuiMtloiu IieXwuuii a. bi§;hijr "plriiiial 
worl'l tail iDuti living in a, MOfld ol thu soQ^ea, la detertuiDi,' anythin); 
fnc^ely iJD tliotio pouu. 

spREAO or cmiiim^sprT 

(iovF-n n hut is ostrnoi-dioniT' iutu the cU-clc of common • 
InHtotid. lln'forijre, nr tglliiwiiig lliis ttxplüiintkiii, which 
ntteiided with ^-at difficult iuB — we ini({iiC rulhi;r ounccirn th 
nrbolc. iD<]<rpuiiilciitly of all outwanl pbcnumviui, us au iowfi 
CmiiHiitition in Pitul'ü Diind, a, £[iintiittl mvdntion of Cbrial ' 
his higher «cIT'CcniHcioiuineHa ; itmi, in this lii;ht, wo mnj nc 
tht- ex|>eri<^rii:i.'H v*hii:h he liuil in Us ooujlicta witb tiimn 
while D, Pharisee, and the impreewon of the diflcotinw uid 
inurtynlriin at Stcjihon. nn forming a. pregionitioD b_T which 
liis liear*. wa« rendi^red capahi-e of receiving Cht;!« iutcfnol 
ruvtflatious of the Rcdiwmor. Thu divine ori;^in and ihs 
reality af tho (not will not be iu the slightest dugro« affoded 
by this eitplanai.iou ; for tbQii|;h wq may ooDceivo cpf outvwd 
KHjxmuitiiiul appearance« — still there would bo iiothiug more 
thfui the meaus by whith Paul would lie [weimped for Üui 
iiitcninl rcvcln,tioti of (.'liriRt, which formed the bnsia of 
apo«tle«lii[i. The jiei'cspttonsof the fieUR^ onnot havtt gr 
rwrtaiiity and I'eidity tliftii the fiict« of n higher §e!f-<»iiscäoui 
iiefH. whoreby a tana raoeivi« rövelntioiis of aa ordt-r of Ibin 
ill which his true life lius it» root, for above the »casible wiirli 
w'lich he oKpericiiecs unA Approh&nd« ^intiiftily. Aud 
thiü wiis Uli iwlf-illuBiijii, oajjiible of biting: psvoUoIugiivilh- ei- 
plained,' that oitraordiuitry chiingo would tortify whiii wm 

' Dr. StrnuB» «yn, in hi« " UjIjbh Jb»u," vol, ii. pL 6M. " X«ind 
tDMvlf venlurm li> maintain an Inumal operation of CliiUl tti I 
mind «f Titu], aud only aildx tli« «apjjositiuo of au i^uiwnnl upjicanco 
im If It were > fftTuur (or !ii> rtuilers lo fruM it ; anJ tren lIii; iiilenwl 
ojrcratiun he miikoii nuperfluraiii, bj piirttL-ulnnfiiii; viiriuun iuflacai». 
which Id a nntiiral way miglu, bring nlmiir, luith n lirvoliilioH in such u 
iiuliviiiuai'i miiid." Bat u^ tu wlml tuiiüeruB Lliü lutter, Ihe uonduittn 
frarn ft pnmlbiliLy under ccrtiiin pn!£uppoii4iil I'ir^'iiniElatii'-ciJ, toUiatnhitli 
ftctmllf lank pliico, in th« nl'Seoee «f »ny hiitorieal prool' of \U tftkinj 
yhu:v, Mt liv nil mcuiit ju^tiSnUIc, unleM ft poroAn nrjpic* an a» sataniT 
tlon «iiiuh I do not ailmit, nuin^ilr, thul every tliine tuust proccei 
Hi'iu>rilli>g i.a tlio laws oF naturitii pi^clialogli:»! develop meat, and lltat «J 
■ijpornittuml apüra.UDn miitiob takq plunl. ßut iici;Dnliu|[ lo a tttoAatl 
vii'xini; r.hl» >ul>jcül., whioh is M differcnt fram tbo Cftrioainro nf i-vfHt- 
naturntUiu. druwii by Dr. Hlniv» ttnd ottiura, (1«t my ntxUn comfttn 
the woril» of truth in Twosipn's Prefnos W tho «oeond roluma of bii 
" I>n;,,'l us frnin the view* of Ilr. StnuM hinuiolf «n iha roUtiflD 
of <i-A U) tilt world— n fuppmatiji'Eil opF^niion by no motni excludn 
a t>ru)jucutiuii 111 ibD ualuriU d>:votL>piiiont ol' man, nor dots iIm Ulirr 
tiuikc tho furmcr «upcrilauu^ With ruepuci tu ihe olh«r pttint the <mir 
vsnl apiicniiinoi) of Ohrieti I do not iudtcd hold itii« u tteakt«!/ 



tba result in Vaxil of iliis iniflmal trantnction — Ihia tbe «hot* 
CDune of liü a)Kisl>i|ic {niiiutiy t«<tifie», which msy he tnoed 
to hU inward exi>«rienc«, as die e&eet to its caiuw. Bat j-at 
the tnnnnor in vhidi Kmstteudiuits wcreailcctw) bj wlint hiip- 
pened on iliia occaäou contradict« the suppuHition of n, merely 
internal transaction, evea i( we could resolve -nn ascnbing tli« 
Mat« in wUieU Pnttl nuns to Dnnuisoiu U> the power of un 
iutemal imprcssiou.' 

It «ill Iki of grcftt sMTicc to compare with Uie nnrmtiTO in 
the Act» the eijirea-riinia iiaed li^ Piiul in his Ejiifrtlu« in 
refcicitcc to this event, bo importunt to him as the coinmouoc- 

Imcut of a n«w era in his life. .Lf ]m oflen refers to it in 
(^position to hia Jewish aiiversaries, who were unwilling to 
Bukuowlolge him as au apostl« ; su lie hud a conQdcut ptT- 
niaaoD that thd npostolio commiadou w«s given him hr 
Cbmt ia the sunc mannor as to the other apostles ; this 1« 
expressed imwl ftilly and »trtniglr in Gal. i. 1. Yet liere wc 
iie«d not Buppoae an outwajrd event to be laennt htu mnv 
rather undcrstiLtid it of nu internal tiiiniuuTtiou HUch lui wu 
!iave däflcrihed. In the aiitevutb vcne, Paul tvtdi^iitly sjH'^itta 
rf an iotenml eommiinimtion of Chriet. of un iiiwiird rovs- 
latJonof him tohieself-coiiaeiDUSiieas,' wherehy, imlepcndciitly 
reilllisiu Tor eipldnin^ ihe ^cnt revolution in I.Ue ipirilual II fc at fan), 
ttit ihe clriMouuinei-iiiteutidiieJ in ük k<it, i^umgiareil with llio eifjTv*- 
nooaof Paul biiniulf. canpel tne to itilRiiL it< t^alitf, and I re<'nsni'A 
iKe imporuoee of ii f^r nai. in nrl^r thit. lik« tlio dlti«r bpoitli^ bu 
taiKlil lie aiiie to toitify of Cliristaa rikcn frc>ni [.he ilenii, 

i' The nolian, ibai the vitioii wliidi Juitni.'ilmtL-l}t |ircc(!>:lci! PniilV 
coavnmUn l> ihn an« dctfrlhol b; hiu)>'!lf In 2 Cor. xii. 3, whißli tii 
BMUn tiiiiM Las beau niTii-(<il hy «ovuml ■lir^tici^ theoliigintiis 
kis «Tcrj Ihlnft Bttnliut it: In the Inttcr, ['»ill ile>cribe« hiK^lcvntlon in 
tpiril M a higbcr n-giou of th« npiritual warM^ hi llio linimi »hicli 
■KcadODcd bit cüiiTcr-ioii. th-:ie wiw u tcvcWiua "f Chi'if t comiTiic down 
lo bbn nliile cuiuciuuel.r Uviai; uji ;liu vliiiL. Tba iniiucilifiti: iiniimik 
•iOB rf IheSret wii* ■li.i)rc--*siQg nml humUiuüng; the seciiTiii wa» cou* 
bKtcd with lu eil.raoniinar)- uieutal elL-vatiua. a Uiinloucj to priii« uid 
Tain-ßloiy. With the lint lii<(ClimMa:i<:oiiJK'ir>U)-ncuibci.-iin: the ■eronil 
BiarkiNi oue of tho laoal eialluil mouiuUM gl' lii» iiiwitd lifu, afk-r Ik' liHd 
bag lived in t^onutiujiian with L'liiiät : ami by such a {onitanln of 
b«*r«nlr exiitcauc, he wse ivfreslioil uiidiT hia maniloli) <^oitllict«, snd 
«aitnatod to renew bit «nrltjiy l.ibour^ Thu ditte at Icnn^vn yaim 
iucnllaa«d facrc ii of no clirunaiogioil ow, fuvthrr Iban l<j eiitlxli' lu, 
ib*i tti« lint« of Paul'« cciiii'tiHiaii uiuet he Salto, ncoordiag to which ha 
inuat tuTc writtcD thin cxnuii.v fnuii-eun jeim Inter. 

> II in iDutl natuntl to uailvr^tuad the phruEc Ivlitti aa dcDoilag 
WBictlüDg inictniil. 


ei-kEAD or cpRitm&xiTT 

or all liiiman instniction. be vaa qualified to praulij 
I!ut MiiiMrtliii^ in iulcliti<in to tlüa ia iDtcodcd where 
I Cor. ix. 1, appeals to hk iMiviog Beea Clirict ns a 
111» aptMtl<«l)ip.' Btit this might refer to ui L-u»t»üc 
tüiiiiW tu vtliat Puul hiinw.4f dcMraibe« in 2 Cot. xü. S. 
titc rnntnuy, socDclhiii;; diSemit from tbi« must hv iat 
in Um Idtli clHi|>tcr uf ]»t CoriiiUiiatis, where he jitaces ÜM 
ftppeannce of C'iuiat to hiiuaelf on «n eqoalitv vith all 
otticr iip]icftiuncci( of tijo ri*cn Savicnar. And thiit docliirulia 

> It mnHt lie CTldentto «««17 nupnjuJkod p«nDn. tliai Utiti 
rcrtT to I'ftul'ii liAvint: aun Inn» durins hi" <ftrthlT life, (thoucb • . 
iil>le ocFurreTice.) Tor (I vanld liarc oddeil iiotUtauc to bii kfoaiolle 
niithdniy : nur jot In tbo num knowlaag« or' ib« äoclrin« of CbiiM. 
Kiii'kcrt, in lii> Cum. en ibi» |«Ma«i, lusiuiaiiu thtilt KTunntberto 
out »rtho ApfurnncM ot Olirul, wbicb war« gnntod to hha in t aua 
ortiMt&ticriiiatL, AcUictüi. i, xxii. IT. ibtm to thai which mca^odmI 
bia eoDvtnioD, Oipoi^iiiUy «inua an npiivnmica of Chiiat of tlili \iai it 
not monlionod dtUcr in \ntii. xiiL xxri. nor in G&l. i. I'i— SU. 0« 
tbo Olh«r hand, tho fulliivInK cuu-Mcralloiia dcioivu aitentlon. Sim 
t* SUakot hioiiwlf ackuowloi! «;?•<, ih< rvuiline in [hut pim^ ii Ui 
profiTrrcil, tii which thu wiiril>>, " Aiix I not an upuUtc)" arutiiimtilial 
foliomMi hj," Ilavo I nol »cpB Clirirt !" «-« mn)' ititer thm L'ltul Bdila< 
hit Ihtti'ig leuiJ Clirint DA k <:i.->iinMnutiuu vf l<i> )i)N>rlliMlit|> '. ■* atic^ 
TFnrdH, for III« wmc puqioK, h« iiddDeci tbc «ucciw of bu ctTaita ia 
fciiiidlni,- lIic Curiniiliiuiicliuiek Williuui urgvd ibis kgaimi 
hth JihIaIzIok opponent», who dispnUiiI hi* roll to tho npimlli'ohip du ibe 
ground. Ihm ne bad not been %|>pui»tc<l lij Chilm lHi]iH:lt iikt- itit ofhcr 
apoiUiH, In ililft oonnczlon ii i< mahi nmunl tu cx|mi(t|. that 1^01 
would »pouh of thm upp«atiiLee tif Chriu wbi«h tnnr):«) ibe « oimnHira- 
lupiit 111 hJB npoftolic taivitr, that real npiicarimec nf Climi wliieb ' 
pIiüm» witli Hie other uppcurnnoci of Ih* ri«n Swiour, 1 Cor sr. 8, ■ 
nut a inura virion. Rlloikoit indvud maintains, thai Pitul made im 
titicUua liolWGQti tto tno kiniU of ap|<patBn(>aE. fur " uiIxtwim- bo wniil 
hnvv iitltihutuil iicivnliici U vt^ii.iui, iu mcro Jl^icnlf of llic lai.i^inaliu 
Bui ihii i>otio1uBiaD it not curracl ; Fur wi' iiinv RupjH»«^ Himithtn): 
twQcn ■ roiil oliJiiRlivs ajipcarUiiicu, nni) a naliimi i^reuUonof Ihc iiaazi 
lion f«rni«d in thuuiuul [lejicliulugiiuil miiiiniT.~>iui^)i «n ii|i«Ta(iiin ul 
Divine ätilrli on th« higher rcir-VL/iivcioutne^E., in «irtu« of irUcb 
i» inwanli/ apprubendeu preactiin iuelC tu tbo pcnoa bo iafllf 
uudoT u Hi:nsibloliiinRC. whcrcliji' thciina^nAÜnnlainmod intnanDL 
for whui. i« inwardly appruhtiiüud hv ilie opentiion of Lhe Di'inc Siiifi' 
Thai iuelia communit-allon of ilie VtWiw Spirit niay I» diatinini: 
oath fratn n real appciirunce tu iliu trnifet. mid from a mere mull ef 
I mahnst ion. Is e^iifenitYom mam pruRagcaof Holy Writ.(u)fnroxi 
Putcr'i vitiou. Aou K. IS. The pDHutgd Oal. i. 16, doMaoteidBde 
Bppoiinint'p of C'liripil, Iml. il *»» loruigii to l.iifl apostle'ii nhJMt Id*I 
it. Ulli tliu Mard mti'a not )i.i}Ur, Aots ix. T. «L-rtainly impll««, 
Paul, ill (li«Uiii.'<iuu früiu bi? alten dan ts, liad «mia a p^rton. 




PauI h»g iii]ilitü>ii!tl wcigtit, ))Rniiuic, a» in >ppi\r«ut from 
iüit i»t«\iyA Itcfore qiuHcd in tlie Seooni Einetlo to tbo 
Coritiihiuns, hu cvukJ eu arcunitdy dstinguiMli un cuMniie 
■tnt4t fruai m tüAle of onliuitn- wtiroouMiouBDeea. Henoj we 
Aim see bow importoat it iru Iot bim. na «vU an the otlwir 
■poeUot, tu \te enahlod to textif}'^ on th« eridence oftlioir ovm 
«enaes, of ttiat groat fnct, llio fciiniiation of Christian häth 
4nd Cbhstuui hope— tbe naU ix'aurreotiwn of Christ aud his 
idori&ed personal existence. 

Lastly, we by no meann mipprixc it maijical iaBtifinot' mi 

Paul, by irhicb lie «ou carriiKl mi'uv, and convcetod agninel 

bis wilL Aoconlin<; to tli« view we liiiw lakea of this event, 

W0 nippiMe on intvroul pdnt of i.<uiuieii(>ii. wttbout whicL, uo 

outvüd rovclation or appeiiraiiac could have liecomc lui 

iuvunj one ; wilJioiit wliicli. auy outward impression tlmt 

muM have been miule, however poiverful, would have been 

trannont in its rvsiilta, Btit in his eaga. the love fur tliv 

^nlnu and the good diaceraihle even through his orroT^ thuu^h 

^pKipreeaed by the power of hie pnssions iui<l jinjudipcs, wn» to 

^^be ist free from iu tlimldüm only by ii iiiijrbly inapixiwiou. 

Yet no cxtercii! tntncic wbatever could have couvortcd n 

Oaiaphos into a preacher of tho ^riispel. 

It inigliL \m! eapectoii, that V»n\ <ioidd not at ouoe, after 

mich an impression, enter on a new course of action. Every 

thing which hitherto had i»»n tbo motif« und aim of bin 

eooiluut, uow »jeiiieJ as uothiug. Sorrow must luLve been 

ü the predomiaaiit fttliug of hia crushoil spirit, He could not 

H;iiK«tAntAncoiiUy recavcr (torn so oTCrwhelming au impn'-^ion, 

^ftwliioh gnve a new direction to bin whole being. He wna 

^■redooea to a »iJile of iiiL-iitfl,l aud bodiiy waikness, froni which 

VliB «ooid not raBtore himsolE Ho passed three days without 

■ food. TliU WHS for him tbe poitil uf trunsitiou from denth to 

' a new life ; and nothiug cau bo vividly exprass \m feelings at 

this ftwftd erieia, as tho ficlamation which ho him«elf, rtvert^ 

ing to his eitrlier Btatt-, put« in the li[»i uf the wan wbu. with 

the ducpcjst coiisoioiian«äs of inward uluvery under tlio violated 

Uw, and «ilb caniost aspiralionH ufter freedom, pount forth 

bia whole beut in the wordg, ■' wrotcbod mnn tlmt I am 1 

who nliaU deliver me!" — Nor h it at jül probable that, in tlds 

state, he wouM seek for social inU-'reuui-so- Nothing cMuld 

Iws ugno with bia f<»]iu^ tliuii itiluroouT^e nitb the Jewx; 


sfRBAD OK cnttitm:itfiTr 

ihir voiiM h^. eata\y prevail on himself to Melt oti( tli« CI: 
ttaiis, whom lie had hitherto per««cuteil. Tu a num id [hi 
Htut« uf luiutl. nothin)^ cuuM be so wdeora« an »olitu'i 
ÜCDCO it is by ao tucuna probuble, that inforaiativn of 
gmat chAtigo that liiui paKMKl ii|>oii bim would be tvmve^v 
by otiier pumoiis to AnAnias. It i* worthy of notice, that, 
urilcr to utluiu u full uotiHuioiisiivi« uf bis new lifci and t 
inake the tniiifiitioD from this intermeiliaiesbH« of OJUtriti 
to s iit'W lifu of nctlve ej;ertiim iu ociiinmoioii with Ohrist, 
WiW bi'ouijiit into connoiion with tJio osisling Cltrisiia, 
thiir«^li, by Üw iiwlnimeiitality of one of it« iiH-uilNira. Id 
iv'Uimuuioa »"ith other helievem. he first ab(iüii(.'d what 
Uüul<i not fiiiil in bis sulitude. Whi-ii lit: prayed to ChrJ! 
wlio hud uppciLTcd to liinL thitt he irould help him id hi 
distrcm, tliat lie would enlighten both his bodily mid taemi 
eyes j it was promised to hiin in a TiaJon, thai it well-ki 
cnlii^h tilled mun, beloitging to the clivircb at Uamascua, 
wlioin ho probahly knew by nam« and sight, aboiiUi bo Üic 
iustniracnt of bis spiritutJ a.n<l bodilj- restoration. When 
Anftiiiiiw, iu ol iMdifiu'c to a diraiy «ill, vinituil liini, Paul 
niBcd the person to wliftm the vision had n-ferted him. 
hence felt tlif fulltat assuranop, tli;»t in conirannion with liim 
■hti should lie nuuib ['r of a new «nd higiier priu4:iplu 
of life. Aoauina introdwced Paul to the other Cbmtiaiis in 
tlie city ; nfter be liod be(;n Htreiigt.bcuecl liy sjiendlng mvenl 
days ID their aooioty, he felt iiiniwelf iinimlled to eiil<T 
iiyiiagoguoH, mid tB^tily in behulf of thnt mum, which here 
foi-a he had ilercely peraeouted,' VVhtrther lie ooniütli^ral 
buet, uAcr buLting ttm first tostitnoay among the Jeni^ 

• It 1b (liftioult to consider V^P« '"''" 'i Act» ii. 10, Ami 

!j[ai'a?i la ito aSil »crsB. aa .>qiiivftlcnt ivtmt. Yt>t it cannot lie pniv 
frum thvue word-i, ttial Luku by tho latter meant to miike n. bi^tfc i 
Paul's Tettidaai-'e :it DjiinuH'ui. oruuioiivil fij' n Jininmj' into Arabia, I 
llie «uCDSasiun n( ewaln u- nurmted to tlio Atls Icadi ia iMiwIdM I 
A« most nuLural. Tha ^(.^ai -rmit cntrcly ciprtUMM tho Tow < 
y^A, jus', ttdei liix liH[iti>Dii, apeut in l.lie lt>llo«->1iiji of tho Chr 
DiLnimcaG. Thi; fulliiwing pliRtxe, xal itiflÄu i, (nlliaalas, that 
Afuly iit'lOT he h^iil Htiuint BnmtiduvH with tbi^ iliKrJiilpK ht cntcT^d In' 
■jimgogUM ; and ibu ti/iipti («hi'bI denote lie wholo period i>t 
Btity M Diim'.imtif, \Vlvfiln tliie whulu periud uf -Am«'»''» Ikm-oX. nf vhiJ 
niMhing inoiv i* tuUI In tUu Ai^h, h-r rini^t. pfwio Ptinl'i joumo.t' latl 
AnkMa. of nhluli ire «hflulil not have kniiwnbut (or thu lueiiii^D of-.ii«^ 
tliu Epistle U) (lie UalHtijiuii. 

iVi I 




bU<>w its inilireaüon to work aileatly on tteir mmil^ without 
jicTTiciitnllj' atuiinpCin^ tc enfovct) it ; or wtettier tlie plot« of 
tlte Jews iiiduceo him to quit the pluco. vo aie not cmlaia ;' 
be tbU as it may, he rinittüt tho nuighbiiuriiiE: pnrt^ «f Anibin, 
•rliorc hu found opportuniliee fur piibliabiug tbi; gospel otnonii; 
tlte Jews, *'liu »■i;rL- spreiid over the counlrv. IIb then 
retoned aj;,iüu to DimiiwtnN. Whctlicr tliu J(!w», whoso 
tuigor hti hful already cicitcrl by hi a form or preaching 
R9 soon as thiy heurcl ol' liia L-i.uiiing, nidenvniired to 
Kiy hol<J of n peiWMi \rho was ko vnjuiL'iä ol injuring JiidaiMii; 
or whi'thür they were exas]?onitci| hy iiii>! renewed a(l<ires=ps ia 
their syiingoguas he was nblif^Lil If cmixult hin siifi-ty fey 
^£il^ht, as his life was threatt-iiud Ly Ih-^ir (iiacliiiiatioiia. — So 
r wiiA tbii man, wito Khuiiiiuil no ditiigor in Lis siibscquoiit 
er, though mm in the first (flow of coaveraiuu, a sciwon 
itbft mind is gea«rally must prcne to extraragauce — so 
3in iiMluIgin|( iu tliiit cMthiisiustic ardoiir which 
OÄTes for iiiarlyrdom ! ' He was let down hy hi« 
(ricnilt ill a LiiHlcct, ihmugh tho window of a house, htult 

' Sclifarlcr. in hin Chrimnlpjfical Itamarkii on llio Lifo of Paul, hmt 
liUlf nutlni&ioud Llmt, l.liu wurdu of Vm\ tii G»l, i. lA, muBt he ttaui 
plainod hf monnä of ilia aotüliMU : he hud ni>t been inetrui^Ud hy 
lai for bin npoitohi.' mllin^. Imt Imi! rotimii Ln lhi> iiüiglilioviriogilistrii^ 
i Aniliin, lu onlt'F to pn^pnre liiuiiclF iii an ind impendent iiin,n,nei'. and 
u MiTitndc. UnL biiit lia miaiiit tr> tiHV lliik, lio »oiild sunriicty hnve 
'tiu>Tca iliu Kt^ueral ilt^iijfiinliuii 'Apn0la. ))ut mtlier huvn »uliaiidiitcil Tor 
H f^iJ,or 'Apvßiatj or ASmp3y tp^f^of, l»^ ivUicli liu woutf) tiiLTO mark^ 
bun? ilixttni-ily t-hc übjoct uf IhU ür^p^^EoSai. It is psych nlogicivlly most 
oUililR thai l*»»!, afii'.r A»aniu)i li»Jvkitcd liiiii in Ijia «vliUidu, und 
rived bid »pirit, »'quIiI uoi ^.-a ni^a iutO' rttii'viuGnli, Imt ntlicr would 
lIh camukuiilou at ulli>:r buliuvurs, and, ntl,-:! be-. Iind licon cdiQed 
MtiRiiglhtnRd liy them, would fc(^1 himsolf inipi?!l«d IViftliwIth t» 
bk Iwtlmoriji before tlioso ulio Ueld liisfurmerfiiiiti, This view is 
\)*i} fitron^ly üonÄniicd by the pimsa^ in tlm }'!>iiil1e to the (ialiLtiani. 
> Ihe L'onn^L-led leane i>eame to lie as fallows : .\a saon lU God rovpsM 
Sob to m*, thftl I iniRhtimblish bim fluumgt.beQeiitiU«, I publlsbed 
goapcl in »a iildi-pr^ndoiit ininnpr. apeortljng M ÜiU raiitliilioii. 
1 c>xpT«M«a Ü>!« MinLlniiiiit lioLli iu it iinniLive and Di-sative forio. 
Bol inlrattcd fur my oailiug, by any hmn«n authority wbnlovcr, 
IHin« of tho »jioillo» itt Jt-'nuülciu, liul iniiiiBiJiiitply tnireiled into 
iblk, there to protlniiii tbe go^pal. Compare Auger's profoun'l und 
It« inquiTy, "IId Tumporum in Act.!« AjuiRLoIoriiio Riiliaiic," Lip^i«^ 

■ E ^*- 
' "Til-: itior^fLiiK in inl1niiitlc9,"{ainuii^ wlikli he rccitoiistUis Sight,) 

rut laptfdiii jiau^uoOai, is ono (cnliirc in hiq Gbiiraclct wltlch dlft- 

inguitbed liim fiom eaLliUsiiiBUi 2 Got. xi, 30. 


agatDst ibe wall of t\m city, tliux lie uii^L escape unuotio 
by tbo Jvwn, who were lyia$ ia wut br iäm nt tho ^at 
Aftür tJiree ycnr» had Uuis ex))iKKt from tbo time or hiit < 
Tention,' he resolvod, about tlie year 39,' odüs more to ret 
to Jcriuult^m, tlut litt inigtit bccomo pcnvuoUy ncqi 

' Tliroc rann after bU convcraian, utcaalf, on Ihe snppoaltioa Ihu tite 
(rTrniniii n ipin iIik jcjint are reckon«! in ttio puusi: of it"* BpwUc W 
llie Oulntluns. In tlie liule of liis coBveniun. 

< Tbii elreumiiUuicts in Puiil's lif« fiirnielii]« ono of Uie fbw (hrano- 
loeii^Bl marks Cor tu hlntory. VTVn hiul fled (nm Uamwcua Ihiw 
yiuLn tifldr hia conTorBion. Ihnt, ejt; tra* unIl•^r the sommmcnt of Kinf 
Aru'at of Arabh P«lru.-B. '2 Car. ij. S2. But cmoo Duuuk'u» belonfM 
tn a Itomna Province. AriiUui niui-l ithvn lioca In imtiiculoli of tliii ciH 
iiiiilor vtiry jii^-tiUur uiirTiinnlanoHH, SUiuikiiKl in bis tauty in Beii|:«l« 
ArrJiiB. I. 'i, p. Sl-t j Wurui in hii euny on the ChroDolog^ oi Päal'* 
lifu, ill thy riiif'iiijrr ZnlMltrift fur T/ko^oj/iV, 16S3, lut ^rt,li.!tT; 
nnil Augor, p. Iitl. agrea Id tliinlclni;, Ibnl w« are noci|Ultc jnitiMd in 
it^liiiiti.hiu tl>tLT< Arc'ufl wufl nt (liitt l.iuiv ill pueoeMiou of DuUMiraRi u it 
i> a caiLcfusioii noniE>c favuurcd by otiier tiiitlarlcii] BOCOUnU \ tot If Ihi- 
iiiikwruH ita« llien ujiiIlt lUu Kuuiäii ^vutiiinoiit, bbe BthQMiÄ of Arelu 
tni^ht bave t-eiiturcd 1ji ptm'i; n vnu-h hcintB tlie gfttc* of the <d^< or, 
tliruugb liiM iufSuoicu Willi the f^iiziiiii iiuLliurille*, bave obtained penal» 
linn far tbe Jowb to do this. Yol. It is iliffieiilt tn lielieira, Ulit if 
DitriuucuH liHluiijrud lo u Bouian provlniji!. t.lit> Amtiiun Ethnareli wuuld 
»eniuw to aiirruiind Iho city witii s. wiitrh, in nrdpr lo e*"' tho RenUB 
eiiiien iiiM ilia p^pwer; or tlml the Roman lullidrilies WonUl «llowOf 
h in iloin^ wi, or nl litK riüiu^l expose; n ßivuiuji {:Uiu'n tit llio *T%Ui of 
liic Jews. AlcKougli the luBtaiy. in »Iiloli ikere are bsidce to SMf 
UrtMika. ions not infuriu «» (•( auch an uouitjiiini^ at Da.inii»«iu. ;at lb« 
r-utiBidctntian of this poistgn favaiir: this KUp[]ofliticm. No« tbe drtum- 
ataiicc« \iy wliich AralAa migttt have gitinnd pii«c>«ion of tlic cUy hc» 
probubl^ these. The Elmpuror Tibuiini, as th« &Ilj' of King Uend 
Agrlppa, wl]!)«« iirui^ hud lictn det'eulad Uy Aietna, camlaaaAti VluJ. 
liuB, the gavernor of ^riiu, lo tsvi pwNmOD vt him vilbcr <k*il or bli<4- 
Bill wliilo ViU'liliiH niia prepnring to cxoruto Iho« onln^ ud vanaoi 
circutnituiii^^ii dduying bin eiitmai,' »ti the oiuiiiiiirii. new« anivHloJ 
iho Eiiippiot"* dealh, wliicii look pliice in Mfuvn ol iho je»r 37. »ad 
Vjuilliua wax Ihu« aioppL-d in his uiiliutry luavemonU. Arvu« oiiiilit 
take udviLnto^' nf this Intiirval to gain pnnuiaiion nf the city. Bui >« 
mmt ii>:it ^nppn^ that Ihcuity thut snnt-^hcd irnia lii« ItamiiDi remtiiud 
lon^ ill 111» hiitifJ», »nd it is prutiitblo tiut, l^^ in Llio tciiiiind yoar of tli« 
irign of the Eniperur UulijirulD. A.n. SS-S0, the nffiün of Amiiia wen 
nettled, Dunssi.-iix aliu wia nut left unnotlocil. If wd pitc* tlio Binlituf 
Paul from Damucun in S9, tliea kit «ontvniaa muiiL liAVo bean In .u^ 
as, oijim it must have ocaurrod three ytan Iwfarcb and wa »Im tx <)>* 
Kamo data for ^tcph(<n'B mu,n.ynl(>ui. From Ihe abaanc« of chronolc^aJ 
liirurtiiH.tii>u rc«|>cclln^ the cv<:ntä ol Üiot. tlnirut, hu cunn-it lix wllli nt" 
tainty tbc dfttc of I'nul's uoarcrE.ioD ; y<}\. tb« couipulution vbich pU(« 
U ia A.t>. 30 luw ibis In iu bvour, UÜii It lUloir» oolttwi too loti; lef 



'»ith Pofer, ns tiit iiKUrldgi] wUii st that time niajntainud 
thit b^^lmt TU]>ututic)u in Uia uew cliuruh, aiid exerciAcd tlic 
eraoteBt iofloenoe iD all ita «WKNnrtu. But n« bc wiu knowti 
üt Jeriualecn ouly ns the iieiiwoutor, ovciry one avoided him, 
till Banialias. a cUstiuguialicd t^aulitr of tlie church, vlin, lu a 
UcUcDiat, tVIt Id» K stranger to liii», a,ad might furiucrly have 
httii s»iue eonneiioD with hira, introduced him to the rest. 
His HeIl«Dietic ori^a oocaEioncd hia holding vaaay coiirrrw- 
ti<.>titt fuad ilittputtttiQiiB on Judaiiuu nud tlii.- ChriatiaQ doctriue 
with the Hellenistio Jews. 

It m*y lie .ifWl, whether Piuil tcKik the same grouiici in 

)ii6 cotitravendes with Lis couutryuiou at this early peiitxl. ua 

iu UittT liin« ; and this is (;f>niiccto() with the nmilo of tlit> lie- 

^vidopiiiciit of his Chridliim couviuliuus iimi duutriuiU vicnn. 

pVheii ho first camo lo iho knowledge (»f the gtepcl, did lie 

rvooiTTiiw fit t.lio suiio time ils iadeiBjudL'ni:« of the Mii^jiiu 

liiw ? To do tliia, luaat have hocii must ihfliuult fur liut whu 

|i]ail i-a liiU'Iy renounced the principles of Pharisaism : fur w« 

|gKD«r»lly ftud that others of ttiis sect who einhmced Cliris«!- 

ianity, attempted to coniliine their former t«ueU vnth thow 

»f the ^3|iet. Aniiiiioä, the first LnstrucUir of the upKiHtIc, 

ma iinive.rgally revereuced on accouut of his legal piety . 

. Biieli an iiidividiiftl, tiierofore, luuat have been very far fritui 

I vishni^ to eflöut a disruption of Oiristiauity frum the Mcimiio 

' ceraiuoDial law. At the lime of Paul's conyersion, thin v.-.ia 

Ih« tone ofuc-utiment univeraidly prevalent iiinoug Christianü; 

[or. aa wo haxe remarltöd, it w;is only after tin; tuartyrduui uf 

I'lJtephcn. and owlog to the n^^iill» of Üint eveut. that ucw 

I'hglit on thi» Buhjet't ÜMra various qiiartors graduaUj- hroko in 

|u^n Uiom- But vn- ura not juiitificd in iiHsiiuiin;^. that thtt 

|sun6 cttu»«8 ktl Pnnl to the view« hu iidoptoiL Wo ejiniKt 

uttrihutu nmcli c-fficiwy to iiifliiencea frum without, hy tint 

cvounilniciilioii of dnctvines and views, iu the aaae of o nnui 

BO di8tin{,'ut shell ftff his croat iuiie|>eudtut jwcitlkrit)' <il 

I chomctcr. We are compelled to behove^ him, when he t*)stili«e 

[fio iindoulitingly, that he rcueifud the giwpe!. in tlie iiiiuiuei 

■ he WW* wont to piihlisli it, not by human infttruction. but only 

Ibj a oommunicätioQ of the Sphit of Christ. Si>in«! extejitidii, 

naai* m itivt tiiT tl<« »vC'di* wliifth toolc piMd In the Cliräitiaii iihiireli, 
moui (lie iwrtDil oF L'hnil'i Ajteaslon, tu iho m&itjrdoin uf iti.i!)il<iin aiid 
the «oacanlun «t I'luil. 


wnEA» ur aaatTiisnr 

how^Tcr, murt bo made in referenoc to the liietoriail 
eont^iing tha diiciourses anrl i>niocpt>i of Christ ; KiÜi 
he became acqiuunted tliroiiph ibL> r'TfUn^ry chniuiel 
huiTiiiu tntditioa, untl wo find liiin iici^onliti^lj a^ijioiüiitz ui. 
cortain occosiona to Buoh traditions, or to wurds utt«rw i*f 
the Lnrd.' 

As Paul Ml liiinMilf iximpniled to esaoiiiiG, Utdepeoflitntly 
of utliers, tliG (lepthii of the truth miulu kiioun by ClirisI, ' 
must bnvc thought it li nmttor of u»)H>rUiiioe to obtain 
collection of tho saying of Christ, on which all ftutticr " 
I(^piii(!iit« uf Che liuw ilO'CtriiiL* iiiujft <lep<Mid, and from wlii 
thüy lauat proceed. Wo cauuot Biippose that lie would sxtiei 
hinitwlf with UDglu cxjnx'SiiiunH ousitully ohlaiiiutl from a 
intercourse with the apostles, whom lie met hi soldotn, 
for so short a timo. UMiiiee, lie says expressly in bis Kpist 
tu the Gulaliuiia, that tht.«e [uturviaws «ilh ibe other ;t[><utl' 
n-gr« of no sen-iw towiirds his acquiring a dneper iusii-ht ini 
Glirifrtiaii doctrines. We iirc lud to tho KUjiponitioii, ihiil 
obtained written memoire of tbc life of Chrirt, or «t lesist, 
ivhtlen collectifin uf the s>yiriigB nf Christ, if »«L-h uxistfil i 
thiit he compiled niie bimsulf. Bui it is vury probiihl*? tl 
SHoh at collection, or several such col Ice ti »us, and wrilttQl 
nietiiiiire of Christ's ministry, wem iii «lisdence ; fuf, bowev 
liiglily wii may ealJmate the power of lb« Üviiig word in tliis 
youthful ptritiil of the cbiirth, wc coiinot allow ourwlves t9 ^ 
furgci that W8 ase not speaking of the nge of rhajieutdict!, tiU^I 
i>f one ill which — üHpocially wliftrovcr Orecian oultivMiiou bsd^ 
found its wiiy — historiuul cowjiaiilii-u was much pmRti.iriL 
Might we nut ex|jcct. tht-n, tbnt some niemorials would 
»peudily Kouiuiittfd t«) writina; of whiit iiifivcd their I)c:irl8,i 
occupiod their tbonfjhta bo intensely ; allhuu>,'h a hwii^a' tit 

' 1 Cor. xi. 23. On thin |>av:i|^', Sdiult jnnOy rviiiuTks, ihal Vatii iii 
liirltnol rofiil-^ si^ify ihui. aihai lie "iQcatid't" H'a> not •rnnftUvit-ln ''i 
nio/iofc/y Lro» lliu Liml. Wh:il Iibh txKii mil b.v ('[BltkUrcti u»it Jlcv 
(on ililfi:r«iü. gii.undsi ngiLinsi. tins iiiT,i.ipreijir.ii)n. Iiii* mil. Imlucwt Wt% 
|;lvl> it op. 'I'he (:x|irtM<KiLi Trat^i^aaov äirü tdI> K«eiou in u1>u ly lut me 
uniinpon.nnt, li wui ant »n uiin^h ihn iifJiDlln* (1riii);n to luiul >t 
UUnimr iu whii:li lliis irudiLLuit itbiiic tu liliii. Imt only Ivr irhit 
!t WA« given, !□ rspri^Eiml .1« I'tsrlain tlial. ihU unu ilia t'nriD III w^loli'l 
LofA had inaiitu[<ü (he Jam. Sitnper; heaee i!m> the renctUicin of IM 
tfirm Kil^nai U mil improper. Had I*aiiI bben •ficnkinfof ti »pei-itl i«W 
latinii, by wliivli llil • iiiiarmition w[l> iiiipur(i.'i}, lii- nnmltl idrocly luMt 
tigniticid tl bv ito^^AbAuv, but ntthor liy iir(>a\i^^. 




might (.'Inpw («fore niijr oiic reat^reäfO attempt a delineiiliu» 
of Uie whole life of Chi-ial J' Mauy iiUutiutiK tu «xprcBäona «f 
Christ in th« I'auNiie Hpislles, beHidee Ids direct ciuotatJuiis of 
Climt'» wiirdn, |iniiit to siicU a collection of )iis discourse^ oi 
wbjdi tlie apoiitle av^lei) himself,' and jirobabl; Murciou, wbo 

' KuiMliiiu BurruLe* (v. 10), probublji in ccnwau«« of infbraifttiaii 
deriind from I'.iTitniiiiiii. Ihul tli« n|>iixl.tii B.'Lrt.liolonii::»' hwl uuuiuiuni- 
cited U> the h\t ^-iklWii ItidiaQ» to t^'Uom he piiLli&hc^ t.lii: psftpcl, a Jlc^>ri:vr 
nri);!n!il JociiiuuuL n! Üi'i Kraii^!ii:iLl Uliilury Jr^twii tiji lij- Ahililior, 
■liiuU iii>i-iiuiit WF HIB t^kvinly not jiisliuuil to cull in qufstion. Tui« 
■irl^iiiul di>uiitiienl ma.y iuiloi»! be ibe Humu wLtcb Tuiiius nii l.itUd 
(ButcbEuei. ikt SE^) iTUKrÄ^is TUP»' Xei^luv TdD icuf^oi/^ Atid I Mioutd by uo 
nieiuu *>t>j(:ct, Ur itTadtM-'EuiiiliDi^ tliin loht; a i^oiiccl.ii^u \ii i-Ua dlsvourxi^ of 
(.he Ijucii— rur it ia in iUell'ver; ptubublc iliul, ivvha a[riii(iiluüua voultl 
l>c uirly luudi:. u» u muri? ul' jmiUritila liir [lit: d<:vulii)iuiL'iil: itt' ClinDÜaii 
dorlrinc- if «iiat. be had before &üid of Mnrk'n n-ri l.ini,Ti iliilauLiiiiuit.uc 
(lilC hu lui'uul tiuLli lliu dlsi^iiuiüeh aud acLiuiii ul' Cliriil; for I uiiiuut, 
■rilh ^ithuirki-nliiirgcr, irai'c the dlstiai^l.idD. thi4t Murk lind rampilitl u 
Kpoa of til« iiiaviiwwi and luitioiii uf L'liriHL. Lui Multlii^w only al' liiK 
dueoUMnr. In this ui«n, Ri^inswould bavR laiil tho emphsaiit on ^jvla, 
tod bave Mid -riLi- Ao^iur TuC »iii-{au mWofivi LuL IKiW lb« Clupiimi» 
I'TBato «n LIiC wui'd nifTo^ix, .111 urilurly uulliscliun, nut oicru iit-uliiltHt 
fra^mcnta; {luilrio 'Id edition). To liiU Sd editioii, 1 uimL udd. in 
liiutUU.i»n »f wVtut I lintü lieri' wtSil, uml of nliaf: Dr. Luoke hna ksid 
lirdore ine la llm StaJitn und KririLin, 1033, p. &Ü1. cürtiunlj' tlio 
Finplia'i'i mist« ujiuii tliu wnnl rT^mafi;. us ounlmstcti with «. rliuitiu>ilii\il 
dciiLTljitiuD; U may tic mu^mkid tlmt I'upluii H'lEbi?d to cantrosri lite work 
of M»tlc SI n- rhapBtHiiiral fulluclwii of tliu ui.'iiun» and dUi! of 
C'liri«!, wlih thv vvik vi M^iltbdw ox an nrrnii^ed coHtutioa of ib^ aay- 
Ing* of llic Uird lihriic. Luatly, Uo n»ys ihU imly in a aui^ondäry aeiisu »f 
Marli. Tue «iiiiit pci'iiliiirly apply 10 I'cicr. irom who« Jlsconr«« 
liirk niu«L lidvo liortuwcil tlio niiiteriai« and tho form i>f liis woi-k. Of 
IVWf. hueajB, ltT(,'4i to» xgtlas iwouro rkt BtJoirKaAioi, äA\' tnx finwiia 
tfvvTafii' TvK Ku^iiucüi' iroiaiJ^«vai \e'^'twv. I'ulcr bad eumpu^d tiH 
DiJdKtueiiiMurdiDi; lo Üit, vmiU oFhU lioHmraat thätioi^nnd nnt. <Hili 

i1k< Intitnliiiu of glvliig 1111 uiderly acü^mint of tUu diseuurie» or ^yingu 
oTCIirUl. For iku ruiuwii. Muri:, wlio druw nil liU iiir<.irni^aiuii fiuut 
ÜHM ael<ln>viOli, could cümpilo notlting of t,hiil l;iii<l. Tlie worde ot 
FlipÜK ara therefore Tiith>;r fuvourabls tliun. unüivuiirable t» thi! «upjio- 
•itoon, Qiiit th« orlKlmd Wbrk ut MuCiltew w&« only n eullei:[ioii of tlie 
t^fingt ofCbriir, ni Scbleiuriuot'fier iDtLiriUioud. As tu BucLhiiiuiiiour'e 
tnkiOKDudi u Jucimiaut nltti liiin fur bit? mission, some thing similar 
BUjaarc gcturtvil vitb iiiltur pruacUute of liie piäp<ul, wbtiiliur faul 
i>buiiie*l Lhu Käme doeumcut or luioilier. TUe Juduinln^' tuudiinoy iif 
Ih« document dcnvcd from MntLlien'. albged bj nmny. by [io uicanB 
irevORls mo from nduiiilin^ tin«; it cuDUtins express'lous wlikb. by 
EMonltts Klcuving to the latter, might, tw iniorpr^wd accordinii 1.11 th«& 
tniad ; but in whiuh Paul, wbu peonü.raC'äd deeper lato the aiiirit, would 
inil »n «niirely different idea.— See DtsJ Leben Jmu, fp. S, li(I. liO. 
* Dtu> lebe« JtM. t>p, lfi7. 239. 2J1. «71. 

■miuc 0* L-Bn»nA»iTr 

owned no inspired nutlKinty Iwcidc« PamI, tuid Iiaarr) of mi 
h cuinfiiUtioii of tbi- luvnioin of Cliriiti^ nitulu uae of b; lil 
&vi>uiitä u[KiBtle, iLiid atUMiii>(e<l by liiB ct-itidsins oa Luke 
writing vhich ncrc not nltagitthiT ta liiw mind, ta litul < 
what fie cuQNidc^rcd aa Fuuliiie.' Thus the words of Chri: 
ziwii by tradition, v«ro the foinidntioD fnr tho ^3llltinul 
aQvelujimeut of CliriBiiuu ductriue, to which, indMieii' 
t>f nil otlicr insLnictiuius the illuminutiuu uf tJic nolr Spi 
led The apomliM. Aud we con eoailr malte it »[tfHinuit, thi 
man; of tlio de&p tniths txprasscd t>^ him, for cxam|i|(v ü 
reference to the t«latiuu of Lliu liiw to tlie gt«pe1, uoK 
thetaselvee to hie view, from liinu pre^aiit with meaning;' 
ffvea hy Christ himself." Nor com w form iiny other juog 
Dient ro^pccttng him as a ChriatiaD teoobor, thaa tliat he, 
thii S|iii-it of Christ, uuderwtond the wordti of CliriA mai 
known to htm by ti'ftdiiioa, in all their depth of meuning, 
thus learnt tu develfip the liiüduu fulness uf dirins 
which tliey euutained. 

Certainly for those who ^radaaUj/ pnsscd over to Christiauit] 
&OIU Ftiarisaic Judaism, a uoubiduruble time niiglit 
bufüre tho Hjiirit of ChristiHuity oouhi divest itself of thtf' 

Tlinrisnic form. But it wua otherwise with Paul, in whi^m 
I'liac'LbiaieTu tuid exhibited ttie mväi uuBpiu-io^ uiipusiliou U> 
tlic guBjiel, anil who, without any such gi^tdiiul truisitkui, had 
l^otu seLiud at a cntical uioinunt by the puver of the 
uud from hciug its uost rialent cnctny, hod bccomo its W> 

' "It li ccrtitln ttiit bu (Mnr^inn) nclcnuwlril^rd only Itie Bpistlw 
I'liul. uuil ^ku -jriipiiHt u<LiJip«<l wliidi, hy it iiiir'lakt:, li« i>clL«VM thBt 
biulf«ua(lt|u»uü bj FjiuI. lui tlie^eDulncfniiiucurCliilHliMi baovtcdE^ 
Bui Oa liL* [irocccilcil I'd t.hf (iioil iilt». tlial. llicw.' nuctcnt rccold* ao 
loni^r eximcil in thdr original m\u:, hut liiiil hnvn ii)leiß«<d by Ok 
JofMten «Wf- image oftoa Iiaiinli;d iiiru liLv u K|i(vtrt!. lie biimipiM 
1)V uicaLia of all arliiurj (rnriuiam lo tvilore Uiotn lo thnir one! m) form. 
Hl« aiippor'wl nrigtnnl goipnl niMle um of liy I'liul. wai a nmLiUiltnn «f 
tb^ Ciospel <if Luke. Hit pritU'isn» wiw no ftif fl^<m logteul, that -enrü 
Ihtlif» were iiIIhWcmI lo f*'[»ain, »liicli ooiild oiitj^ \n- l-nmellt iirtui^rrw- 
iiient wLlh Marcion'n Bj^tem bj o forced intcrpreintion unil a vifllniiio 
t>r genuine Hi^imeneuUc*." Ur. N«iiiiJer, In liU AtJgntt'iue Gtiiekidilt 
der Vlirifllirhen H'Ht/lon a/i'l. fCireh-^.vol i. p »03. — jTlu) 

* It will Its Qviilofii tliui I <Ju iK-t uumi -fty, wlitt (Tlinti hinutl' 
piMHsxHi'il H,* (liv (iilriiKH of iiiBiiniiiK; but. «hnt proienlcil imilt m I 
who iDcoiireil it witb X sutrafrllLilc diipiMlLluo, m a COnc nf • 
iplriLuiil i^cuilloii. 

• /Am LutB« y«M, pp- 133, SOS, 481. t^fi, 



oiui confnftuir ; tliut Piiul vlio, as (le dieiicril)E<B Et in th« 
BVeulli cliapicr of the Enistlo to tlic ItumoDs, ndcr tliu «.■iiao 
^Teiy httd bc«ii oicitod to tlic iitmoüt itittnsity in his 
wna nt ouou lnniKpui-led into a state of freedom, by 
eiiuviii^ in üio itodccmer. Tho buuda ol Pliiiriaiiisni wrrc 
liU oiuif ioiwerc'il itiirtiuititicoiiKly ; in his mind oppoaition 
[Again&t PUiU'isftiu JiuiiLisiu. tuök the place tif oppoeitioii 
[_6giuü»t itiu ^'uspt-l, iia lie suys ofliimsclf(l'tiilip. iii. S), tlifitfor 
Christ'ii ünke he hiul suffured the lugs of aII those things which 
bo ones prined, and all tlial onco ajjpcATYid to him %<> apleodid 
he (i(niiiU;d but as duiig," thttt he mi^ht win ('lirim. 
TbuB from the hüginiiiug, by the illuniiimtion of the Spirit 
oloiui, and acoordiiig to the giiiiJanuo of CWist'a wordB, hu 

I iota been t*»uglit, in nil its Crciudoni and dctpth, thu ^uiuB ot 
the gospel iu vclatioa to Judaism, without having his views 
tDodifiou by the iuäiienue of Fettir,' nnd those Clii'iBtiiuis 
or HelleniHlic de&cenL, «bo liail ii]n:rtdy preacbod the gtiäptl 
among the Uentili-ä. It was in c^tisequence of thiK. that 
IViul (since, üku Ins pretiiirsor Stepben, lie more freely deve- 
loped oVAQj^lical U'ltth under this a3|>ect in diaputtitions with 


' That ti. on the lupimilcUm timl. Ihe i-onivHlun of Oornallua bod 
■.trrflilj takiii pluKLSwhivli, Inking' iiilu Ot'euuitt lU i'ijiint>iluri ttltb utik«r 
erenU, b nio*l ptobnblc. The interest »likh the coiiviTiion of Cot- 
notius aail bU family vinUxl al Jvraf^li-m. utiJ tlie miiiiu-'i' •>( Vviot* 
rBacpti<ni llicrc, it wankl noi bs vtay to oxpbin, if limy liiiil nhaadj 
been uiail« uMquAiuloJ witti tli<:i ilfvi^lii vt Clinaliaiilty among lbs 
Qcniilct at Auiiocki, Vu the vtiQimry, U Ix L>; ua meaue appuieni front 
(bemiwioQ ol Burnalios tu AuUocb (ActsxL 22), thai the; had Htiil no 
dccidcit » «cnipli^ ngiiiQ^t thi: rc<:cpuon of believing Cieniile» iolo thL 
GhriiiUaQ churdi. U «ijulil agivu very well with tlie liisposU-iuM thay 
Dinirt'itnl on thivt iieraiion, if iv(i cupiinao thftl, lij' Uiu oxaniple u( 
Com«Uiu tni hi« (o-inUy, uniJ liy tho influence of Pticr, Ibev hmi liocn 
ibiltiood lo gtvi up llioir ibeiit<:il i)|itiiia\tion. But lliey mif^lit >vi«li lo 
c>>a*mco tlt«msolvca hy th« invca;,i^tiaDii of aa apontolic niua, tltit 
«w«iv LliioK was jitfliL iu thiB churth, tunaisüng foi' tlie ninsl pari, 
of Ocntik ChrütiBUii. Ki'cn whm they hail ailiipud mnre Utioril 
rUnn oa Uil» MubJiM.'!, auII tliutxi lui^hl bi< su much of ilieir rnnix^r fiHil- 
I'hig left, tlial ihij toiiM uut jihwe the aniiie confidence lI. picliurnh, 
B>uuilGd annoiig the OealileH at iii uuu iiui.iug the Jdwa. Thnu^'li It !* 

SMsible that t.tiey seul «o ublen tiaivhcr thitbt-r, noi. fi'oin uiiy fveliug of 
Ulruitj but fur U)« »ii>t)li«hi]icnt nad furtUcruDi:« uf tUv work Aliiwil.r 
lic^a ; mid cliuitu u UulltuisL lu boLLcr fltted Iu }iiilili«h thu gatipul 
unoDK people o[ OmRinri [ji;nc<'.nt. Aiiirui'e ri^iuitrks, in hir, tvirik. 
>lrea>ly quulctl, |i. Hi, huvv uccuiiuiiijd uii nltcratiuu iti my furincr 

VOL. I. B 



the HeUentsts) exdted ao Btroogl/ the indipifltioii of H» 
Jftwa. 0» t])u other hiind, the pnMi[>cct openod to biiu of a 
wider tqiliere of action aiiioi);r Itentlieu iiaUorsl As Ite «as 
ouo <lujr m the temple, »nd bv prayer lifting iij> his soul 1o 
the liunl, he wiui borne ulod from earthly ÜiiiijfH. In u viaton 
ho roccivcd tni ORiurauce from the Lord, that though lio »ould 
'be ablci to efl'cct nothing at Jortisalctn. un accniint of th* 
aaimmity' of thu Jcwk, be vun disitiucd 1o ciury tLa ducuins 
«f isulration to other na-taom, even in remote Rgtom; 
AdtK xtii. 31. Accordingly, after staying In Jcnuttlctn not 
move Hum fourtitii days, he wua obligml to leavo it, ihmu^h 
the machiuntiotiB of Üic Jews. He now a-tunicd to hi» 
native place, TarauB, whore W upcnt »evöRil yea», «ertünlf 
not ill iuiictjvity ; for by hbi labaim the goapol WM spreMl 
tiinong both Jews and Ucutik« in Tursua and througbcmt 
Cilicia ; there is gCKxi ri^iuoii for helieving, thnt to him 
tho Goiiiile diuroheit, which iu a sliort time we find in CiÜ 
owed their origin.' 

' Tho Hileniw of lbs Avta mput'liug thu IuIhiciih of Paul h) 01 
ULnaol be lirouKlit sh cti'liMiu» »filial tbu fact, lor the kccmml ll g|i 
of Iti« period hai Duuif latuaa Ttom the mmntt ia whicli P»ul u 
dcnlicinvd m Muouilury lu BaruMhius IUI Uie tiino at Üiclr lim mlh 
■üoBary jDumc.v, uu »ri;u"i«l>l nkigbL be dnwa fur kit uui bftring pn- 
ti-uunly (Jiittroj un, iiiiv iiiJujituiivtii «pbure of labuur. Dul the can 
ina^r be, t.hitt tli(iiiK>i Vui\, a.* the j'oungcr aniI 1c» knonii, «iu al Gnt 
ipuhcii ufa^ Habdiüiuut« tu B:iriiiiliiL>^, ttiu tlilur :L[id upJirovGci pubUibtr 
nf tlie gi«pel ; jet, by liegreeit, Pwil'» citniofdiaaiit nxertioiu gate 
tt dil)ereut supec'l t« tlicir relotiva uoitttian. lu Jcruaaleio they oen- 
tinued &r & fAoger Time to uieI^ tho priority to Bonuliu, m aiiFWoi 
from the apaftolic Kpiatle in AcU xv. 21, a drouDUlöiice «blch 
Uleuk very justly aildiicca ax u mark of Uio unalUred orleluAUty vt 
this documool ; v. Studtca Mntl Kritikrn. 1839, put iv, p. 1037. Al 
kll «raala, «ne would nillicr aAigu a duia «oine ve\ni Ulvr to Uo 
convcnian of Paul, (on which, tuo, wc can never came ut a ileciM<« 
eotirluaioii,] tliaii auppg« Ui»t h« ot>u1ii spcnil Mveral yenn in L[ ' 
nalivo fliKo without exerting hlomcir tw Ibo profMgBlion of 
Uuiiiy.—liv who nuletnnly duclan», tbal, frvin lUt lüae «t bis ceU' 
rcnrioii. be fch bo bUi^qkIv the impulw of ma mward cull te prtneb lb* 

cBvmm ST mmotm. 



TIQSr TO THE JXirifU >f01IIEIt<«II<niOII. 

Is the mean time, ae we have already remarked, Christiauity 
•mat propaptXed amDn^ fhe Gentiles hy Holleuiet ieactiors iu 
Autiocli, iLe iQ«tropoli8 of Eaatecn Rvinitti Aäo. The new» 
of tliis ereat excited great iuterest among tlie Christiana at 
JtfTiMalqtn. It is true, the inforomtiiin wtis not received iii 
exactly tlie same ui^naer as it wuuld hiiTe Ue«ii, if Uie 
ucüouut of the ojieratioD of Christianity among the Gentiles 
in the ci»iiversi(jti of Cornelius haH iwt niat^rinlly contiibiited 
W allay their prejudicea. But still a lucasiiro of miatruat 
was prevalent ag-diimt the Geutile believera who were non- 
obaomuit «f the Mosaic Liw, a feeling whirh, ,ift«r mnny 
repeated eshihitiüua of the divine power of the guBywl ajiiong 
Gvntütt Clirisliims, lingered foi a long timo in the niajoritj of 
Jewinb beHovere. On this account, Barnabas, a teacher who 
stood higii ill the general con^deiice, and who ne a. Hulleuiat 
was better fitted to deal with Christians of tlio sanio class, waa 
COmmiKoned to visit the ncv Oentile converts. On his 
aurival lie rejoiced in tntneasiiig the genuine effects of tlie 
}:oKpel, and used his utmost endeavours to advance the work. 
Tbo extensive prospect which opened here for the advnnce- 
in«ut uf the kingdota of Ood, ocuasioned iii» inviting Piiul, 
who had been active among the Gentiles in Cilicin, to beoome 
hU frllow-lahonrer. Ono evidence of the power with which 
Christianity in an indcpeiidetit manner epniad itNtIf among 
the Üeutiles. was the new name of Cliristians which whs here 
giriTii to believers. Among themäelves they were railed, the 
Üiiwiplef of tlie Lord, the Diwiplee of .Tesiia, the Bretiiren, 
tlio Beliovflrs. By the Jews nainss were imposed upon them 
which implied uuderval nation or contempt, such us tliS 
GaUlcana, the Nasarcnes, the Paupers ; and Jews would of 
coujsu uot givo thom a naniB inGaiitiig tho adhereuta nf tlia 
Ueannh. Tho Gentiles had hitherto, on account of their 

CnuM» of the ceremonial law, not known how to dis- 



BTRRAu OF cHBrsrrA«nf. 

spreni] nxTi >ii£; tltü (iaililo^aiiai'l (rmu iliv ulincrviiiiw i 
Gonmcniol law, its profonsors ai>pv'iiruii a» an I'uiiiiily new 
wligio 11 «('cL (u ffetiHf lerliuni, imtlicji' were Bonif-tiliii* tcrmod, 
lieiitg utiiüirr leva uor Geiitilos) ; uiiil u» tlie U'l'in Uliri^l «.a 
heid to be ii jUMper iiamt', tliia aJlwruuU uf tlio now ivli^oiuj 
tcit^'hur vurn [Uht.iiij2iii!ilii:(l by u uunl fiiniicil tVom it, an tha» 
iii)lti-[vitU i>f any huUuoI uf ^liiluäopliy wert] wudI to be immed 
after iu fouiidm-, 

Arilioüh from thi.i t.lnio iitcojilcd it mont itiipurtaiit |>lttoo iu 
x\ie ;ini{Higiilio» of UluiMJauity, f^ir which tliuru »eiv tiow lwi> 
fciitral poiuts ; wLat JoruKik-ni liiiJ liithcrlu Iweii fur this 
|iur])OM dingii^ thu J<;wa, tiuiL AiitiucL tiow l)ocanie Wiuuog 
th>e (ieniiläA. Heio hiat thu two fejirewntiitiuu» of Cbriali- 
anity, dUtin^ii'iliod from one nuotlior by the prodoniiuanc« of 
tlwj JcwihU or CuiiT.ilu cU-mcut, atniii into u(.>lli»ioii. As At 
Ale^aiidiia, al a latJ^r j)ert(Ki, li^t^ tluvelü|tineiit i>f Chri&UanityjM 
had to c):iK!neiice the ellvict uf vnjioiu iiiixturob uf the anden^f 
oriental niDcIuK of thiitltiiijr with thi? tiiLiititl ciilt>ivittii.iii i.if the 
Greciau &cli<mK »o in tlii» Itrnnao[ii)Ii3 uf I'^a-iLeiii AsiR, 
it nifit with \-ariuUB iiiiititros of tiio oriental Ibi-ma of religio 
Iwllef, From Aiilioch, nt tha hcf^iinitiji; of ilio iwcontl ocnturyJ 
[ii'<;i:t;fiilt,il the äysluiu uf iiti ui'ibiilULl-^uiti-Jun'ifiii Gtiuaiis vt' 
opfjüsed Christianity to JudAism, 

As there waa voiisldoi'nlilo intorcoimo hotwoon tha tvro 
chtu'cUea ut Jurusuk-iii und Antiucli, Chriatiiiu tvaclicn fiv-^ 
quently oame Irom the former to the latter ; nmong thäsefl 
VTM a prophet iMumod Af^hus, who proplieried of an approach- 
iiig famine, whiuh woulil be felt suvcnjly by a great niimhcr 
of poijr Christiana in Jeruaaloni, niid lio callod upon tiio 
Iiolievera iu .tntioch to assist tlieir |)oioi'ei" bivilinjii. TW» 
fiiniine «utunlly ouciirrod iu Palcstiim abmit a,i». 4+.' 

Thu Cuiulty iif fui'etA.'lling a future oveiit, did not iicoosskrilj' 
enter iitU> tho He'K 'Xestameut idea of a projiliut, if vc atsiuico 

* Wc i^uiiiiiti fix llic eiset, ilraa when till« (Amino bognn. It i* torn- 
tloami by Ji>«pliiii. In liln AuUii. Iiook xx- di. 2. J 5. li wa* no pwl 
thut niiiiilit^rii iliiul in iL Iroui »nut. Qiioon Helena u( AdiiiUdiie In 
Syria, u ouni-crt to Juiluiiira, Bcnt a vcascl laJau Willi cam. vbivli thf 
had i>iitv1iii«U4l Ht .V iciiiuili^iii Hiiil wiUi Gi^n prm.'ati'il in tlic ihUndor 
Cjipru*. La Jumsulcm. and uiuiteil ibrae iiravinlouii U) lie dinicitiUUi) 
RioouK ilrn iHHir. Lukti, liiilouil. <ip«aks of a fiiiuiiic thai tiiivad 1Ik:1( 
Ov«r thu wLolc oiHimiierii, wliieh *«• uot iho coso with tliU, Tu unil«- 
•uad liy aiiai//irni in iliia pa>:aii5c, Palcstiutt ooly, U not jiutificil hy Uic 




tiot Lula wnuto tnm» his o«-n «taudiu^-poiut Au a<ldr«ai , 
fitted to prwiiioc tt jxjniTful «Sect un hh aiiilti'iice, vue by, 
whicli ChrJKtians «routd lii? eiciled to dc«<JK »f txnicficcneei 
would a^cc irith tiic marks of a prof)lietic ad<lre«§ in iii«. 
Itisv Tv»tn:tu-nt seDM ; tmt u in tlic Act» il is eipruady added ' 
tkAi Uic EaiDiue furctold hy the propliet actually cntne to jmm \ 
ve olUHt ilntihc!»« lultnit, in this iiu^nntx*, thnt thvtv imft a 
predicliuii »fiui iinpt'Uiliii^ fiouliie, ulthuu^'li it is possible that 
the prophecy tnu foonded on the observation of Dnlurnl 

The Cliiisdiiiiis at Aiitioch felt Üiemselrüs bound to assist. 
in its tetnpoRtl distrens, that church ü-om n-iiich ihey bmi 
rccoiTud the higlusift »jjiritual beaeßts, nnd probahly spnt th^r 
oontnbutioiui before the begitming of tlie fumine, b,v tlw 
bauds of PmiI and Baniitbaa, to the presiding eUlem uf Üiu 
church at Jerusalem. Tiiia church, nfttr ciijr>;yiD;; iilxiiit 
eight years' peace, mux the pergcciitica lliat eiLiiicil uii 
Sfcpliüii's martyrdom, wQS once more a^üulcd by u riuleul 
but traiineut tenipwt Kiug Hemd .Xgripgui, tu whom t.hv 
Emperor Claudius bud ptiutcil tiie govciuineni of Judea, 
aiTecUid great zeal for tie strict obsoi-vaiic« of tin- nncieut 
rituiil,* ftlthough DU muiij' octsmions be anted contrary lo it, 
on purnoae to ingrjtiate hiniself with the Gentiles, just as by 
his Bsal for Judnisni he tried to attach tho .Tewinl» fitojjle lit 
biimiell'. Actuated by such mutivee, lie thoufrht it i;xpLsiigjit 
to manifcHt hostility to the teachers of the new ductriue, of 
whom he bad reft^iväd itufav durable n^ports. Ho oaiiwd 
Jaiiiea the eon v{ Zeb«dtie, and a brother of ttie u^iontlu John, 
who probably, by some particular net or diacourse, had excited 
till) ungnr of the Jewish xeolül.i, to he put to rioith ; and 
during the Passover in tho year 44,' be east Peter into 

Sow TnUmcul phruMnIney ; but it i* pöBäililo tlint lli« funtine ex- 
tanilcd to olhcr tmrt». iiaii we must tbun fujjpcw tlio word to be mtail 
Bonievhul rhetono.illj, hi»! aot wItL lii.erjl tiautuess, Baprcl»lly if we 
conaldcT Ct ii» upokcii bj » propliot come froin JatPsnUm. 

' JMcphu-t, .'\iitiij, liouk xhc till, a ;ind 7- 

' For It WW the l.iit year of Hcrud Agrippa's reifrn, who hold ftir m 

»ad. thcreTirs, torlainlj reigtied (twin tho r-ncl of J:iminrj *), w tlip 
bcginnlo^' of Ilia reign uf Cluudiua, lUc cud uf JaTiuurj 14 ; no Cliul ouly 
Uic PuioTDr of Mn laMl year cnuld lie inivudud, Uiul whicli tiiuk pUo 
liter Herod lukil Tciguml tliree whole yntra. 

IDS BPBEuy OP tnnagnuyrrt. 

priaüu, iat«iiding that lie should lueet uitli tlie swne fitta 
the fcaal. Bui bv thv Bpcnd proriilcncc of God, FeUr vu 
delivered from prunn, and the death of the kin^ which ■bortl)- 
Tollowod, once mors gare peiu» to tbo chnrch. 

ir Pnul ftiid ItiiTiaboa anived «t Jerusalem during thia dis- 
turbed state uf things, tbeör stay was DOoeBBority shortened by 
it, and tliQ^' could uccornpliidi iiolliing of cuDKocjitcticc- ' Biüi 
if wo coiupiu'c the account in tb« AcU, with tho oairatiro of 
Die npiHtli» Puul ill tlio EpisUo to th« Cinlatittiu, and 
iiHsume tiiiit the jcuraey to Jeniaulem, vhi^ he 
iiiODtiooa OS the Bcootid. was really tho eccond, tbia joon»; 
would Bcciuiro groat importiuioe.' We moat tli«o aaaakt. 

ire o f . I 

' Ah tlio ironla kut' liuiiio» t*« «u^br, in AeU xiL 1, euuiot mtm fbr 
Ailing thn KXnet Aut. the coincidcD'Co of ttiinjoamejof I^wü'ivith tbo 
«wni* nt Jtruoatniu, aii>l ilia vhulo chrmalw foonitod Vfoa it of tht 
npinttL-'n hiitorj. U not olnoiutolj' acruuit. Y«t then i» no imlid mfg«. 
iiiDiit 3|^jjiifI iLU iima);(inocit. 

' IrcäiBiu julr, IjRn4. hb. iU. a. 13, men» to coniiäcr it u ntlltd 
lli&L itiiB vu I^inVa third Jcumcy. But wliul TcrtutUaa am («Mta 
Miircion, i. 2d>, gnei on lli« nippcuition that it triui hin oooona Jonran. 
Uc alliiffei Llio lauLD reumi for tbluklue »a. w K«U. in hU MBijr on tw 
»ubjtot )tt«I.T pijlilinliud in hin Oinanila; tbit Paul. In tho fint gloir oT 
li» uonveraiuu. wiu irxure iluk'Ui a;niiiut Jiidiinn, but tntttrlf liii 
foolinu« townnU it wuro mnllifici. Thui ho oxplaltu tbs dUptil« irifh 
Potor at Aiitiiich. " nmliit udliuc in tTsli* nidit, fotv«nl«r ut tidfane 
uuotilijitii- uiivi'.n>ii4 Jii'lniiimiiiii." (li ik c^nlmdlclorjr to tlii' Mjip«- 
»ition tliut Iif ullown I'aul to hmvo tfivMi fay io ths Jmlaiien «t Jcw- 
lalcin. ill mfrn;isvi) I/, tlio clrcuinciBlun of TiltK^, coat. M«n.-l£,n, v. Sj 
iLiid U wouli) calirFi^ uurrHp(>n<l with ths ebanwl^r of P&nl uid Ibf 
mode »r liU uitnvi'nlrrTi, ihti. at tint, lie uhotild eiigii^ In fiercer opp^ 
tiiijf,» t'l ill« oti<(itvHiii*v of t.iiv inn', tbiin that hii mind »tioutd ^ndubp 
Ifu developed in iliut /rear directioo. Yet tbit ■u]ipo*lllaii, M vc afaul 

ttHcrwiirdii hIiuw. la \iy iii> uisao» gu[ip^t<'il Ity hiBiorical iivideim 
Wliul is nd iriini;i:d lij Wunn, in bi* oiwnj alrcwiy quoted. In lb« 
Tiiiiliieon ZciUdirifl füT TliaAogit, ag&iuHl. iu] aiipliialion <it the H 
[wmsngu from Tt-riiiiliiin, in not Knrrect. I hare here funarltoil on I 
ciini.ruUction betwet'ii ilic two pa&uijm, ami in u Hriiui'oTTi.-rtiillUa' 
rait o-f Jiiinil — liiglilj IUI WC esinmii ilie ilupth, firn, nnd vieour of hi* 
fcrotiiiis— «iicli «wntrwiii'tioii ia not vety utirpriitng'.— But from Terlnll, 
c. Miiivion. lil>. V. S. U. it i* by no mcnns cIc^lf, that he CAn»Utrvd tht 
>iii)r,Tid j(ii]rri0<r ni<!uLii)ni-d In tliu Eiiixtie Io Üia GolatUni, m tbo hum 
with that which vom followed by the resolutions of thn apMdoIii 
MtcniMj at Jrruiuluiit. Tcr'-Miiui onlj-miyii, that the Acta of ihi , 
ApuntUn— »hoMJcrodibillty wii rat noknowicdgod by Hnictan— tcpiM 
tebtcil the [>rinclp1i!i oa wltii-h T'ltiil Bi.-l«d, not iliflbraotlT from '•niM 
Pnul «tntvA ili«m to W in mi Bpintlo ulmiLIed *b gcnnine hy Vfircloa; 
(oiiBvqu^ntljr, Ute aocounl oT Luks^ In tbi* rai[>ocl, iuu*i It« «nidiblft 


Ihi I 


nil. 1 


•a; V 


onumm at Asnoon. 103 

tliat allh(>ii^'h the wnrt^yatioo of the oollcott'^n to Jennaletn 
wnii tS*) iivowed object aud motjve of thie joarnejr, yet Pmil 
himsdf had another und more iraporiant end in liew, wliicit 
pnlüAbly indiiood him to he tho licftror of tho contributions. 
As tlie strictW Pharisaicnl Jena held it Absolutely iicot'iunu-y 
for thu iJiittil«t to siibiiiil to tJio wliole ceremonial law, and 
[Kirticuliuly to oiroumciaou, ' in order to enjoy the hlwäring!' 
of tbcocmcy ; as the laiBtmst: of the Jewish Christiaus lind 
alrusxly, as we have before remaiked, uüaife^ii itnolf itgniniit 
the Geutile coiivorl» ; atid aa the conaequenMs of tliia state of 
fiMsliiig might lutve alrBady apjieariKl in the chiirch nt Antioch, 
vhicb stood in ho close a conDciicn witli tho parent church 
ftt Jernsalam ; It ia not itt all improlMihio, thnt Paul nud Bar- 
Dsbaft fell it ti> ha their impi-i-Hlivo duly, in oi-dcr to giwrd 
BgkiiHt a dangxüMiie disngrcemeot, to come to an under- 
RUuidint,' with tbe »[ineties at Jentmlem on this stihjcct, und 
to unit-e witli thorn in ostabliphing fixed priiiL'ipleK resf)i!c(.!ti(^ 
it. Yet ill itself it is more probable, th^t euch a mutual 
cxpl&nalifln took place earlier, than thnt it oeciuTed at so lata 
a [Mirtod. ' Such n. confi-rence of I^iul and Barnabas with the 
tfarcc most cniinvnt of tlio ivpiistles, oould nut well bo held at 
that time, Rtnoe one of them was cnst into pinsnn ; but too 
gjtwt an uncwtainty is attached t.o the dates of these event«, 
to render this vlijucUon of much weight. Jiud it ugnios with 

Bo then. TcrtaHliin. I. 9, by riid«, Wnt mcmiE tbe imrac as in llic poaiagii 
fliiit (jualiiiiL Tliu rtiilijißilfg In timii |)iL$s.i^, is a fkil.L el.ill youti^ Mid 
not fuHy tried, which hi^ni^c ooiild not. poueea ao indcpendErnt an mitho* 
rity : " hoc tBini (i.lio loniponviy ponetsrioii in reference ta Iho ciii:um- 
ÖBon of TUiiaj Tu-difideiH rfihiic rf« Ugi« ahnen-ntione jnupfn-nc (itt 

nrcmni.'e tu wlik'li it wae atiU diBpiii^d ■wfieiher the/ weix not liouiid W 
the obncrvMKie of ihc luwt fiiirapefefrut," iian«lj, uutii I'aiil Imd Bue- 
m-oded Id liastiig ills iiiilepi?ni1eut, uiU to the uposilonhip and ite [iccullar 
gmindx. v:kno»le'lK<"i liy the other aposllia. 

' A Jewidh uiareliuiil.. nioird AnaDim, who Iiiid cnnTrrted King 
laitci nf Adifthono, tliii koh of Queea llulena. lu Judaimt, ussiin?d liim 
Ih&t bo might W0Mhl|i Jeliovnh witliout beiiij pircuiDciBori. and even 
MUffht ti)!« him ftoa H, th&l it might nut eniisc an inaurrMtien 
«f hit peoiile. But nlipii uinther stricter Jew, Elenur. caTiie thither. 
be dnuUrcd tn the king timt eince faenckitonle'Igef! UiailiTiiiu itiithartly 
of Ido MoKiia laiv, h« wimld bo by neglecting anv of iLn oonunands, 
and Üicrcforo bo pomiiilumiion oughi iij prEveut ids wim[>HBn«e, 
JoK^b. Arcl'i"'"!- lil'. XX, e. 3, ( *. And such »»B tho opitiiun of lbs 
«nnverU to ClirlsliBiiUy Trum »mong the Jcwn, who, 10 UBe the word« of 
J<Mephu«, wen) dupii^tEt "pi Tä riTt.a, 

' At Dr. Paulun ramüike in lila Kicgotlokl Manua], i. 1, p. S8I. 


SPft&U) OF oiuusnAXirr 

the cxisthi^ oimimi^tiiiiec« of tho flmroli. that th; 
is rein-esentcd aa a jirivaU' traiiBiictioii of pjinrs w 
emioent uf tlic apiMtlcs 3' paxily bcuause the matt«- did not 
Appear gniScienily rijm for n, piibiiu iü^winkioii ; jxirtly bi;cai 
hy the paneoution sot on foot b;' ICiii(; Aerlpim. tii« iu 
]ju1>lio cin)f<;r«i>ee mt^t bo prvvcatctj. by thU HUppoeiti 
we therefore fpiin a oonneetint! linlc in Üw hisioi-y irf 
tmiiHicligns Iwtwoon the Jcwi»Ii and Oentile convertt^ 
thtiB the two historivol ducumvtittt, Uie AcH of tbu ApvKlloi 
Kiid th« Epistle to the Ga]atiaD&. serve to mppl; whAt is 
QGctsuuiry for the corDpletion of cncti. But, in tlic fitrt plaoe^ 
tho chroaol<igy of tlie cuauoou reading, supported by 1I 
)tiithi-rilj^' of fill the aianusc-ript«,' is lirucoiicileabLe vith t): 
liypoüiesis, for we must rcukun Pnul'it coiivursiiiiii to ii»' 
takeD plaw fourteen ycsira earlier, wliicb would bo a iMtn 
tatioii wholly untenable. And, socoiidly, tlwf relation in 
which Haul, aticordiug to tJie dascriptioa in tfa« Acta, atood «t 
liny given time to Eaniaba^ Ibe cltior prwwhor of the gysi "" 
will nut agrea with thü vi«»', Tor «t an earlier pen 
according to tho flight uuticta furuiUied iia by the Acta, Pai 
appenra in a Eahoi^iiinte tvUtiou, both of a^ and dJeapl 
ship, to tliL- elder preacher of tbe gospel, It wii« not till be 
undertook tiie mimäoiiaiy journey with EiinuiljiiB from An- 

' The hot' illoB It, G»l. ii. i. wbti-li euituiim an aatitliuiia taSitfunrff. 
Yet, jiiililii; conferences arc liy no mcQiu" en'Iuded ; for it [s not lAea 
tliul llifl würds Kar' lHav follow what wiu twfnr« said msrely m a tlmtl' 
Injc explanatory eluiice. r*ul, rcrhap«, niighl not t'xMpt lomi; »pedil 
t«i>io »f iinporUtico front the äreCc^Ev avtoii (n^bich uuit principtlljr 
rvlatet« hi* Chriolian licuthnin in Jsnmlein), — his. giHvnte conlertiua 
with Jftiae«, Pc-lcr. rmd John : or he might design to notice only tho 
[lublii", uii'l iilleri>»rils till.' important primal« diiifuirnct-Cj allogvtlml 
pajkBing- over thr former. Conipnrc Wunn, p, hi ; Augur, p. Hit. 

' The ^fjii/iiimii pn^rltair A Iniiiilri niini, nl. Nirtmbr, ii. 43S, db> 
tainly forms an cict-ptipo, uct-trding to whkli I^anl took thia Kcond 
journey/our ycum uftur liia (.Hinvcrüiiru -, atid tlib «umpuMUoa Mp|i<M« 
the reading to be ieir<rii^i' t-rär, itmtcnd of itKorrtaa. Such a KadlOf 
licing vauni»!, vc may tnsi\j iiiiilumlaud liotr LA yna farmed from d> 
And auociidiiig to this reading, if kc rijf« it tu ilit »et'oiiil jonmeyof 
Piul mcuLinaud in the Auti. everytbliie «Itl resdil; 3Gr«e «ith raeha 
Mmpiirn^ioQ : only, if ve rcL-kuii UienL? four .veam irom llio coavonlOB 
of Sl 1>siiI, thftt uvant musi be plKwl alioui iho yoar *0. But Mill It 
remains iinoertkin, wbotber the C6nipiitiition in tlie VKraaitoin Piudtk 
!r rnundod on A cntical coqjactMre, or uu tlie autliuritj- at a toiuiiueripl;, 
and, ai h11 cvfiiih, tli« opjjoeing erideiico of a.U minuKcHpu uttl uu 
tlou freCQ Uie Father« ia too imputtiint. 

iat I 


>r tACt JUtt> UlLtABAS, lOS 

b, in -which lie was the mart prominent ■geot. tbst tiuu 
kpontolio Hupetiaritr dendopcd ttöplf, vhidi wan •fterwtutl« 
orhibitod in tbe trtuauxioaA at Jerualeto. StQI wv caanot 
conawier this reuufc m dedaive of tbe qiKStku ; für w« mqr 
feel co«t}d«nt thut such a tnaa aa Ptnl, eefieeUlly if w« gratt 
liis imlejM.fiJeiit laboim in CUicia, Diivt ha,n oome fomrd, 
enm before tbc pcrioti of lüs aposiölic superiority, with extra- 
, ordinary otficiciu!? when the occacion dcinanilM) it. 

Since th«re was no deficiencT of teachere in tiie chtutl) at 
oil, we auj presomc that, oAcr the cnrcrsian of the 
Jltiles bad oax begun, the piÄäeation of the gospel wotild 
rsztvttiivtl from Syrix to other heathen nations, fiaraabiu 
and Paul had probabl; at au early period espreesed their 
devire to he «mptojijd in a wider ephere for the convordon of 
the Guntik.'«^ oa Paul hwl been aBsond by tlie Loni of lii« 
appointmcnt to convy the gospel to distant nations. And as 
Bomahas had bronght hie nophew Mark with liioi fnun Jcru- 
aalem to Antioch, ii is not uulikelj that he wm prompted to 
this at«p by tliu proe^pcot of u mor« extensiw field in which 
he might emph>y bis relation aa a fellow-lalKiiircr. The 
tenchcra who were aBsemkled at Anlioch a|ipc>:nt«<) n day ot 
laating aiid pruyer, to Jay tliis niiutcr before tlie Lord, and to 
pray for his iliumioation to direct them what to da A firm 
pcmuuüon wn» imjxtrtcd to them nil by tbc Spiiit of God. 
, that they ou^bt to set apart and send forth Uarnalws and 
il to tho work to which they wore callud by tliu Lord. 


IBS 7iiorAaiT:os or oauvntHiTT rnox akifocii dt facl xha 

VCooUPANED by MiLrk, they fiist visited the Lslaud of C'jrpniB, 

the native L'outitry of Bariiubaa, whose unoivnt oaiiiwiioiJ with 

it faoililated the introdtictioii of tfie gospel. Tbay iraverged 

the ishvnd from euat to west, frcoo Salainiä to rapboa, lu Uioir 

L teaching tlwy followod the tnick wliich hiHlory hnd tiinrkofl 

Kent for them, Ibul method by which the gospel innat apretid 


Itelf «moiig tti« lioatlten. Ab tli« Jewe. ut viriiie of Ihfllri 
Bexiim witb thu thvocnitic dcvolopiuciiti oal of th« 
iutrustad to tlieni. had th« ßnt claim to the luinouncätncitl o( 
tilg Mewönh ;' m Üiey wctq iu a i>tnte of ibo groMost prvfnM- 

' -Kpiror ivvlal«. Uoio. I. Ifl, compaml «Ith /obn 1'. 22. Th« ofü- 

liilit>- i)f «hot IH uaitntuti in tliu .IcU oii IhU ta<\ otlicT (XOMCOUi 
TCBpccimg Uli niaDiJcr In trliiul l'iiiil toriicrl lo (he 0<Dti1e», irnmo- 
diaiely attcx the til reiieptiain which lie iu«l wiib Tnm (be ivmimaif 
Ijlwi in till) »ynagniriie, noiili! he »haken, if T>r. I)«ii«T«CT«aemct lliUl 
uuariiuci. (£uu liii KMuy <iu l,[itt Olijuul aiid Ücüuiuo or llie K[iiill« 10 
tiic ßaniaiiE. ]ii i)ie TaVuigr-u ZetlKltTyl JO^ Tlimlttgir, l»Xfi,janin. 
p. 101.) thul (ho aullior of the Acu dM iiät pve a t&irbful kUUod tt 
«Kjuctiv« (anU, hat mudi&cd thcm moaMId^ tn hin {lOL^alitu view* toA 
«lantni: thai Ikix vt to W nxplaineil fnnii Ihr ti|wl<iicri.>i; dainn vllk 
vbich ticmiiinuliif Lhcpuitlon, i.lmL the ff;obpel roiu;he4Ui*tli?aUle*<tt1f 
tLitiu);li th« ri'iiiiiR:>li(j iiiiil uiilirilirr l<[ iliu JcHk. TkU Ih «ouioMM 
ivltb UuUDr'B iiipB oF nn ikiiti-1\intine pari;, ccin>isthi|; of pcnoni >bo 
ti>Lik oll'om» III Ihu IViliiiii iiuivc:r>allHi»,^hi» proaüMug tlio ^«»mI hM 
tu Jcvrn and Gi>nlil»,) Htiil v^iD)i liAit iU xuil ai Boin«. Fur tMApi 
Fach an &{>u1iiyctli: repreiujuuitiuD ol' raula idIji1>U7 ntnai lic< 
Wu ntighc lie lülowcd lu citat euch a au-picivu cu Ili9 ntprtMBtalhÜMl 
lbs Aciit, ifnn; LhinKaniDcial wmxa bti round bi thnu, onvililBf i 
-ctirniBpuiutin^' tu wliul tiiigliL Im bxinutuij frutn llit cllniirutUtice)) oTI 
iluiiM. Hut ir Ihe lliic of uoudncl a'M-ritictl it> Ihc *|icMilc. a*d lu i 
■H(|uci>cot, tip|K!nr altugelhar nuliir^l under ihv i-iri-niuxUinvct. it dot« 
not a|i| Imiw hv cnn k' juinHi«! iii iltsluctciK the icjKiTUian (of TtiiVt 
itKi'le of iicrtin^') )^ruuiiilL!(l in Uit Dul.utv uf lliu Itiiu^. uuC fron Ihü but 
from lb« Bii>>ii!« manner of i.he nirmtor. Non, in all the cIiSm 
Kticre Bj-nagoow»; oi>itod, Uiey foroivd iJie mott convenient place« hr 
iiiukiii); kiiiiaiD l.liu gii>i|>el, when Paul »:» n(il^ii|iuMd lo iip|>mr la Iko 
pnlilic uiirket-pUirtB at, a pn^uclier, ll«re he fiiuiul the iimadjlv 
asiciiililcil. K'lio fui'iuBil a clvknni:! of ronimiinli'jilidn «itli tha Afutik*: 
und in ihi' {«»^«gK i|ijutDil frutn llie RpiuLl« to the Roinnoa, the prinop 
is Mated aivordlng to wliicli the Jeirn bad tho flnt clnlni lolha i 
liilD of tlic gGa;«!. Lore In liia iiwn |ici>plD prndui'OÜ Ilic cnnieo 
to ofiC'Cl as miicb lu pn^ibic for iticir .lalvniion, iiiotig witb blai 
a» uuapaalb vl tiju Ovutllije, U'^iu.zi. 13, TLftI I liuv« brMiKhl f 
Ihi« from tin: Epiitlu lu Ihc iCouiatm, irlitcb Bauer hu miide IMI of l»l 
proiif uf r.hiD c» inlit'inx: of »ucli ftii a)»iU'£<:tri; iiilCKtt, In not üu uij MA ■ 
uiorc priiiiu irrittcipü, tat I ciuinii-i. in nii}' waj* recoutiln U wltb tt» 
oäknoitrijf ilifl iipmtle, itikl ke oxilil eipreKi mvh [ihot-lplMnudiixh 
dBnircc nivn-ly (ruui moiivei of erpedk'ncy. ItuL it nax niiliinil ihal i>* 
Bliould tnrr awny Irnra Ihc gival. mi-u 'i( the ('»rnalK-ininded Jew*. If In 
fauiird oaly here and ilicr« inrli^'illllal6 nmurif' Ihdn of m^cotillSlo dil' 

EjutioiiH, unil devirtir hiiKKolt lo lliC IlitnliUw iklniin. Il duts net fnlloV 
am lliU Lltat hie rail to itiu npinlln-liip aiaong tbe heathen «at ikitr 
nEneil merely by avddcntal clreumilaiiotui : Tut If tiO louiid a icn-)'£r 
nunibcr olJews In a nity (linjXMiit tu Iwlievc, ytt kli other ralllnsMiilld 
aiji th«rclijr hare boon fnulratod ; but amonr ihc convunwl lli lliialiltt 


ian, and pUoes alraadj exüced amoiig tliem für Üie purpoaat 

»r rcligic » ingttuctioiL ; it vnu on tlwMt nooouat« natüml Üut 

tho apos'Jm should firat eutor tl» eyiiagoguiM, and tlie proao- 

Ivus uf Ihe gnt«. whom tliey here met with, x9(ird«d thum the 

moüt cuuvuiivut jioint •>( tnuuitiua fmtn tliu Jemi to tiut 

(^Dtiloi. In PaplKiü, tiuty found in ilio prucoimul, Sorgius 

Paiili». « nittu diflntisfted with al] that {iniWiphy and tltu 

popul&r retigion oonld ofler for his rehgioiu wauta, aud anxious 

to roouiv« oyoiy ti>mg which pnxioutcd itaelf as a new oom- 

municntion from hctivcn ; bonco, he was eager to bear what 

Pjiiit and Bnnmbiu anrioiinosil ax n oev divino ijoccrine. But« 

owing to chat «biub of religious need. uosatiaGtHi Ly any clear 

I knovledge, he luul ^ven «or to tlio deceptive arts uf aa 

itinenut Jewish UoSa, IJaijesua. ThäM Oodüe were iu boo- 

' eoediug timixi' the mimt virulent o|jpo«ora of Christianity, 

' becauM it tbroat«nod to depiivo them of their dumliititiüii 

< OTor tha laiiKU of men ;' and tor the saiuo ruitsou, thi» tnaa 

hru, wfao wers more olofcly rclit^d to thouj w]io wvre Orccki b; liirtb 
I w «äuntioo, be «ould have luund iiHä1*UiiiiM fur cMUiblUliiag ihn Cliri»- 
' Itu lAuivh KintniiK the Oanlllui ; and trbvii afWr *o niHn; p&infDl ex- 
l)i«f]«noMk h* t>*<t litllu hü[ie* of uiceou aiiiaD]{ ihe Juwii, iiUtl hu vould 
I'lrat gi>« up Ihe attompt to do lamoiliing fur hi> counUjuon, if li^ any 
rUMWia h* inlghti uvfc aonio ; e>i|ic[:iiillj' @in» hi! voiild yo welt unlM Ibtft 
Iwitli the iiit«ri»t«<jf hU i^'alUu^-.aiid cuuU Soil no moru cunvvuicrut and 
['BIKMeatAtioui oioihoil ut paving bm >'>'a; to the Qciill'c». Anil iloci 
iKit Ihu peculiar uiUl-ura in lUu t;hiin:liuii of Uoiilii«-'Ul)i'iHl.iji[ia, Ilia 
fibifluance of JaA.\ia>n apon thom, give uvidt-iK^c nl their rrrijcinwlon t 
pRam. ti- 12 '111 i<u> BiUblUh tklh poluL Anil ihiii tlie (tuLliut uf the 
Arts ku given ii nirtalivB üniiniKteiit; with (acta and tlin ictDinl iIjii.r oI 
Ihlo^. 1)^ khnn'n tiy thl«, i.liitt u-hpn rtoicriliin); the entrance b{ [*kul tx 
^Aihim«. ha dow not Kpeai tlie urne laciliüd of prtniundinff. but rapro. 

'»AnU him M acltlkS i» > dilTi;roiil iiiiiiiiivr, AiUi>iuil la tliu IulmI jiul'U' 
lUriiica. Tbniughoui the AvU. 1 on pcnwivc na tmec* of nay thing 
p]i«i an hUtoriusI iiLyuct, «Ulcli the autlior luu jiuisucd aociirdint; to the 
neaa<' of infumiiiiiaii williln liU naoli. 

* On 111» iwcuani. It wot not at »11 tincomm-iia for utich mraeron la 
&nd •om» til III4I1 i>r (he liighu»! rank.. 'I'Ihih Liiuibti nurraui}, ihut Iho 
*i tliat I Daubed men in Hamu mont, oiu-ürl; ini]uir>!d uficr tUo pro- 
ui(iH uf a Mnvrttr, Ati'uinih'ir ol' Ahniixulcliue, in Piiul»», who 
quired ^TMt noloriciy in tlis nign of the Einpcror Hiiivui Aiirsliun ; 
aamtg tho («alo»» ailliercnta or jVlcx.inJcr, ho tnunittiik-^ Q»peciAliy au 
^Biulncnt Itutuan autjumuii. KiiliUiuiu.-, of wliou ho ntje—iirlip ri i^ 
iA.\.a «aAAi aoJ irfaill)! noi tr rrjAAiii itjjijiiii (WjioiitiuE ^fl»a<rj»<»fli, to 
U T«i)l Toll I tliaiii nam i'airä/y. Iiuciuli. Ali'Xuttd. { 30. 

, ■ Of Hbiol) tbt Aluuutdar nwutiuncd in um preceding uutu u , 


sniEui ov cnniHTiunrr 

tiiijik tlie utmost pains to Liudei* liic fipiead of the ^ ^ 
to prqjuJicu t\m I'twrnm} agümi it. But Paul, iuU uf holy 
indignnÜuu. dei-iai-w! witli Jiviiie uoufideuce, tli*t the Lonl 
vould puDuli Lim witb tbc lutw uf Ümt cyv-sight wbicli. be 
only abuMid, Ijj atteniptin^ »itii his arts of deception u> mjjji 
the progroBs ofdivimi tralfi, Tlictlircatoniugmut iiumedbtclj 
fiilfillt^il ; lint] ).y iliSs seiuiib!« ovideDce of tbe ujwjiitwu ofj 
higher iraw^r. the proconsul wiia withdrawn from iLe iiidueii 
of thi; (loc^, nud rendüri^il lanre sustiaptjblii of dirins 

Therici; Iht;^ directi^fl their uourse furt.her norlliward ; 
over to P^Diphylia, And üloug the borders of Phrv^, leamt 
ttail I'iKJdui, luid luuiU.' a luugei' stuy at tbe ooni'Uicriibl«:! citr 
of Aiitioch,' (whicii, sa a border-city, was itt diäcrcut penodi 
rc<!k:oned as Vi«loiiging to difiereat proviuoee,) in oraor to 
allow time for making knoAn the gospel. Paul's dieciMuve in 
the eyiuigygiit! is n spüciiucn of t]ie jK*.«liur wistltim imd skill 
of the groat npoetle in the managemont of men's dispomuo«»; 
and of his peuuliiir uiititlicticid tnocii? of devulnpliig Christiaa 
tniCL He sought lii:st to win the nttcntiou anJ coiißilttricc | ~ 
iii& hearüra, by rmniiiding tliom huw Uoil liiid chu«.<n tY. 
fiitlicTK to bu iiis peuplo, aitd tlivn gave an willinc of God 
deallnga with them, to the times of David, tlic iiidivjdn _ 
fpoiji wliuBK pusterity, acüoiibuf^ to the promiBe-w, ihu MceniA' 
WIM to «priug. After tlio iiLtroductiou ho came to tbo mnin 
objaot uf IiiB addi-esR, to the appviuanc« vf thu Mitsdah, and tu 
what he bad eftbcted for the salvntion of maukind. Thio 
turiiiiijj to tilt Jews iiiid proselytes present, he proceeded (« 
»ay, tba,t fur thom this auuoiuiL'euiout of solt'aiioQ n-us de- 
Bigucd, uinae lh<)SH to whimt it was first pruposod, Ibe J*ws at 
Jerusalem, and their lulom, hiid hwu aiiwilliug to receive il ; 
ihoy hud uot aekiiowlcdjjed the Jltaaiub, in>r uudoratoud iha 
prophecies, wliicli they lieard I'ead every Sahbatii-djiy in liwir 
6ytw;?>giies.* Yet, while in tlic-ir l.ilindnoi» tlioy oouduuDedJ 
the Mossiiih to dwith, they could not retard tbe fultibucatrf 
tlie priiphccius, but )i4;,'iinst tliuir dusign nud will, ooiiinlnital 

■ To illttioguUh It fiDin tbe AiifttiooiciropolUfit!« called 'ArrMx''*! 

tr/'h( TI Iff 181^. 

' Onh iiKiDg luitildT «xproMuuiii, I'aul beieaqm the Mm« lhiiii;i «I 
the bliniin?5« of ilic Jowii, wbl«li lie ulku My* Ut «ironfci uit 1 
iMver« Uayiu^c ia bli HpiblliM, ocuuning iliis cl oMuruy. 


to ft ; fur aftor Im bad taffeivd all tilings vhJdi »ccoHhig tv 
iIk pTSHlictions of the prophets he was (n mtttitr, ho raet' &mu 
tix ucixl. Bv fiiith ia bim tbcr oould ubtiun forgiriMwas vt 
MOS and jasiiacadao, which thej' couM Dover have obtAiDed 
tf tbc law.' And aiVcr tuuaooncing this promiM' to thorn, 
^^ol cloaed with a thnMeuins; waniiii^ tv unbelievers. Tlii« 
HiaooiirBC, uttered with all the imprtKÜreucss of linn üith. uul 
■^et eriticiuj; no much tcndnmciK towsrdn the Jowti, lUiid« at 
tint u fjvooroblo imprcsaon apon ihvm, ami, in tho luuoo of 
the whole asWRtbl}*, tlitrr request«*! him to expound bis due- 
trine more fiiUy on tlte Q«xt Sabbath.' Such nns th«. 

' ToiiMliQr iDj Ticm of ihi» paMasc. 1 diiirI make • few rvtnukii on 
the riRbi tnietprtuUau of Acts xlil. Sa I unuot tu» uuilunUoil it m 
If the spMtl« naant Ui «•;— Through ChrUl nun obtain forgivuiOM of 
sU eliu, H<vn of i/ios« A whick foTiriveiieiS oi>ul<l not be obuiDod 
through the law. Tho spoKio ecrUinly know üuly ona (brffiTeniwt of 
■Ibi uid one jDa(iIL«Atioti: tkn'l li« uMit ilie lemi nätTwonr? to mirk 
tbe «am(ileteiicH of tho nuioial of quili. uo tho idea of Imumrii^ |>r«- 
MpiMMM tlilsi b<>( tli( prevudiug wintiv. tu refur llio rulstiv» prviiumi 
bf * kind oTId^ciiI nttru-'ilan to ihU tcrio of uDkonnUtf. ntLcr (liuu 
tqlb« wWl« Mii^i uf 3iitiuiiDn>'<>>< wh it'll li« hvl (HjHiclally (n view. Wiistt 
IfofCr lajm in fclu <.'ami[iPi;iBry in livfcui:« at tlio conunon inicTptctiitiDn. 
iam uol CDiirinM uiu. ■' I'uul." Ilo ri'inurk», " »jictitio» iiii« jpiirl iiC tliii 
unircrvJ i^tvit ifHu^iiK tu piirtK-ultrly worlliv of uüIil-u, liul thin iluu« 
atilU all Injun) Uie uiiitj' ufthr targiwiK'i \it »[tmntiii. jiMiiliMina." I 
do not pCRoiTc tow raiil, from Itia poinl of view, qduIiL lYndvr imc 
HMcial )>!Ln mure |jniiiiiiitni iIiill aiiuihcti I know luilcod ef no »Itk 
Ircon which a nnn coiild \iz jrisLiru-d on thr ulniidinKi-ptiiut of tho iuw ; 
la Paul'« mlnJ. there toiiW be hcrf du rtiffercnce wnauvcr. The »ccfl- 
liarlr I'suliue lEftR of orn'iug uut tliu oppoaitinrt butwceu failli uiu The 
faw horo Bppoarh in i.he gunn. 

» If, lu AqUi xiii. 12, we lake (UTafüi ii, Uk iimiil neMpiiLlon, «e mini 
■mdorntknd the pa»<Lg^ llii»- Pnu\ .iw\ nnnmhun wnr« rciiioHtoil lo tx- 
plain llic Cliristimi doclrinu to thorn diiriuj; tlip wvk bulivown thin na<l 
tlio belt Salibath, thuraforc tiBfora tbe nuxi culttinkiiun of tlio ^JnliUuih. 
8acli a r«i|u?gl would be viary fuituk'Ii, if wt utHlvrstmitd it im l.ltal of in- 
dllidoaU who irithuil Ui hear diacounvt on the duetiinu in tlicic prlrito 
elrelu* during tlie week. But it iLoob iiut upiiuur »•• ]'i'"]ii;r xb b wIhIi 
oxpraiMd by the whole congrcgnlion at the »jimgof^iie. W« «liouW mo«i 
twtimllf refer it lo Die OcutileH, uiiiJ tin tiiut. üixiiiiiili itii]i>t i:niiiilili<r thv 
roddingfil (entin thclSdvcr^ uicorrc>:[, tbouh'h it hu tlic nppfnniiiuti 
of a glotf. Alt» tbc word QäSßOkiov iii tli'i Aul« in ucvcr UHcd la thi 
MOM of It tctri; for the pbrnic ^^'it gtißßdmr »nnnol. hu iiraufl[lil U a 
voucher fnr Lhi* incanmc. DiiL ir «c ii[i<li.'ntanil t6 itrralir uiSd'irM, of 
the next äabbalh. all will be tlcnr; uid « witipiiciumi villi venv 11 
tkmuiw thin iiitcrpnitAiion, wbiuh In &Uo nani'iloiiod <>}- tlio nnvioni 
glMMB and HchoUa In Grleubm-h tvud Usiitiul. fiuiu ihn vätllar Gtivk 

WKEKö UP oaumiatrv 


iiapranon mode by bis vurda on the anembly iu 
But tlun ncrc ntany among tho Jen'a pnncnt, and v«|^ 
tlM proaelyte^ m tio »ere moce de0|>ly aflbrted than the rent b} 
the power of triitli, and vha luiiged nftur t)io rntaiapti 
annouiKMMl lijr Piiul. Thay uould uut nmt til! lliu nv3.l 
iMth. but hjuteued after Paul, who batl left tbo sjiugOj 
with Itarniiba«; tliey iufiirinur] Uiuin of tho imimaoJoii« 
had reueivHl. and earui:!t(Üj roqiieet«d Diore ftmpjo instruotian^ 
I'lwd aud JJiiruaUui cuiiaui^uc-ully aruilcd (JivmocWus q( iuuuj 
opjiortuuilicfi tu eipliiiit the divine doctriiie in private buuies 
during the course of tlie week, und liltcwisc to in*kc it knon 
aiuong tlie Gvulilea. Hencti, by tbo tiext Sabbatli, ibe ocw 
dodtrisa of sUviitiuu bud obtjiiiivil iiotor.ety tlircnigh tbe 
wliole city, aud a multJtiKlc uf the Gutiti]): inbaLitujiU fliMikciJ 
ta the synagogue in order to hoai- Paul's discotii-se. Tbia ■*(« 
a specUicI« siifliweut to stir up llie wnitb of the .Icw^ wlw 
wem tilled with »jiiiitunl yinA>i, oud a delusive nutiou of tltär 
BUporicirity as memberB of tbe aticivnt tbcoonu:y, und hooou 
ttiiü discoiii've vi Paul's wn& not beard with tlie same fAVOtu^ 
bbic di«[io»tioi) tuid ciJuittt«s astlie Rret. IFe ^taji iiitcmiptsd 
by violent cunt.rail id it'll» und ru'jiroaolic». ' Hu tbou d 
to tJiein, that aiiice they were not di^posad to receive the aal 
tiou ann'juiiced to them, aud excluded thcmselvn from it 
tli«ii- ovni condenmatiim, tbe pnüiohen of the gospel bad 
cliui'ged their obiigations. and would now turn to tb« Uenti 
who hiid »tiown tbenutelvisg diäp^Mnl to receive their i 

writer* tl ie ourlainlf diffii-nlt lo und aa suUiorlty for tb» neniitBg^ 
lurafi. hnt not fnMn tho Uitcr. to I'hiUiirh'« Inirlitutii £<ionn «a, a I 
fitrot^ii ootiUrn tivic:^; in rbii ^^cnte, uid capctriallv in tho «oc^ad puMH 
Tiu! firrB(li M oicaSdi'uiai! äaeUtmii. {" tin: Mii<:oiliini]Lik k!n|{> a/trrPiiu 
aiul AlvTaixlfir.") for it '.'«unoii In: otbcrwiw uiidenilooil i uu) lO lUtewB 
in Jcieeplniu, Df Btlio J ud, lib. t. c 4, } S, where, after (jicaUtig i 
IJuvid aiitl Solfimun, lie bb}*«. tär firra^b Tolirmu ßaaiKtmv, which eu' 
oaif mean, "the Icings f^irr tliOie."— I consider tlie «ord* Ym iv> 
aiwoTfiiy^t Twi' 'lauSaitiir nnd tlie worils ri (Irq a» glotoiM, rouuitod on a 
mUuailcratandlii^ ; but I cunn^t. with Kuinool, take the wlivlo of ille 
v«rM. su BtruiiHLv auui'ciIitcU as ^vnuiii«, lo Ui oulj a, gluiK. Vbat 1* 
luiiil in thi» vurse, inay be funeiiltired na ninrliing Üia liviii icpnMUU' 
tluii o! nn cvüiii. \iy nil <ye-witj«n8. A» I'nul aiiii biLriuLm hvcc gotne 
nwiiy hcfote the wimlcof l.iic uonarcgatiun hul wpuTJlcii, ilicy w.'i. ■ 
qimBl«d by Tlie fkliirs of tlia «ynaguuu» (o repeal their nldn^u«* .j: ' 
next Suhbntt. Bui nlli^r llie »hole euii|iru),'ntiuQ liaü lupanilod, IDui> -i. 
diridiutl« no afur theio lo opun tbeir heurts t>i Ibem mon luueMtvuIy 

IDUii -I I 
MtVUlf I 

qr ?ACL ASD UAumnu. 


t the gocpel «as dengned to be a foustaiD uf 

1i)^it And «olvntJoo to nntiatu in the uttermost parts of th» 

«anti. TI1U3 I'aul aad Baruobaa K'^ thv Bviia^tpie wiih the 

iMÜeviii^ üoatilea. aud a KuitaWe chjiniber ia Sie dwelling of 

oawof their Dumber, jiruhnblv, wuit tbv fimt place of wamnbliiiff 

fur the fifauTcti that «-ad uov formed. Chriati&mty aptead itaä£ 

throutfh the «holo circuiDJsccnt ili^rict; but tbu Jews coii- 

iriTod, hy moana of the feiuiiJe pmnelyti» ))eloiigiug ta ilin most 

raq»cteUo IkoulieB in the city,' and their influence en thdr 

ktsbandfl, tu ndue a paneuutioti atraiiut Fitul unil BumabBs, sa 

tlwt ihejr Htm obliged to laavb ibc pIiuM>. Tbcj' |)roceedud to 

tbo citj of loouiiim. about ten milt» to the eiust, iii Ljcoouiu,' 

irli«rc Üity had luxii» f > both .lewg aud OtklHeK. But by the 

toflucaue of the hoetilely dispo^^d amon^ the former, who aliK» 

here Imil gained over lu tiii-irsiden part of the p(!«]ilL-aiid thu 

nagiiteitea, they vkk dnvaa from this c'*y aisc. They now 

Wtook tLeauelv«« to other cities in the hu»c province, and 

C« buried in the neigh hoiirinir town gf Lystni. As in tiiis 

pikcc there noa do qnuigoguc, aud scarcely any Jews dwelt in 

it. tbey oould iruJcc knuwn tlie ^ispel oulv by eiit«ring iiitn 

caareraation' ia placea of )>ubiic lesort, and thus liiailtug per- 

■ou to nligious subject« ; gräilunilysniall groups woio formed, 

vUoh were iooreaacd by niiuiy, who wens ftttmcted by curiosity 

or intarect ia tie Bubject of conversation. Panl nas one day 

Uns iii«(niotiii({ in divine truth a. aomptiny who hnd gatheivd 

mud bim, «lien a man ^vbo bod beeu lame troui his birth, suid 

pohably mm vmd to &lt fur alms in a ttioroughEare of the city, 

luteDcd tu bim wttii gruut atteittiu». The divinu in the ap' 

pwiacQ aod discourse of Pnul deeply impr^iHcid bim, aud 

Ibiin 10 look lip willi cnwi tide nee naif ho expuctod u euro 

bim. When Caul nötii:ed Üäa, he stud tu him with a 

Toiooi " Stand upi'iglit on thy foet ;" aud be stood np 
- - 1 

,u >( IHtuwciw. fnnil other ineronccs mi^lit lie menlioDMl,) 
round nioBt OMtpUiEioe vith femilCB, us Ct>riiitiinit}> did utter- 

I otfcirr limw It waa ooniider^d ns iMlaagitiff to fltrygia or Piaidw. 

■cat pracUce of rooiiirn mlMiianai iuh in Axia. 

I «{U fad coiiili«lU<l M bnlievd t.liig who acktion ledges tliit new 

I «f life, «hieb through Clirlil havn liueii lutruiJuced U> tla« 

Ual «b9«T«r I« not iialaiiglvd in n meckuuoal tiew nl 



Tht* (iglit iittriioted & Btill larpT cniwil, and ilie rrwlnlom» 
jMiujiK- now esteeinwl tlie two ajitnirlfB to be more thai» nicnr-^ 
fpiä, wht^bud conic duwain huma» fotui iv coD&rbetießiiioii 
rooH. A lii'lii'f ortiiis kind, ilwjily »ttnti'd in Uie human ' 
atid pr-Kieciiiiii; fitim the uiiJi-umble feeling of the conncxK 
of tltv liujiiiiii mci; with God, wwji spi*t!atl from uncieiit fima 
smong the bciathen.' nud at thai \Mir\od was muth iiicmu 
by the religions ferment. Now in ilnn wty Zc-tu vta 
woinliiiiped MS iho foutidtT of cities, as ibe originator, gui*! 
mid proUictor üf clvilixiLtJüti,' as the founder »tid {>rutector 
thiä mty in i)3.rti(Mi1jir (/*iJc irriXid/c, ir<iAi»i>)(<ii'). ii-Dii a tAmf 
at the ewtnuico of the city woa dedicated lo him.* Aocc 
inyly the jieiipl*' iitrnffiiji-'i] Ihnt thi-ir iiilrlar deity, Zens i 
self, Iifid ci'iua ilown tu tli«m ; and as Fivul tvas foTCDaoet iji 
aj!enkiit^. and puaaesjed — ns wc inny c^nnhni« tmta bii 
Epistles, aud his sjiepch at Atlieii^— a peculiarly pofferfil 
«ddrtsä, and a high dogre« of (lujiiilnr clinjuence, h« wn« takta 
for HL-nueiB, wiiile Barnabns hia stiiior, why jxrhfti* hiid KODe- 
tliiiig iuipofling in his njipenrance, was bclicvcci to be Zcus. 
Tii<; \ioo\i\v rniidi! their remarks to one another *in thee 
Htmiigi-'r« ill the old Lycaoniaii (huleiet, so that I*aiil auJ E»t- 
iHibiia were not aware of their drilt. and were tlicn:for« quite 
uiipie|>(iL-cd for thu result. The nßws of tho nppcnranoi uf 
tlio8c supposed divinities «quickly readied tho temple, and» 
priri.'^t cuine mth oxen, which wore gcneralljr sncrifioed lo 

nnturc, wliocver ncknowlod^es tlie power of Spirit ortt nfttun, UUt k 
lii<liii;D dyniimzc i-oniitxioa IjuLwepii t<üul oni! Iwdy — I« t>ucli ■ |>«I»Mi It 
tnnnul appcnr wb.oltf tacredlble Lhac the tminnllale impranon of a 
divine pnwet itpdrnlio^ on ih« -nbule iiitiTiull Winy of mati. •'Iiould pt«- 
rluac re-.ulis of allogeilicr n dlflcrtnt kind from rcnieilies lukta qui nf 
llio slorot of ILe ordluarj powers iifiiiiliirB. 

' Tbo Hotiii^rii- Stai £tiwi«rii' rfowilrii AAAoiixriHiri, Otu^vJai ttA«l 

' A3 Aciniiiles ill htH diticoiirBc di Ala naya, tliat an Zen U thB 
Crcautr nnd Oivi>r of all £oud Uiiat», bv 1» lö be wiH«tilpp«d nadtr 
umuifoltl titles^ i« tiicte virioM* rcliilionii. ndvtf' Svaafrrbd** 

* Libaiiius inr jp ti» Jipi»', ri/. Jiiisit. voi. ü. p. ] 5S, rcnutrk* Ihlt clIiM 

»■pro limit ill tbo :njm«iii(iii> viciiiitj' of tompl«, hmoo freqnaUflU 
liTiüding" neural tbe wall« were aneient ttmple» ; U in the midillejl 
th<^ niif (,r li)wn>> wad oltcii dotcruiined l>y l.liii' <if tbr ci)iiir;li«a aui 
Kioim lioiise^, .-vnd at in out on-n linict, io the Suatli Sen ItluidcJ 
uicutu uru fDruicd near tbo midiuieo of Ihn mlmloiuirlMi, irfaicb j 
Wuiiic villngtit inid tuwti». 



Zrob, und vitli gurloiida to adoni thcui, to tlie gatui of llie 
city ;' «lioLber bv wislmd ti> säürrifict? to Zone before tho ^ta 
for the welfitt« of the city ; or uitemleJ lo bring the nniranls 
to Paul's residence, an«! there to perform the mcrißce ; but 
before be bnil i^iitervd Uje ^iites, Paul nud BAnmbos hnstoned 
thither, fill) of const^nmtioi), as soon e^ tliey discovered thu 
(A^vct of tlieae [»repwatioua. They rent tbeir gnrmmtH — a 
mutomaiy sign among the Jews of abliorrence for wlutU'vi-r 
outraged th« religious fmiUnga — ittid ri;ahed among the crowd. 
Pbul eiclainoBd, " What do ye I We are men liko youreelves; 
WD are oomc hither for tliTH very purpusc, that you may tum 
from these who are uo gods, to the living Dod. the Almighty 
Crofttor of tlie univwee, who hitherto hoia allowed tho nations 
of tbe «artli to try by their owu eiperieuce bow far tJiey can 
attain in the knowledgo of religion by tho pöwera of thuir oivu 
Feu»»», but who yet lias not left hiniBulf without witnesses 
amon^ them, by granting thcTp all good tilings from heaTen, 
Rild supplying them with tliosi; gifts of naturis which contrl- 
but« to ibe pneaervatioa of Ufa anil to their genenal well- 

Etc-h by auch an appoal it was difficult to tum the peopli! 

ftom tlit'ir ]>urpos0. Yot this impression on the scuaoa, so 

[wwcrful for a abort, time, anon passed itway from men ivhu 

jero not aflboted intemaliy by the power of truth. Tlie 

B«wi! Enrni Tconiiun niuocedwl in instigating tlie greater pint 

^f tlie ]ieo[iiö against Paid. He was stoned in a po]Tular 

tumult, and dniggad out of the city for dwid. But wtiilo tho 

bwliuvcn from tlie city wew atanding round hliM and luutig 

means for hia rcatorution, be arose, streiigtlivnod by the power 

of Go<l ; and aft«r sjiending only tJia remainder of that day at 

Lystn, departi^ wilU Damabiu to the neighbouring town of 

' Tlic won! Trv\äy*i, Acuxiv.13, m no other term 'a mlded, niaj lie 
Ml iialurallr undtrrsiuoil vt Ibu eitj' sale», uol of tUu duur uf tbe Iidubq 
Id wSiii^h rinl oni) lliimnluui vera eu^itig : in tbe cb^e, the jilural 
Wliulil hutill.v liave tii'cu uu«il. Tlio ittrfiitiaay in veree I'l cuii prove 
DOLhinfC: for ii mij^hi cuaitj In- oniittr.d to »tale wlicllier Ihcj lifaril of 
«fast hul Iruppcneil wUik-lii thflirlndgmg. and now hiutened totlie^teB. 
or Ibut the;' verebt thftl Lime naur the galea. FcihBpsLukebimeciriiiid 
DO «net Infonoation on llieu! pointn. 

