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Table of Contents . . . , , 
Ijst of Unpublished Documents in Appendix 



BOOK I. Alexander VI„ 1492-1503, 

S-ivonarola and Alexander VL , 
Alexander VI. and Louis XIL . 

Louis XII- in Milan 

Alexander VL and the War against the Turks 
The States of the Church and the Borgia . 
AlCTcander VI/s action in the Church . 
Alexander VL as a Patron of Art^ 







BOOK IL Pius IIL, 1503, Julius 1L, 15^3-1513- 

The Conclaves of September and November, 1503 , 185-831 

Disputes with Venice 232-258 

Subjugation of Perugia and Bologna .... 259-289 

The Pohticai Situation between 1507 and 1509 . . 290-320 

Wars in Italy 321-365 

The Holy League 366-404 

Annihilation of ihe Power of France in Italy , . 405-454 

JuUus IL and Art 4S5-5<^^ 

Jutius IL and Michael Angelo 5<>3-539 

Raphael and the Vatican Stanjie 540-607 

Appendix of Unpublished Documents . , . 611-659 

Index of Names ,...,.. 661-670 





1495 The hope of refomi centred in Savonarola 
The moral revolution in Florence 
HLs sermons become more political . 
His numerous enemies in Florence . 
His passionate advocacy of the Fiench alliaoce - 
And denunciation of the Medici and their adherents 
The Pope summons Savonarola to Rome . 
He excuses himself from coming on the ground of 


The Pope forbids Savonarola fo preach 

And orders the Convent of S. Marco to be reunited to 

the Lombard Congregation 
Savonarola acknowledges the duty of submission 
But defends himself, especially as to the reunion with 

the Lombard Friars 

The Pope yields this point, but forbids Savonarola to 

preach ..,,..- 
Piero de' Medici attempts to return to Florence 
Savonarola's sermons against him, before the arrival 

of the Pope's Brief 

His negotiations with the Duke of Ferrara 

The Signoria fail to obtain permission from the Pope 

for Savonarola's preaching . , eo 

49* Savonarola resumes his sermons by their command . 1 1 

His first Lenten sermon, in defence of his conduct . 1 2 

His following sermons, against the vices of Rome . 12 

Moderation and patience of Alexander VI. , 13 


-m coMTe»jT& 

1496 Th« violence and icrrorwrn <-xercHed hy Savonarola . 
"I'hc Pope prcjjoHcs a new Dommicnn l^ngrcgfltion 

under Cirdinal CjialTa , , . . 
Uiicundllitjfiul refusal ufSavoTiarota . 
V497 Tli« Pope endeavours to detach FLoience from the 

French AliJAncc 

Savoiurolik^i* l^ntcn Acimuii^ in J4g7 . • 
His ftienris aiien^ted by their violenre 
DisiUfbancea In Florence , . . , 

SAvonarola^s IcUer to ttic Pope .... 
BACoinmujucat>on of Sovoiiaioln t^y the Pope . 
EdcirtH of ;he riorerttme Atnbansndor 10 obinm ihc 

wiihdrawal of the Brief .... 
Savanurola's letter of deiiiincc . . , . 
Tl]c Tope dctcintu]« to persevere in ihc excanimuoi 

cation ....... 

Diiob«di&[ice of Savcnarola, who celeUfttvt Muss <;>n 

CliriatmAa Day < , . . , 

Anil dctummoi lu :i;»uiiic hut ticiujuns 
Which ihi? Virar of ihc ArchWshop tHef in vain to 


i^gS S^^onfirola preacher in defence of hi^ disobedience 
Hi^ 8tLid(ai LLpou llic Roiiiaii clergy • 
Thr Pope'* FtTieffo(he Florcntin-TS . 
He threatens ihem witti An Interdict, if disobedtcnt 
Rut promises to absolve Sa^'onwola if \k wiH obey 
11w Si^^uoria defend SavoJi/trc)la 
T!ic Pope in^iittK that hty thalt be nhui itp or sent ia 


Letter of the Florentine Ambotuador to hii (ioverc 


ITie Pope embittered by the conduct of the Signoria 
Who linillj' forbid Savonarola to preach . 
The Pope inaiAtB on [he rtndication of hia Authority 
Savonarola appcala to iJic ChiuiUiiij Poni-[b to cun 

vnli<-n Cotindl . . - 

lib friondnhip find intiiffueK with Charles VIM. 
The knowlcdip; of which citft&pcnuej ihc Pope . 
SaVDEiamla heginh 10 lose ht^ irfSuence in Flofcrce 
Ccncrnl disbelief in hia pruphccits , 
His enemies in the Coundl insist on obedience to the 


Savotwiolii tjjallengto tlic oiUeal by fire . 
I'h^ dukUenge i^ken tip by l-'r»ni.-esc(] of Apulia 
Savonitrola reJuie^ 10 take up Ehe challenge in person 
Fra Domcnico ^looq^ it for iiim 












1498 Conditions imposed by the Signona > . - > 43 

Disapproval of the Pope ...,■- 43 

Failure of Che ordeal by fire , , . « . 44 

Anger of the populace ...... 45 

Who lose faith in Savonarola 4^ 

Disturbances in Florence. Murder <rf Francesco 

Valori 47 

The Convent of S. Marco stormed. Savonarola im- 
prisoned . .... - 47 
Savonarola to be tried in Florence . , , . 48 
Savotmrola deserted by his disciptes .... 49 
He is condemned to death wilh Fra Donienico and 

Fra Silvestro . . 50 

His degradation and execution .... 50 
His political fanaticism and insubordination to Ihe 

Holy See 51 

His sincere belief in his own mission • - ■ 53 



1498 Death of Charles VIII 55 

Louis XII. claims the Dukedom of Milan > - . 55 

Alexander VI. sends Envoys to France - , , 56 
Dissolution of the marriage between Loui& XIL and 

Jeanne of Valois ...... 57 

Marriage of LfOuis XII. with Anne of Brittany - . 57 

CfCBar Borgia desires to return to a secular life . 57 

Projects of marriage for Cjesar and Lucrezia Borgia . 58 

Marriage of Lucrezia Boi^ia with Alfonso of Biscegiia 58 
Proposed marriage of Csesar Borgia with Carlotta of 

Aragon rejected by the King of Naples . 58 

League of the Orsini and Colonna against the Pope . 59 

Ciesar Borgia resigns the Cardinalate . , , 60 

He sets out for France 60 

He is created Duke of Valentinois .... 61 

His reception in France 61 

Breach between the Pope and the Sforza ... 62 
Remonstrances of the Portuguese Envoys with the 

Pope 63 

Reproaches of Ascanio Sforza , , . 63 

Arrival of the Spanish Envoys in Rome . , . 64 

They threaten the Pope with a Council , . , G4 




AUrm of Al^Kindcr VI 

Failure of thr projected marnjigeof (■■.H4*r Borgia . 
Treaty bctw«-n Louii XII. and Venice For ttic pa/ 

tilion of MiUn ^ 

Louii XII. offer* the htntl of UuHoEle d'Albtct to 

Cnh<al puAilion of Al«vaodCT VL , . , 

Ht mftltcfl conccaiions to Spaxn - , - . 

Matiia^c of Cx^t B^rftU wiiti CKfttloUc d'Albrct . 
Cardinit Aw-jirkin SfmrrJ l<yiv« Romp 

LxicrcxL^L and Jofrfi Ik^r^ia [cave Rome for bpoi«to , 


LOUIS XiU itt mu^Ti. 

InvABioD of Milan by the FraDch 
FIlk^jI of Lodovjco NIoro ... 

IvTighJ of xhc Pop.' a: the success of the Frenrli 
Kcncvcd thT<:it« of a Cojod! by the FortugucMr 
The Pope and Lomi XII. plan the conc|iic4t cf the 

Roma^(i4 by Ocur 

Th9 h\\ fii ImoU and' h'orli . . . , 
Coc^v suspected of poinoning h\% ocphew, CfcrtfiMl 

Juan uorsia . , , . 

1500 I-iwioTitx) Mara recovers Milan 
Triumphil receplion of Ciesir Borgia in Rome - 
French victory at Novim, Lodovieo ufci^n prisoner 
Cardinal Attanio Sfom Itnpriaoncd in t^rancc . 
RcjokJDga [Q Rome ..... 
Inaecvrlif of Hfe and property to ihe City. 
AUoniO oJ Hiacoglia aunckvd and n-oundcd 
He iLltAcki Cicaar Borgia, and i> murdered by his 

ordcrv , 

Nannw rv^^pr of thr Po^ (tnttt draih 

CGC«ai resumet ht^ p]an« against the Romagna - 

1501 His fir»l (Liccewcs. l*hc aicge of Kaen/;i - 
Csn-ii li created Duke oF Rorrugnu - 
Termt of peace madp with Ffcorencr , 
Treaty bctweeii the Pope, France, and Spjain for the 

partition of Naples , . . 
TTic Frei^i:h in\^de Naple*; flight of King Frederick 
Fnneeand Spain divide Naplet 

tablk op coniextr 




i4f& Tbc Pope's BCpotutn hindcn «fforu t^trm tbe 'Tarb 
But 1w Rndnvmiri in orgsmiur « Cfuudr , 
AttSidc* of the ifttlian on Chriitiftii ooiiitfricc 
RoMiUtid between the Turks and Venice 
Si»ccc»»c»of ihe Turk*— fill of Lcjumn , 
1499 Tbe Pope vndrAvtmn ta fnnn ji T^ngiLc i|[minu the 
Tuik* ... . . 

IndiSiBTeore of the Christmn l^weri to tbc fate of 
Vcokc ... 
ijM Ittim of 1 Cntiftde Bull by thp Fop- 

Fapal Brief 10 thtf Kinu of Fniy:* ... 

TSe Oniinott lucd lor the war. Liit of contribtr- 

i)on» , , . 

Sincnitf of the Pop^« support of Vcnioe- - 
Succc(4c» of ihc Turti a^insi Vrnico — fall of Modon 
Efforts of AlcXJUidcr igainst the Turks 
!i;dil?ercikcc of ihc Chrulun rrinc^t 
Fe^Budl undcrt<ik«m the mission to Cw&mMny 
Uuimtliui refuMi htm eotrancc to the empire . 
f^t Pcrawli coo^et to an aKrccmcni with tbc Diet at 

Nuftotbcfg 9^ 

J501 And pi«M!hci the rjusadt throogKimi Gertnuiy 97 

The King cf linglarid rrfu>ici maii^nal help - . 97 

Inviudon cf ihc French cictgy . . , , 98 

ObfoctioiiB to the (.Vuudc in Hiui^Anr . . . 9S 

ijoo 'l^homai B^03, the Primate. concliidrfS nn agree- 

meoi . . . . 9X 

(501 Concttuiofi of the League between Hungary, Venice^ 

anJ Lbr Pij[.>c ..... ^p 
Alnnwitv« HiirrrKcn smd fAHurn of the i\eei 99 

CooqiNtt or' >^ Mkursi by Bishop Giicc>po da Petftio ico 
PcflpOc concluded between Vcnicq llungary, nrtd the 

Turki , , . . . , . 101 

FecnniafT andxtanu! giiisn by^tbr? Pnjie ici HMngBfy . loi 









,1591 Akxaiidcr \1> jLud the Colonna .... io,t 
ConHscatioTi of the fxiucsiions of ihe Cobmta aitJ 

Safelli 104 



1501 Thc:ir distribution ^tmoiiE^ the Urtrj^ 

Lcg^iui^itton of Juan EJor^ti - ^ . . 
Marriige ctf l.tirre/i^i Bi>r(;ia anti AironiM d'Este 
Htir popularity u DucIi^k* of 1-vrraru 
CtuncticT oT Lucrccia Borgia— her chuitr ■ 
Poiiitiijii of Casmt Bun;iii in Kwuv . ■ 

Pamphk( ajjiiiikr thi? Horgia 
lr>diei«tenc« <jl the J'ope 10 i^tich alucics - 
Dcvtlopmcni of cpiftrtoniuftlic satire in Rome . 
Ttie crccciuii of the sUluc of PntQUii^o 
1504 Which boromrs ihe cciitfe of Mitiy epigrams 
1 509 Lots o\ the caricatures ottftched l<i comic pocmi 
150J Alexander VL And CccMr Borgia visit l^ombini , 
Fbns of fTiciAr Borgia o^insL Tu^Lvany 
He iakci \iotara-ian of ih^ Dufhy of Urtuno and 

Comenno- ....>. 
Citncrino t^von to the infant Juan Butgxa 
Imcrfcicticc at Loui» XII. "iUi Cjcmi'* plans . 
Cdpsar '■«nji>s (o Term* iriih tht- Krng <if Frarc# . 
Coiisptracy of th« mercenary troops againet Ctuar 
Who rvccivc* help from France . . 

Aad breaks tip the coiiapiiai:) 
Caesar lalw Siniga^ha. FligM of Andrea I'Mjria 
Murd^f of tha cl^ief contpimton al Simg^lia b^ 

C«caar < 

150J FuiificT htiixc»r» of Ctet&r BorgU . 
The Pope prof erd* againa the Ordni 
CooGaoation of the polaoc and propcrtp oE CordinaJ 

Or^i - - ..... 
Jofrf Btjrgia atUcks the Oraini i^tron^tuild^ 
TheOraniattadE Ponre Xomtnlnro. Alarm oflhc 

Pcpv . 

Death of Caniinnl Omini^MiSpLcion of poiaon 
Cfc^ar Boi^ta HtIvMiiLi:*i .ijpijisc the OrViiii , 
Ri*vrTSf^ ct (hi* Frrn<^h in NnjiW 
■"H-kj Vdpe mtJiCA money *jy ihc talc of new offices 
Death or'Cariiinnl Mic-hicli prohablf by poinon 

The Borgia policy indin« row:irrlii Sptiin 

Ne^Otiationa between the l*cpc and the Kmp^rroT 

Oocu|mtion of rcregui b>- the troops ol t/cciaf Borgia 

5idcnc35 ia Rome— dqjr«?itm of llie Pope 

lllnMi *ir l?n- Popp and <rf Cofsar Borgia - 

Death of Alvund^ V r , 

I'hc fua^Kcien of poi&on un|;round»<I 

Ficicrdl of AJcA^idcr VI. * , > . 





1503 Severe judgment of his contemporaries . . , 15S 

Pii^y modified by modem research . . , 13S 

Worldliness of Alexander VI 139 

Its disastrous effect upon Che Papacy . 139 

But the puiity of the Churches doctrine maintained , 140 

Distinctian between the Pope and the man > > 141 



Alexander VI. supports the religious Orders 
Especially the Dominicans and the Hermits of S 

Augustine ...... 

He defends the liberties of the Church in the Nether 


He promotes devotion to the Blessed Virgin 

1500 And restores the ringing of the Angelus 
1499 Preparations for the Jubilee of 1 500 . 

1^00 The opening of the Jubilee by Alexander VI. . 
Crowded Pilgrimages to Rome for the Jubilee - 
Distinguished Pilgrims in Rome 
The receipts from the Jubilee given to Caesar Borgia 
Serious inundation in Rome . , . , 
The Jubilee extended to the whole of Christendom 
Disposal of the Jubilee alms .... 
Resistance to the Jubilee Indulgences in Switzerland 

and Germany 

Cardinal Peraudi^s efforts for reform in Germany 

1501 Aleitander VI. and the Censorship of Books 

1500 His repression of heresy in Lombardy and Bohemia 

His tolerance of the Jews due to policfcal motives 
1493 Proceedings against the Maranas (crypto-Jews) . 

1492 Propa^tion of the Faith in Greenland 
The discovery of the New World 

Arbitration of Alexander VI. between Spain and 
Portugal ....... 

1493 Definition of the boundaries between them 
Evangelisation of the New World 













Improvements in Che Leonine City .... 165 
1499 Making of the Borgo Nuovo for the Jubilee of 1500 . 166 


^K m 

^^M t^i;t) AIienAiioTiK in ific Casiltr of Si. Ati^do . , 1 

^^^^^ Uiftcovi^riLS madi> during the aLunLtion« 

^^^^B OchoT improvements in Ehc Tra^lcvcrc 

^^^^H Work^ at ilic VAiicajd, Tlic Apparuimcnio Borgift 

^^^^^H Ttir {liM-'tntiion of ihr- AppAruimmio 
^^^^H RcEEoratt^>n8 in Ronun Churchu 

^^^^^H Building by Alcxkiridcr VI. outside Komc , 

^^^^^ FAtioiULgc of An \iy Lhc CardinkLJA 

^^^^ t4g^ Br;irnjinte\ ^irk in Kcimi? , . , . 

^^^^L Churchet ertf^tixl in Lhe rdgn of .\lviumdtr VI. i 

^^^^^H BOOK ^^M 

^^^^K^^ Pius ^^H 

^^^^^^ ^^M 

^^^^^P CHAPTER ^^1 

^^^^^^^ HIE c:o»cLAvis or ivnsMum a»]> koveusbiir, '5^T| 

^^^^^ 1503 EMrigei of ibr situation in Imly .1 

^^^^^ He nwcat>» oL>cdiD^<:c 10 the Stcrcd College 

^^^^H And consn-nN in wtiltiLiJiv from Rom«- 

^^^^H Hr [thcfi hin^lf UTidirr the prrtTccitnrt a( ih«- Frcnci 

^^^^^H The]uii3 ot AU^K-indcr VI. 

^^^^H KfTortt of Cdidirial d^Amboiv- to obtain the Tiata 

^^^^^H Oppriiitiim L)f lhc Sjuni^h Cardinals , 

^^^^^H Arm'nl of Ohrliami delb Knvt-nf in Rurntf 

^^^^^H VivisMJiM nmung lh?i lt;ilian t.'ardinalct 

^^^^^H Bcci^^nini; of the Condiivc 
^^^^^^L^ A ncM Eiciliun CapllubtioiL dmwii 11^ 
^^^^^^H Potiiion nfC^rdinA d'Ainbfiisf* 

^^^^^^H The tmlonCM ai pnriiot nmong the Cardinnb 

^^^^^^H Selection of C^roiiinl Piccolomini it» Pope 

^ ^Vho t^kcs the njimc of Pui:^ [If- 

^^^^H Chancer tif Pills in, . . 

^^^^H Veto U(]l]>hInu^ <in Piua IJh , . , , 

^^^^H ZojI uf Piu» UK fur the rcfurm of the Churdi . 

^^^^^H llii |irAce-Uiving di^po^ttion 

^^^^H The Pop<' a|low« LociAi Bor^» co return to Rome 

^^^^^L Coronation oi J'iua III 

^^^^^1 Cksu Bonpa's oimy to be di^b&ndcd 



i-DL PAGl 

1503 Reconciliation betwecD the Oraini and the Colonna , 304 

Perilous posittoD of Oestr Borgia .... A05 

Illness of the Pope 205 

Death of Pius in, . , .306 

Gioliiino delLa Rovere comes to terms with the Spanish 

Cardinals .,..,.,, so8 

Prospects of the Election 309 

Election of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere , 210 

Who takes the name of Julius 11 z 10 

Tenns of the Election Capitulation . . > 2 1 1 

Appearance and character of Julius II. . . . aia 

His courage and strength of will .... 215 
He devotes himself to the restoration of the States of 

the Church ai6 

His freedom from nepotism 317 

Contrast between Julius 11. and Alexander VI. . , 318 

Julius II. and his relations 218 

Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere . < . .319 

Creation of Cardinals by Julius IL . , , . no 

ijoS Death of Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere . . - aaa 

Economy of Jutius II 333 

His ways of raising money 334 

And Lancia] ability ...... 33j 

Order maintained in Rome by the Swiss Guards . 336 

Reorganisation of the coinage . . < . < 336 

Storage of provisions in Rome 337 

Improvement of agriculture in the Carapagna . , 338 

System of administration of the States of the Church, 338 

Government of the Papal Slates by Julius IT. . . 339 

Justice and popularity of the Pope , » » 330 



1503 Difficulty of the Pope's position 

Anarchy in the States of the Church. 
Encroachments of Venice in the Romagna 
Legations given to Cardinal d'Amboise 
Julius II- and Csesar Bor^ 
The Pope reraonstiates with Venice , 
And resolves to recover the Romagna 
Discouragement of Caesar Borgia 
Faenza and Rimini fall into the hands of Venice 






«,D, PA 

■50J Cwatr BovgiA nTubc^ to deliver jp tlic fona of the 

Arresi of Ctcsar Bor^ 

His imprisonmeni and iheconliscalioii of bis propetty 
150^ Apccmcrt between ihc Popc^uid Crosar Borgia 

Who remain!! uniler survdlUni:e al Osui . 

Caesar goes to Naplc^^ ^liere he 11 igiin arrested by 

Focli given up to the Pope . . . * . 

Cksat Btn^ia inipriuimril in Spain . 
15©* Hiseseipe from Spain, and death in battle in Navtrre 

Hia bcnM.^c in the Koniupia fiJls to the Church 

Relatioaa of Venice and Juliun U. , 
r;oj The P0[}e biiiist^ on the re^Cuiuliu:? of tTir Komagna 

His relations with ih« Venetian Amtmsaador 

Renion»tnincefr of Julioa 11. , , . 

HJ3 icsoluiion Lu fccovci tlic Roina^na . • 
1504 Bhi^r of Julius TI Co ihc? l>ogf . . , , 

Vcniw- rctu^c* to giv* v%y . . < - 

The Pope seeks bet|> ak^"^ Vcoiec , 

in* jK^olUlJous whli MAAimJliAD and Loub Kl\. 

Unfficndlinr^s of T^rrdinand iQwnTds itie Holy See 

Conclusion of ih« agreement ol Blois agAinn Venice 
'S*S Venice bi^ina to give way . . . . 

FaiiiKe of the Ajiiccmei^l of Bbi*- 

The Pope rcccivea r tie Venetian prtfesaJou of obedience 





Tlie }'*>pfz inukr-i ranuly alliiintrcn witlL tlie Roman 

Barons .....,- 
Marrjsyt of l-dici: wiUi Giovanni Uiordono Unini 
And of MarcAntonio Colonna wiih a niece of the Pope 
Rule of iht' lyranii in Bolc^tia :inU Perugia 
The Pope deiermioea ro rtco^er Them 
And to hoid ilie expedition lunitelf . 
Opposition of Venice to tbc undcTtaklntf . 
Alliaiices concluded with oihei Ii^lran Suu-£ 
Uneeriflin ;tniEUde of France and Venice , 
Un£AtiRfacu>ry conduct of Cardinal d'Amboi«e 
EcclcftiAttiTal dixputci iriih Frflnce . 
NcgQtioiion.^ c(jni('jning P<:riigia j.nd Botogna 
The f ope (ct» out for Bologna 


^^^^ TAULK or tXtNTEHTS. 




ijo* Hii rwcpiion at Vti«r6o < . • . 

. . a67 H 

finUr of Um ?opc iACo Om«tio 

16S s 

i6g ^M 

Ei^iry of JiiliuA tl irto PctL^n . • 

170 ■ 

He pbru a Cf^itji^c ;ig:tintt tha Turk* , 

- art ■ 

^K Kcstonttbii of ihc libc^iica of PcntK>^ 

* «TS ■ 

^^g Reception of the Tope ai U[bino 

- 373 ■ 

^^ MttKion of AruoruniU MontcSanSavino. 

> ^74 ■ 

1 Bendvogtio a^>pc3li co a General Council . 

* 'M ■ 

1 The Pope cDdcflVGcrt to conciliate Vi^jike 

- ns ■ 

^^ Airinl of the Enroys from Ui^ki^a , . 

- «}5 ■ 

^^ft Death of Iliiirp of (.^ukUk 

. 37^^ ■ 

^^m Boloffin pUcc>i urulct ui Inwrdkt . . 
^^1 Tb« Pope Burcbca UfMxi Bologna 

- '77 ■ 

- '77 ■ 

^H Hkbt air Ikntirogtio tom Bokigna . 
^^V 'Sjbmlflikin uf Bulu^ia to Uw P(>;w , 

27*} ■ 

3S0 ■ 

^^V Hift tritimphal eriixy iMc tb« oiy 

afti ^1 

Kcowinieaiion of the Governoioil of UoJogna 
Coaditioziei of the AA&utuifx of Fxauti: 

. aSj ■ 

. ^U ■ 

CrrAium of thrtt Krcnrh CardinaU . 

^^4 ■ 

Diutmioiu bttw««n Louifi XIJ, and tho fopo 

- =^s m 

i IS*? The Pope katca Bolojfna . - . , 

. £»6 ■ 

1 Ht^ tmioaphal ciiei> Jnio Roue 

. ssr ■ 

K Tlie address of Cardinal Riarlo 

. »S8 J 




<s^?- ^^1 

^^k EnluJiccd pmtiHc of the Papacy 

290 ^M 

^^BTfaaatttung atlhudt of France and S^in 

7^1 ■ 

^^B Reconciliation brlwcvn (cr<Iinand and Louii^ X 

. ^91 ■ 

^^B' large number of Cardiiiab a: the Irencli Court 

- '9' H 

^^1 Uusion uf C^irdtnal Pallavlunu to llic Fri:ni:h c 

;imp . isi> H 

^^ Lotiis XII- lefuwa 10 ^ve up ih« Bretlvogli 

>93 ■ 

Tbtf r«furm ol th« Church dUcuBied by iierc 

jjiand ■ 

and LouiaXIL . . , , 

' >94 ■ 

The Popr dJASuadee Maaimlliin from cxiini 

ng Ui ■ 

Rome ...... 

^ 19s ■ 

Cardinal CarvajOl lent an Lcnaie to Germany 

a 96 ^1 

1508 Pfopo«aU'for a Lcaievc agaiJist Vcrke 

Maiimilian assumca ilic name of '*Empcrur-c 

cct of H 


196 ^1 

Brief oi Julius 11, to Maximiiian 

■ *97 ■ 
'9* H 

Defeat of Maximilian by the Vcnctinna 




I5«S CcndUttion ofthe League of Cairibrai . . 
Impnid^occ of Voitcc in ilcaluig wiili Juliiu TT* 
EncnacbaEentS on Cho [\}pc*a Bupjcnuo . 
Ditputeft about lh« AMMUiimcnis tc Bitboprica 
[Qioleaoe ol Jacopo Dudolo .... 

tjoT DifTicullIca in fiologni— rcctU of the Pjip*1 Lcptc 
IncHpics ofthr It^-nTtyngll , . . . 

Cflrdinal AJidMi M^t ak I^«ptc to Bologna 

1508 Vcoioe pctfiau in her unr^otomiblc demands ■ 
IiHo1«nrc of the %*cnctian RnToy to ihc Pupc - 

J509 Julitit II- j^irii ihe L«a{^ of CaTn1>rni 

The Vcncliani inlriguc «ith Ihe Onmj and Colooat 
Bull of Excomiriunicatton pronoanccil a^unst VflnAoe 
Tht* Vf.-nt4iim appral fo a Cpoenl Council 
Fcrran and Mintua Join the l-^ague of CMbbr^ 
Dereai of the Venetia/ia ai AgnMlcllo 
Hacfaiarclli oil ttiL- cliaractcr of the VcMltaw. 
The Vcn«ittiia simmdrr ih« Romupw 
And Mfid EnTO}^ to Uomc Co mm m MiC* . 
Cnuhinie cocifliltotu pioposod by the Pope , 
SuicO!»se» o# ihi? Ven«liAna Id the wftr 
Ncfotittiont v]ih Eho Pope broken <# 
JialiQf 11, foirt the incrtAM cf the po^cr of F^nce in 

1510 And caficludr?* p«<c« with Vcnhx 

AbeohilioQ of the r«pr«i«oiaiive« of Venice at Rome 




The ?opt dil«raikws 10 delivtr Italj* from the French 

Vftcilkbon of Louu XII 

Dtatk of Cardviil d'AmboiK .... 
Faihin of the Pope** nc^cttaiion« with Getnunjr and 


Ho conclndc» an &llianoc with ihc Sirita 
Through the AMiiitEUice oT Canlinal Sehinner 
Imphaonmail of Cardii^l Clennoiit 
BoclaitatkAl disputes a«l rtipturc with Loub XIL 
The Pope's plan arcan^pai^n agajnat FoiaA . 
DhobediMict' of the I'Juite of Fefran 
Wbo ki cxcoromunicatod by the Pope 
Lonia X\X. summona A Sjrnod to aiten Ibc GiLllkan 



i-Dp PACK 

1510 Subservience of the Synod to the French King . , 330 

Irresolution and procrastination of Louis XIL . , 331 

Decision and energy of Julius IL . . . 331 

He sets out for Ferrara ...... 333 

Difficulties of the journey 333 

The Marquess of Mantua, Standard-bearer of the 

Church 334 

Schism in the Sacred College 335 

Oppression of the Bolognese by Cardinal Alidosi ^^^ 

Who succeeds in deceiving the Pope - . . 336 

The French army before Boit^na , . . . 336 

Illness of the Pope 336 

He gives hia blessing to the Bolognese . , . 337 

Arrival of the Venetian and Spanish troops . , 338 

Retreat of the French army 338 

Conquest of Concordia ...... 339 

Recovery of the Pope 340 

15J ' Who joins the array before Mirandola , . . 341 

Capitulation of Mirandola 343 

The Pope endeavours in vain to come to terms with 

the Duke of Ferfara 343 

H^ goes to Bologna and Ravenna . . . . 344 

Arrival of Matth^us Lang as Envoy of the Emperor 344 

His reception by the Pope at Bologna , . 345 

Failure of the negotiations 346 

Trivulzio succeeds Chaumont as Commander of the 

French army , ...... 347 

Bologna taken by the French and given up to the 

Bentivogli 349 

Murder of Cardinal Alidosi by the Duke of Urbino . :iS'> 

Cardinal Isvalies legate of Bologna . , , . 351 
The Council of Pisa called by the Emperor and the 

King of France 35^ 

Julius II. summoned to take part in it . , . 353 

Proposed objects of the Council .... 353 
Which is supported by the Emperor and the King of 

France 3S4 

Anti-Roman spirit in Germany . , . , . 354 

1510 Anti-Papal proposals of the ILmperOT . - - 356 
Who desires a Permanent Legate for Germany . . 357 
He endeavours in vain to force the Pope to join the 

League of Cambrai 35 7 

1511 And in revenge joins in the plans of Louis XH. , 357 
A French play directed against the Pope . . 357 
Jean Lemaire's pamphlet in favour of Gailicanism , 359 
Answer of Julius IL to the citation to the Council . 361 

TABL£ or caVTfiNTS 

1511 Rdu^ f/Juliut n. lo Rome . 

Ilr npiv«h EO Ihc King nf f^poin fnr Awuxnce 
Louit Xll- nuk«i ovennrvf of pvscc 
Dtiunion among the ochiiooAlical CirJintls 
Juliui Tt. lummoiuan (KcumcTiical (rouncil 
And condemni the Council of Pua , , 




Juliin I L forms an alliance wiiUSptin . . . ^ 

Failure of the ncgotbdona «1th Lottli Ml. , . 367 

Formation of Ui« Holy r.c«giu agunftt Franco . . 3<S 

DMgciou* illneai of the Fop« j6S 

Rh rrcoverr dMpired rtf J69 

AmlHtkius fchemci of Pompco Colonnn , . - Jfi 

Stiddco TOOOTcry qT ihc Pope 37* 

Whntcailfncsillienciotiaijnrwfrir the I'CRguc . . J?* 

ConclLaion and promulgiEinn &f ihe T.Aipie 373 
BscoiDmiinJcAtion and depostton of th« (chinnatirBl 

CanlinaTs J74 

Unfavourabh: diangcr tn the EiR|)cror itfwjink tbe 

Coundl 375 

Hts fluppoaed dcairo to bcccnw Pop« . . 376 

Hb kam or the lubject to bb dauKhier . . . 377 

And to Paul von f.ichMMi^ > . * . jSo 

Nogoliitionc b«twc<-n ihc Popt and th« fimpvor . 383 

HoatJIkr of iHc German BpwoopaM M lh< CoiiRci) . 3S4 
LoQia XTf/a pnlicy dUappnived l>j the Frmch clcr^ 

and peo^ 3A4 

Lonlty of the Iloluin ckr^y tn the Popo . , 3S3 

Wnltns) of Caj^CAnuft «£4in»t :bc Conciliar thcoty . 585 

\V>»ich iH adrticaiL'd by /ixix:anx Fcrnrri and DmnK . 3S6 

Character of Canlmnl Carxiijat . , - , 3S7 

Th*r Pope b>-a an Init^rdict upon Florence . • 38S 

Anivalof l\\c ichibickitical Cardioak al PM > . 389 

Openin^ofthc Council of Pill . . . , 390 

ConHtct betwwvi th« Florvniirm and th« Pliant . 39* 

Tbc Coundl iranirerred 10 Milan . . . , 39J 

Wht-re IE i\ irvAtfd "itb conicmpt and diampra . 393 

E(Tort4 oi (he Pipe to c^mp a efficient army , . 395 

Failore of the Svia attack upon Milan . 393 

tsia Cardioal Schinncr appoiiiicd Legate to I^oobardy 

and G«nndny 395 


iju D^Miritioai of CftfdiniLl Svaennaa 

Bologn.1 and Brctda toveaEttd by itie anntctcf dM 


tall of Brcvcta to the Vcndiuii 

CdStoo 6e Fuu raitca the &iq;c of Bologm 

Aod feooren Bivsda for ttie French 

Troubles id KotT;«> oik: iriLluliaval or ih« Pope to St 

Aoi^ .... 
T3te beUle of JUvnum - 
Victory d ihf Ffcnch 
Death of Ca«ton do Fm 
Tcmr in Rome 

Coofaiec And resoUidor of tbs Popc 
Tht Duke of Utbino offers sudeuncc to the Pope 
The Popc begini oc^CiAliont tiilb Knnc« 
He wuid the CoIohoa utd oi^ivvci the OnJAi ■ 


Axxmtuinoif OF T«t PDWREt or ntAVCx in italv. 

Arrogance of the schismatic Council at MiUn > 
Submtuicpn of the Milanese to CArdinfil Mcdict 
Avpanition frir lh« Laieron Council , 
OpeaiftK of the (^uncil in the Lstcntn Basilica 
SenxKHi of AcgiJius of VitcrUj^ General of the 


Tht Fo^A addre» lo the CouodJ , 
fte t<ttsn(: of the Council * . . . 
The Couiicil of Pisft |jiionoiii>c«d null uiU vM . 
Sennoit of CnJ^ianBfi, General of the Cominkans 
The King o( EngUnd )oinft thd L^gue a^diTiii Frnice 
The Emperor oooclLidcf 4in amtialico with Venice 
AfTjial -A tin: Swi»« in luly . , ■ • 
Rv?rii;iiinn nf Ihr RomtA^inA by the rrsodl . 
Capituktion of Pavia to the SwUa . . , 
Fliftht of ihc Kfaisniaiici from Milan. End of ^ 


Recoreiy of Bologna hj the Pope 

Ihe French driven out of Italf 

Rejoicings in Kocnc. Tbc Popc at & Pictro in Via 


Revard* beuowed upon the Swits by Juliui IL 
















1511 Tbe Duke of rciian Id Rome. 

He wrftiftJt ibtf Tope's iondilioru of peaie 
A Congress of the Leuguo htid in Mintiu 
RctUsraiioD or Ebv niJc of tfae Mcdict in Florence 
The Duchf of MiUd given to MaA^militiio Sfona 
Ptmu, Pi*C«Ra, sod R«^o inclLHicd in the PApol 


DisiAtiaric-tion of ihc Emperor and ihc Kir% of Sp^io 
Bffoti4 vi the ToiJC 10 viik MwmiJIart* Mwtueiu 

fjuig in Rome ,..,., 
MMnificenc« of hi« rccupFion . . . , 
PAilurc of Ehc Empcrnr'^ negotiations vrilh Vtrnice 
An iiiliarcr fomi^ bcturcn (he Pope and ihc Emi>crar 
h(34(h>!U!: I Jfig rraUiM^ a Cardinal 
tji^ The VcnctiJini *lly ihpoiidvtf* with France 
■ SCI Announcement of the alliance with the Emperor at 

the Lilcian Council 

The Pn^inaiic Sanction in France condemned by 

tb« IjlI«sui Council 

Address of the ApMioUe Kour^, Criitoforo Mar- 


trepoodcrtnce of Spain in Iialy. Antiety ci the 


Failure of the ?opc'9 health , . . . 

List illntfisof JuliUb 1L . , , . 

1513 Ha latt addrt^ss to the Cardiiaht . , . 

UMth of Juhus II 

SovTOV in Rome. Popularhy of Juliui IL 
Bb character — injustice of niiicciarJini 
Hw fiithfiilncst 10 hU ecclesiastical obligaiiont - 
1505 Hh Bull against simony in Papal elections 
15* I Hit £caI f<^r the missions in Amerind and the East 

H» rrprrubn of hirresy 

He oppotec the severity of the Spanish Inquisition 
And ru«Lsts State encroachments upon the rights of 

ihc Church 

Juliui H- and thn rdigiou-H Orders. Hi* itfortns 
Uii ecdetiavilcal icit and reformi . 
His foundation of the Cdpella Giulia at S. Pc^ler'i 
Hift eccleaiaatic&l conoesaiont for political rcatiijri» 
Rerorm if the Roman Court, ili« cUjt'ct <if the 

Lftieran Council 

TuBtificatton of the ware of Julius II. . 

Kocesiuy of the temporal powcf 
iilitit II., ihc I.ihcraior of Iiily . 

ii title of " Saviour of the Church " well docemed 




aupTER vat 


1503 Idiu n. Ihc Uaccoioi of the Arte . , . > 455 

He continues the wnvl: of Hichoinc V, ftnrl Slxtuf TV, 456 
Differcnee t>etw«i;n tbv ipinl of KicholfiH V, ftod 

Julius 11 45; 

jMiua II. 'a ^fprocution of mca of genius > , 458 

TIk Ikkiic oI An lisuisfemtl from Flurence to Rome 459 

Arthfrecturt under Jultm TL GluliEUio dft Saiigillo . 4j$ 

IJ05 Mkhjwrl AngcUi iinJ Sansuvioo in Home . • . 4DC 

luliui II. and Donaio Br&maitlc . ^ ^6t 

To wbota is i^nmutMl tlic rvtiutldini^ of S. Prtici's 3nd 

!ke VMicsfi 461 

Dcirclvpancnt of the idea of the rebuitdiog of S. 

PttttS 464 

Gfandcor of Bmnitnte's ori^ial design . 465 

Tbo loBi or th^ old S. Pclor'A to bo i»ploT«d . . 46$ 

Opposition u> the rcbulldnif of 5. Peter's , • , 4G9 

Satirical dulofuc of Aiidrcn Giuriu . , > . 4G9 

Dai^trroEK mnditiur nf the old S. IVicr'« ^ . . 47T 

llio Pope prondoi inoney for the rebuilriing , . 479 

I'bc UyvifC of ttK foundation stone . . . 475 

ncjmanie iM*4cr of the ^orkt 474 

nilig^m pgoaecction of the rebutldiog < 475 

Pitn^nra thcwn to the old S. Poter'c and ttft relic* . 477 
Dc»tnKliveac»i of Bumamc tow&rf^s ancient b«ild 

ingi 47S 

His propoul 10 move the tomb of the Apoitli^i . . 479 

JuLus IL Td^OMS hu oontent , , . . 460 

Zeal of Juliu* II. for the iDterettB of religion . . 4&0 

tsoS Progrrsiauf the wcirka 4$j 

1510 Collection of fmidH ihroug^oui ChHstendom . . 48* 

1513 Sut«of the irorkaacitic d^th of Juliu* IL . , 4S3 

DedgDS of BriiDAnti fur cIk Vatican . . , 484 

LAtcraltcriliijiiAL> SlMiia V 485 

Evi^nalon Hf)d il4y/>ra!ior of ihr BclTedere , . 485 

Besinniogof the VaiUcanRCt^Ipturet . . , . 486 

1506 Diicovcry of ibc L^uxocit 488 

Arrangement of the statiiei in llie Bclvederi! . . 490 

l$oj Dtnind for u)tic;uitic's in Knmc , , . . 491 
Michael Ar^^clo nnd SantoviDO in the Gcrvice of 

JuUm n ' . . < 49> 

1505 lm[iovcfiicni-L in Rome under Julius II - « . 493 

Fonnolioa of the Vu GitilU , . , 494 




TABLE or COflT£»TS. 


1505 Jiiliun II. flnd tbc Cbtirches of Roroo 

He sircnglhcns the fr»rtrciBes of ibe PApal Sutes 
iria Church'buildu^^ at Ptrugia, OrviclO, and Bologna 
Bfamame's worli ai the Holy House at Loreto 
DeooraTicm of the Caihedritl at Savona 
Sticagtbcning of the Cd&ilc of Si, AngcLo . 
SatiiUny innifovcniCTib in K^tne 
VHnctKo Albcitini'i ^uid* to Rome 



1505 NficHtel An^clo invUcil to Rome by Julius U. , 
Who ^ves him a commUiion (or his ova tcrrib ^ 

1506 Jiihu!^ n, give^ up the idea of the tomb , 
And fcfuscs to ace Michael Arigclo • 
Who lenvei Rome and refuses to reium . 
S»ngallo endeavour* to make peace . 
Sodcfini remorstrates with Michael Angelo 10 vaia 
Michael Aigclo's rcconciliatioii with the Tope . 
Julius commissions him 10 make a «taiue of hinuclf 

tjoS Complvtiof) and creciion of the statue at Bologna 

It ia dcatrofcd by the party of the Bcntivogli . 

Michatfl Angclf> commissioned to (laiciL the roof of the 
Sisiin^ Chapel . . . . . , 

A^ormenl between him and Julius II. 

Roht:ort% bclweon the Pope and Michael Angelo 

iTnpaLicrht:^: of Juliiai II 

|>in>cit]Lie>i anil rjtiays in payment . . 
1510 Cotiipk'tion of Lhu calling, its di^cult; . 
ijii UnvcilirtKof the ceiling of the Si^Einc Chapel - 
151a Completion of llac whole work .... 

The Pnpp rHchrairs Mass m ihe Chipd . 

The atchitcciural painting of the rool 

Tho three period-, of the frescoes 4Lccording to the 
Plan of Satvatior . , > , , 

Hij treatmeri oftheCiwition, culminating in Adam 

The FaU of Man and the Dvluf^e 

TTkC tieriei of the rroph[:ti and Sybils , • 

Scric* of ilic AiKeiiors of <Jhrial 

And ofthe T>1iverancet of Itrat^l 

Tho ornamtiiltnl fi^;LJr^ «nnp1o)'4!d io the roof , 

^iRtual eoneeptioo of the pamtinp . . , 

Michael Angclo a^ajii tmiploycd 011 tlto Pppc'i tomb 

Table of contekts 



a(ia Dcdgn of the lombof Juliut II jjj 

1511 Daih of JuTim II. during the rx«cution oT the woHi . 534 

A{fe«cieni b^xwn Micluc^ Angdo and bii exccuton 535 

CnUihncDtof UtcdcNjpiandftDga'of Ukhael Aiigselo 537 

Cnujdeuf or the atalue of Moves > . . . 537 



ChArsidcr KndcAtljr lifcof lUphftcl . 

HcKctilcKin fUnnc . . . , < 

JulhisL n [caves thi^ Appannmcnio Bor^ 

D«coration of the ^Unfc , 

Dtflerent vtiau employed it f nt 

Hut arc an dnraiiftcd in ravi>iLr o( RaphEid 

The Campfffl ricUi Segnati^ra 

The four aUcgorcal liguTes in the celling . 

The vmlt f r csc oe a in coniiccticin vrith them 

T1i« ^CKO of Ihc "Scbnul of Athene ** . 

biMVp*«Ut^on <^' the TiCico 

KoopposJtioQ between Thcolof^and Philosophy 

The " OiapuUdel Sacramento " — railh as distinct frotn 


tio idea of contTOvetEy in ihe " DitpuTa " . 
The upper of the Trcseo, the HcavcdW Paradiae 
Tlic Divide fcTJion* nod tla- scries of itc Elect . 
Rclaii<:>n l>ctvrr«rii the Ht^rtnly Paiadisc and the 


Adoratign of the BIcncd Sficranient on earth 

Hie Holy Eucharist, ttic bofid of union betiKCii 

hntT^n and wrth 

[nterprciation of the pieitite , . . . 
The prijliminjuy «ludiG* for the fresco . 
numaniatic concc^iticm seen tn the rania.*h:iu» . 
The Dominiran ?.pirit srrn in thr *' niijniia " 
The Camen delU Segnatura miended for ihe Pope' 


The fresooea not an expreAaion of HumAQi^it; 


ConcraH of the two frescoc< . , h - 
The GritMiks iilu»tra1e Ihc nttitude of the Pap&cy 

the new kirrii»? , . 
Tbe frescoes ^how ih^ fclnri:>n!( l>clween the Church 




54 < 










1511 Completion of the Ca.n:iera della Segnfttura 

The Stanza d'Eliodoro entrusted to Raphael by the 


His easel-paintings, the Madonna of 5" Maria del 

Popolo -.,..... 
And the portrait of Julius II. . 
The Madonna di Foligno and del Pesce 
The Stanza d'Eliodoro, The ceiling decorated by 


The miracle of the Mass of Bolsena .... 
The Cathedral of OrvJeto built to enshrine the relic . 
Veneration shewn to it by Julius IL ... 

Raphael's representation of the miracle in the Stanza 

d'Eliodoro .*....• 

The picture the key-note of the Stanza d'Eliodoro 
Which represents God's care for His Church 
Its reference to the events of the reign of Julius II. - 
The picture of the expulsion of Heliodorus from the 


The picture of the meeting of Leo L with Attila 

The picture of S. Peter's deliverance from prison 

Its supposed reference to the escape of Cardinal 


But it more probably refers to Julius IL . 

The triumph of the Church, the fundamental idea of 

the Vatican pictures 



I. Cardinal Ascanio Sforza to the Duke of Milan 6ie 

11. . ^ " . " " 6i» 

III. Giovumi Lucido Cataneo to the Marquess of 

Mantua 6i« 

IV. Extract from the Letter of an Unknown Person 613 
V, Giovanni Lucido CaUneo Co the Marquess of 

Mantua 613 

VI. Alexander VI. to Cardinal Giuliano delta 

Rovere 614 

VII- Giovanni Lucido Cataneo to the Marquess of 

Mantua 614 

VIII. Report of the Florentine Chronicler, 
Battolomeo Cerretani, on the Anti-Pope 
Pietro Bernardino, a Disciple of 

Savonarola 615 

IX. Beltrando Costabili to the Duke of Ferrara . 617 
X. Giovanni Lucido Cataneo to the Marquess of 

Mantua 618 

XL „ „ „ 618 

XIL Ghivizano to the Marquess of Mantua . . 619 

XIIL „ „ . . 619 

XIV. „ „ . . 620 

XV. Cosimo de' Pazzi, Bishop of Arezzo, to 

Pius III 6^0 

XVL Beltrando Costabili to the Duke of Ferrara . 621 

XVn. , , „ .621 

XVIII. Ghivizano to the Marquess of Mantua . . 62a 

XIX, Julius II. to Florence 6aa 

XX. „ toForli 63a 

XXL ,» » 63a 

XXn. „ to Angelo LeoninJ, Bishop of 

Tivolj, Nuncio at Venice . 623 


^^^^^K XXIll. Julius II. to Cirdinnl Bcmnrdino Orvajal . 





to CtioVATini ill 5iroIo, Archbistiop 
of Riiguisa, and to Pemis 
Paulus die Calbo , 


^^^V XKVl 



Id Philip, Count Palatine on the 





to Gonsilvo d« Cordom . . 


^^^^ XXIX. 

to Acme, Queen of PmDCC - 


^^^^^^^^^^^p AAA* 

to LoLiix Xir, King of France 


^^^V XXXI 



10 Ati^do Lconini, Bishop of 


Tiroli. Nuncio sX Vciaicc • 


^H XXXI 11, 

II » II 



II It It 



>l H 11 


^H xxxvu 

10 l^uJovjco Bruno, Bishop of 
Arijiii, and tn Franct-nco de 
Monte, Imperial Envoy xi 




^^^^ XXXV] 1. 

to Anficlo Lconiui. Biahop of 


Tivoli, Nuncio at Venice 




^1 & ^ . 

to the Ccnnin Electors . . 


^H XXXIX. 1 



to Arrgelo !,,comni, Bishop of 


TivoU, Nuncio as Venice 



to Coaimo lie' Vitzn, Biahop of 


AttUM .... 



to Angelo Lconini, Biihop of 


Tivoii, Nunc;u at V<;nice 


^^^^^1 XLIIL Flammcnlc BrognoEoto habdU, Marchioness 




>j I- >j 


^^^H XLV. Julius II 

- to iho Marqu>?4ft ot Mi««a . 



tolhc Augufttniiin Hermit, Acgldlus 


of Viicrbj . - . H 



10 Queen Anae of France 


^^^^^^ XLVI 1 1. Girolnmo Arnapo to the Marquess of Maniaa 


^^^^L XLIX. JuUui ]J 

. to Qutcn Anne of France 


^^^H xux^ 

to Henry VUL, Kiue of EngUuid 


^^^^^H L. GiroUmo Arugo to tlic Marquess of MunTim 


^^^H Julius n 

.- to Francesco GuEuag^ Marquess of 





" n » 




LilL Julius II. to the Marquess of Mantua and 
Niccol^ Buonafcde, Bishop of 

Chiua 639 

LIV, „ to Caidinal Giov. Antonio tli & 

Gioi^lio 639 

LV. „ to Cesena 640 

LVL „ to Ferdinand the Catholic . .' 640 
LVIL „ to Leonardo Loredano^ Doge of 

Venice 640 

LVIIL „ „ „ ,, 641 

LIX. „ to Cardinal Alessandro Famesc , 641 

LX. „ to Ferdinand the Catholic . . 641 

LXL „ to Louis XIL, King of France , 64a 

LXIL „ to Cardinal Geoi^e d'Amboise . 642 

LXIIL „ to Gonsalvo de Cordova , , 647 

LXIV. „ to M. de la Tr^moille . . . ^4^ 

LXV, „ to Pierre le FiUeul, Archbishop of 

Aix 643 

LXVI, „ to Ascoli 643 

LXVIL ,) to the Legate of the Marches < < 643 

LXVIIL ,, to the Governor of Spoleto . , 643 

LXIX. y, to the Governor of Cesena . . 644 

LXX. ,, to P, Ferreri, Governor of Imola . 644 

LXXL „ to Cardinal Antonio Ferreri . . G44 

LXXH. Beltrando Costabili to the Duke of 

Ferrara 644 

LXXIII. Cardinal Scipio Gonzaga to Che Marquess of 

Mantua ...... 645 

LXXIV. Beltrando CosUbili to the Duke of Ferrara . 646 

LXXV. Julius II. to Louis XII-, King of France . 646 
LXXVI. „ to Maximilian I., German Emperor- 

Elect 647 

LXXVII. Cardinal Sigismondo Gonzaga to the Marquess 

of Mantua 649 

LXXVIIL „ ,, „ 650 
UCXIX. Beltrando Cosiabili to the Duke of 

Ferrara ..,,.,. 650 

LXXX. Julius II. to Bologna 650 

LXXXI. „ to Duke Alfonso of Ferrara » . 651 
LXXXII. Lodovico de FabrJano to the Marquess of 

Mantua 651 

LXXXIIL „ ,. „ 657 

LXXXIV. Julius II, to Cardinal Franc. AUdosi , . 652 

LXXXV, „ to Cardinal IppoUCo d'Este . . 653 
UCXXVI. ,, to Cardinal Franc Alidosi and the 

Magistrates of BoJogna . . 653 


I-XXX\'II. Jiilhi* !L to TT2:xesoj Goosa^ Mvquess of 

MAit:3i 654 

LXXIMIL Giulijzo ie" Mwiid :^ tabeUa d'Este, 

Miichicoess or" Mintoi . - 654 

LXXXIX. R^por oi \t^^di:is tie Mc^bo on Julius IL, md cm i^boiidLng of S- Pner^ 655 
XC Emperot Mflirr^''^" to P^ul vod Lkhtessteia 656 


ALEXANDER VI. 1492-1503. 




As It becune more and morr rvidciu Out noihing In the 
way of J^form vra^to be hoped fccr from Alexander VI,, the 
eyes of mftny in Italy began to Turn tcii-ard^ the ek>qwnt 
Docninicdn, who seemed to eoncentratc in him^f all the 
elements of resistafice to tto anti-Christian Kcrkai^s^iDCt 
and tl>e »cuIarisation of the Qiurch, persoriticd in the 
Pope, wfiich the cGiintry contained* 

In Florence, comijiteil Jii it had been by the Medici, and 
made intn a nest nf "heathen phi[n^opher«, votnptuarics, 
dilettanti, money-lenders and traders* Sntriijuinfj politkJanA 
and riiafp-nitted critica/'t Savijnarola had, at Ic.^tl for the 
Qoment, ffucccedod in bringing about an amaxing moral 
■tirolutioiL There acemed reason to hope th^it the rcTbrm 
of Rome might be aclucvcd by the same hand, «|>ccLally 
as In Itis prcachiiiji lie duclt no much on tlic vocutioM uf 
Moroicr a« "the heart of Ita1y*'to rlifTti^ the rmovating 
lights throughout the whole wnrld.J In his sermons he 
inceisantly intttted, with ever-growing vehemence, on the 
absolute rccessityofa complete reformation of Rome, the 
Pope, and tlie Court, At that time this sort of plain 

(CJiapicr I, of ihts volume ih in the oriieinul cditiam Chip. VL of 
Book II —r I Ah) 
• TwJktnt, Sixius IV., s6u See Vol V. of lhi> wotk, pp. jjo, iSi- 

t Gltl9GOaO\-iy«, VIL,404*«<l-3C4i^«^4V 
2 GVICCUIU>U«I, Star, f ior^nt., 134. 


Speaking gavt Ihtk or no oAcnce Uwrt Atcxand^ 
cxtrmidy tndif&rent t» ftrict u re * of ttut kind ; no doctrii 
of the Church w^& assukd, &ikd he had no 6c«irc to oii 
the ontor't liberty of speech. Had Savonaroja con6i 
hinuclf to the subfccts proper to his vxKatioo u a prcacl 
and a rdEgioiu, be would probably no"cr hare come inj 
serious colliMoo with the PontiflT; but aa^ on the conl 
bb pa5?win;tle tml drove him in hb discourses lo ti 
more and rmrr nn poliiic^l ground, tbn' soon pro\-idf?c) hi 
enemtei 4-iih a good excuse for eilling on the Pope to 

SasY>narola'd growing lAfliaence threatened to make hire tl 
vjftuoj * Kin^ of Fknence," and bb enemies were both niii 
tons and pomcrfiiL Foremost amongst them was Picro 
Medici with his ailhrrcnii, ai>d next lo tbcm came ih(ttc wl 
dUltknl anil rcvmtrct the drtnocmtic aiuI tht^ncr^tic ideal 
and the «lern moral dl^lpllne wh£ch he washed to introdi 
into ihc confttltulion of the State. Thii; party was kni 
as the Anr.ibuiti, while the followers of the Fnar wore calli 
Fiateachi or Piagnori (moun^cnt over the corrttptior of tl 
times). Finally, there were the anti-GaUIcan Italian Stales. 
Florence was the only Italian power wlddi withstood the 
Pope on this jKiint, and Saxwnarola was the indefatigable 
and pa^^ioHAte advnratr of Ihr French alliarce. The_ 
Dtvine commis«ion, which he per^iitenily claimed for h« 
self, emphatically included thi* advocacy. From first 
last he believed the frivolous, dissolute Kinj* of France 
be God'a chosen instrument for the reformation of 
Giurch. He predicted that Charles would be alwa] 
victorious, and that Florence, if -^hc remained fAithfu! 
him, would regain all her lost ixjsscssions. In almost l-vi 
one of his sermons he insisted on the necessity of joininj 

« (y. Cocci, AAvcinftTciU. 437, «nd enptriAny Puj-)u;iii»t, in 
Aich, it Soc Rnm., XI., 71^ 



Fiance* He rdicrated again and ag«in that "Qiarlcs 
V(IL would certainly reform the ChMrch"-f 

When vrc call to mind thitt t^ King or Franco had 
rtpcAtcdly thrcdlcned Uic Pope with a 30-callcd Reformation 
Counci], — ill other WfiirdK, n roiiticil lo ile|Miie him, — it can- 
Qol aeem Kirangc thal^ Sax'rinArnU f^hfiuld gntdiuilly come 
to hr rrgarded wJth more and more suspicion in Rome ; and 
all the mere »o ai it s^ml notorious chat the one thing that 
the Fope bad most at heart, namely, th^c Florence should 
join the Lcafiuc, bad no more determined opponent than 
the Friar. Savoncirola felt himself per/eclly secure in the 
favour of the people ; all accounU atf'cc in describing his 
iafli>cncc as unbounded. " He is invoked as a Saint and 
rcvTrred a?^ a prophet/ writes the Ferrarcsc Envoy:! ^^^ 
Flomitine rhronicler Landuccl saya Ihat " many were so 
Infatuated with the ne^*' prophet thai they would have h;icl 
no hesitation in going to the stake for him.'* Encouraj;ed 
by the enthusiastic fiupport ol his followers, the hot- blood ed^,.*^ 
Dominidui embarked in a general war of extermination 
ae[atnst his opponents. In oik of bi^ ^criroru he went »o 
&ir as to demami, cniciRx m hand, that a11 who attempted 
to bring the tyrants back to Florence should l>c punished 
with deailtl At last Alexander VL felt it nect-j«4ry to take 
some steps; but he proceeded with the greatest modcration.[| 
On the 35th of July, 1495, a Brief couched in very friendly 
terms, summoned Savonarola, " in the name of holy 
obedience," to come at once to Rome to give an account of 

* Urjca. 93, wid Raukc, Siudicn. sjS. 

* Ca^^IU, SnvonftroUi,5X 
1 /h\C.v^ Sh Si, 56. 6j. 

Set Vdi V. or ihia vork, p. zo). 

R^Mxe, tn hi* Siudten, 346. nrknmtlttl^D ihU j bat ViLl-A«r, ew«n 
b ^ Utt edition, I , i^, ecL a, tpoAa irt Ihc wulh of the repe as 
bonang si once into ftunc 


the prophecies for uvhich he claimed Divine inspirMion. Ol 
the 30th the? Friar sent his reply ; while acknowledging tl 
duty of obedience, especially in a religious, he excusi 
him:telf from comings on the ground of the state of hi 
health, anJ his conviction that hb enemieft would throi 
llic whole city into confusion if he left Florence at tl 

Upon thi* a sivr^nd Brief was sent in Septeml 
addressed 10 the friars of S" Ctocc. who were on bz* 
terms with those of S. Marco In this Brief, S^ivonaroUj 
was (icicribcd as "a certain Fra Girolarao" who gavi 
himself out to be a prophet without being able to prov 
hi» clainn dthcr by miracles or direct evidence from H0I3 
ScTipturc. The patience of the Pope, it continued, woij 
now rxhauKleil. SavunaroU must ;Lb>«tam from preaching] 
of any kind, and the Convent of S. Marco was henceforth] 
to be reunited to the Lombard congregation, to whose 
Superior the Fnaf mu^t now render obedience. AQI 
recalcitrants were declared, ifisc faclo^ under the ban 
the ChurcKf 

This command of the Pope marked the turning polnl 
In Savonorola^t tife. A? a pric%t ^nd FHjir he had swoi 
obedience to the F!cad of (he Church, Alexander's person; 
character and the political motives by which he was actual* 
in no wayaffecttfd thi!* obligation. In issuing the ordinani 
contained ir the Bncf of September 8, the Pope was clearly] 
acting withm hi* canonical rights, Savonarola did not den' 
thia. Writing to a brother of his Order in Rome on I Si 
September, he saya : " I know the root of all these plots.] 
and know ihcin tn 1>c the work of evil-minded citucnx whi 
\«ould fain re-establish tyranny in Florence , . . Never^ 
thelcss, if there be no other way of saving my consclonco] 

* VlUJJJ, Savonnrola^ IT, 24 J<V-- ^^^f- E^sl- <ran>.). 


I Am resolved to miikc submiuiQii. ^ u to avoid even 4 

venial Hn."* His ans*-cr to Alexander, iwnt on J^lh 

Scptembn", wa& not quite *q clear or decided. In it he 

Umented that hin enemies should h^ve succeeiled in 

deceiving the Holy Father . . " As io my doctrines," 

he continued, *] hare always b«en -rubmissive to th< 

Church; as regards prophecy, I have ncxct abiciultly 

declared m^-sclf a prophet, although this wculd be no 

bcrc^; but 1 have undi^ubtedly foretold viu^oua things, 

of which *ome have been already fuLfilled ; and others that 

will be verified at M)ire future time. Moreover, it i^ known 

to all Italy that the thaiitsement hath already begun, and 

how solely, by incan« of my word^ there h;it)] been peace 

In Florence, the which falling, all would have fiiifTered 

(greater woes.'* _ . ' A« to leaving our case to the dcdsJon 

of the Lombard Vkuir, this implies making our ad^^crsory 

our judge, »ince the quarrels between the two congregations 

are publicly knowtt.* In separating themKlvcs from thia 

coEigregation (hey had only juuetl ffuin a laxcT la a 

itrictcr rule, which all Authorities af^ce may lawfully be 

done. "Our reunion with the Lombard Friars at this 

moment would «ily deepen the rancour already, unhappily, 

wfllini; between the two congregations, and give rise to 

Erenh diiputc^t and fresh ncandaU. And licially, ina^imuch 

u your HoHness declares that you dc^re this union in 

crdcr to picvcnt others fiom lapsing into my errors ahH 

ina»nuch as it \^ n-jw mo^t pUin tliat I h^ve not lapsed 

into error, the rau« bring non-existcrt, ndther f^hnnld iia 

rffcct remain. Having therefore proved the falsity of all 

He char^e^ brought :i^ainst me, I pray your Holinett to 

Touchsafe a reply to tny defence and to ^rant mc absolution. 

I prcaeh the doctrine of the Holy Ftithers , , . , and anv 

* Poblitbcd bf Pkaa£.N^ SM-53^- Q*- Vuxaat, bAvonarolv, II. 



nsidy if I ?ibould be in error .... to avow it public1)*,a 
make amends before the whole people And now again 
repeat that which I have always said, namely, that 
subnit my&eHf and all my writings to the correction of 
Holy Roman Chufcb."* 

In his next Brief, despatched on the i6th of October. 
Alexander displayed admirable moderation and prudence 
Wflh" great consideration" it yielded tlic most important 
point, thai of the reunion of the Convent nf S. Marco to 
the Lombard Province, only iiifiisting thai Savnnarolx 
should absolutely Abstain from preaching. In fact, for th« 
Friar of S. Marco, politics and preaching were almost 
synonyraou*- The Brief began with a review of the adi 
of Rome up to tlic present moment In the beginning t 
Pope had expressed his disapproval of llic disturbances 
Florence, which had been in a great mcaaurc caused 
Savonarola's prcachint-^bccauM:, Instead of directing hiss 
nion» against tht^ vices of the Florentines, he had filled Ihr 
with predictions of future eventj;, which, he said, had 
revved Co him by the Holy Gho^t, Such preaching 
full of danger for many fiouls and could not fail to engend 
ftrjfc. Tl^erc fore, after mature deliberation, he had dcci 
to summon Sav^onarola to Rome, there to give an accoun' 
of his doings. Now, however, to his great joy, he galh 
(rom the letter whicli he had lately reed veil, and from w! 
he had been told by nthcrsj that the Friar was re*dy. 
a good Christian, 10 aubmfi to thf^ Church fn a1E thin 
H«nce he would willingly believe Uiat Savonarola h 
erred rather through excess of a^ciil thnr with any c 
irtcnt. The matter, however, was too important to 
panod over lightly, and therefore he detcnmircd to wri 
to him again, commanding him in the name of h 

* ViLtAKi, S«voiuviol^ IL, 35, 35 (Entl uan^)^ C/, I^RK 
JS6 3jy. 



obedience to abstain Hrom all pre«chirt^. cither in public or 
prhraicly, nntil lie wa% able, tonvciiicnL!y and safely^ to 
Appear himself in Rome, or until a commission had been 
^scnt lo Florcnc*. Tf lie obeyed this cx»nimand, the former 
Briefs vouM be rescinded-* 

Meanwhile, oo the iith of October, S^von&rolft, seeing 
Flotence in imminent danger from Piero de* Medici, hjid 
tbroirn All other considerations to tbc wtnd^ and re- 
afioended the pulpit, in order to rou5c his rcIlow-cilizcn» to 
a Mrcnuou^ rc^iatanccH Again he called for the death of 
M who attempted ui brin^ b^ck thr Medici, "They mu.^t 
be trcatcadr he cried, "as the Romatis in»tcd ihow who 
wished to bring Tarquiniuft bAck. Vou wouIeI raih<.-r let 
Chritt be «trtick than ctrike a fe!lf>w<dttEea I^ jii«tice 
lake its course. Off with the head of the traUor, were he 
even Ihe chief of Uie fit-^t family in tht city. Off, I sayj 
with bis hcad,"t Similar expressions recur in the scrmoos 
of t6Ui and 26th October For :tomc hitherto unexplained 
cauac, the Bull of 16th October did not arrive till .iftcr thiA 
Utter date. Savonarola had by this time SLtcceedcd in 
bafTUfig PicfOfle' Medki'a attempt; bui he must have been 
forced to own to himself that he had violated hi* pledge of 
the 16th September, and acted in direct opposition to hift 
Superiors, from whom alone his mission as a preacher was 
derived. The tfrief must have caused him the ^reaitnt 
embsriBssmcnL One faict, which ia certainly not lo his 
credit, ihewi that, in hi* cxciument. he did not it n\\ 
expect such lenient treatment. Through the Florentine 
Envoy of the Duke of Fcrrara, he had secretly entered 
into Tcbtion* with thiii l*rince, and :i*ked for hi* aMi&taiice 
in case the Fopc should not acct-pi hi* excuse and proceed 

^ Mtmit Iff. 5S9-J60, wkh ft tvrwvs dale; GHEJtAHM, 39<^i9i* 


t S«< Vnl V. of (hit vof If. p, io^ 



Aarthcr against !iim.* Now that Alcxaiidci had shd 
himself so p]at:able and ready to make concessions, ai 
since also the chitrf object of hts sermons, the irustratu 
of Piero <\e Mt^dici's enterprise, had been achieved^ H 
abstain from preaching during Adveni entailed no v 
great sacriffce on Savonarola* And in addition to 
his party were gaining more and more the upper hand 
the cit>'-t A loyal and tasting submission was m 
contemplated by him ; or the conlrary, he brouj 
every influence that he could control to be^ upon tl 
Pope to induce him to withdraw the prohibition. Tl 
Government of Florence interested itself strongly in 
direction, and addressed itself especially to Cardini 
Caraffa, the Protector of the Domtnicana in Roi 
Floronlirie reports from Rome w«nt so far as to assi 
that the CiiTdinal had, in a conversation with Atexand- 
persuaded the latter to permit Savonarola to preach agai 
provided he confined his semona to matters of reli^i 
The Fn;*r himself, howc^T^r, never I'cnfured to maintaii 
that any nuch ix-nnis^ion had been granted. The attitude 
of the Signoria in Florence also shews clearly chat nothing 
was even said by the Pope that could be so con&inied ;[ 
of course, no Hrief to that effect was forthcoming. They 
decided, on lith February, t4g6, to commiind S&vonarola, 
under pain of their Indian atlon, to resufnc hb sermons 

• D«spalch<if j6th Oct io Cxi'PELU, Sav-onimbi, 69. U isplair from 
tlui document that die Brief uT 16th C>:L bad aot icaclied Flureacc at 

t Sec CC3fBc:i, 4)1.43) < 735- SHtvinAtoUV leitcr to Anionb 
dc OkAfih of jnrl Feb,. 1496 (^ ViLUMil, IUcjiiVp, ed z), taw^aiSKnrx 
in thti cnnntchon. In it h« %ity\ :— *'Si irrp»lr4hiiiur lif^ffnru pnud^ 
candi pro me a Suntmo Foniitifc, dabo vobh in piacdiotlorem Fh 
Dominictim d* Pitcb. Excitatf* cr^o (rMns ct alios d«voto» ftd oninclum 
pre hac cauu, quia r» babct dtfticaltaicm.'' 



In ihe CAthe<draL* The Friar, nho had t<>ui>d «o m^ny 
excoMt for evadinj; the E:ommands of his spiritual lupe- 
Hon. lofiC no Hnw in obeying the order of the secul&r 

On 17th Febnuwy Savonarola a^in ascended the pulpit, 
and preached rcguUrly throughout die whole of Lent Hh 
first wrtDOD !>1ki«^ that he hid alreiidy cnten^l 011 the 
devious pathx wh>ch hcncefatth he u-iu^ tn fnllnw TJke 
HtKS in carlirr times, he saw nothing incongruous or 
tmbecominf- in making bis own subjeetive convictions the 
standard of tbe duly of ecclesiastical obedience. " The 
Pope." he said, "cannot command mc to do anythinir 
irhieh n in contTadiction to Christian charity or the 
GoipeL I am convinced tlvit he never will ; but were he 
to do so, I iJionltl icply : ' At (hi* nionient yim are in error 
and no Icmger the chief p4?ittjr or the voice of the Church,' 
If ihrte can be no doubt that the command of a superior 
contradicts the Divine precepts, and i^pecially the taw of 
Christian charity, no one ought to obey it. If, however, 
the matter is not perrectly evident, so that no doubt u 
poonble, we ou^t to iubmit/'t He declared that he had 

* Cuouaot, t>ocijinenii, tzqje^. From the dofumcnti given here, 
pi tj& r^^ ^^ guUivr ttiat «vtti thmi Lh« dLiBtn« Mrro nm unanuncMit 

to iMr AppravBl U thit Mf p. 

^ Thn ntportant dccbrstton ia to b« fbuiui in the L'fcdichG di ftatc 
HifTiMymo 4i FcTTBCL Kinifuc, 14^ <«> A)^ Agamsi VilIari. II., 
j$ fEivl- t^aii).!^ w)iu aiyi thjii thi^ HLivtilc dociiinc of Savgrniuh's 
fWk'^ennrdy CptKalic and ^jflcrni: in noreiipccl from Ihatbiddown by 
& TbotTdA Aqvuu^ jjilI nunv tiattart iind lAih«n of Ihe Church ;' ^ 
fknrwAB, m Uk lk>nii, LitcniurbUu. IV., tfo^. ind tpccinlly Fr^^te, 
SiAL3 IV^ 79 »y- ; ff' <^ Th* klicr renMrlu ihai &LyL« hfid 
Alnvdy pvntHl om rlui rf Savoiurvih rvHtrcl l^it iOmJiii-l n^tlic tinAi.j|ilr 
Uw nv odKhl to obey Cod rMhcr Ihvi man, be Kvaaa^lmij Lni:on«bttaMl^ 
bti^veop prtachEnff Hi rhr command of iheCLmi^mmrni, Frarrii 
ibeAi^ /^^ til-, Rev d-jn iht ouc vui^iKAcd \rj 5, Tliuuwk, ** ift Abitb 




cArncst}y cx«mincH alt his ways hikI found tliein jsui 
for he had always submitlt^cl his leaching to the doctrii 
of Holy Church. Though convinced that the BHcfs 
from R'lme were mvalid. inasmuch as (hey xi'ere sol 
inspired by lying reports, he had yet resolved to be prudi 
Thus he had so far kept silence, but when he saw many 
the good growing lukewarfn, and the wicl<c<l more ai 
more bold, he felt himself constrained to return to his 
"First of ail, htjwcvcr. 1 sought the Lord, saying: I wi 
rejoicing in my peace and tranquillity, and Thau drei 
me forth by showing mc Thy MgJir . . . I would fafft 
repose, but fine! no reuling-place — would fain remain 4till 
and silent, but ma,y not, for the word of God is as a fire in 
my heart, and unless 1 give tt vent, tt will cousunne th« 
marrou' of my bone?;, Come then, O Lord, since Thou 
would'st have me steer through these deep waters, let Thy 
will be done" • He »ecmcd to have ah'cady forgotten 
that it vf^Lft the secular power which had commanded bun 
to preach, and launched him forth again on these "deep 

Savon^ifola'ti Keccnd sermon wax directed mainly against 
the vices of Rome, He began with a curLOU& application of 
the paau;a^e in Amos, iv, r. " Hear this word, ye fat kine, 
that are in the mountains of SamaiSa." " For mc," he said. 
" thcac fat kinc signify the harlots of Italy and Komc. , . . 
Arc there none in Italy find Rome? One thon,>vand. ten 
thousand, fourteen thousand arc few foi^ Uomc , for there 
botli men and women are made harlots." And purHuIni^. thU 
«lrain, he dencfibts the viceji of Kome in termt scarcely to 

fh« ftxk ym flbnndoned ^nd left eniir«ly without ppearhmg or ftdaimti- 
tisLiun of the S^crauicut^/' w^h iiuili? tlifltinil lu lliui of 'Siivi^unrolfl, at 
Ai bi^ Warco tiicrc wstt rrvixiy oTlicr gowl pr«achcr>f and the tpifiiiijil 
needs <if the pcrople wrrv ainirfy Mtjiplied. 

nn DFC1-AM,\T10S3 A0A1N3T ROME, 


b« repeated at the present day,* The preachcf seemed 
utterly regardlcsfi of the fact Ihat his ALi<Iicfice included 
hundreds of innocent children, for whom a special gallery 
royrKi the nalh of the Church had been provided. 

This discoaric, cmi the %ec(ii\*\ Sunday In l^nl, wu* by no 
meaiM an ivklatHl mithtirtt of pa^^ion ; th** whole course of 
sermons teamed «rtth thfae eytravagant diatribe* a;;alnu the 
ftiri of Rome, rolttici were fre<]tjvnt!y touched upon, but 
every topic M back in the end to declamation atrainst the 
Caria. TTce from Rome,' he cried out, "for Itab)']on 
«igniiiC9 confusion, and Komc hath confused all the Scrip- 
tures, confuted all vice* loKcthcr, coiifu?9cd cvcrythinsf.*' In 
his last l^ntcn sermon in 14^^, Savonarola emj>])4tically 
repeated bla new tlieory of what constituted obedience to the 
Church, mhicb, had it pre^'ailed. cnvi^t have overthrown alt 
order and discipline. "We arc not compelled," he said, "to 
obey all commands. When given in con^equcmcc of lying 
report they arc tnvaltd : when in evident contradiction with 
the law of charity, laid ilown by the Go^ipel, iL in our duty 
to resist ihem." t 

Even in the face of all Ihi* [srovocation, A1e%andcr VI. 
«tni cnairtftined an attitude of great moderation and 
patience.^ He allowed more than dx months to elapse 
before taking any action, fto that Savonarola had ample 
time for conaidcratloa Meanwhile, however, in Rome, the 
conviction that further stcpit mu^t be taken continued to 
attengtbcn. On the one hand, from the ecclcsiaatical point 
of view, il was imptn-Mble jjcniidn^itlly lo tolerate h]» open 

* VlLUm^ /<^. AV., $%. Tliil ic th« riiii^vocrt of ar crChiuliftic 
admirer of Sjivonarota. 

f fHiL 66, )B>itr ^:InA^k» Ihnl ihcw id«s wen ctiui^akM to a dc- 
fiatiickm of var. 

X f'PU.Kr.ii]M,in Arrh-d,Snf- Ram,^ Xl.^713. Scc^UoCailKJtno^r, 


defiance of the Btid' fbrfaidtfing bim to preach, the abui 
looe of Us tcnoe os , »kd fioaUy, bis ufuutboHscd assui 
tioa of the oAc« of 4 prophet* On the political fide, 
cfficaciooA advocftcy of the Krtncfa alliaac« in FLoreni 
Ihrcatcncd the Pope with a repcbtioa ol the French Kii 
iavaskxi of luly. tovoivin^ podsibiy bis <kpo»tion and a 


An lifnc wmt oo» the eafntemmt nf the contendii^ 
puifes tn FlorcDoe continued to incrcagc, and Savonarola's 
preachine added insh fuel Cn tbe ftames.-t The accounts 
from Florence dedftrcd that be raiJed at ti>e Pope ai worve 
than a Turk, and the Italian powers as worse than heretics. 
Hb fblflttnat»tt9 aooa found thdr wa>' ftbrootd; and he 
often said that he had recdvcd kttcrs of sympathy even 
from Germany, It was reported that the Suhaii lud lauacd 
hh sermons to be translated into the Turkish language; 
There »"as certainly quite enough in all lht« to cause Alex- 
ander to b^^rhimtclf. without needtnj* any furtiicrsdoiulus 
from the Lo^guc or from Cardin&J Ascanio Sforxa The 
terrorism cxcicbcd by Saroiuux>la and hb adherents grew 
daily more and move intolerable. The ptophct declared that 
noonccotikl be a good ChrisitAn who did not bdicre in 
hfan. His most lealoas disciple, Fra Domenico da Fescia, 

t PcaaaNs a6i, points out xImu if SnvcMfrJi hod itaily 
tint b«mlit7 vtifeh hon^ofihefini vinuc^thai oujf ht to rharartrriv a 
iaflsiB«^«nd vhidi he m <MenuitQusly processed. Ijc ^odd haxt left 
Ftomce, «r at lajr rilt abvuvMd from preadu&g Ho«rtv«r o cavinosd 
bo ttigtK be irf tht ijtith of hit vaw% a ptieu ihauid have fthnmk froni 
Mcuring thtir *uixcm ai Ihc <mt of bUwd^bcd, iLud from bcitic a ou^ae 
of tmbdl«rod div^^oni amongii hU fellow ^rtacns. Uai to hs «Kcitablc 
lemiNRiDiciii the iiUf of bAttlc v«« h iwctssicy of life^ *' I omnot tiv«," 
lit nidt " odImh 1 pxvach," 

X VtUARE, Samnirobr U., «7 {Kngl traM>> C/. RVKfi, Studirt, 



went lo far fts to «ay that earth and lea and heavtrn u>ou]d 
pass away, the ChcTLbim and ^raphim. our Lady and even 
ChriatKinucIf, »ooivcf than any or Savonnroia's teaching.* 

Od the 7th N'o^-cmbcr, 1496. the t^opc despatched a new 
Brief with the objccl ^f putting an end to tlicsc scajidal^ 
and rcmoring SarozmrtjU, who WiL?i the nutx\ oftlic French 
party, from Flofcti<?c, while Kpaiiiig him x^uiiirh us ^m^^ihltf. 
The plan of uniting S. Marco with the imfrirndlycongrega- 
tiop of Lombardy wa» entirely dropped. Instead or thii 
Ibc Pope piopoM;d to form a new congregation out of the 
Dominiean C<mvcnts in the provinces of Rome and Tuscany, 
with a separate Vicar to be elected in conformity with the 
itotutes of the Order by the several Piiors of the monas- 
teries every two yearns. For tlic Eir:^! two years Cardinal 
Carafb, who h^d atvrayfi been friendly ro Savonarola, wan 
appointed %tort 

This time the prophet's answer to his Superiors was an 
unconditionaJ refuel. The rea^ona which he c;;ave in jus- 
Ufication of this were peculiar. Ir) his 'Apology for the 
0»igre{;ation of S. Marco" he saya; "The union with the 
new tocigr^ation doc:i not depend an my decision alone* but 
nrcds the confient of 250 other monks, who have all written 
to the Pope proieiliny against k; and T am neither able 
r>or willing to oppose thdr wUhes on this point, since 1 hold 
them to be honest and just" After explaining the reasons 
against it, he continues; '*This union L^ therel^orc impossible, 
unrcaiionablc, ardhurthil, nor can the brethren of S. Marco 
be l>ound to agree to it, ina^mucli as Superiors may not 
iasue commands contrar>' to the rules of the Order, nor 
contrary 10 the law of charily and the welfiiTc of our souls, 

• <«r l^i^nti m Kaxki, Studitn, 205. 

t TId Btirf itom Co(I. to^^ in x\\k Rlccardi LibEaiy. b tn VlUAltli ]^ 
^ a, CXLlh-CXLIV\(ltATtaA}; alio m the Bull. Orel. Hraodic., IV., 



Wc must ihercforc take it for granted that our Supcrio 
liftvcbccn misled by false inronnallon, and resist moanwhi 
a command thai is conir^ir/ to ch^irity. Neither mutt 
allow c)ur«elve?& tn be cowrd by threats nor excommiifiic 
tioHK, but b<* ready to face death raihi^r tli.iii £ubmi1 to t 
which would bo poison and perdition to our souls." At 
same time, SAvonEirok preached frequently, descftntin 
much ot\ hi» prophcti^ftl f^fts. and siifl more on politic 

All this, retailed with exaggeration by his cnemicj 
Rome, was naturaity extremely irritating to Alexand' 
VI. NpvtTtliclcss, with that practice] slatccraft which li 
contemporaries so highly praUe Jn him, the I'ope *itiU hel 
b;tck from plunging into a direct conflict with the Friai 
He rcftolvcd first to try another expcdioiu. In order 
detach the Florentines from the French alliance he promis 
to give them Fi5a, and requested ihcm to send rw Kiivoy 
regotiAtc on this subject Accordir^ly, on the 4th Ma 
1497. AlcA&andto Br^cci was despatched for this purpose 
the Signoria to Rome. Oct tlie Ijth he had an audien 
from the I'ope. Alluding to Lodovico Morn, Alexsnd 
said: — " May God forgive him who invited the French i 
Italy ; forall cur troubles have arisen from that." He th 
endeavoured to persuade tJie Florentine Ambassador 
renounce the alliance with France. " Keep to us" 
cxclaifned; "be loyal Italians, and leave the French 
France! 1 m«^t have no more fine words, but some Hn 
ing security t1\a1 you wilJ do thj^-'* It was in vain for t 
Amtw««adnr to pniiit out tlie reasons which determined h 
Goveramcnt to hold still wirh France; the Po]« held to h 
point, and insisted that Florence must change her polic; 
He knew very well, he said, that this conduct, so unworth 
of an Italian power, wa^ prompted by the belief of th 
Florentines in the predictions of a fanatic. He was deeply 
wiiundcd at the way in which the Government of Florenc 



permitted this Fmr to AtUck tuid threaten him and hold 
hua op to scorn * 

Hicre WA) mnpie justification for these complamU on the 
of the Pope, for AccuutJonii sg^ifist Rocnc again con- 
ted ihe principal ihcmc of ihc Lent sermons of the 
1497, The luiguag^ or the preacher became more 
Vkd more violent, "Come here, thou ribald Church," he 
out ''The Lord aaith, [ (*avc tbee l>eautifu1 vest- 
but thou hast made idols of them, rhou hast 
dedicated the »crcd rcucia to mnglory. the ucramciUs 
to siiucxiy; thou bait become a .^hiimclcvi harlot in thy 
fasU; thou art tower than a br^^t. thou arc a monster of 
abomination. Once, iliou felt shiinie for thy sin, but i»ow 
ihou ait shame1es$L Once, anointecj pn'e«t« called their 
loitft nephews ; but now they £pcak no more of their 
nephew^ but always and c\x-r)'where of ttteir non^ Kvcf>'- 
uhcre hast thou made a public piace, and raised & house 
of iU-bunc Atid what doih the harlot? She nitteth on 
tW throne of Solooion and soliciteth all Ihe world ; he 
Hmt hath ^old 14 ma<le welcome, and may do as he will ; 
bet he that iwelceth to do good in driven forth, , < . , And 
thou. O prostitute Church, thou hasi disp1a>-ed thy foulnew 
to the whole wxirld, andstinke:(t up to Heaveti "f 

Language such as tliis wa3 calcubtod to alienate many 
»ho had hitherto &TOurtd the Flurentinc prophet. The 
Generat of his Order and C^trdinAl C^rnffa now ceased to 
dcfbyd him. aiHl in Rome liia cau^c: was praLtical]}' lo&t. 
wMIc in Florence, also, |>ublic opinion was lit^inning to 
tefn againti him. His irreconcilable opponoiits, the 
.Arrabiati and the Compagnaccl (boon companion? and 
(over* ol the cable)^ began to get more; and more the upper 

* ViLLABV, IL, r6s-[£6 (Engl, imni,), »bo jusily Abwrvu thai Ihe 
fttMipr aIhiui tbc wcntt of pfivali w-ja dLK'i.t1t -i.titcd a Alvrjailct VI. 




hand The cxcrtcment became ^o great thftt %l 1&»t 
SignoriA kMicd a decree forbidding all monk:! of all Ordi 
ta preach after Asoension Day. On this day (4th M. 
Savonarohi once more stood up in the Cathedral ptilpl 
and boldly repeated his former assertion, that aJi who 
persecuted him were lighting a^inst God ; Italy, and 
Czipccbtly kome, would be terribly chastiaed. and th«n 
would come the reformation of the Church. It waa 
untrue to ftay that lie ought not to have preached that 
day bc(:AU^e his preaching might give rise to dtfiturbanocs ; 
the Signoria might forbid preaching. btJt all ihc s.imc there 
would be strife to deiermtnc whether such tyranny ooght 
to be endured. At thti moment a tumult b*^n in the 
Church which ^oon spread Into the street*. A n^br 
pitched battle between the opponents and adherents of 
Savonarola seemed imminent.* An Envoy in Florence 
Vriles: "We have got back to the days of the Ouclfs «nd 
the Ghibcltinc3,"'f The authort of these diMurbanocn 
r«naincd itnpunishedj and the preacher could not fail to 
sec thar hh party had lost IIa a&cendency Under th<sc 
d renin "lilances he rcsolvAl to make an attempt to a^«rt 
the ttorm that wa; gathering aRainsl him in Rnmr?- On 
the J2nd May he wrote a letter to the Pope, beginning 
with the words, *' Why is my lord so wroth with hi* 
KTVftnt?" He had nCNcr. he declared, made any personal 
accusations in his sermons against any onCn least of all 
against the Vicar of Christ— further, he asserted that he 
was always ready to submit him?»e)r to tht- judgment of 
the Church, and preached no other doctrine than thai of 
the Holy Fathers, as wnu3d soon be proved 10 the whole 
world in his forthcoming woik, T^^ Triumph of thf Ctoss.^ 

• Ravrc, Snidicn, 374 J<V- 

t SoiTkntrl tr hit i^vpnrl, Miy 4, ir (liv AfHi, Sl IuI-, XVML, 3, 
t VfLLAJii. SattmnmU. IJ.. ifiS (Efial. tnuix) 




While SavonjuTib wn.< pefining thc;c wordt, judgment 
had been afrcady pronounced against him in Rome. Even 
hte fofmer friend and supporter. Cardinal CaratiTa, had now 
le convinced of the ncce^it}' for this step. Savonnfola 
invented all sorts of iltms)' pretexts for evading the 
examination into hi? prophcticat ^fls which Rome was 
bound to require, and to which it was his clear duty to 
HiboiiL Wliat would bccnmc of the duiliority of tlic Holy 
See if every one were to follow his cjc;*mpk" ? At the ii«me 
time, while withholding from hU Superiors th;tt submission 
to which his vowa had bound him, he claimed un- 
qocstt>onir^ obedience to his own commandi^ a^ Divine ' 
m-eUtions I • 

On the 1 2th May, 149*' Alexander attached hvt :iiKnature 
to the Brief of Excommunication. He had delayed hisf 
Action as lon^ an he could, and given the hot-hc^deJ Fnarl 
4inplr time to come to a better mind. Referring to the^ 
n>mpla[nts brought to Rome of Savonarola't proceedings, 
the Pk>rentine Envoy expressly say* that Alexander had 
bt it be clearJy seen thai he "was not inclined to make 
SM of all the weapons that he <had in his hand." But 
Savonarola'a obstinate refusal to carry out the orders of 
the Holy See. m regard to the union of the Convent of 
S, Marco with thp ncwly-t'trctcd Tuscan iind Koman con- 
gr^ation, and his persistent disregard nf the prohibition 
against his preaching, displayed an amount of Insttb- 
ordination towajids the Papal authority that could not be 
left unchaJlenf^. In addition to this, there were hi^ 
ineeMant diatribes against Rome, and the a-v^umption of 
pn>phetical authority on ivhtch thcac wcic foutidcd;*!' and 
no doubt political motives tendeJ in the same direction. 

f C/. ihe Dopntch of the Fbtcntine AmlKL^tHilor 
GtmURDt, tft. 


Kttnc!. rtj 



sidce Alexander was making every cflTorl to di 
Florence from France, and Savonarola was in this 
fttrongcit antagonist. However, the Friar's persistent insul 
ordination was certainly the main detf^miining factor li 
the final decision ag^ain^t hira. '^ it was impos^ble 
even an Alexander VK to tolerate a prophet overridij 
the Hierarchy,"" 

The Brief of Excommunication run^ a.'i (ollows: " W( 
have heard from many persons worthy of belief, that 
certain Fnt Girolamo Savonarola, at tht» present said 
be Vicar of S- Marco in Florrnce, hath <li*.scminalcd per-' 
nicious doctrines to the vandal and great grief cf simple 
90uU We had already commanded him. by hb raws of 
holy obedience, to suspend his sermons and come to in 
to seek pardon for his errors ; but he refused to obey, and 
ilJegcd various ejccuses which we too graciously accepted, 
hoping to convert him by our clemency- On the contrary, 
however, he pcraiatcd atill more in hi-s obstinacy ; wherefore, 
by a second J^ricf (^ih November, r496), wc commanded 
him, under pair of cxci^mmuntcalion, lo unite the Convent 
of S. Marco to the Tuscan-Roman Congr^aiioTi recently 
created by iia. But even then he still persisted in hw 
Stubbornness, thus, tpto /a^to^ incurring the Censure. 
V/herefore we now command you, on tlie feast days and 
in the presence of the people* to dcclcu'e the said Fra 
Girolamo excommutiicatc, and to be held ai such by all 
men, for hi:i disobedience \o our apostolic admoni 

• Ckeuh, in the WiKhrH fur K*iho). T!ieoloK<<r- IV-. iQ7 i 
379; and RjlvK£» Stuctien, 378, wtu>ac»>gni correct Linute to thcii 
of polfi-cal nurtiicv He remariu : "Tim prtncipnl motiv«, liowcvcr. 
iho vindicLCioTt of the luprcmncy of ihe jpintual auihoricy, which tx 
lime could rouni upon n p^rty in Itue ctiy pr«par*d to ii.ppatt it-" Ofl 
tbc u><u[)cn(ia]i of C^id- CjiralCi'tn ici^ud to Uic Biief, sec GtUJlUtDI, 
160 /ly, C^ -dw rtLLOyilSL ill ihe Arth. J. Soc Konv, XL, 71^ 



and oaminands; and, under pain of the sam<; penalty, 
aD are fort»dden to assist him, ho\d intermur^ with him^ 
flr abri him dtbtr by word or deed, inasfntich an he h 
stn r?xcommtjn!catcd penon, and suspected of heresy. 
Given in Rome, i^th M^y, 1497."* 

In order to spare the Florentines as much m po^Jbk; 
tJic Brief wa5 not »cnt to the Government but to the 
several convents. It was not ^otemnly published until the 
tdtfa Junc-t Meanwhile tlic Flort:iui?ic Envoy?* in Rurne 
tjrere working hanl to obtain from the Pope the withtlnwal, 
or at leftst the su9pcn<ion. of the sentence SavonArob's 
letter of 22nd May had arrived in the inierini and produced 
a softening effect on Alexander, who from the first had 
bccA doing hia best to avoid extreme meaaurc:^^ It setxns 
most probable that at thin juncture, in npttc of the intrigues 
of tbc enemies of the rriiir, it would have been possible to 
have obtained a ^un|)cn»itin of tlte RHef. Alexander VI. 
was eat to tlw heart by the murder of the Tliikc of Gandia, 
nd frightened al&o. a& the a&sas^fn could not be dTacovered.^ 
So pendent a ttate^man could not hxve desired to aggravate 
Ihe tension of the situation just then by embarking: in a 
new conflict. The fact that he put Savonarola'tt cave into 
the hands of the ncwly-appointcd commission for the 
reform of tlie Ctimch. fur TuiUier ot}ii»jdcraiion> seems to 
prove that a pacific button of it wa^ ijuile within the 
bound! of posslbilftyS 

At thl« critical moment it was Savonarola'* o^n incon- 

* S«« Dia, t^UN'OO vntha Arch. Sl lUl., N, Sen«, XVIIL, :, ^7**^; 
xfkd ViiJjiFi, Sa^onufoh, U., ^Sq-iqo (Engl imns.} C/. SAVano, I., 

iBedni, 1B64K AdmiE tial th««xconimuaJcation was meriML 
t LaTiiJUCCi, is^-iSi- 
X See Vol V. ef thi» vrark, p. 496, 
I Sm I^Li-CGatMt ttk Arch, d Soc. Kom., X\., 719. 


lllftTnkV OK THE POPRS. 

flidcr^tc vJoleiKC which efTectuolly crusihcd thifl last cha 
of & rcconciliddon. On ti:c 19th June he wrote in 
hiL«Cc an " Epistle against the ^turrcptilioua Excommuiilca- 
lioTt addrc<iscc[ to all Cliristirins nnt\ friemTs of Grid." In it 
he cndeai/uiircil to defend himself against hj^ oppnncnta, 
and repeated his claim 10 a Divine mEsition. At the close be 
eays: "This Excommurtic^ilion ia invalid before God and 
man, inafimiich as it is ba^ed on Tal^ reasons and accusal' 
tions dcvi^d by our enemies I have always submitted, 
and Will atiU submit, to tlic authority of the Church, nor 
will ever fail 111 n^y obedience , but no one i^ bound to 
submit to comiTiands opposed :o chanty and the Uw of 
God, since in such a case our Superiors are no lontfer llie 
reprevcntativei <>f the l^ord- Meanwhile, settle by prayer to 
make fvacly for that which may befall yoa If this matter 
H pursued further, we will tnalte Uie inith known to all the 
world" • This theory is in direct contradiction tc the teach- 
ing of the Chuich, which enjoins obedience: even to an un- 
just Interdict, and would obviously destroy alt disciplincf' 
Savonarola was lx>uiid to obey the Holy See, however It 
might be desecrated by such an occupant a* Alescander VI, 

The Pope had no chnfce but 10 treat this step as a) i 
declaration of war On the 26th June lie totd the Floreo* ' 
tine Envo}'^ that he was determined to proceed against the ' 
disobedient Friar, in the manner prescribed by the Church 
for dealing with rebels and those who cfintcmncd her 
authority. Tlic Florentines still hoped by diplomacy Id 
ax'crt the catastrophe, especially as Alexander declansl 
that, if Rorcncc would give up the French alliance, he 

* VlLLAKl, SAvoLifu-Qla, II., 193-194 (En^- tmfi^.) : Mkiek, 135 r/^, 
Sftvocarola'i roplie* ^vcr* alwuyn prinkd at ancf^iir/. Sawuto, l„ 634, 
who obtervt-i thnt for ihi^ rtAsfin he doei tiat lAKert them, also bccaiu* 
thcr ftrc^o lc«iK^iy,nmi "'pci o^ci Ciiu fmteKhn." 

t f iUKlZ, SixtiiS l\\, aa 



wouki do cvcrytliiog; in his power to rncct all tlic ^^hkhrs of 
ihc Republic- Tiic Florentine Envoy was also indfrfatigji' 
ble in exerting hltn^f fo inAucnce the CardinaU m 
fovour of Sai.^nAroU. ^nd not cntirdy VMthout fc^tilt, for 
ftomc members of the commission recommended Uiiit the 
Cen&ure should be ^spcndcd for two tnonths, and the 
Friar iadvccd meanwhile to come to Home. But theie 
ricw^ did not prevail. The ccmminsion of Cardi^iaU a^nxd 
with the ?o|>c thai it was out of the question to coiiipl> wltli 
llie reqiw«t of the Signi^rla. unle^ SavonaroU would ^nt 
confter^t to yield obedience? to the command*; of the General 
of his Order and of the Holy Sec People began to any that 
the IntenJtcCA would be extended to the city iuelT Still 
the FlorcntJTie fCnvoy rcFu9«d to rclJm)uiEh .ill hope, but was 
forced on tlie 12th Fcbraary, 149^. to confess, fificr months 
i>f totl. that the ca^c |>rc3cnCcd extraordinary dilBcuhicsH* 

Meanwhile S^vonaruk, more than ever convinced of hia 
divine miteion^t did cvcrythfng that in tiitn lay to increase 
ihece diJnciiUies and to exasperate the Pope and make a 
lecoTKiliatior inipof^ibk\ 

Hitherto, c^'en during the Pla^^tie. he had abstained from 
attemptins; to exerciM any mcerdotal functions; he weU 
ktnew th&l to do so while under ;i format sentence of 
Excomaiuiikatioci would be a sacrilege. 

At the end of tlie year 14^^ he changed hU mitid on this 
fxttnt. On Chri<dtniui Day lie celchraled three mas^% and 
gave comTnumon to all hi» rdigbus and n lar^c number 

* GfflliARI>i. 17a, 174-17& C/thc Fcrmroc DopAlch in C ^^racu, 
SartfamiU, K9 rff,, wtio ai ihe «ain« time rcpona that SavotiAtota 
eandanrA inroindbblf . 

t ^, the RcfDit<pfi1ic FcnarocEnirtJyJnAug. i497,<irhi»oonvena' 

■ion villi the *'pvofibctT" wht> eiplamed &iM ht vat only an initrumenT in 

the hiTTfls of God. arrd thcicfore ha<1 nn frarof tho ir^Lili, :i>i t\ot[ imisi 

imir <o«i^uvT. C^rVKLLU 40, r/ qE-<}<3i o^ SavonoJclA^ tinn deter- 

mioviioD not io ywld obodJtnc* lo tha rop& 


HISTOHV or THH ropcs. 

of the liity. M^ny of liis pulbans c\xn disapproved 
this sacrjkgioiH Act-* rmently it Wiu announced that 
fiitefidcd~f(rb^n a^in to [irrach. The cxcommunicAtii 
hi* cvplatned ta the ^^ctf^iestc Knvoy. was unjust an<i hi 
no povh'cr to bvnd him ; he did not mean to lake any iioil< 
or it; see what a life Alexander V[. was leading; nothing 
should hinder him from pmchinK, " his commiitsion came 
from One who was hJghcr than the Pope, higher thao 
any crcature."f The Vicar of the Archbisibop of Flor ence 

* NAmm, L iso^sts: OQQSiaiknisuiviKlkd^^CRUiioei 
noa piccolo do' »uoi dirocL Sftvonarala liad resumed hk c|HnlUBl 

i CArrzLU. Savoruuxib, itn. IU^KC a of opinion fSludtco, 
MfO^lxtt <*Lbe Frmr^fiftLOTimpcnnitlin^him^fLOrcsumehupnot 
oiJUifV rhp uniu cf S. M«rto W3H ftr morf impomni (Thsn hi^ ^xerm* 
ufhucriijul iuiuuota) -. fjt i!u» ttaijiii open ddwnceof the p^pAl ccm' 
moncU ftiid ihc announcement mode to hun in the previous Jime 
of liii ExroiTinnjnic4iion Tfi^t mn^t nni b» Rjtardod a^an irabtrvd art 
of doobediencc ; il it yh.m eIui Jl implied ka atiaci oil (Ikc whole tftteiu 
of the Church. The supreme auihonty of the Pop« nnd his infiiJLibiliiy 
are railed in qn«Tioti hy it . . . Savonaroila, in retiring tho Kxcom' 
mutiiulion. wu ptCpHJini; tho vay fbr the Re^mulicn." VfUAiJ, 
Savofuratk, U., 34£,n.4 (EngL uitntOf ^^ Heixccqiki in tbt Gii>n*^| 
SLd.Leu. (mt^Xll-.jjS^r. ^Justly diipuu thiiLanara^^nion.bui :lir^ 
«iT9T oonUuxwd io llw opcnbit meiIcdccs oT thib pusag<c a luuth ^rtoAn- 
RAnkc"* Sludicn on Sdt'onarola has the mcrii of being im impftrtm) visw 
of ihr " pmpliH/ i>nf!j«nrtr.l byttw riominican legends by which ViUari 
liu boea f«i loo mu^ influcncctJn Bul iliia nuikos »ucl) Ecm^cki m ihoic 
in thoi«nt#ncof<|uc««d above all the morr i^grcttnblo^ Wlicrn Rankc be 
ukcihimKlf tothcd(nn;iinDf Caihnlir ih«ol'^, huq iirwr ignorui(« le^di 
him into nctkjui <ittjt. Tbttt he »^& (pi 32;j ttut Spivomfoli disunoly 
taughi the <ioanne of juiLiAc&cion by £»iih onlyl The parallel dra 
Imuciniilw Fiiar j.nd Luther and Cidv\ti on p. jjt ic only parfiaUy 
lUnkc lays here liuU Luihcr " lool^ up lii puuiron oulaiiJc the lii 
of the Church, while Savoiurola &till held to it." ilui if so, on vt, 
MKoaCi doe* he, ihi ]> 6, i^ll Savoiuroii " a prerunor of the fttfrmna' 
tionofthc t6ih Century''? 



mcd to prci'cnt ihh by isMJing a fnandatr forbidding all 
fnwn being present at the scrmoiis, and dt'siriiig the panth 
priett« to explain to their llocks that the excommunieation 
was pCffecU}' \-aKd, and that any one attrnding S^ivon&iola s 
prtachinf^ incurrod the same penalty hinueU, and woutd be 
cut off Irom the ^acramentit and from Chmtian burial* 
Tbc SipioHo. however, mode ^hort Vf-crlt or thia prcclonu- 
tioci, thicalcnin^ tbc WtcuT with the 5cvcfcst penalties if he 
did not withdraw it at once* 

On Scptuagrsima Sunday, nth February* 1493^ Savon- 
arola again entered the pulpit of S. Marto undrr the a^U 
of the secular poircr and in open defiance of the commands 
of hi9 spiritual superiors. In bumiriR words he defended 
bis dtsobcdtence '^The rif^hteous prince or the good 
priest." hcdcclarcd, *'ia merely an instrument in the Lord's 
hands for the government of the people, but when the 
higher agency 'n withdrawn from prince or priest, he la 
DO longer an )]i:MruineTit. but a broken tuoL And how, 
thou wcu1d'%t liay, am ! to discern whether or no the higher 
agency be absent? See if bis lawa and commands \x 
contrary to that which is the root and principle of all 
wisdom, namdy of godly living and charity ; and if contrary, 
thou may*it be tnily assured that he ia a broken tool, and 
that thou art nowi5e bound to obey him. Now tell roe a 
little, what Is the aim of iho^c who, by their lylog repoits, 
liave ]jrociilcd tlii^ sentence of Exccjmrnuni cation ? A* all 
(mow, they vnighl to Guerp away virtuous living and 
righteous goiHrmmcnT, and to open the door to every vice. 
Thus, fio sooner was the Excommunication pronotinced^ 
than they returned to drunkenness. profligac>', find every 
other crime- Thua, 1 will not atkrowlcdgc it, for I caimot 
act a^tnst charity, An>' one who gives commands opposed 

• VlLLARI, Savonarola, II„ S47-348 (Enjcl' Inin*.), Appcn<^>b tl.] 




to charity is EKCommuniccttcd \>y God. Were «uch com^ 
mttnd» pronounced by an an^l, even by the Virgin Mary 
herself and ail the saints (which is certainly Impossible), 
anathema sit. If pronounced by aiiy law, ot canon, or 
council, nf^aiiuma sif. And if any V^ii^ hath ever spoken 
to & contrary effect fr<3fn this, let him be dccbrrd cxcamn 
mtinicate. 1 say not that such a Pope hath ever existed ; 
but if he hath existed he can have been no instrument of 
the Lord, but a broken tool. It is feared by some that, 
though tliis excommunication be powcriess in Heaven, 
mey have power in the Church. ¥^% me it is enough not 
to be interdicted by Christ. Oh» my Lord, if 1 should seek 
to be absolved from this excommurtitation« let me be 
to hell; [ should shrink from aet-lcing absolulion as 
mortal sin." 

" The Pope may err," Savonarola asserted In his serm* 
on iSth February. " ar:d that iti two ways, either because I 
is erroneously informcdj or from malice. A* to the laltet 
cauie we IcCLve that to the judgment of God, and believa^_ 
rather that he hat been misinformed. In our own case w^^ 
can prove that he ha^ been falsely persuaded. Therefore 
any one who obstinately upholds tiic exconimunication and 
aflirms that I ought noi to preach these doclrines is fighl^ 
Jng agalns^t the kingdom of Christ, and supporting the 
kingdom of Satan, and is himself a heretic, and deserves 
be excluded from the Christian community/" • 

These and simitar utterances which occur in all his 
mons were the result of Savonarola's uiUortunatc comicti 
dcnvcd from his virions, that he had a inis»on ftom God, 
and his attacks on the Italian, and especially the Rom 

» VlLlAw;, SflvonaroK Hi J4S J*y- (EbkL Irani). Cf. M^lER, 14! 
sf^., and PKRRT^Prs JJ5 "■? ; i^e lauerJiKtly observes that Savonarola^ 
thcoiy pftvc* ihc w*jr fur all kindi uf msuburdipjtiaa. Sec »\w Fsai 
SiKlw 1V,| %^. 



cUrg>', b«atn« more violcfit than ever. "The scaodals^" he 
My*, * begin in Rvroe and run throuf;h Ehe whule o\ the 
ckrgy; Xhcy arc worse than Turk« and Moont, In Kome 
you will hnd that they have, one and all, ohluiiicd their 
beneficc^i by Nmony. They buy prcrcrmcnta Mid bc»tow 
them on their children or chcir brothers, who take posses* 
uKm of tliem by violai^c aiiil all ^oita tif Hiiiful means. 
Thdr greed i^ ini^Lti^ible, they do ;illthin^ ft>tg(»Id- They 
only ring their brlls fnr coin an4 candlt*^-, only attend 
VcApera and Chojr and Office when «omethin;t 1« to be fjot 
by it. They sell their bcneUcA, ncll the Sacfamcnts, traffic 
in mas6C« ; in short, money is at the root of cvcrytliinc* 
and then they ore afnid of exconununkation- When the 
evening; come* one goes to the (gaming tabic, another to hb 
concubine. When they go to a funeral 4, hatiquct is given, 
and vthen llie>- nught lit be pmyhig in mIcticc W thr Knul 
of the departed ihcy are eating and drinking and talking. 
Th^ are steeped in fhameful vicen ; but in the day-time 
lhe>' goabout in fine linen, lookin;^ smart and clean. Many 
art abioiutcly ifincranl of Ihcir rule nnd where to hnd it, 
know oottiint: of penance or the care of souU. There is no 
faith kft, no charity, no vhtucp Formerly h tiwcl to be *aid. 
if EK>t pure, at least demure. Now no one neeid tr>' to keep 
up ajipr^rtncct, fnr it ih roii'iidefed a ditgrarc to live wrll 
Ifa pricM nr^i canon leads an orderly life he {9 mocked and 
called a hypocrite. No one talks now of hi* nephew, but 
limply of his non or his daughter. The ... go openly to 
S* Petef'a ; every priest haa his concubine. All vciU are cast 
aaCde. The poison ia :to rank in Rome tliat it has infected 
Prvice and Germany and all the world, It has come to 
Kidi ft pass Uiat all are warned at^oiii^t Rome, Jtnd people 
ny. ' If you want to ruin your son make him a priest '"* 

But the scene which Savonarola -permitted himself to 

■ MKliW, 143 »Y* 




on ■ 



enACt on the lajit tiny of the Cnmtval, wn^ cvrn more ou 
ragcou^ thiLii liiii UrgiMgc lie bcg^n by spying ma^a I 
& Manco and giving communloti to Ills monks and a l;irge 
numbc^r of Uymen Then he mounlc<l a pulpit which had 
becai crocti-ti before; ihc door of the Church, carrying the 
Blessed Sacrament in his hand, and, almost beside lumsclf 
with excitement, blasphcmoiuly cxclaimedj *' Oh Lord, if 
my deeds be not sincere, if my words be not inspired 
Tbcc. strike me dead lliis instant" • 

"0 ye pricMts," Savonarola cncd out from the pulpit 
the is! Matxrh, " you havesuqw>scd ihc pagans fn contradict- 
ing and persecuting the truth of God nnd Htsc^mxe, O my 
children, it \s evident now that they are worse than Turk 
Now must we resist the wicked as the martyrs resisted 
tyrants. Contend ye e/il-doers against this cau^c like 
pdgans; write to Rome that this Friar and his friends will 
fight against you as against Turks and unbdievers. It is 
true that a Biicf has come from Rome in which I am callu) 
4 tOTX tit |j<^n|ition. Write thai he v^lLom you thu.4 designale 
says that he ha* neithL-r cnnciibines nor children^ but 
preacher the Gospel of Christ His brethren, and all who 
follow hfs teaching, reject all sucli deplot^ble thin^^s. 
fre^^uent the SacramentE> and live honestly. Nevertheless 
like Christ Himself, wc will somewhat give way to wrath, 
and thus I declare to you, that [ will preach no more from 
thU pulpit except at the request of those who desire to lead 
a good life, I will prcadi in S. Marco but io men nnly, 
not to women; under the present circumstances thU k 


• Laisnucn, rftj. who dc^nb« iSts nppdUing icenc^ nrtd*" EnH 
vcnutn £r;inJc popoLo, ^imaiido vcdvxc xgm : c tii3|ridi si ddcvm^o c 
£fcccwno hofTc c dkcx^ino : E^h c %comRiuni(;;itD c cotnniuntca sicn. 
E tienrlrf- a mc c" piirpva ennrp, kiv.on rht fc-Ii ctedtui; tiu non 
niriiemii max a p^rici^ atidani a lulirlo, poith^ fu tn^nmiLDicato- 

1- MEt&R, I4C 



Nothifig co«lfl have pleased Savonarola's «n«mj4^fl better 
than this aj*gre3ftlvG tooe. His friends were id the i;reat»t 
cmbarnLSsnient The Florentine AmbajMadorin Kocne knew 
not wtut reply to fnake to the; Pope's compl-iints ol the 
intemperate acrmoitt of the Friar and the obrtin^cy of the 
Florentines in clinging to their prophet and to the French 
alliance. On the ZSlh February, i4<^^. AlcxAi^dcr told tlic 
Envoys that "even Turku wuuld not endure sudi iiiNtibtjfdi- 
KUtion agamit I;iwfit1 aiithDrity," ;iiid thTratrnrd In Uy An 
Inuniict ofl the ctty,* A few days later he attached his 
dgnaiure to a Brief ro the Florentines, which ran thua ; " On 
4nt recemng notice of the pernicioui; erron difTuced by that 
chitd of iniquity, Girolamo i^avonarota, w« required him to 
abstain entirely from preaching, and to come to Rome to 
in^loffc otir pardon and make recantation ; but he refu:ied 
h> obey uj. We commanded him, under pain of cxcommu* 
aicatiuQ, to juin the Congregation af S, M^rai ti) tlie ne« 
Tuiean-Ronian Cov)gre^ation> and ;tgain he refused to obey, 
ihus incurring, ipsa /tu^ro, the threatened excommunleaticn. 
Tbe which sentence of excommnmeaUon we caused lo t>e 
pronounced and proclaimed in your principal churchci:, 
likewise declaring that all who heard, or addressed, or held 
intercotifse with the ^aid Girolamo would incur the same 
penalty. Neverthctensv we now hear that, to the grave hurt 
of religion and the fouU cf men, this Friar still continues to 
preach, d»pt»ea the authority uf the Hdly 5cc. and tlcvlarcs 
tbe excommunication lu \itt null ami vnUl Wherefore 
we command yoo. by your duty nf holy cihedience, to send 
the said Fra Girolamo to ut, nnder safe custody; and 
if he return to repentance, he will be paternally received 
by us, ina;unuch a^ we »eek the c:cnver«ion, not the 
death, of the sinner. Or at least put him apart, as a comipt 

f/. f tLLXORINl ID AidL d Hoc Som,, 



member, itvm Oic rot of ihc pccplc. and keep Hm ci 
fitted and guatdriJ in £Uch wise he niRy have 
of none, nor be a.ble to fli^semirLatc fresh *i<:anJal& Dut 
if ye refuse to obej' the*e commands, we shal! be forced 
to assert the dignity of the Holy See. by subjecting 
3^011 to an Interdict anij also tc other and more efTectiiid 
remedies." ' 

This Brief, therefore, docs not contfttn the Interdict itself 
bat only threatens it. In a second the Canons of the 
Catlicdrat are enjoined not to allow Savonarola to pnuicli 
on any pretext whatsoever. Thus the Pope stHI abstained 
from dtwng anything Tnore than that which was absolutelyf 
necessary, and demanded nothing that u-a* not strictly with- 1 
in his rifjhts. According to the ecclesiastical laws of that 
tiine Savonarola %vas unquestionably a ddmqiicnt. and 
being a rehgiou^i, Alexander had a right to rct[Uire that lie 
should be handed over lo the Holy Sec for juflgmcnt It 
19 quite true that, from the beginning and throughout, the 
fact that the Friar was the *iou1 of the French [:iarly in 
Florence was one of the weights in the scale, and not 
a li^ht one ; but it U ar exaggeration to assert th^t 
Alexander's only motive in his proceedings against 
SavonaroU was to induce Florence to join the Italian 
League against France ; at this momenC it is clear that in 
the Pope's mind the vindication of the authority of the 
Churcb was the foremost consjderation.f *" 1^ tl^c monk 
will prove his obcdieiK-c," he said on :!7[h February to^ 
the Florentine Envoy, *' by abstaining from preaching ^^)V^| 
a reasonable time, 1 will absolve him from the ccnsureji 
which he has brought upon himself; but if he persists in 

* VlLT,\RT. S-tnjmroli» ll„ a6j.36j (EnKl tmiis.K Tlic Hholclexi 1^^ 
inihe liilian, 3, App., LXVL LXVIL ^H 

1 Gkimic iiiihc ?tiiKhr,nii KathoLTIieologir^ IV^597. ^.Ratixk, 


hh cibobc?dtencc wc shall be obU^l to proceed againsC 
him with ibc Inicrdict and a\] other lawful pimishmcnts, to 
vindicate our own dignity anc) that of the Holy Sre.'*^ 
The Pope agaiTi expresied himself in tiinil^ir temut when, 
on the 7th of March, the Florcnlinp Envoy prenented the 
rvply of bis G4>vemfnent to the Brief of 36th Februaiy. 
The reply pointed out that S-ivonarolA had never entered 
the pufpit in the Cathedral ^incc the arrival of the Bn'cf* 
ckicndcd him wannly 011 all point-i, dcclarini; that he had 
been caltimniiitcd.ftnd s^idlhrit the Government v^» unable 
to comply with ihr^ Pojxr'* request. Alexander, honwcr, 
tt^K well awure that Savonarola continued to preach and 
abu«e hhn tn S Marco tn exactly the snme manner a« he 
had done tn the Cathedral. " Tht« 1% a wrry letter," he said 
to the Florentine Envoy on the 7th March, *" that your 
Government has written to me, 1 am not misinformed, for 
I have myself rc^d the sermons of thi5 Friftr of your*, and 
Dociventcd with people who hnvc licurd them. He despises 
ibc ecn»mT* :ind has had the in.iulpnce to call the Pope a 
'broken tool," and to say that he would sooner go to hell 
than ask for absolution.'* With growing irritation Alex- 
ander went on to complain th;jt the Sif^norii ttill p4?rniitted 
Savonarc^a to preach. More than once it had been at 
their express desire that the Friar had rc-a^tercd the 
palpit at S. Msrco ; the Pope dcmarded that he should be 
absolutely silenced, otherwise he would lay the city under 
Interdict, The Envt»y strove In rwilllfy Ihir Po[k." by puiiit- 
fng out that thrre vmn nothing rrprehen^Jble in Savonarola'^ 
teaching. Alexander replied that it was not the Friar's 
doctrines that be condemned, but his conduct in refusing to 
a^ to be absolved from the cxcommnnic^lion, declaring it 
to be null and vx>id, and continuing to preach in spite of hifi 
exprc^^ prohibition- Such iin eitamplc of open deBanee of 



hi.s and thv Churches authority was mrwt dangcmusi.* Thia 
(leclarjlion was endorsed by ;i tt[?w Brief elated ylh Miuch, 
Again denouncing ia the strongesi terms Savonarola's dis- 
obedience in preaching ;ind exercisbg sacerdotal function*, 
notwithstanding his excommunication, and in di^eminating 
through the press his denial of the validity of the Papal 
censure, and other subversive doctrines. " Doea the Friar 
think." it said, " that he alunc was excepted when our Lord 
conferred the jjower of binding and loosing on our pre- 
decessor S, Pct(;r? , , , Our duty as Pastor of the flock 
forbids us to tolerate jjucU conduct any longer \Vc there- 
fore once more command you either to ^nd Savonarx>la to 
Rome, or to shut him up in some convent where he cao 
neither preach nor speak to any one until he comes to 
himself and renders himself worthy to be absoUxd, li 
this in not done we shall lay Florence under Interdict ; uU 
thai we trquire is that S^vonHmla shall acknowledge cnir 
supreme aiiihorit>-,"f- 

The numerous letters of the Florentine Ambassador sh 
the extremely embarraasingpoailion in which he was pi 
by the perfectly legitimate demands of the I'opc. From 
Florence he received nothing but fair word» excusing 
SavonaroU. ^^hilc Alexander VI, insj.'ited on deeds. On 
titc tflth of March, in n very outspoken Icttrr, he again ex- 
plained the true ^tatr of thing* to his Government The 
Pope, he says, absolutely tequires that Savonarola shall be 
Mienced ; if not, the Interdict will certainly be pronounced 
They may spare themselves the trouble of any more fair 
words and apologies for the Friar ; they make no imprc&iion 
on «ny one. On the conlraiy, every one laughs at ttielr 
notion that Savonarola'5 Excommunication am be «ct aside. 

■ crtir 

♦ MAmCHUfcin AKh.SE. 1U1., VIII, i^^jtf^. 

XI, 7^3- 



The power of pfow>undng afnnuTcs is by no means an 
iiuigiii5cant pan of the authority of the Holy Sec They 
Dffld not f:ifK:y that tlwj' wt!t be pL-rmltt«(l to<mMtion it " I 
rrpeat once more," he add^a, "what [ havn «i oflcn written 
to you, U the Pope ie iiot obc>'ed, the Inicrdict wlli be laid 
on the cUy. Conuder, mareo\-er, hovr you yourselves would 
art if one who owed you obedience not orly fninkly acted 
&gunat>^uxconimand!t. but flouted you into the bargain-"* 

A few day» later the AmbASMtdor announced that the 
IN)pe had received further accounts of the abuse showered 
»pon hiiD, ihe Cardinals and ihL- whol^ Roman Court by 
Savonarola in hu ^tcrrmonK, The: reiult of a connultation 
■iih acveral of the Cardinals was thai to forbid his prcflch* 
ioj w»a fWE enough, he must be sent to Rome; otherwise, 
QOt only would an interdict be laid upon Florence, but all 
f-1orcr)tinc9 rwdi'ns in Rome wctild be arrested and put in 
pcisoD and thdr property condacatcd.'t 

It wa^ mt obvlou^)' iJil- fj-uEt of Uie Stgnuna ihat matters \ 
ihaa\ii havr b«-n broH^hl to s.uch «i \i!t.-<s iw rhi.i, th-it their 
Donduct has been suspected of having been due to the 
iniri^;ues of Savonarola's enemies, whose jnflucncc was 
growing from day to day. The Milanese Ambassador In 
Florence wrote to bis Government on the 2nd iMarch, 14^3, 
that the Signoria were endeavouring to irritate the Pope to 
the utmost, in order to provide themscb^es with a plausible 
liretext fur ukini; prucecdiitj^s n^aUi^i the I'Vlar^ ft is 
HOC necessary lo determine whether ihb view is correct or 
not, but the fact rciuaiits that the beliaviour of the Signoria 

* Ghexardi, 19S-IOI1 has been the finl le pubUsh chi» highly 
iQieicin>i,' trfjonof thcAnibftUAilor. Vtltaridkl noiknow of it 


; Thi» rrport it i^kimrd by Vili.aki, SAvniumb, M,, 267 (l^n^l 
inm^X C/. AKb. Sl tuL, 3 Seric, XllL, 1Z6, and Pcu.noaiM m 
ArcKd.Soc. RcuLfXl., 7» JTf. ; ^-714'^. 

VOU V( I* 


Rvroitv OF THR rope& 

did ncccsKarily grcs&tly cmUUcr Alcxan<icr against Savo- 
narolL TIk Pope complained of the Friar's dt^^liectience 
and of his bdn^ permittw! Ofxrnly to *i;1 M< anlhr^rity at 
defiaoce^ The StgnoiTia replied that the preacher waa 
doing a gr«at deal of good and was a tm« reformer, and 
that therefore they ccnild not comply with Alexander's 
commands. Wlien the accounts from Rome became more 
menacing, Ihcy gave way so far as to forbid him from 
prcadiing ; * but alloured his followers, Fra Domcnico and 
Fra Mariano Ughi. to go on declaiming against Rome in 
Ihcir sermons a* freely as ever TNl" Pope comptained of 
this in ft conversation with tlie Florentine Ambassador on 
the 33rd of March and demanded an answer to his Brief. 
" I do not rei--]tiire," he said» *' tliat the friar* ihould he pre- 
vented from preaching, but these attacks on the authority 
of the Church and abusive language against myself must 
be put a stop ta" Rcfcrriog to Savonarola, he added : *' If 
he would be obedient for a while ar^d Uicn aik for absolu' 
tinn, t wiudd wjllingly graiU it, and permit him to resume 
his wrmons, but he must ceue from abusing the Holy See, 
the Pope, and the College of Cardinals; for I do not object 
to his doctrines, hut only to his preaching without having 
received absolution, and to his contempt of myself and of 
my cennurcn; to tolerate this would be to give away my 
apostohc authority/'f These words arc remarkable aj 

* In hi% liuil spmion on iHih Mnrrh. Snvnrnifnb sairl tha! Tlie only w- 
vouTCc now lrf( was an appc*] to the hiRhcst iiibuimJ, " W( muii luni 
from tb« 09uthly Pop« 10 CThnai, the hnvenly Pope." Ho dedvtd thui 
|i« had nevtf wn himself agalnsi the tnie ;tuthoriry of rhc Chitrch, "but if 
the poHCT of the Chur^li ia i:umjpicd. it cciu» tube tlui af the Chuidi, 
ord bccomet the power ef Sauui, ^Vhen 1I cno^uni^ok coiicul>in«i, 
knavn, and thieves, iind prneiniTi*! the };ood, in^il hmc^pn iha«e vho dc' 
sir* 10 Icid ChT^lUn ]ivc», I tell yc;u then it ia a devLliab power that uuui 
be withicixKL'' S«« Meizr, 15a 

t Bofiil'it Drtpnt^h of jjrrt Mnrrh, r4^ io GHTJEAEmi, 109 ; ^, 



ckarTy praving that at thU time ibe vimfioTico oC the \ 
Church ^as the first con^idcratitia 

Could the proud Friar ai ihii juocturt have nade np 
^mind to hutobfe binudr belbne die Pope sad aafc far 
Ekm. poftdibJy the fttons vhkfa iru wHitmly t» 
overwhelm him might, even at the tast moment, have been 
avcftcd. But nothing coitld have been rvrthcr Irom fan^ 
IhouEhta ; blinded by Ha false theory, that a Couocfl W 
mperior to the Pope,* he obstinately persislod Id i iii A ii iir 

mpenor to tnc Pope,* he obstinately persislcd 
laattcTB to on cxtrema On the i jth March he addioaed 
an Angr>- Letter to Al<MCAiul(!r, acciumg him of hnrfag 
'made a covnpact with hU enem», and let looae « T^e 
volves tipoD an Innocent oun't Then, follovmg in th« 
vay of all other rebels, he urRed that a Cooncll slKmtd be 
Md to dcpofv the I'opc a^ *^ilt>' of ^imooy, a heretic, 
ajtd an unbeliever." SavonaroL&'s fricndi pressed the Floe- 
entJiic Envoy in Prance and Spain to support thU plaa , 
he htncicir addreswd a letter to all the gitftt Chri«tka 
PrinccSb let the Klng« of France, Spain, Englaod, and 
Haogafy, and the Kmpcror of Germany, strongly urging 
^em to convoke an anti-Papal Council "The hour of 
vengeance has arrii,«d," he wrote in this document, " Cod 
detires me to rG^'cal His secret coun^ls and to announce 
to aO the world the dangers to which the bariiuc of Tctcr is 
exposed in con^ucnoe of your stackEieas. The Church 
is steeped in shame and cnmc from lieail to (tioL Voti, 
inatead of exerting yourselves to deKvrr hrr, bow down 
before the iMwirce of all thw evil. Therefore, the I-Ofd is 
angvy and has left the Church for %o long withotit a 
shepherd. I assure >"0U, tn x^frtc D&mini, that thi* Alex- 
ander U no Pope at all and should rot be accounted such ; 
for besides having; attained to the Chair of S. Peter b)- the 

• OCV<iLV.oflbiiworb.p.aia. 
t MClllltfifSAYiSHi w^- 



shaincful sill of simony, and still daily selling Church bciic* 
ficcfs to ihc liighcst biddLT; bcaidca lib other vices which 
arc known to all the world, I nidrm also that he is not a 
Christbd, And ilacs tiot TwrUcvL" In tlit wsistt^jice of GntI, 
which ts tbtf [kcp(??Jl depth of unbelief." After this intro- 
duction, he rcquin^d all ChriBtian J'rinced to unite in con- 
voking a trouncil as soon as possible in some suitable and 
neiitml place. On his side hs not only bound himself to 
atibfltanliatc all his charges with incfratjable proofs* but 
also assured them that God would confirirt his words by 
miraculous tokens.* 

The agitation in favour of a Council acquired a real f* 
and extenwoti from Alexander's growing unpopularity. 
The way in which he had given up the projects of reform 
which he had announced before the death of the Duke of 
Gondia, and his unblushin^r nepotism necessarily anuiscd 
bitter rcdin^s a|;ainst him. both in Italy and abroad. There 
was fermentation on &U sides The greatest danger ficcoicd 
lo lie III Sa\'oniiroU*_<: frieijctship with Ihc French King 
Charles VIM. who had already, on 7th JnntiJiry, 1497, 
obtained a pronouncement in favour of his plar« for calling 
a Council from the Sorbonn&t Alexander had fjnl to 
know of these intrijcucs, either through intercepted lcttef3 
Of through some unwary speaker. He now tliought that 
he had good reason to fear that Savonarola's myaterlous 
threats, auth as " Some day I will turn tfie key." or " I will 
cry, I^itarus* cuinc furtli," were mure than mere empty 

* T\x di^ioiihU letter U to be found in MEIER, 34QJff' Thii 
itient u pronouitcefJ to bo ffinwRv^ iwt only by MXRC-tTf^K in 
St. loi, VIIL, tt sff. iff. Scaim, I-, 3J4 J'?'), iwi aiH> \vf IUnki; 
5tiidicia» 507 ttij , vho Aitu, in Che suno plncc, »prcMca IU& bcbef in 
aiai«m«nt« meuic by SavoauoIa Id Iuh trinl 

t DIP Pejsms D'AaoRvntt, C0IL judlc, T. L, R II, pp. i%%-y%f^\ 




Fs. No doubt he recalled to nirtd Andrea ZamomciTi'* 
attempts to bring about a Council, aiid capccUUy dreaded 
combinations bctvrccn the Fnjtr and Princes or CardinaU 
wtic»vrerc hostile Xo bim, with the objccl of getting him de- 
po«Kl by a Council. "From henceforth all his Tncxieraiicn 
atMf (^ntlenes* vanished" At thtf lame lime the tempest 
bunt upon Savoiurola from another quarter* 

* ScuvM^ 10 Ehc Bonn, Litemturbku, tV^ 906 ; r/ rnu.^KlM, in 
Afdt d Soc- Rom^ Xl^ 7^6^ AR>iN-Tt!OKi:, m the HngL Hjit Kcvjew, 
tV., 4$g. *Cr(m|[]T condrmfn Ihc poMinnitF partf^amhip Mtib wli^ch 
VilUri. even in bit UK«t edttjooi and in contrndi^ttmn co 4II ilte best 
4Blt4nb«, dcurib^i the oonduct of Alcundcr VI, m regard 10 Savorm- 
roU. Tit* *uihor, a rmrc^UnT, mniirk'* <irionjc orher Ihinu!! : " Evcii 4 
Pope lAi» Mmc nghti of MJf defence* >uiil luil Akundcr ovci tttoVcd the 
eVMiUMry o| l}i# Fr»r, Uw ConiinuAiice of the FajMcy v^ouJd huvf bCf ri 

linfiiliT modcmlion, Jkitd ihe chaacct whicli l})r author ascribe? lo mnlc^ 

mottuiA ^-aiiiM u iTGui for whme life ;&nd ninml icnchin^ kic hnd con- 
iidcnbte rrvpcd Jf Ihc Tcpc liod a riichi to scifAinte the Tuscan from 
Ibc Lotnbofd c««igTe^iion agmnil (lie vill of ihc Utter« he ccrimnly had 
ihc rifhc to U111TC ri TO >hr Romtin jL^stinst the will of thcr ffnTirr. t'ro- 
ficMtv VilUri 13 never Hcftry of nvttiimg hli feJiitcri tlut SA^oriHiolftS 
pyyo t i tt oB vvu diPBct«d nci againiC th« Pipacy but agajnit th« i'ope, and 
tloN iM tSBni of hereby lin^ert ruu»il hh invmory; thiL it ni tlrlTji-iih to 
draw a b«ud and (mX Ijnc bct»ccn doctrine and dJ«JpUnc. and die head 
<4 llw Church would ippcir to \iu\p un wtn Alrongrr cbim tu enJOK^c hi& 
ne«i nt *isdplinc than of docirinc;' In another ptatc (pL 4;y), Arm- 
BtroofC >ay3 that Vtllana bioKnkphy u a pancKyric and ar> ap4]o>;]r. 
before him, GAiTABv (II., 664! had ftlw> Ult*n es«ption to Villnri'* 
pninia^virv- Hahiwii.,, mUw ZciUchr., LXIV., J?S j/^.^ vn^rxvvMn 
10 Mead VitUri aiE>iitiil hi» critic*, but hot loadmii tIjAt he had under< 
laktB toi^kmfy S;kVoruir«b (p, 179V ^d thnt hv is [in^judicml in favour 
td hn hero 0^7i^ In imrtxlm injt '"""* ihi* (^u^^llfl^ tlw dHim(inn iin 
Itthllibility of 1S70 (179)^ Hi^wig uiily ihcwi thnt he iuu noi ucdfi- 
iiood thh dognu- 1 t^t in liCPTliei>^'S 'A'orkL iKi^^tiuivoa Loyob, whirh 
hai jiHt Appr-trrd (7^3), tlui he Jilho LOEikiden V^nftrik pdnc of view 



Al thi^ v«ry momL-nl ihdl the KrUr was thus Mlcmpt- 
ing to stir up a revolt amongsi ihc Prince* of Earope lib 
standing ground in Florence was slipping away from 
under his feci. 

The days in which Savonarola was the guide and ruler of [ 
almost the whole of Florence had long gone by. The 
tttrriac point for him came in the year 1497 with the 
f^lufc of ricro dc" Medici's attempt to m.tWc himself 
maMcrof tliecity, anJ the execution of Tivcof hJiadheienlft. 
Thdr relations set themselves as avengers of b1(>od to hunt 
Savoniirola down,* and the influence of the Arrahiati 
became so great that from that time Wis follou^crs had to 
ftght hard to hold their groLnd. The position of the 
Krateschi naturally was very much damaged when, on the 
top of thb, the excommuEiication also came, for it produced 
a great impression in the city, and many held it to be bind- 
ing-t The disputes on this point and on the tjuilt or 
innocence of the Friar grew more and more vchemetit 
The revolutionary character of Savnnarola's attitude J was 
severely stigmatised by the Franciscans of S^Croce. When 
he w^ silenced by the Government they redoubled thdlflj 
attacks upon him, The Dominicans were unwearied in de- 
fending him : their chief argument was his Divine mission. 
Inhin Hcrmonn he had repeatedly asserted that supernatural 
tokens of the righteousness of his cause would not fail to be 
roTlhcomln'ti if the natural ev Idence were jn-tufficieiiL-S For 
A lime tlie mudcmtton *>{ his conduct and ihr fact ihat 
many of his prophedes came true had caused him to 

* Sec JiASt, SavnnNioU, jj, 

t Lakducci, [61* repoft* ihot nymy were wyinK that, whether 
Juit or unjust, the Kxcofiimunicailioii u-a« :t fienous inailer^ 
CUICaARDlKl, Op. iDcd., III., 167, ;tnd AHUSlXEl^G,(kv. ff>:. 4SA. 

X CmjcnrON, in., t^H, conikkri it vuch. 

I <f. 'i;^, p^ 38, and Ardt Vcneco^ VEII,, 77. 



\y believed. Untdually people bccarao mora and mort 
ticalt ^^ he found htmsdf more and coon obliged to 
9taiNJ on the defensive BgAinst the cavillers who disbelieved 
IP hin pio|Jhcctc3L The very jnlpftble di:uLdvanta{>cs con- 
•cqocnton the nXAtc of tc^^icin bdwrt-n Fliirrttrr and Rome 
vUcfa WIS the natural result of her clumpionUiip of an ex- 
cocnaiunicaied rcl^ouK, and especially the Pope'i rcfumd to 
oooaent to the levying of a tithe on Cl^tirch property* had 
a considerable effect in tncreaaJng the number oi t<epttc«. 
The dclibcrfttJonR of the Council in March 1498* on the 
couTK to be pursued in their relatione i^itJi Rome, shew 
htm fju matters \uii] gone in thw rcs^iect Fmnccirtco Valori, 
SatOfttrola'Bconfkkntial fncrf»d, and others^ stood up for him, 
but they were itroogly opposed 

Hift ertenuoi took pains to poirt out, in addition to higher 
considerfttiona, the material inconveniences thai must attend 
pcnistencc in tho cour9c which J-1orcnce h^d hithcrtc been 
purauinf. Gio\'anni Conacci observed that the Pope's 
^Dfiidictioii vnw univcrsl, iind he ought to be allowed to 
have uhai rij^'hlly belonged to him. GJuifano Gondl 
renrtinded the Florenlintfs of llteir profestbn of obedience; 
in rehiring to obey the Pope they were breaking a solemn 
oath. The result of Savonarola'^ preaching, denying tliat 
Alexander vras ;l tniv yopc and viiilying h» person, would 
be that a sect would be formed in Florence. It vies not 
worth vrhale to make enemies of the Pope and all the 
Italian powers for the sake of »uch a man , in the end the 
Klorcntiiic^ would be tlttUied tcbcb d^imiiAl the Cliuith. 
4nd vrould be treated as such. Gio^-amii Bnmetti remarked 
I iKit however good and learned Savonarola might be, he was 
still not infallible. Guid" Antonio Vespucci said thal^ look- 
tag at the ca4e on all «idcs, he thought it would be better 
to obey the Pope- " You have got an envoy in Komc," he 
said, *" who b commi^^sioned tu request the Pope to restore 



his con!K:nt to the vax on the clergy, without whtdi the cii 
cannot axial, For thia end \\g Is charged to do at! he 
to conciliate the Holy FatJier ; there is no tensie in coni 
dieting a man from whom you are seeking to obtain 
favour. Whether Savonarola be innocent or cuilly is of no' 
moment; the Holy See holds him to be guilty, and unless 
wc satisfy the Pope on this point wc shall certainly g«^| 
nothing from him. anrl it Is much to he Icarcd ihal the Inler^ 
diet. Willi all its disastrous consetiucnLtrsy will come uiicm^ 
m- Stress has been laid on the harm that will be doDC t^lfl 
silencing the Friar ; but since his own Superiors have for^ 
bidden him to preach it is rot at our tioor^ that the nm will 
lie. For Komc the matter is far from bcin^ so unimpor- 
tant as some would make It out Ceniuren arc the wc^pon^^ 
of the Apostolic Sec ; if It is deprived of these, how can it 
maintain its dignity and aulhorily? This h \Kt{ctMy^ 
understood in Rome It is said that wr ought to consii 
God and His hunour. I agree; but the Pope is 
Vicar on earth, and derives his authority from God^ It if 
Uicrcforc more meritorious to accept his censures* whether, 
they be just or unjust, than to defend the Friair. No di 
if we could be sure that Savonarola was sent by Gcd 
would be ri>:ht to protect htm against the Pope; but 
wr cannot be certain nf this, it is more prudent to '"h*^' 
Rome." • ^ 

Meantvhlle Savonarola unflinchingly maintained the 
supernatural origin of hift prophecies, and asfierted that £f 
I necessary they would be conhrmed b>' a miracle. On tht 

I last day of the Carnival of the year i^g^, before alL 

I people, holding the Blessed Sacrament in his hand. 

I prayed, " O God. if my words are not from Thee. 1 cntn 

' It is 


* Sm the Import of ih«y« IninMctioiTB in tbe ilocumtnti piiblithcd 
Luw b rhe Airh, St Iral,, 3 Serie. HI-, 1, 33-53- C/. Kank^ Sn 
joofTf. i Frami!!, Sbit4* tV^ Ti uf, ; and Hasi; 61. 

f KOPO&AL or Tue okdeax. bv tvlz. 

Ttaee lo Etrilce mc dovn thiA very flftonwnt* * On Qmrnqjom* 
(talma Sun<lay of the mxqc year, in ha sermon he cried out, 
* I entreat cnch one of yoi to pmy euticatly to God that if 
my docuinc doc» not come from Htm, He wiQ acod down 
« fttc upon m<% which sJiiH cim^ume niy tool in bell." In 
odicr fsrnn<ni« he h^ rrpraicHly lold stories to bis audifiice 
of ewes In vhkh tbc troth Mms not recof^nised until inuij- 
fefted by ttome direct tolten from God. and oiTered hinv»c]f 
to pooA through the lire in order to prove the reality of his 
ninioat After 5uch utterances au the«e it wa^ not sur- 
prising that Ofi s^th March, iaqS. the Fnmdscan, Kranccsco 
of Apulia, in a Ajcnnon in S^ Crocc. should have taken up 
Uic challenge, and tuiderlaken to submit to the onfeaJ by 
fue whh SavonaroJA. " I fuUy bcl>cvl^,* Francesco said, 
" that I shall be burnt, but I am ready to «a>cnfice myself 
to free the people from this deloftion. If Saix)nafoU 
M iKX burnt with me then ><ou may believe him to t>e a 

Sai-cmarola meanwhile shewed no treat inclination to 
[jftne hn minion by the ordciiL hut 11 ^va.% olhcTATiM: with 
bit followxrs- Not only lUc crlhusJastic Fra Domenicoda 
Tc^ffa but alio many other Dorainkans, and even several 
Uymen a-id many utomi^n, annoimred their readmc« to 
undergo it ' It ir wonderful/' writes a Florertinc to hu 
friend on d^tli Mard^, i49K/'to see bow many hc^re are 
ready to ^ thnrntgh the: ordeal aa joyfully as if they were 
^in£-to a woddinc." § 

' "The tr*i Biu Hinrwhai tlira^'iari BiJHMiNfiui.97-l*'*and ihe 
AnabiMi *crt quiU juwJjScd In uyinis (hikl SftvutiAfuta wouk) lure doov 
%tntt it h« hid promn^ > miracle if God were for him^thnn tf He were 
jpknt him ; far a nc^iiivc prnv-es luittiinu, Btii ull ih.ii wav nwdni 
«U in K< iflniti the i^fea of a Di^mc nimnifcfllAlJoa" 

I ty. LAivnucn, itid-iO?, ;iiid riimtANDi, ai& 

I GueraROi, 116. Rii«at Sttidiai, :;io, sap ilnt tU» '■amnfe 




S;tx'0(i;imb's enemies rfco^ised at once ihal the rjucstiori' 
t}ms started might, and possibly must, entail the dt^trucdon 
of their hated foe: " If he enters tlie fire/" they said, '* h< 
will be burnt ; and if he does not, he will forfeit the faith 
of his adJK-rcnts, and it will be caay to *Uf up a riot, duriog 
which he may be arretted" They ihcrcfofc resolved to do . 
their best to liave the tri^i by ordeai carried out. For thi9^| 
it w^s necessary to obtain the corisent of the Govcrnincnt ; 
and here there was considcrabSe uppositiou from many wbo 
recognised the scandaloiu nature of the proposal; ali 
Savonarola's refusal to take up the cliallcDge m person w. 
cmbarraisiiig- However, the majority agreed that all pos* 
siblc mciin* must be tried, including tlic ordeal if neccs- i 
sao'i to heal the divisions in the city. Savonarola's parljf^^ 
were the mo^t eager aUvocatcs of the ordeaK Again and 
a^,ain iheir master bad told them that one day his wardn 
won Id be miraculously confirmed and his enemies destroyed, 
and now it ^reemed a^ if the day had come. With fanatical 
conjidence they clamoured for the ordeal; convinced thai 
when the decisive moment arrived, the ma-iter would 
longer be able to restrain himscir he would plunge into 
Hamei, and then would come the miracle* 

The propo.silions, the trulh of which DranenJco da Pc«;ii 
hopcfl to establish by means of The ordeal by fire, were 
those which were most contested by Savonarola's opponents. 
They were the following ; — ''The Church of God fft in need 
of reform ; she will be chastised first and then renovated. 
Florence abo will be cha^stised and afterwaixi^ restored and 
Houn^h anew. All unbelievers will be converted to Cbi 
ThcAC things will come to paifS in our own time. Tl 

duel " was |inipf>srd l>erAit^F " n'i ccclaui-tticnl aurhririty eiiatvd whii 
wu Aclcnowlcil^cd by U>l1i piLrlica." 
• ViLLAKt, Savonueb, U., 307 (lic^L nan*.}. C/. Ramu^ 



Ecommunication pronounced ^4in:il our rcvcrod father. 
Kn Oirolttno Savcruirola, is invalid «ind may be disre- 
garded without sin." 

Tbc atdUuic urUie GDvcmmcnt toviiirdi Uic ordeal should 
havT* cau%K^ SAvonaroIn and hi« fbllnvrtrr-E Ui |uuiit- but 
fommon-scnsc had long bcrn thrown to the winds by ihe 
Friar's party, to make way for a blind belief in ihe socn* 
nunbulisbc onclcsof Fra Silvcstro Maruffi. On the 30th 
Harcb, the Sb^noria had decreed, in regard to the ordeal, 
that the part)' whose champion succumbed must immcdi- 
atciy leave the city ; that if citlicr of the conibat«Lnts refused 
to enter ihc fire, he would incur the :«amc penalty ^ that if 
bnth tverc burnt, the Dommicdns wtiuld he cciriMdcred the 
^onquUbcd party. In a ne^- decree on 6th April Iherewa* 
no longer any mention of ;l penalt>- for the Franciscans ; 
it dmply announced that if Fra Domenico periched, 
Savonatola would have to leave Florence within three 

When the news of ihctc pmeeedin^ readied Rome. 
Alexander at once exprf.-s»d his di»approbBlion. The 
Flonmtine Ambassador c-ndeavoural fn v^in to oblain his 
tanctlof] for the ordeaL He condemned it in the itronijesl 
terms, ai did al» the Cardinal* and the whole Roman Cnurt. 
Tbc Ambassador insisted that the only way of prevent- 
ing it would be for the Pope to ab^Ive Savonarola, an 
obviously tm possible Altcrnativcf 

Meanwhile the /ih of April, thtrday fixed (or the ordcaJ. 

• THadecTCT Din ViulakIj Siiwmiirnla, 3 t,cil, i, XCL-XCllI, 
t la ihe Cvjc v( tlic docmiicnia publiahvd by CHCKARrili 317 '^<» 
\*illari'i a««nion, in which ht pcnj^u evtn in hu (ccond edition, LI., 
145. ittit AirxiTnIcr liad :if)|iruved of ihc ortltil by firr. is -iljvjUitcly un- 
feiubfe. CataoHTcrf, IIL, ;4e:>; PM.Lnnitisi inthcArcKd, Soc Rom., 
X(.,737{ andAausTEOycin ih« Engl }(itL Kcview, |V., 458,1111 fighUy 
•0IW in rvjn:iin^ Vilbri'i t}i?ory. C/^ obo CHRniTOPHi., I T., tp^ o. I| 



had arrived. Ssivonarolx's misgfvings had been dbsipi 
by a viwOTi of anf^eU which had been vouchsafed to 
SilvcstTO. On the momine of Ihc appointed day he said 
maw and delivered a brie! address to Ihosc who hod 
attended it- "I cannot promise ycu," be iKiid, "that the 
ordeal will taltc place, for thai docs not depend upon us; 
but, if it docs, [ have no he^it^tion tn a&^irin^ you ttial our 
side will triumph,'* Theti he sex out for ihe Piazxa accom- 
panied by all his friars singing the Psalm. " l^t God ari.ivc 
and let Hi^ enemies be scattered * as ihey walked in proces- 
sion The Fnnciscans, whohadcomequietly, were already 
there. An enormous multitude had assembled and were 
ea^rly avraiting the unwonted spectacle. The Signoria had 
taken c^'cry precaution to secure the preservation of order. 
Two pilp?i of fjiggnls lorly yards long and liaturated wilh ml 
and pilrh were preparrd, divided by a *pace wide though 
to allow a man to pass between iliem. It had already 
stniclc twelve when the Dominicans and their adhereviti:i 
walking in solemn procewioB (Savonarola carrying the 
Jilctned SacramcntJ^ reached the I'iasuL The Franciscann 
had come earlier, simply and without any demonstration, 
and now ntood in silence en thcrir ?ide of the Loggia, whtk 
the notninicans i^myed aloud- All was ready. Hut now a 
diffrrcn«T arose hetwt'cn the two parties us to whnt rach 
of iho champion.s should be allowed to take with him [nto 
the flames. Fra Domenico insisted on taking the Crucifix, 
and thU the Franei^anK refused to permit While this 
question waa being discuss*;d, a heavy- shorter came on, 
threatening: to drive the spectators away, but they were too 
eager to be easily scared and it ccascri in a few minutes as 
suddenly as it had begun. Fra Domenico perflated in hi» 
determination not to lay a^ide the Crucjfix. At last he said 
that he would be willing; In take the Sacred Host instead. 
Against ihU not only the Franciscans bu: th? whole body 



of ^xctstora cnCT^cticallx piDtcited, rtghtl)r judging that 
HKh a pnKccduig would be nothing less th-in an otitngc 
on the B'*4?*ttl Sacrament Savonarola and Pni Domenfco 
«ere at a diflerent opinion ; later, Fn Domtmic^ acknow- 
Mf^ that the reason \k refused to give wa)< on thia point 
wai, th^ Fr» Stlvestro'a anfcd bad cxprcn^ly ordered him 
to carry the Hk^:«cd Sacrament with him into the fire. The 
only powibk explanation of Savonarola's pcnEitcncc fn iKis 
miitcr was the influence cxcrci»c<I over his miiid b/ thi« 
friar. Asaprkst hcmust ha\« known that to fntrodisce the 
Sacred Ho« in ^uch a manner into a jiertonal exi^erffnent 
was abfiolutcly forbidden by Canon Ijkw. He warned to 
have entirely forgotten thai in the Church the only piirposca 
for whkh the bodj' of the I-ord can lawfully be used <ire for 
the ftdomiion of the faithful, or for their footl. He main- 
tained that only the npccici cnutd be burnt, and that the 
Hoii iUclf would remain untouched, and quoted a number 
•f dDctiim of the Chorch in HuiJjKJrt of his vlvw. which the 
Franciscans ax rrsnlulcly cr^ntc^tnl * Meanuhib it wais 
flowing dark arKl Savonarola'^ opponents were becoming; 
moffv and more violent The only course now open to the 
S^noriA was to command both panics to withdraw. The 
oob^ dbappotnted of the spectacle to which they had been 
so eagerly looking fcrwvird, were furiou»^ Their wrath 
aaturally wft£ directed against the Dominican, " vfhoxi pro- 
posal of canyiiij; the Siicred Hoiit inli* Llie (lie wA-h looked 
upon as ati inKiilt to the blrsKrd Sacrament." The bad 
impnsmon produced by this was all the liirong^^r hcrause: 

* B&lifUM0BR,999, Ftnttirita, ""If SaroTiftrolabclievcd in ihc oertiint y 
of a ■niad* In bb bvotir, vrhy then ih«iild |i« oirry ihc &icrtd Hoti 
inio ibe ore? Or if, on ibc other huad. )l wu to vrvr u a vux of 
^ImrwT to prcitecl Fn Dotncnjoo, wouM it noE ^ii^x luut the ^anw 
HStci if Kondjnfli'i alM lud iaustcd on carrying it. ;tnd tbm rcil^'cd thi? 
■bote onl«;LhD 4 luxe?" 



the Franciscan had been ready let enter the fircwithntit any 
more ado and wilhouc expecting any miraculous interposi- 
tion. The conduct of Savonarola and his party wa$ uni- 
versally condemned, especially after having so confidently 
announced that a miracle would lake place in their favour: 
^^thc idea that the whole thing was a fraud gained ground 
from moment to moiQcnt"* If Savonarola was so confi-* 
dent thaf God would protect him, it was said, why did he 
shrink from himself unclrrgaing the ordeal ? Also, why did 
he losisl on Domcnico's being allowed to carry the Blessed 
Sacrament with him into the flames? Even those who 
believed in the prophet said that if the proof of his Divine 
mission were to be held as really incontestable, he ought to 
have entered the (ire alone. Thus, in a single day, Savona- 
rola by his oA'n act had dissipated tlie prophetic halo which 
had hitherto 5iiiroundcd him in the eyes of the pcople.f 
Hi^ fate was sealed. " He had himself led the populace to 
look for, and believe fn, Mich tokens as the ordeal would 
h;tve been, and whenever the masses lind themselves 
disappointed in their expectations, and think themselves 
cheated and insulted, their rc2enta:ient ia bitter and nith- 

* RaNki^ Studien, iiy%X4fy/. $^ii^.) ; lie cilcs CcrrcUnJ and the 
Report of Itie MiluTiBuc: Envoy, SonwinGit in the Arch. St. luL, XVIII,, 
fl-31 Iff, Ranke r»sht!y fotlow^ Cerrtiinrt impanial account &nd 
x^cLi ^loli antA tlnzlAiiiaccliT'^ DoLiiinicaa LcgtiiJ. wliJLh ViUiui 
rcpKMlucca in all cucnuol points- A fiesH auEhoniyt overlooked b/ 
Vllbtri, hnmiOA rnniF Eoliyhl in Sh^l^MfWDo DIl' CnNTt (II, i^X ^'^ 
b all the more muLworihy bcuuAc he fully iccogniici Sftvoiutob;^ 
yrtat qualiuca. J'EIX^'^RI^'I m ihe Giorn. St. d, Ltn. UaU XIK^ 7^ 
Uff^ a1«a pointa out the ftcron^ bint m ViltArt'a ncfouni of the ordcjil^ 

t 11 popob tt coaiurb^ taiti qu»i p«rd«icJo [a fod« d«l Pro&ts, 
LmIIDCCCI,i69i ^.CaBlOUTOM, n,243; CO^I,4s6 ; AOd PlJt 

]; PttAKTt, Sham IV., Sa 



On the folloK-in^ morning, Pftlm Sunday, Sa\t)wvo1a 
Mill further d&maccd his positiOQ by J^;aifl pn^achine tn 
5u MsFco in direct contradiction to the command of the 
5ie:noria- On the same day his bjiruahmcnt was decreed; 
but this sentence wsu nut carried out * Tl^ta Cnin|ui^]iJtcci 
molvcd to tuke advantage of the singc-r and dkappcMnt- 
iTKnt of the populace? In order once Tor all to cn:!h the 
Pr^tescM. Before Palm Sunday was avtr the two parties 
into which the city wat divided had ccme to blowc 
The ftermon of a Dominican friar who wa« preaching in 
the Csthodral ^-as violently interrupted. Francc;<o Valori, 
Savocurola's chief supporter, was murdered, anti the Con- 
vent of S. Marco was &tormccL At 6rst Savonarola thought 
of defending it, but whai tlic city ofHcial) presented lliem- 
M!h«« and summcmcd him tn ;4|]p«raT before the Slgiioria, 
be followicd them, fiy torchlight he and Dnmcnico da 
Peccta were led to the paJace through the iieething crowd, 
H'hich booted and jeered at the prophet :l3 he passcd^f 

1 he bitn^on^t lo^t no time in zcqu^iuMn^ the fope and 
the Tftriou^ Italian powers with what had taken place. 
The Florentific Ambju^t^or in Rome waa also chained to 
beg for A general alwolutloTi from all Church pernidties thst 
might havtr bee^i incurred by having allowciJ the Friar to 
^ on preaching for %o long* or by proceedings agaixut 
eccle&tafitical persons. In addition they aske^d for powers 
to try the reli^ous who had been arrested, and also n^^ain 

• Tl>c Decfc* it m Vill-ou, H., ed 3, XClV, C/. PORTiou in 
tke Ani\. ^L Luiub., I-, j^i j^y. 

