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Full text of "History of the counties of Argenteuil, Que. and Prescott, Ont., from the earliest settlement to the present. --"

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Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-six, by C. THOMAS, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics at Ottawa. 


f4 \ J C 

, r MAR "- 

IS 1 





In a volume of ordinary size it would be impossible, of course, to give 
a sketch of all the pioneers in a district of much extent ; in the outset of the 
present work, therefore, it was the intention of the writer to give biographi 
cal sketches of only the very early pioneers and those who, in different ways? 
had become prominently identified with the history of the two Counties. It 
was in pursuance of this plan that a few of the longer sketches were written ; 
but among so many of the early settlers who arrived in the country about 
the same time, it was no easymatter to decide which was the more justly 
entitled to notice. To obviate this difficulty, and to avoid the very common 
complaint against Local Histories that they mention only the rich and 
fortunate it was determined to notice, by giving shorter sketches, all who 
evinced sufficient interest in the work to subscribe for it. But in pursuing 
this plan, we have by no means neglected to mention any individual or 
event whose history is at all likely to add interest to the work. Numbers of 
individuals, therefore, who have passed away, leaving no descendants in the 
country, have been accorded quite as much space as those surviving. In ou r 
desire to do justice to all, and record every incident brought to our notice 
which seemed worthy of preservation, we have enlarged the book considerably 
beyond our intention at first, and, beyond the size stated in the prospectus. 
In a book of so many and varied subjects, it would be scarcely less than a 
miracle should not errors be found and, especially, when the writer in several 
instances has discovered serious mistakes in notes which the individuals who 
gave them regarded as perfectly correct. It is believed, however, that what 
ever errors may yet be discovered, if any, will be of so trifling a nature that 
they will not seriously affect the value of the work. 

That the work has been a very laborious one, the reader will at 
once perceive, indeed, the writer, from ill health, has more than once almost 
despaired of completing it ; but He who tempers the wind to the shorn lamb 
has enabled him to persevere through many discouragements and bring 
it to completion. He would acknowledge himself profoundly grateful for 
the assistance rendered by the different clergymen whose contributions 
appear in these pages, as well as for that extended by W. J. Simpson, M.P. P. ; 

v jii PREFACE. 

G. W. Parmelee, Secretary of the Council of Public Instruct ; G^F. Calder 
Esq. Cols. Shields and Higginson, Sheriff Hagar, G. J.Walker, Esq., 
Dewar, Esq., Duncan Dewar, Esq., T. T. Higginson, Esq., and several 

" He that writes 

Or makes a feast, more certainly invites 

His judges than his friends ; there s not a guest 

But will find something wanting or ill-drest." 

However true the above lines, the value of local history increases with 
the progress of culture, and its benefit no one will deny. This volume^ i 
presented to the public with the belief that it will be accorded a recepti 
sufficiently cordial to save the author the unpleasant reflection, that his lal 
has been performed in vain. 

Page 109, line 6, the legal right of any protestant clergyman except those of 
he established churches of England and Scotland to keep re gl sters of civil status or 

to officiate at marriages. 

Page 123, Hue 8, The late James Middleton. 

Page i2S, 4th line from bottom, Lord Reay. 

Page 147 * 19, For Catherine McLean, read Catherine McLaunn. 

Page 222, last line, read Mr. Walker s present dwelling. 

Page 223, line 25, for an Elder read Manager. 

Page 461, ist line, for Western read Eastern. 

Page 466, line 19, for this company, read their company. 

The Ottawa 9 

Champlain s Astrolabe ,,....... 1 1 

The Heroes of the Long Sault 15 

The Indians descent of the Ottawa with furs 20 

do do do 21 

Opening of the fur trade on the Pacific.... 21 

Mr. Philemon Wright s ascent of the Ottawa 24 

Navigation on the Ottawa 26 

Places of interest on the Ottawa 32 

County of Argenteuil 34 

Census of 1891 34 

Geology of Argenteuil 35 

Representatives 39 

Sir J. J. C. Abbott 42 

Agricultural Society 45 

County Council 48 

Argenteuil Rangers 48 

Fenian raids ,.,... 51 

The Schools of Argenteuil 58 

Inhabitants of Argenteuil 60 

Scotch settlers of Argenteuil 63 

Seigniory of Argenteuil 66 

Sir John Johnson 67 

St. Andrew s Parish 70 

do Village 70 

Churches , 103 

Anglican Church 103 

Presbyterian Church 104 

Roman Catholic Church 114 

Baptist 117 

Congregational 119 

Methodist.... 122 

Bible Society 1 23 

C. E. Society 123 

W. C. T. U. Society 123 

Woman s Missionary Society 123 

Masonic Lodge 1 24 

Mercantile 131 

Cote du Midi and the Bay 1 38 

River Rouge 147 

Beech Ridge 151 

Geneva 156 

Carillon 162 

Employees on Carillon Canal 1 86 

Municipal Council 190 

The Dam 191 

Isle aux Chats 193 

Town of Lachute 194 

Reminiscences of early days , 213 

Professional 227 

Rise and Progress of Education 232 

Lachute Academy 233 

Rise and Progress of Religion 237 

Presbyterian Church 238 

Henry s Presbyterian Church 242 

Anglican Church 243 

Baptist ; 244 

Methodist 246 

Roman Catholic Church 248 

W. C. T. U. and C. E. Societies 248 

Mechanics Institute 249 

Manufactures 250 

Paper Mills 253 

Newspapers 262 

Bridges and railroads 263 

Mercantile establishments 263 

Hotels 266 

Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil 269 

East Settlement 272 

Bethany 277 

Videsac 278 

Hill Head 279 

Chatham 280 

Gushing 297 

St. Mungo s Church 302 

Greece s Point 307 

Stonefield 309 

St. Phillip 313 

Roman Catholic Church 316 

Staynerville 322 

Brownsburg... 324 

Dominion Cartridge Factory 326 

Mount Maple 333 

Dalesville 336 

Baptist Church 343 

Edina 365 

Grenville 366 

Grenville Village 367 

Anglican Church 378 

Presbyterian t 379 

Roman Catholic 379 

Methodist 383 

Baptist 384 

Mercantile , 388 

La Belle Falls 396 

Calumet 398 

Augmentation of Grenville 403 

Point au Chene 404 

Avoca 407 

Harrington 4 

Lost River.... 416 

Lake View . . 418 

The Glen 4 21 

Wentworth 422 

Louisa 424 

Wentworth Glen 4 2 5 

Laurel 428 

Montfort 4 2 ** 


INDEX. Continued- 

Gore 43 

Lakefield 432 

Shrewsbury 436 

Mille Isles 438 

Cambria 441 

Morin 444 

Morin Flats 445 

Arundel 447 

Montcalm 460 

Howard . . 460 

Prescott 461 

Census of 1 89 1 461 

Representatives of Prescott , 462 

Inhabitants 464 

Militia officers of 1838 467 

l8th Battalion of Militia 467 

Schools of Prescott 468 

Progress of the timber industry 471 

Agricultural Society 475 

Point Fortune 477 

The H. B. and N.W. Companies 485 

A Canadian Heroine 495 

Longueuil . 502 

L Orignal 513 

Methodist Church 515 

Presbyterian 517 

Roman Catholic 520 

Anglican Church 520 

Professional Men and Officials 520 

Mercantile and Business Men 524 

Newspapers 528 

Cassburn 529 

Hawkesbury Mills 533 

Churches 542 

Presbyterian Church 542 

Anglican Church 543 

Manufactures 547 

Mercantile 549 

Evandale , 551 

Green Lane 553 

West Hawkesbury 554 

Henry 563 

Vankleek Hill 564 

Presbyterian Church 570 

Anglicau Church 571 

Methodist Church , 572 

Baptist Church 573 

Roman Catholic Church 5 74 

Schools 575 

Hotels 577 

Manufactories 578 

Newspapers 580 

East Hawkesbury 588 

Chute au Blondeau 588 

Little Rideau 597 

Stardale 604 

St. Eugene 609 

do R.C. Church 6o 

Barb 615 

Caledonia 621 

Fenaghvale 622 

do St. Paul s Church 625 

St. Amour 627 

Caledonia Springs , 628 

Alfred 630 

do R. C. Church 630 

Lafaivre 631 

Holmes Settlement 635 

Alfred Village 635 

James Settlement 638 

North Plantagenet 6 38 

Plantagenet Mills 638 

do Churches 641 

do Hotels 642 

Treadwell 6 44 

Hughes Settlement 645 

Jessup s Falls 6 45 

Curran 646 

Ceuterfield 6 47 

Rockdale 6 49 

Pendleton 6 5 J 

Smith Settlement 6 53 

do Prest. Church 654 

South Plantagenet 6 55 

Riceville 6 5 6 

Franklin s Corners 662 

Lemieux 663 

Fournier 663 



this noble river is the dividing line between the two Counties to the history 
of which this volume is devoted, and, moreover, is the stream upon which 
thousands of their inhabitants have toiled for the maintenance of them 
selves or families, it naturally deserves more than a passing notice. 

Fine, charming, beautiful, lovely, wonderful river, are expressions any one 
or all of which may be heard daily on the steamers which ply its waters ; and ex 
travagant and ridiculous as seem these adjectives when applied to many objects, no 
one ever regards them inappropriate when applied to the Ottawa. 

Coming from the far North, from regions almost unknown, there is a certain 
mystery about it, which awakens our curiosity and engenders a spirit of romance. 
While its beautiful islands and the picturesque scenery of its shores are continually 
demanding our admiration, as we ascend its current, its breadth is an ever-present 
source of wonder. 

From the moment we leave Lake St. Louis, where it unites with the St. Law 
rence, till we have passed two hundred miles beyond the Dominion Capital, we 
look in vain for any perceptible decrease of its breadth and volume ; there is the 
same oft-recurring change from river to lake, from lake to river. The Ottawa is 
emphatically a river of lakes, and of the last fifty miles of its course, they form no 
small proportion. 

Scarcely have we left Lake St. Louis, ere we enter the beautiful Lake of Two 
Mountains, every square rood of whose shores is replete with historic interest. Leav. 
ing this, we are soon on the expansive bosom of St. Placide Bay, and anon on 
Rigaud Bay, each vying with the other in beauty and area, as well as in the importance 
of its historic associations. And thus we may sail, seeing river after river, and some 
of them large in size, adding their waters to those of the mighty Ottawa, without 
causing the slightest apparent difference in its size ; indeed, it is said that it is broader 
280 miles from its mouth than it is after Deceiving twenty tributaries, and several of 
them such streams as the Gatineau, the Li^vre, the North and South Nations, the 
Rouge and the River du Nord. Wonderful indeed ! But our interest increases as we 
cast our eyes along the history of the past, and see the important events with which 
the Ottawa has been connected. It was the highway of the early French explorers, 



traders and missionaries who brought the first tidings of the Gospel to the natives of 
New France. It was traversed by the red man when he first in peace bartered the 
products of the chase with the whites at Montreal; also, when he stole stealthily upon 
them to dye his tomahawk in their blood. This was the route pursued by the coureurs 
du bois, as they went to and from their far-off haunts for game, and many decades 
later the Ottawa bore the canoes ^of the Nor Westers, and returned them with rich 

cargoes of peltries. 

The earliest event with which the Ottawa is associated, which we find mentione< 
Canadian history, is its ascent by Champlain, in 1613, on a wild goose chase, to 
discover the North Sea. A person named Vigneau had accompanied him on several 
visits to the Indians, and spent a winter among them. He reported that the river of 
the Algonquins (the Ottawa) issued from a lake connected with the North Sea ; that 
he had visited the shores of this sea, and there witnessed the wreck of an English 
vessel. The crew eighty in number had reached the shore, where the inhabitants 
had killed and scalped them all except a boy, whom they offered to give up to him, 
with other trophies of their victory. Champlain had this declaration made in writ 
ing, and signed before two notaries, at the same time warning Vigneau that if it were 
false, he would be liable to punishment by death. Vigneau adhered to his statements, 
and Champlain, having learned that some English vessels had been wrecked on the 
coast of Labrador, no longer doubted, and prepared to depart for the North to 
explore that section of the country. 

With two canoes containing four Frenchmen including Vigneau-and one Indian, 
he proceeded up the Ottawa, during which voyage he experienced severe hardships 
and encountered many difficulties. Owing to frequent rapids and cataracts, they 
were obliged, often, to carry their canoes and stores overland, and sometimes this 
was impossible, on account of the dense forests and undergrowth. The latter diffi 
culty was overcome only by dragging their boats through the rapid current, where 
their lives were in constant jeopardy. Another danger, also, continually menaced 
them, that of meeting wandering bands of Iroquois, to whose ferocity they would 
doubtless have fallen victims. At last they were obliged to abandon their corn and 
trust entirely to their success in hunting and fishing for provisions. 

They finally reached the habitations of Tessonat, a friendly chief, whos 
country was eight days journey from that of the Nipissings, where the shipwreck was 
said to have occurred. He received them courteously ; but in a council which was 
held later, he promised, only on the most earnest entreaty, to comply with Cham- 
plain s request for an escort of four canoes. Finding the Indians still reluctant t 
fulfill this piomise and averse to accompany him, he demanded another meeting, u 
which he reproached them with their intended breach of faith; and to convince them 
that the fears which they expressed were groundless, referred to the fact of Vigneau 
having spent some time among the Nipissings. 

Vigneau being then called on to state whether such was the case, after some 
hesitation and evident reluctance replied in the affirmative. The chief immediately 


called him a liar, asserted that he had never been beyond the limits of their own country, 
and declared that he deserved torture for his dishonesty. Being submitted to a rigid 
examination by Champlain, Vigneau was obliged to admit that what the Indians said 
was true, and that his tale, by which Champlain had been led to encounter such hard 
ships, and neglect matters he had so much at heart, was a fabrication. Leaving him 
with the Indians as punishment for his perfidy, Champlain returned to Quebec, and 
soon afterward to France. 

In 1867110 little interest was awakened among antiquarians by the finding of 
an Astrolabe, which there very is good proof was lost by Champlain on his trip up 
the Ottawa which is described above. 

We are indebted to Mr. Colin Dewar, of Ottawa, for the account which follows. 
He says : 

I have a distinct recollection that an article appeared in the Montreal Witness, in the summer 
of 1867, giving an account of the finding of an Astrolabe near Portage du Fort, on the Ottawa. 

This was a most interesting relic, on account of its being (as was conjectured) the one used by 
Champlain on his voyage of exploration up the Ottawa in 1613. In order to ascertain the truth of the 
report, and to obtain, if possible, the fullest information regarding it, I instituted a vigorous search 
(for a time with very little prospect of success) ; but considering that no trouble would be too great to 
secure the proper information icgarding such a valuable relic, I persevered in my endeavors, a 
ultimately was rewarded by finding a very complete account in pamphlet form, from the pen of the 
W A.J. Russell, Esq., Crown Timber Agent in Ottawa, whose son, John Alex. Russell, Esq., of the 
Public Works Department, has also contributed some exceedingly valuable information. The account 
given by Mr. Russell is so very interesting, and deals with the subject in such a scientific manner, that 
it will be both pleasing and profitable to the readers of these sketches to have it faithfully transcribed. 

LOST ON THE 7Tii JUNE, 1613, 


In the preface, Mr. Russell says : " This brief treatise was not originally wiitten with a view to 
" publication ; but as the subject is connected with the early history of Canada, and throws a little 
" additional light on an obscurity in a part of Champlain s journal of his first voyage up the Ottawa. 
" I have been induced by the flattering recommendations of a few friends to have a very limited edition 
" of it published, trusting it may be in some degree interesting to Canadian readers." 

Mr. Russell now goes onto say ; "The Astrolabe which is the subject of this treatise was 
" shewn to me by Captain Oveiman of the Ottawa Forwarding Co. lie afterwards gave it to R. W. 
" Cassells, Esq., then President of that Company, now of Toronto, who obliged me with the loan of 
" it. Knowledge of the Portage on which it was found led me to believe that it was the one that 
" Champlain s journal contains evidence of his having lost there, in 1613. 


"This Astrolabe, of which a photo is prefixed, was found in 1867, on the rear half of lot 12, in the 
"second range of the township of Ross in the county of North Renfrew, Province of Ontario, on the 
"river Ottawa, by Captain Overman s people in cultivating apiece of ground, at a small lake near the 


road from the Ottawa to Muskrat Lake, and is believed to have been lost by Champlain in traver- 
sing that portage on his way up the Ottawa in the year 1613."-" 1 he following particulars respect- 
ing it, and reasons for believing it to be Champlain s, may perhaps be found interesting to Cana- 
dian readers. Its diameter is S tt inches, of plate brass, very dark with age, and / 8 of an inch thic. 
i above increasing to 6& of an inch below, to give it steadiness when suspended, which apparently 
" was intended to be increased by having a weight on the ring at the bottom of it, in using it on ship 
< board. Its suspending ring is attached by a double hinge of the nature of a universal joint. Its 
circle isdivided into single degrees, graduated from its perpendicular axis of suspension. 
ble blade d index, the pivot of which passes through the centre of the Astrolabe, has slits and eyelets 
" in the projecting sights that are on it, and by turning the index directly to the sun at noon, so that 
. , h e same ray may shine fully through both eyelets, while the Astrolabe hangs freely. The sun s 
Meridian altitude, and thereby the latitude of the place of observation, can be taken to within 
"about % of a degree, or even less, which is as close as Champlain s latitudes generally were taken. 
"The date of 1 603 is engraved on the face of the Astrolabe. 

" Champlain made his first voyage up the Ottawa in 1613, and his journal contains conclusive 
" evidence that he lost his Astrolabe on the 6th or 7 th June of that year, in passing through the por- 
, a ge on which this Astrolabe was found. It is singularly remarkable that this evidence lies chiefly 
in an error in Champlain s latitude of what is now the village ofPembroke, which attracted the spe- 
cial attention of our Canadian historian, Mr. Ferland, and is the subject of a copious note on page 
" -07 of the splendid illustrated edition of the works of Champlain, edited with copious and interesting 
" poles by Abbe Laverdiere of the Laval University, and published by Mr. Desbarat in 1870, while 
" it is equally worthy of remark that the loss of his Astrolabe accounts sufficiently for Champlain 
not afterwards detecting and correcting this error of his by subsequent obseivations, and his having 
"lost it accounts also for his having made no more observations for latitude on that voyage, which he 
< certainly otheiwise would have done. It will be seen on examination that Champlain s error in ob- 
"servation of latitude took place near Gould s Landing, below Portage duFort (which seems to have 
escaped the notice of Mr. Ferland and others), and that his error in speaking of the latitude of Pem- 
" broke is simply a continuation of his first error, arising from its being merely an estimation or rough 
dead reckoning of his Northing from Gould s Landing, in consequence of his not having the means of 
" determining it by actual observation owing to his having lost his Astrolabe. 

"This will be more clearly apparent by following the course of Champlain, and noting what he 
says about his observations for latitude. 

" He left the Island of Ste. Helene, where his barque lay at anchor, on the 271*1 May, 1613, with 
" a party of four Frenchmen and one Indian. (There was no Montreal in those days.) Being delayed 
"by bad weather, he did not leave Sault St. Louis till the 2 9 th. On Vhe 3 oth he took an observation 
"for latitude at Lachine. His words in the French of his time are : Je prius la hauteur de ce lieu, 
" qui est par les 45 degrez 18 minutes de latitude, which is only about five minutes less than the true 
"latitude of the place, a very insignificant error when it is taken into consideration that the Verniers 
we now have on all scientific instruments for reading the sub-divisions of degrees were not then in 
"common use, though invented about that time. Giving a brief but vivid and highly interesting 
" description of the danger he experienced in towing his own canoe up the Long Sault Rapids, of the 
"fair and spacious tributary rivers, the beautiful islands and magnificent woods as he passes along, 
"and exchanging one of his Frenchmen for an Indian of a war party that he met at an island near 
what is now the site of the antique-looking and picturesquely situated manor house of the late Hon. 
Louis Joseph Papineau, and passing the Rideau Falls, which excite his admiration, he reaches the 
"great Asticon, as his Indians called it, and which in their language meant < Chaudiere, and des 
cribes that great waterfall of the Ottawa, in all its native grandeur, which all old Bytonians so well 
"remember, though now impaired and desecrated. On passing it on the 4th June, he took an obser- 


"vation for latitude at what is now the overgrown busy village of Hull. He says ; Je prius la hauteur 
du lieu, et trouvay 45 degrez 38 minutes de latitude, that is only about 12% minutes in excess of the 
"true latitude, which is 45 25 33" N. Passing the Chaudiere Lake and the Eardley mountains on 
" the 5th, and the gre|it falls of the Chatts, where, singularly enough, they left their provisions and part 
" of their clothing, to avoid the fatigue of carrying them, he ascends the Chats Lake and camps on an 
l island at the head of it, where he first meets the Ottawa red pine trees, and admires their beauty. He 
" there erected a cross made of one of them with the arms of France cut upon it. Leaving it on the 
" 6th he paddled up the Cheneaux Rapid. The reader who has passed that way will remember the 
" narrow passage between the rocky islands and (he lofty precipitous rocks, whose shadows darken 
"the swift and surging waters through which the steamer sways and struggles before entering the pic- 
" turesque reach of smooth water leading to Portage du Fort. 

" Here Champlain says he crossed to the west side of the river, where it turns to the north, 
" and landed for the purpose of taking the route by the Muskrat portage and lake to Pembroke, by 
11 the advice of his Indians, to avoid the many rapids and falls on the main river. The place of his 
" landing is very [definitely apparent on the sketch with this, which is copied from the plan of the 
" Ottawa canal survey, and here he says he took an observation of the latitude : Nous traversames 
" done 1 ouest la riviere qui courait au nord, et pris la hauteur de ce lieu qui estoit par 46 2 3" 
" de latitude. 

" It is here that he makes the error of a full degree, in addition to the usual amount of error due, 
" to the imperfection of the instrument, for the latitude of his landing place is only about 45 35 , and 
" this, it is to be observed, is the last observation that he says he took during the voyage. He then 
" says: We had much hardship in making our way by this land route, being loaded, for my own 
" part, only with three Arquebuses, as many paddles, my capot and some little bagatelles. I 
" encouraged my people, who were a little more heavily loaded, and more harassed by the mosquitoes 
" than by their burdens. Thus after having passed four small lakes or ponds (petits e tangs), we were 
" so fatigued that it was impossible for us to go further, as for nearly 24 hours we had eaten nothing 
" but a little roasted fish without sauce, for, as I have said, we had left our provisions; we rested on 
" the banks of a little lake, which was pleasant enough, and made a fire to drive away the mosqui- 
" toes. The next day, June 7th, we passed this pond, which may be a league in length, and then made 
" our way by land for three leagues through a more difficult country than any we had yet seen, owing 
" to the wind having blown down the pines one over the other, which is no small inconvenience, 
" hiving to pass sometimes over and sometimes under these trees. Thus we came to a lake 6 
" leagues long (Muskrat Lake). 

" The four little lakes that he passed on the 6th are shown on the sketch, and his distance made 
" that day of 2^ leagues from ihe Ottawa is very nearly correct, so also is the length of the lake he 
" traversed on the morning of the 7th, but the distance from it to the Muskrat Lake is estimated by 
" him at nearly double what it really is, but that is exactly what might be expected from any person 
" little accustomed to the woods in struggling through windfalls. The small lake near which, I was 
" informed by Capt. Overman, the Astrolabe was found, and which is most accessible at end, 
"would be a most suitable halting place. He reached Muskrat Lake early enough in the diy to 
" be entertained formally with the pipe of peace and friendship in Indian fashion, followed by a 
" speech and refreshments from Nebachis, the chief of the Indians, who cleared and cultivated land 
" there, and had fields and gardens which they took him to see. 

" Nebachis had a couple of canoes equipped, and took him down Muskrat Lake, and across the 
" short portage of three miles by a well beaten easy path (now the stage route to Pembroke), to see 
"the Chief Tessonat. He arrived there on the 8th June, so early that after visiting Tessonat, and 
" making some nrrangements with that chief, he had time to go over to Allumette Island, the chief 
" abode and stronghold of that branch of the Algonquins called the Kichsipim (men of the Grand 


river), characterized in Les Relations des ^suites as extrcmcmcnt suptrbe. There examin- 
ing at leisure their land and burying grounds, he conferred with their chiefs and prmc.pal men, and 
invited them to attend the feast or public dinner that the bon vieux Capilaine Tessonat was to 
"oiveonthe 9 th at Pembroke, on which day, after Tessonat s formal state dinner had come off 
its various courses, such like as they were, attended by the chiefs and great men, each bringing with 
him his own wooden bowl and spoon, and after solemn smoking and speechification, Champlain, 
to pass the rest of the day, walked about in their gardens. But neither during this time nor the day 
after, nor indeed during the remainder of the voyage, does he speak at all of takmg any more 
-observations for latitude. What he says of Pembroke is simply that it is about the 47th degree of 
-- latitude : Elle est par les 47 degrez ^ ] *^e, that is, in speaking of Allumetle Island and 
foot of Allumette Lake. In noticing this as an error of fully a degree in the absence o any other 
means obvious to him of accounting for it, M. Ferland, in page 164 of his Cours d du 
Canada says: Pnreille erreur n a rien qui doive surprendre. dans une expedition ou ,1 lu, deva.t etre 
" difficile de faire des observations exactes. But we cannot accept of this explanation as adequate 
to account for the difference between the true latitude of Pembroke, which ,s about 45 5 o W- 
and that of 47 given by Champlain, for in examining his errors in latitude in the cases quoted, 
and those made on his voyage to Lake Huron two years later, after having been again in France 
it be right to designate as errors differences, his instruments were not graduated minutely enough t 
indicate), we find that they are comparatively insignificant, seldom amounting to the third part 
" of a degree, which corresponds closely with the ctpacity of the Astrolabe found. \\ e see there- 
< fore that this error of a degree in the latitude of Pembroke could not arise from imperfect power c 
his instrument, as M. Ferland s explanation seems to suggest. In fact, a little further consi 
tion enables us to see that .he circumstance of this great error of a degree having been originally 
"made below Portage du Fort, demonstrates conclusively that he took no observation at all at 
Pembroke. For we all know, especially those of us who are accustomed to the use of .nstruments 
for the observation of altitudes, or have even the ordinary knowledge of the doctrine of chances, that, 
as Champlain knew well that he was travelling northward, the certainty is, that if he had mad 
observation of Pembroke at all, he would have assuredly detected his e.ror made on the 6th, fi 
it he would be necessarily made to appear to have been going south. We are not at liberty 
suppose he would have made the error of a degree a second time accidentally, for we know that 
"the common principle of chances, the probability as more than ten thousand 
" would not make the same accidental error twice in succession. Also, as we see that he was 
habit of taking observations for latitudes of less important points, as he went along, and 
formally noticing his observations, we may be very well assured that he would not have failed 
determine, by actual observation as usual, the latitude of a position so important as 
point he had reached, if he had had the means of doing so, and no other cause that can I 
" accounts sufficiently for his not having the means of doing so, and for his having taken no 
" tion on this voyage after the 6th of June, excepting the loss of his Astrolabe on th, po 
" this one was found. 

Taken altogether, therefore, there is strong circumstantial evidence that this was his Astrola 
< and that his loss of it, there and then, was the cause of the extraordinary error m his 
" Pembroke which attracted I he attention of his commentators. 

While we look upon this Astrolabe as a relic of the founder of civilized society in Canada, her 
greatest man and most daring explorer, the founder of her most ancient cities, of her gre 
mercial metropolis ; and while we regard it with additional interest as a memento < 
ture on what was even then Canada s great interior highway of commerce, and is by the sar 
tiny now the site for her great Pacific Railway, we may also look upon it as a reh 
" even pie-historic science and civilization. 


" The day of Astrolabes, like that of the men who used them, has long gone by. This was pro- 
* bably one of the la^t of them that were used. One of the last works on them is Clavius Treatise on 
* Astrolabes, printed at Miyence in 161 1. They were soon after superseded. Vernier, the inventor 
" of the Vernier scale now in use on the indexes of all scientific instruments for reading subdivisions 
" of degrees, published a tract on La Construction, 1 Usage et les Proprietes du Quadrant 
"Nouveau de Mathe"matique at Brussels en 1631. In it the nature and use of the Vernier is 
" explained, and it had indeed been known for a number of years bafore. It will be readily under - 
" stood by all acquainted with scientific instruments that the Quadrant Nouveau with its Vernier 
" would speedily supersede so imperfect an instrument as the Astrolabe before us. The Astrolabe 
" was found in general use among the Southern Arabians by Vasquez de Gama, when he discovered 
* as it is commonly held, the way round the Cape of Good Hope to India, known in the days of 
" Pharaoh Necho. The origin of the use of it by them is 1 >st in the remote past. From the days 
" of de Gama back to the earliest notices of commerce in existence, the commerce of the Arabians 
" and their predecessors, the Cushite Arabians, extended to every coast, and almost to every island of 
" the Indian Ocean from India to Abyssinia, as Rawlinson says in his work on Herodotus. Our 
" Alchemy, Arabic figures, Almanac and c Algebra, indicate the channel through which our 
" sciences came." 

Champlain returned to Canada in 1815, and the same year, in company with his 
Huron and Algonquin allies, once more ascended the Ottawa, and explored the 
country towards Lake Nipissing, and thence to Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. 

The most important event, however, associated with the Ottawa is the brave 
defence on its shores by the "Heroes of the Long Sault." The exact site of this 
heroic fight is unknown different parties locate it in different places, and all sup 
port their opinions with arguments equally good. But there are strong reasons for 
believing that the fight occurred in what is now known as Greece s Pt., or at a spot 
nearly opposite, in the township of Hawkesbury, Ont., tradition, and the finding of 
many Indian weapons there, strongly sustaining the claims of ths latter place to 
this honor. 

The following account is taken from " The Old Regime in Canada " by Francis 
Parkman : 


In April, 1660, a young officer named Daulac, commandant of the garrison at 
Montreal, asked leave of Maisonneuve, the Governor, to lead a party of volunteers 
against the Iroquois. His plan was bold to desperation. It was known that 
Iroquois warriors in great numbers had wintered among the forests of the Ottawa. 
Daulac proposed to waylay them on their descent of the river, and fight them with 
out regard to disparity of force; and Maisonneuve, judging that a display of enter 
prise and boldness might act as a check on the audicityof the enemy, at last gave 
his consent. 

Adam Daulac was a young man of good family, who had come to the colony 
three years before, at the age of twenty-two. He had held some military command 
in France, though in what rank does not appear. He had been busy for some time 
among the young men of Montreal, inviting them to join him in the enterprise he 



meditated. Sixteen of them caught his spirit. They bound themselves by oath to 
accept no quarter ; and having gained Maisonneuve s consent, they made their wills, 
confessed, and received the sacraments. 

After a solemn farewell, they embarked in several canoes, well supplied with 
arms and ammunition. They were very indifferent canoe-men, and it is said that 
they lost a week in vain attempts to pass the swift current of Ste. Anne, at the head 
of the Island of Montreal. At length they were successful, and entering the mouth 
of the Ottawa, crossed the Lake of Two Mountains, and slowly advanced against 
the current. 

About the ist of May they reached the foot of the formidable rapid called the 
Long Sault, where a tumult of waters, foaming among ledges and boulders, barred 
the onward way. It was needless to go farther. The Iroquois were sure to pass 
the Sault, and could be fought here as well as elsewhere. Just below the rapid, 
where the forests sloped gently to the shore, among the bushes and stumps of a 
rough clearing made in constructing it, stood a palisade fort, the work of an Algon 
quin war-party in the past autumn. It was a mere enclosure of trunks of small trees 
planted in a circle, and was already in ruin. Such as it was, the Frenchmen took 
possession of it. They made their fires, and slung their kettles, on the neighboring 
shore; and here they were soon joined by forty Hurons and four Algonquins. 
Daulac, it seems, made no objection to their company, and they all bivouacked to 
gether. Morning, noon and night, they prayed in three different tongues ; and when, 
at sunset, the long reach of forest on the farther shore basked peacefully in the level 
rays, the rapids joined their hoarse music to the notes of their evening hymn. 

In a day or two their scouts came in with tidings that two Iroquois canoes were 
coming down the Sault. Daulac had time to set his men in ambush among the bushes 
at a point where he thought the strangers likely to land. He judged aright. Canoes, 
bearing five Iroquois, approached, and were met by a volley fired with such precipita 
tion that one or more of them escaped, fled into the forest, and told their mischance to 
their main body, two hundred in number, on the liver above. A fleet of canoes suddenly 
appeared, bounding down the rapids, filled with warriors eager for revenge. The 
allies had barely time to escape to their fort, leaving their kettles still slung over the 
fires. The Iroquois made a hasty and desultory attack, and were quickly repulsed. 
They next opened a parley, hoping, no doubt, to gain some advantage by surprise. 
Failing in this, they set themselves, after their custom on such occasions, to building 
a rude fort of their own in the neighboring forest. 

This gave the French a breathing time, and they used it for strengthening their 
defences. Being provided with tools, they planted a row of stakes within their pal 
isade, to form a double fence, and filled the intervening space with earth and stones 
to the height of a man, leaving some twenty loop-holes, at each of which, three marks 
men were stationed. Their work was still unfinished when the Iroquois were upon 
them again. They had broken to pieces the birch canoes of the French and their 
allies, and kindling the bark rushed up to pile it blazing against the palisade ; but so 


brisk and steady a fire met them that they recoiled, and at last gave way. They 
came on again, and again were driven back, leaving many of their number on the 
ground, among them the principal chief of the Senecas. 

This dashed the spirits of the Ircquois, and they sent a canoe to call to their aid 
five hundred of their warriors, who were mustered near the mouth of the Richelieu. 
These were the allies whom, but for this untoward check, they were on their way to 
join for a combined attack on Quebec, Three Rivers and Montreal. It was madden 
ing to see their grand project thwarted by a few French and Indians ensconced in a 
paltry redoubt scarcely better than a cattle-pen ; but they were forced to digest the 
affront as best they might. 

Meanwhile, crouched behind trees and logs, they beset the fort, harassing its 
defenders day and night with a spattering fire and a constant menace of attack. 
Thus five days passed. Hunger, thirst, and want of sleep wrought fa tally on the strength 
of the French and their allies, who, pent up together in their narrow prison, fought 
and prayed by turns. Deprived as they were of water, they could not swallow the 
crushed Indian corn, or "hominy," which was their only food. Some of them, under 
cover of a brisk fire, ran down to the river and filled such small vessels as they had ; 
but this pittance only tantalized their thirst. They dug a hole in the fort, and were 
rewarded at last by a little muddy water oozing through the clay. 

Among the assailants were a number of Hurons adopted by the Iroquois, and 
fighting on their side. These renegades now tried to seduce their countrymen in the 
fort. Half dead with thirst and famine, they took the bait, and one, two, or three at 
a time climbed the palisade, and ran over to the enemy, amid the hootings and exe 
crations of those whom they deserted. Their chief stood firm, and when he saw his 
nephew join the other fugitives, he firedhis pistol at him in a rage. The four Algon- 
quins, who had no mercy to hope for, stood fast with the courage of despair. 

On the fifth day an uproar of unearthly yells from seven hundred savage throats, 
mingled with a clattering salute of musketry, told the Frenchmen that the expected 
reinforcement had come ; and soon, in the forest and on the clearing, a crowd of war 
riors mustered for the attack. Knowing from the Huron deserters the weakness of 
their enemy, they had no doubt of an easy victory. They advanced cautiously, as 
was usual with the Iroquois before their blood was up, screeching, leaping from side to 
side, and firing as they came on ; but the French were at their posts, and every loop 
hole darted its tongue of fire. The Iroquois, astonished at the persistent vigor of the 
defence, fell back discomfited. The fire of the French, who were themselves com 
pletely under cover, told upon them with deadly effect. Three days more wore away 
in a series of futile attacks, made with little concert or vigor, and during all this time 
Daulac and his men, reeling with exhaustion, fought and prayed as before, sure of a 
martyr s reward. 

The uncertain, vacillating temper common to all Indians now began to declare 
itself. Some of the Iroquois were for going home. Others revolted at the thought, 
and declared that it would be an eternal disgrace to lose so many men at the hands 


of so paltry an enemy, and yet fail to take revenge. It was resolved to make a general 
assault, and volunteers were called for, to lead the attack. No precaution was 
neglected. Large and heavy shields, four or five feet high, were made by lashing to 
gether, with the aid of cross bars, three split logs. Covering themselves with these 
mantelets, the chosen band advanced, followed by the motley throng of warriors. 
In spite of a brisk fire, they reached the palisade, and crouching below the range of 
shot, hewed furiously with their hatchets to cut their way through. The rest followed 
close, and swarmed like angry hornets around the little fort, hacking and tearing to 

gel in. 

Daulac had crammed a large musketoon with powder and plugged up the muzzle. 
Lighting the fuse inserted in it, he tried to throw it over the barrier, to burst like a 
grenade among the crowd of savages without ; but it struck the ragged top of one of 
the palisades, fell back among the Frenchmen, and exploded, killing or wounding 
several of them, and nearly blinding others. In the confusion that followed, the Iro- 
quois got possession of the loop-holes, and thrusting in their guns fired on those 
within. In a moment more they had torn a breach in the palisade ; but, nerved with 
the energy of desperation, Daulac and his followers sprang to defend it. Another 
breach was made and then another, Daulac was struck dead, but the survivors kept 
up the fight. With a sword or a hatchet in one hand and a knife in the other, they 
threw themselves against the throng of enemies, striking and stabbing with the fury of 
madmen ; till the Iroquois. despairing of taking them alive, fired volley after volley, 
and shot them down. All was over, and a burst of triumphant yells proclaimed the 
dear-bought victory. 

Searching the pile of corpses, the victors found four Frenchmen still breathing. 
Three had scarcely a spark of life, and, as no time was to be lost, they burned them 
on the spot. r lhe fourth, less fortunate, seemed likely to survive, and they reserved 
him for future torments. As for the Huron deserters, their cowardice profited them 
little. The Iroquois, regardless of their promises, fell upon them, burned some at 
once and carried the rest to their villages for a similar fate. Five of the number had 
the good fortune to escape, and it was from them, aided by admissions made long 
afterwards by the Iroquois themselves, that the French of Canada derived all their 
knowledge of this glorious disaster. 

The story of the Heroes of the Long Sault has been admirably told by Mr. George 
Murray, B.A., F.R.S.C., in his celebrated poem, How Canada was Saved. 

Daulac, the captain of the fort in manhood s fiery prime, 

Hath sworn by some immortal deed to make his name sublime ; 

And sixteen soldiers of the Cross, his comrades true and tried, 

Have pledged theii faith for life and death, all kneeling side by side. 

And this their oath, on flood or field, to challenge face to face 

The ruthless hordes of Iroquois the scourges of their race 

No quarter to accept or grant, and loyal to the grave, 

To die, like martyrs, for the land they had shed their blood to save. 


* Sofc was the breath of balmy Spring in that fair month of May, 

The wild flower bloomed the Spring bird sang on many a budding spray 

A tender blue was in the sky, on earth a tender green 

And peace seemed brooding, like a dove, o er all the sylvan scene, 

\Vhen loud and high, a thrilling cry dispelled the magic charm, 

And scouts came hurrying from the woods to bid their comrades arm. 

And bark canoes skimmed lightly down the torrent of the Sault, 

Manned by three hundred dusky forms th; long expected foe. 

" Eight days of varied horror passed ; what boots it now to tell 

How the pale tenants of the fort heroically fell ? 

Hunger and thirst, and sleeplessness, Death s ghastly aids, at length 

Marred and defaced their comely forms, and quelled their giant strength ; 

The end draws nigh they yearn to die one glorious rally more, 

For the sake of Ville-Marie, and all will soon be o er ; 

Sure of the martyr s golden crown, they shrink not from the cross, 

Life yielded for the land they love, they scorn to reckon loss." 

The fort is fired, and through the flame, with slippery, splashing tread, 

The Redmen stumble to the camp o er ramparts of the dead. 

There, with set teeth and nostrils wide, Daulac, the dauntless, stood 

And dealt his foes remorseless blows, mid blinding smoke and blood, 

Till, hacked and hewn, he reel d to earth, with proud unconquered glance, 

Dead but immortalized by death Leonidas of France ! 

True to their oath, his comrade knights no quarter basely ciaved 

So died the peerless twenty-two So Canada was saved. 

A visit by the French to the scene of this obstinate fight confirmed the story of 
those Hurons who had escaped, and for many years, subsequently, Daulac was re 
membered by his countrymen in Canada as their deliverer, and his name was rever 
enced as that of a hero and martyr. 

The fact that the Iroquois, after this fight, returned to their homes without mak 
ing their contemplated attack on the cities, also confirmed another report of the 
Hurons, viz., that the Iroquois were completely disheartened with their victory, and 
had no relish for another contest with the French. If twenty of the latter without 
support or comfort almost without food and water could perform such a prodigy of 
valor, what might they expect when confronting hundreds supplied with abundant 
stores of food, arms and ammunition ? Such was the question pondered by the 
Iroquois, and the consideration of which induced them to abandon the war path 
and seek their homes. 

But to the shame of Canada, be it said, no monument marks the spot of this 
memorable defence, and even its location is now a subject of conjecture. Indeed, it 
is surprising to find how great the number, even in this section of Canada, who declare 
that they never heard of the event. We can well understand why Daulac s contem 
poraries failed to mark the spot with an appropriate monument, as they were few in 
number, and waging incessant warfare with poverty, as well as Indians. For a cen- 


tury after this event, also, its site was remote from civilization, in an unbroken wilder 
ness; and anything of the kind erected there would, doubtless, have been destroyed 
by the savage. But for a century past, no such obstacle to a proper recognition of 
this gallant band has existed, and every patriotic Canadian should desire to show 
to the foreign visitor who passes up and down the Ottawa, that Canada has her Ther 

Let him read on enduring material, the fact, that on the shores of this beautiful 
river, long ago, died twenty heroes, as brave as ever Spartan mother nursed, as patrio 
tic as those of whom Roman or Grecian poet ever sung. 

The French are proverbially proud of their heroes, and ever ready to perpetuate 
the fame of their honored dead. They point with pride to the statues adorning their 
galleries of history, and gladly expatiate on the deeds performed by their great and 
good. But let the patriot Frenchman, when he points to the monuments of Maison- 
neuve, Montcalm and Chenier, remember that Daulac and his nineteen comrades, 
deserving the highest niche in the temple of fame, have never been duly honored ;- 
that for nearly two and half centuries, the only reminder of the hallowed spot where 
these martyrs fell has been the swift, roaring, turbulent waters of the Long Sault. 

We are indebted to Parkman, also, for the account of the two following incidents 
with which the Ottawa is connected. 

During the second administration of Frontenac as Governor of Canada, he left 
Quebec for a visit to Montreal, at which place he arrived July 3151, 1690. 

A few days after his arrival, the officer commanding the fort at La Chine sent 
him a messenger in hot haste, with the startling news that Lake St. Louis was "all 
covered with canoes." Nobody doubted that the Iroquois were upon them again. 
Cannon were fired to call in the troops from detached posts ; when alarm was sud 
denly turned into joy by the arrival of other messengers, to announce that the new 
comers were not enemies, but friends. They were the Indians of the upper lakes 
descending from Michillimacinac via the Ottawa to trade in Montreal. Nothing 
so auspicious had happened since Frontenac s return. The messages he had seat 
them in the spring by Louvigny and Perrot, reinforced by the news of the victory on 
the Ottawa and the capture of Schenectady, had had the desired effect ; and the Iro 
quois prisoner, whom their missionary had persuaded them to torture, had not been 
sacrificed in .vain. Despairing of an English market for their beaver skins, they 
had come as of old to seek one from the French. On the next day all came down 
the rapids and landed near the town. There were fully five hundred of them- 
Huron-, Ottawas, Ojibway?, Pottawtamies, Crees, and Nipissings, with a hundred and 
ten canoes laden with beaver skins to the value of nearly a hundred thousand 
crowns. Nor was this all, for a few days after, La Durantaye, late commander at 
Michillimacinac, arrived with fifty-five more canoes manned by French traders, and 


filled with valuable furs. The stream of wealth dammed back so long was flowing 
upon the colony at the moment when it was most needed. Never had Canada known 
a more prosperous trade than now, in the midst of her danger and tribulation. It 
was a triumph for Frontenac. If his policy had failed with the Iroquois, it had found 
a crowning success among the tribes of the Lakes. 

Four or five years later, when the country was again in a great state of destitution 
on account of the frequent raids of enemies, which compelled the settlers or colonists 
to neglect the implements of agriculture for those of war, another arrival of furs quickly 
changed the country from misery and destitution to happiness and plenty. 

It was shortly after the repulse of Phipps at Quebec, and some other successes of 
the French, that " the Governor achieved a success more solid and less costly." 

The indispensable but most difficult task of all remained : that of opening the 
Ottawa for the descent of the great accumulation of beaver skins which had been 
gathering at Michillimacinac for three years, and for the want of which, Canada was 
bankrupt. More than two hundred Frenchmen were known to be at that remote post, 
or roaming in the wilderness around it; and Frontenac resolved on an attempt to 
muster them together, and employ their united force to protect the Indians and the 
traders in bringing down this mass of furs to Montreal. A messenger, strongly es 
corted, was sent with orders to this effect, and succeeded in reaching Michillimacinac, 
though there was a battle on the way in which the officer commanding the escort was 

Frontenac anxiously waited the issue, when, after a long delay, the tidings reached 
him of complete success. He hastened to Montreal, and found it swarming with 
Indians and coureurs du bois. Two hundred canoes had arrived filled with the coveted 
beaver skins. It is impossible, says the chronicle, to conceive the joy of the people 
when they beheld these treasures. Canada had awaited them for years. The mer 
chants and the farmers were dying of hunger. Credit was gone, and everybody was 
afraid that the enemy would waylay and seize this last resource of the country. 
Therefore it was that none could find words to praise and bless him by whose 
care all this wealth had arrived. Father of the People, Preserver of the Country, 
seemed terms too weak to express their gratitude. 

Few, comparatively, are aware of the fact, that the Ottawa was the route pur 
sued by one of the partners and his voyageurs, in the great enterprise of opening up 
the fur trade on the Pacific. The following account jof this enterprise is of interest 
to the citizens of Argenteuil, from the fact that Capt. McCargo, a pioneer of Beech 
Ridge, St. Andrews, before settling here was connected with one of the expeditions 
to the Pacific, described below. 

In 1810 articles were entered into between John Jacob Astor of New York, and 
four other gentlemen Alexander McKay, Duncan McDougal, Donald McKenzie 
and Wilson Price Hunt for the purpose of prosecuting the fur trade on what was 


then almost a terra incognita the Northwest coast of the United States ; the company 
was chartered under the name of " The Pacific Fur Company." 

In prosecuting his great scheme of commerce and colonization, two expeditions 
were devised by Mr. Astor, one by sea, the other by land. The former was to carry 
out the people, stores, ammunition and merchandise requisite for establishing a forti 
fied trading post at the mouth of the Columbia river. 

The latter, conducted by Mr. Hunt, was to proceed up the Missouri, and across 
the Rocky Mountains to the same point, exploring aline of communication across the 
continent, and noting the places where interior trading posts might be established. 

A fine ship called the " Tonquin " was provided, carrying an assortment of mer 
chandise for trading with the natives of the seaboard and the interior, together with 
the frame of a schooner to be employed in the coasting trade. She was commanded 
by Jonathan Thorn, a lieutenant in the United States Navy, on leave of absence. 

The " Tonquin," after a long voyage around the Cape, and much trouble between 
the captain and his passengers, and an interesting though dangerous visit to the Sand 
wich Islands, arrived at the mouth of the Columbia. Several days were spent in. 
attempting to cross the bar and effect an entrance into this river, and some of the 
crew were lost. 

The object, however, was finally accomplished, the men and stores landed, and 
then the " Tonquin," according to instructions, put to sea with the purpose of sailing 
to other more northern coasts to obtain furs, before returning to the mouth of the 
Columbia and thence to New York. She arrived in a few days at Vancouver Island, 
and very much against the advice of his Indian interpreter, who warned him against 
the perfidious character of the natives of that part of the coast, Captain Thorn 
anchored in the harbor of Neweetee. He was a very harsh, headstrong, conceited 
man, though brave and a thorough seaman, and regardless of the cautions to him 
by Mr. Astor, that he should never allow but a few of the Indians on shipboard at a 
time, he allowed boat-load after boat-load with furs to approach and come on deck. 
Nor was this all he spread his wares before them, making a tempting display of 
blankets, cloths, knives, beads, fish-hooks, etc., expecting a prompt and profitable 
sale. But the Indians were not so eager and simple as he had supposed, having 
learned the art of bargaining and the value of merchandise from the casual traders 
along the coast. Finally, angered at the insolent way in which they reproached 
him for not trading with them according to their ideas of the value of articles, he 
kicked their furs to the right and left, and ordered them from the vessel. They 
accordingly left, scarcely concealing their vengeful feelings for the indignity with 
which Captain Thorn had treated their chief. The next morning they returned, 
apparently in a pleasant mood, seemingly unarmed, and soon the deck was once more 
swarming with them. The interpreter noticed that many of them wore shot mantles 
of skins, and intimated his suspicions that they were secretly armed ; l>ut ihe captain, 
pointing to his cannon and muskets, merely laughed and made light of any intimation 
of danger from a parcel of filthy savages. A brisk trade was opened, and the Indians 


were soon all supplied with knives. Meanwhile the crowd had been constantly increas 
ing, and seeing that other boat-loads were putting off fiom the shore, Captain Thorn 
became alarmed, and ordered the vessel to be cleared and put under way. At this, 
a yell from a savage gave the signal ; the Indians fell upon the crew with knives and 
war clubs, and a terrific fight ensued. But greatly out-numbered and taken unawares, 
the latter were soon nearly all slaughtered. 

Capt. Thorn fought bravely, and being a powerful man he laid several dead at his 
feet, but at length, weak from his wound?, he was stabbed in the back and then thrown 
over the side of the vessel, where the squaws dispatched him with knives and hatchets. 
Four of the sailors had the good fortune to escape into the cabin, where they found 
Mr. Lewis, the ship s clerk, badly wounded, and barricading the cabin door, they broke 
holes through the companion way, and with the muskets and ammunition which were 
at hand, opened a brisk fire that soon cleared the deck. The survivors now sal 
lied forth and discharged some of the deck guns, which did great execution, and drove 
all the savages to the shore. 

After this, the four who were still alive endeavored to persuade Mr. Lewis to 
attempt with them to escape in a boat to their friends at the mouth of the Columbia. 
He refused, saying that his wounds would not permit him, and that he was deter 
mined to entice as many savages as possible on board and then blow up the ship. They 
left him, therefore, but they were captured the next day, and put to death with the 
most terrible tortures. The following morning after the tragedy on the "Tonquin," 
everything appearing quiet on her, a boat-load of the Indians drew near. Mr. 
Lewis was on deck, and made friendly signs for them to come on board. 

After a considerable interval of time, other canoes having joined them, they did 
so ; the decks were soon crowded and the sides covered with clambering savages, all 
intent on plunder. No one was to be seen on board, for Mr. Lewis, after inviting 
them, had disappeared. In the midst of their eagerness and exultation the ship blew 
up with a tremendous explosion. Arm?, legs and mutilated bodies were blown into 
the air, and dreadful havoc was made in the surrounding canoes. Upwards of a 
hundred savages were destroyed by the explosion ; many more were shockingly 
mutilated, and for days afterward, the limbs and bodies of the slain were thrown 
upon the beach. The fate of the " Tonquin," and all the details connected therewith, 
were made known to the whites by the interpreter, who, being an Indian, had been 
spared by the natives, and was therefore a witness of the destruction of the vessel 
and her crew. 

As before stated, the land expedition of the Pacific Fur Company was in charge 
of Mr. Wilson Price Hunt. About the end of July, 1810, he, in company with his 
coadjutor, Mr. Donald McKenzie, an experienced Nor wester, and a capital shot, 
repaired to Montreal, the ancient emporium of the fur trade, where everything requi 
site for the expedition could be procured. One of the first objects was to recruit a 
complement of Canadian voyageurs from the disbanded herd usually to be found 
loitering about the place. The Northwest Company, however, who maintained a 


long established control at Montreal, and knew the qualities of every voyageur, 
secretly interdicted the prime hands from engaging in this new service ; so that, 
although liberal terms were offered, few presented themselves but such as were not 
worth having. From these Mr. Hunt engaged a number sufficient for present pur 
poses, and having laid in a supply of ammunition, provisions, and Indian goods, 
embarked all on board one of these great canoes at that time universally used by the 
fur traders for navigating the intricate and often obstructed rivers. The canoe was 
between thirty and forty feet long and several feet in width, constructed of birch bark, 
and capable of sustaining a freight of upward of four tons, yet it could be readily 
carried on men s shoulders. 

The expedition took its regular departure as usual from St. Anne s, near the 
extremity of the island of Montreal, the great starling place of the traders to the 
interior. Here stood the ancient chapel of St. Anne, the patroness of the Canadian 
voyageurs, where they made confession and offered up their vows previous to 
departing on any hazardous expedition. Mr. Hunt with the crew made his way up 
the Ottawa river, and by the ancient route of the fur traders, along a succession of 
small lakes and rivers to Michillimacinac. Their progress was slow and tedious. 
Mr. Hunt was not accustomed to the management of " voyageurs," and he had a 
crew admirably disposed to play the old soldier, and balk their work, and ever ready 
to come to a halt, land, make a fire, put on the great pot, and smoke and gossip and 
sing by the hour. It was near the end of July when they reached Mackinaw, the old 
French trading post. Here Mr. Hunt spent some time in obtaining recruits for the 
expedition, and when supplied, they followed the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the 
Mississippi, descended to St. Louis, thence up the Missouri, crossed the plains, 
went over the Rocky Mountains, and after many months of the severest trials reached 
the members of the other expedition at the mouth of the Columbia. 

For a detailed account of these expeditions the reader is referred to " Astoria," a 
long and intensely interesting narrative to be found in the works of Irving. 

The approach of the war of 1812 prevented the carrying out of the plans of Mr. 
Astor, and he lost heavily in this first effort; but with characteristic energy, he subse 
quently pushed his plans to a successful issue. 

The following sketch of Mr. Philemon Wright s ascent of the Ottawa, and his 
pioneer labors, together with the comments of the editor, is taken from The Ottawa 
Free Press : 

" The north shore of the Ottawa river deserves more than a passing glance or 
reference as we gave at the outset. It was the beginning, the centre, the very soul 
and life of the whole settlements of the Ottawa Valley. The belt of table-land be 
tween the river and the mountain range is perhaps not surpassed in beauty and fer 
tility on this continent. The rich deep alluvial soil with its clay bottom, protected on 
the north by the Laurentian hills, 1,750 feet above the sea level, with easy available 
passes into the back country, so likely to reward the toil of the cultivators, must have 
appeared to one brought up in the hills and narrow valleys of New England as the 


shadow at least of an agricultural paradise. It was an untouched, unbroken forest of the 
finest samples of lumber; \vhitepine, oak, elm, ash, white walnut, spruce, cherry, poplar, 
basswood, with vast groves of maple, bird s eye and curly, must have delighted the eyes 
and filled the mind of a sharp lumberman with dreams of wealth absolutely incalcul 
able. This was the enchanting scene presenting itself to the eye and mind of Mr. 
Philemon Wright, a man of mature judgment, and in the very prime of life, verging 
towards 40. His practised eye, his keen intellect, took in the whole as equalling the 
broad acres of an English dukedom. The value of the timber on the stump was 
equal to twice the expense of clearing the lands. The ashes of the refuse to be burned, 
when converted into potash, would realize enough in Montreal to cover the erection 
of the necessary buildings for all farming purposes in those days. There were many 
obstacles in the way, all to be got over, that would have appeared fatal to many a 

" But a descendant of heroes that followed Harold the Second to the defeat of so 
many foes, and made such a stand on the field of Hastings, giving so mighty a work 
to the Normans yielding at last, it is admitted, but not so much vanquished as 
wearied out with slaughtering was not to be deterred by difficulties and trials, and 
Wright was of Kentish descent, though now Americanized. The courage has not 
been lost in his posterity, as everyone knows the late M.P., the Gatineau s monarch, 
if exposed, would sway his sceptre with as undaunted unconcern as any other, in calm 
defiance of his foes. 

" The squire had made several explorations of the St. Lawrence on both sides and 
above and below Montreal, but pitched on Hull and the Chaudiere Falls, at last, as the 
field of his future operations, delighted equally with its forests, its soil and its river. 
It was not easy to induce men, even for a large reward, to enter his employ and settle 
down to labor in the woods 75 or 100 miles from civilization of any kind. In October, 
1799. Mr. Wright is said to have reached Hull with two trusty neighbors from Woburn, 
Mass., and having explored the township returned and reported progress. Four fami 
lies united with his own, and with twenty-five men, seven span of horses, four yoke of 
oxen, and probably a cow or two, sleighs, implements and provisions, began their jour 
ney to Montreal on and February, 1800, and passed through it and the settlements 
above it, cut their way in the woods and deep snows for some days, camping out at 
night, till they met an Indian, who, becoming their guide, took them by the ice on the 
river till they reached the Chaudiere Falls on the 7th March, 33 days. It is said that 
every man took a hand chopping down the first tree. 

" Thus the clearing away of the woods commenced and continued. The sounds 
of the axes and the falling trees brought the Indians from their sugar-making on the 
sunny slopes of the hill sides, to wonder and ask themselves what brought these 
destroyers of the forest into their hitherto quiet and silent retreats ? This led to a long 
pow-wow. Mr. Wright had plenty of the Jamaica spirits on hand, treated them all to 
a good horn, as Conroy would have said, and they returned some full, others 
glorious. Gifts blind the eyes. A season was spent in friendly intercourse, exchanging 



presents, and there being no old Anchises to interpose his Timeo Danaos et dona 

ferentes, the Indians continued to come with sugar and venison and get in return 

what rare things to them the new comers freely gave them. The unlimited maple 

forests ran sugar for the evaporation, and deer flocked in plenty to be shot for the 

occasion. This pleasant condition of things was not.of long duration, for the Indians, 

beginning to see that their sugar groves would disappear, and the deer probably follow, 

took an interpreter, Geo. Brown, who was a Nor wester, and had married a squaw, and 

marched in grand procession to demand the reason for all these new things. The 

negotiations began, and the proceedings were sometimes amusing, at others threat 

ening. Mr. Wright, as the chief of his party, was up to the exigency, and gave his 

authority for everything. They expressed their amazement that their Great Father, 

King George, would permit, without consulting them first, any men to cut down their 

sugar plantations and chase away their game. They were assured that all was done 

by & authority ; that if any harm came to his men, Sir John Johnson, the Indian agent, 

would hold back their rations; so with firm maintenance of his dignity, as well as his 

rights, using soft answers, the Indians were brought to terms on payment in cash being 

promised for all the sugar they could spare, and they would not have to carry it to 


"The nearest market had its attractions for the Indians, as well as for the Grit, 
who hates to portage to England, and compete there with the whole world ; so to 
save their backs and limbs, and especially their rations, they agreed. So they were 
plied once more with the Jamaica, and went back happy. They soon brought im 
mense quantities of sugar, and asked only $5.00 for what was perhaps worth 50, 
They were promptly paid, treated again, and returned home in high good humor 
after a long palaver. Afterward they demanded a small payment for their lands, but 
that was refused till Sir John of Montreal would be consulted. They regarded their 
lands as merchantable as the sugar. Mr. Wright on coming from Montreal delivered 
them Sir John s reply that they must not disturb the colony. 

"The redskins now took a new turn, made Mr. Wright their chief, and we suppose 
put him through all the ceremonies of a barbarous coronation the squaws are said 
to have all kissed him. The chroniclers do not say how much Mrs. Wright herself 
admired the ceremony. But the braves buried the hatchet, and feasted Mr. Wright 
and party for a week on all the delicacies of an aboriginal cuisine, from roast dog and 
muskrat to boiled rattlesnake and skunk." 

The author of this extract must have been an expert in natural history, or the 
tribes, like St. Patrick, must have exhausted the stock, as rattlesnakes have never 
been very common in the Province of Quebec, since or before, as far as we are aware. 

For the following history of navigation on the Ottawa we are indebted to the 
lale R. W. Shepherd, sr., president of the Ottawa River Navigation Company : 

The first steamer on the route between Lachine and Carillon was the " William 
King," Captain De Hertel. This steamer began to run about the year 1826-27. A 


2 7 

year later, the " St. Andrews " was built Captain C. J. Lighthall who had been 
captain of one of Judge McDonnell s Durham boats, that were employed carrying 
freight and passengers between Montreal and Point Fortune. I renumber one of the 
old settlers named Parsons saying to me, a few years since, that his family came to 
Montreal from the north of England, having sailed from Mary Port in the county of 
Cumberland in the year 1829. They were going to join friends in Cote St. Charles, 
county of Vaudreuil, not far irom where the village of Hudson is now. The family, 
after landing in Montreal, took passage by Captain LighthalPs Durham boat, and were 
landed in a couple of days at Harvey s Point near the village of Hudson. The 
steamers " Wm. King " and "St. Andrews" were owned by merchants in Montreal 
and St. Andrews ; during high water they ran between Lachine, Carillon and St. 
Andrews, and during the low water season the "St. Andrews" ran between Lachine 
and St. Ann s, and the " Wm. King " between St. Ann s and Carillon. In the year 
1833, the Carillon and Grenville canal was opened for traffic, and in the meantime a 
company was formed, called " The Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company." The 
stockholder numbered among others Hon. John Molson, father of the present Mr, 
John Molson, Thomas Phillips the brewer, John Redpath and Emery Gushing, who 
formerly owned the stages that formed a line to St. Andrews by St. Eustache. 

This company, knowing the difficulty of the St. Ann s channel in low water, had 
arranged with Hon. R. N. Howard of Vaudreuil for the right to build a lock near 
where the Grand Trunk R. R. now passes. This lock was finished and ready for work 
in the spring of 1833. In the meantime, the new company had built the steamer 
" Ottawa," Captain Lyman, who came from Lake Charnplain. About this time 
the company built a steamer called the " Shannon," to ply between Grenville and 
Ottawa with other small steamers forming a through line to Kingston via the Ottawa 
River and Rideau Canal. Stages from Montreal to Lachine, boat from Lachine to 
Carillon, thence to Grenville by stage, and from Grenville to Ottawa and Kingston 
by steamer. The trip to Ottawa occupied two, and from Ottawa to Kingston about 
three days. The freight was generally carried in barges towed by these steamers. 

Previous to 1833, the steamer " Union " plied on the route between Hawkesbury 
and Ottawa; this boat was built in the year 1819 and was commanded by Captain 
Grant ; Thomas Johnson, afterwards M.P., an extensive merchant at Vankleek Hill, 
was the purser. This steamer was owned by some Montreal and Hawkesbury mer 
chants ; she had two heavy marine engines, side leveis that had been imported by the 
Hon. John Molson, grandfather to J. H. R. Molson of this city (Montreal). Emery 
Gushing was the first agent of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. In 
1837 Messrs. MacPherson and Crane became the managers. In 1835 Captain Light- 
hall from the Island of Arran commanded the steamer "Ottawa," and Archie Stewart 
was pilot ; Kenneth McLeod, an old man-of-wars man, was second pilot both good 

In 1836 John Grossman was captain of the " Ottawa ; " in 1837, R. S. Robins 
was promoted to the command of this steamer. He had been captain on one of the 


Rideau Canal steamers in 1835-36- In 1834 the Company built a steamer called the 
Non-Such" ; and she was well named, for there never was one of the sort I 
since She was built square, with recess in the stern for the wheel to ply. This boat 
was built at Ottawa, and was taken through the Rideau canal to Kingston, and down 
the St Lawrence. It was supposed she would draw less water and be able to take 
the route in low water. The engines of the " Union " were placed in this boat, 
need hardly be said she proved a failure. After being kept in commission three or 
four years, she was used as a boarding house for the men, in spring. A few years 
later she was laid on the beach near the present house of the late Sir Antome Donon 
at Vaudreuil, and served as wharf for some years under the management of McPherson 
and Crane. Nearly all the carrying trade passed by the Ottawa, the barges being 
towed by the steamers of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. I may men 
tion that the "Non-Such" was commanded by Capt. J ames Greaves, afterward chief 
of Rural Police at Vaudreuil, whose headquarters were in the old seigniorial Manor 
House on the site of the W. Lotbiniere hotel, lately destroyed by fire. 

Captain Robins continued to command the Ottawa." The writer joined that 
steamer under him in 1838, and remai ned three years in the service. In the year 
1841 I engaged with Messrs. H. & S. Jones, and Hooker & Henderson, as captain c 
one of their steamers. In April of that year I was appointed to the steamer "St. 
David " then being built at Brockville, and was ordered early m May to proceed to 
Brockville to superintend the finishing of the steamer. Late in the month of June we 
made a trial trip to Prescott and back. We had no regular crew, but picked up some 
men for the purpose. One Russell, a clerk in Messrs. Jones store, insisted enacting 
as pilot We managed to get to Prescott all right, and went alongside the steamer 
Canada," property of the late Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston. This steamer was 
about finished, and intended to ply between Dickinson s Landing and Kingston, 
was afterward commanded by Captain Lawless. On our way back to Brockvil 
Russell was steering and taking the Maitland steam mill for a steamer, he kept to the 
right hand side, and I only discovered the mistake just in time to save the boat 
from running high and dry on the Maitland shore. I made up my mind never to 
start on a trial trip again without having a proper crew. 

In the month of July we left Brockville, this time with a full crew from Lachme. 
Mr. Sidney Jones, one of the owners (a fine old gentleman of the olden times), was 
on board. After "running all the rapids successfully, we arrived at Lachlne 
same evening. The next day, I started for Ottawa by the St. Ann s route, and picked 
up all the barges belonging to the different owners, and made the first trip by steamer 
with barges through the Grenville canal. After this, the company placed 
steamer " Albion " on the route between Grenville and Ottawa, so that we were em 
ployed on the route between Lachine and Carillon. 

Early in September, 1841, I towed the first raft on the Lake of Two Mountains, 
belonging to Messrs. Hamilton and Low. John Waddel, who managed that part of 
their business, acted as pilot, as I had no pilot on board that knew the route towards 
the " Dutchman s (raft) Channel." 


Towards the middle of August the water became so low at St. Ann s that we 
had to get another steamer, the " Grenville," Captain John Fraser, of Prescott, com 
mander. The "Grenville" towed the barges between Lachine and St. Ann s ; the 
steamer "St. David " between St. Ann s and Carillon. However, the water became 
so low, by the end of August or beginning of September, that we could not get an 
empty barge up through the gap that had been left outside the dam by Mr. H. Wil 
kinson, who had the contract for the lock. The New Company was at a stand still; 
the barges and steamer were idle. I had an idea that there was a channel outside 
of the old lock at Vaudreuil, so, after waiting for a day or two, I decided to run my 
boat over there and try to find a channel. After a hard day s work sounding and 
buoying out the passage, I became convinced there was a good channel. While we 
were delayed at St. Ann s, a barge from Perth came along, Captain McQueen, I think. 
After we left for Vaudreuil he sailed over there and begged of me to run his barge over 
the rapids ; she was drawing three feet of water. I replied that I would not run the risk 
but if he would assume the responsibility, I would do mybest. He agreed to this 
arrangement, and I steered the barge over ; we nearly touched on one side, but did no 
damage. Of course, the channel was an accomplished fact, and that evening I left 
for Mcntreal to inform my employers. I called on Mr. Sidney Jones at the Exchange 
Coffee House, then one of the best hotels in Montreal, kept by Doolittle & Mayo 
This was on a Sunday morning, just as Mr. Jones was getting ready for church ; he 
attended the old church Cathedral on Notre Dame street. After telling him of my dis 
covery, he seemed n.uch pleased, and invited me to dine with him at six o clock, 
which I did, and returned on Monday moming to Vaudreuil. Mr. Jones and Mr. 
Holton were to leave on Tuesday with the steamer " Grenville " and two barges for 
Vaudreuil ; the barges were not to draw over three feet of water. They reached 
Vaudreuil in the afternoon. I had attached a rope to an anchor dropped at the 
head of the rapids with a buoy attached to a rope at the foot, to be ready to fasten to 
the capstan of the barge. I got all my crew and the crews of the barges on the one 
barge, attached rope to the capstan, and in less than half an hour had the barge 
safe alongside the "St. David," and within another half hour had the second barge 
up also. This, of course, showed that we could take barges up outside, with same 
depth of water that they had in the lock, which was private property. Within a few 
days, airangements were made between the old and new companies to allow the new 
company s barges to pass the lock by the payment of a toll of eight dollars for each 
barge, and further, that the old company should tow all barges with the steamer 
"Ottawa," between Vaudreuil and Carillon, and the new company would have all 
the towing between Lachine arid Vaudreuil. A few days later, I received a letter 
from Messrs. H. & S. Jones, saying that I had been promoted to the steamer 

This, I considered the greatest promotion 1 ever had. I was ordered to take the 
steamer "St. David "to Lachine, which I did without delay, and transferred my 
crew to the " Oldfield," Captain John Chambers taking command of the "St. David." 


We continued to tow between Lachine and Vaudreuil, the remainder of the season of 
1841. In the winter of 1841-42, I was employed fitting up the " Oldfield " as a 
passenger boat. In the spring of 1842, we began a regular passenger line between 
Montreal and Ottasva ; the " Oldfield " plying on the lower reach between Lachine 
and Carillon, and the steamer " Albion," Captain Johnson, on the upper reach 
between Grenville and Ottawa a daily line (Sunday excepted). This was the first regu 
lar passenger line on the Ottawa ; steamers running without barges. This continued 
till 1846, when the St. Lawrence canals were opened, and the old proprietors wanted 
to carry on their business by the St. Lawrence route. I with other friends pur 
chased the " Oldfield " in 1846, and began business on my own account. 

The St. Ann s locks were opened 1111843. J ne proprietors of the steamer 
"Oldfield" were Sir George Simpson, A. E. Montmarquette, J. J. Gibb and the 
writer, who was appointed captain and manager; this was not a joint stock company, 
but the ship owners registered at the Customs Department as to their respective 


The business continued profitable, and, in the autumn of 1847, jt was decided to 
build a new steamer for the route between Lachine and Carillon. A contract was 
made with Mr. Merritt, shipbuilder of Montreal, for the hull of a new steamer, 150 
feet keel and 26 feet beam. We also made arrangements with Mr. George Brush 
(father to the present G. S. Brush) for a beam engine 34 inch diameter cylinder and 
10 feet length of stroke. This steamer, a very fast one, was called the "Ottawa 
Chief," and made a trial trip to Carillon in November, 1848. This boat after a trial was 
found to draw too much water for St. Ann s channel. The contract called for 3 feet 
3 inches, and instead it was 4 feet 8 inches, much to the disappointment of all the 
proprietors, as well as the travelling public. In the spring of 1849, we decided to 
sell or charter this boat and build another one suitable. In March of that year, 
the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston came to Como to see the Ottawa Chief" 5 
he was much pleased with her, and made us an offer to charter her for five years, but 
would not buy her. Arrangements were finally completed, and a charter was passed 
between our company and the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston, who then controlled 
the steamers of the mail line between Montreal and Kingston. 

The next thing to do was to arrange for the building of another steamer for the 
route. On the nth of April, 1849, * started from Como for Montreal on horseback, 
the only way to travel at that time of the year, owing to the bad state of the roads. 
I had to cross two ferries, viz., Vaudreuil and St. Ann s. It took me all day to reach 
Lachine, where I called on Sir George Simpson to arrange the finances for the new 
boat. This done, I proceeded to Montreal, and bargained with Mr. A. Cantin for the 
building of a hull of a steamer to draw only 3 feet of water, with wood and water on 
board ; also, with Mr. George Brush for an engine of 32 inch diameter cylinder 
and 8 feet stroke, all to be ready by the month of August of the same year. 
However, we made a trial trip in October, 1849. Tllis boat was ca ^ e & tne " Lad y 
Simpson," after the wife of Sir Geo. Simpson. She was laid up for ihe winter at 


Como, and the joiner work was finished and the boat furnished during the winter of 
1849-50 ; the joiner work was all done by hand, by the day, and Mr. James Shearer, 
the well-known manufacturer of Montreal, was the foreman. This boat, the " Lady 
Simpson," answered every purpose. She drew 2 feet 10 inches aft, and 2 feet 6 
inches forward, and could run during the lowest water, and was a great favorite with 
the travelling public. 

In the spring of 1850 the " Lady Simpson " too k the route between Lachine 
and Carillon, and the " Oldfield " was put on the Lake of Two Mountains to tow rafts, 
which at that time was a profitable business. In 1852, I contracted with Mr. Cantin for 
a new hull to take the place of the " Oldfield," 150 feet long, 25 feet beam ; and with 
Mr. Geo. Brush for a new engine, 32 inch cylinder, 8 foot stroke ; this boat came 
out in 1853, when we sold the " Oldfield " to Captain St. Louis. The new tow boat 
was called the " Atlas," and proved to be a splendid boat ; Captain Jos. Blondin, 
formerly of the " Oldfield," was her captain, and a good faithful man, excellent pilot 
and good manager for the towing business. Mr. A. E. Montmarquette, one of the 
owners, acted as agent for the towing business at Carillon. I continued to command 
the "Lady Simpson " till the fall of 1853, when I retired, partly from ill health and 
partly from a wish to visit my native country, which I did in 1854. My brother 
William, who still commands the " Sovereign," was appointed to the command of the 
" Lady Simpson "; having served nine years under me on the different steamers, he 
was qualified for the promotion. He has now been forty years commander, and a 
very popular and exceedingly fortunate one. 

After my return from England, in the fall of 1854, I had to undertake the 
management of the estate of my late father-in-law, P. F. C. Delesdenier, as well as 
the "homestead farm. Between the farm and the estate I was fully occupied. In the 
year 1857, Sir George Simpson, who was the financial agent of the company, asked 
me if I would take charge of the company as general manager. We had now 
become owners of the upper portion of the route, by the purchase of the steamer 
" Phoenix," formerly the property of MacPherson & Crane. 

I agreed to undertake this work, which I performed until the spring of 1882. 
In 1859, we began to build the steamer " Queen Victoria," to replace the Phoenix ; " 
also to build the steamer " Prince of Wales " to replace the " Lady Simpson." 
Captain Bowie, who had been purser on the " Prince of Wales " since 1854, was in 
1857 or 1858 promoted to the captaincy of the "Phoenix," afterward to the "Queen 
Victoria," and in 1873 to the " Peerless," now called the " Empress." In 1865 the 
market business became so important a factor in our business, that we built the 
steamer " Dagmar " for the trade. Captain Peter McGowan was promoted from the 
"Prince of Wales," where he acted as pilot to the command of the " Dagmar." A 
few years later, we built the steamer " Maude " as an extra boat ; Thomas Ryan, 
formerly engineer of the " Prince of Wales," was appointed captain. In the year 
1864, we purchased the shares of the Carillon & Grenville Railway from Hon. 
John J. C. Abbott, afterward Sir John J. C. Abbott, Judge Cross and Courtland 


and Freer, and formed a joint stock company under an act of Parliament. The Hon. 
John Rose, afterward Sir John Rose, took charge of the Act, and procured the char 
ter. The company was, and is to this day, called The Ottawa River Navigation 
Company. On my giving up the management of the company, my son, R. W. 
Shepherd, jr., was appointed general manager, and has continued as such until the 
present time. Mr. John McGowan was appointed manager of the Carillon & 
Grenville Ry., in 1860 or thereabout ; and has continued so to this day, and has 
been a faithful servant to the company) as I may say of all our present captains and 

The principal boats for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, which have been 
in use in recent years, are the " Sovereign," " Empress," " Princess " and "Maude," and 
during the summer 1895 a new boat, the " Duchess of York," has been constructed. 

The "Sovereign," which succeeded the "Prince of Wales," has been running but 
a few years. She is a fine boat commanded by Capt. Wm. Sheppard, and during 
the season of summer travel plies between Montreal and Carillon. 

Passengers are conveyed from Carillon to Grenville by rail and thence to Ottawa 
by the commodious steamer " Empress," commanded by Capt. A. Bowie. Capt. 
Bowie was born in Montreal ; his father was a railway contractor, and besides many 
other railroads, he constructed that from St. Johns to Laprairie, the first one built in 
Canada. The Captain engaged as Purser on the "Lady Simpson" in 1854, and has 
held the position of Captain since 1859. 

The "Princess," commanded by Capt. Peter McGowan, has been both a market 
and passenger boat for many years. Under the present arrangement for the Fall of 
1895, the " Princess" makes a weekly return trip from Montreal to Ottawa, and the 
" Duchess of York," commanded by Capl. John McGowan, makes a semi-weekly trip 
between Montreal and Carillon. 


Brief mention is here m ide of a few places along the lower Ottawa, besides those 
described in the succeeding pages, which are located in Argenteuil and Prescott. 

The first point of interest after leaving Lachine is St. Ann s, which contains many 
beautiful residences and is a favorite summer resort. Rapids in the river at this 
point necessitated the- construction of a canal and lock. The canal is about an 
eighth of a mile in length, and was constructed in place of one built early in the pre 
sent century. It was rebuilt by the Ottawa Forwarding Company, but, as they 
claimed the right of use. thus causing much inconvenience, the Legislature of Upper 
Canada took the matter in hand, and constructed the present canal. At St. Ann s, 
also, are the costly and imposing iron bridges of theC.P.R. and G.T. Railway Com 
panies. Here, too, is the chapel of St. Anne, the patroness of the Canadian voyageur, 
where, as stated above, they made confession and offered up their vows before start 
ing on a dangerous expedition. 


o 5 

The shrine formerly, it is said, was decorated with relics and votive offerings 
ing up by the voyageurs to propitiate her favor, or in gratitude for some signal 

It was here that Tom Moore witnessed enough of the fur-trading vocation and 
5 voyageurs to gam inspiration for the writing of the " Canadian Boat Song." 
Under the French rigime, a fortification was erected here, which did service in 
ihng the attacks of the fierce Iroquois. A brief account of one of their raids 
be found in this volume, in the history of Calumet. The remains of this 
fortification are still to be seen here. 

Some distance farther up the river is Oka, celebrated not only for being the 
ence of the Oka Indians a remnant of the Iroquois and Algonquin tribes but 
ilso of the Trappist monks. An imposing Roman Catholic church, with beautiful 
unds and stately trees, is in the foreground, and at a short distance in the rear 
rises Mount Calvary, whose summit has several shrines to which devout Catholics 
en make a pilgrimage. The occupation of these monks is the cultivation of a large 
farm and orchard; their life is one of seclusion, and their rules are of the strictest char- 
Females are not admitted to the monastery, nor are the monks permitted to 
Averse w lt !i each other. They rise at 2 a.m., and soon afterward breakfast, this 
mg their only meal during the day ; and they retire at sunset. 

Many of the Indians at Oka are Protestants, and have a chapel in which they 
attend divine worship. 

Still further up the Ottawa, and on the opposite side from Oka, is Rigaud its 
mountain at a little distance from the village forming a prominent landmark far up 
own the river. Rigaud College, also, which is an institution of considerable note 
xupies an elevated plateau, and can be seen from a long distance. 

On the slope of this mountain is a lusus natune of great interest to visitors and 
tists. This is a spot embracing two or three acres, entirely destitute of soil, and 
an unknown depth with stones about the size of a man s head, and smaller 
i said that certain parties, prompted by curiosity, explored this singular spot to the 
epth of forty feet, and finding nothing, still, but stones, abandoned their undertaking 
What is st.ll more remarkable, the stones, chiefly, are of a character entirely different 
am the mountain rock. Geologists class this curiosity with Moraines, but it is 
generally known as Devil s Garden," and it is often visited by picnic parties and 

The next place of interest after passing beyond the counties of Argenteuil and 
Prescott is Montebello, the town of the great patriot, Louis Papineau. 

County of Argenteuil. 

The territory embraced by this county was formerly included in the county of 
York, subsequently in the county of Two Mountains; but, in 1855, the county of 
Argenteuil was formed, which is bounded on the north by the county of Terrebonne 5 
on the east, partly by the county of Terrebonne and partly by the county of Two 
Mountains ; on the south by the Ottawa River, and on the west by Ottawa county. 
It comprises the following municipalities : 

Villages. Grenville and Carillon. 

Parishes. St. Andre d Argenteuil, St. Jerusalem de Lachute, Mille Isles. 

Townships. Arundel, Chatham, Gore, Grenville, Howard, Montcalra, Went- 
worth and Harrington. 

Part of a Township. Morin. 

Chef-Lieu.^. Jerusalem de Lachute. 




o ~z 

, rf 

a "So 

3 C 

5 W 


6 2 








tn u 


















Carillon (Village) 
Chath am 

i, 62 3 


1 66 





5 1 






3 4 









1 08 












5 2 






34 8 

25 1 





Mille Tslps 



I cn 




Ivlo rin .. ... 

5 1 







St Andrew s . 







St. Jerusalem 








Wentworth and Montcalm 

5 ! 4 

2 5 * 



J 3 

CENSUS OF 1891. 




i ui 

6 % 

3 S - 
-i "5 g 

if o 

13 o 










c u 



Argenteuil .... 15 158 




O T 

Arundel , 743 

,/ *4 








Carillon (Village) 255 



/I C 


Chatham , V37 1 












^/ j 
Q I 


Grenville . 2 183 




i j 


Grenville (Village).. 1:02 



3 3 

7 T 


i > 

Harrington 720 


I 22 

/ 1 




Howard 448 





j y 


/ / 


2 1 

Mille Isles ciq 

JH t 






f o 


Morin 4.71 








St. Andrew s I 702 


^ i 


C 7 


St. Teiusalem., 1.062 






I 7 


Wentworth and Montcalm 898 

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CENSUS OF 1891. 

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Carillon (Village) .... 




Grenville (Village) 

Harrington. . 


Lachute (Town) 
Milles Isles 


St. Andrew s 

Wentwoith and Montcalm. 


From the Geological Snri cy of Sir ll illiani Lrgan, 1863. 

The intrusive masses of the Laurentian series consist chiefly of syenite and greenstone. They 
occur in many parts of the country, hut their relative ages have been ascertained almost altogether 
by investigations in the counties of Ottawa and Argenteuil. What appear to be the oldest intrusive 
masses are a set of dykes of a rather fine-grained, dark, greenish grey greenstone or clolerite, which 


weathers greyish white, and consists of greyish-white feldspar mixed with pyroxene, occasional scales 
of mica, and grains of pyrites. Their width varies from a few feet to a hundred yards, and they possess 
a well marked columnar structure. Their general bearing appears to approach east and west, but 
the main dykes occasionally divide, a branch striking off at an angle of from twenty to forty degrees. 

One of these dykes cuts crystalline limestone on the thirteenth lot of the fourth range of Gren- 
ville. Its breadth is about thirty yards, and it has been traced across the limestone and gneiss for a 
mile and three-quarters, in which, with a few moderate zig-zags, it maintains a course of N. 85 E., 
until it is interrupted by a mass of syenite on the eighth lot of the range already mentioned. Across 
the limestone it forms a ridge ; but across the gneiss it is usually found in a depression, sometimes a 
very dtep one. When it mounts the side of any hill which runs with the stratification, the columnar 
structure gives it the aspect of a flight of gigantic steps, well presenting the character from which the 
Swedish name of trap is derived. The columns are so truly at right angles to the plane of the dyke, 
that they are a sure means of determining the under lie, which is towards the north. A branch strikes 
off from the dyke on the eleventh lot of the range, and, after proceeding about a quarter of a mile in 
the direction S. 30 E., it turns S- 50 E., and continues for three-quarters of a mile move, chiefly 
across limestone, in a remarkably straight line, to the eighth lot, where, having giadually diminished 
from the width of eighteen yards to five, it seems to split up into a brush-like arrangement of small 
dykes, and is lost. In a westerly direction from the thirteenth lot of the fourth range, the main 
dyke has been traced between four and five miles, and in its whole course from the syenite, the bear 
ing is about five degrees north of west. 

Another dyke of the same character, with a width of twenty- five yards, occurs in the eleventh lot 
of the fifth range of Grenville, and runs for about a mile in the bearing N. 67 E., when it is inter 
rupted by the same mass of syenite as before, on the eighth lot of the same range. A probable con 
tinuation of the dyke in an opposite direction is seen crossing the gneiss on the fifth range, reaching 
the seventeenth lot, with a bearing N. 75 W., and thence crossing the River Rouge. 

From the sixth lot of the fourth range of Chatham Gore, where it cuts the crystalline limestone, 
another of these dykes has been traced for upwards of two miles to the first lot of the third range of 
Wentworth. Its width varies from fifty to a hundred yards, but it appears to maintain a very uniform 
course, and though an interval of seven miles is a long one at which to recognize it again, yet an 
exposure of greenstone on the front of the first lange of Wentworth, in the division between the 
twentieth and twenty first lots, is sufficiently near the line to make it probable that it is a continuation 
of the same dyke. At the latter spot it is from 1 10 to 120 yards wide, and about eleven chains to the 
westward it is cut off by the syenite. It has been met with again, however, on the western side of it, 
and traced acsoss the northwest comer of Chatham into Grenville, and is probably continued to the 
twelfth lot of the ninth range of the latter township, where there is a dyke of the same character. 
The whole distance from Chatham Gore is about fifteen miles, and the bearing about five degrees 
south of west. Still another of these dykes has been observed in the seigniory of Argenteuil-. about a 
mile and a half from the North River, on the road from Lachute to Chatham Gore. It appears to be 
about twenty-five or thirty yards wide, and it bears N. 80 W., for about a mile and a half to the 
town line of Chatham, which it crosses towards the rear of the ninth range ; and although it would 
require a change in its course to bring it to a dyke seen on the road between the seventh and eighth 
ranges on the ninth lot, it appears probable that the two will be found to be the same. Running west 
ward from the latter spot, it comes against the syenite in the eleventh lot of the seventh range, and is 
there cut off. These greenstone dykes being always interrupted by the syenite, when they have been 
found to come in contact with it, it is plain the syenite must be of posterior date. This mass of 
intrusive syenite occupies an area of about thirty-six square miles in the townships of Grenville, Chat 
ham and Wentworth ; and a glance at the accompanying m?p, showing the distribution of the crys 
tal line limes- tone, in the counties of Ottawa and Argenteuil, will show its shape and distribution. 


In its lithological character, the rock is very uniform, being composed for the most part of orthoclase 
either of some tinge of flesh-red or a dull white, with black hornblende, and a rather sparing quantity 
of greyish, vitreous quartz. The red tinge prevails more on the west side, the white on the east. In 
the spur which runs into Wentworth, mica is occasionally found accompanying the hornblende. 
The rock is rather coarse-grained in the main body, but dykes of it are sometimes observed cutting 
the limestone and gneiss, in which the grain is finer ; these have not as yet been traced to any great 
distance from the nucleus. 

The syenite is cut and penetrated by masses of a porphyritic character, which are therefore of a 
still later date. These masses belong to what has been called felsite porphyry, hornstone porphyry, 
or orthophyre, having a base of petrosilex, which may be regarded as an intimate mixture of ortho 
clase and quartz, coloied by oxyd of iron, and varying in colors from green to various shades of 
black, according to the oxydation of this metal. Throughout the paste, which is homogeneous and 
conchoidal in its fracture, are disseminated well-defined crystals of a rose-red or flesh-red feldspar 
apparently orthoclase, and, although less frequently, small grains of nearly colorless translucent 
quartz. The larger masses of this porphyry have a fine-grained, reddish-buff base, in which well 
defined crystals of flesh-red feldspar of various sizes, from one-eighth to three-eighths of an inch are 
thickly disseminated. In addition to the crystals of feldspar, the base often contains a multitude of 
ragments of gneiss, greenstone and syenite, varying in size from small grains to masses several feet 
in diameter. These are occasionally so abundant, as to give to the rock the character of a breccia. 
When the base is green, it is rather more compact, and it does not usually contain so many imbedded 
crystals of feldspar. 

The principal nucleus of this porphyry occupies a pear-shaped area, the small end pointing south, 
on the thud and fourth lots of the fifth and six ranges of Grenville, from which, on the eastern side, a 
portion projects into the second lot of the fifth range. This mass is wholly surrounded by syenite, 
and a large part of it constitutes a mountain or group of hills intersected by one or two ravines. In 
about the centre of the mass on the summit of one of the hills, there is a circular depression of about 
a hundred yards in diameter, nearly surrounded by a tufaceous porphyritic rim, of about thirty feet in 
height. In this depiession there is a turf bog, supporting a grove of good sized evergreen trees. On 
sounding the depth of the bog with a boring rod, the rock beneath was found to present the shape of 
a cup, with the depth of twenty-five feet in the centre ; so that, including the rim, the depression 
would be about fifty feet deep, with the exception of a break down to the level of the bog on the east 
side. The nature of the rock constituting the rim gives to the depression, in some degree, the aspect 
of a small volcanic crater. But if it be the remains of one, it can only represent some deep seated 
part of the vent ; for there can scarcely fail to have been here a great amount of denudation of the 
ancient Laurentian surface, while the ice groves in the neighborhood shew that there has been much 
erosion over the whole country in comparatively recent times. In this vicinity, some entangled beds 
cf gneiss occur, one of which, running N. 80 W. for upwards of a hundred yards, is completely 
surrounded by the porphyry. 

From this poiphyrilic nucleus, one or two porphyritic dykes can be traced, cutting the syenite 
for short distances ; and some of a similar character are met with at such a distance as to make K. 
probable that there are other porphyritic nuclei. One of these dykes, about seven yards wide, con 
taining beautiful red feldspar crystals set in a black base, occurs on the south side of the road between 
the seventh and eighth ranges of Chatham, on the eighth lot. Its bearing S. 85 W. would carry 
it to the south of the porphyritic mass above described, from which the position in which flie dyke 
cuts the gneiss is removed seven miles, though it is not more than one mile from the syenite. 

Another dyke of this aspect is seen in the ninth range near the line between the thirteenth and 
fourteenth lots ; but in addition to the elements mentioned, it holds disseminated grains of transparent, 
colorless quartz. Its course appears to be S- 44 \V.,and it intersects a mass of porphyritic rock of 


the same color and texture as the porphyry of the pear-shaped nucleus, which, however, like the dyke, 
contains grains of vitreous quartz. Grains of this mineral are also observed in another porphyritic 
mass, whose course is N. 10 W., about a quarter of a mile from the front of the twenty-fifth lot in 
the seventh range. A porphyritic dyke is observed on the road between the sixth and seventh ranges 
on the twenty-third lot. It encloses grains of quartz and crystals of flesh-red feldspar, some of them 
half an inch in diameter, in a reddi.h, finely granular base. Of tre tufaceo porphyritic rock a lenticu 
lar mass crosses the seventh and eighth lots, close upon the rear of the fifth range ofGrenville. It has 
a lengih of nearly half a mile by a breadth of about 150 yards in the middle, and lies between gneiss 
on the north and syenite on the south. 

In the vicinity of the pear-shaped porphyritic intrusion, there are met with two veins of a special 
character, cutting the syenite, that deserve to be noticed. They consist of a white, yellowish-brown 
or flesh-red cellular chert, the colors in some cases running in bands parallel to one another, and 
sometimes being rather confusedly mingled, giving the aspect of a breccia. The cells are unequally 
distributed, some parts of the veins being nearly destitute of them, while in other?, they are very 
abundant, and of various sizes, from that of a pin s head to an inch in diameter. On the walls of 
some of these cells, small transparent crystals of quartz are implanted, and in some there aie the im 
pressions of cubical foims, resulting probably from crystals of fluorspar which have disappeared. 
The stone has the chemical characters and the composition of flint or chalcedony. 

One of these veins is on the north half of the first lot of the sixth range of Grenville, where it was 
traced for about a hundred yards, running about east and west, and the other in the south half of the 
first lot of the sixth range, belonging to Mr. James Lowe, who was the first person who drew atten 
tion to it as affording buhrstone. On his ground, the vein has been more examined than elsewhere ; 
it appears to run in a very straight nearly east and west bearing, and stands in a veitical attitude, 
while its breadth varies from about fourto .seven feet. Where the vein is banded, the colors run parallel 
with the sides. The attitude and associations of the mass clearly show it cannot be of sedimentary 
origin, and Us composition, taken in connection with the igneous character of the district, suggests 
the probability that it is an aqueous deposit which has filled up fissures in the syenite, and is similar 
in its origin to the agates and chalcedony which, in smaller masses, are common in various rocks. 

For a distance of perhaps 200 yards on each side of these veins of chert, while the quartz of the 
syenite remains unchanged, the feldspar has been more or less decomposed, and been converted into 
a sort of kaolin. As this process involves a separation of silica from the feldspar, it is not improbable 
that it has been the source of the veins of chert. 

The intrusive rocks which have been described have a date anterior to the deposit of the Silurian 
series. None of a similar character have been met with breaking through this series, and the rela 
tions of the base of the Lower Silurian group along the foot of the hills composed of the syenite are 
such as to make it evident that the Silurian beds in some places overlie eroded portions of the intru 
sive rock. But all these intrusive masses are cut by a set of dykes whose relations to the Silurian 
series are not so ceitain. These dykes are composed of a fine granular base, withan earthy fracture, 
consisting of feldspar and pyroxene, and having a dark, brownish-grey color. In this base are 
imbedded rounded masses of black cleavable augite, varying in size from a pin s head to several inches 
in diameter. These are associated with various size 1 nodules of calcspar filling cells that do not 
attain the diameter of the largest masses of augite, and with small scales of mica, grey in fresh frac 
tures, but weathering brass yellow on the sides of cracks and joints. Small crystals of sphene and 
grains , of titaniferous iron occur in the rock. 

One of these dykes, having a width of from three to ten feet, is traced from the first lot of the 
sixth range ofGrenville, near Mr. Lowe s buhrstone , where it cuts the syenite, to the third and fourth 
lots of the same range, where it cuts the pear-shaped mass of porphyry ; thence, it crosses to the 
eighth lot of the fifth range, where it cuts both syenite and porphyry, and farther to the tenth lot of 



the same range, where it intersects the quartzite and the limestone. The whole distance is upward 
of two miles and a half, and the bearing S. 82 W. Another dyke of this description intersects the 
limestone on the thiiteenth lot of the same range, and is traced for half a mile running east. These 
dykes bear a striking resemblance to some of the dolerites which intersect the Lower Silurian group in 
the neighborhood of the mountain of Montieal, and may possibly be of the same age, but none of 
them have yet been traced, continuously, from the Laurentian into the Silurian rocks. 


Names of the members of the Legislative Assembly of the County of York, 
Two Mountains and Argenteuil the latter having been detached from the former. 

From 1792 

" 797 

" 1805 

From 1811 



From 1820 

" 1825 
" 1827 

I. COUNTY OF YORK, 310 Geo. Ill, Chap. 31. 

to 1796, Mr. C. de Lotbiniere, Mr. P. A. de Bonne, 

to 1800, Mr. H. Lacroix, Mr. Hetien (J.). 

to 1805, Mr. J. Bedard, Mr. L. C. Foucher. 

to 1808, Mr. J. Mure, Mr. E. L. Dumont. 

1809, Mr. J. Mure. Mr. J. J. Trestler. 

1810, Mr. J. Mure, Mr. St. Julien. 
to 1814, Mr. F. Bellet, Mr. St. Julien. 

to 1816, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. W. Forbes, 

to i Si 9, Mr. Dumont, Mr. J. B. Fare. 

1820, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault. 

to 1824, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault. 

to 1827, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. J. Simpson, 

to 1829, Mr. J. L. Labrie, Mr. J. B. Lefebvre. 

II. COUNTY OF Two MOUNTAINS, 90 Geo. IV, Chap. 73. 

From 1830 to 1834, Mr. J. Labrie, Mr. W. H.Scott. 

1834 to 1838, Mr. J. J. Girouard, Mr. W. H. Scott. 
1841 to 1844, Mr. C. Robertson, Mr. C. J. Forbes. 
Mr. W. H. Scott. 
Mr. W. H. Scott. 

1844 to 1847, 
1848 to 1851, 

1851 to 1854, Mr. Mr. W. H. Scott, Hon. Louis J. Papineau. 
III. COUNTY OF ARGENTEUIL, 1 6 Viet., Chap. 152. 

From 1854 to 1857, S. Bellingham, his election declared null. 

Re-elected in 1855 election again declared null ; re-elected in 1856. 

From 1858 to 1861, S. Bellingham. The name of J. J. C. Abbott is substi 
tuted for the name of S. Bellingham in 1860. 

From 1861 to 1863, Mr. J. J. C. Abbott re-elected as Solicitor in 1862. 

From 186310 1866, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott. 

Sidney Bellingham was elected by acclamation 27th August, 1867 re-elected 
23rd June, 1871, and re-elected by acclamation 3oth June, 1875. 


Robert J. Meikle of Lachute was elected ist May, 1878. 

Wm. Owens was elected 2nd December, 1881 ; re-elected by acclamation, yth 
October, 1886 ; re-elected lyth of June, 1890, and resigned. 
William J. Simpson elected 8th March, 1892. 

Biographical sketches of several of the representatives named above Colin 
Robertson, C. J. Forbes, R. J. Meikle, Wm. Owens and Wm. J. Simpson will 
be found on succeeding pages of this volume ; of three others Scott, Papineau and 
Bellingham the sketches given below were gathered in part from Borthwick s 
" History and Gazetteer of Montreal." 

W. H. Scott was the son of a baker, who was located on St. Lawrence street, 
Montreal, very early in the present century. The son engaged in mercantile busi 
ness in St. Eustache, and was one of the prominent rebels of 1837. He was arrested 
and indicted for high treason, but after remaining in prison some time, was dis 
charged. Like several other rebels of that time, he afterward became a supporter of 
the government he had attempted to subvert, and endeavored by his devoted loyalty 
to atone for the errors of the past. In the latter part of his Parliamentary career 
he became a great admirer and friend of Sir George E. Cartier. 

Louis J. Papineau was a man of almost world-wide fame, and he is one of the 
most prominent characters in Canadian history. Few men outside the circle of 
royalty have been the subject of more pen pictures than he, and none, perhaps, are 
subjects of sketches so widely different in character. Eulogy and anathema have 
been bestowed on him in turn ; he was a heio or a coward, a patriot or a traitor, a 
statesman or a demagogue, just according to the views or political tendencies of his 

All, however, concur with the opinion, thai he was a man of brilliant talent, 
possessed of great personal magnetism, courtly manner, and was an orator. As time 
recedes, also, from the stirring events which called him into prominence, and animosity 
and prejudice give place to reason and justice; he is no longer regarded as the 
rash, selfish, irrational being that he once was, and even his bitterest foes are inclined 
to denounce his methods rather his aims, and even admit that we to-day are reap 
ing some benefit from both. The more charitable even of his political adversaries 
endeavor to find excuse for all that he did, and ascribe to his efforts and that of his 
followers all that is good in our government to-day. 

He was born in Montreal, i7th October, 1786, and was the son of Joseph 
Papineau, a prominent notaiy, and for many years a member of the Legislative 
Assembly, in which he was distinguished for his ability and eloquence. 

The Hon. Louis J. Papineau, after receiving his education chiefly at the 
Seminary of Quebec, studied Law, and was admitted to the Bar of Lower Canada in 
1811. Two years previous to this, or in 1809, so popular had he become, and so 
flattering were his prospects, that he was elected to the Assembly for the County of 
Kent, now Chambly ; and in 1815 he was appointed to the responsible position 
of speaker, which position he retained with little interruption till 1837 a period of 


twenty years. In November, 1827, when Mr. Papineau, according to the custom of 
the Assembly, had again been chosen speaker, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor of 
whom Papineau had spoken disrespectfully, refused to ratify their choice. Some 
days of excitement and trouble ensued, the Assembly would not yield, and, in con 
sequence, its members were sent home. The Governor soon afterward returned to 
England, and became Governor General of India. He was succeeded in Canada 
by Sir James Kempt, whose conciliatory policy allayed, in a measure, the bitter 
feelings in the Province towards the Government. This was only a delay, however, 
of the coming storm : troubles which had long since commenced between the 
different branches of Government continued to increase, till they culminated in 
the Rebellion of 1837-38. The important part which Papineau played in all these 
events is well known. 

After a residence of two years in the United States, whither he had fled in 1837, 
he removed to Paris, where he lived till 1847, when the issue of the proclamation of 
amnesty permitted him to return to Canada. He was again elected to Parliament, 
in which he remained till 1854, when he retired from political life his last years be 
ing devoted chiefly to horticultural and literary pursuits. 

He died at Montebello on the Ottawa, 23rd September, 1871, at the age of 

SIDNEY ROBERT BELLINGHAM, who was long a popular figure in Argenteuil, was a 
son of Sir Allan Bellingham of Castle Bellingham, Louth County, Ireland, and was 
born 2nd August, 1808. He was educated in Ireland, and married to Arabella 
Holmes, the daughter of a citizen of Quebec. He was a loyal actor in the Rebellion 
of 1837-38, and, as a magistrate, accompanied the valiant Col. Wetherall to St. 
Charles, whither he had been sent in command of a few soldiers. In 1841, Mr. Belling 
ham was called to the Bar of Lower Canada, and, some years subsequently, he was for 
a long time political writer for the press of this Province, chiefly of the Montreal Times 
and Daily News. He became endeared to the people of Argenteuil County, not 
only from his association with them as their representative, but in enterprises with 
which he was connected. He was interested in the construction of the Carillon & 
Grenville Railway, and in colonizing the northern section of the County. 

His residence for many years was on the north brow of Mount Royal, where he 
purchased a valuable tract of land, beautifully located, and erected a dwelling. Not 
long after his last election to the Legislative Assembly, in 1875, he returned to Castle 
Bellingham, Ireland, where he was living in December, 1895. 


From 1867 to 1874, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott. 

" 1874 to 1875, Lemuel Gushing. 

" 1875 to 1880, Thomas Christie. 

" 1880 to 1886, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott. 

" 1886 to 1890, J. C. Wilson. 

" 1891 to 1895, Thomas Christie. 



(From the Watchman of Nov. 3, 1893, Lachute.) 

The tidings that have reached the homes of the County of Argenteuil, this week, 
cause great and deep sorrow. The greatest of our sons, the truest friend this county 
ever had, has passed away. None but an old resident can fully appreciate what he 
was to the County of Argenteuil. In almost every good and public work which had 
for its object the interests and progress of our people, Mr. Abbott was there with his 
advice always golden and with his financial aid. The Agricultural Society has 
lost perhaps its oldest and best friend, for whether in Parliament or out of it, Mr. 
Abbott s liberal donation was always forthcoming. 

But while his services to public objects have been innumerable, what must be said 
of the kindness, the patience, the ability and readiness which he displayed in listening 
to the private troubles and difficulties of a long list of his Argenteuil brethren ? The 
legal advice which he gave to his County gratis would have been worth a small for 
tune to any lawyer. The widow and orphan, the poor and friendless, always had in 
him one who would lay aside for a few moments the most weighty affair of State to 
listen to their wants and clear away their difficulties. 

But in no way did his character shine out more brightly than in his treatment 
of political opponents. The same kind word, the same free advice, the same pains 
taking consideration of the case before him, was meted out to Argenteuil men, irre 
spective of whether they were political friends or opponents. In this respect his 
example is one that should never be forgotten. The retention of political spite and 
animosity is very unfortunate, not only because of the harm it does, but because it 
is foolish and senseless. On several occasions, when the flames of political excite 
ment had been fanned by hot-headed partisans on both sides, Mr. Abbott was heard 
to plead with the people not to quarrel with their neighbors over politics. He 
declared that his opponent and himself would remain good friends, and why should 
others make their battle so personal as to be unneighborly ? 

The history of the life of the first Canadian born Premier will form an impor 
tant chapter in the history of our Dominion. But there is one fact that is perhaps 
overlooked, viz., that to Mr. Abbott, more than to any other man, do we owe the Cana 
dian Pacific Railway. There is no doubt that the scheme of a great trans-continental 
railway was originated in the fertile mind of this gentleman, and the success of the 
enterprise, the opening up of the North West, and all the great benefits arising there 
from, are due in a great measure to Sir John Abbott. 

It has been said that he was a greater lawyer than a politician. Such was the case, 
for he was at the very head of the legal profession in Montreal, and, consequently, 
did not spend the greater portion of his time in studying politics. At that time, there 
was the old chieftain, Sir John Macdonald, to conduct the affairs of the party, and 
time and again did he show the confidence and dependence he placed upon 
the advice and counsel of Mr. Abbott. But, had the occasion arisen, we feel 




sure that Mr. Abbott possessed the qualities, tact, discrimination, foresight and 
cleverness which would have made him the peer of his great leader, Sir John 
Macdonald. When that gentleman passed away, how instinctively the party fell 
back upon him in the hour of need ; and he did not fail them. Never was there a 
time in the history of the Conservative party when its success was more doubtful, 
and where a strong, courageous hand was more needed to turn the tide than at the 
time when Sir John Abbott became Premier. But age was upon him, and, burdened 
with the cares of State, the old man felt his strength going. It was hoped that rest 
would make a change ; but the only rest that came was the long last rest, upon which 
he entered on Monday evening, October 3Oth, at half-past eight, 1893. 

Any attempt to estimate the loss Argenteuil has sustained would prove utterly 
futile, but we are sure that, from the most remote corner to the Ottawa River 
boundary, the general feeling is one of the deepest sorrow. Looking at the 
past and gazing into the future, we feel like saying : " We shall never see his like 

Sir John Abbott was born at St. Andrews, in the county of Argenteuil, Lower 
Canada, i2th March, 1821. His father was the Rev. Joseph Abbott, M. A., first 
Anglican incumbent of St. Andrews, who emigrated to this country from England in 
1818, as a missionary, and who, during his long residence in Canada, added consider 
ably to the literary activity of the country. He had not been long in Canada before 
he married Miss Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Richard Bradford, first 
rector of Chatham, Argenteuil County. 