* TheHnw nrb«n«IiU Tei^oired «houM baTehe(*nthemi<aneof leüittn^ 
nib t« th# Glter. Frum a p^rver^nn of tht!^ utxinB mme fiyM-entf of 
BBtnnit religion, lo <rlii«U tlic iuiutKliute rerciatiDnoF Onil opjiiuLoil Lt.BeU 
,pp«iilinK I0 tbkl arigimd hul miMnileretood nud misdirecud buiuo. 
VOL. t. 1 


sniftAD or CRBinTAirmn 

Derbe. When ihey had proolfiinicd tbe gospel tbera OikI Uti 
llie oeighbourhoi^,' Uiryngniii vigit«d thuce t-onua id vhickll 
they b»l propugated the faith on this jaumc-^r, und «hielt 
through [MTseoiitJoDn tlic^V hm] been oliligeil tn l«avc voootr 
than ttisy niahod ; tliey ciidearourod to «ibibLitli the foith «f 
tlio rittw convciiH, and ntgiilitrly orgsiiized the diiarclM& 
They then returood by their former route to Autiocb. 



Whius in this mannor Christianity spread itself frnm Antlocb, 
the parect-cbuTüh of tbe Gentile world, and that great rcTO- 
lutjon bogfl», which has cantinned ex-cr Binoa to work it« w»y 
nmoTig the luitions, a divisiou threatened to lircnk out bctwcea 
Ihe two pareiil^chnrchea, tlnwe two ceiitnil |ii)iiit8 from whi 
the kingdom of Cod b^gaii to extend itselL It was & 
oriain in the liistocy of tbe ohurcli aud of nimikiDd 
hidden coiitrariotiea were dcFtiiiod to come forth ia order ta' 
\w overcome by thä [mvj&v of (Thiisliaiiity tuid rcicouciicd vAÜ»] 
one another. The qnGätioii was, in facL, whether the guajiel 
v.ouKl siicoucil not o»ly then, but tliioogh all futtiru ngce. 

There tame to Antiooh mtiuy atriotly phariEaical-miuded 
nhristiiLcm &oni .leruiiideni, who, lilco tbe Eleiuotr we bftVO 
ulivady mentioned, aseujed the Gflutiles that they could not 
ubtfliii any shiirc in tlio kiiigdrini of God luid it« bleeeedneeB 
without uironaioisiou, and enterrjd into h controreny with 
T'^iul aud Buruabae oa th« vievrs tbey held on this subjeot. 
Tlio e.hui'ch at AaOocb resolved to send a depittntiou to Jnv 
mlIoiu for tho sDttlemoat of this dikputc, and their choice 
oatuiolly fell ou Patd and Baruabaa, aa the p«insoiui who h«l 

' Tlie wfptxvpot evidently mean« onlj- Ihc plao« Ifiog iu Üia fRune 
iiato viriiiii^v of tbt^ac tno towna, COTlnlnljr not a irhola proiiiiM, »ltd 
kiAl vT nil, (nun itH jj;<>n;;^r:i|ihlm] pmitian, Iha province of Oalalifc 
Ji'mvvi.hceut'i'i'Biiiaiitliai rnulln tlil*fln>t iDlwiaiisr; journey pinacbiif 
(La ytepcl U) thu Qnlatiuu b ^nioi U> b« UUMulU. 



ea mont ootivu lu t\te propa^tion uf ihe goepul nmoii^ Um 
I<ioi)lilo8. Paul bad, besides, a special renson »hich wniiM 
' bav« dctwitiiiuid liim to undertake tbe juumey without, nuy 
public oomcaiaaioa. It appeared now t£e fittest time for ex- 
pUinin^hiuiEelf to tlie apostles res|>ecting the manner iuwhioK 
he publiahed ibe gospel ainoiig the lieathijo, in order to bring 
into distinct r»cogiiition their unity of epirit anii><lst thoir 
diTumit.y of noutliod — (;ie tlie latter was neceasary tlirougb tbö 
diversity of their spheira of action) — and to obviat« all those 
«rmtrnnctios by which the congpiousnesa of that essential unity 
C(>ii]d hü disturbed. He felt aosiired by diviud illuiuinatiuu, 
tiut on ciplaa&biou on this subject wit£ esBetitifd for the well- 
being of the «hureh. The jirupiJbJ la sernA sii^h n dc^utatina 
to JeniBLlem. probably orij^-iiiiit«d with iiimaclC He went np 
to JenuitJcia' iu the yejir fiU, in urdcr (ae ho himself tells iib 
ia the Epibtio to the GaLatiana), partly for private inteiTiew 
with the most eminoDt of the aposrtles ; partly to render nu 
^acooimt in publiu Ijefore the aäeemhtüd chiu-ch of Ida oonducl 
^Bln publiahing the gcape), that no one might mippose that sdl 
^^ Mb lohutus had been in vain, but might lenm thut he preached 
ÜM ame gospel as ttiomwivcH, aud that it lind licen effective 
wflh divine paw^r among ihe Gentiles. He took with him ii 
oonvurU^d youth of Gentiie descent, Titu^ (who afterwanls 
bccamo his chief a&aociale in preachiug,) -in order taciiliibit iu 
hi* pCTtWQ a living uiiunplö of the power of the gospel among 

Bofon a public consultation waa held at Jerusalem, there 

were maiiy priv:iti3 wuferenotiti. ' The inoüt iniponaiit result 

r WAS» that »ner Pa-td had given a full account to Uie apoatles,' 

r' On the roppMition l,tu.t Pan}, in hli Epiitle I« the GalatUn«. 
rocfcou foufteea jtAn fruiu Litt cuiivc^raiou, and tbul llil'' iMiA plucu in 
the jesr 34. AbouC üx years woulil hsvc pasBtd »iQcc bis rroni 
lerm-aietu to Aniiocb. 

' Wc have alFeady icmurkGi!, that though I'ttiil, in hix Epistlu to iUn 

Gniattan«. pulieularl]' tsentiuaf Lis. nrivute cnnterruoea vtih tbe diimi 

' einiiwnt afioiitl««, jtt, in dntng en, he by no mivjine ex«ladps ot.her public 

IdmcuMiuaH. Indesl, it U ».■ir-eviiltut, tbut Puul, before Ibis tntyMl 

I diKatud ia *n large mi itucnitilj, hiwl ngreod with the npoetlea on 

tk» prluei|.l<i [hst wrre lo be lulnptisi!. Nor wpiild he in sq aaseBibly 

compoud of rupIi a rniletj of clmraoter», bring forwatd everylliiog 

*fai,?1i Rii^ht b»vi^ jiiiAWd ill ii;nro privAf.«) oc)Uiu]iiEil{!aLiuii& 

I* Tbe order ia wiitch the tiircc apoitlcs arc mL^ntiunwl is Dot uniln- 
poruuL Tku nSHling si^uni'"!: ki wti.di Jamea sLauila fiidt, in uithuut 


«PBKiB OT cHBtenAKnr. 

Jamc^s TctiT. iiiid Jobii, of his utctbml of pubUsbing 
giM]icl t^i tlid GontilHB aud ßf tbc fruit of lii» Uibouts, 
atrkiiowled^il tho divin« origin of his ap>.'fetl<.'shipy iikslead 
prvnitnuiig to diülut« to him as liis Biiyi-iioiv. Tliey 
thai he aliould continue to labour iiidoneudently among the 
lioathoii, miLking only ouo Ktipulntiou, loiit, ne beretoforc, tbe 
GuiitJIo chiitxiheH ebuuld ct^utinti« tu relieve the b'luinTn] 
«itutH of the poor Cbristiaiia at Jeruealeu. lu tbe private 
einlies »Isu, in wbicb Tuul tvnil Itumiibns recountuil wbut iiwl 
hiul effocted hj their preucliiug amoi^ tlio (jcutile^ iLeir 
iK'uouiils were n'ceiviKl with juyful iutorEst. Bill Bomo vIm 
liikd passed over to ChnHtiuiiity fixim the Pbariiaue 
now came forwai-d and d(.'cian?d that it was »ecesaury that 
(iciitllcs «hould roeuivo ftimitncisiwi along with th« 
»ud tbui tluy üuuld Ill-know ledgö tli*m as Ubriätiau bretb 
Hilly oil tliis coiiditioo, and therd'ore insisted that Ti' 
should bo c.irt'tiuicsiaed. But Paul stroiiuuusly iiioiutaiiied, 
(igaiii§t theti) the equal jiriviluges of tlio (Jentile§ in tl^H 
liiiigduiQ of ÜikI, and tluit by I'oitli in tho Kudtxiurr tbi-y b4| 
eutyrpd into the aaine ralatio» towaidsGod as the bcliuvinj 
Jaw» : fur tliiii ivuaua, be wtmld iioi give war to tlkem in 
reference to Titiis, for this woiUd have been interpreted by 
the PhiiriMiio .IcwMi Chi-istiiLUH a« a concos^oii of tbe prin- 
ciple for viiicb llioy cont(;iidod. ' 

Aa tbctui uhjtiutioiia gitve riec to much oltercution, H «ttj 

doubl th« true one ; the othor must haxtt been derivMl from thn enUO 
of giving Pi»i«r tlie priojaoy aiuung tliu apüiiUe& Bui the priatitj'J 
■gfea to Jmiui», lii^csiisc lie «ika moat, ctto^Mnod bytbe Jcvtuli ChriiUul 
-whn wore »trbl üWrtersof.llitt Uoui« Lftw, and stood M Lhit baMi i 
ihe ciiurdi ut Jtrii»i1eni. wliile I'iiLct. hy h'a iaitmoanc with the (3a>- 
tile" luiil OuDtilu ChtisLiiuiH, woB in Bgmc dc^M wlniig«d from lint 

' Tha reiuljug wliioli oniita vh oitj In Oal. ij. 6, irculd mp{>OM, or 
tliB cot1i.mii7.ik i^unui^eeion ot Paul in ihis case, Ixil «hli-li, nni)«r Itit 
eiUltnc cin;i;in:slji[ii.'cs, «niil'l b« wholly iufaDeisUnt with llic cbWWt 
vf ihe upoitlo. Thin pei;ulijir raidiog of (li« old Lntin uhnich, OTVilCDtlj 
prui'«uilcd in purl Irum iho diflicult; of i-bo coiuiTuoiton for the l»\i 
trnns^aliou, iinil ]inilil,y from tti<^ pi^rceplion of a ^ujipoMd CODtcadictkO 
Uoiwecn till' «uu'liift of Tiiul with Time, Jiuii liia cunduL-t with TimatbT. 
Biid ILkcnitn ftv>m nripoiiuoD lo Marrion. TbiLt in the Önclc cbonn 
«hlob. Ill ouiJHL'qiietiL'u d[ Üia prini'ipk- vf tbu oiiroi'iiuia prfdonintlM 
In it, Qiii>it have bccD much lÜapnäiiil to Buch a rcridliij;. so tm» o( 11 
can be roaiitl, provus liaw vary muoli the tutboritr of tbe manoMHfil« it 


vwtexotKZan of tub gentile csußcra. 




ttionght tiec«»ai7 tlittt Ike subject ehould be discussed in a 
eQnr«ittii>ti of the nhule ckitrch.; but this va» aSixxwurt]» 
datnged into a meeting of cho^tm dclfc^tes. ' At this meeting, 
&ft«r much discusgiaa, Pet«r rose up, to fipp^iü to tho testi- 
lutHiy «f his own esperienoc. They well knew, lie said, tliat 
tJocl hnd locg bolbro' chosen him, to bring tbe tientilea to 
Ediith in the gospol ; find sin«e God vrhu aeeth tiiä liciu-t hsu] 
commuuiculcit to thorn tlic Holy Spirit, ia the snnie maimer 
iLM to ihu bc'licvem from unioug the Jowg, he hnd Uy this jirt 
Leitiltod that in hi« cyos thi^'y wcro no longer inipmv, uftar he 
had puHAod their hoaitä by fiiith iii tho Rciloemer ; they were 
now ttt pure 113 thi) believmg Jew3, «ud lience, lu thtj ooininu- 
nication of spiritual gifts, God had made no difference between 
ihotn. Hnw then oniihl they venture to nuestion the power 
and znice of God, an if liu could not witliout tho law admit 
the uentiles to a partioipatton of solvation in the kingdom of 
God ? Why would tlioy Iny a yoke on beliefere, mhicli ueitlier 
they nor their fathers had been ahia to bear ) By " a yoke " 
PoMr oortainly did imt mean thu outward oleervanec cf 
ceremiMii«)! simply oa Euuh, I'ur h« himself still observod tltein, 
■Dil did aot wish to pEir&iiBds the Jewish ChnKtiaus to rc- 
uottuoo them. But he meant thu outward ohservauco of tho 
Ifttr, as &r (ts it proueeded &oiu its iiitenuiJ domitiioa over 
Uli: cQUscience. so m to imike justification and advatioa 
dejieiident upon it ; nheut;« arose th9 dreoA of {iiitdug their 
solvation in jeopardy by tlio slig'ht««t deviaticin &'om it. aud 
tint tonuvntiug: scrupulusity wliich invented a number of 
limitatioiia, in order, hy such Belf-imposied restraint, to guard 
■gtuniit overy po^ihle tra-nagrcsaiuii of the law. A§ Poter 
undei^tood lie tefm in thiüseusu, ho Duidd add, "But w« ülsi» 
by feith m Jesusns our Bodöomor havö beun freed from Üie 

' Tho vlia1i> elmrah viu &r boo numoroui. to nllo<ir of all It« mecabcn 

MMtlncf^r MSFLilutilaD: t>ut that lUejr lavt a part in iheilelibernlian^ 
Ippiiant iufinriblu fruu lh.e worU air SAtj t^ /khA^oI«, Xcin ST. 22. 
Th« «piAik la tli(i Qi^ni.ilc Cliriotian« wm wrKt.cit ia tho uaum agi 
nurcly of iliecltk'ni of lliu uburuli. but of all the ClirUtiun brcthrtn, 
AIki the word» iröi- rt tiXi]9nt. Atl* xv. 1«*, favour thi» iiiWrptetatiuQ, 

* Peler*! wuniK, dt>' iiim/üi' d^v''''»!', ere ul' luma vaXas for a i^hronülo' 
^ol purpou!. line« Ih^y ihaw. thai baiwauii the tmldinjc of 
^Uil« UMinbl^ and th-s «önveixion of Camelius. to eny it» lout, > tolo- 
■Ic l«ngtlt 9f tine uiut have ai-P«ed. 

SPBEU) or emRartuoTT. 
jQko of tbc law, änce we an no \r-\f^ trauod to it 

mMDH of jIUttifiCMtiOD ; foF V«, SB WfiU 38 th« (klttiU«, 

Üiat we «Ji&il obtain «Blva.tM)a tlirougb tbe grace of our 
- JOMU Christ," 

These words of Peter miule a dcofi imiirccskiii oa many, nad 
a gracral aileuce follovrfd. At^r a wliile, Bnmabas, «ho kaä 
for jean beuu higtily eeti-emed by t))b diturv-h, rvw, lutd Üia 
fniü. Tn adcUtioii to the bets reported b^ Peter wbieh l«ti 
fied the opprntioD of the Divin« Spirit amoDg tlia 6«ntiloi. 
ttier meuiiijuerl oIImth from tlieir own experieiMMi, aa4 n- 
counted tlie miracleti by which Uod had aitled ibeir laboun. 
^^lien thu minda of tli« nnsotnbly were tbuit prepaitxl, Jtunw' _ 
Qiunc foiward. who, on avcount of bis etiict obBOrranoe of ihd 
luw, w»8 held in iho greateet rereranoe by tbe Jews, and tO^ 
wbo«e words, therefore, tbe greatect aynfidcQae would be 
])]a«ed. He brought tbör delibemtions to « cicae, bj a pro- 
poKÜ nfaiefa oirrespondod to bis own peculiar modention md 
raildneofl, aud was adupted to oompcM the esisiiug dtSiiraian. 
Refen-iug to Peter's oddrei», he said that this apostle bad 
Bhowu how Gud had already »oelTed the Gentil», in onl«r to 
'brm a people dedicated to bis aerrioe. And this «(treed witk 
Jie predictioiia of the prophets, who bad foretold that in tbc 
noica when tbe diH^ayed tbeocmcj was to be Klorioutly »> 
wived, the woniliip of Jeliondi 'nonld be extended ako amoig 
the Oentilea. Aouordingly, what bad reoeatly ooctmod among 
the Gentiles need not exdte their astooishment. Gud wbo 
eflioted all this, was iiow fultilliug bis eternal oouofiol, as be 
had promised by hie prophets. Siooe, iherefure, by tbia 
etenutl ooiiDsel of God, tbe Gentiln wero to bo inoorponted 
into bia lungdom by the Meadah, let tbem not doJo to do 
nnythii^ which migbt obetmct or retard tbe progrese ef this 
work. Tliey ought not to Uy auy uuneot^sarj' burdens en 
Ute converted Gentiles. Tbey should enjoin UOtbing loace 
i^oo them thou abstiiienoe from tneofc oflereil to idob' or of 

* Tke qnaitica <th*tlier ihi« ««a the MO tl AlpbMM, or «»oibir 
pnvoD, most b» left for futan «nmination. 

* Wkat renuiaed of tke Atnii of aqinMU wied in no^ftoe, viapKl^ 
caeil }tj Ukmo aba praoMted Uio laeriSot tt their own mola, ta^iMkj 
UHmjwtoteUiroinhoaoa» ott^godt,)ma^ F**^)? diipowd o( ia tbt 
tautM. no sating of wtuii wtn esilwt prr9 TQ< *■■ regarded b; ib» 
f««*abbUwrrMtM(delMtati»ik i*trlr i(Ml.cb. UL|S. 




Mils Btnuiglftu, from blood and frnm iinchnstity. ' But as 
to bclievent from among tlie Heyn, uo micii iipeciiil injiuiclionit 
were needed for them. Tliey aJrtvuly knew vLat tliey wore 
to pnotino as Jawa ; fur in evciy citj vhure Jews neidutl. tho 
lav of MoecB woe road on [he Sabbatb-dajs in the »ytia- 
pogooi. Acts sv. 21. ' Tbl! miidiidiug words were atUipUjii 
to paaif^ tbe Jews on account of tiuedom from the Mumud 
lav iiUowi>d to the Gentile Cbriatians. 

Tbe rasolutious pussed on this occitsion had fnr their object, 

' to reduoo hy mutual approxinmtion tlie oppositioa existttig 
IwtWMtt tbe J«nieh and Gentile C'hristiiiuB, The oliaervaiicu 
of time ordinancas by the latter, would tend to ieaseii.and by 
degrees to deetroy. Ui« averBioii with which native Jew« were 
front to r^ord ns impure, ooti who had b^^u brought iip ns 

I idolaters; it might assist us ia forming cairect notions of 

< Hoht of thciie points belon^d to the ievtn j\Tenpu. to the obwi 
vftHM ul' wbkb mca here boiiod b^furä the giving of lUe Moeaic taw, 
vliii'li Clud give to llie «on» of Xuuli, uid tu l!ie uUeerviuica at which 
tbr PnBiiljM of (he (iiitu bonnii th eiiiae1tre& Vid. ßiuioi^, Lecieon et Bahiinicum, sob voce -u 

* IL uppvnrA to rue triitireLy impoAnihte, so to underaland the wardä ia 
A«U Kv. 21 (u> cbey liAva been understood i-y Ihe iMmi exjioiiiuiii, 
U«y«r ftud Olnhamcn), ue ceatuiuing n, ivufoa Tot «but lad lieuu «aid 
bcioro. 77iw HaMmbly requirad do rcuon nb; Ihiy should impoKc «o 
much, but ual; wh.r tUej nhanld impoBs iso inort tin the Ouiitilu Cbrln- 
tla&s. Also VroiD the rorm of the clnii»» in v. ID and 20, If sni^b a 
MfereDi:« eitetcd.we nhottld eipetl to l\a<l a reuüa of tins kind, nnjuely 
ftar tli«u4|Ta£ti'OYX(7p. Tliese wurde, too, Lukea in thelt obviiiu« ^cii«e, 
CUIBOI cuiiiftiu tnu pusltivi> rcitnoD Tor Üie iisnln^ nf thew iif|un<.'tli>iiH , 
!nr tbAt Mosea was reitd in tba nyno^goguu erur; Subbaih-auy. should 
mher wnv u a foundaUon of a reqnircmunt for tho obAciraTin! of tbe 
«bale Itw. But in verM 21. the omphasid is on tha word Msin^i. and in 
Ikat it MmtretW an untit.hissis Im thut wbii;h ie given as tb» stamiling- 

JolnC for the convcru from beithstilEtu. But iw tu whiLt roncum»^ the 
a**. th(i«o wlio winli Iv ohiter'e Lbe Uw, wo need to uy notbia^ ii«w to 
(4«n>. fur thov c&d bau-r every Hahbalh in tb« synugogue wbat Mottt 
n^ulr«! of tliora. It i'iluiioL lie our jnt^iitiDli, wtiile we pr«Bciihn »a 
men than IhU to Ibe oonvurtii fioiu heathenism, to diminish the rcvc- 
nsot «f ti« /ew( tit vlie Moi^i« law, thrjsoiloin adopt* vtrj Dead; 
this inlerpralfttiiio. by lollowinp Lhti nutural connexlua of th« [laxia,^ 
Bom. 83, t 2 : nul fva *i^ it< drSi^ti'Oicii, Slan >i^ 'luuisiUiF i^ o^rri 
Arnrr/AAn^v ; ^■^-)a7i Aiyoiv: uud ho ciplaitu the Hurdn v. 21, tui-t' 
ttri Maiirä< qIItuii AiaA^«Tat iumtx&i. It ^ivcSi iiic pleaaure to agree 
Fith Vit. äobnecktfntiurjnr tn niy vie» of this paAiago; >m biscicelkut 
ntnu'ki^ in h.s work bufun: i^uot«!, on thu AiAt,, p. 23. 


BMtOAD or CnRlftniNlTT. 


their feolinffs to compare (though the cmm aie no* tlio rcilation of the offspring of n nstioii wburw 
tiiuiity hau long been establislied lo tho newly convr' 
CtiriKtinris frotn modem hi-atheuisui. BiU if the helie 
3i>\n eauld not hrin^ theiuaeiväs to uTi^raome their prvjudii 
AgninEt th« hclinvtngtientileenE uucircutucisuil, itwould he 
inuoh more difliciilt to hriug saoh |ieiw)iif! closor to tbeEB. if 
they did not at all ohwrvo what was roqiiired of tho luiid 
Proselytes, and ronoiiiiue what from the Jewiali iitiiiidin^potnt 
uppouTud ulüscly cuDucctud with idt-ilatry, stud tlte hopiire Mh 
i>l' idolatfira. And ua theno ordiiiancea would aeive od the 
(riiG hand tr> biing Gontilo Chn§tiAns aenrer iu Jcwiiih Cbrik- 
tians ; so mi tl^ie other hand, tliey might contribute to mth- 
dntw tho fonner mors from the uficiäl htrnthoiiisli mod« oi 
liviii{', uud guiii-d tbcm egainst th« poUutiuu of hetttheiüsh 
littcROUTMs aud iudulgcncea. The experience of tho next' 
century tcfbohos «a, tow even the laiKiiuderstaudina;, which 
iiiiidti oiU &r tlic«c ordliiarnseB a positive law applicable to 
a-^n <jt Ihu Church,' might in tlita direotioii wurk for KM>4t' 
Viewing the transaction iu tiita hüht, it is indeed Hurpröing 
thitt to ordinance» intrely disciplinary, and intended for only 
ouo piirtiualiu- ]>jiriod, aud fur jiurHutia uudiT ct.<i"laiii peouliar 
itlutiouB, the commimd againat uuohastity biiidiutt in nil agoj; 

' In tho ßnt ngOH, Cbrlatium wdtq lUitlUfpiliboil bf not T«atiiRiig I« 
«At any or lb« tliiug» furbiddcn in thin iitjuui;Iioii. nui vhon um tarljr 
tindULTliaiaatiiig opposilloa agttiiuC hcaihciium btid <xaaii-i, « [u«ce 
curruut «lew woa takeo, wliiub Auiruaiina boe beautiful!; dtitt«p«>l. 
"'(Apmtoli) digiriae mlbl vidua tu r pro t<!iiinr>m rem fiu:iUiiu vl oequ- 
iinaui tilMeivhiit'itius oiicraA&ni, in ciitn li^mätiti« cllatn KCnll» pr^- 
Ivruii^uliirem llhitii laptcli;ni iluns lutu cunclautcui alii|ui<l fuiuiiiiüiUr 
iiliHorvaront, Tninan^Ho VBro illo tempore, quo IUI 'liiö piirWdfla, iinnt do 
i'iivumoigiDns, aller do prteputio venicntc«, quimri« in aiisnlari laplde 
L'onf^drdAft^nJ'. l^^moa ^iiin quibu^rlaia proprieutMbuB <liäl.i milluii fmiUK 
luot, no lib! eoi-ksU gentium Lulia cfK'uiik ^«1, ut in on nuUua Inallitt 
^rnilb jLppiireul, quin jam hue CUrLslianiii« ubw^rvat, ul tunlM wl 
inimitlonfj QTifiilu nan s'ltiiignC, nisi qUEirum äint^ii »nÜKiM «at. mA 
Icpiii'cm nan edat, si lasau u ccrvicie [>cmi^iia iinlto cruatiUi TultKn 
ooi-iiiux mlf Et qui forte giniioi taugcrc islo runniilitnL » cuitcrit ini- 
dcntur, ita omnium nnimoa in liai: re Icnuit aontenlia vorllatih" Hol^ 
XV. II. A«gwil>n, c. FamtH'n lUctniett. lib, iiiii. n. IS. TIm ip- 
p4<tts vl«<F, It i« tnio, WIM iitniiitiiiniKi in the Greek Churc-lt, la wbitk 
Ih« Iiijunctlon of alMlliii:ui;ii Trum tiluuit nuii from autualt «tnagled «k 
oouSniiedbjIhcSotioiidTrulliuiiiLnCounuil, in IboyoulUä, 


and reUting to An objectively morsti point, shouli] bo nnnntod. 
But the CDiitK-iioii in which thi» prcitiiliition uppean, furubtwt 
Iba bnA ei{Jiinatiou of the ca.uEe and deaigu of its iiiti-odiu:- 
tion. llopnia i!«ui!iiti(iiii.-iliu(iotia(:xii»t with tlui other poinls, 
un account uf'thc cIobc ocanciion in whioh it appcai-ecJ lo the 
J<!WH to Kbui'i with idolitry ; for in tho writingB of the Old 
Tt-staiiieiii. they were acisuatuined to see idolaiir and uw- 
uhtistily uvurj'whcre plou^ tocher ; exoe'^fes ot this class 
were rcolJy connected with nmny pai-ts of idolatry ; and tJio 
stiicb idea of cliaKtity in i» comprwhcneive setiso formpil the 
Miuidin^-pvint of nutunil rellgiuo. It is istruduoed hora 
not aa :l Hpuüiiü niontl ^irecept of Cliristiiinity ; iu thai ctu«, it 
wuuld licit have been ko itisiilnted u6 a, pn^tive cominnntl, but 
would tu.thar havo beou dtsduccd from ilfl oouneiioa with the 
whoU) uf lliu fJhristiim faith and Lfö its wo find it in the 
Apoatotic Epistiea. Hure It is jntrLnln»«d tut a jiarc uf the 
luidcnt Juwiati opposition to evety tiling which ap[)eiired coti- 
n«cti3d with idolatry, and this opposition was now to be traQS> 
(ijrrod to tlio new Christian. Chnrch. 

Altlio<%'ti the»; iujunutioii» hod a precis« objoot, aud 
doubtlesi fittiiinfid it in some m<3a8nre, yet we cannot conoiudB 
with ocrtninty, that .liimsij Imd a clttir perception of it in all 
[t4 u&tent, when he propuaL-d thi.<« middlu way. Aa the peraoiis 
who oomposud this assembly acted not. merely according to 
tho «uggcstioii» of hurmiti pnideui;e, but thieöy as tho organs 
of a higlicr spirit tbiitnni mated thoia, of a liiglior wiadoni tlmt 
guided thera, it wunld fulluw, thr.t thuir inj mictions ser^'ud lor 
uertaiu ends in the gnidanue uf the uhuruii, which wui*e not 
pcffcutly clcur lo thuir own apprehension. Even. Jome» hira- 
seir does not develop the motives which determined him to 
propose suol» fi measure- In this asscnibly there was no oc- 
«AVion, oa wo have befoi-e romarke J, to mention the principles, 
^iit mw&ly to develop thereasou.why no more thim thi». luid 
Aot tho whole law, shoald be imposed on Christiana ; and this 
in aooordingiy, he deduced fi'onu what he and tho other 
,lu!t nM^ogniaod as the oentral point ot tho Glirifitia» faith. 
Jam^s, without any distinct views and aims, only 
that aoiiiethiug must ba done for the Ornitild Chris- 
laas, fwho wcro to be acUnowlodgüd aa menihorB of God's 
^^, king>loin, with equal privilegos, iu virtue of their fcith in 
Ik Jehovah and the Messiah.) tu brin^ thorn nearer, tut it r^orded 





thor outwiird mole of lif«, like the I'roBelytes of the 
to Judadiun find the Jewa." 

But KlUiough it WELS lint DeooBBRiy iii this public atmutiiblj, h> 
duvolop tu n positive mauuer the tuotivus fur Auming tlüae 
iiijuiiutiiins wu are oertainly not to aasume, that the tpoitlea 
leti till) deuiaiou uf tlie priiicifjlex on which they niBatit to act 
»ywiinla 'jrtintilc Christiana, to the delilii'mtioiis of thia m(%1> 
iiig ; but im we have Uefiire rumHTkcd, most probably brought 
fbrwwd only wLat seemed to tliem in tbdr pHmt« oonfercncu 
beut adapted ior tli«ir objeot ; in that consultalJoQ it vaa 
ueeeM^ to dtacusB the motirea for these iujimctJoiis, and tbd 
ohjoctc which it was proposed to attain by them ; for in ttAi^ 
tiou to wliat Paul desired — ttint to those iraioDg the Gccttilc^ 
who acknowledged Jesns as the MBsaiah, nothing fiiither shoiild 
be prescribed — a coaoOtatory taeustire of this kin4 roust hat« 
beeQ accQiuptuüed by a statemeut of the priudplea un wbidi 
it was founded. Anil ns na must acknowWg;)? in Jnmee the 
power of the Chrietian spirit, that he sabordinatiKl t» tlio in* 
tereota of CiiriEtiimity hijj nttachmont to JiidAism and Iha 
forms of the iiui^ient tLenufacy ; so in Fäiil, who «w to xteiora 
for the indepeniience of Chriatiaiuty aiid of th« Geotilc 
churoboa, we raiwl renx^se a zeal tempered by ChrietiAD 

' [ DiL'nii od); Bimlaguua teguUtlon«: for bul llien boon fimfi} ■ 
tmniffirenBe of «uch u wore anjoinwi to the Proerlyt«» of tbe 0*t«v U 
wuiilij hire heea HiiSctent to re(|uin of iho OcnliU ClirinllADi, unang 
whom Quto; froHilytcs of thu Oste might bo founit, ili&( iliej shaald 
gulimll ta all thu regulBUiiiiB wbicli had Litberbo ticcQ abiervcd bj ptf 
laoM of that doss. 

* buUieri vlio was far from the reetriciad, imiutlunil nntJoa of iospiiv 
tlnn, and tbe ilarish adberenue to Ibn lettur, müntaiued bj dia Uiool»- 
Iflaiu uf the ITlh centur.Y. nya, in ntfercDco to ihm prapowl of Jtam 
TvoL iii, p. 1042 of WsIcU'h eiiitiou). " thai the IIoIt Spirit «llotnod flk 
JaniM tu mtX« a fulxo «t«|>." But evca if lame» liuil nul. ticfco« him (ha 
bif bur object for the icuidauL-H of Üie vLurch. tlii« oTtgbl not to ba Gtllol 
0. fal^e dttiip, ill r<l&ti;in to the pi^ciiUar atniidm^-point wbl'cb he toct: b) 
the liiatutio»! dev^clopniffnl of primilivö Clirial.innttj ; for ho vu if- 
pointed b; the Lon) of tbo church \a oei^upy the intermediate iMIkBi^ 
point vbloli BM to Gonnoi.a tbe Old Tei'UuiiMil vtlb tbe indtfwiimt 
dovclopmcnt of tli« New.and horn which he prcsentiid Iho mswuniitdf 
tbe giHiicI ill the form of the OM TsaUmcint U bceomcii u«, wiioD «« 
Sru couniderimf tho joint luboura of thu apoBl.lp^ to obiwrnn atteatiKll 
the whale atbt^niQ of orgnnif^ libtorluil duvclcipmrmtt in which ttttm 
niBiuber Ukux bla apprnpriaM atatioa, and all u« iti»igM>l (v bt ' 
pleioe&u W ouQ Miaibet. 



«isdoni, whidi yiclilcti to u mcii^iun: of uoounituiHlation deteis 
minect liy ctrcuiusuuiGes. ' 

The reM>l»ti<.iiig ailo|iU<cl ün thin occnsion were now eom- 
municHltsi! to the Gmitil'- cliurohea iii HyriA and Cilici^* in 
aa epistle dnfm up in the niuuc of the na^mlily ; tiud two 
|)erauns of good repute in the ciiurcli. perlinps members of 
th« Presbytoiy at Jenisnlcm, Hu-sjilms mi*! Silns (Silvnniui), 
»«TB chowD as Iwartro of it, who were to aooom]jaay Paul 
and Uamabos, and counterwork tlieiiitnguc^trftlidrJuduinng 
opjKiTicnU. W'e will here insert Ükh short tpi.itle. (irokably 
dioUted bv James himself, and tbc eurlicst puUlic dociimont 
of the Chnstioii church tnywu tit us." It ia as ftdlowB : " The 
AlHKlIlis Hud Eldon, aiiil Bnitlii-eu,* isL-ud grt>eting to the 
trötliren which ore of the Gentiles in Antiooh, and Sjria, and 

* liuiliar bcHntifulljr remarkB. in the passage altora i^iioted, " There- 
fore tb«; agree tliut Jiuaes «Lüuld pn^unbu, and shice tlieir uonwleuon 
arc li-'ft ttte und unreiiurctl, tliiil 1I1L7 Lliiiik is cnoufib fur tbein j Ihejr 
were not «v euvioiin u: 10 wi*li lu- quarrel aUuul a liltlo lUing, provideu 
il could be doDe iciilioiii damage;" 

' TJia iujuiiuLioiu woni di^ei^ud, it in tniB. for all GcqIiIb Cbrialiuaa, 
baltlieBpMitlowagaililmHed only tol.hi; cliDnifacsiiyici^ifii-d iu it. hei^siia« 
Id Uieae Uie [liB(iiiU iuul l\nl ol all uT'lavii. am! tieLaniL* ü\cy must hiva 
been iropected. hb pariiDr rhurche*. nnninif ihe Oeiililiit. wUli irtiicli tlie 
lattr fanuad Aeiulii^ i.-hiin.-lmii naiihl L'onnui<t itieiniiGi cce. Henuc aUo 
PmI. la 0»l. I, 21, as a gi^neral duiüTipiinn of ilie 6|i1iore of his labours, 
mentioaj c/a\y Ute tcXifiura ttji Svpias isl t^i KiAmUi. 

' TliO >ililo of tlii> liouuuictil. (murkeel hj Bim|>li<.-lly niiil Fxtreme 
brevitji) tc*Ufi«a iU origJiuilU}', \liu\ Üa^ author of i.he Acta »t him- 
»eir to coinpiMe lucb an cpistle. and al.toiiijile-i 10 Hiäiinio tlio «il.iialion 
ot the writer, it woald hate lieun a vury ditlerunt Donipusilion, And 
baDM «a ma; draw a cancluBioa lelatlve to tlio J>«couraoe givcu )u llie 

* According to llic rcadin? adopted bj Lachmann, "H would Iw, 
" The ApoMlcsatuI IVusliJ^tv Chnetiaa brullireit,' llie;y wrote m hnv 
ttUiA to brctbrrn. Tliix reailini; ia etriiiagly suppi'i'ed. We uiu 
hanllj deduvc ila ot'tgiu rruiu liiL'r.Ln::lili-jl iiillucni-u^ wliiL'b would hnfa 
exclnded the cUurcb. rratii suth üoti^ullatimi» and dt'ci^igns : Itx aiitl- 
^llitjr is tOQ great, fur we Gad it in IruuaiU'.. lii. 12,14. Il in alga eiiuiklly 
tgainut liio hierarvbical spirit fi>r thenpiKtlSH aitd prcEliyiers lo »rtte 
to Ilia brGthreo aa tiräi.hreD. And iL inuy bo euitily etpluiaed. hoir 
It happened that eincB, from the introductory word« of Lake, they 
axppTt'^d an o]>^st,]n frura iha ffbcilo t^huroh, it eeemod Qcci^o^arj to i1lk> 
tiiuruLih iho brcthrp<u from the apoetlüb and pr^äbyt^r^, und bence pro- 
tialilf the voni« koI di were iuscrUJ. Yiit eidcu, la Auls it. 23, 
tha whola oUurah U muntioaeil in conaoxioD n-ith the apostlea and 
|iT«abyt«f>. wc inigbt expect Id the epiatle luelf a distinct refereuce to 
the daanhj iLa i^tiuür also of v«iEe S4 (Ibr these anoaymous otnn- 



C'ilicia.' Fmnsmuch as we bavo hcvd, thitt c«rtüa -wbUÜ 

wont mit fnifii 11»;, hiivo Iroiiljlrd ycm willi words, saying y« 
muift be clrcuniciited, and keep Üib law, to whom w« gave 
such vomniHitilinciit : it i<üi;mud jfcicdiuitouxbeiiigasBein* 
toKether,' to scud chügen men unto you, with our Iwlored 
iiiiWn« niid Pmil, — mt'ii tliat hiivc hniurdisl thuit Uvea for 
name of tuir Lord Jesus Christ. We have therefore sent Jiidnii 
(iiiil Silas, whu gliitll alsii ti*ll yon (lie sinic tilings by niouUi.' 
For it eeonu'd giiod ta iih, iindi^r the giiidaiici) of tho Üdtf 
äpirit,' to lay ii[>oii yoii n<i|_Ti-iitcr burden t.biai tliesu seoeaauj 
thiiifpt — tliat ye abstain h-am mcata gflbred to idote, md froia 
blood, and trom things strangled, and from unohastlty ; from 

pluiucn could hardl>-b«loni! lu Ibo prcsb^'tisnof tb« cbunh) a{)paus 10 
uauuLQ thltL. Tlie fiist kdI di, venu Ü4, mwi hftTo occulouod tin 
ouiisniun of Iho h-'poih!. 

' Tho x'>'i»»' !><'''6 wadu tliu /r Kujitfi, which li h) cmnmon Ln Mi 
faulitie E()iHileg ; bm ir. d-ecerves Dotii-« thai, u k lalutuiiun uuly, ibU 
Xaipciv is toiiiid in Ihn Epislle of Jnmini. 

' Tlia wuriis •/tvoßii'ou oiicSviiafiv. 1 il« not UDdcnUoil willi ]le5>M', 
" being iinanimouB," bui, ■■ when we wpm tnrt ingnl.hnr;" a« JuaBiW 
tir aFlua il«iiuteä in the Acl^, not. '' of one miud." l>ul, " toa:*th«r,~ U 
in V. 4d. Wa ainy tee from tlio Alexaudiiui Tenioo. uiii Jutai^i 
(Aatiq. x\x. 9. J 1). how ilie i.'lian;z;a ol' meamng has bceu formed. 

' Tlie exiilujiiitiDO iif lliU Inmhinji!, Attn iv. 2", la io PTtrr »«7 
BeulL If we refer Tinitä 10 whnl goosbotore. the rmimwiII be, — tli 
«rill unnuiini'e I» y>a tlio nuuio tiling« Mint Bnnmt^U: silcI fniil li&v«' 
DDiiouiK^»! lo yon, i^ I untie Ttitooil ilic words in Ibn firsl ciliüaa of Ülit 
work. TLe würdH 81s \ifnv ara iiol. dsotlji ügainB.1 tliis liit^i'TpmtJiUoD: 

for though tb.eM worde uoiiiiiuvd tbo niferon«« U) »bul fuUiMted in 
wrlltag, Ihcj inl^ht be tliub votincuLed witb tbcm : nniuGly, as we nov 
i» wrlUtig^alm txpreiw ttie »'itjtu principles. Bat xinoi! uiFiiiiiin in a 
mwic before of ihe pienching of llarniili» uid Pun!, nnil wc niii»t ihi" 
fora »"[iplj aiinmlhinjf not lieforLi inilLualtd. und »iiu'e Ihc »utd« M 
AiJ>n« mnlflin arefuranM to whnl followHiiind ihtrjfoni nn' «jTfl^7<'AAfiii, 
but ijra^t's.Xiu' in htris used. 1 now pwfer tbo other int^rprttation, il- 
tljougli in thin cuBo likewise, it. is dimcidt trO auppljr wli&t Id »MNttty, 
In Ircdwua wc Und ik reading wliii'li pre»?uta ihp gcD»e rcqutrod by tfae 
OL>niitiion in a way l.liat rciouvei- itll aif1i<;u1ties, but mutt bo crin>^i<l«nd 
uv na exposition ; liiy yniitT)!- iitiüv, laiie&A o( ri aink, aanuniiuMc" 
noatnim «eaieminm. Irtn. lii. 12.14. 

' In tUo -uipbinalioR al-o ol' Ai^t« sv. 2?, I ilep»H, und witt gn»!. 
»wiifideneo, from my foinier view. Agreeably to the inuincr tn irbki 
AoHfjvia (iveiy tvll^Tfi f>Iju:od wilb tLedHliYtiof lliäpvrboDHK Ibc BUl^dL't 
I'nniiot help w> unilcniiandin^ it vrltb tho word« t^ A'}Iy vMiiuari, 
ettiUf Hiuuv il'it lUHjuidiby the llulyijpicic, accordiiiK to ilic Ki'trTi'ei< 
mmt idinni,miiibiiuldeiiii.'i;t ir lobt prefixod. lliHllica'fi>w."t!iii'd ^rl 
^il li;i» %Q pliMuwd tlio 11 ol}' Üidiit— tbr'n, M'c w hixorcuDS bavc ri'BulTCi 
'Jütüugli thu nflair wu delcriainod aiTardiiur to Laib,tl.Kwiin; 


0» , 



vhicb if ye keep jouraelTes,' to shall do well For« yo 

Wc may couclude from this epistle, that those who bad 
Tuinnd tlie coutrovrtity in the Aiitioehiftn chtiroh, liail appefJod 
tn the iwithoritj <it tlie apüstloe and prcab_yttfry, Pi-rha|ja 
tl»ey rt;iin;ni.'iil«tl tlicmBt'lves as tleli'galo» of the church at 
Jeniaalem, — afi this was afterwards made of impörtunce hy 
Üw wlversnries of Piiul — hut they weiv? nut nc-Viiowledged S8 
fluck We ece how im]K>rtaut it v/an foi' the apostles to 
nccredit Pftul anti Barnabas as faithful proacliors o!' tie gotrpel 
aiid to give a. piihlia testaninny to llieir afireetnent in spirit 
with them. Yet we caimot help remarUiug tbo brevity of the 
cpifitle - thfi want of a puuriug of the lieart. towarila the 
new Christian« of an oüürely difttrent race — the ahsenc« vt 
Ulli development of thu views on which tho resolutions passed 
were fotiiide<L Tho ofiistle was without doubr. dictated in 
hiuti;, and mnst W lallen oiJy for an otQcial document, a§ the 
credeutiain uf u.ii ural oomniuiiicatiun. But tliey depended 
morn on the living; word. ihaJi on writton uharactera, Henoe, 
vbilc die written toinmuiiication was so brii^f, they sent li\*ing 
IS to Aatioch, who wuidd csplaiu every thing more fiilly 
nnling to tho sonse of ttiis meeting. 

Thus Paul and Barnabas, having happily attained their 
otij«ct at Jt-rusaiem, returned to the Ocntilc Christiana at 
Aiitioch with tiiive plcilgcs of Ghristiau feUoivsliip, and 
aooomiMMiivd by the two duh-gntes, Biiraahaa took alao liis 
nephew Mai'li with bim fTom Jerusalem, to be un asHiataat in 
tlie coniiumi wnvk. H« iiad funncrly acconipaiiied them oa 
their ürat miaaiouaiy travels in Awa, but bad nft remaiiied 
faitliful to 1Ü TOVtttion ; pving way to liis feuUi:^ uf attach- 
m^iut for hia native oonntry. lie had left them when they 
«itcrfd Piunphyliju At JeruKilem, Barnabas met with him 
ajl^n, and pwrliai» by hia romonstrancos, brought him to 
ft K.n.*ü of his former iniacondactj so that he trace iuüob joined 

Thi» decision of the ApoBtolio Asaemhly at Jerusalem, 

^■«ntSoti l^rBl-, t.lial. Ibia reaoiutionwau not formed Hi-'nordLngto human 
, _ e, hol, iLit Holy Spirit so willod it. I irauslal« in Uio text, 
'^Ot vortjilly, tmt ttccording U> the urnio. 

' The f^proMion ia Ao(« xv. SB, i( Si- JininpoüTinoi-Totpi. i» rcaiBrlc. 
ahly nlmllar to tbat in Jomol 1. '.^7, tani^Mt iiurtiy rijftlr iirb rai 



forms an iraportant era in the hietonr of tlie apoBtfilic cJiiiKh 
The firet coiitrc\'(TBy wliioh appeared in tlie tiitrtory of Chrifr 
tieuiity vm thus pubtu'l}- (txprcsBcii and preaented «itbont 
diiiguise ; but it wns at the hatoo time iDAnifestcil, tliat, bjr 
tUia coittnivi^my, tlie unity of the church vn« avt to bt 
dotrciyoiL Attltoiigii ho gr^at and KlrikiDg & diffirtvce of in 
outward kind exielud ill tlio develoj>iuenl of tlie chtlrdi unODK 
Ü1U Jevfs and of that aniuii^ the Gentiles, etiJl the cocotUu 
uuity of tiie cLiirdi, tut gruiiiidod on real oouunuuion of in 
tornnl faitii a^id life, coutiuued uudistarbe'd thereby, (uid tbut' 
it was inaaifeat that thu uuity whs independent of 8ucl» out- 
ward diSereiicea : it bacani« heucefurtli a settled point, thai 
t!)o«igh one pnvtj oljscrvcd and the other party nc^nt^d cur- 
tftin outviurd ui^es, yet butb, iu virtue of llieir comistHt ^th 
in Jesii^ tus tlie Redoümer, hud received tlio Holy Spirit «S tbe 
cortaiu murk of their pftrtiuijinting in tlie kingdom of Ood 
Tilt) ootitruverej- waa not coufinfld to tliCMOU-twai-d diCTuronoea; 
but, as we iniglit contiluije from the peculiar nature of the 
modes of thinking- amou^ Ilia Jowa. -which minglod itself with 
their eonwjptions of ChriHi.iftnity, it involved Mveral doctrinal 
diflferenccN. The latter, however, were not brought under dia- 
cnseion ; liioat) poiuta only were tonclied which vera noA 
palpable, and appeareil t>ie mcst important from tlie Jewiah 
iftuuding-pcint of legal observances. While they firmly held 
ma gtMuud of faith, — faith iu Jesus lut the SAeKiiah, And A 
cocisuioiiaiicas of tellowsliip in the one spirit proceeding frnta 
liim, — they either lost mght altogether of tlieae ilil&reuceai or 
viewed thorn as veiy enboiyiinatfi, in rolation to the p'MiitE of 
figreement, the foimdation of the all -comprehending kingdom 
of God. At a latfir period these differences broke out with 
greater vioieiue, when they vtere not orerpowered by tlM 
enei^ of a Christinii spirit progr^aively develojHjd, noid io- 
BinuiLting itself more deeply into the prevaJont modes of 
thinking. Even by this wiso settlement of tho question, so 
seiriouB a breach could not be repaired, where the operation ci 
th&t Spirit was wanting from whom this settlement prouwded 
Aa thoBG who were iiddioted to Pharieaism were. ft«m the ~ 
aocuätomed to esteem a ChristiEuiity niiinlgiunatcd with com 
plote Judaism, as alone genuine and perfeet, and 
men mpnble of oTijojaiig all tlia privileges of the kingd' 
God, it was hardly p^-oöble that Hiesu dceisions could prvdum 







sn entire rarolution in their mode of thiubitig : whether it 
wan tliut thejr loolted npoa the decisions of the oaseiuhly at 
Jerusalem as dvI pemuacnt, or that thcj esplaiucd tboia 
uctwrding to their own views and iiitorests, iw if iudot'd, tlioiigh 
they bud not cocamartded the observauoe o{ tholaw to tientua 
Cb^tiaua, tiKjy were designed to intimate that it would be to 
their advantage, if volmilanly, and out of love tu Jehovah, 
thoy ohsenrad the whol« law. And as they lind not hcsitatcKl, 
hcforo tliut asaombl; wae called at Jerusalem, to appeal to Ihfl 
Buthority of the apOHtles, although they were hy no means 
nuthortitod to do so, ihey aguia uttem|)ted to make use of thiA 
expedient, of which they could more readily avail themselveB 
on account of the gre<it distance of raost of the CittDtile 
uhurches &x>m JeruBulem.' 

Ulius ve have here the ärat exutnple of an. nccommodation 
of difi^renoes which aroM in the development of tiie church, 
an attempt to ofii.>ct a. nnion of two coiiterxliiig giftrtios ; and 
we lierc two wluit has \ici-n iifton repeated, that luiion can only 
be attained where it proceeds from an internal unity of Chris- 
tiftn con«ciousues£ ; but wlii^re the reconciliation is only 
external, the deeply-seated diftereuce§, though for a brief 
period repressod, will soon break, out afresh. But what is of 
tJ)o gTCftticat iiuporüuioe, we here behold tiie seal of true catho* 
heisia puLihcly exhibited hy the apostlen, and the genuine 
«postolio chui'ch. The ejistcncc of the groidnc catholiu 
«hoRJi, which so deeply-aeated a diviuon threatened to 
dmtro^, was thereby secured. 

We are now arrived ut a point of time in wliioh the (icntile 
ohttroh oasumed a peauhar and indoponUont Ibrin ; but bi^lbru 

Tlio .let» of tlio Apoatles inlgiif. lend ub to Eiippoae. if wb couW not 
oonil'&ni tte sUil«nieTi))> witb Ihr Puullim EiiUtW, Uiut the dlvislcia 
Wtwten the Jc*islj »nd Ooatilo Chri'tlivQs hud l»eu compUieV hcolcd 
hy tlio ileoUiun ot tli« »[xmiuUo ssAcntilil) ; but v/o kmiw tlmi tl>« n-uis 
lloo of tha Judsiiiiig puny DgiUQsL tbe rreedom of llie OrnLilcChriiiUaii 
otinruli, Ti^nr Mon lirntte nut ufrrali, aiiit that P:ku1 Lad i.'uu»liiutl^ to 
eombkl *iui it. In tiiin »>ilen<'o of [he Act% t LiiriTiot find tlie Hli^lmoH 
Xnuxt of an apologcticiil leniSeacy for Paul n^mat the Jiiiinixem: in tlijtl 
«UK. I ttiaal<l nüiai Lav« cxpcctvii llic Aullivr «uutd liure iiieuliinii:il 
lie^autmeauciii dieuirbnncaä.and hAva (jpuoKuil lo them ttivao deciHiun», 
Nor aui I tmnk u> iuicntlonat «ilcnce piL-Wlilu in rcInUoii to tbu cvenut 
of > pCTiod M) decjilj »giiatuil by religion« üiiuccriis. Thv.^cwguui-Talij 
njt DOthtDJT of Um lUA'Hnl dnveloputuiii. nf the ClirietlAiii chuirh; licDUe 
It it lileal ou «o iuau< ottivr tliinija w^k'b vu would gimllf tiiun. 

0(»>RTrrTn>t<»< or tbb crubck. 

WG trocc it« ftirthcr gpnaul o-nd dovclopnKitit in OMincston ^ 
Uie liilioiuii of Paul, list ub Grat glmioe ai the coituututioci uf 
the cljurcli in this new form of Christian fellowship. 


TBI eaaToa obuehaks. 


The fotmB under whicli the constitution of the Chri; 
commiinit/ ät 6nt dovslop«d itsi>1f, vtnii. as wc bdTc 
renmrkcd, most nearly resembliog those wbich nbeady eiJ: 
in tiie Jewish cliurch. But these forms, after tlitir 
by Jewish Chriatianfi. w&uld not have been tranefcrwd 
tlie Gentile cturcliCB, if tbey hud not so closely cf/mtpvoA 
to the naltire of tho Cliristian oonununity as to fJiralnJi 
with a model for its organization. This pewUiiir mitUK 
the Christian uomtnuiijty distiiigniBheil the ChriKtiiui chi 
fi-uiu all other religious aa&ociatiüns, and after ('liKHÜ&iiily 
burst tlic fcttflrB of Judaism, ahowed itself among tli« free 
self-öuhsiBtcut uhxifchea of the Gonttie Climtiaua. 
CbriBt BUtiBÜed naoe fur all thnt reUgious wnnt, frou tho ueiuc 
of which a pri(!8lhood lias every where originated,- — «inco lie 
antinfiDd the m^nso of the nocd of mediation and reconciliatton, 
Bu deeply aeut^d in the coubuiougneae of the separation 
God by sin, there was no lungtr room or nGceaaitj- for m; 
other mediation. It, in the ap(«tolic epiKllcs. tin? Old T 
Qisnt ideas of a prieathood. a pricetJy cultus and sucrißoes 
a]i|)Ued to the new economy, it is only v,ith the di«ign 
snowing, thnt, since Christ has for c^or itccompiished t 
wi:uch the prii.^lioud und Bat:ri6ct:s iit tlio Old TiäFtumcot pn^ 
figured, — all who now appropriat« by faith what he eObnted 
for moJikind, stund iti tho ^niao rulu.iicia with n:ic nnother to 
God, witliout nopiiing iiny other mediation, — tJiat ttiej ore sfl 
by conimiTiiiou witli Clirist. dediaited iiud (.'imst-cmted to God, 
and are called to prtwnt their whold lives to God m an 
accejrtable, EpiriluA.! tl^auk-oSenng, &nd llua their whole dod* 





Meretcd activity is a true epiritud, priestly ciiltus, OiriätioiiB 
Ciniiiiigndinuc klngilom of prieste. Hum. xü. 1 ; 1 Pet. u. 0, 
Tili» idea of the geucial priesttiood of oU ChrietimiE, proceed- 
iiii; from the (xiusciomTic-seof n!(lt;in|iti(>ii,aml groimilol iiloiifl 
in that, L* ]i«irLl^- autvi fuid (i«i'clu|«d ill exjircfw terms, anä 
partly prcsuppo8<?d iu the c[jitiictt;, ioiogo^ wid vuinpari^guB, 
Rl>]illvd t« till! Clirislian Ufa 

Aa all l>elievers vera conscious or aa equal rclfUioa tv 
ChTlst 08 tWr IWdcbuivr, imd <}t a couiiiion [)iirti(.'!|)iiti<ici of 
oommaDioD with Hud ohtaiiieJ thmugh him ; «o on this cmi- 
flräoiuams, nn cqiinl ivlAtioii ol' bc^lievcrni lo «tiu luiotJicr waa 
grounded, ■»■hidi u«*rly precluded any relation like that found 
m othiT forma of r(.ili>riori, siilisisltng butwiwu ii prinstiy cnste 
luni a jHÄpplo of whum tliev \i-cre tbu lotdiaLors luiij npiritiuil 
guides. Tilg aposUes tlitiaisclves were very far from placiag 
theinajlvcs in a relation tolkelievi-rs which bure any resjeinlilauca 
to a mediating priasthood ; in tiiia reapeüt tiiey alaft_va jjIimh-iI 
tJienuelves ou n. footing of cijiiiility. If Patil .issiinid thy 
cliiirL'li tif hi» iiilei-ceswry prayers for them, he in return 
reqiiciteii tb*ir prayers for liimsolf, Tlieie wcra acc(irdiii|,'ly 
'HO tiiiL'h [»ersoiia in the C'tiristiaii L-linrcli, who, liku tlie ]n'iralÄ 
of »ntiquity, claimed the possessioia of an esoteric dottriue, 
wliilo they kept the poiiple in Rgtt>l') of s|>iiT.tunl pupilliigeftud 
dependence on thomaelyes, aa thwir sole ^iiides aad ias^mctoi-Ä 
ill religious matters. Sucii a relation would have been incoii- 
Hfltent vith the consciousne« of on equal dcpendon>;6 (m Christ, 
tmd nn vqnal relntioc to him ita participating in th« saniu 
»]tiri(iu1 lifij. Tlie fintt. Pent^ctist had ^iveii tt»idence that a. 
ci>n «piousness of the liiphur life pt-ocuediiig from oomnumiim 
■witli <^ri»t filled all helicvere, and Biinilw cfftota wore pro- 
duced at every scaaou of Christian awakeinug wiiiüli prccijck-d 
tho fomifttioTi nf a. church. The ajiostle V^iil, in the -Itli 
vlinpter of his Epistle to tho Galatians, points out as n common 
ftnturu of Jniiiusm tiiid Htiathcn Ibih in this respect, the con- 
dition of pupillngc of bc^ndago lo outwaid oniiiiaucc«. He 
'pnwonl* t.liiH S&nJtige and piipilljge jis tjvkcii away hy the 
iiiHcioitHuei« of ledt^mptioii, iind that the Aaino i^puit ought 
1m in 111! ChrietiuuH. HoeoiitroGtä the heathen, who blindly 
lowed thfir priuxlB. aud gave thumseivus up to all tiieir «rts 
deception, with true Chriatiuns^ who, by faith in llto 
liuoici', liocumo the oi^uus of the Diviu«; Spirit, and uoii] 

VOL. I. K 

coKWTHrrio» 01» tiik cbowm. 

hear the voice of llie liviug Ood wiüim tlitm ; I Cor. lil. 
^e Lhouglit that he stioulJ aanun« t<K) mitch to liimself. if. id 
relation tn a uhtiroli nJivady grounded ic spiritual tbiagH 
i\-prc8cnto<i himscif only a« p'''"K i f'^ ■■" *^'^ ropcct tJi« 
WHS only Line ircneral girer, the Sfl?ioiir liiinw^ir, » the «cnu 
^r ikll iite in the oliai-vh, while &1I olliera, na mcmbore of 
»jriritiiiil bmiy •iiimtitml by him ttia Hciul, stood lo euch ot 
uitheinntmil röktionofciverBandrcL-eivcra. lleuccitwas.tli 
ii.Of r ho hud writton to the UnmiHii! tluit he loiigcÄ to come 
iht^in ill (irder t» iiiijiurt ki>liii.- Hpiritiiiil ^il't for ilieir entitblis 
Liiciit, ho uddnd. lest he Hiiutild aecm tu nL'i\>g»tC too mucb 
hinijwlf, "tlint i«, that I nuiy be oomforied, together with yoi| 
by the mutual fiiith both ol you and mo;" Ttmn. i. 12. 

Cliristiaiiily, on Ibe nne Imiid, by the Holy Spirit as tl 
common higher principle of life, gave to the cJiupoh a UTiity. 
more sublime ibiin iiny otlu^r principle of union unong men 
ileel.iued to (iiiliordiiuite to ilself. and in tiiis suburdiniition 
level. rII tho viirictiM fmiiidfil iii Ibo dpvtJiipmonl of hiimii 
n:iluri^. But-, uii Uio other hand, tneiitnl pGciiliariLit« o-cn 
iK'l aiinihÜHtcd liy this divine lilv ; sinov, iu all cil»o& it ful^ 
iiiB'cd thf law« III tliii iiiKiii'ul iii.'vi>ki|)iin.'iil of imiii, Imt ooljt^ 
jdirifiud, aauclilled. wnl tniiisf>ii'int!0 ilifiii. am.l [.iroiiioted cheir 
iVuoi' ivikI nioni cmngflctc cxpitiusion. 'I'hc higher uuity of life 
exliibited iUnlf in a mulliplidtj of iiidividucilitiäs, animnted 
liy the »inie spirit, nnd forming n_'<:iprocal complemen t» tw 
wwli utlji.-r «a purtB of one "iiwt wbok ui ttit kiti^otu ofj 
l.-'oiiB'.Tpieiitly, the nOTunm- iu whioh this diviue Ufa maiiif 
it» ctlictniKiy in {^iicii, wita determined by the prrWou» Ttiaui 
iud: vi (I utility of mich. The apostle Paul aura, indeed, " Itu 
nil ihiwi) workoth thut un« »iid b^^f-eiuue Spirit, dividing 
ovory man suvenilly iw ho iciW," 1 Cor. xii. 1 1 ; but it by oj 
riiv;uiB follows, that he suppoE«£ an opcratiou of tlio I>iviiia. 
Spirit tütrilly uneouditiuiiiü. In this pnssiigo, he io simply 
iippoding; an orbitmry human valuutiuu. whiuh would atiri- 
liiit« u worth to only ct-rtjiiii sit^ of fjTice, »ad refuw.'*! '<> 
lie knowledge the mfinifolduess in their di.'ilribution. The 
million to the moinbcii* of tlio hiinian body, of whicti the 
»jio?t)e HvitiU liiuiself, betokens tlia not tirbitnirj' but rog"- 
liiled develupment of the new erection in a sanctified natunl 
oriiiT ; for it in «iviilutit frum this luiiLlogy, that aa, among tlifl 
lucnilwra of the human body, each haa its detcritUMttt« pluM 



■wigned by naturv; and Ha apnrnjiH/itn function, no oina tha 
diviu« lifci in its dovclnpnient, idlowH a similar law, groiimicd 
«a Üie Datum] relaLiona uf tlie iudividtuiUlieK auitniited hy it. 
Fium wha.t liiis Just beeu auid, wi iira prepared far rightly 
uiiiienitau(lin^ tlu? tdoa »f eharUna, so ver<r importAitt for tlie 
hiatory of tho dcvolopmeat of Üto Cbristion lifo, and of the 
coDStiliiticiti i>f thi? Clirittiim oliuruh in tho first i^es. In Uin 
a|»>atclio a^ it deuut«d tioUiiiig el<se tiuiti the pivdotuinnut 
utpttbility of HU itidividunl ia wiiicii the pi^wer und ^wrutitju 

Iof the Htily Spirit thai iiuimiiUnd liim was rovealod ;' whetlier 
tliiB CAENibility iippmired ns soiitpt.liing conimunicAtcKl in au 
immediate maunur by the H'.dy Spirit, or whether it wo» 
nliBwly existini; ill the iudividual bofurv his ccmvcrstuu. wliiijh. 
»TiinmU'rl. skiM^tiliud, iiud raised by tlie new pt-tui:i[>le i>f life, 
w.jiiid contriliiif,' to one coinmcti aud supreiu« objutt, Ibe 
iiiwunl and om*ard dovebpmeut of the kitigd':nii of liod, or 
llie L-lmiv'ii uf CliriBt ' Tliut wbiul» is the soiU of thu wlmle 
Christinii's life, nud forms its uuity, the fiuth workiu|. 
hy lova, c&u tievar ajijioar as a particular chariam ; for as tliin 
^_ it 18 which iornis the cssoiicl' of tlie whole Chri^linn dii^po- 
^B Kitioii, ao it U tliiii whiuh must ^vum all the poi'tiuulur 
^^ Chriatiaa aipabilitiea : ami it is Ijccaiue they are aJi rcjfnlat«d 
by tliis ciiiiiriDn principle of the Christian dispos-itii^n, tliat 
^B lb« particular ca^uibilitiea l;et;i)iue chnxiama ; 1 Cor. xm. 
H Thikt by which tbo dwolopud iiittunil eudownient boconica 
H a cbaiism, aud which is common, to all, i» always «omclhing 
^P<ilcvnt«d above the conimoii c^iiinw of uaturc, goiuetiiiiij; 
" divine. But the fui-nia of iiiiiiiifyal^tioa la which this liiglier 
priiuiiplu öxhibitüil il-sclf, were marked by a divei^iiy. 
«ti'ordiuu: as it was the I'enult of an origi:iftl crcitiv« opemtion 
of the lluly Spirit, mukiug uae of the cDurae of nature, iiiul 

• The wurJ TiiUHt gaimrolly used, wherobv (aiuce Faul lin.s iiseil U in 

llala »t'luic) )s t\e\\\f\vi\, U.II fiKal L'oiicems lue lukiriial tulvuiiL'eiuedl. of 

(he kinmluni of (Iml — wliui:lici lu refertnee to the thurth in gunural, or 

. lu Individniil*. — i* iiixufin^Tv. Tbis am of ibe woril anxea from tlie 

fiinvil«« uf cutiiiinrijii- 111« C'lirini.iiLQ life oT tlia whou cimrch, and iu 

' Udiviclunl tnrmbnns, to a building, a templu pf Gnil uliicli ii bull', on 

ue familial lt>u Dtl ivliL^li tlilK bniidiiii' DL-orresarily nsU, 1 Cor. tit 9. 

10. ajiil id in n ilali of oonüniinl pmj^i'e« towards cumpkLiaa. CIn 

[ tbis pngn-Hvi! liuitihiiK af llio Leuiplu of God. Iiolb ia general und 

I Indlrldakl!;, M? the admiraUe rcmjika in Wwt/Mn Olttervatiimet <id 

t ftesfc^iani imcticamjtliriut «j; fJenJam. Boan, 1831, p. S4. 

CON9T1TDT1CW o» IBS cncncH. 

icm- I 

evincing iu presence by some iinmodiftte effect, (tlioag;h er 
liera n liidden conoexion might eiisl i>uU*eco tlu itati 
Hi-oiilmritie» of the iiidividunl uiid aticli a BjHicial acting of lie ' 
Itoly K]nrit,J ; tiu-iw mi! chiuisni« whiEih, in the New Ti'SU- 
iiiciit, are called cui-Afuic, mifii'ia. TifKiTa.-, or tlie mnDifisilk* 
tious wight be <l«lHec(l from tho dcT«!opniciit of nnttkntl 
liJctit» uiiJiur tlio uiimintiug influence of thu Holy Spirit. 
The firat kind of churienis belong' more to tlie peculiar opöm;_ 
tion of tlic Holy Spirit in the npoBtoIic opii, tliat jMCulurlj' 
mvative ejiuch of (Jliiin.i unity on il« f^rst afipeiiraDce iii 
world ; tbc m-coihI kind lielvitged to the opi'mtivu «f 
Holy Spirit tlirougli oil BU«;eediiig ngea of tlio church, byl 
which hiimiiii iintiire, in Its ceevtitiiil ijiiulitiet and it« vrh<>lc 
»iLinte ol development, will be prutfrcisively penetrated 
tnuisfurtnud. 'iTiüHe two fonne of tilutnsm itdinit therefon; i 
being uleurlv dlaünguisia-d. lis tlie^ weru ai&iiif(MU!d i» 
upoBtolic uhuieh, The ^tls by wliich mich cflbcts were pro- 
duced in tlio ^ittible vorlJ, wliich could uot proecod frum tlic 
Oligting piiiwei'g and liiwft of nitture, the gift of Jvio^nt, aud 
^»le Htill uivre ddiuite. tbut uf curing diw»w», tho ^■'P*')*'' 
iaiiÖTuv, am niGntiouad on spndid {lifts; 1 Cor. sti, 9, l(f. 
Yöt these gift.s are only rniikcil with other» ; we find no divi- 
tiioa uf gilt» i^to two uIuntKS, (^iruurdinuxy nod ordinaiy, 
Biipematuml und niituml ; for we ccmtemplate the apoatoUo 
<.ihia*ch I'rom the right point of view, «idy wticD wo coDsidor 
tlie esmutial iu all these &ift« to be tltc Eupcmaluml principle, 
the divina L-lcmeiil oi'lif« itwif. 

The ohariajas whith n]ij»:iux.'d iu the apurtulic church, mtv 
Lnj nioet naturally divided into mich lut relate to tlie forthcr- 
aiice of the kiri^oni of GLid or the otiilicnl.ion of the chureli 
by tite word, aud tiueh as relat« to the fVuihenuico of the 
Iciu^di'iu «f Ood by other kiuda of outvrurd' ogcucy. As lo 
the timt daaa, a diRtinction lony be made, foimdod co the 
relatiuu in which tho nwjtilni «Jf-nctivity developed in the 
vai'ioua powei's of llie soul ojid their jierforuiaiices boan u> 
the iiiworklng of the Holy Ijpirit ; in proportion as the imm^ 
diute (oTce uf inKpinitiini predondiiiilvd in iW higheir self- 
L'<.>ii)tciou£nes8 (tho i'oü{ or iri-ivfin), and the loww vclf-ixa' 
wiuiiiiieiss (lliu il-vxii), the uiöiiiira of the bluiI's intercoura 
with thu uutdvurd wi^rld, retired j or a& tlii.- coiDtnunicatioii* 
' Co<i>i>iiral PeLiv. 11. 


ClIAQGS 07 Ttm (TEZfTlIX OnitlSTI.UrS. 


Divine Spirit wure rwrivod duritig thu harmoniotu 
«n-onention of all the iwwers of Che soul, aud devoioped and 
applied by the sober eserciso of t!ie iindcrsinuiiing.* ITencc 

lUe giadjilioiie in tlwi cIiariBtns of whicii wo iiavo alrwuly 
spokent, tiie charisiu of yXuamiie XaKtif, of !rprnf,rtriviii; 
ond of hcat'.aXia. Men viho were prefiaretl hy the i^rirly 
cultävatiou of tho iuteliect, and the a^tiiuilo fur muulal cütii- 
municatiou hy moans of it, boin.'o knew how ta develop and 
comiuuat>»ite in lo^Hcnl cunseouUvcnewi ichut die illuniiuiiLiun 
of the Dj vino Spirit revealed to their higher sdf-uottsciimfiu«SÄ, 
Tlie ?iS<i>i.-nXoi are tlierofiire teanherg poBSCKsed of GhristiiLii 
ltni>w!eii«e (j-^w^d), who bad guined it by raeana of self-aotivity 
aiiimtttud by tlie Huly Spirit, tbrough t)io dcve lupine at and 
elahiiritiott of truth known in tho diviiio light. Tlie prophet. 
■on the Boiiti'arj, spoke, a» ho wns ciHTicd awiiy by the power 
of iiutpiraliou auddcaly aciübg hini,nuiiwtAiitaiietiii3 eluvutitm 
of liis bij^iiGi- Belf'CODBcioiiHiies«, ncuordiiig to a Sight that tlieii 
.c<l upon liira, (an dirir^ii\v<i>i:) The prophet might be 
.l^shtid froiu the iiii'iit'.n\cit iu reC^reace to lüa lueutul 
'iiliarity and fL>mi;itiou, by tho predominance, in general. 

if th<! fuolin^'S and intuitive perix-ptions over tho uct.ivityof 
the auder»taadit)g. Yt^t tho two cboriscns wcro not alw^iy» 
found Kupuralo in differpiit fiersnra. The hcdaiaXoc \n uiiiiiy 
A motneut ufinHjiiratiuo niiglit bvuome a jrpo$/(Ti;t- Tha [imi- 
phot might pronounce, under the liiiliiencje of inspii-iitiou, Bome 
imprasiive addreK, to awaköii, to admonish, to wurn, or to 
coniola the nstianiljled bohevors ; or iiktike appeaU to those 
■who were not yet ileoided in tha faith, by whicih ho alarmed 
their conaciencevaad thus opened tlieir hearts fur tho iustruo 
tioiu of the KiSniTvoXu;. It ts evidetit whut iniLiience the powijr 
of inspired disoourse operatiiig on the hoart must havo had 
for the spread of the gospel ditnii),' this period. Persona who 
bibcd fi/r oauo to inft>rm tlietnfeeivtda resjiooting what ooearrnd 

n ChriBtiim aasenibhes, or tu booome Jiatjuiiinlod witli tho 
Christian doctrine, of whoae dJriiie orisriti tiify weru not yut 
convinced, eomotimofi came into the osBömbEes of the Cimrch. i 

■ Wo can liiire make nie of what SynoBiiu in hi«Dtoa urBortbenalB- 
On oTtti« ßaxictiif of Khrs ahf^a ttvtthv, of 1.h<i fftii<p-oe^"y, lo ihv forru;!- 

* Tlio Swio'oi, 1 Cur. «IV. ■.;4, ii]L;nn« a pcntoa n-ji yd a boUo^or, t>oi 
el oat oaeuaiuoptiblii uf fnith, iiii: InßitlU urgaiiv«. Auab a uu? ini^hl 


covsTirrnoic of the cbttrcb. 

On UiQHC oocaüoiu. Christian mi-ii ctmiu tont^ircl nbo ' 

of the (lorruptian of human nature, mid uf Lhe univeTEal n»<J 

h" aw'ukeneil to liolievel>y !.iieir{nOT'*'a- TiieSriiT^iu, 1 Cur. siv.äi.iaui 
uliKtinnlo unhclicwor, «holly lla^ufiMptlbleof ftiilh.und hcnoe aturij- niv 
miBTOptiblij of tb« iTiflcieni« of ttiu irfo^^tia. nii iufiilrJit ftntatirf. Vot 
Riicli p«n«iui Ltoro could be no awiikemns, liul onlj coniicumalory ewuia. 
I mil not. iiii1iii-i<il \iy ir\Ml Heyer hiu «aid, in lili CuiiiRK^iiLir^ mi iIm 
F ni Gpiiiln lo tlic Cdiiatbinus. to eJvc upUili inurpivtation, TLo uco^ 
iii'itiin iiijihiut tl ntiitnbitHf nccoxnary, t<i give n ilitli^nnt iiionlii); 
t^iimi« in I Cor, liv. 2S arxl '21, frum what it hem In v. 32. anil tl 
■■III liM'Hlioii i>r IStwrai andiTiBTii confirms liits eiplmiatlan. Til« iSivri 
■ri-rc till!« who knuw uhIa' & Htll« uf CliiinI-iBiiil}, llic tnnriiu tiKiiwnlia 
liRdDUtyct ttulncd to fallh, and u Dot beli«vlng,irere akin to ihocluf 
mcntioneil hi r. S2, but Uintiii(;uinhGiI Tram tlicm lij iliu diTccilcn of 
Uieir dliiposii.ion, nnil iis rrln'.inn to tielicvitig. inafmnch t.y ihcy mn 
Hol in llie juwilion of detitliil -umity Lo Chriilliiliilj. Tlie fhct of tlicär 
altii^ailing Cliriiitian asaem lilies, tioro eviilenuo of \hviT (Mklng xlM 
tniih. ihnL ihuro viaa m lt'u<t th« germ of HOKuettiiljiliiy. A penKm of 
iliis clans cniDC to the ChrlüCinti a^euililioe, in oMaf Uiloam, «betheril 
*'Ai rvully a inutlt-r woilh alU^ti'iitig (a, " atfennui inquirere fuid *H in 
Catt»a." aa Tcrtulliaii miyn. The tmia of thought i» an fullomt : v. 91. 
Oixl rpcHhm b; people using & alniiigo languagu (tho rcTcUltoD of kU 
Judgment) to the Jews, wLo wouild not listen lo the pcoplict* »]Mak!ng 
to lli«m in their i>wu landing» ; t, 3ä, Tims the uniiitelii^ibt« tOBgnea 
an for Biffiii faigus <iT mcrltcil <liviiiii juil^ments, Li)iiiiI«uinator7 ■igl») 
not for belicverB, («hiclk idea iBampliriiil jii vers«* Sä, 31. la order tobt 
ajipliud lo llio9i^ »huareaubcepiiblG of (uith,«lioM mind)) nn (vmevhal 
movL^d W Mivw.) but Tor iiiiI>i;li«verB {t-y vhivh ii here iiuiicBtcd «lal 
bF: ubculiitdv uiitilrur; to heliuving— llic staiiiiinL-puinlof UioHHwhaturi 
ubntinfticlj rpjeoitd the opporUiiiLk« of utiiiiiiiugfiiiUi). But profiicc} 
1» nut for tlie iinlwlieviag (meonn;i|ucncfot iheconirarteLj of their dli 
position), but für balierers. This gL'iieral position, tliat not thr ijift of 
iminl«lUgtbki tougwa, hnt prophecy tpenlcin^ int«11igl1>ty to Ikeui, *M 
dutiigued Ibr auch, thi' bpUHilä lujs down iii v. 2S, aa uu iafnreiiM! fma 
whnl. he bad mid before. But iml«aJ of tsliioe &n eitainple rrnn tbiw 
wiio ulrr.-nd)' belonged to the churub ad decided beliaren, he takoi Iha 
cxumple of nucii who were in their ptii^if^a loHrunis bei lev iiiir ; miitoIb 
ihi'se tliu truth of wliul ibvy bud lumirleil wu more strikingly evident 
und ehoiF how man; i>u(!li perauna nilglit he nou hjr t>(tt]ilivin. white ud 
lh«<inntrurT, Ihe sight of an iifSFUilily in whii'b Ihoj heani DolhiO); but 
Doiatlc unintel h^ blc diücanraes muit aneraie Injuilowily iiimn Ihcni; 
ill t.hü Utter cusc, Ihej' would fuel thcmi^elvM compelled U> nilipMe Ikll 
litre nit^ Dothiu^ in Chmtiarrity but delusion ind eDtbuHiuBti Ualtf 
l/ir MUiu uiibulicvGr« wciii intuiidud in VGrae S3 as In venic %3i ibsD 
■»ch cTcn the diMoutK« of liia prophets would be nolhlii^ thKl CDi 
tiruSt thuiu. ninci' ÜicK wiu ni) puiiit uf cuiintxion in their dinNiMlli 
Tu (.hem uren »hii.1. ihcv heard »iiokcn hy tiiie proplipl^ would a 
riothiu^ but OQthusia^m. It wuuld l« u ptininliuii.'ut rocriloil by ll 
lu I« iuiilre*s«d in miintulli^ilili! Uiagaage, üaco tlicjr leoulä nal UDiia> 
itkiid — ttisy Bhouhi not undrf>>[imil. 




redemption, with overpowering energy ; and. from their 

Vwu rvli^uiiH null uiorol uooaoiouaiieas, itppeuled tu tiint of 

tUerd, OS if they coiUd rend it The lieatlieii (bit his con. 

lci«nc« «truck, his heart wns In-id opfln, and ho wns forced to 

iuliiiuwloi%e, whut hitlii?rti) he !iad notheen williug tu believe, 

Ftlint the paner of God ivoä with this doctrine and dwelt among 

those muH ; ! Cor. liv. 25. If the eoimected «Idresses nf t.ho 

2iCii(rMi\f)c Ifliidod to leniJ those further into a kaowledp'o of 

I tlw g(is]jol wliw liiid (ilnaidy attaiiiitd to tiiLth, or to liovclup iti 

f their niiiida ttie cloiir uuderetiuiding of wliat tboy hud reoeived 

by fuith L tho irfiaifirirtiu S(*ved rather to awakcii tliose Ui fitith 

who «"ere not yet liyhuvers. or tu iininiute aud Btrijiiytheii 

I those who had attaiiiod to faith, to quicken afresh tiie Ufe «f 

Ifaill). Oil tti<! U'liilrury, in tha yX.4aaimis \i>.\iT>, the elevated 

[caiiscjoiisiieas of und pi'cdürainaled, while this consciiju&ncBS of 

fthe exUMTi«! world vaniahecL To a person who exproascd 

LliiiuHeif iu this tnmmer, tlie tnediuiii of ■communictttiou Ijutweoii 

lillio cstcrnol world aud his deeply tnovod interior, wns alto- 

IgUlhür wfiiitini^. Wlijit he utteral in tliia Shit« who» cnmed 

iw^y by his feeling and intiiiLiutka, utid not n euinieeled 

loddrc» liku that of a Sir.*n7i,-(i\uri nor was it ua eshortatioii 

Bititcd to lilt! ei-rcu Uly tail neu "f otlior pi_'raoiis {rufniirA >(»«(), iiliB 

ttliat of the prophi.-ts ; hut without being capiiWe in UilBsitiui- 

[tion of taking iiotiue of the mentiU ctjkte and neoeüsitieß of 

Lutluira. hfi wiu oütiipiod aoltily with the i-oktiou of hia oini 

tlteart to Ood Uirt eoid wns iLhHorl>i>d iu dovution atid axlora- 

Itioa. EI«iuü [iniycr, singing the pi'oisea of Uud, tcEtiljitig of 

I the miyhty ;ietK of (ind. wore suir.ed to Ihia state. ' Such a 

I pi-revn pniyed iii tho Sjiirit ; the higher lifo of the mind ami 

I di!i]>0Bitii>u iiiT;doiiiiTiiUi;d, but tin,' intollif.'ont deTebpninjiil wus 

[wanting.' Since iia formed a poL'idiar laugiiaye for hiinael^ 

A» »lurion» kinii« nf riiü'/ioi« nci* mitflit proceed from this lUite of 
ninil. (as fiir )ii>iUiiue vi'DiKuxer^ai aru! i(i(i\Miv,) ihe pliml ^Avoamutii! 
tlio pbniw ytrTi •tkuairui' urc usi'il. 

' AtallcvoaUll lucf^rluiii that in 1 Cor. kIv, li.itiitiiiaTnriaciixifr0m. 
tiXJuin, U ci|iitlly with y\slii!irri Xa>.<>i', 0;>|»j9Ad to t^mtar Sin tbÜ yniit 
VnXiD'. uuil it i' ovrU.111 llmHW Intler in en na— tu ildivef »oiuutLinj; 
ihroiuili the tacditini ut thinlc'iiig, io u ioTni iiroi^ecritOB rrmu u nuuad 
wnMioirBuiitw, Bill, it muj !ia disputed — ivbiL-U jet deeideK notliliig 
swpectfn); ihc »ttljuet at o. wUoLu— wlieihct iryrZfi» in ihii wliolie swtiim 
»■ ii > dwiifiialion «t llip i*m«»'.itf state, «.-^ ono in viiiirli lbs eKi^l tatiuu peo- 
^B duood l>y tho Dirln« Splrll, Iho iuiucdiau nctiaaaf lus^ilrnlion prcdoiui 

136 comTiTTTitvc or ms cuwn, 

^ora Lis own individual fe^lln^ and iiitnilions, Lo viax dvH 
vkut iu lliu u1)ilily to L'Xprt»a hiinsulf ko ns tu Ix; uiiiiorstuu 
by the mtyorily. Had the fipogtle Paul held the yXwomi« 
XuAt7>- tn l>c nomf-iliiti^ qiiiti? ciiliiiixinstic aiiii mnrhifl, iwltliein 
iiiivaiir.a;:i!oii» fur tbe Cl)r.äti;ui lifü of tliO iiulividiutl imr Tor 
t.lio rurtliüRinoü of the CiiiistirtTi life in others, liL* curliiiuly t» 
liiiiTiiUy iw Kit n!wiys inikmiwlL-dgud wlmt v-iut f^xl tn du 
L'hiircUss to ivhitiu iic nTutu before he bltuoini whul wan ciill 
wiJuld iwver have iillowod liiiiiwlf tu dt'MK"^lo ^',V th^^ iiuinu i 
A charisiii, nti iiiiji^i-iiicLiijii in the Clu'istian hf^ nud uui't 
v.'uUl hf, ill this avK- hnw said uf liitmolf thut ho tluttikoi Gt 
that he spake in mure ttniguea than nJl of them. On tlie 
trary, from the view horo dovulupud of this charion, it d 

■■<(t«*,and tlia hnmnn HctfacLivitf UrepreMod: orwliotlisr iy Mumme 
ili'iiiito a [KiRullar Intenml power of linniHn nstiiie, lliir [lutrar of lilgb« 
iutuitisa, wlikb in «uoli Bi»tca ilonu in dcrolopccl aul ncivs. Vn 
\i and ID would fnvn-ur aod JustLllj' no other liiUrpreiaiion Uiaa 
fiirroer. But ui^curiliiig li> vi^n>it 1 i. tliflU);h thU muqitoUiIinn i» 
liDpOHlblo. ihrir uro noincilifflciitilu; fcir bcrc by the Trtv^ia muM 1 
denotod the iiiipinilion ofl^'tixl by tlie Spirit, a» loiniilhinK diceliing in 
the toat. nnrl Meadeil with tbc «ulijecllve. Iiutoad of Buyia^. I pr^ la 
in>pir»r.ti!ti. i'liul wuuld any. My npirit \lKar. in me «hich m nnr »ilh 
till- tipirit {Li-'lini! wiThtn me) pruj«. It «lunot be donieil that tbi> ■»■ 
li^rEimtiition h» Mmsthinff huivh. which a not fodnd in the necutii), if 
hy wrtr/im wo uiiilarHlNiiil ilinl. hiifliusi jKiwii r of the «oiil, which IB thcM 
highest nianicnu of lIio inacr life, i* nctivc ni iba OTgao for ih« lo- 
ll «miciw uT lliii DIvEaa Rpiilt. Il iiiiiiiol ul luiutli« (Itoiiiii« vrrkiiial tliit' 
intcrprcLiitioa, tliat Paul in iiii Epi.^Lle to the Itotcaa* generativ <!c).ig 
linV»> (Uo liiglior !:|rirUTiii.l imtur? or man by tlio Urin vsi-i; Irir Till» oe 
not prevent liis itpplj'ini* th« Fame nam« to « moro limited idta m u 
lliur uixiitviicn ^ the voi^i^^ii iMeüv, Uta dlteunivB TncullJ •>( llioti^hli^ 

III ilistitittioii frum the lii^'liur fncully uf iatuilaoiL, whidi la tncmniecp- 
iIvl-, tij MirrenileriDg ii*olf w llie Diviac Spirit. It bavottliy orretniTk, 
uml iii'iits ÜJ inniihi^ 1 tit;hi jailgiiiatit of Oip viirium fluirl«in* in rnlv 
tloii 1.0 ClirlM.Lftnlty, ih'il in the itenM a>i«ii:ni>d to lli« •/Kiieeus ARA4ir, 
we ntny find lUnialhiDg uniihiirDus in Iho jiafio. tliv Maturutir^b of i ' 
hmthen uivrit: ou the ooutRLry, in thu SiIoiTKaAia m prw«utcd a 
rncieriBtii! oF Chrisl.ianily. the religion isl sol>cr mindeHMCWi ajtChr 
tiaiiity i» this toL^ioti ot fraedina of uk-uIuI "nlf »•■Liviljr, (iu oppiüli 
to lame paiäivily,) unci of hitrmoniou« iiionul dorolopmeiiC llunooalk 
tlor iliui^r t1iu.t— whi!U A oao-Hirlud over-veLhiiittoEiLi'r l.htj ^XdMrffait Aai 
irjilnjd ground, und ihrrs wns a defect in ChtUlinn nntoLfiilaes« i 
-nliiluty, IU in hcadiQiiUui, tliu uxcil«iiii!iit oC mere »atunl 
might injuriouivly luinjile it'<o1f "iiti thu movomvn te of ibc divine 111) 
a» w*R thu fiiuic in Montatuam., in wtiiub i~u nuij i>b»ai-ve apl 
akiu to lomriiun hull Kill. 



I du» 


lat, in this estraonlinarv *l«vatJou of lutnd, he »voi^. 

oiscd uo oiKinitiun of lliü IHvim- Spirit, a sjfcdnl giftuf pra«;; 

nwl there is»!so an inlerral pruhnljility ihat (Auf apostle, «lio 

rows t« the liii,'hrst point ol thi? iiiteiinr (.'iirirtian lifo, w}io 

gc^ttilii «It-jn)»!.' tti liaviii^ ii;ci5ivi,-(l mo raiiny Öirram'ut niiA 

favKaXiiiiiiv Kviii'w. wlio had heitrd things unutterable in any 

tongiiD of tncii — KniJ oft.i-ii lii'rn in cinaimstiinces corresfiiinrt. 

iii)( to the yX«ti*ciK XiiAf'i-. Kill it «^* t'uiiaoiiüiit witli thiit 

wiadoiD «-lii;;b »k'nys tuok account of tliu hiton^st» of fill 

olumm ill tliu olm^Ji,, that he — nlOiongh he recogiiitwii tlio 

Jiic of these tempomri- clpvatifiia f'<r thu wholo of tlie Chiis- 

[lifiD iife, l>y whicii it wiw t'liuliU'il to iake a n-iilcr mngu — luft 

ttie mauifesldtiuiis of »uch moinetits to the jji'jyute devotiüiw 

of each iii'livi'lunl. and Iwnished theni from meetings for 

general erfilioatioii ; ihnt he v.'ilueii more higlily tbotw spiritual 

,,fift«, wliicb gave scope for Uie haiiuonioiia üoop«iit!tiii of all 

Jtbü powers of the euiiil, und ooiitritnitcd in the spirit of love to 

Itbe Rcnenil editicatinn ; und that he dreaded the danger of 

J»clf-<lc«)lrt.if)n and rrTithHsiiuiiti, vfhero the extraordinary moni- 

tioQB of ttie ChriHtiiiu life wyre overvalued, and where that 

iich only was nf wnrth when it arose nnaought fram the 

development of life, — bdcviBic nu object of iiiuious 

I'to luuiiy who ^^'e^e t,hiu broii^lit into a state of morbid 

[ictit^ Hence he wished, that in those highest moments 

apirntiön wlii<!h iittöiided tlie yXuinanit XaKt'n, e\'ery one 

vould pour nut his benrt alone before Cod ; but that in the 

asaeinbllw of tliedinrdi thonu miinifestationit of devotion, un- 

intollijiil'le to the majority, might "he topresBed ; av only be 

exhibited, wlieiiwliiit Wiis thus spciken. could bo translated into 

a liingita^ intdli;^i)jle lo nil. 

L In these charisma wo may al*o diatinf!;iiiBh the gift of a pro- 

^H dui^tiTuiuws of Tt--ligioiij( inluitiun excitud and attimuted by 

H Ihc Piiiue Spirit. : and the n'ft wlneh enabled it poiwjQ to 

^P'Ctplain or to jia.-« jiid^iiiniit upon wlint others eommnmcfited 

^^ Iw means of tlieii- diariniu in the btate of higher inapiration, 

the facitlty of iiit.orproting «r *if ju'iging. animated by the 

Uiviue S|)irit, tho iftfii)v-lu y\<4/i'7iuc and the eiuKpitc-: wvtv 

ifuiraii; Tho Chriitian life wiis pcrmitted freely to develop 

raiid expifssii ittelf in the church. AVhoovor felt an inward 

im|>ul8s, uiij^ht venture to ^prnk in the Chri^itian msetnbiies ; 

|but «ouod diaci-etion uiight to auuojn^u.ujr' inajjiratlon, and 


coNSTiTunos or ths cwjjujb. 

riiiglit W ooDaldwud ob a mmrk of it» being g«3iuini\ rf» 
üue was tJ wish to ba tk »olo speaker ; or to interrupt othera 
ill »poiiltiitg ; 1 Cor. siv. S\ 81. If Pawl oonndoräd nuclk 
iujitiictioiiH to be ueooaiw^, it Is a|>[iiireDt that he \>y no 
[iioiHis r4)00^ii ls(4il in the proptiets of the church, pure oTgai» 
(if the Uivitiu S|>irit, in 'whom tbo divine aud thu humfui 
rai(;lit iifjt ctisily he coofoiuidod. On the contrary, tbe 
I'liiu'chi« werii t.ii h> fiiianiüii nysiiiist thu vxccwsc« of »uch 
u. mixture mi'I the dcluaiuiia wUtcli prevail««!, when Lumaa 
impurity woa tgukvd upon u o. eug)j:vetioa of tho Diri 
Spirit, — hy cxcroiiiiiig: a trial of spihU, for whiich a Rpedi 
gift was grtintoil to iiidividuals. As for the iiJrotoXoc, i; 
whom tho reflcutivu autivity of thu aiidenstaudiu^; u 
doiiuiiated. the gift of tiying spirits was not required 
iniiiih to nccompiLOj liis addresses ; for etnoo in him t1 
critical pow<ti- wuh devclupud a.tid iictiv«, and he wss bahitua: 
to rÜ8Cu,8s OliristifLU truths with a soher jutigmeiit, he nin' 
iililu lojuilgL- himself. Bat thci lesuprophet in the moni«iil< 
of inspjratlua vaa abk to obscrvti, to exaiuiae, and to judg« 
liiipiscJf, tho ffrpater wtw iho danger of coiifoimding the divti 
nticl the hiimjui, Mid i^o uiuuh iho more neoexsiirir aas it. I 
üiüer to prevent this, for «jtlierB to applj a scrutiny. 
tliiü aooount, it va» orderod tliiLt the operatiou's i.>f (hi? 
phetioal gift wevo atteiiJcil by au extriiordiimry i-mln» 
in ceitain persons of trying tho spirit«, a critignl powi 
uiiiiuated by the Holy Spirit. Thu dtiMi^i of this jjiift wu 
ceitAiniy not uiei'ely to de«itle who was a prophet and « 
was not ; but ehieÜy for the piirpowt nF iliytitigitisliing 
tliD adiLreiMes of those who sloixl up aa inEq)Jred apeakcnt 
till! Chi'istiiiii tiäaomblics, botwoon what prnc«odoil 
the Diyiiie Spirit, and -what did not proceed from t 
eoiirce; so Paul, an this point, recotiuuendcd tlie chu 
tu try every thing ooiuinu moated hy tho propheta, 
I'eipiired thoni to sopai-at© the good fi'om tho hadi 
1 Thesä. V, 2 1. And as the pniphcts did not pretend tu 
iiiliiUiblc, but were oouBoiouä of their lialiihty to error, tli 
KithiaitLed tltetiiiSL>lves to the judf^ueiit of the church, or 
tueir organs iLppoiuicd for the pwrpose, »nd thus were [ito- 
siei-x-eii frnm the »elf-delusioi» of pride, that frtiitfiil sotuw tt 

Ill the chorisiii uf S(^arKn\ia, thcro appoon again to tiarf 



I beeil n Jiflbivuw. oooordiug aa ajiv one litid iiu ubilitr für 
(dcToloi^ui; ibc LruUi in its ilivorolic ekmcata, or iu its nppli- 
' <:atiiui to tliu viiriuus rdaUDns uf life ; tht) one was Af<Y«t 

yrwrtiiti, ttiQ other Xüyoc imiti t-' 

BlU though itiQ tenn» yrüffie luid tru^i'ci arc thus dis- 
tinguisfaeä ; it by no means foiloivs. that, in every patKi;^ 
whero «o^sin is raentiimeH in roference to Cliristiniiity, it ia 
UB9d ia tliö same I'estrictod seiiee, and alvfiiy» wiiL a ivfer- 
eaee to ttiis distitictiuu. Wo titi<i both tisud as nDoDymous, 
curtoinly wjtbout any bn|ilied ralert-nco to «iich u distiuotinu 
of practi«al «ad theoretical ; Colfisi ii. 3. Tliiw Pnnl in the 
first BpiMlt to tbe CoriuLhi:iiis. under the name ^tf a AiJyoc 
cofint, deaoribes the moi« ample development of CbriHtiiia 
truth, in relation to the Hnst elements of Oiriätinci kn>ow- 
Ifidge, the common foundation of ChriBtian coitaciouBnesa in 
fill belicvora, mid in contrast with tlio i^hikisophy of tbe 
Gnxtian twIioolH. He tuew aotbing higher than the doclrino 
i>f Jcssiu Christ the Ciucitied aa the foundation of salration, 
and whalover pretended to bo ^iiperioi- to this, iijipem-nd to 
hiia a mefe deceptioiL Ho say», tliat in tlie publication of 
ihc divioo couiisuls respecting the aulvation bitmght by 
|Chriiit to mankind, all the treiisiu-e» of wi»dum and know- 
I lodge wcro hidden; CoIobs. ii, 3 j but still the iigrtncy of 
rwtwn enlightened by the Holy SpiriU wiis iiecefwiiry to 
brill;? these hidden ireosupes to light, to educe and develop 
lliis divine pbilosojihy. ConsBipieiitW, there would lie viiritinB 
degree« of kuowlei^e to bo developed, and variuus ciu'- 

lo^fa jiriafi jmlly diiiiiil^il » pniutital powpr of ih« juilgrurnl, cor- 

ra>paiiiling to :ba ideii ol Vr-iniiom ai pniJon«!: wliil« fnura. In ilie 

I Now 'I'mlHinetil atiil cunteniiiDniiy wriLiii^v, wiia tiseil lor llie Lheor»- 

I Hcl), tlic mare |iViilouiLil knoivluJ^i.' or religion; coinpnro 1 l^or.xill.^, 

VTIica ll<>i.'r tay^ tlmt ihe ili-tinction bctwcea iliouiuUi.'iiI itud [iniuiiciii 
doeM nnl corrcepad la tliu nature of iiupircii lilacoiinie. U itppearH lo 
*o liiut this olijcmitin U not vahd; (gr iiwpimtiuii ni iliiit. iintveival 
nwe which is lieti; ircswd of. ilie rniiniutiiig bj tUo binne Spirit» 
fniiD whoii) a1] chnriiuu proci.'ed, raiiUl nnt he iraatin^ to any kind of 
■liienurw ia the cliuruh. But >'«i. a ilitTen^ut gift ruiiilling TraDi aiiiiuo- 
tloii liy tlin ODtnmoii lil^lier piini;i[>lc ü( lire, wuuld ha required, wlieu i 
ptrtaa ddliicred a Aiwaant on the pcuutiur duetriniM uf tliv liuth. uni 
«hen lio «poke of ohjeote that called fur the exareis* of Chriiiiaa 

prudc^ioe. oil ibo eulünions licl«"een Chriäliiinily ani! tlia iiialiüg HUiiiiil 
rdatiun«, and maltorv rclati»',: to tlie outwnrii gii^JimeL^ üT lLq cltui'i:!^ 

I Tho difTeroiicii U linro iiDCSawixüji ^roiuidud Lu tUo Qatum of tlio ubjoul, 

^■^äil of the huuuui utlud. 


coysTiTcnoK of toe cntmott 

««['onrliny kinds of iiiMrnulion. Paul indeed u)<niks ftf t 
wiadiim wliich lie caald delivei" only aiaong " them Lliatnm 
purföct ;" I Cor. Ü. 6 ;' but by Unit wiwlittn. he did ni 
menu givinE new cxplaiiations respecting the dirino wiadoi 
tri bo üddfd frnrn without, *)mi'lliiiig; (Iistiiii"t fri'im tho 
na uiAvuntally miiKmiicod, ii tt^dition tliut wii^ tu be divul 
in u HinulkT ciirulc- ot" dintuipli-», Bub liu muruit tlic unfold! 
tlitwc ireiiBureH of knowltüljps uonlained in ttie eaviiig doctrim 
wliich WB» ail no Uli ceil to idl, und wltich trould be brou^tit to 
light ty tlio exerciai,' of thn mental taciiltiei«, in propurttun as 
tliey receivud aud dtvelopid tlio objaütsof Christian know- 
lodge. "Tlie (wrfuut," ill tbu licigiiiigu of Paul, nre a 
those who possoBscd a hißbcr intellectual cultura, indepondi 
of the Chi-iMtitm faith ; hut thorw wIhvsü whole inner 
hnviiig huaii imrified jind tniiisformcd in u high dcguM 
tlio vitui priituipli! of tJbrintiimity, uro ixmdcTDd c: 
nt Aai!\wr VMvmiim intelligöiioü. hy a dispiisitiftii mni« 
fhjtn all wltinh mid »ensiial olfnioitc, In pn^portioa aa the 
Juwiith vr ItuiitlivTiieii Hpirit {uxid to ttiu Itilwr Iwlongcd thu 
one^ded Kpeoulativa tendüiioy, the »opr «»' iT/rtli; the arrogaiit 
wisdom of tho philnsophicsil schimlg,) ttill prvdoniinal^ 
amoDg Chri.ttitiiiw, thoy wvru uiisuBueptible of aiidi kiiowM, 
and of such :i tind of instruction. Iti like nmntifir. in T 
Epirtile to tho Hiibroum, " tho strong meiit " of the pir 
(of i'i|ier CbmtiausJ is distiiti^iiisbod &0111 Tlie fu^ ekincu' 
of Christian kiiowWlgö, which were presuppcuted as tba 
goncrid fimtuliitiuu. 

Lot us now proceed from those gitts which relate to the 
ministUy of th« word, to that clasis which relates to uthirr kin " 
of outward activity, fur the advauctiment of tlie kiiigdum 
Cod. Hum again wu nmat distinguish bctwuon Uioec 
which, as iu iiöttoKaXia. a peculiar capability fuundod in 
human nnture, imd dcvclnpud and uppliud nccordinj^ to itr 
lieual Iaw8, wan rond^red effective, under tho itifluviicii »f a 
new diviuu prindpio uf liie; »Jid thusu iu wliich tbetiatur.d 

' I MDOol bclp «ontiilpring tbiit Inlcrprctaiion gf thow voidt U ihi 
«implnal anil laont aiEtceublu lu iliu i;ifiu:icAiuu, uwutdiag to uhidi. 1 
mcraly a (liir[:r?nva urnuixluil on 1 liu riiriaun ruUtionh of one ültll 
tlucLrinu liU tliu varioiii [ircutitir nUlit'H or tliu tiR'n wliu rtci^iv« It 
nmiih &» ihr. divine (iiK!trint in imlueii wjhIchii, liiit. ^jipiuini to I 
li. It— wisdom— only to Keniilne bollevert. lo 111« [itrlMl,) k 
but vkii IUI ulijecLivo diUeieiiüu a< inntrui^tion. 

CaiB« 0* TBS oENTti.B ciiRmumk 

HiMjnl «aa pul iu ilie l«ick),Tuumi tmi what 
Wiis mine purely divmc liccauie iJi-omuiuiit. similurlv to tlio 

H-^hüarrnic XoXsir liud tLß rr,>oil,iiTiuii>: Td thti former tidoUg 

^■ilii! ^ilbt of cliordi gaven)iuei)t, the j^of^icfia Kvßtpviittia^ or 

^ftri'V TjHKTraidi, fn;<l tlie gift« fur various fic-rvices, wiiich wl-ic 

^Broquiivd in admiiiiBtering ihe concerns of tiie chureh, aa dia- 

^Ktributii)^ alms, teiKÜug the »icit, ic, tb-e ^Qpio-;iu «i« 

V^r «i-rtArji^fwc 1 I Cor. \ii. 2S ; Bum. xit. 7. To ih« äetxiiid 

' diviiioa belutigs eBjiocially tlie gitl of wprkiiig miracles, niid 

performing uiircs. Thu chiirism irom whicli these two iiiiiJts 

of miratultiua ojjcratiou procotd, oouMtlored in it» eeaoiitial 

niiturü. apptwrs tu Im» vinrtt; 1 Cor. lii. 9j xiii. 2; Mutt. 

xvli. 30, For the term irinnc in tbla cunnesion uuuuot 

dtmot« CImBtina faxxh iu geuti-al, the disposition commou to 

aU Ohriittifuis ; but muät ni»*;e.-^irily ruiul^ to soiiiethiug 

peculiar. laileed, aa aoema to fulluw from the relti-tion uf 

Tiiait^ ti> t)iese two mo'ii;» of opi^ration, in ivtiich a peculiar 

^ fM3wer of the mil over nature niaiiifcBts itself, and as is oon- 

^■finnc<l by what is pre<hc.iteil of iriTrit in 1 Cor. liil 2. " If 

\ I Uad f;uUi (90 that 1 ouuld ini>T<i mountuiaa," i. e. 0i>uld 

rondor wiiat apjiearu'd iiiipoBiil>k'. pcisi^ihle by the power uf 

, roligiitu.i tiiuriction worltiiig on tliti VVill, — the tiM-ni niarit 

[evi«ieutly dL-uut^8 tlie practical power uf tbe kUI uuimated 

elevHtuJ hy fiiitli. But with this variety in the mirni- 

ioiis of tlio charismn. still lie «-lio laboured in the power 

[of tlw clmrcli, (ifiTocd willi tJie worker of luiraclöB, in the 

[cxÄWciousuo.'« Unit aJl Itjiil, he effijcli'd was only by the power 

[of Uod giiiiited to him ; I Fet. iv, 11, 

Altliou^li, IU we ttuvii slioK'n, in virtue of these sptritiuil 
[gifts impmted lo hidividiials, acuoiviin^ to their vanunii 
pe«idiaritic«, »o one conld csercise a decidedly oue-eided 
j uiSucDc» ou Uio church, hut oil with reciprocal activity 
cooperated for the siine ohjeot. under the iuflnonce of one 
lu^, unirautitig live wliule iu all its tontiifold memhci's, 
Epb. iv. IC; yot it by no njenus followed that all guidance' 

I We cannot, !n lliiii pWc. alio« tho view lironfjlit forward by Itauer 
In imMfr UQncilK^'^O, thut., in tlm ^[iijaulU! PnriUni? BpiHticA, nii T-rM^0 \j.n 
be fOTod of dUtiiic'. etnplovini:"» buJ olfircs for Uio gnidancs and 
Banmincut ot the clmrctii '['ii<: iKuanuL'u iii üouj, xii.i iu whivU ili<t 
ilRtinctitinn in the vnriow rlmrisTrs htd pninwiJ out,, ctrtiiinlj show» 
^_ bov flttc^iiAilDE C'crrtbini: was at Um'i lime, itnd buw littlu Ihuw 
^fteluri«!»* ynW &r*\*t. iu u» to lUe meiuiluf; of the later cliurcli-oUIcM 

consnTcnoif rsr tke cBcnem. 

(tf tiie clmrcii l»v human iaptrunienUility via» oscltidctl ; botl 
Ulli}' lliiit tbiw spccio]!/ gtiiiling iiintniuictits exerciMxl iio^ 

oomapoadlD^ to tliom, In thaC pAwoRC, U is etrikinc lo noii^c hti 
I'ituI, In the 8t.h unci SUi vtMvo. |)iuatw froni the ctnLrlaiun wUicli Kt: 
to mat« tA psnlculAf off^een. M Mia nwnlion of Clin>i.isn tiiliiM vbtth 
tforitiTiii;"! every liclictrvr : ill tlie end uf veiw 8, (.lie iXtiir fotiii» ib« 
pnmi. of IntnsiMon, ami eviin tief<>ri> Ihm, licralibbt (lorn iioi n<^'p>g«r'ilT 
rtliiw to ur.y official duty. Thv« ihc vie« we »r« kd to form of tlie 
orlgiuiiL coiirt.Itiil.ioii nf the rliurrl»^ aiiioiiK Uiiiitilv (•Itrttliiiiiu. m llii^V 
I'xiitl«! ill ihc npoali'lto usi'. — fAoI if ma* enUrtJil rtemoiytre. U ifr», 
ona af llie ilUlIugiilaLiui; uvirkii iKH-H'Cm thi: vlitiii'lio iir(!ciill1(i' 
tbonr of JrvUli origin Tlic vote nf-|H'nn tn tu tliuih All ilic ifDiir* 
of the nliuri'lie- H'vru hlill (.niii>ai.'tcil In an cnilicly pulillc luunnvi. >« 
llial every cieliirmiirc nii^oiiii^ or i,lni rliuwli nntnililod • ftrici" 
pi^pulai aMeinbljr. Line it liapiicnol of counc, tliuinli-bough Dodefinl 
ulNvus wuru luililuleil, lu »)>idi cL-rUiiti unijiloj'iiiciitH vrnt» »Mliui' 
atUKhcd. ;'Ql cacli oaa ocuiipivd liimsuir wilb iUotv iiiiill4.-n for «bicb hi 
poMHMaciI u pti'uUiir diuii^uii lliup^- hIio liul Itic k'lllof tcavhhii;, fffli 
tally ut.tctidr,ii ta wivclijne,— tliuw «hrj puracBSpil tltr gift nf chu; 
EiiTcrnnit'nri. Di.ri)|ttcil ilicni-cln'ii with ibD ilutic« pcttjkiulii^ 10 li 
TliiiK. ill ever)' iiii'«tiiig uf ibe cliurch, llicni inu n diviitkid kmonK il« 
nmiiiiiiir* ol the vanon« hu-.iiii.*t, in )impOTlioQ to the ^iiliar fbaninii 
of tinliv'iiliinli'. yui wiiluui. iliu iuiiituiiun uf tinjr deGiuii! üIiurImiISik 
In favour nf tliis v'mv. il, mighr, fnrr.har be /illeyed, Ihiil, «hen P» 
(1 Cot, vi.) spciika uf a innll«! leleo^iiig lo ohureh gövoniim-nl. Il» 
wtUing uf liii^utioui, liu diw» nuL rei^ünimvtiil tliuir o(iinii]itliu|[ t' 
l>"Muc«ii lo peiMünB who he]A a dUiincl offiuc af governing, «htaa 
com^rn iti fuut (.';i)^ tt w^mUl Uava t>etiU ; but h^KTnlta uf tb<> olitircb iM 
h X/od^f bcf^fL' wliüse tribunal t^LLfli ilLj»puio4 oii^ht (^ be bniuglit t^ > 
iliH;i>^oii. -' I a i.liute uot iiiie wtHC iiiiin among you,*' l>c «»kuil, "wliecaa 
lUl^Iv inch nmtunil" TlicrFforo, nirh vrir«! pi^tson« niiisC \>c ta^rrn ftvni 
tlic niliUl. (if l.lia (^1uirt~li, (tir. In lUli» irotd», ihaac wbo had lliv jfid *t 
vhateh fiüvtrumciit.) to umlcttiiku th« •HltU-munt trf Ibwe diaoulo« bf 
[iicnii« uf'ir pL't^nUar irUiLTiuni, iiuMad of if bting nferrea lo Auy 
uiinii-iilar ijflii^u. wliiub ntrtLviiy a^nvm with the nowa we hare atateiL 
I(ut Ibia vie«, whk'li imfct] miij I-« fnrn«d from nuch ptnoca. Ihongk 
not ncipGBwtrilj fiitnnled upuii iIumii, ti d^eldwlly oppgaed bj otbecL 
I*.tiil, ill 1 Ciir. xvl., MLyii, ihil ihv fiLinil]' <if HlopfinnM, an ibc lit 
Chrimian famiiv in AchiU, «IcToltd themselven to tb« wrtic« oft. 
Clirinlimi oliun'li, ■'. e. It» muniben deelnrud LhamulTi!« Kadj la «nd 
tiikc cimrcli otKi-es ; cuiisi>i|uc<utly. we tuny gu|)|>ugil tbai, Kt tbo fonndi _ 
af l1ii> oliiircli, •iicU o(rii:i:<> «refi iiietUulod. Tlmt thi* U bU monlugi' 
U cottfinnod by tho Ißtli ver^ie. wheni I'uiil «srliort'i llio rfmrcb to obq» 
»unti [lliarnrürt! nil'crs of tlie nhufub), nad nil ttiolr rallowlutiourani. 

Furllier. to 1 TIiüwi. v. 12, ho >pt!iik" nl Hiich «bo Ubuuml br (lie 
oliareh, ptvxided avor theln, atid iLiliiioiiiahcd tbcoi. I.ove ts Üioui m 
OTenuuni on iioraunt of thi^ir bilmiriniin uilllii(|[ U piiHiuiiWIj' ■a)abifd; 
and tbun Ibi; dbcrtntSoa to ^enee «iih one nnoiJiirr vono'udo, niilMlb* 
dlvisivu ia tliu cburcb woulil vsp'iciallj- Injure lltcir prop« ralalUttU 
tli<«i: uvereeerb of the uhutcb, luid the irnat uf tnrjntninjj loic uid nn- 





«XolnfflTo mitKority, did not separate thcmselrcs frotn con- 
Dcijon with Che whole living orgauizatioii, Ivrinvd b,y a free 
reciprocal u;U>^ of the iDimvidual memttera. nor dared to 
Tiolfit«! tbdr lulutiun to the otlu-T members, as eqiinllj M?it'~ 
iitg the same hcnd, und the atme body. Ttiei'e waa ind^ied 
fwr Ulis gui'iiiiice « iwoulJar UiL-nt iiispired by the Holy 
S[Hril. jfa/titfia ivil pfiifrtM^. It was this that fitted a persou 
for the office of piiesidiiig over tho churcii. Tbo Diinie of 
preabfter, by which, as we imve befor« ftiuarked, tili» oHit» 
W9ta first distinguished, vias translön-ed tVom the Jewioli 
Evnagogue to the Christiiui clitirch. Dut n')it;n the ohiiroli 
extended itself fiinher among HcUeuic Geiitilei. with ihis 
iinrao borrowed froia the civil :ind religions constitution of 
tlie Jews another wim jciiiied, nhich wiis Diore allied to the 
lieedguatiotisof »ociftl n.'liition'i atnoni; the Greeks. and aiiapled 
Irt point out thfl official duties connootifd with the dignity of 
pr»sbyt«r(.' Tha nanio iriirKonoi denoted oToreeera over the 
whole of lite church nrtd its culIcoUye conoenia ; as in Attic« 

' TOBCG toirard» Ihem wrinlii al'ti injuriously uperatu aij^uinst llie »v&iy ot 
the ehiirdi. When I'lml. id Uom. in, 1, in(^nl>iitn« n dciu'oii'esa, it, 
I" ccrUlnly preiuppoMd tlla^ tiieiT were aluo il«:ieous »iid pre-'lirttr* in 
Roch ft ehiirch. when, in Epii. iv. 1 1, ho nmncfl pasLore nad iwuilmre 
next t» ipwtle« and prupliuu, und mUvA nflui' i.lje nioiidan orcbari^ius 
u tte hä*r«n1j ^rü honioHsd hy Ciirigc. wo n\mi \tSi<t thar, amnng 
ÜMM [lailorK N%A tcttciicm. liiere weni ilio*« iviio eiiortitod disLinot 
«fto«K, lUid ikiaX, in (cniti^nil, ccrl.tlii uilu'Oa Uiirrvsprrmted Id ur.-rU.iii 

, eturbina. We intanttonallj' pi»^ over Philip, L 1. n pil¥<b;c «hieb 
Im dcdidve onl^ far tlioitc who, llkii inyi-i^lf, utti c.uit\lnt.eA of 

' tb» g«naiaaD«M of the epinilu. Alfo. when hiikv. Aci.t xiv. 33. ma- 
latM that ["buI. on hia (Iril nklvalonary jnurncy. appolntiid jirvthytcn In 
ttu now ohtinihtM, tliin \*,'\a Ti<y vpiniaii. iwrUin )iit<toric^nl (^vi'Iuiiuv. 

