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J. Y. W. LLOYD/of Clochfaen, Esq., 

MJL, E.S.G. 

VOL. I. 



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AUG 201987 

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J. Y. WM. LLOYD, op Clochfaen. 

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This work, which is merely a compilation of facts taken 
from ancient records, charters, the Cae Cyriog, and 
Harleian MSS., the Briits, and other ancient authorities, 
lays claim to no originality, but contains matter literally 
transcribed and translated from the original docu- 

Such a work as this purports to be, must naturally be 
very dry and uninteresting to the general public ; and, 
as the area of the district is so small, I fear that its 
annals will not interest many persons who live beyond 
the limits of Powys Fadog, more than the annals of an 
English county would interest the inhabitants of the 

I much regret that the ancient Welsh poems and 
elegies remain untranslated, but I am sorry to say that 
I am not a sufficiently good Welsh scholar to attempt 
to do it myself. 

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I have tried, however, to make this history as gener- 
ally interesting as my very scanty information would 
allow me to do, and, therefore, I hope that the courteous 
reader may be induced to pardon and overlook its many 

" Goreu arf, arf Dysg. M 

Clochfaen, May Sth, 1881. 

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Vortigera elected King of Britain . . .1 
Destruction of the Citadel of King Benlli and the Cities of 

Canaan . . . .2 

The Sun and Moon stand still for a whole day at the com- 
mand of a man . . . . .3 

On God and the Universe . . .4 

Grave of Beli ab Benlli Gawr . . .5 

Last days of King Vortigera . . . .6 

Cadell Deyrnllwg, King of Powys . . .8 

Battle of Cattraeth . . . . .8 

Monastery of Bangor is y Coed founded . .9 

Gwallawg ab Lleenawg . .9 

Cynddylan and Brochwael Ysgythrog, Kings of Powys . 10 

Massacre of the Monks of Bangor is y Coed . .11 

Legend of the Virgin Monacella . . .12 

Death of King Brochwael Ysgythrog . . .14 

Tyssiliaw, King of Powys . . . .15 

On the Serpent . . ... .29 

Serpent Mounds and Cairns . . . .31 

The Shamrock, its virtues . . . .35 

The Deisul . . .37 

The Beltan or Baal's Fire . . .40 

Midsummer Eve . .42 

Birthday of the Sun . . .44 

Yule, its meaning . . . . .45 

Isis and Horns . . . .47 

Death and Resurrection of Osiris . . .48 

Theism of the Ancients . . . .49 

Conquest of Britain by the Romans . .50 

Conquest of Britain by the Saxons . . .51 

Religion of the Druids . . . .52 

The Tree of Life, the Maen Hir, Obelisk and Serpent . 53 

The Cross in a Circle, its meaning . .54 

On Idol-Worship . 55 

On the Divine Nature . .57 

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Cynan Garwyn, King of Powys . 

Death of Cad van, King of Britain 

Battle of Digoll 

Death of Oswald, King of Northumbria 

Selyf Sarff Cadau, King of Powys 

Eliseg ; Brochmael, Cadell, and Cyngen 

Pillar of Eliseg, inscription on . 

Mervyn Frych, King of Powys . 

Battle of Cyfeiliog . 

Roderick the Great and Mervyn II 

Owain ab Hgwel Dhu 

Wolves, destruction of 

Maredudd ab Owain, King of Wales 

Queen Angharad and Llywelyn ab Seisyllt 

Castle of Rhuddlan built 

Death of Llywelyn ab Seisyllt . 

Death of Cynan ab Iago, King of Gwynedd 

Death of Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt 



Bleddyn ab Cynfyn and Rhiwallawn ab Cynfyn 

Trahaiarn ab Caradawg and Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn ab Dingad 

Death of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn ab Dingad 

Collwyn ab Tangno, his descendants 

Death of King Trahaiarn at Mynydd y Garn 

Howel ab Ieuaf, Lord of Arwystli 

The Lords of Arwystli 

The Lords of Cedewen 

Iorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant, slain at Caer Einion 

Cadafael yr Ynad .... 

Nunnery of Llanllugan 

Battle of Mechain .... 

Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, his children 

Llywarch ab Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, his representatives 

The Lords of Meirionydd 

Death of Hugh the Red, Earl of Shrewsbury, at Aber Lleiuiawg 

Death of Prince Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn at Welshpool 

Castle of Cymmer built 

Death of Sir Owain ab Cadwgawn 

Uchdryd ab Edwyn deprived of his Lordships 

Mawddwy Bauditti, origin of 

Cymmer Abbey founded j 



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Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd goes to Priuce Gwen 

wynwyn .... 

Ware of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth in South Wales 
Croes Oswallt (Oswestry) burnt and destroyed 
The Devil causes war in Gwynedd 
Lly welyn ab Gruffydd takes Meirionydd and Tegeingl 
Lly welyn ab Maredudd receives a Pension from the King 
Einion ab Seisyllt takes refuge with Owain Cyfeiliawg 




Maredudd ab Bleddyn begins to reign 

Ceredigion, given to Gilbert de Clare 

Assassination of Iorwerth ab Bleddyn 

Henry I invades Wales 

Owain ab Cadwgawn knighted by Henry I 

War between Hy wel Lord of Rhos, and the Lords of Tegeingl 

Henry I invades Powys 

Eunydd ab Gwernwy, Lord of Trefalun . 

Death of Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn 

Descendants of Prince Maredudd 

Abertanad, pedigree of 

Rhds y Garreg, pedigree of 

Madog ab Maredudd begins his reign 

The Barons de Mont Alto 

The Castles of Oswestry and Ial built 

The Castles of Caer Einion and Overton built 

Battle of Coed Ewlo 

Marwnad Iorwerth Goch 

Prince Henry slain 

Panegyric of Madog ab Maredudd 

Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr 

Prince Madog taken prisoner to Winchester 

Death and burial of Prince Madog ab Maredudd 

Death of Llywelyn ab Madog, Lord of Mechain 

Poems on Llywelyn ab Madog . 

Owain ab Madog, Lord of Mechain Is y Coed 

Assassination of Owain ab Madog at Careg Hwfa Castle 

Elissau ab Madog, Lord of Edeyrnion 

Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of Dinraael and Edeyrnion 

Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaeth 

Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Y Glwysegl 

Gwalchmai ab Meilir 

Eulogy on Madog ab Maredudd 

Englynion i Fadawg ab Maredudd 

Englynion i Deulu Madawg 




Marwnad Madawg ab Maredudd, Gwalchmai, ai Cant 

Marwnad Madawg, Cynddelw ai Cant 

Biengert Eua, Verch Fadawg . 

Arwyrein Ewein vab Madawg . 

Englynion i Ewein vab Madawg 

Marwnad Ywein vab Madawg . 

Gwelygorteu Powys . 

Breinyeu Gwyr Powys 

Madawg Madogion . 



Gruffudd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog 

Battle of Castell Crogen 

Ynyr ab Howel, of Ial 

Iorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant 

Death of Gruffudd Maelor 

Teir Awdl y Gruffudd Maelor . 

Awdl y Lywelyn ab Gruffudd Maelor 

Madog ab Gruffudd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog 

Gwenwynwyn conquers Arwystli 

Valle Crucis Abbey founded and endowed 

Robert de Vipont 

Battles of Lly welyn ab Iorwerth in South "Wales 

Whittington Castle taken by Sir Fulke Fitz-Warren 

Descendants of Madog ab Gruffudd Maelor 

Englynion y Fadawg 

Marwnad Madawg ab Gruffudd Maelor 

Gruffudd ab Madawg ab Gruffudd Maelor 

Conquest of the Lordship and Castle of Ystrad Alun by Robert 

de Mont' Alto . 
Death of Prince Gruffudd 
Madog, or Madog Fychan, succeeds his father 
Death of Prince Madog 

Roger L'Estrange appointed Guardian of the young Princes 
Assassination of the two young Princes . 
The Castle of Dinas Bran and the Lordships of Maelor Gymraeg 

and Ial given to John de Warren, Earl of Surrey 
Llywelyn Fychan, Lord of Mechain Isgoed 
Lordship of Maelor Saesneg, its Devolution 
Welsh Rolls 

Death of Llyrrelyn ab Gruffudd, Prince of Wales 
Prince David ab Gruffudd, Lord of Denbigh 
Assassination of Prince David . 
Family of Prince David ab Gruffudd 
The Baron Hywel Coetmor 
Peredur ab Evrawg of Castell Cefel Ynghoedmor 




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The Barons of Glyndyfrdwy ; . .194 

Tudor de Glyndore, Lord of Gwyddelwern . .197 

Sir Owain de Glyndwr, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, his battles 198 

Owain's Lordships granted to the King's brother . . 200 

Wars of Owain Glyndyfrdwy . . .202 

John Trevor, Bishop of St. Asaph . 203 

Wars of Owain Glyndyfrdwy . . .205 

Battle of Pant y Wennol . .206 

Cadwgan y Fwyall, Lord of Glyn Rhondda 206 

Sir Laurence de Berkrolles, Lord of St. Athan's 206 

Matilda, Lady de Berkrolles, buried alive . 208 

Dafydd Daron, Dean of Bangor .208 

Owain crowned Prince of Wales . 209 

Death of Tudor, Lord of Gwyddelwern . .209 

Owain takes refuge in a cavern at Llangelynen .210 

Death of Prince Owain Glyndyfrdwy . .211 

Alice, Lady of Glyndyfrdwy and Cynllaith . .211 

Scudamore of Kentchurch, family of . .212 

Croft of Croft Castle, family of . . .216 

Devolution of the Lordships of Glyndyfrdwy and Cynllaith 216 

Illegitimate children of Owain Glyndyfrdwy . .216 

Cywydd i Owain Glyndyfrdwy . . .217 

The world that awaits us . 223 

Apparition of a Highland Soldier . . 224 

Story of Thespesius . . . .225 

The White Lady of Comlongan. . . 227 
Apparition in Lleyn ..... 229 

The China Greyhound at Llangurig . 230 
Apparitions at Llangurig .... 231 

Apparitions of two ladies buried at Llangurig . . 232 

Apparition of the Duchess of Mazarine . . 233 

Apparition of a lady to her friend . .238 

Apparition of Major Sydenham . . 238 
Apparition of Mrs. Bretton .... 240 
Apparition of the Lady Lee .... 242 
Haunted Mansion in Anglesey .... 243 

Apparition of a young lady to her lover . . 245 
Apparition at Launceston .... 246 

Apparition to Cashio Burroughs, Esq. . .253 
Apparition of Mrs. Veal .... 253 

Apparition to King James IV . . .261 

Apparition of a poor man just deceased 262 

Apparition of an old man to Mi*. William Lilly . 263 

Conversion of Henry Webb . .267 

Apparition of Lord Bacon i . .271 

Apparition to the Rev. Dr. Scott 272 


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Apparitions of men on board a ship " . 280 

Apparition of Sir George Villiers . . . 280 
Wreck of the Royal Charter .... 284 
Far-working power of the will .... 285 

The Drycheolaeth . . . .287 

On the perceptive powers of the Welsh . . . 288 

On Prayers for the Dead . . . .288 

The Origin of Evil . . . .289 

On the Age of the Earth . .291 

On the British Dog . . .292 
Transmigration of Souls .... 294 
Human Sacrifices ..... 294 

The Taigheirm . . . .296 

On Secoud Sight . . . .299 

The Trinity of the Aryan Nations . . 300 

The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians . . . 303 

Stanzas addressed to Hywel ab Ieuaf . • . 305 

Descent of the Princes and Lords of Powys, Fferlis, etc. . 306 

The Noble Tribe of the Marches of Powys . 307 
Armorial bearings of the Royal and Noble Tribes of Powys . 317 

Englyn Marwnad i Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn . . 320 

Marwnad Rhirid Flaidd ac Arthen . .321 

A Poem in honour of Rhirid Flaidd . 326 

Pedigree of Rhirid Flaidd . . .326 

Ode to Owain Cyfeiliawg . .327 
Englynion i gylchau Kymry .... 334 

Elegy on Gruffudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd 336 

Ode to Llywelyn ab Gruffudd, Lord of Chirk . 338 

Ode to Llywelyn ab Madawg, Lord of Mechain . 339 

Ode to Gruffudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd . . 341 

Contention between two Bards on Madog ab Maredudd . 342 

Ode in honour of Owain Cyfeiliawg . .343 

Poems in honour of Prince Gwenwynwyn . .344 

Descent of the Princes of Powys Wenwynwyn . . 347 
Elegy on Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwyiiedd . . . 348 

Elegy on Einion ab Seisyllt, Lord of Mathafarn . . 349 

Ode to Prince Owain ab Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn . 351 

The Ancient British Bards and Druids . 352 

The Leek, the Bull, and the Scarabieus 356 



The Earls of Warren, Surrey, and Strathern . . 358 

The Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel, Warren, and Surrey . 372 

William, Lord Scrope, King of the Isle of Man, Lord of Dinas 

Bran, etc. . . . .381 

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Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earl of Warren, Arundel, etc., Lord of Dinas 

Bran, etc. . . . . .382 

The Mowbrays, Dukes of Norfolk, Lords of Dinas Bran, etc. . 3b8 
William de Beauchamp, Baron Abergavenny, Lord of the 

Moiety of Bromfield .391 

Neville, Lord Abergavenny, Lord of the Moiety of Bromfield 

and Ial 393 

Sir William Stanley, Knt., Lord of Bromfield, Ial, and Chirk- 
land . . . . .394 

Appointments made by Henry VIII .394 

Inspeximus Charter of Henry VIII . 395 

Appointments and Grants made by Henry VIII . 398 

Henry, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Lord of Bromfield, 

Ial, and Chirk . . .400 

Grant of Valle Crucis Abbey . . .401 

Burial Places of the Bards .401 

Inquisitions ..... 403 

Descent of Brochwael ab Aeddan . . 407 

Apparitions of St. Stanislaus Kostka and Philip Weld, Esq. . 407 
Apparition of a Spanish Soldier . . . 40S 

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' Arms of Powys Fadog 



v Serpent-shaped Mound near Oban 

. 32 

• Pillar of Eliseg 


* Inscription on Pillar of Eliseg . 


* Dinas Bran, South-east view 


• Valle Crucis Abbey, East view . 


-Valle Crucis Abbey, West view 


• Dinas Bran 

. 178 

* Caergwrley Castle, North-west View 


* Denbigh Castle, North view 

■ 189 

* Sketch Plan of Denbigh Castle 


< Ruthin Castle, North-east view 

. 200 

J Ground plan of Ruthin Castle . 


J Holt Castle in 1620 . 


* Plan of Holt Castle, temp. Henry VIII 


* Holt Castle, ground plan 

. 387 

* Chirk Castle 


• Chirk Castle, North view 


- Holt Castle 


« Seals of Castell Leone 


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Chapter I. 

Gwktheyrn Gwrtheneu, or Vortigern, Prince of Erging, 
Ewias and Caer Glouyw or Gloucester, was elected King 
of Britain, upon the assassination of King Constans in 
the year 446. We find from the inscription on the 
shaft of the Cross erected to the memory of his great 
grandfather, King Eliseg, who died in the year 773, by 
his great grandson, King Cyngen II, that Vortigern mar- 
ried Seveira, the daughter of the Emperor Maxiraus, who 
slew the Emperor Gratian. By his Queen Seveira, Vor- 
tigern had three sons, — 1. Gwartimer, who afterwards 
became King of Britain ; 2. Cyndeyrn ; 3. Pascens, who 
became King of Buallt. 

From this second son Cyndeyrn descended the Kings 
and Princes of Powys, and the Tribe of Tudor Trevor, 
but according to the monk Nennius, they descended from 
a totally different stock. 

Nennius states that during the reign of Vortigern a 
certain St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre in Gaul, came 
over to Britain, having been sent there by Pope St. 
Cselestine II to restore Christianity. Amongst others, 
Germanus went to visit Benlli Gawr, a king whose ter- 
ritories comprised the province Teyrnllwg. His castle 
was situate on a hill between Rhuddin and Y Wyddgrtig 
(Mold), still called after him Moel Fenlli. Thither Ger- 
manus went, but the King declining to have anything to 
do with him, and having ordered him away, a young 
man named Cadell, one of the King's servants, gave him 
shelter, which having obtained, the monk Nennius de- 
clares that the anger of God fell on the King, and that 
" ignis de caelo cecidit et combussit arcem, et omnes qui 

VOL. l 1 

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cum tyranno erant, nee ultra apparuerunt nee arx re- 
cedificate est, usque in hodiernem diem" ; and that Ger- 
manus made Cadell King of Teyrnllwg, and that he became 
the ancestor of the Kings of Powys. 

This statement made by the Christian monk Nennius, 
might at first sight appear extraordinary, did we not know 
from the Old Testament that Jehovah was in the habit of 
destroying the cities of his enemies with fire, and slaying 
the kings, princes, women, and children with the edge 
of the sword. In the book of Joshua we read as follows : 

" And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho, that he 
lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man 
over against him with his sword drawn in his hand ; and 
Joshua went unto him, and said unto him, Art thou for us, 
or for our adversaries ? and he said, Nay ; but as Captain 
of the host of the Lord am I now come. And Joshua fell on 
his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, 
What saith my Lord unto his servant r And the Captain of 
the Lord's host said unto Joshua, Loose thy shoe from off thy 
foot, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ; and Joshua 
did so. 

" And the Lord said unto Joshua, See, I have given into 
thine hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the mighty men 
of valour. So the host of Israel took Jericho, in the manner 
described in the Old Testament. And they utterly destroyed 
all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, 
and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword, and 
they burnt the city with fire and all that was therein. Only 
the silver and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, 
they put into the treasury of the house of the Lord. 

" And the Lord said unto Joshua, Fear not, neither be thou 
dismayed ; take all the people of war with thee, and arise, 
go up to Ai ; see, I have given into thine hand the king of Ai, 
and his people, and his city, and his land. And thou shalt do 
to Ai and her king as thou didst unto Jericho and her kinjj : 
only the spoil thereof and the cattle thereof shall ye take for 

a prey unto yourselves And Joshua took Ai, and set 

the city on fire, and slew the men of Ai. And the king of Ai 

they took alive, and brought him to Joshua and so it 

was, that all that fell that day, both of men and women, were 
twelve thousand, even all the men of Ai. And Joshua burnt 
Ai, and made it a heap for ever, even a desolation unto this 
day. And the King of Ai he hanged on a tree until eventide, 


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and then threw his lifeless corpse on the bare ground at one 
of the gateways into the city, and raised a great heap of stones 
over it." j 

As the Lord God destroyed the cities of Jericho and 
Ai, with their kings and all their people, so did he des- 
troy, according to the monk Nennius, King Benlli Gawr 
and his citadel, and all that was in it. 

In the tenth chapter of the book of Joshua, we are told 
that Adoni Zedec, King of Jerusalem, and his allies, made 
war against the Gibeonites, and Joshua with his army 
went to assist them. " And the Lord (Adoni) said unto 
Joshua, Fear them not : for I have delivered them into 
thine hand ; there shall not a man of them stand before 
thee." Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly. " And 
the Lord discomfited them before Israel, and slew them 
with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along 
the way that goeth up to Beth-horon, and smote them 
to Azekah, and unto Makedah. And it came to pass, as 
they fled, and were in the going down to Beth-horon, 
that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon 
them unto Azekah, and they died : they were more which 
died with hailstones, than they whom the children of 
Israel slew with the sword. Then spake Joshua to the 
Lord (Adoni), and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, 
stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou Moon in the 
valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon 
stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon 
their enemies. So the Sun stood still in the midst of 
heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. 
And there was no day like that before it or after it, that 
the Lord barkened to the voice of a man : for the Lord 
fought for Israel." 

This last story inculcates the geometric theory, which 
is, that the earth is the centre, and that the sun moves 
round it. This is in direct contradiction to the Pagan 
philosophy of the Alexandrian school, which teaches the 
only true theory, viz., the Heliocentric one, which means 
that the sun is the centre, and that the earth and its 
satellite the moon move in a circle round it, and for as- 

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serting the truth of the Heliocentric theory the monk 
Bruno was burnt alive with horrible torture by the Holy 
Catholic Church, which teaches also that the books of 
the Old and New Testament were divinely inspired by 
the Lord Jehovah. 

I shall say nothing myself on these awful judgments of 
the Lord Jehovah on His creatures, but request my readers, 
whatever Christian sect they may belong to, if they 
should wish to learn anything more about this extraordi- 
nary subject, to purchase and carefully read a little work, 
very simply and plainly written, called The Conflict of 
Religion and Science, by Draper, (Kegan Paul and Co., 
London, price five shillings), and they will then be able 
to judge for themselves which theory is the true one, 
and to see what His Holiness Pope Pius IX has decreed 
to be the belief of the Catholic Church in the late Vati- 
can Council with regard to the Bible. 

All parts of the universe are interwoven with each 
other, and the bond by which they are linked together is 
holy, there being hardly any single thing that is foreign 
to or unconnected with the rest. For all parts have been 
disposed in due co-ordination, and combine to form this 
beautiful system the world. For the world, though com- 
prising all things, is one, and there is one God who per- 
vades all things, and one substance, and one law which 
is the common reason of all intelligent creatures, and one 
truth, and indeed there is also one perfection for all men, 
since they are all of the same kind and race, and partake 
of the same reason. 1 If, then, this is true, how are we 
to account for God's altering the course of the sun and 
moon merely to allow one man to have sufficient time to 
massacre his foes ? 

The Pagan philosophers asserted that knowledge is to 
be obtained only by the laborious exercise of human 
observation and human reason. No man stands still, he 
either progresses or retrogrades, it is, therefore, our duty 
to improve ourselves in every reasonable manner, to get 
a thorough knowledge of ourselves, and to improve those 
talents that nature has implanted in each of us. 
1 The Emperor Marcus Aurelius, iii, 9, vi, 54. 

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The account of the Lord God Jehovah as given by 
Nennius the Christian monk, and the account given of 
Him in the 0}d and New Testament, differ very con- 
siderably from the description of the Deity as given by 
the ancient philosophers, — 

" God/' says Pythagoras, "is One ; He is not, as some think, 
external to the universe, but is the universe itself, and is 
wholly in the whole sphere. His eyes are upon everything 
that is born: it is He who also creates all the immortal beings, 
and who is the Author of their power and their deeds. He is 
the origin of everything; He is the light of the heavens, the 
Father, the Wisdom, the Soul of all beings, the Mover of all 

" God is neither the object of sense, nor subject to pas- 
sions, but invisible, only intelligible, and supremely intelligent. 
In His body He is like the light, and His soul resembles truth. 
He is the universal Spirit that pervades and diffuses itself over 
all Nature. All beings receive their life from Him. There is 
but One only God, who is not, as men are apt to imagine, seated 
above the world, beyond the orb of the universe, but, being 
Himself all in all, He sees all the beings that fill His immen- 
sity, the only Principle, the Light of heaven, the Father of all. 
He produces everything ; He orders and disposes every thing ; 
He is the Reason, the Life, and the Motion of all beings/' 
Or as another writer expresses it : " God is He in whom we 
live and move and have our being/' 

We learn however that Benlli Gawr had a son named 
Beli, who fell in battle, and his body was buried at Maes 
Mawr, in the parish of Llanarmon yn 141 : — 

" Whose is the grave in the Maes Mawr ? 
Proud was his hand on the weapon of war, 
It is the grave of Beli, the son of Benlli Gawr." 

Maes Mawr lies on the mountain between I&l and 
Ystrad Alun, above Rhyd y Gy vartha, and here occurred 

the great battle between Melir ab and Beli ab 

Benlli Gawr, and where Beli was slain ; and Meirion 
erected two stones, one at each end of the grave, which 
remained until the last forty years. 