* I^CftTdAniAnJPArcHiJSrvportiin KAlf)CK,3i4'^- "SoffTCfttwa* 
ifac ng« of ihc people," uys the chronicler VagLIEHTi, ** thiil Savollarob^ 
if he lad hm liad tht Ble^'ir'l Sacnment wi[h him, wtiuU l^ave been 
lORi Cio pieces-' See Riv, d Ulbliolccbc dir di G. Biagi^ IV., 6o. Sec 
ako JaOOFO Prm, in. Florn* m Ihe Arch. Si, ltal.« 1 53, and lh« letiw 
of a Maniiian Atfcnt ia (he ArcK. .Sl Lomb., I., 347 j«y., Rnd aIm 
Ccea. 457 **f- 



— -p 


npproached the question of the Ux on tfic clcrg/. 
Alexander Vl. cxprc-ssod hia HatUfaction UihI the scuid 
ca.u'^al by the rf\commiJ"ic;itr?d Krmr was at last put an 
end lo; he willingly granted the ab^utfon, bul desired 
tliat the prisoners should be sent to Home, Although Ihi 
requcE^t was alterwartls repeated with conaidcraUc urgency, 
no allcntion was paid to it in Florence. To ."^ciid the 
ddbqucnts to Rome was held not coriMstcnt with ih* 
dignity of the Republic; the sentence ought to be car 
out wh^-TL" the crime h^itl bet-n conimitte<L li was finill 
rltMnd(?fl thai two P:ipal Dt'It'gates were to 3««iKl in the trial, 
and on May ii>th thedcneral of the DomJnirans^Gioacchmo 
Turian^ and Francesco Romolino, Bishop of Jlerda, 
came to Florence in this capacity. Hjt lonp; hcfore th 
arn'vcd the trial had bcpin, find it was evident that 
Savonarola's opponents were row complete ma.Hierii of the 
city and lycrc prepared to employ any amount of toitvre 
and falsification lif cvidcintc lo ensure his dt:siruclion- 

It is plain thai SavimiimU's slatements forrcd frotn him 
by torture and further distorted by interpolated sentences 
and omission*, cannot be accepted as proofs of anj-lhin 
Thus the justice of hjg sentence Ciin never be cither proved 
or dbprovcd i but the excitement of Florence waji M^ 
great Chat the Government believed that it was absolutd 
nccc?i±ary lo put a slop to the Friar's proceedint^s, N 
doubt Alexander VI. wdi orient in hi* demand* that l! 
rebel who hi*ri intended to call in the help nf thr srcula 
powers to achieve hU dethronement should be punish 
Nevertheless the responitibiSity for the *everity with which 
he wai treated must rest on the niicrs of Florence. It had 
been Inily siid, in excuse for this, that the Republic wa4 at 
that time in ,stjch a critical portion, both externally and^H 
internally, that the Government were convinced that thla^^ 
WAfi a case for the a^jpjicalion of the old Uomiin iiiaxjnij 



'the gocxi of Uic Stale bcfbic everything cIm:" and tl»&t 
they vcrc bourd to adopt any mc^sUTcs, honirvcr trxtreme, 
tJial scem^tl (?X{)^lenl for iu defence.* 

WIliI u-a* gixim out 3.t Savonarola's " Confcsfiionn " wa* 
of a nature to shake the falUi c%vn of his mo^ tnistTuI 
disciples ia his Dtvine iniiuiDn and his propheEJc Gharactcrt 
uid the mass of hh disciples began rapidly to fall away, 
"Go the 29th AprtI, 1498." write:* the loyal Luca L&nducci 
in his Dia/y, " I w^s present si the reading of the deposi- 
tions at the trial of Savonarola, wliom wc had all believed 
10 t)e a prophti- He conft^^JiCtl tha he wai no such iMnj; 
and that his prophecies were not from God. When I heard 
this I was filJcd with amaiicmeni and confusion. My soul 
with anguish when I perceived that the whole 
'edifice which iDy faith had reared was founded on 
liesand waa crumbling away. I had thought tliat Florcnoc 
ifw to be a new Jcnisalcm, out of which would proceed the 
law of holy life, the reformation of Ihe Cliuith, the crrn- 
irerHian of unhelif-veT!*, and the coirsolalifin "f tlir gnod. 
Vow all this ha^ vanished. My only comfort is in the 
word; /fs v^untaU tua £ft>mini minta stjtif /'<"/iw,''f 
The foajority cvvn of the friars of San Marco now 
abandoned their master. On the 21^1 of April they sent 
n letter of apolo^ to Alexander, " Not merely ourselvcSi" 
they said, "but likewiM: men of far greater talent, were 
ilecdved by Fru Girolanio's cunning. The pidusibilitj of 
}m (loclrneTt, the reetilude of hh llfc^ the ho1ine?(K nf hie 
manners; his pretended dei'otion, and the good remits he 
obt^ned by puruitiK tlw city of immorality, usury, and 
every species of vice; the- dif^l-rcnt evci^t?^ whkli confirmed 
bb pfophccica in a mai^ncr beyond all human poAcr and 
imagination, were 5Uch that hud he not made rctraetatton 

t LaKUICO, I7J. 


iJiSTORV or Tiie popes 

hini&&1f, declaring that his words were rot in«pir(-d by GoA; 
we should never h.ivc been able to renounce cur fallh in 
him. For so Arm was our bdJef in him that we were 
all most ready to go through Ihc tire in support of his 
(ioctfincs/* • 

As o'cry t^ne had foreseen, the trial resulted in the 
senlenre of death bcmg piunuuiiced upon SavoiiHioU, Fra 
Domrnico, and Fra Sifve_strG, " for the mofistrous crimes of 
which they had beeti convicted." On the following day 
sentence, de^th by hanging, w^ executed. 

All three met their fjite courageously find calmly. Hefo 
being delivered over to the secular arm, they were dfigradcfl 
from their priestly dig^nity *w "heretic*, schismatics, and 
conlcmncn* of the Holy Scc/'t One of the spectator* is 
said to have Cfillcd out to S^vonaniU, " Now N yuur time. 
Prophet, Ice «s have (he miracle," When Hfr wa^ cxtmet 



• VlLUnr,5AV0tiarr>la,ti,, J75 fEtij;^, tRvn*.), C/^ ]'VMUV:n% ^^7 

t For iTicwr rmrlrrii who »rf unfiimillar wkh rrrlnL'ttiirAl tpmiton' 
[ ihlnktbc followini; iciiuirki vill nut be supcrlluaux h wiu^ctoitly the 
Pap&l Coni[ri»ionGrs but AkKiiii1«f VI, biiiiAotf whodviijccd StivoQan>|& 
with di*icinJn;ning "fulfia ef ptnifcni ciogmnu" (tec iha Btiti <€ i>ih 
MorcK iai,^^y\aG\\tit\7Kl'\.^y\ Biit by l11E^ phm^ f« nccorduki: to ihe 
ordinAr)- Iuhj^uak^ <^ the tunc and llic 'le^oX ptMntt ofiicw, which wkh ajto 
thjiiof ihe InquWiJon rhinn^ thrfollcM'mMrciiUirit^ipWF Atenf^t tavinder- 
Maiid Ibc tcHfltJri^ iif cNt)nc<»uh tk^jiipi. Uiiiici ccrUm cirvumaLunca* 
as Giu^K irt the Zclt&f hr. fitr KjihoI.Thcologic, 398, juidy pomu out, 
tp-i< hini;, Jhp tPTif%'««'y of wliiHi wy* prar 't triill y «rhi*matir w tmr rrlcibu. 
tit<)li wa» to dE»i^i«itcd, *" ThiLK^ iiny one »hii vr/c gmlty uTin^uiiltr^LEiitU 
In exeortimtmicationc niad? himBtir'sLispftct of hcTC^f ' in Ibe tyt of ibe 
law, by warning 10 Aerxy thp fight of t^c rhupfli to prfinounc^ the •m- 
tence of cxconununkaiior. ui the nccciiily of meiHbci>bi[i wiih ilic 
ChUTvh/' AdJ>[ii*ft tjifcim t^f ijoiuj; a ihvincly cmmisiioncci 
prophci would full und*rfheK>nic caifgrrj', C/.i'Uc Lcucrol Ihe Tj 
Coinniraoncrs of ilw jjni May, U'A "" RVtiEl MCK, 494-497t fi"o 
vfhicb 1I i» evident that ihc cliarge of hcmy \t\ thia fntc i> to bo und 
jlood in ihc n^nitructrvt! and not in the iirici ichh. 



the bodies were taken dcw^ and burnt ; a gu5l or wind for 
1 OkOOtcnt bkw the flaineii juidc, and many cried, ' A 
minck. a miracle*; but in another moment the corpno 
were j^aJn enveloped. The mhvs were thrown into Ihc 
Amo so as to leave no rdie« of the prophet for his disciplca 
to vcDeratev" 

Such was the end of ihb highly f^iftcd and morally', 
blameles^ but fanatic^ man. HU j^reatcat faults were his 
interfereiKC in politico and his Lnsiit>ordination toward-'^ the 
Holy Sec. Hia intentions, at tca*t in the earlier years oJ 
his active life, were |>urc and noble; later, lib paviictnatc 
nature and fanalicaf im^j^maiTon carried him far aw^y ^nd 
led him to u^^^^mtep the hoiind* ni n-hai wa?* |>ttmivtib]e in a 
rdi^uft and a priest He became the head of a political 
partj- and a fanalic. openly den)andinR the death of all 
encmira of the Kepublie ; this could not fail in the end to 
bring about hts destruction. 

In theory Savonarola remained alwayii true to the 
dogmas of the Catholic Church; hut in hi« denial of the 
penal authority of tl^e Holy See. and in his plans for calling 
i Council, which, if they had wiceeeded, mu*t inevitably 
have produced a schism, hi5 tendencies were practically, 

SfftxhaV KiCL^iAKU] UA risTDjA, Ricofdu 51-5?. and Uti teilo ucukufl 
d±£ ^uppliiio M SAvonarola, tn the pcrlodicAl Zilmldiinc of i>i }«n-, 

t The dil Lothtnn ricw, ihui Suvmuinjlji ma a pTci.vrtor uf the Re- 
IbrnMbon, Ami ttu^hi the doctrine of jiutiticoiii^n by fahh alone, cu no 
Idfifer be licUl by riny serious tiiilonar ; <-/ Gui^i^^c^vr, Hinudmtnrn, 
$Qf Aod llie ja!irr%1>rriL luc dtt (ioiiliirSiswaspcnitdutft. L {t^jtX 33$, 
3601 Ncxi to MvHCHESt, I., 10,1 u<;., VitLin hjii imdoub[«c!ly 
reBder«l $mx *trvKv* ta atpotan^ ihc iinhKiorirak rhAnrrcT nf ih» 
riFv, nf Khith Rufldbach h one of ilic pnnti|ul luppoiten ; Lhouiili. 
tram \m impedect Aci^uainttnrv villi Cikiholic ihoology and philO)oph>^ 

It may justly be iir^ in Savonarola's defence that in 
Florence ard in Rome, and indeed tbFOUghout Italy, a 

he h.11 not bcTD able to avoid falling into som« contnidictions m J crron. 
SCHWABinihc Uonn, Ulcmruihlttii,IV„»97, aii<l Kbantz, SkIw lV»j 
XV,, pp. 9r"93. huve |>oinlPi1 [h»e nril, bur ViH^ri^ »g:iin<it hh <iwtt 
inlcrcii, hm refused u» tiotict iliciii. Tlic abiunl L^ioUon a( liurc>ducine 
Savonarola, who in his "Triumph of the Cross" places defection fiomiha 
Oi'linlw: Church in the same c;iwgory with dtfrciion ff<fln Chri*! (Qui 
it1>uniUlc KcjJi^n^c Er.clc^iBC doi:lr^niim Oi&scjilJt, prxul dMo itfrdcvia 
abcrrans a Chriflo n»xdit, acd omnet hAerttici ab «a diKcoitlanl. ergo 
h ft rerto tniPiil* decliTiant ncquc Chri&ti;ipi appelUti poMpiin:, Ub. tV., 
c 6) into Ihr! Liiilirt TiieuiuK^I At Wonns. 1i^ sci ii ntiTiiTx^r iif C^tlmlic 
pens to vroiU to prove his orthfxloiiy, AmonRst thcic w : (t) Dm 
Litlhfrdenkmxl fu Womia im Lichte tier Wuhrlteil (Maiox^ iMf>j1, 2nd 
d. ia69);f3lRfiiAitDDeCARP, H. SnvonaioLi uiul Aw Luihcrdenknol 
lU Worms ins Dcuttrbc tjbcnctit, (3crlin, l868). See oUq SlCKlNGEJt, 
SavonAroUf Kme hibtoiischc btudie OVuirburg, 1877) ; KHantz^ bbctus 
IV- So Je7 ; Cjpoi-la, 7G0: DiTTRiCH. ConUrini, 478 J^-; Ca 
fjetci, 1h, 3,^3, and Unl {\UMl,S^.i^^,i Capt^VI, GcacK dcr 
Kcpublik, 11^3391 Amcric:m Catholic Quarterly Review, XiV, (iS 
35«7,; andHRRORNKOrHi'-R,V|[|,.33S, Tbc hirer siy^nf him: *•!*« 
cerUuAly wu not n Ibrnial KercLi^ or a precursor of ihc so-caUcd Ftcn 
formAtJon^ un1«sihf mere fafi of being in op[ja>ii(]on (o Kome ic«[iougtk 
la ain»iitDt« hitr\ «uch, Hlit leaching aos ilioroughly C^cboIJi:. and, with 
the exccptior of a few which have Iwcn piii into (he Index, bi> writin|;a 
hiU"Ch<?l(l thotr gramd iinf^ueiGtlontd in the litcramre of the ChitrchJ 
hi itc rtaction ac^^i^^ ^l^i^ uidii^ti:! 1*11:111 puini at vtcw, a DoiiimicAn, 
Ila^nnci W'cni »o fur as I0 "^nic a l>ook <£tudG iur J. Savon* 
d'apr^ det uotjvtaii^ rlrVMmenti, Paris '^79) with the objert of prepar- 
ing the w^y Kt ]ji» v^ni^iittitioik The " New Dolujiiciiiv" Iuvc bCED 
published b/ Ch«GU'di, bm contain n'Jthing to ju»rify wch a propooat ; 

nor CAR Ibc rtv«T*nce And vs^tetm enti^rtain«d fi^r hint by S, Philip N 
and S. CAth. Ricci be lUjnsKlcrcd cnouKh to suppon 11. Ttje le^jcnd i 
Benedict XIV. " mKnhod the name of Savonjxrola in ihc CalaJopic 
the ulmly ;ird bleiied seivnriK orft-ort "i* eniircly faJte. See tlKtsA 
intheZcitachr. Tur Kdtlio]. Theolouii^ IV., ]ig*JcY, Dayonnc's pretenal 
it m conlndjction nlto with the old it?tdiricm of bib ()rdtr. The <lo<ti- 
t&enuinGHULAKDl, Jig JtY^ihewtiutthe Uominicaii :^upeiion tbi 




deplorable crwrtiptum of morah prevailed^ and th^I Uw 
tecularifiation of the Papac>* in Alexander Vr bad n^achrd 
hs climax; but in hiK burning zeal for the rifforEn^tUon of 
morab he allo^-cd himself to be carried away jiita violent 
ttltacks on men of all cla?t9C3, ircludinj: his <tiipcrtor», and 
be cocnplctdy fbf^nt that» according to the tCiTchirg of the 
f^hurcb, (in evil life cannot deprive ttic Pope or any other 
ccxloiU^icxl ituthunly of hin lawful juriHdiutioEi He 
ceitxtnly w'a* iitiite sincere in his belief that he- was a 
prophet and had a Divine mfision, but it »o3n became 
cii*Went tliat the spirit by which he was led wax not frcrty 
ab<K-e, for the primary proof of a Divine mission t» 
humble mibmission to the authority which God Him* 
EBclf has ordained- In this. Savonarola wjl-i wholly wanting* 
" He thought loo much of himself and ru^e up against a 
potrcr which no oni; can attack without injurinf; liiin- 
iit:^C No good can come of disobedience; that was not 

tifaolc Cfintvy combated itte icmlciKy V> the vencrAiion of Savonnmla 
antoag their lubjccte, und that it wai furbiddcji to have nry |>ictuic of 
liidi,«r evrn to mmlion hk name. See VoL V. of ihimnric, p, 114, on a 
beidical devctopmcDl of Savonanila'i lendcndci. U b ndl-known that 
bi ilv i&th Century, during the <li>it[irhAnr:fa of ■S)7-iS59i nnd ax the 
lime of tht oppmriion 10 ihc Grmd Duke Alesiiiidro MrtUci, Savon- 
aroU'i rkttv aad mcl^iodi vcit leviredi nnd cxeni^d coniidcmblc ia- 
Htjtn/Ce. In ihb connection it is useful to compore MARCllt^E, Scritii, 
I. yyj ■''V I ^i'^^ ^'v <l»riiTti«nu in GHWAKnin iac ctt. Kldruoivr, 
IIT-T I. 'M* diinlu thAi ttterc ha» been vonie eju^^d'HlJon m the docjip- 
iim utd cvtimation of Savonvolii'i inHu^nca or the Hofentine ^Lrrgy of 
thM line. In ihe prrccnt Eiaie of ntJt kncwtrxlge iht^ que^iian oinnat 
be certainly dclnmiitbd; hut m careful ijii^^tJi^tion of die ii^bjett would 
fa« very \'£luibt*. ] abculd wUh to dmtv the aticntiCfn of any one 
who feh dispofffd 10 undonake ihii, to ^n ipfumrnily unprinicd juper 
wiitten on the 7th June. i5;8, at Fjnolc. I fou^iU ihn paxietync of 
the virttvk ofSavanaroU (mth ihc text: Crcdidi propMr quod locutut 
itEin) in tlie Varia Polir., 47* C 447 rf^., in tile Secret Arrhivu of (he 


the way to become the apostle of either Florence or 

* Cardinal NEWMAN'sjudgment in Weiss, IV., 246 (VTT. 532,6^3); 

cf, ROH REACH LR-KNOPFLeR, 377. CESARE BaLBO, StOna d'tlRlra (edif^ 
dccima, FireniCi 1856), has the foUowinii passage (p. 276) on ihe Friar 
of San Marco : Di Savonarola chi fa un Sanlo* cbi un eresiarca precursor 
di Lutcro, chi un eroe d] libertk. Ma son sogni : i veri Santi nan si ser- 
von del tempio a negoii nmanL ; L veri ererid non muoLon net seno della 
Chiesa, come mori, betiche peEseguitato^ Savonarola; c i vcri etoi d; 
liberty sono un po* [uu sodi, non si perdnno in chiasso come lui. Fu un 
entusiasto di bon conto ; e che sarebbe foree di buon pro, se si fosse 
ecdesiasticamente contenUto di predicare contro alle crescenii corruttelle 
delta spensierata Italia. 


Cjk^ax TU'^ntitA kvsitatri, nttt Cavhtk^T-ATK, a?(i> xirrriMKs DuiiftJ 


Oklv 3 tevf wcel<< b^rore Sa^^n;irola'i execution th« 
Prince on whom the vigionao' Uominican hurg <uch 
fitraofely baseless hcpcs for U^e rcrormation of the Church 
and the salvation of f taly» hfid i^isscd AW^y. Charles VIIL 
dicJ suddenly iji ihc jirimc of life on ihc 7tli April. 149^* 
He vrtts succeeded hy I^Hih XII. The new ruler shewed 
M once what Iwly had to expect from him by a-i^uttiing 
not otily the tkle or K\n^ of Jeruialcm and ihe iwo Sin* 
lies, but aLco, » de«cendAnt of one of the Viscontl. that of 
Duke of Mibn. 

These preterflJofis were hailed with jiati^faction in Flor- 
ence, and Jtill more 50 In Venice, the Republic haWng 
jallcn out with Milan about Pba, Louu lost no time in 
;«ctiriii£ die ticrv]ce.<c of the turbulent Ottn Glaconio 
Trivuli:io,t and Vmier, in thr *amc^ hrrath willi her con- 
gram laden 5 on his acecsslon, proposed an alliance.; The 

• Oo Chkdc^' latc^ pioicrt and hb promises to jUcKArider VU s« 
DKtJtBOltoK, ^4. 

i SaXLTO, I.. 963 ; ClFOU^*. 761 ; lUH>i. 3B6. Cf. PtUSSTEk, 

La po1ilJ(|ardcThvukc Jiu il^bul du t^Ktic dc Lc^uia XII. (Poiii, ifi^J. 
Louis XJC- lent an E<if<y/ U> Siena to indun Uuti dty ic enter inio on 
alUanirr vitli Kninrv and Vfhicc. Svt P^istii^R, L^ire de Luu« Xll. 
h la Scrcncuric (Se SieniJC. SuenOi iS^- 
^ RouAKiK^V^ioi^toai SanuTC,!, loia. 



French King bad announcctl \\h n^c^s^on to the Pope ir 
remarkably friendly terms.* Alexander hastened, on ihc 
(jthofjune, torcipond to these advances by sending person* 
of unusual dbtinction, ihc Archbishop John of Ragusa. the 
protonolary Adrian of Corneto. and Raimondo Cctitdlcs, 
xs Envoys to France.'^ They were charged, first of all, to 
citngrattihic the new King on his Accession, and to call hi* 
attention to ihe war against ihe Turks ; in the nexi place; 
they were to say that the Pope would investigate certain 
claims made by Louis in regard to the Neapolitan question ; 
and to warn him against making any attack upon Milan. 
They were to ask him to endeavour to obtain the restitu- 
tion of Pisa and Florence- Finally, ihcy were to require 
Ixini to give up the alliance with tlie Orsinl and Cotonna, 
and fo abstain from taking the bani'^hed ex-Prefect of 
Rome, Giovanni della Rovere, imder hU protection J On 
the 14th June the Envoys were again de<;ired to imprec* 
upon the King that nothing must be done against Milan-^ 

• C/. Pd-iiiiTEK, L'Allean*!, 31a 

t Sawuio, L, 979; BuRCHAHDi DUrium. I!., 474- •Letter rf 
C^nL A. Sfor^v cku- June 4, Komc^ I4';S ; Hog^i N^ ^. lun tfivmto per 
ioi oraion sd seraw R* de Fr*na ef rev- ArdvMcovo dc R>ia^M, M. 
Haidnaj)o da Corncio piothtuioiaHo cl »ccicUrio de Sh S'* cl M. 
Snntigki KpAjpioto proEhonouiiiu iLiiuqjo sen'ilorc dc !^ua 3^^ 5iai« 

I T1% ]iuUui;do» l» 10 befuuiidjLi Mal'ldk, IVocfd. PoliL, rtd^^^-, 
laktn ffOmCodn XXXUl, irof,, 4ll^of tbv tiibJ. B^^rtMnm; »id tn 
Thuv^xh, fl-, f.7j f/y.j printed fmm n MS, in ihc l*a|vil Archivciv 
Mouldc and Hiuunc. however, iind aho Grbgorovius, VII, 4og, cd. ^ 
(td. 4, 4] S\ iJt noi a^vnrt JtiLl tEia docuincni had been puUt&hcd Jong 
Kgofay FacRr ^CorrLititni- de rpbu« g^iiL*! Hadriani C^rrl^j. fjiiirTilii;^^ 
ijri M.X> C/. GEbHARDT, Adnnn, q, whtic ihn reference to Sli^l>- 
UOKDO on' CONTt, TL, aoo, a w^iniing. Un K. CanFoEH sec DAt. KE, 
136 *rj- ■ and <m tlw journey of ihc Envoyi iind iheir arrivjl in ibe 

£ Alcji. VL vcn frotri Jo- Archiepiac Rogutin oc diln fiTii* HodriAao 



Almit (fic Mine irmc an Envoy from Loui* XII. Ap- 
pealed in Komcisking for the tli,SM>!iitirm of hLs marrtAgc 
with his co«]«n1 Jiranne, to which he had been con- 
straioed In varlkT tlaya by Louis XT The King <ware 
chit he hand never contvirrtmate^ the marriage: The Pope, 
on the 29lh July, 1498, Appointed a jtMiml ccfnmtA9;ion to 
examine into the caae, and In XJecember they docidcd in 
TavouT of the dissdutior. On the 13th of September Alex- 
ander had already granted a dispensation to Louis to con- 
tract a freaJi mairrai^c with Anne of Bntlany, the widow of 
his predecessor, stipulating »i the lome time thnt ^mcihing 
was to be done for his tictovcd Cirsai." The advances made 
to France, formerly %a ener^ettcally repelled, thoitf^h only 
begtm in June, *oon dc\"elopcd into a firm friendship Many 
causes, be^de:! those already mentioned, conduced to this 
fc*^vlt, and cspccifllJy the conduct of Naples. 

Ever since the Autumn of t497 Ca'j*ar Borgia, who wad 
ofdy in minor orders, had been necking to return to the 
se<:u]ar state.f to oht^n a pnncip^lily, and to marry a 
Prince**, The Pope at first seem* to have been averne to 
thc^e projects ; but C;E*ar had little dtfRculty in overcoming 
this fB«llng. and Alexander's ambition began forthwith to 

Cafldkn. cam-apn clerJco cl Kcrct. no^tro cL llayinundo Ctntctl thcnur. 

A^ ly, Skuj: Atdihret, MiUn. 

Vlfl-, 83 fty-: PlussiFP, L'A]1«3nm, jjj 'T ! ^"'^t wpet»Ely, 

i ^ Vot. V. oflhiiwork,|x 519; the Fcmrt^ Dcapaieh in Baiam, 
3j6iandtho*RqWTlCtncyphFrJorA. Sforin,<!flt. Kotiif, 1497, Aug^aO: 
** QucttI di pivoti t hULto ra&on<LU) dJ ^e il c-tj'' dc Volcnu wxuLtrc ct 
dvli la prindpena dc SquiUncc per mof(licrft <ol siiilo chct pnncipc h:^ 
ori iMiBt II qoaj p«r qu«Ilo «c miende nam lu ftr\ qui lo^io nmalrncnte 
b print^im* ct In quotEo caio fictuunaad ep«o prindpf li bcDcAdi del 
p» orK" Milanese State Archives* 



btu^itftdf with apUii for obtaining llic throne of Naplts 
tllC hou^c of Ucjrgia by nicajisof a.n Aragoncsc allUncc.* 

Cx!iar was to mairy Carloit^» the daughter of ihi^ NL-^pcHI 
tan King) anci ri^ccivc ihe priricipaliiy of Tiirento, 
Manluan Envoy states <^Kprc£sly that this was the Poj 
real object in bringing about the marriage between 
Lucrezia und Alfon^. the natural son of Atfunuo IL, and 
now Prince oi Bisceglia and Qurtdrata.t On the 15th July 
Alfonso cQnric incog^nfto to Rome, and was cordially rc- 
ccivcd by Alexander and Cx±ar,t On the 21^ the 
marriiL^c ilviirtoolc pW<? VL-ry quietly, Uit wan cdcbtnted 
on the following days with great festivities, in whidi Alex* 
andcr took j>art with boyish gait^iy. On this occasions 
sharp encounter took place between C^sar** retainera and 
those of the Duchess, not a good omen for the future. 
Alfonso's good looks are much vautited by one of tho 
chrotiidi^rs^ and this marriage of Lucre^iia'!^ was a happ}* 
onc.§ On the other hand* Oc^aKfi alliance with Carlotta, 
who had been brcju^ht up at the French CotJrt. fell throUi:h. 
She herself rcfiiicdj and her father was even more opposed 
to it than she was^ On the 24th July, writing to Gonsalvo 
de Cordoi^, he said that tlie ?oj>e was Iniatiable, and 


* Bro&cu. Julius 11^319-110 ^SAsnrrc, l[.. 139. Cnu's 

iwi^rd {navi in like pouession Af (ho Uuke ol SormortfU) b«an 
ti3 lui pktns and aipimtionv The enjjrpivcd dcaism with vhitli ii is 
covered coHtiiin mflny pifty* upun Win iuliix with ap|>ropnatcnjoltoci,<%jf, 
Cuoi fniniine Ctsaiis omen. Ii was fini described by Ademollo, and i 
with MdiuiruUc iliuAtrjiiuii!* by YRfARlT, Auiuui dc^ Burnu, i4:j st^. 

f Sec Appcndji N, ^ *Dcapafch from G. L. CUtJuico, 8ih Aug., 1. 
Goni^Hu Archivvt, M^rtu^i, 

X Sec Appendix N. I ind 2, *Lcticn from A-Sft>nAof i5iJiaLi(l i; 
July, 149&> Mibneic Suic Archjvti. 

g C/. HunciutWJ Uianum, II., 493 i/f, ; Savlto, I,, 1030, 
aad in AppeudiA N, 3, DtUncoV "Deiputtb of Sdj Aug., I493> vhh 
Oelcgorovius, LucEfOA Bor^ i<HJt^. 



hrirouli] raihcr lose both hfe kin^rfom and hi* life than 
consent to tlus marriage. In this rern;LrkAb]<^ letter the 
King confcjtftce the cxtrcne weakncw of hh Covcmincnt* 
Jbt Pope wa* perfectly awarf* of all IhU, an<l tlic k/joi*'- 
kd|^ made him !(ti]l more dcdrou^ of entcrmg into clocer 
/tbtJofts with the gronring power of France; Yet another 
iDOtivc was added by the conflict between the Omni and 
Cokmna.whkhhad broken out jifresh, i^pkc 
<ir their upkni with tlic Cotiti, Acrc completely dcfealod at 
PalombAraon the I3th April, 1498.! The Vo^*^ «Abrts 
to bring about even a tnice between the contending parties 
*ert unsoeeestfut.* It seemed as If both sides were bent 
on continuing the conte;&t until one or other wan destroyed, 
whea suddenly, on 8ih July. thc>- came to an aefrccmcnt 
lo place the dccblon in regard to Tai^liacoxio and Alba in 
the bandi of King Fredcnck of Nap!c?t,$ Thi:t m>'^crious 
reconctliatton meant a combination a^aJust thr Pupa In 
hat own palace, one day, a net of rcrsm were put u|i. urging 
ihc Colonna and Orsini 10 come forward bravely to the 
rocuo ol their afflicted country; lo slay the bull (a play 
upon the Borgia ^irmi;) which wos devai;tAtin[; AuKoniSi; to 
fliD(; his cali'cs into the raging Tiber, and himself into hcU.|[ 

* AieKSt Ital, XV., 1J5 Iff . o:BKo:ol,Juliu^ 11^79 ; Santto, 
U, 9BS ; and PiussiEx, L'ADcuttt, jc? se?. 

t SJUnrro, I , 9<0p ^S, ^8, ^^, mil nvi? ; ST^rsNONno UVf C1NT^ 
il.t m i^f' t and ibc Rcpoii hi liAi^N, 573 sf^., ^yC 

3 *l.«cttr from A- bluna, KoRi«, snd Muy, 1496. MJan«i« SUtlo 

) *iicti clic fu alii 8 6 iiuLi cuucIum bi pace tni & Culune»i ct 
Umat corr-pfcrtikndoii rn cp» li ^vcLli «t CattUtM. Lctier from A. 
Sfara, Rome.rjihjuly, 1,198. (Milanw* Scut ArchK-e*.) SeeSAKUXO, 
U lOJ*. 10(5 i QtirjyiROVWS, \'U„ 4o</ «■/, cd 3 (4IS *:tL 4); inJ 
iULjU', 377' On ^rd Krb., 1499, Kfvdcrkit iwtLrded TagEiacoito, Albn, 
aad Carwdi to djo CnlixiiiA. Scr Cojti, Miiti, Ccitorvr,, i^fi 

|] HAUPIKftO, 508, »>3 thoo vi:i-ac» vcic alTued to iLc J^i ui" l)ie 


Tii^^Tonv OP niT. rorES. 

Alcvaiidc^r Vl. iiiifl C;ir«ar m(?;mwliilt-' had 'JLccced* 
ol>t:iining wh;il they wflrrted,* and on the I7lh of Aiigu^i 
C^sar resigned his Red-hat with the consent of all Ihc Car- 
dinaU.'f Sigtsmondo de' Conti calls this a new and un- 
heard of proceeding ; but at the same lime dwells on the 
foct that CcE-sar ^vas naturally a warrior, and unsuitcd for 
the priesthood. Sanuto, in hw Diary^ is much more severe 
ill his judgment He says; '' Wheii Cardinal Aidicino 
dclla Porta wished lu resign the CardiJiaUle m order lo 
becomt' a monk, many in the Consistory were against it, 
while all gave their consent to C.'csar's pian ; but now in 
Cod's Church cverylhinp is topsy-turvy." | The dbposal 
of Ca:^ar's hcncficcs, which were worth 32,000 ducats, wa* 
left with the i^opc, who later gave the Archbishopric of 
Valencia to Cardinal Juan Borgia. 5 

On this same 17th August the French King's En^'oy, 
Louis dc Villcitcuvc. arrived in Rome in order to 
accompany Cic*ar la Fnince; The prepar;ttioTis for the 
joume>' tnok so long That they did not st^rt until the tsi 
of October.!! A few days earlier Alexander addr«£*ed an 

iJbmrifi ^d Hxpft ; SAMmx whof« vcraLfln \% n Uitte diflereni (1., 1016, 
ioitX that :hcy were found ; in w una ^oltona neL paluo dit fa^ 

* in the (XMlfcnpL ctf n *U^CUt Irom Oircl, A. !>fo>rxu do hi« broihfff in 
Julj-, UfjS, we nxd: Come piu volte ho «c!ripto alia Ex. V, 10 «Kiim& the 
N- S. nun si:i |kt tj | jt j:>ji.ri? Iiti ehe nun lutbiu ttiLo juscilo aIIq Lcjae dd 
Kv. cAnL dc VnlciiiH. Miljincic Suttc Archivea^ 

t GPT.r^Rovn.7s, vn,,4ft,ed. 3 (4rS,ed4); Ctpot-i.*, y^i nwv- 

in ihe leniftthc dice in Buacu.vmJl Dioriuiii, [l'i49S. 

J SiGiuvoxro DMf Conn, IL, aoi ; Sawuto, I-, 1054- C/, aho 
Dluio Fciiame, 390 ; NOTAX C^iacomo, li^ ; C xiOlSAttrj^ lib. 
ni>, 6 I and RAYirAU>r!;, ad an. 149}. n. 34, in conncctien wiih Mnna/s 

J S\Hino, 1., T t J o ; It., 67, 629 ; and *Acia Cvasai^ C. 303. f. 
Co^'i^ttoria] Arrhivc*. 
[| UUKCUARDJ Uianum, 11, 493 : PALrssiGB, 544 (of ooum il 


asLograph tetter t« IxnjU Xll., In which he coniir<:ndi;id 
Cxior to him ju ooe wlio wa^ more dear to him than 
aR|thtng dfic on earth.* In this Bficr Cx«ar im called 
Dokc of Valcnttnots ; thus thb principality mti&t have been 
already bestowed upon him, tilthoufaih the formal invc^tUurc 
<iKl not take place tiU latcr.f It u a curious coincidence 
tbat iJic former ArchbUhop of VaIcucja should have 
beccnnc Dukcr tif V^ilL-iitiTTtiiH, m> thfit lie ^till tclAiiicd the 
j^>pellat»c)n V^ilmtimi^ ivhich could Ktand for dihcr. 

Thc new Duke «ct forth on his journey in ro)^! «late; 
loopoo ducati were said to have been spent on hi» outfit. 
He was cJad In siJk and velvet and bedizened with ^old 
and jewels, llw equipment of hii auito corresponded 
with hs5 oirn. The tr^ppinga of his hones were mounted 
m silver^ and their saddlecloths were cmbioldcrcd with 
co»tly pcduK * Ficuch nallcyH were watiiii^ for hlui at 
Cix'ita Vccchia. On the 3rd cif Octohpr hr emharkerl for 
Marseilles, where on the i^lh he was r(>ceivcd wftH royal 
hoooun^J In Avi^^on, C^irctinal Gluliano della Rovere. 
who vns now compktcly reconciled with the Pope, and 
in August had been reinstated in Ostin, also ^avc Jiiin a 
splendid reception, y Slowly, and with great pomp, the 

OcL I ia«lAd of Nov. t)i *AcIa Coiuisl., Oct. i, 1498, in (lii Con- 
flKioifaJ An±[i«^ ^Evmifi, 531, f 151 ; sAih Srpr., T-t^S^ job. Cnrdona 
Russo) in FniiL-iun cum cardie Voknt. vith g ajnuKctii imd scleral 
conittfiabilei. Scent ArthfveK oF iho V^icicitv 

■ BiiefurjSttiSepUMvGj'LMoLiHJ, I^3S,andi]!U>iaPf.ussiJ£R*3HM, 

+ $cc Sakl^tO, U 1095; IT., 114, 

: Sxvtno^ I., I III J [], 15, 320; Dnoca dc Telini in CORi, 
Arih, 111 njMtg.; Camh. XXLi tjj; VRl^KTi;,C(.=vir Bor^i^ 1., 157 

% Saklio, U^as ; PtMwira, ^^4;. 

I] (y,V<)i V. of tliis work* p. ^2, on AlcxAndcr't rrcon^ilUiion wirh 
(^lianD. £>or lwihor,CaSGOliOVii;£,V[U4at<cd.4: BaoSCti, Juliu 
iU 79 • CituGUTON, 111^ s6^ See ako SAXt^to,]., 1091 ; 11., isti 



proud Duke pursued his journey through Lyons to 
Royal camp, vrhich whs then at Chinon, On the i^h of 
December (according to other accounts, the 20th) he made 
his entry llicrc with a splendour hitherto unknown in 
Fnmc*;. Hi- brought to the King ihc Bull of dispensaiion 
fnr hh marriage, and a Red-hat to the Archbishopof Rouen, 
George d'Ambot.^a At this time Louis spoke openly of 
his designs on Milan, m which he expected the E'ope'fi 

The closer relations with France caused a breach 
between the Pope atid A?canio Sforza and Lodovico Moro. 
As early as September 149^ wc find this mentioned in tlie 
Envoy's rcixjrts. The Colonna and Frederick of Naples 
were on the side of Ascanio Sforaa. Their attitude vtis 
so menacing that on All Saints' Day the Pope appearwl 
in the Church with u strong guard ; and later thlt occurre d 
si^nin several timcs^t ^M 

Even when the Portugese Envoj's, cjt 27th November, ' 
CAmc for their audictice. they found a large guard fn the 
antc-chambcT. If, as many thought, this was intended to 
ovrr»wc the Envoysn it ijviitc failed in its effect. On the 

ftnd SicTiK^toNix) nit CoNn, U.,201 1 and ontheffsimiict At Avignon, 
G, CAi'Lltfs pjjJcr in Uic M^ni. dc I'Atad- dc VJLuduf^c^^ Vol 7. ^h 

* FRftRATO, Entrat.i del V;i.Tcmino ncl 14^9 a Cmonc (Vcnet, TS6q^| 
SAVt^o, H., 39, 175, 317. jio. 347 fr/, ^ftj-^es : S;ct^moni>0 TtE 
C0I41I. Uft. A?.; MOKTf, Hbt. tic TArl, h, ^ih. Ou tlic (li^sulmiull uf 

LMn»Xn.'sinamagc,5ccLiaONErntin-.s;r >CirOLLA,764;Ajid£itSE3i 

Dacunv^nt^ iLTrG«ih(. Arr EhMcbeldung Hriniicht V1M» 56, nor^ t. 
Pakvitcius, 334, u»d Cak[>kixa, :75p trroncouily pUac d'Ambaitw:^! 
nttniiruLljon on tK« izlh of S(}ptciikh<ir. Scc> >'ik:j<ti»I tha, IIU1%CR\1tDI 
DiArium, II-, ^if^and •Af^tn C^nski., vhen tht 171I1 SepiemSer Jt dit- 
lintdy mcLiiitHxi:(I ai ilic ^f of tioiiiiiiiuliut;, (CouibEoiiAl Aichivc-i of 
the Vuicun, C 1) Upon dAmbr>i£«, ice NOVABS, VI., too ; MlCKK, 
s. v.i and DK MoNTit\RLi's wurk. 1^ Canl G. d'Amlwiw, Mmi^^lrc 
LwaXH. UniOffcA, 1V79- 
i SAHinOblf jin I II, 103, 113, lU^ ^ P£utsisii, 355 f^. 



tontrsiy, they remonstrated bi unipafing termi with 
AJcxandcr on ht^ ncpMism, his simony, and hi« French 
policy, which, they *aki. endangered the peace of Italy, 
uid, tndocd, of the wrhole of Christendom, if the Vope 
persevered in this tlic>' openly tlircatcncd a Council. " The 
dcmcuiour uf llic Porlu^ueM: Hiivoya." AKaniu Sforjcjt 
wmte on jrtl IVccmlx^r, " h all the- morr tmplr^sanl In the 
Pope in thai he bcllc%'es ihcir Sparish Majesties to t>e at 
ihe botto<:n of it, And that the Spanish Envoys, who are 
daily expected, will »ay the same things, or worse, tic 
thanks the Kinf; of the Komana &lao haa a hand (n it, as 
he ha* nude similar rcprcwnlations." • Under thenc 
drcumatanccs Atcxaiidcr VI. awaited with Isecn anxiety 
the announcement fton^ rraticc^ nliicli, he ho|jed, would 
hring the as^iirancr nf thr French ;il!i;inrr. f 

In the Coufisioryjn Dccpmbrr. the Pope and Aicanfo 
Sfona came to a sharp pa«iage of word*. The testy 
C&rdinal declared that Alexander, in sending C.Taar to 
I'rance, was brin^inc: rum on Italy. "Are you aware, 
Monstgn^orc," rcplfed Alexander/' that it was your brother 
who invited tbc French into Italy ?" The Verictlan Envoy, 
who reports this Tncidcnl. adds tliHl Asranio intcndcdj 
with tl^c help of Maximilian I. and King Ferdinand of 
Spain, to get a Council vummaned to dethrone Alexander. 
We can understand with what misgivings the advent of 
the Spanish Envoys was awaited. J 

They arrived on the 19th Uccembcr. On the same day 
Cardinal Bovf:ia started for Vitcrbo, in order to quell the 

• Rqaort in <7ph«f from Card- A, Sforsa *^f yi\ TJcf-, 1^98, falrtn 
from ihcor^TuI in ihc \tiliucic Archri'ci, liovr iriiiiCcd in t^ie Bcilltt 
Sl d. Sain. Iial. Vl!., aoA-aai, 

t Sji3itno^n^2i7i>fOL £/LA!Vf,Aaen»(ui:kc<arGf)ck Kadb V^ 
CiiiteitaniE, 47. 



disturbances which had broken out there.' Three daya 
later they appeared before the Pope with xhaX display of 
anxious concf:ni for the welfare of the Cburch which 
I'crriiiianti's successors were so apt at cmploying^t w}ule» 
in fact, thdr alms were cniirely political- Ferdinand of 
Spain dreaded, above all thlnpt, an alliance between Rooic 
und Louis XfJ.. which would give to France the pre* 
dominance in Italy, and frustrate all hh designs in regard 
to Naples. Consequently, he had chafed his Envoys to 
threaten Alexander with a Council and reform. They began 
by tctli|]g ttic Pc^e to his face that the means by which 
he bad obtained the PonliUcate were notorious, Alex* 
ander interrupted them witli the remark tlut, having been 
unanimoufily elected Fopc, his title was a far better one than 
that of their SpanLsb Majesties, who had taken possession 
of tboir throne in defiance of all law and conscience They 
were mere usurpers, and had no right whatever to their 
kintfdom. The rest of the audience corrcspon<lcd with thia 
beginning. The Envxf/s reproached Alejiander with hia 
simony and his nepotUnip and threatened a Council The 
Pppeinslified him*.df,and accused tlieSjKinish Ambassador, 
Gnrctlajuo de la Vega, of concocting false rejxirts. When 
the Envoys spoke of the death of the Duke of Gandia as 
A Divine chactivementt he angrily replied that the Sp^ntj 
mon.-ircha were more severely punished than he wa&, f< 
they were without direct successors^ and this was doubtJci 
on account of their encroachments on the rights of tl 
Church, t 

* BintCKARCl Diohum, U, 500^ And *Acta ConiiM-t C- joj, i. 9 Mf. 
Convi»toTuil Archive?,. 

t ]UvtM\Nff, \\., 15, 

I SAXtnOptK,?;?! ^.836,Md2v»rrA,V,i59^-i6a C/.U6f} 
Rodrigo <ta Borja. S3: Vi'irnvni, Lift nt JuJin Vjltlw, i{ ( 


Unib Xlh CDdcAxourcd to tranquillize the ?opc by 
informing: him that he had an agTcctncnt with Ferdinand, 
ud cORbcqitcatly there wm nothing to fcAr from hint* 
Ucanirfiilc, Akxandcr bname more itnd more diMurbcd. 
as br found ihc Fortugueic and Spanish Env-oy* making 
common cause and coinbining to threaten him with a 
CoufKilt In January 1499, th« AmbaAiudorw of fortUj^J^I 
and Spain pce»ented thcmseiveA together bclore the fope< 
hi presence of Cardinals Ccsia, Ascanio* Carvajal, dc ti. 
Giorpo, and Lopcjr, one of tJi^ Ertvoy^ told the Pope 
to bb face, that he vsjl% nol the Uwful Elcad nf ihc Church. 
Alcxax>der in hi^ tiugcr threatened to have tiim thrown into 
the TibcTt and retorted by atUickEng the conduct of the 
Queen of Spain, and complaming of the* mterfenfnce of both 
Kinfj and Queen in matters concerninc; the Church- The 
Venetian Ambaa^ador thou(;ht lie pcTceiv^ that the Pope, 
tnhk alarm, wa$ b^inning to repent of his alliance with 
France and to wish to be friciids ^z^a with Ascanio,! To 
add to hid annoyance, rei*^ came from Prance that, in n[»tc 
of all Giulii-tno ddia Rcacic's ]>crsuasions, the daughter 
of the King of Naples persisted In her refusal 10 marry 

* Sakitto. 11., 38o<^. t'^pscart, 11., 319}, and *Acu Coniut,, C 
joj: <^ Jan., 149^ , _ , Per rvv, D. -Saii^evciinaL Ictic sunt liticre 
CbnL Francor. rcjcia ad ^ Collcfciam idionuic Gnllica date <>( oppido 
CbiaMi XX, De>cc(nlx T49V quibuA tignthcabal &e dc prctcni ^Liom Ad 
S. D- N KTifnisse. fCoi)Ablii>]i;it ArOiivci,) An atcount. written hy 
}imih <kJ CuiulIc on 3rU JuIh, 1499, nf Alcxdndcr'j inicfc^U in the 
CaniHal feicivTiiet ia ADRMOLtO, Alttsandro VI., 24- cciiouily iLliiMraiei 
the frivuliiy tif liis luiurv. Tlir Ftfrrsirrv.' Envoy, M.niffcili^oii tlti Jaii,, 
i499> reports, *Lc omtorl ipa^inoli Ecn^no cc pr«falQ N. 5- iDullo 
»x«lflacoci tocco »ii«od vivo, btace Arcbive«, Mod^nx 

t SAXVTft 11,343- 

2 Samno, U^ jSj ; ^ 343, and Uitrcuaki^i Duuium, LI., s^s^. 
Sec ilw ZURtTA, v., i4ov ud S. PiDjonft *Deipiktd) of itt Jui., 1499. 
Kiaie Archives, ModcnL 




CxsoT.* Alexander laid the bUme of this on Loulft Kit 
In a letter of 4tii February, 1499, to GiuUano delU Ro\-«re, 
be complainei) of the Kite's fatthlcasness, wlikh had made 
him the Uughiftg-atock of the worid; ba every one knew 
th^t, but Ux ihis mafriage. C^rMr would never h&vc gone to 
Frsdceii- On the 13th of Fdiruar)- he spjice in a HimQar 
ftlniin to A^^ranio. And hc^grd him in rndravour to pmtuade 
the King of Naples to agree to the marriage, Astanio, 
hovrever, replied that this was ttii possible. The Cardinal 
thought that the Pope was vcr^' much afraid of Spain and 
thoroujjhly miitrustful of i^rjmcc* jiist at this time Louis 
X] f. concluded his treaty with Venice for the partition of 
Milan, leaving it open to the Pofjc to joiu in the League 
if }ie plcflsetl-S At this juncture it seemed exlrcmcly un- 
likely ihftt (his would take place. || If Oe^at had not hern 
In Kranee, the Venetian Ervo/t in a report of taih March, 
sayB he belie\'es that Aleitander would have allied himself 

* SaHUTO, XL, 412, whera, havevcr, the diU (houl<l be the tQth 
Tattittd of (be iSih Jan. GiunuKTi Icrrr w» dticovcTctl ty BroscH, 
JbUiU 11,79- OCalw rtUKURJt, 169 iiVh 

t GfttcoitotTUS VIL 4iM)7»ed- 3 tijj, «d 4> 

t N«i^piitil!it1(i8s6X|i, Ef7. 

^ In TCi^nrd 10 llic LcA/tic of Qih Feb,, 1499, which ivas publiili«d in 
Blfiif nn tht 1 jth A^nl, And Ghjli.-]no delh Rovere'spnrl in it, »«e BaosCH, 
JuliuK II-, Ka in the •Arta (Traisist-, C. 30J, we find (f. 3O), Frfi. 27^ 
1499: !^H D, N. Icfiiil liUcraa r«v, d. S, Pttri ad \'1tic qucinadmodiin> 
Veneti dit 9 Febr. totifejcrati forent mm rcgc clvitt, diutquc otiam 
ORUcffctj] VcncidMi hut cic ^ liiwm* habuiuc ac Idcuii: Sue S'^ reter- 
ratum csac Cnn^iMorinl Archive*. 

IF Giuiiano <\f\\'.\ Kov«rc wn± the person counied an to tvrins' the Pope 
round- In the 'Kcpoti of »n jnonyriimiii ]>vmon. (Uit. Lynns ^S Mar^ 
M^ '^c find Iho fdlkiwing pQ»*sc on GiuliancTj joufne/, which mfly 
urve to 1^11 lip thfi fip in HtrotcHS }»lm 1 1. , So : AI1 XXiv. c[« qu«cli> 
ajiin> qiu lu canL de S^ Pem:^ Yciiicrdny he w»ii on 10 Avignon : 
te it^rm vu1j(&nnoni« par tinr el pap« in la liga. Stztlc Archives, 



vith Milan.* PcHups that was too much, bai it b certain 
that at that lime Alcxarflcr waa cxlrcmcly (IKsntisftcil with 
Fran<:c. and was titill in tlic same moncJ when Loitis XM. 
offend the hand of the charminfj ChaHottp irAlbrrt to 

ALirxandcr'a position was an extremely critical one. In 
Rorae. the probability that Germany an^t Spain wouM 
renounce thcif obedience was freely disciis4ccl» * There caii 
be no doubt that in both these courtHc?i there wa5 a ?itran£ 
party hostile to Rome. This explains why Chri*lo|>her 
Cohimbus, when on 26ih February, 149s, hr M^ttlcHl hts 
eUate upon hU 4on Dfe|;;o. commanrlcd him to employ hi* 
wealth in the ftipport of a ern^ade, "or in a«£igtinf^ the 
Pope If a schism In the Church should threaten to deprive 
him of hU neat of of hin temporal potf^^Hon:^,''^ 'I'he 
danger from Spain was prcasing. In cnicr to remove at 
leait one of that countr/i ground5 of complaint, A!cx* 
andcr resolved, on the zolh of March. 1499, to Ukc Bcnc- 
vento away frum the hdrn of tlie I>itke fjf Gandta and 
restore h to the Chwrch \\ In May, Alexander promised to 

* SajtVTOL 11., 510. The rn1^o«rinff nciic la the *Ai.^ ConHiiL, C^ 
30J( S Apr^A, 14091 ^* tnxctcMini^ : Cum c^o vicecimtelbuiiu dixiiwiii 
Ofa tor t J n ill. dncitt Medjobnj :td ±>. U. N. hodte in^rMvurum tvtt in 
vrtenw liUitisrrunt m, iL «LMli<)4]e4 cum h/ihorr- Miacipiendifi'Li rnsfr 
ttccl foeiit dicmm coasududincni /uihc non mittcrE ob^iun oiiCoribus 
pnetarquaai r«nt«ntibu« ad pn«*iandAin poniiiicj tibvdtir^tuin. Con- 
Uoorbl Ardiivcit, 

t SaMHO; U^, ^6». 617, 640- 

I llto KarmicM i^nvoy, Mantrcdi,m t*R«pKirt,dftL Rome, tsi March, 
1499. ann<inTir«3: L-i cb^dirntiLi v t itvna Al pipa fr Ir irnr del 
impcrituic i d wniUi tcuviira in SpHteriA securuio il cuniuiuiic i:rcd«rc. 
Si&ie ArdUTts, ModcDA- 

% SavAaam:, Colction, 11,, ifto, C/. RuNnr-KSs W«h YrnLtnkt 
die Uindcr- und Vijtlccfkundc den miUcbltcrlichcn M^ncluji und 

tikt,, C. ^. r ^b, Camiiumnl Ar^'brvn b the V^ntJcan. 



send hic chiUlmi away rmm Rome anil to carry 
reforms into pfTcct; he granted powers for the adjtifitinei 
of ccclcalasticAl alfair--^ in Spjjin.and made large con ccssiom 
to the King and Queen in regard to their control [n ci 
sequence, his relations with Spain bccJimc more friendly.* 

Alexander had nearly given up all hope of the rcali^- 
tJnn of CcTTsar's marriage with the l-'rcnch rrince»,t when 
an antogrdph letter frnm Louis arrived announcing that 
it had LiUcn place On the z4th of May Cardinal San- 
severino read the letter in the Consistory, J This event 
created a complete revolution In the Pope's dispositions; 
he now openly embraced the French side and that of 
Venice, and announced tlmt the Milanese dynasty must be 
done away with.§ ( ardinal AtiCimio Sforj^a saw that Koine 
w^9 no longer the place for him . on the 14th July he quitted 

DuKcnAKOi ]>i;LiiuuL, 11,, jfi? ; SMiVTO, lU 5&* ; *wid MJcii 
horu Mtnfrcdi, Rome, ^^id Matvh, 1499, Stnic Archives, Modemt 

• C/. Ilif Aiiilj:i%stJrirkil Re|iort of ntfth Maj*, 1 ,199, in Iht Noi1i«nMAit^ 
of 1856, p. S93J'tf< (nui itnicaly |iiiiUrd). auJ ruESCUTT, \U aai ; lee 
hcicv Ph »r,for Alexander'! Ui^Uof i6ih NoVh, 1501, empowcrinti 
Spanish f^fucmm^nr 10 Ifvy ^11 litht^ in the l-olnniei- 

1 Sec Ehc Amboftiiidom] Rcpoit, NoTi^LcnlibU O^St^K P^ 57^ 

J *V<r euod- i. tl. Jwuwi'vciinaiom iKtr fucrunt in Sft[;ro contiitorie 
linere craaikm chrin^i Tcfcis am manu G:iJlifO i4iofiuit« ad S. D. N. 
Kiipie rn u»iitiailii Bloia die XIIL Muij 1499 <3c mairimoDio idljcct 
inter D. CcMfcni Etor^m et dimrinikin OLrolam de Lubreia die X 
M:iii confrarto ar XII, ronvum-itr> I,t<:ir fuffnini rl tr »t roTniii'^rirt 
liucfc ipirua doiciiruc dc liibrcL<» fU4 iiiauu tu] S. D> N. wx u!U 
daCi cjuote in quibui aim pbcuis^el <!hHDt'^" rcj^ ct ill |,'cniuin wo u( 
ilnmlnn C«qf^ llnr^iar rnipmi iRirl^n-iur vihi qiioqnr mk^m vlnim 
pbuuraoe fercbil fututmn^juc pcrpciuc k>^[U"^ i^t^^ jocunduti] sperue 
et M benun Aliun for* tompcr vcniuia]iif)Lju brcvi ad oirubrxlum pcdu 
S" D"!" polHceri- Acta ConiJM., C- 303, f- 54. (Cont<*iorijil Afchive*.) 
O^ *I^lct from A. SfurcA, duL Rome, rSlli Miy, M90 (MiUnoc State 
Ar<:hjvcs.) Bu&C»j\itl>l Diflrium, 11., ^^2 i Sakitto, EL, 759; and 
Yri,\kte« C^r fWiFKLa. 1^ ifiS //;. : IT. 334 f/f- 

fi SaNUTO. IL, 799>6J^. </'i>9}4i^>d Nuli«:i)1jUit(i8S7XP^7- 




the city, taking all he had with him. In the first insUnce 
he went to the Coloiina at Narni, and thence sailed in 
a Neapolitan ship to Genoa, whence he fled to Milan. 
Thither he was aflerwards followed by the Cardinals 
Colonna and Sanseverino * and Alfonso, Lucrezia's husband, 
Lucrexia was, on the 8th August, made R^ent of Spoleto, 
and went there at once, accompanied by her brother Jofr6. 
Alexander's children had all now been removed from 
Rome it but this had no effect on his nepotism. Nepi was 
soon bestowed upon Lucrezia, and the governor left there 
by Ascanio Sforza had to hand it over;^ meanwhile^ the 
plans for Ca^sar^s advancement were maturing. 

* BUKCHARDI Diarium, II., 546, 549 ; Sanuto, U., 933, 95S, 959, 
1017^ Sec in the Notiienblatt C1S57X PP- ^^1 Milanese Report and 
Letter of A, Sfona. 

t *L>ice el papa vok monslr^ al Re chel sa viver aenza LL soi, Des- 
paich from G^ L. Cataneo, dat Rome, 9th August, 1499. Gonzaga 
Archives, Mantua, 

t Grecorovius, Lucrezia Borgia, jo8 Jty. C/. Dal Re, 139, and 
Sanuto, 11., ro49, K>75' On the banishnwinl of Sancia, Jofr^ Borgia's 
consort, whose reputation was none of the best, c/. Sanuto, U,, 10S9, 


The fH&rfCH m Milata.— C>i£Aak Borcia coTf^uucs Iuola amo 


coNQiTKiis Mjlan a Seccwi> Time,— Anpskchy in Roots. — 
MuiUJKH or THE DuKK or Bi:^ciu;ua. - Frivomtv aMd 
NEroTisM OP ALEJCvNbtR VL — I'artition or THB KasoDoM 
or NapIhES Dcrws&y Franck and S^Al^. 


IJv the mnnth of July of the year 1499, a French anny had 
already ciosscd Uic Alps, and forticss aflcr fortress went 
down bcfurc the "rusli of the Swi^s am! llic Ficiitli." 
Vt-nicc would have chimed in from the eastern kidc had 
not her hands just llien been over full with the 
against the Turlca* l..odovico Moro had hoped that t 
German Em])cror ^nd Frederick of Naplc:^ would ha 
come to h\x aid, but Maximilian was fully occupied in ^^h 
ing the Swiss. FVcdcriclt wa* to have declared war agairst, 
Uic Pope; Ijut when Alcaaandrin fell into the hands of tl 
Frcnth, he gavr- M\i aI\ thoughts of Ihin^f Thus Ijodovic 
was left to face ihr French criirdy alone. Seeing thai i 
situation was hope1e», on the evening of i»t September 
he fted to the Tyrol: to put himt^eTf under MaxiinlEian'fi 
protcctioi). Cardinals 7\£canio Sfoua and San^cc^crino 
followed him,^ I'hc mt^mcnt he wo-i gone tlte Milanese 
0|K-ned their gates to the F'icnch ; on the 6th Septcm 

t SIGJ7MON1HJ m:' CoWT^ 1 U aoj^ 

t droUAt 770 : }iA\t»A^K,t\„i6if^.i Maclmta, I., 154. pb<3e» 





Trivtilzio cnlcrcd the city, and Ihc fort surrendered almost 
immedUiely. A few cUyn later Cremona mbinttted to tlie 
Venetians* Upon this Lotiifi XII, hutcncd to luly to 
cajoy bis triumph. On the 0th October he enietcd Milan, 
and was grtsctcd with ;tcclamations by the ijopuiacc The 
King: was accompanied hy the Marque&AC^ of Mantua, 
Uontlemit, and SaIuuo, the DlIcc* of Fcrrara and Savoy. 
Caesar Dorgia, the CardlnaU d'Amboisc aiid Gtuliano 
dcUa Ruvt:tc»a^ well Ha the Ertvoy-i from Gcnu,i, FJutcncCj 
Siena, I.ucca, aiMl Hi^a.'t 

Alexander VI., now that the alHanoc with Louis XU, 
was turning out k> favourably for hi:( beloved C<c£ar, h^tiled 
the MKC^SA of the French arms with unconcealed delight^ 
quite rc^^rdless of the scandal he vras caui^in^ throughout 
thcvrholcof Kuropc. On the Z4th of August, 1499. twx> 
Poclu^c^ BuvoyA arnved in Rome and at once a^cd 
for sm atidienoe. On the jKirt of tiieir Cvoverriment, they 
animadvcttcd strongly on the Tope's ncpotUm, on Csrsar's 
retigtiation of the Cardtnulate, nr\d oii the French alliance, 
wlucb va« fatal to the pe;Lcc of Kiitopc, If he perft]'«ted In 
thc5€ paths, the result would be the calling of a Council. I 
Alexander was arwoyed and troubled at these new threats, 
but did not make any change in his proceedings. On the 
25tb Sc])teinl)er he went tu Lu^rc^l-t ai Ncpi.J Here it 

« SAKtnXi, IU331OJ 5lC16iMOKM> Vlf CONTI, n., id; CUI0I» 
Scmnti F^cenardi, Cftniona durantv tl rfoittlnio <!«* V«nciani, ^ 

r Samjtd, UL,a4'T5 t Diario t'emn&e, 3701 Alvisi, 69-Si. On 

%%m coffipl'lp rr<onciI^EliV) at Ehe Va^ w:lh Ci^tt^i'ino <tclLL Kovcrc, who 
now cofidully lu^poriccl Co^jj, tec BKOt<H, J^lIid^ II-, &i j^- 
J f^ the Kcport of the jt<1 Sffpteoiber, (499. m tlio Noiitcnbbic Jor 

"«S7. M-5S 

J Luocr^* hiubpinci, AUbn^j, lud ftuirned tu ha vifc «l the 
conuriuid <if Ihc I'op*. On llic i4ih Oclobcf bhc w«ni back to Komc, 
■fld on Ihe itl Novenbcr ^:ivt birdi 10 a irm, *ht> wan ciLled Kodngo, 




was arranged that Cxsar was to conquer the Rom 
The King of TfHnce manifested his gratitude by placing 
portion of hi* army at the Duke's tJisposal* ** Tt was not 
difficult tomakethccxpeditioTi appear as though undertaken 
for the interests of the Church, Ihous^h in reality 
interests of the family were tbe first considcmtson. Th 
relations between the ruler* of tlic cilice of the KomSErna 
and their feudal Lord were »o variable, iiiid often so 
iinaatisfactory, as easily to cifToi'd a handle for piocccding 
against them to any Pope who wi&hed to do <fa Alexander 
res<:tlved to make «5e of this opport unity Irt strike acnithmg 
blow,"! Bulls were issued declaring the Lords of Rimini, 
Pesart^, Imola, Faenia, Forli, llrbino, and Camerino to 
have forfeited their fiefs by the nonpayment of their dues- 
Louis XIL arr&n^d that proceedings shc^uld only be takcn^ 
against those ;vho belonged to the party of the Sforxa, and " 
this plan had also the advanUigc of satisfying the hu»:cpti- 
bilities of the Venetians} 

In the middle of November Cajsar began the campaign 
attacking Catering Sforza and the son* of Gircilamo RJ 
Imola opened her gates of her own accord, and the fort 
in the early part of December. I n I'orli. also, the inhabitants 
oBcrcd no rcfii^tAncc, but the citadel here was far stronger 
and ^as biavcly defended by the high-spirited CfLterina bcr* 
^If ; yet on 12th Jttnuiiry, 1500, K was forced to eapitulatc.§ 

On the inh Aug,, 1500, \jOA. Borgh, Arrhbisbu|i «f Vftlcnna, 
nude LicutcruMl-sovcditii itt S|Hi(ct9- -Sec fip^NSt, DooiLncnEc A 
Arctic Comm, di S|>okti>, 9i. Spolcto, tE6l. 

• Mci^MnwiKi niL' CoNTTr 1 1 , 309, 

+ RfcUMOm. HI-, I.Ji^. C/.Q(fnWlS,Ciim.Ap.,22iiGKVlOOKOVl 
VII., 4^1, c<l, 3 (43S,(iL 4}: and CRPt^UTOV, IV„ 4- Jn Soptc'mbvr 
the Tope tiad Tliniighi of gciting tlie imkeriom erf l-rrrAm for Camr, 
but VeniL-e obj^cieJ. h« IVal. Zi^iuchr., XXXUl,. 5$a 

Z BDRCHASUJ Dianum, I L, 570 ; HaLAN, W, 394, n. 3 ; ALvccl, 67. 

I SAVOTtV III.. 56b B4 ; Siai8M0ND0 DP; C0^(T1, IL, ^u? ry. 



When Cariar'd iicphcw, Cardinal Jiuin Bor^iA, licard 
a£ Urbtno Uic good news of Ihc Tall of FofK, He *<:i out 
on honcbock. although sufTcfing frwn fcvcf, to oflfcf his 
peraoiuU con^m tuitions hut was proAtr^itf^rl by a frcKh 
anaclc of the maJady before he could get beyond Fosfom- 
brocML Later, an utterly ^roundlcfts story woa concocted 
of C^esax's^ having poisoned hi^ nephew.* 

Just as Caesar wa^ preparing to proceed against Ccacna 
and PesarObt an event occurred which deprived him of his 
FrtsTkch tJoops and brought the whole campaign to a stand* 
*4f1L The Mtlani^sf rost.* ajfainst the exiortionfi of the 
French, while Lodovieo Mi>rci appeared in Como at the 
head of a body of Swiss and German troops ; and on the 
5th of February, 1500^ re-entered the city in triumph. The 
French kat the whole of LomUirdy as quickl)' as they had 
won Jtt Without the help of the French troops, which 
had now been sent against Lodovico Moro. it was impossible 
to go on vfJth t)ic L-onque^t of the Homagna, the more so 
a» Veriice liad grown jealous and now strongly iiupported 

DTarioFemfipw»374. J7>, 377: ALvisi.fig, 70 tf^.-. Bman. V.,395: 
MC berv abo ontuppoMcl E>fots of ftoinc inh&biiania of FoiLi for itottttaing 
the Po^ C/ BimciiAlU)! DiATiixm, 11., 579. See jOso YauitTE'S 
recent ifeorie. C^sar Bori^Sn, 11 tf^.; And esperially Pai^cLiNi. 11., 
1^ jtff., 170 j«/,t uid Curf, CaL Sfoi^ 1% jcy,, whcic ihc libu»y of 
CaAenaa't fotc U given ic tltiail. 

*Sqc ALVIM, 83^17.; Maukv in llic Rcv> Ui^U XII I, 60-^ r< <^ 
Abo KtNiyr, Die Kaiastntphc L, ^to^Cl^s in Novara, to J^v-t and in 
ApfieiHtr, H, 4i <h* •T*[t»r fif ijnl J»n-, ijoo Hrin^gn Arrhivw, 

4 IULAN, v., 39;, n. 3 i VlUAftTa. Cx'Ur |}or|[iU| I., 300 iiv/. On th« 
cifM him by the Vtypt, set U.\t. Ke, ist- 

2 SaXDTO, lit., 103^ Balak, V„jg6; Anc f. Stliwca, Gcach, 

>)t 45 J^'> l>i>^aAt;f:a, 11., JK4; Lt'^fo Ki^nibk, Eobx. di 

(fKaf> \i?"t$^ (-It p- 154 i^^d 5^^ in%trad of 4ih FrbruAiy). 

Ni^ttfUKlt, Li poEiiiquc du Atnnjuta ilc Mjuildnc^ in the AniiaL dc la 

fac. dCB l<ur9 dc Bordeaiui (i£9^> 104, 


the Lordi of F*enM and Rimini.* Cawar^ il*ere#ore,'' 
retuincd to Rome and made his triiimphal entry into the 
city cm the i6th Fel>ruaF>', clotb»J in black velv« and with 
& gold chain round his neck ; ^11 the Cardinals and Em'oys 
came to meet him. AlexaTidcr \'\. was beside himself 
with joy; he wrcpt and laughed in the same brcith-t 
Amongst the Cai nival -plays the Uiuniph of Julius Cfcur 
was represenlwi m the Viaxta Navona, On I^ctaic Sunday 
(39th Marchi, llw.- Duke rccdvrd from thrt h^ndt of the 
Pope the insignia of a standard-bearer of the Church and 
the Golden Ro«lJ The power of the Duke of \'alentinoh 
was now almost unlimited Even on the 33rd of January 
a report from Rome announced that, at the approachinfif 
nomination of Cflrdmala, Caesar's influence would be de- 
cisive : he was the person to apply IOh No Castdlans were 
apfx^inleil to any of the !itrong places within the Papal 
Slatf^ but such as were rlcvoted to him ; thr gnveriinn;hip of 
the Castle of St. Angelo was given to one of his relfllnefs^$ 
Meanwhile the state of affairs in Lombardy had i^Aln 
completely chanf^ed. Lauia XII, had lost no time in send- 
ing a freah army acro^ the Alps, and the battle at Nov«fa 
pn>vcd a dc<:L»ivc victory for Francc^ The Swiaa refuncd 
to fight af^aiiiAt their kinajiicn in the French army, and 
abandoned l.fKtovinj, who wn\ taken pii*(jncr (loih April, 
1500)11 LoLiis Xl[ lihul him up in the fortress of Locheit 

* Sa« in Appendix, N, 4,lhc *L«ttcr 0I 13rd Jui., ijoo. GooAga 
ArchiiTN M^iiLUa- M 

+ ^AN'ino. HI., 140-141 J HvitCllv^nni Il^inuin, III, 19^^ 1 

1 KuRCK^^Rn Uiirium, |1|.« 33, 36 Jt^^,; SaNIHO, HU >9S ^ 
:>ir.r.*.MONrio oii^XoNii, U^ 12S; *AfU Consi«. ConxivioriMl Ardtiv 
cf the Vatiuui. 

)i Sm App«nflix, N, 4. 

fl SccRtacOHE, Morocttifti^iminln Novnia (Nnvara, J8?S> 
KmDT, Dn Kati»ln»phc I» Monv9 in NoT«ta ; ajiid DlUUUfe;Rt lU 
jS6-j£7, Sec oJso KsaTH, Jean d'AniOflif 37 «f . 



in Tourainc; Cardinal Ascanio Sfbrea. who fdl ioto the 
luncLi of the Venetians, vta dcltvcrcd over to tlic Frcacfa 
And impriwncd in Ek>ur^cs;* tbii^ rcAj>if)|> the reward of 
his unprittcipU^ conduct at Altrx^mler'A d^dlon. 

On the <%"enJng of the 141b of April, 1 500, the new* of 
Lodovko'K catastrophe reached Rome ; the Pope h said to 
have0vcn roo ducahi to the inessencer who brou;£ht it; 
Use Onini lighted bonfircii cvcr>'whcTC, and Home re- 
sounded with cries of •■ France and ihc Bcar'^ (-Or^ni).t 
Thb occunrd in tJic mid^t of the Jubilee fcntrntics which 
had fUlcd the dty with pil^inis from foreign ports. "The 
nxntsof the year and ihc stale of Rome were anything 
but suitable however to a religioiu celeTvationJ' In %pite 
oCthe precautions taken by Alexander. even In The previous 
year, the in««curily of both Jifc and property in ll\e city 
WM frightlul ; murders occurred nearly every day. I'hc 
severest puni^mcntft elTectcd no improvement in its con- 
dition, which indeed vas not worse than that of most of 
theotliCT IiaIhii cities; J tnjt the civc-ott which look place 

* See CVlCH^^Kifi Diinuiu^ II L. 4'- 4^ i-li- On clic inipriutmiicnt 

«HVtf very doublfat w);cihcr Alocandcr't uwAtfOioti u> pzi>ciuv AtrjtnWi 
Qcnukx) (»e Mamm, U 304) "^ xnaaa io aunxcd ; for the Tope 
fmmpOf took p wKwi on of A«<an>iyii htx incasorcs, wid kavc avrny 
ha bent f io w ; Cmliano ddL-i Kavftc obtfunf^ one of the«e lalicr, Sv« 
ibc *Dvcil ta die Sixr^ AixJ^ivti vt tUt; VditiMD} lu Apireaibxi N. 6. 
AiCMuft Sfom ttOA not rekoscd Luitl (he yti Jaii,, 1503, tlirough th« 
food efficn at CwL d'Amlia^. Hr jiixTsmpanrrtl hii btntf;L<tw to 
iWCoBcUve ui FUu»c whkli dciicil l*iu> (II-,;uiU tlicJ ilicrc -tt ibc 
md «f Mty, I ^^« nfM of ptMwn but of the I'lai^uc ; bcc IUlaN, 396 ; 
Rattt, l,j S? (^^ Hi( tpteivlid rtiorum^l liy Anitrm S^Rdovlnc) in 
&■ Mara del Popolo U Aorkl'fuiicil- vScv MlHIa Kcnitikuncc, 34?! 
^3 "f 1 <uid ScitOKTALp^ A* Sanaonno inU ». Schult. SluU>;AJt» 

f UWCHAIUH D^siuits nU 3^ 

; C««ipGiic"rhM$voeMiPU,jSo«(V, «a)««f PenL£ip. 



in the Bon*ia ffunily attracted qiore altcntioit than any 
these decd5 of violence.* 

Next to Ca.-saj, Lucrcxia at that time agalci slood highi 
in the Pope's favocjr In ihc Sping of the year 1 501 
monctJi, which had }itst been snatched away from 
GaetanJ, was added to Spoleto a^id Ncpi, which had all 
been bestowed upon her.f As she wason excellent terms 
with her present husband, there seemed nothing now to nnar 
her bappinc53. It was, however, not destined to lait long : 
on the evening of the 15th of July, as Alfonso was re- 
turning from the Vatican he was set upon by live a^5a:^in> 
in the Pla^fza df f^ati Pietro. Tliough badly wounded he 
succeeded (n making his escape. He was so much afraFd 
of poison that he refused all medical help, and sent wx>rd to 
the Kin^ of NapTes that his life was in danger, a^ his own 
physician had endeavoured to destroy him by this means-J 
A report was immediately circulated that the attcmi^ 
originated tern the same quarter as the murder of the 

* C/. BvnciUitm DLarkim, IlL, 39-49 r/f^ 4Si Sanuto, llUjtg ^ 
Leittr from nrflndoJinas m Bmom, 190 f /f . ; Reumont, III,, 1, 
ija- On the pfetJULiwiary niTA^um of the Pope. >«, specbilliri 'Attt 
Cooviit-, Coiuuionai An:Iiivea of the Valican. In the libniry xi SwnA, 
A. ril., T.. f ] J, h an imprinted Bandoa^nii the Coni tn Rome and 
die Sum of tlic Cliuivli, 

* "Alwiander Vf, vendil ScrmonciAm c: dia Icma suhlam 4 Ovictonb 
pneicxm rchrllinniv LurrriUp Rnr^iiie Dm Knm., 1499 (_M- II, X 7 Id. 
Mart. Cod. OitoU, syn, i aS? *fif. < V*l Library.) ^. GaKCCRon VJ, 
VII., 4^1, cd. }Ui?, wl 4), md L tJorgia, iti \ GOTTLOl^ Canv, Ap-, 
238 ; and Bai-im, 393-391- 

l Be^ilc* ibe notice ia Savuto, UU $11, and BURCHari>i Dianum, 
ni., 69.. c/. Bnmdo1inu»' Letter in UftOvr, tS; ; ihe Plorcntmc K<poit in 
TiiUA^NK, in., 437 J^f.: atid w[>erQl1y th* RcpoTt of R, Calmeia, which 
bis been ilna^lf overlooked by GrcjcorovJui, dhliouith there a m 
tritile r:Qpy of it in the Gonuga Archives ni Mantua. I Lui intended to 
give i: in the Appendix, Imi cun nnw rrftr ihr r^der lo LtJZlO-RENTlJ;, 
wrho bu printed it in hii work, Muilova c Uibino, loj. 



Duke of Gaiidia.* All the probabilities of the ease point 
to th« Orsini, who bdiered thai Alfonso w intriguing 
s^rut them i^ith the Olonna, who were alliod witli th* 
Kinjc of NapJc3« It i» moat unlikely that Ca:Mr liucl any- 
tWng to do with it^i- NcvcrthclcKi, Alfonso wa^ convinced 
that his bfothcr-in-law w^ts the author of this foul dccU, and 
the okUfncnl lie felt himself lecovciifi^ lie was betil on re< 
wcn^ng liimNeir Luert;xi« and Sancm «tTnvr to make 
peace, and the Tope posted a guard at the door of ilic oick- 
room, but all was in vain. In a despatch of i8t)i Au^ustr 
which wa* forwarded at once, l^aolo Capcllo, the Venetian 
AmbASsador, writes that on that day Alfonsojookin^ out 
of the vriiKk>w, ttw Caesar lA'alkinc in the garden, tn a 
moment he had sdxed a bow. and dt^clmrged an ariow at 
ha detested enemy, O^sai iclaliated by havinj^ AlfuitMo 
etii to |Keccs by h» own Ixnly-jiuard ^ Imctctja^ w^o ha^l 

* P, Ct^dko*! DeifAlch m Sanltto, I|]^ fs>- 


I Dt»|9BUcU iron d\t Vcnviidn Eovcry, I* Capello, of i Sili Auk^, m 
SakVTO^ UU 671. ^ Ot£(0H10r(, IV., 13, 2$y seg., wlioae rcniuki 
MpfJjT tb* n we wary criticism on P. CapeTlci's namtiv« of aSth Sept.^ 
ijao(iobc found In ALQEkt, 2 Scrlc, 111,3-14, and Sanuio, 111-, JI47 
Mj^, Cf, Raxke, Pipiic, Ml., 5* -6*). UnfoitTinaiely Kagcti'? carcftU 
pipvron Aleiand*! VI., " Camr llargia imd rlir^ Ktmordung dcD Her- 
v^ wn BdrlU,'' in Zdtsdir. Air Kathol Thtulgif., X,, 313 j^j^^ has 
DMBpod CrcqcHan't notice 'Hun wnCcr cniiiCh to the eoncUi^icn that 
amcb ctroag?T evidmoc of tte Duko'« gitilt in fumtthcd by Capelli/s 
Da(Htc]ie»p and tiitiCLiully by du»l of ^jf^l Ati^;,, iluin by the pcisujiul 
oravktions of Buvchaid and ibc Florentine Envoy, (Sec p. ;£, nt^ic I.) 
"There a rro formal arjjtTHirnf/' «ij-i. Hyfcgrn, " rorrmtiflrtirr th(sc 4iaf^ 
tnats. \V« mutt diticfi^rc hold them ti:i Ik Cnic, wlutlcvcr j;enenil 
doobc* nay rest oiTi bii icport,aiid dpccinJlyonbisiLafTa^v&" Cirou^, 
TTS, lA aAto agauzut Alviti'i <1cl»ncr> of Cinar, 109 uq. On itie <Pther 
hud, there on be do doubt thut C.npcllo'» acujujiI uf the nmtdvr of 
the Pope"» MTvanlq PTcroUOsii (altc, iikhou^li t'leeciovLUt and Ranke 
uphoU it. f/- Hai-kn, /oe. tit.. 31; : KfcUMONi. UU I. ao?; ^0^ 
KvtQLK in Sybeb Eellschr., XXXIll, yjo. 




been herself nursing her husbanct wiih th? ten<lcrcst 
was i(icun:;cibbk. Overwhelmed with K^^pf she went 
to Ncpi lo hide herself in its solitude Some of Alfona 
Neapolitan sL-rvanU were arrci!ed on a change of liavii 
planned iin attempt on C.Tsar's lifc» but nothing of ai 
iniporiancc was extracted fioni them* When ihc Ncat^oli- 
l^n Ktwuy heard wliiU HaA ha]i|M-tjecl lie at oacc tcxjk 
nHiigp in ihe [jaluce of the ^p;tni'fth Amha«a<U)r,t Alcx- 
andcr told the Venetian Envoy, who came to 5ce him on 
tl^c 23rd Auj;uAt, that Alfonso haJ tried to kill Cxsaar, 
Jieyond thi* nothing on the subject wm allowed to tran- 
spire ; a few ixinjoclufCi were whimpered about, but no ore 
dared to speak above his breath. Evidently Alexander VI. 
thought it pmdeut to hush up the whole affair as much aa 
po.viibk , Tiu lUjubi he tua was iift^id of C*sai.J 

Shortly liefoTi- the luurdcr, .^Icxandrr's own life had hem 
in great danger. In the ninth ycflf of his reign, on the Feast 
of SS. I'eter and Paul, Sigismondo de" Conti relates, just 
as the Pope was about to give his audience, the sky being 
ciciir, ^suddenly, with no warning, a tornado of wind sprang 
up and tore o(f the very solid roof of the upper part of the 
S&la dc" PajH as thougli it had been made of straw. In 
eonsequencCt that jmrtiun uf the roof under wiiicli tlie Pope 
was sitting aKo gavt? way, but the balcony ovtrr hh head, 
stIH remaining attached to the wall, protected him from the 
falling masonry, and the gold embroidered hanging over 
his throne from the smothering dust. Half an hour elapecd 
before his sorv*ants could make their way throuK^h the wind 

* Florcnhn* Dctpauh in Tnu^iCNV, nr.ntjK. !4nd m AppcndiK. ti. ;. 
a LcUct from G, L OitLuico, of tgih Au(e., rjoa (Goitu^d ArdjivRv, 
McLotua-) Oti Lucitzb at Ncjii, «cc Gl^KiOKOVius Luci-cm, i^j/if., 
I59X-^.,«1 3. 

f Sec Apptftidix. N, S- 

X DespiitcLi from P. Cdpello, ijnJ Aufi., in Sa^VTO^ III. 



nd dust to the pUce whtrc he lay* biccdinf; and apparently 
htrdly ftlfvc. He w&a Cfuried into ihc adjoniiiic: li&U aiiJ 
llicrc M>on recovCTdl coiuciou-inc-vt. Mh phyMciariA fotinil 
thst two Angers of iJie right hAiul had been injured, aixl he 
bad a woand In hb he^d. The first nff^ht he was vi^y 
fev-«Titth, but soon began to get better* "If nothing 
onforesoen occurs" the M&ntuan Envoy writes on the and 
J«ly, "be will recover." This Erroy fttate^ tlut on the 
previous day aUo Alexander had a narrow escape of bdng 
kUJcd by a heavy iron chandclicTp which fell jtiat In front of 
hun.f Any other man would h;i\« bcrcn Icil tn look into 
him^%e1f aiKl consider h\s ways by huch a series of narrotf 
CAcapcs; but Alexander was a true Borgia, he thanked 
God and the Blessed Virgin and SS. Peter and Paul for hh 
presen'ation,^ and lived on aA beftircL Writing ofAlexandcr 

* SiOQMOCd^oot'Coxn.lUj^x^ t^dwr^p^il Uncftof jnJjindath 
Jdy, 1500,19 BaLAJi, 39S if,md Sanuto, HL, 477-479^ BimciiAftM 
DikHura, llt^ftj **y, : **r'rf, .133 t/f. ; the Ttt^jyirr of P. Cnpello; Law* 

tKXa^ 31 1 JV^> ; KCTAR GlACOMO, 235 ; ■l.cUrJS ffom C. L CfttM»0 

of iSth June aad 9nd Jul^t 1 lOO (GonaaKa Aichive*, Mannm) i and otse 
fnxn BnJidoliaA in Hrom, i3S3-ie5. All ihfi^ AuihoritiMnsrfteingivEns 
the diAe of ibc t^Uitrupbc u igtii }itix, and Gae00ltOV[U», VU„ 434. 
•£ J (b ib«4th ed^ 440, tli« true dHt« bfiv«n),Ani1CnKri;nipNjV\ 9, 
rcq^rv to be <orrecifd in Jin^drd-inn with ihem. Sam'to^ III., 4J5, 
CQBttan* BBAccouiit from the Venetian Envoy uf Ihe accltkati die d^Ie 
td wkcfc nutttbcz^li June, j;oo, mstoid of j^ili Mn^, 1501^119 there 
pwn. la Franoe it v»t Ihoiiijhf th-"*T iht* Prt|K^ wnufil die, in which <!aie 
the Tan 1VJ4 tu be wcoreU Tor Giuln;]o ddU Kuvrjc- Zki: nrfOfCK, 
Jttliiis ir, 85. On a |MKm rvlntcng to tliis bddeAi* sec Zikce»l£, 
XXX I r 

t G. L Counei/i ^^Rcpona, dat Rome, ind July, i $001. (Gonaga 
AichtT«i| MiMUA.) Detftili in regard to thv l^njw'* hcAldi tdtv tbaM 
tfaiw are to be found In the Kcpottt in Tm*ASNe» ITI-, 434 s^f. ; ^, 
SakvUX Ilf^ 469^ la lite Splint: tlic Popt- hjtd ti.^d no aLL-ick uf fcier ; 
Aa lOt the dole of the iJiid^^h mcttiK et pontitit^it Lboi^titu tebrc, 
preur\^ aSanuto, 111,^7"- 

% SAtivn\ 11 1>| 47^11 He re eiuLLttril Uictmlitm^iit'of Pti|>cC~.iliMii» III- 



In Sepieuiber i joo, I'aolo Capello *aya : " The Pope ts n* 
itievt^tyty years cf age; he gmw< yoiing!*r every cUy, hit 
cares never la?l the night through; he is always mci 
and never doet anj-thitif; th;il he doe* not Uke. The 
vanccmcnt of his children is his only care, nothing cl) 
troubles him," • 

la. Cici<ir's eyes this accident was a warnFng to carry 
his (jlans with as tittle delay <ts |X)^bk. His i.ampal^ 
against the Tyrants of the Romagna reqiiir^l a considt 
able sum of money and the accjuiescence of Venice, wht 
since the month of May, a Papal Nuncio, Angelo Leorinl,' 
had been permanently reiiding,+ He succeeded in ob- 
tainlnj- both money from the creation oF Cardinals of 
2nd September, 1 500,^ and the consent of Venice in return 

on the nngrn^ of the An^-diii, about Lhis umr- S«e Vol N. or thia wotki 

* Sakitc, IIL, S46 847. In a hidicvEo u^uioiccd Rcpon of C 
Guo^co erf 14th Aug., [499(^'otiE«tibbt[, iSS7iP" 5SX'^^ find 1 Madonna 
JuTia [Fftriosf] f* filomata n in S. dc N. S. Tlie V'enptinn Knvoy paid a 
vlui to the Pope on }nl July, i $00, mid Myi : En con S, S** Mfidona 
Lugrccia la prindpcjisa c so nuif ilo. « una ^oa doxnisclEn iXa con Madona 
Lo^cift, ch' 4 fav^riia 4*t fiaf^L Sanuto» III., 409; </l itlcA 
Dispacd di A. Giustiiiuii. L, loo, 295< SaKUTO mentions. I., 374, the 
fall of a wall in tbo Vatica;i in Nov. 149^, Mrack by lighining, And 11 U 
9^, an 5lh fict, 1 500, thai Alfri:kndcr vu ;tnadcf d by an txti^ry &llow. 
buck nnd was in cticuidcmblt diinKvr. 

t AccordiriK 10 I'mrTiR, Kuncr«iujren, 55 j/f., dib li the fii«c 
iniLonoe that can be ir^^etJ with certniniy of a pemunent Nnniiatute at 
iLby Court 

t Cfi SAifUTtS 111, S55, £(7, ^7^1 ^79i nnd BlTHCiiAaui Dianuii\ 
III'< 77. »fio kfivci the turn thnt each Cardinal had to pay The ivteli^ 
nominateil, of t^lioin sin wi^tt S|];iniaftls werr : (l) Dii'K" Hurliido de 
Mcndovi ; i^^ A- d'Albctt -, f 3) Lod, Dorift ; (4) Jfltopo Scrm ; <5) Pictre 
If^niies ; (bj Francei^o Borp : (7] GJoviinni Vera ; 4^^ Ljx^ovico P{xL>- 
nthara: Cv) OiiDJiniU]iiL> Tiivulcro ; (jo) (iiunlHtt[^~.j Fcrran ; (ii) 
ThCHUuQ«ltoc4;(i2> Marco Comoro. C/.PANviviug, j]!^ ^ Cahdrlus 
a^^Jrif. ] and^AcUi Contut; i&toL ^aitvalsoLbe naaiwot Lbft 



tor lfa« help agaimtt the Turks ^v-cn them b>' Alex- 

On the morning of Uw 1st of October, 1500, Cx^aAr dct 
oat inmn Rom« at the head of au Aimy of iq,ocx> men. 
He had In his pay soine Roman Baroji^ of the houses of 
OrsinI and Savelli, Giampolo B;Lgt{one of Perugia, Vitel* 
lozio Viie^li of Citu di CastGlIo, and other ctucf;, who, 
£rightenc<d at the alliance with Frarice, thou};ht there was 
Itts dan^r in siding with the dreaded foe thnn in re- 
wtiog.'*t The Lords of PcMro and Riminn Gicr\anni 
Sforxa and Panilolfo Malatc^ta, ma<]c m> ^Lttcinpl to de- 
fend thcmseives and sought s^iciy u\ Hight Faenxa tvna 
not so easily conquered , il* rulcr^ A^ilorre Manfrcdl. was 
beloved by all bt» subjects, and wa« «iipported by the 
Florentine* and by hts matcma) t^randfathcr. Giovanni 
BentivocUo* The cttizeru defended theniijelves with re^lu- 
lion, and when vintcr came on, the sie^c had to be raised. 
iVhcD the Spring returned, Oesar again invested the cily 
47th March, 1501) aiid on the 25th April it was forced to 
ca|»tulAte- * Aslorre Maiifn^di w&s faiihlL-^i/ carried ofT 

Cartfinala wtao conscnu<t to lb« crraiion- (CoAiuiorinl Archivoe.) On 
lltC SnW« of the wveral CaidinaU *<t^ hi^ic^K ri^tinnm^ :irid Mtgnc^, 
COTTLO^ Catiu Api, 17; iff-'t JinJ MaKINJ, I-t ;f>j, oil rr^nfC3i;D 
Borja, who luid lill ihtit bean Trcaaurcr-Ci-ncnil ; KvAKNi^i't Mono^ 
fnphL 79 ^^., <m ]5Akoo;uvd M^aiNl, i., 3it& f/^^ aful AneciL Lia, 
Uj79ii-f,un TudiDUidHJUi. 

* Cauoinoiff, IV., ty 

t C/. Alvisi, r34 Jrff. 1 ReUmont, 111-, I, 35 ; and G. L. Catoneiyi 
*K4|iartvf fU Oa., isuj. (Guaa^Jt Ardiivta, Miinluu.) On Lhc 5th 
On the I^jr^ei -^ /«i/f/v ucrc nnmlnatcd : WnLudJ tc MaicimDian (icc 
V»IX»ciiikb, SS) i ^ iivaJirt tn >iii:ig;iTy [vcc JiJfiT=innM)!> ini" COXll, 
IUa4S) ; And Gkiv, Vkta to .S|j^tii, l^onucAlfftrid Ln^luid. 

1 SiOISHOOCtO l«* CONTI, ll„ 33B i*"^, ; Diario Fcrrarcic, y^ trq. ] 
Srkarrca, 5;f>; *Gili»J(iri>Aca, S\. <li Hokigna. Cod. ;6H of the 
L'nivcniiy Libnry, Iluluifju ; Al-Vr^i. 17J jrf,, 491 st^.i TOHINN V,, 
437; BAUUf, v., J99; VaiAhTi;, Kimim, 360; Sueuniuk^ 57> i 




to the Castle of St An^^'-lo where, in January i joi, Canar 
had him ard his y^oungcr brother put to death • Next came 
the punUhmt^nt of Giovanni Benm-oglJo, whnh;id ciipporTM;] 
Facnza in its resistance- When several castles had been 
taken^ he sued for mercy, ga^'e up Costel BologTietJC also, 
and promised to supply Cwsar for five ycara with 300 horse- 
mcn.f Alexander now bestowed on Ca^^r the title of 
Duke of Romagna. "thu5 making the largest province of 
the Church hereditary in the Burjiia ramily. in Ula indincr- 
ence to the prDl>uhil]ty that thU might easily entail on 
the Church the loss of all iheae States"; 

£ncoun4;ed by tliesc rapid successes, Caesar now turned 
his attention tc Florence, at that time lEjcrtously weakened 
by the war with Piaa- In grcAt alarm the I-lorcntinca pur-' 
chased peace by prantin;: him for three ycara a sub?iidy 
of j6,oooducals. and promfsiiig not to help Piocnblno. 'ITic 
Lunl of tht-s priudpality, Jjaipo d'Appidiio, lo*il in a very 
Khort Kpace of time the greater part of his ptKiKc.\si«n&§ 

ClFOLLA,77fl-7;9. G. U CatLi:euannnunc:c»,6lh Manli, ijoi : *Elpapi 
miuida c^ni dt molco dcriAii a Vnlcniina, Gohj^a Archive*, Mantua 

• Sn^rsMoNPo I'W CONTI, II-. JJ3- I Ginnol accKpt Aliriw and 
M^ury^ ilcftntt nf C^h^r in ihc K^v, IHj^l, Vlll., 94, in l^c dtc of 
Ihv CKplidl Testimony Oif. -I hiiEorian who nns by no mtuni hostile lc> the 
iSotyia taniiy. CJ. al^i Ku;FCUAkm Obhum, tlL, SoS ; LA-XI>l.'CCt, 
JU: Jiid Ohpocxi di A- Giiutinkn, L^ iS- Iien;thc«or>-uf ihcmunlw 
{c 3MI0 delta) II lold <in &Lh Jimc, >%-htlc G. L. Cniiinco, on ihc 7tti June, 
1 5OT, wntci home ' *K1 ^g^ ^ dc FacrtA e lo frnMllo cjual enmc <|iu in 
GuldUj bcEitltc a]L|Liaittu bt^i luii leuorduEi *)uno >r;iti (.oniJutlJ futira 
d'cma nc tc M dcA« >uino ; lAincii crcdc^i »iano conduUi a Pitimbino 
per dnn Mkh^lolo pmno homo in Phiim <I«l dui^fu pf^ Gdnn^ 

t- Atvisi, 496 $tq.\ BALAlf* V^ 401 1 Soo^itEJUi 3711 Rav- 

VAt.DUB,ulin 1501,71. t5 ; ClP^M-i, 779, 

t G&EooROvn.^ VI!., 439, cd. 3 {44^ ^^ 4): Alviu, iSi 

TltVW^NX, UUl3l,n, 3i 

I ALYIMr 191 //f. ; SUCfitrn£l», J7J. 



After ihfs tl>c Duke returned to Rome, whcto he wis wanted 
en aocoum of the «ute of »fTair« in Naples. Mi^ihly im^ 
jxiftant dcctiiions were come to in relation to thU kmfj^ont 
ift lh€ next fe*' week*. Hitherto ii had bi^cn a constant 
tjWition of (x^icy ihtit no foreign [k^wct wu to be 
allo«icd to obtain d footing in Naples. Now Alexander VI. 
^alMiKluoctl tliia principle-* 

Soon after Ca^it'i ;iTnv«t1 cm the j^th June, 1 Jot, a Hull 
WIS drafted asscniirg to (he secret treaty of i ilh November, 
1500, between France and Spain for the partition of Naples 
between them. Louis XII. wa« to be King of Naples and 
to possess Terra di Lavoro and ihc Abrut^i ; Ferdinand 
wu to take Apulia and Catabna v»-ith the title of Gmnd 
Duke Both were to hold their lands in Gcf from the 
Clturch. The way m which the King of Naplt^s had 
been dallying whh the Turks ^rr^'cd as the ]>re1e3Ct for 
his depositlon.f One motive ivhich strongly inclined 
Alexander VI. to agree to the plan was: the blow that it 
wodid deal to the rebellious Roman Barons, who would 
now be deprived of all ^pport On thu 27th Junc> 1501, 
the League with France and Spain was announced, and 
the French ann>v ivhJch wajt already cnc;icnped near Rome, 
began iLh .%oathw;itd miirdi. J On Lh:: 4U1 July Citraar 
joinn) it wiih Wi% trct<i])<^.§ 

Frederick of Naples had had no suspicion of Ferdinand's 
perfidy, and knew nothing of it until the Papa! ^ull wa£ 

• C/ the vw>- inferetting tummary in Tntichera'* colleciion of dixu- 
iTtcnt» in tlir All^. ZriLuii;^ <J iSta Nc. 4C. StM ^bu Tomh^slni, 

t KAVX^inrs adan, rjoT.n, 53-7^. 

: Bracitiiit'i DkirimiT. IIU 149-150; S.iMtrro, rV.,6i,Si; Arctic 
5l Nitp., Il-,6j<| j^,; nnd C- U Cataneo'» *Lettcr<pf 30th June, J501. 
Ckmxitpi Axx^hlvci, MAniun 

j Rcpsn of G. L CaUnc^ Sth July, ifot. (Gano^it Aichivci 
HanWL) Accoritny to thii, Alvi^t, za^^ rc4Uiro <|}fT«ction. 



jiublUlwd, The French reached Capua, destroj'ing t] 
villages of itie Colonna on tlieir wky, almost without 
si&tance, and successfully stormed and racked that ell 
before the erd of July.* G.-ieta now also capitulaicd, ai 
the French army under d'Aiibigny appeared before Napl* 
Prcdcrick fled to Ischia and surrendered to the French 
Kingt who gftvc liSm the Dukedom of Aiijou and a yearly 
IxrnMon. Fittncc and Span) divided Ul% kingdom between 

♦ Snn*M0VDO nifCoNTi, IL, ajj; SanutOi IV-, 76-78? Bai-a?<, 
V^ 404-405: Havkmann. II,, 130 Jiy.: Cipolla, 781- In rrgurd Id 
Ibc necUMUjoiu AMninnC C^rMr, ncc hit defence h AE.vnii, 309 j^.; 
LKOHICTTItU, 455; MaVRV in Ihc R«V. Ihtt., XIILt96 j<7.i anclK.di 
5oKAr>N^ in Tliv Kju«ei;uu Nue,, X, (18S1}, 364. whoilo noiTiCfe go too 
Ux. <^» lluoacit jii Hi)>U Zcjitcltt., XLIV,, ;4J- 

+ SiGt&MOKTO Ds' CoSTir ]!., J4S ; BraiKtolLnos' L«Uer in Bnow, 
i.\y fiff,; Ri-.tiMONT. f'^tnin. I., 33 xr^ : \iArvt.K Knm, imrt i'itTm. 
Vtilkcr, 14* "/., 14V ^^< AlllwiiE^L htjua X1L wa^ cxca»cd bu tribuic 
by Akxtader VL o^ 37lh Aug., 1501, on accoanC of Ihe Turkish nai 
(R\VNAU«JS,in1 an. 1501, fin 75 ; GOTM-Oii, 3j4'i35X he did very llrilc 
in lIils dircuJun. FcrdiD^nd wiu excused on the i^tb May, 15(^2^ fivm 
the duty of apptnring pcmon^ly in Rome lo rt^ocivc hjs fief; Bw- 
KAUHJS, k<l»ri, 150^, n, IG ; HWfGK-VfcEilTMKk, VIM-, jfij. He |o« no 
time ifi tiunifcitln>i bis gradtudc lo tlic Don;^'^ ; »cc HorLl», IUtA»- 
irophe, 16, 



At-FXANDiER's unabashed nepotism and whoUy worldly 
aims in politico out thrir baneful %h:ulo\vs al%n ovcx ihc 
ccsbtvnce to ihc Turkish advanirc duriiig hh reign.* The 
Pope's n«pothm repeatedly iicted iit a dlrvtt hindrjiiicc to 
efTortfi agairut the Turk*, but its indirect effect* were 
pcihaps fitiU more Injurious; for no one trusted him, and 
whatev-er he put His hand to was beli^ed to have. Tor its 
tildmatc object, nothinf; but ihc aggrfindiicmcnt ofthc house 
of Borgia. NcvcrthclcMi even ^uch a man m Alcxan<ler 
ooold not remain cnitrely inactive in presence of the danger 
6roai the Ea^^ Th^ robic ycnerrwity of his pretiocessors 
in axftisting the reftigec* from the countrie* which had bi-en 
contiucrcd by the Turke was continued tinder hta rute, and 
to^^rdi the clo«c of the century he appeared to be 
choroug^hly ir* earrcst in his effort* to o^anisc a Cnisfldcf 
Prince l>5chcm, in the hands of the Christian;^, acted to 

• Cf, VoL V. <rf tils work, pjx 397, 413, MAllPlEftO, [6r, men- 

«B Mfodated b>' Aa^anb, but vtiy sxm liivca Up by the Popt- On 
U» i*MOA 10 Lh« iJUCitJCm of the CruuicJc in 149^ MO aUd MAULt>r, 
Prot^mei Pdit, 1 106 *^f, and Dipl de ^f a^ hiavclli, 1., 7a. 

T 0^ RBt^MOWT m Wcurr mid WdtcS Kial^iiksikirti, ]., ^B<h cd. 3, 
ukI Gomoo m Hifit. j^htb., VI^ 459, On ^'cititnand'* smpicioni 
u u» the applicntion of \te CnUAdr inunty hy Ale>nmtrT> 0/^ 



a ccrt/tin tlcgnx as a check upon the Sultan; but al 
hi* (l*rjnh fresh attacks 0*1 Christian lands TccommciT 
almost at finct^. In Hoanw, in the year 149^, a tiumher ni 
small fortresses, sdll occupied by the Hunganans, wcro 
invented by Ttitkish troops atid many of them conquered. 
In Moldavia the inroads of the Turk^. beginning in the | 
same year, were of a more serious character. In 1498 a 
band of Turks and Tartars, combined with Moldavians, 
swooped down on Poland ttsclC Far and wide they 
ravageti the country; "tht; land was ^ilrewn with coqises> 
All the towns on the hills and plains round I^mber^ and 
Praemysl as far as Kanciug were plundered and burnt; 
the harpicA encamped in the fictda for 4 «hori time and 
then returned whence they came, loaded with booty.'* 

Already in Uic previous year the fricndiy rcladons 
hitherto ^ub^i^ing between Venice and the Porte had 
been sliarply disturbed, TliG Turks had for 5omc time 
pa*ii been busilyiKxupieil in strengtIieninE; I lieir armaments, 
and csprcially their navy. The object of these jirepitTa* 
tions was kept a profound aeerei, and the Venetians, ^vrth 
all their sagacity, were complctdy deceived-f Wlicn the 
preparations were completed, the Sultan, without any 
decimation of war, bcf^an hoatiJitics by arresting ah the 

• Cako, v., 3, 751 i ZiMLxi^tKTf, n,, 507 itq. ^^ 

f *£x )itlcTi« nbotii Condube, 149^ W< ^ojii. : Ctie 1« ce7£« dclTurto 
v^irnio unto irrirumenir <hc n^ri se pn Intrn^ltre nr Mpcrr nr pni' 
Vfc In 50A dclilx:r-itJonc. (Sl.ilc Archive*, Milnn. TorchiA.) IkulhoL 
SfcHidRLto hadr tiQwcver, rorrecUj' gticfuod what tlie 1 urkfi A«re about ; 
£/. his Rp|K>rtGf i8lh June, I4yy,in MakuSi: ttv, II., 10& Hc«iys: Tuiio 
il Lcvdnlc tfcnuL , - - Kl 1>ci) chc Ic cove del dicto Tutxho Auino paasiic 
ct pcuuino tccrctaumc, tumcn mt ii^c, nic piTc comprchcnder chc quvt 
lunque dad principjci !;t faiiu st r? ^uiu conTio Kliuilo rt contra Pii^lh, 
C&^en «1 &U0 diAc^iia h lUlo de ruiTipctc ifucriA jid S. Vcoeuiiti. In 
RagUMf htFU'cr^TT^ i( rt^Jt fim^ly b«li^^'cl in the niidd[« of juty, M99i 
that the Turki were going tnaturk Khodn, MAki.'M;KV, IT-, i* 


Venetuns in Consiantinoplc. Vcoki* n'^s pluogod in cUtf- 
maty and distre^, amd, to m^tka iDattcre wone, Ui« finanou 
of the Repubtic wrc at that moment At a svry low cbh 
To EDMt the heavy cKpcnw; of fitting out a fleet it wa« 
n ec caaa ry 10 niitc ftJI toti* And taxes and to impo^ new 
COC9. All the oflkials of the icpublic were required to 
SttncndcT the half of thdr salaries u> the State, aitil the 
cleq^y had tu contriliutc a ihiid uf thdr n-vcEmE:^. thiK 
mlh the Pope'» cotisent. Hy dint of these exertions cut 
lffpc«ing fleet of 130 satb w:ks e^juipped But evert this 
vraj quite instiRicient to cope with that of the Turtos which 
numbered 270. On the 26th of August, Lcpanto, the otily 
important 9eft-port in the GuH of Corinth that 5ti]] remained 
in the haads of the Ve^cttan^ fell.* At the tame time 
JOmo Tttfkbh bL^rscniciL ffouj Dusnta matic a auceeaHful 
raid on the tnainlaral of Veniec, Tlie wlu»]e iti«lnct on 
one fiide to TagUamento and even near Viccnza, and on 
the other as far at Drau, wait devast;Lted with firt; and 
cword. and all the inhabitants «lain or carried into 

In the Summer of 1499 the Tvirkith question waj re- 

iff.; Horr, f67. 

t ;^|^rc£l5UI, JL, S32. QCaboBALAK'SLonckdiTikC I'ul.of AilUrmU, 
p kvit^ tttyX MaKItM-I-V, I \., 109 ; LANi>l'Ca, SO^. A ikUuIctJ J,ccaunt 
of the Turkish niJ on Fruli in 1499 ■« 10 b« fuunil in ihe (^miutra 
di NioQuo 5Lnu di ^limmvMi^ ai^iiu u<''9 15^9 C^^uuc Slra»ijMj> 
GalEvi- Ud^Cf iS7(>>. The Kflboard af Souihcro Italy was harrttd 
by tht Turki 11 l^ie Mmc timr. In iti« 'Ai-iii <]« Nii^o ConiJiiU d« 
Intrtv. i6tlK tjth, und 2otli Junc^ '4Wh I fn^nd tlie rollowin^ mciiv 
omniuni which bckmK^ to iha period •Cho cifi:n XI. Ciortij innnti 10- 
Uoriko Xnn, futl« <le Hflrlinm r>cl golfo dc T:ir;inta cl lUl- dc cpte (o 
apcewntorno a u^jo dc Otii>iniu Jcjvi; picticicnu luia miveu CicilUnn 
oncAdc rrumcDtoGt ct vno tnijiti:! Ljpanot^ MiUno40 SUitr 


pentcdiy discussed in ConAiEtory. It w;ifi then thouf;h1 
ffom the TXipoti of the Grand-Master of Rhodes, that t1 
attack vras to be directed agairst that island.* Whik the 
deliberations on the help to be sent to Rhode* were going 
oil, the news came of the descents on Venetian tcmloiy. 
In the beginning of August, letters from the French Envoy 
in Venice to a F'Vtnch Cardinal came to hand, accusing 
the Milanese Government of having instigated the Turkish 
attack. The Milanese Envoj' in Home defended the con- 
duct of hi5 master in view of the hostile attitude of the 
Venetians, and dccUrcd openly that Milan would not 
scruple ta use tUc Turks and the Moors in sclf-dcfcncc.t 
It never came to thi», however, for tn the Autumn of that 
year Lodovico Moro was driven out of Milan.} 

In consequence of the increastncily menacing reports 
which continued to arrive from the East, Alexander, in 
the late Autumn of 1499, issued an invitation to all the 
Christian Princes to send representatives to Rome in the 
ensuing March to deliberate on the formation of a League 
agiun^kt the Turks,§ This invitAtinn met with so little 
response that in Tcbruary i$oo,itwas found necessary to 
repeat it,|| Even this produced but little result On the 

* ProJocolt of ih*? CoTiBJitoriea of the Toih, i^ih, fln<3 afirh Jun*, and 
Sih July, 1409' "AcLT Consist., C 303, in ihc Consiitoml Arrhivct 
f $cc 1I1C Mil^^c Ainb;v5Sj(loiiiil Ucpojts in tho N^UcenbUlt 

('857)t PP ^'-'i. 3^n 

X Cf. itifira, p. 7a 

ft Cfi^iht Bdef of mh Nov., 1409^ eo ICinjc Hniiinticl of Por^ujial ii> 
SANTARBH, X. 130. 

II See the Idtniiral HHef« of jtJ Feb,, rjoo, to Florence (MUlleu, 
RcUj-, 34S) and to Fiancc^co Goniaga ; the ort^rinal \t in the GoiUica 
Archiv«4, Manuin- I'he Kingf of i'c^rtnKat r*ceivi*d Bn*fft of commends- 
don for hh leal iti irhrard to Hw ^var iii^Minit the inl^pli on the totli 
and i&th FcK, tfoo ; tn the Luii of ilicw dir DC ff M-itcli \t mcntruncd 
a>lh«diyonwliichlh«dfilib«nitkRit wore to bejj'in. Saviaaem, X, lar. 



tith March 3 secret Con&istory was held, to which all the 
Envoys in Rome vrerc uivttcd. Ihesc consisted of the 
rcprcscrlativ-C-s of Mftximilian* LouLt Xli-, ilenry VII, of 
Engtand, ar.d Ferdinand of Spain, besides Utoitc of Naples, 
Venice Siivoy, 4nil Flortnc*^ Akxiiiukr VL [iitil iK^orR 
ihc STiscmbly the grrAt danger now thn*atming EtJinpe 
from thr Tark^, and cyprc^s^d his regret that his sumnionft 
of the previous Autumn hud met with 1:0 little attention. 
He weot on to i^ay that Venice was the bulwark of Christen* 
dom 4od that it was the duty of nil Christian powers to 
support hcT. The answer* of the Envoys were %o unsatia- 
^ctory that the Pope made »o secret of his displeasure 
with German)', Fritnt:e, and NAple»i Spain wa.t the only 
Government to which he awarded unqualified praise* [n 
the beginning of May, Alexander VI. proposed in Consis- 
tory that a Legate should be sent to riungar)' and that a 
tithe should be levied on the derRy oi France, Germany, 
and Hungary; ali^o tli/it the Cardinal:^ should be taxed, 
bc^nning with himself- Many of the Cardinals objected^ 
but the Pope stood firm. In ^pitc of all tht5 the Venetian 
Envoy *tiU refused to believe in Alexander's sincerity, 
which is significant of Chc prevaJlfng opinion in rej^ard lo 
him-l These doubts were dissipated by hi* later acls^J 
A Bull, dated rst June, 15CX). was sddressed to all 

* BimcKAHiii DLflriurrt, 111., 34^ find, in mi^r« demil, Zi^rita, V.^ 
1T^ M7- Tonarda the end of Fcbru^uy a Turkish Envoy hud Arrived in 
Komc wilh tbfr f)bj«^ of i\'«rtm{f the war. Thj& brought Catd- fer^iudi 
back, m hat btutc ami mihou: Jcavc, in order to couniefitrttliMe tffuft*. 
whkli hm tucoccded to doin^, ^ce .ScTinnnitit. Pcmt^dt, «3-'S4- On 
die pelicy of Fnineo, ace LxJit, ActerLsC, lur Gtmh. Karlt V^ Em- 
leiimif, ^6. 

i SamttOiIII., i09h j4^34^3^^ O''f^j:,iS5,s8j,aad4a6ta0nthe 
stnding of the Legate to Hungary lind the support 10 ba give«t to i>ia< 

£ C/^ GOTTUOB Oi the Ili^nt. JMnh, VI,. 4>Q. 


iiisTORV OF TriE rorBSL 

Chnstendom, ■etftng forth the Fury anH cniclty of ll 
Of^manli and their haired or the Christian name, and urgii 
all to unite af;ainst the common cnemj'- The purpose 
the Turks, it aRirmcd, wo*, first to conquer Rome, and tl 
to subjugate ail the Chriattaii populationa Conscqucntl] 
the Komftn Church had hqw form^ly declared war again] 
ihc hereditary foe. To meet the expenses of the cortcst, a 
tithe w^ to be levied on all ecclesiastical benefices without 
exception^ and on all the official in the States of the 
Church. All who resisted the impost were threatened with 
Excommunication, This Crusade-Bull wa* to be publicly 
read^ in the viilj^^r toni^c, on some fea^t-day in all the 
dioceses of the world. The Jews were required to contri- 
bute a twentieth of their propcrt)'.* At the tmme time a 
iJticf was dn^wii up addi^cssed to the King of Krancc. In 
it the Pope »md ihnl Envoys hail been sumiuuiied to Rome 
in Mareh, fn order to take coun^ on the war against the 
Turks Many had not come, and those that had appeared 
were not provided with sufficient pcwem. Althouffb the 
Aummons had been repeated, .is yet the i'ope had rccei\-ed 
nothing from the Princes but fair words. Hence he now 
once more turned to the King oi' FnitKc, who, now that be 
was ruler of Milan, was doubly bound to come forward to 
pmtcet Italy from the Turks, and requested him to icnd 
representatives at once, Spain and Venice were full of 
Mai, thu* there was a good prospect of success. For his 
own piLTt^he had imposed a tithe upon all the inhabitants 
of the Papal States and on the dcr^ throughout tli|J 
world, and was prepared to moke even Kreatcr sacrificca.t 
A further proof that Alexander wa.<t then in carne:it in 
regaid to the war h given by the fact that at the end of 

* Ravkamius, ndu). 1(00, n. 7-%aad ina mor« eompleiefomi 
Bl'aCMAKDi niarium,. Hi-, 46-$6. 
t SaNUT0.1U,4SS'348' 



June be recalled Cardinal Pcraudi, the cfl^cr advocate of the 
Crunde, to Ibc CoBrt. «nd in the Spnng of the following 
Xcu began to collect the conliibutions of Lhc CanJiiiaL% 
out of which a f1cv< vras to be equipped.* The t.Ax-li»t, 
vhich ha» been prc*rr\'ed, aiid U inlcrwting as giving t!w 
incocnes of the diifercnt CardinaUf is u folloH-it: — 

Caid Cuftdb On tftcociwi 


To pay tooo 

„ Gtaliuio ddU RcAvrc 





,. 2«QCI . 




1 ^ Gioramii Mktiiel 




f ^>orikj Da Cotu 




H Girolanui Bami ^ 




^ TX:invnico ddb Rovcu 




„ c;b6 . 




4 Palbviciuu 




H Juai] Buiifia 




,t Oritni 




„ S. Gionpa . 



i „ Cami*! 




», Pcaudi 





SciCKUDER. Pemir^ %^ loolci upOT Ihnf m^atiir^t ^ rntrv fomtt 
crat u encourage The liffrntity n/t tltc ^lithfuL Hut in ihiu cjuc 
«nU tho Cardinbts, of whoni many wore &ir from muriout for thcr wavt 
1a«« coQMfltc<I Eo pay? ITiii arsunicnt applies alvo agaioat Lanjt, 
AdcBiL £. Gcvih. Kailj v., Eitilciiunic $8 j^v- Even ihutiKb Laoi may 
be «it=hc jiu(i6cd Jo uylng that Alexfutdcr touk adviLniAgc of Lhc ilAtTc«t 
of Venice for Ov^aa'* advasceni«iit» tliii doei noi by any meani prove 
il&l die wtii/lc CruMile va% LuAhu^t^ Uit jl sluun. Lam rclltri ciilijcly on 
Ifce Vcbctiui tSotumont^, v^hich arc ocrUiinly exceedingly onc-nded. 
Ur. Goni-Ctv, wieh whom m t1i]« irtntf«t i hulil j«i!ic tu^rj, p^ K5, nm« tj, 
ayrccs wilb Rcumonl in Ukin^ d iiioie f.^tcur^iUc vicH of Alcundcr's 
inUnlkvu. Il U to be hoi>e(i tLut llici ^iblt author of itie Cam. Ap. wHI 
ihOFtly puhliiti all lhc nuiteriiUs UcJornpn;< to ihii subjeit from Oic 
lUtfiieiow docusnctib L:olteacd b> liim 1 (ill iIid iiA» been done tbe 
qiwioa mttsi remain uoflccidc«l 



Card, De Castro . 


income, 2,000 

To pay 20O 

f, Lopez 




,, Grimani 




„ Serra 




„ Isvalies 




„ Francesco Boc^ia 




„ Vera . 




„ Podocatharo 




„ Ferrari 




I, Rccoloraini 




„ Sanson! 




,t Colonna 




„ Ascanio Sforza 




„ de' Medici . 




„ Sanseverino 




„ lippolito d'Este . 




t, Cesarini 




„ Famese 




,, Lodovico Borgia . 


1 0,000 


„ Comaro 

no income 


„ ^Bri^onneC . 




„ Philippe de Luxemboui^ 




„ d'Amboise . 




„ d'Albret 




„ Mila . 




,, Mendoza 




„ d'Aragona . 






■ . 


From the lax on Roman officials a 






* Catdinales Khodianus, Polonus, Stngonicnsis, quia in bello exislunt, 
were exempted. Ravnaldus, ad an. 1 500, n. 9, from Burchardt Diar- 
ium, HI., 56 scg, (where Macloviensis should be le^A instead f>fM.^T\j\\~ 
ensis). The list is placed in June, which ia a mistake, aa its mention 



In the t)ci:if)tiiiis ol Sc^itcmbcr, the Venetian Envoy in 
Komc wrote that ihc (*ojk had been doing aU he could 
thioughotit the Sumincr for tlie support uf Venice And 
Hungary, uvd had giv^rt i>tri'in|jlory orders to tht com* 
mandcr of the Sponfch fleet to join that of Venice ; that 
his dUpoeitions in r«gai^ to the Crusade were exccll«nt, 
U he only cirned out the hnU of what he had promised it 
wiould be quite suf^cient* The dotibt o^in implied in 
these woftU was not de«n-cd ; a few days earlier Alexander 
h^d dc-'((JAtched viuiuii» Dnela, the content:^ of vrhich amply 
prove his sincerity; ard he was exerting himself lo the 
utmoHt to brlnj^ about tlic union of tlie SftanbJi fleet with 
the Verierian,t 

Soon after this the Venetian Env^y received the sad 
tiding that Modon had fallen into the handn of the Turkti, 
and the loss of Navarino and Koran followed almost 
itniDediateiy. Since the fall of Nc^ropontc 5uch connter* 
nation and dismay as now prevailed in Venice had not 
beat caused hy afiy of het otlier disasters. The possession 
of the^ old and important colonie?i was held tf» be so 
enenttal to the maintenance of her navy, both for com- 
tnereeand for war^ that the Council of Ten declared that 
all her ?:<:a-powcr depended upon them. Thin terrible blow 
was Formally announced by the Signona to aEI the powers 
of Europe; "On the loth of Aiii^uat," writes Raphael 

i/CkrdiniU vrba wne ntx rK^mlnACcd lill the iSch Hrpt, i jfio [ tufira^ 
Fi 8oX ibcws that it htu not dmwn u|) till the iVulu;iin- Tl^cir publication 
slhaSpmLgciif 1501 (HUtcuAKni Uunum, 111., 113-1 iB; (f. liAlUie, 

Vit 44Si prcpinDci to g^vc a schedule ef Uic »uau ncluiilly paid by 

ifav ('.inlinali were liouitd to cmitiibuic ^4t90D duc^m aikniully hi the 
ytao ijoi, 1503, ind 1^3- C/. aF^oCaiii. Ap^ 66> 
• SAXL-tc» UU 47S. S^'. S77. i»9. 7'4- 



BrantloHnu* TJpj>i fri>m Romr lo a friend, *"lhc unliapj 
city »f Mtidon was conquered. The few inhabitants wl 
ftU into the hands of the Turk* were all barbarnysj 
impaled ; not one was spared, Tliis i* what ^ve have coJ 
to through the troubles in Italy! To Ihb h^vG we 
brought by our internal dissensions ! The eloquent Venctij 
Envoy, Marinus Gior^iua. delivered such a spltrndid orati^ 
on the Turks that his Holiness and the whole Collc^ 
Cardinals wcm deeply stincd. Now At la^t wc may hope 
that the Ptjpe will in^i^t on ihc formation uf a Leagut for 
the dr^lniclion of Ihe Turku/"' 

Vain hope I Eager as the "Christian'* power* were 
to avenge the smallest indit;'^»ty inflicted on thcmscives, 
they were utterly indilferent where only the honour of 
tJjc Christian name was concemcdf Bui on ihla occasion 
it wan not ALex-inder's fault that so little wjl3 done to 
clicck Uie enemy's advance, t On the llth of September, , 
tjODt It wa« decided in Consistory that tv;n things must 
be done: first, every possible efTort must be made to bring 
the Spanish fiect to betir against the Turks; sceondly, 
L^ates mufit be sent to Hungary, Frarce, and Germany- 
On the 5th October the new Legates were chosen ; Giovanni 
VerA for Spain. Portugal, and Eng:land ; l*ctrus ls\-alic3 
for Hungary and Poland ; PcraudJ for Germany and the 
txnihern kmj'durnfLj At the «ame time a Brief was sent 
to OonKalvo c!e Cordova ordering him to join the Venetian 

" Uhom, jSff-r^; rf. Swrm, III,^ 750, 788; Ht^Ui 1I-, jji ; 
K0PF.»6S; Hi^aZDEKO, Gncchczibi^d, III,, 15, 

I RKWMCfKr in Wciwr und Wche's Kirchenleiikon, 1-, ^87, ed ^^ 
C/. *I*c Mrat^ui>, Vt„ iKj-iS^' 

g *Acla Cofiiiii^, C- 3, in the Conialori;tl Ar^hivet; fiee also (he 
Plorcciinc Dc»paii'lw5 m Thuasjie, HL, 76: Sanuto, 111 , TBg, 8ga- 
S93. C/. Scxtn&tDVitt, Pcrmudi, $y anJ C<rrTijo:i \a Hw Hi*t, Jiihrh., 


fliM With hb ships as quickly as pcK^ibk i artl the 

CanllriAl^ wfiv aikcd for thctr (ith^.* In ^plie of all thh 

tbe Venetian AmbtuttAilor wafi not «at]«fied, and cortimied 

to qii««t)on the sincerity of the Fope's as^ranccs that 

ht would do all that could be donc^-^ Howe%-er true it 

nisy be that if Afcxandcr had completely g^v^n up his 

policy of n^iotimi, more eapccUlly hb plans for Ocaar 

Borgia's aggrandbcment, he might have accomplished 

OMTV in tbisi directiur. stjll it mu^t be adniiltcd that be 

dbd a grvat deal. It was the fault of the -Chrivtran" 

Prioocs ^o^ of the Pope, that all his efforts produced so 

Ihtie rcailt Hardly anywhere was any errthustasm to 

be found or uillingnes»t to make any sort of sacrifice. At 

that very time it had been resolved at the Diet at 

Auipibur^ tKat the Pope should be required to refund a 

portion of the money wlu'ch had flowed Into Rome for 

Jubilee Iiidtilv^ceK and anfta!e:s, fur the assinlance of the 

Mcfantnutration, because "thr empire had thrrrby been too 

cniKh Impoverished and drafned of Its coin." I It required 

fttdeed a xeal no leu Ter^-ent than that which burned in 

Pemidt's heart to undertake the German Lc^^ation under 

such drcumataiKca as these. Though auffcrin;* from pout 

be set out on the 26lh October, full of hope that he would 

luccccd in cffcclmg a rcconcilialion between Maximilian 

and the German Princes and thtf Kln^ csf Fruncc, But 

wen or thr frortirr he was met "by *rrlnus difficulties 

in all influential quarten." AUhouph >\lexander had 

expre^y commanded that all moneys hrought in by the 

JubOec from Germany should t>c exclusively devoted to 

the Turkish war, neither at Court nor throughout the 

• S«-(i^™, p t}\ my. The BrirftoGoni-ilvoUin Sa.vtTO,n^,S^4- 
C/. l^^kJ^xlU II U «ii '^. 




Enifur« wa» it believed that this would be carried g 
M;iximilian went so tnz o^ to refuse |>crnii^io^ to Fera 
to enter the Lmpirc It is probable thnt I.odovico M 
then there in exile, had n Iiand in Ihi:^ decision- H 
chancer liVouU have tpccn unfavourAbly afTcctcd by a 
conciliation between llic Chvifitian powcn and a Crusai 
but Pc^iaudi would not lose heart. At Rovtrictlu he spc 
his ■' days and night's in writing Ictttt** to all the Germ 
Danish, and Swedish FHnccs and prelates, admoni>ih} 
them to make peace with each other and combine 
tumin(; their oim^ against the Turivs, )n hit ^cal U 
tlic Crusade, he wa» prepared to defy tlic Royal pro! 
bition, go straight to the Diet, and there, if accessary, i 
virtue of his apostolic powers, pronounce the Han of t 
Church against llic King of the Romans and same 
the frinces ; like the Carthusian Thomas he thong 
nothing of death if It were In defence of the Christian 
faith," After keeping him the whole winter in Koxcredo, 
Maximilian at last came to a better mind, and a]lo\ved 
him to enter the Hmpire. Here he met with the {greatest 
difEicultics in denting with the administration, although he 
WAV ^l>!c to \[ivc the most po»ilivc asaumncci that the 
r^l/c ^nd CtirdinaU had decided to Iciivc all moneys 
coming in on ficcouiit of the Jubilee Indulgences and other 
pfivilegcs absolutely unionched, in the keeping of 
Empire, for the Ctu*ade. It was not till the nth 
September, 1501, at the Diet at Nurcmbcri^, that he 
last succeeded In comini;; to an agreement with t 
auembly and the Imperial Government; and this con- 
vention was loaded with vexatious and obalructivc con 
ditiuii? for the Legate. 

Maximilian, on his tndc, for polftical reasons, dcfi 
his permission for preachini; the IndulgeticeH until Janua 
15012. Thus raofie ihaii a ye^r had pa»«cd awaj 




Poaudi was abk to bcetn to execute hb namioa. In Sfntc 
of the unfavourabkncaa ot the 5CihM>i>, in the early months 
of the year 1502 be trjivdled with utorusliing rapicltly 
Uwoaicb tbe wtidcof South'Wcticrn GcmKiny. And prcAchcU 
the Ifidulgcficc tn ihc Dioctsscs of Con^taiKc, Augsbdrg, 
Sciasburg, Spires. Maycnce, Treves, and Cologne. Towardi 
Ibe end of the year he visited Uk Nonh-EaiAem part of 
Ab Empire to announce :Uc Jubilee there, and make peace 
hetweto 1-Ubcck and l>cnm«/k. During thiEi journey the 
vmher ^AS^ very bad, xod in conaequi-iioe ?craudi vms 
y confined to hb bed from anacks of ^ut. Thia, 
stUl more the "hopeless indificrciice to the Cruaadc 
which cotiTronlcd him among all cl&^ac^ of people, pmioea, 
lo i ttuicti, aod clef^y, »o dUcuui^enl liinu" thiit more 
than OQcc he cntn-aicd the Vitpt* to recall hiM*,* 

Gaspftro Pont had becii scut to Eii^Ian'J t>y Alexander 
VI-, In ofdcf u> collect the tittie Trom tJie clergy, atid 
Muounce the Jubilee Indulgaice^ the proceeds of which 
•e«« to go to the Crusade The clcr;:y paid the tithe, and 
the Kii^, Henry VII.. conUibnted £4PO{>. but abooluteiy 
veftlKd to send any a»istancc in the &hapc of men or 5hip0. 
It wv right and i;ucd, lie 3a;d, that ihc Voyc should 
odcavouv to mdtJLC the l^rijicen of Chi^iMciidiJin tu be 
tococKilcd with each other and combine tor iiu% holy 
piirpoie He hirnwIC thank God, had long born M prAce 
■ith aJl men; he could not, however, send maUTul help; 
that should be done by Fiance and Spain, and etjually by 
Hoog^y and Fobnd> 

* SOlKEIDIiJE. ^-41 : ULVANTf, 1 L, 4J Sff. ; GRbHVKnT, CAVA- 

can, 63 if^.; Hlt*oc!«fi^'TnitR, VMl. 360 ny,, where there iaaj&ocdicrr 
liefiUDr« on the vjhjt^t. The accounts of ih« *iin^!4 t^uMeciwl ar« «ri 
omtadkiefr, tlui UlHAKX, !r., 66,dccLirci himuU unable Locwneto 
uy cenaiD coodiukmostoiheirAtrKxint 

t Bu«c», Enghod, I, ^^X 




The King of France was occupied with plans ^'liich had 
noconncction willi the war against the Turks. The French 
dcrgy were extremely hTita.ted a^nst Alexander for 
having imposcrd the tithe witliout pteviously acquainlEi^ 
thrm of h\s purpose atiH asking their consent, " Many 
Openly opposed it and appealed to a General Council 
against whatever censures they might thereby incur. On 
the 1st April the Theological Faculty of Paris pronounced 
that censures inflicted after an appeal had been already 
made to a Councili were invalid^ and that the appellants 
therefore need not pay any regard to tliccn and need not 
abstain from celebrating masa and exercising other cccicd^ 
astical functions."* ^H 

Amongst the Hungarian prelates the spirit of sacrifice 
was almost ciuiroly absent, The secular nobles were not 
so averse to the war, but they too madedifficullies. '^Tbey 
were not content with the Pope's offer to hand over to the 
King the Jubilee Indulgence moneys, the tithe on Church 
property in Htingary, and a Crusadetax. They thought 
lite income lo be derived from these sources uncertain, or 
tliat the burdens would all fall on their shoulders," Aa 
Venice was bent on l>cating down the demands of the 
Hungarians, the negotiations dragged on for a long timCi 
and jt was mainly due to the exenions of Thomas fiak«cs 
that an agreement was at last arrived aL This high 
principled and nblc man had been appointed Primate of 
Hungary in the year 1497, In the place of Ippolito d'Esie, 
in order to satisfy the national feeling of the Hungarians, 
whs objected to the highest spiritual office in the kingdom 
being held by a foreigner. 13akocs was made a member 
of tlic Sacred College by Alexander VL on the 3&lh cf 

• HCkOBSBrnrvtR, VIII., 34a->43; DU PleSSIS I>'ARGB}tTRft,L,a, 

}4& The Tctfv in Avignon alMi lesistcd ilic Cm^ult-iAx, but ihcy wcic 
foKcd 10 comply. 5Wp Rev- d'£tud«a Juivc^, VL, 3 U 



SSfiCcinber, t^CO, a^ ti reward for his dJligciKC in thf« 
■Mttcr. At ibc cmJ of May in ihc fonowing ycair. a Lciiguc 
ms at Uat coocludcd bclH'Ccn Hun^ar>'. \Vnicc, and th« 
Pope, .Alcxiinder Vl. bountl himself lo cticitribuir 4OJ000 
floCAlft annually a« long sm the war «:hould l^t. Venice 
procnisod loopoo dncM« artd the prosecution oT the war 
at tea, while Hungary undertook to attack the Turks by 
bAd. Unfortunately, Hungary only c^tributed z few 
* ireebootinf; expediiion^ on an extensiv-e :icalt^"* Mcan^ 
vhHc, at *ea »me slight succciscs wctc achieved. The 
new Venetian Admiral Bene<lctto rcsaro,"an experienced 
aud resolute saiW,** late 10 ihc AuEurnn of 1 500 n\atlc an 
expedition into the ^.^can sea an<l rccQnqncrcd vEgina, 
He WS9 at Ia^i joined, in lanly cprnpH^^nce nith the Pope's 
^OwniV}^*.\vy theSpini>h fled 0(65 s^ill under the fatnous 
Admiral Gon*alvo de Cordova The combined fleet* suc- 
ceeded before th« close of the year in wrcstiri;; the bland 
of Ccpbatonia from the Turks and thus obtaining a new 
point of vantage in the Ionian Sca-f 

The year 1501 wa« spent In "alternations ol succcmca 
and failuri^* Akuio wtts vron but Duraiio was lost. In 
the SpHng of the following year the I'aiwl fTeet, consisting 
of 13 ga1le3r3 and 2500 men, was roidy to Haih * 

Bishop Giacopo da Pe^aro u-as apprdnted by Alexander 
to the command of the fleet. Hin portrait is familiar to all 
kpvcrs of art in Titian's allar-piocc representing the Pesaro 
fafDily veocratiT^ the Htesied Vi/);in and the Divine Child. 

• HuHMU i\U427 4>8l ROWAXIM, V, Ijr ; BVRCHARP] Di&rium, 
IIL, J4T, C/. a**o tt»e HongirUn monognph on Iiak«* hy FKAKNtii, 
dMd nqlirv, p> 9). Nothing «aa done for ihc Criiutdc in i^olund^ Tbe 
itiooer iniendcd fot Tt *«»« ii«c<! Tat other puTpnt^. Cako, V., 3, £14. 

t ZIKKKMEV, II-, 537". IUriblrg, IM., ty 

I C/. ftiLumraf Op, sjo, imd oprciolly Gvcur.LMom.Cuermde' 
Jlmi, Ih 9 My. 



tn this picture, by the aide of the L^fitc. hia brother W 
reprcaci;t^d in fiiU ^rmouf, holding aloft in oiu: tund the 
Pap^il binncr uf the Crusude, and wiUi the other Irading 
two Turkish capiivcs who fellow him.* Pcsaro's first slcp 
was to join BeiicdettOn w!io was Li'alting for him al Ccrigo 
with 50 Vcn<;tian i;hip^ Together the)- sailed al otice for 
tho ieland of S^ Maura (the ancient LcukadiaX and in 
spite of a desperate rt^istancc on tJie part of tlic enocny, 
they succeeded towarcb the end of August in making 
thcmAcl/C5 maslcn* of thia» from a alralcgic point of view, 
vcr>- irnportatit place In tliis buttie the ?apal Lcgatft 
Gi^copo grc^lly distinguislied him&eTf, und al hvsX planted 
the Papal barnrr with hh own hands un the baltlctncjit of 
the conquered fort-t It was not destined to float lli«e. 
both Venice zud Coni>tantinople had begun to weary of 
the vfzr. The Porte found Itself thi'eatened in Asia by the 
new Persian empire^ ^nd the hnancc;' of Venice were nearly 
esihauttcd, while her trade wa^ suffering <ic%vrely. The 
Hungarian alliance hid proved of little value, the v*zr bcin; 
vei^' feebly caiTie^l <m by Kin^< Lladislaus^ IiiconscquencCp 

* Tina BHiii*! |?r<jliiic of TiliAii'a (ihcre 15 an excellent cngnvinif in 
LOTXOW, Ktrnttsctutf q, 30) is »tiU in ihc Chyrch of S^ Marni d«i Fran in 
Vccice, wliich aIho i:cjnuiiis Pa^re^ moiiuuwiiL Tunra luid ^Ufoidy, 
probably immediately bcfbrc ti» depcuiurt for the Cjmu4i^, bad Uh 
pOTtnkil Ukcn by liia:). 'i'his pi^iuc it rLCW ic the mLi&cum Al 
Anlwcip, In it I'ciafo is reprcirniic^d kntelinn before Oit Aiune of 
S> Pdvr frill) (he Tupnl ^janncr \a bii hiLnLl. A hcUnct a on ihc ground 
twfbrc hiin, indkarinif li» call to military Mtvic^. Alt^xJin'^tr VL 
i^omniend^ hhii lu S, P<icr va lIjc iiKhU in \\ic UuLk^fiEjunJ jlic tlic 
Ibm gf a hofbour, C/ CKOwe-CAVAWiASEU-E, TrtiM, I, ^ j#7-, asa 
fff, On thv pii^atv in Vtmc*, M* A, Woift v&^y in the ifciuchr. fur 
bildciiOe Kunsi, XIL, 9 r^^. ; ii i> n piiy ibM kc oucupici liiouelf with 
IIm "wdrihip of iht MadoTTM." 

t SiciswoNUO Dfe' Cuisrn, H-,!?*-?^. (^ Sanuto, iv.,3i3f^.,vid 
RAmALDin, ad wh isioj,n.t9i Coauu^vom. Guana ilv* Timij, L. 


tbe Republic knt a vnlling car to tJic Turkish overture* for 
peacr and S^ Maura was hardly coTtqucfcd before tl wa^ 
again nr*toTod to the Sultan. 

On the 14th of Dcceirbcr, 150J. a temporary- agr^cmr^rrt 
wac anivod at tn CorBtanimoplo, which paved the way (or 
the ionrad I'caoe which vas amiounc«d by Venice on the 
70th Ma>M50)* Without the support of Venice, Hungary 
waa f»r too vrcak to face the Turks. Hcikc wc cannot be 
-wrpmcd at nnding King LUdiid .111,1 nUo laying down hi> 
amta. On tire 20th oi August. 1 503, be concluded a trace 
iHdi ihc Porlc for seven years-f Uliilc llic war lasted 
Hungary- rw:piv^ very large «wras from Rome. Tlur 
account book« prove that, in the j^ears 1501 and 1502, 
LLadUlaus received from ih^ Cardinals 6851 ducats; ]$$4 
ducats, l6solidi, and S denare; 6686 ducati: and 6 nolidi; 
6666 ducats; 3S^7 ducaU and 10 soluJi; tSS4 ducats. [6 
solkd^ and 8 dcnarc; 6700 ducals: 222 ducata; 51,687 
ducats; zjiS ducats and 12 soltdi; 2534 ducats; IJ,JJ3| 
ducats; finally, 23.25 dti<:at& and 16 so1idi.| To all this 
muHt be added the pensions given to the numeroiis refugees 
from the couniTies ;vhich had been conquered by the Turks, 
and to the widows and children of thoac who had fallen in 
the war.§ I'utting all this together, and taking into account 

• RoUAlflX, V% 153 154, CJ. H£yI^ ir, 331 ; HOPP, |63. 

I COtTLOe in iKc tIJBt. J>^jb,. Vl., 444- 

J G<^ob inleMls to publJih (Hisi- JahK>.. Vt,, 443] n ccoiiplcle llnl 
of alk whrt refcivMl ^^tnuncc fmtn ihc fiinds «f ihr rmtmclc Kftiin 
my 01^ iaifiUita^cma l d<nvc ttir following -. *Divc:^ Alcjciiidcr V'J,, 
I49>-I50a llic volume bvgiiu ^tli p4)'RjcnU to Andrea de faleolofOf 
dispoca Mi>riuv i ii coniatn^ funhf^r vntriei lyf luma dBbuned fbr 
Lcononki dc Toccu, GxihUiitinD dc M<Ercd, T>Leodorinr> dc MarUf EUid 
numbcrieu other rcfuj^eetT ^^^'^ ^"'^ f^malr, fmtn th« Eaii. ^^,, ?Llarb 
de Goripi dd CandU. A •Piiviitp A-.ioiinC'lxnak *>( AlrtiiMlrr wirh- 
oui m litk, cofluii^ foj Scp(c:nt)«r t^oo, rnonEhly pAvnicntt to ibc 


the difTerence between the value of money then and in our 
own day, it must be admitted that Alexander was not as 
remiss in regard to the Crusade as has been represented 
by the enemies of the House of Boi^ia. Nevertheless, it 
cannot be denied that the Pope could have accomplished a 
great deal more if he had given up his gross nepotism and 
thought less of Caesar's advancement A glance at the 
state of things in the States shews how far he was from 
doing this in any way* 

DespotA MoreCf the Dcapota de I'Aita and others. State Archives, 

• C/ Chapters 111. and V. 

Vut A<uifinrT TKi: roLnx.*rA, — Tiik Statkx or tmk Chlikch 

W IWK PofQKMHJK or IB* BoHlilA, — NfAKkUOe OF Llf- 

cxKnA Borgia wnri Altoxso or Fukkara. — Ca^ak Borcia 
GcvutNOft or RouK avd Dvkk or tkk Roukgka,— CO0- 

^l«ACV or THE CoSTDOmuiJ AOAItCTT Ce^AR , THtlR Bb- 
ttaflVOlr BSYWKB:}! TJI£ VorS AffD FRA!fCK.— char's I*UUiS 

vptvr iv me Dkatii or ALBX.\iii>&it VL 

OuE of the iTnnodiatc results of the Neapolitan var h^ 
bccfi the downfall of tlic RomaD Darons. Ever ^ficx' tl^c 
iin^uJua of Italy hy Chnrlt^H VI It. the Colonna hud Imnt 
far mpport upon thr ttoiisr of Aragon- Whm the agree- 
ment between Spain And France had finally sealed the fate 
of thic family they ^Uf;ht to shelter themselves from the 
cooling storm by proposing lo give up the keys of their 
fertresKS to the College of Cardinals; but Alexordcr re- 
quired that they should he delivered to him, and tn Jtinc, 
1501. he succeeded in obtaining thb.* On the 22ii6 of the 
lOotilh Francesco Botgta slarled from Rome in order to 
uke possession in the Pi>pe's name of Rocca di t^pa and 
the other castle? belonging Co the Colonna. On the follow- 
(rig day about ti*«nty of the vasgats of the family came to 
Rome, and swore fealty to the Popcf 
Oo the 37th ol July Alexander went to Casiel Gandolfo 

* BunaiARDI Diftnuin. HI., U3- ^<^ *R«^pon of G. L. O^tiuwo of 
33rd |imc^ 1501^ Cca«i|p Archives^ MantoiL. 
t jidJ,, 111,, 14^ 14B ; Sxn\JTr\ IV, Ai. 


HISTORY or TOE ropea 

Slid Rocca di Papa and thence to Scrm^ncca He had Uw 
effrontery to hand over the Regency of the palace to Lu- 
crezift Borgia during his absence, with power lo open his 
coiTWpondence.* Soon after his rciurn from this expedi- 
tion a Bull wa^ drawn up in which the Colonna and Savelli 
were declared to be rcbch on account of tlieJr Ic&^c with 
Fcdcrijo of Naples and were excommunicated, and ihcir 
property confiscatcd-t Out of the passesiions of the 
Colonna, Savclli, .ind Gaetani the Vopc carved two l^ukc* 
doms for hh family ; ,a few o( ihc forts and vill^es belo^- 
Ing to the Saveiti were giver to Giovanni Paolo Or*ii\i;l 
Imt all the ma^c beautiful and fertile districts ieU into \hc 
h8n<i£ofthe Borgia. A Dull of tjth September, 1501, ga'c 
to Rodrigo, the son of Lucreda a.nd Alfonso, then ewt> 
years old, the Uafii^dom of Scrmoneta with Ninfa, Cisteraa, 
Nethino, Ardco, Ncrai, Albnno, and other towns. The 
Dukedom of Ncpi, which indudcd Palcstrman Olcvano. 
Paliano, Trascali. AntkoH, anJ other places was lic^towcd 
on Juan Rorjjfa, also an infdnL^ ThU child was letjitiniiscd 
by a Riill on f«l September. 1 501, as the natiinit oflsprinjE 
6f C-'p^ar, and his age incidentatly mertlnncd ai about 

* BUKCUAK-Oi DiJinuin, UU iS3->54t i^- Wticn the Tope went tc 
Alfpi in tlio AUtutivi Khtt iARM amngenient nas fnficlo tot the bine oi hit 
ihsence (froit^ 35th Srjii ro 231^1 Ooi.;. Of course Liicreau vx% aaly 
Kegem in JCjEArd lo secular Jilluis, bui such a Llijng IkAd htyti been 
done b«fof^ ."KiJ *vai n il;irlHnK bre-vch of deconim. 

■t The Bull nfsorfi Aug,, is^r, h m RA^K.\U]^^,3lrf^n-l50^ n. i9-30 
(a conlcrnpciriiry copy cf it i^ in iht Su-itc f\rclijvr*. Turn), Tt wa* n<it 
fLbtalicd till ihc CooAKEory of 14U1 ^cpt :f^ UaLAK^ 40^ >■- > 

I Cyi fhr ■Brief 10 Juli. ViauIo^ de Uminiit di^nit:. Rmjv in n^liv 
Aapta, Mo:i(cJ;vftu1ni ci RochctUi cAitns pro nobb ct R, E. in Mmp, 
vcar, Dn< Kom. ^Jf^f, XVI 1. Cal^nd. Niju, RrgfJil, *6Sj f. ifij, (Sfrirl 
Archives of die VAtiain.) C/ obo :lic App. in Stai3U0NL>0 ittf Conni. 