' «tnc« I mutt MOBidcr the ■iKpicioD llmt. in thi« woi'k, a bTur ci'i^lcilrt»- 

I IJcal point olvlev bw boon truui>rvrrud lu varlivriUid dillurcnLly furuicd 
dinroti-rElotiMU, anabioliitoly withiml founiliitiun. lint Iron thv cxialine 

[lelatioOKaf lliO uhurclic«, nmoti^ vlii-.-k iLmu wa.t tii>[ in lliu harne scnno 
I in Uur lituci adür^y disiint'ui'hi'drrum the hit)', ill* evident. h'lW, 

tta Bora. lit T.nloiitc wllh Iha vliiriMii' (.■oimufWii hiÜl apoeiriuoflii'st. 

lUiOM night be tuimcil which Kcm tiut lu «inned.ed: and huw Pnuj 

[.eould pM* on from partloulsr (thiiri>tu<> to genorikl ChrUtiun vin.iieB. 

t Attontlon lu tho poor And «ick. which hd»ii^d to tiie Apedul iiDeinc^ o! 
ddCOiu. vai yet louiuthini; in vf}tti;h utli^iru ciaril'l !<c eTDfkU}vE,Hl, Ite^tiLoB 
Ihooe on «ix'iu H oilli-'ildly davolvcd. äuc Rotbo. in lli<; work helon 
^uoUil. p. IS«. 

I Th« npoi^de PeUir. inhUfir^l l^pirLtle (<'. 1, 2^. cortainlydl'tini;ui<bH 
■ tkia iltgnil« liy LliU uniii« ••pnr$iTtpei, liul llie duLlui coaiicctail whli It, 
^K by tho lorm twianunir = noifuiirtiir- 

cossnTDnoK of thb ciidbohl 

thaw who wcru commiBsioncil to organize tbc etatc« ile;^ 
ait Athcim, roooivcd the liLlc of irritranroi,' and m in gencnl 
B[)pwii')i to linvo bcon ii frequent oiie. for denoting it cruiding 
ovcrwiglit iu til« public Biimiuiirtiiiliyii.' Siucu, Uivn, tlm 
Dome (V/sniRuc >>'Hfi no other than a transferenoe of su 
ori^nnl JcwikIi nutl IleUouklic ilcjiignntiiin o( d&GC, adapt«! 
to ihesocinl rektions of the Geutilea ; it follows tiiatoiiginiaUy 
Liuth iiameH rfljited Liitir«ly to the Homo office, und hi 
both numea are rrcqueiitiy iiitenjliiiiiged m porfoully nrnoo^ 
EDous. Thus Paul nddi'esscs the nssetobled presbyters «f 
Epbesiim cliiuch, whom he hwl »eiit Tor as iViotorouf,' 
likewise in 1 'IWi. iii. 1, the oföco of tlie preabytcra ia cal 
f'irfrTiniiTii, und initucdiiitely nfter (vc-r&e S) the aHicc <if <l«ncoi 
is moutioued lui tlic unly eiiHtin;^ chiii'ch-ofnoe be»id»i ; m 
Pttilip. i. 1. And tints Pitiil fnjoiiis Titiis to appoint prmbytera, 
and imiiiediatflj nftur wJU tlivin bishojis. It in, tlicccfun!, 
ccrtaiu thiit ewrv church was governed "by a union of the 
elders or ovüräeom* cho:»äu &utii among tWmsclves, oud wa 

' OtVuTwi»!' mUeii ipfionoL S--Ji'tt, Artjilop^ Av. (1093) ot r*f 
'AffufaiW ill TAI winiiiifoii(ir(iA<itiii«fi(^^nn9»r4ir»p'>icirrBtrir»fi«i/in!0(, 

* Oic. ad AltkiiTit, x-ii. cp I!. Valt tiic I'diniKiliiii ma« nvtrm 
bvM CkiiiJ'UNH. nl miLriÜiiiit um. Iinliiiiil. tatcKviror, kit qtuni adcetna 
«iiEnnin negotii n-'frrftliir. In a fruRlncnt of a work liy Afntdit 
Vhnriiiitl* Jn Miiniinhiia rii'ililiii.; l',[F|»i;i>jii qui pnwUDI' polli « tuc< 

rcnalibui' ri'liii», natv clviutuiu pupulu mi quoUdUnum viinuut lutf 
«uQt. Jfiyal. hli. iv. lit. iv. loi; 18, § T. 

* Ai:1a kx. U, 2S. II' vre bcTieroil onrnelvc* jnntificd In nipuodttg 
tliat amuiie tbtui. ibore were nut merely thi- uveneur« uf Lhc KiwmIib 
cliiiro]), liiit u1>u ilgu«e uf ullier oliiuvhos in l^oiwir Anii, tt mijHit to 
said. lliHl liy thexe hrierKi^inis ontj the proi'IciiU uf tlii> pre«liylMlt« tM 
inii-iidrd. lint th<^ otli^T p^suiee'i in Viiitri o|iUt.lM nro imcumI Bucb » 
<ii»llnuLi>in. ami bukt:, who H.;>p1itt I.Hi« HiMrc» on); to lite ovcncvr« 
tlic li;>)icsian chunh, in so duine. •how* Uui be coiwidored tli« 

' 1 must lioro nsain ex[>liiin m,v~:iJ' in reference to thn Cr*l or^ani. 
tiou <vr 1l>-e <'hi]i>'hva iinioii^ Lho Oi-u'i.llii Ciiri«liMiii4, ooiitnirY to ihif ticw 
111» in win eel l\v li int. stiel Bnuonihiiliiwigiunliv vorj- [cw eliu roll vh had formal 
].lie[uneWL>a Ticidt^r individiiul ovi^rei^er^, Hiid LIiilIi lliL-irforuiof fp*v*^r nm ai I 
fiymtlic liegloQing wasnuinaruliinil. .^cuoriliug w Bauer, tliourcnctrrM 
euoli in rolureuiio lo ilioir iwoiiJmr oillcu. ivcni i^iontirai, knd oul.v wlini 
Kpokcn of AS iiniled aud (uiiuiiig: u culkgc, ihnyirr.riE culled *pfa-ilvTif«i. 
iu Al'U lir. 23, wc iim lold, Uinl Paul ii|i|iLiiiiii!U prubywn for lie 
cliun'bcs, fi>riii(;il in lliP dilT-'tcul fititn.ihftt ti, in rnch i-Liirch »«oil<iB 
orpre»b}'Ur>i. If. witli fknar, no uixlenilanii. ihat« iiliimlity ofpr» 
byicrsu to lie Uk-iiucultuutively, iiud fur cBüh clmti;)! onlyoa«pK«byM 



Muon^ them no indivir^iiat tUHtiiigtiisljed above tho rast 

»hu prealdciil as a primiu inter parrs, lliougb prulmblj-, m tlw 

iciiiDodiati'lj' »uciira^iLnK tho itpoeiuliu, gf wbioh wc have 

unfuriunutflly so few JiutJientic roiimnriuls, tho prActioi) küa 

iattvdiiveil vf npph-ing to eucJi n,n oitc tho naitia of iimraurac 

by way uf didti'ii.'t.if/iL' We liavc no iiirüniiuliii>ii liow Ihö 

omut« of pivsiJeut ia the dohherationH uf presbyters was iielii 

in the iijiiniuUi: agu. I'oxsibty tliU oiTit-c wiu« lii^Id in rutation 

— gr the oi'iJcr of seiijurity mighl bo followed— or, by fiß^reea, 

one iudividiiiU by Im peiMiiml qiialifiuuiims giiin such n 

diatinctiuu : ull tliU. iii tlie alienee u! ütl'uruiiittuii. niuüt be left 

I uu<Iel« j will thing m tiTlaiii, thitt thu peraou vi ho ucicil 

■u preKideiit was nut j-et diatiujfuisiied by any fHU-liouiiir uiimi!. 

^P Tile ^ovetamc'iit of (he choi'ch wsis tbe jieouliiii" office of 

l^uch ovcreeers ; it wtia thcii- business to watch over Iht.- ^euerul 

rorder,— to rnaiiitnin tli« purity of the (-'hnstiaii doctiine and 

of ChrurtJau pnwtia;, — to guaiii aguJast abuses, — to ndmotiish 

Ukj ß>u]ty — and to guido the public delibtrations ; JW appciire 

fiwm the iiaxxtigbs in the N«w Tiatametit whwe their fuin'tion» 

ftrc (ioKcribod. But theif ^'ovcnmicut hy no niäims excliidiid 

the partiuipution of tho whulo uhurüh in tlie ittnua^mctit »f 

thüir coniniüii coucoma, iis may be iiifeiTKd from wJiat we have 

waanmMintcd, t\\U -niiuli] be incDunsietit witb AüLsxi. IT, nherr jt Is 
»aid tnal I'aul Miit Tor ibo prtHlijicn oF the diuruti at Eplicau)^, whii'li 
iui;i]liiii thill n plumlli^' or [iresbybits presidctl aver one i-liurch ; nr Lha 
wori ixKÄw^" h'IiIl'Ii ill Lilt' pu-'Wige f;raliiuotcdi)iiin'lenitoorli)f a niTiiiXii 
«bureh. inuitt be hnro M-liitiiml.v uken lo aigairy seversil ohurpht» c'al- 
lectirtly— cortiiliilj quite «^oriiTory w the phnsoolocy of iho apfMüliu 
»iC*. nocording lo which the word ^niXifofa ägn'iÜn. eitlicr tlm wliota 
CliriMliaii cUiiruh. ili<^ tutnl nuuilwr nf liuRcvcr«, inriaiug od« bilily ii iiiIot 
uu liMd. or a liii^lc t^Iiiirch or Cbiistiua aui^iuty. In thuc cilsc. l-he 
plural Tuv /«iXi)ffiw>' niiint tiisiiiiuarilj^ have been vueä. AtU xx. '2%, 
»Ito iinplKs, thut uvcr ciwh -chiipi;!! a piumlil.J <>! piv-1>jlerB jjrciictcd. 
Anil ihun, ne iiiiiat uliu i!X|)Iiiin Titas i. 5, which urplnnuUnii ^iir tlio 
upl'oinl.tuuiil <'f «'Tuiul pnwhvWrB hi «Juili «it}') i* nlsii imn'. fiivoufotl ]iy 
(lie laajiunffe tlicro UHid. I cuii •liecov^r no otliui dilli^rcpm liQtwettt tlio 
rftffßirtpti trul jMiVriMrn iu Uiu apustulii; ftjL'Cr Uiau ttiut Diu (in<t niuni- 
&M tbc rank, tlin mcand iiho dutlo^ of iJic iiSici:, n'liotlier the rcfcrcnno 
i» lo DUG ot luiire. 

' t'crhajni nil iiiialn(0 niajr be found, in Hii: fjtct (it it were to), Ibnt 
OK aiDonu tlie JbwIkIi firrsbjten km iii*iii)piilsyi*(l by tlio nnm« o( 
Archi'ynaguijiK : "r the imiiici. npiaSimpo: imd' ipyceunhi'yoi muj Iieur 
Uie «una nialUin t« each ntlier an Tpr^rfliirtpoi itiii! iirlniteTi\i, lliu fir-t 
umedunatiog ltisnukk,liic«etfond Ih« nniureofthu ulIit?LV l!f>:»i^itTni 

TOI.. 1. 1 



■Irewdj' remariivd re»|'L'diii|? th« naturt- f>f OiriM.i«n comtri' 
laou. uiid IB abo evidi-ul frum mai:^* iudivi<lu.-il ^xaiupli^ia 
tiif Apwitolifl chnnih. Tbo wholp flmrnh ut JiTiüoltm (ouk 
jiart in ttto dcUlieraüoiiH re»[)HoLiiig the relation of tlic Jevitli 
nnii (ioiitilo Cbristinns to «ich othor, and the cpivtlf tlnmi 
lip ufur iliuHe dslibeiutiouft wait likcwLio in lli« uiuue of thv 
wnolü churek. The Kpistles of the Apostle l'«ii5, which tiiai 
of various tKititro verted (icclouastiniü matter«, ore addtvsk^d U> 
«hrile cliui'cKes, und he awitiuee thnC tho iloauoo bcloojicd to 
tilts wliolu hudy. Had it been othurwi»«, he would iMve ai 
(Iruf^cid Ilia iiistriu'tious &ud advice prinL-i))aUjr, at loit^t, to 1 
ovurseei-B of the churoli. Wliun ii licsintioiui pur»oii bclu^ti 
to the chiircli at Corinth wan to be escommunicfttcd, 
n[)! uDURidnred it n itiuiisurct tltut oM\iht to proceed from 
vhole bociuty ', »nd {ilaoi'd hituBälf Üit^raforei in spirit 
iiivai, tu unite withlimm in piiasiiig'jiidt^iiivut; 1 Cur. y. 
Also, when disiMiireing of the Bettltment of litigntions. 
epcrstle does nut affimi thnt it propei-lj- belonged to tli« C 
Be^Ts of th« churvh ; for if tUa had t>een Üie prcvsUeut 
he wuuld no doubl haxs releiri'd to it; but what he 
■io«iiis to impl^ that it wits usuid in pnrtiiTiiliu' iiu>t«n9C( 
0c)«ct arbitnitore irom ftmoug tbo membcre of the cbuicb; 
1 Cor. vi. 5. 

As to wliat i-elatea tu ihe edificatiou of the cliurtdi by 
Word, it fcUowB from whut ivp liiivo bcfönj rwunrkcii, t 
Ulis wna not the eicUisive eoiicora of th« oTeise«r of thu 
ohiireh : for auih one bad a right to esprcss what nfleoto>l hi» 
inind in the a»it-mbly of tlie bretbrca : hence m«uy did uot 
fluiBcifülly distinguish between what w-as fit only for tlicir 
own clianiher. wbca« every ninii might ireely [lonr fortli hit 
heart bcforo Cod, and what was Hmtable fur coniniuutcatiD^ 
pahhcly, — an error censured by Paul, as wc aoticed in qxskic^ 
of the gift of tongues.' 

* 11 lina \iaea maint»\ard , inJeed. ihat tliis ticiinc« in the npuMlit 
D>iurDli was exk-ndcl only tu ihoac vbo nppoor am pro]>tieU ia Um 
CliristiiaD iLMicmbiltM. But truoi bd'^Ii epociftl i^aMua A c4Q«nl lü^oiY Ü 
nol Uj be inrerrud, for tlieBc meo 112 Mwhcre, nnai'd wiili dlTlii* »neIio 
ritj, itnil ipaiik-ing in Ood'a aume, miRlil on tJitit Rc<«iint bcnaiu'iKj 
eK«>|iUd 1ti>u\ oomDion rules, Seu Moiliviiu'ti I "'titta. SUt- HiOt* 
taaivr. »e. i. ) 10 ci IS. But LhU obJocUon it In« uliiUtca by viml «1 
ha*« niuktkea cupovtiui; Ulu jmphHlio ibariuu And iia niliiUoB 
sUier «lutdama. 


Onljthe fiSEläb!''iae6lbRToftbi(shimh were owopto;) from 
this (^Qcrnl pcriDiaiou. The felluvrahip of a higlior life aom- 
tnonioated by ('hruttinnily, »Unded ic^if to th^ rolntiün 
buCweoa husbttnd a.u<l wife; and the unitj to which liumun 
oature aspiras acnunling to its original ilestinaticiii was 
reolizei] ia this quartar, a& in every othor respect, by Chriirt- 
taoity. But luiioc whatever is fouaJed. on the Inwa of nature 
Ü not injured by ClirioLLiiiity, but ouly aiiimiiled afresh. 
«inotitlcij, and retirieil ; ho alaa in tLis higher lellowxhip of 
life, wliiuh ought to iinttij hiisbinKl and «'ifi-. Ük latter reüuns 
h«r bL'Cumiug placo accurdiug to the uauu'al destination yf 
her sex. Menial roeqitirity nod uctiritj iu fiuiiily lifo wliö 
tt)0<i|;ub8d in Chriadauity aa c<jrreBpoiii;Üug to the diwitiuy of 
womiui, nnil hence the feaiule aes are excluded from delivering 
public addrütise« on rolii^oiia siihjcots in the nietitia^ of tiii.< 
church;' I Uur. liv. 34; 1 Tim. ii. 13. 

' 1 Oor. ti. 5 appem to oonlniliot tklii injnnctlon. anil in iuiel«&l 

tiai«a tbj UoaUaiAU tiioiighl'— >i>'itli wbam »vcrul luodtiii irrilrciielmra 

aifrwd — thul huru uu uii-.e]iLi<>n is lo liu foiiud; ut if the upmllm 

^_ inundcil %o Und br iio rulo tlioas crsce in vhtub the iumicdiato opcia- 

^B tlon irf til» Diviii« ä[>irit miwjil up pruphot.a from Lba (euiulu eui ; or t» 

^H If ll« «IkIiviI to (IclMr fotoili't mil}' früin luldm^cs that nein pitcvliar-ly 

^H «lidiuttu. but. not fiviii tbu jmblio exiiru.triiyn ul' llitir rGelingu. lliit uu 

^H to cbc drfhti latnrjsriruttlou. U äiippoicfi lod groula tlLQi^rciiaif b>c1w?-QD thif 

^V t434tf<(i*'— ^"'bkib iiiu^l J1J40 piiH^iiiid IVmlu tm upuiiitiuii uf tku Holy 

H Spirit — luii the T^'tpjjftitir iit nlenjuue tu Lbe divine id botb. U 

' m*i»t b« cuititiiil.i i^rruueuuH In ati)>]]Oiti: tbat oil}' op«rallon wlialcvur uf 

tbc Hoi.v Sjiirir, in llic Ubriil.iuii cimrcli cg-hIiI be lawleu. When ihe 

ftpiMilc E'ltul poinifl ou[ to ibu female tlint pln«e in ^hc church vhiah U 

■Aiigneil her by th^ npiiil of the ^uMptti, wliiuh MULCiittej nature — tha 

Holy Spirit wLioh U llie Splrif. of Cliriatinn-iLy. followH everywliora this 

I«* in bill opnwlionii, «nd wa ciinnot eup]tu»u Ibal bv an Bxc^eption he 

Wf>iji'l f'-iTio^'L« wuiimn from Ucir luiturrLl position- Lvcry dtivmlioti of 

|tbii kind would ippcitrOMKOUii.-lbius tuurbid,aud<untrury to the ipicit 

I. of th'^ i:ii-|i('] 

BMidt-v ii-hcn ruul gxvo ihAt probibittua in reTnreiiee to (emiilw. he 
I Wiu lnaliu|{ of it<]ilr<iwt«9> Clmt woi'e not didactic. ThU ci>ii1d tlierefiire 
Lnik« no eXQujjtign, which wuuld *{i\'\y Ui buth iDl«rpreUil.lun>i. We 
IbüM Bccuunt fur tlii« .i|>j»ircnl; iji>atrTuli<?tioii, by auppoBing ibat Pnul, 
tla tfc« MWi^nd poaoi^, tuuroly viti^d an iii^uuii» of wiml. oci;urriHl iiL the 
iCortntblau cliurcli, natl roRCfcd lil? uonfun» for uu<ptbor placs. One 
tnf Ibe reoauiu which I'aul addui:uB in lUo pitBajuru qualvil from the üiisL 
jifpittic to TiwoTiUy ftgiiinat iba public 6iica.kiüg of feuiuies, u IIir 
Esmtcr duniijvr of «^If-iluuL-piiuLi la Ibu wuitkor nt^i. und tlic spread af 
' erron viMig, (rma 11 — .1 roasoa Mhicb woulil apply with the*t 
I fom Ld u eXist uf iul(lmni«i«. in whloh aotier relleutit'cacM wm leaai of 
I All in eX(<rcUu. But lIiL» kind u( religious u tenuiuu would be locnt 





Yet tt&, bv the |fRrt!ci|Liatiun »f nil iu tlio oondtict of ch' 
a&l\ii'8. n rüi,'ti]ar govenunent by uppoiDted organs was ml 
i»cU><Ii>l, but. buth cuopenitc»] for (ho gerwca] good ; w> mW 
tß^Qthor with that which the mombt^ of the cfa 
virtue of tliü ('oiiiini>ii Clirigtian ini«|iiniitioii, ootilrl oou 
to their 11111111111 I'liiticHtiun, there «xiHted a regular 
tratioti of imstruotiuu in the churoh, uiid an ovv^^i|:ht <if 
tnansiTiiiigiDii auil ilevplopmt-iit of doctrine, which iu tliis ti 
of rostloaaiicM and fcvn^oiit vtas oxp«K<d t» «o many ndiüi 
tioDB, nud fvv tills ]>urpoae the ^ftipiafia of eien«KaKia 
dnri^wd. Thctre were tlirw onleni of ttnichoi« tu tin) upoeiulic 
age. Thn ünt pliic« i» ociniiiiod bj' tboM wbo wcTt jioniuuaily 
cliflwa and set apart bv Christ, ami forme! by iutci-coiuw 
with liiin to 1)8 lD»tTwui«itj( for publitihiii); tlie piKjw! aiiioiig 
!i]l uuuikitid — th« wituoHios of his diacourecB, hia wurka. bid 
»uiToriiigs, luicl his r(««rrc(jtion^ — the Apostles, ' iimting win 
Paul was jiwtlj iticludoiJ, on accouul of CliriA's ijcrs»' 
aiijjQiuimco to liini nud tte illuminatiftn of his niitul im 
pfiiJuuily of the iiisli-uctiona of tlio olhcr aponlee ; m-st 
these, wcru tlio MtSBioiinriis or Bvanp^lints, tvayyiXmrat ; 
and liLSÜy, tho Tochers [ippi:,Lntad for eojinrate chvrohcs, tai 



Ruilcd ta the fdinalo BOX. wbcTD no ilaogtrofilie sort alluded to, i 
from publioitx, vmM hu conticeu»! »iili it — only it miiM. I« , 
U the doDioiUc «ircle. Hcnc* Hit ilaußtilera ol' lliiliu, Acu i 
nntwithalnndiiig tiiat rii1o, coultl rM oi prouliuttwei. iinlnH «c I 
Llinr. 11114 visa an iniyläjaii« wliicli Paiil vould hare cpn(nr«il. 

■ Tliin nnma in e, gvui^nil miibs wai' appliod bi uilium wfao pab 
divine triitb in an oxienüve iqiliere ol luboiir. 

■ This nnmo dom [lut impiy Urn'. Ih«}- oi^ciir>ied thoniMlrc« «Ah 
aul U'cti iij; «.n-i uoiii[iiling imrniiivi's <ir Uiu Urii iif ChriHl, ; for Ihe Dnina 
■vgir><'Xiav orl^innll}' Jenoluil iiul.hini elic tliiiD ibu wliolc MUkouncv 
iiitiul. (i{ Uiu KnlriilUn gront^ thronccli CbHat tu men. »ii<J tlii> k>- 
iiooiicciDc^l cTiii)iriii.--jd iha wbole of OitiatmiiiLy. .^f l-hi« uiinoimcf^iii':-! 
rc(t> nn n UUtcrl^^Jil liu-ls, Chriat m ibc licdccmcr In clio oliJnM •/ ii : 
■nd tliu* i)k, liii^r-iicrlvud UKüLtilng >« l<>nn«<l in wtii4-4i tliii wiinl it 
specially npplicil tu the hUiortcii of ih« Ltf« of ClirUi. Accortllnj; <« 
tbe original Clinaiiuu (■liiawuliwy, Ibe tanu voulJ ualy ilviiui« aae 
whww callitiK i<- '"i"^ t" puMinh iaa doetrlno nf rutlvoiinn t.1 men, *aJ 
ilierehy loby u rüiiiiilaiiuii fur ibaUbrlHlnn djuruh; un ilii: cuuLnuT. 
tiii> B>A<imciiAii< pi't'MippunccI fiuLli in iliu dciciniie of KalTniion. inda 
eduruli LilrcuiJv fuuQileil. and employed lilu)t.eir in the tuiiker tniolnc 
iu ll'hn;itinn &niiwkil(i;a. Thu iisii nf tha woril fbayyi\iatii! In ! Titl> 
U. S. fiivoum Ihld [ntGTj>re)at.>on. und ihla orlfrlnal Oii'litUn phRuiSiliO 
wiseuntiniiod Id kUr iig«<. ulthiiu^h a more modem incauinffof IM 
nai'il (vaYyJXwv wiu uuiiuuuUiil »illi il Eimcff. Jfiit. Jiectta. iii. e. 37 




Ptitki/O oat of thsiir boJy, t!w riöiiWoW. K sonietimea the 

i Wfiu^f/Tdi lu-c iiaiut"i ucjxt to tlio ajjOBtles and eet twlbro tho 
CT:tiigeli)cts am) t!io ■'■ ■'<■<»; tiXiiic, Ruch t^aüiieri! must li« luennt 
in whom lliat iuivard conflidoD of life, from wtiieli irpii(f,rjTevni- 
[■rocuuÜL'il. KM iTiofLi cunntant, who were distiiij^iishcil fmm 
other tcnchiTS liy tiie eitraiirdiiiary liveliiiees and Btüadioesa 
of the ChriaKtftii insph-ation, and a pccidiar uri^iiality of tljcir 
ClirlsLiuu WDtupliimti which were imjiarted tti tiicm by «pccial 
aVmcnXvil«« of iha Holy S[)irit ; and indeed these propht'ia, 
M is evident from their pnsition between the ayiostlrs and 
Cvatigt'hHte, liduJigtd Ui the olass of teachers wlio hold no 

iofüoe in any one church, but trnvelled about, to pubJiah the 
gOHpol in a wider circle. 
A» it n-^ganl» the relntioii of the hfannKai to the irpttßi' 
rt^i or ijiiaKoiroi, we daro not proceed on the suppoßition. 
timttWyiLlimys remained the same from the first cstfl.blishmcut 
ai Clu'iHUau oliurches among Uie (Jtintilt's, mid iherefiira 
during the whole of Paul's ministry, n pt-i' so important 
fi>r thi! lie veil ipmeat of the church ; ainl hence we luw not 
juHliRcd tn conclude, from the chanictenstii» we fmd in the 
J Inter I'uuliae Kpiatlus, that the rE-Iatii.ii of these onlera wiia 
^Ltho mmo as existed frcini the beginning in the (ieutile 
^P elmrdies. If wt; find several things ia efu'lier dutimicuta 
' whioh are at variance with these charactcristica, the Huppoei- 
^^tioii niuüt at least nppPJir posgil"Fle, tkat cbn.uges in the con- 
^■tlition of the churclieä, aud the experJetiucs of the fin^ {icriod, 
^Vhtul oücadonod an alteration in this respect ; and it is an 
utterly unfounded conclusion, if, hecnuse truces of aueh an 
altered relation are found in on ejiistlo asciibcd to Paul, any 
i/ne should infer that fiuch an epistle could not have been 
writl«it iu the Paidioc period. Tliu first quei^tiori then is, 
What vras the ori^ual relation 1 If we proeeed ou the sujv 
ätion, whioh ie Ibiindod on tho PoBtoral Letters, that tlie 
ii^^ikd-Xut belougiiid to the ovuraeera of the churches, two 
Fcaacs may be imagined ; either that all the jireBfa^ytoni or 
l)islii(]m held also the office of ttiMchors : or, that iome among 
'them, acoording tu tliflr jn'ouliiir taleat (^»pinfi'-). were 
1. Bpocially employed in the inaimgenient of the outnard gnid- 
Ih^uoo of t\\ä ehnrch (tho i.viii,.riieu), aud others with the 
|^Ei>ti^T'i"J guidance of tlje word (the ciC'atKaKin), -nx shull thtia 
faav« jtiitatJiiriaiH tvjitpyüi'Tei -wuiuin-; «ud n/jt ijfjyri uoi Ciouff* 



ooswiTtitios 0» rat. catmca. 

KovTtt^=!tfnrca\o(. The first cnse ecrtaiiily fuitnol Vc 
mittixl, for tUe j^apio/ia of oj/Jtpi-iiine is bo doci'ltdly disli 
from tJie y^tipto/^a of füaoi.a\iu, OS ill cuuuDOD lifu Uic tol' 
for goverDing and tho talout for tenobing are jwrieci 
diHtiuct frota one anotlicr. And iiceording to the ongii 
institution thö ptculiur ofR« uum-BpuiKJcd lo th« pi» 
ohnriRm. But sine« in the latter part of the ranline i«ri 
those proBbjters who were oq>iiillj capable of the office 
tenobcni tu wcU w goveriK>iv, were ettpeoially coouDuiidcd, it 
is evident that this was not orif!;inally Üie case with all. But 
ticitlicr liiivc WD mifficicrit n«s'iii lor cmsiilcring the w* ffm i^ 
cam, aa the origliu^ rchtiuu of tlieaQ several officvs. äinoe 
tlio ^piapxa of 7r()(jffTF).'a( or vu/Jiiu'jj' (in the Fiist KtiisUu to 
the CoriutliiauB xii. S8, nud in the Epistle t» the Konuntt 
xii. S), is BO acüuratclj diirtiiiguiahi.-d from tJtc talent of 
t«aohiri^, — und alnw thoao two chur&L-tenstiis, the r,y>in-qi 
B.nd tb« Kuflipr^v, evidently cxhnust wbiLt belonged from ti 
iicginning to the office of presbyter or bialiop, mkI for whji 
it vnis ürigiiinlly instituted, we are nut obliged to ot»c)ui 
that UiQ StSäaKa\ui belonged to the elnss of orvmeers of tite 

In the Epistle written at a litte period tc the Ejibciiaai 
(iv. II), tho TTdt^f I'jc and JifanMiAuL nre so far placed U^^ 
ther, ltta.t they are both distinguished from tho« who pr»- 
Kidod ovcir u (^n^ml (iptiere of Inbour, btit yet only in (hal 
rL-spt'ot. Now the Itnn ntnfitfic deiiotts exnctly tbo oiBce 
of rutere of the chiirch, the presbyters or bishops ; it there- 
fore dues tint appe-ar eivident Ihnt we should ehua the 
itiaoKoKoi will) theiD. Ou tlie utlicr b&iul, tho term 
votfiint might bo applied not improperly to ^lÜncrku^«, 
sinoe in ittelf, nnd from the luanner iu nhicfa the imojiD 
of a shq)hi?rd is iisod in the Old Testament and hj Cfaritt 
hiimeli; it i» fitted to denote tlie gnidiuic<0 ot souls hy the 
office of leaching. Paul also olasKS fi^nyv with tboee 
aildramM which nn? not connected with holing a particukr 
ofße« (1 Cor. xiv. 25), but what erery ose hi too cb 
who had an inn^rd call, and an ability for it, was jttsti&i 
in cxci-ciwiig. 

Il tiit^lil iilso happen, that in a chureb aft«r it» pirsbl 
had iilntidy been t-sUiblislR-d, pt-ntona belonging to it m 
come forward, or uäw mciabers might be added, who, ID oco 





aeqiieniiä of tltcir |)rrvionH<Hl<i(tiition, iliKtin^ii^Iied themuilvn 
ill ttie cräict) uf teui:hiug, evcu mon; ttiau ttin' exktiug iir^nlivtun), 
which wuuM 80OU be evident i'rom tliü iLddreHBDa llie)' tlelivered 
nrlicn tb« churi.'b iiBseml.'lucl. At tliis seiisoti of thu firnt frco 
deyelopmeut of tbo Ciirifitiao life, wüuW iho charisin gi-,mted 
tti such pe«oiia be iiayiWteJ or ii;pressed, meroly bceaii.SL- t-liuy 
dill aol belong to tlie claaa ut preHbjLers 1 Tlu-re were, iia it 
ap)WUR!i somi: taumburs uf the cbiiruh in wliuae dwelliuga a 
portion of thnm lutod to aaseuibl«, and this dei>oiided prubnbly 
not alwftjs on the convenient locality of their I'csiilicnuf?, Iiut 
oti ttMlr tal&ut for ti^avhiug, -n-liicli was tl^u» ruudvrcil avail«, 
blfl ; as Aqilila, wlio ttiuugh he resided BoinBtiiues at Kome, 
»ijtniitimcs at CoriiilJi, iir iit EpKcsus, nlwiiys wherevei- be Liiok 
up his abode bad & omall Gi>Dgr«gati(>Q or cktircb In Lin unu 
bouse, (ti ixkKriaia iu ry oit:;j uifTuv,)' TIjiix oriijin ally the 
offioe of uvoTNiMrorthti vimroli luight have uotbiug in oummoii 


* XluwcurreiiiM^f luclipiiTittchurcltMiBiiiule nMof b.v Kht and 
au unjuiJieiit for llieir upiamn, ihiit origiimll.v in lh,c larger 

^ V wiirc only iimi la li.d parti cqIbi churcbfis, iimler lliflioini)fiild' 

big pmbyHt^ «hich wen larmcd in vaiiou» purid, und at a subsequcu; 
mriod w«n niUud Into une n-hg]«. ttiil thu lipi^itles of iha apoaUe 
null pre tba dotrait widi^uüo that ull the Chmtinnis of «no citji 
oHjci&i'l? fnrmsd one whnlo chiiioh. Tet we m«y «ssily ah^i'k'«« i.liat 
ittmn pftrUotthisehureli.williutii ueparaliut; liiciufieli-üä iMni tlic whul« 
bodj' Htiil il^ ^iJuDue. lioiil piiriii;iila.r niCL-liii)^ in IIil- liiiuse of suma 
pcnon «hiinc Icxjility wn« vvrj' tuitntilu. mid »ho notuJaii tlio ii3äiriiti\at 
fat tbi! iiililliuii>)ii of tiit'l) «iimll »si^einilUeK 'i'liuB It amy lie 
bolt At|uilii mid PrUi.'iliii, whiti> tliBj *ii|'>iirnei! at Rome, or Corinili. or 
Rphnui. in>(:lit have eiicb n üiiiiill C'liiihtiun loüiety in LheiT ouii lioumi;. 
\et it iliK" niil, sei'iii riglif, to «onoiilcr Llioae lis alisiiliaelj^ Be[>urale and 
dlalloL-t cUiir^hos; Ibr «a fould not eiiijpose iliiit iiitU a oonipunv of 
talietoröivwild 1« wHiliug fur tLu urrival u.fa pcraon likt Aquila, iiho 
M often chanced his resilience; Ibey [iiu«t bnv« liud u bicJ pl'iuc of 
ftueinliliii^. Hnd tliuir Appoiuled ovurvotirB, |a [iroaliyl^r or Uisliüp, u> 
COTdins la that, iiipiMMiiiiin.) hi 1 Cur. ivi. '20, ihu churcb, foimini; 
one nbuXe (ill the t>»i.lirenj, in eiprcHtly dittinguitlieil Troni tuny «iidi 

CiLrtial aiwtitiiily. In Huni. xri. S3, u brother i» oi'SniioDi'd. in wl>u»i 
HUM Iho wbc>l« cliiirch. Iieid tlioir moelingH. In CoIoim, iu. 15, älitr u 
ftilutntiAn tfl the whulc chnroh, an individual ii *pa«ifitd and inalndod 

in itw «liilali«",at «ho"C liiiuse sucli prinil.; meutiuga wtre bolil. lliil 
ll may be qiicitioncd ivhf^tiicr in £iich piacL^u lu Rom. xvi, 14. 15 
(" Salulc A^muritu-i— — und Ihe br--lhfn liml, iirr ifilli (A-'wi. ' 

'SalotD PhiloloffU» and all the taiiiU thirt are «fitii ifiem") uiewt. 

tagt of Ulla kiriil Hru IntuiidcJ. «tr uiily ttionn pcn>iin> wbo. an occuiint of 

r tlMlr OuniLy ties or conuoiluui in buainuai^ livwl in Lutiiuuigr with uu« 



coCTr mm ow or ma csubob. 

»UK l.lic oommiuii(.iktit>ii v( instructJon. ^lUiou^ llw 
seers of the chuiL'h took ooKiiiaaiioo not only of the 
■»iniltict »fit» ni'ciTiilii-Tis hilt al«o of tbnt which «oiild be oo 
aidered as formirij^ it« basie, the niainteDauce of purv Juctri 
xiiil thu cxdiiKioii vf urri.>r; autl thou^li from the bc^onii 
cm« would he Uikua to tijipuiiit pvrMOQK to thU offioo vho lui 
nttAinciil t<> maturity aiifl stctuliiic«» in tli«ir Chrislinn princi- 
plis, it «lid lutt fi-Uiiw tlmt they iiiiwt pusMW» the gift i>f tcaclv; 
iu^', fuii-l ill odilitiou to their (ttimr kbuuL'» [>ccii|>j' tLuiuurlv 
ill |mlj!tc! iiiiilnnwi». It luiglrt bi-, thnt iit Hrst tlu: ^ii^<inv>i\i< 
was Keiiciiüiy not couiisctod with a, diAtinut office, but tiat 
t.hiiKC wKo Tvcro fitted for it caxaa forward in tKo public 
Miiibliea na cicii(r-.(i\i>i ; uutll it uaiue Lu pass tliat llioe« «' 
wciw Bpeciiüly fumished vritli tlio xo/icr/") "f iirtoKnAio. 
whom thoro i^oidil nnturnlly be only n fuw in in«it cUtirchi 
vayn ooiisiiliircd m thoso on vhom tli« etjtt«d delivery 
iaitruvtioD devolred. In the Ejiisllü to lliis GulaÜHiut (vi, 
Paul may bo thought to intiinatoi that tliere were 
tri;cberii u-jijioiiitud by tliu uKurch, wlio »tight t» rvcciv« 
iiiaiiitt<tiaiice from xhaai. But the qucsttoi] oriBEs, «lietlttf 
thes« ttorda wliita tu the hidet'a\in, or to tlie itiutinnt 
t!niyyf\taTai; nlao, whether tbv [inaBOgo t^>entti^ uut of a 
rej;:iikr' salary, but of tlio contribuUonB of froc lore, by wWi 
till' immodiuto w\iitB t-f these mi8«ioniu-ii.iK vmm rclicvwl. At 
all ev«uti% — which would also be ooullimed by this latter 


' Bvvi fif or T-bu K/wnnh aUetcnd liv Si^hnli ai^toat tbU lnt<f]ir«UlJ 
in Us ovmiBcuiiit^ uu ilii# Kpintk'. 1 '.-lumui li<.'lp couiideri&Kit 
uuly iiäinml Ulli:, And I cannot ntnve wiih ili'U »tli'zr, acoonliu; 





which the fritaii' d^aSdii U ituiicmlund iti u «j-iiriluiil atii«.', (rullüwiq; 
the exuuiitU' ul Ihelr («ai'lieiii in hU ihai it koo<I-> I nuinot ■u]ipow_ 
thnl I'Aolif lie wisliud UiailuiuiiUh iliu Üulniinm ti>lolluw Üiu exaiup* 
af (.heir lesnhcrs tn tho ChriviiAiL lifo. »'i>iil4 liiLvn »iprsuted hini-^ll' i 
(ill obcutp and «piritlt^w a mniiiier A« lo the cliiMtion u^nit tbt S? 
HilrrtirvinLiuii, i-ltnl ^1. ä-iD« uul oail lU(i cnniii'Xtciii. 1 cinnol m^tuil iUj 
ca!T«:tncM^ 'I'ha ex horUi Liane lo Eviiik'nitM suid biimdity m «luiftl 
t'lrcuun*», introiliicn iLiu autlita of 5|ii>i^lal cxhortntiol». v. SA. Ti. ', 
nhore tbo II iimrlii tlis c<jniinu«d d(.-TpU|ii»«iit, a oeir «ibarUldoi 
I'dlliiwii, imtnclj'. ihat tticy should be 11^; to coronnicicslc of 1 
aiir^l^ Ipoilr- 1.F> tlirir tonnli«» t Vli«a vvt. 1, lli:it Ui«; luxxt iiol I 
rciipins thr troitt gf the goipcl, if tlioir isjiiJutrt »mi not foiinodi 
hlilj' tu ii : il tlio;, villi »ll Untir r.ira tlimctail oiilf lo otirlbl} ''' 

noglcctc'l *iich D duiy townrUii tiiow) vliq kliuurud fvr ibc mIti 




pMfn^c. in c!i*; if i» iniilcnrtoixl of iiiJnVeoVfji. ihcBC w«ro and 
cjutimied lo Im Jistiuut flom tlio oit*»«:« of Iti« diiircli in 
^uer^. altlküii'^li in iiiuilciiiiir cases \iie tiilent« «f teiiching 
Knd gov«niinir «tri; UDuntictod, lUid tliu jirosiijtor w/l» <!i|iiulljr 
able U8 a iciiclier. 

At ft tnU-T [ifrioil, »lieii the pure gtspel lind to combnt with 
uunSruld «rrura, whioU threateuod to uori'iipt it — (is was 
gsjwciiilty« i"!"'^ <liiviii^; tliti lat.ler jieriod of Piiurs miniiitrv, 
— ai tliJH cfilit'a! [leriod it wiw thoii;rliL iiticessary to miilu 
taoK ctowly tlic oHiccB of teachers and cveiiwors. and witli 
tlia.t vii^w (ti trtlie cur« tliat oTL'i-geers should bu upjmintcfl, 
who would be flbie by tlieii- public iustrnctioiia to protect the 
church ironk i\u: mrniiüüu o( I'alse doctrine, to establixh others 
ill jjurity tA fuitli, aurl to cont'iiice tb« giiiiiBnyers ; Tit. i. ; 
Kod IwDf» he i-«t('LTQeii tbose preab^re who laboured likeuise 
ill the office of teaching, oa deserving of special honour. 

We huvc «.Iroady remiirltcd. tliat only feninlos were ex- 
dudcd fi'oiii the right of »iienkiiig iu the IlLlblit^ mcctiugn of 
the ühuFch. ßni yet tlie gifts peculiar to their sejc might 1m 
mndu uniiliihli! for the ouiwanl service of tlic church; in 
rendering a»»i»tiiiicä tif various kinds, for which women nte 
peouliiirly fitted : and nccording to eiisting social habits, a 
iji^icon in iiuiiiy of his ofFicinl einjiloyrnents might excite sus- 
picion in i-efcrenpo to hia conduct towards the female roenibera 
of the ühiiR^h ; hut it wiw desimlile by iill means to guard 
■galnal «uoli au iinjiiitation on the uew ruli^iuuu xeot. uf whluh 
men wcrceiksily inuliueü tu Iwlicvc evil, liecnuse it w;is new 
uul opposed to Üie po[Hilar faith. Honco the office of 
ileuoones» wiis instituted in ailditiim to thnt of deacan, proba- 
bly first in the fhui'cbes of üentilö Clirifitiana, Of its institu- 
tion and uatui'B id lliü ftptistoiiB age we have no jjrecira 
inforniiktion, sinno we fimi it esphcitly tnontioiied. iii only one 
paatuigo of tho New Toi^tamcDt ; Roui. xvi. 1. In modern 
timea, tnd4)ü<l, whiit. Putil says in 1 Tim. v. .t — ll3, ef the 
viiluws who received their raaiiitouanca from the cliiirdi, hii« 
i>oen appliod to tbeiso dwuot) casus. And many qmiufioatiuus 
irtiich lie rxi^iüres of thocie who were to bo adinitted into tlie 
umbur of Lho wi'lows (v. Il1). and wbii:h nppeur t« contain 
A rcferciiw) lo thtiir spoviul oniployiaent», us attention to 
itmnfjori and the care of the poor, aro in favour of ttiu »u|j- 
,tubiliou. But üacc Paul only distinguiübad tbcni itH ])ünton« 


imppOTii;<l l>.v til« clmroli, ' wilhoul mctilfi^oing aay 
■erviee an devoh-iiij^ upon them ; sine« he represcQU tiiem 
pcminK who, lu miilrd tlirir age and condition, were ranovfil 
tr-jiu nil occupation with earthly concerns, and dedicated tbeJr , 
few reiuiuniug ilays tu devutkni Hiiil praj^r; aad niiw.on Ül^H 
ouutmry, the ofiico uf di^oounufia otrliunlj- involved much 9^t(^| 
cmplojmint; vre h«v« no gronml wbntcrcr for finding in th» 
piu««\fre deiuionessex^ or females uiit of whcwe niiiiilier deacon* 
es«03 woro choaon. ' Wlint I'nul Mya in the piauge qoot«! 
above of tliu (Icraconess of the cluirci at CttioUrua, nppefm hy 
no mcQDE to ngrue with what is said in the Firat Epistle 
Timothy, concerning the «go and dcstititto condition 
widows. We must mtlior iaia^ne aiioh femalea to te 
thiwe widows who. nftcr prcMcnting a model in diacliai 
their duties as (Thrislian wiTSs luid mothers, would 
obtnin reposo nod a place of bononr in tho bosom of til« 
ulmrch, wlit'ie lUune tliey could find a reflif^ io tlieir loiieli- 
□(<aa; and by tlioir devotionai gpiritual Ute, sot iin eiify 
(ixnuipic ta iitliur fL'mnlun ; ]>«rha]i6 bIbo Ui«f might be able 
coitununicatc to such of their soi us BouKbt their adnce^ 
^t^ä1llb uf their ChrixtLELii exporiüiieo culloct^'d in tlie eoum 
a long lifi'. and make u fuvourublu im)in.-Batou eren on tiw 
UeutilcG. Hence it would natundly lie na occasion of Bcuidal, 
if ituirh pereouH quitliid a lifo of rctiromant uid dovoliun, uid 
aliowwl a füodness for habits tb&t 'wert inconajateut with 
Üieir nidiroulj character. At alt evcntti, we lijid h«ro 
oleniaftical urrungi^mcnt of later date, whicli is ahm ioi 
by other pairta of tlie Ejiistle. 

The cousecrati-ju to ofiicee in. the church 'wos oooduoted 
the fuUowiiig inaimer Aftfir those peKoiis to whgia its 

■ I in notpcTMive how Riucr can tnice In the 5tii ehaptcr of tke Fin. 
Epiitle to iSmothT. thu.) it that time the niiaia x^$<u mu applUd U» 
young nnrnftrrieil lemidlei, in. rcfDrcoco ti> ihcic aUiiirn in th« «hnnbi 
whiob «oulil be anjonK the marka of k writing composed at ft l>Mi 
perJixL The trrais xr/gai in v. S, an (he truly dcstituU, who cxndd flml 
relief odI; in tlio <^buri.'!i for Iheir lonvlinet^uüntragted «Ub the wMon 
Disntionta in veire i. who vcre inpparlcd hy their oaii r«ilntioa*. lo- 
«end of Wing a Imnlwn I*, lim ehun-L. TIib jfiga='iitiuiniiiJni,'ten»i, 
vht^ro t]ie hoI is to he ucidcTntaod Grplit^live^ 

■ Til« «uppotiil.iaii, l.liiit iu T.9 iii^'nllon U inaitu ain iliflcnnt dix'f 
■idow* llifiu Ihceo in v. 3, nppvan lo mr iittcrlj- auUtDal/lö. Ä OOO'' 
(krimn uf T. It! with v. I and a» piidalf tbowi tbut thia wbole lectiuT 
nUl« lo thfl auoc «ubjeol. 



^miees ov not oiktilr cniuTnAMS. 


« belonged, biul luid tli«tr liaiids cm tlie ItmA nt th« 

ouiditUte, — a eymbolio actioD bom>«'cd frvni the Xewbtt 

n;-^, — {hio^ b«§oit|^it thfl lionl Üiat lie woiilil ^mnt, what 

tKU Kvmlml dont>ted, tlio inijmrtitioa of the gi{^ of bis Spirit 

fur canyiii): ott the office lltus uiMlcnakea iu bis name. 1C 

. a» waa presumed, the whole o>rn.'iD(>Dy ojrrveponded to its 

KintiniC, ukI tJia ruquUtto (linpoKUioii cxintcil lit those for wh&m 

^■t WM perfoTTued, liiere va& rcaaun for ct^itsidcnn^ tlic com* 

^Fnnuueation of ihe Epiritunl gil\g i]€i:i?»nrir for the otSoe, 

Vm OOnnccUtil nkb this cutuiecmtioii pcrfonned in ihe nftmo of 

Chröt Ajod MDoe P»ul from this point of view desigiiaud 

»tlio whole of the eolemn pi-ociwditig, (without separafinff 
it into it» TArious elemeuts,) br ttiut which wo8 its cit«mid 
Bjrmbol (aa in acriplural plinuwoIoE^', a siii^e act of n tram- 
Htion, (lonidstiHg of aeveiul porta, and Homeiinieä that whitsh 
was most Btriking to the eeiiees, is often tjientioncd for the 
whole) ; he required of Timoltij that he should seek to rerlTC 
Afresh the Bjviritual gifts thnt he had received by the laying on 
of hAnda. 

ttemjeoting the ekction to ofGccsiii the church, it is ovidi^tit 

that tne first deacona, imd tha delügiUe« who were authorliwd 

tby the church t« aocompnny the iijiostWä, were chosen &om 

gcuami liody ; 2 f-'or. lili. 19. Fruui thpue exaiuplou, wo 

' tosij «soDOludo that n Hiinüar mode of procoodiii» was adopt^l 

tat the appoiaimont of pneshjt-ers. But froui the fnct that 

[Puul committed to his diMiipies Timothy iUid Titus (to whom 

^9 aasigned the organimiion of new churohos, or »f siieh aa 

Ifaad been iiyured by mniiy coiTuptions), the appc'iiitmffiit 

llikcwise «f ijresbytcre nad deaeous. and uiiUed their iittcutioa 

[to the «lunlificfitiunH for such of£L-äa, we are by no means 

luatifiod in concluding that they pertVirmed ail this atone 

without the cooportition of the tihurdie!!, Tho maimer ia 

^H which Puul «ns wout to addi'eaa himaelf to tin.' whole church, 

^vond to tAke into account the aoopemtion of the wbolo coeq- 

■ munily, vhich mu« be np|m,rtut to «very mic in reading his 

Epi^ÜL^ — luiuis ua tu eijiect, tbnt wlieren church wbh alreii<iy 

«etablishod, he would ailmit it as u ]«rty iu their oominon 

Gaiiccni& It is puKitlile, that the upustlo himself Iu innny 

cases, as oa the tuunding of a new uhurch. nii;jht think it 

kndvisablB to nomiuute tlie persoQs bisst titl^ed tbrHiioh oHicea, 
iiul a pro^msal fixim Kuoh a i^uut«ir would natunUly carry the 


cosuriTtmoir ot tiil rffunciL 

Krentofit weight with it. In the exoinjtld of tti 
Sitiphuims at CoriiiUi. we 3oe that thoae «hu fimt undertook 
uIIk-i' ill tlic elitirtJi, wci'c mcmlion of the fAnitly finit coo- 
vertcd ia tliaC i:ity. 

It wiiH äläu :uiioii^ tiio cburclieg uf the Oiiutik Cbnstfnni 
tlmt the pi'ciiliiu- uiitirrc «f iJi« Clirintiiiu wnwhip wm fiiJlj 
oxiJiTMHud in the chiiiiicti'r of thoir ciiltue. Vor among 
Jfwisli Cliristiuus the aticiuiit forms of the Jewish irült 
wurc «tin rctiiiiKiil. tliQiigh persons uf tJiis oliu« who 
dcqily imbued with tli» »\mii of rhs gospel and lieiiw 1: 
acquirtül the eastnce of inward spiriuiid woniip, whieb 
limited to no ]il(wc or time, — were made five iih it 
their iiiwiutl life from the tiinilduin of tbene fnnnn, utid luuj 
letLTucd to refin» these forma by viewing them in the light 
tlio gospel. Snail poi-soiiR thought tbiit the powers of 
futiu-o world which ihuj were ciuiseioiis of having awv 
would gtiU contiiiiie to operate in these forms belonging to 
imc-ieiit ecoiioniy, imlJl tlint ftitiiro world and the wiiole of 8 
new henveuly economy would arrive, by iiifiuis of tin; rcUii 
of Ciirist to eomplctß hia kingdom, — o, deciuivc em whi 
apjieurvd to theiu not fiir distaut. On iho conlrarj-, ami 
tlie (Jeutiles the free spiritual worsliip of God devrlupc- 
itM-'lf in direct opposiUmi to Judiuaiii ftiid tho dttontpt» 
miuglf Judaism «.ad Clirintlaaity, According to the 
ti'iue of tiie apostle Paul, the Mosaic law in ita whole 
bid \q»\. itii value assuch to ChriMinns; nothing eouki he ■ 
rule binding ou cniriiitimix on oaconut of ita heing uontaiued 
ill the Mosaii: law ; but, whatever was hindimc as a bur far 
the ühriKtinn life, must as such dorivo its ftuthority from 
another qiiarUT. Ui-ucu n tnuwfeiwni» of the Old TcDtunwDt 
oommand of tho mncliiy of the Sabbath to the NewTt»- 
tnmont atdiidiug-poiut was not iidmisaiblo. Wlitiever om- 
Bidctvd himacir Kutijoct to oiiu such command, in fiiul'« 

i'lidgnieiit aumii plaa^d himself noder the yoke of Iho vVfk 
iw ; his iuwurd life was thereby brought into Berriludebo 
outnard earrhly thint;». and «iultiug into Jewitfh DUtit^naliaoi 
dtMiied the iniivi-rKiiÜKiu «f the j^twiwl ; for oo the HUndng* 
point of the gospel, tlio whole life became in an equal manner 
rulated to G<mj. and aoi-ved to glorify him, aud ihoiitM&nli » 
ap)>ositton existed hetweou what belonged to Iho wtiriil nnd 
«luit belongi^d tu God. Thus all the days of tli« Ch^^tjaa 

It'll) [KM 

r extendi 

or Tat GontM attamtAXtt. 


millet he H)iiall y holy to Üie Lord ; Iwoioe Paul anja 
to tttc fialiLtiun CbriHUaiis, who bad allowe«! ttionuKlvta to bo 
HO Tar led astray ta to Acknowledge tho Momüe lav na bimlin^ 
(Uli tt) obterve the Jawjab tttoA», " After tliax to karo knowa 
Qod, or rather (by hia pitying lore). Law been lod to tho 
knowlodgo of God, )iow tuiii ire agaiii' to tbo veak and 
begsarlj eleoi^ntä whereaato yo dears ag»in to lie in bond- 
«e^"' Util. iv. 'J. lie fcais that tin labuu» amgug ti.ein to 
moke them Uhiistians hod boen in vain, and for thi» very 
tvtUBVa, because thi^y teckoDeil the observniioe of certiiiii day» 
OB holy U) ha uu eweutial part of reli^ou. Tho aptotic do«a 
not here oppose tho Clirii^tian feasts to thu Jowish. but hi 
considorti tSio wholo refuretine of religion to oci'taiii <U»ya «t 
Boinothing forei^ to Üie exalted atanding-poiiit of CliriKtian 
fiwlom, ami hpiuiiaiiig U* Unit of JiKJaiHoi aud Ho^itJioiiism. 
WltU a HUtUur pulemtal view {in &t!o(«. ii. Iß) he d^cWes 
his oppostivn to those who coDddcrcd the ohscn-atiun of cer- 
tain day% OS egaentiiu to rcliji^aii, anil conrlüiiined those who 
did not obeerva thorn. Ahliough, in the l''pi«tlD to th« 
Bomans, xlv. I — C, he «ujoioij furbcanmc« tuwttrda tiituU iu 
, Thorn the CUrisliaii spirit weis nut yet developed with true 

1' Thu« ho üpote ia ihoiu] who had formerly boeo hmthens; for 
thonfth ta oilinr poiata Judniim Talgh.i kc coiiBiiieHd us oppoaed t« 
hcaUicnUtn. jei be viewed %» ui elemeat cuiaiuun to balk, the clmvlnt 
to outrun] fvmuL 

' ] Ixnvi! tnuulated Üii* pa»l^^ aviwnilug lo tho >cn>«: aion lt(«- 
r»Uj it «■i.iuM Ini. — ''It n'.lior ure tnown by ÖoiL"— Liviiii; ioeatnmgij. 
meal froui liim, Miey lUtd In t]>irllu».1 •lurhm.-i'. In IgiioTuiii.-oof Ooil 
■tid uf rfivitiu tiling: but no» li;- ihr.- rupri'y uf tlwl tTvmlJiig Jltplf V 
(beta, Lite J* oil uuiicil Ui'iDi; eL<nimiiiiiari lilnn. nri'l 1I11.1 inin knoiT- 
ludg« oF uiw, AfLcc I'nul lia<l uvuira-'luij Oieh prvBvnt Blaniiiiit^poiat 
of diTttiK knowindj.'c wii.h ihai ol' tbeir funner lEnnuiiioc, lio ccirrcci» 
hlauclt. In otilör nut lu lut U Ijh ima^naii tbut liic)' wert inik-iiied 
Mimjil; to the pJceiviM of ohti rmimn l*T thii liiißvl«<lg« af God« 
aod repKWDls ill HlruU'.' ti' I'll IK, i.liul t'ldf wvrc indnljlcil fur cecrylliins 
to dirme gra«!!, tliü i:r;ii'E Ltf riiiii^mjir.ina Tliirufurc, ilicy wuru KijUty 
of Infintiladf . t» not tiukiii^ nnu ikt' ihi: knowla-dpi vanuliKift^d la them 
tiT the gntca or Ofld. Hud it ht<va pomililu liir Paul, aixiirJiiig to tlM 
tiltoiu of til» Üresk. tu mntk L>}- a pu^^ivc I'cnii uf tho namo Koid 
7.»aJi7mu'. tUc oiintTitst between a teci^Wc.i] Immilciiiiu liaparUid liyOud, 
nnJ » kiii>*l'.'<1|ie euiiivil by tha cxtr'.'ise of chii iiitnuil povrer* rilooa, ]w 
voalJ for llial purpose baya iwod tlie [iiuutm: tUir». Thi«, incieod. th» 
lair« of |}iD Urvok l:>iii;iiiiui' rlM nut pannit ; bill ye% tli'> ]i:»uivi) f<irin, 
RceonliDg (a bli aualaamij llulknlvtii: lillorn, gnvc Ulm aa oppurtanii^ 
to iBkrl; tlu euulnut wliUli hit li«i ia bin luiad ttiU inure «Iturijftf 



fri'inlom, yt^t be ceMatinl.v conndera it as the moet 
Ckrisiiiuiity. to think every day fdilui, lo huld iioiie 
piKinliiirly .-uuiri-'d to the I^nl ; tha ^i tti' nävuc ^fJpar^ui 
ft/jOirir wvpiu ~ij(' )jfir.j>at'. 

It iB wurltiy nf iiotioe, that Paul in «Ufili pjissiigp» entirety 
riijoctd eveu J'tntLivu oltsvrvaaoee, oa thciy weif oousidcrcd 
uuoug Ucntilg« ojkI Jews us svuiutliiug »twuhiU'ly cvvittlal t«i| 
roligioii, and doeK not eveu mentiüu any dajTi whicli mi};ht 
he ouprosely sna-cd in a iiner method, and suited u> Chn«' 
tiu-tiity, Cliristiau founta pi'Oijerly t» caUed So far viun ba 
fiüiH chiiikiii); tbat on the CliriHtiaii staadiDg.point the 
üould hii (.lays which coiilcl in any tnuntiör l>cnr a rcMinbUDfi 
to wliut iu tLa Jewish aen^ was a ieost, or that it VM n«cc«- 
Bary to set a])iirt luiy day wiiaWver tw »^«cially lu he observed 
liy llie oUuriAl) ! p'ruo» buiUi [Kiasuijea wo may ooudude, thai. 
ill the t>eiitil[-> o]iiin;hcK, iill <iayn uf vrcc'k w»rc con«i<l(ired 
alike suiUilile I'ur thi) (tervice of the oliiu'cli : and that all pre- 
furoiico uf (itia dny to aiiLithor was rcgardod n« quite fbroigll 
tu the geiiiuB of tliL- ^.njBjiel. 

A. pd'ttictly iitiiiui'siiuutiblu and dcaldcd moitioa of tbd 
«edenailiäiü ohscrviincc iif Sunday among tlio Gentile Cbii- 
tiaua, we cannot find iu the limes of the Ajjoatlu Paul, but 
there arc two pussuj^'ca wliicli miikc its viistcnce pro bable 
If what Panl aaya, 1 Cor. xü. 2, relates to odli>ctiona 
were marit? at tho mcctinfp of tlic church, it wod 
e\-ident fnim thia ]jii»a^ tliiit lit tlial timo the Suoday 
B|*cially düvoteJ to such tnMtinga. But Paul, if we cxuniitll 
Li» laTiguugu closely, says tn> more thiui tliitt : lltnt 9\vay one 
Hliould Uy hy in hi» own hoiiso on the firat day of tltc wdtfc« 
whatever he was able to save. Thi» onrtainly toi^t tucati, 
that tvery onu ahuuli bring with hin» the eum he had sutJ 
tu the meeting of the diuioh, tlint thus the indintlua] oou- 
tribiitions miL.'ht bQ ooUected t*gijthc-r, and be ready for Punl 
as hiion as hi' cam^-. But this wouid bo making a gratiutou» 
fiupj)u»itiou, not at all rci)uired Ity tbä connuxioa ot' tin 
pas»!^.' We may fairly undonitaud tlie whole pMara 
to Dioim, l.hiit, evu-ry ouu uii the lirst day of tit« wedk sbowd 
lay n^ide vihut lie could »paro, so that when Plan) caido, «nxf 
oiiu might bu pniparud with lliu tuUd ut Iha sum thns tad 

' Tbu word Sqnaupifwt-, I Cor. XTl. 2, appllcil to MUiog ohiIo (to 
•until Mutii* iccckly, i» itjptiniit lite aotton of apublU eollcctJan. 


a^^^S^T^^SwnSS: ist 

>hy, and tlitn, l>^ puitiug Üie matas tugetlier, the collection <if 
tlio whnle cliuicli would be at oiico axuia. If vre adopt this 
iiiUrprvtAtii»^ wo cnuld ui>t tiüor that spociul mocting» of the 
vliuFub weni held and eoUeutious made on Suudiiys. And if 
vo ueauuie tliut, iudepeudeutly ot tlie iuUueuw of Chriistiunity, 
the .TüAish recko<iit)g by weeks had been adopted aiiioiig thp 
heathen in the Romun Empire ; still lu this pasaagc wa can 
fiud lit» evidence for the cxistüiice of a, roliitioii& distinctiuu «f 
tJiiDiIay. But suae ws ana not aitthorizud to make this 
lUBiiinipticia unless a t:li.uroIi c-oosiaUtd fur t!ie must [uirt 
of ihoeo who liad been Jowiah ProselytP«,' we ahull bo led ty 
iiiicr thtil the rtAliginus dhservauces of Sunday occasiuinid ifes 
VeiuK uoiiHideivd tiie first day of the wook. It in aWi 
intiitioiicd in \rts xx. 7, that, the ohuruh at Tto-os assetnblfd 
on a Sunday and celebrated the Lord's Supper. Here the 

I question artfcs, whothei Paul put oiF bis döi>arturo fvom 
Traoa to the neit Jay, because he wislied to celebmt« the 
Sunday with this cliurt'h— or wlwthcr the church tm.^ wa 
the Sunday (though thoy might have met on any otiier 
day), hocause Paul hod fixed to lenre Troaa on the foUow- 
iug day. 
At all events, we must deduoo tlio origin of tha religicma 
tihiwrrruico of Sninlay, not from the Jewish-Cliristiau diurohes, 
hut from the peculiar circurastauccs of tho Gentilo Christiima. 
uikI may uccount fi>r tli« pi-autiue in tliu foUowiuf^ maiiinT. 
When) the i^iruiiTiiHtjincHi of the chiu'chee did not allow of 
doily mcL'tin^ t'ur devotion and o^iiie—niUhoitgti iii the 
nature of Christianity do necesaity could eiiat for such a dis- 
tinction — nlth'tilgh on the Cbristiaii stiiudiug-poiut all diiya 
'ere lu l* wonsiderod as equally holy, in au oqual mtujuiT 
.dex'Otcfl to ihe Li.>rd — yot on aecount of peculiiir outward 
iouiv micU a. iltatinctiuii of a jjiii'ticular day was ailopted 
'for rotitfioua oouimunioiL Th^y di^ not cIk^uek the Sabbath 
wLiiih the Jßwifth Chi'inlians eelobi'ated. in orxlc-r to avoid the 
^_ risk of mingliug JtidaifcTn aad t!liriati unity, nnii boca-nso 
^piUK^ier event waa mure i;lo§L'ly aaaociated with Christian 
^'sötttimeni«. The sufferings and resurrection vf Christ api>earrd 
UM thu ouiiti-nl point of Chmtiim knowledge nud pnictica ; 

EMiiiinv^tioii wiia viewed as the loinidati(Jii tf nil 
joy and ho|ie, it was natural that the day which 
' Sm IJclot's CUroaolu^ie, I. IBU. 


C03R)Tm>TI0X or TH* CHlJIICIt 

ms DODaected with tbe n- mniibraaue of this erCDt, should 1 
qwolall; devoted to Christiau cotDmuuiuii. ^ 

ßiit if a WL't-lnlv day was thu» iliitjii^uialitrd in tbe clmrrlxd 
«f GvntUv Cliri.-itifuu, eUll it is very doitbtliil tJiitl iitiy }'?tirlT_ 
oommatnorodon of tlio rvjtunvcti»» uub otieerved an i 
Somo hftVD ondcavoiired to find in 1 Cor, v. 7. n i. ,i 
a Christian jtaasovi;!' Uj bu i-ulubrftte-l in a Ciiriblüm «a« 
«ritl I n decided ret'en^Qce tu OliriKtinu tnitti: but wü oil) lind] 
nferenoe oaly to n .FuwisK j^Kitmnver, wbiuh was ittil] cck-lir 
by thg Jewish Christians. WlicQ PaiU tu« writing thu 
wtirds, tiit^ Jews tuid Jcwii^ Clu-i.ttiaua «ere prmeut to 
jniaginatioD. oa on the tuurteoiitli of Nisaii, th«y CAreüiU 
»fUTbcd every Ritrner of tltt-ir houses», liut any luoRt«! 
leaven should have escai}ed their twlicc. This ptuctloo 
oatward Judaism lio np]ilicii in a iipiritualizcd ttonat 
Ofai'iBtiaos. " Piuify yourselves jk>n) tlie old leaven (tl 
IWToa uf your old nutiiro, wliich »till cleavn to you frva 
your old oorniptioii), tliat vöu may become a new maa 

(mciiiiTDg rviicwcd and jiintilird tnuaiiii Diiturc), and an tt 
viero unleaTuiitid ; iJwt is, piirifitd by Clirifit from tlie keavtc 
ofain. as üUewIierö Paul rL'])reaL>titä piu-ificaticu frum Bin. tlio 
listing dcojl to Riu as L-onnectiMl with dut dtuith (>f Chriiit,' fcj 
Christ lias hoon oill>n;d im our paaiial lamb ; they ou^lil btw 
to remember that tniu fiasclinl liunb, by wliutw ofttiriiig thij 
were truly fn-eJ from aiii; tbe Jewish pasjat-er waa liviue- 
fuxtb ivb'jlly useki^. Tiiurufurc, i\a iiivn piu-ilii-d &xan «in bj 
Christ Olli' |iiisohai liuuh, let us cßlebntte the kast, uoc nfter 
tlie miiniiiT of tJio Jew^ vbo swept thii liuivnii out of itwir 
huuM.'», l>ut rvtaiuei thu leiiveu of old c^rruptiuu iu their 
liourtM — but let ue ho VL'lebrate it that wo oiay be a wa» 
purified in heiirt frcnn tbu leuvun of ttin.'^ lu all thi», thoe 
i» evidoutly do ixjfcrencQ to tbo celebration of > Cluütiui 
jiafifiover among Grvntilu CliriGtiai)^ biit only ilk» contrast «f 

' Tili 4 IK no doulit tta einipti-iil luU'rj^reUüüJi uf lliu woplt uHt 
lirrt t^u^iui, " as yo HTV milt^vcneil," puilAcd nt n^Jotmc^l fnixwiut, <^ 
uvur [ruiu llii.' fi^^i] t^i äitaytinii, Ba(. if hiUi UtuLiuB, we titiihnltfd 
thu nonl^ iii:«iirili ng to IJic nualc";; of tiho Orouk iuirm, iairm, *W ft 
cut uo iFuvL'ii," Hiiil till» are t(|iiiviilcut liO, "iu je wklinLv the fr^ol (^ 
UiitnaiTiiRil lirriul, »rUiri'liaiiiTl.T.'' itlll Llii>inu}'liR iitiil^TMOMluili»'* 
■piritiial jMUMver; lur i>tlu<nilii« 11 »oiilrl nul uktl-i- niiti ilml «hifli a 
aflcrwurdt wliiiiuocl uk » a-nui»!, aaii It uoiiUl uWi hn iiii|tU«<(, L>:ii lis 
Oeniiln Chrln'Mia liail nifrnlii^it fraiii leivi.ificil breud M KÜiUf, vtiik 
lft,ai, an hit pnncipki. oould nal bivve ollawäd. 



1 jiaaaoTflr, oompKhenduig tho whole lifc of tbo 

taiJeamecl, with th^e inörely uutwun! Jewis^li foiwt.' 

Tho atlcbmticiti uf tliu two aTnibok of Clu-iätian comnflu- 
W0I1, ßaptüm aud tho Loid'a Supper, belonged tv tli>; ui;- 
chmigeiiblt) plan «f tlie CUristina cliitrüh, us framed l>y its 
Divino FuuhiUt; tliea« rites were to be reuuguiaod eqiwlly 
h; JeVB and Qontilce, oud no alteratiou wvuH be aukdv in 
rvfurouu) to thetn by tho ijaouliar furmatiou of ei^yleKkwtical 
lilü lunoti^ tlie Geutilos ; we need tKörefufu t*t add little ti> 
what we have before remarked. la Baptism, calnuico iiitu 
oonuiiuiiioti with Clirial iippBDJ's to have bet'ti the esamitial 
poiol; thus persoua were united tu tlie Bpirittiid boily if 
Christ and received iuto the communiun o( the redeeniL-d, 
tho elmrch of Christ; G.J. lü. 2T ; 1 Cur. KJi. 13. Hcticu 
baptism, accordiug to its cbamiiti-riHtic uiiu'kä. wtu di>Bi<n)s.tvJ 
a mpliina into Christ, iDt^i the name of (.'iiriiit, as the adiDo^v- 
ledameDt of Jesus as the MestiiiiL wns tlie crigtual artielt) of 
fiütn in the apostolic church, nud this was prubaljly thi3 most 
■ade&t' foriiiula of biiplism, n-bich was still mftde luc I'f 
even in tho third oontury (see my Chiircii History, vol. i. 
p. SiCy The u»iinl iomt of siibinersioii at baptt^gm, practised 
by tbo Jews, wue traiiafen-ed to the Geiitiie ChristianA. 
lodei^d, Uii8 furui wns thG must suitiiMe to si>;uify thiit wliii'h 
Christ intended to render an olajoet of contemplation by auch 
a ajmbul ; the immeraioa of the whole moti iu tha fi])irit of a 
now liib. liut Paul availed liiiusolf of what vas iuwideutiil tu 
the form of thia syrabul, tho twofold act of siibuiei-Hion iiiirl 
of ewcrsivii, to wbioli Christ cortnitily mudo no reference at 
the tnstitutiou of the ajTnhoh As he found thaivin :i refoi'iinoa 
to Christ Dood, and Christ lliäeu, the negative anil poHitivu 
aopeot of the OliriBtinu lifo— in tbe imitation of Christ to ilia 
to all nngodlinesa, and iu communion with him to rise to a 
new divine life, — ao in the given form of baptism, hg mada 
use of what was a^uoesEory iu oi-der to reonseat, by a sciiaible 

' If wt fuppouil Ihst lliese nor<k reUUil Iu un EmLor-funel. uelu- 
MKKig the r.uDtilft ChmtiibDS, il would folluiv tliat iliey w>!fl< 
'"iflMA At tiiB snme time la ihe Jews. and then it would hardly 
k tb A>pl»in t.lie nae •>( Urn diepuWs relative to ttia tunc at 
trriax Ennter. 
Id tfiQ ShccliBTit of ElttrmM («laio UL c. T], in FBUrluuit Citi. spoor 
For. Tmi. p. 3üt, il U wud. bapthai>i in nomine Dotnitu. ' 

rOL. I. n 


CDxnncTtos op ihk chcmh. 

mago. Um idea and dfsi^ «f tho rite io iU conuexiui witit 
tlie mhiAv vtoKUoe of CluisUiuiUy. 

Since baptism marked du entnnoe into »«nmnnion vitli 
Const, it rwultcd from tbo natnr« if tbc rite, that a coiil«s- 
»OD of fiutli in Jena as tlie Redeemer vutilil Im mndii 
penoa to be baptised ; and io the kttter port of the a 
age, vo may find indications of tbo «zin«nc« of sucb 
tioei> Aa bapüan was doeely UDit«d with a coin 
cutiunce on Chiistian cotntnanioa, faith and baptism mni 
ttlirays connected vith on« itDntber ; and thus it. is Id th« 
li^;bi:nt ilcgi-i-u pnuktlJa that luptasm vas perionncd aaij 
ittitauixa where both oould mccb to^lier. nad tbat 
pmctic« of iufimt bapüna wa« unknoKTt at this ponod. V 

' TbCM icdictlkiu »re Mck u «ill mi uioaat t« lacoDtrurerii' 
uuruiiiLj. Wo Gtul ibe liwsi douliLful nfereiKO in 1 I'cL iii. SI, I 
ilic inierpreUtJoucvcDortliti pMUge iuu been much dt^pawd. U 
trurd» am uodentDuiI lu ibU aetiw, "aiguutiuu acconliag co^ 
motolonoa In roUiion to Ood, by tn«uu ot tbo rarami-tion of 
u (]iii»iiuii pruputud III baptiUB uiigUl l>« tufcmd fTum it, of irhjVd 
Iiurpuit woiikl )«. whetbflr a panan ImUeved In tJid ruuriMtibn ol 
f'lirüt, Ol tlic iiti^iige of Uta forgivitn«« of aJDii granted to litiu, 
lii^nco woulii tiiiiik of Go<[ in tLU f«it}i wlili a jcood ooD(C9«ni9a 
WinUT atcuIiiK. rnii-li an LDlerpreuul an i>( llio jioMt^« J11111I7 olyecU, 
lu tliU cDJie, the »iMMor giTca by liie caiiiliilal« w an ciprcui«» »f hir 
confemion of lii« (aiui, of »liftt pocuUarlj Klatvil Lo Mlvikiiuu, Wkd net 
'lie <(im»lLuQ, tnuKt huvc been meutioiicii. Vat Winer« cxplaaallon 
bi" Uomiiiiir) III wfocv-nco lo tiic word ivrpw^riiia, — lliv w:vkiB|;ol 
goni] conKicncc oTur Qud, — aUhi:iiii;li iiK^atrifr ilt in itto Kullca: 
iilioiii, as tliu iiouagu aJilumd bjr 'Winer «bows luav luve ihinEnannii 
—il'TPt nol nppciir tl.c muBt nniiirnl. If ]^n\ linii wished M ujr t 
would hu iioi liave ptufurrud usiui; ilie form '>i|ii»TqiTi( I Am! mi;^ 
It not )iD Hnid neuitiFf, Ihit tn1-cr|>ivtfltioii, lliHt, thu npoKtlo «üulil Im' 
reprciuriied iliiii wliii^li «avi'd ai LujJiiiHii, out tho »vQking nfter 
liiit tlin fiDiliiig n-xl tLr<iii([li Cliriil, [|i« longing fur row m union wii 
lum. sccordiag to tlia maHogi- of Kripturai npfucatatioiiH on 
Mil Ja« 1 1 

Out wbnt PirUr wiibeit particuUrly Lo point »nt, wm tb« >plf(iM 
cbancliOr of Ibo whole bapUiunai liM, in opjiocilbii to a mnn iMlntv 
koiulbta puriftcntioD. This «pirltnal ebanctcr migbl l>opolnWil i»it b^ 
tbs qu^Hbioii (iropoHcd At biipt.lKin, which rorumitT 14 ibe ipiriiua) trtl- 
S^Qiu object of llio rito. nn<l ibn qiiutlon in alluil«d to Itultail •( tfai 
ivnnwcr, Iwuium il prui^Jc» uiiil in ibul nhidi pvea ocewoo b> ÜM 
uDHwcr, and thiiH tbc fimt in[>orp]'cijii,li>n mny be jiwllflcd. 

Ttto iccniiil Liuco of iiucb a liu[iti.iiiial cunfui»ioa is found In 1 Tin- 
n. 12, but It 1b Dot <|nit« i>vidi>ni, that a confMslon of (hu kio-I i> 
fntguand ; it tnii^bl bo uiily one <thlub Tiinolby had givm from ibi fnn 
Imuulscof fMbnir. wb>7n tie wu set at>krt lo bo tbe tuoeittii of IWid 
^ublinhing the gwipcl. 


vsiOBs or ms ckktils aunsTtim. 


Itaiiot lufbr tlic oxi)iLcn<.% of inrant linptiiuu from the iheUiic« 

til« lNi]>ti(uu cf wliolu f)u»ilic9, for the [muhii^c in 1 Cur. 

svi. 1 5, ahow-s the fallacy of such a coiifliisiuii, u» from that it 

Unit tht.' wiiolu family uf SU'jjlutii:!», who were hnp- 

A hy Paul, «uii-it*t«tl of luiultii. That not till so lat« a 

riod «s (lit Iciuit certajnl/ not ciu'lier than) Ircuioiia, n trace 

iufoDt btiptism appcara. and that it firet Iwcihtig rwogniscd 

Ms nn ii|>CKtL<>lio tnitlilioti iu tlie oour^ ot llie third uuulury, is 

{•rideiice rather aijabut tliau/or the admission of its apostohu 

^u ; eepecialiv iäu»;e, lu tlia spirit of tho ag« wh«n Clirist- 

aiXj appcnrcii, thcro wore miuiy cUmeaU ntiioli most liavo 

uu &voumhlu lo tho iutrudiietiuU of iufiuit. baptism, — the 

I aiiue eleroeuU fnjia wliiuh proi^uedeJ the iictioQ of the mnj^cal 

, ellccts of outward hapliwn, the iiouoii nf its absohitc aeeea- 

nty fur aulvutioti, tho tiotioii which gavo riao to the mitittm 

titat the aposilcs bftptlzeil the Old Testiimont sniiits in Hadus. 

How Terj much must iiifuul Ixiptisui have corresponded with 

eadi a tcudency. if it hod heuu favoured by traditioa ! It 

aii^ht iiiilced be aj-lc^cd, on tho othor htiuJ, that nf'ter iiifaut 

'-'i;pti8in liad lout; ^'^'*" rticfigiiiscd as nn apostnlit traditjou, 

iwiuy other aiuses hiiidi^rcd its imiversal iutroduftiun, and tiio 

suae causes lui^^ht still earlier staad iu tha way of ita sprendj 

nttliuugh a pnKttice sinctiunod by tho np-^jstlcs. But these 

tniutt» could not liav« nctud in thi» manner, in the post- 

.i>F-iOTlic aga. In later tiuios, we see tiio oppoaitioii Iictween 

■i.itry and pructice. in this rt-spect, actually coming forth. 

it 18 a different thiiiR, that a practJoe which could nol 

. T deny tlie marks nf its Inter itistiEutiou, although at 

Lu.t ivuo>^sed as ofapostolio founding, could not for a Ivn^h 

'if nmo pcrriido the life of tho church; imd thut & priicUoij 

: .ll_7 pr^nt-eiliiig fritm apostoliu institutiijti and tntditiou, 

1. .■-■Aitlisüiiidin^ the authority lliat intmdnood it, nnd the 

circumstauojs i» its favoar ariaiug ü'om the spirit of the tituiss 

should yet nut hiive boen guuerutly adopted. Än{l if va winh 

to tMcertain frum whoTa EUuh an Institution wiis origiunt-oil, tt*e 

lid Bay, ceitaiuly uut iuimediuteiy from Christ himaclf. 

it from the primitive churoh in Palesttno, from nn 

igunction ßiron by tho earlier npiistlcsl But nmoug the 

pleniiti Ciirlnt.ians, circumcision was held na a scikl of tha 

atöuant, atxl honoi!. they had so much less oocasluii to mnkir 

of aiiothur dvdkuUoa fgr tlieir cliildrea Could ib Uudl 


liavo buen I'nul, w)io first among licntlKin ClirüctiniiA int 
tluocil this altorsktioD by tbo oso ofViaptism. Hut tliis would 
auree least of all with Üie poculiiu- CbrutUun clULnictcriHttcs of 
thü «poetle. Ue who saya of biinself tliat Cbcist atat btm not 
to baptino, but to prcacli tho gospel ; ho «bo olwnys kept hv 
eye filed mi one thing, jurtiflcaliou by faith, and so «nfUlf 
avoided ovdry thing which could give a hnudio or eopport IQ 
thu iiotiouofik justiBcutiou by uutwArd tliitign(tli« ai^i«ä)-^l 
how could he have set up infaut baptism aRainat the cirnim- 
cifiion that oontiniKid to bo practised by tlic Jewish Cbrit- 
tioust In tliis ca^, the diaputu (^airicd on «iüi tb« Judaiziag 
party, oQ tho noucssity of ciicunicisioa, would coeity baw^ 
givon an opportunity of introducing thii Riilwtitut« into tl^| 
cantroveniy, if it li&d ivally oxisted. Tho evidence ariitAB 
IVom sileuue uu thin topic, lius therefore tlie greater weight*^ 

' If It coaM 1« HhowD, ihst at llils Umc (here ww a (HDcllce oT »d' 
niiuiiilcHiiL' to living' pcrrMD» a ■iilMtiLiiLkinnry Imgittnm for tbo iIcad,M 
InloiprcUtlaQ of 1 Cor. xv. 19. wlti<rb liaa been lalelf advocated 1} 
SQdtnt— lbi> wuiiM iinud in »trik ing FoniraiIii.-tion with Ih« bImmi 
of inAnt-liDpllbm. If ho uDcoodiilonal a nt'K'Kity u'sji läcrlbed la oak 
ward bnpliim. and «urh ii mngiui] punar for lUo iiu.tviili(in of man, u ts 
hiL7e oor^oBioDed the Introduttidn «r suob a prui'lice, from ineb a tUliI* 
iiif-puiut. men must huvc lieeu brought niuirh niiiincr to tbo pnctiw d 
Inraiit-hiipüiim. But aUhi>ui;h the (.■iplaiiuliuu hurt pTOponbd ariM* 
from, liiu iiinal. iintuml int^rprelattoD al tli« wnnla. t cannot MMWt to Ii, 
■lace it doe« not eslisf}' other aoadUloiin of it itnirecl excgoBis. WlM 
Idea can wn form of >iicb a practice of aabitltiitlonarj- bnptlkmt IT» It 
Ihal pürnaiu h4p<:<l \ij meaiia of it lo mr« thoir doesuäcd fHeadi uA 
rolntWcB, >nil thntc who hod rcmalacd fur from the faith 3 But liucnal 
thitt liuiu piivh ninwi <ra* luid on Iba nocOBWltj of r«P«Dtima« aw) Eulb, 
«ra arc at n Ioki to coocmv« bow audi tto ertvt utd ubuac could gaiu ae 
copiäuce. Till« Hiipjiunitiiwdf thin nocaiaity liM al the fonndatioa ofUit 
niyihiiKof thKbnpiitiitHilnilnhurcil in IladMMtbsaalaUor Uk Old 
"VVaUimeat.. Wa ui!;;hi mibi-r «iipptiuMlial if pcnoDanbo bad bMoa» 
^liovaru dii:d hofnrii thiiy coiilil fulfil thoir Nwlulioii of belns baiitfnri, 
a »ubBlLtutioüttry biipliain Would be made no« of for (Arm, IIa; 
in inch «neea, it would huvu lii^en moro I'l'mi-uautil U> a nuperKtilira» 
sdhereni^e to uii uutwurd ritu, that thoii ahou Id have butcaed t« iDiaan 
bnptiBiB to the dyiuu', ur cvu lu llii; ile^id. uud «a £iid Icaooa of ntli 
thuM pfBOtiLMM in Inter üaies. Of n Eub^titutionur? baptboD, oa lb« 
aoQinii'}-. no LnL-e ciui li« (ouuJ, wUh thu ciüfptida of ttio lingle [nmgi 
in PuuVi writinfK. Aa Improper nppcnl ba* bom moi!« on thlapstnt 
to T-ortulliau. Ha eaja, de HiKusrrainnv I'arai», e. *8, oolj- «h«( h« 
bulicved fan to be r<>und in ilicnc >vordi> of I*au1, without rvftnrtaKM 
aiij' oihei quartur. iuliia work uiniuat Martiooi v. 10, bo kIm refcnU 
this pitrtfiii<;c, qud such a «ubHltlutiouitry bnptinm appaaitd to blm h 
■omoHbat aualajs'oua to the bcatbuniib [lurgAtiuOi fur lb« dead on !>• 


Wefind,ini3ce!l. in «»a passaE^c of Paul, 1 Cor. vii. 14.« tin«.*, 
that alrcmly tho children ot' Christ.inn« where dislinguished 
fruia the oliildre» uf litiitheaa, and might lie conäAered in a 
MrtiÜQ sense ns belonging to the cliurcli, b<tt this ia not 
deduced fi-otn their hu%-ii!g partaken of hiifitism, and this 
mude of eouii-eiiou with the church is rather ovidoneo against 
the cxistoDce of infant buptism. The apostle is here treating 
i>f the «am^tifyin^ irilhionce of the commimiüti betweeu parGnta 
and diildren, by which the chil<h\!n, of Christian fiarent» would 
bo distiiigitished fruni tiie chililreii of thost^ who wurti iiot 
(JhriBtiau, and in virtue of which they might iu a certaiu senna 
be tcrmcil «71a, iu contrast n*ith the a\«.9nprri.' But if infant 
tuptiHtn hiid l«L'ii thüii in existeuce, tho cqiithet ityin, applied 
to (Siristian childi'en. would have been deduced only from this 
mcrcd rite hy which thej lind become incor[}tl with iho 
rhrirtian church, IJiit iu the ptiiiit of view licre elioeeu bj 
Paul, vm find (altliough it teHtifies aj^ainst the esistenco of 
' inGmt Ijiiptism) i.lie fuudftnienlal idea frona which inCint 
tM^ttsm was afterwai'ds iiocossarily developed, itud by which it 

lat of Febrti»TY,lJi« /Mj-uoiionw. Ho llieuglit it important to rctnark, 

thai Wul c'tiil'l H')l. luiv« iiiijirovvd of mmli a pr!HTl,icc. " Fiilurit inxli- 

tullo 14(1. Katcniluu >i furie Fclrruad« rc'pandel-iint illi: pro uiortuli 

pel«K. Kuli ericu upunlutniii uuvutri etiitrui auul-uruai aiir. curiliriuii* 

lorcm qu» denotari;, 111, tniito mngife siHtcret. öirnU rusurrecHoncm, 

qnimlo UU qui tluic jiro niorlwin liafttiiiircn'.ur, S'le rcHurrecLiorii» hoc 

fi*en?nt." Awl liit liiiiutlf nfiorwiinlR pr'ijuiws alioiln'r iiiwr|n>>i(iti6ii 

of Ui« p»MO)». ai^cunitii^ t.ti wiik'h Ihtiv is no ulUiBiim to a suWitu- 

ntlonAiy tiafitism, Later iiaerlnc-Afad Marcionitce in äyrin hi<1, must 

Fprubfttilj from lliie pastnce «if St fiiil's, »doptori n fi-riwtioo alto^l.licr 

TMt vjirtJincc wiUi lIiü «tpint uf Maci^'iuii, SJü^iiloA^ vi; might, mijjpoHQ iKut 

I' Paul niiplojvil an raq^unifwfiim oii ßiomiiunn, aii-il iiJduci'il a tupentl- 

" Ijooh nuiUitn itk cviflniiL-i^ iiT :l Lrulla l^viit^ nt- the rflitiirdalioii of riirittinn 

linowkdgi. Bnlatillilimlitficull, t.o mippOBe (hit Paul, -wlio io m\(m>-iy 

pp044od oil d4:|iojiiUttLCK o\i outwMrvl lLiii|^, hohI tnuiLi^Ll ii an thi? wi>r^C 

lullcrsiion or tLc t;a><pL>I. fliould not from the ünt hnv« <xpi'«tesd 
^fainiMilf Id ilic^ininin-t umis uguiaEi sucli a. dulorloo, 

■ Tbc iutiiicitiuic iinprufMinn^-n'liicIi pnicecd rrnio iIh- wholo uf llie 
intereovn« at 111«, anit 'ly iiicun» utliii: nalurul feeling- of dtpcnileoc« uf 

r«hildr«n 00 ilitir ijarcnt».]!,!»« ftoni i.lie l:ittJ:r to the furiret— Lavn » fur 
■troa^^ hol'i llinn rtii> tllecu 01 InMriictieii. mid «iicb tiiiprt^sioii* may 
)m^b hefurc the viiiltu- I'nr rui^iviti!; iUHiroctii»! in a dircei munocr 
wcUu. Th«w imiirniiiiioiin attach tlivRi'elvn to the lii-iil ircmiH of eon- 
■CTfluf« tn, utd an thu-t ttff^aiiat, tlio cdinmcnoKinciit of tliia !Ancttf}*ing 
influi^ib,-« OHinat li« prMiiH^ly dutiTiniiK"), Sue U« Wcttt-'r cicvUccl re- 
KMikit ID the Studita uitJ liritiktH, 1839. Part iii. p. tJTl. 


coswrrcTins VT THK crnmcB. 

must b(! ]List.ifie<l t" agre« wjtli Paul'» i<mtiitii-iit8 ; nii 
tion of ilie preeniinenoB bebiigiiig In childreD bom iK, 
Clirihtiui) c<:immiiiiity ; tho coDSeonticn fi>r the kiiigdcm 
Uod wlijdi \» tlicn'liy giniited to tbem, ati iiumeiliatc 
tifying iiiSuaicQ ^hicli would coinmuiu<äite ttselT to thfir 
oarliost dcvcl<jpmcnt. ' 

As to tliu cclehi'itlioii of tlio Holy Supper, it continued la 
he aoniiecteil witti the cutnmon lucal. in which nil an mamben 
(if one familv joined, u« \n Uio primitive Jvwislt chiircli. »cd 
•^^riMiftiity to itä first iuatltutioQ. In ^ving a hi&toi^ of Ibo 
Uorintbian cliuruli, wu skidl liave ocduioii to sprak of tba 
nbu»» which ariniv fruni the Riisturu of uiici&iil Grucian 
•oms with the Chi-istiau ToatiYal. 

The publication of tim gospel aitioiig tho lieAtbco, VM di 
lut« of tliosu facilities fi»r its rect'pljou. -wliicli the loiig' 
tiiiued csiwctation of u Redeemer as th« promieed M 
piv*' it iLiuonu' tlic Jow8, Hen.' wds iiti coiHinuoii« saci 
of witnöSKt-a lomiiny n revelation of tliL> living Ood, wiUi irli. 
tho gospel, aa idready indicated and foretold by tho fa.w anri 
propbete itnioug tho Jyws,, laij^lit ctinnoot itsülü Still tlu 
iiimimciation of o. Ri^iU'omci' fnund its jioint of connexion in 
the universal fcdinp a-lhcrini; to the Tcry essence of hmm 
ntituro^tho feeling of disutiivn und guilt, nud lu s coo» 
ijuence of this, though not liriiught out with dittünctnoft, i 
longing ai'ter redciuption from bucIi a, condition ; and by tlw 
meutjil development of tliono niLtiitii», and their political out- 
ditiou at tliut ptiriud, KC-utiuiviit« of tide class vers man 

> Tba vorde in 1 Cor. vü. H, jia.vlw toko» in a Iwofold mumtr. If 
we tiu(lL>t^tuiil mtM Dc Wcttc the ifiAvw kppUc^l ta all ChrtiiiiM- 
(wtLcb llic cvnnexivii iiiii) Llio nm of tb« pluraJ tvailcr proliabkt — Ik* 
tb« npoitle Infcn ihnt the cliiMrcQ (if CbrirtiaiM, nltboufch dM iaoKf^ 
nAvi Willi Ihn uUuivh, uui .vet bspLixeil, might In calkd fiyia [whicb ii 
Dc Veite's cpiitinn), anil thus whftt. wc hnc rcmaAod ti die Ml 
folloira as a n(^i:caKiry ooniicqDctice. But if wc admit tlut FUil ii 
ipeakjiig of tbo VAKB of marrieil perwD», in wbirii one ]mnj nt 
tCliriiitiau. finü tbe other a licatheu. Kiwi thai frMu tlic lancrikärliMirf 
tho children of niich a inarrin^, ho lafen thasanrllDoLtlon oltbewbili 
mtxTingo TcUttbn — wh^fh tlu>iig:ht perrMtty «liu the tonnoiieM— «ha 
It voiiM spiicar >Utkl Pnii! lieiloi-ei n Miticlifimlian of tlic «UlilxS 
If tbcii coQDioÜDii nilb the partnU, hut nnl frnin tb«lr )«pliitA, i 
biiptiain uf uliildrPD, 'la tbeio cirvamilnure^ oonM. in manjr inti 
l>s bardly performed. If sn (iifiuit liiipiiim then oxisUxl, kv cor 
«alt Ibr Fliildrvii iif Hut'b a iiiiic4 nmrriagv l^ia, in the cmuckom 
tlu cbildreti of parcau who wer« UitU Cbriiiliwu. 





pin I 

Indly felt, white the fcoling of disiinioii (in nian'n uwd 
aiiJ btftiret'ii man and (juci) was manifestetl io the [iro 
irtiiling tcndenoy towarJa dunliBtio tjowh, Tiio y*"Uhf»il con- 
fideuce of the old world was constantly giviug way 1 o (i lei-ling 
lisuiiiou and sadness excited by t!iu more powarful Bcnst.- of 
liiw writtiin oii llie lienrt, which, like the estcrnj^l fcxw 
piven to theJuwa, was deetiued to guiiJetlie Geatilus to ttie 
Savioiir. The gospel cnuld not he presealod in the Tvlutiun 
it itoio to JiidaiBiii, as the OQuipletioii of what nilready existed 
in tl« populur religion ; it must come furtJi as the antiigoiiist 
of the liunthetiiali doificatiou of nature, and «»uld ouly (ittuclt 
iUolf to iha truth lying at tlie foundation of this enoroiity, 
the touKv, namely, in the human breast of a hidden, mikuowii 
deity ; It wiis n-eceasary to a.nnounco Gferistionity as tlic reve- 
lation of tliat God ia whom, by virtuü of their davino origiual, 
men "lived and mored and had their being," bnt of whom, in 
couiie<iiiun'i:e of llieir estntnffement from him by sin, they liad 
only a mysteriona souse us on unkuown and distant divinity. 
Undor this nupect it might also ha repn?Kent.ed ns a completion 
of that which was implatited by God iti thii original ounsiitu- 
tion of miin, aa the liual uini of thiR tuJigtinct lüiigitt^. Alao, 
In relation to all that \ma truly natural, belonging to the ori- 
gitiol nature of man, and not founded in sin. it might be truly 
sii^'rtt.'d, lliat Christ caino not to destroy, hut to fallll. And 
burocctrlainly the öentiles were plaoediuamoro advautagQOUß 
puxitiati tlifin the Jews ; they were not tipoaod to the tempta- 
tion of couu.-ai plating Chrlatianity only aa the complvtiun of 
A religious system already in oxistance. nud of disowning ite 
|>urj)cMHi of pniduuing uu entire trausformatiun of the lifo ; for 
to a convert fi-om healheiiium, Ctuiatiaiiity proaeutiug itself ir. 
diroL't uppositiciu to tlio whole of hia i'urm-ar reügiouK -tianding 
point, niiMt »I'oessarily appear an something nltogothcr new 
and dttisTied to effuot an cntlio revolution. Mt'imwliile, (i1- 
tliough Cliristiiuiity miiat have at Unt preBonte«! it^blf oa 
opjKmxI to the exintiiig cieniunts of !if<.' in hentheuiam ; yn' 
Christiana who Gontiuucd to livo in interoonrae with lioathoL' 
lODg Uisir old conneiions, woreao much tho moro espiiWi. 
in ft jiraotioal view to the infoctioii of a oc>rmpt statu of morals, 
till thoir Christian life hccanio tirmly estubhshcd. And 
ftlthutigh till) [wculiar position oftho Gt'ntüdstbd not cjposo 
tbem aa much ns tho Jews to porvort t)io guepd iato an o^ ut 

vxvvt SEOOMD msmoiTAitr JooimeT. 

opei-atum, iiiiJ tliu» to inixiun it us a clunk for ünmonli^, i 
tiieli tin «iTor might ariw), nnt from the iiifliißuoo of Jiidiui 
t-3aL'liors, but trota the dcprftv«d couditioa of Kuiuuo oature. 
It u evident tbttt Fftul dl^onud it ueciWMuy emphaticaU}- to 
tjuiird utid w.ini tham BgiiiitRt it.> 

Anotbur dani^r of a differeat kind tlireateiwd Cliriütiatihf 
H'htu it Ibuud its wuy umoiig tin: «dtioatud cUawe in tfa« tvKs 
uf Grecian loaniiug. Since iu tlioao plaoea the lave of kiiaw> 
lerlgo preduiniuat«a. mid siurjiassed in foi-ce all tita other [\iu- 
iliLQi^tital teudunciubi i>f huiniiu nutun; ; aiuw men were disi>o«() 
to cultivate intellcutunl eniiitcitRC to the n^lect of monUit, mid 
Cbmtiauity gnvo n far widoi scope tbsii lioatheiüsin to tlio 
u:icruiix! of tliu mental puwunt ; aiuce in uuuir rcspecte it 
j^treiid with tliose uniong the Greoinn philosophers, who rested 
clieir oppoaitiou to tlie popiilnr religions on nu ethiotl haä; 
the uunauquciicc was, tliat tituymudo Chnatiiuiity, coittruryt» 
it8 nature aiid desißm, chiöfly an exercise of the tnderKtand- 
iiig, and aimed to conve^rt it into a pbiloaophy, thus eubordi- 
nutiug the prautioal interest to th« tliöuretical, aud vbacariog 
tho iiial gpuiua of tlia gospel. The history of the ftirther 
bprood uf Clirmtituiity among the hcatlion, iutd of individuiJ 
ohurchea fuiinilud uiuung tbeio, will givu us vm opi^urtunity tt 
developing this faot, mid setting it in a cloarer light. Wa 
now proceed to tho seoond miaso nary journey of the aposUo 

31IR »WNfi NianoniBT JocfunT or tbb Atossia rivk 

AFTiiA Paul and BoniBba« hod spent eomo timo with Ih» 

ul lurch at Antioch, they resolved to roTiait tho chnrcha 
fiuiiiiieil ill tliu course of their former miasionnry jouraoy, uid 
Üiun to <;xtüud tli(-ir Isbuiirs still ftirther. BÜ-uabas wub«i 
to take his nophcw Uark ngain with tbom ns a oompnniini, 
but P^tid refitwd bis asscat to this proposal, lor b« ciaM aot 

I TL« ««vol \JT<M, sgalnst which Taul wuna the Hiibcaiaiu, 



\oas6 hi« lutvliis; alloved RttAchment to homo to rcDder him 
unfiiillifu] to tlie Lord's service, niirl doomed one who wa« nut 
ready to tacrlHc« evciy thing to tiiia cuubu as untitt^d tat 
such a vooiition. We aoe on thia oopasion tho Bererft cnmcst- 
iii.'iat vt Paul's chnrncter, whicli f!;i\\'o op, and vviiilied otliera to 
(five up. «U peraotial ooiiHiduiulionB aiul leeliags wliero tho 
^Batme of (toit v/as cmaemmi ; ha xiovor rHowhA liiins^lf to bo 
^ftoDiptcil or aediiodd ii; Uii^ respect hy liis natural ii.tiacUiiii.-al 
I to the DatioQ to n-hotn hu belonged' The iudiilgeiige shown 
bj Bamabfts to Murk might pruoeed flitJier from the peeiiliar 
iLldue«! of Uis Oliristiitn cliaractor, or from a regiivd to llio 
iasof relalioiiMhip not yet Biifficiently controlled by the power 
the Christian apirlt. Tliat such human attftclimeiitshft4l 
muoli iiifliieuce on Baiiiahaa, is abowu by liia couduct 
aX jVntioch on the oocasioti of the conference "between I'eter 
jid Paul. TluLs a suiüen difieretice orosä between two meB 
\o had hitherto laboured together in the work of the Lord, 
rhich euded in their separation from one another, and 
liiw it Wilis sli.JM-n, that these men of God wew not froo 
ita htimaii trenkiieaa ; but the event proved thut swn thiK 
ircutnatnnce contributed to the eitension of the hingdom 
'of God. foi', io conseqiienoa of it, the circle of their labours 
wa» very greatly euliirgeii. Baniabas now formed a sphtre 
of ftction for hitnseU^ and first of all visited with Mai'k 
his native country Cyprus, luid then most probably devoted 
himself to preatili tlie goapel in other rogions. For that 
he reamined in hia native country unemplujod in missionary 
servico, not only his Uhoim; up tn this time forbid our 
•up]>OBinj,', but oJbo the terius iii which Pan! epcnks of him. at 
a later period (1 Cor. ii, 6) as a well-known and iudefaligabla 
pi^enchcr of the gospeL Paul's soverity towards hia nephew 
was probably of ^rvico to Mark in leading him to a «euee of 
bis misconduct, for he ailerwards ooniinued faitliTiil to hia 
Yocatioii. This separation was in tho issuo only temporary. 
for we aftenvunia find Barnabas, Piiul, aiiJ Mark, in oJoise 
ooaaexion with one another, although Bai'nabna appear» 

> In tho rpmtt» of Rocn. i. Ill, we connol, with Rilckert, flad Diftrk« 

M'.ioual alWuhnient not «ulirulj ov^reome. Tliin upS/rav koT' 

li wUh ilio neccssnfj liislori«! development of the llieocnwy. 

' njitiuBitiuu a aLio excluded bj ibe ajiplieatio'U uf Ttfärar ia 

U. Hi 


Min's XKtem menmrARr sovtenn.. 

slwayB to liave retained a Bep«rate independent ^bett 
actiou. Ill \m Et«ad Paul took Sila;i as but feUow-l^iourer. 

From til« beginning of Hi» tniiiistry, tt wu a fixed priDci]i!« 
tritli Paul, «a h« himself K^llt us in Rom. xv. 20, hhI 
S Cor. X, IC. to ronn his owe field of labour for the pn>. 
{mgntian of tlio gonpcl, and not to trespass on that of uj 
otlii-r ptivoii ; itiMtcud, tlicreforc, of betaking liiinoelF fintttc 
Uj'iinis, ns oil fonner occasions, he travollßd throuRh the 
neigbbouriug pnrta of Sj^ia to Citicin, Pisidia. and tlio towni 
in which hu hud lubourud ou liis firtti Jouniej. In the tonu 
of Lj'stm,' ho found a joiing man iiaued TimoUiy, wh^ by 
the imtnictiona of his taother, a ])ioua Jewea§, but married to 
a hcatbeu, had ruocivcd rcli^ioiia impreaaione, irbich had so 
abiding viTrnt Hi« mother wns omivortfid whon Paul fiiA 
visltud tliat town, and yotuij,' Timolliy also becaruO n m«kniB 
ctiufcHtor of the gospcL The report of his Christian zeal hud 
Bpwad l*.! tlie iii'jgbboiiriiig town of I<joniimi. In tiic churett 
t"! wlilüh liu beloiigoJ, tlie vuioea of |irüfiln.-ts nunounocd ttat 
he van destined to be a distin^iiihcd o^tit in »preading tbe 

■ t niuRt bcro iliflcr rraiii tho opinion 1 urpmacil in lUc ßnt, «dldoK 
la AcM xvi, 1, 111): imi, if Uicra g.iv o« rmMnB^lticcoiitnuT,iRaMfl 
nalurali.v uiKlcreMod «r the blue la^t idcdi.IodoI, L^htra; and ainft 
tho raionnlili'! Unttnioujr to bis chitnwUr given \iy the brolhnn u 
Lriin uirl k-unluiD Is mcDtloneil, wc ma^ presume, witli *onii! ct» 
flüeaco, lliHl one of Ihcsi.' lonmi tnia hU untlve pliinu ; for it U nol |<o- 
IibIiIb that vi) tUos.!! wIjo knon him ticil aaiil of biu kIiuuIiI be pwxd 
4v«r, thonKh It iE)>anlTpow>lli!n iliat tho Wtimonraf pcrMoiUilaielB 
the BMTOiC toim» to hit oim algbl be addumil. Jn AcIh ix. 4, lb 
&ppro>vJ roadiiix i« mllier for tliMi Hfckintt IVit cuj'jxnitioD : bt 
if TluiolhT had h«eB a nallT« oT Botbe. ilio prcdii^u- ^p$alr$ voaU 
not kav« bmn spplipii In Tittt aliKie. t>ul Lute vould biTC «riun 
AtfijSü« U r^T nol Ti^wA^ or rJi«i col Tv>»Mi A^p^oloi. Bui ll li 
(UTpririni; that, in tbin p«nun, "niuolhjrataaikiioiicwitltaat iho Ba- 
ll« «f hit luUvg (iImv, UidlbM la Acu xU. % AUtUrohw ud Ouu 
wee luincd t4>EtUi« ai HMedoniuu and ocnpuiKia* ot PmI HeK«ll 
mleht be prcsnnitil, thai ibc pmlkMe &viUin bad been Di^beed. 
isd m^t W Klantl ufUr TinMlaj*« nun«. ArfeUrchiM, SMind«, «ad 
Qalo)^ «MildUieabeiaiMdaBBMlrecorTlMMaljm!«&.M)d TtmoAjof 
Derba. Bat if w> adept Ihb vitv, Uran AH» syi. 1, ^ mnA bi 
difimatlf uplaitMd. Bat lUil ft It bm imhabl« tku tk« hmh m^ 

iwadinf eo«U tu illif riTiiTTiirnTnit n mil-ii ij fm mii lläiiilt 

&« «MunMi a naoM •• Qami mi^t tadif lieloof u> a OkÜM 
at Dcrb« and to aaMbar A«m M a a w l m ita. a> ■« find it li«raa alu kit 
ae apprornl ChtUiIaa ranUaf at Coria«k. Bom. iti SS, 1 Cor. I II : 
■n'l Tii>o«l>7'* nallTa plao« nlffct b» omilted beanao he «a« ib« ic« 
kova of all Paul'* anrodaiaa. 



gosjißl. It gTiktiiiud I'nul U> Lave n eealous youth nitli biin. 

null bo 

wliii could luwi^t liim on his Eit*aiouiir_v journeys, 

■ tniiiie<t fur h preiidivr iiiuler liJs direction. He secouded tha 
voiceft that thus calkJ on Timothy, and the young nmn him- 
■olf «IUI prcpnrciil l>j his lovo to their eomiaoti Lui'il, U> 
accompany his Taithftil sorvant every where. As by liis. 
deeoent and ednontion he Iwlongi^d on «de to l}ie Jews, 
aiid ou lUu ■■liitr tu tie GculiJc-a, lie waa so uiiicli iho more 
titled to be tilt] cumpiuiiou of thü ajioutlcti niDOiig botb. And 
in order to bring him nciirer tho former, Paul oaiiaed him ia 
Iw drcmiicisod, by which ho forfeited none of tlio piihliciy 
aoki^ij^iud^d right« of tlie Gunlile C'hritttiima ; for huiiig thu 

»BoK of a JewMs. and oducatad in Judaism, ho could with 
mure pruprioty ha cIiücicJ by the Jews. 

Aflcr faul liad viaitoil the chiii'chns iibcady foimdod in ihis 

dtittinct, liu prixjoodwlto Pbrygiii. Of course he couUl aotpBthtT 

on tili* ur un a later juurin^y, iiuhliah the gospel in idl the 

tUnxsitia' imd two ' towns of tue [lopulows proviucBofPhrygia. 

He uiuüt have left much to bo a<;ooiii|jliiihod by his pupU^i, 

^sucbi for ingtuTice, an Epiiphrits at Ci>lo>r9(c, nho afterwiude 

Kfouitded a chuicb tii^ru, ümd iu the towoa of Eienipolia md 

HLaodicea.' Tiience ho directed his com-so nortiiward to 

H ' ThU U the niiiiilici; »laleü in the slxtU century by Iliernclea, nnthnr 

H of the Suvs'itSij^Mit, or a " Travoller'n Compimion." wlii.cli gliOA an 

H Boeonnl ol' tiie ptoviw^es and luwns ot the Eiiaium Kinpir*, 

■ * i cannot ngron with the opioinn of Dr. Srhiilz, liriMiglii. forti'U'd In 

H tho Stiflifn und iCrffitcn, vol. ii. imrl 3. which h aUi, TvltocxleA by 

V Dr. Schott ia bis Isagugo. thai !I'u.ul hiiii!<ilf ma llm finiindcr uf tin»« 

cliiiruliil*. I anunot penuHiJc lujaull' ttiut.. if tim CuIoB^iuus and liiiodl- 

ccaoi had. T^edtoA (!i.d (^nEpsL From the Upa of tbv upoi^tli.!, L<* woald 

liaic gilauvil iLeiD eo tloaol; in connexion with tlioee wbo were not pcr- 

•<Mia11<t knows to him, «ittoiitany (lielmctiiMi, as vm HuU iu CuIdiul ii. 1 ; 

HiQM. In fvforoni'^ Ih> lliu iiniietj r>r llie Rpo*tlc Sor tliF churijhDii, it 

ulw^K iDiul« nil imporiaDt diffcTcneo wbetUor lie b.inifi*lf üml föund«! 

Üiem «r not. 'I'Jio Snoi woulil liuv« bi.'cii uaeil too iiiduQiii[Gl;ri >( lie 

DMOaint; lud not bcun fiicd by «liat preceded ( Irma wlikb it appenrs 

IbBt thOH cJiumliGS or Phrj'gia are vurorred la, wbicii. like ilic <:liuruliua 

U Colouw snd Lsviilii^tiu UuU not lici^n founded by Pmil lilmu?ir. .And 

bow nil it be snppansd, in an epi^tie to a ubiiri'li Tuundoil tiy bint- 

H)ir, I» wonld lu'irvr appeal tii wliaC Üiey had beard from bis own lips, 

liiit oiilylo thu nmuiiinramtnt of tliu gospel, whiicb i.hf_v linii lieuni fram 

Otbenil and that li« iibuuld upeak not of whnt he himftelf lind i^c.n utA 

hcAfd »mong thum. I>ut onl}' of wUnl liuil Ihvpii roporlot to Liui hy 

oi httn rcfwuLlnK iliiir utatis ) TW aoutu romaiks of Wi^cn, in tlii; 

Studien vna Kritiken, tSSS, part i. p. ITl, Imve nut Irvlucod m« ta 


pxrtV secoKT snBsrosuiT KwiarEf. 

tUilntia. As i 

•Jews rcadcd in this 


liiinsolf probftlitj flivt. lu Ürw, »nil to tlw iniisc 
würshiiniej with Üii'ia in Üic «jiiiigo^rut«. Uui tlie ill- 
racnt he met with amonK the Jew» prepared on opming ft» 
Iiirri til ÜH- Guirtilt's, l»y «boRi he w«* reoeived ft-iih 

I'aui had to miviutaiii a severe conflict with boilily stitfcrini^' 
asaVi««!^ friiuiiiiimy nlliiwiiiis in his epiKti(?s,^^'iii're hn s 
of his iieiii^' ^'iveii up lo a eäiiHi> uf liunion «cftkiiess. hor i« 
this Burpri^Di;, for u» u Phiiriscc, striviug^ aftvr llio righUiuiu- 
1H3SS (if llip Iftw. ho liiid oertniiily not spared his own bodjr. 
A(\«;r he iiad found salvatiou hy fnith in tlie Itcrleenicr, and 
hod iLttaincd thu rrced<^in »f tho cvnngelioiü spirit, he wuo, it 
is true, very far from ji fornifitititig castigation of bis hodjr, 
aud from Le^ dcpeiiiieiico od worka ; he expresses the tnok 

nlinrmy opinion un ihU pomt, Tho «^iUnuiiun iieg'iv« of the woi 

III CiiliiSn li. 1, " iihu (at tlmw (iiiiniu|; iLc CliriKÜHnn ill CoIobb« ai 
Lnorfifcai who Imvc not known inc [inraunnLly," appeitn to tnc not >• 
uatur&l Hx ill« CUUIIIIÜII oik, wbii-b I fvlliiw. If Piml luwl iiitendvil I* 
uj Ibin, he Maald hurdly h>va fulled li> limit iaei liv nildlng Cuvu. tf 
tlio tal iu verw) 7 Ia iilcu tu lie relaim-il, jvi 1 ilo nul. liiiii iHiy iiitltnBtio: 
I'Oiivpyud Ly it that tiiyy liml irotiveil ltmtrii«i.|on fMui niiviln-r ti4cbtr, 
but only a nrcrt'iicc tg what pruccdctl. ibat they bod received (tv 
Uliuphiuf (liu Hämo g^uspolof itio diviiii; grai*u »liicu liuJ beca pulilülii 
lUrijiighoiii Llic world, Diit, finm i>xKnial cTiilcnci:. I caniioi h«ilp toi 
siiieiin^ llie «nl uh suHpiciou» ; — []ie Irt'ijunul r«]icliLioi! of il in Ike p. 
«■ding pBTt, and Tlie oIinjrviiMc mrcrcnci' In v. (J, niight eimilj ocsui< 
tliu luKäitiun uf kuch U ltd. hul irtlie Kal it npurtuuA, It apiHW» mudLJ 
mor» ck.irly that Kpaphmf. not Paul, wnstli« (etlicher of thtachHCh. 
He ia cullvd (tmip intär SitUoMi) a, Knaat of Chri>t in I'lul'» »tcAd, 
Imchuiiu Puiil bml ifivi'ii over In liiin tlio uflli» of pToi'tiuniint; tbc gc*f<el 
in tho thrvc c-itic» of I'hrj-gin wliich he hlmwilf coiilil not »iait. h U 
licit dtiOT Vi liiu lliut riiiil. ill ii. G, uinv nol huvH UKtl the wonl bfi^ii 
to dcooto hin liodily ohunoc In oppoution lo hi* aplrltuitl pnstoniw 
nnioog LliL'in, HlLlxm^h \te diil uot iiiDuii thul lio hnd {ic«n oaoe tiOMf 
them, and w^nii now [ciiiovcd to n dUtaDcc from ihsiu. U atUl appwn 
lu mo icuittikabio, ihul — if ho n'nitc some jean atU:i hi» jircscni« 
among tbem— there ehould bo no alkieion Lo his penuual iuicmane 

vllb Lheni. especiiillj' iti an Rjiiictli; ioLi:burch which wan in so (Tlii<il 
itAl« : to whom il wa^ so itiiportant to evliit'e bis lovu and can Icr 

licin, nud to eihorl rsiLbfiiUyl« KMp the ineLrut'l.iime lliey had te<tiv«il 
Iruai hiiii ; und i^xpudnll^v. if bv hiid tho l^ppD^1llNily of eommeading 
Kpnplinu tu thuiu. ne the {jeraun kIiu bud cairii^il on tli? work w1i>f1i ia 
hntt hc^im, he would to cmub tlie more have siMed enplioltlj. ili»t 
ICpiipbnL>i (jiut;)it no i>Lbur diKlriui! ihnn what ihiiy hail al fintr*octiv>t 
frtiin himBuir. thnt be «aald onlf laU« the aupentruataro 
ftfuadatioa hildhj- hiiuiti;]£. 