Sir John was Dean of the Faculty of Law in the University of McGill College, 
a D.C-L. of that University, and Lieut. -Colonel of the "Argenteuil Rangers," known 
in the Department of Militia as the nth Battalion, a corps raised by him during the 
patriotic time of the Trent " excitement. He was also president of the Fraser 
Institute of Montreal, and director, or law adviser, to various companies and corpor 
ations. Sir John s name came twice before the public, in a manner which gave him 
great notoriety. He was a prominent figure, after Sir Hugh Allan, in the famous 
Pacific scandal episode. Being the legal adviser of the Knight of Raven scrag, all 
transactions were carried on through him, and it was a confidential clerk of his who 
revealed details of the scheme, which culminated in the downfall of the Macdonald 
cabinet. His second conspicuous appearance on the public stage was in connection 
with the Letellier case, when he went to England, in April, 1879, as the associate of 
the Hon. H. L. Langevin, on the mission which resulted in the dismissal of the Lieut. - 
Governor of Quebec. In 1849, lie married Miss Mary Bethune, daughter of the 
Very Rev. J. Bethune, D.D., late Dean of Montreal. 

Sir John s political life may be said to have commenced in 1857, by the 
contest of the County of Argenteuil, at the general election held in that year. He 
was elected a member of the Canadian Assembly, but was not returned until 1859- 
He continued to represent the constituency in that House until the union of 1867 
when he was returned for the Commons. He was re-elected at the general elections 


of 1872 and 1874. In October of the last named year, he was unseated. Mr. L. 
Gushing, who had been his opponent at the preceding election, again became the 
Liberal candidate, but Mr. Abbott retired. Mr. Wm. Owens ran against Mr. 
Gushing, and was defeated. Upon Mr. Cushing s election being contested and vo 
ed Dr Christie was chosen by acclamation. At the general election of September, 
1878 he was again a candidate, but sustained defeat at the hands of his old antagonist, 
Dr Christie. The latter, however, was unseated in February, 1880 ; Sir John was 
again elected for the County. Then followed the most celebrated election trial in 
the history of Canada. It lasted about three months, the enquete being one of the 
longest ever presented to a judge. The Court was presided over by Justice Belanger. 
Mr N W Trenholme, now Dean of the Law Faculty of McGill, conducted the case 
for the petitioners, Thos. Hickson et al. Mr. Tait, now Judge Tait, and Mr. Lacoste, 
now Chief Justice Sir A. Lacoste, were associated with Mr. Abbott himself in the 
defence The result was that the election was annulled, and Mr. Abbott was re- 
elected by acclamation, and sat until 1887, when he retired. In 1862, he was made 
Solicitor General in the Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte Administration, and prior t 
acceptance of office he was created a Q.C. In 1864, while in opposition, he was 
instrumental in introducing two bills, which have added greatly to his legal fame. 
The first of these was the Jury Law Consolidation Act for Lower Canada, 
principal provisions were, to simplify the system of summoning jurors and the pre 
paration of jury lists. The other law which he added to the statute was the bill 
collecting judicial and registration fees, by stamps. This was the most complete 
legislation that had taken place on the subject, and, as in the case of his c 
measures, the main principles have been retained in the subsequent legislation which 
has followed. Sir John s political labors also consist of useful amendments to bills, 
suggestions and advice as regards measures affecting law and commerce. His 
advtc- at such times always proved of the greatest value, and in this department 
it was that he achieved the most success. Upon the death of Sir John Macdonald, 
May, 1891, Sir John, then Mr. Abbott, was chosen to succeed him in the leadership 
of the Conservative party and as Premier of the Dominion. The onerous respon 
sibilities of this high office were accepted by Sir John as a duty to his Party and 
the country. His services in this connection, if not brilliant, were able and conserva 
tive, and, added to his weak state of health, doubtless helped to shorten his life. 

In the fall of 1892 he retired from active politics, and sought by foreign travel 
and the services of skilled physicians to banish the disease that racked his frame ; 
but it was too late, and he grew gradually worse until the end. 

In 1887, Mr. Abbott was elected Mayor of Montreal by a majority of about 
2,000 votes over his opponent, Mr. Rainville. In 1888, he was re-elected by accla 
mation, and the same year was appointed president of the corporation of the Royal 
Victoria Hospital, an institution which has recently been endowed with about $1,100,- 
ooo by Lord Mount-Stephen and Sir Donald A. Smith, in commemoration of 
Majesty s Jubilee. The construction of the stately hospital building, costing about 
$500,000, was conducted under Mr. Abbott s supervision as president. 


Sir John was also president of the Citizens Insurance Company, and director 
of the Bank of Montreal and of the Standard Life Insurance Company. 


It is to be regretted that the records of this Society have not been kept, 
so that a connected history of it could be given from its formation. Fortunately, a 
little pamphlet, 6 by 4 inches in size, and embracing four pages, has fallen into our 
hands, from which we learn the date of the birth of this Society. This relic has 
on its cover the following : 




Then follows a picture emblem of Agriculture and underneath, the words 



Below, we give the entire contents, verbatim : 

At a general meeting of the Inhabitants of the County of York, held in St. 
Andrews on the 2nd February, 1826, Mr. John McMartin being called to the chair, 
the purpose of the meeting was explained, and the following Resolutions were un 
animously adopted, viz. : 

RESOLVED, ist. That the persons present form themselves into a Society, to be 
called the " County of York Agricultural Society," the object of which will be to im 
prove the mode of Agriculture in the said County by every means in their power. 

RESOLVED, 2nd. That the officers of this Society shall be a President, two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer and Secretary, and that a Committee of ten shall manage the 
business ; all which officers shall be elected annually. 

RESOLVED, 3rd. That James Brown, Esq., be President, Mr. John McMartin and 
Thomas Barren, Esq., Vice-Presidents. 

Edward Jones, Duncan McNaughton, Henry Chapman, Wm. Tennison, Jacob 
Schagel, Stephen Burwash, Thomas Cooke, John M Ewen, Doctor C. Rice were 
elected to form the Committee, 

Mr. Guy Richards, Treasurer. 

Mr. James Murray, Secretary. 

RESOLVED, 4th. That the Committee draw up Rules for the better Regulation of 
this Society. 

RESOLVED, 5th. That those present immediately enter their names as members 
of this Society. 

Which Resolution was unanimously complied with. 

(Signed), JAMES MURRAY, Secy. 


On the 2 5 th March, 1 826, pursuant to public notice, a general meeting took place, 
when the following Regulations were unanimously adopted :- 

ist The object of this Society is to promote, by its efforts and example, the 
science of Agriculture throughout the County ; to give premiums in money or pieces 
of Plate, agricultural publications or implements, to the practical farmers who shal 
excel in the art of ploughing, cropping, raising stock of all kinds, in the dairy, plant 
ing of fruit trees, and the general improvement of Farms and Home Manufactures. 

2nd There shall be a general meeting annually, on the Twentieth day of 
Jar.nary (or day following if it should fall on a Sunday), for the election of a Presi 
dent two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and Treasurer, and ten members for a Com 
mittee to superintend the general interests of the Society, and six of these with the 
President, or one of the Vice-Presidents, will be sufficient to proceed to business, 
call extraordinary meeting, etc. 

3 rd. The Committee shall remain in office for one year, and one-half 
comprising it may be re-elected, but may retire after serving one year, then the Com 
mittee may elect others in their stead. 

4 th. The said Committee shall meet quarterly, or oftener, if required by the 


5 th. Any practical farmer or gentleman in the County may become a memt 
of the Society, by paying the sum of five shillings, annually. No expulsion can tak 
place unless at a general meeting, when two-thirds of those present may expel any 
member for misconduct towards the Society. 

6th. No person, unless a practical farmer, within the County, can partake 

the benefit of premiums. 

7 th. All decisions to be made by a majority of members present, and 

dent to have the casting vote. 

8th. The rules of competition to be similar to those adopted by the 

Society of Scotland. 

9 th. The judges shall be named by the Committee from among the memb rs, 

who shall determine in all cases. 

roth. At the annual general meeting of this Society in January, the proceedings 
of the year shall be read, a statement of the funds exhibited, the list of subscribers 
read, and the annual subscription received previous to the election of officers. 

nth. No member entitled to vote on any subject, till the preceding article is 

complied with. 

1 2th. That the general meeting in January shall serve for the first quar 
meeting; the second quarterly meeting will take place on the second Tuesday of 
March ; the third, on the second Tuesday of June ; the fourth, on the second Tues 
day of September. At a general meeting of the inhabitants of the County of York, 
held on the 2ist January, 1828, the following additional resolution was agreed to :- 

RESOLVED, That in order to extend the benefits to be derived from the Associa 
tion, ten new members from the neighboring Parishes be added to the number of 


the Committee, and that the twenty do constitute, in future, the number of the Com 
mittee, exclusive of the president, two vice-presidents, the secretary and treasurer. 

JAMES BROWN, Jr., Secy. 

From this time onward for many years, the records are lost, but the Society con 
tinued to exist, and " Cattle Shows " and plowing matches were held annually. Com 
missary C. J. Forbes was president for some years, and Wm. Beaton, a teacher and 
bailiff of St. Andrews, was secretary, succeeded by Errick Harrington, who in turn 
was succeeded by Henry Howard. 

The earliest records we have been able to obtain after the above were those of 
a meeting held in Lachute, 3ist December, 1869. 

President, Edward Jones ; Vice-President, John Hay; Secretary, Henry Howard. 


Wm. Albright, John McGregor, Thos. Noyes, Geo. B. Hooker, Walter McOuat, 
Wm. Gordon, Wm. McOuat. 

In 1870 there were 95 members. Amount subscribed, $113. In December, 1874, 
John Burwash was appointed president, and Wm. McOuat, vice-president ; Gavin 
I. Walker, who was appointed secretary in December, 1875, stiu holds the office. 

FROM 1876 TO 1895. 

Presidents. Vict-Presidents. 

John Hay. Wm. McOuat. 

Geo. B. Hooker. Nelson Albright. 

John Morrison. Geo. B. Hooker. 

John Martin. Geo. Morrison. 

P- Lane. John Martin. 

P. Lane. 
N. Albright. 
Geo. Fraser. 

1880. No. of members 191, amount subscribed $335.00. 
1890. No. of members 240, amount subscribed $495.00. 
1886. Amount paid for premiums $743.75. 
1894. Amount paid for premiums, $950.00. 

A Government grant of $2.00 is now received for every $1.00 subscribed. 
The grounds and buildings which are leased to the Agricultural Society for its 
exhibitions are neat and spacious, and their annual fairs are second only to those of 
the large cities of the Province, and invariably attract a large concourse of people. 



On the 2 3 rd July, 1845, a meeting was held in a room at M. D. Seattle s. The 
councillors acting at this time were John Wainright, Charles Macdonnell, Alexis 
Cameron, Stephen Burwash and Andrew McGregor. John Wainright was unanimoi 
elected Mayor of the Municipality of Argenteuil. 

Copied verbatim from the Records. 

On 2 3 rd August, 1855, the first meeting of the County Council of Argenteuil 
was held, at which meeting the following councillors were present :- 
Edwin Pridham, Esq., Mayor of Grenville. 
Lemuel Gushing, Esq., Mayor of Chatham. 
Robert Simpson, Esq., Mayor of St. Andrews. 
Thomas Christie, Esq., Mayor of St. Jerusalem Parish. 
George Rogers. Esq., Mayor of Township of Gore. 
Andrew Elliott, Esq., Mayor of Mille Isle. 
Samuel Smith, Esq., Mayor ofWentworth. 
George Hamilton, Esq., Mayor of Morin. 

Thomas Christie was elected Warden, and served to March, 1858. 
Thomas Barron, sen., was then appointed, and served to March, 1864. 
Richard D. Byers, from March to December, 1864. 
Lemuel Gushing, to March, 1868. 
Thomas Barron, jr., to March, 1881. 
Alexander Pridham, from March, 1881, to March, 1895. 
James B. Brown, from March, 1895, to the present. 

The names of the present County Council are : Patrick A. Dunbar, Joseph 
Derrick, John Chambers, Wm. D. Graham, jr., Oliver Woods, John Wade, M. 
Desjardins, Hugh Walsh, James B. Brown, James Millway, Ed. Christie, Matthew I. 
Strong, George Scale. 


The County of Argenteuil is deservedly proud of her rangers, though, like for 
tresses scattered here and there in our land, once regarded as a bulwark of safety, 
they are now less an object of necessity, and serve more as a reminder of dangers we 
have escaped than of those anticipated. 

A troop of cavalry was organized in this County by McRobbin 1816. He had 
served in the British Army, and held the rank of sergeant, and on petitioning Gov 
ernment for a grant of land, as a reward for his service, he was granted two lots in 
Chatham, which are now owned by John Kelly. He was always known as 
McRobb" ; he died not many years after forming the Troop and becoming captain. 
Since that period, the command of the St. Andrew s Troop has devolved on the fol- 


lowing : Capt. Donald C. McLean, Capt. John Oswald, Capt. John Burwash, Capt. 
Martin Wanless. 

Capt. McLean had been a Nor wester, and lived on Beech Ridge. He was a 
prominent, public-spirited, brave man, and was a J. P. of St. Andrews. During the 
disturbances of 1838, he marched with his company to St. Eustache, on the day that 
the rebels were vanquished. Some years later, he sold his property on the Ridge, 
and moved to Quio, where he died. One of his sons, a prominent business man, still 
resides there. 

Capt. Oswald, who was afterwards promoted to the rank of lieut. -colonel of Mili 
tia, was in command of this troop several years ; his home was in the County of 
Two Mountains. During the Rebellion he was one of the most active of the Loyalists, 
in consequence of which he was particularly obnoxious to the rebels. 

In 1879, tne St. Andrew s troop and several troops were formed into a regiment, 
which afterward received the name Duke of Conna Light Royal Canadian Hussars. 
Another troop of cavalry was formed in this County a number of years ago by 
Col. John Simpson of Lachute, but the organization was not of long duration. 

The Argenteuil Rangers were organized in 1862, the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, it is 
claimed, being instrumental in the formation of the Battalion. He was lieut.-colonel 
of it for several years, and was succeeded by James B. Gushing, who still holds the 

Henry Abbott, brother of Sir J. J. C. Abbott, was sen. major till 1866, when he 
was succeeded by Allen McDonald, who, in 1883, was succeeded by William Hoy. 
First Jun. Major, Sam Rogers. This position was vacant from 1883 to 1888, 
when Isaac Jekyll was appointed, succeeded in 1893 by Geo. B. Martin. 

Paymaster, Archibald McDonald, till 1872 ; succeeded by Thomas Lamb. 
Batt. Surgeon from 1862 to the present, Dr. Mayrand. 
The Companies were as follows : 

Co. No. i, by Capt. John McDonald, St. Andrews. 
Co. No. 2, by Capt. William Smith, Gore (West). 
Co. No. 3, by Capt. Geo. McKnight, Gore (West). 
Co. No. 4, by Capt. A. Cleland, Lachute. 
Co. No. 5, by Capt. Sam Rogers, Gore. 
Co. No. 6, by Capt. Geo. Sherritt, Gore. 
Co. No. 7, by Capt. EdwarrKPridham, Grenville. 
Co. No. 8, by Capt. John Pollock, Mille Isles. 

The following changes have occurred among the captains of the different com 
panies since the Battalion was first organized : 

Co. No. i. 

Capt. John McDonald died in 1864, and was succeeded by his brother, Allen 
McDonald. In 1866, the latter became Major, and his brother Samuel McDonald 
succeeded him as Captain. He was afterwards promoted to the rank of Adjutant, 


and H.W. Kempley succeeded him as Captain; and after the latter left St. Andrews, 
Archibald LeRoy held the captaincy till 1883, when he was succeeded by Capt- 
Thomas \Veightman. 

Co. No. 2. 

Capt. Wm. Smith was succeeded in 1866 by Capt. Jas. Smith, who, dying in 
1891, had as successor Capt. Wm. Good. 

Co. No. 3. 

Geo. McKnight was Captain till 1882, followed by Capt. Isaac Jekyll, who dying 
was succeeded by his own son, Henry Jekyll. 

Co. No. 4- 

Capt. A. Cleland was Captain till 1866. From 1866 to 1883, Capt. John Simp 
son. Since 1883, Capt. Geo. D. Walker. 

Co. No. 5. 

Samuel Rogers was Captain till 1866. The Company was disorganized this year. 
Co. No. 6 became No. 5 at this time, No. 7 was disbanded, and No. 8 became No. 6. 

Co. No. 7 (FORMERLY No. 9). 

Capt. Wm. T. Forbes till 1872, Capt. W. Hoy till 1883, then Capt. Edward 

Co. No. 8 (FORMERLY No. 10). 

Capt. Jas. B. Gushing till 1883, then Capt. Geo. B. Martin till 1887, Cap*- J ohn 
Sittlington till 1890; from 1893 to the present, Capt. John Earl- 

The first camp was held in 1868, at the Roman Catholic Church, St. Andrews, 
eight Companies and the St. Andrew s Troop present. In 1869, the camp was at 
Hill Head. 

In 1870, the Battalion, on account of the Fenian excitement, narrated elsewhere, 
was divided and sent to different places. 

1871, Camp at Laprairie. 

1872, Camp at St. Andrews. 

1874, Camp at St. Andrews. 

1875, Camp at Bellevue, Carillon. 

1877 [-Local drills at Head-quarters of the different Companies. 

1879, Companies i, 4, 7 and 8 (part of Bait.), at Lachute. 

1880, Companies 2, 3, 5 and 6 (part of Batt.), at Bellevue. 

1 88 1, Camp at St. Johns. 

1883, Camp at St. Johns. 

1884, Camp at St. Johns. 


1886, Camp at Richmond. 

1888, Camp at Sherbrooke. 

1891, Camp at East Farnham. 

1893, Camp at Laprairie. 

1895, Camp at Laprairie. 

When the second camp was at Bellevue, on the suggestion of the late Lemuel 
Cushing, M.P., a tent was erected by the Y. M. C. Association, and ever since, this 
has been an important feature in the camp. The opportunity thus afforded the Vol 
unteers of obtaining good reading matter and attending religious exercises in the 
evening has been improved by many of them, and it is to be hoped that good has 
resulted. At all events, the suggestion of Mr. Cushing was a noble one, and the 
custom which resulted from it cannot be too highly commended. 

In the years 1872 and 1874, when the camps were at St. Andrews, there were 
present besides the usual companies of the Battalion,, the " Prince of Wales Rifles," 
Victoria Rifles," the 6th Reg.. of Cavalry, 6th Fusiliers, and three independent 
companies from the region of the Gatineau. 

When at Richmond in 1886, the Rangers were presented with standard colors 
Queen s and Regimental by the ladies of Argenteuil. 

The Rangers have gained no little celebrity for their success in compeiing for 
various prizes. On the 25th May, 1885, a tug-of-war contest occurred at Lachute, 
between the Rangers on one side, and the 5th Royal Scots and 6th Fusiliers on the 
ether. The prize was an ornate silver cup. Ten or a dozen men were chosen from 
each party, and after a vigorous contest, the Rangers were awarded the prize. In 
1893, when the camp was at Laprairie, a magnificent and valuable silver cup was 
offered by Sir Donald A. Smith to the Regiment displaying the best proof of pro 
ficiency in the qualities essential to a soldier. The prize was again borne off by the 
Rangers. ,In 1887, on tne occasion of the Queen s Jubilee, another tug-of-war 
contest occurred between two different companies of the Battalion. A challenge 
was made by Co. No. 8, to any other one in the Battalion, and was accepted by Co. 
No- i, commanded by Capt. Thomas Weightman. A prize of a silver cup was offeied 
to the victor by Jas. Johnson, a lumber merchant living near Quebec. Five men 
were selected fiom each company ; the team was commanded by Capt. Weightman, 
to whose company the cup was awarded. 

In 1866, the first Fenian invasion of Canada occurred. For some years certain 
Irish demagogues in the United States, with the object of gaining notoriety and filling 
their pockets, had been concocting a scheme whereby so they persuaded the ignorant 
Ireland would be released from British thraldom. The plan proposed was to raise 
and equip a grand and invincible army in the States, v/alk over and subjugate Canada, 
and after England had thus been crippled, and the Irish patriots had acquired ter 
ritory on which to plan and prepare for future operations, the people of Ireland were 
to rise in their majesty, and declare themselves forever free from the yoke of English 


Such was the ridiculous scheme proposed and advocated by these demagogues, 
under the name and pretence of patriotism. Numerous individuals generally the 
ones most blatant in their advocacy of the scheme were appointed to receive contri 
butions towards its furtherance ; and, forthwith, money began to flow into their coffers 
from the pockets of their deluded followers. Many a poor servant girl contributed 
to this hare-brained project the wages for which she had toiled for years. 

The disbanding of the Federal armies, at the close of the American Rebellion, 
gave an impetus to the cause of Fenianism. Thousands of men were thrown upon the 
country without occupation or means of support, and many of those whose social 
status is fitly described by the term vagabond were only too glad to enlist in any 
crusade, which promised food and raiment and an opportunity to plunder. "The 
Army of Ireland," as it was ostentatiously called, afforded the desired refuge, and to 
this they hied. Their number was augmented by many from the cities loafers and 
tramps who had never seen a day of military service, and who, in their ignorance, 
had been led to believe that it would be but pastime to conquer Canada, and that 
they would riot in the spoils. 

It is but just to say, that the Fenians who crossed the boundary, and made a 
raid into Ontario, seemed to have more the appearance of men, and displayed more 
of the "bravery of soldiers. But the description given above is a true one of the 
majority of the Fenians who crossed the Line into the Eastern Townships in 1866. 
The discarded Springfield muskets of the Federal Government of the States pro 
vided the Fenians with cheap arms, and in the month of June, 1866, several hundred 
of this fraternity suddenly appeared on the Frontier on the northern boundary of 
Vermont, and crossed into St. Armand, Que. So quietly had they done their work 
for a while, and so quietly had they gathered, that our people had no idea they were 
so near, until they were actually crossing the border. Notwithstanding all the 
boasts and threats of invasion made by the Fenians, the people of the Townships 
never really believed that it would be attempted, and, consequently, had made no pre 
parations to meet them. Great was the surprise and consternation, therefore, when the 
news flashed through the country, one Sunday afternoon, that 2,000 Fenians had 
crossed the border, and were marching toward the village of Frelighsburg, about three 
miles distant from the Line in the parish of St. Armand East. 

Most erroneous impressions were current among our people, both as to the 
number and character of the Fenians. It was firmly believed, for a while, that the 
first detachment comprised two or three thousand, that this would be speedily aug 
mented, and that they were the veteran soldiers of the Union army men who, in 
every way, would prove formidable foes to British soldiers on the field of battle. 
Great was the mistake ; their number was less than a thousand, and that number 
was largely composed of mere boys and such men as we have described. 

It took but two or three days to undeceive the people of the Townships and 
restore confidence. The Fenians soon gave evidence that their chief object was to 
obtain what they could eat and drink, and what booty they could carry away with 


They were careful not to venture far into the Province, but camped near the 
border, and spent their time between robbing stores, drinking the liquors found in 
groceries and hotels, and slaughtering such animals of the farmers as they found 
necessary for the supply of their commissariat. Horses were taken in considerable 
numbers, both from farmers and from such travelers as had the misfortune to meet 
them. But these marauders were not destined to prolong their carousal on Canadian 
soil. Only a few days elapsed, when the red coats marched into the west end of St. 
Armand parish, and simultaneously the Fenians made their exit from the east end ; 
not even stopping to get a glimpse of the British soldiers, much less did they attempt 
to wrest Ireland from their grasp. Several stragglers were taken prisoners and tried 
as criminals, but were finally released it being the general impression that the Govern, 
ment deemed it more generous, in view of their insignificance, to release them, after 
some months imprisonment in jail, than to mete out to them severe punishment, 
and thus give them an opportunity to pose as martyrs. 

The raid made simultaneously with the above, on the Niagara Frontier under 
General O Niel, was of larger proportions, and resulted in more serious consequences. 
It was the design of the Fenians to assail Canada from three points one from 
Chicago and places on the Lake Huron coast, a second from Buffalo and Rochester, 
and a third from Ogdensburg. The latter, which was to be the most formidable of 
these undertakings, was to threaten Ottawa, capture Prescott, and overrun the country 
toward the Eastern Townships. They soon found, however, that their plans were far 
too great for their resources, and ere they could put the least into execution, the places 
proposed to be captured were well protected by thousands of our loyal Volunteers. 

After O Niel had crossed the Niagara frontier with a large force, a body of Cana 
dians 1 800 men composed of 750 regulars and the rest of Volunteers, with a Battery 
of Aitillery, all under command of Col. Peacock, took post at Chippewa, and awaited 
the arrival of Lieut.-Col. Booker. The latter was a Volunteer officer, with a force of 
nearly 900 men, composed of the Queen s Own chiefly college students and other 
patriotic young men of Toronto, the i3th Hamilton Volunteers, and the York and 
Caledonia Volunteer Companies. 

While marching toward Chippewa to join Peacock, this force under Booker 
unexpectedly met the Fenuns at Limeridge, where they were strongly fortified. As 
Booker had no military experience, and possessed more bravery than skill as a 
commander, he immediately commenced an action with this largely superior force. 
The Queen s Own was thrown out in skirmishing order, and gallantly drove back 
O Niel s advanced line on his main body. But the Volunteers were all inexperienced ; 
there was no force to support them ; mistakes were made in the orders ; a panic 
ensued, and the force was soon in full retreat. The Volunteers lost in killed, one 
officer and six men ; while the dangerously as well as slightly wounded comprised 
four officers and nineteen men. The Fenian loss was known to be larger than our 
own, though it was never accurately ascertained, as they had possession of the battle 
field, and buried their dead there. As several of the killed on our side were college 
students and members of good families, their loss was greatly deplored. 


Soon after this, O Niel retreated to Fort Erie, which post he found in possession 
of Lieut. Col. Dennis, with seventy Volunteers. A little before this, Col. Dennis had 
arrived from Port Colburne with a tug-boat, in the hold of which were stowed sixty 
Fenian prisoners. An action at once ensued, which, as might be supposed, ended in 
the defeat of the small company of Volunteers, thirteen of whom were wounded and 
forty made prisoners. 

But O Niel had been disappointed. Instead of finding any in Canada to join him, 
as he had anticipated, the inhabitants rose as one man to drive him and his mar 
auders from the country. The spirit displayed by the few Volunteers he had met 
showed him what he might expect when they had all gathered, and he lost no time 
in returning to the States, where he was arrested by order of the U.S. Government, 
and his followers disbanded. 

7 he trial of the Fenian prisoners took place in Toronto in October following. 
Many were discharged, but true bills were found against a large number, and several 
were convicted, and sentenced to death ; but their sentences were afterwards com 
muted by the Queen to imprisonment for a period in the Provincial Penitentiary. 

But the lesson had been a useful one to Canadians. The great expense to which 
the Fenians had put their country, and their wanton acts of robbery and cruelty, 
incensed our people, and confirmed their resolution not to be caught again unpre 
pared. The next two or three years, consequently, the Volunteer companies, raised 
in different parts of the Dominion, were thoroughly drilled and exercised in target 
practice, till every company, when occasion required, could turn out a full complement 
of sharp shooters. 

In 1870 the Fenians, encouraged, no doubt, by their previous pleasant sojourn 
in the Eastern Townships, again paid us a visit. As before, also, no one knew they 
were coming till they were near the border. They assembled in a large body in the 
town of Franklin, Vt., and intended to enter Canada by the road leading to St. 
Armand East, on which they had formerly encamped. Although no Volunteer com 
panies were just at hand, the telegraph had conveyed the news of their approach, and 
before they reached the Line, our Volunteers were hastening from every point of the 
compass to meet them. 

The road enters the Province at this point by a somewhat lengthy and gradual 
descent, at the foot of which is a brook of considerable size, then several rods of 
comparatively level road which soon crosses the slope of a hill. On the left of the 
road, coming from the south, the hill rises to quite an altitude, and, at that time, part 
of its summit, which is broad and uneven, was partially covered with a grove of large 
trees, while its southern slope, towards Vermont, contains several huge boulders, 
affording admirable breastworks which our men were not slow in utilizing. This is 
known as Eccles Hill ; and on the day in question, about sixty members of the 
Home Guard, -who lived in that section, and who comprised leading farmers, mer 
chants and business men of the locality, took possession of the hill. Col. Asa 
Westover, an influential and intelligent farmer, who lived contiguous, usually com- 


manded the Home Guard, but on this occasion, all placed themselves under the 
command of Col. Brown Chamberlain, one of the proprietors and editors of the 
Montreal Gazette, who had received information of the intention of the Fenians, and 
hastened to the defence of his former home and friends. 

On the same side of the road that the Home Guards occupied, a little more than 
half a mile distant on the Vermont side, stood at that time the house of a Mr. Rhicard. 
In the road in front of this house, the Fenian general drew up his men in two columns, 
and ordering them to cross the line on the double quick, and obtain possession of 
Eccles Hill, he withdrew to the house of Rhicard, ascended the stairs, and prepared to 
observe with his field-glass from a chamber window, the result of his orders. Rhicard, 
who was born and reared in Canada, promptly followed him, and ordered him from 
his house. " You have brought these poor fellows here," he said, " to invade Canada 
without any cause, and now, instead of facing the danger with them, you come back 
and seek refuge in my house. You cannot stay here ;"and the General of the " Army 
of Ireland " walked out. 

Another incident, related by an eye-witness, deserves notice. Before the general 
in command had formed his men to cross the Line, one of his captains, a soldierly- 
looking man, approached him and addressed him thus : 

" General, you have deceived us. You said we were to meet a regular army 
and here I see no enemy. I claim to be a soldier ; as you know, I have been in many 
engagements, and I do not shrink from danger, but I have not yet sunk so low as to 
make war on women or children or defenceless farmers. I tender you my sword ! " 
handing him which, he jumped into a buggy near at hand, in which a man was sitting, 
and drove off. 

The incident shows that there were some men among the Fenians, and there is 
no doubt that many others felt that they had been deceived. 

The Fenians, according to instructions, went down the decline on the double 
quick, crossed the bridge, and still went on, without hearing even the report of a 
pistol to warn them of any obstacle to their triumphant entrance into the fair fields 
of the Eastern Townships. They crossed the line, when lo ! from the summit and side 
of the hill before them, a sharp and loud report and the messengers of death fell rapidly 
among them. They halted and returned the fire ; but they might as well have fired 
at the moon, trees and rocks being the only enemy in vie\v. 

Soon came another volley, and then another, and by this time the valor of the 
" Army of Ireland " was on the wane. " Discretion is the better part of valor," and 
Ireland might take care of herself; they were not going to stand longer on the road 
to be shot at, and taking their wounded and dead, with the exception of one poor 
fellow, who was left in the road, all, save a few who sought shelter beneath the bridge, 
made a rapid movement toward Vermont. 

The second Fenian raid into St. Armand was ended. One of the Fenians, on 
getting back out of rifle range, remarked to the bystanders who had followed to 
witness the " Invasion," that he had been in several engagements in the great 


Rebellion, but had never been in one where the bullets fell faster than they did 
from Eccles Hill. Well might he so remark, as every man on the Canadian side was a 

crack shot. 

The writer with a friend drove on the battle ground that day, but the firing had 
ceased. With a glass we could see distinctly two Fenians who had been shot one 
lying in the road and another in the field in the rear of Rhicard s house, where he 
was shot while running across the field. 

Several reporters of the New York papers were present, and many companies 
of Volunteers had now arrived, and others were constantly coming, till orders were 

given them to return. 

It was never known what the casualties among the Fenians were during this raid, 
as they carried away their wounded, some of whom died subsequently. It is also 
stated that they carried away some who were killed. 

Toward nightfall, our Volunteers buried the Fenian who was shot on the 
Canadian side. He was a young fellow, and the next day his father and mother 
arrived, nearly heart-broken, from their home in Burlington, Vt.. and took back with 
them his remains. They had made every effort to dissuade him from coming to 
Canada, but without avail. 

In March, 1866, the nth Battalion, being called out on account of an anticipated 
Fenian invasion, assembled at St. Andrews ; Companies i and 7 were sent to Ottawa ; 
2 and 5 to Lacolle. As the other companies were not properly officered, having been 
newly re-organized, they remained at St. Andrews. 

The companies that were ordered to Ottawa rode up in sleighs, and remained 
there a month ; on their return in April, they went to Prescott, where special cars 
were to meet them. As they were boarding the two cars, they noticed eight men- 
strangers occupying seats in one of them. As the cars were designed specially 
for the Volunteers, some one objected to taking other passengers, but the strangers 
maintained their seats, and expressed their determination to do so till they had 
reached their destination. 

The cars went on to Cornwall, when, on arriving there, to the surprise of the 
Volunteers, their two cars were quickly surrounded by soldiers of the Prescott Bat 

The civil authorities at Cornwall had received a telegram from Toronto, inform 
ing them that there were Fenians on the train. The Mayor and Sheriff of Cornwall, 
therefore, visited the train, and informed Capt. McDonald of the telegram. Believing 
that the eight strangers must be the Fenians referred to, he stationed Sergts. Thomas 
Lamb and Timothy Fitzgerald at one door of the car, Martin Weighttnan and 
another man of his company, at the other door, with strict orders to let no one enter 
or pass out. The Sheriff and one,or two others were soon admitted, and the strangers 

much to their astonishment and chagrin were arrested on the charge of being 

Fenian spie s. 

They loudly disclaimed any connection with the Fenian Order, or knowledge 


D / 

of it, but on being searched, every one was found to be armed with two revolvers 
and their valises were packed with ammunition and cartridges. They finally a 
knowledged themselves Fenians, and were marched off in irons to CornwaU Ml 
Care was taken by the officers engaged in the arrest to conceal the matter, as fa as 
possible from the Volunteers, being apprehensive of violence to the prisoners such 
was the hatred borne toward Fenians by the Volunteers. These, it is said we re the 
first Fenian prisoners taken in Canada, but they afterwards escaped from jail 

In June, 1866, the Battalion was again called out, and the companies arrived at 

boaf I r S A n f K 7 eVening ThC f 1IOWing M nday nf S ht > th ^ took - facial 
boat to St. Anns, and the next day went to Cornwall, from which place they were 

reTumed "** ^^ " * UC 

About the first of August, 1866, two companies, i and 4, which were formed 
om Volunteers from all the companies of the Battalion, went to Cornwall to relieve 
two companies of Prescott Volunteers, that for some time had been stationed there 
eHef companies were there till November. 

In April, 1870, the Battalion was again called to St. Andrews, and from that 
TownshiT ltrCa1 WhCre ^^ WCre deSpatched t0 different P arts of the Eastern 

In the month of May following, they were once more called together at St 
Andrews but many of the officers and men being absent to aid in suppressing the first 
toon, the companies were not in proper condition to be sent out Col 
Wolsey, who was then captain of the Prince Consort Rifle Brigade, came to drill them 
WCK Vei " e Pr6pared the tr Uble in the Northwest ha ^ subsided, and they 

A rifle match was formed in connection with the Battalion, several years aeo 
It he d I annually at St. Andrews, and receives for prizes a grant from Governm?m 
$50 yearly, and this is increased to $120 by private subscriptions These 
matches are always well attended, and have been the means of developing many 
young men into crack shots. There are six different matches : the < Nursery match 
President V Vice-President s," Military," "Association," and < Extra-Ser e " 
for each of which there is a special prize. 


James B. Gushing. 

William Hoy. George B< Mardn 

Cap tains. 

John Pollock. Albert E. Hodgson . Henry Jekyll. 

Thomas Weightman. John Rogers. William Williamson. 

Geo. Dunbar Walker. William Gurd. j ohn Earle 




John McMartin. William Watchorn. Isaiah Bows. 

Lemuel Berron. Samuel F, Smith. Robert Evans. 

2nd Lieutcnanh. 

Abr. Watchorn. Andrew Rathwell. Osmond Le Roy. 

John A. Morrison. Walter A. Brown. F. Gushing. 
Adley Shirritt. B. J. Williamson. 

Paymaster. Adjutant. 
Thomas Lamb. William Williamson. 

Quarter Master. Surgeon. 

William Pollock. Wm. H. Mayrand, M.D. 



The history of education in Argenteuil begins with the struggles of the first 
settlers in the county. All efforts to provide an education amongst the early inhabit 
ants were, as in all other parts of Canada at that time, purely voluntary. When a 
number of inhabitants felt the need of a school, a subscription list was opened, for 
the purpose of raising sufficient means wherewith to pay the salary of some person 
who should be selected to conduct the proposed school. Such school was often held 
in the homes of some of the people, who gave the use of a part of their house as a 
contribution for the support of education. Another form of assistance was the prac 
tice of boarding the teacher for a period in turn, according to the number of pupils 
the person sent to the school. Still another plan of supporting the school was by 
supplying wood for heating the school room. There were also other ways of contri 
buting to its maintenance. Instead of paying cash, subscriptions were often paid in 
produce, especially when the teacher was a householder with a family. There was 
always a part of the salary paid in cash. In this way an exchange of services 
was made, and while the pupils oji the one hand received an education, the teacher 
on the other hand obtained a living, which is about all those who become teachers 
receive at any time. Under such circumstances the continuance of a school was 
very uncertain and irregular, but such was the practice which obtained for many 
years, until a system of education was provided by government. 

In these early days there were no diplomas to guide in the selection of a teacher, 
yet in most cases a person could be found who had sufficient education to conduct 
the school. Such persons knew little of the methods of teaching, and often adopted 
inferior methods, yet many of their pupils were successful in study, and later, in their 
life s occupation. 

The subjects taught in these early schools to which most attention was paid 



were reading, writing and arithmetic. Geography and grammar were taught, the 
former without maps, the latter as a series of rules of speech and composition, a prac 
tice too common at the present time. 

In these days of which we write, it was quite necessary that the teacher should 
be able to rule the school in every respect, since there were no school laws and no 
authorities to whom the teacher could appeal for assistance. Hence, we find that 
as there were many difficulties hard to overcome, especially in the discipline of the 
school, most of the teachers were masters, who are fittingly described by Goldsmith, 
when he writes of the master of Lissoy, thus : 

" A man severe he was, and stern to view, 

" I knew him well and every truant knew ; 

: Wei 1 had the boding tremblers learned to trace 

" The day s disasters in his morning face ; 

" Full well they laughed with counterfeited glee 

" At all his jokeSj for many a joke had he ; 

" Full well the busy whisper, circling round, 

" Conveyed the dismal tidings, when he frowned ; 

Yet he was kind, or if severe in aught, 

" The love he bore to learning was in fault." 

The experience of many of these men was very difficult and trying, and they are 
most properly characterized by the last two lines of the above quotation. The build 
ings provided for school purposes were often small, cold, unhealthy, and poorly pro 
vided with furniture and appliances for teaching ; nevertheless, much of the work 
done was noted for thoroughness. 

This condition of things, however, gradually improved, and was finally replaced 
in 1829 by a voluntary system of education. Under this system a community which 
desired a school had to provide a suitable building for school purposes, and had to 
pay a fee of admittance for each pupil attending the school, while the Government 
paid the teacher directly, upon the joint certificate of the clergy and the member for 
the county. 

This system was abolished in 1841, and the present educational system estab 
lished, whereby taxes are imposed for the support of education, while the Government 
expends annually a large sum of money, paid to schools in proportion to the latest 
census returns. By the system of 1841, all teachers were to be examined and certi 
fied, and although such test of scholarship was but simple at first, the examination 
for diplomas at present is a fair test of proficiency in the work prescribed. Much 
opposition was offered to the introduction of the new school system, chiefly owing to 
the taxation, and in some of the municipalities considerable physical force and threats 
were used to prevent the establishment of public schools. The better cause pre 
vailed, however, and public schools have for many years been in operation in each 
township of the county. 

Some of these schools in the more populous parts are well attended, and accomplish 


good work ; others in less favorable parts are not so well attended, yet the work of 
The less favored school is often equal to those which have greater advantages. One of 
the great hindrances in the establishment of an elementary school system in our pr 
vince was the difference amongst the people in race, language and religion, 
efforts were made to devise a suitable system, but none succeeded until 1841, when 
the present system was established, giving to Protestants and Roman Catholics ahk. 
the right to provide an education for their children. Thus we have what may be 
called a Dual System of education and two classes of elementary schools. For many 
years in the earlier days of the country s history, the inhabitants were entirely Eng 
lish-speaking, but for some years past the remaining portions of the county have been 
occupied by people of French origin, and thus we have both kinds of schools estab 
lished. There are at the present time 19 Protestant school municipalities, containing 
60 elementary schools, and 13 Roman Catholic municipalities containing 18 elemen 
tary schools. The total number of schools therefore is 78, while the total enrollment 
of pupils last year (1894) was 3,403, giving an average of 43 to each school. The 
total value of the school buildings of the county is estimated at $64,790, while the total 
assessment of taxable property is $1,903,624. The amount of taxes collected in 1894 
was $16,576, to which must be added the Government grant of $2,631, making the 
total cost of education $19,207. 

The average salary of elementary teachers in English schools is placed at ,131, 
and those of the French schools at $127 per year. Of the teachers in the elementary 
schools, 6 were without diplomas, 2 being in the English schools, and 4 in the 
French. Such is a brief outline of the efforts which led to the establishment of our 
elementary schools supported by public contributions and Government aid. 


Less than a century ago, the ancestors of the present inhabitants of Argenteuil 
were chiefly beyond the sea. Bravery and determination are qualities which, at all 
times and in all nations, have deservedly been admired, but usually they are so as 
sociated with war, or rendered conspicuous by impending danger or serious calamity, 
that we are apt to disregard their presence in the peaceful pursuits of life. The Scotch 
are proverbially a brave people ; their deeds of valor have been commemorated 
sculpture, history and song. No more striking examples of heroism are recorded than 
those of Scotia s sons, when they gathered to repel Edward s invading hosts and 
rescue their country from a foreign yoke. 

From that to the present time, the martial glory of Scotland has not been 
eclipsed. The annals of a thousand battles fought in the wide domain of the British 
Empire attest the stoicism with which Scottish clans have marched to death to 
uphold the prestige of St. George s cross. 

And have the sons of Erin no share in martial fame ? Are there no fields whereon 
Irish valor has vied with English and Scottish prowess to sustain the glory of Britain s 


flag ? Every British engagement, from the days of Cromwell to the present, refutes 
the imputation. Side by side, in India, Afghanistan, the Crimea and Egypt, have 
Scotch and Irish soldiers with equal bravery marched to victory or defeat. 

Was the spirit of these men wanting in those of their countrymen who crossed 
the ocean to become pioneers in the wilderness of this distant and strange land ? Did 
it require no bravery, determination or self-denial to sever the dearest associations> 
and leave for ever the home of their fathers, to engage in new struggles in foreign 
wilds ? Was there no act of heroism in all this, which would compare with that of 
their brethren, who had volunteered to fight the battles of their country ? 

Let us reflect. A sea voyage in those days was widely different from what it is 
in 1895. From two to three months was the time required for a sailing vessel to cross 
the Atlantic, and those vessels were but poorly constructed, compared with the 
staunch steamers of to-day, to resist the shock of the billows and storms of the deep 
During all this time, the hapless emigrant had naught to engage his mind but the 
sorrowful recollection of the loved ones and scenes left behind ; naught to attract his 
eye but the dreary waste of waters around, which became more and more mono 
tonous as day succeeded day. 

And when, at last, weary and dispirited from his long voyage, he reached port, 
a week or more was required for the conveyance of himself and family to the cabin o 1 " 
a friendly countryman contiguous to the wilderness, where he was to pitch his 
tent, and, doubtless, remain for life. Here he leaves his family till he can erect a 
cabin on his own land, or take steps to secure a place that he can call his own. But 
what a change from the comforts and appearance of an old and populous country to 
that presented in the wilderness! Comforts of almost every kind were wanting. But 
what seems to us of the present as the greatest impediment to the happiness of the 
emigrant was his total ignorance of the work it was necessary to do his destitution 
of the knowledge on which all his future success depended. Everything had to be 
learned, and comforts unless he had money he was obliged to forego. As very 
few had money, their lives, for many years, were a period of privation, and when we 
know that hundreds of these emigrants chiefly Scotch, but many Irish endured all 
this privation with fortitude ; that year after year, through tropic heat and arctic cold, 
they persisted in their endeavors to subdue the forest and transform the land they 
occupied into productive fields, we can but regard it as a display of bravery and 
determination of a most exalted character. 

It was the same spirit which animated their ancestors to chivalrous deeds a 
Bannockburn, and at a modern date compassed the downfall of Sebastopol and the 
relief of Lucknow. Indeed, many of the pioneers of Argenteuil, as will be seen on 
succeeding pages, were battle-scarred veterans, who had won laurels in India, in the 
Peninsular war, or on the field of Waterloo. 

Argenteuil, the legapy which they bequeathed to their descendants, is the object 
of our present survey. 

Though distant from the seaboard, her frontage upon one of the broadest and 


grandest rivers upon the continent brings her into easy communication with the 
chief cities of the Province and the markets of the world. Two railways now cross 
ing broad sections of her territory increase still further her commercial facilities, 
and bring together the people of districts that were remote. 

The strength and fertility of her soil compensate in part for the roughness of 
her exterior, while the beauty of her scenery is a scource of wealth more lasting 
than that of the mines and the productive plains of the West. The marvellous beauty 
of her inland lakes, the picturesqueness of her mountains, the wild gorges and water 
falls of her rivers, are but in the infancy of their attraction. When they are better 
known, and the facilities for reaching them are improved, they will form a permanent 
magnet for visitors the mountains will be dotted with villas, and the lakes with skiffs 

and yachts. 

Though Argenteuil has some good grain-growing sections, and usually produces 
good crops of oats, corn and potatoes, it is evidently a country better adapted to 
dairying and stock-raising than to other purposes. 

She has cheese factories and creameries, the produce of which holds fair rank with 
any in the Province. Her cattle, sheep and horses are of the best, and the annual 
fairs which are held at Lachute, the chef-lieu of the county, exhibit a variety and 
quality of animals, as well as farm products of all kinds, that would be a credit to 
any agricultural district. 

The inhabitants of Argenteuil still retain the prominent characteristics of the 
races whence they sprang thrift, honesty and hospitality forming striking features in 
their character, which a stranger will not fail to observe. The farmer of Argenteuil 
is determined to live within his means, consequently there is but little, either about 
his home surroundings, his wearing apparel, or his travelling equipage, that savors 
of a love of display or extravagance in the use of money. If, now and then, one is 
in the enjoyment of an expensive dwelling or a fine carriage, it is conclusive evidence 
that he has been blesssed with fortune or shrewdness above his neighbors, and that 
what he enjoys is paid for. It is not exaggeration to say that all, or nearly all, are 
in comfortable circumstances, far better than the inhabitants of some sections of the 
Province where there is more outward display of wealth. Honest dealing, and a 
desire to observe the Golden Rule of doing as they would that others should do to 
them, is a prevalent trait. Hospitality is a quality found in every household. Into 
whatever family the stranger enters, he is welcome at the board, and a refusal 
to partake of refreshment, which is immediately proffered, is very likely to be 
attributed to fastidiousness or to want of geniality. However cautious and exacting 
our subject may be in making a bargain, he never wants sympathy for the needy or 
afflicted; and let him once become assured that a petitioner for help is deserving, 
assistance is never delayed. An additional quality of the inhabitants of Argenteuil 
is the love of their homes and their native land. 

It may be a knowledge of the alacrity with which their fathers responded to the 
call to arms in 1812, or the eagerness with which they rallied to the loyal standard 


in 1837, and their frantic rush to arms to preserve their hearth-stones from Fenian 
touch, yet one cannot resist the impression, that a patriotic class is that which inhabits 
the hills and valleys of Argenteuil a danger menacing their homes and freedom would 
call forth a class of patriots as brave as ever responded to the call of Libsrty. 
" Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, 

A breath can make them, as a breath has made ; 

But a bold peasantry their country s pride 

When once destroyed can never be supplied." 

While the yeomanry of Argenteuil are brave, hospitable, moral and industrious, 
a want of facilities for education in past years shows too plainly its baneful effect, 
especially in a few secluded rural districts ; but the present encouragement given to 
schools will preserve the rising generation from the bane of illiteracy. 

While speaking of the inhabitants of the County, we should not omit notice of 
the French, who, through constant increase during recent years, have become no 
inconsiderable part of the population. It is generally conceded that the habitant 
is a good citizen. 

He is simple in his habits, plodding and industrious, with little ambition save 
to supply the immediate needs of his family and to be regular in his attendance at 
his church. 

Of his brethren who possess a little more education or ambition, many develop 
into able business men, and become prominent farmers, shrewd speculators or man 
ufacturers. Many embark with success in commercial life, and become popular 
through their affability and the courtesy with which they supply the wants of their 
customers. Another class who fill the higher positions of life public offices or 
professions are those who consider and discuss the social and political problems of 
the day, and desire the progress of their race. The representative of the latter 
class, like the natives of his mother-land, is proud-spirited. If the situation of his 
countrymen in Canada is subordinate, he knows that it is an exception to the parental 

stock he springs from a land that acknowledges no superior. If piqued as he 

sometimes is at Anglo-Saxon boasts, he consoles himself with a glance at the fields 
whereon the cross of St. George has bowed before \\-\Qfleur dc. Us of St. Denis. 

Whatever chagrin he may feel at the recollection of Quebec is dispelled by a 
longer flight of memory to the battle of Hastings. The Englishman may sing the 
songs and boast the exploits of Merrie England, but the Frenchman has equal com 
fort in the deeds and dilties of La Belle France. 



A remarkable feature of the Scotch settlers of the county was the distinct sep 
aration of the two races : the /{inlanders settling on the banks of the Ottawa 
river and around St. Andrews, while the Laplanders settled at and around Lachute, 
where for years the names of the Barrens, Doigs, Drennans and Buchanans, together 


with the McOuats, McKimmies, McGregors and McClures, and a host of other equally 
worthy names, are remembered as household words. 

The early settlers in that part of the county, before the arrival of the Scotch, 
had very little knowledge of farming, their chief dependence for a living being in 
the manufacture and sale of potash ; but when the timber was all cut off their farms, of 
course, the supply of material was exhausted, and then they had to pay more attention 
to their farms ; but as the soil was of a light, sandy nature, and their facilities for 
cultivating it very few and of the most primitive character, they had uphill work. 
Their only implement in the shape of a plough, during the first and second decades of 
this century, was very properly called the "hog plough," which, as its name indi 
cated, was not conducive to a successful course of farming, and in a short time their 
farms were completely worn out and exhausted. 

About that time, a few Scotch emigrants came to the place, and finding that farms 
could be bought cheap from these men who were glad to get rid of them at any 
price, secured their own, and wrote for their friends to come, and in a short time a 
small colony of thrifty, industrious farmers was established, who brought not only 
knowledge of the. best system of agriculture known and practised in the Lothians, 
which even at that time was considered the best in the United Kingdom, but who 
also brought the best and most improved agricultural implements, and also the best 
tradesmen, representing the different handicrafts required in a new country, and 
being careful and frugal, as well as of the most industrious habits, a marked change 
was soon visible in the appearance of the country, and in a short time the " desert 
rejoiced and blossomed as the rose." 

In addition to all these worldly possessions and thrifty habits which they brought 
from their native land, they also brought the love and veneration for their religious 
institutions and privileges in which they had been nurtured and brought up. The 
remembrance of those blissful associations, with which they had been so familiar, 
particularly in the rest and observance of the Sabbath, was something they were very 
thankful for, as a Scottish Sabbath, as it was known to them, was a day of rest and 
gladness, a day wherein man held converse with his Maker, free from worldly cares 
and anxieties ; and as they wended their way to the Kirk, which to them was the very 
gate of heaven, and the morning psalm went up in a grand, slow surge, perhaps to the 
tune of " Elgin " or "Dundee" or plaintive " Martyrs, worthy of the name," there 
was a sense of hallowed days in the very air, and in the words of the Psalmist they 
could say, " I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go into the house of the 


In their new homes they had to forego these pleasures for a time ; Zion was not 
forgotten, and in due lime they had the extreme pleasure and satisfaction of having 
their religious privileges as they were wont to have them in their native land. Many 
a time, no doubt, their hearts ached with a home sickness and longing, as they listened 
to the words of a simple ballad written by one of their own poets, " O ! why left I my 
hame ? " one of the most plaintive and pathetic ballads in the Scottish dialect, begin- 


11 ing with a wail in the minor key, in which the home life, the family and social rela 
tions are bemoaned, and closing with a wild, weird burst of sorrow, in which their 
religious privileges are lamented. The following story, which was published many 
years ago in one of the leading Scottish journals, illustrates the power of music and 
the effect it has on the Scottish peasant : 

An emigrant vessel lying at the port of Leith, bound for Australia, was visited 
before sailing by one of these ballad singers, and the above-named simple ditty was 
sung as only could be sung by one of these singers, and the result was, that in a 
short time the greater part of these emigrants were weeping and wailing at the thought 
of leaving their native land, and it was only that better counsefs prevailed, or they 
would have deserted the vessel, their feelings were so wrought upon by this simple but 
touching song. 

Scotland is famed for a class of national airs of a peculiar style and structure, 
and the martial music possesses a wild, spirited, strongly marked expression of char 
acter, which has often turned the tide of victory on many a bloody field of battle. 

Some of the descendants of the Scotch farmers are living in comfort and afflu 
ence on the old homesteads, others are occupying positions of trust and responsibility 
in different parts of the Dominion, while others have left home and friends and native 
land to carry the glad tidings of salvation to heathen lands, and it does not require 
a great stretch of imagination to connect these devoted workers, who have given their 
lives to spend and be spent in the Master s service, with the religious training of their 
forefathers and their love of the Sabbath and Gospel ordinances. 

" If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call 
" the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord honorable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own 
" ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words, then shalt thou delight 
" thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and feed 
" thee with the heritage of Jacob, thy father, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." 

Mr. Dewar also pays the following compliment to the French : 

A tradition exists, which, in the main, is supported by history, that Argenteuil was 
chosen as the trysting place or re/it/ez-roi/s of American emissaries (or Bostonnais. as 
they were called by the French Canadians), who endeavored to fan the flame of dis 
content among the French habitants, with a view of helping the American nation in 
their subjugation of Canada. 

They did not succeed in their mission, especially in the rural districts, as the 
Indians remained firm in their allegiance to the British, and the French Canadians, 
to their honor be it narrated, remained equally firm and true, as was witnessed a 
few years afterwards, during the war of 1812-14, when the flower of their best families 
withstood and repelled with great loss, the invaders of the Province at Chateauguay 
and Chrysler s Farm. On this subject, the Archivist s report for 1888 says : 

" But the appeals (of these emissaries) to the better class of French Canadians 
"had little effect, as is strikingly shown by the list sent by Carleton to Lord Geo 
"Germain on the Qth May, 1777, in which there does not appear the name of one 


"French Canadian. Those of that nationality who took part with the Bostonnais 
" were of the lower class in the rural settlements." 

The term " Bastonnais " seems to be a corruption of the word Bostonnais, as 
Arnold s expedition was known to have started from Boston, and the corruption has 
extended to our day, for up to the last forty years, in speaking to old French Cana 
dians in reference to the American invasion, they would invariably designate it as 
" la guerre des Bastonnais." We like these national solecisms, and we have retained 
this one. 


On the isth of June, 1682, a promise of a grant of this fief to Sieur Chas. Jos. 
D Aillebout was signed at Quebec by Count de Frontenac, Governor of New France. 
The grant was to include "a tract of land lying on the north side of the Ottawa, 
extending from the foot of the Long Sault two leagues towards Montreal, and four 
leagues back from the Ottawa, including all the islands, points and sand-bars opposite 
of which the island named Carillon forms a part." 

In 1697, Sieur D Aillebout and his wife, Catherine Le Gardeur, sold the grant 
to their son, Pierre D Aillebout Sieur d Argenteuil. The latter in 1725 took the oath 
of fealty, and fyled the promise of Count de Frontenac. The heirs of Louise Denis, 
widow of Pierre D Aillebout Sieur d Argenteuil, sold this fief to Louise Panet, who 
took the usual oath in 1781. In 1800 Panet sold to Major Murray, who sold to 
Sir John Johnson in 1814, and the only Seigniorial claim against Argenteuil now 
existing is held by his heirs. 

This Seigniory was erected into a parish by proclamation of roth May, 1822. 
The following is a description of the Seigniory copied from Bouchette s Topo 
graphy of Canada published in 1815 : 

" The Seigniory of Argenteuil is on the north bank of the Ottawa, in the county 
of York. It adjoins the seigniory of the Lac des Deux Montagues on the eastward, 
the township of Chatham on the westward, and a tract of waste Crown lands on the 
northward; its front extends two leagues along the river, by four in depth. It was 
granted yth March, 1725, to Mons. D Aillebout. The present proprietor is Sir John 
Johnson, Bart. Perhaps through all the upper part of the district of Montreal, no 
tract of equal extent will be found of greater fertility, or possessing more capabilities 
of being converted, within a few years, into a valuable property. The land is luxur 
iantly rich in nearly every part, while the different species of soils are so well varied 
as to afford undeniable situations for raising abundant crops of every kind. The 
lower part bordering on the Ottawa is tolerably well cleared of wood ; there are 
large patches of fine meadows and pastures ; from hence the ground rises with a 
gradual ascent towards the rear. In the back parts the woods run to a great extent, 
and yield timber of the different kinds of first-rate size and goodness, which hitherto 
have been very little thinned by the labors of the woodman. The Riviere du Nord 


crosses the upper part of the Seigniory in a direction from east to west, discharging 
itself into the Ottawa, about four miles below the great falls, and nearly half way 
between the lateral boundaries ; it is navigable as high up as the first mill a distance 
of three miles. There is a small stream called Riviere Rouge, running in the same 
direction across the lower part of the grant as the Riviere du Nord, and falling into 
the navigable part of the latter. The settlements that are already formed in Argen- 
teuil hardly amount to a third part of the whole ; the remainder, however, presents 
many temptations to agricultural speculation. Of the present concessions, some are 
situated on the bank of the Ottawa, where they seem to be the most numerous as 
well as the best cultivated ; others on the Riviere Rouge, in a range between it and 
Riviere du Nord, and along both banks of the latter ; all showing strong indications 
of a thriving industry in their occupiers. There are two grist mills, two saw mills 
and a paper mill, the only one, I believe, in the province where a large manufacture 
of paper in all its different qualities is carried on with much success, under the 
direction of the proprietor, Mr. Brown of Montreal Not far below this mill is a 
good bridge, over which the main road to the township of Chatham and the upper 
townships upon the Ottawa leads. On the left bank of the Riviere du Nord, upon a 
point of land near its mouth, is very pleasantly situated the residence of Major 
Murray, formerly owner of the Seigniory ; this stream and the bays of the Ottawa 
that indent the front abound with a great variety of excellent fish, as do the low 
lands thereabouts with wild fowl and game of several sorts. The island of Carillon, 
three miles long by three-quarters broad, is very good land, but not put to any use ; 
this with a smaller one near it, and another at the entrance of the Riviere du Nord 
are appendages to the grant. If fertility of soil and easy access to water conveyance 
be deemed of influence in the choice of situations wherein to clear and break up 
new lands, probably it will not be easy to select a tract where these advantages are 
better combined than in the Seigniory of Argenteuil." 


Sir John was a son of Sir Wm. Johnson, an officer in one of the King s regi 
ments in the then Province of New York, and who resided at "Johnson Hall," in 
the beautiful valley on the banks of the Mohawk, where he had a large tract of land, 
and where many of his countrymen and others had settled and lived together in 
peace and harmony for many years. Sir William had also received the appointment 
of Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which does not appear to have been much of a 
sinecure, as his letters or despatches are dated from different parts of the country, 
from Johnson Hall to Oswego, Niagara and Lake Champlain, thus showing that he 
travelled extensively. On the breaking out of the troubles which eventually en, 
with the gaining of their independence, many of his neighbors (under his ad\ 


influence, no doubt) refused to join the movement, preferring to sacrifice all they 
possessed, and remain loyal to what they called their king and country and as it 
was impossible to remain neutral, the only alternative was to flee to Canada, which, a 
short time previously, had passed into the hands of the British. 

Arrangements were therefore made by which they were escorted by Indians to 
Oswego, whence they went to different parts of the country. 

I would not have dwelt so long on this subject were it not that I am descended 
from one of these so called U. E. Loyalists, my mother s grandfather, Arch. 
McDeirmid, having left his comfortable home on the Mohawk river, and, after suffer 
ing almost incredible hardships, arrived at Caldvvell s Manor, on Lake Champlain, 
where he had to begin life anew, without deriving any substantial benefit for his 
loyalty to his king and country. 

To Sir Wm. Johnson belongs the honor of capturing Fort Niagara in 1759 and 
on the 8th September, 1760, the whole of Canada was surrendered to the British. 

Sir William has been accused of being the instigator, if not the actual leader, of 
the raid made by Indians on the peaceable inhabitants of the valley, when so many 
were ruthlessly massacred, Indian fashion, and their houses and property destroyed by 
fire. There is no proof whatever, that he was in any way connected with that raid; 
besides, his influence and actionsawere always on the side of clemency and mercy. 
However, it is a well authenticated historical fact, that a raid by Indians and others 
was perpetrated in that place, as above described. There could not have been any 
glory or honor attending it, as Colonel Guy Johnson, St. Claire and Brant all deny 
having any part in it. 

Sir William s intimacy and connection with Mollie Brant, which has furnished 
material for writers of fiction as well as history, may have been an advantage to him 
in his dealings with the Indians, but it "must have been a root of bitterness in his 
own family, as she lived with him as his wife, and was always regarded as such by 
the Indians, and after his death was treated as his relict. (Archivist s Report B. 114- 

As a woman, she had great influence among the different tribes, and one word 
from Jier is more taken notice of by the Five Nations than a thousand from any 
white man without exception. (Ibid.} 

Sir William died in July, 1774, after a few months severe illness, and was much 
and deservedly regretted by all classes, and especially by the British Government, 
who had great confidence in him, both as an officer in the army and in filling the 
important office over the Indians. 

His son. Sir John Johnson, was also an officer in the 28th Regiment of New 
York, and shortly after his father s death was appointed to the position which his late 
father had held, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs a position which he faithfully 
filled for many years, even to the detriment of his own private business. 

He was at one time nominated for Lieut. -Governor of Upper Canada ; and 
Lord Dorchester, in a letter to the Home Secretary, also recommended him, but 
before the letter arrived, Simcoe had been appointed. 


In 1808, he wrote to Mr. Granville, stating that he wished to resign his office of 
Superintendent, and asking that his son, Lieut.-Col. Johnson, be appointed in his 
stead; but the Home Government did not entertain the application, as they consi 
dered Col. Johnson was not sufficiently acquainted with the peculiarities of the 
Indian tribes. It was, therefore, given to Col. Clans, a son-in-law of Sir Wm. John 
son, who had been for some time acting as Deputy Superintendent. It was a reat 
disappointment to Col. Johnson, as his father, Sir William, considered that this 
appointment was to remain in his family. (Ibid, 311-11.) 

About the year 1814, Sir John Johnson purchased the Seigniory of Argenteuil 
from Major Murray, and built the manor house on a beautiful spot on the left bank of 
the North River, near where it flows into the Ottawa. It was built on the same 
model (only of smaller dimensions) as "Johnson Hall," the residence of his father 
on the banks of the Mohawk. In that manor house he resided for several years 
surrounded by comforts and luxuries far in excess of what might be expected in a 
comparatively new country, and was very free and affable in his deportment, and was 
noted for his kind and hospitable treatment to all who sought his acquaintance. 

The < dinner bell " that hung in the belfry of his coach house, and which was 

\ ot summon the family and guests to the spacious dining room, he presented to 

the Rev. Archd. Henderson, who placed it on his church, where it was used to sum 

mon his congregation to worship, but after a few years was taken down and placed in 

the care of the late Guy Richards. 

As he had decided to leave St. Andrews, he appointed an agent to look after 
the business of the Seigniory, and went to Montreal, where he resided until his death 
Tasse, in his life of Philemon Wright, mentions these facts: "In 1774, Sir John 
^ Johnson was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs, a position which his late 
father, Sir Wm. Johnson, had also held. He had won the entire confidence of the 
Indian tribes, and was highly esteemed among them, as was witnessed at the time 
1 of his death in January, 1830, when a great number of Indians went to Montreal to 
|^take part in ^the funeral services which were held in the Anglican Church. An 
Iroquois Indian chief even made an oration in his mother tongue on the virtues 
; | of the deceased. At St. Regis, the Indians, when informed of his death, went 
around the village, uttering cries and lamentations, and the whole population 
followed them in a crowd, giving signs of the greatest sorrow." 

His eldest son, Gordon Johnson, never assumed or inherited the title, as he had, 

i previously, incurred the displeasure of the family, by his marriage with a 

French Canadian woman. After the death of Sir John, the Seigniory came into pos- 

iion of his son, Col. Charles Christopher Johnson, who held it for many years, 

and was succeeded by Capt. Johnson, the present proprietor. 

St, Andrews Parish. 

St Andrews was erected into a Parish in 1822, and at that time it embraced the 
entire Seigniory of Argenteuil. In 1852, the parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil 
was formed, which much to the dissatisfaction of many of the inhabitants of 
Andrews-included considerable more than half the original seigniory, leaving the 
northern boundary of St. Andrews about five miles from the Ottawa instead of 
twelve the distance from this river of its original northern boundary. 

At some time, about or during the fifth decade of the present century, another 
small tract of territory -a mile in width from the Ottawa, and two miles in length 
from the east line of the Seigniory was taken from St. Andrews, and annexed 

to the parish of St. Placide. 

The surface of this parish is somewhat uneven though its diversities are not 
abrupt, nor does it contain any land that is not adapted to cultivation. Its soil is 
good, scenery attractive, and its different sections especially the River Rouge, 
Beech Ridge, and the Lachute Road present many fine, well tilled farms. 

It was here that the first settlers of this County pitched their tents ; indeed, St. 
Andrews, more especially the River Rouge settlement, seems to have been a sort of 
preparatory place for settlers before going elsewhere, the number of those born 
there, or whose ancestors were born there, and who are now settled throughout the 
Dominion being legion. 

It is said, that so little did the first settlers on the Rouge know of 
graphy of the country, or understand the way of economizing space, that m reaching 
the St. Andrew s Mill, for a long time they conveyed their grain to the Ottawa, 
thence by boat to the North River, and up that to the mill. Major Murray, the 
Seignior, happening at this time to visit the settlement, and learning this custom, 
pointed out to them the amount of toil they were needles-sly expending ; and then, 
showing a map of the Seigniory, convinced them that, in a direct course, they were 
about as near the Mill as they were when theyW reached the mouth of the North 
River. After this, they opened a road through the woods to the mill. 


Few, if any, country villages or parishes in the Province are more widely o r 
favorably known than St. Andrews. 

Settled at a comparatively early period, and possessing among its inhabitants 
many of intelligence and refinement, it naturally soon enjoyed a distinction seldom 
attained in the early history of country localities. Many of its business men, also, 
were those who had gained experience and formed an extensive acquaintance in 
other places, and their journeying to and fro na turally helped to extend the fame of 




their thriving village. But not least among the things which contributed to make it 
widely known was its location. Situated near the Ottawa on the North River, which 
is navigable a portion of the season as far as this village for most of the craft which 
ply the larger stream, it is visited by many who, either in the course of business or 
pleasure, sail up and down the Ottawa. When the water in the North River is too 
low to admit the passage of steamers, they stop on the Ottawa at the nearest avail 
able point to St. Andrews. The sail up the North River is extremely pleasant, and 
the passenger who has never before made this journey wonders, when the steamer 
turns from the broad Ottawa towards a forest of willows and alders, whether she is 
about to make a trip overland; but as she soon glides into the smaller stream, he 
finds sufficient interest in observing the various farms that lie along the shore with 
their flocks, herds and diversified crops. Just before reaching the imposing iron 
bridge which spans the stream and connects the east and west sections of the village, 
the steamer glides to her wharf. A half-dozen or more skiffs, drawn up on the stony 
beach on the one hand, and a garden descending to the water s edge on the other, 
contribute, with surrounding objects, to form an attractive picture. 

Back a little on shore, are a fancy dog cart, a newly painted buggy, and a more 
pretentious two-horse carriage, all in readiness with their drivers to receive the two 
demoiselles, petite madame with her two children, and the portly, elderly man, his wife 
and daughter, all of whom are just returning to their homes after a visit to the city. 

Nearer and closer to the edge of the wharf are several habitants, some of whom 
are waiting to convey freight to the freight house, while others have come to carry the 
valises and parcels of lady passengers who reside in the village, while two or three 
are present to drive home the cows and young stock which the portly old gentleman 
has purchased for his country domain. 

Though the quantity of freight landed here by the boat is not quite so extensive 
as the cargo brought by an ocean steamer to one of our city wharves, yet that the 
quantity delivered at St. Andrews is not insignificant is proved by the length of time 
that it takes several active hands to discharge it. But the last article a coop con 
taining a dozen brown Leghorns has been transferred to the wharf, and the gang 
plank is about to be drawn in, when a loud " Halloo " stays proceedings for a little time 
and attracts all eyes shoreward. An express, containing two moderate-sized boxes, 
drives hurriedly to the wharf, a gentleman, evidently a merchant, alights, throws the 
boxes out with no little excitement, and then turns to inform the purser that those 
stupid employees of Smith & Jones have sent him the wrong goods. Scarcely has 
this message been delivered, when another middle-aged merchant, in a smart 
suit, arrives, and desires to know if the hardware he ordered last week from Messrs. 
Dobbs & Ferguson has arrived. On being assured that it has not, he sends a mes 
sage, which is calculated to sharpen the wits of Dobbs & Ferguson, then hurries 

The steamer is soon at right angles with the current, and just as the passenger 
imagines that she is about to butt head foremost into the opposite bank of the river, 
she gracefully swings into mid-channel, and, anon, is once more on the Ottawa. 

7 2 


Such is a scene that may often be witnessed on the arrival of the steamer at St. 
Andrews, an event which is always regarded with pleasure, relieving, as it does, the 
monotony of village life, and affording to the inhabitants for a time a much desired 

That the channel of the North River will some time be deepened, so that it will 
be navigable for steamers the whole season, there is little doubt. But until the pro 
per interests are awakened and the proper capital invested, this work of public 
utility will be unaccomplished. 

It seems strange to us, who know so well the various stages through which a new 
settlement passes before it engages in important manufacturing enterprises, that St. 
Andrews, in the very outset of her history, should have had a paper mill ; yet that such 
is a fact is shown by " Bouchette s Topography of Canada," as well as the testimony 
of many still living, who saw the mill in operation. The following account of this 
manufactory is given by Colin Dewar : 

" The paper mill was started by a company of Americans, who obtained a 30 
years lease from the Seignior for the necessary water power ; but as James Brown 
was the owner of the land where they intended to build the mill, it is quite probable 
he was a partner from the start, as it was always spoken of as Brown s Paper Mill. 
The canal was dug to provide water power, and a dam built across the river from 
the shore on the east side to a point near the foot of the little island, and as a large 
quantity of timber and lumber would be required in the erection of the paper mill, 
they first of all built a saw mill at the head of the canal and extending along the river 
bank, thus giving plenty of room for the piling of the lumber and storing saw logs ; 
and as business increased, the space between the canal and the main road, now occu 
pied by the railway depot, was utilized. The paper mill was built on the site where 
Alex. Dewar s store now stands, and had sufficient water power to drive the machin 
ery required for doing a large business, and employment was given to many girls and 
boys, as well as men. One of the foremen for some time was Mr. G. A. Hooker (father 
of the late Mr. G. A. Hooker), and who was ably assisted by the late William Zearns. 

"These industries continued for several years, and were of great benefit to the 
village, in giving employment to many hands, besides, there was no other saw mill 
nearer than Lachute ; and it was regarded as a public loss, when the business of both 
mills came suddenly to a stop in the spring of 1834, by the dam giving way, owing 
to the high water and ice. During the summer, preparations were made to rebuild it ; 
but as the Seignior protested against it, and threatened all sorts of litigation if per 
sisted in, it was deemed advisable to suspend operations. After two or three years 
cross-firing between them, the trouble ended by the Seignior s making an offer to Mr. 
Brown for the purchase of all his property (which was accepted) ; extending from Lot 
29 to Lachute Road, and from the Beech Ridge lots to Davis line, and including 
both mills and dwellings. Some of the machinery was afterwards used, when the 
River Rouge saw mill was erected." 


Among the very first of the pioneers who settled at St. Andrews were a number of 
Americans. Whether one of them came first and induced the others to follow, or 
whether they came together, it is now impossible to say, but it is quite certain that 
there was very little if any difference in the time of their advent. 

They were Peter Benedict, who arrived in 1799, Benjamin Wales, John Harring 
ton and Elon Lee, who was always known as Captain Lee. All that is known of 
his military career, however, is that he had been a Drum Major in the American 
army during the recent struggle for independence. Two at least of the other 
Americans mentioned above had served in the same army ; and it strikes us, as an 
incident somewhat peculiar, that these men had no sooner seen the object accom 
plished for which they were fighting, than they again sought a home beneath the 
British flag. 

CAPT. LEE bought the lot, and built a hotel on ground now occupied by the 
Congregational Church. He purchased all the land between the village and the 
present Roman Catholic Church, lying between the road to Carillon and the Ottawa. 

His house was quite a rendez-voustoi Americans who desired to escape military 
service during the war of 1812, and it is said that "jolly times " often occurred here 
while they remained. 

Captain Lee had the reputation of being a Christian man, and of keeping a good 
Public House. In the absence of any church building, it was sometimes found con 
venient to hold religious meetings at his house, when he generously opened his rooms 
for the occasion, and otherwise did what he could for the encouragement of 
religion. But, financially, he was not successful his debts having accumulated, after 
a number of years,to an extent that rendered the surrender of his estate into the hands 
of his creditors necessary, and he soon afterwards left the country. 

BENJAMIN WALES, who married Susan, a daughter of Peter Benedict, had also 
been a musician in the American Army. He Was extremely fond of music, and sought 
to encourage its study among the young people of St. Andrews, a number of whom 
he taught vocal music. He was a paper maker by trade, and for a number of years 
was foreman in the paper mill in this village. He was retiring in habit, and has left 
to us the reputation of being an earnest, consistent Christian ; he died in 1836. By 
his marriage with Susan Benedict he had five children Henry, Lemira, Charles, 
Elizabeth and Mary D. In 1839, 28th August, Charles Wales was married to Lcetitia 
Platt, daughter of Nathaniel Hazard Treadwell, Esq., of whom a sketch will be 
found in the history of L Orignal. Mr. Wales, like his father, was a Christian man, 
and his influence was always on the side of morality. He opened a store, where 
his son Charles now trades, and nearly his whole life was given to the mercantile 
pursuit. He was a Justice of the Peace, Commissioner for the trial of small causes, 
and for forty years a Major of Militia. Owing to his position as magistrate, his good 
judgment and pacific disposition, he was often consulted by those in trouble, and his 
advice often resulted in the amicable settlement of disputed accounts and contro 
versies, which otherwise would have ended in serious trouble and litigation. 



In the Rebellion of 1837-38, when there was a great scarcity of money in the 
community, he and A. E. Momnarquette, of Carillon, .sued p rl vate notes -or ,h n 
placers " a they were called-payablc at their respective stores, which being freely 
cu a d in the community, proved at once a great convemence and a blessing. 

Mr Wales died 3 oth May, l8773 and it was said of him :- < The fragrance of 
his memory can never die, and many a man and woman will cherish it, as that 
sympaSg friend and an honest man." Mrs. Wales, who survives him, inheriting 
he characteristics of her ancestors, is in every way a worthy partner o such a man 
and is still active in temperance and all other Christian work. hey h d six child 
ren who grew up,-two sons, Charles Treadwell and Benjamin Nathaniel, and four 
dau hters Margaret Susan, Anna L*titia, Mary Maltbie and Grace Platt Charles 
folow the mercantile business in the store occupied so long by his father, whose 
reputation he well sustains. He was married .irt July 1875, to Martha W. Stowe 
of Sheffield, Conn., who has been an important acquisition to the temperanc, 
Christian workers of St. Andrews. 

Benjamin, the second son of Charles Wales, sen., studied medicine, taking his 
degree at McGill University in 1874- A few years later, he took up his residence 
in Robinson, Que., where he still remains in the enjoyment of an extensive practice. 
He was married I 9 th November, 1878, to Emma T. Osgood, at SawyemUe, Que. 
Margaret S. is married to Thomas Lamb, merchant of St. Andrews. Mary M. 
married Wm. Drysdale, publisher of Montreal, ist January, 1880 She died in 1891, 
lamented by a large circle of friends, her amiability and deeds of kindness and 
volence being widely known. 

Anna L*titia, married to Rev. D. W. Morrison, i S th September, 1881, resides at 

Ormstown, P.O. , , f 

Grace Platt was married 6th February, 1895, to Mr. Kilgour, furniture dealer, o 

Beauharnois, Q. . , 

The descendants of few men have reflected more credit on their fathers 

have those of Chas. Wales, sen., of St. Andrews. 

The following sketches of two more of the American pioneers named at 
have been contributed by Colin Dewar. 

OTTAWA, ;th February, 1894- 

When the American Revolution broke out, Mr. Peter Benedict left his studies 
in Yale College, and entered the Army as orderly sergeant, and went with I 
Montgomery to Canada, to the reduction of St. Johns. Returning to his 
place, he was promoted to the rank of ist Lieutenant in the 3 rd New York 
nental Regiment, and remained some years in the service, but declined further pr 
motion The pension laws of the United States were not as strict then as now n 
regard to the place of abode, as Lieut. Benedict lived in Canada and drew a pensi 



for his services from the U.S. Government up to the time of his death in 1830, and 
afterward his wife drew the pension allowed to officers widows up to the time of 
her death in 1846. 

He was originally from North Salem, N.Y., where all his family were born, but 
came from Burlington, Vr., in the spring of 1800, with his wife and family, consisting 
of three sons and two daughters, and settled on a farm, where he resided till his 
death, aoth May, 1830. He was a man of superior abilities, of a strong, cultivated 
and reflective mind, well qualified to fill any position ; and it was only a short time 
before he was appointed a Justice of the Peace, which office he held for nearly twenty 
years. Of his family, one daughter married Dr. Beach, and the other married Benj. 
Wales ; his two eldest sons died shortly after his arrival. His youngest son, Charles, 
born 22nd October, 1785, lived with him and carried on the work of the farm for 
many years. Having formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. Wales, as 
builders and contractors, they continued for several years to carry on the farm and 
their other work to their mutual advantage. 

Mr. Benedict, on the nth May, 1812, was married to Uamaris C apron, daughter 
of Nathan Capron, of Keene, N.H., and after the birth of their eldest son, George, 
removed to the Bay, on what was known as the last farm in the Seigniory. After 
several years residence there, he removed to St. Andrews, to a property purchased 
from Mr. Nolan, where he resided until his death. He always took an active part 
in all public matters, having held the office of Justice of the Peace for many years, 
and was a Commissioner for the trial of small causes, and for apprehending fraudu 
lent debtors, as well as for administering the oath of allegiance. He was appointed 
arbitrator on a streams case in the Parish of Cote St. Pierre, which proved to be both 
difficult and complicated, but was finally surveyed and adjusted to the satisfaction 
of all concerned. He also took an active part in church matters, and was for many 
years one of the Elders of the Presbyterian Church. He resided in the County for 
72 years, and died on the 3151 May, and his wife on the ist June, 1872, having lived 
together for the long space of over 60 years; and in death they were not divided. 

His family consisted of four sons and three daughters, that lived to grow up. 
His eldest son, George, born 4th July, 1814, was the only one who settled in his 
native place ; he married, i4th February, 1844, Eliza Beattie, daughter of Mr. 
David Beattie of St. Andrews, by whom he had a family of five sons and five 
daughters. He removed from St. Andrews in 1869 to Ogdensburg, N.Y., where he 
died and December, 1892. His three other sons left home, when quite young, and 
settled in the United States, where Peter died in October, 1892. Chas. and Henry 
are still living in New York. His eldest daughter, Susanna, married George G. 
Sharpe in 1842, and died i6th January, 1858, in the 42nd year of her age, leaving a 
family of three sons and two daughters. The eldest and only surviving son, George, 
lives in the State of Nebraska. The eldest daughter married the Rev. Dr. Paterson 
of St. Andrews, and the youngest married Mr. Robert Stewart of Ottawa. 

The following is an extract from a diary kept by Mr. Charles Benedict, of what 


was long remembered as the "cold summer": "Sunday, 1 2th May, 1816, heavy rain 
began to fall, and continued without cessation all night, turning cold, but still raining 
all day Monday. On Tuesday, very cold, with snow squalls, ground almost covered with 
snow. Wednesday, so cold, obliged to wear mitts and great coat ploughing ; heavy 
frost at night. Thursday, rather fine sowed wheat and began planting potatoes ; kept 
cold with hard frost at night up to the 2 Sth, when another cold rain set in. 2 9 th, 
around frozen two or three inches deep ; 3 oth, 3 ist, finished planting corn and pota 
toes ; June 6th, cold with snow ; yth and 8th, cold not abated, ground covered with 
snow, dressed the same as in winter ; cold all through the month ; woods and fields 
turned a pale green ; July ist, frost killed cucumbers, etc., then cold rain set in ; the 
6th, ;th and 8th, very cold, had to put on mitts and overcoat, hoeing potatoes; loth, 
nth, hard frost ; and so on through the greater part of the month." 

It must have been very discouraging for them to go on ploughing and sowing in 
such very unseasonable weather, but they relied upon God s promise " that seed time 
and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night should not cease " 
and the promise was fulfilled by the ingathering of a good average crop. 

There is no record of any such cold season, as above recorded, known in the 
history of Canada since that time. 

JOHN HARRINGTON, sen., was an American by birth, and came to Canada early in 

the first decade of this century, when quite a young man. He married a daughter of 

Mr. Peter Me Arthur of Carillon Hill, and had a family of four sons and five daughters. 

He was a first class millwright and an excellent mechanic, and superintended the 

erection of mills in various parts of the country, and especially those mills erected by 

his son-in-law, D. McLaughlin, at By town and Arnprior. He settled on the farm 

known by his name, and built that large, substantial, brick residence that has stood for 

so many years, and is, to all appearances, as sound as ever. He died about the year 

1846, and his wife about twenty years after. Of his sons, John, the eldest, carried on 

the farm for many years before and after his father s death, and was a pattern of 

-neatness and thrift to all the farmers in the vicinity, and it was a pleasure to walk 

around his large farm, and see the convenient farm buildings, all in good order and 

condition, clean, neat and in good taste. He held many important county and muni 

cipal offices, which he was well qualified to fill. 

William, the next son, left home when quite a young man, went to Montreal, and 
entered a hardware establishment, where, in a short lime, he became a partner, and 
married Miss Laura Seymour, and had a family of one son and four daughters. 
After a time, he left Montreal and took up his abode in St. Andrews, where ^he 
received the appointment from Capt. Johnson as acting agent for the Seigniory, which 
position he filled up to the time of his death a few years ago; his estimable wife died 
a few years previously. 

The other sons, Eric and Armand, also left home early, and began business m 
Arnprior, where they have remained to the present. 

His eldest daughter, Sarah, never married, but kept house for her brother John, 


at the old homestead. She was an excellent woman, an exemplary Christian, a kind 
friend, and charitable to those in need, and her death was sincerely regretted by a 
large circle of friends. The third daughter married Dr. Van Cortlandt, one of the 
leading medical men of the days of old Bytown. The second daughter married 
Daniel McLaughlin, one of the leading lumber manufacturers of his day, and who 
also represented the County of Renfrew, both before and after Confederation. The 
fourth daughter married Nathaniel Burwash, merchant of Arnprior. The youngest 
daughter died in the spring of 1854 after a short illness. Her death was a great 
shock to the family and to her large circle of young friends, 

Of the children of William, his only son, Bernard, as is well known, is one of 
the Professors in McGill College; he is a young man of more than ordinary ability, 
as his position in life fully demonstrates. 

The three eldest daughters died within a few years of each other, and some time 
prior to the death of their parents. 

The youngest daughter, Laura, resides within a short distance of her old home. 

C. D. 

Of those who lived in St. Andrews in the early days of her history, probably no 
one did more for her advancement or was more noted for enterprise than JAMES 
BROWN. He was a Scotchman who had been engaged in the printing business in 
Montreal, where he published a weekly paper called the Canada Courant. In 
1812, after coming to St. Andrews, he organized a company of militia, of which he 
became captain. Among the first, if not the first, of his acts on coming here was to 
purchase the paper mill. He enlarged it, as he did, also, the canal on which it was 
located, built a new saw mill and a new dam across the river, below the old one, just 
at the lower end of the island. Owing to his enterprise, a good many found employ 
ment not only at his mills but in other branches of his business. He purchased five 
lots of land along the North River running northward from the River Rouge, some 
distance along the Lachute road. He also purchased several village lots on the 
opposite side of the river, where he had a house and store both in one building, 
which occupied the site of the present brick house of Mrs. E. Jones. 

Mr. Brown is remembered by many ot the oldest citizens of this section, and all 

iver that he was a clever and an upright man. He was a Justice of the Peace, and 

liseharged the duties of his office in a manner which enhanced the respect which 

he commanded in his varied intercourse with his fellow-men. One of his daughters 

was married to Royal, a son of Moses Davis; another in 1829 to C. H. Castle, 

cashier of the Bank of Montreal. The Earl of Dalhoiisie, who was then Governor of 

the Province, was on a tour to this section to inspect the work on the Grenville 

canal, then in process of construction. Being a friend of Mr. Brown, he cheerfully 

:omphed with his request to him to ba present at the marriage of his daughter, 

which occurred in the house now owned and occupied by Alexander Dewar. A few 


years after this marriage Mr. Brown donated to his son-in-law, Mr. Castle and his 
wife, a lot of land, No. i King s Row, which he himself had purchased in 1809. 

It is said that some regarded Mr. Brown imprudent in pecuniary matters, and 
accused him of extravagance. Whether there was valid ground for this accusation 
or not, it is certain that in his later years he was in much poorer circumstances than 
he was in earlier life. One work, especially, which he performed, was referred to by 
some as proof of his extravagance : this was the building of an expensive stone wall 
around the Island above the grist mill, and another along the Lachute Road on his 
farm. It was his design to make a park of the Island, and with this design, he paid 
out no little money. But from the removal of the trees near the margin, so that the 
wall might be constructed, their roots soon decayed, the water undermined the wall, 
and the whole work was soon destroyed. Mr. Brown left St. Andrews after the 
Rebellion of 1837. 

MOSES DAVIS, from Chesterfield, N.H., was one of the very early settlers here, 
his advent being in 1801. Soon after his arrival, he opened a store, where the shop 
of Daniel Sutherland now stands. Though it would doubtless bear little comparison 
to similar establishments of the present day, yet it contained what the community in 
those days demanded, and, like many another, possibly laid the foundation for a 
broader and more lucrative business. 

That Mr. Davis was a man of enterprise, and one who was ready to see and 
take advantage of an opportunity, is obvious from the way in which he started, and 
engaged in manufactures of which the new settlement stood in need. There being 
no tannery in the place, he opened one, soon after beginning his mercantile venture, 
on a site near the present house of Thomas Fournier, and this he kept in operation 
till 1847. 

Harness making and shoemaking were other industries in which he engaged and 
continued for many years. In 1806, he purchased a lot of ninety acres of land, and 
subsequently added one hundred and fifty more. While these different branches of 
business no doubt repaid him for the trouble, expense, and attention they required, 
they must have been a blessing to many others, especially to those laborers to whom 
they gave employment. 

In 1832, he built the stone house in which his son Theodore now resides. It 
will be recollected that this was the year in which the cholera made such ravages in 
the Province. A man named Pitt, who was employed in the construction of this 
house, in going to his dinner, while crossing the bridge in the village, was seized with 
pain which portended the dread visitor, and at three o clock the same day he was a 
corpse. During the troubles of 1837-38, this house, on account of its size, was se 
lected by the military authorities for a barracks, in which the soldiers were quartered. 
The family of Mr. Davis patriotically granted it for the purpose, and found a tern, 
porary domicile in a smaller house in the village. 

Mr. Davis was for many years a Justice cf the Peace, and a Commissioner for 
the trial of small causes. He was married in April, 1806, to Lurena MacArthur, 


daughter of another pioneer. He died at St. Andrews, 1 2th Dec., 1851, but Mrs. 
Davis survived him nearly thirty years, having lived till i3th June, 1881. They had 
a large family of children, two of whom died in childhood ; six sons and two 
daughters grew up. Three of the former left this section long ago, two at a more 
recent date, while Theodore, the fifth son, remained on the homestead. Nelson, the 
eldest son, served as cornet in the Volunteer Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean, 
during the Rebellion of 1837-38, and, like his comrades, cheerfully performed the 
duties demanded of him during that stormy time. In 1841, he removed to Montreal, 
where for some time he was employed as customs and shipping agent. Crosby, the 
youngest of the family, was for many years engaged in mercantile business in St. 
Andrews. In 1887 he removed to Ottawa, where he still resides, filling a responsi 
ble position in one of the largest establishments in the city. He married Margery, 
daughter of William McEwen, Esq., of River Rouge, St. Andrews. Their only son is 
residing in Chicago, where he is established as a dentist, and is doing an extensive 
and lucrative business. Their second daughter married Mr. Paton, well and favor 
ably known in Montreal in connection with the Y. M. C. A. work, and who is now 
filling the same position in the city of Winnipeg. Two of the daughters reside with 
their parents, and one is at present in Chicago. 

Lurena, the eldest daughter of Moses Davis, married Robert Simpson, of whom 
a sketch is given on a succeeding page. Eliza, her sister, married Joseph Kellogg, 
for a number of years a merchant in 1 Orignal. In 1843, they came to St. Andrews, 
where they lived on a farm till 1857, when they removed to Illinois, where Mr. 
Kellogg died. His widow subsequently moved to Iowa, in which State she still 

Theodore, as stated above, has always remained on the homestead, his unim 
paired physical and mental powers after threescore and ten years of service testify 
ing not only to the healthfulness of the climate in this section, but to the fact that 
temperance, morality and industrious habits are infallible aids to longevity. In the 
late Rebellion, like his elder brother, he also enlisted in the Volunteer Company 
of Cavalry commanded by Capt. McLean. After acting as School Commissioner for 
many years, he accepted the position of secretary-treasurer of the School Board. In 
1845 he married Helen, daughter of Duncan McMartin, a pioneer on the River Rouge, 
They have had eight children, Moses their eldest son is in Montreal, having suc 
ceeded to the business. followed by his uncle, Nelson, that of customs and shipping 
agent. His youngest son is in business in Tacoma, Washington. 

THEODORE DAVJS, a brother of Moses Davis, who came to St. Andrews in 1801, 
must have been here previous to that date, judging from the fact that records refer to 
a survey and proces verbal of St. Andrews, which he made in 1799. But whether or 
not he was a citizen of the place at that date, it is certain that he was at a short 
period subsequently. Being for some years the only surveyor in this section, his 
services were often called in requisition, and possessing an enterprising spirit, he soon 
became an important addition to the business men of the place. 


When steamboats began running to Carillon, they found great difficulty in get 
ting up the rapids at St. Ann s, and to overcome this difficulty, Mr. Davis constructed 
locks at Vaudreuil, which were in use for several years, after which the route was 
changed to the north side of the river, and locks at St. Ann s were built, thus making 
the route more direct. The remains of these old locks at Vaudreuil are still visible. 
Another work of public utility he performed was removing boulders from the Ottawa 
above Carillon, so as to facilitate navigation. He married a daughter of Colonel 
Daniel Robertson, who was the widow of De Hertel, and the mother of Colonel 
De Hertel of St. Andrews. Mr. Davis purchased a lot of land on the west 
side of the North River, and on it erected a two-story house on the site of the present 
residence of Mr. De la Ronde, advocate. He sold this property, not many years 
later, to Guy Richards, and removed to Point Fortune, where, in company with a 
man named Tait, he opened a store. They traded there for a few years, when Mr. 
Davis, having purchased the farm of McRobb in Carillon, now owned by Mr. John 
Kelly, removed thither, and lived here till his death, which occurred in Hull, i6th 
March, 1841, at the age of 63 years. 

The following sketch of other members of the Davis family has been sent to us 

by Colin Dewar : 

* SIMEON DAVIS, with his wife and family of four sons, Roswell, Asher, Lyman 
and Asahel, together with his two brothers, Theodore and Moses, came from Mas 
sachusetts, and settled at St. Andrews in 1801, where he remained for several years. 

" Roswell, the eldest son, married Miss Annie, daughter of Nathan Capron of 
Keene, N.H., by whom he had a family of six sons, viz., Edward, Alfred, Whitcomb, 
Simeon, Roswell and Nathan. About the year 1840, he removed from St. Andrews 
with his family to the Township of Osgoode, which at that time was opened up for 
settlers. He purchased a farm on which he and his wife resided until their death in 
a good old age, about the year 1866. 

" His son Edward, who is now in the 84th year of his age, and in possession of 
all his faculties, can recount many stirring incidents of the early days, and remembers 
quite distinctly when the first steamboat made its appearance at Carillon, and as a 
stage driver on the route between Montreal and Grenville (mentioned in another 
part of this work) has had a varied experience in both summer and winter travel. He 
relates with pride and satisfaction, that he never met with an accident in crossing the 
rivers on bad ice, and although he had to drive through bad roads on dark nights, 
not one of his passengers ever received an injury. In relating this part of his experience, 
which is not given in a spirit of boasting but in that of gratitude to the Father of 
mercies for His watchful care over him, he attributes his part of the success to his 
habits of sobriety, which could not be said of some of his confreres. 

" After his father left St. Andrews, Mr. Davis went up the Ottawa river, and 
engaged in the lumber business for some years, and being of an active, pushing spirit, 
was engaged in several important public works, such as opening up new roads, build 
ing bridges, etc., besides having considerable experience in mining and boating. 


" He married comparatively early in life, and had a family of four sons and one 
daughter, all of whom are married and have families of their own. He has resided for 
the last thirty years at Quio, Province of Quebec, where the greater part of his 
family also reside. 

" About four years ago, a sad misfortune overtook him, in the destruction of his 
house by fire, together with the greater part of his household goods, which was a great 
loss ; but, sad to relate, his wife, who had returned to her room to get, as was sup 
posed, some valuable papers, was prevented by the rapidity of the fire from returning, 
and was not missed, until it was too late to render any assistance. 

" Roswell s third son, Whitcomb, took an active part in suppressing the Rebellion 
of 1837, being a Volunteer in the Lachute Road Company, under Captain John 
Dennison. He marched to Grand Brule with the other Volunteers and Regulars 
under the command of Captain Mayne, of the 24th Regiment, to meet those coming 
from Montreal on the I4th December, 1837. He served in that Company until it was 
disbanded in 1840, when he joined the rest of the family, and settled on a farm near 
his father, where he and his wife brought up a large family of sons and daughters, 
and where he died in July, 1894, aged 77 years. 

" Roswell s other sons are still living in the immediate neighborhood of the old 

" Asher, the second son of Simeon, was brought up to the blacksmithing business, 
which he carried on for several years, at Carillon, where he resided until the death of 
his wife in 1872, when he removed to Trenton, where he died in the year 1880. His 
wife was a Mrs. Cameron, a daughter of Wm. Atkinson, who resided for many years 
at Carillon ; they had no family." 

The following obituary is copied from the Belleville Intelligencer, of March, 


" Lyman Davis died at the residence of his son in Trenton, on the 24th March, 
1884, at the advanced age of 90 years, 2 months and 6 days. 

The subject of this notice was born in Massachusetts, U.S.A., on tne i<;th 
January, 1794. He came with his parents to Lower Canada in 1801, and located at 
St. Andrews in the County of Argenteuil. At the breaking out of the war in 1812-15, 
he was drafted, and served three years. At the expiration of the war, he was dis 
charged with the other Militia. About 1825, he again removed with his parents to the 
village of Hope, where he worked with his father at the blacksmithing trade for three 
years, and at the expiration of that period he removed to that part of the Township 
of Hope now called Port Britton, where he still worked at his trade till 1830, when 
he gave up his business, removed to the Township of Clark, and commenced farming. 
And two years later (in 1832) he married Catherine Babcock, a daughter of \Vm- 
Babcock of Ameliasburg. In 1840, he removed his family to Ameliasburg, 
and continued farming till 1848, whe.i he removed to Trenton, five years before the 


village was incorporated, where he continued to reside till his death. Mr. Davis had 
many warm friends, was very unassuming, and never took an active interest in 
public affairs. 

" He leaves a widow 72 years old, two sons and three daughters to mourn his 
loss, all of whom are comfortably situated. 

" Mr. Davis was a pensioner, and has regularly drawn his pension since the grant 
was made. Thus, one by one, our old veterans pass away." 

In 1804, two brothers named Peter and Duncan Dewar from Glasgow, Scotland, 
made St. Andrews their home, and many of their numerous descendants are still in 
the County of Argenteuil. 

Duncan Dewar, the younger of the two brothers, purchased a hundred acres of 
land which is known at the present time as the Harrington Estate, but believing he 
could add to his income by a modest venture in the mercantile line, he built a store 
on the site of the present store of Mr. La Fond. Not finding this business suited to 
his tastes, however, he sold his stock, and, during the remainder of his lite, confined 
his attention to farming. He was a man much respected, very quiet, and so domes 
tic in his tastes, that he kept aloof from politics and everything calculated to attract 
him away from home or the care of his domestic concerns. He died in 1869, leaving 
six sons, Peter, John, Duncan, Donald, Hugh and Alexander, and two daughters. 
Three of the sons, John, Duncan and Hugh, the only ones who had children, settled 
in St. Andrews. The latter, after living on the homestead till 1856, sold it, and two 
or three years later went to Ottawa, where he still resides. His eldest son, William, 
is manager of the large mercantile establishment of John McDonald & Co. in 
Toronto. John, another son, is book-keeper for an extensive lumber company in the 
same city. 

Mary, one of th? daughters of Mr. Dewar, married JOHN LAMB, foreman in a 
manufactory of Judge Hamilton of Hawkesbury. Possessing considerable ingenuity in 
the way of invention, Mr. Lamb devoted much of his time to this work, and invented 
a water-wheel, which is now in use in various parts of Canada. Afterwards, he became 
the originator of several other machines, which are in popular use. Soon after his 
marriage he removed to Ottawa, where he died in 1894 ; Mrs. Lamb died in 1887. 
They had six children three sons and three daughter. The sons, James B., 
William and John H. Lamb, engaged in tfie occupation followed by their father, and 
seem to have inherited much of his skill at invention. 

Jan> a daughter of Duncan Dewar, sen., married William Kneeshaw, and settled 
on Beech Ridge ; both are deceased. They had one son, Robert, and one daughter, 
Sarh, who now reside in Illinois. 

Alexander, the youngest son of Duncan Dewar, sen., met his death by a sad acci 
dent in the spring of 1837. He and a young man named Abner Rice, who was 
studying for the notarial profession, when together one day, were asked by a citizen 
to aid him in getting a heavy canoe over the mill dam. The water was high, and the 
work was one involving no little risk. They brought the boat down, however, but 


in the act it upset, and Dewar swam lo the shore. Rice clung to the boat and 
endeavoured to right it, but seeing he could not, Dewar jumped in and swam to his 
assistance. It was no easy matter, however, to handle the boat in that boiling caul 
dron, and with the view, no doubt, of getting it into more quiet water, they botli 
clung to the bow. As it glided along with the swift current, it had acquired no little 
momentum by the time it reached the bridge, and the young men being forced against 
the middle pier were both killed. 

John, the eldest son, purchased land in Buckingham, and in company with his 
brother Donald, was preparing for himself a home, when circumstances occurred 
which led him to make his home in St. Andrews. In January, 1836, he was married 
to Elizabeth Wales, and her father dying some months later, her mother prevailed 
on the newly married couple to make their home with her, and take charge of the 
farm. The following obituary published at the time of Mr. Dewar s death, 23rd April, 
1875, expresses the popular sentiment in the vicinity of St. Andrews, and shows that 
the lives of this couple were not spent in vain : 

" Died at St. Andrews, on the 23rd inst., after a few days illness, Mr. John 
Dewar, aged 69 years, the eldest brother of Duncan Dewar, Esq., J.P., of that village, 
leaving a family and a large circle of friends to wrestle with a sorrow, which would 
be infinite if they sorrowed as those who have no hope. 

" Mr. Dewar was converted when a young man, and soon after, while living in 
Buckingham, embraced Baptist views, and was immersed by the Rev. John Edwards, 
sen., the pioneer Baptist of the Ottawa Valley. He married Elizabeth Wales of St. 
Andrews, a lady of great amiability, whose soul was in lively sympathy with his own 
in respect to every good work. About a year after his marriage he removed to St. 
Andrews, where he united with several kindred spirits in forming a Baptist church. 
He was chosen one of the Deacons, and continued faithfully to discharge the duties 
of his office till called by the Captain of his salvation from the field of labour to the 
rest that remaineth for the people of God. 

"Brother Dewar was a man of large heart and warm sympathies, and while he 
loved God supremely, he loved men universally. Abhorring every evil way, he pitied 
evil doers and laboured for their recovery from sin. He was a man of peace, much 
more willing to endure wrong than to do wrong. From the commencement of the 
temperance enterprise, he was a consistent and warm advocate of the cause. He 
has left an afflicted widow, three sons and three daughters, with a large circle of 
friends to mourn his absence, but to rejoice in the belief that he has gone to serve 
God day and night in his temple. W. K. A." 

Mrs. Dewar died in 1881. Their children were Duncan Wales, Henry, Charles 
Alexander, John Edward, Mary Lemira, Esther Jane, Elizabeth, and Susannah. 
Two of the sons, John and Henry, lived on the homestead till 1889, when they sold 
it to J. A. N. Mackay, Esq. Those of the children now alive are widely scattered ; 
the only ones living in this County are two daughters, Mary and Jane, whose good 
works are a reproduction of those of fieir parents. The former is the wife of Mr. A. 
L- Sharman, a most estimable citizen of Carillon. 


Duncan Wales, the eldest son of Mr. Dewar, died in 1873, two years before the 
demise of his father. He left a widow and two sons, Ethelbert and Ford, who are 
honourably employed in Duluth, Minn. 

DUNCAN, the third son of Duncan Dewar, sen., was born May, 1807, and, as he 
has been a prominent figure in his native village through nearly all of his active and 
useful life, he is entitled to more than a passing notice in these pages. It is but fair) 
also, to acknowledge that, but for his great age and retentive memory, many of the 
incidents herein recorded would have been lost to the future. His birthday was 
rendered memorable by the erection of the first bridge that was ever built across the 
North River at St. Andrews. Until the age of fourteen, he regularly attended the 
village school, which was a building occupying the site of the present town hall, his 
first teacher being a young man by the name of Joseph Whitcomb, son of a mason, 
who had been brought to the village by Thomas Mears. At the age mentioned 
above, the subject of this sketch was seized with an ambition to take care of himself- 

A man named Timothy Bristol had a wheelwright and blacksmith shop, in a 
long building which stood on ground now occupied in part by the post-office. With 
this man young Duncan had become well acquainted, and as he was frequently in his 
shop, he soon formed the opinion that the lot of a mechanic was more pleasant and 
profitable than that of a farmer, hence he besought his father to permit him to learn 
the trade of blacksmith, a trade for which his small stature and delicate constitution 
seemed scarcely fitted. After due consideration, his father consented to his proposal, 
and apprenticed him to Bristol for the term of three years. Some of the neighbours 
pronounced the arrangement foolish, declaring that he would get disgusted with the 
work, and wish to return home within two weeks, but Mr. Dewar, knowing his boy s 
qualities better than they, said he knew that if he began the work he would stick to 
it the correctness of which statement was proved by the sequel. 

In those days muscular strength and ability to defend one s self by physical force 
were in high esteem, while those who lacked these qualities, the young especially, 
could not forbear feeling that they were destitute of some of the essential elements 
of manhood. Now, though young Dewar had no reason to repine at his want of 
strength, he felt that public opinion, on account of his slight form, would naturally 
consign him to the weak class, and he retained this impression, till one day, being 
assaulted in the shop by a burly habitant, he soundly thrashed him. Doubtless he 
was indebted for this victory to strength acquired at the anvil ; but be this as it may, 
from that time onward he seemed to hold a higher place in the esteem of his com 
panions. But before he had completed his apprenticeship, another incident occurred, 
which was fraught with much more important interests to him, and which to the 
present has had much influence on the actions of his life. 