J ROXCHIVT, 47 r/f.» S^ r^. 



three year^* A 4econ<l Bull of the same dare legEtlmlHcd 
tfab ^me JuMi *< AlrxAnckr'a own ftortf Thew un- 

* AccDTilinK to 4 *B«II of ).m X. uf ihc jn^i April, 1513, jiun ■» 
« ymt cUer, ^ it it b«fc aid ihM on tke aftd Sqat, i fot, Cantnno 
•aft bfwtd OB cmdasi Jotenm BorsH lUM^ ^ qumKi v«l drCA «ai 
«BXb snso conAitutti, Ant 35, T-u, t a^ju^^ Sacm Arcldvei of 

Tta^ hpo Culh an ic b« feamd id cIh^ Sial« Ar<hivM at Jklodnu- 
nK Cne. aiL cjofry, ikc McwiJ tlic VTJyiiml- C>.&001C0VILA Luucik 
llocvo. ApFb, 76 Sf (90. «(L 3J, «» ib9 tir^l to pubii»b Uwnb 
Jlnnther origvoJ dmfr «i the ■ccmuI BuIJ 11 10 be found, aKooffdrng 10 
TKIMWr, tlL, Affi^ |x xiv, tn ihe AnJifVCfi of lUc Duke of Ouu^ 
put nf viiich b pab&dK4 ia the Ek^L de k K. Acnd do U HiMOrU, IX,, 
440-441 rMttdrid, iSU). In v^ nf pautEilc txfar* j^pdia^aa in |hc 
•tyb of Olbtier, h Bay peHnp» he i«cU 10 obacMc tlni I fcHind both 
Wb » the &CCR1 AfCltiircs of ifac VAtJ<:af] in the t-fliool 'KcgcsU <rf 
AhwdrAwign: llv Tirtfin V0I.A6S, f. « J3**-| 57I*. il>r (i^^tmd in f 176- 
rT^K GitE/>0kOTit.*3, Vll^ j(« (ctL 1 diid 2), haa Lillcn JLito a cunDui 
«nr ia rO(e>rd Bd the s^nad Itiill He rout in a ccpy in Ibc Uarbehsl 
Ubmy : Com uitem tu dnferrcim pruvlrf lunt non dc prrr<tiD iiinc^ Md 
4e nobis ct dc dicta mulierv pAtiuv quod bono rc3pflN;tu ir liittrii 
pwdjctk tpectAcc «vpnmttrfr tufiuiMmif and cooduded from tbit Uul 
Alooadtf ItiuA (ipvrJy ^Liitt ihaiTwkanly teiEitimiMKl Juan aj hi« o;tx ion : 
iriKftatt^coDieKtfif die Bull ahem ihal the woid^huuld be nnJuim/ij^ 
Knit frfqgQP&fitiii m hi* ovTFi tnpy ha* ^Tvtn rhe correct r«Tid*nn4[, But 
m 1^ 3Ed cd- of ltd Till «xil. he ^ivct itf £4J>c one «jtb itic cioiii^tusiioiL 
4imwn iVon ii, and thi» ii, MranKO to ny, rtp^ted in the inmuw^iph on 
LilCr«a Borein, 174 (194, ^, 3). Here, p. 175 C^Wi***- 3).*iccgoroviLifi 
haM^rd* a <ODJci-luic ihjtt InjiJi Bulb v*xic ia^uci uti Uir uiijc tkiy^ " be 
«nuM 1^ C&nan l^v forbids a Tope to adtnowLcdgc a ton of tiit own." 
i htMw oT na Canan Uvh la lUifi at&ci, jin-l ^|H>rir*iu.v<El Cknoniitft haiw 

told me i^t none luch tw^jt^ Cr&iuhton, IV^ io« tuppo>ca that 
Meaonder, jr bj» ansiciy Lo arjciin tlw pOHiUon «d C^i^tar'* bnAtird son, 
scortsd himir^f in Oirsfcnrtd Bull of.i f:tuh uhlrh he liidnol fiammicied ; 
bui from Ui;KCit\iu>i l>iaiiumt ICL, J7<^ ^t^ a»pecAilly Crom l^lGB- 
MCQCix> i>it' Coarn, ll .^ 553, vho ii aJwayt tnart^-orthy, it is plaid that 
JuUit nbc Mrenis to luvc b(^cn lioiTk i»n ilic it^Il^ June. ^4*^7. rvnlly wnt 
AI«Eudcr'ft ton. t"< L'£rixof^ jco j^y.^ Civ. Cait, t5th .M.xidi, iJ^jj, 
pL 717 (the eximct here ^uoCe^E tront the Report of the Vci^titiaii Kavt^ 



dcubtcdiy genuine documciUs nullify all attempts to rcb 
the accujtalions against the mural coiiJuct of the Po 

a now printed in S^NltTO, 1., 369) ; And Ko^fai l?<I, 4 Ml. 1, The 
njinied hulorinn has rightly pcikn;eij out that (he ^cond Bull vas to t« 
kept 4«crei until a necessity aros* far ftiviilging ?t ; thus it is inairi'Ml 
lo tpciW. oA Grcgoii;>viu» doca, of open and ibunelcu kgiiimaii 
The wonJs in The fint Hull, which declire Ih.1l U ie tn t»e ulccn as vnhd 
proof ftf Cipsar'i ptitpmicy in case sny one ihnuld Aucrt diat Juan^ 
father was some other pcrsJi), cldKr ccclcsiABtiokl or KcubTi CfiftB) 
cutii«cunque digf^iiotis et exceilcntic iimndAno vcl fuUs^asifa AtfifM 
rui^mf, irfc r«m,-irkAhl«, Jind dt-flrutttye of Cnrivhlcvri hypcxhedi. 
Tlicy diMinctly hint fit the coiiiriiU of the iccond Bull. Thii docuiACal 
vnt M fint, a« nuy 1w ^ih?rcd from the Ditpacd di A. GrUhCmUn, L, 
109, quhc «iicr:euful1y ^oii^&Llcd ; Leo X. itAyb in 1515 ilut Alexander 
gave CAmerino r> cuidam joh, Borgia. (Sec Rcj;^' t^onii?Ctn. 1 S1S41O 
It vju not till latef^intb« ]6ih Cetiiury, LhAi h« begin u> And rcpies of itie 
ductunvni, of wtuch lliprr ts une ncH only in the MS. already tiicnlivQCd 
iTi the HitrbcrMii Librojy, bul iilAo in Ci>d. Qtnib., IjaS^ p. ^S, with the 

»i.iper»4Tipiion, Nirt^mr legitimotio et hjibiliuiio pro eod*m Jo(i. Bor^ 
eurni|uc pAi.a en m ndiuiii agnoifdt, {Vjii'lljji Liluary.) On Jiaau^ 
guaidimiSf £ce *Regc»t. 871. t 196 (Secret Archives of the Votioui), nikd 
KoNCIf l?(l^ 44 jgf. An in4cri(?t>on in which Frknciic^ia C&rcL CuH|Atiru« 
b i=^led Jlj;«il'» guArtlfAn Imb been published in Aniu lL Sck. Rani» V'll-, 
4<y^ ; Eind aI?o IV.^ 90, in cppoEiitlon fo Adi^moLlo'i hypothowa that JuAn 
v.i^ ihe child of Aletindtr jrul 1-ucn^ii (Gouf, Arrhivio, 1 L, 9^ Sff.\ In 
the laiMiamrd plate^ DaL Rcobseivcs: StoriciauiGrcvDli^qujiIiil Row^O^ 
ilCunporii rAnlonellJ, il Cttnddta ed U Cicgoroviui in pivrtkolarc, 
gil addotto it ra^oni per cui Faccun d'mmtn <nn b propria fi|[ 
LucretiA mciM tuoii a viEup«rio d! AlesMndm VI., dtl poeti 
« RmlaTio, dijfh ttorici e polHid Malani&20t Mjirco Attilio Alvnio, Guk' 
dudinl cd olni, dclihn qiral mm ralrmnbi ttser rfgcttnta. Dai. 
/^., 9O13S0, ihcwa that it UimpouJbIc that the Bull of Lfth Oct, Ifor 
whicfi Ademollo in hia crcfttttc^ Lucr^tu Bor^a e ta vetim, in Archiv. 
Scaring Vol. It., faK. ]., ci\. Gon (Rom*, ^S;?), fincl? an admiMion 
thiii Juan wu Lucruia't ^oa, <Ar\ luivc liuJ any luch incanin^. On the 
cootmry: Manca ogni fcmdnmfmo di r«rt«vta prr poter aJfinnar« <h4 
dovcmni m U nebnda prole di Papn AJM^andm e dl Liiffcria ; pert 
che abbiamoduc botle;, tultt^ e Out di 1^ Scitembrv, ifoi^lii cui 3*aflcntlft 
sell' uxu) la paternftk del Volcnrmoi ncll' alim quclla del papa itesM M 




* AimoA the whoU.- of the Slant* af ihc Church were now 
ihft pfDptrty of the Borgjji; lh<} Romagna and oiHlt 
temtories belonf^ed to Caesar, and another member of 
ihe House pMMAccd the hereditary eatatea of the Roman 
Borons. This vsts something entirely new in the .'innah 
of the Chuith."* Meanwhile, LucreEia Borgin was not far- 
gotten. By & m&THa;:c with Alfonso, the hcir-apparcnt of 
Fenran. she was to enter one of the noblest and oldest 
faraUcs in EtAly, At\tl m the same time ^ecuie C^sir's so^* 
enfgnty fn the Romagna, and help forward hi« dciigna 
on FlorcT^ceand Bfjlogna. At Tir^i both Alfonso anJ hiB 
^thcr, Ercok, refused to listen to the project, anti Maxt- 
milian J, was et^ually a^^ainst it But Louis XT I., Alex- 
aoder'ft ally, intervened, and whei: the Pope had eitf^aged 
hioiseirto grant ft reiaxation of feudal rights and a reduc- 
tion of ficT dues, the betrothal took place in September, 
iSOt.-f LucrczM ^As wild with del^htj Still young and 
beautiful, all bcr sorrow for Alfonso was forgottcii in the 
brilluitt pro^ipccl of fii^li positioit and gratifiu'd vanity Uut 
opened out bef<JT(? her. The Ferrarese Envoys gave feast 

fvpetiD a quet feneiuila Ma mM^rr nt ndl' ana n^ neW Aim «S tim 
parok alcut:k* ddh itiAxlic iL bi, ijucllp chc I ccito n ^ iht nclLi boilii 
15 Ottobu llti&nie Giovnjini bor^'ia /j«o dlatj m modo dA vokrlo 
dteingvtre d^ noro d«lla Lucruia, Rodcnco di ll»cliL KLnAlly^ 
msy be ««1l tu fcoiU ilic f^ULl cluii iu jin olTttJAl 6w*.] of die igih Jan^ 
ijiSiJuBuib called the yrviktr of L^icrcjk (Jobcu^rK:^ iWtfiA fniicr ilL 
LvTCtiM ninar ncnU 3^, i^aior Ctm^n iB). €/, CitTadBUjI, 
Albcfo, 48, and REtruoNT ul Arch. Sl IuL, 3 Scric* XVir„^jcj» and 
Am lhinch>i<d ipeaks of Juanv mother » quuHiam l^mana. Cf^ «lhE> 
Mam in Ihe RnM«ictu tftttman, VI., isa 

• CuiOOaOVIVS,VLU449^cii.3(45S-456h«d4); y^R-WSOKAOWA 
ID th» R a — ig n a N«^ X (1^32)^ 136. 

t Qvjotit, Zt}t(rhr, I., i6fl wy.; CiREGOKOvri^s, LticrMia ttorgifl, 

GOTTtili, Oiiiv Ap,, 330 ; TUfilTTKa, C«d dipL, %\\ tfq. 
X (y. Brjudolinus' Ij^iscrof Ecnh Sept,, 1501, in Bnou^^j. 


nft^r (cnsx in her honour. One evening ahc «o ovcrfat^iicd 
licraeir with dancbg thtit she vma kid up with fcvitr the 
next d4y.* The bride's outfit wa^ truly roynl Alexander 
toid the Fcrraresc Envoys thflt he meant Lucrczii to hwc 
" mort: bcftuiiful pcarU Uian any uUiti lulian ^irinccas-f 
At ihc SHine time, reg^rfJIes* nf thf fluty impiiKCtl ii\nm him 
by the dignity of hw nffi<?i", the Pope prrmittrd himurlfto 
be present at sranc:lfllOLi4 dAnee^ of n sEntilar character to 
those which had dr;iwn on him the rebuke of IMuk II. in 
former dftys. Society at thM time wa^ »o corrupt that 
«ven this gfavc but little ofTciice i cvcrythinft bad was 
believed, but no one Ihoii^t much of anything^^ 

On the 9th of December the bridfil cwort, connoting of 
Cardinal Tppollto d'&tte and four other members of the 

* ^ix Appciidu. Tf. /, *Lf![lcr Ttmiy G. L. CdtLUiao, of aatli Sc|^ 
jjoi. Con»ga Archive-^ Maniaft. i 

t nHRnoR'3ViiTM. Lucrerjfl lAor^t, iSg J^.^ KTIMOKT, IH., t, 93^ ^M 

Z fMJKCKAKni Duriutii, ML, 167, unif ttic vccy cutupii]JiiaaiK IeLIct 
aboui Akiardcr Vi. of two Flordntinei crtcd in the note, C/. aha 

ibi: Bcv. de QuciL Hi^t,, XXXVII,, ^rji ■ YnuKtr, Aairtui ties BoegIa, 
40k On i'lu* n/a f«buk^ avt KATirm, Ki^T. rnp<!^ II,, 453 (EoirL 
mac.X The MffiunfT !**■ mnvl^^o (^iiin^^iugJDiK m*prm^in, which 
GfEfiOOROVfU\ VJt.. 45^«^<4- pawWDver cuirjcie "saflBintaaiKOwip," 
il DOl a lucr iti(vrpa[iUion (*ce Pn^PKlt m the Kc^mUch. QuMiaUdiriA, 
1S93, p j4f*)J"'' iftlohrfeBnd in nio»Tof th* MS.copin tf ItrsCHASm 
DiAriurn AlcxJinilci VI,. Ami m lIulI ttlik^li it in ihu Aii-iiiio vf ihc 
Ceremonitn m ibn Viituftn. ♦Cod,A- ttf.pj. (Abtcrhand Hft^dmtrD 
a ppnaimJie ihroujh ttip put;igc ; hui ii rcnrMpondt wnnl ior word ifkh 
■he prktcd icjdi) in tlie prrMni ibiteof the inatcriab a h not poatiUc 
to rormiUnte x triticnl judginvm oa to llic corrtctn^sc af td\ the details of 
ChB Convjviura in Burrharxlj's n^imiiivvr ; nr> <Utubr ihm h a ui3nd dcjl nf 
CMggcmt^i. Bull c^pccully inking inio accolkii (tic Florcnunc Iccien 
m«Ption«d Above, Ihert ean b* nn t^unliijR thxt there tu cUncoi^f of % 
my icpiclien&ible dumatr. Po^rKh's a.rjfunicnu {/ol- cfL. 391^)97) 
ai:?in)t ihc tniatwr^hinim of Uurchnrdrli fCKt lio not accm to mo 



ituca] fiunll^. with a retinue of 500 pcraoms, at^vtcd Tiom 
FcRvra. It a^achcd Rpmc on tiic ^^rd, and on the umc 
<ky the FcmreM* Envoy, wnting to his master, cxprcsus 
the fiiTourablc tfnpTY^ion prodiu^ed on him by Lucrccia. 
*She E* singnlAily graceful in everything; she docs, and her 
laannere arc modest, gentle, and decorous. She Uabo* 
good Christian, aad more, she is p:>int; to confession and 
Communion on Chnstm.r^ Da.y. As r^ardt ^ood looks 
Iras quite flufTcicnt, but her pleasing expression and 
gnciotts way^ make her acem cveii more bcauUfol tiiftn 
Ae 19. In .%hort, she %cin3 to me to be Mich Chat there Is 
nothing to fear, Ikii rather the very best to bcho|>cd, m every 
•ay from her."* On the jolh December Lucreaia iiftarriage 
with AlfomsOy by procuration, warn eelebrated with great 
splendour tn the Vatican. The bride's dress wasof^gold 
brocade and criouon velvet trimmed with ermine. The 
hanging sieeves touched the ground, and her long train was 
borne by maids of honour. A black b«nd confuted her 
golden hair, and »he wore on her bead a It^ht coif of gold 
and silk- I ler necklace was a string of pearls with a locket 
consisting of an emerald, a ruby, and one large peaiL" 
From thence urlil the day of her dtpuriurp f'6th Januaiy, 
1502) one cnterlaininent succeeded aiiothcr in a prpetual 
round of gaiety. Plays, among others riautus' Menacchmi* 
balls, and allcgorlcAl represenlalion^ alternated with races^ 
tournaments, and bull-fights-t 

* Rcjran of £1 Pictc dn Corrcggio in Cfti^^rtO^lVTi, LuctcsSa 
BOffht 10-1-5. ^/ Lr/iaRENlEK^ Mnnlova, 113, and NTCCOCi) T)A 
OoaUOOlO in Gbrn. «t, d Lcii. fuL (i#v;^X WIT, ^A tt^. On the 
bndal Ol«oit, »« also Sancio, IV., 195 «f., and Ar^h, <L Soc Rom., 

t ClUEGCHO^lUN LbUTUi BofKu. 197, 199 stq.\ SaWVTO. IV.. AM, 
ty. DalRjC, 104 J/^,; RCCCI SjCK OHITCr, II iM^Mifiadi Lp B. p«r Ccttim 
(CeMm. ittf)). On ih« fetdvities xx ForTi on UirreibS j>a«tn^'e 
tiuonsh Uiit (fU^c t<v A;iJi» 51. luL, £ Serir, X. [189^), ^80-301, On 


ulSTORy or Tlit POPES* 

Lucr^zia'a marriajjc with the heir of F«rWA was th 
turning point in her life. In spite of b.\\ the invcstlgatio 
of recent times much in the Roman life of thia remarkable 
woman remains sl^rouded in darkness - but thb is not the 
case in icgard lo its tlosJng period in F«fara.* During 
this time Ltjcrezia, who was Duchrss of Fcrrara from 1505 
till a^th June, iji^, when she dk6 in her confinement, not 
only won the love of her husband, but also that of ha 
fieoplen All accusations in regard to her conduct, which 
doubt were not entirely groundless,^ from henceforth wholl 
ccuse. l^crccia is only heard of as a faithful and lovi 
wife, and the consoler and advocate of all who were poor o 
oppressed. Her bcaul>'. added lo her sweetness and kir 
iteis^f ca^itivAtcd the hearts of alL She encouraged ;irta, and 
wa.< «nrronnd?d and praisrd by cultiwited men such sa 
Ariosta Bcmbo, Stroz?!, and others 

Lucrc^la Borgia di cui d'oia in ore 
Ll bcltJL, k virtfi. V U fama honeata, 
R la fonuna, vb rrrsccn[]n nan mcno 
Che iLiovin pianU in nxorbida icrra; 

(lie bull-Aj^bts m Rome, cf. Al>iLJIOLLO, Cnn^evalc, 374$ ^^*i LUZtO^ 

* In miditJOTi (o Ko^cuL, Leo X., t^ 378 ief.» SAShATlNI in £dua» 
toie STcricp, A^ HI., DispL 5*(Modcnn. 1845) ; CAMrorRi m the Nu&v. 
AuioJos, (iftWi); Antowelli in the Arch. VeneL, II. (iS^tJ, ^i^stf.; 
Zi;CCni:TTt, L R Duchoai di Fcriuni (MiLkin, 136^)^ ^ ttpniAJlyGlL' 
BERT, n,, 97 uf^ and CUECOUovivs* Lucrcjia Borgia, 109 /^. Gil 
bfitS rppp^vniaiJon U v«ry in!t4lN|iinte {*^r^ Kmimokt b the Bann 
Lilcranirblbtt, V^ 47A)' Tn rcKard 10 Grcfioioviui, m< Vol. V,, p. 3^, 
Anlontllf'i workf L, 13- in F«rnr« (F«rmn, 1^67^ conL-l^ni noihmg but 
cKTrt^tt miten frflm iT»e FtrmreteChfiwYictpof llfrnardinoZainbottoaiid 
Niccol6 of Panrui^ nrirnuivt of th? brlni^iiij: of Luv^mU froni RofiiCif 
and the /ciiivnica ai Fcrrara on her nrrn^. Ou the ttLatOTn bfft-At^B 
IfUiTTrda HonfiH ^ncj IvtlietU <1'E>i(e, «« L,U2JOi 1 Preceiiort d'li-ibk, 
d'Eitc (Nouc Rciiicr-Cniupmuini. Ancona, 1S87), 43. in ^hJfh G 
g<irvviiiii' nu(Ut(«n fl;iT«tnftTit a o?rr«cied 
t Cf. Vol, V, of this wortc, p. j^>9, note 1. 



s Che dcKTTpHofi of ha ia ArioAo'* Orititdr A 
(XIIU 19^ WitboBt girinc cioiit to every fUitcncf woni 
thai nuy occur in the sixains o( a Court-poet, we nuy £ur1y 
nnaic thu be »-ouU mt bavc written aaytimg thai w9S 
in flagnm coniradlctioQ vtah tikr geoml ofMoa * The 
m oT aattff>' hu to Uw> and its liaah*; be who wdoM 
pnisea royal persoa^rerorqo^hks tn wfakfa heorshewai 
DoCorioudydcfictcfil, must bt vtteriy unacquvoMd with the 
vorld and the tBo^es ol todeCy. Such prate would pntcti- 
ally be Mtirc, 9M<A the foolish courtier would certwly not 
be rewarded."' The poets, howc^'cr. 4rc not the only 
vitiK33C3 in her &voor. ScboUn, statesmen, and hutoriaoi 
iD agree in pronouncmg the tune verdict, sn thjit the latest 
biogTaphcr of the Duchcss says al the close of his m'otL: 
"Thia at Wait U certain, that durfng her life at Ferrara she 
vas regarded at a pattern of womanly virtue. "t More 

^Camporj /m. it:.-, Jcftar, iti t^.; Reuuont. lit., l, *of. 

ap " If tw itt not m brand such rru^n as Arknl^ SErotzi, «<c « U lUrv 
walAnTraiefh^lfuillXof ihc iJooM fubomc adulicton. wc dmui bdici« 10 
• nal camtraort of hcdtfx and change of Uf« in Liicmii,'' 

f tiat4Uftiota-\ iSi. On ih« rtiationt benocxi Bonlv «nd 
Lucreiii^ llu hbionaa say** p> 377' *Tbac ou bo ao dtnibE tlui 
Bvnbo n> pftHionai*1y m lovr mth LciciTii:!. but li uvir t^ln loatif inpi 
to prove thai there iraa anythiniE -"^hich went Ixyund ilw lintil* of «hAt 
ivm« pcmuuibic in th« niArk» q( fncncltliip L>c^uwed on hua bv ^Lit 
beuttiful iromuL" MA/ivc^ELLi (trc JOBRV, 176) 4nd Thavvtm^ in 
Iho Vkntw Deutfedi. Zcilnni: (i8Sj). N, 3vM< P*** ^ »N"tlJ»J judKi;icnL 
lihllh KiUXEiBAKD (It, S3), I uiU no* attempt to d«ddc wh«th«r or net 
CitJu:aT(t[, t37Mf.>luKbcj;ntucce»fulbprDv{njth:k[thfr&nKiu»ludc 
ofbkhak Ahkh Iv idjcHti in the Ambrmiona 41 Miku with Lucruin^ 
Ifltcn to Ikmbo, w^ not hen. " But in n.ny cn««," Hildcbrand Ktyi, 
"Gflben » ri^hi m holdmgthai the 'desideroa gmiifiGirvi ' *iib »^hidi 
one of tier kttcn concludes docs not kivc tlic biiiAllctt right 10 infcf any 
rvtum of love on her pnrt Any otic who know-i IiaIldji i> ibmiliiiT ^h 
<U» pliniw Si ibr ratrtinonMr cuiirrnvion cf cumplimc&UEy alUriBly 



cspeciaUj" hi lim^ of scancity ilic »hcwctl herself a " Moth 
of the people " ; and Actuall/ pawncfi her jewels in order ' 
help the poor jovms tells how completely she rcnounco 
oil the luxury to which ahc had beon aocuatom«i from 
youth, and lived n. ^Implc^ rcli^ou^ life. He Uys spcci 
Bresson her solid pmctice of vIlIuc; her religion wa« 
Dicfc ^liow. As ft pruof of her pracUcaJ cbanEy ht^ «itat 
that slie founded a coavcrnt and cliapel for vvcll-borii Udi 
out of hct own privale purse' 

After Lucr^a's dr^pArture from Rome, Cxsar's uifluen' 
became absolutely ui^bounded. He was the real master, 
in almost cn^er) thing the Pope conformed absolutely to the 
iron will of this man, the most terrible of all the cnicl 
offftprtntc of the Kcnai:)Aancc. Casar was the t)T&nt of 
Rome, which he Blled with hU spies and jTUcu'onA- A word 
ngainat him was a crinic of high treason. A oian who had 
made too ficc wIlU hi^ name when In domtiio had Im hand 
and hi-1 tmiguc cut oflf and l^trneJ lugdhtfr.t Tlie 
Vi^ticlian Ambassador was unable !o prt>!i:cl one of his 
countrymen who was supposed to have circulated 
pamphlet which contained reflections on Alexander a 
Ilia son. He was murdered and his body cast into the 
Tiber. The i'ope himself, though callous as a rule about 
such thing:*, blamed his son for this. " The Duke " he da 
to the Fcfiarcsc Ervoy. ''U a good-natured man ; but 
cannot tolerate an lui^ult I have often told him th 
Rome i» a free city, and that here every one biLS a li^ht 

frcon a thinct 10 an inrcri(>r in amV." For a crireitm on CUbert^ 
npedtDr RBUMOst m ih« B^tin. Litemt(irh1;>Tf. V,, 476 sr^- 

• Jovius. YiL-ic cbr vh-,, I., 187- C/. Roscott, Ixo X, I, 395 ; 
Jonav^ /^, rr7. ; GRECOROvms^ 304. Sec aUo the tntlmony of U, 
VR^ornX) m the Aici MotJ,. til,, ^flj, 4 

t Sec BL'HGIEARDI DiaHum, 111,, 173, rur»hiT>«7n(» tuch as tfab 
W^rv then qtntc i»uaL See MaUHV, K«V- Misc., XI EJ-, yA wf- 






write and say vihskX hv lilvcs. ricxily of thfng« arc uld uf 
me^ but I talrtr no notice. Tlit Duke re|>lfe(l, ThMt muy 
be all very veil IVw Rome, but t will Teach cuch people to 
lie tony for wbai they say." Firwlly the Pope rctnlnded 
hb son bow m^iny uf the CanliiKtK wh^^m Ch:trleft VIIJ. 
fad hifTuelf acknowledged to hvic been traitors to their 
muter, hftd been forgi%xri by hLm, " I could e^ily." he said, 
"bavc had the Vice Chancellor and Cardinal Giulfano ddla 
Ro\xrc killed : but I did not wish to hartn any one, uid I 
]iut]oned fourteen of the noMra."* A short line before 
*!■ AlexajQtler ha<1 proved ihat thi* was not mere palaver. 

At the ckue of the }*ear 1501 a parnphlet aj^trst the 
Borgia had appeared which surpassed all former aUsicki In 
virtklenoe. It was In the form of a letter to one of the 
ocilod Rocnan ItaroiK-c^ Silvio Snvellf, then living at the 
Court of Maximiliar [.. and wa^ dated from Che Spanish 
campatTarcnto, t5th No^'cmbci, T501. " Vouarc mistaken, 
ray dear friend," it said, '^if you thirk that you ought to 
iltefJtpt to come lo teems with tliis nimiKlcr. He ha* 
betrayed you, biinl*h«! j-cu, and resolved on your dwtruc- 
tion, simply out of greed and fatt^ilewne^s, and for no other 
reason. Theteforc you should repay an enmitj" That wtll 
never cease with an unalterable hatred. You must choose 
a dilTcrent path and disclose Che mi^ry of Rome to the 
true physiefan, Lay before the Emperor and the other 
pRDoes of the empire al! the c\'il that ha^ proceeded from 
this cursed beast for the perdition of Christcrdom : narrate 
the abominable crimes by which God h set at naught, and 

* Tram a *Repon of Lhc Fcrraresc Ecvoy, Behr*ndo Cmubili, of 
m Febfti^ry, 1 503,111 GBEOOftOviUS, Vir^ 453-454. *^ 3 U*<>'6[, cd. 4). 
Cf. Lord AcTOn, 364 Anoihn Ferrar<*ie Knvciy desriSbe* xn a *l*lTcr, 
dtt. Kome, 30(h OcCabcr, i yaXy thai Cruit never K»e^ ^^^ without twlnK 
nM«fc«l (Sm Vol V. <A iliLA vork, p. 403,) El rcalo del tempo he 
rtaittiM *btii up in queDe tue camvrv. Stiit« Archiveif Modena- 

VOL. \\. I 



the heart of retigion pierceci tlimugh. £)e5Ciibc tht 
horrors in deti^il bcrore the Did, and take eare thdt tli 
shall Ix; disscminalcd from mouth to mouth- It U idle 
Chnstendom lo groan ovf?r the natbnn which are torn froi 
her arm* by hct old enemy the Turk, while this new 
Mahomet far surp^^sscs the old one in the h&voc he Oiuees 
in what yet icinains of faiili and religion by his liJtby 
chines. These are the days of Antichrist, for no greater 
enemy of God, Christ, nnd religion can be conceived" It 
goes on to accuse all the Ilor^a, Alexander, Lticre^ia. and 
Caesar, of every in^cLginablc crime and vice. All tlial coald 
be invented by puliticjil liatred in Mikn, Venice, Am3 
Naples, and all the venom tJut Roman satire could hatch, 
is heaped together and poured forth In unmeasured 
language. " There is no sort of outrage or vieCj" it *»>-* in 
ore place, 'ih^t is not openly practised in ihe Palace of 
the Pope, The perfidy of the Scytliians and CarthaKinians, 
the b&^tialtt)' and savagery of Nero and Caligula arc 
surpassed, Kodrigo Bor^a i^ an abyas of vice, a subvertcr 
of all jii3tkc» human or divine. God grant that the Princes 
may come tu the racue of the tottering Church, and ^tecr 
the sinking barque of Peter out of the stonn and into the 
haven t God grant they may rise up and deliver Rome 
from the destroyer who waa bom to be her ruin, and bring 
back justice and peace to the city ! " • 

Thl« diatribe, brimming over with political hatred and 
the spirit of revenge, cannot, of course, be regarded as 
hiaiorically truatwonhy. But It shews what dai^gerous 

■ The whcil« l«lt«r it (0 b« found m BVRCRAani Dbrimn, ML, 
l8t-lS7 [on p. 183 read convcf^tibu^ intf^ttd of convenicntlbuk, and 
on p. iS? L^ib^Liiti if%ste*td ef Ubcnti)- The autlwr wa« «vidant]y s 
Huinatiwt, Qf connoted with the Hmiuinists. C.KtiSOKOVirs, Vll-. 
460^ cd 5 (467. ed. 4X ctfiijeaujts tim lie i^uy luvc Ijm:i qqc of tbc 



iiC3pon« the disgncH^il conduct of the RorgU put into the 
kaadft of ch«{r enemies.* 

AlcxAndcr hjtd lhi« libel re:id to him; bur, mdiflerent 
tt be was to public opinion. It ncwr occumcfi to him to 
«tttiBpt 1o curlaij the liberty of Apeeeh or uriiing in Hom«. 
We bear noChrnf; of an>- measures to check the drcuIatioR 
of the punphtct, or Any attempt to pro*^cvtc its author. 
SiK-io Savclli, in whose interest it was profcwcdly written, 
vu allontxl Utcr to return to Rome And was received in 
aodiencc l*y the Ptjpc.f 

Alexander pard heavily for his indifference to alT these 
attacks anci acctisattons* Writiiij:* like fhe*e exercised 
a larttng effect on the judgment* regarding him, both ofhK 
contemporaries and of later limes. 

The looRer this "incredible liberty" In tlie expretiion 
of opinion lasted in Komc the more freely wa.*^ it taken 
advantage of by the cticmio? of the Borgift. * Sannasaro 
certainly wrote hi» epi^^m^ in a place of comparative 
security, hot other?* said the most hazardous things at the 
Tcry doors of the Courl/'J epigrammatic satire developer! 
enormously in literary drcles in Rome. Literary men vied 
with each other in pmdtidng the most mdoilramatic and 
unheard of accusations, and spicing them with the most 

• CaxrOKToor, IV,, as- C/^ Ai.vih, aaj 334. 

t ttuKCHAKm Dtariuin, Uh, \$2 : DnpucjLt di A. Oiuxiinbn, T,, 309. 

I "Aksandcr/up LaVOK,. ^i^**A»7i SylttriCcwhocaiTd nothingfer 
tba ep4oiOft of the world, bore iii«« aEt»cks wiih perfeci e-r^iuinifnity, and 
Dnle4 ihfj mnuinol acnttl Ihreui never look nny niiM^iim in reifRrd 
to ihCLii. He lodteil upon Rome u a privileged place where <ttty oat 
tboMkl b« Irfr frc« to «penk ind writ« u he pre:is#d** 

g Bl^KCxicACtiT, CiiltiLr, I., ^09, fd. } ; </, 1^1 iff, 

1 lAJZtO in ibc Gbrn, H, i Lett ItaL. XIX., 89 f/f., has Cftllccwd n 
OMiMudeOf ntim Md ^i^nmn mrully rlnnvn from printed ^vHircU. 
^ /af<£, XVI]., 296. note, ;mdX:X.,4H SeeMto Fumi. Ales^n, VI.. 



^^Icxatulcr was often row loaded with vilupcratioo 
Ihc very same persons who had formerly " ^Jraiscd him to 
the skie*."* Just at Ms !iine(ii;n) Cardinal Cara^ liad 
had an anrfent sTattie, siipposrri to r^^presert Herciiltt 
strangling Gcryon, placed on a pedestal just outride his 
palace^ which y\-3s situated in one of the most ff«queiitvd 
thoroughfares of Rome-t Burchard relates how, in Aagust 

10> ttg,. and Doc inlQruu Pb 11. « III.. i6 ttff. The auxnbci vi 
MS, epigram} 11 «vcLi greater, the imnjarily of wbkh were not ujiUcn 
unfjl affcr iJie l*Ope't d^alh^ and Liter. [C/. l*IPiPKR in thft RftrnwHirti 
QuftrLL^schHri, i^9l, p> 393) T c^n only mrniioit x few, Thui. sec 
Cod, 'JS46 in the Court Libraiyat \1«nna : Cod, iM. 473« f> ^6;, in thv 
Sttia Library ft I Munkh ; Cod. Vattc, 5351, m l]ie Vfltlfar Ubrwy ; 
pocnia of Fausto. Miidtiiikno de Capodifcfro, t 6£ (Ic Aldondtum 
VI., P- M., f. 74 : In cdictmu conli^ knouu Alex VI., f. 90 ; Contrft 
Alewm-Jrum Vl., and tpccralJy f, 77; Uc viliit Al*Tindri Vl^ P. M, 
TliciJ -i\m' Afc:Airi*i lillnirs uf (lit Bui^lji Cinjlly. e^-, t >5^ ; Dz DoroUicx 
a Cic^ic Dorgia mptfl), C(»d, Haimlton, 561, formerly in iht \>t»teiWftti 
(rf fwe <if Th« Rover* Cardinul*, rontain*. f. % atrocioiit Wf^« a^tt^t 

Hcrcdcm ecrtmn at possil »ibi finquere Sattua 
E« nota prolcn wicipcn ifntittjit. 

(1toy;iT tilirary, Berlin.) Tlte *ame Jetcsiiiljlc araiMtioti n fo ht found 
fr» ProiratMfU polcnuo of the i6lh CenTnry (^jf.^ I- Omawdek, SIcbco 
Pf«digtcn ^egen F«uchl und Piaioriils, I jSg, (ip, 38 39)^ in iJw v 

Conitiiitt hoc tiimiib Lijcnelia nomin«, icd re 
TKij^ AlexAmliA fdiA, ftpuu»«, nuru», 

which ue quoted At true It hat l^een {-Icarlr pro^'cd, /«/na, p. 10f» 
numt, ihu rh^'W* fhsr};^ urt cahimnie*. Se* Vot. V. cf thi* work, 
pu 520, IturctiiLid'i ultntff from tvhii.'h C^OTltKlX, 461, ni^tc =, mfon 
■iicir tnn^i, i* no prootf vhAicrtr ; as E* GcJOUt has shewn in the 
Deutftfbe Uteraiurrdran^ <rE8H), p. t^p. 

* ToMMAST^fr, EvinKclist* M^daldii dt Capodilcn^ ki ifaeAtdfkl 
Lktcci, 4 S«Fi«, CI, di vueniQ mor. •torich«^ X., 9> Roma, tB9Q> 

1 RAtrMwrT, IIL, i» s6t whme alui the older lireniiiire ndjitbg M 




i$Di, C3n tbc pedestal of tliis antique fratfmeiit, whidt ihcn 
«<ent by the name of l\Lsiqu][i9 (it ia now thought to be 
Ajax with ihc bcxiy of Achilles)* a profjbcty of the <ltatb 
of ifee Vopc wuA affixed, wldch w;ih quickly cifciil;it«d 
thfoughout the whole of Rome. This prcdkiioo, he adds, 
vais pooled up in several otbor partis of the city:* in thfi 
Canpo di Fiore, the Bridge of St. Angdo. the doort of 
the Vatican iJbr»ry, and the gates of the ?apaJ Palaee^ 
The nuoabcr of places here mentioned proves tliat at 
that time tlie poinilar and courtly epi^T'^^ ^'^ ^^^ X^ ^ 
^cd in>titution tn Komc Up to the lime of Ijcc X. the 
siaiue of Pasquiho is only occasionally mciitioncd a^ the 
place OR whkli q>i^ain» were polled. It had not yet 
acquired any tpectal distinction in thiK rccpect. It \va;i in 
his Kign that it first bec;icne the rccogni^d pl;ice for 
at^infi all the epigrams and wittldsmfi of the Roman 
Sftttri3l3.f It t«ems thti3 equally clear Uiat the origin of the 
Fajqiiinadc literature, centred here, vtos scholarly rather than 
popular. From the ye«r IS04» en the Fca^t o( S. >^ark 
(J5th April), tlm tigure wa> dt^^acd up in masquerade 
as Iklinervat jL:pitert Janus, Ajk;11o, Flora* etc., whiJc the 
Ei>ember<» of thr lilL-rary circles covcfoi:! hs |>edcsCaI with 
witty ep^rams. For the rest of the ytrar P4*H[iiiiio rv-'Up&cd 
Into eilencc; a< yet he was still in the youthful, academic 
stage of his cnUtcnce* 

* BuaauKDJ DaHuLn, 111., ij?. 

t <^s LL^IIO m lh< Gjccd. H. U. UiU. It^l, XIX-, 94-95 , G. A. 
Cl2UiU£OiiiUieN-AiaiiLiia,CXXXV,Ci£^jt SJ/m^.; nmL I'Mquuujc 
kSiliM aOCbo Loco« X. (Roma, ]£94j- For a review of tiaia #(ifkw4 
atao Cjonu cl d L^ct. lul., XAIV,, 4;^ j^^, 

2 C/. {.iNou Add Li;£io m ihe Nuuv^ Aiiu>JotjiA (l^) ; GanxAio, 
a, 16 , Aocero, i6> Sec alio Eruf^Rh^ in Ae*:h. ^i. luJ,, 5 Sehe, X^ 
176 '/7^j >nd CiAV m Ciom. &«. d LciL Izd^^ XVll., 2^^ u^. 
MoiuXDI^ wnlcQiwn b Uic F^^ifulLi dclLi Duincaiiji, XU , fi^ft^iiut 
Lan> i> not cmvincing. C^/. Gbra. al d. Lget. liaL, XVIL, i^j. Th« 



There Cein be no doubt that the comic poems of tl 
time in Rome were often accompanied by cancaturca. 
WbeD later (iii the year 150^), collcclions of these PasqiiiA- 
Ade* licgan to be made, the pictures were thrown away, 
*ind only the epigrams were kept. Thus ^atuabJe materials 
for the history of culture have been lost ard we can never 
hope to recover them. Even sudi things as abortions like, 
for instance, the monster that was said to have been found 
in January 14961 at the lime ol the overflow of the Tiber • 
were, as Alexander's misgovernment grew worse and worse, 
caught hold of by the enemies of the Borgia, and in- 
terpreted m their own scns&f 

Five weeks After Lucrezias departure. Alcrxander and 
Cz-«ar, accompanied by six Cardinals, set out for Plomblnob 
u'htch bad surrendered fn the previous September. Tlie 
object of their journey wai^ to inspect the fortifications 
which were treing constructed there, apparently under the 
direction of Leonardo da Vinci.; On the 17th Fel>nJar>', 
1503, they set otil by way of Civilfl Vecchia and Comcto^ 
and after Piombiiio the island of Elba was also vuited. 
The return journey was begun on the irit of March, tnil a 
violent storm came on, anil they did not succeed In reachirig 
Porto Ercolo titi thf 4tlv Although the gait! had by no 
meaii£ ijibaifded. the voyage was pursued as far as Cometo ; 
btit when they got there the sea was running so high that 

vK* ^vcn in the IchI i^ i;orrcjhoiaCcii1 by a scarce woik in the Court 
tibniry ax Mkmicli (Po. L^t,, S6l) -. Carinina ^ipposita Paaquino }^i 
Anno ijsoCl'nrttcclat Romr In ts^o). I" Mit^zorhi^ Dedic&ikin tr> ilic 
Card- del Monte, dat. RomaCi Kal. Mail 15*0, wc find . Soknl iiaJi^i]Ut 
jfivcnci hie . , . - ^cnuiix quotiflm^ musii exerfcn, acccndiffLjc od. 
viTiuiem, nu^na prinorjiiif, innh:"^ ^uit> ma^a caetcronim omoiui 
* S«c ViiT, V. erf Ihi* wotIc, p, 4S0. 

I cy ALVisi. 344' 


}Vw&5 tmposnble to bnd. An th« stofm stiU continued to 
incrcfttfc the terrified crew threw ihcmsclvca on their facca 
OQ the deck, tlic CardJnaU wept, the Pope alone remained 
perfectly calm. In the evening they were obllj^od to return 
to Porto Ercnic, «id fmm ihrni^K Alexandr^r invclfH hacit 
to Rome by Comcto and Civita Vccchin, and arrived there 
on die nth of March-* 

There wu a political reai^it Tor this expedition- Piom* 
biao was to form the ba&it! of Ca:sar'* operiiions ngatnst 
Tuscany, where the enmity bctwceit Florence and Siena, 
And the wnr aj^ainst VhA. created a favourable Mtuation for 
him-t 'n other directions, itbo, the moment vkfi?; opportune, 
Tbc King of France was thought to be safe, as he required 
the help of a-kc Pope in the coming situ^-glc with the 
Sjiani^ih \jeit^\ic. The Ruman Baroos h^rj been cru^heil^ 
and aU vtAK (jtilrt in the Rom;Lg]ia. Ferrari w^% an ri1ly; 
Venice u'a* too buiy with the Turk* to interfere; there was 
nothing to fear from Germany,; Such a happy combina- 
tion of eircumatanccs called for prompt action, and all 
poaaibls speed was made in the preparations. The artillery 
of tbe dethroned King of Naples wan purcha.icd for 50x100 
ducat^S The fact that Caraar alone, in May, 1502, drew the 

* BCBCHARDi Diarrutn, 111.. 191 196. nnd Sii;i£>ros-DO u:c' LOJm, 
II-, 369; LiatiXJttOVivs, VII-, 454-455, ed- j i;46[, ed. 4]. (/ alio 
*Aaa Consbi in itit Cciuaiiioruil Af^duvct, ^nrj a **Lcl[cr <;f G. L. 
CiUncOh dHL Roincr 17th Feb,, i foa. GDnvLgn Archives. Manlux 

t KEOUOmjII, M41 C/. G L Cauineo* "Leucj of 171I1 Vt\ 
ijot. Gono^ra Arduto, Mjuiiun- 

t G. LCaunrc^i •■LotUr of ir^ Feb., j JOI- [GonwiKii Arcliiv*ij 
Mannift.) ty, CaiCMiHrcw, )V., ?j c/^. On ihe jnoficniioti of ihe 
lUnna^^ni by Oesar^soe ReUmont. IIU l. ^o, mjiU Ai-vui, x^fiitf^ 
ai9 Hf., a6T. Th« Iktl noined hial^nnn shcus ih:ir Caesar cl»play«4 
gmai adminisCntivf capidty tn his ^m'sniLticnioftlir ]^c.>ji-iaj£na, and was 
a iTcnacua paiien ^ Af u 

J the PcMtupicM £avor nainu a lewtr itun. &«• i;«rp UipL Poit, 



aum of 54»ooo florins out of the I'apAl treasury, shews what 
Urge deinandH were made iij>«n U by the Pope's ncphewa. 
This dill not include the cost of weajron-s and ammunition. 
Between toth May and 12th July the Apostolical treasury 
paid for 83,098 pounds of powder (each tooo pounds cost 
40ducAt5). A.-»:parate register wa^ kept in ttie Secretariats 
tor the <3rdnaiicc cxpcnscj,* ^\ 

On the ijtb June CiLsar left Rome at the head of His 
aimy- No one. says Sigbmoiido dc' Conli. Itoci*' whither 
he was bound, biit a11 the inhabitants of the States of the 
Ciiiircli tremhkd at ttic approach of his troops who kn 
their violence and exactions behaved as though tht^y were 
In an enemy** countr>%t 

The Dulce proceeded to 5po1«to, and from thence entoed 
the Uuchy of Urbiiia Hy dint of traud and trcAcbefy he 
succeeded in makinf; himself master of the ivholc countryt 
its deluded rulcT, Gtiidobaldi, barely c^scaplng out of hid 
hand^ by a tinK'ly di^^ht^J In the folluwiii^ month he took 
Giulio Ccsarc Vatuno, thi.- murderer uf his htolJicr Rudulf, 
prisoner, jLTid conquered Csmerino^g He now received the 

It 34 i but Dr. Cotilob otales thai the sum in the text ic ihAi vbkh it 


found 1TV i\tt tlhhttnemen^ oifniicmH in Cod* XXXEl-i 341 C^l the 

^^fc * GOmos, Cam. Ap,. 339. 

^^^ t fi«:in«nNnn [** CciN-n, IJ., 351- AU-isi ha.? *he«n that C;raar 

I endeavoured 10 dLCf:k the inpcicily of hb »]dJc^),buf the tutimoDy of 

I uich A tttll'inforiTivit ccntomjiorajy wini«»s can hurdW be tel A&ide. tn 

I ihkt M In several ether poinci^ ALvisi seems to nie in ^n too Cu in hu 

[ dcsirt 10 tskv an unprcjudicod view of Ocnr, and reject |hc calumn^ 

I of hi* ceDtvmjioninca. Hoh^ " barbvDiit^wu lki» txtmircni of howou' 

I t«T»« U dcftTly thewn by OlAC. Lauho, *Siciria de Fossombrone. M& 

I a the Plitzncr Libmty in Rome* 

I X Uv^yiKTOV^, tf 385 r Ucoutat, 11^ 89 tff.; SuCEsrREiii, 374 1 

I R«^Kr, Kmn. iind Grrm. Vfktkvr, 158 J«p.; Cil>uLL\. 7&4 ; Ai'ViM, jaS 

^^^ I SroimoifPO PPf Co>ai. £L, S53 1 Suckvke&i, 375 nf.; Bau 



lillc of Camr Bo^tA of France, by the Grace of God Duke 
d" the RomagiU and of Valencia and UrbJno. Piiiicc of 
Andri^ Locd of P iombi no. Stand «r<l-beaicr and Gcncnil'jn< 
Chief of the Chiircli-* 

Wh«n the Pope heard of the conqueii of Camcrlno he 
aos " almoflt bnidc himibrif with joy" writes the Venetian 
Envoy, Antonio Giii«»tinLaii *^ He could so Uulc contain 
tufn^If that, to f;ivc «omo vent to ]m& feeling m\d mark 
ihc importance of the news, he £ot up ttotn hi$ chair and 
ttcnt to the windoi«, antl there had the letter of his Duke 
of 20th July from Uibino read aloud"! Camcrino waa 
^rivcn to ihc inJant Juan lior^ia^ while CariiarS plana 
look lar^ct and larger scope, tie was, in fact, on the high 
road to become King of the whole of CeiUral [taly^ lie 
WAS already beginning to think of tun^ni^ his arm^ against 
Bologna when LouU Xll. came fonvard. in connection with 
Neapohtan relabon^ with Asti, and ^a\'e it to be tindef- 
stood that he would not permit any furtiicr developments. J 
All the Cficmic:» of the Bor^u were besieging the King 
witli complaintn of, an^l wnrnii]^.^ ;ii^ain,%t, the Duke of the 
Romagna. Caesar's resolution Wii» promptly taken. Did- 
gaaadog hlfnu-ir, hr hastened to the royal camp at Milun, 
and arrived on the 5th of Au^iiM. Ht: was successful in 
winning I,ouia by the protniic of help in Naples, in return 
for which the Kinf; enf^af^ed to support him in hi£ attack 
oa Bok^n^a and the 0»tnl|[ 

407 "f'l 409, 411 it^. The ctcoiranuniution ofG, C Varaoo is In 

(464. <d. tu 

f Uiapacci (ft A. GiueEiniftfif 1^, €4 \ </ 76, 

X RoxcHiNJ, 46c/f.. 6]/«V. 

g Viujii^i, Mochftikt^Ui, 1,, %\i ref^; CiroLLA^ 785 : &nd on Ok frwb 
rapture betve«n <^uliaj:io d«Ll4 Kuvcrv and lh« Pop«i Baoitcii: S8 t/f. 

tt ALvnif jaa iff-, 3t i f/j. 



At thb ctomcnt a consptrkcy a^Snst Ctcsar was k 
amon^t the chief captains of the mcrrenafy troops uiIh 
hi» command "They were afraid that the dmgon 
preparing to swalfow them otic by one.'** On the gth 
October the con'^piralors met at La Miigio:ie. not fAr froi 
the Lake of Thrasitnenc. Many of the Oraini came. 
Cardinal, th* Duke of Gravlna^ Paolo, and Franciolti 
besides Hermes, the son of Giovanni Hentivo^lto, as ll 
represent alive of his father, Antonio da Venafro. rcpr«ei 
ing I'andolfo, Petnieci^ Gentile, and Gifimpaolo Baglioi 
and Vitcliozzo Vitcl3i,l They proceeded at once to action^ 
and On the 15th of October Paylo OrMiu entered Urbino, 
and Gitidobaldi immcdUtely joined him tlicrc. Without 
the help of Fr^^Hce, Cierar would have l>een lost, and he 
exr^ed himself to obtain the support of Vcnict- and 
Florence alsa Ic was at this time that Machiavelli wra* 
sent as Envoy to C:e£Ar at Imola, and gave the lir»t indica- 
tion of hie gcnitiE ;is a political historian by hiA judgment* 
of the " inscrutable Duke who hardly ever spoke, but 

Ferrari promised to send troops to Rome if the Pope 
should require help agninst the OrsiMi.g Actually* howc\'CT. 
the only help received by C^sar caiue from France alone ; 
but that sufficed, for In the meanwhile his opponents lost 
lime in ncgotiftilons, and split among [hcriseJves. 

The Duke cxcrlcd all his crafi to break up the Lrsgue, 
and fool the conspirators; and thc^- on thdr part ivalknl 

* So vrltci C. P. a^gflonl on th« i ilh Oct. S«c VlLU^ai, MachJO* 
Tcllin 1*354^ 

t VaUiai, i^, at, 334; SucaKiinn^, jSji Ranke, Rom. und 
Germ. V^Ikrr, ifto; Skvimmohdo l>fc' CoNii^ II., 157 t/^., lay* that 
Cvd'mnI Ortini wu iho prime iDovcr in the Coftfcdciaqr* 

{ GaLcoaovtu^ VJ 1., 463. ed. 3 (4^>i ed. 4). 



blindly intotlt« twrt tl'-al he had laid for tlwjm.* Antonio 
di Venafro and Paoio Orsini came to ImoU and concluded 
mtllUiKt oflcnsivc and defensive with the Duke, by which 
ili«y bound them»eK-e« to recov-er t'rl>ino and Camerino for 
km. Ucntivof^lio entered into separate negotiation with 
CCHU- ; and on the 2nd of December they came to tcrma-t 
Soon after Urbmo and Camerino vrcrc restored to him. 

On the lOth December Carsar, who a. iliotl time before 
bid received tonsidcrible auius hum the Papal triMaiiry.J 
proceeded n-ith hb troops from ImoU to Ccsctul " No 
oee knew o* could gtie» the object of the movement* 
vritca Machiavclli, ^hr thi* Signor never speaks of hU 
intentions until he carries th«m out, and he carrier them 
cot at the proper moment/' J Soon, however, it became 
evident that the Duke's purpose was to take Sinieftf^lia. 
Andrea Doria was in command of tl^c Cattle When he 
bund UiAt C«nar was huriyliig towards the city, and 
klrc^y pieccdctl by tlic troops of Vitelluz/-o and the Orsinip 
he fled to Vtnice:, The commander wluim he left In charge 
declared tliat he would give up the citadel lo Caciar but to 
nooneelsc-li The Duke arnvcd on the 31st of December, 
and «at joined at the gatct by Vitcllo^^, Taolo Orsinl, 
the Duke of Gravina, and Qllverotto of Fcrmo. He re- 

* Bc&xk9 V'I1^\IU, fa. fit» U 343 l(f.^ if, abo CtFOLLdi, 786> ftnd 
AI.V15J, 547i,Y. iiowf, 

I *D>c lit- DckCmb. ji5<jj] rctcpi duc^l. *ff9> suri in uuni . . . . 
A. S^ D. N' ttuncmu m cuncraSu:jjinc < * . . miiienda in sunmu due 
1 5:/)oo ill- duf: VAlmtino. <|i>t rpf^pi in fliiobiit «iL!culi«. "tntr, ci cicil^ 
%li\ allhcendofa kwfc ih»l uckcd uu f.^- Tlic furthci enuie* in 
Ihi* voL Jkcw ilui Onnr dfflw unomious 3^ims fur miliUiiy puqxMCi, 

In Peniga tn had 6oo (.jcmiAn Tneitrnanes. Se« 'Intr el eicit, jjj, 
L XII. Seotl Ardiivo vf tijc Valiuw, 

\ Lentr of iSth Dec &«c ViU-aw, L, 351. 

II VlUjklU, Mfl*huiv«lllj I , jjj. 



ccived Ihcm in Ihc Tncridltest manner, anci they entered 
t<^cthcr; but no sooner wcfc they within llic walls thao he 
had tlicm aircstod, and tlicir people disarmed. That 
same evening Vitcilo/jo And Oliverr>lto were rutHlcssI)' 
lo drath* The Orsim soon after met with ihc same fate: 
In juEtificktion of theite murders it was saEd Eater tlut 
ehtef£ had Agreed to rise against the Dul<c and a££a«sinaCc 
him. No proofs of this arc to be found ; but it is not 
unJiUdy th;it it may have been true-J 

Cxsar D0^^ turned with liglitning-llkc rapidity on 
other foes. On i st January, 1 50 J, he set off for I^cnigia on 
hi:k way to Siena- " At his ap^iroach all tiie smaller despots 
(such as the Vitdli of Citta di Castello, Giampaolo Bagli- 
oiic of l^enJXT^, €tc) fled a» frotn that of a hydra-"5 

The Duke*]; "extraordtnaiy ^od fortticie and tu 




* On the trag«d/ of Smigagla, in addiLion to Machuvfrili'i co 
bbxxled aocmmt {c/. Villaki, I,, jj4 ^^X ^ce ^su a l-cUci fruiu 1 
bclitt d'£«te iv her hn^bind. of fjih Jtiru, 1 503 (Arch, St lul, Scnc i* 
App,, ILj 36a j^Tf.;, and GiuBiioian's De*pat<h of 4^h }an., 1^3 (Dis- 
pjttdj \-t 30^ y/f,). A Leiler of Char's uf iM J^n., tsoj^ in Luiio- 
RCMSR, Maulovo, T35« is Abo interesting in tlus oortncoion. ArnonK^t 
TtH^ni aulhorj, see CiPoLL>, 789 (yooJ a^'am^l LpOMtti, and on 
i^ucaijon <i( Al^undcr V'l.'^ ciuitpLicity in tbii dtcd) ; L'fLmtOCG, 41 
A1.VISI, l^% U9.\ TOH>iA£im, Machiavolli, I., 3;6 nf, Machift' 
lelU the Mory <>4 Uii« eiecuiion (for Qjaa^% contemporartCfi rtfrardcd it 
ai an excoakm) uvci u^Ain, but with l«vr«r tlei-ijl>, in hia HcL^kiioint 
" Dcscrii^ic>nc del modo icnuco dal duca S'litciitirict ncU' amoianan: Vitet 
Lo7Jci, " dc C^^Kraav, II y ^5, conjvciurei iliAt some all^miont wen 
VUTpuKly iAEtmlutxil inLu tliia ^ccunii iiainLtivc '* wjtli a vie* of »ettiat 
lite Dukc'« sa^city in a icore bnLliui^l liK^t. for MachlavtUi was ntver 
«rrU|Kiluu:h in iet{!ird lo itnci hii^toficul A<:xDnuy t^h^n hf. had a pofilifJil 
docuine 10 illustiTLU:-'' Alex^ijdcr Vl^ bcitowcd Fcrmo va Lutrctia t mjd. 
DoQ Rodngo, tiee FVLV], Docuiti, d. StortA de f'ermOk. Fcrono, 1S7 

f Diipaixi (li A GiLisElnian, L, 3^6 j^^. 

1 CU<OM.A, liH.£it. 




bamaa sagadty ," to use M«chl%velli'5 words, so encouraged 
the Pope, ttbit he dctermmed to procoed now hiin:»clf 
^afmt the OrsinL On the 5rd of JanicLry, 1503, Cardirtri] 
Oratnl, now bllrd, but ^.till ?<peiidlfi^ )iii nights in pljty and 
fostir^. was arrcctod in the Vatican, and taken lint to 
Tons dt Nona and then to St Angda* At the )»mc time, 
Ktnaldo Onini, Archbishop of Florence, Gbcocno Santa 
Croce, and other adherents of the famfly were put in 
priscm. Cardinal Orsini'a palace and all W\s property were 
conliMatcd by Alexander VI, The other Cardinals Jnter- 
ccdcd for hin% hut vrithooit diTect. The i*a[>c declared tliat 
Us treachery and participation in the captains' conspiracy 
eotdd net be left un^mni^hed-t In Rome the numerous 
Anects created quite a p^nic Mary fled from the city, 10 
that at la£t Alexander found it ncccf^r^ry to send for the 
Conservatory aini awurc them that all the z^iiiy peraons 
had now been deposed of: the other citrscns were to 
remain in Rome and enjoy tlic Carnival. In the latter 
respect he himAcIf set them the best example.^ 

On the 5th or January, Jofr<- Borgia set out to ocnjpy 
Mofile Rotondo and the other siro[ighold>« of the doomed 
inmiiy. Thiiwiutht signal for a final effort to avenge (hem- 
•tins an the part of the remains of the Orsini party in 
comblnatfon with the Savclll and a few of the CoJonna. 
They entrenched themfxrlves in Cere and Kracci.ino. and on 
the 33rd January attacked the Pontc Nomcntano, The 
attack waa rcpuJscd^ but the Pope waa so much alarmed 

* Bil'ltCUAHi>i Dianem, IIU 330, and "Report of Unc Maniwui Envoft 
ql |tk Jan-, I ^0^ Uttuap Arcbivcaf Miatiuu 

t Ditpacd di A Giiuiinian, I., 301 stf-, y% st^^ nccordbg to 
which ihc Gudtiial fully ejii>ei.-tcd ihit he would bo put to death. €/. 
UtJaauaDI DAnum, 111-, 231. 

t DkpBCri cIt a. Giimmian, I, ^13 tr^^ 310 sw^^ pT, 334. ^. 
Adcmollo, 27. 



thftt he had the Vatican bairlcadcd and commanctcO 
to rcluni at nncc-* 

On the 20th Firbriiary, 1503, ihe Pope ftdvi<.cd the 
Cardinals to foTlify tfiHr pal^r(?5, for ther<i wras frar of an 
atUck from the Orstni.f Two da/s later Cardinal Ortini 
died after an illness of twelve days. The report that he 
was poi&oned by the Borgia was widely circalated, but the 
truth of this is doubtful. Such was the death of the mar 
who. ncNt to Ascario Sforza, had the greatest influence in 
procuring the election of Alexander V!^ 

Mcinwhilc Caesar had advanced tigainst the OrsinI from 
Umbrirwand* dcva^Uting thr country as he went a|ong> had 
made himscTf master of all ihc places belonging to Gfovajini 
Giordano Or«ini with the exccpUon of Cere and Bracciano, 
which U»C was their chief strijngho1d-§ A short time after, 

• Dispdcd di A. Citistlnlart, L^ Jja, 3-19 ; SAmnn, IV^ 1^5^ «y, ; 
CWI-OOROVTUS, VIl,, 467 i'V- (^74 J*?-, cd. 4)- 

+ HURCHAKDt Diiirium, 1IL, 137, and Ditpnod cU A, GiuiCiniaii, I., 


X Utrwovs » aljonjfly aicoinst iht hypoihciii of pcMVon. He toyi^ 
p.^t6: Ciufltintan (i iltAch6 AUx Onini ec li au fait d« oe qui le pftUim 
k Rome, avail ^ni» d^ 1e i; F^nn, 1303, quf le Cirdinal donnalt dn 
«i|tiic* dc fnfiii^ic : 1^ ptrln hicfi iie» l^-Dit 6tn\% tui ceitc irulodic, en 
iu>^nt ii Li tagciie du Ho^« le torn de ks nppr^deri maj», te 33 <c 
nnTKAn^artr qiu- Ir r^dlm^l On'im fititit A iViirT^iTi'li ci que let mAdecint 
d^tep^rajcnl tk Ic uuvtt, il nc (tit ricn qui pAt fairc MLipconncr un crim^ 
Le 33 F^Vfter Ic Cafdinal expita- L'-imbiti^s^ciir dc Moronfc:, Sodenct, 
dans w d^pftlie ci Branoulirii t^ns son Dfiinum mcniionncni ^imple- 
cneni la man du CardinjLl vin> d!rc ua nidt du poiMn. Ai tlte s^ieiic 
timt, the remark in E*l"RC»MrrJT Diariiim, 111., 238 ■ (jfo nolcn* plui 
Mpcro ijunm itportE^i, nun inLcrfui (ai the funeral) n^uc^ nl^uo mfxlo nx 
inuombi, b oertainljr noiewoith)'. Cf, H&idemi&imek in tN C 
botvn, in. (i^79)h 'Sf- 

S *La Ex. del diidia uu2i qui to jovcdi gniuo pcrdte tutte le tcrre 
Jo, Joninrw ha hAbuio d'lfcordo «!icepto !lniiani> cIk 4 lo OLpo dov« 
t L-i molip, etc. Report of G. L Cauifieo,3iit Feh, 1503. Goniasa 
Ai Juve», Mnjiiuv 




it wus»d that the Duke hikd been ftccn in Ronw^ but no one 
could be sure, at he always wore a m^k when he went out* 
Meanwhile the vrar a^in^ the Or(iol dragged on. Cere 
kMJ not fall until the beginriing of April; 6000 cannon balls 
PVd been discharged at this fortress,! Upon thb Giovanni 
Gordftno Oruni concluded an drmUticc (4th April)* and be- 
took himself to hU prccector, the King of PrancCtforaidin 
- the negotiation CO follow. Louis at that moment was greatly 
di«UjrboJ4tl])c jiifi^vuurabk turik taken by cvcnu in Naples. 
In April the Spaniards under Gon*alvCi de Cordova, had 
opened the camjtai^^n with a bril]i;tni victrny over the 
Frttxh. On the i6ih of May the Spanish General entered 
Naples In triumph. Louis X 11. » UowevcT. was not disposed 
to reljnquifh thi« noble po^^essJon without a struggle, and 
a new amy was immediately equipped. § 

The French rc\x;r3C5 in Naples were of great advantage 
toCtcsaf. He could now ask a high price for his assistance, 
and It was not ncce^^ary to consider France so much as 
heretofore !» iliApint^ hb plan*. The tmpr>rUnt point now 
vsk% to get TTone^^ 10 a< to huvc 3?^ strong ;in amy a« 
possible wherewith to control the impending disturbances. 
Even on the 2<)ih March the Venetian Ambassador reports 
that in the Conitistory of that day it had been revived by the 
Cardinals that a Bull should be iAsued to cxcate eighty new 
oflkeA in the Court ; the price of each was to be 760 ducats, 
" I Ica^-e tl to your hii^hncis to count how much money the 
Tope hM tccurcd/'ll 

* Dbpaoci d^ A^ Ciu^^niMii I., 4tt j^^ ftnd BdlTitEtdo'i llctx>rt in 
GHlOOIMWtVS, VI h. ^;j^74. •d. j (481. •d. 4). 

i SLCilSMOMnOM^'CoNTI, m J6&-2&7; t:/.4iOir^- 

S GatoOROVius. vn., 475i cd. 3 i (^Sa. ed. 4} ; uml App to Sroi^- 
noocoo UK' CowTT, U-, 4sa- 

II Dnpacd dt A. Gf^-sUjiiunt 1., 4S3- 




TH^e wcMT innocont expedients in com pariaon with oih 
adopted by the man before whom all Rome, not excepting 
the Pope liimsclfitiemblcd, In the night of the loth of April 
the wealthy Cardinal MichJcI died after two days of violent 
vomclirig. Rocent iiivrj^tigalionsi h^vc had the eHoct of 
«tt<i nit ting CftMr of msny {primes laid upon him by 
haired of hfs contemporaries, but the death of Cardinal 
Michkl Is not one of the*e, U U extremely probable that 
Caesar poinoncd the Cardinal in order to obtain the mon^ 
that he ivantcd .• Still, however, there was not enough* Cte 
May ji thtf Venetian Envoy, A. Gm,ttinian» writes: "To- 
there was a Consistory. InMcad of fouf new Cardinalfit 
people expected and as the Pope had said, nine were no 
natedp Fi\^ of these .ire Spaniards, Giovanni Cai-tclar of 
Valencia, France.sco Remolino; Frantresco Sprats, Jaenpo 
Casanova, and Francesco Itoris; three arc Italians, Nlccol^ 

* np^pnich of A riiusTicvtan of t ttIi April, r 503 VtiIjiRI. I,, 574 T 
El dino {Mkhiel's ncplicw) vie )wl nfcriiu clic iU ituc anta in qiut li 
cm jonto un dc&lcmjicrantento dc Momcgo c«a ^ran vomiio. tx ancho iin 
pocn 4i rturao ' el sospctro * grunde ch' el siii lia' av*kf»^o e non 
mancano cvldcnlc conJctrurc. t^ RrtJwoNT, [M,, 1, 259, *iid Tiara 
VenftUi^ 3? ; Mi^icrs EpiLiph in FOftCELLA, lacrir., [[.» 304. It ha 
been ibfrwn, m Vol V. of chis work. p. ;r4\ and n^rri, p 68, ihnt 
GcMr miL» i>ot tha murdcm cither of Ibc Duko %4 Gondia ot oEfll 
Juan Boripa : ALvtgf, 53 £f^,, has also disproved .icoihcr hhc durgc 

Feidiiundc d'AlmcJdd kJUcd bccAuac he liad pTcniiiiLjiclyLiifatined 
XII. of tho granting of the nuiTri-^ge dupen»bon m*r(ioned .rtifirv, 
57, far which the Duke lud inicrdcd tn have exacted a Inrgc *um 
Ihc Kint- AH^i ^he^** lli.ii Ihc " Tiuirdcrcd *' BUIiop died t*o ytn 
UtcT, and that the di^pen^aiion had been tmdc puL»lic icme time bcfd 
tht dale of hit suppowd inilf^rHton. V. Capcllo'f dinmatfr rurraiii 
rtliiisn^ htm Cta^ slabbed Ficrono In pie*?nc« of the Pope 
aniHhtTr ^loty (hat will not b«ar««3minalion - see st/fnt, ^ 77, note ^ 
poiionine o^ the aval idouiCaniiriAl Fcrmn(M 3[Xh Jiily, ijoijbyi 
U very doubtful C/ AiXt Mod., Vlli, 3^ J^ , and TAflOL, 3S8 My, 



Fiesco.CovnT of Lavagna, Francesco S<ylcrlni, and Adrtaxio 
dt ComiVto; one is a German, Mekhfcr Ccpi.i von Mcck^u, 
Biihopof Brixen, Mofitof then arrrrtcnof fJoubtTuI rcpuU- 
tba^ aJI have patd handaomcly for U\cir elevation, Home 
sojOOO ducftts and more, w> that from r 20,000 lo 130x00 
ducats have been collected If wc add to tliia 04.000 ducats 
fcom the sale of the ofTiccs in the Court, and wlial C^tidiiial 
Mkliicl left behind him, we shall hitve it fine sum. Alex* 
iRdcr VL b nhcwing to the world tbat the nmmint of a 
Pope's income is just vhat he chooses/'* 

There wai another side alM> to this creation of CardfnaU 
on Jts^t hlay. It indicated a chan^ in the iloq^a r>olitics, 
10 inclJAation to draw nearer to Spain and retire from 
Fnu)Ce consequent on the latter':i humiliation. But no 
dcciiBon wiM come to as yet, "The reversal of a policy 
vhich had now been followed foi aomc years was m itself 
a thing not to he done- ha<£tily, and the ohjecltoii* to it 
wCTt* hi?^Mi*fHrd by the approach of :i Urge Frrnch army 
ddtlned for the reoonquest of Naples, and which was now 

* Dopacici^i A- Giuaciniati, tl,, 19-30 ■ *L>*r!paCch of G. L- CjUaoco 
of yn M^Xt '3^J = ? ipignuli « jUcuni 1 peat conoicirc « trc Olmni 
(Geonfa ArchrvcA, Msm\u.) C/, Panvixiv^ 336, And *Ai:tA ConniL 
{ConiblomI Arc^vc^ in iht Vatican)* where 4fc the niuitet of th« 
twnty-two C^rdinuU vJu <eni«ntO(l tcs Lheta ndminatjon*!. lliustinion'i 
***■*'"*"' ifau only foui naminationi n-crc npccicd j^ not mrrco, and, 
IfvncmllTB ibc accottnta of thi> Venetian nv^i \x occcpicil with caution 
(1;^, BaoSCH (p Sybdt itet»::hr^XXXVIU 313, And ALVisi, ^tf^] ; 
but IIk bribes inreri al (Lis crciliuij of Cfln^nttl^ w curmlroialci] fruin 
other 9ovtoe». {€/. BacBCir, Uc, dl, yti) In regard to Ehc timon^ 
pffsCtiMd At the n^mitnatiep* of C:iritm!iU tin<lor Alvxifid^r Vt , tte Ihe 
IplcmdBc documcnu in Ltzro-RbKirJl, Maiitovj. tjo j<v- ^^ also 
G. 1* CaUmoo^t *Kcport of 6th M arch, 1 503 : *A] prci»cncc ne pirla <1c 
IflrD dirwlKi (atI<, oieo iLTrmntonuni rjew sftTf ipn^unh e uno ttHlr^rho 

stft Archives!, Mftncuft,) On the nODiination of Mekhior von McckAU, 
«C« SfVtTACHCa, Bdtni^,C7 "f - ^J3 ''7 




clo^e lo ihs? rftj>al frontier, Tlnjs all WTis tension am 
Ortcertainty." • One thing, however, h cleAT, and that 
t)ut at this time Aleicsnder and C^sar were preparing 
to rty at higher game. The Pope was in robust h(*alth 
and felt a^ young as e\er; they both looked forward to 
A prolonged PontiRcate-f Consequently Cxsar now began 
to look forward with confidence to the Lordship of the 
whole of Tuscaryn The Fcrrarrjc Envoy reports on the 
lOth of August that negotifllions were going on bctwwu 
th^ Pope and the Emperor, to obtain for the Duke the 
inip-estitiire of Pisa, Siena, anti Kncca, At the *3ime 
lime Cx^r''^ troops had occupied Perugia and there 
ftwflitcd hl« orders. I At this point a higher hand inter- 
vened; the forbearance of God had reached its apjx^inted 

• Rkumiivi: Mr, 1, :4ft On the undec^dc*] pTan* ami *lniib]^ftfp<! 
pdicy of the Horiria during' the loal inniUli^ of Alctandcr's reign, see^ lu 
addition to A- Giutirnian'a Despatch^, the Frmr^M * Report in the 
Suic Archive!!, ModcnimTorrtons nf whirh nrr m^ VIL^ 
479 se^'n ^ 3 (4S6 '/(T-, ed d\ ^txd Balast. V,, 411 jqr> See alto 
tfmongm recent auchois, Ranke, Rom. tind Conn. V«lk4r, t68 Jt^4 
CiPOi.LA. 793 ; Ulmawn, n., &7J*T.: BMacKHA»i>T,Culnir,r,io6//f^ 
cd. 3 i Lo«I ACTOy, 5^5 ; an<l VfT,TAKl, NrAchUvellr. I, 377 jry., where 
alto thcr^ are paitictiUn aboui Troche, the favouriw and wcremryoT 
A1nnr^r]<*r V'Tr, who ^^^is ^nppcHeEl lo ham beTmyvd ihp re^^i^xtjoni 
with Spofa 10 ihc French. TroLhe llcd oil i^lh M^y, ly^}, \ml Cwia&r 
iiKC«^cd tfi f^iptunng htm. He u-hg brought back to Itoni« arid eiecut«4 
nn ihe Sih June, ehc Duke being stcrcily prraeni, S*e the F«mrv«e 
Envo^ Report of t ith June in Villari, !., 4^6. 

t t/ the qi.iC3ifit;*>n rn (imcoKOviU*, VII., 476, rwte ). ed. 3 (483, 
ttl 4X frr>r» Be)inn<tn CoitshiJ)'* Dwpmeh orf 17th April, '503; 
SlOlSMONDO TE^ COTfTT, U., J&7 ; &nd (he *Rr]>ur1 of an Anonymous 
pcTum, dac. Kmni?, May 1503: il papn ita bcniHimo^ and Cesare the 
mmtM Coniaaa Archirci, MaiLtua. 

t (>: Ctpou-\ 794: GiiECOROvn;s, VIL, 48a, ci 5 (49% oL 4); 
Rakke, RonL und Cenn. VOIker, 170; Ul-MAVX; 11., 89^ See >ho 

^^^^^ SICKNESS TN ROMIt l^t 

The hcttt and ilrouiEht of August hul cfttijed the malafta 
Ih^t ycMt to be wcrM; than uiti«], vid It cUimcd « gre«ttf 
mmbcr of viciima than was its wont On the 5th of the 
modUi juan Borgpa, Cardinal of Monrcale, died suddenly.* 
Thr Itrti-nyi mention ii gfviit dc«l of <icknr?H^ which u-;u 
oof. ibey say, caused by the Plague, birt by a specially 
vinsknt forro of Roman firver, which was very speedily 
bCal^t When the Venetian Ambasiador wait with the 
Pope on the 7th of August he found him in low «pirit4» 
Alexander told him that the &ickne:49 and many deaths 
tn Rome alarmed him, and that he meant to take great carers 
of himself. His depression was Increased by the approacb 
of the French IroopH,; 

The 11th of August wat the annivt^rsaty of the Pope's 
electinn, Alcxandrr appenrrr! at the celebralinn in Ihc 
chapel, and ihc An^ba^sador was af^afn struck by hh air of 
dcprcasSon in contnut with the gaiety which wai; liabitual 
to hioi on aU Kuch occasicnSn After Mass he convened 
with the Amba^iador on the critical sttu^tioTi in regard to 
politics. "Sec," he said/' how disastrous it h&a been that 
no understanding should have been arrived at between your 
Slgnoria and ouraelvcrk" § Some days befoic; Alexander 
had watched from his window the funeral [jfncc:**?on of 

ijan Rorgia, who like himself had grown vrrj' corpidenL 

It paWl the Pope exclaimed, " Thii month l* a bad 

ont for fat people:" The next moment an owl Hew in and 

A. GlV?TlMZA)f in ihl* uae olw ucfib«s the Jv»tli lo poitoniny 
by Qtair : Dbpuci, H-, 94. C/ a^inac iha CF&iCdTON, IV., 36;. 

t G. L. Catwwo, in reporting the Jeaih af Cird, Juan liorgifl, acids i 
*c1 eri 4v Atial 50. ^aaw ; te ne morto in un subico ct moiti ^e Kincia 

Despatch of jih Aujf., 1503. Gonui^'n Ardnvei, Mamtu. 
t GiumNtAiXr Ditpiuxi, IL, 99, tot. 
I W-t, H, 103 wf. 



fi;]| At his feet "A bari, bad omen/' lie cried out and 
hastily retired mto his bed-room.* 

On the momm^: ot Saturday, I2lh Augu«t, the I'opc 
fcU unwell ; ir the afternoon vomitinj; and fever came on 
afid lasted Ehrou'^hout the nightf At thcaamc linicCa-sar, 
whci wa^ on the point of starting to join Ki» troop9 At 
Perugia, also sickened,; "Tlic cause" write.<( the Venetian 
Envoy on i^lh August, ''seems lu have been IhAt ^ week 
iigo (ihcrcfoic on the 5th atr 6t]i of August) buth Alexander 
and Ca-sar dined at a villa bebTijpng to Cardinal 
d& Cornt-'to and remained there till after nightrall All 
it'bo were there fell ill, Cardinal Adriano f^rst, who on 
Friday had a severe attack of fever, whidi was cepejtted 
on the two Following days." § 

Au^at i» well known to be the mo&t dangCfOUS 
in RDmc, and at that season it is especially pcHtouS to btt 
out of doors about nlghtfAll. The malignaLnt form of 
ague, uflen brought on by an iniprudencc of ihis wrt, la 
ckWcd Maiiiri/i p^miciusa : ir a few hours tlie tenijitratdre 
may rise to above 106 and the utrongcsi constitution may 
succumb to tlie violence of the poison. The neighbourhood 

■TIfUia SlciSMOM>o DK* CoifTl's »tory, 11,, a67,buttbcn ii lonw; 
ronrii^ion m (he clviM' 

t GiUSTlNlAN, Ditpoccu H-i 107. C/. DUBCIUHPJ Dinrium, UL, 
ajS- There ar« a gtcfli number of MS. copter af Jlurclinrd'i iiarmnvtt 
oTthc dcuth vf AlcAMiidrr VI. imti ilic cliftiiun of \ui »u(.x«tM)r, m Lttin 
fin man^efthv Vntioin M^^ and Konmn Libmrici» and niso ma Cod, 
nfthe t-Apclupi IMx m MAniia), a^ writ ha ta linliAn (^/, Airi ddla R. 
Acaid-ilct Roui di Sitna, I [1871I j£ J'f^). IL wai olio In the hoods of 
ilio auU-ioT of the ^ell-kno^'n book, Cnncbvi d«k i^^nUinS Kait^ank A 
Qermaa iruvtlatiun in itw K:ir}ial. Sc}iwri;trbl (iS^O ■19'^^^ 

t G. L Cauooui in a *Dca|3ntth vf BOi Aujj^. '!vj, &nih>un[;o* : d 
duch:ici]fnr modo parte c^uetunotlc, G^nu^ Archives, Montuiu 

Tui;*^!:, HI .ii4» 








of t)ic Vftlt^^an is one of ilic iiiiArtcr^ in which malaria 
u especially prcmicnc- Art Envoy on ihr Xi^ih of Augu?«t 
remarks that no one c-ati be *uqirUed that Alexander and 
Ca-iistr wc-rr ill, m the h^d air in the Pajxd Pft1at« had 
caused much sickness there* 

On the t jth of Auf^vst f the physicians cndcavoiirnrf to 
relieve the I'ope by copious bleeding, a favourite remedy 
ia those daya Dunni* all that dny he was more comfortable 
and pkycd at cards :t but after a fairly (^ood ni^ht ant^'Lhizr 
attack o^ fever arupcrvcncd on the J4th, rc^mbtiiig that 
oflhc lith. %o th<nt ihnsc nhonl him 1>ecjinc very anxioUA, 
Although il seemed a risV lo iqical the bleeding of a 
patletit of scT^etily-thrce, this w;is done§ The I'ope felt 
sGocnewhat better on the 15th and h;td no fever, but on 
the i6lh it 

Ca^^ar also grew worve, the fever fits succeeded each 
other more and more rapidly. Ihls, and his political 
anTcietics. acted injuriously on the Pope's hcaith.ti The 
physici^ir^ considered Uh case very serious, but the detAilit 

* IL Oranbili In GTirsriNMrv. Dispoct^ 11., 4^0. G. L^neri^ in 
n *D»pntcb of 13U1 Kuj;- *iOh iticn^xmi the Krious ilbcia af two 

t This dace Ugiveo in Ca«al>ilt'» DMptrh inGiusriMUM, Uisprorii 
II4 ^59 ; ID (hf Utter, p. ro3| we find the [norninir of 141U Aui£. 

I GlCtTlKlAK, DIspaco, H .450- 

3 /Jguf, [OA,4;9, (firipazrhorCotitablliof Hth^i^.) G L CatanBO 
refXiition t4Ui \az-i *£l paia^ iIicijuq c sc^lu f^tLu i:4v*r M»4(ue ilche 
jn firtt d« <|t>^lj Umpi « in tii ot:^ bthot iuJioiT all mcdiei. El dudvi 
tu fa fchn; cam vamiln. Gotirayii Archives, Mannia. 

U Co«Ubiir> Dupttbh rir 16th Aiiif,, 150.3 YoiciiUy tlur V'nx wni 
anai bene; boggS fr nOmito cl par>Hi4ruo; he is jn bed with frvcr. 

(Snie Arrhivn> MfiJeiiH,> QC Giumr«MK, Diapatr-i. 11., in. 

5 Ciu^tTincuv, Dupatcl, IT, 111, 112. BuhcziaiU'E.oti the ccnirary, 
Myt (Danum, JIU aj^j (hat ihrouifhout hi« lllntt.* Akxftndtr o«var 
OQCC HKniii^nctl cither Cj^mf of Lui:rutd. G KtcohOVIUS, VIL, 4^7. 
C(L J (49^ cd. 4}, untiirl^ lay* miich rtrcB en lhi«. 



were kept AS secret as possible ; even Hcltntrdo Cosuibilt, 
the Fcrnircac Envoy, could 6nd out but littla According to 
a report of his the whole of the next day (i^thj Alexander 
vnci more sit ease and quieter, :^o that C>JSlabiU's «gcnt 
liupccl that the fever might not ceturn the followiEig day, or 
mily »l!^:IUly. Here the Pupe'H illness h ilislmdly desig- 
luttvila.*; ttirwdl-known Ttrsuna; It w;t?*fea.fe<l ihal itmiglil 
dc\'clop into a Quartana* On tht iStli h^ had a bad 
night, the fever nrlumcd wErh greater violencf? than bcforrs; 
and the case wan felt to be hopeless. AJexander mode hi* 
confession to the liiflhop of Carinola and received Holy 
Comnionior),+ In the Palace the greatest excitement pre- 
vailed ; m^ny lost no time in removing their property to a 
place of sccuntyl On the i8th Cic-^nr Ifor^a was better; 
the youiifier man had strength to battle against the malady« 
but fur AlexHnder, atseventy-tJirce, thcUst hourhaJ struck- 
Ahoiit G o'clock in the cvenmg he had 4 fit of suffocation 
and became iirtconseiom ; for a moment he came To him- 
»elf a^^in, but Immediately after passed away, about the 
hfiur of vejiperKHj 

* Sec AppcndiA, N, 9Rnd tOt^Dcspdtchcsof B.CfMUibiHof r$ib AujTi 
T5C'3 (State Archive, Modpna), »tic1 of^i, 1- C-aun»<iof th» «iniadit«. 
Aho BUKcriAKPi DtAtinmt III., 238, spciiki of fcbrii tcinana. 

f See Appendix, N. 9^ ^Dotpatch from IS. CcstabilJ, of i&th Auff., 
1503. SiCiavoNlX) Dt Losiri, 11,, jt^. and LEituchabdi Darning 
111-, 33a, GreOOROVIUS, V||„ 4S3-S4, ^- 3 f4V>-9<» «J- 4\ foU^^w 
iniC m deiloJ ermt, Cttltiicn^ES, in RavaialijUK XXX-, 391, speaks of a 
Itisiha]i Prfrr ef Cit)m »vho newr «kiind. 

2 Sec AppcnOiji, N. 9i lOi *Do|nichc« of the Femtretc and Maoiuui 
Envoysof iSth Au£,. i;oj, 

J S*t CiomKMN, i:»]«p:iDcl, W., ti^ r/f.; Ht'verutiDi Dvinun%fll, 
nyt, ftud in the Appendix, N. ir, "Dcspiitdi from G- L Cauiwo of . 
|C|th A»g> (Goniag^ Archivcu, Maniiui.) According 10 JCAN D'AlTTON 
(Chfcnkjunh. ftl J>col^ tl., 3J7 Piris. iS34-iS3}< the ft*iT\ of 
Alesiandcr'K dcntli ^-xtt received h>< tj^u XH, onlv four day« after the 
«veuL That of ihe declron of I'ius llh mched him at te •»« 




In conscquenioc of the siinuluiic^us tlltina of botli tbc 
r^i^c ami his soii, antl the rapid (Jccom posit tun of the bwly, 
which* considering tlic hcrat of the weather, vtAs perfectly 
imtural, ihie cry of poUon tt^s raised at once; but on the 
I9ih of AugiKt the M^intuAn Kn\roy writer that thrrc- tv-as 
nosortofgroundforsupposirgthis.* All the best informed 
contemporary writer? are here aj^reed ; neither the Venetian 
Ambassador GimtinUn nor Jnkob Iltirchard say ariythtng 
of poi^n. These men were in Rome at the time of 
Alexander's death, which GuicciarUmi, Bcmbo> Jovius> 
I'l^er M^jtyr. and Sanuto were not The narrative a|H 
tite latter ts sclf-contradlclory it\ many places and mii5t 
oWiotts^y be rclcgaied to the rcalfn offictioR.I U is clear 

It appatn ibKt there wns n rcffaUr pc« bchrteti Rome >nd the Pren' 
cunp. Sm Khuth, 36. 

* Sec Apptnilii, N. 1 1, ^llinpaich from G. L. Cdtancn, of i^ih Auf. 
Jto> Gonuj;! Arcbivci. Miniua. 

t £/[ G RBUxkCTS cnttcol iiivMXigauanin Airi:tno van Coraoio, n-14, 
«hidi B »I]c^;ally directed against ICuikc, who adhervt trkh a nnutge 
pttinfmciET tol^ theory of pcplvon, (i'#9(c, U3(, cd. ri&nd nr-,6*-?*, 
«cL7; and alto Rou). cndGcmw Vi>]kier, 170. In the 7nd cdiuon t1kc 
iTih of AujEuv is lEivrnLu ttir iLii* of Alrf^ander*! ilc;Llh,) Amon^recenr 
hoiATUm vciT few of any note A[I1 moiatoin Uui utitcnablc tbeovy. 
CABOk V^^S^tajid LaMaK«ICV, S«Cr«Ucr^:tAMr V^nisc, P( 3. No. X|., 
vberc ATexandcr \t uid to Lave been ponoMcd b/ Aiiiano du Coehcio, 
^ho had an undcnlnndini; with ItiD VtnviiMi C ovcmnioot, may b« 
mcDtioned- KayXALDi;Si,ad an.ijoj^, hid already dcdareilafpmia 
Un Ibeor/ ; bter Voliakc, iIjuj Mahihi. [-, ajoi Novaes, VI,, My j^^,; 
Asciiaacii, 1^ i4«> ; Numc^ aii t^.; Jouav, 154 «^,; Rev. Hbl., I.» 
310; RCUUOXT, JIL, I, n% Wttttr und Wdtc't Kirchen lexfkon, L, 
4A8, fd. 1; aud Ha»E. JjI^jU, V., 637 ««V'- ViUJ^ai Had ^iALTIxi in 
Ibc Arch. St. ItaL. 3 Seric, XXV[., 44B ; Villakj in D^spixcd di A. 
GpMlnian, L. p. XUt,, and MjrliLtvrtli, K, JS6; Alvj%I, 403 J*y,; 
Lord AciOSt, 167; Maurv m Rev. [fbu Xllt., 101 ; Gebhabi>T b 
RcT. dot Doui Moodcv, UCXXVi, (iStfO), i&S f/^.; L'kpivoii, 410^ 
MiUECjmvfmiMi, Vll!,»3SS: Cii-olla, 794; Ckrighton, IV,, 43,44- 
G.^:fitTT,£aK], Hial- Hcv.^ IX.(i394)>53S-339.i« die latest writer vho 




that Al«x&n<l«r succumbed to the ivdl-known Roman 
fever; one of tbe pby.-;idan5 thought th« actual death wait 
caused by a fit of apoplexy.* 1'he interval of se^-en or 
eight days bcCA<:cn the dinner and tho first appcaranccd 
of illness, iind the periodicu.1 character of th<^ lever Rt%, 
quite excludes the liypothcais of poi*on»t 

hudvall wi[]i lljisi^ut^LiiKi. Hv thinks U ixiwiible Itutt tb^ Pope tnayluw 
been poiooncij by one of his enemies, bm reje<ii, ns unpmvcd, die *xatt- 
menT Ihuf Ateit:in<l?r riit-fl nf a pnismi prepared by himtrlf fiir anorli^r 
nun, The tcutv^tt Uutt tlic Enj^lisli liii^idirijui lu^ been Luiublc to mine to 
ji dcfinilc oimclunon may be dut he h^ not followed the sloty of iha 
coiinc of the ninkdy m detnil, fiswet^nve enflravoiired, for the firei \\mtt 
to do. If he ^liidnhe vuM liii^e iipprclientlcd lliv Ijuc cKpliinition i^vrlut 
Jovitfb SSyV about Card iftjil Ai]ri:ino Caslcllc^'i. ikm cnmii^g oit, v^hich iio 
dcubr wv thut peeling which rak^s pb<!e m 10 tnoriy infrcttoui ctiteasei ; 
and nlikh is not odc of die symptoms of Any kind of p(»Mni> 

* GIV&TIMAH, Dispocd. ihy 1 19. On <kthcr physicians of Aloouider,] 
♦*« HAt>r-iF, lU., 340-3^%. cd. 3. 

t HorrUASN, Lchituch dec genchtlidien Mcdldni 616 Jcy-, cd. 4^ 
vriteft : *^ The first ftymptomt of poaonin^ by no means ]mm«diniely 
Ti^low in all raw* on the EWaJlowmg of ihp niniiius suhsianrc. Only 
Ok s^rDn^e^l coiroiJiY pui?uii'> jicT in!jLuitaiieoutly' - - . In rr^'aid Eu <dl 
othen A ccrlain ttirw clajdcji, vhicb v^riei between a few Tiiinu^e» and 
nnnyhouK ^ . ^ . In iruif pul^uiu and thoie which kill by leihAi^^ns 
a rule the synptoiiii* ^ on hum the nauincnt uf ihcit fml appcuvnc^ 
iMLdily iacreasin}; in inteniity until death supetvenes^ k ii very eneep- 
donal itut icrnpiiTury rrlixiittiin^ of them are found 10 ixcur^ . . , . In 
miitertl poiwnrni: auch Odc^s are very nurV observed, bui more fre- 
quvntly where the pcdbon Lt a, [uroocic'* AccorJinif ti> tXANPiN (Tmtd 
des piiftum ; */ Rt-i-. d. Deux Mondci, XX [ifi??! 376). if the »h>w 
poiMQ uKd by die Bor^-t ?vere ^inc iotrn of n<:!dc niw^nieux, it» ft^ion 
would h^ in il4 ncurc form, tirli^r a violeni inflammaTijMi of the ttomach 
tc^Ciithliitf cholera, And umting dcsiLb m fiom 5 10 j6 hijbi>, m civ a 
Ctrebro-apinal a^Ttinn (dehriiim, eohvuJaions, ponlyaiAX dcnth cnsiiinj; 
fat front I to 13 hfniti. In lia tiih-amiE fomi ir uouM nmntfeit iiseEf In 
general dcEanKCiiiejil of the d Kvstkin, with muacuUr weJuaeMt icienDi 
iarlkmniAlion of the Lidneyv ; e/ HorrUAKN, i^r. ^i/.^ 660 j^. Altt- 
asder'a vyn^iCOiDB hal no icsemhiAnce to Jiny of Ihetc trams. 1 am 




in accordance with Rom^Lii usage, Alexander wks burierl 
11 Uk emi cC lwenl)'-rour liour* Jn die Church of S, Arvdrea, 
then cafkd S" Miuia dclU Febl>re, adjoming S, Prt^t* 
The fbncftU v/s^a of th« simplest chantcCcr; the en^mici 
of the Bor]^ made no secret of their joy ; they loaded the 
dead man with abnsw, and cireulated a story of the devil's 
having come to fetch his noul.f 

Although socnc friends were not vrantmif who dtrove to 
draw attention to Alexander's better qui^litieft,* the general 
jtidgment OD the hfe and career of this unhappy man was 
a mobt unfavourable one.g When JuUus II-, wl^o uras an 
impSaeabttf enemy of tht- Rorgia, occupied the r»f»! Chair 
it became usual to speak of Alexander a* a " MaraAa " and 

isdcUcd ID my oUcmc^d friend^ Dr. A. Tichermok of Vienna, for thci« 

* OtTMrKAXDJ Diiuiuiii^ in>. 243- In ibc yt^ti i6ro ^culqJce's ic- 
Rairu "vvrt irantfvnvd to ibe SacriEty of the Church of S'^ Maria di 
^Inatrirua, where quire rrccnily ii inaThlf moiiiTn)rnt hat htcn [ilitcttX 
aiUkccndofthe Hgbt aisle in ric[noi> 1^ Alci^mdci VL ajiiJ CaIiiIua 
It], NOVAIE^V^ 19J, nOUci LtOKETTI, IlL, j!(9; imi UoltfL d« U 
K. Acad-dc la Hi*l {il^tXiasc. 3. 

f C/. MataxaUo ni the Aidi. Sl ItaL, 1 Seric, XV!>, ), m^iaj, 
Aftd ihc LcucF of the M jfijucfii of Monrua, ol sind Scpt> 1 503, m iha 
Apft. to CkKfjOROVJUS, Lucrnin Fkii>:>jt- li^-taj, S«e altiu a iJorni 
priDted in Venkc ia i$o9i in Arch. S(- LmiL. II-, \7 i<f- 

X See the Bitho[} of GnllrpoL't addre«i, ibb SefA, 1 $03, to the 
Cardin*]i« brfbrr thp/ rramA tlw CotcUvp. fram ihc ftnly krcvn copy, 
ooit Id the Hiiibh Muacum, i^ubliaUd by Gaknett m tho Enj^L 
Hiftt- Kdcv, Vlt- (i^3jf jiE ijy- Uamcn, tn liit Jud^icnt of 
Akxaadirr, alian? £u too Jiiudi Heiifbi lu lliia af^c^h. 

j O^ CamiUi XXU JW J-V-t NCTAH CiACOMO, a6/. A conitm- 
ponry ifi tJo^ogria, on rece]vm|{ Xhtt nvvrt of Alnmnt^^ft decei&c, vjr(>t« : 
ct sr^iuliuHiii iTifrriii>, Auj eL Kofn^giia, Vllt. (1890), 179- GoTTLonin 
\ht Hiw. Jjihrh,, VIL, 330 /(y-, pomti oui how, as time y^xiX on, 
&f;>finondo do' Concj'* opinior of Alexander grew sieAdily wor^, and 
«e ci^LulTy And the judgment qC Pctci Mirtyr en^wini; more and mote 
aevefc. See Buii»av«, ^ 


HISTOKV or Tim i^>PES. 

the iiTipcr?>oiiation of all that was horrible and bad. The 
noble Marcantotuo Alticrl openly cxpr»»cd IlU saLJAfactioii 
that itow *' all the BorgU had btcii U|jr(iotetl from the soil 
and cajit out a^ poisonous plants, hated by God and 
no>:tr>u« to man," and thin was by no mtMns the nor*t of 
the things that were *aid»* He was universally descnt>ed 
ftA a monster and every sort of foul crime anributcd to 

Modem cntical research has in many points judged him 
more fairl)- and rqcctcd some of ihc worst of the acciisa- 
lUin* against him,' But even though wc must beware of 
accepting withotil examination all the tales tcld of Alex* 
«nder tiy his conceinjK>rarie5» "even serious and boncst 
'historians are not wholly free from bias"; and lliougb the 
bitter wit of the Romans found its favourite exerciw in 
tearing; him to pieces without mercy, and attributing to him 
In popular p:L^c]Uinades and scholarly epi^tAmn a life of 
incredibk foviTnc^.^ still so much against hrm has been 
Icarly provedjl that wc arc forced to reject the modern 
attempts at whitc^vashing him a« an unworthy tampering 
with tnith.^ " The reign of thi« Tope, which la£t<;d eleven 

• 8eeL{NuptialidiMHrti>Aninm'>AtTicri,rd, Nardricci (Ronw, 1873). 
This work yroi begun l>clwc«n 1 fo6 and I $09, xtal proULbly liniaAlcd 
durnit lh« <ir»l yt«ir« of tj«0 X S«o HBUUCNT in ihe Ai\g. Zti\$, 

+ ty Vd V. of ihii wwlc, p. (». and stifint, pt 115. On 
Gukcardin^K v«Mici m rvgud 10 hJtii, »oe Kanke, Zar Kritik, 55*. 

cofUainc dhe remark : "WtcnaPrirtoc hugothjiniclf ihorouchlThaud, 
vwity en* CAMS a «U»t >i him, Jtnd ihtre ii no cnmv with wbidi be ii 

tX </ *|Wc'ioJly tvfif^, p. t to, rote* and ' tf/™, p. 1 74 
g RruMONrinfh^ Honntr Theol iJi^rafurbl., V4iS;<»\ti«6h 
II See J»^r-. pL 104 jfv- 
% 'rhi» ipj>lie» <ap&:i:Jlx to the wricing^ <4 OEivkr and Kernel See 



^ w&A & serious dEAft5tGr, on account of its wmrltllincn, 
openly pTDcliunicd wilh tin: most ^mwng cflioiitcr^', on 
account of iu equally on concealed nqx>lisfn. lastly* od 
acfoujit of his iiitcr Absence of all moral aeiin? both in 
public and piri\-atc lite, \rhich made every «ort of Accusation 
credible^ ftod brought the Papacy inio utter discrcnlit, while 
its authority 6tiU seemed unimpaired. Tboeo bettor 
qualities which Alexander undoubtedly did possess shrink 
into nothtng in the biitancc when wcij;hcd l^^lh al] this." • 

From a Catholic point of vicw> it is impossible to blame 
AkxAndcr VI. too Mrcrdy, and, indeed, he h^a met with 
his deserts from /EgSdius of Viterbo in Wis rci;^M of Leo 
X^ and later, from the Annalists of the Church, Raynaldus 
and Hansf^t It was the very lir»t duty of a Pope in thoic 
da)-t of (rtowing worldlireu to make e\-er>' effort to stem 
the tide of corruption; but Alexander, like any secular 
Pnnce, cared for noihinj; but the advancement of hit 

Vd- II. of thb Tork, p, 4^1 note *. ChdatTcl 's aricm^tU lo deny AkK- 
Aaikr's itnmcmbiifs haih before ftiid itft«r hi^ c1cv;hUi>n to tb« Papal 
lluone ar* na bnier, Df ma^hi fdtkwt Ch-intrcl in t)it Arch. dtii. 
EciJcsiuiiCQ^ Elf., 4S3 (Trcnlc, ;66^> LconcttJ aho i'oc'i of^cn too far, 
And Tachy *Tdi him, in ihc Rev. djci ha^ixc^i hcc\6s. AniienCf iSSIh 

* ReUmohi ia Wc!t»r tfnct WpIu's lurditnJrxikun, I-, 4SS i^,, 
ed. a^ (y, (kath. dcr Sudt Rooi, IJE., 1, S47 J^'> and the Dcumcr 
Theol LiL DI, V, (U70), 477 j«Y. Vn th« discredJL brcuifU on the 
l^psbfy \n ihft cjTfl of many of Jhf ncmi^n*, wc /^yV^, p, iji, iioJe J, 

t Aefridiui of MtciWi iudKiucnl ia m CutOOkOViUSy VIU 4*»i 
•d,3(^t^So>,cd.4). Thai of Ru>^-Lldu» luu b««n already quoted. S«e 
V<iL V. ofihk tnvlc, p, 3S5, MAf<si cxpfCHCS tdmself nJII tcian fmcr- 
j:c(icall]r m it noLc to T^yniiMu% XL» ^r^. Tlic Jouit Kctr in Scric* 
Rooui. Voatii^p, 396 (Aug^ Vind^ j;39j ciudut no attempi to d«lcAd 
Aletanderfmii s inoral pomX ofvirw, rtor doe^ DAMnKRGftx inhi« iMr- 
■Isobucli, 540 (Rcgcn»but8, iC^i^ Equally AC^intt modcni apolofpsta, 
(he Jmuu In 1h« Clv, Cal^^ 3 Strx, I.X., fiJ, 737, arc in accortUncc 
ttbh XUu«DC<fCG VoL II. of tlib work, p^ 4}3 Jjy^ notc'.u lo tlw 
bnfioeaibility of nhsbiLtatinic tbii Pope. 



famJly .• Even wh<!n the shock of his son's death recall 
him for a mointnt to the sense of his true vocation, h!s 
TL'j:.ent4rce was rf the shortest duntion, and he very scion 
retuntcd to his old ways and lived the immoral h'fc of the 
fi»cul&r sovereigns of his day. 

Thus he who should have been the firuardian of bis time, 
saving all that coxild be saved, contributed more than .^ny 
Other man to steep the Chuich in corruption. His life of 
unrestrained sensuality waa in direct contradiction with tl^c 
precepts of Kim whose representative on earth he waA;f 
snd to this he gave himself up to the very end of his days, 
but It is notewfjTthy that in maitcrs purely coriccrmng the 
Church, Alexander nei-er did anything that justly tle^rves 
blame; even his bitterest enemies arc unable to formulate 
nny accusation against him in this respect,* Her doctrines 
were inaintain<*d in all their purity. It seemed as though 
his reign were meant by Providence to demoti.strate the 
truth that though men may hurt the Church they cannot 
liarm her. 

In the Church there have always been unworthy priests 
AS well Bs bad Christians; and that no one might be 
scandalised by thTs, our T^rd Himself has foretold it He 
likens her to a field in which the tares grtiw up with tlie 
wheat; to st net fn which arc both good and bad fi«h ; even 
ftmongflt Hifl disciples he endured a Jud&«, 

Just as the intrinsic w^rtli of a jewel is not lessened by an 
inferior ^etttng, so the sin$ of a prie&t cannot essentially 
alfcct his power of offering sacrilicc or adminbtering Sacra- 

* HoFiXR, Kanutrophe, 15- Set also ha Xr^iuac aa Oic A«m 4«r 
Buiardm, ^6 rt^. 

* Even hi^ conlcinpomnes pointf J out tUi. £cc lh« satirical kner 
of ijM in Samh-o, IV, f i>-3f> yii. 

t Rauvokt, 111., >, 347 Jf?- C/. Vtnsoih, 424 J'?-; Ue3(Ccd- 

KvTH£a,Vlti,^9. Sced><jClUU0HTO)f,lV,4j. 



it« or transflnitting doctrinc^ The pcrsonfil holiness of 

»c priest U, of course, of the higJiL-st importance for the 

of the faithful, inA«much as he constitutes a living 

exunple for ihem to follow, and compels the respect and 

e rt e gj Ti of tho«e who are ouUicie. Still the goodness or 

badncftft of the tempor:uy minister can exercise no sub- 

stftntifti influence on the being, the divine character, or the 

bolineas of the Church ; on the word of revelation ; on the 

gcaiccft aod .<ipintua] powers with which ?<hc is cndo^icd. 

Thus, even the suprcmr: high priest can in no way diminish 

the value of that licavenly treasure which ht- ccnEn^ls and 

dupen^ec, but only ai a tie ward. The i^old rE?mai[i*i ^old 

in impure a« in pure handSn " The ?apal office belongs to' 

■ Mgher tf^erc than the personality of Its occupant for 

the tinw bein(^, and can neither ^in nor lone in its essential 

dignity by hb nintlinGss on one side, or tiis unwor^iness 

on the other.*^ Even the fint Pope, S. Peter, ha<l sinned 

deeply in denying his Lord and Mitstcr ; and yet the cRkc 

of Sttprcmc Pastor w^*. yivcn to Itim, In Ihe woriN of the 

great S- Leo: P^in tfigntias rtiam in imJi^ne iurttfe ntm 

t S«nnode Sta. ipi^ Ml. 


VEAH 1500. — KlHCT rOK Cf[»50MSItll* (W 

Junit-Ki: OF iHK 
TBS Press. — Missions (m Awkkica axd 
DEcrsinn in Ki!:GAHD to T»e Colonial 
Spain and Portuqal. 

ArfticA- — Papai- 



NOTWrrnSTAXDlNO the predominance of sccuUr interests 
tKrougbout the whole of the reign of Alexander VI., this 
P^>e wa3 not (nacdvc in nnatlcrs regarding the Giuixh. 
[n aU c^entialj, in itpitc of abuses, the government of the was stc^adily carried on; no doubt, lujwever, ihi* 
wa-% [Mitlly owing Id the maivcllous pcrfcdion of he^j 
organi<;ation. ^^ 

Like hie predecessi^rs, Alexander gave a hearty support 
to the monastic orders, enriched them with many privileges 
and did all he could (o secure nnd promote their well-being 
and their work. Innocent Vllh had in 14.90 granted to 
the Church of the Augustinian^ the same indulgences aa 
could formerly only be gained by visiting the stations in 
Rome Alexander VI. in 1497 bcitowcd on this order, 
permanently and exclusively, the office of Sacristan of the 
Chapel of the Papal Palace. From that lime a special 
prayer for the Pope was ordered to be said in all 
Augustinian Churches and Convents,* Thus the Order, 

• Empou, RuU. Ord Erem. Aug., 37, ind Koxi»c, Di« D«uttcb« 
AuroslincrcODirrcgvtiOD, 407, Sc« aho Cod- dipL Su., II, Vol. IX., 



which the moat violent ami ^nwerTul foe of Ruine 
to proceed, wa« bound Co the Holy See by the clocest 

Domialcams were not only cotiftrmed In their inr]uisa* 
tonul powers, but alio favoured in rmny other wi^ys. The 
Pope punished those who laid Kands on the property of the 
Order, eocoura^ dcrotion to S.Thom« Aquinas, promoted 
the reform and foundation of Dominican convents* and 
gtanteii to the Docniiiicdnfi ojual privilegi-i witli lht>se of the 
other mendioint orders, and the right of tHUhlt*hlogconfr»» 
lemitic* of the Rosary.* The old and very ex ten uive privi- 
leges of the Frartciscan^ were also conl^rmcd afresh by him.f 
Substantial favours were bcdtou-od upon the Confjregation 
of Canonit Rec:ular of S» Saviour by Ale^tandcr J and on the 
Ge3uat).§ The protection of the I'opc was afao extended 
to the Congelation of Au{^jitiman I [crmits in Italy^ vrho 
were known by the name of Apo&tollc DrotbcT£, Innocent 
VII r. in 14S4 had bntowcd on this budy a more autid 
ofg^ni«at>on by bindmj* them to oljserve the rule of the 
Hermits of S. Augustine and giving them a habit Alex- 
ander Vi. completed the work of his predecessor in a Bull 
of the year 1496. Among other things it was ordained 
that in future they might tahc solemn vows according to 
the rule of the AuguMinian Kcrmit», and enjoy all their 
privileges Their General rrrijdcd at 5. Roeco in Genoa.l| 
In the year 1497 ^e united the Cl^tcrcfan convents of Upper 

* ThneaAlhoriaubn* u« 10 be fouutl ifi the Hull, OiU- PtaciU IV,, 
44, 09^ roi, iij, llE^ I30, 133, 133, 166, 190, 

t In a Bull thx. Rein«, jih feb, rj^r, «hich is to be foun*! in MS, 
in the Libniry of thn OiileT st -S. H^M, bi:i <loul)iless lias al>o been 

X BulL Cuuaic. nstsl. Cemg. t. S^I^atoris (RomAC, 173J], f- to$ st^- 

imd XVeltK'S Kirchenkxikon, L, mt. rriM-cL 3. 




itid Central If;ily into one congregation, to wliich ht gai 
^le name of the Congregation of S. Bernard-* 

In 1494 the Order of the Kiiighu of S G^orgic, and in 
ISOr the Order of Nuns founded by S.Jane of VaJol* for the 
closer innjtfltion of t^ic Bic^^cd Virein, received the 1'apa.l 
appfobation-t A more important approbation wu that 
bestowed by him on the Order of S, Francis of Paula in 
1495, and in 1505 on his Tertlaries. to whom he granted 
many piivilegcs.; In ihcycar MQf* tl"c Pope reconstituted 
the Order of the Hdy Se^iulchre^g Alexander VI. fre- 
qnently came; forward a* the protector of convents against 
Ihcir opprcs^rs. whether ecclesiagtical or iwcijlarjl and 
ener];«tically withstood encroachments on ilie liberties of 
the Church, 

In this respect Alexander'^ altittidc in regard lo 
absolutist pretensions of ihc authorities in the Ncthcrlan 
is cspcciary interesting. In spite of the supinencis of the 
clergy in llmt country, who look no notice of the infrlnge- 
raerils nf their privileges and imniLJiiitie'^H the Pope acted 
with tlie greats! decision. Quite at ihe bt^ginmng of hU 
reign he threatened the magistrates of Brabant with ejt- 
eommunication, but they rcfuMjd to desist from Their en* 
croachmentft on the ri^hti of the Church. ImmediatL^ly 
he addro3^d himself to Duke Philip of Burgundy, point- 


t HnivitAtnus, aHan. 14^0.41 


t Hull . V^ (51 j<v-< 3B0 j^, Applkaika had iilrc^vly been' 

under Innof'vnl VHl, to obtain ^h« Sppivval of (h« Holy See for tfao 
Orttef. Thi* appcttfi finrn 'Lib- hrev, iB, t 214- Seerei Ardilv«i ^ 

j Mi&UN, HciligtOrte, 31., 309* EXAd " Du HciUgn Lind,' ihe 01 
of Ehf Vcrrrn worn H- Giafie, XH , 3J. Koln, 1866, 

II The *Uui\s of ittfh Aug,, I49?> '^ri tlic Suic Ardih'ca ai 
{S. Chum di Uortona), and of ijih Dfc,, 1497, in tlw Ar«h<v««of 

PriiKC-Biitliop of Bnvn» an itiitnnfvi uf iliu^ 


ing out how the liberties of th« Cliurch were v^Utcd in hts 
ciotninion, cificcvtity in Bmbaiit, and calling o^ion him to 
put a stop 9t once to ihcsc procL^edini^s A Brief waft 
desjiatchttl to ibe Bishop of Li*^e, ^liarp'y rebuVin|^ liim 
for having neglected thedeOnceorthcrightK of The Church, 
&nd for not having :nfofnic<} the Holy See, and command- 
ktg htm, under pain of smpon^ion And huer^Jjctt to repciiT his 
fiegligencc without delay. Similar letters^ were written lo 
many other persona who were in «[K>3ition to have Influence 
in the Kcthcrlaii<b.* 

Alexander look paiu^ on many occa-^Ions to promote 
dcvotKM} to S. Anne f and thL* Blessed Virgin. In re* 
gard to the Uuer, the ofdinance reHoTiiig the ringing 
of the Angdufi in August 15OO, wa* ati act of wide 
and lasting imp 'itanccj No canon i sat iirins Xodk place 
during this Pipe's reign, but aeveril cau-ies wore intro- 
duced, aiK) the ir%-<:st lotions in rcg:ard to conduct And 
cnirftclcs were conducted with £rC4t care and clrcufn- 
spection. Tapal ir»truction:t on thc«c points arc to be 
found in connection with Bisliop Itennt^J Henry VI. of 

* Pa^lkukra 4^ lo b« found in CAtfClltRi Mia>icm aux Anhit-o 
Vaiiaui««. tt 13. Btuic11h« 1S93. 

t Sev 5cHU'HKF.LU Dtfr Culms derhl AnnA, 31, aS^Utougti ii con- 
taifu «cnous miNipptehcniioiik. C/- ScuMrrt \a lh« KniHoUk C]893)i 
LI,, 351 f^.> ^Lnd tlj« !^c<nn(apbbtt of the Berlin Conrvma (iS^^), Xe. 
10. On the vcnentJon nf S- Anne ii^ Ehr i^th Onmo't^^^^ ^^i-K in 
tl« Kalholih Ira7S\ Utosf^^ 
I LRJKCHAaDJ Dflfinm, )I|.. 71, S« ntpt-t, p, 79. 
) <^ Uic Dritf oF Atcmmler VI. it> Ujv Buliopcrf NikumlniriE uiil ihe 
AbbauofAltKlkandBuchxnCod, DiplS«x.,2, lllr,3£8 sSg. 
The vditDT, G^ndarf, mt«plncfffl Ihit hnfl, ihittna ic 41b Apl, 1493, brfnre 
ihc ckctJcA of AicbLrjtlcr VI. Dui Ihc liilcm the copy used by GerKbif 
■ i> : dk 4 Aprilit* MCCCCLXXXXK p, n. anna stptimo* which woult! 
I carty It cm to 0» year H^fJ^ and Ihii afjrp« ndmirvbly with (he following 
I curaa inthc *AaaCon±iat.. KmnM, 4 Maniii I4W It. IX Scticn kirit 
I wt m nrtm quiruadxiii LrUVTnivLnducuinSa»fiJCirpre[AD>r^ v. epiicoponim 




E»^g[hr»l/ an J S. France* of Romc.t Amongst other 
ccclesiaslic^il acts of Alexander Yl. should be men- 
tioned his confirmation of the Bull of SixtuH IV. on 
the Immskculate Concoplioii of Our Lady, J and m 
the ya^t 1 SOir his :iRirmati;% decUior of the question &£ 
to whether it was allowable for the Bi:;hop Albert of 
Wilna to take up arma to defend himself fig^Inst the 
Tfirtan^ Or the soth of Au^u^rt of the «imc year, he 
declared the form of baptism in whkEi the po-^fivc mood 
Is used (which is customary amon^C the Ruthenca In 
Lithuania and olhimi of the Grevik ritL-) to be valid, and 
forbade the rcitefalion of the Sacrament ; grounding hfit 
decision on that of Eugcnlus IV.g On the 8th of June, 1451^ 
he wroi« to the Grand Duke of Lithuania, admonishing him 
to do everylhi]»E in his power to persuade his consort 
to *' ftbjurc the kussi&n rcli^ion^ and accept the Christian 
Faith."ll In the year 1496 Constantinc. Prince of Georgia, 
lent the BuiUfm monk Nilus to Rome with overture* for 
a reunion in religion and an alliance against ihc Tuflcs, 

er abhn:. ei rifihil Ular. pnrtium qiten-inilmodum *lia* frtqiiemer *erp 
scnint c;io cj|jjuiiu^;^aiic bcati Bciaionis quumdom cpiscDpi Mitneii}^ 
quern dnium min<:iil)s cnrnjhokre. El cinn i.i:mp«r rviiiiuit iuermt ttA 
pones pro iiuer^iotktndi Enam^ proof m iimitibu? arduit cau«it fit, Twvis- 
siine otnnca rc^crpMrunt JnyUolbsinv tuppliontcs ul nuaa cuieniB- 
ikinii vd (ullttii laforriuiionii reniin UlMrust commitictrtur^ 5, D. K^ 
omnjLiUi inif^llcctU i\^Ui'tt ^iiotl f^ni comminio r>^r hrpvft iltinbot 
cpLacopis cl dijobui nhbaiibui pio gnivjuic ret ui lIIj dc junatis se la- 
fonnaninE et suis htitui *i* S" pMicji tefertcnt. Lbtr rtkL Cemiitoni, 
Tv. C JU3, f. jS. CDtiilstoriil Archii-cs irt ihr Vaiifan. 

• WiLKtN^ III,, 64a i liEHOENRornER, VIM- 364. 

t Thq ex>LTi;riiCion of ili« cauE? aveu cntnuiccj ii> ihive Cnntituli nn 
4ih Much, I4Q4» See Cod. tn Ccnoigiarol ArchivK died ia previocn 

J I-KA, IIL, 60J. 

S For documents qq ihlt point, -ice KuoimkOTHKRi VKI^ J! 

T»B JUBrLEB OK 1 50a 


Alexander in reply scnX him tlic Decree ol the Couodl of 
Florence and other informalioii i^u iIk subjccL' 

In Bcoord&ncc with the decr^ of Piul II., that each 
t«tcaty*lifth year should be a Jubilee; the yciir 1500 was so 
krpt und^T Alexander Vh, and preparation for it wen 
bcguo in >49&t 

On tbe 29th March, 1499, the Jubilee Bali was diftctiuod 
ID Cotft^tEtory, and it was decided that Ul other ijiduIg<inctA 
and r^icultiee should bo ^u^fiendod duiing ilua year.; AU 
the Cardinal* gave tbdr ardent to thu List resolution, 
irbkb in many places and cspcctall)- in Gcrmmy. ^avc 
conajdcrable din&ati^faictton,§ and on tlie s.iine d^y the Bull 
wu pub6%hcdi. On the 22nd Dcccmbi^T a similar Ituli was 
brought out in Ronic In Latin and lulian, granting spedal 

♦ K4WALM;s,aidAn, r496.n. ai, aa ; Heroekr^IHBr, Vlir,, 390. 

f Tbe finr tbing tlat «k donr ira* tn artrnd in thp impKWTmrnr md 
pvniniC ID ottkrof thc>lrccaiifi<I bi^dgc} m Koij>c. Foi piitn^uU^tt lec 
ih« ki(b«t:t|E Clapt«r. 

; 'Kocuc m die Jnm uiKrt1XXVEI[. MuniU ^499' Cum S. D.N. 
AxJawi vcibum dt puUkuciunc bulle pio 4nno jubibri tentc^ijno pieximc 
futuio cum »cpcfi»tonc omn^uin olinrvni i iidulg^eniianinn pknii^fjaixim, 
fiutiTtatum tt o:"nce»*roTni[n <|L;ibujrt'ii loci* ft ptr*on»4 trl)i([up ifrr^ruin 
qtlibtuvii cjLiuU ct mtionibuH unte hxo i.i>ni;c»>af um ;«■: ctJAiii Ijucnirum 
dettfper confcctanJin uiqne ad anntun finitniu ipfiuK julji[:ir^i ut nugna 
rum frtqareiui UfulDrumiiir (v^nniuliter HinhtifMlcIrt kIiI iptum celfr- 
braftdum Acccdant. fnit ob ojimibua ctunnicndutuni ui 6crcc Ub. rcbl. 
ConinL lonipon pontd. Alciandn V^ in die XN, Nov. i49K, utqu* in 

dim V, lulti 1499. di- C. 303, f. 4^- CotiaiiEnriu] Ardiivn of the 

J Ucdet vbo KaiBcribci^ wai one <^f ih«e who wet* diEpleiucd at tfiw, 
00 arraurt of Ui^ $rrJH iltvfrtinn to Indulgmcr* ; </. Hi*l.-PtJ Bl, 
XLVJIt*. )iM "t^- The wntcf of this aitidc Mp he is unable to a^ 
nhdheror not A^xander VI, xtojj th« lint to d^c^re^iht^ ^uipcntjon. It 

il HM aot a new thing- Venice cndcovounsd to <J>iain vi cacii^ioo 
from Jt(0p«rKiOn, Sm Savuto, I, 490 i/f , 




privileges 1o the J'cnJtcntiary or S. J'ctcr ; ami alJ 
clergy of the city were tnritcd to the opcnioe of tbd 

Tlie Pope hioiseir iierformcd thi» ceremony on Clirirtnns 
Eve, 1499, li'iving Laki.'n palna to witle all the details be* 
forcl\anJ with hl« Master of Ceremonies. The ceretnoDtd 
observed on these occaiion^ wa« no modem invention, but, 
as the Bull of indictioii expressly says, u^as founclcd o» 
aocicnt riles and full of symbolic mcaiiin^' The Pope was 
Ukfricd to S. Tctcr's Affaycd 'w Aiil pontificalt, holding ft 
gilt 1[|;litcil taiiillc m one hand and blessing tbc people 
wClh the other All the Cardinals and Prelates who 
accompanied him alfio cmied lighted candles The pnv 
cession stopped in front of the Church, and the Papal Cltoir 
b^ui the usual Antiphons. Then the Pope proceeded on 
foot to the so<allcd sacred door, where a hammer was put 
into hid hand iu token of the poMrcx entruiftod to him, in 
vktue of which lie "oii^iictli aud du mat^ rihiittclh , sliuttrih 
and no man npcneth " (Aji^ic, iil 7). With a few blows of 
tl» hfliDmcr he m^de a breach in the w'<t1l with which this 
door is d<jftcdr Ibe bricks having already been looMncd, aikd 
the rest Wtis clcnrcd away by workmen l^is port of the 
ceremony occupiod about half an hour, llten the Pope, 
holdjn^ the lighted candle in hb Ic^ hand, entered fixsl. 
llie mt rollottinK, while the Tc Dcum was intoned ; 4ftcT 
^^^ which Ve7*|>cr^ wttrc. sung iinmedialely^t 1 

^^B On the I4lh of April the I'opo visited the four prir)C^)ttl.^| 

W cburchcit tn order to gain the Jubilee Indulgence. On 

I £«ter Day he cdetirated the Mi^h M<iss in S. Peter's, 

^^^ and aftcrwa/ds gave the solemn blc^ing and abMlutkm. 




* ftuaouM-t Diarium. IL $<4 «<t- ^- 'l>cHi»<k ctf G. 
CBtanco to tht Moti)u«s ef Haamtt Rome, tyk 1>k-, 1449- 

t DcacHAU>i DiuiiiQv 1]-> S9&"7- 



Acconltri|{ to Hitn Itiird, the crt^wil which as^isttfc! nl tliv^H! 
«olemmt>eK nnmbew^d 2oo<ooo ppraons.* Although this 
fn^y be an exa^craiion,'t Atill It is certain that, in spltft of 
the troubled of the Um«a and the inseeuhty in Rome itself, 
the numbers aUcndlng this Jubilee vrere very Ur-c^ Kvcn 
in December a vast crowd of pilgrims pA55cd through 
Mofcncc! A Dull to provide for the safety of the way- 
Iaicis oci their joumcy was Issued hi Ftbrudry , § atnd many 
precautionary mcasurt-'i were adopte<I to mnintsin attlcr in 
Rome,', though they f;iilcd to prox-e completely effcctuaL 
Ne^'erthclofis visitors still continued to arrive. A piou« 
CsmAldolese mork was ^r^nUy eonsoted by the sight of 
90 many thousvids who had not perished in Sodom, " God 
be praised/' he cxclaimod, " who haa brought hither so 
many m:nes6cs to the Faith/'l "All tht? world was iti 
Romc"(<>rlni in uibc)^ wutcs Sigi^mondo de* Ccnti.** No 
diflficiilties or dangers soemed cap;ib)c of fhc^cking the 
inflow of pilgrims shewing how deeply rooted the Faith 
stilt wa* in the hearts of the various naltons. Not a few 
succumbed lo the Tlagjc which was raging in many parts 
of tJic Slates of the Church. If Thoic who came by sea 
were in danger of bt^ing captured by pirates, and Alcxandt^r 
sUtinnrtl a crui^rr at O^tia for their pmrection By land, 
the Italians csp4?ci.ilty sulTi^rcd much from the hated 
French lroopi» nevenhcleM a great number appeared.;! 

• BtfaCNAftlil Darium. lIKt n. 37. 

t Thi* tecen proboblc, u BuacifAltr^ IIU 3^ ooly mcDttoo* 
iCOyOOO pilfcrinu- 

§ BuaClMRtil Dbirium, IK^ t^ tf^. 

* FcLnja Dclvihiniii iii RAyNAl.nrSi, ad an- 159U, n. I. 

•• SlULS»0.<<&0 els' QOVTI^ II, il3. 

tf C/. Diario di !>«r Tommi40 di !iilv««titi» ^3$ ti^. 



Thmisanda amved from Gcrmary, the Netherlands, and 
Hunf;aiy> *' Men and women, wzttowK and maidea«, monks 
and nuns," says Triihemins, "came flockinjj to Rome lo 
gftin the Indulgence.'" In the Con fraternity- book of the 
Hospital oi S'" Spirito in Komc in the month of January, 
1500. not le^3 than 150 Hungarian pilgrims arc entered, 
and in the course of llic ytar tlicy nuriibt--rcil more than 
jOOtf Nor were the Italians behindhand. The Neajinlt* 
Ian* had a proccsMon of their own, tn which the venerated 
picture of S"' Maria del Carmine was carried, many scouring 
themselves a^ they walked till the blood came.J The fact 
that the deaths of foreigners in Rome between Christmas 
and S. /ohji's Day were estimated at 30,800, shews hour 
large the number of pilgrims must have bccaj 

Amongst the cdcbrilks \*ho made this piignm^c* the 
first to be mentioned is Nicholas Coptmicus, who amvcd 
in Hume ;tbinit Ra^ti^r, and remained there a whole year. 
He Irctnrrd then, btJt nor, as \s almost nnrucrsally sopposc^ 

• Thnnhftfii, Chr^nkon Hirviiig., li., 579 (S, nam, t69oj. C/, 
SAyUTO, I1J-, 13$, Many undcitook tlkc piljEii^iia^ for ihc IkiicCi uf 
the SoaLi m PuTH^tory. A hrgn number of lumi t«i% m wilTi to defray 
thb fnpcnsa of pilj^mnfrfi 10 Rctmr nit mvnr'irmvil in the * Tfttamtnttrr^ 
StteA of ike Imperial f(Cc<ityor Pfc^buje, Vd. t, <i427-iS^V Thcic 
ifi hardly a Wilt which 601s* not contarn a bequest for rhijt puq30i«. In 
1493 ^^^^"^ 7 such; in 1494, I ; I49i, a; I49^l; U9H. I : MSft >! 
15«M i 1501,3; 1505,3; :503^ 3 1 1504, 3 ; 1503. "i '^^%i >5o^ 
<: "5". J; ^5'»t 3; t$*i> a I "S<5» ^ : 151^ ' i "S»7, j: ">r5, aj 
15191 3' ■^'^ ■ : ^5^31 ^ After thjB ihcy duuppctr, omoic to die riie 
of Luthcmniun. Suie Archives, Preialiiir^. 

f Mfin. Varjt;in, hitt, rv^i Hitnt^irici illmtiancia. Serial prinu, 
L V. L\\xt Coitf S, Spiiiiua Je urbc (IiudAp<»uni, 1889). ^. SaHuio, 

in.. 35^ 

I LA«mJCei, 310. C/. Arch. St, NapoJU., VIT., lOj ; VI 11^ 530. 

3 SnrMPF, 4$J; HAVttUANrf, 11-, 104' An -if^cd piljErim, Lutoa of 
Thorn, apparently x rclnitve of CoppcmicuiL, ikcd in tb« HMpitaJdel 
Ajknnx in 1 £00. S«t HrPLU, Anal Warm^ 169. 


DLSTIMCUISHtn i'nj;iCtM5 in ftOUR. 


in the cApadty of a niatheouitical profctiftor al th« Hiftii' 
■chooU bat a5 » private teubcr, p%ing the lectures frcetx, 
«coofxlinf to the custom of the time, Amongst his licarcrs 
were msiny distin^ishctl oiul Learned men. Mtctiad A iigclo 
and AlrJAandm Kamct^ t.Afti^Tw;«r<is Paul 1 1 L)4rr supposed 
ID ha*¥ bdcn amongst them.^ Of Italian pilgrims one of 
the moit notable was Elifabetta Goiua^^a, the wife of 
GuEdobaldo of Urhina It wan a pcrJloui; enterprise, a< at 
that tioM Catsar Borgia was planning hi« att^ick on Urbstio, 
bat in spite of the dissuasions of her brother sht insisted 
on undertaking it She went Incognitn with one or tiro 
attendants, and only remained a fcw days, merely long 
a^<ough to gain the Indulgeiic&i Thi;* lady, and numbers 
of olhcr women, v^crc only bmtight to Kotne. where ihcy 
muit liave seen so much to giieve them, by gcnoinc piety,* 

* FaowivCopiMmicus 1^ ^tqj^. (Bcrlm, i3£3) : Hiplcr id ihc LiL 
|tiinilftc^ui(l8S4hP-305i Ix^iiMAVEKinSybct^^itKhr,, LVn., »i^. 

L(-zio-Kcz4iER, MadIuvx e UrUinu, 104 fr^. Eicvic L, Duke of 
Fcnmn, iau aba purposing to come 10 Rome for th« /ubilee, but wo^ 
pt a itf ut i i by a bli frc>m hi* horr*. Sm •Lerter frnrn ll* I>uk<i to *;. 
U. Fcrmri of izil} Jan^ 1^00. SuEc Archives, ModcitA- 

t UIm the <icTTtian kni^H A. r^u HatH, \\icta^H, in ih« >ttu- 1497, 
of the Kenw of th* Horjo* Ima a[i«idy l»cn mid. A similar Impra- 
9100 IS oonvoed in the wixd> of a RhineLuider wlio hail Iwcn ia CiuiL 
Bri^^finct^t vcrx'i^'c, T«tni]<ii by Vcitori. *' Lf you o^k nw why I left 
Itftmr. 3 aniwpr ttur we Khin*bnrlen ;iw good rTiti»'i:»nt^ ami ha\r 
rvul aad licaitl Juu Lht Chhfltan JUith hA> been foundcil ^1 iius Uowl 
<if the ETunyn* and i^^od morals, ind many mimdo^ ^ thai ii woald be 
nnprssihlfr for anj.- nnr who Iivrd hrre l« |-irrnmr an mihrUrr^ir Rin I 
QMOt aeMcial ytan in Aocncandsaw the Itvu IcJ by Uic Prclatn and 
iftfntW <t^ and kjid 1 ttayvd thare ftny lont^^r T mIkjuU luvc bcon in 
danger not only of Iminj my taiih, bui of b«comknfc art Cprcureaii 
and doubting die iiiunonality of my «]uL" Sec VCTTOM, VUj^o in 
Aleott^a, 35-26 (Pitn*, 1837). Tht folbwingr, being d«riA-^ frmn 
tbononatii-Mof Ihr jvhJln|)i]|cHin-j thctmHv«, i«L ^till inorpmieresTin^: 
^*}n ibai Mtnc golden ycai ( 1500), anSS, I'eter and r^ul'i day (June ^J), 



Even tho*c who, like Sigisfrondo cU?" Conii» were fer from 
being hostile to the Borgta, could not conceal thdr di*- 
3pf>ra\'al of Akx^ndor's unrestrained nepotiflm. C 
was incessantly asking for money to carry out his enter- 
prises in the Kon^agna, and hb father, without another 
ihought, handed over to him all the receipts from t 
JubileCn which, as Sfgismondo says former Popes, such as 
Nidiulas V. and Sixtus V, had employed in restoring and 
■idornTng (he churches of Rome.* 

Towards the end of the Jubilee year Rrnne was vi!*ited 
by a great calamity. On the ist November, an cyc-wiinesfi 
writes, after several days of fair the liber began to over- 
l!ow, and the hoii.scs along it* banlca were ttoodcd. la! 
two more days the Vatican wa« cut off from the rest of the 
city, and on the 4th Che waters rojic lo such a height that 
many chitrchc:^ and houses were Hooded* This hi^h water 



tfccit ^*ai a Jcarful stomi In Ron^c, so tcfiibic thai ptopk thouj,-hc the 

Cily And All iM nihalnlAtiU W{>ukl he 6v>itmymil ; untC r.l» Hopc'i pilAi.^ 
tfUAtmck by liKhinin^' mdtur hi mself woiidiLhI iti ihr arm. Thii ome 
Pope hAd ni [hikt lime a itouK^ier (LuctciJA tkiiteia^ iit Hoiiic, wlio 
lived in grtiii poinp and wju icen by ttc pilgnnu, Ai^d lh«) could 
i«ll iiiHnyihin);«<rf Vt- Hr hn'S aIViv^cI hrr roi.ik«,and had htiOMlf 
Ri\cn Iwr 10, aihiiU hiisbtuid [AlicjnM d'EiEc, l^ukcof Perrani),a1dMUSh 
hflr two hr»t htiilufidi tL-Kiwinni Stbriji, [onl of I'etani, a»J AJfdn*0 
of At3i*^ii- nacufal ion of the King nf NaiJlet) wcir still alive ; if one 
dnc) not picnic Kcr -.he &3W9 for Anoihcf, Ont of ihnc fi>rukcn fbmrwr 
hi.iibaT)d« of hen rt^vn^d tiiir^t^itf on tli« I'opc't ion, who, being gone 
oui on n lr>ve (vJiciuuti:, t^ic oilict wuiLJicd for hinJ und cruelly aubbcd 
hiA\ and thnew him intit the Tibei. tl «u connmonly anid Amongsi the 
piigtimt ihai ihib Popfi «» not in grral favour with the acij«nt of 
Rcujic/' Ncuc Miiiheilungep aui dcm Gebicte hittonKli-aQCiqwi- 
rift^hcr r^vrtchur^ik, XV-, I, (HjiUr, jE8a} (V. ChronicaliAche AutsoicK- 
nungen lur iip«Li, dcr Smdi Italic vom Jahrr 14^14-1513, Von t>fb^_ 
WhV;*itkk 111 Urcklaa^ p^. tai-iij. ^M 

• SiGi'iMO'yiJO i»t- CONTi, IL, aiB; On Jubilee coins, see Nothrm," 
fil i on ilic Pii£rtiiLaf« lil«niliir«j Ust Falk, Umckkutisl, £7^10?^ 



\ssXed fihccn itoun, Ahix whkh the inundation vub^tidcd; 
but the 4Lifer(s were srnotiicrcd lik mud aitd hardly |fAs&ab1& 
People consoled thcmicKe* as bf^i they could by saying 
it was not as bod ^^ xhzx of ftvc yc^iirs before* 

In December Uw JuUtoe in Rome was prolonged until 
the K«ast of the Kpiph&ny and extended first to the whck 
of Italy ind then to the whole of Cbrwiciuiom- According 
to thc^' BLjlI;^all ChmLiana living &l a distance from Rome 
m^ht. m the following >xar, gain the ^rcat Indultfcncc with- 
out visiting the city, by fulfilling ccitAin conditions a.nd 
paying a certain sum.f The Vo[x left n\] moneys collected 
in Venetian itiriiory in the handi t»f tJK Republic for the 
war a^in^ tlie Turkic, J The same thing ua^ done In 
ToJaad, though there the money wa* T»-r employed for the 
purpCrM Specified. J In Italy, C%£ar liad the elTrontery to 
tppropriate the lubilcc moneys on his own authority. The 
tlorcntinc hiatorien Nordi relates how his cmissftrics 
appeared In Florcnoc and demanded the money in the 
Jubilee che^t, ^ to cujiblc hmi to ^iny the soldiers who wcic 
plundering us. and It was no small sum."|| Tlu? knowledge 
ihaC these things were done goei a good way towardn 

• tetter froiu llruidolino in hKOtA^ 1^5 st^. C/. Bukchahpi 
Kknasi, IIU £4 '^^ »^^ Samjto, 111-, 104S, [063, The doiv in 
KfiUMOin-, 111,, J, ^34, Lfi iiuicrrurttt*, 

f C/UvHUUkRDi Diarcm. II„Sfij<v-, W w?-; Diariodi Tommaifl 
diSflvcaUO, 149 i t-AKUL/CCt, iXt; Notar GlAC0Kn>:j7; ALli Mod,, 
1iJt^^7$Jif.; SOtHT^,^ sty. In *AIPX VI. Secret- lib- V (KcgciL 
S71), C ii ib a Bull ^L Kojiuc, i^OE, Id- luM A° i/\ which Kianu a 
pwktngation ot the Jubilee to iht diy of Facnvi' Also ih'tl^ t 14^ i* 
a Bum omnibM Fr«ncia« wtgnit dc rcnot'ition* iniJulgi<<ntmr. JubiM, 
ibt- RoBuc^ 1^1, cjuxirtiitdccimo C^* Fcbi. A" it^. Secret Aichiva of 
tbc VAdcao. 

I Conn, DiKOTtto f^apn It Annn>e di Itoinu t;«i recoil dt mcuo. 2j. 

Komo, 1S47- 
f CAft<xV,,a,Si3J^. 
Narui. Ul Fioi, Mb IV. 




explaining the resistance which thr^se who were commia- 
aioncd to prtach tlic jubilee In^iule^ccs met wiih in 
SwitTirHand* as well as in Germany. CarcHnal Pcramli 
haJ to jiul up with all sorts of harassing rc^rictions in 
ih^ ^fTipir«. and to UTideriakc that all the money there 
collected thoufd be handed over uncouched to the admmfe 
Iration for the CniTs^Het 

Thlsi Cardinal took advantage of his v-isit to Germi 
to endeavour to do something for the rcvivml of neligkm 
amongst the people, taking up to some extent the work of 
Nicholas uf Cus^ tic himself preached to tlie common 
people, though he had to employ an interpreter. He 
<levoteiI himself especially to the Tefomi of the convents, 
many of which h^t\ beennie sadly relax eti. He al^o 
laboured to put down concubina^'e amongst the clergy, 
and, on the other hond, to defend their privileged jtnd th« 
|jl>erty of the Church.J 

If Alexander VJ. did nothintj towards the reform of 
the Church, yet he was not wantinf; in earnest care to pre- 
?iCTve the purity of her doctrine- Hi» Censorial edict for 
Germany, dated 1st June, i joi, is a very important docil- 
ment in th]« respecL ^_ 

tn this, which is the fir^t Va.^a\ pronouncement on thvfl 
printirp of books, it is declared thai the art of printfnR b 
extremely valuable in providing means for the fflultiplica- 
tion of approved and useful bcol<3 ; but may be most 
miacbicvoua if it ia abu^d for the dissemination of bad 

* C/. Haviiaiawk, n.» 104. Or^r^ inrmrt on thin *i»l>jw:t, ^frta 
theiG oti KeifcEierS Autlioiily, h a latr iiory. 

t Sec /ir^, p, c/j. 

I Pann:«ilar* in Hl-ar.KNuni irtH, Vllt,, 36T. Card. Peratidi ktOMl 
a pTOcUnuition wLiJclu is &i an I kaoo, lui nciet beea printed, daL ,, 
as>l) March, I joj, anivouncin^ thai AJcNandcr VI- had cnipawcT«4l 
la undfTtLke a treneriL vL^imtion oT the ConventA in h'm Lagvlc 
Fcuikf. Cay Aidtiict, CijpL A. Uik., n. jo. 

niE ctiKSORSiur or books. 


Tbcnibrc measuf^* mu^t bo taken to restrjtin 
pdoiera from reprodudnj^ writhij^ directed ^^nU tfa« 
Catholic Faith or caktjtnted to ^ve scAnd^il to CAlholi<:«. 
The Fopc has been credibly inrormcd, that in m^ny places, 
c4pcci&l)y in the Dtoc»C3 of Cologne, Maycncc. Trtva, 
and MAgc<barg. many book« and p>imphlcts h^LVc been, 
and 5(111 <:oiUinLic to be, printed, containing various errors 
snd pcrvcTtcxi dixtiineak "Siiicc," the Dull goes on to sny, 
" «« deaiire t«i put a M<>|) to %a dctcstiibic an evil without 
any dcby, in a<cordarce with the dury imposed upon ti9 
byour pastoral office, wc hereby, in virtue of our apa*;totical 
uitbority. forbid ati printers and tlieir assistants residing m 
the above named Dioceses, under pain of cxcoinraunication 
i^ae 4^9tt4NfWy and a fine to be imposed b)Mhc Archbi^liopa 
of Colore or their ViearvGeneral or other ofBciab, and paid 
into the AposlcUc Chancery, from hcnccforih cither to 
print or cause to be printed, any book, pamplUet, or work 
oi any *nrl, without first subtniltitig the %ame to the ahnvr 
nttined Archbishops or their Vicars-Gen era I or officials, and 
obtaiiHnff their expre*^ pcrmlsftion, gratuitously f^iven. 
Further, we lay it upon the Archbishop!^ and their Vicars 
and officials as a duty of conscience, not to grant thif 
permi^ion without examlnini; the books in question, or 
qppt ii ig them to be examined by cajxtble and Catholic 
pefM>nSw 5o as to picvcnt anything from being printed thai 
IN contrary tu the Catholic Fjilh or unydly or capable 
of eau^ing Kc^mdaL Anrl htxausc it Is not enough to 
guard agaio*^ the futirre printing nf bad books without 
(irovldhtg that ihosc already printed shall be suppressed, 
in virtue of our authority i*re charge the <ard Arch- 
bifihops Vicnra Etnd officials to command all printers and 
other persons residing in their respective Djocwc^. what 
ever may be their dignity, position or eondition, within a 
ccitaifi fixed tijiie, to notify alJ printed books u\ their 

possession to tht laiii] Archbishops, Vicare or o^ciaIa, 
ant3 without prevarication of any kind, to deliver up vrhU> 
ever books or treaties shall be judged by ihem tn contatn 
inythinf^ contrary to the Catholic Faith, or ungodly, or 
capable of causing scandnl, or ill-sounding in any way, 
equally under pain of excominunicfttioii And a Rnc to ht 
determined as aforesaid."* 

In Italy Alexander VI. cnergcticdly repressed the 
hcrdiizal iciidencics which were especially prevalcrtt in 
Lombardyf Ofi the ji^it of January, 1500, iwo inijuislcon 
were sent by him with letlcn of recommend at ion to the 
Biiliop of Oimiu^f, to proceed a^inst the very nvimtw>us 
Picardft and Waldensians in Bohemia and Moravia, who 
led extremely immoral ]ivcs.| blvcr tince the year T493 
Alexander had been tailing great pains to win back the 
Bohcmi^in Utraqiiiats ; but these clTorts had failed com- 
pletely.iS When Jn the year 1499 some of the more 
inoil^iate UtrAquista shewed an indinatioit to be rccoiielfed 
with the Church, Alexatnlfr had fhe matter UiMnis!»eil in 
Consistory and bestowed speeial powers on the clergy in 

* RAVSAuni;^, ad an, 1^1, n- 36; Reuk:k. Indrt. 1, H'$5' ^ 
FeeeLSS, Veimiftchu Schrifter, C47 /^. i Kapp. GcacK d. D«ut*di. 
BurhHuiddt, 53orif-(Lelprig, [S&6)i Arf^hiv. f Gesdi.d BuchbandeK 

^^P f Cf, Bull. Ofd. Praedie, IV^ loa, 190; ttw^r^UiUs, ad on lSo^ 

^^^ n, ^i: Bk«MMi, tV,^ 3Irt t^. On AWrtiirl^r"*, nnii^p \t\ rf^nl id 

I Sh r^irick'} 'TtiiKntorj/ )>cc Mou. m the Siudicit en Qydtogcn a. 

V gebi«d dtrbiti. 'rhw>lngi«, 11, 361 iif. Amitordans* l8^l. 

^^^P 6S r<V'i r'''T4k on IIjc ^^'^Idcneiunt ia Jlonic Cf. Alau CAMTt', Sluiia 

W dj Como, I., ro6L 

^^_ % Palackv, v., I. 381 f/v 

^^B It Rayt<aliii;i^ ad on. 1499. n. 3a Thii was dc^li vith in the Cim- 

^^H «»[f>ry of 5tJi Joly, 1 499 ^^^ ^l-iber roUt- Consisiorii, Sig- C J03, f. JO, 

^^^^^^ Ci>n4UtmiAl Arr.hi\cA of die VAiiiao. 



In comiooa with most other Popes of the t^th Ceplviiy, 
Alexander VI, shewed great toleration to the Jeiw ; he 
protected Ihcsn both in Rome and Avignon.* At the same 
time, be forbade Ibc SpAoUh Dominicaos to rccci^'e con- 
\tttcd Jcvrn into tbdr Ordcr.f 

The indulgence shewn to the Jews was, howcv-c*. in a 
£rc&t EDcaAun: cunncctcd with |x>tilics i and the conce±6toii& 
gnnteal hy A]*?v»ndrr VI, to the Spanish Moiarclw in re- 
gatf6 to the [r<i[jisitton. uhkh i^cnt far beyond whxi wax 
aUowablc. wete equally due to poUticA) motives,; 

The judicial proceedings against the crypto-Jew9 or 
ManAain theSutcsofthe Church, instituted by Alexander 
VJ. in 1493. were aUo moti^^d by Spanish intlucnccj 
When, later, he discovered that they had made their way 
into Ibe Court he was unsparing in his determination to 
ruol them ouL Pclcr d'Arand^. Bi^hup of CaUhc^rra, diid 
Us bastard son, who had obtained th<r office of ['rntonorary, 
vere tried in the year 149S, degraded, and imprisoned in the 
Castle of St. Angdoi The>' weA accuccd of denying the 
doctrines of the Trinity, the sulTcnn^ of Christ, Hell, 
PDrflatory. and [nduTgencea. Forty crypto-Jcwe in all were 
brought before tlie Court, the majurity of whom abjured 
iheir errors l! 

Akxandcr cxerlcJ himseJf not only to maintain the 
purity <jf the Christian f^ith, but also to [irovtde for its 

• Stt Rct-ue d*» Ctudfrt Juive*,VI, «i j VlLj nd; and L^UAHn, 
L'FTiti^ dev Umfilitt*. fbtns ]a Soci^^ franc, *^ ^^ ^^^^ Chi^kms tg% 

* BuiL Ofd. HnicdK:., IV., 115, 
I ty. Gams in, ?, jof^^., 5^ m^. Se* ilso RoL>Rl(H>, l,» 4^ uf. ; 

11., 99^ to^ 
$ RAV»\LPCS,adaii \\^^,ti^^. 
Kasualdv^ ad an u^i "< » i Sasuto, I-, 949 tt^-» lof^ t 
*Dc*|Mtch of ifae F<r?art9e Envov CansHmi. dai. Rome, uK Apnl, 
I49S(SUU ATCbiv**, Modcna]; HuiGlUfnCTlltW, VMl^ 345. 





popa^Ation. The magnificent discoveries of the Portuj 
and Spamards offered a wide field lo die Qmrch in this 
direction. Ic U consoling to TiQle how cruch, even iind<rr 
Alexander VI., was done In the way c>f ^pnMding the 
knowledge of the Gospel amoiigsl ihc hcJtthcn, 

Greenland, being that (^rt of America which was in 
darLicst communication with 1-^urope, was naturally ^ho 
the ^m to profit by the pastoral c&rc cf the Pi>pc& 
According to the Scandinavian Sa^as^ Christianity w«a 
mlnjducccl into Greenland by S. Olaf 1 1.» King of Nor»-ay, 
between A.i>- 1015-30, This ftcmunt h confifmed by a 
letter of Nicholas V. of 22nd September, I44S, »d< 
to the Fi«hop of Skalholl and Holar In Iceland,' 

Thd occ&iion of thU letter wfts a request from the 
Grecnlanders to the Pope to *end them new pri«is and 
a Bir'iiop, In the first dc^cade of The \$th Century the 
heathen pirates from the ncighboufing cotut had swooped 
down upon their country, slaughtered the greater part 
of the ChriMum inbabitcinls and caTiiod ofT the re«t 
into slavery. The churches were all destroyed exceptinj^ 
nine, which were vltuated in remote pJaccs, diffieult of 
accets. In the course of time some of the captives manag^ed 
tu make their csc^ipe and return lo their homes, where they 
now found themselves destitute of all spiritual aids, as the 
diurches that still remained w^crc in places inaeccsaible 
to many of them, and now Uk few prieits who were left 
had dll died Nicholas V, dcaircd the Dishops to supply 
their needs, MM 

H\h letter, however, does not flccin to have reached fts 

« J^ibliihed by L. jzut, L'itv^ng^Eiwilioa dc I'Aro^nquc aruii 
CMbo^ Cclomb, in Oiinpto rtndv du Coni^r^ Scir^ritif. irttr- 
niGiBd dM Cuholiques, 18J-183 (I^b, rSgiV PcM:»tKi^RvoE, 
Cf ch . ikr EitEkund«, 163, noi<,«(I. 3 (Mifiichtn, 1^7}% gm a 
dale— idb ScpL 



dcsCijifttion, And tn the rctpo of Jonoc«nt VIIL tbc Gi^n- 
kacicia mgB^ti addressed Roccc They dcscnbcd tbcir &&d 
^igbt in touditng words. The sea Mirrouading tbctr 
nhoefutable coait wj» »o Uockcti with ice that in the counc 
ofelghry irears no forHga vessel had anchorrd ihrrc, I.eft 
without a Bishop and wiUiout prlesti* man)' had forgoReti 
the Faith of thdr father; ai>d relapsed into hcatfaerusin. 
The only r^k ^hkh remained to those who &till chmshod 
it wzs the corporal with which the bat pnest had ceZcbrateri 
Us last Mua. This wa^ brought otit once a year and 
publicly venerated- hi response to this appeal Innocent 
Vim at t:ie c1o»c of his re%n, ap(>omtcd the xcalous and 
icif-SBcriftcing Benedictine monk Mathict^ Hishop of Gardar 
or Greenland. Alexander In the year i4r^ or 1495 con- 
Gfined this appointment, and commanded that the BUhop 
d rftccive all hU nomination papers tax fm«L* 

tut at the time that the Bishop of Greenland wu 
rccetvinf; his pon^rs tit Konu: an cv-crt had occurred which 
was dcMincd to make large demands 00 the pastoral care 
of the succc»or of S. Pctcr: Chn>lophcr Coltimhiia had 
discovered the New World. A tint dispute aro%c almost 
immediately' between S()3in and Portugal at to the posses- 
non of the newly-lbund terntory, and thtr To jitr ^vai called 
vpon to mediate between thccn> The Floly See wai still 
legardod by all Christian Princes and nations as the 
international arbiter, the hij^he:^ tribunal lor the de^ctsion of 

nationa] rights and important political question:^ Acting 




See jELi^i U*r^ f'f^ >8l'iS4 C/. H}:vwooi\ Docunuatft Mlicla 

« taboUrtOBftCrvto Viticinn, qii-u Koniunortifn Pcmhricum oga Anteifcae 
populos dUam «c BlutJia Luin auto tuirt innlb ;x»l inMiIa« a OuivL 
ColBiirl<» repcrtfit Usianiur phaiolypia dcf^crtpto. Typii. Vatii^., tS^j, 
a. 10^ pp? n, 13 ; at\A Khrle, Drr liU[. Gefiall <]cr pUpfttl. Abif^ilun}- 
mf d. WclUuiBtcilunic voia Chict^ \u den Sttmmen nut MAri«'Laadii 



on tlii5 pnnciple, ch« Portuguese had turned to the P^ 
to obUiR security in their rights over tbeir discovcrit 
a1on0 the West Co&st of Afnca. It wu Calixtus IlL whow 
in one of these mait useful dcd.iiim:^, ^tiintcd to Parta^j 
the curcliijiive rights of trailing and fnunding colonics 
the coast between Cape Hojador and Guinea, In the 
1479 Spain lisd acquiesced in thi* a^^-ard at the 
of AlcaccA'as. No sooner had Columbus, who had 
rojccted by PortugaK returned from his famous voyage thai 
Kin^ EmmaiHiel set up a claim to the newly-found lands on 
the ground of this treaty- The relations between the two 
countries soon became sucli that war seemed imminent 
Justly cttltnating the importance of obtaining a deciMi 
from the \Ui\y Sec, the astute King Fcrdiiiand At ont 
addressed hJmsdf to Rome. HU eonfiricntial agrnt th( 
waa thf^ Cardinjtl Bernardino Carvajal, who, In a vcr>' shi 
time, achieved a marked success^ On the 3rd and 4th May^ 
1493, Alexander put his signature to three highly Important 
documcnbk The fir^t. dat^ 3rd May, confers on Spain^^ 
an exclusive right of possession over ail the Uland^ aiv4^| 
countrie:i now discovered by Columbus and all Cuiure di>- 
cnvcrics of hi^^on contlitioti of prop.ngatioj; the Christian 
Faith in them, and p^ovidt^^ such lands arc not already 
occuf^ed by a Chrisilan power. Thus Sj^ln received 
exactly the (ame rights and privileges as Uiose whfcb ha4^| 
been bentower! upon Portugal for her eoloniu on the Wert^* 
Coafit of Africa. The second, dated the same day, deccribsd 
those rights in detail ; while the lliird, daicd 4th Majr, 
defined the limit? of what we should now call the »phe 
of influence of Spain and Portugal, The boundary li 
between tlic two powers was drawn from the North to 
South Pole, 100 Spanish lea£uca to the West of the mo 
westerly island of the Aaores: all thiil was l^st of the 
line belonged to Portng^l, jtrd all that was West of it 



A bter rloctimcnt of J8lh September, 149^ 
added some fuirh^r coinplcraenUcy d^aiT^ amongst oihcf 
tbingff gnntini:; all new disico\'erie3, consequent on westerly 
or soBtHerlv' voyAgc^ to Spain.t 

The line or demarcation lixcd by Alcxnndcr V[., which 
was pushed 270 Icai.'wr't further to the West by the Treaty 
of TordcftUlaj on 7th Jwnc. 1494- formed the ba^a of all 
oegoCiations and agreements bctwea: the two great colonic' 
ing ixmer) in ref^arJ to the lutrtition of the New World 
The peaceful nrttlcment of a number of thorny boundary 
questions bctHveti Spain and Portugai ivas entirely due to 
Papal declsConf, and should therefore justly be ref^arded as 
one of the g!oriec of the Papacy, Nothing but complete 
mbunderstandjnj; and blind party spirit could turn tt into 
t ground of accusation against Rome. 

It b simply absurd to ^pcak of Alexander VI. as having 
efven awAy what did not belnn>; to luri, and taken no accnunt 
of the Ul>erlles irf the American*.; The wurd " grant " here 

• ^iAVARrf^tK, lU a9 t^f.; Bull, V,, 36l"3(^ : Ravnalhus ad an- 
'«03ia. tft^rfr.: and HivwoOD. foe. €iL Kavirxttc Ivii yxn* inconvct 
KodiftgK : thus m the Bull of 4th Miy. p. 3S, rtobis evidently tkculd bt 
ictnt, and tTi« vkrt\t n^iscnke occun in thf Bcill nf 3rd ^\y. Tlic 
atcouns g^^efiftbovcJichieAvtHkcfifnun EnitlJfB very able fupcr in th« 
5<imni«n aub Mftri»' IJtich rjf 1S94, Ajium^iil oEh^r unrkv «houkl b* 
oieiKicred : PtdcniiU Hie '[Itrilung drr Rrdp unirr AlouiDdri VL und 
joliut II. (LcipAi;;, 'GjOi nAtrM« Die Ucirmrcaiic^rialiiiic Alcxnndcrv 
VI. (Kola, 1890); E. G, yoVKNn, "iTie UcniaTcan™ line of Aloondcr 
Vt. (EkUaci 601U ibv VaIc Review, i8^j), ^ En^L HbE. Renew, 

f KAViasm, 11^44^ f/f.* in SpcmUi. Againtt KOHL'S vie«pM to 
tfUi ijiierpT«uiii>n of the documciiE (f^^c bciJcn blictien Gcneralkaiteo 
len Amefi<a [WcimiLr, 1&60)). tec KuTfiTMAHN in (he Hiot-'Colit. BL, 
XLVtL, T^t ff- RAtru, p, r(X h%aov«rrMkcd thi& itghi^c 

1 RL)»tftTV>x, II[)C. Amenca, II,; Bl'^hi^g. Eidbnchicibuog, 

(1870), NOl 5 SuppI 





^niHti nothtni; Dore than the confirfnattcTn of a title 
mnldyacc|vi:red; and wrtt* unrferstood in that »cn«e by con- 
lempnnry and later tliefilogian*, and by th(^ SpaniaTd* 
Thcmsetvc5>* How little such grants vccrc looked upon a« 
contToUir^ the liberties of even heathen nations U shewn 
by ^c liKt that, m s snnilAT concession to Portugal ia 
1407 the *amc word "gfant" is uscJ, with the condition 
appended f>f the free consent of the inhabit an tvf If this 
IbrmuU Is wantini; In the document o( 1493, ii \s merely 
because it was understood as included in thc^ lille itself. In 
all these deeds the Rrant refers to the othw Rijro|iean 
Pfinccfl and nnt to the popuUHnns of ihc^ New World, 
" These privilegcft conferred on the monanrhs who rcoclv^d 
Uiem a rlprhl of prIorit>' in tcpird to the territorie* di^ 
covered by tliem. An rowadAys patents arc ^ivcn for 
tcvontions and copyrights for literary productions and worka 
of art, 80 in Torincr times a Papal Bull, enforced by the 
ccni^urci of the Church, protected the laborious discoverer 
Ukjiu having ihc hard won fruits of his toll wrested froii^^ 
him by a stronger hand," ^M 

As the choice by the Ciitholic Sovereign;; of -Alexander ' 
as arbiter was Eronndcd in the fir^t instance on the authority 
which he possessed as Pope, anti their respect for the 
dif^nity of the Head of the Church, he was G^mpow^rod lo 
.idcl to the perfect freedom of his decision, grounded on a 
full knowledge of the facta, the sanction of that apnatolic 
authority which was their reason for selecting him aa 
um]>ire in these important matters.J He had power, and 
indeed was bound, to decide wilh the autlicrity of ll 

• See Hs.Rii-NHrnHKW. Kirche und Suut, 341. 

f EIaTNALDUS, mI an. i4Q7i n- 53' 

X HitRGi:NR6TiliA, Kircbe and Sioftt 337^34^, whoftlao 
tfmr^fy of ftun£ on the Psiful Bnrfpt rb« rv^pomihilicr for the tytm 
of the ±>ptukiaidf m iLicji dcallag^ with lIic AnKiit:^Li) iMlioua- 



Ckarcb oa tbc^c question^ which concerned the AvoidaiKc 
ofbloodflhcd between Chn^t^n powcfs and ihc propagation 
of thcChmtanrcNgicmin those ncwly-dtscovcred oou nines- 
All grants were accompanied fa^ the condition that tlic 
Spanish moaarchs should IMnd themselves To promote the 
spread of ChriitiAnit>\ 

In the prcpftratir^ns (61 CoKimbus' second voygigc, both 
FtrdJoandftiul lobelia and Alexander took pain^ to provide 
fnb»onary priests for the cvan^isation of the native race$u 
Their choice of a leader for the bard of preachers shews 
with what care tlw Mrlcctlon waa mndc. A friend of Sl 
Francis of PauU, the Urncdiclinc IVnmrd BoyI, was the 
first ajwisile of itic New World* in ^ Bdrf of 2iih June, 
>49i> .^exander VI. conferred upoi^ this dhilngutvhed and 
ta cx'cry wjiy mo«E competent man and his twelve com- 
paniofifii all the powers and priv)l«g(^ which tho/ nccdecl 
for the success of their hoI>' enterpris&f Amongst hincom- 
pcnions may be mentioned the ccJcbiatcd Bftrtolcmeo Las 
Ca^ax Fray Jor^c, Commander of the Kiiig^hlsof Santiago, 
and Pedro dt; Arenas, who i^ :iupposed to have said the 
first Mass ever cdcbralcd on the new1y*disco\erp(l islands.} 
In the Instruction whichColumbu^reizeivcd fromtht^Spanfsh 
monarch« for hts wrrond and thirt) voyages, the conversion 
of the new countries to Christianity is put before htm as 
the consideration which should He nearest to his hearL 
How rapidly the numbers of religious and converted Indians 

• P. FiTa has the merit of being the iirsl 10 give a tlcar iLccouni of 
Bo^r* ^f#- S4?* h^*i lU-pfT in the Polcr rte I R. Aaid, de fci Hniona 
(Madrid. ie9t.j89iX XIX,, 173-333. a34-=37. 3S4-3S^ 377-446. SS7* 
S6i I XX_ l6&-i?7. i7<j-305, 361-300, 57V6"5' C/. aJso Qu-yjEADO 
TO thv t^iEne periodical* XX-* iij-[*j, anil Ehmlf, /nr. di. 

i Tht Brief Sa in Ray?fALDi;]Aa- i493iti.J4.iUid,CDntcicd, inibc 
Boku. X]X.(t39r», fS7M^. 

I Fira^ La pnt&cn imia en Am^ica, b the fiole^, XVIIl, CiSgiJ* 


increased in Espaflola (Hayti) may be seen from the fact 
that in 1501 negotiations were already be^n in Rome foi 
the establishment there of a separate hierarchy." At the 
instigation of the great Cardinal Ximenes in 1 502 a number 
of Franciscan missionaries were sent to America.f 

Alexander equally exerted himself to promote the spread 
of Christianity in the countries beyond the sea which had 
been discovered by the Portuguese ; J their enterprises were 
regarded in Rome as Crusades for the Propagation of the 

• EhRLE, /iif. ci't. 

t Wadding, XV., 247, C/. Hefele, Ximenes, 4S3 sfff, 

X C/i SCHAFEB, Gesch. V. Portugal, TIL, 83 ; SantaREM, X., 12a 

§ A "Bull of AlcTiander V|.» beginning with the words Catbolice Add 

propagalionem, and dated Romae, Dec. 1 501. Cat Nov. A» T<^, Reg«st. 

868, f. 117^1 in the Secret Archives of the Vatican, which, as &r as I 

know, has not as yet been printed, is very interesting Trom this poiot of 



kM>Ek VI. A» A Fatbcw or Akt. 