It was there that a wicked person, one Edward ab John 
ab Llewelyn of 141, owner of the piece of land which had 
been enclosed out of the mountain where the grave and 


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stones were, came and pulled up the stones, and placed 
them over the pipe of a limekiln. There, in consequence 
of the intense heat and great weight, they broke ; where- 
upon he burnt them into lime in the kiln, though they 
had formed the boundaries of the grave for many hundred 
years, and a bad end happened unto him who had thus 
defaced the grave of the deceased warrior. 

After the death of Benlli Gawr, King of Teyrnllwg, 
St Germanus anointed Cadell, the young man who had 
entertained him so hospitably, and made him King of 
Teyrnllwg, from which circumstance he received the 
name of Cadell Deyrnllwg, and from him Nennius states 
the Kings of Powys descend. This must have occurred 
either in 447, or in 448, for in that latter year, Ger- 
manus left Britain with the Roman Legions and went 
to Ravenna, where he died July 25, 448. Cadell had 
nine sons when he became King of Teyrnllwg. 

In order to secure himself on the throne of Britain, 
Gwrtheyrn invited over the Saxons under Hengist and 
Horsa in 454. And soon afterwards he married Rhonwen 
or Rowena, the daughter of Hengist, upon whom he be- 
stowed in a drunken fit the Isle of Thanet in Kent. In 
464, the Britons succeeded in defeating the Saxons, and 
then made his son Vortimer or Gwrthevyr, called also 
Gwrthevyr Fendigaid, King instead of Vortigern ; but 
the former having been poisoned by means of his step- 
mother in 468, Vortigern was set upon the throne and 
reigned till 481, when he was attacked by Erarys and 
Uthyr, the sons of Constantine, in his castle of Goronwy- 
in-Erging on the Wye. 

The Brut of G. ab Arthur states, that Gwrtheyrn 
Gwrtheneu, Prince of Erging and Ewias, became King 
of Britain after the assassination of King Constans in 385. 
Haigh in his History of the Conquest of Britain by the 
Saxons, in 425, and the Brut of G. ab Arthur states, that 
in 430 Uthyr and Emrys or Ambrosius, the sons of 
Cystennyn Fendigaid, King of Britain, and brothers of 
the late King Constans, came with a large army against 
Vortigern, who fled towards Cymru (Wales) and took up 

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his quarters in his castle of Goronwy in Erging, which 
was built on the summit of a mountain, called Mynydd 
Denarch, on the banks of the river Wye, which river 
flows from Mynydd Klorach. On their arrival there, 
Uthyr and Emrys calling to mind that Vortigern had 
been the cause of the deaths of their father and brother, 
and had brought the Saxons into the country, they de- 
termined to besiege that castle, and to burn it down to 
the ground ; and all that were in the castle, both of men 
and beasts, were burnt. And Gwrtheyrn was slain and 
burnt. Other accounts state that in 448, Vortigern was 
compelled by Uthyr and Aurelius Ambrosius (Emrys) to 
take refuge in his fortress of Caer Gwrtheyrn in Erging, 
whither he was accompanied by St. Germanus, who is 
said to have remained with him to the last, imploring 
him to repent and make his peace with God. Seeing 
that remonstrance was in vain, Germanus left the King, 
and retired to Italy, where he died at Ravenna, 25 July 
448. From this it appears that two British Kings, Benlli 
Gawr and Vortigern, ooth perished with their garrisons 
in the conflagration of their respective fortresses, in the 
same year, from not attending to the advice and the re- 
monstrances of Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre. Other 
accounts, however, state that Vortigern did not perish in 
the fortress of Castell Goronwy, or Caer Gwrtheyrn, which 
last name the fortress may have received in after times, 
but that he escaped from the conflagration, and died in 
obscurity at Llanaelhaiarn in Carnarvonshire ; where a 
tomb, in which the bones of a man of large stature were 
found, which has always been designated as " Bedd Gwr- 
theyrn*, the grave of Vortigern, and the neighbouring 
valley has ever since borne the name of Nant Gwrtheyrn. 
One of the names of the traditional burial places of Vor- 
tigern is preserved in stanza xl of the collection entitled 
the " Verses of the Graves," or " Verses of the Warriors", 
in the Black Book of Caermarthen : — 

" Ebet yn ystyuachen, 
T mae paup yny amheu, 
Bet gurtheyrn gnrtheneu." 

Four Ancient Books of Wales, ii, 32. 

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" The grave in Ystyvachau, 
Which everyone suspects to be ) 

The grave of Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu." / 

King Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu left issue by his first wife 
Seveira (the daughter of the Emperor Flavius Clemens 
Maximus, a Spaniard, who was Governor of Britain in 
370, and having defeated and slain the Emperor Gratian, 
was proclaimed Emperor of Rome, by the army in Britain, 
in 383, and who was put to death by Theodosius at 
Aquileia in 388) three sons, — 1. Gwrthevyr or Vortimer, 
King of Britain ; 2, Cyndeyrn ; and 3, Pascens, King of 

Cyndeyrn. He bravely fought against the Saxons, 
and was slain in 457. He was the father of Rhuddfedyl 
Frych, the father of Ehydwf, the father of Pasgen, whose 
name is mentioned in the inscription on the column of 
Eliseg. He was the father of, — 

Cadell Deyrnllwo ab Pasgen, King of Teyrnllwg, 
he had issue, three sons, according to the Harl. MS. 4181. 
—1, Cyngen, King of Powys or Teyrnllwg ; 2, Gwynfyn 
Frych, Prince of Drewen or Whittington and Maelor ; and 
3, Iddig, the ancestor of Cywryd ab Cadvan, who bore 
argent three boars' heads couped sable, armed or and 
langued gules. 

About the year 540, the fatal battle of Cattraeth was 
fought between the Britons and Saxons, when the former 
were defeated with such slaughter that, out of 363 Bri- 
tish chieftains, three only, of whom one was Aneurin, 
the son of Caw, Lord of Cwm Cawlyd, escaped with 
their lives. He was afterwards taken prisoner, loaded 
with chains, and thrown into a dungeon, from which he 
was released by Ceneu, the son of Llywarch H6n. The 
disastrous battle of Cattraeth caused the migration of 
numbers of Northern Britons to their kindred race in 
Wales, and Aneurin is said to have found a refuge at 
the famous college of Cattwg in South Wales; where, 
about 570, he was treacherously slain by one Eiddin. 1 
The battle of Cattraeth is the subject of a noble heroic 

1 Myv. Arch., ii, 65. 


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poem by Aneurin, which is still extant, and the authen- 
ticity of which has been indisputably proved by Sharon 
Turner, in his Vindication of Ancient British Poems, 
8vo., London, 1803. This great poem is entitled the 
"Gododin", from the Ottadini, which was the name of the 
British tribe to which Aneurin belonged. 

Cyxgek ab Cadell Deyrnllwg, King of Teyrnllwg. 
He hospitably entertained and provided for Pabo Post 
Prydain, a prince of the Northern Britons, and his son 
Dunawd Ffftr, when they were driven from their terri- 
tories by the Picts and Scots. Dunawd was celebrated 
in the Triads, with Gwallawg ab Lleenawg, a prince of 
the plains of Amwythig, or Shrewsbury, and Cynvelin 
Drwsgl, as the three "Post Cad", or pillars of battle; being 
so called, because they exceeded all others in military 
tactics and the laws of war. Dunawd married Dwywe, 
the daughter of Gwallawg ab Lleenawg. 1 He after- 
wards embraced a religious life, and, in conjunction with 
his sons, Deiniol, Cynwyl, and Gwarthau, founded the 
celebrated college or monastery of Bangor is y Coed, on 
the banks of the Dyfrdwy, or Dee river, in Maelor Saes- 
neg. This institution, which was amply endowed by 
King Cyngen, and over which Dunawd presided as 
abbot, was one of the most eminent in the island; and 

1 Gwallawg ab Lleenawg is also styled one of the three "Aervedd- 
awg", or grave-slaughterers of the Isle of Britain ; the other two were 
Selyf ab Cynan Garwyn, King of Powys, and Avaon, the son of 
Taliesin, and they were so called because they avenged their wrongs, 
in continuing the slaughter from their graves (Myv. Arch., ii, 69). 
Among the poems attributed to Taliesin and which are printed in the 
Myvyrian Archceology, there are two addressed to Gwallawg, in which 
the scenes of his battles are named, and it is said of him that his fame 
extended from Caer Clud, or Dunbarton, to Caer Caradawg, or Salus- 
bury. His name also occurs in Llywarch HSn's Elegy on Urien 
Rheged, and he was one of the three northern kings who united with 
that prince for the purpose of opposing Ida's successors (see Turner's 
Anglo-Saxons, b. iii, c. 4). In the Welsh Chronicles he is mentioned 
as one of the knights at the coronation of King Arthur in 51 6, and he is 
recorded to have been slain in the last battle between that sovereign 
and the Saxons (Brut Gr ab Arthur, Myv. Arch.,, ii, 320, 347). 
According to Englynion y Beddau, he was buried on the banks of the 
river Carrog in Carnarvonshire. 

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according to Bede, such was the number of the monks, 
that when they were divided into seven classes under 
their respective superintendents, none of these classes 
contained lesi than three hundred persons, all of whom 
supported themselves by their own labour. 

At this time, we find that there was a king of another 
part of Powys, named Cynddylan, whose capital was 
tengwern Powys, or Shrewsbury, who was the son of 
Cyndrwyn, King of Powys, who kept his court at Llys 
Dinwennan, in Caer Einion. Cynddylan hospitably re- 
ceived the warrior bard Llywarch Hen, Prince of the 
Strath Clyde Britons, who, with his family, was driven 
from his dominions by the Picts and Scots. Cynddylan 
was assisted by Llywarch Hen and his sons, in his bat- 
tles against the Saxons. King Cynddylan was slain with 
his brother, Cynwraith, in defending a town called Tren, 
and was buried at Eglwys Bassa, or Baschurch, in 613. 
Cyngen, King of Teyrnllwg, was succeeded by his son, 

Brochmael, surnamed Ysgythrawg, King of Powys, 
is styled in the Bind of Gruffydd ab Arthur " Tywysawg 
Caer Llion", Prince of Chester. In this Brut we find 
the following account of this king. 

" And at that time, Girioel the Pope sent Austin to the 
Isle of Britain, to preach to the Saxons, in that part of the 
island that they had taken possession of, or to prevent their 
destroying the whole creed and Christianity of the Catholic 
faith. And Christianity had strengthened itself since the time 


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of Pope Eleutherius, who first sent it to the Isle of Britain, 
without being destroyed any time between them, a.d. 607. 
And after Austin came as above stated, he found in the part 
of the Britons, an Archbishoprick and seven Bishopricks, 
strong with learned bishops of religions and holy life, and 
many monasteries devoted to the service of God, and keeping 
strict rule and order. And among these, there was in Dinas 
Bangor, a noble monastery, in which it is said that there were 
so many, that after they had been divided into seven parts, 
that there would be three hundred monks in each part, so that 
their number altogether was 2,100, and the Priors and Pre- 
lates ruled them. And they all supported themselves by the 
labour of their hands. And Dunawd was Abbot over them. 
He was a man wonderful for his learning in the Arts (kelvy- 
dodeu) a.d. 608. And this Dunawd, when Austin wanted to 
get his submission from the bishop and to join him in preach- 
ing to the Saxons, then by numerous proofs and authority of 
the holy Scriptures, that they ought not to submit to him, for 
they had an Archbishop of their own, and that the nation of 
the Saxons was taking the lands of their ancestors from them. 
Upon which intense hatred sprung up between them, and they 
would have no more to do with their creed or company any 
more than with dogs, A.D. 609. And upon which Edelflet, 
King of Keint (Kent), when he saw that the Britons would 
not obey Austin and despised his speech, was greatly dis- 
pleased on that account And he sent a message to Edelfryt, 
King of Scotland, and the other petty kings of the Saxons, 
to collect an army, and to come with him to Dinas Bangor to 
take revenge on Dinawd, and on the other bishops with him, 
and to trample them down and destroy them ; upon which 
they all came with an immense army to the parts and country 
of the Britons. And then they came to Caer Lleon, where 
Brochmael Ysgythrowc, the Prince of Caer Lleon (Chester) 
was then staying. And to this city there came from all parts 
of Wales innumerable monks to look after the health of their 

Eople and race, and most of them from Dinas Bangor. And 
ving collected their army together from all parts, they began 
to fight. And Brochmael had a less number of knights than 
Edelflet, and at last Brochmael was obliged to leave the city, 
but yet not before he had destroyed an immense number of 
his enemies, and had to take to flight, a.d. 610. And after 
Edelflet had taken the city, and found out the cause of the 
monks coming to that place, he commanded their arms to be 
taken from them ; and thus on that day twelve hundred of them 
obtained the crown of martyrdom, and obtained a heavenly 


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seat, A.D. 611. And after having committed this cruelty they 
went to Bangor ; and when the Britons heard of this cruelty 
and madness, they assembled together from all parts, namely, 
Bledrws, Prince of Cornwall, Maredndd, King of Dyfed, Cad- 
van ab Iago, King of Gwynedd, and having commenced the 
battle, they defeated Ethelflet, who was wounded, and com- 
pelled him to take to flight, and with that they killed of his 
army 10,306, and on the part of the Britons they lost Bledrws, 
Prince of Cornwall, who was commander-in-chief in this 
battle, a.d. 612." 

I must here insert an adventure 1 that King Brochraael 
Ysgythrog met with one day with a recluse whilst he 
was hunting in Mechain in Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr. 2 

" There was in former times in Powys, a certain most famous 
Prince, by name Brochmael Ysgythrog, and Consul of Caer 
Lleon (Chester), who at that time dwelt in Pengwern Powys, 
which signifies the Head of Powys Marsh, but is now called 
Salop : and whose domicile or habitation stood in that spot 
where the College of Sfc. Chad is at present situate. Now the 
same illustrious Prince gave his domicile or palace aforesaid, 
of his own free will, for the use of God, and at the same time 
from a sense of his own duty, for eleemosynary purposes, 
made a perpetual grant of it for himself and his heirs. At 
length, when upon a certain day in the year of our Lord 604, 
the said Prince had gone hunting to a certain place which is 
called Pennant in the British language, within the said prin- 
cipality of Powys, and when the hounds of the same Prince 
had started a hare, the dogs were following the hare, and he 
was pursuing to a certain bramble thicket, a thicket large and 
thorny ; in which thicket he found a certain virgin, beautiful in 
appearance, praying as devoutly as possible, and given up to 
divine contemplation, together with the said hare lying under the 
extremity or fold of her garments (with its face turned towards 
the dogs) boldly and intrepidly. Then the Prince vociferat- 
ing, ' Catch her, little dogs, catch her !' the more he shouted 
while he urged them on, the more remotely and further off 
did the dogs retreat, and fled from the little wild animal howl- 
ing. At length the Prince, altogether astonished, asked the 
virgin how long she had dwelt alone on his lands in so 

1 From the MSS. of Dr. Powel, Vicar of Rhiwabon. 

i Cwmmwd Mechain, in Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr, contains the 
parishes of Meivod, Llanvihangl yn Ngwynva, Llanwddyn, Pennant 
Melangell, Llangynog, Llan Hirnant, Llanvyllyn, Llanarmon yn Me- 
chain, and Llansanfraid yn Mechain. 

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desert a spot ? The virgin, in reply, said that for these fifteen 
years she had never in any way seen the face of a man. He 
afterwards asked the virgin who she was, where she was born 
and sprung from ; and she, with all humility, answered that 
she was the daughter of Iowchel, King of Iwerddon (the Green 
or Emerald Island), now called Ireland, and 'because the king, 
my father, had intended me to be the wife of a certain great 
and noble person of Ireland, I, fleeing from my native soil 
(God guiding me), came hither, in order that I might serve 
God and the spotless Virgin with my heart and a chaste body 
until I should die/ Then the Prince inquired the name of the 
virgin. To whom she said in reply, that her name was Mona- 
cella. Thereupon the Prince, considering in his inmost breast the 
happy (though) solitary condition of the virgin, broke forth into 
these words : ' Oh most worthy virgin Monacella ! I find that 
thou art a handmaiden of the true God, and a most sincere wor- 
shipper of Christ; wherefore, because it has pleased the Supreme 
and Almighty God, for thy merits, to give safety to this little 
wild hare, with safe conduct and protection from the attack 
and pursuit of the ravenous and biting dogs, I give and pre- 
sent to thee, with a most willing mind, these my lands for the 
service of God, and that they may be a perpetual asylum, 
refuge, and defence, in honour of thy name, 6 excellent virgin; 
and let neither king nor prince dare to be so rash or bold 
towards God as that, any man or woman fleeing hither, and 
desiring to enjoy protection in these thy lands, he should pre- 
sume to drag forth, provided that they in no way contaminate 
or pollute thy sanctuary or asylum. On the other hand, if any 
malefactor enjoying (the privilege of) thy sanctuary, shall go 
forth in any direction to do harm, then the freeholding abbots 
of thy sanctuary, who alone take cognizance of their crimes, 
if they afterwards find the offenders and culpable persons, shall 
take care that they be given and delivered over to the officers 
of Powys to be punished/ " — See Hist, of Zlangurig, pp. 823-7. 

This virgin Monacella, so very pleasing to God, passed 
her solitary life (in the way mentioned above) for thirty- 
years in this same place. And the hares, wild little ani- 
mals, just the same as cicures, or tame animals, were in 
a state of familiarity about her every day throughout her 
whole life ; during which time, also, by the aid of the 
Divine Mercy, miracles and various other favours were 
not wanting to those who asked for her aid, and sought 
her favour with inward devotion of heart. 


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After tbe death of the said most illustrious Prince 
Brochmael, his son, Tyssiliaw, held the Principality of 
Powys ; then Cynan (Garwyn), the brother of Tyssiliaw. 
Cynan was succeeded by his son Selyf Sarff Gadau, and 
Selyf by his son Mael Mynan, and he by his son Beli, 
who is said to have been the father of that Guillawg, 
who is mentioned in the Eliseg inscription as being the 
ancestor of Cyngen, King of Teyrnllwg, as he is called in 
the Brut. These kings, however, Cynan and his suc- 
cessors, all sanctioned the said place of Pennant to be 
a perpetual sanctuary, asylum, or safe refuge of the 
wretched (thereby confirming the acts of the said prince). 
The said virgin Monacella, with all solicitude and dili- 
gence, took care to appoint and instruct certain virgins 
in the same part of the country, in order that they might 
persevere and live holily and modestly in the love of 
God, and should pass their lives in the service of God, 
doing nothing else day or night. After this, as soon as 
the virgin Monacella herself departed this life, a certain 
man, by name Elissau, came to Pennant Melangell, and 
wished to violate, ravish, and pollute the same virgins ; 
but suddenly perished there in the most dreadful manner. 
Whoever has violated the above-mentioned liberty and 
sanctity of the said virgin has been rarely seen to escape 
Divine wrath on this account, as may be daily per- 
ceived. Praises be to the Most High God and to His 
Virgin Monacella ! 

Brochmael Ysgythrawg was slain in the battle that was 
fought on the banks of the Dyfrdwy or Dee river in 
612. He bore sable, three horses' heads erased argent, 
and married Arddun Benasgell, the daughter of Pabo 
Post Prydain, or Pabo the Pillar of Britain, on account 
of his valour in fighting against the enemies of his coun- 
try. Pabo first distinguished himself as a warrior 
against the Gwyddelian Picts, but he was eventually 
obliged to leave his territories in the north, and to retire 
to Wales. He was hospitably received by Cyngen ab 
Cadell Deyrnllwg, King of Powys, from whom, as well 
as from his son, Brochmael Ysgythrawg, Pabo received a 

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grant of lands. He afterwards retired into Mon, and 
there founded the church called after him, Llanbabo, and 
where a stone still remains, bearing his effigy, with the 
following inscription : " hic iacet pabo post prud cou- 
pons .... te ... . prima." This stone was discovered 
in the churchyard in the reign of Charles II, and is en- 
graved in Kowland's Mona Antiqaa. 

By his consort Arddun, Brochwael had issue three sons 
— 1, Tyssiliaw, his successor ; 2, Cynan Garwyn, who 
succeeded his eldest brother; and, 3, Ma wan, Lord of 
Cydewaun, who gave lands at Aber Rhiw and Bettvvs y 
Cedwg in Cydewaun, to St. Beuno, to build churches 
there, and both these churches are dedicated to St. 

Tyssiliaw, King of Powys, succeeded his father in 
612. How long he reigned we do not at present know. 

One of the ancient Welsh chronicles has been assigned 
to Tyssiliaw, and a copy, under the name of Brut Tyssi- 
liaw, is printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology. He was 
the founder and patron saint of the following churches ; 
Meivod in Cwmmwd Mechain, Llandysilio in Ystrad 
Deuddwr, Llandysilio and Bryn Eglwys in 141, Llan- 
dyssilio ym Mon, Llandysilio yn Nyved, Llandysilio, 
Gogof in Ceredigion, and Sellack and Llandysilio in 
Herefordshire. He is also said to have been a bishop of 
Llan Elwy, now called St. Asaph. 



Duw dinac dinas tangneved 
Dun dy naud nam caud ym camued 
Dun doeth i deithi teyrned 
Teyrnes uerin 1 uas uirioned 
Duu am 2 dug im dogn 8 anryded 
Yw wenulat yw rat 4 yw ried 
Yn eluch yn heduch yn hed 
Tn hodyat 5 yn haud varanned 

1 Teyrnas wen. 2 An. 8 In. 4 Wlad. 6 Hoddiawg. 

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Ac eilrod 1 eilrot gyhyded 
Areildec 2 eildec dryganed / 

A ganuyf yra rnyf om racued / 
Ragor nam rat ram rygyrwed 8 
Tyssilyaw teruyn gyuryssed 
Parth am naud a draud a dryssed 4 
Peris n6r o'r niair nadred 
Praff uiber uibyat amryssed 
Mab gardun ardunic naured 5 
Mabolyaeth arvolyaeth wared 
Mab Brochuael bron Hael haul orned 
Gorpu nef yn eivyonyd duded 6 
Mat gyrchaud garchar allduded 
Kyrch cyvlaun cyvle divroed 
Mat gymerth arnau prau pruded 
Prif obruy obryn trugared 
Mat ganet o genetyl voned 
Maaruledic mauralat tyllued 
Mat goreu madeu marthoed 
Ac yr duu diovryt gnraged 
Gureic enuauc anuar y throssed 
Ae treidyays ba tray enuired 
Llanvechan vychot y byrthod 

Llan 7 ymron y challed 
Dynyaul 8 bobyl ny borthant iauned 
Iaun i duu divanu eu reued 
Ar eu bryt ae bratauc vuched 
Ae gueryt ac ef ae gommed 
Cedawl ud Cadell etived 
Cadeir cor yn cadu haeloned 
Ceduis dreic dragon gynnadled 
Kassau caru creuloned 
Karet baub ceraduy diued 
Kerennyd cyn ceryd cared 
Keritor vy ngherd ygkynted 
Tn yt gar guyr guaner guinweled 
Caraf y Ian ar Hen dan gadred 10 
Ger y mae gwydvarch uch guyned 
Guitvile gluyde gleu deachued 11 
Guyd vynuent guydva brenbined 12 

I Neu, eilvod. 2 Ac eil rheg. 8 Rhagor fan rhig rhan rhagyrwedd. 
4 Advawdd adryssedd. * Mab gardyn arddunig fowredd. 

• Dudwedd. 7 Llam. j • Daiarawl. 

9 Rheufedd. 10 Caraf y llan ar lien gangadredd. 

II Gwiddfidle glywdde glew ddeacbwedd. 12 Brenhed 

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Beird nenet niverauc orsed t 

Vreisc adorth ehorth ehovned f 

Breiniaac loc leadir cyvanned / 

Meivod wenn nyt meuvyr 1 ae med. 