A few prominent men of St. Andrews, having heard the noted Evangelist, Rev. 
Mr. Christmas, preach in Montreal, invited him to hold a series of meetings in St. 
Andrews which invitation he accepted. It is said that, as a result of these meetings, 
twenty-eight individuals, a few of whom were of profligate character, were reclaimed 


from the error of their ways. Mr. Devvar was one of the converts, and henceforth 
his feelings and aspirations were far different from what they had been. It is usual 
for the new-born Christian to cherish respect and love for the clergyman under whose 
preaching he has been converted. This feeling, in part, induced Mr. Dewar to seek 
employment in Montreal, where he might enjoy the acquaintance and preaching of 
the Rev. Mr. Christmas. He soon found work in an iron manufactory, where he 
remained several months, during which time he was a regular attendant at the church 
of Mr. Christmas, and he induced a cousin of his to go with him, who, in the end, was 
also converted. A chance to obtain better wages next led him to Grand Isle, Ver 
mont, and after working there nearly a year he came home to attend school. He had 
always been anxious to obtain an education, and he determined to devote what 
money he had earned to this end. After this supply had been exhausted, he went 
ttawa, and procured work in a government shop at $1.25 per day, making irons 
which were used in the construction of canal locks. In the society into which he 
was there thrown, his temperance principles were pretty strongly tested. In the 
afternoon of his first day in the shop, he saw one of his fellow-workmen collecting 
money from the others, and presently he came to him. Asking the purpose of the 
Section, he was told that it was to purchase liquor. He replied, " I do not drink 
and it is against my principles to encourage it." " Well," was the answer, " no man 
can stay here unless he joins us." Mr. Dewar then gave them money to assure 
icm that he was not actuated by parsimony, but expressed his determination not 
ste any spirituous liquors. They never asked him for money again, nor did they 
invite him to drink, although they all continued to use liquor themselves, and often 
o excess. One thing, however, they would not permit, but doubtless they were 
prompted more by a spirit of fun than of ill-will. A milkman came around daily 
and raising a window of the shop, passed a pint of milk through it to Mr. Dewar but 
soon, before he could get it, a sly tap would send the contents on the floor, and after 
occurred several times, the attempt to obtain milk was abandoned. When 
had earned $100, he once more returned to St. Andrews, and attended school, 
1 in this manner secured a degree of scholarship rather above what was accorded 
at that time to the young men of his age. 

About 1828 he entered the store of Mr. Guy Richards as clerk, and remained 
im six years, and he attributes much of the knowledge of business and moral 
ived to the wise instructions and good example of Mr. Richards. In 
.834, he and John Richard Hopkins, nephew of Mr. Richards, bought Richards stock, and Mr. Dewar for many years followed the mercantile business, 
agn, as his means increased, he added other branches of business, yet without 
much ready profit. About 1850, he built a tannery, and then a bark mill. The 
owing year he received a diploma from the Provincial Industrial Exhibition in 
the best specimen of harness leather manufactured in Canada. In 1856 
annery was burnt, and his insurance policy having lapsed, it was an entire loss, 
s immediately rebuilt. He met with various other losses during his earlier 
career, one of a boat for which lie had paid $600. 


In December, 1836, Mr. Dewar was married to Margaret Tread well, daughter of 
Nathaniel Hazard Treadwell, Esq., Seignior of Longueuil. Miss Treadwell and a 
sister had been for some time living at L Orignal with their brother, Charles, and 
they often came to St. Andrews to visit the family of Mr. Richards. It was thus that 
Mr. Dewar became acquainted with his future wife. After a courtship of two years, 
they married at her father s residence in Plattsburgh, N.Y. 

Mrs. Dewar possessing much of the ability of her family was a help-mate in the 
most significant sense of that word a woman whose counsel was wisdom, whose 
example was virtue. Her father and her distinguished sister, Mrs. Redfield, often 
visited them at their home in St. Andrews, and these were occasions of no little 
enjoyment, for no man could better appreciate cultured society than Mr. Dewar. 

In his youthful days, he was a schoolmate of the late Sir J. J. C. Abbott, though 
some years his senior. Though they differed widely in political principles in after 
years, a warm friendship always subsisted between them, and letters that Mr. Dewar 
received from Mr. Abbott, which he still retains, show that the statesman esteemed 
him as an honorable and able political foe. 

Some years ago he was instrumental in obtaining a grant of ^900 from Parlia 
ment, for the purpose of improving the navigation of the North River ; but owing to 
some political chicanery, this sum was diverted from its proper object, and used for 
other purposes. Though a confirmed Liberal, he has never sought political office ; 
the only public position he has held being that of magistrate, in which office he acted 
ably and conscientiously for nearly a quarter of a century. His attention during the 
last fifteen years has been chiefly confined to his drug store, the first and only one 
ever opened in this village. 

He has three sens now living ; Guy Richards, his second son, has been postal 
clerk for the last sixteen years between Montreal and Toronto ; the two others, Dun 
can Everett and Alexander, have long been engaged in mercantile business, the for 
mer in Aylmer, Quebec, the latter at St. Andrews, where he has followed his present 
vocation many years. Retiring in habit, he has never sought public positions, and is 
respected for his moral Christian character. He has two children, a son and daugh 
ter ; the former, Alexander, is studying for the ministry, and for the past three years 
has earnestly devoted himself to Christian work, spending some months in this work 
in New York in the summer of 1893. He is president of both the St. Andrews and 
Argeuteuil C.E. Societies. 

In the beginning of the present century, JOHN MCMARTIN of Genlyon, Perthshire, 
Scotland, decided to try his fortune in the New World. His wife having relatives at 
the Bay of Chaleurs, on the north of New Brunswick, thither he went, and prepared 
for himself and family a home. A year or two subsequently, learning that two of 
his brothers, farmers in Scotland, were about emigrating to Canada, he deci ded to 
seek with them, when they arrived, a more suitable place for agriculturists than could 
be found near the Bay of Chaleurs. In that locality the inhabitants subsisted almost 
wholly by fishing; but as this method of procuring a livelihood was not congenial to 


his tastes, and the land there was generally sterile, he gladly availed himself of a 
chance to dispose of what he had purchased. This he exchanged with his wife s 
uncles for land which they had received for service rendered the Government -md 
which was situated in the County of Huntingdon, Quebec. On reaching Montreal 
however, he learned that his estate in Huntingdon was in an unbroken wilderness 
and that should he settle there, his nearest neighbour would be thirty miles distant. 

At this time Major Murray was in Montreal, endeavouring to obtain Scotch set 
tlers for his Seigniory on the Ottawa, and Mr. McMartin was induced to sell his land 
in Huntingdon, and with his brothers take up his residence in the Seigniory. Accord 
ingly in 1801, or the year following, he came hither, and purchased two lots on the 
south side of the River Rouge which are now owned by the family of the late Geo. 
Hyde. The inevitable log house and small clearing were here on his arrival, but in 
a few years, about 1810, he built another house, which, with some alterations and 
additions, is still standing and occupied by the family of Mr. Hyde. Mr. McMartin 
added another lot to those which he first purchased, and with the help of his sons 
cleared up the greater part of these three lots ; he died in 1847. Four of his sons 
Finley, Duncan, Daniel and Martin, joined the Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean 
in the Rebellion of 1837-38, and all remained in it, till advancing years induced them 
to yield their places to younger men. Mr. McMartin had fifteen children, thirteen of 
whom arrived at maturity ; eleven of them settled on the River Rouge ; the youngest 
son, Martin, lived and died on the homestead. 

FINLEY MCMARTIN, the sixth son, after living and working on the homestead till 
he was about thirty-four years of age, entered the store of Mr. Charles Wales, sen., of 
St. Andrews, as clerk. 

At the expiration of a year, believing that trading on his own account would be 
more profitable than his present work, he hired the store across the street opposite 
that of Mr. Wales, which was occupied by Frederick McArthur, and purchased his 
stock of goods. Subsequently, he purchased the store and house, both being under 
the same roof; but in about ten years from the time he began to trade, this building, 
together with his entire stock of goods, was burned. He then hired another store, 
in which he traded till 1858, when he built a large brick store, which is now owned 
by Wm. D. Larmonth, and is used as a boarding house. 

In 1868 he disposed of his store, and the next year purchased the grist mill and 
iree hundred acres of land adjacent. At the expiration of fourteen years he sold 
the mill to Mr. Walsh, its present proprietor, and since has confined his attention to 
s farm. Although an octogenarian, he is so well preserved physically and mentally 
that few would imagine him to be more than sixty. His honesty, sobriety and dili 
gence in business have won the respect of his fellow-citizens, yet, the only secular 
office he has accepted at their hands is that of School Commissioner, a position he 
has held for many years. He was secretary of the Baptist Church Society for a long 
time, as well as a member and generous supporter. He has been twice imrried, the 
first time in 1847 to Christy McFarlane, who died in 1865. His second marriage 


was to Amanda Wales. By the first marriage he had three children, John ., 
Elizabeth and Kate. Elizabeth married E. M. Kneeshaw, and Kate, J. S. Buchan, 
a rising young lawyer of Montreal, son of Win. Buchan, Esq., of Geneva. Mrs. 

Buchan died in 1894. 

TOHNF MCMARTIN at the age of sixteen engaged to a firm in Montreal as 
and subsequently became a commercial traveller, a position for which his rectitude, 
affability and fine address eminently fitted him. After an experience of eight years 
in this line, he entered the firm of J. W. McKeddie & Co., on Victoria Square, as 


GUY RICHARDS was another man prominent and influential in the youthful days 
of St. Andrews. He was born in Norwich, Conn., on 8th November, 1787 ; he went 
from there to New York, and after a few years came to Montreal. His ability soon 
secured him many friends among the Americans in that city, and through them he 
became established in a thriving business as merchant. In the war of 1812, believing 
that he could make much profit by providing clothes for the Volunteers, he invested 
lately in woollen fabrics, paying a high price for them; but just after he had embarked 
in this venture, peace was declared, his scheme collapsed, and if not financially 
ruined, he was at least in embarrassing circumstances. Previous to this, he had 
formed the acquaintance of a Miss Graham from Massachusetts, who was on a visit to 
an aunt residing in Montreal, and the acquaintance ripened into friendship, and 
finally terminated in marriage. 

With the view no doubt of improving his financial condition, Mr. 
removed to St. Andrews ; here he also engaged in trade. He bought the property of 
Theodore Davis, the surveyor, enlarged the house, and used one part of it as a store. 
After trading here for about thirteen years with good success, and doing considerable 
business meanwhile as a lumber merchant, he sold his real estate, and then, about 
1827 built the brick store which is now occupied by Mr. La Fond. He was very 
successful, financially, while he lived here, yet, owing to his benevolence and severe 
losses, it was found at his death that he was not worth as much as had been supposed. 
He was highly esteemed as a citizen, and his purse was always open to encourage 
every good work. One young man was educated for the ministry through the means 
of money that he supplied : he died 2 ist September, 1839. 

Cynthia Graham, a sister of Mrs. Richards, bom in Comvay, Mass., lyth Decem 
ber, 1800, came to St. Andrews to live with her sister in 1819. While living here, 
she became acquainted widi HENRY BENEDICT WALES, and in 1829 they were mar 
ried. Soon afterward they moved to Pt. Fortune, and purchased the farm about a 
mile belotv the village, now owned by Mr. Williamson. A quarter of a century later, 
Mr. Wales sold the farm, and built a steamer, known as the " Buckingham," which 
for seven years did duty on the Ottawa under his own management. 

He then sold it to his brother, and purchased a farm in Alfred/Ontario, which 
he also sold in a few years, and returned to St. Andrews, where he died in 1889. 
One of the daughters of Mr. Wales married the Rev. John Dempsey, a Baptist nun- 



ister, who labored many years in St. Andrews, and another was married to Finlay 
McMartin, with whom her mother, Mrs. Wales, who has just celebrated her ninety- 
third birthday, now lives. 

It is impossible to speak of this lady, who still retains her mental faculties to a 
remarkable degree, without pondering for a moment the mighty changes that have 
taken place in the world s history within her recollection. She was seven years old 
when Robert Fulton made a voyage from Albany to New York in the first steam 
boat the world had ever seen. She had attained an age when the events of the war 
of 1812, the battle of Lundy s Lane, Queenstown Heights and Pittsburgh must have 
aroused her imagination and stamped themselves upon her memory. She was bud 
ding into womanhood when the battle of Waterloo was fought, an event which oc 
curred nearly two decades before the binh of those who are now threescore years of 
age. Statesmen and warriors whose achievements have startled the world have 
begun and finished their parts in the drama of life since the days of her childhood 
She was nearly thirty years old when the first railway in America was con 
structed, and forty before the invention of the electric telegraph, and, yel, she has 
lived to see the social and commercial world revolutionized through the mighty agen 
cies of steam and electricity.* 

ROBT. J.SIMPSON, from Mascouche on the St. Lawrence, was another man who 
may be classed with the pioneers of this section, as he was here and keeping store as 
early as 1807, m a large wood house, occupying the site of the present dwelling of 
Mr. Howard, notary. His career, however, was soon terminated by death. 

Trustees of his estate apprenticed his son Robert, eleven years of age, to James 
Brown, who had a printing house in Montreal, to learn the trade of printer. After 
mshing his term of apprenticeship seven years youn^ Simpson engaged to work 
or Mr. Brown another year, at the expiration of which time he returned to St 
Andrews, and purchased a farm on the River Rouge, now known as the Blanchard 

About this time, Mr. Moses Davis being occupied with his plan of erecting a 
iery, accepted Mr. Simpson as partner in the work, and, henceforth, the 
ter was one of the enterprising spirits of St. Andrews. In 1 824, he formed a closer 
ice with Mr. Davis, having entered into a contract of marriage with his eldest 
aughter. A few years afterwards, deciding to engage in the business of tanning on 
own account, he erected a building for the purpose, on the site of the present 
annery which is in disuse. Some years later, this having fallen a prey to fire, his 
the one mentioned above, which is now standing. Mr. Simpson, like his 
r-m-law, in addition to his business of farming and tanning, added that of harness- 
sing and shoemaking. He seems to have been a man of much influence in the 
:e, one of those whose advice is sought by neighbors in the troubles and disputes 
into which they sometimes fall, and one who by force of character is able to sway 

I . 

-"Mrs. Wales died a few months after the above was written 



He was a Justice of Peace, Commissioner for the trial of small causes, and for 

some time Mayor of the Parish. 

At one period, during the construction of the Grenv.lle Canal, he had a con 
tract for supplying the Royal Staff Corps at Grenville with beef-a contract which, 
on account of the distance and state of the loads, involved, in summer especially, 
no little hardship. The beef must be in Grenvllle before 9 o clock 
thus necessitating constant worry and watchfulness on the part of Mr. Simpson, lest 
the man he employed to carry it should oversleep, and trouble arise in consequence 

A few years later, during the Rebellion, he took another contract to supply the 
soldiers stationed at Carillon with bread. The carrying out of this contract, though 
not without its vexations, was less irksome, on account of the shorter distance to be 
travelled. During this exciting period, Mr. Simpson s services were called in 
requisition in many ways and on various occasions. He was especially serviceable 
in obtaining the restitution of such property as the belligerent parties took f 
other at the time of the greatest excitement. 

Being well acquainted in the neighborhood of St. Eustache and St. Benoit, ar 
having friends there among the Radicals, he was often visited by some of the latt 
and solicited to use his influence in securing the restoration of articles which, in t. 
days of recklessness with regard to the laws of mtum and tuum, had suddenly change 
hands. More than once, also, he was solicited to visit the above localities to secure 
the return of property which had mysteriously slipped from the possess.on c 
of his loyal neighbors. On one occasion, however, his mission was a higher 
His old employer, James Brown, who now lived in St. Andrews, and Montmarqu. 
a merchant from Carillon, while returning from Montreal, were taken prisoners by t 
insurgents, and held at St. Benoit. Mr. Simpson s object was to obtain their r 
and having been successful in his purpose, he returned in company with them t 
Andrews, where they received quite an ovation. It has been stated that the dwe 
of Mr Davis was used as a barracks for soldiers who were quartered m the village. 
Another large building used for the same purpose was the house already ment 
which was formerly the house of Mr. Simpson, and which stood where Mr. I 
brick house now stands. 

Several prisoners had been taken at St. Eustache and in that vicinity, a 
were tried for treason by court martial, the sessions of which were held in this 
Nothing very criminal being proved against them, they were released 
was their fear of being ill-treated by the crowd gathered there to listen to 
ceedings, that they earnestly entreated Mr. Simpson to escort them some distan 
beyond the village a favor he cheerfully granted. 

Mr. Simpson died 2 4 th May, 1870, but his widow survived till 19* Sept 
1895. She was a woman of much intelligence and activity, and though she 
the age of eighty-eight, her mental and physical faculties were well preserved. 

They had eight children, of whom one died in infancy. Robert, the eldest : 
spent some years in New Zealand, engaged in mining. He returned, married, an< 


9 1 

died in St. Andrews, where his widow still resides. Moses Davis 


- " " >. , 

which ill-health induced him to 

/// / cv ST - ANDREWS, 2 3 rd March. 1877 

7 " / "" Smtary **""**"** Ai 

S, R Aviation 


Yours truly, 


Robert S. is a dental surgeon in Montreal. 



house of Jas. McDougall & Co. The youngest of these brothers, George F., is still 
at school, and of the daughters, Agnes L. and Jane Klyne, the former was married 
1 6th March, 1895, to D. A. Mclntyre, of Calumet, and the latter resides with her 
brother at The Willows, their home in St. Andrews. 

MARTIN JONES was one of the very early settlers at Carillon Bay, and his advent 
must have been about the beginning of the present century ; he settled on land now 

owned by Raymond. It is related that one winter, while he resided here, he 

found it necessary to go to Lachine for provisions, and so destitute was the country 
at that time of means of travelling, that he was obliged to go on foot. Taking a 
neighbor, a habitant, with him, and a hand sled to convey his supplies, he performed 
the journey by way of the Ottawa on the ice. 

The cold was excessive, and they suffered severely, the potatoes being frozen 
before they had accomplished. half the distance ; but their return was hailed with far 
more delight by their families than is the one who now returns in a palace car, with 
numerous boxes of presents and delicacies for the Christmas cheer. In 1803, Mr. 
Jones purchased lot No. 3 on the east side of the North River, where A. C. 
Robillard now lives, which had been granted by the Seignior, i/th May, 1793, to 
Ignace Samson. He lived here till his death in 1838, leaving one son and three 
daughters. The eldest of the latter was married to Wm. Le Roy; the second, in 
1820, to Thomas Wanless ; but the third never married. The son, Edward Jones, 
spent many years of his life in keeping a public house the building used for the 
purpose being one opposite the store of Mr. Wales. In 1843 ne purchased 
Carillon Island, in the Ottawa, comprising about 1000 acres, since which it has 
generally been known as "Jones Island." He never lived on it himself, but his son 
Edward resided there for many years, and then leaving it in possession of his own 
son, Robert, he came to St. Andrews and Jived in the house still owned by his 
widow, till his death, iyth June, 1890. He was quite successful in financial 
matters, and was a man of respectability and influence. He was Justice of the Peace 
for several years and a member of the Local Council. 

THOMAS WANLESS mentioned above came from Yetholm, Roxburyshire, Scotland, 
and settled in St. Andrews about 1812, and did business here as an artisan many years. 
He had twelve children, but only one son now remains in this section. One of 
his sons was living in Denver, Colorado, and while on a visit to him, Mr. Wanless 
died in February, 1873. 

The son, MARTIN WANLESS, now living here, has been one of the active citizens of 
the place, and prominent in both civil and military affairs.. He was a member of the 
village Council eight years, and one term its Mayor, and has officiated as Secretary 
Treasurer fourteen years. After acting nine years as chairman of the School Board, 
he was chosen as its Secretary-Treasurer, and has held the position seven years. 

In 1849, he joined the St. Andrews Troop, and in 1867 became its Lieutenant. 
In 1880, he received his commission as Captain, and in 1890 was promoted to the 
rank of Major. 



Early in the present century a young man whose home was in Bath, England, 
decided to visit Canada with the view of settling here, eventually, should the 
country please him. A confectioner by trade, it is quite probable that he designed 
establishing his business in the new colony, provided conditions were favorable. 
However this may be, influences more potent than pecuniary interests induced him 
to remain. He formed the acquaintance of a young German lady in Montreal, who, 
like himself, had recently left her native land, so John Teasdale and Mary Dock- 
stadter became one. He engaged in his former business of confectioner, and pros 
pered ; then he bought a fine house with a large garden attached, and this was made 
to contribute in no small degree to his income. He planted a nursery, sold stock, 
cultivated choice flowers, imported rare plants, and thus gradually swelled his coffers, 
till he was reputed well off in this world s goods. But if his business expanded, so 
likewise did his family, and in time he became, in the language of Grecian mytho 
logy, the father of a beautiful offspring. In consequence of too fully realizing this 
fact, however, and thus becoming an over-indulgent parent, he was destined to ex 
perience much sorrow. His eldest son, William, and another one, John, were young 
men of romantic nature, with a strong predilection for fashionable and gay society ; 
they had received good advantages, and were passionately fond of music, as the 
number of musical instruments provided for them through paternal kindness abund 
antly attested. But notwithstanding all this indulgence, parental wisdom was not 
entirely inert, and it was decided that the sons must have something to do, some 
useful occupation to employ their minds and provide means for future requirements. 
A little more parental discretion and authority at this juncture of affairs might have 
prevented misfortune, but, unfortunately, the choice of vocation was left to the 
younger minds, and for them nothing short of mercantile life would suffice. St, 
Andrews was the location selected for this mercantile venture, and, forthwith, a build 
ing was erected for this purpose. This stood on ground now occupied, in part, by 
the cottage of Mrs. Meikle ; it was a long structure, designed not only for a store, but 
for one or more tenements. 

In this, then, the young men were soon established as merchants ; but whatever 
their success and habits at first, it was soon evident that the store was of secondary 
importance and that their minds were "on pleasure bent." The country at that 
period being new, and the forest abounding in game of various kinds, presented great 
attractions to one inclined to sporting. The pleasure thus afforded to the two 
younger brothers was one they were not likely to ignore. But in order to pursue 
it in becoming style, they must have horses and dogs, and thes? were soon provided. 
While they were employed with the delight of the chase, business did not thrive ; the 
interests of those left in charge of the store were not identical with those of the pro 
prietors, and the losses thus sustained, added to expenses incurred in the rounds of 
pleasure, presented in the end a discouraging spectacle in the account of profit and 

As may be supposed, and as the citizens of St. Andrews had prophesied, the new 



mercantile firm soon failed ;-but parental pride and affection willing to give another 
trial, their debts were paid, the store restocked, wholesome reprehension and advice 
were given, and the sons started anew. But they had not had that experience 
necessary to success. It is an admitted fact that very few men are qualified to 
handle money unless they have earned it. The second trial was begun, no doubt, 
with good resolutions, which for a time were carried into effect, but the final result 
was failure more disastrous than the first. 

The elder Teasdale, collecting together what remained of his property, moved to 
St. Andrews, deciding that he could support his family at rr.uch less expense here 
than in the city, while the sons now adopted a course which developed their latent 
energies and ability, and properly fitted them for the battle of life. 

WILLIAM, the elder son, studied with Col. Fortune, a provincial land surveyor 
and civil engineer, who at that time was also agent for ( the Seigniory of Argenteuil, 
ard lived at the Manor House at the Bay. His pupil being an apt scholar, thoroughly 
mastered his profession, and for years was employed in surveying lands in this section 
of the Province. He surveyed much in Argenteuil, and it is said that he named 
some of her beautiful lakes. But he finally suffered from an affection of the eyes, and 
eventually became blind ; he died at Rigaud about 1862. JOHN, his brother, studied 
medicine with the late Dr. Wolfred Nelson, and subsequently settled in Rigaud. In 
the commencement of his last illness, he visited Montreal for treatment, and died 
therein 1870. His obituary says: " Dr. Teasdale has been living and practising 
in Rigaud for the last forty years, where he was much esteemed by a large circle of 
fiiends, not only as a physician, but as a true friend. His loss will be deplored, not 
only by the people of his own parish, but by all the surrounding district, and the 
name of Dr. Teasdale will be remembered for generations to come." 

The father for a" time traded in the store which his sons occupied in St. Andrews, 
and died therein 1830. Mrs. Teasdale survived till 1870. Julia, their sixth child, 
married GASPARD BE COLIGNY DENYS DE LA RONDE, a notary, 8th February, 1829. Mr. 
de la Ronde, who was born in St. Anne, descended from a lineage that might satisfy 
the most ambitious, his ancestry on the maternal side running back through illus 
trious families to the King of Portugal, and on the other, through houses equally 
famous ; ihe last of his distinguished paternal ancestors being General de la Ronde, 
who, connected with the army of Burgoyne, fell at the battle of Ticonderoga in 

Gaspard de la Ronde studied for the notarial profession in Montreal, and 
immediately after passing his examination came to St. Andrews and practised. He 
had an extensive business for many years, and besides attending to the duties of his 
profession, often acted as counsel for litigants, pleading their cases in the lower 
courts. He died 8th June, 1882, at the age of 78. His widow is still at St. Andrews, 
and, though fourscore years of age, her mental faculties are intact. They had ten 
children five sons and five daughters, who lived till past the age of twenty, though 
but few of them are now alive. 


J. T. de La Ronde, the eldest son now living, after spending some years in the 
States, employed in commercial business and as proof-reader in a newspaper office 
in Plartsburg, N.Y., returned to Canada, and now resides at St. Andrews. 

R. P. DE LA RUNDE, his brother, in his youth learned telegraphy ; he then studied 
law in the office of Chapleau, Ouimet & Mathieu, and was admitted to the Bar in 
1867, and the following year was married to Martha McMartin, daughter of Duncan 
McMartin, J.P. He lives at St. Andrews, where he has built up an extensive prac 
tice as an able and honorable barrister. 

Stewart E., another son of the late Gaspard de la Ronde, has been engaged for 
the last nineteen years in the commission business in Ottawa. Margaret, a sister of 
the above, married J. H. P. BROWN, son of Dr. E. B. Brown of St. Anne. Mr. 
Brown has for several years been a mail clerk, and is now employed as such on the 
Canada Atlantic between Montreal and Ottawa. 

HENRY ALBRIGHT, a German, was one of the U. E. Loyalists who sought an asy 
lum in Canada at the beginning of the American Revolution. In Montreal he engaged 
to Dr. Meyers to take charge of a farm, which he owned on the opposite side of the 
St. Lawrence. But he soon experienced much trouble with Indians, whose thievish 
propensities seemed likely to leave him but little personal property, and after he had 
one day driven away several of them, a friendly chief advised him to leave the place. 
Believing this to be judicious counsel, he followed it, and engaged the friendly chief 
to convey his family across the river in a canoe. His young boy, Martin, on the 
voyage across, fell out, and was saved only by the activity of the chief, who caught 
him by the hair as he rose to the surface. 

Mr. Albright came to the Bay, and settled on land until recently occupied 
by Matthew Burwash. Not long afterwards, he purchased the lots on the North 
River now owned by Alphonse Dorion and Charles Hunter, where he lived until 
he died in 1820 ; he left two sons and four daughters : Valentine, one of the former, 
lived and died on the homestead. Martin, another son, who owned a farm adjacent 
to his brother s, sold it, and moved to the farm now owned by his own son Nelson 
He spent the greater part of his life here, and died in 1872. He married Jane Hyde, 
and their ten children have helped to swell Canadian population, and extend the fame 
for thrift and industry of Canadian citizens. Nelson Albright, mentioned above, is 
one of the leading men of the parish ; he takes a lively interest in the Agricultural 
Society, and his fine farm, on which he has recently been awarded a silver medal, 
always displays, among other things, a choice stock of cattle. 

ANGUS McPniE came with his family from Fort William, Invernessshire, Scotland 
in 1802 : two brothers, Ewen and Ronald, also making the journey with him. He 
first went to Pte. Claire near Montreal, and lived there a few years, learning to speak 
French fluently, and then settled in Chatham, on land now owned by the Fitzgeralds. 
While living there, he was, in company with Noyes and Schagel, carrying freight from 
Carillon to Grenville. He had three sons and three daughters : John, the second 
son, bought a farm on Beech Ridge, and lived there till his death. He was married in 


1827 to Mary Cameron, sister of the Cameron who first settled at Pt. an Chene, 
and had five sons and five daughters ; three of the former and four of the latter grew 
up. Besides his military and other offices, Mr. McPhie was president of the Agricul 
tural Society several years. He was an extremely enterprising man, taking a deep 
interest in farming, and improved his own land to such an extent, that he was awarded 
three medals by the Agricultural Society, besides gaining several prizes ; he died in 


JOHN McPniE, jun., the fourth son, in his younger days spent three years in 

California, then travelled a few years in the commercial line. In 1872, he bought 
the farm of 270 acres where he now lives, and was married the same year to a 
daughter of Charles Albright. Mr. McPhie has been School Commissioner several 
yeais, and is one of the influential and respected citizens of St. Andrews. 

The following letter may properly be inserted here, as it treats of the early 

history of St. Andrews : 

OTTAWA, 1 8th January, 1894. 


DEAR SIR, In writing a sketch of St. Andrews, as well as of the inhabitants before 
my time, it may as well be said here, that the information given is partly from tradi 
tion and partly from personal observation, and is written entirely from memory. 

Before the advent of steamboats on the Ottawa river, between Carillon and 
Lachine, it was no easy matter to travel between these points, and paddle your own 
canoe. A decided improvement was made, when a line of covered stages (each drawn 
by four horses) was started to run from Montreal via St. Eustache and St. Andrews 
to Grenville. The trip was intended to be made in three days or two trips per week 
each way. They also carried the mail, and the stage driver s capacious hat contained 
what letters and newspapers were to be delivered between the different offices, and 
which were usually thrown out in passing. The stage house in St. Andrews (where 
they changed horses) was kept by a Mr. John Russell, and was a large, two-story 
wooden building next to Mr. Guy Richards store, and about where Janvier Soulier s 
house now stands. After a time, he removed across the river to premises situated 
between Robt. Simpson s garden and Edward Jones house, where he died. His widow 
kept the house for a time, when she married a Mr. Bowman, and removed to Buck 
ingham. The arrival of the stage in the village was always heralded by the driver s 
horn, and was as great an event to the gossips and idlers then, as the arrival of a fast 
train in these days at a rural station. After the steamboats were fairly established, 
the trade was diverted from the land route, and the stages were taken off the through 
line, and placed between Carillon and Grenville, and between Point Fortune and 
L Orignal. There vas also, for many years, a winter line of stages on the same route 
from Montreal to St. Andrews, and at certain seasons of the year the trip was not 
accomplished without great difficulty and frequent loss, as many fine horses were 
drowned crossing on the treacherous ice at St. Eustache. 

The industries of St. Andrews consisted of two general stores, an ashery, a 


tannery, with saddlers and shoe-makers shops, a paper mill, saw mill and grist mill, 
with the usual village blacksmiths. The taverns were also there, but they could not 
be properly classed among the industries. 

One of the stores was kept by Mr. Guy Richards in a large, two-story frame build 
ing, next to John Russell s stage hotel (which was afterwards occupied as a residence 
and registry office by Col. De Hertel) . 

After the main street, as it now stands, was opened up, past where the Baptist 
and Episcopal churches are situated, down to where the bridge spans the river, Mr. 
Richards removed his store, up to a large, two-story stone building (which is still 
standing), where he did a large and prosperous business for many years, retiring 
from active life a short time before his death in September, 1839. 

The other store was kept by Mr. W. G. Blanchard, who also conducted the 
ashery, where the inhabitants could send their ashes and get a fair price for them. 
And as the country was new, each farmer would have a good many bushels of ashes 
saved up after burning his log heaps. Many a poor family enjoyed little luxuries, 
such as tea and sugar, and other articles, from the sale of their ashes, that they 
otherwise would have had to do without. Mr. Blanchard was a kind-hearted, easy 
going man, who put too much dependence on some of his unscrupulous neighbors, as 
it was currently reported that he paid more than once for the same ashes. 

Mr. Davis tannery was a long, low building nearly opposite where 1). Sutherland 
has his tailor s shop ; the saddlers and shoemakers were on the other side of the 
street, and a brisk business was carried on in all of them. 

The Seigneur had at one time a sawmill situated on the west side of the island, 
but it was either burnt or otherwise destroyed several years previous. The grist 
mill was a short distance above the present one, and was one and one-half stories high, 
built of cedar logs and clapboarded ; the water wheel and other machineiy were of a 
somewhat primitive construction, perhaps as good as it was possible to get in those 
days, but they could not compare with the "Lamb" or Leiffel of these days. 
The corn was ground, but not bolted or sifted ; that had to be done at home 
with a sieve, made from a partially tanned sheepskin, stretched over a hoop, and per 
forated. The miller who presided over that institution for many years was certainly 
not in advance of his surroundings. He was a Highlander from Argyleshire (not far 
from that celebrated spot where the horrible " Glencoe" massacre was perpetrated), 
by the name of MacCallum, but who rejoiced in the not very euphonious sobriquet 
of "GoeA-cum-gaw." 

The blacksmiths, in the earlier days, were not noted for fine work, and the hoes, 
axes and forks made by them, and which have come down through several decades, 
to say the least, had no scarcity of material in them. But later on, there was a great 
improvement in all farming tools, and a large business was done in making axes, 
which were then in great demand, one firm having a " grindstone " run by water 
power to grind, polish and finish them up ready for use. 

The members of the medical profession, as they styled themselves, had nothing 


to b,oast of in regard to ability or skill, and it would be difficult to tell what college 
they graduated from. All diseases were, for the most part, treated with liberal doses 
of calomel and jalap, together with the free use of the lancet, and, in cases of sur 
gery, heaven help the poor wretch who required their services ! After a few years, 
a better educated class settled in the country, viz., Drs. Beach, Ellis, and Rice; 
the last named also carried on a farm, which is now owned by Mr. T. Davis, and 
he lived where George Simpson s house now stands. About the same time Dr. Rae 
came to the village ; he was a young Edinburgh graduate of high standing and pol 
ished manners, and in a very short time was a general favorite and a successful practi 
tioner, being consulted in all serious cases, and sent for from Lachute, Chatham and 

In those days, wheel carriages were not in use, the only means of travelling was on 
horseback, consequently, a country doctor had a hard life, and required a good strong 
constitution to stand the wear and tear and exposure to all weathers, so that in a 
short time Dr. Rae s health began to give way, and at his death he was much 

He resided for many years in the house which is now occupied by Dr. Mayrand, 
and, after his death, his wife and family went to Montreal. Shortly before this, another 
young Scotchman by the name of McCallum, a graduate from the same college, 
opened an office and began the practice of medicine, and very soon had the reputa 
tion of being very skillful and energetic. He enjoyed a large and growing practice, 
and when the cholera broke out in 1832, he did good service among the poor, and 
was very successful in his treatment of all those infected with that terrible disease. 
His career of usefulness was brought to a sudden termination by an accident which 
in a short time carried him off. During his residence in the county he made many 
warm friends ; and as he was a single man, and had no relatives in the country, he 
was well and tenderly cared for in his last illness, and his untimely death was much 

There was not a single representative of the legal profession in the county in 
early times, not but what there was plenty of law going on, but it was all carried on 
through the Magistrates Court, which had plenty to do with some of the residents of 
Chatham, who spent a good part of, the proceeds of their potash in law. 

There were several notaries in the county before Mr. Nolan came; he practised 
for many years, and was regarded as a careful, reliable man in his profession. He 
owned and resided on the propertyjwhich he afterwards sold to Charles Benedict. 
About the time Mr. Nolan left St. Andrews, two other young notaries Larue and 
Goudie opened an office on the corner^vhere Mrs. Caution s house now stands. 

Yours truly, 


In order to show the difference between the prices of articles eighty years ago 
and the present, the following are copied fron a well preserved Day Book that was 



used in St. Andrews in 1814. The items are drawn from several different accounts, 
as there is not a single account in the book in which four-fifths of the items charged 
are not for liquors of various kinds, by the glass, gill, half-pint, pint, quart, etc. 

This is not surprising, whenVe reflect that traders ail sold spirituous liquors, and 
their patrons all used it. 

The charges were all made, of course, in pounds, shillings and pence, but 
have been changed into dollars and cents. The merchant seems to have sold every 
thing from a jews harp to a log cabin : 

1814 Feb. 6 To 








1 1 


t (. 











< i 


1 1 



May 4 

t < 





Bushel Corn at 

Pr. Socks " 

Pr. Scissors " 

Lbs. Loaf Sugar 

Bush. Salt 

Mug Cider 

Lb. Chocolate 

Bushels Rye 

Pint of Rum , 

Lb. Tobacco 

" Raisins. 

" Tea 

" Powder " 

" Shot 

Pint Gin 

63^ Yds. Cambric, at 74C 

i Lodging and % Sheet Paper 

, j i int Rum, i supper 






i So 


5 oo 


2 5 


1 1 

i Almanac. 
So Board Nails. . 

2500 Shingle Nfils i 50 

3000 J ,ai ge Nails 9 oo 

5 Yds. Lining, at 5oc 2 50 

3 " Sheeting i 50 

loo Board Nails 40 

5 Yd.=. Blue Cotton 3 

i Gill Peppermint 

i Set Cups and Saucers 4 

1 Tumbler broken 

2 Candles 

i Lb. Putly 

\Yz Bush. Oats i 

1 Quart Brandy 

2 Slings 

i Skein Silk 

6 Yds. Co.ton at5octs. 3 

i Glass Bitters 

, Pint Pepp-rmint 

I Bush . Barley 2 

i Hair Comb 

i Spelling Book 

1 Lb. Rice (by wife) , 

Yz Doz. Plates and 2 Tumblers 

2 Bowls and I Pepper Box 

Yz Lb. Pepper 

Yi " Spice 

I Yard Gingham 

i Qt. Beer 

i Pint Port Wine.. 









2 5 




1814 Tune 7 To 10 Yds. Calico $5 2O 

" " " I Paper Pins 30 

" " " 2 Ozs. Cinnamon 25 

I Dinner (St. John s Day) i oo 

9 " y?, Lb. Copperas (by Betsy) 10 

17 " y 2 " " (by Jack) 10 

18 "I Pair Overalls 3 70 

" "i Stick Twist 10 

" " i Scythe .. 200 

z}/ 2 Yds. Cotton i 50 

1 i Lb. Dried Apples 20 




Nov. 9 By 6 Bushels Onions, at $1.50 900 

" " " 169 Lbs. Beef, at 7C H&3 

" " 600 " Pork, at 1 8c 108 oo 

The earliest physicians of this place have already been mentioned in the letter of 
Mr. Dewar. 

Among the other prominent men belonging to the medical profession who have 
lived in the parish was DR. THOMAS JAMES HOWARD. 

He was born at Exeter, Devon County, England, in February, 1796, and in his early 
life entered the Royal Navy as midshipman on His Majesty s frigate " Canopus." 
He was in active service three years in the Mediterranean, during the wars with 
France, Turkey and other powers, but was obliged to retire from the Navy on 
account of ill health. Subsequently, he held the commission of Lieutenant under 
Colonel Rolle in the South Devon Militia, and afterwards practised as physician and 
surgeon in Devonshire. In 1844, with his wife and twelve children and maid servant, 
he sailed for Canada, a part of the vessel being fitted up for their special use and 
accommodation. After a voyage of seven weeks, during the months of April and 
May, this sailing vessel Tarrived in Quebec. The following summer Dr. Howard 
spent in Montreal and in travelling through Ontario, seeking a desirable place for 
location ; but he finally settled in St. Andrews, and began the practice of medicine. 
His confreres were Dr. Pyke, Dr. Lawrence succeeded by Dr. Wm. Robertson, Dr. 
Fenwick and Dr. Mayrand. Having purchased a farm on the River Rouge, he 
retired to it after a practice of three or four years, and thence removed to Lachute, 
where he died in 1871. 

HENRY HOWARD, his second son, born in 1828, was fifteen years of age 
when he crossed the Atlantic with his father s family, he remained two years in St. 
Andrews, and then went to study French and the Notarial profession inti;e office of 
Mr. T. J. Girouard at St. Benoit. Mr. Girouard had been one of the active promo 
ters of the Rebellion of 1837-38, and the village of St. Benoit, which had been burned 
by Sir John Colborne, had then just been rebuilt. Travelling vehicles were of a 
primitive and rustic style ; a buggy being a thing unknown, while homespun tuques 
and beef-skin moccasins were articles deemed indispensable in the attire of the habi 
tant. Very few understood a word of English an advantage, no doubt, to the young 
student, in view of the object at which he aimed. 


On receiving his commission as notary public for the Province of Quebec, in Nov 
ember, 1851. he settled in St. Andrews, with which place his history since has been closely 
identified. He has filled many responsible offices, some of which have been either 
removed or abolished. Active in the formation of the County Agricultural Society, 
he was appointed Secretary-Treasurer, and held the position for twenty-three years, 
when the office was removed to Lachute. He has at different times been Deputy 
Clerk of the Circuit Court, has been Deputy Coroner. Official Assignee of the Coun 
ties of Argenteuil and Ottawa, and Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Council ; in all 
ot which he has sustained a reputation for efficiency in business, while commanding 
respect as an intelligent, public-spirited citizen. 

Mr. Howard was married in 1853 to Marie Aurelie Clouthier, of St. Eustache ; 
they have three sons and one daughter. William Henry, the eldest son, a graduate 
of McGill, is now superintendent of the Pueblo Smelting and Refining Company, 
Colorado ; Ernest, the second son, is a member of the Montreal Stock Exchange ; 
Herbert, the youngest, is a bank clerk, and the daughter, unmarried, remains with 
her parents. 

DR. ROBERTSON is a name that has been familiar to the inhabitants of the Ottawa 
Valley for two generations ; Dr. Patrick Robertson, who has won honorable distinc 
tion during his life-long residence in this county, being the son of a doctor who was 
in successful practice here for more than a third of a century. 

The latter, Dr. William Robertson, a graduate of King s College, Aberdeen, 
Scotland, and of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, London, came from 
Perth, Scotland, to this country about 1834. He first practised a year in Williams- 
burg, Dundas Co., Ontario, and then, for the purpose of looking after the business of 
his half brother, Colin Robertson, who represented the people of this County in Parlia 
ment, he removed to Lachute. Soon afier this, he opened an office on Little St. 
James street, Montreal, and practised there a year. About 1842, he was married to 
Miss Tiernay, daughter of a gentleman connected with the Customs Department, 
and in 1847, he removed to St. Andrews, where he spent his remaining days, dying 
6th March, 1871 ; Mrs. Robertson died 6th February, 1890. They had two sons 
and four daughters. DR. PATRICK ROBERTSON studied medicine, and graduated at 
McGill in 1868. He then settled in St. Andrews, where, with the exception of one 
or two years spent in England, he has since resided, and built up an extensive and 
successful practice; he has recently removed to Montreal. 

Of the remaining children of the late Dr. Robertson, William, the second son, 
became general manager of the London Life Assurance Company, and died in 1889. 
One daughter was married to Col. MacDonald, Indian agent of the North West 
Territories ; another married Bruce Harman of Toronto ; a third wedded Chas. Handy- 
side, of the firm of H. & A. Allan, Steamship Co. of Montreal ; and one died when 
but ten years of age. 


DR. GEORGE FLANIGAN SHAW, a rising young practitioner, associated with Dr. 
Robertson, is from a family in the Dominion Capital whose members are represen 
tatives of the most honorable occupations and professions. 

He was born in Ottawa in 1862, and is a son of Charles Shaw, one of the oldest 
officers of the Post Office Department. Henry S. Shaw, one of the brothers, is also 
an official of the same department ; and of his three remaining brothers, the eldest, C. 
S. Shaw, is one of the prominent business men of Ottawa. Dr. W. F. Shaw is G. T. R. 
physician, located in Gravenhurst, Ont. ; and Rev. J. Arthur Shaw, M.A., of 
Bishop s College, Lennoxville, is Rector of Cobden in the Diocese of Ontario. 

The subject of our sketch was educated in Ottawa, and at Bishop s College, 
Lennoxville, and graduated with honors at McGill University, Montreal, taking his 
degree of M.D., CM., and while there, was for a year editor of the McGill Fort 

He has travelled extensively in Europe, visiting hospitals both in England and 
on the Continent, and thus keeping pace with the rapid advancement in knowledge, 
which of late years has signalized the march of medical and surgical science. He is 
a member of the Montreal Medical Society and of the College of Physicians and Sur 
geons of Quebec and Ontario. 

Since the writing of the above, Dr. Shaw has dissolved partnership with Dr. 
Robertson, on account of the latter s departure for Montreal, and is no\v established 
in St. Andrews upon his own responsibility ; he has recently been appointed Health 
Officer of the parish, and church warden, to fill places rendered vacant by the depart 
ure of Dr. Robertson. 

WILLIAM H. MAYRAND, M.D., is another of the physicians who have earned 
a livelihood and reputation in St. Andrews and vicinity, and he is one of the few 
remaining who were prominent in the generation past. He was born at Louiseville, 
Riviere du Loup, and is a son of the Hon. Etienne Mayrand, who for several years 
was an M.P.P. After spending two years at St. Hyacinthe College, he went to 
Nicolet College, and remained five years. On leaving that Institution, he studied 
medicine a year with Dr. Morin of Quebec, and then entered the Medical Depart 
ment of McGill University, and graduated there in May, 1847, m tne sama class with 
Dr. Christie of Lachute. He immediately settled in St. Andrews, and in April, 1848, 
was married to Catherine Sophia Pecco, a daughter of the late Commissary General 
Pecco, of Corfu, Ionian Islands, and a niece of Commissary General Forbes of Carillon. 
The social qualities of the doctor, united with his skill as a physican, soon pro 
cured a good practice, and for nearly half a century he has been a familiar figure in 
this section. Though preferring to give over his practice to younger men, he is still 
the dependence for medical treatment of many households. 

Mrs. Mayrand died August 8, 1888, leaving two sons. Henry Wellington, one of 
these, is employed in the Merchants Bank at Halifax ; Geo. C. is in business in 
Nelson, B.C. 

A recent addition to the medical men of St. Andrews is Dr. WALTER W. AYLEN, 


who was born in 1865 at Aylmer, Que. He received his early education in Aylmer, 
Ottawa and Gait. In 1885, he entered the Medical Faculty of McGill College, and 
received his degree of M.D., C.M., there in 1889. I 1 1890, he went to Sheldon, N. 
Dakota, and during his stay there enjoyed an extensive practice. In 1891 he was 
married to Eva, daughter of Finley McMartin, of St. Andrews. In 1895, desiring to 
come East, he sold his practice in Sheldon, and bought that of Dr. Robertson of this 
place. Dr. Aylen is a worthy son of a clever family, the Aylens of Aylmer having given 
the medical and legal professions some of their most gifted members. 

DR. WILLIAM S. ALLEN, who has also but lately visited St. Andrews profession 
ally, was born in Montreal, his parents coming from Nottingham, Eng., where his 
mother, Jane Stanley, belonged to one of the leading families. He was left an 
orphan at the age of four years, and while still very young, began life as junior clerk 
for the Canada Paper Co., Montreal. A year later, he became private secretary to 
John Macfarlane, Esq.. president of the Company, in which position he remained two 
years, and afterward acted asjprivate secretary to Jas. Bryce, Esq., superintendent of 
the Canadian Express Co. He was indentured to Dr. J. B. Vosburgh, Montreal, and 
began the study of dentistry in the fall of 1891, and also took a partial medical course 
in the University of Bishop s College, Montreal ; he received the degree of L.D.S. in 
October, 1895. 

Dr. Allen is a young man of much geniality as well as enterprise, and as his pre 
sence in St. Andrews fills a long fell want, it is to be hoped that he may meet with 
deserved success. 

Dr. Legault is another physician who has been here for the last six or eight 
years, and has practised very successfully during the time. 


Though considerable pains were taken to obtain a more complete history of the 
Anglican Church here, they were fruitless. Eor the sketches of the remaining 
churches, we are chiefly indebted to the courtesy of others ; the biographical sketches 
of iheir pastors being, of course, from our own pen. 

Itinerant ministers visited St. Andrews, and preached in the early years of her 
history ; but the first church formed was the Church of England, by the Rev. Richard 
Bradford, as early as i8ri. 

The first resident clergyman was the Rev. Joseph Abbott, who was born in the 
north of England, and who graduated at a Scotch University. He arrived in St. 
Andrews in 1818, and the services, until 1821, were held in a school-house. The Rev. 
Mr. Henderson, a Presbyterian clergyman, who came about the same time that Mr. 
Abbott did, also held services in the same school-house ; but as Mr. Abbott had little 
regard for dissenters of any creed, it is not surprising that these different services 
did not continue in the same building in the strictest harmony. Serious differences, 
however,. were avoided by the withdrawal of the Presbyterians to a private dwelling, 
and both clergymen were provided with church edifices the same year, 1821. 


After remaining here a few years, the Rev. Mr. Abbott removed to a field in the 
Eastern Townships, which, from his own name, is now known as Abbottsford, and left 
the church at St. Andrews in charge of his brother, the Rev. William Abbott. The 
latter remained here till his death, which occurred in 1859. 

Not long after coming to Canada, the Rev. Joseph Abbott was married to 
Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Bradford of Chatham, and their descen 
dants are among the most influential citizens of the Province. The late Sir J. J. C. 
Abbott, their eldest son, was born here i2th March, 1821. The Rev. Mr. Abbott 
exchanged his property in Abbottsford with his nephew for that in Chatham, lately 
owned by his father, the Rev. Mr. Bradford, and returned to this section, settling in 
Grenville, accepting the pastorate of the Anglican church there, till he went to Mon 
treal. He was appointed Bursar of the McGill University in that city, in 1843. 

The Rev. Richaid Lonsdell, M.A., accepted the charge in St. Andrews after Mr. 
Abbott s death, and held it for many years ; he won the esteem of his parishioners, 
and the number of communicants increased during his ministrations. He removed 
in October, 1885, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. O Sullivan, but an affection of 
the" throat caused the latter s resignation in a few months. 

The Rev. F. N. Bourne was the next clergyman in the field, who, after supplying 
it till the fall of 1893, relinquished it for the rectorship of Dunham, Que. ; he has also 
since accepted the principalship of Dunham Ladies College. 

In January, 1894, the Rev. J. W. Dennis became incumbent, and his ability, geni 
ality and courtesy have secured for him much popularity. 



The first recorded movement towards the establishment of the Presbyterian 
Church in Argenteuil is embodied in the following document, which is without date, 
but evidently a copy made at the time, and belonging to the year 1816 : 

" We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the Seigniory of Argenteuil, deeply impressed 
with a sense of our destitute condition with respect to the regular ordinances of divine 
worship, and sensible of the important benefits which we and our families would derive 
from the labors of a faithful minister of the Gospel, have agreed to use our endea 
vors in order to attain this desirable object, trusting to the Great King and Head 
of the Church for crowning our endeavors with success. 

" As we are under the paternal care of the British Government, and are therefore 
strictly connected with Great Britain in politics, commerce, and similarity of 
manners, so it is natural for us to look to that quarter for a pastor who may take 
the oversight of our spiritual concerns. 

" We appoint the following gentlemen to be a corresponding committee, with 
such friends and promoters of Christianity in Britain as may be deemed by them the 
most active and influential in promoting a design of this nature, to wit, Messrs. Rev. 


Robert Easton, John and Phineas Hutchins, Benjamin Wales, and Wm. G. Blan- 

And they promise, the document further says, to pay to the clergyman who 
should come the sums opposite their names, yearly ; and at the end it is stated that 
the number of subscribers was sixty-four, and the "sum total subscribed, 101 ;" 
but unfortunately the names are not given. 

The Rev. R. Easton was minister of the Presbyterian Church in St. Peter street, 
Montreal, then in connection with the Associate (or Burgher) Synod, of Scotland ; 
the Messrs. Hutchins belonged to Lachute, and Messrs. Wales and Blanchard to St. 

Mr. Easton, to whom doubtless the original document was sent, wrote to Dr. 
James Hall, of Edinburgh, a leading minister of the Associate Synod, who brought the 
matter before his Presbytery. At the same time, a similar application was sent by the 
Presbyterians of Rideau in Upper Canada ; and the Presbytery, in compliance with 
these requests, appointed the Rev. Wm, Taylor of Falkirk to Argenteuil, and Mr. 
Wm. Bell, a probationer, to Rideau. Application was made to the British Government 
for assistance, and as that government was desirous of encouraging a good class of 
emigrants to settle in Canada, a salary of ,100 stg. a year was promised to each 
of those ministers, " in addition to such provision as might be made for them by the 

In due course, Mr. Bell was settled at Perth in the Rideau district; but Mr. 
Taylor, instead of coming to Argenteuil, went to Osnabruck on the St. Lawrence, and 
pitched his tent there. On learning of this, Dr. Hall corresponded with the Rev. 
Archibald Henderson, M.A., of Carlisle in England, who, after due consideration, 
accepted the appointment thus vacated (the same provision being made for him by 
the Government, as had been made for Mr. Taylor), and came to St. Andrews in the 

summer of 1818. 

Mr. Henderson was born at Doune near Stirling, Scotland, on the syth September, 
1783. He attended the Grammar School of Stirling under the famous Dr. Doig, from 
whom he imbibed that love of learning and that accurate scholarship by which he was 
distinguished. At the age of 16, he entered the University of St. Andrews, the most 
ancient of the existing seats of learning in Scotland. There he studied under another 
enthusiastic scholar, Dr. John Hunter, whose editions of Virgil and Horace and other 
classics used to be so familiar in the Scottish grammar schools. Mr. Henderson was 
an able mathematician, as well as scholar, and was advised by the Professor of that 
branch of science to devote himself to it. He had, however, higher views, and went to 
Selkirk to attend the Divinity Hall of the Associate Synod, which was presided over 
by the well-known Dr. Lawson. That great man was Principal and Professor of all the 

* As stated in a despatch to Dr. Hall from Earl Bathurst, Secretary of State for War, the adminis 
tration of Colonial alTairs being at that time in the hands of the War Department. The salary was 
paid out of the Military Chest at Quebec, afterwards at Halifax, when the British Garrison had been 
removed from Quebec. 



departments of Theology, in his single person, and trained an able and well-furnished 
race of ministers. Mr. Henderson had thus the advantage of sitting at the feet of 
three teachers of the very first eminence in the country, and he showed himself a pupil 
worthy of them. Dr. Hall, in a letter to Mr. Easton, in September, 1817, says of Mr. 
Henderson : " If he will come, I could not point out one in all the Synod better quali 
fied. He is pious, modest, active, and persevering. He composes elegantly, pro 
nounces the English language unexceptionally (a rare thing, I suppose, for a Scotch 
man in those days), delivers himself with a manly fluency and grace, and, lastly, is an 
admirable classical scholar, and completely fitted to superintend an academy. I can 
stake our credit on him." 

He had been settled in 1810 over a church in the City of Carlisle, and from thence 
he came to this country, at the call of the inhabitants of Argenteuil, to take the 
oversight of their souls and preach to them the Gospel of the Grace of God. 

He sailed from Greenock at the end of May, i8i8 ; and arrived in Canada in 
July. He brought with him a letter from Earl Bathurst to the Governor General, 
Sir John C. Sherbrooke, by whom he was kindly received. Leaving his wife and 
three small children in Montreal, he came to St. Andrews, and preached to the 
people, who were much pleased with him, even beyond their expectations. He was 
speedily recalled to Montreal by the sickness and death of one of his children. With a 
sorrowing heart he returned with his family to the village which was to be the scene 
of his labors and his home for nearly fifty-nine years. St. Andrews, beautifully 
situated at the foot of a rapid, on both sides of the North River, was a small place, 
and, to the new comers from the crowded Old Country, scarcely visible. Mrs. Hen 
derson used to tell how she asked on arriving and looking round : "Where is the 
village?" and received the reply : "It is on the other side of the river." When on 
that side, she still asked : " But where is the village? " Again the answer came : 
" On the other side of the river." 

The district was in much need of Gospel ordinances, no minister having ever 
been settled in it. Mr. Easton of Montreal occasionally came to attend to the Pres 
byterians. An Episcopal minister preached once a fortnight to the people of that 
body, while a good man, Hugh Cameron, of Cote du Midi, was wont to exhort the 
people, and even, it is said, sometime to baptize children. He was usually spoken of 
as " Hughy the Minister," and his descendants are still distinguished by the cognomen 
of " the minister." 

There was now, however, an abundance of clerical provision, for on the same 
day with Mr. Henderson, and in the same building, the Rev. Joseph Abbott of the 
Church of England began his labors. Fora time, the two congregations held service 
at different hours on the Lord s Day in the village schoolhouse, the Presbyterians 
meeting in the forenoon and the Episcopalians in the afternoon. 

The people who formed Mr. Henderson s congregation were chiefly of two 
classes, both of vigorous and reliable character. The greater part were Scotch settlers, 


mostly Highlanders ; the other families were chiefly of United Empire Loyalist stock^ 
or who had more recently crossed the lines from the neighboring Republic in the 
same spirit. 


On the 26th January, 1819, a meeting of Mr. Henderson s congregation was held 
in the schoolhouse, to consider " the necessity of building a place of public worship." 
Capt. Elon Lee was appointed Moderator, and Guy Richards, Secretary. It was 
motioned, seconded and unanimously voted, that a church ought to be built, and 
a committee was appointed to determine whether it should be built of wood or stone, 
and to examine various proposed sites for the crurch. The committee consisted of 
Messrs. John Brush, James Bro\\n, Charles Story, Duncan Dewar of Chatham, Wm. 
Blanchard, Judah Center, John McMartin, Hugh McLachlin, John McLean, Moses 
Davis, Charles Benedict, Phineas Hutchins, Thos. Barren, G. A. Hooker and Peter 
Deu-ar. They wisely decided on stone, and in the fall of that year, the people were 
busy quarrying near the Red House, and in drawing the stone and other materials.* 

In 1820-21 the church was built, on a site given by the Seigneur, Sir John John 
son, Bart., on the west side of the North River. It was a plain but solid structure, 
which still stands as strong as ever, but enlarged and greatly improved in appearance. 
The builders appear to have been A. Graham for the stone work, and Archibald and 
Malcolm McCallum for the wood-work, and they built faithfully and well. Friends in 
Montreal gave generous assistance, a subscription list being headed by the Seigneur 
with 25 in money and material, and W. McGillivray with 10, and amounting in all 
to 148 i2s 6d. It is interesting to see on the list the names of families still flourish 
ing m Montreal, prosperous and liberal, such as Torrance, Frothingham, Ogilvie,. 
Johnstone, Gibb, and that of George Pyke, afterwards one of the judges of the King s. 


One of Mr. Henderson s first acts on settling in the country was to get an official 
register for the due recording of " Acts of Civil Status," according to the laws of 
Lower Canada. It was authenticated on the first page in the following form : 

" This book, containing eighty-eight folios or double pages, was this day presented 
by the Reverend Archibald Henderson, minister of the Presbyterian Parish Church, 
St. Andrews, Argenteuil, to serve as a register of the Acts of Baptism, Marriage and 
Burial, to be by him performed, and the same was this day paraphed by me, the Hon. 
James Reid, one of the Judges of His Majesty s Court of King s Bench for the Dis 
trict of Montreal, pursuant to the Act in such case made and provided. 

"MONTREAL, I2th day of August, 1818. 

"J. S. REID, J.K.B." 

*The " Red House " was an old post of the Hudson s Bay Co., and stood in a conspicuous posi 
tion on the shore of the Ottawa River, some distance higher up than the Manor House. Both these 
houses have disappeared. 


Five days later the first entry was made : it was of a marriage, in these terms : 

Daniel de Hertel of St. Andrews, Argenteuil, Esquire, 

Maniage of and Lydia Brown, minor daughter of James Brown of the city 

DANIEL DE HERTEL of Montreal, Stationer, were married by License on the seven- 
ami teenth day of August, in the year of Our Lord one thousand 
LYDIA BROWN. eight hundred and eighteen, in the presence of the undersigned 
witnesses, by me. 




The next entry is of the baptism of a child a month old, as follows : 

A son of Zechariah Whistle and his wife Eve, born on 

. of the twenty-third day of July, in the year of Our Lord one 

s \MUEL WHISTLE, thousand eight hundred and eighteen, was baptized on the 

twenty-third day of August following, by the name of Samuel, 
in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, by me. 



The next entry is of the baptism of George, son of George Robertson of St. 
Andrews, papermaker, and his wife Margaret. It is not till a year after, that the 
maiden surname of the mother is given, as well as her Christian name. Nor are the 
names of the parents of the parties recorded in the entries of marriages, as has to be 
done now, and the want of which has caused disputes in matters of property. The 
first burial entered is not till a year has passed, when on the i3th August, 1819, occurs 
the burial of a child who had died the day before, viz., James, the sixteen month old 
" son of the late Amos Blanchard of Montreal, cabinet-maker, and his wife Susan." 

While deaths were so few, Mr. Henderson in the first year baptized fifty children 
and married twenty couples, people coming to him for those services from consider 
able distances all round, from Lachute, Chatham, Rigaud, River du Chene, and even 
from Montreal in several instances. Lachute is called "the Chute," or "the Chute 
settlement," and our familiar River Rouge is translated into " the Red River." 

These fifty marriages were all " by banns " or "after proclamations of banns," 
except two, which were " by license." The number of marriages by license gradually 
increased, engaged couples apparently growing in shyness or pride, as the country 
grew in wealth and society developed itself. At length, about 1846, banns and 
licenses balance each other, and a dozen years later, marriage by license had become 
general; and for more than thirty years banns are almost unknown to the record, very 
few being willing to have their matrimonial intentions publicly announced in church. 


Not one has been so announced since the law was authoritatively declared to mean 
that where banns are published they must be published on three successive Sundays 
and not, as had been the ususal practice, three times in one day. 

The Register is very carefully kept aM through in regard to marriages ; but it is 
less so for a few years after 1824, in regard to baptisms and burials. At that time 
there were some who questioned the legal right of the clergy of the Church of 
Scotland to keep registers or to officiate at marriages, and in a particular case the 
Court of Appeals decided against them. Mr. Henderson took an active part in 
vindicating the rights^of himself and his brethren. A Bill was brought before the 
Legislature of the Province, " for the Relief of Ministers connected with the 
Associate Synod," and when the Legislative Council desired information in regard 
to that body, he drew up a Memorial setting forth the history and principles of 
the Church of which he was a minister, and its high standing in Scotland. The Act 
was passed, and the disabilities which it had been attempted to impose on him and 
others were cast aside, and their claim to " Equal Rights " publicly recognized. 


A Presbyterian Church is not completely organized without Ruling Elders. 
Accordingly at an early period three were chosen and ordained to that office, to wit, 
Messrs. Wm. G. Blanchard, Benjamin Wales, and Cummins. Other Elders 
appointed in after years were in August, 1832 : Wm. McEwen, John McConnell, Win. 
Cook and Guy Richards; in May, 1836, Charles Benedict and Peter McMartin ; in 
March, 1863, John McGregor and Alex. McLachlan ; in March, 1877, James Middle- 
ton (formerly an Elder in Stanley St. Church, Montreal), Charles Wales (son of 
Benjamin Wales above named), and James McOuat; in February, 1881, John 
Robertson (formerly an Elder in the Free Church of Scotland, and subsequently, 
after completing his theological studies at Queen s College, Kingston, ordained Dec., 
1884, as Minister of Mill Haven and Ernestown in the Presbytery of Kingston) ; 
in 1887, Charles T. Wales* (son of Charles Wales above named), David Rodger* and 
John F. K. McMartin.* Thus in the Wales family there have been three generations 
of Elders in succession, a circumstance not unprecedented, but yet not common, 
although it ought to be of frequent occurrence, the sons walking in the footsteps of 
their Godly fathers. 


Mr. Henderson labored, as Presbyterian Minister of the Seigniory of Argen- 
teuil, with much activity. Besides his work at St. Andrews, he pi cached regularly 
at Lachute, where he established a Temperance Society ; at Chatham also, travelling 

* Those whose names are marked with an asterisk (*) form the present session along with the 
Rev. Dr. Paterson, the Moderator. Mr. Michlleton, .1 man much beloved, died at the age of 86, while 
this book was passing through the press, all the rest having gone before except Mr. Robertson, who 
lives in Nova Scotia. 


the seven or eight miles to those places by roads which were mere bridle paths through 
the forest, beset sometimes with wolves and bears. He had service also in the dis 
tricts round the village on the Sabbath afternoons, as there was only one diet of 
worship in the church on that day. Through his pastoral care and fidelity the 
Presbyterhns of his wide field were nourished and strengthened till, in 1832, a separa e 
congregation was formed at Lachuie. One of the few minutes of Session extant 
of the early period relates to this matter. It is dated St. Andrews, nth July, 1832, 
and bears that : " A petition wjs presented from the following church members re 
siding at Lachute and the neighborhood, viz.: [the names are not given], pray 
ing the Session to disjoin them from this Church, that they may be formed into a 
distinct church of the same denomination under the pastoral care of the Rev. Wm. 
Brunton, who now ministers among them. The Session agreed that the prayer o^ 
this Petition Le granted, and the petitioners are hereby disjoined." 

After some years, the congregation of Lachute divided into two, one of them 
becoming connected with the Free Church. A third was formed at Chatham, in 
connection with the Church of Scotland, and at a later period, a church was built at 
Pt. Fortune also, for the accommodation of the members of the Chatham congrega 
tion residing there. Thus the St. Andrew s Church grew after the manner of the 
banyan tree, the branches of which stretch out on all sides, and by and by reach 
to the ground, where they take root and grow up into so many distinct trees, at a 
distance from the parent stem, yet vitally connected with it and with each other, and 
spreading one wide umbrageous shelter. Although of three different sections of the 
Presbyterian Church, yet all these congregations were alike in doctrine, government, 
and worship, and they were all united again ; three of them at the union of the Free 
Church and the United Presbyterian Church in i86r, and the others at the memorable 
and happy union of the J5th June, 1875, when all the Presbyterian b >dies in the 
Dominion, with the exception of a few congregations here and there, were formed 
into one, under the name of " the Presbyterian Church in Canada." 


In the meantime, although Mr. Henderson and his congregation were Presby 
terians, they were for many years without the oversight of any Presbytery. He, how 
ever, had been in the habit of meeting with his ministerial brethren for mutual fellowship 
and counsel. In 1843, tne " Missionary Presbytery of Kastern Canada" was formed 
by authority of the United Secession Synoi of Scotland. It consisted of the Rev. 
Andrew Kennedy of Lachute and the Rev. Alex. Lowden of New Glasgow, with 
their respective Elders, Messrs. John McOuai and John Murray. It was strengthened 
in 1845 by the accession of the Rev. Dr. Win. Taylor, of Montreal, and his con 
gregation in Lagauchetiere street, which had been organized in 1833, but had hitherto 
been in Presbyterial connection with Upper Canada. 

When this Presbytery was formed, Mr. Henderson desired to become a member 
of it, and sent a memorial to the Synod in Scotland, stating his position, and request- 


ing to be admitted, with the condition that he should be allowed to retain his annual 
grant from the government. But the Voluntary Controversy had been agitating the 
Churches of that country for a number of years, the ministers and people of the 
Secession generally taking strong ground against the establishment and endowment 
of the Church by the State. They were, therefore, unwilling to admit him unless he 
gave up the government salary, but offered to guarantee him an equal amount. He, 
however, did not wish to be a burden on their Mission funds, and declined the pro 
posal, continuing in his former isolated condition till the year 1860. 


In that year, failing sight and strength compelled him, now in his yyth year, to 
seek assistance in his work, and he made application for a preacher to the United 
Presbyterian (formerly the United Secession) Presbytery of Montreal. They were 
not able at the time to send one, and he applied to the Montreal Presbytery of the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada, which was in connection with the Free Church of 
Scotland. In due course, he and his congregation were received into that body, and 
a preacher was obtained from them, who gave satisfaction to the congregation and 
was duly called : but his settlement did not take place. In the same week in which 
he was expected to be ordained, the present pastor arrived in Montreal from Scot 
land. He was at once sent up to St. Andrews to supply the vacancy, and preached 
on the next two Sabbaths, 291)1 July and 5th August, 1860, Having received an 
appointment to preach in another place, he left for five weeks, and returned to begin 
his regular work on the i6th Sept., and has continued ever since, through the help of 
God, to go in and out among the people till this day. He belonged to the United 
Presbyterian Church, but the two bodies were to be united shortly, a basis of union 
having been mutually agreed upon, and he had no conscientious difficulty in antici 
pating the Union by a few months. He therefore put himself under the care of the 
Free Church Presbytery, and on the 24th October he was ordained, "by the laying 
on of the hands of the Presbytery," to be Assistant and Successor to the venerable 
servant of God, who had been himself ordained, just fifty years before, at Carlisle, and 
had borne the burden of pastoral duty at St. Andrews for two and forty years un 
aided, save by the grace that is promised to every true worker, and by the sympathy 
and help of the able and faithful Elders and other members of his church, who had 
mostly grown up under his ministry. 


Mr. Henderson now practically retired, the work bzing lefc entirely to the young 
minister; but he retained the status of Senior Minister and his position as a member 
of the Presbytery. Only three weeks after this happy settlement, as it was to him. a 
great sorrow came upon him in the brief sickness and death of his wife. She was the 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Morton, the Relief Minister of Leslie in Fife, and a woman 


of piety and shrewdness and kind-heartedness, with a touch of racy humor, in which 
her husband also abounded, and a spirit of hopefulness which was a strong support 
to him in the despondency to which he was somewhat prone. She died on the i6th 
November, being within a month of eighty-one years of age. 

Two years later he lost the only remaining member of his family, his son Peter, 
who was a physician in Ottawa, and died unmarried, 26th November, 1862, at 
Burritt s Rapids, where he had some property, and to which he had gone for his health. 
He was 44 years old. 

Mr. Henderson preached occasionally in the absence of the pastor, usually tak 
ing part also in the quarterly communion services and in the prayer meetings. His 
pist birthday happening on a Sabbath, he preached an earnest and affectionate dis 
course to the young, addressing them as from the borders of the eternal world, and 
testifying that it was only the fear of God and the faith of Christ that could make 
their lives truly useful and their end happy. Towards the end of 1876 his health 
rapidly declined, and on the iQth January, 1877, he suddenly passed away, having 
lived ninety-three years and nearly four months. He died in the house of his col 
league, where he spent the last eight years of his life. He had been very reticent, 
like most of his countrymen, as to his inward thoughts and feelings, but a day or 
two before the end he began to open his mind a little, saying in reference to his hopes 
for eternity : " I cast myself, as a sinner ready to perish, on the mercy of Him who is 
mighty to save." He did not remember when or where he had " cast his first an 
chor," to use an expression of John Knox s, but he had cast it long ago on safe 
ground, and his hope was sure and steadfast and entering into that which is within 
the veil. 


The history of the Congregation had been one of harmony, except at one period, 
in the 30% when misunderstandings arose between the minister and some of the peo 
ple, resulting in a number of them leaving the Church ; but, in course of time, most 
of these returned to their former fold. With that exception, the Church had a 
peaceful and prosperous existence, their accomplished pastor feeding them with 
knowledge and understanding from the stores of his biblical and theological learning, 
and his deep, though unobtrusive, spiritual life. Liberal himself and large-minded, 
he taught them to take an interest in Bible Society and missionary work, having a 
weekly prayer meeting, and, once a month, a "monthly concert" or missionary 
meeting, which has been kept up to this day. The money raised was sent for many 
years to the American Board of (Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; but when the 
Canada Presbyterian Church established foreign missions of its own in Formosa, 
China, India, the New Hebrides, and other parts of the world, the members thought 
it their duty to give their contributions to the support of their own Church missions. 

The Congregation still has over sixty families connected with it, although its field 


has been contracted by the establishment of other four or five Presbyterian congre 
gations within its original bounds, besides a number belonging to other denomina 
tions ; and, although there has also been a constant drain of the young men to the 
ever inviting and largely promising West, besides the frequent removal of families to 
other localities, lessening the Protestant population in its different branches. 

The membership has increased to above one hundred and forty, through the 
occasional incoming of new families and the steady growing up of many of the young 
(why should it not be so written of all?) into a solid Christian life. On several occa 
sions, through means of special services, large additions were made to the number of 

The Congregation has grown in the grace of liberality in giving to the cause of 
God. Before 1860, they gave little for the support of the Church, the salary which their 
minister received from the military chest seeming to them to relieve them from almost 
all responsibility on this behalf. By their enjoyment of Gospel ordinances with so 
little charge to themselves, they lost the privilege of exerting themselves for the sup 
port of Christ s cause and the blessing which is promised to those who are faithful in 
this duty; and when, all at once, the whole burden of supporting their minister was 
laid upon them, some, faint-hearted, were ready to shrink from it. Tae greater part, 
however, stood manfully forward, and by bearing became stronger to bear. For to 
him that hath shall be given." They found a new pleasure in new duties and 
new relations, and were ready to acknowledge that Christ s way was the best, viz., 
that they who preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel. They undertook to give 
their new minister $600 a year, and in 1861 their contributions to all church purposes 
were $728, a large sum for a people that had probably not given more than $150 in 
any one year before. 

Since that time the stipend has been increased twice, while the contributions to 
the schemes of the Church have also increased. In iSyo they raised $1,283, includ 
ing subscriptions for some special objects, and for the last four years the congregation 
has contributed, for all purposes, from $r,ioo to nearly $r,3oo each year, being an 
average of $20.00 per family. This may seem large to some, but it is less than the 
average over the whole Presbyterian Church in Canada, which was in the latest report 
$22.82. But what is that to what is still due to God? If all the tithes that are 
unpaid were brought into His storehouse in the spirit of consecration, the \vorld 
would soon be changed. The truth is that the Church of Christ has only beun to 

In 1877 the church building was greatly improved from its former unadorned, 
barn-like appearance, by having a new and handsome front erected, with corner 
tower, and much work done inside, costing in all $2,500. Four years later, in i88r, 
the manse also underwent a much needed renovation, at a cost of nearly $600. 
both cases the Ladies Association contributed a large proportion of the expenses. 
The manse, with garden and small meadow attached, is the house which Mr. 


der<on built for himself shortly after his arrival here, and which he made over before 
his death to the Congregation, as their property for the use of the minister. 

The Congregation has, doubtless, much to lament over in its history and experi 
ence, while there is much for which to give God. thanks. Many men and women 
who have been brought up in it, now scattered over the Dominion and the United 
States, are in their spheres, some of them prominent, supporting the cause of truth 
and righteousness ; and thus its influence is widespread. It has helped to keep the 
Gospel light shining here for seventy -seven years, and borne its part with other 
churches in testifying for Christ and in training the people for His Kingdom." 

The REV. DANIEL PATERSON, D.D., was born in Greenock, Scotland, and studied 
at the Grammar School of that place, under the tuition of James Lockart Brown, LL.D., 
an excellent teacher and scholar. He next went to the University of Glasgow, where 
one of his professors was the great scientist, Wm. Thomson, now Lord Kelvin, and 
there received the degree of A.M. He studied theology in the United Presbyterian 
Divinity Hall, Edinburgh, and came to Canada in the summer of 1860, and was 
ordained at St. Andrews, October 241)1 of that year. He has been connected with the 
Presbyterian College of Montreal since its commencement, as a trustee and member 
of the Board cf Management, as one of the examiners for eight years, and as a member 
of the College Senate for thirteen years. He received the degree of D.D. from the 
College in 1892. He was appointed one of the representatives of the Montreal Pres 
bytery in the Campbell heresy case, to defend the action of the Presbytery before the 
Synod of Montreal and Ottawa, and did so with the other representatives, who were 
Drs. McVicar, Scrimger, and Robert Campbell. 

Dr. Paterson is one of those quiet, unostentatious men, whose godly life is a more 
powerful sermon to the unconverted than usually falls from the pulpit. Though schol 
arly and thoroughly well-informed respecting current events, his sermons are anything 
but pedantic ; he preaches only Christ, and Him crucified, in a simple, convincing man 
ner. He is, in short, a minister whom the unregenerate man would prefer at his bed 
side, when he feels that he is drifting out upon the great unknown. 

It is but just to add that, in his many years of faithful labor at St. Andrews, 
Dr. Paterson has been ably assisted by Mrs. Paterson, who is devoted to temper 
ance, benevolence, and every Christian work. 


About midway between the villages of St. Andrews and Carillon, at an angle 
formed by the king s highway, and a few rods from the noble Ottawa River, rises a 
modest stone church. The solitude of its position seems to invite to meditation and 
prayer. The young but sturdy greenwood about it is a proof of the respect with 
which it is regarded; it is the Catholic Church of St. Andrews parish, where meet in 


prayer the Catholic population of St. Andrews, Carillon and Point Fortune ; the date 
of its construction is 1835. Prior to that period, the Catholics of the locality were 
ministered to by the parish priest of Rigaud. Their number having sufficiently in 
creased to claim a resident cur, in 1830, they applied to Mgr. Jean Jacques Lartigue 
to obtain permission to erect a church. The proceedings were not a little protracted, 
however; but in 1835 work was fully under way, and Messrs. Owen, Quin, Gaspavd 
de la Ronde, William Byrnes, A. E". Montmarquet, O. de Hertel and Edouard Dorion 
petitioned Mgr. Lartigue to send a delegate to bless the corner-stone and the cross 
of the new church. 

The church then built was sixty feet in length and forty-one in breadth. It was 
blessed on the iyth of March, 1836, by the Rev. M. Archambault, arch-priest, cure 
of Vaudreuil. The text of the Act is as followr, : 

On the r 7 tli day of March, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, in the 
( forenoon, we, arch-priest and cure of St. Michel de Vaudreuil, have solemnly 
blessed a church dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, built in the Seigniory of 
Argenteuil, and for the use of the inhabitants of the said Seigniory ; in the presence 
( of Messrs. Pierre Jacques de Lamothe, parish priest of St. Anne du Bout de 1 Ile 
de Montreil; of Nicolas Dufresne, priest of St. Sulpice, missionary at the Lake of 
Two Mountains; of Jacques Janvier Vinet, parish priest of Ste. Magdeleine de 
Rigaud ; a ad of Edouard Montmarquet, Esquire, merchant of the said Seigniory of 
Argenteuil, who have signed with us. the day and the year as above. 

It is this same church that still exists, with, however, an extension of thirty feet, 
and a sacristy added to it. 

The registry of the parish begins in 1833. The first act mentioned therein is that of 
the marriage of Eustache Perrault and Sophie Maheu. According to these acts, we 
find eighteen priests who h?,.ve discharged the functions of parish priest up to the 
present time. There are actually 260 Catholic families, with a population of 1400 
souls. Seven Catholic schools are in steady, active work. The best attended are: 
i st. th? St. Andrews village school, 120 children are inscribed on the roll-call ; and, 
the Carillon school, whose roll-call numbers 85 ; 3rd, the convent, with 40 boarding 
pupils. These three institutions are under the direction of the Sisters of Providence. 
Behind the church, and towards the Ottawa River, lises another substantia 
building in stone, three stories high, with mansard roof; it i- Father Bonin s College 
If the Province of Quebec be visited, and the question asked : who were the founders 
of all the educational establishments noticed in so many parishes ? the answer would 
almost invariably be : it is the work of our parish priests. 

By economical living, Father Bonin had been able to lay aside some savings ; 
and, like so many of his brother priests, his desire was to advance the cause of the 
education of youth. Therefore on the 91)1 of August, 1848, the Rev. Father 
Bonin, an ex-Sulpician, the parish priest of St. Scholastique, proposed to the members 
of the Fabrique of Saint Andrews, that they grant him land whereon to build ; and 
he promised to erect, at his own expense, a college for the instruction of youth. His 


wish was to procure for the children of the place the advantages of education with 
out obliging them to leave their homes and their parents. There was not, at that 
date, any establishment of the kind in the neighborhood. This proposal of Father 
Bonin was accepted on th- i3th of August, 1848. The ground was given to him 
on which he built the house, to-day occupied by the Sisters of Providence. 

At its inception, this Institution was confided to the Clercs of St. Viateur. It 
was very prosperous for some seven or eight years, counting, in fact, as many as 150 
to 200 pupils, who received a superior educat ion, and even a classical course was 
introduced. A college Had been built at Rigaud one year after the opening of the 
Bonin Academy ; these two houses were in too great proximity to both flourish. The 
number of pupils decreased, rapidly in the Bonin Academy. Classes were continued, 
however, up to the month of April, 1878 ; then, there were not more than 20 young 
boys in attendance. 

The Reverend Father L. Z. Champoux, at that time parish priest at St. Andrews, 
saw that Father Bonin s generous gift to the parish would benefit a larger number, 
and that the bequeather s intentions would be more truly carried out, if the college 
were transformed into a convent. He therefore called the Sisters of Providence to 
the place, with the permission and authorization of the Bishop of Montreal. The 
Reverend Sisters tcok possession on the i4th of September, 1878. 

Father Champoux had wisely consulted the best interests of St. Andrews ; to 
day, the Sisters have 250 pupils in their classes, and it may be said without exaggera 
tion, that they perform admirable work in the parish, both by education and by the 
relief of the sick. 

The priest s residence was successively the sacristy of the church, Father Bonin s 
house, and, since 1889, the actual handsome presbytery. 

A fact worthy of note, and which proves the good will of the Catholics of St. 
Andrews, is, that all thai has been done by them was by voluntary contribution ; 
recourse has never been had to the legal means provided by the statutes." 

Rev. F. A. Dugas was born at St. Jacques de 1 Achigan, Co. of Montcalm. He 
took a classical four years course at the College of 1 Assumption, and afterwards, 
till July, 1878, wasprofessor of Belles Lettresinthe same institution. He was ordained 
priest, 7th February, 1878, and was vicar of St. Roch de 1 Achigan from July to 
October of the same year; and of Chambly from the latter date till May, 1884. 
During 1884 and 1885, he was fora year Director of the Classical College of St. 
Boniface, Man., and then cure of the Cathedral till July, 1889. After this, he was 
employed as lecturer in behalf of colonization till February, 1890, since which he has 
been cure of St. Andrews. 

The Rev. Mr. Djgns is a courteous and affable gentleman, and is respected by 
all. He is devoted t:> his work, and is a stiong advocate of temperance among his 



(Copied chiefly from the Church records.) 

"The Baptist Church at St. Andrews, Lower Canada, commenced in the follow 
ing manner : 

" In the year 1835-36, Mr. Gilmour, having resigned his charge at Montreal, 
spent some time with the people at St. Andrews, and preached the Gospel much to 
their satisfaction, and, it is hoped, not without some success, either as to the awaken 
ing of the careless or the comfort and edification of believers. 

"But in June, 18.36, Mr. Gjlmour left 0:1 a mission to Boston, to procure assist 
ance to the newly formed Institution at Montreal for the education of young men 
for the ministry, and for the more general diffusion of religious instruction through 
the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 

" In the month of July, the same year, the Rev. Mr. Tapscott, who had just 
arrived from England, was directed by the providence of God to visit this place. 
The meetings held here, and in surrounding neighborhoods, were well attended, and 
some good seemed to be effected. 

There were several persons, members of the Church of Chatham, who were 
regular worshippers with us ; some others had been baptised by Mr. Gilmour three 
on the loth, and two on the i5th August, in the North River. 

"August i5lh. A discourse was delivered relative to the nature of a Christian 
church, after which those present, who had been baptized on a profession of their 
faith, gave to each other the right hand of fellowship, in token of their union with 
each other as the Church of Christ. 

"The church being formed on the principles of free communion, two persons 
were received, the same evening, without being baptized. The church, at present, 
consists of sixteen members. May we walk together in the fear of the Lord and the 
comfort of the Holy Ghost, and be multiplied. 

"March i2th, 1837. Mr. Tapscott having received an invitation to spend some 
time in Toronto as an evangelist, and conceiving it his duty to comply with it, 
signified his intention of leaving us as soon as the term of his engagement expires . 

" March 26th. A letter to the Ottawa Association was read, asking to be received 
into the Association. 

"March 29th, 3oth. The Ottawa Baptist Association held its second annual 
meeting with us at St. Andrews, and we were received into the Association according 
to our request. 

" The meetings were well attended and were interesting. The letters contained 
little information of an animating nature ; in some of the churches unhappy differ 
ences exist; in others, great apathy. Much important business was transacted, and 
great harmony prevailed. 

"April 2nd. At a church meeting it was resolved : that an invitation be sent 
to Rev. John Edwards, jr., requesting him to spend one half his time as a minister 
of the Gospel among the people of St. Andrews. 


" The records show that Mr. Edwards accepted the call, and began his regular 
labors on the 7 th day of May, 1837, and continued till October, 1843- After his 
resignation the Baptists attended the Congregational Church, of which building they 
were joint owners with the Congregationalists; but in 1849, the Baptists became 
sole proprietors of the church, and the Congregationalists P repared L to build a new one. 

" In June 1848 in compliance with an invitation from the Baptist Church, the 
Rev. John Dempsey arrived, and on the fourth day of that month began his regular 

VA difficulty of rather grave import stood in the way cf Mr. Dempsey s becom 
ing their pastor The Church was open communion in practice, and the majority of 
its members in principle. He, on the other hand, was a close Communionist, and 

could consent to be nothing else. 

\ meeting was called on Friday evening, ist September, 1848, to consult 
what principle the Church could proceed in future with respect to the subject of 
communion. In this meeting, not only the members of the Church, but all 
baptized who attended, took a part. The question was then put whether the 
should proceed in future on the open or close communion principle, and a vote 
taken, it was carried in favor of close by a majority of one. 

After the departure of Mr. Dempsey, the Baptist Church seemed never 
the degree of spiritual health and firmness that she had before possessed. A decline 
began, numbers decreased, and after a few spasmodic efforts to rekindle the early 
zeal and establish vigor, the church as an organization ceased to exist. 

Early in the year 1865, the Rev. J. W. Manning was engaged as pastor, and his 
pastorate continued to ,869, when another minister officiated till 1872. The 
was supplied the next six years by students, when the Rev. Mr. Moyle accepted 
call. His pastoral services terminated in about a year, however, and with them end 
all regular services in the Baptist Church of St. Andrews." 

The following sketch of Rev. Mr. Dempsey is an extract copied from the 
Canadian Baptist of May i8th, 1893 : 

"Mr Dempsey was born near a small hamlet, called Resharkin, in the county 
Antrim, Ireland, December 2 8th, 1822. With his parents he came to Canada, and 
settled in the township of Oxford, county of Grenviile. From his earliest years, his 
religious training was of the stern, unlovely kind, which was,, not 
mon in Scotch Presbyterian families of an earlier day. Though trained in a ngi< 
morality, diligent in the study of the Bible, and strictly attentive to all the ,extt 
of religion, God was to him a God of terror rather than a God of love. At seve 
teen years of age, his eyes were opened to the necessity of the spiritual change 
which alone he could become a child of God. After weeks of intense mental 
gle and anguish, the gracious Father sent him the light, and joy came to him, 
real and gladsome, and peace so full and sweet ! 

" Being fully persuaded of the necessity for thorough preparation for the gr< 


work before him, he entered Montreal Baptist College, took the full four years course, 
and graduated June ist, 1848, having made a record for earnest, patient and success 
ful work. His first field of labor after graduation was St. Andrews. Entering upon 
the work under great difficulties, caused by divisions and bitter contentions which 
had been going on in the church for years, he finally got together a little band of 
sixteen, over which he was ordained pastor on September i8th, 1848. For sixteen 
years he continued in St. Andrews, being instant in season and out of season, preach 
ing the word of life. He baptized there over 400 people. During all these years 
he did the work of an evangelist throughout the neighboring country. He left St. 
Andrews in 1864, having received a call from the church in Port Hope. 

" A sketch of Mr. Dempsey s life would be incomplete without some allusion to 
the evangelistic work he accomplished, apart from his regular pastoral duties. While 
pastor at St. Andrews, he travelled on foot or on horseback, alone, or in company 
with brethren King, Edwards, McPhail or Anderson, throughout the entire region of 
the old Ottawa Association. Breadalbane, Notfield, Osnabruck, South Gower, Aug 
mentation, Riceville, Lanark, Kemptville, Osgoode, Kenmore, Ormond, Clarence, 
Thurso, Papineauville, and many other places from Quebec to Kingston, have listened 
to his earnest preaching of Christ. These preaching tours involved much hard work 
and hardship, yet it was gladly engaged in, and God abundantly honored it. 

" Mr. Dempsey, besides being pastor and evangelist, was intensely interested in 
all denominational matters. Dr. Fyfe found him a steady friend to the work in 
Woodstock. He was secretary of the Ottawa Association ; secretary of the East 
ern Convention from 1858 to 1864; secretary of the Superannuated Society from the 
beginning. He has been officially connected with our missionary organizations from 
their inception; and perhaps to no man among us has been given a larger share of 
responsibility and work, in connection with the planning and advocacy of the united 

work of the churches." 


BY REV. J. McAoiE. 

" The Congregational Church in St. Andrews, which is the only representative of 
this denomination of Christians in the county of Argenteuil, was organized in 1838. 
In its early history the Church was beset with many difficulties, and its subsequent 
career has been a chequered one ; yet, here have been nurtured men and women who, 
for steadfastness of purpose, loyalty to principle and to conscience, intelligent in. 
terest in the welfare of the community, and activity in the service of Christ for the 
propagation of His kingdom, will not be easily surpassed. 

The Rev. Wm. McKillican of Indian Lands, one of the pioneer Congregational 
ministers of Canada, and a devoted servant of Christ, had for many years paid an 
annual or bi-annual visit to St. Andrews, preaching, not the special beliefs of his own 
denomination, but the simple Gospel of a full and free salvation; and, at length, he 
had the joy of forming, in what was then one of the most thriving villages in th c 
western part of Lower Canada, a Church of his own faith and order. 


In a house, that has since disappeared, on the east side of the North River, 
occupied by Mr. Blanchet, the Church was formed; the only clergyman present being 
the Rev. Mr. McKillican. The little Church shewed signs of vigorous life, and was 
soon engaged in building a house for the worship of God. But scarcely had their 
meeting house been completed, when trouble arose, owing to some arrangements for 
a joint* occupancy and ownership with the Baptist denomination, and it was not 
until a separation had been effected, that harmony was restored. This took place in 
1848, the Baptists retaining the building. 

On October 25th, 1845, the Church, on the outlook for an under shepherd, called 
the Rev. Charles McKay, who had just graduated from the Congregational Theolo 
gical Institute in Montreal, as the Congregational College was then called. That 
most interesting and solemn occasion, when the minister is set apart for his work, 
which is losing much of its meaning amid the innumerable pastoral changes, now so 
common, is one never to be forgotten by the young preacher. It forms a climax 
and a turning point in his life. It is for this he has struggled and hoped and prayed. 
Amid the discouragements of later years, he often looks back for inspiration to that 
happy occasion. There were present, besides the Church and Congregation, the Rev. 
Thomas Bayne, some day to become successor of Mr. McKay; the Rev. Mr. Mc 
Killican, that aged soldier of the Cross, and sainted father of the Church ; the Rev. I. 
J. Carruthers of Gosford street church, Montreal, so sympathetic and eloquent. They, 
with due solemnity, set the young man apart with the laying on of hands to the 
ministry of the word, and the Church rejoiced in the newly formed relation. ^ Mr. 
McKay endeared himself to all by his straightforward and manly conduct, his inde 
pendent bearing and his faithful preaching of the Gospel, and his name is still held 
in loving remembrance by some of those who heard the Gospel from his lips. Never 
robust in body, it soon became evident that he could not long sustain the strain of 
the severe climate of this new country. He was advised to try the sea coast, and 
left St. Andrews at the close of 1848 for St. John, New Brunswick, and was pastor 
of the Congregational Church there for a number of years. 

The Church was three years without a pastor, when the Rev. Thomas Bayne, 
who had been in charge of the churches of Hawkesbury and Vankleek Hill for several 
years, was called to fill the vacant office. He did so in the beginning of 1849. and 
remained until 1852; but did not lay hold of the affections of his people, as did his 
predecessor. During this period the Church was engaged in choosing the site for 
their new meeting house and in its erection, which was not done without some in 
ternal disturbance. A beautiful site was chosen on the west bank of the North River, 
and the church, a beautiful brick edifice, was, for the time, one of the best appointed 
village churches in the Ottawa Valley. Its erection was not completed until 1851. 
For a year after Mr. Bayne left, the Church was supplied by the Rev. Mr. Chase, 
Rev. John McKillican and the late Mr. Hibbard, until in 1854, when the Rev. Alex. 
Sim, M.A., was called to the pastorate. Few records remain of the spiritual con 
dition of the Church during this period, but the membership is said to have been 32 ; 


some of these res ding in Point Fortune, Lachute Road, Beech Ridge, River Rouge, 
Cote du Midi, Cote St. Pierre, as well as in St. Andrews. Mr. Sim, who was a gra 
duate of the University of Aberdeen and of the Congregational Theological Academy, 
Glasgow, was ordained to the " Ministry of the Word," at Aberdeen, on the i2th 
day of July, in the year 1853. He came to Canada to fill a position as Professor in 
Gorham College, Nova Scotia ; but that institution was reduced to ashes before he 
arrived, and has never been rebuilt. Mr. Sim remained for about eleven years, and 
during this period the Church exercised an extended influence throughout the com 
munity. In addition to his ministerial duties, he added others of a scholastic charac 
ter, as teacher of a private and also of the public school. On leaving St. Andrews, 
he went to Franklin Centre, where he stayed for a short time, and finally took up a 
section of land in Western Ontario, where his family still reside. Mr. Sim passed 
away a few years ago to his final rest. 

From 1868 to 1885 is a long period, but few records remain to tell its story. The 
shepherdless flock held together for a long time, though diminished in numbers. The 
Sunday School was faithfully conducted by Mr. Devvar, the senior deacon of the 
church, who remained true to the cause, amid storm and sunshine, in good and evil 
report. Among the students who supplied the pulpit during college vacations, we 
may mention Mr. Nighswander and Mr. Cossar. 

At length, in the summer of 1885, prospects brightened, and the little company 
were encouraged by the Rev. Thomas Hall to make another effort. The Church was 
supplied during this and the succeeding winter by students of the Congregational 
College, and in the fall of 1887, the Church called a graduate of the College, who had 
spent the previous summer as student supply, to be its pastor. In the presence of 
many beloved fathers and brethren, Mr. McAdie was set apart for the ministry of the 
Word. During this period the church was renovated and partly rebuilt, at a cost of 
over $1600, all of which, save about $roo, has been paid. Mr. McAdie s relation 
to the Church, first as student supply, and then as pastor, continued over six and one 
half years. But other events are too recent to be discussed at the present time, and 
must be left for a future historian. One member of the Church remains who saw its 
beginning. We trust he may not see its close." 

MR. McADiE still lives in St. Andrews, where he has many warm friends. His 
time is devoted to teaching and literary work, chiefly to writing for religious period 
icals. Mrs. McAdie also has displayed ability in the same work, and during the 
past year or two has delivered an occasional lecture, which was both interesting and 

Since Mr. McAdie retired from the pastorate, the Church has been supplied by 
students, FREDERICK LEITCH being the first. He officiated for nearly two years, with 
much ability and popularity. He graduated from McGill in 1894," and is now pastor 
of a church in Portland, Maine. 

He was succeeded by CHARLES ASHDOWN, a clever young man, earnest in h:s 
work, and discharging his duties to the great satisfaction of his congregation. 



Methodists, like the Baptists, were once 



are * a g ood ly 


census of 



at St. 
p. ri .h- 

The most active con- 

funds frorrUhe year 1841 to 1865 inclusive : 

Number of 

Church Relief 




*~* r-Z 








* 1853 




1 861 


[ohn Armstrong, Wm. Dignam 


$7 70 
9 12 

9 20i 

6 83 

7 53 
8 oo 
16 oo 

12 3 8 
12 90 
13 07 
I 3 27 

12 37 

12 98 

13 75 
7 3 2 

10 12 

7 16 
7 75 
S 75 
7 24 
2 3: 
2 8; 

5 cc 
5 IC 

$i 79 

2 50 

3 76 

2 63 

3 oo 

3 7 2 
8 50 

13 32 
u 68 

12 OO 
12 CO 

7 oo 
7 37 
5 25 
7 3 
4 75 
i 8 co 

) 10 OO 

13 26 
I 14 15 

) II OO 

) 12 OO 
) 12 50 

[ohn Armstrong, Wm. Morton 



3 9 







Wm. H. Williams, John Gemley 
Wm H Williams, 1 homas Hanna 

J Hughes, M. Baxter, J . Annstrong 

Michael Baxter. Charles laogait . 

$8 56 
6 94 
6 23 
6 27 
6 46 
6 50 
u 50 
8 30 

3 3 1 

7 45 
4 12 

4 25 
4 5 

David B. Madden, David C. McDowell 

David B. Madden, Richard Wilson 

Francis Coleman, John Armstrong 2nd 

Francis Coleman, Richard M. Hammond 

1 homas W. Constable, Richard M. Hammond 

Thomas W. Constable, Silas Huntmgton 

Thomas W. Constable, Wm. Scales 

$5 oo 

3 5c 
3 oc 

3 5 C 
4 oc 

2 4f 


i 6< 

2 0< 
2 H 

Tames H. Bishop, Andiew Armstrong 

Edward H. Dewart, Jidmunu ^. a 

Edward H. Dewart, tdmunct ,. oweci. . 

Robert Brown, Henry F. Bland 

Robert Brown, Henry F . Bland 

Alfred Andrews, Wm. M. Cooly 
Alfred Andrews 

Wm. D. Brown, Alex. Campbell, 2nd 

2 97 
3 3 
3 35 

* Qrenville set off. 



Besides her generous support of churches, St. Andrews has been active in the 
formation and maintenance of Christian societies. The Bible Society was formed in 
1841, and ever since has been in a fairly prosperous condition. The first officers 
chosen were as follows : W. G. Blanchard, president ; Charles Benedict, vice- 
president ; Charles Wales, treasurer ; J.Edwards, jun., secretary. Duncan Dewar 
was appointed depositary, and has filled the office ever since, with the exception of 
a few years. 

The succeeding officers were : The late John Middleton, president; Thomas 
Lamb, vice-president ; C. T. Wales, treasurer ; and Rev. Dr. Paterson, secretary. 

The late Rev. Mr. Henderson was president from 1850 until his death in 1877, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Finlay McMartin, who was in turn followed by Mr. 
Middleton. The latter held the office until his death. 


A Christian Endeavour Society was organized here in 1887, the first in the 
County of Argenteuil, and one of the first formed in the Province. 

It was organized through the efforts of Miss H. Hibbard, who has ever since 
labored assiduously to promote its growth and the success of its object. Beginning 
with a membership of eight, it increased till its members numbered eighty ; but, owing 
to removals from the place, it is not now so large. The meetings are held in the 
Congregational Church, though its members represent all the different Protestant 
denominations of the Parish. 

Alexander D. Dewar, president of the County Union, is also president of the 

Local Union at St. Andrew s. 


The W. C. T. U. organized a Local Union in St. Andrews in March, 1883 ; the 
first president was Mrs. (Rev.) Moyle ; she was succeeded by Mrs. Finley McMartin, 
who held the position several years. Mrs. Chas. T. Wales followed, and three years 
subsequently 1894 she was succeeded by Miss Julia E. Davis. 

St. Andrews has also supplied three presidents for the County 
Angus McPhie, Miss Julia E. Davis and Mrs. Wm. Barclay. 


On the afternoon of Wednesday, December 8th, 1875, a meeting of the ladies of 
St. Andrews was held at the Presbyterian Manse, in accordance with the notice , 
from the pulpits of the several churches in the place, for the purpose of organizing a 
Auxiliary to the Montreal Branch of the Woman s Board of Missions 

There were present : Mrs. Paterson, Mrs. C. Wales, Mrs. A. McPhie, Mrs ; 
Wales, Miss Clare, Miss Barclay, Miss H. Davis, Miss M. Sharpe, Miss A. Wa *, 
Miss M. Wales. 



The following officers were chosen : 

President, Mrs. A. McPhie. 

( Mrs C Wale 5 

_. T . ^ . , 1 ITJL I o * v> i T a, iv, _ 

Vice-Presidents, j Mrg< Paterson> 

Secretary, Miss Wales. 

Treasurer, Miss Barclay. 

In November, 1891, the Canadian Woman s Board (of which the St. Andrews 
had been an Auxiliary for sixteen years) disbanded, having accomplished the object 
for which it had been organized ; leaving the members free to enter more fully into 
the missionary work of the Churches wilh which they were connected. 

We decided, however, not to disband, but continue as a Union Society, working 
together in the cause of Foreign Missions. We have raised, each year, sums varying 
from $12.21 to $83.79 : the average being, in the first six years. $21.56, and in f he last 
six years, $73.20. Some years ago we adopted the plan of placing Mission bags, 
marked " For the Lord," in each family, asking the women to put one cent a week 
in it, which had the effect of increasing the subscriptions. In this way, we have 
been enabled to send sums, yearly, to the Missions of the Presbyterian, Congrega 
tional and Baptist Churches. Although never a large Society, it has been a means of 
contributing something towards the spread of the Gospel abroad, and has been 

found very helpful to the members themselves. 



A Masonic Lodge was organized in St. Andrews in 1813 ; the following record 
of the event is copied from the old Masonic Register : 

March ist, 1813. 
MURRAY LODGE No. 17, Register of Lower Canada. 

This day being appointed for the formal installation of this Lodge, the Petitioning 
Brethren having assembled at the house of Brother Benjamin Wales in the village of 
St. Andrews, at i p.m., the Worshipful Jabez D. Dewitt, Past Master of St. Paul s 
Lodge No. 12, accompanied by the Worshipful J. D. Turnbull, Master of Union 
Lodge No. 8, Montreal, arrived from that city, and produced the authority of the 
Grand Lodge of Lower Canada, as below specified. 

QUEBEC, 2oth February, 1813. 

You are hereby authorized and directed to install this Worshipful Master of 
Murray Lodge, No. 17, agreeably to ancient custom, and to deliver over to him the 
warrant of Constitution, etc. With brotherly regard, 

I am yours in truth, 

(Signed), WILLAM DOWNS. 
To BRO. JABEZ DEWITT of Paul s Lodge, No. 12, Montreal. 

,J. A. N. MACKAY. 


Lodge opened in the first Degree of Masonry by 

Worshipful Jabez D. De Witt, Wl. pro tern. 
Worshipful J. D. Turnbull, J. tern. 
Brother S. Goodrill, J. \V. pro tern. 


Worshipful B. Wales, Master Elect. Bro. J. Masham, Sec y Elect 

Bro. Elon Lee, S. W. Elect. Arthur Jackson, S. D. Elect 

Reuben French, J. W. Elect. Gust. A. Hooker, J. D. Elect. 

Ames Matthews, Treas. Elect. D. Flint, Tyler,/ tern. 

At a meeting held 6th Jan, 1824, "It was moved, seconded, and unanimously 
agreed that the thanks of this Lodge be given Brother Thomas Barren for the faith- 
lischarge of the duties of his office in the Provincial Grand Lodge." 
Brother Thomas Barron was unanimously elected to be sent to the Provincial 
feud Lodge at Montreal, to assist in framing By-Laws for the government of that 

Among the members of this Lodge previous to 1826 appear the names of 

Wm. Beaton Wm. Streeter, jun. John Me Arthur 

John Harrington James Proctor Elijah Kello-g 

Timothy Bristol James Volla Judah Center 

Archibald Rae Richard Mears Justus Barnet 

Peter F. Le Roy Benj. Wales Wm. Dixon 

Daniel Foss Andrew Simmons P. F. Peabody 

Wm. Streeter Wm. McDole W. G. Blanchard. 

Later, appear the names of Wm. Zearns, John Oswald, Hugh Dunlop, D. Beattie, 
H. Maguire. 

This was called Murray Lodge No. 5 " until April, 1825, after which it was 
called " St. Andrews Lodge No. 5." 

J. A. N. MACKAY is the only representative of the legal fraternity in St. Andrews 
Asides Mr. de La Ronde. He was born 1840, in St. Scholastique, and educated in 
colleges in Montreal, Ottawa and St. Hyacinthe, the latter being the place where 
his studies were completed. 

The ancestors of Mr. Mackay were men of military proclivities, and distinguished 

in the service in which they were engaged. Francis Mackay, who was a near relative 

Lord Roe, had three sons Stephen, Francis and Samuel ; the two former in their 

youth served under the Prince of Orange, as lieutenants of The Guards. Samuel, 

vho was then too young for military service, subsequently, distinguished himself in 

Hungary, in the service of Maria Theresa. In 1756, the three brothers all entered the 


" Royal American Regiment," which afterward became the 6oth Reg. of Col; 
Alexander Mackay ; Stephen, the eldest, died while captain in this Regiment, before 
t he Conquest of Canada. The two remaining brothers served during the Conquest, at 
Montreal, where they remained. Samuel served at the blockade of St. Johns, and 
was with Burgoyne during his unfortunate expedition to the States. He was buried 
at the foot of Mount Royal, Montreal, near the garden of the Seminary, where he had 
formerly commanded a picket at the taking of Montreal. 

The brothers all married French ladies belonging to the most prominent and 
aristocratic families of Canada. Samuel Mackay left two sons Samuel and Stephen ; 
the former settled in the States ; the latter, as captain and major, served in the war of 
1812. He married Miss Globensky, settled at St. Eustache, and died there in 1859. 
He left several children, of whom one son was Augustus Mac kay, who practised the 
notarial profession for forty-seven years, and died in 1872. J. A. N. Mackay, one of 
his sons, and the subject of our sketch, studied law under the Hon. Wilfrid Prevost, 
the late Hon. L. T. Drummond, and the Hon. Louis Belanger, Judge of the 
Superior Court. During the year 1862, he practised with Mr. Drummond, and the 
same year was admitted to the Bar. The prospects for business at that time being 
much better in St. Andrews than in the city, he settled here, and has since practised 

with much success. 

He has been employed in several murder trials, in which his success has given 
him no little celebrity. The following are the most important of these cases with 
which he has been connected Queen vs. James and John Byrne, for the murder of 
Valiquet in 1867 ; this trial was conducted at St. Scholastique, before Judge Monk, 
and lasted fifteen days ; Queen vs. Barnard Cain, for the murder of James Nagle ; 
Queen vs. Pierre Durocher and wife, for the murder of John Mullin ; Queen vs. Mrs. 
Lacroix and daughter, for the murder of a child. 

In most of the above cas.-s, and especially the first, Mr. Mackay was the only 
lawyer for the defence, and in every case he was successful. In 1894: he went to 
England, and argued before the Judicial Committee and Privy Council of Her 
Majesty an important water-power case between Hamelin & Ayre and the Banner- 
mans. Sir Richard Webster, Attorney General, was Mr. Mackay s Counsel, with 
Vernon Smith, Q.C. ; the former argued the case personally with Mr Mackay. 