It is w-tih a »c»e of rdief tbftt the hlstcriAn now turns 
Trom all the moral miocfies of the reign of Aicxandcr VI. 
to another rccic>n in which some things that were rc&t)y 
^reat and tx^iuiiful were achicrcd- 

Jodging from the magniftccnt palace which he built for 
hloSMiir, while yet a Catdhud only, we should expect to 
^nd ill Ah:xAiic!er a lihcral juilnm nf Art ; anci in ^d. In 
-ipite of all the turmdl and confusion of hb reign, his 
name is iinmort;t listed by its asnoctatton with many iiplendid 
monumtn^tK in this domain.* 

The Pope's attention was especially directed to the 
Tnstevere, the northern half of Rome, the Leonine city, 
wluch bad p^wn up cut of ccclc^lajtical foundations and 
the various national hospitab, and bccornc the most Im- 
portant division of the city. Containing the Church of S 
Peter and the Castle of St Angdo, and being, in thr 15th 

* SecijniE ovidc die rebuildtug of the Unu'cniity, which wiTI bo m»n 
Itec^ klCTi Alcjandcz-1 though as CarcUnal he Ivul made aome tinyi in 
UtvntDrv {f/. BiU Ponltf., 13 //f.; SCHULTk, Quellcrj, li-, A°7 ^?\ 
dill Utile or nothing fill- I^AiHTn^. Hv acccine^L Hedkailioitb ^any num- 
ber of poem* ; there wka erco a " Boijidc " in hcxamcien ; bui, ks 
BvftcxiiAirnT, ]., :36a, ctJ. ^1 tay«, h* was too ocfxipiod with other 
thtaits to beslijw mudi aiici^tbn oji poc^icul philoloffitt*. Nor 4i<I lie 
mbt asy a<IdiCic^)» \n Uki V.uicioA Library, Sve Mustx-Kavar, 
3M wp. On Aleiondet'fi Coun-poFU fee VliLlAltl% Autourdca HArgu, 



Cmtury, the prindfol scat of ihc Court Rnd of the Canli 
K bttamc Ibe <«ntr^ potot of the ciiy. and bj* bim was Inuis- 
lormed into the hsncUomest qna r t er of Rooic, a distinction 
vhich ii rtiAincd urdl the irigD of Cktncnt VI I. " These 
wtre the da>» cf p^scants. of <c d «faiaticsU and secular pro- 
cessions and cavalcades, carnivainocs, tournaments a&d 
buH-fights. the day£ in which the retinues ol Lucrczca and 
Ck3U Boc^ wcfc numbered by bundroda when they rode 
(orth in sUte, and Cardinab* the scions of m>-ft1 boU3Cs, 
incd vritb Pn'nces in the spfendDor of their equipages when 
tb^ went to the Vatican, day^ In wrhich ccclcsiaatkal 
decorum was trampled under foot b/ woMly rarity aad 
profane pomp."* 

The great increase of street traffic in the t-eoriine city 
owing to the ni]TTit>er« of Cardinal^ Prelates, and membeni 
of the Court wl^ hv^ there, had already fndDCed Sixtus 
IV, to make a vi^tde street, originally called by his name 
(now Borgo St Angcte). nuining from the moat of the 
Castle of St, Angcio to the gate of the Papa! Palaoc-f 
Alexander VI- added a secnnd one pai^Hcl M-ith \hh and 
called it the Via Alessandrina (now Borgo Xudvo and the 
miun thoroughfare of this quarter). 

This sUcei was planned primarily on account of Che 
Jubilee. In the Consistory of :76th November, 1498, the 
P^x spoke of the necessity of making r^eom in the streeb 
for the concourse of pilf^rims that aas to be expected, and 
desired Cardinal Rn/faele Riario, who understood .irchi^ 
tecturc, to confer with other experts in these matters and 
ace what would be rc^juiicxl in the way of thoroughfares 
and bridges.* In January 1499, this Cardinal was put in 

* RtUUONT, DJc Ltmudu in ibc Mg. ZctL (i^X a. 2S6 Suppl 

t See Vel. IV., 4S5, of thi* w<^. 

J 'Rdnraedie lun^kc XXVI. Nov., :4^^ (S. ixNjfec^ictiain wrbom 



^ittr^c of tl>c new ajijiroiiclics to the Valicaa* In April 
\hc *ofk was brKunf and camwl thnn:gh ^a nipdly that 
ih* new ttrort wa* opened with the Jubilee >'oar on the 
24ik of December, 1495^; Unfortunately, one result of the 
ViA AI«3BUkdjina wu the ccn^plctc dc^^Eruction of an 
interesting ancknt monument, the aocallcd Meta. 
HeduevaJ emtiqumnans thoui^ht it to be the tomb of 
Scipio Afrkanui ; 9omc went ao far 45 to »y it was that of 
Roroulus, S<m)c time before it had been clivcstct) uf tte 
marbles &nd trartsform^ into aii oucwork uf the Cattle of 
Sl Angeto, and new was done away with altogether to 
onke room ktr the opening of the new «treet.§ 

hk Aienjai dica. Stu S^ m;ui<lavit t, d. ^'t tlcnrgn ut lubcm apud 
w con»cn;jtuux» td -ilJut qui ^utit cunsutfti huiutiiitidi icmm cunun 
Ubcn el M diligcnbcr informarent quid facto opub cue tun cifCA vitu 
•f fTptilp* qittm r«lir[iiM nf^^ffmarra iiT ptrpjfrmi tT viafnir^ rommodf^ ft 
liBt DC AC tvilin puiwiiL, ui tc bene luicdiUi pu>ti[ opuituiui jimvidcrri- 
*UbL refat. Cooffislorii tanpore poDlif. Alcundn VL a die XII. Nov., 
i4g|,ti«iqti«indkAiV.JuUi,ti499, Sig: C. 3D3.f,9L ConiUion^L Arehivti 

■ 'Roirao djc veneris XVIIE. J^n.^ 1499- Cum fiictA o«wt incctio do 
nova via 6endd *1 jiaUilum diiriiwiquc r. d. dt Unini* amTwa iltw vms 
vid. KUkcOun c( ccfuoium dum caact jn inmoiibuii dispcoiun fujuc ioi^ 
pccHB Bt pJannum offici^uic ; tum S D- N ^ commnii r. d, S. Ucot^i 
ntirmcniric Uiom illMn vi iwcXU^^i^t t\\\'Kl ttUxi i»ct\m\%!it <lir«nii fwi 
■Ma ct poiionc 3ua m libcntci cipn^kjtui'ura. Romac die nwic XK. 
Fc^ 1499 : Manduvit S. V, N^ r. d, S'' ^vorgti ui ;& nvijfiiltu vianut^ 
tt uchiieciJs r^uu^ium fom mtpense nd [lirij^cnduni viam a porra ra&tri 
«d pttktiuAi usque latcUijEcrct ac kilu potLca rcicnxL 'Lib. CcoMttonii 


4 'Ufspudi of tTie F^rranwc En\'oy ntEhiifictli, cbiL Rome* &iti Apht 
149^ *E1 pupa lu laclQ date piincipic od uniiaiiaia chc da la porta del 
[lalacio «e ne VI a fiJu A Ul p:>rui del csktcllo die ten. luu belb cou^ 
(ftnndci sees fomiu, Stou Aidiibni, Modcjid, 

I Bltkchakdi Diuium, U., 601. 

I KffV'lilOSiT, IJL, I, 415 '^': GuecoitOViutt, Vll^ 641 ''?-■ ^ 3 
(6s& /jf ^ ed 4} : AlfiStChVl, FunlLa. 4^ j^v. A Bikf of Jidihts 11. «f 



The complolioii of the Via Alcssaatlfira cntalln] other 
chJiMges in ils Ddghbourhood, wnH e<;peciall)r in the portlun 
of the Castle of St, Angcio nearest ihc bridge. 

During the couisc of his reign Akxauder V!. made 
extensive alterations in the Castle. The whole building 
was eoiDplcicly Tortificd in the best style of the day with 
parapets and towers, and surrounded by a wall and ditch.* 
These worlei were bej^uti iirrrcdiately Aftct hh acceajtion, 
and hujried oci in consequence of the appro^h of the 
Frcncb, and afterwariis prosecuted with energy and more 
methcKJically- Tlil^ is proved by mscripiions as well as by 
the entries: of dUbiin»^mcnts in thr :iccouiit 'books. Antonio 
da Sangallo. Giuliano's bfciher, was the architect and 
master of works, Substanltal changes were made In the 
ediRce, both internally and in its exterior. The old Forta 
Acnca in the wall of St, Angcio was thought too small and 
closed up, and a new gate built The adjoining bouse? and 
vineyards were removed and tikc Tiaua cnlargfed and paved 
TO form the opening of tlic Via Alcs^kandrina. A strong 
tower madt' of blocks of Travertine wai erected by SStn- 
gallo, to command the bridge, which remained standing till 

Ju\f i;i3 (m MOffT£| Actiquitjj dc Roini?, 21), ili«wi ihM it wu 
thi« linm th&i Eh« but nmrutni of tI]« Meu <]]iappc;hr<d. Un the rock- 
lesH desinictiuii \yt umitui nionuijuriit^ by Alvundei. xfc Jihu MOftXC; 
La Monumcnu Anijiiuc^ dc Rome an [ji°- ti^clc^p, iB, and Bkrto- 
t-om, Artitti l.fvnbnnl^ I, 33. In fh* *Div«n, Alw. VI., 1501-1^3 
{Bulkt-t IV.V I firund, r. 09S ftft taxty of a peyowil linn Raplud, Ut. 
S Gcofpi nui;, Stephano munJoti dac- 50 pro aptanda via a pabtn 
tivipv od ottrrxim S, Aageli, dar. Rerae, XXII. Oct, isor, A^ r<v. 
State ArdJvci. Rome, 

* 6/ BoRUvrr, too /ef. («ho*c dcicripiJon, havever, is not jttHealy 
nkair); GuoufiLHtrrTi, Fortillrjiuoni, icc : nnl Mt}NTz*s tmporljuil 
contribution in Anttquil^ 59 j^^ 62- Muau luu iffnodcd Bor^ati, 
and in conMqaenc« made »evfral niiiukot. C/^ zJta Lanok, PapittMl, 




terd^pn of Urbftti VIIL The outxroctcs of th« CastW were 
ntiMtnbiy ctrengthened and tbc ditcb m^e brfader aii<l 
dMper. It was thought that the main stream l>i the Tiber 
wu to he diverted so as to flow thfoui:h it. Sunito reports 
m Jaauar>' U$^ tha^ ^^ cost o( tbc works wu eatimfttcd 
at £ojOOO florins TIk I'opc rrcqucntly inspected them in 
pcnon. He alM> secured tohiuuidr, b^Ai^pecialAgieciaent, 
tiic pottMrri^iuD of whjilever m^ht be fbuml in llic cour&c of 

This precaution, whicb bcar» vritneu to the growing 
illMrost in the relics of antiquity, pras^ wcU-judged, In 
eonvtnicttng the earthworks the calofisal bust of Hadrian 
which now odoms the Rotunda in the \'alican was di*- 
interred. In the interior a new staircase with shallow steps 
wu put in. and a militao' magazi^ie, w^ter tanks, and ^vc 
subterranean dungeons were cunitlnicicd. Coins were 
Stmclc to cornineriiumte thi;>^ work-vf After die fiun- 
puwiler explcMion of 1497, the upprr rooms which had been 
iSestroyed, were rebuilt and decorated by PIntuHcchio In 
XM antiquated style then in vogue (the so-called ^r^Usquf). 
According to Vasari, the same master painted in a lower 
tower (probably that adjoinini; the bridge) a series of 
pictures rcprcacnting the principal cvonta in the first 
years ol Alexander's reign d^nd cont&ining muny portraits. 
Unfortunately* not a trace remains of these paintings. 
The only indication*! of their existence ore to be fuunJ 
in the inKription^t cjf the frescQcs : thcie were written 
\yy the German. Laurent Brhaim, who for twcmty>twQ 
years was MoggJordomo to Rodrigo Borgia; thcry are 
in Hartmann Schedel's collection. They included the 
meeting between Aloxander VI. and Charles VI 1 1., 

* M0XT2. ior. tii^ <A ^< BoaoATi's »uicijicau, 107 $f^^ ai« 



ATKt the profcasion of obedience And <lcp&rtiir« of &A$ 

The prison of Torre di Nona on the left bauk of Ihc 
Tiber was k\so fortilicd ancw.f Thr^c Iwo stronghold* 
complciely commanded the 5iream, and, by their artilleiyp 
the greater part of the city. 

The Arcade, which leads from the Caslleof Si An^o 
to ihe Vatican, waa not built by Alexander a^ has been 
supported by many ; it wa* already in existence ; but the 
Borgia axms affixed in many plACC:^ shcvr that it waA 
extensively restored by him, Oiic of lhc*ic sKidd* over 
the door of the court of the Swiss Guartis hcars^ ihc dale 
1492, and &hews in what dirccUon the Pope's earliest 
apprt^hensioi^v Uy.J We learn, from a report of the 
Fcrrarei^ Envoy of Sth April, i499, that wxk iv'as going 
on in the Arcade at thai date. § 

A Bull of the year 1500 bestowed cenam privileges 
on ali who oadsted in building the houses in the ne«- 
Via Aks^ndrina^iE 

The Porta Sctiimtana which clo*C4 the Via delta Lunfara 
«A^ rebuilt and Wa^ rcmaiEicd unaltcrred up tc the prevent 
day. Cardinal Juan I-ofjcz dc Valencia ;i former secretary 
of Alexander, was commlwioncd by him to creel a 
fountain in the Tiaita of S" Maria En Trastevere. That 
of I nnocent V 1 H , in the Piax:ca of S. Peter'Hj n-hich had also 
been newly paved^ wag adorned by Alexander with four 
IpJt Bulls, tho Bori^u arms. Nor was the Vatican itidf and 

* Altisi, 1 4 ; Sew «AH90»r, PinTuricchio in Roan. 63 Sff. 

t CoXLCATi, 10a 

t BURCUAltM Dianiun, 11^ no; ADlHOLri, Porttoi, 319 Mp.^ 
M0NT2, Lci Art». III., 17a, ind An^quJtfs, S9; SCUHAKSOV, 
PiatuncchfO, 34- 

^ Orij;inb] io the Siat* Arrhncs, McxV-i^a. 

II Bull, v.. i77J<V. C/. Marihi, [.. 317, N.e- 




rtt sumnindings tKglcclcd, The Lo^r used for the Pnpal 
Blcs»utg va5 completed tn the Torm depicted in RapiiadS 
6t3co of the " Fire in the Qorgo.' WKhin Hk Vatican 
alar^c number of nobly conceived work^ ^^rre executed* 
The architectural design? of Nicholas V. wrrc carried otti 
and !5ie decoraiion of (he Pope'* private apartraerita wa* 
entnnted to Pinturicchto, u-ho had alrcrad^' before that time 
been painting in Rome. Till cjuitc lately thc^c rooms h^d 
been used for keeping: the eni?Taviii):s in the Vatican 
Libran' *id were only accessible to & few privilef^ 
pcTsona-t In the year 1889 the present Pope ordered 
this pari of the Vatican lu be rc*dorcd, and \^'heii ihT^ h 
completed it is to be turned into a mmcum for objects 
of ar( of the mediarvn! and Renaissance periods^J 

The dwelling rooms of Alexander Vl. (Appartamento 
Bof^;ia) are on the ground floor nf that part of the 
Vatican which ties between the Court of the Belvedere 

* R&UttO»T, in., I, 4[6«;ihdF»Ki, UArdiiidriin in Konin, II., jr. 
Ob tbc ikoAnUKiD uf the IfuntAm cl Innoovnt VIIl^ </- K^Ki^t^o <^^ 
Uibricbe di P. A!ci«pri!0 VL in tU Cod TUrb, XXXU-, rp ; in 
Gom'S AjcIu St-, JV., U)i lod 1\k clistAu^ciiAntA in 'Divert. Alci. 
VL, 1501^1593 (IV- Bull), r 7^ voudicrt of payment made hy Rayh«l 
etc^ Mavi*mi Albrrri dr Placpntifl pirftti S, H. N. 
CKhitccio ^ . - pio dpc^c: fonli) phicc S. iVtri At aHw, 
Xnt. Oclo^, i^^t, A^ t^i ef. U ?% £^^ 9j^ otc i enthu of pay- 

rnu nude 10 xbe umc for the foiiniRin an ih«^ Pinjzi of S- tVi^E, 
33fd Nov., t$oi. and Jsl snd ;,^d Dec- ; soth Jmn, i;or (Alb. dc Ho* 
eenUi quj conrccii fanicm plAtce S. t'drt dc urbe) : ilic«c enirtct go oa 
una »bc nwnch of FcU Siak AicUivc*, Rome 

t I Hw Lhcm for the turt time in ihc Spring <if 1883* Lhicugti the 
bindnenof P. BcJUk, ftho tatsinct c]ic>d, :tnd onr:« ajpin m Apnl, \St)y 
Tbey vtst Mtijpitd xa the v»c of ilic Libmry m :hc lime ci Grcgoiy 
X\''t., who dtA not cara aljout kiMpiP^ up Iht Bor^ apartmcntB- QC 
Ike Viennese Abcndppii <i^)i N- j6a. 

t Prufrsoot L. Scitt (not Zcii aa Yriakte, Auiour dcs Dori-ia, 7S 
f^^ pcmsicntly wntu the name) ha» the charge of dim r«»iciiTUtafi. 



and the little Cortilc dd Papdqc^kx TIU4 poctton wu 
buJh bf Nicbolu IIV, 2Dd restored and enlai^ed by 
Nt^otu V, It ccmtains «ix rooms, the firfit » a 
fpvdous hal) tnto wtuch tbrce nearly square soulkr 
ch&mbcrs opcD ; ibcsc ap^nnvcnU are exactly under 
the famoufl Stftnze which coaUin Raphaicrs ircscocs. 
The new part buih b^ Alexander consiata of ft square 
tower (Torre BorgiaX the opper storey of whkb, where 
the frescoes In merDory of Plun IX. now are, was the rope"* 
prii'ate ch;ipp], u'hil^ the lover 0uor, divided into (vra 
toom« and connected with the oJder part hy a short sutir- 
case, clo^ei the AppartameDCo Borgia on that eJde* 

Almost tcnmediately after his accession Alexander set 
to work ftt the fcno\'at»on of these rooms and the erec- 
tiori of the Toner. Their decoration was intruded to 
Pinttirkchio. He accompJbhod hin task with a celerity 
whkb could on!)' be explained by supposing that he 
largely availed hiiiuelf of the help of oiticra. A close 
in^pectioti ut the iuuntinf;« in;4kr« it only loo dear that 
thi* was the case Pintimcchio by no means overworked 
him&elfi in fact in 1494 he clipped away to Or\'icto and 
had to be recalled by a Brief from the Pope! However, 
tioth in their drawing and still more in their coniposition, 
the greater part of these painting arc certainly tiia work* 
" As a whole the work should juatty be ascribed to hire, 
Euid deserves the highest praise for the evenness of its 
execution, and the careful schooling and saj^aciou^ selection 
in regard to the parts ;L<ciigMed to tliem, nS the pujiils 
whoin he evidently employed, "f 

• SCHUAKsow, PipiuhKhJo in Rotn. 34 M^-l WoaDHOUSR in (he 
"UvUdvr" of Jan, 1SS7; YBti.vRTB, Auiout do Horgla^ )5 /«?> (*'\A 
enanvinjci) ; Volhtti, L'Appnruiinonto Hoi^a neJ Viiic:ioO' Koino, 

t &Gii>i.\aK>w, Pintunocbid in Run, 6i. 




The brgc h^ll through which the 3p4rm«itt were enieretl 
v^ usf d » an audience clumber, Jind oiled, nn account 
»f the portraits which it coiitai;>ed, the Itall of the Fopc«. 
It wju here that in the Sumnier of IJOO Alexander $o 
Tiarrowly escaped being killed by the falling in of the root* 
Pinturfcchio'i th^rc in the painting in thta hali cannot 
be xsocrUincd, 49 Leo X. cau^ the whole of it to be 
Jccorated afresh in the &LyIc of the antique frescoes in 
ihc h4lh^ uf Titus, by twv) pupib of Raphael. I^cnno del 
Vag« and Giovanni rla Udinc^f 

The three rooms wbJch open into the 5aU det Papi 
remain in all e&ientiats exactly ai they ^ere in the time 
of Alexander, tlacb of these chambers U lighted by one 
window looking into the Belvedere Court The ceilinfc 
consbting of a double -crotii vault, was interacted length- 
wise by a broad arch resting an two pillars, lhu« forming 
two 5pAnE9 on Uic side-walU bounded by pointed arches; 
and on tlio?BC facing, and containing the window, lunettes 
double the brradtb of the^c. On ihesp ipans, pointings 
were exeaited under Pintuncchio'^ direction, ;ind nl\ 
the rest wa* richly decorated with gold and stucco-woric 
in which the Uorgia arms, the Bull, repeatedly appcfw^ 

The subjects of the picture^ in the first of these rooms 
are exclusively religiou*, taken from the lives of Christ 
and of the Bicucd Virgin. Ir the arclKS of the ceiling 
the Kings David and Solomon, and the prophets T^aias. 
Jeremiad. MdUi^lua?*, Sophonias. Michcas- and Joel are 
rcprcientcd in halMen^lh ^gurcs.^ The mo6t striking of 

• CZ «i^<t, p. 78- 

t PLATivcn, 11., I, a^ i^. 

t PLATnuKH, II, I, 500: St-HM^RSOW, 51 w^. ; and VntAftTZ, 
(5 Je^^ wilb uni«, Ixit tiiuAiL^fActoryi lUuiiTDttonf, A l^ood rcpre- 
dtKliGn<iliheMihiigpaLntin)fs in the room i« K^vrn in LK>i.MeTCH, Der 
Onttmenaclia& (Stuttijnnli, iHKi)* Pvi i<^ No, 5, 



ihe wallpiintings is The on« of the Resiirreciion of Chnrt^ 
before whom a Tope, unmiiUkcably Alexander VI,, tcnccls 
in adoration, in full pontificub. but b-irc-hcadcd. with the 
Tiam on the ground bcaidc him. This admirable porh-iiit 
and that uf ;iii(ilhcr cccksmslii: in the ^iutuic cif the A^ump- 
lion of the- Rlr«cr<l Virgin, arc cvidetitly fruin the hand of 
PintuHrchfo himself, while throiher paintings were probably 
executed by Ms pupils.* 

This picture i* not only highly interesting as a porirail 
of the i'ope in his primCj as his contennporanes knew him, 
but \^ noteworthy altio because it explodes a story which, 
first act afloat by Vst?iari, been repeated again and 
a^n. Va^ari says that I*intnricchio painted over the ^oor 
of one of ihe roorn^ in the |m1ace a picture of the Virgin 
Mar>% whirh wa* a portrait of Ginlia K;inicsc, and In the 
sam^ painting a likeness of Pope Alexander adoring h«r. 
In reality the nnly picture in which .'\lexander appears b 
that of the Resurrection of our Lord. There i? a representa- 
tion of the Madonna, but it is in tlie next room»and the 
Pope is not in tt, ror is there any other picture In any 
of the rooms which corresponds with Vasari's description. 
Evidently he liad never l>ccn inside tlie Appartftmcnto 

• SCHHAKSOW, JJ r/f. The WiloUICil copy of ihc ponnkJt ot 
Akutnder VI, m Vhiahtg, 73, i« unwtU&OOry. The phot<r^T»|jli ia 
H*yw(>wl^ wfn\t, vt Vol V.^ p. 387, ooie t, 11 much btiKr, but i* un- 
fomin&fcljr no( on iaIc, liavrnj: been privaftly priiiEtd. 

+ VRtMnr. 35, 72, HUBEa in Hist.Tiwcbcnbudi (t87)),p, Jj; and 
tvtn attfa>Hcivn^s, VII„6e9, ed, 3 (6S^, od. 4), repeat Vaiari's fable 
wjtboui cxiuui ;;alion (ind fircgnmvliis udds ditii t\w Pope in*fT>r>liip|im^ 
ihc Madonna [)■ They hnvc cvidcndy never wen (he pkiuf«> Fc*- 
crilidflm of VAWtr spe ^i^rwrally ftthn, Vita di Mi^hrbngdn (tittlrn, 
fMj). XX(. tftf, I'MTTKfiR, lU I. SOU irics to kivc VasUi't wory 
by h*nTding the conjcctute Uun ^ihc htiid M \he iV>j^, novr n*3 
longer iliere, wnt fur obvjoui rtaKmi |iniiir«d ekii of iho pr 





The next room contdiiift scenes taken from the Mvn of 
S.CatJ:«Hnc oT Akx^nJna* S. Afiton>\ And S Sebastian, 
a pictttre of the VbitAtion ami the Mory of Su^inria. On 
the ccilntg there arc ci.irioiis m>'th<»logical rcprcscotJitJonft 
of rho hf«cor>' of Osfris and lo, probably plays on the 
Bo^ia axmi, which a itudy or the poemc of the Httmanlsti 
of Alexander's Cowrt might cladclata It i< ouerioa<!ed 
irith small 6i;ures and arabe^iques in stucco K'IN ^^^ many 
of the details «re striktngty beautiful, and the pomp and 
richness of the decorations in this room have caused it 
to be looked upon as the masterpiece of the whotc The 
tbint room, like the first, is simpler. In the lunettei, 
pcrsonilkation^ of M^llicmalks, Dialociics, JuTHprudcnce, 
Geom-etry, AHlhmcfIc, Muilc,and Aiironomy arc pafnted, 
tach accompanied by charinirg Fubcidiaiy figiire«. Thi» 
room wag proMhiy the Pope's "study. Pcruglno is fiupposed 
to have had a hand in the p;^inttnj^ cf the frtMoes.' From 
this room the chambers in the Bor^a Tower arc reached 
by a marble staircusc* According to the iTiacriptior the 

Tht pTBcni PftfMi of the Vaucan Library, my MTctmpc! friend P. 
EhrEc liul itc kinJncu I9 make a thorou^i cxALiiination uf the piciure 
tji the Madpnnn^ For m«. lir w;ie itiiEtrd by Picf. SmU an<1 (he 
piJDier Fnn^MxtJj (cu<>(i>itian of iho t-ioemj^ MtificTULTiX vho are 
ttCiViJikjr <l>v migration of the AppaftamcntOi and wh4> removcdi 
vtwrever tT fieemvd dciiiablcr any Utcr wQshei Uu-t h^ bcert »ppl«<l- 
ftm Movii^iE U tLe ujochiiJort arrivnl al :— ^' // ij utttrly imficsiiftU 

AftXAwii^. I%fairinu(f &} tk* Virgin and fht Sr^Hon in ^ki^k thf 
*mJ /Af DH-int CkiU are itH^ta^^ ihw iitiHt^r patft^trti m(m/t/, tittJ 
f^^m^f/ifmiariifa AtirJ Jirrts surret^irditi: ii absolultly <xchi4e 4a£k a 
gt^P^ititm.' U i« 10 he hopfd thai ttyr x\\^ t\t\\\tm (hi« fibJ* irill r«MM 
ID aftpear ia bwVs of huioty. 

• PtjM-nrKB, |[^ I, 500 rff.\ ScirwAaso*, jfi, 39 ttf., 4; wy, 
(Sdnnanow hu rn( ofi^rrvfd ihnt Planner harl almdy, f. jot, rv^og- 
Bi»cdlhe<nc pi«ii:cM Su-**nnA), Yhiauib:, S*^'<V^ I«™ «i*<» llictlor 
illuilcaiion* thir Pi(tpgl«ti,t«nhoinliithftr1oiludenu have been refentd. 



Towtr was finished in 1494- The fint room contarna the 
iigurea of the twdvc apostles ^nd twelve praphft«; eacb 
carries a scroti on which a sentence from tb« Cfccd or 
one of the prophets is written. The laiJt, which »s almost 
square and waj probably the Tope's bed chamber, h 
mythological representations of the planets on the ceiling. 
In each of the twelve lunettes a prophet and a sybil 
converse together. As in the former chamber, they 
can>' scrolls ccTitaiitlng prophecies of the kingdom of 

In spite of the many faulis that may he found wit 
the separate paintinf^s;, the decoration of the Appartamen 
Korgia is, as A whole, an eminently harmonioua and pie* 
ing worli^-f 

Pinturicchio left Rome on account of the dialurbanc 
there caused by the invasion of Charles VIII.; later 
returned and painted the scries of historical pictures of the 
events of ihc IVpcs life in the Cattle of St Anj-clo. which 
have alreaily been mentioned,* and executed the dcxora* 
lions in the gTotesc|ue style there which have also been 
mentioned before, and by which thw new form of Art was 


YriaJlt^ (6 u^. TIlc liodJlion 11 tlui Akjcujdcr di«^ in the ^ LibenI 

t Scu%CARmw,9; H n(iiMU{rifl«enEwA/i,4ihSeriM[Gul«nloh, 
t89o1>i p^ 374- praiacs the bi^j^bi aiid j^cicea^ble c(TcLt» of ilic painimgii, 
ami prDnouncu ihu to tw iliv " mod beautiful of aU Pinturcchio's pro- 
ductionv" See alra BtiWiu. in ihc ZeiTftrhr. f- trhrlntl Kiiiun« V-, 
yr\t^ however, pi^Ks ihc App- Boruia beyond ihcir dcscHrta* 
PiDtuncchia's honorarium, &cc C^oiu, Arch. St., IV,. iS j«f. 

; See tupra^ p ^69 ty.VKKMIOUCir.l, App., XIL; SCKMARSQWj 

Pmiuricchio vaa cinp[o)<d alio by Cjcsjic Uoiglft; hcc Ku&»Ebl>0 
p- 374- On ib» LMiitaTK* griven by Cvur lowardi the buildjnjf of 
Giujch c>f ibc Nfadonna del Fintcllo ^t liriok, see Gkau) in 
Craicr KirchcftKhmuck* XXI- Citi^d), 114 J(Y< 



fntroddced in Rocnc* Thh bright and fsntutk style of 
An vaj especially congenial to the taste of the age of 
ALexAnder VL The «ertoiu and «culpturc»que rnvmer 
wbich b^i^ to Crccco paintii^ jarred on tlkc acBAOoaf 
rHvokW3 babit oT mind of the Borgia and tbctr courtiers, 
In whom the z:stbctk seruc wu so tu^ly bouod up 
with \-aAity and display. Continued development in this 
direction would liavc been fatal to Att-f Thus tt wa« mort. 
fbrtun^Ue ihat the ntcni Influence nf Juliui H. reoiUcd the, 
pointers whom he employed to a scwrer stjte 

In Roflic iliclf Alexander completed the roof of S" 
MjuSa Ma^iore which had been ecmmenced by his uncle 
Calixtug. IV^ition says that the fir^t gold brought from 
America was used for tbo decoration of the p&ncU 
there, wMch are the mo^t charmtni; of all Iloman works 
of thiA kind In April 1493, the l^opc visited Mi chuidi 
ti> if)!ipec1 the work an its coinptctioTiJ 

Re»tOfatiorH wen- cxccdied by1hi« Pope in S Peter's, tn 
hf& own former titntar Church of S. Nfccoto En Carcere, In 
that of the SS ApostoUJ and on the city walU,|| Grati 
lude IS due to Alexander Tor the rd>uildirg of the Univer- 
aity ; in its present form it dales from Alexander VII., 
who belonged to the Chigi family.^ 

• Onihe"c«itc*4iyc"stt:ClAK. Cartc^ianOk lll.,acd ScHMiEOMrt, 

t SCSWARGOV, I'bitJdocbio, 87 ; lee p. 78 tff^ for ponicuiATi of 
PiDOark^taO^ vork in Siciid fur Cuid. Pic<:olui:ijnL ^ KafGuek und 
Pintttnoduo m Sicaa (Stuttgart, j3£oJ, W the uitat wrrUtr. 

X BuPCNAPDr Planum, IT, 45^; Kitvmomt, III^ Tp4t6; /Jihivu 
UKi, ^7 ; ciiira\inK j& MOhtz, L'An, 1 1 , 333. 

S AVIHEXUMI, 47'&: ^Vrch, d St. Hal, 3 £«h«t Vi., I, 17^; 
Rl^;«f>^T, HI., t, 416. 

i Rev. .\itli*5olHk \1U 133 ; Nmav, Le Mun, 3<jOy 374 

^ See ZAVfC is Arch. Sl tial,, 3 Scric, VI., r, r78i RRHaui, UsHi, 
and'UHierVs AVic Vt,, H)^ Nov. ifoi, A'> Xt<»t 4O0 4ii^cul> ft r«nnH 

VOU VJ. « 


JftSTORV OF Tits rOPfiS. 


For jcui'cllcry and mct<i1 work but little was do«« by< 
Alexander bc)'ond the regular necc^^ary orders for thi 
golden roses, swords of honour for princes, chsUices for' 
chitrches. and medaJs. Beyond these the only large order 
for goldsmith's work was that for the statues of the twe]\^ ^j 
Apostles in silver gilt, wiiich were desthiGd for his private ^| 
chapel* Otitaadc as wclJ as inside Rome, Alexander did 
a ^cat deal in the way of building. He spent 90OO dueats 
on the Caatle of SubUco, and extensive works were executed . 
In the citadels of Tivoli, Civildla, Civita Castcllana^ ^^Pi 
Osimo, and Civfta Vccchia;! the irrt'ctlon of a lower at 
VitcrboJ and of dwell! n^-roonis in the citadel at Ostia^ 
He also contdbutod to the building of the Cathedral at 
I'crufriaJI and helped in the erection of the shrine Of S. 
Anthony at Tadua-ll 

viudil atiiinn uHiU pm rcpnrftlionv ijiiitis tniffir. Fi^rThi^r pnymrntt ior 
1I1C k^irc object fcrllcw, St^Lc Af<:li!vo, Ronw. 

* PtRAT£, 519. On th« sv^nj ^'ivtn by Alt^tar^dtr VI. to tliv Duke 
Ikigmlftw X o< Pnmroirift, icf lJc*iiins in (hr Jnhrb. d. frnis^ 
Kui^staamnUunfica, X\^l.i I2J sef. On Alcjuindei'v Livrc tfhctirei 
(oemiftining rlfiy-CLghimiiiiaiurc«b>' a Flcmi&b p\i nicry kcPawldwsu 
in dip Gu, dt?s B«iux Ars 3r] Spr>s. V., ; m 1^. 

t ^ the Rvgituo ddle fabU.c^c dt P. AlcuAnilit) VI. in Goafs 
AjxIi. St, JV., MI : GBEGOROVIUS, WAnd«rjfthr«, U„ hj $*f. \ GoUl, 

Vl„ I, 177, iy%i Apch.d Soc. Rom-, vn.,43*. ReorcsBACBSk, 103, 
Un the building done aL hubaca vbilc Alexander uiu siiii 1 Cardjaal, 
stK CiunACA SubLu:., %H^ 

I See ihe * Document ofCch Novcnibcr, 14^, in '''Lib^brtv. 17, £ 194. 
S«<!T«1 Archix'ei of the ViTitan, 

g.*I}e«]k»cli of Stvlftno I'abcina, d^L Rolti, i4tb Oct, r^^;. 
Pope is foing to Oaii* 10 ic« Akhuce babiiattone quale £1 ft^c ia 
liarttoa- 5tai« Arcbivot, MiUa. 

Ti 'EtulloTAlciandci VI. of iSih Jan., isoo, in ihcCapitular AvcUvM 
at PcniiTB- 

n MJLKCKtuKo UA Oveua, II Komaco fonuftcaiD, 11^ 73 



The vchitocanal energy dLspU)red b>- Alexander bad 
ft itfmulatB^ eJfcct upofi the rest of Kofnc New churches 
and palaot8 arose in all dirociioas and quite chaDf;ed the 
aspect of the city. The tu-o ereate^ t>atroD» of Art wsa 
the wealthy Cardmab Riario and Ghiliano dcUa Kovcrc^ 
Tfac tatter huill ^ palace for hufuclf close to S. Pictra ia 
ViiKOli; bia Ofduiect wra^ GUiliaco da Sai^nlEii, Riarii/s 
paLftce, the fnm<m% OmcelLma vhich h;id been b^tn by 
Alexander VL,!™-; finished in his tvi^r This magnificeni 
boltding. with Its cxqul»tc pt!lan:d halls, was for a l««g 
time attnbuced to Bnuiunte. Kecent research bam tliewn 
that thu view is untenable The Cancellarit is, on the 
coatraiy, one of the lait productions of the Tuscan rtylc 
which was supcncdt^ t>y Braniante. For tfac tame rca^ioii 
Carcimal Ca^tellcijiS splendid palace in the hor^o (now 
Giraud — Torloma), the architecture of which \a eimtlar in 
character, c^tn nut be the wurk of the auUtor of the revival 
of ih^: classical style in Itomcs.'f'. 

Bramantc came to Rrj^c fn the >'ear 1499^ and b 
^MppoMd to ha^^ b^vn employed by Akxandcr VI. in the 
erection of the fountains mentioned in the beginning of 
thia chapter*; The remains of the ancient city which he 
then aaWtimpired him with ^uch enthusiastic admiration 
that, thotijEh already in h\% fi1%y-^;ith year he succeeded in 
an amar-ingly 5hort time, in nitiking the spirit of classical 
architecture completely his own. The result appeared in 
the iainoua Tcm^ctto in the couit of tlic Fiaacbcan 

• <y. WcLTu.v»0r, 11,339,011 PcniKinoV *oik hr Giuliauo. Pin- 
tkokduo puai4d for Cud PlccoIuixhhi m bicaa fiom ibc you ijoa. 
See &v. f^-r I L, 3p u^., 6^3. 

t Gnou, La Cun^clLuin* II J17. The present Pcpe is dilnking of 
hivitkg the Csii«:liaria TVttored, On ih« tit* of Card. Ca^Tdleefi 
pibcc^ Kt M. Bka]>v. Annlo-Roii^n Fapera. Loadon, iS^a 


atsTOAV OF TUB pores. 

Convent near S. Pictro in Mcmlorio, erected by him for 
l^'crtlinand and Isiibclla of Spain in commemoration of th« 
martyrdon^ o( the IVircc of the Apostles. It was fini^)ied 
in the year 1 502, and mAfks the change from Ihc Lombard 
lu the koni^n Hranianle, and the ilivision bcl*ecn ihcj 
arts uf two cenitirtes ll w^^ no longer a mete tmitatioo. 
of classical form^j but a new crcailon so com|j]etcly in the 
spirit of the old architecture that noticing in the building 
Indicated its recei:t origin, and it was studEed and 
measured by the architects of th« day as though it had 
bctn a ncwlv-diiCCAcred monument of classical times,* 

There txrc ^udly no grounds for connecting Itramantc'j 
name with tlic Church of the German Hospkcof S** Mariftj 
dcLI' Aniiiifl. the loundali or -stone of whiiih sva3 laid by 
Malthrtn* l-i«rig, the Ambas^iatlor of the German Etnpcfor, 
on tJie iiih of Ajiril, ijco. The nhurch was consecrated 
In 1511, and^ according to the inscription, the facade 
completed in 1514.! I^he Eomcwhac Gothic interior mijs(i 
undoubtedEy be ascribed to a German architect.} 

The list of cfaurchc:s creeled in the reign of Alexander 
VL includes, besides the German National Church, that oli 
SS. TnniL\ di;' Monli on the Pmcio, founded by Cardinall 



if S*i" 

^ CrfOu, Joe. tH^ \t. On the Tcmpiclto, (/. especially C&VUOU£B. 

t Kr'j(K:KKAUi>iKiciif^.:GKAi;^S(4M;imdel1'Anfnia,mihcG 
KirchGnKlinuchn88j), No. 3 j.v. GEVHULLER writw. p. fiS, " 
iriasu^c influence may pouibly b« traceable in the ground^pUQ cif 
Maiil dcir AiLijru bvji oiily ui rkit. . . > . T^ us it tofica very prob- 
able ihdl die gnccful loAcr una built by a GcrniAn arcHicei aficr 
a drawing by Hnunint«. Lvria^rly UninaLntv, jin<l probably G. eU 1 
Sangallu. aic quiic gujldesi of (he sornewlui incohcrcnl Ci^idc wlild^^l 
Kunddtd in 1514-" In tliir Arduveaof Uin Afiima I found && inlcnolmje ^^ 
T^mc in whkh Htirlurdui Arg^ Ma^jt caeremoa. 1499, ^1 ^i<t 10 have 
bcQu piacfcoiu tibricic 

t RuvnrKBACitw, 179. 


Br]9onnct at the instigation of S. Francis of Paula, 
S, Rocco on the quay of the Ripotta, S- Maria di Loreto, a 
Con fraternity-church not completed until the 17th Century, 
the Church of the Guild of the Bakers of Rome, and 
S"" Maria di Monaerrato, the Spanish National Church.' 

* REUM0HT,I1L, I, 430,4381 AJtlCELLlNl, 413, 578. 


PIUS 111. 1503. 

JULIUS II. Restorer of the States of the 
Church and Patron of the Fine Arts. 


The Conclaves of September akd November, 1503. — 
Pius 111. and Julius 11. 

!n a Despatch of 15th August, 1503. when the condition 
of Alexander VL was rapidly becoming hopeless, the 
Venetian Ambassador, Antonio Giustinian, reports that 
Cardinal Caraff a had said to him In conversation, "There 
is every prospect of war, I greatly fear that the coming 
Conclave will result in an appeal to arms, and prove 
most disastrous for the Church."" A sonnet, published 
in Florence about that time, describes the divisions in the 
Sacred College, the machinations of the Kings of France 
and Spain to secure the election of their respective can- 
didates, and the probability of a simoniacal election, and 
even of a schism.f 

The situation was, indeed, fraught with peril on all sides. 
In the North the French army under Francesco Gonzaga 
lay at Viterbo, the Spaniards under Gonsalvo de Cordova 
were advancing from the South, Rome resounded with party 
cries, Orsini^ Colonna, and Borgia. Cardinal Aegidfus of 
Viterbo says " the whole city was in a ferment; the confu- 
sion was such, that it seemed as if everything was going 
to pieces."J Under such circumstances it was obvious that 

* Dispacc! di A. Giustiman, 11., no. 

+ Sonnet, '*Anieqiiam cteatur novus Pontifex,^ printed in ihe Docum. 
tMomo Pio 11. c 111., 39-30, and in the Giom- d. LeU. ItaL, XVIL, 396 
Cf. Nuova Antologia (1894), VoL 135, 93' 94- 

t GreCiOROVIUS, VUl., 7, ed. 3. 

iBti KlSrOftV OF TflE FOrES. 

C^CfiAfs presence in Rome coul<i net bo a matter of tHI 
imporliincc. Tho Spanish Cardinals were sls abaolulcly 
fiubacrvicnt to him " as if they had been his chaplamV' atrid 
he had under his command an army of not Ics* than 1 2fiO0 
strong. It was cei-tainly quite in IiU power Co forccanoUiCT 
Rodrigo Boi^ia on the Churck 

One ca:iitot but regard il as a dircrt Jfitr.rpniition of 
Provitifrncc that precisely at this critical time he was 
crippled by a serioua illness, from which lie wat only begin- 
ning to recover Ho said himself a ftenvard^ to MachiavelBJ^^ 
" I had counted on the death of my father, and had mado 
every preparation Tor it, but it never occurred to me tJut l^^ 
should bavt at the same lime to fight with death myself-" ^fl 

Dut the fad that both France and Spain, *ho had 
quarrelled with cuth olher over the Neapolitan spoils, were 
trying to secure his fricntlshlp, shews what was the strength 
of C^wir** infiuencr in spile of hh ho<Vi]y weakness. They 
evidently ihoitght that the result of the coming cledlon 
depended largely upon him- It wai^ only natural that the 
Uuke should exert himself to the utmost to control it The 
unexpected death of Alexander VI. hud been the slgn^ 
for a genera] uprising of all the enemies of the I3or^a 
family, and his very existence dcpcnJcd upon the outcome 
of the election, Tlie Venetian Ambassador writcson 2iat 
Augii«t : " [ am assured on the best authority that last 
Sunday no less than eleven Carriinals swore to Cai^sar to 
have Cardinal Giovanni Vera Hectcd.or cUr to bring about 
aichinm. Tliey are alto trj'-Ing to win over the Cardinals 
CarafTa, Raffitclc Riario, and Pallavicino to their side, and T 
myself know for certain that the Duke ha^ taken pre- 
cautions tc prevent the arrival of CardinaJ Giulianodella 
Rovcre> eitJier by «ca or land.''t ^H 

* UaCHIAVKI.ti, Pfinnpc, i^pL 7, 

t Dliinoci di A- CiiuUiiiati, 11^ 13S; tfl Ijcv I3T- 3cc a1m> Anl 


Howcwr, it soon became eviilait iJiat C^iar'a power 
was ovtr-otti mated. He himself fell hiii inability to with- 
stand the popular haired, or to make headway figainsc th« 
Barons, who wer« thre^nlening hEm wiili vengeance, while fill 
his efforts to obtain possession ol the Castle oJ St. Angd« 
by bribery faUcd to overcome the integrity of its custodian, 
FfanccAco Roccamura,* 

ilUhcrto he had but to command and be obeyed, but 

BOir he found himself oblit^ed to enter into a (rt^ty with 

the Colcnna faction and with the Cardinals- Bnrch;iFd notes 

i with surprise his fiitbmissivcncss towardB the Sacred College, 

' to whom he suore obedience on the 32nd of August. 

In consequence, he was allowed to retain his appoint' 

■ mcnt OS a Captain-General of the Church until the new 

Pope had been elected; but the unanJmoiu decision of 

the Cardinah to hold the Conclave in the Castk of St 

AngeJo plainly nhcw^ how little they trusted Ijim.f Even 

there, liowever, m;my did mil consider theiiuclvcM safe, 

for C;c*ar continiLcd to exert himself to the utmost ta 

cecvife ihe election cf a Spanish Pope who would be 

favourable to him.] 

If the election was to be frtie^ it was absolutely necestaty 
to get the Uukc out t>f Rome. The CardinniU, especially 

ddl' Kmilu, VU^ 7, J69 : M. LEO^aai}!. Vj(a di Nicculb Boiul^dCt 
4^ j«y, ; and Cakixce, LcEtcrtr dl 0. GacUni, 134. 

* C/. &1CJSH0KD0 C^ CONTl, 11,, 3^'^ iM thtt MS. Ja THUASNt, 
ITT.. 441J. RAXKE ill Rvm. und Gcriti, V^lkcr, 171, »Ays irrront^oiidp 
ChfiC CvMr lud paitcasioa ^f the Caitlc of St Ang«b- The 1ctr«fl 
^aoBvd by GaaoonoviuT;, V]||», 7, «tl 3, fmnuh* c;u<airt> AKluvrfl,as 
hndieno unprinted, and which ccpnfimi GuiL:t:bulini'i sUicmenLB about 
Carsii's trtaty vrjlh the ColonnA, *<r< prinii^d long ,'xgo by CakinCI, 

t BuftCHAHDl Duuiuiii, Ilk 145"^- 

X Dwpacci d^ A. Oiiuztnua, 11^ 157 i ^sreucELLi itZLiA GaTlurj 
1-, A4t 



the Italian Cftrdinals, laboured asaiduouftly lo efr< 
.iiicl were auppoilcd by the Ambassadors of Germany, 
prftncc, Spain, and Venice, The ncj^otiations la,^tcd fn 
Ihc 25th August to the 3i5t September, when C^sar' 
rinfllly consented to wlthdrnw from Rome Within three 
days, the Cardinals on their side engaging lo protect 
him against atl attacks, and granting him a free passage 
through the States of Ihc Church. They also promised 
to warn Venice against any attempts to get hold of his 
pO£3C£3ions in the Romagna. The Ambassadors of 
Maximilian and Ferdinand pledged thcoisclve^ that 
neilticr Caesar, (he Spanish arm}', nor the Coloiina ^ 
should approtmh from ^rithin 8 to to miles of Rome u^ 
li^ng as tlie Papal Chair remained vacant, and those rf ' 
Fnnce and Venke entered into a similar engagement 
regard to the French army and the Or*ini" 

On the following day a part of the Duke's artillery Id 
Rome by the Tm^^lcvcrc ; the ncwr> had just reached hij 
that Hombino, Rimini, and Pcsaro had thrown fiff his 
yoke He himself w^is carried in a litter from tlic Vatican 
to Monte Mario; at the Poila Viridaru, Cardinal Cc»ariii|^| 
wished to speak to him, but ft^s toJd that " Ihc Dnke gave^^ 

It soon became known that Czsar had placed hlm»ell 
Wider the protection of the French army at Nepi, H< 
had already, on the ist of September, entered into a ficcr^ 
agreement with the repreKntatives of Louis XIL, 
which ho promi:^ to place his troops at the dmposat 
the KiDg, and to bcliavc towards him a,^ an obedient 
vassal and help him a^^ainst all hi^ cncmies> the Churcb 

* BvnafARm Diarluin. IIN, 3$$. 

t J^J., in., 1^7. C/. Ditpaccidi A. Ciustinian, IL, 17I j Sal 
V, Jb> Si ; and the *nrspji[( h of the NUntunn Envoy, dnL Rome* 
ScfC, i;o). Gonro^ Aichlves, Manlua. 


oiily excepted ; Loub on bis part f^uanmtccd to CatMr 
ftU his present pcMscoioru «ind eng^t^t^! to sLVtht htm 
to recover those which he haJ lost ftt the deaih of 
Alexander Vr» 

The fnaifitcnance of order hsLvlng been almdy secured 
by the Hire of a aufiicjcnt force in the ^y of the College 
of Cftrdinal^ Hity could now proceeti to make arran^e- 
gicnt:; fof the Conclave^ Undci Ihejsc more (avournble 
circomatAnccs it wa£ decided that it should be held in 
iHe Vfttican. 

J*ublic oi«iitioc] was veiy much divided ju in the 
probftble resuh of the etection. Antonio Giustljii^n 
ivTitei on igih August: "The better minded would 
like to hxvc CttrAft^ or Piccolomini, tlioii^h Cocta would 
make «i excellent Pope ; only hU age and his Spanish 
name are af^aii^Kt him" A few days later I'alUvlcino 
aiKl i'odocathuro were also mentioned; of the fatter it 
wa3 said that he would have the votes of all the 

On the 4th September* the obscquft's of the late Pope 
began and tutted rine day& Mesmwhile mary of the 
abfwnt CardinaU had arrived in Rome, Sodcrini carne 
on the 30ih of August, Comaro on the isi of September, 
Tfiwki and Oiutiano della Rovcre on the 3rd (the 
fattcf had been an exile for nearly ten years). On the 
6th Coknna arrived, on tlie f>th Riario, and on the loth 
Gcoq[c S. d'Amb^ise, Luigi d'Aragtma, and Aacanio Sfbr2<»<§ 

t Di9f«CCLdi A. ClUaCiCLlul. Il„ U6; ?FIRI,'CEL1.|DELL\ CATTTNA* 

I., i47 i and lk4 SormI quoc«iJ rupr^ij p. iRj^ t^te t; "Antequun," etc 
I Not on ibe 3rd Sept » m siaiccl by ViLiJVki, Mifhinvdli, L, ^9-j. 
and CRecOKOVit/% Vn]» to,«d. J. Sec 'Acta Cossial., f. 141 in ihc 
Comifttonal ArduTM of the Voiicfin- 

g CArdiiutl <l'K4p hkcl biinkcn hh \tfi in tlitr hurry of th# |nnmry nnd 



The latter had kd Lovtk XtL to believe that if he wx?u 
allow him to ukc part in the Conclave he would \-ote fi 
Uic French candidate, Cardmal d'Amboisc* 

Throutih their treaty vnth C;etuLr Ko:^a the l-'rcnc£ 
p^rty thought they could couut on tlkc support of the 
eleven S^jaitlhlk CardiiiaU,f diid d'Ambuiae hiiiudf d 
not KcTupIe to use every nte»n»i in his |)otA^er, fl^llcry^ 
promtscs. and even covert thTe;tt5r it> orJer to win over 
the remalnder4 In employing the latter he counted, of 
course, on the inltuence which ihe proximity of 
Krcrnch troops mu&t exert. Jn cft«e of nce<t, as 
Muiituan Ambiiisjdor aaiJ, it had been decided to have 
recourse to tiTin%§ No means were to be rejected that 
could possibly obtt'Lir the Tiara for the favourite of the 
Kiii£ of Fiance, and Ulus secure Prcnch ascendency ia 
Ibtly and the wljtIJ^ 

in ccducqucnc* did not utivt in liitw. 5Afnrrc%V^77; e/. tM.ttUi» 
the veiy IjuirJcil joutiicy id C^idauJ d'AiuboiAC. 

• StClallONDO 1>E' COSTI, IJ,, 390- 

t 0^ DJKpaixl di A. Giiuimutn, Il„ 17^ I9c^ 194. As m lire '■vbcle 
CoJlctfc of Carfinnh thwo tfcra only two who *«tc Krvndinicn hy birth, 
it «wm«(1 to the Frc^nc^b pari)- thai ilTcy rrmiU not LiAbnl to ne^lra any 
mccm of ciuurin^ »uci;c3» \ they couU refill^ unly- <ijunt uixjn kui vo«c«> 
Sm SahiaO, V-, K3- The MamijtciA a^nt, Uhiviiano, ia wntin; 10 the 
MaTTiiim nf ManTicn fmm Rnmi^ on nrh StpL, t5c)j, rcpom of Cwdlral 
d'Amboi&c ^ Ihcn olc ja hore pirLai cum mona. dc RoIuitio ... me 
daat 10 dov«uo in oome voatro parlncc nl revi^'* csu^ S- I'rauodc et pii& 
l^bdo D dirli la voce vi« pronvAtcudoli die iulu (iucIj U totI |jrfmuM> 13 
wti iitcao CI retlftcito per k Ch'** M" c di qucito >^g la £> V^ li 
^a picna legurui, 11 die a in* non ha yana ttrw i«na liuatia ^ ^imU, 
hi (jiuili* ^pia oMnc a Ic xx. lure lioe lordlnc de andare a pailue 
a S. PjuAcdc I al tud. de KeJwio ho promca? fan quuaio ia Sua 
S<^ mo a comandaii^ c CMi brb nan havcodo nlTn> in concru ' 
GcmBica At^UivcA, NUniua. 

^ See AppendiXf N, t3, the 'Dcafhiidi of ^hivuaao of laih St 
iy)> Gona^ ArvbivM, M;iniLLt 







Ferdinand of Spftia waa nahiraTly the chief opponent of 
X^xac pUiu^ From the very l>c^iniiift£ hist Anibjuaddom 
were doing thrir utmost to secure the election of * SpAni&h 
Pope. His candidates were Pid^olofitiiii, Castio, and 
Cwajtl ; the one whom above all he wUhcd to exclude 
WA£ Gtutiano deiJ;i Rovere, whom he regarded sa 1 partisan 
of France.* 

As iong as Cse^tir Borf^La bad remained Jn Rome he 
h^6 exercised a sUonj;: mfluerce on the Spiini.-th Cardinals. 
As soon Bfl he liad left the city and was known to have 
fotic lo the Frcn(.H camp, thi^a wda uf ccur^c at an crid. 
Beraardino CarvaJAl t^ccamc the leader »f the: Spamah 
Canltnals, and tlvcy held together as closely as possible, 
kiMvring that th^ had all tlie ddcstatioii wMcIl the Borgia 
had broftighl upon tliemselvev on ibcir shoulden-^ In the 
face of the «iorm of hatred which h^d burst forth from the 
populace of Rome on the death of Alexander Uie election of 
a Spaniard wa^ out of the question^ The reaction o^ln:;! 
the Jatc Pope wa> too strong, This mndc the losa of the 
elcTcn SpanUh vi^tcs all the more vcxatiouii fur the 
French. Their prospect:* declined at once. The Mantuan 
Ambassador, unttng on the 12th of Sqitcmher, to a vivid 
description of the exciicnitiit amoTi^si the ticctois, " who 
are miming hither and thither Itlce bees iuid intriguing In 
all directions," adds (significantly, " but d'Amboi^ wjU not 
be Pop«/'§ 

* O! Diapucl (fi A CluVlnian, II. 15^ i^^r. ZUWTA, V.i c 47; 
mnucCLU i>zLUi i.kntv^^ l. -H^: BCU^CNaom, Calendar, 1, 
n 373 : SAotiiCllkr, 117 tr^.i HAiLLca, Streit FfrdinAiub d. KalhoLp 
ond HiiJippa. t-t 19; Rom»bmii, CArYAJiJ, 5Q '«/. f incorrect in pUc»X 

t C/. Diipacci di A. GitutiniJLn, Jl., lj<}-tiio; F£TRt;CELLI D£U> 
GA-mKA, I., 45a 

^ Sfc Appvndiv, N. 13, *VttpckUii Of Chivjzano, I3th SepL, 150^ 
Gon&iKa Ardiiro, >fj£ituM. 



GIuHano ddin RoverCi however, wx« Tor th« French 
the moil ckinfi:erous of all their opponents. It was he 
who made it ^\air\ to all the world how disutrous would 
be the consequences if the man who was Loois' ali power- 
ful miniater, and liad l>ccn Cecaar Borgia's friend, were 

Giuliaiio':^ arrival in Rome completely changed the whole" 
<it;Ltc iif affairs. He was aa uut^jKjken as U his election 
wrrc alroiifiy an accomplished fact On the ^ih September 
1i« said to the Venetian Ambassador : " [ have come h(?r^^ 
on my own account and not on other people's. J ihall 
not vote for d'AmboisCp If [ fail to obtain the Tiara 
myself, I hope whoever succeeds will strive to maintain 
penec in Italy, and to promote the interMts of religion." 
lie took pains to point out to the CandlnMs that if a 
French Pope were elected it was extremely probable that 
ihe^e.ituf the Papicy would a^^iin betran.Hfern::d to Fmnca 
Thfijc^ rrprt-ifTilattoTis natur^illy carrW great wrfght with 
the Spanish ;ind Italian member* of the College.f A* the 
Italians were largely in the majority (they were twenty 
two out of thirty-^s'cn) they could easily have m:ide 
Giuliano Fopc had they been unanimous. This, however, 
was far from bein^ the case. Somt; were for CaraiTa, 
others for Pallavicino, others ^ain for Giuliano. Cardinal 
Giovanni Colonna held with the Spaniards, while t 
FbrciLtinc CardiDLib, Mcdicj itnd Suderini, were on t 
French side.} 

The divifticns among the Italian Caidinals threw the 
oistingvotc Into the hands of the united Spanish party. 
Giuliano saw thi& ai once and oon];er]ucnt]y from thi 

* Diipacci di A Giattminn, II., mol 
i JM^IU reo iSa. 

I ZukfTA, i99t GvjcaM^rwi, Operc inediti, ill., jo6 



devoted himself to Ihc work of winning the Spftntaniv" 
On the 1 2th September the Man tuanl^nvoy writes: " Neither 
d'AfliboUe, GtullanOj Caraffa, dot Riarlo wJtl be Pope; 
PodocaiharA, Piccolomfni, or PalUvicIno h-ive the bett 
chance, for they Arc favoured by the SpaniiirdF: ; but the 
commoD opinion is that the CuriinaU vlll not b« able to 

Thus, from the vcty beginning of the Conclave, the 
rcprcaenlfttivc^ of the three great Latin national stood 
opposed to each other. Not one of the few rcprc:icnUttivc:» 
of the Don^I^tin ttatforrftlittcs was in RoTiiCt^ ivhcji, after 
the Chair of S. Peter ^a(^ bee:) vaoiiJt for thirty days, the 
Concla\<e at la*t bc^art on i^th September. The numbtr 
of CardinalsS who took part in it, thirty-seven, y waj( much 

* I>i»pncci dt A. GitiBtini^n, tl,, iSj. 

+ See Af^rdix. N, 13, 'Oetpalch of Chivit:LnO| ilA Sept.. 1503, 
Comuqfji Aidiivci. Mantua. 

I TbcM latccf codd orJy act through thntf F.n^^fyi. Sec Uluann, 
lE't 13^> nti the prrxee^Ltigi of MaximilianTi AititKisiador. C/. i.]so 

^tpeDcUx, K. ty 

Ji A1 tormrr dectton^ [h« m?TnI»r wm mu^h tnuU^r. AllheConf^bv* 
of NiUwbi \^ tlicir ivcjc J S, foT Calixius III, 1 5. for Piua H . 1 S. for 
Paul IJ, ao, for SiiEtu( IV. tB, for Innoconi VtJL ^5, for ALoemdcr 
Vr33. C^^pAbTOa, Hui. Fopet, IL, 11,330; 111,,$; IV, ^,n, $,iot 

(EuiL l/HJB.). 

j] Cfi Bt-HauaDI DiariuniT EII,, 169 J«;.; S^HUtO, V., p. lOO Stf-i 
an(1rhe*n#ip4irliof Co«Ul>iti, <bTprlKcan^, lAib ,S*>pr^ i^t^j^lnthn .Smti 
Ai^ivtiSv ModenM- Moth JLnt:it(it ind modern 'vritm \'ATy vciy mucill 
in thair *lal«ntfnfB at to the number ih;Lt tank pari in thn Conduvv. 
Raphael VohterruiuK, Knynnlduc, KKtiMOMT, lit-. 5, 7. afid RdHR- 
aACHKa-K^^FFLKR, iS^. ffivc th« Qumbcr a« 36; while GucaAn- 
Dixi, Vl>, <np. ], thccpiinphgf PjuE Uh, jind Ga^conovivs, Vllt., i3» 
*d. J. nay 3R. B«h rumlien af<f trmrr<nis. TMrty-icven rlr i lort Xoitk 
pMt in it, ju Mated by liurchnrd. ihc Mnnmait Amtusiador, in a 
*D«ipa|ck, dawd Rome, T6th SepL, 1503, u alao in *Arcount of (he 
bejfinnlng AfihcCanclflvv by GhEvicinn, dared 17th Srpt., and, what 1$ 




!*rper tlian had hccji prevail at any former Conclave;' 
Even fi-i ]ntv! as ihc I2lh of Scfrtember There had been pro- 
tracleft (liscu^ions whether it fihould not l>e held in S^| 
Marco unrifr the protectioti of the Roman penple, (nU thft^H 
final dcciBTOn w.'aa ir favour of the \'alicftn, Immediately 
before the opening of the Conclave, d'Ambciae decided to 
pa.y visits to his two rivnH Ciinxffa and GiuliAnc dclla Rovcrai|^| 
The Mfiutimn Envoy, who reports this, add*, there was no^^ 
exchange of visit* between d'Amboisc 2nd Piocolomtni, 
ralUvicIno, and Podoc^^lharo. TIic Tiara will fall to ooe 
of these ihree; ff to the last, because he is a good man, 
if to either of the other*, because they are neutral and 
favoured by the Spaniard*. Four days later the Venetlaxi 
Ambassador says that PiccolominI or Pallavicino 
probably be elected.* 

The ftrst thing the Cardinah did, was to draw up a 
Election- capitulation to supersede that of 1464. One of 
its proWstons was that the Pope should summon a Council 
for the rcforin of the Church wtthin two years after li]4 
election, and that then a General Council ithould be held 
every three years-f 

On the 17th of September d'Amboise had proclaimed, 
hif; uiual swaggering manner, that either he or another 
Frenchman would certainly be chosen. Five daj-s earlier 
he had told the Venetian Envoy what he really thought 
He said, "I have heard that several Cardinals have 
bound themselves by an oath not to elect any Cardinal 
who is a Frenchman or a friend of the King of 

quite dKi>ivc« llM Mcta Comiff., foL 14. Consiitoritl Aniih^ of 

• Ditpftfri (Ti A, GSuflinian, IT., ]96-[9S, and in Apjjcndix. N- 1; 
Chii^iano'* *Dc»^c<h of t^ihScpt,, 1503, ConagaArzhivo, > 

t C/ BlTRCRAant Dianum, 111, aj3 1*7,3 ZuKfTA, SOS ; Camcitt, 
Qi^7, n. 1 ; RtJiticintarH. h, p. Lvm., a. 571- 







France. This ha* greatly incenaed mc, [ *cc no reason 
thhy the Frericb nation should be shut out Trom the 
fftpftC)'* and if my King, who is the tirst-born «on of tiie 
Church, aii<l has done more than any other Prince for 
the ^\poatclic Sec. is trying to promote the election of « 
French Pope, I do net think he caji be blamed, when he 
has iscen Iww unworthily one Spaniard and two ttaliani 
h4ve ruled hrr. Onr gf-ncra.h are aware of ihcse inlnguesi, 
ind will not patently endure such a slight to their King." 
Then he complained of various simoniaci) negotiatir^na^ 
andodded: "if 1 percene anything of thb kind you mny 
be sort that I shAll not let it p^tss ; and my protest will 
be auch that none shall fail to hear it" " Kvidcrtly," the 
Eoroy continues, "the Cardinal aces that his cftusc is 
loaL lie already ^ay** that he has beeii bctraycxf. He 
Ima jmt found omi that A^canio Sfnr/a, f;ir fmm troub- 
ling himself about him, is working hard 10 secure his ^own 

Such indeed was the caflc> On the 13th of Septcmbertbe 
Venetian AmbasaaJcr writes, " Aacaiiio Sforza makes no 
wcret of his intentions; he sayi he had protnised hbvote 
to d'Aiabotse and he shall have that, but nothing ebc't 
The acclamations u-ith which Ascanio had been greeted 
wlieti he entered Rome had naturally ciicoufaged him tn 
think wc?!l of his chanres. Burrhard, after narrating the 
hearty welcome he had received, adds in his Diary, "God 
alone knous what these cries were to Ascanio."* 

The hopes which d'Amboific had built on Cardinal 
d'Arfigona were equally doomed to disappointment He, 

* Divpacddi A, CiuaHniuv lU 19^-196, 196, 

t yWrfl, iU '93- ^7- J'Hvro, ija it is int*T«Tinii to lind 
from BlfftCRARTl Diariuin, U]^ 374, that Ai^conio tlid vow for 

I BvncdAKDi Diuiuni, III, 363. 



like Ascstnio, vrks not disposed to stal the niin or his h( 
by forwarding the election of a French Pope.* 

But, tliough forced to give up all hopes for himsdf, 
d'Ambai^e none the less did his best lo secure the election 
of OTIC or other of the French candidatcsu All his cfforis 
however, Aere in vain, owing to the firm front presented 
by the Spatitsh CsirdinalSj none of whom could be won 

The prospects of Giultano delta Rovere rose in pro- 
portion 03 those of d'Amboiae declined. At first vre are 
told he wanted but two votc3 to make tip the two-third* 
majority. Out at the last moment he found himself foilc^^ 
by his old cnen^y Ascaina} ^| 

The strength of the various jiartles, and also their tuabihly 
to bring matters to a condusion, were manifested In the 
vote that was taken on the 21st September.^ Gtuliano 
della Rovere had tlie liighe^ vote, Iifteen (sti)l far below the 
requisite majority of two-thirds); Caraffa ci^me next with 

• Sosa^ CfieciARUiNi, VL, c. i. 

t Dspacci di A- Giu«(mian» U., iQti, 197-301. 

*DeipBtch 10 C^rd- dK^tcof iScb Scpr.^ ^9>^' £* perAceanio tt he 
ftiCto ifnDde uprrd pci tiuum rlt^iiionf. Phma 5. Fraxede St aprDxiiiio 
al (lallio « fu djaconcio per S. Peuo in virtcul^ Dopm cerendo tnotio 
& Pttro in viDcub fu discorcio p«r Aocinio, State Archives, ModivnaH 
f, Afrnrding tn Koman IctTrrs qijoted by SAVUTn, V-, 92, rhtrr wrrt 
tluec icnHini>a. BurcHird speaks ciily of ivstt. SiQuto says ; non (a 
faio tcrutmio hno cl tudba [i^^ Jist Sept,)e fu bio unc e S. Fnuccd* 
to ine;o c 3. Ficru in vinimUi li jnonchava do vou- Ghiviuno. ilic 
Maiuuad Amb^wWvr, s*p on llic contrary Lliat tltc Eint tcditiny touk 
plnot on the iSthj he rtfcn to 4 ccmmumcAtion Iron the Lngt^h 
Ambauador who proA-fted lu Iulvf liad Itu mformatiorL frorr VeniiT ; 
but GUiaiiaian Mys rwdiin^ about it, m any rttLc nothing m ihosc oJ hii 
dMpiitcbM wbSch reached iri«ir dctliiuilion. *nd thh ihronv doubi upon 
ihc point, CtiiviaQo'i^ *Dc»patiJi of-i^ih Sept {Gonoga AnJuvcs* 
Mantua^ Append^n, N. J4. 



^Hteen, d'Ambobc h^d thirtccrt. Carvajaf twelve, Riario 

Thus no |uirty vtAs tn a ixMitioi^ to c:arry lite dectioru 
hMJ yet the situation w^s one thAt cfcmamlcd » speedy 
settlement Both Burch^rd and the Venetian Ambassador 
a^free in saying that, und*r these cireum nances, Cardinal 
d*ArnkHM»« preferred a candidate whoM age and weaknetc 
nnarkcd Min out a^ a temporsLry Pcpe. Antonio Giu^tirian 
writer, " A* soon as d'Amboif:© perceived that his own 
ekctk>n was out of the question, he determined at any rate 
to prevent the election of any one not of his choice" Like 
a pfudent man, he svram with the .Urcjim,+ Jind on 2]«t 
Scjrtcinhcr, acting in concert with Asciimo Sffl^^ft. Soflcrini. 
and M<^Ici, hr proposed the name of (he old and ailing 
Cardinal Francesco Piccolominf. 

A» the Spanish Cardinalu agreed to siippnrt him^ the 
matter wa£ decided at once. On the following morning 

• Ttwre air t*o lists of tht vote taken on aiM Sepr. in Buwchahoi 

W; iJi it^-t 175 »v.,»i]d U13C in ^ANUTCi V,, <^3-fj4i lr> wliich 

nuy be Killed thai in the Dispicd di A- C^iuttinon, IK^ ^^' '^ ^^ ^^ 

liiihcrto been ni>tJL:cd ttui ihe two list& lEiven hy h\\%CiUT\U tin: berond 

ef which is ctideatly dcfited ftctat the 6r»i, do net Ofrree with one 

KMflher, eifhcF m Ihr ti^imr^ f-r thn immhor of vr>t»«- Th#r« >tr* die 
cnpandaBalw in Jiea<xountiDf S^TiutojndniuiTinuiii- FnBUKtHAiU), 
J^ Carafla bu fburiccn votoi in BirKCliAKDy LL, thirteeri, Suiuto 
iml GliucinUn ^vr him fiiurtrm, niuUstmi dr^lh Kovrrr had, arconU 
ini; to QntCUARD. I., fbudccn voTei; accoidinir lo DuaCHAHD, 11^ 
S&QOto, B3id l^iiutinem, Filtren, All four lt«U <ujni^id4r tri re^fsrd to 
Curajd and d'AmUmc Gimiinnn and Snmiirj in^-ree in Khring 
C«tfi« iltlrtcen «iHe«. It £• remArkAble ilut ElumluixV^ fmt liatf^v«c 
Cwtn> eleven voie^ and the >«coDd none at all ! It tt p<Hiibl« thai the 
fceood Inl ifjvcn by Bcfrrlunl ib ft UVr iinrtlxjIuciDii, And llii^ is the 
more probable, sLncc ihcrc is no auch kcoek) ]i»i glvcft for die icniciar 

I or J3ftd S«p:., or, Jater, for the dwriion of Juhui It, 

I t DispQcd di A. Gimiiaian, 11., 301 ; Bukc^hakui Diahiun, Itt^ 



(^3iid S^tmber) the election tooU place,* and PiccoLomlnl 
u-a* itintle: Pope, taking the name of Pius IIT. in honour of 

" [t it impnfijitbtctoexjwaK tht^joy of llit people? of RoiftC 
at Ficcolomini't clectioo," write* ihc Mantuati Emoy oo 
the 3Jnd Scptomber. »nd the repfe*cnialivc of Venice 
»yj, " The previous \i(e o( the ne^v Fope» marked by 
numerous clccd?^ of l^indness and charity. Lead the people to 
hope that his Poalificalc will be the exact opposite to that 
of Alexander VL. mid thuA ihcy aic bc^ldc tlicauclve» with 
joy."; This gcrncral rcjoicmg was fully jmtiiievL All ha 
contemporaries a^fce in saying tliat the personal cbaroctci 
ami abilities of tlie nev Pope were of the hlglwst order. 
He wa* made a member of the Sacred College in I46c^ at 
nn early age, by his uncle Pitia IT, and the Cardinal of 
Siena, as Piccolommi was then called, liad always dis- 
tiii(:uiaLiGci himself by hb cultivation of mind, bis gtut 
ability, atHl hi:: blameless life. Under Pius II. he had suc- 
etMfully govctncd the Mmch of Plaecntia, and In Uic time 
of Paul II, li^d filled the difficult post of Lc^tc En Germany 
with cons;immatc tact, to the great satisfaction of the then 

* T\vb chkiTc *>4 ainWTiy a imlbundcd. C/ Camia, XX[., ttff ; abo 
ItOCOLOHUn, I)ACkatOm(^a Pio IL* lU^ 19, and SaCmCLLCH. 139. 

t Sea RUKCVAltDl Danu&i, til, 271^77 ; nihi^cri <li A, CiuvieiaTi, 
11^ 199 Mir> ; </ ^ »^ en the influence «f ihe Spuiisih Catdioak to 
ihv aledion. Sakiiol v.. 93: zcmita, ^03; PKntucaixt dcixa 
GAmViL, U *St: *Keiml uf Ghitieaaob dated Remcv 3fnd St^ 
(r*oiuaffa Art^ivn, Mantm.) The F«rArcK AirbawJor, Cvubit^ 
hi hii 'Arcount ai thr ficfimn, makn the reinarte :" It is to be feeiped 
ihat ih« n«« Poire will proir« u utiificKiry as ut laiM« naMon to lliiaL* 
Set abo KS.' ei too Demo i CkoMnto aexbOL Siaie 

I Dkpud di A- Olua^'oltui, lU ^oo, aud dtc -Repo^ tiGUykaaS^ 
itatcd Koow, ;?nd ?^f pt., t ^j : Qtatsio ua *caia la ootvciBple ales'*** 
£ tuto queAD popcfo e cono aoa uria pDHJblle ■ dirlo. Catta«a 
ArcUnSt Uoatua. 



Pc^; Uk knowledge oi German whkh he had acquired 
whilo lining in tl>e boiuehold of J'm« U. being natLifall)' o( 
glieat &Midtanc(! to hjm there. Aftcrwardftt when, owinfif to 
the faifluencc of the ncphci^^ of SixLu» IV„ a v^orldly spirit 
prccloflninstcd at the Court, he, like cthcra of a pious uid 
acrioud turn of mind^ kept away from Rome as much u 
pouiblc, and still marc so in llic lime of Alexander VI. 
Uki: his uikIc Fiub IL» CaidinttI Piccdomini was tontic^iilcd 
with i:uul, 4nil wa--( prcTiiHlur<^1y oLd ;ii)d dE^crcpic, iiLtlKiugh 
he had led a very regular life; Sigismondo dc" Conti 
catpeciAliy prai&cs his scnipulotu Iwe of order " He left 
no moment m ibt^ day unoccupied ; his time for ;tudy wu 
before day-brvsik, he spent hi* morning in pmycr, ard hiM 
mid -day hours in giving audiences to iv'hich the humblest 
had easy accosu He wa3 so temperate in food and drink, 
that he only allotted himself an evening meal every other 

* StCtSMCntDO L&' Cor^TJ, 11., l^l-sqi. C/. PASTOIt, Hi*t. Popci, 
nt^ 3Q5; [V., 4t tSo-iSi, 414 (EfifL tr^n«l). Ofi th* ta^tc 6v 
An duijUyod by Cudioal Piccolouuni, kc jit^iu. pi t 7^^ noit *- A& all 
coMMmponry .luthorilJo* ifroe in rttpr«»ttitifiK Vw III. ia luiivorully 
held in the higlteKt ««w«m u a mie, oo modem writer bu auemprcd 
tw iiupugik hik chuscUJ- Clbr cAuiipk. oca tlic fAwuj&ljlc opiniQg* 
of histonuu who 4o not readily pnuac a J'opc, ^^,, SCKK^cau, 
XXXtl^ 4ti> A'liT Vf>iOT, ?]ii» IL, 1, £3]}. To his own <lhri«<3h 
GrJMXMOViu) aIotic, in LiiCJ«iU liui^rA, 270y UaCet ibai Pjui ]]|. 
m "tht betppy father of do tvwer thas tvelve cbildnn, boys and 
BItU." but he i^vrt no iTj^tigc of proof for his afii^enlnr). Ag:iln<j[ 
GnjCvnnriLi*, G- TALMiLfti Ni;Ti> L^iUrai cU SisitmoodoTiiiOirtinuka 
■ 1^77 : ^ P^epos 01 Tm&5 obcervaijon iJut Kus UK had dm 
■fUDclered the ptirimon/of 5. F^tercu^ t^ar or bastard; : E a piO|jci«U£i 
A quoL noD &o JUtcnerAii diWo catciiiarc il diibbJodDC fan« pruumdci 
Inpfa hilt a dic«n« r«r?m« On croniUk, I'llJustrr Grc^oroviuf n«Ib &LUi 
tBTtaMcpiihhHrJrifmr inT>^rrt^>i 1 'v rrrra TVrgiitaNiii fl'irrhnttrtHilflifi^iirta 
BOK ckKWi di AkIi a quQsto <Ardijui1c Piccolomiai, inicuruido cho 44 
infTUuttrft e arrhtchirl^ waact a lui,. bno pooldkc, il icmpo, aoa 




It h thertfcro nut surprising Cbfit all gooi] mc 
filled with the brightest hopes. " A new Ifght has shone 
upon us/' writes Peter Uelphinus, the General of th^^f 
Camaldolcsc^ "our hearts rejoice, and our eye* are filled 
with t«arb because God our Lord has had mercy on His. 
people and has given them a Chief Shepherd who is a hob 
man» tinnocciit, and of untarnished ndnic. Our deep sorrc 
hn.<i tKcn turned to joy. and a day of sunshine lias followed 
a night of Morm. We arc all filled with the highest hopes 

I'inceniioDC Tl Thm, contcnipoiuticci inlimo dclla fEhmj£liji> lui 
pMiva lingua {DJt ht sAyi of hinuclf) t cav> non troppo pnniiile <ii pa 
Pjo, p<?rch&, Id dic« dx s^* doi^t portirsi di ca^a Fiixoloinitir jjm t 
fcspcctot qui gli dlt lode di non ciacni tinio di IaI pctc, % quci tempi 
con scudolo unjv«nal«, pur troppo coinif)un«- [n ipM of thia^ HnoscK, 
Julius 11-, 93, »nil, following hiir, CstKiHTON, TV, 57, dAire^^nling 
■ItoRcihcr the icitiinOTiy of Tiiio, have no scruple in wpciting t^ 
serious durgea made by (>iv:goroviu!v without croubfinEf themsd^es 
about evidence ai all I In the lace af iuc.h Injustice it will not jjjpcar 
auiKtHuouB ui r^hi the reader to the numcroiu paitt|^ teslifyiac is 
bvotir of CsirdiTu] K^txolommi ih:)! irc to be lound in AMUAKaTl'S 
lrti#rr* (Epi«. 462, in Pi: 11. ComnwnL (Franrof., 1614], pp. 776-777); 
in ■;]'^AMKc:;A,57B,niidinthc>vordiuKdVGA5rAHVenovCNS[3(i03o), 
who cert^Lrnly it not behintJbnnd ai a ml« in brining char^rct a£aindt 
Cardinalfi, hut »ppal{* of Cnrtlinat J'kcolouiint »i mori/ius staet. C/. 
aha the cvpreitjons of hia ccnicmponuie^, c/ied on opposite p-. u well 
It tli<: i«ittnmny of iIm Vrnoiiiin Envoy, H . IJonaio, in (he yeu 1499 iOTi 
SAMifo, n, 836, The stem moialin, Cambi, XXC, 197. lalli Mra^ 
" Uoino di bonii fumiL" So GuiCCl^fturNl in his St, Fiortmiini (Op- 
ined., in^ 306), ^tli the Pope "uoiro vecchio e d\ buoni ooatumi 
^juAlilft." A-eyidiuBuf VitcrtjOt tlictiiern uriibui <rf ull world! i Dew. My^ <if 
Phis til. : Sncri tcontus liu et gloria diu habitm- Hial vigimi Meciil. 
(Cod., c. %t r9, foh JI3, in the Angvhca Uhntry in Koiri«), In ordn to 
be «ure on thJK |xjnnt 1 ^uve, ihrou^U my friend A. GJori^ettl, asked the 
opinion of M- ^ndindlj Hitreolomitii at Sicno, the boflt authority oa 
the family hiitcry cf the F'lccotomini, Me a«Uf« mc there is nA 
cridcncc wlutcvci for the juuc^Udii uf Gjct.'DnjviuA ; un Uic <oncnry, ho 
hfts found in the State Archives of Sieaa numberteu tctien of conteti^ 
poiary wriien nl] iimtintf Ihe bLirnelen reputniion of Pius Ut> 





for the reform of ihe Church, and the return of peace.' 
" God be thanked that the govexDment of the Church ba* 
been entruttcsd to fiuch a man, who in so maoifestl)' a 
storehouse of all virtues and the abode of the Holy Spirit 
of God. Under hbcircthe Lord's vineyard will no more 
bring forth thorns «ind thistles, but will stretch out its 
fruitful branches to the ciidn of ilic cArth/'* 

■'The misery of ihe pasl. the marred ccjunlenance of the 
Church, the 5cotirgc of God's righteous anger, iirc «till 
before my eyes/' writes Cosimo de' Poz^i^ Bishop of Atcitlo, 
on the 2Sch of September, 1 502, I0 the nc»*ty-elceted PonciET. 
"When all hope of release seemed ihut away, God has 
given U6 in yoM a Fope whoac wisdom, culture, and learn* 
Jng, vhodc religpouri education and virtuous life, has filled 
aII good and God-fearing men with consolation. Now 
ViC can «dl hope for a new era in tlie hUtory of the 


The earliest acts of Plug, III, corresponded with these 
expectations. In an a^^mbly of the CardlnaU, which took 
plaee on the *5th of September, he made it clear that hiA 
chief aim i^iaa to be the reform of the Church and the restor- 
ation of the peace of Chri.itendom. He ^laid the reform 
mutt extend to the Pope himself, the Cardinals, the whole 
Court and all the Papal offiddU, and that the Council must 
be Hummoncd ia meet ^t the earli&Hl date possible. The 
news unon ^>nrad through n\\ ihc countries of Eufn|M-, ;ind in 
Germany encouraged the Archbishop of Maycnce, Berthold 
von lienneberg, to draw up a memorial, siting forth the 
reforms that he considered necessary for the Church in 
that country,! The Pope also made excellent regulations 

* C/. K,\VWALDfa,ftdan, 1503, audi'. UELPHIM, Omliunculae, p.Xl 
1 See AppcndTJi, N. ij.for the ort^Liial uT iliis ItLict, uhi^h I fixind in 
the Ubruy of S. Kterk fti Venice. 
1 Dm^oco di A. Giu«tinbn, aoS ; ZuaiTA, V., c 47 i UunCKAjED 


uisroitv or Tut rores. 

tog the better gos^cnimctit of the imracdiatc pOMesuoas 
tix Holy S«e» and was cxtraod)- eeonooaical in hb «X'| 

l^ua 111. iras eager to »ccurc peace fttaoy cost^^xtd pr^ 
CBdy for that ic^mm be dkl nol aucixctJ in doing ^o« Tbc 
inlicritino! becgudiheE) to him by the Bof^ia wvt of a 
nature: to rru^tnLc all his cnHrsivourv On the 26th of 
SepCembflT the Pope saki to tfac VenetUn Ert^'oy, " In a>n- 
■equeiKft of th« pressure put upon me by the Spanish 
Cardiflak, i havic been competed to ismc some Bnds ia 
^vour of Qesar fiorga. but 1 wilt not gi^-c him any Imthcr 
bcjp. 1 <Io not intend to be a warlike, but a peace-loving 
I'npc/'t 1^^ certainly bad no sympathy for the Borgia 
laxnily. especially for Casar, ai>d he fot^iid that tbc VatuBii 
had hern robbrd on all ui\e^ and that the Apostoilic 
Trcasnry waa grinously in debt. But hatred was utterly 
fofdgn to his mild and g^itle temper. " 1 wbh no harm 
to tlM Duke," he said. -* k>r Jt js the duty of a E^ope to have 
lovini;-kin<liieis for all* but 1 foresee that he wJU come to a 
bad end by the iudgmcnt of God^t 

He wras not wrong in his forocasL The whole powcj of 
the BorK><^ famJ!)', built up by cunnbi|f. treachery, and 
bloodshed, which threatened a: one lime to awalknr up 
ih« States of the Church, came to an untimely end. 

With the departure 0/ tbc French anny for Napleav; 
C^sar 1o«t his lut refuge, 3anoJofneo d'Alviano was 
harrying from Vcnke with fierce threats of vengeance, 

IMarium, IIL, ^79. Cy Ratitaljilt^ ad an. 1503, n. 17, and WaisSt 
!fc[(iioid Ton Heunebcnct 120. 

* b*« ■Dttpaichin of tlic M^iuua lja\^, ^ttd Rca»t 5th ^dgtA 
Oci^ i50> in ibeUnt of diete he uyir *Atta S» di N.S.«acnv 
etc b cHa f tvne qwle hWto n:ii-ktc hIU Scde A|x *Uao bcac gubenatt 
«l ctm jmiflia *t kiiiegrLmtc." Goaug^ Arcfaai<cs> Maaau. 

i IHspawi di A- Giu&tia^ II • so&^aog ; </: Ulkakk, IU i^ 

t /M/.JUao7. 








and th« Orssni and SavcIIi were prcpuiDg to cLom iif>o<i 
him at once. He sau- that tt was Jmpoaiibk for him to 
niD&iii a1 Ncpj, Not yet oomplctdy recovered from his 
illneu, be entreated the gentle t^luA to allow him to return 
tt> Rome. *■ 1 aevei lhoui;hi.* adt*i Uic Pupc lu tlie Fcr* 
rarcA: Erivuy, 'llmi 1 «tu>uiil fed any pity for the Duke, 
and yet 1 t\n mott deeply pity h'an. The SpanUh Cardi- 
oah \^VQ fntefceded for hint They tell me he h very ill, 
u^d wi«he« to come and die In Rome, and I hkvn given 
htm pernufition/'* When Cfieaar ornvcd there on the 3rd 
of Octobtr hb entire arm>- had dwindled down to 650 men. 
The state of hid health \ra5 ccrtatnly not ^tisfiictoo'^ but 
by no means so bad as had been represented to the 
^opc. Many people in Rome; especially the Cardinals 
Giuliano della Rovere an<l Riario, weve exceedingly di»- 
stt]^(ird uith Ptui for having allcweii him to come buck- 
On the 71b of October, speaking to the Venetian Envoy^ 
the Pope apologised rorhifl leniency by raying, " J am neither 
a saint nor an angc], but only a man, and liable to err. 
1 have been dei:eived"t 

The date of the Coronation of the new I'opc arms 
fixed for the Sill of October ; it wa5 atteiided by a vast 
eoncour^ of people.^ Before the CoronatitjiiH ritis, who 
hitherto had only been a deacon, received priestly and 
episcopal Order*. The long cercmonii^ wtre a great 
dUalfi on the strength of the Pope, who was suffering 
from gout, and had ctily lately undergone a painful opera' 
tion on his kg. Ho ^ald Ma^^ titCin^. and on account 

* Deapuch of CmiabiU of 2nd Ocu in Greookoviu^ VllU 13, 
ed. > C/. Dispacci di A. GiUMinianf II-, if3, 

t D»pa<d di A. Gktistinian, [J-tai&i tf,in^JXi,\ati BmCHAaiM 
Diariun^ III., 379, 

X So Coitnbtii npiMta m his 'Lcncr of 3ih Oct, 1303. Slate 



of his wealcncfis the formal entry into the Latcraxi was 
put off till lalcr.* 

Although ihc state of the Pope's health in the noct few 
days got rather worse than belter, he still held numerous 
audiences, took counsel on the 9th of October with the 
various Ambaiisadors, as to the mea^urcft to be adopted in 
ca*e of an mvasion of the States of the Church by Bario- 
lomco d'Alviano, and held a long Consifilory on the nth of 
October, in which he went carefully into the questions of 
the appointment of new Cardinals and the unquiet sitatc of 
the city,t Uartolomeo d'Alviano, Giampaolo Baglionc, and 
many of the Oraini were there, and. together with the 
Cardinals Giuliana dclla Rovcre and Riano, were insbt- 
ing on the disband mcnt of Cesar's army ; otherwise, they 
said, they would takr up nrms themselves J Overtures to 
the Orsini were made IxMh by the French and the 
SpaniarcJs. With the single exception Of Giovanni 
Giordaro they decided, out of hatred to the Duke, to treat 
wtth the Spanish party, and allied themtielves with the 
Colonna. On the uth of October the reconciliation 
between these two tiouacs, hitherto always at enniity» vraa 
openly announced, § Ocsar iva* lu^w at tlic end of all hh 
resources. It was rumoured that he had fled witJi Cardi- 
nal d'Ambt^iHe, but the' latter shewed no ioclinalion to 

* On thi: iJctUoed coronaiioo of Pius III., icpic^nliriJ later m a 6<eoo 
by Piniuficchio in Siena (t/t ihc Inscription by Falusciu, 15), </ 
BiTRCMAKm niArinm, III., 280 1^. ; *D»spKTchof Co^ubilj, 10th Ort, 
iy>^ {S\aJx Archives, Modena); *Acia Con&isu in Uic ConsittonAJ 
AichivM. <Jp thi) opcntlioxi ihat iht I'cpc had undviffonct we 
£>upacct di A. t^iufiinbn, ti., 213, and SmisMowix) dm' trONTl, I]-, 

f Stb Uiapacei di A. Cnulintjut, M,, 336, 3^9, Mad t^U ^nd ibc 
■De»pitcb of Gbivii&no c( i Jili Oct. Gonzn^ Archives, Miiniiu. 
; DiapOitci di A-CJU3tinijtn. II,, 337. 
J /M~, lU,, 3^7, Anil iJimcHARn Diariunv Ul,at4. 

II.UIES8 OP ritrs in. 


draw down on himiitrlf ihc hatrv^d'attaclwd tc the Borgia 
Umtly, and on the 15th of Oclobcr, ror&ak<:n by all, he 
att^tnpt&J to f1«e from Rome :o escape die vengeance of 
the Orsui). Hardly, however, had he left the precincts of 
the Vatican when the greater part of his men deserted 
him, and with a foUowiT^t; of not more than acvcnt>- he 
had to return to hiA hou£«. The Or^ini demanded that 
tbe Tope should have him arrested, in CEcIer that he might 
not eltlde the lesuUs uf the legal proceedings abuut to be 
Instituted ag4lmt him. The VeiR'tfan Ambassador de- 
scribes Hartolomeo d'AIviano as raging like a mad dog; 
he had set a guard at svefy gate that the Puke might not 
escape him.* 

But the Pope was not in a «tatc to comply with the 
dcmanda of the Orsini, for on the 13th of October he was 
tying on hla dcath-bed.f Hence the Or^iiini determined to 
take the matter into their own hands, and arrest him thcm- 
ftcLvea. Carsar Aed, by means of the secret pass^e, Eo the 
Castle of St. Angelo as they were storming the Borgo. 
The Spanish Cardinals had planned his escape disguised a» 
a monk, but tlic Orsini had completely invested the Castle. 
Here where once his enemies had trembled before him, sat 
the man who«e hand, a few monthseather, had bsen almost 
within crasp of the crown of Central Italy, cowering In 
hopeless terror with only two or three servants by his *idr,t 
In the me«Lntimc the Tope's end was approaching^ On 
iSth of October llie doctors had thoLght hi;^ ca^^c 
u^ on account of Uii weakniiiss and his gTL-at age. As 
the fever never for an instant left him^ by the 17th his con- 
on wa4 hopetesg-S 

I hope 

i dl A. Giii*iintBn, 11,, 337, tu^t4$. 
.CElARi>f DJiuium, in,|3&4 ; DUpatddJA. Giuslinian, It, 24a 
X DispACci A A, CiuAtinianr ILi ^9. 
g In addition li> Divpocci d\ A. Giustinian, II., 343. 149, r/ the 



His faculties rcr&aincd clear, and his mind calm, i 
though he did not himself boliext the end to be do de&f; 
jrct he received the Viaticum on the 1 7th of October for the 
second time Junng his illiic**, and on the following night 
ibc SacTAittent of Fxlreme Uiiclioii. AU vthu surr^unJett 
him xvcre toiiclipd ;ini] cdilied by his devotion.* Tmnquil 
and resigned, he* fell asleep on the evening of the iStli 
of October. t 

*Kc|3oru of Co&Gibjlf of Oct, tGth \\x febre non la&cift «I fapa dA vencti 
tn quA in modo cht dcDa tiu di S, S" «« nfr dubila yter le n^irl 
emtdcmcntc] and i7Lh (Sutc Archi^-cs. Mo4eLin\ A»d G. L. Cauuwo^ 
♦Rqwt of iMh Oct t£l papa * ptgioraio}. as i*(?D a£ two •l)*»patclw» 
from him of the i^Lh Oct- (K1 iNipa ^ ahAiidoTtAm in luin dc utuic, and 
El pApa « abundancuo da luti dc la vita 3Lin\, CoiuaK^ Archivv«| 
• Dispawidi A. Gitjsiinun. Il-.^s? ; Burch\RI'1 Duirmin. Ell.. 'jSs- 
t Atithoriiiw dfflcr 41 lo 1>5C cnict hour of htn dcftiK Ghivitano aod 
G- L. Catuieo in their *DctpAlche£ of i&;h Oct. (Gtnmga Aichtv«i^ 
UtlUUi)i«yeiKliL ^'duck. DUpacci Ui A. Giufthiian. ll,iSi> B;;ft- 
eOailDI Diariu^r^ IlL, 3^5, ;ind the Nomr dc Mosii^ in GCHir Archivici, 
IV^ 344 (^"'h a wronti tbi*;, say t?n o'dork. The siflt^aient o( 
Mai^vOlTi« hio]i;idc'3ancil,Vin-,j,ihai Pope Fiut III. wa;> poUoned 
ijy Pandotfo I'emLcci of SIcnnais gri^nalio rn a contenriponuy Chronicle, 
CCfl., LIH-, 1?, in the Bnrbenni LJbmryin Komp, bu: w^hom ihe nnme 
of ibc muMcrct. NCJVALi, VI., 150, U incliiicil to giTc credit (0 iliio, 
LmiI a^iiut It we have the faci that none of ihe AnitusiUhdon uho wct« 
in Rome at th^ i\\v>t fnention \\. C/. PevTBUcemj t*KLLA Gattiva, 
I'l 4>>- I'Jua III- wAi buiicd iic^ki to Pius U., near tJ)e Clupcl *A 
S. Andivwin S^ Pcler'L HJ»brothvi^ Giac^miOAndAndfta hod a dispute 
tbom the furcriil fMcprMw, {Cf. the docunient in PiatujiMiNi, nofo- 
mcnb, 39~43>) When tixt Boiillca wu rebujit undci VasA V., Cudinij 
AkMiL&dro MoniikltD hod th« tomb rtmovod lo S, And^vt dfUa Valloi 
*facre JL wu placed opposite to that of Piui JI. (Sicismondo Dt* 
COHTif Il-t S93-315 \ Mai, SpiciL, 1?C,363.) The fxitTipvus insciipElon 
ii of a Utcr dftbc- In bU will Picoolomim had Idi a very iimple vid 
inodol cphaph Sc« PlOCOUJMrr?!, Doi-unie^nti. 41, a r Also s«« 
pi 3o ftbout the b«Autiful rin^ pcruciKd by PiuK III. ^hich ix»w bdont:! 
ii» Prince Comni Mid it prescirvcd ia tfat Nuiotul Miucum at Flonncft 

DEATO OP rius in, 


*The dcitlh of ihi* I'opc" i^^otc tlic Ambafiiador of 
Perr^rm on 19th October, " will be lamented at aW the courU 
oi Europe, for h« wu by univcntal ccn^nt held to be f;ood, 
prudent, and pioUK. In spite of the miny weather at the 
time ail Home hfistcncd to kiss the feet of the dead Pc^ie, 
whoac features vrcrc quite urialtcrod. I'copic Uiink that he 
died oi the liUxmrs of the Pontiticate, which were too heavy 
for his already esifeebtcd health- The night before hi» 
ckctioa he did not sleep at all, aad since ihcn he has 
had no rest. He was continually giving audience to the 
Cardirtalfi ; then came tl^e fatiguing ceremoniei of hi« eon- 
cocration and coronation, Oti the previous Wedrcsday a 
long Consistory wa^ held, the Pope remainiing cor- 
scientkoudy to the end. On the Friday he ^ave ^me very 
long Atidienced ; kept the abstinence and ate ^sh. although 
be had taken medicine on\y the da>' before* Tiicn he 
got the Jcvei, which never left him till he died." * As the 
Siennesc, Sigbmondo Tizio, say^^^Thc death of Pius fU- 
wras a great !os* to the (^htirt:li, to \he city of Rome, and 
to us an, Uil perhaps we deserved no less for our nini." f 

"We hear of rothing but the election of the new Pope/' 
wrote the Maniuan Ambassador on the day of Phi? Ill/s 
de&th, ** but it Is very diJlicult to say which name will 
come out of the ura"} Eight days later the question 
wu decided. 

H* M too tluciu, joo ^<lluIn«| of hiA libnuy, aiul ihe cbiUc* which 
■Ikh Fope he luul ukcU every da^, la thi: Gcitnan Huaplcc del Ankoa. 
KcncnitAvu&A, i^^o, 

* SecApp^<^ ^' i^ th« 'Report of Cwtabkli«f L^th Oci,, 1(03, iti 
tfa* Slate Arditve*, MtilcQft- C/i alw ihr *rJe«puii;h of CtXm'ioLao of 
1^ Oct, 1903. Every m>c ax the Court lomctiLcd ta m(>rUr « p«nliai 
lanEA tuma rial <:|U&1« si apenvi gnrnJi^ bent pKr «u chlCEl- 
Arcbivc^ M-iaiun. 

+ Nl/n, Lrttva dj Sigiunondi TinOr If* 

I Qui Don «i attcnde altr? cha a le ptatxbe dal nuoM) pontcfice ; nwl 




Burchatxl relates that one Sunday, the 79th of Octobcrf 
1503, Cardinal Giuliano dclU Roverc and ihc other Spanish 
Cardinulii wllli C^c^^r Boi^ia assembled in the Papa) Palaco^^^ 
aiiii drrw up an KlecliDi>t:i^p[tuliUioTi in^^hich, amoiig other^^ 
things. Cardiral GiiilUno undertook If he were madp Pope^ 
to appoint C:esar standard-bearer to the Church, and to^| 
allow him to rela,m all his possessions, C^sar en hh part 
undertaking to support the Pope in all things. All Ihc 
SpanUh CoidinaU promised to vote Tor Giuliano at tbr 

Thus, by means of Cicsar's help, against whom the Orsi™ 
new no lon^r dared to atlenipl anything, and supported ^^ 
by the Spiinisli Cardinals, Gmliatio, according to the best^^ 
informed diplomatists, was nearer than ever to attaining 
the hfghe^t dignity f All that was now needed was to 

sc pn Indtcare \n chc man \} drijba ravhart H*ttS qursti rcv"l rarriinal 
Jaano con^'ctfiiUcinc in S. Pctro ; it cxtima it SitntAmao proto per far 
un novo pApa. Despatch of Gttivuano, Ko(n«, rtflh Oct, 1^3. GoQ- 
siga Ardiivr^ Mnnlua, 

* BuiiCli\ltD] Diarium, Ul.,29h S« also the Dcspaidi of Mikchlar 
v«l[i«f 4U1 Nov., 1^5. C/. Opera cd. Poiscnni^ JL, 314 j Ditpacci di 
A. Giu^iniant Tl^. 271 ; and LtOPAKHL, ^nafitdf^ p, 58 fi^. The 
•DeaprUches of the Tenaresc Envoy Coftmbili art iilao intrrcalinir. On 
SittOct-, 1^0^. he aritec: "Th« Spanish CardiAaib da rtot intond to 
hv poor when they ooriirr oiit of tlw ConcUvft** On 34fl: Oct : *V^' 
crefc<ndo In opinianc per S- TcCro in vincula II quUc £1 ogni cot* per 
hA\<rv p«r K ^^pagDoli. Napoti Jinchom £ in niiglior opinjone il pn- 
scirttf del vjlittt Dc Aacanio Jinccna » judica bene. 'l^uiKi volu ijui w 
dice per provcibio : Chi tAtnt m contibtvt p4pfL> nc <kc cardinaic" Oft 
^6ili OrT. : Arfendono ak praiiche dpi popnt^) nuxiiric Kotun^ Napcd^ 
S. Petro, S, Pra«dc Av^nio. {^\jn^ Archi\^, Modtrui.) Ghivuano 
writM on 19th OcL, 1503 , *ll rev. S. Petro ad vincula rnc pare anchor 
Va\ MMT in boriiai^ina diapotiiion, iru sumerke par* pm «obrio « cum 
aninw piu alicro secondly it tolilo nxi. And In n second letter on tJie 
aarae day, *lJuinAni intnno in concbvi ; caititnasfi S, Patio nd viocuU 
inirarlj pu[Ki, » non tui S. Prat«dkL Gcnnga ArthivM. MaMua. 

1 DispAui di A. <fiu»EinJaii, tl-^s?!. CiAUiLiili also Myn 


MCUfe Uw majority of two-ihlnl*. GiulUno, whom the 
popular voic© warned to indicate xt the only posiibk Pope, 
v^ &s un^crupuEoiis as any of hta coUcaLguc» in thu means 
which he employed.* Where promises and |>crstia&iona 
were unavailing, he did not hcnitatc to have nxounc to 


Before ihc Conclave bc^an Giiiliano already had en his 
ude the majority of the lUlUu Cardinals, the VcitettdDS 
in ccimpliance with Ihc wishes nf their government, 
Csc^T Rorgia, and the SpantArd«^ snd, what was still more 
impoftanl^ ^^^ Frcrich party and d'Amboisc with them, 
vrikO before had threatened to create a schism, yet now, 
)ilce Ascanio Sforta, turited to adore the rising sun.J 

*t)e«|>iifb of yxhOrt^ 1503, "niuliitnn nil cuuinly be Pope, fnr br 
ku i^iDod the Spaniiuidv" State Archive. Mod«tuL 

* Ditpftcd ± A. (^iLuuniaftT ll-}^55> its^^nd Mach^AVclU's Despatch 
of jDihOcL C/ Hhjdbtihbjugr, 14- 

* StoHtftXCK, t^^, says it sccms prT>bablc that the election of 
JnlitH Jl. yns limonucal ; I should »y nther it wu i^crUta. The 
Fafiaiiw Entoy CwtUibili, in hii *Dei]xiT<h cif j*t Nrtv,, lyij (Stntc 
ArdiiTiH, ModciU), French uitnilaibn m PfnrftucLctu, L, 4H)ftnake9 
ttih aDCi% deAr thftn A- GiuttmiAn anrl MitcNiAt«tli, a& hft fi^trtfthet cho 
eiact amounb of (he biiba Kiven 1o (he dl^reni eJctiton. C/. abp the 
*t:ttpudi ef Cofttabili of ywh Oct, ciud ju/^^ Tlwre ii no 
AvatK thM what Pnuli ayv of ihc bribing of the Sp:ii]ii>i Curdmnli ii 
tnic Sec GhcCokoviu^ VUl-t i7,c^L ^, Alyjji^ni. hut the lepuit 
of Cardnol Adriano da Comcto to Heory Vth, 4th Jjiru, 1^04 
(OAiKlJirKU, It,, m), whkh my* ihat wr> f^w of ihp rWinr* wtrt 
qaitt uaimpcActable m the nutier, h more universally leceivcd Of 
the mniimerable promittt mode hy Giuliano, Co«la1>LLt wrjtot is a 
*DnfMlch (pLirtly in cyplirr] of 8ih Nov.. 1 503^ (Kohnno] jw] rn& 

^ jdbi uajt fbrouJiicr credo tlic S. S** (iii emptier) hflbi proincwu lAnio in 
^^^ba tua ttreclAono (cypher) che h' haru da tare uii nd obicrv^lo, 
B^Be ArchiTu, McxIciul 

m I DiipaccidiA.CiuBtiniao> IL»37^ Q^TOE4MASiNi,MacbuivclIi,3S8L 
I % C/. IM4^ n,, 351,371, UKl. coiroboraiioa; him, MAC^nlli. Sc« 
I HciDDmUHER, tx 

I vou v:. r 


Wbcn, on the 30th of October, the Orslal and SdivcLli haJ 
been intliiccd to withtiraw from Roroc* the prepfLriitions for 
the Conclave were complelc and it began on the following 
cUy- On the ji^t of October, Gmliaiio, with lMrty-scv«n 
other Cardinal,* entered it, practically as Tope-electf Not^^ 
many hours Uter his election was an accomplished fact, 
and on the following naoming, ist Nox'embor, the <3< 
cision of the Conclcve, which had been the shortef 
known in ail the lone history of the Papacy, was fcrmdil] 

Conlemptsrary writers without exception express 
greatest ^utoni^hnient at the almost unanimous elcctior 
one whOj like GmliaiiQ^ was hated by many and feared by 
*'!'§ Sigismondo de ContS notiees as a cimoiis fact thj 
the second successor of Alexander VI. was a Cardinal vr 
had been persecuted by the Horgia. |] The Roman peopli 
accorded a hearty welcome to the new Pope, who took 
the title of Juliua If., and still sweater wa» tlie rcjcHCini 


* See DincH^iiPl DiimuiD, IIL, 191. Atrooi^itiif ioUii», Kavuoin^ 
!(., £, AndViu-AUi, MadiUtfelli, L, jtfH, who give (hiny-five, are b entjf, 
a» aha ClFOLLA, 7gC. and BkosCH, 97* ^lio K^vc ihiriy-4u a> tlie DUmba; 

t TommAio FofchivnLv* in A*L«twt, cktcd jt^i Ocl, i^y: Qudla 
ti legna per tbtnn the ^ ecmdavi dim okin dai di )c com dfl VinruU 
kiv^iuinu jcmbu^ljo pcr^Uc del tnn[rncLiIo] chc Id h tnUMo In oondATJ 
ogm homo tcnuc per ccrto cbc ^ prinio si:rutinio lo bibbza ad o*m^^ 
riertn 41 bf:n« tnlcAl Ejl V. Slate Anhive^ Modem ^^M 

Z Dtritc»AKt>l DUriunk. III., 294^-^ S:<it3MOtfT>o £'£' CONTl, 11^ 
>94 ivf,; Dinpncci di A. GiustioiajTt IL^ 373 275; and *Aca C<iTutiL, 
r. ^6l C^DnKitCnriMArchLVctar the Vtfioui) All ihc Fntnr^ fimhsjdcd 
their report) on 311I Ocl ; hoth Giuslinlan nnd Ghivicino wrote lo tlic 
Mtrqoau of MAniii'L The btter i^y> : *A questhoca die lono cinque 
S^ Pctro in vlnculn he itntD puhlicuiu pnpa Julio seconds c1 quale U 
Ekto ID cooelavi- Gonrvoi Ardiivo, ManiuA. 

I P. DILPHINI, Oratiuncvb^, XVllU»bould be added \t>ibt li« 
HElt»iCMliC]MU» MadiiavcJIi, 13-14. 

\\ SioisuoME^o r£* Coam* IL, 193, 



in Li^ria, his otitive pmviAcc.* Fmn<cico GuidjcdoiH^ 
writing on 2ad November, 1503, from Komo to i-crram, 
say»: "Poopic here expect the rdga of Jitliua 11. to be 
glorious, peaceful, ii:cniah and fic^-handcd. The Roman 
people, usually ?4> jiilUitiet) to (Uundcr, arc behaving so 
quietly that rvcrj- tmc h in a^toiUsliincnL Wc have a 
Tope who will be both loved and feared. "^ 

After ht» election the Pope confirmed onct; more the 
Election -capLiulation, Amongst its conditions were the 
proeocutlofi of the war af^amat the Tuvks^ and the rcatora- 
Uon of dbcrpline in the Church. To thi^ end tt stipulated 
that a General Council should be summoned within two 
ytnts, that the Tope :iboulJ not make war ag^iin^t ^ny o( 
the Powcntwitbout the convent of twt>third.*> of the C^rdinnls^ 
anrf that the Sacrrd College shotiUi t>e consullecl on all 
imponant occasions, especially in the choice of new 
CprdinalK. In order to secure the freedom and safety 
of the next Council the place of meeting was to be 
determined by the I'opc and two-thirds of the Cardinal^ 
and lit case any hindrance to its meeting i\\cm\d be 
at1ci^cd« this mti^t be proved to llic satiafiictiun of a similai 


The motives of the Cardinals In framing thlscapiluTatlon. 
which to unduly and unlawfully limited the rJghU of the 

* SE^AaEOAk S70; OuviGRJ, Cute, p^ I, Stot, Genovcae, 9; Altl dl 
Soc SM«n.f U 437 /*f., 45*, Sm .ilw p. 434 (vy,, 440 wf , 448 on 

f *V'>tanc cAliniftto ULia lo suo poflti£cAto moho jrloriosoh paclfko ct 
UDCoo «t HOC mcno hlKriLte. Quesu^ |>opkiT(i ouucEo od latrocinli ct 
nhouie Oato modiliGilAnemD te n^ cdrpuuiochef unn mwaviulis, 1^ 
uncrtuioo ci lemcntmio pArimcaie. Sui« Archive*, MoHciul 

J JUVKALfiVS, Ad an. T503, n. 3-9; llEROBMItOnrKa, VIIl., 39^ 
ScmnrEBL, in t^ QLrankle, »m» ihitL 111* Klcaion-Ckr^tulASion wa* 
cannmiMUed 10 aH ihe rrinc«« of Chnstcodom, llo^LaK. Zur Kt^Ie. 



Pope, were no purer iHan foioicfly," Certain c 
visions, afi for example the one rcquinng the concert of 
Iwo-thirds of the Cardinals before a dedaialion of war, were 
utterly iinre^'^Dtiitblc ^mJ frnpractkable^ a^ a gUncc »1 the 
political state of Italy it the time will shew. In the South, 
Sp^in had taker posjcssion of Naples and Sicily ; in the 
North, France wa* constantly Btmgglmg to exlcrd her 
influence, while Venice ut the same time was attacking 
the possessions of the Holy See in the Romagna. *' ^oth 
AS a Pope and as an Italian, Julius M. found hitn^lf in ft 
most difficult position. To remain a passive apcctAtor of 
this scene of seething confusion would have been a clear 
dereliction of duty in a rater and atill more m a Poj>e. To 
prevent himself fn^m being overwhelmed by circum^tAnces 
ftnd falling helplessly into the dutches of on& or other of 
the great Powers, it was indispensable thai Julius «l>oiild 
act at once and with decision, :ind if necespar>' take tl 
»:vord into his own hands ; " f and for this he was admirabi 

The Pope's countrymen were wont to say that he had 
the soul of an Emperor.* and Wl$ outward appearance wt 
dislinguished, grave, and dignified. The deep-set cage^ 
eyes, compressed lips, pronounced no^e^ iind massive, 
rather than lundsome head, denoted a strong ly-raaHcecl 
and powerful peraonallty-§ His scanty hair wat nearly 
white, but the fire of youth glowed beneath the «nows of 
age. From his florid complexion and erect carriage, n o 

• Q^ VoL IV^ 9-iOk ofthii. xork. jfl 

f RouaiUCriF.H KrfOi^PLBH, 1B7. ^^ 

7 CAHimit iniinuv he ii c^iied. Iti ihe httttr of COilgiAnibtj« 

hi* ctccticm fhjtn GcLiui. printed in ll>c Aui d Soc SflV., I., 437. 

g On the nie<liU portraiu of Julius II., see J^hrb. dftf Pptnni] 
Kurwiiflminhjiifctn, II., J^-cj; HI., tifx Ther* are exnelltnt 
lUw ^ the meikl of CundoftM in ^* Lc Vaiiokn." On (he poniiit br 





or\c tb-nuld hA^'c gii«vsed that the i>c-«' Pope was already on 
Uw threshold of old ag<c. Still less wa« there any trace ol 
dccUDtnj^ yean in bis gen^raJ demeanour. Restless, and 
ever in motion * ccasdesdy active and perpelually occupied 
with 3ome great dcsigrn, self-willed and paasionatcf to tbc 
highatt decree, he was often extremely trying to those who 
w e re brotight in contact with him. 

The \'enetian Amb&^^dors speak of rhe Pope as 
cxtrciody acute but tcnibly viuIciU And ilifTiLull to deal 
with. " He has not the patimce 10 Hsten quietly to what 
you say to him, am! to take men :ik he f^mU theiri. But 
tho«e who know how to manage him, arid whom he tnists^ 
»ay that his uriU h always good. No one has any Inftuenea 
over him, and he consults few, or none.; One c^mnot count 
upon him, for he chanp*^ hb mind from hour to hour. 
Anything thai he has been thinking of overnight has to 
be earned out immediately the next morning, and he 
insUtA on dcnng cvcr)-thing himselC It is almost Im- 
poaAible to describe how strong and violent and difficult to 
manage he 1& In body and ^oitl he has tl)c nature of a 
glani.g Evnything about him is on a magnilied «C3it^ 


* See Paris (le Grusisin RAVHALDUs^adan. ejis. n. 38. 

t <y, Sakuto,IL, 730; VIl., 31; PAaisDECaASsrs^sScsedFratL 
AriovK), wbo wv in daj^ei of bt-mg inoludcil \n the wnth ot ^'npa 
Jollttt ir atpinsl the Duke of Ferr^i^, pbyfull/ ^liidcs ui lhi» in Uic 
wcC-known v«nc> nf hb tiiM Ntirc :~ 

Ai^r pill a Roma m pcoia nnn a<xade, 

X p. C3p«Uo in hU nAmtiw ef tJi« y«ar 1510 in Savuto, X, 73. 
(7 GkLMeuA 130. 

S See the cxtrticu from ttic Kcportj of the V«a«liAn AmboisnidOT, CV 
lipporrano, itid of P. Capp[ki in Sanvto, XL* 73a, 7^5i 7=9. 73^ 
?4I. 74*V 773-773. 7*N 843 i J^iU U,Ji; XJV., 4S1. <^ llic RcpOil 
of the Orncto Envoy Id FUMl, Cartc^<i, iji, aad D. Trcvuooo^s 


msTORv OP THE popes. 

both h(s undcnakings fttitl paswns. His impctuositjr 
hi« Tmn|>eT annoy chose- who live with hini^ but he inspires 
fear rafbwrr th:»n hatred, for there is nothing in him ihat 
Mn^LlI Of meanly selfish."* Kvirrythtng h^fl t^ tMA* tc hit 
iron will, even his own poor goui-iormcriterf body. " ^^^ 
had no moderation either In will or conception; vrhatcvt^^ 
was in hia mind must be cnrricd through, even if he hbn- 
sclf were to perish in the altcmpt/'t 

The impression produced on his contemporaries by 
mlghiy scion of the Renal^saticc is summari^fed by them 
ihe h-iliiin word " ternbilc" wl^ich coflild only be rendi 
In EnglUh by a string of ailjcctives.* Julius 11. aj 

m t^H 

namitvc of die year isco. modfrriiitcd and not alwuya tiuite Acci 
Aldeki, j Strir. IH.t i^J*^. Ii t» bdter given in SiNUTO, X^ 7? J**- 
The d«ficripiion of JdliuK 11- here i« : " Jl papa 6 tAgaiCi ffrtin pr^icbon, 
R fintil ^5, a mal vnchio, e gnic nrnicn * pmipernsa, fc gran fatiitha, 
nlirn pol con lui. jikic tutli. nu ht <tucllo li por^ £ vrnuto (tk} 
• di la bocha c di alrte per voJcr V]\«r pni modcniia Icilcul ^ ^ 
venule Albcri wnm, ? ri/iwHie ; Ra:<kk (Uvcs of ibc Pbiio, VoL UU 
App. Sf cd. &)k J^ £fAU/<9, u he rtaiuukt, " t uadcniaiicl that people thtAk 
It woaM be better if he vcre more moderate tn eating and dHaldAg ODd 
in CvTry trtlicr ir'ipCCt,'' 
* SrHiNOen, RafMl and Mifhctan^lo, rot. C/ ln£:hinjnt ja I^BA^I 

t MoatHr(Mi,tJh IV.; Ujvtkmamn, n,*^?* On h!» gotit kc Fxaci 
DIcGKAi^n, 369, vd. DMIingcr. 

I The oommon iTnin\Tation of " t*mbile^'' " fistfful " (given m RKUMOwr, 
ML, 2. 3*i) in not couD^L CiRiMM, MidtKhnifcTjj 11,, jjj, ed. 5, 
truly that Va^iti in the adjeirtivcX«/0 means to give the imprcvtion 
■f^m^rhlng Am nf the mmTnon ; "tlierr U xin qtiMiion of good at txtd 
ihr nuiUcr, but ji.i3t aa nitli the ^vard ierrihiU uicd bj-biTii wivhUic sums 
ncfmin^T -ind really^ ni die aapcffativc tA jifrre, htt intend* to imply dut 
whKh etraiet moniihincrtt by iu niiflrhry individuality." ^ VnCHEIl, 
Siki^orelli. aoo jcf, GkegORovius, VIU.h iio, eA 3, had nircady rrv- 
ovirircd, " Tbii t'opc iAt aa a mnn, one of the mofi or^mid figures in the 
Rprrit«an» prriod, »o rifh in powerful pemonflllnes-' *Tli# 




this tcitn himself to MichAcI AngcTo, bat it sails the Pope 
qdtc d3 wdl as ihe painter. Both vcre extraordinary and 
Titviic adtun=c, hi ^Uture beyond that of ordin^iy men, 
and sudi as no other a^e has [produced- Doth poxsc^^jied 
m tmutual strpngth of will, indomitable courage and 
per>A«rance, and great strategic abllftie*. 

The life of Juthjf: II. had hitherto been one of incessant 
eombat ind bard work, and those thiiif^s had become 
Decc&sary to him. ^le bcloiis:ed to that cLa^a of men ubo 
cannot rest, whose natural clement is perpetual activity. 
At the same time, lie was by no means unsusceptible to 
Iodines of a gentler kind. He wai dctply aflcctcd and" 
sKcd tears as he watciicd the funeral procession of his sister 
Kucehina in May, iJOpi* 

Jtifius II, can only be called a diplomatist by using the 
word in a vet}' restrictecl sense. If he did not altcgetber 
ftapise the arts of statecraft so universally practised in his 
d^', and could at a pinch resort to d]ssimulation,f he was 
by nature sincere and plftin-spokcr, and often his language 
overstepped all due bounds m Its rudeness dnd viotcncc 
This fault increa--icd prrcrptibly as he grew oldcr.J In the 
b^inning of his Pontificate he w^s able to re»trfitn his 
eicpTcssion^ within ihe limits of diplomatic fonn ; later on, 
In speaking of the- Emperor Maximilian, he permitted him* 
self to u«e the mo&t contemptuous and injurious tercns 
without the Itasi reserv^-g Dis^is'^ of any kind was 

added mcftnin^ of stroi^K pcnoiuliiy." I f<nin<l the cxpit^iion Utrihih 
died tk JtJ;ut It., and mo«t frequently in the Repotti of tlie Venetian 
Afflbanador, G. Ufii^wnatra, in Sanuto, XI-, 725 C^ riior q snima 
terribftlc}. 773 (a cDor tcrnbHe m ogrtj cbsaii), 778 (non stJma ni fredo 
nt new i tiaiura tt mbile), 

■ ?AK» na ^tlA^?^l?t yp, etL DOllin^er ; <J. 386. 

t C/i mfr*%t Chnpe. A a,nd 7. 

I MAUtJ.% La Dipromatre, 111., at t4q. 

J See line Venetian Heputtr in SanCTO. JCt TV (I'impienidur lo tilihu 






ci^rilrary to hU nature. Any 16^& which lafd hol<l of hh 
mind ciigroiicd him entirely ; you could see it In his face, 
his lips quivered to unm it "It will kill mc,"he woul 
Bay, "i* I don't let ii out*'" 

Paris de Gras^is, his Master of Ceremonies, who 
handed on to us so many characteristic features of 
master's life, says that he hardly ever jcatcd.f He wi 
generally absorbed in deep and silent thought, and thiu 
R^l^h^el hns painted him. The plans concocted in these 
uncomni Lin ica live houis were announced with volcaiii 
abruptness and carri«i ont with iron dit^ mi nation. Hi 
bitterest opponents could not deny his greatness — he was s' 
man of spontaneous ir^piilses carrying everything bcfarc 
Ihem, himsolf and others, a true Romao. such a nature was in itself more suited to be 
King; or a warrior, than a priest, '' hut he was the right Pope 
for that time, to save Rome trom bocoming: a locond 
AvL|:non with all its disastrous consequences for the 

Church/' t 

To Julius TL the restoration, cofisob'dation, and tx-^^ 
tension of the temporfi] possessions of the Church pro^H 
sentcd itsdf as the prime necessity of the moment, and 
to this he devoted himself with all the energy of hi* 
choleric temperament and strong practical genius 
new monarch)' must be created which should commj 
respect abroac], be the rallying point of the Italian 
States, and secure the freedom and indci^cndcnce of the 
Churdi The Pope must no longer be dependent U| 

ififiiaLQiri nudum) «nd p. 7a (diec i una bcatia, nwrita piu proalo e 
recta e r^rudu <tw reeer altn), 

* Rakkf^ Rotn. uni! Gffin. Volker, ai4< (o which we may add ths 
po«Trful dcf^ptian of him by CMtrEf-imJE, V., (9. 

T pAKct HK Glt.v»^l^ ttl. Frat>, 161, 

I RouRjMCHBia'KKori'iJu^ at;, 



the support oftlib rower or that, but must be able hiinaicif 
to coiitio) the poliucal situation.* 

The aim which he set before himself from tlie first 
w»a to revive the temporal power of the P;ipacy, and 
to «tabll«b the independence of the hioly Sec on 2. firm 
bn«« by the creation of a strong ecclesiastical 5uie. 
Fcaricfiely confronting; th« hlndrancos which the evil 
rule of the Boryia had put in his way, shrinking from no 
sacrifices, and ready to employ nny means, he tlucw the 
whole strength of his will into thjs one cndcavoun Thb 
he ptirsucd with unwearied persistence and clear inaiijht 
to hb very l^ut brcsUh, and thus became the "Saviour of 
the Papacy.- 1 

£ven Gukciardini, much as he hated the state policy 
of Julius 11^ is forced to admit that he h^d no private 
or sclfMh de«.irM-J " Although in his youth he had lived 
ver>' much ai the other prelates of that day did, and was 
by DO mcaii^ scrupulouSj he devoted himself to the cxaJta- 
tioD and welfare of the Church with a wbolchcartcdncas 
arxl countEe which were very rare in the age in which 
be ViSA Ujrii. Without neglecting his relations^ he never 
sacrificed the interests of either the Stale or the Church 
to them, or carried hh nepotism beyond due boanda. 
In all hift ways and aims, as well as in his stormy and 
fervid character, he was the exact contrary of the 

His dislike of this family was so strong that on the 
2&th of November, 1507, he announced that he would no 
longer inhabit the Appartamcnto Borgia, as he could not 

• n pcipci vol CHCT il drrnitnoi e maitiro dll mondo^ sayi Ttevinno 
ic li!» rurriilivc vt\hK you 1510 ia SiVKtno. K„ 6o> 
t See atmCKHjLROT, Cullur, I., 11 1, «d. 3. 
I CPJCciA«T>nfi, XI., f. 4. 


HisToitv or THE porcs. 

bftjw to be constantly reminded by tht^litlaco pOrtiaits o! 
Alcxandcrof'those Maraftaa of cursed" flttnwry." * The 
Bull in whidu in the year 1504, Julius ]]> took lh« 
Duchy of Scrmoncta away from Rodrigo Dorgia and 
restored it to the Gaetani, coiitiiuis even more severe 
i:^rigtiHg(r th^in this in condemnation of his pre(ltM:e5Sor. 
In The same yoar he rclnv«tcff Glori^anni Sffir?a, who had 
returned to I'e*an^ tmmfidistely arter Alexander's dpath, 
with the ficfdom of thai place* He aUo gav« back their 
castles to the Colonna and Owini-t 

The contract between Julius !I. and Alexander b 
tqLiK]fy manifest in the way in nhich the former trc&tcd 
his relations. He wholly repudiated the system of 
nepotiicm^ and though he wa-s not free from a natvird 
panulity for his own blood, comparativdy ^prakfng h(* 
did very little for them. Even on his death-bed he steadily 
reused to ailmit a nesr kinsman to the College of 
Cardinals, whom he did not consider worthy. " Hii 
nephew Franecseo Maria was hcfr prc^umptiw orUrbino 
and to him he granted, with the consent of the Collie 
of Cardinals, tlic Vicariate of Pcsaro, formerly a fief of 
the Sforzas (Giovannt Sforia died in rfio), and this wa^H 
the only jjortion of the States which he ever withdrCT^^ 
from the immediate rule of the Holy See."} On the 

♦ Paris dr Gkassis, jSi. od Dillingcr C/. MOnti, Lw HisiorlciH 
4k Raphad, ijl^tja. YBIAKTC, Auiour dec Hotg^a, 73, ihmki tfcol 
Dc Giaui» 1ffy9 tw oiudi tXttas on t1i!t inciilcnL 

t dtSCOnOVTUS, Vnr., 3^7-^9^, td, 3, mlU the correction 
BaLAir, v., 441, s«« alio Rath, 1„ 164. 

: RErMo^T, IIL, 2,44: Ratti, I.. 169^^?- 1 c'^ CftKrr.inoit.IV,;t3 
MaCHIavblu Myi of Julius II, fPrirciptr c If) : fccc o^nj COM per 
jtcmr?erc Is* ChiP^r n<jn :ilciin fTtTitO. Drocch do« not rjlog^cthcf 
euonciiize Julius IT. fmm ncpotiim, but here si^^iin Ixe eut^^ntEes. Cy. 
TciMkiASixi, MAcZiiiivoUi, 1., 333. Desid«i, Breach ndn^ hi aiUHhcr 
pbce(pL li3)ihat JuUm wumofemodcniU in ih« &v6un vbaivn lohiv 



iits rRenH>M from wkpotism. 


Snd of March, 1505, Frenccsco Marii w,id marrltd by pro- 
curation to Leonora, daughter oi the Marquee* I*rancc»co 
Gonus:a. Jultoa took no part in the wcd<ltn|; fc^ivittcfl 
At the Vatican, cxciuing himself on tlic ground oi 

Out of the t«renty-%rvcii C:*rtlni;iU whom JliIiui; !I. 
created, nnly a very sniflll number were rcUrlons of hh 
oum, and none of dicse had any inHuence, akhongh the 
i'ope was eytrenidy fond of Guleotto delhi Ro%'«rc. Thte 
Cardinal w^% a man of refined culture, the non of tho 
Pope's sbtcr Lucdiina by her first marriaKC with 
PrancJotto of l.ucca. He waa raided to the Cardina- 
lalc 0(1 the 29th of Ntjvcmljcr 1503. At the same time 
Fmngoin Guiltaume rie detmont, ArcHbUhop of Auch, 
Junn di- Ziiniga, atirl Clcmente Gro*«o drlla Revere we-re 
nomiraird.t Gali.»otto, who was Vice -Chancellor fmm 
1505, held a large numl>cr of benefices in accordance 
vrith the evil enatom cf tho times^ "but he made a noble 
OB* of Ilia lartre revenues/ Artists and men of learning 
Ibund i» him a most ^nCTQUH patron.^ " He understood 

rduicta* than wtu custORinry nt tho time. In contradiption to the 
tffigl^fraiion* of Bmich, hli cr^tk in tbr- nrtidt lit ihtt All^. Zeifuit]; 
(f^lO, Na 73. S«i>pL, rcnwiln juitly tlwi Julius I [- a^-vny^ acwd prima- 
fif ii» the inrcmu rrf the PapoJ diair. 
• Gaw.awoviw*,V]I1., 3'/ *<!> 3; «/ I.r^io, Msmova e UrHno, 157, 

+ On the CTccitioii of Cardinnlt <jf agih Nov., fjoj (not awd Nov. 
u Pxrkdr flmwlft vty% \n Ravnaoius. ad an. 1503, n. »□), «* •Ada 
C^tttbL. C 16 (Consiitoriiil Archival of t1« Vntioin) i BUbCH^Mir-i 
Dbnum, III., J09, jtt J Cahdrli-v 307 J*y Wiih tlw •I*«er of 
PnorMfo Gnirficdmii, fb»d Rome, ^rjih Notf-, ijoj, r/ the * Report 
of Co»iabi!i of 4(h Dot, t$Oi, both in the State Archive*, Modonn. 
Ttie Cardinal's hal woi gi^'en to /,unj«^i no rlw' i^th of Feb., rjii|. 
See the •Brirf rf iliM tlaie 10 him in *Lib- l*irv. la. f. ij. Sccc^t 
Aidiiva of the Voiicaa. 

I CaaGOBOVR'J!, VUl, 40, id. j C/. Ciacomtu^ IH, 7$1» Wf.l 



how to Booihe his unde m his violent mood* by his t«ct 
and gentleness" He W2s an intimate friend oT Cardinal 
Medici (afteru'aniB Leo X.). whose tastes were similar to hiA^^ 
own, and who, even as Cardinal, was lamh Id his liberality " 
to artists and scholars* ^y 

The second nomination of Cardinnls tinder Julius IL^| 
was preceded by tedious ncgotJattons, for the majority 
of the College, from self- interested motives, did nr>t vnsk 
their number to be incrcascdf The Pope, however, 
insisted, and the CAnlin^ls then ciidcavoured to pcr^uad^ 


But Julius held that it waj 
to fill up the vacancies, as in t)l«^y 
had died§ The College stiU con-H 

him at IcofA to dcfei 

absolutely necessai)' 

year 1504 alone six 

tinued it% resistance, but the Envoy* were coDvlnccd tb*t 

the Pope would conquer. Tliey thougHt the creatjon 

would take place on the 23th of November. t$Oy.\\ 

On the 1st December, after a long and stormy diseussio 
the Consistor}' having lasted eig;ht hcurj, Julius carried h 
point so far ua to have it arranged that in the opproac 

L DK ViLLEMEltVE, Rtcherche* Mir la fimill^ d* In Rovctc. Contri 
doQ poor servir b ThiaLotfc du P. Julci I L, 43 it<f., OS arg. (Rome, 1S&7} 

A«littOSn.^S, y. Maniiiantit, 7S i CiAV, CortcitriuiO, ifh; titOTfl. <L 
LdL tuL, IX,, L15, TIlc lacmuvc .xnd imponoDt cflke of Vi^p 
Chancellor (>icc Vol. Ill, of thin work, p. 4(9] w ^v>n to 
al^r t]\t 6rfnh of Atanio Sfona in June 1505- See *Uh, brev. 7 
L 331^, (3ci.ici Aiiltjv(» oi Oic VAlic^a) GaIui^Iu *ju ^u 11 
Leg^u ol H{>kignu. C/ the *Lc(icj- of Julius 11, to Bologiui, 
Rome, sflUi May, 1 504. Htaic AjttSjwjs Bologrm. 

«AlJiRRTiKi,VlII,-IX.,cd&:hinaraow. Furthet pAniculusof LcoX. 
ta a patron of Arc w{|| be found in our forthcoming v6L 

t Uispacci di A. nitistinian, 111,^ 2S7, 3051309,413,461. 

Z Sec ^Coo^istunijia Rapli. Riarii Cud s. Georfii in Cod. J-, IIL» 
89, t 77, io the Chigf Libroiy, 

j ?A^vlKll;^346, 349. 

II BrDctvolo^d *Dc3pittcb, dac Rome, iBlh Nov., 1505. G 
Archives, Mantui 




ins Ember week nine oat of ten candidates whom he had 
proposed should receive the Kcd-hat* The olTictal nomma' 
tioa and publication took place in the Conabtory of the 
12th of Novcmbcr.f 

Tlie new C^irJinuU were : Marco Vigeria, Bishop of Sini- 
gaglia^ Robert Challanrl, Bishop of Rennes, and French 
Ambassador in Rome ; Leonardo Gro&^o d*I!a Rovere, the 
brother of Cardinal Clem«nti; Antonio FcrrcH, Bishop of 
Gubbio; Francesco Alidosi, BiUiop of Pavia; GabricUo del 
GabricLli, Bishop of Urbino; Fazio Santori* Bishop of 
Cosona ; Carlo Domentco di Carrctto, Count of Hnalc ; and 
Si^ninondo Gon^a^ With the exception of the last 

* BiTftCFlARDlDiar«m,[II.i4oS seq.\ Poiis de Cmssia in RavkalD' 
pSi^d VI. 15051 n. 41-43, And DOl-LlXG^A's edluon, 368 ^4^. See aJ»0, 
pL 371, tlxe atoiy of bow J. Burchard iricd hy cricVrry 10 get nuidc 4 
C&fdioaL Gin**i« i», bowcv<r, ra very hicicr a|£;un>i Burchafd {ob. j6(h 
May, lS06)^aTid«pcakt againiit him to nuichjtlul wtuc he says it not 10 
1m inwcd. Sec fiifdwr, Mtta Cunabt., C i£, licrt die name* iiru ifHcn 
of the Twcnly-fivc CordiaaU who m (cue gnvc thcif conscnC (o the new 
cnftlion. (Conntlonal Archivn of th« VAtinn); !>anuto, VI., 353^ 
263; afis ttg.^ aOB. jfj9 \ Sh>J,ia«jn i>o i>i^ Conti, ir, 342 j^-j,; Reiwrt 
of the Fomruc Embuiy, Rome* 4^1 Dec» 1505 C^utc Aixhivcii 
ModttlAj; StaitUkiT bricfbnch,, 11 tfr/.; AlidoBi'* LeU« in Famti, 
ItEK>bw I3-I3> GiivUiiio AnAt:u in a *I^i;ci ducd Rumc« a^lh Nov., 
1505^ privately %eax 10 T. Gociaga Jt list of those who w«r« iv h% 
QUde Cardrn^ll at Chrirnvu Rro^4>1o in a *I>c«pntch of lit UeC| 
nwotiona die ixfjiunAliOJi uf !^i^iajnifnilu Gunz^^iL (Ijulli Ictltrm art* in 
the Conaa^ Arohivra* Mantua,) Tbcrt e alio a 'Letter of cotigrjiliila. 
tion Aom " C!;i;ilLn;kI S, PiTuerJiii " to the MsLrqiifi^ dat. Riinu« in ardJlmi 
inMnA Cunpi Miutii, ist Dec, 150I- The Pope hlruc^f, in a *Lctui 
wriltcn on ifl Doc, ti> the Duke of UfhJnc, lucnlti^n:* thi; nomination of 
Sjjpsm'^nclo. *LiKbre\'. ai, t 41a, Cf. also Appmdbt, No*. 47, 49, ihe 
(wo^Dncl^or t*i4nd24^ Dcc>i;o5tloQucci]Anjieof Fr*nce^ SccnR 
Aiduvn cf the Vatican, 

t PariTxIe Gnssi<i in Ravxauics, ad an. ipS, n. 45; BCKCiURDi 
Diamine 111^409 j^.; 'AcuConaiiL, f tS. Cakdelia, j; j, tay» iiih 



n^ned, ihey were atl in Rome at the time, and on the tTth 
of December they each rccdved their haU and titular 
cburchcs.* The a^^cndcncy ofjuliufi IJ. over the Cardmalft 
wa^ now secured, although all opposition waa not wholly 
overcome tilt soincwh&t later.'! 

To the great ^cid of the ?cpc aitd the Koman people, 
Galcottu tlcl!d Rt>vcre died ow the nth Scpicmbcr. tso3. 
Jiiltus transferrtfd his CariJiiial's hat and all hirt \iCJicfxcK% to 
Sixiu3 Gara della Rfivcrc,* Galeotto'5 half-brother, who un- 
happily wa^ far from roserobling him in character, either 
irttellcclually or morally.J 

Besides tlicsc tlitee creations, Jiiliu8 11- in tJic year 1507 
nominated four Cardinals, eight in 1511, and one ui 1512* 
but none of these were in any way rcUtcd to tum.H Thus 
tlic hi^tcfriau of the ciiyof Rome only slates the cxai:t truth 
when lit? -s;Ly», " Alexander VL aimed at nothing but the 
aggnindisrm<-nt of \\h children ; the one care of Jtilins II- 
wa* to build up Uic States of the Church, he spent nothing 
on his ncphewfi,"? He was also moderate in his pcnsonal 


* BUkCHAXDl Dlarium, 111^ 410 m?.; SaNUTO, VI^ 371 
Consitt, he. n/ Undoubtedly, S. Gocioga (v«« VoL V, of thi> w«i1^ 
p. 171) sad F- AUttoil AciT! unnonhy at the dr^uity «jn1brrcii tw ihrin. 
G. dc GobiicDi. on the fontnuy, wu aa tJtctWtni raoA, Sec Amiahi, 

+ II pjipn li £1 icmcT c la £1 impericsc. *riics the Vcnciian Am 
Sajhito, VL, th^ 

J FxRis DZ Gbxssts, 3S5-386. DaLUnffer*! editiiwi ; SaNOTO. 
6'J9t '>3^> ^J^i CAKDrLLA, ^39 nv.; and 111 AiJ|jt:ndix, N. 79i 
tabili'» Report ef 1 tth S&pc, 1 508. SlaIc ArchWu^ ModciUL 

J QR£COJcovtus vnt,, 4r,«<:i. 3, 

II Tbc (utniCLilftiiJ of liinc iiomm.uiaTu will be fmtnd tn/rut hi Chapa, 
J and 5. On tbe further dijvelopn^cnt oT the n>;1iti of optioD of tho 
Car^aaU iinc«i the ijmc of JiiUlk tl-, vc O. Panvivius, Ue epi«te- 
paCbaa liiuU» Gt duKonib canljnaltum, 42 x^. Pnru,. i6gQ. 

5 GBi:<:oaovii,t, VIIL, 41, ^3. <y, RotifmACiin-KBcOm-Dit 



ocpcnditurc, thcMj^h lie kcpi a better ublc than Alexander 
Vf.j the monthJy biU for thU wa« between 2O0Dand 3000 
[1ucal«>, th^l of hli successor was Sooq.* His expenditure 
for plalc w;i4 by no rncao^ extravagant.^ 

Julius [|. was AO economical in his houEc-kec]>ii^*thache 
m«, quite unjudtly, accused by tnany of txring a mi6Gf.§ 
It b quite true th^t h« wu v«ry c^i.^iit to keep hk ticamry 
^w&yawdl fUledr] He quite rcrili^cd the futility of any 
pr«ten3)0n,i that had not physical force to back ihcED, and 
knew that an cfTicicnt army meant plenty of money.V Iti 
the brginntng of his r^'gn, Julius IJ. had great financial 
difficultlirt to contend with, En consequence of tlic extrava- 
gance of his prcciecewor. He had to borrow mone>", and 
to pay Aievandcr'a debts, even down to the medicine trhidi 
be had required in ht^ last itinesfl.** 

* Fc« potticubn: on this poinl m^ CRBOOaOVnjS m SVB£L3 Hkt. 
ZaibClv.,XXXVl,, l^S, t(<2 tff-,fn^xnt\^ nn th« nrmunt-hnnk* in clw 
Arcfaiitf. I louml here di^bimcmcnta for wme, trbidi 
saUotn appf r in the houK^iold cKpenses of tbs cvlitr Pope^ He pr^ 
irmd fordgn winn, Ijrvanrinc utd Cor^i^an. Thai be wa« tkddiacd %d 
drink is an iavrirtion o( his p^litcal enetiLica. 

t RatnuoiTT, lil^^^fi, 

I SANutotX^to. 

S WlicnitviAftqutftrofi of Ait <ir of thcdifimitrof h]» pOlilion, Juliiis 
U. never ^nidseii «xp«nfi«. On his very coitly micre, itc PaRlS DE 
GftASirfH4iS,«c1. f>f>nin^r, and l.vrtn, y. Ctttta^R, 3t, 

^ On ^financial policy of ftiliiu IL, c/i Com, Ditcono »u11c Jinanv 
deUt> flUlo poni«l>cio Ual wc, Xti,, «c! <Koma, 18^5 [Upuajlif !!.)>, 
I jff, ; RiLUKOjrr, HI,, 7, 47 u^. ; Gomjjn, Cam. Am 276 u^. ; 
IUhxEi !-. 368 /*Y-- ^ ^ 

•* Panlut SaoH [<lc|Ti>iirariTi)) Icnr (r> thr Trengury tnlp mmnie per 
<ibitum rii IIL on a h<yr\d from tlK notJiry of ^ treasury. IkinJf. dc 
MontcUco, endoned by Ihe Cudinali Neapotiunui, Aloandnnui, and 
the Tireaflut«r, 7aH<j doc dl canteni, &4 t>ol *tntn>tL ct niiu*,vfi1, fj^, 
f, 1 56. Hcinnciu Fuchci (Fugfti) ct Jiatrcs mercaioru oJajiAAni bad 



Some of the means which be adopted for the replcnis 
mcnt of his treasury were of a very objectionable kitid.', 
Hifl subjects xvere certainly not oppressed with laxatto 
bLt it cannot be denied that he not only sold offices^" b 
also benefices.^ This formed a serious hindrance to tha 
reform which was so much needed , for if that werecanjed 
out. it would mean the alx>lilJon of all such sales. Ufi 
true that under Juh'us I!, the money was cniplo/cd for 
mterests of the Church, and not for the enrichment of 
family ; brt this b no justification for persistence in simony, 
The complainis of contemporaries both in Italy and ab 
shew how strongly this abuse was resented. J Anoth 
great evil was that grants of occasional Indulgences were 
so often cDiplcyed as a means ol obtaining money. In tha 

knt m as^impdone Hi III, vcivcnis rmiclavi«tit sj^o du^ snri. 
7lh M^inJi, 1 504, llicy iti;i;ivc(i ftutii the Ainralolictl TKa5i4ry, 34S0 
decEuncTEi, ijbol, •Esiiuss vol, 535,1167. Juliui ILonihc-ia/of 
Coionation ginve n> *' divvnit pervnnk '' |6 dvc ^ hoi. And again 7, 
due 36 bol, ivhich he borrowed fioni the Treasurer, RaHicTc Rianoi 
*ExiEu»^ vol 535, f is5t, " Pro sub cl iod« a|wstohcfl neccuitotilxu,' 
hf look froEH th« Treasury on i^ih Januiry, 1504, 5416 due. 4% boL, on 
1^ FcWuaiy. ^OtSU due. 36 boT.. <>n 3^ih June* 1S14 due 43 bol,^cl(^ 
((«e *Exilus, vol 335, f. 158^ 161, aoi), and aUc in the following ycon 
Iaiv« vjint iiniler the same tillp. Al fm then ar« ninny cnuiea fot 
the dischoTKc of dcbia. later Tor irDqM. 'Exitus, vol. 53;, f. r8a : DicM 
die (sell. E4 Mai, 1 595) solvit (tcLL cb»auiiuOl*>'*^' ^i^tum iftptuagi 
wx . . . . LiMcrrnc uxori Fraadsd dc Mnn<i>puk^nnnanDm;iurJafOl« 
dvcRii» EtronmtJaci mcdicia {]]^ii fe.rc, pa\K AlcxAndi^ ut iippni^ 
co'ni>RKi daTo in cajnen spoAoIica. ieciet Archive* of the Vatic;ui- 

• GoTTLO^ Chiu. Ap.. 3 SO MP,; Ranke, L, J63 "V-. cd. 61 
d Soc. Rom., IV., 363 jry, 

t BiE<Mrvi, Juliiii M, 1^. On the bribery uhirh prtvaJled in t 
Roman C<RJtl undci Julim II.. ice the Swr&^AAili^s^idona] Report ui 
Ani. t Schwcix (^«U)' i i£9J), 373. 

r C/ CiAS, Cartesiann, 1J7 ; Sitnjungibenchte dcr Wiener 


COM ol the Jubikc lrdulg:cncc«, powers Tor which were con- 
ceded by the Pope lo the German Orders, the Chapter of 
Cocutance, and the Aug:ibijrg Dominicans, the bftif of tbe 
proceeds were to be handed over to Roma* 

Tlic Pope's fijccd income in the year i >io was c:4tiniated 
by the Venetian Ambri5s;kilar at 200^000 ducats, and hu 
Aoiiting income at 150^000, a very smnll 5«m ioi one in the 
position of Hesd of the Churcli.t Tiie acconfits of the 
treasure in the Castle of St. Angelo during the refgn of 
JoJius 1 1, are of such a nature thai it is impossible to arrive 
At any certain conclusion as to the cx^ct amount , but we 
kno-A- that at hb deAth it was m^'rc than had been left by 
any previous Pope since John XXil-t 

By hb good management tn mattcn%of finance,Julius II. 
wat enablrti ntit only lo carry 00 his war* for thr rceon- 
stnictlon of the State? of the Chnr-rh, and to carry out many 
noble artiitic under takings, but alKO to be very get^erout in 
Ihc tnattcr of alm^^iving^^ and amply to provide for all 

* PaCLVS In tbo Hi^l. Jnhrb., XVI., yf u^. Juliua 11, '« nricf of Ta- 
dulgTOcc far Kini; Maxiniilian I-. jmbliihnd in the l<ran\ich. Qimnil- 
actuifl, IV., 278. by Sf^hlcLht, i> inicrc»(in^, bc<4iu»c it HfTvida a dur de- 
fiOkdcA of the docinn^ of ttie Cdutch in npint to Iiidiil}s'pr;ceSi shortly 
tieCorc the ouJtjrcak of the ifrruL (IicdLo^iil^ dis^mit:! un ihax hubjtfi' 

+ rbvkoxt, III- 3, »e» I funk£, in., ft*,cd 6 

I >aA, NoEifie, 60; BnoscH, 373. 

j Fiolu (lie * Dive la, Julii U., 15^37-1513 [Siaie Archiv^H, RomcJ» we 
find ihat the Hope im viily assisted the relugeca from the Eit*\, hgt did 
A ^real dead for other ai^dy p^rsotif;, and ^pKoUy ifn^ poor conventi, 
1« C 66 we find m July 151^,110 entry of alms pro Lnonialibub S. Cua' 
matcfi TUrm pcndvciis mcvilii Ma^nn-napotL, S. M. Annimc. <ti FIkumi, 
S. Cith d« S»nM ; in E ijo, undvr the Imrl «if Subventionei, Januahi 
1509, and C 133, mcEuJs Dcccmb. A"" Jdii II. kxIo, numy of the auno 
namM ;^aft but with (lie iicMititin of others. In i- JjS lliere 4 i pUf- 
Aentoo sjfd Jdy, i ji 1, for the hospiial nf & Maria in [:ioRicu de ut1« 
AJoo numcioas dibt^]iBrn]Ci}l& foi the V'nir^i\ Si«e» GliuixIb^ i/. i/t/rii, 
p. 336, note +. On ite ostisiancc jpvcn by Julius 11. to the bcwprtaL of 

VOL. Vt Q 



nccewary worka in the city and in thoStalcnofthe Church.^ 
I'crfcct order reigned in Rome under the strong hand 
Niccol6 dc' Ficsclii of ihc familyoflhc Counts of Lcivagna, 
who was Captain of ibc WaUK The inurdcrous outrages 
which had become io frecjucnt m the leigns of Iniiocciit 
VIM. and Alesfander VI. had entirely cease(5. The street! 
of Rome, which the Pope was consianTly widening or oi 
bcllhhing, could now be traverse<I in peace and securit)'.' 
Raphael's fresco of the Mass of Bol^ena has made us famiU^ 
with the outward appearance of the Swiaa Guards ; the] 
numbered roo men, uorm whom the Pope could abiolutely 
depend. They also formed a permanent central bod>', ^^ 
serving a.H a niiclru^ for a larger army when more troopc^^ 
were nccicf^ and their officers brouglit the best families in 
SwJirerUnd Intocloseand conftdential relatfont wtth Romc^^ 
The regulationi; of Julius IE. deRmng the authority of tbi 
Jud^ of the Capitol, and aJso of the Vicar, Governor, andi 
Senators, in cases of disputes and quarrels within the city^j 
were of great scrvicenj Still more valuable was the M*^rk 
of tcorgpLiiT^in^ the coinage which he carried through, 

S>'Spimo,sce*Bficrto Laur.tlcAnipjHbdidjtLjisl Ociub., IJC4. *l-i 
Wv. 17, f, ao2. Secret Archi>^5 of ihc Vatican, 

• KruMONT, HI-, 3, 4*. C/ Aha inp^, Cliap, t, oit Ihe ^imbcll 
cnent of Ehe suveti- Wc see fmin lire 'Brmfto AleiL d« Keronio &ini 
el comias., dot 1505, Jan. 6, m which he ii commanded to demaltib 
Ehv }]M]«w of *..>m* nirhiJlpnl |HTMin* \\% jip erompte la oiliPPi. h- 
tevercly JulfUi n. piTiti:(hc(t Lhc vti^iurlicn t>t die (icacc, *Lib^ tiiev. 
r T44. Secptt Archiv«9 of the Vatican, 

f IJiTnur, nir Srhwrr»prg^nl<^ ni Kom, 4 ff^. {KMp^eln, iSji^X 
(^ KO^'AES. VT-, ^0| note, CaifEtr SiUinua, CapiUncua £1vcilonim 
emtodiD palfttli Apn*t>i reorivcd, pro *ua «t menini afllanitt vvery monit. 
If jr difc; 63 bol, Kindly cominiiniait«d tn me by Dr. Gottiob out 
'lAtroil, ct exit, ii^ Lhc Secret ;Vrc1iivri of tlic Vatiaoi' 

t BuU-hV., $33^7, ;n fff. ; HciiCEKlu^THlia, VIM., 536. On 
Roman msiftsrnicf and Julhn IL, tcp Ani det Linrai, Sdem. moral. 




corrvctiog the dUcrcpanctc*) bctwctrn Ihc fiominal and real 
value of tite (lirTer^nt kifi<U of monry, and introdudng into 
the ciirrency the silver comft; ongmalty c;i]Ie<) Ott^/r, but 
aifttfwda known a« P.7ofi\ Both trade and the revenue 
wetc imrtienftely benefited by these uperaliojis.* The 
Jewifth coiner* of counterfeit money wca"c put down by htm 
with a strong bandf 

The misrule in the Campa^ft. where the titrbulcnt Barons 
vk) landowners made it impossible for the farmer* to 
cultivate tlicir ReM.s, repeatedly caused a great scarcity of 
corn in Rome, especially in the yesirs 1504 and 1505. 
Julru< 11., alw;iy* careful that the city shmild be well 
supplied with provisions, at once came energetically to tfa« 
fe*eti& In 1 504 the dearth was so ^eat that he bad not 
only to apply to Ferdinand of Spnin for leave to import 
^ntin from Sicily, but also to obtain a similar pcrmisdon 
from the Kmgi of Prance and England.* The pitrchaae- 
able oflke of aycnt for tlic importation of grain was created 
by this f\>pc.§ 

• BttTMOKT, iri^ a. aSa. Cfi Sev\rcoa, fee 1 Moaavi, XLVL, 
II?: NoViVfc^ V!-, 1;:; Rankk, III., K\ cd, &; CvuAMPi, App.p 
Zi^rt^^ 150 jrfy. In MLrrrE^ L^Aulicr niunc?taiie dc Itome, 1^ jf/. 
(I^ni, I SS4), there AFC inlctulin^ new docurnciiu rabling to (he coivu 
of J«1hit M , anri nUo farfioiUrt nbotrt Ihe crlpJimiEfd Cando«ao Sw 
■Iw JAhfU dci ^'iGUih Kuii:f(>.YJijiti|uii|fVU, HI-, lj£;j^^, 

t t/ hu *Bricf to the Manjuess of Maniun, :8tii Dec, 15C5, in the 
Gona^ Arrhivfi, Maaiiia, an J«w roinen in lh» viriniVy of T^orne. 
Diaft in 'Llb^br^v.aa, f 43'^- See *Brief PeCra de VklcntiLiiv Icgurn 
dOf>or%(±iL rjth Nov., 130; : Jbwith coiners 10 B«ncvento luurt be pua 
uhrd. ""Lib. btrv. «, f. 391, Secret Archive frf the V.ilican, 

I C/. *Lib. brar. tj. f. 116, tt> Kin^; Fenlinand of Spnlii, i<ith July, 
<^ i f.ti9 tQ ihe ume, ijth July, 1504 ; f.ij?^: Kegi Fmncomm, 
ijth Aog-, »Sf>| (f/ GorfLOi^ Cim. Ap,m), Tlie •Rtitfto the Coti- 
■emuoTft c/ Ratne in f 381, rtMh A)>iil. t$o$, Sccicl Atdiivcs of (h« 
Vatican, 11 aJio uiorth nolieinff. 

g GomiJii, Cam, Ap,, 251. On Jtiliua I1.% nper»tion* iB reganl to 



The dangers which m those days be^et the ch^rncU of 
trafTic. whether by land or se^ explain Ihe anxleiy of all 
ihe Poperi to promote tUlage*in the CamiMgna^ in spile of 
manifold hindrances, in order to depend as little as poi:±[ble 
on imporU for the necc^^sarie^ of life Julius 11, ;tchievcd 
considcTftblc success in this direction. Under him the 
condition:! of life in the Campagna improved so much thai 
agricultural operations could be carried on steadily antj 
method ii:dlly< He found oieans to prevent the pas«a^ 
ol large bodfe« of tfoo;is through the country in the neigli- 
bourhood of l?ome, and greatly ta moderate the feudt of 
the Barons. Under thote more favourable circumstance^^ 
the ordinances of Sixtus IV. were revived with much 
better effect, mid the amount of land under caltiv-ation 
tncTcoscd. Ho bIso indicted severe penalties on all land- 
owners wi"^ in any way hindered the cultivators from 
e&frying whatever gr^in they could spare to the Roman, 

The coinmcn cement of a stable and uniform sy^ifcm of 
adminUtntiorL in the States of the Chundi date* froan the 
reJgn of Julius IK, though, ol course, it would not be;*r,at 
that early period, to bo judged in these respects by a 
modem standard.-)- A Brief or 23nd July, 1506, deuKng 
very severely with all mAlversations or acts of oppression 
on the part of either secular or eccleaiaAtie^! authorities 
within thc^cc province:^, and rcquirmg all state or communal 

die com tndc, smd on his coiaAj;e. sm. in gYncinJ, FrcirFEX-RuLAivt^ 
Fcfeeiluitia in nuinin]«| 13 ivy. (Tub,, iG8a> Sm iliw LAi/RXarr. 
pAAMtNiUK 30% and RouocANACHr. Ci^rpoTniiun!i> I., 69^ and, in 
ivfiuillo (he Annonx, ibe woilu uLcU 111 VoL IV. of tlii» work, 4^ 

• Rri;mo«t, \\]„ a, iSg ; HiixtrwAxn, lutia, 11,, i6j C/. aJw 
AxtMKT, r^pc* ei Pit>^n9, 44 (Pvv, iS^i), and CoriLOP in tbc H\sL^ 
JahHMcli (iSqsX XVr., ijT T/7. 

t GoiTLOb in lSrudef» Suaialexiknnp IIJ., 795. 




officiab to submit their accounts annuiUy tcj the Cooo> 
mbsioncTs of the Koman TreA^^ury lor rcvUion, wu sn 
ifnportant step m this direction.* 

Corutjmtly harassed as he wa» by political or ccclcniaatical 
anxieties Julius IL always found linic to attend to the 
govcfDiDcnt of his Slater In 1511, in spite tif the war^aiid 
in tlc;tcsi4b1e weather, he virenl to Cervia^ to see for him- 
self how the salt works there were going oti,f Whrnevcr 
hehad th? po\i7?r he looked after the welfare of his subjects, 
pot down abuses and oppression, and did all he could to 
improve tbe administration.! Nothing escaped his notice ; 
he issued enactments against thefts of wood and cattlc,J 
against the exactions of the jtidgcsjj faction fights^H pirates,** 
robbers,"!^ and murderers ; JJ he endeavoured to adjust lonj; 
tftanding boundary disputes §§ and promoted public works, 

• Bull, V,j 4IR i i*e Cani^a, C^m, Ap,, i3o jc^,, 1^5, 170, on 
cchcr nituiiijret aficFiim. 
t SaVUto^XU., 89193. 