Nys med treia nys treid ysgereint 
Nys daeret trevret y triseint 
Mwy yndi guesti guesteivyeint y balchnaud 

Noc amrawt amraint 
Ae balchlann rug y balchneint 
Ae balchvur ae balchuyr testeint 2 
Ae balchuys egluys eglnreint 8 
Ae balchrad ae balchrot trameint 
Ae balchwawr yn awr yn deueint 
Ae balchgor heb achor echureint 
Ae balch offeiryat ae hoffeiryeint 
A pharaud 4 offeren hoffeint 
Batch y bagyl baguy eur y hemyeint 
Balch y Hoc rac y Uifeiryeiiit 
Anhebic ir bleit a blyc heint 5 
Afflea ffreu a phryvet Uyffeint 
A than poeth porthoed digofyeint 
Uffern earn 7 ffurf y henneint 
Kyn amaf emitted uytheint 
Uyth p't wy thprif cymmeint 8 
Kyn ergryt penyt poenofaint 
Porthuyr duu poet huynt vygkereint 
Pan vo paub pan vuyf heb heneint 
• Tn oed deur dengmluyd ar hugeint 
Pan dan 9 brant rac bron uchelseint 
Am roduy creaudyr kyrreiveint 
Kyn minnen kyn y buyf gyureint 
Kyndelu nyf kynhelnaf 10 o vreint 
Kerd neuyd ym rebyd rygeint 
Kein awen gan auel bylgeint. 

Pylgeineu radeu am rodir 
Rod ruydgall ruyd gatyr yt geuii 11 

1 Meiwyr. 2 Ai balchwyr ai balchwir tessaint. 

8 Eglurfraint 4 Ai pharawd. 6 Blyghaint. 

6 A than poen porthloed digofaint. 7 Wern. i 

8 Wyth brif wyth brifwyd cymmain. 

• Pan ddeL 10 Cynhelwyf. " Genir. 

vol. i. 2 * 

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Canu dreic prydein a brydir 

O bryder berthvalch yt berchir 

Berth y mae Meivod ae rhandir 1 

Berth elayd rac elved enuir 2 

Berth y Hoc urth lieu 8 babir 

Berth y chlas ae chyrn glas gloyuhir 

Berth radeu rieu rygredir 

Ae creduy creduch na thuyllir 

Tranc ar duu traethaf na ellir 

Trant ar dyn ae tremyn truy dir 

Truy dir 4 periglus pellus pell dygir 

Pall arnau puyllaf y dognir 

Preasuylgoll truydoll egir 

Pressent vradu vradauc y geluir 

Pobyl byd yn an guyd yn geluir 6 

Paub o honazn yn cam 6 yn cospir 

A unel iaun rotlaun ry molir 

A vyd ryd y dyd yt vernir 

A fo gwyl goleu yd nodir 7 

Goluc Duw arnau a dodir 

Ava guan urth uan urth iaunuir 

Yn lluru puyll pell yt adrodir 

A vo llary llauen rygyrchir 

Ac a vo llachar ry llochir 

A vo guar gnell yt nodeir 

Nac a vo anuar ac enuir. 


Enuir dyn a el yth erbyn 
Enuauc vyd vegys y hervyn 
Enu dreic dragon amdeffyn 
Anuar var vedgyrn eissydyn 
Tissiliau teyrned gylchuyn 
Treis uenuyn teruyn toryf erchuyn 
Pan aeth gur gormes uuelyn 
Gweith goguy guythyat ymostryn 8 
Pan gyrchuyt ymlynuyt ruyt ryn 
Tn pluyf plyninest ymorthryn 9 
Tn reidun orun oresgyn 
Tndyd reit arodauc yggryn 
Yn rotuyd ebruyd yn erbyn 

1 Hamdir. 2 Berth elfydd elfed enwir. 8 Lien. 

4 Nid ynt-Truydir yn. 6 Neu, gwyd yn guelir. 

* Am eiu cam. 7 Ban o. 8 Gwythgad ymoagryn. 

9 Ymblymnaid ym wrthfyn. 

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Yn rodle gwyach guyarlln 
Ygkyvrgein cyvuyrein cyverbyn 
Ygkyvrgell tewdor dor dychlyn 
Ygkyvranc Powys pobyl degyn 
Ac Oswallt fab Oswi a eluyn 1 
Yn aele oval amovyn 2 
Oed aelau coel cwynau canvryn 
Yn ryvel yn ryvaur disgyn 
Wrth disgir ketuyr kadyr uchyn 3 

Ygkynnif sarff un byn 
Sevis ef seint 4 Duu gennhyn. 

Kan vot Duu yt vun y dilenn 5 
Tut uledic eluic Eluydenn 8 
Tir, gureid goruyf rac un benn 
Tirion mon meillon y morbenn 7 
Tissiliau teyrned nenbrenn 
Teyrnas dinaa diasgenn 
Teyrn 8 ae kan Kadyr eurbenn 
Teyrnuaut teyrnuyr Kyngenn 
Kynnyduys 9 kynnif kygorffenn 
Kynuys glein kynglas 10 dyuarchenn 
Kynadyl kerd kerrenyd gynmenn 
Gein 11 uenuas heb gas heb gynheun 
Llan a wnaeth ae lauvaeth lovlen 
Llan Ilugyrn Uogaut offerenn 
Llan Trallyr tra lliant uydrlenn 12 
Llan drallanu drallys Dinorbenn 
Llan llydaw gan llytued uohenn 
Llan Bengwern bennaf daearenn 
Llan Bywys baraduys buruen 
Llan gammarch llan barch y berchen. 


Perchen cor keid 13 wosgor wasgaut 
Ketuascar cas llachar lluchnaut 
Lluchvaran lluch van y volant 
Arvolyant urddyant 14 urdd enuaut 

1 Osswi aelwyn. 2 Am ofyn. 

8 Wrth ddeigr cedwyr cad cadrvrehyn. — Gair cyrch ar goll yma. 
4 Sefut. 5 Yd fu ei ddilen. • Tadwledig elwig elfydden. 
7 Meillion y Merbyn. ; 8 Teymfardd. 

• Cynnyddwyr. *° Cyn glaa. n Genu 

12 Wyrddlen. 13 Cerdd. M ArfoHant urddant. 

2 a 

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Keid 1 Veivot o virein logaut 
Lloc vaurveith am vedveith vedraut 
Tervyn tec ym terwyn beidaut 
Aueles ny uelir hyt vraut 
Caer Ruvein ryved olygaut 
Caer uchaf uchel 2 y devaut 
Caer ehang ehofyn y chiudaut 
Ny chyvret y phobyl ae phechaut 8 
Caer ar heul caer didreul didraut 
Caer bellglaer o bellgot adaut 
Caer barchus barhaus baraut 
A beryt y berer indaut 


Pennyadury kergyl kereasyt 
Ket a chret a chrevyd y gyt 
Periglaur periglus wyndyt 
Gwyndaut 4 guynn guiryon ormodbryt 
Pereit naut pernaut perheyt 
Per volyant esborthant esbyt 
Peir kyvreith kyvrnyd yn kyuyt 
Cyuoeth Duu an duff ygguynuyt 
Kyva vyd yr prydya ae pryt 
Prydest loyw pryder diheuyn 
Diuahard y vard y venuyt 
Diffleistor tentor tor divryt 5 
Differth hael hir Brochuael broglyt 
Gradunel 6 greidyaul y urhyt 
Guyrth a nnaeth ny uneir hyt ennyt 
Ny unaethpuyt eiryoet yr yn oea byt 7 
Oe ataf etuyn canlly t 9 
Y dyvn a deil ar y hyt 
Guyrth arall guerthvaur y detvryt 
Granyggre dybu dybryt 
Gre yggredyf 8 yn lledyf yn lluevryt 
Tgkarcnar yn daear yn yt 
Post Powys pergig kedernyt 
Pob 10 argledyr argluyd diergryt 
Porthloed bud porthloes oe vebyt 
Tn eluyd Penn Mynyd penyt 

1 Berth. * Cael uchel uchaf. * A phecawd. 

* Gwyndyd. * Diffryt. • GradifaeL 

7 Cyn oes byd. 8 Oe ataf etewyn tanllyd. 

9 Gre yn neddf. 10 Pobyl. 

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Pennydur pennaf y grevyd 
A greduys y Dim Deus dovyd 
Cretet baup y peir Uuossyd 
Lluossauc y daun y detuyd 
Credaf da ny diva ny divyd 
Ny difiyc onyt y diffyd 
Credaf vi vy ri vy rybyd 1 
Vy Llyuyaudyr Creaudyr credovyd 
Credaf y auen 2 am reen am ryd 
Mat gynnull maur weryd 3 
Credaf y post pressent pressuylulyd 
Am peris or peduar defnyd 
Credaf y peryf nef yn eluyd 
Am gunaeth o buraur yn brydyd 

Prydyd nyf rac Prydein dragon 
Piant Kerd kadeir prydydyon 
Glyn am ryd ragoweircn gleisson 
Gleissieit lin glas ganoligion 
Meu detvryt meint guryt guron 
Mai y gunaeth mechdeyrn haelon 
Meirch ar geirch yn garcharoryon 
Meith gerdet mygyr gydret geitryon 
T Meivot y maent aruydon 
Arureid y wreid vrythion 
Y mauruled ymed ymaon 
T thretheu yn traethaduryon* 
T dengreir gyneir 6 gyweithon 
^ gyvy* y n gyvoethogyon 
T nynaf henu henyu oe thiryon 6 
Handit ryd rang y day avon 
T sygynnau 7 glea gloea rodyon 
A volaf, a volant beirdyon 
Caraf i barch y barchdiagon 
Caradaac vreinauc vreisc rodyon 
Card oleith olud esborthyon 
Periglaor perthaaar pebyllyon 8 
Delu yd ym yn diamrylon 9 
Am lngyrn am gyrn am geinyon 

1 Rhebydd. 2 Credafi nen. 8 Wawr ddull werydd. 

4 Ei threthau i'w thraethadurion. 6 Ynwir. 

Ei hynaf heny w oi thirion. 

7 Ei sugn fab ; neu y By gynfab. 

8 Berthfawr (porthfawr) powysion. 9 Diamryson, 

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Tn untref yn untreul wledolyon 
Yn undant undat vrodoryon 
Can trugar can war werydon 
Can terwyn can toryf eglynnyon 1 
Can dorvoed niveroed neivion 
Can vot Dan can vot niryon 
Am rod vyggnledic guleityadon 
Drefret gulat waret worthordyon 
Kyndeln ae Kant 
Terfyn can Dyssiliaw 


By Ctnddelw, the Great Bard. 3 

O God, whose Word is Tea, stronghold of Peace ! 
Close not, O God, Thy refuge on my sin ! 
God's wisdom and perfections are supreme. 
To Truth's just servant is His Kingdom blest. 
Me, from my share of honour, God had brought 
To His blest land, His grace, His governance, 
In gladness, in tranquillity, in peace, 
In access to His presence facile, free, 
And to the second Circles* second Life, 
And for the second gift, in measure true, 
A song attuned once more to harmony, 
'Tis now for me to sing before my lord, 
Greater than all my favour, all my threats. 
There ends contention, where Tysilio speaks I 
To me his word is safety and defence. 
Of all the serpents one the Lord hath made 
A Serpent huge, 4 of coilings numberless, 
An honoured son, of mighty majesty, 
On youth bestowing kindly entertainment, 
Challenge each claim doth Brochwel's generous son : 

1 Engylion. * Translated by Howell W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

8 This would seem to be an attempt to harmonise with the Chris- 
tian Faith the Druidio Circles of Existence, in the first of which dwells 
God alone ; and, in the second, spirits purified and perfected in the 
successive stages of transmigration through the others. If so, the 
passage would seem to refute those who assert the spuriousness of 
the Theological Triads.— -H. W. Ll. 

4 Tysiliaw is here compared to a serpent, a creature, according 
to Druidic doctrine, symbolising good. — H. W. Ll. 

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Heaven hath he storm'd on Eivionydd's sward ; l 

To exile's bondage well did he resort ; 

One affluent a place of exile seeks. 

Discreetly proof upon him hath he ta'en 

Of mercy's merit hath he gained the prize s 

Of pure descent and noble is he born, 

Great ruler of a great society. 

Well doth he free the heart from heaviness, 

And women bind by vow devout to God. 

A woman, for her proud transgression known, 

Hath pierced his heart, and by iniquity, 

Llanvechan's beauty's dwindled down to nought, 

A church whose wisdom now is well nigh lost 2 

Whene'er, before the wisdom of the church, 

Mankind maintains no longer equity, 

'Tis only meet that God their wealth destroy. 

Them, for their counsel, and their traitorous life, 

Rejecting, he doth hold himself aloof. 

A lord munificent is Cadell's heir, 

In his Cathedral chair he keeps not stint, 

A prince with princes holding intercourse. 

Whoso loves cruelty he sorely hates, 

While all whose aims are loveable he loves ; 

To chastisement he charity prefers. 

Loved in the ante-chamber is my song, 

Where men affect a leader at the Feast, 

Aye shall I love with constancy the Church, 

And love her learned men, where Gwyddvarch 8 near 

High over Gwynedd holds his sacred seat, 

Of lordly lineage, mid fair woodbine laid. 

The churchyard trees are sepulchres of kings, 

Bards pant to hold the thronging Session there, 

1 Eivionydd is in Caernarvonshire, not in Powysland, but iu 
Gwynedd. This, therefore, forms an interesting notice of an incident 
in St. Tysilio's life, not apparently recorded elsewhere, namely, that 
whether driven out of his own country by some act of oppression, or 
civil commotion, or of his own free will, with a view to religious re- 
tirement, or to the evangelisation of the native population, or of the 
Irish Gwyddyl, who then probably occupied part of the country, he 
passed some time in Arvon. With the expression, " Henv'n hath he 
storm'd", etc., compare that in the Gospel, " The kingdom of Heaven 
suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force"— H. W. Ll. 

2 A word has dropped here out of the text. I would supply "colli", 
or some such word, and read :— " Llanymron colli ei challedd." 

8 The Hermit who first raised a rude chapel at Meivod. — H. W. Ll. 

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Great, earnest, and persistent, free from fear. 
By chartered privilege, a land of love. • 
No men of war possess our Meivod blest. 

/ ". 

Free from Oppression's grip, and foes approach, 
The three Saints' revenue brooks no dispute. 
Tis Meivod's pride to shield the frequent gnest ; 
She spurns the lawless lack of social speech. 
On her proud bank the brooks all proudly break, 
Her proud wall teems with pride of earnest men ; 
Proud is the solemn splendour of her Church, 
Stately her pride of gift and of degree, 
Her pride of foliage in the early dawn. 
Her choir is proudly ranged in circle round, 
Proud is her state with Priest and Sacrifice, 
E'er ready with her offerings of love. 
Proud is her crook, encluster'd deep with gold. 
Proud is her fence, to stem encount'ring floods, 
Unlike to those that double the disease, 
Of toads and vermin she restrain the stream, 
And flames of fire, the messengers of wrath, 
The swamp of hell, with stiff anointing slime. 
On me ere wrath in retribution fall. 
For eight sins equal in enormity, 
Ere I am doomed to penitential pangs, 
The G uardians of God's gates — be they my friends ! 
For all, for me, when age shall be no more. 
But life's full prime of thirty 1 years for aye 
When Judgement comes before the Saints, above, 
By my Creator may I be forgiv'n 1 
Ere I, Cynddelw, then am perfected, 
Of privilege ensaraple as I am, 2 
The gentle Muse hath my lord revered, 
Sung a new song borne on the morning breeze. 

"lis in the morn that gifts to me are given ; 
The gift that 's wisely free is freely sung 

1 It was a common opinion in the Middle Ages that the spirits of 
the just made perfect, when reunited to their bodies in the next life, 
will be restored to tbe form which they possessed when in the prime 
of life, i.e., when about thirty years of age. — H. W. Ll. 

3 In allusion to his dignity of "Bard of the Choir" (Y Bardd 
Cadeiriawl), obtained by victory won in competition with other Bards. 
— H. W. Ll. 

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In song, whose echo rings thro' Britain's isle. 

For stately beauty art thou reverenced. 

Meivod, with all her heritage, is fair, ' 

A beauteous land, ere autumn perfects her, / 

Lit up with rushlights is her chancel fair, 

Fair is her glebe, and her long bright blue horns, 

Fair are her kingly dignities believed 

(Ye who believe, not idle is your faith). 

Since God, I ween, can never cease to be, 

Who passes through the land, when viewed from far, 

With far and farther perils finds it fraught. 

To him the fate of failure I foretell, 

And loss of home, privation full of pain, 

Who deals in treachery is traitor named. 

We shall be punished all, who swerve from right ; 

Who justly acts, through grace, is justly praised ; 

The day that he is judged he shall be free. 

Invested shall the Modest be in Light ; 

On them shall shine the countenance of God, 

Who with the poor is poor, and to the just 

And truthful, nrmly wise, hath fame abroad. 

Men to the gentle ever blithely throng, 

Who shine o'er all ; and shielded well is he ; 

The meek hath ever a more sure defence 

Than hath the fierce, and false, and wicked man. 


The man is reprobate who thee assails. 
Renown' d shall be, according to thy prayer, 
Thy leader's name, thy Dragon of defence. 
Cruel the spear within the mead-horn's haunt, 
Within the limits of Tysiliaw's realm, 
— Realm by a host with poisonous blast assailed, 
When to the fiery fray advanced a Man, 
Of wrathful battle stirring was the strife ; 
When in the combat Terror stalked along, 
Thou in the combat wouldst not yield a pace, 1 
Aye, darting forward in the surge of war, 
Quakes now the Giver in his day of need, 

l This line is corrupt as it stands. The first edition of the Myvy- 
rian Archaiology has " plyfinest ymorthrym", which suggest the cor- 
ruption of a word like " finest" for fynaist. Perhaps the Bard wrote 
" Ymplwyf ni finest yrawrthuyn", — in the throng thou wouldst not 
retreat— H. W. Ll. 

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When, unforewarned, attacked in open coarse, 

— The vulture's course adown the stream of gore, 

— The grand uprising of antagonists, 

— The casting off of caution in defence, 

— The contest for the tithe of Powysland ! 

And Oswald, Oswy's son, 1 they call upon, 

His aid they supplicate in dire distress ; 

A hundred hills bear token of complaint, 

When mightily descends the swoop of War, 

And fights of valiant foes dissolve in tears. 

A Serpent he, amid the strife of Kings, 

Stood up, and with them stood the Saints of God. 


The grace of God is with the humble lord, 
The Father of inherent principle. 
Gain would I from my lord a cheerful land, 
Where pleasant Mona's trefoils meet mine eye, 
Tysiliaw's superior sovereignty, 
Whose kingdom is a city without stain. 
By royal bard his brilliant power is sung. 
War is the royal praise of royal men, 
The conflict heightening even to its close. 
Ere green the sod wherein its gems are set, 
The chat of social converse is the song. 
Nor hate nor strife possess that blessed man. 
Small tho' his hand, that hand a Church hath made, 
A Church with lamps and ambreys for the mass ; 
A Church, with shade more green than shore or flood ; 
A Church, whose rich abundance doth outdo 
Dinorben's mansion, or the tide's full flow ; 
The Church of Llydaw, with its influence wide ; 
The Church of Pengwern, first in all the earth ; 
The Church of Powys, pure as Paradise ; 
Church of the tomb o'er arched, its owner's pride ! 2 


He shelters all that hath this tuneful Choir, 
A Choir resplendent, scattering gifts around ; 
Bright is her presence, bright her glory's seat, 
Her name is worshipped for her dignity, 

1 Oswy was brother, not son of St. Oswald, and succeeded him in 
the sovereignty of Northumbria. — H. W. Ll. 

2 Llan gam arch, the Church of the arched tomb. — See Mont 
Coll., x, 168.— H. W. Ll. 

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Fair Meivod, with her Sanctuary fair ! 
Precious the cellar, for its perfect mead ! 
Whoso hath seen the territory fair 
Of sunny Meivod, shall not see the like, 
Not tho' his life till Doomsday be prolonged. 
As Borne, a city marvellous to view, 
A city lofty, and with rule supreme, 
An ample city. Fearless are her sons, 
Her people ne'er go hand in hand with sin. 
A sun-lit City she, whose stately course 
Is free from rashness, or extravagance ; 
A far-famed City, treasure-house of praise, 
City to be revered ; for pilgrimage 
Prepared, to last till Time shall be no more ! 


He is primate who, for chalices, 
And gifts, and faith, and piety is beloved. 
A priest is he who Venedotian born, 
To dying Venedotians unction brings, 
With fervent ministration, guileless, pure. 
Sweet is it to extol a nature sweet ; 
Sweet is the praise of one who feeds the soul 
By laws that sweetly raise us up to God, 
God's Kingdom, that will bring us happiness, . 
The Bard shall gain in full who sings the song : 
For poems, fraught with brightest harmonies, 
From thought and meditative impulse spring. 
None here restrain the genius of the Bard ; 
The land of Brochvael is his sheltering shade, 
His shield, his covering, his secure defence ; 
Its bounty ever is its sure support. 
Upraised to Greidiawl's, or GradivaelV height, 
The wonders wrought by him shall ne'er be done 

1 Greidiawl, according to Enwogion, is recorded in the Triads as 
one of the Three Heralds of Britain who were distinguished for their 
superior knowledge in the science and laws of war, and had the privi- 
lege of passing unmolested through all parts of the island, provided 
that they observed the regulations established by themselves. Gradi- 
vael is, in all probability, the same person as Gredivel, who, according 
to the same authority, was the son of Ithel Hael, a saint who 
flourished early in the sixth century, and, with his brother Flewyn, 
was appointed to preside over the monastery founded by Pawl or 
Paulinus, at Ty Gwyn ar D&f in Caermarthenshire. — See also Rees' 
Welsli Saints, pp. 222-3.— H. W. Ll. 

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Again, nor have been, since the world began. 

Forth from his hand a fiery brand hath burst, 

Sprouting with leaves throughout its utmost length. 

Another marvel — wise his judgment was — 

A cheek that was with ugly warp deformed 

Assumed a nature tender, soft and warm, 

Pillar of Powys ! he becomes to us, 

In prison, for the time a screen of strength, 

His people's shelter, an intrepid lord, 

From their youth up sustaining them in wealth, 

A paragon of penance in the land. 

The Man of Penance hath the highest faith 
In God, who rules and regulates the world. 
Let all believe He multiplies His gifts, 
With plenteous outpour on the innocent. 
Save to the faithless, I believe that good 
Nor fails, nor falls away, nor is destroyed. 
On Him who made me, and will end my life, 
Creator, Ruler, Captain of the Faith, 
My Lord, who doth endow my flow of song 
With fair forthcomings of the teeming spring, 
Upholder and Indwefler in the Present, 
Who made me out of the four elements, 
In Heaven's Creator, in the Light Supreme, 
Who made me, Minstrel heretofore, to be 
The Bard that now I am, I do believe. 


A Bard am I, in Britain's Monarch's Court, 
The Chair of Song who owns among the Bards. 
Grey are the noble steeds the Chief bestows 
On me, their hue the salmon's of the stream, 
Their bulk, I reckon, is proportionate 
To hero's stature, for the generous king 
To me hath prisoners made of oat-fed steeds, 
Long -stepping, even-paced and powerful. 
In Meifoa tokens are of gallantry 
To valiant Britons, in the mighty feast, 
In mead, and in the multitude of men, 
Her contributions to our men of lore, 
Her relics twain, in action consonant, 
■ That raises them until they are enriched. 
Her oldest man was born upon her land ; 
May she be free between her rivers twain ! 

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Her foster-son, the Chief of glorious gifts, 
Him will I praise, the Bards shall praise him all. 
The Archdeacon, whom she venerates, I love, 
Caradoc, freely lavish of his gifts, 
That nourish homeless wanderers with his wealth, 
Of the Powysians pastor provident. 
Thus are we set, without contentiousness, 
Around the lamps, the dainties, and the horns, 
In one abode, carousing at one cost, 
All brothers in one father's unity. 