He was married in 1864 to Miss Papineau of Montreal; she died in 1870, 
leaving one son Alfred, now a barrister in Montreal. In 1874 he married Miss 
Desjernier of St. Hennas; they have three sons: the eldest, Adolphe, is in the 
employ of Messrs. Hodgson, Sumner & Co., Montreal ; the other two are in college. 
Mr. Mackay has an attractive residence surrounded by well laid out grounds in St. 
Andrews, and a fine farm near this village, which he has brought to a high state of 

COL. D HERTEL was, for quite a number of years, Registrar of the County < 
Argenteuil, and relinquished the office when it was removed from St. Andrews 
Lachute. He enlisted at the age of eighteen, and was in the battles of Pittsburgh 


and Chrysler s Farm. Deserving promotion, he was eventually rewarded with the 
commission of Colonel, fie came from Montreal to St. Andrews, and during his 
residence here was esteemed for his intelligence and probity. 

At the time of the Fenian Raid in 1866, several companies of Volunteers having 
been called out, they assembled at St. Andrews, preparatory to their departure for 
other points. Col. D Hertel, on account of his position and military experience, 
naturally was requested to address them. He was a fine, soldierly-looking man, 
full six feet in stature, but the days of his military prowess had passed. In full 
uniform, bat trembling from weakness and age, he spoke a few words, and then closed 
with the rermrk: "You know I cannot always be with you, boys." He then 
returned to his home, which was the present residence of Mr. De la Ronde, barrister, 
and had scarcely reached the threshold when he expired. 

In 1837, MR - ADAM DRYSDALE and Mary Black were married in Montreal at the 
house of James Roy, merchant, and they immediately removed to St. Andrews. The 
father of Mr. Drysdale, who was a retired sea captain, having for many years sailed 
between Glasgow and Montreal, came with them. While living at St. Andrews. 
Capt. Drysdale taught J. J. C. Abbott, afterwards Premier, the use of the compass, 
astronomy and higher mathematics subjects for which young Abbott, in his thirst 
for knowledge, had a great liking. 

Adam Drysdale was a wheelwright by trade, and a good carpenter and builder. 
He was engaged in manufacturing plows while he lived here, and as they proved very 
satisfactory, many were sold to the farmers in Argenteuil. In 1842, he returned to 
Montreal with his family then increased by three children, Adam, Thomas and 
Margaret. One of his daughters Grace was married in 1879 to Joseph B. Taylor, 
of Isle aux Chats, Argenteuil County ; she died a few years since. 

WILLIAM DRYSDALE, another son of this family, is the well-known bookseller 
and publisher of Montreal. He married a lady of Sr. Andrews, as stated elsewhere ; 
and it is no discredit to Argenteuil that in the phalanx of prominent and worthy men 
with whose associations she is blended may be numbered William Drysdale. He 
has had large experience in his present business, and has ever taken a lively interest 
in the development and promotion of Canadian literature. 

His establishment on St. James Street, 112 X 20 ft. in dimensions, and four 
stories high, is fitted up with all the requirements of the trade, and every variety of 
useful books may here be found. David Drysdale, i is brother, who is also much 
respected in Montreal, has a large hardware store on Craig street. 

WILLIAM R. HIBEARD is another of the esteemed citizens of St. Andrews. 
Many years of his life have been devoted to railroad affairs, and he is now connected 
with the Canada Atlantic. In 1853, he purchased a farm for his parents in St. 
Andrews, where they spent the remainder of their days. William 1\. was married in 
1852 to Sarah Cameron, of Montreal ; they have had six children, of whom one died in 
infancy ; two sons and three daughters are now living. The sons are in business, 


and of the daughters, the eldest, the widow of George May, sen., resides in Los 

people by theu acts of benevolence, and the earnestness with wh,ch they 
have encouraged and aided every moral reform. 

HUGH WALSH, the present Mayor of St. Andrews, and propr.etor of the 
in. grist mill, came to this village from Ormstovvn, Quo., in 1883. 

His grandfather and two of his sons enlisted in the Brmsh, and lost he r 
lives in the Peninsular War. His father, R. J. Walsh, was educated ,n Dublin, 

tered the British Navy as midshipman, and after serving seven years, came 
O, dt tdw on ofU,e early sealers inChateauguay. He was in Mon.real atthe 
Urn of the Riot of ,849, and was writing in the Parliament House when it was 
mobbed and set on fire j he died at Ormstown. He had seven sons and two daughters 

""" S Hngh?nt to the youngest son, was married ,6th February, ,869, to Catherine 
M Cam bell of Ormstown, and was engaged in mercantile business ,n that place 
number of year,. He purchased the grist mill on coming to St. Andrews, and has 
improved it and increased its capacity for work. It is now one o, the best equipped 
Manufactories in its line in this part of the Province, and u does a large business. 
Mr. Walsh is a public-spinted, enterprising gentleman, and takes much merest ,n 
local affairs-; he has been mayor of the Parish, and chairman o. the Model School 
Board several years. 

UMES MARTIN from the County Down, Ireland, came with his family to Montreal 
in 1828, and after living there till 1830, he settled at St. Andrews on the River Rouge. 
In the fall of 1838 he removed to a small farm on the Lachute Road, but as he was 
a carpenter by trade, his time was almost constantly devoted to ih.s occuit,on 
Mrs. Martin died with the cholera in 1832, leaving three sons-Edward, ( 
James, and three daughters Mary, Martha and Jane. 

Edward died in Illinois in 1894; Charles is still living in Marquette Co M, 
and James died in i8 5 4-*ged about . Mary married John McMarUn of the River 
Rouge; Martha married George Powers, and died in Ottawa ; Jane married Jor 
Parker, and after living in St. Andrews a number of years, they removed to ( 
where Mr. Parker died. Mrs. Parker now lives in St. Andrews with her sis 
the widow of John McMartin. 

Mr. Martin s second marriage was, in 1835, to Clarissa Flint, daughter of J 
merchant of St. Andrews, whose store occupied the site of the present dwell >t M 
Hibbard. They had five sons and two daughters-two of the former and one 
latter died in childhood ; the other daughter died at the age of 20. Of the remai 
tlr-e sons, Thomas B. lives in California ; George H., the youngest, in \ and, 



111. John, the eldest of those living, remained on the homestead, and added to it till 
it comprises about 120 acres. 

Mr. Martin having also become joint owner with A. Le Roy of the Harrington 
estate, comprising 240 acres, has recently removed to the commodious brick dwelling 
on this estate in the village. He is one of the leading men of the parish, is a J. P., 
and secietary of the Model and Elementary School Boards. He joined Maj. 
Simpson s Troop when it was organized, and after serving in it eight years joined 
the St. Andrews Troop, with which he was connected sixteen years, and was at the 
front during the Fenian Raids. Mr. Martin has taken a lively interest in the County 
Agricultural Society, of which he was vice-presidentfour years, and presidentfive years, 
during which period the Society was in a most prosperous condition. He has been 
twice married first, to Ann Mclntyre, 6th August, 1864 ; she died igih October, 1890, 
and he was next married to Kate Mclntyre his first wife s sister in December, 
1891. Since the above was written, Mr. Martin has sold his property and removed to 

THOMAS TURNER, from London, Rng., came to Montreal a short time previous to 
the Rebellion of 1837, and was married there, 22nd May, 1837, lo Elien Walker 
from Dunbarton, Scotland. A few years later, they removed to Toronto, and after 
living there and at Stowville and Claremont about a quarter of a century, they 
removed to this section, being interested in the settlement of the estate of Mr. Walker 
-Mrs. Turner s father who had lived near Belle Riviere, and had recently died. 
They settled in St. Andrews, where Mr. Turner died nth February, 1875, anj Mrs - 
Turner Qth December, 1878. 

They left three daughters Elizabeth, Mary and Helen. Mary married John 
Webster, and Helen was married, 2 5th November, 1884, to Win. Somerville, a 
farmer of St. Andrews; Elizabeth lives with her sister, Mrs. Somerville; these sisters 
are among the respected Christian ladies of this locality. 

PETER WEBSTER from Leeds, England, settled in St. Andrews in 1839. He wa $ 
a tailor, and after plying his trade here eighteen years, he conducted an hotel at 
dishing for a year, in the present stone dwelling of R. Hartley. 

He then returned to St. Andrews, and about three years later purchased the 
lot and erected the brick house where his son J. W. now lives. During the later 
years of his life he was much interested in religion, and was active in religious work. 
He died 2ist March, 1891, at the age of 82 ; Mrs. Webster died i6th June, 18771 
aged 65. They had eight children three sons and two daughters grew up. 

William, the eldest son, a steamboat engineer of long experience, died in Toronto 
in August, 1890. 

Thomas, a merchant tailor in Montreal for many years, died 28th June, 1890. 

John W., who has long been a popular tailor and citizen of this place, was 
mairieJ 151)1 May, 1873, to Mary Turner. He joined Co. No. i of the Rangers at 
Us formation, and served seven years. He then joined the St. Andrews Troop, and 
served in that, also, seven years. Mr. Webster has a good farm of about 200 acres in 
Bethany and another of 100 acres on Beech Ridge. 


DANIEL SUTHERLAND was born in 1819, in Cromarty, Rothshire, Scotland, 
where his father, William Sutherland, was a contractor, and owner of a granite quarry. 
In his youth, the younger Sutherland had the good fortune to enpy the friendship of 
the celebrated geologist and author, Hugh Miller, who worked in the quarry ; Mr. 
Ross, who built the St. Ann s Bridge, was also his school-mate in Cromarty. 

Mr. Sutherland s brother-in-law conducted a large military tailoring establishment, 
and it was here that Daniel learned his trade. He came to Canada in 1842 and 
settled in St. Andrews, opening a shop in the brick building opposite the hotel ; he 
afterwards built the house in which he has since resided. Mr. Sutherland was married 
April nth, 1852, to Mary Ann, daughter of the late Robert Simpson. Mrs. Suther 
land died in 1887, leaving two sons and one daughter; the youngest son, William E. 
D., died 1894 in Pasadena, Cal, whither he had gone hoping to benefit his health, 
leaving a widow and one child. He was interred in St. Andrews cemetery. 
eldest son, Robert S., is a commercial traveller in Chicago, and the daughter, 
Catherine Mary, is living in St. Andrews with her father. Mr. Sutherland is one of 
the respected citizens of St. Andrews ; owing to advanced age he has retired from 

WILLIAM CAUTION, from Perthshire, Scotland, came to Canada in 1843 5 lie was 
a cabinetmaker by trade, also a carpenter. In 1851 he was married in Point 
Fortune to Agnes, daughter of the late John Pitcairn, and the sirae year he settled 
in St. Andrews. He opened a cabinet shop here, and did an extensive business as 
contractor and builder, employing many men and several apprentices. He died in 
March, 1891, aged 70 ; his widow still lives here. 

They had four children three sons and one daughter, but only one son and 

daughter are now living. 

Alexander, the son, residing herewith his mother and sister, still industriously 

prosecute? the business followed by his father. 

W. J. MORAW, second son of John Moraw, was born 2 4 th July, 1856, in Center- 
ville. He remained on the farm until twenty-five years of age, when he started in the 
cheese business with Thomas Ross, at Point Fortune, and remained with him a year. 
He has continued in the business ever since, and has bought one factory and bull! 
four in this county. Mr. Moraw has also a creamery in this village, which has been 
in operation four years. He was married September yth, 1887, to Mary, daughter < 
Martin puncheon, of Beech Ridge. They have one son and one daughter. 

JOSEPH ROBINSON, from the County of Antrim, Ireland, came to St. Andrews in 
I845 he was married 2 3 rd July, 1852, to a widow, Mrs. Rlizabeth Colligham. 
have had five children three sons and two daughters. Joseph, one of the 
when seven years old met a sad death by the destruction of the St. Andrews 1 
an account of which is given elsewhere. 

Margaret, the eldest daughter, was married isth June, 1887, to John Hend< 
abrass finisher by trade, of Montreal. He died i 4 th May, 1891, leaving one child, a 


boy three years old. Mrs. Henderson resides in a fine, commodious, brick dwelling, 
beautifully located on the bank of the North River, where she ably entertains summer 

JAMES MIDDLETON was born gth April, 1809, in Cortachy, at the county seat of 
Lord Monboddo, Monboddo House, parish of Forden, Kinkardineshire, Scotland. 
After leaving school, he received thorough training in agriculture and arboriculture, 
and was yet a young man when he managed these departments of an estate at Castle 
Sample. Mr. Middleton left Glasgow in March, 1842, on the sailing ship " Mohawk," 
and with his wife and family reached Montreal after seven weeks. A short time after 
his arrival, he took the position of superintendent of Judge Reid s house, property 
and grounds, on the spot where Sohmer Park now stands, remaining here until 1848. 
He then came to St. Andrews and farmed for five years, after which he entered into 
the management of the late Mr. William Ltinn s estate, taking charge of it twenty- 
three years. His reputation as an arboriculturist may be somewhat appxrent from 
the fact that, from 1847 unt il ne ceased active labors, he had gained 650 prizes. In 
grape culture, he almost invariably won first prizes, and had no superior in Canada. 
He was one of the earliest members of the Montreal Horticultural Society, and was 
one of their judges for many years. Mr. Middleton possessed much ingenuity in 
handicraft, and some articles of furniture made in his spare moments especially a 
finely carved clock and a centre-table, which was made from 1500 different pieces of 
wood, and a diminutive summer house are well worth seeing. 

He died at his home in St. Andrews, 2nd November, 1895, leaving a widow, one 
son, Mr. J. Middleton of Point Fortune, and a daughter, Mrs. Smile, of Montreal. 


The men who in past years were for some time connected with mercantile busi 
ness in this place have already been mentioned, as well as Mr. Devvarand Mr. \V:i!es, 
who are still trading here. 

Besides the stores of these two gentlemen, which are of long standing, especially 
that of Mr. Wales, which is almost coeval with the village, there are the stores of 
Thomas Lamb, J. H. LaFond, the grocery of Chas. Ladouceur, and the tin shops of 
Dorion and Ladouceur. 

THOMAS LAMB is a son of the late Wm. Lamb, noticed in the history of Point 
Fortune. He came to St. Andrews as clerk for the late Charles Wales, in 1856, and 
remained in this position five years. In 1866, he entered into partnership with Alex 
ander Dewar, and in 1877 became a partner of Charles Wales, jr., in the present store 
of Mr. Wales. In 1886, he commenced trade on his own account, in the store occu 
pied for some years by the late Thomas Meikle, and where he still continues the 
business. Having the unqualified respect and confidence of the public, he receives a 
good share of public patronage. He is also Postmaster, having been appointed to the 
position in 1870. He joined the Rangers in 1862, at their organization, and was 


promoted to the rank of and Lieut, in 1866. to that of Captain in 1870, and to the 
rank of Major in 1880 ; he has been Paymaster of the Battalion since 1870. 

He was married July i5th, 1869, to Margaret S., daughter of the late Chas. 
Wales, sr. Like her husband, Mrs. Lamb is well known for her interest and activity 
in Temperance and Christian work, and esteemed for her deeds of kindness and 
benevolence. Their only son, W. H. Lamb, is assistant in the stort hnd post office. 

THOMAS MEIKLE, mentioned above, was for several years a prominent man in 
this place. On his monument in the cemetery is the following: 

" Thomas Meikle a native of Glasgow was for many years Postmaster and 
merchant at St. Andrews. He perished with his aged father by the burning of the 
steamer Montreal near Quebec, 26th June, 1857. He was 45 years of age." 

F. H. LAFOND is comparatively a newcomer, having opened his store in this 
place in 1893. He is a native of St. Hermas, and after spending some years as clerk 
in Montreal, he began trade in Lachute in 1887, where he remained till he came to 
St. Andrews. He has quite an extensive stock of merchandise, and seems to be pros 
pering in his business. 

The store he occupies is that built and occupied so long by Mr. Guy Richards. 
Frank Farish also was a merchant in the same store for n"iany years. He took quite a 
prominent part in local affairs, and was secretary of the School Board for some time. 
Some of his letters, which are still extant, show elegant penmanship, and are also very 
c orrectly written. It was he who built the present dwelling of Mr. McKay, advocate. 

CHARLES LADOUCEUR who has a grocery here, has been in the grocery business 
and a successful dealer in live stock for the past twenty years. 

HLRCULE LADOUCEUR is proprietor of a bakery, which he has successfully 
conducted for many years. His father, Joseph Ladouceur, came to St. Andrews from 
the county of Two Mountains nearly sixty years ago, and died here about 1867. He 
had four sons and six daughters who grew up. 

Hercule, the third son, spent several years of his youth on the Ottawa, after 
which he. found employment for four years in the States. Returning in 1865, he took 
up the mason s trade, which he followed a number of years, erecting, besides the brick 
hotel of John Kelley in Carillon, many other good buildings in this part of the coun 
try. As Mr. Ladouceur has always been inclined to work, whenever he had oppor 
tunity, during the winters of the period when he followed the mason trade, he was em 
ployed in different \vays, and sometimes as clerk in a store. 

In 1878, he opened a bakery, with which he is still engaged. He was married 
in March, 1864, to Ksther Haspeck, whose grandfather, from Germany, was one of 
the early settlers of St. Andrews. Of their four children, three are married. Mr. 
Ladouceur has been Municipal Councillor nine years, and Churchwarden three. 

\V. A. LaFond, who came from St. Hermas in 1894, is the only barber in the 


EDWARD DORION was one of the active business men of St. Andrews in the 
generation past. He came here a young man from St. Eustache, and married a 
Miss Ladouceur of this village. He was by trade a tinsmith, and followed this 
through life, much of the time doing quite a prosperous business. He had four sons 
and two daughters that grew up. 

Ferdinand, his third son, learned the trade of his father, and has followed it very 
successfully for many years. During the last decade, he has employed several hands 
in the work of furnace setting, plumbing, roofing, etc. His house is one of the most 
attractive in the village, and his shop contains a good stock of tinware and a variety 
of stoves and other hardware. He was for several years a member of the local 
Council, but. owing to the demand of his business, he declined further service. He 
was married 8th April, 1861, to Margaret Hartigan ; they have had six sons and 
seven daughteis, but three of the former are deceased. Their eldest daughter is a 
nun of Providence of the Sacred Heart at Great Falls, Montana. 

St. Andrews has not been fortunate in her efforts to obtain a railway the first 
one which was to have passed through this parish never having approached nearer 
than Carillon. 

In 1891, the Parish Council granted a bonus to C. X. Armstrong, for the construc 
tion of a railway from Lachute to some point on the Ottawa near St. Andrews, and a 
railway station within half a mile cf the iron bridge. It was supposed that this would 
form part of a railway crossing the Ottawa not far from St. Andrew?, and thence 
running to some point in Ontario. The road was constructed from Lachute to St. 
Andrews, but the other terms of the contract were not fulfilled ; and as the amount 
of travel and freight to be carried between the two places is insufficient to pay the 
expense of running a train and keeping the road in repair, especially in winter, there 
are only a few months in the year at present when St. Andrews has railway accommo 

A daily stage conveying the mail runs between Carillon and Lachute via St. 
Andrews; this line has been in operation for the last fifteen years under the proprie 
torship of Magloire Campeau of this village, who also has a contract for carrying the 

The Town Hall, a fine, brick building, was erected in 1881. 

Members of the Municipal Council of 1855 the first under the present municipal 
system ; the meeting was held in Jones " white house " :- 

Robert Simpson, John Hoy, Carillon; Edw. Jones, jun., La Baie ; John Bur- 
wash, River Rouge ; John McPhie, Fred. H. McArthur, La Baie j Thomas Jefferson, 
Lachute Road. Robert Simpson was elected Mayor, and Thomas Wanless appointed 

Among the different enterprises which have been started in St. Andrews was 

that of a newspaper, The Progress, which was first published in 1873, edited by 

- Chambers ; Thomas Dorion, proprietor. Mr. Chambers subsequently was con- 


nectecl with The Chronicle (Quebec). During the early part of its existence The 
"vl was Conservative in politics, but afterwards it came under the eduonal 
ement of R. P. de La Ronde, advocate, when it became ly .denufied 
w it Mho Ttral party. It appears to have been a lively, well conducted, loca, 
sheet ; but owing to the removal of the printer, its publication ceased 876 

* * * 

A Model School was established in St. Andrews about .85, Adam Walker 
.the first teacher. For some reason this school did no. prosper m after years 
A Gove" ment grant was withdrawn, and the school closed , ,876. t was 
e nened n "59,, in a substantial, commodious brick school butldmg, smce whtch t, 
been in a flourishing condition ; many good scholars havmg been fined here for 
belt mstitutionsof learning, the counting-room, or other busrness vocauons 
The Cher, who have officiated since the opening of the school m ,89. are as 
Inow - 1 Proctor, A. E. Rivard, Thos. E. Townshend and F. W. Vaughan 

FRED K,CK W. VAUGHAN, the present Principal, was born ,n Coattcook Stan- 
stead County Que., in 1875. He attended the village school m Avers rial, 

, place his par nts moved in ,876. Until fifteen years of age, h,s academtcal 

duca, on was a quired at Hatley Model School and Coaticook Academy from the 

u" which he graduated, and matriculated at McGill. He recetved tus Academy 

& 1 in .894, a d has since been teaching in St. Andrews wr.h a marked degree 

"ce s the tandard of scholarship under his tnit.on havmg rn.ten.lly advanced. 

Mr Varan s energy and ability give promise tha, he will be an .mportan, addu.on 

10 n eo a separate school municipality in March, ,8,,, and 
the Model and Elementary Schools arc taught in the same buildrag. 

Mr Colin De-ar contributes the following history of the bridges :- 

- -te marntenance of the bridge across the North River at St. Andrews has 
alw.ys been a heavy tax upon the inhabitants, especially smce some of the adjommg 
parishes were released from their liab.lity J confute ^ M, d . men _ 

The first bridge was erected m 1807 , it was a 

d pimitive design, consisting of five spans, supported on four trestles, and 
occupymg a much .owe? level than the present structure; as the country was not 
then cleared up and drained, the spring freshets were not so great. 

THs bridge, with occasional repairs and renewing of portrons m whole o, m 
par, supplied the wants of the inhabitants until r8 3 3, when a new one was erected 

^^r^tJSS.^t*- occurred, by which a man ,ost his 
life . i was caused by two of the striken slipping off the trestles taktng a portron 

he covering with them, leavmg a large open space, which, unfortunately was le 
guarded. A tanner by the name of Daggett (who was the owner of the firs 

annery ha. started working in St. Andrews) was coming home late on Saturday 



night, and not knowing that part of the bridge had fallen down, fell through the open 
space, striking his head on a boulder, and was killed. On Sunday morning, there 
was quite an excitement when his dead body was discovered by individuals on their 
way to church. The testimony of at least two living witnesses confirms the above 
facts, and places the date of the occurrence at about 1817. 

In 1832-33 a contract was given to a man by the name of Pierce, for the con 
struction of a new bridge of larger dimensions and different design, consisting of four 
spans resting on three cut stone piers and abutments. The plan and specifications 
were drawn up by a well-known land surveyor ; but they, unfortunately, exposed his 
ignorance of architecture, as the specifications were in the main points very defec 
tive, and, in consequence, the work was not well done. 

The bridge was opened for traffic in the summer of 1833, an d in the spring of 
1837 a large portion of one of the piers was broken up by the action of the ice and 
high water, causing the bridge to topple down. It was temporarily repaired to allow 
traffic to be carried on, and in the month of September a heavy trestle was substi 
tuted for the pier, and with other necessary improvements and occasional repaife it 
stood until the igth March, 1859, wnen it was swept away as before. A temporary 
foot bridge was made by stretching three strong chains across the open space, cover 
ing them with planks, where people could cross in safety ; while a ferry above the 
mill dam, and another at McMartin s, served for horses and carriages, until the bridge 
was ready for traffic on the 27th August the same year. 

It was not for any great length of time that the rate payers were exempted from 
further expense, as in the early part of March, 1863, a large portion of the bridge was 
again swept away ; this time, unfortunately, attended with loss of life, two young 
lads who were on it at the time being drowned. A temporary structure for the con 
venience of people on foot was placed opposite Mr. Duncan Dewar s and Mr. 
Edward Jones , while the ferry was again opened above the mill dam, and at Col. De 
Hertel s for horses and carriages. This arrangement continued until 1865, when a 
new bridge of a more pretentious and different style of architecture was built by 
Messrs. Moody of Terrebonne. It was supported on piers of close crib work filled 
with stones, and strengthened overhead with short trusses, and was opened to the 
public in September of that year, and lasted until the present beautiful light iron 
structure was completed in 1885." 

The present bridge was erected at an expense of $.10,200 ; the iron part of the 
structure costing $5,950, and the abutments and approaches forming the balance of 
the cost. 

The following, the writing of which was suggested by another letter in The Star, 
was copied from that paper : 

" Your reminiscences, of course, deal principally with the Rebellion, as it existed 
in another part of the country from where I was living at the time : but I have a 
distinct recollection of the events (being about 14 years of age) from reading the same 
in the public journals of the day, and your account brings all these scenes very vividly 
back to my remembrance. 


" I see that you mention the attack and burning of the village of St. Benuit. I 
may state in this connection, that seven or eight companies of Volunteers from St. 
Andrews and vicinity were there at that time, having been ordered to meet those 
coming from Montreal, as you relate. As you may not know why there were so many 
companies of Volunteers organized in St. Andrews, a short statement may not be out 
of place. The village at that time was largely settled by English-speaking people, 
not many French being among them ; but on two sides the east and south were 
the French parishes of Cote St. Pierre and Les Eboulies. In the latter place, they 
were red hot Patriots, meeting, drilling and getting ready for the fray; and on a 
hill a short distance from the Ottawa River, not far from St. Placide, on Point Aux 
Anglais, they had formed a barricade or fort, with trees and brush, which would have 
been of great service had a small number of men come against them. Early in the 
month of November, 1837, a courier came galloping up to St. Andrews with the intel 
ligence that the Patriots were preparing to make a raid on the village and 
country adjoining. We well knew they meant to plunder, burn and kill ; and well do 
I rttiember hearing him cry out, They are in the Bay ; will be here in a short time ! 
Anything you have put it out of the way ! etc. In less than an hour, all who were 
able were marching into the village, and such a crowd ! Among two or three hun 
dred men, there were not even fifty fowling pieces. The remainder were armed 
with pitchforks, clubs, broken scythes, etc., and nothing but an overruling and kind 
Providence saved us from attack. If they had come on, as was intended, they would 
have had their own way, as there was not sufficient force with suitable arms to stop 
them. There was at that time a small detachment of the 24th Regiment stationed 
at Carillon, under the command of Capt. Mayne, who supplied a few old, flint-lock 
muskets ; and with these, all the roads leading out of the village were guarded, night 
and day. Companies of Volunteers were formed as quickly as possible, so that by 
the lothor 1 2th of December seven or eight companies were regularly enrolled, armed 
and drilled, and, as already stated, were marched to Grand Brule, according to orders 
from headquarters. The expedition was not attended by any loss of life, the Patriots 
wisely keeping out of the way, but it was attended with a great deal of hardship and 
exposure to the rigors of a Canadian winter. Owing to inadequate clothing and want 
of proper food and shelter, many of them were not the better of that trip for many a 
day. A few of the companies were disbanded and allowed to return to their homes, to 
be ready, if wanted, at a moment s notice; the rest were kept in barracks and thoroughly 
drilled, so as to be ready in case of another outbreak, which, happily, did not occur 
in our pait of the country. I think the few remaining Volunteers of that period 
who took up arms to defend their country are entitled to some compensation for 
service which ought to have been acknowledged long ago. I have no personal 
interest in this movement. My father and two brothers who took an active part in it 
have long since passed away to the silent majority ; but I have an old friend who 
was among the first to join the ranks, and on his account, as well as on that of others, 
I should like to see them paid a small sum in cash, to sustain their declining years. 

" Yours truly, 


Cote du Midi and the Bay. 

The above localities are in the parish of St. Andrews, between the River Rouge 
Settlement and the Ottawa, Cote du Midi being, as its name indicates, a hill or 
ridge of land lying north of the Bay Settlement ; the latter settlement is generally 
designated as "The Bay," bordering, as it does, on a very pretty bay formed by the 

Though the land is considerably diversified in both these localities, and the roads 
hilly, there are some fine farms which are comparatively level, and the scenery in 
certain parts is romantic. The farm of Charles Hunter, a prominent and respected 
citizen on the Bay road, with its neat buildings, is attractive, and another large one 
adjoining it, owned by A. C. Robillard, one of the ex-Municipal Councillors of the 
parish. " Glencoe," the estate of Mr. John McGowan, the old homesteads of the 
Hydes, Biirwashes and Albrights are all valuable farms located at the Bay. "Silver 
Heights," and ihe farms of John McMartin and Archibald Graham, are among the 
most attractive and valuable estates at Cote du Midi. 

CAPTAIN JOHN WAINWRIGHT of the Royal Navy, came to Canada with his 
family in 1833. He was born in Wickham, Hampshire, England, 3rd May, 1800, 
his father also being a captain in the Royal Navy. When he was only eight years 
of age, his father took him on his ship to India ; but while there, he was ordered to 
proceed up the Persian Gulf, and thinking that the mission might be attended with 
danger, he sent his son back to England on an East Indiaman. Soon after this, he 
was sent to a Naval School, from which he entered the service as midshipman, and 
passing the different grades of promotion, in time, secured a Lieutenant s commission. 

While holding this rank, he sailed with Captain (subsequently Admiral) Beecher, 
who was sent, in the interests of science, on an expedition to the Pacific and Arctic 
oceans. On this voyage they came near a small island in the Pacific, which some 
of the young devotees of science insisted on visiting. A heavy surf rendered the 
approach to it dangerous, and their boat was smashed in the effort to land, though all 
reached the shore in safety. But now a difficulty arose as to the manner of returning 
to the ship. One boat only remained, and this the Captain positively forbade his 
men to lower, fearing that this, too, would be ruined ; but he gave orders to construct 
a raft with which to bring the men off, and when it was finished, Lieut. Wainwright, 
with some others, went to the relief of their stranded friends. They had to remain 
for some time a little distance from the shore before all were embarked, and mean 
while Lieut. Wainwright, stripped to the waist, had to stand in the water exposed to 
a boiling surf. The exposure was more than his constitution was able to bear, and 
he was soon seized with a severe illness, from the effects of which he never entirely 
recovered. Eventually, he was awarded a medal for the part he took in this expe 

Not long after his return to England, he was married to Elizabeth Powers, 
daughter of Samuel Powers, Esq., of Harley street, London, and soon afterward he 


sai ed for the Mediterranean in His Majesty s ship " Melville." Within a year 
however, he was again taken ill from the same cause, it was believed, that gave rise 
to his former illness, and invalided home. During his absence at sea, 2oth December, 
1829, his eldest son, John Wroughton, was born. Though he received his commis 
sion as captain, Mr. Wainwright, on account of the debilitated condition of his health 
never accepted command of a vessel. In 1833, through the influence of Commissary 
C. J. Forbes, who was then in England, and of whose wife Mr. Wainwright was 
cousin, he came with his family to Carillon. After remaining a year with Mr. Forbes 
he purchased of Archie McVicar, a Nor Wester, for ^roor, the farm of 400 acres 
known as " Silver Heights," which is now owned by his son John Wroughton Wain 

This spot, which he chose for his home, possessing naturally rare features of 
beauty, he adorned in many ways which characterized it as an English homestead. 
Possessed, as he was, of English ideas with regard to social status, and having been a 
naval officer, it is not surprising that he should have formed one of an exclusive circle 
and been regarded an aristocrat. But whatever may have been his ideas of social rank, 
he performed the duties of Justice of the Peace, for many years, with strict impar 
tiality, careful consideration, and to public approval. 

James Francis Ballard, the youngest brother of Captain Wainwright, became 
Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy, and was in command of the " Black Prince," a 
vessel which formed the escort of the Great Eastern " when she was laying the Atlantic 
cable. In 1851, Captain Wainwright visited the Great Exhibition in London, and 
later he removed with his wife and daughters to England, where he died; Mrs. 
Wainwright died in 1881. They had six children two sons and four daughters! 
They were John Wroughton, Emily, Harriet Forbes, Mary Elizabeth, Charlotte* 
Catherine, and George Hadden Richmond. 

Emily, the second child, died at the age of 8 ; Mary Elizabeth, the third, was 
married to Lieut. Penethorne, of the Royal Artillery, but died soon afterward. 
George H., unmarried, is a broker in Montreal. 

JOHN W., the eldest of the children, has always remained on the homestead; 
content with the society of his family and with the enjoyment of his rural abode, he 
has had little to do with public affairs. He was married May nth, 1864, to Amelia 
Elizabeth Caroline Carter, daughter of the late Dr. Edward Carter, of Sorel, P.Q. 

^ They have had seven children three sons and four daughters. Of their sons, 
. E. R. is employed in the Merchants Bank at Calgary; J. G. R., who graduated 
with honors from McGill in 1892, is a civil engineer in Hamilton, Ont., andS. F. A. 
is a student in the Medical Department of McGill University. 

FINLAY MACMARTIN was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1812, and came to 
Canada with his father, Donald MacMartin, in 1827, and settled in Grand Foamier, 
near St. Eustache. The following interesting letter, written by his sister, was 
copied from the British Whig (Kingston), of October 28, 1890 : 


"THE REBELLION 7 OF 1837-38. 

" MONTREAL, October 23, . 

"To THE EDITOR, _ My brother, Finlay MacMartin, served as a Volunteer under 
Captain Globensky, of St, Eustache, County of Two Mountains. He was at the 
battle of St. Eustache, i4th December, 1837, and was one of the party finding the 
body of ihe rebel leader, Dr. Chenier, shot down trying to escape, his followers 
having taken refuge in the Catholic church, hoping thus to save their lives. I well 
remember my brother s tale of the exciting times they had, while waiting at the village 
of St. Martin (nine miles from St. Eustache). for the ice to become strong enough to 
enable soldiers to transport their cannon and ammunition across the Riviere du 
Chene, a branch of the Ottawa. The Regulars were commanded by Sir John Colborne, 
who afterwards became Governor-General of Canada. After imprisoning all who 
surrendered, the troops fired the church and village of St. Eustache, then marched 
to the village, twelve miles west, St. Benoit, another stronghold of the rebels. Here 
lived Dumouchelle, a noted rebel, father of the late Senator Dumouchelle, of Two 
Mountains, Although only six years old at the time, I well remember passing 
through St. Benoit, when it was a heap of smouldering ruins. My mother, being 
very nervous, left home with the younger members of the family, to reside with an 
uncle at St. Andrews, where the English population was more numerous; my two 
elder brothers were enlisted as Volunteers. My father, then over sixty years of age, 
;ind a farmer, located in the very centre of a rebel community, was placed in a trying 
position. He could hardly leave home, and by remaining would be forced to join 
the rebels, or be put under arrest by them. He and my only surviving brother, 
James MacMartin, now living on the homestead at St. Eustache, betook themselves 
to the woods, then pretty dense, and made dismal by the howling wolves, which they 
kept off by burning fires day and night. A.S the night advanced, they would venture 
out as near home as they deemed safe, then my sisters, aged respectively eighteen 
and twenty, who had brave y volunteered to remain at home, would set out a signal, 
when it was safe for them to come to the house. My father finally got things satis 
factorily arranged, such as putting all his threshed wheat into barrels, and concealing 
it where the rebels never thought of looking for it. There was not much to conceal, 
as threshing was a slow process in those days. All had to be done with the flail, an 
implement of which the farmers of to-day know little. He placed his highly prized 
gun (after taking it apart) in an old metal pot, and buried it in the earth. No vile 
rebel would ever get that into his hands. He then slatted off, accompanied by my 
brother, who was then a young boy, to rejoin mother and family at St. Andrews. 
They had to keep under cover of the wood?, as they were sure to be arrested if they 
ventured on the highway. The hardships and sufferings they encountered were 
terrible, wending their way through snow and" half-frozen swamps, up to their knees 
in water. My brother was taken ill with inflammatory rheumatism shortly after, and 
has been a martyr to that disease in a chronic form ever since. After wandering for 


two days and a night, they reached Lichute (instead of St. Andrews) in the early 
part of the second night, well nigh exhausted by fatigue, hunger and cold. They got 
a hearty welcome from the loyal-hearted Scottish farmers, who attended to their wants, 
and sent them on their way rejoicing to St. Andrews. Of the sisters who remained 
at home and attended to the cattle, the youngest. Mrs. Alex. Patton, County Bruce ? 
Ontario, is still living; the other, Mrs. Maxwell, mother of John Maxwell, barrister 
and Crown Attorney for Prescottand Russell, also of Robert Maxwell, carriage builder, 
of Kden Grove. Bruce County, Ontario, died ten years ago. Finlay MacMartin, whose 
service as a Volunteer is above recorded, died sixteen, and his brother died nine 
years ago. 

" Shortly before the battle of St. Eustache, a party of rebels came to ov.r home^ 
while my sisters were alone, and asked where my father and brothers were. They 
were very civil, with the exception of one, who shoved his old rusty gun through the 
window, for which he was sharply reprimanded by his leader. They asked for fire 
arms, money, etc. ; not getting this, they went to the stables, took the best horse, 
harness, and an old traineau, for sleighs were not in use in those days. From the 
sheep pen, they took of the fattest. Returning to the house, they gave my sisters a . 
note to the effect that payment would be made when Mie Republic of Canada was | 
declared and established. 

"The leader of this party, named Jerod, was recognized by my sisters on the 
morning of the b.-wtle of St. Eustache, miking his escape on horseback, without 
saddle or bridle, but a halter made of his military sash. 

Respectfully yours, 


Finlay MacMartin came to Cote du Midi in 1848, and settled on a farm which 
he bought from Archibald McCallum, one of the first settlers here. He was married, 
April Qth, 1850, to Christi.ia, daughter of Donald McKeracher, of Dalesville, the first 
settler of that place. They had four sons and four daughters. Mr. MacMartin died 
nth December, 1874. age 1 sixty-two ; Mrs. MacMartin still survives him, living on the 
old homestead. Of the children, Margery A., the eldest, married to W.G. Cameron, lives 
in Ontario ; Jean O., married to M. L. Foley, in British Columbia ; Maggie L., married 
to J. E. Playfair. in Ontario ; and Eugenia, who is a teacher, is also in Ontario. 
James A. P., the second son, learned his trade as bridge builder, and was a contractor 
in that line; he was last heard from when in New Mexico, six years ago. Geo. D., 
after spending four years with Mr. Chas. Wales of St. Andrews, in the mercantile 
business, went to Montreal and spent six years part of this time in travelling in 
the same line of business. In 1891, he went to Chicago, and now has charge of the 
office in that city of J. W. Goddard & Sons, wholesale woollen merchants of New 
York. While in Montreal, he was a member of the Victoria Rifles, and was cham 
pion shot of Quebec for two years. Colin B., the youngest son, lives at home. 


JOHN F. K., eldest surviving son, was born in Cote du Midi. It was his inten 
tion to prepare for business or a profession ; but the father dying when the family 
was young, it became necessary for him to take the management of the farm, in which 
he is still engaged. Being a teetotaler from infancy, he early became an active 
temperance worker, taking a prominent part in attempting to secure the passing of 
the Dunkin and Scott Acts, and also by working as a member of the Sons of Temper 
ance, I. O. G. T., and Royal Templars of Temperance, having filled the leading 
offices of the different societies for various terms in succession. He was Master of 
St. Andrews L. O. A., No. 52, for a number of years, and was also an officer of the 
County L. O. A. of Lachute. He became a member of the active militia of Canada 
at an early age, and served as a private and non-commissioned officer ; in 1880, he 
went to a Military school, and, having obtained a certificate, was given the commission 
of Second Lieutenant in No. i Company, Eleventh Battalion, A. R., and three years 
later, the commission of First Lieutenant ; he is also a commander of the Colors 

He early took an active part in religious matters, became a member in full com 
munion of the Presbyterian Church, and, a few years later, was elected to the Elder 
ship. Since the introduction of the Patrons of Industry, he has been President of one 
of the Associations, and has successfully organized a number of Associations through 
out the County and Province. 

In the summer of 1817, ALEXANDER MCGREGOR, of Breadalbane, Perthshire, 
Scotland, came to Canada, and found employment at Chute au Slondeau, Ontario. 
On the last day of the following April, he crossed the Ottawa on the ice, and made his 
way to Cote du Midi and purchased the two lots now owned and occupied by his son 
John. He was a weaver by trade, and with that thrift characteristic of his country 
men made a hand loom earn many a penny during the long winter evenings and days 
when he could not wage war on the forest with which much of his land was covered. 
Owing to the scarcity of cloth manufactories, his loom was an implement of great 
utility to his neighbors, for whom he wove many of the fabrics then in common use. 
In the Rebellion of 1837, ne an< ^ ms eldest son, Alexander, promptly enlisted in the 
Company commanded by Captain Robert Simpson. 

He had eight children, but only two of the sons, Alexander and John, respected 
citizens, live in this section. The latter, who lives on the homestead, is a prosperous 

The history of THOMAS HYDE, whose descendants are numerous in this section, 
is replete with romantic incidents. His home was in Exeter, England, and his father 
was a captain in the Royal Navy. 

Thomas had spent some years on the ship of Admiral Rodney, and in company 
with a young friend named Ramsey he left the service and came to New York. Both 
had money supplied them by their parents, and they purchased a stock of goods, and 
went to the North West to trade with the Indians. But they met different tieatment 
from what they had anticipated, and learned the treachery and barbarity of the 


savages ; they were robbed of their goods, and soon saw that their lives were in 
danger. Hyde made good his escape, but Ramsey was captured, bound, and then, 
according to the custom of the Indians, was subjected to torture. While lying on his 
back, stripped, his tormentors amused themselves by pricking his body with their 
knives, and then wiping the blood from them on his lips. But his revenge was at 
hand. They had been drinking, from the effects of which they were soon in deep 
slumber, leaving him, as they supposed, securely bound. When he saw their uncon. 
scious condition, however, by great exertion he freed himself from the thongs, seized 
a tomahawk, dispatched fourteen of his captors, and escaped. He finally reached 
England, but not receiving the welcome from his family which he desired, and induced 
by that love of adventure which young men having once experienced, seldom abandon, 
he colored his red hair, came to America, and once more mingled with the Indian^. 
His disguise, however, was not so complete as to prevent recognition, but by some 
means, of which we are ignorant, he gained the esteem of the Indians, married a squaw 5 
and was granted by her tribe a large tract of land in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. 
Some years subsequently he corresponded with his old friend Thomas Hyde, who 
was then ?t St. Andrews, and made him liberal offers of land, if he would go out and 
settle near him; but having too vivid recollections of his former experiences among the 
Indians, Hyde declined the tempting offer. After escaping from the Indians, Hyde 
went to Michilimackinac, and was there employed by the superintendent of Indian 
affairs, as clerk in the Indian Store. While there, he married Margaret Anderson, a 
young woman who had been indentured, when quite small, by her mother to the 
superintendent, and whose term of indenture had now expired. Her father lived, at 
the opening of the American Revolution, on the Susquehanna River; and being 
an U. E. Loyalist, his property was confiscated, and he came to Canada in com 
pany, it is said, with two families named Ogilvy and Glassford both having been 
exiled by the same fate and whose descendants are no-v prominent citizens of 
Montreal. These loyalists were at Michilimackinac, and the celebrated Indian chief, 
Brant, was also there at the same time. 

Brant, knowing Mr. Anderson, borrowed of him a sum of money, which was 
counted and delivered in presence of a number of Indians. Whether incited to the 
crime by the sight of the gold, or whether they were led to it by some other motive, 
is unknown ; but soon afterward, they shot Mr. Anderson between the crevices of the 
logs in the house where he resided. Being unwell at the time, he was lying on a 
couch when the dastardly act was commuted. Mrs. Anderson being thus left a 
widow with her young children, was prevailed on to indenture her eldest child, 
Margaret, to the superintendent, and it was to her, now arrived at wominhood, that 
Thomas Hyde was wedded. 

A few years after this marriage, some dissatisfaction having arisen between the 
superintendent an< i the Government, he left his position, and though he offer.- 1 Hyde 
the u?e of his house, furnished, if he would re-main at Michilimackinac, on account of 
his dislike and distrust cf the Indians, he declined the offer, and with his wife and 


two children came with the superintendent to Montreal. There he was introduced 
by the superintendent to Sir John Johnson, Seignior of Argenteuil, these two gentle 
men being cousins ; and by Sir John he was ind ced to purchase two lots of land at 
St. Andrews Bay, to which place he removed about 1792. 

In the war of 1812, he became Captain of a Miliiia Company, and his eldest son, 
who was born at Michilimackinac in 1789, was Sergeant of the same Company. In 
1815, they were ordered with the Company to Montreal, but before arriving there 
peace was declared, and they returned home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hyde, whose early life had been one of so much romance and 
sorrow, lived here until their death. They h a d twelve children ; George, the eldest, 
bought a farm at the Bay about a mile from the homestead ; he also had twelve 
children, who grew up; he died in 1887. Jane, the eldest daughter, born at Michili 
mackinac, married Martin Albright ; she died in 1879. Sarah, the second daughter, 
married Edward Jones. Alexander, another son, bought a farm and settled on the 
River Rouge; he had eight children, three sons and five daughters; his own son 
George, who remained on the homestead, and still owns it, has recently purchased the 
fine old homestead of John McMartin. Charles, another son of Thomas Hyde, pur 
chased a farm on the River Rouge near his brother Alexander ; but he had no children. 
Nelson, the youngest son of this old family, never married, and remained on the home 
stead till 1880, when he sold it, and now lives in the village of St. Andrews. He is 
another of the octogenarians in this section, who are witnesses, not only of the salu 
brity of the climate, but of the benefit resulting from industry and temperance. 

JOHN CAMERON came from Fort William, Inverness-shire, Scotland, and after 
living a year in Lachine, came to Cote du Midi about 1802. He was a Presbyterian, 
and the first, or one of the first, who preached hereabout ; the reader will find him 
alluded to in Dr. Paterson s sketch of the Presbyterian Church, St. Andrews, as one 
of the early workers for the Christian cause; his sermons were delivered in Gaelic. 
As there were so many of the same name in this section, he was distinguished by the 
name of Preacher Cameron," and one of his sons in turn by the same cognomen. 

Mr. Cameron took up the lots of land now owned by his grandson John. While 
he was away six weeks in Lachine, on duty as a Volunteer in the war of 1812, a large 
number of his sheep died from cold and starvation. 

His eldest son Hugh, who was in Capt. Simpson s Company in 1837-38, lived on 
the homestead. He had seven sons and six daughters ; he died about 1867. 

John and Alexander are the only two living in this section ; Hugh, a farmer, lives 
in Ottawa. 

SIMEON LERov was the earliest pioneer of whom we have received any record ; 
he located here as early as 1785. 

At the opening of the American Revolution, he, with two or three brothers, 
lived in Genesee County, N.Y. ; but their loyalty to the British Government for 
bidding their casting in their lot with those who had thrown off their allegiance, they 
felt that safety demanded a removal. Simeon first went to No/a Scotia, and afie r 


spending a few years there, and in other places, he cams to St. Andrews and settled 
on the River Rouge, on land now owned by John McGregor and Stephen Burwash. 

At the time the LeRoys left Genesee County, haste prevented their making any 
effort to sell their property, hence they left all, glad to escape only with their lives. 
The country then being new, and land worth but little, they probably did not regnrd 
the sacrifice they were making as a great one. Since then, however, the same land 
owing to the rapid growth of villages and cities has become very valuable, and, 
not many years ago, an effort was made to find the heirs to the real estate vacated 
by the LeRoys. An agent visited this section of Canada, and endeavored to induce 
descendants of the LeRoy brothers to Ijok up their claims to the property ; but 
believing they had no right to the improvements which had been mide thereon, and 
regarding it of little value when their ancestors abandoned it, they, conscientiously, 
decided to have nothing to do with the matter. 

Mr. Simeon LeRoy lived on the land where he first settled on the River Rouge 
till his death ; he had three sons William, Simeon, Henry, and two daughters 
Sophia and Hannah. 

The homestead was divided between William and Sim^o;i ; Henry bought the 
lot now owned by John Me Martin. He sold out not many years subsequently, 
and moved to East Hawkesbury, where he spent the remainder of his days. William 
was the only one who remained in this section. He married a daughter of Martin 
Jones, an early pioneer at St. Andrew s Bay, and spent his life on the horn -stead. 
They had ten children five sons and five daughters ; six of these three sons and 
three daughters settled in East Hawkesbury, Ont., one son and two daughters in 
Montreal, and another son, Martin, bought a farm on the Rivjr Rouge. He was 
married to Mary, daughter of Malcolm McCallum, a worthy pioneer of this locality. 
They had twelve children eight sons and four daughters. 

Mr. LeRoy died ist January, 1893; Mrs - LeRoy, ist November, 1889. Of the 
children, six settled in the State of Michigan ; one daughter in Manchester, N. H. ; 
Malcolm, the eldest, in Calumet Island ; Archibald C., and Miry, who married 
Martin LeRoy ; in Hawkesbury, Ont. 

ALEXANDER is the only one who has remained in the neighborhood of his birth. 
He is one of the highly respected citizens of the parish, whose counsel is sought in 
matters of moment to the municipality ; and he has served it in the capacity of 
Justice of the Peace for a decade, and as School Comnissio:ier about the sanu time. 
He married Hannah, a daughter of Henry Albright, in 187 i. They have three children 
jiving, and Osman Edgar, their eldest, is a graduate of McGill and ha; obtained au 
A -ademy Diploma. Mr. LeRoy has lately purchased the Harrington Estate. 

The BURWASHES, of whom there are many in this section, are am >ng the sober, 
thrifty and industrious citizens who do credit to their country. 

Nathaniel Burwash was born i:i Kent, England, and his f.ith-r dying while he 
was very young, he was adopted by an u icle captain of a vessel in the Merchant 
Marine. He was employed several years on this vessel, during which time it was 


captured by the French and retaken by the English. Finally, he came to the United 
States, married, and settled in Vermont ; but preferring to live under the British flag, 
and induced by the cheapness of land, in 1 802, he came with his eldest son to Canada 
to prospect for a location. They had but one horse, and this they rode by turn?. 
They came to Carillon, and after surveying different lots, selected three on the River 

After returning home, Mr. Burwash learned that his mother had recently died 
in England : and on going there, he received as legacy a sum of money, which placed 
him in good circumstances, and enabled him to purchase lands in Canada for his 
sons. Soon after returning from England, he moved with his family to this section, 
and took up his residence on the River Rouge, on land now owned by his great- 
grandsons, Martin Burwash and Martin Albright. A few years subsequently, he 
divided this farm between his two elder sons, Adam and Stephen, and purchased 
another tract which forms a part of the farm long known as " Silver Heights." Later, 
he bequeathed this to his youngest son, James, who soon sold it to Archie McVicar, 
a Nor Wester, and moved to Plattsburg, N.Y., where he died. 

Mr. Burwash, sen., after seeing his sons well settled, made his home with the 
eldest, Adam, and lived with him till his dea h, yth November, 183 r, at the age of 88. 

Adam Burwash had ten children seven sons and three daughters, but only one 
of these, John, is now living. Four grandsons of Adam Burwash are clergymen, 
three of the Methodist and one of the Baptist denomination. 

Stephen Burwash, the second son of Nathaniel Burwash, had eight children 
who grew up six sons and two daughters. Of the sons, Matthew and John still live 
here, the former in St. Andrew s village, though still owning his farm : the latter, 
on the River Rouge. Mr. Bunvash died :8th January, 1887, aged 60. 

Matthew, the third son of Nathaniel Burwash, whose farm given him by his 
father was located at St. Andrew s Bay, was drafted in the war of 1812, and though 
not a participant in that engagement, was within hearing, marching toward it, when 
the battle of Chrysler s Farm was fought. Two years previous to his death, he was 
awarded a pension by the Government. He died i3th September, 1876, aged 87 ; 
Mis. Burwash, in 1890, aged 95. He was married to Mary, daughter of Ewen 
Mel achlan, who came from Scotland and settled on the River Rouge in 1802. Mr. 
McLachlan sold his farm and purchase 1 one in Point Fortune, on which his great 
grandson, Victor Angus, now resides. One of his sons, Ewen, built the mill at Arn- 
prior, which is now owned by his own so;is, Hugh F. and Claude McLachlan. 

The only children of Matthew Burwas\ sen., now living are Matia in St. 
Andrews, and William at Southampton, Out. His son Matthew remained on 
the homestead, and during his lifetime was one of the influential farmers of this 
section. His widow still lives on the homestead, which is now managed by her son 
Thoma^. a Municipal Councillor, and a member of the St. Andrew s Troop. His 
brother Harry, also a member of the Troop, is c erk in the store of Mr. Banford, 
Lachute. Thomas, the fourth son of Nathaniel Burwash, though very young, was 
drafted during the war of 1812, but he soon died from the measles which he caught 
in camp. 

River Rouge. 

This settlement is an important and beautiful district of St. Andrews parish, 
about five miles in length, commencing about a mile east of St. Andrew s village, and 
terminating at the east line of the county. It embraces two ranges of lots one on 
each side of the river called the Rouge, a small stream about ten miles in length, 
rising in the county of Two Mountains, and pursuing a devious course westerly 
into the North river near St. Andrews village. The locality is elevated, affording an 
extensive view, and as an agricultural section it is rarely equalled, the farms being 
beautifully located and possessing a strong and productive soil. Among the fine 
farms here many of which are mentioned in the following sketches is that of R. P. 
De La Ronde, barrister -af St. Andrews, which contains over 300 acres with good 

WILLIAM S. TODD, eldest son of Andrew Todd, was born in 1852, in St. 
Eustache; he was married in 1882 to Agnes, daughter of Joseph Rodgers. In 1890, 
he bought his present farm, the old Peter McMartin place, on the north side of the 
R iver Rouge. 

WILLIAM McKwEN came from Perthshire to Canada in 1818 ; he was a carpenter, 
and worked at his trade in Montreal for some time, then came to River Rouge, and 
bought the farm now owned by James McOuat. He was married in Montreal to 
Catherine McLean, of Breadalbane ; they had thirteen children eight sons and five 
daughters. Donald, the eldest son, born 1820, always remained in this locality. In 
1838, he became a member of Captain Simpson s company of Volunteers, and was 
married the same year to Elizabeth, daughter of Peter McMartin. They had three 
children, one son and two daughters. Catherine, the eldest, married John McGivern, 
and died in Montreal in 1877, leaving one daughter. 

Margaret, the second daughter of Donald McEwen, married to J. C. Lock, is 
now living in Montreal. William A., the son, remained at home ; he was married 
June 4ih, 1884, to Catherine, daughter of Alfred Center, of Centerville. They have 
four children, three girls and one boy. Mr. Donald McEwen now lives on the old 
homestead, his father having retired from active work. 

JAMES, eldest son of WALTER McOuAT, was born 1818, in Montreal. In 1825, 
he removed, with his father, to Lachute, and in 1844 was married to Jeannette, 
daughter of the late John Christie, of the East Settlement ; she died 251)1 August, 
1888. In 1845, Mr McOuat came to the River Rouge, and bought the farm now 
owned by Mitchell Fournier; he afterwards sold this, and bought his present fine 
farm of Charles Albright. Mr. McOuat has six children three of each sex. Of the 
daughters, Elizabeth, the eldest, lives at home; Jane is the wife of Nelson Albright; 


and Jeannette, who married Gavin J. Walker of Lachute, is deceased. Henry, the 
youngest son, remains at home; John R. is a merchant in Lachute ; and James, the 
eldest, lives on the south side of the River Rouge ; he was born 8th November, 1848, 
and removed to his present farm, Lots 28 and 29, in 1876. On the 2ist November } 
1888, he was married to Agnes, daughter of the late James McAdam ; they have two 
children both boys. Mr. McOuat has a good farm, fine brick residence, and all his 
surroundings betoken enterprise and thrift. He circulated a petition lo have a Post 
Office established here, and that object was accomplished in July, 1894. The Post 
Office, bearing the name of Kilo wen, is at the east end of the River Rouge settlement, 
and from it the mail is distributed twice a week. Mr. George Giroux is postmaster. 

PETER MC/MARTIN, whose ancestors were Highland Scotch, came to Canada 
from Stirling, Scotland, with his family in 1830. They were eleven weeks making 
the voyage across the Atlantic, being shipwrecked during their passage. Mr. 
M Martin first began work in Vaudreuil, remaining there two years. He then came 
to Carillon Hil 1 , and hired the farm of Peter McArthur, now owned by Henry Bar 
clay, dying there at the end of eleven years. He had five children, of whom two 
daughters, Catherine and Elizabeth, and one son, Peter E., are no.v living. Catherine 
is the wife of Dr. Christie, M.P., of Lachute, and Elizabeth is married to Donald 
McEwen. Peter McMartin, the sen, who was born 1822, October 6th, came with 
the family to River Rouge in 1844, and bought the farm now occupied by Andrew 
Doig. He afterwards sold ii, and bought his present farm from Thomas Fournier. 
He was married in 1849 lo Susan, daughter of the late William McEwen, and has 
seven children - four girls and three boys. Peter James, the eldest son, after spending 
several years in New York and Montreal, where he was employed three years as 
shipping clerk lor William Johnson & Co., relumed home in 1890, and is now man 
aging the farm ; Alfred, the second son, is living in Iowa; and Norman, the youngest, 
is with Wm. Johnson & Co., Montreal. Margaret, the eldest daughter, is in 
Montreal; Charlotte, a teacher, is at home; while Caroline and Priscilla, the 
yo.mger daughters, who are both trained nurses, are working at their professions 
the former in New York and the latter in Massachusetts. Mr. McMarlin, their 
father, and the subject of the latter part of iliis sketch, has taken an active i^art in 
military affairs, having been Sergt.-Major of the 6th Cavalry Regiment, of which he 
was a member thirty years, and he was in the Eastern Townships with the Volunteers 
du-ing the Fenian Raid, 1870. He has been Municipal Councillor of St. Ar.drews 
Parish for seven years. 

WILLIAM YOUNG, a Scotchman, was an actor in the American Revolution, and 
also served under Admiral Nelson, as sailor in a British man-of-war, and was in the 
battle of Trafalgar. He retired from a sea-faring life, and came from Stirling, Scot 
land, about 1825, first settling in Chatham; he afterwards sold out here, and went to 
Huron County, Ontario, where both he and Mrs. Young died. They had six sons 
and two daughters : of these, Elizabeth, married to William Fraser of Bethany, and 
Thomas, the second son, born 1821 in Stirling, Scotland, are the o >ly ones in this 


I 49 

country. In 1849 Thomas came to River Rouge, and bought hib present farm ; the 
same year he was married to Jeannette, daughter of John McOuat, of "Burnside 
Farm," Upper Lachute ; she died 26th June, 1886. They had six daughters and on a 
son, of whom all but one daughter are now living. Of the others, Elizabeth and 
Ellen live in Kansas; the former being the wife of Alexander Mustard, and the latter 
of James Mustard. Margaret, the eldest, Janet, Mary and William live at home. 
Mr. Young has a large farm, owning one lot on the south side, and two on the north 
side of the river, also one hundred acres bush land in the rear of Lachute. 

NICHOLAS B. MCKERRICHER, a Highland Scotchman, was one of the early settlers 
on the River Rouge, coming here about 1831. He was twice married the first time 
to Miss Clark; by this marriage they had one son, who went to Missouri years ago, 
and has not been heard from since. Mr. McKerricher married the second time 
Catherine McOuat, and became the father of three children, of whom only one, 
Nicholas, is now living. The latter, born in 1843, lias always remained here; he was 
married in 1885 to Mary, daughter of Ewen Cameron, Cote du Midi ; she died five 
weeks after the marriage. Mr. McKerricher s father having died soon after the b rth 
of his son Nicholas, the latter lives with his mother on the old homestead, where he 
has a fine farm of 270 acres. His grandfather, Donald McKerricher, came to Canada 
in 1802, settled on the south side of the River Rouge, and afterwards went to Cote 
du Midi. 

JAMES GORDON came from Scotland to this place about 1835 > ne was married to 
Catherine, daughter of John McMartin ; they had thirteen children seven sons and 
six daughters all of whom are living. Of these, Peter A., John, and Ellen, the wife 
of Charles McGregor, live in this place. Mr. Gordon died 5th March, 1886, at eighty- 
six years of age, and his wife died 2yth January, 1886, age J seventy-nine. John, on 
of the sons, bought his present farm on the north side of River Rouge from D.e 
Howard about 1875; his brother, Peter A., the youngest son, born February, 1847., 
lives on the old homestead. He was married in 1894 to Anna, daughter of David 
Paul, of Bethany. 

JAMES McADAM, from Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of the early settlers in this 
place, coming here about 1849. He was mairied in I.achute to Catherine, daughter 
of John Mclntyre ; they had ten children eight sons and two daughters all of whom 
are living. Mr. McAdam died February 5111. 1884, aged seventy-three. Mrs. 
McAdam died 25111 March, 1888. Of the children, Agnes J., married to James ( . 
McOuat, is living on the south side of River Rouge; Alexander, Thomas A. and 
Elizabeth live on the homestead, and the other sons are in the Western States. 
David in Kansas, William and Andrew in Nebraska, James and Quintin R. in C 
rado, and John in California. 

JOHN FRASERcame from Inverness-shire, Scotland, and was one of the first settlers 
here. James, his second son, was married to Ann, daughter of John McMartin, and 
bought the farm now owned by Alexander, his son, and lived here until his death, 


which occuired 6th January, 1876. Mrs. Fraser died 2$th October, 1882. They 
had eight children, of whom three daughters and four sons are now living; ; the 
daughters and two sons, Angus and Alexander, being on the homestead, while James 
and Samuel are, respectively, in California and Missouri. 

DUNCAN MCGREGOR came from Perthshire, Scotland, and settled in the States. 
On the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, being too loyal to fight against King 
George, he came to Canada, and remained in or near Quebec city until 1802. In 
this year he removed to River Rouge, and bought the farm now occupied by his 
grandson, John McGregor. Mr. McGregor was a Captain of the Militia during the 
war of 1812; he died in 1819. His son, Gregor McGregor, remained on the home, 
stead; he was married to Susan Robertson, and had five sons and two daughters; the 
latter are both living; but of the sons, only one remains. Mr. McGregor died in 
1850, aged fifty-two, and his wife died ten years later. 

JOHN MCGREGOR, their son, now living here, has always remained on the home 
stead. In 1848, he was married to Miss McArthur, daughter of Archibald McArthur 
of Dalesville ; they have eight sons and one daughter. Of the sons, Gregor A., the 
eldest, is with Sheppard, Knapp & Co., and Arthur A. is with Oppenheim & Sons, 
both in New York city ; Robert S. is studying medicine in Columbia College, New 
York; John R. is with J. C. Wilson & Co., Montreal; Peter C. is studying for the 
ministry in McMaster University, Toronto ; Harold W. D. is with Dobson Bros., 
New York; and Herbert D. and Norman F. are at home. Miss McGregor is attend 
ing college in Montreal. 

MALCOLM McCALLUM came from Argyleshire, Scotland, located in the River Rouge 
Settlement in 1820, and bought the farm now owned by Mrs. David McAdam. 
Donald, his son, who was born in 1817, always took an active part in the military 
affairs of the country, and in 1837 was a member of Captain Jones Company. After 
the Rebellion, he became a member of the militia, and held the rank of Captain, when 
the soldiers were disbanded. He was married to Mary, daughter of John McMartin, 
of River Rouge, in 1850. They had two sons and five daughters, of whom one son 
and three daughters are now living. 

Beech Ridge. 

This locality is in the eastern part of the parish of St. Andrews, and received its 
name from the quantity of beech growing here at the time of its early settlement. A 
post office was established here in 1878 ; A. B. Bell, who settled here in 1851, being 
appointed post-master a position he still holds. Mr. Bell has also won the esteem 
of his fellow-citizens the fact being attested by his election as Municipal Councillor 
of the Parish. 

The first settlers here were Nichols, Jacob Minkler, William, Stephen and 
David Bond, and another, whose surname was Borden. Nichols settled where 
William Drew now lives ; Minkler on the lot now owned by William and Malcolm 
Smith. A man named Ward Smith had located on land now owned by G. W. Bond, 
whose brother, Stephen Bond, purchased it of Smith. In 1824, the latter sold 200 
acres of land to WILLIAM CATION, who for some years previous had been in business 
at St. Andrews. He had been an officer in the British army, and was a good linguist, 
being able to speak several different languages. He rather astonished the inhabitants 
of this section by the stock of merchandise which he brought, with the view of engag 
ing in mercantile pursuits having, besides a lot of fancy goods, a large stock of the 
finest and most expensive silks. A few years later, deciding to engage in farming, he 
sold the land he had bought of Bond, and purchased a tract about a mile further east, 
where his two sons, George and James, now live. The old log house which he erected 
in the days of his pioneer labors is still standing. He remained here till his death, 
and his sons, who are among the industrious and respected citizens of the locality, 
have continued the improvements he began, developing good farms with corresponding 

In 1825, the improvements made by Borden were purchased by THOMAS COOK, 
who in company had been engaged in the jewelry business in London, Eng. The 
firm was known as Cook & Walker, and they had a branch house in Montreal. Mr. 
Cook, however, did not live long after his removal to Beech Ridge, for in 1832, while 
on a visit to Montreal, he was suddenly seized with the cholera, and died. His son 
Thomas remained on the farm at Beech Ridge, and cleared much of it. 

In 1834, DONALD LOYNACHAN, from Argyleshire, Scotland, came to Canada, and 
in 1837, bought a lot on the Ridge, now owned by John Webster of St. Andrews. 
There were only two acres cleared on it at the time of his purchase, and Mr. Loyna- 
chan, in common with the other pioneers, endured many hardships in clearing it and 
providing for the wants of his family. Bears were not numerous, but wolves made 
frequent raids on the cattle and sheep, rendering it necessary that the latter should be 
kept in folds, from which they were not released till late the next morning. Wood, 
as may be supposed, was not of much value. Mr. Loynachan in those days bought 


cow valued at $30, agreeing to pay thirty cords of hard maple wood for her, and 
deliver it at the village of St. Andrews. About twenty years after he came here, one 
of his small boys, one day in summer, finding a large wasp s nest in a stump near the 
house, and little knowing the consequences, set it on fire. The wind soon blew the 
fire into another stump, which in turn kindled others, from which the fire was com 
municated to the woods. It continued to rage for six weeks, covering a large area of 
forest land, destioying much timber, bark, shingles and cordwood. Mr. Loynachan 
died in 1886 ; his widow still lives here. 

ANGIS D. LOYNACHAN, one of his sons, an intelligent farmer, married the 
daughter of Mr. r l homas C. Cook, and until recently lived at the Ridge, his time 
being employed between the duties of farmer and that of auctioneer ; he removed to 
Montreal about a year since. 

Through the influence of Donald Loynachan, a friend of his, named ANGUS 
LDYNACHAN, also originally fiom Argyleshire, Scotland, settled at Beech Ridge in 
1842. He arrived in Canada in 1837, and a short time subsequently joined the 
Glengarry Volunteers. In the- fall of 1838, he joined a Volunteer company of artilleiy 
in Montreal. On coming to the Ridge, he purchased two lots of land, where he still 
reside-. Through strict industry, integrity and good judgment, he added to his 
estate, and provided a competency for his declining years. His wife died in 1889 and 
he now lives with his son-in-law, R. Morin.* He has had ten children, six of whotr- 
four sons and ivvo daughters are m-w living. 

The eldest . on, Duncan, and second, John B., are with the Shedden Company, 
Montreal ; the third, Angus A., is in company with Ford, and they are milk dea ers, 29 
Coursol street, Montreal : the youngest, Donald H., is in company with Scriver, and 
they are wholesale commission merchants, 321 and 323 Commissioners street, in the 
same city. Mary Jessie second in the family, now Mrs. Robert C. Morin lives 
on the old homestead ; Flora Jane, fourth in the family, lives in the same place with her 

As above mentioned, one of the first settlers in Beech Ridge was STEPHEN BOND, 
who came with his family, among whom were three sons William, David and 
Stephen from Randolph, Vt., about 1797, and bought five hundred acres of land on 
the road from St. Andrews to the Ridge. He afterwards returned to Vermont, and 
died there. Stephen, the youngest of the three sons, was born in 1792; he was 
married in 1827 to Miss Dorinda Powers of Bethany, and took part of his father s 
farm, which is now owned by John Lr.ynachan. He lived there a number of years, 
and afterwards sold it, buying the lot opposite, where he died in 1858, aged sixty- 
five ; Mrs. Bond died in 1844, aged thirty-eight. Mr. Bond was drafted into the 
militia in the war of 1812, and was stationed three months on Isle aux Noix ; he 
served a year altogether. Mr. and Mrs. Bond had two daughters and four sons ; of 
these, George W., the second son, is the only one of this family now living in Quebec. 
He was born nth June, 1835, an d has always lived in Beech Ridge ; in 1860, he was 
married to Fliza, daughter of the late Walter McVicar, of Chatham. They have two 

* Mr. Loynachan died 2nd Feb., 1896. 


sons, George W. and Franklin, who are both merchants in New Mexico, the former 
being in Wagon Mound, and the latter in Espanola, about 185 miles apart. 

SAMUEL RENNIE came from Belfast, Ireland, to Canada in 1838. He was an 
engineer by occupation, and was employed as such in Montreal for seventeen years ; 
during that time he was with William Dow, J. H. Molson, Handyside and Wm. 
Johnson. He was also a distiller, bul owing to ill-health was obliged to give up this 
business. He came to this place in 1851, and bought the farm now occupied by his 
son, with whom he is living, still active at ninety-three. George, the youngest son, 
born 1852, who remained a 1 home, deals extensively in live stock, taking it to the 
Montreal market. He was married in 1879 t Jennie, daughter of the late John 
Oxley of Montreal ; they have one son and one daughter. Mr. Rennie is Municipal 
Councillor of St. Andrews. 

THOMAS SMITH was born in Dundee, Huntingdon Co., Que., May 24th, 
1829. He was twice married the first time, to Catherine Stewart of Huntingdon ; 
by this marriage, they had two sons, Malcolm and William Scott. In 1855, Mr. 
Smith came to this place, and bought Lots Nos. 4 and 5. Mrs. Smith died in 1867, 
aged 37, of diphtheria one of the first cases known in the country. Mr. Smith was 
married the second time in 1864 to Mary Ann Ford, of Huntingdon ; Mrs. Smith 
died in 1875, aged 37, aud Mr. Smith died ten years later, on his 66th birthday; 
they had two sons and one daughter one son is now deceased. Janet L., the 
daughter, married to F. McArthur, lives in Montreal ; and Thomas F., the son, is 
in the milk business in the same place. 

MALCOLM, the eldest son, born June, 1855, remained at home, and was married 
in June, 1887, to Jane, daughter of HughCleland, jun., of Jerusalem ; they have three 
children. Mr. Smith lives on Lot 4 the old homestead ; he has taken an active part 
in the County Agricultural Society, having been director of it for several years. He 
is also licensed auctioneer for the District of Terrebonne and agent for the Canada 
Carriage Co. He has a fine farm, on which he has this year been awarded a silver 
medal; he has also engaged extensively in fruit growing, having an orchard of about 
700 trees ; 25 different varieties of fruit from these were shown at the County Fair in 

WILLIAM SCOTT, second son of Thomas Smith, was born iath September, 1858, 
and was married loth September, 1884, to Ellen, daughter of Captain Kenneth 
Urquhart, of Glengarry ; they have four children, all boys. Mr. Smith lives on Lot 5, 
half of the old homestead ; he also takes much interest in fruit-growirg, having an 
orchard of several hundred trees. 

JAMES COWAN was born in Co. Antrim, Ireland, in 1792. On first coming to 
this country in 1823, he settled in Jerusalem, and in 1841 removed to Beech Ridge, 
where he lived for eighteen years on a farm owned by David Bond. He then bought 
the farm, Lot No. i, now owned by his son Thomas. Mr. Cowan took an active part 
in the movements of the Militia, being with them at St. Eustache in 1837-38. He 
died in 1871, aged seventy-nine; he had five sons and three daughters, of whom three 



sons are now living. James is living in New York State ; William in Vermont ; and 
Thomas, the youngest son, born 1833, remains at home. He was married in 1^63 to 
Isabella, daughter of the late Francis Carson of East Settlement; they have three sons 
and one daughter, all at home. Mr. Cowan has been Municipal Councillor and School 
Trustee for several years, also a member of the St. Andrews Troop cf Cavalry for 
eighteen years. 

JOHN FRANCIS MITCHELL was born in Brussels, Belgium, and when 10 years of 
age came to Canada with his father s family. He was married to Hannah M. Lawson 
of Sheffield, England, and came to this place, hiring the farm, Lot 22, on the south side 
of Beech Ridge. This he bought a few years later, and has since put it under a fine 
state of cultivation, making many improvements, and building anew residence; he 
keeps a stock of sixteen head of cattle and three horses. Mr. Mitchell has three boys 
and three girls ; Hannah, the eldest, married to William Hume, lives in Bethany ; 
Harriet is in Montreal ; Hugh B., the eldest son, in Minnesota ; John F. is in Montreal; 
and the two youngest remain at home. 

The following sketch of pioneers of this locality was prepared at our request by 
a former citizen of the place : 

" About the year 1829, Beech Ridge was inhabited chiefly by New Englanders, 
whose habits of neatness and thrift, with fair practical knowledge of farming, resulted 
in giving the locality a prominent position in the county. 

" The Pecks, the Bonds, the Minklers, the Greens, Centers, McArthurs, Coles and 
other pioneers of that comparatively olden time had cut away the forests, erected 
comfortable dwellings and substantial out-houses, planted orchards, laid out gardens, 
and, generally, created one of the prettiest rural settlements in Lower Canada. The 
very few who remember the widow Peck s residence and surroundings, some sixty- 
seven years ago, will have difficulty, even now, in finding an equal in all respects even 
in progressive rural Ontario. The homestead with its immense barns, byres, stables, 
sheep houses, cheese room, corn house, swine pen, driving sheds, and all necessary 
buildings, large orchards and gardens, well tilled and fenced fields, and fine sugar 
bush, was too attractive to remain long without a purchaser, after the owner had 
decided to cast her lot in the embryo village of Chicago. The new proprietor, 
anxious to have early possession, had already sent in some servants with furniture, 
before the widow, her two sons, and old " Uncle Bill" had fairly started for the new 
home in the far West. 

" Capt. McLean about this time bought the Dr. Green property ; Thomas Cook, 
Esq., the farm opposite Peck s, besides the disposal of several other farms to new 
comers, among whom were Mr. Catton, Capt. McCargo and Major May ; but the 
Yankee settler made no objection to this foreign invasion. 

" No man could be more respected and beloved by his neighbors than James 
Kennedy Johnstone, Esq., of Ayreshire, Scotland, who succeeded Mrs. Peck. Though 
highly educated, by birth an aristocrat, and son of an aspirant to the titles and estates 
of Annandale, yet he appreciated the quiet, honest, pious, respectful people among 


whom he had come, and in their religious meetings and Sunday School he took an 
active part, thus gaining the affection of old and young, especially of the latter, upon 
whom his smiling countenance and pleasant words of advice made an indelible im 
pression. In religion, Mr. Johnstone was Scottish Episcopalian ; in politics, Conser 
vative. At the time of his death in March, 1833, he had arranged to visit Scotland 
during the summer, with the object of pushing his claim to the Marquisate and estate 
of his forefathers in Annandale. Five sons and two daughters with their mother were 
left to mourn his death. The sons were James Kennedy, Wellesley, Quintin, Samuel 
and Washington Joseph, and the daughters Matilda and Elizabeth. 

" James, without issue, died at St. Andrews, after having long retired from active 
business; Wellesley, with a family in the West his son James being inspector of gas, 
Toronto, devotes himself to the political press, favoring responsible government and 
every real reform, entire free trade, beginning with the Mother land, standing in the 
front. He sometimes expresses serious dissatisfaction vvith the ignorance of political 
economy evinced daily by Canadians in the House of Commons, who claim to be 
statesmen. Quintin adopted the profession of land surveyor. He died at Thorold, 
Ont., leaving a family ; one son James Kennedy Johnstone, M.D. Samuel had long 
resided in New Orleans, where he died leaving a family. Washington and his son of 
the same name entered the Civil Service the former as inspector of weights and 
measures, the latter in the Post Office Department. Matilda and family reside in the 
State of New York. Elizabeth died early, at the old homestead on Beech Ridge, 
deeply regretted. Like her mother, she never sent the beggar away empty-handed or 
hungry. Her chief happiness in the absence of children of her own was in doing 
good, and not refusing the cup of cold water in His name. 

The residence of W. J. Johnstone, Esq., vvith its orchard and well laid out 
grounds, still helps to preserve the fair name long enjoyed of Bonny Beech Ridge." 


This is the name of a Post Office established in 1860, nearly midway between St. 
Andrews Village and Lachute. It is on the road connecting these places, and which 
has always been designated as the "Lachute Road "the name being much more 
frequently used to distinguish places, even in proximity to the Post Office, than Geneva. 

The Lachute Road settlement has always been an important district, both in the 
parish of St. Andrews and in the County from the fact that it possesses superior 
agricultural qualities, and for two or three generations has been inhabited by a class 
of most intelligent, upright and thrifty farmers. There is neither a poor farm nor a 
poor farmer on this road, in St. Andrews parish; and a drive along this route in 
summer is one of interest to any individual interested in agriculture. Those of 
whom the following sketches are given reside in St. Andrews, and have good farms, 
and besides these are the fine farms of William Todd, Wood, Jas. Bradley and 

some others. 

Early in this century, GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS HOOKER, a young man who had worked 
in a paper manufactory in Boston, came to St. Andrews, and was employed for a 
number of years in the paper mill in that village. He was born in Boston, 3rd 
April, 1784, and was the son of one of the revolutionary heroes, whose name was 
Zibeon Hooker. History informs us that the latter was born in Sherburne, Mass., 
I2th February, 1752, and that he was one of a company of " Minute men" organized 
in the place of his nativity, who proved themselves deserving the title assumed, by 
proceeding to Lexington on the igth of April, 1775, as early as intelligence of the 
battle at that place reached them. They were not in season, however, to aid the 
inhabitants in defending their homes from the invading foe. From the same source 
we learn that Mr. Hooker commenced his military career at the age of seventeen, as 
a musician. During the engagement at Bunker Hill, the drum which he carried was 
pierced by a shot of the enemy. Divesting himself of this now useless instrument, 
he seized the musket of a fallen companion and rushed into the heat of the battle. 
This circumstance attracted the attention of the commanding officer, and he was 
raised above the rank of a common soldier, from which appointment he eventually 
succeeded to a lieutenantcy. Having joined the Continental army under General 
Washington, he never grounded his arms until peace was concluded in 1783. From 
a sermon delivered at his decease, we copy the following : 

" As a man, our departed father possessed great moral worth, the strictest inte 
grity, uncommon purity of character, and in the most exemplary manner discharged 
the relative duties of life. Such was his peaceful disposition that, during an unusually 
protracted life, never was he known to beat variance with any human being. Of him 
it can with truth be said, he had not an enemy in the world. Above all, our 


departed father was a sincere Christian ; no man entertained a more becoming sense 
of his own unworthiness than this Israelite, indeed." 

Not long after, his son, Gustavus Adolphus, came to St. Andrews, he purchased a 
gore in this parish, known as Lot 5, comprising about 200 acres, and a part of which 
is now owned and occupied by the family of his son, G. A. Hooker. 

On January 6th, 1808, he was married to Pamelia McArthur, daughter of Peter 
Me Arthur of Carillon Hill. After the paper mill was closed, he gave his attention to 
his farm, and, like the other pioneers of those days, he made many a barrel of potash, 
with which to procure the necessaries of life. He was Captain of Militia many years, 
and in the troubles of 1837-38 was a member of the Home Guard. It is quite 
probable, therefore, that, had the opportunity been given, he would have emulated the 
bravery of his father. He died 7th April, 1870; Mrs. Hooker, ist April, 1876. 
They had twelve children who grew up six sons and six daughters. One son, George, 
and four daughters are now living. Of the latter, Mrs. Giles resides in Lachute, one 
in Illinois and two in Glengarry, Ontario. 

George in his younger days bought a farm in Centerville, Chatham, on which he 
lived till a few years since, when, selling it to his son George, he moved to St. 
Andrews. He has been one of the substantial men of Chatham, has served as Muni 
cipal Councillor, two or three times as Assessor, and as President of the County 
Agricultural Society. He was married June i4th, 1845, to Sarah Jefferson from the 
North of England, by which marriage he had eight children. Mrs. Hooker died 
i5th November, 1870, and he was again married in September, 1873, to Annie M. 
Hoare, from Surrey, Eng., and by this marriage has three children. 

Gustavus Adolphus, who remained on the homestead, preferred to give his atten 
tion to his farm rather than to public affairs ; he, however, was a School Commissioner, 
and accepted the position of Post-Master when the post-office was established, holding 
it until his death. It was at his suggestion that the office received the name Geneva. 
He was married in 1864 to Alice, daughter of Peter McMartin of the River Rouge 
Settlement; four children two daughters, twins, and two sons were born to them. 
Mr. Hooker died 20th August, 1895, and his loss was deplored by a large community. 

JAMES BUCHAN, with his wife, his son David and three daughters, from Perthshire, 
Scotland, settled on the Lachute road in 1817, taking up a large tract of land, part 
of which is now owned by his grandson, William Buchan, and the balance of it by 
Mr. R. VV. McGregor, who still occupies the stone house built on it by Mr. Buchan. 
He was followed, in 1823, by his son, John Buchan, who settled on part of the land 
taken up by James Buchan, and which part is still in the possession of the family. 
John brought with him his wife, four sons, Thomas, Peter, James and Andrew, and 
one daughter. Andrew died soon afterwards. Thomas and James went to Ontario 
and settled near Hamilton ; the former died in 1895, James is still living. Their 
father, John Buchan, died in 1876, and their mother in 1873, both of them being 
upwards of ninety years of age. 

David, some years after their arrival, purchased land at L Orignal, which is now 
in the possession of his son Andrew. David married Flora McLachlan, sister of 


Hugh McLachlan, Esq., of Arnprior, and had a large family, of whom two, David and 
Daniel, died, the former early in 1896, and the latter about 1877. Another sou, 
William, lives at White Lake in Ontario, and Andrew and a daughter, Mrs. Campbell, 
still live in L Orignal. William, the youngest son of John Buchan, and his sister 
Mary were both born in Canada, and both have remained at the homestead. In 
December, 1851, William married Katharine Stewart; they have had five sons and 
four daughters, but four of the sons are deceased. Peter, aged twenty-one, died 
July 2nd, 1875. William, aged eighteen, died April 2ist, 1882; Andrew, aged 
sixteen, died at Los Angeles, California, the 28th of November, 1888, and another 
died in infancy. 

John S., the only son now living, graduated from McGill University in 1884 and 
is now a successful Barrister in Montreal. He married on the i5th September, 1885, 
Katharine, second daughter of Mr. F. McMartin, of St. Andrews. She died in 
August, 1894, leaving two children, John Stuart and Katherine McMartin Buchan. 

Katherine, the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Buchan, married David 
Todd, and lives on the farm adjoining the homestead. Annie, another daughter, 
married Duncan McGibbon, and lives in Brownsburg. Mary and Margaret, the two 
remaining daughters, live with their parents. 

Mr. Buchan is one of the thrifty, intelligent and highly respected residents of the 
county, and for a number of years filled several public offices with great ability. 

Among the early residents of the parish was "Johnny " Blais, who was for many 
years almost the only French speaking settler in Lachute Road. He owned the farm 
next to that belonging to John and afterwards to William Buchan, where he lived 
with a large family until his death, about the year 1860. His funeral was attended 
by almost the whole of his neighbors, by whom he was held in the highest respect 
in his lifetime. 

Walter Galloway lived on the farm adjoining that of Mr. G. A. Hooker. He 
was a typical Scot, and very popular with his neighbors. His son James lived for 
some years in Carillon, but died in middle age. His daughter Isabella married J. A. 
Sharman, who lived until the time of his death, in 1874, on tne Galloway farm, 
where he also carried on a tailoring business. After his death his son, Walter G. 
Sharman, lived in the same place, and carried on the business until about the year 
1884, when he sold the farm and removed to Montana, where he is now living. 

Thomas Jefferson was a typical English Squire. He owned the large and fertile 
farm now the property of Mr. Robert Watson, where he employed a large number 
of people, and prospered from year to year. He always practiced the best methods 
of farming, and by his success demonstrated the truth that business methods pay in 
farming as in any other pursuit. After selling his farm to Mr. Watson he lived for 
some years on a piece of land opposite the homestead, which he reserved, and 
eventually removed to St. Andrews, where ha died. This sketch would be incom 
plete without a reference to James Foley, long the trusted foreman for Mr. Jefferson. 
"Jimmy," as both young and old loved to call him, was capable, hard-working, and 
of sterling integrity. When the Jefferson farm was sold he moved to Point Fortune, 
where he purchased a farm, and farmed it with the success which he well deserved. 


BENJAMIN COLE, from New Hampshire, was one of the earliest settlers on the 
Lachute Road, and he lived here till his death. 

Willard, one of his sons, bought the lot on which his own son Benjamin now 
lives; he was married in 1818 to Susan McLaughlin, of St. Andrews. They had two 
sons and seven daughters of whom only one son, Benjamin, and three daughters 
are now living. Benjamin lives on the homestead with one of his sisters, Isabel Cole ; 
neither of them has ever married. Mr. Cole is very particular respecting the care of 
his cattle and horses, of which he always has a superior quality. 

RICHARD WILSON MCGREGOR was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in October, 
1815 ; he there learned the carpenter s trade, and followed it until the spring of 1841, 
when he came to Canada, remaining for a time with his brother on the LachuteRoad. 
He worked at his trade in this locality, St. Andrews and Carillon, for five years. In 
1848, he was married to Jane, daughter of the late Dr. McGregor, of Lachine, and 
came to live on his present farm, which he had bought from David Buchan, two years 

Mr. and Mrs. McGregor have had three sons and five daughters, all of whom are 
living. Margaret, the eldest daughter, and Anna, are both in California; Mary, mar 
ried to Wm. Elliott, grocer, lives in Montreal; Isabella, married to \Vm. McOuat, 
lives in Brownsburg ; and Catherine is at home. Norman P. is a Commercial Traveller 
in Minneapolis ; John and Andrew live at home. 

Mr. McGregor has taken an active part in the affairs of St. Andrews Parish, 
having been Councillor several terms, Chairman of the Board of School Commis 
sioners fifteen years, and Justice of the Peace and Commissioner for the trial of small 
causes for twenty years ; he was also a member of the Militia for a number of years, 
and held the rank of Sergeant when the Militia was disbanded ; he was Quartermaster 
of the Argenteuil Rangers, and retired with the rank of Major. 

JOHN FRASER came from Banffshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 1834, with his wife 
and eleven children. He first settled in Thomas Gore, remaining there one year, 
and then went to Hill Head, where he lived seven years ; he afterwards came to 
Lachute, and bought the place now owned by his youngest son, Hugh. After this, 
he spent seven years on a property near Back River, Montreal, returning at the 
end of that time to the Lachute farm, where he and Mrs. Fraser both died. While in 
Hill Head, Mr. Fraser conducted a distillery five years. 

George Fraser, the third son, born 1824, remained at home until sixteen, at 
which age he went with his father to Montreal, remaining on the farm at Back River 
seventeen years. During that time, he had opportunity to help back to health some 
of the victims of the terrible ship fever raging in Montreal, by supplying them with 
buttermilk, carrying to them 140 gallons, daily. He was asked one day by the doctor 
who attended the emigrants if he was not afraid ; upon his answering " No," the 
doctor remarked " I do not want to stop you, for taking the buttermilk means life 
to them." As is well known, hundreds, even thousands of these poor people perished ; 


Mr. Fraser says, he lias seen them die by the dozen in the large emigrant shed. He 
at last gave up supplying with buttermilk from fear of spreading the disease. He 
was married in 1848 to Miss E. Carmichael, daughter of Donald Carmichael of St. 
Eustache, and in 1864 came to Lachute Road, and bought from the late Andrew 
FcGregor his present farm, on which he has made many improvements. Mr. and 
Mrs. Fraser have had three sons and three daughters, of whom only two sons are 
living, Daniel, the elder, is farming on the Island of Montreal, and John, the younger 
son remains at home. Miss Jessie Carmichael, sister of Mrs. Fraser, also makes 
her home with them. 

ANDREW TODD, third son of the late Wm. Todd of East Settlement, was born Au 
gust. 1831, at Lachute. When sixteen years of age, he commenced learning the black 
smith s trade with John McAllister of East Settlement. He was married in 1851 to 
Margaret, daughter of the late David Roger of the same place, and first started in 
business for himself in St. Eustache. He opened a shop there,, remained two years, 
and was afterwards in Lachute ten years, and in Beech Ridge the same length of 
time. In 1874, he bought his present farm from John McConnell, but still has 
found time to work occasionally at his trade. Mr. and Mrs. Todd have six sons and 
four daughters ; Robert, the youngest of the family, and Jennie, are at home. The 
former, having taken a course in the Military School at Quebec, is and Lieutenant in 
Captain Wanless Company of Cavalry at St. Andrews. 

DAVID, third son of DAVID RODGER, was born in East Settlement in 1838. In 
1868, he bought his farm here, and in 1869 was married to Alice Young, adopted 
daughter of the late Dr. Barr of Belle Riviere. Mr. Rodger has been one of the 
prosperous farmers of Argenteuil, bringing his farm into a fine state of cultivation. 
Mrs. Rodger died in 1878, and her death was followed, twelve years later, by that of 
the oldest son, David John. The latter was an exemplary young man in every 
respect, and his early demise at the age of twenty years was deeply deplored. 

Agnes H., the daughter, was married in July, 1895, to David Taylor of Isle aux 
Chats. William George is attending Military School in Toronto, and holds a com 
mission in the St. Andrews Troop. Mr. Rodger has retired from farming, having 
sold his farm to his brother in 1893. 

JAMES ARMSTRONG was born in 1803, and came from County Monaghan, Ireland, 
to Canada about 1825, and died May 7th, 1873. Mrs. Armstrong died in 1878, at 
the age of seventy-five. 

JAMES, their second son, was born April lyth, 1836, in the Seigniory, and 
remained at home until about twenty-six years of age ; he was married Feb. 25th, 
1862, to Margaret, daughter of the late James Scott of Lakefield, and after living ten 
years on the farm given him by his father, sold it and bought his present one from 
Dr. Christie. Mr. Armstrong has erected several new out-buildings since coming 
here, and made other improvements ; he has always been a liberal supporter of the 
Presbyterian Church, and has been Elder in Henry s Church, Lachute, for the past 


twenty-five years. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have had four sons and six daughters ; 
of whom two sons and five daughters are now living. James, the elder son, has taken 
an active part in the Y. P. S. C. E. of Lachute, having become a member soon after 
the Society was organized, and was President of it for a year; Bella teaches the 
Geneva school ; Catherine A. attends the Lachute Academy ; and Mary, Elizabeth E., 
Lucinda J. and George S. remain at home. 

The following sketch is contributed by Colin Dewar: 

JOHN DENNISQN was the man chosen for Captain by the Volunteers of Lachute 
Road at the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1837 5 ne was a cooper by trade, which 
at that time was a good paying business. He was a man in the prime of life, active 
and intelligent, and although moving in the humbler walks of life, was well fitted for 
the position to which he had been chosen, and which he filled to the complete satis 
faction of his commanding officer, as well as that of his Company. He was passion 
ately fond of hunting and fishing, a circumstance he turned to good account, as wolves 
were very numerous and a great nuisance to the farmers ; and he was successful in 
capturing quite a number, for which he received the Government bounty of ten dollars 

He left St. Andrews a few years after the close of the Rebellion, and as the 
part of the country he went to had few postal facilities, there was very little heard of 
him, and in a short time he was in a measure forgotten. About the year 1880 or 1881, 
I noticed an article taken from a Renfrew paper mentioning the death of John 
Dennison. and giving some details of his previous life, which sufficiently identified 
him as the former Captain of the Lachute Road Volunteers. The article went on to 
say that Mr. Dennison, although well up in years, still kept up his habit of hunting, and 
had left to visit his traps at some distance from his house, and not returning at the 
usual time, search was instituted, with the terrible result, that his dead body was found 
very much mutilated; and every indication of a fearful encounter having taken place, as 
the dead body of a large bear lay close beside him ! What a fearful struggle that must 
have been to a man nearly eighty years of age, and at what a cost ! 

Mr. Dewar says: "The summer of 1847 brought that terrible scourge, the 
Ship Fever, into Canada. A few emigrants from an overcrowded steamer going 
westward landed at Carillon, and two of them, a man and his wife, left there to seek 
friends living beyond Lachute. They got as far as Andrew Shield s house on La- 
chute Road, and being unable to proceed any farther, were cared for by his wife, 
who, with the help of some of the neighbors, placed them in a nice, clean, airy build 
ing, and nursed them for many weary weeks. But with all their care, the husband 
succumbed to the disease, and was decently buried in the cemetery on Carillon Hill. 
His wife eventually recovered, and was sent on to her friends. In this case, those 
who nursed and cared for this suffering pair, for so many long weeks, were those 
who had their own daily tasks to perform, which at times were none of the lightest, 
but they never shirked the duty, faithfully attending them, night and day. Truly, it 


was a labor of love, for there was no reward in prospect, only the satisfaction of a 
good conscience ; and it is worthy of remark that none of them took the disease." 

JOHN WATSON came from Glasgow to Canada, and started in business in Mont 
real,* in the boot and shoe trade. He was married in this country to Miss Janet 
Cumduff, by whom he had three sons and three daughters. After leaving Montreal, 
he went to East Hawkesbury, and bought the Island at the foot of the Long Sault, 
now owned by Henry Stevens. He afterward removed to Melbourne, Que., and 
became superintendent of the slate quarry in that place. 

Robert Watson, his eldest son, born in 1845, remained with his father until 1873 ; 
he was married in that year to Jane, daughter of Mr. George Hooker of St. Andrews, 
and went afterward, with his wife, to California, where they remained six years. On 
his return, Mr. Watson bought the old Jefferson farm on the Lachute Road. His 
father lived with him until his death, which took place in 1883; his mother is still 

Mr. and Mrs. Watson have four sons and three daughters all living at home, with 
the exception of Roy, the eldest son, who is in the milk business in Montreal. 


This place, the name of which in French denotes a chime of bells, is located on 
the Ottawa, two miles west of St. Andrews, and is famed for the beauty of its scenery. 
It is a part of St. Andrews Parish, and was incorporated as a village in 1887. 

Land here had been granted to individuals by the Seignior previous to 1800, but 
there is no evidence that they ever settled on it. Peter McArthur was undoubt 
edly the first actual settler in the limits of what is now the corporation ; hence we 
are to understand that the subject of the following sketch was the first in what is 
generally regarded the village, i.e., the most populous part. 

CAPT. JACOB SCHAGEL is said to have been the first settler, and to have built the 
first house in Carillon ; this house (of course a log one) was located on the river s 
bank, just in rear of the present hotel of John Kelly ; this occurred about the year 
1804. He came from the States, and lived a while in Stanbridge, one of the Eastern 
Townships, before coming to Chatham. Soon after this, he sent to Stanbridge for 
his brother Samuel, who, on joining him., erected for an hotel the long,- low building 
IK,W owned by Mr. Kelly, which stands a little to the west of his present hotel. This 
building he used as a public house fora number of years ; he died at Carillon in 1839. 

Mr. Jacob Schagel, soon after his arrival, took a contract from Government for 
carrying freight between Carillon and Grenville, a business he followed several years. 





In 1809, April 2nd, he married Polly, a daughter of Captain Noble. The latter 
came from England, where he obtained his title from having command of a militia 
company, and had settled in Chatham on a lot of wild land, a few miles from Caril 
lon. Quite a good sized creek crossed this land, and on this he erected a saw mill ; 
he died some time previous to the Rebellion of 1837. This farm became the property 
of his son-in-law, Captain Schagel, who spent many years of his life on it, and died 
there, i6th May, 1874, attheage of 88. Captain Schagel s military title was conferred 
on him a short time previous to the Rebellion, he having been appointed Captain of 
Militia ; his Company was ordered to the front, and he gained much credit for his 
activity during the troubles of that period. Before his death, he was promoted to 
the rank of Major. 

In the early part of his residence in Chatham, he purchased a tract of land ad 
joining that of Captain Noble, and which is now owned by William Graham ; he lived 
on it till he sold it in 1851. That Captain or, more properly, Major Schagel was 
much respected, and a man of influence, is evident from the manner in which his 
name is always mentioned by those who still remember him, and its association with 
every important local event of the generation past. He had fourteen children, of 
whom one son and eight daughters grew up. 

Jacob D. Schagel,* the son, was married, i7th December, 1850, to Phillippa Grace 
Mount-Stephens, and in 1856, or the following year, he bought the homestead on 
which he still resides. He built a new saw mill on the site of the old one erected 
by his grandfather, Captain Noble, and it answered its purpose well for several years ; 
but owing to the partial drying up of the stream, as the land was cleared, the mill 
fell into disuse, and the only vestige now remaining is the dam ; this is a stone struc 
ture, and now, covered with soil, makes an admirable bridge. Mr. Schagel ably 
sustains the fair reputation of his ancestors, and while giving due attention to the 
cultivation and improvement of his farm, he has not neglected those things tending 
to the moral and intellectual growth of his family. He has had ten children five of 
each sex ; two of the sons are deceased. Of the daughters, Charlotte Amy, married 
to William Nichols, lives in Ottawa; Julia Agnes, married to W. S. Gliddon, also 
lives in Ottawa; Alice Phillippa, the wife of George W. Bixby, resides in Steele 
county, Minnesota; George S., one of the sons, living on the homestead, was mar 
ried 6th September, 1894, to Justina Elliott ; he was licensed by the Methodist Con 
ference as a Local Minister, 22nd February, 1892; he is also Secretary of the Argen- 
teuil County C. E. Union. 

PETER MCARTHUR was one of the very early pioneers in this section, having 
located on Carillon Hill. His house, which was a large two-story building, occupied 
the site of the present residence of Henry Barclay. The hospitality of the family 
was well known ; and for a number of years this house often afforded a home for 
Scotch immigrants until they could secure homes of their own. 

* Mr. Schagel died in December, 1895, since the above was written. 


Mr. McArthur had lived in the States previous to corning here, and had married 
in Vermont, Phcebe Lane, a sister of Jedediah Lane, who purchased the tract of 
land in Lachute known as " Lane s Purchase." 

They had six sons Lane, Royal, Peter, Erick, Armand and Arthur ; and four 
daughters, Lurena, Charlotte, Phoebe and Pamelia. 

Of the latter, Lurena was married to Moses Davis ; Charlotte, to John Harring 
ton ; Phoebe to Robert Simpson ; Pamelia to G. A. Hooker. 

Erick McArthur remained on the homestead till he sold it to James Barclay in 
835> vvnen he went to Ottawa, opened a public house, and remained there until he 
died. Lane McArthur, the eldest son, erected a large building in St. Andrews, 
where he kept hotel for a number of years, and owned a stage line. 

His two sons, Crosby and [Frederick, followed mercantile life _ the former in 
Ontario, the latter in St. Andrews, having purchased the store of W. G. Blanchard 
whose adopted daughter he married. He was killed by accident, in Montreal, leaving 
one son, William, now living in St. Andrews, and a daughter who married William 
Larmonth, a merchant in Montreal. Arthur McArthur, the youngest son of Peter 
bought a lot in Lachute, and lived there some years ; but he finally sold out and left 
the county. 

Royal, another son, studied surveying, moved to Ohio, and surveyed much of 
the wild land of that State. 

MR. C. THOMAS, : WA JanUary 23 


A history of Argenteuil would be incomplete -without more than a passing notice 
ot that lovely spot well known as Carillon Hill. 

In point of situation, nothing can surpass its loveliness. Standing on the brow 
of the hill, and taking a survey up and down, whichever way you turn, your eyes rest 
on the natural beauties of both land and water the view of the Rapids and country 
ay to the west, the lovely appearance of the country to the south, the course of 
hat magnificent expanse of water, as it flows on until it seems to be lost or shut in 
ligaud Mountains, and the pure invigorating breeze as it rises from that 
stream of water, always spoken of in early days as the " Grand River." 
No wonder this lovely spot could always boast of an intelligent and industrious 
icnest yeomen ; and if it be true that he who makes two blades of grass 
o grow instead of one " can be called a benefactor, so well might they be called by the 
lame, as all of them did their best, not only to beautify their homes, but also 
>enefit future generations (and it was from no fauh of thejrs tfa Jn after 
their labors were destroyed). 

This thrift could be witnessed by the splendid gardens and orchards surrounding 
the shade trees and cherry trees growing along the highway, the pastures 


filled by nut-bearing trees, as the hickory, oak, beech and butternut ; all of this, and 
more, could be seen in the first decade of this century, when such men as my grand 
father Dewar, Major Muir and Auer Mathews occupied the property now known as 
" Bellevue "Peter McArthur owned where Mr. Barclay lives, Peter Benedict wheie 
Benj. Wales, and in later years John Dewar lived, and Mr. Donnelly was on the farm 
now held by Hugh Robertson. 

It was a sight well worth witnessing for one to pass through their gardens and 
see the beautiful flowers and vegetables, and to go through their large and extensive 
orchards and see the lovely and delicious apples and plums growing in such rich pro 
fusion, scarcely a vestige of which is to be seen now. Scientists may be able to explain 
the cause of the destruction which came upon the fruit trees in that locality ths fact 
remains that they have nearly all disappeared. 


From the deck of a steamer ascending the Ottawa, the traveller notices as she 
rounds a headland, away on his right, a high ridge, or bluff, descending abruptly to 
the river. Cultivated farms with good looking dwellings and white picket fences in 
front stretch along the brow of this ridge, and these, with the fruit and ornamental 
trees around, give the impression that the proprietors are well-to-do as well as per 
sons of taste. The river, still preserving its noble breadth and volume, flows quietly 
on but just ahead are rapid, tumbling waters, and, beyond, the imposing Dam of Caril 
lon stretching from shore to shore. On the left, the land, for the most part pasture 
and meadow, and clothed here and there with groves of trees, rises gently as 

recedes from the river. 

The steamer now draws nigh to the wharf, yet the traveller is scarcely cons( 
of the fact, so engrossed is he with the scenery around him. The ridge above re. 
ferred to, receding at this point a little farther from the shore, leaves a leve 
ground near the river, at the eastern end of which is Carillon Park, shaded with 
thick growth of hickory, oak and maple. Standing vis-a-vis on opposite sides of the 
river are the small, quiet villages of Carillon and Point Fortune, the white cot., 
of which, with their green fields and evergreen trees in the background, form, esre 
cially at sunset, a most beautiful picture. 

A number of substantial brick and stone houses are also found in ea 
and especially the Government houses in Carillon, in which dwell the officials 
nected with the canal, are attractive, as well as the grounds around 
steamer s wharf is a long, low building, which serves as station and freight 
both steamers and the railway. Several rods distant, and the first structure 
entrance to the village from the east, stands a very large and imposing stone bu. 
which a sign proclaims is the < Sovereign Hotel," but which for severa 
has been known through all the country side as " The Barrack 


But directly back of the station, on the brow of the ridge, one hundred feet or 
more above the river, is a clump of buildings to which the traveler ascends in order 
to enjoy the wide view which their location commands. But his attention is soon 
engrossed by the buildings and surrounding objects ; everything has such an evidence 
of care and prosperity in years bygone, that he will inevitably wish to know the 
history of the early proprietor. 

A delightful grove of pine, butternut and acacia trees, in which squirrels chatter 
and gambol, nearly approaches the buildings on the east. Passing through this, one 
enters an extensive pasture, where a number of horses, sheep and cattle are grazing, 
or seeking shelter from the sun, in the shade of gigantic elms, oaks and maples. A few 
yards in front, a lakelet, formed partly by nature and partly by art, sends its waters 
in a babbling stream down through a deep gorge, rendered dark by overhanging trees 
across the park to mingle with the Ottawa. On the farther side of this gorge, located 
in a bower of evergreens, stands the cottage of Mr. John Halsey. the engineer on the 
Carillon & Grenville Railway. Twenty yards in front of this are the roofless walls 
of a stone structure, enclosing trees whose tops shoot many feet above them. 

And thus one may wander for a day, over a tract of land stretching from the Ottawa 
half a league back to the North River ; and at every step will be discovered some 
memento of a time when energy and wealth were expended with lavish hand to render 
this a beautiful and productive homestead. Here and there tumble-down stone walls 
nre found in woods where once were cultivated fields. Here, the last decaying timbers 
of an old mill ; and there, in the forest, are moss-covered mounds, which tradition 
says are the resting places of the servitors of the "Lord of the Manor "the toilers 
who helped to clear these lands and rear the structures now in ruins. 