I C/. Apprndk. Nos. 55, 59, fj^ fiS, 69, 70, 71, •Brfrfu of io(h D»t. 
jjo6tand in J (07, Juiiuuy t, 6. i^aadzj, Fcbniaiyai and 24 Secret 
ArcluTci of die Vatican. 

g Ser ■Briflior3nJ inrl 4th Dec, 1506, *Lfb brGT.:i5,f 31 and 33^ 
Secret Arch^Tci <ii the ViiiicAn, 

I] ^<« Appendix, Na 67. 

^ ty the "Brirf to Krrdiniind. of Sprtin ttjnrrming IkiievcntQ^ 
B0I0KIU4 i>cFeU, i;o7. *^Lib-brev* is, £167°. Scent Archives of tho 

•• C/.ilK*htitio/SK^ Feb., t^i^Jn *IJb brtv. 35, f. jSSb, 

tt C)^ the *WjLmrc agaiou Akxandcr Membrini de ConhiAno, dated 
Rome, nnd Aprrl, 1 907, ■LHx brev. 3 5, t :itto ; tMit., 373'', » Wimnt, 
daoed Rome, 31 Kt May, 1507, a^^iii^t Aujjiuiinus Symonis de FisiDO 
DOtoriu* Lomiddo, 

H *Bnef lo'^joh, Feltria de Ruvere," fUted Kome, lOCh Max., ip5. 
♦Lib. brtv. tt, i 77a- Sccr^i Arthii«s of ihe Vaiji;aa 

II A», lor LTWUncc, m the Mnircbet o( Autona ; sec *Bnef to Thonvis, 
&iffcop of Porlj, Vir«'Leyat4; of tin; March«, Rome. 44lh April, 1504- 
*l-<l>.bjev. 35, £ ayO*-, 



such as the building of bridges* and the control 
utiliflation cf rivcrs.'l' 

Like the great mediaeval Popes, such ai Gregory IX, 
whi:>se laat Biiefwa* written for the prctcclioii o( a poor 
I'oluh p<:;t3^;(nl. Julius II. wa?i always on tlic: alert toshiHcl 
th<t humhlr^ of his subjects from oppre!^iorL Thiis^ tm t 
7th JamiEtry, 1507,3 lime when he nas heavily burdened 
with political care*, we find him writing to the governor ol 
Cesena and ncrtlnoro; "A <^t3Mn of Bcrtinoro ha* cotn^' 
plained to the Pope that the Cfistellan ha^ taken irood front 
him and injured him in other ways Let the Cantcllan ard 
his abettors be punished without fail, and take coic that no 

harm comes to the coinplatiiaiit"! 

In order to form a just estimate of the merits of Julias 
lUn rrgard to the government of the States of the Churd), 
it is ncccs^iary to realise the stste of titer corfiision in which 
lie found these pravinces when they eame Cmo his handa, 
h required a man of first-rate powers to bring order into 
such a chaos, Julius II. ha:* been justly likened to Virgir* 
Neptune overawing and calming the turbulent waves by 
hi* majcatJc countenance § He won the devoted a(Tection 
of the whole (Kipulation. He granted \a,t^c Iibcftica to the 
muniup^itic5 in the towns. \\ '* The Pope," says Gufcdar> 

♦ t?r ft* •Bfiftf ftf NiodaQft CakaneuE provinde Marchi« 
TljraiiuriuiLii ct dua in uiTiuo sulcc^&oi ibua. Gr^nl of 350 dUCMB 
ihc rcpfttn«jQbrt<ig?^ Bologna, 30th Doc, 1506 (A"4*). Lib. brev^aj 
f- I J, SvTtt ArrlTiv^of Ihv VajifAft, 

t *Hrief la the Mayor Afid Council of Spo!etix dnt, Bolojcna. xnd }»it-t,\ 
r^r : levcve penaltieai if within twenty diyi the heifik*i ofthc n^rtj^ 
nw in pfOpw ord*r- •I.ih, brcv. 35, f, Kt. tSccret ArrhTvcfi of the 
Vatican.) On ihc wcrlra for the imprtivemcot «f (lie mltt-hiittiwiiy ua] 
1IIV Ti!«r Mid Iho Anio, «o« ALDKRTIWI, 52. 

{ T« InifhiTuni in FtA, N<4ifi?, 57* 

[| Ranke, Pap«tc, I., yf, 351, ed. 6 ; Favti, In^ola, 5 s^. 



dini,"took pains to attach the people to the representatives 
of the Church, so that when the oath of fealty was taken 
sX Bologna, the change was described as a passing out of 
the state of serfdom under the Bentivogli into that of a 
free commonwealth, in which the citizens had their share 
in the government, and in the revenues."* In spite of 
some mistakes which Julius made in the selection of his 
L^^ateSif the conditions of life in the States of the Church 
were such, that even such a bitter foe of the temporal 
power of the Papacy as Machiavelli is forced to admit that 
the inhabitants had no desire to throw off its yoke + 

OrigiaaJ of the *Bull of Julius TI., daL Rom, 4th Nov., 1504. conRrmiii^ 
the privileges and liberties of the town of Imola^ is to be found in the 
Arth, ComanaJe 6f Imola, which is rich in interesting documents- 

* GuiCCiARDiNJ, VII., c [ ; IX., c 5 : DoLUNCER, Kirche cod 
Kjjcfavn, 530L 

t For further particuUis, see /«/>», 303 j^, 

X Pniicipe,.c. 11 ; DoiXlNGEK, Uc. cii.^ $\i. 



— Fau, avd Dsath or Casak Bi>RGiA.^L>ia)'UTX5 wim 

The position in which the new Pope fourd himself on hi« 
Bcc«ssioo was one of singular difficulty. Disorder and 
confiuion prevailed on all sides and he had no mone/ 
and no army worth mcnUonirg.^ 

In the Patrimony itself the state of things was so bad 
that on the $th of November^ 1503, Julius was obliged to 
issue a ae^crx: etiict against B^irnns and niunidpaliliea vrhu 
did not put duwn robbery and brigandage in their districts. 
The States of the Church were iiardly anything mor<^ than 
St nflme-t On all ?^ide& the towns were in revolt^ and the 
old dynasties which had been driven out by the Borgia were 
fL*turnine. '" '^^ South, war was racing between the 
Spaniards and the French, and in the North, where their 
policy had completely upset the relatione hitherto stib' 
siMing. Venice was takmi^ advanlage of the confusion to] 
eid.iigc her borders at the cxpcii&e of the possesions o\ 
the Church. 

Even during the short reign of the geiUle Pius HI., she had 

• GOTTLOf], Cam. Ap., 7^. The Pope did not nM possessioo of the 
Cixile of 5l An^rio uniil ihe iirli November, ■ P3 ; >cc Diapuxl di A.^ 
CiustmiAnJi,, 29Z- CoMAbilib »*Dc«pauh of Nov. n. 1 503, mcntioc* 
the joy «4 Jutiut vli«D ihit wav irhieved. Smie Arrhtv«^ ModerUL 

t RxuMONT, IH,, J, 10: c/ Tea, Nolinr, 56 j<v- TbcEdiaof6tb 
Kov.. 1 50J, 13 in Bull. V^ S99'«^ 




already contrived, partly by forco and partly by diplomacy, 
to obtain possession of Bcrtincro, P'^no, Montctior, hnd 
other places. It soon became evident that ttic Vcndiara 
were forming conncctioiis in dl quarters throughout the 
Rciinagna. with a view to gelUng the whol? jirovmce undi^ 
their power,* If they succeerfed m this. Cit^ar would 
H>on be a lancUess IDtike. Already tilings had gone 90 
far thai !h« only castles still remaining in the hand;; of 
hift captains vmrc those of Forli, Cesena, Forlimpopoli» and 
Bertinora Everything depended on the attitude t&kcn 
op by the new Pope, whose coronation took place with 
great pomp on 25tb November, 150J.+ 

« BitOfiCKjuliiu ILt^. 

t Ghi\-hano r<ilAtfi ir (wo •l^fprs erf 3rd November, 1503, thai the 
pTf^iAnikiQS fw the Coionaiion were (k^uji duiiiiK the public rcjoiciJi^ 
ovR the *l«chonp The amt siuihonEy tolls us thai the I'ope bad given 
orden lh;M ii h*u 10 cost from ^fiy ro liiiy thiiuuind 'tiirntt, (rrnnz^ga 
Arctuvci. MjJituo.) Sec aiio AppcadiiL* N- iB, *Dcip- of Nov, ao. On 
th« CorODitJon HmIF, the t^y for which hod been fii«d in £LCcordanc« nith 
the horounpe Utktn by the aatrotogers (Dispacci di A. Giuaiinlan, ]K| 
jgsX ^. I}LiRCHAiu>t Diaiium« HI,, 307-304; DUp^cci di A, GiiMJnum, 
IL, 311-314 ; Aith. Hu Napolil., I., 75 } *Acta Constist, in Coruiitoncd 
Archive^ of ihe Vatican; *Rfrpori of F- GuJdkckmi, Rome^afth Nov,, 
1 9&y I ^'Report of CoaUvl^li of tha ujitc duU, vthkh dcfaihel the illu' 
Qucuittoat (Suie Arcliivci, Modcna) ; and a chv^ictcristic *Leticr from 
Ghivinna, ^arrrt Rome, 361I1 Nov., 150J " Hri£i i^f taKt la CAmrnriont 
liel Papain S, Fctioa L quJcnon he uiLeivcnutci mc1UiccikLc,ctc DaL 
la tf« bora wnsk ni:in][aT« a svnia b«n« in modt? xnAi piv vobo vfder« 
CoPMabonediPapB.' A"Rrpon, darcd^Tlh Nnv,>from the tame Knvoy 
repeal* tliil there w«rc noi inaay people present ut tl;c ceremony (pro* 
boblycin aocDont of the pr«vii:iu« tainy v/&aitici And ihc imceriain sIili« of 
aftlr*X and uddi : •&bia se lar^ omnioo h pro'.tf^vonc a Lfltetnnn In 
qook »c aiima deW oicr pomposiuimA. (Both *Report> in GoniAga 
Anhitf«(f Mintua,) On Ibie Lr^i^npfionii p\tt up \n Rome Al thai limC, 
m Chiociiken der Deuitdicn Sttdtc;, XXIIU 103- Miuiof Lhc letter in 
vbki) Julius []. axinouneod the fnKt of his oicctiou ue doted £rom the 
day of C9r«<utioti, #^, thOM le Florenoe (<opy in lhc Slate Archives, 



UnfbrcunaU-l)'. Julius II, wa*i i^tvaily mdirblfd to 
bor^m ami Cardinal rf'Ambofac, as well as to the R^ublic 
nf VenJcr, for his elcftiori, and tiiis still further complicate 
the SHJtuaiJon.* He saU^iitfcl the claims of d'Amboiae by 
bestowing on him, in spile of the opposition of mofiy ol 
the Cardinnls and of the citizens of Romct the legations of 
Avignon, Vcnaiuin, and France.! ^^nd a Cttrdinara hat on 
one of his relatione, Fninfois Guillaume dc ClcTmont.| 

J'~tarcnc«), Ut F. (Jooin^ (oijginidl m the ContAgn Archives, M4ntuA\ v> 
Ihr Kiru of Pi>bnd {Ravmauui\ ad an. 1503. n. ti}. to Fnbrhn 
Co]onLiA(nnsinnl in the CotuftJiii Atchtve^ Ramc. BuU, ti 5£). He had 
ali^ady on the 6tb of Novcml>er tent a notice of his clvaior to the Uq^ 
nf Venire, And thaiiktcl liim fnr itic hu^iiKirt Uut (he Vcnctiitn Entoyt 
had KT'^n him. Sec Sanuto, V., aofl i^\ 11<: "Is^ se<ii ^^ notice of 
bih clectjon to tlio Gftno«u, u hit countr^-mcn, before Uiic Lororutian, 
Sec AllE d Soc SnVDiXH l-* 43^- The /Vwwjp, whjch luu ^epauicd 
(tom ihc CoronAbOTi fbr ihc lint lime hy Julius IL, did ttM tak« 
pb« unul D^c. ;, t/. jiirRctUftrti Ui^mum, III., 31a //f.; Uitpacd 
di A. Ghiiiiniuti, Un 3^^ ic^.i Caxcelllrri. Posactiai, ^6 trf,: and 
N0VA£j^ VJ^ jjf. Soe aUo ibc ^Letter of Don Fenviic d'Efta 
to the X>L;l(e of ytnsai, dated Koine> 6tta U«c,, 1 J03. 5tJ»lt A^chiwia, 

* DUOKU, 105, ^1 

+ CotUbib tclalci in a»RepoTt dated ^jth Nov,, :joj, ihst Carta^B 
R Gioncin tujil ink(i};Min] the (^in!4rii«tori to go Lo the Pope unlcaltcit 
him not to k^vc the Frccdi kjpUion to d f\jnboisc ; ^r lo inicrt»*c dl 
qilttlU cit^ a. Su ha napoilio iMur« necesiario compiaircre Kohjjio M 
tHBipDiicic lULti li oHri nspcrnf a qticni Ecinpr dit la S>* Siu Ih t/LBoyn^ 
dd Kg di Fnnaii per II poit^mcnti dj Vcaeiiani b quoli qujuida S'l^H 
.S» non fussc adiuuta lUl Kc dc fnincEa w in^f^^or^^iitriHnn di linM^| 
li RoFuiKTULcldic bnnngc^vQ]Fi:o(rpoTi:iiT, {Sui« Ardiivcs Modcoa.) 
F^ Gutdiuioni. in a *DouiEi;cni uf i;th Nov,, ipj. alao itatu that 
<l'Annboisc wu cerium to be niad« Krvnch L«9At«, C^ncaga Arcfamea^ 

£ Ravmaldiu, ad an. t $03, n. 15. QC Ditpud di A. C^iviciBiAa, II, 
376* a*<t »*«d Faxtosi, 35Ih 

1 ^ni^tftr. p-ai() 



The Pope hoped by this means to secure Fmice bi^ . 
rc«rvc force against Venice* 

To shaJce off hu connection whh CiCMr Borgk vra^, 
however, a more difHcuk matter, llcanii)' as Julius U. 
bfttcd the Dof£[ia. Ik did uot wish ot}C[jfy to hrvak ihfoa\i\\ 
the cu^d^:)eijLH He; Uml niiule with iItci Duke, rior did U 
K^em wbe "to iTirow aw;i)% unuKccI, sn valuable a tool wi 
0*?sAr couli) be. while cbe Holy See in the Romsgna was 
la &ucb danger tram her powerful neighbour, ihac the most 
unsatkfactory Vicariate would be preTcrdble to the present 

At 5rst it seemed as if the Pope had quite forgiven the 
llorgia. "CArdlfiAl Uorgis" writes Costabili on November 
1st, "bus been given the I'cnitentiary. I understand, too^ 
lliAt one »r ihe Kovcrv family Is to marry Canliual Itorgia's 
si-Uer All thft othrr SpAnlsh C^nJinJiis have been rewarded, 
and ihey seem for the moment to stand in higher favour 
than ever,'** In his relations with Osar himself the Pope 
maintained considerable reserve* but in such & way as not 
to deprive him of all hope, while fitill allowing him to fed 
that his position was precarious, g 

The first and gicatcst danger to the Stale* of the Church 

« J>f beloih'> nou ^ Sm BvaCNAUDi Di^rSuni, IUh, jt;, and *Ke- 
ponof Coiulirli, 8ih Dec, 1503,0a the dcppirturc of d'Amlwiic Sate 
Archive*, Modcna, 

^ RCVlfOirr, III., 3, IT 

t *Dopucch c)f CoMabrli, jitNov., 1503. (Scam Arrhrvn. Mrilena.) 
Cf. alsi# Gliivvane^i RcporL oi ^rtl Nov,, 1 ^3* GciLiaga Archives^ 

£ 5cc Dbpv:ci dl A. fiWrnUci, IL, sH^; </ 2K6 J<v.,aud thc*Rcpart 
of Coat&bil^ d;ited Roinc>6ili Nov., 1506 , EJ Uuca %pcra iriulto in N, S. 
p«r haterlo mulio tetviio ne b ftwnmpiinne del pojifeficato de S. I'"', 
(Sole Arcbivt«, kioOcfUL) On tIiv I7(ti Niw., Julitis II. jiildressfd a 
^Briif in favour of Jofid Borj^ia to F Mam delli Rome. ScaBc 
Afthivn, fc'lorvnce- 




came, not from Cvicar, but from Venice, which was try'u 
to obtain the same command of the Italian seaboard 
ahe had of that of Dalmalia, The gravity of tliis dangi 
was brought forcibly home to Julius 1!^ by the tidings ol 
Venetian intrigues which reached him on 7th November, 
150J, through his old friend Gabnele da Fana lie at orcc 
sent a strung remonstrance to the Republic, and decUrad^^ 
that he had no intention of permitting tcrHtories whicli 
were properly in immediate subjccUon to the Church, and 
had now returned to their obedience^ to t>e filched away from 
her, On the loth r>\ November Machiavelli reports that 
Julius had said to Cardinal Soderini» " [ always have l>een, 
and still am, a friend ol the Venetians, as long sti they do 
not hanker af^cr tKings to which the/ have no right 61 
If the/ persist in robbing the Churth of her property, 
shall take the stroTige^^t mea^itre^, and call u|itin all thi 
Princes of Christendom to help me in resisting them " On 
the following day, he spoke in a very friendly manner to 
The Venetian Amba^fiador and expressed (•rcat affection 
for the Republic, but at the same tiirc repeated that he 
was determined to restore the dominion of the Church ii 
the Romagna.* 

On the J5lh of November the Venetian Ambassador,^ 
Antonio Giuslinian, had a long conversation with the Pope, 
chiefly about the Roniagna. Julius, in language which 1e 
nothing! to be dc-sircd in die way of directness, annonnccd 
hi^ fim determination to resbire to the Church all 
possessions there which she had lost ; they cnuvt not remal 
under the power of C^^r or of any one «lse, and it wi 
for this purpose that he had on the previous day sent 

* DUpucci di A. Giuatiitlin, 11,, sSj J89 st^.; M^CHlAVTlLU, 
Leliet XL, dflt. loth Nov, 1503. The F«Frv«* Rpvoy and d'Aniboiu 
fbrred up tbe l^ope akaieuh Vcnite. <J^ Coaiabili'i ^Lclier pnrily 
^jphwr, da^ Rome, Sib Nor,, 1503. State Aid^vcs, Modcno* 








Ilisbop of Tivoli, An^^lo Lconini, u Nuncio, to Venice. 
" Words hH mc' add« GmstiniAn* "to describe with what 
rcsolutiof) he spoke, and tiiat not once, but a^^aui and 
ag^n " Ncvcfthclcu the Ainba^ador did not give up the 
attempt to chiiTijfe the Pppe'^c rrbid. It was not frifm the! 
Church, he reprcscntmt, but from an enemy of hers, and n 
bitter enemy of th« Pope and of the Rqiublie, thai Venice 
had t^ken these places. Hrs Holiness must see that it 
would be impossible for the Church hersell to administer 
thU territory ; he would have to give It to some one else. 
This would be hard upon Venice, snd she had not dc&ervcd 
to be so treated. When the Pope was a Cardinal, he had 
hintn'scir encouraged the Rcpubh'c to undertake an expedition 
a^aiost ihc Roinae^t^ Julius replied tliai this utas a£[ain<it 
Oe^4ir Burgtiii noi againM the Church; with all his love 
for thr Rrpiiblic, he saiH, he cnuUl not in honnnr consent 
to any curtailment of the Slates of thcChurth.* 

However strongly the Pope might feel about the 
Venetian encroachmcrts, in his present helple^g state, a« 
Machiavelli well knew, he couU only tcmporiscf This 
wa» equally the case in r^ard to Oes^r Borgia. He had 
sent the promised Briefs in the Duke's favtir to the cities 
of the Romagna. but with a wrcrct hope that they mi^ht 
arrive too lalc^ and did ntit l>c&tow on him the coveted 

* OUpncici di A- GiusCinian, II., 397, joa. C/. ^Report of the 
iTinn htivoy, Rome, l^lh Nov., 1503. (Cofuaga Archives, Mxntua.) 
LhcNtmUatureuf Leiniini, f/ *Ejntui, 53s, f isi*- ; iqk\\ Nm'.. 1503. 
Sflirk dtic joo Auri dc cAmerK domtno Argclo c|^5COpo I^urtino 
ndnliO npu4 Vtneiot pro envt porvi<iiiine uniUK inetitii tncc-p, I9pn»- 
umiis meotb Novcmbria, Secret Arcliivc^ of ihc Viu^ian. 

t LtHtUn from Machiavclli, aist Nov- ami lat Hn^, ^S^J- ^ 
HmiMHeiHJCW, MAchiavdli, 18 jj^-, ^ ; ALviSl, App.» 95 ; YriarTIh 

X Di«pa.cci di A. Ciuitinmr, 11., tHt ; ilco&CH, Jubui U., 99 /^. ; 
TotlMAitIM, Machiavclli, I . ^9; 




pofit of StambnI-bearLT to tlie Church. This disappdi 
ircnt, togrth<^r with the bad news from the R^Mnngna, %ee\ 
10 have proJuc^ an cxtraortltnary effect on C^sar ; he was 
completely altered The Envoys found him utterly dU- 
pjritcd and bfokca MachiavelH describes his vexation 
and despair* The Pope told the Venetian AmbasBidor 
that he had become 90 chan^ablc and tncomprchcnaible/ 
thdt he could not say an>thing for certain about hinv^_ 
Cardinal Soderuil found him Irresolute, petulant, VK^| 
feehlf ; h*' thought he had been stiinnet! by thL* c]t%a<icer« of 
the laftt few weeks. The SpanUh Cardinal lions, »id the 
DitkCi seemed to hfm to have lo^t his metises; he did not 
know what he wanted, and wai confut.ed and uncertaii 
In Rome all *orl» of strange reports were current aboi 
hinip Evciy one ^rccd tliat he was ruined ; "not from ac 
fatthlc)snc?tft on the part of the Pope, but by the force 
circum»tancc3 which no one could alter." Juliuft would t\\ 
do anytlun^ against Ca^ar while the fate of the Romii^na 
W3r» slill pendtngj but he was dtlrrmincd, when he cotild, 
to place thete territories nrder the immediate governmei 
of the Church-* Caesar held frequent conversations wil 
Machiavelli, the representative of Florence in Rome; ai 
on the 18th of November he<Jespatched an Envoy to that 
city, offering his services aa a captain, and begging them b<l^| 
.^^upply htm with troops for the conquest of the I^omagna . 
he would come to Lcghcin to complete iJic negotiations.^ 
With the penni^sion of tlic Pope, who was only too glad 
get him out of Knmc, he «Uuted fur that place nn ih? irji 
November. He embarked before day-break, " to the joy 

* tJispsiCCi di A. Ciustrniarij H,, 79t, 3971 Tptiera from Ma<^U' 
Tdli, Mtb mid iSth Nov.. 1J03, C/. Rkuuokt In il)c '\][g. Zi$- {i&jjj 
Na 377, SuppL, and la Iha CAti. Gel Adz. {1^76), 1l„ S44. 

* S^xuTo^ v., 4ST, 497-199' Cf HtmrtNKWiMKii, lvliidiA«i 



cvciy one." in a boat on the Tiber, »ncl went down to 
Oilia, whence he {filendcd to sail,* 

Shortly aftenvjird« the neivs arrived that jinoEhffr lm> 
poKant twvn. Facnia, had surrendered to the Vcnrtiani. 
Julius II., alrsa<l)' unable to »l(ep from anxiety, becam« 
violently excited, ard sent the Cardinal^ Soderiri and 
Rcmolino to Cicsar, to require him to deliver up all the 
other strong pbce^ in the RomA^na to Mm. so as to 
prevent any more from faUing mto the liHiids of the 
Venetians. This the Duke icsolLtcly refused to daf 

Meanwhile, lidirgi r«ich«l Rome that Venice also 
get pOf»es«ion of Rimiri b>' an agreement with Malatesta.* 
BvJdently the only chance of aavini; wliat remained by in 
prompt action. The \'enetiaas declared thai their only 
object was to get rid of their enemy Ciriar-^ On thb the 
Pope resolved to compel him to relinquish the forta of FotH 
and Ccscaa. lie sent orders that the Duke should bo 
antnted and brrni^ht to Rori&|| Cttoar appeared utterly 
overwhelmed; the Mantuan Envoy reports that he wcpt-T 

♦ Dbpacd di A- GiustinUn, 11., loi. C/C Append! n, N> jS. GMvi- 
mK^^« Report, aotS N^v.^ r 50J. Conti^'n Archives, Montiia, 

♦ D^fpurri di A. GiLniinian, T!.. jr*;, 307-308 : Lrner frtmi Machii- 
vdii, amd Kov,, i^oj. Cf. H>^nKVi[t:iM&it. MnchiAvcUt, 24 s^. In 
db *Bri«f of tlie Sth D«c. 1503, the Po|:>e himcdf ilJroirtl)^ JkdJrMtcd 
C^rsur, cnmmnndTng him to rirliwp itji (Iip ffirtrrs-^cn, I fmintt tWi 
Bncfin *Lb. brcv. i2*(. 1^ Sco'cJ Archives of iho Vatican, 

% Roa^ANm, v., 165 i Diapaccidi A, Uiufiununf It^ jic^ 

f Reuiflovr, lir, 2, M. fiip: "With rvwy Jhnjoa thai r_r*3rlnftt 
la Ihc Romn^nA the neccaiiiv for the I'ope'i ;ntcrvonti(>ri Ihc^iitc more 
and mon rmperaiive/' Even BaoacH, Jutiut 11^ 99, tay% Uui ihe 
Pop* wu obl'iuvrtl Eo pn>:»il ux^inst Onitr. 

II C/. Alvbi, 4u lif., and ChiviuinoS Rcpon, Rome, )4th Nov., 
I$t>3, G«nnga ArchWn, Muntua, 

If C/. Cataneo'* DeHE"[(hr», aand Dec, isoy (GonwgB Archivw, 
Mafitua.) LVXlOi Mantovm e UTbiao, 152, where. bowe<'er, Ihc con- 
duding ivonU &ft^ "T^nt Borfia lAtta da bo pacro Alcmardrot qual 4 



He "h;Ld every reasion to expc;ct a dungeon ni 

and in fact Guidob^ldl of Urbino and Gicvanm Giordano 

Orsini advised the Pope to put an end to him"* 

Julius 11, scorned these counsels, Casur was treated 
with ihc grcdtcist coLisideral!on, and apajlrncnts m the 
Vatican were ^s^igned to him. The Pupc bo^K^d by thb 
nie;»ns to obtain the peaceabJt' surrender of the keys from 
his governors. OTsar apparently sent the rc<]iii5ite orders; 
but, according to Sigismondo de* Conti, this was only a 
feint Thouf^b there is no proof of it, it seems very pro- 
bubic that he wa? cndeavouiiiij; to hoodwink the Pope, 
who had broken his promises to him. At any rale the 
gfovcmor of Ccscna declared that he would not take any 
[>rders from C-c^ar while he was a prisonei, and detained 
Ihc Pap^l messengers. When Juliu.t heart] this his fir^l 
thought was to throw the Duke into one of the dungenns 
In St. Angelo, but yielding to the Duke's urgent enlreatie«, 
he sent him to the Torre Borgia instead AH his property, 
however, was confiscated. A contemporary remarks tiiat 
the Divine justice, no doubt, decreed that he should be 
imprisoned in that very chamber which he hadMaincd with 
the blood of his brothci-in-Iaw Alfonso. All the adherents 
^^^ of Ihc Borgia were filled witli tcircr, expecting that the 
^^H v\a\s of the Popr's wrath would be poured out i^pon them 
W also. The Cardinals Remolino and Lodovlco Borgia Hi 

I from Rome on the night of the 30th Decetnber-+ 

I in Iri pAlAtio a In ^ne recio ctinAnF a 1« cauiAre dove dntrat c4 hi 

I uc wwiling. 

I * Ca€COIlOVtUS,Vinqa4,«d li CoaubJii'* +Kvport SUttvAnbii 

■ Mftkna. 

I i SIOISW>^DOD&'CONTI. IL, )S£»537 ^ DispaLci 4i A. GiusUnii 

I n,, ji8, 317-3^8, 33J J33, 340 j^?. 350-351 j Burciiaroi i;uniiii|/ 

I ni-, 330-331 ; RassiucH, (^ 77 ; Alvim. 4U if^- : fTOiTLOP* Cuil 

■ Ap.,:?3g,notc. Scealio CiiMneo's*Dcjp4tch,22iid De^„ j ^03. fCoiuaffa 
^^^ Archives, Mactua.) On ih* Aiglit oi th« C^rdiniili ai\d il)« Poprf| 


The succeeding weicks were occujiicd wiiTi nejiotlatfons 
bctwnrn Juliiii ami Ctrwir^ which, owing tf> the wd!- founded 
iJittniit which prcvai!r<l between ihc two parties, wore ex- 
Mmdy cC'm plica led. lo the bcginnini; of ih^ new year ihe 
Popdbei^aii totlutik of possessing htm^drby force of Cc^^cniL.* 

On the ;;rd of December, 1503, Mnchiavclli b&d aaid 
that Caset waa ncariii;; the cdE:e of the precipice: At thi5 
juncture &n event occurred which at once immenAely raided 
the prestige of the Duke's fiiends, the SparWsh Cctrdirials. 
On the iStli oi De>cefnber, Gon^ialvo de Cordova obiairketi 
a complete victory o^'er the French at G^ingliana On the 
iir«t d&/ of the new year Gacta capitulated, and on the 4th 
the new* reached Rome^t The French had lost Naples, 

Under the influence of this occurrence, on the 29th of 
January. 1504, the ncf^otiatlons between Julius and C^sar 
were at la^t brought to a conclusion. It was u^n'ccd that 
the Cuke ivas to suircnJer the Castles cif Ce^scna* rorli, and 
Bertinuiu to tlic Popewilhin forty days. Whi;n this condi- 
tion wa* fulfilled, he would be free, but till then was lu re* 
main at Ostia under the surveillance of Cardinal Carvajal ; 
{£ he failed to carr>* out his agreement he was to be im- 
pfttoned for life.J 

9t it (luKiine tiff f\nr}x)t f/l F, Guidicrtoni't •I^enoTj dnL 

"Rotnc, nm} Dec, 1503, (Suic Arebinc), Modena.) On (be indjoa^, 

1 504, Juliet dddrtsMd a v^rf fiiendiy +ESnGl U» CAidinal Borgu, XnW'ttg 

hjmlo ntiim 10 Rnm* «& umn us pctsfiblc. 'Lib, brcv, it, t ff*. SeercL 

Afcliit«» vf tlw Vftllun. 

• C/, the lihtf of 5ih J^n^ isc^t "" AlvKi, App, n. 100 wh^ 
iMwsvtr, has been a\re2jAy primed in GosMHiift, XCIII.X and the 
*Bri^io Jc^.SfcrCiia ilc AiAfEoma, IjU brcv. i^^l i7'>cSccicl Arduvc* 
of tW VSilici^X «htdi 13 undated, but evidcnily^ both m limv arcl pur- 
port, bclongi la tlii» episode. 

1 BirKCllA>LM l>i«nutn. 11]., 3261 




On the evening of the i6tli February', while ihc Camiv: 
wfi5 being celebrated in Rome,* C'c^ar Boj^l^ accompanici^l 
by only a few servants, embarked in a boat from Uic Ripi 
Grande, aiid wa^ tAkcn tlovvn to Ostia.f 

The nr^otiiiiions for the surrrridcr of CetrnaL, Bcrlinoi 
and Forli caused th? Pope ai greai deal of vcKation, an* 
the Archbishop of Ragu*a, Giovanni di Sirolo, wa* sent W 
the Rom^tgna to hapten their conclusJorL* 

Tlic Koveniors of Cesena and Bertinoro at first insisti 
on Cnaar'* liberation. The Pope in a rage drove 
bcrtrcrs of this message out of his room i in the end, bow* 

* Sec Buiic)iii«i>T Oiuium, lit., jS^. Mimu HonavcntiiA r^parti, 
ex urbc I4lh Jan.. 1504 : *La S^< dt N. S. bi dccreio x £kcu deUe 

i*Th l>h., 1504 •Hogi sofio fCrto li palii- Tht^e •Lcttei* ire 
CcJitAi|[H An;hircs. MhhIlll 

t ALVIBI, 446, in hii otktrft-ijc oiremcly careful work, 
]^\-t% ihi^ 14th as ih« d.itc L VPTAitri; !_, ?o^, the i^ih Fcti. The bnci- 
djtLc i» ukciL fruii> Hi nciiAKPE Djoriuiii, UL. J31. li ia Ucv, buwcvcr, 
from the Dbpacci di A.Giu5tmbn,II,,437-43£,440, thJil Qtm; bide the 
IV»pe fun^vcll }n t^w Cvitle of St. An^do on the t^th, and kfl Rt>[nf oq 
the nlshi of ilic ]6:ti. T\\h pniciicjlly a^n?cs wkh CAtuiciyt itucment 
ih^l Cetar mii brought tQ the Coatlc on the i ^th, ind Uiktn to Oatb 
on ihe isrh. ^♦I.rner* of i3rh and i^ih Kcb., 1504, In the G 
Aicbiva, Mai[iIij3,} t am induced U> dediie jj^ainsl KosiMCH, 74* 
in hvwr of the ifii^ b> tJlUFTIfftA-H, 440, and the *llricf of Jtiliin IL 
to Cvd_ Carvajal of iCih Kcb., 15^4, dcsinng him, doit ^'aleniJniu ia 
fMcfv '.i»tiKlifi> bij tliAl ii 1114/ be jHj>hub]e ciilieJ to ktt hicu f:ec m la 
remove hjm, in act^rdnnce witlt the provi»ioii> <itf the ngrecmeat cqil- 
laitvd tn a irrlHin Bud. 'lib. brev. aa, f |f> (Secret An i^iwi rf tht- 
Vntlou).) Qiivijn] left Konic on (he 17th Tti\ : *Hcr> fi |:^tnEVc 
card^ de S. Croc>e e KPdo nd Of ira^ dove prima fa <ondacio Vdlentiao 
mo non d in mMM d«l fuju m del dicto i::irdi(uil«> ii. L. CftTanetft 
*lte|H>rL dai, Rome, i^ Fcbi. I $04- Oonoki^ Ardvva, MADtua- 

t C/ SiCi-si4<>uiK> Dk' CoNTi, ir^ ^^S^. There u^ A Urftc ftiunhcr 
of •BnHi in the Libi hrev^ ?t C^**^'*' Awhives of ihe VaiicuiX reltmpir 
lotlkc Mt»>itj|j ufG, di Sirolu. C^ ApsKHdii, Nub, ly, ^3r. ^1 J^ 



cvrr, he foitnd himself competed to come to term* with 
than. On the ioUl of MarcJi, 1504,110 concluded a ntv 
^rce m etrt wiib the L>ukc, by which t;is(ar bound hinutdf 
to obmin the evacuation of Hcrtmoro and Ccscna^ and 
m&dc hiniadf mpon^Jblc for & aum of money which the 
CastdlAA of Forli demanded fu the: price of hi» suxrcndcr. 
As soon 03 iheac conditions had been fulfilled, and Bcitinoco 
and Ceatiia ddtvercd over tu ibc ?u\k:, Carvdj^l billowed 
hiK pmofier to depart, on tlie ii^Ui cif April, wiiiKJUt^ 
any further leave from Rome* 

Oeaar had ahieaidy provided him&elf wiih a letter of safe 
conduct from Gonfi^dvo de Cordovtt^ and hastened to Naples, 
to the houM of hifr uncle, Lodovico Bor^tSL. Hctc it toon 
became evident that ho had by no mcanj^ roHnquishcd 
all hope of eventually recovering his pOA,*ic3»ionri in the 
Kccn;q;na. Gnn^talvn retdved the Duke wilh nil clue marki 
of respect, apparently entered Into hu plans, and even 
agreed 10 furnish htm with tfoop*. In this way be 
mnnngcd to keep hU dangerous ^ue^t qitict until he had 
received instrucliors From Kinp Ferdinand. Thcnr hoii'- 
ever, he acted promptly On the 27th of May, i $04, Ca:^r 
iraa arrc»t«d and taken to the C&^ilc of E:^ia- The 
Spaniard* announced Chat tliey intended to keep this fire* 
brand in tl»iir ciwn hand^. So <Ayn llic: S|iuniHh histiJiiaii 
Zudta^and Gniccianitni corToboral*"* him-f Accnrditijj to 
Jov!us, Jiilfu4 II had advised that C^sar should be Im- 
priw>ned to prevent him from invading the Romagna.^ 
This i« conf rmcd by documents in the Secret Archives of 

■ Alvui, M7-44A : Hbo9k:h. Jdiuji II>, #03-104 : Di»^£tcc:i di A. 
Gii)*tiBun, IIU, C^-69. i<>9; ft09»>MCit, 7; ; VauH^ii^ Cibv Bar^ 
IL, ao7'»o3- S^caiao Lhc 'bncito Can^j&l, AppeodiJi, >. aj, 

i ZvKirK V„ c 7i i GmtUAHoTKi, vj. cy. TouKAMM, VUdiim- 
veUr, I-i 195, and tldrtEirt, Biuiv4dyiuud«n, (S. 

J jonu)^ Vitt«, L^ ^74. 



tfac VfttLcan. There h a letter there from Julius 11. io Goi 
mIvo dc Cordova dated t Ith May. 1504, m which the Pope 
requests the Spaiilsli Genera! to krcp gu^id over the Djke. 
so as tQ hiEidcr him from undertaking anything Against Lhc 
Church, and to irKince him to give up Che Casile of Forli.* 

On the same day Julius wrote a letter to Ferdinand and 
IsabelU compbintng of the conduct of bolh CaTvaj^l and 
Gonsalvo ; the former had let Ciesar go free on his own 
responsibility and not in the manner agreed, the iaiter waa 
allowing him to hatch plots against the Church in Naples. 
He accused the Duke himself of having sent money to the 
Castellan of Ft^rli aiid encouraged him to go on holding 
the castle. Thb remarkable letter closer with a rcijue^ 
that thdr majesties wuuld not permit a pcrsnii who wax 
under their cuulm] to disturb the peace of the Church-f 
In regard to Forli the appeal to Spain was cflectuaV and 
Jnliuft IL at last obtained possession of the fortress^ 
Gonaalvo promised CiEsar that he would rcleaTje him if he 
ih'Duld order the Castellan to hand it over to the Popc'a 
Lieutenant- Upon tliis the Duke yielded, and on Uie loth 
of August the castle vias given up. But now it wats 
Gonsalvo's turn to bie^k his woni ; and instciLd of rc» 
gaining his liberty, Gcsar was sent olT to Spain on the 
3Dth of Au}{usi.| 

* See Appendix, N. 29^ th« •Brief oi iiUi May, 1504, in iho^ 
Archrvea of ihe Vjicican, 

f This I^ricf. cif which unfortunately a( only poiicM a Cmi 
^t put>liihea by Kavka-LDU^ ad m. 1504^ n, J3, Tli« copy in ALVtEl. 
Af>p.i 101, i) not qiiftr a^rtinatr 

X On the 6th of June, 1 (04^ the Pope wrote lo Citrolus iruuchio Finarii 
«l«ct. ThetMii., thai Qrttr wu a pnton«r and that L, da OrdeEnffi had 
lUely died in Ravennn, iiiii!iu>» tt Trl>Li* ^prnimH* no* arc cm Forlivri p«r 
poclicu^Eii £idliu» fcccpturo^. *Lib. brcv. if^ f- 76. ^SciJrct Acchii 
of the VATicu,) C/ Alio Apptndix, N. 36* 31, 

g Al>j», 450-451- </. CoTiLOu, C-rni. Ap., 330. poitei 



l">om this momcnl C^csAr Bcfrgia v-anNhc* from the ftagc 
of iLtlian hbtor}-, and by the bcsinmn^ of May mcM 
people in Rome seemed to have quite forgotlcn him* 
Fctdir»ancl ^cnf liim f^rst to ihe Castle of Cliinchillat and 
tben to Ihit of Mcdfna dH Campo. Horc th« fornicr lord 
of Rome, bereft by Ilia pcUtical *hf pwrc^^Ic of all hi* luxuries, 
was Itepi in close co«fircment in a room m the lower, with 
only one scrsant. No one was allowed to sco him, "AIL 
his plans had failed, nothinj: remained of all that he had 
sought to achieve by his crimes, his cnicltics^ and his 
murders." In this mucrable life his only occupation con- 
BtstcO in flying his falcons, his only joy was to !*cc llicm 
catch a helpless binl and icai it to pieces uiih their Ulons,; 
Id ^ite of the strict guard kept over him, on the 33th 
of October, i$o6, Csesar succeeded in escaping from his 
prison and fled to his brother-in-law, Jean d Albrct, King 
of Navarre- JuLiua 11- was greatly dialurbed when the 
Dcws reached him, for he was well aware that the Duke 
still had many adherents in the Roniagna.§ B«l his 
anxiety was not dcsliiied lo Isst loii^^, for on the i^ih Miiy. 
1507, Ca-sar died " honourably, a soldier's death " at Viana 
in Navarre, fghting for his brother in-law ajjatnst the Count 
of Lerin, He was only in hi* thirty-second ycarjl The 

• Cfi •Report of G, I* Cntotico, dnL Rome, jrd May, 1504 (M 
VaJMiQao aon *i parU piu), Goaxaga Archivtt^ Mantua. 

t Nui. ua GK^ooaoviUs, LuLtuui Bot^j^, ^74-^7$. dod Ht'jrLen, 
KAtiutrcfthc^ !?» hAvt it, ta Seville. 

X Stt KOfLe;^, KjLTAH(ropFi«, 33. C/. DHparcl (ti A. Giuitinfiui, III-, 

I ZtntlTA, Vtl-, c 33. 

I ECUMOHT, II!-, J, l6j ALVlSt, fSSMH '^^* *^** ^^^ (\i\\t^ 

■iccounfa of bi» luidcnte in Spain and bj» dciiiH m VRURTa, 
)!., »ij a77i f/. al*o 338 ttf. C/. Horutii, Itutftrddynnfilien, 61 
j«Y-i *"^ Kjinitraphet 73 r/if. Thm iv 1 plcttin? of tht ra^1« in 
Yriartv ui4 ia Gkai^ RuitdjciK: in Spaiiicn ^Wuifburif. 1894): kg 



^^jaqfaneas of the HouM of Borgia hnd come a 
ftiitfbtodT flashing serosa Ibc ^Vy.* 

There b no contemporaneous account of the effect pro- 
duced on Julius II. by the licliiigs of Caesar's death ;^ but 
he mu«t have rejoiceti to find himsidf rdiwcd nf an rtirmy 
who siill could Iiavc been extremely dflngcrtms to Mm anrt 
to the Churcit Cnror had man>" ffuthful adhertrnts in the 
dtics of the Romflgrta, and he? could never have Pelt quite 
Mcuie there while the Duke still lived. 

It m A cunous coincidence th^t the niar» who, if Alexander 
VI. had lived, would have done the most of all othet^ 
to »cculame tlie Statca of tJic Church, und writh whom 
Uwhifivcllj in con'^etiiicnce was secretly in full sj'mpalliy^ 
ahculd, uiLJntcntiotially of course, have berr the fhunder of 
the revival there of the Papa! authoTJ!/. Mo5t people Arr 
lamilur with Maehta\"ell!'i opinion on thia potnt expreiwrd 
in the PriK€f^ where he aays: "The Duke by no in&infl 
(fished to exaJt the Church, NerertheLess all that he did 
tended to her advantage; when he was gone. hi5 hcritaj^ 
Fell to her" That thU was il>e caae waa no doubt grcaUy 
due to the character of Juliiii^ 1 1-, who never for a moment 
lost sight of the one object that he had proposed to hfnisrir. 
and made use of every mcaiH Ih^u came to hand for attain- 
ing it- When, or the i lUi August, [ 504, the new* of thi 

Ki 01 ta^^ 

aba J. M, QuaDEjUX^ Recnerdos y Bdleia» de EsfoAu. 

• HdnXR, K«a<tropht, 77. 

k Tht FflnartM Envuy Cusluiiili oiilr saja in a *Dc^ttCdi> ^lirJ 
Rome, 4th Apr., 1 507. ihat the ncfi? of h)» dcciUi w»^ hdd 10 be cerioto. 
{SlalQ Arthjvet. M<»rtpfti.) C^n Xht nrriva! <>f the tiding* at V«nic» JDid 
Penvn, utd ha% Locrcm UKik \\\cm, cf. Sascuix;, VII,, 47. 90, 51, 54. 
$6ta Tbo»c AiniiEatic account? ndcpitc " t^icrain's tcan* (tM F. 
GaiUXJltoviiis, Luoczia ISory^A, 393) id ihc rtawn of 
kitOc imu^rimlioj]. 

I Sec VoL V. oflhtf wnrk^p. 167. 



stirrcfKlcr or Forit at Iju* arnv^, and he vvai asked whether 
ordcnc were to be given for the public demons I t&t ion j; o( 
joy usoal on Hidi ocat&ioi\s, his reply was charactcdatic 
"No" oiuivered the t*ope, so the Florentine Ambaswdor 
report^ 'n-e will put odT all rejoicings until uc hnv%: much 
more important aiiO dilT[<:uU «licccs^c?i to celebrate" 
"Juliuiiticanl" Iht Arnbiiwjtdar 4dd«, "ihc rcconfjueitt of 
FartiM anrf Rimini,"* The rcl^iti^in-; hctwwn Vrnlcr and 
Rome had fioRi month to month been Rrowinp more and 
more tinsatiidactov>' owing to the obi&lin^te refusal of the 
Rcpublie to give back these cities uhicti h^d been taken by 
force from the Church, The conduct of tlie Venelianaon 
thU occasion shewn that the invnriably astute diplomacy of 
the Republic was utterly at fault in regard to the chai^ctcv 
of Julius \t. 

A* Cardinal GfnlUno della Roverc had always been 
friendly to Venice, and the Venetians, out of dread of a 
French Pope, had heartily supported him in the Conclave, 
they fully believed that he would in ixluni kavc them a 
free hand in the Komagna. Thi5 of course was an utter 
ddusbon, a^ from the Brst Julius waa £rmly determined 
not to permit the Church to be <k^poilcd of a single 
rood of her posscM;ons,t He never foi a moincnl gave 

* Cp Acckuuftli^ D«ipatich of 13th AugusE, 150^1 in Di^pnccJ di 
A- nhinlnian, IIT, igfl, n. r. \jt si •nnll of (he joih Aiigiisf, (504, 
fuliua !!. deprivcfJ Ocsar of the flrovemoraliip of ihe Cit*ilc! of 
Boli%gnxand rvsiored ft to lh« murndpaltty of the nty. Sui« Archies, 


f UuiAHir, Miu^iinilBui, I[^ r39i ch^iacteiiBO* the proce«dinic8 of 
Venkfr u 4 plundering: of the Chuidi, in rcgoid xo th« qu«ttion of 
IcKal right* rhe tktii it prrfo^ly corrtct {€/. aJsn RnmoNT 'm Gflu. 
Gd. Am,, iS7^ n,, £41'*,) IJbosc'h, Juliu.i IT-, 105 siy., cflidci tliEa 
point ; he tiko« the V«n9tun side from the 5ni, rrlymi; fnr \ht TTiJ>«t 
pm emlTely on Vrn^tim jii)i]iorUli?« and tuppiT«inj( AliikOkf nU oihciK. 
The annexations of Venice are Always juiujublc m hi^ eyes -, even wlicn 



the Republic any rcaaon for doubting Ihat li€ meont 
iiui3t on the restoration of the stokn property of thi 
Church in the Romagna.* Nevertheless the VcnctL«nsl 
thought they could do as Ihcy liked and need not be 
afraid of a Pope who had ncithci mnn^^y ntir tmopxt 
" Atnbititin and greed of land" says the CDttlrmpcir^tieni 
VrJictian chronicler Priuli, "were 30 strong !n ihcm ihat| 
they were resolved at any co^t to make themselvxrs masteral 
of ihc whole of the Romagna."J When, on the 22nd 
November. 1503, ihc ncvs of the investment o( Facn: 
arri^'cd in koine, the Tope at once ;;cnt for the Venetian 
Ambassador and repeated that all the Church's posseasioris 
must come baek to her, and that he hoped the Republic 
would not carry matters to cxtrcincs.§ Three day.s later 
the report was ciirrrnt iti Komr* that Rimini a1n» u'at itv^H 
the hard* of the Venetians. The Ambawadi:»r was it^l 
despair, for his government h;Ld given fttringent orders that 
this should be kept secret. " Thus, even before his Coroi 

the Vennian^ rejuidinirKl their ^wom ai.'rfenifnt with x\\f 1*opp, Tic 
in tlii^ pn>f«ilrn,( only " a vindication of tliai prraniptivc riitht of 
prtMrvaiicn without th« exctcife of which it i% impoinbte 10 eoncerve 
Jodcpeodent SUi^ tjrmi-HhTvii>faiiiiuiinii« existence " Cl> igj), Ontlw 
oiher bmd, whcic liiUtu IK Is con^emcd, he becomes the ftinctcatof 
moralifcU, Thf ftr*1in,iry cva^ifini* of Jlplftmacy, even thinjii whirh nr* 
midenimd as axich hy ai] diplomaibTs, aie suEiiiattied is trimiiul 
duplicity when they comc from luliua II, Even Wn fiicnds face AJlx, 
Zcitung-, ttitia N- ^3^ Supply blaine Ehe violence of Ula bng'Luge, 
ihc xpiniijf lonjsiii^iip dbpla>id by Bivacksce Vol^ IV.of lht» wui 
p, 322, n.t, Jj4,n.» SmoIm Arch, d, Soc Rotvu^ III., 177- 
* Cf. fu^t fk a35, ud RicvuOKT in the Gon. G«l Ant (18 

4 C/. Ft, Guidifoniu' ^Report, d^k^ Rome, jjih Nov.» iso> 
ArT!hivc«, ^lod«rn. 

1 Rn;MD7VT, III., a, n ; Romanw, V., 164, 

J Dfspocd dj A Giusiiaian, U, 305306. On ihe 33rd CiusttDion 
r^fOffta ftv«b coRipiiunu from (he Pope, U^. ci/^ ysb. 



tton, Julius »w t«o of tbe jewels with uhicb he desired 
to adorn the TJ&n snatched auay b>' the Siifnori^i." ' 
On the 28th November, At n meeting of the Cardinftb, he 
GompUincd of the proceedings or the Venetians; on the 
zg/ih a CoiisiMory wd* lic)d The Vciiclmn Aiubmsclor 
reports Ihal " tlic Pojjc s|Mike very ait^nly nf the Republic 
In Cnni;Mcfy; he had |jtcvifiiisly told ('nnUnal Cortiaro 
that he meanf 10 appeal 10 France and Spafn Tor the 
protection of the interests of the Holy Sec't In a con* 
ventaiion with tht Venetian Atrba^sador on the 30th of 
Koven^r Julius apoke more gently, and dwelt on tho 
bicx\6\y fedirL£3 be entertained toward.^ the Republic ;1 
Ibr he wa5 well aware of h\& Acakre^?, and for thdt reason 
mOft anxioua for a cloac union wit-h Frarice.§ On the 
loth oi Dc«imbcr he again rctmajistralrd with the 
Ainha<;9arJor ftgainsi the proceedings of Venice in the 
Romagna-lj The tidings which came from Angelo 
LcoTiini, Bishop of Tivoli, who had been sent to Venice* 
only increased the Pope's diaplea^urc. Lconlui was com- 
mi^nioncd to demand the withdrawal of nil the Veneti^in 
troops from the Romagna and that the Republic should 
d»iU from any further comjlieAts fr^nn Cx5dr Boi^ia, as 
the whole nf hii^ pn&sc«5ions belonged to the Church. 
''The answer was far from -saiisfactoiy. Venice promised 
to Rt&ke no fliTther acquisitions in the Romagna, but she 
would not withdraw her troops." She wajf detcrniine<l 

• Hhih It, JliUli^ M,^ [o6^ ^d svfira, p^ 239, 

-t DiipoKi di A- Giuatiniui, [|, 31 J, Brc»sth nbitiina from men- 
boning Ihii ; if Ik bjul done *0| he f ould nol have exprctficd himMlf oi 
90 mufh 9GU>dalived M uh^i the Pop« «aid 10 Manhisivc^lli 

X Dispacci tit VL Giui^tini^ni IL. $£]> I *n\ ini from wkbmg^ to 
defend the ^opc'i conduct in every r«f ptu ; but BrcHcbk dittarU th« 
Motdt of Juliiu in a wM iinfuir rruinner 



1o Icepp f^mfa. Rimfnl, and all ihc otJicr pUctrs on whtcl 
she had ,^o unjustly laid h;inds^* 

The Vencifen Envoy Giuiiinfan said eyerylhmg he] 
could to mdiK< the Pope to sec tilings In a difT^ivnl 
light He proposed that the conquered territories should^— 
be bestowed on Venice aa a hct To this Julius M. replicd^| 
that the governorships tn the Romaviia had ftlwAys bccfl 
best iiwcd on captains who had destined well of the 
rhvirchj hul not upon ptwcrful chiefs ; it was impossible 
to put Ventee in this posiiion, she would never let thent 
out of her hands again. He wmuld rather not be Pope 
At all than endure such a curiailmeni of ihc States of tlw 
Church at the very beginning of hi* reigr, Giustlnian 
made no answer to these tort of expressions, tall 
vaguely of fahc reports circulated by the enemies of 
Republic, and avoided as far n^ possible all direct nego-' 
tiationa in regard to the c\'aciiatron of the conquered 
(erritoricSH He aeemfi to have been po:^»cs?icd with flio^| 



dtrhisimi th;d Venice had no cause to apprchimd any 
venous rt^-iiiiance from the new Popc;f and not io th« 

the ch^acter of the man witli^| 

Iea«1 to have understood 

whom he was dealing. He was incnpable of conceiving 
a I'opc dcs-oid of seltish ambition anJ reaUy aiming at 
nothing but the exaltation of the Churchy and had nt 
suspicion of the dangers of the game that hJ* Govcn 
mcnt wa* playtng-J On the contrary, he flattered him: 

• BROSCn. Mkh II., lOS; lh« Hn«f of t^tb Nov., 1503, 
LconlnJ*) rntni^m is rn SAtftrro. V., ^ta tt<itm\ (e/. MAftnn, 
30J sf^.) WM coikitdcred hy hn contcmporarin iw evcolleni 
MAftiriwtEli ciJIt him a imly ri^hMnindcd prcbtt, n pnident 

oed rn »mic affftin. None of this f4p|>f3r» in IlnsKcl 

+ Balas. v., 435. 

t ToaiMAnixj, Machkivctli, 1., 39a 



tliBt he conM emsily succeed in mollifjir^g Julius II. with 
lk;r words and promhci. 

The Fcrrarcse Ag<:ri undci^tnod the nito.tliofi (v better, 
"Tlic Pope" he rc(»rts on the J^tli November, 1503^ "b 
far from catl^lSed vr'txli the way things arc going in the 
komAgna; '^-here he had helped to ^ee H^Kt, he finds 
nothing- but darkness. I know his nature and am weJI 
assured that he witl rot submit palier^tly to this ; though 
other people imagine that they will be able to deceive 
him'** Giu^tiiiUii ought to have beer able: to see how 
lmi>o»ibtc thb would |>rave. When, on the 23rd el 
r)n:cmtx:r, be ag;iiii rcpe^tcH his ta.1c of^Undcroua rcportd 
set afloat by the eticniic* of Venite^ the Tofx replied, 
•My Lord Ambassador, you always bring me fair wonia, 
and the Signoria foul deeds. We have accurate; tnfofmft- 
tioo of all that goes on in the Romagna. and know how, 
cat after another^ places are being occupied that havO 
hitherto always been under the direct rule of the 
Churdi ; to^ay we have hcfird that the Venetians are 
endeavouring to induce Cciiena to submit to them, nad 
have occupied Sant' Areangelo. Can wc be expected 
to look quietly on when those who ought to be s^^ 
pnrtin^ Ufi arc daily robbing us ? At presnit wt* 
have not the means to defend ourselves by arms and 
can only remonstrate ^ but we mean to turn to the 
Christian Fowcrs for aid, and trunt that Ocd will pro* 
Icct us." 

The Ambassador had no answer to give except that 
this w:ts unrece^sar/^ If Ceserta wished to put herself 
under Venetian nile it was Tjcr^usc the government of 
the Republic was just and beneficent. As to Sent* 
Accangelo, the Tope had nothing to complain of^ as that 

•"F. nvidtiomB' ••Rcpert. dated Rwme, jjth Nov., 1503. (StnBt' 
Archrra, MimIcra.) C/, o\vi At/iinidix* N. 17. 



pUcc was alrraHy in the hands of Venice before I^conliil 
was §eiit • 

Three day* laler Julius I!, again scrit for Giustinian 
aiid «id to htm: " W? have still to compUin of ihe 
state of things m the Romagna. Letters arrive cUily 
teliing U5 of lh« intri^es of your af^nt^ in Ceeeoa, 
Imola, and other places. Throughout the wliole countiy 
efforts arc being mitdc to seduce the people from their 
obedience to the Church and persuade them to place 
thcmseKes under ihc rule of Venice, Our wor>t cncn^ 
could not do moie agafn-^t us. When we ascended tlie 
ChairofS, I'eter we did so with the (ull purpose of behig 
3 father to nil a< a Pope should be, and cib«erving strict 
neutrality; but we now fear that we shall find ourselvM 
forced to entertain other thoughts." 

The Ambassador tried to make the usual excuses for 
his government, but could not conceal in his report the 
fact that ihcy wcic not accepted. Ii ends with iJic words: 
"Julius IL rL-t[u[Frs th^jf all the places thdt hdvc been 
occupiefJ in the Ro magna shall be rentored to him. 
Possibly events might occur which would induce him 
and the Sacred College to leave Faenxa and Rimml io 
the hands of the Republic, but he will not consent 
anythini* until all the other places arc cvacuatcd/'t 

^^f * Diqaod di A. niuxiinUti, U., 339, 347, ^l^-3$7- Cf. Rtuu 

P MI-i 2, r3,and C.CAffntr4>:*i.La dommju(onc vcnct^ a SunV ATainf«l& 

I Saim' Arcingelo, 1895. (Only :oo C9p>e« of the vork have 

I piiulccL) 

K 1 DispacQ di A. Giwtmian, IE., 3^-363. Even nftcr kII 

I Cjuitmian %tiU Ibltcred hun&elf Oi^l «uccmi w^ poMrble. On 

I Year't Day hi pith^nicd himself bcfoie ihc F'npc and requcaecd 

I "with courteous impottuniiy " that as on duit dity it waj customary 

I 10 mnk« pt«rnit to nnf't fncndt, Juliu« wntild (fmiiry The Republic, 

I which vru »D drvDi«(i ti: hJiii, wal^ t]:ic ^\k i*\ Rimini and Focdsl 

^^_^ The Poftfi smiled, but HniwenrJ tjiat Vcalco mux boKin by 




On Uic lOth JdHUAry, 1504, Julius aJtirc^tscd tbc foUon^ 
ing letter 10 iht Doge : — 

'* To our beloved Son, — Greeting and :ipoitolica] beii«dJciJon : 
Through Our RcTcrcud biothct ihc Bj%hcjji nf Tivoli and by 
vanow Ictlcra We have announced 10 your ScTcnc Hi|{hncH Our 
firm trsnliiiion 10 d^-mand the rpitorauon of Our diies of FapriA 
Mnd Rimini, logcibcr with their castli:* and the other pUocs which 
your Highncis hat occupied tmcc the death of Akxandcr VT; 
and Wc hftvc i(:(>culcd1y rnhdi^ the s^mc Jcmitnd to >oui 
Ambofsador. 'l^btfrtiFort We cannot sufficiently ciTne** Our 
forpriae ait noT having yet receivr^d any drfinhe answer^ Since 
We now loftm from the oTorcnLimcd Bishop, Our Envoy, chaL the 
subject isagstin (o be laid before tho Senate, ii *ill be pEain, Wc 
tnuL tc )tiiii uwn wUdum and that of the ^^^t^nibly, Uiai it is not 
pcmistible lo keep utiTawFuI pottctslon of that which belongs 
10 ihti H0I7 RoniAn Chuffh, ant^ th^x Wr air hound to uir a\\ 
the means in Our power to obtain it* re»loration. From ihc 
be^rting of Our reign li hat been Our 4teadfa«t purpcne to 
ic»kirc lo the Church the lurltjrics uf nhiUi she hs^ been 
despotkd ; Co this We hold fast, and ever ^hall do £0- If your 
Hi|[hnMi^ Amb-iisador or noy one else has written Anything 
dilTcrcnt tO your High nets or held oul an^ ho(>cs that We «hall 
cornc 10 an agreement on this pointy hr has written faUuly; 
for It a Our duEy not to permit such an injury to be done to 
God and to the dignity of Our position, Wa have always enter- 
tair^ed a jiut lov^ and v^teem for your Hi^hnf^ssand the Re- 
publk, in the bclicr thai, especially dunni; Oui Pontificate, yoti 
would prove the de*eoder« and not the upurptrs ol tlie Hghta ol 
the Church. Now, %lnce nothing xhnll indwe Us to desiiit fnjm 
dcmandinfc the restitulTon of these places, ainre Cod and our 
Saviour Je4U« ChrUt, who \ix^ committed ibe care of Hit Church 
to U*i and Out office, impoie this duly upon U>, Wc dccUrc that 
any one who writes or thinks othcrwii^e, vritc^si and thinks falsely. 
Therefore We again adtnonlfih your Hl^hn^s^ with all paicrnal 
ktndiic«k ar^d oommand you in the nanc oT tht I^rd to do freely 
&Qd tt onrc [hat whirh in ju^tiee you are bound to do/'* 

TcMflgnaiio ; atker thxi, ne^oiiationi in rejprd to the other ptacM 
misbtbv pnt«TPd a\yvn, Sri? B^Miii;?(, j0 ; Havkva»m, 1]., i[5. 
• RATHAU>t> 4d an. t^oi^ix. I, SA»yTO, V^. 73^, f/ 73i. 7i6» 



All wvi in vain; the VoKCumt vetn determined not 
to |art u-itb Ihdr spoils. Secure of their aircn;*ih, th€y 
mocked at the Topc'^ thrcata.* Sooner or later, the baltle 
%im\*} hA%^ to be fought out. 

Id Vcokc there were itormy pASsafca of &ritu bctwocn 
the Papal Nwf>CTi> txonini and the Doge The E-'rciich 
Envoy vainly tried to act a£ a peacemaker,! 1" Rt^roc 
Gluatimaii coittiiiued ml}\ lii^ 'cuuftcviu iitijjurturiJly" tq^_ 
|jre!!5s the Fo|ic to bott^w the mijui^Ly gotten lAndj^ oiV^I 
Venice as a i-icariatc. The exasperation of Julius at tikis 
persiit^nce increased from day to day, eipeciaily ai he now 
thought he ptjoei^'cd that the Republic wai; b^iiining to^i 
aim at Forii alfiOu^ The Doge io coovcr^tion vhitl^f 
Lconini dealed thi9, bui admitted thai the Vcrictiaiu 
would never give up the territories that they h^d once 
occupied. They would ucriAcc everything Uicy had, 
9^orincT ttuui do lhi^,| In Roiur, JuHuTt naid plainly to the 
Vcnrllan Amha^^ador that hi- wouIl] nrvcr rest till he 
{[ot back hU lo^t poi^a^lons, and as he was not strong 
enough to conquer them hiimelf, he would seek for help 
abroad II 

Mc kept hUvrord; but he was w<-!t avrare that.b«ct am 
linarmt:d as he was, there was grcftt n*k of fincling him: 

• r/ •CawTiflf/s Repon, (Utcd Romp, i%ih Jjvn-, ijoj, whifh wyt| 
*\'cficciiini pcfsiilcno in tcnire die bmno iu Ronuj^a nc ilmuuio 
fOLpu lenii limrli ruiita u to tlxiHt curii ijuto dc qywti K& cti« apta 
uvdrnc cum hEnaorc, Oanug^t Archives, Mantua, 

t Sakvto, V„ *oi. 835, 847, C/, in Appendix N. 33, the *Brxf 
Lci^TLinJ, of ihc 7t]> KcU, 1504. Sectei An:hr^-c» cf Ibc Vaticaa. 

J C/.m A]i|>rnili3L, N. aj, tlir "Brief n>Cir\^,ii,ihf Jit Jiili F«b. i| 
(Seem Archive* of tlic VulicAn.J Cj. aUu IJiipacu iL A^ GiU9ti 
Eil-, 437 t'f-t and *Catai>cv'i Kdjiort iif (he ^ili Keb, 1504. CoojagS' 
AirJiivrs hfflJiauL 

S Sawitto. v.. B47 i Dr Leva, r., S3, 

II LHipuck di A Oiu^iiniui, IL, 415, 


under gaJliiij; bondage to the ^cs whom he inight call In 
4gAin»t Venice * Sdll lie trusted tu be able tc» find iiicaii^ 
loc-iCBpc, and he was convinced that ihcrc was 110 oUier 
way ajtt^a. A State «o puwcrfLiI and mMcrii[3u!(ju% ^ti 
Venice could only be cna^tcred by a c^x^lition; and from 
Ibe Sprinf: of 1504 the Fop« directed all bis efforts to 
brining thb about, lie a<idrc£sed him-^tcK to Louia XU. 
cif Fr^uiccf and tu MaximiUaii, as King of the Romsmft 
and Protector of the Church. On the 2iid of March 1504* 
MAxi^no Hiiftolini o( rcruj^ia va^ acnt to tho German Court, 
The Nuncto wa^ char^rc^l 10 urgtr Maxtmiibn to lielp tlic 
Church u^umxt Venice, because it would l>e uu|Kjs!»ib!e 
for the Pope to refrain any longer from laying the Re- 
public und^ baa^ The ijxstruction:; of the Nuncio in 
France, Cnrlo dc Carrelto, Marqucs^i of Finale, dated I4lh 
May, 1504, vrerc of wider 5Cope. He was to propose the 
formation of a Leagi^e between France, ^iaxifDLliall, and 
the Popc.§ til tlic early spring Coaimo dc' Paui, Bialu^ 

* l>»pfti:ci di A. Glailhuw^ )]]., 66 ; </. %rj- 

t C/. IUVWAU)t7£, ul AA. I J04, a 4. 

t *li»(rvctu} d;iU ilil. ]iUi> n^q^ird Mariano ile BurlolaiU dc FWu^ 
Ciiuamk p«btu .iptut. oudriort ntnicio ci onion notira Dat Koiju die 
r% F«br-, 1504- <^^ «inly in CL IX., Col 41 m the S. M;uk'» Lib»ryi 
Vcnfev(«ier VALKfmZKKlXL V., ?jl, Ami Hr(n?ii:il, JuHua I J., 112^326)1 
b«t abo 10 Cod UfU, 06^, in OitoU x%U iji M Vatiton Libinry ; In 

4f); and in Cod. SjS in the CoTstni Library, Rmne. Conccrniiig the Bi.rToLinis,</ NiiminLuicnUnthic,^,; ^IB]'1^K, 
U^. ciL% KAVNALl>tS,Ad an. 1504, D^ 5-fj, ^.| ^ Dikpajjci di A. U»MiriiiA, 
HI., 178 ; and ia Apprmliv, N. s;, j>, 33, ^4, 35. 36 37, 39, iht ■llripfa 
ortkcs6th Ai»il, ioch«ncl2Sih July, i^Lti ScpU, 1*1, 17^1 aod j4!th Oct« 
r504- Scent Archives of the \^arllcan. 

I BaotCH ui5ybei» Hi>4i. Z^lifHit., XXXVM^joa n^j^^xi^ Juliu» li, 
113, 326, «ns die liJi»i to [jiakc U3C of CinxUo'a M aitruonn, dftC Rom., 
14th Hay, 1504, onl of the Codex ni Ibe Lib. S. Marco. Tliv Invtnic 
lion U alto 4n Cod- LV- of ihc \';ifti Ho^t tSf^rm Archiru of the 

of Arezxo, had been i;ent to Spain, but his inisston proved 
a totnl failure* Ferdinand refused to receive liim on t 
ground that he vv-a^ a Flort^ntinc and a pnrtisAn ol Fran 
so thftt Juliu* II, was obliged lo recall him in November 
1504-t How un6iciidl> rcrdinand'ia ^ntiinenu towaida 
tlic Holy Sec were at that time, may be gnthcreil frcim t 
facl that in ihtt Spring of 1504 his representaliver in Rofl 
made ovenuTC* to the Venetians for an alliance Vki 
them,; Juliu*( II. alao endi-'avoured to induce Hungar) 
put a strong pressure upon Venice to constrain her to givt 
U]> her booty. § 

Vflticin) ; mCod. Urt>.,S(^. Ollob.aji^ , and in Cod. 115 in the CapUopi 
Litiriiiy, MantiiX C/. iri Appendtc, N. 29. Jo,tl>e *lineE lo fijuecn Anna,.' 
of the 16th May, iinjto Lfiuis XIKof the Sili June, ijn^- Tn 3*Brief |« 
C 4c OtjicKo, whidj uiiforiunatEly bean no liatc. wc rmd : *Atffa cttatti 
gncitis diL liL n<*stro G[eor;^o] card^ Rothomogcn. ; tj\i& auctoriCiUe Ct 
hpnignicntr a rr£^ ec rpginn fhnsii^^rK^simis oninia Atclliufi impnr^bi^ 
quo no« pioccipwun AdudAm KCiiiuus LjagiuU cjU4 in no» c( 4d bonorc 
i. apnt. t«cl)« Uim propyl ccimUj^iiqut} vuluniatr-, *L.jh- brw. 39, f. >ji 
S«f^rV( Afchiv« nf ihc Vaiioin. 

• See •Insiructioucs d^L r, epiac Aiciino piacljlo domcaticQ nd rcyenx 
OE i^inum HiipcLniaCi dai, Konw, I4lh Mun:bf 1504 ; ^r/. ih< Codex t 
ili« Libmr^-of 5. MaH:(ltKOM:HjLt]iii?f II., n^f^f-t^iG): CccLSiSinthe 
Comni bbiHiy, Vafia Pt>iiL, 55, f- 4=0^33,111 thcSccrd Archives of ^ 
VoCifiUi i and Cod. UrK 464 m the Vaticm Libvaiy. A "ilrie* from 
Jiilidf tl. Id l-Auli XIL, dat lAth Fcb-» 151^, iKPXunt^ln ^ifb CovmuS 
cpumpus Ai^finus <iuem in IlispaniAs cumpoi, lc£4U dc hKrc vutuanis 
ife r*canim«ndcd to bim iu a tnuivorUiy nmn t *Lrb, brov, 3^ t 36^ 
Indieanic pbccf^ jQi'^asmiiluT^Bricf Ui Flatmcc, daied Kome^ 21114 
Mardb, f (04, Secret Archive of ibcVftCicAn. 

t In regard 10 C. de^ r^ii't oussion, UaoscH, (13, is to oonfa 
ituit Kp »pr»)fi ai douU *> W wbetlirr hr cvrr 4J.luall> «iuicd lltr% 
u clhcwlicre. he Haj ov^iloolccd RArMiU.DC^, Jid in. 151:^ r^2t. 
*Bmf rtcaUm)^ him, iQth Nov,, 1504, i> in Ap[;«n(liK| Ni 41^ See 
Archives or the VACuuhn. 

t Diipacci di A CiuittncLH, UL. 505 j^> 

g S» TiiKtMca, Mon. Ung., 1K» SS^^S^r and in Appcndta, N. 









^Icanwhilc the mbsTon^ to FrarKc and Germany had 
pruductd some good rc>u1t% On the 22nd of Sq>tcfnbcf. 
1504, an ^iccmcnt directed ai^^uimt Venice had been 
concUided at B]oi&* In Rome, in November, it bc^an to 
be said ihai the Pope wai going to pronoiincc the c€n*ijro 
of the Church on the Republic. It vru quite true that 
h« was fully determined 10 cut tfic claws of the Lion of 
S. Mark. O11 the 4th of Dtc^mbcr he put a \on^ Ji^ of 
f^cvanc«s before the Consistory, and rcmnrked that, all 
dsc hAvInc faikd, it would be ucccsaar>' to have recourse 
to apintual wcapons^f 

AUrmed by the clouds which now seemed gathering on 
all aides, the Venetians al TaM fnatfc up ihcir minds 10 give 
way to a certain extent. Hitherto they had "put off the 
Pope with u'ords and nothing else," row they es^deavourcd 
to conciliate hioi "by some c*»ncc£i^ion* uhiL-N were of teal 
practical value. "1 Meanwhile it was of great ndvaiitage 
to them to have been able to procrastinute for »o Lone< 
The agreement of HWm broke down, Spain wa4 not to be 
won. Maximilian and Louh XII. fell out with each ether. 
In March 1505. Venice at last wlthdiew from several of 
the town* in tTve Romagna, amongst f>tTier« from Sant' 

37t 43> ^ 'Brieffl Vy Lcan-iiu v4 the jodi July. 17th Oct^ and i^ila Deo, 
ijOk^ SocTti Ardiivcs of the Vntjotn. 
* H0B£R,U1,,^59^ Ui.»u\[*, [L, 155 f*y.; H^fleb, A- del Hurgo, 

t Ditpacddi A. Ciimiiiiui, III.. ^4- C/. Ccaiibili't *Dc»p(U<h of 
tht artt Au^-, i^r^ (^Mfr Arrhivra, Moclrna), from whirh f]h>rr i\ nnf** 
tnv:iiaItALAT<.V., 4^7: <!»« nricfmTHtJKtK, Mon, Uns., 11., ^60563: 
uhI in App«niLc^ N. 43, llw *bTiti 1^ Lconini uf i^ih Dec, 1504, 
On ihe 7^h Dec JtilhiB addiAsed a 'Letter 10 the Ant Suruinus 
deck Vvnctj>r.,infrliichbeccdnpliui3ed bitlcilyof tin: Ttlontior of Fiicntt 
ajid Riraini by Ibc RepubUc *LtL brcv. 2t, i 148. Sooct Arduvu 
of ihf Viiirin. 

t DKOscnJuliuj 11-. iia 



Arcaf]|;clo, Moiitcfitir, Savignatio, TossignwOh ftod I^ovto 
Ccficnatica 'J'hc Duke of (IrtMno asiunsfi the Doge thai 
the Kqnjblic woijIJ not be troubled any more about 
Rimfni and Faenra. "No doubt." says ST^ismondo <lc 
Conli, "ihc DuUc wished that ihU might be U:e case; but 
ht had link l<novrledp;e of the mind of Juliua 11.. who had 
no notion of relinquishing these places.''* ^H 

In rccompetiae for this act oi partial rcatitiilion effected* 
in March 1505. Julius now consented to receive the Vene- 
tian profe^Eiion uf obedience^ but still only under proto^H 
(May 5» 1505),! Hirronymus Donatu^ pronounced the 
oratloii ; li was full of the usual extravagant phrases of 
the new style of oratary. The Pope's reply was brief and 
CbrenaJ4 ^^| 

Thfl Venetiin En\*o>s for tlift profctiion of obedlon^^ 
crtifTcd Rome with great pcimp, nnd Eiittcrcd thenwelvc^^ 
with the hops of pcrsuadifff JuiJU3 to cooKUt to tld| 
retention by the Republic of Facn^a and Runint, but 
had not the ^^mallcst success. "The Popc^" writes the 
Fiorcntiiie Envo)', " hold* TaM to his rights, and cvoy oo© 
thiTild that he will get thetn." g 

• Sicisuoyno n^ COKTI, I U 340. QC BJtOSCU, /^. M, Lnd Ti 

t C/. pAltia DC Gkasoi^ c(I. DOIlcngcf, }(C OiTRrnAaur Diarii 
III-, 3S7 I andSAMtrro, VI., 1601^., if>4, i65J/f>, i6Z, 171 w?. 

t Ghv. Attiaiuoli's Reijort in Diiptcci di A, Ciusrinmn, IH-. >< 
Dooato'ft speech wiu printer! at the lime and i« to be found v-]ch other 
nhrfllmw-nriiinnt flddmsnl lo Jtilioi II, in an old Urge octhvo irolunic 
in itic Lihtiiry of % Fctci hI Sititnint > Hirixniyiiii doctoiii :fpud Jul: 
H. P. M. oraioris Vetwti Jn obcdtcmi* oratio. 8 k/Oc leaves. 

g C, AcdaiiToli's D«fpai£h of ihfl ijth Msy, 1505, /w. fi'A, 543, 



Baouoni and lii^i^nvoou, 

JULITO H- ivas not «o absorbed in his cffont to regain 
all that the Church had lost in tlie Romagna, a^ to ne- 
glect the c:qu;tl]y neccisar>' work of restoring her Authority 
in the other provinces. In February 1504, he induced the 
Florendncs to give buck Citcma in the neighbourhood 
ct Pcrugid, which they had occupied after the Jcath of 
Alexander VI.* In May u( the following year Antia>ll 
and Kepi wcrt again brought under the immedlaic mle of 
the Chtirth;! but the reconstitutiOT of the States of the 
Church oould re^'er be solidly ^ITcctcd until the feuds 
of the Roman Barons were appeased and ihcir adhesion 
secured. Thi9 Julius II, sought to accomplMh by means 
of ^unily alfttnccs. 

In November 1505, Niccoli cIcUa Revere, a younger 
brulher of G^Icxjlto, was maimed I0 Laura Orslni, Ofily 

* Dicpoicd di A- Giitttinian, II, 3"7> 

t *|uUiD n. Joli- Antorio de Forli^'lc, pitivinclae OurpaniM ct 
IfantinMC ^bem^LEori, doff. 7^ Mali, 159;- Rcrliit oA immccJiaUUn 
rmfim oppirfHtti Anriroli ; in mnwquertt ni the dcaih of Card, A. Sfom, 
he ti to fxcupy Amkoli In the Cardinart nAmc> Jiiin^Ur nr<1i^n Tn 
rvgafd \o Noiri were pvco on the same day to Alexander of Neronibus- 
''UK brer. 3t,f, 395. (Secrei Archives of th« VAiican.) In Stpx. 7505, 
Ju^ui Tl. made a aliort totii Llijough the Staler of ihe Chmth» in the 
coune of whicli h* viiit*d Nepi ; SftE Rimcii^RDI Dinrium, III., 
400 wf. And •Acta Conslsi., f iS. ConiiBWirinl Archi\€* of The 



iUag^t«r and Mxtn of Ono Ofsiai v»i Giulu F%rne«e* 
A raontfa later tbe Mantuui Agcst ancKtincet the a^>prooch- 
ing betrothal of M^<ioana Felice, natural daughter of 
OLrdinal Gtuliano delta Rot-ere, with the youthful Marc- 
acitonio Colonna-t This p^ject, bowcx^r, u i^vll 05 some 
others of the same natarc, wss ghrcn up.J On the 24th of 
May, 1506, Feli<^ was invned to Giovanni GJonlaiio, the 
bead of the Or^ini of Rtacciano, in the Vice-ChaiKclWs 
Pa]ace,§ The V>nctfan Ambassador Temark^ on the con- 
trast between the waysof Juliiia 11. and those of Alexander 
VI. €n thb occasion. The woddii^ was pn\-ate1y celc- 
bratcd. aJl public tokens of rejoicing being r<>rbiddcn ; th^^ 
wedding festivities were deferred till the arrival of the V^'^^'l^l 
couple at Bracciano, where they spcni ihcir honc>Tnoon.11 
Fdiur'a d<JAi>' itso was by do incdjn a lar^'e one.^ Ti^c 
mcnths hiter, am^tlLer alliatici: tte1^-et-n the O'lonna and 
Kmrrr families took place, in the marHoge of Marcantonicj 
Colonna to a niece of the Pope'& Frascati was given to 
Hareantonio, together with Jnltus IL* forn>er Falaeeof the 
SS. Apo&toli.** By these means Julius trusted t^>at lie had 

« GaKGQVOVivs, LuCTMii Bor^iA. laS Uf. 

t *&n)^cilo')i Rc(»n, fUied Remci 13d) Dtc, ifpS- 

I Sakuto. v., 771, 7*4t 79*1 93> ; VL, }7%. Cf. Dlspoccl 4^ A- 
CiinitiEdAn. IIL, 3J4 w?,, 354 jf/.. j«M J9J. 409 '<T-» *J" ^7- ^^H 
Card. Ciulioiio's dau^hici<i, i^cc \''oL V. of ibit tvork, p. 5G9, note t. ^H 

% On Onini*(i ^cf niin<riii(^%^ ftir which h* una <^ll«l " pjljbtico paMo^' 
B«c LlzlLi. Mi^LEitova c Ufbiiao, I?* *<y. Ou tlic Pupc^ u»i«t*ctii:Dn 
with F«rclLi^:itiiI of Spun in favour of G. G. Grsim. sec in Appcn^U, 
K- 6o^ 65, Uic ■Brifrf orf Jan., 1507 In wflurf to M^uloniut Fdk,«, ^ 
ClA», Coirw|;iano, iia 

II Satjoio, VJ,,>17tJ59- S 
5 It is nxBt ftviuently wtimatod at 15,000 dtjcatiL. C. Artogo^ ia^^ 

*Rtpon on ih< iriAfrUgc dut. Rurnc, 14^!; Ma>i 1S06. CDake« it fa,ooo 
diJC3LU,nrwhi<:l; ii/:ioo&iiiitfromtli« Pope. GoflEngn Afdiivc(,M:kntiu. 
•• CovH, Mrm- Colojinwi, ^ji j GtiKCKWoviu^, V\i\^ 44, <d. j. 


now secured the 1o>*a]t>- of ilic most powerful of the Roman 
fdoiilim, and could turn hi<[ atlonClon without d^n^r froni 
that quarter to (he restoration of ihc auihurity of the Holy 
See tn Bologna anti Pcragia. 

Without any Icfjal title, and simply by force of arms, the 
Baf^liofii hsd made ther^L^clves masters of Perugia, and tbe 
Hcntivogli of Bologna; the only Craccof the Pope's authority 
thmt stilJ remained was an Jnsig'nificant coU on the revenues 
c>r these tiyo w-ca I thy cities. In Boloi^na especially, which 
was the largest city but one of the States of the Church, 
and \\*i bidwarlc on that ^Je, ^11 powci wari practically 
entirely in the hands of Giovanni Bcncivoglio, Hl< govern- 
ment, though not M> bad as thnt of the liceniiou^ Gumpaolo 
Baf^Uone In Feru^rfa, was an>'thjn^ but saUi;IVLClory Hl« 
hai^hty consort, and more especially his four sons, had mode 
the name of Bentivt^lio thoroughly dctct^tcd in the city 
by thetr tyranny and violence. Numbers of exiles from 
Bologna add Pcmgia, wlio liad taken refuge in Rome, were 
pt^rpelu.illy urging the Po|i(? to intervprit- aud tfrliver thor 
eitics from the tyrant? who opprtiftcd them,* Julius II. 
Ibtened to all thcU representations, but took his time. He 
made his preparatJort c|Uiclly, colleetin^ money :ind troops. 
At last, when a favour^^blc turn in the political fLituation 
seemed to promise success, lie resolved to make the attcmpt.f 

• Cy. CUCaAaZ>IM, Vll., C l ; SUCHNHEIM, 393,395; TOUUaSIKI, 
UadiiatTllJt J., s^^ 335. On (he ciucUic^i uf tlu: Biihilluti^ aoi: ALFAtn, 
348; {^ F^Jllun^lj IM., i2^f^/.j 33 J. On the BerMivoK^i^ tec JOVlU!!, 
EhV', lib. v., 171 ; f/alifo RiTD, II., r^S sf^- ^ G077AnrNl, Menioti« 
per U viu ih Oiovnimi I[ Hcn^ivugtio fHoloifnA, rKji>)^ 153 Jt^.^and 
GOeeADfM,A]cuniavvciiirncnii, 67^1-7. On ihc impoitancc of Bukigna, 
*L«U*r to Thoma&mo l4AThi«ro tnacdero do N, S. pnpn 10 (he 40 
eslibcn. Ikmon., daieii Home, nh Mj/. [507^ llrrc Boloima h 
kpiufioridactinodirjiunivcitiAdG IiAlia. *LcU«ra UiambAScia- 
ion r divtT^\ fU Kdtttx Snat Archives, Bolq^iuL 



It w»9 not lilJ March 1 506, that new-s firet rc-achcd Vcnic* 
thnt the Popv! was aeriouaJy considering plans for briiisuig 
Pcn^ia anij Do]<^ia back again untlcr the direct ^x-em- 
mcnt of the Church. At first (his was not bclic^-cd ; but 
later accounts left no rnom to doubt its Uutli. It itppt-arcd 
tbatJuTiiis |[ rypected the cc-operation of France, sn^^l 
ooitnccd on a ncuiral atritude on the part of the Republic. 
TJic Signoria did their best to dissuade bim from t^ 
undertaking, repeatedly urging the danger that Maximilian 
mifiht enter Italy, a poesibility that had been already a 
^ood dc&l talked of.* In Rome several of the C^trdmata, 
and especially CaraOa, were against it .\ but the Pope vraa., 
not to be moved It seemed to liim that the favoural 
oppnrtimity had nowairivcd forgi:tt!n^ ridof thcBcniivogl 
wllo had given him much cause to complain of them wl 
he vk'as Bt«hop of Bologna^ " Rome/' says Paria de Grs.^^ 
Ihe Papal Maiiter of Ceremonies, '* was quiet, the pi 
parationa for war were completed, Julius IL hitoi 
heade<l the expedition, aceompaniet^ by all his Court and 
nearly all the Cardinals ; only such members of the Sacreit 
College as were incapacitated by age or sickness were 
miticd to teniuiii bdund. The Lei^ation of Rotne v 
given to Cardinal S* Gioigio," [ 

In order to be prepared for a!l contfAgvacfo; Julius 

* SawJTO, VL, jaa, 34* 357. 3!>-iS^ 394; */■ Appendix, N. 
*<G. Afiage^ Report of 1 jth A^.> ' ;d6^ Gonz:^!,'^ Ajxhivw, MaoEn^ 

Z Paris dr Giu£6IS. ed. Fiati, ^^t t/. so-ir. Gftiainom^H 
yW,^ 44, cd. 3; KiLUUOKi^ 111., 3^ aa ; and CruciciiTON, IV., ty, s« 
miniVrm ia their staEonent ihii Ik Ctbb wu Irft bthind u RefppaL ^ 
Giorcb 15 luuticd a:t RcKoit, not onJ)' by W Jc Gnu«i» but abo h$ Sioa- 
HONDO DC' Co-vn, lU 34£> aiid Aivago in a *Lc(i«r, ditod Rem^ xib 
Au|t. 1^061 ThoLiitri aayv that eoiy ihe Rota Tcinainnl in ReuM ; att 
ihc uiditoa have ^ooe with th« Pope s tO'Oiomiw 300 AttitAi«n neN 
Qtnarin ara oeming from NaplM. Gomaga Archivii, Uaotox 



had oondudtd alliancca with Florence, Sicna, MaiituA, 
Ferrara, &11J Urbiito.* SlJU (he cx{K:dJtJon was "a bold 
undcriaking, and would be « masiu-sirakt^ \t it succ*rededL 
Now that xhc I'ApAcy wn« hc-mmecJ in on the South b/ 
Spain in Naples, it was c^cntiai to provide for greater 
expansion on the northern sid«; tbo fulcrum of politics 
for the StAtcs of the Church was pushed upwards into 
Central [laly ; and Umbna, Tuscany, and the RomaynA 
acquired a new importance for the Holy Sec."f 

The hazards of the enterprise were tncfCfiscri by the 
altitude of Venice ancJ Fr.incir, from nciOier of whom could 
the Pope obtain any certain ^innwr-r. 

Iti France the difficulties came chiefly from Cardinal 
d'Amboisi& Julius U. had hoped to conciliate bin former 
rrml by making him, joon after hi& election, not only 
Lgs:bIc of France, but also of AviB:"(>n and V'cnaiiain ; lie 
tntttcd by thu means to put an end to the pcr|>etuai 
vraoglings between the va^i^aLs oi the Papacy and those 
orf'Fraucc- But tlie conduct of d'Amboistr a* LL^;itr was 
far from satisfactory ; he embessrled ihc money that he had 
10 collect, and look no pains to conceal that he wished and 
iiofiod 10 be Uie next Pope^J Julius 11. was well aware of 
all this, but in hh present position he could not afTurd to 
engage in an open conflict with the all-powerful minister, 
or his master. lie contirucd, therefore, on friendly terms 
with both, and endeavoured to meet ihcif wishes in 
cvcf>ti^n|^. <ts tar a^ he couldg But It was nut po^Mble 

* SUGCimiaM, ^j. In a 'Brief, dand Rome, tgth April, 1906, 
:]tfltf II. pn>mi>ed Ute Sicncic, m reluir^ for theij Hiilltfiilne^s, vo 
impeL tlw Hlwrtjti of iheir aty both by iinns and censuiet Scats 
Archi\cx £icnA, 0»« 4c]\ik Lufvy 

f GfttCOROVlUS, vin.,4ST«^ > 

^ 1Uvirau9US ad an, 1503, n, 33; 1105. n, 13: HtROENROTHtfi, 
A Cf. tht •Kriff to d'AmtuMc, dated Roiiw, tfffh M»y, Tjnj, in wWeh 

that this stAtc of tJiirga should be of long duration, fn 
the Summer o( 1 505 acrlous Jiflcrciicca with Frarcc arooc 
in conncdloti with the allotincQt of the benefices whicb 
had been hdd by Cardinal A§caiiio Sfoua, And to these 
viere added disputes at>out appolnimcnU to Diihoprics^* 
The creation of CardiraU which took place on the 12th ol 
December, 1505, m which the Ambassador of Loui^;, Robert 
C hat And> received the purple, (^ave me to new misundct- 
standings. The King wai extremely anno^-ed because tho 
Archbishop of Auch and the Bishop of Baycux had not 
also been admitted Into the Sacred Colleger Alkdins to 
the dargcrous Lilnc%« which he had had m the Spring he ex- 
claimed. '* In Italy ihcy ihiiik I am dead ; but I will she 
the Holy Father tfixt I ana atlU alive." To revenge W 
vclf, he conlii^catcd the revcnueit of all beneficefi belongln 
to the Pcpc'g nominees in the Milancse.t JuUus 1 L, whoM' 
position in the States of the Church was still very insecure^ 
WAS obliged to control himself. He tried to conciliate the 
King, and on Christmaa Day sent him a consecrated sword 
by Uie hands of Piarc Ic Fillcul, Bishop of Sistcron-J 
This accomplished diplomAtJ^ succeeded m establishing 
btltef nrlatioTia between Koine and France. In matten 



ilic TupccJipKuci hJs fAijiklActicn M the recovered' Louis XU-,Andlua 
willingnnt to ciMnply w'llh iha wi^liet of Lhc Kii^Kind ^li^ Cirducol tn 
rcSPiTd to The Biihopnc oi CIcnnnnT- On the igih May he untw a 
*lxtlcr cx|>t'c«ily fnrthe puriWK orcoLi>n^tu]jitini; the Fiencb Kinir on 
hi* n^Mvtry. *Ub. brev. ^i, f. aSS, y>7, 309. tSccrci ArchivM of tti| 
ValLLdi^) TIlq Ptijjc (Uin|Mjacd Wudu upecutl pmyers of tlunksgiving 
on dtii occukm. Sec ihc IluU of tbc [6tli May, i;o5, la tbc Aich. du 
Fuydt-lldms, MAUi.wt, Ohitln**, 3i»-jr9. 

* SArtinii, VI„ 17^ ufi i DdjjiHDiNS, II., 103. 

t D&KJAIIPI3QS, It., rj3-iS4 ; i>Mnrro, VI., 17$. 

I Sawuto^ V1-, 379. 5*^- ^/- Appeftdij, N- 4H, thv *R*port oT t 
Mantwm E&voj*, dated RoLnc> l4Ch D«C| ijos. Cunu^-n Ardilvei^ 


Ttie rorc scrs out for bolocsAh 


concc/ning tl^ Churchy Louts X i I. gave in tc the r»pe, and 
til April 1505, ncgotj;idom commerced for obtaming the 
aaabtance of Fninc« in the expedition against Pcnigia and 
UologDa.* The King bcg:in by endeavouring to per^iuide 
Julius to rcliuqubh liia plana, snd tried, in June, to take 
adrsnUgc of the Mtuatlon by requesting that two French 
prdatcs should be made Cardlnals.f TIic nc^jotialions 
dragged on intcrmtnably, witliotrt £iny rir^uU. anJ tbc 
IKttience of tlie l*op^ was sorely tnett. Venice reiterated 
her Urirnings against the expedition In a irenadng ton^ 
At last the brave old ro^itiff determined to trj- tlie eflfect of 
the accomplished fact. The step he took " furnished 
Machiavelli with a proof of his th^is, that what never 
eould hftvc been accomplished by ordinary means. Is ol>cn 
achieved by precipitation and daring." " The Pope," 
wrilC3 the famous Florentine politician, ^' knew that it waj 
ttnpontble f»r liim Ui drive the Bcnllvogli out of Bdoj^na 
without help from France and neutrality on the part of 
Venice, When he saw that he could get nothing from 
either but uncertain and evasive answers, he reaoWcd to 
briitg both to the point by giving them no time to 
deliberate. He started from Rome with as many coidien 
as he could collect, sending word to the Vcnctiatis that 
tliey were not to intcrfcn;, and lo ihe King of Frajice that 
he mtt^t fiend troops 10 support him. Thus they had 
hanlly any time to consider, and as it was plain that if they 
hcficated or xefijscd t!ie Pope would be extremely angry, 
they did what he war^ted ; the Kinj^ of France sent litm 
help, and the Venetians remained neutral. "* 

* Dc;jAiti>J!f9^ M., i64f^>; SaKUTO, VL., 311. 

Sa»uto, VI., 351. 

Disc Mpru U I. UccA di T. Uvh, lU., c 44 : Bao^cii. Julius II., 
127. Od the utoniihrnml productril by thit hold action on the part of 
the i'ope, f/- thp Rfpnrt nf the Florcr^tine Ambaiaadtir 41 the Frendi 


HISTORY or Tift pores. 

In a Secret Consistory oa the 17th Atigust, 1506, JulM 
IL, after cnumcraliii^ the cnmca of Giovanni Bcntivoglio^ 
mentioned for the fint time hta inicnliaix of tftkinf; 
licJd in pcrscu: ugainst hiru. On the 2i5t it was dcci 
lh;it the cxijedttiuii bJiouIeI tttait frum Rljihc on the 241b. 
On the r^jliouriiig i\a,y Bnef« wrre dc^tpalched tu the allied 
Prlnctrs of Mantti^i and L'rbtno, flrUnng ihvtn tn jtiin the 
Papal army on in march.* Eventually its departure n-tt 
put off to the J^thnt 

To avoid the mid-day hc&t the start Wits made before 
rtftCn ThL< Pope hnt heard a low Ma^iS. und save his 
ing biciaing to tlic people at the Toita JS. Muin Ai*£et' 
He vr&a accompanied by nine Cardiiiab and soo fuSy 




C<Mtt in DKSjfkRlJrNlv fr.i ITOh From Ae ^oci.iTtwnl* 1ier« piiUfel 
(\ )S3| we sec tliAl as Inte jki die middle of September tW Khigr 
deneunced tbc cNpodiiiwi. 

• pAKr* 1*1". GiCAT(M\ci1, FiBli, 4» 1°- Sm App*»idiic. N 51. Elw Bnrf 
to Ti, Gi^j£4ini of the 22nd Augiui, 150CL Ofi (he Jfjtli of Au£uu ibc^ 
MnntLj-nn Kavny itiit{?d in hiA UcpoTt ihnt Iht J'opc would »tt fdtth wil 
oHt fht] in cighr tU)^- (CoiiMg:j Archii'*^ Munm.-ij The •Brief lo 
Duke of UHjiito. 6a\. Aua. 2t>. a^ya tlui ilir; Tupc 1to|>ct to ^ce tiim 
Pcrughenthtandor jEdof ScpL *Lib, brev. 32, f 548. Secnfl Andiivrft 
of die V'atioin. 

t Tha cbtc li uflcn ^jvcn incoritJClt)-. (UNicXt Rati, and Gcra^ 
Vdilur, iJS^n.-Lmesiheaoih; RtrMOKT, ]U,» 3, lo.thcajM: QOUA- 
tiiKi, Avvrnrmpmi, 7a, the 3;'[h AiiguKL F.vrn jn crminnpnnuy vrritfl^HH 
it h tjfrcn tJiaccuratc. f^.. SlQlSHOHDO DE* COTtTT, tl., K^i»>> ^^ sBfl^ 
Au^^1 ; fhc ctiroDick in th« V^ui.'k iV)tii.i $0, R 6^ (Scicrvi Archivw of th« 
VaiicftnXiIic 151!^ Au^uit: vid SAMrn:^ VI,,4f^.:b« 2nd Auifmc Bm 
dw 36A 4 eitablJaheJ *» the true lUk by Paris ub GtuEStft, «4. ^^ 
31 ; CanlinaL Adrbno dj Comeio'e p^&m <m th« Popc'fi expccliuon (li^ 
fulti Portl, Ro. pel HAsUiimiJin Cant S, CliTi^nynni ai an npiwndii co 
the work Dc icrmnnc Utino [Bulc, i$ii], \n CiAgOvVnn, III., 13^ rr^^ 
imd R0AC0n« t,, J]9h :mcj itiv *Aci.i. Conqia <Con±»Eanftl Affchittt of 
iFie Vaiicm.) Od Uie diiuilKfiactian in Rome «ti die Popcfa dflpaiture 
Qtiiii^ 10 the Wt^ cnitiitAii^ed that it miifhi enotl a ocw Avi^on, kc 



^rtnod knight^ who, with ihcJr rct^iiicrt. made up x rouch 
lorgcf Porcc ihaa ihc number rocnliofiixl.* Their fifil 
ha]ting<phc« was l-ormell?, where tbc l^ope tvAS received 
by Giovanni Giordano Oisiiii and his wife On the follow- 
ing day JitUiu wciit on to Ncpi. wlicrc three more of tbc 
CanJ>n&b joined htm. Tlie march w.u always bcgu« 
before sunrise. Oq the zSih August they arrived at the 
lUlJc tOttii of CivLta Ca^tellana, which pti^Mi^kHcn <i aoblc 
c^iillc u'llh which Julitis wus tidighlcd Her? ;k h.ilt w*% 
RiAdc or aceount of the Feast of 5. John th(? Baptist ; and 
Machiai;dlj, then FJofCotine Envoy, promUed the support 
of hift government toward:} Ihe siibjut^tion of Bcjlo^^na. 
On the wsy frooi Nepi to Civits QifitclJ^na good news had 
&rnved from the French Court, which greatly rejoiced the 
Pope. On tJie other hand, he also heard that Giovanni 
Bcutn^Uo wdi determined to rcslitf 

It w^at «iill (juiti^ t\»Tk wh^tt an Sunday, tht^ 30th August; 
after hcnnng Mass, the Pope set off for Vitorbo. Az 
Fabrics refiresbmcnts were provided by Cardinal Girolamo 
Buio delJa Kovert:. In the evening; a Kolcmn entr>' was 
made jnto Vitcrbo^ which was decorated for the occasion. 
AccorrJlnfi; to the uifual custom the Blessed Sacrament w^ 
caniod before the Vopc^ who was attended by :»evcnteen 
Caixiirals. During his &iAy in this place Julius I {. drew up 
fuilhcT rcgulatioMA for tlie maLntcn^ncc uf ihc reconciliation 
txtween tbe coTitendin^; parties ihsre which he had anc- 
recHcd in effecting in che previous year. The I,egatIoii 
was given to Cardinal Leonardo Grosso dclla Rovcre. At 
tbo ftame time the Archbishop of Siponto was despatched 
aa Nuncio to Bologna with a stern messa{^, ard tJte Areh- 

• Gbimu, I., 19/, pd. 5. 

t Parjs OB G»^A»l^ <iL Fiati, xi jtf^.; MachUvdli^a LcUtr oT tho 
3£th August, 1306 ; and *Acta Cotuict Coatdtanai Aichiv«s erf ih» 



bishop of Aix to MiUn, ta lead the Ficnch army ofassi 
arcc agckin<^t Ca>»; iltc Pope also sent money ft 
the hire of m troop of Swiss foot-soldiers.* 

On the 4th Scpit'mbcr Julius II, hurrieti oti to Monte- 
fi&scone, whore he inspected the c»Btte and stopped for the 
mid-day meal.f Th« houfje in which this wai provided was 
in 5uch & ncl<cty condition tbnt the floor had to be »up- 
portcd with props. With a playful allusion to the famous 
wine of the place, Julius l[, observed, "Thcic are wi« 
precautions lest we should fall througli, and |>coplc mtgh 
say wc had had too much Montcfiascoiic." On the jTh he 
act oflTaj^aiii for Orvieto, as uvual two hours befortf sunnier- 
It was »;o dark, say« T^rh de Gras$ts, who accompanied th 
expedition a« Gnind-MaBter of Cercmotiica, that nothing 
could be distinguished, A niimlitr of people had Ap«nc 
the night in the open air in hopes of seeing the Pope, who 
had 10 have torches carried before him. Orvicto pave hi 
a festive reception. An oak tree, to correspond with t 
armsofhi^ family, adorned the principal si.|U^r<.-. 1n*»tc 
of acorn;*, liitlc boys dressed as iingels were perched on t 
extretniEieii of it^ branches and on iU topmoft boug 
Orpheus leant agaitist the trunk and redted Latin verses 
in praise of the Pope, to which the an^eU responded ia 
ehcnis^ A (firandola wui lighted to greet hin on hi^ retu 
frosn the CAthedral, whitlier he had g^one to venerate t 
fatnoua Ccfporal and give his blcsaini; to the people. Here 
al»0 an immense crowd frorn the nei^bbjurhoi^d h 


j^A ; And *AcUi Con»i4i. Contiiroml Ari:hLvet of the Viticin. 

* In the Fraii cl die left Lif PaHs Je Gtv^m hm,: Die 6V( 
But the Fnday in 1506 fell on Eh« 41I1, and that it the date aJm givvi 
iIlc *AtU Con^JKi, 

I Hc««, loo, the ittrt of Paris DfiGaAssBin Praii, 53« ia incorreet : 
die Sabbati ficpUmo Sfpi#nil\ Tlie tight daw \s in *Acta Contil 
Secivt Amhi^'cs <jf the V^ui^iUJ- 



assembled to ^cccivt^ his blessing. Tlic Duke v( Urbino 
and Antonio Fcrrcn, the Legate of Perugia, arrived at 
Orvieto on the *ame clay as the Pope • Bulh had been 
negotiating with Gumpaoio BAglione, who had liL'^iliUf-ti (or 
fomc time as to whether, con^dcnng the strength of hi» 
dtadd and the troops that he had with him. It might not 
be worth while to resist But he h.nd little conBdence in 
the loyalty of the ciCizcn3, ^ho, he knew, preferred the 
Papal |;o^'cmircnt to h\^ and aI»o feared the hostility of the 
Oddi pafty. He knew, looy the char.nctei of Iii;* adversary 
and that he was not one to do anytbini^ by halves. i* Hence 
Iw Bnally rettolvt^d to accept the condition* pro[io^^d by the 
Papal Envoy's and to submit. He CArr\c himielT to Orvlelo 
and promised to hand over all the defences of Peru^a 
and the fastnesses in the neighbourhood to the Papnl com^ 
mandcrs, to recall moat of the cxilca^ to ^nd hh two sona 
to Urbino as hostages, and Anally to join the expedition 
against Bologna with 1 50 men. Of* the 8lh September 
lie returned to Perugia, accomparjccl by the Ltgalc and the 
Duke of Urbino, to prepare for the enlry of the Pope, 

On t?>e folbwing day Juliui H, left Orvieio. On hlfl 
icy he received a letter from the Marquess of Mantua 

nouncing that he would arrive at Perugia on the iith 
of September and take part personally in the expedition 
againat BcntivogliaJ When they came to the little village 
of Casttglionc on the Lake ofThrasimcneH which contained 
neither acccu^modatiuEi nor food cnuu^li fur the Pupr's 

• Juliui hAd ano'^nnced ^tmtfs nomin.-i«iQn to the Pcmguiw mi tht 
4Xh April, 1506. Sec die *Biiicf of tlut lUic in U^c City Aidiivu, 

t ReUmoWT. Itr, :t, 30, nrri Sir*iF.NHF,(M, 39J. 

I Pakis okCkasai^vcL ri;tfi, j6.and*AcinConaiiL <CoDai»uoria} 
Arctin«« of th« VaiicaiL) Cj^.in ApptndU, N. >>,Uiei)noftoF.G<ifua^- 
attht loih Sf-pt-, 1506. norimgu Arrhfv^s Mnntua. 





retinue, to the dhmky of his «Liitc he announced his Intei 
tion of remaining there some da>-«. He (fi'l t!u», Paris 
Grassis says, Jn order to grve Baglione tifne to orgnnm 
moils But the commissariat at Castis:lionG presented mdt 
difficulties that on Ihc i ith J vilitu wu obhgcd to move on 
across the lake to the Isola Maggiore, and thence 

On the JJlh they proccedi^d to CorciJiroL Tliej' »i 
joined an the way thither by the Condottierc Gioimni 
SolTatelli with 700 men. At Cofciano Cardinal Fran^olj 
GuillaURie Clermont arrived with a letter from Louis XIl. 
about UolognA-* It was soon krtown Ihal he vf^< charged 
tvith the ho^lcss ta^k of tr>'ing: to pcrsuado Julius to give 
up his entcrprisc<t ^M 

On SundEty, ihe 13th September.* Juliiia made his enliy^* 
into Pcnigia with great pomp. The eight Priots in gala 
dress met him at the Porta San Pietro with the keys oft! 
rity. All the bells were rung, the streea* were throngi 
widi people anti decorated with triumphal arches. Ttt-tni 
CardinaU^the Duke of Urbino, Giovanni GonzA^.and many 
of the Roman Harona accompanied the Pop^ Ho WGn|^| 
first to the Cathodral, where the Papal choir sang the Tc^^ 
Dcitm, which was followed by the solemn benediction of the 
people and the proclamation of an Tndul^nce,§ JuJios II. 


♦ pABL-i DK Grassis, td. Ffati, i7'39t and •Acta Consbu 
Toriiil Atr-hivri of iht Vaticm. 

r C/ MAchiAtdli'a Lctien uflhe ijtliind Mtli ScpL, 1506. 
X Not on lalb SepL aa GaecOROvius, VltL^ 45, cd j, *tnc«a. 

j PaUK I^CHAtftlK, «d> FrtLi, 40^^.1 // ALPAM, 241^ /^^ . CmC- 
CuaoiKi, VIL, c i» uyt ; 1) ponicficc cntrb in rctugiAicna font eiiin 
mode chc tfm in potcsU dj Ciampngolc dt farlo pHponc, etc. Madui- 
vcllE, in hii kci^r of r^ Sept, remnrla tfut iho Hkfal tnopt vrfrQ 
?ViCiuiC(l i;lo»c Lq the Gate and ilioac at U^^lionc di i short dliBiim 
(torn 'n, *o Oui tlw i'op« ^\d Cxrt\\TuiU were cfimplclcty rn Iho powered 
Ibe btltr. Li^ in In* tpvtch oi% the hnl Uccos ot LiTy, Maduft- 

jULItre It m PBBUGIA- 


took uphkabodcm lUc ralaccof the PHors, On the i?i\ 
the Mar<ji>e«» Frain.-c^co Gouniga arrived. Tlir*^ <\xy% 
hitcrthe Pope tdebraiecl a solemn High Mats in thcchiirch 
dUie Fmndffcan^; he ha4 conomcnccd hii itudie* in early 
jrotith as a poor scholar in thir- convent ; now he wbhed 
to thank God and & Fmnci^ Ibr hia elevation to the high- 
est digrity in the world • 

The Pope was so much inspiritcci by the succcsi wMdi 
hod thus fax attended his cxpcdiUoii that hi;* thougfatft' 
seated now To higlter flCght^ He began to lalk 0/ setting 
forth to deliVer Confitiinlitioplt- and Jenisa!eri out of the 
hands of the unbelievers els soon as things had been set in 
order in haly ; nol of conrse, however, until the Church had 
got hack her States— tliai, he said emphatically, was an ir- 
dispeosablc preliminary. He commandcti tlic celebrated 
pacacher Acgidius of Vitcrho^of the Order of the HermiU of 

veK blvrcii Jia;r!iortf xnd Accused him of co^^atdice for ocrt h&vinje Iha 
enntfeMnukebiti^df rruMarof tht fopQft pennn- (Sm VoL V, oCthtt 
work, p. t6y) ft fci, however, «vk^(, from th? cteir acooum }fLvi-n by 
Paris de Gi«a>b> who wii* ift cycwilncw, fn»n ihc woid* of Ach'tdiut of 
Vttnbo (in RdrLSR, 3841, an<l ihc description in tbe Axmol. de-r. (cum 
i»iadmoE«iiiumflmionimei Aiiorom nurnun^Hi Kj^i«&rn, ]U^i94)dMt 
Julfu9 waa £u- from haviD^cnlercd Pcm^U unarmed, and ihax hie troops 
pnciicaHj^ ooccpi«d th« oty^ Th« n<k tor him cannot ih«Tdfotc lun^o 
b»n M fTPa: as ir i< m.Tdc oiu lo be b)- Ciulcr-iHidini nnd MacliiavrHi ; 
dttir statement xhat he came in "rithoul troopa \a simplv '^dac. The 
VcnMiftn Hnvcpf (Sakuto, VI,, 431) i«porti jooo inncd maii «nund 
ih« uiy wtdk tht Pope, diuujfli \tt adds : el A Irnio Ttitnr in In terni 5^0 
fiuli di aoi< per ilubitch NaTiinillyi the ti^opn were for ibc mo«t part 
^jtmtCRd out&id« t]]c diy. No doubt JtiLut th«w«d fonrw coung* to 
aeilng as he tlid ; h<u he wat noi as ra^li m Ma* iLLivelli innkc* hSm 
appear. F. Cubdio 4]ao in a *Lctt€r to F. Gonugo, dnicd Ppnigia, the 
f4rh S«pe, T5o(^ r«p<xli< : 'Ki^rri »l i^ip inlro in pomfa «on tuis 
ti code m ordine cC aito Ic fcarc d'nrmc m nnlificcnm t5o*tnidb(i| etc 
Conaaica ATchive«» MoAtua. 



S Augustine, to deliver a sornimi on this subject while h9 
and the Cai^dinals were at Perugin; and again later 
Bologna he desired him to preach in a similar sense 1 
his review of tlic ri^ign of Julius IL Acgidius says that it 
wa* gpncralljj ihoiighi ihat the Pope wcjuld lia\e carried 
out this project if he had not been hindered by tl>e bltncl* 
ncMof men.' 

Julius remained eight days m the newly^won city. H« 
spent this lime ir labouring earnestly ic bestow on it* 
unfcirtunfiK; inliabitanls the blessing of a fictHcd peaoct 


* GBtOOftavn;^^ VIM., 4$, od. 3, is inisuikefi in tuppoiing ihaE t 
rrpon of Ae^ifliDi hA!& n«vt-r b(^«n jirinicil ; 11 Imt brra publi^hrd 
HorLi^R, p. ^£7, ClJiai, 1761 Alaa quotes it, ^d hi* sermons on the 
Turkish qucsilor Eire mcrtioned b/ SaifUTOt VI., 417. Af«}fKiiLi« wa< 
al«LO to Tiavf <ldivriTpcI a rit^roiirsr on p&acp at I'cnigia, l»m. Id the srcai 
afmoyincc of Julius, prcadwd a panccyric on the Pop* instead Sco 
PAREf »K CUAK^k, «d. Kraci, 46. Ai.lii:itTTNi, XXIIK, nUd alludta 
m (he rnnariing prnjrrt^ of Julius. 7.iMi>,i.ifcN, Oricnut. Frige, 554, 
diouK^^ unapc<iunmitd with ttiMC auihoniici, is of oplniotk ttat be lui<l tho 
wu n^inst the Turks vcr^ much 11 he^rt ^. alto Picitixa, [.^ 39 
and FraKKi^i, Liga von CimljrEU, 11 stq., 13 r^^ 34 t<Y'* 43 '^S' 
54 fff, Bui tkoux^ [tu^iierou* 2lticfitn Rayi^dui Ahcvh ihjii U^ aliens 
lion of Julius Jl. wa* rcpoanedly turned lowanls ihe d^iencc of Chiisi 
dumac^insi ihe Tur1c*(^a]a[> PAUlsnEGRASSTK' n^lin^i^ 
590), still ZinkMcn and Pichler appear to judge lum 100 Aivourzkbly ia 
1I11S reftp«ci- H« i»&t i<7o mucK engrosacd wiih luJlin Al&in to b« abia 
10 bCLve tlic Turki»li cjueatkni unyihing buE <iuite q lecoadary place in hk 
ihoughu At Elic wuuc time, until Dr. Gottlob^s Monojcnph of Julius IL 
has cMne out, n will be righT lo suspend our judgmcni oft rhis HJbjcci. 
ThccneiifeliL tu|ipoil Kiven by lbi» f\?pc bj Kiiiit Ejiiniuiiud uf Poitu^'al's 
cavnl entcfpriics, wliicb by;!^ rcgnnlcd as cruaodin^ cipediijcons, appcdm 
in a h:t«;iI nu^iilMT oT [lnef>i un<I HuUs. scun? ol ^rMch are dated Crvni 
Perugia at tliu very bme. Sec Corpi d^pL. Portug., I,, 61 J^., Vi^jf** 
98 /^., 99 /ly., 101 /ty,, [03 Jiy., it9 a^. A tetter from Rome 
: jth Oct, 1 50Q, in ihp Acia Tomit, I-, 49, which hn* hjtlierto been o 
kjuked, tcpoiA» hier prvjetts gf Julius IT fm a Ctusmlc- 

t On the t4ih SepL F. Cubcllo nporta to F. Gcmtaga: *£1 K. 





The baneful and detested rule of the Baglioni waa at an 
end. From henceforth the beautiful city was agaiD toeiijpy 
rti muDJcipal liberties and republican constitution under 
the sovereignty of Uic Church, Tlie csiics vcrc al!o\vcd to 
rcttinif with lh<! exccrplujn uf thov? only whose haiLd?! were 
stAincd with the blood of their fellow-rritiicns. The mngi^* 
mcy of thcTcn was abolished Jolius left the old hbcr- 
tiec untoud^ed Cardinal Antonio Ferred waa api^tnted 

Thearderlfipint ofthc Poi>c wra-i too much occupied with 
Bologna to remain any longer in Pcrueia-t On the 21st 
of September he started for Gubbio, which he reached oil 
the 22nd ; on the 23rd he wa-% at Cartiaro, and on tlic 25th 
entered Urbino, cros^ig the Appcnincs by the yjasi of 
Fiirla The gatc*i wcrr t^Wcn dnwn by Ihir Duke, while the 
Prefect pr«cr«ed the keys of the rity to the Topc.J JiiliiiK, 
from the artistic &lde of his nature, was charmed uitb the 
Palace of Moiitefeliro ; but hifi mind was too full of the 
nc^tiatiooB with Boloc^na and France to give much 
atteoCLOD to anythinf; cl«i. 

attcndv cum otn^i dili^tncki otdinir to com d» PcroncL Gonuica 
Archil^ MuitiuL. 


1S3; rauULxn, lIL^joj; RArcKfi, Pipste, E.,2|i,cd.6. IniheGbl- 
lown^ yeu fiv^h dietarbjincea broke out in i^ruga (Mai^IOTTI, HI., 
5^4,1, m ffinwcjiicrtr^ nf whirh Cjtrd Kcrrcrl mw reralled and Curd. 
Leotiofil^ dcUa Rovcrc icdi in hii pbc<^ Julius IL mfcjmc4 Lhe 
cicaeni of Oiv^ changti4 m hit *Hnaf£ of the mE and and t'dlx, [507 
{City Archive*, Pcruiixi)^ 4nd in Cod. C, IV., 1, of the Univcrait> Uhnry, 

+ C/. thcBK«forr4l]\ScpL, 1506; Ravnai.dus, odan, iS<>6. n. ^4 
£ DxiUlPOdLt 66, jocurn-ctiy ^ivn the 33rd «v the d^y of the entry, 
and there Arc oihcr mUlokca obo in hi* luncmry cf ih« Pope- ^ 
fARis oa UftA^rs •(!- Irati. ju, arid *AcC:i Ontiiii. m th« ConfiUtoriat 
AndiiTu of ihe S'liicjin, Amnng recent wntcJ^ &cc l/OOUUI, 11^ 
J 37 «?'■ »nd Li;zio. hUniovA c UiUnc>. 173 -^f^' 




He had (jcni Antonio da Monte Snn Savino. Archbishop 
or Manfrcdcnia, to Ijologna to eadeavour to arran^ terms 
for its ui\xia\ to iu allegiance to the CKurcb* but 
Giovanni Bcntivoglio had anticipated the Archbishop and 
completely fnistratcd hi.i minion. At fint, Sigismondo de' 
Conti 3 Ays. he had been disposed to subnut, but the o)n* 
sciousncss of his many misdeeds led Iitm eventually to 
change his mittd- He ^uccreedcd in cajoling thi; dlizeiu 
into assuring the Papal Envoy that their Pdnce was no 
tyrant, but a tniefachf^rto his people. All the Archbishop's 
kindly admonitions pro\cd unavailini;, ard when at ia^t he 
threatened them with the censures of the Church, HcntH 
voglio and the mafi:i3trat(» appealed to a Genera) Coundt.f 

The Pope had intended to await the result of the Arch-' 
bishop's mi&Mon at Urbino, but the moment he heard ihdt 
l«e Wfis oil Uis way back, in ^pile of the iti^sufi!(iun,s of the 
Duke and olhcrti, he ilrtcTtninwl to set out to meet hiniL 

In the early morning of the :?f>ih Se;^tember he «t;trted 
for MaeeraU,^ The roads u-cre mere bhdic path^^ the 
weather had broken, and the hills were covered with anow, 
Bo that it wa» not possible on the joth to set out till after 
midday. The rain fcU in torrents and the Aumptcr-mulcs 
stamblcd and fell on the siippcry paths but the Pope 
stru^lod on with passionate haste towards San Marino. 
He halted for ihc iiitihl in ihe suburb nf Bor^'u, and hen; 
a letter reached him fmm the King of France prf>misfng to 
semi trocips ;ind amintmring his Intention of coming htni* 
aclf in Advent to Bologna, where he hoped to meet t 

* Sanuto, V]., 41l-4Ja. 

C/. ftbo ScHiiuau fidcf^ 
buch^ 16 Sfg. 

I Suiia»iO)n» dj:" Conn wroneiy givcft the 3otli {i\., j^i> i^ 
i'Altis OB CRAGa«, ed. Fmti, 53; l.eiter of MachkTclli of lit Oo,, 
tfob^ and *AdJL Contisaq Contistonal Ardtivti of cho Viticsn. 




Pope* This set Julius II. free froio hU greaicst anxiety. 
The support of the French Government had been delayed 
as long njs possible, but now that he wa» u«ured of this the 
Jfll of Benti^-ot:lto was ccrUin.t There was nothirg now 
bicar from Venice Ne\crthe1c:»« "he ati]! felt it prudent 
to take pains to concilUic the Venetians." Ilcpio[joscd to 
the SignunH tu [jcnntt them stil) tu retdlii Faeiua and 
Rimtni »% a fit-f Though this offer was rcfuserl, he still 
conliTnird to tfrat t^c RejmbHc with all possible cnTiJiidera* 
tioci. *' Ho stricUy forbade his troops^ ^n their neceuary 
inarch through Vcnetiaa territory, under pain of death to 
like anything; from the inhabitants, and emphatically a£- 
(iircd their Envoy P. Fts^ni, that the Signoria bad nothing 
to fear from him. He waa most anxious not to a^ord the 
kast shadow of excuse to Venice for her conduct."! 

Instead of taking tlic high road from San Marino to 
Rimicri Jutiiu du^se the imirt; difllcult mtiiti;ttun wny, in 
order lo avcid paAvirg through the country occiipirtl hy the 
Veoetiaiis. On the ut October he ^pcnt ihc right in the 
miserabie little viiluge of Savignano, and on tlic; following 
day CTOasod the Rubicon and entered Ccscna, where he took 
«p hia <^uartcrj» for the night in the caitlc. Meanwhile tho 
Bo1<^cftc Lnvoy» had arrived^ They besought him "not 
to thiow a peaceful city, which was thoroughly loy^l to the 
Church, into confu^on by demanding novelties" Jutiua 
;inMVi'Ted, " T know that what you are now ^iiyhig lit not 
what you really ililnl* ; you cannot be so foolish as to prefer 
the rale of a cruel tyrant to mine." g 

On the jth of October a Consislory was held, at which 

* Paris DB GRj^s^i^, ed. Ftati, 54. On the prcciic iiumcnt when 
ih< King chinged bic mind, wc HtiOSCll, Juhus IL, 331* 
t <y. Machcvelli's Jitter of ilie jrd Oct, 1 joC 
I Qmoch, JuGiu II., tt9' C/. Samu-to.VI^ 453- 
I 5lcisliiO?'i>0i>&'CCKTl,II,i3;i. The iiiuiji«t«f Julius tl.Uioin*' 



there wcTc Iwcfily Car<iinaU present. Donrg Ihc mi<i 
meal th<? news arrlvol that the French trt>o[>s wcrrc on t 
rnad with sixteen cannon and wouM be at Mcxtena 
Saturday. The following day brought tidingi^ of the death" 
of Kin;: I'hilip of Castile.' On the 7th October il was 
determined in n Secret Consistory that an Interdict «houid 
be laid on Bologna. A review of the troops took place in 
Cc5ena; the army consisted of 600 hor;(cmcsi, [600 foo 
soldiers, and jco Swiw.f 

The pe^Hi^lon^ rain had made the roads almost i 
passable; bnt Julius would bronk no deUvy, Early cm the 
*th October he moved onwards from Cc«ena to Forlim- 
jiopoti, and on the following day to Forlf. In entering Xht 
city, he and his suite had a taste of the wild character of 
tlic people of the Romagna, who forcibly possessed llicm- 
aclvcs of the Pope's mule and bdldacchino.J 

Meanwhile tlierc eould no loat;cr be any doubt th 
Dciitivo;;Ho had no hilcnttar of lelinquishing his MStn 
ftothorily without a struggle " He truiicd fn the s 
of the city, the number of his adherents, his high podti 
and his stalwart sons." According to Sigiivnondo de* 
Coiitit Bcntivoglio demanded that the Pope should enter 
Bologna without troops, and make no change m anything.§ 


vhAt diffirrtiiEtj ^uti^d in MiLchius-rlH^s iftliti. tiled Jttfim^ noir * on pr> 
ceding pa£«. Accciding lu him the Pope wiid Amcngst other ihin^;^^^ 
Srcu i capitcOl nf>n <unm ne qwUo aveva bno gli altri papl, ne ^i^^D^^I 
iivcv;i LiKi luj (f/ TnnNhn, Cud., \IU. 515) pcidic ^li ^Lfi (wpi * 1^ 
con avtvaa ptnauto fiin: oJlro c b nvccifit^ t tion la vclontl gli ftvn« 
ft«i conrvnaine. 

* rbHij) dietl of a lever on the murnm); of i^ih ScpL Sec HaUI 

130-iji I sanuto, vr, «3. 

* Pakis UK GvA^yis pd Frail, i» j^. ■ MarhiflvHlft Ij'lTcr ot thf' 
5iJ«0L.tH, 15C6; and *A*.ta ConviaiH Consisiorial Arclilvcs of tlic Votit 

I Fakis DB C RASBIS ed. PrtEi, te, ar<l SXcta Conatt, JW. ^. 
g Siniiumrno uff 0«bti, tr, 351 ; ft^tMOvr, III,, 7, i> 



These pretentions so cnragwl Juliu* that he at once pro- 
<1&tmcd thecxcornaiunkftlTon of Bfrniivoglio a:i(f an Tnter- 
diet on Bologna unless the city returned in its obedicnre 
within nine days. On the [ ilh of October these Bulls tver« 
affixed to the doors of the C:ithetlral of Korli.* The 
BoIc^neAc were thoroughly frightened, sa)'^ Sigi^mondo 
dc' Conti, but Bcntivoglio was not yet subdued. He had 
sent Urge bribes to the French commanders, And in their 
greed of gain they tried for a time to pUy f«L^t and loo»e 
between him and the Pope, Julius, however, threatened 
Louis that if he did not keep hU word he would jmblish 
his faithlessness to the whole world ; and at last the King 
commanded his generals to adv&nce. The alnrm produced 
b>" their approach in Bologna determined the Pope to 
bqjin hi3 march from Forli \ but irstead of taking the easy 
road through the fertile country of the ^Emilia, he choso 
foi his own party the one which led across th^ mountains. 
This, Sigismondo dc' Conti says, was partly because he 
did not trust the Venelians,| and paitly beci^use he could 
not endiire to Ifiolc upon Faenia, torn away from the 
Church as it now was. Thus, leaving the bulk of the army 
and the Cardinals to take the direct road by that placei 
he with a small retinue turned ^ide to the left towards 

* P.iRiftDCi^KASSi^cJ- rEitii,6i'6j ^ LO^iOjV-, 194 ; '^nd Machaa> 
TcUTi LcUcr of the i<At OcL, [;o6. Poilions ^f ihe Hvl) vf Int^rdfct, 
d«ied Mlh Oct.. iS^ nik«n from the Regrar. in the PnpiI 5^rot 
AnJiuve*, uc lo be fgur^d in Eavhalhus, ad an. iioi^ n- i$ stq^ 
Blkd GOUAPIKr, C. Henlivo^io, App., XCl II. uq., And Oio in KraCi'a 
«d. of ?AJiit< DK CiicASSi^i, i77'i£6. The Bull nconimiinJcacip| 
BenlivoKlil^ dJvo dated toiti Ocl, J5061 wi& printed the nunc ytki b' 
Rom** G>pies of it ore, however, lare, as Bentivo>{ljo liad as nun/ 
as he fould alxnin dc5l;tryrd. E ^w ore in x\vii Sute Archivo at 

t The Bnef of the isih Oct, 1506, pHnjed in Apperirfix, K, 53, r*fert 




Outmcaro, a place which had once belonged to the Chui 
bat was now in tlie handi of tlic Fior«:iiiInc3> This was on 
the 17th October.* Be^'ond Mutilano the road becAme 
extremely diiiicuU ; ten times it v/a,9 crossed by a mountau 
torrent ; in cue place the I'opc had to dismount ^1 
clamber up the steep ascent for ft inile with the auistancc 
of his scn/atits. He wras half-jL-aO with fati^^uc whai in 
tlic evcuiiij^ he arrived at the IJlttc vilUgi:; ttf MsiTULdL^— 
in the vAlIry of Lamonc, but he only allQwrn) him^rlf ^H 
short night's rest, and was off agalr before daybreik 
to Palazjfuolo. There he lialted for a li^'ht meal in th^H 
aftcmoi^n, and then hurried on to To**Tgnano, which MH 
reached in the evcningn This place belonged to the SiaCc« 
of the Church; still he would not tarry, but went on 
once to [mola.f 

Thout;h ihc Tope was now sixty-four year* of age, ai 
surTeiliig nt ihe lime ffom gimtj he had bnrne thi; fAtigus 
of ihr moiiiiiain joiimcy m if he haK been <jiiitc a joting 
man4 His attendant* had to follow him whether thejf^^ 
liked it or not. Vstrlsi de Gmssif;^ the Matter of Ccra^| 
monies, Travelled by the e^elcT road by Facnza, but 
before they parled Julius II. made him hand over to hivi 
hb costly cope and his mitre and pectoral crosf, "For, 
fear," he said. "they sliould be stolen by the Venetians 
the peojjlc of Faenja^^g Wheij his folluwers were aim* 


♦ Samoto, VI,, 45 1> and •Acta Con<iiC,, ConiittonAl Archit^c of 

f SHIiaMOyDO DC" CoNTT, M-, J5*-35^ C/. PAUIS OE OUAi 
*d Fnifi, fi* 65 ; LAim. PARMEMiTs,3f3 3 MAchmvcIN'* ItKnn of 
i6ih and i^ih OcL, rso6 ; and "Aua CnnhtiiL 

X " lmU8 prac^ipitca pci rnillc i>c:ii:Lftd rcniin 
Torrigcruqae akcs. rupei ct inhcapiu Ktucu" 



i<i d^ftpsttr at the difHculiks of the road to Tofisigiiano, the 
imibngl/ quoted Virgil's lines: 

Ptr varioi casut, per tol di&cnminft rcnim, 
TcndTTnus m Ljuiunt. 

In the little town of Imola, which the>' r&nched on the 
joili* October, and where they were received with festal 
honourij it was impossible to accommodate tlic whole of the 
Tope's suite- In consequence, all the ofFic^bE-^ and matty 
members of the Couit remained at Castro Bolognesc* 
and the army (2cxo m^) was encamped in the neigh- 
bouring country. The Duke of Urbtno being laid up 
with an attark of goiit, Francesco Goniitga was appointed 
Ccfnmander-in-Chief on the 25th October, On the same 
day Julius received a visit from the Duke of Ferrara. On 
AU Souh' Day, just as the Pope wa5 going to Mass, the 
Tidlngi of the (light of Bcntivoglio arrived.^ The tyrant 
now saw the impo5!iibi1lty of making a defence, a^ he had 
made himself utterly detected by his subjects. He there- 
fore entered into a compact with the Frt-nch Commander- 
in-Qiief, Chaumont, and fled to Milan with a «afe conduct 
from him. According to Sigismondo de' Conti, ai soon 
a« the Interdict was laid upon Bologna, the dilzcns 
completely deserted him. One by one, all the priests left 
the city, and e^-cn his most trusted fricniJs began lo say 
tlut ihc IVpc was in the right. But Iknnvoglio still held 

"* N«i on ihc fikc ostmtcd by V1LI.AII], Machmroll). U^Ai^. Soc 
SA^nrrO, Vl., 43} ; FAtfri, ImoK 17 tr^, (h«r« Ui« particubn in regard 
to tlie rrrjoWin^ arc la 1>e found): ^nd '*AcLi Cuii^irii., CondUtoria] 
An^-ica of Ui« Vatican, 

t PAltnDX (.iRxnu. «d. KfaEi, hfi-Eo. The Brief on F Gontnga'i 
appODnOnent is in Dumoni. IV,, 11-, £9, in^uxunicl^ ^Acii inGozzA- 
Ddti. Ciovaiuii IL ^n^vojrUo, A^i^endix, XCVIIL J^-, tamE-blctl ^n 
ECUIOOIA, 9tom dr* Maotova (1610), 247-2^ 



out until he hcaird that Charles d'Ambobe hftd actually 
arriv-cd at Modcna with ait arm/ of 600 Uncer*. 3D00 
honemcn, and a br^ number q( guruL 

The Ik>;(»gi>c*c now sent Envo)'s to ihc Pope, bcggii 
for th^" removal of ihe Ini^rdjci, arvl proieciion agAJn^ tl 
French army. The French troops were alrei^y uoder 
the walls, and the soldiers were hoping for a rich 
from the piSlaj^e ol the ciiy; they were ei>camped a!oi 
the canal which conducts the water from the Reno m\ 
the cily> The cituena iiad taken up arms to defend thci 
selves, and had HoiKlcd tlic French caiTip by opening; 
sirjke; which forced the enemy to retire, leaving 
baggage and heavy artillery behind them. They u^re 
fitriouK, and bent on vengeance ; the ciiy was only s*veci 
from being sacked by the prompt action of the Pope, who 
bottghc ih<rm off wiih a prewnl of tfooo ducats to th«^ 
generals and tOfiOO to thc^ soldiers^ I'lms the splendt^H 
rccepiion. which was accorded to him when he entered 
Bolof^nJt, vrnA well earned.* The triumphal entry vras to, 
t^ikc place on the of S. Martin. 

But It was not En Julius IK to endure such a long dcla; 
'•On the loth of N*overabcr/*«iy4 the Manter of Ceremonit 
'^his ffolincKfi commandF^rl me to look for a suitable at 
safe residence for him within ihc city. Thfs I found en 
the house which had formerly b^Ionj;^ to the Tempi 
which was only a store's throw trom the gate, and tl 
Pope took possession of it at once, bringing only a sm^ 
number of his suite with him. He would not Ibten 

• CuicctAftmKi, VII., e. I. i Laurrmtiue PAkwcnrs 314 "^-' 
Stciwoxdo de' Corm, \h, ^$4-^$$, Paris i>e gaaa;!^ «d Ft 
Bit givn 9 wti\r-^}iiH ilrffVient Afi^fxtnr, evidfnriy coloured so as to' 
ohcn ha couiilrynicn ('> :1ic bul AdvanU^e. C/ aho FLOKUS. Dv 
rcp«dit Bonftn,, 3o wf, : Scrfubl, Briffliu-h, 35, 3(< 57 ; SucftxHKiit, 
y/t yjj I *rid Coiz/aijiw:. Akans at-vcrim^nti, 74 *fl?. 


tfie dFrnu^Jons of the astrolcigcrs, despising their sclrnc^ 
and saying, ' Wp wrill go in in the name of God/ Me-in- 
vhWe it became known In the city that the Pope v/ss 
within its walls, and the 'in^^^^g '^' ^^^^ ^^^ thunder of 
cannon aoon announcccl the news to the whole countiy 
rovmd." ♦ 

The triumpha) proccsdon to San PcEronlo, the Cathcdr&J 
of Bolc^nA, took pUcc on the nth November in lovely 
summer-like weather ; the lusci were still In Uooni^t The 
paf^eajit was of unusual magni licence, a perfLxt Hped< 
men of the festive art of the Renaissance J The Master 
of Ceremonies^ P^ri^ de Gras^U. has described all Its 
derails in his own pedantic fashion -, ^ other contem* 
porories, such as the Venetian En^'oy, Francesco Albcrtini^ 
and the Bolo^csc chronicler Ghirardacci, have painted 
it in a broader stylc.ll Cardinal Adrfano of Corncto 
cckbrales t1 in a l^tin piiem.lf The Pffpe's humatiittic 
secretary, Sigi'^mondo tic* Conti, gives a very good dcsrrjp 
tEon of it In his f^re^t historical work. "Thirteen 
UJiJinphal arclKs/ he ^ys, "* were erected, be^iring the 

• Paris t>z Cjlwsi^, t± Frali, 84-8^. 
t ALB&a-nsi, p. xxiL 

J On ttv jVit;r:kr[ry ani] fslal-ail of (he REuai^sinti.' in ^eoETjI, see 
BUKCKHAJ[I>1\ Citltiti, L, T4? if?-t cd. 3. 

5 PABrtUKGRA^ls,ed. i-riti, S5-96. 

II A.1JIKRT1M, pp^ :ixi-xx]i- The RepcKt nf ih« VenttLtn Eiwny a 
in Sayino, VI., 47' r^- Eiaimus, Who v,-^i ptcseat. grjvcs no desciip- 

liOn, bul ]:Lintiit% lU ponip. To giv* gMAlct uifit^Eii Ig tiiv Itnctun*, 1w 
■ayt ituw her hctd also tttn ihe entry ** Juiiui 11. inio Rome, "I'hu »r un» 
tmc, ihpuiih GkEGOROVIUI^ VIIJ., so, t± 3. iiiaintajn» JL ; ./ NoLHAC. 
£name en lultt, 17. GbirardAcd's account t» in Ut>, jS, Cod 7^, of 
ihc !7riiv*nity Library, Br7]o|:na. C/. also ScHEURi, Brieniuch, 34, yp, 
and LAUawrTtVS PAaMKXIU\ilS- 

^ C/. GUTliAltDT, Adrian voD ComclO^ I14-II5; BlltCKKARDT, 
Coltar, t, 113, «4l 3^ 




imcr^ption m la/^e letters: * Julius U,, our Libcr&tor 
most beneficent Father!' A hundrcti young uobkracn 
fonncii a corElon to k€ep the [>co[i]c back. Flnx came 
a number of horsemen 3s outrfderjt Ut dtMr the vay^ 
thefi the Hght csvalryj the infantry in glictctiing axmoar, 
the baggage of the Popo and the Cardinals, and SxaUy 
the band^ of the regimerUk These were followed by 
sixteen Bolo^ncse and four i'apal stand Ard-bc&rcrs with, 
their banners, the ten white palfrey* of tfac Pope 
golden bridles^ and lastly the ofTidaU of the Court. K 
to rhcse cnmc the Envoys, Duke Guido of Urbmu, the 
Marqufv* Francesco Gouzaga, Francesco Maria, the 
Prefect of Rome, Costantino Areniti, the Dulce of Achak 
and Macedonia, fourteen lictors with silver stares to keep 
the crowd back, and the two Masters of C«remonie», t^ 
first of whom, PariK de Grossis, was the arganiser of the 
whole pageant, The Papal Cross wa5 earned by Caib 
Rotario; he was closely followed by forty of the cjcrgy 
with lighted candles and the Vajta] choir accompanying the 
Sacred HosL The CaidinaU walked immcdialety in froot 
of Julius I!., who wa* carried in the Srt/ra Cfstataria 
his purple cope, shot with gf^ld thread and faCencd 
the breast with the /{^mtaU pn'rr\''sutn set wfth ertwraldv' 
and fiapphire^ was a nplciidid work of art. On his head 
he wore an unusually large mitre glistening ^ith pearls 
and jewels. He was accompanied by his two private 
cli&mbcrlains, hi:i secretary' Sigiamondo dc' Ccnti, and hts 
physLcicins* the Roman Mariano dci Do«h and the Siencae 
Arcangcio dei Tulf. He was followed by the Patriatchs, 
the Archhi«hnjw and Bishop*. The Protonotary, the 
ccclesfastieal Envoy*, the Abbots and GcntraU ofrcUgfoug 
orders, the Penitentiaries and Referendaries. The whole 
procettion was closed by a body of the l^apal guard. 
It moved very alowly, owing to the immense coneourse 

ri front ^^ 

Tiie covetuTM^NT or bologka reokgani^cd. 3SS 

of spectators, all decked in holiday gaib, who had co<nc 
in from the couotry round to ruccihre the Tcpe'H blear- 
ing. Gold ftiid silver coinf^, stnick for the occasion, were 
scattered by scrvaots ainoaf:^! therm, At the Cathedral 
the Pope first made hi^ act of thanksgiving and then 
Mjlcmnly blca^ ihc (>co^lc. It was dusk before he got 
bc4ck lo the palace, t\ovi ;ittended by the ma^Utraten tif the 
city, whn joinr^l tlie procession after it left the Cafhcdnl." • 
The wcrl: of reorgaitiaing iIk* Gf>vemnient of the 
city was begun by Julius 11. as soon as possible alter 
hie arrival- ''He wo^ anxious to m^ke the government 
of the Church popular at Bologna, and for Xhis end he 
confimied their ancient liberties and g^ave them a new 
conatitution which left a lai^c noca^xirc of autonomy to 
the munTtipttlhy, and also ccmaidcrably lightened tlic 
1a»Tden of laxatiim which had prc*^srd on them in heavily 
of laic/'t '^^'^ Council of Sixteen was abolished, and 
on the I^lh of November a Senate, consisting of forty 
raeTTiber»> chosen for the mo^t port from amongst the 
bc0t bui^hor families cf liol£>;;na, was appointed in its 
place. This Senate wa^ to act as the Legate's Council, 
*'but WM granted far greater and more independent 
powers by Jiiliu*! 11- tliitn the city had ever enjoyed 
under llic Bcmiv[>glJ"i atu! he slso diminhhed the taM<^. 
"He wished to crcale a rrally free city which f^hraild be 
loya! to hfm out of gratitude for his protect ion," J On 

• SioiSMOFxiMf lit;" Comi, 11., JsS-ji^- Tiw intTTipilm fin Oie ct^ 

w^ ; Huv^oniH] ;i[crl Jglfium] a limnc Ij1>rr^it(iil , c/. FaATi, Ddk 
inonM getmte dl popob ncl sotcnnc jrLgTes>o m ISoLo^-iv-l di i^iuLo^ IL 

f StiCENnEiM, ^^^7. C/ fAPii; VK Ca.As&\s^ ed Fmti, 99 jf^.j 
SlOtSMOKDO Dlf COMI^ M.. i^jO seg. 

t RA?fKa. Rom und Gctn;. Vtilker, ti?. On dw reduciion of the 





Ihc 26lh of November ihc anriivci^iar/ of liic P 
Coruration was celebrated witli great pomp. On 
occasion, by his special desire* his fjivourite nephc 
GalcoUo della Roverc, was Ilic cclcbrsnt at the Higli 

Louis XII. and his minfsicr d'Amboise cicman'icd 
exorbitant price for the as^iatance they had rcrudered. 
nddttion to a. lai^c payment in money, they demanded t 
rg;bt of appointing to bcucficca lhrou;;hout the Milan 
territory, the con6riratlcu of C&rdinal d'AmboJsc's Lee&tJo 
and the nc>mination of Uiree French Cardin^tK n\\ ne 
relation?] of his-* The last condition was the hard 
for the Pope; for the CardinaU atrontfly objected to t 
increase of French influence in the S:icred CoU^e, vridi 
iho consctjucnt enhancement of dAmboi*e*^ proipect of 
some day obtaimtig the Tiara, and the danger of the Court 
being transferred to Avignoat lliis creation, the third 
i)iG reign of Julius [\., toolf place on the t£th DecembcTi 
1 506, in a Secret Consistory and not publUhcd at fLTSt^f 
The ttiree Cardinfila ihcfc: Je^n Fi^n^ois dc la TreEnotllc» 

• SalfUTOy V!., 453 I GOLDASP. J?* I Havemavn, N^ a3> 

+ /M., so?. 

t TUs Is ihc rcojOD <if eHc variatioat in conicaiparaneoas lUierocDEi 
on this ■ubjffcL Pauu nn CtiuUi^is, c<t. Kraii, 1 tq, uiyt : Ui< t«n«n» 
18 (Dec) nipa fecit coniiiitiiium pro noi'ia nuUinalJbui tmulUi^, Dccl 
pOaacA nihil fcccnt; and 13') ; Die 4 Jt^nuAni, 1507 . . ' . crcovil »«ct«l« 
cardinalM Fm)cb« nonnuttoi^ On thcoUicr lusd^a Reponbi $A9n?1T\ 
VU 518, uiifoilutuLaly iviiliuiil a prupcr duci M]rA iLis acmitiMtian had 
nlrcAidy ixke:a pbcc ju December. My ducf rouon for believing dial, ia 
*p1e of Or.roJNR (111,, 3bi} comciuia, Cu'somus ivnot mistaken attd 
iliaE CAaiJKLUL, jij, Li riiflii ui liolilJn^ iq itic ycxr 1506, while J rcjecl 
thedfttcof 14U1 Jan. jnvGcibr CONXtLOfttU^ ro9(rA»vt)ClVV, ^S, vho 
myi yd Sepi^i* iiitcTiy wrangV t* chat 1 find iKih tkc, 1506. exprei^r 
Kneatkncd in the oAicUl *Acu Cuak»i)U t MS- Cguitulofu] Archives 





Archbishop of Auch ; Ren^ de Pnc, B[^hop of Bayeux ; And 
Ixmi?^ d'Aroboisc, Archbishojj of Alby. They were not 
publishni until the i;ili M^y, 1507. after ihc Pope's return 
to Rome, anti at the same time as the nomination of 
CanJinaJ Ximcti<;s to the Sacred College* 

En spite of the^c concessions sharp dissensions, principally 
on account of the aHairs of Genoa, soon broke cut between 
LpOUis and the Pope- " It was an open secret in Rome that 
d'AmlKtiae xvaa wotkJnf; to obbun the Tiara at an)' cost, 
while, on the other hand, at the Court of France every one 
Raid that the Pu^ie was prlvaleiy encouraging and even 
beiphiglbe Genf>e(e in their leiisiance to I,4juis XII,"'!" In 
the middle of February, 1507. the King fuld to the Florentine 
Envoy : ■ I haw sent word to the Pope that if he tjkefl 
bp the cause of the Genoese I wilJ put Cjjovanni Hcntivo;;lio 
back in Dolc^na< 1 have only to write a single letter in 
order to eflcct this, and Bcntivc^lio will five me lOOjSOO 
dacats into the bar^ain^ The Koverc arc a peasant family : 
notJiing but the Mick at his back will kct-p lli^ Popr fn 

When there could no ton^r be any doubt that Louis XII. 
tt^a^ oominf; to Italy, juhus U. Feit that it would be better 
to leave Bologna and so avoid a meeting. The French 
King was collecting; such a large army that it W'as impossible 
to think that its only employment was to be the rcconqocst 
ofGriioa. The Pope apprehended that thar might even 
lie jjeniona] danger for hull in remaining at llologna, and 

^ Cf* CnnL Goiun^^t 'letter to his brother, the MurquesaAf MitnVua, 
dxt Ram*, 17111 Miy, 1^137 [llantag^ Archrv^t,»); th« V«nfftian 
Ktpon in SaNUTO, VII., E;, and Coauljili'a 'Despatch. duL Rome, aoih 
May. 1 ^7. (Suc« Arehivu, M'l^nfLj S«e al^a ^citnuaL, Oridbucfa, 
7j, 3^ Ob €aid. df* b Ti^moitle. tee La Pla(JU&. Bakris in the Rev, 
de Gu>C9iED«, 1S78, 

* Snoicu, JuliuE II., 136 ; CaiuAi, Lf 303, ed. 5. 




therefore at la^t decided on returning to RomCfto the grcftt 
aati^r&ctioncrhb Court. On the iJtliof Fcbfuary, t507,h< 
Informed the Canlinals in a Secret Coiisistcry of liis inten* 
lion. The linlogncse were completely taken ty stJtpri 
when xhcy hearfl of tbi?* iincxpr-'ctc^d dt?ci*ion, and at fii 
cxiremely dissatistled, a$ the work of reori^nislng tl 
affAirs of the city vtus rot by any means condudeci. This 
feeling, hoipvcven was soon d3»i«ip^led when they found that 
tJit Pope was prepared to confirm the liberties (panted 
to the city by Nichola.'^ V^ and to divide the eiuecutivi^H 
power between the Legate and the Council of Forty,* 
Nevertheless he had so Httlc confidence in the unruly 
citizen* that he orclcied a new fort to be builtat the Porta 
Galiera, On the 20th of February he laid ks f^nt aiouc; 
The day brfore this he hid appointed Antonio Fencri, 
legate of 3ologna ; an unfortun^itc selection, a* fioon 1 
appeared. CaTdinal Leonardo Gitjisso della Kovene tooH^J 
Ferreri's place in Heni^a,and w^is succeeded in Vitcrbo by 
Francesco AUdoai.f 

On the 22nd February, 1507, as soun as the Bull iLppoinl- 
lag tlic Council of Forty h«d born publisUed^ the Pope 
the eity to t}ie ^reat rq^ret of the Dologiiesc, and on 
same day tJ^ new Legate entered itj 

* ^'AKIS I>E CrjU^TS, ed, Frali, 138-143. C/, SlClKMOflDO 
Oiw-n, tl,, 364, «lio dues not yivr :ht rcil nsiaon ^ihe 
departure; Comawnt, Akuni a^cnlmenti, 7^77- 

f J'juus ds urassis. *d. Fran, 147-148. t/ Sawuws VI., jjfi^' 
^VSi^l GoziADim, Akuni AvvQiiuifoti, 79 ny.; ^Gliinudoed Ibr 
ibc )c*r 19>7, C<vL 7^Z of the Univcrtity Lib^ &t Dolosna. On die 
Ivying of th« GoundktJon-^tODc ol th« fan, «o« Curj.fSLUOTTi, ]., 6a. 
The Bull nomiiuuitE A, Fcrreri, dat, fSclo^^Tu, lotXt P«b,, ty>7, «4iicliaaB 
&ru J knifiv, laa not been prinlcd, jg in iba Sojta Archives^ DoIo^^iml 

• I'AtlS l>t (;ha'lsik, eri. Kmrl, 149, rjl //^,; SlfSLSUOSno Dtf 
CoffTT, n., 364 ; icid 'Acu Cgmist, f a8, k die CanHstoriil Aictaivea 
of tb« VftticoD. 



JnTEusll. Mopped first Jl Imola to make further arrange 
racnU ibr the maimemiuce of |>eace in lh;it cify. He 
IteD proceeded to Forii and Ccscna, again at*DJding Faenza, 
vfsated Porto Ccsenitico, Sant' Arcangelo, and UtbtnOn and 
made his way bacic to Rome by Koli|rno, MorteCalcc, Orto, 
Vitcrbo, and Ncpi.* On the 27lh of March, the Saturday 
before P&lm Sunday, he reached the Tiber at Fontc Moll^ 
where he vroA v^^lcomcd by a crowd of people, lie spent 
Uic night 111 the Corvcnt of Santa M^ria dd Popolo. Oil 
Palm Sunday he celebrated High M;is?^ fn that church, and 
thi* w;ii follou'cd by hH friuniphal i?ntry into the city and 
procession to the Vatican. 