With all compassionate and gentle youths, 
And with the angels, the Creator's host, 
Hosts upon Hosts, in countless multitude, 
By pleasing God, by being cleared of guilt, 
And by the favour of my Lord, may I 
Dwell in the land, whose denizens at last 
Delivered from their exile, find their home. 

As in the commencement of this poem, Tyssiliaw is 
compared to a serpent, and, again, Oswald is compared, 
in the fourth stanza of this poem, to the serpent, I think 
that I cannot do better than attempt to give some ac- 
count of the honour and worship paid to this animal in 
connection with the Tree of Life and the Sun. " This 
animal", Taautos tells us, " was esteemed by the ancients 
to be the most inspirited of all reptiles, and of a fiery 
nature; inasmuch as it exhibits an incredible celerity, 
moving by its spirit, without either hands or feet. It is, 
moreover, long lived, and has the quality not only of 
putting off its old age and assuming a second youth, 
but of receiving at the same time an augmentation of its 
size and strength. And when it has fulfilled the ap- 
pointed measure of its existence, it consumes itself, as 
Taautos has laid down in the sacred books, upon which 
account this animal is introduced in the sacred rites and 
ceremonies." 1 The Sun-god, as the giver of life, was 

1 SancJianictfhan, ii, 12. Sanchoniathan was one of the oldest 
Phoenician historians. He wrote on the ancient monuments of his 
native country which were dedicated to Thaut. He says that the 
first inhabitants of Phoenicia raised their hands up to heaven to- 
wards the sun, that they looked upon him as the sole King of Heaveu, 

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represented under the type of the serpent This animal 
readily forms a circle, and a circle was the emblem of 
eternity. The serpent was also celebrated for its 'wis- 
dom (Gen. iii, 1 ; Matt, x, 16). Athens, the abode of 
Atbend or Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, being pecu- 
liarly snake-guarded. " A then&, also", as Professor Ruskin 
observes, "often in later works carries a serpent for a 
shield sign. It has been said with considerable truth 
that, " in the mythology of the primitive world, the ser- 
pent is universally the symbol of the sun, and the genera- 
tive power of the solar beams is always typified by 
pendent Ursei. The Uraeus is the basilisk or cobra di 
capello. The Basilisk-Arau of Kam is styled in an 
ancient papyrus, * Soul of the body of Ra', the sun.* 1 

In the Kamic funeral ritual the mystic celestial ser- 
pent is thus apostrophised : ** Say, thou who hast gone, 
O Serpent of millions of years. Millions of years are 
following to him. The road is of fire, they whirl in fire 
behind him." The Uraeus is the idiocjaph of the word 
" immortal", whence the phrase, " the living years of the 
Uraeus", as applied to the immortality of the king. 
" When the Egyptians wish to express extended period 
(aidn) they depict a serpent whose tail is concealed by 
the rest of his body, which they call Ouraios or Uraeus. 
The serpent is exceedingly long-lived, and not only re- 
tains its youth by putting off old age, but also it is wont 
to receive a greater increase of strength. The serpent, 
again, forms a circle, and was so represented with its 
tail in its mouth by the Phoenicians, and thus appears 
on numerous Gnostic gems ; and a circle was the symbol 
of eternity and of God. The circle-formed serpent often 
appears in connection with symbolic representations of 
Chronos, the Time-god. These coiled circles, sun tra- 
versed, represent the Kamic serpent Bata " on the high 

and honoured him by the name of Baal Samim, which in their lan- 
guage signifies King of Heaven, and raised columns to the elements, 
and worshipped them. j 

1 The Serpent MyUu of Ancient Egypt. By W R. Cooper, Esq., 
F.R.S. London: Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly. 

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hill of heaven" ; the kampe or caterpillar, i. e., the crea- 
ture that turns and winds ; the Gnostic serpent Chnu- 
phis, tail in mouth ; and the serpent-of-eternal-years, 
which is represented as encircling the god Hapiinou, the 
Nile personified. (Cooper, Serpent Myths, 22). The 
same symbol appears again in a well-known and very 
remarkable Hindu representation of the three worlds, two 
of them elephant-supported, while the three gigantic 
elephants that bear the lower or terrestrial world stand 
on the back of a vast kosmic tortoise, which in turn 
rests upon the all-surrounding serpent of eternity, tail 
in mouth, as usual. The connection between the sun 
and the time-serpent is also very clearly illustrated in 
Figs. 56 and 92 in Mr. Coopers able and interesting 
essay. 1 The first shows the head of the Supreme Deity 
encompassed by the serpent of good, by the side of which 
sails the boat of the sun; and in the second, the sacred 
beetle of Kheper-Ka in the solar disk is surrounded by 
the Serpent Ranno with seven involutions, with his tail 
in his mouth, whilst the solar boat is immediately below 
it. "Khepra in his boat is the sun himself, and he is 
sometimes represented with the scarabseus on his head. 


From a very interesting work recently published, en- 
titled From the Hebrides to the Himalayas, by Miss Con- 
stance F. Gordon Cumming, we learn that on Loch Nell 
Moss, between Loch Etive and the Atlantic, and not far 
from Dunstaffhage Castle, near Oban, is a large cairn, 
built of rounded water- worn stones, and surrounded by 
stunted trees. This has been recently excavated, and in 
the heart of the tumulus were found two megalithic 
chambers containing human remains and urns. Also, 
divers white quartz stones, such as various pagan nations 
were wont to bury with their dead, apparently as em- 
blems of purity and indestructibility. These white stones 

1 Serpent Myths of Ancient Bgi/pL By W. R Cooper, F.R.S.L. 
London: Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly. 

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were arranged in pairs, on a ledge of rock projecting 
above the . urns, a single stone being placed at each 
end of the double row; another single white pebble 
was found inside one of the urns. 

A considerable number of similar pebbles of white 
quartz have recently been discovered in various olcT 
British tombs on the Isle of Cambrae, as also within 
the Sacred Circle on the Isle of Man, a circle, by the 
way, which from time immemorial has been held in such 
reverence that to this day the Parliament of the island is 
there convened. These pebbles were also found in most 
of the old tombs recently excavated in the neighbourhood 
of Dundee ; in fact, so frequent was their presence, that 
it was common for the workmen employed in excavating 
to exclaim, " Here are the two stones ; now we will get 
the bones." Rock crystal is sometimes found in lieu of 
the white quartz. 

Dr. W. F. Cumming says that he found several graves 
thus strewed with white pebbles near the temple of Deir, 
the capital of Nubia, above the second cataract of the 
Nile. In several tumuli also at Dundee, Inverary, 
Lctcombe Castle, in Berks, and Maiden Castle, near 
Weymouth, there have been found conical stones of 
white quartz, each in connection with human remains, 
and precisely similar to those found in the excavations 
of Nineveh, which are now to be seen in the British 
Museum, the only difference being that the latter are 
covered with inscriptions and representations of serpents 
and of the sun and moon. 1 

" About three miles on the other side of Oban is Glen 
Feochan. Here lies a huge serpent-shaped mound, the 
very existence of which, strange to say, was utterly 
unknown to the scientific world till discovered by Mr. 
Phen6, and by him revealed to the Antiquarian Society 
in the summer of 1871. Being in Oban soon afterwards, 

1 These conical stones have the same signification as the Obelisk 
or Column. They relate to the Life-giving powers of Nature, and are 
indicative of the eternal life of the souls of the departed, whose 
bodies lie interred in the graves where these stones are found. 


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we lost no time in setting forth in search of the monster. 
Half-an-hour's drive brought us to the shores of Loch 
Nell, beyond which Ben Cruachan proudly rears her 
triple crest, standing in dark relief against the delicate 
white vapours which cling to her so lovingly, sometimes 
veiling, sometimes crowning, the stately queen, as they 
float around her with ceaseless motion. 

" The carriage road winds along the shore and through 
broken, humraocky grouud, in some places clothed with 
grass, in others with heather and bracken ; and but for 
the presence of one of the few initiated who had fortuuately 
accompanied us, we should assuredly have passed close 
below the heathery mound which forms the serpent's 
tail (in fact, the road has been cut right across the 
tip of it) without ever suspecting that it differed from 
the surrounding moorland. This vast serpent-mound 
rises very conspicuously from the flat grassy plain, which 
stretches for some distance on either side, with scarcely 
an undulation save two artificial circular mounds, in one 
of which lie several large stones forming a cromlech. 
These circles are situated a short distance to the south, 
to the right of the serpent. 

" Finding ourselves thus unconsciously in the very pre- 
sence of the Great Dragon, we hastened to improve our 
acquaintance, and in a couple of minutes had scrambled 
on to the ridge which forms his backbone, and thence 
perceived that we were standing on an artificial mound 
three hundred feet in length, forming a double curve, a 
huge letter S, and wonderfully perfect in anatomical 
outline. This we perceived the more perfectly on 
reaching the head, which lies at the western end, whence 
diverge small ridges, which may have represented the 
paws of the reptile. On the head rests a circle of stones, 
supposed to be emblematic of the solar disk, and exactly 
corresponding with the solar circle as represented on the 
head of the mystic serpents of Egypt and Phoenicia, and 
in the Great American Serpent Mound. At the time of 
Mr. Phenes first visit to this spot there still remained in 
the centre of this circle some traces of an altar, which, 

VOL.' I. 3 

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thanks to the depredations of cattle and herd-boys, have 
since wholly disappeared. The people of the neighbour- 
hood have an old tradition that in remote ages this was 
a place of public execution, and, from various analogies 
in the customs of other nations, it seems likely enough 
that this was the case, and that this wild glen may have 
been to many the Valley of the Shadow of Death, 
whether their lives were taken judicially or offered in 

" The circle was excavated on the 12th October, 1871, 
and within it were found three large stones, forming a 
chamber, which contained burnt human bones, charcoal, 
and chawed hazel nuts. Surely the spirits of our pagan 
ancestors must rejoice to see how faithfully we, their 
descendants, continue to burn our hazel nuts on Hallow 
E'en, their old Autumnal Fire Festival, though our 
modern divination is practised only with reference to 
such a trivial matter as the faith of sweethearts. A flint 
implement was also found, beautifully and minutely ser- 
rated at the edge ; nevertheless, it was at once evident, 
on opening the cairn, that the place had already been 
ransacked, probably in secret, by treasure-seekers, as 
there is no tradition of any excavation for scientific 
purposes having ever been made here. 

" On the removal of the. peat-moss and heather from the 
ridge of the serpent's back, it was found that the whole 
length of the spine was carefully constructed with regu- 
larly and symmetrically placed stones, at such an angle 
as to throw off rain, an adjustment to which we doubtless 
owe the preservation, or, at least, the perfection of this 
most remarkable relic. To those who know how slow is 
the growth of peat-moss, even in damp and undrained 
places, the depth to which it has here attained, though in 
a dry and thoroughly exposed situation, and raised from 
seventeen to twenty feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding moss, tells of many a long century of silent, 
undisturbed growth since the days when the serpents 
spine was the well-worn path daily trodden by reverend 
feet. The spine is, in fact, a long, narrow causeway, 

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made of large stones, set like the vertebrae of some huge 
animal. They form a ridge, sloping off in an angle at 
each side, which is continued downwards with an 
arrangement of smaller stones, suggestive of ribs. The 
mound has been formed in such a position that the 
worshipper standing at the altar would naturally look 
eastward, directly along the whole length of the great 
reptile, and across the dark lake, to the triple peaks of 
Ben Cruachan. This position must have been carefully 
selected, as from no other point are the three peaks 
visible. This reverence for some triune object, whether 
a triple-pointed hill, the junction of three rivers, or the 
neighbourhood of three lakes, seems to have been a 
marked characteristic of almost every ancient faith." 

The Persians of old were wont to reverence the three- 
fold leaves of the shamrock as symbolic of a Divine Triad, 
to whom this plant was consecrated by the sons of Iran, 
for many long centuries ere St. Patrick made use of the 
same green leaf to exemplify the same mystery to the 
sons of Erin, a leaf, moreover, to which they already 
attached some mysterious meaning, regarding it as a 
certain charm against serpents and all venomous reptiles. 
The virtue of the shamrock as a charm against the stings 
of snakes and scorpions has also been recorded by Pliny, 
who declares that the serpent is never seen on trefoil. 

One of the serpent-mounds discovered in North 
America, described by the Messrs. Squier and Davis, 
represents a serpent 700 feet long as he lies with his tail 
curled up into a spiral form, and his mouth gaping to 
swallow an egg 160 feet long by 60 feet across, (^er- 
gusson Rude Stone Monuments, 515.) At the Edin- 
burgh meeting of the British Association, in 1871, Mr. 
Phen6 gave an account of his discovery in Argyleshire of 
a similar mound several hundred feet long, and about 15 
feet high by 30 feet broad, tapering gradually to the tail, 
the head being surrounded by a circular cairn, which he 
supposes to answer to the solar disc above the head of 
the Egyptian Urseus or Araius, the position of which, 
with head-crest, answers to the form of the Oban serpent- 


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mound. All the great myths are manifold in meaning, 
and replete with complex significations, j 

Mr. Phen6, likewise, found several /other serpent- 
mounds, surrounded with so-called Druidical remains, 
among the Eildon and Arran hills. All these are more 
or less akin to the reptile mounds discovered by Messrs. 
Squierand Laphara, always in connection with sacrificial 
or sepulchral remains. The position of the altar in the 
circle or oval at the head of the serpent is identical with 
that of the Argyleshire mound, the head in each case lying 
towards the west. The American mound is, however, on 
a larger scale than its Scotch cousin, being altogether a 
thousand feet long. It points towards three rivers, thus 
indicating the reverence for the triple symbol — another 
instance of which occurs on the hill known as Lapham's 
Peak, on whose lofty summit three artificial mounds 
were found, carefully constructed of stone and earth — 
materials which must have been transported thither with 
very great labour. 

According to Stukely, there were formerly in his time, 
1723, two wavy serpentine avenues forming the Ophite 
symbol, at the great temple of Avebury in Wiltshire, but 
were more perfect in his time than they are now, many 
great stones having been broken up by the farmers in 
his time, and the work of destruction still continuing 
mercilessly when Deane wrote in 1830. 

In the British Isles there are comparatively few traces 
to be found of serpent worship : yet, considering how com- 
monly the adoration of the sun and serpent are linked to- 
gether, and that both are said to have been reverenced by 
the Druids, it is worthy of note that, till within the last 
century, all manner of customs for the good of crops were 
kept up on the days which in olden times were observed 
as sun-festivals. 

Perhaps the most interesting trace that still remains 
to us of the midsummer homage to the sun, is a custom 
which, for ages unknown, has been observed at Stone- 
henge, and which acquires double importance in these 
days, when this, and all kindred buildings, arc set down 



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as being either merely sepulchral, or else the memorials 
of old battles. Mr. William Beck writes, that every 
year, on the 21st of June, a number of people assemble 
on Salisbury Plain, at 8 a.m. in the chill of early dawn, 
and make for the circles of Stonehenge, from the centre 
of which, looking north-east, a block of stone, set at some 
distance from the ruin, is so seen that its top coincides 
with the line of the horizon, and if no mist prevail, the 
sun as it rises on this, the longest day of the year, will 
be seen coming up exactly over the centre of the stone, 
known from this circumstance as the Pointer. Mr. Beck 
has himself repeatedly witnessed this interesting proof of 
the solar arrangement of the circles of Stonehenge; has 
watched the sun thus come up over the Pointer, and 
strike its first ray through the central entrance to the so- 
called altar-stone of the ruin. He points out how this 
huge stone is set at such an angle that at noon it marks 
the shadow like the gnomon of a sun-dial. 


" One of the most common superstitions in the Heb- 
rides is the practice of the Deisul, that is, a turn south- 
ward, following the course of the sun, such as the custom 
of rowing a boat sunwise at first starting, or of walking 
thrice sunwise' round any person to whom one wishes 
good luck. At the new year, when the sun begins its 
yearlyrevolution, a cow's hide used to be carried thrice 
rouDd the house, following the course of the sun. 

" The word deisul is derived from deas, 1 the right hand, 
and sul, the sun ; the right hand being always kept next 
to that object round which the turn was made. I believe 
deas literally means the south, which lies on the right 
hand when the face looks eastward ; but the word is used 
to denote everything which is right and well doing. The 
Gaelic for east is ear, from eiridh, to rise. West, on the 
contrary, is iar, after. A person turning against the 

1 In Welsh, Sunday is called Dydd Sul; the right hand, Defoulaw; 
and the South, Deheu. 

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course of the sun faces the west, and everything goes un- 
lucky. / His right hand will then be to the north, tuath, 
and the very word tuathaisd denotes a stupid person; 
hence the words deisul and tuaitliail are in Gaelic equi- 
valent to right and wrong. 

" This contrary turn from right to left was called tua- 
phol, or widdershins, or cartvctrsul ; and by the Latins, 
sinistrorum. Thus evil-doers and malignant witches 
began the devil's work by so many turns against the 
course of the sun. 

" Some idea of the mysterious virtues attached to these 
sunwise turns may, perhaps, be the reason that the Jews, 
in several different countries, thus march seveu times 
round their newly-coffined dead. The same customs 
were common to the Greeks, Romans and the ancient 
Gauls. Virgil mentions them among the funeral rites of 
Pallas, when the mourners first marched thrice in sad 
procession round the funeral pile, then mounting their 
steeds, again made the same sad circuit three times amid 
wails of sorrow. 

" Among the Santhals (aborigines of India) the corpse is 
carried thrice round the funeral pyre, and laid thereon ; 
the next of kin then makes a torch of grass, and after 
walking three times round the pile in silence, touches the 
mouth of the deceased with the flaming brand, averting 
his own face. After this the friends and kindred gather 
round, all facing the south, and set fire to the pyre. The 
same ceremony is observed by every devout Hindu. In 
the days of Suttee, now happily gone by, the wretched 
young widow must thus go thrice sunwise round the 
funeral pyre whereon lay the body of her deceased hus- 
band, before she ventured to lie down beside him to 
await her horrible death. I have myself often watched, 
either the Brahmins or the nearest relations of the dead, 
walk thrice sunwise round the funeral pyre before they 
applied the torch. In their pilgrimage around the holy 
city of Benares, and other places of pilgrimage, they fol- 
low the same course. With them, however, this homage 
to the sun is a natural part of their daily worship, where- 


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in he is adored as the true light of Brahma, filling earth 
and heaven, the foe of darkness, the destroyer of every 
sin. Therefore the worshipper bqws to the great cause 
of day, and making a turn towards the south, exclaims, 
4 1 follow the course of the sun. As he in his course 
moves through the world by the way of the south, so do 
I, following him, obtain the merit of a journey round the 
world by way of the south/ The devout Mohammedan 
completes his meritorious pilgrimage to Mecca by making 
the circuit of the Caaba seven times sunwise. 

" At our own tables, the bottles are always sent round 
following the course of the sun, and to reverse their jour- 
ney has always been held unlucky. Should a bottle be 
thoughtlessly diverted from its course, a true Highlander 
will turn it round before sending it on. 

44 A screw and all machinery is made to turn sunwise. 

* There is also a strong prejudice against burying the 
dead on the north side of a church, due to the same reve- 
rence for the sun (the source of all purity and light); 
towards whose rising the sleepers were to look as they 
lay with their feet turned eastward. The abode of the 
evil spirit lay to the north, away from the sun's gracious 
influences. Hence the crowd of graves invariably found 
on the south side of almost every country churchyard 
throughout the kingdom. Another curious custom of the 
Highlands is, that before the coffin leaves the house, a 
couple of chairs are laid on the ground, and the coffin is 
set standing across them. When it is raised, the chairs 
are kicked over, to symbolize that the dead has no fur- 
ther use for anything on earth. 

" A striking analogy exists between the symbols consi- 
dered sacred in the planetary worship of Ceylon and 
those which we find sculptured on the ancient monoliths 
of Great Britain ; stones which we believe to be relics of 
a faith almost identical with the Bali. Not only do we 
find elaborately carved crescents, discs, double wheels, 
and crowns linked together by a royal sceptre, such as 
might naturally suggest themselves as emblems of the 
sun, but we also find fish, geese, serpents, and highly 


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idealised elephants and camels, the three last-named 
being creatures which would scarcely have presented 
themselves to the minds of our ancestors, had not some 
tradition of these unknown forms reached them from the 
eastern world. It is, therefore, very remarkable to find 
that the elephant, the crescent, and the goose, are sacred 
symbols in common use on the sculptures of Ceylon. It 
is also remarkable that another emblem found on these 
stones, namely, the figure of a man cutting the throat of 
a bull, should be identical with the symbol of the Persian 
sun-god, Mithras." 1 


We find there are traces of the worship of the sun still 
in existence at Llandegla, where the epileptic patient is, 
or was, directed to go three times sunwise round the 
Holy Well there, where he was to wash himself and cast 
in an offering. He was then to carry a cock thrice sun- 
wise round the well, and thrice round the church, and 
was himself to lie all night beneath the Communion 
Table, with his head resting on the Bible. 


It w r as customary for the Highlanders in the beginning 
of the present century to meet on the moors on the 
1st of May, and after cutting a round table in- the green 
sod, by digging such a trench round it as to allow of 
their sitting in a great circle, to kindle a fire in the 
middle, and cook a mess of eggs and milk, which all 
shared. Then they baked oat-cakes, a bit for each per- 
son present, and one bit was burnt black. These cakes 
were shuffled in a man's bonnet, and each person, blind- 
fold, drew one. Whoever got the black bit, had to leap 
three times through the flames. The original meaning 
of which was that he became a sacrifice to Baal, and 
doubtless, in old days was actually offered up ; the object 

1 From the Hebrides to the Himalaya*, by Miss Gordon dimming. 

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being to secure the favour of the sun-god, and conse- 
quently a good harvest. 

The circular trench was, of course, only another form 
of the same symbolism as the Druidic stone circles, 
within which the fires of Baal were continually kept 
burning. A curious proof of this is, the fact recorded 
by the Lady Baird, of Fern Tower, in Perthshire, that 
every year at Beltane, a number of men and women 
assembled at an ancient circle of stones on her property 
near Creiff, and, having lighted a fire in the centre, as 
their forefathers had been accustomed to do from time 
immemorial, proceeded to draw lots for the burnt oat- 
cake as described above, he who drew it having straight- 
way to leap through the flames. A strangely unmean- 
ing ceremony if, as some learned men would have us 
believe, these circles are merely sepulchral, but very sug- 
gestive indeed, if we are content to accept the traditions 
of our fathers of their having been the temples on whose 
altars unhallowed fire was wont to burn. 

In some districts the shepherds varied the Beltane 
festival. They cut the circular trench and kindled a fire 
like their neighbours, and after marching thrice deas-sul 
round the fire, they sat in a great circle, aud shared the 
mess of eggs, milk and oat-meal, pouring out part thereof 
as a libation to the spirits. This done, they each took a 
piece of oat-cake, specially prepared for the occasion, 
each cake having upon it nine raised nobs of mystic 
meaning. This they cast into the fire, dedicating it to 
the eagle, the gled, the weasel, the fox, the brock, and all 
other baneful creatures, who were thus bribed to spare 
the flocks. 

" In the mysteries, cakes were made in different shapes 
and patterns. A pyramid-shaped cake was one, other 
cakes were made with many knobs or bosses. The former 
represented the male, and the latter the female principle, 
and corresponded with the Syrian cakes offered to the 
Queen of Heaven/' 

It is still the custom in Perthshire for the cow-herd of 
the village to go his rounds on May morning collecting 

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fresh egg* and meal, and then to Lead the way to some 
Hill top, where a hole is deg and a fire lirtited therein ; 
then lota are cast, and he on whom the loc iLls misc leap 
seven times over the fire, while the y^irg f--Ik dance 
round in a circle. Then they cook their ec^s and cakes, 
and all "s:t down to eat and drink and rise up to play* 7 . 
Besi les this they had a maypole decorated with Cowers, 
round which they bid circular dunces. 