Ll» I« 

piDL*s sec 


docidAd opposition to erer^tliiu^ of tlio kiud. in ;aii^ui^ 
wfaiob osGibiLs bim to us an iadepiKloiit of all vutuunl 
cireutiutani.'GK. witli n. «pirit that (rwly BiiboriliiiaU'd unii 
^pruprtated all tluit was estvnuxl to a» iuiiivitelj/ lii^iwr 
objecL Ouch ore thoea oicmorablo words which tostif]* «uctt 
cousiiioUKiii.'ss oT true ftGuiloin • ■'! kin'W both huw ti> Iw 
nluMil, liiid 1 know liuw tu abuiintl : uvoiywhcn: oud iu all 
ihiu;^ I aut iu.Ui'uctod both to be full lUid to bo huur;^\, 
both to atioutiil nnd to GulTer iie«d. I am do ull tiling» 
tlirough Christ that stfeugtheuetb me." PliiUp. iv. V2. lit. 
But lu& new vocAtiuu allowed him GtiLl lues U> bpiire bimulf, 
dnoe he laboured luird with hie own haudu for a livelibuud, 
while lie exerted his puitrens liuth. of miiid aud \nKiy to tlio 
utinotic in his njioHt.olic uiiumtry ; tie bai^l m nianj dnngera to 
undergo, ho iminy hardahipa and auöerings to endure, undei- 
which a weak bixly might soon sink- Yot wttJi the aeiise m* 
human n-eiikue^ the cxiiiKciuusuess waxed stronger of ii might 
surpasaing ererything that huroaa power could eftect, a dirine 
all-oooquoring cnci-g^ which provod its etBcietiay in the 
preaching of the yr>iii>cl and in him as ita iiistrumeat ; luid he 
tionid porfi^otly diistiaf^iiish this divine power from nil merely 
humna oiiiluwmüuts. Uudar a seuee of human weakness, he 
bccanu) raised above himself, by that inward glory which 
boADud upi>ii htta iu thc>ae commuutcjitioua of a higher world 
irith which he was iiommred. lie coneidered a peculiarlv 
oppresäTs pain which coustantly atteuded hira, nnd checket! 
tn4 KAriDg of hi« cxftlted «pLrit, as on admonition to humility 
givea litm by Gud, um a couuterpoise to thosij moments of 
ianrard glorificatiou whidi were Touchflafed him. And ho 
infuraut us. that atWr he had prayed tlu-ice to the Lord, t( 
frwj him from tbiit oppressive poin, an nuswor by a divinu 
Toioe— either in viäou or in pare inwaid ßonsoiouüiiöss — was 
(granted him — that he muet not doaire to be ttvui IVum that 
whivli dc<.-psiied the eeuse of hie humau weaknci^, but must 
bfl satisfied udth the cousoiousuesj of the diviu« ^raoä iiu- 
parted to him ; for the |>uwer of Ood proved itself to bo truly 
Buob, ovwi in -Üie midst of bumuji weoknesa.' 

• 1 eaanot ^nc with ilimn wliu thiak that Paul, ia 2 Cor. xil. T. 
vhere kD lUlniiäB to snmeLliinK that coix'Uiiii.lj- tormented htm liKc :i 
plorvln^ Ihom wbich n li'irr.on lairrios abouL in liis boil;, only ioWiuleii 
I« «if^Difj* UU uiimi;rguN uji^'Oueuw. Curtuiulj we t^iuiuut üi jiiHliliuil 


riCLB EBcuxD HtsnorfART joirxyBT. 

IJc GXpcnenced the truili nf tliia especially durms 
niiaUtrj' in (i^lntia. Hi» body was bowied doi 
dvbilit}', biil tlio iliviiic pvwvr wf liw wyris and works, so 
■triküi);ly contraRtad vitJi the foeblaiess of ibe matefvl 
«reßa, made ti poweriul impi^gsiou on susceptible di^ioai- 
tioku. Ciidcr tJicHC circuDisUincov tlio gluwiii]; seel of wt^ 
Rn«nAciiig love n'Kich ntiiidAt hix own sufierin}^ «tabled Itiia 
tc> bear ererytliiug ho jovlVilIy for the «alvation «f utber 
ntut tiaro uttriKtod tlic LcLirts c>f Uti hciums witli eo loufi 
greator force, ami oxctloii that ankuit atuichraeiit to his per 
wliivh Lo 8o vividly deacribea iu GaL iv. H. '• iTe ivoeire 
mc as an anRul of God. c7on as Josu» thriBU" 

Tlii> Gatitliaii uhurolies were fariii<.'il of a ^tock of nntif 
Jawa, aud jiartly of « fp'out iiumb«r of I*roai3lyte8, for wbu 
JudaiBiu hail Itecome the transition-Tioiiit to Christiaoit;, as 
of i)ersotis who paasuil imtiiciliatuly from liEtttliuiibiin till 
CliriHtianitj ; uiiU witli tiw Guiililo [lurtioii of tlie tliu 
Homo JcwH [»iiitiectQcl llieniäolves who Wfirc distinguiälu^l Ttau 
Ihe great nmaä cif their iiuboliaving couiitryuipn by thcrt 
Nusccptibility for th-« gonpL-L But h^ ttieau» of ilionu wlifl 
wcru formerly pno»flytL-is iiud tJio Jowrsh Chnntiniis in 
diurohe«, tin iiitorc-oiirsö with the J"ews «.-as küjit «f^ M'<^ 
heuce aroae tUoMj disturbaiicoa ia these cburoliuif oi whi^ < 
shall iirosently speak. 

On leaving fJuiatia, PauI wti« ftt first imef-rtaiii in 
direction to liiru, aiuce new fields of Ifihoiir opened to him i 
djfiünjtit »itlcs. At oue time, he thou;^ht of guiiiji ia a son 
Wftntwly (liivMtioti, ti> PriKJciisnlfli' Äiiii, ftinl nJt«rwaj'd« 
pa«&iug ill a northerly diivcttuQ to Mysiit aud Citliyuiu ; 
tfitlter by ou inward vtüce or a visiou h« reccivi»] a luouilia 

In n^'In^ thai Pkiil laoant noihinj; the than irlitt he laeiitlona tn tbe 
lOtti ««FM ; for in lid« latter ].auag«. bo nnl.v ftppliM Ott gcnenl tnth 
•-whieli tho divinv vuim liiul B«ir«il tim of iu retercoco to tlie pwtlj 
ouhr «Vi«:' Wfur« iiiout{ono<l — to «vary'hias «lilub nitcht nwlrtbi 
to reader him «cmil'lc of hU UnnHUt vealiiica Tki* ^tplinatioo Of 

priiioi|d«, >b4 the pfcuUar iihrMMtoty of Paul, )(*d oa to mppoaa 
ti« ntnat to Indicate wmcililag tjutle peculiar In the flnA i—r-tfft 
Oinaoi initwd wipfiuto tlint he irould nn.v to be delivered frOBl Bttcb Wl 

fcriai« aa wert csKntlallj and liidliMtul>tr oooMCted with hU votmtion, 
Botw» nasi eoacluilc ÜM kla pi^vni merrei to MEncthlii;^ aTia^ibcr 
Itcrtdnal. whicli alfi>rl«d klm im« as aa aMall& but a< I'vil ; iboügb *' 
be atamH. in tb<^ "■'»I -ilxi-ww «f ilj dUllOj^lifaing ais^ 

PADLt «RomfD misbio:«art JotncKsr, 

tlio Clviiic Spirit, wliich caused h!t» to uhanilor. 1x>tb 
> plans. Having ronaed an iiitentir)n of iHUäin^ over to 

jpe. but waiting to seo whether ho should be withheld or 
(UiKKUO^il l)_v It liightr ijviidiiac^L", lia betook himself to Troas ; 
and a nocLtinial vision, in whicti a Itlaccdoniaii ap[)i;ared 
calling ia b^hnlf of his nation for his aid, coDtirmed hie reso- 
lution to visit Macuclotiia. At Troas, he met wiLh Liiko the 
phjTsiciiiu, perlinjis oue of tl»e Proselytes, who had been «jd- 
verted by him at Aiitiuoli, and who joined his hand of coni- 
fuiiioits iu mii^iuiuti'y l/ihour. Uis iiieJical skill would be 
servicmhle on maiiy occoaons for promoting tlio piibliuttion 
' tho gospel among the lioatheii. ' Tho first Maco^oniou city 
which thev titiiveii vi\a Philippi, a. place of some import- 
Thu tiiitiilief Iff Jotvs here w.i» not sufticient to enable 
to uatiibliiih ft syuagogiio. Pi-obiibly there wore only 

flytc«, who lia'i n pUice for aastfmblijig surrounded witii 
ti%eg, oa the uiit»iilo of the city, near the hanks of the 
Stijrmou, wlicn.- tltay p^rkirmei thoir devot ions and the 
tlPCWSlirjr liiStnvtionN, a, so-i^lcd iTpiiiT£u;^i'(. ' If addresses 
foatide<l on p!is<agi!fi in the Old Test;im6nt were not delivered 
Iiero ta in tliu Jcnisii syiuigo^uc, ami if Paul could not avail 
himself of suuh a custom for [jubliehing the goapel ; still tlio 
ProBpljto« (cKpi'Cially females) ;is!seinbled hcre mi the Sabbath 
fi)r pniyi-r, and he would belie meet tbosj peiTSoiis who wem 
in a state of tlie greatest preparation and susceptibility foe 
what ho wislitrd to uoinmtiniciile. Accordingly, «u'ly in the 
monitD^ fiu Uio Sabbath, he i-eaüi-t<?(l thither witti hia Oom- 
paniona, iu order to hold a couveiisatiou on religions topics 
with thfj women of the i;ity who -weve here a^i-mbied for 
«raycr. His words niado an inipresaioQ on the heart of 
Lydia, a dealiu' in purple from the tuwn of Thyatira in Lydia. 
At th« couulunnun of the tiii'vico, she Eind her wholo family 

' VTo infer lliül LukojolDol P.iul at Trema, from hi^ begmnioit, in 
AfU xvi. in, to viiitc hi» uurniiive in tb« Gret i>cniuu^" IK» «n(l«aTuuTuil 
to jso."Sa 

* Thfl exprtoion in Act» xvi. [3, oK^ajjiftTo, niukos it prolialile liiafi 
IfaU rmfuxii DOS fU't a buil'IlDg. but only ;i>i ünclo^ud -phtca in tbe «in:n 
«ir, wnlci «IS iiinnllj a|i]ilii:il to this purposu: onm^aa' Tertulliao. mi 
Saliontg, i. 13, "TIy(? Uraiionen hiteralösol llie Jew»,' niid DfJijunii», 
e Id.wbcrolifl ap^As u( tliu wi<ifllj'-sv''^ad interesl tak«n bylho htiathca 
lit tti4 JawUh fciulK : " Juiiiiic^utn certc ji>iuoioiu uliiq^uu cdubntlil r ; 

ED uuiiiIIh per t>nin«B librod iiuocuuqae iu aperta tllquand« 
1 cntum mluuat." 


«ere baptJKd bv him, atid coinpelied liiiii bvber importi 
to Iftko iif) hi« (ibod« with his com^ aukibs in her h6uae. 
ia lliU tiiwn tlieru were few or uo Juw», the mlhurenW 
Judoiam ccnisi&tod only of prosolyica : thus CliriMianiiy 
in this qiiiLrtcr with tio ohmtiimte rcsistäneo , and it Wonlil 
Itftvo probably gained a «till greater uuiubur uf iidhnmrt^ 
wtlliout iiiciurring the risk of pcreecution, if oppcuitkni had 
not been cxcitM, owing to the injury done to tlio pccuniuj 
intoraets of t«nain indiviiluaJs aiuoug the Gäntilen, by (ha 
uiHTatiou of tlie tiiviiio doctrine. 

Thürä u-iui IL female slave who, in a state rescmHing the 
jihL^uomvua of soninanibuliani, was accustomed to answer 
eoitMioiirtiy ijiiestions proixjHed to her, luiil was cstcvaiod 
bo a proplietCKs inspired by Apollo ;' as in all the tamn 
heulboiiiah idolatry, th« hi<ldpn power« of nAtiire were 
into the sfi-vici; of religioir.' Tlii» slitvu hud proliiibly frequent 
oppoitunitioH of healing Puid, nnd hia words had left &d im- 
preseioii ou her heart. Tn lier ci>nviiliiivc fittv thnw impreraani 
WDTB rcvivud, iitul minjrling what eht' had hennl frtim Piinl 
with hnr own hentlicniah notjana. she frequently followed die 
projicbürti when on tljeir way to (be Proseuche, exelaiminp, 
"These men arc the Hurv-ants of the Moat High Uod, wli« 
»how mito M* the wn.y of Balvulion." This t«atiin«uj of n 
prophetosi au achuired by the people niif;ht Itave avnikd 
rauch to draw their attention to the new doctriiic ; biit it 

' tcnn liy no means ailiiiiii, with auinoei|MMii.oreof llio Act». UiuiUI 

this took plw« bclore llic licginning of the piibtii: p«nrr-ii>ct of der win" , 
)Lrii| i-hat ou the «un« daj, »s iliev w«rc rHUriuiiu; rruni the place r'w.i- 
Paul baptiwd Lyiiii. the tneeling wiui this prupln:!««« DreurTod *n -h ■ 
wiiy to the rroseuche. Luke's iiniTattTfi in Acu xvL IH, dootinM 'i. i 
oato that nil tliuBC ereiita look pluco «ri oiii" liny. The ik««frliou» vl I;* 
piiipbeteK} make it probable ibutshe liud often heard I'aiit ajtcBk. 

' Uri the coinuiun notion o^ the {»lupli», tliitt iliii P^ihiun A^otta lot: 
poiutwlaa of Rucb «77 so-rpi^ileDvi or iTuE>Bt-ai, dad i|)okc ibri'iTigh ihri' 
nioutli, led Plutarob, De L>'/. Ornmlvr c. 9. Tarliiilinii diicrib» inii 
jiiimonii, ApnCaifi-t. e 2.1, "qui da I>eo piitl «lialimniiliir.^»! kiilivliaJu' 
<in 1 nlDlc of Funvul^vu nguny, in wliiijh 111« ^i.'ni»i> felt Iiitnr>c1f po"«!^ 

fiiliy itnpullud as by a ulniugo epiril irltb a hollow vale«) "pneüntu." 

* Thii« tbc ornctcaortheanciantH, thu inculialiuaH.midHiisllu'phaw- 
tiienik iu (111; bcitllicuiitm or tbc Soi'laiy IaIcs Iq the South ßä. Iht 
fhwi o( Oro, the God of Wi,r. uticrml oraclea in in ccildllo sUW •■( 
Tioknt cunvLiUiiJU«, uuit, ufitif hi» convemlon to Chrlsliuiiity, couW n*i 
Bjpiin rut lilraaoir in nicli a etat«. Suv. on Ma Bubjoet, the Ut« Intinib 
logMeountiiöfthUmiäaion by Ellis, Bc-nnet, &•). 

»Am,*5 8KÜ0HD KISBlOifABT JüVKJTIT. 177 

mm very fcreigu frmn Paul'« diapoaitiou to emplo; or endura 
•ueli a nitxture of trucL «od (öbehooii At first, lie did not 
coucem btnuuif nbout tli« exolamfttloua of the slave. But as 
Mbu pKnittUyL fill at bat turned t« hor. and commnndod the 
spirit nhic'n liolil hor ratii»ial and munil potrers ia bondnga, 
to oome ont of Iter. If this waa nut a pexaaoid evil spirit, 
etiÜ it waa th* predominanco of an ungivllike spirit. That 
vrliich LViitKtttuteH aiaii it freu ug&iit, and which ouglil t(J rtila 
over the tendencies and powera tif his miture, was here held in 
suti^ection to thenn. ' And by tha divine pnwürof tha.t Saviour 
u-Ijo bad reattirod peaiM and linroioTiT to the diatnicttid aoula of 
demoniacs, this wonmn was aliw rescued froin tlio pmwcr of hucIi 
ftn ungodlike spirit, and oouldnerer agiiin be hrougbt into that 
stMe. When, therefore, tho slave could uo longer praütisc her 
art» of aootliKiyiug, her iiiaat«rs mv themaelTes deprived of 

* W« hare DU uertnln iiiaTk« wliic^h •rill enabh; na to detennliic in 
what Ught Paul viewed iho phcnomunan U might tie {iljuu^li wo 
«uniial ilocidu witli cnrijiiiil}} tlint h« give to tbe lieatbi'n tLolian, that 
tbe ^irit of Apollo onliniitcd thiaper^an. a jQwiuh Ion», lliulun ovil 
■piril or diiinoii jjaHi«).»»td hw. In I hin foUowerl llie iiniieniahy 
roeeiv-etl notion, wiihout rrflflp'iJig ut tJie moment any further iipnn it, 
lue Üiic saliJccL IjcluiigiDj,' M the liiclier philusopby of aaturc, wu 
tui from hi* tiiouRlil«, Kg directed n it mcnlioD onl; tu tiiit mural 
grouudit u[ Uic plicuiimciiun. 1 am cnnviiioci], ilal the Spiril. of truth 
wbo WM promiikcd l» him an nn spnt^tlo, gniileil him in thia liisianee to 
Ü» knovlcltn or ail the irutii iihich Clidst awp^red on tanli ti> 
■oooniicx, m a tnowluiltftt of «very thiu j !ie.«anliiil to the iloülritio of 
Mlv&tlon. By thia Spirit h« diiWLTUuil llio [irtiiuminanfle of ilii? reign 
of evil in this phoniimenon ; «.nd i( au Inrijibte pofcr \» iicrc tliou^iit 
to bo operating, yet what u nuturii in thu cau^s onil Hvniptoms la 
not Uiorcbr exuludcid, ev«n m, the natural does not oxnliid'u tho auper- 
natural. Coiupui'o tlio admirnl'le n^mt^rks v[ my fricnd Tw^hmq 1u thti 
Mscond To]uine of his Dtigmatii, p. &55, oaA v\\tx ia »xid >m demoniac« 
id my Ltb^n J'*u. 'I'lil» Mpirir. pive Paul tlip confiiirtit Iwlief, tliiLt 
DM Christ ha4 oanaac^red Bud rendered povtcrle** Ihe liiiif-dum of evil — 
tlunforc !>/ hin iliviim jiuwvr cvcty llnuif wlilcb Ijelongeil to this klnjt- 
doti «ould bmcdortb be Dven-oiur, In lliia fiutti, be «pokv full uf 
dlrioo Gonfldcucc U)d Lia »urd tuok uOvct in pivportion to bia fiiith. 
Kai ia tiht «nnlo oT, and Lha clocIamnoDR of Ibo Apoelio 
rupoctlni: himMir, I IId'1 ro KTouml for ^ümliiiii);. tliat will] thisUgliL 
of nil Ubrbtiui RDU!M-iuu«]i<!», ut arrnr vniiid \\y no poKäiliility nrlit, 
which did not affect the lriith> of the e(»[Jcl, lieioiFgcd to a iliiruri-Tit 
■till lo*ur tl«[nuiineiii of iLnuiiIudiie : eui^li a« tlie i]ns6i|aa, nrh.el]icr vo 
m I« «nuüiipr thin ns » phenonjuncin oxplieiilile from tho nature of tha 
binuui *ouI, It* astunil potveri aad connexiaa witi^ a bodily organiK^ 
llw. or ui eSb«!. of ■ poiioiKioii hy a pondnnl evil spiiit, 


FAin:*» sactKO) uisetoNAjiT joüB.vFr. 



tlifi gnins vliich they bad hithci-to nbtaiDcd fixitn this Boureii 
Em'ogeii thoy soiioa Funl itnd .SilM, and tocniwd them txfim 
thu oiTil uutJiorititJH, Üie DulliuvIk,' as turbulent Jew% 

ne re attempt! Dg to iutruduoo JL-wJsb nligioiu practiow 
tiho Ronmn colony, which woa oontmi^ to the Konuui 1b' 
tLijiigh tlie rigbt vna gasrmAood to the Jews of pnutnii 
tlti^ir nutioniU cultiu iV>r Uivrnttelvm without mol«atati«iL 
After they had Iweji publicly Bocui^ed without ftirther onni- 
nation, tbey were coici into pmoa. Tlie feeling of puUic 
ignomioy and of bodily pain, conänemoot id a gloocay piisce. 
whei-e llieir feet wcro etrvtchod in a paiiiriil nviiinor, «nd 
fiutt«nod in thu stocks (nervut),* and tlie eip^talioiu of llic 
ill-treatment ■which caigbt yut await tbem — oil thin «void net 
depress ttieir tiutil»; on theoonlmry, they were rnthor dcvirled 
by the couaciowiuess tlint they were eDduring roproacU uii) 
puiii for tlii> ouusti of Christ. About midnight Ihcy uttited in 
offoring prayer and praise to üod, when an eajthquaka shoA 
the widls of their pneon. Tlio door» flew opim, und the fctt«™ 
of \he priäoue» wero looneued. Tliu keojier of the priauu wo» 
tteizod with the greatest alarm, buiievin^ tli&t the pnsoiwn 
lind osciiped, Imt Pnul and Silaa cnlmcd his frar» Tlis eaitk- 
quake wUiidi gave the pritioueni an opportuuity of reooYcriog 
tJitiu- liiwrty — their rcfiising to avail tiiuuiMt'lvt;« of this op| 
tunity — their tioreuitj aod confidciioe iitidvr ko miuiy 
ingg — all combined to mnkc thcra appear in the eye» of 
axtoiUNhed jailor as beiugs of n higher order. He fellnl thvir 
feet, and li^Uiag to miiid what he had h'eard from tltu lips of 
Paul uud Silas respecttng thu wuy nf solvatioti nnnounood by 
them, addressed them in lümilar langiuige, and inqtiirvd wbu 
ha mtist do to he Eaved. Uia whole üuiiily (wacmbled to he«r 
the aragwer, and it wa» a joyfiil niormng for all. WlK'tliw tli« 
Duumvirs had become müro faToiimbly disposed by wliat they 
hod loarut la tho mean time reepeuting the pruumors, or tint 
thejailor'a report hud toride an impression upon tfaeiu, Ihfy 
authorized lüm to aiy that Paul imd Silaa might dispwt. 

' Tbo name irrpnnryal n'liioh la nacd. in tho Acta to de«l)riMl« ÜKM 

magtHUatoa, wa» ancienlly empleycd in liia naiallor ÜiwlL riütt W 
dctd^alc the supreme sutliurUien. Si-c AriaLotclc« Poliilc ril. S, «t 
fieMer, Tel ii. p. i'd^'Z, tu rait fiMpait wi\tai ula rtpi witntm {tfxi)' 
»a^oiiri Si tnparnyals mi raktiidaxau-i. 

■ 'Tonullinn od JLarr.jniE, c i. •■ ^ütü era» KMit ia nem, nam 
»niniufi in «elo wt." 




Bad tmy thing enthiuäastic nüngled nitU iliat bleaaeil iaafiira- 
tioii wlituL cutttilcil Puul to cuduru ull Kliiiniu and all sui&riii); 
for tile cause of ilia Lord, — ho certiunly would liavc done 
nothing in order to cscap« dligrMo, tJioiigh it might hciTa 
been »ithout iujury and to ihe advaiktage of his calling, — or 
tu ubtuiu uu apulogy Ut wbiuli hia civil privitegee entitled hito. 
for the unmerited ti'eatment be had received. How for were 
hi« Kntiinent« fr»m vliut in Inter times the moraUff monkeiT 
ban called biuuility I Apiiealiu^ to hia civil rights,' Lo 
obliged the Dmunvire, who wei-a not Jitstiücd in ti-sBÜng a 
Huiuuii fitijiei»' BO igimtniuiously, to come to the priaoii, imd. 
Ds uu attcetfttioQ of his ixuigccoi^, with their own lips to re- 
lease* him and hia oom|iiitiiüa, Tbey unw iK^toott thcm- 
Efilvee to till- house of Lj-dia. where t!ie other Christiiuis of 
til« citirwuruiuBontblcd, Slid q)okc tha li>»t words uf esc uuva^- 
loeut aad eihortation. TUey tlien qiiitlcd th^ pluee, hiil Liiko 
'Ond Timothy, who hnd not been included in the jMfi-ft^Qiitioii. 
sMj^d behmd iu peac«.' Paul left is Philippi a ohurub full 
of fiiith BiiJ aeal — who shortly after gave a proof of their 
nfiUctioiiut« concern for him by sendiug contnliutioiis for his 
iiiaintcnanco, though ho never sought for such gifte, but sup- 
purttjd huusclf by the labour of'his own hiiuds. 

l^ud and Silas now directed their course to TheBealunioo, 
nbont twenty miloä distant, tlio largest city of Maccdoui«, ood 
■ place of coiifiideiahlä tmt&c, where uuuy Jew»t resided. 
Hon thoy foimd a sjnagogite, which for three weeks PuiU 
tiaitad ou tbo äulibutb ; the Leorlä of many proäclylea were 

I 8e« tiiv weiikaoim wurds of Cicero, Ad. II. in 
" Jjun Ilia vox cl Imploroitlci ciVü Saiiuinuj luni. qua uEpemultiBia 
' tiki mi- turrii iiputij iiiUr )ii;tljaiiuä vi euliirj^ui uUulil," 

» How Paur« fu.tlicr oliuined ihe Homiin fUiiciiship tre knoir nut. 

lictns liorn al Tarsus , far tliuugS Dio Cbrysosujtu, in liia second hiyai 
Tapamii, v(^ ii. vJ. liouku, p. se, uieolioiiB frereral iirivilo^H «bicli 
tliQ GiuporgT Aui^J^tus liud jöanlcd to tlie city of Taraus lus a reward 
far tin niJGlity ia tliu civil wars, yet iC doea not appear that Itomuu 
1 ritlMTubip Kos one of iliiuu. und alluwias it Lo bave bwa bo. il uju)- ba 
iluubt«<(l wlieth«r U uoald hava beflo cauftrred on a foreign JuniHii 
family, tu wlucli Paul lielungiHl. 
* Stlaa al80 miMl have ohuined liy some mcana thn right of a Romaii 
I «iiMo. 

■ Titnolhj r^oinod Pkul ftt Tbosätloaica or Bensa; and Lake al 
ilat«r period. 

riot's fliKKMO» mmmvAvr mctfunr. 

von by hig prcndiing ; imd through ihcm k ««jr wu 
for |)iihliHhii4i the ^cspel unioQjj; ttic heathen in the dt<r^ 
Yrom what Pawl says In I These, {i- ». 10 j ii. 10, 11),' iw 
fiud tluit ixo v/a» uot aatliifiod wüi ajiäivmag tlw prottuljtw 
ooly ouoD o-wcck ut tho mcutin^ a! the Bjaofpigiie ; Ids 
pnÄohing would then hnvo )>c<>n confined to tho mqjüI niunber 
of GoQtileB vho belonged to tho prosdytet. At tho meetings 
of the t^'nagogiiv, tie uoulil »dopt only miuh a mi^thod and fuim 
of address, as suited the atandiog-puiut of the Jews ; be iniut 
hiivc! jiri)Niip[Kiticd mniiy tliiiign, otid tiutuy tupii» ho could not 
develon, which rei]uircd to be fuUj iuvcstigatod, in order II' 
intmt triB puuuliiu-uiigmtcic!» uf Uic heatlipii, But he kne«, 
Vi-e »69 from »everul examjilua, how te diHtlnguiah tbo «lifli 
atouding-poiatB and wants of the Jcwa and Ucntilus ; and hi 
wa may presume, that be carelUly avdled hini.iclf of opi 
ttinitioR to make nsa of these diffcirnccs. Tho OeotilM 
«huaa atteuUou was awakenud by the pruselytcs, aooD Maem- 
blod in variotiB plaoee to heiu* him, aiid trom tliom ohieflj a 
ohurcli wiiB fariuiid, profes^iig Taitli in tliu ouc livit^ God, n 
well as &ith in ttio Kedccmcr. 

Agrmiblj to the d«clni-atioT)B uf Christ (Matt i, 10, 
quired witli 1 Cor. is. 14), Pfltil reeogniHeJ the juxticc of 
requir<iinont, that tho ninintciianw of the pi'oachera of 
gijspel »h^iidd lie fumishud by those fur wliüia Uiey 
their wliole sti'eugtii and activity, in oi^ei" to confer u] 
them tho highest lieuuiit. Diit since he «as coneiDious that i» 
one point he was inferior to t!ie other apoetlea, not having at 
firat Joined himself vuhmtfirily to the ßüdeemor, hut haring 
been by tlie divino graoe, o» it were againet his will, tnii»> 
formed from n violent p<?raGcutcir of f.he church into aa 
ho thought it his du^ t« saiciifioo a right belonging 
apoHtolic office, in order t» evince hia reiuJiness »nd delist in 
Ui6 catling wlncti was laid npou Mm hy a higher ucceuiity; 
(1 Cor. X. IG — IS.) ThusaJso he found the meana of \ao- 

Ü, tniw^a 

t BchmdcT ID hin ChroDolo^al BomsrlcB, p. Sfi. Ihinka 1^1 Üi«h 
pnwA^ex i::uiiDi>t paasiUy refer to I^iiVh first visit to Thmtukloiüc«, «bidi 
must have Iii.-Gii a very shall oaa. Bui ihtn HcmB oatlilue irapinlMbtc 
In tbu sup|>>i>Bili>on. thitt a man of itioh zcjil and iodofiuigiblo mc^vIIt la 
his ealltitg. would in the upaep of throv or four VHkt, «Beet to muiA. 
Bud Ituive tiuLtiid kirn M rivid iu> impnuioti of Ui dkalMb 
•ondaat, m U imptitül in thM<i [isiwig«^ 

»acl'ü Second «issjosart jochset. 


^pmtolic lalMura among the heatlicn ; for a 

kaifefitly disintereBtod, sAorificing every thing for 

' tiin go«d of oUieTK, aud uudi-i^^oiug all tuila and deprivations, 
muHit hare won the confidence of many, evuii of Uiobli whg 
othorwiM wen dinpoKcd to Misfioct bgIÜbIi motives 'm s zeal for 
tht "boet iutereata or othc'i'», which titcy cotild not appreciate 
Ho must httv« Ijccri more nHsious to remove every ^ji^teit for 
sucli a suspicion, l>6cauae the conduct of maiiy Jews wlio were 
ttctivo in ma3ciiig pro^lvte^ was calculated to caet such no 
iinputaüoQ on the Jewish teadiem in g«ucral< Tbs other 
apoBt1«6 in their youtli, liad earned tlicir lipuliliood by il 
ngulor etnploymt'at, hat yet i>n.e wliioh tliey (jould not Ibllow 
in evory plnce ; Paul, ou the other hand, though dcBtiiicd to 
ba » Jfiwinh theolo^iiui, yet acaordiag lo the maxima prevalent 
m the Jewish schools,' tiiong with the study of tlio law, hnd 
leuTwd ttiu art of teut-nioliing ; &nd esüily gained u cuidu- 
teoance hy tliie handicraft, whtrevar he went, on account of 
ths modo of tnLTelling la tiie £iut, cuid the manifold ocnnäious 
on «lücli tents* «era used. While anuety for the spliitiml 
WiDts of the hantlien «nd tho new convert« to Christianity 
wholly oocapied his uiijid, he was forced to employ llic night 
in caruiDg the newsfiai'iea of life for himaclf and his com- 
pRltioDfl (1 Tlieas- ii. ; Acts is. M), oiccptiag as fur jia he 
o1>taiDe>i «utao rvlief by th« ufTeL-tionnto Toluutary oßi-riu^ of 
the tibitrch at Pliihppi. Üut to him it wua hiippinosH to give 
to others without receiving anylhiug in return fri>m tliein ; 
firom hi« own eiperieuue, he know the truth of the Lord's 
words, " It ifl more ble^ed to give tliait to receive," Acts xx. 35. 
Tbo npostle not oüly publicly addressed the church, hnt 
Vtaited individiiiils in their fomlliea, and impreseed on their 

' In Hut llrkeÄPolh. c2,(2. y^Tpior nj^n^ol'ijnE;. •■Beautiful !■ 

(1m »tuäj uf lliß Ittw with, ao eartlily i:iuploymeDt,, b; whk'h it inm gaLna 
Us IWcllkood ;" and the reiiHin iilIeKed ii, that hoth together are pre- 
TanllvM or «in, tiul. in l.heic ut»ii!Bi:o.. the soul iB caall^ ruine<I, Und sin 
inibenlranM. Aud thus in maiiiLEliTleB, »ccupntian wiih manual lubaur 
had Cor iW olijei^lv not «imply lo mnki; [novisicin tor the iupport of tho 
body, but al«) U> prerenl Miii^kli tf from mingling willi bigher Bpiritoal 

■ Pbil» d« Tictilui*, 639, 0(1 fnaoor, aü foptäviiyv 

li^iora rtittrarfOTilait. TLiii» It^uil" ti) »liiyn, fAM'igh it iloraniii, pruvv, 
• Paul cbuM tili» ucL'upitiiuii fruni its tieinj; uuu tor wliii^li liia utttiv« 
vu oelebnt«! ; hencr, too, its road of ItHtoiiii CiiiciiM. 


ViVLe feBCöKb MKöioiraur JOraSCT. 

hearts the fundamental truths of the (tcispel Id private 
vcnaiionK, nr warned ihcm of tbu diin^c^ra tluit threfttenti' 
tlie CbriKti&ii life.' Ho cDileuvoured to trhprish ibe bopot <if 
believeni hikIit thu sutK^ringit of tlivir vtuttily lifv, bj pointing 
tli«iu to the period ^vlieu Clinst vioiild come nffim to liring bi« 
kingdom among nnnkiixl lonviotoriouaco&HuninintioD. Tliis 
period, for thfjae vho were conBcions of having obtitiiMid k> 
demptioTi, vaa fitted to bo not nn o^oct of dread, bat of 
jo^ul longing hopa. And during the Gnt p&rt of Lib iipnctoUa 
couree, tlus dedsive erent appeared tu Paul niaircr than it 
really vta. ¥m; in tills resjicct, the times and woiions mutt 
rvtniÜD hidden till th« epoch of their fiilfiluont, &s Chria^^ 
himself declared Mattli«.-w xxiir, 36.' Tite firM- ptiblishen u^J 
the gDspiil were far firom thinking, that the IciDfjdotti ^m 
Christ would jnadiiolly, nftcr » tvdvous jjiucl'si, by it« own 
inward eiicrj.T', and the i;uidaiico of the Lord in ihe aaturai 
dovelopmeiits of evoriW, ovtTCoiiie Uie opposing iinwurv of tlio 
eiurth, and luaku theia eubaei've its lutcrotiu. JUtboujk 
Christ) by tlie puiabks in which he reiu'exuted thu pmcrm 
of his k-ingdom «n eortJi, had indicated the Uowneflg a its 
dovL'lopiDoiit, OS in tlie pnnibloaor tlio [^in of com, of leftven, 
of Lite whoat and the t^u-es ; yet thu luvitiiin^ of thcec repro- 
senta^oiu, as far as they vsem prophetiuil, and relatiMl to the 
nml'i of temporal development, R«iild only bo ri^tly uwltr* 
Hiood, when eiplainod by the coune of cvente. Aod In 
WH recDgniso the divine intuition of Chriat, wMch could pjei 
through tbe lougost HiicooHBiou of geueratioiie tind a^^ca. 
tbe apostles, to whom midi an intuition mu not gntale4i 
thought indeed that, a» their Lord had proniined, tli« 
would ^reiid among nil the nations of the earth, hy its divr 
energy pervading and uvtrcomiug the world ; but tbey 
believed, thnt the persecutious of the ruliug poweis 
the Gentiles, wouid conlinuoUy Iwcocnu tnorc intfimo, till 

* We do not tea vhy Ilia axhortnti^iiii und vtnting» ajven lo i. ._ 
ChriBlians nt I'hL'OHaloni'M, to whicb I'buI nppcnla in both u* £pW)(i^| 
might Del liUT« bt^a MmmuBiMliOd durlajj; hi« finl roaidencA UMBf 
tbura ', Tor wuuld not Paal'B wiadmn and kuuwkd^ of hinnu) nuan 
fnreisfe llie (iangcrs likdy to ariw, and CDileitiour lo fortify hia iHnHpVf 
afCHiDst. Lheai ) Schndec's argument iMul-i^ fniiu Ihia circaBUtBBC4 
gguDBt ihfl dm«» cominoDl}- olTcrcd i« ihcMt mo EplUlM^ dMa iM 

1 See Lctiea Jhm. pp. m, t\% 8d »d. 

PAm 8 aBGONS MtfisioRAST iovtomr. 


Snviour i_vhi« divine power shi^uld achieve the IriiirajJi of 
the cfauroii overall oppoäiig fjrcei ;^nd their emhuBiBHtn 
for the eante of tho gospel, the knowletlge of its divine 
all-Bubtluing power, and itM rapid pvoymgatioo in tho tirat 
■go of the chwTch, all criutrihiited to OfFDi-eiil TruiD tht-ir 
buinsii visiou, the obatacliä ivhicii n-itliätooil the verificutioTi 
of their Lord's pri>iiiise ; nor cmild they tveti estimiitj' cor- 
rectly th« population of the gbho at that portod.' Hctioe it 
may be oiplaiiiod, hi>w Puul, — antwithMtimding his apoistolic 
«luututer «id his aJI to be an iuBtmnieut fur piiblishing 
divin« truth in uQBullied purity — c<jiild embrnce tho iaiie of 
all hi» hop^, the peruinol indisnohible uuiou nith that 
Savionir whom he one« persecuted, und now so nrdently loved, 
with an cJithuKioatic luogiiig thiit vuUtripped the tediguf 
development of liistory. In t-IiiH stiite of mind, he was im- 
polled to exert all his powors, in order in littetcn the di^emJ- 
nation of Üi« ^-oepel ami>Dg all iiatione. It was uattuul, tluLt 
the expectation of tlio spwdy rrtum of Christ slionld operute 
rawd vigorously in Hie first period of his miuistry, while ha 
wm yet glowing with youÜifuL iuspiration. And thus under 
ÜM sufferings and ehame which he eiidnned at PhiÜppi, the 
tuttiüpatiuu of this divine triumph inepii-ed him ho much the 
more ; for it reeiilted froin the very nafure of tho divine 
power of IJiith, that the confidence and liveliness of hi» hope 
iDCrcMod nith the e.aoäieits he wiu3 ciiiled to äudurä. Filled 
with these Beutiments, he came to Th«f«tf^onioa, and wjtii un 
elffnttOD of fceljnir. vrhiuh naturally coinnitinicuted ibteif to 
other minda, he leaifiod of the ho[ie that animated him, and 
taüod him above all earthly sufferiiigs. But as his inspiration 
WM lär reiniivcd fruiii evt-ry miitiiro of that fauaticisni, which 
cannot scpnrot*} the uubjective feeling and mental views, from 
wbut bduiigB tti C»ith, anj the confidence of faith, — -he by no 
means ipolio of llie ncarneüB of that great event a& ahsulutely 
det^rmiiuyl ; he ndliontd n'ith mud^t sobriety to the saying 
of the Lord, that " it was not for men to know tho times and 
BUWioniL" And with iipußtoliü diitcrctiou, he eudenvonred to 
warn th» new converts le^t, by tilling their imuginntious with 
rition« of tho felicity of the approa(;Ling rci^pi of Cbrbt, and 

I ' TheM conaMcratii'nR rnunl. Im tnkcn into »cuimnt, whon «« fiml 
I FmI docUring in Ihc tnUcr period of hi« mmijlry, that the gwfti wu 
{lutiliabed unoag t.U ibe abiIooh uF tlie »rtb. 

vrrapping thcniwtrM in pleuing drnnniB, th«ip dlould foriitt 
tlio iiecemary prcparaiioDH fur tlie future, am) fur the iinpeiu!- 
ing oonBiot. T!o forotold thom that thejr bod sliU hülset 
«uffbrings and mtrny etrugglos to endur^ before tbcj- couJd 
attain lEo undisturbod eMjoymciit of blcawdues tn the kiu^ 
dorn of ChriHL 

Though tho iLpofitl«, in oppoaitioii] to the piotcunow of 
iiiciritorioiin workti and mitral Mif-itiiffleieuoy iuItukciI bf 
Judaizing tsncherN, «uiiiwtly But. furtli the doctrine of jiuti^ 
cation, not by liumnu worka wIiil-Ei are otbt dcft^itir«, but }<y 
aiiprqmatiu^' the groov gf rcdvm{>tioii throng &ith «lone; 
yut lio id»} (beined it »f importanoe to WAm tho oevr co&vertf 
iiguiuet auotli«r misapprehension to wbicii a Kuperficiul oun- 
vomon, or a coufuaiou tif tie cumui&a Jewish notions of Utb 
with tha PnuLiue might expose tlieio ; natcwly. tho fUlso rop»> 
»entJitioa of those vho held thiit a remiucintiou of idolatiy. 
n.ud ttie ackuowlädgmeut of Jesiui »a tlie Me^iUi, vitliuut the 
life-tnuisl'umiing iiifluencu of such a conviction, wu Bufficicmt 
to pliuiu Üiem oil a hetier footing than the b«»th«n, »ud to 
fwourc thyni from tlie divine judgments that tlircutciicd tba 
hmlhsn world' He ofteu cliar^«d them iDOBt iu)[tr(suveljr, 
ti) miuLife^t in the Uubitual teiiur of their lives tho chan» 
effected in their henrla by the gospel ; and Ü)U4 tiicir crimi- 
nality would I« aggravated, if. aJter they h«d btxa devotod to 
Uod by redemption itad bapti^^m to serve hiru with a holy 
life, thuy returned to lb«ir I'omicr vice*,iuid thus defiled tliW 
liodics Btid souls which hnd been made Ute tfioiplee of tlut 
Holy Spirit. I Tbess. iv. 6 ; ü. 12. 

But the speedy tkod cordial racoption whicli the gospd met 
with umoiij; tho Gentiles, rini»L>il tli« fanatical fiiiy ud 
ze&iötry of niany Jews, who had alrusvJy becii exasperated by 
the aposde's diacoune in the synsgogne. Tbey atirrcd up 
mme of tho common jieople who forced tlii'ir way inxo the 
house of Jnitivn a ChnKtian. where Pant was stayiug. But M 
they did not find the apoEtlu, they dragged Jawon and ouni« 

' Tbeaenrc the vain words, the tttmii^.lyai.'Bpii. x. S, of «likli I^ 
lliuii^ht it a<:i;t»<>T)' Hoeülumal^ tu wiud Iho Oculile CbrisUuiB Ilco««; 
vuming them n^iadt such n laperfiai»! ChnstUnit;, he reuiitKl» lb«B 
liiat «vary vleinui pcriwii ti»ciii1>Irsi an idalatcr, anil wiiuld bv eqniBf 
cxolad«<l from liiu kiiipliiiii <i{ Gml — tliul nt^t nivrvl)' Tot IddstfT. nt 
tor «Tory onuubdiwd vim, uobcltov«™ would be cxp4Kd to 



' Ohristians betöre the judgment-Hetit. As on this oocO' 
VKO tho perwoutioo ori^imied wiUi tho Jows, who merely 
fimnloyed the Qentilds as their tools, the ^ciisatiou brought 
«geuntt tho piiblinbcr»! of thu new dootriite wiia not tbe some 
U tliose uuuJe &t Pliilippi ; tliey wero not obnrg^il, as in i>t1ier 
oasei, witit liayiiig diHtiu'lied tlie Jews iii the [xiKerii] exeroi«9 
of tboir own mode of würahip as g^arauteed to them by tliü 
Inwa. As Paul hail laliuiLrad U&ra for the most part among 
tlie Gentiles, the j^Tomida wore too alijjht for aupjiortiiig such 
tat Mcuaation. especially as the am\ authc^rit.ics were not pre- 
diiipoiMid ti> reueiTe it. At this time, a politioal ttocustktaon, 
Ilia crimen m^cMatis. was likely to te more auccessful, s 
dsrk» that wns fiften «mployed in a üimlkr way, tit n, Inter 
period, by ths eoeiuies of the Ohiiatian faitlL Paiul bod 
spoken much at Tht^ssabiüüa of the ftppnmoliiiig kingdom of 
Christ, to which beUarera already belonged ; and by diB- 
torüng his etpr«s«oiis, tbe ncoiisatiou was rendered pliniBiblo. 
He in8t,igal*ii people (it waa averred) to acknowledge one 
J«su3 aa supremo ruler instead of CaiBar. Bui the autho- 
rities, when Lliey saw the persona before them who wisre 
charged with being implicat«d in the iwnapinicy. could not 
ondit euch an accusation ; and after Jahou »nil his trienfls 
had gii^ca «ecurily that tliere should be no vii>Ia,tion of the 
public peace, and that those persons who htvd been the alleged 
csusu of this disturbance tihuidd ejoqu leave the city, they 

rre dieuiifäed. 
Oil tbe uvenhig of ttie saioe day, Paul and Silas left tho 
ci^, after a raaidunue of three or four weeks. Aa Paul could 
not remain there na luug oä the neceasitias of the newly 
fütiiKd church required, iii^ anxiety was awakouod ou its 
behalf, Kineo ho foresaw that it wualil huvA to endnro much 
pcraooutitxi from thu GeatUes al the instigatiou of the JewH. 
Uo bod funu<:d, therefore, tbo iutenti-un «f returning tbithor 
as Boon OS Uie first Hterm of tbe popular fiiry hod Hubgided ; 
] Thosa ii. 13. Possibly he left Timothy behind, who had 
DOt been au object of poraeculion, -unless hs met him first at 
Beroaa, aft«r leaving Philippi. Paul and Silaa now proceeded 
t*> Borciin, a town about ten miles distant, where tlxjy tuet 
with a better toception fri>m the Jews ; the goajiol here found 
HUceptonco also with the Geutiles ; but a tumult rained by 
Jews &-oin Tbetealosioa tbrced Paul to Leave the place alniotit 

188 run-ls sbcdvd wiatovixr jociwrr. 

immoUFitdy. Apcompnnittl by Bomo bdierere &om Bercn.' 
hi! thou (lirt'Ptfid his murae to AthiMia.' 

Though the oDseqiimc«« which rcnilted Trotu the apoMJeV 
labours nt Athvua were ut first iiiuoiiHidt;rnbl4s jiA hn 
(^peannce in this city (which in a different sen» fi«m Boaw 
Blight bo callod ihn niotropnliM of ttio world), w«8 iu rttl 
importance uaqueHtioiiahlj one of the most memoraUe llgltt 
(if ths new «piritiuil croatiu». A huruld of that divine dodnM 
«rhicL, l'rau);Ul With divine [iow«r, wan deetitwä tu chjuige tfac 
principles uid piuctiocs Qi the ancient world. Faal cat» to 
Atliene, tim parent of Grunian cuhiire and phtiosophy; tbe 
ci^ to which, as tiio (Irooiitii riDiuent had imbued the ouhw* 
of the Wuat, thu wliolo Buman world was indebted for Ma 
tneulal advaaoemeDt, which alao was the centnü point of ll* 
Cirecinn ruligioii, where rui enthuainstic attn^Kmcnt to all th«t 
belgiigcd to tiucient Uelhts, not excepting its idolatrr, rctoioud 
a iirui tiuld till the fuurlh century. Zetd fur the uotumr of 
the goda, eacii one of whom iiml hero hi« tuiuplo ood hi« 
ultars, iiud was celehnLt^ii by the Danst«r-pieccs of art, RP- 
dered AMieuä fmnoiis througlioiit the civiliüed world. ' Uvn 
at Erst PttiJ's iatiMiliou to wait for the amval i>r Sum and 
Timotliy before ho utitcnii] on tili; putilicntioii of the gceuli 
as by his compaiiions who had returned to BeixBfc,^ liad 
Bent won! for thoni to follr.w him na soon a« poBsihle. Bill 
wbeii be saw himself Hiirrouiidtid by the statue«, und aittta. 

' It ii doubtritl wbeitior P&nl wool hy Und or bjr tc* to Aibaiw, Ik« 
&i !u Acta irti. 14, luAy tiv uDilontooil ilinjil^ a* mtrldi^ Ilia diitclita 

of UU tviui. Sco Winer's Ommmatib, Sd ed. p. JDS. (4th eiL p. SAfkJ 
Dercea lay near ilie »un, niiii ibU iru the nhorUsL Bat llu it nur iIn 
tiignifx, tliüt thvy took »I ßnl ibuir ooitrnQ titward« ihe wa> Id otoir U 
miBleoU the J«wa (wbo expeL'ted tliBin to mnie tbsi vaj', and «cr* IfloB 
In vitIL for Paul in tbu ituighbuurlniud of thu [lorti. mid aft«mn( 
pimucd thsir jniimey by luud. So ne find on another ocouioa, who 
Paul wu aliout to sail from Corlmh ta A^ia Uinar. he roDad hiDMlf ia 
danf^ fnini tho plol.« of Ihe Jewe, and prefArnd gninc hj land: Ä«U 
xz. 3. Thn brat intcrpreUliou appuiLn to Iw the ümi>toat and niHt 
EtFOnrod liy liie plinuiRology. The Zui adi)j>t<id by Laebnaiui [nd 
TtEcben'lorlt Lipe. 16J1] sppeani to Lare &riaso Frais & £l«M. 

* ApnllaniiiB of Tjann (in PbUiiBtnki.ufi) cnllithc Alli«itian« ^titoKnt, 
Pauiiniaii a>i«tiliei Ut iheta (.Itlie. i. IT), t6 «Ii tnli tiatßtZr iMun 
wK4ar; and {c. 'ii), ■<h wtgiira^teai/ rfit lit «t Sttii airauS^r. In Üi<i nUr 
gloiw >j«1«ni of iIju Alhcuiuu3, lüvre WM it uuuuliar rnfinDtntaC «f man) 
MDÜnoal, for the; alanv among thv Ornu ecMWd aa altar tti 
tMti, u a dirinity. 

r iL'La sxooKn WMUOKAitr roz 


•nil lotnples of th« gods, and works of nrt, hy whicli tli« 
honour due to tbu living God ftlon» v» tniiiarnrred to craa- 
tnras of tbe imagiDotion — be oould not wittistand th.ii impolse 
of holj" sea], to tuitiTy of Kim who cnllod a-tin^ mca to 
tepantautcd and oScrvd tbeiu aalvation. Ho spoke in the 
f^angoguo lo tlio JcwH-itnd I'torpIjIim!, liut did not, wuit lis in 
otiier oitiea till a w«y waa optmed by tlieir ueaus for pub- 
Jisliiiig the gospel to the beiitheu. From ancient times iC 
wm ouatornarv at Athens for people to meet tirilier undci' 
covert^ porticota in public platws, to converse witK ono 
nnotliei' on iDulteit} of all kiuda, trifliug or iniportaiit ; itiid 
tben, vs in the time of Demusthenea, ^uups of perKina ciig:ht 
bo met witli m tlic tnorVet, ooüccteii tu^'other merely to hear 
of sotioething new. ' Accordingly, P«uJ inade it his busiiie«a 
to enter iiitci wjiivt' with the puMere-hy, in hopes of 
turainK their atU'UUün tu the most important coaocm of 
niAii. Thii Hnntimeüt^ with which he was inspired had nothing 
in common with the enthusiasm of the Üinatic, who ig tinuhte 
to tmnsport himself from his own pccnlistr state of feeling 
lo the atantUtig-jmint of otliera, in order to lanJce himaotf 
acquainted with the olstitclea tlmt oppose their reception of 
what ho hdds aa truth with Absolut« oerlaiuty. Paul kcoir, 
indeod, ax he himself saye. thnt tho preachiut; of tho crueißed 
Saviour muat appear to the wiae men of the world as foolish- 
ntmt, itntil th^y became fW», that is, until they were con- 
vinced of the iuaui&ci«a<ry of their wisdom in. refeivace to the 
knovlcdgo of diviui3 thing», »nd for tlio eatisßkction of their 
nlJKioufivftQts; ICor.LSS; iii. 18. Butheviunot n&hnmed, 
as bi: aIko offirma, to testify to the wise imd to the unwiso, to 
tho (fi^eks aud to tlia burhariauH, of wtiat ho knew Irom his 
vara oxperi^mou to be the power of- God to save those thnt 
beli«ra ; Rom. i. 16. The mnrket to nhich be rcaorted -woa 
a portico of the jiluloiophers. Here he met witli philo- 
of tha Epicui-ean atd Stoic schoola If wo reäcct 
lO Üxe nilative ])owtiun of thi^ Stoics to the Epicureans, 
tfiat tho former ockntiwledgcd sumethiiig divine aa tho 
Ulitnattng principlo in the nuivei^ oiid iu human natura, 
tbat thoy were inspired with an ideal model fomided in tho 

' Aa Dooioiitlicnea niproiti^hi» them iu blB umtloa u^iost thu upUtlu 
sf Philip ; iifMlt Si ailtf niMffmi irOiSt xiMifi-ita nail Tut^äcwiiuitt tati 
tv^r i- ))-lr, >Iti Xrynat rn^t^i' ; Acu xv]\. 21. 

ISB piüLft tmaovD masioirABr JooiwRr. 

nunlnaturöof niati,*tii<l thnt the/ T*:cogi\itc(i tmui*« ivlwong 
VUti U>d llic tndiliunü tliat l:>ür« b^Ml.imoiiy Ui U ; — wliüe on 
tiie otiier hand, tlifl /«(/«r. though t^lOJ■ difl not nVisohtt«!;' do 
KWiij witli the Wlicf ill ttiu gmlB, mdiictfJ it to »omctiiing 
inort, noD-oHSoiitial. mid supcrtluoiu ; that tiioy represented 
plauRiro tw the highest cvini of human piimiit, nnd that tbey 
ware aticufitumtid to ridicule the existing I'oli^ons ata tiiu off- 
Spring of human wuukauas und the spectral cr«ntioi>« of fear; — 
wa might from auch a contrast infer tliat theStoics made amneh 
nearer approacii to Christi on it j- than the Epicureans. But it 
AuBs not iuUuw tliiil Die former would give a mure foTOunUo 
reception to tlie gospel than the liitU>r, for their Tain notion of 
Tnoml i«elf-suSidun<^ wnn dianietncolly opposed t«i a dortntio 
which inculcat«! I'spentance, forjitivcnesB of nna, gracx, at«l jo*- 
tificationhyfiUth, nils sitpromo (li.ii — Iheinipvrsona] eternal 
reaaon pervading the uaiverae — waa sometliiug vary diflcrrat 
froDi the living God. the heavenly Father fiiU of love «lioai 
tho gospel reveuls, nud who muet havi) appeared to tlie Stoim 
a» far too hnmau a beiog ; and both patties agreed iu tlia 
Grecian jiridc of pliiloscipliy, which woiihl luuk down od • 
doctrine appearing in a Jewish garh, and not developed id 
a phik«ophic form, as a mei'o outlandish supentitloti. Yet 
uumy among ttiosc who giilh^ud orcuiid lliu apuatlo during 
his converBatiüDs, were at least pleoaed to hear eonujLbing 
new ; and their curiosity wns cxcitod to hear of the Strai^ 
divinity whom he wialied to iutroduc«, and to bo infoniM 
reapcctiug his new doctrine. Tliuy tü<>k liira to the hill, 
where tho firet trihunid at AlheiiB, t}ie Areopagn^ wm 
aocuatomed to hold it^ sittings nii<t wlitirc ho could e^sly 
fiad a spot suited to a large nndieuoe.' TIjo dtwtiur«* of 
Paul OD tkis occasion is an admirablo specimen oi hia *fo- 
stotic wiadom and eloquence : we here pereuiv« how tho 
apostle (to use his own language) to Uie heathens hecwiB « 
heathen, that he tnig-lit gain the heathens to Ciirlntianity. 

Inspired hy feelings that were implanted froin hit) ^utl) ill 
tile mitid of a pious Jew, and (flowing with zcaI for the booour 
of bis God, BluI must havu buen htrtror-atrutt at Iho i 

I Tim whole mime of Üie procoFiünt;» und ihc npogtio's dlHOd 
prove that lie <iid nut spgwiir luan ic^uteil p-enuin lieforo hujudra,! 
order ta defend himulf agtiinst the^ t.f intiwluciiig; re^pam 
pttyifrin-r rt iliicitm. Tliu Atbeniuiu diil not riitw llio «ufuQc« in M ' 
Wriuus \ llglit. 




|«f the idolatrjr th&t iu«t him vfaererer hg turn«] Iiih eyes 

1 H« might enaly huvu been betrayed by his fc-clings into in* 

aperate langtingo. And it evinced no oHirtftry self-denial 

1 Mlf-comiumad, that iusteud of befrianiug with eiprossions 

deteetaticiu. inat«ait of r«prosenting tho whoto reltgiana 

Fcvstetn of the Creeks as a Sntanic delusiou. he appeatod to tlm 

truth wbicii lay at ita basis, wiiile he sought to awaken in hi« 

bearora the ctm^ciousnees of God which was opfiresited hy tho 

power of aiii, aud thua aimed at loading them to the knowledge 

of that Saviour whom hi: eame to aiiDOimoe, As itcnong the 

Jews, in whom Iha knowledge of God formed by divine rovela. 

tion led t« a dear and pure development of the ideii of the 

1^ Uissiah, he coiild appeal to th« national histoij, llio law nud 

^K'the propbeta. at witnPHaes of Christ ; bci hero ha appealed to 

^1 tJic aii(i.'!iia.I)le aniicty of ua.toi'al reUgiua after an unknown 

H God lie l)eguu with iuiknowiedgin^' ia the rehgiona zoal of 

~ tho Athenians & true reUgioiig feeliuj^, though erFunumialy 

directed, an undi?iiijibl9 leudiag of the mind ti>wKrda soiiie- 

tbtng divinu.' lie hs^hia with aukuowled^ug in a laudatory 

> Miich dEpcada on. the Bieaniag &tUulieil to Ihe aoibiguouH ward 

I Sai^Sclyuaf, Xci^ KFii, '22. Tbe griginnl ai^iilliüiition of tliie wonl, in 

I p<^iilar UMifi-', eerCainlv tieaotcil lomeltilaj! goud — oa is tho i;a*o in all 

1 Ungwipt "'''i vDriis Hliic)i duiiot« Ihc t'eur of Ood or nf llie gnde — tliB 

UMUngof dcipcndanca oa a Iii^Iicr pover. wliiuh, if vra unuljrBS tbe rcll- 

p MDticUGut, apjMnrs Ui \iü ita pi I me elcmenl : all.hougli not exhanat- 

: evoi; tiling wliiqli btloii^'s to ILe eeHenlial nul.ur« gf tlieum, and 

^OUgh ttiia tint g^na, nitlioui tbe additioa of anQtltcr ctemcnl, mty 

' jjivc rise In «upersUiion us wcU m failli. Now ainco, mlietc the fnelirg 

I nf fear (ftiAla ir^Ai fi Baiiiimai', TliruphraeL) ia the rtiiiti^ prlnctplc Id 

Ltfa* iMnlciiiai:D, nupenliliua iloua can be tlio r(Mult>,Uliualiappi>n«d thai 

I tills word ha* lieoa, hy ui aXnnt of tite term. sppUvd to tbai pervenlon 

I «r reliiriouu »naüutnw.. Tbii pbra^eulogy vim then prera!eat. Thua 

I'liiUri'li luMB the word io bis udmirubie rrctitbe nt^l Idiritsi^vlai xnt 

ÜtAttpai. in wiiich bu pruunuls uti l.bc auppniiliuii, Ibat tho lauica of 

■upurMition in that macto ut' tbiuking irliick üdntempUlca tbe gixlii oa\f 

M obJHot» of r«iir; but li« orw in tbiU point, tbat liu IrBoe» the origin ol 

llil* inarbid tcadcacy to a. uroiig directiou of tbu iniclleLaaal fnuuluea. 

Oompnr« lit» pnroiind runaiLi'k.« of KiiExiib, in bis lri^»tiBe on the reli- 

Lctaoa ideal of the niiuiunt«, Tbe ooiil texriSii'^ovta wi^iirs in the K«*f 

I TMtMWnt uTily in oik: other piusogo, Act» iiv. 1<I, wbLTi: the: ituiusn 

T|)TOCttntor feoluii, tiHukin^ la Ibe Jcvriab TÜDg Agrippu nf Judaism, 

I MuM nOl latcad t-) nrand It ae lupc rati tion, but rathor used tbe word na 

' KpilKiraldcHigiislioii fura TdroigTi niUgion, llciiii|;bt. boircver, choinie 

tUH wurd.>h>lioUj<lk ni:tn-ith n apvoi^l dcMgn.yiit nut iiuiu uccidcn tally, 

H one vtiieh "niVi suil'Ml tit eiprvu (he Aiituoctivii view taJiuii by tlie 

1 lecuoaof iiidaUrii. But Faul a«rUluly oseiftbe wonl iu a giiod neiuo. 


OMtuMT tiic mLtqu^iIi of tlie rülii^us aentiment smoti^ tb» 
A.tbeiiiaus, ' ami aadutiiug as a pruof of itt tbut ffbito vralkiw 
unougvt their «ocrixl odiäcea, h« tight««! ou on altar dodioWd 
to «a unknown God.' 

Tlie iiiBcriiiiioii ueitainlj- na uniierelflod lij- IIkibo who riiuir94 
it, by no nouiiH i<roi'L'd tliut Lhey vera ntumBXni wiUi tho oflh 
(x>ptiuu ot iLii uiikiKiwu (Ivd C'uittetl at^iive nil ottiiir gods ; bat 
(iiuy that aujofdiiig to their bolicE they iud rcoaived goods 

ri>rli4 ilediiEeiJ (he »sebing ifUr the unknown God. itbich hedouU«t 
eoni^I'li^rtd oi fametbitiK gaod, From Ihie ituniattuvla. ■» prevtiot 
tiTiong the Al.lientnn«. lie annonnced liim^clr ft£ one «hci w.^iiM jruiJi 
tbcir Stioiliu^idvi!*. not righLly ««nscioui of iu ol>jti;l Bad aim. to t 
«Utc of clciir sclf-conuloiunees liy b levdalion af the nbjoKt t-> wbid It 
tbiiH Ignorantlj' tended. Still it may be oil.etl, «betiier Faai ktiltt 
KtitI sitnagcr rcnarmi (thongli «itboul pcrbstx rcflcettug d<»tblt «fM 
üiom) fur using tlio wurd («HritaipiWa, itMlwIof 8nolh«r whioh V*M 
KuouiiU)<iie4 to uoo iw tbo dodnUitioa of pur« piotjr. He iwoi Uia Ma 
•Ot^iT» immediUsljr aTMrwiiTait, wbioru il jilnlnlj' IndlcabM tba ewntfl 
u[ iLu ruligkiu aenlinwiit towarÜD tliu true Cod, 

' In Lbo comparative Stutitiuitortirriam, a rcrcroace I« niide \a ftl 
quality vbiob, la we btt'i; befuru rciiuuKeU, usod lu he attributed 10 Ibt 
A.LlieDiiiDs is a biglicr decree llian to all Iho oltacr Grocka, — a fiict «hü 
the apiMtle would vueil; bnve leurucil. 

' ir fie aiuiilne vrRh cur« iitl the tcoannta of aotiqull}'. ftnd euqw 
i.bfl various jiliaees of potythBtEin, wn «hall find no «ufluilMit Kromuttf 
d«ay the ciüt«nce of «noh an aJt&r as la here meniioiwd bj- l>auL Vm 
iuacciptloQ, oa beeilen it,iuid wbicb provoi hii fidel Uj in tUo citcÜM. 
by D<) uieuDB nawrts Ibal iL was ao ulüir (« (Ar UiikuuwD Ood. bat «df 
an altar deiliisli^d U> an unknown God. Jerome, It in (niv. In ika fr* 
i^bapivi uf III« Conijiivulnry on« Epistle of Paul t» Tilui. and latA 
Bpitlalaad Magnwrn. Ibai cites the ioacripiiou of tbc altkr — "Wh 
Anlie L-t Uuropn cl Liby«. Däa ii;i>eiiiH «i. petogriiiis ;" and be tbiab 
that r^ul modiSud the lotm of tbc inii-Tlption to saiK lila appUolioB A 
It. Bat Jerome, perhaps lictv as iu uUicr iaalaacca, Jmlgea too rapr I 
Acially. Bufcnl ancicnL vritem mctilion thü altan of tlip iiatinm ' 
g^Jdl at Atlien«, luiL iit a manner ilini doe« Dot dcLemiiiii' : ' ' - 
tbu insi;ri|)Lion, for Kinniplo : Pausiiiiiiui. Attic. \. 4, ami 
ßanaiBfäv htofiaiaiUtwAytitritiit; j\pol1anmiorTynna,iu I'iiiiivhiiih , 
vi. 3. ubore. like Paul. \\e finds, in tbe it^lc uf tbe iiuRrlpUoa. ut «<■ 
dcnco of tbo pinus diA|ioett.i^n of thi; Alliuniona in rafcrenca to dittH 
thini^lhtl they had erected Hilars I'VCD to imknovn i^da: mt^ga^^nfm 

Siu^jn>v i9«>/<ol rSfiiKTai. iBudüTUHof Pelunium.TL Slt.onnnul beaddanJ 
luaa audiority. iimee b« [uerely uieaiuiofcei^ectuies. Dingmca Latni A 
in thu HTe of Epiiiieniiiei III-, (lint, in tba lima of« plague, wbea ätg 
knew Bot. «bai God ta propitiate In erdet to »v«rt il, 1m tamti 
btuck and vhiiu nbiHaii Ij> bu let lotiae from tbe Araepant^ aii4 rl nan ri 
liugr Md down te bo oifiered to Uio rcapeotlvo divüiiuM |*y 


VAtFLV aeootta »i^sroirAitr joORser. 

from »wiie uuknown Gcd, nixJ Üiis upccrtaintj in ixfcr- 

aeo to the comiileteness of tieir worsJiip, enters into the 

easnicc of PfiljUjeism, since, accoriling to its auture. it 

ivtäei mi intiuitj of objects. Hut Paul citt-d tliis inscrtp- 

in »"der to attach a dt^eper meaiiiiig to it, .-uid to make 

» point of connoxion. for tJie piirptise of pointing out 

hi^er but iniäistiact sciitimcut, lying at the root of Pylv- 

iimi. Polytheism prticeedi from the tVciiiig of dep^iideuee 

-(whirtht-r fouuded on a seiiae of benefitfl conferred or of 

pUs iJiHicted) — on n liigher unknown power, t,n which it 18 

iM that mau should pliice himself in tlic li^ht relation ; 

at instead of following this feoting, in order by uieaii» of 

ill humtiii nntiire which is eupematutal »nd hutLva 

. affinity to God, to rise to a conaciousneiB of a God enHlteJ 

»TO nahiro, he refc« it only to ttio power« of uatmu 

sting ujjon him tlu'ough tlie senHea. That l-j wliit^h hia 

BÜ^cioiu fccling is immediately attracted, and to wliioh it 

itiKtlf, without the reflectivis consdoiwness of infui 

it a distinct object, is ono thing r but tliut which tho 

kind enthralled in tlic cirolü of uiiturc — doing hornnge to 

power oTer whidi it ought to nilo — ooiivcrts with rt- 

Botive cotiscionsnesa into nn object of worship, is another 

jog. Hc'iire PnuL views tint wLolc religion of Iho Athenians 

[ the TTcreliip of a God unknown to thenuelvoa, nnd presents 

elf n» » pei"aoii who is reiidy to lend them to a cleai- Btjf- 

aouBnea» reapocting tha object of their deeply felt r»> 

Eioiis sentim«ut, 

I nuiiounce to you Hltn," said he, " whutn ye worship, 
itbout knowing it.' Ho ia the üod who creiited the world 

i)y>. lletirc, »ijs Mogcnc«, l.hefc ire atill inniiy aliar» in Athetin 

Itiiout any ilutsrminiilu iiumoii. AILIioukIi ilie pfeclne iiiaeriptionB it 

- heiv S'V'i^i ysi^ nltaj'j mtght he Bteuted on this or agiioilar occnsion 

~, won dfdicatL'il to an nuknawii god. »loec ihey knew not what 

I äfTvD'inil äud reiiuired Lo ho pruiiitiatcd, as Uiuyaoatoio Los oliia 

sd in Iiii SSth Iiomi ly on tlii: AqI«. 

Wo iwt from tltia tuw p]i.iil pejoknlugically explsiiua the «ri{^n uf 

jtbcaam. or iLu ileificatioriorMiitiiTe ; liaw far he uns frcm adDpUn^ 

Jairbll notion bt > Mtp<irDatuni1 [nagloii.1 ortginiitloii ot idulatnr b/ 

. d4 evil ■pirits. who cought to become the obJ^L'U or rcHgioua 

JO. Tho iddii contaiacd in the^c wonle of Piiul farma nlso ilia 

groiiiKlwork of liit JiMUunw Ht Lyr^tfiu Wc m.i/ also ßu4 a rurereaco 

^^ It in whst h« h;*! Bom. i- ii, ot ui original knon'lcdgfi of Gu>il, 

^bprMMd hj ttu prsdonunAQM vf imuianil p»p«uilicii ) and Baa, 

IDS r^rL's beooko »isuonary jourkkt. 

rnid n]l tbiit is therau. He, the Lord of li^ven utd i 
(IwetiutU nut m Icuplc« mad^ hy huiout liiwdn, lio 
ao buiuou service en liis uwn ucoouot — bo, tiie «ll-eufficieiit 
Olio, IiaH ^ivirci to nil, lifo, aiid bn.tatii,aad all things. Htttte 
is tbe «ri^uator of tlia wUole bumau race, and ooadoots iu 
duwl(;puivnt to udc grcut ond. Uo has cuuwmI nil tbc müoao 
of the earth to denctiud tVom one dud,' and has not allomd 
them to apiv^ by chanco over the globo ; for, in tliis rupooi. 
every thing ia uuder his ouiilrol, Tie lias ap{Knatvd to eocU 
people itM dwelling-place, and has ofdained the rarioua «a» 
ill the history of luttions—thc-ir devc)(»])invut in k{mcc ami 
time J8 ftxod by hia fUl-goveraing wiedono,' Thus God hu 
nevesdud liiuuelf in tbe yicissitudi» of nauous, iii urdtjr UM 
ineu may b« tuducvd tu aeck aftar liim — to try wbetb*»- tlwj 
cMuld knciw and dud him ; and they might easily know him. 
^nce be la uot far frora any ona of ub, for lu hiiu our vbet» 
öxiateuc« has iU root."' Aa aa evidouce of tbe ooaaäoamtm 

I. SI, 3S, that idolati; begins «hen religioiu teatlm«al clcaim to lU 
^iVatur«, lnHioad at lieing uLioto aaium to Cbc Cmior. Oa Hit lin> 
pIlWMnt «da Tb-uliKk'«, ami (.n tlii; aoi'uix.l tt'ickcrt'a, uxccltoat rtSi<>i:( - 

^ Tu!« alBo liprobubl; couuecieil wUh Hbab liceaj-a la o{vpauü«ak) 
poljthciHda riowii. On bbo iralytlieisttc stAoiliiig-pniiit, ■ knoititUJ» irf 
lliouDlly of hiimaa nature istrsatln^iWcBUMiit iu'lcBClj^conncclnl *i'b 
a knowledgcuf llic unit/ uf Qud. PolytheiKUi prnfcr« ih« ideaor i!i 
noes 0T«r whom ihrttr r««pGClivs )ro'l'r"^l<ta. ^otlieidworonan ; 
oeuiliiiK rruiu iiiiu uii^iD, As Üiu iduu uf uiu> (lull U divided intoiiinii" 
Uplicitv rif sruis, eo Ihn idsn of ona b<im;in meg is divided inU> tW niii- 
tit>licitjf uf iiii.tiiinuUtianu:tet.ovurcii<;hbrwli<cbaeodiii4uppD«edlfli<*- 
tJiiu coTf^&]K>uiltD|j ia ibu pjLrlictiliir uiLttu», OutiiO^hQr luutd, tL^E^a 
vf on? liiioiiui nice, und iLctr deaccnl ftoin ooo man, (• «nmcÄod sitk 
the iilea of oiiu Ou>l. Tbiu Paul unta lb« unltf of tha thcUlic m» 
eiiptiaaa b contrast wltli ihn multiplicKy «xUtlng In t.b«il«ifiMlianrf 
iiiitura. Tbe Cmgieror Julian obnervEil thl» Ri)MT:ut belwoen Um H<)* 
tlitiaüa anil maiiollioistia anlbropoloKy ati'l Eintliropi>|[oD_v. 6m jKtei 
frof/mfnlam (d. Jiyxinlieint, V I. HVO. ira«oxov iSpiuf ntvdvrar I 
t>I «ftiliivc irpo^\0iiv ivSpuirBt, raü Yirnf^x»! dtari imNAiipB0^irr«t. 

* A peculiar rotation of the part« oi tbo oacüi liihal>iL«d bf l._ 
MVtfnil iiaiiaiiH to lltc:lr jKcull^r character, u lhi> i« formed by mUw ' 
tendeiicle» :tnd marsl frrädom ; the Horat CD&nexloQ iMwocia »lui 
and muiikiiid ürd:iiii«d by Ood, anil graimded in » hl^Ebtf !*■ 
Kplrltiinl lUr^lopmunt. 

■ Tb« apoitk's WUTiIb are — Ir airrf fH^Iv lul icuw^ifwS« m} iru 
Many eapuHltors liav« no cxfiluineil IIi«kii tronlk, anif thojr won ibltoAii 
lo deaoio tbo puntinuul dcpcndciioo of exiitcDcc on God, » tlicpm 
wrvui of nil ibin^ ; unil uicupllng tlini h la lakoo la an (I^tiniMitr 
Mfasa ^= fJirongh, viu migbt au underBlcuul tbe wardu la tb« puce G« 



1 of thifl ori^änal rehtioiLNliij) to Goi, lie quotes the unrdg of i 

hoatheii, oiie of thcmsdlvcB, the poet AnitUH, who amw fiMui 

the tiativc cuiuitrjof rtie apo^tln. "For w« are tlio oHsjintig 

nf Cod."' After Üuh uppoal to the iiniTcrsal higher se!f-cmi- 

MiousoeH», he goos <m tj) say ; Since we !u-e the oflvpnn^ 

of <!(h1, wo ought not to believe that the liiviuity is like miiv 

, «irtlily iimteriiil, or any imnge of human art. Tfiia m-gut.ivc 

Ufisortiuii nmntlestly induilee a pOBitive one ; we must sirivu 

Il(1 rtnu to ihu divinity fay tneaiis of thut within ua which 

lis related to Mm. luEtcad of carryiuf^ on the argument 

I (^caiiut iilolutry, ttid «jjustlo Icttvi^B iiis lionrDK to (li^L-ide tVir 

I themselves ; auj presupiJOHiiig tlie conaciouautsa of Bin — 

witliuut uttuinptiDg to de^-elup it — he pruceeda with the 

aiiHimdatioQ of the gospel. After Gcd had with great luiii*- 

■ufliiRUj^ Budured the times of ignorance,' he now revwilo*! 

■dioni, for tlvai Iv no may üerü^y In depend nh-fjlly on soma onr, 
»H ii) «u\ thp latii*. in llie OSdipaa Tifannuji uf Sopliui-tu8j v, 3H. 
But Lhii exploiintiun ante nnl sait I.he RonnGXioD iil iho pasaage; 
for PnuUvlfJoiitlytsiipeiLkiii^ltflTO, aijlorwIiAt man hni^incümtiiüDviiUi 
«iker (TOUtur^ but, of what dUtingiiislies men Crura otliercren.tur«s,tliaC 
by «kich thoyftrewpMiillvrelatfltl lofiod; ftira'i aaeviilnnreof '.liU. "in 
litm we livQ, andmovo, sod jiru," hoquoteB the wordsof Arn-tiia. whWi 
r^fer procWIy to this reUtiTiri of mna wGotl. Heuca, in or^läi Id find the 
connexion »oefwding lo this eiplamiti-m, ne iiiu»t aniplily the tliougflit tiw 
nrliHclQlly ; l,haa, " W'>»rB dislingiiUliad aboTc nil otheroreBlure!- iii oof 
Oipocity for knüwing lliia depcmi'^Iieo on God." On the other hnnil. every 
tbln^licoTiuticlcdLU l.beuto^t ctritunkt mniiiier, if we gouAid^r iitL^ wuril^i 
"ÜI bim wc live, luovi!, aai ita," as poiuUngout Uic iccrctcQnacsiaQot 
Dtn with Gvd (u " tlie Father of spirits," id ririne of Lhuir Hpiriluiii 
aud dural nntum. A« I'niil fnya tiothiu^' heru which i> {icFiiliitr w tlio 
Chriiltim lyitem, but cxgircas'« a fuct ^Toundccl uu. thu gsncral prin- 
ctplw of Ibaisin, <m nuiy with gmui. \HV\mHy coinparu it with a per- 
TocIlT aanloBoua exprowiiun of liio Cliri'smtinru, whi^li surves to eundnc 

thU eiplnnation. He fuji of men— Iti oi /nupiv aüS' ffv Toü Ptiau 

IifiKiafu'vBi, iM' tp abr^ tiiav «««I'wjiei infW<ii rarraxiH** 

tiwtv\i)uvoi ■TTji Dtlo) ^iinvat- — -i)« Dei CognUioue, ni. i. ed. Rsüko, 
|k Sä4. 

' lli£*c words an quotuct froin the «wi'D^wais of Arutn». v. C. but 
kbcy arc nhia lo be found in the lieaiitiful hymn ul ths atuiu ClauiitliuB, 
■l>4Te Uic^ ore ua«! ne itn cKprca&ina it Keueon, m a mu.rk of IliU 
dlyino rclaÜoQAhlp : tic rroir y^ yJvo^ iirfttv I'^i ^(^Tjjua \*\ärr*i 
^vroi. A Bimilir BiMitiiuent owura In the golilon versus t Hs'-ot ykf 
I ^»91 rfnTi ßparoiair. 

* raul hcTD itivun UB to uudgraliuid. tliul nut luuruly aef&tlv« uaballul 
rcrnrenct to tnith not known, tuti onlv arimLniil unbelief of th« 
_0l ofllrod to ijiuti. «mild bü iin '»bjcflol tlit dli'inojudir'n'cnl. This 
en with wiiDt hi; «tyt in tiic liml cliuptur of thu Epintlu In tlifl 

194 T'ACi'S SKtntI) WnWtOWART jotwiet. 

tlio trutU to all men, asd rtquirod nil to acVnowleOgel 
rt;])OiiL With till» U1M «iiiii^wUiil IIh> aiiiiiiMuiulioii 
Ii«ilooiiicr. of Lhe foixivt'aio^ ot üqb to be oLtainvd tbrxm^ 
hit», of liit; reaurtx-ctiuu lut tliu vonfintuitioii vt bis doctriiic: 
and ft pledge of the restuTection of ■believers to a btesHC- ' i 
A& well as uf till! judi^'tnc'iit to tjo jmsw^l by liita on ina)il:j:. i. 
A» long ae tho apostlt^ conlinod himself to the geutirul doctnoB 
of Tlieism, he wan heiinl witli ntttution by those who liad 
■boon ufloH to the leeaoiiB of Grecian philo&oph,r. Rut vhm 
lie totiobcd iipuxi tliub doctriiiu whitli tnost <lecidcdty moriuil 
tho oppoHitiüii of tho Chrisliau viDW of the workl to th« 
entertAined by the hcatltcns,' when he «poko of a ^ncnl 
TiJBurractioi), he was interTU|ited witli ridicule on the pRil rf 
suioe of lii» hcwiirs. Others etwi. Wo would hwir the« »■"■^i!'- 
at another time on thistDn.tter; whether thoy only ink , : i 
to lihit in IL Udurtuotin m.'innur to tho apustle that tutn 
wietied hiin to close hia addrcRH, or really eiprenod a seriaäi 
jiilonljoii of liL-iiriiif: him ngiiin.' Tbero were only a fc» 
iudividimls who joined tliuiuBolvea to llia apiiütle, listene'lio 
hia furllicr iiistruuli^^iiti, and kccomo bc'licvon^ Among thnt 
■wfia n member of tho Arenjingilo cnuiioil, Dioiiysiaa; «to 
hectuiio tbo aiibjeft of so uiaiiy legäuda. The only nmfn -iri- 
traditioti roApcuUDg him uppairato bci that ho vian Üit: \j.v-- 
oipnJ iRstiument of forming n ohui'cdi at Athetw, and beouiu 
its ovcrsocr,* 
While Paul was at Athous, Timothy rctornod &om Jisu» 

Bosiaas, tint Hcoth^na a« «"ell o^ Jews H-aiil<l he Jud^il a^icontinj 
tu the uieasiiru of the law knuwii in ilieui; auil with what te aii 
in Rqdi. ill 20-, i>{ tlic sdpniii tüv njxriryoviJToii' ^/laprtifulrtfr 

' h \i wty evidunt fiom liie fur-ui of the eiproHious in Atu \v\ . ;■ ;. 
M tvctt Its frum vciv« Vi. w>icr? Iho mcatlon iif tlic g^iiLiinl morcci'iii 
In Piiiil'a epi^Gc^li \& implieil, thit, Id Uie Ants, we bavo oalj Ihc mk 
•UTi«o giTen of wiiAt h« snid. 

' TbiH in oxprG6l^c!d ia IIid woril« of tho hcollitii Ootaviiu, Ib Mtnucta 
Fälix, 0. xi.: "Cieloctaiitrla, qittxidk raUnqtiitDU« lit inrniiiiBiB,tntat 
turn (leuDntJiin!, bU>1 uiortniBiCiAtiiiatU, igui niuut (liwoiiourcl tnUiiaiat 
tmcrniUitem ri'prümiclan:." Tha itoctrlno of üto Stolcii, •>r aa tn»fw 
;(eWi), the ngcuumtiaii uf tlio uulvarw ta ■ aaw (otm in<r Hi 
dHtruotian, ban qo affinity to tli« lioetrine «r tli« rc»urr«vli40, M 
1> slncti^ in accordaniin wllU llic |iiLntlii<iBLical vlow* or the Slol«a> 

* From the ailanuu uf tlii} Ani*, wu aru not ID infer wIUi oertustj IM 
Paul never addrMscl them pcnvii« ^.^uiji. 

* Sen tli«8cooiiDt of tliu Blibop Üumjviusaf Caiinth in Euwiiiinl 
Iti» tfiüe». Hiel. Ir. 2S. 



'doiiift, ' bat Iho uixitsiy of IVul for Uio new chtiroh nt Tbcsta- 
kmica, iodiiDcd hint to »end his young fellow-Ubourer Uutlier, 

^■^ I On tliU point Ui>!ii: Is mucb iineertamty. Acconliug in ttio Act», 

^■Stla« ftu^ Timotby first nüoun^d PonX at Conalh. But 1 Tliuai. iü. 1 

^Fmmbu to Impt}' till! coatral;. Tbi« posuige jauy inileeil be time itnclcr' 

FiKocmI, — llul I'aul »iJHlTiuiutliv, before his riejinrlnrs for Allieua, to fhu 

«horch iaThpi»»laiiicn.[iUhough he knew thai he should now lio loft In 

Albuiu wlUiout uiv cim)[>:iuluut>, fur hu w1s1ie;l tti Siliw in It<<r<nii. 

ir \it) tame Intra Üertna iiluuc, be would lathiic linve Biitl, f^^ioSni lii 

'Aftvu fiJrDt. UuL llii» be could nut nay, diaco tiu did fi(i\. dupurt La 

Atliviu aluue, but with other winpauisaa. Stiil tlia moat naturni in- 

tcrpRtatioo of the p^!t(,-|g^^ Is, [tint i'nul, in ordet to ciblaiu iiifuiKialluu 

rmpectlng the Tht'6--aljniaiJiä, prelerred "being left alone in AtlioH*. niirl 

H» TimoUi<F from thxi city. Also, in theActJi. ivii. h impliert 

Uiat he waited at AlUeo« for LUe reiura of Silmi and Timotby; far 

^■though tho words ty tali 'Afliji'aii tany he reFcrmd, not 1^ JHiixofifo«. 

^■bat tA III« «hoi« clDiiK, ilill re <>uinot undi'ieUud tbu |iasej^'U other' 

^■iriw. If'Wc bod lucroly the ociMiuit in the Acts, ve should he U<I L<i 

till) ccnclu«lan, \>y a cotupurlson of ilic xrii. IB. and xviii. £. tliat äilm 

find Timothy nere prevented tram mcEling nith I'aul at Athens, jtiid 

thuj fint found biiD agaia io Corintli, a^ lio liad ^i'vcn tLcm jiiilicu that 

be int«nd«d to go thither from Athens. But bj- cumpiirlng It wiih 

wb»t P*ul hiumelf asj-B, 1 Tliuts. ili, 1, we must, uithcir riiclify nr fill ii|i 

tlie DMount in the Acta. We luurn from it that TiinoI,)i^ at least Qiet 

^^ <ri(b P*al ut Atl«iiä, buL that lie tbaught it nevesBLiri- to eiad hiai fram 

^vUicoee toVhcmtloniea.aad that tic did i)<it irait for lil» return tram that 

^fclt^r (o AtbuUH. iflikli may Ijo i;a»JI^ explaiuL'tl, But Liili^, pcihaps, 

^ IiKd not M »Muret« » knowkdfc of nil t.liu pnriicEilars in till* pcriotl of 

t'lul'itililorj: liohadperU»[nl'3amedcnilj tluiU'nuliiiaLni.'alnHtCoriiilh 

vith Timothy imd Sims, and iietico be itif:^rrec[, m he k&ew notbing of 

the cODiIlnii' Bvray of Tiiuotliy in tin.' iiicitn time 1'l'uiu Ailicun tij Tlieira- 

Ionic*, that Piiiil, ulli>r bu liuil picrtcd froni his two coiupunionj) at 

BevcM. rtJAinerJ thom tmt nt t'nrinth. As to Silas, it ia p<.>Biiible that. 

^ on aeeonnl of the infoiTnuiloa he brought with iiiu, ho vm sent bade 

^■jliy l^ol irllh k spuciul eoiumiusioD frouL Athen» tu Stniau, or. nlittt is 

^Hmorc probahlc, that ho hnd oecosiun to staj- hingur thui Timothy at 

^vltr^nui. and hifuce i^onld not meat him at Athena. It laiglif. uldo bu III« 

^■«aM tint Lake eironcoualy oniielinted. ainre Silas iund Timothy both 

I^F'finit m-tl. ["aul a^ain at Corinth, tliat he toft hoLb at Itercoi, — U voiilil 

' be pMublc Ibut ho left only Silas Irabird and briiuvlit Timothy wltb 

hlniMirto Aihcoii. UlhygurAitlioug-h it docs not cBlablitb thl« opinion, 

tli»t hiut, in 1 Tben. til. 1, allegot a» the r.'ikdou f^ir seiidiui.' anay 

Timoihy.uoii tfao nnploMant new» brought by Timothy fn>ni Muet^dtiiuii, 

but tbo liiDdmBcea InterveaiDg, wbluh rcndorml It inipoasiblc for bim to 

ri»lt the church in Thessuloiiita awordiag to hi* iultuiiüii. ifthnerfcuQ. 

buTpT. 1q hit iBaroed «maj on the di'is of the Epistles to llic Tbi^mn- 

llonhuu (ill the Si'idirn ilrr KramjplUiJien Oeisilithifit Würr/inrnirg*. 

Tli part 1, 1S84, p- 13!l,) (with which in many ptrinlB I am tmppy 

Ijifrte,^ Duuntiuiulbat Paaimisbtlutv olurge'riiii tw» Goiup!vni>jni 

t]iat lie might cuttfriliiilD to the eMabliKbniAnt of their 
Bnd their cüUHolaüoii. iiuder their manifohl saflerin^ ; 
TlmoÜiy had ontiununtentcd to him many ilirtrcssing acMntnti* 
«f tha perseoutioiia which btul befuUe-u thiä churcli. 

Ho travelled nlooe (tom Atheii^ mid now nsitcd a plftM 
moat importout for the propagation of the gospel, the citj" 6f 
CoriiiÜi, tho metropolis of the proTince of Achai«. Thh i:if' , 
vithiu a oeaturj aud a half aStor its dentrudion bj Jul. i- 
Cuaitr, otico ouoro Ixscoiuo tli» (Uiiilr» of intcrcuiirse and trallK' 
to the eastern and western ^lart« of tho Kuoian Etniiin:, fur 
vriwh it vpujs (H1x<\. by itti iintiiml udvuitugca, luuacdj, by ia 
two noted ports, thnt of Ki'tx'""' toward« Lener Aäk, and 
that of AijcJcv toward» Imly. B«iiig thus situated, Corinlli 
heuune Uu Luiportiuil poutiuu fur B^reading th« goopcl in m 
t,ix'Mt ]iart of tne Rumnu Empin?, nnd lienoe I'aul cbosc tltii 
city, ua ho had übomeiL otluirs äimilurly situated, to be the 
plat» where bo tani» a long eojonm. iitit ChrisUaDit^T Imi 
here siso, at Ite fir^ Promulgation, iwctiliar dtSicultiEK U> 
ooiabat, And the aame cause» vhioh counteracted itu nitvptioa 
at first, threutdicd at a Inter porioil, when it had fouu<) ca- 
trance, to corrupt its purity, both in doctrin« and practit». 
Tha two oppoaile meutal teudeüciea, wliicb at that ttia« 
eä|iL'L<ially oppoacd tliu thread of C'lmKtiuiiity, were, on the ouij 
ads, au inteoBO derotcdnus to speculatiou and tlie exerciw U 

ta rollow him tiuiekly ttum Barem, bwauw ba UiMiled iocb to tun 
Ath«as, nhnta he eiticoied do BuiUiUa kU for his olMiMUtT; IftbocA 
But we biire do aufücicnt reuiun for miiiponiii; thij. Paul (cnini) U 
Al)>«ii>t tt Hyna^ijjuu fnr the Gr^t aceiifl uFbut ininUlr]- aa is uthci ' 

haTclt bimsalfcaiupclled. as he aiiji. to pulitiib Ibi: gVkpai U> i. • f.- 
und lo Bnrüarlniiä; be Udqw It »nit tlie powi.'T ittOtid. wlitch imulil (US' 
qner ihn pliilaäüphkiLl bHudneeaodhc Umcki na it«]) lu ibc "rr-rartMi' 
lilln<laeBa <■!' tlic Jeu^, tlioagh h? well know llintoa boib kidc» th« ulxAi 
rl» ir«re grcuC. At ^^i «vctii«, bv ■omo aol inipruVi»bIu combiiiBliiiM 
tilt Doniitirc in the AaU and the cxprwaioiu of PbuI mas Msil; bt 
»DO&rilfld. uidwc acvEiut tlier«Iur«jiutt^G4 «hh ScUruitvr id rclenin« 
tlio M>M|co ilk 1 Thc^s. iii. 1, lo a rntur rmiiiuncu of I'aii) at Aihr««. 
All uie CircuDumiices noDlioneil Moin hvni lo nKroc with ihv {.rc-j >' 
liji fiml Yi»iL i'Jiiii bii»iug luxn utiÜKi'il, coiitrarj to hi» inl'iit.'i 
Ituv« Theualnnlcn ciirly, vishadoD kevtial ticculnni to hdive tuiui^i. 
it ; hiK iiiixiui..v for ibe new cUarvU tliuru vai lo graat, and la hlitcodir 
DoDaom loT ii.hc süowcd tlin t^'at »icr)fii;o he wu resdv t« nutke Sot It 
li,v snyinj; Ihut he wna willttif lo reniaiD alone at Athout. la Uui 
llme^ when tliere «u a unnlL CbriatiAa church at Atheus, UU iratU 
not hftve buun ao ereat a iiiicn£<x> 





Üie intellect, to the neglect of oil objects of practical iut^reet. 
liicji ttiivat4.'Deil to Etiilo altogether the migiotis nature of 
cii. that Ujndeacy wliioh Piiui deEignaies by t!w phraae, 
' ' »xliiiff afier wisdom " — nnd, on the other side, tli e sensuous 
(endoitcf iniagliiig iiüelf mth the attiogs or fhö religioua tieii- 
titoent ^ th« camoJ mind nliiuh wuuld (icgrado tbe divine into 
ma object of eerisuoiis experience ; thiit tcmleiicy to wlijcii 
]*aul applies the phrase, "leekmy afitr a sif/n." The first uf 
. tlicw tKudoncies predo minuted ttinoug tte greuter number of 

I Ihoee persons iu Corinth who mado pretenaious to nioTitnl 
Leultjvation, for now Corinth was lÜEtiiigiiisliud lliti old 
^fcity, chiefiy by beoomiug, in mlditioa to it^ cünimorcial 
^fcetcWity, IL Beut of litömture aud philosophy, so that b. certniii 
^■inctUTe of bigh oicntol oulturs porvoded the city. > The 
^Tccond of these tcndeiicios was found among the iiumeroiis 

Jews, who were spread tbn>iigli tliis jdace of commerce, and 
«Dlortaincd thg common Hpnaiioiiä eouccptions rtspectiiig the 
JldsaiuU. And ßuaJly, tbe spread and effiuitiacy of CJiristiaaity 
was opposed by that gross corruption of morals, which then 

II provailcd in iiU tbe great citios of the Komaii Empire, but 
^hfiGpecially in Coriiitb was jjromotod by tbo wo^rsbip of Aphro- 
^■ditc, to which a fnr-famed Itimplc was here eroutt-d, niul tliiis 
^■consecrated the indulgence of söurniality, &,voured aa it was by 
^VlJtc indlcmonte cnnstimtly presented in n. place of inimeme 

wtalth and commerce 

"Hio efficiency of Paul's ministry at Corinth was doubtlosa 
much, promoted by his meeting with a friend and waloua 
BilTOcate of the gosjjel, at whoao houao hu lodged, und with 
whom lio obtained employment for hia livelihood, the Jew 
Aqailn fpwn Pootua, wbo probably had a large maunfactoiy 
In the same trad« by which Paul supported himself. _At(iii]ft 
does not appear to have had a tied residence at l{ome, but to 
h«TO tokirii up his abode, ut iiäereut timc^ as his business 

' la tbo Sd CEDlury, llio rlioLuriciBu Arlfttides sftva of tliifl city ; iri9i" 
U S^ Mil NoS* iitill VASÜiI' in <0^uit Kul roffk tain iiiv^aiy /uiBuii !i» tai 

»rtiS^*^*ii T'i'i »si «nrä fit Holix auTi^c Kcil rii mtis' Jki ri •yutiwdiria. 
tk ItSafKoAfta, ml /laäiiiuiiTdTt na) iirrof^^T«. Aristld. iu Kejiriinutii, 
*L DiDilarf, vol i. |i, (it, 

' Tli(> rliitldriüiaii Iliu ClirysnatoEU esys la iha CoriDUiia.aii : ri\J 
lim'tt tUr otuM T» Kal 7*y«n)/itViiii' inaqpjflliTorjTDi'. Onl. 37, rol. li, 
1.119, cd. B«lMk» 



ui^t rtqui», iu variooa laryo eitios sitnAtcd in (lio oentR at 
coaiiotfrw- wbnro he fouud liimaulf M|^uaU^ at buiiie. But xi 
thu time, he w^ forced to l^re Korne ogniasb bis will, dt a 
muuUte of Ü» Emperor Clnuditu, «ho fetnid in |)i« renke, 
iiubulont Bjitrit of a uoinber of Jevs reeideDt at Bwoe (tk* 
greater pan frool-moD),' a rcaaon or a protcxc for banülüiig 
oil Java fiQTa thnt ciiy.* 

If Aquila was at that timo k Cbristkn, wlitch irill aaij 
Aoooitut for Mb epeedr ooouexion vitli Faul, tliis decree of 
baniahmaut c-^i^tily aid not affect tum as a Chneüaii, bat u 

"rhereiruaT<mieularqo&r1erODtbecitb«T£iile tlie Tiber iababiUd 
by Jew». Sec J'fulvityat. aJ Caimii. { S3. Hk» wigar toC TfJp« 

■ The Hooval of Snclonlna in ibe Lifo of Clauiliua, o. SS, "JuAmm 
ün[iuliwro Cfaroto lUKldiic Lumultiutntc» Bumft cipnilt,* iA cf ilUlt 
MTVioo in biHtoric«! iovMtigBUoiu. lräB«taiilut,t»tKiuc rillvjreaniAtr 
tbe «rent ilxlf, tnlied Dp wlul tie had heard in a eoDÜnca hubbct of 
Chrbt, M « pMRioUr of Mdilioa amoag tho J«<r«, villi tlio ««oobdu of 
til« fnqtumi tumults excited uuong tbcu, by cxptcUtioai of tU 
UfMlali,— VC lira not Jiutlfied In coueluding, llükl lUB buÜBhineiK vt 
tliu Jon hail luif nei cuniiGKion with Cliriationitjr. Dr. Banr, la Ui 
emijr od tbo objwt and wotsiua or tbo Kpiitle Co lbs Barnim, to tbt 
1'vbinsiT Zmtaäaift ßir TheOom*. 1830, part UL p^ 110. lUlkb, ihu 
the dlftpul« between tbe Jem soil Chriiitinii* in Ttäcaa, oecaolaned (hi 
lUaiurMueet vhieh »t lul bnught on tbs expulaioQ of bc>th piti««. 
Mid th&t thU is tha faol which forms tbe huSt of tbe »cMiiat. ßii 
diiputM arooiuc Uio Jowi iJiemulvon. irbcthcr Jam »w to b« Mkncc- 
hdgod as ilii: Ma)««iiili, wuulil L'ertsintj b« tn-nlvil irllk rant«mpt b; tk) 
Bcnnui kalbuKtic», nc oicre Jcnbb rol!f,-ioui cantrorcnlm. S«o'Acu 
xHii. IS. AuJ if Clitiiliaug of Oi.'uli1i> ikxvniil, wbo did not oUcm 
til« Moaain J[iw. were Ihou living bv Hdiiic, th»r, »■ • ymiu (frf^m, 
would noi be confoim^ctt with tliD Jch'a, siid a <tccroe of banirfUDOU 
directed a^itiBl Ih« Jeirs nouid not iifri.i.'t th(!ni, Tlii;^ onlf bCOM 
Buiijoi-i to puni^liDicnt liy Ibe laws ag^ii the KliyiMKa ptrtgrimt d 
n«va«, Wd i;uii ouij siipi»!^ a nroraucs to politiul diMurbunt 
ftiuuog tbe lent, or to o^'uiirrence^ wbich might ncik MuHcicu (ri 
tbiA hind And lliis aci^uunt is o! tiule äenici^ in fixing tb« curoaolacj 
of tliu »poBtulic hiHtury, Tnr SuüLoaiiif give» no chTODOAogial am. 
Such« murk wnulO begii'eu. If we utumccl thalinaidiinoiit of the Jvn 
vll,)i tliH sr-niLtu« (^ofiaultuui, lU matJinnaliiij /lalia ptüenäi». fat hue 
"fni-ilua (Aiiiuxl, xli. 52), give^ Ih« dal« Fnufto .^utl^ Salrio OdiOU 
Coss. = A. D. !>^ But tbe ohronalugioiil eauuii-iian of thtan iwa «rtsU 
ii rciy mienrllin, sa ^bcy pris-poctoJ froui tiiU'eront caaimi. Tho bikt^ 
Isent of Ibn ustrulugers proceeded fmui nuipiuiciitii of «aMplndH 
AKnimt tbe life of the Eiiipumr, with n-bicb ttiv (inuiiiluDcnL oflM JeMj 
Bi'iocj in 11» Kiirt iif iiniiiii^xioa. although It might have iia foondallMl 
ill« dnMid df |)Dliü«nl couiiubUoab 



'A nitJi tb« other Jeirs, iu virtue of Ub Jovish dcacont, 

. Iiis purLicipatiOQ in all tbe Jetrish reU^ous obeervaneea. 

Stit if tlu! (,-<iaj>el had ninudjr boca prQ|)a(pdcd uuoag th« 

U«itUl«3 »t itMiQic, (vhicb u not prob^I^ for this took pkw 

at a ktcr iierlol. liy incatiK r>f rfiiil'H di«cipli«> nfter hia sphera 

of actioD had be«n mudi exuttidvd,) the Gentile CbHetium, 

wbo RMwivvU tLij gixspd tmi üvm Jowioh obecmuioce, ood 

had not yet atUucted notice as a particnlar wet, would noL 

fajKvo becm aSbctod by a persecation, vfaich waa directed 

^^ ftgtiiust the Jews, its JevB, on pui^y ^xditicul grvuiida. 

H We omnot aniiwer nith ctirtainty the questkma, vbetber 

^B A<|UUa, on )iM »rrival ut Corintb, wan nlrrädy n Chiütiiuj ; 

H fi>r it cannot bo determined moi^j from the eilonco of the 

r Ad*, tint he vru» not converted liy Pnol. In any caw, bis 

ii)t«re>onrse with tLe apostle had great iiiaiieooe in the forma» 

ttiou othiH Cbristinn Ti«n^ Aijuila appisiis fruru tliia titn«; a« 
a ecalous pi'cacher oftbe gospel, and his vaiioits jouriiej-s and 
ehftiifE«l«f reeidenoo funiislied Uira witli mnay oppiii-tuiiitie* 
fbr acting in thi* capacity. His wife PriscUla also diatin- 
guished litTscir by her (ictiTe zeal Ibr the cause of ibe gtispel. 
so that I'liiil caIIs th^m both, in Rom. xvi. 3, his '^kilpa-s iit 
Ckritl Jenm." 

Woiiiait suppose that the recejjtiou giTen m ^'eaond lit 
Athena to the publication of the gogpal. miiBt have left ;i 
Hcpmntig effect on tLe mind of the apostlti, aa JUr us ha wns 
|I)Ot niaed above all dflprosain); conridoratictiis by a conviclioii 
'thavictorioua divine piiwur of ibe guapel. Meui^e. lio him- 
t«elf aaya, that oa his ariival at Corintb, he was at tbe utmost 
Bmoi'a item nttnt;liiug any importAnvc to ouything tbai 
IhnnMui mesmA, human eloqu«uce, and human wiadatn. could 
aish toward» proctwing an eutnuioe for the pniblicntion of 
Itbe diviuo word : that ha oame and ta,ught among üiem witji 
deep »en3e of bis huraiiu woakutss — -with föir (ind trenibliiig 
I &r OS bis own power was couceraied ; but at tlie same time, 
' will» »> much greater coafidenoe iu. the power of Cod working 
thruu^'b Ilia iufitritmontalily. He had eiperieneed at Attieus, 
Lthat it availed him nothing to iiocnme a lir'Suk to tlie GroitLs, 
La hia mode of exhibiting divim: trmha, where tbo heart wna 
fliot open to his preaching, by a wiise of sijiritual wajits. At 
I Corintb, he was satisfied wiÜi thu sinipie annunciation of tbo 
Bmcr, who di«d for the solration of sinM men, without 



ailaptiiig hiiiiwlf, tuf nt Attunis, to tlte bute or 
alaafiätt üi im Htylti of addineas. The grciiLt«r i>art indocxi of 
tho jicrxoiw with wh>i)Tn lio ciimo in cuntnct at Corinth, ««n 
nut, aa at AtlieiiR, [leoplo of cultlTated mindH, but btlougiug 
t<i tho lower class, who wen dfWtit.uto of nil refioeinent ; iur 
evüu wbciD ChriMliaiuty Iiad spread luor« widely ajnoni; tlio 
liiglicr cloiwcs, hn could »till eay, that But manj disti 11^:1 itslu^d 
hy htimnii culture or nink wero to be fotind antoug ll« 
Christiana, but Ood bad choson sucli ns vera deej>iaed by tlie 
world. iQ urder to eioinplify in tJieni the ptiwcr of the fcosf-d ; 
1 Cor. L 26. Among theBB people of the lower diu«, vert 
those vho hitlicrk) hiul been ^vea up to the lusta tliat [AV- 
vailed tu tliin sink of niontl corruption, but wlio^ by lbs 
pmoühing of tho apostld. wore awFikcnod to rcpentanoe^ isd 
uxgiL-riciiccd in their lioiU'U tliu puy/irr of the anuouncement cS 
the divine foi^vBUeas of fflna; 1 Cor. vi. 11. Paul oouU 
jiidueil api^eol to the ndmeles by which liia nt>OHtlMhtp IuhI 
biiüii attLvtcd aoiüiig the Corialliinns, 2 Cor. ili. 13 ; but yd 
tJic»; a^ipeals to tlm senses were iii.>l tliv lucuoa by Vihic b tia 
(fiispij! ühiofly ütfocted its triumpha at Corintli. Aft tlio , 
iic'utwsarily appeared as fooliahuoHs to tho «iäcluin- 
Ureüli.'5, aa long as tht-j pe-raiatud iu llwir conceit of 
Hii also to the Higa-sei3k.ii]g Jews, as long ss tbey poniatod 
f lieir canml mind, uususcejiUble of tho npiritujU operations oT 
what -waa divdue, aud required tnirades cogoizaUo by tin 
Btj»!»«, tho gospel vhioh announced uo McKsiah perfonaing 
wundciTH iu tliu uiouiior their canitü couoaptioun Lml ontici- 
pjit.vd, would atwiiya lie it etuaihUiig-biouk. That detliUl- 
titmtinn whinh Paul made uae of at CoriDth, was Uie suae 
whiub iu nil flgna has bccu its Srmcst sup^iort, and vitluHit 
whidi aü ütlier evidence* and uieaua of ptomotiag it will bo 
in vain, the •" demomli-atUiit of tlu Spirit and ofpatver* 1 &». 
ii. 4 ; the n»odo in which the guspül operates, by its indwelltDg 
divino power, on. niind^ rendered FURiKtptiblc of it, in coo- 
wiiueuüc of the fceliug of thdr moral iicoestitiiw ; tbe danioO' 
Hlmtion orisiug from the power vnth which the gospel operafa» 
oil the prinoiplo iu hntn-in nature, which is allied to God, but 
depresacd by the principle of sin. Thus Uie mij^^eekinf; Jen 
who ttttiUued to faith, found in tlio goxpftl a "power of God " 
etiperior to all external miraojes, and the bellevun amoDE tiu 
TiMom-äccking Groeks fuund a divino Titicloia, oocofitirccl 

uut yn 
hie b tto m 


«itrtod V^^ 

nr 20! 

viUi vhiob all lUe wUduui of iheix pbiloecijilierti appcjLroc] an 
I uocbuig. 

As was usual, I'auJ wns oliliged by the hostile lÜKpoKttiua 
with which tln! grunt^'r jitirt of Hie Jews rcncivcd liis proadiiug 
m the svnagogu«, to direct liis kliours to tliu G(.'ul,iUi> Uiri^ugti 
Ibe mudiuin of tlio PrusclytH^s, nnil tliL- new church was mostly 
fonoüd of Geutilu-a, to whom a siaall numliur uf Juwa joined 
' themselves 'I'lutl Iio toiglit devote oU liis tiou? nnil slräiigth. 
viüiout liistr.ictioii to pi'cacbiag, he soon orgaiiked thy small 
ojaipany of IjcIipvoto into n rc^ulni- church, and li-ft tho 
baptiam of tliobt who wera hi'oiight tu thö fiiith hy hi« 
preachiae. to be iiduiiiiistereil by tlioaa wlio were cluiaen to 
I fill tho oIKihM in tlu* ohiirnh ; 1 Ci>r. i. 16 ; xvi. 15. 

Ill tlio lueiiTi time, tliis acceptance wliicli tlio ^s|iel lieiiJ 

fouiiJ luii'iiig tlie lii.':U.hßii, [wiverfully excitbd the ragu of the 

Jewa, and they avaJlod thom«(.il7oa of tho üirival of the now 

Procoiiiiiil AtmiuiisOallio, a l)ri>thor of Seneca the philoauphcr, 

t^ arrtu^ Paul Iwftfre liia trihiinjU. Since, by tlie litwa of tiie 

Lctnpiiv, til« tiyiit wna soeiu'ed to thom of pratitisiiig tiirir own 

IreügioLta iiutitutioiis without molcsiAtioit, they iiilorivd, that 

J whnuvur ctiuauil diriüuu tuuoag thvui Ijy th& {iropugiitiuji uf 

Mloctrine« oppoiiod to their own priUGi]>lea. onoroacliüd on tho 

[eiljoymont <i( their privileges, und was iimeiialtle to piini«li- 

iiKut, But thu Pirocouaul, a uaxa of uiild ditipciaitii>Q, ' ahuwed 

1 110 desirt' lo iuvolve himself in the internal religions ouii- 

tnjvürsiüs iif the .It-ivs, »hiuh rnoBt U'xve aiipuaxod to a [{umiut aa idle disputeB ttttout wnrds ; sind tli« Gentiles 

tlwtiwt-lves, oa this oaaisioD, testified tlieir disappi-obation i.if 

'tho ftfciiiora. The frustiutioii of this nttfinpt ftgniiist the 

aposUu tiimbled him to coutiniio hi« Iaboiu'8 with loan nn- 

noyaiice iu this rt^ion, bo thnt their iLitincnce waa felt 

tlinnigh the whole proviurw of Achaift. (1 Tliess. J. 8 ; 3 Cor. 

i. 1,) whctbcT he mude uöb of hin disuiplos iia instrumetits, or 

ttuii)>e»di-d his i-esidence at Corinth, by a joiimoy into other 

l>iuia of the prnvincc, and than retÄinied agiuu to the ptinoipol 

IScvRii of his miuistry.' 

Koutrd by (lio iiam« of the dulcit Oatlio. S(>neoit.Priefa.t, NntuniL 

queBL iv. "Nwtui nioruiiinin mvi tam duluiaost, quam lii(! umoibue," 

■ itsis 3 ThiMH. 1. 4. nlincQ P»ul, la an episUa writ.iitn iliiriug tlin latlcr 

pftrl of hintcililiinHatOoH'atii, MjB.tfaai iti sercnLl cLti relic«, uiJ th«r*- 

fom nut >»*r«1.v iii the Cannthian. he hud spolccn with praUe uf tlic faith 

1 seal cf tili TIimmIoiuad uburuli. 



WlicR lie had Metm 1nlK>iiritig ri>r hodi« tiino iu thoK [W(K 
Timothy relumed &om ThesBikloaica, by whdm he KodTed 
aooount» of tbii Stat« «fthv church them, which i>-«-u for &wi 

ßeaang in every ivspect The faith of the churob had ind«eil 
:on »teacl&tst under it« p<:rst'(Tiiticiii.>*, und their cxMnplo ood 
teal liad promoted the fiulhcr t^iircad of the ^^pel in >f.ui> 
donia, I'VL'ii to Aduii«, hi», iimiiy hiid not bet-n piraerwi 
frotn the «orruption of hoatlieo immorality. Tbo «iiecu 
of Christ'« TDsppciuiuiCG hud tnkun in the mindü of mimy i 
enthuainfltic direction, so that they ncj^iccted their ntatedi 
plf.ymeiit«, and to be mnintnincd at tho espeme rf_ 
thfir moto opiileul hiratlireci. Propheia roee up in 
Bfflcoiblicii, whose nddrotstui ooDtnini-d much tliat was 
mostio ; vhäö others, vho woro on tbär gmtd agminU i 
eathuaiaetJci oxhibition«, went «o liir in lui oppont« dirMJm ^ 
08 to put iu ifie 8iu)ie cIdah th« monifeätattrim of iv gmu 
Inspiration. Probitbly from a droad of Piithuaasin, theyoM 
not cniiure tlial niiy iHtrsun who felt liiinaclf invfiu-illy calld 
Bhoiald give free utteiunco to his Kintimeat» in the nKeüs{|j 
of the c-tmnsh, fur to this Paul's exhortation npjxmrs la i 
in 1 Tliw«. V. ID, " Queuch not the SJpii-it," On nil tha 
accountH, ho coamdered it iioccsnury io luhiruss on episllt I 
encourngenieut and exborCatiou to tliia church. * 

' In tliia opistlu, lie cvideolljr «iiauinai, that Urn uia&aiir of bb < 
ftom riutippl to Thcsäilauicii wu ttiU fTcnh in Uio Tciucntbrumflf 
ebitrcli, s\i iiuit he illuduj to onlj one ntldcnco unons llivta, oftit 
«rrivnl (rom Piiilipt)!. What Fuul Biyrs in 1 TbesA. i. S, he <x>uldi 
Hf at a pctiod wbich woi »horti; *iiliti:qii<nit, to his dejiiTtnie I 
Tlieieitloiuui. Flence. U is wrtiUii. Iliai the upiftüe va» «iHteaKl 

JuDOture, and tbulit i>' tbefirBl. amonj; tlin I'tulinn «pIsUw Mihieh 1 
KAGhed DB, HD opinion, w-ith vhlr^h iU wliril« (omplÄxioa »vU i 

Tili Tcaiona agninel. thin vigif, mnintitinnd h; Kchntd«r, iiotii«i. 
«to httvc ucntiaueil utd EtitlciiiVourcd,to refutr,an) aot i^anviocÜL 
(HLxiety of mstny peTaoii» in referenco io their ilcociuicd fricndjTl^ 
pNT«; iadocil, lliat soma of it« flnt 01;FlKt!ui« at Thc«»aloniM< 
already dead, but i^pnninV <I<kb ddI justif? tbo «ODcluHiiin, tlu4 < 
nhnrcll muät have nlii-uily ciintcil a l>~>ng Imio; lor withta 
tlrclj' nhurt timo. mntiy, Eapi>iii&lly l.liuw wlia woTc in y«Mi iV i 
■JadLuiiig health at llioir canvenion, mijrbt Imvc diciL Aim the I 
üK-'Qt, tliot' t'aul, in thU cpitiltu, numiiiHRi itin nsiifionot of i 

ur^EAiilECÜ io llio mniil tnonncr wilk rtmli.vtcr», will pr«vc i 

Bj,-Jimiit lUiJ tally <:uiutiDeitluit oT lUis cplbtl«. Fur viby abtnii < 
PjuI li.ivp nccomiilirfittil nil tlii» (lurini- itii. timrt Htoj- bi Tlia ' 
or iiuL luullura in a train for lt^ licInK dnnp «oon alior bli d,._ 
It u evident., rcDio JlquhIy. SS, how JDipurtont be dee&ted it*l)i 

r4Ül."8 BKCOND MiaeiöKAIIT JOCilSKr. 203 

In Üb eiiistlB, he reniinfla Üie ehurch of the manner in 
vliich h(! coiüiiictcil luiQKeir nraong them, the eifl.m]ilp of 
lual industry u-bich hc set, and che cih«rtaltona whicb he 
il|tart«d to therii. Ho cnlmeii their atixiety n.'spt'ctiiig the 
tt« of Üioee who lind died dunug this pei-iod. Hü wanjwl 
^ünst making attempts to detcrmiBe the aeeond coming of 
Christ, 'riiiit critical moDient would come unesyiecteiHy ; the 
GToot time could be nsccrtaincd hy no one ; but it was th« 
tliity of ChriatiAUtt to he aiwaja preparöd for it They were 
nut to walk in liirkne^, lest that day sbould o^-ertitK» them 
OS a thief in the night ; na ohildreu of the light, they *aglit to 
walk onntimiftlly in tho light tuid the day ; and to watch over 
ÜteiwwlveR. that they might meet the apiieitraiice i.iE the Lord 
with confidence. 

After a time, Paul leftrued that the epistle had not attuincd 
its end ; that the «itliusiaatio tendency in tha Theeaalonian 
chui-oh had eimtinuedto iuerease. In his foitayr epistle, liü bad 
oonudei'od it neccaeaTy to gimnt them »[^aiuat holh cstreniee j 
to v tiva thorn agwiiiBt tho uatiro suppression offrco prophtrtio 
8, as well as against receiving eveiy thing as divine 
Iprotcnilod to be ao. without (ocamiiHvt ion. Tiie higher life 
to be duTcl"pi;4 and eipreseed frtely withuut hanutiing 
Btrictions ; hut all claims to iuspimtiou «ught to be sub- 
litted to Ktbei- exominaliiju. ' Ue must, therefore, have had 

I utaRl conutituliciL to the ciuirshes lu »oon sa the; were funned : nnd 
1« muU have hbvu inoro OBpeelAlly tho ca*c ivitli a chtircl* which )ia Isft 
In micU cri u<üi cireunmtanoo!, even upart from persecuijri. Indeed, if 
Ibü ml» laid doim in tho First EpJEll« to Tiniiitiiy, Uiut bi> novic« in 
Chriitiunitj »hould bechonen to the office of presbjtor, hucl been thiiD 
tho heglunin^an invurUtlil« prlainplu. wi> luirht coiiclutli;, i.liut hi tiuw a 
cbtir«}ii wbich raunt voneist cntirclj' of covIl'p.'!, coaU liuvc iio [inebj't.or^-. 
Bill (here U nolliiiig l<r gugipact (bis coaoliiiiun. tn.d the eirciimniAoi'Oi 
of llio jirimUivc apoitcil^o n|;e an agsiQit it. The mice given iu tlial 
oplFtlc, jD well a* many «ihcr points, l<;nil to prove that ii was wiiittn 
in Ibt Utter part of ?aul'» liTu, and ic ivfuraocn to n «liurch wjI ddivIv 
Otgmi'>'-A. And what wo And in rhitip, iv, 6. bj tio iiii^anH olili^c» nt, 
umo a aupoud riait of Puii.1 lu Thwitaloiiiia, atler wbk-ii huih 
1 WCTc written. He there sa.vs. tlmt during tlio tiruu of the first 
KtloQ of tiie ki)«|ib1 amoLg tlie huathen. (which wnnot tic referred 
later porititl,! wNun hu lel'l Mauedoniu, no elmrtli ex'i'epiijifr t.hut 
'liilippi hlul lent hiiD a pontribulion — first aLThcs^luiücabEforcha 
: Jl.'K^oloniik. und then oar« or twtoe at Corinlb, during his looker 
joiirn thorit. 2 Cor. x\. IP. 