Kome had adorned herself for the occasion hx that 
curiouft mixture r>f Christian and Faf^an styJ» whieh 
character igod the liistc of the period. "Jhe 5(r?etJ ^vcrc pro- 
fusely decorated witli han^in^? and e^^ands, and briatltnj; 
nritb m?icn prions in praise of the victor Triumphal arches, 
covcfcd (vith Iq^cnds. were erected in aII dirccticji^: »ome 
of these, as far instance the one put up by Cardinal CuKia 
on the Catnpo M;ir/u, were also decorated with statues and 
^ccurc& Opposite the Caitle of St, Angelo wm a chariot 
with four white horses and containing ten genlj with palnis 
in their handc, welcoming the Pope; on the prow of the 
chariot a globe rested, from which spmng an oiik bearing 
gflt acom5 ai^d riaiii]; to the height of the Church cf S" 
Maria Trasponlina- In front of the Vatican a copy of the 
Arch of CoEistautJnc was erected rcpicscatln^^ tlic whole 
hjhlory of the expedition. By order of the Lc^rate. Cardinal 
S. Giuf^ic« an nJtar was prepared before every church 

* PAanDisCa\S!^i£.«(i FraU, )f3^T69; Sakuto, VI., 553; *Aat 
CoMicL, ftfr. eti. On the 37rh Feb,, 1507. Julius :ciolt Albenn Pb of 
Caipi and L^ 5Uk uikI^i lib hpccial i^ruLediotLt an act wliidi wu 
dirtctod a^iDst iho Dubc of F«Tn»iL See Mem, Slor. di Carpi, IL, 
3J< tf^.: SkwpIR, Qirpi. 7. 



along the route of the proceii&ion, attended by the clei^ 
and choir, that the religious elemeDt might not be eclipsed 
by all the worldly poiiip. An cyc-wrtncas say* that IhJi 
triumphal entry was even more magnificent th,in tbceoro' 
nation. Twenty -cighl Cardinal accompaaied the I'opc, the 
proce^ioii tuuk ihrce hours to pa&« from tlie t^lc of llie 
city to S- Pftci^?^. The Ma^lrr of Ceremonies, Paris de 
Grfissis, «>ays that Julius Icnelt longer than was his ironl at 
the tomb of the Apostles, and as he entered his ApOft- 
ment he said: "Since we have returned in ^fety> we 
have indeed good cause to chant the Te DcunL" • 

In truth Juhus 11- had achieved a great 3iJccies!& It was 
enthusiastically celebrated by the poets of the timc.f lo 
Wis addiess in the Consistory. Cardinal RafT^ueLe Riario said: 
" When your Holircss first annuunecfl your project of 
bringing Bologna back to a true obedience under th 
Holy See, the excellence of the object that you had ia 
view was plain to us alt. Hence we rejoice with our whole 
hearts now that this noble and glorious end li attained. 
The success of your Holiness has immensely increased th« 
honour and consideration in which the Holy Sec is hel 
and covered your own name with a glory itial will ncx'cr 
perish. Your Holiness has dc^crvctl to be ranked among 
those Illustrious Popes who, csisting aode all prrsonal oo 
sJderations or family (nieiests, proposed no other end 




• Paris tkB Grash^ ed Frati, 172-176. C/. AiSEarrvr, ppi 
xxm ; SaxuTO. VIL, 4^ <fyir$. fM«n/ uf the inxtipiionh are w 
chamctenstic of die period.) C/.^^LaVK PaRMSMiUs. 3i6iUtd 
*Kfport of Giov. (^onj!rtg;i, Komr, aKtb M^rch, and iluc at Cardin 
Gonu^ gf the 19th Manh (stx Appendix, N, 7l\ in the Gotmica 
ArchW«4, Monnia, oiid in Appcodi^, N. 73, CoiTabili's *Rcpon, the 2Stb 
M.iri:h. i>07. itxtt Arcluvn, Modena. 

f Ki. AMSKOsru)^ CommcnL. dc rebus gtHi^ EtapL MiAiuusi, 
C/. Fifes, M^ihgl^if, h, 3^0^. 


themselves but the care of preserving and augmenting the 
authority and majesty of the Holy See."* 

* •Scut ab initio S, V, fcdl verbum de rebus Bononiensibus compTO- 
batum fuiti nihil posse praestantiua cogitari quam urbem banc redigci^ 
ad veram obedientiam SedJs apostoJicae, ita nunc to(o corde gatidere ct 
cxsultajT d^>cinus, quod 5. V. consecuta fiicnt ilium optimum ct glori- 
osum fioem, quem in animo suo^ Deoet justitia inspirantibus pr-aecon- 
ceperat S- V. mirum in modum corroboravit ct ampliavit existima- 
tjonem status ecclesiastici et auxit Immortalitatem famae ct nominis sui 
ita, ut merito jam fueni sortita locum inter illos clarissimos pontificea, 
qui posthabrtis bumanis afTectibus, «tiam sui proprii san^inis, nullum 
aUum finem ul» propon«banI quam sobm curam tt vigilantzam cotiserv' 
andi et amplificandi aucloritatem et majestatcTn Apostolicae s«dis. *Con- 
listonalia Rapb. Riarii card- S- Geor^i^ Cod. J, HI., 8^ t ii9t in the 
Chigi Library, Rom^ 



OuvGEs iH TKE PoLmcAL StTTTATioM m EtmoPK vrrKE 

1507 AN1> 1509— JCLICS II ■nrHEATE^iED D¥ SpAiN 

Vl»ick--Tiic Pope's Vicroav. 

The rapid subjugation of two such Important cities 
Bologna and Pcnig:ia to the government of the Chu 
had immensely cnhttnced the prestige of Julius IL in the 
eyes of his contemporancsi* but he had no notion of 
Ttsling on his laurels, kiiou'ing how far he still was fiom 
the goa! which^ from the first moment of his elevation, 
had proposed to himself- The " lai^est and by far the m 
difficult portion of hfa task, the wresting from Venice 
the town* and territories belonging to the States of 
Churcb which she had appropriated, lay still before him. 

The settlement of the year 1505 was of such a nature' 
as,\n the Mords of one of Julius II/5 bitterest opponent*, to 
»et a scdl on the helpless condition of the Papacy-J Even 
a teas energetic ruler than this Pope would have been driven 
to strive for the evacuation of the Romagna. 

But meanwhile other events occurred which forced »U 
Julius ll.'s plans for repelling the usurpations of the Ven< 

■ VlLT^ai, M^hbvelli^ L, 436. 

1 Bacscn m Svusls Hl>l Zciuchr., XXXVII., vu 



liAn* fnto the background. He found himt^clf seriously 
tfarcatcucd by both France and Spain. 

The first dtapLtc between ihc Pope and King Ferdinand 
of Spftin AFCMc out of the suzerainty of the Holy Sec over 
?^apl«and the fciidaf dues; to thi^r^thers were soon added 
by the encroachments of the King on iJie right of the 
Church in the appointments to Bishoprics in Castile-* The 
ten&iort produced by their difTcreiKea vrent on ]ner(?flsfnf:^, 
atthougli on the 17th May. 1 507, Julius had bestowed the 
Rcd'hat or the King's trusted minister Ximcncs, the dis- 
tm^tiiahcd Archbishop of Toledo, who ^vas aUo an ardent 
advocate of rcform.l When, in June, 1507, Fcrdin-ind irjw 
on his way from Naples to SavonA, Julius hastened to 
Oiitia h^ hopes of obtaining an inlervievs' j but the Kin^ 
4il«ouneoi]sly sailed past Ostia without stopping J At 
S^iYona, tou'^rd^ ihe end of June, he met Louis XH^ and 
there a rcconciliaticrn between the two Kings took place.§ 

• STfiJSMO?<r>o !»:' Co^fri, 11., ^24, jji ; TtossBACH, Caffr^jRl, 8fi: 

+ GOM^^ 1003; Hkpfie, Xim*TieSj J55, li) tlie •Art* Cnptirt., f, 
14 (Cofitivtoi al Archives of ihc Vaticui), the dale ot Xiincnci' ncnnino- 
lioQ i> milling, but it c&n lie dct^mimiid with ccrtuirit^r hont ih» Bn«f <if 
JdEih ir, (fVCT byGOMW, Jiw. lif. The subjpfiof Card. Xim*npi' leat 
hi ibcGUKof rcfi>nnwillUi<luli witliftifUicivu* 4^ HnrfiLfi, daJtiho 
Ifdn-flft, KAtiLElroph«, 16 i^f. 

t fmnant, jiilSm 11., 1^0-143. 

S Whftt paued attUiimeeling At SArouaiAnotyet'ullyknown; hMtl, 
ISimU K9 f-Y-; Lehmww, 4 i Bhokh, 143 . and, recently, C. FlUPPl. 
II canvpgnn di H;i^fnift [Savana, '^'/^)t A'ho cii^s many Fli>rvniin«i 
AirtiUftuloiiat RcpQtts. havcdeated upagical deal, buc not -dl There 
Menu ti> b« ro doubt that An nlluincff nroinst Vcnioe vttis lerioialy dk- 
runed, im6 ihir in :i ci*rTnm '^mic Ihe pmurd wis pwpiretl fof the 
LtfipR of CAnitirhii. f/ nci* pufticulirs drann from [he SttimncM 
Anihirw bf M^ltde in Out R*v, rfHisL Dipl,, 1^'., 5S3-590, and 
Ttum in hi* imriw, Anwni del «nvegiio di Snvnnai, in flu? Ani e 
Uein d SoCv Scor.Sa\ciieM,fr, 779 av< Still it !» by 00 mcaa> certola 



The disproportionate strength of the army 9cnl by tl 
French King to quctl the rebellion in Genoa made the 
understanding between the two great powers Appear all the 
more ominous for the Pope, since it seemed to point lo 
satne furthff design. Aiitilbcr rem«rlt»<bk ihiny wa* the 
number of Cardinals at hi% Conrt. Fir^t, then: were the thrc^^f 
French CartiinaW (including d'Amlxji^e), thcr xhf. CardiraT 
d'Angona, who had been on the French aide ever since the, 
dcAth of Alexander VI., and Cardinal Sani^verfno, wj 
afterwards lapsed into ^hiem.* In May 150", Julius I 
had aent Cardinal Antonio Pallavicino^ a Genoese* to Cl 
Kini^S camp and he too was now In Savona. The obji 
of thi^ Legation, according to Sigismondo dc' Conti, w^l? 
peisuadc Louis to deal leniently with the Genoese, and 
disband liis army.* Tht magnitude of the French foi 

(Ii4t tlic Aif^nriDciil of the Jt^l^ Junr, 1507* totitiuni ll% whulc uf \\ 
tirmnffrtncnu entered into by die (wo jiirtici^ And Mauld« docs rot <i»- 
cwl Trent ^^m^fif ihjit hr^ n not m s posiTiori to fiimi^h an fuliatJ^K* 
lUlcmcnl of (he loult^ v( [lie ijilcrvierv, VoQ ajtnc acw docuittCDft* 
tiai'a been diicot«rcd, wc ouinot stt beyond this. 

t SifltswoMw db' Cowti. IU 375; Sawuto, VIl, 75, 76, &t.88t 
94,96^98, TOO, i04t irjt 'i^. M9« 15?, r33. The nomination of PalU- 
vkino AS Ltgatp 10 f h» F rvnch Cnun f^^llowcd in a CnnsiEinry on <he jdi, 
M*x- ^5^ - ^ *CAnl(nJ Gonsvs's Ixttei (□ his btothcr, dAlod 
5th May, ijo? (CoiujLgn Archive*, Mnnlua). and •Co«*blii'j 
Ronw, Aih May. I fo;, (Seaie^ Amhiv^^, Modeua.) Otnffna) PalUviriTd' 
uiicd on the i9tli Mav ('Intiav^inius mnic cum n>«ix difl^culiAic, id the 
ttiimarium. On Uw ?oLh thn Pope wrote lh« Href bo [^ut& X] U £iv«n 
la Appendix, N. 75X^iid ^ifier !ui rriumon thr lAih Auc-TcadaR^ton 
of hii RUttion in ContUtory, He illciJ soon iiftcr (SA^UTO» VIL, ijoX 
The ucooiu of the joumcy, «lc-, probably by somo one who hod 
pani«il lum, is m *liincmfium Card'^ S. Prawilii ad Ludovicuin 
in Cod. DorxhcK. U laS. C t-As, jud Btbl. riA.6i.f 117-149. (i 
Aniuvct of l!ic VAriran-) No informklion in r^^rd lo lh« purport 
Uic Cardinal's Enission 19 Lo be r>buincd fioin thik docimicnL. (JtMK 
CAUTOH, Chroiuiiues, ed. Jacob, IV., loj, iidmilA hj^ iicnomnco 



1)acl aroused alarm In Germany as wdl as In Italy, as ivc 
sec from ihe rciulinions at ihe Diei of Con^tanct 

According to the siatenKMits m^ide by PalUvirino !o xhe 
FlofcnUnc Envoy 10 Sav'ona, his instructions were, first, to 
<!creft<l the l'op« against the rdse accusation of having 
invited Maxifniltan to invade Italy, and here, it s«cms, he 
was successful In the second place, he wa? to ftsk that the 
Ifcrtivogli should be delivered over to JuIIuh H., and here 
he failed. Louis X [ L denied that Giovanni and A[c:i,<(a]idro 
lien tivogi to were implicated in the plot cigain^t Itologn^; 
aod said he could not in honour gUt^ them up,* From 
ejtfireisions let fall by one of ihc Cardliikh who was previ^nt 
IE appeared that Pallavicino had several loT)g converfiattons 

this poioi : i/. Kkittu, 3^) It merely dctcnbu the Le^tcr'» joume/, 
■nd tfav ccnriiiotiiitl obwtved at hh rectpiitm hy Uniu XW, aad ai the 
mM^og ol the two Kln^ at Savonn. In p<-Tttici il kccpt criijrdy to cx' 
tmuli :— f T31 - Milan, 7ih Juiie : l.t^tiu ct RtXhotnagiensitLubueriini 
Co fl oqutimi accjctc ; T < jj : M'ha. juih Jgjtc ; Rcci'llun oTlbc I,e^iLi<: 
bjr Ch« Kingp RcK dedii k^io (lutcram et Ivicnini in Okinenni icgia 
evni dieib nrdinalibm [Kothi^ir^Ag,, Narbon,, Kil^n.]^ «t ^^crtie sum 
loquuf] pri ipotium dtuuum hoTiuuin ; tijy: Saviavt^i^iUjutie ; Let^Liu 
et KMbufiug^tuu loquuti »UnE tocrote cum rc^n ptr iUua. hant'i. The 
ooawDc of thLi waft the inryal afei mvs^ieiiger fmm Rome with tht Rpd' 
tiau tor C«rdinalft AuxianDiu aiid bniiu^nai?, tlic fir^t of vrUont had 
died In MBaa a few itnys before, white lUe sccoiid was lyrng seriously ill 
In thr fcim* plarf. Fir>t(;i Iwiautior* cum r^f;* li?^l(ii pi Rrnha- 
ma^QVS .... vcEicrunL std &;Lirtciiu» RuUioiiu^rr^ibi:!. tii quA ftmbu 
Mcr«l* tuni Icx^uuli per horun. De quibuE mafciiis loquutj suntf non 
est Tntum qtiopnpir ; f, 147 : Snvonfl, rsi July ; Ttie two Krngs invil^rl 
ihc Ix:jcitc io ccnc to thciri, quia ctaJit gccuiu loqunEiiFi . . ^ . Lefratui 
hnt ad Ck^ncromf vbi rcges «nitxt ; ptjr clu.t» ht>ra« itciiE ct^m iU\t oi 
c^irdinati RotbonuifOiu. Thr Itirvorium ih«n df^^ciibv^ ihv drpJirtuTv 
Cpf the King of SpAJQ from Sivun* on llic and July, llmf nf iJie King of 
FnnrY on the 3rd ; the (Mnbaikalioti of the Lc^-atc on ibe ylh of thai 
month, *nJ hS r^ivpiijin in thp CfirsiiUTy on the i3*b Aviif. 

* norcndne Repcrt, ducd Sa^oqo, 4^1 July* t^o?. in the AtL il Sod 
Sat., It., 19 30. 



with LouU XU. ftnd d'Amboisc, in the coukq of whjdi h^^ 
met with but scant courtesy, especially from the Ifttter.* ^^ 

Iq connection with the meeting of the Kings At SavoniL 
some things soon transpired which led the Pope to Apptc-, 
hcDd tti4i cuj attack oa UIa spiriiuiil jjuaci w>is cumcin] 
Ferdinuml himself adrattteil thi&t tlic reA>rm uftJie Oi 
had been ducussed. It i^ Jil^n certain that hrfr ;igaifi, 
lormerl)', he encouraged d'AmboIsc in his aspirations 
the Tiara.! 

Giticciardint says that Julius J I., in hi« cxtrt^mc m 
turned for help to MaximiUaa This h not con^rmed 
jiny recent investigations. "0" the contrary, it b d>ciiM>o- 
strahk that tlic primary object of his poHcy was to cffccta 
rccoDcillation between Maximilian and Loub XII. and to 
unite their force* ;igainst Vcmci;;. From the end of tho^j 

* The ilbcrdrium tiionu^cci aXn^K nivcs a >i(niUr imprcsuoQ. 
f. I39itxi)r»cf d'AmboJEf : ^p&e est vcrvTcx Fn!icb& Secret Arclui 
of Ji« VaE![:aa 

* LLItb1A^N^ 4, who also refers to Kcrdinord'* mcnaea ic htny j 
thai he w4^uM withdraw iJEbi^ Slaus from the aLlc^fiAnccof the Holy Soc^ 
Hic [cEicr vluct coiiujD^ Ibis thrall Is ^Un^^icd lu lUv VKtiuy of 
Naplt^r ^^'^ in it he b desired, without more Ado, tr> hang ^ay ome ivbo 
bnfi^h !4 h'xp;i\ ftEi]J Ahic^h iui dot noivcd tli(> Koyil fttUii iOlO th* 
kirgdoui. h wulLi^LiJubJiE^icdbyr.Dt QL'},Obia>,XL(M<ulnd, 
>T9>-94\ J-9i *n<l oftcrwudd ia Itw Lcltrev dc L>otu« XIU I-* lo9'ii4< 
B. de U Ftiente errcuicously luppotei thit teticr to be a PratttCui 
iiivGiiiioM uf tlic cud <A^\x. L Oili Centur/. Tlictui Icii^va no doubt wio 
tU oiigin, ^md the ^cinicuCi perfect]/ ocurc^poAd ^iih Fcidiruknd'i potk/ 
anit wlih tht ji^i'ulii/ \iew* of lui royal rnjht* which he emcn^uoed 
Fcriioiind limply vetoed FUipikl UulJ» uifiuu lUid jyma^ 0» ihc jut 
Augij 1509, Ix i»ucd a decnse puniihiDK ^'ith death oa/ pcncA wbo 
should obrftjn, either from ihc Pope or lim l^gstte.SLity Bujl or docvDU&t 
afajiut the Spcuiiah Inc4ul3iliim. LUDHtMlb:, 1., 3£S-36g ; Ga»^ III,, 
ta^j^;^ rjo-i^a. FerUioaiid and hi* Eiai^?y?i(./ J*fii:«COTTr IU^^m) 
were ppffealjr indeCnii^ble m Rome in dcm^dirg cflnccifiioiu, eipt- 
eiallv in fegwd to money matlcjo, €/. CvsUtili* ■*IU|xui, Rwuc. 
Au^i 1^^ Slate Archives, Modenn. 




year i $o5 Costandno ArenUi h<td been workfng byhisorden 
in this direction."* 

The pope's anxiety in regart! (n Maximilian's j>roposecJ 
rHit to Rome U a dear proof haw far he ihen was from 
fhinlcing of applying to htm for ABststancc-t When in 
th« Summer of 1507 it was announced on a)l sidcft that 
Maximilian vasi cert^mly coming to Italy, Julius rcaolvcd 
to 9cnd a Cardinal as Legate to Germany^ He selected a 
mae who waftonc of MaximiUttn's moat faithful fncndaat 
the Roman Courts Cardinal iJcniarclj]inCArvj.jal, Fumuhetl 
wfih ample [lowers, the Cardinal left Rome on the flh of 
At^gUKt, t^o^, and pa^ng ihiough Siena met the King at 
Tnfwbmck in the middle of Sep!cmbcrg 

Carvaj'al waa charged to endeavour to dissuade the King 
from coming to Italy with an 'Axmy% and to propose instead 
that he should be crowned limpcror in Germany by two 
Cardinab wlio would be sent for tliia purpose. II Ueiidci 

* L'lmann, U., jo^ Mowmg Baoftcir, i^j, 3^ r^. 

t Ulmamk. Max. [. Atokliten. lO-ll.ahcwv w!iai paJa« Fiance look 
to ncreoso the Pope's disirvfll of MaximiliAn. The King hnd already in 
a LeiTvr to lire Pope tn Aiii*. rjufS, announced ha 1 nicrli on ef nuking An 
amxd pit^iiTingc li> Rnmc- (Sce^ in Appendix $9, ArMgo^« 'Letter of 
i$ih Acy^ i$<^) ^late Archivei, Mantua. 

X On ihe Xih July, 1 yoy, CmiL <jfniih^» wroie lo hi» biatlicr, *Si bene 
per ccito L-i vcnuin d^l Re dc Romani, Gon/nj^a Archive?. Mfiniua, 

S Saxutc, Vli,, ]33,tAysoTiib« loch; Ko^suAOii, 93, iho »Lh* the 
*AcUi Omaisc, £ J4,tbc4diAu^ (ConsbLoriul An:hivcii>f(hc Vatiaw.) 
Tb< Authentic mfonviMtion vluch itc icelc far b mm in K^y^alhi;^ .^d 
■n. 1507,11, £, ii to he f<ituidin the ■DLuium of I'ARIS DK CUA^M^S; lA 
|ultt, 1507: Otnlinnlis «. Cru Is H. Bent, Can-iL^ltanua ocatui «i 
kcaiva ad ptutcs CcnnaTii&c obvjain Impcraioii vcninro in iMhnoL— 
4 Augnab fiiiT conimrcnuni pubiicum. The HuiM ^n^rc^l ihc u»ual 
pn^rt for ihe new Li^^tiic^ wtitj ilirt) itiitcil D» iltc Convent of S^^^Lma 
dol Fopola Ibi fecit [irutdiuirj tt in autcra9C(^ucctiarri|;tiit iter. C^ 
LaL t^e, f, 113^ Et4^,of the Courr and Stoic Ljbnuy, Mcmkb, 

[\ Mackmvilli, Opcrc, cd. Pai^cnur, V.. X4'/, and SawutO, VlU 


this, he was to make two other propoeUtioni to the King, 
one for a universal Lca^e amon^t fill Cbrbtiftn PrJfMCS 
£i^in3t the Turka, and the other for a »pcd&] alliirMC 
between him and the Pope aifainst Venice. The (inrt 
propoKAl w;l% rejected but the Mcond ws» accepted* Thte 
mjccrft^. hriwrv^r. was of Ultle use to Julius ]l> as long «■ 
M^xfmlllaii persisted In rejecting all overtures for a recon* 
cilJatlon u-ith France. Carvajal, however, remained with the 
Kin^. and did not relinquish his purpose. When he Ibiicid 
that the Venetians obstinately persisted in refusing to allow 
him to pdLia through their territory on his way to Rome. 
Maximltian bc^'an to lend a more favourable ear to the 
pervasions of tlx Legatee *' In February, t^oS, he made 
seem overtures for an ofTenfllve and defensive allJanee 
against Venice to the Court of France, which corresponded^^ 
tn all essentials with the future League of Cambrai,''t ^| 

At this titDe Maximiii&n did a thins which wu com- 
pletely at variance with all prc^-tous mcidiarval custooLt 
On the 4th February, t ^oS^through his counsellor Matthsus 
l^ng, Bishop of Gurk, he solemnly proclatn^ed In the 
Cathedral of Trent that he had a^umed live title of 
" Empcror-elcct of Rome/' He look pains to explain, 
however, in a letter to tlie Empire, and by his Eni^-a ai 
Rome, that this proceeding was not in any way intended 

119: Bao»cit. i|0, 145; UuVAXM, tl^ 333. HsacumAmtiE'* 

ecHMar aifinn«ati« VtU., 444-44S> <^" not *«*™ *o B>« oomacvfr 
• Sa«r*^l^"^'^T V'1-, r^^ftV^vhohad inmwOTtiy ipfenwiie 

t^mt iXiO^tncM Droscb hou cniiilookML C/. ItOSBiVkCK, Carn^yd, 93 Mf . 

£uiisuo>ct>o ot CoerrTe accotxni, n.» 3S, u inooarplnv. TW Bn 

KAvrvArnu^.i^t sn "W-"- ft»ndtbf •firii»rof lah Frb^isoS, 

m AppGTulix, S\ 76, rrtfcr 00 dw Cnuidc^ Ki^suchiv in Waixfaarg. 

t Ulmakm, tU 334-335 ' Baosai, Jtiliui 1I„ t^tef.^y^t^. 

X Bavci; la Ht Ho)/ RDrrun Empire, 4]Di(e nvmiFpi ifae mark tn 
oyivi tlul the uwmiHitfo of tlu* dlkr liicnilKJ "the acpuaUm nl 
Ccoaany from Roakc" 



contravcac the Pope's rights in regard to his Coronation. 
On the contrar>"i he was as determined as ever to comc to 
Konnc to be crowned there hy Julius [I. as soon as he li&d 
conquered ihc Vciiciiaus* The cxplanalion thus given* 
Mfc-^uurdiiig the right of the Holy See, enabled Julius II. 
to d«larc himself perfectly «atislied, as in fact he had 
FcasoQ to be, with an act which, at any ntc, put oflf for a 
time the dreaded visit to Rome. On the uth of February, 
IJO8, he addressed a Brief to " Maximilian, Em ptTur -elect 
of Rome," in which he recognised and praised the correcl- 
ocss of hb attitude towards ilic Holy See, and added that, 
jAS tlic Churcli silroidy prayed for him on Good Friday as 
Roman Kmpcrnr, he was fully justified in assuming the 
title The remaining contents of this Brief lead us to infer 
that the Popo'i affability was not quite unmotivcdn It im- 
prej^^ed upon M:tKBmilian the expediency of coming to 
terms with France, and of making his visit to Rome with- 
out the dccompanimcDt of an armyf 

• ^ihc Report ioFor>thuns*o*, Deutaclx Gc^K^l^?! ; io Jakssbn, 

RcidHCOrECtpundeni;, II., 743-744 ; [tndMLUiii\LliaA'& l^ciltrE in DaTT, De 
pKepabliQ. ^63-j7a. C/. Hubuk. IIL, 368, ar<l Mhiheil. d. (K%tei- 
nkls. lniULut*» XU 44' Sec nUo the Riporo di uno espLoiator la 
SaXUTQ, VII., J93 39J, which dsD says thai Card. Con^jal remained 
at Boiita ^ako Kawh*', )>eiitirh- Gr*rh, V[,, goif^,: Tommasinj, 
UachuiTlll U 4it J<V'i HiUDEifdCiMER, P. Murtyi, 173 "f-; and 
R<MtaACll> CAJTftjal, 95, vly> ^vcs Mcnin inbLeoid (if IkiUcn, A IcUcr 
of giace dMpatched by hwn <5ii j\th Frh., r;o? ^5t fl), from Potarn, »nd 
prc)dct3 i;i Llic Aichivo of lLc iiiuii'thlci)' ai CfiC», piuvc^ lIuLl he wju 
ccrtJiinly suymp there on iKae d^y. KiBM, who, in the Zeiischn d, 
F^rtUnarKtcnnn C)^!>>)>334 ''V? phli&hc^ ;i poiTion of ihia Icnor, puti it 
by mUlakc in die >caj 1507, JnilcfiJ uf 1 (q3. Cdn^.^jiil did nal ccmr 
backfremCemuny utvcilihc i?Eh jon-f 1509. ^ActLx Coniiu-^ f. £4. Con- 
Bnteml Archives of tT>e VMlir»n. 

t See (lie *Rnef iti Appendix, N, 76, Jtftcr a <'£j|>y in die KreiuTihiv in 
WUrkburs. and ols^ in Appcmllx, N\ 7; and 7S, Oird,Cimingn^i*l<ttcn 
of (he rath and 34th Hb., 150s, tn the Uonxaifa ArchivM, M^mtuo. 



On ihc day after ht% proclamation, Maximilian com-^ 
mcnccd hostilities affain:;t Venice, and hi* troops at 
achieved some succ«53^ Oft the isl of March he 

in the hi£hc:^t spirits to the Elector of Saxony: " 
VcrKiIaiii portray thtir Lion with Iwo feet in the 
one an the plain country, and one on tht? Tiiounlains. Wc 
liavc all but CDnqucrpd the foot on the mount^iiK ; one claw 
finly hold^ fast, which will be ours, with the help nf Gcid, h 
a week- Then w'e hope to tackle the ofie on the pJaIn/ 
But in a very short time the tables were turned Support* 
to the great annoyance of Julius IK.^ by the French, tl 
Venetians carried cverj'lhing before them. The victoi 
army overran Tivoli and Istria; in May they conquered 
Trieste and Fiurac, and b>- tJ:c beginning of June ihcy had 
('enetralerl Into CarniciU. On the i;th Junt: llie Empei 
wajionly ion glad to conclude, thmugh Carvajar^meJialtf 
A tnice for three >'ears, which left to Venice ricarty cvn 
thing thai her an^* had won.; The Venetian*, quite 
unaware of the dangers of the path ihcy were treading, wcr4^ 
full of joy and triumph. ^| 

The land-hunger of the Republic is described by 
irlacbiavelli in hb vcrsca: 

San MaiGO in^pctuoso, cd jniportuno, 

Crcdtrndoti aver lempie il venio rn {nppa. 
Nod il c\xtt> di ruvinarc a^nuiio; 

Nc' vide come la potci^/a troppa 
Era Qocava : e come il oic' sarebbe 
Tcner aott' Acqua la codft c fa groppa- 

* lUlfK^ Deutsche Gadiidiie, I., 176, ed. j, 

i Cfy l.bUovtco iJji CiiKn[>Q 5dfnpi«iv'B *Lc(tOT to ihe Moiqun* of 
ManaUf ilnted Rome, >7ili March, 150S. Goiur;ign Arctinvs, Maoiua. 

I ^ HvaKR, WX^n^iitu^ whffOBll die liccrauiic gn the nibjeaiv 
cB^uUy bdicaicd and cnticstd. 

£ MACHUVBLU, v., 400 Cf. Alto T0W»AS]VI, Mftchia^lJj 
Ret abo the contpbincs of tbe Florcniinc chrotiklci, t^NUUCCit 


In consequence o( ihis " land-liungci," by this time there 
Wis hardly one of the yirai jjowprftwhithhad ntrt itomtrthiiig 
to Utftnand back from thrf Kq>ub1Ic, and (hist it Ui^s which 
broi^t about hor ruin. Greedily anxiou* to come to 
tenna with the Emperor, the Venetian*^ in their haste, had 
taken no heed ol the Interests oi their ally- This produced 
« cooaplctc revolution in the policy of Kroncc 

Towards the do»c of November, Maximilian's confidcnHal 
coun^lor Matt h.i: u> Lp^ing, one English tU)d one SpanUh 
AiDboAsador, Loui^ XII.'s all-powerfu] minister d'Ambt^se, 
and U^e Emptror's daughter Margaret met together at 
Cam brat. 

On the loth of Decembt^r, 150S, the compact knoivu as 
the League cf Cambrai was here concluded. The only 
portion of it thEtt was destined tot publication was t1«e 
treaty of pc&cc between the Emperor and the King of 
France, which, among other things, bestowed Milan as a flcf 
oD Loiii5 XIL and hb descendants, Tlie object of the 
league \^a^ ostensibly ihc Crusjrk' a^amat tlic TuiK^; but 
bcforirtliUcotild be commenced Venke must l>e constrained 
10 give back her spoils, A second and secret treaty, tn 
which the Pope and the King of Spain might be parties \i 
they cho^, wa« drann up, bindinf; the contracting powers 
to oblige the Kepnbhc to restore all Uic cities of the 
KomELgna to the Po^.c; the Apulian sea-board to the Kiog 
of Spain ; Ro\'Credo, Verona, Tadiia^ Vicciir,a, Trcviso, and 
Friuli to the Emperor ; and Utc^OA. Ikrgamo, Cremo, Cie- 
mona, Chiara d'Adda, and all fic& belonging lo Milan to 
the King of Franco, If the King of Hungary joined the 
Le^ue Ite was to ^et back all his former possessions in 
Dalcnatia and Croatia ; equally the Duke of Savoy was to 
recover Cyprua, ond the Duke of Fcrrara and the Marquee 
ol Mnntua nit the territories wrested from them by the 
Venetians if they too joined the Leagues Fidncc waa to 




declare war oo the i st or Aprtl, tbe Pope waj to lay tHe ban 
oftlio Ouirch and an Interdict on Venice, and to call on 
MaKtmilian, as the lieutenant ot tbe Holy See, to ctxnc t^M 
bis asststancr. Thus, at the- end of the forty days, Xhc 
Emperor ^vould be released from his treaty obligations 
towards the Republic, and able to join tbe French.* 

Even down to the present day JuUu* 11. continues to 
blamed in unmeasured terms for having; brouj^ht th« 
foreigner into Italy. As a matter of fact at thh decisive 
iroment the Pope field baclc. and "it waa Venke herself 
who drove him Inio joining the League, which he cordially 
disliked, angry as he wa^ with the Republic^ Me knew 
France and her King well, and thoroughly mistrusted 1>oth, 
and this feeling wa« amply reciprocated by Louiv X1L and 
d'Ambotse, even while the League of Cambrai, in which no 
Papat plenipotentiary took part, was being negotiated. "■*■ 

JtiUus l\. did not ^oin the League till the 13rd Mard?, 
TjOO. after he had cxhaustctl all other means of inducing 
Venice to acknowledge hh temporAl and spiritual ^uthoritys 
fo her dealings with Rome the foresight Ami penetratio n 
which usually diaracterised the poljej' of the Repub9^| 
•eemed to have completely forsaken her ; she apprarrd n^^t 
to have the faimcit prwcrtlmcnt of the i;torra which her 
hi{*h-handcd conduct was conspiring to raise up against 



rot only in her pohcy in the Romagna 

• DVMOM, IV., f, 109 tff- ; Lg Gi-AY. Et «5 /^. i LAN/, Ein* 
Inrlurg, 9J try. : HtBEff, Ml,, J74 rtf. C/ alio Arch. St. ItaL, 3 Sen*, 
IV., 1, litse^. 

i Rbumont, hi., l =6. C/, Gv\caxM>wu VElh, c i.i Ha 
UUIX, 11^ a;6, vSo ; Jind Ui.uann, 1L, j6$, Th« Bn«< addm»«d 
Julim 11. 10 d'AinlraiK on the zSili Dec., 1 joS (in MoLJNi, t^ S4"SS^ 
btr^y con|fnitubT« him crn Oio corcluaioD of peace hclwecD France and 
itie EmperoiT ; h ii fcmrhcd tn the most (bncrins vnn«, bui tli*r# n not 
fi utcd Lir it iboul VcnicQ. 



Vonlcc persisitntly tTanpkd on tlie dear right *l of ihc Pope.* 
Fotbn^ing her traditional practice she arrogated lo llie 
SUte in purely spintvial matters a supremacy which would 
have made the government of the Church by Rome an 
impos^bitity.t The Go^-crrment repeatedly fcrbaUe aod 
cv-cfi punished appeals to Rome in ccclc^iaatic^l matters; 
cccksiasticd persons were brought before secular tribunaJa 
vrithout tlic pcrirUsiion of the I^opc ; tor this the dcplontble 
corruption of many of the clergy nii^ht have afforded some 
«ccll9e^ But there could bt? no ju?<tiltcat{on for the corduct 
of the Senate in giving away benefices and even Bishaprics 
on tbcif own authority.* Even staunch friends of the 
Republic blamed these outraf^tous vfclationa of Canon-Uw, 
which DO ['ope could alTord bo tolerate.^ The consequence 
was a never ending scries of mUundeni landings nnd disputes 
oa Gccksmtic^l matlcrd between Rome and Venice. One 
of the most serious of these was tliat about tbc appointment 
to the Bishopric of Cicmona, which had been hdd by 
A^canio Sfoiia. After his death, In the Summer of 1505, 
the Senate immediately selected a devoted adherent of their 
own, a member of the Trevlsat^o family. Julius fh refused 
to coniinn this appointment, as he had intended to give 
it to the excellent Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere, The 
Venetiars maintained that it had always been customary 
for the Senate to elect the Bishops for a.lL the Important 

• SMRmiMOKTmUieG^l-GeL AnL(ilf;&J, [I,, 846. 

t See Vol I V- n( thh work, 91 se^. 

t Sec, bciidcs Juliui It.'s Buil of 37th Apr., 1509, wHch will be citei 
fanbtron, A. ClUii-TiNijUT'S Dispacci, JI., 459 ; lit,, 3S8; and Upos^cir's 
(ctf mane very on^iidfd) iTatfiments in Svkkls Zf-itsclir, X>DCVI|]., 
joS Ay-i Jt» well u die Briefs of the iGLb And iBih Doc., J$c6y la 
Appendix, N, 57 and 58, Secret Archives of the Vaticin. 

i C/. iht rrmArkHble 5ialom«nis ir Luigi ua Pokto, it^ who 
al»crvc» : Di modo chc 11 papa per qu»tc cd ^Ero oooe ancoia noo £ in 

dtic5 in their dommions and for Rome to confirm thmt 
dtoicc^ as if the Uo\y Sec was bound lo all <hacs to ac- 
cept their nominations. The negotiattons on thh ^tubjec^H 
dragged on C^n two whole years, until at last Jxtli^s l^^ 
yielt^eil, a sum nf money being handod over totheCanlmal 
as compcnsatinnt This dispute had hardly l>pcn settled 
when a new and more violent ono arose over the Bi<hopne 
of Vicenwi, rendered vacant by the death of Cardinal 
Galcotto dclla Rovere. Juliuu II»had given Vicenaa, to> 
^thcr with aU the other bencliccd which had been bcLd 
by the deceased Cardtral. to SixlUi Gara cicUa Rovere. 
while the Verelian Senate determined to appoint }acopo 
Dandola In spite of the Pope's refusal to confirm his 
iTomination. Dandalo look possc^^ion of the Sec and bad 
the insolence to style himself " Biilin^j'clect of Vicenia 
by rbe grace of ihe Senate of Venice,'^ He answered the 
Pope's citaticn with a defiant letter, knowing that he had 
ttie support of tlie Republic^ ^H 

U will be seen that the Venetians were steadily pursuing" 
their aim of making the Pope, a^ Machiavcllt puts it, 
"their cbaplaia"!! while Jultua JI< aa rc^tutcly resisted. 
He tnld the Venetian Ambiissodor that if McceiKLry he 
would sell his milrc rather than relinquish any cf ih^^ 
righta that apj^ertalned to the sucre&^or of S, Pctcr^ ^H 

Side by side with these incessant eedesfastlcal difTicultie-r 


* Siwrro, VI.. 177. ifiS. iW. 3»7i JJ5.34? ! VII,, laO. (y, , 

443 /Tf., 8od Saoscil, 16] nv,, who. liuwDver, uivca VOa uma of tbc 
Veactun OirdiiiAl mcMTccily. UCttfim, IV., 614. corously, docs twt 
nicrncion thic dt^ta ai alL 

: GUKXiAainM, VIIL, chap. L 

S B^LAK, v.. 45<X 

II lAjucmAvvLii, Optn, «d. Putnini. IV,, 3^4- C/^ DiffttCtC dfi A. 

GrUTTUHAMt III., 179. W3d TOKMA&[!fX, Macbiuvelli. L, sgS. J 
Y SaWto^ Vli,, 643 ; r/ S&c^ 67S, 694, and UOtfCLU, V^ 



tbe political orc9 titW remamed uiiahcrcd. JuIiltk M. did 
cvcr>'thiiig he oould t» bring about an iunfcablc soliitloit. 
TowAfd^ ihc erd of the year 1506 he sent th^.^ cclcbraTcd 
Augu&tirFan Acgidius of Vit(."rbo to V«fmci? to offer, if the 
Venetians would give up F^ienva, to is^y no more about tbcir 
ochftr conquests. But thie proposal w.-l$ also rejected- Then, 
replied the Pope, since the Veneti;iris refuse m/ request 
for ot\c city only, they shall now be obligod by force of 
&rm5 to t^xvc back &I1 they h^ivc tjikcn. lie took no pabs 
to Ude hin mdignation Trcwn the Venetian Ambassador.* 
The Republic, however, still persisted not only fn defying 
tl>e Poi>c but in iirllating hira a* well, 

In the irsnlence of their trliiriph Siftcr the defeat of 
Maximilian, the SipioriA went out of its way to make 
tTOnbles In fiolcif^ni* the p1af« of aXi others about which 
IbIius would be most scnnitive. 

The position of the Legate there was a difficult ont, 
93 the Bcntivogli, favoured by France, never ceased con* 
spiring against the Government Ferrcri kept them 
down w^th an iron hind, and, in addition to this, behaved 
in so greedy and extortioimte a manner to the RologneM, 
that they appe-iltd to Rome ^igalnst hts exacltons.f JuUut 
IL had enquiries made, and finding that the Legate wa* 
m fault, at once acted with hig wonted energy. On the 
jnd of August, T507, Ferreri, on whom larger jjowcra 

• The miDiOD of Acsidiui of Vnerlw is only briefly nicndmud In 
SamuTO, VU 5s3h Ataiatvs hinuclf, in HOflcr'a ed., JS4, givca mort 
4«ttik. C/^ oXto the Htriu:» from the Femrfrte Dtipaicbes in IUlam, 
V^ 443 iiff. On the cbsttnacy of Venjcc id Tc^atd 10 the uluni 
mooDpoly, tec Cottlob, Cam, Ap,. J03- 

t COUADIKI; Alctiai ftwenimenii, Si u^., who, lievever, has 
aniotuJy out triadc tnuch use «f iiii^ Briefs in the Sutc Ad-lktves ;iE 
Bolof&L Amorjgvi Uicsc I EpuiuI a *^D[icf of yjih Aphl, i y>7, Ui- 
nonndng thai i;/>oo gcdd ducats a^rt being sent from Rome to enable 
tha Legate to defend the city agiur?^t the rehcb and lyranis. 




bad been conferred in ihc previous month of May, wi 
deprived of liis pCbE And iccallcd to Rome* Meanwl 
the discovery had been made that Fcrren had employed 
il legit i male ric<tn« to obtain the incrt'a^e of hts pow«n 
iti May, und in coit^c^juencc he was tmpri4o«eiJ in the 
Castle of St Afigelo, and ailertvardc intern^ in the Coi 
veni of 5. Ofiofrio (he died in i5o8).t 

The government of Bologna was then carried on by*' 
the Vice-Lc^atc Lorcnio i-'iesco. while the lientivogli con- 
tinued to prosecute their intrigues. In September it wj 
dbcovered they h^d been plotting to have the Pope 
poisoned. Jtliiis It, sent the documentary' evidence of^ 
tbi* conspiracy by AdiHtes de Grassis to Loub XII; 
begging him tc wiEht^niw his pTotPction from thiH family^ 
On the 30th of September he sent 5000 ducatfl to thi 
Bolognese to help them to def<;nd them&elvea a^rairs^^^ 
the tientJvof;li,§ In the bef^inmng of e;oS one of tH^| 
family made a fresh attempt to get possewion of the city- 
Julius burst into n violent rage when he ht:ard tl 
news, II 


• The "^hrtl conferring fulW powcre h dntet! 36(h Miy, 1507 
his i«call, sec Cof^^oiNT, Awcniiiiciili, i49> ^i>^ tlic 'Bticf of the znd 
Aug., 1507, Both lUicfi are in the Sutc Archives* Bolo^fiut. In » 
•Brirf to Ftrrtr\ d*t«l Rom*^ ^th April, 1507, Jnliiw U. ipi*« the 
ccdeiiB S, DLuii dn Sali plcbanU nun^upala, vhidi biiU hithcfto \ 
hddttyAjit-Cak^L dc Bcnuvolit, to Jah, Anton, de Kub«iis Lib.brv^\ 
t 393!'- Seem AictiLtti of the Vattoin. 

+ Paris pb CitA^i*, cd. Fmti, J19; */ DoBincc^ <d-, aSo^jSj^ 

Z RAYifALDt^ ad An. i$o^ n^ la ; EiumbtiirbeiichLe, L« xutt; 
PlCl'l^K, NucTtihtiircn, 4a. 

S •Brte* of the ^oth Sepi^ 1 go j. Slat* Archi**!, ftolcfpi. 

II COtCADI!<a. Att:uni avTcniaicnl], 95 s/^. ; nAi.\?a. V., 449 <3< th? 
*Rcpofl of Lddovico <U Cunpo S«npicro Co Fr. Gorui^j, daitd Ronic, 
5tst Jan., 150K: *Li Su dd papa vnrcnflo tuJ nova [iluu A. Bcob' 
voglio L«il cndcrvouicU uTmakc himadf tiuiicr at ha}ejfasi] vamh 






He failed,* but tried again U\ the Autumn of tJie same 
yew. Meanwhile Oirdiral AtidcjM had been makic Legate 
of Bologna.f Alidosr's ruthless severity h^d caused great 
irritation U^ Bolfi^na of wtikh iHl* BiTitivcigli nought to 
lake advantage; but thetr m^in hc^ were founded on 
the cupport of Venice However, tliey were again im- 
sucee£«ful,* Julius II. indignantly r<jmon:Jtrated with the 
Veretun Government for liarbourin^ in their lemtory 

a tnogw che pirevn un toto c non lAaui b Ei, V. niinacivji nia ancora 
el ci«kk <^on£ajcA <\rchivc3, Mfiatun- 

• AlfMrto of KcfT-m hclpwj to pur down thenflempL 4^ ihe "lirief 
of Julius II. tojgli, Luc-i ttc Potio. Ai^hUabop of KcL'jziD, iktcd Rcune, 
afib Jan., 150SL (ScAFcArchiviu, Mo<loiui.) lna*Bricl of thcaomtdate. 
Juliui thatfilrid Ciniinal d^Esce aJ^ for the jiszii^incE xiw^n Jjf^Jnsi (be 
BeistivuglL *Lib. b:cv. 18, L 6j4. Secjci Auhtvc^ uf iJic Viliuin- 

t G022AJ>1!V[, Awtoimenti, 158 160^ publishes a Iwcr from ihc 
CnuncH of FoTty tn th^i* Envny in Rnm*, dnr. Bnfioninp die XI [. Mall, 
ifoS, in v^hiUt Lhcy Acknowledge (he rctdpE of the Tcticr anpoundni; 
A&tod^ aomination on the XVIMI. M pr««flnt«^ The vditur, wIiorc 
wnrk b alloncihfir very onesided ind impeifcci, u not m nxiy way 
tfouUcd by this cuniiadjction. It 19 cvidcai that XXII. ahuuld be i^ad 
inucad of X(I, I faund tbe ^BricT od Alidor^i't nomirution, which is 
□at neniionf<[l by Goit;idmi» in the Siait Ar^liues xt VaAiys^n. 1 fourw! 
aho in ibc mil^i; pluc >t *1tricf of 2)ntl Mdv^ i ^o3, mi (he faculties 
^aled CO Alldosi ; "another of j6tli May, infonmng ibe Amiinr of hia 
jtppoinnneni ; anil ^itnorlLi^r, d^i. Ostb, i«i June. 1^, wiih nddltional 
fiicaliioi for tlic L^Atc- Tbc fallaHin^ cammunjcntion frcm Lod. da 
Cai&po Sini]J]Oro do Kr- Uoiuogar ftatcd Kom»r 17th Msirch, 150%}, ii 
inbensMinie ; Credi> I'avu ven> icvutu a BoIukiiu pel nva tneadiiato 
«|tteb Icguione ct nl prcKmtc recede c no« U voria T>crchc d conote 
apvrtanwAte b roma tuji andandali. l^ontagi Acvhiveft, ManEUO. 

I BaMN, V,, 450 : GOZZADINI* for. f^A, irj si^. Fr GnnrAlfB (idcd 
abost dui time wiib the neniivt^li. (!y i!;c k-i3ti;pUiDinK Brief of the 
Popetobim/'dat Komu" (preceded by»*niftr>vt\tof37^^P^tiSOt, 
aba no doubt bclonelnB iri [Wm time), in Lib, biev. jS, f 46s. fSeoei 
Arcbme ol die VMican,) Ici a 'Brief, dot. Rome, loih Od., 150*, 
Julius II- dcsirod the Lpie^IV lo «in[^nyihe iLonfibJrated pr<iperfy of the 
BeatJTVKli ta building (be dmilel tei IHo^aa.. Suile AnJiirc^. Buluurift. 




the rebels whom Loni^ Xlh had expdl«d from Milan, 
knd " looking on with folded arms while these men 
cndcai/ourcd to undermine the Papal avlborlty in Bologni 
arid madt? war upon the Church," The Vcncliatifl" atiawcr 
sounded like a gibe. They ^aid that, far from harboui- 
log the rcfu^oe^ thc>' had done their best to gel rid of 
ihcm; but Uicy hid themselvc-% m the cfJiivcnli, and the 
Republic, of course, was powerless ag^iinsl the Church's 
right of asylum To do awny with this pretext the Pope 
on the aand August despatched a Brief to the Patriarch 
of Venice, dc^irinf* him to issue strict order:^ !o all the 
convents in Venetian territory to refuse shelter to all 
bandits and rebels ; all s«ich evil-doers must be drmn 
from the gatcTi* 

In spite of all that had happened, even now, at tbl 
ia^t hour, an acctjuiiiiodatiod between Rome and Venic e , 
might sEilJ have been jK)?^-«Ible if the Republic had n^^^ 
obstinately prrshted in sll her most uiircasonablc d^ 
mandft. In the Autumn of 150S, when the alienjitlon of 
France had already definitely be|;;iin, and the anti-Venetian 
League was under coneideratior, Ihc Pope still held aJoof, 
The sclfbh aim.'i of France and tlic ever increaslns 


* Bkoocu. Juliiu lU i63-i6|,<fen here blotncithc Pop<» 4uid sa^n 

tfmt ^for Juliu« IL. Hit end oT driving the lf*niivogli out of V^ttt/M 

nncdfled the mcansy vh\d\ was a curuilinent of the C1iurch*« ni[t)i of 
asylum." Here be pos» a» the ddcndcir of Uib riiclit, wbicH cLwwhcrc 
he ccDdemcs bk the 4tronge(t tcmic. 1'be BtlcI of mtd Aug^ it aow 
priiiteJ iu Saxuto, VLj 6i4. Julius lb litMrd of Lhc tltninpla of c]« 
BentiTOffll on iilh Au^:-, 4nd on dtc 30th complnua&d to the Fcmccic 
Etlvox ol th* condLMT of (h« KvpuL^Jic •!-* S*» Sua dopo. it»l t«m« 
kogajncnte et cum ii>c mullo ae cxceac clica le cou daf/AJ H BcndvoKli 
(NHninunicftDdonu el tutto 11 icc^do do pnocnto piitlata "*'^T^'"m da 
I BviulTegU el Blin tuoi n^belll A U i^pialk per VcnttiAni ce da veocpux 
ElotkCaataMi'>*Lcit«r9o(0v ndi and ibcadO^of Au^^ I 
ih« Stale AfdoTM, Modciu. 



c««s:k>ivi thai ihc tJcmancieti were no doubi the cause ol 

It was Car from deitirable in the eyes ofjuhus IJ. that 
the power of liic King of France *hoiiid increase, oj that 
the Emperor should obtain a footing; in Italy. He would 
have £la<Iiy come to terms with Venice if she woulJ have 
withdrawn her unjusL pretensions in both lenipural hxhI 

iritual anaiia Ucinbo s^ys that the Pupc |jrlvdttly 
I CuaUutinu ATrnili ti> Badiitr, ihc Wnctirtti Am- 
bniarador in Rome, to tell him or the forniiation of the 
League of Cambrai, and lo propose an aiTari;;ement if 
Venice would restore T'aenza an<l Kimini tc the Church. 
Badocr at once wrote to inform the Council of Ten, but 
received no an^werf The whole influence of the numerous 
cla» of needy nobles whose interests were Involved in kcep- 
mg the cnnc^tic^l^ in the Kom;tgnA xcn'^ against (heir resti- 
tution, and this prevailed.^ Thi.* Venctia-is trnited that a 
League eotnposed of £Uch heterogeneous elemc-ntK would 
not lost 1<?ng. 

Thu view naj conceivable \ but the infatuation of Venice 
in »t[U continuing at this critical juncture lo flout and 
trrttatc the Pope in every possible manner in spiritual as 
well as in temporal matters, Is truly incomprcbcndiblc. 
"Thnne even who are friendly lo Venice blame her 
insolent and domineering behaviour towards Ihe Holy 
Sce^ not only in regard 10 the cities of the Romagna. to 
which the ha.4 not the «iialles! right, but also in mattfira 
concerning benefices and ecclesiastical juritdiclion." 5 

• C)^ the ioimstm^ •RqiOTl df C(»lii1«li frf l\:t jlh Oct., 1508. Slate 
ArdiiTo, MoticitA, Ati o^TAti In BA:A^, V-, 451- 
+ 3KUBUB, Hist. Vcnet , a9£. 

X (^5lGi3BiOM>oD)^CoN-n,|l.,3fi6,{kndriUUULJiCkuKna,L*l6f. 
) RctTUOST, ni^ 3, 17* Tefcninjf to ihn vaclnict from Ltnci Da 



The manner in which the testy Venetian Envoy Pi*ai 
an^iwerecl Julius II.'k compUints oii lh«se sulfjicin U iotni 
thing quite unique in the whole history of diplomai 
When the Pope (jrotcsteJ to Pieani againrt the en* 
mcntfi of tlifi KcrpubLic on his ecclesiastical rights, 
added that the Signoria would some day have cause to 
rc[)cnt of Ihcir conduct, the Envoy replied : Your Holincsi 
must crow a little slron^cr before he can expect much 
from tiic Republic. Naturally incensed, JuHus ^loswcrcd, 
" [ will never rest until you am brought down to be the 
poor fifiht-nnen that you once were.'* "And we," said 
Pisani, "wi)) makca pncstlirtg of the Holy Father imh 
Ue behave* himstflf."* 

Such was the manner in which the Venetian Eni 
ihou^-ht fit to bcliBvc towards the Pontiff in whose povreT 
it lay to have stifled the League of Cambmi at its birth. - 
Bvcn yet the Pope did not permit himself to be {goaded 
into any hasty action. He stiU hoped to suc<:ecd I^H 
"alarming the Vfiietianji enough to induce them to compl)^^ 
with hU dcmftndfi/' and then to break up the dangcrouB^ 
l-eague.-f Pisani fully realised the Pope's apprehension 
f^ard to Louis XEl. and Maximilian, and caw clearly that 
greater torbcArance on his part might have prevented 
Julius from joining tlic Lca£uc Vet he continued to 
behave AS before. 

When ill February, 15O9, the question of the Bisbopi 
of Vicenca had readied tJic point at whidi a dcfinii 


• Lrioi DA PokTO. 39-3a C/. Baiasj, V., 45^. vha in ihe 
place rcfcre 10 ^osiabiU't Rcpcut, loLh Nov., i^c^ (5utc Ajchln 
Modcna), wbicb I ab« have teen, and in whicli Co«tabilt tayn ttl Pwfttuj 
0)f3uno chet ronmce li 1L1 vocv de hoino molio oaUrico ct prnait rlwf 
jh >UCo lUJUtdftto lalc pcrchc lo habE a f lo»iiarc col |Utrd- 
BEUatn* 499^ detcnb«4 Pinni u mcvMi admodum iDgcniL 

t GRK>OKOinu^ Vllt, 5S-56^ ed. y, t/. iJitti, E'tn^tUnrtg, u 



answer could no longer be clefrrre*!, thii! which the? Pojje 
received sounded like a sarcasm,' "Tiie cDntemptuou* 
insolence of the language employed by the Venetians 
requires to be known in order fuU/ to understand the 
injustice of those who reproa^ch Juttus U. with hU partici- 
pation in the Lcdgiic of Cambrai. It was not until every 
means of persuasion baH been tried, and the last hope of 
an amicable settlement had vanished, that he made up his 
inirid to join iL*f 

The change in the Pope's mind iva« probably finally 
caused by the fear lest France should unite with Venice tfj 
overpower him, J His decision was taken soon after a 
eonver^ation which he had with Pi^ani in the middle of 
March at CiviCa Vecchia. It wa^ a lovely spring day; 
ftll nature aecmcd to breathe nothing but peace and 
harmony, and the clear blue ica was Itkc a sheet of glass. 
The Pope, who was very fond o( sailing, was on the water, 
accfitnp^inied liy Pisani, and turning to the Knvoy^^ How 
vould it he," he said, '* if you were to advise the Signoria 
fipropose to me Co grant Faen^a and Rimini a^ a fief to 
one of your citJaens? That would set evc^rything rif^ht" 
Pisani an£wcrcd coldly, " Our State h not in the habit of 
makiiij; kings of any of her citizens." The Pope's proposal 
was never mentioned cither to Pi^mi's [gentler colleague, 
fiadoer, ot to ihe Senatc.g Immediately after his return 
from Civita Vccehia, Julius joined the League. 

• C/ -SaKUTO, Vn, 719. 734, 7J*. T<Vi. 763. 760: VIM,, to 

f RoUKBACneK^KNiiPFLLK. 290. C/l UaHKE* Rom. und G^m. 
VAlkcr, Aj6, and Enscit GltUUhn, 3, Section XXVHI., JJJ. 

I Lanz, Etnkihinic, J03. 

g Btunt^ Hifiu Vend., vo^-^w. C/^ RaSKU f^^' fiV. Bnocli 
nakei no mention of cilfaer of ihe two comvcnauona t^ctwcen JuEiiu U. 
aod Ym.ui If tlTc Poji^ lud been aniniaied by \ha\ iv^x^av.M't hatred 
aiTUBM Veoicc vbJch ihis writer aioihts to bim, b« nould ccrtAmly not 
have niad* this ove^tuv^ nor wouUt he art«rwaid« have eicert«d hiniMlf 



On tlic 22r<1 of Marrh * ConsUt^ir)' u-iU hel<l, to ttrhfch.- 
the Vcrclian Cardinals Grimari and Comaro were noe 
summoned.* On tlie follovmpj <I*y Julius }L signed the 
Hull ftr»nf>iindrtg his Adhesion to the l-eajjue, but with ih« 
condition thfil he was to do nothirg against Venice until 
after hostJIiticji had been commenced by Francct Mca 
while the Venetians ha^ be^n to <k!c that they had bee 
premature in their hopes that the r..cflgue would dissolve 
iladf. Oil the 4ih <j( April iUcy dctcnniucd \o give op 
Faenra and Rimint, but this offer, which was tnstdc fo th 
Pope on the 7th, came too late ; to hax^e accepted it n 


90 cRTnaiXy to preserve the Republic from titixt njui- After Om 
iTUUinor of the HaLmiiuAL^ Hvnifao putn no duKi to his nttirVive, but t 
Uunk I tan supply ihit frrvn ih« Vcncti:ui Hcpoitt in SariutOL Ptenl 
wfotcoa Ilia ijOi fruin Civlu VtKxhiii ; II Pu^ vA « piiiuv per 
pucwido - - > . Iicm chc hcMcndu In batcllo con iiajdincUi et onUorii 
m ( qnal il Tin^lro, S S™ lr?w iino ca^ttuJo di !cteft auti di PorTogalloj 
and ajTAu^ cm the >6di . The l\>pc ta a pcKhur c iii^icci. Sahuto^ 
VUU 3j->4i 3^- ^'rom th»« Reports w« al$Q g<Lther that Pinni n«v«t 
fbnwirdcd the Pope"* propfwal to Vtnic* ki aJL li imi« the 
HCimiu duubtfu] vrhcitii:! ilie narniti\7 ditcd (9th Mmdt in 5a 
VTIL, ]o, «orTeij>on4]« frtil:i fo^ts, rUoni \ua« worldng for a fu 
between Rome and Venice and !hprr.'f<>re mriy very wrll have 
Ihe &s^um^;cr Uiat he wollIcI not lign anything against Uie Repo 
tnt» Jdius*t mouth, in order to cmbitwr ihc fceling ihert a^uncl tatnt 
H'lim il W!i& fVutni ihAl hT hafi ifg^ned iha League. 

■ S^VL^TO, VnLi37- Mjioy of ibc C&rdinols »crB b favour of 
(^. ■Conti&tonaltA KA|>h. Ktahi cird 5. Gcorg^i in Cod J., til., 
18^, of ilic CU^ L[bnr>-H Rutne); Ijue peace was only poAJblf^ by snb- 
ittttiiig \o the huiniliiuion of the Church «nd McriJlCdW her nxtsi 
tmportuit incerefitt- 

* This Bull, lUt, X- CflL April (ijul Mar,), 1508 (*C fl \ is given 
DOMCWT, IV., r, n6; CrcTi^hton ts wr^ng m duing iti^h Mafth, 
flltn *Poa3/i Report, i|th Mtir., 1509 tStai^ Archive*, Modcni)i 
givci Jjrd hlu. xt the dole om which the Pope joined the 
GBBOOftOVIVS, VI:L, f 6» oJ. 3, must have read die hxiM tJtry nrtJ^mHf 
to hava laid, aa ha doe*, thai Vet^ice U not mvotionecl at all in it. 


would have involve*! him in a v;at ivilh Ihc alh'c*-* The 
adherem^ of the RepubJic in Rome now allied ihcmselvcs 
with the Colonna and Orsfni, atxi tTicd to induce thera to 
rite af^Amst the Pope by ofTcr? of money to both, and 
by promising Urbino lo the CoJonna. When Julius heard 
this, he threatened to cxcommtinicate the Orsini, and sent 
vrord to Ptsani. who had been stirring them up to revolt 
against the Church under his very eyes, that he would 
E)mj?4 hirn vtUi the dccptst dungeon in Rome, Tlic 
iitoatinn appeared so menacing that the Palace guard was 
doubled- Meanwhile Felice Orfiint succeeded m breaking 
oft the barpain between Venice and the family-t 

On the a/th of April the greater excommunication was 
pronounced against Venice unless within twcnt>*'four daya 
dl llic pMscssions of the Church in the Homa^it, and the 
rr\"enuc* derived from them, were rctitorcd to her. This 
documcjit was drawn up in the clcfirest and strongest terms, 
describing the outrageous pmccedinga of the Republic in 
both temporal and spiritual affairs. -md feo copies were at 
once printed and drculated.j The Venetians forbade the 

* Sk^ishoxdo PR* COKrr, II^ jS6p cy. Sakuto. VUU, Sol S«e 

abO RoitUMK, v., J^B, AOd DrOSCH, }\i\ia= tl., 169, 341, vrho, however, 
rcpraftrtt the vlide miller in a fnhei lighi, ignann'g Piuni'i obiimacy 
Bad ihe KCuilled banlcncc pf liit wotdi and cotiduct, as wdl ;u the 
pwitioA of dm T'opc Btid the rtal moitivca of Iho HepubUc, which arc 
devly Mt forth by ^igistnoEidn ii£' Coott. 

♦ SaifLmi, Vl!l,, 4C. 72, 89, q6 tef., iiS. jji 134, 135, 139, X4^ 
171, tS.v C/. the airthoriticA dted by SiLMOKDJ, XUl-, 473i and in 
App«niJa,N.iilr'^L« * Report of Lod^i<:o dc Fabhfkno, 2^ih April^ j;or>. 
(GcmsBga Aidiivn, Mantua.) Tl'te pcnonki nouiHijr tlis^iliiirttl by tlic 
l^vpv during thojpc trying days appca;i fr^m ihe "Bhcf to Bologna of 
Ijth Aprl, l^O^^StalC Archives, fiolognaj, Ahich it pnnied in Appendii, 

I roctoce of thi^ Bull Imonitotium) art ffrv«n la HavkaIXUS, ad 

1509, n. 6-9^ and ih* rompkie dociimem it in S*?*uto, VML, 

r-304- Act)ateitipuuneiiusC^iEi])trnuiciluji>/iiuicd I^Soaay^o, 



publication of the Bull in Uieir dominions under »trl 
penalties:. They had already pi«paied an appeal to 
future Council ThiB was now posted during the night 
S. Peter's and the Ca:itlc of St. Au^elD ; the I'opc hod it torn 
do^vn at once* The appeal wm sent in the beginning oJ 
M^y to the c&mbitlou^ CardiJial Ar<.hbiihop of Gran an 
Patriarch of Cun-st;inEinop1c, Thtini^i B4k«C!^ as one 
thn«e Princes of the Church who wa^ tTitith'd under tl 
old, thoiagh now obsolete, constitutions to jciii in the sin 
inontng of a General Council The HungArlao Pricoal 
was. however, too pnident to respond to llii* invitarion-f 

Drle^nwhtlc the war h;id bean begun by the mcmbent oJ^^ 
the League, which was now joined by l^crrara and Mantuaj^f 
The Venetians had, at an vnormoua co1^l^ ^ot together an 
army of 50.000 men, a Urge force for Eha-w times i their 
war-cry was * Uaiy and Liberty ."§ The Republic bcnl Iwa- 

Bibliofpr., 79. The hc\ iKaI an Italian tniru^tion :>f the Bull wu pnMi 
V ^h^^ tinvr in l^oni^ Imx f wapcd thp tio(ic« of thit Icamrdbihlioiffapiwr. 
^AAiiiplu of it Arc vet> kCJku^ buL I ma ijijc m lIjc kuUcijoij vf iht 
Ftaren(mt> uitic|trkfy, Cnufiru {rfi h}>i CaXaUyj^vt: for i£9ri. No. IX.^ and 
a tc<cEi<t in rh^ Smtc Arrhtvci, Moricriii. C/. in Aj^rdbt, N, 83, ttt 
*Rcport cpf L. [ic F^bnono of tIjc 74tZi Apiil t ^qq. (Goiuaj^a Ardiivcv 
Mantuft.) SAW^m, Vlir,, 169, ^04 =05, nUo the •Report of tl 
FcTTTircAe EnvcT, of the ijlh Apnl, l£o^ Sate Archivct, Modcna. 

• 3AWVT0, VIII., idi, 

+ FIIAK^J^l, Unj^m und die Uga von Combn^ S- 

/critfS. R. £.oinTlic joth April. 1509; hcc*Ai.ifi Cciw^l. (Cohm^Ii 
x\rchiv«iof Uio Varicin,^ Accotdtnjc to the *11rier pmii«<l in Appei, ihft appoimirctit took plocr on ihi^ 19th ApriL Sinir Arrhl 

J RoM\MTf, V^ »;-ao6, abcwt ihni iho pr^pMoJ of inKribioK 
'* DeftMau ItilTHQ " on tl-ie bamier^ arid jubftmc ihr ivar-<:ry mentioneit 
til the ic»t WIS icjcdccL But v« Jind from Sonuto Thai Ihc «iir<iy nru 
A<tunLly tiMil Ijy tli« wlciicn. C/ Si:NAitifCA, $96, Tb« imoipiiOD CO 
ihc bouuicn b iiicon^tly sUied tu 4 tia V Sir^r^OMiiO DCf COkti, 
11.. ;|86k *Iio heii!» a* cliQ^rhcrCf n uiuibk to conceal hia vtrocij; national 



5cir bravely toihc \Ask ofre^ifttiTig Uic enemy « overmatched 
&-% !ilic WM ; but Ihc traditional pdtle; of her citizens high 
and low sustained her. The ban of thi^ Church, it was 
maFrttained, hud U»t much of iis pciwer ; it wa* nti longt-r so 
dangcroui elk it used to be. Ferdinand of S^jain had been 
forced to Join the League againet his will; the Emperor 
had no money ; the I'ope's mercenarien were of no account ; 
Che Lc^igue w&5 too numcrousr the interests of it« vonous 
members were too divergent for it lo hold together for 
long ; the Republic would ride safety through the ^turm lhi:i 
time, fts she had cv^r done. 

But one day sufficed to ani)ihil:iii^ all ihe proud hopes 
of the Venetian);, and nearly all their power tipon the 
mainUnd. The decisive battle was fou^^ht on the t4th 
oS May on tlie plitin of A^madello near Vallate in the 
province of Cremona; it ended in the complete rout of 
tbctr army. The undiicipHned mcrccn^ne^of the Republic 
were scattered like chaff. While the French pursued the 
fugitive]?, the PajmI troLips, undci the DukL- of Urbiiio^ 
overrsin the Komiigna. All the country up to Verona, 
includtrg that strongly fortffied city ir«elf, was subdued; 
tovm after town fell into the hands of the conqnerors." 

The Venetians now no longer scorned the Pope's es- 
cocnmunication. A contcmpornry writer compares the 
battle of A^nadello with the defeat of the Romans at 
OmnoCif The posUion of Venice was rendered still more 

fc«1injc mJ liii predilection for Venice Cf. GOTTLOh in the Hist. 
Jahrtx, Vtl., 333 tf^,, truxjgh Ehit ivnccr hi)£ ov«rUhtke4 ch« tnfvrMting 
remarki of the V^neibn Knvoy on Si^nmondo In BRCt^u. iS^ 

* Sec ^otsuov^no :>!:' Conti, M,, 3ti£'i9Q^ wIsq dnws hb lurative 
frcm a Report of Senneama d^ X'iEncicxte ; PutdoUtcf* Lttlen in 
Desjardixt, 1L, j»; tf^ Cf. SAWum. VIII,, 249 ntq.-. Unci 13A 
PoarO, 53 stq. ; Awsjielm, 11 1-, aoo ; Sismovdi, XI 1 1,, 491 seq, 

t Sbvarrca, y^^ C/. »Uo Luict oa Fovto, 6a se^^^ and Vel V. oi 
KtAf. woric, p. 90. 



critic^ by the blow wh£eh the recent cJevdopmott 
mftrilimc cnteq>ri9c had inflicicd jpon her commcfcc* 
in thi» paiticuUr the disAdvantngCd with tvhich they had 
to contend were not of their own makLiig, so much cannot^H 
be ttalii of the causes which ttumly contribuled to brifig^l 
about thrlr digcomfinire on the mainland. MachlawlU'fl 
p^nrtffllfrjf^ glance disccni^d^ and has described, these witl 
admirable insight and clcarni-ss.f He takes ai: the text f< 
his criticifim the saying of Livy, that the Rcmana wei 
never depressed by misfortune or elevated by Sticec95. " Tl 
CJcact rcvono of this/* he HTitcs, "was the case with th« 
Venetian*, They imagined that they owed their prosperity 
to qualities which, in fact, they did not poascas, and were 
90 puffed up that they trebled the King of France as a »cm^^H 
underrated thcf jiowfT nf thr Church, thought the whnle of^^ 
Ttaly too *maU el firlH for their ambition, ard aimed ai 
creating a world-wide empire like that of Rome. Then 
when fortune turned her baclc upon them, and they were 
beaten by the French at Vallate, they not only lost thA^_ 
t^reatcr part of their territory by the defection of thcil^| 
people, but, oi their own accord, out of sheer cowardice and 
fdinl-hcartcdncss, they gave back moat of their conquests 
to the Pope and the King of Spain. In thcjr discourage* 
ment they rvcn went so far as, through their Envoy, to offer 
lo become tribiJiaries of the Emperor, and to try to move 
the Pope to compassion by writing to him in a tone of 
craven submissiveness. This reverse befell them when the 
war had only Lasted four days, and the battle itself was only^f 
half lost ; for only kalf their troops were enga^ and on«^^ 
of their I*rovcditori escaped. Thus, if there had been *^y 
xpark of energy* or cnterpriae in Venice, they might havj^l 
marched on Verona with 25COO men to try their fortune 

* ftAxn, Rom. und Gcmu Velkcr, 344- 
t Qrosch. Julius II., 1^1 J'f' 



a^n. and awa£t s^ny favourable turn that mi^hl ^Ivt theoa 
n chance of victory^ or at any rate of a ]c^ii ignoble dcfcsit, 
fin<l of obtfunin^ honourable t^ms; but by their unw^aHikc 
jpfant, the natural result of th«r absence of all military 
oi^anisatlon. thc>' lo^t both heart and land at a single 
ihruw. The like f^tc will befall all such as behave them- 
selves a« they havi? doiie^ for this arrogance in prtsnjjcnty; 
and rnwardtc<* in adversity, are the efTect of the spirit in 
which a man Hvcs ^ntf tho edticatton he lias received. If 
thes^ are vain and frivolous he will be the same; if th« 
rewr^e, ihc man will bcof a different stamp, and will know 
cnoug^h of the world not to he ovcr-elatcd when good 
bcfalU him, or too much cast down when he mcct» with 
reverses. And what holds good in regard to indivuiuab 
abohoMs good in ra^^ATd to those n-my itidivi^luaU who 
Ifwp together in the same Republic ; they will attjiin In that 
measure of perfection which the life of the State, a* a whole, 
has atlaincd. It has often been said before, that the chfcf 
*TipporT of all Slates cons^ists In a stronfj army, and that no 
ayttcm of laws anti no constitution can t:c called ^od which 
<iocs not provide for this, but I do not think it aupcrttuous to 
repeat It; for all hi^too^ proves it^ truth, and shews also 
that no army can be strong that h not well dmciplincd* and 
that it IS impossible to «e^:n^c good di<cip1me inilrss the 
^ate i« defended by her own subject** The Venetian 
ari*loenicy had purposely abstaineti from giving military 
training to the people, they expected to conquer Italy 
with hired troops. 

The fir.rt thing which the Venetian Government did 
when tlic news of their defeat at Agnadcllo atrivcd, wfti to 
evacuate all ihe pUccs which they had occupied >n the 
Romagna. Ravenna, Ccrvia. Rimini, Faenia, and several 
smaller places were at once haiided over to the Legate of 
the Romagna and the Mardie* to Cardinal Francesco 




Alidosi.* The cllici on the Apulian coast w<;re ali 
restored to the Spaniard ^^.f They were mxious beyond 
everything else to win the Pope, ami now wrote m 
humblest and rao§t submissii'c IcrmSn On the 5lh of Jui 
ihe Doge wrote an appealing letter xo Julius 11., "Tl 
hand thai iiriick," he «aid," could heal if it would."} 
the tune time, tix Envoys were «ent to Rome to Kue foir 
peace Being excommumcated, they could only enter Ui^_ 
city 4C nlght.§ After all that had happened, they vrer^| 
not lilcelyto find men':* minds in Home very favounibly 
disposed towards them. " Tf the rebellious children who, 
a few wccki before, had been insultingly defying the Topc^ 
to his faLc, and now came to proffer obedience only undfl^H 
the strcA^ of cxtn:me jtccxi^ asked to be received at once 
with oprn arm*^, the request could only br drrmcd dlplf> 
matically permiasible hocaiwo tlie person to whom It was_ 
addressed was the Holy Father,"!! 

On the 8th of July one of the Envoys^ Girolsmo Don^o, 
whom the i'ope had known in former dayn, was personally 
AbsoU^rl frr;in excommunication and granted an nudicncc^ 

* Hna-^Cltt Julius II., rT|. bi ordci tu concitintc xUt c^xKm 
Raveniw, Juliua 1 1- no! Gtity ^ronfirmed ihcir ancient municiial comtitn- 
liuii, but also cvem])E<rd itttm from all iri]>kjtc for [he n»T irn yeai^^ 
FANTUXtl, v., 4^^^f^^ ^H 

t Sk-isj«onoo J>r COMH, tl., J94, "Ei PriAcip* d«M*Ifi," ot ih^^ 
J7th June. i^og. wniiefrQiii llurl^ru id congnmkte Ihe King of S|^in 
Oik the rccupcmi:!onc de Tninc con sixracut in poco tempo poucme 
gtaTUlarc non %olo de Ia recuperacioivf <1« dicta citJk, ina Anoora d« UM^h 
lialuj ludii icEitu I4 S'-* drVcn^iia 1:1 qututa marinade Fi^ljA "^m^l 
the on^nftl *Uncr in F. Eipi^ ^18, t 1 I4i of i^e Nfttioiuil Ubranr* 

I SaXL-io, VIJL, J70-J7J, and StNAarj-.A, 597-i9f. Therr to a 
Sfianioh irniuLtuon wllIi a wrsag ^te (md JunftJ la ]leit0(Aij>U| II, 

I Skhmokdo m^ Onm, U.. 400. 

II RoHnucinut-K»Crn.E)t, 391. 


3 '7 

Julius, deeply incensed at ihc ttppc;il of rhf? Vcn^lUn* 
to a General Council which hatl Just bc«n published/ pro- 
posed cruslriiii; conditionK The Republic tnuHt make com- 
plete restitution of all her spotlit, she must give up Tre- 
\i^ And Utimc to Uic Emperor. "She must renounce 
her possessions on the maitiland, and all pretensions to 
jiileiferc in matters connected with benefices, or to ia>» 
pcntt taxes un the clergy. She inusl cxjuully fenounce her 
eUim t« ex<:Iu*ivc rights nf njivi'giilion tn the Adriatic, 
which from Ravenna to Fiiimc she h^ hitherto regarded 
as a Venetian lake. When she had ^reed to these things 
he would begin to £pe.ik of absolution."')' The Senate 
wa^ furious when these demands were communiCAted to it 
The Do^c exclaimed that "he would rather send til^y 
Envoys to Constantinople to beg for help from thence, 
tlidj: coin^jly with t}iem." In fact tJie SuHah wa*> a^ked 
whether the Rrpuhlir might auint ujimi hh aviNlanccJ 

Jutt at this time events on the «rrnr nf the war began to 
take a more favourable turn for the Veneti<'tns, Fadua was 
recovered on the 17th of July, and a month later new* 
CAfac to Ro<ne that they had captured the M(ir<^ucss of 
Manilla, The Pope was deeply movccj with vexation, and 
cave passionate vent to his feelings-S When, later in the 
Autumn, they hiid also been succes^rul in repelling 
Maximiliao'fi attack on Padua, their oTd arrogance be^an 
to revive ll was decided to break off r.hc negotiations 
with Julhis, "All the Venetian Envoys, with the ex- 

* On the iftt Julyh« had [imcULrrictl annw tha cnncLirct formulaicd by 
Pku 11. afpinii Kuch ;i[ipra1i, jind laid .in I rtiprdici mn V^ic«. But}., V,^ 
479- 43r, 

t Samtto, VUJ., 511 ; Bposch. Juliui n., 177. 

X BrMBtJiS Hi»I. Ven«T., J4S Jr^.; BKosctl, Juliutt Ih, 177, 343; 
Horr, j68. 

I Beomii, juliuv U^ 343. 



cqitfon of Donate, who wan siill to remain al the Court,' 
were recalled. When the ]*op<r heard of iliit (C;»txlinfll 
Grimani applied L<n the 3th November for pcrmiB^iOfi i^^M 
departure of Ihc fi^'C to leave Rome), he exclaimed: Ali^ 
the six may go home; if the Republic wants to be 
rcIca^cU froin the ban, she must acnd twelve"* Such 
ftiid simiUr things were said m momcnU of excitement: 
in calmer ^^^ons, Jullii^ must have sAid to himself that it 
would be nects^ary Iti cunjc lu tefma uilh the Republic; 
Louis XII. And MaximiUan could not be allowed Co carry 
ihe war to a point that would involve her destruction. If 
Venice were annihiEated, not only the freedom of Italy^ but 
abo the indcpeniJcncc of the Holy See would fail with 
hcr,f The enormous preponderance which the course of 
recent events had conferred on the King of France sbevrcd 
that it Wii5 ab?ia]jtel/ nccessafy that the Republic should 
be rrtiHbilttattfd Loui?; XII. was absolute master of 
Xorthem Italy, Fcrnira and Florence were his aUies, he 
was lure of Ihe Emperor, anj The Kinp of Spafn having 
got what he wanted Irom the J-e;igiic, would be Hthlte^^ 
now to stand aside and let things t&kc their courted ^| 

Just about thai time, in the month of October, the King 
of France had made the Pope painfully AcDsible of his 
pcjwer by oblifjEng hini by fonx to give way m a dispute 
alxsnt a Bi»hcjpric.§ In iidditui^Ti to these connideralion^, 
Julius wa.H at he^rt an It;i1i;m {i;i1niit, jtnfl keenly felt, from 
this point nf virw, the disgrace of foreign domination. 
Hence lie was beiu on a reconciliation with Venice, and all 

* BaosCM, Juliui tl^ rSr, 

t Sw Desjaki'INS n„ 3S8 : Brmbit^ ^3 j*v. C/ CiroLLA, S17 i 
HtKOOnt&rHXR, VIK.. 41} ; and FtellH0ACIT£a-IOrd?P1.Cft, y^. J 

I BnosCH, Jnlitu JJ.. 18S. " 

J /H/t, lA-t'jJtj C/, I'iK^jAXVtNTs 11.,415/fV.; Lr-iikiA)r)r»7> vhere 
ihc Agrctmciit of OiajEriLuft i» concctly cWaclcriscd. 



the efforts of the new French Ambassador, Alberto rio. 
Count of Carpi, and of Ihc French Curdinala to hold him 
back were uravailing." Af^er a long struggle with <Jiffi' 
cultics of the moit various kinds, the peace n^otiatioiis 
were at last broug^fit to a aucce^s^ful issue uri ibc I5(li Tcb- 
raary, 15 lo. Veiiirc whhJrew her appevil lo a Council, 
xHmiEt^ the right of the Pope to pmrotincc i-ccluia^ticat 
censures, the immunity of the dcrgy from taxation, and 
the jurisdiciicn of the eccleaiaiitjca] coufts, recognised die 
Jibecty of the Church in regard to appointcncnlG to 
l>enefice^ renounced all pretensions to interfere in the 
a^ajrs of Fcrrara. and granted free navigation tn the 
Adriatic lo all the Tope's subjects and to (he Ferrarcse; 
she abo repudiated all treaties concluded with towns 
beLonghLg lo the Pope, and promised tiot to afford pro- 
tection 10 rebels against the Church, and lo restore all 
goods that had been wrested from religious associations.! 

The solemn absolution of the representatives of Venice 
dliom of moat of the customary humiliating adjuncts, took 
place in the Court of S- i'cter's on the 34th February. 
The Pope btmscir lidd the Gospel, the Envoys laid Ihdr 
haitds on It and swore to ob&ervc ^11 the conditions of the 
treaty. In Rome demonstrations of joy were universal!; 
and in Vonfee also public chanksgivlTig? were celebrated; 
but on the isth February the Council of Ten had secretly 

• Cf. ALBEar, 3 Scricj Ilh, 34- Carp had bwn French Ambassador 
m R<^p iinrp Jflri,, (51a See Maulup, IIL, 437. 

1 K,\Vf<AUfU5«dd^n. 1510,0. 1-6; IltCKOENKOTKlca, VnL,4'Z<Frf.i 
Broach, Jaliua IL, 18&-191- Tlic" Don Sigi*montlo" h«TC riiCHUoncd 
oi osncentedinLhe ncgoiiaiioni ii Sigismondode' ContL C/. hi* Report, 
I J., 400 Jtg. 

I J',uia Jc GrLSsis Tr RAVKALDLfS, ad an. I5ick, n. 7- H J // alw tl 
Despatch of the Vcneiun Ainlu.»:Ldor in Bko^H, i83-339, 
SAEOrro, X^ 9^13. Rankg. Runi. und Germ. V6lktr, 2491 even in hii 
lci»E cdjiion, maducs the ab»jluiion, and places it on r«h> 30k 



drawn up a protest against tlic coDditions o( the Al>soIutii 
dccUring them null buc:iU!K; the Republic hud been dmcii 
by force to sign ihcm-* 

The Venetians, hoi-vcvcr. found means lo rtvcngc tHcov' 
T^1ve?< on tlu? ]^L);u: wlio had ao htimbleil thcin arid liad 
Ibrocd them to yiM rni all ths important [loint^ '^^^^| 
b^gan to disseminate pamphlets And libels against Jutim 
II. The first of ihes*;, in tliv form of a letter fromChrirt to 
the Pope, was still couched in fairly temperate language ; it 
mourned the hoirors of the war, m if Julius, in merely 
demanding what ivas, by evcr^' title, simply hi* own froi 
Venice, was responsible for thcse.f 

* The text af (tnt diigraceful documeni n m Baoscir, Julius 11., 7 
393. KOMXNis (^^, i4rj, howavcr^ dr«ndy knew it, Hroech's der«nc« 
nfihiipicre of perjury !■■ mtmnfmtcii upon, svfiTfk p^247»nptct. On 
thaakuKivinjc servicer in Venice, ice BSLhiVHJS, 40^. 

t L«lten fentn che Jcfiu Cmio la nundn 2 Julio papa U. in qu««la 
■mw isoy, ill Sjl?(lto, X, 567-570; c/. idfd. Vl„ 444. ^63, on 
vHrie*! poem ogamat the Pupc, TbcaccuulioniHftBmM Ju|iu*,of be 
addictc<l to Greek vices, came in juit from Venice. The Despawhc* of 
the Envoy* in the GoniaKH Archivesj Mj*n[ufl, whith rct.ti? wnty »on of 
scandal, coniain nothing to juitifythis dur^c. The Pope's liking for, 
and nOLkv of, lti« youn|[ nnil gcxxl- looking F«d«ri^ GOAnffa, who 
Kaided in Rome forsnmc cinujuu hmLiifc, mighE wtl] In thoMCorrupE 
time? h&ve Rivea rise to unfiivoumble comment (nee LUSIO^ F. GonA^ 
13, 30, 3i»33T34r33. J5Jtbutnoihingo1(hGK<>fttnnbefound. C/.in 
Cluic^ V, !>. iji, noic *. 




WaW Of Jui-nn n. TO aiicuftrt t»r lHi>i!;ric\Dur^C£ ot thb 
Holy Sbe and to dbuver Ipaly from tiib l-ntNcn— - 


m 1HB CoLLircc or CAfci>iW\La-— SiCK?Jtai or the I*o?e *^d 
pESiLOPS Si-njATioiff IN Bologna.- His WiSTta Cawpaick 


Louis XIT am> Maximiuan T, to ckkate a Schism — I^£VJ>0- 


TuK pKice concluded by Julius II.wSTh Venic<r. conwqiicnt 
on (he danger to the independence of the Holy See and 
the frc*xlom of Italy caused by the increasiiiK preponderance 
of France; in the I'cninAUla, brought the Pope at cnce into 
collbion with Louis Xtl, ard Maximilian I-, who both 
desired the complete rum of the Republic, The cstmnpc- 
ment between him and thc^e twro powers was further 
hitensificd by his determination to resist all their efforts 
to Increase their possessions in Italy. He now addressed 
hifn»]f with characteristic enerj^' lo the second great taik 
of his Pontificate : that of shaking off the yoke of France 
which pressed *o heavily on the Holj' Sec and on his 
native land, and driving the foreigner. " the barbarians/* out 
of Italy* *' His f^rCAt aoul was filled witli plans for tfae 
welfare of his couiilry/** 

The difficulties and dangers of the undertaking were 

* Sec Rakxe, Rom. und Ccim. VViIkci, 249. En rcffjud ift Venice, 
Jolioi hioucir ttid to Tnvisano: Si quelLa bcm non futse, bitogneria 
£imr im' ultra. Sjikuto, Y . ^2. 

vol. VI. y 



plain enonK'i' Julfiis haJ unilerstood from the first tha 
It would be no easy task to \ay the spirits uthicli he had 
invoked in his time of need His thoughts ivcrc perpetu- 
ally occupied Ln devising ways and means for freeing Uify 
from the [-rench ; * he knew well enough both the strenj|>th 
of Fiuncc and her love of glory* He saw her influence 
paramount in Florence and Fcrrara, MlSan subjugated, 
a new fortress erected in the midst of his own Genoa to 
hold jici down, Venice humbled to ihc du&l at a «ngle 
stroke " Had he not cau^c enough to tremble for the See 
of Rome^ which certainly could not be saved if Italy were 
subdued ?" + 

From the Jlr^t moment that JuUu» 11, recognised the 
necessity of breaking the power of Franc? in Italy, he gave 
his whole mind Ko the Cask with the indexible will and 
indomitable courage tliat charactcdsed him and aJI lus 
actions ; it wa.^ not in his nature to hesitate or delay. Thu5 
in the eyes of Italian patriots he is the hero of hi£ century J 

Prom tlic o1l[^<.'t JuItUH had une |{rc9l ridvaiit^i^ over lu^ 
opjiooent in Ihe Kwif^nei^s with which he mtw and rctolved 
upon the mcAsuret to be Adopted. On one day Loui« X U , 

* Julius II. ftvct to tha VoMtian Knvo/, IJonoiOf on tLc i4lh >1ay, 
1510 QumH fnn'^ai tra & rolta Li fnin(-« non <lcirmoe (tue«fa note mi 
Icvju 1 pft^i^iii pcf uinica cht aoa pciLcvA doruiir, it cor mi dice bake. 
ho spttmnci iL tvnc, wn itato in grati nlEuini p«f J patpato, foadudendo 
t volnniA A\ Dlo ril L.TxtiigU' d ducba dt Fcmmehhcnr Itnlin dc'fiundc 
FrVKCai : SaKLTO, X., j6q. PUMAaAUi, Chi r hn dctto (Milono, iA<}i), 
hiii aoi tuiiccsdcd in proving ili^t Juljut U, gvvt iX'j^i'jjHy uticrvd ihe wdl- 
krown iuid cficn litioud csi-hutuiticni, *' Amy wiili ihc kirbamna^' Bl41 
there can be no doubi iluic he Mid aonteiliiiiir of die kjud. Muiy pnmieti 
m Sanuto conofaorMiEe this, and GuicdArdmi utyt dial h« uted to ny 
ofltin afid again hov he wubcil Lbhl iuily riiiuineBae libem die Imlnri. 
C/. JOvnJS (Vka l-conis X., LIx ttE., p. ;9), who i> another uiDtcnfpo 
nnaoua wTH«r 

t JoviDs, VfUu^lE, 31; naveuAKv, M^ 313. 

J C/. BitOGCK.IulioiltifOf 403. 



would break out Fiito vlotent diainbe* a^aiik^ ihe Faye, who. 
in the words of t!ie French Cftrdliiat, lutl plunged a d^^gcr 
tntobU hcAft by making j>c3cc with Vciiicc,* and on the 
next he would a^iu ulk of a recoiicUiation with Rome. 
On the 25th May, ijio, Cardinal d'Amboisc, Louu ablest 
councillor And the mo»t dungcrou^ enemy of Julius, whon 
he was burning to rtupcrdcdc, dicd.f The cfl^cct of biA death 
wasgrcAtlytoincrc^M the vacillations of the French King* 
For Julius th]& event was a ffcsh meentlve 10 pursue with 
rcdoublcfJ wierjty ibe noble aim ** which it li hit* greatest 
glory to have moccedal in achieving even |>artial]y-"§ The 
fim necessity was to find coadjutors interested like himft^Jf 
£n checking the predominance of France in Italy.j Tht 
F4>pe sent out feelers m all directions and entered into 
n;lations with Maximilian, with Henry VIU. of England, 
with the King of Spain, an<l with the Swis^ He met wUh 
many bitter dlsappoiutmcntav Tlic ucgutlatioas witiiGcr^ 
ouny and Eii^iaTid faikd completely. He had eounted 
on securing iJie open ituppcct of the King of Spain by be- 
stowing on him in the beginning of Jifly, 1510, tlic invest!* 

♦ S** Rebmone di D TremanoCisro) m ALBEHi, 3 Scne, III., 3*. 

i Jl pipa VLJul u^re 11 ^ignore e itlut^uo del ciihilo dd immdo, writes 
TVevMOO, in the Relnt[on refcncd 10 in the prtcoding now, t*n« dl 
I'Vattda pftrKoaDd> il qxiaio cvrro aftr^pap.'L, pctiToii cbc poiavri,«er]on 
4k akri umlinali iuUiaol On d'Ambabc^ phxa ht vc^uriciu tlio Hani, 
Mc n/^mt pp. iil^t ^94' On d'Ambofse (wha«< ifiEcivdid UMvth ]a in lh« 
Oithedml *i Roiipr*;, vcn ih* ttKin(iKn(;h4 l>y Sihmonij ^P.ins, rftjij, 
BM^DtUt (l^fu, l6>t). LiiCK:<i)X£ <raiu, i7^ii Rouen, 1724. 2 vol*.], 
S&CV (LxAdctii t7T^\ v>d COVOK D^AaSAC {Montiub,, r^S^J, though 
Cb^ie evcii all togf^hcr do n« by kny ircnnK cvIi^^uei the raaulin dT 
Bodetn [C?Gu>:Lb ;cK>"d t^ hbi, AucwbioKi^phref tlui rciiiArkKlde 
BMi b much to be dcaircd 

X DKS^AhntXtj II-, 513, CnrdiniiJ Ctnlitnd b«Qjne Leyate of Avijc- 
Don apon the dstli cf (T.^iztbotie. See FAAfiOHi. 552- 

I EtKOtcn, Jdius IL, ;ci. 



of Najjtcs without 

r reg.ird to the claims 
Valois," but hcrtj too, he was ucisuccc&sful at first. On the 
other hand, he was ^ccessful in obtaimrg ttic help of thd 
Swiss. Here Louis Xll/ft want of tact in his conduct to- 
wards the Swim Federation came to his assistance, and 
also the cxcrtioiia of the Swiss Bishop of Sitten, MatUveus 
Schinner, who had always been a determined opponent of 
the French |x>1lc/^ ThU remarkable prelate hoxi great 
influcrkce over his fellow countrymen on account of his 
blamele^t life and his strictness fn all tcclesiasiicjil matters. 
He was a man at immeuHe energy, one of the gicatesi hi* 
country has ever produced, " IIU eJof^iicnfc stirred a]] 
hearts In a wonderful way.'^'l His love for theChurch and 
her vUible head was the mainspring of his life, which was 
in grefil part devoted to persevering efibrts to enlist the 
whole martial apirit and power of hts nation in her defence. 
He alwa>*3 disliked the French; in the year ISOI he 
preached with such vigour and effecl a^^Inst France that 
tho^e wlio belonged to that parly Ula} lo liave hini silriieed. 
He was pcneiraied with the old medhtvil idea of the two 
swords: the «pintiial !(word wielded by the Popu, Chri^'^ 

* Raykal[>u.s Ad mi. isio. tJ' :« /ty. C/. Uao^CB, Jul;i» U„ 196- 
aor. Ckuchtqn, JV., j le.erroncC'UJy luakesihe 4Iai« of th« invc»mut 
17th Jane, und SiflMO?fDi, XtV,, 71, fttly Tib. Tlic- Hull wlijch ron- 
UimihedauM precluding the Kiiigof Naplc» from tbc u»jic(ul tjvnK 
aad ftwn «vtr oocnbintng the lordthip cf Titsakny utd Lombvidj «iU 
dial ol Napkin ii <Ufcd 3rd July. It vas rof, how^irvr, comt^nniocvd 
to tho Cardinals till chc ConalEMrr <if 5th July (ice Acta Con»i»l, CcD' 
rittoial Arctuvci o] the VjtficoA]^ and Ulj i» coirobo;ati«d by Sakvkv 
X,, yiy, y^^-j^^ LaiiFT) Fcnirnand aim obtamrd the rcniiultM of ite 
Bcf diic) ill return foi ihc anmi&l irif\ of a while paJfrcy* aiLd an tnga^ 
meet to lupply 300 toldicn for the dctcnco of Lh« SiatM of the Chui^ 
tfthvy «hDuJd }ft niurk«il. Prescott, [|., 501, note 16- On ih« Sik 
April, fsiOtdkcGoldenRiMcvrAiiGni toHcnryVlll., Lahopeaofj 
his support. St* Wnjcn^ IIl,653, 

t DlARAt'tic, Jl„ jou 



Vicar on wrth, and the temporal by the Head of ihc Holy 
Romar Erapife, ihc protector of tlic Church. Thu* he con- 
sidered that it was the first duty of SwiturLand, And would 
be the pctth of glory for hci, to stand by the Emperor in 
dcfmding the Roman Church against France^ whose pre> 
docninancfi in [t^ily was a permanent dargcr to the freedom 
4ikI independence of the Holy Sce.^ 

JultUb JL (juickly rccognisL'J lljc v^Tuahle i|u:t1itie«i nf 
the Swiss prelate, ^tul uu the jotli Scptetiibcr^ 1508, made 
hfm a Cardinal, though hU proclamatbn was deferred for 
the present-t The Swift« had withdrawn from the League 
with France in the Summer of j ;<^. ^ml now Juiiua turned 
to Scliinncr for assistance; In the close of that year the 
Bishop, not without personal nsk, hasteiiod to Rome to 
air^nge the dctiiil,i of .in ^frcement between the Tope 
and the Swiss Federation.; In Fcbiuary, 1510,3.5 Papal 
Legate, he laid the proposals of Julius If, before his 
ccunifymen ac Schwy?, and then at Lucerne on the 
»ame day. HI* cnthr^Ilhif: eloquence overcame all 
objections. On the 14th of March, 15:0, the disitrJct of 
Wallis and all the twelve Cantons ratified a treaty for 
fiv-c jtars with the Pope. " The Federation undertook 
the defence of the Church and of the llcly Sec. They 

^» FtCH-% Mfliiandiiche FrlJiUKc, IL, 18, ig U/. JOLLUt, Jl). 
Schiiincr'a *Lcttcr to ihc Castellnn of Siiicn, dftt. jSth April, i}o6,ia very 
inMrurmg, as the»'ing how he rci^ixfr^efl the Hafy Koman Empire, '* out 
of whicK'^^Kiy* *" ''1 "fll our iflitnlps, bnih in ChMrihand Stnip-,h»i^ 
fpnaig.' fState Aichivcs* Stttcn.J Ttic Emperor Maximilian tatt 
Schkiitor At ihc Diet of Constance, 4nd thcr? beirame percoiull^ 
aequttinuid *nih him. Snr VtiV-Tt^i-n ^iitu-irt^ Chmnik^ 17J. 

4 RAV»At^V!», ft4 an. i^oE.n.i;, 

J On <4h Jan,, l$%o, Juliu* wrote 10 Un in announce Schinner^ 
mbana (Letter !n Ij^tlZ^ Giundns^. 1^ 75Q)« ^^^ Aitothti IcUci on tlie 

me dfcy to li^c Ahbat of DiB5Gnti°. S«« Moitu, Rtrifnite von 



promised, whenever the Pope should K<)uire their bdj 
to furnish 6000 men to meet the fee, pmridcd they were 
not Ihcmnch'cs engaged in war. Furllicr, for the term of 
their agreement they engaged not to ally thenuclvcs wiUi 
huy third power without the Tope's petmi'^Mon, nor to 
supply any other power with trtiop^i* The Pope on lua 
part Wtrid himirlf io couMilt the ititL-te^ts of the Federa- 
tion in any treaiics of pca«? or alliances thai he mtght 
make, to defend them with hk spkitual wreapon* against 
their enetnies, to psiy to each Canton and to WaUit a 
ycariy sum of 1000 florins, 6 francs monthly to estcb 
aoldicr in the army, and twice that -aim to cachjofficcr,'^^ 
Trusting to his alliance with the Swi» and to tll^H 
support of Vcnke. Julius \l. made no secret of his i* 
tciUion of going tn war with Frrttict'- ''These French," 
he %Mi\ on the t^th Junr to the Venrtian Amt».v5;iilor, 
"arc trying to reduce me to be nothing but thetr Kin^^l 
Chaplain: but I n^ean to be Fcjpe, av they will 6nd out 
to their discomliturc.*' He «poke w ^imiUr ternis to the 
Flofcalinc Envoy^t Cardinal ClLTinont. who attcmjivtcd 
aniainst the Popc'^ wishes on the 29th June to escape to 
France, was arrested and U\cn to the CflStIc of St AngdO' 
Other CArdinala who were, a.-* Julius H. Knew, secretly 
working on the French side, were threatened with a Aunilai 
f;itf-, Whtni llip CarflinaU Bnc;t>nnet, Ixjui-i d'Amhotw^ 
dc Prie, ^nA S^inwvcrino fntercedcfl with the Pope for hh 
release, he told ihem to their face* thai it looked a» if thqr 
too wUfied to be provided with lodgings in St* Angela) 

• DiRitAUi^a, rt.Hoa-4o> 

+ Brosch, Jiitius n., 30J-J04, j^l. Tlic siurt wftrd»ii>ihe Florcfi- 
tmc EnvoY ^T« In "CetreUtni, CckI It-i III.. 76, t 344* vf the NjiIkkuI 
Libnjy, Fbicnce. 

t C/. S^xirro, X.. Mfi^, (^. 700, TM, 7*5, n^ 7P. ?34. T4A ?47, 
761, 603,806, 85(XS57i £7' - 5CC*Cerr«nn^ Av. *^^f-M* The 



At the same cix>m«ot Loui« XIL att^t:c4i the Pope 
io bis 9pdritua]itkE b^ reviving a coosidcntble numbcf oT 
Ihc prorislors of the Pngiruitic Sanction, cspccully tiio«e 
iclMing to benefices.* Jd the beginning of July a sharp 
oech&Dgc of bigli worth look place between Juliui and 
the French Ambjuu<k>r. Carpi remonrtratcd with the 
Pope on hb intention of hdping the Gcnoc^ to shake 
off the >-okc of Friiicc, whjuli he iaid w-ti .1 line tjf eon- 
duct (m tlic part of Ji.iliu% th;il ht,s Kirj^ hiid iiol tiescTVcd, 
The Popr replied^ *■ J look upoti your King as my personal 
enemy, and do not wish to hear anything moie." Tht 
AmbftCtador ivni iihewn to the door and JuliJic refused 
to hear any further explanation.^ The ruptuic witJi. 
Louis XU. WAS new definitive. The Venetian Env^ 
writes that "the French in Kocoe stole about tookh^ 
like corpK^** I 

The Pope'iit pbn waA to att^iclc ihe Frcnrh in Itily nn 
all rides at once ; in Genoa, Verona, Milan, and Fcrrara 
The Venetians wc« to throw themselves on Verona, the 
Swiss to invade Milan, the l-regosi in Genoa, supported 
hy Fapal and Venetann troopa, u-cre to riae against I'rancc, 
and Fraoeesco Maria della Kovere, also in combination with 
Venice, was to march against Duke Alfonso of Fcrrara, 

Julius 1L wa^ especially exasperated ag^Iitst the Duke 
of Perrara, wliu hjul thrown himself comptertely into the 
snnA nf Franre anr! tontmiicd to h;iras^ Venice in spite 
of the Popo*s repcatrd commands. The Prince was not 

ConuaL, f. a?, mciuiga Qcnnaiu'v impiuoDinent : *Dict;i die fagch 
JumJ R. IX F' cutL AuxiL cum uno ex tui& ct tiixit habnv carduuliiw 
vvXrt drmnurL <:mm per rirbrm .i BinjcMo <:^piti!( er prr Tyhcrini id 
oatnnn ^. Aajcdi iiidoduclu^ «t \\n dcUnlu*. Coi-i:tijitoruL Atchiro of 

t BaoecM, Jaliui IT., A06, 349"35eb O. UaOT-^E, III.4{9< 



only his own fc^Lditory vassal, but was ^lao bound 
Mm by lies of gr^tilLidc for quite rcccal services. Durini 
the past Winter he had restored Comacchio to AMoni 
uiid j>revcntJ-d ihe Vencti;tns from attacking him. Nuw, 
protected \>y LouiP Xn., in defiance of thM morarchs 
treaty with Julius IL,* the Duke went on with the war 
against Venice^ and did everything in his power to injure 
the Holy Sec, He harried the inhabitants of the StAtt 
of the Church, ignored the Pope's authority even 
eccTcsi^tical matters, and perasted in working the mJI 
marshes of Comacchio to the detriment of the Papi 
cnono^ioly at Cervia^ asserting that he held thU town ii 
fief from the Kmperor and not from llie Holy See Al 
the Pope's demands were either "evaded or met by 
direct refusal or an evasion; Alfonso \v\a determined' 
not to obty him."-|- Finally Julius 11, commenced le^jal^^ 
proecedinETs against his insubordinate vassal. A Bull ol^| 
Qth August excommunicates A[fon»o as a rebel against 
the Church, and declares him to have forfeited all his^H 
dignities ard liefa. In it he h severely blamed f for Id^^l 
adhesion to Cardinal d'Amboise, who^ it says, was plotting 
to obtain the Tiara during the lifetime of the lawful Pc 
and £owed dissension between France and Kom«,J 

♦ LAH^t, Einlcnunji, 109, 

f Sc^e K^NK£, Kom. uniJ Germ. V^Ucvr, 351, C/. th« authoritiM^ 
fefcircJ to Iicrr and in HtROLiiRuTHEK, Vlll., 424 J^- See ala 
Balav, v., 47J, smd Rob. Bofictirm, II., 46 tef. C/ *l»o 
Appendix, >J- «^j tht •Brief of ihe 5O1 Jimc, ijro. (Suie Archii^ 
Mi>iJcnA.) A ^Kiicf irom Jaiiu» 11. bo Alfijii^a, unrcutun^icly undaWi^ 
bnai Apparently bekin(Ein)t (o tlic end of 1507, cixiuins compldJOt* 
outnijes commiitcd hy Fcmrese Aficiob on ihe inhibitanct of 
placca a*fticij In il,whk:]i no* bdangcd loilic UijJy See^ *LJtKbTVT,2| 
f, 30*', S*cr«l Archives erf the Vattcm, 

t S«?, MA*lnJ^XXIi^, N 443. 





The Pope's ftttccnpt tc w/tst Genoa from Franco woa 
violcnlly rcficnted by Louis Xli. MachiavcU^ who wa* 
then An Envoy at the French Court, describes the 
exasperation of ihc Kiiii* anj his couriier*. " As 
rc|£ard± the Pope," he wiitcs from Itlom oi> the 2isl July, 
"you can imagine whal :^ sairi of him, otitt^l fence? 1% to 
be frtjourcccl and a Cojincil hung upon his neck. The 
complete- annihilalion of his power, bolh temporal an<l 
spfritua], Is tlie leait of the penalties with which he U to 
be vtsitcdp Loais U delermtned to vindicate his honour 
even if he loses everything be poascascs in Italy." Machi- 
avelli gratified hts hatred of Popeii by f^nmnf^ the 
Aamc with all his might lie advised the King to set 
the Roman Barons on JulJtis; he would then be fully 
occupied at home and have to let the K lug of Fiance alone. 

Fortunately for the Pope, Louis did not follow this 
advice, but resolved to attack hie enemy just wl^cre he 
was Invincible— in his purely spiritual power* This 
Pope, who wae such an obstacle to French domination 
in Italy^ was to E^ hurled from his throne by means of 
a Synod creating an ecclesiastical revolution. Thus, 
*'tbc great tournament of Ihc European po^vers was 
transferred from the field of battle and the realm of 
diplomacy to that of the life of the Church."t 

On the 30lh of July, Louis Xll. is&ued a summons to 
all the Bishops in his kingdom to send representatives 
of their Dioceses in September to Orleans, there to meet 

^^ Aa BljII uinpi^i£urn Bonci[UA« t$iOy die XX III,) m 1T10 
bkilVllVKKlcna. Tlicre i» aUit here a notice that the Bull 
wa» pcAtedin ih« church of S. John Littrari on die 13th Auff. 
• BRjOtiCM, JuLiui lloloS. (/. Tomm\s[m:, Machiavelli, L, p^^.i 

i FRakk6i, UDj|[&ni und dk Uga von Cuiibnuj $$. 




togctlicf and hold a consttltatbn on the libefl 
privileges of the Galilean Church.' B/ a ro>"al Ofdinp 
once of i6th Au^st, 1510, all French objects wcra 
rorbiflilca to vivt tlic Court of Romcf The AsKtcbl/ 
met at the appointed time, not, however, tit Orleans but 
at Tours^ vi-hliher Loufs also betook himsdr, forbld<lin{ 
the Papal Nuncio Leonini to M)o\v him.J The Frendi 
Court-Bishops answered the qucstionn set before thom 
in the sCTiac dtfaired by thdr ifiaitcr. The Pope did 
wron^ in making' w«r on any Prince who was not 
of Ims vassals, ard Fwch a Prince had a right to dcf< 
l:nm5clf with arms, and evai to invade Uic States of 
Church if nccesKAry, and to withdraw }\h kingdom from 
its obedience to such a Popc^ The Icrra at whidi ihc 
renunclatfon of obedience should take place rnusc be 
dccirJed by ancient custom and the provisiom^ of the 
Pragfmatic Sanction, founded mi Ihc decrees of the Couiicl 
of Rftsle. It wa^ further declared thai a Kinj; when thus 
attacked haci n rtg^ht to protect hii allies against the Po| 
and to hold all hh censures as null and void. Al thi 
same time it laa^ agreed that before taking any ftinhf 
steps iht- ^siUican Church should send Envoys to the 
Pope to warn him not to proceed in his present conduct, 
and to demand a General Council. When ihh had been 
done, they would have a rij;ht to take other mcasurca^| 
Finalty they j^ranted a con^iidcrable sub:;idy to the Kin^^^ 
lor the prosecution of the war in Ualy.g On that poini 
Louis Xn/5 pUns were of a very extensive charactci 


t, Origrpn, 13^ 

X C/. Tir^nat, NurnktoitA, 42-A^ 

J LvHUAXN, 1-9 i Hmcum^vncKx, V][|., 4^2 mj.; Gtnrrri 
VIlL, loS jrir>; Lettrtsde LoubXIL, EI,, 29, 4^^^^.; Giesu-ek, J] 
4, 183 ^. 



*■ He Intended to create x new heaven and a new earth 
in Italy." He proposed to lead an army to Rome and 
hon&elf depose the Pope* " But hb mood varied from 
day today; one day be ?tccmcd quire detcrniined to begin 
at once, the next lie shrank back alarmed at scrnie appre- 
hended danger, or at the exprmci ti( the war. T!ic 
FerraTese Fnvoy cninpbfncd thai he changed his mind 
every morning, Hp allowed the precious time in which 
artion was posiiible to slip away^ while he amused himself 
with the fatuous contempbtion of the power whtch he 
possessed, but did not know how to use," Finally he 
decided upon waitin^;^ till the Spring;, and till he covid b« 
MPc of Maximilian and Henry V"III,+ 

Met no Julius II. He Itncw nothing of fair or irresc^n* 
tton. and dinficukfcs onfy rou>rd hifn to (greater exertions* 
Hb character cf>rresixmc!i-(l tuTHmily wJlh his family em*l, 
which was the unbending oalc, — the resolution which he 
now formed was in complete harmony wiCh hti; fearless and 
ea^r temperament- Though he was far from well he 
cMcrmincd to accompany his army in the campaign 
affijnst Ferrara, the moit advanced outpost of the French 
lit Italy, aiMJ thus huld his untrustworthy and irresolute 
general? in their work- Ry superintending ihc whole enter- 
prise in person he hoped ''to decide everything himMr^lf, 
and get hh decisions promptly carried out. and to be 
again as succe^fnl as when he had boldly ulcen hi* oim 
line agarnH the Beniivogli, and refused to be intimidated 
by any warinnR:^ or progno:^tJcations of evil. He had no 
pecscntiment that he was going forth to meet one of the 
moat terrible triab of hia whole Ufa" J 

• C/. \\Ac\n3,\t\\7* Uncii(rfi>it ;u! Jul^nnd the 18th Awg,, i^ttt 

* LEUUATnr, 9, C/. CBaiflnroK, IV,, cio; Raivkk, Rom. tmd 
C«nn VAlkrr. 19& 

t Droacm, |ulni9 IL 9^ 




TbcPopc'a irrJtaiion with Loub XI 1. increased froA day 
to day. He began to talk of cxcocnmunicatint: tJ^c King, 
and the Cardiuat^ of the French party were thr catcticd with ^M 
the scvetcit penalties if they took any part in the calling ^* 
of an anIi-Papal Council Canliiial Clcnnunl was kept in 
strict coiifitjemeitt in 5l Angc^lo^ and Canlinal dc Pric nnl 
escaped the same fate by swearing, at the Consistory 
i8ih August, not to leave Rome ; if he did, he u^uld at' 
once bedej^rived of hiscardinalatep These severe meaj^r«« 
seemed to be rendered necessary by the conchjct of Cardinal 
d'Este» who, though summoned on the 27th July, with all^^H 
the other absent Cardinals belonging to the Courts to return i^V 
to Rome, had not come back* On the 17th of Augfuit the 
Pope went down to Ostia^- and thence to Civita Vccehia, 
where he impcctcd the ships destined for Genoa, and cele* 
brated the conquest of Modcna.^ AH the Cardinab, with 
the cxceptton of the aged C^ralTa, were summuncil to joinj 
him al Viterho, Imt Brii^onnel and de THe took no notici^ of 
thecommand.J From Vllcrbo Julius went to Moniefiaicon^.^j 
and started from thence for BoEoj^na with 400 men on tke^| 
Isl September, making his way to Ancona through OrvictO^ 
Assisi, Foligno, Tolcnlino, and Lorcto, where he said Ma» 
on the Feast of the Nativity of the Blc^^sed Vij^in 
September). II 

• Sawuto, XI, i4i, 1S5, fpj, 198, C/. Pxws DE Grassu, 
DttUinser, 11I.« 502. nnd cd. Frati, r^^-igS ; dlau RAY^tfALous, ad an.] 
f ;rc. n, ilt-i^ 'Ili« ^tlnvf to Cardinal <l'E^t« of the sjth July, isic^j 

b Ap[»ndk, N, 85, Stale Arditvesn Martpn*. 
t *Acui CuiisisL. f, 27. CotiBiiKirb] Aidilvca of the V^vloin. 

I Samrro, XL, aio, 2^3. 

[| pARif DE CaASSiB, ed Fru^ iS^ Jtg„ find *AcU Craitist 
a'f^ Ftom ;\n<nnfi, on cli« ^h S«|>t., the Pcipe <Ies|Hilchcd jl *Bi 
die Bolognuc uyinf; thii he UmI hcaril Tiow much itiry had njflmd ftom 
the cncn^r* *^^ would compcnalc ihcm. On the 7i]i Ma> lie had uttil 



At this place some attempts were mndc by Cardirutl 
Ftescc and Lioncllo da Carpi to pcnttaJe h\tn to enter inio 
diplomatic relations with France, but were angrily repuUod* 
From Aticona, Julim II. proceeded to Kiminit by water^ 
and thence pressed on toCcsena by the Ancient Via timilia, 
in spite of the rain which pou;cd down like a wAlcrspout, 
Paris dc Grassi», who travelled with the Pope, saysi" When 
the people £aw our train toiling along in such weather, tlicy 
burst oKt JAughint;. instead of t^rcctit^j ihc Pope as they 
ought lo have don& Although the foJIowirg day was just 
as bad. he insisied on going on to Forli, whilher the rain 
pcrscx'erdiK'y accompanied us." Here they only spent the 
ntghl, and then proceeded at once lo Boloj^n;;, which Ihey 
entered on the 33nd of September, ICvcrywhcre along the 
road ample provision w^ made by the inhabitants for the 
wanteofthc Pope and hia people: at Im dcaire all remains 
of rood were diatiibuled to the conventa and the poor t 

a*Brief pcaising ihc 6d«lrty and obcdicricc ot tha Andenti of Uologrm r 
aocl in a second "Brief, tUi. Koiti«, i^ih May, i^ie, Iw ei^o pmses the 
M4gt^tf3tcs for ihcir byiUy. aid usuic^ them Uial he luusuch fx>MX[ful 
^<^ ihat ];c ha^ no npprchonaionsn All thctc *Hrioit ue in the Smt 
AKh\vc^ BobgnA, Q-, liti 5. 

* SjtTfUTc;, XU 336 : BftOSCM, Julius ![-i 109^ 

f From btic JulJu* !]> wnl tlic Biihop tti Moiiopoli, Mithicl Clfludbi 
eo Vcnic* fti pcrmaaeot Nuneia Sec S>NUTo, XI., 449^ Pikper, 
Niuiimuict;, J7 ff^- 

I pAftiB D£ Chassis, ed. Ffati, 191 s^f. €/. Fahti, itr\o\ii, 24. 
Til* CTimnce into Bolisrn* i* wmngly rtatj'cl ihf 3oih hy GOAJAnivi, 
Akuul AvvGiiiiLicnli. VIL, i6g. Also the *Acu CoikiuL kay iltc jjjtd, 
aod deiciibo it as: nuLfnonppf^ratti rocupiu^ In n *Bncf, da(^ Pc^vOt 
■ Slh StpL, rjift, Julius annmmtreH hU amval to the Bologn«e ; ho i«ni 
ivo CommiBStrii lo make aU jit<:cisaty iitti^'itMlvtits. (S<aLc Archives, 
Betogm^ Q^, lit>. 5.} On the B9lti ^ept. :i letter of thinki wai icnt 10 
reruj{ia Toi llie ptoiniiie oT 4'>j men 10 Jiclj> a^hhim FfrnnL City 
Archives, [Vru^ and Cod C, IV„ j, of the Uaiv<t«ity L^bnryf 



ErcD during the ccursc oT ht» burned jotuncy* tidings It 
rtachtd Julius which tilled him with itnxict>% he hcud 
from VtsvM thnt the expedition agamU Genoi ftcemcd 
likely to break dowiL In Bologna itself he found gn-^l 
dtssftdsfection with Alidosi'^ governmeni, Hcw-^alrcad^r 
suflVrioj from fever, and found It barO to bear up ag^nst all 
thcw cares ; but an)thii>g in the way of better ncwa revised 
him at once, and his resoluticn never biled for a momen 
not even when there could no longer be any doubt th 
the King of France trtcAnt to iummoa a CouTKil* a 
the SwisSh after h^^tiig come as far as Otio^so, yieldmg 
Ficnch and imperial intrigues, suddenly turned back 
gave up the campaign.f But ^ill VKxrtse news was yet to 
coioe. On the jorh September he had made the Marqiiew 
rjf Mantt?a Standard- be^ft?r to the Church^ and on the 
14^ Odoljcr had ex communicated the French ^eneral-J 
Now, on the 17th, tidings arm-od from FJorence that the 
Uardinah Car\-ajd, Francesco Borgia, Brisx>nnct, Raie de 
Prie, ftnd San5cvcr;no, instead of obcj'ing the Pope's com-> 
mand to join liiin at DoZognat had bet^ikcn tbemM:lvcs 

• C/. Corp. dipt Porrug., I-, ijj. ^| 

f SaWVTO, X1,,4JS» 4J7i45S. 457,4^ <J^ the Pomiiruwc Report 
from Komcof the i^ih OcL, 15 tc, in the Corp. djpl. fortug.i I,, >J>^h 
'The iititjr^ifrttd tlrtpi-ika\ of lb« Swin{f/! DiKitAirKR^ ^a^) rllmurlifi^^l 
die Pope mofc ihia Anything elic, B5 ht% •Ui-icf of Jdh SepL^ l^lo^ ^^ 
thevi. This Bnd u prinUd in ch< £idgca4». Abtchicden, III., 3, 
Siv-^JOi <uid in Gvinum in Amajuo-ai, IH-, »9-«3i. To«iu&:ki, 
Machim^lE, I., 704-70$, vho ha* rcprinud ii, and ClenoMTOM, IV^ 
l»n, have o^erTooWttl thii. Th* Utin teM <i* the Letter from the 
FedtntliDn, dat. Lmcme, T4rti -Sept, 1 $10, with vhkh FLnis (T, »o, 
it Ml ttcifuaintedi And to whkH the Drkr wiu ui aniver, la lo tic fi 
in CcmL Regin., (57, t tt5t», In itw\'Aticaa Libnry. 

t Pahis I>£ Crjvkis, cd Frali, iqj ; SAr^vTo. XI-. jSfi. i^, LVXJO, 
F. Com^g^ 8f who «hcwv Uuxt it ww die Pop* who lad T«d«atecl the 
Han^ucM frona hii itripnvniiTWTit 

I ItaY;rAUJua,M]an, i^Jo, n. (6^ 




to the camp of the enemy in Milan. For v^irious fcuons 
thcix men y^ttc aII dias^tis^cd with Julius li. an<l bis 
policy. They csrcd for nothing but their otvn iigKranduc- 
Bncnt,* and hoped to vecurc thut by bclpirg the King of 
Frjuice to depose ihc Pope, whom he rightly considered the 
chief ohsUde lo ihe c&tAbtishmciit of liJs supii:TJUcy tii 
Italy. "Thu3 at^diUtn In the Sacied College vms «tddcd 
to J^iuiw' ihreiilrrtrd CiiUfiul."t Jiiliu% h.tJ lon^^ licm mis* 
truKtfiil of the French Cardinals; but il w»s ^ tcrrihic blow 
to Mm when the two Spaniards, especially Carvajal, who 
wat so hi);h]y thouj;ht of, went over to the French \ never* 
cfielcss he ^tll by no neans lost heart. 

At thh critical momeni, when notliing but the greatest 
pmdectce could ha\e saved him, the I'ope coRiinittcd a 
fjU^ error in allowring himself to be completely deceived 
by Caidiiial Alidosi. This worldly atid greedy prcUie was 
accused )yy hi* ciieiries of the wnr^t vices — whether justly 
or not wr have no mcAns of determining^ ^^*^ bid cnielly 
oppre&sed the Bolognesc and wa^ ^utpected of coniiplrtng 
with the J-'rcnch.§ In conjic<;uen€«, tlie Duke of Urbino 
bad him firrcstcd as a traitor and carried in chains frcssn 

■ C/. MOKO^r in ihe MisoeJl, di ttMrix ^eara, l\^ 179, 

t Paris ur Hrasu^ «iL Frati, uj?; CvitxihS-umi, \X.. 3; Ls 
GlAV, r, J7i; Baoscn, Jul^tjn IL. 31 j ; Lr-ttMA»:<, 27 i^ i Ht;KOB»' 
p6Tlt£3t, VnU435 //f. ^^* bci; inning ol lh« icii^iou bviveen Julius 
11 ntv\ Curfnjul (tatcd from the Ubpntitin nf C^i^r fkii^a (^ fvfirit, 
p. 343)' LAtcj On'aj-d, who naa bgth piu^ionatc and ambiLious* had 
bc«D ^ frrmi rt^pecrful la Jui coiiduci toward* the I'ope. Neverihclc** 
the UtKT amtinucU to Uml him with ki^^' coniJdiJUliOH. ayp^nnlCii liiiii 
lo hoaoonblc povE*, anil gave him valLubLc bcncAceo [^ RofiSiuvCU, 
Cbrvajal, 84, 9^, ^). Even no* CippIjhJ and F, Borgia were ircutcd 
■kh )fTT»i«r Ir&icney i]fcu&Ei itic oiticr^. So: GuiccUKDiNi, Joe. iti. 

1 </. FAKTi'^ investi|»lion9« Imola, 10 r/^n. which have not been 
DCtLced by any iciodcrn writer. See aim ii/t4i, p. 3^0, noLc t. 

g (^.PAiiia UK OHA&ua^cd, FniH 199* CfiSAtiXrso. IX., 353, and 
GOBADIM, AJcuni bVTcnu»cati, V)L, r7r jtff. 



Modcna to Bologna on tlw /tfi of October. The Bolo^ncae 
now hoped thai their hated tyrant would pft>^ for his mb* 
deeds with his life. But in hJ5 very first conversation 
cciitrived, Uy inninuAting iriArtnen and pUu^ibih'ty, so 
gtt round thr Popr that not only was hi? ftt oner rclca* 
but very shortly after, on the iSlh October, made Bi»h< 
of Bologna." The citizens, irritated to the highcft d< 
were preparing to give \'ent to their an^tr, when suddcnl] 
the French army under the command of the excoinmunl 
catcd ChaumonCf appeared at the gates of the city, whii 
was inadequately garrisoned with only 900 men. With 
the French were the Beiitivagli, thir&ttng for reven^ The 
f>eO|)le now, says Paris dc Gra.s^J5> took up arms, not to 
defend ilic Legate or the Po|X\ but their own liberty, 
AlfdosI thought of nothing but his personal «afel)-. ai 
«aid openly that he was arming hi» people not against tl 
French but to protect himself aji^ainst the Dolognes^ 

To make matter* worse and add to the general confusioi 
Julijs U now broke down under the long continued straii 
and, as the astrologers had predittcd.S fell seriously III 
fevo- ; 50 seriously that negotiations for the sup| 
impending election were set on footij Now at la»t for 
moment Ills Indomitable spitit seemed to falter. On 

* CoQtetnponincoui wrilcra iccm ulCcHynl a lot»to ^plnin tS:at evvnt 
C/. the <onje(MuTC» of P, HE i;ra4S|*» cd. t rnii, aoi. ^^ 

t Tile But! vf E^ojmmmiutticjjj of t lie 141I1 OlI., 151^111 Ihe Bul^^| 
Rom., cd. LiUbtmb., X^ la-i^. C/. Rsw aldue, od lu. 1510, n. 16 1^^ 
Uttm de LoaEs XfL, U a«3 ; flnd Hiair.ENki'rTirtai, vnr., 4?6ffy, 

I The ttit of Ph UK GiuaaTH tn Rii>im]Lius i;populirv anna <ap\i pfq 
pontifids taictd.qucwa)i< inaccurate throu)fhou(. In t'fun, aortic «loei^^ 
net inak« tctiRe. The correct itax xn DOl-UNCCie's edidrm rmu dnii<^H 
pu^jtiluB omul oiiiii ain uLicjuc pro h^to ncc 1»ni pro pontifidA lutcw^^ 
quoun Lui iptonim dcfcniione, 

g C/ \U9 VofW^x^t: Rqjort in flie Cons, dipf, Pornitf., I., 133. 

I) Paris D£ Fnui. X14 » tf. Dkosc^. juliu» 11., i$ott^. 


J9th of October he «cnt for the Venetian Ambassador and 
tolil him that if the troops of the Rq»ublic had not crowed 
the Po within iweniy-four hours, he wouM come to terror 
with Chauimonf. The Amkii^ador relEUe^i hoWj on the 
fbJIowing night, to^^ing on his sleepless bed, ho declared 
in bis fevciUh wanderinf;^ that he would rather kill himself 
than taM into the hands o\ the Krcnch.* With the dawn 
of the 20th October the fever subsided, and llic akk man 
recovered hia self-command with a cclcnty which shews 
the cxtraordiniLTy elasticity of his temperament When 
he l^ard that the nrmcd citizens were calling' hi§ name he 
sprang from liis bed and had himself cfiriicd out on one of 
the balconies of the (KiUce, from whence he gave his bleu- 
ing to the people, whose temper, owing to a variety of 
circumstances, had undergone a favourable change during; 
tfaft pMcedint; day:t. 

Faris dc Crassis, aa an eyc-witnc-t5, narrates how Julius, 
after having blessed the people, crooned his arms upon his 

* Cy. tht «Klnct« froni The Reports of th« Vcnethn Ambauador in 
SaNCTTO, XL Here on (he ;6t(i Sc|iL it U «^<] thu ihc Pope it bi bed 
<Mk letnnGlb (p, 467} -, od and Oct. thai h« 19 lU of hrtr ; li inedid 
dttbdni&eik d bub laquattaiifl(|L 494); on iSlihOcLt i^papi k jfur fchrc, 
qiMaio|iii|Eion>oun9pocbu.ecoiTU}11uiHC4aldM; bon^nDia^lluinuiicho, 
e come f a citivA, el att in tettr> ({t. 546) ; on ihc i^h, the <Eef:Umiion 10 
ih» Ambuiaflor mentioned i^>t^f f^w On The aocK rth:ii been decidcrl 
locouiic toterrii* wilImIic FjchvIi- EljAptfririkduiuj] U fcbie ; it is 
though that he cannot liw. Tuta questa note llpaparuonandodictvai 
MoitrA, morir^» onu^ vrtglio ircitii l Foe di^^rvA - AT>itiri> prv^ne de' 
Fiaaceui dc" FnLnccaJ t Quc»to non scr^ vcr<^ Tortt lE veoeno da mit 
tori) il vattno ol tuuo ! £ ctusi chul questa netEc ski <)ucsie pntidie ha 
nbbio^ non & irai dormiTo lulia quesia noite (pp. 543'SS^)' BkoHch, 
Jaliui IL, 302, in hi> uuut fjuhlon, quotes these waj'ds toru lo producva 
omleadiTig hnprenion, suppressing what ihe Amlm&^ador tayi cf ihc 
Mveriiy of the fever, nnd aniicipnttonb of il^c Oeaih of the Pope^ TLie 
vord'rsbiato^indicaiee monuil diaturhnncc, »o ilmt ChK:QltroK, IV^ 
133, corrtcEty makes uMof chctcnndelinuni. 



breast, as thoui:h conJidins his pct£on to their honoarvKl 
aire. The action met vnth a itympathctic response, and a 
sfaoQt went up from the crou<d with a promiac to sUnd up 
against tlic fee iu one man, " Now/' cxcUimed the rope, 
n* xhty r^mtnl him b4ck to hi^ lied, "we l-^ve conqtterod 

The hope* of JuHus f [. tvere Jnstlfied by the coiiduct of 
the French commander, who, instead of pressing forwTt 
at once, bcjjsn to rcgotiate,+ and thus gave time for 
Venetian and Spanish troops to arrive. Soon the Fren 
army, encamped on the Keno three milct from the city, 
began to aulTcr severely from want of provisions and C 
inclemency of the weather, and ¥ras forced to retire 
Cartel firanco, Julius, who had broken off hU n<^otlatlo 
wfth Chanmont, wa^ now anxfou? that his iroc^s ihou 
sally fcTth :ind fall upon the French^ who were retiring 
slowly, pTundcfinff as they went His rexation at not 
being able to get this done was so great that it brought 
en a dangerous relapse on the 24th, Again the wont 
began to be feared, but again al^o hU iron constitution 
victorlou.<v In two day* he began 10 improve, and by 
cud of tlic: fuLtrtli day the danger wa^ over, llin recover/j 
however, was rctardi:d by his obstinacy In refusing to s 
lihnfelf fn any w^y or to follow the advice of hh physicians. 
In consequence, he had many relapse*. "The Pope's con- 
fttitution/' write.'i the V^enetlan Ambacfcador on the 35lh 
November/' is maT\ellouK ; if he would only take care o{ 
himwif ho would soon be able to get up.*^ 


* Pahis dk Cn/fSm, od. Kmti, ae>, 9031 ffi ^$3. Samuto, XI 

* SEMPKK.Ca.nji.T. On CI^AUinont^ nwtJvcst f/ UavaacaK:!, II., 
I Saif in> If XI ,, 6j4 i €/. on ihc wiotu phue* of hi* sicica*** and 

behavimtr, 554, 556, 568, 569, 58J, 586^ «oi, 60^633,643. 668, 
FAKiit DK GaA^:^ ctl. Tx%i\, 104 J/7 


Far Trom attending to hts hca?th, xhe mind of the Pope 
waa occupied day aiid nfght nith hfs pUns for subduing 
F^mni ard driviFi;; back the Krencb- Ho caur^cd a circular 
Idler to all the ChrislUn Princes or Europe to be drawn 
up, in which he Accused I^uts XH. of thirsting for the 
bfood of the Roman Pope and sending his ainiy to Bolugnd 
to dcslioy him. He declarci) that until Femra had 
CitjiiluUteil hp n-nuld li-vt<fn to no motr^ o%-cftUTei, He 
nrg<xi the Vmctian* with redoubled energy to join their 
forc«9 to hia and at once commence the siege of that city. 
But his impatience nas doomed to di^ppomtinent- The 
unkm of tlic two armies took place m due course, but the 
combined forces; waited ir vain for the Marquess of Mantua. 
At the same time the Venetian fleet met with a reverse.* 
Julius IL had on the Mth December appointed Cardinal 
Marco Vigerio l.egaleof the Papal troopsj ei^hl clavK after, 
nifont came of the conquest of Cnncordia ■|' HU Master of 
CnvmonFefl reports that on the 15th December he had to 
Tar recovered as to be able to leave the house of his friend. 
Giulio Malvc£zr, where he had been staying since the 6lh 
November, and rclnrn to his own palace. Externally he 
was very much altered in appearance, as ciurirg hia illness 
he had £;rown a long beard.] At Christmas he was able to 

• GVICCIABDIXI, IX,, Chap, 3, 

f PAHt'fc DK Okakmx ed. I-rjii,3ti u^. {JCSaNUTO.XL, 63i,6£u 
AndGoeEAE-tM. AIcunJavvcnimcnEi, VII,, [84. 

2 HMtttOKGPASSIs, cA Fiati, ?ij, 141, A Bologrieie chronicler (in 
OsCfADUft, he. 6if., iti) reports ; E'ottAva li luiUi iJcr vcddiiai^i cC 
<liom che non \x vokvn piit rasar per iiuiao a rfuito-chc non avcva anco 
Aiora ccunto d re tudovioo de Fran» cTltalix K«v Pr-rau^ Makiyh. 
IAl 3CXIV-, fp^ A%\. C/i ftteo Luzio, P. Gonfoga. 6$. Tor MVcral 
<eacune4 no Pope tod ever utom a bctrd^ upA ni (ho Con<^LAve of 
1455 evtn Bctianon'fi fiiSeatal beard hoil br^tn bbmnl by tome. 
(See Vol IL of tliu wt>rk, p. 313.) See iceDQially on th? wanDft of 
boArdi dimng the Ueoo^ssance peiiod, MOHTz, Unt de I'A., Ill, 



say Mass, but orly in hii private chapel and iittii^E. On 
£, Stephen's Day he wished to attend' the High Ma^s »t 
the Cathedral, but heavy snow and a slight return of fever 
obliged him to give up h!^ intention.* It can tlicreforc he 
imagined wimt l)ie ainazcnieiit of his Court mii-sl hax'e 
been when he informed them on the 2yth of December tbal 
he Intended to join ihe army before MirandoU, in order to 
<ce why his troops were putting o/T theJr attaclc in *pite 
of hi* ret>eated commands. Although every one, the 
Cardinals, the Prelates, the UolOKiicee, and, at first, even the 
Vcnetiiin Envoys, dici their utmost to dia^uade him, ihcy 
conid not alter hi5 determination -, he wd5 eonvinccd ih^^ 
nothing but his presence ia person oould defeat ^| 
machinations a( those who weie hindering the progress of 
tlie campiii^n.t ^k 

On the and of January, 1511, the world was called opoj^l 
to witness the strange spectacle of a Pope, regaidle^i of 
hu dignity, his advanced age, his health, and the rigours 
of an unusually severe Wirter. setting forth to join his army 
in thdr camp before Mirandola- Amongst those who 
accompanied him were the Cardinals Isvalie^. d'Aragona, 
and Cornaro, and the famous architect Bramantc-; The 
Venetian Envoy, Girolamo Lipponiano. who bad aitachoi^ 
himself to tlie Papal train, give^ utterance in hla Report* iflfl 
the umVersjil astonishment. "Julius I V he writer on the 
Cth January, " has appeared, contrary to all expec^atloi^^ 

f$t tt^. \i was, howevtr, "quite in chanxcier for Joiios 11. to be Ifc^* 
first to iustime Ihi^ iicitt of virlity." CklUfnuoviUN^ Gnhi1«E^tt4]er, 
124 Sec alsii NovAE^ VI,. 136^ ^^^^H 

• Paris DCCRASSt^ cd. Fraii. aaj. ^^^H 

t" SatruTD^Xl., 713 AV^ 719^ From a Ponugiies^ R«potl of :{tb 
Oct, L i i Oi il appeals tlrat even in Oic AuLUEim ihc Pope bad eipraoed 
hit intentioii of penocuIJy tobng puim the war, Corp-dipL Portt 

t C/. SeMreK. Caip, 8. 



He hates the French wonc than ever, Apparcfttly he baa 
quite recovered ; he goes about In all the wind and weather, 
«ncl wAlchett the clearing away of the snow from his 
balcony ; he has Che strength of a gtant. Yesterday and 
to-day the snow ha? bc^^n falling without Intermission, and 
is half the height of a hor^e, and }^ct the Pope is in the 
caiDpb Our Republic is being splendidly served. His 
Court, who have no heart for Italy, and think of nothing 
but their money, nre dyirg to get back to Komc ; but ihey 
arc qtiitc helpless: Julius \]. thinks, dreams, and talks 
to satiety of nothing but Mirandolii." * In 4 Report on 
the following di»y he ^Ry^, ** To-day the Pope reviewed the 
titiops IT the srow. His spirit and courage are fnarvelloUA^ 
but he is not supported by his people." The coni^ciousness 
of this 50fT]<:times angered him ;tImost to nadness, and he 
would storm av^d rave ^X hi? generaU for their tardincs£.t 

At first Juliui^ H, had taken up his abode in & farm- 
Iioom; when the batteries opened fire, he withdrew to 
Concordia, but his Impalicnce soon became so great that 
in a few days he returned to take up his quarters in the 
Con^'CTit of S* Glusttna, which was quite close to the 
battery and nearer to the fartre?^5 than the farm-house. 
H« Court were lost in wonder ^ " Hi? Holiness live^ In the 
kitchen of the Convent/' writes the Venetian Paolo Capello 
Ofi the I3tb January, "and 1 inhabit an open stable that 

• Saxlho, XI-, 722-733 : ^731. Sec als^ Ihc intcrciting Mantuai; 
t>Mpilcfa en LtrziO, R Conzaga. 5; fiv-: PaI^IS D£ Gras^IS, cd. Frati. 
»5 I CWUELUO, i 34 f^-; and Carpes>\wvs, V-, N, a. 0& tht imustuU 
ievcficyof The Winierof 1 ;i i.e/ LAKnuccr, jof^.-ind C^MM. XXI., 151, 
whoarcinot wicliout tcaAcin. ttcand^Ji^cil at t1ie ruiJc*i<:Eni(Iuci in joining 
Ihe camp. Hi* armour is 6ttU i>re<«n'ed in ihc Vatican^ and will !« 
yUciil in ihe nrw Mutcum in the Ai^innsn^enin Borifta. 

t SAKl7tO,XU 7U, Ti5> 7t(' ; </ 7^9i 73°, 7jt, 73^ 740- Sec further^ 
Iha Msntuan t>eapnlr:he4 in LVZ\0, F> Gonvi{^i, f^, and (\\t Repurl of 
ihe ^Tty frrmi Orvlcto In Fume, Carreggier 1 34-135- 




anjrwhcrc else vould not be thought fit even for s KTva 
but here it is so much pn£cd tliat Cardinab Coroajo «od 
irAraj^m have been a^in^ £:ir it Tbc wcftlbcr ii 
flctcstablc; tci-da/ wc have a furious snow slofm, and yti 
the l^opc hns goncoiiL HU health nncl spirit arc super 
kaman, nothing scema to hurt him/' The Vcoctian Eq 
LippomAtio Kiid to Cardinal Alido^i, who vrai alfto in 
CAmp, '' It ought to be recorded in a\\ histories that a P 
only just out of liitt sickbed, has taken Che JieJd hinuelfw 
January and in the midst of such snow And cold. 'R^| 
iivcrs arc all frozen ; it b Winter with a vengeance" ^^ 
rcptjrL of the i/Lli January .Htatci tlut on that day a 
cannon-ball had entered the room where ihc Pope wa* 
lyii^ asleep, and had wounded two of h>§ servants. After 
tid* Juliim moved into the house of Cafdinal Uvalie^. But 
her& too he found that «hot« were occaMion;il vigitorA, and 
io. in spile of the remonstranceB of his poopio, he r^umed 
to his former quartern '* The i'opti dispUy:^ extraordinary 
courage," writes the Venetian l^nvoy. " He ia bumini; 
with impatience lo march on Fcirara." The lonj^ nu»t^ncd 
resistance of the defenders of Miramlola so enraged Julius 
that he rated hi^ own ^e»crals in violirnl U-rm% and talked 
of giving llic town over to pillagt.* When at lasi, o«i 
the 20th of January, it capitulated, hi« people succeeded in 
persuading him to grant milder termK, Ho ivaa in such a 
hurry to set foot in hU new conqiiost that he would not 
w^ to have the i^tes unbarred, but clambered in through 
the breach on a wooden ladder. Or the following day be 
declared that he would at once proceed to Farara, and 

• SaifCtiCK Xr, 740, 74t, 743. ?44- 7|6, ?47, 7^ ?«• C/. GOZU- 
Dmi, AJcuni nvveniinonu, VIU '^7 "?.; Mctii. dctU SluAndc^ IL, 179 
fif^ Uj \ uia iULAV, A«o<Li deUjL Mir^doU, 1 j it^., 14. Juliiu jcnt 
\ht i:annoa-hAU 10 die SHnauaiy of \^tt!\o, wUcra ii j« tfill prawned. 



(ippotntod Count Gianfranc<«oo Pico, Lieutenant of the 
con<)tJcr€d fortress.* 

His personal experience of the difficuUic* which he 
would have lo aicounlcr in siibduiiig; Ferrari induced 
Julius to Ciller intu communlcatiuj] wiih Aifonsu iii urilci 
lo i^er^iiadc htm la sthnndon his ^llbncc with France He 
a1^ cndcavoiirrd to detach MAvimilian from Louis XIL, 
by handing Modena ov'cr to ihe imperial coinrnander-t 
The Duke of Ferrara let the I'ope know through an 
itvduect channel that he would not treat wilh him, and so 
the war had to ^o on. 

For m time Julius slill clung to his purpose of ix^rsonally 
purstimg the campaign; but the rtprcscnletioiis of hia 
Court, and his dread of being taken prisoner by the French, 
induced him for t1i<: prc^^ciit ta icrUirn lo Bolci^a until 
he could collect a larger army. Wbcn he found that h\^ 
return to Bolog^ia (on the 6th-^th February) h^id at once 
encourag<ed the French to advance again, he proceeded on 
the ilth b>" Imoh to Kavcrnu m order to attack Fcnrara 
from that ilde^ In Kavcnna, which he reached on the 
i6th of Fcbruar>', the Vopc on the tcth of March created 
ftcvcial new Cardina]N"to strcnE^thcr himself a^ain^t the 

iamalica and to fulfil his engagements to certain 

• &MrvTO, XU 7<fe. 763. ?6j, 76^ 7701 ?r?. 773. 7A 778. 78?. t/ 
lAjiio,V. cinnu^M: Mem. detb MJmndoLi, Jl., i&$ ir^.; B^Ladt, 
AaacdLidcUa Mirandob^ 1^ u^.; GozZADifH^ Alcuot awctiimenti, VIL, 
3CO ii^-. where id} paTtwruIars aboui iht nnp [now in the Mun^uu) ai 
Moden;i) vhkti Juliua fiivc (u Uic inlidbiunti of Wimndula may be 

t In Januaty. 1511. See S\nt>0WIN1, Modena, t^t. 

X PAlEtV DK f'lKAMl^s f^^- Fmli, ^34 fiV-> ^<^d Sa>V'I'o, XI,, 795i Soo, 
foi,Se;.fii3, £31.831, *3S.*33» ^43; FUMI, C*rle«yi"% 13*^, t^^ I4«- 
141 t FANTt, tmi^la, 34-25. C/. Bho^U, /uEint U., 7e5 t/^. On the 
dvf ibu he Irfi Dologiuw die Pt^ie wrotQ to M^ Luit; a»kinM luin ta come 
bpycQ, Sec Uttr?»dcl-oui*Xn^ll., iia-nj. 




povrer*."* Two of those iH>minAtc<l were ultracnonta 
Ifac EngUshmfin Uainbridgc and the Swiss Bifihop, Matthsua 
Schinner, the other nix were luljans: Antonio Ciochi di 
Monte Sansoviro, Archbbhop oF Liponto; Pictro Ac<oli of 
Arciio^ llishopof Ancoiia ; Achillea dc Gratis of Uo1ogii4 ; 
FranccMO ArgciUino of Venice; Daadindlo SuiU opf 
Genoji; ^irI Alfonso Fclruccj of Sicn^u 

The Coll^Tf of Cardin^U li;tc] Ktrt?muiu«]y n*«iftrd thew 
fircsh nominations, but, as iht* Venetian Envoy had predicted, 
Julius carried his point The same Eii^'cy says that some 
of the new Carlin^iU had to pay lar^ sums for thctr eleva- 
tion. Tlie nomination ofde Grafisisw&s obviously made to 
plcfiscthc Bolc^ncse; the English Cardinal Bainbrid^ was 
iippoinlcd Commander-in-Chief of the troops which caused 
great surprise,-} 

BesLclc-s ihe^c eight Carctirals another wan nominated, hut 
Ksenrd r» jtetiij. This was Maximilian's confidant, Maitba:U3 
Lang, Bishop of Gurk, who just at this time had arrived in 
Manma, where the Knvoya from England. France^ an<) 
Spain were a1^ prcMsnt He brought proposals of pence 
from his master. 

Julius il. wished to treat with T^ang personally. A 
Ravenna was too insignificajit a place to make it posi^ible 
tlicre to rccei\-e the repre?ientative of the Emperor wTih 
filling honours, the Tope, though e^tiemely di^vuiti^Stxl 
with the slackness of his generals in their way of carT}^ 
ing on the war, had to leave that city on April 3 ami 
return to Bologna, which he readied on the 7th of Ap 

• GkKraJsovius, VIIL. &1 edl 3. On thi» aeation, f/^ Pauw 
CaASSZ^cd Tsau. 34i stg.-. La Glav, I-. ^88; Fuidl, CutOKKiOb 
USM^i CMCiVXLAy ^40 tff^i And *A<ta C<in»iiC^f. 7$, Constat 
Arriui'ei nt the Vatksn, 

t Sjunmx XII., 25, 55-5&, £9, £; ia^.l P^ai3 oe Ckassis, ed. Fcati, 



i;i].* On the lOth ot the month, Matthixus l^^ng and 
Giovafini Goruagsi, aa Envoys from tbe f^mperor, and 
James Conchilks representing Ferdinand of Spaln^ entered 
the cit>' in stale, having previously had a private audience 
witli tlic Popcf U was observed uilli JissatUfacduT: thai 
c^-ai [n thiK pruccviion Liing a(i|>earcd m secular dfcw- 
The pedantic Master nf Cerrtnoriie^, Paris de Gras<is, 
characieristicalTy relates; "I erjlrcated Lang in vain to 
auire himself as an ecclesiastic^ especially Jn view of his 
approaching admissJor) to the Sacred College, but he put 
mcolTby eaying that he would appear in the £;arb which 
he wore when the Emperor sent htm. When I aaked the 
Tope about ii he said that it w^s hi« wish that I should 
kt the matter rest, and this I did, although many were 
<^5p1ea5cd with me on this account, and slill more wUb 

When, on the fallowing day, th«r Fnv^oy* had thdr piibllc 
audience, LaT^g* at the Tope's express command, was given 
the pItiCQ of honour immediately below the Cardinal- 
i>cacon5. This and other mark* of distinction were received 
by the Envoy with such unmannerly Arrogance, that he 
appearod to the courteous Italians a perfect ravage, " he 
19 a bar banan," de Grassis writes m his Diarj', '' ±tnd behaves 

• Paris i>k Crv'-j:!*, cd. Frati^ 2^; CKKCOHcrviUfi, Vlll., 64f, 
»1. 3 ; and Bhowk^ Julius II , 119, make joih Mar. the d*y of dw 
rope'* dcputurt from lUvcitoa. Both luivc icwl tic Gras&is very 
•uptrficnJly, Tho txtnict n^iturnUy be^mf a^iIi the title Daci^sus pontj- 
Hdi eat Ravctkoa ad tlanoniam, iiniiicduiiely fallnw^d hy the wanU^ Die 
Dotnintcft jO MjUlii* bvit if llicy had otHy rend n fc^ hn» monvthBy 
voi^ have fotutd ih;it ihc dcci^wn v> le^ive liavenna wis adopted on 
that day, and that de r*RiKi» then ^oes on to uy : Iiai^uc die JovB 
Icrtia Aprilb inde ino^^I^ 

t /^dt 363; UiJUAVV, II., 436, erroTieously puis off ihe private 
audlBice la tbc iiiJi of April C/. LeZlics de Loiui XN,. IL, 139^ 



like 3 barbirian/' Al thi? audience lie cunly oxplali 
ihal Maximilian had %cni him lo luly ln.vaiisc hv prffeitod 
to obtain his rights by peaceful mean* ralhw than by war, 
but thai the only conditions under whicli he would treat 
wer^, that the Venetiaiia t^iould restore ev-erything that 
they hati taken on any titld i^hatever, whether the» buds 
belonged to tlic Empire or were hereditary possesuon^ 
of Austria. When three Ordiraln were deputed by Julivj 
11, to carry on the ncg<>tiAtioR^ Liing dccUre<i it to be 
^KikrHth his dignity to dc«il jiersondlly with any one btit tht^H 
Pope himself, and ctifniikl-'^sionec! three of tlie nobles who 
accompanied him to meet the Canjtnal«. Ji]Iiu«had ho^vd 
lo win him by bestowing on him the highest dignity imd 
rich benefice^ but all tlicac favoura seemed only to encourage 
him to f^^ter msolcnce. He behaved ar, though his im- 
pcrial majtcr had already donned the Tiara. The Vcnclian 
Knv'Oy reports with amaxeincnt with what pomp the BUhop 
of Gurk surrounded himself, dnd how seldom he visited the 
Pope, " At the aiidlcni:c he conducted liiniw^lf *i* if he were 
a Khi]{ rathrr than an Arnhjansador^ and daimcd the right 
of convcniing with the Pope, *ttting, and with hie head 
cohered." It is not stir^ri^ing that these never very 
pTOmising negotiations fhould have come to nothings On 
the i6ih April all Louis XH/s adherents hud been cxcom- 
rDUckJcalcd,* and the views and desires of both the parti* 
ccnccrrtcd were diamctncally opposed to each cthcr.f 

* The Mali m ItATNAun^-^ jA -la. i^u, a, ^u LiJi^ almciL 
Okcoofd^cc with his moiti-r's wjfib«^ al reconciling ibc Pope w>tb Ft 
vid ihitt complcTcly \sa\ai\rig Venice and Ktiewinn tti« L^affat «( 
Cambnj m iu earlier funu, |>crlidp» with ihc addition of Englaiid. 
On iho other »dc ihe fopc and Venice tougbi to win ilie Luhoji, aod 
iUtouith him tbr Eiripenir, la combine wiih then in attacking Fnnce.' 
Hvnamlll., 3^390- 

f SA»VT0.Xn^is&-fa9k 1^140,147,1601 l.ang't Iciten la LftlEiM 
de Loub Xir, II, 107 Jqr-, 1391 >^^> ^5 "^-: ^KUt^ die GtlAssu^ 



On xhc 35th of April the Bishop of Gurk* left the Pajwil 
Court suddenly, " almost without talcing leave, and with a» 
angry mica" The Vcfictian Envoy rirporta that L&n^'S' 
follcwcn cried out 05 they were passing ihrough the dty 
gatc^ " Long Jive the EmpcioK lon^ live Fiarice, long live 
Ihe Bentivo^li/ U tA iiot woriilcrfLiI Umt it wjts cuitiinoiily 
idUi ill Bologna tK;tl tlie Po^ie wab al daggers drawn with 
a1] the Towt'rs.and that he was to be called before a Council 
4Dd deposed. t 

Lang's threats were fiomethinf^ mon than empty words, 
for the .French, who had suapended their hostile oporfttiont 
while the negotiations were going on, at once recommenced 
them, It now became plain that Cliaumonts dailli, which 
took pIac<on the lilh February, was a god.send for Uncau 
He had al)nwrcl Mmlcrt^t lu ffill iiitu the liandx of the 
enemy, had not mtackcd Bologna i:i nmc, and had not 
relieved Miriincloix On hi« death the command vra« 
assumed by the veteran Tri\nil£io. The first thing he did 

Od. Ftnli, 265 Mf^^ ^f%-ij2 (hero Ihe prinlcr's flrmr, 37 Apiilil, 
rftfi/A/Ar ihc l^th). COCCINILS, De Tjcllia icilim (In FREHKk, 11., 54a 

Avonva iiuicine con moUoalnodpoaictcc^vliK^cndoUsuinaiuni I'o^ 
'AcndibiJc cotitn} Ai Frji^ccsDi; Lk Gi-\v, L, 394 -^^i'' : Bcu^'fiM, Stale 
nipt»Qfnciaf>'\11L,l., l6fi. Q: MAVKKAKS,ir,J56jrf. ^ DkOSCU. 
Juliu* LI-, 3^0, 3;)t KOkJ,\MX, V., >j6; Ul.MANK, JJ„ 436 li^^i 
HtTKKH, 111, J*9-J9r J Crmoutus, IV., 1^7^135, ami in tBg:*n\ to (he 
ilcMiipUon 'm Cocdniiu, KKllXi^'i InvcftUgalJon^ Ucbcfdlc Dcdcutung 
Ati vicrtcn Buchct von CooeiniuV ^chnfl De butlia Imlicis, p- a; f^,, 
whiUi, however* nrc iiLitlcqu^Ue and even pariudly incancci, u ^.^., on 
pi 31 wc find : " Cocdniu^' jUtcmcnt tkuL Lahh bAd been fogjtccn dsy» 
in Bolognu is trron«ou&. He Ainv«d on the Sth April, uui went away 
^iJti Ctfi ilic ^^th," in ociEifimMiior) i>f wbk'Ei bo diFs LpUrv!! dc Lnub 
XIJ-, n^ 305. Here, however, ac fifvd OiaE Long Icfi on the 151IL 
Ttatv it is Knc|(er raiFier tlian Cocciniiis nlx) ncedv ccrrcction. 