At the vilbge of Holne, on Dartmoor in Devonshire, 
it is the custom for the youn^ men of the village to 
assemble before daybreak on May morning in a field 
sloping to face the east, where stands a mystic granite 
pillar or iiaen Hir. Thence they all proceed together 
to the moor, where they run down a fine young ram, and 
bringing it iu triumph to the ilaen Hir, there cut its 
throat, and roast it whole — skin, wool, and alL At mid- 
day they return thither with all the village lasses to 
celebrate the ram fea3t, and a grand struggle takes place 
for a slice of the ram, a taste of which is supposed to 
bring luck for the year to lad or lass* Then wrestling 
and other game3 commence, with abundant cider, and 
dancing is kept up till midnight A similar festival 
was observed by the ancient Persians at this season ; 
that is, when the sun entered the sign of Aries (the 
Ram). 1 This animal supplied the favourite Dionysiak 
sacrifice. Dionysos is sometimes represented on vases 
reclining on a ram.* 


It is the custom to this day in many parts of France 
to have bon-fires on this day, and to put a number of live 
cats into a large wicker-basket, which was thrown into 
one of the bon-fires. This, and the great figures of 
wicker-work and canvas, which are or were annually 
made at Douay and Dunkirk, and moved about by men 
concealed within them, are obviously traceable to that 

1 From the Hebrides to the Himalaya*. 

2 The Great Dionysiak Myth. 

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colossal figure of which Caesar, Strabo, and Pliny have 
left descriptions. 

In Yorkshire, also, some of the old customs still linger. 
I believe that at Brimham Crags, near Harrogate, the Mid- 
summer-Eve bonfires still blaze as they have done from 
time immemorial. It is a rocky hill-side, covered with 
Druidical remains, and was one of the strongholds of the 
old faith. Its name is said to be a contraction of Beth- 
Rimmon, under which name the ancient Irish worshipped 
the sun, moon, and stars collectively. 

That the Bell of the Druids was identical both with 
Baal and the Moloch of the Ammonites (Dionysos Mel- 
guarth) is evident, from every allusion in Holy Scripture 
to the idolatries of the Jews ; of whom we are told again 
and again how they made groves, and set up images under 
every green tree and on every high hill, and worshipped 
all the host of heaven, and served Baal, or reared up altars 
for Baal. Also, how they caused their sons and their 
daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination, 
and enchantment, and witchcrafts, and dealt with familiar 
spirits and wizards ; and how, even in the Temple of 
Solomon, men knelt between the porch and the altar, 
with their faces towards the east, and worshipped the sun 
toward the east (Ezek. viii, 1 6). 

On the other hand, the reverence with which the holy 
fire was guarded in this and many other lands seems 
almost like the tradition of the worship of Israel, of that 
Altar of the Most High, whereon the fire was, by divine 
command, to be kept " for ever burning", never to be 
put out or suffered to go out. 1 It was carelessness con- 
cerning the sacred flame which cost the sons of Aaron so 
dear, when they ventured to offer incense before the Lord 
with strange Jive, which He commanded them not, so 
that there went out fire from the Lord and devoured them. 
(Lev. vi, 13 ; Lev. x, 1.) 

We find also that the worship of the Serpent was prac- 

1 This cult is exactly the same as that of Dionysos Stylos at Tyre 
and Gades, or Cadiz. In these temples no images are allowed. 

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tised by the Israelites, for when numbers of that chosen 
people had been slain by pestilence in the wilderness, 
Moses, by the command of the Most High, set up the 
image of a pendant Brazen Serpent upon an Upright 
Pole or Stauros, in order that by worshipping the serpent 
they might be healed, and their numbers replenished. 
A Serpent twines round the staff upon which Askldpios 
(iEsculapius) rests himself. 

The night of the 1st of November was sacred to the 
God Sanin, Zanan, or Samhan. It was a night for special 
intercession by the living for the souls of those who had 
died in the preceding year. For the office of Samhan 
was to jiulge these souls, and either award them their 
place of reward or punishment. He was also called Bal 
Sab, or Lord of Death. At this harvest festival he only 
needed offerings of the fruits of the earth ; and his name, 
Samhein or Samtheine, or Samtein, denotes peace-fire. 

On the 25th of December, when the shortest day was 
past, the great winter festival called Yule was celebrated, 
to mark the turn of the year — the new birth of the Sun. 
It was a day of solemn worship and a night of feasting. 
Fires blazed on every hill, which were re-kindled on the 
twelfth night subsequent to Yule. All manner of sacred 
plants were cut, more especially the ivy, the mistletoe, 
and the fir-tree. 

In Persia and Babylon this day was held in high 
honour ; and in the latter country it was sacred to Rhea 
and Nin, the latter being the Child of the Sun by a 
human mother. That mother was Semiramis the Great 
Queen, who was called the Spouse of the Sun and Queen 
of Heaven, and taught the people to reverence her son 
accordingly, just as the Christians represent the Virgin 
Mary, the human mother of Jesus Christ. 

The custom of having a fir-tree as a Christmas-tree, is 
traceable to the remotest antiquity. The Chaldeans on 
this day worshipped their new-born god, under this sym- 
bol, as Baal-berith, or berith, i.e., the Lord of the Fir- 
tree or the Covenant. 

The fir is one of the trees particularly sacred to the 


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Sun as Helios Dionysos, who "flames with the beaming 
fir-torch", which he bears on his thyrsos. (Oid. Tyr., 214.)- 

The name of Yule is said to be derived from the Arabic 
" Yul", the day of revolution of the Sun. The Norse Yol 
and Icelandic Hoil bear much the same meaning, and 
here we have the very name, Haul in Welsh, Heul in 
Cornish, and Heol in Briton, under which the ancient 
Britons worshipped the Sun-God, Helios. 1 

Captain Burnaby, during his last u ride", passed through 
a Persian village, where every evening, the people all 
turn out to watch the sun sink slowly to rest below the 
horizon. They assured the traveller that there was no 
idea of worship in this custom ; they only do it because 
their forefathers did it from time hn memorial. 

Bryant says (vol. i, p, 284) : — 

u The worship of Ham, or the sun, as it was the most an- 
cient, so it was the most universal of any in the world. It 
was the first prevailing religion of Greece, and was promul- 
gated over all the sea-coast of Europe, from whence it extended 
itself into the inland provinces. It was established in Gaul 
and Britain, and was the original religion of this island, which 
the Druids in after times adopted. 

" Throughout the ancient world, the birth of the god Sol, 
personified as Bacchus, Osiris, Heracles, Dionysos, Adonis, 
etc., was celebrated on December 25th, and on this day the 
Christian Church says that Jesus Christ was born. The Egyp- 
tian Christians say that the right season was in January. 
"VVagenseil thought February or August, but inclined to the 
latter. Bochart was for March. Some good Christians men- 
tioned by Clement Alexandrinus placed his birthday in April, 
and others in May. Epiphanius states that some other Chris- 
tians say that Jesus was born in June or July ; Lightfoot says 
September 15th ; Scaliger, Casaubon, and Calvisius are for 
October; several others put it in November. The Latin 
Church decided on December 25th. This was decreed by Pope 
Julius I, in 337, and he fixed it on the same day that the 
ancient Romans celebrated the feast of their goddess Pomona, a 
festival much observed by the heathen world in the winter 
solstice. It would appear, however, as if December could lay 

even less claim to this honour than most of the other months 


1 From the Hebrides to tJie Himalayas, by Miss Gordon Camming. 


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suggested, inasmuch as the rainy season in Jadaa being then 
at its height, the shepherds would probably betake themselves 
to their homes, rather than watch all night in the open 
fields." 1 

At the winter solstice, when the sun was at its lowest 
point, and when the days, being at their shortest, were 
about to begin to lengthen again, the form in which the 
sun was .adored was that of childhood. The birth of 
the god of day was celebrated in the mysteries at that 
time on the 25th of December, and the image of the 
newly-born god, which was taken from the recesses of 
the sanctuary or grotto, where he had just been born — 
from the sanctuary of the Virgin Isis in Egypt, from 
the mystic cave of Mithra in Persia — and presented to 
the people. 2 

This child was born at the same time as the solar year, 
which began at that time at the first instant of the first 
day — that is, at midnight — among several nations, at 
which period our day also begins. The astrologer-priests, 
or Magi, cast the horoscope of this young child, as they 
did that of all other children, at the precise moment of 
their birth. They consulted the state of the sky called 
the horoscope — that is, the sign of the zodiac which 
ascends on the eastern horizon at the moment of birth. 
The nativity was cast by the aid of one of these elemeuts. 
That sign was three or four thousand years ago the con- 
stellation of the celestial virgin, which by its ascension 
on the horizon, presided over the birth of the god of day, 
and appeared to produce him from her virgin side. Both 
the Magi and the Egyptian priests sang the birth of the 
god of light and of day, who was incarnate in the bosom 
of a virgiu, who had begotten him without ceasing to be 
a virgin and without having known a man. The repre- 
sentation of the new-born god of day was drawn in the 
sphere in the arms of the constellation under which he 
was born, and all the images of the celestial virgin, which 

1 Front tlte Hebrides to the Himalayas. 

2 Mankind, their Origin and Destiny, by a M.A. of Baliol College, 
Oxford. London : Longmans aud Co., 1872. 

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were exhibited to the people, represented her as she is iu 
the sphere, suckling the mystic child which was to destroy 
evil, to confound the prince of the darkness of Winter, to 
regenerate nature, and to reign over the universe. 1 

Macrobius (Satumial, i, 1, cap. xviii) gives a descrip- 
tion of the mysteries in which the Sun, i.e., Apollon, 
Bacchus or Dionysos, was represented as dying, descending 
to hades or hell, and rising again. He says : — 

"The images or statues of Bacchus (i.e., the sun), repre- 
sent him sometimes as a child, sometimes as a young man, 
at other times as a full-grown man with a beard, and lastly, 
with the wrinkles of old age, just as the Greeks represent the 
god whom they call Baccaheus and Breseis, and as the Neapo- 
litans in Campania draw the god whom they honour under the 
name of Hebon. These different ages relate to the sun, which 
appears to be a tender infant at the winter solstice, just as the 
Egyptians represent him on a certain day when they bring up 
the image of a child from the bottom of their caves, because, 
the days being then at their shortest, this god appears to be 
no more than a feeble child. Increasing afterwards, he arrives 
at the vernal equinox in the shape of a young and vigorous 
man, whose features the images also represent ; then he arrives 
at maturity, marked by the thick bristly beard which he wears 
in the images which represent him at the summer solstice, 
when the day has increased in length as much as it can. 
Lastly, he decreases after the 24th June insensibly, and 
attains old age (Hades)." 

" Greek art represented the Egyptian Isis as a beautiful 
woman nursing the infant Horus ; and Mr. Sharpe in his His- 
tory of Egypt, tells us that when the worship of Isis was 
interdicted at Rome, and that of Christianity established in 
its place, the painters, who had hitherto got their livings by 
painting pictures of Isis and Horus, still continued to paint 
the same pictures of the Virgin Isis and child, calling them 
now Mary and the Infant Jesus. The old mythological taint 
still continues, and I have before we while writing a beauti- 
fully coloured picture of the Virgin Mary, accompanied with 
a large lunette, or curved moon, or ship symbol." — J. W. Lake. 

Isis is generally represented as a beautiful woman, 
standing on the crescent moon, nursing the infant Horus, 
and holding two stalks of wheat in her right hand. 

1 Mankind, their Origin and Destiny. 


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" Plutarch tells us that in the mysteries of Isis and Osiris, the 
image of a dead man was carried about in an ark or small boat 
of a lunette form, which served him as a coffin. This person 
was Osiris, and this interment they viewed as the disappear- 
ance of the deity, and the lamentations occasioned by his being 
dead or lost constituted the first part of the mysteries. After- 
wards, on the third day subsequent to his enclosure within the 
ark, a procession went down to the Nile at night, the priests 
bearing the sacred ark. Iuto this they poured water from the 
river, and when this rite had been duly performed, they raised 
a shout of joy, exclaiming that the lost Osiris had been found, 
that the dead Osiris had been restored to life, that he who had 
descended into Hades had risen again and returned from 
Hades. The exultation in which they now indulged, consti- 
tuted the second or joyful part of the mysteries. Hence ori- 
ginated those watchwords used by the Mystre : ' We have 
found him, let us rejoice together/' The ancient mysteries had 
their celebration prohibited by law by the Emperor Theodo- 
sius in the fourth century. 

"The Egyptians had two yearly festivals, in the one of 
which they celebrated the entrance of Osiris, the sun, into the 
moon, Isis; and in the other, his entrance into that ark in 
which he was enclosed by Typhon, and thus set afloat upon 
Oceanus, or the Nile. But, according to Plutarch, this ark 
was itself a navicular moon. These terms simply imply the 
conjunction of the sun and moon, or as we say now, the new 
moon of the spring and the autumnal equinox. The first took 
place in the sign of Taurus or the Bull, hence the worship of 
the bull, and the representation of Isis as a cow; the latter 
in the sign Scorpio, the emblem of Typhoon (winter), or the 
Destroyer. 01 

Macrobius quotes Aristoteles, Euripedes, Aischylos, and 
others, as showing by many arguments that " Apollo and 
Liber (Bacchus) were one and the same god"; and then 
says that the sun was Liber ; aud Orpheus writes in this 
verse, (Frag, iv) : — 

" The sun whom men call Dionysos as a surname"; 
and again, 

" One Zeus, one Aides, one Helios, one Dionysos." 

The Oracle of Apollo Klarios, having been asked which 
1 Mythology of (he Arl\ by J. W. Lake, Esq. 

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of the gods should he who is called Iao be considered to 
be, replied thus : — 

" Know that of gods who exist, the highest of all is Iao, 
He is Aides in winter, and Zeus of the coming spring time, 
Helios in summer heat, and in autumn the graceful Iao." 

Cornelius Laber has explained in his work Concerning 
the Oracle o/Apollon Klarios. In the Orphik verse the 
four variant phases of the one great divinity are Zeus, 
Aides, Helios, and Iao, which is thus represented as the 
equivalent of Dionysos, the Lord of the changing seasons. 

And Thomson, in his work on The Seasons, says, — 

" These as they roll. Almighty Father, these, 
Are but the varied God. 

In the mythology of each of the four most important 
of the Aryan races, viz., the Aryans of India, of Persia, of 
Greece, and of Italy, one Deity is most conspicuous. He 
is always the chief, the ruling, the organising, and su- 
preme God. Among the Italians he is Jupiter, among 
the Greeks, Zeus ; with the Persians he is Ahura Mazda, 
and with the Indians he is Varuna. Jupiter is but 
Jus-pater ; the Zeus-pater of the Helenes, and the Dyaus- 
pitar of the Indians. The Greek conception, again, is in 
every respect one with the Persian Ahura Mazda — 
Ormuzd, and the Indian Varuna. Each is invested with 
the same attributes ; each possesses the same powers ; 
each originally is supreme and without compeers. Each . 
is the divine creator, the god of the heavens, the supreme 
judge, the omniscient lord, and the ruler of the material 
universe. The Varuna of the Vedas is phonetically the 
"Ouranos" (i.e., Zeus) of the Greeks. The union of 
Zeus-pater with Ddmkfer finds its literal and actual 
parallel in the Vedic union of Dyaus-pitar with Prithivi- 
matar, the heaven father and the earth mother. Even 
in the mystic conception of Ahura Mazda among the 
Persians, his naturalistic and original conception is seen 
in the ancient invocations which invariably call upon 
him as a luminous God, the God of the phenomenal 

VOL. i. 4 

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heaven. 1 "That which is One the wise call it in divers 
manners : they call it Agni (Ignis, fire), Varna, Indra, 
Varuna." 2 > 

As few brachycephalic skulls have been found in 
Wales, as far as I am at present aware of, we may 
imagine that our ancestors were not invaded or con- 
quered by the Celts; and also, from what has been 
already stated, that we must have been in quiet pos- 
session of our country till we were conquered by the 
Romans. This event occurred in the reign of the 
Emperor Nero, when, after the victory gained by Sue- 
tonius Paulinus over Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni (a 
Celtic people inhabiting Norfolk and Suffolk) in A.D. 
61, the Roman forces (and among them was the xx 
Legion) were marched to Mona, the chief seat of the 
Druids, to reduce that island to obedience. On their 
march through Teyrnllwg, or Gwlad Powys, i.e., Powys- 
land, they were encountered by the Ordo vices, who cut 
off one wing of their army. After his successful expe- 
dition into Mona, Agricola determined to fix a garrison 
upon a spot near the mouth of the river Dyvrdwy, which 
he determined to make the head-quarters of the xx 
Legion, which was called also Valeria and Victrix; 
and at the same time to found a colony, which received 
the name of Colonia Devana. This is proved by a coin 
of Septimus Geta, son of Severus, which was thus in- 
scribed: Col. Devana. Leg. xx. Victrix. 1 

After the conquest of Britain, Julius Agricola and the 
Emperor Severus introduced the arts and sciences of 
Rome into the island ; and Agricola no sooner received 
the command, than he effected a strict discipline among 
his troops, and treated the conquered tribes with justice 
and moderation, so that the whole island was at peace, 
and the natives, who had formerly hated and feared the 
Roman name, now began to admire and imitate the 

1 See Contemporary Review, on " The Supreme God", by M. Dar- 
mesteter, Oct. 1879. * Rig-Veda, i, 164, 46. 

a Pennant's Tour, i, p. 147. 



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superior civilisation and refined manners of their con- 

" The Britons", says Tacitus, " are a people who pay 
their taxes and obey the laws with pleasure, provided 
that no arbitrary and illegal demands be made upon 
them; but these they cannot bear without the greatest 
impatience, for they are only reduced to the state of 
subjects, not of slaves." The Colonia Devana was 
called by the Britons "Caer Lleon Gawr", and Caer 
Lleon ar Ddyfrdwy, to distinguish it from Caer Lleon 
ar Wysg in Monmouthshire, in the ancient kingdom of 
the Essyllwyr, or Silures, and it is now called Chester by 
the English. 

The xx Legion was recalled from Britain previous to 
a.d. 445, as it is not mentioned in the Notitia, a work 
that was composed about that year; but it is supposed 
to have been withdrawn from Chester before the retreat 
of the Romans from this island, as its name has been 
found at Bath amongst the latest inscriptions there. 
After the final abdication of Britain by the Roman 
legions, a.d. 448, Chester and Powys-land fell under the 
government of the Britons. 

No sooner, however, had the Romans withdrawn their 
armies, than the Picts and Scots, who had hitherto been 
kept in check, renewed their incursions on a larger scale, 
and the Britons, we are informed by Gildas, were reduced 
to the greatest state of wretchedness and misery. In a 
letter written to -5£tius, the Roman commander in Gaul, 
in 446, the Britons are desciibed as sheep, and the Picts 
and Scots as wolves. The miserable Britons complain to 
iEtius that "The barbarians drive us back to the sea; 
the sea drives us back again to perish at the hands of the 
barbarians"; and also plead "that if succour should not 
be sent them, the name of Rome would be dishonoured." 
However, in the followiug year, Gildas informs lis that 
the Britons left their houses and lands, and taking shelter 
in mountains, caves, and forests, succeeded in driving 
back their enemies, the Picts and Scots. 

In 449 the English, under Hengist, landed with his 

4 2 

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army in the Isle of Thanet, in Kent, and after having 
conquered the south-eastern, central, and northern parts 
of Lloegria, they marched, in 607, through Staffordshire, 
towards Powyd, and then, or according to other accounts, 
in 613, fought the battle of Chester, in which they de- 
feated the Britons, and destroyed the monastery of 
Bangor-is-y-Coed. By this victory, the English first 
acquired territories on the coasts of the Irish Sea, and 
the kingdoms of Strathclyde and Elmet were severed 
from Wales. Chester was so thoroughly destroyed that 
it remained in ruins for nearly three centuries, to be 
rebuilt by ^Ethelfloeda, "the Lady of the Mercians", in 
907, and the plains of Lancashire lay open to the invader. 1 

Coesar tells us that the chief priests of the Britons were 
called Druids, and they believed in the transmigration of 
souls, believing that souls do not perish, but after death 
pass into other bodies.* In times of danger, they sought 
to propitiate the Deity by offering him human sacrifices, 
for which purpose they constructed enormous images of 
wicker-work, and filled them with living men, who were 
then destroyed by fire. The cult, therefore, of the ancient 
Britous appears to have been very similar to that of the 
Tyrians and Karthaginians, who worshipped Kronos and 
Baal Moloch. 

"The Rabbins assure us", says Calmet, "that the image of 
Baal Moloch, or the Lord Moloch, was of brass, sitting upon 
a throne of the same metal, adorned with a royal crown, 
having the head of a calf, and his arms extended as if to 
embrace anyone. Others relate that the idol was hollow, 
and within it were contained seven partitions, one of 
which was appointed for meal or flour, in the second 
there were turtles, in the third an ewe, in the fourth 
a ram, in the fifth a calf, in the sixth an ox, and in the 
seventh a child. All these were burnt together by heat- 
ing the statue outside/' So Diodorus writes of the cult 
at Karthada : "There was anion* them a brazen statue of 


1 OVriy Hunting p. 110* This xrork ought to be well studied by 
all Welshmen who have any regard for the past history of their native 
count rv. * See BnJJAist Birth Stories, by Rhys Davids. Triibner. 



Kronos, holding out his hands towards the ground in 
such a manner that the child placed on them, rolled off 
and fell into a certain chasm full of flame/' (Diod., xx, 
14.) And he relates how the Karthaginians sacrificed 
two hundred of their noblest children and three hundred 
other persons to the god when hard pressed by Agathocles 
of Sikelia. The ox-headed Molekh-statue was hollow 
within and heated from below, and the children to be 
sacrificed were cast into its arms. (Gesenius, Ileb. 
Lex., 478.) 

But besides the images of Baal Moloch, which were 
used in the worship of the Druids in the time of Caesar, 
we find also the remains of circular buildings formed by 
monoliths and upright stones, Meini Hirion, stone columns 
and pillars. These stone columns or pillars are fre- 
quently to be met with in the east, and their purpose is 
easily recognized, more especially the wooden emblem, 
which became the Tree of Life, and the Stauros or Cross 
of Osiris. The stauros, or cross, had the same signifi- 
cation exactly as the Tree of Life, the Maen Hir, or 
upright stone, the maypole, obelisk, and pyramid, all 
being emblems of immortality and the life-giving powers 
of God in nature. We learn from the Bible, that when 
many of the Israelites had been killed in the wilderness, 
Moses, their lawgiver, who was learned in all the wisdom 
of the Egyptians, set up a stauros or cross, the Crux 
Ansata, or cross of Osiris, and on it hung a pendent 
brazen serpent, and told his followers to worship that 
emblem and they would be healed and preserved. At 
the town of Pilhom in Egypt, a brazen serpent was re- 
garded as the symbol of that God whom they worshipped 
as the Lord and Giver of Life. 

The story in the bock of Genesis, of the serpent and 
the Tree of Life, with regard to Eve, and its results, is so 
well known that I need not say more on this interesting 
subject at present, than remark, that at the suggestion of 
the serpent, Eve eat some of the apples of the tree, and 
gave unto her husband and he did eat. Cooper, in his 
Serpent Myths of Ancient Egypt, states that the Mystic 


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Apples of the West, in the Hesperian Gardens of Amenti, 
are watched by fire-breathing Araui ; and the Arau (cobra 
di capello) moreover, is always represented in the fem- 
inine form, and is used as a symbol of fecundity. 

More commonly the plain stauros was joined with an 
oval ring, and worn as an amulet. In this form, or in 
that of a ring inclosing a cross of four spokes, this emblem 
is to be found everywhere. In each of these forms the 
ring is distinctly connected with the goddess who repre- 
sents the female power in nature. Finally, the male 
symbol in its physical characteristics suggested the form 
of the serpent, which thus became the emblem of life and 
healing, and as such appears by the side of the Hellenic 
Asclepios, and the brazen crucified serpent venerated by 
the Jewish people, till it was destroyed by Hezekiah. 1 

The Egyptian Tau, or Crux Ansata, joined to the ring 
or circle, was placed in the hands of all the Egyptian 
gods as an emblem of their divinity. 