It kiipDin to ine tint 1 TIk^u. v. SI . alkiKOther rcl.itca tn vh&l ta- 
cdlntcij prcMilcs — "'prnvc nil thing« in llio ootnmuuica.iicns of Ric 


TxrrCv BEocKni mssioyArr jovri^et. 

oauflO to sus])eot duosur (rnm Um (jiurter, c^x-^ huil Itc c^ 
received more eiaot iiifoTTn.atioii. Hut he wns aubhc^iK-ciijr 
iaJbrmod, tbut |iltboi)h lind conic furwiin) in liic chnroh vh 
profoewd to ba.vo received ruvcJatiaDE to tbc cfT^ct that U»e i 
])can.]ioo of Uu> Ltird wm close nl liiuid. TItoy Hbuj titideaiv«ii 
to HtrengtLan tliwr assertions bv difitortitn; Ki-Utiti exprtMi 
of ttiu ufiuHllü, wliich he liiwi ii«,-iJ diu'ipghisrcKidcnodU'" 
Baionicai. tint no»- äiiiua the epistle of I'aiil vm to pkiiiiy 
oppoKod to the ciithiiainetic tetnitincy whidi »innyl nt tuitw tid] 
exact time of Cliri^l's §ecoud coming, one ot the I'tiisiaoU 
of ttiiti error vciitiired so far ax to lbr|,'e »i]ath«r epiKtle ioJ 
Paul's nam«, which lai^ht serve to coiitinn tliis exjuictnlios.^ 
in which probftbly he toolt ailvnntnj^ of tho circumstaiioc: 
that the apoHlle in liiit fii^t e;>i)<tle liad NkllKTiccl liituiieK 
with uf;giiig vhat wo» of pnictical importune« withe«! 
giving a decidtid ogiiuion «it the iieariiiL>!iii ur rcmotOMtf 
«f that «rcat evont.' Such forgorira wem not nt <J1 
itnooiurafin in this century nftJir tlic bc^ntiiiig of t^ 
Alexandrian period of litorttlun?, anrl thf^r antliora iittt 
very adroit i» jmrtilyiug such ilcceptioiin Eir tins piirpow o( 
givmg evtrcacy to Mrtnin prinoiplos ajid opinit>nB.* IIa 
«ntlmsiastio t«ndcucy n.lso opcratoil injiirimislj iu jiFuducog 
iOloiiüKt, null a iic^h.-ct of A pti-MiuH owu nffuim, umtM witlit 
prying, intermeddling curiosity respcctiug the concern! d 
otbi.'rs. P:ml, therefore, thought it iiecvasary to wiiie ■ 
Beooud opisllo to Thei^otiica.' Id tliis cpiatJ«^ tor tlu [W- 

prnphoU, and rclitin nhatever h ^ol ; " but in vcree 2S, he Ditto t 
truidli-on to a ^cncrnl lemark, " iltnt. thr; nliotiUl keep thtnuelm A 
n diataijce fmtn every kind oFevii." willi which h» prajcr fur ite nwtt- 
flcttUoa of tl\p wholu mon imdinlly ciniiinrti iucif, 

' I'h'! puMfigo ID 2 ThE^s. ii. S, miglit ho w> UFdoralood. k if oaly ÜM 
«lah-TiiL'nU in« Pirat Epiitle hmi hem KiintprttaaUd ; und II itote- 
tuinly po«il>ti: toimag^iiic.tliiitthcy had no ntisupjdluil Paal's «unporina 
vfa thirt ill ilia nlf^lil, ii» if lie expected tbc nppi'atnti™ of Chti»! Uk 
an cveut clo^ iLt liiuii.1. und ouly meiuil to Any UijiL l]i« point of UM 
WuUl not lie given mure Jialinotly. But ihcnc wotiIb of Piuat wobli 
nttarall^ bo unduratuuil of tba Uirgery of a letter In hi» ruune, mai tl« 
milliner in wltieli ho giia>i'<!e n^inet Eimilnr rurgori«», kjr t, po*(«rlpl IB 
liis owu bniiil, rsvoim tlii» opinion. 

* TL« ßisliop DioiijKiiin icry mnrli luncnlafl Ih« UalAoUlM 
letlore n'hit:li he hud wrllku Vj varl^ii« cborcliM. EiikI>. It. 3X 

■ lis hail »t tliai time prcilinMy impelled ftviD Curinlh iota A 
Ud fuiiiKk-il othi;i' chiirchciL Alrctul; he Itad kuUiinud maay oetill' 
Kith tbc enemies of ihe guvpel; he bad occadOD to miiKM Ibeinttf' 

■d tl« 

-pose of giiiuVlT^PWÄn Bgainst tlie hfwtj cipcctntion of that 
liutt du.]iHivQ ixtniKl, lie tliivutL-il tii<:ii' lUteiit.iou to Uil- si^iB of 
the tiiiH.^ wliicli would precedo it. The n>vi>luliou of tliu evil 
timt ojijM)si;d itself tn tlie kingdom of <3oii — a self-id ulatry 
excludiog the woreli'p of the lining God — woultl first riec to 
tlio highest |iitoli, Tbe jiower uf tlie dflusiou, hy a liy]Jtjerl- 
tical show of godliness, and by estiMordiuarj power, appit- 
lontly H uracil lull!*, ivyuld deceive Ihoue whu wure not cliMpimed 
to follow the ample, unudalwrateJ truth. The rejection of 
llio True iiud tlie Diviiiu would be puiiisiied by the powur of 
' ^Isehood. Those pereone would bo (insiiared by the luis 
of duoeptioii, who, hecatwü they had suppn-ssed the »tiwie 
of truth ill their hoarts, deBervad to bo deceivod, imd by their 
wini uriminulity hiitl pivpared theco&elTes for all the duccptiuiis 
of fnlseliood. Then would Christ apjwar, in onkT by his 
victoriOH* divine pctwer ti> destroy tliö kingdom of evil, rtftw 
it luid atloitidd it^ widest ext«usioD, uni to coDsuiuumle tho 
kingdom of Gud. AsBigiiB simikrto thouc which i.irogöo»- 
ticAt« the lost docieiva and most triumphant epoch, (in 
repon(«d in pjl the great epochs of the kiisgiloin of Gud, itf, ic 
lulvnuce» victoriously in conflict with tho kiugdom of e^il, 
Patil Blight believe that ha recognised in many signs of Ai-s 
aura tbtio, the comreien cement of the final epodi. By tliu 
light of the divine Spiiit. and according to the intimations of 
Chrixt' himself, he dinterued the general law of the devtJoj.- 
iDBitt of the kingdom of Cindet, which is npplicuiblo to all thu 
great «podu duwa to the -very Inst ; hut hu wiis tiot nwiiiv 
that idioikr phenomena must ofLea recur imtil the aniTal of 
tlia final armn. ' 

ctanory prajrcn of the churches. Chat he miglit lie dcliveml from the 
■UMhJnBUoiu of «ril-iuiiii!c'l men i for such wore noL nsullng, who 
ware nuuKCpiiblo «[ rucsiving tli« go'pti ; Z Thtuji, iii. 2. Tliia 
mUiuIii u« of Uiu KVUIAÜOIU uudo Uy ibe Jsn^ uguiuL l'nul. 
' Son I^fbm Jaim, fif. 6C^ 012. 

> WbCD pcnoiu Hva altomplcd to detoniiioo «illi cxactneM tliu 
_ U of thu Liini-n t;it4^n hj raiil, Iht^j liavi; fiulcd in taaay pninlii. In 
Ü flnt plspD, ibey liavo Mioglil for the äEipeuruuces Lu whiiU Lliu 
IpntUo raters ia luUrr ujvi, »iliile f'Hui tvlvn lo upiiuäiaiiccB in hin own 
k^. or tn thcnn nhloh tiwj «uvuccl to rorulnnle, In aüicr inpoTi^iit 
ncriodi. irhlfli pTOM<leil riimarkabLu cpOL-h« fur foe rlt^volopmenl. of tlio 
felai{<lom of Cbhn. ligm might be fuund siiiitlar lo IhoM: wUkli P:iu| 
, luM Iwm diMcriliCil. Silll V! »houlil uvt >■(< jiirtifiud in trnjiiu^ thai 
be*« >isiu ><■ thin pfir!*vulu farm ncre eunnciuui'ly pi-ntcai to I'ntiU 


Aa Taul va» tiDexer«u«d ia «ritit^ Cre«k, ood, nniidst lb 
namHrous awfn ilikI litbuun, tiisloui of vriling hi» ciiUll» 
with Lis own hniiti, iii(.-tated thoni, oa was a ubuo] ]>ractxe 
omnii^ tUv iiiKUdttU, tu itti amiuiuuiiiÜH, letter« vould be mtM 
eaaily {•-»■y,eii in his lutme. Perhaps ho had alreadj a<)i>[Jtnl 
tho p\nn nf uilJiiig n fi^w woriU of gnlutAtion vith h'u on 
haui, ia order lo eive Uio cliurch^s a special proof of fcni 
Utfcutioualu H^'tn^iatrli}'. Suub an tLulognijili wluiliou woulil 
now be so niiioh the more ueoeasofy for tlie purpoea of i«- 
wilting fJüsificnLiuiiK of Viiit cpttlcH ; actM>ri!ingly, in tliil 
o))iEtki to the TliBssakinknei he cxproEalj^ Duticea tills clrctua- 
sUqcio, tbut ttioy might in rnturu kiivw all thu u(>istlu& (lud 
leall; were his owu jiiuductlon. ' 

mind. And thui w« sLould fall into error, if wc expected to fiini nlst 
is ftaii'Chri^iuii uuly iu ct^rlain pnnicclAr api'dnniivt^ of Uiu Kcclttii»- 
ticitl ITUtoiy, inülcBid of lucosninng in i,lit;g<; ni)|ituimicc« R Clitiitio 
truth Ijing 3.1 thoir tiatia, »id ilia tAnie aiiii'Cbriulan »;tirii Uij bIiiI 
the Chrixtinn priiiclpk i> ht're 'iisturbcil. uad ai h>l. «holly ubwuidl 
likcntw in gibor ii[ipQiiraui.'m, VVIiPu too, iltw!^ xiensbaTe been loiAnJ 
for in the aulunl »itvuUua uf ibu u.|ia&tliv ib« dervviiveueM or mitkiMf- 
Uäge of bis BiliiEition, und of Ute app^r^mcM pccoliftr «i hU tioM«. t« 
bMii fowotttin. Uv, inntead «f eelinatin^ tlie great ricvtn tetfbtibl 
th« devuloiiiaoiil cF tlia kingdom of Gwl, vbicU lli« :i|kuI.1i.- btr« DuIiJik 
■ocordbig lo the iilsuoDtabiod, lIic kernel W bvtin tliiuirD arty.ui 
the ahull iul.iiiu:ii, uiiJ; linve been i.-Daipnrcd nllli Üio Jciiifb r>U# 
rv^pecUn^ Antictiriiit. 

' Krom ihoBc wntds of rniil, 2 Theo. ili. 17. wc mnniil tiiftr »iii 
Schnulcr, rhat Piiiil must hukc nlrcnilf wrillun mntiy ujiiail» iyt it* 
TbesBaloniaQft), und, ibcrclbrc, tlmt thi* could not hs Utc Moand ^ fori' 
Paid hud tkU:[iiiiuud Uvvr I'lir Ihif ilrkt tiui" tt' «uijjUy IhU |)(WMoU** 
uf^iLm^t tHu l'ultißvatiou of hit epbll':, he luijiht cv^^ialj- ibiw cxpn* 
bisifelf; it wiy: »ul ueceKAry icr uhg the (viuiu Titt«, and jrei iw 
inlgbt liure ivrictuu iiiiiuy epinlles l«funj lliw. F^ir. laiRht lio w* 
ulread^ luru writtun «.-pitilc« Ln the rhiirtlir* in CLlicin, aud Sj-rliuud 
OLben lately fdundeil by bim. tu w«11bii to liidlTlduiiUl Wo ctnint 
Gcruinlj' ti^iiiitnlti, ihat. tbo tthnlo ciirri»p(indt?iiLf of tbo er«kl spoitiei 
whn viui HO (icilvo nnd cnrcl'ul in evQry rc«|if!ot, ho« cütn« Aa*a i<i a 
J.astly, ihc fowcry of a leltur tmder hit Dune wn» »till Ba>.irr »huu lUty 
u fu»', lliiiii ivliun many uf lii« cpistlvH wvrt «xUilil.. TliciDforc ik 
proijfi fiiil which arc employed purtlj for the laler «riEln. janly (■•! il-i 
i-jiiirhiUhiiuw of ihd «[ilailo. Aiiri ue tu tlio Ralutatlwu iMUted liy Tui •■ 
B luaik of Uis huadwriiing. U only fulloits i-lml, under thu exitiaf 
vitvuiablJLBCc«. ho 'iulvrctliied lo odd >uclt a muik of bi> bsnilitiitiit U 
nil his vpiisllu". Iiul ^IJ )iu iimaDa i.h;it,iiiiili.-r nlivrvd oircumaUBOWi^ 
wlhcrcd CD ihii^ rstolution ; »or could ve eonaludo s-itk taiXaiulj, tM 
In nil thijBC cpiHtLes In whicli 1*11111 liiw not cxjirctalf rvBiarked tklt itjj 
«aiuuiiea was poinMl by bliD, ib« UuiedicUoii at ttaa vke« km . 

; laboured durio^ iiuotlicr balf-yeor for tbo epreatl 

>r Clirfe[i<Ltiii>' in tlnü^ piu-u, and then coitdndml Uiu uic^nd 

'|>Hriod of Liti ntiiiieti'y among the Itcathttn, which be^oa niÜi 

the tsccond niiiaiotiary joumej, AVe are now urrived ut u 

K-fJaee, frtim wbich wö shall proceed to a new pei-iod in 

[iü mimistrj-, and in the Listorj of tlm pro|ingiit:oii «f tho 

Fx<^c]>el among tbo Gcntiloa. 


I na »TOgta PAtii.'ii JounnBT m AMTiaan, Afo ins iibdevid kissiokiiit 

:eh Paid Lad laboured during anuthtr hidf-year for the 
,bUsluiicut of the Ctiristifin church iu Corinih and Acbaia, 
TMoIved, before attempting to form ncnr churches among 
heathen^ to visit onco moro that citv wliich had beeu 
hitherto tbo metropolis tif Ilia Chiistifin-üeiitile world, j^n- 
tioch, where poasibly htj Imd arraDfred a meeting with other 
|>ubli-s)><ini of tha g""pel. This was no tloulit the prifurifml, 
bm pruljably not tiw onlj, object of hia journey. Ho felt it 
t« b.* very im{)ortÄnt to prevent the outbn.'ak of n divisimi 
botn'o«Q the JowiHti and thu Gentile ChnstiauB, aud to luke 
»wuhy from liie Jevrs and Jewisli CliristiiLns tho oiJy plnusihlu 
iHMnd for their ac-oiisntion, that ho was an enemy of thtir 
"on anil ttc rcljgion of thoir fdthers. On Üiia account, ho 
'Solved to revisit at the name t-itue tho moti-upoliaof JiuUiiwii, 
order publicly to otprosa his gi'atitiido to the God of hia 
in tJie temple ut Jcniaalcia, aiicordiiig tu a form inuidi 
ivod by tho Jews, aud thue procticiilly Ui reftilo these 
putationa. Tliero vae at that ti'm: among the Jews a, reli- 
_ custom, arising ma'rt probably from a modification of 

the ifarjirjte tow, that those who hud been visited with sick- 
tiess or any other great ooliuaity vowed, if thoy were restored, 

Iftt Id bU bnnilwrilitig. When onco tlint peculiar prooLioo and hi* 
hMilwriling Kud bnraine i;i<iioi'ftl1y kaowa ambng tLc iihiireliBB. hu 
■i^t make tuch an ndililion.witlioul exprossljiueDtiaiiing ibat il nu 
wiiuoD by biin>i«lf. 


to tiriug a tJiaiik-ufivriDg t4 JeboviJi ia tlui tenpl«^ to olx 
from wiiw for lliirty days, and to ahaye tbejr heaids.' 
lind prüliiihly r^uh'od, on thu oor.aiuoa of his <ldivvrtixictt It-wi 
nomc diMigor diuin^ his laet reirid'eDce at Oi>TiDtli, or ou hit 
JDuniey from iLut cily,» publicly to i-xpa-ai his gislellij 
flcknowiedgnients iu the temple at Jeruaoleui. The torn of 
Iiiti doing this tvas iu iljculP a tauUcTol' imliifcrnticc, «xtd in xtc 
»pint of (Jliristian wisdom, lie folt do acniple to [«cuipk hi 
«VKpeot of form, to the Jo5.-s a Jew, or to tl»o GontUes a G«b- 
tile. Wheu lie waaoa iLe poiut of aiiliiig wilJi Ai^uila to 
Xiusecr Aaiu, frum (jcuolim»:, lio bcgou the fultilmcut of hit 
vow.' Hg left his companion with his iiiifd bcliiiiii »I 
Ephcsiii«, wliitticir h« promised to retuin, &nd haeteneJ vj 
^erusaloin, wliei^ lie vtüted thti cliiirdi, aiul prceuntcd hia 

' jGMpliu[i,dcDc]lo Jud. li, ID, Tviitip t) tictii ivr wwanviiiirmft fjuii 
SA\tM iri-ylai! (Sas tfxiaSai irfib A' iititfüi/, ^i droiwn'«!' ^/AAsi» Ätfltit 
o&rvi; rt iip^C^iliit lal itti^t'avOai -rii n 1|uii. II. »[i['iciirs lo mc ^Ic 
necctanry tu cliaiiu'c Oil' auiini iu ilie luti ulnuit iutu ili« (utur« 
tvpiiataSei : null I mmUl tniMHUtc (lie pn>A.iK? i-litii— " ib«J' wm 
QocuKUiniod to von* l.ha)> Ibr'y wuuUI rel'miii fruiii wine uDil tbftrc \Ml 
Iinir tbirty ilu>'>( Ivfun tixa preaonintlnn of llin «Herliig.' PVoni Mtt- 
parinit Dub with lbs Kmarito vbw, wc nii^hi Indeed «oii«lude ÜaA At 
sliAving <•{ Lhc huir look [i1]ti;(i nl ihu «ml i>( thirty ilayii, tui Itky 
thinkg in liiB tiüiiiiiii-iitur)' ; but thp wotdt dI' Jcäi-pbu* do Bot :-^ii-; 
«1th this «upponitioa, for vc cniiiioi'Le ullowcil to inlccpolsU m^'^ü'-' 
perioil WFurc r.ho {ufr^mrSai, " rmt ut the vnd ol ihcae IhiTt^ik." 
Alto- vhnt followi in Jciwrphui In opposed la It, and faul'* »likviii^- l:.i 
k&lr atrvL-ni! wckt holora lil« utIvw aI JotublIwii, will dM huiMHU 
with «uoh a >»ppi)Gl1jan. 

■ From hvw nian.v diuigvre Uo wnp TCHi^iieil, mi4 Iiow much w«ii]il b« 
rvquired to «ouiptute tliu uurrikiivc Kivcu in the AcW,wclG«niton 
aCor. li. 20, 27. 

' Uimewjwary ilifllcultii!» linve Ju'en rained ropoi^tiaK Act« x»lk 1-. 
rniil In ih« Ititl). anil the v«rHi> imiuedial«]; rallowios, 1« the iniu >' : 
Ject Lu H-liii-h everj filing ia raierrwd : nnd lb« «onJ» rctntinj u. .', ■ 
und I'rimnllft fftpm olIv n piironi.lie«!», All that h hpni i>»pre«*i?^l :. . 
Iherolore ha tsFtrrpd tu I'nul »nd cot to Aqiiila. who ix montMOcii .ilj 
incidentally. Nt^lmuL-^kt^nbur^r, in hiK woik »ii' Ai't^ p. 64, fonlt* 
rsMon for uoutioiiing iui:\i aa unimpdrUiiit (arvuiiiAUaeo rv*;"'''-' 
K ■nliordinat« pcnon in ihis. llial h ihdrt iiolW of a iiimi. «Iid i'l- ' 
s ymr livi^d In thit eums liouss a« I'aid. would vrrv as ao Indtnri n 
fieiitian of tha apostle iu;aliuil the iii»!ii>«i.icui> nf bli Juiiuiin^ "FC-* 
nvQl«: l>i]t iliU i> coniiuvU'd wiib tin- wliole lijrpoih«Bli, of wlücti.Kr 
nuions aifmdj- given. ! oinnot opproi-c, 

* Braidv«, Auail» mulJ uat bitvG lnk<in »ucft n v«w, boMUM be AI 
not inT«l to Jfrunulciii, whore tiio offV-riDg otigixl vj b« jinMO 
We muii tti«rofore »uppoH Uiat lis bad iiiaJc • row öl aaoÄa I 



[«ffenni: in tbe temple.' He then trav«II»i to Atitiocli, «hen 
he at^iyuil a lung bom, and mot wilh ftaroabas, and utlivr 
fineiidä aiid former aaaociatee in publishing the gospel. Tlie 

ItMi L« woiili ait allutr liU Lair to lie oul, Cill lie Mil lull CoriiiUi io 
»feljr, like the Jcva ivho bauml ilium^clrc» l>r a vnir In dn nr iiot 
to do »UDioiiiliiK I'lll tli«j Lni) ii«'cnin[ili';licil what tlii^ ttinlioil. as, Toi 
DXkmpiti. iiul lit Uik<; ftiiict 1 G(im;i.U4^ .\i:La xxiit. 14. uml Llie leKcDd« 
ftom the »Co77Jäioii «as' 'FJt^itidjut, in Ji;ri>ni'e lie v, i <•. il. Bill ttaeli 
luuneiuiiag (ullj' uu on« pnu atr,ril)uii> to Aiiiiil«. And Lit\p noald 
hardly kavo ntluU'l luij' thing bo in&lgtiiäciinl of Aquil.i, who waJ> not 

»the hem u( his immtiv«. But M<?)'sr think.« he has ruunj i apccltl 
pmof (but Ihic roUtiiK not to Paul Irut to .\qiiik : hucaui^o, in Art* 
xviii. la, lb« imiiie at Priscillii is nieritiour'i nut wt il i> tii v. 'i and -IS, 
onJ cOQlnrj to iho tl>J^^ of aoliqvity. witli a. de^i^ (o irhIiii (iin 
mftriHic« here dmiKiwl t« AqiiiU inoru poiiiieJ. Wo oiijibr, qIIoiv sunn 
«eight to thin coniidcmtion, il' wc did not And the aaiiiD nrrangouient 
«f 11)« iiMncii In Horn. xvi. 8. and 2 Tlni. iv. ID. Uuuuti v/e shuU liiiil a 
cooimon groond of cxplaumion for whnl aTipcuri a Gtrlkinf* dmintion 
ftmu th« cnilomi of anttqull^y, Mini nllhnuxli Prii^Ulo, not not a ('Uldic 
iactniclrro*, «liitb wouid l]ii''t tinn cuuirarj to tliü luirn of llie «huTcL, 
jel the vu (lifttinKuUhvd triia more tUim Iiqi liu-sbaud foT licrClirlntla.u 
Kooitludga, aad h-or zcut Tor ihu pruiuulian or ilie kin^dnm of (iud; 
a that in thtii ronpctit I'aiil ntnod in a iiKirc intiinutD relation, u clo*cr 
^^tlliaDCC of ipliit to her, as ISli/i/k Ihl» tugi,-ti8Uil in hie liitiiwjttclioii tn 
^Blli9 Epi«tle In the Uelirevn, p, 122. Atii) Ihtis we liad in thii 
^^ fllid««itpicd dcpurliiro fnjiu Ilie |il«viiilLng uMig«, un a puiut tu iitj. 
vrnporlini in ilaslf. an indiraiLion vf the biglier dignity cuuferrod M 
^— dirccllf ly Chiialiunitj on the feiuiilu lei. 

^H I Tlie words ill Ai!U xviii. 21 faniiol provi: thikl Paul IrsTollRd lo 

^PJeniMl«in, for the aiiginai eiprenitiuii oalf luakeä h biglilj prul/ahlc, 

■ " I wdl ralurn lo you aaiüa, God «illiug ;" and all thf rcet in oiiI_v 

* glo^«. If. tliorcftirp, wi.- ih) not linil thu juiiroey l.o JoriiKniiiiii iiidicutod 

^H in the ivaßltt and Kori'^i) of V. ^'2, We Tnii^t ik>iiuiiio iliul Faul »n llitt 

^■joiirni'T tminii only ni fur a» AnI.iotli, ttnil uot In JiU-uMtlaiu, and tliuii 

jVuu intcrnrciiiiioa «f Auti »viij. is, given iu ilie lost, muni I« 

sbudoaed. It ia lUir rcuiuj'k^ibli; iliat hukc, in I'uroiTiuit lu I'nal'n, 

Mjoom kl JoniNtkni, Uiould nicutiim onl.v liia ciLliitiuu; llie lihurch, rind 

taj' uothlne of the prcscniiitiuu or hi» offuring ; nnd tlint Ja.mDri. w'Mt, 

on Pkat'i Tarmei' viiit to Jt-niuilum. hml julviiK^d hitu tonucii u liit« 

Kmdiict, should nol luvo .ipppHl«d lo llip i?ia.mpli> given b.y lilniwll 
uch u »ccuuiuiodatiou I'l the fotljuiii, uf lUr Jfin. Uiit l.ufci! 
snr to bii r^^^nlc) :u liiii nnlhiiT iit' a litiUiry {ifiinjiloiu in nil 
pvtn, but «imply as a writer «ho, n-ithout hifttnriuui nrl, put 
tbtr hu hiTuril ami i»w. or wli:tt bfwaiui! kiioTo to liim b; Llin 
tt^ of othcn. UcQUo ho narrutcn levunil lain \xi\%'<itinni uir- 
-ittiK-Tu, and piLtao* over tbuw wliii'li uuuld liu uoro iiuportiLOt W 
itniiirne ths i;i)nnexiun of the liittur;. Alau, i.u :i n^iuliir fuiiiitiar 
*iin Jewinh cnatotn*. ic might b« inffioloDtly clwr that l'ii>ui, aaconllng 
to wbdt ia inijnlioo«'! in xviii. IB, iiiiirti liuvc lirtnii^l^t an o|[f;riri|f 
kio Jvnualom. M oil OToat^ if ire wiah to rerer v. 83 oulf to üwuri:«^ 



nptiHtla Pcbir lÜKO juincil the uomimny of pnscbefs of tbe 
gos[Mil )iei« OMembled. nlio beLeld the apuhtlea of tluj Jen 
and Uiu upotiUü vf thu O^-ucUw united in trua Clihscuis 
f«Uowsliip with one anotber, in acccTdjLii») with tli« »pint 
thn nwjlutiotis ttdnpt^sl hy the Coimcil at Jüru»al«QL 

But this besutiiUI tiiiauiiitily wus dieturbed ]>y smne Ji 
ilüsing iolIoU, who uitiic Iroin Jenisitem prolutbly witb 
evil de«i){Q. tdaue wbut tlie,v Kiid bunrd ot the fn-e pulilicntion 
of tlin giwpri unifing the hiinthon wn» offensive to liioir o<m- 
tnifl ted feel 10114. For a coiLHiderablc time the [>lijiriiiai»ll.r- 
rninded Jewish Ohristi&us apiieared to have boen sUeooed iv 
th« itpoHtvUu dccBMiiiLi!*, liut they could not be loduoud to git« 
up an oppoaitioD so closely allied with a mode of lliinking 
excliwively Jewish, agoiuxt u!t.ely fp6& uid indcpcndtot 
gOspoL Tlie coiiittaut eular^uient of Paul's spliere uf labinir 
nmung thu hciitlicn, of which they bcuuite ntoiv fuUy avu» 
by bia joumoyB to .Icrumlem aiid Antiodi. excited ofradt 
their HUNpicion and jealousy, Thtitigh tliey profcMed to be 
del^atcs aeut by Juiiit« trum JeriLsuleiti,' it by iio tnmns 
follows that they «ere justified in m doing ; for Irefore tliit 
lima siK'h JmlaizorB hnd falsely K^iimod u Himilar cluuvctcr. 
TlioHc pt'iNOiiH wero dixpustd not to ackooirlfidgn the ud- 
ciroumcised tJciitile Chriutiatm, who obserx'ed no part of iha 
Moajuo oci'Diniiidal luw, a» g^iiuino Chriatian bretlircn. m 
brethi-en in tho faith, endow^ with privilugu« oqtud to tbdr 
own in the kiugdcim of the Mexünh. As ihcy looked Utuo 
them 08 «till uucleau, they ivf^iaod to eat with thein. Tho 
Mune Peter who had ut first uanvrted sc emphatically iht 
equal rights of thu Geutilo ChristiauB, and afterwards at the 
laut apostolic couvcntioii hiid 80 strenuously dvfijnclod tbcBt, 
now alluwud liiiusulf to 1« canied a'way by a rtgud to 
hi» countrymeu, and fur the mt-irut^nt was foithUaa to liil 
principles. We here reciogiiisu lliu old uatiira of Ptttr, 
which, though conquered by the spirit of the goapel, WM 
still aotiv«, uui] on »onie ocwiKiuii!« I'e^jiuiLcd th« ssuendene;. 
The fiiiiiu Peter who, aAer he had home tho mofat ImpreMiiTC 

the irudäi must be aupeilluauH, and tbe i(«t{^ vontd noi nit U» 

Rcop'ftplilcnl relnllnii of CiRBOrtit to .\'h. 

' Thiü in not riL'L'csäarily contained in lliu wunlti Tirii ixb loiatf*^ 
ithlrb mn}' « mpty tueaii thst, thocit p«r>ani bclungod to tbe eb 
U J^ra»aläu, over wUieU Huiet fteuilvti. 



Txm!^ jooiwrr to Aimoca. 


aoDy to the lUidccmcr, at the si^lit of danj^r (ur un 

jiMtaiit denied liiiu. TIiü exiuuiile at' ilii upiKttl« whose oha- 

siobil so high, iiiäueuc^d otlior (Jliristittns of Jewish 

at, 80 that even Baruulms withdrew frvai holding Lntot^ 

[eourw with (ipDtile Christians. Faul, whu coudemned what 

(«Tw evil without, rcspeut of persons, odlud it aa a«t nf 

hypocrisy. He alone Tvunuincii faithfid to hi« principle«, and 

fn the prmence of all ädininistL-red a «evere ivjiriiuiuid to 

Toter, and laid open the iiiooQsiitency of hia conduct. 

' Wliv, if thou thyself," ho said, ■■ iillhongh thou iirt u Juw, 

|buHt no Boriiplg tu live as a Uentile with the (jientilea. why 

rilt thou force the Gentiles tu becomi; Jews^ Wt are born 

Jews — iiie-, if the Jews are right in tlioir pretensions, «■ere not 

tinners litte the Geiitili», hut clean imd holy as bora citinena 

" the th«ocratia nation. But by our own coufbo of conduct. 

' 4:i[ircnK our contrary conviction. With aU our obsarvance 

of the law, wo have acknowlodgod ourselves to he sinners who 

iu m.vd of justifiuntion ns well sis othora, well knowing 

liat hy w'orkä, such ax the law ie able to produuü,' qo man 

be Jufititiod betui-e tiod ; hut this caii only ba iLtLiincd by 

iüth in Clirist, nud having been cunvineed of this, we luivo 

iiught jiiBtiticution by him aloue. But this uuuvictiuii we 

jutrudiut, if w& äeek a^ia fur juBtiAt;iitiuti by the works of 

law. We thüFöfore present auräelvüB ayaiu as sinners' 

' Vft 1III1J bi;r9 nolii»^ brkQ_y wbiL will Iw luur« Cullj' <luvdo|icd wlivii 

I ocnuD K> LNnt of tbu apos^tuliu liucirine, Ibtt. I'tttil b^ t^eit »iitau 

Dderfl&nili worliii whtuti a coinpiiteor^', tliieiHtaning \w miiy Xqkb a 

UMi to pcrfona ia the aliAenL'e nf u hcily dispoiiitun, The iiJeu cam- 

cheodi Clic EDcre oitLnard tnlfiUlog ef tbe Inw, tu reftrence to irliftl 

i mornt u in?ll »i «Imt is rilua] Buth, whidi ire bo cIumIj «unnecteil 

Jad&lim. iiimriiiiiri th^ir ri>al linportiinca riiily ää un eipm^eion of 

h« truly pidiis dispnsilion of Jurui^aa-rn). 'I'tic i<l<^ii. of the mc.ral or th« 

liLiial i'r«doiu.i dhI«» ouly aciMrdiiig to iho varieii Hutithctitfäl rulattun 

of thcvtinwc. tuthia paauge. n spccLul n<<[vr?iii;e i;i maAe to tlie ritual. 

• The won!«, 0»l. Ü. 13, " If what I b»ve ileittojeii (the M.o»aie la»-; 

! buttd up a^in, (like PaWr. wb» had prai'tiimlly K^tifiud agiin to Üit 

niVtraX obligation of (he Mosaic luw). I muit luok upon luf^ll ns a 

DHKrWAOr cif r.lio taw, n« a siiiiiur" \PhuI Lore iiujipoAua Pelcr to 

Kprcfti th^ cunvictioEi, tLmt be hod douo vn^a^ lu tlfrpartin^ from the 

**, that ho WiiH ^utllj or trtnu^rtwing a luw tliat wu» atlU biiidlri^.) 1 

nnot pnrfisMt; >|^rpe villi rtllckcrt'« cxpoAiiion. who »uppotieg tlieHfi 

vonli 10 tc uMd liy Paul in rcfcrenc« iq him^tlf. For ihUgcnoral 

opofilicui would nut liu uiinvct, " tS'liouver uuilda up »i^ia 'Kliut liu 

I» pnlldd down purnuoL > nrons oaumc" If lie hud doa« H-ron^r in 

ailing down, ho «oiild do ilgtit la building up «but. hod twoa pulliil 



nt.-e(liiigjustißcation, and Climt, iiiRtcnd of jnstihriiig ns üam 
8in. has deprived uk of the only mcaiie of justificAtion sai W 
UB into nn, if it W ftiti tu uuikaidur utimclvea &«««1 from tW 
i&w. Far 1)8 tliis i'rwu u»"" 

If wo fii tliis controverBy of Paul and Peter, * which at Ito 

down; Knd urcn the opponcnu of I'aul maintaiiicil th« finl: tlicy«nl<1 
not thcnfa» 1>n atlJ:!:!!'!! I.v tliiil [rri>ti«>-!riu>i. ami tbo 1«i:i<3l 1'iu! 
Wuulil lure lukcn ^uod I'urt? noL to cipraiii tt, 

' Pnal'i TCjidmond of Peter (Qal. ll.) iipi>(gini lo innch onlr »■ ftu* w 
llio 1811] vumo, uxol. What (ulliMnt, bj' iIj« tnjititiua frMU tbe plun) 
to l}io ■ingulnr, lui-j bj the 7^^, in ihown to lie n coraiDcniat^r k; IW 
on hoiiiiF GXpfiiMioiiif wltirh, iitWrOfI m llio w4.riiiiU of fwlinc, mi^bt 1m 
>»iii«iTliut oWurc, uDil cTiiicnllj' nnt a i^oalinuaüati of hin adilrcn. AI 
to tliD linlo of tilt« interview wiili Vc\tr, v/v n-adilj ttion tiuk n 
cttniiot utiain to uliMiluti- tertninl}-. I'linl bimaclf munlM llw !""'- 
Tcnco Immediately ailcr HiK&kine of (Ai>f Joiirucj to Jenuulmi. 
wv litiil nsuonn lur <:uiu1uvriiig lu hin UiirJ. And, aiicordiit.r j . 
Ki]pp|i^ii thnl this OVPDt. (ollow«<l Llin npnMnlir «onvenllon Kl TriiiillW 
And pmlintily atiny purwait nvuld li« Indui^cil, by tbo rapoH ol riH 
hnd takiin pluno snoBS tho tlcnlilc ChrintimiH. ,'«hkh to Jfwiit 
Cbrintiiiim iiiunt bate A|i|Mureil «o v«ry «ttniuriliuKO). to rcwit I« Ik* 
nwdiiuMy of II14 Oonlile CliriiUan* nl Aulioi-li. jKird^ Lii ordtr M b* 
wil.iiowfli «f thi; DoTuI truunuutiuDS, and pni't.lj uul of insnldao. A*- 
conlliiH til vlint tro liur« Iwfnrs remarked, tt Uuol [tn|KwiiblQ iWiImm 
Ju'b.i»ri. «»DD after Iho RwilutiuiuFar Bckn.o'n'tHlt'iDg the c<iubI n^M 
of Gvtitilv {JUriiitluiii wurii [laaMud, lictnmc iintulilirul lo llicm, bcaaM 
tliiy <.-x|)lainc<l t1it>ui illlTvT«iilt,v frmi tlicir uripnul intcDtkin. Bui 
thL-rc li K'"*'"'' limlui^ilU^', Itiit iKnc i-vcnu did >K>t ilujUBiliiWlj 
>uu<'i.-»d the iwuiu); uf tliiwc n^Kiihii.iiiiie. Il i* tijr no edmii* CTidtii 
thai- IIluI, in till« pawogt: of the £fiallc to tlic Oululiuiin, intend^ H 
oltscrvu chniiiüli>giial ciacinc««. llu ratbtr «ppBu« tu be spwikinx «1 
an nrcnt whu^li ww quite frcah in liii menini'y. und Iiul bapiwned wl; 
H ■linri time bi-roiu Dcttdcs ibp tno luprniiiiloiiB Iilt« nionliaud, 1 

namolj', (.hut Mil« »vent took piRco fr(/(>ri' the npohUttk' onnrMitiob. Hut 
thMitih I'd-"' )'xr<^ roUowE no utTict ehrcinalosi<:al onicr, yui iLMdi^m!' 
ta ImIictv that he would ciol. plm'a III« nArnllri of an cronL, ii-i 
oonncctod wUli t!i« pantrav>cMioa wliich gave occaiioa t« bia oon:. ' 
with tlie apo>>tleii at Jcruutlem, at tbo b«|{inu!i)g, iasttnd of ktlirj U 
folW aJi«U|.plcmcntnry. 

■ Cniifiiunill^r a iiii-tnkon Tvvcranoo for IIiuoLpnullQ ted roaaf p»r*«M 
in ilic nncjoci (mpminllj the cuuieru) ulmrcli to n vor^* iinnaiiiiml A« 
of tili« cunirvv^ni]'. 'thr-y adopteil tlia iiulinn iliHt I'utcr kU'l ("aol iM 
aa und<;ri>tBii<ling with une ttnothcr, tliai. both, tli« uuo for ibc kdno- 
lägv at ilmlwi, thv nilier for Ihi ndvuiuinnv i>l ihv Ocntllc Cbrlfivi« 
«■tnmiit^d an oßciattup viairMmim. iti Ufiii^r (.but no aicin ni ' 
oa Powr'fc coniiiii:l. Aiipis'in. i" m« Kpi^Mc tu Jemtoi^ aa<l 
liouk Vc XtH'liich. liM iLiluiiruIiiy cumtiatt^d tbl» ]iT^iidi<% iii 
IUk intcrprQlalidl. foundiil opon tt. 


pioiA jotmsKT TO Asnocit 



wing history .'Jiowh, jirmiwiotl no (leruiaiietil wf^nrutioa 
wni UiL'tn — eiaftly at thia [wriixl, it vill tLruiv Miuth 
^lit un ttii! oititicxiuii ijfovuDtn. Till nun ilic |uiuifiuiti(ia 
concluded at Jcrwalom botwcoo the Jcwiab and (Jcutila 
CliiiKlimiK liad lieiiu niiiiiitaiiiojl iiiviwiate. Till now Paiil 
bad to voiituiid only with jL-wiäli (jpjMiietits. iiut wjtii 
faduiicre ia tlic gJituclw» uf Giiitilu Olirintiana; — but now 
Ihe iippnsiiiuii ht-tv'i?ün tlio Jowisih nnd Clentile Uhriiitia]i% 
»-liiuli tho a[.")»i<jl iu resolutions hmi rcprcHrotl, iigni-n Tnndo its 
ippfümuoe. Ab in tliia capital of Gi'titile Cbni^tiiiuity, wliiuh 
furioed tlie central point uf Clit'iMtiHii uUMKionü, this coDtro. 
Xtmy firet aninc, »> exiiutly in tin? samo «pot it Wike fiirtb 
ilfresb, DotwithstaudiiiK the ue.i8uivs takeii by tho apostles to 
MtttJo it ; and bHviii<f one« bum rwntiwud, it »preati ituelf 
tliroii^d) all tins «btm^ben where there waa a uiixturu ui' Juwb 
aiul Öcntilcü, Here I'ilhI hml Ural, to <ionibat that party 
wlitise ayt'iit.ö fi.ftierwurds [leiwciilwl him in eveiy scene of lug 
laboura. (t mit;bt ut lint »p]>eai' etran^, that this (Uvisioii 
,ih«uld l>rLak imt c^ai^tly ut tiiut time ; ut the v«ry time 
ytbea tba maniier in which Faul had just appcaroi at Jem- 
., bftviug beoomä ti.> lli« S«vra a iavi, iiii^fht Imve ficrvdil 
to luake ii <iivoiir:i.hhi iiii|)re»ui)ii on tbu taiuda of ihtuw 
L'hrUtiana who were still attached to Judaism. 13ut although 
I mij^ht tJius operate on the mont tiKidemto amotig them, 
yet tiiis event tJiowed, that on tkte Cauatiim! itvilots, wboae 
priuci}Jcs wcro tuo coutrary to uduiit ol" thdr being rt'WüU- 
ciled to him, it prödueod quite an oppfisito offi;ct, when they 
Biw tlic man who liad spoken so freely of tho law — who had 
alw(^a 8i> slrviiiioatly niaiiitaiiitd the equal riuik til' the anc\T- 
cumcüed Gentile Christinu with tho Jewish Chfietioiis. and 
whiitn they biul condemned ua a dL>spiM<r uf the luw, when 
they saw this man representing himself as niie of the lielieving 
Jewish poopio, Thoy well knsw how to make iwo of what 
lio had dune at Jeru^lt^iu to his disailvautu^-t; : aud )>y repre- 
senting his actioiia iu a fitllie light, tlii-y iiccuaed him uf inuon- 
aistencr, and of artfüllj attsmpiin<{ to HaUor tlie Gi>ntile 

Thu intiinmee of tliia party aooa eitendnil itself througb tlie 
Dbiircliea in Ualatin mill Afhaia. It is tritu thut Paul, when. 
nft'r Ipaving liis Grinxhi at Auiioolt, he visittid ouce more th« 
churvlioii in Phry^pa oud CuUtia, ou his wuy to J^phiiViii^ 



whither he had promixeii to ooine on hü rialtini, oliserred no 
«triking change uaoug them.' Bat utiU, he rcmorkod, tlot 

' H« eipmees to the Oaktlan ohundica his atUmldim« ui. Uiu ibqr 
had dew-rted, *a tmon after hü depnrturc, the evuigtlicul docUioe uc 
wlikli ihc; bull Motu ihowo n uiucli ze&l; Ual. l H Jli nrml 

luuili^rovrnlnntipartieiilarirRUekaftjhaveiinaintitJUBditaitma w e rta iMd 
tkatitiuLlFiiut, <luriD(;hii ucond realdeneeamoDicUieCftkilljnehaKbM^ 
hftd la opptuu i.hoir Unilcnejr to Jadaiuro, ve nun exftmine dim« 
clewly llii> i^rovuiils uf tliia aiMertiun. As lu Rut. i. U. I ciuinol k^dov> 
.»dK« w dc>.-t>ivc tlm rouonit nlicgcil hy Ullckcit, L'ltcri. ftBd Bchnti, 
SgtIilKl r.limi- wutiIh licini; au iui|>ii>iMi»u<.-<l wuiivcmlun of UiO MstiBMDl 
in ibo piaxillnu vun^c. and In t&raur cf ihoir lioing a rderence lo «kM 
he W] uitl, ithiMi liMi. wiUi 'hviii. M lullt' it' not. t>o n nifirtBcs lo i>1mi 
mu written before, n> Epli. ill. Sj 2 Cor vii.21 For tluc «hii bt 
icI'qi* lo, in lioili (.livait |kii«u^o«, Ed mibcr moro dUuiit, lukie » 
dilTuivii':); iu Ibu form of tüv cxtinaeioD. But if ibwe word* mud Rht 
to tninistlitiiK luld ti; I'nul «t SQ carllvr pDrivd, 7«[ the coUMtjMKf 
)Yliii:Ii !;ili-k^ri, bulievi^i may he ilnvni fmm tligm. duee not fallo*i tx 
thdiigli I'niil liitil no cmiho to be dliMtl)ȧcd wilh Ihc church itwit TH 
after wliat li« lind MEierJeiii-ed at Autiocb, iddcd lu ihe urlicr \rumt 
of ■ put of thv chuirli tQ .Tiidalam, he miKla mntidflr li aww/aljU 
obarirä It upoQ tliuiii muiit imiiiviaivul}', that im<ti.-r vbetcvnr nun«. 
huwuvor rcVL-rcil, .iiKitliiir di)rtTTTin tiiijtKt \m nnnDniiMd 10 th«ia. thu 
what he l)&d prt'oi'liud. nucli ilor^ti-ine ndultl dcAL-rfe no erediUhtii imjii 
ba Anti-Chrii-tiiiii. AHliuuirti Qui. v. 21 ««rliiini; Tclot« lo »oincil'itii 
Mid li; tlie apuatle at an earlipr prriod, jnt nothiug fnrlbn can bt OB» 
cluilcc! früiuit: lur lueynry I'liu rcli. lii! luii^t Iri»« lieM it ii ij iiiiiiwij 
to inalio it appBreut, tknt men would only gra»ty flatur thcmxlTo d 
thef IraAglnuil that Üivj cniilA eutcr (lie kiagdam of bMven trittkanl i 
«uuipleluchnsgo of heart nii<l coniliit^l; 1 riiLXi. iv, 6 ; Eph.v.S.6. thu 
vosAa in tial. V.2, Ü, tiiiiht. be tliiiit uiiderstond, "At I taid.that irbcdV 
slli.iwa liituavtf tu l>t) drvuiudiKd navuU'U'-'e bin fvllowahip with ChrtoW 
■0 1 testify lo Biieli on one again, lltat im in bound id fulfil tbe eli»!« 
lair." lIviiluDtlj, Ibv flewiid auij LbirU Tcrses rolaio to aiie auothct; ihe 
ThougbM arc corielai-iTQ, If fan) ititcnilcd in ri:iiiui<t tlio O^lalUnitf 
ivaraiiig« be had given llieui by word of iiioiilli. »hj did h* not iDMrt 
tliR irdAii' iu vt^nu 21 since vhat is tb^rc cijitesaid forms the IrellhH 
tbcii(,'lit. and rniuirr« thfl etrung^cit cinpliajia to be llüd upon it. Ab* 
In tlic (uct, tii&t without ii.av preparation, as ilL hia iilliitr ofiatla^ h* 
opens Ibiii vitli sucli vclienieiit rcbuki], 1 canncit with UOekort Isl a 

£r«of that during' liia ffiiTncr ri^iildfiiiRC Hiniiiig ihcuc iiliiinrii^ he W 
ilMiloil IHo JuduiiEiig tundi^ncj' atnotii* llmin.Bud warn forced tu il 

ell in blam«, lo tinl«r I» bring them hntk lo the right palii. TLi- < 
paouiiarilf in the ivnv «itb »biuli the t^iatle beyina in«f be oatilj tx- 

Elaincd, i! va nupiiotc that idaoo, during liii prnMinoc amoas OteB, ht 
ad prrnoivol n» dntwrLum fyocn Uiu d'OOttlno aan»nDood lo äem— and 
had H-nrnud tbotn baforchaud of tbo aitifiwa of tlie Jndaiun— tW 
«uiltl«Q lufonDallou of the eOccl |>rpduc«d amonic tbcni by thia ehea i( 
pcinoiiH had inan: painfull; nurpciaed, tiiiM« rioleüilf aRoclcd biu ; nd 
viitt wii'Uli; npistlc k;ar« the DiarK« of ntich an ImpretsloB on hit ■!■& 

9kvV9 jodunkt to aktiooB. 

teac^«r8 sou^jbl to galii an entrai.te iiilo the 

ehurcliGs, thul ihey mude u »tiun of grE'nt ztmJ for tbcir talra- 

I lina, luid that tbi; Geiitilij« might, ».ttiuii to the fUU ei)jojmeiit 

of the privileges aud boneßlu of tlie Messiah's kingdom — nii<l 

K:tbat tbo; etrove to imbue them frilii tliu Mm i)i>tiuii, thut 

Hanlen th^ allowed themHelves to be circmnciaed. they could 

H not Rtand on a lei'el wiOi the Jewish CLrt.ttiiiiiH. Still hv luuj 

B caaue to ba calUBed witli the ontaaier iu wliich they uuud- 

r tained iLeir Christinu freedom agiunst thcso ficrauns; Gill, 

I iv, 18. And he nought only tt> i:oiiiiriu tlieiu still more in 

this ChriGtian mode of thiokiag iUid ucticig, vrhile be cn- 

dcBviiuifd to impress üu Uicir lieai'U aSKsh the lesson, that 

independently of &i\y obaervancc, Balvation could be 

^ obUuned only by faith iu ClirisL, and cnroGetly put tbein ud 

■ their guard agaiiiHt everything which oppoBi?d or injured thia 

^ tmtb. This WHS interpreted by bis Jiidaiziiig oppouent«, who 

wet« wouC to aiisreprtiBcitt all liia actiuua and wterda, aiid iu 

every vruy tu inltiso dtstruAt of him. as if' he had gnidgud thu 

QidiiUana those Iiigbor privüeges whiuli they might buve 

^«btatned by the reception of JuilaiBm j Ual. iv. 16. 

H F&ul aow uhOKe as the stieae of bis labours for thci spread of 

^Vtlio gosjtel, the centrt of iittcrrours« aiid tmffio fur a large pait 

^^of iuiti, the city of Ephosiia, the moat cr-nsiderLibla place of 

~ commerce on this nide iff the Tiiiirua. But here also wa.s a 

1 oeuttal poiut of nieutal iulereotirse ; so that ro sooutr wiw 

H Chrintinnity ialmduced, th.^a it mie eiptieeil to now conflicts 

m with foreign tendencies of the religious spirit, which either 

diroctly countenwtfid the new divine elemiiut, or tlire.itened 

I t*> ad\iltervi,te it, Here waa the tteat uf hettthen majj^c. which 

K origiivilly prooeeded from the mystic wor&liip of Artemu,' itnd 

H WliK-hovBT among i.he eonllici.Ing» »f the words in 
H chap. IT. 18 ni-ty l>c Inkea, tliin muoli U utiili'ia, Uiat Tau) wialied tkiLt 
ttk«7 would Mt during buiahBfucG as thi^y liaii itone during bis preseuce. 
Jtnd thU he eutely could not havp ?i.<l. if Blroudy (iuriiiff liia roria« 
resido&R« tli«y bid given )iiui aui.>h causa (or di^sni.i^^rictiua. tl is 
arbitrary to rofur thia oaly to bis lirat rMidi'Dcu smong tbem. HmI be 
«luriug thai r«iidciico nutiued such ikinga, among llieoi. ho wouli! also 
have felt liitl Ätoj Ja ia refL-renue tu llieen. he would have pmreeiT^d the 
ixc«arity o/ iAAii(o> riji' <;-iurtii'. and Iibvü »lieadj mado am o! thia ncir 
nioJa ii( trentmeut, r. 20. 

' Iq the m/sieriouB -woris on her itatue. higher mynlorl*» wtn 
•ought, MHfl a «j>euliil luHgicnl (loner aat^ribod to llictn. Se? C/em. 

Are», tt OSS, tad »n«r ihetc, foruM -■( locuauiioa wen coodU-uctn^ 


TAVL'i tvsäswt v> j|t;t»)otl 

iiere aliio the Jewish majric, oonucctiiii; ilj«l!* with 
liQftthenitih, nuu^ht to liud tiiit.ruiioe. TLe äjiml vf tliv tiiui 
disHitigliiid with nil the r-iintia«; tvlijipotui, mxxi cngor 
somutltiiu new, wivi ravonrabl'! to all nach atumpts. 

After Paul had pi'eached th(^ gospel fir throe incmthB in thi 
^fuagogiw, }u! mim iuJvicoJ, \>y tlia uiifrii^niU^v di.iiHwilii 
manircvted by a piirt of the Jews t« tuiii his ntlcaljou to the 
Gentii<^ and irn't Hia hturer» <Uitly in ti imhonl iKtlongingM 
«tie of iheir iiunibür, a rhctoriciAii. utimod Tyi'annuB. It 
muet Impurtuiit that the diTiiiQ pitwer wbiufa uucuinpuiiicd 
proinuliflition of ilie goBf*! should manifest itself in aotne 
»trikinjj; in.iiiiii«.r, ui oppuisl.ioii to Ihv nu^o no pivvnlont 1. 
^*liicii lijiK^apiitrerilij great effectfltJeucived audcaptira: 
niftny,— in urdor to ivscuc men from iheao orbt <A' dt^cepti< 
uid prepare ttiutr hearts tu ruiiciTe t!i6 truth. Aud tliuugk 
carnal " soeking aftci" signs" miirLt hiive tempted niea ( ~ 
tiw (iiiSfi Siiiiuii) ti eloavi) süldy lu theaeuühht pIvMionionoi 
In which the puwer of llie diviui> mas mauifüstud. Mid 
ru^'unl ChrUiliuuity itsulf ii.« a new tuid higher kind of 
» luiMt powerful counteraction ogaiiiBt such a t«niptAtioii p 
cttv'iied iVoni tho goniim of Cliristinnity, when it really futi; 
iLii (.'iitniiicu iut(> the huart. One rvumrkublc uuciirreuco wbici 
tfiok plaoQ at this time greatly contributed to set in 
uleai-eirt light the oppositioa whii-h Christianity pro»eni«d lo 
nil Efuoh atm of jugglery. A uumbcr of J^wiäh doi-tio in-. 
queuted these parts, who protenilvd that they coiUd e\|>cl 
Kpirits fruin possL'ssed [torsions liy tnuunii of incaiitntions, 
gatJons, tho \ujc of cCTtiMQ hcrlis, and other ana, wliicti 
natl durivei] Ironi King Solomon;' iind ibtae poople could 
times, whetlier by yrtat dtsxterity in deooiving the Knuo^ tr 
by availing thumeelves of uertaLu powcre of nuttuxt anJuwin 
to iilh(ii% or hy Lhu iaäiience uf an mcited iotagjiutioai. 
prodnoe apparently great «Sects, though none wludi Kftll^ 
prumotud thu wulfaro of uiooldiid. ' Wlieo tbo&e Hewuk 
Uo^t» beheld the eSeata «hioh Paul prodaced hy udUng at 

iih'mh wcro auppoaeil to pteüeas gie«t elBcacy, the Kxillcd '£«'««• 

' See JiwlJn. Dial c. Trypli. Juil. f. 311. eil. Coluii, 

' TliP cnn» Ihi-y [wrforcnL-d wem «■nicI-iTDra roUoired by «till sraUT 
cril», M Chnnt lilciLHcirintiraates would li« ibeutu«; Luk« . ' — "" 
»tM Letien Jt»H. p. SHI. 

In- J 




iitf JfljiM, ibc; ftlso attempuxl to aiai>e nse of it bh 
_ l^lMnnlä for tlie eiorcism of ovil fjtirita. Thf> 
BpjMr oonaequenoes of tliis attempt mcute a p'\rirrfii] 
imprcssioo oa rnoDj, «bv, ub it «pi)car«d, had wrUiuly bctii 
moTcd In' tho luiracalous operatiüns of llic ftpasüt^ so u to 
Ackoowledgfl Jams u Ibc author of diviiie powe» in meii, 
but iinaffiucil llwt ihme [wwcrs cyyW t)o cmployud ia tbe 
semees of their iinful pnttio». and i« coiuiejilon with thoir 
nun magical nrU. But Uürified br tbo dinutcr to nbich we 
have referred, they now came to the apostlo, and pmfvMvd 
repeiitancu for tliuir »infill ooiir^, and lieckivd their resolu- 
Liuu U> (onaikti it Bookä full of nutgiaU funnuhu, leinch 
amoiuitcd id T»ltic to mora thun ''titty pice«« of silver/' wcra 
lin>ught togetlici' and puUhdy litinit. Tliis triumph of thu 
t^pel over all kindu of calhusiiwm »nd arts of dect'ptiou wua 

Kphesiu won a noted reuddrous for men of Tarious kindii 
of reli^ovi»l)oliol^ wliü flocked hith«* fmin various parts of 
tiie east, aiwl thrw wore brou^t under tlw influeuco of Oliri*- 
tionity; amoiig:it. i>lln!ni, Paul here, anut with twi'Ivt; disciple» 
of John the liiipiiat, the indmdufll who was comröi^öncd liy 
God lö pnipu'e fv>i" the appcnr»noe of the lledeouier among 
bis tuLtit^iu uud ojuteiiipiiranea ; but, as vms usnnl nith the 
prcpuratAry nmnifeatations of the kingdom of God, diflcrcnt 
«fibct« were produced nceording ta the different susceptibility 
of his lienrviv. Tln're wi-ru thuha vi Li* dieciples who, follow- 
ing hie direotions. attained to a living faith in tho Rjjdeenier, 
asd Koine of whom bocii.oiü upostli» ; «thera only attnined n 
very defective knowledge of tho pei^on and doctrine "f 
Christ ; others n^in, not imbibing ths epirit of their ma£t«i', 
held IW ttitsr furiner prejudinL-s, and assumed a hostile 
attit^udc tofl-ards Christianity ; probably the first gei'iu of 
8>ioh .111 (ippneition appmred nt this time from which the spct 
(if the disciples of John wiw foruiL'd, whiuh (Continued to cxixt 
in a later n^. Thosu disciples of John with whom Biid met 
at Kpheimji, belonged to tine second uf theae clnsses Whether 
tlioy had become the disciple« of John himself in Pah*tino 
and receivc'l iNiptiaui fruiu liiui, or whtjt.hor they had iwon 
iron over to hi» doutriue by m>Qauti of his dinciples in utliur 
I, — (whieli wuidd serre to provu tliut John's Uiaoijilea 
inwd at forming a supiuate oommunity, which acceaitarilj 


Paul'» sounxKr to aktiooh. 

vuuld AooQ ftasuine a jeaJo<u and Ii<.tetil6 [inMtJou agiblA 
ChriKtiunity on it» finrt »[lid «iircacij— at. iill went«, tluj 
liad received the liUia thev luid limrd of iJie person iiDd Atk- 
tiins of JeaiiE && ilia MMsiali. ia vhom John pointed iäa 
follciwtira, niul (ronüidiTL-d t.kjMtuwIvi^a junt.ilivd in prufusiiiig tu 
Iw Christkna' like nthcra. I'aul bolicvod that bo sboold fimil 
tiitm Kudi ; but. on further convcraition witii them, it 
a|j[ieiired that tln'v uuderstood aotliing of tlie power of tt^ 
ylcriüej .Suviour. und of the coniiaiiniai.tioQ of diTinc lile 
thivjugh him,— tliftt they knew nothing of a Holy Spirit. Pnd 
th«H impiirtod tn thoiii niorn aiiimrntie instnicti»!» on tKc 
n-lftliuii IkjIwo-ii the miuiMliiy uf John and l)ia.t, of Ortis'. 
Iwtween tlie baptism i.>f Jnfin and the liaptiaiii which wuL.iii 
initiiiti! tljiTtii into uoniiiiumciu with Christ, und into a. paxüä- 
palioii «f tlio diriiic life thnt proceeded from him. After 
thur, Iiu Ijiiiitintcl tht'ni in llic imiriv uf ChriM, with tlio tiKil^ 
contiouiutiun liy the sign of the ltL^in|,'-c>u of liauda Mid the 
iiuconkpativiiig ]mi_}'cr ; and ilii-ir iTci:ptioii into ChriAiBn 
fellowship «Hit twnled by thn iiKunl mauifestationH of Cbmtiui 

I'lLul's roaiduiicu at Ephi^tiut wits not only of vonsidenUi 
iniportanoe for the spread of L'hristitmitj thraDj^hdut Afla 
Minor, P>r which object lio incosniitly luboured eiihet 
uudertiiking Journeys hinuelf, ov by means of dwcipl«! wboi 
h» sent out an tniesionaries ; but it vim uIho n great advuii 
fur thu cliurt^hi.'S thnt wi-ru iilr^ndy formed in th!» nffoa, 
from tliiu cenl.ral point of intereoiiree ho couJd motit cfläily 
i-eceiv"? intfiligeiii;« from all qmul«!«, and, by means of letttn 
or measBugerB, could attend to tbeir rehgi-oiia and monJ «a- 
ditioti, u£ tho Dccesaities uf the cfaorcbes might require. Hi> 
anxiety for these htH apiritunl »hildrcm alnityx ae^ompaoutd 
him : he often rt^miuded tbctn that he iximeaibLTud tli«n) 
duly in his piuycr^ t^ith thotik^vtng und intvi'vceeion ; Ui'u 
ha assured tlie ('orinthianH. in the ovei-flowingof his ]mv, ihit 
tM bore thoni cnntinunlly iu his hnart ; and TiTi<lly depiclid 
cia didly eoi-e for all the uhnrrhtie he had fuundod oy ))i* 
touching üitPiTogatioüB. '*' Who in wuiik in fiiitb and ] am ddI 

' The niLin« ^a^il. Acta six. 1. without an; other dmignUiOB. «A}' bt nodcritood only of the dinriplet or J«ini!ii noil ih« nuDuU 
ill kIiIoIi I'hiiI udilroni«^ tbem impliok luul Ihujr mn oonstdcroJ Id U 



TAvVt jotntmiT TO mmocB. 



w«fllc 1 Who meets with a slnnabling-blook and I am not dis- 
turbed even mon: tlun himseirr 2 Cor. sL 29. 

Cu« cf Mia bftter kiiid must oft«n have excited the grief 

of the kpoAle ; Ibr us tlie Chrutiau faiUi gnultiallj gaiut'd 

tlio tuwendency and uflected the geneml toue of Uiitikiiig in 

•ooiet^v, aew views of life in goaeral, aad a. new oiode cf feel- 

j tng were formed in ti\o G^nlile wurld ; nnd in ot<|>ositioa tu 

tbe immonil lic^utioueneas of LeatheDiaiu. nhich meo were 

led to Tvuounce by the .new piiuciplee of the Christian life, tui 

>on<»isl>' lega] and Jewish mode a( thinking, which burdened 

the oouduct with uiunberlew reetmnis, waa likelir to l^nd an 

eotnuice, and must tiave disturbed the miuda ot uuiuy who 

bad not attuned settled ChriHtian con^ictiotia 

^L Probably it was anoc. aüer bis oiriTol nt F^pliesiiH that 

^P Paul reoeivt^ iofomuitiua reepsotiug Üie state of tho Galatian 

^ chiircbeH which awakenud IiIb fmrs, [hiring bin liwt 

riMiden» among thgm, be had perceived the inacbinutiuna 

tit ft Judaizing party, which were iiltely to mjtuTi the jmrity 

I of the ChriHtiaii f^th and the fretd^im uf the Christian spirit, 

H He TiU ftwaro of the danger whidi tltrcntened from thia 

^^quarter, unc) had taken meiusitrea to counterwork it ; he waa 

^BD06 Bocoesifiil, however, in arertiug the approaching Gtorm, 

^■•BB he no« ctpciicDced to hia great sorrow. 

luie advenaries wliom ho had here tu mntend with were 
unwilling to ncknowledg« hi& apostolic authority, because he 
had not been inatruet^d and taUsA to the apoaUeahip imme- 
dütöly by Christ himself; they maintaino'l tbiLt rU preiwh- 
ing of the gospel must reet on the authority uf the apoatle« 

rwho wo™ appointed by Chiist himself; they ondfövvoiirod 
to doteot a coiitnui<!ty bctWBEH the doctrine of and the 
doctrine of the ajH^sties, who had allowed the observanoo of 
tbe law in their cbiu'cbos, and siccuäed him in eonseiquenee 
of ■ depart ure from the pure doctrine of Clirist, They 
«otüd aleu appeal to the fiwit, timt he repreaeutüd himswf 
whwi among the Jowa as a Jew observing the law. and there- 
fore, wbuo he taught otherwise among live Oeatilea, he could 
«uly do it in order to flntter them, to the injury of their ti-ue 

Although tiie anti-PiiuIiiio t«udonoy in the Otiliiti&n 
cburchet vfiw coonectod with that party which had its prin- 
cipal seat in Palestine, yet peiwus who proceeded Eruin the 


Paxil's jouaancr ro axtioch. 

midst of the fJentile ChrirtiauB.' and li«ul toibmiftod t.i dr- 
(üiuioisiöri, iiuLml liL-ro jiriuctijiiUly dk Uie orgaua of Üüb l"nt_T, 
Mid ctcTMscd tho Ri-eatoet infiueoco. To »iich the vronls uf 
Pikiil in (iiil. vi. 13 must rdntc; that ev«n tliose wbu tn^H 
circiLmcieed, or wiah&i to be so, did not. thcnisciv«« observe 
the law. TlitBO inuöt. have k-in origiimlly (iMitilt«, luid, oo 
this Biippuatiün, it ia leas difficult to unduRtjind. how be eoaid 
Miiy i>f tiium thiit tlioy thcmsc-lvcK did not oh.turvu the l&w^ — 
for to pciaona who bad grovTi up ia bcstboiilau, it could not 
bu HO uLsy u uiiitlur to practi)«) IJiu coinplulo ruund of Juviiih 
obaervauceH. But. u» is moot jjenwuUj the caae with jirotie- 
lyt*.-«, tlicy vura pL-culiarly zcaloiut for the party to «hic^ 
II lit withstanding their Grertin.ii di^Booiit, they had devoted 
thonisolves, a.iid their inili.iouco with tlieir cminn'ymeii WW 
tiu- uiun duu^eruus tbiui that of thu JowLtb Uläö \xaxiheiS- 

äuub a. mixture of Judaisiu mid Christianity tfamtGOel 
to di!stiviy the wbule essence i>£ CliriKt.imiity, lujd to nabstitsle 
a Jowish ceretaouiol servic» in the pUco of B goauui« Cbrifr- 
tiuii conversion piuci.'eiljng irum u bvtog faith, aud the dangv 

' Thia tutiruly dcpe&d» upuu Rti«(ticr mx odvpt the ttctia rrxfjUa it l8,irf(JiTc^i'J;in'in,ox[lia reading of ihccu(if3:ra(iamM#»pjin 
bj Lnchmanii (jiini Tliclicniiorll'] Ttgnrrinintiioi. \ cinitot belp ■ 
siilcriiiK llii' ilrrL (wliicli linn Uie gitaium iiumbirf u( orif;tItal NUtboii 
iti iu fttvour) u tliu aarracl rutdiug. punly on tiiii ici-unm, that < 
oaiiiiol iuinglue ttny rMwn wliy mij' one ^luuld bu laduced to ct|liia.i 
the luttcr, It word roquirinR n.o cxptiinntkn. hy thu foraisr, a IBM 
ililScuH MIC. and on lli« contrary, ilimt; ly«oii)lly accounU-d for, tiu*4 
perHoa uiigiit tliiuk at uxploiniug tlio fumicr Uy tlic ^niivr. If tk 
igctiii recrpUi be tho cdrroot odc, »tit] tb« «xprvwiixi ciiiinot refer lo eir 
cutilcUu4 Jews, bill only In Gentiles wha lulTvrcd ihcmiclvoa to t«<I^ 
GiiiUL-iHEd. Tlittt the QiDtit indupnlisl ««duufm ut lliu ttulaliim diiudia 
»ore eai^b, appear» to me I« he intlniAlad by llic «ard iwanSi^mat, v. i\L 
llaiii:« [uuy i« bil.Wr tfxplu.iuud IJi« iiiijiaii«i<iiiril U'liiix. i>rtKoedillg&«B 
u iTuly liiJy icnl, Vltli -wUlub Paul ipc-nki n^innt ttvuK p«noae. V 
tircumcieiuft \na nut emiiigh fur tli«ui. hi Uicu bavc eteino» lä»; 
if, falling' iiwiiT frotii tUcivligionofittiiiipirit, ibuv^u-vk UioirMiratlMiiB 
these oiitwani woctlituv LbiiiK»aiid would mEikciliomwhi* ilcpaulcu 
upcvti lhi:m. 'i'liir imthoB wiLh whidi lie here nnka. UAtifle« Ilia Mil 
fill liie halv^ttoD or «QuI«, and for the eleiiied spiritual «liBrBctar*f i.y, mid ii^niiiisL all (^oreniDDiul nvrviuua. by which ChrlsUnilf 
mid liniiiEin natiirn would be degnuled. And tlitn Ih do ottUi» 
tat the apol/jfjv Tnodti by Jerome, nltbough *hat h« «ay« i» c«rr«<t, (ktt 
wu tiiiirl niill l:—\ Ml f.lio »iKiitle M Biau siibjcul (C RUtntUI affotlMMI 
" N'cL' tniiunt isiu (i Apoiiatun. ut hoino «t udhu« VMculii 
inliimo iuiditI fin'ril. hoi; luquuiiui, in quae! fraqucnlor 

tail I! IP t""^!''*-'!»!!)«." 

Meuld clauM I 

t'ß joduret to Ajmocir. 


vliirJi tlitiH tbruHtunvil tbe divine work niuJ« it deep impre»- 
non on llio aposile*. In »nlor to (five tlie tlnhrian Cbris- 
tiiuw nn evidence of hU love, of which lliß Juilaizei^ winhed 
U» ftscita a niistniet, find to ninko it i?virleat what iinpoHaood 
ho ntJkiUfcl to tliii Hul'jcut, liL- uzii.lL'rti.i>k to write an iipi« 
to tliciD tpif/i his own luind, oontritn' to liis iiaiiol cuHtnm, and 
a liiHicult tit^k for anv. u-h», nmiilKt liiit nuioirolil engngomciDtB, 
Hiwl littl* prac'lica \a wit ting (!r*ek.' 

He k'-giii» liifl cpiKlle with dediwit]}: lliJilr his Hiiurtoliü call 
was ffiveu him immediaiely by Cluiat Ulmaclf, aa to i]ii> other 
apTHlJi'» ; liG tt-vniires tite iiutuliiiti Ctiri^t.innK iii n mr-xt Bolomn 
luiuuiur that tlnoti; could bo an oibor ^'oepol than tliiil< wliicii 
be had aiinoiincecl to them, and that it wiw far frum his 
t]iou),'htH to bu infitwucL'd W tin? iluslre of hi« pluLiitig nie« 
in liiH moJt' 1)1' fiiiljiishiny iLu gosjiut;' thoiigli wLca on- 
llii-alli)d in Fhai'iwiisii). he was airtuatüd only "hy a ri.'jpml to 
liunuin nutliority, B\il sine« lio had devoted himself to the 
,aerTivö of Chriat, lie liud ituiuuuctid all Buuh uoiuidumtiotu, 
1 taufjUt and acted iu gbedience to the dlviu» rail, as rc- 

• Allhoiiph the pro|)cr muanlng of the Oruok TnjWuo.i, Qiit v\. 11, 
iroultj ]r;[iL IU 111 iiTMlui--L;(iid it u» rf^rcri^l»!^ U> rhu lur^u nueliupolj I^LI^rs 
(if au unjimuilicd nriLcr, ,vct I cuuld aovtr Ijuii ia llio nunlH eu uziilor- 
stiixl. Uli i^xpn'rviuu tuiTtiajiuLHiiiiif lii tliu eiiriiPhliiuMB uf llie u[iOHtle, 
and I'hn U)nc of tli« nholn cpi»tlt;. Wliy ^liniilii lii; not biiti; cx[ireiweil, 
in a luiir« niittinil iiDLUjiar, bow toilKa*iti<; lie liai! Ibuiid Üia tiuk of 
mari^ly writing in llii« languai,'«] Sen Si-hiiU'« CnnitiKüiiaQ-. Wtatv 
iovUned lo btli^ve. llist ho ui«° the word i>i tlie li?>--i tiroptr ecriHe 
for Mtfo.t, uv ill UK Idlor liutia iLuLbor» WO ofleti fiinl ijiimiH fat tjvtif, 
AttdTcTnuj Tofcrit mo*t nitiurallj- to the whole dpiülc. m "'ri(ii>n witii 
kU oivD luiutl. U «ill utiiij Kjcroo witli tliv uw or the vronl Yf^f^ra. 
whdi tt['i>lii:il In Ml cpiitln. But, ou tliu ulUer hiLiiil, llio iih« of tha 
ilnrirc iii tliis ciuv in unusual, ami not ngrc«u.blL< lu thu l^iilino jitimw- 
ologj'. mid ti> Cha fruiiioint use it the wonl VirinTsA);. fi)r nii «plHEl«. 
Thr Ti.VKciiL of hi™ •'rii.iug the ivhiilo o[iistl« witli Ijm uwii hutid, *nia c«r« 
Uiln)}^ imt lo piurii ngaiutt \ fnlsifi-ciiiion ol" it,, ur ihc (orfiury of ikiiutliix 
ia hi* 114111^^ for liiH c>p[»(iiiniit«, iu LliiH iitiiOLiivM, woi^i iiiiiLi.iriiol«iiiptB4 
tjon lo do lliii, nini;') they »era not dcnruu« of nnirri l>iac tu him nn; 
olbcr ilouCriDc t<liäa thai bf bl^ ovm, but were lA i»*iiG wiih him ruspi-'ci- 
iRjf tbu UiiLli u{ ilmt ilavtriai), and actiuillj ImpLt^-iiiiLl hin niiiinLiilic 
tathotiiy. Tbc count»oii of iho pnwr^R pUmiy iihnwn m f.pi ivliat 
[rarpoM! hu m uiprvvly »tnluvl that be liail ivritUiii Ihu whoii) with hi« 
own liiinil, — riatTiply. Iu lctü(y llmL hi» luve fur thriu imiiitad hiiii to 
nndurifu any liibuut uii I heir ^■roiiiit. lamnlreti wirh i.iie trilic tciulien 
«hom ho bod ilvacriUtl iu llie rolluwiug ««nuis us EL«Liiig i.huir own 

* The Judaixo» ikwuwd hira if thb la roleRit^ti lo the Oentilw. 



spcwüljle to Oml nJiine.* He pr(ive<l to llktiii hy a \aäi 
Btateiueut or fiicts, Uiat trota Üia lint lie iiuliliülied the geegd 
in couMi^utiDcu of imiiii-ilintc iliviiic illumiiuiticiii. xnd incU'pte- 
tlcatlj uf all bumao authority ; and tbal tlic other ii{K«tici 
hiul ttckitowlcd^tl liis indÄ^xnident apuBl.olio duiftuccr.) 
U'ith the firiuoHt oonviclioD that ealvatidu and iJ] the fuhun 
of tlie divuio iil'c vrnm t'j U.* foimd (>iJ_v b_y faitJi iu the cnici- 
tied, ha tums to the Galatjan ChiiBtluns with the excIaiuatioB, 
" Yu fiicl», who hnth HO liowitchcd _v(>u '■ to for^ut Jokim ÜM 
Crucified, whom wo haTc tot forth before yowr »yes H tht 
only p-ouiid 111' «ur mlvution, »ltd to seek iii mitwärd tiling 
iu tlic würltB uf the law, that talvatiou for which ye must be 
itidulitud t(i him ulorm I Arc ye so void of midunitaiidiug 
that after ye have begun your Chrisdanity id the spirit, in 
the divine lil'e which proceeds (Vom fuilh, ye con Beök aft<f 
something higher still (th« perfecting of your ChriaUaaity,} 
in the luw, tlie seiLsiioiis, and the earthly, in tluit which call 
have no elfvatiug mfiucooe on the inner life of th« Bpiric, in 
the ubserviince of outward ceremonies !" He appeals to the 
«vidäiitiu of ttjeir owu e:(|)eneti(.'e. that tliou^h Dunt thefird 
the gi)ä{iii! )iad bi^eu puhhab«d to thiim iudep^nrleiitly of the 
law, yet by vlrtiia of fiiith in the ItoduoiiiL')' idoiie, the dJTiw 

' Kulinuler mlsuiiiier9tAri<l>i Qnl. i. IU, whi^o he appllei It <iiili W 
Join Buil Jiiilnliing ChriMtuiFi If wt K|-pl} Lliv a»>erUoB bvrv inidl 
In Llie aiort gcncial IciniR. aivoniliDg to thv wnw Inttniled b; Paat. wt 
titM vuilnmMiiil it uf Gontilc* SuJ Guiililr CIlctxLiiUi«. Pltiil wiabo] ul 
licfpntl liimiulf apiinst the MpUBal.iun of llio JfWi, thit be wilfullj IklriJ 
ti-A l.ho itiK'l.riuo uf Cliiia', iu onlvr U> miücc it oecoptaLlq t« ÜWi 
btftthciL. Tliu i^Ti mulu (lit «iipoFiJiiun vf bit ci>U(!u<t m Ibe MMt^ 
Xiiim-ov Lu Ills I'uruior PluriMiiim, gf wtuul) he uftorwardt *pDak> ntm 
01 lsr;(p- Tili« view of the passoj^ dueii uwaj wlili an Isferenoe whiA 
Ni^hnuler aiMmpu In dniir (loin it. ili«l riiul «mW vhi« cplule daniij 
lliü tiiuv (it liin imprisonui^iit at IttiBiH, 

' Tlie chifif piiliitH H'liiiiti it, whb im[intUnl Tor ibo tptwtle ia ml»i)liih 
«■«re ihM6;-tliiit hvtare he nt&do itU tirHt joiirnf>y lo JeTVM]«tn, i 
111» convfr-ion, he hiui nppcArfd tu nn iml ope intent prciielütr of ' 
g'niipcl^i liat hi* lir»it jiiuniL-y l.w JuniKalfiiii liiu! allUKntiiut & «liflön 
olijcei from being tauglil lij tlic npoitle« tlic riclit uicthod of |<r<act>ln| 
lliv |[UH|ial~^iiiiil Ü\M iL wjit n<%l till ndcr ha Itad prcwvlivil tlie rwfl 
■lonu for aoiuc yrnm. lliiil hr vonvemtKl with tli« uioat dSnüugiitwol I 
the kpcislliui. to wlioiii tilic JmliitL-ra ilicmtelvc« were «oat toi 
m>|ii«l.iii^ Iht-ir iliTcruut itivilitiii, aiiil iiutwitliHioniling tbai diArenc*.'' 
ihcf ■till unknDwIcdgnd biin ub h genuine spiMlIü. Paul'« ol^Ml bj M 
ncauH ni<)iiii'«il a n.'0:ilal <if all li'ta joiimRVH lii JcnMslviii. Set ll 
nmiTka M Ba.u<tr in lU« Tul>i"si'!r Zri'aritnfi, ISSli l^ut 4, f. l)fc 




' fiTttie go^l had revealed iUelf among tliem bv mani- 
opciatioiu^ imioTig which hu rciiknned the tiiimclcM to 
«hidi he kUti<2(» in clap. iiL 6. 

As his op|)Oueut8 supported theiuKolvui on the authori^ of 
the Old Tostftcneut, I'm!) liioin, on the uÜter liaud, tluit die 
Siol lum or its coDtcQU irns to prcpiurc for the appearance of 
ihe Kedeamei-, by wliuia the wall cf »epiuntiou that had 
hitbertt) «aiiitdd tisaoag men «ua tu he tji.keii auay, uod aII 
tnun by yirtue of bicb tu him «rvru to rcwivc d •Jivini; life; 
titu tho pronuBes vnvcn to Abraham voi-e uinexed to the 
cooditiäu of fiiith, and would I« ftilhlled in all who wen? fol- 
loTun of Abrahmii in Qitth, tu hia jfvuuiiH! nptrituitl <:hililr«i:i ; 
that the DUiülestatioD of the law ronnL<d ualy a preparatory 
intOTvcniiig [wriod between the givinjj of the promise and it« 
fuUiUuent by the appearanoe of the llodecoior. Uo pUoed 
Jwlaiam and histtlmiiisTn — tliungb, in other reqwct», li« 
tien^ these rttli^iouB uh tnüuntiEiJly dÜFerunt — iu one dfu« in 
rohttioD to GhriHtianilv ; the i^tanilüig- point of pupilln^ in 
religion, in relation to the Ntaiidiog-ptiint of maturity wliich 
the «hildran of God attained for the tiill enjoyment of their 
ri^ta ; tiit! Ktiuiding-pohit of the dependence of ruligiuii uti 
«ulvmrd, semible ÜiingNL, an outward ciütus, conBisting in 
ToriAiu Gorvmonica iu r«latiu]i to the standing-point of a 
i^igion of fretNluiu (which proceeded from bitb) of th« 
spirit, and of the inward life. 

Ab his oppancntM chaitrod him with a want of npnghtneaa, 
and with roloasin|f the G«ntUea from the biirdcneoiiio ob«Kvr- 
Yancs of the law, merely from a wiali to ingratiate htiu^clf 
with thsra, he eould adopt no more suitable method of vindi- 
cating liimMitf, iuul of iiiFileing couädeace iuto the OiJutiiiQ 
Cliristiaiis, than hy profKiüiig tlie example of hia own tifti for 
imitation. Ho lived among the (jentiles as n tiontile, with- 
out Hiibuiitting tu tliu runtrictioua of the Moniic J^w, w)iii:h 
certainly h« would not have done if he had liclievcd that it 
was impowihle to nttAii» the full poasesaion of the bl««iii(rt of 
tho Memali'u kiiigdom without the observiiii<.-u of tlie law. 
Ueuco he made tliin dunuuid ou the Guliitiane (iv. 1:^,)' "^^ 

Erne ait I am (in reference to tha uon-oijsüi'viiuna of the law), 
■ I l^rM wilti r>i«rl lo the ciii>Urintian of cliii-i' w«9'iln. Thai th« 
ilarian* h^ m tlut limv siln^t«! ili« jjrsoncc af Jcwinli cuniinoiiii'*, 
sail tiitnron i*>nl imulil not lo Ihin rrsp.-rL xu}-, " I uii bciwaio Ikka 
JM,'— ^aa knu a<t iriiUil ottlcettoa to (lib iQUrpraMtii^u -, toi ibv U»I^ 


PAtn:^ jocRxsT it jxtiocb. 

for I am bccomo a» you nrc, like jon as tientiles iu t 

(il«(^n»jitii!e of titc liiw, nlllioii^h a nativo Jew." Now, if h« 
iiioihoil uf lieuuiiiiii^ U) tliü JvwH n Jt-w. W ulncrvin^ iLa 
ocrmniitiies of tlic liiw wliim oiiiangst tbciu in I'alcHtine. liäd 
lieeij at idl incunBiatoiit with «hitt ho lioro wiitl of himmif. )« 
would noi Imvc njipoaled willi siicli eoiifidenco tu liia bin 
exiun|jl& liul., iu,'i;imliiig tu liia uwn ^niic^iple«, eiich a ow- 
tmiUcti'iii cmM nut esisl : for, if he did not constaDtly 
nliKurvö tJiti iwrc'tnonJvii of Liu, but ntiW iilk-W n^miin 
rcIntiouH aa<l ciicumfilaucoE- tliiä aufflcicutW dio^'ed tluu be 
iiu luiijiur iwpriljed to thoiii au olyttetivv importAiiw. Uwt 
a«w>ixliiig to liis oonvictiot) tliey I'nultl cuiiirilm*o uutlitiy lo 
the jiietiHcBti'Jii luid siiuctificiitidn of invn ; and mi ttii» vm 
iiix priiidple in refonaoco to (Jl outwFinl. and in tiiL-niKciTU 
iiwlitforcnt thin^, ho <inly mibmittcil to t)icm for th« beiwlil 
vt otlitii'8. ucuijiiuiig t<j the diclutet) <jf vtisdom uiid lovu, 

1'itiil uiilli'd ii[K)n the (.tHlut.iiUui tu Kt.'itid fiim in the liboty 
gained f[ir tliuw by Chrini, utui imt to in'iu^ tbumscilve« apuo 
uu'ier the yoho of bomlafM, Ho wwiifii i-hcm, thai if they 
^verc c'iri^iiiiidKed, f'hrtKt wuiihl pri'lit tlifiii iioiliin-; ; that 
evury tnim who Miihtuittttil to oircuuiüinioii wcus Imuiid i» 
ribeerve tho whole law ; Üinl Binge thcv »lUL'bt to be ju-ff : 
by tho Ift.w, l.h()_v had renniiiiced Uidr noniiHiion with l.'lr.-" 
they were fiJlfln fi-om tlie poswsaiou of gnu«, A\'liut he ii' • 
sav», is hy n« mt'iiriti iiicrmnisitrt will» hi» aUovitig Tin. r',' 

to be circumcised, iiud accoiiiinüdating hixnsclf in ovi 

tiKigc« to Ihn Jewish Ciu'istini)ai.' For he mmiu! not otn' 
oii'uuraL-isioii considcrcd in ititclf, but in its oouuexiuti ■-■ i 
Hk rvli^oits principle iiirolv-ed in it, ns far aa Uw Ut..i::.t 
who Muhroitted to oirL-rnnoiHion did so in ih» c-CinTtotiou IM! 
by it, n.nd thordfore hy tho law (to wbcisc olwcrvaiice a "^ " ~ 
was bcmiiii Itj circiintciAiou) jUHlifl<»ti4>ii waa to 1« obiü 
And this Mnvictioii stood in direct opposition Ut that liL-p- 
«ittun whioh felt iud«bted to tho Siiviaiu- iilunu for snlvatiou- 

tiui Cliri>liitiii, nil or wljum ceriuiiiiy Und iiiit «lurotail iticiiiMlrw (• 

tlin olisnrFiiTire nf thn Inn-, Bill) licInnit^H In tho «lock of the fli illlw. 
«ad with till» vii'iv. rht ti^rm imit in qwH. 

> K'tii bnliR-vM That liR Uas ,lc\cflc4tM itiPfinaijiti-Dcr in {irUtrliMt 
anii bciii.-c I'lMiolii Jeil, Ihat lIiih cpinl.lo bctonicrcl to nu otrüfr |MiHi>a 13 
th« a|>i»tlr.'A hrR, prcrcding the ni!(i»tolic «onvooiiliän. mho« ia bvv lint 
mat iifuT hU L'oiivi-ninii li« iiirbiltnHl in ■ ruilo TebciuaaM *£>•*' 
JdiImubj which ■ftcrwu.rili wm noftviud. 

rADL's JouBNBr TO Asmxxa. 


_^_Tlio upostle. uj coutrastiiig his true upright love tciUieGala- 

ClirUuiiii^ villi liie [iroteii'.M teal uf tho JixlAixers fiir 

■ satvatiuii, riuiii V> Uiisia, '■" Tiiej hiivi: n z-iid on jour ac- 

' wuitt, bun nut in tUe rijcht wiiy ; bm liwry wiah tocxchide yuu 

fiMtn the kiii^'-loia »f Cn^il in order that yon may bo eealous 

I uboat th<iin, tliat in, limy wish to jx^ndutd« you, tliat yon 

caiiiivt lut iiiiuiruiimuiaoil Ucutilcs cntur the kiugdom of tiud, 

iu (irder that yuu inny umiihiUi thoin, thai yon may be cir- 

uuinoi«i(l Its tlicy an;, as if thus only yoTj can bocoino memlicm 

of titc kiaploui ufCiml. Thn."ewtio anj dispoueJ of their nut- 

nml prvöiiiiuoiife (of outwiirtl Judaitni), üompel you to bo 

I Gi.rouULi:iaL'd »nly tliiit tbdy may Qi^t be perseatiiäd witli tlie 

' m<x6 c-r UhrUt, that is, with ihü ciocCrlne of Olirifit the Cmci* 

fied. as tht only gr<.iuinl of ailvnLimi. that they niiiy not bu 

1 «biiijud to owo thöir anlvation to Hiia iiioiii-, auil to reutiunütj 

' hU their tuurit«, uU iii wbiuh Uiey tliiiik theraselvoa dls- 

tipgitiuhed above otiicm. ' They wish you to be oircuniiiisüd 

^m ■ 1 liar« »•(<>;<( xn liiUrprvLutiun of Ittc «ordit in Qal. tI. 1 i, diSetvut 
^B from llint »-liicli fnini nucient ümos his hean recoii'BiI by nioiit Mpo- 
^B «Itur«. nail wlikh, -witli'iTit. In-ing rloeely eziimine>], bns bcun mflutinncd 
by ücleri only with uTi<]uuliltcd liiaupprdbittion. 1 will therefore lUitu 
I ft tnw Lliiiijr« iu ill ftiiriiiir. Tdc coimiuiu eiplniinUüii of tlici fiananjfi' i», 

('■ Th«Ji; ptrion« compel you la he clrciitndnoil, only bcpiiu-c thcj" uro 
ntX' wllliu.^ l.ii liij fJCrwumtinl for Ihj croe» of Ghm\. ; thai U, la «tiler to 
KVoid the pcracciitloiu which tlte putilio^ti-oii of the? ductriu« of JiisliB- 
«iiU«B (liroQKlh Tuitli almii.'. in Jl-^im thu Cnii'üii^d. will briii^' upon tlicoi 
from ill« Jp*^" Tb« iiw uC tlic diilivc .'uit.i tlii« inU)r])rata.liou. 
BUhn»j;ti I bellevu Itiat ti^ui, if he Umi wi«liud to i,'lvi: uturauco to ibiif 
iuul|)le thoHght. «uuld huve ciprnsscil liimEcIf mnto pluiiily. Ojti. v. II 
Is In fflViiiirof tikli inti>n>roiAtiaa, wliura Paul Hay« ol' liimtelf, that il 1 1 
«till iJreiwh«J the neuusaiiy of tiireummsiun. then the ott'eniie wliidi tim 
Jsvfi took .11 UUrintiarii'y, on Müoiint üf tbi.' dantrirß thit n miti Ijj) 
fiiilb in tlkc Cruüitiäd. uii^lit heoocit^ an hulr of ilie kiu^rdom of bvaVL'ii, 
wltht^ut tIjLj a-lmurviLniTfi iif thu Iüw — -wciiilil At oek'i^ Iii; l.-.Lk.ii[i AVfft)', kitil 
Ihat uu ntiuan would bu loft f'lr pcrMKulm^ biui aa a prEDolivr of 
ttio gmpob iJHt In nriliir lii> nvoUl «uuti |iui>ei:u,tii>ii» on Ihn (jurb a( llic 
foira, ItiBW pvniotu acod only abecrvv Iho Inw xLriotly tliemnelv«it, Rnrl 
biwkre it p^bUHllt))^( tlic ilni^trirKr. tlitit u mini i^nuld biiJn.-iüGcd witb- 
loat. iho »Mrk« of tlio law; hy «j tjienua H'tmUl th^ij '.biTi^l>,V be ohllj^cd 
It« praM circumcii'lan »O urgently on tlic l>cnUles »linuly («nviii'M, 
Ibot doo» PuilI wer waribe I« U» iuCutian »ppMnaiiu ihu dotign of 
uroidinu: tlic pcni^nutioit that thrcJitcn-od Ihcm by ntiuh coudui:!. Aai 
Jit, Accordlii]^ 10 tU« lud'icutioiu tliut liuve Ircen volniuil oat, tlu! iiKict 
iufltieiitb) o|j[)oni;iitji of P^iiii in thr Onlatinn uliurcln-'H were of Oonlllo 
detcanc. ihia iaierprelalioB ft'ouid ■tiU li^» lidiil i^omi, Inr (» 
, taight briug pvrtuuutiuiu ua tbotunclvi;» loüiiur b.v tliu oüiinrvaiioe Of 


tAVL-s JOtriurET to umncriL 

ouly tlint Llivy iimy yilory in junr GckIi, Unit tii in Uie cb 
which llii'.Y i«ve mitwinrdly «Üi-tted m ywi. by bringing JCE 
ovor iüloj,'ctii(ir to tin; .l(?wi«ii l'hrirtüiti parlv." The upoAle, 
liuLly, mijiimd till: GHliitiikiiH Lhiit they would not ^ve him 
Hii,v turtiiDr tiviutite, un«a liu k>ure in liia body the lOArk (Sun 
iml}vri:ign Iw hud vadurud fur ttiu Ukiwc of C'IitiaL' 

JuH-l>h carcmoaloB, ihan by ilui oliMrraDM of lUe Cbti^tlui nligios, 

vliii'li triu iiut ui>UB[iii.'(iua« in Ciulwu^ r'ltv«. Atiil liuw w<>iiU thb 
lriter|in!tBi.ii>n »uk« eonaclion I P»ul «j» (G»l. vi, lüj. ■' Tli«ac*bc 
wt~l> tu liHvu miiiir |iruiliuiiivii<:u in uutwsrtl tliiiiu« |kuiu« ouloanl dlv 
iLii<^ii->u tn-loni oiliun) oblige joii to be ijircuinciwd" A'Ki' 'I^ 
H*!! u»iiui:L Buiuulliiuu rv'lutud in il. iu Lliii ulftitsi; tiu^ciuuiiig wilti ira lA 
KLiintii.iilng lluiL luiiy «crv« nx an cxci^cni», oi In fix ihu incaliiii^- llui. 
u.'i:urilmi; lo lliat luturiiKUllioii, »uicielliiiii; quit« fonriuu wuulil Tvlln* 
— i\ua Ü\Ktr.hy i.liny wIkIi ki nv-olil pcrwciiitoti. If Inix thoiigbl lol- 
luwi^il. I'lLUl waulil Imvv Mini ut linl— " Ttivutt who luoy after MK Iv 
ilic ItiMli. or who iLri" atVuiil l» lu-jtr Ihn crnu of UhriBt |or HOiaKbiiff i( 
the kind). IWii# i'>r:iLia.viik>D upon jüh," Kc, V«rM 14 rIm 4iu*t. 
tliut oil thr? cmpliui'i» ia lü<l oil iilart/its "loi^s ><> ■lit' rriw» «f Cbiiil. 
wlll^'l) tK uiiiK)«!»! to wt-tinic D liiKh Tuliiu oil ntiy otliur gloryiiuj, Tlic 
thi>U|$lit nrUiii^ from ttuiL inter im^Uitliin H|i|>eiit> i|ulli; iotngn lb tie 
cuitM >t, Wl-h Wuiu mill oiXaT. Oil iho oilier liaml. tbi: intvrpreubM 1 
)ut>~G odopU.'d Bulu 1[ cnLlrclj'. Tliul tiiwfuaitnar tr uofH, llat *ar- 
XVf" »"'^ vapMi i> tAkcD a«u]r, if Uün cui glonr only In ihe mat 
at CbriHt. Hcni:c i\>i:y I'fiiixlilcr ilic cro»» ut' vhriHt, ibsl U, <!ic 
iliHUriue a( railli ia Ibc Cnicilicd, Iha udIv iiilTidenl mcaaicf Mliwioa. 
IU BotiiuiiiiDic wuiiiiiK Ik IjuHiilu at^pixi Iuw&iOb liiiMU, \iy nbick 
ftni iierwciilcl, iiiiii'i; il, nlill^vn thucu In tviuniiici: ütcir (>: 
»iipvnorirj. Wiiki ilic pcniilVL' daute tu i, I'i, "iliuac wbu «l«k 
linv« tiiiUK iiiFuiiiinRiiui? iiRi.'i)r[tin),' U> the flc-li.' ihn nagaiira 
iL^net vpry wvll, "ilmi they may not be )i«r>(K'iii.Qd with or bjrihe 
i)t' Chrim-." lUiit cruiiB iif Chridl in EDUii^iliini^i'uliJL'etivciothein, bvwliidi 
tlicf lira ppTV4.oi]i«ili, Tho nicnllou «r ihf vruet fint. acoordiiw In lb« 
t)Mt ■uiurciliicil ruudiiis adajiicd by JAi'liiiinnn. nniii tkik vi«w of the 
pu>u);n. \iinjnliu); ••> i.he ■»hiT vivw, all ili« vitipliawi :■ to be pbatd 
uij Üie uui Iwiiig jMrrwcatoil. On Uic wlialn, Utv IcwUnjc hin of tbe 
whole piwAÄHu iLj>|'iij4n 111 tic, Uloryiii); ill thtf ktum of Christ, Ik «ppoä- 
tJDii to j[lur,vitifr III ilic Auib. 

' If wo oiil;^ ^v-iiiMiilur wliat i>i nnriiiiv<l in lli« Anm of his imSoriogl 
hii.]i«rUi, lliui^gli it 14 evidont from a coiopiLriMju »iili 2 Cor. xl. Üi*t 2l 
in not. incut 14 nvOi, wu nliuil bv u litUv di-pu-ud il» hf what the sfuMh 
tuyt ul' Dm purwoutiatia of tUo Jvwi, lo afiiily iIkk won]« nrllb 
Si;lirMiici| l'> Iiif iiuprlnuDmuiit uL KomQ, Wliut Piiul >«yi in cIinpL iL lUi 
rt'»pi;ciiii[{ '.Ik fuläliiiuiit of «iitigntiona to t)ii; poor nt JcrniMleiii. Bi)ib> 
fitroiir ih>i Isier cumpMUloo uf tbfueciiKtl«, but proTtttuutbinKi furtlif 
wonis by uo lueuiii' luud un to thtiK of tU«t Innt. luricoeolleeii'm -< 
«hicli liii uiiclortooh to lie ibu iKiün-r to Ji^ruKiliMU. lie iniulit le t 
often bnv« nent napunite conr.riliu'ion- (roin ilie churoliea of lirtti- 
Cbmlittu» to Jurunxluiu, alibuu;;h, uwmi; Ui Lliit imptrFecüooa «fciiuivn 


During bin rv'siduuce at Epht»us. tliä iifliiim of tba 
Coriufliiiin church dutauniled Iiis sjxsciiil attiintioo. Tlia 
history of tbis ooDimunity pi-oiieiit£ us wit.h an imago of ihoea 
appfuritauoa AikI dislurLniimiu» wliii^L huf« bt<vu vltdu ropcutcd 
ill Inter jterioil* of the church on a. isi-i^cr scale. A variety of 
iiifluoitcc« Tuin;;l>.!d titcir iit^tioii uii this uliiircli, mid it in ioi- 
,|»"j«iIj!l' I» deduce evurj^tUiiig from one common ground of 
:phiulion. such as thu relation' between the difl'tnaut 
'(M ; nltlii'iii^h one coinmuii onunc may be fnuui] which 
uxpbtiu iiuiiiy uf these iiifliieacc«, iu the particular situu- 
tjoii uf tliB t'liristiiLU Uliurcli. which tlie new Chri^tiäD qiitit 
Jiail but {utrliidly jieiietmtod, opposed as it wna lij former 
.'habits of life und tUe gcacral sCiite of Sfciety. Many of Ujo 
«ciaily eicited aiid nmljile Creeks hud Iweti cjnrrieil away by 
the powL-rfid ituprcaiiit^u of Rtui's iiiiiiiBtry made at Curititli, 
•Qd at first showgii great zeal for Christiimity ; but the 
«moDV« uf Cli)'i)>U:iniiy liiid taken no dtiep .'uot lu t1idr 
uun.'itkd dispi-ifiitioiis. lu n cily like LVa'intb. wbere tu givai, 
■« coTiiptiou of mora,ln jir«vuilüil, and so many iuoiintivi» to 
ihe mdulgeiite ul tlie [lassiouM were j<resei)ted on every side, 
Mich II au|'u-rlicial couviTaiuii wiia esposed lt> tlie giXAteat 
danger, [u tcdditiou bo this, uller Pitul had litid tlie founda- 
tion of tliu chiircli, other jiruiuihera followed him who [jiilj- 
lioliud tlie guajK-d [lortly in uuutber form, nnd jiartly <.>» oUmr 
<ri lie i [lies, und. who. sixioe tiiuir various cuit»titutionaI puum- 
larilie« were uot proiierly subordinated to tlic essenliiil 
jiriiiciplüB of the gospvl, g! ocwiiiiini to many diviBioiia 
Hinung the Urcaks, a peoplo niituinUy iiicliiK-d to |jarties nrid 

^J)arty disijutes.' There' were at first iJen*ms of the »luue 
liiiitury. w« iixru no uiTtniii iufonantion lE-peiiliag ibem. Un hin lutt 
juurocy pr«c«<lln^ hiE lust visit to thu Qulnuuiia. ki m.iglil fare broB([lic 
vilb lihii Vitu Iff ibiJdt} emaJIf^r col1t:i;tiLtii& 

^ Bj' attempting lo <lciiu-oc toamucli frum tlii« »in^lci cimäC, Siorr bu 

inilo1^<J in mHii^v fnr'iad inr^rprelAVionH imd sijji[tU"h.ii>Da. 

w ' Owing to tbis tuitio'lifcl chiirucEdrisLi^ tlie clÜL'icikcy of the go^pul 

LAIDiXiJj; ÜII1II4 v.-A< mili'M ilifttiirlied :;iil1 WTiLLkeut:^! in rii'Leir H^tfs. 

r ' Riiokorl. thiukailiui tii« oritur in wiiiuli. tijo [niriie= uro mmtioncJ 

In 1 Cur. i. IS. uorrcBpoa<iB to llie puriud of lUi.'ir lurmutivu; llitil Brnl 

tlio preiiehing nf Apollos nijrjuinni^ iliv lonuiii.ioii ijfsiii;!) mliviHinn in 

tlie viiuruli. kIiu fi^ll m ^tuuIl'! parLlalilj' la Apuduo lliun Id Pmil, aiiil 

wer« n» loQifvr utiilii;!] mi.h i,he laLler, tbiiiigh llii.^ ba:! not yd 

fbrined ÜiKiiiselvi!» liiiu a pKrtivulaT piirijr : theti (he Jnilalierii woiilit 

tue« itilviilUg'; I)' HkIi a aUlc of lediu^, oud julu tlie rvourciv at 


■TAr:t!s joiTicfXT to Ajrnwm. 

Mpiiit a« tliwc false teaclieni of tlio (lalaüan churcfies, «bo 
wished U) intrr.diico a Chhstitinitj moi\> mingled witli Jiid«. 
JHiTi — wlio i-KulJ ucil iHiilmv tliu indöpetldcTUse and flnradon 
with whieli the Roupcl published by Paul w» ilcrdcpped 
iimirng tlic Giintitf^H, iilth<nigh tboj vcro nut wi \iä)«iit Mtte 
(JuliLtiiUi tdlMi tüai:)i<:fs, und occordingW niuned tiioniselvMi 
not after JniDcs, whom thv nioKt (lovKlud Judaixe» oMCbi 
thüir phief nulhority, tint ofUr Peter. Moreover, W6 must 
ciii-o fully niitic« tho diflersnce of circumatnnccs. The Gkla* 
tiiui cluinln.« lyjuld I« more «iisily openited upon by oa^os 
of tlie Judftiziiig parhf who came forward from »mong tJiein- 
snlvi» ; it was altogether different lit Corinth, «hnv tin? 
JiidalKunt luid to operatä ujio» men of a decidedlj (üwijA 
character, who wetM not so etisceptible of the inlluenco «f 
JuiluMn. HiiiK») tliuy (Miiild not wiilurc to o<m»u furmrd at 
(jnc%. and difldoso their iniciititJiis: it wh& ncceieary first to 
I>n?ijun> Hie «oil, bcfon! they nciilWrcil tho seed ; — to «t 
warily uud gently ; to accomfiliali thtir work, grudually; to 
employ a variety of artifices in oniei-to uudcrmiiic tbo priiKi- 
plos 01) wliiuh Pikiil preiujhed the j4i>k)K!I ; lo iniüm n mistnut 
iif hia npoBUilio vbi^rncter, aiid thii» tu tdieiiuto tlie ofTiMllata 
of his coHTorta from him.' Thiry began with costing doubb 
nil Paid'« ajiuxU'lia iligiiity, for tho r('juu>n8 vhidi htiva fctfn 
tiel'ui'd mc'iitiotiod : tliey set ia op)i<>aition to him, aa ih« oidjr 
^uiiuiiic upo-ttlucs tlioBU who were iiitstruutMl tuid ordained 1^ 
Uhriat hiniHelf. They undenrtood bedide» how to insnil ioto 
imxioiu; laiiidn n niinibcr of 8crU]>lo8, tia «hidi a Iif« «peat in 
iuttrvounw with heathuuH would «.uuly ^ts ri»e, aud vrliitb 

Apollu» ill opfiosiUonlo ■'anl: thii« tir«p»tic* would b« forinci). BM, 
in üüiir»« <i( niiiK, tliu unKin»! imriiutit of Apollo« woali iisoannriUt 
iLaj cuiild not iigreo witii tho judaiKorii, wlio had «t fiwt. In ariet 1« 
linil »11 unttuiivK. ('iiiii7iviiq<l Ihoir ncuulinritiVK, ukI lliui st liM. ihtn 
would lie ibrm dintinct partin. But this pnHu^ (i 12) cannot mil 
for ilctcrwliilng tlio dimuotftglott rotation of ihnw (itiHic* \o uw 
HiiollLur, i'uiil ban followii üit lo^iVnl ri^Ulioii, without uli:«ni>S' M 
the cliroooloKi'-'iil onlsr. lie f-Jncc« the paniwiiu of« tun W 
lUosv ci-f I'niii. beniiiiHi tbc.v oa\y roiuioil « i>ikriiualiir acciinn of tbt 
Piiiiliuo pjii'tj' ; he I>hi.'n iDciitlon& iha<«) wlionr^rc ÜK'ir moal iirauiOH 
ii|ip(>iirttt«; aud iiutiv, tliuBU thrau}:li wbuse riisUruw the oUitrtVt><* 
wiMiliJ be predippowQ, We hare lliroiii^hioiit no d.iui l.j nhirii t«d(U^ 
liiiuu thi! «Iiriiiioiugiciil ouuDulrin of Ibi' tliree lin-I (mrlico. 

' Se& i.lin remark» of Bwinr. iii hi» esaay oa tho übnil-pcrV !■ ibt 
Corinthian church (in the fuiiinger ZtiUekrift Jiir 7%eÄlogia, 1611. 

nvva MObxbt to urrmca. 


9US «!)(> bud burn pnniutisly prwKljt«s to JuUiiisni muKt 
' be«n predisposed to enterlaiii, 
PbreonK w\t>i!ui mimis l.iok this direction, placed Peter, o» 
I IbU apostle chusen by the Lord himself, wiJ specialty disliit- 
' gqiahed by hiin, in uppositiua to I'atil. who liad nxiuiiied the 
ofii«! lit A lutcr pL'rioA W'hi-ii tin? »Irnngly iimrktMf jkiuh- 
liantif« of any "f tlio apnsllcs wore blended with ilieir viewa 
of Christiamty, and it. pruseuted thi.Tu in a Muicd IViroi, it 
iwn» ill at-cordin« «-ith the ditiki-nt Bpberüä of iictirity 
aMtgned them by Gtid, and aerred. not ti> injure t.lit! unity of thß 
I Chri»l:iau sjiirit, but mthor in ihia very luniiifuldntiBe to illii»> 
träte ita cKoelloncc ; but nc-w a-mong those wbo attached 
thumselvcs to tliis ur thu otbcr a^tostles, oiie-sided tend«nuieti 
liecaine prDmiiiQtit, and that variety which might liaro con- 
sisted with laüty, wft« furmed "by them into an esoliisivo coa- 
tniriety. Aa a one-aided Petiiue party was fonii*d in the 
Oorinttiian church, bo u one-sided Puidine party sprung up in 
opponitiim to it, whioh recognised tlio Pauline as the only 
geauine form of Christianity, ridiculed the nice dißtin-ctiona 
uof scrupulous coil seien ctt^, and »et ibemselvcB io eU'ru 'ippo- 
iBtion to CTOiythisg Jewish. In one of their töndencies vra 
I find the gi.'rni of th« later Judaizirtg fuxls, and in the otber 
1 that I'f the ktL>r Jlarcionit« error. 

13iit in thi! Pauline party itaelf, a twü-fcld direotian was 

I tnanifo«t«d, on t.he foUowing grounds, Aicfjng the diwoiplc« 

, of John who wimc t« Epl(i;aua, and ciiu.siiliTed theiuselvee aa 

' Chmtiana, though their knowledge n'os veiy defucrlivB, waa 

! Apollos, a .T-ew of Alexandriu, who hnd ruculved the Jew-ish- 

Orecian ediicalimi, peculiar to tho learneii among the AIm- 

nndrtftn Jew9. and a groat (iicility in tho U80 of tho Groofc 

lsuI^ptl^ce.' A>-|ut]u aJid bis vitv iiiBtriiL'tcd hiui iuor(! avua- 

' ' The i7[i!tlict &i^ \aytat Kivcn. Lo Mm in AuLr ivill. i\ prnl>]it>lf 
dcno'c-. iml nil ulocjiii'iit fiui a Wrned man, wlii^li wuuU Wit Buil an 
Alexundi'liu. aince n Icarnt.'d lltorary education, mid not cUii^ucncc, wu 
the prociM tlidlinulion uf the Alevniirlrians: ami hin ili"!!»!»'.'»*! wicli 
the Jew» at Ourlnlli »alt« this inoaning of Auiiut, Ink on IVotu lh(> Jewish 
AtAndin^-fioiiit, In lliis imniho thu v/ard ia found tifilh in Jiifuipltu* AuA 
PWIo ; in Ihn fir«, hiy'»' i" oppP«<I tu Wkötuii, i>r Stil. Jud. vi. ft, j S [ 
«nil li^ rUiiu, V< Vita Mo4<a, L S l>i ftl-ivnlur of \iyioi, But nnoiUer 
mcMinK of iliu VLiid na it wiui u««! ni Ihiit limr ii^ hIko poHKitil«, siid 
*iiiw ii njipuir' fruru iliu Hret E|'i^(lu t« tlio Cütluüiiuuii, tbnt Apollos 
«0« il'ri R man eloqiimt iu the (Src.'k Uti)iiiiia:i! ; lo ilint wi? axe left in 

I fame niUKrtAisl; Loit to uadenluid ihii e|ilibeC. Accoidtng Io th 

PAoii'a tüUierwT n> AirarasK. 

mtely in Olinirt.i&nitjr, itwl wlic.n Iio vn* nlxiut ti> müI 1o A 

ciit]iiii<?nilt:(l httii tn the Cohiuliiiui cliun^lk lu » iiiiui wli», 
liis xcnl And peailiar gift«> would b« able to do luiicti fee tbi 
t'urUmRiuuc of tb« (Uviue cuune, iwpt'ciuU^ at Ouiintb, trlivr« 
Lia Alcxamlriaa inlucittiua wuuld prucui-c him a mora reid; 
AOtWM to ft [mrt. i>f tbü .liiw^ a»il (ttiritiW Iliti Alraundhan 
motto of 'li'väli>ping R,iiii rejirtiaeiitia^ Chntiii&ti (rutlis, fa it 
■Lpprmtoliud tu tbu Uiijciiiii Uiistc, was puciiliurlv ulnptod tu 
t.ha educated ciaiBOB at Carioth ; but fcwoinatoi by it, tb*y 
attiicln'ii t™> grniit inijmrtniicu t"> thi» pccilliw fomi, luid^ 
is|iit4Q(l, in ci»itiitKt with it, Ukii nJiDpIc ])nvti:liitig nC ['lUil. vliOi 
tvlioti be laii^^bl uinun^ thma, (k>t«rtaiiu]d to know am 
Kuvu JoHUK tbc (^rut^riud. Wu bnru iwv tl]i: gvnti of 
Unomn wbicb Epnrng up in tbo soil of Alexuidi'ia, lutd aimei 
nt c.xikltin(c it^lf ubovo tlic »luplo GtiLh (Pistiti) of tl)0 

But it biw \iuuu lutcly initititAiiicd,' that the difTcrenoe 
tWQL-n the PauUiie party nod that of A[m>1!oh, rcUtiiTd not 
itny ctiflcnmt^p in t.he ffimi of doctrino, but only to tbe 
tiuu in A'bicb Paul iUid ApiAlu» ätoud W the fuuiubug of 
CurintbiHQ cburob, ax the aposUo iiinisclf, in I Cor, ÜL fi| 
indiciite», tlmt it wiu» luiidc « (jnestion, whotber b« wbo 
tbä fouiidntLuii. or be who iiuaod tiiv snjicratructurG, 
the ]>i'eeininenue. llut if we fellow thos hiut, it will oand' 
lis oiuch iiu-thur. Wi- aianot, stop siioil iit thuHc merely flot-' 
irni'd nilutioub, but tiiiut eeok in tb« diiuuvtvfislic iiualilks 
of l.heso two tntii. wlio utood in snub diHijreiit relatione to 
Ibe cbiii'L'b, for tbt- rtitaOH, that mniii! wuru tuoru nIt.icbcJ t» 
the one, nnil aouic tti th.p othtr. We may uruiiumv llut 
manner iu wlii<;k one liüil Uu- foundation, una tbeiitber 
tho superstructure, depended ou the diiFereucv of 
cbiu'iKtvnetlo quiilitic& To tbi» diUcnmc« I'uoi bimaelf ad- 
verts, wheo, after speakiiig of the nieidy outu'ttn) rcLttioM 

at tita^ 

flnt iaUrprulAtlon. Sinmt im iv Tolt ypaipaii, wciuld ofiljr Ini 
preoiicty cipruin nb&t U ounUiiiL^il in Kiyutt ; Evnirdia; t* tbo M«ai 
11 wuulil be H ptirfvcllf nev uad lUxbliicl uliatncMrrialk'. Thii t 
i;etic:il quoatiou is uf no imfHirtiLUvo UUtoricoIlj', for (ettalnl;^ feMk 
i:jilt.l».i[> JkiL' applicable to Apollos. 