During this survey of so many vestiges of the past, the impression has been stead 
ily growing, that the early proprietor of this estate must have possessed means far 
exceeding those of most of the early pioneers, and that he used it in opening up busi 
ness, the extent and character of which seem unique in the features of a new settle 
ment. The researches incited by our curiosity develop the following facts : 

One hundred and six years ago, or in 1790, the lot on which the house and out 
buildings stand was granted to a man named L OIive. In May of the same year, 
however, it was reunited to the domain, by a judgment of the Court of Common 
Pleas ; and on the 3rd of May, 1792, it was granted anew to M. J. Ladouceur. It 
seems, however, that it must have once more returned to the Seignior, as it was again 
granted, Jan. 7 th, 1800, by Maj. Murray to J. Whitlock. Eight years later, it was 
sold to Peter Dewar, who retained it till the year 1819, when he sold it to Maj. Muir. 
27th May, 1827, Maj. Muir conveyed it to Commissary General C. J. Forbes, 
during whose ownership the buildings house, barns, hotel, brewery, malt house and 
-were erected, and the large improvements made, the place receiving the name 
< Bellevue," by which name it has been known for more than three-score years. By 


Sketdl haS been P re P^* ^ one familiar with the 


CHARLES JOHN FORBES was born in Hampshire, England, Feb. xoth, i 7 86 and 
dunng his hfe on the Ottawa, the loth of February was as well known to his C 
circle of friends as Christmas or New Year. At an early age he was 
Allege of Altona in Denmark, and when only fourteen, L "recked" el LV 
England on the coast of Holland. While waiting for a ship to carry them to their des 
tmation, be was taken by the Captain to a country Fair, and such was his wonder ul 
memory and genius for poking up languages, even at that early age, that he learnt fcere 
a song, sung by the peasantry, and afterwards discontinued by order of the Govei 
ment, but remembered and repeated by him in a visit to Holland in his seventv-th 
year. On his return to England, he entered the Navy ; but when he was nineteen he 
went into the army, and first saw active service in that unfortunate affair in E-ypt 
under Sir John Stuart. He was taken prisoner and confined in the dungeons of the 
citadel qf Cairo but was fortunate enough to attract the notice of Mahomed Ali and a 
friendship struck up between the English boy and the powerful Pasha The following 
year, he again served under Sir John Stuart, at the battle of Maida, and then the En-lis 
arms was victorious. For several years he saw service in the Mediterranean bein* 
present at the taking of the Ionian Islands and the taking of Sicily. He was alsc 
daring enough on one occasion, to swim out under a heavy fire with despatches to 
the Admiral of the fleet, for which service he received the thanks of Government and 
a gold snuff-box. He served in the Commissariat department through the Peninsu 
lar war, where his knowledge of languages made his services very useful Fro; 
there, he was sent to join the army under Sir James Packenham, and was present at 
the battle of New Orleans. In a letter, now in possession of his family written to 
uncle in England, immediately after the battle, he describes that unfortunate affair 
and the misapprehension of the feeling in the Floridas and Louisiana, which led to 
such a small force being sent ; but he always retained a profound respect for General 

" On his return to England, the following summer, he married Miss Sophia Mar 
garet Browne, and their bridal tour was from the church door to Waterloo. Imm- 
d.ately after that decisive victory, Mr. Forbes, accompanied by his wife, was sent to 
Vienna, to take charge of the money lent by the Rothschilds to the British Govern 
ment for the payment of the Prussian troops. Mrs. Forbes often described the 
heart-rending scenes they witnessed; whenever they stopped to change horses, they 
saw women who, having heard of a great battle, were hoping to get news of 
lathers and sons. 

"The peace of Europe being now established, they went to Florence, where they 
continued to reside for some years, their eldest children being born there. Daring 
their sojourn in that delightful city, they made acquaintance with some very cele- 


brated people, among them, the Countess of Blessington, Lord Byron and the Abbe 
Mezzofanti, known as the greatest linguist of his own or any other day, being able 
to speak and write seventy different languages. In 1825, Mr. Forbes was ordered to 
Nova Scotia, leaving Mrs. Forbes in England. She followed him as soon as possible 
under the escort of an old friend, whose son was afterwards Principal of the Lennox- 
ville College. From Halifax, Mr. Forbes was transferred to Montreal, but as that 
town was not healthy for his children, they decided to buy a place where they might 
be sent. Accordingly, they bought the property known as Bellevue at Carillon, on 
the Ottawa, from Major Muir. They liked their home on the Ottawa so much, 
that they bought two other farms, one from Major Burke and the other back of the 
village of Carillon from Mr. Cameron, which was ever afterwards known as " Cam 
eron s Land. 

" The society of Montreal was at that time exceedingly good, as, besides the mili 
tary, there was the old aristocratic French element, the De Montenachs ; the De 
Lotbinieres, whose daughters inherited the seigniories of Rigaud, Vaudreuil and De 
Lotbiniere ; and many more of the old French families who formed at once the most 
exclusive and charming of societies. There were, besides, the Scotch merchant 
princes of Montreal, whose dignified hospitality added so much to the delight of 
Canadian life. 

"This pleasant style of life continued, partly in Montreal and partly at Bellevue, 
till Mr. Forbes was ordered to the West Indies, at the time of the emancipation of 
the slaves. While there, he had two attacks of yellow fever in three months, and 
was invalided home. He returned to Canada, and took up his abode permanently, at 
Bellevue. His only official duty from that time was acting as adviser to Sir John 
Colborne, Governor General and Commander of the Forces, during the Rebellion in 
1837-38. He also acted for many years as Paymaster to the old pensioners,, and was 
once unanimously returned as Member for the county of Argenteuil. A curious 
thing happened in connection with his election. At a dinner given at Bellevue to 
his constituents, a quantity of silver was stolen, but was shortly afterwards returned 
by the priest, who requested that no questions should be asked, as it was restored 
under the seal of confession. Families of old friends and relations had, in the mean 
time, come out from England, and settled in the neighborhood ; the society was 
delightful : Mr. \Vainvvright, R.N., bought a place which he named " Silver Heights, 
from the white daisies growing on the hill at the back of the house; Mr. Cunning 
ham, afterwards Sir Francis, at Milnecraig, called after the family residence in Scot 
land, and whose house as they insisted on being their own architects was found 
to be minus stairs or a support for one of the gables, which had to be built on a 
heavy beam through one of the bedrooms ; Mr. Stikeman, at Rose Cottage, across 
the river, one of whose sons married Mr. Forbes second daughter, Florence; and Mr. 
William Abbott, the genial clergyman of the parish, without whom no festivity in the 
neighborhood was complete. His still more talented brother, the Rev. Joseph Abbott, 
was also a constant visitor, while his son afterward Sir John Abbott spent a great 


deal of his early life at Bellevue. Prior to this, the building of the canal from Caril 
lon to Grenville brought a large military force into the neighborhood, the officers of 
which generally made their headquarters at Bellevue ; and for many years afterward, 
soldiers were stationed at Carillon for the protection of the canal the military ele 
ment adding much to the social enjoyment of the neighborhood. In connection 
with military matters, may be mentioned that, during the Rebellion, Bellevue became 
the House of Refuge of the ladies who were left defenceless from their male relatives 
going off to join the volunteer companies then formed. Some of these ladies thought 
the cellars, which run the entire length of the house, would be a hiding place, in 
which no adventurous rebel would ever find them, and insisted on dragging bedding 
and other things down there. Mrs. Forbes, however, who felt the warlike spirit strong 
within her, remained on deck, spending one whole night casting bullets, as Mr. 
Giraud, one of the leaders, and who had been tutor to her sons, knowing how well the 
place was victualed, declared his intention of eating his Christmas dinner there. His 
intentions, however, were frustrated by the determined defence made by our Volun 
teers. Mr. Forbes son-in-law, Mr. Edward Jones, immediately formed a Cavalry 
company, in which Mr. Forbes eldest son, Carlo, served as cornet. They did va 
liant service, both at Grand Brule and St. Eustache. Many deeds of valor were done 
by heroes from that section, a son of Judge McDonell, of Point Fortune, driving down 
on the ice and capturing some of the enemy s cannon, and dragging them up behind 
his sleigh. Quiet was at last restored, and Mr. Forbes, who always had a mania 
for building, was able to pursue his favorite occupation in peace. 

" His fancy for building and agriculture never proved profitable, the brewery, 
which was built in 1833, being a constant bill of expense, and the Barrack, which was 
built in 1830, became useless after the troops were removed ; the powder magazine 
had only the advantage that it blew up without hurting anybody, and the saw mill 
only led to a feud with his old friend, Col. Johnson; the Seignior. In right of the 
seigniorial law as at that time established, he prevented his using his saw mill for 
anyone s benefit but his own. The agricultural arrangements were not much more 
profitable, except so far as it enabled unbounded hospitality to be at all times exer 
cised. Arthur Young, the great English authority, was constantly consulted; but what 
might have suited English farming did not suit Canadian, all root crops had to be 
transplanted ; a lime kiln was built, to keep a constant supply of lime on hand for the 
land; large holes were dug in the bog to extract the marl at the bottom ; and though 
the farm included 500 acres of woodland, a number of Irish laborers were con; 
employed to make peat to burn in the house, as the ashes were supposed to be gooc 
for turnips. However, all these theories gave constant employment to the peopl 
around there ; those who wanted work were never denied it ; and if sickne 
them or their families, they were always generously provided for. 
social life was of the pleasantest : people of distinction constantly coming 
stay Sir John Colborne, the Earl of Dalhousie, Sir James Kempt, Sir Charl >t, 

Sir Charles Metcalf and Lord Sydenham-all Governors of Canada-have been enfe 



tained at the old homestead. Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson Bay 
Company, was a frequent visitor, while Monsignor Forbin de Jonson, the Catholic 
Bishop, who put up so many of the crosses on the Catholic churches in Canada, 
staytd at Bellevue, and even claimed relationship, as he said his family were origin 
ally Forbes, but the French pronunciation had changed it to Forbin. Of the Epis 
copal Bishops, Stuart, Mountain and Fulford always made Bellevue their stopping 
place on their parochial visits up the Ottawa. While, in spite of political differences, 
Mr. Papineau was a welcome guest, his courtly French manner being delightful. 

Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Forbes, only four are alive. The oldest son, 
Charles, or Carlo, became a civil engineer, and is now living at St. Paul, Minn. 
The youngest, Frank, is in the City Engineer s office in Chicago. The second 
daughter, Mrs. Stikeman, removed after her husband s death to California, as did the 
youngest daughter, Elizabeth; while of the two nieces of Mr. Forbes, whom he took 
as children and brought up as his own, the eldest married Captain Powell, of the 
9 th Regiment, and the youngest married Dr. Mayrand, of St. Andrews, who is related 
to some of the old French families. Bellevue, as a home of the Forbes family, has 
long ceased to exist; and the life in the old homestead is only a pleasant memory 
of a by-gone time to many scattered in various parts of the world." 


Mr. Forbes died 22nd September, 1862; Mrs. Forbes died 23rd June, 1869. 

The latter had been on a visit to " Silver Heights," accompanied by one of her 
nieces. In returning, the horse, a spirited animal, took fright, the carriage was over 
turned, and Mrs. Forbes being thrown violently against a rock was instantly killed. 
Her untimely death was the cause of much sorrow in the community, especially 
among those who had experienced her kindness and benevolence. She was a 
woman of excellent judgment, active temperament, generous and kindly disposition. 

Mrs. Palliser, now living in Carillon, spent several years of her early life in the 
service of the Forbes family, and has many interesting reminiscences of Bellevue. 
She remembers particularly the benevolence of Mrs. Forbes, and how generously 
she always supplied poor families with fruit at the season of fruit-gathering. 

In those early days, serious and bloody fights were of frequent occurrence among 
the raftsmen on the river, which were usually followed by the arrest of one or more 
of the most vicious combatants on their arrival at Carillon. 

The culprits were usually brought before Mr. Forbes for trial, and a strong-room 
in the basement of Bellevue confined the prisoner till the hour of his trial arrived. 
The door of this "lock-up," together with a padlock, which looks as if it might have 
done service in the Bastile, still remain as mementoes of those rude scenes which, 
happily, no longer occur. 

In 1864, the Bellevue property, consisting of 700 acres of land and four houses, 
was purchased by the Ottawa River Navigation Company, of which the late R. W. 
Shepherd, sen., was president, and his son R. W. SHEPHERD, jun., is now manager. 



The latter left school in 1865, and entered the office of the Company as clerk. 
During the time thus employed, he overlooked the building of the steamer " Dagmar, 
in the Company s shipyard, learned much about boats, their speed, construction, etc., 
knowledge which was of much service to him in after years. In 1866, when the 
" Dagmar " commenced running, he was appointed purser on her, and remained two 
years, when he became purser on the mail steamer " Prince of Wales," and held the 
position till 1870. In February, 1871, he made a trip to Europe, and on his return, 
the same year, was appointed assistant manager of the Company a position he 
occupied till 1882, when he became general manager. 

The construction of the palatial iron steamers "Sovereign " and " Empress " was 
entirely under his control and supervision, and the designs for them were prepared 
by him, after several trips to the States to obtain the most modern and suitable plans 
for river steamers designed for pleasure travel. That he attained his object is abun 
dantly proven by the fine appearance of these steamers and their popularity with the 
traveling puclic. 

Mr. Shepherd was married 26th June, 1879, to Miss Margaret A. Robertson, 
daughter of Hugh Robertson, of " Milncraig," Carillon Hill, Quebec. 

Military affairs have also engaged a share of his attention, and during the Fenian 
raids, he was ensign in the Cotno Rifles, and was stationed with his company to guard 
the approach to the bridge at St. Ann s. For eight years, he was an officer in the 
Prince of Wales Rifles, ist Battalion, and retired with rank of Captain. He saw 
active service when connected with this Battalion, during the Fenian excitement, the 
Guibord interment, and the Bread Riots in Quebec, in 1878. 

He has taken great interest in horticultural matters and fruit growing, and for 
several years was director and vice-president of the Montreal Horticultural Society, 
and is now vice-president of the Pomological Society of the Province of Quebec a 
Society indebted chiefly to him for its formation. Fruit growing has engaged much 
of his attention for more than twenty years, especially the cultivation of* the best 
table apples, and his fine nurseries at Como are now well known in this part of the 
Dominion. He was assistant Commissioner of this Province for the World s Fair at 
Chicago, and the fine collection of fruit sent from Quebec was collected under his 

Carillon, even for a country village, is remarkably quiet ; a bakery and a carpen 
ter shop comprising all its manufactories. It has neither church, minister, or lawyer, 
and but one store. The Roman Catholics attend their church at St. Andrews, and 
the Protestants the different denominational services of the same place, or the service 
held occasionally at the residence of Mr. Sharman in this village. 

But notwithstanding the lack of mills and stores, there is considerable travel 
through the place even in winter ; and when the spring opens and the boats begin to 
run, the aspect of Carillon, as a business place, is greatly improved. This being the 
terminus of the steamboat line from Montreal, as well as that of the railway running 


to Grenville, it is a depot for both passengers and freight ; and when summer advances, 
and people seek the refreshing air of the country, numbers flock .to Carillon ; its 
beautiful and expansive water front and otherwise charming scenery attracting num 
bers which, through July and August, greatly enhance the life and gayety of the 

village. . 

The store referred to above is worthy of notice, not only on account of its anti 
quity, but from the events which have therein occurred ; more than one of the occu 
pants having acquired a competency, while others have experienced the lot of bank- 


It was built, sometime in the third decade of this century, by A. E. Monimar- 
quet from Montreal. Having no competitors in the place, he soon became forehand 
ed, and possibly, it may have been from the opportunity he had, of making what the 
Scotchman called " four per cent." profits, really four times the cost. However this 
may be, he acquired much influence in the County, and the following letter, copied 
from one in the archives of Quebec, shows that he was not devoid of public spirit. 

CARILLON, Sept. i6th, 1846. 
To the Supt. Schools, 

Canada East. 

g IR \ve have received a petition from the inhabitants of the school district of 

Carillon, asking for help towards erecting a school-house in said district ; and as we 
are not aware that there is any money in the Government hands to be appropriated 
to this district, we would feel extremely obliged if you will let us know whether you 
have any to spare, and what will be the amount you will be able to grant them. An 
answer will greatly oblige the inhabitants of Carillon school, particularly Mr. A. E. 
Montmarquet, who is taking great interest in having a school-house erected in said 


We are, sir, 

Your obedient servants, 


Secretary- Treasurer. Chairman. 

When Mr. Montmarquet left Carillon, rumor claimed that he was worth the snug 
sum of $100,000 ; it is said that he was one of the founders of the People s Bank at 

In 1837, hi s store was tne scene of a startling occurrence. At the time when 
the greatest excitement prevailed in St. Eustache, many of the inhabitants of that 
place fled from their homes, leaving them to be plundered by any who might feel so 
disposed. Very soon, therefore, the work of pillage began. Stock was drawn off, 
hen roosts and pig sties were rifled, houses broken open, and their contents carried 
off or scattered along the street. In such a condition of things, it was quite natural 
that many who would scorn to be the first to enter a house to appropriate its effects, 
should pick up and carry off things which they well knew would otherwise soon be 
come the prey of others. 


On the Saturday night following the fight at St. Eustache, a man named Hoyle 
was in the store of Mr. Duncan Dewar of St. Andrews, declaiming loudly against 
those who would appropriate the property of the absent proprietors. At that moment 
Mr. Jamieson, a brother-in-law of C. J. Forbes of Carillon, and who lived on the 
Forbes estate, chanced to pass with a single bleigh load of the confiscated property 
from St. Eustache. The opportunity was favorable for Hoyle to advertise his hon 
esty and achieve notoriety; and abruptly leaving his auditors, he rushed oat, caught 
up with the sleigh on the bridge, seized the horse by the head, and launched into a 
furious philippic against the astonished Jamieson. The latter merely replied that he 
deemed himself quite responsible for whatever property he had taken, and drove on. 

On the succeeding Monday, Hoyle inquired at the store of Mr. Dewar fora 
quantity of his favorite brand of tobacco, and Mr. Dewar having none, he informed 
him that he could procure it of Montmarquet, at Carillon. To the latter s store, 
therefore, Hoyle proceeded, and Jamieson, in whose breast the insult recently offered 
him was still rankling, seeing him pass, and divining that he had gone to the store of 
Mortmarquet, followed. His first words on entering the store and seeing Hoyle 
were : " How dare you insult me, sir, as you did Saturday night in St. Andrews ? 
and at the same moment he struck him across the back with his cane, 
word of warning, Hoyle instantly drew a pistol from his pocket and shot him. 
crowd soon collected, in which there were three physicians, who pronounced 

wound fatal. 

Hoyle quickly placed himself under the protection of Maj. Mayne, < 
the two companies of soldiers at the Barracks, who refused to deliver him to the in 
dignant citizens clamoring for his trial, according to the code of Judge Lynch, 
do not know," he said to them, " that Hoyle has committed murder ; Jamieson may 
yet recover ; " and he did recover. 

Forty-one years afterwards, when he died, the bullet and a part of a suspend 
buckle which it carried with it were found in his body. 


Rl-LICS OF 1837. 

Mr Jamieson, of Point Fortune, Quebec, who died in this village on Monday last at the 
residence of his sister, Mrs. Cunningham, requested a few days ago that if the attach 
from which he was suffering should prove fatal, his body should be opened before bunal, and 
made for a pistol bullet and a portion of a brace buckle which he had been carrying , 
within him for about forty-one years. 

In ,8,7, the memorable year of the Rebellion in Canada, Mr. Jam^on then a young 
strong man, res.ded at Caullon in the Lower Province. One day in the post office . 
arguing politics with a rebel, whose language became so insulting or otherwise provol 
M? . JamLon struck him, whereupon he drew a pistol and fired at his loyal oppone, I he MM 

broke the iron buckle of the right suspender, and then entered Ins breast, inflicting. 
nearly proved fatal, and from which he was laid up fur six weeks. At the expuaUon of Uu 
was ne Lly well again, and never afterwards felt any ill effects from the hurt ; but as the bull. 


been extracted, and as it was believed to have taken the missing part of the buckle with it, Mr. Jamie- 
son often expressed the wish during his last illness, that, after his death, the locality of the "foreign 
bodies," as medical men would call them, should be ascertained ; and Drs, Allen and Bryson searched 
for and were successful in finding them on Monday last. 

They were near together and close to the spine the bullet resting on the diaphragm, and entire 
ly enveloped by a cartilaginous formation of considerable size, while the other article was partially 
hidden by a deposit more nearly resembling flesh. The bullet is for a pistol of rather large size, 
and \vas originally round, but is much damaged at one spot, no doubt where it struck the buckle, which 
was broken by the blow. The part with the tongue or tongues attached probably remained fast to 
the suspender. The portion driven in by the bullet formed three sides of the buckle, and is of the 
simplest description, being merely a piece of iron wire about two inches long and bent at right angles, 
a little more than half an inch from each end. It is only rusted in spots, and not deeply, and the mark 
made by the blow of the bullet is still plainly visible. 

Mr. Jamieson died 28th December, 1878. 

After two weeks, Hoyle was sent to Montreal to be tried, but received bail the 
same day, and nothing further was heard of the case. 

A. E. MONTMARQUET sold his store and other property in Carillon to Mr. Schnei 
der, and left the place in 1860. In 1871, Schneider sold to John Fletcher, a young man 
from Rigaud, who had spent the four previous years in Scotland in acquiring a know 
ledge of mercantile business. He died, however, a short time subsequently, and his 
brother, Wm. L. Fletcher, became his successor in the store and post office. The 
latter was married in June, 1872, to Miss O. Charlebois, daughter of the postmaster at 
Rigaud. During the few years that he survived, Mr. Fletcher was an active citizen, 
and filled municipal offices. He died 23rd November, 1877, and Mrs. Fletcher was 
appointed postmistress, a position which she still retains, assisted by her daughter 

Five or six years ago, the Montmarquet store was purchased by M. Dwyer, of 
Kingston, who had been in trade in this village for several years. Success attended 
him, and after sixteen years residence in Carillon, he left in the Spring of 1894 for 
Kingston, several thousand dollars better off than he was when he came here. As he 
had always dealt fairly with his customers, and on leaving took special pains to 
accommodate his debtors, the good wishes of the community went with him. About 
two years before his departure, he sold his store and stock of goods to R. V. Gauthier, 
a young gentleman who had acted as clerk for him during the six preceding years. 

Mr. Gauthier springs from stock whose energy and loyalty form an heir-loom of 
honor to their descendants. His grandfather, JOHN BAPTISTE GAUTHIER, was born 
2ist October, 1796, at Montreal Junction. At the age of 18, he enlisted at Montreal 
in a regiment of Voltigeurs, and took an active part in the battle of Chateauguay, for 
which service he subsequently received a pension. In the Rebellion of 1837, he 
joined a company of loyal Cavalry, and was often employed in carrying dispatches. 
After the Rebellion, he settled at St. Anne, where he died in 1886, upwards of 90 
years of age. He left two sons and two daughters. 

Victor, one of the former, a man of much enterprise and intelligence, learned the 


trade of carpenter, and for some time was employed by the Great North Western and 
Montreal Telegraph Company. In charge of a number of men, he erected many of 
the lines of this Company in Ontario, and in 1872, as a stationary mechanic of the 
Company, settled in Carillon. In 1867, he v/as married to Hermine Crevier of St. 
Anne. During his life in this Village, he took an active part in whatever promoted 
its prosperity. He was a member of the Municipal Council, and also of the Board of 
School Commissioners; in the latter, owing to his desire for the encouragement of 
education, he was particularly active. 

He seems to have been one whose natural endowments and powets of observa 
tion compensate for the lack of a liberal education, and his charts display no little 
skill as a draughtsman. He died in 1890, leaving a family of children whose modesty 
and politeness reflect no small degree of credit on their parental training. 

His eldest son, R. V. GAUTHIER, took a commercial course at Rigaud College, 
from which he graduated in 1887. 

While there, the same devotion to duty which has characterized his subsequent 
career, enabled him always to take either first or second place in his classes, and win 
honors of which a young man less modest might sometimes boast. He won the 
highest prize offered for proficiency in the study of commercial law, political economy 
and bookkeeping ; the first prize in science, grammar, analysis and themes ; and in 
1887 he won the silver medal offered by Messrs. Fogarty & Co., of Montreal, for pro 
ficiency in the study of commerce, besides the $30 prize awarded by the Institution. 
Since his purchase of the store in 1892, his trade has steadily increased, custom 
ers being attracted, not more by the fair prices than by the probity and courtesy of 
the merchant. His younger brother, Thomas, entered the boot and shoe store of 
James Leggatt of Montreal, in 1889, as clerk ; he has been their manager, and is now 
tra veiling for the same firm. Donat, a brother still younger, is the assistant of R. V. 
in his slore. 

JAMES BARCLAY, who lived for many years in Carillon, was one of her most 
enterprising and influential citizens, and was well known and popular throughout tiie 
County. His father had taken an active part in the political troubles by which 
Scotland was agitated, and his radical principles incurring the animosity of the Gov 
ernment, his property was confiscated and a price set on his head. But he succeeded 
in escaping, and in 1820, with his wife by a second marriage, and his only surviving 
son James, then 17 years of age, came to America. He remained two or three years 
in Montreal, and then removed to New Glasgow ; but the place, at that time especially, 
offered but little encouragement to men of enterprise and ambition : and after a 
residence there of three or four years, the father and son decided to go to South 
America. With this design they had gone as far as Montreal, when, by one of tlv 
simple events which sometimes effect great changes, they were led to throw up their 
plan and remain in Canada. 

The younger Barclay happened, unexpectedly on the street, 
man named John Wanless, whom he formerly knew in Edinburgh, but who then live. 


in St. Andrews. On learning Barclay s intention of going to South America, so 
eloquently did he portray the risk he was incurring in going to that semi-barbarous 
and tropical country, and so effectually did he plead the advantages afforded by Canada, 
that young Barclay and his father decided to return with him to St. Andrews. 

One Sabbath morning, while living in this Village, James strolled out on the road 
leading to Carillon, and as he passed over the " Hill," and saw the beautiful gardens 
and the fine orchards just then gorgeous with a profusion of blossoms, he thought he 
had seen no other spot in this country so attractive, or one which reminded him so 
forcibly of Scotland ; and he then said to himself that, if he ever purchased a farm in 
Canada, it would be on Carillon Hill. After a residence of a few years in St. Andrews, 
he removed to Carillon Village, where for a long time his enterprise contributed to 
the activity of the place. Besides opening a boot and shoe shop, he started a stage 
lire between this Village and Grenville, which at that time, before the construction of 
the railway, was an enterprise of great utility* 

In accordance with his determination mentioned above, in 1835, ne purchased 
the farm on Carillon Hill which had been owned by Peter McArthur. It was some 
time, however, before he lived on this farm, though he employed men to cultivate it. 
He was for some years agent for the McPherson & Crane Forwarding Company. 
When the Carillon & Grenville Railroad was completed, he was the first conductor 
on it ; but soon afterward, advancing age compelled him to resign this position, and 
his last years were spent in quietude on the pleasant farm still occupied by his 

During the Rebellion of 1837, his knowledge of the country and extensive 
acquaintance with its inhabitants, added to his good judgment and activity, rendered 
him a very useful servant of the Government, and he was frequently employed to 
carry despatches between Montreal and St. Andrews. One night, having occasion to 
stop at a wayside tavern to have his horse fed, he found there a number of rebels 
who suspecttd him, and intended to take him prisoner ; but one of their number, who 
some time previously had, been in his employ, followed him to the stable, revealed 
the plot of his fellow rebels, and advised him to escape. Trusting the man, and 
deciding to follow his advice, he mounted his horse, and putting spurs to him, was 
soon clear of the place, but only in time to escape the volley of shots fired after him. 
It is perhaps needless to say that he did not draw rein until he was well out of their 
reach. The despatches were carried between the soles of his boots. 

In politics, he was a staunch Conservative, being a warm admirer of the late Sir 
hn A. Macdonald, and his influence in behalf of Conservative candidates was always 
displayed, in no small degree, in times of elections ; indeed, he was one whose abilities 
were worthy of a broader field of action. He was a man of sterling integrity and 
inflexible will, yet he possessed a great fund of humor, and enjoyed a good practical 

Mr. Barclay was twice married : the first time, in 1832, to Ann Hayes of Limerick, 
Ireland, who died in 1839, and he then married her sister, Joanna, who died in 1866. 


By the first marriage he had four children, but only the eldest, John, is now alive ; 
he is engaged in an extensive commission business in Glasgow. By the second mar 
riage, he had a large family of children ; but of these, only four sons and two daughters 

are now alive. 

William, the eldest of these, and a man of ability, is a commercial traveller for 
the house of Frothingham & Workman, Montreal; he was married in 1873 to Adria 
Haines of that city. His family resides in St. Andrews, where the influence of Mrs. 
Barclay in support of temperance and Christian work is strongly exerted. Hanam, 
their eldest son, is pursuing a course of study in mining and engineering, in Chicago. 

George, the second son of James Barclay, is engaged with Mclaughlin Bros., 
lumbermen, in Arnprior, Ont. Henry, the third son, after spending some years in 
Montreal as machinist, returned to Carillon ; and now lives on the homestead with 
his sisters, Joanna and Florence all, like their parents, deservedly esteemed by the 
community around them. Colin Campbell, the fourth son, is in Rico, Colorado a 
dealer in hardware and mining supplies. 

ALEXANDER MC!NTOSH, from Lochaber, Scotland, spent part of his early life in 
England, and in 1850 went to Australia, being in the latter country while the gold 
fever was at its height. He afterward returned to Scotland, and in 1866 came to Can 
ada and bought the " Prioiy " on the " Field Farm " in St. Andrews. This building 
was then the property of Mrs. Abbott, widow of the late Rev. William Abbott. 

Mr. Mclntosh was married in England to Miss Ward, and they had three 
children all daughters; he died in St Andrews in 1884. Mrs. Mclntosh survives 
him, living with her daughter, Mrs. McNaughton. 

The latter, who is the youngest of the three sisters, married Dr. Donald Mc 
Naughton of Hudson ; they removed to Carillon, and purchased the present pro 
perty of Mrs. McNaughton, " Dunderav," formerly known as " Milncraig," a beau 
tiful place on the road leading from Carillon to St. Andrews. 

Dr. McNaughton died in December, 1888, leaving a widow, one son and five 


The eldest daughter, Anna, married to C. V. De Boucherville, lives in ( 
Eliza, married to Martin S.Albright, lives at Prospect Place, La Baie ; Eleanor, 
married to James Machan, lives in Grenville ; Grace M. and Flora are attending 
Dunham Ladies College; Duncan, the son, is in the States. 

Miss AGNES TAYLOR, of Carillon Hill, has been a resident of this place for several 


Her parents, James and Elizabeth (Beattie) Taylor, came to this 
Scotland in 1837, and first settled in St. Andrews. Mr. Taylor was employed, s 
after his arrival, as foreman on the estate of Commissary Forbes, Carillon ; 
Rebellion was then in progress, in going to and from his work 
lenged by sentinels posted between the two villages, and compelled to 
word. He afterwards removed to Isle aux Chats, where he di 
Taylor died in 1888. They had four sons and six daughters. 


James, the eldest son, is the proprietor of a fine farm in East Hawkesbury ; 
David, the second son, is in Independence, Oregon ; Joseph, third son, lives on the 
homestead ; and Robert, the youngest, in British Columbia. Of the daughters, five 
married, and all who are now living remain in Canada. Mary A., one of the 
daughters, married to James Taylor, lives at Isle aux Chats. 

Agnes R., who is the fourth daughter, came to this place in 1889, and purchased 
the residence, of her brother David, who was about leaving for the West. Miss Taylor 
has made many improvements, and her pretty residence, known as " Rosebank 
Cottage," with its fine view of the Ottawa and profusion of flowers in summer, adds 
much to the attractiveness of the street. 

JOHN A. SHARMAN, a native of Norfolk, England, a tailor by trade, came to 
America in 1830. He soon returned to his native country, but came back again in 
J 833, and before 1849 na d crossed the Atlantic with his family nine times, on a few 
occasions as super-cargo, thus saving the expenses of the voyage. On one of these 
trips, the vessel, when returning to England, heavily laden with lumber, encountered 
a severe gale, and sprang a leak. The storm continued three days ; the hands were 
all set at the pumps, and to encourage them, the captain supplied them liberally, as 
well as himself, with rum, till, with the exception of the carpenter, they were all 
drunk. Mr. Sharman, seeing the condition of things, and knowing that their escape 
from death depended entirely on the ability of the sailors to work the pumps, assumed 
command, and with the aid of the carpenter managed, with much difficulty, to keep 
the sailors at work. So badly did the vessel leak, that for some hours he could not 
see that the water in the vessel diminished. Concealing this fact, however, from the 
sailors, and exhorting them to persevere, the ship out-rode the storm, and even 
tually, badly water-logged, reached port. 

During the year that Mr. Sharman lived in this country, he plied his trade in 
different places : New York State, East Hawkesbury, Ont, Chatham and St. Johns, 
Que., and lastly on the Lachute Road, St. Andrews, where he died, 24th January, 1875, 
aged 79. 

He lived in New York about the time the Canadian Rebellion was approaching ; 

and his outspoken English opinions were not calculated to make friends in that 

locality, hence he came to Canada. Mrs. Sharman, his second wife, died i4th 

November, 1852, aged 44. He married a third time, but had no children, save by 

the second marriage ; these were two sons and two daughters. 

ALONZO L., the eldest son, followed the trade of his father, which he still pur- 
s in Carillon. He was married 26th October, 1865, to Mary Gordon. She died zoth 
June, 1875 ; they had tsvo sons and a daughter. He married a second time, 25th 
ebruary, 1878, Mary L., daughter of the late John Dewar ; they have one son and 
one daughter. Mr. Sharman is a Christian man, and an earnest advocate of temper 
ance. In the fall of 189.1, aided by Mrs. Sharman, he organized a Sabbath School 
in this village, which is held at his residence. 


Th e Carillon & Grenville Railway is only a section of a road which was to be 
built from Montreal to Ottawa ; and though it commenced with a fair prospect o f 
success, it ended disastrously for its projectors. 

It was begun in 1857 by two brothers from England, William and Samuel Sikes, 
both skillful mechanics, and one, at least, being a mechanical engineer. The money 
for the enterprise was to be provided by an English banking firm, SikeF, DeBerg & 
Co., of which firm, Alexander Sikes, a brother of the two named above, was a 

Labor on the road was commenced at different points, Montreal, St. Eustache, 
St. Andrews, etc., a steam mill being erected at the latter place, near the River 
Rouge, to saw lumber required in the construction of the road, and artesian wells 
were sunk to provide the mill with water. 

The work had progressed favorably for nearly two years the men employed 
had been promptly paid, and the money to pay the last sum of indebtedness for 
labor had been sent from England, when a sad accident abruptly terminated the 
whole project. 

Immediately after the last instalment of money had been sent, Alexander Sikes 
took passage on a vessel for America, with a view, it is supposed, of inspecting the 
work in which his company had invested so much money ; but the vessel, with all on 
board, was lost. When this sad accident became known in England, the company of 
which the deceased, Mr. Sikes, had been a member sent to their representative here, 
requesting him to return the money he had lately received. 

The order was obeyed, and thus the Sikes brothers on this side of the Atlantic 
were without means to accomplish their object. Unwilling, however, to abandon the 
work, they invested what little capital they possessed, which being soon swallowed up, 
the work, from necessity, was abandoned. 

Others besides the Sikes brothers lost heavily in this unlucky venture 
perhaps, more largely than Sydney Bellingham, M.P.P. for Argentcuil. 

The only completed portion of the road was that between Carillon andGrenvil 
and this coming into possession of the late Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, solicitor for 
managers, was, by him, sold to the Ottawa River Navigation Company in 1863. 

JOHN McGowAN, the present superintendent of the abcwe Railway, and one of 
prominent citizens and business men of Carillon, was born in Balmagh parish, g 
land. He came to Montreal in 1842, and was first employed by a i 
near the city, with whom he remained two years. He then engaged 
Thomas Masson, Notre Dame street, Montreal ; but at the erpiration of ilm 
declining health compelled him to abandon the store. His father s fam.l 
in this country, and in connection with his father, he bought a farm at 
where he was engaged till about 1858. In the year previous, he was marnc 
McCuish, who died in 1870, leaving eight children. Four of these died 
and two more after reaching the age of eighteen. In 1859, Mr. M< 
to the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and for five years was loca 


In 1863, the Company purchased the Carillon & Grenville Railway, and the following 
year he came to Carillon to act as superintendent for the Company. 

While thus engaged, he has not been indifferent to the public affairs of 
villas and has taken special interest in schools. He was Secretary-Treasurer of the 
School Board when living in Hudson, and is now Secretary-Treasurer of the dissen 
tient school of this village. He was Miyor of the village in 1893, and once since has 
been elected to the same office. In 1874 he went to Scotland, and while there was 
married to Jane Edgar. Mr. McGovvan is a man of much energy and activity, and a 
very proficient and careful manager of the interests committed to his charge. John, 
his eldest son, who was employed several years as purser on the steamer Princess," 
the duties of which position he discharged to the unqualified approval ot the Com 
pany and the public, has recently been appointed Captain of the new steamer 

" Duchess of York." 

George, the only son by his second marriage, who has lately attended a Com 
mercial College in Montreal, is now ai home. 

Isabella, his only daughter, was married in May, 1893, to Ernest Howe, of the 
firm of Howe & Mclntyre, commission merchants of Montreal. 

JOHN HALSEY, the engineer on the C. & G. Railroad, was born of English 
parents in Dublin, and cam; to Canada in 1870. His father and grandfather had 
been in the Navy, and the former served at the blockade of Kiel, and in Egypt won 
three medals for his proficiency and bravery. He afterward entered the Coast Guard 
service, and moved to Dublin. 

Mr. John Halsey served his apprenticeship as locomotive fitter on the Great 
Southern & Western R.R., and received the most flattering testimonials from the 


After going to Montreal, he worked two years in the Grand Trunk shops, then 

three years in Brockville for the Can. Central R.R., after which he worked another 

year in the Grand Trunk shops at Montreal. He then accepted the position of 

Locomotive Engineer for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and has held it, to 

their great satisfaction, for eighteen years. He was married, 22nd June, 1876, to 

Margaret, eldest daughter of James Beaton, of Her Majesty s Customs, Stornoway, 

Island of Lewis, Scotland. They have had nine children eight sons and one 

daughter, of whom six sons are living. The eldest, Robert, who is learning the trade 

of machinist, has been with the Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Co. of St. Henri, since 

March, 1893. 

KELLY S HOTEL, which has been known to the public for nearly fifty years, is the 
only one besides the Sovereign, in Carillon. Large as these two houses seem for so 
small a place, they are inadequate in the summer season to accommodate the number 
applying for board. 

JOHN KELLY, the oldest English-speaking resident of Carillon, is a son of J. 
Kelly, one of the early settlers of Grenville, and he came to Carillon in 1848. Patrick 


lo I 

Murphy who had kept a public house in this village, was now deceased, and Mr Kelly 
married his widow, and became proprietor of the hotel. Being active/and po .es 
of an enterprising spint, as well as shrewdness, he engaged in whatever nT of 
business besides hotel keeping presented to him an opportunity of making money 

In those days, before the advent of railways, the travel through Carillon "far 
exceeded w,,at it has since. The large number of lumbermen who were employed 
on the upper Ottawa and its tributaries all passed to and fro through Carillon, and be 
umber manufactured at the Hawkesbury and other mills, which now is borne off by 
locomotives, all came down the Ottawa in rafts, manned by a number of men whose 
patronage added not a little to the profits of the hotel-keeper. At that time the 
business of towing, in which Mr. Kelly largely engaged, was not the least profitable 
source of his income, and, besides, he also became a dealer in wood. He had several 
horses, and their constant employment in conveying travellers, towing and drawing 
wood and freight, together with his farm, secured to him a good income Whi] 

thers slept, or whiled away their time to no purpose, Mr. Kelly was hard at work 
three and four o clock in the morning being not an unusual hour for him to begin 

In those days of greater financial prosperity, his income from different sources 
often exceeded $150 a day - $800 sometimes being realized between Monday 
morning and Saturday night. To the credit of Mr. Kelly it can also be said that, 
while he was economical, his economy never bordered on penuriousness, his purse 
always being ready to encourage charitable objects or public improvements. " Money 
is power;" and when to this its possessor adds shrewdness and affability, he exerts 
an influence among his fellows which those who seek favors at the hands of the 
public are always sure to court. For this reason, the aid of Mr. Kelly has not infre 
quently been sought in election campaigns ; and a history of the scenes of political 
excitement and political chicanery he has witnessed would alone fill a volume. In 
1875, he was induced with some others to place a steamer on the Ottawa, to rim in 
opposition to the old line between Carillon and Montreal, he advancing the money 
for the purpose. The first boat purchased was the " Manitoba," at a cost of $ 4,000 
which, after running for four years, was condemned by the inspector. The company 
then purchased the " T. B. Maxwell," but after a while financial difficulty arose, in 
consequence of which the shareholders- with the exception of Mr. Kelly and Nelson 
Burwash withdrew, Mr. Kelly again advancing money to purchase the shares of 
the retiring partners. After running the boat five years longer, and not finding it a 
remunerative investment, they sold out to a company in Toronto. 

Mr. Kelly was a member of the Municipal Council of St. Andrews for a period 
of fifteen years, but seeing the necessity of sidewalks and other improvements in his 
own village, he took steps to have it incorporated into a separate municipality, which 
event was secured in the fall of 1888, against determined opposition ; he was Mayor 
the first four years after its incorporation, and has recently been elected Mayor by 
acclamation. In 1874, he erected his present hotel, which is of brick, and thclliu-st 
building in Carillon ; he has retired from active business, having given the mana- 
ment of his business affairs to his son, T. P. Kelly. The latter was married 5th 


February, 1890, to Emma Burrows, of P.ospect, Ont. They own considerable real 
estate in this section, the taxes on which amount to a large share of all levied in the 


Mr Kelly s first wife died i 9 th September, 1870 ; he was married, 2?th October 
I875 , to Julia, second daughter of the late William Lawler, Esq., of Hawkesbury; 

she died i8th October, 1889. 

The " SOVEREIGN HOTEL," which, as stated elsewhere, has long been called 
Barracks," is a fine commodious stone building located near the Ottawa. Though 
erected for an hotel in 1830 by Commissary Forbes, it was found to be too large and 
expensive for that period, and has not been used as a public house until recent years. 
For the last three years it has been under the management of N. L. LADOUCEUR, an 
active young mm, who has discharged the duties of his calling efficiently, and to the 
satisfaction of his patrons. He is the youngest son of Odilon Ladouceur, noticed in 
the succeeding sketch. In his early days he learned the trade of machinist, which 
trade he followed ten years, and then conducted a grocery for a while in Ottawa. H< 
was married, i 7 th January, 1893, to Victoria Clairmont of Rigaud ; she died 2 4 th 
March, 1894; and Mr. Ladouceur was next married, isth July, 1895, to Helen 
Deschamps of Montreal. 

In 1858. ODILON LADOUCEUR came from St. Scholastique, his native place, to St. 
Andrews, where he still resides. He is a builder and contractor, and has followed 
this occupation throughout this section ever since his arrival. He married Mdlle. 
Mathilde Lalonde ; they have had seven sons and three daughters that have 
arrived at maturity. 

One of the sons, EDMOND A. B. LADOUCEUR, is a member of the Montreal Bar. 
He was born at St. Andrews, 8th October, 1866, received his early training at the 
school of the Viateur Brothers in that place, and entered the Bourget College, at 
Rigaud, in 1879. His course there was a very successful one; he was at the head 
of his classes, and thus, naturally, won the approbation of his professors. He also 
displayed a taste for literary work, and several of his essays, some of which were in 
verse, secured for him many compliments. 

In 1885, having completed his studies, he settled in Montreal, where he was suc 
cessively attached to L Etendard and La Patrie. 

In 1886, he was admitted to the study of law, took his law course at Laval 

University, being attached at the same time to the office of Hon. J. J. Curran, now 
judge of the Superior Court, and to that of Mr. J. L. Archambeault, the Crown Pro. 

secutor. While a student, Mr. Ladouceur wrote for several publications, contributing 

to the Monde Illustri, under the noni de plume of Lorenzo; several of his poems 

were accorded much credit. 

He is a fluent and ready speaker a talent that he has used effectively on the 

political hustings in behalf of the Liberal cause. 

He has spent some time in the New England and Western States, and, while in 

Michigan, took part in the presidential campaign of 1892. He afterward settled in 

Biy City, where for a time he had editorial charge of the French newspaper 

A. II. LADOUCrri; 


Le Patriote. Attachment to Canada, however, led him back to Montreal, where he 
was admitted to the Bar, i3th January, 1893. 

DENNIS GAHERTY, a gentleman well known among contractors and business 
men, is at present a resident of Carillon. He came from Dublin with his father about 
1827, when he was but three years of age. In 1843 ne was given an important 
Government contract on the Ottawa, and since that time has been employed 
chiefly with large contracts of various kinds. His extensive experience and correct 
judgment with regard to labor have caused his services to be largely sought; 
and many difficult and dangerous jobs given up by others have been brought by 
him to successful completion. He has also engaged quite extensively in running 
boats and in boat building, having at different times owned thirteen boats which 
plied between Quebec and Kingston. In 1879, in company with two others, he 
received a contract on the new canal at Carillon, and lived here ten years ; he returned 
in 1891, and was superintendent of repairs on the Dam a structure in which he 
had before made extensive repairs on account of breaks. For nearly a year he has 
been employed at Lachine and St. Anns. 

Mr. Gaherty has been twice married ; the last time to Miss Ellen Davis, a 
sister of his first wife. By the first marriage, he had t\vo sons and three daughters ; 
one of the former is deceased; the other, D. G. Gaherty, is an M.D., who, on 
account of ill health, gave up an extensive practice in Montreal, and now resides in 

Though Carillon has no important manufactory, this want is in a great measure 
supplied by the Canal a goodly number of men having found permanent employment 
on it, ever since its completion, sixty years ago; and while this benefit, added to that 
of its aid to commerce, renders it a work of great public utility its value to the place, 
as a work of art, is a matter not to be ignored its massive cut-stone locks, the trees 
that adorn its margin, with the pleasure always afforded by running water along a 
^raveled route, make up a feature in the landscape of which the visitor never tires. 

It was the hope of the writer, that he would be able to publish so:neof the corres 
pondence and documents relating to ihe canal at its beginning ; but, as will be seen 
by the following letter, such papers are not in existence. The letter was written in 
reply to an application of Mr. Colin Dewar, on behalf of the writer, for information 

respecting the subject in question : 

OTTAWA, 20th July, 1894. 


At the request of Mr. Brophy, I send you some information regarding the canals 
in front of the County of Argenteuil, the most of which was extracted from printed 
reports in this office. 

Mr. B. says some valuable papers which belonged to his late father, and which 
would have given many details not now available, cannot b> found ; but he tr 
that some of the dates furnished may not be too late for the object Mr. Thomas has 

in view. 

Yours truly, 



Enclosed with the above letter was the following brief but valuable history of the 

canals : 

" The Grenville Canal lies on the north shore of the Ottawa, and carries naviga 
tion around the Long Sault Rapids. It is excavated partly through solid rock and 
partly through earth ; the locks are of cut-stone. It was designed and commenced 
by the Royal Staff Corps, for the Imperial Government, in 1819; but owing to the 
limited amount appropriated to this work each year, its progress was very slow. As 
in the Carillon and Chute au Blondeau canals, the original designs contemplated locks 
corresponding in size to those of the Lachine Canal. 

" Three of the locks were commenced and completed on these dimensions; but in 
1828, the enlarged scale of the Rideau locks was adopted for the four remaining. 

" All records relating to the establishment of these three canals the Carillon, 
Chute au Blondeau and the Grenville were kept in the Ordnance office in Montreal, 
and were destroyed by fire in 1849. ^ appears, however, from information given by 
parties engaged in the construction of the works, that the Grenville canal was 
completed in 1829, the Chateau Blondeau in 1832, and the Carillon in 1833; an d, 
- further, that on the 24th of April, 1834, the canals were opened, and the steamer 
St. Andrews, with two barges in tow, made the first passage through them. 

" These canals were transferred to the Canadian Government about forty years 
ago, and since that time their capacity has been greatly enlarged." 

It will be seen by this that there were three different canals, though the Chute au 
Blondeau has not been used since the erection of the dam. Two of them the 
Carillon and Chute au Blondeau, however, are short, the former not being more than 
half a mile in length, and the latter about one-third of a mile. The Grenville Canal 
begins at Grenville and terminates at Greece s Point, the distance between the two 
places being six miles. 

Previous to the erection of the Carillon Dam, in order to increase the depth of 
water in the canal, a channel was dug from the North River, near the Isle aux Chats, 
about a mile to the canal. This ingenious device, to augment the value of the canal 
to commerce, was aptly termed the " Feeder," a name that still not infrequently 
rouses the curiosity of strangers. 

After the dam was constructed, a new canal also was made, a little shorter and 
nearer the river than the first; and as the water has since been quite sufficient in 
quantity, the "Feeder" has fallen into- disuse. 

As stated above, the canal was constructed by the British or Imperial Govern 
ment, the Canadian Government at that early day scarcely being able to afford the 
outlay for such public works. Two companies were enlisted in England for this 
purpose, composed chiefly of sappers and miners, and were called the Royal Staff 
Corps a name that will often be mentioned on succeeding pages. Besides these, 
many other transient laborers were also employed on the canal. Labor was first 
commenced on the canal at Grenville, and it was several years before work was begun 
at Carillon. The present Sovereign Hotel, formerly known as " The Barracks," was 


occupied by the officers of this Corps during the time they were in Carillon, hence 
the name "Barracks." 

Mementoes of those days and those who were employed here, and of which few 
of the present inhabitants of Carillon have ever heard, are still to be seen. On the 
shore of the Ottawa, at a point nearly opposite that where "The Feeder" formed 
a junction with the old canal, are the stone foundations of an old building, now, 
owing to the encroachments of the river on the land, almost perpendicular with the 
water. Trees and bushes have grown up so thickly in and around these walls, that 
they may easily be overlooked. 

Here, about the year 1824, a Scotchman named Hugh Chisholm erected a dis 
tillery. Farmers, in those days, found a good market at this for the little grain they 
raised ; but, unfortunately, they nearly all accepted, as compensation for it, the 
whiskey into which their grain was converted. It is stated as a fact, that men 
sometimes took a quantity of grain there, hoping to obtain with it a little money, 
and, meeting congenial companions, would begin with a social glass, and before 
leaving, would exhaust not only the price of the grain, but be in debt to the pro 
prietor. But though he had such patrons, the business of Mr. Chisholm did not 
prosper ; and, after a period of four or five years, he abandoned it, went to Bucking 
ham, and became the partner of Mr. Bigelow, a lumberman. In this vocation, he was 
more successful, so that in a few years he was able to retire. During the last years 
of his life, he was a Christian and an active supporter of the cause of temperance. 

Mr. C. Dewar thus writes : 

" At the time of giving you the sketch of Mr. Chisholm, I forgot to mention an 
incident that occurred when he lived at the Old Distillery, and which goes to show 
the instinct and sagacity of the brute creation, and their wonderful powers of compre 
hension. Mr. Chisholm always lived alone, and was in the habit of talking to his 
pets as if they were human beings, a fine collie dog being his constant companion. 

"One day he had been at work in the hayfield on the Island with my father, 
and on his return home found that he had lost the key of his house. He had small 
hopes of finding it, but, calling the dog, told him he had lost it, and ordered him off 
to find it. The dog started off, but returned in a short time, very dejected and crest 
fallen ; he was scolded and sent off again, his master repeating over and over the 
words find it. In a short time became bounding over the hill with every demon 
stration of joy, having the key in his mouth, thus performing a feat that a human 
being could not do. 1 

The building used as a distillery by Mr. Chisholm was afterward occupied by 
members of the Royal Staff Corps, during the time they were employed on the canal. 
A rough frame work for a bell tower was erected near it, and a bell was rung to warn 
the men of the hour of beginning and closing work and to call them to their meals. 
In proximity to this distillery was a log building, which was originally used for a 
house, and subsequently for a blacksmith shop. It was vacant at the time the 
canal laborers came here, and they used it as a blacksmith shop in connection with 

their own work till the completion of the canal. 




JOHN FORBES, who had been in the British service, connected with an Artillery 
Company, came to Carillon about 1842, and soon afterward was appointed Lock 
Master ; he died about 1860, leaving three sons and three daughters. 

William B., one of the former, succeeded his father as Lock Master, and, later, 
was promoted to the position of Superintendent. A short time before his death, 
which occurred in 1889, he purchased the homestead of the late Lemuel Gushing, and 
repaired and embellished it at much expense. He left one son, John William, who 
was married to Alice Rodger. 

George Thomas Forbes, brother of William B., succeeded the latter as Lock 
Master. He died April 26th, 1872, leaving a widow (who, before her marriage, was 
Miss Schneider) and three children two sons and a daughter. Of the former, George 
Archibald, the elder, married to Elise Bissette, of Quebec, is employed as Bookkeeper 
with James Whitham & Co., boot and shoe manufacturers, of Montreal. Arthur 
Thomas, the second son, has early in life attained a responsible position, being 
manager and buyer in the retail department of J. Eveleigh & Co., wholesale trunk 
and bag manufacturers of Montreal. He was married i4th June, 1894, to Margaret, 
daughter of the late Captain J. H. Leslie. 

DANIEL MURPHY, the present Collector of Tolls on the Canal, is a son of Patrick 
Murphy, who was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1774; the father became a sailor 
early in life, and came to St. John, N.B., in 1798, and was for some time Captain of 
a fishing vessel connected with that port. He afteiward returned to his native land, 
entered the navy under Nelson, and was in the battle of Trafalgar. Subsequently 
he came to Quebec, where he was stevedore, and then conducted an hotel till about, 
1840, when he came to this section and Jived on a farm a while, in Chatham, which 
he left to keep hotel in Carillon. He died here in 1848, leaving one son, Daniel. 
His widow, a woman of much tact and energy, married Mr. John Kelly, who con 
tinued the hotel business. 

After his school days were ended, Daniel became manager in the hotel. Business 
at that time was most lively in Carillon, and his activity and faithfulness in the dis 
charge of his duties being noticed by Mr. Sipple, chief engineer on the Canal, the latter 
gentleman suggested that Mr. Murphy should apply for his present position, that 
of Collector. After some deliberation, he acted on the suggestion, and, aided by the 
influence of Mr, Kelly, received his appointment in 1872. It will thus be seen that 
he has held the position twenty-four years, and during this long period has dis 
charged his duties faithfully, and to the approval of commercial men and the public; 
he has also served several times as Assessor for this municipality. He was married 
28th January, 1891, to Emma Jane, daughter of Patrick Kelly of Grenville. 

WILLIAM BROPHY came from Queen s County, Ireland, to Montreal in 1823. 
About two years later, he went to Hawkesbury, Out., where he remained three 


years, and then removed to St. Andrews, in vrhich village he worked several years at 
his trade of shoemaker. About the beginning of the Rebellion, he moved to Lachute, 
and enlisted in Capt. Quinn s Company of Volunteers. He went with that Company 
to Cornwall where he became ill, and died in 1838 ; he left one son and four daughters. 
Margaret, one of the latter, taught school in Lachute for a number of years. John, the 
son, at an early age, went to live with an uncle in St. Andrews, and remained with him 
until his marriage to Mary Banfield in 1864. Miss Banfield s father was a sergeant 
in the Royal Staff Corps, and after the canal was completed, he was appointed Lock 
Master of Lock No. 2, Carillon. He died in 1841, leaving two sons and three 
daughters ; the sons are now deceased, and the two sisters of Mrs. Brophy, Anna 
and Susan, the former married to Rufus Lamkin, and the latter to William McKeever 
live in Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Brophy is a carriagemaker by trade, to which he has devoted many years 
of his life ; in June, 1872, he was appointed Lock Master at this place, and still holds 
the position. He has most carefully provided for the education of his children, who 
have proved themselves worthy of his solicitude. 

John C., the eldest son, received a thorough training at the private school of George 
Wanless of Carillon, and then attended Montreal College, from which he graduated 
in 1885 with the highest honors, winning the Lansdowne Medal, and taking first 
prize in every branch of the curriculum. After a few years study of Philosophy and 
Theology, he received his degree of Bachelor of Divinity, and in 1890 went to Rome, 
where he pursued his studies for two years, and received the degree of D.D. Before 
returning to Canada, he visited France, England, Ireland, and other countries of 
Europe. On his return, he accepted a Professorship in his Alma Mater, and is now 
Professor of Theology in the Grand Seminary. 

The two remaining sons of Mr. Brophy Thomas J. and William P. are both 
employed in the General Post Office at Montreal, the former in the Money Order, 
and the latter in the Registry Department. 

Mary J., the daughter, attended the Convent of the Sisters of St. Ann s, at 
Lachine, where she also received the Earl of Derby Medal, in 1893. 

, JOHN MASON of Wolverhampton, England, at the age of 18, enlisted at Charllon, 
on the 24th April, 1820, in the Royal Staff Corps. He was made a corporal in his 
company, which was commanded by Col. Duvernay, Mrs. Duvernay accompanied 
her husband to Canada, and her maid was a girl named Mary Ann McCue. Between 
this maid and John Mason, an attachment sprang up after they had arrived in 
Canada, and, in time, they were married. The young couple were deservedly esteemed 
by the Colonel and Mrs. Duvernay, who, cherishing the best wishes for their 
prosperity, advised them, when the canal was finished, to remain in Canada. IHit 
John Mason had decided to return to England with a number of his Corps, who 
could not be induced by the offer of free grants of land to remain. After vainly 
endeavoring to dissuade him from his purpose, his wife appealed to her mistress and the 


1 88 

her behalf, so her husband was finally induced 
Colonel to i-^^S^Jto rt position on ,M canal, no, already filled, that 


U,. r^mnine^ tVipre until his ChUar \N c 

that appointment. He reman 
school, when, for the purpose 

em-gc, ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

that appomtmem. * 1 ^ ^^ advantages , hc 

1 B-> renville. Theresa, the youngest, , marned 
in ,866 to Joseph Bryarton, bailiff of Carillon. 

RV the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. Mason, after being employed many 

h Otuwa was appointed, ,st August, ,87., to his father s pos.t.on as 
years on the Otta .^ ^ ^ Qf the same year 

X^eorH^, .^ his father ; Mr Mason is desirous of 
Tducadng his children, and has sen, his ,on Herbert to R.gaud College. 

P G,RD, who lives in Carillon, is foreman on the canal, and also Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Village Council and Board of School Commoner, H,s 
is Point Levis, Quebec, and there he learned the trade of h,s father who was 
1 buiWer In connection with him, he built many of the fine boats now plymg 
lake of Canada. In the fall of ,871, he came to Canllon to bu.ld the 

- **** Mary Boyerof this vil- 

" hey have eight children-four of each sex. Since that penod, h,s home has 

alfvaU been at Carillon, thonghfor a year he worked in Ottawa and was also three 
North West building boats for the North West Navigat.on Company. 
ir,^: h w P ott ed tin on the canal, and after the Superintendent, 
Mr George Simpson, was incapacitated through illness, Mr. G.rard performed the 
ofTe office tar sixteen months, or until the appointment of the present super,,, 

tpnrlent Mr Herbert Simpson. . 

Mr. Girard is a careful and efficient business man, and possesses the geniality 
and courtesy of the people of his nationality. 

FREDERICK POULIN, who has a farm and a fine brick residence in Carillon has 
been an employee on the canal for many years ; he was formerly foreman of the 
Mechanical department ; he married Miss Boyer of Carillon. Godfrey, his eldest 

is employed in the boot and shoe store of Mr. Mallette, McGill street, Montreal . 
Alphonse, his second son, is checker for the Richelieu & Ontario Navigation ( 

TORN HODGSON, a native of the county of Vaudreuil, has been employed as 
mechanic by the Government, for several years ; he has recently erected a gc 
"sidence in Carillon. Mr. Hodgson was married i 5 th June, 1887, to Elizabeth, 


daughter of the late James Beggs, of East Hawkesbury. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hodgson 
are staunch and worthy members of the Methodist Church. 

WALTER MCGREGOR, a young man of industrious habits, has been a faithful 
employee here for the last eight years. His parents formerly lived in Carillon, but 
removed to Ottawa in 1889, where his father has since died. 

THOMAS FAG AN, who owns the stone residence formerly known as the Wanless 
Academy, is employed by the Government as diver; it often being necessary to 
descend to the bed of the canal to make repairs. A water-tight rubber suit, supplied 
with life line and hose, through which air is pumped to the diver, renders the occu 
pation a comparatively safe one, though somewhat gruesome to the novice. 

ALEX. BERNIQUIER and C. RAFFERTY are lock-men at No. 3 ; the former has 
been employed on the canal 10 years. During this time, he has spent his winters 
in the lumber-woods, where he formerly worked. 

The river boats, also, obtain several employees from Carillon. 

ISIDORE LEFEBVRE has been an engineer on the Ottawa 32 years. His eldest 
son, Isidore, is assistant engineer on the steamer " Hall," and his second son, 
Florimond, holds the same position on the " Olive ;" Olier, another son of Mr. Lefebvre, 
is one of the noted cheese-makers of Argenteuil. 

ALFRED BOILEAU, a very industrious and skillful mechanic of this village, has 
been in the employ of the Ottawa River Navigation Co. for 32 years. 

Carillon, besides being supplied with three mails a day in summer, and two in 
winter, has a telegraph and a telephone office. The forner is in the house of N. 
Raymond ; his daughter, Miss Donalda Raymond, being the operator. The telephone 
is in the office of the Canal Superintendent. 

J. B. GAUTHIER, a brother of the late Victor Gauthier, has long been in the employ 
of telegraph companies as a mechanic, and is now in the employ of the G. N. W. 
Company. He came to Carillon from New Brunswick in 1889, leaving there his 
two eldest sons, Edmund and Joseph ; the former has succeeded to his father s 
position, and the latter is engaged quite extensively in the electric light and telephone 
business. Victor and John, two younger sons of Mr. Gauthier, who live at Carillon, 
are also in the employ of the G. N. W. Telegraph Co. Victor, besides possessing 
much mechanical ingenuity, is also quite a skillful taxidermist. 

The succeeding paragraph or two, and account of the robbery at Carillon, are 

sent us by Colin Dewar. 

* The water was very low in the North River during the summer of 1840, a 
considerable difficulty was experienced in passing heavily laden barges through the 
canal, as the " Feeder" could not get the supply. To remedy this, a large 
money was expended on the dams at the mouth of the " Feeder," in the spr 
1841, which, however, was not of permanent benefit. 

In 1842, John Brophy, Esq., C.E., was appointed Superintendent of I 
and Grenville canals, a position which he held for many years. 


Owing to the-constantly increasing traffic through the canals, the old-fashioned 
system of working the lock gates by means of a capstan was too slow and tedious, 
and Mr. Brophy had them removed, and the windlass introduced instead *hich 
proved a great benefit. Under his directions the dams on the North River were 
greatly improved by filling up, and preventing the waste of water thus keeping up 
a uniform height. It was also under his directions that the Upper Locks were taken 
down and rebuilt, a defect in the fuddling " when they were constructed causmg a 

continual leakage. 

On the night of the "Cattle Show" in September, 1844, the Government omce 
at Carillon was broken into, and robbed of a large sum of money. The robbers had 
procured an old ricketty ladder, which they placed against one of the upper windows 
in the rear, and entering the cashier s office, secured the small iron chest, which at 
that time contained over one thousand dollars, as pay day was near at hand, 
threw the chest out of the window, where the marks were visible, and earned it down 
near the locks, where it was found in the morning, broken open and empty. 

Three or four suspected persons were arrested, and sent to Montreal ; but as 
nothing could be proved against them, they were discharged, and that was the end of it 


Mayor, John Kelly ; Councillors, Mercien Desjardins, ex-mayor, Andre Vivarais, 
Fred. Poulin, Gedeon Thibodeau, Emile Rochon. 

M. DESJARDINS, owner of a pleasant brick cottage in this village, has long kept 
a boot and shoe shop here, assisted by his son Gedeon ; the latter received a two 
years course in the Commercial Department of Rigaud College. Hilaire Desjardins, 
father of the ex-mayor, now 88 years of age, lived at St. Eustache during the Rebellion 
of 37, and was wounded in the leg while watching the combat. 

Mr. THIBODEAU was engaged in teaching for many years ; he was also Secretary- 
Treasurer of the School Board at Hochelaga, previous to coming to Carillon. A few 
years since, he married Miss Boyer, of this village, sister to Mrs. Poulin and Mrs. 

E. ROCHON has long been a skillful blacksmith in this village ; he has a penchant 
for fine horses, of which he always has one or more. 

ANDRE VIVARAIS, eldest son of Andre Vivarais, was born in Brown s Gore. Ar- 
genteuil County, in 1848 ; he lived there until March, 1886, when he sold his farm, 
and bought from Robert White the one on which he still lives in Carillon. He has 
been twice married, first to Agnes Ploof, who died in 1883, leaving two sons ; and the 
second time in 1885, to Adele Beaudry, widow of Baptiste King. Mr. Vivarais has 
been Municipal Councillor of Carillon for the past five years. His father died here 
in 1894, and Mrs. Vivarais, sen., resides with her son, who is one of the industrious 
farmers of the community. 


WILLIAM MAN SON is proprietor of the bakery referred to elsewhere. He is a 
native of Como, and was married ist June, 1880, to Miss Louisa Parsons, of Hudson. 
He has lived in Carillon but four years, during which he has prosecuted his business 
with a good deal of energy, and the productions of his manufactory have given general 
satisfaction. Mr. and Mrs. Manson have three children, one son and two daughters. 

Among the several fine stone dwellings of Carillon is that of T. Pagan. This was 
erected about 1830, by Rinaldo Fuller, contractor, for an academy, and soon after 
wards was bought by John Wanless, who lived in it, and conducted a private school 
many years. 

Mr. Wanless was from Scotland, and was a graduate of one of the Scotch Uni 
versities. On coming to America, he was first employed in teaching in New York, 
and afterward, about 1827, came to St. Andrews, and for a year or two conducted a 
private school in the building which is now the Anglican parsonage. While there, he 
married a cousin named Wanless, and moved to Carillon. He was a fine scholar, a 
strict disciplinarian, and his school was highly popular, being patronized by the sons 
and daughters of all the leading citizens of this section, the late Hon. J. J. C. Abbott 
being of the number. He died in 1882, and his former pupils, from respect to his 
memory, erected at their own expense a tombstone at his resting place in the St. 
Andrews cemetery. 


The Carillon Dam, across the Ottawa, is one of the great works of art and 
triumphs of engineering s kill of the present century. It was built by the Canadian 
Government, in the interests of commerce, to increase the depth of water in the 
canal, constructed at this point to overcome the obstruction of rapids in the river ; 
it cost $1,350,000. On account of the great expense, there was much opposition to 
the project, and for this reason, during the McKenzie administration, work on the 
structure was wholly suspended ; but it was resumed when the successor of McKenzie 
came into office. 

The Dam is 2,400 feet long and 12 feet high ; its construction was commenct 
in 1873, the engineer being Horace Merrill, late Superintendent of the Ottawa River 
Works ; and the contractors were F. B. McNamee & Co. It was made of cribs filled 
with stone, which was supplied by the neighboring farmers, at 45 and 55 cts. 
yard. Near the middle, is a slide for the passage of timber; this is 28 feet wide, 
feet long, and approached by 2800 feet of boom ; an apron, at the top and foot 
the slide, regulates the quantity of water required, and " stop logs" serve the 
purpose in the passage of timber. A house, painted red, covering the entrance 
slide, is quite a conspicuous object on the Dam, and serves to attract the curie 

of strangers. 

The structure was completed in the fall of iSSr, and when the 
closed, and the water had reached its full height, it was found that it mis 
water at Greece s Point six miles up the river two feet. 


In 1883 a portion of the Dam gave way, and was repaired at an expense of 
$ 20 coo Although the bed of the river, where the Dam crosses it, is entirely of 
rock it was found to be so soft in character, that the water had undermined the 
Dam thus causing the breakage. Since that, much money and labor have been 
expended to add to its strength and durability, and it is believed it will now 
effectually withstand the assaults of water or ice. 

Mr John Middleton,of Pt. Fortune, slide master, reports that in 1882, 73 r 
passed through the slide ; in the years following, the number varied considerably, and 
in 1895 only 6 passed through. But the rafts of late years have been much larger 
than formerly; one composed of 50 cribs used to be regarded a raft of good size, 
while now one of 210 is not uncommon. 

Notwithstanding the large number of men employed for so long a time, and the 
danger of the work, only one serious accident occurred during the construction ot 
the Dam. On the day the sluices were closed, a man named Dernier, who had been 
employed on the work, slipped as he was walking on the Dam, fell into the river, and 

was drowned. 

A few years later, however, an accident occurred, which, though not attends 
with loss of life, escape from so sad a result seems due to nothing short of a miracle. 
Late one summer night, a steam tug came down the river, having in tow several 
barges laden with lumber. Just as the tug entered Lock No. 2 at the Dam, the nearest 
barge struck the end of the pier; the tug gave a vigorous pull, but instead of bring- 
in- the barge into the lock, the tow line parted, and the barge swung outward into 
the swift-flowing river, a few rods above the Dam. Capt. Smith, the owner of the 
ill fated barge, and his wife, both quite aged people, were on board. 

Like an electric shock, news flew through this little fleet that Capt. Smith and 
his barge were going over the Dam. Quick hands seized ropes, and soon the men 
were on the broad pier running at right angles to the Dam, and several feet above it. 
Through the vapor and darkness, they descried the outline of the barge fast hasten 
ing to its doom. But there was no need of light to show them where to direct their 
aid, the cries of Capt. Smith and his frantic appeals for help defined the spot. A 
rope thrown by dexterous hands falls on the barge at the Captain s feet. He is safe. 
Alas . he is not ; hi sees it, but the roaring of the grim monster, now but a few yards 
distant, which he feels will in a few seconds devour him and all that he holds most 
dear, has filled him with an awful dread, and rendered him powerless to act. The 
barge is gliding on, and the rope falls into the water, astern ; but still there is a 
moment left, which the anxious, beating hearts on the pier are determined to 
improve. Again the rope shoots out, and, fortunately, this time rests on the Captain s 
shoulder ; now, surely, he will grasp it and be saved, but no, he sees it slip downward, 
glide across the deck, and drop into the water ; he is too paralyzed to move. His 
last chance has flown, the awful moment has arrived, yet, strange to relate, his facul 
ties return, reason resumes her throne. He knows that his wife has descended to 
the cabin, and believes it to be the most dangerous place. He calls her, and then, 



throwing himself flat on the deck, he thrusts his arm through a large hole in an 
upright plank before him, bends his elbow, and to this object clings with desperation. 
The other arm encircles the waist of his wife, who has thrown herself beside him. They 
were not kept long in this awful suspense. Fortunately, the water was low ; the barge 
struck the Dam, and quickly swung around, so that she lay broadside against it. 
The water, thus checked, raised the opposite side sufficiently to throw her entire 
deck load of lumber, consisting of many thousands of feet, into the abyss below. 
The barge, now buoyant, rose to the surface, and so quickly followed the lumber, 
that it rested fairly on it, and thus was prevented from being submerged. The boil 
ing waters, however, soon carried away the lumber ; the barge, borne down twenty 
yards or more, struck broadside against a large rock, and there, nearly broken into 
two parts, remained. The Captain and his wife retained their recumbent position, 
till they found the barge moored against the boulder, when they rose to take notes of 
their strange situation, and calculate the probabilities of once more seeing New York. 
It is to be presumed, however, that, like Christian people, their first act was to thank 
God devoutly for their late miraculous escape from death. 

But like the novelist, we must now invite the reader to another scene in this 
story. After the barge went over the Dam, the men on shore hastened to the 
nearest point whence they could see the barge, and shouted to ascertain if it con 
tained any living occupant. No answer being returned, they turned away with sor 
rowful hearts, to ponder and discuss the awful doom of their companion and the 
sad tidings they must bear to his friends. But not long afterward, Mr. Mason, the 
Lock Master, who had been roused from his sleep, discovered, as the mists from the 
river rose occasionally and floated away, that there were living people on the wrecked 
barge ; but, to his surprise, he could obtain no answer to his shouts. The next 
morning, he and one or two more with a skiff rescued the ship-wrecked couple, and 
then learned that their shouts had not been heard, every other sound having been 
drowned by the roaring waters of the Dam. 

We may add that Capt. Smith made two or three trips up the Ottawa, after his per 
ilous adventure. His barge was insured, but the lumber it carried was a total loss. 


The Isle aux Chats is a small island in the North River, located about a mile 
from Carillon. It contains no inhabitants, but the fact that it has been the site of 
mills for many decades, and that there is a small settlement of intelligent farmers 
near it, has rendered the locality quite noted. The Island itself is in Chatham, but 
the settlement, which is always called " Isle aux Chats," is in St. Andrews. The name, 
it is said, was given to the Island on account of the number of wildcats infesting it 
when the country was new. It is quite evident, also, that Indians used to frequent 
it, as many Indian relics have been found here. 


HUGH ROBERTSON came to Canada from Glasgow, with his wife and family, in 
1857. After spending some time in Quebec and Three Rivers, he came to Carillon, 
and bought the property owned by Mrs. McNaughton, giving it the name of" Ottawa 
Lodge." Later, he came to Isle aux Chats and bought the Island, and the saw, grist 
and woollen mills, which did quite an extensive business, giving employment to a 
number of hands. Mr. Robertson had six sons and two daughters, of whom all but 
one son are now living. Hugh William, the eldest son, born June, 1848, in Glasgow, 
was nine years of age wh en his father came to Canada. He was educated in 
Bishop s College, Lennoxville, Que., and afterwards took the mills and farm from his 
father, who went to Owen Sound, where he still resides. Mrs. Robertson died there 
i6th Match, 1895, and was interred at St. Andrews. Hugh, the subject of our pre 
sent sketch was married in 1874, to Miss De Hertel, daughter of Daniel De Hertel, 
of Centerville. They have six sons and three daughters, all of whom, with the excep 
tion of the eldest son, are still at home. The son, also, Hugh William, after spending 
some time in the office of Molsons Bank, Montreal, went to Owen Sound, where he 
has a position in a branch office of the same Bank. 

Mr. Robertson continues to keep his mills in operation, and also manages his 
farm, which comprises Isle aux Chats and half a lot in Centerville. 

Town of Lachute.* 

This place, the chef-lieu of the county of Argenteuil, is located on the North 
River, 9 miles from the Ottawa and 44 north of Montreal. It is also on the line of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, formerly the Q. M. O. & O. Railway. Its location 
is very pleasant, level, high, the center of a good agricultural district, and the scenery 
around, especially along the river, is picturesque. The name was first derived from 
the fall or chute, and was formerly written La Chute (The Falls), but afterwards the 
two words were united, hence the name Lachute. No one seems to know how the 
name of the Parish St. Jerusalem d Arg enteuil of which Lachute forms a part? 

* Lachute Town shall be that portion of the parish of St. Jerusalem in the county of Argenteuil, 
contained within a line drawn as follows, to wit ; 

Commencing on the line dividing the said parish from the township of Chatham, at a point due 
west of the south-west covntv of lot 1419 of the official plan and book of reference of the said parish 
(tope-walk), thence northerly, along the said line to where it intersects the base of the mountain on 
Jot 1692, and on said plan, eight hundred and fifty -eight feet English, from the centre of Chatham 
road north ; thence eastward, along the base of the said mountain (east of Leggo s farm house), to 
where it joins the North River, thence ascending the centre of said river, to a point formed by the inter- 
ection of the northerly continuation of the eastern boundary line of lot 329 A on said plan with the 


originated ; but it has been stated we know not on what authority that the name 
was suggested by Governor Metcalfe. 

As the place has grown up chiefly within the last quarter of a century, it natur 
ally has a youthful appearance, nearly all the best buildings being new. From no 
one part of the corporation can a view of much of it be obtained, hence, on traveling 
over it, one finds it much larger than he had supposed. 

The main street, from the West End, through Upper Lachute is two miles in 
length, and there are several shorter streets well populated. Many of the private 
dwellings, both from their location, and architectural neatness, are attractive, while 
some of the public buildings the Registry office, Ville Marie Bank, Argenteuil 
Hotel, the Academy, the establishments of J. Roby and J. A. Bedard, besides the 
immense structures of J. C. Wilson, are most imposing in appearance. 

Fortunately for us, nearly half a century ago an effort was made to collect a few 
facts with regard to the early settlement of this place, and preserve them for fuuire 
use. Commendable as was this act, and valuable as are the few facts thus trans 
mitted, it is to be deplored that the researches were not far more thorough and 

While we are told that, in 1796, a man named Hezekiah Clark came from 
Jericho, Vermont, with his family, and planted the first cabin here, the antecedents of 
Mr. Clark, and his motive in coming so far into the wilderness, are left as matters 
only for speculation. It would, indeed, be interesting to know why he sought this 
particular place for a home, inasmuch an many leagues of land just as fertile, covered 
by forests just as dense, with scenery equalling it in beauty, Jay between this place 
and Jericho. Within half the distance from that town to Lachute, lay a great part of 
what is now the Eastern Townships, but then an unbroken wilderness. Why, then, 
did he come so far ? Was he a fugitive from justice ? Not at all ; for we are inform 
ed that he was soon followed by a number of others, and that all were observant of 
Christian ordinances. We can no more answer the question, than we can tell why 
some of the pioneers located on rough, stony, rock-bound land, when they could just 
as easily have procured the finest land in the country. 

The most probable reason that we can assign for the course he pursued is, that 
he calculated the chances for getting to market, and found that, compared with other 
places, they were decidedly in favor of Lachute. In no other unsettled section, di 
he find such a natural highway to other settlements and to Montreal, as was present 
ed by the North River and the Ottawa. It is possible also, that with that prophetic 

said centre of ,iver (Morrison s Bridge) ; thence southerly, along the said last mentioned line 
main road ; thence to a point on the south side of said road, where it is jomed by the 
lots 112 and ^25 of said plan (Lane s) ; thence southerly, along the cont.nuat.on of 
tioned line, to a point formed by its intersection with the easterly continuation of the cc 
Henry street on plan B of said parish ; thence westerly, along the said last mentioned e to : 
formed by its intersection with the centre line of Isabella street on said plan B 
thence southerly, along the last mentioned line, to a point due east of the point of 
thence to said point of commencement. 


vision which characterized, now and then, one of those early settlers, he foresaw some, 
thing of what really has occurred-the rapid opening up of the country along the 
! river, the utilizing of the admirable water-power, and decided that no other spot 
presented such a fan- prospect to himself and posterity. But whatever were the m 
ducements, the fact that he came is unquestioned, and we can judge only from 
that fact, that he was a man of superior energy, great endurance and courage, and 
was skilled in woodcraft. Without these qualities he never would have come, nor 
could he have maintained his family, while surmounting the difficulttes frequei 

imily, consisting of his wife, three sons and two daughters, came through 
the woods with an Indian sled from St. Andrews, not even a cow path, at that 
leading to the place of his future home. No house, not even a bark shanty was there 
to receive them, and the first night was passed beneath the shelter of a few branches 
of trees hastily gathered. The next day, with that tact and energy characteristic of 
a woodsman, Mr. Clark constructed a hut, or wigwam, which answered the purpose 
of a domicile, till opportunity was given to erect a better one. Tradition claims, as 
the site of this habitation, a spot near the present Lachute mills. 

But who does not envy the lot of this pioneer ? What a chance for enjoyment 
On the threshold of summer, when nature has donned her richest garb, and we are 
entranced by the melody of her voices, what seems more akin to paradise than a 
home in the boundless forest ? The woods in summer ! What visions of undisturbed 
retirement, blissful solitude, do they not suggest? 

Hardship and privation are ascribed by general repo t to the lot of a pioneer. 
But what life is there among the laboring class free from those perplexities and sor 
rows incident to a life of toil? Though the first settlers had to work hard, and 
sometimes, especially in the beginning of their career, were saddened at the small 
stock of provisions in the larder and the condition of their wardrobe, yet, who ever 
saw a pioneer that did not look back on his life in the woods as a pleasant one : 
Who did not regard with pride every acre of land reclaimed from the forest, and 
brought to a slate of cultivation? And how many pleasant memories are associated 
vrfth those early struggles? What stories the old man will tell of the feats of labor 
in chopping or logging in this spot or that on his farm. With what pride, too, he 
will recount the number of bushels of corn or potatoes he raised on yonder acre 
the first crop produced by the virgin soil. 

We are not favored with an account of Mr. Clark s experiences while he lived 
here, yet we cannot forbear thinking that he had many pleasant ones, even though 
there might have been many discouragements. Of one thing, at least, he had an 
abundance, and that was fuel. Then, too, past his door flowed a fine stream, 
whose waters teemed with fish, and the forest was alive with a variety of game all of 
which not only prevented the possibility of famine, but provided means by which the 
taste, even of an epicure, might be gratified. The seed planted in the new soil grew 
as if by magic ; and the crops were of a quantity well calculated to satisfy and glad 
den the hearts of their possessor. 


How different, too, must have been his emotions when, in the morning, lie stepped 
forth from his cabin to begin his daily task, from those of the laborer dwelling in a 
dilapidated tenement on a narrow street of a city. No vitiated, smoke-laden air for 
inhalation here; no sound of cars or carts rattling over the pavements, but the purest 
of heaven s air, exhilarating from its burden of ozone, and fragrant with the odor of 
many trees and forest flowers. No discordant sounds, but, instead, the songs of 

birds, solos and duetts, and then the whole choral harmony, amusing and cheering 

through all the summer day. 

And what relief from care ! No watching for callers at that cabin. No feverish 
anxieties with regard to the toilet, or fears that mesdames will find too much dust 
collected in the parlor ; on the contrary, the inmates realize their emancipation from 
the bonds of fashion. What liberty ! What comfort ! Perfect abandonment to ease ! 

The wild animals, though giving no real cause for apprehension, suggested enough 
of danger to relieve this life from monotony, and tinge it with romance. And withal, 
how much to encourage and spur to renewed exertion ! No surly employer to issue 
orders, and growl at the manner and amount of work performed, and then, at night 
fall, to dole out with grudging hand the wages of their toil. Free from restraint, no 
one but themselves to please, in the most beautiful locality, labor itself was a recrea 
tion and pleasure, giving as it did strength to the muscles, vigor to the whole frame, 
and, consequently, buoyancy to the spirits and happiness to the mind. Every day, 
the expanding clearing encouraged to another day of labor, and gave promise of de 
pasture, the meadow, the flocks and herds, and well filled barns. 

But what of the Sabbath? Could there be any moral growth in this isolated 
spot, far removed from church and the sound of church-going bell ? Ah ! yes, the 
Sabbath ! But perhaps they attended church. Seven miles only, intervened between 
this and St. Andrews, and women, as well as men, often performed longer journeys on 
foot, even though the labors of the previous week inclined them on the Sabbath 
to take a needful rest. Who can doubt that people of moral habits, distant from every 
scene of vice and wickedness, in communion with the fairest scenes of nature, should 
be led through nature up to nature s God?" Who can doubt if, in their early 
years, they had been taught to respect things divine, that in their present abode, their 
latitude to the Author and Giver of their blessings increased, and that they remem- 


bered the Sabbath to keep it holy ? 

Hezekiah Clark has no descendants in this part of the country, but repoi 
that they are an intelligent and reputable class who occupy responsible positions in 

distant places. 

According to a brief History of Lachute referred to above, which was compil 
by Mr. John Meikle, sen., " Mr. Clark remained the sole inhabitant of Lachute for two 
years, when he was joined by six more families from the same place." 
of Lachute, by F. C. Ireland, published in The Watchman of 3 rd September, 1 8 
mentions but one family which came within two years after the arrival of ( 

He says : " The next pioneer was also one of the hardy sons of Vermont, wh 


came about t\vo years later, or in 1798. His name is familiar to most of the resi 
dents of Lachute to-day. 

" JOHN S. HUTCHIXS had married Miss Cutter, in their native State, and migrat 
ed to Canada, to join hands as neighbors with the Clarks at Lachute. They endured 
all the hardships, privations and vicissitudes incident to such a journey and such a 
life. They worked hard on a coarse diet, but the labor brought sweet rest, and the 
diet gave strength to the constitution, as they and their children have proved, for 
where is there to be found a family with more active frames, better developed 
muscles, firmer limbs and stronger minds than the descendants, who still live and 
move among us, of these early pioneers. The organ of continuity was so laigely dev 
eloped in this family, that they remained on the site of their early choosing, and 
brought up sons and daughters, many of whom became the first men and women of 
the place, in position as well as in point of time." 

There are none, probably, who will deny, that the above tribute to the Hutchins 
family is well deserved. Two brothers, John S. and Phineas Hutchins, seem to have 
settled in Lachute about the same time. The former located on a lot now owned by 
David McFarlane ; the latter on one owned by Mr. McGregor. Both have transmitted 
to us the reputation of being energetic, intelligent, Christian men, with a strong desire 
to encourage whatever promised to enhance the physical, social and moral progress 
of their adopted country. 

John S. Hutchins had learned the printer s trade in Boston, and on first coming 
to Canada, he engaged as compositor in the office of The Courant, in Montreal. He 
soon began to write articles for that journal, and for some time was a regular contri 
butor to its columns. After coming to Lachute, he took an interest in religious 
woik, and it was through his efforts that the Rev. Mr. Osgoode, mentioned on an 
other page, came here and organized a Sabbath School. He was a member of the 
Methodist Church, and his house was always a home for the ministers who, from 
time to time, visited the place. For many years, he was Clerk of the Circuit Court 
which held its sessions here. In 1801, his wife died, and it being the first time death 
had visited the new settlement, we can well imagine the gloom his advent created. 

Mr. Hutchins had one son at this time, whose name was Osman. He married, 
and after living some years at Hawkesbury, Ont., moved West. His father also 
married again, and by this marriage had three sons and five daughters : Hawley, 
Phineas and Benjamin ; Eliza, Maria, Catherine, Matilda and Mary Ann. Of the 
latter, Eliza was married to Milo Lane, Maria to Geo. Glines, Catherine to Lemuel 
Gushing, and Mary Ann to Geo. Holland. Matilda, who never married, died a few 
years since in Montreal. Mrs. Gushing and Mrs. Holland, both widows, reside in 
that city. 

Hawley R. Hutchins, the eldest son by the second marriage, married i5th Octo. 
ber, 1835, Harriet, a daughter of Dr. Rice, of St. Andrews. He engaged in trade 
a rt-hile at Lachute, then at Carillon, and finally was in business in Montreal. He had 
but one child, which died, and this was followed by the death of his wife ; he then went 
to California, and died there i2th June, 1882, at the age of 62. 


Phineas R., his brother, married Jessie Walker of Lachute, 4th May, 1838. They 
had eight children, the most of whom, at the present time, are said to be in prosperous 
circumstances in California. Mr. Hutchins always remained on the homestead and 
engaged in farming until he moved with his family to the Golden State, where he died 
1 5th January, 1875, aged 75 years. 

Benjamin, the third son of John S. Hutchins, has spent nearly all his life in busi 
ness in Montreal, where he is much esteemed. He is at present a broker in real 
estate, having an office in the New York Life Insurance building. He was but 14 
years old when he came to Montreal, and he worked for some time without salary, 
but he soon made his way upward. He was a Candidate in 1867 for the office 
of Representative for Argenteuil County in the Dominion Parliament, and was 
defeated only by a small majority. Mr. Hutchins has been twice married; 
first, in 1841 or 1842, to Miss Felton, of Sherbrooke ; the second time, to Miss 
Sherwood, daughter of Adiel Sherwood, Sheriff of Brockville, and an U. E. 

John S. Hutchins, the father of the children named above, was born i5th August, 
1776, and died 4th May, 1865. at the age of 88. 

Phineas Reed Hutchins, like his brother last named above, took a prominent 
part in every important public movement, soon after coming to Lachute. We first 
hear of him as Captain of a Volunteer Rifle Company, which he organized during the 
war of 1812. We next find him assiduously laboring to erect a church edifice at St. 
Andrews, and contributing liberally towards the cost of its erection. Evidently, he 
was a man with the requisite energy and ability to push to completion whatever work 
he commenced, one of the kind who, with better opportunities, broader fields for 
action, have won for themselves enduring names. He was thrice married, and had 
one son and six daughters. James Reed Hutchins, the son, married Elizabeth Ross 
of Montreal; and, for a number of years, was in mercantile business in that city. 
He died 28th June, 1856, leaving one son, Joseph Ross Hutchins, who is also engaged 
in trade in Montreal. 

" * Among other settlers from the American side was a young man, handsome and 
strong, whose services were secured by Mr. Hutchins in clearing away the forest and 
in building up a comfortable and prosperous home. This was GEORGE GLINES, whose 
engagement with Mr. Hutchins was severed by an engagement with one of his most 
beautiful daughters, and resulted in a long, felicitous life, and a large and beautiful 
family, whose record is a credit to any community. In fact, it would be difficult to 
find a new settlement peopled with a better class of residents than first made their 
homes along the banks of the North River at Lachute." 

In the year 1796, JEDEDIAH LANK, also from Jericho, purchased a tract of land 
comprising several thousand acres, on which Lachute is located. Having a sister at 

* From a sketch by F. C. Ireland in The Watchman of ijth September, 1886. 


Carillon, the wife of Peter McArthur, he doubtless had been here before, and selected 
the tract he desired to buy, as, at the time he made the purchase, he came on horse 
back, according to the custom of those days, with saddle-bags, in which was the gold 
to pay for the land. All that we know respecting this pioneer, may be summed up 
in the few following facts. He was a prosperous farmer, had a good education, 
was tall and prepossessing in appearance, a widower and the father of seven sons 
and two daughters ; only two of the sons, however, settled in this country. He was 
a college graduate, and for a number of years after coming here taught school 
in the school-house occupying the site of the one near the store recently burnt of his 
grandson, P. H. Lane. He also taught in St. Andrews, but how long it is impossible 
to say; it is certain that he taught there in the years 1837-38. 

Although so brief is his biography, he has an enduring memorial in the tract of 
land which he first bought in Lachute; for " Lane s Purchase" * is familiar to the 
citizens of Argenteuil, and will continue 10 be " while trees grow and water runs." 
His fame was also enhanced, no doubt, by a famous law-suit to which his purchase 
gave rise. By the terms of the contract between him and Major Murray, the Seignior, 
of whom the land was purchased, this particular tract was to be exempt from the rent 
imposed on other lands in the seigniory ; but not so understanding the agreement, 
the succeeding Seignior, in 1807, brought suit against the settlers for the amount of 
the unpaid rent. The time in which this suit was dragged through the Courts has a 
parallel in the case of " Jarndyce & Jarndyce," described by Dickens in Bleak House. 
After seven years of litigation, it was decided in favor of the Seignior. The settlers, 
however, satisfied that their case was one of equity, appealed it to the higher court, 
by which, after five years more, the decision of the lower court was reversed. 

Catherine, the eldest daughter of Mr. Lane, was married to John N. Hutchins : 
Maria M., the youngest child, married William Gibson, a contractor ; she is now a 
widow, and resides in Montreal. 

Jedediah, his eldest son, settled in St. Andrews, and died there. 

MILO, the second son, born in Jericho, Vt., i8th July, 1800, married Eliza, the 
eldest daughter of John S. Hutchins, in 1825. After living a few years on a farm, he 

- :; Records which we have examined since the above sketch of Mr. Line was written show that he 
purchased his tract from Major Murray, seignior, 3rd December, 1796. The following shows the 
names of several who purchased, the quantiiy purchased, and dale of the transaction. 

f . Lane sold to ; 

Date. Price. Acre;. 

P. Me Arthur 6ih Dec., 1797 ^25 500 

28th Feb., 1820 Too 1500 

Dudley Stone nth Sept., 1799 .. i 4 6a 

JSthMar., 1800 -""" 


Joel Leonard " 

H. Clark i?th Nov., 1800 

Roger Lane 7thMir., i8or 

Joel Bixby 2ist Apr. " 


N - Hillings .............. i8th J 

Boldry ............... 2Qt h Feb., 1804 

W. Thompson ........... i8th Aug., 1814 






opened a grocery and hotel in the west end of the village, and gave his attention to 
these until his death, which occurred 6th April, 1857, at the age of 56. He had eight 
children, but only one son and three daughters arrived at maturity ; Eliza, the eldest 
daughter, was married to Archibald R. Cameron, who owned the " Struan Farm " 
but he died four years after marriage, leaving one daughter, Margaret Ellen, who was 
married to Thomas Gushing. 

Mrs. Cameron, by a second marriage to W. H. Quinn, a surveyor of much cele 
brity, had five children two sons and three daughters. Of those now living, the 
eldest daughter married John R. McOuat, a merchant of Lachute j one son of Mrs. 
Cameron is a compositor in Ottawa, and another is in mercantile business in Buffalo, 
New York. 

Catherine, another daughter of Milo Lane, married John Taylor, a Scotchman 
who conducted a store many years at what is now Lachute Mills. He removed to 
Montreal, and opened a fur store ; his wife died there about 1887, an d he afterward 
went to Ottawa, where he is at present conducting a Gold Cure establishment with 
much success. 

A third daughter of Mr. Lane married, i8th June, 1867, the Rev. Richard 
Robinson, a Methodist clergyman ; she died 3ist August, 1880. 

Phineas Hutchins, the youngest son of Milo Lane, and the only one who sur 
vived the age of childhood, is a gentleman of ability, and possesses rare business tact 
and qualities. In his youthful days he was clerk six years for Mr. Gushing in Chat 
ham. In 1857, he opened a store in Lachute which belonged to his father s estate, but 
which had been rented for a long time to John Brunton, and then to his sister. Mr. 
Lane traded here for twenty-nine years, doing a most successful business, and then, in 
1887, sold the store and stock to Mr. William Banford, and retired from mercantile 
life. He has taken an active interest in local affairs, and held different responsible 
positions, among which was the presidency of the Agricultural Society for several 
terms, but that of Mayor, which was offered him, he declined. He married Miss 
Charlotte Owens, a sister of Senator Owens ; she died i7th March, 1890 ; their chil 
dren died in infancy, but they adopted Charlotte Maria, only daughter of" Senator 
Owens by his first marriage, her mother having died when she was an infant. She 
married Farquhar Stewart McLennan, a prominent and successful barrister of 

Mr. F. C. Ireland gives the following sketch : 

"Two years after the Hutchins family came, and four years after theClarks had 
settled here, another hardy son of Vermont came to join his friends by the banks of 
the River du Nord at Lachute. This was WILLIAM POWERS ; he had married another 
Miss Cutter, and sister of Mrs. Hutchins. They started out on their married tour 
with aspirations as full, and hopes as bright, as a modern newly married couple could 
enjoy on a trip to some of the most fashionable resorts of the present day. Their 
journey through the uncleared woods combined all the novelty and incidents ex 
perienced by those who had preceded them along the same rugged pathway. The 



reader can fancy the joyous meeting of the two sisters at Lachute. The incidents of 
the journey were recounted in detail; numerous enquiries of the friends in Jericho 
were made and answered with pleasurable gusto ; and so the days, weeks and months 
passed; the two sisters were as happy as sisters could be. The two men sought out 
a homestead for the new comer with as much interest as if it were to belong to both. 
Place after place was minutely examined, resulting in a home for the Powers upon 
the site now occupied by Mrs. Paul in Bethany; this was in the year 1800. 

" It was spring time, and all nature was beautiful around the wilderness, or so it 
seemed to these pioneers, for they were contented. Though a little late, Powers 
commenced vigorously to clear a small garden spot for vegetables, and succeeded in 
planting quite sufficient, as they turned out, for the frugal wants of the small family. 
A house also was built as soon as possible, and became the residence of as happy a 
couple as ever lived. The summer and early autumn passed without either doors or 
windows to their habitation. This afforded them plenty of light and air, which only 
seemed conducive to their health and vigor. As autumn advanced, there had to be 
a change, and so Powers started off in search of windows and doors, which would be 
necessary to their winter safety and comfort. Mrs. Powers, during his absence, spent 
the nights with her sister ; but on the third evening, as she expected her husband back, 
she remained alone in the open house, where their sleeping apartment was in the 
loft, which they reached by means of a rudely constructed ladder. On this occasion, 
Mrs. Powers waited and watched until long after dark, and had ascended to the loft 
pulling up the ladder after her, feeling safe though very lonely. She had not been 
long in her seclusion, until she heard the noise of wolves howling in the distance. 
They came nearer and nearer to the house, howling in their dismal way around the 
dwelling, until they actually made bold to enter, and prowled through the lower apart 
ment, howling dreadfully with rage at being unable to find their human victim, which 
their keen scent told them was so very near. Mrs. Powers, in breathless fear, covered 
herself in bed, holding her beating heart lest it should break, or its sound tell the 
wolves where she was. Hours passed in this way, and that long and dreary night 
seemed to have no end ; but as the light of morning broke, the wolves disappeared, 
but it was late in the day when Powers returned, finding his wife still in the loft, but 
happy and joyous to greet his protection, and relate the experience she had gone 
through. No wonder she received a gentle chiding for venturing to stay alone. Such 
were some of the ordeals of pioneer life in Lachute. This account of the wolves in 
the house was frequently related by Mrs. Powers to her children and grandchildren, 
down to her latest day, and always with a pathos of untiring interest to both grand 
mother and children." 

About 1801, prices of produce were so low that we cannot doubt the new settle 
ment was blessed with food in plenty ; and, doubtless, the chief discomfort was the 
trouble experienced in reaching mills and market. The market report of 1801 is as 
follows : Pork, $7.00 per c\vt. ; beef, $4.00 ; butter, 25 cents per pound ; cheese, i2> 
cents ; corn, 75 cents per bushel ; wheat, $1.00. 


Roads, there were none ; the North River afforded communication with St. 
Andrews, yet the rapids and other obstructions rendered frequent portages necessary, 
so that, conveying grain to mill, and returning with the products thereof, required, 
even with the aid of the river, strong backs and firm muscles. 

We have shown what a circuitous route the settlers on the River Rouge pursued 
to reach St. Andrews, until a much shorter route was pointed out to them by the 
Seignior. The mistake committed by the inhabitants of Lachute was no less surpris 
ing or amusing. To reach St. Eustache, which, besides St. Andrews, was the only 
place where they went to mill or store, they travelled to Grand Brule (St. Benoit), 
thence to Belle Riviere, and from that place to St. Eustache. Accident revealed a 

shorter route. 

A man named Uriah McNeal lost his cow. His sympathizing neighbors at once 
instituted a search, and after having travelled miles through the woods on their gen 
erous errand, they ran across a few cattle grazing. Uncertain as to their where 
abouts, they determined to wait till nightfall, and follow the cattle to their owners. 
Pursuing this plan, they were led to the French settlement in Cote St. Louis. On 
inquiring of the settlers there, if they could show them the way to the North River, 
they were kindly led back by an Indian path, four miles north, to the river. Descend 
ing this, they soon reached home, and ever after used this route instead of the old 
and long one via Grand Brule. 

In 1803, the settlers had increased in number to thirty families ; and for several 
succeeding years the population was increased by the arrival of Americans. During 
the war of 1812 especially, fear of the draft and consequent military service caused 
no small influx of settlers from the New England States ; but as they were generally 
of a class not likely to remain long in any place, they soon departed from Lachute. 

" At the time of the war of 1812," says Mr. Meikle in his chronicles of Lachute, 
" the Militia Roll numbered 150 able-bodied men ; these were formed into three com 
panies, two of which were regular militia, commanded respectively by Captains 
Bixby and McNeal, the other a Volunteer Rifle company commanded by Captain 

Phineas Hutchins." 

As in all the new settlements of this country, the making of potash was about 
the only means by which the pioneer could obtain money, and as this required a 
great amount of wood, the land was soon denuded of forest, and, as the timber for 
potash grew scarce, the inhabitants who relied on its manufacture for their subsistence 

removed to other parts. 

In the years 1810 and 1811, a severe famine occurred, and the prices of provi 
sions went up to a degree that must have occasioned anxiety in the heart of many a 
paterfamilias. Pork at that time was $30 per barrel, beef $14; providentially, 
there was a corresponding advance in the price of potash during the same years, 
otherwise the circumstances of the settlers would have been much worse. 

About this time also, the land which first had been cleared began to > u 
scanty crops, and this impediment to prosperity, united with the scarcity of 



and the period of famine, induced many to emigrate. But their places were soon 
filled, as will be seen by the following paragraph, copied from F. C. Ireland s sketch 
of Lachute in The Watchman of 24th September, 1886 : 

" It was in 1809 that a few Scotch settlers joined the Americans at Lachute, and 
they continued coming in for many years, until about 1818, a lot of Paisley weavers 
others joined the settlement: These were a hardy, industrious class of people, who 
took well to the new country and new employment, and succeeded in building up 
comfortable homes along the North River, reminding them of the little Cart which 
flowed tli rough their own Renfrewshire at home ; but the contrast was great Paisley, 
Glasgow and Grcenock were not close by; the factories for shawls, thread, gauzes, 
velvets, flannels, cottons, with their dye-houses, printing calicoes, foundries for iron 
and brass, distilleries, soap works, alum and copperas works, and timber yards were 
not here. The pursuits of business were new ; the country was new ; everything was 
new. But the stirring life of Paisley had awakened, as it still awakens, an honorable 
spirit of inquiry and a desire for improvement, and these Scotch settlers plodded on 
with increasing success as farmers, and soon became masters of the soil and owners 
of everything necessary for its cultivation." 

About one of the first of the Scotch settlers was THOMAS (afterwards COL.) 
BARRON, a title he received from holding the rank of Lieut. -Col. of Militia. He came 
from Morayshire, and lived a while after his arrival with his uncle James at Hawkes- 
bury. He came to Lachute in 1809, and by the possession of those qualities which 
always bring a man to the front, in whatever community he may be placed, he was 
soon a leading spirit among those with whom he had cast his lot. 

He was married to Eliza Hastings, sister of Guy Hastings, who was one of the 
prominent citizens of Lachute in early days ; but they had no children. He seems 
to have soon become quite prominent in military affairs, as in 1812, as Adjutant, he 
took command of two companies of Militia under Captains Bixby and McNall, and a 
Volunteer company under Captain Phineas Hutchins, and marched with them to 
Point Claire, where they were given over to the charge of Col. Kell, who commanded 
the Division enlisted in Lachute, Chatham. Grenville and Petite Nation. 

About the year 1825, he was appointed Justice of the Peace, which office he held 
for many years, discharging ift duties with a faithfulness that won the esteem of good 
men, and instilled wholesome fear into the breasts of evil doers. For many years, 
also,-he was Crown Land Agent for this place, Chatham, Gore and Wentworth ; later, 
also, for Morin and Howard. In 1836 he erected, and chiefly at his own expense, a 
bridge across the North River near his own dwelling, which has ever since been 
known as " Barren s Bridge." In like manner, he performed many other acts which 
contributed either to public or private benefit, and which secured to him the gratitude 
of his fellows. He died in January, 1864, lamented by a large community. John 
Barron, a brother of Col. Thomas Barron, came from Morayshire, Scotland, to 
Lachute in 1832. He lived with his brother, and found employment in the manage 
ment of his estate till his death, which occurred in 1866. 


Thomas Barron, jun., and Robert, two of his sons, still live here; the former 
being Registrar of the County of Argenteuil, and the latter, his assistant in the Regis 
try Office. 

THOMAS BARRON. jun., was born in 1832, the year in which his father arrived in 
Lachute, and in the house in which he now resides, the residence of the late Col. 
Barron. Like his uncle, he has taken much interest in all the affairs of his native 
parish moral, political and social ; and in the varied positions he has filled, has 
acquitted himself to his own honor and to the satisfaction of the public. 

In 1858, he was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court and still holds the office. 
In March of the same year he was appointed Deputy Registrar of Argenteuil, and in 
1866, on the death of Col. D Hertel, the former Registrar, Mr. Barron succeeded him 
in office. He has also been Municipal Councillor and Mayor of the parish many 
years. On the gth August, 1858, he was married to Harriet Gushing, eldest daughter 
of the late Lemuel Gushing, Esq., of Chatham, by which marriage he had three chil 
dren one daughter and two sons. 

Thomas J., the elder son, after receiving his degree of B.A. from McGill, took 
a course at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and is now engaged in the ministry. 

Lemuel C., the second son, is in California. Mrs. Barron died in February, 1864, 
and in August, 1866, Mr. Barron was married to Grace Jane, eldest daughter of the 
late Rev. Thomas Henry. Ten children resulted from this marriage, eight of whom 
are now living. 

Robert H., the eldest of these a graduate of McGill was the Gold Medallist at 
the Law Examination of that Institution in the spring of 1895, and at his final examin 
ation at Quebec in September last, before the Board of Notaries, he stood first in 
honors. He is now one of the Notarial firm of Gushing, Dunton & Barron, Montreal 

JOHN MEIKLE, another Scotchman, for many years shared with Col. Barron 
the enjoyment of social and judicial honors. He was a native of Glasgow, Scotland, 
and in 1830, with his wife t and three boys, left that city to make his home in Lachute. 
He purchased a few acres of land of Col. Barron (at that time Major), on which he 
erected a building" designed for a general store. In this he began a business which, 
faithfully continued, secured to him a competence for his declining years. In the 
early part of his mercantile career he was assisted by his two brothers, Robert and 
Thomas, who came to this country with him. 

Long after he began trading, there was very little money in the country, his tran 
sactions with his customers consisting chiefly of barter, as he accepted pay from them 
for his goods in the products of the farm, but mostly in potash, of which at that time 
there were large quantities manufactured. The making of this article afforded him a 
chance to take up a little additional business, by which he doubtless increased the 
number of his customers, and won their esteem. A large part of his patronage was 
from the new settlers in Thomas Gore, North Gore, Wentworth and the rear of 
Chatham, who in clearing their land turned all the timber possible into potash. To 
make this, they required leaches, kettles, coolers, barrels, etc., and Mr. Meikle pro- 


vided these, placing them in suitable locations, and charged the individuals using 
them a small fee for each barrel of potash they made. In this way, though he charged 
barely sufficient to remunerate himself for the wear and expense of the materials 
provided, he put many a poor fellow in the way of making a little money which he 
otherwise could not have made. After the potash was brought to Mr. Meikle, he 
sent it to Inspector Stone in Montreal, and, as soon as the quality was ascertained, he 
paid the full market price for it in cash. 