* N«ii Archbishop, as CiKCiiu, Mii^ltdnnife^ 1-, <m1 ^, it»i|{nAteh tiiir. 

t Paris i>b Gkassis, cd rmi, ara i Broach, Ut. di. 


rnSTORY OP triE popes. 

vxs lo reconquer Concordia, and the n*xl, lo wtvance 
sgftinftt Bologna, Ai soon as Julius heard thb, he started 
in liaste fCff the camp, in order Xo stir up his generate and 
set the army in motion. He m^ant to have slept the first 
right at Cento, but v^as obliged to stop at rie\-c, as a troop 
of looo foot soltlicra who vctc encamped in the forcccr 
place refused to leave it until they were paid lie was sO 
much amioyod at thU» thai on the following tl^y he returned 
to Bologna, liut ii w.ia vvidctil tliat if ht remained there, 
he would again run the risk of being c^tptured by the 
French. He resolved therefore to return to Ravenna. 
Before his departure he called the Council of Forty together, 
laid before them All the advantages which Bologna had 
cJenved from belonging to the Church, and Admonished 
thcin lo remain faithful to him. On tbcir solemn promiM 
to be always true to him* he confided the defence of the 
walls and gales to the clti/eii** 

The f4tc of Bologna after the Pope's depaiture^ whii 
took pbcc on the 15th May,+ dfd not depend so much 
upon the conduct of her citizens as upon tliai of Aildoa 
and the Duke of UrbJno, who, with his army, lay encamped 
before the city. The enmity between these t^io rrtnde all 
CO'Operation between tlicm impossible; the hatred w-hicb 
Alidoni had drawn upon himself, and the consequent dis* 
loyalty of the inliabitatits, did the rest. Tbc moment thtt 
Pope was gone, the BcntivogH party began to stir and was 

• CocciNiUs, /^c. Hl On liB acrnunt, which diPfcr^ in pan from 
thai of GuicciArdini, »ec KEinctR, wj/j. Tht sjictchci m Guiccior^i ^1 
dim ore cenninly invi;m«d julmsnus by no means a rtody speaker, ^H 
<5C Paris iir, Gka^^-^s in Ch, G. HolTiiinnr, Niwa cuIli?4:iio ^cnplor, I, ^^ 
45o(LiiUL, i73)> On (he danger for Dolognft, t« FUMi, Oirtcgpo, t4^ 

Coasiit.* r 36. Tbc *l)ricr addicued \>y JiiESu« U. on the i6(h }^a.% ^1 
1511, 10 AlJdAi xnj (hv llolcvnesc »hew!S how little be apprthcnded the 
hlow ilut ivns about to IkIL 




jofrto<! by all wlio dlsliVH the gov«nmcni of the Church. 
The city was ^oon in a turmoil, iind Alidoii, withoiLt strik- 
ing a Wow, at once fled in disguise, fir^Uoihc fort, and then, 
when he heard that iJie Sanfclice t:ate haJ been tniitorousl/ 
given up to the BL:ntivogIi, to Cxiicl Kio near Imol^, Th« 
Duke of Urbiiio bcliavcd no better. When the news 
fcachod him of what was going on in Bologna he ga^'c the 
signal for n retreat which soon degenerated icilo ;l fljglit- 
AIJ the artillery, aad most of tlic ha^tiat;c and coluuis. ftll 
into th<^ hands of the enemy. On the ajrd May TrivuUio 
entered Bologna, and the Bentivogli resumed the govern- 
ment of the city.* They at onre began, with hruul van- 
dali^fp, to de^roy all reirkJni£ccnc:t!s, however valuable, of 
the Papal occupation. The bronze statue of the I'ope, a 
flplcndid work of Michael Angelo's which was placed over 
the doorway of the Cathedral in ISOS, fell a aacrilicc to 
this bitter spirit t 

TIk losis of Bologna, which, next to Rorac, was the most 
beatitaful and the wealthiest of all the cities in the States of 
the Church, was " the hardest blow of fate which had ever 
fallen upon JuUus II. He now found himself in the eighth 
year of hi^ Pontificate and the sixty-eighth of his life with 
all hi^ hard-won conquests torn from his grasp and every- 
thing that he had built up tlirown down."* Nevertheless, 
when the new:^ came, he received it without losing his 
nelf-command for a moment. In a brief addresiL, he 
infonned the Cardinals that the place had bain lust through 

• Cocci Nius, /*»*■- rf"//. C/. Krteckr, ^-jfi j P.*ri^ dk GnAisis^ed. 
Frati, J75 se?-. Alfani, as7 ; I'Rato, xBa; Najit>i, J., 398 j-y.; 
ht\ttts6c Louis XII., 11., 333-235, 343 uf., 350 tff.\ Sanuto, XII., 
I90L C/ R*N*:i:, Rom, und Grim. Volker, iGo Sf^r-, Havkhann, 
II., 56iJC^^. ; GozzAT>rsi, Altuni nwcniRwnu, 2t$ stq. 

+ More «n this subject will b« found is Chap. IX, 

I BttO-SCH, Julius IT ^ ^M, 



the trcsdKry of the dtitens ftad of the Dakc <ii VMtio, 
mho ihould pay for it with lu» llf«: He then at once ^ave 
the nc<c^»rx (xdera for the conccntmtion and rcor^niaa* 
tloaof thevmy* 

AUdtti Af>d the Duke of Urbano, perhaps ti-itb equal 
jiHtke, each laid the blame on the other ; both hastened 
to the Papal Court to justify theou«hre«, AHdosi's {ri^rida 
had done their best to strengthen the I'ope's cocivietion 
that the fault lay with the Duke, and he ovcrwhdoied hsi 
nepbcvr with violent rcproiachea. As he left hh qnck'a 
pre^ience, furioii^ and smaittng, under these; he met Atido^, 
vho was on horseback, coining to visit the Pope. The 
Cardinal saltilcd him unEHnf^y, but the young Duk^ with 
the pa^donate b!ood of the South bodlin^ in hJt vHn^ drew 
his sH'Ofdr and exclaiming, * Traitor, art thou here at last I 
Receive thy nm-ardJ* stabbed Wm mortally, and fled. 
Alida^i only lived an hour: bis last words were, "I r«ap 
the reward of my misdeeds,"^ 

The fact that every one except Jalms II. rqoiced at the 

* Paris vz GjtKwi\ cd. Faii, 277. €/. 3ANtno» XII, 191 

r Caccmivs, he, etr. ; cf. Kkierxr, 3*-37: Paris dk Giuaeia 
cd TtVa, 373 M7. {Tilt punchutioA in Dt^tlinfci^B cd. 406, is better ; 
(A« test m CREiciJTOir, IV^ 371, is i^one than that which had bcoi 
prinirtt prrvioiislj^ ) SAKUro, XH, 19S u^.% niaiHt:\ 47=; Carmu 
S&ia^V.,},pp,ii;3-nr4; LcLttcsdc LoubXIL, 11^ 3461 BeuURii;^ 
365 \ Lxnvtvct^^ 304 J09 i Gi;icx:UkftDi»i, tX, Chap. %. Oa Alidob, 
t/ Jovius ViuUcmii X, Lih, U-, p, 34, aticI EJoginr, LJh. IV-, p 134- 
Scc itllO SUGTCNUSIU, 406 /<V-. a"^ GO?JAM»t, Akuni Awenimcoti, 
(06 f^f,, 33? 14^.1 ij. 331 fflf. FaMH, Imolo, 10 J*^-, ha* r«c«aUy 
eodMvourfd to d^fpnJ ATidofi. Many of his arviimcnra Jewrre <do- 
lidciarfon, (hOLiKh he uttiic* tfa« uifertncc* from ihcm ujo fai, Dut the 
lut woird about Atidw has nol yet be«n tI>>^k«n' A Ubl«e wa« inurtrd 
^ ifac mXL bi the VU S. Viulc Ln ]Si^3 (o irrJirk itie tpot vrhei« the 
onirdcr took pbce. Alidni'a aikuU i> preserved in Ihc BibL Clnssensc at 
RnvcDiUk. See<K3Z£Al>l!iri, J^. 4r/i.,xiV-3jo; KA»rTT, Imob, I3<t4- 


OATM op cardinal ALtI>ObL 


Le^tc'fi dcaih shcwe how iin>vcr£?Ll]y detested he had 
made h{Rii«]f He waa ref^ardecl by all ^ a traitor, atid 
tliQ person who uras tcaWy responsible for the fall of 
Bologna. "Mo»t rightcoua God," uritcs ?ans do Gmiuis 
in hTs Diary, ** how just sire Thy judgments ! Thanks arc 
due lu Tlicc from ill for having punished ihU traJlor m he 
dcwrvcri. The hilled villain Wh indited \ir.c,n removL-d hy 
a human instnimcnr, Nit nor, a** Wf^ bclirvr, wiihoat Thy 
concurrence, And for ihb again wc thank Thcc/'* 

At the vCT}- lime that the crime wx^ commttted, a meet- 
ing cf the Cardinah wa« tnking place, at which Cardinal 
laraliea, who was universally beloved, had bocn appointed 
Legate of Ilclogna* To add to the sfirrow cau^d by the 
murder of his favourite, Jidius IL deeply tc^^ntcd the 
outrage comniitted ac^airihl the hiiihcsl dii*nity (ii the 
Churcltf He left Ravenna al once J and w^rnt to Rimini- 

• ?ARJS DE Grassts cd. Frati, ir& I i/. 319. Julius n/a clatiiuite 
con&lcafc in Midmi bivi hetti ouvic lo serve as a ground for ibc vcty 
weWaccu*aCiO(iioFimninralilya^iTi*l him, Tnreljiliod tofHt, UUO^H 
(314X one of Julius II.'i 1110^1 vbkni crittu. icnmiks : ^*1u1y dunng 
ibe Rtoajjsancc cavAd not havR been) ^ Burckliardt ducribct ii, viich a 
^AmA cf vif* M The wi^rld Hd never hefiwe leen, i1 loifh rplatmni 
bewtea a diatintcuialLcd but lli^[<iuKl>ly AO'ldl) Papc Jitid a daaipalcd 
Caidinal bad ttoi fiJnai:J>cd mniicr for the ^vom mitmuntloM. The 
nTohinschikrir^t wliirh hAvolir^n l;r\|ierl upi>ii jttlini IT. r«ci^1«Tith8 
y^HitaLinongefa of ihc tla^e^ Aod AiV, HO duubi^ iIjc c<-1iu cf ihcit tilk, 
butihcirovth if extremely dotiMul.*' CftKlcuTOp', IV-, ijo, o'litcs: 
It 14 har<1 in sur mini for thr Inftumilnn rif Jniiiia II rnwantu rfttdiTial 
AlJdoii. aikd ve cunncpi vender th^U conrcmp^f^rj ^-uindnl altrlbuici^ It 
I* tlio vjeiic iriotivcs. " 11 papa era niolio vitr^o dedito lEU libtdiae 
GctfYMirca," uy!& 3 ivlftfiane of Trtvitan, pi-inicd by BROfiCti* juliu* II-, 
2g& The khaijCt ^"via ollen K|x:ulcd *dlii tcfcitHLC 10 AlidokL ll *i1tt 
• fud« uiiy 4>f explaining wltat <ould not be explained. C/, also rkpra, 
|L po^ noiet, 

t Sao RATTVAtriVA, Ad (km 1 51 1, s. 61. 

X RajcKR, Rom- and Germ. Volker^ aCl, incorrectly n>Y afth Uay. 





Thcfe another, and pcrtLips a (till nacre painrul, fuq>n 
awaited him. On the 28th of Ma}' a dudoii to the Coun 
of Pm^ to be opened on the 1st of September, was fbu 
dfBxcd to ihc door of tlic chufeh of S. Francesco, do 
to the fo^s rcxidejice^ The ducumcnt was daiej 1 
M;i)', 1511. It ttsae^ thftl the dele|^te!& of the R 
and GfTman Emperor and the mo<ii Christian King 
posed to summon ai universal Cotinci!. This miction 
their part h^ bccc^mc necessary in order to comply ni 
the decree frt^Mius of the Council of Constance, owing 
the negligence of the Pope, who had not kept the oa 
tt-hich he had sworn to in the Conclave. They declared thai 
Juliua ll/s opposition to the Council fully jvatinod 
Cardinals m tliLs taktng liie matter into tlidr own ha 
Tiiey also declared tliat the majority of tiie meinbers 
the Sacred College who were free to do so^ supportpd thcJr 
action, and entered a protect beforehand against all cen- 
sures th;it he might pronounce upon them. The Pope 
was requested to give bis coiuent to the calling: of this 
Council and also to attend it cither pcrsondly or throueh 
a representative. AH Cardinal^ Bidhopa^ Chapters, and 
Unitixisitics. as wetl as all secular rrnicc^t. were aummoned 
atd invited to take part in it. Meanwhile the Pope was 
not to cn^fttc or promulgate any new Cafdlnal^, to a 
from imtitucing proceedings agatnat any of the ol 
CardiTials or the Prelates who favoured the Coundt, an 
also from doing anything to hinder it frora meeting, a 
further from any alterations or alienations in regard to the 
posicsaion* of the Roman Church ; any such acts ik-o\i[d be 
int/alid. As the Pope gave no safc^onducis, and oftca 
resorted to fortrc, the publication of the .sQmmoii,% 
Modcna> Parma* and Rcgpo must be deemed sufRcieiiL 

C/. Takis DK CHASSIS, cd Fnili,23o; Uid^ y^t^^.^uh tlie 

of ItvaUes. 




The Courcil vn*i to be convokcil in ihr rame^ of Car- 
dinals CarvaiAl, Bri^ovnct, Philip of Luxemburg, Francesco 
Boi^a, AdriAno <Ia Com«to, d« Prie, C&rlo del Corretto, 
San Scvcrino, and Ippolito d'KMc* The summons waft to 
be published *' throughout the four nations " ; on Uic 25fd of 
May letters were aent to each of the several PHnce* CAllin^ 
upon them to send their Ambafsadors and I'relatcs to the 
Assembly, t 

''The objects of the Council or, mon? correctly, the 
banners tinder which the forces of hypocrisy and ambi- 
tion were to be marshalled^ were the pacii^cation of 
Christendom, a crusade against the infidels, and the reform 
of th« Church in its Head and in its members,' * 

The convocation of a Council under these futile pretexts^ 
by A body of ^chi^matic Cardiu^ls was an a<:t of open re* 
bcUion. a dann^ atUck upon the most Indisputable pre- 
rogative of the Supreme Hrad of ihc Church- At first no 
one ventiirrd to tell the Pnpc, biit of rourse it was not a 
matter of which he could long be kepi In ifjnonmce. From 
the Rc-poft of the Venetian Ambiiis^sador we can sec how 
deeply he felt this Bereft o[ almost all hia political 
power — for the States of the CJhurch were lying open at 
the mercy of the French army^he now saw his spjrituat 
authority tlucatcncd and In the gr::ati:ai danger; for 
liehind the di.sUiyal Cardinals ^tood not only the King of 

* Ravnau^UH, od An. i^M, n. 6i ; M\Ksi, V, 349-3^3; S^msTQt 

XII.- >S^^54 ' HKPrFWRc:*?!!!^!*. Vin., 43? i/f. 

t GOUMST, I mC ; UtUe» dr Loins XI U H,, S^i J4^ 

I See LHHliArrN, 1 1, C/ Samdrbt. Condl^ de 1^54 440 *'9'> *^ <■> 

ihr ii>otFV«« of Cardii^al San^verjntx UlJ^AHW, Ahfir^hten^ la 

% C/llZKcrjnuiimzKVm-yAi^^e?- l-EjutfASN.agkObterv** : "It 
b wporfluoua lo uy imything of the Icg^l «unjii of Uic Council; iri pro- 
mours bad ti<t Itg^ tiandin^ ^oimd wtLiicvpr ," 

t\ SaHUTQ, Xn, aoj, ii8» 133 : Pahts oe Grassis. cd. Fniti, a«i 



iitsTOftT or THE pons. 

France* bot >1m> the Emperor^ both bmt otx completely 
cmUig hii pov0 aiMf annihibliiig Venice* The iU- 
■PccicM of Ihr war againti VeiUce hsul thnivm Maxtmilivi 
into the anu of LouK XITf Since then be liad coogbt 
hU lortune, both in »eciiUr politics and £a bis dedin^ with 
tbe CbtiTch, in tbo*e 'torttmis fdre^ ws^rs" which had 
fonucrly been so duUstcluI to hiOL [n many circles in 
Germ Any a dutinctly uitiRoiiun spirit rcigocd 
^xntcd itself in constant cooipUints of tbc conduct 
the Rofrian Court, both in polrtics and in Churcb affairs 

* FfOnibeTVU i^3lkeaimofBi|uiiDR£u*t policy ludbccEitoi 
for himiclf ± prvpoodenitfig mduerKf ia Rcmc, utd, if pcMubIc, to plii 
a Fope tn the Chanr d S. P«ter who should bv dtpmdcttl upon faim. 
ibat ytu, btf fear ihii d'Ainboisc nugbt be dcacd waa m ffrcAl^ Umc 
dmctffd hk Envoy n R«6iv aot to ihrinl: fmn uty sifttarM tiac migbl 
be ncttsB/y fo prvvnif tfaK, oocvvcff fr«ni rrvttttnif a «dibm CIM-*^ 
I'f:c«lcd««ChflHc«,XXXU70; Ar^ Veoeto^l^esMf,; r^ngccUJ 
09UU GAITIJU, J^ 459 ; UU4AKK, U 1^6 JWf ,) \Vb« Affttt, m tlw 
ftdknriPB yean, Loub Xtl. wm dtxn^ all be ooutd to obuln ibc TUi 
Tor d'Ainbi>L>ie» M4xiinilan noiuiallr ^Uximd ereiy atm <o 
ihcftc clfbri*. Ii ii«Liyt therefore, <o undcnund whai he ntestM by uj 
in hji IpitPT of io<h Junf. I $'rf. to Gm^t^et of Keid^k, Bi^Tiop of 
[)iA( he tnouit Ici (oiiit 10 Rome to hiLve hinitdf iiiodc l^of« a» wdl aa 
Empcfoi- (a poriicn of ifais docutnent, which bu b«en since 1830 n ^b«|^_ 
CiKiil Libmry jU Wniu, ih If tvfm in iKp iirrinflii:^!, Frnlinandcuin, ^^H^H 
($ (6) i of ooufK, u A iiLfuhcd [V1.U1, lie cculd Doi ihink of obuininy (}jc 
Tuim for hiiiuelf pmoiudly. A r«|>ar1 wm widely circuLurd that he wa»^^ 
dCCi to add the Siaiet nf ihc? CTiurdi eo hit pDfKCnknrLi, bul ibbi d *30^H 
(mildly unllUcly i ri U ^ir moic probjiblc that this notion w a spcirire^^ 
conjwrtd up by the ^ipprehersioiii erf ihp French, Spu^ivds, and luluoi. 
*'7he iruih undorlyh; ;dl faniMr^ iv?is ilut il ^v»s MAtimrliBfi't niiMJ 
Afdcut wiali h3 be cn>wae^ Emperor six Rome, and Lo rtii^ tlie 
mpnnMCY ^ the Kmpi/* Mid lU ancieni riyhi^ ovor ilw whole of luJy, 
m iho eicliwao of Ficndj mJlucncc," (SA^MiJiXJUt d^Ajntt 
tn tlic LJierar^ Kumli'ihjLu (iHtf9X p* >4Xj 

t Ituaaa, III., 5831^. 



Aslongafp) is the year 1495, shortly before ihe Vltt 
Wonna, inspired by a :(ome;vhat groumiless fear tbi 
Alexander VJ. was purposing to bestow the Imperial 
t'owji on Charici VUK oi France, Hans von Hermanns- 

un. a Saxon nobleman. publUhed a pamphlet which 
ptly mirrors the Jcrmcnc of the time. He proposes, in case 
tbc Pope ^lioulti Uke thb »tep. tQ make a formal rcminua- 
litin of obetlienrcr (nr fhf lime, to appomi a (Vrmau 
l';tlnarch Jw his pUcc.and lo arrange with Poland, Bohemia, 
and Hungary to vummon a Council and cite the Pop^ to 
appear before it* 

TIk Emperor ciavc vent to bis crudge against JuHcb II, 
for having made peace with Venice, b}' following the 
example of France and atuclcing the Pope on the 
spiiitual sidcf In September. 1510, a1 the same time 
Uiat I^ui» XH. was ciKisuUinjj h'w courtier Rkhop% 
Maximilian sent hJs Secretary Spicgct with a copy of 

■• UUlAy^', Ovt Tmum von Hant von llcnnanntirmn in ihe For^ 
srhungm tur neuivhen G«ich^r:hft, XX,, 69 uy. H«r« i« »1«o ta b* 
foundpL i8H7,,thcMf:raoha] whidi Di rLUNOcti, BciuIkc, HI., qi h^h 
oAerwud* pidslithcd wilh n wron^ dbE« and a tiuhy icxi- OnAtiimT in 
hb inLcrening uuy, ** Alie Prr^pheioiungeo uber Kaitcr und Rdch." in 
UvutodwD HauA^duu J^itiv-. XVIL, Ka 4$, nujjuntk th»t poMibly 
Ibe ocoflon of Hcmumn^fffbA'a poinphlci moy lu^v been n work 
wrin«n hjr the CuliiUn Hicron/mu? I^^il^ii. confcirinx ih* jij^hl (if tli* 
GcmuuLi l*> elect ihc Enipcrui- PiiLiLu» wAt a iiiciiibci^ of tlic Papal 
Court undor AlrKwcTf r Vl. He u)*! thai it would be much better, both 
tot the Empire as well 9* iar ihf ("hiurh, if nnr Wf.rf^ chn^rn not in 
Gcrnifin) alcmc, but from amODj^tl ail the Cluisttoji Prnccs, wht^m aU 
iboaJd b« bound to obey, and who would be ihiwettul enough to lubduc 
ihe batbanan ard btuihr n luitkins. lUilymorr «^»;>rcully tiecilciln finkcte 
tempoBl nJcTt^ndA HLiODM (Hie, fur t^ic ^umry vtiu xota to pieces by 
Lymnts ind bction«« ind jei contEiuit djuiger. 

* Ui.MAN:t, AtfTtidiieii, IS, riaTjtlyttiiicbiJrafrum A •l^cspaic^b tjf Pao- 
doltini «f lOth Sept., i;io{&tate AixbJvea, FlarcQcc], that the cnunple 
a( Fr:inca lud u j[r«Lt tlTect on M;uciiTii]ian. 


or TUB ronES. 

^e Fi«Ddi Pr^^muk SanctliM to tlw lea/ii«d JaI 
UlmpfccBiie> Spi^eTs mttmctiam fUi« that the £i 

pCFor li nsolvvd to take flMassrcft to ddiver Germany 
Troni the trranoy of the Rorn^n Court, sad to prevent 
i^gc nims frocD bcu^ fcnt to Rook which arc caipki>'cd 
by the Pope fDcrdy In kijario^ him. Wtmi^bclins b to 
givr h» opraton oa three vpccUl pants : the bctt way of 
cfefeaiing the qoUtUrt and tnclci at the Roman CrHin 
oAebb. the afaolttkin of Annatn, and the appointmcnL 
of a permanent L«f^te« who shootd be a Qativ« of German; 
to adjodkate oci all alfair^ and grievancet there, and the 
adranta^Ees ^at ^-oiild accrue Irom such an ai^intment." 
The Emperor's last proportion was a %-ery rar-reachin^ 
Dfie, and went beyond anytbing thai had bcoi thought or 
til Frittice. The appauitmoit o( a permanent l^ate fur 
Germany meant ' a prrrmanenl rhangc in ihe nrganhalinn 
of th^ Church, a 4on of national (ndependence for the 
German Church.*"! This plan, m combination with the 
introductinti of a Prag[malic Sanction, was the 6ret step 
towarda a severance of the German Church &om Rome, 
other word«, towards a achUm. WimpbeHn^, who was 
loyal son of the once recognised thb: his answ 
wai {>ru^cnt and reserved He ga^-e his opinion Jutlnc 
aj^ainii the mtnHlucttnn of the Pragm^Eic Sanction, and 
refjard to the l>?gate» he spoke mistniitfulJy and doubtmgiy- 
On the other hand, he Laid gre^t stress on the neoetsUy fo^^ 
■n {mprovemenl, on conservative line*;, m the relatione o^^ 
the German Church with Rncne. He enlarged on the 

* ULtrANH, MaiimiTam Kirchenrvfonnplnn, 304 ftf.i GlBttARl 
C^aitsmiiu, 67. 

t m^C, ta9. C/. MAUREifBRECiiLR, K&lhol. Refannujom 99, nhti 
hrm«vet, iht fitfi ihEii poliikal coni^Ldfrtinon^ wm ifaa maiiupring of 
Ujuiimlind'a pnxccdinjra a not nude ^uffidenily cJvar. Cf. UU4Aff] 
f*^. ^r.t ^oy acA Ct-miAKOT^ GrvvnmfnA, 76- 



injuries inflicted on German/ b>^ the member: of the 
Komctn Court, and recapitulated, with some alterations, the 
VL'cU hnown j^xtvamina of 1457. He <lvrelt principally 
on the Rnancial side of the quc^lon, **and from his point 
of view iic fud cvcr>" right to belicwc Ihal d thorough 
adiniiiiiitrativc iduriii Mould do ^way with the iie<:casity for 
A Council ;ind pfokibly mfike it po«ftiblr to diminish 
plrading^ bcfcrr Roinan Courts find improve ihe diner life 
oftheChuKh.' • 

But al that time the Krapcror took ^-cry little tntcrcdt in 
the reform of abuses ; his only object wai the political one 
of forcing Julius II. to join the League of C'ambral I'ls^ery 
means was tried, nc£Otiaticn, threats of schism aud of a 
General Council^f In regard to the Coundl. at first, in 
January 1511, Maxijmlian stipulated that the rmiiient of 
the Pnpe and Cardinals mu^t be obtained: bur when the 
negotiation;; with Lang had proved a failurtr, aiid Loiti* 
JCn< in his ani^er had i!>sued hie citation, the Emperor, on 
the 5th of June^ 1511, threw himself linrcscrvcdiy into the 
French planet Soon after he forwarded the letter of 
invitation to the Queen of Hungary and Poland, begging; 
her to vend rciire^cntativcs to the Council and enable her 
Prrlalc* to altrnd it.§ 

In the year 1511 Louis carried his hatred against Julhis 
II. so far at to pe-rmic the representation on the stage 
of a Mtirical play directed a^inst the Head of the Church. 
One of bis political pamphleloori* Pierre Grin^;oire, com- 
posed a burlesque, Jor the production ol which in the 

* GRBIIAftliT, Craiuiiiinai, 69* 

t ULMANN, IJ., 419-''^.; HluKCtSRdTHKK. VIIL, 451. 
1 GOLDAST, 411.413 "?■: ULMANKjr,434-4l5> C/> ^O jAffSaSN, 
Kf.'rch«concsponden;t It,, 840^ :yid GtAKCHt, Matme poli^ <ieg[i Archivi 

£ Acta ToniicuiUi 1.. S05, 212 ; FaAKN6l, Ungani urd die LiifA von 
Cimbiai, 85 8&L 


UtffTOKT or THE fOnH. 

prtf^pk} fnaf1e«t pUce in Porb fAtix HaDa) a R 
pnvikcc «'a^ granted. The Prince of Foob ipp>»ra oci 
the boards with hu Ccort, fbob of all x>rt9. ctmcnt crcnt^ 
are dbcuucd. the dbputc5 with Eo^Und, the conflict with 
llic Church, mnd one of the fnoh ASMtm the pubBc ihat 

L« Prince ik« >ou ot pr^t«nd 
Que donna pific i ks x^ptcci 
to which another replicv: 

Pouree qw I'^gt^M entreprenc 
Snr tempoialit^ A prent 
Nou« ne powom Avoir repoi. 

Amoni^t the courtiers 14 iJk General d'Enlance I 
prances an to the uti^ on a hobby-horse bfamitahine 
mock batttc-axe, and shouting, " Hon, Ivoa nicn, men, p^ 
pN, trtn." When ihr council arr aII Ai^«ecnb?cH. thr Pn'n 
a)^>carfi, and ihe Seigneur de U Jole give^ the pas^vronl : 

Krmii nVn voutons poinr, par n^ fo^. 
J^ "Sotte comcnunc." ^uppoocd to represent the vkirs of 
the mtM of the ]>coplc. b allowed to take part in the 
council, but gets notlting but jil^cs and jecta from the fine 
gcntleincn. When she compUin^ that (hey ate alw4>^ 
Inleiferfn^ and manage ev&rythin^, while she has to >u 
and ^y, they liroply laugh her down. 

Suddenly a new 6^re appears on the scene, a woman 
in ecclesiaitfccil attire and callin]* herself Mother Chur<^lw. 
She is accomp;inicd by two other lemale i<xAs^ " Ccniiance 
and "Occasion." tlie latter of whom specially supports an 
^lid^ her. The ^rcixi Udy U very truculent, flings curses 
and anathemas at every one, and dcrlarcs 

Bien t^y q\£ on dit que \e radoUe, 
Ht que nifi fol en tnz vieiWa^t; 
Haia itrumelcr \iicil h. ma parte 
Mod fits 1e Prioce, en teUe »orte, 
Qu'U diminue %k noblrMc. 




trie* t*> get the noblei: an<I prelates on h^r side aiul 
CO persuade them to de^^rt tlic Prince. The prelates fotlou^ 
her, and finally they come to blows in which the Sotte 
Commune get* the worst of it- In the mt\6c Mother 
Church's mantle is lorn off» and she ia di^^covcrcd lo be an 
impostor. .She is not the Church at dl, but only la MItc 
Sottc, and ia deposed and driven out with indignity* 

The meaning of thi^ wa!> plain, but the aftcr-piecc made 
it ^till clearer. Tlii? FrriR-h and Italian naliuni appeared 
on the stage, and with ihem '* I'homTTie ob*Un^*' with twft 
female companbas, Simony and Hypocnsy. L'homfnc 
obfitin^ was Pope Julius II., "the sword of divine justice 
was hanjfing over his head, he confported with robbers 
and murderers, and could not rcffain from crime and 

In May 1511, at Louis XU/s dcslic a pamphlet was 
nritten to jjave tile w^y for the Council Its Lille waii: 
' The diflfrren^c hetwrrn divi';ion4 in the Church and 
A^^^mblJes of the Church, and the advantages of Synods 
of the Gallic:in Church." The writer wujt a DelgUn, Je:tn 
l-emaire,f He endeavours to prove that all divisions are 
caused by the i'opc^» and all disscn-tions healed by meanit 
f general aaaoniblics convoked by secular Princes. It wbs 
ivtdcd into three parts. The fir»t tdc-^ to shew that the 
donations of temporal posde^^iona have been the source 
of all ihoae corrupiioai in the Church whkh had neccwi- 
talcd Ibc calling of the earlier Ct^undlit lo remedy thein. 

* Soc F. LOTHEiSSEft, Pdiiikaufdct Buhnc^mtbv Frankf.Z<iiuniEf>r 
Ibcjrd jAfi^iSSo(niomingcdiuoiiJ; All]j.ZeitunR<i87o)i N, i6*. SjppL 
{*' lur RubeUJalitfrKur") ; 4mi1 Chamitlkurv, Hi^i- de b Cajji:,uuie 
»«v» U rtfformat., J, Pflrni 1. a- 

*■ C/. BfcClC&K, }tm Lwnaire der *n»* humanistische DidiWr Frank' 
r«irht, ifix r/f. (Sfr4»hut|;j '^3^ ^^n' whou 4frouni vtbtit foTloAVt h 
ukdi. C/. liUo MAUtUK, Oiigino, 273. 



The second b devoted to pointing out the g:rcftt Krvko 
rendered to Ihe Catholic faith by the S>'n<xb o( the 
Cialllcan Church, The third treats of the division* in the 
Church b\ geoeral, d:kd the coming »chism, whkh, 
a>ccording to prophecy, is to l>e the w*orsi of alL Ttwsc 
tl^ngs. Lemairc «ay«, hav< injured the Church more than 
anything eUe ; the d«»ife for power, u-hich is the mother 
of greed, the neglect of Councils, and the compulsory nj 
celibacy of the pricsU of the Latin Church. ^fl 

Lcmairc is never weary of dcnonncing the Brrogancc, 
^rced, and wickednc^ of the bad Popes. He is unspanng 
in his satire of ihc - present Tope, who rigs hirmelf out in 
mattiaL attire, and tries to poM; a« a warrior, hut only looks 
like a monk dancing in spurs. All the same he will not 
succeed 'm creating the new and abnormaE world that be 
hope.^ Inr, for pigs will always e^t acom«, and oakn will 
shed their Icavea at the proper time, and where wood b 
wanted, wood vill be used." TKc pamphlet contains many 
other similar [;ias^gc« all directed against Jutiu« 11 It 
was written in tht? vulgar tongue with the ohjccl of givin g 
tt as wide a circulation as possible. ^H 

LpOUis accepted the dedication of the work, and also 
permitted the publication of carieaturea of th« Pope. One 
of these represents him standing surrounded by corpses 
with hia flat lying on tlic ground Close by h tl 
empt>' Papal throne^ over which France, cicpScted as 
crowned warrior, keeps guaid. The figure holds a banii 
with the uiinaminc and Llie i[iacri|ition, " Luuis is master/' 
Another pictwre, in a book in the private library n( ihi 
King, represents the Chiirch as a desolate woman in 
Boiiilica; not far off is a figure wearing a Tiara with tl 
inscription "'Dissolution," who is knocking down n pillar 
£o that the rx>of seems in danger of fallinif. At 

* L40IOIX, IjxiU XII, «i Ann« de Br«iagnc» 497, 

THE pope's answer TO THE CITATION. 


fi(^rG, "Chajit)'," lays her hand on the shoulder of the 
King of France, who is supporting the loucrinff odificc* 
Tbus the French paintera and the pannphktccr», >uch fu 
L«maire, Jcah d'Auton, dc Scyssd, and others who were 
in the pay of the Kirg, ;ill cnmhinrd to tcit the ^inr 
story ; I^uiit wax to be the refonner of the Church, and 
thJit vrithout dcrlay.f 

Though thus att:tck«d and threatened with a schi^imatic 
Council by the two chief power* of the Wcfll, while in 
<idditior i-rance and the icvoltcd Cardinals were dcune: 
their utmost to cbE&in the adticsioii of Henry Vlll. t>( 
Rngtand And Ihc King of flungary, Julitis ll. did not 
lose hcarL On ihe fontfary, misfortune seemed only to 
stimulate hiw |>owers and rou«e all his enerj^iev. He «aw 
at once the weak point* in the citation, and before he left 
Rimint he had issued a declaration exposing itj The 
schismalical CArdin^ls h:id had the audacity to tssuc the 
wmmona in the name of the Sacred College, and on their 
oiit'n authority to nfftx ta the document Ihe iMimcs of 
several abwrnt members Julius affirmed that two of 
these latter had expressly told him that this had been 

* Miu^ df r£r6ii)taGe in l^Ctitbuig; MaULDS, Uriginc), 17^^ 51^- 
t MAUtJ>£, /M-. eii., 373. A cUfioui error i« 10 b» ftnind in thi<4 
auihoTtpp. 117-116, m ixjtAid lu nil oidinRAC^of Loui* XtU promul- 
liated in i$tz, <iia\aand\ng Uint The stuiuu *^0 talutine HooHa." for 
p«bcr thmrtil he ^imgtriall rhur^hpt .-^ffrr I he Hi*vjirion nt Mas<. MaiiVlf 
otnen'Ci. " Lj lituipc. conniuc on uii, a «niacrvi? I'uMjjt dc <« flcim 
vtrMU qu'«llv interpr^t^au point <i« vue myiliijuv, inaj« qui origin^ir*- 
ment Mrrinienc loUidlcr I'lppui c^lcitc contFc ki tac^ du papc Juleft 
n.' Thfl hymn 11 w»ll known lo have Iswn compo^^wl by S. Thonui* 
AquinjU! ty: BulhCnL,Xl-(tH9CiJ, 159. 

I QC die Dricffrooi ihc MS. VitclUuin B. 11- in the Uriii»h Museum, id 
CRBlCltrON, IV,, 389^9 1. In r^KiTd lo Hkingni/, vhich, undtT the 
inAuetice of [he wil/ bako<E, li i^t rpmarn^cl nenirxl, wt P'nakhl^, 



done without their Sjtnction. To this serious 
Cumj&l ftnd his assodatcs vit^nificantly answered that 
tlkcir power* without tl>e others were amply sufficient to 
make the act valitL* 

Bowed down with i^irktie^K and anxiety. Julius IL left 
Kimjm on the 3fd June, 1511. On the 5th he was ai 
Anoona, on the iitU he arrived at Loreto, on the aoth 
at Temi, wboc to hh great vexation he u-itne»«ed a light 
between ita inhabitants and those of Spoleco^ Torrents 
of raJn forced him to hait tor a time at Civita CaAtellana. 
Here a deputation arrived from the people of Rome beg- 
ging him to return without dday. On the 26tb of Juik 
he enirred the city by Ibe I'orta del Popolo and on the 
following day under a burning sun proceeded En mil 
portilicalK to S. i'eter's, where he arrived comptetdy 
exhausted. **Thifi was the end of our toiL»;onie and um- 
kfls expedition/' write;: Paris de Grassi&i An utterly 
broken man. both in health and in power. Julia-^ returned 
lo the pala%e from which he had started nine months 
before full (if brilliant ho|JC» and confident that the 
I-^rcnch would be driven out of Italy. The Papal and 
Venetian troops were now completely di^per^cd and there 
wu< nothing to hinder the enemy fnim taking pO£ieasl<^^_ 
of the Papal Stales and of Rome, and deposing him. ^| 

In this extreme need» with no one to rely on but him- 
self, Juhus a^in $hew(!d ho^v immen.'sel)' superior he was 
in f^iu5 and character to his enemies. While they were 
'hesitating, irresolute and divided, he, fully knonir>g hb 

* KavtiauiiTKadma. ijii.n.j; HEROEjtaOTKiR, Vtlt., 4(j. 

t PafuSDB CfcAttis, «d. Fmu, ^H-29^'. Sahvto, XU., ajl, ^4y 
3}7< )7J - *■>■! 'Acta Con^iL, f. 39 (Coniiitorial Aichivet orf* the Vatican J^ 
nod the *Chfa«iictc in Vui« Pcriii-, jo, C 6j, (Societ AnJiiTci of ibe 
VAib%v; C/ *teo Atli dvi Unob (iSgo), 4 Scne, Scttnc Mor^ 



own nrtind, firmly refused to give himtielf uj> for lo»l."* 
Jlis chid hopn q( u-^isUncc rcslc<l on the King of 
Spam, to whom a sp^ial Envoy was ^nr with 4i long 

Guicciarriini ivritcfi that ttaly Ard the whol<} uorld 
wvrc ivftlchinf; with trcmblinf; a^ixtely lo •tee whit use 
l^uis XLL was goLft|T to mahc of hijt victory. Juh'u^ 11. 
hnd absolutely nothing to protect him except iho cJi4niLty 
of the Papacy, Whether from religious awe or from the 
fair o( rousing the whole worM jigainst him, th<; King of 
France rcM^lvcd not to go atl lengths, He ctcslrcci TrWultio 
to r«ire on MiUn ami made overtures at peiioe to the 
Pnpe; If Julius would pardon the gchismntical CardinAls 
lie would five up the proposed Council; and h« Induced 
Jientivoglio to declare that he had never thought of wiah- 
ing to throw off the ^UKmlnty of the Church ! 

The ?^hi»TnAt]cal Cardinals were c<iually wanting in that 
resolution and union amongst t^icmsclvc^ which ^^oiie 
toiild have sertired a victory. For one ihing Cardinals 
Philip of Luxemburg. Adn'ano da Corneto, and Carlo 
del Carrctto. whose names had been affixed to the citation 
without con!;ultinf* them, protested luudly aj^inst the un* 
warrantable pfoceeding. and declared they would have 
nothing to do with the anti-Papal Council^ Cardinal 

* BkcScm. )ulit]t II,, £i(. On chc pkuiiunaie rtMiiUnciitof itkt Pape 
itgvnti the £i]tlil«ss Bolo^ei*, tee FUhti's Report Cartcg^o, j 30, 

; GviOCLvRDiM, X, Cliap. I; Lctiies de Louis XI U 11-, SSO' 1^^- 
UfiSV, 13. 

§ SaNUTO. Xll^aiS; HKROI]Mlt('i'IHFJ*,V111.. 437-4J*:<""'^>*«A«nT, 

Adinno van Cotacto, i:-ii- Elcrc nho, p> iTJ'"?m arewime p^riiculan 
About the mysieiioufi fligtil of C*ni Adrrano ii> 1 507 from Kt/mt- G*l> 
hatdi hns aot availed bini?*lf of ^ •Prirf at Jiiliut IL to the King of 
EnsUnd Cunrortiuutlcly uudated, but certainly belonirnK lo thia rJmo. a* 
thq pr«<edinKpap«riiof 4lh Nov,, 1505} about Card. Adnaro, in vhich 



d'Este adopted an ambiguous attitude which finftlty kd 
to his rci^oncilialinn with the Po[>c.* Cardinal GoiiiA^ 
whom the schismatic?! had made great cfTorts to Kin, 
hiu\ alrtfai^y joiriffH Julius II. iit tine end tif May.f The 
Venetian Hnvoj', a man of considerable penetration, wroir 
on the 3rd of Jul>v 1511, that the Council of Pi*a wa* at 
an find. I 

While the iicgotintion* with ]->ancc were icc>mf; 
Julius IL determined to deprive the revolted Cardinals 
of all pretext for keeping up the sdiism by turnuit; tbcir 
own weapon againal them. On the 25th of July, 1511, 3 
Bull dated the iStli was ^Hixed to the doors of 5. I*ctcr!j 
siinnnoning a universal Council lo a*ksemb1c fn Rome 
the !9Ch of April, 1513. In rhe preamble the Vopc 
forth the supreme dignity of the Reman Church, aanctifit 
by tlie blood o! martyrs, preierved from all error, and 
endowed with the primacy over all other Churches, whici^ 
entailed upon her and her Head the duty of with^tanJtni: 
all schismatical attempts to destroy her unity. He tlicn 
described the proceedings of the revolted Cardinals, dciLy; 
ifig thdr statements, and refuting their an^umenU; lfl| 
declared that, both as Cardinal and Pope, he had done 
t\ii bc«t lo further the aasemblinj^ of a Council, and it 
had not been his fault that it hnd been so long delayed. 
The Bull goes on to emphasise the point that a Council 
can only he lawfully sximmoncd by the Pope. Any that 
]» not ao called must be held of no account. ITii* was 
especially the case in regard lo tlie pretended Council 


h« nysi CaKJi^ prtdictuv npud om Aunqvam honori tuo dc\ 
*Ubu brBv. ^ f 35& Secret Archive <A th« VAticau. 

* In OcM^ii, tppoliio joined hit bivilici ai Fcrmm, wicli the 1' 
£eni«ttt; Lk <;iAVr I., 441. 

t PAatS UL C KAf£|^ cd Fiati, 2^3. 



at Visa : the mere impossibility of it& af^embling within 
the specified term [September 1st) deprives it of all 

The Pope then dcclarca that, in order to witfwtand 
these dangerous schismatical tendencies and defend the 
rj^Ut^ of tlic Holy Sec. he, with the approval of the 
Oudiniiln and in the plenitude of his apastulic power, 
jwnnoiince? the edict of corivocatior dated Milan, T^th 
.\[ay. ijit, TO be in both its content* and effects illegal, 
null and void ; all who adhtre to it brin^ upon theniiielve« 
the overeat penalties of the Church, iXe authors and their 
abettors are de()nvcd of all their dig'nitics, and all cities 
3in6 districts which harbour and support them arc laid 
under Interdict. On the other hand, the rope, dcsIioUH 
fjiTfulfllinj^ his engage tnent*, and further, wishing to make 
a rnmpletc cn6 of heresy, and stifle the beginnings of 
icehi^ro, to bring about a reform of moratfi botli tn the 
clergy and laity, union and peace in Christendom, and 
n holy war af^amst Iht: Turk*, now cal!^ an (Kcuincnical 
Council to meet in Rome at the Latcran Church after 
Easter, on the 19th April of the year I5U.' 

* Seeitir Ruti in RAVNytrntj^aii an. i}m, n. 1^15; Boll., V., 499 
J^.; LMJt-ty XIX, 6B1 Jf7-; HERttEMPoTilEB, VlH., 454 J*?- 0^ 
FtfMi, CarUgir^ i^i i$3, and Sanutc. XJL, 304, pi, jj^ "t'l 33*^ 
361; 371. Atrording Bo ibe "Acta Consist, f. ag, Ihe Bull at ilw Coundl 
WA) rrul in .1 Srrrcl Consistory un the iSlh July, 1511. Consivtorial 
ArdLJvci of the Vntu^n- 


JfmiDS 11. rOHUS AS ALLtA^ifCK Wnn SPAllf.— UlS DASfCUCC' 

iLUraas.— His RBCovftRV.*-TllB HOLV LftAOUe or 1511.— 


bVOftAvouMs TO rcissicss HiuMj.r 01 ihk Tuka.— Faillii^k 


BATTLt or Ravbmia ok Eamkk Svmmv, I^IT. 

Julius 1 1-, by isiiiing his summons for 4 Gencrail Council, 
h;td erTcctually checkmated the schUm^Ltical CArdin:tlR eveti 
before they had bc^yn their game. This bold stroke ivi* 
cutTrcly the Pope's own ideSv From ihc reports o( the 
Venetian Knvoyt wc find that the plan waa already in hu 
mind when he wa?i at TV>togiiA in the Spring of [511, ^nd 
the Tcsolittion 1o carry it out wa^ taken at Rimtni <m tlu* 
Appearance of the ciialion of the CafTimak* During hi* 
journey to Rome the details of the plan were thought out 
and dl^Uiiied H'lth Cardinal Antonio de Monte and tJie 
Dominicun^ Thomai^ dc Vto,^ A report from Tolcntmo of 
the Venciian Hnvoy 00 r4th June, 1511, saya that the dmfl 
of the proclamation had already even then been laid before 
the CotL:«i9tor>', and the posting up of the schismattcal cita- 
tion in Rome on the 9th June naturally only lud the cITecl 
of strengthening his resolvcj But be wiw determined to do 
nothing hastily ; ard the Bui] was not allowed to appear 
till the i8th ofjuly, when it had been thorouebly consJ dtod 
• Sahitto, Xll, 166.119. 

t HflMCniUiTIIKlL, VEI],, 457. 



and thought oui in substance and in form. Wbaie\'er sotc- 
ce0se» nnifiht be achieved in this direction would, ho^'cver, 
have no c^ect on the other, and equally serious. danf;er 
Arising from (he pre poii derating power of France in Italy. 
Here, for Julius tl,, cvco'lHing depended upon the interest 
which Spain had In checking this power 

Tiic rope*! confidence m Ferdinaiid'a |it:rcef)tion of what 
the ^itu;tlIon rcfrjntred w^s nut dis;ip|vitnic-(L In thhcase^ 
^hcrethr King's interest coincided with rharof the Church, 
he was perfectly willing to accept the honour of posing as 
th« defender of the l-loly See With the consent of his 
tirandccs and witli the approval of Cardinal Ximene^ 
summoficd to Seville, it wa-t decided to ^-iuspcnd the military 
opcntions in Africa, and send the army that had been em- 
ployed Ihorc tu [laly. In cumpli^rjcc wItJi Uie Tope's 
reijuc^t, the rebelliuus rardfnal C.ArvAJal was ilqifived of 
lh<- RisHopn'c of Sigucnva; and a considerable sum of 
money was forwarded to Rome in aid of the war • 

Immediately after Julius'^ arrival in Rome the Si^ani^h 
i^mbosboclor wa3 desired by Ferdinand to oiFcr him the 
ftsabtance of Spain for the reconqucst of Bologna. Ho 
alsoofTcrod to endeavour to inl^ucncc England to join in 
an alliance against France, and this Loui^ kncw.f 

It 3pijcars, however^ that il was only with Ttmdi he>^il.ition 
I ami against hh will that Julius 1 1, linAtly brought htTrself 
'to accept the alliance with Spain. He continued h!ft 
negotiations with Loui^ XII, as lon^ sn he could, and only 
brolce them off at last when the King refuged to comply 
with the indiapcn^blc condition that the rovoltcf^ Cardin^tlq 
should obey their citation to Rome.; In the early part of 

• Hi:j-i:l^ Xtmonot, 434 j^^, i Gams, III,, a, 143, 
+ Sturi^nx^ xn., ;j3-i74. 33a C- BaEWRB, Henry VIII., L, 17. 
«. 4' S«cahoFviin, C^ric^eiu, ijL 

I Se« Kakke, Rom. und G«rm. V4llbcr, 067. BAOtKJt, Julm 11,. 


Aaguat the pioviaionf of the Le^F^ue between the Pope, 
Venice, SpHin, <uicl England were substanliatly agreed upoti, 
and aTl that wa^ wanting to its conclusion wa^ the Amv^ 
of the nccd^aiy powers from Rngt;ind and Spain." The 
Swisi; trcrc aUo being approached to obtain heJp from thein. 
At thU moment an event occurred which scetned likdy to 
upffct everything. ^H 

Kiitircly absorbed in the labour &nd care$ of the lost fe4^' 
month.% the Pope had wholly neglected the mo^it ordinary 
care of his health. He trusted 1o his iron constitution 
without considerifig thsl there is a limit lo everything, 
Since the end of July he had been ince^ianity at work, pre- 
paring for the Council, sending Bneff and Nuncios in att 
directions; he had begun legal proceedings against the 
Utiicc of Urbino and gone on personally conducting; th^ 
ncgotintions with Spain and bngbnd in spite ol an Attack 
of fever in the beginning of August On the 17th he had 
Anotlicr. but would not delist from hin work, and $a\v the 

236-227, thinks it 11 ccttAin ihnt tht Pope #aA not in cAmeM in i^ 
ne^tintiouv with Francvn b«f.':ii)«e he rmplrr^'^ G, GiOKbno Oniiii, a 
uiAn nlio ^ud had no cxpcrtciLce .vid W4?b untkiUtd in politioi] il1!ki»t lo 
atrty ibcm on. He a]»n, and btdl tnom povkivc;)-, infers the tnntt thin^ 
fmm ilw condiTion^ pToposed, Or this pomi he tayn -. "Tha propnaK 
in tc^id to Fcinra oncl Itolu^na inii:hl pcrLapa have been accrptfd. or 
at OUT nM Havc fonticd a bnais for iicgoiuaion^ t>iil the Kinic'^ honour 
forbade any nnsiver bul a rcfiiul to vhtr clmnand thai he ihould gn-c u 
the CrtfLli[iAt»/ But nciihn of tlic^c HriujrjciJtft ia ic<il]y LOiivinti 
Secular Princes have never had much scruple in throwing away 
clerical looU when the^hAve mfvmI their piirpov ; iind hi ^'.i%impMti 
fof JuliuK, wiibout oQUkplcIcly ^MicACiiiE liit autlicrity, ti> nclinqufafch hit 
chum 10 have the CttrdiruLs eent to Kornc, The iruc caui« of the 
I^OTt ofrherr nej^aEiaiions is stated bierby Brnccti himtelf ; it Witt plun 
iliat Louift intended Hi resume tlic »Ar u »ooi^ aa the condilicna became 
luoro fnvmir^ble. On the ciUiion of die CardJAilf, we SAHinQ, XI 
311 -j»j- 




Amb^issadors while in Ufd. On the JOtli it cAtre on again 
Fwith such violence that his physicians dcciarcd that ihc 
Inesct attack mu&t prove fatal. The news spread like 
mgJitDing throughout Rome that the Pope war; d^'ing. 
ftht Cftrdinah began at once to prepare for the approftch- 
L ing Conclave. The Spanish Envoy summoned the Colonna 
I to Rom^ saying tliat the Pope was in extremity and that 
tlicrc *ft5 gnrat iJailgcr that the Orsini, supported by 
' Trainee, would get possession of the city. On ihe t^n\ oJ 
I August the Venetian Ambassador Lippomano reports ihnt 
I "the Pope is passing away; Cardinal Medici tells me he 
I cannot live through the night Medici is trying for the 
Tiara, but it is thought that it will fall to one of the French 
party. RajlTaclc Riario and Ficsco arc named The city 
ie in a turmoil; every one is armed." On the 34th Ji;liu9 
received the Holy VJAticum* removed the Interdict from 
Fcrrara and Bologna* absolved the Diikc of Urbino, anJ 
maic3eallhi«tIi»poNitums for death.* Paris de Gratis writes: 
"I think \ may close my Diar)' here ; for the Pope's life 
b coming to an end through his obstinacy in rt^fiislng to 
follow the advice of his physicians. He has commended 
ts to Cardinal Raffaele Kiario and given him 
dvcata to divide amongst them. Alter he had taken 
a little food he seemed better. Uut on Monday the 15th 
be refused all nourishment he had a relapse and his con- 
dition became hopeless On Wednesday there was alJIl no 
d&an^c; and aa \\c i\atl eaten nothing for four days, every 

• SANVTOk XII, 330, ^62, ^70, 37f, 395, 39$, 403 j^., 454 j^., 441, 
419 ; if. 4K4. S«^ ttlw KttMl, Caitejfgio, 157, JjH-l^Oi and LuXir, F. 
Coonca, 22. Fitilip llervakl the vounk-er, vhlio dcfciiOoJ dio Duko uf 
tfrbmoiioccodsd in convincing ihti Pcijwyf Alidcsi^sireaEon^and Alfonio 
iRu abtolved and rein^iated in ill hi« di^Tiiiie^ C/. m Dv-^ii^iTOVa, 11-. 
3)8, ibc notice b ihe *Acia CmiaisL of the »ad Aog^ l^M- Cod 
ikcornJ Afchrvti cf ihc Vodcaii. 




ooc, including hi« f^ysicians, gav« him up. The doorc of 
bis chamber were opened and some of the people made 
thctr vr^y to hU bcd-sidc. He lay on hi5 couch with closed 
cyc^ An^ seemed barely alive. Disturbftnccs began in the 
city, many outlaws relumed, confusiuu pfcvaHcd every- 
where. All the puMtc iifTicials, even lliu^tc hi the courtic of 
law, Irf^ thrir work, fhc. Gov^rrnor of the dly rook refuge in 
the PaUc**, anJ the Minister of Police in the Castle of St 
Angclo, The Sacred Cclle^re met and dedre^d me to make 
afT&n^mcnts for the funeral obse<;uic3 and for the Cof>- 
cla\^ Then it occurred to the Pope's reUtiona and set- 
vants to send for a vcr>' indalgetil physician' ntid suggest 
to hJm that he ihould give liim ptrmiasion to cat whatever 
be liked. By agreeing to this he succeeded In petauadinjc 
hte patient l*i rort.ttnt (a lake some food. The Pi*(>c asked 
for peaches, nutft, plums, and other fruh^, whirh he chewed 
Iwtdld not swallow. After thai he ba<i small onioiu and 
strawberries, which he likewise only chewed But presently 
he swallowed several peaches and plums and then fell Inl 



* From OtKUKaa, Cc9ch- lUi Judcn, fl, $u uid GaEGOiy 
VIIL, 76> t± St one would b« kd to be1i«vo ThAt Ihis mut (he Jcwi^ 
pbr^cian SamiiH Zntinti {(/. Mabi?*i, H . u^ ft^r, and 'Iniroit « p«t^ 
%jjb, t. 1481 vrhcrc \\ 9iiVfi '- inA>;:ni«T Suiwcl Ebrcu*, "incdkuaS, 0. N-i* 
vrboy OD the i^ih July, Tjo^, rffrHvftil 135 ftor. auri Larjfi^ ad bonam 
convpuium pro du» pTDviiiane. Mok- Joli- dc VIcn wat chln)r|>ii« to ilie 
Pope. (Sctrci Archive* of the ValicanOl- ^^t from the VcneiUn 
R«pon in SanittOh XI!., 4<y, uhich thoit nuthon tiavc cveriook^d, it 
KCiLia cl&tr tlxtl ttiifl ^ould f;(rt liAii: bcrii ibf uiae, us at that date cA^^ 
Rabbi mu very much cut of fitvour wttb Uic Pope And in (ha Rep<^^| 
ef 3^ Auff^ w* Itnd : Marco SeipJo heri li hito mongiArt uno pvn 
richo ; pnrve Mewr meglio. The date here mnjinly ilor* ii« njcrev wirh 
de GniHis, h\i\ fovii-*, ViU Poit»p. Col, 340^ ecprcsaty rap : Mc<Ijcia 
qpai Julio f«ma, penira obtulii, fiiit SclptA LanrelnnA. MARfKl, I., 199, 
Imi overEwktd this pojuajEVi u well u ihe one in SonLto In regnnl n 
Jev[fth physichm ectptoycd by Pope*, »ec betide* Maium, Li 191 jtf^.^ 
GtJDBHAKix, 357* 



a light ale«^j)- Thw slate of thmgs went on fop two days, 
diuing which tho^ who attended htm ;iltrrrt;itcl)r hoped 
and dcsf>aircd Great apprehension wia felt for the future; 
dangtts of all mrts seemed hanging over our he;idi^ dtn- 
tvriiancM, war, and icarciiy/"* The reports of the Envoys 
tbcn in Rome ^iciv that the account of the Master of 
Ccrcmoniei is not by any means cxa^cTfltedp 

"Never." writes the Venetian Ambassador Uppomftno, 
"has there htcii sjth a tlang of arms romui the deathbed 
of any former Pope ; nevfr has the danger been greater 
than It k now. M;iy God help h^."-!- Sonie of the noble* 
endeavoured to take advantage of the titrmoil in the city 
to brinii :ibL>iit a rising against the Government of the 
Church. The ambitious Potnpeo Colonna, whc&e relation* 
had forced him into HoEy Orders against his will, was at 
the head of the revolutionary party, Not content with the 
dignities of Bishop of Ricti and Abbot of Grottaferrata and 
Sut^aco, Pom|>eo aimed at the purple and fclt confident of 
obtaining it aft*?r tht: dt-ath* cif Canlitial^ Or^inl, C«lonn;i. 
Savelli* and Cesariri, Rnt he was disappointed, and wa» 
now bent on making Julius 11, pay for this neglect of « 
member of one of the great Roman famllieg. He hastened 
to the Capitol and from thence harangued ihe mob, urging 
them to cast off the domination of the priesthood ntid 
restore the republican constitution and libcrtJca, It wa» 
resolved at the next election to demand many concession* 
irora the new i'cpc, and amongst others Jn&i^t on the 
nomijialion of a Roman Cardinal^ 


* Paris DSGtLAfiSlS.edD&llinKcr,4n 413- C/.LJJtlO,T,Qmmga^ 

* S«f\rTO, xn.. A4f} 1 c/ Lvzic, 23. 

t JOVTVft, Viin K Uolymittc 1 Gt'lCCl^BPlNl. X, Chap. I ) SAIVlRO, 
XK-, 483 ; Lu7iO, F. Goorag;i, 13. GT^aorom;' >icajiinf of this at- 
tesiptcd Ttv^X U in aome pcHnis inconect, as hu been poiJi(«d out 




Julius now began to recover from hia slAtc of death-like 
prostration. Tfie free u,^ of fruit Atn\ liquids, which il hid 
been sU|>jK>sci;l woulii have killed him> had really been 
lalvAtion. TKe fever wis gone and by the aSth he 
completely convalescent' 

Deadly fear seized upon all those who had been reckor^ 
inf* on ]m de^th, the Cardinals who had been busy about 
the Conclave, and the Roman revolution ista. On the 23lh 
the nobles Assembled in the Capitol, and there, Jn order to 
make tlteii former proceedings appear Innocent, conduded 
one of those pacific canvcntSons which were so fAmiliar and 
so transitory. TIicti they parted : Pompco Colonna fled lo 
bit fastness U\ Subiaco. the otlieri to France ; for the Pope 
who ha<] beer thought to be dead be^an at once to talk of 

The recovery of Julius was EomcwUat retarded by 
perverseness m the matter of diet, but he at once turn 
his attention to the resutrption of the negotiations for the 
League against France. An alliance of all the Christian 
Frincc5 wa^ to be formed, to take the Pope, tlie Councd, at>4 
Rome under their pTOicction-I The intrigues of the sch 
matical Cardinals* ihe refusal of l^uis Xll. to dissociate 
himself from the Bentivogli, and hb threats of setting 


en ihfl NupEoli tL Aldcci. imblishcd by Nardtxxin Aa GRBOOtOvnTs. iu 
ha 3nl ed. m f88] J.Vl 1^,78 f/f-), hu taken no notie* ol tiii*,L( vriUoM 
be wpcifltKXis w Lticntkm it x^nm. Q^ aIsu L PA&&Aa]»l, Mc 
btomo alia vita di S Aldobtandffli, ^19. Ph^is E>]S Chassis. «d. 
174, fthevii Thni evtrt in the yi^kr 1937 irtAiLv of ih? Konum 
unfriendly to fuliui 11. 
• SAH^rm, XII., 455, 481, 4^-4»3h C/. P^ati i>ft Caasu^ ed. 

1 &LiruTOh XIL, 4S3 ; Fjcravantb, Denarii, 161 j^.^ Coivi, Moo. 
Cotonnt^i, ?57 i<7- ; MAZto^ Sjigifoior^ l\% 13, ir. 
Z LAUt, Cinlcjiun^ 111, 





an anti-Pope f^Wcd Julius II. with anKlcty. On the tit 
of October he had appointed Cardin;iJ Medici, Legate o1 
HclognA and the Komagna,* and now he flwaitcd with 
ircmbling impatience the definite formation oi Ihc Lca^c 
which was to protect him from his cncmic* and recover 
the loat States for the CHurch.t 

The Lea^e w*is finally arranged and signed on the 4lh 
October, \yii, and on the rultowing day was solemnly 
atmounccd in Rome in S" Maria ikl Pupulo. Tlie primary 
contracting parties were Julius IL, Ferdinand of Spain, and 
the Republic of Venice^ but it was evpncwly provided that 
the Emperor and the King of England were at liberty 
to join it if they wiihed. *' Europe was invited to rally 
Dund the Pope, and all Kings and Princes were asl^ed to 
unite for one common object, namely, the preser^-alion o( 
the unity of the Church and of the integrity of her patri- 
mony." t The adhesion of Henry of England, which 
actually followed on the I7tii November, wa^ regarded at 
that time as crTlain,§ and tJiC Swiss could also be euuiited 
upon to irvade Milan.|| 

• Pxtls l>s Giussts, <d- Ffati, 199 ! Corp. dipt. Portiitf,, i^ rjj. 

t C/ SAVVTi}, XI I, 4S8» SCO, S3^ SJ3. 545' 

I LAlft, Zialcjcunir, 122. 

"fTT, IV,, I, 137; RAVMALOU^adnn. i;i],o. J* j THtlWttP, 
[|., %7Asfg- ; MinheiLd. (Esterreitih. Instirm« (1384), p. 61S j/^ , 
Lettres dt Louis XU., Ill,, do j^., 6; j^. ; Qptn tncd. di F. 
<;uicciArc!iRi, VI,, 31 i/^, ; PAaiS DE GRASIIS, ed, DolUngcr, 4tJ, Cf. 
MfuaMordi Mirandf)Uv,1-, "QTJ'p. : Si:mpeb, Carpi,* ; [h« Ponu^iesft 
RepCSt of Franc. Jui^te to Ktnjc Manuel in Cor^j. dIpL Poriujc. I., ij?^ 
ijS'ij9: LtuwAKN, 15 t^.i ond an the adhesion of ErgtondL 
llHKWtR. SL;iie Pitpcrs, I., N. i^So; ^Acu Concist,, f 35 (Consi^tDrkl 
A rchixta of the Vatican); SAMrm, Xin,»75'^-^B7->^-i r/. is^ if^^ 

\l C/. Dij^^maurMh M., Aoy. A Rrief of Julin* IT- To Ihf Swm, of the 
37thOauLicr, [$11, in the Abicliicrlcj^ UIm^. 5&^>; a ilufjIicMtc to the 


Now that hit podsioa was so far sccurtvl, Jidtos 1 1. 
abk to take ibo last Mtp la rogwd to the ^hismaiical 
CardlaaK When the tcrtn apfoiotod In the kttcr of 
ritariwi lud cxptred, in an open Con»«:oo' htid on S4^H 
October, at wfakh Uktc wcrv eighteen Oirsiinnb pfc^di^l 
be proootmccd the »cntciMX of cxcocununication and dc- 
potthioa on Cvdiiuds Can-ajal, Bri^ooncc, FruKCsco 
and de Prk, as rciieU. Cardinals Sanse^'tfino and d'All 
wcTCthrcaEcnDtiwilh tbcsafDe|Mini3fainciitifthc>-co<iUinio^^ 
dkobedient* ^| 

' Tfaaa bdoK the Cooncfl had met, the Cardinab wfao 
had convoked it bad been deposed It Is true that the 
day fixed fot its opening had been the tst of September, 
but they had themselves put off their arrivaL''f Their 
proijxxts ^'cre about ai bad as they possibly could be 
Spain and HngUnd wotild have nothing to say to them, 
and in Tla]y and Germmy the Coitnrtl called fbrlh 
no enthuciatm- Even tn France? they mrt vilh «o Ifttk 
sympathy that on the 20Ch of September Cardinal dc PHc 
wrote to Louis Xih to say that, tinlesa he wouki exert 

MAyor And Council c^ Ibsk, <lu. 29ihOcLt 1511, hibe B&itt Archfi 
tL 3673. 

* KArptALUta, ad nn. ijit, n. jj^ 35, 36: Paris im 
T^^\Vintti^% cd'* 4ix-4n ■ f/' 4'4i ^^ t^nkbfc rcmatia oa the posiiSofT 
«f the t^hurtturical C'ardinAlt j JiAVUrOr Xtll,, r;*, tf^ sot st^. , 
DKSjARniNs, II.. $7J, N. I : LautfjUfH, t% i Atii dei Uncd {itia\ 
4 Sefi«, Sciene. Ehor» X., tj, Cfi ^Afia Couist, £ 34^3$- '' ^ 
Iwrr Mstftrf that in a Se^rM CootitTory on ^ard Oct.. SigSiinondct rif 
Cond naal the judgi^irnc id dm C^nfimX und thrr agrcfd 10 re {Cott- 
•isloriiJ Archivn 0/ the Vatican.) On the j^d^ Oct the dcposHion of 
the CanUnftlt ^ns innnmiced to aII ihe Pnn^n oT HUirqia. See ifc* 
State Archivca in Turiru Mafic i8> N. 36. A i;opy of tli« «ui<riuice' 
tiwat «cnt to M^txunihau, d^L Rom., 34th Oct, ib u) th« Stale 

f tUIUAKN, 1$. 



Toyal power it^ favour of ihc a^sc-mbly it Pisa, li would b« 
ft complete failure ^nd effect nothing. ''Thu.^ at itn very 
inception the free CouikiI vms to owe its exielencc to 
Stale dctipoliEim."* On the itst September the number of 
tbo«e tvho were prcpAi^ Co attend it aaa lo SimM thftt it 
had tc be put off tiU Uie ml Nuvembcr. 

From the first crvcn its originators had no confidence 
in the success of their undertaking, la the beginning of 
September, the Spanish Cardinals knowing the position 
that their King was talking up, were prqiared to repudiate 
it if the Pope would h^ve allowed them to remain at Sicwut 

To the hostile attitude of the Kin^ of Spain was now 
ftddcd an unfavourable change in tliat of MaximiliarL 
From the first the Emperor had disapproved of the choioa 
of Pisa as the place for holding the Ccuudl. In July he 
iAid very decidedly that it cojIJ ojilybe held hi some town 
Iwlonging to the Empire ; VcfDni and Constiincc were 
mentioned,^ Also, not only Hungary and Poland but the 
Empire itself hung back from commits In f; itself to an antl' 
Papal Cout^cil,^ and the Cmpsrcr received letters from 
various t^uarterF^ warning him against jtj amongst others 
from his daughter Margaret and from the Icanned Abbot 
'rrithcmtus. The Iftltcr strongly urged him to have nothing 
to do with ftn assembly which was uaUnfully convoked and 
mu$t necessarily lead to a schism, and asatircd him thai 

* RaWALDCt^ Sd Ul. 1511,11.91 HCaOEKR6TU£H, Vlll, 4S0. 

t MOKM>UH, L'Abbaiarti Vlontr SiilKwln, 15, 

I t-£ GlaV, 1-, 41/1 Acta TomkiiiJu, 1., 311; ZVRITA, 148^; 

J w!v> jastly ivmarl:i thai t\\t pitypusnt \n ihe Emperoi'i in5[nH.lion» to 

f Im tcci«Ury PiKclb I'uiiLnuri, ih^t lIic Council shojlU be held In 
tlorenoc, wm inninly 3 pecuniary apcculntLoiL. L'ln^Ann is miiUlctn in 
diioLmiE (ivii \hn rrt^^fniciion has not be«n prinr^tl. li b publiehftd by 

I ToMMASl!!! in bis MadiiAvdli, I., 701-703. 

I It UUuitN, i^4« 



GenDaoy wotild no4 follow him in this path * The Attitu 
of Uic German cki^ shewed that the Abbot of Sponlkcim 
was not Enlst^kco oci thb point; uid in addiiion to all 
there u'As the difference beCw'ceD him and the King 
France as lo ihc plwrc of mceifng. U b nor snrpm! 
therefore, that the Emperor's interest in the Cotmell be^an 
to »lac ken- 
When Julius n, waa ^ dangerously ill in August I5if1 
Maximilian^ like every one else, supposed the Pope to be 
^ytng.f He ftt once ncmmatcd three En^'oys for 
Coadave. and also intended to send his trusty Lang 
Rome to unite with Cardinal AdrJano Ca^tellcsi in IcoAti 
after his interests in the new electioa He told the English 
Ambassador that ihls Cardinal was hts candidates At the 
same time. Can^ajal also hoped this time to attain the object 
of his ambition. J 

At first no one at the Imperial Court could believe in the 
rcjility of the j'opes sudden and rapid recover>'. Thty 
were still convinced that his days were numbered, and it 
was in thl» conviction that Maximilian wrote those moch 
discussed tetters in which he expressed his visionary notion 
of Adding the Tiara to the [mpcrtal crowa§ In oixe 



* Tainitutua^ Aiin«1. lllruu^., (L, 669 j^. 

X tJLA<ANn> Abskbicn. 33. nnd M^udmitiann M-^aa^- 
1 Mfuii^iiilbn*^ u|iinEionB lo the Papacy have produced on extremdy 
citens^^ litcTuturc, A, jAOlilt hat collocicd the eotlicr wncjngt on thjt 
tubjcU iu Oj« TransitiiDa!! v( llw Ac^uleoiy uf VietiJi^ Xli, 199 J'f- 
(i854> Thii rtfiier justly bold} die iiuihcncidty of these Leucrv to be 
bc/ond doubl. ( MiixirnilULn'h |ntIri^^TiL>n« (o Gcorye of Noldcck cf 
loih }iiae, j>o7^ii>ciLiLnned jifi^Mi; pk 3^4, note*, inaiduecDiroborvttrhs 
rici«.) Ai ihc v^ine umu ha ibinks it ii a iu»tak« to interpret the loacn 
ino fttTVnIy in ;t h<t\tui ft^nae, vhiln, nn lh« oth«r liand, h« combats 
the ricv t^iflL \Wy -uc nut lu be tolcn i^jiotiaJy 41 alL Jjlgcr. relyiaf 
rtry much oa Sciliu:cit ^BiosmliEL del Card Adiimo fTieatD, iSj/ 


theie TcttCH wMneied to hb daughter MargAret, Recent 
of the Nrthertfttufa, and dalc<I i5th September, 1511, he 

ulvcft the problem by giving; (tic l^ttcrt Kn «ll«iroT]cal Tnanin^, and 
conftickn chat ihc t^iupo^e of ihc Cmpcioi: in them was 10 nguify ha 
inttntion <rf obuinmg ihc Tank for CxrtL A. Cafti«lleii, who bod tnkim 
tidui:c in tilt Tyrat anJ wjj mraVLpicly tScvoicd to him. Agnliui JHSKr, 
1.AX2, itS, cuid DonuAAd Hu^ii^R, III o94. f>J^vc i>ointod out ihaithc 
[tiain teru» of Ihe words will not admir of luch an Tnf«rprelaiu>ri, 
fi»pccuJ]y in ihc le(lcr (q P^ von (ichicn^tcin. lu ypKc of JiLtfcr, most 
coniiftue to ihink thai Mniimilian rtiill^ nimc<t fLlunitm^thc 
Of Kmperor attfl Pop* in his own j^rtim. JiftO^Clt (p 335] 
broucht Ibrvirid a proof ficm Lhc Venaian ArLhiv» ilui ixi December 
ihert had betD notEotialnns on tba sobjoct between MnnmiliaA nnd 
Ferdinand of Spain ; 1* ipeakt very confcmpcuoutl/ of jkgef^ wort. 
In conxtiucncc. Iio^rcv^r. of funhet fCKGardics by GcbliardL tad 
Ulnuna, jUgicr"^ theory^ though in lomc points hU inveAigniions arc 
wiDting in ilir>nii]Mhnew. came, to a eiertain deifie^^ into ^^nur aj>aui. 
C£it»AiUfT (Adr^in v. Corneio, 23 st^.) dlncovcred a Repod fiom the 
En^'Uth Aoibasudor ai the Imperial Court of j^ih SepL, t jii, la which 
he u>ii rlini MAiimilEtn wished vy ohiAia the Tiara for Card Adfiftno in 
the pUce «if Julius H., wbo wa» hopctc^ily lit, Maximiliaa'a biographer, 
Uhii*nn, in 1SS8 publj^bed a InnLJse dciilinj ^vith iJiis quc^ion alone. 
Although wp are not in possession of the compteie ten of the Iniperial 
[nBtm<;Liiju of r5o;, Ulitiatui, uolikc Bohni, ijcivbiilcrs ihiib document of 
Ifcc fim uopornncc in decidmg the que&tioa. In thai year ttie £mp:«sa 
MM «tifl living;) c:cin«i;ij»enLly, w Uiis atitTuir urgon, Maxiiiulki; coulJ 
not Ibcn \tA\< hod anj thought of hiiiuclf becoming Pope- Since in 
i$tt, iiH<t the Empress' dv.ith, he expres»e> hiAiMlf in exacEly the 
xunt- tenns ai are cmpUiyed jn ihc Insirucfion, Uliniirin infcti *' that his 
nueftnini: imist aIso hnvc been the same, and 1h.1i ilicrcforc the tiue 
kornei of ha project could not have been a pcnonal oo^tipalioo of the 
Ctslir uf S. Peter " Ulinaim tbiiik^ he finds tliib " Uu^ kcLtJcl " m the 
Eoperor'i fftvoufite idea of the Mculofiution of the States of ihi Church. 
Aithn would be Jnccm^xklible wtth his \inn]^ himaelf the weoti^r of Ihft 
nllthbb wenuiohnply ihaik b to be ujtcn lU adi|floni(Lticcirciun' 
locution- The one thin^ thai h certjiin is *' ihut m ihc yeai-s from t ^07- 
iSii h« cannot Ji^kve dnanit of obuLning the Papal Crrnvn for biin^lf, 
whether Ai ?4p4l >ind ImpeiiiU Soveiciga, or, bytnir »sUle the ptToip of 
EsD|»i«, a9 real spintm] HcmI of the Church ; the thing he nimed ai 


ni-STORV or the pofe* 

says: '•To-motrow I am going to send Matth^us 
Bl^l^oj) of Gurk, to Rome, to arrange wiUi tlic Pope &1 

«CM to trro|f3e« to buniclf Ehe * darmnmm umpomlc' of che Pa; 
.... The pioACubn uf Roeilc would »cQ]ic to htm the uMUrf a 
Uppor ICuVi ^°^ a^ (lie >^u^c ^c, hy inoJuii^ biin Succnua of Nople^ 
prelect him A^insi injuty frem Spojc oil ibp vntithprn ^At of lh« 5icuM 
uT Qw Giur^Ei. U J ain liglit b my vica, he intended lo iuM « 
voinincin* from Kome to th« whol* of Chrntrndom in rango iiMU undn 
tbt ImperiAl ^inndnnl tar % CnKuHe a^i^i^t itic Turfct" (pp^ 47'49)> 
Thia theory Hai found un<;ondititiii<U accepUuicc from rcry few KboUn. 
tJLUANN hiiTu^lf, havrcvvii while .tcknoHrled^Ag it Co be only a bypo- 
ihriis ^|J,, -441). scill hddi fimily lo ir in the xnd Vol uf Iu5 BiojfT^h^al 
Miumijliiui. SaC-muUXAh in ttic Li^ciar Kuiid^dua CiSd9)^ P^ >4>« 
i^roM ^Ib Ulmann thai MannvLlLut bad riot thought of b«u3g Pope 
*cli HH Emjwror, Ixit wea nbj^lkjn* tn rhf view thii he HJcAvd 
pinscuiuj liJiiihcU Kjfdie [ciii|M>i<tlpuHci of LhcPaFAcy. J. BONAVS* 
thn <MT\lT*Tyf Loola upon this Lktter point at proved Iront tlio InitiuctMO 
uf 1^7, but boldi thai \n Sept., 151 1> Maximiliai] asppiied also to dtt 
rapol dijcnity itadf (Gdtt GeL Am., ifiES, pp. 1023-1074). One el 
Ikma/i objection* in rtfTird to the si^oeranil^r U antwered bcfonhand 
by UlMAttn, \l^ 440; but that doct not Alteci bit vicwotf ihe Lmpcml 
letter of Ibc :8th Stpt. Quite iadependenclr of Bcmays, G* SuuoiR 
decLsivcLy rcjccu both the reoioningr and canduions in UhnaQQli weik 
while fully iccognisirifj: the cluir msl^ht Into the pnliliol tiinstioa wUcfe 
it dapla/k. " T13C ]C|wri^ of a Fk>rcDtine bving 111 ihe F; ench cuap,* 
Iwobtcivei:, ''^on wluch Ultiuna noiaL/ depends, caanot be of ([f^aftcr 
vilUnriry tl);<n llw Empemr'^ owft wi>rtU. In the endeavour to fftlhom 
Iw «0Crci intensions tbey niU5t be cui tint guide, md iliar dcnj. Iteral 
meftnitig cannot be tgnored" ( Ueuitche LitsriLturtit:., i^tf^p^ 1^)^ t- 
GlKlClClt] in the Suppt la tbe All^. Zeii. <ieS6^ Ha, jia, siyi 
caanot agtt£ vidi Ulnunn, and brinjea fonvird mne notnbte ob 
lo hii hypothesEL iJaih L'Lma.M?<(p- j3>andGe4ger mig^lii have a 
Iheciieiakcuf;i(mv ".irlomiio" hyrht word "wor%hip" if thry had 
poexucd even a alight haowlcdfte of Catholic doctrine. A letter frofli 
Card- & Conaga to the MarcLen Itab^lU, ciat. Macenfia, and 
I SI I, it valuable aJi cvldcru^c on tliii <[ui-^jua, iieititinly inucii nion 
than the docwricjtlB cited by Bn»di h viyi : S. B"* wlcva man 
un mon^mno al nvtau Card- di S- Scvenno d a Ijibrctio, che 
pweecro pvfwuiudnH:iiLc dtnatui 4 Id inffa cctio EenniiLc suitu ticna 


07)^ 1-^ 
thai 1^1 



nc B5 Ills cDadjutor with iht nrvcr^cn of the 
J'iijucy on hiji death, and allowing mc to take hoty orders, 
£0 that 1 may jiossibly be canonized Hiid you may have 
to fevcrc cne as a saint after my death, which l should 
lvalue much, I have sent an Envoy to the King of Spain, 
asking him to tuppori me; which he has willingly promised 
to do on condition of my abdicating the Imperial crown in 
favour of my grard-son Charles, to u'hich I cordially af^ree. 
The people and nobles of Rome have entered into a com- 
pact with each other a^aiurt the French and Spaniards; 
they can fiim 30,ooo ntcn, and have esi^ured inc that they 
nfll never consent to the elevation of a Fieiichman, a 
Spaniard, or a Venetian, but will choose a t*opc who shall 
be dependent on mc and acceptable to the German nation, 
I am already beginning to canvass the CardinaU, for which 
purpose from 300,000 to jc«poo ducaU would be very 
iu«ru], The King of Spain has sent word to mc through 
his Envoy that he will desire tlie Spanish Cardinals to 
support my canJidature- I beg you to keep all ihia pro- 
foundly secret, jilthough I fear that in a very short time 
the whole worhJ will know it, as Ilio many people have 
to be employed in the business and too much money ta 
leqvired. I commend you to God, Written by the hand 
of your good father. Maximilian > future Pope. Septeiubff 

"PS- — The Pope has had a return of fc\'cr; he cnnnot 

lBwKBW^ longer/' • 

ni^pKBon* rf ^ufftf^/.ti-fj'a per ^it^nf intrso ik* Aavfi'aao firm^xtfi 
aih imf^er/itt^rt de /^rtit pitpii, *osa atm mai vista ft rnauti^'M. I found 
tfw MiftBul in the GoQiafra Archives, Mantua, and i: W nov been 
poMtftbedby MOU-U^UN m l/AhK^Tir Ui Uftnic Svibasio, 14 Muf&^tin 
lUnks he dciecEa a >quili un hf^iicixilkn'i pliii of becoming rope m a 
UbhiCAl motUl of tlic j6Ui C«tilury, Sec RW. luU. ^ Numj^Eiulic* A', 
Vin» finer 

* AfCcr tljc uri^iiud iu iIh: Aiduvtu hi lillt in Lk Glav. It-. 37; 



This letter might quite possibly have been mciuit » * 
playful rcfiual of a project for a fresh maivi^c preaoitcd 
lo him by Margan^r. as lie hiul l>een a widower siDOC 
the J tftt of Deci^mbcr \ for he wat fond of writing je^ng 
Le1ter« lo tier,* But anoihcr addressed to the Tj-rokae 
Land-Marschall, PauI von Lichtonstcin, and dated i6i|jH 
September, ijii. c&riTiot be thus humorously interpreted 
Moxicnilian wnte»: — 

"Most rtoblc> beloved, and faithful frkndl We do net 
doubt ihat what wc have iini>artcd to you at va/iout times 
3IH It) iJitr reasons for inteiidiii]; and dc^riag to obtain 
the I'apacy h still fresh in your mtmory; as al*o we 
ourselves have never ceawd to keep thi* purpove ht mind 
Moreover we feel in ourselves, and in fact it iti 9o^ that 
there can be no aim more noble, loftier, or better thtfr^ 
Chat of attuning lo the aaid dignity. ^H 

"And a» tlie present Pope JtiTiu^ has lately been 
dxngerou^y ill, wo much ta that, as out O^urt Chancellor 
for the Tyrol, Cyprian of Screntir, has informed us every 
one in Rome thout^ht that hit last moment bad come, vrt 
have resolved to take the necessary measures for carryinj; 
out our intention, and Co act in such a manner as shall 
ffin for un the ?apacy> Consequently wc have laid the^e 
matters before Canlinal Adnano who, as you tcnow, has 
Ijccti for some time past with us in Germany ; uho, whcrr 
he heard ii, wept for joy, and advi»nl us stitMigfy io 
proceed, and thinlct that there are mai^y Cardinals who 
will be of the same mind. And since, as you yourtdf 
also must see, it i) very Ukcly chat the Pope wpl d»e (for 
he cats little; and that notliiri; but fruit, and drinks so moch 

^/-407j S4'< Tlbe date of ihe year is vantctf JB tti« vtifioA^ b« tl 
h« 1511, ty B5hh, 14 rrf. 

* UucAmr, AUidriCD, ji «^, aad Daxats b Cftt Gd. 
003), PL 1011. 


more that his life h^s t\a snbsunce in it), If \k daes die, wr 
have prepared the Bishop of Gurk to post at once to Rome 
to help us in this affair of the Papacy ; but, as this cannot 
be done without a ccnsiderabte sum of money which we 
muat provide, wc have prombcd the Cardinals and several 
oUier j>crson^, to expend 300.OOO ducats for the needs of 
our undertaking and to arrange that thb mont^y shsll he 
obtainable Cram the Fuggcr Hank at Rome. As you know, 
at the present time wc have no money, and the only way in 
which tl will be posBible for us to saliify Fuggcr in regard 
to this sum will be by pledging our jewels." 

"J^hc Emperor then procetds to give detailed instructions 
U to the ncgotia^tions for the loan ; the jewels that arc 
to be pledged, to which the feudal mantle worn by 
Charlemagne is to be added, which, he says, does not 
belong to the Empire, but is an Ai^strian heirlnomj the 
property of the Hapsbiirgs, and will be no longer wanted 
by him when he is Pope; the manner in which, and the 
persons to whom, the money is to be paid, and how and 
when the articles pledged are to be redeemed. Von 
Lichtcnstein is admonUhcd to osc all posslbTe diligence 
to get the matter arranged quickly and secretly, to take 
no denial, but pi^rsist, even if al first he is met by a rtfiEAal, 
and to keep the ErnpAor thoroughly irformed of every 
Step In the proceedings, and is assured that his faithful 
service will be remembered and amply rewarded. 

In the concluding paragraph the Emperor says; "We 
also wish you to know that to-day wc have heard by a 
private po&t from our secretary John Colla, that the Or»in^ 
Coionna, and the populus Romanus arc quite resolved, 
aiid have engaged, n^t to accept any Fope who is a 
Frenchman or a Spaniard, or a candidate of cither of 
the^e nations. And they have sent an Envoy privately 
to ask us not to fight with the French, so that they may 




This kttcr might ijuitc possibly bavc been rocant fts 
playful rcfuKil of a project lor a fresh maxria^c: presented 
to him by Mar^rct. as he had been ^ widower 3tnc<^| 
the 31st of DfTcenbcr ; for h<r was ioi\d of writing jesting 
letters to her* But anotlnr aditre^scd to the Tyrolcic^ 
Land-M^rsch;*]], Paul von Lichtenstdn, ^nd dated t6d|^| 
September^ 1511, cannot be thu£ humoromly interpreted 
Maximilian writes; — 

""Most ncbie, bdo^-«l, and f^kithful friend 1 We do fiot 
doubt that what we \\avc imported to you At various timi 
d3 lo our rca^on^ for intending and desiring to obtain 
tiic Papacy U ^til) fre»h in your memory; u abo we^ 
ourselves have never ceased to keep this purpose in mii 
Moreover we feel in ourselves, and in fact (t Is 30^ Ui 
there caii be no aim more noble, loftier, or better thafl 
thai of attaining to the said dignity, 

"And as the present Pope Julius has Lately been 
dangerously ill, ao much so that, as our Court ChanctHIor 
for the Tyrol, Cyprinn of ScrcntJn. Has informed ti*. every 
«ne in Rome thought that his 1a,*it moment had come, wt 
have resolved to take the necessary measures for carrying 
OUT our inteniton, and to act iti ?iuch a manner as shall 
win for U5 the Papacy. Consequently we have laid theses- 
matters before Cardinal Adriano who, as you know, had^| 
been for some time past with U£ in Germany ; who, when 
he heard it, wept for joy, and advised us strongly 
proceed, and thinks that there are many Cardinals wh4 
will be of the same mind. And alnce, as you ycursdf 
also mu!(t ,icc, it i^ \-cry likely that the Pope will die {k 
he eat£ little, and that nothing but fruit, and dnnk» to mi 

f/407> S4I- The datcof tbc year ii wuitingk the orisina], but it m\ 
be 151 1. C/. 1w>Mhf, 14 j/f, 
* Ui'UANX* Atitichtcn, Ji 4«^., uid BerkaVS ia CtJU. G«l. 



mon that ius life haa no subsl^nce In it), if he does die, vrc 
bavc prepftfod the Disbop of Gurk to post at once to Rome 
to help us in this aflfair oC llic Papacy , but, as tJiis cannot 
W (done wirhoui a considerable sum of money wlijch we 
must provide, we have promised the Cardinals and several 
Other pcnons, to expend yx>/XO ducats for the needn of 
our undertaking and to arrange that this money shall be 
obtainable from the Fuggcr Dank at Rome. As you know, 
at the prczf^int time wchavc no moncy.and Ihc only way in 
which it will be pQ%&ib1e for us to satisfy Fuggcr in regaid 
to this sum will be by pledging our jewels" 

Tlic Emperor then proceeds to give detailed instnictionft 
as to the n(!gotiatJon» for tlie loan ; t]ie jewels that are 
to be pledged^ to which the feudal mantle worn by 
Charlema^o is to be added, which, he says, doc« not 
belong to the Empir;;, but U an Austrian heirl<jom, tba 
property of the Hapsbur^, and will be no longer wanted 
by him when he is Pope; the manner in which, and the 
pcr^nsto whom, the money is to be paid, and bow and 
when the jLrticlc^ pledged are to be redeemed. Von 
Lichtenstein is admonished to use alt possible diligence 
to get the matter arranged (luickly and secretly, lo take 
no denial, but persist, t-ven if at first he is met by a refusal, 
and Co keep the Emptor thoroughly informed of eveiy 
step in the proceedings, and is assured that hia faithful 
acfvice will be remembered and amply rewaided. 

In the concluding paragraph the Emperor says; "We 
aUo wish you to know that to-drty we have heard by a 
private post from our secretary John Colla, that the Orslni, 
Colonna, and the populus Romanus arc quite resolved, 
«n<l have engaged, not to ai^ccpt any Pope who ia a 
Frenchman or a Spaniard, or a candidate of either of 
these nations. And they have senl an Envtiy privately 
to a£k us not to iighi with tlie French, so ih^t tliey may 

$%4 inSTORV OF Till!; POPES. 

the adverse atiitudc of the Gcrm&n Episcopate had 
to do with thU. The BUhoj> of Brixen refund to act 
Imperiai representative at the Council, on the ground th^ 
he was more bound to the Pope than to the Emperor* 
The Archbbhop of SaEzbur^ declared himself precluded 
by his ecclesiastical oath from sending even one of hi» 
CoiJH'^cllors to it* Now tliat Ent^ldnd and Spain also 
had pronounced againat it,! while Hungary held aluof fur^ 
iIjc pre^ietit frotn the opponents of the Pope,} thi- Kchu* 
matics had no power but France to support them. The 
Court Bishops, of con r^, followed tlie King; but "all 
who could, as the Flemjf;h clci^-, who, in spite of Louis's 
eomplajnts never appeared at Lyooa, tried to keep clear 
of the Council. The French dE«1iked the lta1i;^ii policy 
of their King, the people an<l the nobles objected to tho^^y 
cost of the war, and the Queen implored her husband to^H 
withdraw from a conHict w\i\\ the Pope which itii^ht be 
extremely prcjuJfci-iI to the interests of the future heir 
to the throncJ^S 

* UlmaNN, II., 435-43^^ Uf- Muyi lias sought In uiin throusbout 
iht St:4ttltuttor'& Archives ai Iniii^bruck for M. v'lin WaLkcrttieJn'i Kopoit 
u> Masiniitun which is her? cibed. It h s piiy ikki tJLinann tunUy 
ar«T givti the nuuibcn of i\v DocuincrI» he l|uoicl 

i Ferdinand lukd caused ihc Dull of Indiciion fbr itie Latcran Council 
to be 4o1»mnly nnni^nfirrd at BtJtgMAn th(* ]6th Nov., 15M, mid dMJffd 
the Luihi>pa tonmt ioi consuluuion cptl It HeXQCKKuTOKK, Vlll.,463 
j<y., gives A fuU ac<ount oi lh« prqxMnIt foi Kvfunn which w*i« to b« 
bid before the Couacil, drawn fnun the dociinicrjis published (some 
them very ctrelosly} by D^LUNOim, IkiCragc, lU.i 3oq j^., 
of ihe Sinuina.s Archives. 

X FvAi^si^i, T.ii£» voA Cunhrai, 91 1^ 

g I,B;iiktA>K^ 31. GiruUnio AlcAndio, *fho had be«a clu»cu by 
coll«a|pi« to rfprr»tnl the High Sdaw>\ of P»rii &t dit CouanJ of Pii^ 
refund the dangeraui honour. Sec Numuktuibcikchic, ElL, EinL, y. 
LohmAiin hu not observed that the Ktictoyi tkdxra^n had bcon alrotdjr 
pubLutaedby HaitOLSiurTKax, VIU., 4»»i-4£^ 



The ItaliaD derf^ as a body were T^thful lo the lawTtil 
Pope: The exceptions consisted oniyof a few such men 
u the restless Abbot Z:;ccaria 1-errcri «nd Cardinal San 
scveriiio, vrho was so deeply compromised Many waming 
voices were heard from amongst them. The pious hermit 
Angdo of VAllombroia adjured Carkajal not to rend the 
unity of the Church ; what he waa doing, he said, was like 
ihc cij'inc of loicifer and would draw itown God's judg- 
inent-% i]pc»n him," Angelo, tike mary nthci [uCian^ as 
Francesco P<^gif>,t was diligent with his pen in defence of 
the righti of the Holy See against the »chi6maUca. The 
most eminetji uf theu? writers wert; Domenico JacobazziJ 
and the celebrated th^ogtan and philosopher, Thomas de 
VIoof Gacta, better known a» Cajetacius, who, since 1503, 
bad been General of the Dominicans. In :icveral wotk& 
which obtained the honour oJ being publicly burnt by Ixuis 
Xll.. CajctAnus dealt in a masterly ard classical style with 
the false Conciltar theory of which the Council of Pisa, was 
the latent ofTshont- He m^iiLtdincd thai the power of the 
Pope in the Churi^h was supreme and monarchical, demon- 
strated the difference between the aulhurity of Peter and 
that of the other Apnsfle*, denied the Mipen">rlty of Councils 
over the Head of the Churchward refutccl the objections 
drawn from the Councils of Constance and Basle. The 
IhwcA which ho defended wer« the following;— (!) A 
Council does not derive its authority immediately from 
Christ (2) It doc5 not represent the whole Church unless 
it ioclucJea the E'opa (3) Adoubtful Popc.such as the one 


tt. 1511, f». 50, 3>. 

t P« potpitAle [apajf e'- coni^ilii liber, t i- ft a- ^probably K'>mfii% 
i$isX C/. RaYNaluu^ Adait. ifM, n. ig. 

J Pajticulttrt ^onctitimg hi* Tract, de Copdlio (wrilten ijij, printed 
)S38j*rr lob« found in HJiiti^NwriniKH, V1II-, 43* j/f-, jjt*^ it^. 

VOU VI. 2 C 


or THE 

vlio pf^ndeD at CovsbDce, bolcli A vKsy dtnocnt 

boo ooe whox Ti j^Jtinin / fa ocfta^* 

Id luljr ibt inly vften wto advocxtei] fhc schboudc 
O— '*^" MM uc oaffstoMtu lcmmuckm i9 tbc imumBliuii 
of Ae Chanli ac wfaicli it aimed, wen die Hibaeae jvrfat 
Decn»t And Z«ccM» Fcrrvi Tbii bu<r,ft learned bat 
raitleas and changeable mam, had &nt been a l$enedktjiie 
monk, and then joined tbe Cftrtbuaaaiia. Hcretoo^lwcovM 
not bear tbc quiet of the ckbtocd Itfc, and thrcir Uaudf 
eagerly into politic*^ labooriii^ to enltst public OfAuan m 
tnpport of the l-^eagnc of Cambrat and turn K against tbe 
Veoedam, iHMm he haled, md cominuMl to oppose even 
after the RcpnbHc h;vl bren absolved He wrote poem 
ht pral«c of the FretKh and wa4 thus brought into con- 
nectkm whh Marsha! Trivuhio^ and initiated into the anti- 
Papal plans of Lottifl XII, A% Carmjal and he bad always 
been close friends, he was now completely drawn into the 
Khumatical campL Later he fought so ciKTi^ically b>' 
letter^ addre?LM:s, and tracts on the si<ic of the mock Council, 
that be came to be regarded as its chief literary champroiL^^ 

* Hiii Munmiry b ulm £ran K&RGftKRdTKUt, VUl^ II^I 
MAWDfnccuoL, Kb& RcC, 105, nys, redoing 10 Cifnous, *!( 
mtf fa« tnly nid that the Cevit ptrty h^d the bnt of the «acount^_ 
itmn a Hientry jo wdt u frmi ■ hbrorkal point of tWv.* ^H 

t G0LOA«T, Monarchy lU 1167 M-f.; HEROCCK^Tma, V||[^ 47!. 
On OKiut^^: Savickv, C.«ch, d. Rotnucbcn IUchl% VL,j74^^Kid 
SCUULIU, Qjcllcii, IL. j6i *y. 

] Fcrran'a cirver noj dcjciibed a hundred >tan ogoby'RaAaoMllV 
lirlU vlCa r- flrlle opcrc di Z F«iTer^ (MndeiM, 179^], nt«i hy MOSSO* 
IJ^ in a (iGUu:) monoKiaiili «hkh appeared al A^nai id iS77> and 
Rgtun in hit valuable work, L'Abbai* di M<mt« &ahajdo, 3 -"9* ^ ^^^^^ 
MoRtouN, Ur Latiniita dct Cinquertnio imluiDT? dd tlante <V«nt^^H 
tB9«XAAdApoUiKudcl pupob Vitcntiiio d^ iL KciieH (VakcDii 1S95V 
Fcmrfi Impmuni influence <iid th« Councij <4 Pin bK been quAa 
9««rliookci! by Lehoisiin, and ftbo hy UAliiuavaaBCMKR, KatL Ri 



The character of Curraja! vary much rc^mbkxl that 
of t'erretU He had early adopted the (nUc theory- ol 
CouncUa;* in addition to which he could not forget IbAt 
he hod once rvry nearly obtained the Ti^i/ft^ *^ He htui 
been forced to yield to Julius II„ but he did rK>t rdiuquiah 
his Ambitious pidii-v*' Envied ally ^tntc the <icdth of 
d'AmboL'te, he luid becmnc more etigrcmed with itic hope 
of atlaining the highest dignity. He threw himself into 
the French movcmeiii entirely, because he thought it 
might be serviceable to him. He had long skgo quarreliccJ 
with the Pope; he loved pomp jinci &how, and cared for 
retbrm as little as his associates did. Like Fcrrcri he was 
utterly untrtiM worthy. Zuriu relates that tic slmuUancousJy 
ft^ked Fcidinand for a safe-conduct for Naples, wrote to 
ttie Spaaisli Envoy in Gumany to use all bis influence to 
prevent any Gc'rinan prelates from coming to the Ccmncil. 
and begged the Emperor to send them. " He was sincere 
in DOthinj;, and It M,-a% this h)'pocrJtc who w;ift the President 
of the Council^ to which he was only held by tlic impossi- 
bility or extreme peril of drawing back/'f He was so 
much alarmed at the imall amount of sympathy which the 
Council had evoked, that even at the Wt moment he made 
lui attempt to be reconciled with tlic Pope, ilc had biokcn 
"VEUi Cafdinal Brifonnet, whose heart like his own waa ?sct 
on obtaining the Tiara; but both he and his companions 
were too ambitiou* and too proud to bring themselves to 
comply with the stern requisitions of Julius H-, whoindsted 
on their coming to Rome and asking for absolution-^ The 

• RossaACH, dn-^jal, 15 w^., which unwimrulily br4n<Ii» i\\e t'ldtr 
Canajal as an ^dlicicm of tli? Cklsq Coiidlkii ilicury ; cjn the ciroii m 
Ihttbookjf/. HA.STOR, <^ctch. peptic, ir, jr^j^-^.f cd. J. 

f LCftMANH, 36-j';, wlio Ki^es his (truufs On C&rv^ti pcpohtm 
and oMcDtation, sec Uc^i^^QtU CAmtJAl. 100 «iy, 

X MOKSOUH, L'Abbuic dt ModIg Subatuo^ ^7'^- 



proapeci.i of ihc schematics. " not on« of whom poos 
the ^upjx-rt of a genuine convicUoii,'' " wcic rctidcrcd stiil 
morcgloomy by the behaviour of the Florentines. Florence 
had for many years been the ally of France and at 6r»t 
agreed to the dioice of I'lsa as tbc meeting place for Che 
Council* but very 50on she began to hesitate. Machiavdii 
was commt&iioiicd to persuade the AchlAoiatical CaAJixials 
to delay, and to rcprc;icnt the true ttatc of things to the 
French. IJIs instnicLion of the lOlh Dccemlwr says: "No 
one »cems to wish lo attend the Council ; it iherefore Qnly 
sen/es to &et the Pope against u&, and we must consequently 
request tliiti it tuay either not be held in Pisa, or at Icaii 
may be put off Not a Kinglc prelate U coming from 
Germany and only a few from France, ard these are ling«^| 
ini" on Uie yvay. l*eopic ;ire surpntcd at the announoemcfl^^ 
of a Council consisting of only three Cardinals, while the 
Others who were given out as supporting them hide them- 
selves and clo not appLar," Louis Xll- wa:*, however, 
determined to have the Cauncil at L^isa.and the Florentines 
were forced lo yidJ, tliougik much agriiiist the ^rain. 
Meanwhile their vaciUaitng conduct did not satisfy Fraitce, 
And [nL-ensed iht.' Pope. He laid an Inteniict on the city, 
against which the Florentines appealed to a Council, but 
did not make it clear whether to that of PUa or of Rotn&f 

It was not till the middle of October that ^me French 
bef^n to appear at Pisa, os yet they were not the Bis 
but only the Jiishops' cfficiab. They found the popular feel- 
ing so much a^ni^t them that no one would let lodgings 
to them and they had to kIzc their (|uarten» by force* 


* IJLHUA^S. 30-3^ 

f CAMai* XXL, j66 . VelLarj, MacblavcIlL It., 133-13$ * i^aMaoT' 
11^ 4!) 1 ToM>niiNt, Mj^hiAvciUi, I., i*o itf.i FftEv, RcgtMen, 101 i 
Ihe lnirni(tinns M^cktatei-U in ihe Opere, ed. Pakwrifli, !_, 13s i/f. 



Further dii1iculiJc< arose when The* proposed to 
Gom« to Pisa escorted by French troops. Florence now 
announced that if they came with armed iren they would 
be treated as cncinic& Upon this they eon&cnted to be 
»&ti^cd with a small company of archers commanded by 
Odet dcr Foix and ChAtillon * It was on the 30th October 
that C^rdinalt Carvajai, Rri^onret, de Trie, and d'Albret 
arrived in Pisa with this smfill escort, and in (jounng rftin. 
They wcfc provkW with powei*^ from Fiiitic<^sco Borgia, 
Sansex'erino, and, tliey a«er1ed, from Philip of Luxemburg. 
The proxy for Borgia lapsed almost immediately through 
his death^t 

In the course of their journey the schjjtmatical Cardinals 
had encountered so much hostility on the part of the 
population, that they arrived much discouraged and with 
little confidence in the success of their undertalsing-J " In 
I'rato and in Pistoja," the Florentine chronicler Cerretani 
j^ay^" they found the churches and inns closed, every one 
fled from them. Ir Pisa itself they could only get lodgings 
at the command of the Florentine Commissioners." § 

On the [St November the Council ought to have com- 
menced its sittings in the catbedml, but in accordance with 
the Fopc's commands the Canons- had locked all the doors. 

• VlLURl, Madiiavellij H , IJ7. Ir rnT»ioqti|e«i« of ihii aciinn on thfl 
paft of ii>c FkiTcntincs^ the Pope suipcndcd Lbc liilcnlitt (at fouitcen 
da^^ See Lahducct, 313 And 3151 on ^rther suspensions, 

+ HESGENnArttEi?, VIIL, 4*3 I, /flC. cu., aa, 

I DESjARDniS. W.. 54I' 

I *In qucsio Eeinpo che fu ill Tine d'OUobro £itin«ono li cirdinal^ dd 
craidlio m Y\v\ rnn 3r3c cuv^illi in loro compn^niiL aTll ({uati in Prhio, in 
I'Mufa fu Kcrratc Ic c;h;c»C<; ncgaio loro \\ irumKi-LJ^c c cUicano t[1] fuggivft 
Vt ia Fifia s« non E'lnierponcva ii comnuncUmento dc commiiiArii rmm- 
dftlo itilb Si^ora iinn eniDfj acconimoOAii nc di viMii>v«£lj« ii« dt 
ftUog^oiTieAtL Cerrctftni'i Chronicle Id Cod, tl., IlL. 761 f. ^76, of the 
NationoJ Libmry, FIcrvnco, 


Tbcy tbentoK betook tbenuclvci to the Cktudi 
Mkl)dc dofic to vUdi Camjal wsi lodged It 
■nan bolldfiitc, but cootaloed room and to spur in it 
tfap ■PfMnm^r dari gn 5^ th^ " Gfiigff^ CflmrriL" The. 
eooHBtad oT tlie fov Cardunb, tfat Anftbiclkopt of LyoM 
and Sens, Ibarteen Frmdi Bisbop^ fiv« Abbot^ »ll Frtnctt 
except KoTCTi, luid 4 Mall nocnber of tbeotogians awl 
jorbu. Tbc diitcns of Hsa held almost cfitirdy alool; 
accordtog to an eyc^tncss there wer e not mOM than ten 
pccswnt Ferrcvi ddrvercd an address on the nccestity that 
a Gmcral Coundl ^oald he held for the n-fonn of the 
Church, and annouiKed at Ifi do*^ that the procevdhigs 
vookl bcgfn on the jth of Xoip-ombcr. AH who &i!ed to 
pfe»ent tbem«eh-e« ivtrt threatened with the ccnvunea cf 
the Church, l-lnallv an individual who anr^unc'd himseitf 
a»thc Proctxrator of the King and the Ecif -cror came 
ward as nolaiy to execute the deed of conslttntion. 
whole ctty was searched In ^ain for two citizens to 
as witncsAitv; nune wciuld consent to ofTiciarr, and ti 
unknown i>tfr«nrnji had to be takrn,* 

Meginwhtle orders had been sent from Florence that 
use of the cathedral was to be granted to the Councff,' 
but that nr»nc of the clergy need attend if they were n« 
K> inclined.t Thus the General Councif vraa opened in 
the catlicdral as announced, on the 5th No^'cmbcT, In dl|^| 
presence of ihe four Cflrdinals and about eighteen Hbhops 
and AbboU Of tiie liihabiianta of Pisa, about ftftj*, 
appeared. The ceremonies were wdl carried out, 

* In ftddilion ti> dia important unbcuatcbntl KrF>or1s in M 
L'Abfanctdi Uonir- Subuio. 57 sf^. (m zhc dctd. p 3S, line 33X1 
ibouU be lhieitc4 iftcr "Fn^nrni,* <uid (he tvns points after "c^^Xa 
■tHMhl ba «fa>ed ; c/. Savuics XIU., 330, 5oe aUo ^MliREl, Qoaah 
^ ^e, 43A f/y. 

♦ Vn-t^Kt, Machiavelli. 11., 1,17. 



untold ^ An cyc-wUncKs but the attcndrincc of Prelates 
vas «o miserable, thai many who hati hitlierlo be^cn 
sanguine of h% success; now gave up atl hope; Carvajal 
sski the Ma«, an^ then^ as President of the 3<H5cmbly, 
seated Wimwlf oo the aemUPapal throne prepared for him* 
Od«t 6e Foax was declared CuiiCas; It seems almost 
incredibte, but nevertheless it is a fact, that this gathering 
had the audachy to declare solemnly that it was a lawfully 
convoked Gcncr;il Council and to proclaim ftll the censures 
and measures taken against it by Julius II. to be null 
and void • In the second sitting on the 7th of November 
a ivsolution wa« passed which shc^s a curious light on 
the amount of confidence which the schismatics entertained 
Id CAch other. It was decided that the Council could not 
be dissoK-ed hy the withdrawal of any individual Prelates 
whoever they might bc-f 

The hopes cherished by some that the Council might, 
as time went on, Increase In numbers were not fulfilled, 
and Ctirdinals d'Este and Sanseveriuo gave no slgn.J 
However eame«lly the Pisan assembly mighr contend that 
it was the " salt of the earth, and the Ifght of the world/ 
history had accustomed Christendom to see the Church 
represented after a very different faihion-J The inditTercnce 
of all from whom tliey hoped for supports including the 
Florentines, their unprotected situation in Pisa, and the 
marked hostility of the population had from the first 

* Report o(io^.^ortoKiv\iiiaUoKSOUV, Inc. £ii.f 4a tf^.i ^/SA?rUTo, 
XIU-, S^it 22*^ M^, !^T\d Gw ilui FlorenTirt* RepoKf, VlLLARI, Mocbia^ 
«Di, ir, 13A C/ MKROENni.rTHS», VTH.. i^ and 4to, nou t, tor 
itecails «inc«mtn)r i1>e acU of Uic inixk CoundL 

t /lidt43fff.\ SASVTO^XTM,, 33*1, 331 sff.; LEHKANW, 3a; Httft- 
o&ntATiiatc, VI n,, 4^4 itq. 

X JOVius^V^ta Alfons^ij Uie Duke of Fetiaia persuaded his brother 
rot 10 atiend the Cowncil, 

g Kavemann, TI-, 37fl. 



t^riouGily aEarmcd Ihe schismatics Now, in addition 
this, oil the 9lii of November a sangultiafy cont!ict broke 
out between the Klur^ntine troops combined with tbij^l 
Pisans on one side, and the French sotdicr^ and Ihe^^ 
senanb of the Cardinals on the otlicr- A croud 
a^cmblcd un<3cr the windows of the pdacc inhabited by 
the Trc^'dcnl of the Council, where the schinmatic^ were 
gathered togcthci, shouting '*ki\] them."* The tcrrificd^^ 
fcforiDcxs held a hasty sitting on the izzh instead of th^| 
14th, which had been the day ap^ointetl for ihe next 
meeting, -ind passed three resolutions: — (i) The Syn^'td wa* 
not to be dissolved until the whole Chnrch had been 
reformed in faith and momls. in its head and mcmbcre, 
all heresies and divisions purged ^^vzy, and all Cmiwndin^j 
strife between Christian Princes appeased. (2) The decrc<»^_ 
of the fifth sitting of the Council of Constance were to bd^| 
confirmed and made more stringent (though they did not 
apply to the prc*icnt situation, as theie wari no question 
of the Ic^itiniacy of tin; I\jpe. nor, slrictlj' speaking, *oy^^ 
schism). (3) Th^ Synod, without being dis«filved, was V^| 
Ixr removed from Pisa, where a hostile spirit has been 
displayed and it ha^ not the requisite security, to Milaa. 
where iu fourth sitting was to be held on the Ijlb oJ 
Decern ber.f 

MantuuiDfripaichof the9thNov.i 1511, in MoEisOLlK,44i VU-LMU, 
IvbchkreUi, 1I-, 138. Qi ;»lm thr arrnunf in TAUMr. XXI,. 176, 
*C«ncUni, Cod, H, 111,, 76, f, 377- Nationtil Library, fkaroct 
4 HBIfOEVVf^TIICa, VIM., iTiS^Hb ; </. MoltSOUy, 4S, and Si 
XIT],, JJ2, A *T^Uer widi(}ut a<tdrcu. li^tiuiure, or dair, appntmtly 
belongs to dib time, \i 1^71 : & Scvcru^o c S- Cicce iii Vat o^i gioiro 
viftittii p^r ambMcialf>n cb S^^ Fiorcntitij c dal mag^Jnlbne « da loro 
prcwnuti, Ikiiiuriihc rijitcuni^qua « a»»i« LjucM'hora mitt ^ffmnt' 
10 cl p^ mog^ JuUuiol Da voce populort hogi w dJcio il sEimmo pccrie- 
An tttcr sra com pcrimfo dr vrncnc qtu]« gli d«bbe hsvart cathitHKi 
ctvlcanliiiAli, (Siuu^AnJiive^ln Mihia,) laRom^aifirM,ttRpoit' 



In Milan* even under the shcTtcr or Ihc French cafiDOti» 
tbc e^nio general dislike of the Council w;i5 ditplayed as 
in Pbaj both people and clei^' kept away and could 
not be constrained to receive the acJiibmatlo with any 
tokens of rcspCLL When they mml*^ lUvlr t^Miy into :he 
city oil tlic 7th of December na Bishop or Prrlale of any 
importance appeared on the oceasion.* In 4plte of the 
threats of the French Governor, Ihc majority of the cleTgy 
observed the Interdict and the populace openly jeered at 
the " Anti'P^pal madqueraders."t Ncverthele*fi, these 
latter, if less eonfldently. still obatinaiely persevered in 
their enterprise. The ambition of the Cardinals and the 
fanaticism of Ferreri acemcd proof against all rebuffs. 
Neither the acorn of the Milanese, nor yet a fresh and 
sterner admonition from the Po|je on the 3rd of December,} 
nf>r even the abstctition of a large portion of the French 
Efrfscopale, could make them pause or consider. They 
stni eontinued to call themselves a General Council^ 
hoping es'crylhing from the victorious arms of France and 
the strong hand of Louis XIL A letter from Cardinal 
de Pric, of 12th January'. 1512, to the King asking him 
to confiscate the revenues of all the " papistical " Bi^ihops, 
la Tcry signlficanl of this attitude.§ At the same time the 

cbcuUtcd Qui (be QiniHi'ti'uium ^jl^ 10 aftjouiTi (u Vci^ciri, JliIius M. 
endeavound to prevent this by "^Biicfs atJdncEsiKl lo the CH.'ipiflt ai V«r- 
ccIU And Diikt ChirlM of Savoy, on t}\K iTih Nov., 151 1, On the 171^ 
Dec,, t;M« he HiOe u> Fiancocc GoiUAirt, (hac if chc achiimaticd 
C:irdin:ils finleteJ his lernlciry, he wu to liave thvin arresIetL (See Ap- 
pendik^N ty.) I found n.11 thttt 'Bhtk in tht C^cinmga Archives. Maatiu. 

• DKsjAKniff3^ IL. 54S-;4&< ^ Samutd, Xlll-. J51 i ?atBie7<a, 

I M*NSI, v., 556 )62. 

J RAVN^LTJVS^acl lira, r^ll, n. 1. On the ijUm^nf the [k^eilfto^syliod, 
t/. Lkkma-HN, 3J, .ind HKKr,pNiioTHEJt, Vlll,, 486. The (jliniMr vhti 

a k 

or die 

Cflwt Biifaop>im Ar 

lime of dM Uolvcml 
*Tte Pope coald afford to 

hr the lacriublc ooHafM of thtt IHtk Uod of ^ «nbM o ua' 
lypooritm, to whom no ope bcliercd and whocn no one 
f opB ct c d L Ifau naaqoctadlDg befofc the worid uEuk tn 
dlfl|r lear lor dietr liva.'| ' But be thraiBl his peo^ 
tiBtfonand pfdcpce in not owgyUing the saocess wUch 
tMr vretched ^Inr? had prep ar ed for Mm. Thi» triumph 
iru only a ncf^ive one; to turn it into a real victocy, 
it wAi rKccff^iy to oppose to this effete assembly a 
OHindJ at the Latetan which should be universall/ 
reoogniacd u truly ccctnnenicaL To this achievement 
the Pope devoted himself with all hb might, ami hi i1 

It] hi ih^H 

mHih tlw MiUncMT dinxKlot, PraTO, 1S7. pnnrd owt the 

«d»p1«l B( the founfc Mlting b very tufnifianl : Li qwUi » pcf aver poco 

InrtiLiMiro non mi mm ifi i^iowntti*. 

* ?iJtfrt)ltiCTH Condlc ric PH«, 44<V ^^* xtcnrton tn \hh voucher, to ha 
ftninil In Ihe NUiotiaI Libmryt Tiirit, MS. L^t- ISJ9if 16^ 

t MAVEDiiiiEntER, KAth. Ref., 104. 

t Gutcirhnlini up Ihat ihe Ovdiiub werv quiEc as much in itccd 
rUnnn then^Klvn u the p«opk they propoted lo tct eo n^hit. 

nOtiGoarwruit. V|]La4.ed. j. 

/ / 



iviaeif and ma<t prrxticnt manrtcrp" To mcr.t the prcasln|£ 
need of the moment It had to give way to the political 
aod military mcajurca whkh cUiiticJ tmtncdUtc attention. 
Nn cfTort WAS T^parcd to cqijij> a sufficient army. Juliuii [l> 
«tniined hh linancfal resources to their utmcMt limit 
to nccomplUh iht*, but his effort* to be ready in time wcr« 
frustrated by the ■tardiness of the SpanraTdfl, which made 
it ifflpoj^iblc for him to strike at the rixhl momcni;'* A* 
Venice, also, waj; too iate. and allowed the opportunity 
to paas, the French succeeded in repelling the attack 
of the Swiss on Milan. The hardy mountaineers, however, 
whom Lotits had treated witli the utmost contempt, 
announced ibcir Tntenllon of nctuniing in the Spring- 
They liad got the French into Italy, they said, and they 
would drive them out of ii.f On the ;th January, 1512, 
Juliut nominated Cardinal Schrnncr a« Ca rd in aj- Legate for 
Loml>ardy and Germany with extraordinary powers. In 
an open Consistory he gave him hia Legate's- cross with 
the words, sftyinc:, " In this sign of the Holy Crow maycst 
thoj begin, prosper, and vHiiqulsh/^J 

In tEie srtine month the Pope decided on taking fuitlier 
measuTcs against the rebellious Cardinals ^^ "the «cct of 
Cami^jaV as they were called Almost anything ml^t 
l>e apprehended from the sort of blind fury which pt-^sessed 
these Cardinals, and it was seriously feared in Rome that 
they might set up an anti-Pope- On the ^oth of January a 
Conaiator>* wns held, at which Cardinal Bakocs wns rot 
present, though he had lately arrived in Rome, Al this 
meeting the deprivation of Carrlinal Sansctfcrino^ who 
^till [jcrsisted fii his revolt, and had cicn *ent agents to 
Rome lo L-ndeavour to atir up an insurrection there, wa» 

t rAKiaDBGaASSlsialUyiuIiiu3,adan. iftj.v, ^ 



prcitounccd. In Fpbni;iTy several of hts tiencftcts wcfr" 
^ven to others^ Cardiral Schinner receiviefi the Bii:hf>j>ric 
of Novara, On Ihe 13th of February', Zaccaria» Ferrecf^H 
and Philip Deems were also condemnc*^ a* schismalict.* 
At the i:nd of January the Lcag;uc at Uat ccmiriGnccd. 

• SAmrrO, XUL, 445.446. d47,i7o. 47". 49ft Cf. 'Arti 
f. 35 (Consitcoral Afchivcs of the Vaiiaui), smd ih* H;htionidc in Vi 
Polit, JO, f- 61. (Secret Archives uf i()« Vjilii:^!!^ Od Bdkoct' jotimcy 
and his pompous eniry into Roinc, </. Fi!Alw6i, Erd«di Bitk^ Tanub, 
tti siq., 116 j^, ; M« aI&o Atti <lei Linc«i (iS93)» 4 Scrie, 5ci«ua 
[nor^i X., I J. Cftrtl. Sclimni^r tiail bcca fiitced En July, i>n| lo gh« 
«ay CO bis enemy, itic *^bold dcnui^Ofn>e" (DlEBAeER, II., 3S4)t Jill 
auf der Hue (U i*ory Sup«r«axo)' Heflfid disguised i& a lopt-r(Kl'CKt, 
£471 ti3 Venice ^id ElitLi lo Rome, where in Aue^ i^iiJh: recditd 
Caidinal's'IiAE aitd inipc;icl'ic<] Su|}cr^vo As a tm-itor A nuT4tivQ of 
t!j?Lputes beiifrcei^ ^c liinner ard Superaaso is to he found in ihc hoUic erf 
the Liie Pfartcr Juikr (tu whuM; Idadiicii 1 uive my ac^uuiiLincc viitb 
Lliis do<'.umcnc) at GU» n&ir Bricg in SwiticHjind. !< it Ihe vork of a 
bdler pnrTitJin, tcprfrirnlin^ Suptn^o u nn mrioccni And pcriccuiod 
luan, A\\\ iJuinliii^ tlic Citd^a] in ttiitr blutknt tints u a lyrani and a 
man to whom nolhing n Mcrcd. It ja the lOUfCe from whkh 
teinp«rat«ly, ^tnd Kurrer, iniempentel/ and uncnEi^lly, have lAbm the 
RiAterlalfor clinr aocumus uf \\\^ Lonl!io[ t^twctrn Supcrumuid Scl^inncr, 
But i» U (fusiworlli/ source ? £1/ (rom H ! It U dniwn op m a tone erf 
vtnomom h;ilrv<L, ariLl eniirf'?>' hahc<l on ilie ACE^uiutiont of ^iip«r«axo'« 
ixuiy. tt denjc» many undoubEcd f^icts^ coniindkla ccntcmporiinHiui 
aulhoritie», and a Con»idemh]c portion of h wa» u-riilcn after i>upcimuc/A 
death. Thn pirt dnnoi tavo been 4^ojnpa»d lil! iicW 1574, ai Jouu 
SksiuiIct's G/ELiJiicnL i» tiLcniiuiicd in lU Scliinn^r wika a jnan uf soimg 
ien^ier(^ IlKO^lt, Jdius EI,, 25SX and may hnvc beco Eoultyln hii 
manner of dcolmy wir]i hj^ n|>ponent«« buE in ^ii^Mtnrce hf! uos in ili« 
ftghi, for they wore n:bcU a^inti hit n^hiful AJEhority, both tunporal 
and spjiitual A biogrnphy of Scbinncr is much 10 bedeslrtti )oUer 
(M>« ltuch«rvi!rHichnits)and C;, B]i5«ch in a ItetLif* d«liv>r«d 11 
in 189^ \kx anfbrtun^tdy not piiUf^htil, have collected valuable mMt 
fo< «uch a vofIc Schinnei's ncvnc appears in the list of the bene 
<>f (tic Colleg;tAtc Church %x Doniodonoln, th« bui^diny of vhidi 
heifim in \%\i. Hit coat of Am\« it ntll lo he wt^ there. 






operations, aUacl^ing simultanooLisly Jn diffcrci)! pfacc^ 
On the 2Slh uf Jiinuary the VenclUn* appcaml bffori^ 
IkescuLj «nd on the 26th the combined Spanish and 
Papal array, commanded by Raymond of Cardona, 
Viccrcay of Naples, invested BoIo^niL Uti the 2nd of 
February U^cscIa fell, and it seemed na if Milan woM be 
lost to France.* At this critical mocncnt Loub's ncphcvh- 
Gaston dc Foix appeared on the scene as tlie saviour of 
the Frcuck Young a^ he was in years he Ma» already 
an experiencetl geiiL-ral With that marvelloua promi>ti- 
tmie which won for him ihe sobrHjacl of *" fovidre dc 
ntatie," he swooped down, not apori Modena where 
the enemy was wailing for him, but acjiwanls on Finalt 
By forced inatrJies he led his troops fhrom^h deep snow 
and over frozen mars^hes and streanut to Bologna, in a 
epace of time Iiithcrto unparalleled for shortness. In the 
night ot 4th 5th Fchmary, under cover of a snowstorm, he 
clipped hito the city unobserved by the enemy. On 
hcanng that he and his troops were actually within the 
wall.^ the bcsif^crs Lrokc up ihcir camp, G^Ntoii im- 
cncdiatcly took advant^e of this to march rapidly on 
Brescia, whkh. af(i?r a ^anguiTiary conflict in the streets, 
va£ taken on the iSth of Febru;iry-t 

Bembo says that the Pope flew into a violent rage 
when he hoard of the withdrawal of the troQpa from 
before Bolc^na, but was calmed by the news of the 
taJcing of Brescia. Thcugh the nii;ht was cold and 
atomy, he icn mediately Acnt ibr the Venetian Am- 
b4Ssador and kept him in cnnvervitioii for two hours> 
shedding tears of joy. J IIuw ^tc^i thcrefcre must have 

* HAVF,>iAnN, ll.jfij f/^- : Kamktc, Runt untl G«nii. Vulkcr, 372. 
+ /Aji, Un 388 396. Cf. KhifJCUtyAti F^""i Carie«8ii>, (6&-16J i 
LaMjUCCI, 313. 
I BKNiitn, itfr-^n ; l-ritrcs de louh KlU 111, iS/ ; HavemaIVN, 


nmoRT OP Tiie rotts. 



bcoa his distress when he huard of iU loss oxHy a f«w 
days later* To add to his vexation ol the torpor of 
SpanicU^ds, frctth troubles now sprung up in K 
itsclff The intrigue of Cardinal StinKvcrino am 
the Roman Barons (<i\jud ihc soil only loo wdl 
pared, ;iTid Mft up h fcniiciit whidi sectntfd likely to 
become very dangerous Julius 11. was rao^i afraid 
the OriJrl party who were devoted lo France. H 
strengthened the city guard at the gateit, and hiaise 
withdrew for a lime to the Castle of St AnfT^la Haay 
arrests were made, and it was saiJ that a plot had bee 
discovered for gelling possession of the I'opca 
Dut there was worse to comc; 

Louis XII, saw that cverythin^.^ depended on striking 
such a blow a5 would paralyse Ihc Papa.1 anr^ Vrnrtian: 
army before ihe Swl^s had ttmc to invade MfUn, and' 
King Ferdinand to attack Navarre, and before Henry 
ViLl, could land in Normandy, or the Emperor distinctly 
declare agninst him, A victory should be immediatdy 
followed up by the dethroncaicTLt of the Fopc, 

] U 3B9. Bembtis 05 u^uol give* no date for die arrivol in Rome 
good (JdingB frtnn Hrn^^ia. From Samuto, XML, 490 491, vrt 
ihat Ji vii oil the 1 oil; Feb, ; he abo gives dcuib of c(jt rcjo'idii^ 
Rome. On Ihe 1 4ih and J Jth Feb. Juliui U. addrc»s<d three ^Bric^ 10 
Ihc Marqiicsi FnncEiCo Gonu^ of Mantua pro cruiiitci t^Qnttcirn tnvS- 
ifcroium LLutJEbin Uyviz c^dcaiac |jro tuL'iidik uviidLc Buiiuube coDira 
Oallos. Conn^-a Ar^hitrs, Muiiua. 

* On ihc pas&ioiuie grief nf Jiiljti* n,>« Letttpt dt LouiiXll^ 111, 
188 i S\NUTO, XIV., 7'&, It ; ftnd Dt^njAiiniNa, [U567. On ihc jjlh 
Feb., ijrs, tlio wry day on i^tich tbodaajuoiv tiding) reached 
Julkui II, hod Addrcttccd a *Brief to univcnU dvibut ac pqiulo dil 
[jvit no^i^ji^ Bvaoniuci wa^miub; dicm axa^l cominir to iccua nhh 
enemy find the Bcniivo^i, nnd coinmanding thqui lo rvluna to 
nllricuiriLe to Jie Huty Srt. Stmt Arching Doio^jna^ Q;, Lih^ ^ 

t C/. DE£j^rj>iN&, IL, 56e» 571- 

Z SAStvTOtXUi^i^i XIV., r-Sj BB08CH, Julius ]|.| 141 Jrff^3S7. 





cccupatiun of the Papal St^itcs hy Cvdinal Sanfcvcrino, 
'ind tJic cxpuUinn ot the SpAiiiartJs from Naples.* At 
the end of March, Gaston c!e Foix lefl Brc^tJi an*1 began 
to mftrch w>utliwarri en the Romagra.-f Raymond of 
Cvdonai prudently rctir<rd before hb too Mt advcrsaty, 
but the latter succeeded In forciftfc a battle by turning 
aside to bcsicj?^ Kavcnna. At any coit Ihb city, which 
cotiUincd the magfiiincs for supplying Ibc army, had to 
be defended. Thus, on Easter Sunday, the i ith of April, 
T51Z, the two ho^ met on the bjtnt^s of the konco about 
tfl-o miles from Ravenna. "This bfltllc wras thr most 
sangviinar^' that h:id been fought on ri:i1ian *iu\\ Hince 
the days of the Huns and Goths "J Gaston's infantry 

• DESJARD1X5. tT„:76; GRftGOKOVIUS, Vlll., S^, ed. 3, 
t On his campaign ot ifta :c« ADAUt aad LucUKl'3 papers in 
the Rjv. Milic Itsd., 1890 9i> 

t Bkokh. Jutiua 11., 344 : ^ 3S?- Oj) Lbe b;i[ilr of lUveiiniL, </ in 
tbe &vl place t3ic numerous conlcmpomry rcportu \n Samito, X\\\ 
taA'/^'i t^l, MS, 141, 1$^, 154 ff'j^, 170*1^-, 176 (*7. ; J Gukda^rdini's 
letter printed in the Arch. &L Ital, XV,, 306 r^. ; Fx. G JicuAXDiff J, 
Xv c^ 4i Fr Pandnlfini^a htcport in Di;f;jH^ftri|NS, IT, jSi t^. ; 
CoccmiV^ ftw, (If. (tM Kuniiitif, 52 '/y-J; Mcmoirci de Fleufange 
(RtJjert dc U MajtkX p- xxiX-i Petsus Mabt\k, XXV., c. 4B3- 
484 i JOVIUB, ViU Alfonsi Fcnar-, Leonis X-, Duvkii Pescwao ; Lctlfca 
de Lorn* XIL, lU, 337 »«?- ; ScHetRL^ Cripfbuch, 86 s/y. ; Luioi oa 
Poaro, iy6 ft^.; Uit Poiiuyy«c Rcpofl of ilic ii'^ April, ijii, jn 
Corp. dipL Pomig., 1., it'^ J^tf'i Guido Fostunio Siivcstri^s Report, 
piihli^Hefl Uy Rcpier on tlie special ocfation : None CiAn-S>ppa- 
Fli^idlnci (Iki^'Uiiu, 1694^ -44 Jt^-i Colcc d. doLmncdluif i[Jci!iL, 
LXXIX, A31 399 (I^eWion de kn lucciot dc Lli amua dc kqp:i/i.-i i^n 
Tnlia «n lot »no& <\t 1^1 1 a ip« (^tn ttjomade de Rdvena) -. t^ivally, 
Giov. da Fino'a Report from Cod Vat. Urb. 4'^", in Tomm^^IM, MjcIu^ 
•v^JIi, I,, jo6-?ogH I ftl»;> Vkw thi« Report tn the Cod. Urb. ijta, f. 
^^6a^ of ih* ViTi«.n Library. Mett, und in rtiTrcriARmwi «nd 
LAITDDca. 5'$. iTie number of the aUb isalAtcd u h ihc Uit ; b »o:ne 
other wnlon \i \t still higher Bat the lowest 6^'*"^ K'"^* » '""':'* lar^«r 
compaiative Ion Ihur^ i^ found even tn modern bariles. C^rdml Ceil 



v^-;ts compoued of German and Itallm as well 
French &ok)it^rs; his army numbered About 2$^QO0, that 
of the League 20,000 

The fight was begun b/ Ihc artillciy, ihe Duke 
Ptrrara's guns especially doing splendid acrvtcc Jaco 
Guicciardini, w^riting lo his brother Francci^co. then Plorcn- 
tinc Envoy in Spain* $ays; "It was horrible to sec how 
-es'Ciy shot made a. lane through the wrriccl i^uk^ tt( the 
men at arms, vending helmets and hc^MJ,*t and Kcatte 
tfmbs flyfng through the air When T.he Spamands fou 
themselves thus being blown to pieces wilhout breaking 1 
lance they dashed forward, and then the hand to hand fight 
began. It ua£ a desperate one, and lasted four boufs. 
When the Bret onset ol the mcr at arms had been rvpulMd 
and those behind thcin had auFTcrcd 3cvcrcl>-, the rcat turned 
and fled with the light cavalry. The Spanlnh foot soldieri 
held tbcir ground alone And made & stubborn resistance, 
but llic)^ were for the most part ritldcn down by ihc heavy 
cavalry. Oti the Fretich si<!e the men of Gascon/ 
Picardy fought badly, the Grrmans very welt.** 

The battle ladled from 8 am. lill 4 p.m and wa» finall* 
won by the Ferrarese artillery and tlie sle:tdy endurance 
the German troops^ Of the 10.000 corpses left on the fie 
ore-third belonged to the French army, and Ihc other tw 
thirds lo their cncmic!<. The Papd Lc^tc. Gia%-anni dc' 
Mcdic), and two generals, Fabri*lo Colonna and the 
Marquees of Tcscara, were taken pn'soner^ and the whole 
army train ^f the League with their artillery and banncn 
was eapturecl. But the tihouLi of triumfih from thr French 



in 1^57 crecLid the ^cll-kiiown Cdonna dei Fmnccii on the hutik of 
ihc Kottcft in memoT}' of Thin fi^hi. On the picture of if in ihe Palace 
of tlic Si^orin At Rd^ucc, »« Vasaiu, Operc (Florence, l&j2 Jrv<)i 

'370 "7- 
• Aich. SL ItaL, XV., joH i^. 


r^nks vtrt <|i]ic1{Ly silenced when It became knowii thnt 
Gajtton dc Vcax had fallen on the battlefield. The corpse 
of the youni; hero vta brought inlo Rav-cnna ot\ the 
fotiowing day ; eighteen captured banner* were borne before 
iL* In a few more days the whole oi die Ruina^^na wjs 
In the liands of tlie French. The w;irlike Cardm;il 
f^aniievcrinn entered FlamlnU bent on the ronquost of 
Rome ai>d the deposition of Julius Hf The conKtioTi 
against France, from which vuch |;reat thin^^ had been ex- 
pected, had utterly broken down* The greatest excitement 
prev-ailed throughout the whole of [lafy. It was said that 
various monatrotiA birth» had taken phxce m Ravenna, which 
were supposed to denote that the French had been scr>l 
into Italy by God as a puniahmcnt Tor the sins of the 

On the I4lh of April the urw< of the tltfO-Mer ;it Ravenna 
reached Julius II.; when it became known in Rome the 
whole city was terror-stricken. Everyone knew that Gaston 
had threatened to conquer Rome ind have a new Pope 
elected, and it accmod as if the enemy might at any 

• Ravfnnn wu cruelly plundered ; te« RlCCi, t^v<^nna d^po 11 ttcm 
dc! i^i3<Rfib>una, 1SG3). In ■$■$ FnuHii T. onlcrcd a splendid Dionu* 
mcntiJ loELib to be creeled in honour of Gjislon dc Foixj but ii tvns 
nevtr fomplctod^ iod ^>artioru of it art now flc^UCred over ihe wr*rld m 
vannui pl»rj!5, Spc Milwr^, HUi. de I'Ait, IL» 550 j:^, The runout, 
ddicaictr finished atatuo ot Gm^Lod hy At^a^uaa Hiiatc i* in the Muaco 
ArctwoL Mihn. C/. BOSii^ Menum«mf> di G&Qton« di Foin (Mihnn. 
iS^j)^ The youn^ hero ia repicM.-(itcJ h^ j ^jcd^cfuL »]cc|^ ^ touch of 
iriiuiiph tn the cxprcuioa oif the face rocallinj^ his vicEory, u Vnufi 

t (^ Morone^ Ldicr of ihc aist June, Mil. in the UiL di H. 
UoioQt, cd. PfiOms^MOLLi^Fc, MkcrIL di fiforiii Itftl, T> II. Torino, 

1 Lattpucci, 3T4t 31S; BOWALDU, it, JT^ 'f-i Lanob* J'apet- 

VOL. VL 3 1> 


insTORY r»r thk popml 

moment appear at tfae gates, for kll luid bauxl of tbe 
ninS'like swtftn««i of his movcmcrbk The Florcntint 
chronicler Ccrretani xtntcs that it viu feared that Rotac 
vrould be sacked and the Prelates niitrdcicJ." For a 
moiaeril, ever Uwr Pope's cimrage gjtve uray ami he tnlVoJ 
oS Atgtit. which thr Sp4ni<±b Fj^xfty mrongt^' iiidviiGfld f But 
while lh« terror of the Cardinals and Romans eontinned 
and could not be irAnqnilHscd^ Julius I], recovered himiu^ 
immediately and slicu-ed his usual resolution and the re- 
source fulness which he alwaj^ dispbycd under misfortunei 
On the 15th of Apal he told the Venetian and Spamah 
Ambassadors that be would spcrnd ioO/OODdLicat5aiid(j1cdgc 
his crown to drive the French out of Italy- Orckrs were at 
once l^Huiy) for the equipment of fresh annafDents.} The 
news brought to Rome on the i^lh April by the Kniffht 
of S- John, Giuli'o de' Medici, who had been sent thither 
with a French gafc-coiiduct by the captive Cardinal Lcffnte, 
had no doubt much to do with the "marvelloos daaticity" 
displayed by Julius 1 1, after such a cnialimf: b]ow.§ Gtulio 
reported that the French Iosa had Ijcen enormoux and thiU 
the army wa.^ comiiletcly demoralised by the death of Its 
ablest le^ider. The new commander, T^ Patice, was not in 
the King's confidence and v/as at d^^ers drawn vHtli 

• "Ccrmticf in OmL It, III, 7%t 3£'.of the NolioDal Ubrarjs 

f So siY% the Vcncli>^ Eovoy, an 4b«tiact of vhoM DovpuUi a pit- 
Mivod m hANUTO, XJV^ 1 5S I J9. Th« ipvechtfs of th> ^puiih and 
Veneifsin Enva>-t In Guiciiaki)]?!!, X^ f. ^ wh^ch »rr tepvaicd bp 
moat modern writeis» cjin haidlv be authcabE. C/. abo LcUtcs dc Lous 
XII, 1 1 L, 150,240.344. 

t SararTor, XfV., laj- C/. Srna^roa. 6:^ ; JoviUs.Viia LmiuA X., 
It, 47 . Akoiuius or ^'VrEiiii3h cd. liadta, ^S^-jSt ; aji4 ilic Porm- 

gueto Envfiyi Rf|Virt of ifttb April, ijr^, rn Cofp, dipL P 
jft-163, whkLha^liIihcaucK^pnl notkc 

j Gnscokoviin, VIJI., 91 93, cd. j. 



hangttty Cardfnal SansevniiKx ll wuukl b^ quiCe out of 
the question for the French to march immediatel)r upon 
Rome ard there was a nimour that the Swiss were on tUelr 
way to Ilaly. It was becoming more and mere evident 
that the battle of RaveriTra was a Pyrrhic victory for France. 
It w?u si^ificant of the change in the situation that the 
Duke of Fcrrara had rctfrcd into ha own territory and the 
Duke of Urbino had offered to seod troops to the Pope* 
In compliance with the wishes of the CardinaK who still 
conlirued to urge the Pope to make peace, he comnicnced 
negotiations with the French; but U is hardly conceivable 
that a statesman lite JuIEua 11. could be seHou^ly anxious 
to cofne to terms just then when he would have had to 
purchase peace at the highest pricc.f Fte himself admitted 
that his only object in thc^c negotiations was "to quiet 
doiATi the Frciich.'I If Spain and England remained 
futhful he had still resources enough to piosccutc the war^ 
AihI every motive for desiring lo do so. against an enemy 
who had woimJed him both on the temporal and spiritual 
side where he was mo^t susceptible, and mocked him on 
the stage and in satirical poems^J 

At the same time the Pope's difficulties at this particular 
time were increased by the unsatisfactory slate of hia Im- 
mediate surrounding;5 ; but Julius 11, faced this additional 
peril with unflinching courage, and in a wonderfully short 

* GturciAFmMl. X-, chap 5, The lapiil r^tfulsim of frpling in 
RottiC a blicwQ in ihe very cautictUa kctcr of (he Envoy (tovtt 0(vieti> 0I 
the 18^ Aprilft^ia, in FVMl, l&r-r6i. There U n Tnnrkedly itsoEutO 
ring in the *'Bnef 10 Cardirifll Gfinia^ of the 391b April, 1511, 
Gouaga Aiciuvc^ ManiUft 

+ Such is (h« opLnJi^n expressed in almost identicil lemu both in 
Rnivo?jT, rn-,2,aiid RoFfBB^cHPK-Kivi'iprLEX, i^, 

t Sanvto XIV>, tB; ; c/. 189. 


Space of time succeeded in winning one-half of the Roman 
Barons with the Colonna, and overawing the others, as was 
the case with the Orsini * 

* BroSCK, Julius II., 347, The bieccr bo6lility of many !□ Ronw 
to the authority of the Church may be gathered from *Cerretani, loc. 

ci£. NatJonaJ Library, Florence. 


AbROCAtrcK AST* Downfall of thr Schismatic.— Succkss or 


Vt THK Power ov France in Italv. 

The issue of the baltle at Ravenna gave fresh courage to 
the schismatics at Milan, While thcfortune^of war seemed 
sllU hanging in the balance they had been chary o( 
carrj^ng their proceedings agairst the Pope loo far. Now, 
on the 3i3l AprJl, 1512. it was resolved that he should be 
suspended from all spiritual or temporal administiationand 
threatcacd with further punishments His powers were 
held to have lapsed to the " Holy Synod " " But even the 
ma^c halo of victory which now encircled the French arms 
bad not power enougl: to infuse hTe into the still-born 
ofTiprirg of the schismatics."* The aversion and scorn of 
the Milanese wasnot lessened, and even Louis XII. admitted 
to the Spanish Envoy that the Council was a mere farce, a 
bogey set up to intimidate the Pope-f The schismatics had 
to endure the humiliation of seeing the Milanese In troops 
throwing them^dves on Iheir knees before the captive 
Ordinal Medici, and imploring him to absolve them from 
tiw censures they had incurred by their participation in the 
ivar against the Pope.J 

• BR09CH, Juliw H., 249 ; LfiHMAim, 33 . HEftOET^fiTHEB, VIII, 

I 1 Gakkiu^ NJKL dc Tnoict^ XXIT., 338. hiris, 17G8, 
■ Z JomiS, Vila Loonii X^ lib. a i Roscok, U Jte. 


cr THt 

IL pasBCd Ub ask mtb 
LiMj^ 2Dd aooMtafl oDKag^ Toe prcpSflh 
tibn faf Ifac CEcoBHakal Condi* «ac d ctttt toicmjptcd 
«n«» lor a ib o mbI hfiSt d>e alarm axid aojoctj catacd 
by Ar Aastr* at R Awenn a^ Thr var had oUtged tum^^ 
to pm off its opcftiog to tkc 7d Sfay,t and alihoi^ ^^"'^l 
tkmnkm wu stffl Ml oT dttohfcs. fc took plaor at the 

Tbe Latcmi Coosdl fams a tanJnark h\ vfce Uftwy 
oT tbe world. More than e^hty ytan had dapMd sfnce 
tfoc opening of tbat of Bask, wfaic^, ioftcad of effisctiog I!be 
boped-lbr rcfonu in tbc Qvurdi, had iiroraJ a couroc of 
fcit>Ju.tionary movements and okdloM oo«k/isiOD through- 
out all Chruicodom- Now another lariuJ Coundl was 
asscmblios in Rome; in the first place to <kfcnd the 
liberties of the Church against the re\-ottit>o<iary pretensJom 
of Fraooc, and afta that to deal vjib the great questions of 
the ccntur/, tbc refurin of the Church aiid the war 
iJic Turlu. 

A triduum of unpetratofy proce&sions W3« held on t1 
preceding days ^^^ o^ the evening of the 3od May 
Pope went in solemn iUie, «iirrouodcd by theSwlsG gUJ 
and with a iuong injlitar>- escort, to the Lateran Pi 
where be spent the ntght As disturbances from the Frenc] 
party were apprehended* the whole of the neighbourt 
wa* occupied by a detachment of Uoops, On the follow?A] 
day, the Feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross, the 
Council was fcrmall/ opened in that venerable BasiKi 
M'hich be^r* the honourable title of "" Molhcr and Queen 
all Churches." Bc*idcs the Vo[x, i6 Cardtrak (two hai 
been prevented from attCT^diiTg by sfcknes*) were jire^nl 


• Paris db CaASn«, od □fillingu-, 416 //f. C/. DK£;AaoiK«, It^ 
t IUv)v\LDtJ\ Ad on. 1 5 1 2, Q. 28-iu 




too Prebtcc (iiKfitly Italian )> oTwfiom-fQ^vAm Bbhop^^ u 
Patriarchs, and 3 Gencntls ot rdigiMa Oitios; iq Addi- 
tion to these were the representatives of Spain, Vrtilat. 
and Florence, and of tlic Roman SciialOf s and Coiiicn-alors 
and fi[Vftlly j jtunibcr of the Roman nubJes. Tlir nfficv nf 
giianl of iMjtiour to tlic Council wa* undertaken by the 
Knights of Rhodes. They formwi an imposing body in their 
<^lcndld uiiifom, embroidered with gold and silk and with 
white croia on their breasts. An immense crowd filled 
church-* The Maas oi the Holy Ghost vraa fiaid by 
Catdin^ Riario; after whkh an address in classical I^tin 
was delivered by the General of the Au;^uslinians> Aegidiws 
of VilCrbo^ w'hivh v.-a^ universally admired, lie began with 
jftfrankexpo^tion of the great rviU prevailing in the Churchy 
ai»d the brn'rfits to be derived frvsm General Councils. The 
preacher explained ihe overthrow of the troopi of the 
Lc^ue at Ravenna os a Divine providence, intended, by 
lowing the Church to be defeated when she trnsied in 
alien ams, to thiow her biick on her own wc(i|>on3, piety and 
prayer, the armour of faith and the sword of light. With 
these? ^hc had caiiqucrcd Africa, EuropCn and Asia; slnCO 
she had taken up with strange adornments and defences 
^c had lu!*t rmtch. It was the vokc of Gud which hiid 
aummoned the i'opc to hold the Council, to renovate the 
Church, to givo peace to the nations, to avert further btow« 
and *H>unds in the futurt " I hou/' sutd the Lord to Peter. 
" beini^ once converted confirm thy brethren " (St. LiiUe,xxTi., 
3i), * Hear ycthU, most illustrious IVinccs of the Apostles, 
protccton and defender* of the city of Konic, Hcaikcn to 
the «fghH and moaning of the Church whith You founded 
irith your blood, which now lies prostrate, ovciwhclmed 

• Sawuto, XIV., »5 i^. ; Pxars ds Grassie, cd. Dallingcr, 4'?' 
Seo also C«rrtiani's •Report m Cod. II-, 111., 76, of ihc Nadonal 



bcncQth a Rood of caJamtticfl. Hftv« you not ^ccn bow 
this very year the carlb has dnjnk more blood than nan\ 
Ijjing lis help and hft her up out of the waves under 
uMch »hc is ^ubjTieigcd. Hear the suppliciitiona of all the 
people* of Chn^Lendom, prosUate at your fc^L Tlic Pu|jc 
Liiitcs with the Fathers, the Senate and the whole uorkl 
to implore your assistance for himselT, for the Church, thilH 
city of Rome, these temples, these altar* which enrfirin^^ 
your sacred relics, this Council which is taking up arms 
mXh the support of the Holy Ghost for the ^Ivation of 
Christendom- We beg of you to obtain the reconciliation 
of all Chnstian Princes wlxh each other, so tliat all may turn 
their swords agiiin&l Mahmnet the enemy of Christ, and 
thai the charity of the Church. Instc-ad of bdng extirguUha^H 
by ail these waves and norms, may, through the nictits of^ 
the Holy Cross and the inspiration of the Ho]y Ghost^ 
which are commemorated tojjether In the festival of to- 
cIa>\ be cleansed from all stains and glow again in all its 
pristine purity and splendour."* 

When Ac^idius had concluded^ the Pope, having taken 
his place with the Cardinals in the Choir of the Basih'ca, 
bestowed ihc solemn Bcn^^flictlon and annouiKcd a pletiary 
indulgence^ He th^n intoned the first line of the '*Vci 
Sancte SpirltuR" and proceeded to the tribune for the Ccum 
v'hich waa erected in the nave* There the Litanies of 
Saint were tun^ with the uiual prav^rs, and the Cardinal- 
Dcbicon Luigi d'Aragona read the Gospel which narratt^^ 
tlie sending forth of the disciplcfl. To «parc the Popd^f 
failing strength, Cardinal Aicssandro Farncsc read hJs 
addres*i for him. tn Ji he briefly set forth the reasons for 
summoning the Council and the advantage! th;it were 1o 
he hoped for from ita assembling. He had long been 






desirous, ho Aaid, or calliAf? a Caufidl, but had doffirred it 
on accourt of the incessant wars between the Christian 
I^nnccsi now, however, the need for il »ccmcd lo hira to 
have become urgent, in order to prevent the division which 
Sdt^n had taused in the House or God from spreaditig 
further anrl Infecting the whole flock of Christ. He prayed 
that all ntiglit have the fexr of the Lord before their cye«, 
express ihcir opinions freely, and seek rather to plea«e 
Ham than man. Ho hoped that, with the assUtance of 
Almighty God, all evil customs miglit be amended, peace 
be rc-C3t»blishcd among Christian Princes, and, under the 
banner of the Cross, all the ^irtificcs of ibc ancient enemy be 
brought to naught. He now decl'in^ the Council opened 
and fixetj the loth of May for its first siting* 

When the ceremonies were concluded the ?ope made 
hi* thanksgiving in the Church of S- Pictro in Vincoli. 
He WAS delighted at the way in which tl^e <M>lemitl1ie5 had 
beer carried through, referred laughingly lo his anxiety 
/beforehand lest there should be disturbances, and promised 
de GrassU a Bishopric a» a reward for the admirable way 
in which he had organised and conducted llic whole 

The first sitting tooTc place as arr^inged. under the 
presidency of the Pope, on the loth of May, Cardinal 
Gdinani sang the Mass of the Holy Ghost, and Bernardino 
Zane, also a Venetian, was the preael^er. In his sermon 
he first touched briefly on the Turkish danger nnd then 
proceeded lo treat of the unity of the Church. This he 
defined a^ consist I ng : (i) in ihc union of the members with 
each other ; (2) in their subordfnalion to the He^id, the Vicar 
ofGiritt; hence all who do nol obey the Jlc^d, an<l who 

* Sakvto, XIV., 303 4^^,i Taius DE CRAflSJS tn RayiLaldu^ od an. 
151 J, n, 35-39; HERCEKWt^HEtt, Vni-i 506 507. 

t Pahis i>k Gica,<(»;is, cd, Dolling^r, 41I. 





scpftnto ifacnkjclrca ttoai the ochcr racmbcn of xhc bod; 
iuc Acbmnatk^ At it U a Uw of justice, \xiih buman ^->d 
divine^ that ofuciukrs should be punuhcd according tg the 
naiure of tbeir ofTencv^ schtMUtks IkU vnder a double 
pcn;Utyi tbey are cut off li^cn the oonununiOtt of tke 
foithf ul, and tbcy lo^ all their apoetolJCA] privileges, offices^ 
Ud digiiibcs. It u the duty of the Pope ^ml tbf Fathcvt 
ta Council to axiftpTda hcretka and ndmnwtics^ and reodv 
tbcm powcrk:is to do barm, 90 that the evil tmy not aprcad 
nor the ^pairk Lufat into a f^ame. The Pope tbcn ddiverod 
aAoft address rcirunding those prcscvit of what wtrtie the 
objects of the CoLUicil He detcWbcil ihcie as the rooting 
out of schism, the reform of the Church, and the Cniaafll& 
Then the Hulhof July 1511, and April 1512, k^ctg read, ai 
the oii&cers of the Council appointed and swora in by 
Po|>« himself,* 

The second which tJic Council of ?i»a was pro- 
nounced null and vcid, wds held on the 17th. Over 100 
Prelatcfi wcie pi4.*?icnt at iLf The High Mans via» !iui>g by 
the Hufi^arian Cardinal, Thmmas Bakocs, Th(? semion,^^ 
preached by the General of the Dominicaas. Thomafl <1^H 
Vio (Cajelanii*), was a lety rcmarkriblc one. The subject 
was the Catholic doctnne regarding the Church and Synocb^ 
He described the Church as the Holy City of Jcruaalcm seen 
by SJohn (Apcc., xxi, t st^.) with her beating povrcr» <thc 
Sacrament.^), her aposllc*, pastors, teacher^ and gifts, and 
the ctosc mutual mh'hjii ^ub^UtJn^ between her inhabitants^ 
like that between nil the niembcrrs of the same body. He 
poinlt^l out how the Church wns a city, how she wa« hoJy, 
the city of peace, Jcrtjsalcm, how, unlike the synagc^u^ 
»bc remains evvr new and strong, Eiow she baa come down 
froiD Heaven and i^ built after the pattern cf the heavenly 

I Paris D£ Giussis, cd, DaUinKcr, 419^ 




This ChuKh. he went on lo say, b gw'cmed by 

the Vicar of CUmU 1° whom aUlJic citiicns owe ailcgioncc, 
not only cadiindividuaily but asa body. The j^inun Synod 
]XMsess(>d none of the notes of the true Churcli. and Appeared 
rather to hav« risen up out of HcU tban de^iCcitUcd from 
Heaven. Il represented only one nAlioii and llial but 
partially, was not univerftaJ, could not claim lo be ihc city 
to which the strength of tbe Gentiles harl come, ix tho 
multitude of the *ea had brtn convened (Isaias. Iv,, $). 
Thisdsscmbly was neither holy nor lawfully convened, wa« 
ataincd with error, subordinated Peter to the Churchj the 

■ Pope bo the Council, ^et the members above the head, and 
tbe sheep before the shepherd. It cannot be called 
Jerusalem, foi^ it posscs^s neither peace nor order, but on 
the coiitrdiy dxms at undermining the noble order of the 
Koioan Church and wages war agaiji^t her ; and is like tbe 

' city and tower of Babt?!, generating nothing but confusion. 
She in new, but Jn a very different sense from the newness 
of the true Church ; siic is the ofTspring of Constance and 

; liasle- The Pope abould be the mirror of the J'ower, the 
J'erfcction, and the Wisdom of God. He n»nifest5 the 
pcwcr of God when he girds hiniaclf with his own swofd, 
lor he posseaaca two swords, one which he sharca with 

I temporal princes and another wliich is rcuscrvcd to hiua 
^oa(y. This lallei is the swcrd of the spiritual power hi 
' Ihc <!estructioa of cnoc^ and schisms. The power of the 
I I'ope should be combined with the intnge of the Divine 
I Perfection, which consist* in loving-lcfndness. To this mu5t 
\hc added wisdom, and this wi^om is specially displayed 
, In the calling of the present Council, whici; should 
I manifest it more and more by reaii^ng ihc hopes that arc 
«otertftined of it and making the Church such as the spirit 
l^ei^'cd it to the beloved disciple," 



ft is st^ficint or the chftngc which had come about in 
tlic views of the n)AJority of theologians at that time, that 
ilki^ out?ipokeii condciini4tion of the false ConcUiai tbcofy 
callcfl fcwih r*>conlr;iclii:tton" Tlieevfb which thUlbcory, 
theofTftpnngof a period of atmost boundless con^sion, hod 
bronchi upon the Church fin<t tJic world had come to b« 
very widely tccogni^cH* 'l^c weakness of the schonutics 
and the success c( the L^tcntn Council shewed how com- 
plctcty tlic Catliolic view, that no Council could be »luUfy 
ftT the Church lh;it wn* ncH lield with and under the Popt 
h^id gninrd the upprr h;ind ^h 

At the conclusion of Cajetaii's address, a tdtef fro<n mH 
Kin^r of £n{*]and on hiii alliance with th« Pope wu retd ; 
and then another from the King of Spain, accrediting hb 
Counsellor, Elicronymus dc Vich, as Envoy from Liinudf 
and hi% djtugbter JoAnna, Queen of Castile, to act m 
tbdr repfCMntativc at the Cotndl, and f^upport Julius, the 
rightful Pope. agdTns^t the achismatici. Next follo^^ed the 
reading; of the Papal Dull confirming and renewing the 
censures pronounced against the p»cudo-Cound). At the 
same time, in view of the political dluation, and the pcob- 
abiUty that representath'cs of other notions mi^hl be ex- 
pected later and abo the coming Summer heats, the next_ 
sttting was adjourned to the 3rd of November.f 

While England had now definitely joined the T.ettgQe' 
agiUnst France, the Emperor of Gennany aho waa j^du- 
al}y drawing nearer to the Pope, who hcid out hoped ol an 

* MAVaEKntBx:ilKlt, Kathot- Rdorm&lion, ro^ Q^ aha Pakis Ot 
npAi^r^NLDaiinger, 443^41^ On Ca^rUn, ^. WcniS Bfid WSUH; 
tCftbtnlcKlDon, tl^ i6rs i«v>, cd a. At ihe bim tiiut^ Ibe ifvilMiatf 
of ihe C4itfdanRcryalCoiin(nl,iLincnjpn other thtnp, in DOLUNOn 111^ 
:ao uf^ 4h«« EhAi trw Condhv ktei «iiU MifVTv«d to ■ ooniidmW 

* HtaccwKiVTiiitR, VIII., ji6-5'7i </ SoNVTOt XIV, ut *f- 




ftdTiintii^cous pence with Venice That Julius should have 
bccQ successful in pcrsu.idfng MfixJmlli^n to conclude 4n 
anablice with the Republic for ten months "was a great 
step in advance. The Emperor did not join the League, 
axKl his friendship 'vilh France remained oi^teniiibly intact ; 
but the position he new took up wa$ unfAvourablc to 
her and advantagcotaa for the aJllca.' In April, through 
C&rJinaJ Schinncr,* he gave pcrn^is^ion to the S^'isSt who 
were marching to lielp the Pope* to pa^s through hb 
domirinns and supplied them with provision8.f 

At the end of May, the Swiis contingentSj numbering in 
ftl! i$,ooo men, met in Verona, where Cardinal Schinncf 
presented to hb countr>-men, "u loyal ;md chivaLroiu 
deferdera and protcctoni of the Holy Church and the 
Pop^" a cap of honour adorned with gold and pcarU, 
and an omamcnCcd 5^x>rd. ax gifti from Julius IL and 
symbols of the political indLpcndciicc of tlie Conftrdcralion.} 
Thb acknowl&^gmcnt was wcll-dcTtervEfd, lor it was rexerve<l 
to tbeie brave mountaineers to strike the final blow which 

* The fjhef Jidclr«si«d by Juliua It, on iSth April, i $17, ijO Schinner, 
and iitiidi the Uucr facwitdcd lo tlie ConfcdcT-ilkm, a to be found in 
Gcnian in Fl/CdS, U^ 33' The onpncil is i& iht Stale Archivcflia 

t KUAER, IIL, 396 : Vlmxsw, n, 447 : Gisi, 46 j<v- Hiilivito it 
has been luppoaed ilui ihc E'apAl diplonifltiat, Ennio Filonnrdi, hnd 
htfn seni by Julius U. (o SwiCierLind. WIKZ, IL Filonardi ^riirb, 
l394l> b1icw> llulhc did iM av llicrc till J 51 J, wl^cii lie w;i3 tcnt u» 
Nu£«K> by LhW X- 

I HmicArKR, I!., 411 u^,i Gisi, 63 u^. Th* hat and *wi>rti *rer*, 
in accotdoD^c vith n raolulion of the DicL of Ikdcn, IcfE a1 Zuridi, and 
are ^till procrvcdin tha CUy Libmry Llicrt. H^cy :hre engn^^ and 
dcs^nbfrd by G. V- WvSA in ihc NciIjahnbUn for 1859 of tht Ciiy 
Ldbniiyat ZtiKch, ''Die Grichcnkc Pipit Julius IL aa dkr EidccnmMin.** 
Tbe word is olso repn>dbtr:cd in the work, Ziiiich und diu SdiwouenBcbe 
LjindfiimutfuRi (lA?!}. plAie ji^ See alio DAvduicbr, GckK dcr 
Schwcu* II-, ^13. 


bedded the teuc of ihcwa/ ID luly; tbcywefette 
cdhc K<^See. Tboogh, no doobt, politk«l uki fi 
omudcrattons had their wdght in dctcrminii^ this cxpM 
tiottp a sginl of rtry genuine rdigiow cnihttsusm «u faf 
no m^uis wauling amoiig!^ the Swiu.* ZwiogU, the ope^ 
six pnachf-r of GlafUfi, vrrHfeg to hi« fnend Vaduo in 
Vfrma.Ars: "The Swtoha^-* seen Th^drptaaWcttateto 
i^rich the Oittrch of God, the mother or Christendom, h» 
btcn reduced, and thoy think It both wrong and dang;erov« 
to permh this rapadcDs tyrant to remain unpiJmsbtd-*+ 

Alnwet ainnftancoculy with the airival of the Swiu In 
Italy, Maxtmiliaii recalled the Gcnnan foot-$oldkrs, which 
Ictfmcd practically the core of the Fierch army, and hxA 
materidly covitribtrtcd to its t^ctory M Raii-enna. At the 
very nwm^nt that it was thn* weakened it fhand itsdf 
thireatened by foBr armiec at once — the Papal troops und^^ 
ti^e Duke of Urbitio, ainl the Spaniards, Vtfwtian^ and Swi|fl 
No reinforcements cotitd be hoped for Irom Franc«» as the 
army at home had not a man to spare iwm the defence of 
the frontiers Againat the attacks of England and Spaia 
Since tlic death of Gaston de Foix, the French force in 
Italy hod Ixcii \c(t witiiout orgaiusation, spirit, or plans. 
The Romagna waa fu^i evacuated, nnd «ooii Upper Italy 
was also abandoned On t\vs J4ih JunetheSwiss »tdowii 
before Pa\Ta, which capitulated after a short siege. Upon 
ihfs the whole Duchy of Milan rose a^jainst the French, 
had made tliemsclvcs univers^illy hated.; 

Now that it wag becoming more and more cvideol 
the battle of Ravenna bad been but a Pyrrhic victory, 

* Gin, 43i and DiKttAUKH, ]]., 413, 

f Zwjtfaui Opun^cd-Schulcr ct Sthulthcu, IV., 169(7111^1. il 
C/. HRKa, U. Zwtni^h Alt Vhkntr von Cbni^j « Uf, iZuncii, 1*54); 
DiuiAuaa and Gisi, !m. c^. 


schi^matvcs fbuTifl thdr poAttlon untaiublc. On the 4th of 
Jintc they decided lo remove lo Asli. Their departure vas 
more like s fl^hl tlian anything else, And gave Cardinal 
Mttliri ihe fipport unity of e*vcnping.* But tvm at Art! 
they fmind it impossibfe to remain, ard aoon had to cnove 
«n to Lyons- Here the only act of th^ a&^embly ivas to 
ciemand a subsidy from the French clcr^' and the Unt- 
vcraity of Pans, ftn<l tlms " tvithout any formal dis^ohitioil, 
the French Council disappeared from ihe scene." f 

(tcnod also had ca^t off the yoke of France chosen 
GiOTStTiri Fregn«> as I>igc, and d<^clarcd herself indepciid- 
«it-J Rimini, Ceaei^a, and Ravcnnn returned to their 
sllcgianee to the Pope. On the 13th of June the Ehike otf 
Ufbino took po^fles^ion of Dok>gna in the name of the 
CliUrcK$ The Papal troope now turned back to subdue 
Parm» and pjacenra, which Julius li. claimed 05 hctr to the 

♦ Ob the ^rd Jane to P1*ve det Caim on the Po. S*e RaVXaLPU*, 
ttdan. 151:2, n. 59; IjctiHA^H, 34 : CxejiiHiifN, IV^ i$7: nnd Arch. 
SLLomb..X,3&i-3QS(^iili Doc"" of Leo X,), Thcrr flight is painlcdbjr 
V^atLn in iho Paluio Vecchb in Florence ; there i% Also a pictvic In 
Piev* which has refcrenre to tins fvcnt In my opinion, it h a rniitJike 
(tf, in/m, Clup, 10) to tfinntci E^pli*«ri piciutc of the dcliveninc* ef 
S. Peter in the SEiJia« with this occuiranca 

'* MAUttENnRraniKR, K^cIl Kct, 105 ; HlcRrKN^i'-niKR, VFIL, $ill- 

SM i LBKMAKir* 34 i Sanuret. Concik dc Piac, 453 < Maulde. On- 

^jpDfB^ *3Si 3^i-3^^" ^''* wpott of a cQm>bpond«nt in Fnncre which 
.||mlii i1 ViiiT I I II ilii I nil "1 |ii , i^t7ySAy%\rotita]}y : Papa Tlr-TTLnrdTn 
(^Car^ajal] imva nxaJ in tal modo chc crc<io di* cl luscrii bi raitrin. 
On Papa Bernaitlino, >a« nlte (.^itl'MELLO, 13^. 