' By a dintiiiuuioheU juung lliwIOKiaD, tliti liocDtlMo DnM 
ScLc'Lhcl, in tiie /»imtitio CVi/tco-Afatonca dt St^lmt* CurimÜüamt 
prin'fxnv, BtuiletK, 1S&8, witb wUiuh l>e Wette, Id hh iuaCtmmt 
OD Ulis Siiuile» liO LIh CariBLhiuu, luu «xpreM^ hit fotusamaet. 



between himself and Apolln«, ha repruM,-»t« in figurative 
tangiiago lioir i't'3r>' iff Qiiino («a^'hor of Cliristiatiity i>iigbt to 
niOceM in biiiitliii^ uu tho foiindutiim that hfis ticL'n onoo 
uiid ; 1 tior. Ui 1 i. Tim coaucxioa evidently ahuuR, tliat 
Pftiil had [iriiiiftiily in view liis rL-iat.iim to the jjarty of 
Afiollos ; everi' otluT eiplauiitiori i* fcuv-i-d.' If we cutupafe 
tlif ijnnlitJua pi'SK'sse*! by tiic upostlo auJ bis fell-jw-lalioiirer, 
aa W as oiir itifuriiuition extends, we may «aailj infur tlie 
iliBorenoc in their raodo of tcacliing, and iii tliiMc rtHjieotive 

EuMtisana. Tliat Paul pijaasMud great forw and ocmiDund of 
ao^iä;^, we may conclude with certainty from hi» <>[>]Rt1cs, 
as is lÜHo evino;d by iii$ discourse at Atheua. In that olo- 
q«cnco which is adaptüd to soite powerfully oa luwis mind«, 
h« was iufcriur to no preaolier of the gospel, not Qveii U» 
Apollus liimsdlf. It wiw liifi peculiar uatunJ gift, saiictifioil 
tuid cl(!Viit«tl by S2>iritüal iiiiueiicc fur tlic ciins* of ibe uotspvl, 
in vhidi he was proiiably »upenor tu Apollui; ; and if Lha 
Epistle 1» the Hebrews is to lit alti-ibuted t^ the latLu-r, and 
WÜ oc^iiaro U with tlio«i) i>f I'sinl, it wuuld sorve to confinu 
the opimoii. In dialectic poner also, which was fouuded. 
6U lha pcculiai" i^hantvi^-r-of liia iuteUvct, and dcveluped nud 
improvi-d by bia youthful Iminitig in the sobdula of tho 
l'hari8<?eii as weil as in thü akilfiil iulerpretatiou and use of 
tlio Old TesUiuent, im mw surpiismid hy none But utiU 
Iwtweöu hiiiiatilf and ApolhiH a diffureuue not uiiiinjiortant 
existed, wliiohatTeüted their peciiiiar style of teachiii|f ; the 
lattor, ns an Alexandrian, hid mixäved mi educntion mora 
adapter] to the Onidan mind and Laute, find puoat'aaed a grenter 
familiarity with the pni'e Grcciou phraseulogj-, iti whicii Paul 
was dofocliw, aa we may gather from bis irj-iätlea, and as he 
cxprtwsly a.i3ortK ; 2 Cor. xi. B. Now, in miLkiiig the gospel 
known at Corinth, lie hod special reasons for r<,;ji'ctiiig aJl tlie 
^m aidx that othcrwixo ftera &t his command fur recomiuenditig 

^* ' W« inii-4 urafiilly didtingiiidi tlHiio wlio, bj- asBuiliug tho un- 
ebuieMlilc roundatloa of CiiriiiianU/, di^xtro^uit tliu luiiij^lu t>r Guil in 
(1m <hur<:ll, 1 <'i>i. lit. IG ntid 17, fruin <)iov of whiiiii Pniil Jiiily«4 fiir 
nor« ItaicntW, Wauw tiivy fi^BOTved invivl&te Ibc (ouuibiUon tlint 
mt bud, tliuuiili ilicj added U) ii wliai, foa mors ur itw Uummi. UI 
the IaIMt, he uffiruin that, amw l.lic)' bcld faul, the foiiniliitiiin nf ivitv»- 
lioa, the; irautil finall)' tic pariukura ^! sa'vaiiuii. i.h<iui:)i aller a psturul 

Crcp«>(«il prucciu uf punli'Unliani of the irthun, thui lIil!}- iro»1d 




aud for usinjt 

7 ihi.' " demoiutmtioa 
accompaniod it» Eii>i[-!t 
iiiiiitiiiciJtliou. Tbo Atexanclriati i«fiue»i«.-nt of AiKfllu« tuii« 
hiiri< i'orniL'd n «trikiug cuiitmst to the niitiplicit)- i>f I'^iiFs 
pi'tucbtuK ; ftn<l, if wo lak« into ocuoiuit tlio ciruumiftaBen 
oTtil »ricial relations of tho CoriDthiatis, v«caiiitot wo»(kirthU 
a prufureiico fur xiich fi »ty\e of iid^i-uw led ut tliu furmKtica 
uf a dialitiL-t party in tbe ConnUiiiLu churcL It won aui the 
pOCiulin.T' Sty\e aC ApolloM in UncAt which Pnul cotidomnod , — 
it liecame every toicher to work wil.h the ^fta enlntsted (c 
him, aocording to tLio standing-point on mhicli tJ)«- LA>rd had 
pLusod Kita ; — but )ui oorabated thu ntiu^idcid uutl orrcignat 
Dvcr-valiiatiou of thiataleat, the exoesuve eBtin)ii.tion in wbicb 
this fiinn of innittil cttltiiro was hold. It l>y no niviitiit fblloKl 
that I1Ü aLtrihiilL'd a fiUbe wiAdoin to ApuUo« hiuutelt'i' l>al 
the uüL^siditd dircL-tion of his piutii«nn, in whicli Üie wMta'- 
('iTiU itrcdominntod, would enailj produoä a fiitee viMlofn, 
by wliictt crancolicii! tnitii would bo obtciijcLl orpuslied i 
tlio Iwckgniviini, Piml iwreeived thii^tbrmteningibuiger,! 
heiicQ felt himself impelled »itn>utti.>tiKly to combat tbe | 
i>ii wbiwli siicK a teiid*'ii«y wi» foiiiidpd. 

Besidos the part.iraalTi.iady mentiiMied, we find a tmirtliiii 
the Corinthian church, whose peculiarities it is more dific " 
to iwEict'Tiüii, since, jiidj^Dg from ibt uauic. wv uiuiiiut rundilvl 
iiii[ipOB» tliut it btilongtd to a sect blnsicd by tbe apoatle, anil 
in 110 otlior part nt theliiW. Episllt! lif IViiil ü> tlwj Ooriiitlujua 
do we iiud dlstiavt refurencea to it A^ni which ve 
iofer ita apecifir: charftctur ; it wiu trornjc^aud of ptuvans 1 
sdid thiit ilwy were " af CftrUf ; " 1 Cor. L 12. If ire 
«idi-^r tili« p^irty aa inyolveil in ttc (wujnirc cxprcased by 
apotttlc," vrliich tbe gruuuuutical countriiGtiou uf tlio 

' Tili« chiirgu ngniiüt. Aiiullui. iu tbe upiuioa of ßubaiik*) . 
WctUi. i« wet] roiDtilüil, but li.v CO meoua lollcivi fmin Um vinw uk«n bf 
ouriwlven an'] o'.liom a! Xti ptH-nlijiril.i'Ds of tlm pMEly ur AjxiUoa, 

' Tbs inUirjircLiitioii wliitli liits bricn fiopotwd \ij Pott Btid Schott, 
Ulli apuorilirig (u ■vhü^b.ull uiinjuuini«* msjiwiiiig ihu ^ciiliaT ehwxr 
of a CliriBV|>;in^ at Corintb would lie tupi^rtluoiiB, l* KmiBmallMll] 
jioHuble. 11 iHinuuiijg iliuii Paul, in ilil« pMüugc, only ccuiuuntctl bit 
rlciilty tliD VAriniiA [utrLinn in Llie CariulUlaii abucub, niihont ciiincluUn 
tij».t Ul wbu :ii'u H|>u<;1ficd >^tiie uitiiei t>lie ccnnnro of tbe kpUKtlo. T 
indeod ivhn lii-mlynilherci! to the docirlna tauirhlbj Piul.aDd cat«? 
hlti). nn bv «inbeil, only »4 .in prgnn of Chmt, — itiou ivlio «mImiIi. 
kwii ulnof ^m nil |iiiily uouIudüuQ!^, mid 4UlIcd theuiMlna oÖJj* tü4 

Paul's jooukft to «mocst. 


. Bceios w re<niirei, we nuirt Wie»« liiiit Üks« persmis diJ iwt 
wiah to I« '■ <jf CLmi." in the seiiae in wtiich Paul äc'üml 
tknt all tUc ('oriitHiuiiiH slioiiUl he, intt thai t)icv appropriated 

'Christ to tbcuucivt« Id an ein>iie>iiiB tti-tiw, nnd wUliitl to 
muke him, u it wure, the h«ul of their party. And ve murt 
Lbiii iiu|i|>o«e tbut tin.- n]>astl& tliougli with lui alliiKion in tJiO 
first iustnncc to ihcir ir.tny de«Jeiiatioii, yet iucludiu)^ a refer- 
cnc« to hII tiie Curiuiliiiiu [ortics, sav\. " Is tliH one Christ 
beuonie divi'lod ? lita enoli pnity their jmrtion «f Christ, u 
tbcir own Christ i No ! there a oiilj one Christ for all, who 
vn» craeiftcd for you, to whuta ye were i)i.'vul*>il aud pledged 
by baptism." 

I W« hiivc HOW to iiiquiri; wbnl can Ik dclcrmiucd ruapcoting 
the eharacicr aiid «ri^n of this Cbri»H)iiriy. 1 f we jwiy any 
rogjvnl to it» being moritionod iicut to iho party of Poter, anil 
(»uipiuv it Willi thu uuUiKMlion of tlie p/irtivs wf AjioIIob imd 
Paul, n« might think it most jir-jinlic Unit t]ii> rclatioii 
bnlwrrn the two former wns siiiiiliir tii tiiat which osistoH 

I bctweeu the twu ktttfr ; ojid that, tbüri;f<jre, a aubdiyiaiou »t 

[ the gcTienil party of Jewish ChristianB waa iiiteiidai. Ami 
«W piirt oi tliitsp nttiichcil thüinselvoH to Pet«!-, mid pnrt to 
Jaiue?, we Qiighl be iiiducvd tu iuiugluv n purly l>vluu}fiii^- tu 
Jani«« alony with the Prtriue ; tho foniier inoru t^iuiicioiiB 

rand vioUiut tti thuir .ludoism; the Jattur tiii>ru lilx-nd luid nio- 

I derate. But thia suppositioa is uot at all favoured by the 

Chrixt their common head, must ho rcprcKcnto«! m » rmrtitiubr pftrty in 

r«Uitou u> the otlier CutiQiliiiui pariH'«. and lioiia' niul iltailiüuiutei 

thmil 1>J t)ici tuimo which thay nsiiiiDicil in oppoiitlon la ilII pnrt.y 

r««lingi, ir thijae wurda In this coDnDxion only C(iiita'iii«il an liiRlorloal 

onumnrUiin nf tlini viLriocit parties, stinh nn inU-rprcUilion might lia 

t«li<l. J)nt lliiE ii tiul till? (.'IMC. I'aul Qviik< uituliuiii ibcBe puti« 

I In tcnoH of MUAUi'tt. Tito vciuuk: npplieä U> nil equally lu piirtlci who 

putisruuiod aoiQutliiiig iu iliu pW« vt Uiat stn^lu matJvu l.u ClirUl 

'i dIoiio urns uf rervl wurtU ■' Una llion Christ bEtomo divided T ho 

»Ifl I« luk. "Xo— ha will uot iillow liiunuH' In bo ilWiiiaii. To 

all to ca.ll youmolva» iifWr thnl one ChrisL who rodeciuod jou by 

i4 disv1-h 'Hi thu .[irM"4. 'kn<l ^o wUoni y*i Wg^ro di^vittml hy bA^ftuJu/' 

rVben: words arc dlrettcd equally ugaiiHt ilU pin'iiw.und perliaps ijiaotly 

iu MiU luriu. vwiuu; lo thu prui:i;dlu.jc designation of thota nhu arro- 

ganlly iiatni:ii theaisulvi» al toD Xpiirroü, iiuli if Itiaau puibuna had 

■illDOd tti» lllh: 111 lliu «oriHO ivtiifih I'li'il app'''"e(l. hu would not hn^e 

HKd them with lho!iR who iii>.'iirr<xl his (;uii!-iiri.\ ihe»e words cduIiI 

Ftiot hare npplletl to Ihem, hut ho niunl. hnvc (;xprv!i«eil his upptuhutivn 

lof ihcii ipirit, Kbiüh uunl Iiacc ii^[i«iired M hiia as the only rlglilou«. 


deslgnntluii, ot t'fv \fn<rruv, fur It aeems vt-ry tmuatiiml tbM 
the tdlisiviits Df Jaiima should so oatne themaelvea, as Bone 
hAVO iinttgiiU'ii,' bccjiiimj the Cpitlw.t ^l'?(^^^Ic '■■'i' X^miroS wh* • 
civeii Ui ihiii ajHwlle aa a title of buuour. Th«re cau tw bo 
üoiibt tliat ir Hucli II [Kirt}' had existed in Cohiith, iLej wouU 
Imvu cullud thi^niHclvL'H »i rnv 'I<ii'(ii/3nü. 

ir V.X bdii'vo fhat the Clir ist- party was coannoatnl of Jcri* 
i'lifist.iiDis, »iidi iL^icw muitt \hi nUttal atid aewloiwJ mtj 
(iitleruutij- ill order to beiug it iioiirer to |irobabiliiy.' The 
II4IUUUI roC XpifTToü — it truij lie »tid — «ns one wliicii thcpnrtj' 
Mtns of Pi!t£r iiwnuiieil in i>[i|)rHiilioiL to I'aul mid hi» di»c:{ila. 
in order to niai'k tbciiiBotvc« as thoMt who &dlior<>d to tJ» 
g-cnuinu a|i(it«Lloe of Christ, Irurn whoin Üiiri' had tvccivpd tlio 
pari! doctiine of Christ, and thus by their teacbeiii were cot- 
necti^d with Chmt himwlf: nml, oti tbo »tliQr hnud, byn]» 
plying lliia title uxdiiRivuly to tJieir i>wu pmty, th«y tiitirnitcd 
to brand Ibu i>thcr Cliristians at Corinth lu* tbose who did 
not däBcn'ü tlm nsanm of CliriKtüuH, who w<:re not tbo div 
cirilcs of Ohrist, noi' the scbobtn) of a geuuine apoolle of 
Clii'irtt, but uf It' iiuui M'im liail uxlulti^mtud tbt: piut; Cliniftian 
unptrino, und hud promuig»ted ndoctrinflof hisowndrbiMuPr 
invention tis ibc ductTiiie O'f Christ This view would ajipear 
[•crffclly to rairre!([ii>Tid witli (bo ptinist* vl rii Xpcin-o«, and 
nii({ht bo confirmed by many antithetical reforenoen in both 
llio cpi»tlo8 in which Paul vinilicnU:» hi« genuine nposiatic 
[:hiinu;ti^', und lu^eit^ that, he could Hay with tlie sttoio rebl 
fw jitiy i>rie else, that ie whä '■ of Chrigf ; " 2 Cor. x, 7, Bui 
u-liilu siioh piu<i)u^<G certiLiuly are diriicUid ugaiunt tlioac nhti 
üJi the ;^i;ndti alremiy mentioned, diflpiitcd Paiil'ft apcelolic 
uiithority, they by no moans prove tno existsnoe of kucIi > 
party-naini! among tbu Jewa. Aud oue dtfiiuulty still remaiiu^ 
namely, that by the position of Üic pbmse ni mv Xpttnav »e 
ikTQ led M ejcpect th<! designation of n pnrty in aome way 
dilfunu^ fruui the Petrine, thou^'b lielauj^g to t))0 mine 
^uerul division ; but, nocurdiug Up this riew, tlio Qirintfurty 

■ Attrlbatcd by Starr, or an by Bcrtliold, to ncvoml Utit^tbt^ 

' Aa n hum 1ut«ly lit^cLi dcvuluii«! with murh MUIOOctii, in ttif «Mlf 
aliDiiit^v n^fuiTvil III, lij ]);iLiiT(, !iL llin 7'r/Ai'n(/T ZriUcAri/t far 7'Snl>Jftfi 
1881, wLir^ii no jmnoim mn rcmi without inntriiulion, cvea If tlicj to 
not Bgro« with Uie vlvwn or (be wrlur na tbit potiu. 





snM 4i9cr from tbe Kirimi ofd^ in nain«, vfaidt wouM be 
F]tütc oontradicUny t« tlie rvlAtion of t}itepart7--iMiiic (oUios* 
thnt preoeded it ' Accordingly, this view can only t)e («iialilc. 
iP ii<>t ft TncTTvlf (brmni, 1>[it n tnaterin] <]itrnviic<n cxn he fixinj 
between tl>e two last p«ftieft And it nii^rlil be Miid tlmt txA 
all th« rni>nil>L<re of Uie Petritie ptutr, but only the ni(«t 
rigid a»i) viok'iitm tlicirJa(Ui»m,iit)oni>iildn(it ocknuwIc-clgD 
Pauline (ientile ('lirintiaaa asstaodiiie; in ooinnmiiion vritit 
Mcsntib, hwl appli^nl to their Judainug pnity tlw eselii- 

But it Imb idwap appeared to us to )« mntnry to hi»- 

nnaluuy, thiit thi«e persons vlio adiii'n'd to nnotbar 

a^x^tle. and canaidervd litm alon« «8 geuniue in oppoätlou to 

Paul, stwulu not naiiio tlH:inficlvi>s itßcroiHi whom Uicy looked 

iifioii lis the TKca»try Wiik of iht-ir er.unoirion witi ChriKL 

the epistle iuatlf, vq cannot find tJlusious that would 

thitf, fiaca the pitsugc» which vwitiuii tbetw n'ior- 

, can be very well undenslmx] without it. 

Wo cnnnot hope in this inijiiity tn nitnln to roifclii«»ns 

ellivr certain aud sure, fur tliu luurkti uud hiatuncal dabk 

not »iiffipieut for the pm-|if»c!. Jiiit we siiall ^»st gtinnl 

arbitrary coigectures, aud rnriTo at the truth most 

eutly, if we firet att«ud to what niuy be gulheriDd üvm. 

' nanie itself and its poBition. in relatinn to the other party- 

niuiii^ und then compare this with the whole stnte of t.ho 

CvritiiliiLui «hurch. lu the reaulta utiich may thus bo 

"obtnineit. we uiiist then »uWrour to »ipariite the doiibtriil 

■pd dis[ititiilile Crma the c«rtniti nnd probihlc. 

■ We shall by lio meiiue bo jiiutified in conchidiug tlmt, 

by virtue of the logied eonne*iou of the two muinber*! of 

UK aent«ucc- to ont- «iwthor, the persons wlio immud tlwm- 

Hclrcs after Christ must have borne the same relatlou to tlia 

P«Lrino ]initv a» the adliereuts of Apollo» to those of Pnnl. 

Thia ooncLunion. if correct, would be faToumhlo to tlie view 

rbicli wc liMt cunaidcred. Btit the relation vi tlie two 

' lliiucr «ojg indeeil. |>. "", ''The npci^tlo's objwt in at^cumulaf.inp la 
WUty DBinflK. luiijliC Iw 1,11 i1c<!>irl. i,lin fis,Hy »Jiiril pr«V]iI<:iit In tha 
printkluD cliurcli, wliloh hhawed ilfclf in their ileliglitlnie in the mul< 
|i1icat.ioii •>( naclarian nntiic«, »liiuli ilviiiil'iiil vHrloii» thil.a and ehiuln*, 
M not Bluioi u'-ely distliiut pinicH." Ilul if tliis ware tbe fBBc. Ilint 

»1»lialioii oiAy olimn of i.Iiobu pwly^uiiUKia Mil lie l-ottccI, b^ wlilcli « 
crcot «bode ot fvn^ ii poictod «w. 

Paul's jüurxzt to ^.^»00. 

neinbon Is not In^fionl only, but luiltjeiit to cerUin liislcni 
OonditioQSL I'aul does not, hs in ottior cm^s, ftmn 
members cf tlie ÄiitiUiositi tncnsly fcjin tli-,' tliiHightn; 
tlifi RUiniier in which he selecteci hii temia vss deterniined 
mattere of fiict- As tlie .lutlni^Rre formed iii renlity f.nly 
piirty, Paul cmüd doti^iate tliem only by one naioe, 
since he wns ohüged to clionsf liis Utihs according to 
fict«, lii.< t;i>iild not :Dnke t.btt two mtinliura uxuctly 
to one Allot hor. 

From th« iimnc of this party viewed in relation lo 
party-iiaiives, we Khali ftiriTO at the following coiicluaiun 
tolorabl« certainty- I'hcro were thoBc who, wliilc 
reiioiinwd tliß ajKistlas jiiMfes««! to adhere to Cltri:<l alone, 
ae know ledige him only aa their teflcher. and to tvooit« nl 
ho iinndutiRL-d ixh truth friim hiinHiTif witliout tlie int(! 
of any other peraoii. This was mich a manifestation of 
»ill. HUcVi iiii ftrrogunt departure from the historical 
of dovolo[)iin.-[»t ordained hy Ood iu the )i|ipropriniiwi 
divine rcvtliLÜDU, iw woidd in the imic lead to arhitrwr 
duct respecting the content« of rhriMtinn doctrino ; fff 
iipoBtka were the orgiuia ordained and foraiod liy Ood, 
■whom the doctrini; of Christ was to be propagated, and 
meaning communiir-JitDd to all men. Rtit it mi^hl 
happen, ^vllilü Home were dis|»0Bed to adhere to l^ul vii: 
others to Apiilliw, nmi a tliitrl [wirty to PutiT, st lost »r , 
pereons appeared who were avcrsö to acltnowK'^lg» any rf 
these pai-ty-naines. nai profcased to ndbere to Oiirifit alioa 
yet with an Hiriignnt eclf-wili whicli set arido all buinu 
inatnimentality ordmned by God. If wg now view tW» 
SUt the result. whi::h presenU itself lo lis witlk tolcnllt 
«ertaiuty, that there was at C'-oriuth such a party di^^roinöl 
flttaöbing themseWes to Christ alonö, indepondoiilly of thi 
lipoetlts, who cunHtniottd iu their own «ny a Chrii>tiaiillf 
diffcreut fiom that announced hy tiic apostles, we l»j 
imagino throe dilfcrcnt wi»yR in which they proce>ed#d. F« 
this olijt^L't they niiffht make nee of a coItocLiim of ihe 
M>ings of Chriftt, whith tiud fidlni iiiUi tlicir handa, uA 
Kt whnt thi^y funnd thero in ojipositicn to tho apiKlofit 
character; ur they might pretend to 'lerive thvJr dim- 
tifLiiity fmm un inward soiirco of knowIcdgVi either « supn- 
natnind inward light or tho li|j;ht of uatoral rcaeoii, vahB 





tonn mystlcAl or a more rational directioit. If vs 

<?iite(l ('.) liiH lii'^t «uppositiüo, still wq could not SittisfV our- 

ilv«-(. witliüiit iiiiii^iiiiog a uertaiii nul^eottvc eltiiueiit in Ü]Q 

' of ujL|>ljiiuiu^ tUoac diacoursca Qf Cluist ; for without 

iiifiiwoii of such an elixnoiit, Uio toiideiicy tu this m\m' 

lion f'l'cim fhe n|insti>lio iusLruuiäHt«lily cttutd not liave 

^ri^iiiiitud, HDi.! thu^ thu principul quci>ti<jn woul<l still rcmaiu 

I« aiiHwered. whether we aro to consider t!ie milijectJve 

patnoiit ILK Eiiyät-ical or rational. 

Äcciwüiiig f> a hjpotliesiB' lately devel^pi^ with grant 
cuteuHsi. but resting on a number ai arbitraiy sappOEitions, 
bo tcuddicj' we are speaking of must hnve been mjrsLicitl. 
; FatU bttJ comidored the immediate rereiatiou of Ctuiat tu 
it an «([xxhiii&it to tha outward clocttoa uf the otiiei' 
BO tbere wore other persunu who thouglit tliat tlicy 
lid appeal to Euch nti inwm-d revelation or vision, wLo 
»m this 8t»ndiiifc*iioitit iisjailfd the apostolic aiitliority o* 
aid, wliilo titoy sun^lit to eatjibliHli tlieir owji. und tIiri-aU.'uuil 
«ubatimt« im inward idt-txl Clirist for the histitriutil Chrint. 
representatives of the ouo-siiled mysticiU tendency, 
, have been tha ]>nnci{ial oppoiK-ntu with Mhoin P^nil liiui 
vuiitvud. But iu tho Rpiettc to tlie Curiiithinns we cnn 
no trace of auch n tendency combated by him ; and in 
Uio prtüAAgeß to wliich the (idvowtt^s of tins hypotliesia 
ppettl, a reference To it seema to Iw ai'bitriirily impuBed. 
WtiL-ti Pfkul, at tliu begioniiig of tlie tirst Epistle to the 
arinibiAiu. bo iniprawvely brinj»! foi-wvird the dootrina 
' of Christ tlie Cnioihed, and siya that ho lind published lliia 
in oil its aitupiJL-ity witliont attempting to sii]iport it by tho 
Greciau phÜoaophy, tliere is not the BÜghteat iutiuintiou that 
)H)clt 11 t«ii<icncy (aa we have iiUuded to) exialcd in tlio 
Corinthian chnrch, which aimed at snlistitiitin^ another 
Christ in tho room of Christ the Cnicillod. In a plaoe wbero, 
liv tJio ovur-vuliiatiou uf iuiy kind of pliilosopliy, the simple 
_-i-|n-| was liable to bo set in tUe Liackgi"omid. such lungudf» 
iu._litTPry properly I'O w.«ed, evoii though no ido-fii or mysticnl 
(Clirist were stib3titiitt.>d inatend of llio lii^oriml ; lUid, it iti 
(evident to what rnl:«j oouchisioas we sliuuld be led, if wo 
ifcrred from «noli a deelnration the eiistt'Uüi; of a l«iid<jnoy 

, ' Bf Sutiuiikvl lu IIk' v>Kay Inilore mualiuucd, awl udvoautcd by Ut 
IMW In ItU CuniDj«niar} uu the two KpU^les lo ilis Cormi Uiuiia. 



tliiil. ilfiiied ClirUt tliR nmeified. i';»iil oppcwit the ^ 
lUfj of Jpsii« till- Cnidfiw! tn tw« U-iul<-tK'kB — thö 
fouiluvw f<ir 8i)j;nB, and tliu afixigaiii pliilosopiij of tlie Cr 
hilt nevLT to ii mysliiail teiidt'iiuy wftich wuiiltl dc|irei;iaie i 
historical fwU of {Jtiristiuuity. AjiiiiuBl a ti'nii«t(rj of i 
kinil Uc wiiuld ocrUiinly have in;ginL(l in ii vcr^ tUff 

Tho sonmou« tendency of the Jewish spirit we shoiiH ex 
to meet with in thti JtwitJi [lurt of tiiu Cwliitliiuu thnp 
—the |>niJo of phil'oaoph.v in thoecwho attached tbcmwlval 
Apollce^ «in«' from whn-t hii* been iwid wfi raiist »upiioae I' 
tlicro waft A dioUiict J'lut.)' co>ii|iiJ«o(l of such per*ion*. 
Faitl when hi; upokc iignitiBt tiic Grccinti pride <it pliiloHop 
hud thia party of ApoUoa spMinlly in his mind, by a luwr 
ti'aniiittoii ho spoke hi tho iicixt plncc of hiH rvhitiou 


Th(.' ptuHikj^ in 3 Cor, xi. 4 hn» beun iuldiicod to prove i 
I'lml's oji[nn.L'iit« pruiiched anotiier Okriat aud anullior l 
P«uJ repniiLchcd the Corinthinus witli having given thtmM-ivts 
up to sii«Ii orriJuwHs tisacliors. But in that whnli- seiXinB 
Lo oecujäi« hlniSL-lf, not with comlmliug n fiJnö Jiiirtriiie, »• 
be miiHt have done if the rtiproimulati^'ca of il iii}-stictsiD tint 
un(l(.'rTiiiii("i tho fuiuidiitions of the ChiiHlJnn laitii had \\efa 
Ilia oppoutiitg ; bill lici bad only to combat tlio pi'oteiisioni; <>f 
pcrBouH will) wialiod w ituik« thuir own nuthority supncnfl 
bi the Corinthian ohurch, and not to uckuowlt-dKe hUu m 
an «postlo. TbeBo iieiijile tJieriiHelves— lie silvei in iIk« 
text — uould not deuy, that ho had furformed evcrvlhip 
whiHi Kould be roquired of uii aiMmtic >is founder of a Cnu 
fur hi" litiii pruiuiht-'d to tiiom the gutipel of Jeena lb« Ct 
aod the iliscii. and bad commuuicutcd to thtni tlic po» 
thu H'lly Spirit by ht» ministry. With jvistioe thcsu |i<9«ciDS. 
bo said, mij/hl appt'ttir »^.-iiinst him, and rL-^i^iiRi« llie manag»* 
mcnt of Mii; chiirah, if tlit-y could rwilly sliow that tinjm «W 
uitorjier Jisua than tlie one auuounewd by I'aiU. another ■!■•■! 
tliau thiit »hich ho prnobdmcd. or uuother Holy Spint Ji-ii 
tliat whoae powers were etficisut aiwong thom.' ~ 

' I ai^coiinl for ibc Irroj.'uliki'Uv tn i.lic tutixfir, 1 Cur xi. 4, t> I 
tn.y. — tlirit l*uul wh» |ii'ii«inileil wuli tbc tuuvirtloci, ihii i^ e 
whii-h ID form Iiq 1ind »uuine'I xa l>c paMllilc, wiw S\\ fad impoo^M 
Tlili fuurlli «eiae ia tbiu cunueilud wilb tlie jirwediug; 1 Akt üiii lut 


Bm hoB onlr 

' The opputxMi cf ttatiinn ti tUi 
Uj othen.tlHi ÜM« «ha «^ : 

loned hy Fnd UnMir ia S Ccr. x. 7. 

can be vaieeäaoi wj» l—nl i/ai 

tritbOtrirt. But lim mat ptnaim^hf A» «fiA^ 
HA HOC be apfiBed lo «tbj pawn «ho ^m^ ikaS. ia 
■emo tfac7 psticolMtf bdaaped to CfcnA. areuild ^ 
«pe«ü] eoaocsioa nik In. FnatbKi 
tdk' it is dtw tlMt tfcew pcnom li—tej mTi 
liuo witb Cbha, wlikfc eertaitiy «dqU wt avi tl« 
na of 1 nmtieal taadin^. Indnd, lla i m ^ ft 
«bolo aecdoa k« ilwilaftaiitii die ciifBUfiifi </ «iMa W 
t ng, « thoBe «bo «UMd to eaUbah a uodf ontwd 
(3 Cor. zL 8), ftaadal on their JevMt deBDent 
ooaiaexion witb tlM apctJoi cfcovM br Cbviit Um- 
«bd wiUi the oH^ihI dtaarck m PalMtae. ' Would BniI, 
be had to do «itb ■odi iAalmag amdo^ have onlv oou- 
~ U> ÜuRi that tbey itood in eoattnioa «itb Cbriit, tbat 
oould caQ tb c PM el rca hia aemiua T WonJd b« not from 
first haw made H a qwBtioo «betber it wiu üte true 
rist ufur whom tbrv caOecl iImiiiiIim I Aim! bow oan it 
iroagiaed thai PUil, if bb oppoocnCa «en of tids daa^ 
woutJ bate (ucd expneaäoM «hieb «re tfiiwted rUber^iaA 
bav« (kf«r1«<l trvta Chruiika ftefltcii« ; for If It irt«c not «v 70« 
OtnlU iwl hare alfoved jesnetr«» to be pxremed br ptmn»* *l» caaM 
laapiut («;«u »»ihiDC bat «bai ;oa lui'c rr<cl*«d fnai mc: lev I OMi> 
sidir (r. 0) n/wlf to «und Ubind Um chief apoaüe» ia no ratptcL fif 
tilth tuil^tb. ibe olgealoM of IV Weiic agcaUM thU iaufpntation ue 
at once <A)Tutcd. Anutwt the oibtr mMle of dpfaaalion. I ban I« 
oibjuct (hti It 4o» BOf luU the et>iia«i)oD «iih *. 5 : thai Uie «orda 
would Ibcßb* imannaiririljraiil'iilirf tlai 1'mI «oald theo bu^llf 
IatcumiI tli««i)(4a«H«i« tTv«vX^ijUH>4. irkiKli rtfrr obIj ta TMOiv- 
tnit the ilolj S|>lrlc I •!«> tkink ikkl Ii« vcuhl then We ni*l. n<A 
'ivirdfp. Uit Xficrrcr. ftuT tlwae Bjdüc* «oiM ri1Ii<-t Iavq imacbcd 
aiiotlior Olirii« tlMii till* blalari^ pcnon Jcuu ^ or w. •! ■ Utcr (ivriiHl. 
ihc OnoMtrK, «ho belli timilir Dolionit, tau^l- tbat ihmtr »w not a 
lwnn>ld Jcii'iliill ■ UroWd Cltr1«l,<ir dUtln^iihrd )«m«n a haartBl; 
Chrint' BO'l a haimin JcaniL On ihe c^iHitniiy, aMording 10 the iiiU«> 
|»n:(ani>ii which 1 bar« ftllowwl, Paul «f*uW of eixin« «ay. - »oothtr 
Jetu* thaa the on*: I prcadi," rcferriug to an liUluituI fonoeiag», aad 
tbc CTtoUof Li» llfl;. 

' A eomiBrnoii of ihp ihwbki: in 2 Cor. r. li. (where tlw ft »pointw» 
b oppOWil 10 r^lo). BppMn b> m« to pniT« llial (lie sunü niii^t tiv •<) 
uadoiMooit : Ihi} aiititbeti* of tho luiwanl and tbc .nwanl • i^nt \a 
l^ul» ilflo. 




tho wnRiidns pomndon of tlm rdig^^nm srntimcnt, and 
«ttsily be miflUiMrprHtiKl iu favour of lliat fiiUi> B[>ii'itualüni j 
Wculd he have Kiid, "Ya^ thougli «e have kaown 
aflor the flciMh. yet nor hoiioefortli kuow vo him no monj 
but only n sphituaJ Christ wlio t««ii above a3\ linitb 
earthly mliitiijQ«, with whom vt citu now (.-ntur into < 
aioii in n sgnritunl manncr, »inoo we have a ühnre in the 
spiritual civatiwi proCR«i1ing ftom bitn ;" 2 Cor, v. 16, 17.'^ 

When rmil «[rjieitli'd tu the revel«lii)«a inipnrt4;d to him, 
it was not fur the ronftitatioii of \ltOBi wlio Bupported tbeni- 
H-lvcM oTily by nm^li inwjinl nxpcricnc«:« ; hut of thotw priiid* 
pnlly who woiilii nut aokniiwledge him tw n );uti:iiiie B])0^tie, 
»qiialto thr'He whu were clioeen by Christ diiriiij; hia earthly 
lifi!, — tl)« i'lniL- pi:i-sutis, ngjiiiist wlioiri he niiiiiit»!ncl hi« ith 
liepßndunt ii|HiHlolic commisuoii, tu delivored to him )iy Clniet 
on htH pcnwnal app4?iirciii(y3 to htm : 1 Cor. ix. L, 2. 

Hnil he hccii UHllnil tu opjiose the teadnacy of » bite 
myrtioiani and s])irituali6iii, he, who iiuderslnod bo vdl how 
to Blriko nt tins root of error jukI lU-lusioii. would have «^ 
tuiiily eiitorctl more ^lly into (KiiiQiot with hu orrooico» 
fliii.<cr,ion of the reli^ioun fieiiliuiBnt, m daiigüitHis to gniuinc 
OhriBtionity, for which he wotüd havy had the host opportiinit)' 
ill trciting i>f tlic git^H of tlio Spirit. 

We mum then consider this view of the Clu-tst-porly a» 
ontively iitiBiipportöd hy tliis cpiätl(ior?iiul, üuJonlydcdiMetl 
Iti>[ii it liy 11 inimbtr uf arljitmry iiitoi'pr>-tiitiiniB.' WhS* 
thtise wliosw viowa we iiro opposing, tiiice the origin (»f saclia 
pm-ly to A uertiiiii teTnlcucy of Jndnism, wo. ou the contnur, 
tire iihliged to reftrr it to a Grecian t.-!<;iin,'nt. 

l""roiu the pecidiar qualities of tho Grecian mind, wliirli 
was not dispoeed to submit itself to an ohjoctive untli-i-i'' 
but readily moulded overythiiig iiiamaiiut-r coiirornishli- «' 
its own ftiibjeotivity, suoh » toudenoy m that ve hav« btcs 

> Them: witril^ coiiUiii s uDUiniJ to liiH rcincc.r Jcwl'li tlamliM:' 
poiul. ami \m etirher voiit'<; of vlic dmraf ire «t ibe lIctHah : tin 
to üll that was jinietficleiit lo CKfisLinniLj. aud lurJppfniK'iit of It, If 
fi-um Itiln Ht.iniling-iioml .ill ttijn^ wopl In louie iiK'ii'>iirch(v>4nMi>«*, 

' 1 fiml nn ^nmrnl for» oninpiiritmi wlLh ManiiuiUin, Uorei^buU 
tht Clvriimiiliit'it, and I mudt cun^kler u> nrliltniTy tho ex]iUniilI-)iH liul 
liarc bi-on giv-cn uf tha firot cpiat.ln of (Jlemc^ni) Iü>in»iiu/i (to irbKL W^ 
I ciuinol uncribc m higb an uuliqi'ityj. 111 i>itl«T to clucJiUl« l^^t kffwf* 
4/lIi(: Cni'lntliijui diurcli In I lie tlucit at ibc apMtle Paid. 

rxci'ts JounsxY to Axnocn. 


K\KSnc of, migliteosilj proceed.' At that time, tliere v/em 

Finany educated ami hfiltWiiucatwI iudividual». wlio wen» <li»- 

bUinficd wit!» tlia [«ijnilir PulytluiUin, Tlieso piTWHis lisU-mMl 

to tlie words of Chri«, which improwcd tliom by their Biib- 

limity nnd npiritiuility, imd t.ielieve'5 Hint in liim they Jiad 

wet wltb a reloi-iiier i>f tiie religiooa eoudition of niankiud, 

L KUCh as they had h«oii lougiiig foe. We ha\e ulreiidy nc- 

^■tiiarkdl, tlint a ciillent,inii of thu mauibmljle actions and dix- 

^■eitunea of Chnst. lutd most prob&bly been in eirculation froiD 

^Ba TCrv mrly jicriciil. Migiit tlKty not. liavo |iromiroO micli n 

l^dociiment, and iticn coiiBtnicted by menus of it. n jiecidini' 

form of Ciiristiaii dootrinc, middled iiccording to thoir 

iCrecittii »ubjectivity i These jjtjrtiou» probohly Ijeloii^d to 

[iliu c!ii3s of the wiisdom-seeking Orceka. at which we uced not 

|l>0«iiq>nftid, ikUhoiigh the Chi-ist.iuu chiiroL made little ]>ro- 

among tlie hi^lier clasace, aitioe iii this mty a eiiiiei'iur 

ilcgm; üf refinement wiw uuivuraully ijrf\iilBnt. tind from the 

Iworda vbich tell lu, that in the Coriuthiau chiinth. not iiutnn 

|«f tho phJloaopliicnlly Iratuad, not vinn^ of tl^o hieltet clai^x 

|wBre til Iw found, we tiwy inf«-, that snvu: sntii |)eT8oa» iiiiiNt 

■ belonged to it ; one individual is mentioned in Roniaua 

[»vi, 2,1, who fiUod RH imjioi-limt civil oflicc in CortDÜL' 

Bot iitT'iiiittt tili» äii].i[<tisitinu, the sainu ohjetttiouit uiüy Im 

■jfed. wiiich we mada agaiiiat another view of the Christ- 

Ipitrtr, (Imt Patd hiut not specially directed bia ar^tDeiitiitlciti 

linst tho principles of »uch a party, ihtmgli Ütey thitialeneil 

en min« than thnae tif other parti<.:8 to injur« fti'osli.iHü 

[ChriHtiuriity. Still wlait ho saye ou otler oi«:iieiuiia, re- 

[apoctiug tlie only Houruo of Llie knowledge of trutliB that rest 

va divine Havelfiliou ; — wad agniiisl I.lie j)reauin|ttion of niion- 

jrhtoneJ reason, sotting lierself up as uii arliitress of divina 

[ttungA ; and uu the ncuiingii^'as uf a proud pbiloeopby, (1 

ii. 11,) fonus the most powerful lu-giimentatioti ag;unKl 

' Thf rMu>iu nllcgcil by Ü&ucr, in liU Into ciftaj' no tUU siiljci;i, »Ly 
oh • fi'tbi ur^rror ruulil liol cxlgt st thin ktiuiv io cot I'cnvitice lui-. 
• Baiiur <iijni (p. U), " lUtigloa. mol phllonophy. woul.l Iciul (o Cliiij. 
•sltjF." Bui it 1» not ft)u>g«lhctr Luiprob&blis Ihnt a [icnuin niiglit bo 
1 liy ■ roliaiouj )iiC«r«(l. which could find no sniUfiiotian in iJio 
pillar rali£[l<>n, tu plilluw.pli^-, nml by Ihv samv iiilortaf. Iin cani^il 
ti<r«nl4 W Cliri-<tiaiüty.yi;houi. «iiopting it in iii> unnllo«™! nimpliciij. 
Thj tUould ruit vued phonomciuii whiali curululy oi.-v'iirivil iu ilii 
I GUlurj', ban wiMtt fntm Ibe Mne naitiu» V. llii> pcrioit 
Wi. I. R 

Paul s jovrx'et to axtkwh. 

tbe riintliunpiital error of thi» pnrty, tboiiirb lie nii^ht 
hnvc it »i|M!(;iitlly in vivK ■ aiid it is n tirv<!r-fiiiiing cliiimde 
i«ic of the nj'oetlc'» luutle vt oöiitrovciav, tLat lie nai'^tK h<J 
of the main rnütx uf error, inntead of btihyiug himself ' 
miifti (stK wiiA tlic pi-iicticc of later oculcHiiiKLioil ]Mituniia<) willi 
it« Lintiiuties and <jtl«:t». Nw la it altogetliei- iiiipn>b 
th:it the adhereiitB of this party were not iiunM?n>ii», awl 
Cfciscd otjy » sligltt infliionco in the ciiiiroh. Tiicy i>nctip)4 
t<K< roci^oto a stiiiidiug-pviul cu rt'cvive mucU booefit 
tJie warningB aiid arguments of I'aiiJ, aud lie had ooly to i 
t>ie church on its gimnl ngaiiist mi injuriotii» intcrootirw 
auch |»erM(.nis. " Be nut dewived," said he, "oyU comiuu 
tioiiFj coiTupt good manoGTi." I Cor sv. 33. 

Tlic i>|)i>(isition iKtwcGii the PnTiüne ntnl Petrin« pjirtict, or 
the Jwwi.iJi ftud Omitib Christian», wiis iu refcreuoe to ib« 
relations of life, the most influßutia! of all tinwe pnrty diflitf 
oncns, and gave rise to many scp^intc coiit«ivcrni<». The 
il<ji\va and JuwihIi Christiiiiiä whcii they lived iu iutunxnrw 
witii btJnthcuH. siitfered much disquietude, if uaüvran.« Uioj 
parto»k of anj- food which hiu! been rc'iidor<;il unclcwA hy it* 
ounncxitiii witlt iilulatrous ritva. Vuriuua rules wure UmI 
down by thti .leiiish theo1ogin.iiB to deteitaine «bitt vim, and 
what was iwl detlliiig, and viuioiis metbwls wore dcviiwl ht 
guiirdin^ n^'iiiust siich dcfjlcmuit, oti wlikb much oiay Iw 
ftaiod in the Talmud. Now. na persons might easily nin« 
risk of bnyiug in tlic market [lortionB of the fli'sli of nnitnola 
which hud beiii vflijred iu aiOTificu, or might lia\t! auoh wt 
before thsni in huuaes where they were gumts. thüir daily VSv 
WHS lut.nbsaed with consliint perplesitii». Scruples o« thu 
point were [>rolmbly fuimd, uot murüily in ihoac who wtn 
avowedly iiniong the Judniziug opjHiueuta of Paul, hut kUi 
Bcizeil lu'Id of mauy Chriätians of weaker miiids. As faitll 
ill tlii^ir fiilHo gvjde tiEtd previuii^ly t^.tttrciscd j^rvnx luOimM 
üVür thorn, so tliey ooiitd iiol nltogethtn- diviist themselves ti 
nil impression, thnt iiL'ingK whom thi'v liiid soliitrly revereoMi 
»a deitie», wcru ^j:iit<Llii>i)£ ii^ore Uiiui civatur«a of the iimuiiw- 
tioiL But fruiii thuir now ttiiiiding-iKJiut, tliis naificcüoii ti 
their anoioiit I'litth asHunied a poouliür funii. As the «hob 
nvni^in of henthciii-sni wiiü iu thiiir cyoH the kingdom of duk- 
iitias, tlieiriicil.ies wcru now titiiisforniod into ovil B].iriiÄ,iind 
tlivT fuared liänt, by piulakiii^ uf thu Hush cunatcmtol ^ 

i-ACL» jocHVEi TO Amoca. 


llism,' Uief abooLd eotae iaUi felli>w«hip «itb evil 3]itrin. 
Tluu Ümim; •craplm uflecte-l u<j( lut-rel t J lutaucn, bat otlur 
Uuistiaoa also, b evideut fivm a uue i;i retV-raioe to «liidi 
Pftul )^vu) specific dirvcltotiB. He sup|><^s. muuely, the case, 
ÜüM Hucb wuuic believcn were guests mt the taUc of > bcBthen.* 
Nvw wo ma; be oenutu. tLut nooe nbo bekm^ to tbo 
F JuiLüsoKu-ould noka up Üieir müxis to «M «itb u ImÜieiu.* 

P ■ Thn« Peur. in ifae CIcuTDÜum, ■>» I« tk« faeMheai^ «po^imi 
T«v AnviM»«» ^^rfvrvr x«A(npr taiitintr iiuiiarKavti. ll«lik Jrf. 
t 15. 

' Tlu) DH»«!^ iu 1 Cur. riii. 7, mu^ l-c iiikdi:f»i*o I of |«noa» mim 
tlmmf^ wejr kid puwd oret Ut Cbrmtiua ibuHOÜkUsi, «i;re silU in 
vmm MMum «oUiutcd in poljtbciun. and («»Id nni «Diii«!; Cra« 
(bfiMMlrea fro« i he U lief ik>i the pi-i« »hoin thej' bad tumeric 
■ofTtd «vra rjtriuitliH «r k Nbordluu oIa«: (o Ikat no« udti p«iMiw 
— UQC« ur parukihsaf tbeflcik «f tUc cictinu th«f uippOMd lk«L ÜMf 
MiUcwil ijpiin iiilv ForDaxiofi wilh tk«>w clltlae Unp — vosld be l«a 
I« imsffinc, tliu Uiclt lonnicr IdolMiy >«■ not wholly ifiMVpatibk with 
CbriMuoitr, ibJ tliiii tniKfat Mfilj! bna an Mniilg» uatlan »( heinhcii im» 
»od Ohriftuoiijr In Ut«t Umb. «xneihingaf tbi* kikd wc >)k>wioiA 
pkoc, in ih« tRtn-i'i'ni froas [k-IiiIiuhio W uiniistlietoii : but In Iht* 
prjiiiilivv a^, Cti rittiviit T nine M oim nMo such direct «onUir. -Mt 
ibcM ponicolära «lih lieithMbin, thu an atuulxami^tion «f tU> kuib 
«oBoai im t]L«a);|tt uMnL WbotTcr bftd ooi wIkiUj nnoanotd 
M«UuT winld caruinl; OM be nodred into V>c Cliri»Uw ebareb, iiof 
wcnM lure ho mildljr pHwd jmlpncnt on 'ucfi > wmkii«« «T üith. 
From (odi puMfBt M UaL t. Xii, I Cvr. vi 'J. "tcumoi coodnitc villi 
cCTtaiotj tbu. «mini; Ukns wfao lud prufduod Chmtiünliy. Iben iroutd 
be Midi »ho. arur (liey had lioen led (» CliTiuisDii; If an iniocMiw 
wblob «w noi deep moMk. altowod UiMuaelvn» a^pia to Jols In üie 
wonhip of idola; lor Pant aSghi hot» dtalgntdljr «Lan tb« Ti«e* h« 
Buaad with idelalir. in onltr t« indiot« that, whoever Indulged la Uie 
TMW connwl«il vilh Idolxty, d(*erv«d (u lie nukrA vlih Idolalcn. 1£ 
V« Minpt» tU»e [iiMijT'ii witli 1 Cor. r. 1 1, it <rtl) a|■1■^s^ Ibot aon« 
audi inuiuicai acL-urrod ot a rcUpM Into Malktr}'. but tliofC «ho wnra 
thuayuiiiy af (iarli-;ipaliug in idolatrj mint bni<a been «toludtd tV«n 
ftll CnriKtiBn «omniiiiiWn, 

• Tlio •cru[>iil<»iiv ui tliu Jtmt in ihi- miiciTlippwm in tb? Jcwinh- 
ChrisLiiin work of tiic CIcincittinea lltiaugh gii otiier poinu sufflEicmtj 
llhcn)|, whtfr« Ibc rullowliu wi>r<ls arc ssiTibvil to llit; apuetU I'uicr: 
T^aw^Vi ÜrAr ttK k*»/iaioiur, Sri Si) «ÜU mifforüaffai aüroii ttW- 
fiirMiliiiiAicaMtiTaiaJTviiT ä.ovi'. N u ri ccpUuu cuulil Im mudeirifavotii 
ornaivnia. thildnti, liroiliP«. or a»!!.-!« 

* R; tliu «li. 1 C«r x. ;ftt, no aruoiint of the ivtaiion ot tlie finl t)i. 

tr. 77. >« otulenuiid it bi niuiui tlic lumu iicnon. ili« hraihen liiuc.— 
and it wootd Im a very imllkoli' ihiiii.' il>«l *wii a p^nnn wniild remind 
fcisnrtwlan i.ii«*t, Ibil be had <el lii.-farc liiin qi«iI IliM hiii btcB 
atknd U i-loU: but wn muat talhiir Ftki ll to tlu* h-^'jiL: C'liriiiiun, 
■wtw toluidacvd It to Lo lui du^ (« wun hi* luuurujialuü« bivthet 


ft«CI.*B lOOKtKt TO AmiOCB, 

'ihono wliv iu tiivir uwu ostimutwMt wen Pmiline Cbi 
tidieulod a N^upiilosity that Üiiu madu daily Itf« uut^uaff' 
lull into nil oji|io»it« error. Tlwjr Uul iiulcixl fomi*il njjl 
cuuui-iiiiou» uf ilio l'iiuliiie | rluuiplea io rcfeivuce to tl 
hut envd in tliu applicaUim. becuuM the »[jihL uf luve wid 
wüduiii WIM wiuitiii(;. Tliey euid : " Idolii ure in ÜMmiael 
ai>tlii»K> tncK crcivtiin?« of the imngination ; hcn«>, alao 
«atiitg iif llio ätinh tluit liiLi l)eeii (l(-viiU:d tu tliirtii, is ft ihii 
iti iUoIf mditferent 'l'lii.- Cltrjbtian ia bound by no law 
Hticli i^utward ur iudi&^mut tliii:|;i« ; uU tliiii)^ tuv Ijvi- U> biio 
TUi^ä iittnti' vm thoir motto, l'hey upix-iUed to tbtär kuo 
lodgo, to tliö powcir whicli tlicy poiwcsscii iw Cbmtians; yvw. 
iiovaia, wure tlieir waluhwunla. TliL-y l»ul uu oonaMienriJ' 
fur tlic uccL-asitics of their wtukcr brvihrx-ii; thty ouU; 
Boduced roaoy iimoDg them to folLi>\r tholr «umplo front 
«hntnc, that they might not bo ridiciilcil n« nttm>«-tnnii 
and »oruimluiiH ; Hiit-b nu oill', wtiu nlluwud liiinaelf to btt ii 
AtiOKii by outvffvrd L'onaiiliinLtioiiG to net coutitory to his eoi 
viuliuuH, wiJulU afterwards Iw disturl'RcJ in lii« ci^iLtCM»: 
"Thtia," mid ?aiil, " tluouKl» Üiy kuowladRe lOiail llie 
l>ri»tlier iwritih for wiumi Christ died"' Muuy weat Bin 
U'ti^th» in this |iridu uf knuwicilgv and thin nlniMC uf Ohrintt 
livx'tlijni, that tUoy wrupled cul to t^so (xirt iu Üif fi»ti' 
uiilurluiimii'iit», Ui>iiHi>;ün{,' ut' the (Irali limt u'lUi Idt uftiir U« 
luicrrilicvH Lad beeti piOBL'uted. wIul'L the li<;ti,tLeu)t iivrc wiiat 
In ^'ivc thuir fiiuuda ; tiiid tiiuu ttti-y ncni uiisily mrrk'd dd M 
iiidiil^o in llioHe imiiiomi cicDaao% which hy the tkcrooi 
thi! apostoUo convent ion at Jorugalcm, wore fyi-Ki<i<.l«n iu 
neiiuii witU the tuttu^ uf Htsli swrifiucil to idulo. Iu 
wo hen.' HikI tlie ^'emi of a üii»-iüd«d uver-ra I nation of 
unitic ilhimiunlioii, ii miHiuidümtuiiding <if ('hi-i)itin.n 
A äÜBiä adiu]ihurjuii iu moraiii, wliioh a btcr iieuiitlu-puuli 
giiustiii" tuDilöuoy caiTiud !*i> liir iw lo justify Llui {fru^cec im^ 

i^ninst partikiii; i>f nurh fuoil, the mlui< trtak Chriitiui «Ium« 
mleni^L' !a vpiilien oS in v. 30. 

' We luiglit. Ucre oinku use of l.lie word« alCribaMil 10 CbrUI ii 
from nn apoiT/rhal guipct, nnd riDOlod In liuke vt, 4. Iiy tl.i- Cn 

av^if &r&fiWitt^ rl fiir crjflai t] ^vith, ^(Ktf^jtii if' «T &< >At; vlJ oj^ fvb 
r«i Koi irjpaSirTvi ([ ruL'fiifii'i' — So« Z'lu Ltten Jfii. y. Mi», 

' As »11» Hic cjix' with thotu wiioni Torphrrj nitntium tn lilt i 
£>t AbflnitKCia Vami», L ) 43, nba icrce in tiitlr toodc <» cipti 



rotMiJittffs. Btit mch wtük<^<liii«ii ci?rtaiiily cannot Ik; Inid t'> 
i'k- clwi)^ ui tlw i*-rv<-"rti;ni of ('liribit.iiui frw.Niom iiL Corititli. 
Thou^ tlic hcnthoii foiTuj>tio«i of moiiils hiid iiifpctccl miuij- 
niembers of tlie CoriiiUiiitii rtmr'cU, yet th^.v were fiir fmri» 
wi&bLD«,' to iiLstif;^ tliis imraomlity on sui?h t-rouaiis. nud liod 
tliU WcJi thr al3^^, Pdiil wciulil liiivc «pciU-'U wilh tar grwil*r 
•ereritj afiAtnst such a palliation of ain.' 

*arf rr>ii;iikiil>ly with ttiA iiiiHi-rii|mlrii]H pnnioriH iIiiM^rlVii"! I>j Piiul : ei 

Tiir IwifiMi-, fldduFif f/ lli\'iaaa Tiuc iypiii" ir(lKT«iy, 'Ei' tuKaß^i<tli4l' 
äpÜMrii; üof^äiTtl'*'' ''V 'oi'^'^ßvfppayijiiaTi, tu ti irirf i/fjÄr bwinirax^'"- 
Tliej »ptmiil tu tlieir fiiiHii ijawilai 

' Vttc <li'i>,irttire from CIiriAiiian truT.ti in liicory lo su ^rcHi an L'Xieuc 
in (.bü i'hiimli at L'nriiiLh, lim iKVa xvcclvfA ljy miny, owing In u mi«> 
ditilcrkUniimi; of the ui)i)'-tl<>'* Imigiinge. Tliuj bnve beoa lad ta onUr- 
taia thU opiaioii. früiti liiiliävin;; that lliuru U bilTicl ubjcctiva ccin- 
anlan b«twten vhnt Pmil «ays in 1 Cor. n. 1-2. and thv lioetnnln^ «r 
V. 18. «■(! nh«l li<> ijvi of tlic worila t^ }i irütia, and fram rappaniis 
tliatTrotii V. 1*2. hi7 hiul lim aamc Uioiiglit m vivw. liiil x ci<)<ii]ijiriHi>ii 
of tL IS. vilb X. 33. will nko». tbiit l'aul at tint meant va\y tu npuulc 
of tho jtactAklntf af iW iiioat uITatcU In iJiild, luid tu exjilulii tliu mil'juoL 
luon fally. Wiih llii» rufurent.'e. lie had taiA in i-. 13, lliu fuuil &u<l Lha 
■toniv^b, wbiiHU Huiu it HiitiüGca, uv l>ijtU innHidiT;;, dcalgni<.-(I onljf fur 
tbla carthlf oxiatOQcs, On tbeso tbinga llio L>ärnoe of tlm ChmtUa 
cnllin^ CBnnnt dupond, «hieb relaiett lu Uic eternal »nil tlie honrcnly. 
Compart 1 Cur. viii, 8, Ku»i. li». 17, Matt, xp, IT i «nil tliua be wu» lijil 
to liiu Mnttiw-t, " Lilt tbc /urni oloae tif lUo boJj 13 traiuiiliiiy." Ac- 
«ordin« lu ite imtiirL*. Lhi; liuily ia iltifliiriicU lo buan iiiipuriBliahlö orpin 
dcvolcil lo i.hi: Lord, wbWi will Im awiikmeii agsin in u niihlerglorlöiid 
fbno fur n hislicr eiinkute. Il i(i:mt. iliorpfunt, lie o*öu uuw »itlidniwo 
fror» thu Bi^rrice a{ liiiit,in(! Im rurmi-d inin »mnctifiDd oif^an iHtonelnB 
to tue Lord. Il m'igH L«. tliut Ihata u-ait Uinitmi; iu tbu upiMitu'ii iiiiiid 
ft potülhlo mlsancleniuindiri^ ol bi« wanl«. ngninat whirh he vinhsd to 
giMrd, or bis cititmvi'm^ wiLli tliii iU>iii<.'tii üf t.'ic ilurtnne o( tbn roaur- 
^_ Mction «t C&ripib. In citbur fuac hc would be ied by tbctc Tnonl- 
^B l«otioliB lo luiiT« ill« topic with which hu liufaii, twd tu «peak airuiDit 
^1 thoao «xcCHOB ID tbo Corintbiun church of which hc had not thoQg'lil at 
^1 &!•(■ And tbl« again lud him ti> amwer Üie <[iiMt<iinii propcHcil lu him 
^B foqieatjng tbo Tplation or Ibe mx««. Artnr that ha ivturns ug-iin. at 
^^ lb« fauglnnlng of l.he Btb chapter, I» the eubjact oF " things oll'orod to 
tdol»," but (rum »nollier [ini ni. ; a'lil iifl«r BovKml digrewion« to othrr 
flutjjcotft, which tnav canWy he ciphiincd from Ibu stsociai.ion ofidciu, ho 
begun itgain in u'U. X. 33, the ciVustLioD or hU eaiiümcntn lu tits 
^OM fotta OK in ch. rl. 12. What iliUroUi hat mid in hi> ciinimcn' 
iDiy. p. 63. a^Insl ibl- iii[uq)rclatlim, that tbu^ we Umc the vviilonl 
enintrjut and pHiiLlluUxiii lif^r.wi^D the wonli -ri litiiiii'-"' 17 «oiAlf, ttol 
4 iMiAla Toi« dpiifuuti.Antl iIi Si aäßa nv r^ lapfuli;!, dAAi 19 Kvoiv- 'ol d 
•V<»( ry ffu^QTi, u|)'pi.'Un ultliuut luuRcluUoii. Il ii oiil,v ui^xumcd i^at 



The nftpcHtinn Iwtwecii tliß PclriiM' miil Pniiliue {äKks, I 
[irulmMy an influenoe on iL« diflt^ivut vicvs q{ the tnanricd 
ftliO oiu(jK- lifo. It wiva indcwl iLo (K-cullar eflvct of Chrifc-J 
tinoity, tLiit it elevated all the moral tvlstiota baffid iaf 
liuinim Dutiirc, iu their piiiw hrimnn form, to • higher ngiiifi-l 
cunve, aci tliat »tier the original fouiitai» of divine liTo hndj 
ammMJ hniiuiiiity. in ordvr, by rvretilli)^ himself Sn it, 
Bdudify and glorify it — lliu striving iilW the godüli«, vma oil 
niDTo tosbow iteelf in an »incarthly lÜTOctifn, civcmt<Ti>pi«g thdl 
bounds of hiicnnii luitiirr, hut t^itryvulwrv, tlie Divlutt liuioui- 
ised it£«lf, tlie diviuo lifu i«vt>al«'d itäctf iu the fonns of biunaa 
dovulujiRKtiit. T«t, n.1 nt tint, bvforc tlic ulurntiiig and nll- 
peiietriLtinii inäiieiice of ChriKllanity bad iiinmfe!it€d if^lf itil 
all the rolAtion» of litV, tho (wirnest morrJ xf'trit of Uie go^ll 
cntne into cuiiflict witli a world \iutk'i' tli>.- doiuinaUoa otl 
einfid lust«; »o, fur a short nsivtic tendency avtne 
from rhc! mnrriAjjo union fuhich thmifüh tiot in nccordono) 
with the afiirit of tlio goepcl, m);j;ht Im cxciri-il l>y the oppottl^^ 
tioti it itiadi.! io tlie uorriiplioii of llie wiuid) — wuuld 
mnlco its appearance, especially Hiuee there was an expectation 
of th« »pooily ixtsKiip awtiy "f nil «trlKly thing«, antct^-drtiilj 
tj) tlio jmrfii^t. fliiviild] 1111111 il of 1. lie kiiigiiiiiii of (iod, Thoi 
viction, that ere the kinftdom of tioA would attain its 
fütiticin, ih'r Lurthly life uf miiiikitiU rutiat in nil its fomui 1« 
penetrated iiy iho lifo i>f the kiiitpicim of liod. and tlwt : 
tli«st< foniis Should he nituh vclilrli'* of ttM niatiifettatioD— tli| 
oi>iivict,iuii could be formed only by deffrvcs Ot>m the liEstor 
courso of dcvelupniuut. And us to whiLt cunocms ma 
(sqxißially, Christ had oertainly by ]iresentint; the idea of it as ' 
a morsi] union, mqniBibc for the complete drvrlopmont of tlw 
tvpi; of Imrriuiiiiy m tnuiHforuted hy llic divine iiriiiciple of 
life, and tiius for tlie FHalizatiori uf the kiiigitoin of Cod in a 
iitoni.! utiiou of the huxok, J(?!ii^tu'd ior tLeir mutu'il nompled»- 
ment — by all tbi^ hu had at oucc diaownod thu aaoetic con- 
tempt of niarria^^ which viena it only on it» nmHuous «de, 
and rcjeots iti« Into idea lu rualized in tna divine Ufa. Yat till 

Paul formed thi> conirncl, train it niuiv i{tiiiani1 vicirnrihesiibje't. abd 
viihoiii limiUiig U to u pprvertluii of ibv <!oi>t(iue of ChriirtUe libnlj, 
M^titAlly eiisli»!^ in t)in cburcli. VTlml JK- WcUe hivi liii«l.v xlrun^ 
til hi? commentniy ufninsl Ibis liit«riT<^iai.UTi,hAS not ulicrcd nyvtew^ 
thciii^h I hsvG exaTnincd nilh pl.'tccie ih« rtaxiu* aclvutcul'hj Ibtt 
dilti I lie 111 nhud critic 

^RB onncB AT COBmB. 

CbriBtlaiii^ tud peDrtn*«d mo» iato tbt h& cf hamuaity, 

»tad tbereb^ bad nalind this idea of muria^ ■> a peculiar 
form uf nwnilMtetMa beloagit^ to the kingdooi of God, ami 
hr che It io gdcta of God mi^t view DMuringe m « nliuioo 
tending to distract tbe mind, and to irillidrav ii from that oh 
fuDdnaiental directiou. Aitil boeides. iboUf^h tlie Clihelian 
view in aU its [Atrity and cvta|4<:UtM»a, wiut in duvet »{^kki- 
Am 10 tile aacetic orer-TBlualioa of oelibacr; yet Cbiistjuiit; 
was eqtuU; repagtunt to the Knriont Jciri^i notioD, MKonUng 
■ to vhich ce&ba^ was oons*def«d as a diamine« and a ounxi, 
^B As Qmstiaiiitj nude eTerrthing dep«ud uu the düfumtiom^ 
^B AS it presented the m^u« of wilriitiaD uid iniptuveiucnt $or 
all coiulitkHM of boman kind, and a ttigfaer life which would 
^m find iu wa; into all «tat» of sufleriug huinanit}', autl opoi a 
^Viaoarce of lappiQem uuder eutüerio^ : — so it alxo üuight. that 
^Ba eiiijfl« li&. «rherv cnrumstanras rendered it iic<«s«ari~, migliC 
^P be BUicUfied and ennobled by it« relation to the kii^looi of 
1 God, and became a jMoulior tnetuia for the fmilierauve of that 

Tlius ChriHtiaiiit^ bid to mahUam a conflict in tlM 
Conntlitan uhtirob with two o|q>oaing ODfr^ded tend«»«!« of 
the inotal Eeotitnenl«. — the ickvUd urer-valuatiou uf cvlibiicj, 
I and the tendency which would enforce marriafte as nu uiicou- 
jKditiona], iioivervil law, with-.'xit admitting ttiiit varioly uf tl>e 
^noela] relatioDti, uiidtx which the kiu^oni of God wa« capable 
Hof ethihtting itaelf. 

^ Tlic fir» tändeney ecrtainly did not proceed from th« 
Jadaizing section of the cbui'ob, toe those npo«t1cti to whose 
ithority the Petriue party sjeciiüly apjieaicd, «ere murrinl ; 
touk thuir wives with thi^tn on thoir miaMionfLry iounievH ; 
Cor. IK. 5 - beside^ that such iiaeutism wtts toTiill} f>)ivi;;;n 
' tbtir itatiouiü manners. From the Hubrcw standing puint 

« OampuD Mall, xix, 11,12; Zeften J"««, p- 087. If we tliiiik of tlie 

_«Bol«tionii llial look pltwa il i-lio fnll of tho Koinnii Kiii[>irv uuil tlio 

FnaUonal mU'^ticn*! — nd* iiiipi>"'""t wm» It fnr «mill liini.'-. tiial Cliri*- 

Uaaltjr ibvuld allow a point of view from wliicli a miiji'« II'« "rlghl bi 

Galicvinod a* a chwriBin. iliuuirli iln» v^at ot viv ci.jgl.i l-i- du»«» 

Owinr lO aa ascello lilw. llnw illl|iuililill ibal llml which njaonü». 

donM by tho prewuTU uf ctn-umitAiico», itbouM bu uiiul-i a in«ani^ of 
blettibg. (I>r ibeeilurallan nf Ihe rude IWl-lol» effopted lij ilii,' iiioiikinb 
orderHj.— ScB ilio «alnaMe remfitlni of F. v. Meyer. In hit n-vicw o( 
ObhauMu'i Coainttniarj. 


Tne cituncn xr ooiuvm. 

a (hiitful marring appeuod tw a pcciiUu bleMong 
honour j while uunBiri^ life, or a cbildlc« morrii^, 
entooimid « aitgnim. Tliou^'h hy thv- ri«lin)j: of Htdncn aX tbe 
pasdjig awi»y of the glory of the *iicieut tlie<«cr*ty, and 
diMMtisäuitiou with the existing rvligivu, iLtid bv Uiu infuui 
of foreign oriental elenientn, a«at.-tio leiukudes wera prodi 
in die later .Tiidftiiora : still t)io spirit of tho urigiiial lie' 
ig-st«iii rattile ittfulf tiili, itud ci)uutvriiat«d to a voitaiu t^i 
the Rucetic tendenciw. both in JuduMtD and L'b^l^tiatlity. 
But ntnoDg the Piiiiliuc piirtj, lui uvcr-viuiintiou »F tlio 
life more or kas prevailed, nnd in this n«pect ihoj th' 
tliemselvoi! cuuiittiUHtici'd \iy tlifCAiunplu of theirH(K)Kll«. 
Juduixcra, oil thi^ »ihtT LutitL tx-uiiiinod oti tbe auviuiit Hebrew 
fttandin^-pbhit, m jinrdniproQiising oppotwnt« of ccbbtwr.' 

The o;i[>i'xilioii »^uiiitixl the ri^idiieiu of .lu<lftiHm, «iHlÜnt 
Kdne liliL'i-tJiHtii nbioh ncttiaUui iiiauv, disposed them to breik 
tlii'oiigh «livunil wliolcKunie tnoml nwtniitilÄ )c was mail 
tained, :iiid with justice, tlmt Gbristiaiiii}^ had bruke» do' 
tho wall of 80p)Lratiutt l>et'weon tho soxcs. iu rorerenoe to 
cottoeniK of thu liigliur Üfv, dud hud fräi-d wonaan from her 
Htite of servitude. But, sednced hy tbe i^irit of &]«« fi 
indivtdu;!]» bad been led to »veratep tJio limits prescribed 
tiatttj-e umi siiund murid«, and reiidund &ikurvd hy Cbrixtianit^ 
VVoijien, contrary to the customs pnynlcnl among the Grerki' 


bribed iH 

' IIpoi'i» uIhh l.lie Rjiijolii: tKndoni'; of vho ICiaenM ww owTMUd \ij» 
giarl)' will! biiruduwd nmmnEe into tbtiKpvl. 

' TliiH op[iiiB]Llua Hppfijiroil amoiig' the Inter «teMVodonU of tl« 
JiidiUKM of ililB aga. TI1UK in tbe Clvnipntiuoii. ji U Kiran u Üw_ 
charnvlt^risLio of 1 truo prophet, yimr mfufiti, tynf^tiar 1 
Hdui. iii, J 1$. It ia flojoiopil ■>» iliu uvi)r>ciur<> «f l!io ulmivh, % 1 

IC[)i|ilwriiii9 KujsurOiibt clBw>orUbl«Di«M whomhedeatribs), iliMi 

J( /tit(id>f^i Sijfliv tmi Tap aiJToii !i!iwiriiA»f." Shollbr tlilugH tre (auad 
in thi? n-li(rioi]<i luioki. of llic i'jibiiuu iftainit uioiikerj. 

■ Wliea i'uul ill 1 Car. v\\, to, ivroiu mends cellhkcy in reitiün nita^ 
lionppL'nrv lu hwo in riuw ttii> Judiuiun, wlio tel tli«iu!>el¥eaaminit(a 
ntiOHiulieauihriHiy ; Tot In tlio wonla I«nw fi xiriii mtüjin $^n i)^,^. 
he niijiiinni to eonirndiet those «rlv. Uilievcil und UMrt«cl Uml Ihej »luu* 
had 111« Spirit, wf 0™l. 

' I'liit u|ip(^im to mo Lhc tnoit timDl? Bad akUinl InUtrpntaii««. 

WhAl. Iiiui bi'uii wiiil liy HOiUK tuiti>i^i:LlitB di« diflbTcDM of th« Ikinuni isl 
Oreol: cuitaim of oivrio or v^ert« «»pil« »an fMers^ wvixia bar^f 
kiipllualilu Ii'™ 

TUR cnrncB it oounth. 


^{^tettiod in tlie Ciiristiui »Membliee unroÜod, ukI, |iotting 
|tt«nMelt«8 oo an equalitj witli tlm mea, iiaiuiiM.'d tbo olGov üf 
iblio teaobeoH. 

Tbo •KuitX of Clinstittn Inve was nlao evinced hjr tbo dü- 
putes tbat 07000 mpeetiug proper^, »lücU tbe pMti«i won 
not villing t» decide, aa nd Iwen bith«-to custaotai? in the 
■lowäfa und Chmtian cbimbcs, hy nrlHtratont cboccn Irom 
Kmong th«iuaelr«e ; ihi.-ee Gentüc Christiane, boatOAU oF their 
{reedom, set a«ide tbe ecruple« wliich restrained Jenidi 
Cfarütiaiu^ ujtd Appealed without hcsit.atii>t) to a hcnibcn 

B/ this (Idfect in tb« epirit of Christian lore, tliose religious 
fenäü wliidi vrers pM-ticidorly ßtted ti> ruprapiit the loviti^ 
,flotnmunion or Chriatiaus and to ouiintAin its vip^iir, lost tlielr 
riM sigiiificnuce, Üiose Ohristiiui AguiKs, wliidi oonipo«ed one 
ivliole wiLli tho oeldbrution of the Ijust Supper. At tlicHC \0v9- 
lfeu«t«, tho pnwer of ChnstiftQ fellowalHp -wna shown in over- 
piMmißg xll tbe differences of nuik aii<l ediiotlioii ; ridt aiid 
uuixter* and sluveti. partook witli uiiu oaotticr uf tlie 
fBun« simple meat But in tbo Corinthian church, whcro 
\ these dißeiviic« were so Etruu^ly niiukt^il. this coidit iiut be 
nlhuiicd. Thera existed amonf? tlie (iroi-Us an ancient (riutuin 
of holding entertaium^ula at wbitb each ono brvugtit hie fgud 
vitli hiin, and coDsiuned it iLkme.' Tho ^Vgnpi« in tbo 
Coriiilbuui diureh wi^re condiictoil on tliu pliui of tins undent 
dutom, «hhough the [leculiar object of the iiistituiioa wsw so 
dilfereiit; ciitutinjiiButly, tho distiuctioii of rich :\ud pixir was 
rendered pwjiiliurly prominent, and tbi- rich BonLctiiiie» iii- 
^dnlijcd in exccBBes wbiot> desecratod the chnmotET uf thow 

^1 Tb« ]ipotlomutant Grwiiau ciittnwiter and Constitution of the 
HCoriuthinu church, appmrod iu neid for mutual cotnmuatcn- 
l^liOQ by «pmtkiiig in tlii-ir public iisi«ni1)lloR. and for th« oul« 
tivatioQ of tbuae cbiiriama whicb relntfid to oral rvli^oua 
^lastnictiou ; but it VK-k a ouc-sidod dirottiyu, which nbowed 
I bftiieiUl iiiflueneo a-t n latiiv poriod in tbe Greek Cburob, na 

' So« XntofjA. Mrmr/mbil. Hi 14. Tlic dv^c^iria tfnA^jiä \)on aftitvitc» 
nbloacc tiitho Airaptnj at IhcM fciut«. all tint oiioli Ijruuglit wt» 
»a part of a .■«irimon iiiyal, »hii'li ilni rlimnli-Uir Jahaiiit.'« MiiUil» 

tnoQUonti v coDtlniilng to bo pn)cü>i.-dcrcii in Ina tim«. Sixiviu Chr»- 

llwgBpb. g collool. Niububr. ji. BD. 


mX aiCBCD „t CXiBlNTH. 

iBptring rsLtlicr nfter extiracirdiiiain,' puvroii of (llsctnitw, 
uftur A Vtfc uf nniiiicnt {m<:ti(iul gixJIiiit^aK ' This UUj 
tcD<lcncy, and th<^ wonc of an all-niiiniAtiiig und guiding lovg^ 
were alKi kIiowii in tlieirinode »f v-iiluiitg and nppivitig tbi 
vAt-ioiiB kiutU (if cluinwaH whiftli related to public spookisg; 
in thdr oiic-»idoil nvor-vniimtion of gifts tlicy Koiigiti fcr tte 
nKire xtrikitig tuiil clatxliiig, Kiich sa »[leakii^c >n new Utt^aet, 
in pri>fereiioe to tboae tbit werä more aikpud to gewnl 

To which oT the parites in the Corinthian dmrcb tfae 
opponent* of the doctrine of the iworrcetioii belonged, ca»- 
not lie ilttcrmiiwd wltli wrtainty, Mine» we hiivtt no 
uccount tif thoir peculiar tenet«. No other soarcc of iv 
tion i« left <ipon to as, than what ■wa niiiy infijr from" 
objoctious ngäiuat the doctriiie of the n^nrracLion which Pwil 
HcniinH to presuppose^ and from the reoauna ^kgcd by him in 
its favour, and «OAptod to tin! standingr-jKiint fcara wliioli tlw^ 
assailed iL As to the foruinr, Paid might ooimtruut Üimt 
oVij<.i]|,iv>ii.t. (us hi) hod often done on other ocCHsioiui 
developing ni> important fnibjeot,) withont oar bdnß; 
riüeJ tu iufur tliut they were aiaoUy the ohjoctiun» wftic 
iH^cn urged by tlic impngnc-rs i^f the doctrine. And as 1 
latljtr, in lii» nniMlc of cttahliftliing the doctrine, he 
follow ttie connexion with other ChristiAn truths in «I 
thin »riirlu uf fiiith prcwiihKl ilaidf to his own mind, wit 
Iwing influencod hy the peculidr mod« of tho oppoeilioa i 

tci it 

When Paul, for example, adduced the evidence for 
tnith of the resurrection of Christ, this will not jntia^ i 
itifcrence, tJuit hi» Corinthtiui upponunts tti-nicd the 
rcction of Chriat ; for, without löKiirdinR their oppt^ittciD, '. 
might adopt tins line of argument. bocau«c to hia own 
fiiith iu the rL<«arrt!ctiuu ttt Clintit wtut ihu foundation 
faith iu the resurrection of the redoeuied. He giiier 
join« togythor the dnctrinpJt of the rosurroctiou and of m- 
iimrtdity, and tic-nce some luay infer that bis op|toaoQt8 gooe- 
rully duiiicd pcrHt^niiil ituitiortidity, But ntJIl it remaiai 
a question, whether I'anl potLiessed euot informfttioa n^te^ 

* I^nl rcniind« tbem in 1 Cor. iv. S(], thst a. puli«ipfttion ii IM 
kingdom of Ugd is ehora not lo liigh^ouadlDj; word«, bai in Üu (HV 
of the life 

AT ONlKint. 


tbc BCPttmeitfai of tluai! jicrMMs, or irfti^tbcr be dui not 
follow the cnoDeiioD in «hidi the truths of the Chrtstän 
täxh were preBented to his own mind, and his k^t of soeing 
in tlm o|)p[ineDts of the doctrinos of the resiiiTMliaii tlicMS 
sbo of the doctrine of mtmorulitr, stnoe Imtb stood or tdl 
together in Ute Jesufa poleiuical tlÜeology. 

"niiii oontrovimij oo the ivsurrectiaD Ins been deduced 

h-xa the ardimiy opf>oDeiit8 nf tluU doctrine auiong the 

the Sft^noeea. ÄaA it has bent« been ootMlnded that it 

^uat«d «ith the Juduxing; purtj in the Corinthian nhurcK 

rbis suppoeitioii appoan to be oonflrmed b; the drrumstuifie 

tiat PiU)] ihirticnlikrly ni«&tiona, m vitDraacs for the truth of 

L** retnirrcction, Petvr und Jmncs, «bo were thu must 

^diBliagoiahed authorities of the Judaiziuf pdrtj; hut tbii 

ounnot be wteetued a proof, ibr be tnnst uii nnj euppoaition 

^iftTe laid (pedal wl-i^I »n the tftitimiinj of the a|KieLlett eoi- 

re) J, üid of tbet« in poniculnr, for tba appearance of 

repeated to them sAor his resunecticin. Hod !)• 

ought of the Sadiluuee«, he would Imve juio^ iiaiiit with 

iem un their peculiar mode of renfioui%r from the alleged 

Klm&e of iLe Peiitntuuob, just as Ciirist i>^gj<«^d tlie ixkd- 

fi>ini this Ktutidittg-poiiit. But ne nuuherc find an 

aple of UieniingUiigof SaddiioeeiBmandChnHtianitj, and 

'■ tlicj' praeent no puiiits of cuuuexion «itli uno anothor.siich 

1 ainalganuitioti is in the liighest degree itnprobnble. 

A ntniiar reply lunM be made to tbc^e wlio ima^ne tbat 

MntroTprsjr on tlie dix'trine of the resuiToctioa, snd tlie 

of thitt of iiuiuuruJitj, tnnr lie cxpUined from Ik 

üngling of the Epicure&n notions with CiiriNCianity. Vet 

Ihn [xuMg» in 1 Cor. xv. 3i — 35. niny nppcar to ho m 

ävour of this view, if ve ccniaider the piuclicul oonsequeuoe 

Juced br Fitul fixjm iliat deniaJ of the resnrrection as 

portion liid (ic)wn in iho »cusc of the Kpicnrcan», if w« 

Ind ill tiiat [jasxtifcv u wju'jiin^ ti|£ainst their God-forget ting 

erity, aad against the infefiiotiB example of the Jai morals 

hich were tho otlspriTig of tlicir iiiibuHuf. Yet Lite objeo* 

Mom would util apply »jih «>}ual force to this intcrprctÄtion 

to tlie first,' I'rum tba ddicucy and mobility of iho 

iGnKinn ulijinicter, m xuKcc|>tiblc nf nil kind» of iin|iireti»iui)3, 

can uion eafdly imagine ituoh a uilxinn; of contradictory 

> A« Ilancr oonvcll)' raiuarkd In lilti Hniay on tbo Chrisl-itarty, p. HI. 


THE cmmcn it ODftisTn. 

mental elcmeuu and mich iaeoiuästeDc3*. thim from üim\ 
oces of Jewish nationality, and tho »tilct, dd^intic, i 
DiLturc of SikIiicocUui. To thia war I)« »4(]v(l, tbut tlic sfHi 
of ih« tiirifis, so very much fiiaposeil to ICdectJoiiiin »u ' 
SyticjcHüm, tended to bring ncnr«* one auoih«a- and 
Mnolgitiuiile iijviku cf tbiukiiig that. At n diflurcat 
would have utood in moat direct and violent opnoution. fd ' 
it would bo ilifHcult to find in Cliristianity, whether vicww! 
OQ tlie duotriiiiil vr etlnoil eJdi.s anvüiin^ irtiich coxiM tttma 
n )>Hreon who was devoted to the ICpiourean pbUoeopiiy, ami 
iiKiuoc him to include somctliing Chmtinn »n his Synet^sa, 
xuthna WD thiiili u( aometliiti^ entirely without n:r*9«i)De u 
ail tlie reumimnK peculiarities uf Chnstjuii^, rdatia^ noly 
to the idea of a monotliciatic univi^wl religion, in oppostioa 
tu the pbpulur superatiUouB, and &ome raunü Idea« dvtMhed 
from tlieir oonuoiion with the whole sj-atem ; but this wooU 
be at loiiKt not very prolinhlo. nnd might motv easily hf^^fivi 
ia 0.11 »iit: when Christianity had loiig been luruicotiiig in cbt 
genenü mind, rather than on its firet uppearanoe in tin 
heathen world All history, too, tontific« agiiinst this «p- 
uoatiuii; for wa always ooe ihc Epicun^u pliUosaphy U 
liiMtility t« Cliristianity, tind never in tlio fmet »gfig da n 
find any approximation of tho two standing- poiiit& A* 
to tlie üiily pusaage which mity appear to üivour this rivw, 
1 Cor. XV. 32 — 35, it ia not clenr that tho opponents of th» 
doctrine of the resnrredii>n had really brought tbrwaid fiw 
uuuduis liera stattd. It niigbl he, tliat Paul lieru iiit<ii<W 
only to characterise that course of livins whioh it appoond tD 
him must proceed from tho ooiisiütxint. wnying out of > 
philoitüphy that denied th-. liialinctioi; of man to tturoal life) 
for the idea of eternal life and of tho reality (if a Ktriyiu 
directed to etenuil thiuga wi-rc to him uurrolativc ideaa Jtai 
when peraoiiH who had niivle a profbtsion of C'brisüiunty ccdd 
fill into a deuiid of eternal life, it iipp«arvd to him ob i 
nifiituution of ntind pmceeiling trom rificifiWu, und hiirrviv 
man anuy to nufiil practiue; a roi-geUulaeae of Oi»! ort 
murk of a Btatti of ü«trai)gvti)t.>nt fruin God, in which a tue* 
IcnnwB nothing uf God. It in muuh moro pmbabliv 
]>hituä'>phically educated Gentile Chrurtiaiu wer» (irrjtidio 
sguiiiKt thii ductrino uf thu twinroütiou from anotber 
iuj; point, as in hit«r liinea ; the ooumon ruds conccfM* 

THE cnt'KCH AT uonirmi. 


iiv« riso to innnj BOcli pr^jiidici«. Tlio olijoctiona. ho» 

such a body as ihn pruwiit Iw iiiiiUnl to ihu wvt) \i 

liighüT contlitiun. uud how ia it pnasiblö tlint a body wbich 

»luilc iuto uomiptirin Ekould ho reHtored ngnin ; tlicno 
i-ljjcctiooB WQiild perTet^tiy buit the atAiidiLi^fxüut of n 
|G«itlUe Chi'istiiui, who hud recoived a üortajn jihilfwopblcsil 
Muing, Hltbuiig;li it ciiiinot Ijq iiffiriuöd witli eeiinin*.y, ihiit 
||jn;ci[wlv ihcw; objuctioiu wero brought Ibrwoi^d in tho yrv- 
eat instance. And if wo rtö jiiKtified in siiiiiinwiiy, that 
■ tiic Ciirist -party is iii«aiit one tliat, fi'oin oerlaia uxpi-essioiia 
or Ciirist wliicli tliuy fxplttitied iicuordiiif; to tbvir uubjcütivo 
|.etandiut,'-puint, cr-mtmct^d a peculiar piiilosnjihiciil Chi'ifc- 
tiauiLjf, it wmdd be must prolialile that, siicli riorsT'iia formctl 
idoit of u rcQiirrecliuu uidy iu a apirituiil suu^-, aiid ex- 
plained iu tiiis uminicr thß iapreBHiuiis of Clirist himself 
claüiii; to tlie reEiii-roctlini, an vti miiHt in any cii.^e iMOUiti« 
at titose who wiahed to bo Cliriatitmo aud Vft douJed the 
Ifutiire resuiTection. veiv far removed from thu iru« staiiilurd 
CIu'iBtiuii doctrine in «tlier respect^ and liacl indulged 
, urliitriuy «Kplonwi^iis of such of th« cUsgvurees of Chris" 
ihey were acqiiaintud with. 

It iniLy be naked, wliero, and iii what manner did Paul 

eoeirc the firat aecount« of these disturhimciM i'l the 

ilhiaii ehuTüht From »t-vi^nd ^?l;p^e»siolls uf Paul in 

Second Epistle to the OoritithiauB.' it tL}i|M>iu«, that 

wfaeD he wrotti his admouitory dplstle, liv iind Ih.h;ii thero 

but ouly fur ;i very shui-L liuie, and that he must 

kT« had tnnay painful experioiic«» of tbo dUi-rd-urs Among 

ecu, though tlwy might inA all luiye sppcured durii^ bia 


Ihtwtva wlilch autl iti« first t[>iistl«, Paul cnuld hnvu Ukk«a nv 
fitanaj to Uutintb, and .vet. in ttie t'ini Kpistb, lu ve eliall pnuentlj' 
, them i« B {lasnii^ whidi uu»l » most imturally icreirod to a |irc- 
Dg i*ci)ud joumej to ilml city. 

t miial now derlaie inyaeir, after repiMUd exam^salioiw. mar* 
Sideilly Ituin in tlia fir^l ediiUm. iu (iivour of the view uiuimataed liy 
Sleek in his valuulilc i-amij in the Tlteologisi^hcn Studien nnd Kriliira. 
1880. piifi iii, "Ltch hiis sinw bi!(u appfosi".! liy lt(k'k(*rl,^by Schotl, 
|a his diii'iwulMi of i^.inn imporlnnt chrondlofrieal ptnoU in tlio hiiit*rj 
of UM opOFille I^til, JeuD. 1SH3. — anii bjr CigiIiilt. Iii Iii» InlruJiiciinn to 
biO J4gw TML'imont.—iiiid l>y vilii^ra. Tliougli hud« of tbo piuupi* 
Jdoovd u «vitlAiiuu for tliU «piniuo ndmii of vioÜMr Inturimlaiioa, 

TBS imuncn At flORRtnt. 

Owing lo tlie brcnkN ni lliv iittmitivo of t|(e Acts, 
difticiiii 10 tleL-td« whfji thi» secuitd visit to Curii t)i UK<k 

ypt, uktn aluigüther. llie.v wialiliuli tlio secoud vinU of t'lml lo ili< 
obiitch M an imrfinliWo (art. TIib pi»»«bks in 2 Cor. «ii. 14. comparct 
«llii V. 13. Me niiiai imumlly uiiilcntuiid lu ni««i). llikU m b# kxl 
alroaily Ktiivml twiiv at r>>rintli «ilhnnv tvmivins the mMins af «ujipNi 
fratii ill« ctiureh, h« wtn r««ol i-^d m to act on IiIr Ifalrd vliil, nt lo Ih 
tiD mar« a bunirn id tlic-m tliui on Uiä two former aM«*iout. U renc 

14 b« iiTnit'rttiHii! lo riifBH U "vntf iif •■liii'li l.ho inmU irill ailuiil^. lliU 
lio »n» irlimniniE lo «oaic lo tiicni U Uiird lime, we mii'l mippl)' »hnl b 
IIOI. Hxpiyxily unlil, Ibnt li» wiiulil iMiri:iiiit* i'Ki.-iite lliia ni>vliit!«ti. ID-I 
5M lIio irordi >o iindcrttood do «oi qiiiiu MiUthc vonntxiiMi. AcranliDK 
hi 111« iiiOHti iL[)priivcil n'utiiiit ofi Ciir. il. 1. ihr itdxn' mu^t tir; rcknol 
to Mil- U'bnlu vluii'c 'r AAirjt i\Biii', aai lh(-n il follow«, tbul Ptlll lad 
nlri'iutj' i-nrr ruc^ivcil ii [lainrul liriprcuitm Iron) ibc Coriollilan* In« 
viati uiuilv 10 Ohtui, wbicb eannol icfcr to 1>i« fini rcMitencu MHitf 
them, Hn<l Tliiiictorc «bM((M ut to ^upp"*« n »cciwd almdy puU la 
tlie pa.-vmüu 'i; Cur. xÜ. 31, wlikli (.'rmnol. hero bu brou);hl in proaC Uil 
lii'Icci) [luMilili;. onil. ac>:ori1lRt( M i.hc iiniiL.inn of Thr vorM, Is nM 
nuliiral. Lo i-oiiiiniU ihevdAiy wiUi JAffdi^a: Irat vr ma? iKiilkmd N 
HiippiMii llini. tha wiXtv belonm Ui «anruviiir^. hut- ii plamd tnt k* 
smphwii>. In ihU com. tli« iiilnNlnctiuii iir ihv wimr. «hith ret i» bm 
iiddv^ t« ASiiir in V 20, HA «all u ihn pni^iiui» ui tbo vhol« «law 
vdAiK Jx^dnu, i« miule );»ad. ani! Ill« coiincxiuu wilh «bit fall««) 
fsvouM iliin iiilrrpTcULian. Paul in v- 31, «iftrti»«* hit »n^wtj W 
Giiii aliiiiili] Imnilili- hiin n iccond time oidoii:; ilicm vhea Im >as6 
Aecari\mi!\y, wu »lioiilil lliu« un4}an>t*iiil xiil. I, foilowiiifr tlie limjilM 
liitcrjirvuiilnn. I.linugh Mt pftHOgc nnf be othcrwüo uudcrhinod. itl a 
be HiipptiHC'l In iiiiMn. Iliat ma li« Uöd nlmailv twteo nniioimnd bu 
Intended coming to Corinth, bnviag new a third time tejicaicd 
tbrniilvii riB, lio ivutild »iriaiiilj' ckuvuw ii). " I am bow intcodtac 
a lliiid time to come lo you, and m frbal it iiipporUiJ \ij Iwo »t vki 
wUtiu'wt'a niuiii be vuUil, m nuw wbat I liiit'o ilireaUDcd a aL-onnd lai' 
thini tiinc wil) ccibiinlj bn fidilllcit. I hnvc (wb«n 1 waa nilfc , 
■ccuiid liuiel luld borun'Uaiiii. tLo-'C wliu bad itnncd, und all Uu': 
anil I now any it to tlirm n u.vnail tiuii-, lut if I ««rn with JMl — I 
J naw (ihla iiotp is ci>i>oiitd to lonucrly, 'Inee «-hvn preaent 
tb«ni. bu bad oproMiiil ih« «nmo tcntimcnta,! thai if 1 cun« is ;«( 
ai:»iii, I will not acl towarila you with furbuiTHnre," (aa Paul. «li«n^ 
mine trij ibem a >cuond lime, »till bi^tin,vcd nith rarbmranco, IhoacU i* 
tirtd alrt'H't'ly t<ufNc'ti>T>t cjiuhu fur ifi-Ait.Uruciion witb c^taa.) Dq welin 
indetd. objoct« u^iiinst tliit iiitoTpirtation, (hat ito meniinn of tb» f 
vi-iii. uf P»ul til CDi'iiitli wiiiilil tic in lilt» aiM! i)oitc *ii|>vtlluouji: 
during bl> lui^und visit, he U,id nol noted witti KVeiicv towanU i 
Cortiithiiiii', but iulcud«il ta do »n on lbl> third <loca«ivo, becanw i 
Iiad hot llitoni'il to bin uiluioniLionii, ho wotild have rca»on to B*at>* 
bis two Ur<il visile tuKL-tbcr, in <-rd';T r<i mark mor« disliuvtlj hi 
nB(ii:i:[, tba Ihird would Ihi ilioIlnt'iUFihud from the n1,b<;r ivo. Aai 
Uidueli, iliinns b'!i bnt nald-^nw antoiii; tlictn, hli (ts|ienenrie i 
tile wbtiie jileaaitig. ytl in thla Ivut; (wrtwl luaujr ihin][s mat I 



filace. If tti« Second Epistle to the Coriutbianc had oot b«en 

addiVMed ill tlic suns Mme u> the duiiclics in Aduiii. wt 

luiglit sup[>oae UihI I'aul. dunu<.' hii long nstdeiice al CuHulli, 

htui ttikun mWcnoiy or tütitntioti joiimrrx thmii|;lii>iic nthrr 

jiorts of Acitaia, and Lhat lie Liieit oucti axon nUarned ta 

Corinth, oiiiy For « ehoit time, in order to fetch Aquila for 

tlio ji>iirii(.'_x-a be luv) io pros^wcL It nppcuns thiit uu tliia 

journey he wiis cipoeed to nimiT dnugera. nnd tiint on his 

dcliremn«e ftnm them in! müde the vow mifiitionod ubor«. 

Bub Btti\:a tliu a^coucl epititk' was ilIhij diivcCtMl in tlto chiirchet 

^— Ja Aoliiin. this «upixisitiuti. in ordi^r to i>c mniiitninvd, niuat 

Hbe BO aiodified, that Paul ci>iil<l made in tlie meaiilime 

^nuiother longer jouruer. and iviiirued luiclc. Again to Achaia — 

H-vhtcli it is uot eaay to aiiiniL Or \\ä muHl «ti|i[iOBe, that 

dtirinu: hi» loiign- iv))idi>tice Mt Kj^heätia, of wliich vna are now 

«gt^akiu^. bo undortuok niiothcr iiii)ät»narvjuumev,nuduftlled 

^iu paesin;; at tJorinih ; or tiiiit. by the nmictv which the 

bmujfhl from Corinth ejii^itud in hJK iiiirid. he ''■■»» 

lindKccfl to ^ thither from EphesuB, but on ai-L-unikt of cir- 

Jcuiaitauuea whiuh uiitlud him b»uk to Ej>h<.'ttti&. hu cuuld titay 

luily a Hhort time with the Corinthian churcli, and theiefore 

ive thein iiotico of & hnv^r rvsidonco amonu: them. But it 

; uul well at,Tee with tins last aupprsitioii. th'it I'aul dis- 

tlllii^i*iheH this visit as oiio that took phce "' l>y tin; way." And 

»[M:i:i:iily If it tuuk place not long befoi'e tlie first i-pintle, wb 

light tlie raore «peel allnaions to it in that. The commwui- 

Icntiun» Wtweeii Paul and the Corintlijitii clnii'uli iwem also to 

eBnppo>ic. tliut hi! hud nut bmu witli thuin fur -j, L-uiuidenible 

Liiuc. There reiuiiiu» only a third stippiisitLini, ihut tlic visita- 

ptjon whtcii he niaiio aAer hia depajture from Antiiith to tli» 

liiiruhes eai'li'Ur funnded by Iiim (Acts xviii, S3J bofuru Iil> 

Iffitervd on a liwsh field of labour, was of greiifcir extent thuu 

Irü distinctly itated in that passage, and that it eiteuded as 

Xtu 113 Aohiin. Perhaps liQ then travelled first iroui Phrygia 

ppentd wHb vlilcli Iik ciiuld. not be nn tie Hal, liu< uhk-h he trenled 

cnllj'. tnuting t» iho fututu proctvsa of tbvir Chriiliuu Ufa. W« nioj 

lull in tlio Am cpi'llo, it (.ram af iIiIm his de^'ind reaiilencc ul Coiinlb. 

FWhcn ill I Cor. xvi. 7. I'aul saj"-». ilint lie iuteudeil nut miw to »ee them 

Iby the '"ny, ipri nnd I'h po^iliua bllowa q» to uwumo a ntrtvnt» w oa 

iBvlisr 'Uil, wUioli lie lUiiue uulj '' by Lliu «-ay," ir iratriSf, anii as thl> 

twai M> >nri' tMiiMMiti.wc iiiufaüotrualfurlilt Di.'kkiiij; ui> fuilliomlluMiDQi 

Itt it in llie lint ei<iiUe. 


TUB cnnsca at oowmL 

tn^mrda tlic ooiurt of the Mcditcrmncan Sea, and then Miltd 
lij IIcIIm. Pomcitily ho thin I'oiiiid iit ('orintii Apollo« vlio 
biu) jTiicooIccI ttiiiiicr, vlioD Paul uuniius (ntn Jintiodi, 
pFuwol throiigti thu up]HT [lOrtH of A^'u (dcte xiz. I)/ fend 
pcrlinjiri joined him on his return, miil uiHit with hhn to 

Vie must lliiirefore at aJl oTciitft H>i|i|>o»e, ihitt Piitil lad 
obtaiiieil hi« first kuowlcidgv o( t-h« nltuntliun for thf- won« in 
tlic f'iirintliian L-lmrch by hm own c)l>i«!rvatiuii. fl« opuM noi 
irideeil hnvc witiicawd the Htiifo of tho various jiaittes, for. as 
ti|ipoii>'H r'niin 1 <^ir. xi. 1 2, lie liciml of thi« first at Epheeia 
t'ruio tbe ri'purt of «rtniiiifcra. But ulreadv he mwd hii-vo faxl 
the painful rxiK-ricntx;, th»t in a chnrco which once «u 
iiispiivd with Ml niiiith ChriHtiiiD xcnl, tlmr old vioa% and 
«normititw nijnin np{>etirod tiiid«!' a Christian guls». H« 
aduiuuialiL'd iliuiii fur their iuiprovviiiunt, and thnmteoed to 
use sewrer mtusiires. if, when he returned from Ephosm^ be 
nlioidd tiud titiit. no impnivcmniit. hiicl Inkcn pliiro. At Ephe- 
stia, lic voiM obtain inTorriiatiou rusijuutiug tlie «JTuot of hli 
Idst tidmiiiiiLionn <iit Üiu diiiruh. 

Itiit iic rctci?!«'«! wiir^o muwb tluiii ho cxpcctod of th« me- 
riiptiüu uf morals iu the Corinthian churcli, aoid enpociflllr 
of the vicioiw cuiidiict of (tii imlivi^Uiitl «ho liad maiiit 
iiiilnwfid iiitt*]'uöurBö with iiis st«j>- mother. Henoo, in 
opi^tlo ' he iiciitroKHRil to th<! t^>rint.liiiin vhiiroh, l»o : 
tiiuin with allowinjET »uah a. mail Htill to remaiu among tfaeni, 

' We muit ill Uli* iii>«Juii:i! mtRTpnUlA Pnui'n joiiriMy lu CoriiiLL 
Xeti xlx. I, iLDd cDppntiitiilut «Im'« ihi'H'iihor af the Aoid jtue« noili ni 
}f the viiier uxLisut uf Vnaf* vitiimtmii iit ilint time, he Miinaoaui 
ch&t bi> imnicllHU^Iy l>uiijr>k IiiiiikcII' Troni CpiHrr Atiii to Kpliukiii. 

*' Thr spiillo ia wliich I'luil wrote um ciulil nol ul aiiv mli be (imt 
"lill niUNiniu! Ivy lb» Aniiuiiinn cliuroh, »UU'li tnula of aiilijciiU cu-.'ii'.',; 
dlirErcnt. aaA muit be an miawur to nn cuIilt Epbiitic i>i tlie C<''''°- 
tliHint. Tlilu j>ri;i<>u(1eJ Epiull« ui (ho Cartoibiana by faal, «nd tU» 
niiBWcr. lionr on tlipni. u m iiair uniicnmlly ncknowlcdf^, itio idok 
iiniivDialil« laai'lCH <if '-punuiiuiki'Ki. TIid nccoiiiii of tJift opfxtoenU «ftbt 
dvctrinc of the mtirri^onnii at C'nrinth, kIiu wm« UkuIkIiI -iniittr ** 
littor ditnimof It amoni; tUoOiiiiUI«9,<»nii«ctud wiiU ihu Uksof Slaini 
Magiu, Mill tlie auumiul or tbe JewWIi fuuiKlen of necu, by Hr^ 
ilppud, ntvc an M\c monk >>lic iniliidcincnl 1^ jml tui^ibcr tkM« fn;;- 
incQti of Priuliui^ [ibnx*). If ib«v netc quuieil iu n sr^nuiiie bouiB; «I 
OteKan' ^wriirriit, lh<>jr viire prrhapi in ex iiri.>i]i!i» Lii tli« 84 oMItiif, 
but thu ndilrau uf Uri>goTy U) lU« ue«l( tiNidiwii inajr itMlf b« mf 



ind requii'ietl theni to lEUOunce oil ouuueiioii with so arxm- 
'^dou«(] a (;hanicter, ' 

It VIM indeed Eiifficiently evident wliut Puul ben inUiudei^ 

tliQ Curintliiniia sliotild not only exclude ft'oni the 

of the church those who called tiicmstilvGS Chi-istimi», 

|;4lJBic<l Olirist.ianity bv their viciotis lives ; bat also alixtaiti 

11 all kind of iiitercourae with ihom. in oiüer to testify' eiu- 

jilisititsilly that such a merely outimnl prnfcasiua wits yf uit 

vniiux, to briog theso pt^rsoua to a, sense of ttieir guilt, ami to 

dcckro practically to the liatthen wui'lJ,thiit wbuever diU uol 

tdoinpli^ t!io Clirifitifin linptriue iu thu conduct of bis lifu, 

mtiHt nut äatter hiuiseif thut lie wan a Christian. But aiiice 

Paul had net thuught it iieceaaarj to add, tliat l»o spoke only 

. of the viuiuQs in the ohui'oli; iind iiut üf all (jersons in geoeriil 

H.wbo livL'd ill audi viüos, the Ciji'iiithitiii& did nut tliiuk of the 

Hiimitutiuii Ti-bich the tiling it^lf leii^bt cosily linve m^i^ted, 

' niid thn« tlicy were tUrtittni iittn |)<;rp!oxity, huw to cotuiily 

I with stii'h an injunction ; for bow could they, while living ia 

Bithu uiidtst of an evil wltM, ruucuuce all intercourse with tbe 

H^ vicious} They addressed a lotter to the apoHtle, iii which 

tllcy statc-il tlicir perplexity, and proposied Beventl other 

^ quunltoDB on doubtful cnees in the concerns of tlis church. 

^k By Rieniis of this loiter, and the mesBengei^ who brou^t 

^nit, he obtivined & more complete koowlcdge of the cenconii 

^^uüd atiLtö uf tht) church., in the comiuuuicattou wliicb con- 

Stained hie reply to the que-itions proposed, he poured ibrth 

his whole heiut iiill of piiternul love to tlie obiirch, and 

entered minutely iutu all tbc uuceaüti^B of their situation. 

Tins epiiitk'. a tniistor-pieco of apostolic medem iti cburcli 

' It. mar iie uskeiJ, whether Paul in the last cpisUa treiitcd ninrflj nf 
J ttit! cflAO wliH^Ii viui iruiD4!i!!:it4'1;r uiiJur ccaUfliiEr^mtioD in tlio CorintliiBii 
I'Chimh. only d( ubsUiiuiag from inivrciiursu with itipvais, or ivbeiber be 
liCZprciulj' cyibke of sisrh wLu L:iil Ulua iula QLlier DiiLurluuH vioan ; — the 
t coTOlaun, «ho Liul no regard for llii projierL,v of otlii^ri ; Iti« Blii.n<I«mu>, 
jttiOK üdilk'teil io driukiug, Itioau vba tiK>k suv purt wlmtevvr in tli» 
I'wamhip of iitola. The iiiantier in ivlikli be ciprcfwis liimfdf in 
Tl C^T. V. SJ— 11, migLt ei^irv. lIiuogL uul dcdHivel.v. iliat eiiicc lie vm 
I oblind 10 gimcil liis tiardf uguiust miaspprcliuiiHinD. hu Ibok mlniiiULgi! 
ICf IaI« OTip>:>[iui]U;, tc give u wtilier uiiplk-aiiuu to Llie prinulploa Itwy 
EcxpreHM. wliicb lie ci^ruiitlj- hnd Tmih ihc^ livginnln^ in bir^ itiind, jtiA 
EhM noKKcuion to menlloD in liii but epUile. wMch lore nn one par* 
[litnlur uuiut. M nil evtnu. ii h itiitinrtitiii. tu know tiun du PftuI 
eadeA the Htrictncu of cliiir;b ilidclplinfl. 
VOL. I. a 



govornnioTit, contiin» nnißh tJint wiw importitit in lofem 
to tlie cliftDge proddped by CLristianily on the various kI 
tion» of life. It was probulity cwurcycd by the mcffiengeraon 
their return to Corinth. 

Paul coodmnned in nn equal de^grce nil paty feetiug in the 
Corinttiiau clinrch ; his HiiluUititin in rurw 2, wna cppusod \a 
it, and suited to remind nil that they e<5aoJly bolongtMl to onu 
church, wliich compiMsttl nil tho ßuthful nnd rcdc^cmod. Ho 
taught tliem that (/IinHt voir Uieir sale head, to vhuiii tbty 
muBt iill adhon' — thiit nli hiiinaii laboureni w^re to be eon- 
«ideri'd only sm inntritmentK, by em-h of whom God woriud 
according to the peculiar atmiding- point on whicli Cod lind 
plftced liiiii, ill order to promoto in tha lirarts nf their fellov- 
iwen a work which they wvre all d«tJiii.-d to sktvc. T1; 
ought to be liir from Tcnturing to boast that they had tliis 
that man for Ihoir teacher — for such hiMiatin^-, by which tl 
owned theniBolves dependent ou nian, wna mtJier a ddiLil 
tlicir boiii^ Christiana ; fur if thoy only, as became Christii 
referred everything to Christ, to nhoni they were indubbfd ._ 
cnnimnnion with God, thpy might view all things as deNjtMd 
tu scrvu them, nnd as belonging tu thcia ; thutw buIiUiuo ex- 
pwasiona in 1 Cor. ÜL 21, ^ow how tlie truest spiritual 
freedom and tho highest elevation of soul nn; the ofBtpriiig of 
ChruKiaii humility. Tliis geuerul ti-utli tn rvferenoo to tho 
irauiner in which all Christian tcachem (each according to h» 
^Ätitlinr qutdificntious) were to he estimated und made aae o( 
lie applies particularly to hia leltitiou t-i Apollos ; of vrhom lie 
ouTild speak most reservodly and unstisiiectedly. since ho na t 
man. with whom he stood in the closest connexion, and vbo 
had adoptüd his owa peculiar foiTn of doctjinc. To thctt 
pereons who coiilil not find h\ his eiiiiple pruuehing tbs wttdoDi 
ivhieh thoy Bonglit after, and preferred ApoUint ns a tetlAtf 
tuore aecording to their Grecian taste,' he said, ihnt it kv 
wroßg on their p«rt to regret the tihseuce of such wiadrm lu 
bis pi-eachiiig. for tlie fountaiu of all trenuiiiü wbdom, th« 
wisdom of Cod, wne uot Co b« found in auy «cbenie of philo- 

' We have aJres^j ejiokeD of the rardnmco «f Ui)> whole hk-'.vu 
1 Cot. i. ] — 13, Vi'tt need not enter niore at lurgv into iJie i\'y 
»prriiog the mramliig prupoeüd liy Eifliom iind ütliern — th&t Pfti.i 
ilirpcicd his arKumuntation .i^mst Qrceinu Sophwt«, 
cutiuncc tutu ihu i^bureti, ni d tlirextcncd [o mAdc« many I 

y tat« nbelM 1 

Tar. CHiRcn at coiusth. 


Prophy, but oiily in llii; doctriDe of the crucifiod JoBiia, the 
Soviour of tbe wurld, wliicii he liad niiule Uie oealnJ-poiut of 
his prmiching ; but this divine wiedoui could only be found and 

"uaderstooil by a dispcsilion that was susceptible of what wiia 

I^ivhio. For tills rmaon, ho hitd never yet Ijcon able to load 
.tiiem bj liis Oisuoiuvi» tt> perueivo in the simple dputriuo «f 
the y;aipel. (which iu the eyes of tbe world waa füclialmasa.) 
the depths of divine wisdom, lieciiii.'^e nn ungodlike dispoeitjun 
predominatod in their miu'ls, of which these party strifes were 
«□ evideut sigu. He gave the Oorinthians a rule by which 
lihey might pass a judgment on all teatheR of Christimiity. 
Whoever aeknowJcdged the immoTable fouu dilti on of the 
Cbrintiau life, whivh had he«n Intd by hjuiself, that Je»us waa 
the Savioiii'. tlukt meu were indebted for salvation to him 
aloue, luid tia tlii» foiiiidiition jiroeeedtid to erect Ui-u Christian 
doctriiut, would thereby prove hiniself to be a Christian 
tMohcr, and by hi)i iaith iiv Him who alrioe anvHd impart 
r flftlvatioD, would altaiii it himself, and lead otliers to it. But 

»jti t.ho Btnicture of doctrine which was raised on this fouiida- 
tion. the djvino might more or less be mixed with tlie hunwui. 
iuid «o fur be dotorioratod. Tho complete purifying process, 
the separation of the divine aiid the hiinian, wniild bo left, to 
the lart judgment. Many a one who hod attached too grent 

r.Tidue to the human, would aoe the work destrnyeil which he 
jisd c;omtruct«d, tliotigh the foundatiou ou which it rested 
iwuuld reiuoiii for himself and others : such n one -would be 
aaväd uStcr rniiiiy severe trials, which lie nmst undergo for 
purificatjoa fi'oui the alloy of self; 1 Cor. iu. 1 1— Iß. ' But 
irtitu tliü Ujochera who adlierod to the Diiclmnyoablo füiiinla* 
j^Ltiou of {Jod'a kingdom, and built upon it, either with better 
jKor wonsc inatcriaK Paul distinguiehes those of whom he says, 
'^ that they deatioy the Temple of God itself in beliovera, find 
' SinM llic whole poBiiigc iviiich fpeaka of firp, of llic builiiing tnn- 
|iatructol of vsiiciiu muiorlula. «üue fire-proot nutl «tli^ore desinictiblo by 
Src,uvl uf being Mirnd a» from tbe inidiil of lite ß'o, is vuiafiusijii vl 
' — (CM, luiii is fiiiurative lliroughijut., — II m vörj illriiiiKil, as OngcD hm 
remarkcci, urtilLnkilj t» dttaeh from llie rust, utid lake In a 
' seos«, a iJDgle trail ia the pictur« as l.hai of liru. Xor iel any 
jüiftt the idea of suuti njutlgmenlin the hisLurkat deTutnpmeni 
n««rbat nnpaullao. The idea of micha jmSgmcut connurUii «iih 
publication of Iht Bfnapel. and nfloompjin^ing Its opemlionrt, p^r- 
di.« ÜKi nliuli; He* Ti'iUaiunt, — l>.v whiuh indeed, a final judgment 
I tbe world, to wbiub thu m only prc}Hintive, is not excludfrd. 

TOE cnUBOn AT ooBina 

ore ffialty of peculiitr sacrileK^ ; aguiiist mich he dcnmiv 
the tnnxt uwful punishmeDt, " It niaj man dclilc the tcm|ik dt* 
Cod, him Bh:ai God HMhray ;' I Cur. iJi. 16, 17. 

It ia vcortliy of notioe, tliat where Paai treat» of eating nrM 
f>ffiu<^ k) idols, be äom not, ill ordflr to ImiMPfsa the Onti!« 
Chriftliatie i^ith tbcir oblipitioiM to iibstÄin from «11 siich fixM, 
iippuul to Ü10 deoiüoQ of the apoetolic coiivuiiliuH at Jcn- 
wilciii, any nnoro tliiiu he oppoeod the autliority of tiU 
dodfiiou to ill« Jewish Christiuns, who wishcJ to mmnirl the 
l>iitil«i to he cirtunicised. It is ono of tlie clanictcnfiii* I'f 
bin method. th«t be hot« nKln bis argitment, not on «iittrnM 

Eositivc oommaud, a vii^ot, but ou ibo inuard Uw in tit 
earta of ticlicruni, on wlint tlui epirit of the gonpel rcquim 
As in tlic iniitanoG of tbcRC vho viabed to impose tlitr titv ot 
oireuniCLEioD ou ticnt.ilo Oiriatiarw, in»ton(I of Appcaltng to an 
om«aTd autliorily. he pointed out Urn intonml ctmtranHT 
of their «onduct to the peculiar and f\mdmneDlal phuei- 
ples of tbo goKpcl ; no on thin [loiut he 0|>pv«r<l to the 
abuse of Cliristian freedom, the law of love 'wliiob «m 
iSBCpamblo from the go«]«!. In «liort. it appears tbat 
tboiigli the nutbority of tHnt ilccinioD «a« licid eacrad in 
PalesLiiie, Acts xii. 25, yet beyond the» limits it sMtnslo 
hare been littl« ro^^nrdcd. .Sinco that ducinon rested O 
miittinl ooucetmons, it followed th»t if one of tlic paitice of 
the Jewiab CbriBtians failed to fulfil tbu conditioa — if ihtf 
would not anknowled^n the iiii«ir(Tuindsed as tbeir boatbä 
brethren. — then, on tbe otlier sid«, the obligation oOMcd (*> 
npcrata on the GtnilUo CliriittTUutt, wbo by tlia obBorrancc <!( 
that decision, would have made an ap[>nmcb to tbo J«wiib 
ChristiniiK. At (I bitcr period, nllor tUu lUTttlcnteut of fit 
vppuhitLon betvreon ibeao two boetiio tendenciea oouid no 
longer bi? accuitiplisbcd. but a Jewish olcinent guned eDtraMt 
into the cbui-oli iiituU' in aa altered fcrm, this doouion tughi 
a^in avquin; tbe strict power of luw. 