In 1836, Mr. Meikle was appointed Postmaster, and held this position for half a 
century, and was also Justice of the Peace for many years. He was a liberal supporter 
of Henry s Church, of which he was long an Elder, and felt a deep interest in the 
College, to both of which in his will he left a legacy. 

He is held in kind remembrance by his old customers and acquaintances all 
believing him an honest, upright, Christian man; he died in August, 1877; Mrs. 
Meikle in August, 1870. They left five sons John, William, George, Robert and 
Thomas, and one daughter, Mrs. J. D. Wells. John and Robert reside in Merrick- 
ville, Ont.j William in Manitoba ; George, Robert and Mrs. Wells in Lachute. 

After conducting the business some years, Mr. Meikle, sen., sold out to his two 
sons, George L. and Robert G., and retired from active life. The sons prosecuted 
the business in company till 1878, when Robert retired and entered politics, being 
that year elected Representative of Argenteuil in the Provincial Legislature, in the 
interests of the Joly Government. He was a candidate for the House of Commons 
in 1887, but was defeated by J. C. Wilson. 

The business which was established by his father in 1830 is still conducted by 
George L. Meikle and his son-in-law, H. M. Gale. G. L. Meikle was appointed 
assistant postmaster in 1844; he now has had charge of the office fifty years. 

among the quite early pioneers of Lachute. They came from Vermont, and located 
in what is known as the Hill Settlement. Stearns, having a family of four sons and 
three daughters, procured five hundred acres of land, with the design of providing his 
sons with farms from the homestead. The realities of pioneer life, however, he found 
quite different from the view enjoyed in anticipation, and in about a year after his 
arrival he had become so thoroughly disheartened from his hardships and spare 
diet, that one day he abruptly started back to Vermont. After a year s absence 
from his family, he returned and resumed his labors, but died a few years subse 
quently. His children all settled in this section. One of his daughters, Mary, mar 
ried Alvah Stephens, and Mrs. Emslie, one of the well-known citizens of Lachute, is 
a daughter resulting from this union. We may remark incidentally, that the mother 
of Mrs. Emslie was a cousin of Senator Stearns. 

Mrs. Emslie remembers many of the tales of hardship and destitution related 
by her mother, and one incident especially, the sale of her side-saddle, which was a 
source of much grief to her mother. 


In the early part of their residence here, there was a great scarcity of provisions 
in the settlement, and a still greater scarcity of money. The family of Mr. Stearns 
were not the only sufferers, and, fortunately for them, Miss Stearns had a valuable 
side-saddle, on which she had ridden all the Jong distance from their former home in 
Vermont, which could be exchanged for provisions. The sacrifice was an unpleas 
ant one; the saddle had become endeared by many associations, but what woman 
would hesitate to part with any inanimate object, in the necessity of procuring food 
for her family ? The late Col. Barren wanted the saddle, and was willing to exchange 
corn for it, so the bargain was concluded, and discomfited famine, shame-faced, re 

Mrs. Emslie also relates an incident which occurred within her own recollec 
tion, that illustrates the manner in which the early settlers surmounted little dif 
ficulties that were often occurring. Her father was obliged, unexpectedly, to go 
to Montreal, and an examination of his wardrobe, by his careful helpmate, revealed 
the fact, that a pair of drawers was needful to its proper completion, in fact, they 
were of the utmost necessity, the journey could not be undertaken without them, 
and he must go to-morrow. What could be done? Recollect, kind reader, that in 
those days one could not jump into a buggy, ride down to Meikle s, McOuat s or 
Eraser s, and buy drawers at socts. a pair. But trust a thrifty housewife of those 
days to get out of such a dilemma. Mrs. Stevens had the cotton warp in the loom, 
waiting for the woof to be woven into cloth ; but, unfortunately, the latter part of the 
web was not at hand. But Mr. Stephens had that morning killed a lamb ; his active 
spouse soon denuded the skin of its fleece, and then made ready her hand-cards and 
trusty spinning wheel. 

Mrs. Emslie, who, though young, was an adept at spinning, received the plump 
rolls as they fell from her mother s cards, and soon transformed them into the woof 
desired. It will suffice to say that before the mother and daughter retired that night, 
the cloth had been woven, the drawers cut out and made, and the next morning 
they were ministering to the physical comfort of the husband and father, on his way 
to Montreal. Mrs. Emslie is the widow of James Emslie, who for 44 years was an 
earnest, faithful and successful teacher ; sixteen years of this time he taught in Quebec, 
the rest in Lachute. Her mother and two of her sisters were married to three 
brothers named Stephens. The two named above, Philander and Ebenezer, en 
gaged in the manufacture of brick in the early part of their pioneer life, and each 
built a brick house for himself, which is still standing. Having no mill or any 
utensils for grinding, neither horses, they used their oxen as substitutes, tramping 
instead of grinding the clay. 

Philander Stephens seems to have been well versed in the requirements of pio 
neer life, and to have been well fitted for it by nature. He brought a shoemaker 
with him from Vermont, who, besides doing the work required by Mr. Stephens own 
family, supplied the wants of neighboring families, and thus brought to his employer 
some profit. 


Mr. Stephens being skillful in the use of tools, and quite ingenious, found am 
ple opportunity to exercise these abilities in his new home. First, he made a full 
set of farming tools for himself, then his wife lamenting the want of a loom he set 
to work and made one, even to the shuttle. These utensils would appear crude, no 
doubt, compared with the machine-made articles of the present, yet they answered 
every requirement, saved the maker many a dollar, and illustrated the adage, 
Necessity is the mother of invention." 

The following article is contributed at our request : 


In the summer of 1817, an emigrant ship sailed from Belfast, Ireland, and after 
lirteen weeks voyage, arrived at Quebec. On board the ship was James Orr, 
respectable Scotch-Irish farmer and Methodist local preacher from Downpatrick 
his wife Sarah Swail, and their sons, James, Samuel, John, Edwards and 
A daughter, Sarah by name, had married Matthew Coulter, and remained 
James Orr came to Canada with his family, with the hope of bettering 
eir fortunes ; but was not destined to remain long at their head. The family set- 
led on a leased farm at Laprairie, where the husband and father died about iSro, 
short illness (inflammation of the bowels), aged about 56. Samuel the 
*>nd son, being lame on both his feet," was unfitted for farm work, and became 
5 apprentice of a Montreal shoemaker, named Kiest. Early in the twenties, the widow 
>ur of her sons removed to Argenteuil, and settled in Thomas Gore, Samuel 
emaimng behind in Montreal. The shop where he acted as salesman, at the cor- 
3t. James Street, is, or was lately, still standing. My father was well 
cquamted with old Montreal, and pointed out to me many places of interest as he 
He told me that he helped to clear out the second place of Methodist 
up, when the workmen were done with it. It stood on St. James street and 
known as the Medical Hall." I remember being in it when it wa s still 
is a place of *" u: ~ " " ~ 

H ! o 

the pulpit (18,9). So , opular was Mr. Lusher, that though the church 

e tIV At largC Pe Ple fth C UM ^ ^ Jn oftentime s listen Igo 

About I839 , I saw Mr. Lusher at an evening service in the third 

s id i^made h" T^ " T ^^ trembling" paralytic; my father 
Mm rick at heart when he saw him, and contrasted what he then was 

commenced business for himself at L^hu^ where^e "ntfnueTtt^e 


till his death, 2pth March, 1875, when he had nearly completed his seventy-third year. 
Some time after the Orr family came to Canada, another emigrant ship brought 
among its passengers the family of William and Fanny Hicks, of English origin ; 
they came from the County Fermanagh, and settled for a while in the East Settlement, 
but were attracted by the good reports of lands in Upper Canada, where they went 
about 1831. The Hicks family consisted, I think, of four sons John, George, William 
and Robert, and three daughters Francis, Mary and Jane. Samuel Orr and Jane 
Hicks were married by the Rev. William Abbott at St. Andrews, 6th August, 1828* 
and their wedded life lasted nearly forty-seven years. Their home was one where 
piety and industry ruled the lives of the inmates. They were both members of the 
Methodist Church, and were always ready to entertain Methodist preachers as their 
guests. I have seen in that home, Carroll, Poole, Black, Adams, Playter. Arm 
strong, Musgrove, Taylor, the two Barbers, Hatman, Shaler, Willoughby, Mclntyre, 
Constable, Greener, Brownell, Huntingdon, and the two McDowells, and others 
whose names do not now occur to me. 

Samuel Orr was for several years superintendent of the Old Union Sunday 
School, for many years the only Sunday School at Lachute. The attendance often 
amounted to a hundred at nine o clock on Sunday mornings, gathered from points six 
miles apart. Presbyterians and Methodists worked cordially together, they being then 
the only denominations who had an organized existence in the place. Samuel 
Orr was also, for several years, a Class and Prayer leader. I remember that he 
used to take dry wood in a bag before him on his mare s back, to kindle fires 
with for prayer meetings. My father was a trusted friend and favorite of the 
settlers in the North Gore. I remember that such was the scarcity of money among 
them, that they often asked and got the favor of the loan of a few pence to " release 
a letter from the Post Office." Their payments were made to a considerable extent 
in maple sugar and oatmeal. In the Rebellion, my father s house was a kind of 
armoury. Two Volunteer companies, commanded by Captain Evans and Captain 
Johnson, used to come to Lachute to drill ; most of the men left the heavy " Brown 
Bess " muskets in our garret from week to week, to save carrying them so great a dis 
tance. In the fall of the year, a report was started, without foundation, that a party 
of rebels intended to invade Lachute. Guards were sent to the " dugway," where 
the road lies between the hill and the river, to intercept them. My father, feeling 
alarmed for the safety of his small family, harnessed up the mare and cart, and with 
some bedding and provisions, drove into the woods on the Hicks farm, where we re 
mained the greater part of the night ; but finding that no invasion had taken place, we 
returned to the house again. Afterwards, we spent a fortnight at the house of Mr. 
William Clark, in Chatham, whose wife was a cousin of my father s. While we were 
there, an alarm was raised, which called Mr. Clark and his hired man whose name> 
I believe, was Husten away from home. After they had been away some time, 
Husten came back for food. A large pan full of doughnuts was hastily emptied out 


for him, in mv presence. I thought the horrors of war were considerably initi 
ated by the chance of getting such luxurious fare. When the cruel war was over 
we returned home, and on the night of our return we saw from Carillon the flames c 
the burning church of St. Eustache. It stood in ruins for some years, and 
remember seeing the ruins as I went to Montreal. Dr. Chenier s death occurred at 
the battle of St. Eustache, and I remember a gruesome report, that his body was c 
open and his heart laid on the counter of Addison s hotel ; but I think the story was 
likely without foundation. In the winter of 1848-49 a sad calamity happened 
family. The smallpox was communicated to them by a French family living c 
Vide Sacque, from whom they bought some onions, a vegetable which never after- 
wards was used in the house. The first three children had been vaccinated ; onl> 
one of them was at home, and he escaped a most convincing proof of the . 
of vaccination. All the other children, six in number, took the disease, and Sar 
Phebe the pet of the household, in her fifth year, died. I was then living at St. Andrews. 
I came home to attend the funeral, but did not enter the house. I saw through a I 
room window the scarred and bloated face of the little darling. 

My father died in his seventy-third year; his funeral service was conducted by 
Rev. S. G. Phillips. When I went home to the funeral, I called on John Meikle, 
Esq. , who said in all sincerity, that my father had not left his equal behind him in 
Lach ute ; this referred of course to his reputation for honesty, morality and rehgu 
My mother died in her sixty-seventh year ; her funeral service was conducted by 
Rev. Mr. Robson. 

The family consisted of eight sons and two daughters : Elias Samuel, born 
in 1829; Wesley Fletcher, born in 1831 ; James Edwards, born in 1833; George 
Matthew, born in 1835 ; Priscilla Jane, born in 1837 ; Adam Clarke, born in 1839 > 
William Edgerton Ryerson, born in 1842 ; Sarah Phebe, born in 1844; Watson Coke, 
born in 1846 ; and Marcus Arthur, born in 1851. I will briefly mention some events 
in my own life. 

My education was limited to the common school ; my first teacher was Jedediah 
Lane; another, a Mr. MacPherson ; another, Lachlan Taylor ; another, John W. H. 
Brunton ; another, Adam Walker. I attended also, for a little while, a French school 
at St. Andrews, taught by Antoine Moret. 

On the 25th day of October, 1839, being the centenary of Methodism, a prayer 
meeting was held in the old school-house led by Mr. Taylor ; he prayed that some 
who were present might remember the blessings of the day, fifty years afterwards. 
The prayer has been more than answered in the case of my brother, W. F., and myself, 
as we have been spared nearly fifty-six years from that day. In that month of October, 
1839, revival services were held at Lachute, as a result of which, several young persons 
joined the Methodist Church. Henry Shaler and William Willoughby conducted 
the meetings; they both lived for over half a century after. Mr. Shaler died at 
Kemptville, Ont., less than a year ago, aged over ninety. 


There are but few living now who joined the Church at the time I ref< r to. 

Robert Kneeshaw, Esq., of Ingersoli, Ont., my brother and myself were among them. 

Of my old school-fellows, Dr. Christie, G. L. Meikle and Thomas Barron yet survive. 

In the year 1843, mv brother, W. F., and myself assisted in drawing bricks from the 

front of Chatham to St. Andrews, for the Methodist Church ; a church in which I 

afterwards worshipped and preached for thirteen years. On the 8th day of March, 

1847, I entered the service of the late Charles Wales, as clerk in his store. In 1854, 

I became the junior member of the firm of Charles Wales & Co., which was dissolved 

in April, 1864. On the gih September, 1856, I was married at No. 10 St. Joseph 

Street, Montreal, to Miss Jane Colclough White, daughter of Mr. John D. White. 

The issue of that marriage was William Arthur, who died in 1860, aged 2 years and 

10 months; James Edward, who also died in childhood ; John Samuel, who died at 

Anamosa, Iowa, in his 2Qth year ; Alfred Elias, now known as Dr. A. E. Orr. of 

Montreal ; and Florence Lilian, teacher and artist. In 1860, I left St. Andrews for 

Sawyerville, P. Q., where I carried on a country trade till 1868. In 1869, I received 

the appointment of County Registrar, which I still hold. 

Wesley Fletcher, next in age to me, left home early for St. Laurent, where he was in 
the employ of the MacDonalds ; he went to Ontario many years ago, where he carried 
on for a while the manufacture of saleratus. He was engaged in country trade and 
lumbering at Lynden, Barrie. and elsewhere. He subsequently went to Alberta; he 
now resides in Calgary, of which city he was, and is still, the first Mayor. He is 
married, and has two daughters and one son. James Edward also left home early ; he 
entered the employment of Chas. D. Proctor in Montreal, was also in the employ of 
Finley McMartin at St. Andrews, and the late Mr. St. Denis at Point Fortune, 
was also engaged in country trade in Ontario, at Lynden and elsewhere; he now resides 
in Calgary, is married, and has a son and daughter living. G-orge Matthew spent 
some time as clerk for Chas. Wales & Co., at St- Andrews, and also in the store of 
Thomas Meikle. He removed to Cookshire, P.Q., where he carried on trade for 
some time ; he now resides in St. Catharines, Ont. ; he is married and has two 
daughters living. Priscilla Jane studied at the Normal School in Montreal, and taught 
at Riviere Rouge and in the Lachute Academy. She did not marry, but spent her 
time in loving ministrations to the declining years of our parents, 
she occupied the old home for some years, then went to Montreal and to Ontario ; 
she now resides in Chicago with Adam C. Orr. Adam Clarke, named after t 
celebrated commentator, was noted for his early love of books and pursuit of knowl 
edge : he read the New Testament through at a very early age. When very small, the 
Rev. James Musgrove called on the family ; the children were asked their names ; 
Adam replied, " Dr. Adam Clarke ;" the reply caused the minister to smile, 
found discussion arose between Adam and a younger brother on the origin l 
and the opposite forces of God and Satan. The younger boy propounded the qu< 
" Why does the Lord not kill the devil? " Adam s reply was : 


would have no father." At the age of 18, Adam was a successful teacher at Hill 
Head, Lachute. He has lived for many years in Chicago, his portrait and biographi 
cal record appear in an American publication, from which I will make some extracts : 
" Adam C. Orr is one of the highly esteemed citizens of Park Ridge. His home is 
the centre of sociability, and there men of culture delight to gather and discuss topics 
which tend to mental advancement. On the paternal side, our subject came from the old 
McLean family of Scotland. At length, however, the family became divided in the 
Scottish feuds, and those who located in the Lowlands took the name of Ayrs, which was 
subsequently changed into the present mode of spelling. In the common school of 
his native country, Adam C. Orr acquired a good P^nglish education. In his father s 
country store, he received his first lessons in business, but he left mercantile pursuits 
to engage in teaching, which profession he successfully followed for thirteen years in 
Canada. In 1863, he spent a term at the Normal School, affiliated to McGill College, 
Montreal, and subsequently, while engaged in teaching, read the Art? Curriculum of 
that University, and made translations of the Satires of Juvenal and Odes of Horace 
into English verse ; the manuscripts of which were destroyed in the Chicago fire. He 
was for some time employed as teacher of the French language and literature in 
Lachute College, P.Q., and later, as principal of the Central School, St. Mary s, Ont. 
It was in 1870 that he came to Chicago, where soon after he engaged as superin 
tendent with the Gillet Chemical Works. On the ist October, 1876, Mr. Orr was 
united in marriage with Miss Cleo Petne. To Mr. and Mrs. Orr was born a son, 
Samuel Henry, who died at the age of thirteen years. He was a boy who attracted 
almost universal attention because of his perfect physique, fine intellectual attain 
ments and gentlemanly bearing. He was a member of a company of Zouaves, in 
which he held the highest offices, and was laid to rest in their uniform. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. Orr hold an enviable position in social circles, where true worth and intellr 
gence are received as the passports into good society. They have made their home 
in Park Ridge since 1881. Socially, Mr. Orr is connected with the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows and with the Royal Arcanum ; he is also a member of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific." 

William Edgerton Ryerson, thus named after two members of the celebrated 
Ryerson family. It is seldom that Sweet Williams blossom in midwinter, but this one 
did, as he was born in the month of January. He had the good fortune to be taught 
wilting by Mr. Gibson, a teacher of Lachute, who boarded with the family, and has 
made Bookkeeping the principal work of his life. He was in business at Cookshire 
and at Durham for short periods ; he now resides at Teeswater, Ont. ; has been twice 
married, and has several children. 

Watson Coke bears the name of two distinguished Methodists. He went to 
Ontario early in life, and is now engaged in fruit farming at Winona. He sells grapes 
by the ton, and is successful also with many other fruits. 

Francis Arthur, the tenth and last child, was born twenty-one years after the 
present writer. He learned photography while quite young, and has pursued it ever 


since. He is at present a resident of Chicago. The family present an instance of 
nine out of ten who grew to maturity, and whose members are at the date of this 
writing still unbroken. For the most part, they have had good health, and all of them 
moderate prosperity. 

For about sixty years, the name of Orr was a familiar one at Lachute, but they 
have all left it, except those who are quietly sleeping in the old cemetery, that is, 
Samuel Orr, Jane Orr, his wife and " little Sarah." 


I was born in 1829, and have recollections of some of the early inhabitants of 
the County of Argenteuil who have long since passed away. 

ABIATHAR WALDRON was my father s next-door neighbor; he had been a soldier 
of the Revolutionary War, I think, on the American side. He must have been one of 
the earliest settlers of Lachute. He used to say that the sun had never found him in 
bed for fifty years. Mr. Waldron s wife was a Hatchings, and was said to have been 
the first white woman at Lachute. The Waldrons were, like many of the first settlers, 
Methodists. A story is recorded by Carroll in his " Past and Present," as follows : (It 
must have occurred about 1816.) There is a beautiful tract of land in the neighbor 
hood of Lachute, on the North River, which falls into the Ottawa. This was 
originally settled by an interesting class of people from the United States, from 
among whom a large and prosperous society was raised up by the labors of a Sa\vyer ? 
a Luckey and others. But a succession of blighting frosts had caused such a faiKire 
in the crops for several years, that one family after another had left and sought a 
home in a more genial climate, till the society was not only much reduced in numbers, 
but very few homes were left to shelter the hapless itinerant in a place which had 
always been considered " head-quarters " on the circuit ; and the occupant of the prin 
cipal one of the few remaining " lodging places for wayfaring men," " Father Waldron," 
as he was called, had also resolved to leave. The two preachers (Ferguson and Peel) 
were spending a night under his hospitable roof, but the intention of their host to leave 
communicated to them, had made them sad ; they did their utmost to persuade him 
to stay, setting before him the evil that would result to the cause if he left, ami the 
consequent good he would be the means of doing if he remained. When the hour of 
devotion arrived, both the preachers engaged in prayer, one after the other, and ii: 
the subject which lay near their hearts ground of earnest supplication. Fergi: 
prayed first, and earnestly besought the Lord to prevent Bro. Waldron from g> .ing 
away. To each petition, Peel subjoined the expressive response, " Hedge him up, 
Mighty God ! " And when the time came to plead in prayer, he told the Lord they 
could not afford to part with Bro. Waldron besought him to induce him to s: 
and to reward him for so doing with an abundant crop. He enumerated every kind 



of produce he could think of by name, and prayed that Bro. Waldron s hay and 
potatoes, and wheat and rye, and oats and peas, and barley, etc., might be abundant. 
Mr. Waidron was induced to stay another year, and by a very remarkable coincidence 
with Mr. Peel s request, he had an abundant crop of everything both in field and 
garden, excepting onions. When this fact was mentioned to the preacher, " Oh," 
said Peel, " I forgot the ONIONS." To my personal knowledge Mr. Waldron remained 
many years after this incident at Lachute, perhaps twenty. His wife above mentioned 
was a second wife, and not the mother of Linus, Silas and Abiathar, his sons. Her 
first husband s name was Clark. It was said that he took a grist to the Lachute mills 
to be ground, and that, while waiting for the grist, he went to fish for salmon, which 
were then to be had below the dam, and was drowned. Mr. and Mrs. Waldron, at a 
very advanced age, finally returned to the States, I think, about 1836. 

JOHN S. HUTCHINS was a man whose personality made a deep impression on 
my mind. He was small of stature, with partially bald head, the remaining hair on 
which was bleached by many winters snows ; he was Clerk of Court, and I suppose 
possessed a monopoly of the legal knowledge of the settlement. He used to come in 
a camlet cloak from his residence on the north side of the river, to lead the four 
o clock prayer-meetings on Sunday afternoon, where I have often listened to his prayers 
and exhortations. When I knew him, he was living with his third wife. He survived 
till about the middle of the century now drawing to a close, and has been sleeping 
surrounded by his wives in the old burying ground for more than forty years. 

The REV. WILLIAM BRUNTON. This hoary, reverend and religious man is no doubt 
still remembered by some who knew him when they were children. He was the 
Minister of the Secession Congregation in the old stone church. I was sent to his 
house on an errand, when I was about six years old. I remember well his venerable 
appearance as he stood in the doorway and handed me a tract entitled, " The Spoiled 
Child," which made a deep impression on my mind ; it lies before me as I write. 

I have also before me " The Judgment of God a Call to Repentance," a 
sermon preached at Lachute, Lower Canada, on Tuesday, the 26th of June, 1832, 
which day was devoted to the exercise of fasting and prayer in that settlement, on 
account of the alarming progress of the cholera morbus in various parts of the 
Province, by the Rev. William Brunton, Montreal ; published by Thomas A. Starke, 
1832. The following prefatory notes are reproduced from the pamphlet : 

"LACHUTE, 2nd July, 1832. 

" At a quarterly meeting of the Lachute Temperance Society held here this day, 
the Rev. George Poole in the Chair, it was resolved unanimously : That the Rev. 
William Brunton be requested to furnish to a committee of the Society a copy of his 
Sermon preached here on the 26th ult., in order that it may be printed for the 
benefit of the Society. It is now, accordingly, published by their authority. 

"THOMAS BARTON, Vice- President. 
"JEDEDIAH LANE, Secretary." 

(Barton is a misprint for Barron.) 


" To the Lachute Temperance Society : 

" The following Sermon, which was hurriedly prepared for the occasion on which 
it was delivered, without any idea whatever of its being printed, being now published 
in compliance with their unexpected and unanimous request, is respectfully inscribed 
by their obedient servant. 


The text of the sermon was Joel, 2d chap., rath and 131)1 verses. An Appendix 
gives an address delivered by Mr. Brunton before the Lachute Temperance Society, 
2nd May, 1832. In this it is stated that the Temperance Society was formed at Boston, 
Mass., in July, 1826. I quote a few words to show the gist of the address : ; Your 
abstaining from drinking such intoxicating liquids, though ever so moderately, except 
ing as a medicine, can do you no harm. Your drinking thus, unless for a medical 
purpose, can do no good to yourself. But your abstaining from them, and becoming 
a member of a Temperance Institution, may do much good, indeed, both to yourself 

and to others." 

Mr. Brunton preached in the old school-house before the stone church was 
built. I may have heard him there, but have no distinct recollection of it. I am not 
sure of the date of Mr. Brunton s death, but think it must have been in the fall of 
1837. His library with other effects was sold at auction. I have some books which 
formed part of it. One which lies before me now is a collection of tracts ; on the fly 
leaf is a neatly written table of contents, dated 28th August, 1809. It was written, I 
was told, with a crow-quill, the kind of pen which he preferred to use. The funeral 
was a solemn event. I remember a funeral sermon preached some time after his 
decease, by whom I cannot say, and the singing of the paraphrase which begins, 
" The hour of my departure is come." 

In 1834, came another Scotchman, JOHN HAY, from Inverness-shire. He was an 
excellent mechanic, a stone-layer, and a man of intelligence, yet, like most of the 
new comers in those times, he was obliged to accept the wages that were offered, hence 
he engaged to Colin Robertson for $5.00 per month. His skill, however, and his 
industry soon attracted notice, and it was not long before he was made foreman of 
the work, with a proper increase of salary. The lot on which he settled and spent 
his life is now owned and occupied by his son, John Hay ; he was a Justice of the 
Peace many years. Two of his sons, George and William, now live in Ottawa, the 
former a retired merchant, the latter an accountant. 

John Hay, the son, who has always remained in Lachute, is one of the prominent 
citizens of this place, and has always taken an active and important part in municipal 
affairs. He has been a School Commissioner and Municipal Councillor for thirty 
years, and was Mayor of the parish until he resigned, declining longer to serve. 
1892, he was a candidate for the Legislative Assembly on the Liberal ticket, but 
defeated by the election of the Conservative candidate, W. J. Simpson, 
of Mr. Hay are doing a prosperous business in a flour and feed store on M; 
in this town. 


JAMES FISH, Postmaster of Lachute Mills, has been a familiar figure in Lachutc 
for half a century, and to-day feels that his life is an illustration of the vicissitudes of 
fortune. A sketch in The Watchman, that delineates him as he appeared in the days 
of his youth, after having engaged a while in the grist mill of the Seignior, says : 

" His was a hobby to play the clarionet, and, scarcely ever absent from church, 
he led the choir with this musical instrument for about half a century, and was always 
in his place, which, to his mind, was as important as that of the minister." * 

To be explicit with regard to dates and events, Mr. Fish came, when at 
young boy, with his father, Wm. Fish and family, to Lachute from England in 1832. 
His father, however, soon moved to St. Andrews, where he was employed in the grist 
mill as miller for four years. He then went to Cobourg, Ont., where Mrs. Fish 

James, in 1838, returned to St. Andrews and engaged to R. King, proprietor of 
the grist mill there, for some years. In 1844, he was married to Ellen, daughter of 
Thomas Wanless of that village, and, after finding employment in mills at Hawkes- 
bury and other places four or five years more, he came to Lachute, and for three 
years tended the grist mill for Col. Macdonald, agent for the Seignior of Argenteuil. 
For the nine years following, he acted as superintendent of all Macdonald s mills 
grist, saw and woollen mills. Afterwards he obtained a lease of them for a term of 
years, and then bought them, his income having been so carefully husbanded that 
he now had quite a snug sum to invest in property. After keeping these mills in 
successful operation some time longer, he rented them to different parties ; but the 
carding and fulling mills were soon destroyed by fire. Mr. Fish rebuilt them, and 
added another two-story building, designed for the manufacture of wooden-ware. 
Within two years, however, the latter manufactory was burnt, by which fire he 
suffered a loss of $7,000 ; and after this, he sold all the other mills. 

In 1877, with that public spirit which has characterized his actions, he built the 
bridge, which is known as Fish s Bridge, at his own expense. Though very indus 
trious, and much devoted to his business, he has found time to serve his parish in 
different positions ; he has long been Commissioner for the trial of small causes, 
Councillor both for the parish and town, Mayor of the latter two years, and post 
master and mail contractor since 1880. In 1890-91 his real estate was appraised by 
the valuators at $25,525. Misfortune, however, has since deprived him of this pro 
pertythe accumulation of a life of industry and economy. 

Mrs. Fish died 2nd January, 1891. Their only child, a daughter, was married to 
F. C. Ireland. In 1892, i 3 th January, Mr. Fish was again married, to Miss M. . 
Barley, daughter of John Barley of Lachute. 

HENRY HAMMOND, who owns a large farm near the village, on which the County 
Agricultural buildings are located, was one of the pioneers of this County. He was 
born in the County of Monaghan, Ireland, in 1818. His father s family came to 

* From a sketch by F. C. Ireland. 


America in 1831, and settled in the North Settlement ; but after living with his uncle 
five years, Henry went with his brother John to Mille Isles, and took up a lot of 
wild land. They were the first settlers in that parish, and their nearest neighbors 
were three miles distant. Settlers soon began to come in, however, and after remain 
ing there five years, receiving a good offer for their land, in 1841. they sold it and 
came to Lachute. Mr. Hammond says, even at that date, the only buildings there 
were in what is now the West End of Lachute were the Seigniorial Mills, a part of 
what is now the Victoria Hotel, and a school-house, which answered the two-fold 
purpose of an educational institution and a place for holding religious worship. 
Wolves still prowled in the surrounding forests, and occasionally made an attack on 
the sheep-fold. Mr. Hammond was a Volunteer in the Rebellion of 1837, but has since 
had nothing to do with either military, public or civic affairs, giving his attention entirely 
to his farm, save at times of election, when he has always voted the Conservative 
ticket. He has added to his farm from time to time, until it now comprises a 
thousand acres. He says that he drew many a load of grain to the Brewery of Com 
missary Forbes, at Carillon, for the purpose of raising money, in the first years of his 
residence here. 

His brother John, who never married, always lived with him till his death in 
1891, and gave valuable assistance in clearing up the farm. Henry Hammond was 
married to Miss Eiiza Bradford, grand-daughter of the Rev. Richard Bradford, of 
Chatham. Their son, Henry R. Hammond, who now has the management of the 
estate, after graduating at McGill, studied law, and was admitted to the Bar ; but then 
decided to follow the more quiet and healthful vocation of agriculture. 

DAVID RAITT is another who may be styled a pioneer of Lachute. He is a 
native of Fifeshire, Scotland, and in his youthful days learned the tailor s trade. 
and afterwards enlisted at Edinburgh, 23rd October, 1 835, at the age of 18, in the R 
Artillery, in which his services as tailor were called in requisition. He sailed with 
his company from Woolwich for Montreal, and arrived there 2Oth August, 1839. He 
then purchased his discharge, which reads as follows : 

" Gunner David Raitt of the Royal Artillery has always borne a good chararte, 
in the corps, and I believe him to be a sober, honest and indrstnous young man, 
and one whom I conceive in every way to be trustworthy. 


Capt. Royal Artillery. 

" Discharged in consequence of having paid the sum of 25 under item ia 
the Good Conduct Regulations." 

Mr. Raitt previous to his discharge had been master tailor in the garrison at 

On the 7th January, 1842, he came to Lachute, where he has ever since resided. 
He bought roo acres of land, on which he lived some years, and then selling it, he 



removed to the village, devoting his time chiefly to his trade. On account of failing 
health, however, he accepted the office of bailiff thus obtaining ample exercise in 
the open air and he has held the position over forty years. Although 79 years of 
ace on the loth of October, 1895, Mr. Raitt is still active and intelligent, and enjoys 
relating his early experiences here, and describing the old landmarks and characters 

of Lachute. 

Mrs. Raitt, also, whose maiden name was Isabella Dixon, and whom he married 
before-coming to Canada, is still alive and active. They have four sons and one 
daughter living, two sons and two daughters are deceased. 

^ames W., one of their sons, learned the trade of tinsmith, and followed it till 1890, 
when he was appointed Secretary of Lachute and Clerk of the Commissioners Court 
offices which he has filled to the general satisfaction of the public. He is also agent 
for several Fire, Life and Accident insurance companies, as well as agricultural 
implements. He was married 5th October, 1871, to Janet Isabella Walker. 

John Raitt, his brother, is also a tinsmith, plumber and roofer, and has a shop 
here on Main Street, in which he keeps a variety of tinware. He married Margaret 
a daughter of Nathaniel Copeland. 

ANDREW McCoNNELL whodied in 1893, an J who had then been living a few years 
in Lachute, was for several decades a prominent and influential figure in Argenteuil, 

His father, Andrew McConnell, came from Glasgow to Canada, with his family, 
of John, Mary, Andrew, William and Agnes, in 1819, and settled on a farm on the 

Lachute Road. 

The son, Andrew, was married to Mary Jane Bradford, grand-daughter of the Rev. 

Richard Bradford, sist October, 1851. He settled at Gushing in Chatham, on the 

farm now owned by J. B. Clerihue ; he erected fine buildings, and lived there till 1887, 

when he removed to Lachute. He was a very successful farmer, and was careful to 

educate his children. He filled the office of Justice of the Peace for many years with 

great ability, and when he died he was the oldest Justice of the Peace in the County. 

He was also a Commissioner for the trial of small causes, and was appointed Cap- 

tain of militia during Lord Monk s administration. He died in November, 1893, and 

the funeral was one of the largest ever seen in Lachute. He had eight children 

John Bradford, Gilbert Smith, Richard George, Andrew William, Jessie Ann, James 

Quinton, Jennie and Hugh. 

Gilbert, Andrew and James settled, a few years ago, in the North West first 
at Qu Appelle; but they are now residing in Vancouver. Andrew acted as courier 
for General Middleton during the Riel Rebellion, and was one of the nine prisoners 
rescued at the battle of Batoche. Richard G. is a B.A. of McGill College, and now 
holds a prominent position in the Geological Survey of Canada. 

John Bradford McConnell, M.D., C.M., was born at Chatham, 28th August, 
1851 ; educated at Wanless Academy, at Carillon ; entered on his medical studies at 
McGill in 1869, and graduated in 1873. In 1871, he went through the Military 


2I 9 

School at Montreal, and the same year was appointed Lieutenant in the nth 
of Argenteuil Rangers Subsequently, he was for eight years surgeon n the I 
of Wales Rifles. He has taught many years in the Medical Facultyof Bishop s Colleg 
-first, as professor o Botany, his collection of plants being one of the largest in the 
Dominion ; he has filled several important positions in the University. Durin, 
summer of ,886 he made an extensive European tour, visiting the hospitafs of 
Dublin, London, Pans and Berlin, taking a course on Bacteriology" under Prof. Koch 
at Pans. He has contributed frequently to the Montreal Medical Journal, and ht 
papers have been read at the Medico-Chirurgical Society. He was married in z8 75 
Theodora Lovell, daughter of Robert Miller, publisher and stationer. 

< t up,c f Ireland Came lo this co tr y ^ a member 

o the Royal Staff Corps. After the canal was completed, he settled in the noTpar 

of Gore, and d.ed there, not many years since, within a few months of IO o years old 
Mrs Boyd died a few years later, at the age of 93 . They had six sons and two 
daughters ; three of the former and the two latter are still living. Hugh one of th 
LTMar d ue!te deSC6ndantS fiTein Winnipeg ; his son Nathaniel is the present M. P. 

Stewart, the eldest son of the pioneer, married Margaret Hammond, aunt of 
Henry Hammond of Lachute ; she died about 1890, at the age of 03. They firs 
settled in Gore, but a few years afterward removed to Chatham, where Mr Boyd had 
aught TOO acres of wild land. On this land, and at that time, of course, he had all 
16 varied rough experience of pioneer life ; he earned many dollars in those days 
drawing wood to Carillon and selling it for 90 cents per cord. But he survived all thi 
hardship, reared his family, cleared two farms, on one of which, known as the Mile 
Farm, a fine tract, he lives with his son James. Though 83 years of age he is 
1 very active and ambitious. So great is his desire for work, that he insists on 
ung care of the stock, and threshing grain, daily, with a flail for over a dozen head 
He was one of the loyal actors in the Rebellion of 1837 J he is Master of 
an Orange Lodge, a position he has held over forty years. His childrenthree sons 
and two daughters-are all living. James, the eldest son, resides on the homestead. S., the youngest, is connected with the Customs Department in Montreal 
Mary, one of the daughters, is married to John Earl, of Lachute; Sarah, the other 
daughter, married to T. B. Johnson, resides in Lennoxville. 

John W., third son, at the age of fifteen, was apprenticed to learn the trade of 
miller, a trade which sometimes in connection with lumber business he has fol- 

owed to the present. When about 2r , he went to California, and was there engaged 
m lumbering five years. After his return, he and his brother bought the old mills 
known as the " McKenzie Mills," at St. Canute, with which they were engaged fifteen 

ears, doing an extensive business. They sold out in 1886 for $14,000, afier which 
John W. was connected five years with the new lumber firm of Owens, Lane & Boyd; 


he also in 1892, in company with W. J. Simpson, M.P.P., bought the grist mill and 
saw mill at Lachute, which, during the past fall, 1895, they sold to J. C. Wilson. 

Mr. Boyd was married in October, 1892, to a daughter of Dr. Stackhouse of 


TAMES HENDERSON, a venerable old gentleman, with kind and pleasant face, 
who lives in a neat cottage near McGibbon s mill, has many recollections of the infant 
days of Lachute. He came with his father, Peter Henderson, from Callander, Perth 
shire Scotland, in 1820 ; his father settled on a lot in St. Canute in the county of 
Two Mountains, which is now owned by Wra. Boa. At that time, Mr. James Hender 
son says the only buildings where now the village is located were the grist mill and 
saw mill and two or three houses ; one occupied the site of the present residence of 
Dr Christie, a man named Proctor lived near the site of the Rev. Mr. Mackie s 
residence ; and there was a school-house where G. J. Walker, Esq., now lives. The 
only road to St Andrews was by way of Beech Ridge. 

Mr. Henderson, who is 82 years old, has spent thirty-five years of his life in Mon 
treal He gives a graphic description of an election that occurred in this county 
some time during the forties. Among other incidents, he relates that one of the candi 
dates had a barrel of whiskey rolled to the place of polling ; the whiskey was served 
in a wooden pail, supplied with a tin cup, and then carried around, so that every one 
so inclined could drink to his heart s content. The elder Mr. Henderson died in 
1841, and his son was married in 1843 to Elizabeth Vart, of England, who died 
in January, 1884 ; they had four sons and three daughters. The eldest, Peter, and 
third son, John, are in business in Montreal; the second son, William, is farming 
near Montreal, and the youngest, James, is also farming in Brandon, Man. Mary, 
the eldest daughter, and Elizabeth, the youngest, are married, and live in Montreal, 
and Jean, the second, lives with her father. 

JOHN SCHOLEFIELD, son of the Rev. William Scholefield, a prominent clergyman 

in England, came to this country when quite young, and labored for many years as 

local preacher. He married Amelia, a daughter of Robert Kneeshaw, an early settler 

at Lachute. They lived a while at St. Andrews, and their son William was bom 

there; after this, they removed to Ontario, where Mr. Scholefield died, not many 

years later. 

William Scholefield, the son, some years since, became Bookkeeper for his cousin, 
Robert Kneeshaw Summerby, who had erected two lumber mills and a grist mill at 
St. Canute. Mr. Summerby was accidentally drowned in his mill pond 3ist May, 
1886; his loss was widely and deeply lamented. 

Mrs. Summerby, his widow, and Mr. William Scholefield, were married i8th 
August, 1887, and Mr. Scholefield continued the business; but he died gth January, 
1891. Mrs. Scholefield still owns one of the lumber mills at St. Canute, and ha s 
two lots and a fine brick residence in Lachute, where she lives. She has two 
daughters Minnie Summerby and Amelia Scholefield. Another daughter by the 


first marriage, Ruby Summerby, a bright little girl, nine years old. and a general 
favorite, was drowned at Lachute, in the North River, 6th June, 1895. 

Mrs. Scholefieid in devoted to Christian work, and has been President, Vice- 
President, and Secretary of the C. E. Society, and is now Corresponding Secretary. 

BENJAMIN BURCH came from Vermont to Lachute with the earliest settlers, the 
Lanes, Hutchins, and others, and settled on land now owned by his grandson, Alfred 
Burch. The maiden name of his wife, whom he married in Vermont, was Annie 
Burch. He took up 3 -o acres of land, which he afterward divided among three sons, 
and lived here till his death. He had five sons and two daughters. 

His eldest, N. F. Burch. was killed on the railway at Carillon, roth November, 

Alvah Burch, one of the three sons mentioned above, married Miss Grout, of 
Vaudreuil ; she died leaving two sons, and he then married Margaret Matthews, by 
which marriage he had seven children five sons and two daughters. Soon after his 
second marriage, he sold his farm to the Rev. William Henry, and bought a village 
lot in Lachute, now occupied by Rodrigue s hotel, and conducted a public house 
here thirty years. He was also engaged quite largely in other business had a 
bakery, grocery, and dealt extensively in cattle. It is said that, at one time, he was 
wealthy, and was always benevolent and kind to the poor. 

BENJ. BURCH. an account of whose sad death by drowning is given in the history 
of Harrington, was a son of Benjamin Burch, the pioneer. He married Eliza Clark, 
and settled on the farm in Upper Lachute now owned by his son, Alfred A. Burch. 
Some years later, he went to Harrington, took up land, and was drowned there in 
1858. He had two sons and three daughters ; one of the former died in childhood. 
One daughter, married, lives in Manitoba, the other two in Grenville ; one, married 
to David Ogilvy ; the other is the widow of the late Richard Hoare. 

Alfred A. Burch, the only surviving son, when quite young, went to the States, and 
was married 7 th August, 1873, in Slatersville, R.I., to Margaret Smiley, of Chatham, 
Que. In 1883, he moved to Manitoba; his wife died in 1892, and the following 
year he returned to Lachute, and bought the old homestead of about 150 acres, which 
"had been the home of his father and grandfather. In 1893, July 4 th. he was married 
to.Elizabeth Eraser, youngest daughter of Amaziah Burch. 

THOMAS SHEPHERD, who now resides in Lachute, is a son of William Shepherd, 
who came from Yorkshire, England, to St. Andrews about 1825, and for a year wa 
in the employ, as farmer, of the Rev. Joseph Abbott. About two years 
arrival, he was married to Margaret Graham. In 1834, or thereabout, he bought 13 
acres of land in the East Settlement, on which he lived till his death. Mr. 
was one of the loyal actors in the Rebellion of 1837. He had eight sons and 
daughters. Thomas, the eldest son. remained on the homestead, and wa: 
8th February, 1864, to Mary Ann Shaw. They have two sons and 


Mr. Shepherd sold the homestead to his eldest son, William, and moved to Lachute 
in 1891 The son was married, ist of March, 1892, to Grace Griffith. 

Mr Shepherd has been a very successful farmer, and has . fine property i 
Lachute. Before moving here, he was for nine years a member of the Parish Council. 

TAMES CAMPBELL came to Canada in 1823, landing in Quebec city on the 
of May he was accompanied by his wife, two sons, the family of one of the latter, 

^ Tttar ried son, SAMUEL CAMPBELL, settled in November of the same year on 
xooac es of an uncleared lot in Gore, on the shore of Clear Lake but before he 
ame to this section, his wife (Nancy McLean) died in Lachine. He remained m 
Go a > ear and a half, then moved to the i xth Range, Chatham, where he lived four 
His father, who resided with him, died during their stay in Chatham, and 
I Hed to him the tot in Gore, to which he then returned, and lived there for twenty 
He then removed to Papineauville, and afterwards to Grenville, dying m the 
fatter place at the age of 91. He was twice married ; by the first marriage he had 
two sons and a daughter, and by the last, two sons and four daughters. 

TOSEPH the eldest son by the first marriage, was born in Co. Antrim, 4 th Novem 
ber z8i<; he, also, has been twice married: the first time, 6th April, 1841, to Jane 
McArthur six sons and four daughters were born to them. Mrs. Campbell died 
3th February, 1888; and Mr. Campbell was again married, i2th July, 1892. 
Catherine A. Smith, widow of the late Captain William Smith. Mr. Campbell 
now 81 years of age, and can write steadily, and walk five or six miles a day. 
has done much work as a mechanic during his long life, and still keeps busy, 
usually in the manufacture of light articles of furniture, which are executed with 
neatness and taste. John Campbell, one of his sons, is proprietor of 

PETER CAMPBELL, another son, lived with his father in Chatham till the age of 17, 
when he came to Lachute to learn the trade of miller. He worked five or six years 
with James Fish ; his employer then leased the mill to him for five years, and after- 
wards he bought both grist mill and saw mill ; in connection with the latter, he also 
engaged in the lumber business. He sold the mills, however, at the expiration of 
three years, and followed the lumber business till the fall of 1895, when the Lachute 
mills having been purchased by J. C. Wilson, this gentleman engaged Mr. Campfc 
to resume his former vocation of miller, in which position he is now employed. H 
was married i 3 th September, 1876, to Catherine Matilda Palliser ; she died 4 th Feh 
ruary, 1892 ; he has been a member of the Town Council three years. 

JAMES WALKER from Ayrshire, Scotland, came to Lachute in 1832; he was a 
miller, and was first employed a year in the St. Andrews mill, and then a year in t 
mill at Lachute. After this, he purchased of Johnson, a son-in-law of Benj. Burch, 
the farm of 170 acres, which is now owned by his son, G. J. Walker. A portion of 
Mr. Johnson s present dwelling was erected by Johnson. 


Soon after settling here, Mr. Walker met with a serious accident. Patrick 
Quinn or, as he was usually called, Paddy Quinn a noted character in Lachute 
in those days, with devoted loyalty, determined to celebrate the birthday of his sov 
ereign. Securing an old cannon, he charged it so heavily with slugs and a variety of 
missiles, that it burst, injuring Mr. Walker so badly, that one of his legs had to be 
amputated. He spent his remaining days here, clearing up his farm, and was for 
many years Clerk of the Commissioner s Court; he died 26th April, 1868: Mrs. 
Walker died 3rd November, 1876. They had six children four sons and two daugh 
ters ; of these, Gavin J. is the only one now living. The eldest, a daughter, born in 
Scotland, died soon after their arrival in Canada ; the second, a son, died at the age 
of 18. T\vo daughters, Jessie and Eliza, who married, res pectively. G. L. Meikle 
and Thomas Patton, are now deceased. 

GAVIN WALKER has always remained on the homestead, and has been closely 
connected with all the affairs of the Town and County. The following is a list of 
the positions he still holds and those he has filled : 

Secretary County Council, appointed March, 1868 ; Secretary Parish St. Jerusa 
lem, appointed 1879 ; Secretary School Board, appointed 1867 ; Secretary Agricultural 
Society, appointed 1869 ; Clerk of Commissioners Court, appointed 1868. He was 
also Secretary of the town of Lachute for a year after it was formed, and took an 
active part in its formation ; he then resigned in favor of W. J. Simpson, the present 
M.P.P. He was Official Assignee for a number of years, is also a Justice of the 
Peace, and has been Curator for several estates, and is agent for different Life and 
Fire Insurance companies. The duties of these different offices Mr. Walker has dis 
charged efficiently, and to public satisfaction. He is a supporter of the Presbyterian 
Church, and for some years has been an Elder. He was married, 29th October, 
1873, to Janet McOuat ; she died 251)1 January, 1890, leaving two sons and three 

Mr. Walker s commodious residence, beneath stately trees, with its view of 
interval meadows across the road in front, is peculiarly attractive, and suggestiv. 
the comforts and pleasures of an old-time, model homestead. 

In 1827, two brothers, JAMES and JOHN CALDEP, weavers, from Paisley, 
Scotland, settled in Lachute, on the bank of the North River, on land now owned 
and occupied by the family of the late James Pollock. Finding that they could im 
prove their circumstances, they soon removed to Chatham, in the vicinity of Dales- 
ville, where, in the history of Mr. Maple, will be found a sketch of one of ti 
brothers, John Calder. 

James Calder, whose wife was a Miss Macfarlane of Paisley, had three sons.- 
John, Robert and James, and two daughters, Margaret and Kh/aheth. 

John, one of these sons, at an early age, manifested a desire to preach the 
Gospel, and had decided to enter the ministiy ; but, owing to the circumstances of 
the family, and their hardships in the new country due, in some measure, to their 
utter ignorance of pioneer life he was compelled to relinquish his cherished de- 



As he was the eldest son, his services were sorely needed at home, hence he re 
mained. But this did not prevent his preaching the Gospel; and from that time 
till his death in 1876 he never neglected an opportunity to make known the glad 
tidings of salvation. In those days, churches were few ; and in log school-houses, 
on winter nights, after the day s work was over, and in neighbors houses, on 
Sunday, he continued to hold meetings and expound the Scriptures. He had a 
natural talent for preaching and singing the latter gift contributing much toward 
awakening and sustaining interest in the meetings. 

He married Sarah Kerr, daughter of an old Irish pensioner who had passed 
his days in the army fighting the battles of his country. The old veteran often 
boasted of his campaign in Egypt, under Abercrombie against Napoleon. He lived 
until he was 97 years cfage, and died at the home of his daughter. John Calder 
prospered, and became one of the leading farmers in his settlement. For several 
years before his death, he was a colporteur for the Montreal Auxiliary Bible Society, 
travelling over a large section of this province, especially in the Eastern Townships, 
preaching Christ and distributing His word. It was on a trip of this kind that he 
contracted the cold which resulted in his death. The sudden death of his eldest 
son. James, and the failing health of his wife induced him to sell his property and 
move to Lachute in ! May, 1875. In the following winter, while on a trip to Har 
rington, he fell ill, and returning home, was seized with an attack of inflammation 
of the bowels, which, at the end of a week, proved fatal. His wife, who had been 
an invalid for over a year previous, survived him only a few months. Of him there 
was much good and t little ill that could be said. A kind-hearted, generous disposi 
tion, a sterling Christian _character, no more fitting epitaph could be written than 
" he was a good man." 

The family consisted of four sons and three daughters. The eldest son, James, 
dropped dead (2nd Sept., 1875) from heart disease, at the residence of the late John 
Douglas, Front of Chatham, while waiting for the train which was to take him on a 
visit to his brother John, then in Tiverton, Ont. The latter married Elizabeth, 
second daughter of the late Finlay McGibbon of Dalesville, and now resides in 
Montreal, where he is City Inspector of the Fire Underwriters Association. George 
F. and Charles, the other two sons, are the editors and proprietors of the Lachute 
Watc/rma?i. Of the sisters, Mary, the eldest, married Archibald Murdoch of 
Dalesville, and died in June, 1895, leaving a large family. Elizabeth married Mr. 
Wm. Heatlie of Stonefield,[and Susan married Mr. W. J. Thompson, of Lake View; 
P.Q., all of whom are yet alive. 

G. F. CALDER, B.A., was born 22nd December, 1862, on the eighth concession 
of Chatham. In his early years he attended school in the old log school-house known 
as Warwick School," being situated near the residence of the late David Warwick, 
but now commonly called Mount Maple. When the family left to reside in Lachute, 
he commenced to attend Lachute Academy, then under the principalship of Mr. A- 
Monroe. It is needless to say, the lad was far behind those with whom he now had 


to study, for it must be remembered that our elementary schools in those days were 
not what they now are. He then learned the printer s trade in the Watchman office, 
which at that time was under the management of D. Kerr, and in 1880 returned to 
the Academy, of which C. S. Holiday, B.A., was then Principal. To this gentleman, 
Mr. Calder feels himself deeply indebted for his earnest and painstaking efforts in 
preparing him for college. He entered McGill in 1881, matriculating in Arts, received 
his degree of B. A. in 1885. and the same year obtained a first-class Academy 
diploma from the McGill Normal School. He then accepted the principalship of the 
Academy at Aylmer, Que. v and after teaching there successfully two years, entered 
into partnership with W. J. Simpson (now M.P.P.), in the publication of tlie Watch 
man, and removed to Lachute, where he has since resided. In 1892, he was married 
to Miss J. C. Roger, one of the staff of teachers in the Girls High School, Montreal; 
and daughter of Mr. Jos. Roger, then of Wickham, but now of Lachute. In 1891, he 
was appointed a Commissioner of the Superior Court for taking affadavits, and in 
1892 was admitted to the Bar for the study of Law. 

In politics- Mr. Calder has always been an active Conservative, and is able to 
express himself on the platform in clear and forcible language. He is a member of a 
Christian church, and an earnest advocate of temperance and every moral reform. As 
a writer, he has a clear and vigorous style, and when he sets out to answer an oppo 
nent, he does it with an array of facts and force of logic that are not easily overcome. 

Charles Calder, a younger brother of G. F., and assistant-editor of the Watch 
man, was born 131!! May, 1865. After attending school in Chatham and Lachute, 
he spent four years in the Baptist College at Woodsiock, Ont., from which place he 
entered the Watchman office in 1891. He was married yth June, 1893, to Margaret,^ 
daughter of Archibald Graham, Cote du Midi, St. Andrews. In the publication of 
the Watchman, his labors are confined chiefly to the mechanical work ; he is also 
agent for several Fire and Life Insurance Companies. 

The following obituary is taken from The Watchman of 291)1 April, 1870. 
Simpson was the father of the present member of Argenteuil, in the Local House. 


" Death has been very busy in and around Lachute for the last few months, t 
many of the old and prominent residenters. The last to fall under his stroke is t 
gallant officer whose name heads this article. 

" Col. Simpson was born at Auchenterran, parish of Keith, Banffshire, Scot 
on 9 th February, 181 r, and died at Lachute on 2 9 th April, 1890. He joined the! 
Artillery in June, 1836, and on the breaking out of the Rebellion in Canada 
from Woolwich for this country, on the 7 th April, 1838, and arrived in Montr 
the 1 5 th of June. Afier the close of the Rebellion, in which he took an act 
he received his discharge, and came and located in Lachute. Here he formed 
of Cavalry, which was reckoned the best disciplined in the Province, and at 


its disbandment, the troop presented him with a sword, belt and sword knot, in ac 
knowledgment of his worth, and the esteem in which he was held by the individual 
members of the Troop. Subsequently, he was urgently solicited to take command of 
the 4th Company of Argenteuil Rangers, which Company he has been the Captain of 
for eighteen years, during which time he has on every occasion of the calling out of 
the Regiment accompanied it on active service. 

"Colonel Simpson was a gentleman held in great esteem in this community, and 
in his official capacity as a magistrate his judgments were always respected ; his 
object being to examine carefully into all cases brought before him before deciding 
upon them. We speak open to the corrective when we say that Col. Simpson was 
the oldest magistrate in the County, or it may be in the district of Terrebonne. One 
fact we do know, that in the early days of this County s history no man occupied a 
more prominent position in the administration of local justice, when that administra 
tion was more in the hands of the magistrates than at present. The Colonel was 
always a warm and enthusiastic supporter of the Hon. Mr. Abbott and the Conser 
vative party. 


" Lt.-Col. Gushing, Commandant of the nth Battalion, and all the Officers and 
men in the immediate proximity of Lachute, together with the Band of the Regiment, 
attended the funeral. Lt.-Col. Simpson s horse, with his boots fastened in front of the 
saddle, was led by one of the men belonging to the deceased s Company. The pro 
cession was the largest ever witnessed in Lachute, an evidence of the esteem in which 
the deceased was held in this community. The pall-bearers were the Officers of the 
nth Battalion, and on the coffin were three beautiful wreaths of lilies and myrtle. 
The corpse was taken to the First Presbyterian Church, of which the deceased was a 
member, the Rev. John Mackie, pastor of the church, officiating. As the funeral cor 
tege entered the church, the organist began playing the dead march in Saul. After 
the people had all got seated, Mr. Mackie gave out the 2761!! hymn, a very appropriate 
one, at the clo^e of which the pastor offered up a most feeling and impressive prayer. 
Then followed an appropriate address, the preacher s text being taken from 3Qth 
Psalm and i$th Corinthians, at the close of which the 23rd Paraphrase was sung, the 
Rev. Mr. Higgins closing with prayer, a veiy solemn and impressive one. 

" The officers present were Lt.-Col. Gushing, Major Lamb, Captains Weightman, 
Walker, Adj. Martin, Lieuts. Pollock, McPhail, McCallum and McMartin, Sergt. 
Major Earle, and Capt. Wanless of St. Andrews Cavalry." 

WILLIAM JOHN SIMPSON, M.P.P. for Argenteuil, has always taken an active in 
terest in the affairs of the County, and has been a staunch and influential supporter 
of the Conservative party ; he was for several years Secretary of the Conservative 
Association, and three years Secretary of the Lachute Municipal Council. He joined 
the Rangers when quite young, as bugler during the Fenian Raids, and subsequently 
was Lieutenant of the same Company for twelve years. 



In 1 88 1, he formed a partnership with Dawson Kerr, for the publication of The 
Watchman^ which continued till ist January, 1892, when they sold to Messrs. Calder. 

He was married April 22nd, 1874, to Miss Mary Fitzgerald. 

Mr. Simpson s first experience of political life was when he was Secretary-Treas 
urer of the Liberal Conservative Association, during which time there were many 
exciting political contests in the County. When Mr. Owens resigned his seat in the 
Legislature, the Convention called to select a candidate were unanimous in their 
choice of Mr. Simpson. He won the victory after an exciting conflict, in which the 
united forces of the Liberal party were arrayed against him. The issue seemed for a 
time uncertain, as his opponents had selected a most popular candidate Mr. John 
Hay, a man of well-known integrity, and a prosperous farmer the latter fact enhan 
cing his chances of success, as two-thirds of the constituency are farmers. Moreover, 
the Liberals were fresh from a cheering victory, in which they had elected Dr. 
Christie to the Dominion Parliament by a large majority. These considerations 
apparently affected Mr. Simpson s chances seriously, but his popularity over-balanced 
every adverse influence, and he was returned. 

In the Legislature, he has been one of the most useful members in the Private 
Bills Committee, and has received, on several occasions, the grateful thanks of the 
Good Government Association of Montreal for the aid given them in obtaining proper 
amendments to their Charter. He has always supported the legislation popular 
with the temperance people, notably the " Tobacco Bill," the license amendments, etc. 
Among the measures he has introduced, are amendments to the Municipal Code, an 
act to abolish lotteries, an act to open the meetings of School Commissioners to the 
public, and the extension of the franchise to spinsters and widows. 

The following notice, which was taken from the Montreal Witness, was written 
by a Trooper of St. Joseph dti Lac. It should have been inserted on a former page, 
in connection with the St. Andrew s Troop, but was overlooked :- 

" Having observed, in a January number of the Montreal Daily Witnas, the death 
of Mr. John Oswald, a native of Stirlingshire, Scotland, aged 86 years and 6 months, 
at St. Augustin on the i6th hist, and having served as a trooper under his command, 
I feel it my duty to narrate, through your valuable paper, the following, from official 
documents -.The deceased, John Oswald, when in Scotland, was a trooper in the 
Stirling Yeoman Cavalry, and in 1830 came to Canada and joined the Argenteuil 
Troop of Cavalry. On ist December, 1837,116 was commissioned Lieutenant b 
John Colborne, and was in active service during 1837-38. In 1848 he was promoted 
to a Captaincy by the Earl of Elgin. In November, 1856, lie was appointed by 
Lord Monck, Lieut-Col, of the Militia, until declining years caused him to retire, 
veiy much esteemed and respected by all his troopers." 


Mr. John Meikle, sen., says :" About this time (1831) also, the first - 
arrived in the settlement Dr. McDowell, who, however, did not remain long. 


previous to his coming the settlers had enjoyed the services of a Mr. Ellis, who, 
though not an M.D., had much skill in medicine." Mr. Robertson succeeded him, 
but soon removed to St. Andrews. 

THOMAS CHRISTIE, M.D., and the present member for Argenteuilinthe Dominion 
Parliament, is doubtless the oldest medical practitioner in the County. He is the 
son of the late John Christie and his wife Elizabeth Nichol, both of Stirlingshire, and 
was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1824. He came to Canada with his parents in 
1827, was educated at McGill University, and obtained his degree in 1848. He was 
married in October, 1849, to Catherine, daughter of the late Peter McMartin, of St. 
Andrews, Que. During the terrible ship fever in 1847-48, the Doctor was assistant 
surgeon at Point St. Charles, and the experience amid such constant scenes of misery 
and death must have been severe for one so young, and in the outset ot his pro 
fessional career. Six thousand immigrants, it is claimed, are buried there, who died 
from that dreadful scourge during the years 1847 and 1848. Besides his professional 
duties, and those devolving upon him as a member of Parliament, he has taken a 
deep interest in local affairs, and been called upon to fill responsible local positions. 
He has been Chairman of the Board of School Commissioners of the parish, Secre 
tary of Lachute Academy, Warden of the County, etc. An account of his different 
elections to Parliament will be found in a list of the representatives of the County 
on preceding pages. 

The following sketch of the Doctor, found in F. C. Ireland s " Sketches of 
Lachute," published in The Watchman, in 1886, will doubtless be endorsed by all 
who know him : 

"Dr. Thomas Christie commenced his professional career in Lachute under 
discouraging circumstances, owing to the sparseness of the population and the bad 
roads, extending to the far away settlements of the north and west. But from con 
stant attention to duty and very moderate charges, he soon entered upon a successful 
career which has continued to the present day. No physician can be held in 
higher esteem for faithfulness in the discharge of his professional duties than Dr. 
Christie; while, as a public citizen, his life and influence have shown an untarnished 
record on the side of morality, temperance and religion. He has reared sons and 
daughters to occupy responsible positions in society, several of the former following 
the profession of their father, with success shining brightly before them, while they 
all seem to partake of the same sterling principles of character. 

" The first really creditable-looking dwelling in Lachute was that erected by Dr. 
Christie, and it still stands a most comfortable residence suitable for anyone in 
this last quarter of the ipth century. It is shoded by stately trees, while the grounds 
contain beds of flowers of brilliant hues, and graveled walks ; and it needs only a 
fountain ot sparkling water to complete a most beautiful picture." 

Dr. Christie has had eleven children seven sons and four daughters ; one of 
each sex died in infancy, and the others arrived at maturity. Four of the sons John, 
Edmund, George H. and William graduated from the Medical department of McGill; 


22 9 

John and William also graduated in Arts. The former, who was a clever physician, 
and had secured a large and successful practice in Chicago, died in that city in 1884. 
His two brothers, Edmund and William, are practising in Chicago, and G. H. has 
succeeded to his father s practice in Lachute. Thomas, the third son, has a fine 
drug store here, and James P., the fourth, is in business in San Francisco. 

Of the daughters, the eldest remains with her parents ; the second is married 
to Mr. Crawford Ross, merchant in Ottawa ; and the youngest is married to Dr. A. 
D. Stewart, of Richmond, Que. 

The following obituary of DR. WILLIAM SMITH, who died at Lachute, 4th Sep 
tember, 1895, is copied from The Watchman (Lachute) : 

"Dr. Smith was born in the parish of St. Jerusalem on 4th April, 1851. He 
attended school for several years in Brownsburg, being with his aunt, Mrs. Stalker. 
Afterwards, he prepared for McGill at Lachute College. During his course at 
McGill, he was characterized by his honest and careful preparation of his work. After 
graduating in 1876, he commenced the practice of his profession here, which he con 
tinued up to the time of his death. On 5th September, 1883, he was married to Mary 
Jane Hammond, daughter of Henry Hammond of Lachute, by whom he had two 
children. In February, 1891, the Doctor sustained a grievous loss by the death of 
his wife. His only regret at going was to leave his two little girls without mother or 
father. Early in his career, he became connected with the nth Battalion Argenteuil 
Rangers, and, finally, became their medical officer. He always took great interest in 
militaiy affairs, and was no mean shot with the rifle. His real entry into public life, 
however, was in the year 1889, when he first became Mayor of the town. At that 
time municipal waters were exceedingly troubled ; the Doctor sought to calm them, 
and his efforts were successful; for, while he never would swerve from a principle to 
please a friend, he did his duty in such a firm and kindly spirit, that he soon won the 
confidence of the public. It was recognized, that here was a man who had the cour 
age of his convictions, and would do what he felt to be right, regardless of the con 
sequences to himself. Such a man is a rarity ; and he was continued in office five 
successive years. During these years, he was appointed a Justice of the Peace and 
a Commissioner of the Commissioners Court, in both of which offices he proved him 
self a painstaking and careful official. Only last July, when a vacancy occurred on 
the School Board, the public again turned to him, and he was elected School Com 

" As a physician, he was frequently called upon by the poor of this town and 
County, and he never refused to give his attendance through fear of not receiving his 
fee. Born among Liberals, for years he followed that party ; but there came a time 
when his convictions compelled him to sever his connections therewith, because 
felt that the course then being pursued by the leaders of that party was not right 
his allegiance was to principles first, and party afterwards. He became 
the Conservative parly, and was looked upon as one of its coming leaders, 
year, he was elected President of the Argenteuil Liberal-Conservative Associ 


but it must not be supposed that Dr. Smith was wedded to the Conservative party 
any more than he had been to the Liberals. He freely criticized the actions of 
the Government, and was ready again to sacrifice his party ties in order to maintain 
his convictions of what was right. Nevertheless, the party felt that they would never 
need to look outside for a candidate while Dr. Smith remained with them. 

" Resolutions were adopted by the Town Council of Lachute, expressing their pro 
found respect for the deceased, and sorrow for his death, and all attended his funeral." 
A sketch of the family of Dr. Smith is given elsewhere in these pages. 
DR. BENJAMIN S. STACKHOUSE, son of the late John Stackhouse, a well-known 
citizen of St. Andrews, has for many years been one of the leading, and, in fact, the 
only Dentist of Lachute. He has a fine residence and office on Main street. Of his 
three brothers, Dr. Charles Stackhouse, who also adopted Dentistry as a profession, 
has his office on Sparks street, Ottawa, and a beautiful residence on O Connor street, 
in the same city ; John Stackhouse, the eldest, who succeeded his father in the chair, 
making business in St. Andrews ; and Gilbert, the youngest, who was a photographer 
in the same village, are both deceased. 

DR. L. P. ALEXANDER RODRIGUE, third son of Pierre Rodrigue, was born 
1 7th December, 1869, in St. Scholastique, Que. He attended school in Lachute, 
and in 1883 entered the College in St. Therese. After passing his examination 
before the Quebec Medical Board in May, 1891, in Montreal, he entered Laval Uni 
versity of that city, and graduated -in 1895, taking his degree of M.D. ; and also 
obtaining his license to practise medicine and surgery at the same time. He then 
came to Lachute, where he has many influential friends, and has opened an office in 
" Rodrigue s Block," on Railway Avenue. 

J. B. MENZIES, M.D., one of the medical practitioners of Lachute, has quietly 
and modestly won the esteem of the people of this section, and built up a good 
practice. He is a son of J. B. Menzies, Registrar of the County of Lanark, Ont., 
from which place he came to Lachute in 1887 ; he is a graduate of McGill, and 
received his degree in 1879. 

W. W. ALEXANDER, M.D., now occupies the office of the lamented Dr. Smith. 
Dr. Alexander was born in Prince Edward Island, and received his education at the 
Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown. In 1887, he entered the Medical Depart 
ment of McGill University, and received his degree of M.D., C.M., therefrom in April, 
1891. After some months of post-graduate work in Boston and New York hospitals, 
he returned to Canada, and began practice in Hemmingford, Huntington County, 
Que., where he remained till recently, when he came to Lachute. The recommend 
ations he has received, and the interest he takes in religious work, give promise of 
a useful and successful career. 

JOSEPH PALLISER, barrister, is a native of Lachute ; his grandfather, Robert 
Palliser, came from Yorkshire, England, to Lachine, in 1832, with three sons and two 
daughters ; he was killed at that place during an election riot in March, 1841. 



Thomas, his eldest son, was married in Lachine, in 1838, to Margaret Baird - 
he was a member of the Lachine Troop of Cavalry during the Papineau Rebellion. 
In 1844, he settled in Lachute, and lived here till l893> when he visited his son 
fhomas in Morns, Man., and died there, the i 7 th December of the same year 
had two sons and three daughters, who arrived at maturity. Joseph the 
second son attended Military School in Montreal, and received his certificate in IsGo 
The year following, while holding the rank of Sergeant-Major in the nth Battalio,- 
he joined the expeditionary force to the Red River. After his return, he studied Law 
with the late Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, being admitted to study in 1876, taking his degree 
from McGill m 1878, and was called to the Bar in 1879. He was married in 1879 
to Lillian Margaret McGibbon. Mr. Palliser takes an active interest in all local 
affairs ; he drew the Charter when the Town of Lachute was incorporated in ,88; 
and has been Chairman of the School Board several years. He was the first to 
introduce the electric light into Lachute, and has always been desirous of promoting 
public improvements; he has charge of the telegraph office here. 

G. F, BAMPTON, Q.C, for several years has been one of the prominent members 
the Bar in this County. He was born in Plymouth, Eng., and is a son of the late 
Augustus Bampton, Civil Engineer, M.T.C.E., Chief Surveyor of the Corporations of 
the towns of Plymouth and Davenport, England. 

G. E. Bampton was educated at Christ s Hospital, London, and afterward served 
five years on the Pacific, and at other stations, as an officer in the Royal Navy He 
took a Law course at McGill, graduating with first-class honors, and was called to the 
Bar in 1879 ; he studied with D. Macmaster, Q.C., Bernard Devlin, and others. He 
began practice in Lachute in 1879, and was married i 3 th August, 1884, to Ann Louise 
Pollock, third daughter of the late Thomas Pollock, Postmaster at Hill Head. Mrs. 
Bampton died 2 9 th November, 1891, at the age of 27, leaving three children. 

Mr. Bampton was appointed Revising Officer for the County in 1885, by the 
Dominion Government, and Provincial Revenue Attorney, by the Quebec Govern 
ment, in 1892. He has always taken a prominent part in politics, being one of the 
effective advocates during election campaigns of the interests of the Conservative 
party, and has been retained in most of the law cases in the county which were 
of public interest. 

JOSEPH EVARISTEVALOIS was born in Vaudreuil, Que. He spent three years 
in the College of L Assomption of that place, then went to the College of Montreal, 
and passed his examination for the Notarial Profession in 1878. He was admitted as 
a Notary in May, 1882, and began practice in St. Scholastique the same year. He 
remained in that village until March, 1890, when he came to Lachute. While in St. 
Scholastique, he was married in September, 1885, to Corinne, daughter of Joseph 
Langlois, of that place. Mr. Valois organized a Band in May, 1895; il is composed 
of sixteen members, and he is instructor. 


A. BERTHELOT is also a Notary who has practised his profession many years in 

The following history and statistics of schools in this section, during the first 
decade of this century, was recently found among the old papers of J. S. Hutchins 
by his daughter, Mrs. Gushing, of Montreal, through whose courtesy they are now pub 
lished : 


In 1798, this Parish contained but five families, numbering about thirty souls 
in 1800, fifteen families, numbering about seventy-five souls. In this year, one 
school was put in operation, and taught by a female in a private house near the Chute 
Mills numbering about fifteen scholars for the term of six months. In 1801, a log 
school-house was built, half a mile above the Chute Mills, and taught by a young 
man six months, thirty scholars attending daily. In 1802, the settlement increased 
to more than thirty families, and several small schools were started, located from two 
to three miles from each other, and generally taught by females. This mode of 
education was continued up to the year 1810, when, at the request of the inhabitants, 
a school was established by order of the Governor General, under the Royal Insti 
tution, a mile and a half above the Chute Mills a good, substantial, school building 
having been previously erected. John D. Ely was duly commissioned by the Governor 
General to teach in the same, with a salary of sixty pounds per annum. Mr. Ely, 
being a first-rate elementary teacher, soon raised his school to a respectable standing > 
and the average number of scholars in daily attendance amounted to sixty. Mr. Ely 
taught this school for four years very successfully, many children being sent to his 
school from the neighboring parishes to receive instruction in the higher branches 
of education. The inhabitants made his salary nearly equal to one hundred pounds 
per annum; but, unfortunately for him and the parishioners, too, he was obliged to 
relinquish his trust, and Mr. Aaron Wood was subsequently commissioned to teach 
the school. The latter continued it for two years, and then resigned his position, in 
consequence of the Board s reducing their teachers salaries to twenty pounds per 
annum. They, likewise, multiplied their schools ; and another was established, abou 
four miles distant, under the name of the Upper Lachute School. Shortly after this 
change by the Board of the Royal Institution, the Government bounty was distributed 
to all the schools in the Province ; and its allowance was equal to that of the schools 
under the Royal Institution. Mr. Carpenter succeeded Mr. Wood as teacher, and 
taught for three years successfully. I would here note that, after the salaries of the 
teachers were cut down to twenty pounds, the trustees were obliged to raise the fee 
of tuition from is. 3d. to 33. gd. per scholar, each month, in order to provide competent 
eachers. The school of which I have been particularly speaking has been continued 



up to the present day by various teachers, generally competent ; but it cannot be 
said that it is in as flourishing a condition as when itwas under the Royal Institution, 
neither is it so numerously attended. 

The children under the age of fourteen and over seven, belonging to this district 
number sixty-one, but they do not all attend school. There are, at the present time, 
eight school districts in this parish, numbering altogether about three hundred and 
fifty children. In the year 1810, the number of children over four and under twenty 
one was two hundred and eleven, male and female. 

The following is a list of the inhabitants, and the number of children between the 
ages of 4 and 21, in Lachute, in iSto, copied from a document found among the 
papers ofj. S. Hutchins: 

Number of children, 211. 

John Kelly, Abiathar Waldron, Francis Bureau, Silas Boldry, Samuel Orton, 
Joel Bixby, Osias Hosilton, Benj. Burch, Benj. I. Burch, Asa Kimball, Wm. Powers, 
Wm. Evans, Jonathan Burch, Jonathan Hart. Isaac Thompson, John Dunlap, Wm. 

Powers, jun., Ward Stone, Augustus Stone, Benj. Cutter, David Hubbard, 

Sampson, Amaziah Church, Knot, John S. Hutchins, Nathaniel Davis, Phineas 

Hutchins, Samuel Sanders, Jonathan Burch, jun., Hezekiah Clark, Wm. Perkins, 
John Sparrow, D. Hitchcock, James Draper, Richard Dilly, Daniel Pool, Timothy 
Pool, John Blanchard, Philander Stephens, Ebenezer Stephens, Cyrus Calkins, James 
Thompson, Wm. Thompson, Abiram Boldry, John Jacobs, Nathan Jacobs, Alex. 
Reed, Wm. McNall, Samuel Thompson, Curtis Stone, E. Blackman, Osias Black- 
man, Charles Ellis, David Bell, James Hubbard, Aaron Stone, Aaron Hamblin, Uriah 
McNall, Elijah Woodworth, Joseph Herrimon, Rufus Herrimon, Benj. Allen. Wm. 
McGloughlin, David Taslin, Timothy Richardson, Moses Snider, John Snider, 
Samuel Blackman, Isaiah P. Barber, Robert Partlow, Isaiah Hyatt, B. Cramton, Asa 
Sanders, Israel Brooks, Charles Perkins, Asa Starnes, Gideon Blackman, David 
Brooks, Jonathan Brooks, Daniel Starnes, Nathan Brooks. 



Lachute Academy had its origin in the free classes conducted in his own house, 
by the late Rev. Thomas Henry, who felt the necessity of providing higher education 
for the young people of the community. These classes were popular, and the attend 
ance increased, so that it was soon necessary to remove the school to the basement 
of the Presbyterian Church, of which the Rev. Mr. Henry was pastor. At a public 
meeting, 23rd February, 1855, the people manifested their appreciation of such 
instruction, by establishing a superior school governed by five directors. These 
directors organized a school, outlined a course of study, and appointed a staff of 
teachers, and thus the pastor s piivate classes became the well-known public institu 
tion, " Lachute Academy." 




The Academy classes were continued in the basement of the church until 
proper buildings could be erected. Rev. Mr. Henry was appointed first Principal 
of the Academy, with the following assistants: Dr. Thomas Christie and Mr. John 
M. Gibson. John Meikle, Esq., was President of the Board of Directors, and Mr. 
John M. Gibson was Secretary. 

After a year and a half of faithful work, the Rev. Mr. Henry, John Meikle, Esq., 
and Dr. Thomas Christie were successful in obtaining from government, through 
the kind services and loyal support of Sydney Bellingham, then member of 
Parliament for the County of Argenteuil, an Act of incorporation and a government 

grant of ^75. 

This Act of incorporation was obtained on the first day of July, 1856, when the 
following gentlemen were incorporated a "body politic and corporate in deed and 
in name," to be known as " Lachute College," viz. : " John Meikle, Thomas 
Christie, Rev. Thomas Henry, Rev. Walter Scott, Rev. James Bishop, Thomas 
Lockie, Thomas Pollock, John McAllister and Thomas Morrison, all of the village 
of Lachute, County of Argenteuil." Thus was Lachute Academy established, on 
23rd February, 1855, and incorporated by Act of Parliament, passed at Toronto, ist 
July, 1856, during the second session of the fifth Parliament of Canada, and assented 
to by Sir Edmund Walker Head, Governor General. 

The Academy was established in the municipality of St. Jerusalem, which con 
tained, in 1856, 471 heads of families and 740 children from 5 to 16 years of age. 
The attendance at the Academy in 1855-6 was 210, of which number 94 pupils were 
under 16 years, and 116 pupils were over 16 years of age. These figures prove 
clearly the need of a superior school, and the wisdom of those who labored so earn 
estly for its establishment. 

The course of study outlined by the directors comprised Latin, Greek, Natu 
ral History, Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, English Grammar and 
Composition, Geography, Elementary Astronomy, Drawing, Design and French. In 
1856, the directors purchased a fine set of chemical apparatus valued at 40, and 
later, in 1859, they added a complete set of maps and an orrery to their appliances 
for teaching geography. The public library of the " Mechanics Institute" afforded 
the students many opportunities of reading, and served as an excellent reference 
library. In the long period of partial leisure from autumn to spring, how pleasant 
and profitable it must have been for the young people to attend such classes, and 
receive instruction from such disinterested and loyal teachers, most of whom were 
men of zeal for the cause of education, and labored free of charge to the institution ; 
the total cost of teaching, in 1856, being only 120. Rev. Mr. Henry continued to 
be connected with the Academy, for several years after its establishment, as teacher 
and adviser, while Dr. Christie labored faithfully and gratuitously, for many years, 
as demonstrator in chemistry, and the late John Meikle, Esq., continued President 
of the Board of Directors, and befriended the school in various ways. 

On 2oth April, 1858, the directors resolved to erect an academy building in 


central place, and selected the site on which the old academy now stands, in the east 
ward of Lachute town, midway between two of the parish schools, Nos. I and VIII 
These two elementary schools were united by the school commissioners, who built 
the lower storey of the new building, while the directors built the upper part, thus 
bringing the pupils of the two elementary schools, and the classes of the Academy, 
into the same building. 

The new buildings were occupied in 1859, and the Rev. John Mackie was placed 
in charge at a salary of $350 (to be paid in silver at par) and all the fees arising 
from his classes. The staff of teachers in 1858-9, which was the first year in the 
new building, was Rev. John Mackie, principal; Dr. Christie, lecturer ; Mr. James 
Emslie and Mr. Adam Orr, teachers. After two years Rev. Mr. Mackie resigned and 
became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. He was succeeded in 1860 by 
Mr. John Reade, who held the position for three years until 1863. In 1862 the 
Government grant was reduced by one-half, and a still further reduction left the 
institution in debt, and unable to continue its educational work. Under these circum 
stances, the directors concluded to amalgamate the academy classes with the public 
schools and make over the Government grant, now ^44, to the school commissioners, 
on condition that they should engage a head master who was competent to teach the 
classics. This arrangement was made in 1864, and has continued to the present 
time. Mr. Alex. Stewart was principal after Mr. Reade from 1863-4, when he was 
succeeded by Mr. George Thomson of Queen s College, Kingston, in 1864. Mr. 
Thomson held the position until February, 1867, when he was appointed School 
Inspector, and Mr. G. H. Drewe became principal until February, 1868, when Mr. 
Alex. Stewart was again engaged as principal until 1870. In 1870 Mr. C.S. Holiday 
succeeded Mr. Stewart, and remained principal until 1874, when he resigned and was 
followed by Mr. Murdock Munroe for one year, 1874-5. Mr. Holiday returned in 
1875, and held the position for nine years, until 1884, in which year he accepted the 
position of principal in Huntingdon Academy, and Mr. H. M. Cockfield became 
principal of Lachute Academy, which position he filled until 1886, when he resigned 
to accept service under the Montreal School Board, and was succeeded by Mr. J. W. 
McOuat, until 1892. In 1892 Mr. McOuat was appointed School Inspector, and Mr. 
X. T. Truell, who now (1895) holds the position, was made Principal. Amongst the 
numerous assistant teachers are Mr. James Emslie and Mr. Thomas Haney, two of 
the oldest and best known teachers of the County. 

In 1875 a proposal was made by the directors to the school commissioners, to 
erect a "wing " to the east side of the original building. This suggestion, however, 
was only carried into effect in 1879, when the increased attendance in the elementary 
departments made an enlargement necessary. At the same time an elementary 
school was established in the " West End " of the village, thus restoring the former 
school, No. VIII. The upper portion of the "wing" was used for various purposes 
until a much later date, 1888, when it also became a classroom of the Academy. 

This relationship existed between the two boards (the College Directors and the 



Parish Commissioners) until the incorporation of Lachute Town in 1885, when the 
parish board withdrew, and re-established their former school, No. i, now called 
East End School." The directors, however, established the same relationship with 
the school board of the Town, and the whole institution became one school and 
adopted the course of study for academies. In 1891-2 the school commissioners 
unanimously determined to build a new school building worthy of the large attend 
ance, which was rendering the old buildings far too small. This school board was 
composed of the following gentlemen : Joseph Palliser, chairman ; Hugh Eraser, jun., 
Thomas McOuat, Peter Cruise and Rev. Wm. Sanders, while William Henry was 
secretary-treasurer, and J. W. McOuat was principal of the school. Four acres of 
land were purchased for a playground, and one of the finest school buildings in the 
province was eiected thereon, at a cost of $12,000. In this new building, situated in 
the centre of the town, large numbers of students continue to attend from all parts 
of the county and surrounding districts. 

Amongst the benefactors of the school are Sidney Bellinghara, the late John 
Meikle, and, in recent years, J. C . Wilson, Esq., not to mention the numerous friends 
and students who have contributed to the library, nor the zealous principals who 
devoted many extra hours to prepare students to enter courses of study not in line 
with the Academy work. As a result of the Academy s influence, men are to be 
found in every profession who must attribute their start in life and much of their 
later success to the instruction which they received in its classes, while the whole 
county must confess that the school has been a public benefactor and a blessing to 
the community in which it stands. 

NEWTON T. TRUELL, the subject of this sketch, is the youngest son of Valorous 
Truell, Esq., a prosperous farmer in the Eastern Townships. He was born at Ways 
Mills, Stanstead County, May 8th, 1866, and received his preliminary education at 
Stanstead Wesleyan College. At the age of fifteen he went to the College de Sf 
Hyadnthe to complete a course in French, after which he pursued a classical course 
in St. Francis College, graduating from that institution at the age of nineteen, and 
obtaining, the same year, an Academy diploma for both English and French schools. 
Mr. Truell has since devoted himself to the profession of teaching, and has attained 
a high position among the educators of the Province. He was for several years Prin 
cipal of the St. John s High School, but resigned that position in 1892, to accept the 
Principalship of Lachute Academy, which position he now holds. He is President 
of the Argenteuil Teachers Association, Vice President of the Provincial Teachers 
Association, and a member of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public 

Mr. Truell is a strong believer in the theory, that the physical nature and the 
mental nature of the child should be developed simultaneously, and he was ihe first 
head master to introduce an organized system of Calisthenic exercises into any of the 
academies of our Province. On 2yth Dec., 1892, he was married to Miss Julia 
Maude Futvoye of St. Johns, Que., second daughter of Mr. I. B. Futvoye, Super 
intendent of the Central Vermont Railway. 



A sketch found amo >g the papers of the late J. S. ffutc iins. 

In the year 1799, when there were but few families in the place, Dudley Stone, 
an official member from the Congregational Society, invited the people to attend 
divine service on the Sabbath. The service consisted of singing, prayers, and reading 
a sermon, and he was generally assisted by others ; the place of worship was in a log 
barn, directly opposite the present meeting chapel, on the north side of the river. 
These services were regularly observed for about one year, when an itinerant Metho 
dist preacher, by the name of Picket, from the Troy Conference, N.Y., found bis way 
through the woods to the settlement, and commenced to preach the Gospel to the 
people, forming a circuit emb-acing L Orignal, E. and W. Hawkesbury, Chatham 
and Argenteuil. As there were no roads at this time for riding on horseback, nor 
boats for crossing horses over the rivers, he walked from place to place, carrying his 
portmanteau on his shoulders. He preached alternately every fortnight at Lachute 
and L Orignal, and through the week at the other places above named, as these were 
but thinly inhabited. Thus he continued his labor for six or seven months, when 
the Rev. Elder Jewel came to look after him and his flock, which amounted to a 
considerable number, there being no other minister to dispense the Bread of Life. 
Those who had previously tasted that Bread were not so particular as to whom they 
received it from, as are many at the present day. Elder Jewel was the first who 
administered the sacrament of the Lord s Supper in this place, in October, 1801. 

Mr. Picket was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Sawyer, who traveled the Circuit for 
two years when he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Madden, and other ministers from 
the same Conference up to the year 1812, when the war between England and the 
United States broke out, and the ministers, being American subjects, were all obhj 
to leave the Province, leaving the sheep without a shepherd, to do as best the; 

A Sunday School was founded in this district, in the year 1818, by 
Thaddeus Osgood, missionary from the Congregational Missionary Society, of 
It numbered about thirty scholars, and was superintended and taught by the wn 
for seven years, subsequently by others ; and it has been continued through 
mer months up to the present time. 

From the time of the first preaching of the Gospel here, up to 1812, the Metho 
dists had control in religious matters in the above mentioned places, there 
other denomination. During the war, which lasted more than two yea 
service was kept up by a worthy local preacher, Mr. Kellog, assisted by the 
members of the Methodist Society, and the Rev. Mr. Bradford, Church of 
minister, who was situated in the front of Chatham. He visited this place on seve 
occasions, to administer the sacrament to the people. Though the place 
was in a barn, the reverend gentleman, after the close of one of the services, de 
to be one of the happiest seasons of his life. After the close of the war, the P rc 


returned to their several circuits to look after their flocks ; and now commenced 
great difficulty and damage to the cause of Christianity; however, we are now writ 
ing for the benefit of generations yet unborn. These difficulties need not be detailed. 
Suffice it to say, that they have all been overcome, and that the cause of religion is 
slowly advancing." 




A few families came out from the west of Scotland about the year 1819. One 
young man from Stirlingshire, John McOuat, gave an impetus to the cause of Christ 
l n this neighborhood. On arriving at Montreal, he remained some time working 
about the city, but his ambition was to have land, as he had been brought up a 
farmer, and desiring to follow that occupation, he went to St. Eustache, and worked 
there for a short time with a farmer. Hearing that a Presbyterian minister preached 
in St. Andrews, he came to Lachute, and bought a farm on the banks of the North 
river, and sent home to Scotland for his friends. Many of them came out to this 
country, and settled in and around Lachute ; but a great want was felt, as the Sabbath 
came round. They had no church, and their desire for religious instruction was so 
great, that many of them went down to St. Andrews a distance of six miles on 
the Sabbath to hear Mr. Archibald Henderson, who was the only Presbyterian 
minister at that time in the county. So many of the people waited on his ministry, 
that he was induced to come up to Lachute, once a month, and preach in the school- 
house, as there was no other place of meeting. 

The people of the neighborhood were drawn together to hear the Gospel 
preached by Mr. Henderson, and as the congregation increased, they experienced a 
desire to have a minister settled over them; but that was not easily accomplished at 
that time. In the year 1831, they invited the Rev. William Brunton of St. Therese to 
become their minister; and promised him an annual stipend of $264. He accepted 
the call, and became their pastor. The people rallied around him in great numbers, 
so that they were encouraged to build a church, and a subscription paper was circu 
lated among them. 

I here was very little money in circulation among the farmers, and the people, 
generally, were very poor, many of them having left the Old Country with little 
means. In Scotland, there was great depression among the farmers, after the battle 
of Waterloo ; they were not able to pay the high rents the landed proprietors were 
accustomed to receive during the Peninsular war, and many of them were forced to 
leave their farms and seek homes in Canada. They had their trials in this new land ; 


but by perseverance and industry they overcame them. They reared their homes, 
cleared and cultivated their fields, and were soon in comparative comfort. There was 
one great want they had no church nor minister, while at home they had churches 
and godly ministers, who labored faithfully among them. They aimed to have the 
same advantages here, but there were many difficulties in the way ; they had little 
money ; some gave work, and a few gave money, one or two subscribing very 
liberally. Mr. John McOuat headed the subscription list with a hundred dollars 
a great sum in those days. They were encouraged to proceed in erecting the church, 
and it was commenced without a plan, in the year 1833; it was built by William 
and Andrew McOuat. After the walls were up, they had great difficulty in getting 
the sashes for the windows made and glazed. Mr. McOuat came to the rescue. He 
bought the glass and putty, and kept the joiner till he finished the windows and put 
them in ; then the church was fit to meet in. Great was the joy when the songs of 
praise to God were heard within its walls and the glad tidings of salvation were 
proclaimed. The building was a striking copy of an original Secession Church. It lays 
no claim to artistic beauty, yet it is a substantial structure, characteristic of the men 
who built it and of the times in which it was built. 

For a number of years the congregation prospered. Mr. Brunton labored 
faithfully and successfully among the people, but in a few years the Lord took him 
up to the higher sanctuary. He died in the year 1839. The tombstone erected 
to his memory by his congregation bears the following inscription, written by Dr. 
William Taylor, of Montreal : 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. William Brunton, 
Minister of the United Associate Congregation of Lachute, 
who departed this life i2th August, 1839, in the 73rd 
year of his age and the 451)1 of his ministry. 

" As a minister it was his chief desire to be found faithful, 
and so to preach the Gospel to save both himself and 
those that heard him. 

"As a Christian, he exemplified, in his daily conduct, 
the virtues which he taught in public, being distinguished 
for the humility of his disposition and the patience which 
he displayed in many trials. 

He being dead, yet speaketh, 

" The Congregation of Lachute have erected this stone 
in testimony of their veneration for his memory, 
was born in the parish of Newbattle, County of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, 4th May, 1767. He was ordained to the office 
of the Ministry in 1795. He arrived in this country in 
1820, and, after preaching the Gospel in various other 
places, undertook the pastoral care of this Congregation 
in 1831, where he spent the last seven years of his 
valuable life." 


After Mr. Brunlon s death, a dark cloud settled upon the congregation ; most of 
the people belonged originally to the Church of Scotland, and they wanted a minister 
of that communion. The few Seceders were strong for remaining in connection with 
the Secession or United Associate Synod. 

An inducement was held out by the Presbytery of Montreal, in connection with 
the Church of Scotland, that, if they would join the latler, they (the Presbytery) 
would give fifty pounds a year towards the minister s salary. A meeting of the 
people was called to decide the matter ; the Church of Scotland party, being in the 
majority, thought that they should retain the building, and wished the question to 
be decided by vote. Mr. McOuat, before putting the question to the meeting, re 
minded them that there was an arrearage of salary, which must be paid before deciding 
the matter. Though the church was crowded before the motion was made, before 
the vote was taken there were very few remaining, principally Seceders, and it was 
decided that they should have the church. The party wishing to join the Church of 
Scotland thought it was very hard to lose the church they had helped to build. In 
a most generous manner, John and James McOuat gave the Old Kirk party a vote, 
promising to pay them the sum of forty pounds the amount they contributed towards 
building the church to be given when they built one in connection with the Church 
of Scotland. When they commenced to build the Free Church, they applied for the 
forty pounds, Mr. McOuat said : " Na, na ; I promised to give it, when you built a church 
in connection with the Scottish Church." Thus they forfeited not only the forty pounds 
from the Seceders, but also the fifty pounds promised by the Presbytery of Montreal. 
These things caused hard feelings between the two parties. 

The congregation of the First Church was for some time without a minister ; 
there was no Presbytery in the Lower Province, hence they were without a preacher. 
Dr. Taylor, of Montreal, the only minister in connection with the United Secession 
Church of Scotland at this time, was about to pay a visit to the Old Country. 
They requested him to present their case to the Synod at home ; but he was not suc 
cessful in securing a minister. After waiting for some time, two were sent out : Mr. 
Louden, who was settled at New Glasgow ; and Mr. Andrew Kennedy, who was 
placed at Lachute. At this time the congregation was very small, and could not give 
him a salary sufficient to keep him and his family, so the church at home gave con 
siderable help, which enabled him to remain som? time with them ; but at length he 
resigned his charge. Thus, again, they were without a settled minister, though oc 
casionally one was sent to them. At length they gave a call to the Rev. Walter Scott 
to become their pastor, which he accepted. He remained a few years, and resigned 
his charge. This was very much against the prosperity of the congregation ; a few 
families left the church, as they thought they would never get another minister. The 
small remnant was very much discouraged, but still were sturdy Seceders. True to 
their principles, they stuck firm and fast together, and could not be bribed to leave 
their denomination. By this time, a few ministers had come out to Canada ; a Pres 
bytery was formed, and preachers were sent to the vacancies. After hearing a few, 


they gave a call to Mr. John Mackie, a licentiate of the United Presbyterian Church 
of Scotland. He came to Lachute in the month of November, 1858, and preached 
to them that winter. When navigation opened, the Presbytery of Montreal com 
prising three ministers came to Lachute on the 1 8th day of May. They met in 
the Church, after hearing Mr. Mackie s trials for ordination, with which they were 
highly pleased. The call that was presented to him was signed by fifteen members 
and twenty-five adherents. The stipend promised by the congregation was forty 
pounds $160. The Presbytery hesitated to place Mr. Mackie on so small a salary. 
He would take nothing from the missionary fund, so he commenced his ministry with 
little pecuniary recompense., and a very small congregation. The people were kind 
to him, and he labored among his little flock with some degree of success, preach 
ing every Sabbath morning in the church at Lachute, and in the afternoon, altern 
ately at the East Settlement a distance of six miles and at Brownsburg a distance 
of five miles. By faithful preaching, and steady perseverance in visiting the families, 
his flock increased from twenty-five members lo two hundred and ten, and the 
salary of $160 rose to $750. Thus, the material success was considerable. The 
regular attendance of the people, and their marked attention to the instructions given, 
showed that they appreciated the ministrations of their pastor. In this short and 
imperfect sketch, reference has been made chiefly to the material" progress of the 
congregation. But who can estimate the spiritual results, or the value and import 
ance to the people, of the faithful preaching of the Gospel, and witnessing for Christ 
for over sixty years, by the servants of the Lord? 

The REV. JOHN MACKIE, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church at Lachute, was 
born in Hamilton, Scotland, in 1822, educated at Glasgow University, and received 
his theological training in the United Presbyterian Hall, Edinburgh. He was licensed 
to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of Hamilton in 1854; a few years sub 
sequently he came to Canada, and was ordained at Lachute in 1859. In 1864, he 
was married to Agnes, daughter of the late Capt. Robert Dunlop, of Greenock, Scot 
land, who is a faithful helpmeet and a lady highly esteemed in the community. Mr. 
Mackie, during his long pastorate, has become much endeared to the people of 
Lachute ; he is a good reasoner, and this advantage is enhanced by his pleasing 
delivery from the pulpit. He is a typical Scotchman, and, while possessing a fund of 
humor, he is quick to feel for the afflicted, and is always a welcome and sympathetic 
visitor at the bedside of the sick. Mr. and Mrs. Mackie have had nine children 
three sons and six daughters the eldest daughter died in infancy; the third son, in 
1888. The eldest son, John McOuat Mackie, is manager of the Gould Manufacturing 
Company, Boston, Mass.; the second son, Robert, is an engineer in New Jet- 
The second daughter, Mary, was married in 1887 to William Scott, Lsq., of the 
Mackay Milling Co., Ottawa The four youngest daughters are still pursuing their 



The beginning of this church has already been given in the preceding sketch of 
Mr. Mackie, and we have no data from which to compile an elaborate history. 

The Rev. Thomas Henry was inducted in 1843, an d continued to minister to the 
spiritual wants of his people till the year 1862, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
John Eadie, who was pastor for seven years. After his removal to another field of 
labor, the Rev. William Furlong was called to the pastorate, and labored for nearly 
twenty years. He resigned in the year 1892, and was succeeded by the present 
pastor, REV. N. WADDELT., B.D. 

Mr. Waddell, whose ability and geniality have rendered him popular with his 
parishioners, was born in the township of Osgoode, Carleton County, Ontario, in 1857, 
and educated at the Ottawa Collegiate Institute, McGill University, and the Presby 
terian College, Montreal, graduating in 1887. He was ordained by the Presbytery 
of Montreal, 23rd May, 1887, and inducted to the charge of Russeltown and Covey 
Hill, Que. After a pastorate of nearly six years, he was transferred to Lachute, 
and inducted to his present charge, Qth February, 1893. He was married to Miss 
Mary Jane Frasej: of Morewood, Ont., in 1885. 

The REV. THOMAS HENRY descended from the Kenmore Gordons of Lochinvar, 
was born in the parish of Anwoth, Scotland, in 1798, and was educated at the Edin 
burgh University ; he was married t2th August, 1840, to Helen Dawson of Alloa r 
Clackmannanshire, Scotland. He taught in the family of Hannay, of Rusco, in the 
Parish of Anwoth, and was tutor for several years in the family of John Stein, Esq., 
of Kilbage, Clackmannanshire, one of his pupils being James Duff, nephew of Mr. 
Stein and son of the Hon. Sir Alexander Duff, G.C.H., Colonel of the 3yth Regiment 
of Foot. The same James Duff was the father of the present Duke of Fife, son-in-law 
of the Prince of Wales. In 1840, the Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland 
sent Mr. Henry to Montreal, where he resided for a few months in charge of a city 
mission, when he was called to the Church of Scotland congregation at Lachute. At 
the Disruption in 1844, ne severed his connection with that Church, casting in his lot 
with the Free Church. His congregation, with the exception of one or two families, 
went with him, and, later, every one of these families joined the Free Church. 
Henry s Church was then formed as the Free Church, of which Mr. Henry was 
pastor for twenty-four years. He always took a deep interest in education, and was 
the first Principal of Lachute Academy, commencing that institution in his own 
study, the room at present occupied by his son, William Henry, as an office. It was 
sabsequently removed to the basement of Henry s Church, until suitable buildings 
were erected for it. Mr. Henry died in Lachute, 151)1 July, 1868; Mrs. Henry, 
also, died in Lachute, i8th June, 1884. They had six children : Robert Hugh died 
in infancy; Grace Jane married 1 homas Barron, Registrar, of Lachute ; Thomas 
Hugh died 1889; Helen, a teacher, died 1887 ; William, Secretary-Treasurer of La- 
chute School Commissioners ; Katherine Stein, teacher, of Lachute. 


~ ~T^> 


A brief sketch of the Mission of Lichute, in the County of Argenteuil, may not 
prove uninteresting to many of our readers. The town itself is beautifully situated, 
lying in a valley of the Laurentian Hills, forty-five miles distant from Montreal, and 
seventy-six from Ottawa, via the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The population is esti 
mated to be about 1,700. The first church services were held about the year 1815 
by a travelling missionary, who occasionally officiated in a barn or school-house, as 
opportunity presented itself. In the year 1868, the Rev. Mr. Codd was appointed a 
missionary, with headquarters at Lachute, and a number of townships, among others 
that of Arundel, then in the initial stage of its settlement, tinder his charge. Let us 
bear in mind this fact, that ihis mission is still in its infancy, so to speak, as com. 
pared with many other parishes in the Diocese of Montreal. Real church life only 
began here, we may say, in the year 1878, when the Rev. H.J. Evans was appointed 
the first regularly constituted Incumbent of the Mission. Regular services were held 
by him at Lachute, Lake Louisa, New Ireland, Glen of Harrington, Arunc el, Rock- 
away and Ponsonby. He was a man who was highly esteemed and loved by all 
classes of people . To his untiring zeal and energy, Lach ute may well feel proud and 
happy in possessing such a nice, neat, comfortable church in which to worship " the 
Lord our Maker." Deep regret was felt at Mr. Evans departure from this Mission. 
His successor was the Rev. R. W. Brown, M.A., who held the parish for a short 
period, viz., January, 1884, to April, 1885. On the twenty-third day of August of the 
same year, the Rev. W. Sanders, B.A. (at the present time, Rural Dean), was ap 
pointed by the Lord Bishop of Montreal, Incumbent. Rev. W. Sanders worked 
hard and zealously for the cause of his Master here, and largely through his efforts 
and generous assistance can Lachute offer to-day a very comfortable home to its 
clergyman. During his tenure of office, i.e., in the year 1886, a wise arrangement 
was effected to wit the formation of Arundel and parts adjacent into a separate 
mission, the Rev. W. Harris being made the first Incumbent thereof. This made 
the work somewhat lighter, though arduous enough, and permitted Mr. Sanders to 
concentrate his efforts more upon his work at Lachute, Lake Louisa and Edinr, 
these forming, at that date, the paiish of Lachute. Owing to poor health the 
Incumbent felt obliged to place his resignation in the Bishop s hand?, in order to obtain 
the rest which was needful. This was in the spring of 1892. At the same time, the 
Rev. Alex. Boyd Given (the present Incumbent) was appointed to succeed him. 
The church work goes on slowly, but steadily, we believe, in the name of Him who 
hath said, "My word shall not return unto Me void, but shall accomplish that which 
I please." Lachute itself is not a Church of England town, it is essentially 
Presbyterian settlement. The church is not strong it is to be feared, for some t;iiK 
at least, we shall have to depend much upon outside help for assistance to maintain 
her ministrations. Would that it were otherwise, indeed. Two services are held 



regularly every Sunday, with an average attendance of 44. An occasional week-day 
service is also held. Our people do well, on the whole, to maintain the church, 
taking into consideration their numbers and their own property. By the bye, the 
church, which was always considered to be a "Union Church" at Edina, was burnt 
down in the year 1890, and so the services were consequently discontinued there. 
Lake Louisa, in the township of Wentworth, 12^ miles distant from Lachule, is the 
only really out-mission station belonging to Lachute. Here, service is held every 
Sunday afternoon at 3 p.m. We are glad indeed to have a church there of our own. 
Largely, owing to the many kind friends in Montreal and elsewhere, this has 
become an accomplished fact built and paid for at a cost of $ Apiece of land 
has also been procured as "God s Acre," wherein the dead may rest until the resur 
rection morn, when the trumpet of God shall sound " Aiise ye dead and come to 
Judgment." Many things are still needed for this mission such as a " church bell," 
font," surplices, etc. We have, indeed, great cause to be thankful for the past. 
. Many have helped us most willingly and cheerfully, and for this " we do, indeed, 
thank God for the past, and we do, indeed, take courage for the future." 


Copied from Church records. 

LACHUTE, 8th June, iS86. 

For over a year, the Board of the Convention East have been anxious to have a 
-Baptist Church organized in the thriving town of Lachute. At the earnest request of 
the Board, Rev. J. Higgins consented to spend two weeks here, in gathering the 
few Baptists together, and preparing the way for the student who has been appointed 
to labor here during vacation. Pastor Higgins came here about the ist of May, 
and was nearly a month in the field. The Lord was with him, and gave him an 
open door." Special services were held in Olivet Hall, twenty-two sermons were 
preached, prayer meetings were held from house to house, and the congregation 
increased from 50 to 100, as the few Baptists were quickened and refreshed by the 
Holy Spirit. Five believers applied for baptism, and were baptised by Pastor 
Higgins in the North River, on the last Sabbath of May. Several persons are 
enquiring and searching the Scriptures to find their path of duty. Bro. Alex. Dewar 
has now entered upon his labors, and may the Lord bless him abundantly. 


LACHUTE, June 4, 1886. 

At a special meeting held in ths home of Bro. D. McPhail, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the advisability of uniting ourselves in a regular Baptist 
Church, it was agreed by the brethren present to hold Recognition services in Olivet 
Hall, on Tuesday, 8th June. 



The following persons responded to the call to a Recognition meeting -.Dales 
ville Church, Pastor J. King, Deacon P. McArthur and Bro. John Campbell 
Osnabruck, Rev. J. Higgins ; First Church, Montreal, Rev. ur. Welton, Deacon 
Kennedy; Brethren J. S. Buchan and D. K. McLarin ; Olivet Church, Montreal, 
Pastor A. G. Upham, Deacon D. Bentley, W. D. Stroud, W. D. Larmonth. 
new church was represented in the Council by Brethren D. McPhail, P. Cruise arn 
Alex. McGibbon, also the student, Bro. Alex. Dewar. On motion, Rev. A. G. ] 
was appointed Moderator, and D. Bentley, Clerk. Prayer was offered by 
Higgins. The twenty-three persons present adopted the New Hampshire articles, a 
a statement of their faith and practice, believing that to be in harmony wit 
teaching of God s Word. There are in all twenty-eight baptised believers who have 
united in forming this Church. The request to Council is here given, as follows : 
We, the undersigned, having been led by God s spirit to receive the Lord Jes 
Christ as our personal Saviour, and having been buried with him in baptism on pr 
fession of faith, hereby present ourselves before God, and one another, desiring 
organized and recognized as a regular Baptist Church, and we do hereby adopt, as 
statement of our faith and practice, the summary of Scriptural doctrine, I 
Hampshire Confession. 