I ^ Gkiv- FrpgoM** triumphal^ ••Lefief lr> Kinp rfrdinnnd, da.1. 
G^tt, Clh July, I $13. J fumid Use origiJiJkl in FundA t-^pASiL. Ji^<^f 
Nfttional Libmry, PorJi. 

f On rhv ijih of Jimc. i^i^^ Ju1tai» U. fir.intH bcultlai lo the Cant. 
Le^,, GJor. dc' Medic:!, for AbfolviinR the city of Botogna from iJl the 
Chumhcensurcf, onlyeKceptingth«ddh«rentsorihe Ikulivoiich. Lilx Q.5. 
Suite Arrhlvr*, Bnlngfl.i. 



Countess Mfttilda. On the 20th, Ottaviano Sforu, Bishop 
of Lodi, entered a« the Pope** lieuieoant* On the 
98th, L:i Palicc, with the remnAnt« of his irmyr arrived, 
broken and hopclcf^, ;it the foot of the A\p& Thus Locu 
XII., after having:: ttinxxl up a sebiMn and striven to annt- 
hilaCc the l*ope. ended b>' losing in ten week* not only all 
the fruits of his victory at Ravenna but alao all his poMc»- 
^ons In Italy, TncludJng even Asti, which belonged lo Us 
own family, *'The«oWier4 of Ixmis XII. have ranithed like 
mat before the KUn/ writes Francesco VeitoH, withoot 
bavlnff fotight a single batttej and almost without having 
defended a single Icwn.f That which Juliu» had been 
■triving with all hii might for ycrtrs to aebicvc, was itow 
brought about by a sudden turn of events m> unexpected, 
thai Kapharl in hi^ fresco in the Vatican hax tymbol k^ 
represented It as a fniracle.J 

It was on the Jjnd of June thai jultus IL recdv 
first detailed account of the rout of the French m a leltvi 
from Pavia fi\%ni Cardinal ScWnner. He read the whole 
letter through fir^t in ftllcnce ; then, turning with a b&un- 
ing countenance to the Ma^er of CefetnnniCK, '•We ha^c 
won, Paris," hr cxdaimed, " wr have won I " " May God 
give your Holinew joy of It." answered de Grasiis, to which 
the Pope immediately added, " And to all the faitliful souU 
whom He has at last deigned to deliver from the yoke 
of the barbanaus." Then he unfolded the letter a^n 
and read it from bq^inning to end to all who n-crc prcMmt 
I mmrri lately aficrwanh he announced hi» Intention of 
goh>g on the foliowfng day to hh former lilular Church, 
S. Pietro in Vmeoli, to give thanks there to God, 

• DlEKAtm,|L..|t4i Gm, 5^4^. 
fr VrTTDRt, ciL Reomant, ±87. Secilto PakcdsG 
ac^Inst d^c FitmcK DeniD««i'> ed., 49^ and Cia, te 
X Sm on lUpriMl't fiktura, tMfrm, Chap, iol 




far from well, he had himself cArriwI tlikhcr on tlic 23rd 
and remained for a lang timr absorbed in prayer before 
the High Altar. How wonderfully evrrytbirg was 
dl&ngcd, S. PetcKs chains were Indeed broken; the 
Italian poets sang of Julius as the liberator of Italy.* 
On the 2;th he received four delegates from Bologna, 
who had been sent to sue for pftrdoo^t In the evening 
the whole city .suddenly burst into a flood of li^hX. Thb 
was Co celebrate a fresh victory, the liberation of Genoa, 
his own native city- Cannon thundered from St Angelo 
and firework* hUxwi all over the city. The Pope' returned 
to the Vatican in a solemn triiioiphal profws^iion, accom- 
panied by hia whole Court and all the ofTidaJs, carrying 
torches. The cry of "Julius, Julius,'' rose on all sides. 
•* Never/' aays the Venetian Envoy, ''was any Emperor 
or victorious general so honoured on his entry into Rome 
as the Pope has been to-day," A universal amnesty was 
[jruclaimcd and alm^ distributed to aW the convents. 
" Now God has left us nothing more to ask from ITim," 
he said, "we have only to pour forth our gratitude for 
the splendour of our triumph,'* J 

Commands were is<.ued for a triduum of processions 
of thanksgiving and other rejoicings to be held through- 
out the States of the Church a^ well as in Rome. On 
the same day, 27th June, Briefs were despatches) to all 
parts of Christendom desiring the fftiihful to cdcbtaCe 
tJic Uburation of Italy and of the Huly S«e. As a la-Ht- 
ing memorial of thcstf events the Pope prcscnt«l to the 
Church of S Peter some splendid vestments and a golden 

• RcKCDB, L*o X-, I l-i 404 J^. 

t Paris DRGrassis. od, Frjti, jsi, 333-197. wliicb contmdicU Guic- 
csrdnfk uaMintni that Juliua nnnted to destroy Bologna- On «arl]«r 
aceOflDta df ibe vieiory, 5» Sl^suto, XTV.. 401. 404. 

I SArfVTOiXlV^ 45i>. 453, 457-4S3i Pxajs dk Giussrs, ed. Frali, 

2 £ 



dtaf'fronlal wIUi an fnscrlptaoii, sayin^^ that it wta a votfvc 
ofTcntig to God ikt\6 the PHucgh of the Apost!c:i in tbAnks- 
giiring for the "liberation of Italy."* At tlic Mine time 
JiiTlus WAS fiAr from fcrgc-ttln^ lo wliofn next to God he 
wa3 most indebted for his victcry^ and shonered rewardi 
on the s^lalwart Swiss. In a Bull of 6tb July, 1513, he 
bofitowed on them in perpetuity the titl« of " Prolcctora 
of the liberty of the Church,*' and ti\ao t;ctit them two 
large banneret One of them bore the PajWil liftia with 
^e keyn and the inncnptlon. "Pope Julius II., ncj^cw d 
Sixtus IV., of Savona"i nn the otlicr the family anm 
of the Popo wore depleted with the keys and the motto: 
DomiTfus miJit aMuiorj mm fiun^Bo ^rd Jk^at mM 
Amvip {The LoT«J is my helper; I will not fear what 
man -am do unto me> Ev-cry town^tp which had scfit 
a contin^eTit to the ctrmy received a itilken banner, vkh 
the arms of the place and a religious picture the subject 
of which they were permitted to choose, embroidered or 
painted upon it. These gifts ndmir^ty corresponded 
with the efaaracler of the people, at once martial and 
pitiuv Many of tht-w banner* have l>een preserved to tbt 
preecnt day* I n addition to these marlc* of honour, Juliiw 

• PAfte DB Cfascts, od. Fraii, 330331- CuBGoaoviu^ Vlll, or. 
ftd. 3, g!v«a > fragntcm of ihc Brief 10 iht PlOf»ttnc« ; they pamdued 
tin clovy Lu liuld the pmacsiUinv l^ut rrfuaed to 4iIUiw aay <xher 
ftuMtiei. Naum, I., 431, C/, ToMMAMM, L, 574. On tho x6th erf 
July a d«puwion from fiAcensi came 10 Rome to do hotruge to tbe 

atf on- 1513, n, 70 71. 

+ BTivf or th« Cth fit\v in EHtjcviKte. Abt<hiocl»« Ml-, 3, 63} 63^ 
C^- An^iMiujtf^ IV., i(to; ncv edition, IlL, 317 J€^, ^uid Oicciinj.Qu 
Icnbuch, 3^ 

: c/ BhiDCi, Dfvprsiiix dewit^* pAriM Pi|>e« auv Sqihm, rrnil* 
valcurSuisae, HI. (iSij), 344 Jf-^ Glfll,>39 Jcy-; VoOEXtCl, Goch. dtf 
Wauctldzchcandd. UibL Ai^urich. lao; Ziiridwr MeQiahnbla«t(iaf^ 
p & fvp.; DidUUHi^ Uftfi Tog^abur^T untcr obcixhci H«mchofEf 




granted «veral spiritual favuura lu tht? Swi**, iuid b:;ttowcd 
the Count^hip of V^a^i-ano on Schmnei".* 

Tc no one wif llic complcie di^omiiturc of the French 
ftO crushing a blow m to Duke Alfonso of Fcrraia. h kft 
him absolutely helpless at the mercy oFihc Pope whom he 
bad (rcAtcd with such m:K)lcrcc. Trusting to the friend* 
>hip of the Colonna and of his brother- in law Got\tA^ of 
Maulua^atid dUy armed wilh a safe-cunJucl from Juliui^ 
he c:>utie lo Kuitie^ oh ilic ^jth ui July to L-niJiravour to save 
what he couldn The i'ope wilh'ngly absolved him frcmi 
aI) ccelcitftsiicftl censures, but imiited 00 his giving tip 
Ferraxa and accepting A,ui inKtcf;id^ Thu ColoniiA strove 
in vain to mcdisitc in his favour ; ard 30cn he bc^n to 
feel that be w&% not ^fe in Rcmc. In thb he was not 
mbtakcn, for Julius would have had no ;scruple ir de- 
taining and imprj^ioning him. He re^iolvcd, tlicicforc, to 

IfciiJAttMbLiLt fjr 1875 (lien: thcic \t ut tn^ntvm^vt ilicToicifu^ 
lioqf bwineO; Fxickeji, Etn Puiacr Julius II. in Baden, Ant, Air 
Schvr«ii. C*e9Ch.(itj^\ p. 45 ; J. Mic/icu and H. .STAmtUN, ni« p^ip^tl- 
au^ FtwaenS^ in d ThuK. BdtriEK'cn, XXVn. 088?^ 
sFAt fmsnt Mat by the fopc lo Bstna >v«r« dix- 
co««fed and arc deftfribed hy (^rAftREK J. STAMMUta. Der ftmmenien- 
lebiti ici IIj*l MuACuni lu Bcnii U9''V- (Bern, iSqj)* Abo tlw baoncr 
belonging to (he di;>tnct of Sfuinca viih lU pu^jtrng inscriptionii whkh I 
lliink ha.1 be*n corw*1Iy ioietprewd by ST,^MMl.t:K in ihr Ar« fiir 
SchHciicf. AllciltiuutjikLinde Ot'v5)t ^^ J> ■* i>^ l^ic MuscuitEJtl ticmc; 
la a Lhd^of the 30th Dcc^ tjia i^io be fbuul^as R Joi> Jollcr kindly 
brfofm^ tr\r, in iVir Nirilprwalfl Archive ai Wnllii,^ JuHih []. Iieiroweil 
« 4]ci;o»tJoo on the Njcdcr>»dld iluE- On the fAVOLtr^ £idJiti;<i iv liule 
Mtt DcsiKOm, ttohno d'oro di ^elEcu nl nomo di Cupa C;ju1k> Jl. dcir' 
anno 1513, in Aru d. Sftf- Sav, II., 691 if^^und Julmi n/» Ltiteri of 
the 10th Sept. JLud til? luth Olid J9tb Dec, 1 ji2, in tlic City Anjhive*, 
ilEuJc. On Ui« origin And ii^iftcftncc of Pftpal gift« of honour, such m 
(be Roie. Hat, S*i^rdj. etc., «?€ R, DowuMa in the Dublni Raview 



^yt ftnd with the h«lp of the Colonna succeeded in ^tin^ 
awa/ CD th© 19th of J«iy. The Pope waa cxtrcradf 
indignant and Instituted prococdin^^s against him a-i 
rebellious vassal* 

A Con^Tc^ or the interested powcm wa» bdd tn 
Mantua 111 August for the rcar^nUation of ]K)Utic;d 
relfttion^ wfrirh the wnr had left in ulter confusion. 
Here it soon became plain that victor/ had sown dis' 
sension amongst the members of the League. There 
v/as on}y one point upon which ail the allies wcr« ai;reed, 
and that wan that Florence iru^t be punished for holding; 
to Fxancc as ?hc hnd done and refusing to join the League, 
and for harbouring the schismatics- it waa resolved that 
the McxJici should be ic*vtnrc<l^ and a combined P«ij>jtl and 
Spanish arm/ was despatched to riTect thk. On die 
30th August the Spaniards conquered Prate, and cruel! 
racked it. ITpon this the Florentines yielded, and 
September the Medici relumed. Iir^t the ^ntle an 
attractive Giuliano, later the Cardinal, and took the 
|povwnmc:il of tlic city into their liaiids.f The quesdioa 


• SAJarn?. XrV..479, 4S0HB2, 4B4^45> 40i» lo^ po,ft>,$i4. SU, 
5^, 570, 5^ ; XV., 54, 7^-77 ; UltrM de Uui» XII-, III, «99^-; 
PAKt«nKGfta:Efi]Kin RAyn:ikliif,aclaA. J 513, 11.7] Cd'f.;andCRB]OinOil^^ 
IV,, 373~i74 1 BCKKunu liricfbiidif 9^ ; Cari'^aakc!!, i^AS ; I^i«r]^H 
MA>nso*> Erom Romo to Card tppoljto on Jullu^ ctenunds in CAPri£Lt& 
Lviiere di L Arioitct (BoJognft« :4^6bJ, p, cxun } C^iwi, 57 i Bt 
JiilJuk II,, J5) j^.i Ltr£io, F. Goniaum 57^ »• a : SEVrxK, Cariri, 
Alfciti«yB tiighc if Tncntloncd m the *Xa* CAnitsk, f, 3S, (Conti 
Ar-hivrfi nfihr V:»tH'irt.) The oriKif^al of the Ieti«r«f sifiscofldttct fcr 
Alfona^ ill nhiih Julius eiplnin^ t\M ii ig only fi:ir ihc Hulcr's perwi Jind 
OOE for Us Stttc (SaKITTO, XIV.. 4;;), is in the Smie Archives, Modi 


t QT V<i.t.iiu. MadLBvellL II.. t$t sfg.- PtuoaiCKi !U 497 wT 
GcrAOTT, n Snoco d^ Pratd (BolojfnA, igSo;. 3 voR On JulJu^ IV* difi- 
tiotulMJon in rrgard to Card Sodcnm, fc« Viorrifti, «il R«un)f>i^i^ 19a. 
See d>o die Repurt in Sakuio, XV., ay /^p., jj j^.. 57 se^^ 



u to who should have the Duchy of Milan wax decided 
At the Congress of Mantua. Ferdinand of Spnin and 
Maximilian dcsirtd to secure it for thdr grand-soo Charley 
but the Swiss and JliHus IL, who did not wish to *ec 
Any fortrign power c^Ublishcd in Lombardy. ?iuccccdcd 
ii) arranging that il MujuIiI be Le^towetl on Ma-\Mtniliaiio 
*Sfumi, the jivm of LoduvicD Muru; who bccamtt a fjwl 
frirrti of rhe Swljt-s Confederation.* On The 8th of October, 
howe\"er, Farnia and Piacenza were separated from the 
Duchy and included in the States of the Church* Rc^io 
had already, od the 4tU of July, submitt^ to the Pope; 
and sent Envoys later to Rome to make their profcMion of 
obedience, expressing themselves in very humble tcimj^ 
A contemporaneous historian remarks that this was the 
first, lime notice tlie donation of King Pepin that m Pu^ie 
had po«essed this ^'ityvf 

But in ^pite of all these successes there was still a reverse 
side to the medal, " With the exception of the Pope and 
the Swiss none of the allies were completely satisfied 
The Emperor, whose chief object had been to push a for- 
Rkidable rival out of Italy, now realised with dismay that 
he had only succeeded in substituting the Pope for Fiance:'' { 
The appropritition of Parma, Fiacenca, and Rc^gio by JuliuA 

«y., n^, 141 iff., and in Appcndij^ N, 88, •CiuTiiuid de" McdiCi^ 
txiBcr of the jw Au^., i^n, (inrbiga Arclm-ei, Mamna. 

* DlBRAVElU I!., 41B -fcVM Om, 67 jf^, Julius IL <xrrLgraculalcd 
M. Sfona in x llntf of i^± Au}f^ 1513, prtni«d in Leitr«s de Louis XII., 
III., 30^309, 

f CAKncsANU^ iiZS; GiteooKOvn;^ Vtll,» toa. ed. 3; Rorcoe, 
11^ 401 r*^. ; Luaio, F. Coat^s^ 39. C/. SaS'LFK^ XV., 3^7. On the 
■Btnois^km of KrtKJ" ^f*^ "Riform-ig., ijis, Joly 4- (Ar^Wvia m 
Rcggkk) C/. L Ciitic^ti, Rctf:l<rndr £riul4A»mu»GJu!io II., L?one X^ 
Adriuro VL, 11 j/^. (Reg^o, i£93}' H<n al»o u« ib« |i»rt]CtL]ars of 
tht misBJon from Ht^ijIcY 


insTOBV or the popes. 

w*t felt n* a blaw ni the 1 



al Conn, *nd it i* m 


Mjrpddng that MaicimiliaM'ft attinide wa* far from friendly 
whcfl the Pope's further wisKcscfime TO be dealt with. Tli^| 
feeTifi^ ir Spain wm very much the s^mc a« in Germany. 
Under these circumstnncr-fl Femrft had to be lef% alone, 
especially A3 the behaviour of the Duke of Urbino did not 
insure cnnftdcncc in hb irtcntsoni.* The power of 4^| 
Swiss also somewhat wciglK-d on lite Pope ; but 1^^^ 
gTTMlcsi iinxieiy wa^ the iniccrt;iinly »s tt> the ]tiIc:ilionf> 
of Kin;; Fi-rdinand. He heard with alariD that the Spanish 
army wa^ marching from Tuicatiy towards Lcmbafdy. 
" Jf, as rumour now whUpered, and as indeed became 
partially the fact al^crwards, he vr&s going to embark fn a 
private war of acquisition hew without troubling himself 
about the riijhlB of the l-caguc or the claims of Venice, he 
would then obtain a poiiU of vftjitngc in ihe north of 
pcnin&tila frc»m wbEch^ in cornbiifalian wtt)i bm le^filimj 
clainiK in the vniilh^ he rrnild tttretch out hU arm« over the 
whole, and have the Holy See entirely at his riercy,''t 
Thii iTKide it of the highest tmponance for JuHus tt> be o^^ 
the mott friendly term« with the I^nnperor in order li^H 
co\]ntert>alancc the power of Spain. To ensure the com- 
plete »ucccKi of the l^tcran Councif, a1i^, the co-operation 
of the Emperor was most necessary. The majority of the 
Christian Prince) (SprJn, Ponu|;a], England, ScoUai 
Hungary, Nnrwriy. and Dfnni;irk)J had all dcclareid in it" 
favour, and France had been laid under Interdict in 
August ; g bur to complete her iiolatioo and that of the 

* t^IlO, ^famoVH c Urttino, loth ^H 
t RROsrn, Jultu* II., i&j, cy: Lko, v., a6o. The Brie* of tft 0<K^^ 

1512, in whirl] Julitu JI. Warns Ctril. SJibncr Bgiica Spoon, b <a 
SaNCTTO^XV,, sjy/jy, 

• lUrirAUJVf^ %d sfl, Jfifl, ti. 53. 8i-«4; Corp. Dipt Portug., 
I S4« J T J M7. : SAlrtJlx>, XIV., 56 Jiy. 



CcuiKll of Lyom, the adhesion of ihc Emperor was 
ttiMntial.* lliiiAt when in Che l-ite Autumn of 151^ 
M&ttharns Lang, Maximilian'a most trusted Knd influential 
*(h"i*er,f appeared in KiMnc, the Pope's joy knew no 
bounds The bat^hty prelate Afsumcd the air of an 
emperor, but every eHbrt was made to satisfy and win 
fatm-t In M iTu? cities of the Stutci of the Church bi; was 
rrrcive-d with h'^nours, flnH the Pop- g-ivc ^poctiil orders to 
hU Master of Ceremonies thut in Home hU entry should 
beAecofnpanied with sv^iy possible manifcstittion of coo- 
eiderattOTt and uctcome.^ 

Lang is rfc«ribcd by contemporary wiitori as a hand- 
some man with fair hair, looking abotil forty ycjirs of agC;j| 
He nrriv'cd in Rome on the evening of the 4th November, 
-mM *n?nt hU pcoplr to the apartments prepared for therm, 
UPWJe he hTm^df went at once Incognito to the Vatican, 
where Juliui; II. was burring with impatience to meet hm 
That no manifestation of regard might be wanting m the 
welcome of the man upon whom so much depended, the 
^ Fope came out as far as the first antechamber to receive 
Bfthn. On the same evening they h^ a long private inter- 
K view, and Lstng spent the night in the Vatican. On the 
Cbtlowing day he made hi^ official entry inlo Rome with 


• Caifn;t*TOV, TV,. i6r ; Hunr.a, in., 3138. 

t VenOKi, z^Ct* thAtGurk lulcd lite Empcroi ^ to go^enULva 
coRi* voleva « 0i UKTiva d\n tn r^uel l«inp(\ non chc if prime iianu> ctt« 

avcste to tonp siui lo linpfmirirp fiwir II vrirmo (Gitrypn^f^ ma rhi? LI 
pfhnoRcavM»t a Ttscovo a|>prcaao di se, eta \o Impcr.twn. Ai yei, 

Scbopf's work, Em DiplmnM Knhcr Matimtlun't t^icn, jRSjX i» 
CjutM b»(kqiMlc. 0^ RRU)>fONT Jn llic Hist. JftlirU, lU., )o| My. 

7 ScHEtJitt, Brelbui^ rrr 

S PiiRIS D£ GKASSI.% cd. t^mirni^rr, 414 ; SjintTTO, XV., JfiT, 3ld ! 
LaNDUCC-i, jji ; uid GCtCCtAKCtNl, Op. Intil. VIt M7- 

Ij SAXVTOk XV., yj. 



all poiulbk |M>mp "Dufiiig my whole tcnti of offit 
writes the Papal Master of Ccremoniei;, " I fuve 
seen a more flplcndid pageant: il was Yikx: a triumphal 
procession." At tir^^t it was proposed that the College of 
CardiEtaU and the whole cf the clergy should moet him 
outside the yatci. But tlic majority of the CardinaU oV 
jectcd to this as an honour which had never t>ecn accorded 
to any but crowned heads ; but In every otTier p^fticular his 
rcccplioii was ihat of a King. Cardinals Bakut:* utid Leort- 
ardo Grosso delta Rovere met him at the foot of Monte 
Mario, and placed him between tliem, a token of respect 
which he at fir^l declined with affected humility. At the 
fonte Mollc the ^senator of Rome and his officials awaited 
him. At the Porta del Popolo, ia accordance vrith ^^M 
U5U&] etiquette, the Cardinals took tlicir leave, and wcte 
repbccd by the Governor of Rome and the Magg;]Ordoino 
of the Palac:E^ The Greets were Uned willi vpcctalois, all 
Ihe Envoys took pArt tn the procession, ivnd Ihe gun«of 3I^| 
Angelo shook the old building lo its foundation wf^^ 
their noisy welcome, Nijjht iiad fallen before the proci 
sion reached the Vatican, which was illuminated, and whi 
Lang's official reception by the Pope now took place* 

The principal difRculty in the negotiations of the fii 
few days lay not in ihe relations between the Pope and th e 
Emperor, but in those of the latter with Venice Througl^^ 
out the Sutnracr Julins had been Ulxmring to induce the 
Venetians to yield as far a* pcKsrble to the Emprror, G^^^ 
die n^otiations had all failed. Tor Maxunllian rcqufred tU^ 
Republic to giv^e up Verona and Vicenia, and to pay down a 


* Picriiu V«]criAnuft in FliJCiicft, JL, 391 4€f., uid the V«n«tu9 
Envftj-s in SANLTti, XV., 335 j^,, tieicribe [jn^s arnval a.nd «nejy a« 
cyc-viJLDciies, S^nuio ^ivea tl>e jnl m tlie tLiy of iuttitaI, while Pkeiiv 
V^Lcriuui jintt thi; *A<iti C^A^bu tuuM the 4th. C^ aJso PaJeis 01 
GVAKsrs, ed. l»llmgcr, 434. 


McD of 150^000 ducats for the fiefship of Uadua and TreviaOy 
wHh the addition of a yearly toll of 30,000 ducats. The 
Venetians refused to accede to thcao tcrm»,and demanded 
the retTocn^ion of Verona, for which» howevcfj they wtTc 
willing to p^y an annual tribute to the Emperor dunng his 
lift When, *>" I'^c 71^ Novcmljcr, :hc Venetian Etivoy* 
gAve to the ]*u\Kt who had acted a% intrrmeclfary hrtwcci^ 
Them and Maximilian, their final answer declining to accept 
hi* terms, Julius II. for the third time reversed his political 
course. In £pite of the urgent remonstrances of the repre- 
sentatives of the Republic and many of the Cardinals and 
tiie efforts of the Spanish Envoy, who tried to induce him 
to defer his decision, the Pope determined at once to con- 
clude a close alliance witii the Emperor. He was firmly 
convinced that both ecclesiastical and pcilitical consider^- 
licins imperatively dcmandrd this nira.Mir^, ^nd on tbr 
evening of the 29th of Noveral>er the agreement between 
Julius II. and Maximilian was signed. The Emperor 
engaged to defend the Pope against all attacks, repudiated 
the schismatics, acknowledged the Latcran Council, wu^hcd 
his hands of the Duke of Fcrrara and the Bentivogli, and 
handed over Rc^gio and Modcna for the present to the 
Pojjc. Julius n. promised to support Maximilian against 
Vmicc with both 5pirilual and temporal weapons if she 
persisted in her refusal to relinrjuish Verona and V:ccn«a, 
and to pay tribute for tiie other imperial fiefs; to assist 
him with ipiricunl arms against the Flemings, and to grant 
bim in Germany a tax of a tenth on the clergy if the 
electors would also consent.* 

On the same day, in a Secret Consistory, Lang was 
admitted into the College of Cardinals ; but. at bis own 
express wish, his nomination wa5 not yet published, and 

• SA?mo, XV^ 3JJ, J36, 3J7, 3ig, 351^ jB* J*p.; IM GtAlf, l» $*% 
947^\ LAK2,EiiiL U3i<7-i Gist, 60 Iff. 

mirroRv or the popes. 

the rope abo dupcnacd bim fracn tbe obligation of wea rin g 
a Cardiiut's dfc«& On the 24th of Ntnctnfaa an open Con- 
stslory w^s hel<l, at whach the Swiss Emr^/s were rcceltvtl, 
and Lang's elevaiinn to the Cardnudate wa» aJfto annoanoed, 
although he sttU rcfuwd to aflnunc the incignia of his ranlc. 
The reuovi which he i:ave for thb vnB that he was aoxkms 
*that the object of his mtsston should not be misiincicr 
9tooct"* On the 25th of November the new alliance i«as 
fbrmally aimouiKcd >n S^ Maria del Popolcf Fcrdinaod 
of Span also procnised to hdp agaiuM Venice if «he 
rcfiHed to yield. ^^1 

The answer of tlie Republic coi>«JAted In entcrinjf in^^ 
close rclatiofw with France, which led, in March 151 3, to 
B definite alliance The F<3pe had been anxtous to prevent 
this, and in eorvequence had not a^ yet pronounced the 
ccfiMires of the Church against Venice. 'Vbc result of thb 
union t^Hb France «ras A^^n to prevent the allies from 
dornfr anything against rcrrara.* 


of 1^ 

* PAa» DE GftASSISt c«^, Donii^eer, 4«S '^-i SATa-TO, X^' 

RavValau^ ad an. 15C3, n. 90; La Glav, U 515 ^ and L.\KDi 
J|f : al«n J, DEI Umaa Acconlin^ Id ihh pi^vi^, iTt-UjiNiv^ ^tuie- 
EMAi, H^ 4t4: "I^uHe Mccaofully resisted tbe pobtcaiioa of 1^ 
elcTBtfon to ibe OrtTnufatoi vrfiich tc<ik pUc* in the Seovt C<ifttiitoi 
it not K^utc carnn, t7uKAKK diet ckmhcir, /k. aV,, a Lttia 
LanK lo MaxitriUinJi of J4th Nov., r^ij fAKhiTct. VicTDa). nhicb 
it Appear ai if he liaiiQo(a'?c«ptcd Th« Red-tmf umUihein- ln(h« 
Cuiiwt.C 3tX there isnDmcniJ'anufLaiii^siicmilnnliaii; iiatfac3TdDec. 

I hvof-cii. JuViux }}., te/t i/^. I Lax?, Einl., la^ On the nrmounce- 
mccil of Troty on (he ijlb, k< Sanvto, X\^, jSo, 365 jcy. The 
addr«u dolJv«r«d hy A«gidiu< 6a thai occuiot^ appt^tml in a {scircc) 
cotilcmpCMUieou* trad of tvhkh ! Ibund a copy !n tlic Maaraai Llbran^H 
whIchi&lA«l biftihtco CiP^)hatn scnttctcdt>the w^(Ib: OrUioh»lij^| 
]M»T Tertan Safri LaicfiLii, Concilii Sewionem : m E^fTia dioe Marfe 
Uji^nJi dc tS>tiulo: jict FmtJtJin Ek'iiJi^ VSicrbtcu. Ordinia 



The price which Julius IT, confuted to pay in ordcf to 
,l!^UfC the adhesion of Maximilian to the Cmircil^ shew* 
far this Pope was from being the fncrc politician that 
many have tried to make him out. Any one who ha<l 
coaiitcd Oil fiudiny him so jth^orbcnl in pnUtfw as tri lie 
hulifferenl to the intrigiii-s nT the Kchimnatir^j woulH have 
brrfi utterly mi-itakrr. On th« contrary, th«v \9 no doubt 
that the revolt In th^ Church wai a heavier blow to JuHm 
If, than any of his political reverse*. Although it was 
pTain that the attempts of the achismatica had completely 
failed, he oould not be ^atfnfied till the movement was 
entirety extirpated,* 

The winnintjm'cr of the Emperor was the crowning victory 
In Ihe rapid Miccessicin of the Tape's tmimphft, and w«* to 
be pnhliKhrd to atl th^ world The third sitting of The 
Council wa* held on the 3rd of Dwember. Though the 
Vo^c had lorg been ailingn and the weather w^s stormy 
«nd fminy, he was determined to be present at it. One 
hundred and eleven members atlcrdcd it The Hicli Mam 
WW aimg by Cardinal Vigcrio and the usual sermon 
preached by tlie Bishop of Mclfi, Uic subject being tlic 
amty of the Church. After this the SecrtUry of the 
Council, Tominaso Inghlrami, Then read the letter from the 
Emperor accrediting Langa* hi* plerlpotentiary and pro- 
curator at the Council, and denouncing the Conafiahtla 
wt np b)' the Kinp; of France at Toura and al Pisa, Lang, 
who appeared tn by attire, read a declaration from the 

Aupt^iini ErwniCir. Gtnrnk ■ de FfdfTr initcj inrtr hilivi Smidti 
I^XK. Ti^uL el lir. MAJiiimlidnd tmp£fniorcn^.j-ji^tf /. (piotntdy Ronu, 
ISra), iti 4-. 

• UappciTnAomth'^Ropomof th*» Venetian Envoy* in vhe ht|:innni; 
<rfDe(«nlber.iDSA^fL^0,XV„4^,^hlU Julius itiU feared ihjil a French 
Arc^-pc^ mi^hl he wt up. The lamc Krimrt* :i1wj shew {kc, fit, 344- 
j5o^ that hit fynx objccr m jllymg hinis^If with ^fanmiltin wu ity (hiiib 
acomplcBe vkloiy over tlie »<:] ibiiiutii-b. 



Emperor rcpudiMii^ the schimi of F^m, and announcing 
his adhcsioD to tbc Lalerait Council, and at titc same line 
maidc his proression of obedience to tlic Pope in hb <3^*4^| 
name and tliat of Ms colbagii« Alberto d» Caq^i. At ih^^ 
dose of the proceedings the Bishop of Fori! r(*ad a Papal 
Bull iigain declaring all the acts of the Fbtan Council noil 
and void, Uying France under Interdict, and ;tppointii 
the loth of December for the next sitiiTtg .• 

Encoura^d by' his recont successes, the Pope now <let 
mined to lay the axe to the root of the Khiflmatk m< 
Qicnt in France. It was decided that proceedings should 
be commencc-d «j.|;;iinst the Pt'igm^tic Sanction. It had, la 
fact, become urgently necessary to do away with tlu» law, 
which had be^ revived by Loub X H. No lasting triumph 
of the Church over these schismatic tendencies «-a« po»tbj^H 
as long a« it remained in forcc.t ^1 

The fourth srttifig of the Coundl was held under the 
presidency of the t'opc himself on the lOth o( Uccenci- 
bcr Nineteen Cardinals, 96 Pfttriarchd, Archbishops, and 
Bishops, 4 AbboU» and 4 GencruU of rdi|:iuu!t Orders 
were present, besides t!ic fcprcscntitivnt of the Enii>cfOf, 
theKingof Spair.lhc Flort-r tines, and the SwS^s Confalera* 
tJon, The first business was the reading of tlie letter from 
the Venetian Government of loth April, i;i2, accrediting 
Francesco Foscari n» their representative at the Council; 
and after this Louis XVs letter of 27th November, 1461,1 
On the abolition r^f the Pragmatic Sanction. Upon tlu^^ 
a monition was issued, summoning all upholders of d^H 

* Hi'JtGEWRj/nrivH, V\U.y $3$ sfg. Tlie Report in SAfarn\ XV^ 
359 '^-1 ^^ JfYx iliould be nd<!cd to ihc references ihcxe giten. lamg 
tud another convvrucion wiiti t);e J'ope ailer lh« lilting, and ch«o, 
niiliovt Tclumi[]jf' ui hk ropidcncc at ihc Onini Palooc on MoDie 
CurdAOO^ 3(Art«(l ixx once for Milan. L^c. eiLy J$4. 

f KSfiGDfai'jrHr.>, vni., 51I 



Sanciton in Frawre, wrlvrlhcr laymen or ccclcslafitlcs, to 
appear before the Conncil withtn flixly days to give an 
recount of thdr conduct. Tlw fifth siiim^^ of the Council 
was fixed for the I6th February, 1513, at the clow? of thia 
term, and at it the Tragmatic Sanction would be dc^lt with 
and resolutions in rcg&rd to it adopted, in Accordance vrith 
Canon Law. A special commission w^ appointed to 
institute tlic necessary {^rctlmmary investJgalJon*, Then 
a Bull was read confirming fanner Pspal decrees nn ihc 
Pragmatic Sanction, the nvllit}' of the acts of the PJsan 
Council, and the reform of ihe Court oll^cials. The address 
at this Coundi, the ln&l at which Junius 11- wn^ present, 
was delivered by the Apostolical Notary Crisloforo Mar- 
cello of Venice. It substantially consisted of an cnthti- 
aiastic panegyric on the Pope. "Julius d," the speaker 
said, "in a mo4t ju*t war against an enemy far atruuiicr 
than him*rlf, hatl perscn.illy undergone ihc cxtrnne* of 
heat and ccld^ all sorts of fatigues, slecple^^ iiightit, sickness 
and even danger of death without flinching. At his own 
expense, with unexampled generosity, he had equipped an 
army» liberated Jiolo^a, dri\-en the enemy (the French) 
out of Italy, subdMcd Ra^gio. ParniA^ and Piaccnza^ brought 
joy ^itd peace to hia country, and earned for himself an 
imiTioTtal name. Still gns^ler wa^ the ^luTy that awaited 
him at thi^ present lime in the worl;< nf ])race, the rcforni 
and exaltation of the Church, which wa^i gmanfng imdcr so 
many evils and threatened by traitor* within and enemies 
without; which had brought up children who Hcftpiscd her, 
and had so often poured forth her complaint in mournful 
chants, but now raised her eyes full of joy and hope to 
the hridcfiroom who had come to deliver her. The Pope 
would be hcT phytiicLanH pilot, husbandman, in short, her all 
in all, almost as though God were a^am on earth." * 
♦ HEACXiVROtKERt VIU., 518-531, iti refcmng To MorcelWi am- 



Certainly Julius IL hod £Co<t cause to be ntisScd villi 
tbc splcRdkJ successes of the UM half-year. Ncvcrtfackaa; 
both A5 an Italian and as a Pope, the prqwocleraxicc of 
Sfttin in Italy could not but fail to be a f>iurcc of anxiety 
and rcxatlon to him Tbc knowledge ch^l this w^^ 
" largely due to hk own action fnusl have fnade the trial aU 
the ^oatcr* and the proi|>ccC for the future was not itn proved 
by the fact that the heir-presumptive of ibe King of Spain 
was also hcir-^Jire^^umptiw of the Emperor in whose hands 
flO large a portion of Venetian tcnitory was now gathered'* 
In his near surroundines on all aides Julius could 
escape from the con«ciouaFnc» of Spanish tnflucrec. 
felt It In his dealings witli the Colonna, at Florence, 
S«ma» and In Piombinu, and an utterance of bb, preferred 
by Jovjus Khcvm how it galled him. Cardinal Gnmani, ia 
cofivervation with hitii one day, made an alliuton to tha 
fofei^ti soverein^nty in Naples and the I'opc, striking the 
ground with his stick, exclaimed : " If God grants mc Uk 
I will free the Neapolitans from the yoke ii4iich is now 
on their ncGks."t No duubt hi^ Ee^tlcsa spirit was again 




(:;.!dOll^ytaaie. wT^h had aJnody htm rm\ 
br '<3nB3rf It* 1^ L id tna. Uui., Sn jpcokinj of S. Pttci, is an 
oratorical ^^rv borrowed From i))t l^mj^ua^ of SchiXurc { Pt. LXXXI., < ; 
St- John, a^ EO, 34, 35)s /n Urrit ;idjointn|f /?fH> \ad\rstm th« llmi^H 
of itsapplicMion.'* On this jjV/jVr^, r^ also Saxvto, XV^4Tr *^^,a^^ 
KOaviBACnsA-K:titj'Vi±y, 4*3 i-y. The tnily Catholic Duk* Gwr^ 
of SiuoLiy, ilthouk'h not inviird Co the Council, fully mUiibiir ihai the 
reform of ihe Churcli nuld only be cAbrLTd in tbc ckscst unioQ witb lU 
centre, appocnicd the General of ihe JJommicani, Thorn** dc \"io (Caji 
10 .ii:t Ln bis PnxuMhir thrrc ((tji.- >iU Feb, isij) ; »« Brikoj 
Zeiuchr., IIL, to3,to6^. ; BUDO&K, Nik. von SdivnUrtf, ^ 

• KJiUMONT, ril^l, 4> 

f JOvius^ Vlu Alfonii, SaPfUTO* XIIl^ 319, 1^ vbrvs bnw miirli 
ibe povcrofSpnin via dreaded m Rometevcn ol thccndof t^tt. C/. 
also Gisi, £9 Mf . 



meditating new ciT'^rt^ And cntcr^jri^i:^ wIicti the body at 
last finallx broVc down. 

For a long time pail Julius M. haJ been a?Ung, He had 
never wholly recovered from his ^enoiis illness in August 
ijii, although his iron will enabled him to conceal his 
sufTcrings so effcctualEy that even tho^e who wt!rG constantly 
in contact with him were for aomc time deceived. At last^ 
however, he had to confess to himself that hia days were 
numbered. On the eve of Tcntccosl, 1513, he fell so weak 
after Virs^K^fs that he told hU Master of Ccrcmonic* 
that in futures he ivoiihl tioI attempt to officiate U\ solemn 
ftinction^j he ha<! not strength enough to go through the- 
ecremoniaL When some of the Cardirals congratulated 
htm on the frcshnes's of his complexion and liaid he looked 
younger than lie h^d done ten ycar^ earlier, he s^iid to de 
Grassjs: * They arc flattering me; I know better 1 ray 
strength difninishes Trom day to day and I cannot live 
much longer- ThCTeforc ! beg you not tu exi^cl me at 
Veipers cr at Mass from henceforth," All the same be 
took part in the procession on Good Friday. On the eve 
of the Feast of S, John the Baptist he made a pilj^rimag^ 
to the Church of S- I'ietro in Vincoli> which brouf^ht on an 
attack of fever.* 

At the end of November he paid one of those short 
visits to Osliaf which he always thoroughly enjoyed, and 
rett^med sn nmch refreHbed t!ial he wa^ able to attend 
the third and fnurch sittings of the Lateran Counrtf, Rut 
even then It was observed that the Pope was singularly 
restless. On the second Sunday in Advent he went to his 
Palace at S. Pietro in Vincoli t>ccau«c he could go out 

i Julius n. wpnt down i« 0^iv\ M'ith TJuig aotl Aome of ilic other 
on the trih Nov., 1512, r^rumidg to Rome on ist Dec> ^Acia 
C6n»st^ I j6- Conaiiloriiil AkIuvm of lli« Vatican, 


maroitv op the popes. 

walkinfi: there with greater freedom; but frovn that time 
forth he changed hb rcsjHcncc atmngt dally. One dAy be 
went to S- Crocc. the next to S"* Maria Ma^orc, thc^H 
bock to S. Lorcttxo fuon le Muin^or S, Eiuctno; strivin^H 
in vain to t?^;ipe from the «en«e of di-stmi which alw^ya 
ptif^ued lilm. On Christmas Eve. when V»rH de GnwstJi 
came to tell him that it was time for Vetper*, Julltis saU : 
" You had t>cttcr teli the Sacred College and the Sacri«£aa 
of the Palace to brmsi me the hoIy-oiU, for 1 feel very >Q|^| 
I shall not live much longer-" ■ ihc Master of Cere- 
mome3 could not believe that he was so ill a« he thought 
himself, but others, as the Venetian En\^/, saw plamly 
that his condition was venous, though his strong uri^H 
upheld liim and enabled him ^till to attend to afTairs a^^^ 
usual. At the erd of December one of the Captains of^^ 
Che Swiss Guarck predicted that the cmd was rot far off^^^H 
The health of the afjed Pontiff was no doubt unfavourably ' 
affecled by the constant vexati^,^ and arxieties caused b/j 
the Spanish preponderance in Italy. After Christmas 
was unable to leave bis bed. He could not nieep and 
liked all frjod, He was attended by eight phy?^icians con* 
ai:lcr(^(] the ablest in Rome, but none of thcrn conld find 
out the cause of his malady.J ''The Pope 1% not exactly 
ill," writes the Venetian Envoy on the t6th January, 151 
" but he has no appetite ; he eats nothing but two egg!i 
the whole day; he haj? nci fever, but hi* age makea 
condition ::Gtious; he is harassed with anxictira.' 


* pAais Dit GiUESis, cd. DailiA^r, 436-437. 

f Sanuto^XV., ^ij. ^49, 

t Vah\& DE GKXsath, cd. Dul linger, 4=7- Here ic l» dlftinctty Atatcd 
ibaT tTie Fop« h3.d bcrn x\l, ind kej^t Ht htd ever nnce ChnMcas ; 
IbuA DBOsCH> Juliui IL. =7$, is ccnnpLctcly ia error in vritlnie, "In 
(he lut da.y% of January^ iji^ ifcq PQp«i tfatc «ev«nly ycAn ol< 



Addition to bis unccrt^mty as to what Kint; Ferdinand 
mpani 1o do, Julius H. had ri^^sun to fear ihc Swits 
were prcp:inng to ally thcmscivcs with France;* 

All the cfTortfi or the physicians failed lo r<rliQ\-e the sWp- 
Ic$snc«s and want o( apiJClitc, Though Uie>' recommended 
Siii much rest as poii:iiblc, the l'opc» trusting in the strength 
of hia consltuitzon, vi'ould not give up his work, and received 
both Cardinals and Riivoy?' while in bed ; | but he did not 
conceal the Irulh Hrunk liimaclf that he wa^ alowly passing 
away. On the 4tli a( Febniary Iil' callL-d Paris de Gratis to 
h!a bed-f4ide and told him with great srf iousness anri resigna- 
tion that his end wag very near ; he put himself into Gods 
hands, rtcovevy was out of the question; he ih^nVed God 
for rot taking him away suddenly, a^ had b(.^cr the case 
with so manyof hisprccleccBSors^ and giving; him time lo re- 
collect him?iclf and die Ukc a Christian and make hb disposi- 
tioTU for time and eternity. Me liad confidence, he said, in 
dc Gvaa^iij and believed that be would faithfully Ciirry out 
al! his wishes. In rt^anl to hi^ funerJ, he desired that it 
should not be penurious, but at the same time that there 
should be no pomp or display. He did not deserv a honour*, 
for he had l>een a great sinner; but, neverthi^less, he wished 
to have all tl^inj:;s ordered decently and rot to be treated 
in the unseemly manner that some of hin prcdeGC:)»or3 had 
been, lie would trust all thcje matters to the discretion 
of hia fditbfal iervanL He tlien gave orders on all 

* ihANUTO, XV-, S^f, 505-504. b«nvbo ftJw) flays ItiAt liit »ppr«' 
heiufcDfl io regard m the ctvant of tvenit In Itnly lutstcnrd JulJm^ 

t Saxuto^ XV., S31-5J3 : '/ 547 : FiUKPtf^i. Erdbdj Bak^ci 
Tiunls, i3i. S<«ji]t(i(h? Portumirse Rt-pcin In Corp. DipL Pioii,,!^ 187, 
Artd Ludovkva (Le Ctrti|rif Krc^tAu'» *LctceT to tho Do^^ of G^cjOsi, 
d»ed Rome, the STod Jan,, 1513, (Slate Archivn, Uencm.) Rom*, 
1^i«re. Miteio^ I. 

vol- VI. 2 y 

454 flBTOKT OP ntE fOftSL 

DO^KitfBod A fBQi oi nMmcy to be prvco Id Acojy pncsLi tc 
«y Uu» far h» MoL* «■ 

Oa tfac tocfa SovcflAer IIk Veaetita Emof tcporb tfit^ 
- tlic Pofic hu lUfcriaf 6t3» and o^otiftdaRs arc ^n^^ 

b^nmnnc fov the c iw i c e o< bxt sson^tnc- ( be o^* 
In a fcy n ieii L bat tbe Cardinab hook sTnixgcni pcveaniiotts' 
to prei emg order. In the foHovteg cU>-& the Pcspe grvm 
vorw, but OtU did not quite ghre hunself op^ He ^ac 
able to five ordon for eraytkiBC wiucb concerned the GIUi 
fljttuig of tbe CoQDCil <oo the i6th FchrwyX nd made it 
ft ipecUS point thftt induintlnetbcordtfkftiKCflfotdicprc- 
vcatioo of Minony m Pftpftl ckctioas AbottH be re-cnACtedftnd 
nude more stringent- On the 19th de Gra»b cune to bim 
(o Irftrn his viiihcs as to the daccoflfae next sitting, "f found 
hU Holiness," be tsiys, " looking quite «d! and cheerful, sa 
jflie bad had little oc nothiog the mattfr wi^ hun. Wben 
I expreiicd my «urprUe and jo>' at this, and oonj^nttiUted 
Nin. he anan'cred smiEing* 'Yc^cfday 1 was ver>' near 
dying, to-day I am well agaia* He replied to all my 
c]uc:ition« as far as he could. He was anxioti^ that the 
Council should be held t^n the appointed day. whalcvvr 
miKht happen, in order noc to put off the term fixed ft»^ 
the lubmimion of the King of France and hi* adherents 
but the Ai;»emb1y wax not to deal with ^ny matlcra except 
those which had been arranged for at the prgcodinfr fie^ifon- 
Cardinal Kjano wai to preside as Dean ol the Sacred 
College. He then granted Indulgences to mc and mine, 
and, to shcvf mc how well be felt* a^kcd mc to drink 
l^lass of Malvoisie with hiuL When 1 told thU to |] 

• ?aJUS DC CRJiMiK, cd. UaLHnger. 43ii. 

t Satitno. XV., ss*i iSS- On 1^ fxiiiement in the biy, tm 
]tC|3on of the Swls4. R Falk in Aax. i. SOtyrtau C«Kb. itdgaX 






Canlinata, who wcrtr wtcpinf;, thinking him ai ihc point of 
death, they coa]d h;irdly believe mc.** 

The improvement, however, was only transitory* ;ind the 
fiiithful cic Gra^isis now rcTidcfcd to his mnstrr Ihc L<i:st 8nd 
kincirsT uf 5en-k(."s- Hitherto Ihc Pope's atTcndants^ in clrcad 
of alarming him, had put off sending fortlic Holy Vjallcum. 
De GriissU now insUted th^t this should be done, and he 
relates how the Pope, having previously made his confes- 
sion, received the Holy Eucharist on the 20lh oi February' 
with the greatest devotion-f After thi^, Julius JL hud all 
the Cardinals summoned to hi* bed-side, and be^ed for 
ihcir earnest prayers &s he had been a great stnncr and 
had not ruled the Churdi as he ought to have done. Mc 
admonished them to fear God, and observe the precepts of 
the Church. He desfr^d Thpm to hoH rlie election in strict 
aecordanee with the Uw and the prescriptions in his Bull on 
the subject. The eleetion belonged to the Cardinals only, 
the Council had nothing to dc with it All absent 
Cardinals, with the exception only of the schismatics 
were to be invjtcd to take pari in the Conclave. In his 
own i>cr3on he for^ve these latter with hJa wliolc heart, 
bui as Pope k was his duty to exclude them from the 
Conclave. He said a1) These llitngs in l.atin, tn a grave 
and impressive manner, as though he were addre^tng a 
Con^tOfy. Then, in Italian, he expressed his wisli that 
the Vicariate of f esarc should be granted in perpetuity to 
the Duke of Urbino, After thi5 tie bestowed his Ble^slnf^ 

* Paris im Giussts, rtl n^itjn^r, 4^9-430. There i« .1 ifinfmiftn 
here in ibc thicnvkigifiil oidci- 

* PaveIS nx CKAi^Sl^ cd. UfilUnuior, 431-433. The PartuffUOM 
Report, iliough «ssemiaT1y in ngmm^iit vith that of the Mjii(«r of 
CoTTBTiiicSt (Irflcrs ilrehltym uiyinK tlial Julius at fjist rtfiittd the Viaii- 
cwm, bui af!er»ards, on Sun day, 2wt February. a»k«d for 1 1 ^Lini«Zf, He 
ftlv>ny%ftiAl h« cammiiitiriAEfrl with ^^n-ni ilr?vii(n)fi ; Corp. IS^ipl Knrtug^, 

( I, ia9-'Q0. Cf. SaWUTO, XV., 560, 565. 




on the Candbuib: d1 wcfc in tears* indading the Pi 
htfTHclf.* He m«l death vtth wonderful caHnne^ii aod 
fttadfostnea of soutf He r«fo«ed to accf-de xa taatc oihct 
wbbes expncDwd by fuK reTatioa« : thmking only of the 
good of the Chorch. In hU last hours bts ftttcndaou 
Ka%'e him a drai^ht cootamtnf; a solutton of f^ld, which 
had been pronounced to be an unfAiling spcdfic b>' one 
of the quacks of that day.J Dunag the niisht of the 
SGth-iist Fcbniar>% 1513, his strong spirit pasacd 
clcAT Atid coiksdous to the last.§ 

The body was Immetliately laid out In S. Peter's^ 
aAerwardi placed besid*? the remains of Sivius IV. We 
arc told that the people floclced to S. Peter's in exira- 
Ofdinary numbers, and an c>'i>wIiqc«s sayv that as mu<h 
honour wan paid to the corpse as if it had been the bod>' 
of S. Peter himscir.O ** Komc fdt that the soul whu 


* P^usDE Gjmssa IB Kayaaldoi^ ad aa. 15C3. a. 7'^aDdGA' 
Cus 4i4-4J^ Mttft Convsu 1 37t^ (QrobUiml Ardiiv^ The'j 
luocntani Julil pupic in the Acu Tonuc, 11^ 192-195, m put di»c^ 
coQiiadicti Miinc of d* Gnmu* fCilementSi and ■ evidently Ji bier cocn- 
pn&rkm. ThclontffcpfTcliinl^EiiNAi.niLt, IL,44ZJ<y',i«<>3k<}mLiucbcntii:. 
A. FtMkOH^M, Vita Ludo^d XII , aUo A^ds a good deal of uahtftiincal 
«nbfDHlery Ui C>«i bit words of JUriit tl., a fkd Bfd4^h UiriH-rftX, VI It, 
ia4j:^-,luuiii>io])iiciivfL Far a f^odd cdikum oa Fcnmust ^RaM 
2ur Khiik, t^a^K^, 

f Veneuui Report of the int Feb. m UfiOTCR. JaluuH, 363, 
SAMJrOl XV]-, t 4- C/ olw SCNARCCA, 6i3-tiiM* And LVZKX F. Ikai^ 

I Seethe Mnntnin Report in nnnwnovrrs '^H'^r tO7-<o0. ed« 
vid Lt~^iQ» F, Cioniagn, 31. 

^ Tahis i>e Ciias»S, «d Dolbn^r, 433. Cf. Sahvto, XV^ ff?, j6l 
Lhn conmnpontnenui notice in Gori, Aif^hivkx IV^ 344 : Ltltcs cle 
LouttXIL, IV„ sS; and *Acbi C^iituiLt Ar^. iiV. Conwtorinl Aniuvo 
of die Varifiui, 

II Spt itw "RiTpon i>f N. Gadk^ 3rd March, i}!^ Goaai^ Archivck 






lascd ffom her bad been of royn] mould."* Paris dc 
GrAsiiA wnlcs in hia Diary ; " 1 Save lived forty years in tJiis 
dty, but never yet hav>e t seen such a vast throng at the 
fuiwrsl at any former Pojje- The guard* wew overpowered 
by the crowds tn^stmg on kissing the dead man'f^ fcct- 
Wceping, they prayed for his soul, caLlini; him a true Pope 
Qnd Vicar of Christ, a pillar of justice, a zealous prornotcr 
ol the Apostolic Church, an enemy and qucllcr of tyrants. 
Many even to whom the death of JuUus miijbt have been 
supposed welcome fox various reason?! burst ititQ tears, 
declaring that this Pope had ddivered them and Italy and 
Christendom from (hi! yoke of the P'retich barbarian*. '" f 

The chronicler Sebastiano de Branca apealf»i of Jiilitit in 
the aame lone.^ But it vva& not in Rcmc only that Julius 1 1 
va^ popular; the gri^itt ser\'iced which he had rendered to 
the Holy See were lai^cly appreciated in the States ot 
the Church alio, as may be seen from the eTithuaiaHtic 
pr^fle« bestowed on lilm by Bontempi of PerugIft-5 

At the •iBinc tlmrf. Ilnrrc were- many who jiid^jL'd lijm very 
difTerently. A mati who had played such an energetic and 
effective part in the affairs of his time could not fail to have 
bitter opponents, who, as was thecustomof the day, assailed 
him after hia death with stinging satires ;i| but setting 

* Gar^oaoritTs, vm„ jDB,ed.3. 

t Paris de GkiBSis, cd, D^llmgcr, 431, who has not found out Lbat 
thic ppiiitijjrc hsu\ hpf^n printed lon^ ago In nATTici;^ 43S''436- 

1 Crkjohtok. IV., 1^7. 

Ji Fonc'onlocon IftLicnmt af(i' occbi ^eongran doLore n«] cuore come 
pajQ Giulio para6 da qimiA vira prueniCr La ciri vim quanco ^in nam 
Uudabilc cl unuicvolc a\\n Seda Aptniol'i^ c u lutU Im Cnsiianil^ e U 
sua ir^rtv qurinto tix pcriiiCEOiii, mai (fire n pcftru, « qnanto abbiA «cul- 
ULtO Ifl ChicKA di Dio e ]« cilti'i, <]mi!e lui ha riru^irr^Co alU iirrtsiji 5edt 
Ap. cbca tutto ilmijiulo t iiUu An:h- Slor, iial.> 1 Scrie» X\' I^ a. 263. 

It Cy.SAinno, XV., 5&T J^. ; ROBCOTt 11.39; N, Amtolofii* (iBg^^ 
pp. 35 f/^, S3B f/^, Th^ hf%t knnwn puqamnrle nn Juliits IL 11 ihe 



aside this and similar cbullLtions of part/ hatred, tlierc 
no doubt that the verdfct pronourccd by man)' sm 
hNtonans on Juluis 11. has been the reverse of favourable 
while it U aUo extremely questionable wJiether this veidi 
haa been well-grounded- 

Jt is certain thai the very general acceptance ofGuiecia 
dinVs dictum, that Julius II. had nothing of the pnc^t in 
him but tiic cassock and the name, is an inju^ticcn Wh 
the Plorentfne lii^^torian made use of the phrase, he 
teltlnj; the story nf the Pope's winter campaign again 
Mirandola.* Undouhtedly at thai time Jnliiis 11, w. 

u'ork cnLiElcd: F, A. K, I'ocinc Kc^i libcllus de obilu JuliJ P. )X. An 
Uommi tjij <rcpi(nird in Hl'itcm, ^^PP' iV., ^3I j^.). This work" 
a cvidvncly written from a Fi^uicb point of view ; by many HittrcD w« 
au]>po)CiA Eo 1» iu ATiilmr (^/. i^THAiTSs, Htiticn, 75, td. i). Luthcf 
atirbuted it to Erasmuiif who dMiin it in a \^itti to Cainp«ggv> Frvm 
(hib IctLcr i\i: K^^licr thai even tlicn llicie waa ^cii uiJiciliuDty jia M 
nl\o had wriacn it *'Soine iay° Er]Ut1^ua wriicif '* J/isf'^nits ftfSdojn 
compote*^ Jt, otheis ascribe it to tht (k»i Fauitu^ AnJraJmt, olhrix to 
O- Elnlbi ' i he b&^ ntailp i^uviy cnijuiTir-s bui iu.-a gti nn iciuin an&wcr^ 
Recent invdti^FUors h^ive been equally unsuocciiful The AH<m 
raLflnlatOroTtbih Dialogue (J uliut It- KinGftpR&ch vofd«f Kfmm«lgthur* 
ininiUird from ibc LiEin of G- Balbi. BcJliii, 1877) aunbuin h wj 
any proof <o tlto Uisbop of Curb, wh^ Bblbi't t^ORiTipbtr, (Utnr, 
cludc«)i)««vnmtniirinni«ithAVjiAfu^/- Gci^cr inrrbnu towards Efanmut, 
wlio nat bcHevrd Ijy monyof hf^cuuteoiponuietiEoluirc been the autiioi 
iM V'lcnclfjLhnadmft fiir Tlcniiu., II., 131. The ttuai probable h 
Ihr^i* Hi^i'ms to hf thai i( wsi wmten by Ihe pfirl Pnhlio FaiiilO 
Audiclinu .>ti mxietii tHfUwii vf ihc FiciH.!v *iilt whine opuiiun* t^c 
pcuqaiiude a^nvs^ see Giom* d. l«ea Iml^ XIX,, iSK. FOASTSR, 
Ludaa in d Il«nai»-, iri ehe Arvbcv t Uir>n«K<;h-, XTV-, J44, 361 
(Upds, iflfi6), thinks it cenain- K»o:>, Die JhblbUick m Sclilotlauidt, 
loS (S^hlcTtitatit, iSS^X ia indinoci to taW th« ttmo vmv, bot bit 
arifTiHwntB, a« Geioer m the ?*it»r^hr, f- »^rgl, Lll,.Ge«ch., 1 
pDLEiti ouv. .lie nuL entirely umvxncinK- 

* Ut7fcCMKMxi, JX,, C.4. Th« ifooenJiiuition of the remark 
due lotht^ pa^tfigein Greoobovius, VIM., 67, 108, ed. 3. 





carried away by hia eaifcr temperament to violate the 
iifcffnttn clertcit/f in a scandalous maTincr, an<l dcRcrvc;^ 
gntvc blame for this as also for ihc violent outbtirsta of 
angcf to which he 50 oftca gave way,* But to a.i»crt In & 
general way that Julius was " one of the most profime umi 
unrcelrsiastieal figures that ever ocoipird the Chair of 
S, Peter," that " there was not a trace of Christian piety to 
be found in him/ and that he w;** so utterly worldly and 
warlike that he cared nothing for eccle^iaslicfll obligations 
or interests* b quite unwarrantable and untruc.f 

The Diary of hi» Ma^nter of CercmoniesH i'aris de Grasais, 
who was by no means blind to his niastcr'^ failin^:^- shews 
in numberless places how ^ithftilly Julius II. fulfilled 
his ecclesL^tlcdl oblf^ations. As far as hh h^th would 
allow he was regular in ht* attendance at all the nffices 
of tlje Church; he heard Mass almost daily and often 
celebrated, even when travelling and when the start took 
place before daybrcakn After his illness in 1510. when 
still unable to $tnnd, he did not permit his wealcness to 
prevent him from saying Mass on ChHstmas Dayn and 
cclcbri^ted sitting, in his private chapel ] lowcvcr occupied 
he might he uith political affaiis. Church fiincttons ^cie 
never neglected.* In cvcrylhing (hat regarded thcgoicrn- 
ment of the Oiurch he was equally exact. His name is 
connected with a whole »erie» of ordinances and admtn- 

• Cf. SH^fA, jfc 340 Xff?P» and p- 397, Juiiii? alto Binned from time tD 
liinc agKinii rlei^ml rtecnrtim hy going nui hunting. B\it Mauu))^ 
MmJuavcIII, Ih, 273t is wronK in wppoainj? itut fishing i» abo a for- 
bidden rccrcalJon (or Ihv clcf^y. 

t Ghfi^orovius, VIIL, \o&, ed 3; Giu,qi; and TMrUACJtBkT, j, 
Q^, AktaUD dk MoNToa, IV„ iij. 

: PAftB OE Gtufisu, «d Fraii, 33, 34. 37. 3*1 43» 4^ 5*. 7^ 7*- 
79-So,ga, 101. 103, lus. 108, (09, 119, 111. 133, 124, iJSi'a7, 138, IJ^ 
■ jMjSi NJ. 149. 151* <*7. 15** ^<>U '^ *7lt I9^3CM, 307,333,337, 

333, 141. 343. 356, ae«> 370p a?!, ail, i»6. 



i-itrativc enactment^ some of ihcm ol conslderafckh* im^ 

Amongst them one that specially de^ervc^ mentior is hu 
acvtrc Bull i^f^ainst simony in Papal elections, designed to 
prevent the repetition oi the <li3^raccftil praakcs whiOx 
ivcrc resorted to At the clcaion of Alexander VL Thin 
docuniCDt U dated the t4Lh January. i>05. ItiJcclarcsall 
siinontacal clecltoti^ from Itciiccfbrtl^ null, 4iid pronounces 
the «[Tvrrpst pennltic^ of the Church on all guilty of Mich 
practices. Ftiither, it ordalna that all intermcdiaHeft aiid 
aj;enl5, whettier Uy or clericalj and whatev-er their rank, 
whether Prelate^ Archbishops or Buhopt, or tCnvoyf of 
Kings or StAte&> who arc impi icfitcd in a simoriocal election 
are to bfi deprived of their digniticfi, and llicir floods are to 
l>c confisCAtedn The Bull forbids all promise* or engai^c- 
aienu lo be conliactcii by Canitn^b or any olhei' persons 
in coniiectifjn with » P^ipnl election and d(!i:tarc.<i lUcsn null 
and void .• This Rull wbs not pnbllsh^H illl Ociober 151a 
from Boloftna at the bt>'p[innin(i of the nar with France, and 
when it had been approved of by nil the Cardinals then 
present; it wa:^ then sqtM to nearly all the Princes of 
Christ endom.t At IHl' Latcran Council it waa a^in 
approved, re-enacted, and published a» %s stated in the I^lU 
of i6ih February. isij-I 

In order to cany out ntore effectually the ineaHurCH t4ltm 
liy Alexander Vt, In 150J for providing the new AmcricAn 

• Bult, v., 4o> '<V' » KavNjUhDvs, ad aa. 1 506, o. ^ fff-i PAftiS oB 

GlUUSlS, rd, Frail. 214 aiv- ; SAokCLLSK* Paf^l^ilru, 7 n^' 
Pkillii^ v., 2, 839, cnroAco-JE^Iy pUcci die Bull in the fcKT 1506, 
alLhoogh Mann had alrtady confluhL-xvl^F ^iiahlr^twil iu dnE* is jpj. 
On the Theo1o£utn« who diew up ihc BuJl^ 6ce Inpsbr. ZcJuchr L 
KtiUiot- Tlicol'4 tV.) 341 jf^, i StiirKncn aus Muiii'IjuLcbtVLt 413 ) 
llie MoTtih fManJj, i^$), p. 354 t/^. 
i SAStjt<s XL, S3i> ; HEaCKfaOTHER. VIIJ., 53i nu*^ 



Colonies wirh Bishops, Julius H> in 1504 created an Arch- 
bishopric and two Bishoprics in E^pai^ola (M^iyttl and 
nominuied prelates to thc«e sees ; but the fiscal policy 
ofFcrdiniincl placed all sorts of difficulties in the way of 
the acndtng out of the new ly-ap pointed Di^hop.s and after 
long delay and much icdioiis ncgottcition Julius nt litst gave 
w^y in order not to interrupt the work of conversion. By 
a Papal Brief of ihe Kth of August. 1511, the arr*iiK'^"»*^^"l* 
mudc in j^txi were cancelled, and two new Bi-shcipriot 
erected in S. Domlnffo and Concepion de la Vega in 
E^panola, and in S. Juan in J'orto Rico, and placed under 
ihQ Archbishop of Seville, which was the seat ci the 
administration tor the colonics* When in 1 506 Christopher 
Columbus tlic great di:;Goverer who had done so much to 
enlarge the sphere of the husbandry of the Church died* 
Julius 11. interested himwlf i;i favt>Lir of hia son Diego at 
IIjc CnUTt of Spain + 

The Pope equally took pafna to promote the spread of 
Christianity in the regions discovered and acquired by 
the King of Portugal beyond the sc;is,I to which in^iny 
(ni»ionaries were despatched. Preachers were <cnt to 
India^ Ethiopia, and to the CongOn In the year 1513, 
Envoys from the latter pT^ce arrived in Komc-S For 
A short lime Julius 11. cherished mtignificert hopes of 
the conversion uf Ismail the Sh^h of Persia, and tried 
to induce the King of Hungary to intercut htinielf in 

• C/: Bol*Ua de Ta ft. Atademii de Madnd, XX (1893). rrrtr t/'^., 
373 Jt^^ :9i j^^. iind Euiti-E*S ^dc died iit^r*. p, iGt. Jtiliiu con- 
^LFfTwd the pitrlition of ihiH <:;ilonKL| poun^ion afrcfid upon bctvcm 
Spain and l*iimiga| in ilie Treaty of Torttt^ilbpe an thf iph Jan.. 1 506. 
Sec BAlT>f, j6. 

t Ravvaldub, nd an. 1507, n. 33; HMcctxw^TMKH, VllI, 

t ScuArKE,!!].. 85p 



the queatFon, but tliew! bright dreanifi were >oon dl 
pel led* 

The Popt* shewed his interest In the maintenarc^ of the 
purity of the cloctrinet of tli« Church h/ appointing: Iri<iui*i- 
tors for the Diocese of Toul,t for the Icinf^dom of Naples^ 
and for Bcncvciito.§ and admonishing them to act «rit^^| 

lie intcic&icd hi'm.sclf in the conversion of the Bohcmia^^ 
sectaries, and to facilitate this pcmittied tlicin to take pai^| 
in Catholic wonthip. On the other hand, he took stmng 
meAftitrei; to put down ther PicardsJi A new doctrine; pirt 
forward b)' Picro de* Lucca^ on the Incarnation of Chmi, 
■wxu carefully examined by the Pope's orders, with the rcMilt 
that it was solemnly condemned on the yxh September, 
i!;ti.^ In Bologna in t;o8 a heretical monk who had 
been guWly of sacrilege was burnt** Jn Swilicrland four 
Dominicans who had imposed on the people by fal^H 
niifactc-s were execuled by his orders; and in Rome irt^^ 
1503* and again in iji^.hrtnok measures to rrpre*t» th 
MaraiUs^ff In Spain and elsewhere he did hi« best to 

♦ Ztwketseh, li^ssr- 

t Bull. Ord, fraedir^lV., T17. 

I ^Letter 10 Bam^tba [Capojcru^ol ord. pmedic m re^o Hi 
hertt pr&vil Ln<]UMtl. Uju, 1L t,(34lh Apnl, t^o;}. *Ub hrvr. 1^ f. 
(Secret Archivin of ilrt Vaiicm.) C/. AUAWUt f „ ^ tt^^ 

£ *Let(cr to EkniivolLu " conimbs. ncMlcr^" dared the ^91)1 July, 1 34 
•Dh. hffv. 35, f. J49. Firrrel Archivri of ihe V-Vima 

li Q: HHKGENtornrk, Vill,» 5jO, and Picrut. NluiiuUqicci, 45> 

♦♦ SAXU'n*, VIU }9y 

!.i 1S7- Cfi «1h> RAVf ^tjivi, Ad nn. I jo9i n- a>, and en thcnf hypocmy 
JAHSHIM, Krjiiker, I, i;. *nd DeuE«cli« Geich,, II., 53 sff^ ed ij. 
S'kSCtmx XV., ziO, tncni'totin a hcrciiLjil hook vhjdt w»» cmniined by 
Uic Pop«'i oTvkrc, ty. alto FRBDEttiCQ, Coqx Uoc- Inquuiu ^Huf, 
18X9), n- |rr, jjirl llrv. Hi«i-, XUIL, r6j, 169. 

ms orpoeiTioN to tbe span[Sh iWQmsiTiov 44^ 

ft stop to UTijiist or too severe proceedings on the part of 
the [inquisitors" 

In Sicily the Spanish Inquisition had been introduced In 
1500, and in 1510 Ferdinand tried to establish it in NapfeSr 
but met with a determined resistance. Serious disturb- 
ances ensued ; the nobles and citizens combined together 
in opposing it, and the King, not reeling himflclf 5trong 
enough to carry the ma^t^ through, gave way. Julm% 11- 
gUdly agreed lo Uiis/jii fact, the clTctt uf thc^^Spiniali 
Inquisition was only m^iminish his authority ; lind it is 
not certain that he may not have encourag^d^tffr Neapoh* 
tans in their opposition.! He resisted tlie encroachment 
of tlie State on the liberties and rights of his Church, not 
only s.t Venice^ but in many other places also, and in con- 
sequence came into coUi^ion with the Government in 
England, in the Netherlands with the Recent Maj^arct, 
in Spain with Ferdinand, with T»ui» XII. in France, and 
witli the rulers of Hungary. Savoy, and orhrrR.§ 

Julius n, wft<i by no means blfnd to the need for reform 
witliin the Church. On the 4th November, 1 504. the subject 

*" "Aco Hrpkli^ Xiii)«ne9, ,^i6- C/. th« 'BTieT— Kertdno Fueino 
f .^iDco r The Inqunimn who have lieen rrdravourini^ [» fVUiTl ;in 
It £retm ihc [jctUioncr on n false luspicion, arc forbiddeft 
fiuther against hini. as lie i= prepared lo clear hinutltf OD 
ftath, Daf- Bonon, t;o6, f>tf. rj, A 4\ (•Lib. brtv- ;;, f, ^ok) C/. 
Aiao ihc *Biicf of the 5tli Nov., 1509, 10 Ann^nmt ai^hicp, (f liinJil. <t 
cmsfl- ccniilU jptiMnli* inquiftit. ngw>r. Ci^ielle ti LegSomg. *Lib. 
brev- 27. f. 730^ Sprrri Ar*-hivpi nf the Vatican. 

t AMAblLE, llTuitikillo Napolitaxiodriranno l5loconiia b S. Inqui»i- 
rione (Napoli, [iiSHj,fLnd it Santo Ofiiiio, ]^ 93 tff^ 100 /ff>. lltL r/f, 

t Sec Ji^rttf }0I M/, 

S C/. BuscH» iWon, I., 3jK: Bbosch, ifrj ; RAVNAi-r>D», arf an, 
1505, n. JO ; *CJhi brev, a5^ t 43, 6f», C7\ 110 ; also jfi, f, js- (Secrti 
Ajtfii\'ej of the Vaticwi.) C^ also 'Brirf orf iKh March, isoj, in ih« 
StHtf Archiv**, Floitmcft 




vits discuss*^ in ConsUtory, a»d a Commission of six 
CardinaU appointed to d^^d with it; but thoi« who w-ere 
behind the scenes were of opinion that the only pr3Cti<ai 
point to ivhich the Commission mc&nl to ^vc their atten- 
tion WAS the prevention of -iny fresh creation of Car- 
dinalsl* The exccplioucd difficulties, both political and 
ccde?iUHlica1. with wliidi Julius vta^i br^ct on all mi 
throughout the whnic of his rcJgti, drove the brger qi 
tion of reform into the background ; but they did 
hinder him from instiiuting many useful and salutary* 
changes in individual cAiies, especially in oon^'ttnts- The 
Pope shewed hi& strong interest in the Dominican Ordc^^ 
by a series of enactments for the renovatioii of their coil^| 
vents in Italy\ Trance, and Irciand,'^ He Inrbadc Oommi* 
can and Franciscan friars who were pursuing their studies 
in Uniircrsilica to reside out uf their tonvcnt^.J He e^tab- 
li«ihed the (^ingrcg?itinn of S. Ju^dina on a new footii 
which was of the greatest advantage to it The veneraM? 
mother-house of the ISenedictined^ Monte Cajcsino, which 
had been bestowed in commindam, was returned to the 
Order during lus Pontificate. In the year 1504 he ordained 
that the Congregation ofS- Ju^tina should from henceforth 
bear the nameof CongrcgiatLoCa^^iaensifi -% and In 1506 he 
aJHIiatcd the Sicilian Congregation al.'io to Monte Ca^AnoujI 
His plan for minititiij the separated branches of the 
Onler (if S, Francis irlo a single body wa* one which ako 
tended fn the direction of reform. The difHcultiec, how* 

* Di^ptuxi di A. Giusiiauw. IIL. 3^16; cf, 2t^, 30q^ 

f Bull OnL Pmcdn tV., 317, ;i^, m, i^\. 741. m. a6a^ 163, 1 

Cy th« *Bri«f 10 ihe viranu^ giMivnitii Fiatr. |>niedirat. d*t 

■ S07, Jaa, 23^ "Ufa. brcv. 15, t 133. 
t Hull. \^, 47a «ff. 

3 KaihfaikOSto), tiioj; Stud, a, (t B«A«d]1fiinfron]en,Xt,, 5»> 
II Bullof i3U) July, iso6,in thcSuitcArdiivci, Palermo. S. Ma 
,^U« 501^0.913. 




cvxr, tn the wAy of cntrying this out prrwcd so grc*il. that 
he was forccci lo corlcnt himself *ith ohliginj^ all the 
&iiift]1ersep9irsteconiinuailii?s to tinilt' llicmM^tv^s with one 
or other qT the two main stems, the Conventuals or the 
01»crvafi tines. At the s^mc timv he expressly ord^tircd 
thit Xhoi^ which utfiliated themselves to the Convcnttifits 
should ha^-c power to retain their stricter niie. Though 
moat of the smaller communities very much disliked this 
measure sttll all finally .submitted to the Pope's commnnd.* 

A Bull WAS issued on the xClh June, 1508, dealing with 
the reform of the Carthusians* and another on the 34th 
March, 1511, with that of the Italian Clstercian«,t 

In England Julius IT took measures for remedying the 
abuAefi connected with ecclesiastical immumties,! and in 
BfUlc he instituted proceedings against the Ai^ustinian 
nuns of Kling[C[ithal for imirOfality,§ Many enactments 
were i«5iicd to put s. stop to the proceedings of unauthorLscd 
persons who went about demanding mo[iey in the name of 
the Church-li He also did what he could for the cause of 
morality in general, by the unfailing support and en- 
couvagement which he bestowed on the outfpolcen mission 
preachers, who did so much good amongst the mass of the 

All the religious orders found in him a kind and help- 
ful friend. The Order of S. John Gualbcrt of Vallombroaa, 

* GulUU&II in Wooe uod Welte's KirchenloK, L, 67a, t± ^ Cf, 
■fan EtTAEi.. C.tttih. d. Minnrltc^npmviT]^ 37£. 

t Bull, v., 460 Jr?., 49^ JfV' 

I /h'J., 404 <!f^. 

j In fl ■liritf of 7*lb Mafrh, 1 $0% lo Tin? RLirKOnuiSl'fr Aiid Cotincll 
nf Hulc )u!iu4 Il> infunnk Lliciii iluki lie ha> put the ncfom^ of Klinipcn- 
thai into the hands of BHhop Qiristopbvr of HaiIo, Archivci, Bailfi, 
aS40^ A. 

Ij ^UUbrcv^a;, C154. ^94- Secret ArchivM of die Vaticui. 
T Sc©Vd.V.cfthi«work,p. JSo,aoc<*- 





ihc HcncfticHnc Congrcffation of the BIcttMKi Virgin 
Monic OHvcto. ihc AiigustinUn ilcrmils and the Rcgu] 
Canoiis of S. Augustine were spccidly favoured by lui 
jtnd received many privlle^n. lie confirmed the rale 
ihc l'>aTici;ican S(M;iet/ nf S. Jtilin cif Gturfrlupr 
Grenada and the npw Statutirs nf S. Francis dc Paula, an<l 
«eitled many disputw between various religious congrega- 
tions. He had a great lilcing for religioufl orders generally. 
During the Lateran Council many of the Bishops stroni;^] 
ur^ed him to take away some of tlidr priviicifei, but 
he steadily refused.* 

Amon^t other ecclesiastical acts of Julius II., we maj 
mention here the revival of the constitutions of Bonifac^^ 
VIU^ f^un IL, and Inniicenl VfU ffftrbKldmg pprsot^f 
artpolnled to benefices to cycrcl*ic any rights of ecclesf- 
aitkal jurisdiction or ad mi nitration until they had 
received their Apostolic Letters;! his ordmancea Of^ain^ 
duelling; I and for promoting de^-otion to ^ Am 
the Holy House at Loreto.ii the. Passion of Chrt$t5 
the BIcMcd Saciamcnt;** and the introduction of the 
Procc&ac£ for the Caiioniaalion of Bishop Benno o( Mds«cu 
mil S- Francis tic raijla.'f+ 

* FordriAilh vc- HK-KCinrvnoTHKR, VIU . 5J7 The eQUhni 
Juliiu JI- in FCK^id to Oi^crj of Chivdiy aic ia RavsialiiU^ ad 
I5oS,n, 6j Ij07,n. 39. 

t BulL.V., 4o8j»7- 

t Bull., V-,47^ t^., raid Ra VVALtJirs ftd att. rjoS, n-ag; iso9,< 

vcirJini[i|e, 134 f«V'- ^ClFAtmKnU., 14 
II R\YVAtS>U%tidBn.i^7,n.2t'U9.-, TUASffLUKUS, 160/^7., itoav-; 

% Sec Cod. nipl. Sax, \U ro, 367. 

♦• C/^PuiZA, AA3i^.. Miguel AvToiTTO Aiarc^s, liicigiviU itc h 
S^ Dofkft Tcrcea Ennqint^ tlomada " La Lock del SAcraineraUi," 49 
ValcncU, 189$. 

a RAVKAU>ut^ ad an. t5ofi,B,43; KUuu»E,OriguicB.,67. ItiHu 




Another ivork of his which was of great value in 
enhancing the solemnity and beauty of the Divine Offices 
in 5, Fctrr's, vtas the cnclawmciit of the PiipAl Chcir Chapel 
there, which rrom his time has in conscqDL'nce been known 
sti die Cappella Giuiia.* " The motives whldi induced Julius 
I L to found the X'appella Giulta' were partly the desire not 
to depend on foreign talent, but to Train naCix-^ Romans 
as 5ingers, and partly his wish to create a preiimirary 
school in S. Peter's for the Papal Chapel, and Anally, in 
order to ensure that the offices in that ^rcat sanctuary 
shoald be performed in a manner befitting it» djgmly-''t 

From all these things it i* clear that the reproach that 
Juttus II. was sa absnrbed in the building up of the 
external power of the Hoty See as to pay hardly any 
stbtntiou to the internal affairs of the Church, h wholly 
Q^liit and untrue. But at the ^atne time he cannot be 
^oecnted from blame for having granted undue 
ecclesiasttcal concessions to various Governments under 
the prcit^ure of political cons! deriit ions. Such wa5 the 
nomination of C^rdindl d'Amhoise a» Legate for the 
whole of France in order to conciUatc him and the King ; J 

ako gave ordcTa for the eanvination «f the mirafJei and %^rtd05 oi 
Henry VL Soe Ravnaldus. ail hd. 1504, n. jj^ HkhccmiUjtkkx, 

• C/. SyaELS HUL Z«itech., XXXVI,, i6>, arid K. X, H,\fiirBt -n ih* 
ViCTi*lJflhfi«r.hT^fi f MiMtwi5»cn5rMfi,in,,J)jj-^,(i*S7Xwhnrenwrl«! 
Before ihc loih Scpu i&7o. whenever ibc I'opc ^clabratcd maj> in any 
of th« Komui chijrciic£, the ijiu&ic iiatiag the iiuut ^va* ^ti:i^ ^y the 
Cappella I'alaEin.n. bui the solemn pnx-uiknuil chnnt on cnterini^ vu ih-it 
<iS the Capfidla Giul uk And to the pietei^t day «n ftolemn occuioru, aa 
tn Holy \Ve«lc wbco itr^geK think lhc> are Utt^mnj; tn tlw !»iunc 
CtmV, Ihp itj'lf juifl ihe t'hiinU *re ihnsc of llit Otppella OiEiliii, 

+ C^ F. X. HAfttau /i»f- rfA, 24^ He hoa madf a mi5t*kc. Iicrtvever, 
tnlhedauof the Hall on the La|ii>e]lu CHulu,pTimtd tn ilc hvXl Vai^ 
II., 34Ajr^-, palling 1517 imiead nf 1513. 

X C/. Mfira^V- i:i4 'ffr- MAUt.1>riOnKine*T'JS2Jtf7,,n^hilypoinc»odi 



the granting to ihc S|^ni^ Government the patronage 
dill tht thitrthcs in tlw West Indies* and lo ihc Kin^ of 
J'ortugal the appoifitmenu to benefices m hU kingdoni^H 
Concessions of a dittercni kliui. but many of ibcm for 
from unobjectionablct were {^ranteH to li'dnixr^ NorwayǤ 
Scotland, il Savoy, II and the Swiss. At the same time 
Jul{u9 ir Tcfuscd the extravagant demands of the Zurich 
Councils having \^2rned the Swias bL^foreliand rtwl though 
htz wah willing lo gi^nt them ccclcsia:^licill pii^ilcgcd ^""^^ 
could not go beyond what was Hght and fiUin;;;-** ^^t 

As regards qoMtions oF reform it ha^ been already 
denonitratcd tliat Julius was by oo means inactive in 
individual cafiea, and ea^pecially in dealing with convents. 
He was far too cicar-sightcd not to be awaj-c that much 
monr than thi* was wanted. The reform of abiL^cs in all 
depattmcats of the Church, and opcdally in the Roma^_ 

how uotwial such A cartfouii>nrLath0tof mbliinsCard.d'Afnl>ds« JV^^f 
A JMfr* for thf whole iorijfdoin u:i^ 

* Didl of iWi JuJy, l$0& ; Colen^on t\t Um ConctjnLilM <MadrU, 
1S48); HEKCBrdRfiTlim in AnliivH Tur Kirdienrccht.X-, If : rinLLa<& 
VSRir**;, VIII, 300. U it rinubtful whclhrr fhr tuppntM BuEl of Al« > 
nndci Vt-, cbicd ifdi June uc^^, ^nd Ki^uil'mg to die Spuiuti Kin^^^ 

tht pAtronnifc of it/J rhwrhts^ und 1>encficro in the IcinfEdom 
wsrt. Sqv MfcttcJhWaOTMti:, /*^. a/., and PHlLLii'S-VtaiKO, /ac.^iT. 
Oa tba wtciLfiii^n i>{ Oic tit:hLf of Provision irraii((.'d by limixmi VftL 
U the Spanith Covcrnmcrtf fdi Sicily to all bcn«tic» bclongnif 
CMhMltsh or Collvgiat« Churfhr>«. H-e SsMTis, lOL 

1 Coijx Dipl. Koitu^-. ]., 104 jfif. 

I CaRo, v., I. 960 //f. 

£ PMUDAX-Mtll.t-KU, 34a, a£9; HiiL Polit. RL. CVI,^ Jf^nf . 

,[ Sec **Rncf lo Jacuhui ArchJcp. Gluguen^ djiL Hgcnac, 1 509^ I 
as. *Lib. brrv, 37, 1 $59. S«ctvC AtcI^tm of the Vuticaik 

^ SeijO>'TS Anrira IpgiitnJt del PiemonTc, 484 ; Lui, 1^ 425, 

«* £/' C^v-3vi:litffmiiui, XXXIII., 13 j<v- C^icmdda. i8r8X and 

ROBftSR, on ib« td-cilled C<nicordat of Wjujdnavn is the Jahrb. f. 




Court, was th« prjinary Xiksk of the Latctaii Council, ju 
the Pope himself in June 15M,* and again on othi^r 
occasions repeatedly declared. Previous to its opening in 
March is>3. JuHui hatl nominated a Commissioii of eight 
Cardmals to deal specially with the reform of the RunLui 
Court and its offidiils-f On the 30th M^rch, 1512, a RuU 
was issued, reducing the Tee* In various departments, and 
intended to check abuaes praclfaed by ofllciala of the 
Court^ The rest was to be settled by the Council. It it 
hairily foir to accuse Julius of indifference en this point, 
bocaviM ho wu interrupted by death just at the tJmc that 
he ivas beginning to take the qaestion ^^mousEy in hand.J 
"It may. of course, be aakcd whctlicr it would not have 
been better to have begun wUh the internal rerormation 
of the Church, and then proceed to work for her external 
aggrandisement/' The answer i^ obviotis. The conditions 
created by the Borgia were such that, before the new Pope 
could do ftn/thing else, it was absolutely necessary to 
accufG some firm ground to stand upon. How could a 
powerless Pope, whose own life even was not secure, attempt 
CO attack questions of reform in which so many conflicting 
interests were involved? Julius 11, saw^ plainly that his 
first official duty wits the restoration of the States of the 
Church in order to secure the freedom and independence 
of the Holy See. 

He was firmly convinced that no freedom in the Church 
was possible, unless she could secure an independent 
position, by means of tier temporal possessions. On hig 

♦ SANUTO, XH, 343, 

i Sec Uix^dat, i<Ah Mar^ 1511,11] DrfjARDiNS; IL, (^75; RaVTIaL-^ 
Adon. jjii, o, 51 i ind Ccrp, Dipt PtrtUKS I- M3 '^'V' 
A copy of thi4 dociioi^nl is in Ehe State Archives, BnlogiUL 
S ta bis loii Bull of tytli FeUp J513, iht Fopv dicniiooi Im pUn>«if 
Rcfonn. Bull Vnt, IL, 349. 

VOL. VI. 2C 





clcath-tw<l he dccUrcil ihiU ihc whole courtte of hi* 
h&d been so Lhfckly strewn with anxieties and sorrows, 
th;Lt It had been z ventAb1<^ mariyrdom.* This cleaHj^^ 
proves that, as far as hi* wiw^ were concemed, hU 
conscience djd not reproach hitn ; he had no doubt of this, 
recesaity, and hi£ motives were honest and pure. 

It is, however, objected, the Vicar of Christ should not 
be a warrior. This objection completely ignores the two- 
fold nature of the position crottcd for the Papacy by lU 
histoncal development Ever since the 8th Ceritiiry th^^f 
Popes, besides being Vicart of Chrf«, bad al^o been 
temporal princes A? such they were compelled, when 
nccesnry, to defend thdr right* a^inst attacks, and to 
iDftke ufic of arms for the purpose. During* the course 
the Middle Agc3 the great Popes were ft£:a]n and agfti 
placed in this predtc^menL Even a Saint like Leo i. 
betook himsdf to his camp without scruple Of course it 
is taken for granted that the war h a just one, and ''l^l 
purpose*; of d<rfcnce unS nut of aggress! Dn-t This wa«^^ 
eminently the case in regard to the wars of Julius 11. It 
is undeniable that when he ascended the Throne the ri|{litt 
of the SUles of the Church had been serioufily violated, 
and that later the liberty of the Holy Sec was in iht; 
grcAtc^t danger from its enemies. At that lime it 
dearly a case of being " dthcr anvil or hammcr."J 
Jt was possible for Julius 11, not only openly to avow hia 
intfrtions but aho to maintain tliat his caumi was juKt^^_ 
^ lUWALXkuar ad «o. jst3, 0.9, ^| 

r C/ HELLASMINt^ tr«.ilA«, Do Poiosmt* S. PontiT, c, n,, pHat«id 
in KAVXALDas Adan-1513, n, 12. See nlxo Nr.iVAi:\tV., 163 m^., and 

DKMAJSTREtDu PapcaiOMf, lni^himmi'acontcnpaRUlCOUBfVnkutl 

on the qufeitioti ^tre intvrctTmg ; ue ¥XA, Notifies jg ; JCVIL^ Da ^^>^^| 
Leonit X, IiIk IL 33. ^H 

£ UuRCKnARUT, Cult«r, I., ira, ed. 3, wah expra^t rtlmae^ 10 

n thA^ 



The world of that day appreciated the recovery of tlic 
States of the Church as a tioblc and religious enter- 

If the necessity of the temporal power is admitted, then 
the Hesd of the Church cannot be blamed for defending 
hiB rights with secular weapons;! but of course this 
necessity" b denied, and was denied, though onlybyasm^l 
number, even in his own day, Vcttori maintains that in 
tlie interests of religion the ministers of the Church, include 
ing her ITc^d, ought to be excluded from all temporal cares 
or authority over worldly ihings* The truth that the 
cart' and pre^enatlon of the States of the Church cntalb 
a danger of secularisation far the clergy lies at the root 
of ttiis view, Rut though this danger exists, the perils and 
impossibilities for the Holy Sec and for the whole Church 
of the opposite situation are so great that no Pope would 
be justified in allowing her temporal possession to be taken 
Away from her. Rvcn such a man as Guiceiardiri], who on 
the whole In hi* judgment of Julius Ih inclines to agree 
with Vetlori,§ la found in anotlier place to admit llmt, 
though in ftsclf it would be a good thing if the Pope 
had no temporal sovereignty, still, the world being what 
H is, a powerless Head of the Church would be very 
likely to iind himscU seriously hampered in the exercise 

• Ra»ee. PiipKc, r, 37, pfl ft, 

t Practiaill^ llioic who rcprnadi JuIilm II. HkthTjj» wfti«,<Io m> bccaiue 
tticyeonleit the neres^t^' r>f ^h^^ ismporaJ power C/. CttEC0l*0VTU8, 
VIIL, I ID. cd 3, The wiitcT n| a review cf Rrrwch^ m the AHg, Mi. 
<i67S), tL. 73 Suirpr. remarks: "Tht only pdoi tlnL one on bUzne b 
Julius U. h th^ «nd ih:it he propot«d^ the foundirg {naiiy tho riUon- 
tion)c^tbi; Si^te;! ofil^c CLurcli, in fart. Uiai tic wu mare of 1 ccEnporRl 
prin<e tlian A jpintuni riilcr. Bui oU in oil he mglc a ifnal nuut, uid 4 
uoiqut figure m the serm* of iha Pop**-* 

t VSTTORi, «d RcunuEii, 394. 

g REVUOKt, in., it 4^ 



of his spiHtd&l olTicc, or lacked reduced to abfiol 

Aa a matter of fact this was a time in which no respect 
seemed to be paid to anyihiriE but maicTinJ force, and the 
secuUr powcn were striving on all sides to aabjugate the 
Church to tJic State Turcly cccIc^a^ticaJ questions were 
regarded merely as counters in the ^aiTie of politics, and 
the Popes were obligct! to cnnsolidatc ihcir ttnrjKmd 
po5Sesslr»n* in order to secure for themaclvics a standing 
ground from which they could defend thetr spiritual 
authority. As practical politicians they thought and acted 
in accordance with the views of one of the speakers at iHc 
Coundl of Hassle, who made this rcmuikable cORfc5.-(ion : 
■ 1 used formerly often to agree with iliosc who thought it 
would be better if llic Church were deprived of all tcuiporal 
power. 1 rancied E!uit thr- priests of tin? Lord wuuld Iht hc;tter 
fitted to celebrate ih(? divine mysteries, and that the Princes 
of Uie world would be more ready to obey them. Now, 
however, I have found out that virtue without fjower will 
only be mocked, and that the Roman Pope without the 
patrimony of the Church would be a mere slave of tl>e 
Kings and Princes. "t Such a positiofi appeared intolerable 
to Julius 1I» Penetrated with the conviction that, in order 
to rule the Church with iiLdejjendence^ the Pope must be 
hi« own master in a terrilnry of his own, he set him* 
with his whole soul to the task of putting a stop to the 
dismemberment of the temporal posser^sions of tlie Holy 

* GuiOCrAROi?(t» Oisnv iiicdile, ]., ^£9^ It ■» ^ojih uoU^g thai m 
Ail paMaKC the Flortnlino hiaconnn ivho has w litde love to the Popei 
ftppnyirhct Ik'llftmiin*'! i-ii^*; ihvlanor wni«: PropEfrr mfiHam Mv* 
potum npcncntia claintti, non vAum utilJter, ?cd ctiAin trtccnario ei 
luiKiiUri Dei prtn-irt«nTiidcTi;it<MfLiLB» J^mti^ < . . kmponlca aliqutt 
principanjL De Rom, f'cniif, Ub. v, c- 9. 

t DiTTmar, Contvini. 151 se^,^ 29S; De Lkva, I,, 303 Mf. 
AcdL SL lut, 4 Serie, V,., 90* 



Se« Gtnd nvin^ the Church from af;nin falling under the 
domination of Krancei* and he succeeded. Though he 
w;i5 urabic to effect Uie complete liberation of Itat>', still 
the crushing yoke of France was cast off, the independence 
and unity of ihc Cliurcli was saved, and her patrimony, 
which he had found almost entirely dispersed, was restored 
and enlarged. "The kingdom of S. Peter now inclucled 
the best and richest portion of Italy, and the Papacy had 
become the centre of gravity of the peainsuU and, indeed, 
of the whole political world-'f " Formerly," say* Machla- 
vcUi, '•the most inslgm^ant of the Jiarons felt himself at 
liberty to defy the Papal power; now it commands the 
Inspect of a Kitig of France"; The ^cat imporlangc of 
this achievement was made evident later in the terrible 
-v^son of storm an<l stress which the Holy See hiid to pass 
thmugli. If if would br too much tn say ih^t without its 
temporal possessions the Papacy could neverhave weathered 
those storms,§ it is quite certain that, without the solid 
support which it derived from the rccoratitution of the 
States of the Church, it is imposaible to calculate to what 
straits it might not have been reduced : possibly it might 
have been forced a^in to lake refuge in iIk Catacombs, 
It was the heroic courage and energy of Julius II., which 
Michael Aiigelo thought worthy of being symbolised in li:s 
colossal Mose^, which saved the world and the Church 
from some such catastrophe a? this. 

Thus, though Julius IL cannot l>e called an ideal Pope, 

• Ht^rt-KK, Rnmftn WpU^ J56, n^hxly ii<j;iali£et iliis h$l at the 
freatcst dank'cr^ 

f CaftcoRovnrs, VllI,, loji td. 3, Cf. Aegiwus vos Vntnnct, 
tA Hoflpr, 387, and Jovir*. Viu Leonit X-, lib. III,, 55. and Vita 
Ftepb CoIh, p» m4- 

X J< i* iaicrcsTing to note ituit Ingbiramt spcoki m a ^jmilai tone. 
Sec PftA, NMijip, 6i> 

S This is wlut CamcnTox, tV^ 167, ihinkr 



he ia ccriAinly one of the greatest sine* Innocent IlfJ 
No impartial bistodan can deny that Juliut^ U. in all lii 
unJextakinj^s displayed s. violence and w^nt of moderation 
that was far from becoming in si ?opc. i Ic wsa a genuine 
child of the South, impulsive. paAsionatc, hcrciUcan ia 
hb strength ; but po^:>]b]y in »uch a stormy pcnod as v/tM 
the bc^inniiig of the L6th Century ^omc such pcnionality 
as his WAS needed to be the *' Saviour of the Papiwry-" This 
honourable title has been bestowed upon him by one w 
is not within the j>alc of the CachoUc Oiurcb^f and no o 
wifl be inclined lo dispute if. There still rerwitn^ howev 
another point of view iwm which Jtiliua II. b a mark 
figure in the iiiitory of Uie world. He was the restorer cot 
only of the Statctt of the Church, but wa$ alfio one of 
greatest among the J'tipal pAtron^ of the Arbi. 

* GaeOOXOVtU^ Gnibm>iLcr, 125, cdb hint ** the grcaiai Pope irncB^— 
liinoc«nt lU." SvGrarB£JM*3$t, al»ocomparc«himto Innxent A]l^| 

TAUl>>Mo<aTOB, [V-^3T9, uiy4 of Jultii*i nH,[li:kl u% a rrifinarrh tvrarrkd 
c£F the paUn unoiigst all the oa;upant> of ihc CbaJi of 5. PctcttaBd 
diEiu^h this may not nMtkt hjm one of (he grcaic^l (Dl! MaI 
npvcrtlieles5» it cenninly cmiilet him to rank as nTic of iht jTfat 
Cf. a\io hco aod Hist, in M^RLSR. KirdiengrichlcliLr. H., %ty 
l^UdW^iNC alsOf 111 'Elic Age oi the CondoTlien. 1409-15^ (Loudo^^H 
■*^95J* »pc-^^ wry ap|irpti*civri/ of Juliiu. ^H 

-f BUKCKiiARi>T, Cultar,]., iiJ,ed3,unii Rxnra^ luCiitK, «■ «Kt«a 
with tum. DCl^UNcl:R» Kirchc und Kirchcb, $7i» call* JotJin, "*Jtaf 
Ir^noocni l[l, And Alhrn^OT, tbc th\ti\ ffiunAft And rc^innu' of dia 
Sutci of ihc Church," 





THE Belvedere at the Vaticak-— Discovesies of ABTt^trE 


Gixmiis or Tiic Nrw Rome ckeatioj uv Juliuj* II. 

NOTEirNG so imprcsBGs on the tntnd the f^nGeoftheml 
greatness ofthe Pontiff who occupied the Chair of S. Pettr 
from tht year i50j,as the amount of atlcntion that he 
found time to bestow on Art. U'hcn wc consider the in* 
ccMSn; and harassing ansicticsj both political and ccclcsi- 
aatical, and all ihc labours of his rei^ii, the qiiantily and 
quality of what hr left behind him in Rome and ebewhere 
in this respect are really amazing. At the beyirning of 
the t6th Century, Ronte^ representing as she did the art of 
antiquity, the Middle Age^ and the Renaissance, waf&^ijready 
the most beautiful and mterc^tir^g city in the world* JJut 
it » to the patron of BramanEen Michael Angclo, and Rapbadf 
to the l^opc who, even as a Cardinal, was such a generous 
fricnJ of artists, that she owes the piuud portion that she 
now hold* of being the ideal centre of ;psthetic bt^aiity for 
all its devotees throughout the whole world,f It was under 
his rtite that the fotindatlons were laid for most of those mag- 
n]6cent creations of architecture, sculpture, and painting 

* C/. Miix'i'z, RiLp]iMl, 26x Sff. i Cl/N, Cortcjnttno, 165. 
t !>«• Vol V. of Khm *OTk^ pp. 3ai» 36^, and «-/«, p. 165. 



Ira. . 


wlkkli coftstitaie b>- no mcuu the acalfeat port .of 
mckdurm of the Etctnd Cit)\3nd area»cmeof 
niding deltj^l to both iltfnkcn and poets. 

The a^lration* of }xi\m% It. wen: In ^J Ci fem 
witbtboAC of fau great' prcdcccsxort Nicholas V. and Sixtus 
IV. Helookuptbcif work vhcrelhoykft it,&ndooAtzfii>cd 

vll on the 9am« tmes. He too aimed at embodying; the 
religious, regal, &mj nnircnal fptrit of the Pap&c>* in fooQU- 
mental worka of architecture, smlptitrc, and pointing, and 
vindipcating tbc mtcliectual nuprcmocy of the Chtiich, by 
making Rome the centre of fCsttBctic development for tl 

-great kenaJsiance movement. A* with Nicholas V- 
Aimlly Of pcnKinal uggrandiiecneiit was nothing to Mm. 
The fniit of ali his wars ^-as to be reaped not by 
rditiofis but by the Church; and equally aU that "he 
for Art was done for the honour of the Church and 
r^4)ftcy." ITius, though under Julius 11, Roman, likeaU 
Italiaii flit was under the patronage of a Court, tbc spirit 
of that patron;ige wa» wholly difTerent from anything which 
prevailed elsewhere. The Importance Tor art of these 
"Courts of the Muses" consisted not so much in Iheir 
c-jiariictrr, ;h a rule, »% in thetr number. The encouragc- 
meot of arc and of artistic culture in general wrw merely 
an essential part of a princely style of living. In contrast 
to this, the artLSt in Rome at the Court of Julius II. was 
called upon to bear a part in the realisation, if only for a 
few ycnn. of n mat^nlficcnt dream, the perfect fusion oftwc 
Bge4, tlic antique and the Christian, into one harmonious 
wliolc. Brjununtc'H S- Peter's, Michael Angclcj'^t ceiling in 
the Siiitine, Raphacrs frescoes in tlic Stanzc, all devoted to 
the idealisation of Christian worship and doctrine and the 
supremacy of the? Vicar of Chnst. arc the undying memoaab 
of ihe aim nnd purport of the reign of Julius \ I* 

• SfSfHocn, ios,»o3tl.,j4« 43, odfl); f/ Mao in Apptcdb, M. 8g^' 




In spite however, of the drjae rescmMancc In their aima 
there is a consirjcrablc diflcrcncc between the s^jiiit o( 
Nicholas V.aad that of Jdlus If. While Ntcholaj* V, |istron* 
i*cd learning quite as much as arl, wilh Jiiluis even more 
tbdiL with Sixths IV, art was the chief Interest* Aodlnhl* 

AcfidiuE of Vnttho's ^iccount of the Popc'i *'I)tclami3on in ngtiM to 
the bvlMin^ nf S, l^rf^r't Bihl Anj^vtifa, Rojnf. 

* ]uliu9 !1. WAX undoubicJIy not o »ttu>Uf, Goili NidiuLa V. and 
L«c X. did much (iiorc fof literature and literary mtn ihon he dJd. 
FeaN iHPimpi, NoTijie, .17, to n*nk him viih l*o X, in ilj*i r«iip«ct ii 
quite « TuluK. S« TiRABOSCWl. VI,. J, 166 *rg. ; RfiVMOWT, III,, a, 
J'9i3*<*«y'J and MuNW» Haplmcl, 2?j, Ncv«fthr[t:it Julivs II. w«a 
Tar from dnlikin}; learnmg or learned mtn, At n shewn by hit mUdtiide 
for Ihc Univcnitic* uT Pcru^iii [R^NKP, 1,, i([, cd 6'p, LUbgn (Coni, 
UifJ. Hortugp, 1,, 5^ j^.jfOnd Romt; (»gc Rena^?], I., 200 sef.; F&k, 
MMf-;andh AppondiT, Nn, 5t,*^Ti^'"'(thNov., 1 jo? (Secrrl Art hiv« 
of (be V>iucui)»--ia wcU u ihc pauoii-t^hcbesloiredan virlmu ichoUrti 
4Uid his frieadly (vlatiojis whh EhcnL Tlic mMt distingilbhcd af Ibcso 
wcrr -S4(f1«m<indA d^' Cont) {^/ Afrh. Sr, Tnl., 4 Seri*, l^ 71 mj, i Xir, 
165 Jf^. i aixd Gomx>B b Ilbt Jabrt.. Vll., 300 x^.), Tonunnso 
InjttiiiAnii (ie« Martke, I., 31 tl tt^, \ Koui^c; l^lnume, ^ -, Anpcdoi. 
Ijtt. n^ 129 '^-\ ^^ Saion Nic. von Sthf^tibfri: (Prof, of Tlwolojfy 
m the Rouuui UEiivcmty fram 1 (lo i he i^u« r(«queat1y called upon to 
toourc in Uw Popc'i presence i *;/. BuriD££. 3), Sermonino ddk VtanjrcAtt 
(we SiG. Tj[? CoWTi, II, 390), Lflurcniiu^ Fiimitiiius (*ce i«fi''^\ Tbood 
Gjua (ice Anccd. LiiL, IV., ^C*)^ Ikmbo, who was Kcncroualy rewarded 
for Siucc<«dmg iq dedpheiui^ a M&. wriitvn in Tyrctn chuMCier^ («ee 
Ep. famll-, V,, «, and Rascoe, 1 1-, 42 J'tf-)- While siJU a CmlinaL and 
under crtai difCculLics^ juljus had ta^n conHidcmbJc inicnx»i in the 
colUciron and copying of M^S, ^Muntz, La UibL du Vntii:ftn, ^-6;. 
FiTsni thii one umiid n4EumUy ^^,\hv.i Umt ai Puiw it Wiu unlikely (luit 
In ttrtjuhl hftvc JLiIdcd nothinjf 10 the V^tjatn Hbraf y, tbcugb the lacunn? 
In the records in the Konun i^uic Archives and (he Srcrr^r Aifhlvot of 
the V*iiGia nultr ii inijHijsihlr in i»rt>^o tliHi Jre did. This jccms all 
d« more improb»ble, m ALin;iaixJ, ij, ayi ihaL Juliu!» H. ad<sfned the 
librvyofS-Fietrom Vircoh jukI tlaiof bh^Apottoli wjth paintinK*, and 
aho docDTHicd hii^ own pr^vMttr library. See ihc Report uf Ibe Maiuuiui 
Envoy in Appendix Noa. 43 an*3 44- (Conmitn Archives, Mnnlu^) 


HtsToav or thc vofesl 

patronage of art he Also di^iplaycd the true Korcrc ^u 
confining his pUns to what was po^iblc and practical 
and noi giving the rein« to his imagination to the extent 
that his Iwu picJeccssars had done* Splendid ^ his 
prujccls were, he UTidcrloalc nulhing wilh*jut i>ruvkling^^ 
ample means for carrying out h\^ pUn^f ^H 

It Js undeniable that Jtillus 11. was sing wlaHy happy in 
the time in which he lived, which produced *\ich men a* 
those whose scniccs he was able to command. But thU 
docs not lessen his merit. He deserves la^tiiig honour for 
hh J^ym]>athc1ic appreciation of their ^niu.i, which cimblcd 
him to attis^ct them to Home* and to ^timulatctheir powers 
to the utmost by the kind of work which he demanded 
from them <— nothing stnaW or trivial, but monumental 
crcatronii corre^^ponding to the largcnL-ss of hi^ own rmturc^ 
Thus, the great masters found free scope for ihcir genius i^^ 

Urtd«r Jilting 11, G.MAffei of Volt«rro«ArchUtfMporfU|»aC^. t^r^^^ 
«nd Tomn^i^o Iiit:hi^'^"ii »cit; CiJ»;ucliana inj Pitftd* of llic Vaiituit. 
ftlsa D«inctrb of Lucd an^, After hii death in i ^ic, Lorcnco Rumtcio 
and Jean OukIfI of l-)«n« ; wh«n the Jatter died in I{IA, K«mului 
Mammjcbtis ytus hb aucoeaor (Mu^'U, Uc. tif.^ a s<q.\ On 
Dcmctno s«<; Cl^^ m t1i« Ciarn.d LcLt lUl, iX^4S^ ^^^ 4' "^^ 
etireriie libcnUnj' with vhich MsS., lim^ the omc of ^vtm^ IV-, wok 
knt for the UM of sdtolaia citen outikle Rooiq (>fre Vd IV. itf tlw 
wOTk, 4^8 Jf*/,] vu %K\\\ nuunlftlncd v>ilb certain pft«AutJon*. JuUul 
found hin^a^lf nhli^^ lo msiice itwne strkrter rules in rcg^trd lo the *m t 
«f doctiments ui the Auhivf:* vt lUc CKiircrd A|x»ldiuL.)bt the pHvilc|^H 
hid been senoualy abused (sec Muntj, /sv, rt'A, i; s*f,). On Juliai^^ 
privACC Lihniry, </. Kiimi^k, IL, 47 ; Caku in rhe rVinm, tl. L«r. inJ^ 
IV-, 450; and tn/ra. Ch^pi 10- On the caron'Ltiuu nf a jmci umler 
JvUus IltMttLVJlO, F. Conia^ 40, and CEElOUTOltf; IV, 374-275.. 

* See Vol, \\.eixh\%wt^^tyitr^. 

+ Snummt, foe, (^r', 

t Cf. MOrm, Rapbiel, 374 ; £^Kl^-CeK, loj; CCIIUFU^ 
«6j Kto *Ibo Svwonhs, ^fklwbn|J:elo, I., 138, (There ww oothiaf c^ 
ihc dileiunie fthout tiini,) 




«II its fuJtie&^H And nascent UJcnt was fostered and developed. 
The hocrc of Art was transferred from Fiorciicc to Rome 
A world of beauty in archilectore, painting, and the pl.-utic 
4r1 sprang up in the ^indent city, ;ind ihc n^nc of Jiilms 
II. became in^pataibly uniTed with those of the dfvfnely 
gifted men in whom Italian art altainixl its meridian gtory. 
" He began, and otliers went on with the work on the 
found;ttion which he had Laid The initiative wae his; in 
n:ality the at;e of Leo X. belongs to him."* It was through 
him that Rome became the c!as£ic-al dcy of the world, the 
normal ccntie of European culture, and the J'apacy the 
pioneer of civiliidtJon-t 

The rc^cinbliiiKc between the spirit of Jultus Ih ami that 
of Nicholas V. K most apparent in liis architectural under* 
takings. The laying out of new streets and districts, the 
enlargement of the Vatican Palace^ and the erection of 
the new Church of S. Peter, worlta vhich had been inter- 
rupted by the premature death of Nicholas V,, were 
energetically resumed by him< 

The Florentine architeet, Giuliano da Sangallo. was one 
of Julius n.'s mo^t intimate and cciigcniai friends in hU 
cariiu: days while he was fatill only a CATdinal. It was he 
who platined the maguif^ccnL struciuri! of Grott^fcrrata, the 
buildings at Ostia, and the P^^lace at Suvona, Giuiiano 
shared his patron's voluntary banishment during the rei^ 
of Alexander VI., and during this lime (1494) was JnlrO' 
duced by the Cardinal to the French King, Charles VUl-t 

► KtuM^jNT, 111,1, JS3; // .spMiniii'-jij iDi ; MiBiiiiKiTi, Rai^tetk^ 
1061 and Vot4 Ge.ymOllek, 344. 

i Cf. CacooKOviv^ VIJL, nj, cdL j, who obicrvcc, *The woxld- 
wh1« hJsfionul at]ni:isph<Ttc» tbi- monumental and idesl fruidcur of the 
Otsr baDisfuril eveiy trace uf pruvinciiLliiOi froni RcMimn ^ aaJ im- 
prcified c>n 11 the stamp of iu own tAicntial iftekintM." 

I Cf. PAi^roR, C«tch. PilfAtB, It-, 627, r'lL ?, ftnil MitnTf, Kid. dv 
FAii. 4^7 ; J- l>i^ LALTRitiu^ Giulknc dc Soa Calk ci lc» aicrnuments 



It was not to be wondered at, tbcicforc, if wIkii Julius 
became Pope, SangAllo soor apj^cjuttl in Rumc to 
hicrscir to the memory of hts oU master, and to DfTer his 
services. He v/a^ first employed on some rcpaire in the 
CastleofSt A ngelo, which the troubled times mad* urgently^ 
necessary', and on the joth of May, 1 504, he received aii ii^H 
sl^lmont of pay for thb work, to be completed later by a 
larger £um,* Alter thi&, Julius continued to make me of 
him in various ways; in 1505 he made o drawing for a^ 
tribune for musicians (CantoHaXf and he seems to have 
die rojje's chief adviser at thia time in all mattess of 
k wa* through lum in tlie Spring of tlic year 1505 tl 
Michael Angelo and Andrea Sansovhio were Invfted 
RoRic4 Sansovino was called upon to erect a monumt 
tomb to Cardinal Ascanlo Sfo«a m S" Maria del Popolof 
Michael Aogelo's task was a tomb for the Pope himscl^^ 
The plan which the great sculptor drew, and which Juli^^ 
approved, wa^ cf such colossal dimensions that no church 
in Rome, not excepting the old S. Pcter'i, could contain it 
Later, it was thought thai (he tribune begun by RosscllJno 
for the new church of S- Peter might he af!apierf to receltv 
this monument. lint this had first to he finithed and con- 
nected with the old building ; and thus the work fell inc^^ 

antiques <]u Midi ilr rF4iti.Ci iu V<i1 45 i^f the Mcin. de L Soc NaL ils 
Anticjuaires d« trance, and KEDTE^axCU&a, 97, 104. AQ than n^^^ 
icmains of the Pa];vre of Savatu l^eiidet tlie courtyard i« the tonheij^H 
fv;aidev entirely tjT whlic m^iblc. and a porljon of tha oflkiea at the bai^^^ 
See G^UTHiEK^ Lei plus beaux *diiiit« dt <-i*ticj tt •** enviroau (PanSi 
iSjo), PI. 64. 65 ; RKDTKNEtMiHitK, toi ; MC»T£, Hist, de FAil, 1^ 
1^. Sec aljo SctiMAli^CW'a Nolc on Albtrtini 55. 

• Von GeruOLLSn, 74. 

i The work va» never earned ouL See RnvTKTfiucHKH, 9S if^i 
Von Gevum-UER, 74. 

X SnuHOER, Rnflhel uad Michdaogelo, T04 sff,; RuJTtNtiACii 



the hfindjt of the arcbftcct&* At this moment the great 
maslcr appeared on the scene to whom from henceforth 
almost aW Julius W's architcctunil works were to be 
cnlm^tciL This man was Danato Bramanic, whc had been 
working and studymg- in Rome sirce the y^'ar isoa 

In ifforOing to "' the most original architect of hie time " 
the opportuntt)' of putting forlh all his powers, Julius Ih 
rendered an inestimable service to Art Bramontc very 
40on came to occupy the position of a 3orl of minister 
of public work* and fine aits at tlie Papal Courtif apart- 
ments hi the Dclvedere wcric ai^signcJ to him, as well as 
to the famous goldsmith, Caradosso; J ;hc great arcliliect 
accompanied Julius in all hi* jounieyti and planned all 
hU forti 6 cation s ; to him was entrusted the rebuilding 
<rf the Vatican and of the church of S Peter, in which 
a suitable site was to be provided for tlie Pope's tomb.^ 

• Spbincer, he. ^., lojj £/. Vow GKvuirj-i-Ka, (4; j/^., and 
M (}MT£, Hi5L de rArt, IT , 3*4. 

t Vow GevmtJllef!, 14. 

X C/. CcBJabili'* *D«5piLch» da:, Rom«, iith Aug^ 1508, who rcpoTta 
liuil »l dial drnc Alfuni nLikc^lTi rl MrrVitlpruMi 1i <iuaJi ^uno Abramamc 
ct Caiado&vi were rciidin^ in the Qclvcderc Slate Archives, Modcnu. 

§ The Aixouni which I(i1]<]u> ih tiiMll^, IliLMigh not ijujCV in tM poinUi 
rroindcd nn the reulis of Gcymullcr'i ratamhei. which arc eKtrcmcly 
iborough, though in sevcnJ pnrliculnn JOVANOVrTS. Si j^gr., difFcrs from 
him «on£idenkb]y. C/. KKt^TEtrn/CHeR'ft articki in Luixo^v't ZviUc^hrilt^ 
IX, 361 se^..y>2 «y. ; X.,^7-f'V- - Xr,Su]3pl..Sjg j^y, ; XIII„ 124 '"*'■ 
(■g*inst him JovANOvrrs, 2u dtn Strciffrttgcn in dcr Ilnjsctchichlo 
der Peieixkirche im Rom. Wien, JS7SJ i XIV., Suppi., 543 /^y. 1 

XV[, iCl tt^. RKAn^JVACHKIt and Hho KUK;:KlflAKLT-HcfLlZlHGK« 

(RcnaiAMnce. I2s)«f:rtc iv!th Gcymi^Der in citcntials. It is nalurnlly 
impMiibl* 10 ent^r mm the deiaiU of thcs^ ditBoiTt nrd ^nn^pTknied 
CVBfovcnict, Many points will be vtutlc cltsr ^hcn GCY>tC'fX£B^ 
n»d *i>L app«uB, ia w^htch he and MClVT? tD|:pilLcr will publUh alt the 
docwneno rcUflng 10 the buiMingo! S- PcteKs. Meanwhiltj^. MOi*T?, 
La Arclutecicft dc 5. PSerre d« Rome d^ji^T^ de« diKUitieiilA iicnivcam^ 



U I« tmpO!«ib1« to dcicminc with certainty w 
Juliua n, adftpled the plans for tht aevf S, PcJcr's. 
writer en architecture who has mwle the «tucly of the 
plans and projecU for the church the special (ask of 
his life, believes thai the design of rebuiMing S- Pctct'e 
occupied the Pope's mind in connection with the realOA- 
tion of the Vatican Palace as early as 1503 ,• Thia would 
quite correspond *ith what wc- know of the ch.xracto- 
the new Pope; but &5 yet wc have no coiUcmponin 
te*timnny to support this view, and llie exii^mcly 
Birained and difficult position hi which Jiitiuc ft 
himself at the ouuct of his relpn b afi;ain«t the 
bability of his having immediately contemplated such a 
work as thi», though, considering his sanguine tetopcfa* 
nicnt, tliia Ts-ould have been far from impoMJblc. It b 
not till the year 1505 that unmi^akcablc »gns appear 
thai Ihc tlioutiht of Uic new S. Peter's and its adjuncts 
had IsiVen ront in hift mtnd^')' Accnrding to Vasar^ 1 

inih<!GaMln Rmiu An^ XIX. {i«79;^ J53 ^-V-I XX^5o6j;fy. For 
LZOKi's Viil di Bmmanic, and Vuiirn^ IL, i., 136 tef, ^H 

• VONGttVNCl.lUi, *l- 

t In hiA icaI Li> defend Dmmjuttc froEti die auipkrOD of h&vin^ oiuMcd 
5ang-.Lihi from hL& po£[,voiiGeyinuUer|:o«s solir lu tony: "Btabiuiia 
waft rtlrfi.'uly m ihe I'ope't netvir* before Giuliann arrivt6 (In Ronw], 
uid cl>[l^c^l^fnLly could iwi have taken incisures to upplftia iiiru.* 
Hut Kc<li«iba<:her ju&lLy rciiiark^ llutt u;s ycE wc hitv^ no proof thar 
Bt^niikulc ^43 ia iXit service of Julius H, before Snn^kTfi arrival, ind 
ihot en the 3<xh Msy, 1504, die latter was practicaUr the Pope's 
aKhiuct S^e LOtzoWb Zeitschrift, XVI,, r6a, knd Ku>rKNlUCnsa, 
Ar.liitrlctur. iHj. Here again he very ur^'^nily remnrk*: 'Ev^ a 
thcugh Bi>nuuu, on whom H, v. Geyinijller rclio, A^Kiti that Jiili^^| 
had pUnt^d the VAitc^n hiiddjnu« xi «cirly ai ijo^ > in the ^1 pbe^^ 
Bc^uiini b nDl a ixry tnutHioithy autbnrttj {he luicribfe Kajikier^ plan 
<d b. PcL«r"* to IJrarnante), and, secondly, even supposing that he b 
right, ihi«doev not neccmnly involve tliai ho lud ;iJ«i>lixicd on 



deliberations prelimirarj- lo ibe work oonatiluted a sort 
cf duel between the Umbnun and Lombard tendencies 
of Bramanto and the Florentine spirit rcpiwcntcd by 
San^sdlo and bb protege Michac) Angclo^ It is not un- 
Ukdy that there is some tmtb in this statement, a^ VasAfJ 
knew ibc son of GiuljAEio da Sangallo intimately ; U\il, 
on Ibe other band, tins autlior Is often cnnftnied and 
inaccurate* However thi* may be, it appears certain 
that as soon as Julins \l. saw Bramantc^s maffnificent 
ptsui for Sp Peter's, he determined tc put the work into 
bis hands ;t while e\-erything che. even his own tomb, 
retreated into the background. Even for S. Peter's alone 
on this scale the means at his disposal were not sufficient 
"And knowing hb dbpoahlon, no one can be surprised 
that 5. PeEer^s wa» the wark that tay nearest to the 

at the archibtd." To Xhh 1 should lilce to add, that in Kti vciy mcn- 
tnr1ou« wnrk^ Vuai Gicvuf j-ij:k ^hn ttiotr than anct (pp. ti nnd J4t) 
dlca Mki>J\Nti, Ih. 11, who there statci dai Julius H. dclcrmiiied, 
immcdiiiicly on hi* acceiiion !o the Pajxi^:/, to r«l»uiIU S. Polcr'a Ho 
Wirves th:ii Mijinanti "re«s his Jis^ertion on iinnflmM clotrunipnw" ; 
tjul (Ikc cxLntc^iCC of thc^t (twuiTic-rila is niilr a hypotlictiii, du oitc hu 
Mcn lh«n^ and Mignai^D ^ws no n-fercncc^ Ln addrtinn to thi4, as 
BanaMntT, tn id67jD Thr AEV ^-^ir. N. }6Mi4; cili««ivn1, hiMorial 
oUdn ia not Ujc stfOii^ pojnl ia dji5 witEci'b Ijouk ^ iiifitci, lE cODtAina 
lustorica] ha.i:curuciM. The only thing tbai is ceruin is tku the ftbuild^ 
in^ had ticea d^t^riniood upon in Nov. t^og (^ct^ *"P''^\ ^^^'^ until 
tome new documents turn up wc miut^ u Jovaf^ovits, 43* ^yb, Lunlcal 
nunctvB With Ihia. 

* Itr-uit^nALHi-Jh, rS3, docs eioe mm lo hnv* noticed lhi% for lie 

t Giuliono dn Sangftllo TcTe hinuclf ^iKK^i^vcd and uvbai bode Bo Plor- 
ence, but wiih HbcnJ itward^t fnmi ihr Pope. An clcl Gvmui legend 
reprcicnu die FVipc )iurA>uni.tctl ^wiih h multtliide of niodcb for S. p£ter'> 
uid laujrhingLy begging th;i( aU thc&c fiuCft might b« cleared awayiL* h« 
hftd bui eme church Vi Imiltt, and luuL an tncrllcnt \Ahn for thaL B> 
Ochini, Apologcn,, Dk. U ApoL 35, in BURCE tf ARDT, Kenai»san<ei 1 11- 


HKTORY or nm popes. 



Pope's huarl. His preference: even in Aft was alwaj 
for the cofo^aal. Aft^jpt^tmui sfvtj>er meUttm a^ntlus waft 
uid cif him, and thons'^ Michael Angelo's design mu*t bx 
ffttlsficd him in that fc<Hpect, the tomb wa* orly for him" 
self, whereas the n>a;>iiiticent Basilica would be a glory 
Tor th« whole Church. For Julius the larg<er aim, vrbethcr 
for State or Cliurch, wm alwa>'s more attr«cHve th 
anything Uiat was merely personal/'* 

In the lii^tory of the buildinf of S. Peter's in the ti. 
of Julius IL (here arc thrrr dlsUiict perbds. The fi 
idea (March, 1505) was to build a Chapel for the PopeV 
tomb. In the second laerlod (before nth April, 1505) 
the completion of the works commenced by Kieho!a« V, 
ard Paul II. was contemplated; In the third (from tl^| 
Summer of that year) it was finally determined that tli^^ 
burldtng should be on entirely new Iine», far more splendid 
and more beautiful. Even then, however, the idei of 
making; um: of the builditigs already commenced 
former Topes was not abaadoncd, and the attempt 
frequency maJe, bur they were only uliUsed in a fi 
menlary way as ]>ortions of a whoDy new design,')' 
immense number <^f drawing* for S PctcK* which m 
tttll extant, shew with what encr^ the work was under- 
taken, Some of the^e were executed t>y Bnunante bim- 
9elC then sixty years old ; many others, from hi^ instni^H 
tions, by aitists working under him; amonf^st these wej^^ 
tlie youthful Balda^^sari reruzxi and Antonio da Sai^allal 

t of 


• Sprinoer. Rjfia^l uDd Michelmircl^ 106. 

f Von GicvMUixbu, t^j j<7„ 573 1€^. 

t Ibid., 157 J*y, 160 stq. : cf^ 9S it^. This writer ihirU thAl 
inHucncc of (lie imnicn^c iiiiEiibcf of aluJica for S. Petcr'^ m^dc by 
Bf«mantc bcmccn \y>'^-h was to grcair and the tfafT emplovcd fay 
hlni in bi« tMvin cir in the bmtdinif »> li^rx?, (hat in a wry shcit time 
many youAK aidiiiKU ncrt capable of cur>diijf out Icn impoiuni 
tfoderukiiigii m llio K, Pvivf* *t>-t« of iha mAflter. "'Hiub v« lee tb« 




For ft long time all thai was known on the subject 
was that the outline of Dramantc's plan was a ccmmond- 
ing central dome resting on a Greek Cross, wltli four 
smaller domes in the four artglcs. It is only quite 
reccnll/ that mo:Jcm research has eliminated oiil of 
the immense ma^s of materiaU afforded by the coUeC' 
tion ot sketches in the UfTizzi at Florence (abi>ut 9000 
sheets), a series of stiiJies and plans for S. Peter's, from 
which Bramante's original desigo can be determined. 
With these sketches before us we begin to realise what 
the world has Jo5t by the later chan^? In what, a5 
originally concci%xd, would h^vc been an aittstic creation 
of perfectly ideal majesty and beauty, 

Tlic new BasHIca, "which was to take the place of 
a building teeming wKh venerable meniorle?, was to em* 
body the greatness of the present and the future," and 
wa^ to suq^ass all other churches in the H-orld in iU 
proportions and in its splendour* The mausoleum of 
the poor Sslicrman of the Lake of Gcncsarcth was to 
represent tlic dignity and sigmticance* in its history and 
in its scnpe, of the olificc which he had bequeathed to hU 
SfMCCcsaors, The idea of ihe Universal Church dcmandod 
a oolonal edifice, that of the Papsuy an imptoing centre, 
Ihcrvforc its main fectture must be s. central dome of such 
proportions «s to dominate th« whole structure. This, 
lirarrante thought, could be best aU^ired by a ground- 
plan in the forna of a Greek Cross with the great dome 

youn$ Antonio di SuiKallo m tlic ChurcTi trf S. M. Ji Loitto h the 
l^jisftTiAiintL in i^o7,JLndPcruui m the Cuh«4iat or Carpi ir i;i4,and 
in prt of xht plans f« the complFTfion of S. Pciiimio in Bobgnu In 
t^SU intradurin^ fcAtUTM b Bnnuintc'ii »tylc (not to mcnlinn K.ip1uidS 
C'hnr^ of & Etigw). The on© may very litely h*tfe bctn ibe cue in 
Todi, >t il f'ffrtnmly tt-.m ti^ llir MjidaroA dt MaccnUo at Bwii." 
* SccBuliof JuUu» 11. of i>^ Feb., 1 5< 3, m Bull Vul, II., ^9^ 

VOL vr. 3 H 



In ihc cciilrc, over ihc tcmb of ihc Apostles, \n t\ 
otd Ba-siltca, howcsxTr, the tomb kvas &t the end of ijic 
chQfch, And this cteaitd dffticuJciet ftrhtch led to tt^H 
adoption at first of z Latin Cross.* Bminaote^ con- 
tftmporaries were entliu&iastic in their admiration of hia 
dcsigD, and the poets of the day sang of it as the ninth 
vondcr of ihc world^f Bramantc is ^id to have hii 
self described his design as the Pantlicoti reared on tl 
subriivcturc of the Temple of Peace in the Forum 
(Constant! He's Basilica) ; a trvi])r noble thought, worthy of 
the great architect and his large-minded p&troii.} ^M 

Two complete drawings,! which jire still preKCrved, cxhibl^^ 
Bramante's pbn in detail ; it eondstcd of a Greek Croaa 
mth apsidal ends and a huge cupola in the centre on the 
model of Uie Fantiieon^ surrounded by lout smalEer domes; 
pillared aisles led into the central space. In one design ibo 
arms of the cro^s arc enclosed m Large scmiciKUlar aaibu- 
latorica ; in the other these do rot appear. They may be a 
remini.scencc of the very ancient Chii&Lian Church of San 
Lorenzo in Milan, which was justly i^ery much admired by 
Bramaiite,or they may have been Intended to strengthen 
the gre;it pillars which supported the ctipola. In both 
designs the dome is of colossal proponions, " Bramante, 
borrowing the idea from older strtictureSi designed with 
admirable effect immense niches corresponding with tfa|^| 

• Vow GetmCjLloc. a-nii. C/i HopfftLuw, Sttidieti ubei Italicn, j 
[Fmakfun, iS/fi)^ anil JovAWOvrrs, 53. 

t PuNaiiFom, V>t> Ji BRHTunte, 1 17. 

t RtuiTK-NiiAt^nKK in Lliutnw't Zciuchrinn IX, 30.1. BuHCXitAJtDT, 
Cultui. Li III. cd 3. viys o{ ibb duipi dmt pcrhapn it wu a muifatt- 
tion of gi«$tl«r pow*r than avy other ^^le nind tud «wr ditphj^d 
Gkcoorovius, VHU rtt, ed. j,nmiLdu^ ''TIm: uua who wi^paUe 
of conceiving Kjcli a 4<'rk of art as & ?eLcr's,^u]<] of bccnunoff to wcoila^ 
hpdu^rvn bydui fa<t a.lon« lo live far rttr m Ehc memnryof 

I Marked by Voa Gcymullcr ia B and D. 




pillars, which would also mgcnioujily serve to suggest the 
curved outtinv for uU spaces which in the predominant hrtn 
in the whole scheme of building. The four »n«tiler 
cupolas in the comers, the dJLtmctcra of which urc half that 
of the ccntrtkl dome, by dimming the ligiil, wcic to prepare 
the eye for ihc vAst central sjjacc ; ua the cxlcrioi, as 
CarAdosso's medal sliews, ihoy were i^ot to rise above 
the gabled roofing cf the arms of the Crosi^" Four 
sacristies and ch^pcU ^\nd bell-cowera were lo be distributed 
UOund the exterral angles. As. Ihifi plan appears upon 
Caradosso'5 medals it ruust have been for some time the 
accepted one. The other plan, in which the arms of the 
Cro^ lA^fc encased in spAcious ambulatories, would have 
occupied a still lai^er area. Here Oic drum of the central 
dotiic would h:tve been encircled wiEli pilUn forming a 
rriTwti over The fomb of the Apostle*, which Wfiiild have 
b«n bathed in light from the domt* The victory 0^ 

R«i-iewin tbe Allg. Zcit (ia33),N.3i6,r!UppL;LuttKK,GcschHd. Arefai- 
icktur, II., jCr «y., ciLi^ (iajwijj. 1886); BURCKHAKl/r-HoLiJ(i?*(iiA, 
RcnuHaDCC, 136- The medals with the mscnptlon TcmpTi P^tri 
llUlacnctOjBre r*pnxliiced m C^EvMULtnt, PL 3, and «c«lTrftlJy in the 
haodKxac vrork, Lc VatiuLu, f jz, Ic appcAra ihai after the Uymy of ibc 
fbu&dfeiJon^tone^ the dircciois of the works changed tlidr mindf a to 
tht (ban of the bmldm^Tj and dcadcd, {os&ibJy for Ulurgical rcafaons, 10 
iiuike [1 utriuni;, Srnipt^r iluaks thai tlic Onlicdral at Carpi U 4 f^utli- 
ful copy of diu »c«FnJ desjgu of Bfauianlc^d, Sl£A<ri:iE had already 
ciprwwdlfiij opinion in (878 in his Brunaate^ 4^-47, Inhit mftgnifacni 
work on Carpt, 54 jr^,. he ilevelopi^d it irt urt\Urr dcUil in oppubiiiofi 
U> VOF Gn-UCiL].EA'E article b UuoV» ZciuchrilV XIV., 389 ^.i 
tj, alM JovAMovi'ii, 46 j-y-i Vom UtrwtLt-tie, Ncnijvn nbc* die 
Eonriiife iU S, Pcicr in Kuiii. j£ jfV- (tCviliJulic* 186S;, aad in Ums 
larger work, 210 j and iJtrHCKUAiurr-HoLTxrNCnii^ i^Sh Th« pu^»L)fe 
OUT of Panflnius is in Ma), Spicit,, IX-, 4fA On CArtidDfiU's r!ciTi> 
mcjiiuTdUvu ujeUul»i bcc Ficrr iii llic CaUrici de I'AujLivcur (j^ Aaadc, 


iiisTOKY OF Tilt rores. 

Chrittfanlty over raganism wa* lo be rejireientcd by 
Crou on the summit of the most beautiful cfcatio.i ol 
antique architecture. 

The colossal dimensions of this majestic though stn^ 
Urty Mmpic design, aptly symbaliimg the world-wi*Jc fold 
Jnto which all the nations of the: cjirth were to be ^tbercd, 
vriU be realised when wc find that Dr^mantc'^ plan would 
luve covcfcd an area of uv« 28,900 squ^iic yaids, while llic 
pre^nt chiirfh on the plan nf Mich4el Anj^du, wiihui 
M&derna's Additions, occupies only a Uiile mere than 17,34 
mere tJiaii a thiid less.* 

There is, however, one coait deration which mar* tl 
plcftsure with which wc ahould otherwise contemplate 
llram^nte'a splendid conception, and this is the rcerctful 
recollection that its realisation involved the sacrifice of one 
of Llic oldest and most venerable sanctuaries in all Christ* 
dom. ^' Thc^c iinf-itrnt walU had been Jtt^uulin^ for nt 
i?00 year*;; thpy had, so to spcaV^ participated in all 
foriunei and storm* of the Papacy ; they had witnessed 
rapid ».iiccession of its Iriumphs, its humiliations, and it« re- 
ooveries; andagainand^gainbeenthcsceoe of epoch maktnc 
events, focussed in Rome, and stretching in their effects 
the furthest limits of ChnstcndomH The Vatican JJanl 
was sccrcd all over with mementos of thi^ long hbtory. 
Tliouj-h nuvf fcillin^ to pieces aiii) di^fit^unxt by ttn: Um 
f)f the debased art of the jicrii^il of iL« ortgin, it wa.t an 
imposing building, and fsr more interesting from It^ agt* 
worn tokena of the victory of Chri*iianity over Faganifim, 
than It could have been in Che days of its pristine splendour. 
All that might be distasteful in the inharmonious jumble 
of jts styles and materials wa> (orgottcn in retradit^^ 
the over-living mcmonala which recalled the timcj fl^H 
Constantinc. of 5. Leo and S. Gregory the Great. Chaiica 

* KCtmCKDACMEl^ in LntjowV ^^fiucliaia, IX., ^ 



» one 


11 tS 




the Great, and Otho, S> Gregory VII., Alexander 111., 
Innocent III.' • 

Thin wa,^ »lrong!y felt by many of Bramaritc's contcm- 
pofArics, as it had been ^hen Hxc ifrbullrjlng ofS. Peter's 
was contcnplaied In the lime of Nicholas V-, which we see 
from the words of the Chrintian humaniat, MafTeo Vcgtal 
This time the opposition was even rnoro scrioiifi. as niMrly 
the whole of the Sacred College seemi to ha\e pronounced 
againsi the plan. Panvinius reports that people of all cl^L^se^^ 
and especially the Carduiab, protested against Julius ll.'a 
inteiitior: of pulling down the old S- Petci^a. They n^uld 
have gladly welcomed the erection of a new And splendid 
church; but the compfctc dcstniciion of the old Basilica.^ 
5o consecrated by the veneration of the whole world, the 
tombs of so many saintc, and the memorials of so many great 
evctitfi, went lo their hcarts.J 

The opposition to the rebuilding of S. Peter's continued 
cvcti alter the death or jitliua II. In the year 1517 
Andrea Guarna of Salerno publbhed a satirical Dialogue 
between S. Peter. Bramantc. and the Dologr^e^c Alcaaandro 
Zambcccari. DrAmanti; snivel nt Ihc gntt^s of Heaven and 
S. Peter Oiks l( he is the man who had demoli?shed his 
church. Z;nnhe<:car[ replies in the ^(Tiriniilive, and adds, 
■• He would have destroyed Rome also and the whole world 
if he had boen able." S. Peter asks Bramantc whftt could 
have induced him to pull down hijs church in Rome, which 
by it& age alone ?pokc of God to the mo^t unbelieving. 
The architect cxcudca himself by saying; tiiat it was not he 

t C/. PASTOft, IIikT. PopM, II,. 175 CSiIBI. tTTint.X 

t F&a, Notbiri 4*. v&^ tlic Tfi^t lu brine 10 li&l^^ ^i> p^^^ii^c frftm 
PAJrvixiuVt De rabu* witiqun ecd beuilirae S. Peir : it is M Iw found 
in Mat, Spidl, IX,, 3^^5-366^ P^nvLnius F3pT?s?iiy m^mbi» here ■ 
lmnIcI in wood by Briiiiuintc- 

* I v^cd ift %Ma Ibc n»pA kmy pwK • Gttlc- 

Ob S Pdcr innMrfat farfkcr wWIkt Ik kkd carried oat 
Ml *»yi, be -uMi B u^ * Wbt JbI» a pdM dom tbt 
lid LlM Lfc fct W ty UsfMnrdoKd; te onlf ^nc 
fa d dgeoc CT , and baUei be w MnMng «v.* Fwtfatr 
on, the coovcfntioQ becosKS bfoader and more Cuci^iL 
Bf mmu HK refaaaste cater Ilw ^ co >alw be is aUowwdi^H 
ffet rid of the ' 9tc^ and dsfficidl w^ tl»ft lads Ibithcr raH 
the cartk I wM build a new broed md comisodmis nMil 
«odMI old aadlecfaleKMbauy travel on honriMcL And 
then f vHl nuke a nev Paradw wkfa ddi^fal 
far the bJemed* As S Peter vfll not ct>nsent lo tl 
Bramante cI«cUra be win go <!ovn to Ptuto and build a 
new hdl a« tiK old one i« alfnoM burnt out In the 
& Feteraskfl hifli ftgatn. ' Tell me wttk^y. wbit made 
doCroy my cburdi?* Bramantc answers, ^ Alas I it 
deinolishca, but Pope Leo will buHd a new one' * Wdl, 
Ihen " My» S. Peter, "* you most wait at the (ftte of Paiadiac 
until ll b rml^hcd* "But If it neves is finitJMjdl* 
Biamante objects, "Oh* & Prtcr answens "my T,eo 
not (nil to gpt it done." * 1 most hope so/ Bramante 
replies ; " nt any rate, I seem to have no alternative but 

Julius IL is still often blamed for bavins billowed the 
church to be dcdlrdyed, but whether the reproach is ji 



* Thfifiifioui Jind an Dialogue sppearr^ under rlie tiHe of "Simb* 
St Mn«n In 1 517* An cxlnicl from h, thrnmjf ihut rrrcoi propip at iIdi 
liim did noit bcticvc Ehat Uo X utouH tinuh S. Peier'm ««s puUnhr^ 


0Mnu voy doubtful. If evefi under Nicholis V. the old 
Bttltica had become so unsafe thai in I451 the Pope could 
»y it w« in danger of falling — and we have tnjAtvfxutby_ 
testimony to this effect * — no doubt its condition must have 
been con 51*1 era Wy worse in the rejgn of Julius ll.-f In the 
well-known tctttr to the King of England on iher Uying of 
the found ation-?t one of the new S. Peter's, the Pope dis- 
tinctly asserts that the old church was in a rutnou* condi- 
lion, and this statement k repeated Jn a whole series of 
other JJricfs.J The inscription on the foundatjor-fitonc alao 

* C/, P^Sl'Oft, Hilt Pui^*4j 11-, l7J-iH0i 

t (y, Rel'mom, UL, I. 44S J^ff- 

t In hib Brirf? tn Ebc King of England, Juliui viyi that he hm Uid 
the foundAtic^n of the new building tirma tjiv cJurii cjuod d^^iTiinutL «r 
ulvAior JesuK Chrism:;, tulits nrniiiti basHifam ipsam tretustitU am- 
stiinf>fam iwgusiion fi>nru ct acdlficio renomrc agj^vu sumuv, tnoitie 
Ct pT«obu« jpfJus apostol) nre« nobis trbu#t, irl <^u(Xl inoto ftrvot^ 
incnepmm rst, ab^olvl n p^^rilri pfjs^: ]«d tauriflm et gloTuim DcL In 
another *Bricf,al» dated iStb April, I ;o6| addrcs-icd t{> AtMti ct oonventid 
mooasL^ S. Au^tcini Ord, ^. ttcnedicti i *Cum dccrcvenmus boiilicftni b^ 
Petfi prrnripis apostolorum de urbe 7'€tvfM/f prtrftg scihbentt*K chnto 
HoiTMno fuudittu iDcdifiouc niquc novo c( doccnij opcfc uuuturai^ noa 
hodie pR^tssionaLtcr una cirni vctl fntrbut ncMliu 5. R, & canLi&alibui 
d riut[ri.i )jrr.Utiiiijiii cl populi mulmudiiic propilis iiiaiiLbiu ncuEria 
in ciu9 fund^mcnto primucn lApldcni > . . . po^iumua . , , . tie is 
r«»^^<(l oput ;A^<] ini«nivJb:i^onc aliqiia concedenr« PCKnino per* 
scqui, and .tdnigobhta Euin lu toniribuie^ Fuctunt upcdiu XXVIIL 
■imiliavub cuilcm diitt, •Ub. brcv. w, 1 48^^ (Sccjti Archives of the 
V^Qcsn-J The linef to vhe King of ErgJand in App,, N. 49.-1, daied bth 
JatUf \ J06, is In ihc t*Mne ef^etl. t^ also tlie Encyclicj] in Kavwalults, 
«d an. I ^oSt lu 6, which aay^ ; Qub mcrito non odmiretur ooepuun a 
nobi* ul onuiipoienria Dei «j(i£que inU':tae gpnvtrcU MAnaft ac prinr jpoi 
apcntokrum b. Petri honijncni cl UvjtJtm M'cwjj'jVw* ^tfjiAiiw ci'ttjiilnpi 
MtmcHtAm v^uihUi c^ilitbtHtU rfparatt&nem tt ampiitttitfiirm. KimiLir 
hngunge is ompbj'Pd m Th* Kncydioil writicn shonly beforr his (Ic;iih. 
already c^uolcd frou] Bull VaU, IL, J49- If die old S. Pe(er% had noC 
been in a dilnpldaud coiiditbr, he could not have m repeatedly nnd ae 


supjKirt-s this opinion.* Wdl-infonncti contempo 
writers, snch as Lorenzo Pamilno.t Custodian of Ihc Vati 
Library, and Si^iimonclo de' Conti, say tlic samc^ 
seems, therefore, thit be c&nixit be accused of faavl 
wiiruljy pulled dovi^n the old Bas