Pniil did not dispute the podition which tho frec-lhinkiif 
'!briitiniiBat Corinth worn always contending for, that aa U' 
could be laid down about outwiird thiup that wer« In ibcm- 
selves Jndiflerent: ha did not even eiact tlior dcfitiiir* 
to the Apostobc ductaion, by wbtch nuoh fnixl vaa ah».' 
forbidden; but he nbowü tbem from tbo atundii^-pQüit ' ' 
gospel, that what is in itself lawful, wiy, under 

a afnimlor J 



i eiim^anCIBHBGi to )ji} m, an far at it ctmu'adiüis the Vx* uf 
lov«, — the fiLligal.iou of Ctiristiaiia to act oa all ooctitjous BO 
thiit the- HiLlvution of iitlicr» iiiiiv be amnt pn»inol,cJ, tind 
the glory of Gud be sutmciTcd. He points out thiit they 
tvon doniQiI thHr own ChriBtian freedom, sinco in another 
way thoy l)roiijj;lit themselvea iuto subji-utiou to outward 
ttiiu^ iwhieh llicj «ii|,'ht to htivc used witli frv-cdoin in the 
spirit of lore, ncoording as circutnatanees might vary.' 

In reference to the question propoati to him respecting a 
singlu life, liu li.'iik ft inidilie cttuitiü between the two conliWul- 
ing parties, those who ciitirüjy tondenined a siugb life, and 
tlir>«i whij wished to ]rres(irilie it, for uU pLTRcma as soiiintUiiig 
Ential to Ciiristian jjerfcction. Thnngli by iiis own |ieciiliar 
meter lie might bo dispoeod to sittaeh a higher i-Jilut to a 
sjojfle life, («Itich for his own nietliudof laliouriiig wtik cer- 
tainly an important assiatADce.) than cuuKl bs ascribed to 
it from the Christian standing- jioi lit, when ■viewed only uhjee- 
l tisoly ; yet the power of a. lii^her spirit was here inoi-e clearly 
nuunictflod, by whicli, tlioiigh his ovia sahjcctive inuLinntioii 
was not denied, iu tlie regnlataon of iiis own conduct, yet it 
was not allowed to interfere injuriously with Ins views ^f 
Clirisliuu niumlB, and with hie wiedom iu Üie ^duucc of ihc 
[ehui'di; but how could it be otherwise with a man who, 
cihhoiigh on a man ho retained a stronirly marked indi- 
viduality, wud iiilliK'nutid in au eitruurdiutiry a. degr«e by the 
[Spirit of Christ, of that Suviour for whom lie had suffered 
I the loss of (ill thiii^ i He iliscL-niL-d bow injiirions a, foreetl 
[cplibaoy would be in a elmrch like tlio Corfuiliinn, and honce 
[«jugbt to tjuaril against this eyil. He re |i resented a single 
Jiifo for tliosw who were Sited for it by thoir natund ooii- 
Jetitution, aa a means of atten<.Ung with lee^ dii:trac?tiou to the 
(etiiicems uf thekiiijidooi of God. without being diverted fi'um 
'tlient by eai'tbly cares, osp&uially under the grent impending 
tribulatiune, until the eevoad couüug of Christ; &om wbidi 
we must infer what an infiuence the near approach of Huit 
revpnt liitd on bis owa t'oui-se of conduct. He placed the 
(«SBsnoe of Uliriiilian perfection not in celibacy, nor in tlie out- 

' I Cor. Ti, 13. nrratui RdTTif 4^^' oüic fyii ^(ouiriiwMoouai M 
»I*««. If evtiyiliiLi^ is lawfiil I'ur me, jei I muaL not allow myncll' i 

!' lo 111? 

^vemctl by L-ii«riiHl tinnp, i» if, l)ci'Uiiii<; 1 eon uic llii:iu, I ijiaul 
UDMaurily uiM iheoi. 


fBZ CHCTtca IT COMsm. 

ward denial of euu-UiI; tliinga ; hut in that renunciation of tiM 
world wLich luw its sunt in tbo dtii|)QH,itiuD, which «-<iuld tnako 
the married and the rich, as well as the tuuDorricd and tfae 
poor, i^fftdy to aujrifioe ererrthing which the cxigcticiea d 
the times ittiglit d^niiiDd ; to stilTer the los of all tlüng), 
bowovor dcur to thtir heurte, for t)i€ sakK «f tbu guMpä; 
1 Cor. vii. 30. 

In spcnkiog of the VArious relations of life ia whicJt m« 
mi[^t l>c f)liU)B(l ut Üi'i time of tbdr conversion, Paul Ian 
davia as a. rule, that th&t eveot should {imdiica no cluui^ti 
III this reafoct. Christiejiity did not violently dimtDlve ibe 
relation in which a num found himself placed by birtbi 
education, and the li.uuliiig'iif divine Proviilcnoo, but tanght 
him to act in theni from u new point of vie»', aud with a n(i"_ 
diäpoi^ition. It etlectäd nu abrupt revolutions, but grtdual|j 
by the power of the Spirit working from witliin, made 
tilings new. The ajKiatle «pplics this ccpocinlly to tlie case i 
btläTca, whiob it wua metre neudful to cousidtir, Iiw^um: 
the b^uuiiig tiiat goKpel which wae preached to the 
fouiid iudgL ncc«ptaiice among thin olium, and the Icnonl 
impfti'ted to them ly Christianity of tli« cooimou 
and rights of all men, might easily have excited them 
tiirow off tlieir eiirtbly yoke. Lilcuwiw) la tili» riow, Chi 
tiauily, iu order not to mingle worldly and spiritual tliic 
tugetlior, and uut to miss its main objuct, the lUuvaUoQ of 
Kuul, did not presiimo to effect by foree a auddoii rcvoliitin 
in thoir condition, hut operatt«! only on the mind and < ' 
poeition. Tu »laves the guB|wl pissented a higlmr lifo, vhiCJ 
exulted tlieni ahove tho resLniinta of thcii' eai-tlJy tetaüo 
und though masters wer« not required by thu npustlcs lo fM 
their skiVL'S freedom, since it was foreign to their niiniHtr^'f 
interfere with tho arraiigenicnt of cärii riJntions, yet Cbrit- 
tianiiy impiu'ied to niast«i'8 eutib a knowledge of lliuir dutittto 
their tdares. and Hiicb digpoaitious luw'ards them, and taii(^t 
tlium to mcognise iis brethren tbu Chrieiüaut; nmoog thtif 
Blnvei^ in snoh a maimer as bo mako their relation to tbn* 
{jnite a different thing, 

Paul, thca'cfore, when ho touohea on this relation, tell« &* 
xlnvG, thitt though by the amrngemeiit of Providence he nf 
ilelMirred from the enjoyment of outward freedom, he slwald 
not be troubled, but rejoice that tbo Lord had beatowod Bp«i 





him tn» iuwurd freedom. But while be cnnaiders the IntUe 
OS the only true Greedom, in the po(i«.>t«ion uf wiiich man may 
bo free under al\ outward rcstraiDt^. and apitrt from vliich no 
tniu freüdom con exist, he is very far from overlooking the 
»uhordinato Worth of civil freedom, for be saja to the äarte, 
to whoii) he hiid anuoum.yid the true, Üia spirituid Ireedom, 
*' but il' thtiu majßt be free, use it rather," I Cor. vii. 21 ;^ 
which inipliee that the a[>jHUe viewed the stat« (pf treedona M 
more cori'csjionciing to tlie Cliristiaii cdling, and that Chris- 
tianity, whijii it so far gsiiiicd the ascoudcncy sw to form 
ejann the *3ciid relations wf tnuultiud, would bring abnul this 
change of state, which he declares to be an object of prefHreoce.* 

I The later »«etieipiritfonagaalrikliiKcoiilTiiBt on this point toiho 

«pirit or primitive Clinatianir.}-. Aldiougn, id a graiDinaLtfJil vjevr, !t !■ 
moat natiirul to tujiply the JkfiBfpiiy yä-tirB'ii whic^li imincciiillct}' pn- 
cede«, ur ^\tiietpla. iiul the taint FntlieiK bsvv DUl thua uui1i:ntüiii<l il, 
bci'auBii llie watlli of cii-il rrvmloiu. n-ppeateA to ibeai col. so ^enl, 
bill ihny took iheapuntleo rayimiaglo be ei;i.elJy opposite, fiuAAoi' xpijcdi 
T]7 Iav\«If. Wlial I)e Welle bae lutclvur^l a(,-&>Dei tltia iu^crprclaüoii, 
does not bppetu to me convlDcine. the tl Kal {he lhiuk)>) is A^alnRt [i; 
but it nuiu vcrj well. Tiiu lipoatie eayn. If ualled, ^eing a sluvc, to 
Chri:'(tiiLa[tj, iliou «liouldsl be caittent. Christian freedom nil! not lio 
injured by »I a very— hut jut, if thou tansi. be free (as a still aiiflii.junid 
Knod, vliLoh If thou doAt Dot Btiahi, l>e «ntitifieil nitliout it ; bat wlili.')i, 
if uli'unM U) Uice, in not to he denplüeil) lhen:fare make m,e a! thii 
opportunity of tMeomiofr free, rsthor tliaa b.v neglootiner it to romititL ■ 
ilftvo. Tl»e Connexion witlj v. 22. in not againsl it. if -we r«ol!eot, tint 
tho elauic bcsii""i"t? with i\^k is poIy a "jflondary or (]iialitjiiiir awor' 
tioQ. which ocrtainly do«i not bololtg to tho Iffluiing ihought. a mode of 
Ol>DJfttrueLiuR EimilaF to wLä-l wü find tiacwbore iu I^iiI'b vrit.lngH. 

* T« thif uIbo the words in v. ts miij rolato. " Ye nra bought trith 
a prioe (je urn anult: Tree rroni thu douiiiiioa of &a.taii &nd sin), bvi^oiiie 
not Iho slavvs cf BKiii." Thue it would he undentiiod by many. 
CbrististiB ought not voluntarily, Eoerely id escape from Bouie ciuthly 
trouble W put tbcinsulves in u ooudillou u'liicli us tioi suited t» their 
ChriRttnn cuDing'. But siune the .iii,"*ile previously, when aticakiu),- of 
•ticb rtlatlüiu as could only (;ou<:erTi inilividiials in Uic cliun-fi, used the 
(iRSular, but now chsnge'l liia style to the plural, il is h-enw pruUiibl«, 
tbac he IB »peakin); of u relation of u geciTuI tiud, tliiit ie, givica an 
ctliortatinn, «hieli would njiply lo all the Coriutbisua.— an eibor- 
tstiou. Indeed, which is not so etoBsly eonaeeted vitb vhat is said 
in V. 22, but »bii^h he might «wily hsiva lieee led la make from the 
idoa Ci( n loiihnj XpiirTȟ, BO fitmilinr oiid interetiting lo liis miud. 
•a idrat that would cipiaily a.pply to both bond and hr.c ; " KefuBs uot 
thi« true frvedoin whlcli bolooj^ lo you ut the bandtiinen of Christ, do 
not boconm by » ■pirituol dependisDc« the sUvcb of men, from being 
Clie buudamsa •)( C'brisl'" — an uxliorlntiou whiob «as uilaplod iu luiav 



T}io Corintbian eburoli hml [.ri>luil>]r r«quc9tfo<1 th 
Apollos might vigit them ttf^tt, am! l'aiil ftckogwled^-Ml bij 
tu a fiuthrui tmdiür, w!io hud liuilt on the fouiidntiuu of th 
faith which he hod kid, who hnd watered Üia field tlukt hi 
hiid [iliinbHi Hn wim Cir from ojiptKiiiig thi« iT<]ii(st ; b« 
(ncH rtquestod ApollfM to eoin|)ly with it, but A|ir)lloA ' 
resolved not to -visit Corinth irnmodiatcly. The imiiörtaim 
«ttacliüd to his petaou, and the eflüila llmt bad beuu uiiule ( 
piooo him at thg hcud of (i party, piTliaps lod him lo i 
da termination. 

PaTil «rote our first Epistlo to tbe Corinthian« about 1 
tira« of the Jcwisli Piwsover, ft« apfHÄra rrum the itUuxloa i 
V. 7. Ha liad then the intention of atayin^ at KphcauB tiD 
PuntticoHt ; ho litformeil theiu tliut mimy opport.imit' 
olTüred firr piiljhabinj; the gospel, hut that he luid also i 
enfliuitiif to conteud with. Hu Hpi^e of hU being in 
puril of luslny hia lif« j 1 Cor. sv. 30. ' 

rwpaoln to th« «ondUion af the Cmlnililan cbureli ; tnJ thU «Mnl^ 
aitnlusln Bi^rritu^lc totADy inuompalilil« wiüt bni)ig * kttkiiI <gr two' 
iiiiiii) or CUriet. (which wuld uQt, be BMcricd of ■ "täte of miinti I 
vjiuilu, or eluvur.v, nni|i!,v us such.) Ihlx >rarni de would liearcnrsiil: 
concluBion i» the ivholc train of ihoiijtht onlnmnl and ouiianlir 
dom. lb wa» re«ille« fur him to uutlcc tli« eue of a pcnnn tohio 
hiaseir for a slave, ginro It won ono thnt coiiM hAntlr oooar mm 
UlirixiiaoB. Vena 21 U mtbur for Ihiin SKainrt tLis mMrpnuuiAB; 
«iii«D V. 93 does cnt mfcr in oiitvnrd nlutianR, hn aaea moM ropMU ibi 
inj uflction rcfipeuLinj,' thpui. 

' Suhnulur iiifui« ftMm Did worr]» in 1 Cor. xvL S, that Pnul oaulll 
□ut linvt) writlcii Itits cpiatlc at the dona of faia Xoag nndeoee H 
SlphcRui. hut aL Ü10 beginning' df snoihar nhort mittj tbcro ; tar othtf- 
wlse he niuab have »»id, ^ri^ivw )} ^r 'CfiArni fri. aii4 could Dot lur* 
ho{)^ td eflect Lhni in a law »wbi Tnr [be Bprcnid or ilio Raii[Mil, *nl tte 
OOuat.i^nKtkrfi ihf falsd ttfu'jbuiv, ivhii^h liii i^Mild ni>t AiTCOwplUh tvfO 
aficr revenil yenrB. Bui wo do not »oc why I'aul, merely hiTln; li« 
future ia hie cyu, and ii-ot reQ«cl1iiK on the piul>, migtit uot lenro «il 
the IIti, 0^ «Imiliir cirnhniona fruquuiilly occDrlnsn epintolary wrltrnc: 
aad even if hint IQ the course of n laa^ time hnd effected much for IM 
spread of the gospel, atiil he enuU »rjf, since Iho sphere of hit lalwin 
In lie<i<.T A>ia wa.<i out inn illy cxlcming, that " t g^vnl umt eAvtul 
dorir" Wiw opuiifiil for jjuailUhiUfT the goBpel. Diit the din'UM<un*i io 
thU pa^an^. vhiieh rotnles I.» tho puhllcuiLinn of the gwpo), are ««riunly 
Dot fnUe tfinc^h«n. hut open ndverMriM of ChriHttanit}-. X* Uia «j^tt- 
■iinltisa for tu.iking koowa the goipel wok manifold, i4 »I in jiiomi» 
WFTi! Diaay. Thin, therefore, dues uot coutnutinl llio pnecding iMfC 
cvidciicu of iW B|iastlDi. hut ruher cantirmi It ; for tli« moat Wslctl 
aliacka on tho preachura oftl]« g'jnpu], if tlioy did uot proMod boa ih 




At the iitOB of liis writing this Epistle to CoriuÜ), be bad 
funiK'd nn eitcnaiv« plan for his ftiUiro iabn'irs. As during 
hiä staj at «everal ycitra id Achaia aud at Ephesus. he had 
Iftid a sufücicut fouadatioa C-r tbe «itension of the Chrirtian 
chiirch nraoiig tlie oiitiuus who used the Greek language, ha 
at)w ■tt-ishcd lo ü-aii^er his ministry to the West ; and ua it 
was hiü fiindaroptital principle to make tlioae regions thti. 
Bcenc of Ilia acHvitv where ii« öiio liad labmu-od hofoiv him — 
he wtKhLMl on ihut accoual to visil Home, the nutropolisof Uie 
world, irhero a chureli iioii loug rince bi>eii esutbhaiied. in his 
Wttj tit S[>ain,' ajtd then to comiticiiCc the jiuhUcnliou of tho 
gospel at the eitreinity of Wuslfni Eiiriijio. But Ijefure 
jiiittiiig this plan iuto eseciitioo, he wished to ohtam it 
miitiiiiceiil colWlion in the diurchcs of the (Jetitile Christiiur* 
fur their piwr beiienng brotlucn at Jerusalem, and to bring 
tlie niimuiit himself to Jeniäuleni aceompaniud liy Siime 
inenihora of the oUurches. Already some linie bolore he de- 
Bpiduliud thisEiHStle to the CuritilhiiUiB, he hnd sent Tim<>thj 
and some others lo Mucodnuia and Achaia lo f'.trward thia 
toUiiotimi, and to con ntw work the disturbing iiifluefices in 
tbo Conuthiuu ubujuL.' H« h-jyed U> receive through hira 

, mold fiwt *r(*e, after by Ihoir lung-conlinuftd Iftboufs they hud 
_ l!piä4S(aU wbiuli 'lirealcneil lo iujurv the Intcnats uf nimy wha^o 
•'(ätu "Ore iwiTod from idolairou' prattlci». 

' Uom. XV. 31, S6. Br. Cu.uer. in lile GeKiy on llie Olgect and Occa. 
■iun nf tho Epistl« to ih« Komaii*, io. tbo Tuhiiiyer ZrilarhriJl für 
TJimioyiti, 1S;)6, [nrt lii. p. Ißd, li]u attempteil ta a\ww i)iat PauI coulit 
noi liave written thcw wurdi. Hu tliitikK ihxt li« diworvr» in Ihuin 
the mntk» of ui'illiei liami, uf wbioh, in wj opinion, n-i ita«! nhiitever 
' cjin I* fuiiB'l, — all Hpliwr» wboliy Pauliin;. Ic. iuIj;IlI imiocil »uoia 
n^. ibat Ibc siJUfctle at the Gentiles hod not vd vUiicd üis metro- 
of ibB Qtniilu worliL .luconliiig-ly. he giv« an lu:cuuiii iif tiie 
a which bill IuiIkHo prtviititeil him. and t-xpre«« liis ejiiucsi 
dnliM lo b«i:(i[nv porvutially aL'qualuied irilli the cbiirch of i.he ruoiro- 
polis. Sinns il was twei important, ßrst 'if all. to liiy a finindntiiin 
•vtrj'wiiew for Uio pi]l>licaiioii of the gnopcl. on whitli tho Biijior- 
Wrudure might afterwartti be emilj riiiaeil, m it wiu hie muxiia— tliO 
wmo whiuli till si|)rv9.''Qs in '2 Cor. i. 1Ü, und wiiivb n-e uce hini alway« 
»cliiur upon — to Inboiir only in lliosc rcgiuna wliere no oiio berori' bail 

K'liiiliod tlie gaM|)cl. But among the liuiililns ut Home u i-liucch hud 
II lun^ foandui!. und Iiviii^c bu auuld not Ijc Juelilieii an bin own pria- 
ciplci ia Icivlng a field of lu1>oui in wliich th«ro wns still so iiiueb to ba 
tluiio, ill 'irdnr to vijjt » I'liati'Ii tbj;t h.iil buvii loni; i^atuiiUahcd, and van 
Id a itatc of progrcuiic dcvolopinvnt. Tlic clilli.'iililei which Uikuct 
'jiiln In thU jiitiuiij^c iiru »iily cruaturl by a false intcrjiretiitiaii. 
' 1 Cob It. IT- the nuuiier ia wbioh Psul Dieatioaa Tiuiolhy koih 


Tint euuacM a» cenfrrn. 

kQ «caoiuit of UiD iinpreeaiun wliiuh his vpiitlc bad 
Sut lia found himself deceiTBd in bis exijoctatiun«, fa 
TimoÜiy wAJt probably provcutcil frotn tmrciling n» fur ai" 
Corinth, nud came hai^k to E|>heBua nitboiil bnii^iiig tbe 
iiifomiutiuii which thu »postlu i-xpwtoi.' The apostle, uii- 
miktcd by u tttiidt^r pult^niu-l auxic-iy for tbe (.'hiirch, bccun* 
Tinoasy respecting tlio effect prodiiccil by hia «pistle ; lie, 
thcfcfprc, »till TitUK Ui Corinlli fur the ))iirpo»ü of obtaiuioij 
iiitorinatiüci, und that lio nii^Lt jicrsi^D&liy ofiMftte on tLo 
chiirch in aui^utTtiiniio with tliu iinj>i'i?«ii>n humU 1> j tlio ^istfe 
Ab Paul hud resolved, on sending away Titns, to leure 
Eph«BU3 floou, ho og)i!cd with Itim tu meet at Tro», vYten h» 
desigaBd to Qitdco a tou^r »tiiy iu order to foitud ul churRh, 
3 Cor. ii. 13, aiid perhaps intenacd to shape his future cour 
by the information which tc would tlic^re «ooiv« fkim Titiu.| 

But hero Urn qii^tion arises, Could Paul have seut TUiui I 
Corinth without aa cpistlel And if wv find iu hi» 
Ejufitlc to the Corinthians onmcroua nllosiDna to an spistiB'' 
whioh lis simply doEignntc« ns th« «pistli', libnll wo not nHel 
ofttuKilly uondiide Unit it moane au e]iigtle nent \>y Tituat 
And Hu niuub thu more, if these olImouB contaiti tnaay thltgi 
that d« not tally with tbe First Epistle to tUe Coriulliiac»' 

here and ia ivl. 1 0. plainly sbow« Uiat be w»s not thu bearer of Ibb 

«Iiiäüc. tind ttie lotier piuaagi.' miLkcs it not iin|>ruUiiblc tbnl. VnA 
üjspemed liü would arriTO at Curiuili afüss hin upiallc, which mM 
uutiirally hnppen tJiough Timol.Ly ilopurtcil ßrvt, bnaoae he «M 
ilcUimcd a cunsHk-ratilc tliuu in U^'eduiiiH, rvrlijiim the raeawnmn 
ItMH iliu Corint]ii;in nharuh were nlmaily i^ntnc to Bpbtmi« rliio 
Timoiliy was going away, and aa Faul wlxhed to gtre ihirm a et>piu> 
reply, on that icenuol be sunt n& ppiatk by Timothy. 

' It fmoiirs the PopiioHiliori (tat Tiuiotlj; iliil ual come •■ &r ■• 
Coriutb, that, in Acti x\x.'22. only Macedonia ia moiltioiwd ■■ int 
ohject uf Ilia uilssluu. Au<l if ho cam« to Curiutli on E^uil's d«lac>i<, hi 
wmiM huve ukhüodih] liitii, as ItUcltcK justly mnark*, in oonnciita 
with uttiorii wtio «KiK e,tiiit liy liini ; Tur tliuiiKli vo am not ju*tlfi«l U>1 
Fun! lien meiiticii-ed l>y imm-c ult wbo non KOt by liim to Uormlk. nt 
the objeu't fur wliiüli be piiuied ih.fiiD, In order to ajipoal to the bcl (Mt 
lliey bail actoJ Kith the Eaiuc «UBjivaitioii oa biniftcff, wm) were n* Ulli* 
burden!«!!]« to tbo Corinttiiao diuKli, rci^tiircd Iho menlloK of kKiB 
like Tiuju thy BQ cluwly eüniMHitiHl wiib bi:u>if be bad ntayud atCoriDib 
KM Ills Jcl-egnl.c. This tbcreFare a opposed Ui Blrak'a view, which n 
•hall arii.^r«anls muntiuu. according la which Timothy really ctnu li 
C'urioib, aod mu«l liaic been tbe lieariir of bad tiewi from ttuoeft 

' Itloek baa endeavoured lo |<fove all thU in hi« nluaU« iMf 
■lieady uieutioaed, in iba StuUiea vnd Ktitikm, ISSO, put Ui. M 



We ask then, in this second ppi«t1o nre each things ivsAly 
foniid wliiuh kaii iw tu suppuse auother dooument mmjiDsed 
in a different tone frua» the tirst epiatle now extant ? Let us 
exatnine tlüs more clcisöl^. PauI says at the banning 
of the second diajiter that lie liad aitei-ed liis former plan of 
travelling inimeiliatcly from Ephcsiia to Corinth, luid had 

»l-enolveU to go first to Mnoudouia, in ordtT that hi> might not 
be obliged to produce a painful impression among them, if he 
came tu ttiem n,-hilä the evils which he ueuäured in his fintt 
epiutle were still iu exiBt«ncQ. On this lu'cdunt, he wished, 
iiistea*! of coming iranicdintely from Epiieans to Corinth, 
rather to coMimumcate Ljy letter what was painliil to tlieiiij 
(wliicii taay very well refer to the rcprehenHious contained ia 
the first eptsti^,) aud to await its openitiou In prududiig 
repentance, iiefure he came to them tu person, tie saya 
^— of the epistle in questiun, tltat he had wiittcn it in fjrcat 
H AUguish of heart and with many tears, for his objeot had been 
^" not to give them pain, but to evince his love for t.hwa. Does 
nvt tliat suit Buch passives aa 1 Cor. iv. 8 — 19 ; vi. 7 ; ju ) 
H I>oes not that whiati he here says of bis diKpoeition corrüctly 
^P describe that state of niind, in whiuh the ncwti respecting the 
dongeroiia con<liäou of tho Coriulhian church Di.nat hava 

Iphiocd hiia) It oiiu well be rcfcrred to that individual who 
lived in iiidawftd intercoiinw with hia Btep-mother, against 
vrbuse contiiiuaiioe ia chwich-feUoH^hip he hivd. so stroniily 
expresiscd himself, when he says of anoh n one that he tioabied 
Dot only himself iis the funittler of the church, hut in a ccrtiiin 
du^'ri.-u thu n'holu churuh. That epiatle wm iud&ed nuited to 
call forth in the Corintliians tho <;onHüiousne8Hof their corrupt 
Kt.'ito, that Morrow which loads to salvation, as Paul B(iya 
of that oiiistle, 2 Cor. yii. ',', Ao. But ohieÜy we might 
bo indimad, by verso 12 of the Siune chapter, to eupposo 
u rofuruutju I« wliat was said by Paul in an epistle uuw lout : 
" He hod writtoQ aueh a letter to them, out on bis account 
tliin in Rnnncctüd Willi tliQ usauuipiioa lliat Timothy really «sme to 
ijiitiaVa. and the Iwl ncmt whl«li he hraught influt^Qceit Paut tc ncnd 
Tilu» thilhiT. If vre oiilj ajauuie that Paul was iafiirmed that a ptrt 
of Ihn chiirch hmi shown thumsolvus mon? Jiaughy ufttr th« rereipt of 
tliAl fir:!! D|ti<tli>. it L<uii he oxpiuiiiui-l huw hv vim \ntlueei] to Hi>n<l a 
uvaror oputl« hy Titnc Rat wo hiivn nntituid nbovc, what opptwc» the 
•n {•[»Mi lion thai 'i'imuthy at Hint time really exiendijd hia joumey u 



vho liftd done tli<! wrDn^fflOT^^^HRRRtiiit sgninat ieIioih. 
wa» dune, but from a regard bo nil, timt bi» sioficre xm 
for tliuir liiwt wi'Ifiir« might ba nifiiiifest-"' If wb refwr till 
worein to our fin^t i--j>iRllc'. it ia diÖiuiüt to deUirniiii« who (he 
pcrsou can be at/a itut wbom tho wrong was committed. AH 
will bi^ itli?!!^, ir WD refer it to Pnitl himsolf, tliat ho intended 
delicatelv to point out liimsclf na the injured fiaii-y ; ami Üäi 
he hud bomi iiiduci;d thus to WTitc. »lA iVom n t^llinb iiilcr«*, 
tiiit from a sincere zeal for their best welfcre. It also apT't"'" 
to beimplioil thnt the epistle in qiicntinn rcllitjid [>riiici|Kil._i i: 
«Ol eutitvly to ibia one cü*e. Bm the afliiir of the tovaitiKW 
petviu occupira üiilj u vary small space in t)i« fint epntla 
Al\ thia nit!it;r jiivotirs the siipponiti»» that Uieru wuk luicdbtf 
e])i»tlc of I'aul, not no»- extant, nhich rolated «xdusiT«!; 
or pri]ii;ipiilly to tlie oonduot of oiie individual wlio had «a- 
ducted biiiiself towards tlie apusUe with great iuuakficai 
cithcT tlic mmi! immoml pRrNnn oti whtim 1*11111 powo ^ 
judgment in the flrat epistle, or another. Yet this conjectm 
doo» »ot seem to rest on a very solid found at.ion. for iu tli«e 
worda we fmd uo further tu&rk which mn lead us to suppcM* 

' ll H'lil 111] prapur liuto to detännine the correct raiding. Ifif 
adnpi xbo TOadtnK rfcoiveri hy Lflchmann, »V «TtonJV tpAr^irt^ 

flftäv vphi i»i,Sr, It "ill favonr tint interprctjition, iicii>rdinK lo wM 
tliuns iiiljhL Uo n rofcruncw Uy u [ri^j'HUniil mtiji^l; tliitirUKl Af&inflrt IW 
npaitlu. 'i'lic connexion may bo Ltnoed in ihi» monaer : If I \vn 
wriltcii to vnii III till» mnnii'Rr (uting >uv1i i^troii^ luBg-unff«), it it iMtAl 
ovcount nf him h-Iiu hsK comiiiilted [hn wron^. nor on liu orcounl "W 
hftk siiflcrnil llic vrmig (I'mil ttiiUJcIF who lind ticRn pmwialljr ii^iircd 
bjr Ihn iiii>olc»f« or iliiLt mnn^. ImC llmi ymir Bf&l lor mc mlghl k* 
Dixie knoivn [>y joti bclaie Ooil (>■ ''- >n nn. uprlglit mniiixir. >u) tl»l IM 
liiBpiwUiun 111 »liicli joii a«1-, niny pravo iufllf in iLc riKlitofCA 
BB that of true love). Tbii« wniild ha ihc Dontrut : I ilid It no; 
tu uvtii^ IU}' iipoaiottc stithoric}', and to puutsh the pertaa «t*_ 
impmnied ll; hm ntt ihi« aecnnnt, Ui kiv« yoii an oppurtmiSi; ' 
manifettt j'uur Mai rur me, ua it Muiuuw Iiveu &utittil[; iknwn. ßai< 
wo Riu~t ngreo ntih UUckert Ihnt tho «yit üviücai^ranltn)- lolhiirv 
In); tcsuu nüior miparfliiau». ThU wpht !r)iäs ccnainty iotlmxui.ibil j 
it H'lu Paal'« wish to npcitlc of hh rati for the ivetfnr« of tic i 
wliicli would l>H liliuwn ill Ilia coniiucl tuwur^K iti olio In 1 
fyJnriar tub tmü. v/a 5lid mcb ftn iliciii:xlli>n Ibat I'aul ma IE 
his oifii (liK(hw-il.ioii lut hüdwIdk ilnelf ti.> Im iipnalil Wforo C 
roTTSi'Iniss of tho oomtDDO nsuiins ii bIjo cnUiblUhod liy cuin{«rtlCM 
«>rii 2 (Jur. II. 4, Tir tbc word» TJir s^avttir tifiiir Hif jMp (•■■>,(*>■ ' 
reejuod to tlie wnnU tV A7iliii7r. f^c, Uul il ciAy lie «aailj «xpUlM' 
bo« looking bock to vli. 11 and 7, would girg rite (g a wM* 
rwuUug. ' 



peisonal reference to the apoMle. He wbo «as ft:>iid of coti- 

Irasts aud socustomol to mark them ttrouglr, k<iuIiI on Ihla 

ncciifloii Imve marked ver^ stroo^ljr the contjnM. betw««n his 

personal iutcrtst. nod the iotereet of ths cfaurcb, if be bRil 

wisbeil M <^i[>r««B anytlung of the kind. On Üw other hand. 

■ we may fairly utidtrsland by the person a^iist whom the 

^fcwroDg WM cooiaiitlcd, the ßitLeri vbom bis c^i i^y Iiis 

^Kinoestuoas eondact had so grievatisly injured; wheiber the 

B'bthcr VM alrendy dend, or Etill living, wbicli on thi« su[ip««i> 

V it<jn wuiild III; mote jirobnMe- ' Perhaps iho complaints of 

the father bod been tbc occaaon of inukiiig kuuwn the whole 

u&ir to tho ftpc^tlo.' Tlie moaning of the ^Oäsage wuuid 

tkuu be, tlittt tlier ought nut to bdiere that a reference to any 

individual whatever, that r^entmeat a^ut any person, or 

■tttacbiiicnt lu Any one, had iQov«d Kim tbiu to «rite, but 

that he had been t»ctuated ctdefly by a ixiuc«rn for the welfum 

of the cbiirch. Nor is it necessary to lisaumc, tbat tbc «hole 

of the epistle to vhlch he hero allude«, vns occupied vitti this 

ooo nffiür, if only his retulcn can infer from the connexion 

that be here vitihää bj speak of this one object (among several 

otbcra) of the epistle. 

The maimer also in «hieb Paul ^pi^nke of the seodli^ 
nnray of Tilus, conlaiitb nu Micb marka which jitalify the tiup- 
positiun that thla Bt£p wujs ocouioned by tbe imbvoorable 
aocnunt brought by Timothy of the state of the Connthion 
church ; fi>r be declares in 3 Cor. rii. 14, iliai 011 Ms leavii^ 
be mid many things to Mm in tlii* pnu»e of that Churuh, and 
heuoe had raised good eipeclatioos cespectiug it iu bia mind.* 

H IsiSasnUr. ihut in tha 6ni eplnUe, no mmtion k oiilo «f the 

ilti«r of t^ aficDiIer. 

' All iLSi'.'uUiO' ■rotil'd vanUh. if wilh Dituiel Hi'tiiaiut, kc unilcT' 

ail ibe «vriU tuÜ öJunrdiVroi ^ neuter = rat hjunfrq^imvi. nbi«li 

fcthe K«w TVuiS'Uiii luo <it ii^i'Tt «oiili! »Ilov. Tlie tmuiiion from 

tie maKDlisa to tbc uieatet may iturprüo na less, tioce tbe Dcuur 

6lf4<r« imnadUtclj kftsr. The HuntUr troDld Uiea eurrcsjHuiil (a t)ia 

fSfjiiM belbre mcnticmcd. And Üw«t}h U ma; tppou- (il^sctMa«l>le 

thai Paal nhoiild »• cionm hÜMclf ui If (sch a sin wm a ihlag ul 

BJnor importum, jut thl* it aot an idea conrajid br tbe word«; but 

ba wUtiM onljr W «iprew («(7 •tronglj In ta aatitbetlcal rorm. that bii 

inttcl7 for Uia mlfaru of It» vlwl« cbunili, tot Ibe )ir«Mrvaii»a «f iu 

puriiT, had ladBCcil htia m lo mit«, ßiit it Mil» the coatnat «till 

better, if all penora) refennoe« won kept onl of riichu 

* The won» in 3 Cor. riL 14. 1 aaaot undertUnd, acconliog to cb* 
nutual nIttloD of the claiuci. oib«r«iM ibiD liiaa : D; <rbai I hire 



Still the objection may be UTged, Titrn murt at all 
a mcssrngcr from Paiil, Kays bntugbt him nn 
Curiiilh; and if P&iil ([ticrtes a letter without markiog tt 
mars |)K'[!ii)ely. wu nm uti<l4>rstiiuil by it no otlivr than tba 
Imit, uiiii tiieruluro the one bnmght by Titua. lint if lie «cut 
Titus after Tlmothy'B raturti, asd soon aHot ho bad dcsjmlGbcd 
bis find Kjiistlo l,o Uie Cöriatliinii clmrcli, wo iimy luu» 
readily preeume tliat he would not think it Deaeeeaiy to seiuJ 
A l->ng opUtlc at the lamo timo, but pcrliapes give iiiXD otily d 
feft UneR in which ho iBtiinB.ted that Titus n&s to fiu]>)ily lie 
place of Timothy, who wtw not able to come io them bimseU' 

Mid LD Tilntt in yoMT praine. 1 huvn nut biM:n put to ihuna; Intt m I 
liava t[hok«n to you all iwoordlns t« irutli, ta alM thU hu bcea proii^ 
to te tnio. 

' A (iifflcnlty U liore pmentoil, frpiu lli« nmniier iu «blch Pwl 
nI(^ution<l ihv aaadlag Titus in the Second KpUtle to the Cotliuliluw. 
2 Cor. v]ii. 9, uouipuvJ wltk V. 16, arj<I Ik. 3: xii, 18. BiUrolh »nJ 
Buiikert (wlio ilooä not however acMUt to d.11 the noKiiia alleged lij ili* 
former] have liauce oinchiilsd. tliat ilin »nnilia^ et Tiiut w»s t^ no 
ineaii« after the detspntcli of llist EntoptFUe, but took plsoo long bcfcim 
knd tfaiit the nnungement o( the collccllon was the oti)«^ <i[ hU liiA 
liut TItue wjiilii be eiiU ui CurintU »'ban lh>l leltvr nrrired, sad bum 
could cuiQDuiiik'Atc lu t'MU.1 ropeuilDg tliu cO^cl it prodncMl. rerim 
Titui WM ihu h(iiin:r of Ibe rml lotL epistle to iho Coriaililan ctiDim 
tlcDoe it mhy be cxpldioed, wby Paul todd consider biji iieotMid i 
(the Ünt auw exUuiL) lu bii« laut written ei'iüi-le, and iiiiot« II 
an; further desigiiaticvo. Ilul if this hut lieen tbo case, we nmiE 
BaHtyluuk Tor uii crpreBs ujentluri or 1'ilua in uur firtt eptitls^. 
liincR nnne in<-h ncoiin. ve iniint Gllhi^r sMnma tlul Ibo tondtag ' 
TiLiu uii-nLiuucil in. Ihe si^i^oTid cpiBtlu, in lbs ume w thai wMcl ■ 
have epikuu uf iu thu text, ur If wi: i^niiililur it iu> dlflVrent, U occutnl 
tntii^h cadiur, eo that TittiSj vrheti I'uul wrote his 6nt EpUlle In iW 
CoriatiiUns, DiuHt buve lieena Inng whUe retumui] M Üitta, And V 
thiü U>IlJ;r iivEiimption, it muj' be urg^cil. (hut ut Ihut Unl «cuiidiliK> 
companion nl' Titua is mentinned ; and, c>n tliii oChnr Iisiitl, wlicn P>sl 
rooiiMonit liis moctini^ «iUi TItu« in Miovduiiiik, no one cUo BptX"*' 

not that tili» I* "iccisive pr*of, liccautoTltut ulone nilglib Ifo i '""'* 

M hvia^ llic piiok'ip^il pvrsoii. But, uu lU« cniiinry, iihta i 
Ihmi he hoMtcd of the Corinthiim chwreh to Titufl, ibMMUS i 
UOt alMulutfily ui!ci.'»nui.v} thai tUit ctiuict iin not |>enunaltv known (- 
him. ir yc arc dii>p<>»d Lu asNume, tbnl thi» miuinn ol Tiiui «w ik 
same u ihut muiLllouvd to ibe iint epiiile, the chrijuulaificsl onltr 4 
uvtmtE wnutil nnt <ip]iote tliis iuptnuitioD. But first, then it liM 
qiienHou, wb<'tljf.'r l^ul reokoiied tlie year uo&rdin^ to iko ÜMU^ 
Greek, cir .1«witli CAlendivr; id Ibe Inat cwt, h« inij;ht nicatiaii '^^ 
ar'iiiliti^ iif Titti» ax Imvinj^ Uken plai.« iu 4li« pn^widinj; 5car, If it < 
hctvn Eiulcr ; in thu »ccord. if it wai uftcr Eoalor, and if he wnUI 
efiitlc ia autuiiici. Ilut i; \a not at nil ueuuMary U> nMC^ic ÜM i 




But aller 'che sendiog of Htus, k riolcnt popular tumul; 
VOM At Epbcxua a^nat the apocüe, vtiich vns nsvonhclm 
an «videnc« of tbe great eucceas of hia mimetr^ in Lesser 
An. Small models in gold and silyrr vf tbe fwncd templr 
of Art«tEUB were used to be mode,' trhicfa being went to distant 
|Mrts >a an ol^ject of derottou, bruu^t ^rcat guiu to tho cttjr. 
A loau named Demetriua, who had a largo ouuiufactoi^ of 
such models, and a groat nunibor of norknien, Xx^jUi to fear, 
aione Out gospel h&d spread with eutib success ia Laset Am«, 
md &ith in Art«iiiifl hod so for dwilüied ' as to lessen tho sUe 
of his war» in this n^oo. that the gains of bis trade would 
soon be loet Uo assembled bi« Dumcrons workTOcn, and 
etuily tudamed their an^r a^aliiut Che vutiuiiea of üiuJr gud^ 
who ttiraateued to deprive itie great Artemis of her honour, 
uuil tliirm of their gain. A great tainult iirose, tliov nil 
luistcncd to the public plaoc whore thoy »crv wojit to a8««m- 
bJe, luid nwny cried out, &>tue one thing, tome another, 
v/iüiout knon-iiig why they werB come tiigethor. As tint 
Jciv» iicro hved ia the Diidet of a numcToiis tirt^vk populntioii 
who viewed iherti with conalaiit aversion, any qieeial occasion 
efksily roused tlicir shmibtring prejiiiticcs into open violence, 
(tnd they had tlivn much i» siiti'cr : they feared therefurLv tlmt 
the anser of the people against the enemies of tliicir god^— 
«epooifuly as many did n>'t kuow who tlifse cneaiie« were 
osactly — would be liinied ui>üa tbemsalvea; and one of their 
number, AlL-mndcr by name, utime forward, in order to nhift 
tho blaniö frotn theniselvcs upon the ChriBtiaiis; but the 

wadlnit »way of TIt.ns wbb in ihs procodiug yniir ; for it migbt Iw tls 
due Ihul Llm Coriulhiim fburuh had bi>guL! Uiu cuUcütiuli, lielbre I'iliu 
hsd ptdjvhaed It to ihem. Nor nughl it to excite nur Biirpriic, that 
I'aul muntioni oDlyuue iilijcrt for wliioliba Beut TLttiE. llii- arriuigviQuLt 
of ilic <fo]ltu:tii>ii ; fo( he mi^ht tie sent (or tliin purpose, uiil ul Üiv innic 
lim«, Iq "I'luiti inr-i'rTiirtiinit fur I'uiil reapectin^ iLc stale of lliu Oaria- 
Ihion rhuroli. ami tli<.- cfiiscl produced by bla cpistla But an ho wu 
writing re-|'i«liiig tliu voiloclion, ho had no ocuiuioa Co ftdvgrt U 
KDoIhcr topic. 

' TIm nurdso-f ChiiI, Acta xi. 19, pi^rliap« intiiaaUi tbnl lliii popnlm 
lidtatüirlMK« prooeed-id frum the mniihiiiutiunn ur tbc ivni, tLough it 
fsTiamnla (hraataacd to ht daitgeruusto tli« Jvwi thvni'tulv'i». 

' It iBpontile.tliattii'UBUcuvEsful miumtr^ur I'tkululrardj' tbruukmud 

^Uw dctlrucUoD of irlnlnliy, tliough after Iho 6nl mccomM iiropaentloD 

H^i K'^P"'- ^ ymaim iu itx pni^resa iulurveuGiI. similar lu wlitt liu 

. o(Tll^^<^l, Cmnpnn! PliayY account nf the deirliiiE o[ heRthenisto, 

itny Ciiuruli Uiülor;, uul. i. p. UO. 


nu TUMULT IT enr)}*vfl. 

Ht «ft ■ 

Bp]3eftniiico of Biich n pertioii wliom r.Kcj- mnkcci nmcng t^i 
eiieuii«^ luoiitreil the lieuthvn to Blill greater tttiy, uud 
clamour bucnnie more violent But on Uiis occaaion 
the |)D|>ti)iii:i.- a;>|>cnr to have been hoetile to tlto tonchcn 
Chtistiaiiity ; tho mumer in which Paul had lived (uhI 
during liitt Itiiig residmioe in I.Iid nity must Imre oponti 
ndvautAgQDUfily uit tlie public authoriLiL^ o( tho city. Soi 
avea of the muyiBLiuUs wliv wen.- pliweil Ibio yair at tlxi li<«if 
of ngulatiii;^ ai! the tacra iii Lesser Asia,' and jwwjded ottr 
the public (;iuiii!K, nbowcii tlimr »vniijiitby for him, forw 
he wa« on the point of eipoaiiiK LimBflf to tb« excited cro 
they busou^'tit biiu not tu incur tlii« duiigur. And 
cliiuuburliiiu uf UiL' city at lual mict'i.isl(.-(l in oil^aing tbo aäa 
of the people by his rcpivscctalions — -bj cnlling; on ihcui W 
giye au acüuiint of the ohjt;d: oi thn\r meetiiifi — of wliioii tie 
iiinjorily viaift totally jgnoraat — and by TOiiiiiidiiij; iLcui (-f 
the serious rcjipoiiaibility tht'V incurred for llicjr ttirlwlciit 
and illegal behaviour. 

It is vory doulitfuJ whether Piiul was detemuDed by llii* 
di.sUirliiiiiw-', wliioh (Wi-ioB to b.ive liäun quit« traiUMtorj, lo 
leave Epbusiis etiilier tlian he hiul iiiU'nded twourdiog to ha 
ovi^uiil plan. Wlion he wrott) hi« tint lutter to tbc Coriii' 
thiims, bo a|>ok« to tliüjii of tlic dimgi-'rH witicli daily thrcatcovj 
him, and yet these had uo intlueiioe in dctorminin^ tit» K«^ 
uf hia sojuuru iu tbis tnty. Perhn[ä wc may lind ainrr-..) 
iJluäioiis to tilts aaw disturbiuice.' A comparison Oi I'« 

■ 'A<iiä^x<i' ■ ti^i^ii of thccIticEwitktl furmvcl liic Kuivii-Tni 'AalofihiM 
a delegate yearly for tliia tallege of 'AiTirlfi;^i]i. Sloe A titlid. Oi\tl S'.-T. 
ly. ed. DimtorJ. vol, 1. p, 5ai ; nnd probn'jly the prcri 
uullege ivoiilit li« otttlod itpx"f^'"> ^t^xv' • ^^ iiuuiu wbi < 
narking the >Lnic ol public evrnui; tvn tbv Letter «f lUc fjiiw.-^ 
kCSinxtuai uii iW uiarljrrUom of roljcoif i and I^culiUI Spuhcia. «h 
PraslanCiu. <t C'«u ^umfnmitum, cJ. ^ncaniCa, p. üVl. 

' IIa sujT. 1 c;or. Jtv. 81, iliai he wttt dully Mpoacil lo d&iih, nkiA 
mfty lend u« li> CDiiduOc, thut wbtn l^ul Iiuil rcai^litd tbe b&d tt ttu 
epUtle. (wIlIcIi wa« pralial-lj' not written all Ht ouve.) (liia dblafbu« 
had talisn phi». TIjus vm inu}' iskv tliv wunli iii v. S'Z. ««rA M)^ 

Tlieodcirot, in alilernl aciu«. niktnelj'. thiLt itwiuidaiaiiDcUd bjr Uia;^it< 
pupil Incu. Uri iLflvrivnrdB mis ollon lliir rjiM! iii Ibc ptne«uti«IM4 
Clirlntlnnn thnt the eiiotDy of tho «od« »lioiild I« cim-li'iiiiwd iti' " 
ad (OUT«™. Bui tlioiiKti sucL H i;i7 iid^ht, he nlMul tiy tb« t. . -^, It »• W017 difUciJt to HOppiMr. ci>nndaHlif tbo o»*tW' 
c-uaetanuM, tlijit tljcir ilpilre wuiild be ^jrontitd, uil FhuI tlxttfa 



Fint Slid ScoondEpinluB tv the CuHntbuius wlUione anoitioi*, 
liiaj- indeed lavour the belief, tliat PfiuJ wrot« the liUlur iiftvT 
tbk eTtint, since be Lere vrites a& one tvh.u bod Iwcu reecib^d 
&otn ioapoudüiig death.* But it may indeed hv supposed, 

wold navtT K15, that., an far m be could eipecl aci^orrting In human 
jadgmeDt, he would hate lieen a prej xo i.he wild liL'iuts »Uhom tlie 
"Oiiderftil hnlp of God. Aino t.hie iiit.erprelJil.ion of the words nari 
ifSptmci; \a cot the easiest and most fuvi)ur«(l b^ the uonnttieu I 
ntti^T And \a tUeau wurds. >ii:<;i»iiiiij; tu Ibc toanaiiiiii. the cnntrjut 
to tbe Chrinttnii hope, the dcäieiiDLioii of tlie stuniliiift'poiDb at inon in 
geopriil vho uto duilliutc of lliU hup«, lly tiie- wild b<^t« muat thcra- 
fore be qnderetood. savage inftiHated men willi vliom Paul bail tu uon- 
lenJ. FrDd Rasa, xvi, 4, where it is wid thnt rrlniilin nnil AquÜA 
hud veuturatl t,tii>ir lires lor liiui, na well m Troai wtist PhiiI vt^* \a 
Att* II. 19, wa may gutlier that Inn wiu eipcsed lo manj' diiiigcm 
tt £pli<!kus ntiiub an not niuutloaed in the Auts. 

' According W the iftterprsUtinn fiopoEod bj RUcltert, these 01- 
precEionn do not refL-r Lo p-ursacutiouacndiircil bj Paul, but to u doti- 
gtroua inocM, i.hc cffcut» of nhjcb nccompunk'i] bim to fdiiccdoiiin. lad 
were fcH bj liiui when hv vTate this w:<:i«id f^puLk' ta the Corinth iun*. 
But on compariD^ all that ruliLlcs ta it. I raimut A&i^nl la ilm viaw. 
Ai tn the paiii<u|j;i^ in 2 Cur. i. S. il uppear» Im lii« thai tliudo uoriis iiiuBt 
b* ««plaiiit'd iraoniinp to v. 5. 1 gMni, indi'ed, that niituiul dfseuse* 
Otiy bu rall«d in a ccri&iD een^e itaP^^DT-a toü Xf jtrrau : but, in aiToord- 
ADM *ith tbu I^iuIliig phr««uu!ag;r, wv Hliould i-'cctainly Apply thom pri- 
ni]uily (o »^uffcriiig for tbo cbueg of the kiiifduiu o[ Qud, m wliicli tht) 
b«liaicr r<>1lu\Tj Chrlat. RUckr>rt ihioke ih^l if Paul hw1 intended to 
■Ignif}' the pcrseiMitioD that hod boea exifilci] nC Kiiboaiia^ he would bn*« 
ii4uiifld llio citf iuelf. ta in tliu iir»i cpintle. But 1 do not £co why ita 
•boutd nut elioOBe the genctal design 11 Linn of th« rajjiuQ ol' »liiub 
tlj>lit'aai Kos the lueiropQliii ; ami, it ia poi^lbl^ that thu cioapciutlolL 
ol iKo hfithcos agiiinst him epread Irom. Ephean» to utliur pan» of 
i IfMaer Attn whii-li he i-i^tud. Why thcu might he not wy, tb«t iha 
IpOccutiuuB- Gicwded the measuru uf lilä buniau etruu^'tlin that be woe 
■Iraoat (ivnrt'ome, Bad dcKpnircd oF hU lifc1 In. 2 Cur. iv. uid 11, he 
diatloctlj' uoiii^L-E perMiL'utiuns bj wliic-h lie was in continual dunirti of 
ilonth, wltli »hiL-b 1 Cnr. sv. 30—31 agrees; trom these pDfiSi.i!>* wo 
mafiMiii-luilc tbit ho wasejipoäpd tomoro dangen thiLn arere';mi.icd Ik 
the A«t«. And in thin way other jumagM innst he esplairf.i). Tiio 

Iniuitiou a! Ihs cnrtheti v><<«(i1h h nol sgxiaiil thii view, fur ths tmilln-N 
which Paul hud to nuitnin nlirayi acrvcd to awaktii in his mind u aij'r 
fivid oonfciouBJitiv. tltnt \iv cnti^it^d ubout the divine tr^asni'e In flij 
(ttTtbcn brakoa vcwiel, thut this sbittlcred ruoeplnclB would noou lo 
rDtlral;^ dnlrojrvd 1>}' mrh as^Hulla uule«» atr^iij^tlieDi») and mciied 
t>j* Alaishly power. lI« might well »ly in v. 10. that he tilwa,r« burc 
fliODt in hidwdy tho rixftigit raU'ltiireij because he wa» nlway» cXpoaed 
to tUalb tat thn cdum; of Cbrial (v lit, nml \re*i'iag tliu QmrliB of ih^m 
•ttff«nnK^ iu hi» hu'lj, ho Ibua curried with him au imi(fc of the -iiiffpr. 
,iiig SJuviour in hi» ov^n penuu. Wliat lie tayt i& y. 2, unii in Llua 
Vol. I. 1 


271 FirLB toumiiT TO iucedoxia. 

that wbcD he foucd himself in the midst of üiow 

ttio higher concdrns of which he treated in the First E] 

li> iLo CuriulliiuiKt, so occtijiiecl hiin. llinl lie forgot everythi 
pvnsDunl — but that wbcD he hml kft Ephctnia, tbo rccollei 
tioiu of t)ic nicciiü lcudin)pi of Pro7id>.^noc, whii>h knd Krem 
him fiwm siicli duDgers, filled liim with ororflowiog giati' 
whtcb he could not Biijipre*«. 

AIXbt Paul had kbourad at Troas in preaching the gospd, 
ui<I htul wiut«il in vain fur Titiu, whom lie uipootod on liis 
ititurn fi'om Coriitth, lie left that place with troubled feelings 
utid wuiit to tiiu(!t hiiti in MiiuQtloiiia. Among thu MiicetloniaD 
eliurche« hv met wiÜ» p-.iüfyiiii,' proofe of tb« advunoc oP tiltt 
Christian lifo, to which their conflicts wilh tlic world 
(ii>iit.nbutod. No [lui-Aecutionx of ChriattanitT im a rtlii 
iiliciia had as yoi boeii commenced b^ the nutnoritics of 
Btutu. Bui at IÜ1 trvuiits, the Christ iims, by their witliilniwiiig 
from the hoathoQ worship and all that was coonected with it, 
niUHh hnvcunritvuiimhly imprcsiscd tlic hcatlicn (tmoog whom 
they lived, and excited the hatred of llie fiinatictd popuUce nlio 
were iustigttted by thi? Jews. Even if no IpgaJ chai^ cou' " 
bi; Ijrutigiit oguinst the believer» ua apostiitea from th« roU^' 
of the statti, «till witliout thia iustruiuent, eeiüouB tutuUn 
wUv funnod so lurgo a ijuijority, pos8««b(i BiiiUcient nieana 
oppress ur t^jurä iu their worldly proapectä a cliite of pcniotu m 
fur below thecaselveü, in numbent, res{>e<TLiibility, and politictl 
influence. It may illustrate this, if we only tliiok of vbit 
eoDvert« to ChristiatiHy in the East Indien havo hod to endu» 
(though under a CbriBtiau goverumeut), from their hcttthta 



Vliolp pontexi, murkfi ihe dfapo^ition of one who hnd rewon to eonüdcr 

IKa dunklicia arhlBlifuna vury uiii^OrUia, whv>lii>r ji-r mtifrilh anAtnill 
violent clooth. 2 Cor. vi. 9 i» to be citpUinoci aeooiding to i». 9 and 
2 Cor. vii. G skiiwa Lhat «van ib MiLcRtliiiiJa hn bail no r4tt>it« frooi 
■aflvrings, but wa» oviMwliclmcd wllb tmih trialb Hero m I 
no Inice of illneaa. Tlie wont ai/ii ti^ nn mcoiu juitifiaii ns in nadi 
HlnadiDg t1i<] jiuaioigu of illticsi ; it <tm«L«n vtvrf thine «hlcfa ecmid 
LfTwt iKe oater mnu. wiiüe within the lilithct pcaea might bo e^jwKil. 
The piMwvg« la 2 Cor. lii. 7 >b too obeiMira lu dniv uii^ concluflMi tras 
it witb cortiioty; oad «i-on if li«i>.' a clironlc diKordcr vara >ut«ad*d> 
wdiild iitft liu clutu' tiiul wbnt wu£ naiil btforo bad aur Tefetnoot fa ii 
Wc tia not liaay ttint Pitul bnil to combnt vilh much norlilj 
—wo du uol Jcuv tbul iIju tritjulaljiuii L« ctidurod must bnvc im- 
iiii< bodily utrciis'th; but it dii(» not folltJ* tliot the jittntgM 
quoud hsT« Buub a reTeieiux 





relative!« aiid amticsioiu I But Llic ItIiiouik>niaii CliriKliiuia 

oheerfiilly eiidured everyUiiiig foi' tlie ca-utto of tJie godpi;], and, 
however much tbeir meaus of Eubsisteiice hod beeo injiircd, 
they were ready to take an active part iu the ctiUetitiuii Hiaili.< 
by Paid in the chiii-cK fit JenisaJpoi, oven "beyond their 
Cor. viti. Iu Maceik'iiia, the apoetJo liati iilsw tlw; 
Btion of meeting with Titus; suid of äeaniing from him 
that hi» ojiistle had produced a. SiJulitry efTect, if nut un thg 
whole, yet uu the groattir jiartof llie Coriiitliiannliurdi. Tlw 
disapprobation of the larger aud better part had been ex- 
pressed iigaiiist the iiieestuoits person, find the ^oiüo of Itii» 
majority, which a« sach must have been deeiaive in ih« 
asscuihlicB of the chui'ch, hud either actually eipwllcd him 
from cLurch-Qommunion, aocurdiiig to the judgment vx- 
firc^od by I'aid, or the actonl execution of the seuteiicc had 
I been put oiT in the event of hia not j-eceiiing foi-giveueai rroiii 
^.the apostlo- Whon the rcjwlwtion of tho majority was «ii- 
noed to the offender with es]ir'e8aioua of aeyere reprotifii- 
Son, he «tpreBsed the greatest sorrow and penitence. Oc 
I this account, the majority, who always aoluiowledgcd the 
apostolic authority of Pa'ul, iotorccded on his behalf that a 
inil(li;r uourae might be adopted, and Paul nsst-nted, in order 
thut tlic penitent might not be plunged in despair, and thiw 
a greater calamity ensue.' The majority showed the greatest 

' In tho words 3 Car. ii. &--I0, 1 c&imat fim] anfthiog djfTenTit 
lAat [ !ia«e staled in the lejct. Jlor do ihi'j' support Rflckort'i 
that tho majority of the «barph, l.hnnpli l.hey Piprossed tbeir 
»lion of the olfeuder, wow not <Jispus«<l to prouciid uguiast 
blni St* Mvertly an Paul ilesired, and tliat tlie apoBi.U <iu[y jiiuhieJ [u 
their wUhd from prudeniiul tHotivnf, in crdor to maintiüu liii uutho- 
ril;, and t« f reserve tlie ]L|>peitnm>:e of dii'Kutmg tbeir decisions. P.^ul 
tkya. S Cor. ii, 6, "Sulllcieiit to eucli a inikn is tbig puiiishiuoiit wliioh 
wa» InlllPlcd of amny." Pdjca l.hi« we fannol infer Lhnt U diffEred from 
ths ncutvni'i! puuod by npoclle bin^itülf. 77ti.s, »tid lio — oniy r»- 
ferrlsR to what btil büiea plsce, ond in cunnoion wttli whni folbwvd 
— ia iudavit nut uaiknimnua, uui jet lliv punialuuent awarded to liita by 
Ihc valcc of tliu nifyotlly. It i* siiElicicnt — niiij mean, cuougii bw buen 
done that tbi» «cntuciiw uf ihu in^untj ha» Iwcu cijfrussed, and ihai he 
lias bMn brcin^lit to contrition, an that now a inildcf ci>ursc amy 1)0 
aduplod. and he vmy bu nrntivi^d agrun iutu uliurifh-cuaim union. Or, it 
ii (niHirlclit thiil tb^i miijority iiiive adiipt.ed lint fesululion. Hot, niuuii 
h« i* now peiiilsct, it Qoud not be cnrncd into atrect- Tha pain which 
I.« bj> alrcudy jiifl'.'ruii i« eiinu(;h. Jlcnce, inaUtd of cootLouing ta a«t 
with that atriuLucu, and caiiTiiig inU) clF«i:t that rc^lutiun of th« 



THB cBVKcn At ootuirm. 
Ie^8 anthoritT : 

_ ; tboT lamculed 
ucciuüunod bim do tniicli Irmiblu, luixl «seiind him ho» ennicstlr 
thoj longed to sec him soon among them. Bin Paul's op- 
poaentü among tbo Jinlt^iKiini were cot hnmlileil, fciit, on tho 
tsjalniry, wcru uiily enibitlerod agaiiwt him l»j his rvpniiiKUil 
and the aubmiaaiou puiil to litiu by tbo rest of tbe church, 
unci nucÄ uwry inciin.t in tlitir jn»»er to make tli'-chtuc-k tm- 
jiigioiia »f iiim. Tbcy wid, thut be tvon powerful odIj in bis 
latu.'!^ but tlmt "liis bodily presenci] wnit wviik.kudbisHpeucIt 
uoiitöiHjitible ;" ü <-'or. jl 1". He throatencd more than be 
could ptrfLtmi, aud liwice n*> rerj fiir tivui furmidublu Uo 
wfts <;()iiscioiis of his weaktieBS, and. therefcre, koa ahraji 
threB.t«niiig to come, but never carru). In hia tint ej^slJe, 
wliidi bua not comu dowa to hs, he probably tlircutviKd tbo 
ocuitumadonM, tliat he would soon come to Corinth, und if 
what Wut nmiw» were iiut rautitiuJ, he woiiiil exert the atmort 
prcroj^tivo of hi» office In thot inst epistle, or by vurt»! 
uoitiiDiinivntioiiit, hs had nnnouaced t« them that sk soon b 
hi! hud lult Eph-JBUS, be wuuld come immödiitldy to thrm, a» 
he wi&lied, iil'tur a trttiisit.'»t sojouni at Coriuth, to travel iu'O 
Mii(.'«düiLia, and ruturn agatn to tliem in order lu remain »itli 
tbuiii till his intruded de^ai'tm^ to Jeruaalein. Diit as ho 
now rtmoinetl lutigu' in EpbcstiH, as Ue hud nlcered the plan 
(ifbis jouruey, and had aiuioimced ti> the OirinthianE that h<> 
wuuld tint ^o into Macedonia and thoo cotue Lu them ; ' lO 
hi^ took odvutituge of this arTtiiigi.-m<.'i]t tu <;xcu»o a Genae 
hin wcakncas, of vacUlatiuii, and of anilii^iiily in liit 
prirr^iuna. And tlitiK uuo&rtain a»d Taciilating — thej oofl' 
eluded, be Wijidd be aa a toaclier, Uetiee biti nulf-contrndj' 
tiiry c'^udiict in n.'^fcnjiicc: tu the obiwn'iuice of the Monic 
Law by the Je"wa and CentUäs. Tbüy i-ndiwvoured to eet 
a folneligbt that Christian prudence which always diMingni. 
thumb, tUey tnighl iiiinuunce fnrgivcin'"« M him, (or (t. B) Paul 
iiiiaiiioil Ki4 (ilijoi't; tbey liud, by viriu- of tliai Ktt^lntlon of lb« tu^ji 
riiy. ^ivcD hiiu the proof hs required tl llicir uliodiiinco. Uo M^ai 
Hiithmif mora (v. 10], oa tliey had ssBculcd to hia mvcic mdImimi «> 
anil.- lie Has ready to excuse them, Hi lie hui3 attiiinuil (he <>b}e«( k* bid 
at br:&tt, thu wciran- of l.lie ohunh. Paul a\v3 ezptnwily pmaatmi* 
(rii 1i;< the indigantion ilicy hiuj iiuuilf»l«<l In rbU tltur, ihaAitteTfa 
tbty \inA li:tt, tlius uoquitiing t'lumealvv« of all p&iiici|iaiion ifi ibt 

' Vie therefore need bol a&miDc a lott cpiBtlu coalaialnc tUf lllStt 
plan of diejouruBji'. 





Paul, tiut wtiich y-'&a iiuited in him wilii jjt'rfuct «imfilicity of 
iDtentioii, lis il' h(! lind employed n variety of artifices to ile- 
ceJTe rncu. Also all I.liat was nmiss whtcli lie linil ileiioiinceKl 
in hiR lottere, hnd not yet "been put away by that jiart of Üits 
clmrd) whith adliered to the sipostla Such being the atnto 
of thi: Corinthian church, Paul thoiijjlit it best— in order 
Ihftl hi« own visit to Corinth might be diatvu'bed by no \m- 
ploosaiit occiu-reiK'LW, and tbut Ium iDt«i-(.'<:iurBe vnth theCorln* 
tliinu» might be one «f joy and love — to wrlLe onoe more to 
them, ill onSer to prepare thti way for hia perBonnl miiiistjy 
nnion^ them. He wiut Titus with two other able yarmne 
in the ftervicii of tlm oLuroh, fts Lcftrere of tliia epistle to 

Tn nifcroitce to that mafk^ suspicion nf his cnadui^ und 
ohiiiHctor, Paul api.teaJa in this opisüo U\ the U-'stimuny <it hin 
own conscience, that in his tatj^cour» with men in gonem), 
Htid (»peciiilly with tlie Carinthmns, be hod been giiitktl not 
by worldly pnidence, hut by the Spirit of Ood ; he coatniBta 
ona with the othor.siuveliuootisideredt^iiuplliiityand upright- 
ncss of intL-DÜun as the ccMuutial mark of tlic agency of tiio 
I>ivini! Spirit. HiG epbtle also teBtilies this ; »a he wrolu, bo 
ho thought ; ' he bud nothing in hia mind (litfi;rä»l from his 
avuw«d iiit.entiuna. Uä stated:« tli«i rensons of tlio idtemtion in 
tbo plnu of liis journey, and druvvs the conclusion, thut no 

' I Onn of t1ie<te r2 Cur. v'm. IS) uns cboKcn from the MufudunliLn 
ckarchcB. that bu miglit in theii aaiac vuuvL-y ilie voIUutlun tii Jirra> 
mJciu. and he ia dintingiiisheJ eie oho, vrk-oee "pcaho wan in all the 
church«»,'' !r)T hia acUvitv in [lulilivliiiig ilie ^o^jiel. We mnj 1 mined 
tiipposc, Ibut Lulti> IB tlie pertuD iiitcmied, and miint. I.lieii iix'iimv, 1.h:it 
I'aul VIM lufl tiiihlud at I'hilipjii, where Luke aftcrworde juinecl him ; 
bill that the tatter, after hia returo rrau Corinili, agaia fiu^vd il 
PLilippl. ft[id ou the dopartiira nf Fnul lo .Tern Bill era. ilituTidnd I,o juin 
faim ihcrc It is indeed rcmiirkalile thai Luke, who p?n[?rallj pifuna 
fllller D&rrstii'A when he naa iin eiic-«lltLcs3, toiiL-he^ an iilighl|v »n thU 

t' ia the Act», Bot hia bruvily may he eijiluiiied rroui tliu (ntl or lilt 
MnK more copioiia only in relating the pei^aiinl ministry of i'nnl. 
' a Cor. i. !2. 13. The groanitH on which De Welti- "oiycctB to ihii 
lnt«n'rvtil.lqn. nru not otivloae to me. " But nhat suspicion of dapli- 
eily mi^hl ihc conliilent nfecrtion« in t. IS awaken." Tlaia vafsd ROiiId 
liidriid .^wiikfu nil aueii suhpicion, l)ut tatlior contradial* thiit mnpirion 
«ihich P,iuri caeiuie? »Diiglil to eT*?iio ; t, 13 rams lo «oiToliür:kt<; what 
bu lud Hild in T. 12. Paul ro.tkc^ tha kppeni, thnt lu liU ('[lisllo, mi 
Wot I aa in bin vholo micuntr^, ntitliiu^ c^uld he found otnim^ta irafmit*^ 
I wIiIrIi hU ailverurict wiehcd to find in thoeo WDrdn; h« miiiiitaioa. Ilial 
Htall bu w^nla, uot loM iliaii bU aetiuna, bore ilie iiii|iii;as of äitxinit. 

278 PAVL» 30VRSKT TO ACn&tA. 

tneoaslBtttDc; en» 1« fotind in what he bad boM üd thi» matte 
And ho CDiild uull Gml to writnuK that uo inconsuttuDcy i 
he fauDii in tiia niaiiiier of pultliithiiitf tUe gospel, that he had 
oJwn^ pnoouhod one unchan^ofthle dnctriiu) of Cliriet, und the 
promises wliidi tlit:y ruuuived would be ocrtaiidjr fulfilled 
tliTDVgh Uliriat, ' God Kimadf hcid giiec them as veU an bim 
the ot^rtiiiii ])l«iilgu iif thus by the ooromuti witiitoii of tb« 
Holy S|.irit io theii" hearts ; {S Cor. i, 10—33.) 

Tbe «liit.v of vitidimtiit^ hU npcntolic obAractcr against the 
BccuKatiuuB of 1Ü8 u[j[iuiiL-uta. furuail him to apenk much of 
himself. The piüpubly uvjdcat object q( hb duiiig this, ami 
tiie diitti notion which lie vm alwiiji^ ciiretul to moke between 
tlie divino pnwor coiinoctcid vrit-h his apost/ilio functions, atid 
the [Kniuii uf a fuublu iiivrlul, hctwevu the " wait iu Cluiat" 
and tlie weiik I'liul." auffidently acquitted him of Uie charts ( 
«olf>Ciiiir(iit iitid Tili II -glory. To common tnun, who 
tucäsure ever^thinc by the same measara, mimj tluu^s mi^ 
».■«in stmngi; iu I'linl'« iiiantisr of spuaking of hiiiiaclf and 
ruitüütrv, HO Üiiii they were ruidjr tu accuse him of oxtiuv 
gfuice, of a aelf-exaluition bonlOTing on inuamty. But 
im|jälhd hitii tu speitk la auch Ktrung t4iniu, was not pereoD 
fooling, Init the iiiHpirud aousoiouaoMa of ÜM diviito 
attAchi'd f^ tbe gospel and to liis «pcnit«]ic cidtiog, whkk^ 
wuuld l.riiimpli over nil oppuulioii. Thua the Eict of Ihia ** not 
hmiu; able Lo do aiiything of himself" redoanded in his vien 
tu UiL- glory iif tiiAl. 

faul ßpout the rest of the munroer and autumn in Mac«- 
ddniii ; he [.nAmlily cttiiiidod hii Uhflun to the ucighbouring 
ouuutry o{ Illyria,' aai then removed to Acbaia, wbun Ü 
Bpeat {lie winter. 

' Tliorefore ludBjiendenHy of the Itw of which his adrenariM IS^ 
icribod tbe ulMcrvniice. 

* To thJB tlie piuia^ in 2 Cor. r. 13 refen, " For wlietber tr» b« 
bssicle Dunulve». (Lhu inapiruLiou niLh whi(üi tbe apoHln spalw «J Uu 
dirino objoct» ofhia (filing, oF wbni. tli4 pawer of God «Seeled tbmgl 
bi« ftpMtnli It office — but which hin nrfTrnnrinn irTstrd ■» rmptylin^lhc 
and ft8<Tti!ioi! \ö an ^jwirüi^ or i^aviai iL is t^ Iho gloij of God; U 
»batter i>¥ to eol-er l.-wlii:ii tbe opoblte spcftlu of EIriihiU ^ « irnk 
iixkrUI, pnle iihueclf nii h IcvqI wii.b \h.f drintbiu», «nil iaak«a noiw 
oF its aposlolic power aiul iis privUeg«) il i> for your vclfu^" 

* In Z Cor. X. H — 16, Pau! «Gumt to irinrk Acliain sa Ih« «slraAi 
limit or his labüitr? in pn-uohinf tlia go«pelj (ihU ibdocd iloei mt 
CuUow tram Iha &xj[' (oi iftäi-, since ij(ft lo Iticlf dot« n«l dtSM^f 



Siiwe lie wafl now resolTad, after liis return from tho joumny 
to JeriL-salcm, which he prt^poseii undertaking utUie be^Doing 
of the epiing, to change the scene of bis laboure to the Wost, 
and to visit tte metropolis of the Rnman empire for the first 
time, ho must haye boon gratified lo form a cvnneaioii pre- 
Tiously wil.h the thurch in Üiatcity. Tliejouniey of Phcebe, 
lh(! il(!iicoimesa of the chiiruh at ConohrBCU, who hn.d hean in- 
duMil by variouB circumstatico» to visit Tlomo, pave him llie 
best opportunity for this i;uq;)Ose, while, at ihe »iiiie timo, he 
fecocamended hor to the care of the UomaD church.' 

a fixoi or M«1u=iTo Umli, äoe Ram. v. 13, Ihoujh Paul xiuii-tiinei: ticea 
the vnril In lliu lalt>r mcanini;, Oul. iii. IQ; iv i; jpt it ap)H>are to 
proteti fram Iht comptiTiiou of (hu three v«nM In nonaczicia) ; on tlio 
otlisr in B>)in. xv. IQ, Illytin. le lltus cnaiked. But it doa* nut fallour 
froui ttui lull poi^sjtge, tkai, I'atil liiTiisnK liaiL prenahci) ths (cospul in 
lllyrl«: piMsiU.v lie onlj mentioned this ns ilia eitreme limit OJi/artu 
which hu linil naii'lied in jiriiiiohing l.Le giispel. 

' It li lii:re taken for gnintcci, that the Ißtti eliaptcr lielong? with th« 
lr1if>T(i of Ifciti Epmtif; l.n {h.G RouniüA, whlcb ^ü iDi^iem limEs Itiui be«n 
diipuli«! tij Schuli in ttic Sludie» uiiii Kriliken, vol. ii. p. SOU; but, 
a» it spiii^ain to [DC, 1)11 iiiHii[Hi;i«LiI grnundn. It may ciuilcaarpri«« that 
Paul nhouli] (aluie eo masiy iodivHutils in k cliurch to wliivh he vu 
IicrHoiiallv u slriin^er, untt liiiii ire am) umoct; ilifim ruiatliiun aail oUl 
wlcaiiB of tl(c apnstlt fmni riilc*l.lne, uut] oLhi>r purts of l,li(" Ka.«,. Bat 
wu m».ii rflcDllcut. tLat Home v/ns ulw».t'« iliu ronilczvoiiitor {icraooBfrom 
all parM nf the ltoru:in esirilr«, a f:Li.-t «luIriI hy AihntiBip« in the 
SlmigClC lULin^, I)np'll'i»opL i. 20. r^t- 'Fw^nfuv nikur tunopiiti r^t 
•iiMu/MVirt, '>* jl iTbviiciv irrit wdtat Tcti ir'IXfK IS^ ujiivat. (Tiiich as AlcE' 
ondrii, Antiöoh, NiOTmodifii, an^ii Alliern)— koI yifi SKu tu 19\n] iS^irt 
atrrASt irirn^Ki-n-rai, Vital intK;ht eaäil.i" liei^ome penoiially aequnintftil ikl 
Bpheiiu und Curiiitli with muny ClirlEl.iniiit Crfiia Knmt, ur lei,Ta [Kir- 
tlRulftrK n!«penlinK thorn. Amoiisr thu*e whonv bo solules wore pomon« 
of (h^ fiimily df N&TcWu", wiii^ tvub Wt:11 loao^ti Hi hs ii fi^eJ-itinrior tlia 
Empcrar Clnudlua. That Aquiln and Priävilla WL-rcngun in Ramo, that 
n part of tha oliiinjli antrablod la thoir houec, uiifl i.hiit h numtivr of 
;cnn »IkTwnrdB, mi rany ht iufcrred from the 2d EpisiU to Timotliy, 
tlicy uv ti; hv fuuiid ut B|jtic»us,~all Ihi», Iri^ui whäl w« liuve l>cfurt 
cctnnrkcd, in not no nurprmio^'. Thi; wmruing ttgDiur<t tlid Juilui/inK 
t«>c)it?rfi. ivl. IT. wbo piililluhod aiii>Uior iloctrlno than wliui they hail 
rnccivcd (froni tlic diwiiplei uf lliu (kpostli;), ugrraa perfootl.V wilii "hat 
Uuld ia the Hi.h chnpwr, and irJmli we ra.iy infer from tlic upislle 
ItMir, it) rrfrTeiiL><- tu tlju -itate uf Ihnj Uuuiuii dLurL'h. 'I'tji- pataai^ in 
xvl. ii »enm alan with i. S, tind H\n cotn^ariann cnn&rmn Ihn ball«? lliU 
thef both bolong to tlic Kam>> «pmil«. Buuit, inlitsdiuaflHvrurequat^. 
hM lindcavoun^il to prnvA i.ho DpurtotisnRBi of tho two laxt cltikpt«ni. lie 
be1i?v?fi thot. in the Ifiih oKBp^^r ir-ptrinlly. lii) MQ Ineo a lftt«r wrilar 
attuchcd in Piuiiiiic prlnizlpki, who thuu^lit that, ü order to iuuily 
FaoL and I« brlim Buout a uuiou batwooa tho Jevlih and CMntil« 



It ifl not improlvililc that, at an «arly ficrioii, tl* eeod oT 
tbe goapul waji Lruii^ht hy Jewisli Ohriatiime Co the Jcvs^t 
Rome, 08 üb Umt timt.-. if wc may judge trom thu nalutaticm 
nt tho Olli of Ü\o «pi.itlc, porBODH «'ho wero amon([ th« oldat 
Ohrietiane Wved nt Rome j but thvMi ccrtninlv' did not (brm 
tlic inuin body of tli« cliiirch, for the ftji^Usr part cvid 
QüDEiattid of Clirifiliiuix of Gentile ilt.'sGoiit, to wliom the i 
hft'I hd^ii ptihiiidicil by anni uf the Ihiuliiiu noliotil, 
peiideiitly of the Moauc Law, to whom Paul, as the a|w«tle »t 
Üiu Ot'titW fvSt hiiDHulf callird to writo, ai)d whom, iti ooose- 
qucuoe of the relatiou. he could addrvae with gnattcr froodom. 

Clirliituiuv il nan ncciKMrj to make ■om^ad'tltloai) to tfa« cpliile; tnrt 
I cnntiut pcrecivB tbo vnlidit;- uf ihu «viiluui.'u udilucwl hy thü icaU 
crillo- P.uil WM probahly prevenlöl wlinn hp hwi ^Dlshcil Ibe Uth 
ebapcer, Tiom continuing t)ie cpijUc to tJie clow. And whnu ho look 
ft up A^üin wheru ]vü ]ell oft, itud lookixl baicic cm wlmt h^ had iiM 
»riiwa. be fell liiroäalf iiDp«llu<l to luld »omcthing on ibc ibnnc of 
«liiud lie bnil liu>t tnti-teil, Uic liacitimiy iHitwcvRii iIir Gnulilgund Ji-süli 
CliriHtians in the Roman diurdi- Hit oIi)l>c1 wu, ud tbe ono livi'l, to 
cliouk Uie fniü'Lbirik iii^ Gentile Chri^lloa rroniMlf-cxatiuli'iii tn rrluiDH 
La their weaker Jevieh bratlinin in l.liu fikitli ; ami on ihc other liuid,!« 
remind Lhi; Jewinli ClirJitliiTis that tlic mtmlnsioii of tko Otnillho iotv 
Uie klDgdom vi Oad wiu ng ia^a^cmuDt of tbv risbM vt Han 
jicople, und tbiili U wae In ualwa wiiili ilie prcdtuittiu« of Ui» Uldjj 
menl. He exhorts tlioiii, jr. ", la rccrivn not- AnotliCT tnat M 
niemliera of ihe «amc kmifdom of Ooil, ihou-^h wlih a special rcTMvim 
to the Gentile chriKtiiiiiii. to wliotti faul 4L ihe tc^iuiiing of the cliaK«r 
pitrilvulurty aildre^aol blniu^II', if wo lollow iti>! hnK aocruilit«tl naiag. 
üfiä!. lie then elatcä Dis roaauiiB whv the (^^niilc* liftd AqwoUl (UW 
to i>raiM Goi, tn Im itiimlcffli ani hiirabto, amoo Qod htul in iu> vaa- 
pctlad a manner braucht Uiem to a parlies paljo-n of hU kiiiKdum, "(la 
previoiuly knew uul.hiu); of it., sud whu hi»! nt> liopm ol Ibii kind. Ii 
imin of thought wiiicli he inlroducet clacvhcrc, Ephcn. IL IS, and la 
• »Tsnil olbet ya^t^gOi). \l>- tiiima tliul (it>A, l>v tba reading of Chtüt 
to UiD JcWB. mmifetlied his fuiibfulDciu, niDDc thiin he had fulSIt<<J thp 
pramiiiefi mndo U> the fatlien; liiit htiJ iiiunifoaKiil h'm mtrcy t4 UM 
(Icntilw, lince !iu hail ealleil lu & parts iripati'iti in tbc klni^Ovui of Qeda 
thaw »tDOD^ whom the toundiitioQ of ttii« kiDifdom. Lud not bcCD laid, 
and tf» wbom an ^nraiitKa bad beva givuu. SuEh ■ tticorctical uOKinrt 
in of coun<e nut p«rfei;il,v etrici, tint partial, nad o( ■ kind fivqiitQily 
Ctuployeil by Paul. Put bt' says, and IheUld TutaniciiLinUiBUBi. khil 
tbeMcuiah would <:xteiid bl« uvins eOlcisncy to th« Qeutilea; Ixwe, 
It It eiiiilent. that Ooil while be ahoin lueriry ui ihua), at iha can» tl»o 
vcririES biBfaitbrulnc-u. In nil lliiH.wr: ßnd nothing uiipaaliae.nothbff 
forci^ to tho ohjoct of till» oplg-tle. It is Imponiblo tbnt I%u| onild 
Inwnd U «loM with tb« 11th chapter, hut ruearding to Ibe iitwl atlt 
of th« Paubne cpisli«, n cmicltmiüii tnutt aewiurilf Callov vUtk 
Ui«M tnu lut cbapten furuith. 




eauld Pirn), &oin Hix oaU to p»l>!iah (be gcutpol to nil tho 
ins of the worlil, infer hi* call to aoHounoo the doctrine 
orwilvaliim t» tho Romans, if be h.t>l nut believed those 
to whom his opiatle wan eEjieoiallj adiiräsRoil wore Gi?iiti!«s? 
For tilt! JcwH, whether Living aninng the Romans or Greeks, 
always coiidittored themselves as lielijuging not to tJie c:^), 
iff I'll but to the one c% tliu Xaotin Üieetuirwopfi. In röforenef 
tu llieia, Puiil ooulil only hnve apoken of lieing sent to one 
nation. How mtild ho say (Rom. i. 13) that he wished t» 
ooine to Rome in order " to hava sonia fruit " thiBre, " oven ns 
ainon^ other Ooiitilos." Ly the publioatioii of the gospel, if he 
was not writing principally to (jersona belonging to the (Jcti- 
tiles, among whom aloue ho had hitherto been wont to sialn 
fruit 1 Verse 14 shon-s that he wm not thinking of Jews in 
di«tant parts. Huw otherwise cimlJ tie be iuilueed to nasert, 
tliüt tut olüon'hEiro. so also in the metropolis of the civilizod 
, world, ho WU8 not ashriuu;il to ptibUsti tlio gosjwl 1 For iu 
[jfcrcnoo to the Jcvra, it could mako no gre-at diffbrcnoe he met with them !it JoniSiUem or iit Rome ; the 
Biinitt tibaUiclea to their bi^lteving the guiipel existed in both 
pUicus, owinij to which Jesim the Cnicilieil Wiia an ofTcnco to 
tfatini. It pÄniiol bo 0(irieliiiiijd from Lis addressing the 
Oentile tJhriätiaua so pointedly iu xi. 1 'i, that tlie epistle iu 

«gcni:rul was not intcadod for thera j for at all events — since 
there were Jews iu the Churcii, though they formed the 
iDinonty — wlien he oxpresaad anything which was itpplic^ablu 
oqIj to üic (ieiitili; memliers, it Wiis necdliil that he should 
thus distinguish it. If wa suppose those Jewish ChriBl.ians 
■who taught th(i continued olilij.ation of the Mnsitie Liiw to 
,-JiATö fvruied thu o-ri^iual body of the Church, it will not be 
to explain liow Gentile Cliristia.nH who luiopt»! the 
'Pauline principles {and who must evidcdlly have buuti n 
minority), could .ioiu thcmsclvoa to such. But it ia very 
diffiinjiit, if wo guppose this eliurch to have Imwü congtituled 
like utben uf the Gentile Ohristitui& of whom vo have before 
spoken. Moreover, ia the Ntruoian persecrttion, the Christian 
ctiuivh itpiwaffl as a new aecl hated by the people, a gfntu 
^K/eritum, of whom the people wrjre diaposed to creiht tho worst 
^boport«, betaus« they were opposed to all tho forms of religion 
^Biitherto in eiiatence. But this could not have been the casa 
^B^Judaieim hod bcvn thu predominiuit element )U th« llomaB 





church. TliQ Chriiit,iiui8 would then Iuito bMm SfArcdj 
Uii^tiished from the Jiimb, aad it was not usual to pav 
nttfotluti to ibv iiit«nud rclig^ouu dispute« vf tbo Jowa. 
Ü» controveray with the churches iu Lemer Asin, the hii 
of Ronio wcro i\\a opponent» of the Jewish CKrUtian Enatcr 
this was cinsely ooniiected with the formation of the Christi 
Oiiltiis UD I^ulin» priiiciplLii, luid un appeal conid here 
made to au aucitiut tmditioiiL To tlie mark» uf an iuiti-J<!iri< 
tendency bülimgn alito the cusrtom of fnxting on the Snbl'itib. 
The opinion tlmt thin anti-Jewinli tendency ärooe ds A rrAction 
against an earlier J udaizing tondöncy, ie at vaiima witli wlmt 
has hocu uaid, (Uid ia uluu inuoiuiBUiiit with hivtoricnl tmth^ 
for tunc« at a lutcr period vc see tho hierarchical elenii 
(which is dAoifkdIy Jevinh, und favßurnblä rather thaa 
wiH to JudaiBEu), peculiarly proniinent in the Rumau olii 
m it. in ditficult. to niipptMC) thul esuctly at tliin time a reaci 
»hould he prndnoed against Jndaiam,' ariünft (tfim primi 
ChrintiAn kiiowlodgo oiul the Pniiliiic Hpirit In tho voik of 
Heriiiiifl, tra roco^aao indäod a coaoeption of Christiiinilir 
mor« ficvording to Jnmo» thsrn nccunlin^' to Paul, (ami yd sc4 
throufAotit and cnitirtdy .Tii<Inixing,) liiit wc knon- loo liltic of 
til« relaCiuQ in wldnb tbo aiithnr of this Iniok stood to tbt 
whole Koman church, to det^inino auything reepMtini; ih» 
lending b.-udaii«y uf the lalUir. Tliio roiunrk iippliua mi^ni 
strongly to tho ClDmeutiDcis of wtieh tbs Drigin ia fto xiiKit- 
tain, and whieh liy ih« leading HcntimentR is e»wnttal)y di» 
tiii(,'uiKi>ed from tlie Shepherd of Uormos, altltou^ win« 
points of ulSuity exist ia the two wurko. lit Rome, lii* 
capital of tlio world, wiiere the Tarious kinds of religion «vre 
iwsenihl«d frtiiu nil eountriee, llio diflSiticnt Chrislian Mf» 
wouM aoou aouk a Heltlement, and Qstahliuh tiieniaclxca Wn 
tli«rufoiv, aru not jiBtJIied in eayiiig of creiy seat which t; 
aeo arising out <i( Ibii buBom of the Koman dittr-cli, tliat it 
prooocdcd from tlio rcli^'ioua tendonoy tbut origimdly fire- 
aoniiuiitud til it, und wum a reliction agninat tdndeociea K^m- 
quetitly funiititL Tiiis applic« pariiotdarly to the MoooaitUaiA 

' Dr. Bauer, whose v^e«i I tm her« opptMlDr. ia bU amj mM 

Rat.ho, nn tho orlfriii o! epMuopaey in the Chriiiiun ehnrch, (TVwil^ 
2eiUchr{/l für Thfttloyi», Is3», part ill. p. 1(1), Gtuleavoum ifi pn*! 
tkat ibis roiwfioii nfiüän JudAi*ro, fmifiMing thut t« have --— ~»^ 
prciilomiualiKi, toulc pbu« »l n l>tHT period iu the Booiut cl-~ 



i could not all be referred to ii Judiiiziiig element ; for 
a PraiciU!. of whom we certainly kiiow, Umt be fuimd a jwint 
cf «imneiit/a iu tin- wliule Rmnaii cfiurch, — which onnnot be 
onerted of other kinds of Moiiarchiaiis — furiued by his 
peculiar tonceiftiotis of the doctrine of CJiriat aa a God re- 
T«ulu)» and ravoaled, the moat direct Opposition to the 
Judoixing sümdiiig-pwiiit. m ma.oy respeute still more, than 
wns at that time ibe giisg with the eommou church doctiine 
of Suboi'di nation. But when the ArLemoniles appealed to 
their figrtcij;i!iit- with (.he earlier Roman biBliops. we cnnaot 
accept this aü hiatoricaJ evidence. All sects have always an 
interest to clnim a, high antiquity for tlieir (loctTino, and it« 
Arteraiiuiti!» coiild eaüÜy make use fur tlitir purpiisu wf muuy 
indefinite expreaaotis of earlitrr doirtriHal atatanients, Tliej" 
spfHHiled gt'iienilly to the antiquity of their doclirine in the 
oliuR^h, mid yet va know that the lumii-ut hymns and tlia 
o.pü logins could \vith justicd be adduced agaiaBt them as 
wititesBcs for tha doctrine of tljo divinity of Christ. Wo 
cnnaidor, therofore, tho opinion ia well grounded, that the 
Koniun cburuli wiib ftTUied prindijaily froui the stuck of 
0«ulUe Christians, and that the Pauline form of doctrine 
«riRiimlly prcvailod among them. ' 

In this chnrüh, tliu stma of afTnirs was similar to that vbioh 
•for Uie most part o-'osted iu chiu'clies where the G entile 
'Cbristion element predoiniiuited, thougb mingled with tlie 
Jcwiiih Christian. Tlie Jewish Christiana could not bring 
tJiemjielvea to acknowledge the (Jnnt.iles, who neglected tha 
iDioniui law, as altogether tlictr eqiuJs in ivktioii to Uta 
om of God; the tturitilo CJiristians also still retained 

lOso fccliugB of c<;ntiyTnit with wluoh they were Wdut fj> 
'oonteniplate the Jotvs, and tbe nmanor ia which the (greater 
pnrt of tbe .lows opposed the publication of tho goB(tel, cun- 
fimiud tiiUMi in th-i» tainpLT of miiid ; Rom., xi. 17, 18. 

Rrnl in thla epiatle laya before tbe ohuroh, which ho hwl 
not yet tnnght [wnouolly, the fiuuiamentjü primciples nf tha 

The: Imtimony of Rikr^uf^ (tk« no-callcd Amtirnainn). to wlii^h Ikuur 
xppu^li IU liiHtorical vvideuci.'. «a certainly dare not cMilmnto kq W\gh]y ; 
for Chi» *riiGr nf tho gfcomi haUofllie fourth «nlurytould hardly uialio 
nt-evt liuiurii'nl nouriia« ea ibe euDBtltuUoTi of tha Itnmaa church to 
'hioli Pwil vnolA Ha had wairaul,!' nuy uiher Bources of informalifln 
iH we have; hia teittliiionf sppcikra i.o 1mi nnl; D;« dedueed fram tbi* 
•piitle acMrdins to htA oiro Inter p retail on of U. 


I nto 



goKpel ; ho ftishcd, ns lic himitcU «jv, Rom. xr 15, to 
tf> xiteir rotniimhmncc ' wlinl bad been uinoiiDoed to Owm 
the dootrino of Chnetianitj', a,aA to testify thfU thin «us the 
goiiuiue Oliriatinn trnth, wliicti nlmie CLiuld aatiafy ttie nii- 
giouB wants of human nature, and «xhortad them not to sUo« 
thonuolvcH to bo Iwl wrtiuT by Kiy «tnuigc duotnne. Thn 
eptBtle itrn-y tlienfore Krve to infoiin tis, what vas in Paul't 
estuuation tho OBsoDce of (be gospd. lie bcgiiiR with n»uiiqg . 
tbein tbut nhfimc caulil iiot hivra kopt liim bock fW>m pub 
lishing the goepol in tb« capital of the civilitc<l wurl^l ; 
ho nov<^T bwl ovotmiüii to be «sbanioil of Che doctriue 
tiie gospel, eiaoe evcrjwhta«, among Centi!«a bs well aa Je'« 
it hiul ehown il«cli' cafiablu of working with diviiitt power 
ths NÜvntkin i if iiii^ri, if thcj oiilv lij^lievod it ; by this dc 
thoy all bbtttlncd what 0.11 alike ncc-dcil, — thiit «hich wu 
eeiacalkl tu the Milvutioii of iQoii, Ihv lutiuuii by which ihey 
might be broufflil, frun» a Blate of esiraiiRenneat from Uod in 
Kin, to bccniF holy boforc (lod. In cnler to ciitAbliH]! tbiiv 
it was aevetaary for the apoBtle to show tbat all, both Jov« 
!ui<I tieatih>8, were in D«ed of tliis miMiiit. H« «ndlKlvour«! to 

' It Ii gniK^ml!]' miippQicit ttiat the iili ^/fjoui tn thU Tpntc ralaWlo 
RDRig jmrUi'iiInc puoniEn of tliu i-pir-tlu, uliii'ti ni'i:hl u«iii to be vritiM 
JD loi bolil a tone. Vit mijjht udmir thin, if »tij wTcrc ccbm;« nrct* 
Im innl wlili in iIiih •'pixilc on tlm fKulb iif lii> rliunh, »■ ia the inl 
KpiKilc to tho Corinth in nji. In thu one, vrt mij^bt mppai« th*t PmI 
WMild ihlnk prugjuT Vu ii]>olut^i<iu fur lurli liitnb «sprvnioaii, m pr- 
cveding from one who vu- not jjciroually knowa to th« church. llQt 
■ucli aujmuilvctrnloiinoii tlicchnrcb we (to not And In ibU i.-{>i>ile; ud 
a,]l tlmt, hn my» renpentin^' tba aloleof the Qenlili! woTlrt. to >lilclilbt7 
bc]un>;i^l hHim ilicir convortlon, a« iioll as In all lli^t be miv* t« nn 
tbem a)(ali[iiL aitirexnltaUun, I laui I'niil anthill^ vhi^h would BonmO 
an apiiliisj' on ihc imrt of «iirh a man ne Paul. Hrace. I atuMt help 
Donnlddrlni; the iri iiipnut i^nlyaaqunlifvinr ttie'rBA,;inKAT«f«r,<itlbuft 
rcla'o la whft-t toDuwi. hiiil )ilsc«s ilia h(ililii«M in ilut. tWt be,tbMt^ 
pkTwnally unltuown la iho «tiurch u a Imch«. i-mtured to »riicW 
tliEni euch nil oplMlu in nliii:!) he aiiglil.iifipiuir to aniii>nnc'e thcdoclriM 
or Kil viitioo. u if ii werv entirely' nc" lo thrm. But bo cxpluin« U* 
dcalgn. that It wa« only li>"[iiil tlinni in mtnd ' of what (lie; ImI 
sln'odjr hranl, and hn tielioi^l ibnt. in iriruie of the minlati^ rammllM 
to iitin b; divlDc grace, that he wju JniUScil In mijtli^; kn«irD the 

EuRjiul to Ui« Clunülw. Ho nr^n qmlltiM ths ' putting Htm in Bind ' 
f lb« addition of Jnl, thus mirc^ciitiiig ii a* •omctUUg ao K t u cny. Mi 
nol abwlut«ly r«|^iiiro<L la thtM «ort».!» tho latwrprcladoDof «hitb 
1 cannol igree with llaiwr, I eu dslcct notbinK unpanUne. Onl^' 
^•»tntiy, 1 Dad here tho tcune Fkulla? modeofadilrcMa* inBoia.L~ 

tAm^ KFtCTLB to TIIK ItfiJIAyS. 



l«ad tliera both to a conscinusnes of tlieir sirfuliietH an>] 

guilt, MiA to take HOtici) of lliiit which miglit pruvcnt cither 
party, according to tlieir respettive Btaiiding-pojntB, from 
attajning tliis cuiisciotisness, the selr-ilecerptinus nsd ^ihinnii, 
vhicb «bsUTictcd the disceninteiit of llie tniths which lio 
amumncod. H« hml then to ]w]Tit out to tho (üeiitilc« that 
their cooscienoest teetifieii a^nst tiiem. that they eoiilJ not 
excuse themselves id their uns by ple»diDg igaumocc of Cod 
«nd bis law; he objected tA the Jews, Ihat thai kw, in tlm 
pOHSaaioQ of which tlicy were so proud, cotild oiilv utter n 
sent««e« of <«>iidem.iu(tiou Bgninst them »s its ■violatcrs; he 
espoaed their gelf-deUision in thinking, that by the work« 
of (ho law such as thej could perfonn, or in virtue oF their 
descent from the theocratic luttiün, tliej could appeur lui holy 
before God. Atlor poitLtiog out that both parties were 
equally in need of tho ineana of salration, the ohject he 
had in view led liita to develop the mauner in which man, by 
faith ill the ßedbemer, niii,'ht liecoia« holy bt-fore God, n.inl to 
exhibit the ble«ec<J cooBequencte tliat followed trum tliia nirw 
Telfttioa to Ood , and in this developinetit, he takes piiius, ils 
is evident in various pasiageg, 60 to influence the two parts of 
whioh the ohuruh at Kome ooiitush>d. the Oeutile and the 
Jewish Clirietiuiia, that uniting in an iKjtiully humhlo 
acknowledgment of the grace to which tliey were indebted for 
their aivlvation, neither might oxalt thcmeelves «.hove the 
other; he closes tlie whole development with i-Ktolling tlwit 
grace, to which all stood in the same reUtion, being equally 
in DMd of dähvemnce, aud which all must at tost utdto in 

Ill the practical exhorlatioTis which form the laat part 
of this epiatle, tlie «lisdüm is appat-ent with which Paul tt«vts 
of the relations in which the new converts tn (ihvietlanity 
were placed; he anticipites the errors into which they were 
likely to be seduced, and endeavours to suggoat the i^et pr» 
■errittivuK »tguiiist their influence. The seditiouB spirit of the 
Jews, whir.h refiised to acknowledge the legitimacy of any 
Ccntilo goverrment (b«o my Church History, vol. i. p. öO,> 
could not find rsuJy entrance into the Clitiroh at Rome, 
Eince tlie mnjorily of iia members, being Gentüe t'hriatianst 
vere uct exposed to infeetion on this side But sitnilaF 
enon, &-oiu a mi»uud«r8tftuding of Christian truth^ might 



(srUj inse tunoog then, «b lutaallT' luppobM at & 
jteriud. Accuetomod to ooDÜdar tbcmulvas as nieuil 
tiic kiugdom of Qod, in oiipodUon to tlie lieattitiD würid, i 
were in ilaDger of giving iin outward furm u> Ihia opjxt^o 
which |>r(i|ii;rljr belooged I« tbu iuiorunJ dixjtontinn. and 
u hcetiU) tcndeDoy would be called fortU a|j;uaBi all ciii 
civil iuiititution«^ since tlioj would l>o luokod npoii as 
beloagixLg to the kinsdom of the evil spint. With Üic 
nioasuct» uf bctgopug to tlic kingdom uf God, a mis{>- 
prehensioD arisiDg ät>m carnal new» migilit t>o cumisuWd, 
that tLom who were dntiQcd to nde lierettÄcr io the king^CTt 
of th« Mt-tek h , need not iu the praaenl. life submit to noiMl; 
govemmentG. Siiuh a camo] miatpprehenHon might ewal; 
be comtiined with the tlotTtrino of ChHiitiiui Amdoni^ and iho 
apovtle on otbor «ccnaions hoä tboogbt it needfUl to caiitl"» 
it^iiwtit; Gal. v, 13. He wished to bo tx-forohand ia op- 
poeiug Hurh pmctical errora, «hjoli bia k»iiw!c<%c «>( iiuniui 
nature led Um to anticipn^to, oven if they were not already 
viülile; nccordiiigly, he gtrictl.v enjoined on tlie Boaan 
Cimet iiuis, that thev ought to couüder the instituliuu (if ciril 
government gencnJly an it divino urdiiuuioe, for a de&tiit« 
object in the plan of Providence ;' tlint, under this asfwKt. 
they must view tho government actuaU; ezistiug, aud deiceMi 
tlu!ini5elves conformublj' to it. 

At the close, he noticca a cpedal practical diSerenca in the 
church. But it majbo disputed, in nhnt light vte are toriev 
it, An in the fourteenth chapter he pluais in ep]>ositioi) tbt« 
who cut, und those who ULt nut, mid bj' the latter appwMUlr 
intends those who Rompled to ent ücÄt and drink wiue, aitf 
ootiüno thcmKlvoK to n vogctsblo diet, ^compttrc v. 3, nod 
V. 21,) KDiiie have lieeii led to conclude.' th»t in this diurobi 
etrotit; ascetic t^udency. ectitely forbidding auiniid food a»d 

■ It vat not the ap«MtI«'8 dcalra ii that pwMg« t« Mrrlo]» ibe wbik 
dMtrin« of dto reciprooal datin of mlon nad eutjKU; hol le 
punuca onljr ano nmrkod uUttbetlcal reference, in nrd«r I« 
CtuiallBDR of Ihtt mlMppnhmiirm, snid hmii« he tnvM nil otlie 
untutichuiL Khicti othomiM would nutuniilrbU miileriliBHu 

* Tliii ilrv. wltlnntiuwmtMliri'Äiiiiii». hu; b«sa bm>n|rbll 

Eichoni. in lii« ititnulusti jn to the<l \y Bucr 111 
am? on thiia eiiUtle; I<j (he tnttcr in «ociMcion with ku ite*! 
a pTfri-Dmlnnnt J«wUh Chrinlion LM)<!<ino; in Ih« BMnaa eliuK&, i 
t« Uic Ut£r KbLüaiUiui. and cuutaioing lb genu. 


VAVi^t xnnrtz to 7Ba nouAKs. 




iiik, tiad Cbund an catmiice, nmilKr to tlie doctriue 
tbe later üucratitte. Such a tendency, howerei- fnroigo tc 
the Hebrew ftiid Greciftn reü^ijus aysUnis. had in Ih-it ftgo 
iuaimuttiid ibielf iii various foi-mH. liutli ajuuu^ L1il> Jaws and 
Geiidlcs, owing to tlie eluiuge prodaced by the breaking uj) of 
the nndeut mental hiiiiitiides of the world, atid effected a 
jmictioa with Cltristmnily, by u mistiLkau viow of tho oon- 
ti-arioty bt'lweeii thu spirit imd the fi«&h, and of the oi)])üwUon 
between the worid and Cliriatianity. But how can wiiat Cam 
says ou iuJividiiul cases, be referred to [lersoiis under tliq 
inauoace of ihia tendency 1 " Lut not liiiu that eat^th" (he 
says iu v. 3), " d^gpm him th^it catetb uot; »nd let not lilm 
wbu eatvtii nut jf^ge lüm timt enteth ;"" tltat is, not oondociiii, 
not diaidlow tiie participation in the kiugdom of Gud ; yet 
peninuit tif this aaoKtic tendeuüV did not alcogethör condeiuu 
tLose iFho wuiild uut ci>iiseut to ^uoh fthsliueuci?, ^lai tiiey 
bdiwcd tl4fit they wui-e iiiferiot: to tticinKclvca, and uot so 
&r advancied iu tlio perfLictaon of tho H[)iritiif[l life. Paul 
therefore ought mther to havo said, Let. suuh a one dcspUit 
him thttt öatt;th. Or we must aasuuie that these i^rsons bad 
gonw KU far ^ to cjusider tbo eating of ileali to be absoliittdy 
cinful. But this they coaM have said ouly oo tbe prinoiiilott 
of a cerUiiu duahatic thuuoopfay, vLioU viewed Cud not as the 
uri^ of all croatunsB; und if Paid had met with Buch a 
KÜiCuiQ, be would uertaiidy uot have treated it with ho niuuh 
tolerance, but have felt it his duty to combat it strenuously, 
as ntlörly opposed to the stnudiufj-ijoiiit of Christiau piety, 
"or would the eiliortatiou addiesaed tu the other side uut to 
'urn Buoh a one, have beeu fiiiitalilo iu tbis ciiac ; for persons 
thin tendency had nothing which exposed tliäui to cou- 
'tQlD{it, btit it was rather to bo feared that, by sucli a stricter 

lOdltj of living, tbey would bo held in greater respect thaa 
was their due. Uosides, how could Paul say of such a one 
in V. 6, " He that eateth nut, to the Lord he eateth not and 

veth God thanks)" Such persona would want tbe diintcW' 
tioii to tlnuik (Jod for all tho gifis which he had grsmted for 

umau aubaistenoe. How could he, in refcreuco to such ft 
jwy in V. 21, "Tt la good neither to eat flesh nor to drink 
vine, in order to give uu ofiiju«* to a brothtrV It could 
jpvo DO ofienoe to one who was xealoua in practising such 
L-ticisui. if lis Buw aootlicr broUiur living with less atriut- 


rADi'b a'WTLK TO nn aoxi 

uu« But if utLcr CUinKtiiuu bdmed Ümt iImjt oq^l 
(Jivv Uii i-uoiulc, lu! aüfgia. U/ Uu ugtirT 1» 
lu hii doluiiou. tltut Kudn b mode uf liriiu; hitd «tu 
g^ atMfÜvtit w iiMtriUuiuu». Leofll of oll oould w« 
I'M!] would UtM penaat of liu» «on aunptj^ u 
ftiid hIk/w tiuaa to muoli indulgatioe, widunit diactuHnif i 
fuU^ tW jjriiKipl« tbut fönuod the bw« uf tiuät 
|wiM. Aud if «« litt out awuiue tiiat tbie princijdB 
iLD «vowod diuüiMD vludt be mnat him eaiafaatod.yeLaai 
«uppun'itiuu, liv ouuld out bavc M)t«>d iriifa a» mucii 
lUid fvrlMunuiod lowurdi ou axxdc am^uuB oT Uu» 
wtiii:!) wiw MjiuiUy ill dkmotnc opponOoD to bie 4a 
of juttiAcMiuu «im1 U> th« cMXiu» id* Cbrisias Itaniilit^^ 
BMi-li a (jvTYcnuuo vf nU^cnt aetitinieDt, b. oouJd ooc tei 
{•v.-coJ üiiit it would groduaJlj be ornywoM bj the pnig^ 
ii«<v<:ti/|^iiw(it ■/ faith a» the root <4 the «biJc tStiutiaii tti 
but it Mtm mtiicr tu hv IbuMt, that * jriticiple ao aliao to l~ 
C'bnaUao life, «nd ao muoh fitvoured £7 oertajn lepdetwa 1 
tW tiiruM, would gather iacretunDg «trcngth, n&d ii^ani : 
uid iii'^ru iIju buiJtliy dcvelojuueat cd* Christ ianiijt: 
mH^tuuiiiM» vf thin kiiiil ill the fullowiug agcjusti^ us 1b ' 
«•^ucluMofi. How vuiy diHervut); dww P»u] speak 
«uuh 11 U'lidi.iK;}' ill the EptAlt! tu the Coloeuuks I Ei 
tJiu (wtviiia ti^warclit wlium Paul cnjotiu forbcarum^ 
xjcti wh<i tii'lin^imhe'l ccrtaia days as in a tpocUü stnue dedy' 
I'littu] tu Odd, niiii wti» cuiilil nut jl'I bring theniHtlves to tte 
l.'liri'tiuii ktu(iiltii(;'|»iiiil, thut i>Il Uuvs out;ht lu an «qui 
riittuiwr t>j 111 (ludiuutt-d to God. Wc must boic noo^;iiiBe lit« 
rcui:tiuii of lliu jL'tvinli i>tuiiiIiuj{-]ioint, (which, sinoc it bad in 
iiidittiiiiUtlil» i'it(lit in thn ilevclojiniaiit o{ mli^ous truth, wl 
conlu iiol Ixi iiltn){ctli>;r but imidv hj' a oiuglu vflbrt, Pauli 
nrilHii l(it claltiiH wuru nrni^nuitly sBt fortb, always traatol 
witii iiiiltj||;i.<iici'), atiil wo nhull i\mi MiiHcicmt ruLsutti for n;(u^ 
hid aiiirllior tujiiu vliiuh uouccrus tli6 <{ueRtioQ of abstiueiioo^ 
to tiis miiio tüiiiifiiuy. W« Uiall he lod to thiiik of the Jgvb' ' 
ChrivttatiH, who woi-u »till trti'icl uliMU-vuni of tlie Mocuiio la* 
act uuly iu kvopiug uortaiii duyN but aleo ia refiaining ftant] 
BerlAiii kiuilH of loud. Wu uliall Im Ii»« siitoHwiI at lIuM 
if wu iiMKillout thitl ^nivrnWy tho Ohristiane ofJeuiiih de«c«DtJ 
|vinl<iiilEU-ly tliOBO of I'lkltistiiie, when thi;y lived ut Iti>m<i1 
Hiihvrud tu thoir fonuttr Jcwiub mode uf life. But iu the Moaüd 



hva niative to food, tberonua nothing tlist couM occssioit 
eam]ile« alnvut «atiug floth oc drinking «iiie. Or tre utust 
oasume tbnt Paul spok« here only bj-p'jthctically lunl iijf|>«r. 
twlicaUy, withuut thittking «f o, <»»«, wliicli uiigbt rcnily occur 
tuuler eiistii:^ cJicutnataQneei, ailhoiiyh tliis is by no menu» 
prohnlile, judging from LU moi^e of uxpresing himaelf. 

Fnrth«r, if wo l^iIlli of ihose Jewish ChriatimiH wh« bflievod 
tli&t the Mtrsiic lavi-» reni.n'Cliriy food wtrts »lill (jbtiptory, it 
ia indeed e>Idänt, that l^iil luuat fulmonish the Gentile 
OhristiuiiB who utire entail gk'cj in no sucli pei'jilf:iitie^ that 
they ouglit not to dcapiey tlitlr weaker Jowii<li lyrctbrcn oii 
acciiiat of their acmpulusity, nor Iwid tlicm to net against 
tlieii' coufideocee, by working; uii iLeir ftwUDija of shame. Il«t 
wqiilit he have cxjjreitseii himself so inildJy, if tlieae Jcivish 
ChriEtiat« liad ventured to condemn othei-a who portooic 
pf foijil wbidi they held to bu proliibited I In this cnw, w« 
iDUBt aupjioae it to bo Ilia opiition of tUesn Jewish Cliriatianfi, 
timt tho Mosd« law whs binding on Gentito Ciiristiaii«, miA 
that without ita ubiiervanoo they oould not hv portAkera of 
the lungdom uf God. itut v-e liiiow hon- emphitticully I'aul 
Always GX{ireE8ed himself againat Ibost who maiutaiiicd encli a 
Büntimciit, and in doing so, invalidate his doctrine of Justifi- 
caticii by tHith alone. In additioa — luiU on this point wo 
must lay still greater weight — Paul oihorts the strong in 
Giith and the unHumpDlous to take into conxifl^tratinn th« 
n^oOBBities of the vnek, mid nitbui' Ui retain. ü»m food, whidi 
from the stamling-iioint of thmr owu cotivictiun they could 
fiartaJie of without soi'ujjle, thmi give offönoe to their w»uUtor 
brcthrcQ. Hut how would it agree with, the priuciplc« of thin 
apostle, that he sJiould advise the Geutiia C'iiriKlian« t»J initko 
web ft «on«c«»ion, by which they would piiictically have 
reeoKnised for their vv/u standiug-point the ob)iga,lory fvKv of 
Itbe MijBiiic law — since he was more wont to lu^e on tlie 
HjiMitile L'hrißtintis not to give plncü tci the Jiidnizers, who 
Iwisdicd to compel them to the obs«rvanco of tho law, bnt tf 
ImainlAin thi-ir Chiis^ltau fi-cedom a{£aiTi»t them. In foci, 
^thöre was no ground for such an eshortation. The Jewish 
[Cbriatians had no oaufie to he utiensy, because the Cüntilti 
fChriNtinna did not Ironble t he nwelves about the Mumic lami 
apeftiii(£ food. By the stipulation ooiicluded by thn apo. 
toiio tx'Qvontion at JcruNilom. thoj' wcro est at liberty from 
VOL. 1. 



ty&y aacb restriction. It this g%ve oQhioe to the Ji 
Cliriiiliaiis, tbo offcuou wua unuvuidiibly fouodod in tlic 
gelicai truth itaelf. 