D. McPhail, Alex. McGibbon, P. Cruise, Mrs. T. Jackson, Miss Marj 
McGibbon, Mr?. P. Cruise, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Buchan, Miss M. Cruise, Mr 
Barker, Miss K. McGibbon, Mrs. Jas. McGibbon, Miss E, Campbell 
Mr. B. S. Stackhouse. Miss L. Slackhouse, Mr. A. McArthur, Mrs. Peter McGibbon, 
Miss S. McGibbon, Miss E. McGibbon, Miss Maria McGibbon, Mrs. A. . 
R. Dunne and John Cruise. 

After hearing this request and the statement of the doctrine by the people, 1 
was moved by Dr. Welton, and seconded by Pastor King, that the Council glad 
recognize the body of believers who have presented themselves to-day bef< 
Council, as a regular Baptist Church. This was carried unanimously. 
committee-Pastors King and Higgins, and Deacon Berkley-were reqiu 
make arrangements for public Recognition services in the evening, a 
Rev. J. King addressed the Church members on their new responsibility and 
to each other The Moderator, Pastor Upham, gave the right hand of t owship 
Bro. Dewar (student) in the name of the new Chuich, welcoming the Lachute 
into the body of Baptist Churches of Canada. After prayer the Council 

During the winter of 1887, a gracious work was accomplished from spe 
vices held by the Pastor, and John Currie, Evangelist, of Montreal. 
persons professed conversion. The present membership is 51 

Mr. Higgins remained as Pastor of this Church till the fall of 1895, commanc 
the respect g o f the people by his able exposition of the Scripture and h.s consistent 
Christian life, and winning their affections by his kindly, genial ma 

The late Rev Mr Kins, of Dalesville, in his reminiscences, says : 


Hiiae In his early years by the death of to .parents he 

waf left a helpless orphan, but the Lord, true to His promises, raised up for hn 
friends. He lived in Chatham with Andrew Duncan and 
childless \frer he had been some time with Duncan, he came to J- 

nd ^oved WmseS a bright and diligent pupil. People felt interested 
predicted that, if spared, he would make his mark m the world. 



y this school that he became impressed with divine things, and, along with others, 
was baptised and added to the Church. He had a strong desire to do good and 
preach the Gospel yet doubt of his own ability and his want of means to obtain an 
education were obstacles in the way; but these difficulties were overcome, when he 
decided to give himself to the Lord s work God provided him means and raised up 
friends where he did not expect them. After attending school some time at Lachute, 
he went to Woodstock, where he studied the usual time under Dr. Fife, with honor 
to the doctor and credit to himself. During the vacation at Woodstock, he went to 
preach at Cote St. George, where there is a small church, and his preaching was 
blessed to the conversion of souls. After completing his studies at Woodstock, he 
accepted a call from the church at Petite Nation. Between that place and North 
Nation Mills, his labors have been greatly blessed of God. He has since removed to 

Thurso." .... 

\ good many years have passed since Mr. King wrote the above sketch of Mr. 
Higgins, during which the latter has labored in different places, with credit to himself 
and the good of others. He married a daughter of Mr. McGregor, of Dalesville, who 
has been a worthy partner in his toils a woman esteemed for her kindness, bene 
volence and earnest Christian character. 

When Mr. Higgins resigned his pastorate at Lachute, a call was given to Rev. 
1. R. Cresswelf, B.A., who had just completed his university course in Toronto, and 
was then in Montreal. Mr. Creswell was born in Derbyshire, England. He took a 
Theological couise at Nottingham Baptist College, completing which, in the spring of 
1890, he came at once to Canada, and entered McMaster University, Toronto, from 
which he graduated in ) 890. During the time that he remained a student of the Uni 
versity, he preached one summer in Clarence and Rockland, the next summer in St. 
Catharines, Ont., and also the following summer, after graduating, in Montreal. 
He then visited England, and on his return accepted, November, 1894, the pastorate 
at Lachute, and was ordained the same month. He was married, 3rd July, 1895, to 
Miss M. M. Hovvell, of Montreal. Mr. Cresswell is highly popular in the community; 
his sermons are clear and logical, diction good, and his delivery fluent and effective. 

A very neat and comfortable Baptist Church building was completed on_Main 
street in 1887. It is brick, and possesses all the improvements and conveniences 
found in our most modern city churches. 


Notwithstanding considerable effort to obtain data with regard to the above 
organization, we have gathered but the few following facts. 

Jt will be seen bv what has already been stated by Mr. J. S. Hutchins, that the 
Methodists were the first Christian laborers in this field ; a long blank in their his 
tory follows, and it was not till 1852 that they erected a church edifice. As the body 
was neither large nor wealthy, it is not surprising that in building it, they should have 
contracted quite a large debt ; but all contributed, as far as they were able, toward 
defraying the expense none, probably, more generously than the late Thos. Jackson. 
This church building was erected so far from what now constitutes the main part of 
the village, that another was erected in a more central and convenient location, in 
1882. This is the fine brick church on Main street which this denomination still 
occupies. The old church was destroyed by fire with the store of P. H. Lane, Esq., 
near which it stood, in September, 1894. A substantial and commodious parsonage 
lias also been erected contiguous to the new church. 


2 47 

As stated in the history of St. Andrews, Lachute became the head of the 
Circuit in 1865. The following are the names of the first few ministers who 
came after the change was made, with a table which shows the state of the 
Church at that period. 



o s c 

u v -5.= 

u ^ Kfa 

~ E = "* 

- . 


"rt C 

*s a 

S 3 


3 *S O " 

c [t. 






1 865 

Wm. Shaw. B.A 

22O "^ l^ 

- J 

Grenville united with it. 





Joseph Kilgour, Wm. S. McCullough, B.A 

2 Jd. ^^6 

r | - 



Joseph Kilgour * t . . 

2CO 460 

7 T - 


*J / 


North Gore set off. f Grenville again set off. 

The ministers who have had charge of this Circuit during the last few years are 
the Rev. John Walton, John Armstrong, J. V. McDowell, B.A., VV. Craig and the 
present pastor, Rev. Mr. Clipsharn. 

It should be stated that the late Thomas Jackson, besides contributing liberally 
towards the erection of the new church, also gave the ground for its site. He was 
one of the early settlers of Lachute, was highly esteemed, and died in the spring of 
1895. at an advanced age. He left one son and four daughters; the former, whose 
name also is Thomas Jackson, is one of the prosperous and respected farmers of 
Lachute. _ Mr. F. C. Ireland, in his "Sketches of Lachute," gives the following ad 
ditional history of Methodism in this section of the country, which we regard as well 
worth preserving : 

"In 1810, the Rev. Thomas Madden was appointed to the Ottawa Circuit of 
the United States. This Circuit embraced all the territory between Montreal and 
Kingston. Mr. Madden had just married a daughter of David Breckenridge, Esq., of 
Brockviile, a man of considerable standing in the community, and his daughter had 
been brought up tenderly, and was accustomed to all the comforts and many of the 
refinements of good society. Mr. Madden took his bride with him on the rounds of 
the Ottawa Circuit one appointment of which was in the East Settlement near 
Lachute. A few Methodists who had come from the American side lived here, and 
among them was a Mr. Hyalt, whose rudely constructed barn was the first chapel 
in which the settlers from many miles around assembled to hear the Gospel preached. 
In the loft of Mr. Hyatt s new log-house, the minister and his wife found a comfort 
able lodging place for the night. The Hyatts were an intelligent and interesting 
couple, and their house was the home of the itinerates for many years, and was en 
joyed and looked forward to with pleasing anticipations when traveling for miles, 
through the uncleared country, over the roughly constructed roads and bridge! 
rivers, from Bytown to Montreal." 

Mr. Ireland also records another incident: "The Rev. Mr. Luckey, who had 
closed his labors for the year, by preaching his last sermon to the people of the East 
Settlement in Mr. Hyatt s barn, left the next day, to attend the Conference in New 
York. In crossing the Ottawa river at Point Fortune, his horse got into the water, 
and was nearly drowned. Mr. Luckey also narrowly escaped, but was lucky enough 
to get safe on the other side. Being fatigued, he went to a French house, to seek 


rest and something to eat. His appearance was not very clerical just at that time. 
His beard had grown out considerably since his last shave, some weeks previously, 
and when he asked for something to eat, the simple-minded Lut kind French people 
mistook his meaning, and brought him a razor, and it was some time before he could 
get them to understand that he was hungry. Rev. Mr. Hibbard was another of the 
itinerates who followed. On one occasion, while attempting to preach at Hyatt s 
barn, and the people had just settled down to hear a good sermon, as they had been 
accustomed to. poor Hibbard suddenly became embarrassed, and " broke down/ as 
many a clever young man has done in his first efforts at public speaking. Mr. Hyatt, 
being a local preacher, took up the text, and held forth to the great delight of all 
present, some of whom had traveled many miles to attend the service." 

The Methodists have always had a flourishing Sunday School. Olivet Hall, built 
by Mr. James Fish, was used for some time by this School, but finding it too small 
for their accommodation, in 1877, Mr. Fish enlarged it by an addition at the end, 24 
feet square. 

REV. WILLIAM WARNE CLARK, D.D., is a member of an Argenteuil family. 
He is a son of Orange Clark and Ann Warner, his wife, and was born i6th March, 
1838. He entered the Methodist ministry when 18, was ordained by Dr. Stenson at 
Kingston, in 1860, went to the United States in 1870, and joined the New York East 
Conference, of which he is still a member. Dr. Clark received his honorary degree 
from the Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111., in 1880. He is a member of the 
Committee of the Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, and pastor of Brooklyn Sixth Avenue 
Church. His sermons are illustrated by large paintings, and among the titles are 
such as these : "The House that Rum built," " Mr. Tongue of Tattle Town."* 


The first regular Roman Catholic services in Lachute were held by the Rev. 
Calixte Ouimet, cure of St. Andrews, who also erected a church building and pres 
bytery. This church was destroyed by fire in 1876, shortly after its erection. The 
present church was immediately erected, though it has since been enlarged ; it is 
brick, 80 feet in length, 35 feet in width, with seats for 400 people. 

Rev. Arthur Derome succeeded Mr. Ouimet at Lachute, and was the first resi 
dent clergyman ; he remained here fifteen years, extended the church twenty feet in 
length, and added the sacristy. He removed to Montreal, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Anthime Carriere, on the ist of January, 1894. 

The Rev. Mr. Carriere, who still remains incumbent, was born at St. Benoit, 
educated at the Seminaiy of St. Therese, and ordained in August, 1878. Previous 
to coming to Lachute, he was engaged as assistant in different churches, being thus 
employed ten years in Montreal. He has recently made extensive repairs on the 
interior and exterior of the fine brick presbytery at Lachute. His congregation is a 
large one the communicants numbering 700. 


The W. C. T. U. of Lachute was organized by Mrs. Youmans in January, 1883, 
with Mrs. W. A. Leggo as president ; Mrs. H. Fraser, jun., secretary; and the late 
Mrs. H. M. Gall, treasurer. It was, with the other unions, formed into a Provin 
cial Union in September of the same year, 1883. The present officers are: Mrs. 
Mackie, President ; Mrs. A. J. Simpson, secretary ; and Mrs. Barley, treasurer. 

* Contributed by E. S. Orr. 



In October, 1895, Lachute entertained the Provincial Union. 

The Young People s Society of Christian Endeavor, a Union one, was organ 
ized in 1889 ; MALCOLM MCCALLUM was the first president of the Local Union, and 
James Armstrong, of the Lachute Road, is the present president. The first president 
of the County Union was John Loynachan. 

A short time after the organization of the Y. P. S. C. E., the Methodist Church 
formed an Epworth League, which, after about a year, fell through; but, in 1894, 
was re-organized, and is still carried on. 

In 1893, a junior Y. P. S. C. E. was formed in connection with Henry s Church. 

The original Christian Endeavor Society has never lapsed, but continues to hold 
meetings each Monday evening in Raitt s Hall. 

A Mechanics Institute was formed in Lachute, ist of March, 1855, tn -e trustees 
being Dr. Thomas Christie, John Meikle, and Samuel Hills , John Meikle was the 
first president. It began with a membership of 21, and the amount subscribed was 
,30 IDS. It soon received quite an addition from the District Library Association 
which united with it. From a Report to the Provincial Secretary, 5th January, 1856, 
we learn that the Institute had 140 members, and possessed a library of 1,000 vols., 
valued at ^200, and that the total revenue was ^160 155. 

For a time the records were kept regularly, which shows that the interest in the 
Institute was alive; but later, the blanks that occur grow longer, until it is evident that 
the organization existed only in name. An effort on the part of a few individuals has 
been made at different times to resuscitate it, and recently, some interest has once more 
been awakened. The present officers are ; Dr. Christie, M.P., president ; Thomas 
Barron, vice-president and C. D. Dyke, secretary. During the height of its popular 
ity, it possessed a library of 1,700 volumes ; many of these have been lost, but the 
library is still in existence, and contains very many valuable books. 

Lachute has always possessed quite a goodly number of people devoted to tem 
perance. We have no data to show when the first movement in this direction began, 
but it is well known that it was long before the organization of the Sons of Temper 
ance in 1852. 

The erection of Victoria Hall by this Society shows that it must have been a 
large and flourishing organization, but, as in ail other places, it had its day of progress 
and popularity, and then its period of decline. The Good Templars and other tem 
perance societies have since followed, and been attended with more or less success. 
But the good work of temperance still goes on, not alone by the influence of organ 
izations, pledged only to abstain from the use of spirituous liquors, but by those like 
the W. C. T. U. and Christian Endeavor Societies, which, hand in hand with the 
Church of Christ, lead the erring one to the light which reveals his weakness, and 
shows to him a habitation whose foundation is rock. 

For many years Lachute has not wanted for music to cheer her citizens on gala 
days. A Band was formed by the Sons of Temperance, about the year 1855, since 
which a similar organization has usually been in existence here, though sometimes 
holding to life with a precarious tenure. 

There are now two Bands one composed of English-speaking members, the 
other of French ; the latter was but recently organized. 

A Masonic Lodge was opened here in September, 1880, called " Argenteuil 
Lodge." William Hay was the first Master; W.J.Simpson, M.P.P., filled this 
office three years, and Harry Slater is the present Master. 



One has but to gain a view of the West End, or Lachute Mills, as the post office 
is named, to comprehend the fact, that Lachute is a manufacturing town of no little 
importance. Its water power is unsurpassed; up and down the river on either side 
are mills and factories, the din of whose machinery, combined with the roar of the 
falls, is an index of the many industries by which hundreds of families are main 

By whatever road one enters the west part of the town, the first object that 
meets his eye will be the tall chimney and massive stone buildings the paper mills 
of J. C. Wilson. They rise conspicuously a grand witness, not only to the possi 
bilities within reach of a young man s industry and energy, but to the progress of 
Canadian manufacturers. 


The first view of Mr. Wilson will assure the most casual observer that he pos 
sesses more than ordinary ability ; his clear penetrating eye, and quick, dignified 
movements, at once declare him a business man, and one whose executive ability 
gives him the right to command. He rather enjoys relating the story of his early 
struggles, and is pleased to remember that, through the blessing of God, his own 
foresight and industry have brought him to his present state of financial indepen 
dence. He was born in 1841, near Reshaikin, in the County of Antrim, Ireland, 
and soon afterward his family came to Montreal, where his father obtained a 
position as pattern maker in St. Mary s Foundry. 

The taste of the younger Wilson inclining to n.echanics, he was apprenticed, at 
the age of twelve, to learn the trade of machinist. A severe accident, however, pre 
vented his completing the full term of apprenticeship, and then, through the kindness 
of friends, he became a pupil for a year and a half in the McGill Normal School. Soon 
after this, the family in which he then made his home moved to Beauharnois, Que. 

On arriving there, not wishing to depend on his friends for his maintenance, he 
at once found employment at painting in a furniture manufactory. 

One evening, soon afterward, when he had finished his work for the day, two 
gentlemen called to see him. Having heard, they said, that he possessed a diploma 
from the Normal School in Montreal, and having also heard of his industrious and 
steady habits, they had come to engage him to teach the village school, the former 
teacher having left. Though reluctant, on account of his youth and inexperience 
in teaching, to accept the position, after some deliberation, he closed with their offer 
of twenty dollars per month, for one month, on trial. To one knowing him, it is nor 
surprising that he was highly popular with his pupils, and that he remained in the 
school for three years . 

One of his greatest anxieties during the first winter was to save money enough to 
discharge certain debts he had contracted for clothing before leaving Montreal. 
With his wages and several dollars earned by his mechanical skill during his even 
ings, he had enough left, after paying his board, to meet these accounts, and, as soon 
as his school closed, he visited the Metropolis and paid them. 

Never," said Mr. Wilson, "have I felt prouder or more happy than I did when 
fulfilled this promise, and my mind was relieved of these debts." 

The reflection, that the profession of teaching gave little scope for the exercise of 
his ambition, now induced him to abandon it, and going to Belleville, Ont., he obtain 
ed a position in a book store. He remained there some time, gaining that experience 

.1. ( . WILSON. 


and knowledge of the business which equipped him for better positions. He was 
next employed in a large publishing and newspaper house in Toronto, and from this 
in 1863, he went to New York. His pecuniary capital at that time consisted of just 
thirty-four dollars a larger sum than that of many other young men who have land 
ed strangers in the great city, yet not a sum encouraging to one, with neither friends 
nor employment. 

By chance, he fell in with another young Canadian of good parentage, but with 
out money, who for some time had been in vain seeking a position. They roomed 
in the same hotel, and spent several days between sight-seeing and looking for 

At last, one morning Mr. Wilson received an offer of four dollars per week to 
work in a subordinate position in a warehouse; but resolving that he would not 
accept this paltry sum until all hopes had failed of doing better, he arranged with the 
manager to keep the place open for him for a week. Fortunately, the next morning, 
as he started out in quest cf work, he noticed the sign of T. W. Strong, publisher, 
and he at once entered and enquired for the proprietor. He was shown into his office, 
when he made known the object of his visit. 

" You have seen the advertisement, I suppose, that I put into The Herald yes 
terday for an assistant," said Mr. Strong, who, according to Mr. Wilson s opinion, 
combined the qualities of sternness and dignity. " No," was the reply, " I came here 
on observing your sign." " Well," he said, " 1 have advertised fora young man, and 
if you will come in again this afternoon, I will tell you whether I want you or not." 
"Very encouraging," thought the young applicant, and, pursuant to the request, he 
was at the office that afternoon. The proprietor had just received a large number of 
letters which he had began to peruse. After reading two or three, he addressed his 
visitor with : 

" What wages do you expect, sir ? " 

" Twelve dollars a week," was the reply. 

" Here, look over some of these," said Mr. Strong, handing him some letters. 
With many misgivings, perceiving that they were applications for the position he 
was seeking, Mr. Wilson took the letters and read. The first one did not allay his 
anxiety, as the wri:er offered to work for six dollars per week ; still, his crude style 
and bad spelling might counterbalance the effect produced by his moderate demand 
of salary. The next letter was more assuring, as the writer wanted twenty-five 
dollars per week. After reading two or three more, with the same alternation of hopes 
and fears, he relumed the bundle to Mr. Strong, who had been carefully observing 
him, and, no doubt, forming an estimate of his capability. "So you want twelve 
dollars ? " he queried, as he took the letters. 

" 1 trust I can make myself of that value to you," was the modest reply. 

" Well, you see what offers are made in these letters, but I can afford to give you 
ten dollars per week." Though highly elated with the offer, he did not t it 

till after a few minutes delay. On expressing his willingness to begin work at 
that salary, his employer said : 

"Well, now, this is Friday; you will want a day to look about the city ; .sup 
pose you come next Monday ? " 

" Very well," said Mr. Wilson, " I will do so; " he then departed much hap: 
than when he entered. 

His friend who had accompanied him was outside, anxious to hear hU rq 
and was scarcely less pleased at the result than Wilson himself. He now decided to 
accept the position first offered to Wilson, which commanded the salary of four 
dollars per week. Not long after Mr. Wilson entered the service <>! 



keeper of the establishment was taken sick, and Strong insisted that Wilson should 

nanaee the books till the bookkeeper recovered. To his surprise, m going over the 

Doks he discovered the startling fact, that one account contained an error of several 

housand dollars in favor of Strong. The fact was reported to his employer, but he 

was so reluctant to believe it, he asked Wilson to go over the account again very 

carefully Though perfectly satisfied that his figures were correct, he did as requested, 

and with the same result as before. Still doubtful, the proprietor now called in the 

aid of an expert accountant, and his labors fully confirmed the truth of Wilson s 

statement and Mr. Strong had the satisfaction of knowing that he was richer by 

several thousand dollars than he had supposed. He now insisted that Mr. Wilson, 

^^ith a proper increase of salary, should take sole charge of his books, and he shortly 

after kit for a visit to Europe. Not long after his departure, a fire broke out in Bar- 

mim s Museum, destroying a building on Fulton street and another on Ann street, 

both belonging to Mr. Strong. 

With the energy and promptness peculiar to him, Mr. Wilson at once set about 
rebuilding, and, before his employer returned, he had the new buildings, with many 
improvements, nearly completed. " During the remaining years he was with Strong, 
he had entire charge of his establishment, enjoying his esteem and confidence, as well 
as that of the other employees. But he married, duiing his slay here, Miss Jeanie 
Kilgour, of the town of Beauharnois. Canada ; and Mrs. Wilson having a strong love 
for the home of her youth, and being desirous to exchange New York for Montreal, 
her husband decided to return to the latter city a step which he was the more fully 
inclined to take by the solicitations of friends. 

On his return, he entered the employment of Angus, Logan & Co., wholesale 
stationers and paper manufacturers, as bookkeeper. Three and a half years sub 
sequently, a desire to enlarge his sphere of action led him to begin business on his 
own account, and with the assistance of his employers he began to make paper bags 
the first ever made in Canada by machinery. The business proved a success, so 
that Mr. Wilson soon repaid his old employers for their assistance, and became one of 
their largest customers. His business, begun on a modest scale and sure basis, at 
first required only two flats of a building, but, in process of time, a whole block of 
stores, with six flats each, was secured. In 1880, his business demanded that he 
should make his own paper. He purchased the water power at Lachute, and erected 
the mills whose history is given below. 

Mr. Wilson has not selfishly confined his time and talents to his own personal 
business ; but, whenever they have been called into requisition by the public for a 
salutary purpose, they have never been withheld. The people of the County of 
Argenteuil, in consideration of his ability, elected him to represent their interests in 
the Dominion Parliament. In this new position, fortune, which thus far had been 
so prodigal of her gifts, did not desert him, and his reputation as a good reasoner, 
debater and politician largely increased. He contributed much toward the reorgan 
ization of the " Fish and Game Protection Club of the Province of Quebec," and for 
two years was its president. For the same length of time, also, he was president of 
the Irish Protestant Benevolent Society, and has been an alderman of Montreal, and 
chairman of many important civic committees. He is also a Life-Governor of the 
General Hospital, the Protestant Insane Asylum, the Montreal Dispensary, and the 
Maternity Hospital. He has taken an interest in the educational institutions of 
Montreal, and was for some time a member of the Board of Protestant School Com 
missioners. Religious and benevolent institutions have profited by his generous 

He has always manifested a fondness for tools, a taste enhanced, no doubt, by 











much mechanical taste, he dislikes * s 

appearance of having been done in haste, or with indifference to method 

The following story, which he sometimes enjoys tellin- JH us tra 
pecuhanty of wanting his work well done is knoin to bSemSSS^ 

On a certain occasion he had at his mills, in Lachute, one of his favorite 


plumb he thought to have a laugh at Mr. Wilson s expense 

M, r ^ s ^ inrr Sas sa o 

arm^a square over the other, a plumb-bob in one hand, and hammer and nails in the 

^"^ y U g ,?K g t0 d hh a11 theSG t0 ls R^hard? " asked Mr. Wilson. 
Repair the wash-basin, sir," replied Richard 

Nonsense, you want nothing but the hammer and a few nails " 
Indeed, sir I know when you want a job done, vou want it level and square 
and plumb, and, by golly, we past use these tools on every job - 
Mr. Wilson saw and appreciated Richard s humor 

Mr Wilson is an ardent disciple of Isaac Walton, ond annually seeks the seclu- 
sion of shady river banks and mountain streams and lakes with rod and line ; but 
ed hv "rh" S Trf y PP ? Sed l the ; vant0a destruction of the finny tribe, is witness- 

Socie y tv of ! P V PUt ^ hi w a !, d * mg t0 rganize the Fish ^d Game Protection 
society ot the Province of Quebec. " 


He has five children living-three sons and two daughters. The sons are all 
connected with him in business. 

h > h f u ChargC f the P U P mills at St " Jerome, and also 

after the manufacturing and the factory, Montreal. 

, . 

To2 Wa !; d the f C nd S0n occu P ies the position of assistant cashier in the 
iiead Ornce, Montreal. 

.Edwin H. is at the paper mills, Lachute, learning the art of paper-making, with 
the intention of having charge of the mills at some future date 

His daughters are Ethel F. and Annie L. ; the three boys being the eldest, and 
the two girls the youngest of the family living. 


The illustrations represent "Lachute Paper Mills" as they now are, in 1896 
erected at a cost of over $300,000. 

As stated in the sketch of Mr. Wilson s life, he was seized with the idea in . 
that, to place his business in a front position in the trade, it would be necessan 
Him to own his own paper mills, and he made several visits to different parts of the 
)untry near Montreal, where water-powers exist, knowing that a -ood water-power 
and proper facilities for getting the raw material into the mill, and the product on: 
it, were the first and most essential points to consider. 

*For the last paragraph, as well as for some others in the nl^vv sketch of Mr. Wilson, uv 
mdebted to " Borthwick s Gazetteer of Montreal." 


The Townships were visited, and the country east and west of Montreal, but 
none of them seemed to suit. 

As the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental Rai way had just been completed 
from Montreal to Ottawa, and parties in the parish were desirous of establishing 
manufacturing industries there, Mr. Wilson was led to Lachute. After surveying the 
water-powers, he decided that if a purchase could be made on reasonable terms, he 
would locate his paper mills here. He did not come to this conclusion until he had 
found that there was ample water-power for a mill such as he intended at that time 
to build. Lachute was then a village of about 650 inhabitants, and the site on 
which the paper mill stands to-day was a forest of pines, oaks and maples. After 
considerable bantering between the owners of the land, they agreed with Mr. Wilson in 
the matter of terms. He then made plans for his first mill, and appeared before the 
Mayor and Council of the Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, Tnomas Barron, 
Esq., being the Mayor. At a meeting convened in the old Court House, where 
the Council sat, Mr. Wilson exhibited his plans, and petitioned the Parish for exemp 
tion from taxation for twenty years, providing he built the mills as he designed. The 
Council, with very little delay, complied with his request, and, certainly, they have 
no reason to regret their action of the fall of 1879. 

In June, 1880, the first mill of the four, which the block of buildings now repre 
sents, was started. It was a great task to undertake excavations, flumes, wheel-pits, 
quarrying stone, and getting the siding in ; but the mill i. e., the building was com 
pleted some time in November. The machinery was placed in it during the Fall of 
1880 and the Winter of 1881, and the first paper run on the machine (which was a 
double cylinder machine, made by Rice, Barton & Fales, of Worcester, Mass., after 
Mr. Wilson s special plans), on or about ist April, 1881. 

During the years 1881 and 18.^2, Mr. Wilson had great difficulty in procuring a 
proper foreman for the mill; he was intent on manufacturing a class of manilla 
papers such as were manufactured in the United States. Not until the winter of 
1883 di 1 he solve the problem, why he did not succeed in making the class of paper 
he wished, and not till he had obtained the second expert from the States. It may 
be a secret in the trade, still it is none the worse for being told, and may help some 
other paper maker placed in the same position that Mr. Wilson was. The kind of 
lime for boiling the jute stock was the secret of the trouble and the secret of the 
success. Lime from Montreal, from Hull, and from Lachute was tried, but it did 
not prove satisfactory. Not until Mr. Wilson ordered his first carload of lime from 
Dudswell (away beyond Sherbrooke), and boiled his first boiler of stock with it, did 
he succeed, and then the mystery was unravelled. The component parts of the lime 
are a very important matter to consider in boiling jute or manilla stock. 

The Lachute paper mill took a first rank in the Canadian market for manilla 
papers from that time forth, and has maintained it ever since. Not only did he manu 
facture manilla paper, in rolls, for his paper-bag machines in Montreal, but also made 
sheet or ream paper for his growing trade with the grocers and general dealers all 
over the country. 

In 1885, the business had grown so much, that it was necessary to build another 
mill, or add another paper machine, with all its attendant machinery. That mill 
was commenced in May, 1885, an< ^ was completed in the fall of that year. 

The first paper made on the new machine (which was a Harper Fourdrinier) 
was made on the yth January, 1886, and after that had been running two or three 
years, Mr. Wilson saw that it would be necessary, in the very near future, to add 
still another mill, and of much larger dimensions. The stone was thereon the ground 
waiting to be quarried. The cut stone, of course, for trimmings for windows and 


corners lime stone is from Montreal. So, in 1891, Mr. Wilson commenced the 
largest addition, and the completion of the block of buildings, as represented in the 
photograph picture of these mills. Tail-races were cirried out in 1891. Tn 1892, 
still further work was accomplished, and the lower flats of the addition were com 
pleted. 1111893, the whole mill was finished, and in 1894, 2ist May, paper was run 
over the new machine. This new machine, a straight Fourdrinier, one of the largest 
in the country, specially adapted for fast running, Mr. Wilson prizes very much. 

The business now has grown so much, that he contemplates, in the very near 
future, placing the fourth machine in the mill ; the building is already there (that is, 
the room for it), and all that will be required will be to place the machine and the 
pulp engines ; the water-wheels and wheel-pits are all complete and ready. 

The Lachute Paper Mills now have a daily output of about 15 tons, and when 
the amount reaches 20 tons, Mr. Wilson s idea of a perfect mill will be accomplished. 

Not without proper storage could such a mill be carried on, consequently, there 
have been built, on the line of the siding which comes from the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, five large storehouses and a stone warehouse for storing 
the finished paper. There is also a siding running down in front of the mill, so that 
raw material may be placed in tHe mill, or in the storehouses, by just handing the 
stock out of the cars, or the finished product from the s tone warehouses or mill into 
them. The facilities for loading and unloading, and for shipping, could not be excelled 
in any mill in the country. 

When doubling the mill, in 1885, Mr. Wilson conceived the idea, that he was 
going to draw heavily upon the water-power, and as his business up to that time 
was a very exact one, and he could not afford to shut down for any length of time, he 
placed a large steam engine of 250 horse power, with boilers to supply steam for the 
same, and this he has found to be a very wise precaution, for in dry summers (such 
as the summer of 1895), the steam-engine had to be drawn upon to supply the power, 
or, rather, to help the power, and so the business g~>es on without interruption. 

About three years ago, he conceived the idea of placing not only the paper bag 
machines that were in Montreal, but a set of the most improved, to manufacture the 
celebrated self-opening square bag, in the building which he had erected for the 
purpose, that is, for the paper bag factory, at one end of the mill. In this paper bag 
factory there are fifteen paper bag m chines, and three flour sack tubing machines, 
as well as cutters, etc. The paper is brought in from the mill in rolls, and the 
paper bag machines take these continuous rolls and turn out bags, some of the ma 
chines at the rate of 100,000 per day, others at the rate of 70,000, 60,000, 50,000, and 
40.000. There is a capacity in his paper bag factory of about three quarters 
million bags per day, and it is now turning out an average ot about 350,000 bags da 
While all this increase was going on in the way of buildings, of course, the number 
of hands also increased, and to-day there are employed in this manufactory about 
no people. 

The town of Lachute has grown since -1880 from 650 people to a 

Mr. Wilson has his private residence on the height of land behind th 
beautiful high knoll, and from his verandah a beautiful view can be had of 
tains and of the town generally. Here he enjoys, with his family, : 
months every summer. 

Vraone the efficient and reliable employes of Mr. Wilson -and he wil 
retain any other kind are his Bookkeeper, Harry Slater, and the ! 
his paper mill and bag factory, Robert Daw. 

MR. SLATER was born in London, Eng., and came to Canada in 1890. 
first employed by the Moffatt Blacking Company, Montreal, as Book 


eighteen months afterwards, he engaged to Mr. Wilson, with whom he has since re 
mained. He was married 2nd Feb., 1880, to Sarah Mary Wenborn, Upper Hollo- 
way, London. Mr. Slater is a great reader, is familiar with the English authors, and 
withal, an active Mason; he is the present Master of the Argenteuil Lodge. 

ROBERT DAW was born in Bradninch, Devonshire, England, and at the age of 
eleven commenced work in his native place, for Mr. Wm. Drew, in Kentham Mills. 
In 1878, he came to America as Superintendent for the Hon. Geo. West, also a 
native of Bradninch, who had worked himself up from a machine tender till he 
became proprietor of several large paper mills ; he is now one of the most extensive 
bag manufacturers in this country. Mr. Daw came to Canada in 1893, as the Super 
intendent of Mr. Wilson. He is a devoted member of the Baptist Church, and is 
Superintendent of the Sabbath School connected with that church, whose pupils 
number sixty; he was married in 1880, to Elizabeth Crowley, of Milton, Northamp 
tonshire, England. 

As one passes up Main street, more quiet scenes prevail, yet here on the left is 
one of the oldest manufactories of the place one which, for many years, has annually 
supplied vehicles of almost every kind to the citizens" of the county the carriage shop 
of A. Mitchell & Sons. 

MR. ARCHIBALD MITCHELL, the senior partner of the firm, was born in Belgium, 
whither his family removed from Scotland. His grandfather was Rev. Hugh Mitchell, 
of Glasgow, a graduate of the University of that city, in which institution he received 
the medal for elocution, and afterwards was professor of elocution. He also pub 
lished several books and translated others. Mr. Mitchell still has copies of books 
written by his grandfather, the title of one of which reads as follows : " Scotticisms, 
vulgar Anglicisms and grammatical Improprieties corrected." 

" Hugh Mitchell, A.M., Master of the English and French Academies, 

His wife s.maiden name was Emily Nesbitt, and her brother was a surgeon in 
the British Navy. After the death- of Surgeon Nesbitt, his widow married Nelson, the 
hero of Trafalgar. This lady was also a relative of the Hamilton Brothers of Hawks- 
bury, Ont. 

The Rev. Hugh Mitchell removed to Belgium, and was there, when the battle of 
Waterloo was fought. One of his sons was engaged in that conflict, by which he lost 
an eye. The father taught elocution there some time receiving a guinea for each 
lesson his pupils coming from France, Germany, England, etc. He had three sons 
and one daughter ; the latter was married to Robert Cochran, of whom a sketch is 
given in the history of St. Philippe. 

Two of the sons, Archibald and Benedict, each erected a factory in Belgium for 
the manufacture of cloths ; they failed in the enterprise, and then came to Canada, 
the father of the subject of our sketch arriving in 1848. He settled first at Hill Head, 
then at Beech Ridge, at which place both he and his wife died. They had four 
sons and five daughters. Francis, the third son, still lives at Beech Ridge. 

Archibald, the youngest son, who was eighteen when he came to Canada, worked 
on the farm at Hill Head for a time, but farmers assuring him that he would accom 
plish little there, on account of the sterile nature of the farm, he turned his attention 
to the manufacture of machinery, for which he had peculiar aptitude, and he soon 
made fifteen fanning mills for neighboring farmers. He then learned the carriage- 
maker s trade at Lachute with the Duddridge Brothers, for whom he worked till 1856, 
when he entered into partnership with them, the firm becoming Duddridge 



Mitchell. This continued till 1888, when the co-partnership was dissolved by the 
death of Mr. Duddridge. Mr. Mitchell was in business alone till 1892, when he took 
his second son, John, into partnership, and as another of his sons now works here, 
the firm is styled Mitchell & Sons. Mr. Mitchell married Grace, a daughter of Mr! 
Dewar, of Dalesville. His third son, William Mitchell, who graduated at McGill in 
1894, is now an M.D., of Mansonville, P.Q. 

Mitchell & Sons have a good-sized factory here, employ several hands, and 
make all kinds of carriages and sleighs of the latest style, and their work has won a 
wide reputation for neatness and durability. 

Another manufactory, adjacent to the above, on Main street, is that of JOHN- 
HOPE, baker and confectioner ; he is also proprietor of a Spool, Shuttle and Bobbin 
Factory at the West End. 

Mr. Hope was born in Edinburgh, his father being an officer in the Scotch 
Fusilier Guards. He came to Canada in 1870, and after remaining in Montreal 
seven years, he came to Lachute, arriving on St. Patrick s Day, 1877. He at once 
opened a bakery, and as the railway was then in process of construction, and business 
active, he was very successful in his venture, and his business has been a progressive 
one to the present. He supplies a large portion of the village with bread, and much 
of the surrounding country. In 1889, he bought the Factory referred to above, and 
has since enlarged and improved it, so, that he is prepared to fill orders for shuttles 
bobbins, spools, button moulds, brush backs and everything required for cotton and 
woollen mills. 

He was fortunate in securing the service of trustworthy and efficient assistants 
in these mills, who have long and faithfully served him ; these are E. G. Spaulding, 
manager, \\ ho has recently gone to the States ; F. E. Carter, Bookkeeper, and S. Duff. 
Engineer; the ingenuity and skill of the latter in repairing machinery and inventing 
tools for special purposes rendering him a handy man of inestimable value to an em 

Mr. Hope is a man of great enterprise and energy, one who is determined to push 
to successful issue whatever he undertakes ; a typical Scotchman, generous, public- 
spirited, and much attached to the games and sports of his native land. He erected 
a fine curling rink on his premises in the fall of 1893, which is a source of great 
attraction during the winter evenings the Curling Club now formed, of which Mr, 
Hope is president, being a large one. He was Captain of the Team of Argenteuil 
Boys, in the fall of 1894, in their Tug-of-War contest at Montreal with the Boys of 
Glengarry.* ^He is a prominent Mason, and has been President of the Argenteuil 
Lodge three terms. He has been a member of the Municipal Council six years, and 
is a Deacon of Henry s Presbyterian Church. He was married i5th September. 
1871, to JaneEnnis, daughter of James Ennis, of Tienland, Morayshire, Scotland. 

Since the above was written, a copy of the Canadian Journal of Fabrics has 
come to hand, from which we take the following paragraphs : 

" The machine shop is a perfect one. The Factory gives employment to a large 
number of hands, and the output is steadily increasing month by month. The woods 
which are made use of are beech, bircli (yellow and white), maple, ironwood, poplar, 
white ash, apple, persimmon and dogwood ; the two last named having to be sor. 
for in North Carolina. In addition to the wood obtained from outside markets, be- 

* Names of those comprising the Argenteuil Team which was victorious : Robt. Silverson. . 
Boa, Omer I aquette. David Black, Eugene Theiien, Edouard The lien, Wm. John M<>re, Hiram 
Niell, Duncan McOuat, Edward Berniquier, Capt. Charles Gardner, Samuel Clifford, John I 
David Lindley, Wm.John Rodgers. 


tvveen 400 and 500 cords are annually purchased in the vicinity, and are brought in 
in the shape of logs and cord wood, being cut up into stock as required. Before 
being used, it undergoes a thorough process of curing in the steam drying rooms, 
which are most effective and convenient. 

Among the special products of this establisment, we would call attention to the 
shuttles, this being the only factory in the Dominion where these are made. Pre 
viously, the mills had to look across the border for their supplies of these needful 
articles; but finding that the Lachute works are quite able to compete successfully 
with the Americans, both as to quality and price, the mills are finding it to their 
advantage to patronize the home manufactory." 

HAMELIN AND AYERS is a name familiar in every household, not only in Argen- 
teuil, but in the County of Prescott their woolen mills being one of the most important 
manufactories in this section. 

THOMAS HENRY AYERS is a son of the late Thomas Ayers, who, in 1858, came 
with his family from Cornwall, England, to Columbus, Ontario, and was employed 
there, in the Empire Woolen Mills, till his death in 1891. Thomas, the son, served 
his apprenticeship in the same mills, then worked in different places till 1868, when 
he entered into partnership, in Perth, with Mr. Felix Hamelin. They first conducted 
a carding mill at Perth. In 1870, they hired the McGill Woolen Mills in Hawks- 
bury, Ont., for eight years. In 1876, they purchased of different parties in Lachute 
about twenty acres of land and water power for their present mills. At that time 
there was no road to the site of their present buildings nothing but a thick growth 
of forest all along the river side, where now there is a village, fine dwellings, gardens 
and cultivated fields. In 1878, they constructed the dam and roads, and erec ed a 
dwelling; and the following year built the mill, and put it in operation in 1880. 

Mr. Ayers was married to Olive Paquette, a niece of Mr. Hamelin, in August, 
1871. He has had four sons, three of whom are living John Thomas, William 
Henry and Ernest Francis L. AH are active, intelligent young men, and take 
lively interest in the business. 

MR. FELIX HAMELIN was born in St. Hennas. When he was very young, his 
father moved to the Seigniory of Longueuil, Ont., where he resided on a farm t 
April, 1865, when he died at the age of 98. Felix, the eldest son, was early engagec 
in the woolen manufacturing business, and spent some years in mercantile pursuits. 
When in the County of Prescott, he took considerable interest in public affairs, and 
his influence was often courted during election campaigns. He recently spent 
year in England in connection with his business. That both he and Mr. Ayers are 
remarkably intelligent and shrewd business men, is obvious, from the manner i 
which they have enlarged their business and increased their capital. When they 
formed a co partnership in Perth, twenty-five years ago, each partner invested h 
entire capital $200. Since that period, they have made no division, their earnings 
having been devoted either to the enlargement of the business, or invested in re; 
estate. Their property now including real estate in different localities is appraise 
at $125,000, which is unencumbered. They have in their principal mill two re 
cards for farmers work, four sets of manufacturing cards, one thousand spindl 
eighteen looms, and all other machinery necessary for finishing and dyeing cl< 
They manufacture a fine class of tweeds, flannels, blankets, paper and pulp man 
facturers felts, and lubricating and printers felts. When the mill is run to its tu 
capacity, it will manufacture 600 pounds of wool in ten hours. The goods of this ft 
are sold throughout the Dominion, from Nova S:otia to British Columbia, 
also hive a mill for the purpose of manufacturing pulp from spruce and other hgh 


woods. They employ from forty-five to fifty hands, half of whom are married men 
with families. The pay roll amounts to about $r,ooo monthly. They lease water 
power to other manufacturers, and still have as good water-power not utilized as 
there is in the county. 

On the opposite side of the river from the mills of Hamelin and Ayers is a Rope 
Factory, which was built in 1882 by the late Robert Bannerman, of Montreal. After 
being in operation a few years, it was leased for twenty-one years to the Consumers 
Cordage Company, by whom it was closed, and it now stands idle. 

The iron foundry, of McOuAT & McRAE has gained celebrity in the entire 
County of Argenteuil. Thomas McOuat is the youngest son of Andrew McOuat, 
mentioned on another page. He was rmrried i6th June, 1875, to Annie Higginson 
Fraser, of Ottawa. John McRae was born in Ottawa, learned the moulder s trade, 
and has followed it the greater part of his life. He was married in the spring of 
1864 to Margaret McLean Johnson, of Scotland. She died the i2th November, 187 4, 
and he was next married in June, 1876, to Elizabeth Scott. 

The following history and description of their business is copied from The 
Watchman s report of the County Fair held at Lachute in October, 1894. It should 
be stated, however, that since the publication of that report, this firm has doubled 
the size of their machine and pattern shops : 

" The exhibit of Messr?. McOuat & McRae was a most creditable one, and 
surprised many of our people, who really were not aware to what extent this firm s 
business has spread and developed, since it was first organized in 1879. Messrs. 
Thomas McOuat and John McRae came from Ottawa, in that year, to Lachute. Both 
had been for years employed in the Victoria Foundry, Ottawa, Mr. McOuat as fore 
man pattern maker and machinist, and Mr. McRae as foreman moulder. They 
brought with them not only their experience, but resolved to retain the name Vic 
toria ; so the Victoria Foundry, Lachute, was launched forth. It was born in a 
building 28x45, on Foundry street, on the site of the present furniture factory. This 
enclosed the whole foundry and machine shop, and was only one storey high. The 
motive power was neither electricity, then unknown as a motive power, nor \vas it 
steam, but one of the old-fashioned sweep horse-powers. It was soon evident that 
they had supplied a want in coming to Lachute, and business became so brisk that, 
before a year had expired, the horse power was cast aside, and a boiler and engine 

"Starting out with the intention of keeping pace with the times and abreast with 
the demands of their patrons, the firm has never hesitated to invest their earnings in 
the business and extend their works ; so when an opportunity occurred, they seized 
it, and two years later found them building a new and larger foundry on its present 
site, and they commenced to run by water power. " Success attended this new enter 
prise, and a new era dawned. As the town grew, and more machinery became 
instal ed, the machinery department developed quickly, and the foundry had to be 
again and again extended. New machines were obtained, large planers and lathes 
and drills, until now there is here, in Lachute, one of the best equipped jobbing 
shops in the country. Starting in a building 28 x 45, one storey and a horse sweep, 
they now occupy a large, two-storey building of two wings, one extending towards 
the river 84 feet, besides outbuildings 105 feet in length, and a power house with 
fire engine. Few people have any idea of the quantity of machinery in the paper 
mill, and will be surpri ed to learn that McOuat & McRae have supplied forty tons 
of new work therefor. Besides this, they have done the work for a large number of 
outside mills. They are now specially well adapted for all kinds of castings. They 
have also gone somewhat into school desks, and during the past year have supplied 


seats for nine schools. Their specialty, however, is machinery and machine sup 
plies, a very important thing for the people of this locality, as it is the only place 
between here and Montreal where such can be procured. 

" In thus giving the history of one of our industries here, we desire to show pur 
readers that, notwithstanding the croakings of those who are constantly protesting 
that the country is going to the dogs, we have here in our midst positive proof that 
Lachute has made good progress as far as her manufacturing interests are concerned, 
and in the case of this particular firm, it has not done so at the expense of any other 
class of the community, but by energy, hard work and faith in our country." 

Traveling along the Lachute Road, about a mile west of the village of Lachute, 
one reaches a branch road, which leads, as the sign announces, to Earle s Mills. 
Following this road for the distance of half a mile, the traveler comes to the North 
River, near which, in a deep gully, stand the grist and saw mills of Earle Brothers- 
John, Edward and Harland. 

The grist mill was built about 1836 by Geo. Hoyle, who had been agent for the 
Seignior, and had erected mills for him at St. Andrews and Lachute. Through some 
disagreement with the Seignior, however, Hoyle decided to put up a mill on his own 
account, and accordingly built one on this site, which is just outside the Seigniory, 
in Chatham. After running the mill some years he sold it to John Earle, uncle of 
the present proprietors, and it was afterwards conducted for 25 years by James Earle, 
their father. This was one of the mills to which the settlers brought grists on their 
backs ; the manufacture of oatmeal was one of its principal features. 

JAMES EARLE came from Yorkshire, England, and first settled in the County of 
Two Mountains. He was living near St. Eustache at the time of the Rebellion, and 
decided to remain when the other settlers were leaving; but the place soon became 
too hot for him, and he also was obliged to make his escape. After hiding a day in 
the woods, he started on his journey at night-fall, and finally readied Lachute in 
safety ; here, in a short time, joining Capt. Quinn s Company of Volunteers, 
afterwards came to the mills, and died here in May, 1886, leaving his wife, who sti! 
survives him. Of their five sons, Charles died in Nevada, and James, already men 
tioned, lives in Bethany ; John, one of the proprietors of the mills, was married in 
1871 to Mary, daughter of Stewart Boyd, of Chatham. Mr. Earle is Captain of 
Co. No. 8 Argenteuil Rangers, and has been a member of the Battalion since 1862 ; 
he has been Municipal Councillor of Chatham for six years. Edward, married to 
Mary, daughter of William Boyd, Montreal, resides at the mills, and Harland, un 
married, lives here also ; the daughter, Evelyn E., is married to John A. Patterson, 
of Calgary, N. VV. Territory. 

In 1885 the dam was washed away, and in 1886 they built their present one. 

The lumber business is one of the important industries of the place, connected 
with which is the steam mill of P. & A. McGiBBON, sons of the late Finley Mc- 
Gibbon, noticed in the history of Dalesville. These two enterprising young men 
engaged in the lumber business here in 1881, having obtained a lease of a mill for 
five years. Ambitious, however, to do a larger business, and in a mill of their own, 
they purchased a mill site, and built their present steam mill in 1889. They have a 
planing mill also, and prepare a large quantity of lumber for finishing. The number 
of logs sawn annually by this mill is about 20,000 three-fourths of which belong 
to the firm, the remainder to customers. Last year, they shipped 100 car loads of 
lumber. The energy displayed by this firm, and their honorable way of transacting 
business, has secured the esteem and good will of the community. 

A blacksmith is a necessity in every community, and when he combines skill 
his trade with good judgment and respectability, he acquires no little popularity in t 
place. Such an one is ALEXANDER RIDDLE. 


His father, William Riddle, was born in Scotland, but he removed to Ireland, 
and several years afterwards in 1849 came to Canada, and settled in Mille Isle, 
on a farm of 100 acres, which is now owned by his son Robert. He was married 
twice before coming to Canada, and by the first marriage he had six sons and one 
daughter ; and by the second, two sons and two daughters. Alexander, the youngest 
of all, began learning the blacksmith trade, at the age of sixteen. After serving his 
apprenticeship, he spent six years in the States, then returned to Lachute, bought 
a house and lot, and has ever since followed his trade with success, and has been a 
member of the Town Council for two years. He was married 6th June, 1877, to 
Margaret Carpenter. 

SIMON McKiMME, who has an undertaker s establishment here, came from 
Morayshire, Scotland, with his father, John McKimme, in 1851. The father settled 
not far from the present Lachute Mills, and one of his sons, Joseph McKimme, now 
lives on the fine old homestead. Mr. McKimnie died nth October, 1882 ; he had five 
sons and six daughters. Simon, the fourth son, followed the carpenter s trade till 
five or six years since, when he engaged in his present occupation of undertaker. He 
keeps a hearse and a full supply of everything connected with his business. The author 
of the saying, " Solemn as an undertaker," could never have seen Mr. McKimme, for 
his humor is pleasant, and his greeting a smile. He was married 22iid August, 
1859, to Janet Pollock. 

ANDREW Joss, from Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was one whose history is identified 
with the early history of Lachute. He came here with his wife and three sons 
Wiliiam, James and George. He was employed in the grist mill a few years, and he 
then bought a farm in the vicinity of Brownsburg, on which he lived till his death. 

George, the youngest son, learned the cooper s trade, and after following it 
several years, he also opened a brewery in Lachute, which occupied the site of the 
present store of the Giles brothers. He married Mary Jane, a daughter of Patrick 
Rice ; they had four sons and two daughters. 

Mr. Joss died i7th July, 1865. Three of his sons now live in Lachute ; another 
one, James, resides in Nebraska. Duncan, the eldest of the sons, was married 24th 
August, 1875, to Mary E. Hutchins. He is a carpenter by trade, and is now in 
company with his brother George, the firm being known as " Joss Brothers, Contrac 
tors and Builders." They have a shop here, and supply all kinds of lumber for building 
and house finishing, and they have erected many of the dwellings in this section. 
They also build bridges the Westover bridge, constructed in 1884, and the Barren 
bridge in 1892, are monuments of their handicraft. George Joss was married, 2ist 
April, 1886, to Elizabeth Stalker. Daniel Joss, the youngest of the brothers, is a 
painter by trade, and the fact that he has been in the employ of the firm now known 
as Mitchell & Sons, for 28 years, is evidence of his faithfulness and efficiency. He 
has been a member of the Municipal Council of Lachute, and was married i3th 
June. 1888, to Carrie Hutchins. 

E. H. McCov is proprietor of the Marble and Granite business in Lachute, 
which is well known. His grandfather, John McCoy, came from Ireland to Hin- 
chinbrooke, Huntingdon County, about 1820, and conducted a store there till his 
death in 1852. He had five sons and two daughters that grew up. Matthew S., his 
second son, continued the mercantile business in the same store, located on the Pro 
vince Line, till 1872, when he removed to Huntingdon village, and was engaged dur 
ing the rest of his life as Auctioneer and Agent for the Law firm of McCormick & 
Major ; lie died in 1893. He was married about 1849 to Harriet Howard ; they 
had three sons and two daughters. Edmund H., the youngest son, went to Califor- 


nia in 1876, and was engaged in gold mining ten years. He then returned, came to 
Lachute, and entered into partnership in the marble and granite business with George 
L. Moir. Mr. Moir died in 1891, and Mr. McCoy has since conducted the business. 
Some idea of its extent may be inferred from the fact, that within nine years the 
value of the woik he has done in St. Andrews cemetery alone is $22,000. Mr. 
McCoy was married in 1886 to Mary, daughter of the late John Arnott, of Lakefield ; 
he represents the East Ward of Lachute in the Municipal Council. 

Besides the manufactories above noticed, O. B. LAFLEUR has quite a large 
Furniture Factory on Foundry street. 

DAVID CHRISTIE is one of the citizens of Lachute whose faithful industry has 
supplied him with enough of this world s goods, and whose integrity has secured him 
esteem. His father, David Christie, came from Ireland, and settled on a farm in the 
north part of Gore, about 1830; he there married Mary Good, also from Ireland. 
He was one of the militia who served in the Rebellion of 1837. He had ten children- 
five of each sex. David, the fourth son, began at the age of 14 to learn the shoe 
maker s trade, and has followed it successfully to the present. He was married 28th 
September, 1866, to Margaret J. Johnson, daughter of the late C apt. Johnson of 
Lakefield ; they have had three children : the eldest, a girl, died when three years old ; 
Gilbert D., the elder son, is a clerk in Victoria, B.C. ; Wm. H. is clerk in Lachute 
for J. R. McOuat. 


For the history of the newspaper enterprise we are again indebted to the pen of 
Mr. Ireland. 

He says that a citizen of Argenteuil, living in Montreal, sent a man here from 
that city, with the sum of $50, and letters of introduction to the principal citizens, 
which resulted in sufficient money being raised to start what was called fat Argenteuil, 

" The understanding between our Montreal resident and the Advertiser man was, 
that the paper should be non-political and purely independent, and run on these 
principles, so as to be a means of good to the greatest number. 

" The establishment of this paper caused a pleasant furore of excitement in the 
county. It was the first newspaper started on the north side of the Ottawa River, 
between Montreal and Ottawa, and was designed to advocate the interests of the 
Ottawa Valley, and be a welcome visitor, once a week, to every home in this and the 
adjoining counties. 

" It was in June, 1872, that the first issue of the Argenteuil Advertiser appeared. 

But, according to the further account of Mr. Ireland, the editor of the Adver 
tiser, after a time, abandoned his non-political attitude and became a most active 
champion of the Liberal party. In consequence of this, The Watchman and Ottawa 
Valley Advocate was established in 1877, with Dawson Kerr as editor and proprietor. 

W. J. Simpson (the present M.P.I- .) was for some time connected with this 
paper, and, in 1892, it passed into the hands of the Calder Brothers, by whom it is 
still published. As is well known, it was started under the auspices of the Con 
servative party, of whose principles it has ever been a devoted and able advocate. 

In 1887, or thereabout, another paper, called The Independent, was started in 
Lachute. Several copies which are before us show that it was a vivacious little 
sheet, but decidedly bellicose in character. Its publication was not long continued, 
and the Watchman has remained the only newspaper in the county until recently. 


In 1895. the proprietor of The News (St. Johns, Que.) began to issue the 
Lachute News a sheet which devotes considerable space to the affairs of Argenteuil. 
The publication of another paper, called the Argenteuil News, has just been com 
menced in l.achute, but we have not as yet had the pleasure of seeing it. 


There appears no record of how local affairs were administered in Lachute ; but 
in 1825, the North River was spanned by the first bridge, and this was away to the 
east where White s bridge now stands. This was a great boon to the Scotch settlers, 
many of whom had located on the north side of the river, and also to the Irish settlers, 
who had located in the Gore. This most necessary improvement was not accom 
plished without opposition and difficulty from persons interested in other parts of the 
river, but had not enterprise enough to begin their work. In ten years lime another 
bridge was built, which was known as Power s bridge. This name was taken from 
the fact that Orlando Powers, whose birth was referred to in an early sketch, lived 
on the north bank of the river directly facing the bridge. The building of this bridge 
was amid opposition and difficulty also. In 1840, a Mr, Hoyle, an eccentric but 
very enterprising Englishman, built a bridge at the mills, on the site where Fish s 
bridge now stands. For twenty-five years there was not a single bridge across the 
river, while, fifteen years later, thiee bridges were built, each one being opposed, and 
a strong and, in some cases, bitter rivalry existing between interested parties." * 

For several years, Lachute has had good railway accommodations ; there are now 
four passenger trains each way daily, three of which stop nere regularly, the other 
only occasionally, and there are two regular freight train?. 

Phileas Monette, the first station agent appointed here, still holds the position. 

The railway first took shape under the name of the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa 
& Occidental Railway. It was graded as far as Lachute, and the stone abutments 
for the bridges here were constructed in 1873 and 1874. After that, work was sus 
pended for some time, but. in the fall of 1876 the rails were hi j as far as Lachute. 

The Q. M. O. & O. Railway being unable to complete the road, the Quebec 
Government became the owners, and the contract for construction as far as Hull was 
given to Duncan Macdonald, who ran the trains to Lachute for a number of years. 

A dispute arose between the Government and Macdonald, and the Joly govern 
ment seized the road and placed all the stations in charge of the Militia, who were 
called out. The Government then sold the road to the C. P. R. 

The County granted no bonus, but the Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, 
which then included the town of Lachute, voted to the Q. M. O. &: O. Company a 
bonus of $25,000. This was as an inducement to have the road come by Lachute 
instead of through St. Andrews. This bonus never was paid The ground for 
objecting to payment was, that the Company had failed to carry out their obligations 
in constructing the road, that the bonus was not promised to the Government, and 
inasmuch as public money was being used for its construction, part of which was 
the contributions of this Parish, it would n;>t be fair to ask them to pay this bonus. 

Through the influence of the late Sir John Abbott, legislation was passed at 
Ottawa exempting the parish from payment. 


Like most other country towns and villages at the present day, Lachute has its 
quota of merchants, too many, is the general impression of strangers visit ng th*e 

* From Ireland s sketches. 


place ; yet, the fact that they are all accorded sufficient patronage to encourage their 
continuance in the business, is conclusive evidence of the large amount of trade 
carried on here. It is much less, however, than it was a few years ago. Previous 
to the construction of a new railway in 1894, the farmers of Harrington, Arundel, 
and other parts in the rear of the County, all came to Lachute to trade ; but when 
the new railway was completed as far as St. Jovite a place in Ottawa County, 
contiguous to Arundel several stores were erected there, affording the farmers 
of the localities referred to a much more convenient market than Lachute ; the dis 
tance to the latter place being more than twice that to St. Jovite. 

The first store in Lachute," says Mr. Meikle in his history, "was opened by 
Mr. Robertson in 1813." 

The following paragraph is from a sketch of Mr. Ireland, published in 1886 : 

" For many years the centre of trade was at St. Andrews. The people from all 
parts of the country went there to do their trading. The principal store at Lachute 
was, as we have already seen, what the people familiarly called Meikle s, until 
Mr. P. Lane started at the old stand, where he still resides ; but long since retired 
on a competency from many years of incessant attention as a country merchant. 
Shortly after Mr. Lane s store was opened, his brother-in-law, Mr. John Taylor, a 
clever and energetic young Scotchman, began a store in the west end, near the mill, 
and did a large business. Up to this period, the citizens seemed contented to trudge 
on in the old way of doing business by buying goods on credit, and selling on credit, 
at very high prices, and allowing accounts to remain for one, two, or more years by 
adding interest, and so, when Mr. Taylor commenced on the cash or ready pay 
system, and gave goods at a moderate profit, there was quite a revolution among the 
country people in favor of Mr. Taylor s store, which became the centre of attraction, 
and was talked of all over the country." 

The stores are chiefly on Main street, and some of them are attractive in appear 
ance and contain large stocks. 

That of Mr. Meikle, which has already been noticed, is the oldest one in the 
place, and occupies a commanding position, and doubtless holds as large a stock and 
receives as much patronage, as any in Lachute. 

Not far from this is the imposing brick store of J. R. McOuAT. 

Mr. McOuat, in 1875, entered into partnership in the mercantile line with Hugh 
Fraser, jun., which partnership was continued till 188 = , when he purchased the 
interest of Mr. Fraser, and in 1885 erected his present store. This structure has an 
attractive front of plate glass, the first in the place which presented this luxurious 
embellishment. Mr. McOuat is one of the influential men of Lachute, and is a mem 
ber of the School Board and Municipal Council. 

A well stocked and neatly kept store is that of HUGH FRASER, JUN. This gentle 
man was born in Montreal and came to Lachute when a child. In his youthful days, 
he was clerk for G. & R. Meikle five years, then spent three years in Morrisburg, Ont. 
and after his return to this place was in partnership with J. R. McOuat six years. 
In 1 88 1, he opened his present store, in which he has since been engaged. He has 
an influence in all local and municipal affairs, and has served as School Commis 
sioner and Town Councillor six years. 

McFAUL BROS. James C. and John M. Their great-grandfather, Archibald 
McFaul, came from County Antrim, Ireland, and settled on the farm now occupied 
by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Hugh Morrow. He lived here many years, and died at 
the home of his son William, in Wallace, Ont.; he had four sons and three daugh 
ters. Archibald, the eldest son, married Mary, daughter of James Carpenter, and 



lived on a farm in Chatham till his death, which occurred i2th February, 1887. He had 
six sons and four daughters, who grew up. James, the eldest, father of the subjects 
of our present sketch, married Janet McPhail about 1868, and settled on a farm of 
one hundred acres at Brownsburg, and has since bought three hundred acres adjoin 
ing. He had five sons and five daughters. 

James C. left the farm in September, 1891, and entered into partnership in Lachute, 
with Robert Banford in the latter s store, remaining here till September, 1893. He then 
bought out Banford, and took as partner his brother, John M.; they are still here in 
John street, doing a good business in general merchandise, dry goods, groceries, 
boots, shoes, etc. John M. was married to Annie Stuart, 25th September, 1894. 

ROBERT KETTYLE, SEN., a soldier who fought at Waterloo under Wellington, and 
received his discharge soon after, having seen 21 years service, was born in the 
north of Ireland. He come to Canada about 1830, and, receiving a location ticket. 
took up a lot in Weniworth, but finding that this was poor land, he then bought a 
farm in the north part of Gore, Lakefield. He lived in this place a few years, and 
then moved into the Seigniory where he died. He had one son and two daughters ; 
Robert, the son, was a young man when his father came to this country. He joined 
the Cavalry in Montreal, also married in that city, and had three sons and three 
daughters. He finally settled in Lachute near Hill Head, where he died about 
1885. Robert, his son, followed farming till 1885, when he opened a grocery in 
Lachute, which he still conducts. He has been married twice, the last time in 
1887 to Harriet A. Knox. 

A. J. PERIARD was born at St. Benoit. He learned the tailor s trade, and spent 
ten years in Montreal and Ottawa; he came to Lachute in 1880, and opened a mer 
chant tailor s establishment, which he has ever since conducted. He was married 
June 22nd, 1880, to Miss Brown, daughter of James Brown, contractor, of Montreal. 
Mr. Periard was reared a Roman Catholic, but was converted to Protestantism about 
twenty years ago, since which he has been actively engaged in Christian w.>rk. He 
has preached, and still preaches, in different parts of the County on the Sabbath. He 
also did much in the way of Christian labor in Sunday Schools and like gatherings 
while in Montreal. 

WILLIAM BANFORD is a courteous and public-spirited merchant on Main 
street; he is the eldest son of William Banford, of whom a sketch is o-ivcn in the 
history of L Orignal. He was born in 1851, and began his mercantile life as clerk 
for D. J. Jamieson, of Vankleek Hill, with whom he remained two vears He then 
came to Lachute, and was clerk for James Fish & Co. two years, after which he 
remained four years as clerk in the employ of P. H. Lane, Esq. About 1880 he 
purchased the store of Mr. Lane. This was burnt in the fall of 1894 and he then 
removed to his present store. Mr. Banford was married in 1879 to Eliza Eraser 

X. McGiLLis & SON, from Lancaster, Ont., have a hardware store on Main 
Norman McGillis, who came with his family from Scotland, was one of the 
early settlers of Lancaster. He had five sons and five daughters. Neil McGillis his 
second sen, has been engaged many years in mercantile business in Lancaster anc 
tor some years has been one of the Board of Aldermen of that place. In the fall of 
1894 he purchased the store and stock of A. J. Eraser in Lachute, which is now in 
charge of Mr. McGillis son ; they keep a full line of hardware, tinware paints 
oils, etc. 

ROBERT CRESWELL has a fine brick block on Main street, in which he has a flour 



and feed store. His father, Wm. Creswell, came from Donegal, Ireland, with his 
family to Lachute in 1852, being 13 weeks in crossing the Atlantic an unusual time 
at that late date. He settled on a farm of 100 acres in the Seigniory, and afterward, 
bought a lot in Lachute and erected a house on it, but never resided here ; he died 

about 1864. 

1 he following obituary is copied from an Illinois paper, published m March, 

"Mrs. Sarah Creswell died here at 2.30 last Saturday morning after a few days 
illness. She was bcrn in Ireland in 1816, and came to Canada in 1852, where Mr. 
Creswell died about 1864. She moved to Illinois with her children in 1872, and 
lived at Randolph ; eighteen years ago she moved to Hey worth. She is the mother 
of eleven children, of whom nine are living, viz., William and John in Montana; 
James at Paxton ; Robert in Canada; Mrs. Matthew Smith at Lytleville ; Mrs. J. M. 
Minton at Downs ; Mrs. Isabella Happins in Ohio ; and Maggie and Jennie at home. 
Mrs. Creswell belonged to the Episcopal Church." 

Robert, the second son, was married ist November, 1866, tD Eliza Miller. He 
followed harness-making ten years, and was also engaged in farming till 1875, when 
he engaged in his present business. He has another block near the one in which 
he trades. 

JOHN STEWART is proprietor of one of the meat markets with which Lachute is 
well provided. His father, Donald Stewart, came from Stirlingshire, near Glasgow, 
to Lachute in 1^32. He was in the employ of James Walker about a year, then went 
to Ontario, where he was employed as miller for several years. He returned to 
Lachute, and married Janet Mclntyre, whose family came from the same place in 
Scotland and at the same time, that Mr. Stewat t did. After his marriage, he settled on 
the farm now owned and occupied by Edmund Smith, and lived on it till his death 
in 1872. He left five sons and one daughter. John, the eldest, married, in April, 
1877. Margaret Barren, and engaged in farming till 1887, when he bought a good 
house in this village, built a commodious brick shop, and has since been engaged in 
his present business. 

DAVID WILSON is proprietor of a meat market at the west end of Fish s bridge. 
He came from Yorkshire, England, in 1872. He was married 131)1 April, 1881, to 
Agnes McFarlane, from Paisley, Scotland, and settled in Lachute in 1888. He was 
employed three years in the market of Patenaude & MacArthur, and then, in the 
winter of 1891, opened a market himself. 

Besides the establishments above mentioned there are several others, the stores 
D. KERR, BOA, etc. 

JOSEPH AUGUSTUS BEDARD, one of the Municipal Councillors, has an attractive 
boot and shoe store on Main street, where he also sells a variety of musical instru 

G. ROBY, merchant tailor, who came here in 1893, during the past summer 
(1895), erected one of the finest looking buildings in the place, on Main street. An 
other attractive place on the same street is the store of T. JOUSSE, jeweller. 

A very fine building also is the hardware store of C. CHARLEBOIS, near the 

R. R. Station. 


Lachute has four hotels, and though the number seems large for the place, they 
are all commodious, respectable looking buildings, and apparently prosperous. 


JAMES CURRIE is proprietor of the Victoria Hotel, the only one at Lachute Mills, 
and the oldest one in the town a portion of the building being one in which Milo 
Lane conducted an hotel when Lachute was in her infancy. It has a large share of 
the patronage of the travelling public, owing both to the correctness of its appoint 
ments and the popularity and extensive acquaintance of its proprietor, who has had 
an experience of fifteen years in his present hotel. 

Mr. Currie s grandfather on the maternal side, John Williamson, was a soldier 
under Wellington, fought at Waterloo, and v. as in several other engagements. After 
serving twenty-one years he obtained his discharge, came to Canada, settled in Gore, 
and served in the Rebellion of j 837-38. Mr. Currie s father, Charles Currie, came from 
Castle Blarney, County of Monaghan, Ireland, in the spring of 1831. He first found 
employment on the " Feeder " at Carillon, on which his brother Isaiah, who had pre 
viously come to this country, had a contract. In the fall of 1832, he took up a lot in 
the second range of Gore, on which he lived twelve years. In 1837, ne was married 
to Elizabeth Williamson. He sold out in 1844, and bought a farm in Wentworth, on 
which helivedtill his death in 1879. He had three sonsand two daughters. James, 
the eldest, at the age of 17 went to the States, where he spent twenty years. Return 
ing, he purchased a farm on Beech Ridge, and engaged in farming, meanwhile serving 
three years in the St. Andrews Parish Council. In 1880, he sold his farm and 
engaged in his present business in Lachute. He was married in January, 1860, to 
Catherine, daughter of Valentine Swail, of Wentworth. They have one son, Valentine, 
married, and living in British Columbia, and three (laughters. 

An imposing building is the " Argenteuil House," towards the upper end of 
Main street, of which PIERRE RODRIGUE, the present Mayor of Lachute, is proprietor. 
The house is brick, 70 x 40 feet in size, three stories besides the basement, with a 
two-storey extension, 60 x 25 feet in size, flat roof, and encircled by three galleries. 
It has three parlors, two sitting rooms, thirty-five bed rooms, a large office, and dining 
room with seating capacity for too guests. The grounds and stables connected 
therewith are equally spacious. 

Mr. Rodrigue was born in St. Scholastique, and his early days were spent on his 
father s farm. He took a classical course at the school of Rev. Father Bonin, after 
which he taught five years in the same school and two years in the public school. 
He was married lyth October, 1853, to Margaret, daughter of the late Alexandre 
Fortier, and spent the following eleven years on his father s farm. After devoting a 
few years to mercantile life and hotel keeping, he sold out in 187 1 and bought the " Bee 
Hive" the hotel of Alvah Burch in Lachute. This was burnt 7th January, 1892, 
and, the same year, Mr. Rodrigue built his present hotel. He has been very success 
ful financially since coming here, his real estate, within and outside of the Corporation, 
being valued at $25,000. He has been in the Council five or six years, and in 1894 
was elected Mayor, and has been Chairman of the Roman Catholic School Board 
since it was established in 1875, and is a trustee of the Roman Catholic Church. He 
has three sons and one daughter, two of the former, E. D., married to Mary Poitras, 
and L. P. Rodrigue, being employed in the hotel. Alexandre is an M. D. 

The daughter of Mr. Rodrigue is married to Charles Charlebois, proprietor of 
the Lachute Foundry. 

There are two other hotels near the railroad station, of one of which ALFRED 
LAFLEUR is proprietor. This building also is of brick, three stories, 60 x 40 feet 
in size. Commodious stables are attached, in which Mr. Lafleur has a good 
number of horses. He is a native of Ste. Adele, County of Terrebonne, where he 
was engaged in hotel keeping and lumber business. He spent ten years in connec 
tion with the lumber traffic in California and the Western States three years in 


Marquette, Michigan, where he and his father erected several houses. He came to 
Lachute in 1878 and built his present hotel, which he has ever since conducted. 

The other hotel near the R. R. station, and also on Foundry street, is that of 
MOISE PAQUETTE. Mr. I aquette was born in St. Scholastique, lived on the homestead 
farm till 1878, when he came with his father to Lachute, built his present hotel, and 
moved into it in 1879. His father, Moise Paquette, died i4th December, 1891, at 
the age of 68. Like the oilier public houses of Lachute, this is of a good size and 
appearance, and has ample yard and stables attached. H. Paquette, a brother of 
the hotel proprietor, has a barber shop in the establishment. 

About two miles above the Lachute Post Office, toward Hill Head, in a good 
farming section, is a settlement where, in former years, there was a thriving business 
conducted, of which the tannery of SAMUEL HILLS was the nucleus. 

Mr. Hills was from New Hampshire, and after living two years at St. Andrews, 
he came, about 1830, to Lachute. He was a man of much enterprise, and his 
descendants are people of spirit and intelligence. Soon after his arrival, he erected 
a tannery, with which he did an active business, besides conducting a farm, till his 
death. The business thus started grew in importance, until " Hills Tannery," by 
which name the locality was soon designated, became quite a noted place. Leather 
of different kinds was manufactured here, and shoemakers, harness makers, and other 
men were employed, till it was said the Hills would have a village of their own. 

The founder of this business had four sons Frederick, Samuel Scott, William 
Matthews, and Reuben Watson. The latter died at the age of 14, and Frederick, the 
eldest died at Hancock, N.H. Samuel S. and William, each of whom had a good 
farm belonging to the homestead, continued together the management of the tannery. 
Samuel married Elizabeth Hastings, and Wi.liam mariied her sister, Frances J. 
Hastings, who died loth August, 1891. William was also, for a time, conducting 
quite a business at Portage du Fort ; but he relinquished it and confined himself to 
that at Lachule ; he is now connected with an extensive lumber firm in Montreal, 
though he still has a residence in Lachute. 

Samuel S. Hills always lived in Lachute, and died here i6th April, 1878; he had 
three sons and two daughters that grew up. 

Frederick W., the eldest, lives in the dwelling occupied by his grandfather ; he 
married Miss E. A. Grant, and has two daughters. Watson S. resides at Brainard, 
Minn. ; Julia is deceased ; and Mary P., married to Albert I Green, resides in Minne 
apolis, Minn. George H. was married i8th June, 1879, to Jessie Muir; they have 
three children. He engaged in farming on the homestead till August, 1882, when the 
farm was sold. After following agricultural life till 1888, he bought the brick house 
and lot where he now lives, and, in 1892, opened a store. His dwelling and store 
are those elected and occupied by Samuel Orr, noticed on a former page. 

SAMUEL EDMUND SMITH, one of the enterprising and leading farmers of Lachute, 
resides in this locality. William Smith, his great-grandtather, came from Yorkshire, 
England, and was the first settler at what is now Dunany, in Wentworth. He received 
a grant of Lot i, Range i, for marking out a road by blazed trees from Sir John s 
Lake to Clear Lake. He had two sons and three daughters that grew up. 

Samuel, the eldest, married Margaret McDonald, of Gore, about 1828; settled 
near the homestead, and lived there till his death. He was the first Postmaster at 
Dunany, the post office being established there in 1853; was Mayor of Wentworth 
and Major of Militia ; he was a loyal actor in the events of 1837, an( * was at Grande 
Brule with the Volunteers. He died nth June, 1893, aged 96, and so remarkably 
healthy had he been, that he never employed a physician till his last illness, 
widow is still living ; they had twelve children, six of each sex, that arrived at matur- 


ity. James, their eldest son, was married in April, 1858, to Mary Jane McLean, of 
Lachute, and settled in Gore, adjacent to Dunany. Sixteen years "later, he bought 
210 acres in Lachute, to which he removed in 1874; this is the farm now owned and 
occupied by his son, Samuel E. Smith. He was a School Commissioner for some time 
and took much interest in the military affairs of the County ; he joined the Rangers at 
their organization as Lieutenant, and was promoted to the rank of Major. He died 
24th January, 1887, and was buried with military honors. He had two sons and 
four daughters that grew up. 

Samuel E., the only son now living, was married 3oth April, 1890, to Janet 
Pattison, of Lachute. He has always remained on the homestead a fine farm 
which he has improved so that it sustains a large stock. Mr. Smith is ist Lieutenant 
in Company No. 2 of the Rangers. 

JOHN MCGREGOR came from Dumbartonshire, Scotland, to Lachute, with his 
family, about 1826, and bought 100 acres of land, which is now owned and occupied by 
Robert Beatty. Subsequently, he purchased 90 acres adjacent to his first purchase, 
which is now owned and occupied by the widow of his son, John McGregor. He moved 
to the latter farm, and lived there till his death, about 1864, at the age of 87 ; Mrs. 
McGregor died about ten years later, aged 97. Six sons and three daughters arrived at 
maturity. James, the fourth son, now living with his son Thomas, has followed the mill 
wright trade forty-five years in this section, building and repairing many mills He 
was married in 1846 to Ellen Hay; she died i6th April, 1885. Mr. McGregor s first 
permanent residence, after marriage, was at Brownsburg, where he bought a saw mill 
and carding mill, which he conducted for twelve years. He then, about 1860, sold 
them, and purchased So acres of land in Lachute, which he sold to David Pollock in 
:89o. He has had three sons and two daughters, who grew up. His eldest son, 
Robert J., lives in Kansas; George is employed in the store of the Hay Brothers; 
and Thomas, with whom he lives, is on a farm which belonged to the paternal estate; 
he was married 2nd January, 1884, to Margaret Parker, of Montreal. 

Near this locality is what may be termed a lusus naturae, a singular change 
having occurred in the physical features of quite a tract of territory since the country 
ivas first settled. A tract two miles or more in length and many rods in breadth is 
nothing but a field of drifting white sand, where, not many decades ago, were culti 
vated fields. This strip of worthless land extends across the middle of several farms, 
on the south side of the North River. The soil which covered this sand must, of 
course, have been very shallow, but still it is said that it once produced fine crops of 
The sand, like snow, drifts with the wind, and a fence crossing it does not long 
remain visible or effective against cattle. This stratum, it is claimed, is about twelve 
feet in thickness, succeeded by a substratum of blue clay, beneath which is abundance 
of water. 



This parish, as will be seen below, was not erected till long after Lachute had 

come a thriving village. As stated in the history of St. Andrews, it embraces the 

irger part of the Seigniory of Argenteuil, and besides the town of Lachute, it contains 

other districts designated as the East Settlement and Bethany, which will be noticed 

in the proper place. 

* That tract or parcel of land, situate in the seigniory of Argenteuil, in the County of Two Moun- 

ns, in that part of the Province of Canada called Lower Canada, bounded and abutted as follows, 

it : on the south by the southern line of lot number fifteen in the west settlement, the rear of the 


PATRICK STRACHAN DUNBAR, Mayor of the Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, 
was born in Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, yth March, 1824. His father was George 
Dunbar, who was a Captain in the Inverness Militia ; his mother was Katherine, 
daughter of Major Patrick Strachan, of Drumduen, Morayshire, who, on one or two 
occasions, was in active service. Mr. Dunbar came to Canada with his parents in 
1832, and settled in Brownsburg ; the family remained there for two years, and then 
came to Jerusalem, where the son has ever since resided. He was employed on the 
first railroad ever built in this County, and helped to run the first engine that went 
from Carillon to Grenville in 1854 ; in 1856, he was first mate on the steamer " Atlas," 
plying between Lachine and Carillon. Mr. Dunbar took a most active part in helping 
to secure the line of the present C. P. Railway then the Montreal, Ottawa & Occi 
dental through this parish, and, in 1872, look-part with the late Thomas C. Quinn, 
Provincial Land Surveyor, in running a trial line from Grenville Bay to St. Therese. 
This line proved to be the shortest and most direct, and was afterwards adopted by 
the R. R. Company. Mr. Dunbar has been a Municipal Councillor in the Parish for 
thirty-two years, and has filled the office of Mayor since 1880; he married, in 1852, 
Jessie, youngest daughter of the late Walter McOuat. Mrs. Dunbar is still living, and 
has three daughters. Mr. Dunbar has also filled the office of President of the Board 
of School Commissioners, here, since 1885. He is now in his seventy-third year, and 
has been a resident of this parish for upwards of sixty years. 

ROBERT GORDON., from County Down, Ireland, came to the Parish of St. Jeru 
salem, in 1824, and bought one hundred acres of land, which is now owned n.rd 
occupied by his son Robert. The latter, who is now upward of eighty years of age, 
has cleared up much of the paternal estate, and also another one hundred acres, by 
which he has augmented it. He has been one of those industrious, sober men, who 
exert a good influence, and whose presence as a neighbor is always desired. He has 

middle settlement or Beech Ridge, the southern part of Duel s purchase, and the line separaf ng the 
East Settlement from part of Brown s Gore, and that rear of lot number thirty-five, on the River 
Rouge ; on the east by the seigniory of Two Mountains ; on the north by the township of Gore ; on 
the west by the township of Chatham. Beginning on the line between Chatham and Argenteuil at the 
distance of three miles and three-quarters from the shore of the Ottawa River ; thence, along the side 
line between lots numbers fourteen and fifteen, in the west settlement, magnetically south sixty-nine 
degrees thirty minutes east, one mile, eight arpents and six perches more or less to an angle ; thence, 
along the noitherly rear line of lots numbers five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten of the middle settle 
ment or Beech Ridge, north, 86 degrees east, nineteen arpents more or less, to an angle ; thence, along 
the rear line from the noiihwest corner of number eleven, to the north-east corner of number twenty- 
two, or the last lot of the middle settlement, to a point about seven miles and one-quarter from the 
Ottawa River ; north 68 degrees, one mile, six arpents and two perches more or less ; thence, along the 
line between the ea i t side of the middle settlement and the tract of land known as Duel s purchase to 
the southern extremity of the said tract ; south eleven degrees and ten minutes east, two miles more or 
less; thence, along the line between part of Brown s Gore and Duel s purchase south, eighty-three 
degrees east, seven arpents and six perches more or less to an angle ; thence, along the eastern line of 
Duel s purchase, to the south-western angle of the East Settlement, six arpents more or less; thence, 
along the southern side line of lot number one in both ranges of the East Settlement, till it meets the 
eastern line of the seigniory of Argenteuil, at a point distant about five miles from the Grand or Ottawa 
River south, sixty-nine degrees thirty minutes east, two miles five arpents and five perches, more or 
less ; thence, along the line between the seigniories of Argenteuil and Two-Mountains, to the noiih- 
eastern angle of the said seigniory of Argenteuil north, twenty degrees thirty minutes east, seven 
miles, eight arperts and seven perches more or less; thence along the rear line of the seigniory ot 
Argenteuil, which is also the front line of the townsh : p of Gore, to the north-western ang e of the 
seigniory to a point on the Clear Lake north, sixty-two degrees thirty minutes west, six miles and 
fourteen arpents more or less ; thence, along the line between Chatham and Argenteuil south, twenty 
degrees thirty minutes west, eight miles and seven arpents more or less, to the place of beginning. 

Approved by Order in Council of the I5th July, 1852, minus; The limits of the town of Lachute 
by 48 V., c. 72. 


been a Magistrate for a quarter of a century, and has also been a member of the 
Municipal Council of his Parish. Although an octogenarian, he is still active, and 
takes much interest in public affairs. One of the latest of his works was to secure a 
grant of $50 from Government, to pay for placing gravel on a low, marshy piece of 
road in this section a work of much utility. Mr. Gordon has had ten children, 
nine of whom are still living. 

ROBERT CROZIER was born in County Cavan, Ireland, 6th May, i8r4, and came to 
Canada when four years of age. His parents first went to Montreal, and a year later 
to Chatham, where the son lived for several years, three of which he spent in lum 
bering on the Black River and Oitawa. He was married 3oth October, 1838, to 
Margaret, youngest daughter of the late Andrew Walker, of Lane s Purchase. He pur 
chased a farm adjoining that of his father-in-law, remaining there until 1848, when he 
bought a farm in this section from Chauncey Davis. He had eight daughters and 
four sons, of whom seven daughters and two sons are now living. The daughters are 
all married, and Catherine, wife of Simon McGilvray, and John Alexander, are the 
only children of the family in this County. Mr. Crozier was at Grand Brule in 1837, 
and was a member of the Volunteers and Cavalry for over twenty years. He was a 
large land owner in this parish, but in 1894 sold his farm, and soon afterward went 
to Lachute to live a retired life, but died there ist June, 1895, after only a week s ill 
ness. The Montreal Witness *&\& of him in a lengthy obituary notice : " Mr. Crozier 
was a true husband and kind father, and the loss of his presence to sorrowing re 
latives will not be easily or quickly repaired." His wife still survives, at the age of 

John A., eldest son of Robert Crozier, was born 1845, an ^ always remained in 
this section. On 2ist Feb., 1878, he was married to Miss Ryan, a teacher, daughter 
of Thomas Ryan, who was a ship carpenter, living at the time in Mille Isles. Mr. 
Crozier first settled on the farm now owned by Thomas Black, jun., which he had 
bought a few years previous to his marriage, but he afterwards sold it and returned 
home to assist his father, who was alone. In July, 1890, he bought his present farm, 
on which he has since made many improvements. He was a member of Capt. Bur- 
wash s troop of Cavalry ten years, joining it in 1860, after receiving a diploma from 
the Military School in Montreal. He was Corporal of his company when he retired. 

DAVID THOMAS MORIN was born 8th February, 1820, in Dumfrieshire, Scotland. 
His father, who was a guard in Dumfrieshire Jail, was killed while on duty by the 
notorious thief and pick-pocket, Davie Hagart. He struck Mr. Morin on the head 
with a stone concealed in a siocking, intending only to stun him, but the blowproved 

The son, David Thomas, who was a carpenter by trade, came to Canada with his 
mother, about 1833. In February, 1843, ne was married in Montreal to Miss Janet 
Craik, sister of Dr. Craik, Dean of the Medical Faculty, McGill University. In 1849, 
he came to this parish, ar.d bought the farm now owned by his son David ; he died 
here 20th May, 1873, and Mrs Morin i7th April, 1890. They had five sons and 
five daughters ; three of the latter are deceased. Thomas, David, John, Jane and 
Janet, the latter married to William Davidson, lives in this parisli Robert C. on 
Beech Ridge, and William in Prescott County, Out. Thomas, born 3ist Dec., 184;, 
remained at home until twenty-four years of age, when he went to Nevada, where he 
remained about five years. On his return, he was married i2th February, 1873, to 
Mary, daughter of the late James Gordon, of River Rouge. He then came to his 
present farm, adjoining the old homestead ; he has two daughters and one son, 
who all live at home. David, born 7th July, 1850, remained on the homestead; 


he married Miss Dunbar, daughter of Patrick Dunbar, Esq. ; they have one son. Mr. 
Morin has a fine farm, and in 1890 received a bronze medal and a diploma from the 
Quebec Government in the competition of that year. 

ANDREW WALKER came to Canada from Barrackshire, Scotland, with his family 
in 1833, and first settled on Lane s Purchase in Lachute, where he and Mrs. Walker 
both died, on the farm now owned by Henry Drysdale. Tney had five sons and four 
daughters; among those now living are Margaret, widow of the late Robert Crozier; 
Alice, widow of William Blow, living in Manitoba ; and George, living in Ontario. 

ANDREW, the fourth son, born 4th May, 1821, was married in 1851 to Catherine 
A., daughter of Copt. Dunbav : they had eight children five sons and three daugh 
ters, of whom all but one son are now living. Mr. Walker remained on the home 
stead until 1895, when his son Andrew bought the farm of his late uncle, Robert 
Crozier, in Jerusalem, and Mr. and Mrs. Walker, retired, are now living with him. 
Mr. Walker has been very active in the affairs of the County, having been Municipal 
Councillor of Lachute for twenty-one years ; he was .also a member of Major Simp 
son s company of Cavalry, having been sergeant at ine time they received the Prince 
of Wales at Carillon. George Dunbar, the eldest son, lives in Hill Head; Janet I., 
married to James Raitt, lives in Lachute; Catherine .A., married to William Cope- 
land, lives in Lane s Purchase ; Andrew is on the farm in Jerusalem ; William B. and 
John R. L. live in Manitoba ; and Maggie, married to D. McPhail, lives in Chatham. 

HUGH CLELAND, son of James Cleland, was born in the parish of St. Jerusalem, 
and lived on the farm now owned by Thomas Black ; he was married to Mary Ann 
Cotter. They had five children, of whom two boys and two girls are now living. 
Mr. Cleland bought the farm now owned by his son, William J., and for the last 
eighteen years has shipped milk to Montreal, buying from a good many in this 
vicinity. Mr. Cleland is now retired, and, with his wife, remains on the old 
homestead with their second son, William. The latter still continues the milk busi 
ness ; he was born January, 1867, and 23rd June, 1893, was married to Mary, daughter 
of William Brown, of Martintown, Ont. Jane, the eldest, is married to Malcolm 
Smith, of Beech Ridge ; Mary E. to Thomas Smith, lives in Montreal. Robert 
James, the eldest son, was born 1857, and always remained at home. In 1887, 
he was married to Isabella, daughter of Andrew Bell, Postmaster of Beech 
Ridge ; the same year he took his present farm of his father. He has since erected 
new buildings, and made many improvements on it ; with his brother, he continues 
the milk business commenced by their father. 

JAMES LEISHMAN, JUN., eldest son of James Leishman, was born in Upper 
Lachute, 26th May, 1864; he remained at home until 1886, and then went to Cali 
fornia, where he remained eight years in the lumber business ; on his return he 
bought the farm of John McGilvray, Jerusalem, and is now living here with his sister 


A Post Office was established here in 187 1, and given the name of Genoa ; James 
Gordon was appointed Postmaster, which office he still holds. Mr. Gordon con 
ducted a general store here some time, but having to devote his time to his trade 
that of carpenter he discontinued the store, in 1890. 

The first school-house was built on the farm now owned by Mrs. Black. In 1841, 
a log school-house was built on the site of the present brick one, near the four 


A neat wooden church was erected in 1861, on land given to the Wesleyan Metho 
dist Conference by Mr. John Bunvash, and it was built by the Methodists of this 
vicinity. Mr. Griffith took an active part in its erection, and has been a staunch sup 
porter of it ever since. It is used as a Union church now, and services are held on 
alternate Sabbaths by Revs. Clipsham and Mackie, of Lachute. The Church is 
always open to any Protestant minister who wishes to hold service in it. 

The first settlers known in this place were Barber, Draper, and Hyatt, U. E. 
Loyalists, who came here about the beginning of the present century. Barber was 
quite a large land owner, having about 700 acres ; he built a three-story, stone build 
ing in 1850, on the farm now owned by Mrs. Wm. Black, intending that his sons 
should occupy it with him, after being married. They, however, being dissatisfied, 
left this p^rt of the country, and none of the descendants of the above-named men 
now live in this section. 

A few years ago, considerable business was done in the East Settlement by govern 
ment contractors, who bought several acres of land from Messrs. John Rodger, Arm 
strong and Todd. A very fine quality of gravel was discovered here, and a side 
track was laid from the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad to take away the 
gravel uug by ihe large gang of men employed during one summer. About twenty 
miles of the C. P. R. were ballasted with the gravel, and a great many carloads were 
taken to Montreal. The gravel pit is quite a freak of nature, being a high ridge with 
level land on either side. The ridge is about half a mile long and three acres wide ; 
the centre, where excavated, has the appearance of having been under water at one 
time, there being towards the bottom several feet of fine gravel, and then a layer of 
stone similar to the dry bed of a river. At the bottom is a very fine quality of build 
ing sand in which are found springs of pure cold water. 

THOMAS MILLER, a cabinetmaker by trade, was born in Scotland, and came to 
Canada about 1800 ; he remained about seven years, then returned to Scotland, and 
married Miss Anna Murdoch. He then came back to Canada, and settled at River du 
Loup, Que., keeping store there for several years, after which he removed to River 
Rouge, remaining several years on the farm of Gregor McGregor. He then came to 
this place, and bought the farm now owned by his son, Thomas G. Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller both died here. THOMAS G., the eldest son, born in 1816 at River du Loup, 
was married in 1851 to Mary E. Green, from County Sligo, Ireland ; they have five 
daughters and four sons, all living. Catherine, the eldest daughter, lives in Chicago ; 
Mary and Amanda in Montreal ; Martha and Eliza are at home. Of the sons, 
Thomas, the eldest, John H. and William, are in California, and James, the youngest, 
remains at home. 

JOHN GRIFFITH was born in Ireland in 1819, his parents, who were Welsh, having 
previously settled there; the family came to Canada about the year 1826, and first 
settled in St. Canute. When about eighteen years of age, John went to Ontario, and 
was employed for two years on the Cornwall Canal ; he then returned to St. Canute, 
and soon afterward joined the St. Andrew s Volunteers, Capt. Quinn s Company, 
going with them to St. Scholastique. He was in this Company when orders were 
received to march to St. Eti>tache. Mr. Griffith afterward went to Thomas Gore, 
where he was married to Mary, daughter of the late William Hume. Hill Head. They 
had eight sons and four daughters, of whom five sons and all the daughters are still 
living. William, the eldest, is a farmer in Watertown, N.Y.; Henry is mining in 
Nevada ; John W. is Professor in a San Francisco College ; Isaac lives at home ; and 
Albert L. is in Montreal ; Eleanor, married to Roderick McDonald, lives in Vide Sac ; 
Mary J., married to Henry Hadley, lives in Montreal ; Sarah A. is at home ; and 
Grace, married to William Shepherd, lives in East Settlement. 


JAMES ARMSTRONG came to Canada in 1824 from County Monaghan, Ireland, 
and settled in North Settlement, on the farm now owned by William Walker; he 
afterward bought the farm now owned by his son Robert, where he died ;th May, 
* 8 73, aged seventy-five years. JAMES, the third son, born in 1837, was married 5th 
September, 1856, to Jane Canton, of Lakefield; he then settled on the farm now 
owned by John Graham, Thomas Gore, and remained there five years, when he sold 
it, and in 1872 bought his present one from the late William Todd. He has three 
daughters and two sons ; Julia A. is married to John McOuat, and lives in Lachute ; 
Mary E., the second daughter, after being a very successful teacher for four years, 
is now in the Post Office at Lachute ; Alice J., John E., and Albert J. are at home. 

WILLIAM BLACK, born 1830, was a son of Handyside Black, who came from Scot 
land ; William, who was the third son, bought the farm now occupied by his widow 
and children the old Barber place, on which was built the large stone house men 
tioned above. Mr. Black was married in 1872 to Elizabeth, daughter of William 
)ickson, of this place ; he died 22nd March, 1891, aged sixty-one. Mrs. Black sur 
vives him, and has four children one daughter and three sons, named respectively 
Aggi.e, John, William and David. Mrs. Black, with her children s assistance, has 
continued to manage the farm since her husband s death. The eldest son, John, 
bids fair to be one of the successful farmers of Argenteuil, having already begun to 
purchase thoroughbred stock. 

WILLIAM TODD was born in Roxburyshire, Scotland, in 1808, and came to 
Canada in 1830, with his wife, Elizabeth Wilson, and two children; he settled in 
Beauharnois, where he remained five years, then came to Lachute, .and bought the 
farm now occupied by the family of James Pollock. He remained in Lachute six 
years, _and afterwards about 1841 came to this place, and bought the farm now 
occupied by James Armstrong, and lived here a number of years. Mrs. Todd died 
in 1860. They had four sons and one daughter ; the latter is deceased. William, 
the eldest son, is in Wisconsin ; Thomas lives in Lachute ; Andrew, on the Lachute 
Road ; and Henry in this place. Mr. Todd was married a second time, in 1865, to 
Mary, daughter of Andrew McLean, of Montreal. After selling his farm to Mr. 
Armstrong, Mr. Todd bought the cottage of James Gordon, at the four-corners, and 
died there i8th April, 1894, aged eighty-six years. Mrs. Todd still lives here. 

JOSEPH ROGER, whose father also bore the name of Joseph, was born in Scot 
land in 1795. He came to Canada in 1833, and the same year bought the farm in 
this place now occupied by his children; he purchased this of Isaac Hyatt, one of the 
first settlers in this section. In 1836, Mr. Roger was married to Miss Jean McOuat; 
they had seven children, of whom three sons and three daughters Joseph, Janette, 
Margaret, William, Elizabeth and John are now living. Mr. Roger died 1870, 
ageu seventy-five ; Mrs. Roger in 1888, aged seventy-seven. Margaret, the second 
daughter, went to India in 1873 as a missionary for the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada, spending eighteen years there, with the exception of one furlough. Miss 
Roger has the honor of being the first missionary sent by the Presbyterians to India 
from Canada. Mr. Roger s children are all living on the homestead. 

DAVID ROGER came from Glasgow, Scotland, about 1833 ; he bought the farm 
now occupied by his son John from L. Barber. Mr. Roger was married to Miss 
Jane McOuat in Scotland, and had two children when they came to Canada. Six- 
more were born to them after coming here; four sons and two daughters are now 
living. Mr. Roger died 241!) May, 1892, aged ninety-six years, and Mrs. Roger 
died 1872, aged seventy-six. Joseph, the eldest son, lives in Lachute. Janet, the 


widow of James McClure, and mother of the celebrated missionary, Dr. McClure, of 
Honan, China^ lives in Upper Lachute. Margaret, married to Andrew Todd, and 
David, live on the Lachute Road. William, and John, the youngest son, reside in this 
place. The latter, who was born in 1841, has always remained on the homestead ; he 
was married in 1891 to Jemima, daughter of the late Thomas Bilsland; they have one 

JAMES WOOD, a blacksmith by trade, came, with his wife, from Scotland to 
Canada about 1830 ; he first worked at his trade on the old Carillon and Grenville 
Canal, and from this work went to St. Placide, from which place he was obliged to 
remove to St! Andrews on the breaking out of the Rebellion of 1837. This journey, 
made on the ice, proved a dangerous one, as the river had but just frozen ; Mr. Wood 
was obliged to go on foot before his horse, testing the ice. He left his wife and 
children in St. Andrews and returned with the troops to St. Placide. Some time later, 
he came, with his family, to this section, and bought the farm now owned by his son 
Robert. Mr. Wood died in 1881, aged seventy-seven, and Mrs. Wood in December, 
1890, aged eighty-three. They had eleven children, of whom seven sons and two 
daughters reached maturity. 

ROBERT, the fifth son, born 1845, remained at home until twenty-one years of 
age, when he went to Nevada, remaining five years altogether in that State, but making 
a long visit at home during the time. After his final return to Canada, he went into 
partnership with Robert Summerby, and erected a steam saw mill on the North River 
at St. Canute. He managed this for two years, then sold out and bought his present 
farm from his father. In 1872, Mr. Wood was married to Miss McGregor, daughter 
of John McGregor, of Lachute Road. They have four sons and one daughter living. 
Mr. Wood has made many improvements on his farm, and it is now one of the best 
equipped in East Settlement. 

WILLIAM ROGER, second son of David Roger, was born in this Settlement in 
1833, and has always remained here ; he was married in 1866 to Miss Ann Robertson, 
of Montreal, whose father came from Aberdeen, Scotland, with his wife and children. 
Her mother died during the voyage, and Mr. Robertson died a year after reaching 

Mr. Roger bought his present farm, which had previously been owned by James 
Draper, from his sister, Mrs. McClure, in 1860, and has since made many improve 
ments on it, besides building his present brick residence. All the surroundings of the 
place betoken intelligence and industry. Mr. Roger has taken an active part in the 
Agricultural Society, having been Director for several years ; he has also been Coun 
cillor of the Parish. Mrs. Roger died in 1890, leaving a family of nine children ; 
one son has since died five daughters and three sons are now living. 

JAMES WILSON came from Roxburyshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 1830, and 
settled here, being one of the first to arrive in this section. 

WILLIAM, his second son, was born in 1842, on the farm where he now lives; 
he has always remained at home, with the exception of one year, which was spent in 
lumbering in Wisconsin. He was married 6th January, 1891, to Jessie B., daughter 
of Simon McKimmie, of Lachute. They have two daughters. In 1892, Mr. Wilson 
obtained the farm, his father dying in that year. 

WILLIAM TODD, eldest son of Thomas Todd, was born in February, 1858, in East 
Settlement ; he has been twice married, first to Margery M., daughter of Thomas 
Young, of River Rouge, by whom he had three sons and one daughter. Mrs. Todd 
died in March, 1889. In l88l > the father of Mr. Todd, wishing to retire from active 
business, gave up to his son the management of his farm, which he purchased about 
half a century ago from Milo Barber ; he then went to live in Lachute. 


^ Mr. Todd was married the second time, in June, 1891, to Ida Catherine, daughter 
of Charles McGregor, of River Rouge ; he has two sons by this marriage. 

FELIX BIGRAS came to this place in the early years of its history, and settled on 
the farm, then entirely covered with bush, which is now owned by his son Peter. 
The latter was born in 1855, and has always remained on the homestead ; he was 
married in 1876 to Miss P. Touchette, of Cote St. Louis. They have two sons living. 
Mr. Bigras has made many improvements on his farm, and, in 1895, was appointed 
Director of the Agricultural Society of Argenteuil. He, as was his father, is a mem 
ber of the Belle Riviere Presbyterian Church. 

The following sketch has been kindly given us by a young friend of Mrs. Gordon, 
it having been written at Mrs. Gordon s dictation : 

MR. and MRS. GORDON came out from Scotland about 1835, and settled in the 
bush in Genoa. They had to erect a cabin at once, which was square in shape and 
covered with "scoops." Their only stove was tin. They had to clear their land by 
first cutting down the trees, and then rooting up the stumps by means of a pry about 
ten feet long. This, of course, was very hard work, and, on one occasion, when Mrs. 
Gordon was helping, she pulled so hard on the pry, that shecould see " stars," and 
her sight was so injured that, from that time, she has had to use spectacles. The first 
year, they cleared only two acres, burning the stumps when they were pulled, then 
plowing the land and sowing their seed. As their fields became larger, they pome- 
times worked in harvesting till eleven o clock at night, binding their grain and putting 
it into "stocks" before the rain came. During the first years of their settlement 
they had but one child a little girl whom they carried to the field and home again, 
when they were drawing hay or grain, and put her on the mow till the wagon was 
unloaded. When they had drawn in all their grain, they threshed it with a flail, and, 
after being ground, it was carried on Mr. Gordon s back to the mill at Lachute. 
When returning home, it was sometimes so dark that he was obliged to hang the bag 
of flour or meal on a tree and return for it in the morning. The only place they had 
to keep their potatoes was a hole in the ground, well covered over. Their only means 
of travelling was with a horse and a little, low, flat-bottomed traineau, with a bundle 
of pea-straw for a seat, and -no robes. They had to drive to Montreal with a h jrse 
and cart to sell their produce, and often the roads were so bad that the mud and water 
came up to the axle. Their load consisted chiefly of pork and butter; the genera! 
price of pork was $4.50 per hundred, and of butter i2^c. per pound. Whatever 
money they received had all to go in payments on their farm. 

They lived here at the time of the Rebellion, and were often afraid that the rebels 
would come and kill them. Once, while trying to take home some of his sheep, the 
rebels took Mr. Gordon prisoner, and his sheep were killed. The next day, however, 
he obtained a stick, broke the windows of his prison, and escaped. Another time! 
a wolf came along in the night, and began fighting with the dog, and they thought it 
was some of the rebels trying to set fire to the buildings, and were nearly frightened 
to death. 

Wolves were very numerous, and used to come in crowds every night, so that 
they had to shut up their sheep. One little pet lamb did not want to be shut up, so 
it ran away in the bush and across a ditch. It was never seen alive again; but they 
found a piece of its leg, where a wolf had killed and eaten it. For three or four years 
after they came here, the wolves used to disturb them very much at night by their 
howling. Mrs. Gordon tells of an encounter she once had with a wolf. 


She was away from home, and had about twenty miles to walk, so she started 
early in the morning, on a bush road, not very well marked out. After losing her 
way three times, she at length reached a house where her sister promised to meet her, 
and they wa .ked along together until they reached the North River flowing through 
Lachute. There was no bridge, but they got across in a scow with some school girls, 
and in a short time reached the home of her friends. They wanted her to remain all 
night, but she was anxious to get home, so she went out again, till she came to a 
bush where she lost her way, and presently saw a wolf among a lot of sheep. She 
was about to strike him with the sickle carried in her hand, but gave a loud scream 
instead, which so frightened him that he ran off. She then went on, reaching home 
about 12 o clock at night. 

In the winter evenings, Mrs. Gordon often sat up while the others were sleepino-. 
sewing and knitting for the children ; she often spun one hundred pounds of wool m 
a year. By hard work and industry they cleared up a good farm, put up comfortable 
buildings, and took care of a large family, who are all doing well. When their child 
ren were all settled in homes of their own, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon sold their homestead, 
and built a pretty little cottage at the four corners, which is surrounded by trees. 
They have a small piece of ground which they cultivate themselves, and live very 
happily together in their old age, and delight in talking of the hardships through 
which they have passed. 


This place, so called, it is claimed, because it is "nigh unto Jerusalem," bounds 
Beech Ridge on the east. The ubiquitous John Smith found his way here, and pitched 
his tent,, in or about the year 1819, on the lot now owned by J. W. Webster, of St. 
Andrews. A few years later, he purchased the lot now owned and occupied by his 
grandson, William Hume. Finding clay on this, of the right kind for manufacturing 
brick, he purchased the necessary machinery and began the work. Many of the 
dwellings in this section weie made from the brick purchased at this yard, and Mr. 
Hume, who is still engaged in the enterprise, turns out annually from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred thousand of superior quality. Mr. Smith, evidently, 
was an industrious man, and learned, in the most difficult way, the varied hardships 
incident to the life of a pioneer. He cleared up the greater part of two lots, and in 
the early years of his life here, carried his grain on his back to Lachute three miles 

Among the first settlers here were the PAULS, who came from Morayshire, Scot 
land. The family consisted of the father, mother, one daughter and four sons, named 
respectively, Jane, James, Alexander, John and David. They first settled in Chatham 
and, a few years later, came to this place. James, who married fanet Ker, afterwards 
returned to Chatham, and died there, leaving children. Alexand-r, another of the 
four brothers, married Margaret Lowe ; and John, Maria Chapman. The latter sur 
vived her husband, and now lives on Bethany Road with her family. David, the only 
remaining member of the Paul family, married Elizabeth Doig, and also resides on 
Bethany Road. 