The vital powers of nature were represented by an up- 
right and oval emblem, and the conjunction of the two 
furnished at once the altar and the ashera or grove. 
Here, at the winter solstice, the women wept and mourned 
for Tammuz, the fair Adonis, "yearly wounded", and 
done to death by the boar of winter. Here also, on the 
third day, they rejoiced at the resurrection of the Lord 
of Light. 1 Payne Knight remarks, that "Homer fre- 
quently speaks of places of worship consisting of an 
area and an altar only. The temples dedicated to the 
creator Bacchus-Dionysos seem to have been anciently of 
the same kind, whence probably came the title Perikionion, 
surrounded with columns, attributed to that god in the 
Orphik Litanies. The god himself also appears as Dion- 
ysos Stylos, the Pillar or Upright Stone. Pliny 2 tells us 
that the earliest monuments, such as upright stones and 
obelisks, were so many monuments dedicated to the 
Sun-god. We here perceive what the cult was that 

1 Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 

2 Jits. JYaf., 6, lxxxvi, cap. viii and ii. 

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was practised in Stonehenge and in all circular buildings 
formed by pillars. 

From the light thrown upon the stone circles, Meini Hi- 
rion, and other memorials of past ages, we may be able to 
find out what was the faith and worship of our remote 
ancestors. Many of their customs we still retain. Some 
of us without knowing their real meaning. We find that 
very frequently stone circles were erected near the graves 
of the departed, and in the centre of the stone circle an 
upright stone, Mein Hir or Monolith. This upright stone, 
or pillar, represented the Deity as the Author and Giver 
of Life, who would guard in the next world the departed 
souls now freed from the prison of their fleshly bodies as 
he had preserved them whilst they were on earth. 

The serpent we know was an emblem of the after life, 
for after putting off its skin it still lives on, as we shall 
do when we leave our bodies of flesh. Many of the cir- 
cular stone temples, as was the case at Stonehenge, had 
serpentine avenues; and the serpent, as we have seen, was 
worshipped also as an emblen of the life-giving power of 
God in nature. 


The Emperor Julian gives the following account, which 
is the most correct that we possess, of the nature of idol 
worship in its origin, and in the primitive intention of 
the inventors of images, (Jul., Imp. Fragm., pp. 537, 
539) :— 

" The statues of the gods, the altars that have been raised 
to them, the sacred fire which is kept up in their honour, and, 
generally speaking, all symbols of this description, have been 
consecrated by our fathers as symbols of the presence of the 
gods, not in order that we should look upon them as gods, but 
that we may honour the gods by means of them. 

" In fact, being ourselves connected with bodies, we ought 
to render a bodily worship to the gods. These gods, them- 
selves incorporeal by their nature, have presented to us their 
first images in the second order of gods, or in those which 
revolve eternally on the vault of heaven. But not being able 
to pay corporeal worship in a direct manner to these first 


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images of the Deity, which by their nature hare no need of it, 
we have established a third order of Gods on the earth in the 
statues and images of the gods, and the worship by which we 
honour them serves to render the gods themselves favourable 
to us. For just as they who revere and honour the statues of 
princes endeavour thereby to win their good-will and their 
favour, although this homage adds nothing to the happiness of 
the princes, so the worship paid to the images of the gods, 
who, by their nature, have no need of it, does not fail to pro- 
cure for him who pays it the favour and protection of these 
same deities. It is the distinguishing mark of a truly religious 

soul to pay eagerly all the honour we can to the Deity 

Although God wants nothing, it does not follow that for that 
reason, man ought not to offer him anything. For if He does 
not stand in need of the honour we pay Him by songs and 
hymns, does it follow that we ought to deprive Him of that 
also ? Neither, therefore, ought we to refuse Him that which 
men pay to Him by the work of their hands, or abolish a wor- 
ship which has been established, not only for three thousand 
years, but from the remotest antiquity, among all the nations 
of the world. 

" We are not so blind as to take the works of our hands for 
gods. Looking at the statues of the gods, therefore, we neither 
consider them as mere wood and stone, nor as being really 
gods. In fact we do not consider the statues of princes as 
mere pieces of wood, as mere masses of stone or of bronze, 
neither do we regard them as being our kings or our princes ; 
but as being their effigies, their images. Whoever loves his 
prince, therefore, sees the representation of him with pleasure; 
the father who loves his son, and the son who loves his father, 
look with pleasure on whatever recalls their features to them. 
For the same reason, he who loves the gods contemplates 
their images and likenesses with pleasure, revering with 
religious awe the invisible gods whose eyes are fixed upon 

"These statues, made by men's hands, can be destroyed, 
but those which the gods have made as living images of their 
invisible substance, those celestial bodies which roll above our 
heads, are incorruptible and eternal images of the Deity. 
Nevertheless, not only the statues of the gods, but their tem- 
ples, their altars, even their priests, deserve our respect/' 

" There is no one," says Celsus, " so foolish and absurd as 
to believe that these things are really gods, and not the symbols 
which we adore in honour of the Deity." 1 In Arnobius, the 

1 Grig. Contra Celt., 1. vii. 

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Pagan says to the Christian : " You deceive yourselves, for we 
do not believe that the brass, the gold, and the silver which 
compose the statues are God, but we serve God in them, and 
we venerate the gods as dwelling in them by means of con- 
secration." 1 

Maximus of Tyre speaks of "the God, the Father and 
Founder of all that exists, older than the sun, older than 
the heavens, greater than all time, than all ages, and 
than all the works of nature! No words can express, 
no eye can see Him. . . . What are we to say 
respecting His images? Only this: Let men under- 
stand that there is but one Divine Nature. Whether 
the art of Phidias preserves His memory among the 
Greeks, or the worship of animals among the Egyptians, 
a river here, or a flame there, I do not blame the variety 
of the representations. Only let men understand that 
there is but One God, only let them love but One, 
only let them preserve but One in their memory/' 

The following passage from Plato's Republic (1. ii) 
also shows that the philosophers were far from admitting 
the possibility of the visible appearance of God. He 
says: "If God were to become metamorphosed, He 
would assume a more or les3 perfect form. Now it is 
ridiculous to say that He can assume a more perfect 
form, for in that case there would be something more 
perfect than God, which is absurd. It is impious to 
admit that He can change Himself into something less 
perfect, for God cannot degrade Himself; besides, He 
would appear in a form other than His own, He would 
lie, because He would appear to be that which He was 
not. We must, therefore, conclude that he remains in 
His own simple form, which is Beauty and Perfection." 

1 L. vi, p. 229, ex. edit. FroL Lact. 1. ii. 

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Cynan Garwyn succeeded his brother Tyssiliaw as King 
of Powys. He gave land to St. Beuno at Meivod, where 
he built a church, which was dedicated to St. Tyssilio. 
Many of the Royal family of Powys were subsequently 
buried in this church. King Cyngen likewise gave land 
to St. Beuno at Gwyddelwern, where he built a church, 
which is placed under Beuno's invocation ; and on his 
death-bed Cynan gave Beuno a sceptre of the value of 
sixty cows. This king had two sons — 1, Selyff Sarff 
Cadau; and 2, Enghenel, who, although but young, 
commanded the British forces under his grandfather 
at the memorable battle of Chester in 612, when they 
were defeated by Ethelfrith, king of Northumberland, 
This prince founded the church of Llanenghenel in Mdn 
in 620. King Cynan had also a daughter, named Avan- 
dred, who was married to Cadvan, king of Gvvynydd. 

In 612 or 613, Cadvan was elected, in a congress of 
Welsh princes held at Caer Lleon (Chester) immediately 
after the defeat of Ethelfrith, to the paramount sove- 
reignty of Britain. Cadvan died in 630, and was buried 
at Eglwys Ael, or Llangadwaladr, in M6n, which is not 
far from his chief residence at Caer Segont, Segontium, 
or Caer yn Ar Von. A monumental stone is still in 
existence, being now used as the lintel of the south door 
of the church of Llangadwaladr, which has the following 
inscription : catamanus bex sapientisimus opinia- 


1 Williams's Eminent Welshmen. 

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Kynan cad gyffred 
Am arlloses ced 
Cynyd gau gogyfed 
Gwrthelgwn tre bred 
Cant armell im arffed 
A phympwnt cathed 
Cleddyf gwein carreg 
Dyrngell no neb 
Cant cynan caffad 
Cas anweled 
Cadellig ystrad 
Cad ynysgoged 
Cad ar wy cyrched 
Gwaywawr ebrifed 
Gwenhwys a ladded 
A llafn gwyarlled 
Cad ym mon mawr teg 
Eglyd moled 
Tra menei myned 
Gorwydd a gworgred 
Cad ynghrug Dymet 
Aercol ar gerdded 
Nac ni ry weled 
Ei biw rhag ffriw neb 
Mab Brochuael broled 

Cant gorwydd cyfred 
Ariant eu tudded 
Cant Hen ehoeg 
nn oflaen gyffred 
Ei ddywed eidduned 
Cernyw cyfarched 
Ni mawl ieu lyuged 
Dystwg angyffred 
Ynyd am ioled 
Myngynnelu o Gynan 
Cadeu er gymman 
Aeleu flam lydan 
Cyfwyrein mawrdan 
Cad yngwlad Brachan 
Cadlan godoran 
Tegyrned truan 
Crinyd rhug Cynan 
Llwryg yn ymwan 
Eissor llyw hoechan 
Cyngen cymangan 
Nerthi ath wlad Lydan 
Ciglen ymddiddan 
Pawb yn y gochfan 
Cylch byd goch gochfan 
Ceithynt dy Gynan. 

In 625, a sanguinary battle was fought between the 
Britons, under the command of Prince Cadwallawn, son 
and heir of Cadvan, King of Britain, on one side, and the 
Saxons, under the command of Edwin, King of Northum- 
berland, on the other, in which Cadwallawn was totally 
defeated. This was called the battle of Digoll, and is 
recorded in the Triads as one of the causes of " the three 
discolourings of the Havren or Severn". From an elegy 
written upon Cadwallawn by Llywarch Hen, that prince 
appears to have been encamped on Cefn Digoll for some 
time : — 

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"Lluest Cadwallawn Glodrudd, 
) Yng ngwarthaf Digol Fynydd 
/ Saith mir a saith gad beunydd." 

The Camp of Cadwallawn the Illustrious, 
On the heights of Digoll Fynydd, 
During seven months seven battles daily. 

In 632, however, Cadwallawn, who had succeeded his 
father, King Cadvan, in 630, totally defeated and slew 
Edwin, who was the first Christian King of Northumber- 
land, at the battle of Hethfeld in Yorkshire. Edwin was 
succeeded by Osrick, who was slain in 634, when he was 
succeeded by Oswald, son of that Ethelfrith, King of 
Northumberland, who had massacred the monks of Bangor 
is y Coed. This Oswald, King of Northumberland, who 
was a Christian convert, attacked Penda, King of Mercia, 
but was defeated and slain by him, and his mangled 
body was exposed on three wooden crosses at a place 
called, in Welsh, Maes Nevawl, and in English, Hevcnfeld, 
but now, in consequence of what happened to King 
Oswald, Oswald's tree or Oswestry. 

In the year 637 Oswald became King in Scotland, and 
upon him also Cadwallawn made war after the others, and 
drove them from the uttermost limits of the land as far as 
the wall which the Emperor Severus made between Britain 
and Scotland. And after that Penda went, and the most 
part of his army with him, to that spot to engage him. 
And while Penda was watching him in the plain called in 
Saxon Hevenfelt, and in Cymric the Heavenly Field, 
Oswald in the night set up there the Cross of the Lord, 
and besought his fellow-knights and companions to say : — 

"Let us bend our knees, and pray to the living God 
Almighty to deliver us from the haughty host of the Britons, 
aud from their accursed king Penda ; for He knows that we 
are fighting rightfully for our nation/' 

And thereupon all of them did as they were besought. 
And so when it became day they met their enemies, and 
because of the merit of their faith they gained the vic- 
tory. And when this was made known to Cadwallawn, 
he was enraged, and gathered a great army and pursued 


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Oswald, and engaged him. On the spot called Bwrne, 
Penda met him and slew him. / 

"And after Oswald was slain, and many /thousands of his 
men with him ; his brother Oswy of the White Brow became 
king in his stead. And he gave much gold and silver to Cad- 

u There is a confusion in the above account which needs 
explanation. It was Edwin, the predecessor of St. Os- 
wald in the kingdom of Northumbria, who was defeated 
and slain, together with his two sons, Offrid and Eadfrid, 
by the joint forces of Penda and Cadwallawn at Heth- 
felth (Hatfield Chase) in Yorkshire, according to the other 
Chroniclers, both British and Saxon, Nennius and A nnales 
Cambria excepted, who say it was at Meigen, or Meiceren, 
in Powysland. After the deaths of Osric and Eaufrid, 
who succeeded, and were slain by Cadwallawn, Oswald 
collected an army, and met Penda and Cadwallawn at 
Denisesburn, near the Roman wall from Tyne to Solway, 
where the former gained a complete victory, and Cad- 
wallawn was left dead upon the field, or fled, as supposed 
by Mr. Skene, with Penda into Wales. Oswald united 
Penda's dominion of Mercia to his own, but the two allied 
monarchs, his opponents, having raised another army, 
met Oswald at Maserfelth, at or in the neighbourhood 
of Oswestry, where the latter was slain. In the account 
here taken from Geoffry of Monmouth, the real facts 
appear to have been veiled with the view to conceal the 
disgrace suffered by their national hero Cadwallawn. The 
place called by him " Bwrne", may be Denisesburn, or 
perhaps the river Vernwy, near the confluence of which 
with the Havren or Severn, at a spot called Codoy, (pro- 
bably the modern Coedway), Oswald is stated by Nen- 
nius to have met with his death. (See the whole subject 
treated in " Where did St. Oswald die V 9 reprinted from 
the Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological Society, 
by Woodall and Venables. 1 ) 

SfiLYF Sajrff Cadau, succeeded his father King Cynan 

* Howel W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 


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Garwyn as King of Powys. He is celebrated in the 
Triads with Avaon, the son of Taliesin, and Gwallawg ab 
Lleenawg, a Prince of the Vale of Shrewsbury, as one of 
the three " Aerfeddawg", or grave slaughterers of the 
Isle of Britain, because they avenged their wrongs from 
their graves. He was the father of Mael Mynan, the 
father of Beli, the father of Gcjoillawg or Gwallawg, 
who was the father of, 

Eliseg ab Gwallawg, King of Teyrnllwg or Powys, 
who appears from the inscription on his monument, to have 
recovered his kingdom of Powys, out of the hands of the 
English, after the death of Cadell by violence. Who 
Cadell was does not appear. In 765 the Cymry devas- 
tated Mercia, in the time of Offa, who commenced his 
reign in 758. The Cymry defeated the Saxons, and 
spoiled them sorely, on which account, Offa, King of 
Mercia, made the great dyke called Clawdd Offa, to 
divide Wales from Mercia, which still remains. Eliseg, 
King of Teyrnllwg, died or waa slain in 773, and was 
succeeded by his son, 

Brochmael or Brochwael II. In 784 Mercia was 
again devastated by the Cymry, and Offa made a dyke 
a second time, nearer to him, leaving a province between 
Wye and Severn, where the tribe of Elystan Glodrudd is 
situate, where they became one of the five Royal Tribes 
of the Cymry. Brochmael was succeeded by his son, 

Cadell Deyrnllwo II, King of Teyrnllwg, now called 
Powys, according to the Llyfr Cock o Hwgist ; died in 
809, and left two children, one a daughter named Nesta, 
and a son, Cyngen II, who succeeded his father in 809. 
He erected the monumental cross which is still standing 
on the tumulus that covers the remains of his great 
grandfather, King Eliseg, in a valley at Maes yr Ychion, 
which from this cross is now called Pant y Groes, and 
gives its name to the adjoining monastery, De Valle 
Crucis. Cyngen afterwards resigned his crown, and 
went to Rome, where he was murdered by his own ser- 
vants in 850. He had a son named Gruffydd, who was 
killed in 815. 

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Pillar of Eliseg. 

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cojuctf/-' f,/ /(/r cacctu LcrcztiL 

^r b/XOki 77XC/L bAOKrncctc fi*Ll\fr 

ediftcav/T.h^nc Ltpidbm. pqoavo 
no ture h + , rrt erzeurt^ ^, n ti/i 
XL ktV'idiZ.a'Ctn, poi { o^. wc ., ^onx, 

--- - - - - f »<(fz&eyidiCbiO/Ji77\yypt 

_-n etirtyf* iprtc-r^cojucpp 

_- X^ljy^ o-C/hjtilfpjc.mapv 

• • • ^^cccfr^ca^r/tfEC 

- - - ■- - — JM (-ft/--niO/r&t/r) 

------ - tL*>^?nnOfa4ch./Q:7ri 

- - --a/i max/m^y 6A'ZZa/s/sJcct 
-~~ PP P^Ltp . .. . -moLii/'.ajLipaju 

— 3 /r 9V 7 0CclC l't' #*M^ R.or*a/s o 
Rl/r»+ cop-ma- 4 ch />///*/ lAoc 

thlR O^tafq tle^tT LjO port* JL'Tot 
COllitPjJJ^ \otPtdlCVW cTp/ ItlCOjJ 

Cb HlTjOlCL V&'UoJ't pOUOlY 
iyfTjyr /// - 

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Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



The following is the inscription on the cross of King 
Eliseg, as given by Edward Llwyd in his Arch. Brit., 
tit, vi, p. 229, and Haigh's Conquest of Britain by the 
Saxons, p. 230. 





. BANI . . QUOD 







On the abdication of Cyngen II, he was succeeded by 
his sister Nesta, who was married to Gwriad, King of 
the Isle of Manaw, or Man. By this marriage Nesta 
had a son, Merfyn Frych, King of Powys and the Isle of 
Man, and King also of Gwynedd, by right of his consort 
Essyllt, sole daughter and heiress of Cynan Tyndaethwy, 
King of Gwynedd, who died in 818. In 823, Powys 

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was ravaged by the Saxons, who took the youug children 
from their mothers and brought them up as Saxons — a 
proceeding customary with the Saxons. The same year 
they burnt Teganwy. In 838 the battle of Cyfeiliog 
was fought between Merfyn Frych and Berthrwyd, King 
of Mercia ; and in this battle Merfyn was slain. In 
Merfyn's time the Britons residing in England were 
obliged to turn Saxons, or quit the country and their 
homes in three months. 

In 843 Roderick the Great, the son of Merfyn Frych, 
became King of Gwynedd, Powys, and South Wales. 
In 870 the action of Llangollen took place, and there 
was a great slaughter. Roderick divided his kingdom 
into three parts ; to his eldest son, Anarawd, he gave . 
the kingdom of Gwynedd ; to Cadell, his second son, he 
gave the principality of South Wales, or Ceredigion, and 
to Merfyn, his third son, he gave the principality of 
Powys. Roderick bore gules, a chevron inter three 
roses argent, and was slain, together with his brother 
Gwriad, in battle against the Saxons in Mdn, on a Sun- 
day, in the year 873. 

In 876 Anarawd ab Roderig became King of Gwy- 
nedd ; Cadell ab Roderig, King of Ceredigion ; and 
Mervyn ab Roderig, King of Powys. 

Mervyn, King of Powys. He bore or, a lion's 
gamb bendways, erased gules. In 877 his brother 
Cadell subjugated him, and took Powys from him, and 

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then ruled over Powys and South Wales. Mervyn was 
slain iu 900, and left issue three sons, 1, Llywelyn ; 
2, Triffin ; and 3, Iarddur, who was drowned about the 
year 950 ; and a daughter Avandreg, who married Idwal 
Foel, King of Gwynedd. The eldest son, Llywelyn ab 
Mervyn, who was excluded from the crown of Powys by 
the usurpation of his uncle Cadell, and his cousin Hywel 
Dda, successively Kings of South Wales, was father of a 
daughter and heiress, Angharad, who married Owain ab 
Hywel Dda, King of South Wales, by whom she had 
issue two sons, Maredydd and Lly warch. 

Owain ab Howel Dda, commenced his reign over 
South Wales on the death of his father in 948. In 962, 
he, with other Welsh Princes, was compelled to pay 
tribute to Edar, King of England. This tribute consisted 
of the yearly payment of 300 wolves' heads, by which 
means the wolves were gradually extirpated. Owain mar- 
ried twice ; by his first consort he had two sous, Einion 
and Cadwallawn, the last of whom died in 961. Einion 
ab Owain, the eldest son, was slain in the battle of Pen 
Coed Colwyn, in Gwent, in his fathers lifetime, in 983, 
and left issue three sons, 1, Edwyn ab Einion ; 2, Tudor 
ab Einion, who was slain at the battle of Liang wm, in 
Dinmael, in 993 ; and 3, Cadell ab Einion, whose son, 
Tudor ab Cadell, married Nesta, daughter of the Earl of 
Devonshire, by whom he had issue two sons, 1, Tudor, 
ancestor of the sovereign Princes of South Wales, and 2, 
Goronwy, who became Prince of Tegeingl, in Gwynedd. 
He married Ethelfleda, daughter and heiress of Edwin, 
Earl of Mercia, and relict of Edmund Ironside, King of 
England, who bore azure, a cross patonce inter four 
crowns, cr 9 by whom he had a son and heir, Edwyn ab 
Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, who was slain by Rhys ab 
Rhydderch ab Owain, in 1073. 

Edwyn, the eldest son of Einion ab Owain, had issue 
three sons, 1, Hywel ab Edwyn, who was slain in the 
battle of Abertywi, by GrufFydd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, 
in 1043 ; 2, Maredudd, who was slain in the battle of 
Machwy, in 1032, by the sons of Cynan, the brother of 

VOL. l | 5 

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Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, in revenge for their uncle's death ; 
and. 3, Owain, the father of Rhys ab Owain, who defeated 
aud slew Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, in 1072. 
Owain ab Edwyn died after a long illness. 1 

Owain ab Howel Dda married, secondly, Angharad, 
daughter and heiress of Llewelyn ab Merfyn, Prince of 
Powys, oi\ a lion's gauib, bendways, gules, the third 
son of Roderig the Great, by whom he had issue two 
sons, Maredudd, and Llywarch who was taken prisoner 
with two thousand troops, and had hi3 eyes pulled 
oat by Godfrey, the son of Harold, in 986. Owain 
ab Howel Dda died in 987, was succeeded by bis 
third son, 

Maredudd ab Owain, King of all Wales. Maredudd 
had conquered Gwynedd in 985, in a battle that he 
fought with Cad walla wn ab Ieuaf, who had usurped the 
throne of that country, and his brother Meurig ab Ieuaf. 
In this battle Cadwallawn was slain, and Maredudd took 
Gwynedd and ruled over it. 8 In the following year he 
was driven from Gwynedd by Godfrid, the son of Harold. 
The Principality of Powys he got from bis mother, the 
Princess Angharad, and he possessed himself of South 
Wales on the death of his father Owain, in 987, to the 
exclusion of the sons of his eldest brother, Einion ab 
Owain. In this same year, 987, Maredudd was so ha- 
rassed by the Danes that he consented to pay a tribute to 
get rid of them ; this was a penny for every man in his 
territories, which was called the tribute of the black 
army. After this, his eldest nephew, Edwyn ab Einion, 
having obtained assistance from the Saxons and Danes, 
laid waste the territories of his uncle Maredudd, but a 
reconciliation was soon afterwards effected between Ed- 
wyn and Maredudd, which was probably completed by 
the death of Cadwallawn, the only son of Maredudd, who 
was slain at the battle of Cors Einion, in Gower, in 990,* 

1 Brut y TytoyBoaion. 

2 Ibid. Iii this battle the Royal Castle of Penrhyn, in Arvon, was 

3 Ibid. 

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in which year he had devastated Macs Yved and Gla- 


In 992 the Black Danes invaded the island of Mon, 
and devastate! it as they pleased ; for Gvvynedd at that 
time had neither head, nor owner, nor court, nor govern- 
ment, nor anyone who would go up on behalf of the 
country against strangers and spoliation. On that ac- 
count, in 992, the Cymru took Idwal, the son of Menrig, 
one of the sons of Idwal Foel, King of Gwynedd, who 
died in 943, and made him prince over them, and they 
received assistance from Ithael, King of Glamorgan ; and 
they put the Danes to flight with a great slaughter. 
Idwal was a praiseworthy and just Prince, and estab- 
lished government in Gwynedd, and the dispositions pro- 
per in peace and war. 