Wc mii«t tluTrüfonä think of Bomotbiiig oonttcctod iudoca 
with tiie reli^^oiui sl.andiiijf-pmtit of tbe Juduixera, liut )-et 
aotnetliintj si.'ptmiblu from tliy ol iBpnunw of tJic Mosaic law, — 
«onufihiog tlmt witli more iipjHatr.iuce of juatiee Üiu Jewiili 
Chrietmtut tnight roquir« vf their Gcotitv bnithrcD, — »aCDO- 
tliing, ill which a ccpuoGoaioa to the weftknG« of nihcra id 
be Jomonded of GontUe Christians, «rithout cocrooching 
(heir CUrietitiu fVoedom. This oould be tioLliiue «Lse 
abHtitining tVom thu Üeeli uf luiiiDals oScm»] to id<^ C 
thing in ttiiti .-Kxitiou would ugrea witli this ulmic. Tlui 
pastogo woul<i littTC a meaning npplicahlc to tlw cirtnii 
HUucea of the timas, if we KiipptiHti thu»e |ier»onit U> \>ts 
of who, in cei't^n casee, would rather abetAin ultoig^ther 
Miima] food, eumI eat only berbf, ÜiEit th^y might miknoviDj 
be in (langer of catiug something unclean and defllittg, 
flesh of iduleitroiiB eacnficcs. In v. 3, Paul prencnt« tl>e 
tmst in the extrome point; on the one sido, a strcugth 
fiiith whioh proceedfi hu Sir us tu Imuisli iiQ eczuptcs 
the «njoymcnt of f(>od, and on the other äde, tite citremc 
Hcrupulonty, arising from weaknc^ of &itb, which woi 
rather eat no meat what*iver, in onier to aroid the danger 
eating the flesh of animalä otiered to idoh). Kow, it if» ot^dent 
huff Paul could sny, thnt !f nceda he, it wouhl W Ix'ttor not t<* 
cat deah, nur to diiok nine, rather than di«tui'h the o.4>- 
ik-imic« of a weak hrothcrr. Wo need ouly recollect that iht 
haathcn« uccompnniod tlieir BocriüceB willi liba.tions;' that ih» 
ttviQ« Buniplcs which i-iiMtu<i r<;latlve to tho muat of the ant- 
(iuua, «oixld a.lflo aiiae in relereace to th« wine of tJie lihfttJoiU 
But that the iipuistlo hmi not. Qi|)ns>Mly ineiitiotied the Hcn- 
tices, caji iu our opioiou occiieioQ ao perplciity. He had in 
yii.iw only such rüadere tis woiJd id our« timk-njtaud from lit 
wui'da what he meant; bo iu ordinary Icttters, nimiy thingi «» 
u<>t atated in dctuil, becaUE« it ie prvminicd that tlie pcnsoui 
to whom they are addressed peifeotly understand Um aÜiuBOM- 
Wo must tliereforo coaooivo thu ntatu i>f a&irs in ttil 
church to have hoen ainiilor to thst in the Ooriothiou, «hict 

' Sac Ihn Miilinah In the Ircntl tr^i tt^|^ on Idotatroiu >a 
c IL f 9, «n:. äaraobiu. ?. iv. 898, Sal. 



we havü ulnadjr Doticcd. Sorao gave OieuasoWas no coi cem 
about the iiyiinoliu» »gii.iiist iiihU offcreil to idols, liku Ilia 
5*e-tiiiiking Cijriuthians. anJ ridiouleit tlie amTipiiiwritj of 
the Jewish Chriaüansi others, on tho C!>atmr>', considered 
the eating of sueli foo(l iis absohildy sinful, aud bt'iue iJtvssol 
eentcnoo of coudetnuatiuii on those wlio vtintured to eat every- 
thing without distinotiou. Tbua also some were still U» 
much accustomivd to consider certaiu days as [»eidinrly 
iwcred, according to the Jewbli stundiug-jioiut : lliuso who 
thought more Ircely. OiUd viewed the subjeot frcou the pars 
Christian standing-poißt, wen dlsposeii lo make no rdi^ious 
diffcrcnoe between one day aiid anotlier. Such a state of 
things as Ulis could only «xiat iti a coininuiiity wiiiuh \nm 
fonned similarly to the Corinthian ciiurcL, wliicii consisUid 
of a majority of Chmtiaos of <!!eiitile descent, hut with an 
additiou to the arigiual inaltTials of a rabc>rdinate -Jiiwiah 
eletneDt. ' RtuI bQgina liia eiaioitation, witiiont [larticulnrly 
(lesignatiRg the persons lie nddrcssed, yet having chiofly in 
view the more fi-ec-tbinkiiig Gentile Chi^iatiftue, whitli alsw 
euafirnis the notion, timt theso ibntied the main body of the 
churdi. He dodarca the etandiiig-poiut of those peraon« tc 
he correct tu theory) hut as in tho linst epistle to thv 
Corinthians, he censures the wnnl cif Christian love in thern, 
who «o little rogaided what afTected the welfare of llieir 
weaker brctlircn, and witJi that defect, the miaappreheubiuii 
uf Christian freedom, wliich wes shown in their laying siicli 
great Btre« on whnt was outward and in iteelf indifferont, a» 
if tha Irue ^'ood of Chnstiiuis c^meisted tu such thhi^ Juätuod 
of hutnt; something grounded in their inner life, which woulil 
rumain neciu-e whether they oodld ubc or not use tiieM^ out- 
ward thinfp*. Tho piiiti I -i [nation i>f tlie kuifjilom of God 
t^onNiRtcd not in meut and drink, (the true fioMsessitins and 
jirivilüges, tlie iruv freedom oftlie mvnihitrs uftlod's kiiigdcirn 
coBsifitsd not in eatiu^ or drinking this or that, outward 
things in ^uenü being signified by this ejprosKiou.) but in 
tlw jjartictpalion of those hnavt-iily posscsajuas uf the inner 

I man — nghleousneae (in the t'auUuc sense, the desi^iation uf 
' li HirtneB wUli llii« vkw, Ihnt in Ruin. sv. 7 (a pHswye eloicly ma- 
ncctcd »ritll whni (tn« hcfore), ihe siibjoct is (lie aercunieul K'twci'D 
OantlU Tiivl Jewiili CliriKLijiii» ; noil l.lial Paul in fc.mi. vi. 17. wnrn« 
UtecD of Ihc iFaroinon Jiiilal7.crc, who bj ilie uprpiid of thelc princii>lM 
•Dd«avoiir«iJ ki ezeiU (UriitiUDi ia «nah laiisil cburoha» 



TAtTL's LA« lotmiwr TO nmuMtK». 

tti0 nliiilc rclntion in which tlit> tV m'^nuif i/k>"0( el»xiätl\ 
Gull,) t.lie ln;avuiil^' pcuut; flowiiiji from it, llie hiipiiinas 
til« diviiic life, Küia. xv. 17. He recomnieuda mutunl fn^ 
bc-iuitiioi! iinil iovK In tnith ptutiRH, thiit no one isJicvild jud 
uiiot.her, Imt t^acli one »houltl Aeek to be well ^rotiiultHl in 
own GüDirictioiiB, (knd a^t accordiiiglj; but that Uu- 
iiuiliiri! ill l.'hriHiiiui conviL-tion iiliouJd oondewwnd to 
uUinding-point of tlioiv who «ere not eo fiir adraiiix-d, aiiii 
tuorc is roqiiirod from the etrong thnn from tho weak. 

AfV'r Piiul luul apiäut Üit«» muntlij lu Äi:Iiaiu,1x: tnah^dl 
dofuiit with tiio aums coUcctod for the poor Chmtituisi 
Jij^ni«alcin, tmil thiu to clnM his ftpoEtolic ministry ia 
Eaut.' This plau was wisely formed bj hitn, aiid tlii« hie ] 

* Thnneli 1' ngne far the miM piirt vith Dr. SuhnnekonlMirnT 
vliftt h« M7B 4ln hla «oTk od the AcU) on tb« inienUoo of lliu li 
ioumcy to Jcriipalcm ; ;ctt 1 cunnot cntirtlf mannt U> what Im tklsb 
luHy Iw dcducvJ rrom tb« hüuuob uf th« Aoüt on this roUceüoD, ud tla 
olgoct of ibiB joumrj', in Gtrour of itt« h^oihcuia wbicli W im 
Mranutiil. I uust kIho avuw lujfwvlf uuptw»] u> 1>t. Bauer's vlcn. «bo 
In hU Euuij' on tlio ßomunii, and bii DiMcrUitloD on Ef>t«o«f>M7. 
wdMTiniTa lu «huw i.lint tiiu nuilior uf the Ai-i> iniKteprcoontta tke 
boU, and ut thi-m In a t»\t« hgin. frtm * wmMeA, lipolo^tti 
tiou ; see 111* review of Dr. ScbncckcnliDi'gcr in Itac Jahrbaekj 
■Ktiedui/Uirlie KriUL Matth IS*]. Ttiuee two crilloi are nil . 
the onijüiioii of n tronmction of to much imimruincc in Lbe hi 
cuuuuxiou of ev*Qt*. awü hen« believe. ihnX thty ntutt flu 
■iwrisi ronton {«i it In lb« ohjort n-hlnli tha natbor of ttie jldi 

iiMMl tu Iiniu4.>ir ill tcTUtiif* hi« work. Ai heuudtqKMcd Xatmmt 
pioftiiK^o of f.ho coniiimeil divUion hoiwoon th« Jew« utA f^milli 
t'hrUli.Mi«, tnd nhvij-i repraieou only the Jew», tad not IImi -' 
OiriHtlHim, lu niKcrnuiriiiH of the ai^ontta, *a hn coald not niMiU' ,. 
thing nhich tnieht totii)' atninat hii sBumplion. or tbit oivd ai^ 
•vrvv III l<vw>u ih« o|i piiul ticiii which liu k^t-l >iiit •-'( h'lj^ht ; and bcoct b 
could nux repmecntihiBliut jounicj of I'uul in iU Iruo llgbt. H»d »t 
rMiJjnri t" vxpM'. in tlili. «^0 of iho i-hiitvli, » compTiihoiuivr tuMonnl 
rcprcncnldtion cxpUlmng the cnuac» and codduciod «f flir«Qt«, if lb« 
AcU) won ttie apifcaraiice fl' aiivh a worli, Lad It« author beca > Chni- 
tlnn ThiiiiydidsH nt I'nlj'biu»— wc might then have odmlHod lbe Ute- 
enns.lhatultherlie wuat loo ^raut a distanoo from the i^rvntji wku* 
«nytliinKaf tbü collMlion. <ir nf the n-jil ohject of thiM^oaroey, or Unl 
owing \o a one-eiiled biFu<. bu had ooDii'locist.T or unpoiu^iauvlv bUlM 
the hUWry. But me\\ a Bliili^smntiliki! point of virw, which' ootid b» 
formed onl^ vhrtv the (l(^v0lo;imvtit of (.'venU cnnlil be tttrrpjcil <dlh < 
«srlniii I'slinnc«« uf mind and a |ihitoiiH->phi<.- inlcreAt, wac toUllj brilfl 
to tba RUnding-poiu'. uf Cbiiiliuii hittory hI lliin limtt. and ocpcriaBf 
tn tliat of tho AcU. It cihniiiU r>f mcinoliv aa tho aMlLor i(a*c i1iM> 
from tho uDurccs of iiif<ti'u;attoD witliiii bie r«jch, or troB kU jn 


PAO>.*a LAST s-ica^Et TO JBaOS^EM. 


Moaroey to Jeruaalatn with the cullection ia to be viewed as 
mdrkiiig IUI upotiti in Ihu ilvvdopiiK^t of t'lia cliurali, whcso 

importance we must cousuter more cldsely. A jaar had 

ilAUad Htice he ImH with gi-eiit xeiA. set. this coUection. on fcnit 
wnong thä diiu'cliea ff (iäutils Ciiri^Liiuus id Asia ttuA 
Enrol», and it was of iiiiportaiw« to him that it slioiilil he 
Vvry jirudnclive. He hai oLi'äaily wriltou tu the GoriiiÜii-uj 
churifb. I Cor. xvi. i, tlmt if this collection equalled his 
«isluK, be would oaavay it liim&elt' to .leniRalt^tii. It wn» 
[ certainly not oieraly his iiitoation to aaätti tho poor of th« 
viiuruh at Jerusalem, iu their tempoml neueaiütics ; he bad tiu 
j object Htill more impurtaat for the devslupm^nt of the ctmch, 
|ti> efFüct a miliciii cure of thu bruuih butwecu the Jewish »nil 
I the Uentile Christiana, »nd t» soal for perpetuity the unity of 
[ tlw uburuh. As the iinmerliat« power of love can effect more 
heal the »oliiaiu of ajuls. than all fonual conffireuaes in 
hfavonr of imion, so the minuifr iti whioh tlie Geiitile churches 
Levinced tlieir love and gratitude to the Mother church, woulil 
accomplish wKnt had not yet lecn atl;i.irieil by ull fttfempl* at 
uuiuQ. Punl wiulied. üiiae he was acuuiu^itiuied to Jerusalem 
by the nicsaengE-iii of tliese cburt'hi'S, who pmctically cputm- 

» dieted the ehnrges dissöminatad i^inst him by his Joirish 
iron I lee t inn. vrithmit follnwing any dcGuit« plan. Ho muDUonii tbn 
Jul Jounie? of l^iul td Jeru-Ukk't», en sivouiit uf t!ie s(!riuur< aon- 
Hijueavea t^ ihe a[iuetle himself, witiouf' roflcninig' fitrl.hur on hiü tibjor^t 
ja DDdertahing ir. and [irobulily jmns^A omr ilie aotl'ci.ion an lieini; in 
tb&t Haw tlniiupaii'tJuit ; hia ipt^rc^t would b< eii^i^od hy oihcT ot-^f^l^ ^ 
tnä rftfloi^tioiiiL wliivfi wcriiM only ^ri^^cnl, tiiuiUHolvrH friviTi a roiii]]rT?]icQ- 
■iv« «urtFj of liiitnrj', irould ba totjilly ub»>ut froiu hii ihoiiElita. Yat 
tliia hoiiutirul (^nUiiCCian mlglit lie Initlnded unii»!^ ihn |'r»i.-lli'»I ginxirn 
■liiuh Pwil ^vs (.let« xil. 10). t>t (he iiui*ce»i of bin iiiJDUtr^ ninong 
' iho OontllDi ; why nhoiild ha huve been intentional I j nilcnt leiiiK-i'tltig 
1(1 If lie could «y «lirit i" luonl")iiutl iu timl. |i!i«iu.(w, without iujury 
» ÜK dcxlfcn iiiiputi:il to htm, couM he not alio uy. The prwbylvra of 
he churvti il< J^tuiuIuiu pml»cd UuU I'or kludliuif ■uuli itaUte brotbarly 
IT« in Ibc hiaila uf ihu liutluviiig Qtiulilcs. Yi:t tlie niithor of th« 
UtM, by bu account In eh. at. v. 21. nnpIiM thu coni.liiut.'d unmiiy ul 
lie Jewiiti C'hrtiiiiuu ntpiinst Paul I do nut kk. thcrcrore. wlint 
Iconld h.iTF inilMi'oil biiii di'i^l^ncHlly to hnve Mif)|ireHwl enilirr fMi:i« 
PKlatiiii; to II. Iu fuulc dufviu'D in Al-Is xxiv IT. llivr« in ticludl.v hii 
lHiiBi:>n to ihn colUn'tinn. whk'h tbtirtfon? the mitlief nnnlii niil hars 
|liiTcn<l>}<l TO miicfiAl. B»t \t the AcU biid ))«i>n a eonnei^ti;«! hi' lory, or 
n.-»7r,it!w from on« bühmc, thi« ftiillrdi"!!, thnt li orily mi-nliono"l 
(I'llnidiUy. muiit kLTs b*WD recanled uuliar in it« i<Uoc in tha rtjju'u 
I of cvcuta. 


tivVi uar rovMTET to rajJULsai. 

AQil Jiiiluidng advctmrins. — that thi: proöfe of Ute 
thiKin;; and aelf-iuorifidn^' love d the G«nt.ilo 
elujiiM Mcrvn n» cvtilciico to tlio Jetcifh Christiiu). 
iiiil)il;*d prcjudws agiiiiiftt Ilium, i.>f wbul could be cfibctod tij 
the preauhing of the gospel uidepeiid«atly of tJic Iaw öl 
MuMut; ao ttmt tlici^' wnuld be obligod to itcknoirletW tliv 
opdutioD of God's Spirit among tbeee, whom Üwy liud gjinijs 
\mD iiidi!«pc«(id u> nj(»!ivo as brotbrvn i» the fiiitb. P^ 
hinieeir pliunly indi<M<es this U) Lave bwii h» clitcf object in 
thia iMjUucti'oa und jouruey. (2 Coi'. ix. Vi— 15 ;) tbat not nuly 
this Bervice of love miglit relieve the waiito of tlie ChriBti«» 
ut Jcruadom, but that tnany benH« might be excited to pi- 
titude to Codi wbou the^ eair huw ibu iaitli of Gentile 
Cliristiajis had verified itself by this jiet of kindness, thi^ 
would leel comjiolled to prcÜBe God for tbi« pnicitcnl testitanij 
to tho goq>d, and througb tbe maimer iu which tbo grace it 
God had sbovD its «Sicacry among th»m, tioing filled «ith 
love to them, they wouii uiake llim objocl» of Üteir inter 
ccHBionB. A reui|)T>^cal commuiiion of pTojRr in thankiviriOR 
and interceoaion, was alwava coiiEtidered as the mark and ecu 
«f gutoine ChriBtiuQ hrotW-liood ) ho therefore vialied t» 
briiig about t^aeh n union of hniri bi^twi^tni the Jewiah and 
CSeatilo ChristiiLDii. before he extended bis labours for tht 
ejM-ond of the church in other land«, ho vne nnxioiui for tbc 
flocarity and stability of the work of whioh the fooodadon 
had heuD ulrvady litid; but which nas (-xpi.i!ed to tbe greaMt 
danger en the side of that enrlieat ooatraTersy, «faicJi wai 
ul-wiiya threatening to break forth ngnin. 

Yet it all depcudod on thia, wliethcr tbe apostle of the 
Gentiles could euccoed in carrying hix wi«>ly formed plan att» 
effect ; he was well awat«, ivbut hindntncea and daagm 
ohstTtictc^ his progncffi. It was quwrtioriiblc whether tie 
pijWBT of loTO would sunceed in ovaroominfi the nnrrow-bekrt- 
edness of the Jewish spirit, and induct! tho Jowish T'hriilliaM 
to recelvo a« brethren, the Ueutile broüirea irho iiooompaiutd 
liiin. And what bud ho to exuovt IKmi tlw Jens, wttenh^,, 
after tliev had hvaid so nuoii of his labourn tunc 
Gentiles, which had excited their fiuuiticnl bn.ircd, — | 
appeared among them ; if lie who in his yotilli 
known ng a. scaitMn champion of THiiirimisin. was now 
•Aoornjnmiod by nucircumuised Qeutitoa as mcOHBgors 



' ^iitilfi cinirchcs, w)iow equii] hirtliHght for tb« Uugdotn of 

' tlic Mi.-ssjaU lio Kealously advoca,t«d ] Fully alive to the 

diflicnltiMand dangcre ichicli lio nmat ovBToarae in order to 

Rttam Ilia groat ol.'jeot, he mitreuWJ the Itoiuaii Obi'iBliaiis for 

tlieir interoL'SBory pmyers, that lie miglit ho dolivi-njd from 

tlie unlifilievors ämoiig tin Jfwe, and thiit this HErvice might 

, bo «ell njccived [>y the ('hrialiatisat Jeniaalem, that he might 

roome to tb(.>in from thcuuc with joyaadberefreBlieilby thenii 

llUmi. s.v. iU 32- 


>tBB nrVB USD 1.A8T JPOkllBT OV Um, V> tmOBiLXll—ttS nmicuTB 

oaiisiqu«iicu~iiis ikj-mbokiikiit id rAiKtrurR. 

After Btayiiig; three months in AcLnia, Paid depurted from 
[Corinth in the spring of the year 58 or SD, about the time of 
Jewish I'uBsoTor. His ootnpauions went before him to 
, and he first Fisitcd Philippi, where he joined Luke, who 
bad been Wft tlioi'o uome timo before. As ho earnestly wiahi>d 
to Ix) in Jerasiilem at the Peutecort. it wns necessary to 
haistm hiajouruey ; on that ncjcouut he did not ventnretogo 
tft Efthcxiii!, but w?nt from Milctna for the övcrB^era of the 
Ephc«an chiircli. n.nd )>robably tliuso of other nuijchbouring 

I Asiatic chiir(:hi.'A,' to uoine Ix) liin), tliut in tlio antictpiitiun uf 
I ' Wc CMinot rodi'-liiiin witli cpiwlnly I'ram I*aiil'ii Tarciri'tl nililn-«» In 
Ith« ovvncmi uf ilia '-liuri:li. whioli In gii^n in tlm äütli uliuptcr of Ibe 
Av^t^, tbat Ihi ovBrTccm ol' nthpr ehuiflii» In hrjwcr Aila, lieslilüs tliiwc 
lof BplmuH. "wre pni«iii on iliut ««(mtim. Tlio wunt« in Acta xx. 2Ö, 
\4r nil iiüABfiv, mxy farniir this (iippa*iiion. vinca iliey «irnni.e rtibar 
.tmtt-llliij; tliTDUi-li a ccrijuu diKirii'i, tliriti ii iMtitiuuiMl rofii'lent^e ia one 
.vloeo: but thufe Totvlf uiuy i^l^n 1ii> fuirly uiiflt'KtoacE of the apnetlc'ii 
jUwura Id dillt'TOnt purls uf llpliMU». imd i.iiu vLdiw be iia.ld to the 
konMi of the |ircvli_vi.cr9. 'fhc atnguki- tIi ULif^iav. r. 28, W. laid« us 
to thiuk Dit«t tiutursll; of uolj cav c'lurub, though it niHj 1hi here need 
eollcctlTcly. nud iiiidude many ciiuichct. It b wortliy of notioo. thut 
Jtwii»iih Kj'fhlluM it f^ 1.1m iivorHitiTr« oftllKtinct. fihtin;hifR. und dpcakri of It 
in v^ry 4:1^*ci^1fllI Lluituji^'- " In Klilcto t^onvocnliA DpimN>|»U ct prünby- 

IMri«. qui citiiiT. all Kjilioo, il j^lu/uir jinjjiinui crU'/alihiia." Iti. ::. 14, 
I 3. Juilein^ from ihu vIiiinK]t<.'r of trtfiiaus and hi« timn, it in ii'it 
MolioblE tbu he vniitd ba iDiluccd timpl^ hj thiU c:(pr(ii'alon tn Faiit*' 


tAvCa TJJawKLT. xtamtxs TD Tm 

tliu grcnt (Idugcre üiut nwalud liiui, h& mxphx pour forth btr 
heart to tliem perhaps for tlie lust ttnie, and iitt«* tiie guirtititc 
wonl» of fiitliorly lose' Wu rvcogniw in tbia ikrcw«!] ail- 

■wUIrDK. to clciklc from lliii hUei uf Iha immlii« in tlw A«tA. RtoM 
iv» mkekl rhliier i>u(ip<i)ie, Ihtit Iroitaus *u äiäAti in ^iviujc a dtflbnu 
rcf-iMobtnticrii by liiitori<^ftl Iradittoni or ilociiuiriiiii wiih wlitch ko bal 
biMUiae u«i|uaiiilri1 in Lui«»r Atik. Yut (bi- bias at Ih« epUcopd 
•j'slom (which "w Ihi'ii fcnn'iiuitiog^ mi;;,-ht pcrhajM of-ckaion k dlOitmil 
Ouiittnivtiuu uF ilip g>iMN<K"< iluiu tli« iili-rnt ruKrnUrc koiiIiI wairaot. 
Indcjiciidentlj- or nn^ tnuliüon. PauI nppllc* l» llw prob/len tb« 
•!<;iU(iOl MaKO-ntii lion ih viiiild iiul llipii bv aurpriiitig to fii»d lilt 
•irJoKOirai (i«igimlud probater«, Im Ih» latter iiatuv wo« *lJll Qu 

Itciiviio Mini li) nliii')] liiiili iiii^bi. I>» ilviiiii«>t, but lite cuoio Arbwra 
viu iilrendj- cicluNTtlj apjiliod W ;bo dm ciiiireh cuvtmom, tlic pfD 
ni!i;uLa uf ili<^ ujllvuij uf ]'n:Hbj[ci«. I^Iuit, llii^u. tve prcKioMl on lb) 
Kiipf'nmtion i.biit thin iiinLitutinn of chun'h ^orviDitU'Dl irsa tlio Siai 
fi'iiui (bu bc^'iuuiii^i Ti'c iQuxl bcnee cuticluilu fruui tlie name «*f#mni 
tliu;. ilin bUliiipa ii( otbrr rjiiirclim kucv prffn'mnt t.tiik uieoUnc 
benct Ireuwui uije crpretsly "tjAxoin» oi preKtJftcri«." BbI if 
Biimit iliiLt thit iti«<tltngr coaninicd nt the OTcnitMtn of tkc nri< 
ohDNhH in LeHtT Aula, tbo A Ikkpado; Wttreon tbe Ibro« yean, JLi 
sr. 31. uul tlic two yean und tlirci^ oianthi. (A Ika duntion cii IV 
st«y at EpIicouH, Mwuniiiij; t« l.iiku's lumallvt, woald i;«a*cf Uif 
might tlicn Kujipaihe. that l''iut. bcfaic he vcot lu KiiliMns, aiK«!! bB» 
uiuatlii in otliDi plncw of Ln-wr Ariu. nberc he Toandod cbarilu» 

' ]h-- nincrand Dr. Schnci^bcnburgnr IhinlE I hat it i.'aa hotit.or.. 1I31 
thin udilrva in the ^Olh cb. af tbn AclBwui nutdcUvi^md by I'aul .lii^ 
pri'«'iii Uixta, liiit llial It wu> fntmcd by the auiliot of tbc AvU, I'O tbt 
suiuc pl.iu on tbq uliiilv of hi> lilvUn'. utcvrdiiig to Uie CouctltttoriipO' 
loKcllc tciiilcocy ittnad; noticed. We would not iuiked pledge o)^ 
wtvca tliat Hid nddrattwiu token down uthitil ilelii-ercd it. with uOtiBl 
BCGU racy— but that it bu Inch &lthfb!ly reported in itj. ciK«niiii no- 
tenia, auil thiit »u outline of It wu in ulsteiii» enrlirr tliau lb« sliili 
of tlie Ant«. Not r<u\y (to wci tinil notU&c la it utiidi doM iu»tat 
reapunil to thi> Dituritiou aud Ti^elitigx of tlie apod!«. t>iii it nit« motMlii 

Kcvpnd iiiurli-i »i iii>t \m\\\ji ftnA In tho MDie liiould aa tbo wjiole of Ai 
ApIi. .imoiit; thcuc oarki wu ceokon the mcnti-nn of the tb«« >ci» 
whk'li i<uiui tiol »(rn:u wiUi the rcokoliiiin la tho Acta, the Uiraii'ii ■' 
ti-aaliini; " frimi housi: to bonaG.'' t. 20, und of tbo TComlBe voio« (J ' •> 

!ira|ilii:lA. v. S3. |Si;tm«ckRiihuTS«T, ludt-nd, coitKldiira tbu 10 lie > ■•n> 
epfliii, uud Guii* in il^ a murk u( noo uripnulity : but U is not *l til 
improbable, Lbnt already in L)ie cliurcboi with vhüin Pan) luif myed, 
be had niuuivcil w»riiiii^ «r th« dnnj^n ihat tbnalcncd him fron \\n 
ftuuttlcnl mgc of tlic Jcw.i, though Luke who dt'l not accomMny fM 
eveivH'bere, has not uvmioiioil lUia iu hU briof iinrtnlivo). B^ide^« 
Fol, speaking of a hitrbir iicci:')si1.y. by nhlcli ho felt compelled ■»{• 
to JiiröNilfiii, '■ bound 111 h|iiril," ««luiiy iufcr 111!« Jmirncy, nDd>> 
tukeu fcir »hut Im cnnjLidiTni thn wiirh committed to him by the Lnid, 
knd » grraior «i^tficAiice ami imiiuriniice. tu appcftna rnxn Ih« eipb- 
BMIou we Imvc ^Ucundy g\\mi, but whiuh if not ta rtpreMntt«! inüi 



drcsi, iü wliicb Firnl'i beiut. thorDugblf intbuod vitti tlic lovo 
of Chriftl, eiproKfies irifif iu so uilbotiiis; n, inouner, hia 
^hcrlf anxioty für die chtiralios, wtioee ovcraoons hctiril his 
^v'ariiiiig vuiw f'>r Ute litsl time, and wbum lie naa about to 
U«ve »t a time full of sad and darft foreboding, vfliea maiiy 
dauern tit run («tit» ! pure ChrUtiaiiity. 

He Cßuld not forcwe with oprtninty what conMcqiienoen 
would rcHiiit ft-iini hi» jtmnu-y to Jonimlem, for these de- 
pended on a comhinatiuu of circuniHtnuo&ii, too iiitric&t« for 
any tuisa» wigucity ti> iitiravel. ßut yni houuuld not bo 
tum ware of wlmt th« fannljciü rnge of the Jowisti Kcalota 
tlirmtened. nml whut it might perjietnitc, imdcr tho malad- 
loiiiiBtratiuu of ibo worthloa» I'rocumtur Fl-Üx,' who com- 
btni^ tliu nuMiiin.'.-ii of ii sinvu witti the cupric« tif a tyrunt ; 
at JenisaierQ, too. where Might prevailed a^iost Ilight, find 
aMOKiiin» (th(! notoriouB Sitnrii) .icted iis the tofls of any piurcy 
who were lM»e otiou^b to employ tJiein. In tiie clmi'chts 
«rbti'li he luid visited on LiBJoiiniGy hither, many imbvidnnla 
bad WJiriifd bim in inspired liingua^ of tht' danger tbat 
thrcatoii(?<l Iiiiii ut JeruKalem, and tbereby ctiaßmied whiit 
big (iwu ]>ri«C'iiliments, as well us hia &«giicity, lod Iiim to e\- 
iwct, similar to tb.0Be sad aaticL|Mtioii8 nniclL he 9spoct<id 
vbcu be was hust at Corinth ; tUna. xv. 31. 

There ore CHpcoinlly two waniinga dud cxhortatiom relative 

If lilt« (uMntn inrliualm thut !t wiif iliiUn^nul Wrui« lUlf^lM 
varioui Atinilc churchci. wc mny alio numbo tliis nmoug Iho 
marks, noi iluii. w« wmild »Until t'ljiml wwlght lu nil ihL-*o marlin ; liut 
taken ci)llci;tiTc1<r, their tcitimon^- uppcam lo prove nuniL-lhiiLg. AuA i. 
I<uk.> lijvd tmfiirD lilin 9.11 iuirlii<r wiül.i.-it üraH iiC l'uiil's »Idrou, uun- 
laiaiai: ih« prwc-utinivtit huctprvniud of hib iuipi?ti(lin^<!vulJi, 1 ilu uuC 
ece bow any on« li ju»;lf!e<l in luuintiuiiiii); ili^t l'unl mul<( D'^l h»vc 
utltreil U, in ta.1t iliU a.uiici]PU,i.iuii IijuI iiui- hecn fulfilleil, A«;urüitig 
to truth. I)i> miisli have ntlowcil him In vjx^nk u liniacl.iiill}' upokr. lint 
it MuM uol lie Huy <i|tlk-ully lo Luke o( l.u [he {iuiüolih fur wlinin tliii 
tnomiiir via in ifio finri {iWu iMgiii»!. If n prcstviititii>;nt of Tniil'» 
riwpectlne hin impcmling bte wa.4 tiüI- tiilälli^d in 'U full ^xiont. In- 
fiiUibk fiircknnwlndjfc of future evcntt vm fertninly. ocspriling to llift 
Clirii>tinn iilctt frf Uml ag<; iinl ninimg l.ho laarkf uf a, ^«nuini; B.po'dfl, 
and tic cQOtmry is ritlior implied in Paul'i own wctJ", v, ^2. Hi- 
»Iimki bi ft AAiiiaohnt tliililnii' tunc nf (lie fiti« ilint awBitiil Uim. Wlia- 
c*Bi tni^lit liuvo forged aftur diu u^-piit un lulilri-s» iif Puiira, would liavu 
Bi.tdn liliu iiic-Ak in a very dlflereul and moic (j«'i<led tone. 

> Of "bom TuciluM »lyx ; " Per omiimu fWiiiiuiu au libtdmcm Jut 
K^um wrrill ingcnio utcnmit." Uttt. v. &. 



to the future «bioh ho aiUrcn»! to IJie ororsBcni »fJ. 
church, anjl nnforeod hy dio exa>n{>lR of hi« own laboui« 
during llireo yvaxi rendenos ntnoog them. He fitrcMUtv, 
Msi tcttcbeis froni obUer parts would iiiuiiiiiiUv tlicinwl 
into thess ehnräie^ aod tJint avmi among tliomiwK-eit 
would oj-iae and gnin miiu}' oilheraittK, Hr rxhorti tlieni, 
tWreforc, In vratcb that tbc doctnne of salvatim wliicli )ie 
bud faittifuUy ptil>1is^ied U« Uiom forsolougaporiodmigbl I« 
preserved in its purit;. The falee teadiera vrlicm )ve bvre 
pcnntod out were mval probably dtotiiiot from the 
«oniiQon Judai^n ; for in ctiurcbes in wtiinli tlio 
Christian, that. in. the Hellenic «ilotnriit.' so predo: 
in iliOM ^jt Leaser Aaia, auch persona could act b« so 
and partioidnrly wbvu Huch iaim tuacbors were described 
proMedinu froui the boeom vt the church lUeV, it ntxiXt bo 
pr««uincd thnt three hcrcticiil tcnduticic« tnnst have devdoptd 
them»elveai IVum a miitun! «illi Hbriiitiaiiiiy of tJ» inntal 
oletneata olrendy eiisting in tho cinircb. Üi;:ht not Pai 
experienoe duriu}; hia long sbiy in Lcwur Ann, have gi 
him oücwüon to fed thciw anxieties for the futui-e 1 A» i 
modifttdly nftor uinAiiiicing the ditsgcr tba.t thrcaU^ned 
cbuTOh, lie reraioded thum that for Uuree y-Ktunt ho had 
oCEUcd, dny or night, tu wani each one among Litem vii 
team, -wo mny infer that h« Imd nt that timo cause tfaoa 
nddroSH the conscrionccf of tliclr ovorspcre, and to warn 
til) iiupreaHively agtui^ttt. the luilultvmtioii of ChriBtian tiui 
W(i ht>ro SM the fiiKt uiufins indioatcd by the apostle of • 
aew cünAJüt wliich awmtL-d pure l^tnatiiini^'.' At the tie» 

' SebnnkenSnr^-r. p. MS. Mvn* a^lnsl ibia remrk, that t> It« 
(ii^ntile-Chriiiimi (Mätiuu cliitrula-t, Jiiclaitini,* &Ih) teacben eoold ^ 
Anpp Mio grentcn «onriiLiiin : but the iagr^e of Qreci&n enlüratba il 
Ualntttt null at Ephetiit mok«« a differenee hora. 

■ Ah rniiii wlt^kt. in ua<i in thr, li^it. it I» naiä\y wliown, that Vktl nc< 
huTc lii'M iDcli a vnniiuic o[' the propntcatian of nirv jtominiowi 
ClirUtUn trutli tu Im c;>Ilcd for ; no I ma 6ni nogronndfer FUatc'tuJ 
SabniM-ki'iihurKur'« nuiiinpti'in, Ihat tninrtliiiii! i* bar« •tUibMcJ <* 
Paul which he pouM noi imj' ftoin hU tiwn ituiiling'paiiit : nhctticraitt 
Ba.u*r, it i« iwiiuiiK»! Ilin.t •.tU'hn)>rr'|>li*'M'inK I* farmcä nncoHintolW 
Bpptwmn««!! of s latvr pi-riod. or with SchDoekcoburger, thu irut ~ 
proiEiit, whal bad nclunllj fallen niidui Pnul'* nan ikiül'c, in ben ll_ 
mtwd to ttifi fiiiiiriL l<i'hiiiirki.itiTiiir^>r fiDdii lonwtliiuc iattntliHJ 
PhiI'b monlioniiif nnf.liini- n( the ounOlcU vUch be hM MUUilud 

the fftJM Icnulictr». the Jii<!älscr»i utidiu npoakinf; mlv of madio 
wbicb nuuld foJIow hli defiuri.un. Bnt then certainly IhM In 


of ilia address. Paul refers tbcm to the example of dixinlo- 
K-stod and »ulf-dcii<niig love, wbicli he had givea them : — he 
nad requiivd of tliem neitiiev giJd, tmr silver, nor raimetit, 
but aa tlicy well knew, had provided for liia own temporal 
want« mid lliose cf liiu followers by thu lubuiu- of his own 
hands. These words are adniinibly suited to tha close of the 
ttddre^. By rumiuJing the preshyt.era of Üio prockfit of his 
diaintcrpstcd love, luid of his eeal which shunned uo toil aod 
Ho iirivatioa fgr the salvation of snuls, he g»Te gtill greater 
weiglit to his eihortationa. The Sad versa is closely con- 
iieatud witli the Slat, where he reEiitida them of his Liboiire 
among them for their souls, and in both versta he holdi? tiiit 
hia own example for their imitation. Ho 0Ipre83^3 this still 
more cluarly iu the words, " I have ahoived yuu all things (or 
in f;vcry way), how that so kbouriug ye ought to support the 
' weak,' and remember the words of the Lord Josns. ' It is more 
blessed to givo tboa to i"cccive,"" It conveyed the tixhorta- 
tion, that in thu diaoliai'ge of tlieir offims they shi'iild nvnid 
all appearance of acltiahnö«, that they sliould rather t>am their 
own liveljliuod, Olid jfive up their cluim to whitt tijey Iiad a 
right to M pect from the church to which they had oonBcomtcd 
tbtir powum Hu iiiipri'sscd this upon thorn in tho Dioet 

■«rda a Tfrftmnrti in thni viiich ha huA »Irendy luiil by wny of wiiniins 
U> the praabj'tcra. lial lie could &pc&k of (lii'sfi adulUntloos ol 
CtiTinLianitv lA futiir», «mE:!^ hu liud iluUcluil liiuiu in Ihn germ, nud 
their further il«volo|iiiiuut ina at tiral uhccked by iJiu puvttr uS liio pur- 
Bi>nul laflaeaoe. 

I CurtaLnly tiiv liatcwtTi in Acta ex. 3S. are not thuse who acudut) li«lp 
in impiMil of ihfir bodily iianls; in thai, ease, wliv ölioiild not a. moro 
t^cflniie von) 1>G eiikkM N^itlit^T «loi?» I.hi* ooiinuiLim atiil' gui;b mi IhIgt- 
■Üon, for Paul Joob not sny tlint ho lalnrarcd th»t ho might lie able 

iv« (u iliv I'DUf, ur ihti hu uiiifhl siipi^uit kla |ieuj' oiiaociai«i< ; but 

', tho «hnndi toit-bl not, ha obliged la uontribute neither lo Uioni iiur 

Fto hiui aii^ tliiiii^ (ur their iiup(>orl. And ibiu munlfu^tly is order that 

even oi-riiion uiiglit be taken from tlii^ wi-iik. *bo were tiot sulTiiiicnUy 

IvilahliiiliL'rl in CbrUllan prluciple«, who nould lie easily divpowd W 

I enutiui« the aiiniicinn of privittt adviniLtise. TUu u«e ol" iha "ord 

I irtcrJis io 2 Cor. Ki. 20 al^o fsvniirt Ihl^ im.prpreyition, aiui what he 

I AMi^> in both tho Epistle« ta the Corinthians lu the reuona of eu'i^h 

Loanduct. Tb<i4 u1a4 Itila exHorliitiiiii HUndx )□ cloeer cunnexion with 

Iwhut (COcs before . tor if the pntbytcn itvoldud nil iippt^araiice of Bi>ifish- 

ROM, th«/ «nxilil liMvu a finiiur liuld oil tho gcnend ooiitiii-CDOC, und tliU^ 

9k« Paal hiiDsulr in roferencc Lo tho Joduiivre. uoiild more HDCUOanfiiry 

|ll|>p(»e ihn Tnlike icncliei*. wliu o tidäavLiiirad for tlieir own codi to okclM 

liai*tnut of thu esieting toovliere and guidos of llie eburuli. 


FivVi ORT jovwfTt TO jKiremitro». 

'Iclicntu miiniior, siiice be does not nae tlie t-xproai form 
t^xhciruticu, but preeente his example for imitation tmiUr 
»iiiniUr L'iri;iiniHtjuiri?i*. I\iil tudui-J ilccliux» cl^wwlieiv " 
Uic preacbcre of the gospel, aa Cluist büusclf had «--s;- 
it, w«n) »utitkd to nvjcivo thoir iriMiiiU^nnuo? fhiitt tU 
churelies for whose spiritiuJ *tilfare thuy luliuuivtl. And H 
lany a.\}fcai »tiaugc tliut he hvn dupnrta IVvin thU rule, sol 
that Ite kIjohIiI hnre prescribe to all the presbjiftrs what eitc- 
n'liero lie has n.i])i»oiit«(i as an exception arising out of vert 
peuuliiir üiruumntuucee, and its aomettLiog suitui) voly to hn 
individual standiiig-^Kiiut. ' Jiut there ia ft tüÖerence betmen 
tlio ciivuiuntiuiütai of itinMimt miasiuuaries und Hioec ''' *'■' 
nvcTinicrs of cburehcs wlosf activitv at first i« not oo c. 
l)V thitir ))EiAl4.inil duties m» >i pi^vent th^Bir carrjing «u u: im 
tuinic time llieir former seuular omplojniont ^ ukI if they 
tliiiahiliourud withiicIf'«iiioriliciiigIuvu without uny appcanuioi 
uf scltislmias, tlicir aulhority and influence, which woiiiii I« 
juiuiiv*! to cvunl«-aet the fiiluo tcftcher«, would bo much m- 

lu thin whole uililrcttM, ns »iiik^l xiw feeling'» and aim of uH 
who w«i pr&bftbiy taliini; a ln,«t fiirewell of tii* Rpinlual ekii- 
dren, the horiAior^- t'ViD«nt is throiiphfitit |>rt'domm]i- ■ 
wo HUppuM! an ft|ntiifgetic tli-toput, wiiinh is very dm' 
it. is nt all events quite Bubordinate to iho fonnor. It : 
improVmVilc, tlnit wlitii bn spuki- of Liw uwu di*iiitcr«Htt ; 
he intßndod to rojjcl tho acütisi lions of liis Judttizitiy i, . 
hiu'Luh; for tliuugli h« n'liHoWiyit'l to HUüwer «irb chai.,. 
wriliug to thu CoriulliiauB, we are not to iiUVtr lluit » »iir.ll.j 
csoulpatioii cf hiuiGclf hus ruquircd in ul) the chiii^lit.^ 
Willi jfro«tc-r reason we may find iu what he any» of lb« I'urn- 
plcieiic»! of bis teschiiig in the d.K'*-riui™ of snlvatiyu, ii -■''■ 
yufe to the at^onrwtiims uf bin Juditixiu^ o|ipoiifntfi. ot 
WB have so ortau spokeu. But even this is^-ery don 
fur in any cnsu, without nn iipulogetic (lest^i, and feiit.|i:'. 
tsuiti: the pri;sb_vlcrH to ßdtilily tu boldini; ^l the ynw u ■.■ 
trine wbifh tlipy liiid njfclvwl. Int would of iK-cesaity rv'ii. "i 
tlieni bow inijj-urluiit Iil- had fJt it to keep Iwick nothing' :;■ - 
tlioDi that n-ua iitcci'sarv t'yr «livulin». mul [Jiat be *:i- 
fi'Oia bltiruo if, afternll, th^yfiiwuldbe f^iiiityofutifni'li'.'iu:»»- 

■ for wliioh reiu-'iii ävlii>«:;kMllju>ger ttitnk* U liii|irvb>l.'k' ihiii lUl 
■a «ipnsvd hiUiicU ^^~ 

PAVt, AT JEltUftALKM. 301 

Situli an addrefu amiM not Init malio n doep imprveslon on 
thtiii' licarU. uf wbicb wo have a siiujile and »Urikiiig clceorip- 

tum ill tiie AüU 11. 3T, 38. 

^Vlii'ii l\iul arrived nt (_'a>saitft Siniti-ni«. within two dnv»' 

I journey vf Jcruealem, Iiu wus wiinicd of frvsh daoRcrs tliat 

Ihrealeiied liim. The membere of rlie cliiircti anii iiis üom- 

pfttiif'tiK Hiiii&I tlieir that be wtiiild bii ciiri^fid 

vthle life, imd not pt'oce«d (luv l'uxüivr. But though hv was 

ßir from tiie enthusiastic zeal that panted for niartynlmii. 

tliotigb he never i»8),'loctcd aiij" iiiutlimlK of dirirtian pni- 

deiico, in oivlcr to pvcsci-vc his life for the service «f iii» 

Lord aud iff the Church, yet as lie liiiiwelf d6cl:ired, he 

(K'luited his liie (la notbiuff, if required to naerifice it in tho 

ministry entriieted to hirii. fli>«tvti' «niicii a hcEU-t 80 teu- 

Iderly siweentilile, so open to all pure hiiiiiaii eniotiiiii* ak Iiis, 

1 must havo bee« movod by the tears of )iia friends, who luvud 

liiiii &a thi'ir Hpirltiuil fiilbt'r. yet he HufFered Hot his rcsoliuicn 

(to he ahidUTl. but rcsistud nil these iniprcssions, in order lit 

frilloiv the coil of duty; he lelt all (vonts to the will of 

tbe Lord, iu wliieh at last his Cliri*tia.ii br'ethrcn concurreii, 

Tbi; neit d;«y after his amvtJ »t. ,1 urn sali) lu, Pir.iil wilh lii& 
eomiianionit viaitid James the hrother of the Lord, nt whi-iw« 
[10UB6 the presbytcre i>f the chmth were jiKwmblcd, Tbev 
Bteued with grrat iuten!«t to liiä .■iccoiitit of thd dftcl« of the 
If^oapel among the Uentilos. laut Jiimea oaJlod his uttertion 
Vto thu fiuit, th:it (I givat nuniher of Jews who helitvud nn 
Jesun an the Messiah, and were yet aotloua and Btrict 
Dbservorsuf thu Mo*ii(! Iitw, wers jirojudieedugauiist hiui;' for 

' Dr. Biiiwr ba* itl''iuiit<»1 to Hbow, that the words in Ada xsl SO, 
rAr vtmrrtim&'ari', oro a glm», nnd that ibo lev* ticro «pokea of an 
tbosu who tuvl nui ivvui'oiL tlio jpapuL li appcun tu Uim increilitilc. 

Iliat. llic numlcr (if r.'iirintinns niiiuiie tliv Jews, nbu in Inter time» wcru 
[Co'ili'it''' 'o ''"-' -'iiiuU >i^i!(» ol' ilic Mijuriuui anil ti luari'iiOB, cuuld bnic 
bseii t« ff^Ti gri'jil- He liiiiiks, lUnl whal .Imiics aniil wnulil ptrftcily 
Bpply lu Jen« "Lio had not j'ti «mlirHi'ed llie (.'"«iiel, of wIiob» plüU ll 
■ ohoTpil Piiul lo be cuivfiil, sthI wLu ul'tMwardB KcLiiallj' mined n 
mult a^pkiiiHt him. (Iriif^n iiiderd says, Tom. I. in Joh. \ '2, llitit ihe 
pasibcr of bi^licving Jew« in ihc whole Wdrld wouM nol&uiaunt lu •:nu 
buu'lrud iiiiJ ToHj -four UKiuajiud ; tilt from (he times of Ürigrn wn 
Onuot draw an inliTtniip n>ipi-i.'liu^ nn earlier period. Sinte Cl.ri«- 
tiouily Uiul fur .1 long limi! spread so siiee&jifiilly among tho Jswi. tlitl» 
bumlian In t,hp ("iiir".t p( Iwnl;' jt.irs liiigiit \\n\'e iiiofcaWfl in ■Oterkj 
|rri•dl^ ait llr^ciiiii'U» llku>lau iwlifiea lu Iliiiuliiuii ii. -1%, and w« 


tiiuw.' 3 »(ia\xt;rui, wbo uviitj'wliure KDU(;lit to injnr» Fuu 
miuuCiy, bad circalatod ta Jcntaleni Uic oUoree aKaiuM. hi] 
ttint, not (MiiLuuf. wiük nloiudiig tlic Ixiiicviiig Guntili^a tiv 
the observance of the Mu§aic law, he Imd r^uinTi] of 
Jews who lived araung tJiom a»t tv ciiciiincitw their dii| 
and not to obseire the law. This charge, "o brought fo ^^ 
wiu <x.'rtninly fnlitu; for I'mil comliatc^cl iIhi outward ofagetT- 
ttnce of Jmiaiam only BO fiur as the juHtißculiou uud loiavtifici^ 
tiou of mull wcru uuulu to depeuil upun it. It mut bii 

neod not confino tlic cxprcwloii to Jcirs rcf>l<)cnt In J^ruMluni, naee ■! 
lilt I'cuii'oust uiniiy wuulJ bu lnoutht liiiietln-T from tithf.r jian«. Doi 
lUHTi)' o( thxac troUcTinf Jfwi raigbt i\t<i üMiugtütii thciiiKlvcu Dtm 
othdfe. eiiiuptitiii; ty ilje ackuowlorliriuttQl. of Jwiuaji iliu Mouiah. ul 
hcniro wu mi^ iii-i.-ount fur tnunv of them reUnfiiis into Jodkitai. tia 

IntiiuikLiaD tUnt Jamw hu4 mmcil Caul of danger lUrDuteiiin:: lilm 
fnnii tLi« uliWH of J^wm; liiil ht^ nn\j nHjuirHil tlitil tip irould ück M 
Tcguin th« conKdcnua oT dieKu bnitbrcD ID ihv faith, whv in>Te GIM 
wliti iiiiiitniiit Milt suipickin towards hliD. Tlic ciiiiiit>xii>ii of r<nt 8), 
abnolulcly rci|uiroB loa »Uliliiou of rm" ntmartuifjiw, for bow cmM 
Junic* bi? lappoMd to tell r&ul a foot lie well knew ImforehADil, llul (I 
Jvruulem tuoni were ti> inmijr nirriwU cf Jem, who wctd oil waiW 
gtwcrran of the I^mI Bauet m hi« review of ScbDcck^iitiur^fn''« wt 
hMMkoonlcdecd tbit iliieftllvruliun^t tW text ronncilj- propoMJI 
blm, I« uulGniit>Io: bat itticiiipti la nolru Ike iIitTiculiv wUich be I 
beliuvwi tn Clint, hy auctlior uiciliuit iu ooMii--tiuii nub ilie ricn , 
b; himBolf and Schn<:cXeabuit<rJr mncollnE the pi-L-iillar KbuMÜnc-p 
>ad oWtel of the AvU. Hiiurkai truth wan hur« laako bw 
throu^n tho fitibjouiivi; [loiQl iifvkw, iiito vhliih Iho nuihor of 1^ At 
fijrL'L'x evL^ritUlag, ftud m^n her tli,'ht even a^uut hU «ill. 
wisliL'il, forNiHiih. «0 to rDpriuwut ntutUn, lui if, by tfa« atnomni 
n^nod upon hy the nfoni.tiUo RODvcnUoau Jsnualeto. tli« dirfuxw 
between [bo Jewiuli nod Udntilv C'brltibiu bod htcn «etLled. uiil fui 
b.i!iii:»(«rwJinl Iuk! I« •■iHiiliHili, iml Jrivitlj CliriHltnaa, liui aliif 
wUli Juwt. Yet urinal, bis *ill be wu olili;;?i) to gtaiit lu hUl"'>'^ 
Irutli, lliM. ill lb« iiiiii;hiniililon> n^diibt I'aitl iiii liU last rUll I 
aalein, thu Jeniiih Chrltiiuii« Itml tlif priucij'il sluirv. Bat mJ 
opponfld to l!tc point ol view on wlileli ue pmoetiii* ' "^rywbct« I. 
■ubjuudra »acj the ubJuvtWu aru *u iiiinf^luil h; liiin, tlut Uiu Jt 
Cbni-tlaDS bccnmti Jew» again, und bcnve bs i> Itü Uitu ifac ifn 
»rurrutiuL: the uumbeni of Üw foiiutr Uut nft«r nhm hoa Ixen i 
wo utniintr Mceüe to Iho comgclUDiH ur thi* U>n bip 
An«! if thcauüinr had sai.'e ftllowoil hiiiixcif to Jiiiurt 1t<^'-<- 
M 111» »uiijcctivi! poiüt of view, he wuuli! »utclj- luve ■ ■ 
la lliU viäw, &ü<i itn tkl» laitt occiMion vi>itlil have ttn- . 
tlitt calumiiialon nf I'iluI, ngiiiiinl whoiiu faUp ni^-'uwiiif<ik« i,<- •. <i'i lu'V 
to justify bimBelf. He wub luidet no LscowHy by »uob ini.-piiij>iiij(7 > 
tutify a^wiMt hitawlf. 




pniici)^ili^ tiutt no one stbould nJJnqiiü)) t}ic national aiid civil 
rclalk-us ifl which he stcoii at his ccDvi'i^iion, iinlesa for 
important tvusons; iuid ou this priociplu ho allciW'ed tlie Jen's 
to retain tilcir jioviiliaritics, .iinoiig wliiuU w:ts the ulj.iun'iuiov 
of lue Musaic law; 1 Cor. vli. IS. But it coiilJ not fail to 
ha|i[>eii. tliaT^ tliDtw who entered into tlie Punlino ideas uf tlie 
relation of tliu law to tlie gi)S|>elj am! n'ei*e thcreljy fnied from 
Bcinipuloaity la Ibe observance of the former. Wei's led iuto a, 
freer line uf conduct iii this njspüct, ami some might go 
further tliau Paul wlsliod iii the iiidulj.'otio« of thi^ir iticliuii* 
tioiis. Such iuBtimcea u« thi>&e might have givoa oiJtaaiou to 
tlie charge that he hud seduced the Jewish ChristiaJis to 
ralcneo tliemsclvea from the law.' Ae by this aoousatiou, tb« 

■ Dr. SchnEvUcnlinrgar *nd Bauer Ihinl; Uml elm muliimt in wlilch 

tili» ln(iiiuii;l.ii.>n i> luvriUuueU in Itic Acl«, ■• a.n iii>[>uriiiiit cunliriikiitiuu 

or their vUwt of tlio wholo liittary, Thu lumlo of ikIuik licr« astiibod 

to J'liul, apputus Ly Ibeni tolally irrw«oui;itiiWe wjUi iLc priiicijil« li« 

lays down in hi» upiiiilee. .locordiog to Svlincvki'iiburKir, ilic Acu 

wuuiilliu jicutifui«:ii,[mrti^l rcpre«i::iUlintiofan^iiiI ImnMatlim, utiei.clictl 

I «ccordliiK laa«ii)ijuL*iiTC püiDi.or vlevr lying ai lu buL^-ia; acuuntiiik' to 

Bauar, it iruuld Iwültl oalirtly fiil«» oitmUoii mttmr (in thi' opinion 

of the tatter) tliu tiisUifiijul iTuititiility or' the Ai-U musi Ih; givun up, or 

the ithartiet^T of IMul mnnt, ttamt in »a unfuvoiinililc liiflit. I tFJll hem 

cilQ Itiwcr's worili : "If il. wete really äo, oi the autlKT of the \elt 

rupTtaant« tbu fai't. that (lii: apoalle^ .-la fvKairavt rhr yifntr. bunLUiu Ihn 

oljoRt of la lDt«n««ly vdlieoieat [wmei'uliün, with what. i'ii;lit ciui we 

Loppow the bnguogu of the ajwilc to «11 who thinlc tlicy una defend ih« 

|.p«rfoct lil*tnr!c crvdiliilii/ of t.bu Acta in Oul- v. 11, •7^ ■)>, AiiAfHii, tt 

ntpiTOfiiiy tri «nj^iritro-ai, -tt JVi 8ii4k»(ioi ; Sjia ita''flp')Tifai ri n«Bi'8ii\in' loi 

, ■r-ia-upoü, nuil til» auiD« u|i«stli^ nlio In Q<il. v. is diH:lHrct iu eu svltnin 

JA MOC. ^af>T^fjff|iai Si idÄir iroKri arSpaititi'ai, iri itlinAmfs 

tiOTlv t\ar TB» rdfitiv irai^om. (tlieiufori; miiBl, place jiis wholi! trust id tliu 

[law. nnd expect. aalvaUon from ib ulonc,) inii»t Aei;iir(Un^ tu tlie Acln 

{xxi. 2.1) have uons^iit.'d tu an iilI vlwh reprc^^ciited liiui a» a ^u^tbr- 

I ffoi)' vJi' vi/iev. anil liore public t«stiuiony thut, so far from uliiogaiine: 

I the law, he vms raüiär a teacbur of iU vhtt Inugli!, us much a«Dth?rH 

I Ibi« uiiivvreHkl oblignttoti of tha MoBuiu luw nitli all its ordlaaacc«, 

land eupDciiill}' ihai «f v!riiiiiiid>ioii (ixl, '23) Tlmt in Acta xxi. SI, 

[only till) 'louAaibi «qtI ii fflni arc Bpnkcn of mnkos not tho Icui 

I (llffÄToiiiw. Hull t1i(> »puativ iilw) wtnliuil to (Eivti »p no'.liiiiff iVspML- 

[iag llur continual vaHditj' of the low, only ninong tUo Jew« wli&m 

tfao Kuu^lit. tu coiiviirl CO Clirl'ii.iibiiit}', a« l)v pri>■:Iil'^lI)^ <liu1.iri-il in 

lA'M' xxi- 2{>. compared tfs, trlth what woLild lie bav« 

[rxprcMod bimfclf to the Gulatianal" Hut I utiiiiut |j«iv<jiv<.~ tlm 

DCK^ oontntdlctiDU ticlircca tlii» inudü of nctlng and tliu principle 

xprencil bj Pwü. Siic^h h ifontridii^l.ioii nppuu» «tiljr wh«n tlicj »r* 

epantO(),3Dd not «ietttKl ia cwiiexiou witblnswlioUsi^rloor ililnk!.^ 

cmxloot of Puol w«u)d bo |>rDKnU><) in a EC^tm light, and ( 
be «as &r from beiDg such aa «nomy to JadaisiD 

I» *]) tiMiiepiNie«!« whitbhaiwnnpbalMallf ^cakaacilaeiclrm» 
cMon »ad Uie olwerrMice of tho eoniiioUal bv, enrxililiiK bi nücmd 
la lUe i(Baillii)t-p<dnt o( tlioac «ho were Genllla 1^ Innk. ainanc wbon 
nathiaf of ili« kind ■» fi»tDi)ed In Uwlr hiuorical ilcTelopmeot. or la 
their natiunal iuiUluligui. It wm not «ircuineUuio in ii»«tf, tt %» 
wmUtt Dl»frvuce aftbo MMBlorllnkl In lU(Jt*hlch he M rtrcaueui.V 
impoMML He nuTcc kttMKod m mucli importutcs 1« uiiin-iinl ihi-: 
eiUier nt^tivel; oriwnllvcly; th«mboft1«a;> JeeUrc*! »ren; id iL.i. 
■drat liM iflönot. uui impKiuivcly «üd üiM neithw eln^iBoi-i'» 
■vailed «ajlbisg, noc nnoircqinoUion, lint ilut all dapoulod on iIk 
aov crniiuD, wlijeh mu»t be cflcclod cjunlL/ Id Ike dreunKised ttoi 
«neircDincUod bj the Spirit of Chml^ G«L ri. \y U wan the ane 
thing irbeihn a nuu) liTixlua JevoraO«(i(tlo>pn)TiiU>l, uiiiler Uo« 
dllTcrcni dmo» of ulinnal cnltDre, he «w tcuiUcd bv tb« wtnc tinrii 
of f»th in Jekunuthe Saviour varlting bj lu*c; Oal. t. 0. A» Ibii 
wliioh ho coiuiikrod of moM imporuDce in lit« m lb« pnnciphi of it* 
no«' Chriitian creation wu oulj- thi* one thlnfr m tlüt which he •» 
MivEiaijuglj cuiijbil«d «M uul;r that ono Ifainjf *>hieh tUtnA tn <ic'-^ 
•ilioa lo IhU principle, tail ouictlr u Cw u it «w thus in opD«>li 
But sniODK Gvntilc Chrittiaus. Üie untward aol cir riut, mm) ihn I'c - 
«iplc OD vIiIgI) it ixaUKl. the reiwn fur pnclliilng it, «ore nlike Hug»' 
larj ^ it v« Minethlng oontnulii-'loryM thrit milunAI ohaniii.'UT,~)i 
«iB> Um introiliiction a( * (anlgn olemant Inio iho ooun« of (heir teh- 
KiaiM derelopincal, — «nd tbcy wuld he braucht tu Miliiuil to Mich t 
bttrdeiuouM MTViuoniftL only un the «uppMllion ihaLlbhad n faTounbl« 
tnflneDoe on ihntr reUtlnii la Cud, It in therefor« CTiUeut, that tbt 

glnviplu trhiul) Psnl eiprsHed on tbo oumni «bwriiDiw of lli* 
Nile law in TOfirtDi« i« flontlle ChriatiutiL wore totally inapplieabk 
to Jcwiih Chriitiaot. The «cnse of the words in iiuL v. 11, ia. if fad 
till», u» 1.II upotilv (w> foTnicrly from liit l'liuriMÜc Rlandiuy-painll. 
taa^lil thut Do Od« ctiuM abbiici ■olvatJ-uu (litliuut circuBunMoi)., — Ütt 
tliu Oi.'-iilii cf. in onl>:r tn 1« admltlfd to llio prii'ktu([«* of (lie MaaJanif 
Kiiiydoni, mutlaiibuiil lo cir(,'iiuict»lriii, — (hun tho J ami would hart ae 
rwiMni for ponwcutlnjit lilm ; liii objci'l voolil (to tlii^ uune ok llikt of tii* 
Juw-lih proKlyu- maker», lo <:our<;i't all men to Juduiuo. The docttiu« 
<iC Jivvt Ibc Crucifioil waHM eliuoxiüUi ta tliE Juw», bccauis lho:F "tr» 
coiniicllcd bj It to rcnouiu!« all tliuir «utfri^hu^otiiiiKxa, nvoiyiliing ui 
iviiiuh tha^ iMimrd to lake pmx'<l>iii>n' of ilic Ouutilx^. If It »tn 
aihriilioi tHt the flantilot uiutt Qni Wuome Juwe. in ordur tu Iw on in 
»riiLiUiy with the Jew» an cUixciiaof tlii; kiiiicdoni of God, thlsatonset 
ofi^tiui.' would lio lakcn Awnv. Biil If Pnul allowed the Sew*, to ecolinH« 
bi thuir (iiitwanl muintr ul Ufa u JewA. and in thU tiMptot autwl him- 
ta]( like & Jew. tlib m» ■DmelkiDir x^^ <liB'crcnt fluni m^iTotthr lenfif 
trtir ia '.hv former niito. Aeoordiii); to Iho Pauline dtxlrin-.', t':« 
["iiiiloii <ti>l, uii^iiilly lor lews aiid Ocutil«, edcd nre fn>eil by Ci. 
(«TBI tTioji'hi; u' th' '■«■ incoimsiitlj' valid. Tlim rvfera lotbe iu;- 'i'' 
rolallun to llio U» poaitiou of tlie rcltiftoat ouiiKhtlUDW* to It. 


rUlVa vow AT 3EKt;sALEII. 



ndversurieB «isliud liim tu appear, he duclüreil hiin^olf to be 
ready, aa James propoaeii, to reftite thai oharga by nn overt 
n«t, by taking part in tba Jowish cultii» iii il OKxle which mnn 
bighly eat^itiQd by pioua Jowä. ' Hu juiii^d liiiiiBelf tn faiir 
members of the chiurch, who hail umlertakcu a NsLmrito's vow 
for seven ilaya. He siibtaJttiKl ti> the siime restrainba, anJ 
ialimntod to the priesta that he would be answenibie for the 
expeiuie of the oflerings that were to bo prestnted on the 
äccompüshin^Qb of the piiriticatioa.' Hut thong'h he mij{ht 

But notivUliJliLiidiiig Lhin tnilli, t.lie Jewirli ClirinUnns niii;!!'. reUin Iho 
.iiitw.'inl filiaorviinM at the law. Ilaa not Pniil himself, in. 1 Cor. vii. 
IS — 2o. plainly eijircBäeil Ihu prluclple 1 the Jyvra nfitrtiieirüoiiyumtüti 
uro loeontlnuö Jews: ChrUuojiiiy ruqulru* no una to make n cliaojte 
i:i tlient uutwanl Ihine;», »ri whii;ii tiie issi'iii^ of religioa il»i>a nut dv- 
p{tiil. Wlioa ht Bays in ! Gut. ix. £0. (but to Ihe Jews he bccutnv a 
Jew. iitiiil lie aii^iciiruj Hh i>ne itulijecl to the luw, ctin ihia li»ve iia.v otUnr 
»cniin than ihnl oitiutig tlie Juiv« ho liveii an a Jew, m tliai. if any one 
luoki;'.! otily »t. win« wiw i^ttornal. he biubI Iiavo aniiponeil iliut I'aultm« 
■(.ill lulijDCt lo Uw jcike of Uio i»w, slill lidil ill lo Ijc bimliiigl Mii«l; 
we nnt, from whiit hn hure »swirt« of himself, mneliiJa witli cerlalnty, 
tbuu^ wK huil ni> liLnt.uTLL'al iliitA. liuit lie Mleil in iu.'v»rtil iiuiikne«« 
axumy M wo fini! dnaonWI in the Acte I Bill it mnj' hn ftaiil, If Paul 
tnok * pirl in tlia ubwriraniie of such n Nnxarllo'i voir, In) lberel<y pnic- 
Ü«&lly ■uniian»! Ihi? notion, ihitt It ww •nmothing KO[^;>tiibla in ilneir 
(o Q«l. and ooQiliitivc to mlvutiDii. If llii« had bean Iho cum, sueb 
actlco iniiat h:\vf, Imnn ra<:<>mman<IC'il lo tlis Oenlile CLiiHlinn« in 
nenX u «uir|>lL>iw>1nLr to Qorl. ittil ne I*n,iit, un<lcT all olrcumataniwB. 
liie tame prindpla. (.bat by tbo works of Ihc law no unu citii 
^tfitftj bcforu doUg-^üH 111 AW^yii iiiHiHi..ijih Uml tliv itcntLlo Chrii- 
ihoni^h they ohiorvcrl none of Ihsic thin^ii, ought to he Aukoow- 
l«dg«'l M ini^iiiliiri-- of l.lia tui|{<ii>in of Ood oti nn «quillt^ witb the 
jam,— W tho»u wliD ileiiiri:il hiio to praolinvauchauijuin'iir'l olrRervaucu 
or Jewish rilvH,u;rDO<l witli lui» in bU leading pdnuiplu. — hi> enlliriunLly 
fftianlitd liimwir 3j,'niiu>t tigu Mm cuiicluniun wliiuh mi^ht> hnvc liccn 
deduce<l from s mlmLpprctenswui of liis cfimliict. 'i'tiOM «bo muri-ly uli. 
HorreFl onlcrnullj' lliu diirurt'iit ™iidu«l of Ih« uponile* iimong tlifl Jfw» 
ftUd Oonlllp«, miiAti imliioil b<^lievs Ihat I.lio^ hiicl detwtuil an ineon- 
•iiunuy : und ws have atrcoily n'ltli^ed «chiut. itnpotntiOTi« ii-erc i>!vit ii)ion 
I'Mn» Wf hi» ndvernarlfl« on this account Indeed, vhea JameB ksjb of 
Paul " Ihivl Im «"»Ikpd orderly »ud k"pt iho law." Art* uti. 24, wa miUE 
undcrctand it wiih the Dpccssjiry limi-Uition. tliat the same I'dul bad no 
Wriiple to livii »cuoDi; Uta OeiittW lU n Ouiitilh Uiit tlie »iithnr of tb'- 
Acts report? onlysia^Ts (not«; we tlndnotun cu^umptionof aon'wuUvc- 
Bu*« anil :mupn;lion8iveii«ä in III« hl*u>ty. but a wnat of these i^ii-LUliiHi 
«ltogBt1iL>r in hia iipostoUn inetaoiM. 
^ Jo^Qpha«, ArehnoU xii. C, \ l- 
Tiin Hiiiniiimi HupjiOHtiioii tliut PH.iil jijlnai! himself to tliom Xua- 
rvoci. nbnii they hid yet sovsn dny-, Ai^ts ixi. 27, to oonMQuo VImIi 

finvn rali^wl li.v tliSs mauiB Uie minds of the tetter i 
amoiij; tiie Jewish Christians, tlio iuvetemte KMlote lunotf 
tlio J<!nK wem not At ilII coiicilintvti. ' On th<? contrurv, th^ 
men only more ioceoscd. tbat tlic man who, m tlmy aujd, laid 
eveiTwliiini Utiiglit Llio fluutilcK l» lilrmptiuiu« the peopU J 
Ood, t)ie law and lJit< tenijile, Jiad \'eDturcd to tnka it pnn u 
tlitt JcwUh oultus. Ttity liu<l ecuii u OvQtil« CltriBtin. 
TrophiiDUa. ill comjiany ^th )ihn, and henoo the fanalin 
Ronclud(^d that h« hik<l token a Gvntiio with him into tltf 
temple aud delUod it. A Tiolmt tumult in^tautly aroee, and 
Paul was resKJued from tlie voragod nuiltitiide unlj' hy HMU 
of Uio Ruuiou tribime, vhö tiantoued to tho nput witli a huti 
o£ nMiivn tVnin tho Arx Ant/mia nttintiMt Qrer uguiost tb 
temple, the quutsrs o{ the RoiiiAii ganiBOD. 

Paul was on tho point of being scoui^il, (n common madt 
of torture among the Romans,) for tli« purpOMc of «ztortil^ 
B. confcHson roepccting tlio uaum of this tumult, bitt b; 
ileolftring hirrütolf a KoTna.n citizen he was iUivei] frrnn tiiir 
ij^oniiny. Tho mbuno now cndcsivouiitd to aaccnaju tin 
facts üf the ca-te, liiat he mi^tlil «iml Paul to Bp|«arbe&R 
tha SitBbednm. The tnanoLT in «hioli tho apAetl« oondudüd 
himself "11 tliii« oKcuaioti, sliows him to hura beeu a man itl» 
knuw Imw io control thß agitation of his fodings by a nte 

tljatinaicw for tie ÜKhtir^ of their voir, and tliAi during thu iIbm k 
kept Ibc VD« vUh. iticn, la ai TDrloncc vltli Uic meiiUan of iw^lv 
AaU xxir. 11, fur in thiit ca^Q tlinv iniMl t«v* bvvti ■evnntuwi Ati 
ia ind«^ lt> itaalfpoKilile, that Paul did Kit reckon lite Qto daw 
ho »pciil in dvafincinciit il C«>arca, iilu<-c iliejr «i^^ificd mlhinK fl 

oil) vat; but it dwwiwt appear lofn)»! !ii« ucn «ord«. There rta— .. 
llicieforc, noihinff elm but toMBnnic. llint the «vnii tlay liiiiynf g ^wW» ' 
uuui1j«r uf da;», to which at thai; iimt llic Nuariua' vow uad UO- 
iflnd, «nd ihat 1^1 had Joinri ihe Niurii«« oa od« of am b^ of tbw 
liijn. But. un the other haod. in the mxüoa of the iliUiiuti oalb 
Nanritoi' vow. th« nninh«r of thirl; dani U meatiotwd u iL« fa"* 
(«nn Ibr (liii oath. As to the WTen Aiyt muMöatä in Hombcni 
Ibt.v am »at ippUcililc l<i the pretnat ca^ ; (m ihay refer to Üie i 
■ purtton wliki. uiiring (.lie limi- of liii ror, has ilrtlod ÜnMcIti aat 
afWr tlic inicrral of htcd doyi.' purifi«uion. bts^ n» kU to« «A^fc. 
' r fliiil no nuutHi fur UHiiinlng vitb Biuof. thai ib« Dwehin 
aguaii Puul proceeded chiefly from ihc JcvithChrirtiaiu. kndlac 
im kullior uf ih« Act* »iili fulnivViii^ a loiiUir «f brt. Hot 1 1 
iluuoiblo iliii% xiiiong 'lii? pmt moliiuicSe oF Jeoiah duinli 
nwht be r>>iiad lo Tbnai tbcir Jadaiam m» nwnt >nip«ruiil ^h 
llttlo ClirliiUaiiiijr ibtty {.imw^twI, and Ihit laeh Miwna «wH^ 
aomraoB came wiih ibe Jewiab acolifU V>^t PaiU. 



[jiMlgmeDt, ana to aroil hiicüclf of cLrvumstoiicoa witli C'hris- 
tiau prmieoce, without uny oumproroise of Inilh. Wlusn lie 

was suUdenly cnrried away liy the icapulso of rightocms iudij;- 

nnlioii to spoiik witii greater wariulh tlian l>« intetiJcd, lie 

wna Mit to recuver the mastery of tiis fceliii^s, and to act ia a 

Dmnner becomicg hia Touition. In a tnonieiit of exoittmcnt 

' &t the arbitrary uoiiiluct of tbe high finest AoaniaH, while 

tbiaking on\y of the peraon and loaiug sight of tlte otSce 

whose duties had b«^ii viulated. ho had u^d iut«in|)enite 

eipreätiioiiä though txiutainiug trutlt : bat on being uifoinKNl 

thut it wmi the high jtrieet whom he bad bo addreflsed, he at 

once corre(!t«d himself and said, he had not eocBiderod the 

^lignily of tho periK>n h« baii thus addreaswl, to whom 

revereuce was due according to the law.' _Iu order to 

aeture t!ie voic« of tho majority among his judges, ho aTciiled 

^liiiiiMlf of that nMAiis for tlie victory of tniih. which haa 

been used agniiist it — llie diulde H impfra- in a, good 

;; hu enlisted on his side tlie tiaa for that tinith by tho 

rlL-dgiiient of whith the greater nunnbto: of liia judges 

■«•Hy approached nearer lo him, than the few who denied it, 

lin oi^r to priwl«ii;e a <UviBion in the «»teiühly. He efiiild 

'Bay witK truth, that ho was hrou^lit to trial buoau!^ Iifi Lotl 

I tOftiSud of the hope of Israel, and of the reaurrection of the 

'dead, for h^ hod preached Je&uts as tbe peMonn^^ hy vi)wn 

I this hope wa£ Fulfilled. These words hud the ofiect of uuiting 

j the Fliuriifvce preeont in his favour, and of iitvolviu^ them in 

\h warm di'hate with the Saddueeea. to whom the high ]jnft.<(t, 

liitooeif beloDgod. Tlie tbrnier could find no fault iu him. 

If be had tuid that the spii'it of a deceased petsou or tlut ju 

taiig«! hod appeared to him — (the appearance of the risen 

IJutius) — u^tever he might mean by this, and wlietlier whnt 

phe averred were true or nut, they did not pretend to deter- 

inini!. ncif trouble tliemselTes alwiut it ;— at all events, ibey 

[oould tioi criminate him on iliie aecouiit.' The tiibuue of 

I ttto Hom;iu cohort at Ut^t saw himeelf obliged, by tlie plots of 

' If wc kto nut ili^poBHil la tbiuk or the meiMtinc: of ffiftv, Aali 
Izxiii. i. hi llic InnguBgc nhivh prcitiublj' Pau\ iiüvd on Ihiri oui^aHion. lliv 
I- Aramaic, the mehDin^ wtii^'li ^ cnsj veil httX'« i yel iL ia plwlii rn^uii Ifig 
[ cifwil&MjinocR u[i{ior nhlch iic uLid tbis, tiiat \ic coqld aotj ia tli^ atrict 
f MDxc nf ihc Riinl, Hldriii llmt iic did not knov lidn, 

* Thrt miTiU fii) (ttoi^xlifiiy, Acte xxiii. 9, tro eonuitiljr ^ glo», aail 

I (Ihm at Tftrianv« with ibe gvaenl Maor o( tkt i>aM«Kc, tot tbu mu 



Vmdt» CBOBÜM «gitiiwt hi» life, to aend liim under an esocct I 
tfao roetropoIiR or the provinoi Canrea, and to tmtu&r d< 
■flnir to Uio I^xioiimtgr Felix, n-h-ti iwddcd Üiere. 

Tho aociisatioTi which ihe Santwidrim by thoir opohs^ w«» 
h1Iowo(! Ui IninKB^iinet liiiii, uh» tlio uiily ono whicfa, MO(«d> 
iug ia the prinlegcB «etured l» tte Jews bj the Boman Iw^ 
oould with onj äiow of rcoBou ho mvAe, nomcl;. that h* 
everywhere disturbed Üib Jews in the enjoyinent of tb« 
privilege«, the peaceful «xcrciso of their cuHiis, — tJiitt be 
excited diaturbaiict.'s and divitsiona among tbem, and thtttf 
ItLst he had duTBiI to di^ecrat« the tf^tnplo. The tribiiiiB «It 
n(!cti«ed of ppevctitiug tlin Jew» from jud^iig Paul aooordiog 
to the privüegea sccui'cd to them by law. Felix, who «m 
not disposed to iceddl«; with the iuteniitl disputos of the Jevs 

Ei^rceived uo fault iu tlio accueed, and hcDco wonld at cnot 
fiT« set him at liberty, if bo had not hoped, as it was liii 
praotice to tcoke justice venal, to obtain money öxim htm ; 
hilt ns Pntil wax not tvilling in purchnsQ his fruedom by nidi 
aa uulawhil iiiothod, wliiuh would cast HU^picioD botli tfi 
liimsolf and his canBo, Folix. in ordpr to gain fiivour with the 
Jobs oh lenviug thcoi, to whom Iw hud been suffiderink 
obuosiuUH, left him in confin^mDiit. luid Uiua ho remained 
for two years till the arrival „f tho new Procurator, M. 
Porcina Fostua.' 

But^ly mart than Ibe PhoriiieM f^nld lie ffllliag to • 

"• If the prtsciie timeul which Feli» -wm rponllod. uid pMtnsi 

the Bovcmmcnt of thfl prnvirn'o. owiW be exiotly detormitiwl, wö i 

hare nn important chru nolo^ 14^11 1 mark : but tUiu period cnanat 

exactly <lot*Tmin«d. The clinHiologifHl rial» on whii'b ■»*> Iiit» |ir 

nr« llio followiug, Wlien TeVix liiid <li>wti Ltic f-rocur&tonihip, h 

aeon fed Bt R«uie, oe Jopcpliuä iArijKrol. xx, 8, J 9) relalon, liy Üir. , 

I 40 4f4'vunf' oi T-ho ^^^^»re^iDiiB h^: hutl pmctisr»1, utiA ^'oi^ld have 

nniilifid if ht l<n<! itot been delivered b^ the iniereasiioa of bis hrolJia 

|ltt*i whc- at tliiLi i.tiue bail muck iiiäuuDi.'o wUii. the oi>ip«rw< Bnl 

"■ van poieuucd b}' N«rtt in the yoar 02, ecu Tacit, ÄanaL nr. tG. 

I enthlo a» to fis (lie cilrcme Cermii'ii.i a qvo of tho re«! erf Folii. 

Qt KCurdiue to the nnmkÜTeofT&cituK, Pallu liibdiong bofure lotlhii 

ikam, (/Inno', liii. II.) At the iH^t'^inninfr i>f his ntiEn, Nero UtA 

nevcd ^Im frnm the <iffice ha held imdi^r Cluudlu«, ana tKaCMi hUn 

FwlUi iliiiflpiunra. And Htui.'e Ji>v.'pliu4 auyK Mint vhcti FaIIm interM^Ml 

[E^ hit brollwT Pnlix he «IümiI in favour with the omperor. it follow«, 

[tfa«t llio rocn' "* "Tiiiiisl. havolab'tiplfu'L' in (he begiiiiUBgof>'cro'l_ 

*lin> «hif* ) mum be wlniittcil. What Jotepkiis tay* in 

rAUi. SBNi' m n,s&&REA, 


Paul tiAil for It loug time prorioua to tlua ovont ooter 

tai[iiid the thought of jjrniichinfi tint gi.iKjJcl in ihß luolri'pwli«^ 

of the wiirld. But it was now uueertain whether he would 

' ewr titUiiu the rulGhiic-nt <jt' thin iuward coll ; but vii the 

ulglit aflor h<: bail hMiui t^ütiiitony to his tiiitb before the 

I ii»wtnbleil SaJihv^lrim, thu Lord ini)inrt[Ml tlm ussm-nncc to 

him by a viraon, that lut lie Ikail been, bia witiii?-« in the capital 

■ of the Jewish wuriJ. he »huuidalso bo the satne in thiit of the 

' Ounlile world. It wiis thin whith ooiifiruied liiiu ia liie reso- 

hit-ion, when the piMOumtor wns about ti> siwirifice him to the 

wUhüs of the Jewish Sunhedriui, of seekinjf deiivefaiiüe hy aa 

i appeftl to the em]wrf>r. The nrrivftl at Clrosn-oa of tha young 

King Agvipiiu. 11., aB a iiomuu aci^uEiiut^J willi the Jew» and 

i thoir religion, wiw ticüeptuhle to Festua, since he ho|)ed that 

I hy iidmltting I'dii! to nn exoimimtion iu liJti jvi^seiico, l)u 

oould leiu-ii §01110 I'll in;; iiioi-a ducieive in this aOu-ir, which 

miylit be uumnutiiioiiled in Itiä report to Koiuo. Paul up- 

poared before ao numerous and august au asaOinhlj-, hcfi-iv 

jtJie Ilomnn proouratnr and the Jcwisii king, with t^xultAtiou 

' nt thf llmiijiiht of Ii-'ing alile to tRrttily uf wliftl filled bin heart 

before such an audionca. He addronaod himaolf eepecially to 

King Ajpippdj in whom, as a profiassor «ftlia Jeviäh fiiithj he 

[bUtoi? or bii life, of hi» own jouruc^ lo~Rome In h» ■Iz-nntl'tweiitiDIti 

i«r, glVM no «iii'n foundMion for determining tlio timo »licn Felix Uld 

oirn hi* olButf. b^cliruiliT tliiukä imlevJ, tliat lie uiu ftud a, cdrUiiu 

chrouoloslfJil ■I'lii'l' '" t''!»- tiiat Romsibiag wbich Joävpliuä puU iu 

CoanuiiOQ wiih thu untirLuuu uf Fcntus intu affitu, was lici^ideil bj the 

loSnraM of ro]ipica, alrcmlj tuiKriert tu Sern. Uaftpli. Archaol. xx. 8. 

[l 1) ; fur i(. wouM fullow tbiil itni.'O Niiro. ai-'toriliiig lo TH-.-im», married 

IpoppiBii in Ö2, Füil.ut inuvt hiive uttl.cnd on liin govcmniant abiiul this 

Itimif- Uut tlie wunl« of JuiiL>phu!', xiv. 69, xari. thw xaipAv toutds, eannot 

l*vsil for oxaotlj dotcrnnining' Uio lime; Poppcen, long licttirn lier 

ImiirriBjCV tu Nero, h^ i^f-s,t inll>ieiiau ovvr biirn, us uppiiurs from llio 

I"««»!!! of Tadtij3. AnaaC. x\v, GO, " En diri pellet et adulleri Ncronis, 

I mux in.irici pouii«," unil bad ulmäiljf »iicompllBhvd niiiuh liy inturaediug 

I with lihc omporar. Wc nued iiol altacli mucli woia:lil to l5ia «ircuro- 

ll»tau(,'« T.hiht Ju4cpliiia C-»\\s her at thxl limn l.hc wito f>i' Nuro, BuL in nil 

{ttu« muuli uucccuinty ulUahu* Ui ibo ehroDolu^^ of I'VcnU, und ILd 

iK'ippiMlltoii tlii>( Fülix Uld down 111« olHuo in thi^ yeiir 02, ami tUeieforr 

MhiL Pniil'ii cualin-.-inuiiI touk plnou in 60,11 lij' iiu incun« siiHioieat.l} 

I pruviid- We limy liicrcfora iaMy \tlMi it ii:\ne yvi\n eurlicr. If Pull 

I inw wi al liburty fruiu Iilh cunäufiinäut ai^ Rutuis, w<,' uiu^i tiocUBOtttily 

JArtinit tbc rnrllDr li.klo ; for if hiri mnliucmcnl at Itninu liad liciin con- 

UiapuniiK'Cjiis villi Ihü jjruiit conSiisrikliDii. ho woiiiil ccrlaiol/ hau 

Cillin a »aciiäco lo tiiu fary ihuu cxaiLisd nj{»i llic Uhriiliani. 


hoped to Bud tnoni point« oC oontwjüoo than in a 
niii^ixtnUc. Ho imirnted iinw )i« bitd Ihx'ii eduMt««! 
eealoiu nti&cKinoiil t« Plutritaic principles, Anil from a. violent 
poTWCuUir tiail, bj u oall from Uk; IjOnl biiuseir. IwmiiIi 
a devoted )>reachior of the gpmsi, — tliat ia obeying tbu < 
up to Chnt time he had tMhfivd Wore Jews and Ocnb 
great and small, but had paUiabed aothing clso tbaa «W' 
Moms and th« Tropheta had foretold, that the Momlah duwU 
Bußör, that ho should rise from the dead, and br ibi 
assaFOQce of «a everliMtiiig diTiTio hfc ditlVtsc li^bt uoo^ 
Jan Bad Guntiles. This lie might preiturne «as adiiiictud \if 
the king aa an aokii<>wledg«d article of Iftith, but it mut 
ftppmr Utt«rly straoge to the Bomons ; Etrntige altto muA UM 
TOUj^ous in8pimti<jD with which Paul uttered all thiaaffttt 
to Uie oold~henrt«il Roman atateeninn. He could «ee aouuf 
in it but mthiiHiiißtit! düluaiim. " Too much Jewiab ItMV* 
ing," bo exclaimed, " hath moAe thoc mad." But with nba 
ooiitiiionco Paul rspliod, "* 1 am not mad, but apeuk thu -weA 
of truth aud iiubunieaaE" aud, turning to Agrippa, bo etIM 
Upon him as a witness, mncc bv wull hnuw that Uieso tloiv 
were not dono in a cornor of the earth, in 8c«)-et, but [nib- 
lioly (it JfrusiUau». And with a firm conviction, that a 
all he httd testified the promJaoB of the propliL-ts wt-m fuIlUkL 
he said to thi: king, " llchovtft tboa tho prophets I 1 knw 
tluLt thou liel)evi?«ttl* A^ippn, oflöndoil by rttul'» oonSdona 
answered, '• Truly iu a short time' thou wilt make me ■ 
Cliristian." Paul, with his fetti-re on his arm, ww conMW 
of posiioxsiug more thau idl the gluir^v of tho wurld, utleir^ 6« 
iioitlt! »unl». " Yea, I pra^ God that in a looker or ■ Aans 
time, he voiüA m^ko not onl,v thei», king, but all wlio lufl) 
ma to-dny, what I now urn, (;soept these bonds ! " 

' 1 uadurs-tänd tlia wonla 4r Jxl'v* {Spit Jutri. 3S) In (lie oalyl 
«hii?h thty iuld bav« naFoMing to lit« tm* ta^umJi nmi PnulW tw 
Tliu iui«ipn>(ulioa aitoptod by Mcjcr and nonie «llicrs Ih Iii<1(*4 1 
■ibl?, but appears lo mu nut *» natural. If the f«kding ikf tlie C 
Alax. and of tlie Vulgiste. nhkb Lsdhmauo approves, b» adcpMl- 
'r fctyiKif, in I'niirH snswur, tlis word» a( AgTipp» miial bo Ü» 
«plained, " WlVli a iillle, or iriili few ni«*»i» (wTiioii »Ul MtenalT» 
much troulil«) ytju think ut making men Chriiüua"-^iui(l Ucaw«* 
of Paul will in, VTheihur willi ^ruat vr with Utile— tar I 
few reruuji«. I pw Gixl. fic. Dui 1 cjunoi make ap bj . 
Tflcoivu US CMT«cL tM> reading, whioli mny tic oxpliuiuid u i^Ma* 
U Doi «uppurtifd by vety prejiootlRraliat; auitioriuca 



As Ihe king and tbo pruouralur after tlüa ciauiiimtion 

could not ßnd Paul guilty of any nfleDce punishable by the 

laws, the procLUMtar wpDld proKitbly hare Est liim u,t liberty, 

if ittor hi» ajipeal to Ciunar it liad tiol Iwen De^oasary for the 

matter to tiiie its legal counte ; yet iLe report {tlofiiitm) witti 

which he mould he seut to Home, oould not \m) Otherwise than 

in Lis favour. The centiirii>a to whom he was committed 

with other prisoners in ordur to be Ulken to Rome, tortaiiily 

iOOTrobor(it«d the impresBion of this tiiTourable roport by the 

auut he guve of Paul's conduct during his long and Jau- 

ous Toyagc. Hence be met at Rome with more iudulg«it 

Ucatinctit thnu the other pri^uueri! : he was tillüwed to liii'e a 

priTn-ta dwoUitig in which only oue soldiur Attended hini its 

I A giiurd, to nlium lie wiis tii£tciicd by a cliniii on the anii (the 

usual mode of the ciutodia mUitarit), and oould receive all 

I who -Kctv dispised to visit 1dm, and write letters. 

Afc be Imd cause to fear that the Jews rJwelliug at Kome 
I had rüCL'ivod &om Jerusalem a report inimirtLl to idü clm- 
I ruct«r, aud regarded hiai aa aii accuser of his poople. he 
I coduivoured epoedily to remove thi5 unfavciuinhle iinprv»siou. 
Aooordiiigly, llireit diiya after his iiiTival, he invited the 
prinoipul pumoiis aiaong them to viidt him. It proved that 
I no report to PuuI'h prejudice had yet reached tbein, if it be 
^«llowed tliat Ihey apolte the truth. It also ojipeared from 
tbe statoDicnts of theee reispectable Jona, that they had hoard 
little or notliing of the ClirietiBn uburoh which «mied in tli« 
[mme ciQj with themBolvos. Nor is this iuoonoeivable, if we 
louly conwdrar the iuLmense aize of the mutropohB, and Ihe 
iTavt cooäueuoG of hamau betuga it ouutaitied, and if to this 
Vve add, that tb« main body of that cUtirch cousist.eil of 
JCeutil«, and that these wealthy Jews buaied themselves 
ifu* mora about other objecta than about tlic conceme of 
Iteligion. Yet it by no mwius npi^ears from llie Btal^meiJl« of 
tlie -lowB tliat tlioy liad »caroclj' heard of a Cliristiuu L-hiircli 
«sialing at Itoine, Wi otdy that thu.^ had uot iukou any 
pains to acquiiB an accurate knowledge of it. They knew 

i indeed that this new sect met everywhere with Opponent^ 
»ad hence it might be infurrod tliat ihoy had heard of tliu 
controversies which liad been carried <ra iit Itume ahoin 
it, for ttie " every wliei« " {-iraymx"«), in Acts iLKviiL S2, 
iLoIudiis (certainly doca not exolude) b refercnue to whnt «lu 


PADL aXS the jnWft AT bOlOL 

gnini; on ftt Ruoi« (teelf; itiid we must not forget that odW tb 
suhst&ncfi of what tbu .K-wh rtdd i» bonded down to tm.' Ji 
tbej Iie*r0 niucli or 'tb« op|KMit)on excited agtünM 'Jm 
now BDCty but nothing ynam respecting llwir doclrin« 
thqr were well pleased tliat IMul prupoftd to give tlienib 
ndtUiMB ou the sulyect. But here, n« everywhere alhO, Pinl» 
preovhing found tovr« acceptance with tlie GeatUc» U'"t* <ritl 
the Jews.' 

* t cMinot fine! nnjr founditioa for the avutradJctfon »ht<* Ri 
Baner, ia hii irutUsee «o oncn quetod, Ibialu fac hm delecied bctiMi 
thk ianati«a in ibe Ada, luid the Exinuiir« of bucU n cfaonih at Rmk 
«hJdi we mpfll lUpiMfic iK'ccnllDc to Paul« epistle lo the Bouud* 

' Tlie pONition developed anu atlvocatol sith eqn.i] oc'iirn^ tut 
Itunniiig by II. nütuvr in tb« lecondpan oT bin Jlfitro'/t mr kim^ 
ri»(hkrilüfliiu Kintnlang in dir. pavlimnehtn BrUJt, UoUuhj^. ' ■'' 
— l.hut Vital wiu" a priwtiBf nnly for tbo Sni three or 6v« day« m "■■ ■ 
t.nin.\ In Itoiii«. that ht tbcn olitaiiiMl hb frocdoni, and llvcil i.i .'■. 
ytan in a Liiud h«ii-c, ijuit« at Illivrt)- j~tbi« podllon. fr it v«n Um 
Wuuld okhI a rii-wLi;cbl on Paiil'i history (luriDetbln portod ; for it WnM 
then appear iliat lilt lliotc KpUt.l<9i.whidi eciilviilljr were wrilt«B daite 
«onto i>ni! liiipritiMiiiiiKcii. I'imM nut hare b«ru Mriitcn al Kom« or 4(iiv 
hia lirit coutincniciit there. But the narraLiv« in Ibe Acta It iinVij 
appnauit to UiIk »iiijjiuaiiii»). | ratunul mxlentatxl ^ct« xKViÜ. K 
alhbrwtM tliiii ihut pvimliiicin nut then icranltd to P&nl Lo mMc l" ■ 
prl*«tt' Ijiiuk', I'lii «irii« uliidi is «ämi^uattü in v. S3, bi< 1^- 
(tr^o, nn<J iQ v. SO, ni <V UIu iuoS^imti. " bin una hiixd tmii>. 
eauuut III) ituufriuuil. iliat 11', aliiir ihnw ila^ii, m iinporiuit an aldmüu 
lioil tak«n pluoc in I'uhI'ü draioiftaiiüca, Luke would »nt liaiv nie- 
tloncil It. \oi tlid t»K.'(Muii lliat hin rewlera xomt bar» wp[ ' ' ' ' 
Ihi^niiu^li-eK. friitn llic kiiiiicn focin« nf Roman jniUoe, cuui ' 
Etrn if Mi cuuli) havo lii>i'Q suppuaod, he wonld tiaidly k.. 
to poiniaiit In a Taw wordiao iiiipnrtant acbanfc In PaoI'i Ioi. E^tit 
in ntit crv^lly prove'l that »urh. ui iul^rence taalA be drawn, from ■«•! 
la kntitrti ini;p<^;lin;r the ooiinc of Koman jualieo at thai time T!« 
RUim(<r iiIho ill whinh Luka «iipi«iiUH himaelr (Act« xiiiiL SO, til 
reapoctius Paul'i Tcnidenn) for two jca» al Bmne, ctvtainl}- implkatü 
b( had iKit tlioii «lilnlnail lii-i frmdutu, fome are mcrclj laid Ikiife 
praaehed the gospel in his own dwcllinz ; but it la not uaaratcd (h*i i* 
Hattod tbc njriuiKiiguo or ojxj plaoe whara th« ahureh m«l, hi wlKk 
omiiuiaii no obner iwuoa «an be given, Uian (bat, aliboo^ U 
i^onld roeolvo any vii^lt In hU otd naidvoco, under tbo luynrtiw 
ur bis (luarU. bo van not nt liliotty to go to wbaivver piaet kt 
r.hinui : am) icrvt of till, wuuM a prlMDor, wbuse auM «W Stt 
jel (li'ddei). bavi: liuuu pcntiittcil to stlenil th»« ni«i>Uiig« of tk 
c]l1l^!h, EVin If itn:oii)piinieil bj III« goanl. Hare. tliuriEforq, ■• litrai 
feet »hidi Lvmiot lie expl^luuil. unlca» «o adtuit Llin c(>ntiBMd cwita» 
mentor Paul. How likewlac pan it be Inii4:infld, that I'aul, «bovUi' 
to rieit tbo chnrv^l) nl Rome onl; on hi« <n,j; woutd Iwra lUfV' 
Ibere (br tvo j'cara, whtre auitabl« meaaurua bad tin»i<f hoea take« ftt 


neiiu'iit iif Paul, a new and iii»)i(>rtJiut en 
F Duly in hia life and tiiini^try, but aJao in the 
development of tiiu churohc» foiiiiiliiil hy Kim, for in jii'n- 
joii as ChrisUaaity spread more widalj, a. nmuber nf 
ogoneous tncatal elements -were brought into action, 
By impiirtant plieuuiamia. beuwae couapiuuouH, \Khi]e tlii- 
tUviiie word operated amung tlicm in lui independent inannor, 
and thev were deiirivod nf tho upoatlc's pcraonal ovui-Ktglit 
and giiioniiae. 

I Ebc contltiiieil propi^tioQ oT ChrutUnilj-, luilead of UiTelllnK to 
those mgiuui uf ilie Wast, wbare oulliüiy liml jut been dou« ibr iimUiiis 
knawii Uli? i;mpi:l I This ia csEilicalilo otil;' nn tliu EUpjioeiiioQ, that lia 
icnuklOfid BO lung K limt al Ratk'- u-ndn- tonttraiitl. 

Aeoonling to (.hn noooiml in. I.)iu Acl«, wa any teceivu it «» an uslji- 
tlllla)l«d bat, ihst I^ull ILvcii tvujoiiniri Hüincua pmonar,~a iWt whlob 
team lie ovcrturaod by oDtlilag thnt «'u knnw of the cniiree uf liniiivu 
lluatloa in the viuhi of euvli ajipraU ^ ui'i^n nillioiit iraiting lu piaminc 
Ibov l»oth eoiild bo tcOoncUod to ono itDuthcr. 

Mcuisvliilv, front «bal i» ku»-»!] uf Uie lii^l jimiMi^aca ia tlia liniu or 
j tha Itntt (.'oC'iuTii, it cnn b^ ao mciiuH b« ptuvnil, hIiilL ii iu tbu liighuit 
IdcgTiiciiniii'uliaiilRjthuI. ulJ tlinouuaeuvfliii^h, in coaiwqueni^ uf nii nji^iOHl, 
Lvvt* bruughl tw Buiuu Ivr diwuiou, were dt-uiilnjil in the oourse of livo ot 
|t«a day». It wtm «ne lliias lo de«i<J« on tlmadiniäsiliiUtvuf tin: itpputl, 
ad auiithär iMug to ilnoido uu. lliu poiuL uf Idiv ru6pci:Liii<,- wliidi tho 
lunumade, tly rctiiectud culleiig-ue, rrorcjsor IliidurOi wtio bu 
. Ibe goutiiies« to make mn h writtna oumuiuaii^jU-iou on UiU lultjinit, 
OQOladm with Iho «wwaiom, lliat tha term ol fl/o or luu day» rol*Md 
[Düt to thu dnnitliiu uf the jiidiciiil proiM'dm^, bnl. to tLu lodj^infjul' the 
lAppe.ll, .and to Iha npojitoii \^ Utnrm dimissoria}, that it gave no pre. 
|Mi'ii)(luci tcULive la tlio turin ur tlie ti^uin^üun it^\l, uid tiinX liju 
Riuwd rRniikiiiAd under »rre&C till '.Li^ ileQiaiaii tif ihn niiiporur. Tliiiii. 
[in tbo S'tnt^alirB IU^--jita of Julius Pauliiii, lib. v. Lit 'H. it i> euid iM- 
praialj' ot [hü ai«itluli. " Qiiuriiuj poehilutlo ot mn^cptld Inlni <)ulntiim 
•m ez officio ruuii^iida eet," Iu n luw vunvtvil by lliu Euipi^rur Con- 
I la ai<, acuordiii'.; to which wc urc not juntilicd In dctarmining 
1 pmoiwi ill tho tiiuea of tlie ti ret Uiesun, is iJiu uxpi'iini uravi^iou 
__t tfie apafflalff F,lioiilii be free from iutd^I only in cauta rivila, but 
tt anmtHU(4 vaaaa- il ia luiid, " iu 'juiliu», iitiiuuiil poaauiil prdvOL-ar«, 
am totauB sUtuu ilcbi:iit obtiuorc, ul puet pruYucntiiiuiiui Ld etuiutlu 
snov«r*uU" Cod. 'I'liuixlcM, Uh. li. lit. ilO, a, i. 




t^vi. iicniNQ ut3 rinST cMiriirugnT it ttmii, isd Tin nxTTuniBt 

Ik examining Ulis poition of Paul's history, we tna* öi 
Olli- attenüou on tliree priuciiJul pumta; bis i-elatiou to tli« 
Roitiaii State, — tu thii Church at Börne, — and to tbo ChurclM 
in other pai'ts. 

With rpspcct to (he first, the main tlitng to bo oonstdend 
is, from, what yoiat of vluw the utuirgc uuder whicti be mt 
dcUiuQcl as H prisonc?r is to be viewed! Clirietiunitj was not 
yet denoiauui-d us a relit/io illicUa, therefore Paul could nul, 
like tbo later teachers of CbriHtiuuity, bo accused of violsüag 
til« laws of the state, on mtiunnt of liis exerttouH in pro- 
|i[LgiilLii^ thiH religiiLiQ. (jliristiaus uppeared oidy a» a Md 
proocethiig from Judaioui, who were itccuseU by Fuul's Jtiwiib 
advoi^-vries of adul le rating tlie originn! doctrines of thwr 
religion ; so tbtt at Home no attention vaut ^xiid to dis- 

5 Mas that uiei'ely coiiccrsed the i'cU^^oiiä institutions of tbo 
ewB. Thia cimryu nyjiinst Puul mi^-hl tlierefoFB l» coo- 
sidered tk^ alto^-E'tlicr lovfi^n to Rütuim jtidtuatur«, aod he 
would Boon vti^iD his liberty ; in thin munuiir, tho oiäk 
would Booa be brotiglit to a close ; but it cannot be shown, 
• thftt it would lio 7iuwt.>il under tlila aspect, tbc muNt favour- 
ble for tbo apostle. Tlie Jews might accuse him as beiiig 
disturber of the public peace, wlio iut^rfrrod witli t! 
privUeyes guai-anteod to thetn by tlio Romaji govemint'Dti 
their advucute TertuUus had ahtn-dy attemplwl to pro' 
[BeucQ an additional alleyatioii migbt be made, wliich 
kthe stwraUiig-puiut of the Roman lnw would tcud much 
Paiil'B injury— that he liad cau.'scd among vlber Roi 
utyects fttid oitiirenÄ in the proviuceH, and in Romo itself, 
nents which were dctriiuealal to the good order of tho 
< , that b« had tempwid thcin to apostatine from tb* Htst« 
jion. bv itriijingating a religion at varianoe with tlu 
HKnW I iimtitutioni, in which robgiou and politic« 



intimately blended ' If the church at Rom@, consistitig miLiuly 
of Gontilo Chrlstjaus. gave the impressiuii in its whole apiMUii-- 
am» of being uiyewiBh, in aliort. a ffeiiiti tcrtium ; thia view 
of Pftiils conduct would be formed so miicili the more eneilj. 
The) exiatenco of Uiis new religious sect iu ihi» capital, would 
be Qiade an object of public atitc-ntiori by the procücdinga 
against Paul. We may suppose, ttiat liis fanatical and artful 
adversaries amoiig ihe Jews woiiJd leave no lUtiiioe untried tO 
t>et hia conduct iu tlie wur^t ]ius»iljlt; li^Lt to tti« Roman 
anthorltioH. Thus tlio invGstigntion of liie oiiise, with tha 
accusation and defc-noe, might be protracted, and his pruspuota 
might by turns boooma fartmi'abls or unfa-vourabie. Dunog 
the first period of hia residence at Eome be underwout no 
public examination.* His eitiuitiou justified the most favour- 
nble expvctatioBs, and he proposed ^^'hen set at liberty, before 
he extended his sphei'e of labmir towards the West, according 
to the plau he had proTioualy formed, to visit Lessor Asia, 
where bis [fervonnl eit.*rtiosa seemed to bo Tory neceitaary to 
coiuiteruct uiany infl.uoiicea that were operating injuiiouHljr 

I on tlie ehurcihes. Ue iiitiinn.tGd to thu ovecseer of the cliuroh 
ftt Coloe«^ Fhilduon, that be iotendod t« talte up his abode 
with him. 

At a Ut«r period^ of his imprisonmeut, when ho had 
nlrunily iinder^ne s. public ex.iminiil.iou, he hod no such 
favoumhle prospect before him; the lliougtil of Bmi-l)'rdüm 
becanio fitnulisir to his mind, yet the oi^pectation of being 
rwIeuBu'd from foafiueiiieTit was predominant, ao Uiat ha wrotv 

\io the chm-t'h at Philippi tbat iie hoped to come to them 
Bat if the view we have tii-ken of the origin and 

* Tb& poiitt of VÜ" B» a Boman sUltamaD rivtn wliicli Cjuoru Tunuud 
[<l)b model of Uw. "StjianiLim uciii'^ lialieeciil. Dcus novo dofo.'< nivu 

dniuu, al«i publice ailAclto« prirnlim calunio. RUu« /umilim 
u-m^* rm'aulo,~ Cicero dr. Lrtjifjvji: and Id the Coinmi'UUrieii, 
(i X., tftaitwt the i-oiifatio rriiyiuMm». wLii'h ai-o«e Ironi the introtliKV 
Ition o( toniiia iiov rEligiuaa. Tliin was Iho [Tolut of view from nLicii 
Ik Tocjtiiiliuid Ibo Yaaagci Plinj forinad their judgtuenr, of Chnntl- 
[ onity. 

' Whethflr thU Urm emhtneed i.hs whola of the first tiro ycaw of hi« 
nGDsniuiit we imnnut with mriaiDtj- itelenuine. fur aiku<:o of buku 
lI& the Auu !£ Dot jL fuiBfr'iont proof thut, during tLc vhola of tUi« 
rperioi), tli<^tt> U]u iicithiui; uituDaiiible to he nartaled rnnpeuliug thu 
I'BtOBtion of the apoitle. 

* A* nppeiiis ttom his EpiBlle to tbo PhUipfiliulB. 



origiiin ooostitatioB «f tho chareb nt Horoo be oomolf^ 
close oanaxicm and intimate cODimunion may be yrc 
to liHvc <7xi»-k!<1 between itsiwmbvraauit itiu individu.'ü win 
they ini){ht rugard luediiitoljr as their spirituiü Eutiier. 
whniia pcciilinr form of dnctnnc {msvniU'd ntiwng th«m. No* 
if the epintlcH wbicli Paul wroU; duriug Iiir liixt oouätictiMtil 
at Rotno bore evidmce ngwnet mich ft mippceitiou, thoy mijifat 
also be adduci'd ti^iiiitt our vScuk. If tbcsbä epintlcs luako is 
ucquaintod with a»Y difforcnco ciiBting between rlie Roniaa 
ohiiroli atid ]>au1, this fnot would be very dociäve, and n 
ahoulii bb forced tocoQcludethat a strongly mat'kwl ilitdniiitig 
elenii-iit pralomindUHl in tbat ehurdi. But tbe Rflona 
Christiana had aJKedy, even before he arriv<?d at Rraott 
ovitmi'd «, since several of tbcir nuuilicr era- 
veiled a daj'h jfnirucy, as fiir n» tho smdl Cuwn of t'ortm 
Jitpi't, and Wivas & shorlGr digtanoo to ttip plaoft called Tf» 
Tah^mrr, in urder t*i mt-et bini. In tlie Kpistlo to the Pü 
lippians ho sonds salutation from tlie whole clmreli (irditti 
til iymi) wliiub I« a piiwif of tiie ctoee coiiuvxion ia which hf 
stood willi tliem. Am to liia giving special salutAtioDs from 
tho OhriHtimiH iu tho remcc of tho imperial palac« (il« 
CtsusaririiLi), we luo not to infup that tlieee [xisom wen; HWrt 
ID uuiaou with Uim than the rest of tbe cburcl), but rubv 
tliut tliL-y VKTv hiiliar aojuaiiitdd, and on xswk iiilimili 
terms with tho church at Philipp!. At ül oventa. it ii « 
arbitriu-y Hiippositinn thn.t tbesa OeutiU) Chi^stiaiis were thDO 
vrbo, iu diiitiuctioa fruia tbe rust of tbe cburdi, coiihi.-'uu;; ' 
Jewish Christliins. wen? iti tlosor cijiincxiou with Pjuil ' 
migbt iridfiud bo expeuled. tlmt if tbt<Bs CWortam ■ ■ 
allied by theh- CentiJe origin lo the churob at 1' 
would buvt! tii«utiormd tbi» ciruumfitoiive us tho ru>4-.-ii 
prcmtitiug their specinl salutatioug. It b not ut all ia 
eisteat with this view, if xha/x cpietlcs ot^ataiii iiud 
marks, that in tbe Haman oiinrch Judoixcrs were 
hostile to Paul, and who occasioned him mucb voxatinoi;' 
we oursdves have pointed otit a JudaiÄiiig tendency le 
Buialler j^u't of ibis church autfidunt to account rorcuoli » 
appGumjicu. As tbe Gealile ChriHtiaiis who advooitM t^. 
Paulino piinoiple«) now fbimd so impoi'taEit a support in I 

' Sm St-tneokonburger, p. 138. 



_ sod ooopenitai with him in publishiDg tlie 

1 among thfl Gontil'«, utv uppusitiun i>f tit& Jutluiiiiig autj* 

no portj' luust liave b&ea excited bv it tuid reudernd fibll 

'aura Tiulent. The wbcl« tone of tbe £piatle to the Philip- 

pians tiMtifius of th« Qonflicts he sttstnined in his iutencuuree 

«ith the JudaiKei*». Uia excited fooliogs cannot be miatakciu ; 

111* divplcvunre wag called fbrtli \>j anxie^ tor tlic purity of 

I the go^l against those vbu, where the soul appeared in n 

rfit <tat« for i¥>ceiring thu g«s]icl, snugKb to titke udvnnta^ ol* 

lit f^ gniniug adiieroiit« for their Jeivish oeromoiüee and di'C- 

trine of ineritoiioiis works. Ami Paid hiniself diiiLiDguliilies 

those nmoug the Roman Christians who. with friendly fiij- 

' ing* towards iiiinself, wert! active ia co<iperating witli hiru 

1 for the »preiul of the gospel, fcciui those who, ariiinalüd with 

I (ealousy at hia siicccsi, ciidoAvourud to fonn a partj agaiuBt 

1 1tim, and to " add affliution to his bonds," Philip, i. 15 — 1»; 

jniid among the Jewish Christiauä he could only pomt oul 

[ two vha lahniired with him Tor the Iclngdom •>£ G<>d, and oon- 

, tributod to hia onifort ; Col, iv, II. 

Diiriug his cotilineiiiout, ruuiety fin- the eiteiiBion of the 
"am of God, and fur tho prosperity of the ehm-ches he 
tluul fouodfld, ■jcciipi«! him far more tlisin the luiro of hi» 
Welfare. As all pontons had fi'oe üccchs tii him, lit- 
luii eryoyed cipportiinitiee for pröaehing the gospel. liy tlie 
laoldiüfti who rulievcd one aiiotlier in sUuuiiog guard over 
Ibiiu, it bocama known among then- commtles, (umonK the 
IcoAorfKii -prielnHanw, in the autra pnetoria, in the pnMo- 
IWunt;) and Iwcco to a wider e\t«i)t in tho city, thnt he was 
lit til uoußnciitcat, nut on ttuoutiat of iiuy civil olTuicu, hut 
for his zeal on behalf of the new reli^on ; and this U'wded t& 
jnioto it, since a. ciuse fur which its advuCLttc! sacnAecd 
thin;; wiia certain of attracting attcntioiL Hy Km 
ipli] jilsu iiiimy I'l the Roman (l^hristians woro rousal to 
bti^h llie truth Keulouäly und boldly. But wliiW Hume co- 
witb 1*11111 Ui a oneness of heart and mind, others 
Icame forwai-d who belonged to the antipauliue Jadiu^ing 
Hirty, in opposition to his method of publiahing ilie gospel, 
ho manner tii which he expreasoa hirsusclf respocting these 
Ihi« oppotwuts is worth7 of aotiuo on :x» account». Wt- liere 
[■oe u man who cotild entimly f'ji-j,'t-v lils owi\ poraon when the 
lAQW if hi» Liord wuE oonuoriied, — who uould even rejoiuu in 


whitt ban m anfHcmlly Mpoot townrdi hitnwrlf, if it 
trihuUd to promote tliv cauite of Chiüt We perceive ] 
liir hii ivaI lor the truth and agiuott cttot wn from 
wlfUli ooiitmuU'ducHa ; n-itli what (t««<li>ni of ojiiiit he 
ftblo to pom a judgment on uU dacUii»! dificrcoocBL Bvm b~ 
the oTTonooiiH viowM »f thefte Judoücni be aefcnowlpdged tla 
tniü) that iay ftt tliair bnu«; nn'l whca ho comjionMl i|m 
cnrunt prupagaCv<I i'y llitin, with the fundanieatal truth «tüd 
tliay tuuiounced at the suniu tiino, it «us itiU a fluuo of jaj 
to liini ijiiit tKiH fundutooatAl trutit vse beoomiug uum 
gonfiralh- kiiowD, that Id enry wtty, «hcthcr to nret«ncv (In 
tlion who in tfieir liuarts prafeired Jadoism tu Cbristiniiiiii 
or with an U|iri^ht inteution, Christ wits pnwch««!, Phil 
For evcii by these puntuiis tbv knowledge of the Wu .^ 
which thti aofiiwl roited waa spntid to a gn?ater extvut ; nJ 
vheru fuitli in Jcsiin nx tlio Mtsuüuh, the Fouiulnr aud Kiül- ^ 
the kiiiL'duiu «r C!ia1, was odco producod, on this fuuiH]:iL 
eaiienttniutui-u could b« niised of more correct and exu-iyjui 
inBtruutlon. But from thb we loai-n what ia of »rvice i* 
exphunitig later appcnrauot-ti in tlio liiaturj' of tli« Bmdhi 
church, that iu conneiion with tJic Icsons of tlje Pmht 
theology the germ of a Jadaidng («ndoocy was implanted s 
tkia church, 

The ooncerna of the churches iu Ltwer Asia fii«t occntcrd 
Funr» attcntioD in his impnBoameat ' ,H« had tvuiircam 

' Tba iupTiufliCion on wLich w« bars prorocd, Ibot Paolwrulell« 
IpUtl« to the Caloiwluii, tho KpliciiauK, and Pliilomoa, (luril^ lU* 
mniflnMnant tt Hone, Iiais r»<iii<l in Iuirt inioi •itvuuoua oppoaenl*!' 
SoliuliiDd S«tLolt,lo irboiiiiuiuilbeaddedBütlgtc; battliei — 

advuiocd by ihem aguimt U do doi apDcu' W ma aiUpUd Ut _ 
tlio opinion liilherto moil gencmlljr ticld. though a« d«iiiai 
proof on bs siven In Ita favour, ninco Tiiul dooi not eiaj-tlj' t 
olreumilsuee* under nhicli be «rrol«, What he aj» of the , 
nitioK iirvtcnMtl for annmm^init thu stupel. tgmm nny veil *ii 
wo know of his i!onÜn«uivnt it Kumc, from the blataKivcu in ikai 
tad in ihD EpUtlc t« iht ]'biUt>]>iiu:>;>. (The Utt«r indtsed 
urgRit BjruiiDit BüUifi'i*- fur Iid mippuHu* Uist (>|)!xtlo t« bo writ 
Panl WBM coniliicd ut Ciciuifa.^ It doc« not BMiatr lo ma 1*-^^^^ 
timt a Timuvny »luv« friiiii CiiIo'MHt hIiduIiI bouke kitnMlt at oaBi 
Rom« I for thf conalanl imcrcauiw] with tin mpital of lbs HEf*" 
(rould naKtl;r I'urnUli bim vlih ui »['ponunllj, aiitl bo niglii Infi I 
^rcatiir ixruril.y frpni III« dintam-o ntid thu smmeaK potrablMa Ml' 
Dclrapohs. Nai is it m all •trangc, that o UiaeVicr of tbecbmciii'' 
tabauld \m iuiluutd, hf tb* diagtn ibat UiRiatcacd pun 



. «laot acconut of Ütdir ütuatioDS from an eratuent iudiviiltMl 
tbelooging to tbe chiireJi of Culussc, Eiwphnio. tbc fmiader of 
lüiat aad of tlie nR^bonriiif; Christian flomrounitica. Ho 
I Twtvd PftnL at Rome, and j^vc pmcticnl proofs of his syiu- 
I path^v, ' and tliroogh him ttie n|>OAtle learnt bow oann; Uiiiig^ 
which hail happ^ied in their cliurch daring his uleeiice 
I rvquirctl U> I'e promptly «luotcncted. 

During the pivceiüiig yeas, a uuw 'uäusiice «nunatinK öxmii 

[ Jiidiii^iu biul Ih.u^u d^vt?li*ii(^(l iu tbit% regions; — ati iDJtiu.-nco 
witli nbieh Chriatiaiiitj' liad hitherto not como iu contact, 
but wliich now tlireateued to mingle ^th it, and to ciidAngtr 

1 its purity and simplidly. It might be expected that Chris« 
tianitr on its first spraid giniong the Jew^ would chißSy ootue 
in coutact nitii the Pharisaic mode of thiukiug wbicL was 

ithea prL^domitmiit. Heiioa the firat Mm tenchcre, with whom 

[ «nitf thorn, to tnval &a far us Rome in order to coneull the B|}oatlc und 
llO «iIIrII hU aatiittuaoo; tlmugti we rjtnnikl iJttterminK with vcrt.ainljr 
[irlwlboc other per*üU4l eoawraä ali« limuehi, Kpaplira» to Eome. 
HctttifT cut the (act that Fau!, wiicn at liomc, desir«! u lodging to be 
in reaUinws for him at CoIo^tie. dBtonuiiiu aiiytliingi for tnoa)"ii he 
bwl at m earlier period, (nrmnd itiF iQU'iiiion tu trsTol frst into Spnin, 
hret. aa mi bat-« iilread}- rumntkcil. lie luit'lit bu i[iiJuccd. by ihe Infur- 
liaUion respeeting tli* chivngeB in tlie diurcli« «f lj«c!er AiU. lo^lrer 
I hit pIuL Xor if H oiher/nte Lbnii nulurul. iLnt, during hit- L-oiifiuvini^iir 
j at Roino, hu nlionlil rolliict irounri him yimiiccrnifn, wiioiit oihorliinc' 
[bod heea oted to etrve m c!buipiimoii&