DUNCAN, second son of Alexander Paul, was born Qth April, 1856, on the farm 
now owned by Mrs. Jame; Kettyle. He was married 28th June, 1882, to Isabella, 
daughter of the late Henry Griffith, of Vide Sac. In 1887, Mr. Paul went to Water- 
town, N.Y., where he remained three years. After returning, he worked on the old 
homestead until 1893, when he sold it, and bought his present farm of eighty-live acres, 
on which he has erected new buildings and made many improvements. 


JAMES R. EARLE, third son of James Earle, was born i4th September, 1819, on 
the farm where he now lives. In 1883, he was married to Mary, daughter of the late 
Alexander Paul. They have had two litte girls, who are both deceased; the elder 
dying at the age of one year and nine months, and the younger at the age of five 
years. Mr. Earle is living on the old homestead. He has been a Councillor of the 
parish during the last eight years. 

THOMAS MORRISON was born in Scotland in 1798, and came to Canada in 1822. 
He was married here to Jemima Brown. They had seven children, of whom four 
sons are now living. After first remaining some time in Lachute, Mr. Morrison 
went to the Hill Settlement, where his youngest son, Robert, was born in 1841. In 
1870, the latter bought his present farm the old Sleyberg place in Bethany. He 
was married the same year to Mary Ann, daughter of the late Wm. Barron, of Upper 
Lachute. They have had- five children. Two sons and two daughters are now living. 
The eldest son, Thomas B., is married to Janet, daughter of John Doig, of Hill 
Farm, Upper Lachute. The other children are at home. Mr. Morrison has made 
many improvements on his farm. He has been Director of the Agricultural Society 
of this County for several years, and also valuator of this parish. The people o f 
Bethany and vicinity built a cheese factory, in 1895, on Mr. Morrison s farm. It 
is managed by J. R. Ro^s & Sons, of Hawkesbury. 

JAMES K. ERASER, youngest son of William Eraser, was born August 3, 1861, 
and has always remained here. In 1891, he was married to Kathleen, daughter of 
Wm. Henderson, of Arundel, and the same year took his father s farm, known as 
" Highland Farm," Bethany Road, on which he hats made many improvements. Mr. 
Eraser has served as School Trustee for several terms. He has kindly provided for 
the comfort and instruction of several orphans, and four have, at different times, 
found a good home in his own family. Mr. and Mrs. Eraser have one son and one 


ALEXANDER SMITH, from Ayrshire, came to Canada a short time previous to the 
War of 1812, and during that war lived at Lachine, and was employed in the winter, 
conveying artillery between Montreal and Kingston. Soon afterwards, he came to 
Lachute, and & proces-verbal of the road between that town and Beech Ridge shows 
that he was here in 1816, and owned the lot on which the railroad station and the 
most populous part of Lachute is now located. Subsequently, he changed this lot 
with Colonel Barron for one near Hill Head, on which he lived till his death. He 
had three sons John, William and Alexander and four daughters, that grew up. 
Alexander left the country, and no tidings of him have ever been received. John, 
the second son, remained on the homestead, married, and had a large family. 

William, the second son, in 1848, settled on a wild lot in Vide Sac a name 
signifying Empty Sack, which was given to the place by the Frenchmen of St. 
Hermas, who came here to clear their land, each bringing his provisions in a small bag 
or sack, which was pretty sure to be empty at night. Mr. Smith spent his days here 
and cleared up a fine farm. He married Janet Henderson about 1845, ar "d died in 
1882, aged 68. They had five children ; two died in infancy, three sons grew up, 
but only one is now living. Alexander, the eldest of the three sons, died, unmarried, 
in California, in January, 1874. 

William Smith, M.D., another son, of whom a sketch is given in the histcry of 
Lachute, died in that place in September, 1895. 


Mrs. Smith \vasparticularlydesirous of having their children well educated, con 
sequently, both she and her husband woiked hard to provide the funds requisite for 
this purpose, Walter, the youngest son, after leaving the Montreal Business College, 
remained on the homestead, with the exception of two or three years, when he was 
engaged in teaching in Alpena, Michigan. He was married, in i88r, to Janet, 
daughter of John Nicol, of Lachute. He is one of the influential and respected 
farmers in Argenteuil, and takes an interest in whatever affects ner moral, social or 
political welfare. He is devoted to farming, and, in 1889. was awarded a prize on 
his farm by the County Agricultural Society. He has been a member of the Parish 
Council for several years, twice has made out the Valuation Roll for the parish, and 
is President of the County Association and Vice-President of the Provincial Associa 
tion of the Patrons of Industry. In Church and Sabbath School work, he is equally 
interested and active, being Elder in the Second Presbyterian Church at Lachute, and 
Superintendent of the Sabbath School. 

ARCHIBALD BOA, youngest son of Andrew Boa, was born April, 1838, on the 
farm now owned by Paul Smith, Upper Lachute; he learned the trade of carpenter, 
and worked. at this in Lachute and other places in the vicinity for several years. In 
1838, he was married to Jessie M. W., daughter of Thomas Buchanan. In 1867, he 
bought the farm now occupied by his son Andrew. 

Mr. Boa died in 1893, aged 55. Mrs. Boa and the five sons and five daughters 
are all living. 

Amelia D., the eldest daughter, married to Frank Bickerstaff, and Flora H., the 
second, live in Illinois. Lydia H., the third daughter, married to William A. Gordon, 
lives in East Settlement; and Alice W. and Jessie, the two younger, remain at home. 

ANDREW BOA, the eldest son, after spending r.ome time in Manitoba and in 
different parts of the United States, returned home and took the farm in 1893. He 
is an enterprising farmer, and for several years has taken the first prize at the County 
plowing matches. Thomas B., the second son, is married and lives in Montreal ; 
Robert, the third son, resides in Atlantic Highland, New Jersey ; and John S., the 
fourth son. and Paul, the youngest, are in Illinois. 


This locality, which is located about four miles from Lachute, on the opposite 
side of the North River, has fine farms and has always sustained a thrifty and intelli 
gent population. As shown on a preceding page, Philander Stephens and his 
brothers were very early settlers here, and he is the only one of the early American 
pioneers now remaining. A Post office was established here in 1880. Thomas 
Pollock, who was the first Postmaster appointed, died in 1892, and Mr. Drew suc 
ceeded him as Postmaster. We regret that disappointment in not receiving the 
data necessary prevents our giving a biographical sketch of Mr. Pollock. 

A cheese factory was erected here, in 1888, by Frederick Cook, and though the 
section is almost wholly an agricultural one, there is a grist and saw mill here in a 
romantic little glen. These mills, which were formerly known as the McOuat Mills, 
are now owned by Thomas Hammond. 

About 1820, WILLIAM DREW, from Sterlingshire, Scotland, came to Montreal, 
and two years later he came to this section, where he married Janet, daughter of 
James McOuat. He bought 100 acres of Lot 19, 2nd Range, and afterward pro 
cured 135 acres more, adjacent to his first purchase. He was on military duty 
during the Rebellion of 1837, an( ^ faithfully performed all his duties as a worthy 



citizen till his death, 131)1 October, 1869. He had seven children two sons and 
five daughters that arrived at maturity, but two of the daughters are now deceased. 
James, the elder son, has always remained on th : homestead a beautiful and 
productive farm of 235 acres, with commodious, substantial buildings. Mr. Drew 
was married lyth April, 1862, to Elizabeth, daughter of William Muir, of Lachute. 
They have but one child, a daughter, Elizabeth, living. She has a Model School 
Diploma, and has taught successfully several years. Another .laughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Drew, Maggie, died in 1895 a g rea t bereavement to the family and a 
large circle of friends. Mr. Drew joined the Troop of the late Col. Simpson, and 
remained in it till it was disbanded/ 

James Drew, the other son of William Drew, the pioneer, married in April, rS63, 
Eliza Pollock. He has a fine farm on Beech Ridge. 

Among other valuable farms at Hill Head are those of George Morrison and 
Mr. McOuat. 

Adjacent to Hill Head is " THOMAS GORE," a section comprising two ranges of 
lots, which is also inhabited by an industrious class of farmers. Among these are 
James Berry, Thomas Hume, Henry Padgett, John Smith and others. 

Tne most, if not all, of these live on the homesteads selected by fheir fathers, 
and have brothers and sisters residing here, and in other parts of the Dominion. 


(Erected into a township by Proclamation, 131!! July, 1799.) 

This township is bounded on the north by Wentworth, east by the parishes of St. 
Andrews and St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, south by the Ottawa and west by Grenville. 

At just what time the first settler located in Chatham, or who he was, are ques 
tions we are unable to answer, but from information obtained from different sources 
we are led to the conclusion that the advent of the first pioneer* must have been 
about the beginning of the present century. 

We cannot find a more appropriate introduction to the history of this township 
than the following letter of our esteemed friend, Mr. Dewar of Ottawa. 







































































T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland . 






1 7 



Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson 









T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland. 



Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. . 







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John 1 hompson 





John Thompson, jun 


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Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. 


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T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland 

* * * 





Wm. Fortune 



1 homas Barron 




William J ortune 










T. A. Stayner... 




\V illiam Fortune 





Maria and Louisa Sutherland 



Thomas A. Stayner 

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Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson. , 




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Thomas A. Stayner 

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John Robertson 

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James Heatly 



John Robertson 





John Meikle 


James Walker . 







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Thomas Barron 




James Walker . . 







Henry McDowel 




James Walker 


Maria and Louisa Sutherland 






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Matthew Johnston 

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John Robertson .... 2 9 

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William and John Roger and Andrew Todcl 4 9 

Alexander McGibbon W 4 9 

John Robertson .... 5 9 

do .... 6 9 

Malcolm Mclntyre .... 7 9 

Donald McPhail 8 9 

Peter Dewar, jr .... 9 9 

Daniel Dale .... 10 9 

Wm. Young .... . .... 1 1 9 

do 12 9 

Duncan Me Arthur .... 13 9 

John Loggie 14 9 

Peter McFarlane .... 15 9 

John McArthur .... 1 6 9 

Peter Grant .... 17 9 

Thomas Duncan .... 18 9 

Donald McMartin .... 19 9 

Peter Gilmour .... 20 9 

Francis Duffy EJ 21 9 

Thomas Spencer \V . , 21 9 

Geo. Blair . . . f 22 9 

\Vm. Blair, jr .... 23 9 

John Morrow W A 24 9 

Henry Dixon E .] 24 9 

do ". 25 9 

Frank Connor E . , 26 9 

Mathew Connor W . , 26 9 

Henry Connor ...." 27 9 

James Kennedy .... 28 9 

Allen Cameron .... i 10 

Duncan McCalluin .... 2 10 

Robert Me Naughton .... 3 10 

Richard Farren N 4 i o 

Hugh Smith S . , 4 10 

Peter Jesmin .... 5 10 

D. Sinclair .... j o 

James Pinkei ton .... 7 10 

Walter Kirconnell .... 10 

Hugh McCallum .... 9 IQ 

Arch. McArthur .... 10 IQ 

Alex. McGibbon .... 1 1 10 

John McFarlane .... 12 i O 

Joseph Sale E i} 10 

Duncan McPhail W". 1 , 13 10 

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Malcolm McGregor .... 15 10 

John McGibbon .... 16 i o 

Donald McKercher .... 17 

Duncan McMartin .... 18 

do 19 

George Moncrieff W \ 20 

Peter McArthur K . , 20 

Thomas Duncan .... 21 io 










































































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John McDougall 




" The front of Chatham was largely settled by Americans, in the latter part of 
the last century; some of them being refugees, who had left their country for their 
country s good, and who were remarkable for nothing but their hatred of British 
institutions and love of Brother Jonathan. This was well exemplified a few years later 
on the breaking out of the war of 1812, when all the loyal inhabitants of the County 
volunteered as one man, leaving their families and homes, and, amid much suffering 
and privation, marched to headquarters, which was then at Pointe Claire, where they 
prepared themselves, as best they could, to repel Ite piratical invaders of the Prov 
ince. _ Many of the above mentioned men refused to join the ranks with the others 
openly declaring that they were not going to fight against their own friends Of 
course, no action was taken against them, but they were marked for all time and as 
their principal employment and means of subsistence was the clearing of land and 

\vgpotash, as the timber began to get scarce, they found it convenient to leave 
for other parts ; and, for years, their names have been almost forgotten and I 

mention only a few, viz., the Bennetts, Bates, Parchers, and Smiths. Their 
cant places were soon filled up by a better class of men, many of whose descend- 
; Still occupy the old homesteads, and are a credit and an honor to any country 
among these may be reckoned the Schagels, Fullers, Noyeses, Bradfords, Ostroms 
Lasses and many others. 

The early settlers were often put to great straits for breadstuff s ; whenever the 

crops failed from any cause, there were no means of supply, except by the natural 

highway ^ Grand River, and nothing but canoes for transport to and from 

I he trip was often very much protracted, especially by the boats eettin* 


Any scarcity in the matter of cereals was made up by the plenteousness offish 
and game. In each year about the first of June, the shad (or, as they came to be 
:d, Carillon Beef ) made their appearance, when each family, in a short time 
lay m their yearly supply. For many years, the North River furnished fine 
>ecimens of salmon, when they regularly ascended that river to spawn that of 
ourse, was before the river was obstructed by dams. 

The system of agriculture was, for many years, of a verv primitive character. 

While the country was being cleared, all their dependence was on the new /,/crop. 

5i -a time, when the land required breaking up, the hog plough was intro- 

:ed I ; but that implement did little more than cut and cover, and it was not until 

jcotch plough was introduced, about the year 1825, that anything approachin- 

ood farming was done. And from that time, the improvement was very rapid, so 

m a few years there were as good ploughmen in the County of Argenteuil as in 

any part of Canada. 

Among the early settlers the state of religion was, for many years, at a very low 

>b. A Methodist minister, travelling from place to place, would hold services occa- 

i lly in private houses ^no other place of worship being then available), and at 

times camp meetings were held in the open air, at which all ministers within 

ionable distance were expected to attend. After a time, a large building was 

ted, which was intended to be used as a place of worship and also as a school- 

l he Methodist denomination had the honor of erecting in the township of 

natham the first building dedicated solely to the worship of God ; this was in 1830, 

Wit obviated the necessity of holding camp meetings, the last of which, I think, was 

held m the year 1829. 

An Episcopal minister, the Rev. Rich. Bradford (grandfather of the late Sir 
B J. U Abbott), resided m Chatham on a farm now occupied by Donald M. 
ewar, and supplied occasional services in St. Andrews; this was prior to the arrival 
818, of the Rev. Archibald Henderson. As you will, no doubt, have the assist- 


ance of abler pens than mine, I will not enlarge on this, or the two following subjects, 
leaving to them the task of completing what I have begun, 

" There is very little that can be chronicled in reference to Sunday Schools. A 
few pious, earnest men had endeavored to establish one in the front of Chatham, 
but owing to the poveity of the settlers and otKer difficulties in the way, it was kept 
open only a few months in summer, each year. It was different in villages, where 
they had greater facilities, but, still, there were many drawbacks. 

"The temperance question, as we understand it, was scarcely known by name 
until after the year 1820, when a society was formed allowing the use of wine, beer 
and cider. After a time, more stringent rules were adopted, but for many years 
there was a determined opposition ; those known to- be favorable to the cause were 
subjected to all sorts of ridicule, reproach and contempt ; but the cause gradually 
increased, many good, earnest, zealous workers kept up the agitation, holding meet 
ings, and disseminating temperance literature, until a very different feeling was 
brought about, and many strong opponents silenced. We have not yet got prohi 
bition, but we expect it; may the Lord hasten it, in His own good time. 

" I do not know whether it was owing to hostility of race, which always had been 
prevalent among the French, and which was the principal element of discord in the 
whole of Lower Canada, or from some other cause, but in the early settlement of the 
County, there was something remarkable in the fact that, up to the year 1829, there 
was not one French Canadian farmer in the whole of the township of Chatham. In 
that year, PIERRE ROBERT took up land in the second Concession, and about the 
same time, or perhaps a few years prior, one by the name of MALLETTE settled on a 
farm in the River Rouge settlement, and in my early days was noted as the only 
farmer that held the original deed of concession. It was somewhat different in what 
is now known as the County of Two Mountains, as many old country farmers settled 
down among the French ; but it was not until after the Rebellion of 1837 that the 
French settled among the English. 

" The causes which led up to the troubles of 1837 are > of c o urse , matters of his 
tory ; but whatever feeling the Liberal party had in common with them, was essentially 
different, because of their loyalty to the British Constitution. 

" The Carillon canal was opened for traffic in 1834, when small vessels could go 
through to Kingston ; prior to that date all goods and supplies were brought from 
Lachine at first by bateaux and Durham boats, and afterward by steamer landed 
at Carillon, and carted by teams of horses and oxen to Grenville, and thence shipped 
to By town. 

" I will close this rambling sketch by relating an incident which will show the 
past and present modes of transit, and also record an item of history. 

" It was on his visit to the Maritime Provinces in the summer of 1840, that the 
Governor General of Canada, Charles Poulett Thompson, Esq., afterward Lord Syden- 
ham, left Kingston via the Rideau Canal to Bytown, thence by steamer to Grenville ; 
and as the roads over the intervening link between Grenville and Carillon were too 
rough for a delicate man like Lord Syddnham, he was taken in a carriage along the 
banks of the c..nal to Greece s Point, where he embarked on the steamer St. 
Andrews (\v,.. .1 was used as a tug for barges between that place and the upper 
locks), commanded by Captain Lighthall, of Chute au Blondeau fame, and was 
taken through Carillon Canal, at the rate of about three miles an hour. Think 
of this, ye votaries of rapid transit, who cannot travel without a parlor, Pullman 
and dining car attached, and bounding along at the rate of fifty miles an hour, 
while the Governor General of Canada was carried along on the deck of a tug 
steamboat, at the rate of about three miles an hour. Truly the lines have fallen 
to us in pleasant places. " Yours truly, 



As the DEWARS were as early settlers in this part of Chatham as any of whom 
we have heard, we insert with pleasure the following letter : 

" OTTAWA, December 27th, 1893. 

il As you request me to give a sketch of my ancestors, who were early settlers 
in the front of Chatham, I will endeavor to do so, but will first give the origin of the 
name Dewar, which simply means, in plain English, custodian or keeper. 

" The name is sometimes spelt Deor (which is presumably the Gaelic form) as 
well as Deweer, and is invested with quite a romantic and historic interest on 
account of its origin, which was, that one family of the Clan Macnab was selected or 
appointed to be the custodians of the Quigrich or pastoral staff of St. Fillan, the 
Abbott, who lived about the year of Our Lord 720, and held his yearly festival on 
tiie 7th January. 

" His principal Church or Priory in Scotland, and which was most closely con 
nected with his memory, was in the upper part of Glendochart, in Perthshire, and 
which takes from him the name otStrathfillan. There are well authenticated records 
which establish the fact, that the Quigrich has been in possession of the Dewar 
family since the time of King Robert Bruce, and in 1487 the charter was again con 
firmed by King James III to Malise Dewar and his successors. The precious relic of 
a bye-gone age has thus come down through successive generations, until about the 
year 1860, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, having traced it to Canada, found 
it in posjession of Alexander Dewar, of Plympton, Ont, who, being then in his 87th 
year, was induced by them to execute a deed, transferring the custody of the relic he 
had brought from his native land to that Society, thus disposing of the trust so long 
and faithfully discharged by this Highland family, and of which I am proud to bear 
the name. 

" Hrving said this much in reference to the name, I will now give a short sketch of 
the family. In the month of July, 1804, my grandfather, Peter Dewar, his wife and 
family, consisting of six sons and three daughters, also his brother Duncan, his wife 
and O ie child, together with some two or three hundred other emigrants, embarked 
at Greenock on a vessel bound for the port of Quebec. A few days after leaving port, 
the vessel was captured by a French Privateer, who, after examining the ship s papers, 
and finding there was no valuable cargo on board, and being satisfied that it was 
only an emigrant vessel, allowed them to proceed on their voyage ; the captain first 
treating the Privateer s men to a liberal supply of Highland whiskey. The passengers 
experienced the truth of the proverb that blood is thicker than water, as the lieu 
tenant in charge of the boarding party was a Highlander of the name of McDonald, 
who generously took pity on his countrymen and let them go. A short time after the 
departure of the French vessel, another was sighted bearing down upon them, and 
when the captain saw the Union Jack flying at the peak, he cursed his unlucky 
stars, as a British man-of-war was more to be dreaded than a French, on account of 
that abominable system, the Press Gang, which was then in full swing. However, 
as soon as they came within speaking distance, they demanded of the captain whether 
he had seen a strange vessel, and in what latitude. Having received the desired in 
formation, they crowded all sail and were soon out of sight. On the arrival of the 
emigrants at Quebec, in the early part of the month of September, they learned that 
the Privateer had been captured, and great sorrow was felt for the fate of Lieutenant 
McDonald. On leaving the vessel at Quebec, the passengers separated, going to 
different parts of the country. The two families of Dewar, with six or seven other 
families of the name of Cameron, were in due time landed at St. Andrews, whence the 
Camerons went to the township of Chatham and settled on farms there. 


" My grandfather lived for a time on the farm that is now called Bellevue, 
afterwards removing to the front of Chatham, on a property purchased from Colonel 
Daniel Robertson, and which is still in possession of his grandchildren, while he and 
all his family have long since passed over to the silent majority. 

" The history of the Dewar family might very properly close here, were it not 
that you particularly desire a further sketch of my father s family. 

" On the first day of March, 1807, he was married to Margaret McCallum, of 
Caldwell s Manor, and settled on what is known as Lot_Nq. 4, front of Chatham, - 
which is now in possession of Mr. Fitzgerald. His family of five daughters and four 
sons, and of which I am the youngest, were born there. My mother died on the nth 
October, 1826, aged 45 years. My father died on the 4th September, 1869, in the 
94th year of his age. I am the only surviving member of his family the last leaf on 
the family tree, all the others having long since passed away. 

" Of my grandfather s six sons, John, the eldest, was the educated man of the 
family. He graduated from Edinburgh University, and was for some time tutor in a 
gentleman s family in Scotland. A short time after he came to Canada, he received 
from the Government the appointment of teacher in the public school at Chatham, 
and held that position for over twenty years, being the only teacher receiving full 
salary ever appointed by the Government. He was a man of superior abilities, well 
read in all the literature of the day, of a reflective and cultured mind ; but, owing to a 
retiring disposition, would take no part in the struggles of public affairs. In person 
he was of slight build and delicate constitution, in singular contrast to the rest of his 
brothers, who were all strong and rugged. He married Myra Noyes, and settled on 
lots Nos. i, 2 and 3, his house standing a little in rear of Mr. Fitzgerald s house. He 
had a family of two sons and one daughter, and after the death of his wife in August, 
1827, he and his family resided with his brothers until his death, July i6th, 1839. 
As he did not have to depend upon the proceeds of his farm for a living, nearly 
the whole of his large farm was let out in pasture. His eldest son, John, left 
home when quite a young man, taking up his residence in New York, where he 
married, and died in 1855. His son Peter married Ann Gordon in 1849, an ^ died 
in 1851; His daughter Eliza Jane married Wm. Douglas in 1846, and after a few 
years residence in Chatham removed to the State of New York. 

" Of the rest of my grandfather s sons, Donald and Peter never married, living 
together on the old homestead with their sister Margaret as housekeeper, until her 
death in 1857. Donald died in June, tS54, and Peter in 1872. 

" Alexander, married Agnes Dodd, and settled on a farm, and did a flourishing busi 
ness with an oatmeal and grist mill for many years, until it was rendered useless by 
the improvements made to the Grenville Canal. He had a large family of sons and 
daughters, who are, for the most part, living in the immediate vicinity of their old 
home. He died in May, 1876, being over 90 years of age at the time of his death. 

"Colin, the youngest son, married Jane Mclntyre in April, 1840, and settled on 
the farm, where his son Donald still resides. He died in September, 1866, in the 66th 
year of his age. 

"As already narrated, Duncan, my father, married Margaret McCallum, a 
descendant of one of those families who left their homes in the valley of the Mohawk, 
at the breaking out of the troubles which led to the separation from Great Britain. 
After their marriage, they settled on Lot No. 4 (next to my Uncle John), which was 
then, like most of the other farms at that time, an almost unbroken wilderness. True, 
the potash makers had been over a good part of the front of Chatham at that time, 
but they had only cut down what suited their purpose for making ashes, leaving the 
rest as it was. 


" Whether it was law, or custom only, that gave to the Indians the right to all the 
Islands in the river, it was from an Indian Chief at the Lake of Two Mountains that 
my father obtained, for a yearly rental, the privilege of occupying and cultivating the 
large island in front of his property, and which was afterward called after his name. 
The produce from that island was sufficient for the support of his family, year after 
year, as he raised good crops of fall wheat, potatoes, corn, hay, etc., besides apples, 
plums and other small fruit in abundance, which seemed to be indigenous to the place. 
Having this island to depend on for the support of his family, gave him quite an ad 
vantage over some of his neighbors, and, also, an opportunity to get his farm cleared 
up. He was what would be called in those days a stock fancier ; he was not satisfied 
without having the best breed of cattle and horses that could be obtained, and no 
expense or trouble was spared in order to get them. He brought home, at one time, a 
small herd of cattle and horses which he bought in the State of Vermont and Eastern 
Townships, and their descendants graced both his own and his brother s barn yards 
for many years. 

" When my parents began life together, there was only a small log house and 
barn on the farm, and not sufficient accommodation for the stock. Shortly after, a 
stable of sided cedar was built, and which, a few years ago, seemed to be as sound as 
ever ; this is merely mentioned to show the durability of cedar. In that old log house, 
nearly all their family were born, as it was not until the year 1819 that he had finished a 
snug, comfortable, two-storey stone house, where my youngest sister Kate and myself 
first saw the light of day, and where my dear mother breathed her last nth October, 

The face of the country is very much changed since then. At that time, the 
main road ran along the bank of the river from Carillon to our place. The view from 
our house was splendid ; away to the west, the river and farm houses were in full 
view ; down the river could be seen the rapids and part of the village of Point Fortune ; 
nearly in front of the house was a most magnificent elm tree, whose wide-spreading 
branches made a very inviting shade on a hot day. 

" My mother was a woman of a strong and indomitable will, with much native 
energy and ambition, blended with great mildness and gentleness of character ; cool 
and collected in the time of danger, as the following little incident will show : 

While engaged in her domestic duties, it was customary for the eldest child to 
take charge of the younger ones ; and one day, as usual, she had taken them out, and 
was amusing them for a time under the shade of the elm tree, whence she got them 
into the canoe, that was always moored at the landing place. In their fun and play, 
the boat was soon loosed from shore, and floating out into dangerous water. My 
sister, seeing her danger, made a great outcry,, which not only brought my mother to 
the scene, but was also creating a panic among the younger ones. My mother seeing 
the peril, at once, spoke to them in a soothing, gentle way, and, by her cool and 
collected manner, quieted the little ones ; while she, with the aid of a pole, and by 
wading into the deep water, managed to bring them safely to shore. It was in the 
same place where my youngest brother, Daniel, was drowned a few years afterward. 
My three brothers were in bathing, and he, not knowing the danger, climbed on a 
sunken rock, and slipped off into deep water, and was never after seen alive. The 
body was recovered in a few days in an eddy, near Carillon. 

When the Government expropriated the land required for the canal and high 
way, and which included his dwelling house, my father sold the remainder of his 
farm to \Vm. Cook, a contractor on the canal, and removed in the spring of 1830 
to a rented farm, a short distance away, where he resided until 25th June, 1835. 
He then removed to the property he had purchased on the Lachute Road, which 


was then almost in a state of nature, so that, for the second time, he began 
clearing up a new farm ; and although he was pretty well advanced in life, he 
lived to see it brought to a high state of cultivation, with large and commodious 
farm buildings, comfortable dwelling, etc. When the farm was sold in 1862, he 
retired from active life, and spent the remainder of his days on the old homestead 
in Chatham, where he died 4th September, 1869, in the 94th year of his age. 
Of his family of five daughters, the eldest, Christian, born 6th October, 1809, married 
James Frasei, 26th October, 18-54; died roth July, 1858. Mary, born i4th April, 
1811, married James Thomson, 3oth December, 1834, and died 28th September, 1872. 
Helena, born i4th November, 1813, married Robert Thomson (no relation of 
Mary s husband), 2nd January, 1838, and died 26th November, 1887, leaving a 
family of two sons and two daughters, who reside in Ottawa and vicinity. Margaret, 
born 2nd January, 1815, died February, 1883; Catharine, born 3rd January, 1821, 
died igth May, 1883. 

" Of his four sons, John, born 26th April, 18 1 7, was accidentally killed in my father s 
barn, by falling from the top of the hay mow, and was impaled on a sharp stake ; he 
lived about twenty-four hours, and died i4th August, 1841. He was a young man 
of great promise, of agreeable and gentle disposition, quiet and unassuming manner; 
he had a splendid voice and was fond of music; heavy, muscular build and splendid 
physique, standing over six feet in height, and weighing 220 Ibs. His sudden, untimely 
and dreadful death was a terrible shock to his father and all his family ; and I cannot 
recall the sad circumstances, even now, without a shudder. Peace to his ashes. 
Honour to his memory. Peter, his twin brother, lived on the farm with his father 
until his death, 22nd November, 1847. Daniel, born 28th March, 1819, was drowned 
in July, 1827, as previously narrated. 

" 1 was the youngest of the family, and was born i2th September, 1823, at the old 
homestead in Chatham, where my uncle John laid the foundation of what little education 
I possess, as I never had the advantage of a classical or college education, but had 
to put up with what was taught in the common schools (and some of them were com 
mon enough), our text-books being the Bible and Mavor s spelling-book. Those who 
were fond of poetry had the Scottish version of the Psalms to revel in, and when the 
English Reader was added 10 the list of school books, it was thought we were 
very extravagant. At that time, the greatest part of the ink used in country schools was 
made by boiling the bark of the soft maple ; we used goose or turkey quills to write 
with. As my father had not the means to pay help in clearing up and doing the 
work on the farm, each one of his sons had to turn in and help, and, in consequence, 
I was taken from school before I was thirteen years of age, and never returned. 

" As I did not relish a farmer s life, I left home, and served in a store three years ; 
but on the death of my brother John, in 1841, thinking it was my duty to help my 
father, I went back to the farm, and after a few years took entire charge of it, and 
relieved him from all responsibility. He deeded one-half of the property for my own 
personal benefit; on the land thus obtained I built a house, and on the i3th Sept 
ember, 1854, was married to Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of Charles Benedict of 
St. Andrews, who was born nth August, 1823. We went home, and lived thereuntil 
the spring of 1863, when, having sold the farm in the fall of 1862 to Charles Albright, 
we remained two years in St. Andrews, and then removed, in 1865, to St. Eugene, in 
the township of Hawkesbury. My wife died there nth October, 1866, leaving to my 
care four sons, our third son, James, having died previous to his mother, of scarlet 
fever, 24th January, 1865. During my residence at St. Eugene, I received the appoint 
ment of Commissioner for taking affidavits in the Queen s Bench, and was also 
appointed local superintendent of schools, which office I held for two years until I 
left the place in 1868. 


" In the spring of 1869,, I came to Ottawa, and having obtained a situation in 
the office of Captain Young, lumber manufacturer, sent for my family in November of 
the same year, was married to Esther, the second daughter of Charles Benedict of St. 
Andrews, who was born ist January, 1819, and died 22nd April, 1892. 

" I remained in the employ of Captain Young for seventeen years, the greater 
part of the time as cashier and confidential clerk, nnd remained with his successors 
for over two years after he sold out ; and am row and have been for five years in the 
Water Works department in the City Hall. I never aspired to municipal honors, 
but represented Victoria ward, as public school trustee, for a period of nine years. 
In politics. I am a Liberal, but not slavishly bound to either party ; would support an 
honest government, r.o matter by what name it was called, if the men at the head of 
it were men of honor, who could not be bought with the spoils, nor contaminated 
with the lust of office, who have in them that righteousness which alone exalteth a 
nation. In religion, I can worship with any who love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, 
but nm identified more closely with the Presbyterian denomination, and have endea 
vored, although with much feebleness and faltering, to do my duty in that state of 
life in which it has pleased God to call me. My family of four sons are all married, 
and living in Ottawa. John, the eldest, born ist November, 1855, served his time as 
a machinist, afterward taking a course of mechanical drawing in Richmond College, 
and received an appointment from the Government as machinist and draughtsman 
in the Intercolonial shops at River-du-Loup. He left that place for a situation as 
locomotive foreman at Ottawa, which he resigned to open an office as Insurance 
Agent and Real Estate Broker. He married, June, 1880, Catharine Isabella, daughter 
ot Aid. Masson of Ottawa. 

" George, born 28th July, 1857, is now Agent for the Export Lumber Co. of 
New York and Boston. He was married loth December, 1891, to Mary, youngest 
daughter of Mr. Wm. Robertson, of Ottawa. 

Charles, born i3th February, 1862, for the past eight years has been local man 
ager of the Bell Telephone Co. at Ottawa, and is one of the Directors of the Ottawa 
Electric Railway. He married Annie, youngest daughter of Mr. Arch. Acheson of 
Westmeath, g\h June, 1886; they have three children. 

"Colin, the youngest, born 2yth October, 1863. is a graduate of McGill Medical 
College, and has been a practising physician and surgeon in the city for the last six 
years. He married, ist January, 1890, Laura, daughter of Rufus Filer of Montreal, 
and they have two children. 

"Yours truly, 

"C. DEWAR." 

We think the mill referred to in the above letter of Mr. Dewar de erves further 
notice, inasmuch as it performed a most important function in its day, and proved a 
great blessing to the inhabitants. Only a vestige of it remains, and the date of its 
erection could not be learned, till it was discovered in the diary of the late Captain 
Pridham of Grenville, who refers to it in speaking of the masons who were employed 
in the construction of his own house; it is thus learned that the mill was built i> 
1835. Its location was near the Ottawa, not far above Stonefield, on a small strean 
vhich was then much larger thin at present. It was famed for the excellence of the 
oatmeal it manufactured, and was patronized by farmers even from Glengarry. A a 
aged citizen in the vicinity remembers that many teams were often waiting at the 
mill, in the days of its usefulness. 

Colin Dewar, the youngest of the sons of Peter Dewar, and who is briefly men 
tioned in the above sketch of the Dewar family, was three years old when his parents 
came to Canada. His father had lived on the Duke of Argyle s estate in Scotland, 


and the aged Duchess sometimes called at the house. She took great interest in the 
wee bairn Colin from his birth, and expressed a hope that his hair would be red. She 
presented him with a suit of kilts when the family was about leaving, and he was in the 
full enjoyment of this Highland costume when the vessel was stopped by the Privateer. 

The kilts were long preserved by the family, and we believe that portions are 
still in existence. Mr. Dewar (the happy recipient of this suit) was lieutenant in the 
company of Captain Ostrom, in the Rebellion of 1837, an ^ was an active, esteemed 
member of this community, serving it for some time as School Commissioner. 
Mrs. Dewar died in 1895; they had four sons Peter, James, Duncan and Donald, 
and four daughters Annie, Christina, Mary and Margaret : Peter lives in this sec 
tion, James in Minnesota, and Duncan is deceased. Annie, the widow of Wm. Scott, 
lives in California; Christina, widow of Geo. Noyes, in this locality ; Mary died in 
infancy ; Margaret, married to James Hawring, Hves in British Columbia. 

Donald Dewar resides on the homestead a fine farm with an attractive brick 
residence which commands a beautiful view of the Ottawa. Mr. Dewar was appointed 
commissioner for the trial of small causes in 1892, and soon afterward was appointed 
Justice of the Peace; he married Eliza J. Mullen, of St. Andrews parish. 

Mr. Dewar in a later letter says : 

" I believe I did not mention the fact of a saw mill having been built on lot No. 
3, a short distance up the river from Mr. Chisholm s distillery, and a little below my 
father s house ; it was the first mill erected in that part of Lower Canada. There is 
no documentary evidence to show when or by whom it was built, or the length of 
time it was in existence, how or by what means it was destroyed, which was, most 
likely, by the ice in the spring. It must have been destroyed in the closing years of 
the last century, as there was not a vestige of the mill to be seen (except a part of 
the mill dam) when my father settled on his farm in 1807. Mr. Duncan Dewar 
remembers seeing the remains of the dam when he was a boy, and is of the opinion 
that it was built by Ebenezer Clarke, a well-known millwright in those days, whose 
family resided in the township of Chatham. I also frequently saw the remains of the 
dam in my younger days." 

Great changes have occurred in the appearance of this locality since the days 
when Mr. Dewar lived here; the large elm to which he refers has disappeared, as 
well as many other of the old landmarks. 

On the farm of Mr. James Edward Fitzgerald, at a little distance from the high 
way, on the left, are the ruins of a house, which, judging from its interior finish and 
the grounds around it, was the home of some person of taste and means. At the 
time of its erection the road passed between it and the river, so that the neat fence 
and shrubbery, of which vestiges may still be seen, that were then in front of the 
dwelling, are now in the rear of its ruins. This house was erected about 1830. by 
William Cook, a Scotchman, who had been a contractor in his native land. On 
coming to Chatham he took a large contract in the construction of the Canal, made 
money, with which he purchased 500 acres of land, that was formerly owned by John 
Dewar, in this section, and erected the dwelling referred to above. He afterward lost 
heavily on a contract he had taken for the construction of the locks at Chute au 

THOMAS FITZGERALD, one of the pioneers of Beech Ridge, in the Parish of St. 
Andrews, received a classical education, preparatory to entrance to the priesthood; 
but, for some reason, he gave up the design of following this vocation. He was a 
nephew of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who was executed for complicity in the Irish 
Rebellion of 1798, and was himself an exile for nine years in France, for his connection 
with the same Rebellion. But, being pardoned by the British Government, he 



returned to his native land, and, in 1836, came to Canada and settled at Beech 
Ridge. His son, JOHN FITZGERALD, came to Chatham, and, in 1868, bought three 
lots of land, on which his sons now live. He was married in 1848 to Elizabeth 
Delaney, and had three sons and two daughters. James, married to Joanna O Con 
nor, June loth, 1879 , : John, who was married to Martha Dixon, of Little Rideau, in 
September, 1881 ; and Edward, married in 1880, to Mary Ellen Barren, of East 
Hawkesbury, all live in Chatham. Margaret, the widow of John Lennon, also 
resides in this place; Elizabeth, the other daughter, is the wife of Richard Funcheon, 
of St. Columba. Their father, Mr. John Fitzgerald, after buying his farm, about 1872 
went, with one of his sons, to California, where he earned money to pay for his land, 
returning in 1874. He was an intelligent man, a great reader, and possessed 
a very retentive memory ; he was also a man of much energy and industry. The land 
he purchased at this place he divided among his sons, giving to each a good farm. 
He died very suddenly, 6th May, 1894 ; Mrs. Fitzgera d died 2gth January, 1896. 

JAMES MILLER came, in 1831, with his family, from the County of Monaghan, 
Ireland, to Carleton County, Ont. Four years later, his son, James Miller, jun., 
moved to Pembroke, where he remained till 1870, successfully engaged in lumbering 
and farming. He then came to Gushing, Que., and bought the Mair property, which 
he sold in 1888, and, in the spring of the next year, moved to another part of Chatham, 
where he bought 90 acres, known as the " Feeder Farm," on which he still lives. 
Mr. Miller has always taken an interest in schools, and was a member of a School 
Board fifteen years. He was married in 1858 to Susannah O Brien, who has since 
died. They had ten children, of whom only one James Henry grew up. The latter 
was married, 28th February, 1894, to Miss Christina McMartin, of River Rouge, and 
is now employed in Montreal, in the office of the Traveler s Insurance Company. 

PHILABERT F. FILION, a very successful business man of this section, is a son of 
Martin Filion, and was born near Rigaud, Que., and came to Chatham in 1865. 
Previous to this, he attended college in St. Andrews, and worked some time for 
McLaughlin & Son, lumbermen, on the Ottawa, being wiih them, altogether, as clerk 
and foreman, twenty-one years ; he was also foreman on the Carillon Dam, the Lachine 
Piers, and in the stone quarry three years at Port Arthur. He has been twice 
married: the first time in 1866 to Mary Robert, who died about a year after her 
marriage. His second marriage was in 1871 to Miss Dinah Sauvie, of Montebello. 

Mr. Filion, for a number of years, has been engaged in the lumber business 
with his brother Joseph, his fine farm, meanwhile, being to a great extent managed 
by Mrs. Filion. 

ANTOINE ROBERT, who has lived here for nearly thirty years, has the honor of 
being the son of a centenarian. His grandfather, Joseph Robert, came from France, 
and was one of the very early settlers at St. Andrews. Joseph, the eldest of his 
children, who had lived for nearly fifty years on the River Rouge, St. Andrews, died 
there in 1885, upward of 100 years old. He was twice married, and had one son and 
seven daughters. Antoine is the only son by the last marriage. 

EDWARD BARRON is one of the respected farmers of this section ; he is a grand 
son of the Mrs. Barren mentioned in the history of Chute au Blondeau, who performed 
the feat of riding on horseback, through the wilderness, to Toronto, to obtain the 
patent for their farm. It is but just to say, that the industry and perseverance of Mr. 
Barren emulate those of his maternal relative. His father, Joseph Barren, lived on 
the old homestead at Chute au Blondeau, and died there a few years since. He had 
six sons and three daughters ; three, only, of the sons James, John and Edward 
live in this section. James conducts an hotel in Grenville ; John is a farmer in the 


same township. Edward Bnrron, in 1882, married the widow of John Thompson, 
daughter of the late John Mason, lockmaster, and settled in Chatham. Mrs. Barren, 
by her first marriage, had five children, of whom two sons and one daughter are now 
living. By the second marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Barren have one son and one daughter. 
Mr. Barren s present farm was foimerly owned by Dr. Jameson, one of the 
successful and prominent physicians of Waterloo, Shefford County, Que. 

CAPT. JOHN STEPHENS, whose early career was singularly eventful, and who, as 
his various promotions proved, did honorable service in fighting for his country, 
was bom in Wexford County, Ireland, in 1789. He joined the army at the age of 
17, entering the 87111 Regt. Foot, in 1806; he was transferred, in 1808, to 4th 
G. B., and, in 1810, to the 66th Foot, commanded by his second cousin, General Sir 
Oliver Nicolls. He was promoted to the rank of Senior Quarter Master, while under 
service at Calcutta, 14111 September, 1815. His length of service in the regular army 
was twenty-six years, four of which were spent in India. From India, he 
went to the Island of St. Helena, where he acted as one of the Guards of 
Napoleon I. His family had in their possession for years a ring presented to him by 
the ill-starred Emperor. He left St. Helena in 1821, retired from the 66th Regiment, 
came to Canada in 1827, and in 1830 settled in Chatham. At his own request, he was 
retired on half-pay December, 1831., In 1833, he received a grant of land in 
Litchfield, County of Pontiac, for military service, but did not remove his residence 
from Chatham. In 1837, at tne request of Sir John Colborne, he raised a company 
of volunteers, and served as Regiment Adjutant in 1838. It was at this time he won 
his title of Captain. He became connected with the Presbyterian Church, under the 
Rev. William Mair, in 1839, and was appointed Deacon of the same in the following 
year ; he was approved by the session of the Church as Eider, but seems to have 
declined appointment to that office. His death took place gth October, 1868. 

The REV. RICHARD BRADFORD was one of the most prominent of the early settlers 
in Chatham, chiefly because he was the first to plant the Church of England in the 
valley of the Ottawa, and was the first clergyman resident in the County. These two 
facts alone entitle him to a long biographical sketch ; but, notwithstanding the efforts 
that were made to obtain more facts with regard to him, we simply learned that he 
came from England to New York about 1782, and was there engaged in a business 
partnership with a Mr- Smith. A few years later he came to Canada, and was Chaplain 
in the 49th Regiment. We do not know just when he came to Chatham, but that he 
was here in 1811-12 is evident from the Church Records at St. Andrews. He pur 
chased from Col. Robertson his estates on the Ottawa and North River, the first 
comprising 5,000, the latter 1,000 acres. He left two sons in the States ; the remain 
der of his children, four sons, Richard, George, Charles, and William, and two 
daughters, afterwards Mrs. Abbott and Mrs. Fisk, came with him to Canada. 

George, his eldest son, married Martha Smith, daughter of a neighbor, Captain 
Johnson Smith, and he first settled on the homestead near his father ; but, not long 
afterward, he removed to Upper Canada, and there bought a farm. Three years later, 
in 1820, his father died, and he returned to Chatham to obtain his share of the 
patrimony. His brothers, at that time, had all left this section, and his brother-in- 
law, Rev. Joseph Abbott, who was executor of the estate of the deceased, prevailed 
on George to take the 1,000 acres of land on the North River, instead of money, for 
his share of the paternal estate. In consequence of so doing, he had to give up his 
farm in Upper Canada, on which he had paid ^75, and he then returned and settled 
on his new one, his house being located not far from the site of Earle s Mills, in 
Lachute. Here he lived, till near the close of his life. His children, who arrived at 


mature age, were George M., Henry, now living in Brandon, Man.; Charles 
who was accidentally killed on the railway a few years since ; and John, now livin- in 
Lachute, where he has a lime kiln. The daughters were Eliza and Martha Jane ; the 
former was married to Henry Hammond, the latter to the late Andrew McCorinell. 
In 1838, George married Matilda Stephens, a daughter of Capt. John Stephens, and 
Henry Bradford married Mary Ann, her sister. These two brothers were members 
of Captain Stephens Volunteer Company, and went with it to Grande Brule. 
George, the elder brother, purchased a lot on the Ottawa, formerly belonging to 
his grandfather s estate, and built a house contiguous to that of his father-in-law. 
About 1846, he opened a store here in a part of the house where his grandsire lived 
and, in company with his brother Henry, did a large business. George, who is still 
alive, though upward of eighty, engaged in lumbering and piloting at an early age, and 
followed this many years. He employed many men, and, at times, had as many as 
seventy-five in his employ. After opening the store, he still followed his old vocation 
while his brother Henry managed the store. A few years afterward, George built a 
saw mill, a few miles away from his home, on a stream called Muddy Branch. The 
brothers then dissolved partnership Henry and his nephew John (a son of Geore 
Bradford) taking the saw mill, and George prepared to build a large steam mill near 
h;s own dwelling. This he erected on a small bay on the Ottawa in 1871-72, and 
for a few years did a large business manufacturing laih, shingle, and all kinds of 
lumber, which he sold to dealers and others. These mills were destroyed by fire in 
1877, when they were owned by the Owens Brothers, of Stonefield. At one time, 
Mr. Bradford owned eighty-six square miles of timber in Ottawa County, which after 
reserving a strip nine rods wide, he sold for $13,000. 

Mr. Bradford has been an ardent disciple of Nimrod,and during his lifetime has 
killed over five hundred deer, about a dozen bears and three or four lynxes. Sports 
men from the cities have often employed him as a guide and companion in their 
hunting tours, and many times he has spent weeks alone in the forest. 

He lias five sons now living John, George, William R., Edmund* and Frederick 
Norman. Thiee of these live in Hawksbury, one in Lcichute and one on the home 
stead. Of the three daughters, Edith married to James McAllister, Postmaster at 
ThuteauBlondeau ; Gertrude to Jas. Cook, farmer,"of A rundel ; and Martha to Joseph 
Thompson, a farmer of Portland, Que. The Noyeses have always been active citizens 
of Chatham. 

THOMAS NOYES was a U. E. Loyalist, and before coming to Chatham lived in 
New Hampshire. On removing to this place, accompanied by his wife, three sons 
and three daughters, he bought two lots of land. John, his eldest son, took part of 
the homestead, on which he lived till his death. Clark and William, his brothers 
built the large brick house now owned by Edward Barron. This they sold to Mont- 
marquet, and he sold to Dr. Jameson. Both these brothers also died in Chatham. 

John, the eldest son, mentioned above, was married to Lydia Dexter, of Vermont 
and had six sons and two daughters. 

Of the sons, Thomas, the eldest, married Mary Ann Ostrom, and lives in a pleasant 
brick residence on a fine farm, about half a mile from the homestead. They have 
five sons and three daughters. John, their eldest son, who has spent much of his life 
on the Ottawa, and is regarded as a skillful engineer, is engineer on the steamer " Hall " 
which plies between Montreal and Ottawa, and is much esteemed by the Company by 
which he is employed. His wife was Miss Fanny Roe, of Montreal. Benjamin, his 
youngest brother, and Ida, his youngest sister, remain with their parents on the home 

* Killed in a mill in 1895. 



John, the second son, and Charles, fourth son of John Noyes, sen., live in Butte 
City Montana, the former being one of the pioneers of that place. William, their 
brother, lives in Muskegon, Mich. Benjamin, their youngest brother, when last heard 

from was in Africa. 

George, sixth son of the same family, was married in 1868 to C linstina, daughter 
of the late Colin Dewar, of Chatham, and moved to Minnesota, where he died in 
1870 His widow, with her two children, returned, and bought a part of her family 
(Dewar) homestead, on which she still resides with her son John and daughter 

Of the two daughters of John Noyes, sen., Frances, the eldest, unmarried, lives 
with her brother Thomas. Lydia, the second daughter, married Mr. Williams, of 
Burlington, Vt., and died at that place. When but a young child, Frances was one 
day playing on the bank of the river, not far from the house, and a band of Indians 
ascending the Ottawa enticed her into a canoe and carried her away. By good fortune 
the Indians at Grenville met Mr. Noyes and Mr. McPhie, his partner in the lumber 
business, coming down the river. The child, recognizing her father, gave a joyful 
cry, and was thus rescued from captivity. 

About a mile on the road leading from Mr. George Bradford s, on the )ttawa, 
to St. Philippe, the traveller comes to a good farmhouse and commodious barns. 
Descending a small hill, he crosses a bridge over a creek and, at his right, lies 
a small picturesque pond, in a tract of level ground, encircled by gentle hills, and at 
a point where these hills so nearly meet as to leave only a narrow outlet for the 
stream is a mill for sawing wood. Farther off, at some little distance beyond the 
hills the upper part of a wind mill frame looms in sight. The whole surroundings, 
the creek, the pond, the well-tilled fields, good fences and sleek herds, afford a picture 
and suggest a phase of happy farm life on which the traveller delights to linger. 

This was the home of EPHRAIM FULLER, a pensioner of the United States Govern 
ment for service in the Revolution, and here he subsequently settled, the earliest 
pioneer it is believed, in this immediate section. On the spot where now his grand 
son has his mill for sawing wood, he also had a saw mill for transforming the pines, 
spruce hemlock, etc., into lumber a single instance of the enterprise of which he 
was possessed. He had thirteen children eight sons and five daughters; three of 
the former, Rinaldo, Ivory and Calvin, were the only ones who remained in th 
section. Rinaldo lived on the homestead, and had two sons and one daughter, 
latter, Marion, married to Daniel, a son of their neighbor, John Cass. 

Albert, the son, who married Minnie Douglass, lives on the homestead, and 
is engaged in farming on improved plans. He has a silo, cuts his ensilage anc 
all his feed by water power, and the same motor is employed to thresh his grai: 
He keeps a large stock of cattle, and under his able management his farm will soon 
be in condition to sustain more. Mr. Fuller is a young man of great energy,, and his 
enterprise is a worthy example to the other farmers of Chatham. 

At a little distance farther west where we saw the wind mill, which is used 
hydraulic purposes on a fine farm, resides the widow of Ivory Fuller and her son 
Frank. Her maiden name was Marietta Schagel. She is a daughter of Captain 
Schagel, and her married life has been spent on this farm. Mr. Fuller died in bep- 
tember, 1887. They had eleven children, two sons and nine daughters. 

Albert, the eldest son, is in Carievale, Assiniboia. Frank, the younger, and the 
only one of the children unmarried, remains on the homestead. 

Calvin the third son of Ephraim Fuller, who remained in the vicinity of his 
early home, married, and raised a large family, but was accidentally killed 
engaged in lumbering. His family afterward sold their homestead and went t 
the West. 



Passing onward toward St. Philippe, through a low lying belt of thick, second 
growth forest, we arrive at another fine level farm, attractive from its intensely rural 
aspect and quiet seclusion. This is the home of Mr. John Cass. 

JOSIAH CASS, his grandfather, was one of the U. E, Loyalists who left the Genesee 
Valley at the breaking out of the Revolution, and he first made his home at the Baie 
des Chaleurs. There his wife died, leaving four sons and two daughters. He again mar 
ried, and some years later, yet previous to 1800, came to Hawksbury, Ont., and took 
up 400 acres of land at the head of the Rapids. By his second marriage, he 
had one son and three daughters, to whom he bequeathed the bulk of his property, 
at which his children by the first marriage, being displeased, left home. Two settled 
in Treadwell s Seigniory, and Daniel, the youngest, came to the second concession in 
Chatham, and took up 160 acres of land, now owned and occupied by his son, 
John. Another man had made a small beginning here, but the great amount of pioneer 
work remained for Mr. Cass. For twenty years he prosecuted his labors without the 
help and companionship of a wife, but about 1821 he married a widow named Eleanor 
Brundage, who had five children. In 1837-38 he and his stepson, Levi Brundage, 
served as volunteers in the Company of Capt. Schagel. 

This locality seems to have been a favorite resort for wolves in early days, as, 
besides the loss of sheep by Leavitt, mentioned elsewhere, they continued to make 
raids on the flocks of Messrs. Cass, Fuller and others, the former having lost ten, 
and the latter twenty, sheep, at different times, in one night. 

Mr. Cass had, of his own children, three sons and one daughter. Jacob, the 
youngest of the former, now lives in Illinois. John, another of the sons, who re 
mained on the homestead, married in August, 1845, to Elizabeth Ramsey, and has 
had nine children, of whom three sons and four daughters are still living. The two 
youngest, Johiel and Amelia, still live with their parents on the homestead. 

Several years ago Mr. Cass sustained a heavy loss by fire, his buildings, hay, grain, 
farming implements, wagons, five and five cattle all being burned, without 
insurance. He has the respect of his fellow-citizens, and has been a School Com 
missioner a number of years, and Assessor fifteen. 

It should be stated that the road on which the above mentioned families have 
settled, and which is known as the " Fuller Road," was settled at a very early period ; 
the proces-vcrbal, which is dated 1821, being the oldest known in this part of the 


No one, who travels the road from Carillon to Grenville will fail to admire the 
section of country through which he passes. The stately trees by the way-side, good 
buildings, well -tilled farms, the neat stone church with its pretty manse, are objects 
that will attract one s attention. But he will soon arrive at a spot which, not only 
from the beauty of the scenery, but from the elegance of the buildings, though few in 
number, will enhance his interest and arouse his curiosity. An air of profound quiet 
pervades the place, but it is evident, that it was once a locality of business and 
activity. This is Gushing, a name which belonged to its founder, who, for half a 
century, was a leading spirit in the County of Argenteuil. We cannot give a more 
complete biographical sketch of Mr. Gushing, than will be found in the following 
obituary, copied from the Montreal Herald of May 2ot u, 1875 : 

" MR. LEMUEL GUSHING, whose death we announced yesterday, was one of the 
early settlers of the Ottawa Valley. He was born at Three Rivers in 1806, educated 
at Peacham, Vermont, and commenced business for himself in the then lumbering 
district of Chatham, County of Argenteuil, at the early age of seventeen. Like all 




the pioneers and settlers of a new country, he had to struggle hard, and to overcome 
difficulties which appeared almost insurmountable ; but, by active and persevering 
industry and energy, he soon earned for himself a place and position among the people 
of that section of the county, and, for many years, he filled successively the offices of 
Councillor and Mayor of the Township, and Warden of the County. For more 
than fifty years, he acted as Justice of the Peace; his jurisdiction at one time 
extending to, and including the city of Montreal. He took an active part, on the 
breaking out of the troubles of 1837, in collecting and furnishing arms for the use 
of the Militia. Enrolling himself as a volunteer, he marched with his fellow settlers 
to St. Eustache, where he was instrumental in checking pillage and devastation, and, 
with shrewd foresight, preserved the records and documents which would otherwise 
have been destroyed in the sacking of the Registrar s Office at St. Benoit. As a 
business man, he was eminently successful. Three times he became owner of the 
celebrated Caledonia Springs, and, about fifteen years ago, purchased the property 
now known as Gushing Island, in Portland Harbor, Me., which soon became a 
fashionable summer resort, and which remained in his possession up to the time of 
his death. He was married in the Spring of 1836 to Catherine, daughter of the late 
John S. Hutchins, of Lachute, by whom he had thirteen children, and he lived to see 
"all his sons- eight in number established in business. For several years past, he 
has himself taken no active part in business. Respected and esteemed by all who 
knew him, his death has snapped another link of the chain which unites us with 
the early history of the country. 

The following extract from his funeral sermon is copied from the ArgenteuU 

Advertiser, of Qth June, 1875 : 

The solemn funeral service was conducted in St. Mungo s Church, Chatham, 
by the Rev. Donald Ross, B.D., who, after discoursing on the Resurrection, paid the 
following well-merited tribute to his deceased parishioner and friend :- 

" In the providence of God, we have come together to-day to pay the last token 

of respect to one whose name has been more closely identified with this district, for 

upwards of half a century, than that of any other one man, who formed a link between 

the present generation and the early settlement of the Ottawa Valley. 1 hough he had 

not quite attained to the allotted threescore and ten years, he really lived longer 

than many who fill up the term of fourscore years, for his was a life of mtenses 

activity. He lived in deeds, not years in thoughts, not breaths in feelings, not 

in figures on a dial. If we count time by heart throbs, he longest lives who thinks 

most, feels the noblest, acts the best. A man of strong individuality of chaiacter, he 

made his influence felt throughout the community, whose development and progres: 

he strove to advance His unwearied industry, his indomitable perseverance, his 

shrewd speculative turn, crowned him with great success in the sphere of effort which 

he had chosen for himself. He was fearless in the expression of his opinion, when 

occasion demanded its expression ; inflexibly just, scorning anything mean, always 

setting before himself a high ideal of manhood ; recognizing and appreciating honor, 

and justness, and uprightness in anyone who exhibited these virtues. As a citizen, 

he occupied positions of public trust; and how conscientiously he discharged the 

duties which these entailed on him you all know. To him this church and pansr 

are deeply indebted. From facts which have come to my own knowledge, and on the 

authority of those who are competent to speak upon the matter, it is due to him U 

say, that this church would, in all probability, not have an existence but for his active 

efforts, his wise counsel, and his generous aid. 

" Throughout its history of forty years, in critical and trying days, he has always 
been its staunch supporter, always willing to assist in promoting its advancemen 


and prosperity, and, so long as these walls stand, they will bear witness to the interest 
which he took in the welfare of the congregation. In him, both my predecessors and 
myself had a warm friend, who, ia reason of his large and varied experience \v is 
capable of advising us in matters of difficulty. Into his private and domestic relations 
I would not presume to intrude, though, on these points, I could also speak. But it 
is no breach of propriety to say what you all know that he was a faithful and lovina 
husband, and a kind and affectionate father. 

;( He is now gone ; quietly he fell asleep, having finished his work, and the place 
that so long knew him shall know him no more ; but his memory will live, his influence 
will still be felt. Though dead, he will yet speak to us. May his example of diligence 
and devotion to duty stimulate us all to do with our might whatsoever our hand findeth 
to do, for there is no device, nor work, nor wisdom, in the grave/ to which we are 
so rapidly hastening." 

It is but just to say that, in his marriage, Mr. Gushing obtained a companion in 
every respect worthy of the position a woman, kind, intelligent, pious, active and 
letermmed; there was no situation in which they were placed during their conjugal 
relations in which she did not act her part with true womanly spirit and devotion 
She is a daughter of John S. Hutchins, prominent in the history of Lachute. and the 
qualities she inherited from intelligent ancestors, combined with her early Christian 
training, eminently fitted her for the station she has been called to fill. Mrs. Gushing 
for some time, has resided in Montreal, where she has a fine residence on Metcalfe 
street. She has been a devoted worker in the cause of temperance, and her benevo 
lence has given many a poor orphan and widow cause to bless her. 

- Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Gushing, seven sons and two daughters are now 

James Brock (Col.) Gushing, the eldest, has been more closely identified with 
the history of this County than any of the other children as they went to Montreal 
i engaged in business quite early in life. James B. entered his father s store as 
cm 1856; about five years subsequently, Mr. Gushing, with his two sons, James 
Thomas, formed a copartnership in mercantile business ; but, a few years later 
Ihomas withdrew, and, not long afterward, the father, entering political life, removed 
Montreal, and James continued the business alone till 1891, when he also removed 
Montreal. He was very active and influential while he lived here, and the fine 
stone store at Gushing is but a single instance of his enterprise. In 1866, he organized 
Company of Volunteers, of which he became Captain, and, on the retirement of the 
Hon. J. J. C. Abbott from military life, the officers of the Battalion unanimously 
ose Mr. Gushing for their Lieut.-Colonel. When his father removed to Montreal 
resigned his local offices that of Postmaster, Municipal Councillor, J. P., etc. 
Col. Gushing became his successor, and, during the last few years of his residence 
he was Mayor of the Township. He was married 3 ist March, 1869, to Elizabeth 
1. Hill, daughter of the late Francis M. Hill, Barrister, of Kingston ; he is now in 
il estate business in Montreal. 

Lemuel, second son of the late Lemuel Gushing, was long a Barrister in Mon 
treal, and represented Argenteuil County in the Dominion Parliament. He died 
about 1880. 

Thomas, the third son, is proprietor of the Montreal Brewing Company ; Francis 
fourth son, is manager of the Gushing estate, including Gushing Island, Me. ; Charles 
ie fifth son, has long been a leading and popular notary in Montreal, and is the 
senior member of the firm Gushing, Dunton & Barron, which does a large business ; 
I red., sixth son, is a brush manufacturer, and lives at 143 Metcalfe street, Montreal 
William M., seventh son, is a merchant, notary and J. P., in Elkhorn, Man. ; George 


the youngest, is proprietor of a gold and silver mine in Mexico, where he has just 
erected a crushing mill. Of the two daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Gushing, one is mar 
ried to the Rev. Donald Ross, Professor in Queen s College, Kingston ; the other to 
Mr. Cochran, and lives in Denver, Colorado. 

A factory for the manufacture of edge tools was erected at Gushing about the 
vear i8<;o by a man named Forsythe. Oil of smoke was also made here, and sent to 
England to be used in the printing of calico. The business was conducted for 
some time with considerable success by different parties, but after a period of about 
fifteen years the factory was burnt, supposed to be the work of an incendiary. 

" Col Tames Gushing also erected a saw mill and grist mill here ; the former is still 
in successful operation, but the latter, being out of repair, has fallen into disuse. 

DERRICK OSTROM frpm Utica, N.Y., settled here in the early part of this century, 
on -i lot adjacent to that on which his grandson, John Ostrom, now dwells. As there 
was no road, he came up the Ottawa on the ice, bringing his family and household 
effects on a sled drawn by oxen. His first dwelling a rude shanty was built very 
near the river; in this he lived until the present road was established farther back on 
the shore An incident occurred while the family remained in the cabin, which the 
children and grandchildren of Mrs. Ostrom never wearied of asking her to relate. 

One evening, Mr. Ostrom returned to his humble cabin with a fine string of fish, 
and threw them down outside, with the intention of soon dressing them. Soon after 
wards one of the family discovered the glaring eyes of a wolf not many yards distant, 
which tempted by the scent of the fish, was evidently in anticipation of a dainty 
meal Mr Ostrom got his gun, and by the light of the lantern held by his better- 
lalf soon had his wolfship lying beside the fish he had so foolishly coveted. 

After the road was established and opened, Mr. Ostrom built a large, three-story 
house a few rods from his less pretentious abode, and in this opened a public house 
and general store, in which he accumulated property to an amount which won for him 
the appelation of" rich." Before his death, which occurred in 1823, he had added three 
lots to his estate. He left three sons and three daughters, but John, the eldest, was the 
only son who remained here ; and he received, as his part of the real estate, the lot 
on which his own son, John, now resides. The two remaining sons, William and 
Derrick, each received a lot, but they soon sold them and removed to Alumette 
Island, where William is still living. 

The following sketch from the pen of Mr. Colin Dewar gives a more comple 

history of this family : 

" The old Militia Act of Lower Canada, which was in force in 1837, gave to 
the Captains the power of ordering out and compelling all able-bodied men, be 
tween the ages of 18 and 45, to attend muster, and perform active duty. In many 
instances, these officers had not been appointed on account of their knowledge 
of military tactics, but fiom being in favor with the officer commanding the 
talion As a result of such a course, a great deal of dissatisfaction was manifested, 
on the breaking out of the troubles of 1837, when they were called out for active 
service; the men not hankering after a military experience under 

mand of such officers. 

" The Government, knowing well the axiom that one Volunteer is worth moi 
than ten pressed men, got over the difficulty, by allowing all enrolled companies o 
volunteers the privilege of choosing their own officers, and all such companies t 
be under the control of the chief officer of the District. Two companies in the town 
ship of Chatham were quickly formed on these lines : the first, under the command 
of Captain John Ostrom and Lieut. John Noyes ; the second, under Captain John 



Schagel, and Lieut. Levi Brundage ; besides, one company of sixty men, under the 
command of Captain John Stephens and Lieut. George M. Bradford, designed for 
active service, being stationed in Barracks, and thoroughly drilled. The barracks 
was the house now owned by Mr. Fitzgerald. 

The Government supplied all Volunteers with arms, ammunition and clothing ; 
the latter consisting of white blanket overcoats, heavy dark cloth trousers, with reJ 
stripe down the seam, beefskin moccasins, bearskin caps, and buckskin mittens. 
Thesecompanies, when on parade or march, made a very creditable appearance, their 
dress and uniform showing off their fine stalwart figures to perfection. 

It may here be stated, that Mr. Geo. M. Bradford is the only officer of these three 
companies living at the present time, the others having long since passed away. 

When the company in the front of Chatham was organized, JOHN OSTROM, a young 
man of great promise, active and intelligent, and in every way well qualified for the 
position, was unanimously chosen captain, a brief sketch of whose life will here be 
given. The Ostrom family are of Dutch descent; they settled in the United States, but 
left their homes, and came to Canada with other U. E. Loyalists, at the breaking out 
of the Revolutionary War. On their arrival in Canada, one son settled in Hastings 
County, near Belleville ; the others were separated, going to different parts of the 
country, and they have long since lost trace of each other. The father of the subject 
of this sketch was Derrick Ostrom, who arrived in the township of Chatham, early in 
the first decade of this century, and purchased a block of six hundred acres of land 
in what was then the "Col. Robertson grant," and on which he built a residence for 
himself, which, for many years, was the finest in the township, and far ahead of Col. 
Robertson s, which, up to that time, had taken the lead. It stood on rising ground 
in a commanding position, on the top of the hill, in a beautiful situation, and 3 was a 
well-known landmark, until it was burnt down a few years after the family removed 
from Chatham. It may here be mentioned, in reference to Col. Robertson s house, 
that when it was built, many years previously, sawn lumber was a scarce article, and 
one peculiar feature in its construction was, that it was shingled all over, from top to 
bottom, and fastened with small flat-headed, hand-made nails. 

Mr. Ostrorn not only carried on the business of farming, but also kept a general 
country store for many years, in a house afterward sold to Mr. John Mullan. He 
died in 1823, leaving a widow, three sons and three daughters, viz., foiin, William 
and Derrick, Jennie, Christie and Elsie. 

On the settlement of the estate, John, the eldest son, received one of the farms, 
on which he had built a house and suitable farm buildings, and on 51)1 September, 
1829, was married to Miss Dorcas, daughter of Dennis Parsons, Esq., who had 
recently come from the United States and settled in Chatham. At this time, Captain 
Dstrom was engaged in the square timber business, and was, for many years, one of 
the most successful pilots on the Grand River, that industry being then neatly at the 
zenith of its prosperity. Mention has been made in a previous article of the quantities 
of shad ascending the river in the spring of the year, and, at that season, it was the 
custom for all well-to-do farmers to take advantage of this circumstance, and provide 
their families with a supply of this excellent fish, which was always a treat, either 
fresh or salted. It was while attending to this important duty that Captain O.strom 
lost his life on the 2nd June, 1840, at what was known as the " Fishing Ground " \ plat 
forms, or, as they were called, stagings, which were erected at different spaces along the 
bank, which, at that place, was a perpendicular rock, along the face of which These 
stagings had to be built and secured, and were thus hanging over the river, and near 
the surface of it. 

Owing to the formation of the new canal and dam at that place, the whole face 



of the river is changed, and it is only those who remember it as it was before these 
improvements were commenced, that can form any idea of the dangerous place it then 
was. On the morning of lhat eventful day, Captain Ostrom had left home very early, 
as usual, and had taken his turn with the others of his gang (as, owing to the heavy 
work of scooping, they required frequently to change). It was pretty well on in the 
forenoon, when, no doubt, being fatigued with the arduous labor of the morning, as 
well as weak from exhaustion, he was either struck by his scoop in swinging it round, 
or the breaking of part of the staging caused him to be thrown off, and into the 
surging, seething swells, as they rushed furiously down those angry rapids. 
The cry was at once raised that Captain Ostrom had fallen in, when those on the 
bank ran down to try to assist him ; but he must have been stunned in the fall, or 
perhaps was paralyzed by the action of the cold water on his heated body, as he never 
tried to help himself, and sank in a few moments. His comrades ran down to the foot 
of the locks, and had a boat round the point in a few minutes, hoping he would be 
found floating on the surface. But, alas ! he had sunk long before reaching them. 

After long and anxious searching and watching, the body was recovered, and the 
news was conveyed to the family, that they would arrive with it in a short time. As 
arrangements had been made for a military funeral, no time was lost in sending out 
notices, and on the day appointed, a firing party was selected from his own company. 
A large concourse of people assembled to pay the last tribute of respect to one who 
was held in the highest estimation. The religious services were conducted by the 
Rev. Wm Mair, Presbyterian minister of Chatham, after which the body was con 
veyed to the family burial plot, where the usual three volleys were discharged over 
the grave, and all that was mortal of a beloved husband and father was consigned to 
the tomb. Mr. Ostrom left one son and three daughters; the eldest daughter, Mary 
Ann, was married to Thomas Noyes ; the other two, Jane and Dorcas, live on the 
homestead with their mother and brother. The latter, John Ostrom, has a fine pro 
perty here, and is an active man ; he has been Clerk of the Commissioners Court a 
third of a century, Secretary-Treasurer of the Municipal Council sixteen years, and 
of the Board of School Commissioners twenty. 

ROBERT TAIT, son of a " Nor- Wester " of some celebrity, was a neighbor and 
-warm friend of the late Captain John Ostrom, and both were active in 1837 in encour 
aging and drilling the militia to resist the rebels. At the burning of Grande Brule, 
learning that a child was lying in its coffin in a church which was on fire, with much 
risk to their own lives they rushed into the building and snatched the coffin, with its 
burden, from the flames. 


St. Mungo s Church (Presbyterian), a solid stone structure, built after the fashion 
of the old style Scotch country-parish churches, stands in a fine position on the bank 
of the Ottawa River, about midway between the villages of Grenville and Carillon. 
Internally, it is neat, harmonious in all its parts, comfortable and commodious, seating 
easily about three hundred persons. Its large side windows, Gothic in style, are of 
rolled cathedral-stained glass in leaded quarries, with pretty patterns of sash, and 
harmonizing schemes of color. The end windows, each panel having a beautiful 
floral design and text of Scripture burned in, on a ground graduated from deep yellow 
to white, are exceedingly pretty. Though much has been done of late years, in the 
way of improvement, as to beauty and comfort, the old-fashioned characteristics of 
the edifice have been but little interfered with. The old-style gallery around three 
sides of the church, the old-style pew-ends, and the old-style pulpit, lowered a little 


from its former towering height, are as a link binding the present to the past a past 
the hallowed remembrance of the self-denying labors, energy, perseverance 
piety, and realized hopes of worthy forefathers, in providing for themselves and suc 
ceeding generations a fitting house for the worship of Almighty God The church 
was erected during the year 1836, but though, as soon as possible, used for service 
it was some time before it was all finished, and some few years later, before the cost 
was all paid. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. William Main, an alumnus of Glasgow 
University, and for some six years after his Licensure, Sabbath Lecturer in his college 
ommg to Canada, he was ordained and inducted to this charge on the 2 6th July 
833. At the time of his advent to Chatham, a scho >l-house, fitted up to serve both 
for school and preaching, stood beside the highway, somewhere near where No i 
School now stands. Here the first congregations gathered to hear the Gospel 
proclaimed by their own settled pastor, and who had come to cast in his lot with 
them _ The charge was a large one. Grenville and Havvkesbury villages were regular 
preaching stations. Eighteen miles in front, and as far back as I can win " was the 
vay in which he usually described his parish. That he did win, far back, is manifest 
:rom the church records, for, besides the Klders in Chatham, Grenville and Hawkes- 
mry, two, Messrs. John Crawford and Archibald McCallum, were ordained to this 
ce, in the Augmentation of Grenville, on the loth August, 1834 : and other two 
Messrs. Archibald Kelso in 1837, and John Doig in 18^8, both living in the vicinity 
Lachute, were appointed as coadjutors in the same office. The first Elders of the 
charge were Messrs. Neil Stuart, Peter Stirling, Farquhar Robertson, and Archibald 
Campbell. To follow out minutely the whole history is not within our present scope, 
the difficulties overcome, the hardships endured, the discouragements suffered, 
we in the present, have but little conception of. Suffice it to say, that the long and 
faithful work of the Rev. Mr. Mair, carried on at so great cost to himself, have con- 
taued to exert an influence on the religious life of the townships in which he labored 
that cannot be estimated. 

A mural tablet, with the following inscription, occupies a place in the church to 
the right of the pulpit : 




Born on the 291)1 of March, 1793. 

Died on the 17111 of October, 1860. 

A man of childlike simplicity, unaffected modesty, sincere piety, and 

high intellectual attainments. 

He was the first minister of this charge, and for 27 years faithfully preached the 
Our Lord Jesus Christ to an attached congregation ; and with untiring zeal 
endeavored to imbue their minds with the heavenly spirit of his Divine Master 

In gratitude for his faithful services, they have erected this memorial of his worth, 
within the walls of this church, for the building of which, they are indebted to his 
generous efforts. 

Behold an Israelite indeed, The memory of the 

in whom there is no guile." just is blessed." 

J NO - 47- Pitov. x. 7. 

The Rev. James Black, an M. A., of Glasgow University, was the next minister of 
charge. He was inducted on the 4 th September, i86 t . During his incumbency 


the present Manse, a large house of true ecclesiastical design, was built. It is near 
the church, in a fine situation, commanding an extensive view both up and down the 
river. Mr. Black, after a short pastorate of three years, resigned the charge and 

returned to Scotland. . . 

The Rev Donald Ross, D.U., at present one of the professors in the theological 
department o f Queen s College, Kingston, was the next minister. His education 
both in Arts and Theology was taken in Queen s College, Kingston, of which college 
he was the first " Fellow" ever appointed. A sad remembrance of the loss of his 
wife, a lady beloved by all the congregation, lies in a mural tablet to the left of the 



wife of 

Minister of this Congregation. 
Died 26th March, 1871, 

set- 35. 
" Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." REV. xiv. 13. 

Ordained and inducted to the pastorate of the congregation on the 3rd October, 
1865 he labored with great success for a period of eleven years. A beautiful little 
stone church at Point Fortune, called St. Columba, was erected during his incumbency, 
by the part of the congregation there. Hawkesbury village had been detached from 
this congregation, and joined to L Orignal by an Act of the Synod of 1860. In 1876, 
Mr. Ross demitted the charge. For several years thereafter, he was pastor of St. 
Andrew s Church, Lachine, whence he was called to exercise the duties of professor 

in Queen s College. 

The present pastor of this congregation is the RiV. JAMES FRASER, B.A. In Arts, 

he studied at Queen s College, Kingston ; in Theology, at Morrin College, Quebec. 

Called from Litchfield in the Presbytery of Ottawa, he was inducted to the charge of 

Chatham and Grenville in October, 1877. 

His ministrations have now continued almost twenty years, during which period 

he has steadily gained the affection of his people and the esteem of the public. Mr. 

Eraser s sermons are always prepared with scholarly care. He married Miss Tredwell 

a daughter of the hte C. P. Tredwell, Esq., of L Orignal a lady who vies with 

her husband in self-denying, devoted labor in the Master s vineyard. 

The Methodists erected a stone church at Gushing in 1830, size 35 by 50 feet, 

and two stories in height. It was used for service something over thirty years, when 

it was sold to Mr. Gushing, who built another church at a short distance from the 


ROBERT NICHOLS, who has a pleasant brick residence and good property here, 
came from the County Antrim, Ireland, to Canada in 1844, and three years subse 
quently, bought the lot where he now lives. In his younger days he followed the trade 
of blacksmith, and a shop stands by the roadside in which he has done many a hard 
day s work. His industry and probity have gained for him much influence in t 
locality. About 1846, he was married to F.sther Gascon ; they had seven children. 
of whom six two sons and four daughters are now living. The eldest son, James 
who lives in the neighborhood, is Sergeant in the St. Andrews Troop. One of the 
daughters is married to Mr. Davison of St. Philippe, another to Robert Dobbie 
Lachute. Mr. Nichol has been School Commissioner, and for many years Sergeant o 


SAMUEL WEBSTER, one of the aged citizens of Gushing, is a son of Samuel 
Webster, one of the heroes who survived the battle of Waterloo. Not long after that 
famous victory of Wellington, Mr. Webster came to Canada, and that he remained 
for a while in Quebec is inferred from the fact that he joined a Masonic lodge there. 
From that city he went to Montreal, where he was married to Euphemia, a daughter 
of Dr. Spink. In 18^4, he came to Greece s Point, and as the canal was then in pro 
cess of construction, he opened a grocery and boarding house, but died about six years 
subsequently. He had four children two of each sex; but all, save Samuel, died 
young. In his youth, he was clerk in the store of his uncle, Peter Spink, at St. Denis. 
In 1850, he was married to Amelia Gardner, and the same year he bought the lot at 
Gushing where he now lives ; several years of his life have been spent as pilot on the 
Ottawa. He has seven children, one son and six daughters, 

In 1883, Nellie Webster, one of his daughters, wrote the following family sketch 
as dictated by her aunt, Mrs. R. Le Roy, not long prior to Mrs. Le Roy s death : 

" My father, Dr. William Spink, who had a wooden leg, kept a grocery and 
drug store at our home, on Perth Road, near Dundee, Scotland ; he was an Elder in 
the Methodist Church at Dundee for thirty years. He had a brother unmarried, who 
died in the East Indies, where he was surgeon in a British regiment He also had a 
sister, Grace, who was married to Mr. Patrick, and another sister, whose name I have 
forgotten, that became insane. Mother s maiden name was Euphemia Watt ; their 
children born at our home on Perth Road, Scotland, were : Andrew, John, Ellen, 
Euphemia, Peter, Jane, William, Thomas and Catherine. Ail these, save Andrew, 
who remained with his uncle, Mr. Patrick, sailed from Dundee in the brig Todds 
in 1817. In nine weeks and four days, we came to Quebec. Uncle Thomas Wise 
Spink wanted to keep my brother Thomas and myself, when the family were about 
to sail for America, but mother would not listen to it, as she thought leaving one of 
her children was enough. Father had a letter of introduction and recommendation to 
a Mr. Miller, book-binder, in Upper Town, Quebec. We spent a day with Mr. Miller, 
and then sailed to Montreal in the Lady Sherbrooke, Andrew, who was left with 
his uncle, Capt. Patrick, while bringing a cargo of whe~t from France to Dundee, on 
the captain s own boat, was lost ; their boat being struck by another vessel in the 
night, sank, and all on board perished. Father and his wife are interred at St. 
Andrews, Quebec; the only ones of my brother s children now living are Peter, 
Thomas, Margaret and myself." 

Near the store of Mr. Gushing, on the left, is " Burnside Cottage," with its beau 
tiful grounds and shrubbery the home of EDMUND NEVE. This property formerly 
belonged to the late Wm. Forbes, Canal Superintendent, and the cottage was a 
work of his own design and erection. 

Mr. Neve is a son of the Rev. Frederick S. Neve, who for some time had charge 
of the Anglican Church in Grenville. He came to Canada from Kent, Kng., about the 
year 1840, and first was assistant of the Rev. Mr. Whitwell at Philiosburg, Que. ; he 
then was stationed at Clarendon, Huniington County, and thence, in 1859, came to 
Grenville. He was superannuated in 1871, and subsequently resided six years in St. 
Andrews ; he died in 1878, in Montreal. He had three sons and five daughters ; his 
second son is a merchant in L Orignal. Mr. Edmund Neve purchased this property, 
consisting, besides the buildings, of about seventy acres of land, and has since been 
engaged in farming. 

Adjacent to this place is the post office in charge of THOMAS WEIR. 

Mr. Weir, who is by trade a machinist, came to this country from Glasgow in 
1872, in charge of the material for two iron bridges at Ottawa. After the comple 
tion of those bridges, he came to Grenville in the employ of Vlr. Goodwin, who 
had the roniract for the construction of the bridges, and worked on the canal. 


He was married to Miss Davison, daughter of Joseph Davison, of Grenville. 
In 1881, he came to Cashing, where he has had charge of the post office for the 
past seven years, though he was not appointed Postmaster till 1893; he is also 
telegraph operator here, and has a small grocery. 

HORATIO E. HARTLEY, who has been quite an extensive dealer in cattle and 
horses, came to this section with his father, Christopher Hartley, who had served his 
time, and obtained his discharge from the Royal Artillery, in which he was color ser 
geant. After his discharge he was Lockmaster for a while on the Rideau Canal at 
Ottawa, and was then appointed Lockmaster at Stonefield, but, after a few years 
service, was superannuated, and was succeeded in his position of Lockmaster by 
his son, Horatio E., who served twenty-two years, when he, also, was superannuated. 

The fatiier died 4th August, 1877. Horatio was married in 1876 to Mary M. 

At the time the factory was erected at Gushing, a Scotchman named JAMES 
WATSON, a brass finisher by trade, who had been a soldier in the 93rd Regiment, was 
employed to set up the machinery. After the factory was completed, he returned 
to Montreal, leaving his two young children at Cashing with a neighbor, Mr. John 
O Brien. Not long afterward his wife died, and he never returned or sent for his 
children, nor has anyone in this section since heard of him. William, the younger of 
the two children, died when four years old; James, the elder boy, lived with Mr. O Brien 
till old enough to earn his own living. He was married in 1876 to a daughter of 
Samuel Webster of Gushing, and jives in a pleasant cottage near the Presbyterian 

Among the faithful employees of the Canal is ROBERT PINKERTON, who was 
appointed lockman on the Upper Locks at Carillon, in 1889 ; his home is in Gushing. 
He is son of John Pinkerton, of Chatham ; he was married ist January, 1887, to 
Mary J. Sittlington, also of this place, and has three children, all daughters. Mr. 
Pinkerton s residence here is situated opposite the pretty vilhge of Chute au Blon- 

JAMES ROY GASTON came to Canada from County Antrim, Ireland, in 1843 ; he 
soon settled in Chatham, buying the farm on which his widow and children now live. 
He was married 22nd June, 1858, to Margaret McFarlane, of Perth, Out. 

That he was a valued and trustworthy Government employee is proved by the 
fact that, for thirty-eight years, he was employed on the Canal; and, in connection 
with this work, he managed his farm. He also had charge of the Chute au Blondeau 
lighthouse, and it was while attending to this that the sad accident occurred by which 
he lost his life. On the evening of 24th September, 1884, accompanied by some of 
his children, he proceeded to the lighthouse, near the river, intending to make ready 
the customary signal ; and, preceded by his son, Alexander, started to mount the ladder, 
which is 36 feet in height. The son was lighting the lamp, when he felt the ladder 
shake,, and, looking down, saw his father lying on ihe ground at its foot. He imme 
diately descended, finding that several rungs had been broken ; but, when he reached 
his father s side, life was extinct. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gaston had eleven children, eight sons and three daughters; two 
of the latter died after reaching womanhood. 

John, the eldest son, is lockman at Greece s Point ; James R. is employed by the 
Hawkesbury Lumber Company ; George has charge of the lighthouses here ; William 
is in Chicago ; Alexander, after spending five years in the same city, returned home 
in 1895. Leonard M. and Andrew E. live at home, also the daughter, Eliza L. 

On a toad leading north from the Ottawa, and about a mile distant from it, live a 
few thriving fanners, one of whom, Jacob Schagel, has been noticed in the history of 


Carillon ; of the others, two brothers, ANDREW and WILLIAM GRAHAM, are grand 
sons of an early pioneer. 

Andrew Graham came from Scotland to Chatham, about the year 1816, and 
bought 1 20 acres of land, which is now owned by his grandson, Andrew Graham : 
two sons and two daughters accompanied him. With the help of the former, he 
cleared up the greater part of his land. Tne youngest daughter, Jennie, married 
Andrew Grey, of Hawkesbury. The sons, Richard and Archibald, were both enrolled 
in Capt. Schagel s company during the Rebellion. Archibald, in 1841, was married 
to Jennie Black, and remained on the homestead. They had ten children, five of 
each sex that grew up. The father died in 1863. There are but two sons and one 
daughter now living in this section. Andrew, one of the former, lives on the home 
stead, which, though stoney, has been made, through Scotch perseverance and in 
dustry, to yield abundant crops a fact attested by a fine herd of eighteen cows, a 
good number of other animals, and commodious buildings. Mr. Graham was 
married in 1865 to Mary Smith. He and one of his sons, William Archibald, have 
lately purchased another farm, which they work together. 

William, a brother of Andrew Graham, also a thriving farmer, lives adjacent ; his 
mother and siVter, Christina Elizabeth, live with him. 

In this neighborhood also dwell descendants of DANIEL BRYNE, who came from 
Kilkenny, Ireland, to Richmond, Ont., and in 1816, three years later, he came to 
Chatham, and bought the land now owned and occupied by his son William and 
grandson, Daniel J. Byrne. He was married loth October, 1822, to Bridget Roach. 
They had but one son, who has always remained on the homestead. Mr. Byrne 
belonged to Capt. Schagel s company during the Rebellion. He died 3rd May, 1879. 
Mrs. Byrne died 3rd April, 1852. 

William Byrne, the son, was married 28th April, 1851,10 Catherine, daughter of 
the late John Byrne, of Grenville ; they had four sons and three daughters ; of these 
only three sons and one daughter are now living. Two of the former, Edward and 
John, reside in Michigan. The remaining son, Daniel J., and his sister Bridget, live 
with their father in a pleasant stone cottage amid trees and shrubbery, on the 


Greece s Point, which though but a scattered hamlet, eight miles west of Carillon, 
is at the western terminus of the Grenville Canal, hence, a place of considerable 
business importance. A line of railway, specially for the use of lumbermen, also 
connects the place with Grenville. It is vested with much historic interest, as it is 
supposed by many to be the spot, or very near the spot, where Daulac made his 
heroic siand. The scenery about is very pretty, an attractive feature being the 
elevated farms across the Ottawa at Little Rideau and Chute aa Blondeau. 

Greece s Point, from the earliest settlement of the country, has become an 
important part in its history. 

On the 3ist December, 1788, a location ticket, signed by the Surveyor General 
of this Province, was granted to Brig.-General Allan McLean, 841!) Regiment, author 
izing him " to improve and settle certain lots of land, comprising 5,000 (five thousand) 
acres, located in Chatham, County of York." On the 2Qth May, 1790, this land was 
conveyed by deed of sale to Major Lachlan McLean, First Major of His Majesty s 
6oth Regiment of Foot, who, i6th September, 1803, conveyed the same to JOHX 
WILLIAM GREECE for the sum of ^"1,250, or $1.00 per acre. 

Portions of this land, from time to time, have been sold, until there now remains 


but about i, coo acres, which are leased to occupants by the agent employed by Mr. 
Greece, grandson of the early purchaser. It would be gratifying to know more of the 
history of one who was so large a land holder in the township for many years; but 
the following story, which is true, will show that he had a penchant for land purchasing, 
whatever may have been his other characteristics . He lived in England, and, one 
day, when strolling about, he, from curiosity, entered an auction shop ; the auctioneer 
was expatiating on the beauty, fertility and great value of a piece of land he had just 
put up. There were very few present, and the bidding, at first, was confined chiefly 
to the auctioneer himself. Becoming interested, however, Mr. Greece began to bid, 
and the competition was lively for a lime between the auctioneer and himself, until, 
most unexpectedly to Mr. Greece, it was struck off to him at $600. 

A few days after this he set out to view his newly acquired property, which was 
located some distance from the place where he resided. Just at nightfall, he reached 
an inn in a rural hamlet, and made some enquiries of the landlord respecting his 
property. Without giving him the required information, the landlord quietly advised 
him to wait till morning, when he could see it and judge of its value himself. He 
accepted the advice, and early the next morning, in high spirits, walked out to view 
his purchase. Some little time after his return the landlord asked him how he liked 
the property, and his only reply was, that he wished he could blow it and all recollec 
tion of it into oblivion. This same property, however, developing its hidden treasures 
cf Fuller s earth, in the short period of four years paid the owner ,2,300; and, in 
1862, it sold at public auction for ; 10,050. 

CHAS. CLAUDE GREECE, a son of the first proprietor of this estate, lived here 
many years, on the lot now owned by his grandson Thomas Welden, and died here. 
He was appointed Justice of the Peace, and on this account soon received the title 
of "Squire," by which title he was always spoken of and addressed throughout 
the County. He was much respected both for his integrity and sound judgment. At 
his suggestion, the Post-office here was established with the name of Stonefield, and 
he also named one in Grenville, Eden Dale ; the position of which, and the name also, 
were subsequently changed to Calumet. That Mr. Greece was a well educated, clever 
man, is evident from letters he wrote, which are still preserved among the records of 
the Anglican Church at Grenville. 

REUBEN WELDKN is the present agent of this estate for Mr. Greece. 
Thomas Welden, his father, came from England to Chatham in October, 1842. 
The winter after his arrival he spent on the North River, above the Isle aux Chats, 
where the antics of wolves must have given him rather an unfavorable impression 
of the new country. 

His son says, that a neighbor of theirs named Wilson, on returning home one 
evening with a span of horses from St. Andrews, wa? followed by a pack of these 
marauders. His horses were good ones, and he urged them to their utmost speed, 
but they and Wilson himself were saved only by his two dogs, which fell vie i ns to the 
rapacity of these brutes. In the quarrel which ensued among the wolves over their 
feast, Wilson fortunately escaped. The same winter, wolves broke open the door of 
a stable in which Wilson s sheep were enclosed, and killed several of them. 

Mr. Welden, from the North River, moved a few miles farther west in Chatham, 
to what is now known as the Noyes neighborhood. Here, on land owned by the 
late John Noyes, and now occupied by Philabert Filion, he found good clay for making 
brick, and as that had been his business in England, he, in company with Mr. Noyes, 
opened a brick yard. Their brick were of superior quality, and most of the many 
brick buildings found in this section of country were made from bricks of their 



About 1846 Mr. Welden moved to Grenville, and for a number of years follow 
ing, took charge of the farm of the late Joseph Abbott. He died in 1872. His last 
years, as well as those of Mrs. Welden, were spent in the family of their son Reuben 
in Chatham. They left four sons, James, Reuben, William and Fred. C. Three of 
these, intelligent and respected farmers, live in this County. William is Harbour 
Master at New York. 

Reuben married Rowena, a daughter of the late C. W. Greece, Esq. She died, 
and he then married Maria Louise, a sister of the deceased. 

By his first marriage he had two sons, Thomas and Henry ; the former, as stated 
above, is now proprietor of the maternal homestead, and the latter is in business with 
his father. 

ALEXANDER CAMERON, from Lochaber, Argyleshire, Scotland, was the first settler 
at what is now Greece s Point. He came here in 1808, and built a house on the site of 
the present hotel of J. Duchesne. A year afterward, however, he moved to the place 
now occupied by his grandson, Allan Cameron, His nearest neighbour was Major 
Macmillan, nearly five miles distant, in Grenville ; but Indians frequently came here 
on their trips up and down the river. 

He did considerable lumbering, taking his rafts of timber to the Quebec market. 
He sometimes went to mill at St. Ann s, and sometimes to Lachute. It was no uncom 
mon thing for him to take a bushel of grain on his back to the latter place, and, after 
it was ground, return home with it in the same manner. Mr. Cameron died in May, 
1838. His son Allan remained on the homestead, but was also employed on the 
river, acting as pilot several years for the Hamilton Bros., as well as for others. On 
account of his stature, he was generally called " Big Allan." He died in May, 1882, 
at the age of 82. His widow, who was born on St. Patrick s day, 1805, and is, there 
fore, 91 years of age, still survives. She usually converses with her son Allan in the 
Gaelic tongue. Mr. and Mrs. Cameron had five sons and two daughters Allan, 
John, Hugh, Daniel, Charles, Mary and Flora. Daniel died recently. Flora married 
Thomas Johnson, of Calumet, who died suddenly two or three years ago. Mary 
married Donald McVean, and both she and her husband are deceased. Hugh died 
by accident in Montreal. Charles, the youngest, has the homestead, 

Allan Cameron, jun., like his father, has spent his time between the homestead 
farm and the river, having followed the latter as pilot for fifty years. It is a pleasant 
reflection to him that he has been so long a pilot, not only on the Ottawa, but on the 
Gatineau and other streams, in the spring, when swollen and boisterous, without ever 
having lost a man. Many of his winters have been spent in lumbering, and, years 
ago, when the vast wilderness along the tributaries of the Ottawa was first invaded by 
lumbermen, a life in their camps must have combined much of romance, as well as 
hardship and toil. 

Mr. Cameron says that of the many animals he has seen in the forest, no sight 
was more beautiful or interesting to him than the following : 

He and an Indian, one day, had strolled a long distance from camp, when they 
unexpectedly came to a yard containing nine elk. The snow was very deep and 
quite hard, so that the poor animals had no means of escape. They reared their 
expansive antlers, and with their large lustrous eyes, gazed in wonderment at the in 
truders. The Indian raised his gun, but Cameron forbade him to fire on the defence 
less herd, and hurriedly passed on, leaving them unmolested. 

STONEFIELD is a small village, little more than a mile east of Greece s Point, but 
the fine Canal Locks contribute much toward the business activity of the place, 
besides forming a most attractive feature in the landscape. The large and imposing 
brick store of Thomas Owens, Esq., is also an object which attracts the attention 
of visitors. 


About 1819, OWEN OWENS, of Denbigh, Wales, came to Montreal, and a year or 
two later to Chatham, settling at what is now Stonefield, on land still owned and 
occupied by his son Thomas Owens. Like all the settlers of that period, in the 
absence of roads, he made his way here by the river, everything he possessed being 
conveyed by batteaux. The canal was then in process of construction, and the pros 
pect for business appearing favourable, he opened a store and hotel, both of which 
he carried on in connection with farming, for many years. His house was burnt 
about 1847, an d he then built the brick one, in which his son Thomas now resides. 
In 1858, a post-office was established here, and Mr. Owens was appointed Post 
master; he died in 1870. He had six sons and two daughters. One of the former 
was drowned in the canal at nine years of age. Another son, many years ago, went 
to California, since which no tidings have been heard of him. Three sons George, 
William and Owen have always remained in this section. The former resides on 
his farm, about one mile from Stonefield. 

William and Thomas remained on the homestead, and, in company, engaged 
largely in mercantile affairs. A few years since, they purchased the Papineau Seigniory 
in Ottawa County, consisting of 80,000 acres, and engaged extensively in the lumber 
business. They also opened a store at Montebello, in that Seigniory. In 1884, 
Thomas Owens built the store mentioned above at Stonefield, in which he now trades, 
doing an extensive business He succeeded his father as Postmaster, and has also, 
for some years, been Commissioner for the trial of small causes. He has been 
twice married ; the last time to a widow, daughter of Theodore Davis, of St. Andrews. 

The firm, which was long known under the name of " T. & W. Owens," is now 
designated as that of "T.Owens & Sons," John F., the second son of Thomas 
Owens, now being in the store with his father at this place, and Thomas, his elder 
son, in the store at Montebello. H. A. Villeneuve, the proficient and genial book 
keeper of Mr. Owens, has been in the employ of the firm twenty-five years. 

William Owens always took much interest in the affairs of the township, and for 
a time held the position of Mayor. At the time of the Fenian raids, he was active in 
organizing a company of Volunteers, of which he became Lieutenant and J. Gushing 
Captain. In 1881, he entered more actively into the political arena, as is shown by 
the following paragraph, copied from a Montreal paper of 1893 : 

"A large and influential portion of the Conservatives are hoping that Mr. 
William Owens, ex-M.P.P. for Aigenteuil, will receive the appointment to the vacant 
seat for Inkerman in the Senate. Mr. Owens, in 1881, redeemed the County for the 
Quebec Conservative party in the Quebec Legislature. In 1886 he was re-elected by 
acclamation, and in 1890 carried the county by 700 majority. Mr. Owens was one 
of the most trusted leaders in the Quebec House. He was true to his party and true 
to his promises, on all occasions and under every circumstance. In all probability, 
Mr. Owens will not press forward for the appointment, as some are doing ; but the 
best friends of the Conservative party hope his claims will not, on this account, be 

In the fall of 1895, Mr. Owens was appointed to theSenatorship, rendered vacant 
by the death of the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott. 

MICHAEL DERRICK, from the County of Sligo, Ireland, came to Chatham in June, 
1820, and was first in the employ of Angus McPhie, who, in company with Noyes 
& Schagel, had a contract for transporting all the supplies for the canal laborers- 
provisions, implements, money, etc., from Carillon to Grenville. McPhie lived in a 
log house located between the present house of the late John Fitzgerald and the 
river; he afterward built the stone house now occupied by Mrs. Lennon. 

In 1824, Mr. Derrick took up 100 acres of Lot u, Range i ; in 1827, he was 


married to Alice Shields ; they had six children two sons and one daughter grow 
up. Mr. Derrick belonged to Capt. Ostrom s Company during the Rebellion of 1837 
he died in December, 1877; Mrs. Derrick died November, 1874. Joseph, the third 
son, was married in September, 1872, to Mary McAndiew, and has" remained on the 
homestead. He is one of the well-to-do farmers of Chatham ; he has added i oo acres 
to the homestead, and bought 168 acres in East Hawkesbury. He has been Municipal 
Councillor since 1872, four years of which time he has served as Ma\or of the town- 
ship. He was also appointed Justice of the Peace, but has always declined to serve. 

THOMAS FOREMAN, a member of the Royal Staff Corps, was the first Lockmaster 
appointed at Greece s Point, and held the position till his death a period of about 25 
years. He married Elizabeth Garret, daughter of a British soldier; they had three 
sons and one daughter that grew up. The sons John, Thomas and George are active, 
intelligent men, who, nearly all their lives, have been employed on the canal. 

John, the eldest, succeeded his father as Lockmaster, but a few years after 
ward was appointed Superintendent of the Canal Works at St. Ann ; this position 
he left some years ago, and went to British Columbia. 

Thomas, the second son, succeeded his brother John in 1867 as Lockmaster at 
Greece s Point, and still holds the position ; he is also Commissioner for the trial of 
small causes. He was married in October, 1875, to Caroline Douglass; they have 
four children two of each sex. 

GEORGE FOREMAN, the youngest son, was married September 2nd, 1874, to Annie 
Dinsmore ; they have three sons and two daughters living. Lillian Edna, their eldest 
daughter, is teaching the Carillon Dissentient School. It should be said to the credit 
of the two brothers, Thomas and George Foreman, that, like their father, they take 
much pains to educate their children. Mr. George Foreman has spent many years 
of his life in the towing business, keeping a number of horses for this purpose, which 
in winter are usually employed in the lumber woods. A few years since he purchased 
the stone house and 50 acres of land in Grenville, which was formerly the home and 
property of the Rev. Joseph Abbott. Mrs. Foreman s maternal grandfather, Archi 
bald Canning, came to Canada about 1825. He was a stone-mason, and followed his 
trade many years in Chatham and vicinity. He died in Stonefield in i8Si. His 
widow, 92 years of age, is still living, and, what is remarkable, she has never used 
spectacles. Two of her sons, William and John Canning, farmers, reside near Stone- 
field. Elizabeth Foreman, sister of the brothers noticed above, married John 
Cameron, who is engaged in the lumber business. They reside at Stonefield. 

GEO. LINDLEY, a young man from Leeds, Yorkshire, England, came to Chatham 
about 1830, and bought too acres of Lot 10, ist Range, and soon afterward sent for 
his father s family. His father had been a cloth manufacturer in England, employed 
many hands, and when he came to this country, he brought quite a quantity of fine 
broad cloths with him to sell. It is said he was a man of very prepossessing appear 
ance. Not long after the arrival of the family, George, who was the eldest of the 
ten children seven sons and three daughters started with a quantity of wheat to be 
ground, across the river. By some means not well understood, the boat was upset, 
and he was drowned. The occurrence gave a great shock to the little community, 
and especially to his parents, as on him they mainly depended, although, as regards 
property, they were in comparatively good circumstances. Only four sons and two 
daughters settled in this country. Michael, the youngest son, married Jane Dowd, 
and settled on the homestead ; he belonged to Capt. Schagel s company during the 
Rebellion of 1837. He died about 1874. He had three sons and four daughters. 
David, the second son, lives with his mother on the homestead. He belongs to the 
Rangers, and is one of the athletic young men who, in 1894, won the victory in the 
" tug-of-war " contest between the Argenteuil boys and those of Glengarry. 



EDWARD WHELEHAN came from King s County, Ireland, to this part of Chatham 
in 1844. He first worked for Mr. Gushing several years, and, in 1855, bought of him 
100 acres of Lot n, ist Range. The first settler on this land and the one who cut 
the first tree was John Bowring. Finding a quantity of lime on this lot, he opened a 
lime-kiln, and burned the lime with which, about 1815, he built his stone-house 
the same that is now occupied by Mrs. Whelehan. When he sold his land to Mr. 
Gushing, he reserved a small piece, and on it built another house, in which he died 
in February, 1856. His wife died in November, 1859. Mr. Whelehan was married 
in 1849 to Mary Dunn. He lived here till his death, 24th March, 1894, in the 
Soth year of his age. He had nine children, of whom three sons and four daughters 
are now living. 

Mrs. Whelehan s father, Andrew Dunn, came to Canada in 1826. He lived in 
Quebec till 1830, when he came to St. Andrews, where his wife died with cholera in 
1832. He then, in 1836, married Ellen, the only child of John Kelly, who had been 
a soldier in the British service, and now lived in the nth Range of Chatham. Mr. 
Dunn, after his last marriage, settled on the farm of his father-in-law, where he lived 
till 1845, w hen he removed to Brownsburg and worked at his trade shoemaking till 
1863, when he went to Montreal, where he died in 1867. Mrs. Whelehan s youngest 
son, Edward, and daughter, Margaret, live with her on the homestead. 

CHARLES H. WADE is one of the respected farmers of this section. His father, 
who owned a farm in Hawkesbury, sold it about 1857, an ^ came to Greece s Poiru, 
where, for several years, he kept a public house. He afterwards removed to Gren 
ville, where he died. He had eight sons and three daughters. Two of his daughters 
marred respectively to William Kirby and William Cook live in the township of 
Grenville, Que. One of his sons is a merchant in Grenville village. Charles H. 
Wade, in his younger days, served as pilot on the Ottawa ; but the greater portion 
of his life, thus far, has been spent in farming. The maiden name of Mrs. Wade was 
Elizabeth McFarlane. They have three sons and one daughter. William, the eldest 
of the former, is one of the trusted employees in the Dominion Cartridge Factory at 
Brownsburg, Que. 

ROBERT SITTLINGTON, Lockmaster at this place, came here from the County of 
Antrim, Ireland, in 1857. He was employed on the locks for twenty-three years, and 
in 1882 was appointed to the charge of Lock No. 5, which position he has ever since 
held. He has one son and three daughters now living. His eldest son, Capt. John 
Sittlington, died in Stonefield in 1888, aged 28. He held the Captaincy of Company 
No. 8, of the Argenteuil Rangers, and was keeper of the lighthouse at Carillon. His 
early death was deeply deplored, not only by the Rangers, with whom he was 
deservedly popular, and his relatives, but by a large circle of friends and acquaintances. 
He was buried at Stonefield with military honours. His brother, WILLIAM SITTLING 
TON, who had been an employee on the locks, succeeded him as lighthouse keeper, 
and is still in the position. His wife was Miss Pinkerton. Robert Sittlington s 
eldest daughter, Mary Jane, was married ist January, 1887, to Robert Pinkerton, an 
employee on the locks. 

EDWARD DAWSON, who has for many years been a faithful employee on the 
Soulanges Canal, was born in Mille Isles, soon after that place was first settled, and 
remembers when it was principally forest. His father, William Dawson, one of the 
early pioneers of Mille Isles, lived near the lake, which was usually designated as 
"Lake Dawson." Mrs. Dawson (mother of Edward) died loth December, 1857, at 
the age of 36 ; and Mr. Dawson was again married in 1860 to a widow, Mrs. Ryan, 
who survived him. Mr. Dawson s death took place about 1890, in the 68th yeai 
of his age, and that of Mrs. Dawson in March, 1895. 


Edward Dawson left Mille Isles at the a