In this same year, 992, the battle of Llangwm in Din- 
mael took place, by which Maredudd hoped to reconquer 
Gwynedd, but Idwal defeated him, and in this battle, 
Tudor ab Einion, the nephew of King Maredudd, was 

Soon afterwards, Edwyn, the eldest son of Einion 
ab Owain, was slain in the battle of Clunog, where his 
monument is still to be seen, bearing this inscription, 
" Edivini Occisio" (the slaughter of Edwin). He left 
two sons, who long strove for the possession of 
their kingdom, but only obtained possession of it for a 
few years. Maredudd was slain in 1033, and his brother 
Howel in 1042. In 994 the battle of Pen Mynydd, in 
Mon, took place between Idwal ab Meurig,- Prince of 
Gwyuedd, and Swayn, son of Harold, King of Denmark, 
in which battle Idwal was slain. Maredudd ab Owain 
died in 994 or 998, according to the Brut y Saeson, 
leaving an only daughter and heiress, 

Angharad, Queen of Powys and South Wales. This 
Princess married first Llewelyn ab Sitsyllt, one of the 
most celebrated Princes of Wale3. The mother of Lle- 
welyn was the Princess Trawst, daughter and heiress of 
Elissau, second son of Anarawd, Prince of North Wales, 
the eldest son of Roderick the Great. Angharad was 


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married to Llewelyn in the year 994, when that Prince 
was only fourteen years of age. In 1015 he asserted his 
claim to the principality of Gwynedd, as derived through 
his mother, and having led an army against Aeddan ab 
Blegwryd, who by usurpation then reigned there, in the 
battle which ensued Llewelyn slew him, as well as his 
four nephews, or sons, according to the B)~ut y Saeson, 
and thus became King of all Wales. Aeddan, who was 
said to have been a grandson of Morgan Mawr, King of 
Glamorgan, had conquered Dinefor, or South Wales, in 
1000, and afterwards conquered Gwynedd. From this 
time the wise administration of Llewelyn was productive 
of the greatest prosperity to his country, and it is stated 
in the Welsh Chronicles that during these years the 
people increased wonderfully in wealth and numbers. 
Having thus governed Wales, in peace and prosperity, 
until the year 1021, an army of Irish Scots, under 
Awlaff, invaded South Wales, and having advanced to 
Caerfyrddin, were there joined by Hywel and Mare- 
dudd, the sons of Edwin ab Einion, whose family had for 
some years been set aside in the succession of the princi- 
pality of South Wales. Llewelyn, however, obtained a 
decisive victory over his enemies, but soon after fell by 
the hand of an assassin, and his death is attributed to the 
treachery of Madog Min, bishop of Bangor. He left 
only one son, of the name of Gruffydd, who reigned from 
1037 to 1064. Llewelyn erected the Castle of Rhudd- 
lan, in which palace he usually resided, and which after- 
wards continued to be the royal residence during the life 
of his son. 1 

Queen Angharad married secondly, in the year 1023, 
Cynfyn ab Gwrystan ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cibwyr, in 
Gwent, by whom she had two other sons> Bleddyn ab 
Cynfyn, and Rhiwallawn ab Cynfyn. 

Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, succeeded his 
father as King of Gwynedd and Powys, in 1021. He 
several times defeated the English and Danes, and he 

1 Williams's Eminent W'eltJtmen. 

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Caradawg ab Ehydderch ab Iestyn, lord of Iestyn, son of 
Owain ab Hywel Dda. It is recorded that Gruffudd was 
, betrayed by Madog Min, 1 bishop of Bangor, for three 
hundred head of cattle, which were promised him for his 
treachery by Harold, King of England. After succeed- 
ing in his treachery Harold refused to pay the cattle, 
upon which " Madog went in a ship towards the town of 
Dublin, in Ireland, but the ship sank without the loss of 
any life, except that of Madog Min, and thus the ven- 
geance of God fell on him for his treachery. 2 Gruffudd 
Wcis succeeded in the Principality of South Wales by 
Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwyn ab Einion ab Owain ab 
Hywel Dda, who was slain in 1069 by Caradawg ab 
Ehydderch ab Iestyn ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, at the 
battle of Llanfedwy, on the river Elerch, in Morganwg. 3 

Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, left issue two sons, 
Maredudd and Ithael, and an only daughter and eventual 
heiress, Augharad, who married Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, 
lord of Arwystli. 

1 Madog Min was the son of Cywryd ab Ednowain Bendew. 

2 Williams's Eminent Welshmen. * Brut y Tywgsogion. 

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obtained the sovereignty of. all Wales in 1032, by defeat- 
ing Hywel ab Edwyn, Prince of Morganwg and South 
"Wales, who fled for protection to Iago ab Idwal, King of 
Gwynedd. In 1038, Hywel, having succeeded in rais- 
ing a large force of his own countrymen and of English- 
men, endeavoured to recover his principality, but was 
totally defeated by Gruffudd, at Pencadair. In 1038 the 
battle of Llanbadarn was fought between Gruffudd ab 
Llywelyn and Hywel ab Edwyn, in which Hywel was 
defeated, and Gruffudd took his wife a prisoner and took 
her away to Gwynedd ; and in 1040 another battle was 
fought at Pwll Dyfach, between Gruffudd and Hywel, 
as the latter had a third time attempted, with a large 
army of Saxons and Danes, to recover his principality. 
In this battle Hywel was again totally defeated. In 
1042 Gruffudd was, by stratagem, taken prisoner by 
Cynan ab Iago ab Idwal, Prince of Gwynedd, who had 
crossed over from Ireland at the head of a considerable 
force, but the Irish were defeated and expelled by the 
Welsh, who recovered their Prince. In this battle Cynan 
was slain. Among the many stirring incidents of his 
reign may be noticed the escape of Fleance, the son of 
Banquo, from Scotland, who found a most hospitable 
asylum at the court of Gruffudd, which was requited by 
the most disgraceful conduct on the part of Fleance, for 
which he was deservedly put to death. In 1043, Hywel 
ab Edwyn was slain by Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, at the 
battle of Aberty wi, after severe fighting. 

In 1050, Gruffudd ab Llywelyn invaded England with 
a large army of Welsh and Irish, and totally defeated 
the English in a plain near Hereford, and returned with 
great spoil. In 1057 he again defeated the English 
under the command of Algar, Earl of Caer Lleon Gawr, 
and Ranwlph, a Prince of Mercia, near Hereford, and 
captured the city, not leaving a horse or man alive in it, 
and took a great spoil, and all their chiefs prisoners. 

After many battles, in which he defeated the English 
and their allies, Gruffudd was treacherously slain by his 
own subjects in 1064, at 'the instigation of Harold, and 

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Or t a lion rampant, gulc*. 


In 1064, Bleddyn ab Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwal- 
lawn ab Cynfyn, half-brothers of King Gruffudd ab 
Llywelyn, took the Principality of Powys from the 
Princes Maredudd and Ithael, the right heirs of Brochwel 
Ysgythrog, King of Powys, which was contrary to right. 1 
However, in 1068, Maredudd and Ithael led an army 
against Bleddyn and Rhiwallawn, to regain Gwynedd, 
which was held from them by the Saxons, through vio- 
lence ; and Bleddyn and Rhiwallawn met them at 
Mechain, accompanied by a great host of Saxons, for 
the Saxons inhabited Powys in equal numbers with the 
Cymru, under their protection, whither they had fled 
from the intrusion of the Normans ; on which account, as 
the men of Gwynedd with Maredudd and Ithael were 
not so numerous as the host of Bleddyn and Rhiwallawn, 
nothing but bravery could support them against double 
their number. But through deceit and treachery they 
lost the field ; Rhiwallawn was slain on one side, and 
Ithael ab Gruffydd on the other, and Maredudd was ob- 
liged to fly, and Bleddyn pursued after him so closely 
that he was obliged to fly to the most desert moun- 

1 Brut y Tyioysogion. 

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tains in W 7 oles» where he perished from hunger and 
cold. 1 / 

Bleddyn ab Cynfyn therefore became sole monarch of 
Powys and Gwynedd, and Maredudd ab Owain ab 
Edwyn ab Einion became Prince of Dinefor or South 
Wales. 2 In 1072, however, Rhys ab Owain 8 ab Edwyn 
ab Einion, came from the Isle of Manaw, where he had 
been concealed, and collected a great nost of the men of 
Ystrad-Tywi and Brecheiniog, and fought a battle with 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, and killed him. 

On the death of Bleddyn ab Cynfyn in 1072, he was 
succeeded by his nephew Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, Lord of 
Arwystli. Trahaiarn was the son of Caradoc ab Gwyn ab 
Collwyn ab Ednowain ab Bleddyn ab Bledrws, Lord of 
Arwystli, who bore sable, three fleurs de lys argent, 
son of Ceidio ab Corf ab Cacnog Gawr ab Iorwerth Hirv- 
lawdd. He married, as previously stated, Angharad, the 
only daughter and eventual heiress (after the deaths of 
her two brothers, the young Princes Maredudd and 
Ithael) of Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Seisyllt, King of 
Wales. It appears, however, from the book of the life of 
Gruffudd ab Cynan, that he shared the principalities of 
Gwynedd and Powys with Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn ab 
Dingad ab Tudor-Trevor, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg, Yr 
H6b, and Ystrad Alun, ermine, a lion rampant sable, 
armed and langued gales. 

In 1074 Gruffudd ab Cynan ab Iago, the rightful heir 
of Gwynedd, set sail from Ireland, where he had been 
brought up, to try to recover the throne of his ancestors, 
iC and when the expected time arrived, he, with his 
friends, set sail for Cambria, and landed in the harbour 
of Aber Menai, and in that part of Cambria which is 
called Venedotia (Gwynedd), the government of which 
country was unjustly and tyrannically carried on by 
Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, and Cynwrig ab Khiwallawn, 
Prince of Powys (Rcgulus Powisice), which they divided 
between them." 4 j 

1 Bruty Tywysogion. 2 Ibid. 

8 Lewy8 Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 90. 4 Life of Gniffydd ab Cynan. 

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From this place Gruffudd sent messengers to the in- 
habitants of the island of Mon, and to those of Arvon, 
and the sons of Merwydd ab Collwyn of Lleyn, viz., 
Asser, Meiriawn, and Gwgawn, and other chiefs, that 
they should join him with the utmost speed. This sum- 
mons they obeyed, and joining their forces with those of 
Robert, one of the English Barons who held Rhuddlan 
Castle (and a nephew of Hugh Lupus, 1 who became Earl 
of Chester in 1070, and was a nephew of William the 
Conqueror), and other troops from Mon, they suddenly 
marched into Lleyn against Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn, 
who was then staying there, and coming upon him un- 
awares they attacked and slew him, and the greatest part 
of his friends. This occurred in 1074. 

Having gained this victory, Gruffudd marched a large 
army into the Cantref of Meirionydd, where Trahaiarn 
ab Caradawg, the other Prince, was then staying. A 
battle ensued at a place called, in consequence of the 
sanguinary nature of the conflict, " Y Gwaed Erw'\ or 
the Bloody Acre, in which Trahaiarn was defeated with 
great loss, and a thousand of his men slain. After this, 
Gruffudd attacked the combined forces, cavalry and in- 
fantry, of the Normans at Rhuddlan Castle, and totally 
defeated the Baron Robert, the Castellan, and took a 
great spoil. Soon after this the three sons of Merwydd 
ab Collwyn 2 ab Tangno, and all the men of Lleyn, re- 

1 Hugh Lupus, bore azure, a wolfs head, erased argent. His son, 
Richard, who became Earl of Chester in 1103, bore gules, crusilly, 
or, a wolfs head erased argent 

* Collwyn ab Tangno ab Cadfael, was Lord of Eivionydd, Ar- 
dudwy in the Cantref of Dunodig and part of Lleyn, and chief of 
one of the Noble Tribes. He lived for some time at Bron wen's Tower, 
at Harddlech, whence it was called Caer Collwyn, and bore sable, a 
chevron inter three flenrs-de-lys argent From him descended the 
families of Ellis of Bron y Foel Ystym llyn ; John Wynn of Gwyn 
Vryn in Llanystundwy, whose daughter and heiress, Mary, married 
David Ellis of Bod Ychan, Esq., now represented by Owen Jones 
Ellis Nanney of Cefn Denddwr and Gwyn Vryn, Esquire ; Gruffudd 
ab John Wynn of Pen y Berth in Lleyn ; Wynn of Pennarth in Llan- 
armon in Eivionydd ; Bodvel of Bodvel in Lleyn ; Thomas Madryn 
of Madryn, in Lleyn, Esq., whose daughter and co-heir Margaret, 

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belled against Prince Gruffudd. King Trahaiarn how- 
ever, although conquered and a fugitive, perceiving this, 
went' to Powys and implored the chiefs to aid hiin with 
an army to avenge the death of his blood-relation (con- 
sanguinei sui) Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn. Upon this, 
Gwrgan ab Seisyllt ab Ithael ab Gwrystan ab Gwaeth- 
foed, King of Powys, joined his forces with those of 
Trahaiarn, and marched their army to Gwynedd. On 
their arrival they were joined by the three sons of Mer- 
wydd ab Collwyn, and all the men of Lleyn and Evi- 
onydd, and two chieftains of Mon, Tudor and Collwyn, 
who were brothers. Gruffudd immediately assembled 
what forces he could from Mon and Arvon, and with the 
Danes and Irish who were with him, he met the army of 
Trahaiarn, and a cruel and bloody battle ensued at a 
place near Harddlech, called Bron yr Erw, or Erw yr 
Allt, in which neither party gave any quarter to the 
other, but fought it out to the bitter end. In this battle 

heiress of Madryn, married Johu Wynne of Wernfawr, Esquire, whose 
line is now represented by Thomas Love Duncombe Jones Parry, of 
Madryn, Esq., F.S.A., J.P. and D.L. ; Owen of Pen y Coed or Plas 
Du in Llanarmon in Lleyn : John ab Hywel Fychan of Y Perkyn in 
Llanystundwy in Eivionydd, now represented by W. TV. R Wynne, of 
Peuiarth, Esq. ; Vaughan of Beaumaris, Evans of Bwlch Coed DyflVyn, 
or Tan y Bwlch, now represented by the Oakleys of Plas Tan y 
Bwlch ; Prytherchs of Tref Gaian in Cwmmwd Menai, whose heiress 
aud representative, Margaret Lloyd, married Thomas Parry Jones 
Parry, of Llwyn On, in Maelor Gymraeg, Esq., second son of Thomas 
Parry Jones Parry, of Llwyn On, and Madiyn, Esq., by whom she had 
a son and heir, the late Robert Lloyd Jones Parry of Tref Gaian, 
Esq., who assumed his mother's name of Lloyd, upon succeeding to 
the estate of Tref Gaian, and married Mary Isabella, only daughter 
of Edward Owen Snow, Esq., by whom he had issue, one son, Thomas 
Edward John Lloyd, and two daughters, Mary Evelyn Mailland, 
and Mabel, who married John Aspinall, of Standen, Esq. 

The cantref of Eivionydd contains the parishes of Beddgelert, 
Crugaeth, Ynys Cynhaiam, Treflys, Llanfihangl y Pennant, Llangybi, 
Llanarmon, Pen Morfa, and Dol Beumaen. 

The cantref of Ardndwy contains the parishes of Ffestiniog, Maen 
Twrog, Llanaber or Abermaw, Llanelltyd, Llandanwg, Llanbedr, 
Llanenddwyn, Llanddwye, Llanfair, Llanfihangl y Traethau, Llan- 
decwyu, Llanfrothen, Penryhu Deudraeth, and Trawsfynydd. 


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Gruflfudd was defeated, and being desperately wounded 
was carried off the field of battle by Gwyn, Lord of Mod, 
to his ships, which were lying-in the port of Aber Menai. 
From thence they made for the island called Y?iys y 
Moelrhoneaid (Insula Phocarum), from whence they 
sailed for Llwch Gartnaw in Ireland. 

About this time Goronwy and Llywelyn, the sons of 
Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, led an arm)- a 
second time against Rhys ab Owain ab Edwyn ab Einion, 
Prince of Dinefor, who met them, and a severe battle 
took place between, at a place called Pwll Gwttig, in 
which the sons of Prince Cadwgan overcame Rhys ab 
Owain, who fled, and Trahaiarn ab Caradawg pursued 
him so closely that he captured him, and his brother 
Hywel besides, and put them both to death, in revenge 
for the slaughter of his uncle Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, which 
was a merciless action, as they were princes by privilege 
and right. 1 

In 1079 Gwrgeneu ab Seisyllt, King of Powys, was 
slain by Tudor, Elidur, and Iddon, the sons of Rhys Sais, 
lord of Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry, Maelor Saesneg 
and Nanheudwy. 2 

In 1080, Gruffudd ab Cynan, who had been staying a 
year in Ireland with King Diarmid, equipped a fleet and 
set sail from that country, with an army of Danes, Irish, 
and Britons, in the hopes of regaining his principality of 
Gwynedd. He landed at Porth Clais, near the Archi- 
episcopal See of Mynyw (St. David's), where he was met 
by Rhys ab Tudor, Prince of South Wales, who implored 
his assistance against his enemies, who were devastating 
his territories. When Gruffudd found out that the ene- 
mies of Prince Rhys were his own also, he determined to 
aid him with all his might, and they immediately marched 
their united armies against their common enemy. 

After a long march they came, towards the evening, 
near some hills called Myuydd Y Garn, where the army 

1 Brut y Tywysogion. 

2 Brut y Saeson, Cae Cyviog MS. 

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of King Trahaiarn and his men of Arwystli (cum suis 
etiam Amstlianis), his nephews, Caradog, Gruffudd and 
Meilir, the sons of Rhiwallawn ab Cyntyn ab Gwaeth- 
foed, with the army of Powys and Caradawg ab Gruffudd, 
King of Gwent, were encamped. Although the evening 
was drawing on, and in consequence Rhys ab Tudor 
wished to put off the attack till the following morning, 
Gruffudd overruled him, and they immediately com- 
menced the attack, and one of the most bloody battles 
in our annals was fought, in which the array of King 
Trahaiarn was totally defeated, and he hims-elf was 
pierced through his body, so that he lay on his face dead 
on the ground, with his arms by him, and his teeth bit 
the grass, and Gwcharis, an Irishman, made bacon of 
him like a hog. And on that same spot there fell around 
him, of his own retinue, five-and-twenty knights, while 
others of them were slain in the front of the battle. 
Many thousands of them were killed, and the rest turned 
their backs on the men of Gwynedd and betook them- 
selves to flight. Amongst the slain were the King's 
nephews, Caradog (according to the Brut y Saeson), 
Gruffudd, and Meilir, the three sons of Rhiwallawn ab 
Cynfyn ab Gwaethfoed. Then Gruffudd, after his accus- 
tomed manner when victorious, pursued them, he and 
his company, through the woods and glens, and swamps 
and mountains, all that night by the light of the moon, 
and all the following day, and scarcely one of them es- 
caped from the combat to their own country. After 
devastating that country, and having taken great spoil, 
Gruffudd marched his forces to Arwystli, which he 
devastated by fire and sword, destroyed and massacred 
the common people, and burnt their houses and carried 
away their wives and maidens into captivity, and thus 
he exacted retribution from Trahaiarn ab Caradog. From 
Arwystli he marched into Powys, which he devastated 
in like manner, and spared not the enclosures of the 

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"Meilyr, the bard, sang this ode during the campaign in 
which were slain Trahaiarn, the son of Caradawg, and Meilyr 
son of Rhiwallawn, son of Cynfyn." 

" I will adore my God, the King of Heaven, 
The Lord who knows my affliction. 
With trouble am I troubled sorely 
For my Lord, the ruler of many a homestead. 
Verily the second time are they come, the savage people, 
The Gwyddelians, black daemons, 
The Scots, half men, half brutes ! 
In Cam Mountain is a battle, 
And Trahaiarn is slain, 
And the son of Rhiwallawn, lord of the seas, 

From the conflict will not return. 

On Thursday, at the end of three weeks, 

Toward night, wert thou slain. 1 

Trahaiarn ab Caradawg had issue by his consort, the 
Princess Annesta, five sons : — 

1. Llywarch ab Trahaiarn, of whom presently. 

2. Meurig ab Trahaiarn, who was slain in the spring 
of 1105, by Sir Owain ab Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn. 

3. Grunudd ab Trahaiarn, slain with his brother 
Meurig by Sir Owain ab Cadwgawn. 

4. Ednowain ab Trahaiarn, who married Jane, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Iorwerth ab Howel Fychan, descended 
from Elystan Glodrhudd, Prince of Ferlis, by whom he 
had a son, Ieuaf ab Ednowain, the father of Howel ab 
leuaf, lord of Arwystli, of whom presently. 

5. Madog ab Trahaiarn, who bore argent, a lion ram- 
pant, gules. 

Annesta, one of the daughters of King Trahaiarn ab 
Caradawg, became the wife of Bernard de Newmarch, 
the Norman lord of Brecon, who bore gules, five lozenges 
conjoined in fess, or. 

Howel ab Ieuaf married Merinedd, daughter of Gruf- 

1 This elegy was translated by Howel W. Lloyd, Esq., and is to be 
found in the Mont ColL> vol. ix, ii, October 1876, p. 302. 

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fudd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, who took possession 
of Arwystli when he defeated and slew Trahaiarn ab 
Caradawg at the bloody battle of Mynydd Y Gam ; and 
GrufFudd ab Cynan gave Arwystli as a marriage portion 
with his daughter to Howel ab leuaf, who thus became 
lord of Arwystli. 1 Howel bore gules, a lion rampant 
argent, crowned or, and langued azure. The arms of 
his father-in-law, Gruffudd ab Cynan, who died in 1136, 
aged 82, and was buried in Bangor Cathedral, were gules, 
three lions passant in pale argent, armed and langued 

In the year 1162, Howel ab leuaf got possession of 
the Castle of Tafal Wern, in Cyfeiliog by treachery. 
And for that cause, Owain Gwynedd was so grieved, 
that neither the beauty of his kingdom, nor the com- 
fort to be derived from anything else, could soothe or 
take away his regret. And yet, while suffering under 
so painful a sorrow, Owain took comfort in the provi- 
dence of God who had raised him. Because the same 
Owain marched an army to Arwystli as far as Llan 
Dinam, and having taken great spoil from them, the 
men of Arwystli, to the number of three hundred, were 
obliged to join Hy wel ab leuaf, the Lord of Arwystli, to 
retake the spoil. And when Owain saw his enemies 
coming, suddenly, he ordered his men to fight them at 
once, and the enemy was driven to flight, being killed 
. by Owain and his men, and it was by a narrow escape 
that any of them reached home by flight. And when 
the joy of this victory filled the mind of Owain, then, 
after being freed from his sorrow, he returned to his 
usual state of mind, and rebuilt his castle immediately. 

Hy wel ab leuaf died in the year 1 1 85, and was buried 
in Strata Florida Abbey. He was the ancestor of the 
Powells of Ednop in Llan Ieuan, the Griffiths of Sut- 
ton, near Montgomery, and of several other families in 
Carno, in the Lordship of Arwystli. 

After the death of Trahaiarn ab Caradawg in 1080, 

1 Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 207, art. Mwssoglen. 



Arwystli became a portion of the territories of Gruffuclcl 
ab Cynan. Subsequently it appears to have belonged to 
Owain Cyfeiliog, from whom it was taken in 1167 by 
the Lord Rhys ab Gruffydd, to whom it was confirmed by 
Henry II, in 1171, and it was afterwards reconquered 
by Gwenwynwyn, the son of Owain Cyfeiliog, in 1197. 
It was at this time, that Gwenwynwyn gave his faithful 
and brave soldier, Madog Danwr Trevor, the son of 
Icuan ab Maredudd ab Madog ab Gruffydd ab David ab 
Cymvrig ab Rhiwallawn, the whole parish of Llangurig, 
the manors of Aber Havesp and Dolfachwen, aud large 
estates in Llanidloes and other places. In Llangurig 
Church there are memorial windows to King Trahaiarn 
Gwenwynwyn, and Kladog Danwr. 


Ceidio ab Corf ab Gaen og Gawr ab Iorwerth Hirflawdd. =f 
Bledrws ab Ceidio =F 

B lcddy n ab Bledrws, Lord of Arwystli. Sable, three fleors- de-lys, argent.^ 

Edn owain ab Bleddyn, Lord of Arwystli. T 

Coll wyn ab Ednowain, Lord of Arwystli. ^ 

Gwyn ab Collwyn, Lord of Arwystli. =p 

Caradawy ab Gwyn ab Collwyn, Lord of Arwystli. =f 

Tranairn ab Oaradawg, Lord of Arwystli, and King of Gwynedd and Powys. 
Argent, a lion rampant table, crowned or He was slain in the bloody 
battle of Mynydd y Gam by Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, in 
the year 1080. 

Gruffydd ab Cynan, Lord of Arwystli, ob. 1136, gules, 
three lions passant, in pale argent Howel ab Ieuaf, Lord 
of Arwystli, ob. 1185, gules, a lion rampant argent, 
crowned or. Owain of Brithdir, son of Howel ab Ieuaf, 
Lord of Arwystli, ob. 1197. Gwenwynwyn, Prince of 
Powys Wenwynwyn, or, a lion's gamb, dexterways, 
erased gules, armed azure, conquered Arwystli in 1197. 
He died in 1218. An account of his descendants has 

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been given in the Montgomeryshire Collections, pub- 
lished by the Powysland Club. 

The Cantref of Arwystli contained the three Comots 
of Gwarthrynion, Arwystli Uwch Goed, and Arwystli 

In 1171, Henry II granted the province of Arwystli 
to Rhys ab Gruffudd ab Rhys, Prince of South Wales. 
Prince Rhj r s died in 1197, and Arwystli was conquered 
by Gwenwynwyn, after whose deposition, Arwystli be- 
came part of the territories of Lly welyn ab Gruffudd, the 
last Prince of Wales, who was slain in 1282, and Arwystli 
was granted by the English king to Owain ab Gruffudd ab 
Gwenwynwyn, who bore, as his father Gruffudd ab 
Gwenwynwyn did, or, a lion rampant gules, and died in 
1293. He was succeeded by his son Gruffudd ab Owain, 
who died in 1309, and Arwystli passed, with the Barony 
of Powys, to his sister Haweis, who married Sir John de 
Cherleton, who in her right became Baron of Powys. 
He died seized of the lordship of Arwystli in 1353. His 
son John, second Baron, died seized of it in 1360, and 
his son John de Cherleton, third Baron, died seized of 
Arwystli in 1374. John de Cherleton, fourth Baron 
and Lord of Arwystli, died without issue, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Edward, fifth Baron of Powys, 
who died seized of Arwystli in 1421. 

This Edward, Lord Powys, had two daughters, co- 
heiresses, upon the second of whom, Joyce, ne settled 
the lordship of Arwystli, which passed by her marriage 
to her husband, Sir John Tiptoft, whose son and succes- 
sor John was created Earl of Worcester in 1449, and 
for his firm adherence to the cause of Edward IV, was 
beheaded in 1470. Subsequently the lordship of Arwystli 
fell to the Crown, and was sold by George III to the late 
Sir W. W. Wynn of Wynnstay, Bart, in whose family 
it still remains. 

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Argent, a lion salient table, crowned or, armed and langued gttlct. 


This province formed part of the possessions of Elystan 
Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis, and passed by marriage into 
the family of Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, King of Gwynedd 
and Powys and Lord of ArwystlL As previously stated, 
Trahaiarn, at his death in 1080, left several sons, the 
eldest of whom was : — 

Llywarch ab Trahaiarn, who did not succeed his 
father in his dominions. In 1096, Gruffudd ab Cynan, 
King of Gwynedd, and Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, Prince of 
Powys (who seems to have ruled Powys after the death 
of Trahaiarn ab Caradog, and thus to have taken pos- 
session of Cyfeiliog, Merionydd, and Penllyn), were ob- 
liged to leave their country and fly for refuge to Ireland ; 
but in 1098 they returned to Wales, and Gruffudd, with 
an army of Scots from Ireland, regained Mon, and 
Cadwgan regained Ceredigion, together with the coun- 
try of Arwystli and Meirionydd. 

In 1105, the Princes Meurig and Gruffudd, the sons 
of Trahaiarn ab Caradog, were slain by Sir Owain ab 
Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, and about the same time, Prince 
Maredudd ab Bleddyn escaped from prison, and re- 
covered his territory without opposition. » 

In 1109, Llywarch ab Trahaiarn, together with Madog 
ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, at Cynfyn, killed Iorwerth Gocli 
vol. i. 6 | 

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ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Lord of Mochnant, in the house 
of a relation of his at Caer Eiuion, and then burnt the 
house and everything in it. 

In 1121, the Princes Owain and Cadwallawn, the sons 
of Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, cruelly ravaged 
the lands of Llywarch, in consequence of his having 
assisted Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn in taking the lord- 
ship of Meirionydd from his nephew, Maredudd ab 
Cadwgan ab Bleddyn. 

In 1124, Maredudd ab Llywarch was imprisoned by 
Prince Owain, son of King Gruffydd ab Cynan, for put- 
ting out the eyes of the sons of Gruffudd ; but he broke 
out of prison, and was caught, and his eyes pulled out by 
the sons of Meurigab Gruffudd, and he was placed on the 
top of a desert mountain, where he perished from hun- 
ger and cold. 

In 1127, 29 Henry I, Iorwerth ab Llywarch was slain 
by Llewelyn ab Sir Owain ab Cadwgan ab Bleddyn. 

Llywarch ab Trahaiarn married Dyddgu, daughter of 
Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of 
Fferlis, by whom he had issue, three sons and two daugh- 
ters— 1, Robert, or Rotpert ab Llywarch, of whom pre- 
sently ; 2, Maredudd ab Llywarch, and 3, Iorwerth; the 
two daughters were, 1, Gwladys, who was the first wife 
of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, by whom 
she had issue, two sons, Iorwerth Drwyn Dwn and Mael- 
gwyn, and one daughter, who married Owain Cyfeiliog, 
Prince of Powys Uchaf; and 2, Mabli, who married 
Ieuaf ab Niniaf, the eldest son of Cynwrig ab Rhiwal- 
lawn, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg and Yr Hob. 

Rotpert, or Robert ab Llywarch, married first, 
Janet, daughter of Sarawel, Lord of Cydywen, and Eigr, 
his wife, 1 daughter and heiress of Madog, third son of 
Cadwallawn ab Madog ab Idnerth, Lord of Maelienydd 
and Ceri, of the royal house of Fferlis. (See History of 
the Parish of Llangurig, p. 343.) Samwel, Lord of 
Cydewen, was the son of Cadafael Yr Ynad, Judge of 
the Court of Powys, then held at Castell Diuas Bran in 

1 Lewy8 Dicnn, vol. i, p. 136. 

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Nanheudwy, in the time of Grufiydd Maelor, Prince of 
Powys Fadog. Cadafael bore, sable, three ragged staves 
or, fired ppr. TJiis coat was granted to him to com- 
memorate the service he rendered his country, by his 
custom of going with firebrands from mountain to moun- 
tain to ignite the fire-beacons on their summits, to warn 
the inhabitants of the approach of an enemy. Cadafael 
was also Lord of Cycle wen, by right of his wife Arian- 
wen, 1 daughter and heiress of Iorwerth ab Trahaiarn ab 
Iorwerth, Lord of Cydewen, the second son of Cadwgan 
ab Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis. (See History of 
the Parish of Llangurig, p. 337.) The mother of Ariau- 
wen, Lady of Cydewen, was Jane, daughter of Mare- 
dydd ab Bleddyn, Prince of Powys. 

Rotpert ab Llywarch, had iss:ie by his wife Janet, 
besides a daughter Nest, wife of Gruffudd Foel ab Ivor 
ab Cadivor, Lord of Ceredigion, two sons — 1, Maredudd 
of whom presently, and 2, Trahaiarn ab Robert, who 
married and had issue five sons — Cadwgan, Maredudd, 
Hywel, Owain, ancestor of the Penrhyns of Penrhyn in 
Aber Rhiw in Cydy wen, 2 and Ieuan the father of David 
the father of David Fychan of Penrhyn in Aber Rhiw 
in Cydywen, Lord of Pentref, whose only daughter 
aud heiress Meddevis, married Ieuan ab Einion ab Eilas 
ab Owain ab Trahaiarn ab Rotpert ab Llywarch. 

Maredudd ab Rotpert, Lord of Cydewen, which 
Lordship he bought, according to Lewys Dwn, 8 from his 
maternal uncle Madog ab Samwel, Lord of Cydewen, 
in 1210 (11 John). In 1211 he sided with Prince 
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth against King John, and when the 
Castle of Kinnerley, in the Lordship of Oswestry, was 
taken and demolished by the forces of Llywelyn in 1223, 
and the Prince bound himself to give satisfaction for the 

1 Lennys Dwnn, vol. i, p. 136. 

* John Penrhyn of Penrhyn, ab David ab John ab Gruffydd ab 
Owain ab Gruffudd Goch ab Maredudd ab David ab David Lloyd ab 
David ab Ieuan ab Einion ab Eilas ab Owain ab Trahaiarn ab 
Rotpert ab Llywarch. Lewy* Dun, vol. i, p. 274. 

3 Lewys Dwn, vol. i, p. 13C. 

I 6 2 

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damage done, Maredudd was one of the hostages given 
for the performance of the agreement. It is stated by 
Lewys Dwn, vol. ii, p. 284, that Prince Llywelyn gave 
Maredudd this Lordship, u Mam Llewelyn at lerwerth, 
Tywysog, oedd Gwladys v. Llywarch ab Trahaurn ab 
Caradawg ab Gwyn ab Collwyn, aq filly 'r oedd Maredudd 
ab Rotpert Arglwydd Cydewen Ynai vab Eevnder i 
Llywelyn y Tywysog ; a Llewelyn a roddes Arglwyddiaeth 
Cydewen yw Nai Maredudd ab Rotpert ab Llywarch 
ab Trahauarn. Yn ol marw Maredudd heb etifedd 
gwrryw o briod yr aeth yr Arglwyddiaeth yn ol i'r 
Tywysog, Llywelyn ab lorwerth. Llywelyn ab Iorwcrth, 
Prince of Wales, died in 1240. In 1241, however, 
Maedudd did homage for his lordship to Henry IU, 
who confirmed him in it, but according to the Brut 
y Tyivysogion, Henry gave the lordship to him as a 
reward for his treachery to Prince Llywelyn, by doing 
homage to himself at Shrewsbury. 8 In this same year, 
25th Henry III (1241), he was one of the intercessors 
with the King for the release of Gruffudd ab Llywelyn, 
from his brother Prince David's custody. Lewys Dwn 
states in vol. i, p. 136, that after the death of Maredudd 
in 1244, the lordship fell to the crown, and that Madog 
ab Samwel afterwards became possessed of it in 1257 ; 
but he only kept it for a short time, .as it was taken 
from him at the conquest of Wales by Edward I. 

Maredudd was a great benefactor to the nunnery of 
Llaullugan, as we find from a charter in the possession 
of Thomas Farmer Duke, Esq., of Shrewsbury, the 
author of The Antiquities of Shropshire, and published 
in the Montgomeiyshire Collections, vol. ii, p. 305, of 
which the following is a copy. 

"Universis Sanctre Matris Ecclesiae filiis tam presentibns 
qunm futuris, notura sit quod ego Maredud filiua Roberti ex con- 
sensu et bona voluntate filiorum meorum Oweni et Gruffud et 

1 Lexoys Dwn, vol. i, 136. 

2 Hi»tory of the Princes of South Wales, by the Rev. and Hon. 
George T. 0. Bridgeman, M.A., p. 12G, note. 

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Howel, similiter fratris mei Trahaiarn et nepotum meorum Cadu- 
gaun et Maredud et Howel etOwini pro salute aniinae meae et ani- 
marum illorum Tiecnon et parentum et successorum nostrorum 
dedi et confirmavi Deo et Beatae MariaB et Sanctis Monialibus 
de Llanlugan in puram et perpetuam elemoisinam et ab orani 
exactione et consuetudine seculari liberam et quietam totam 
villam quae dicitur Llanlugan cum omnibus pertinentibus et 
usibus et utilitatibus suis et commodis in bosco et in piano, in 
pascuis et in aquis, bene et in pace, plenarie et integre et hono- 
rifice in his terminis on an this dal oluin iedin que unrud et 
usque resi in ilia parte, ex alia vero parte Oren usque reu arall 
et usque hal bren et usque redenock Prasterea iisdem liberta- 
tibus dedi supradictis Sanctis monialibus dimidiam totius terr» 
olit usque Cust et usque Cric urno. Similiter dedi iisdein 
totam terrain qnre dicitur Tahalun in omnibus terminis et per- 
tinentiis suis. Et ut baec mea donacio rata et inconcussa per- 
maneat earn sigilli mei impressione et probornm virorum 
attestatione signavi. Testes igitur sunt hii — Johannes filius 
Tegwaret, Decanus Gervasius Parvus, Heylin filius Hoidlitt, 
Llewelyn filius Griffin, David cognomenti Rufus, Idanwit filius 
Gorowin, Caduganus filius Iorwerth, Griffinus filius Owini, Ann 
(Einion ?) filius Iago, Lewellyn Du, et multis aliis." 

(Seal, green wax ; a warrior on horseback, charging 
sword in hand.) 

Transcript made by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart : — 

To all the sons of Holy Mother Church as well present as to 
come, be it known that I, Maredud, son of Robert, with the 
consent and goodwill of my sons Owen, and Gruffud, and 
Howel, likewise of my brother Trahaiarn, and my nephews 
Gadugan, and Maredud, and Howel, and Owen, for the salva- 
tion of my soul and their souls, as also of my parents and our 
successors, have given and confirmed to God and the Blessed 
Mary and the holy nuns of Llanlugan, in pure and perpetual 
alms, free and secure from all exactions and secular customs, 
the whole ville which is called Llanlugan, with all its appurte- 
nances, uses, advantages, and conveniences, in wood, in plains, 
in pastures, and in waters, well and in peace, fully and wholly, 
ana honourably within these boundaries, and as far as Resi on 
that side, but on the other side, Oren, as far as the Reu Arrall, 
and as far as Hal Bren, and as far as Redenock ; besides, with 
the same liberties, I have given to the above-mentioned nuns, 
the half of the whole land of Olit as far as Cust, and as far as 
Crig Urno. Likewise I have given to the same nuns all the 
land which is called Tahalun, in all its boundaries and appur- 

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tenances. And that this my donation may continue ratified 
and undisturbed, I have sealed it with the impression of my 
seal, and by the testimony of honest men. Therefore, these 
are the witnesses — John ab Tegwaret, etc. 

Maredudd ab Rotpert bore, argent, a lion salient sable, 
crowned or, armed and langued gules. {Lewys Divnn, 
vol. i, pp. 15, 45.) 

Maredudd ab Rotpert, the chief counsellor of Wales, 
took the religious habit at Strata Florida Abbey and died 
and was buried there in 1244. 1 He married Eva, daughter 
of Maredudd Fychan of Abertanad in Mechain Is y 
Coed, and Lucy his wife, daughter of Hwfa ab lorwerth of 
Hafod y Wern in the parish of Wrexham. This Maredudd 
Fychan, was the son of Maredydd ab Hy wel ab Maredudd 
ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys. By this lady, 
Maredudd ab Rotpert had issue five sons. 1. Owain, of 
whom presently ; 2. Gruffydd; 3. Hy wel ; 4. Llywelyn, 
who according to the Golden Grove MS., married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Maelgwn Fychan ab Maelgwn, Lord 
of Ceredigion Uwch Aeron, illegitimate son of Yr 
Arglwydd Rhys ab Gruffydd, Priuce of South Wales, by 
whom he had two daughters co-heirs — 1. Angharad, ux. 
Owain ab Maredudd ab Owain ab Gruffydd ab Yr 
Arglwydd Rhys, and 2. Catherine, ux. Sir Gilbert Pool, 
Knight ; and 5. Trahaiarn ab Maredudd. Alson, one of 

1 MijVjrian Archaiology, vol. ii. 

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the daughters of Maredudd ab Rotpert, married Einion 
ab Cynfelyn ab Dolphwyn, Lord of Manavon, descended 
from Cadwgwan of Nannau, Prince of Powys. 

Owain ab Maredudd, Lord of Cydewen, which he 
obtained as his right in 1248; for in that year, on 
July 30th, Oweyn Fil. Mereduc paid 300 marks to the 
King, that he might hold the land of Kedewy, which had 
belonged to the said Meredith ; and the Bailiff of Mont- 
gomery had orders to put him in seizin thereof, after 
taking his security for the said 300 marks (Rot. Fin. 32, 
Henry III. m. 3). 1 He married Margaret, daughter of 
Maelgwn Fychan, son of Maelgwn, Lord of Ceredigion 
Uwch Aeron, an illegitimate son of Yr Arghvydd Rhys 
ab Gruffudd, Prince of South Wales, by whom he had 
two daughters co-heirs — Angharad who married Owain 
ab Maredudd ab Owain. ab Gruffydd ab Yr Arglwydd 
Rhys ab Gruffydd, Prince of South Wales (Leicys Dion, 
vol. ii, p, 54) ; and Janet who married Einion ab Ieuaf ab 
Goronwy, Lord of Cefny Llys, ab Ivor ab Iduerth ab 
Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis, ances- 
tor of the Baronet family of Pryce of Llanfair Ynghy- 
dywaun, or Newtoun Hall, the Pryccs of Glanmeheli 
in Ceri, now represented by the Lord Mostyn of Mostyn, 
the Lloyds of Ceri, and several other families whose 
genealogies are given in the History of the Parish of 
Llangurig, pp. 336-358, and pp. 364-6. (Lewys Dwn, 
vol. i, p. 314.) Margaret, the wife of Owain, died in 

After the death of Gruffydd ab Llewelyn in 1062, 
his half brothers, Bleddyn and Rhi walla wn, obtained the 
sovereignty of Gwynedd and Powys, through the 
influence of the Saxon King Edward. 2 Rhiwallawn, 
however, was slain in 1068, at the battle of Mechain, as 
before stated in the previous chapter, and Bleddyn 
became sole monarch. He was the son of Cynvyn, ab 
Gwrystan, Lord of Cibwyr in Gwent, ab Gwaethvoed 
ab Gloddieu ab Gwrydyr Hir ab Caradawg ab Llew 

1 History of tfa Princes of South Wales. 2 See p. 71. 

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Llawddeawy ab Ednyfed ab Gwineu ab Gwaenog Goch 
ab Crydion ab Corf ab Cynawg Gawr ab Iorwerth 
Hirflawdd ab Tegonwy ab Teon ab Gwineu Dda ei 
Vreuddwyd ab Bywiiw ab Bywdeg ab Rhun Rhudd 
Baladr ab Llari ab Casvar Wledig, King of Gwent, ab 
Gloyw Glwad Lydan, King of Gloucester. Bleddyn 
married four times. 1 His first wife was Haer, daughter 
and co-heir of Cynillon ab Y Blaidd Rhudd, Lord of 
Gest in Eivionydd, in the cantref of Dinodig, and relict 
of Cynfyn Hirdref, Lord of Nevyn, by whom he had 
Maredudd ab Madog, his successor. By his second wife, 
a daughter of Brochwael ab Moelyn, Lord of Twr Celyn 
in Mon, he had two sons, Cadwgan of Nannau, Lord 
of Penllyn, Meirionydd, Mawddwy, Cyfeiliog, Arwystli, 
Ceredigion, and Ystrad Tywi (see Montgomeryshire 
Collections, vol. ix, 1 April, 1876. Penllyn), and 
Llywarch ; and two daughters, 1. Hunydd, or Gwladys, 
nx. Rhydderch, second son of Tudor Mawr ab Cadell ab 
Einion ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, by whom she was 
mother of Rhys ab Tudor, Prince of South Wales ; and 
2. Gwenllian, ux. Caradawg ab Trahaiarn, by whom she 
was mother of Owain ab Caradog. 2 By his third wife 
...he had two sons, Madog and Rhirid, who were both 
slain by Iestyn ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, at the 
battle of Llechryd, in 1087. By his fourth wife, Morien, 
daughter of Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan Gloddrud, 
Prince of Ffcrlis, he had two other sons— Iorwerth and 
Llewellyn. Iorwerth, who was called Lord of Powys, was 
slain at Caer Einion by his nephew, Madog ab Rhirid ab 
Bleddyn, and Llywarch ab Trahaiarn at Caradawg in 
1109. Bleddyn ab Cynfyn was slain in battle, in 1072, 
by Rhys ab Owain ab Edwyn ab Einion ab Owain ab 
Howel Dda (see p. 71), and was succeeded in the princi- 
palities of Powys and Gwynedd by Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, 
and Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon, Lord of Maelor Grymraeg, 
who was slain in Lleyn, by Gruflfydd ab Cynan, in 1074 
(see p. 75). After this, Gwrgeneu ab Scisyllt ab Ithael 
ab Gwrystan ab Gwaethfoed, seems to have shared the 

1 Jlarl. MS. 2299. 2 Lewys Dwn, vol. ii, pp. 99, 107. 



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dominion of Powys with Trahaiara ab Caradog. 1 Gwr- 
geneu, however, was slain in 1079 by Tudor, Elidur, and 
Iddon, the sons of Ehys Sais, Lord of Chirk, Nanhetldy, 
Whittington. and jMaelor Saesneg, 2 and Trahaiarn ab 
Oaradog appears to have become sole monarch of 
Gwynedd and Powys. Trahaiarn and his three nephews, 
the only heirs male of Rhiwallawn ab Cynfyn, Prince of 
Powys, were slain by Gruffydd ab Cynan and Rhys ab 
Tudor Mawr at the battle of Mynydd y Garn, in South 
Wales, in 1080. Llywarch ab Trahaiarn, the eldest son 
of the unfortunate king, and the rightful heir to the 
throne of Powys, does not appear to have attempted 
to regain his rights. His line is now represented by the 
descendants of Owain ab Maredudd ab Owain, Prince of 
South Wales, and the descendants of Einion ab leuaf ab 
Goronwy, Lord of Cefn y Llys, of the Royal House of 
Elystan Glodrhudd, Prince of Fferlis. (See Histo)*y of 
the Parish of Llanguing.) 

Samwel ab Cadafael, Lord of Cydewen, was the ances- 
tor of the Mey ricks of Bod Organ in Mdn, and of Uchel- 
dref in Meirionyddshire. 

^ ? 9. 


Or, a lion rampant az*r&. 


After the defeat and death of Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, 
Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn regained his territories of Mci- 

1 " Life of Gruffydd ab Cynan," Cat Of/Hog MS, Hart. MS. 2299. 

2 Brut y Tywytogion, Cue Cyriog MS. i 


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rionydd, Penllyn, Mawddwy, Cyfeiliog, Ceredigion, and 
Ystrad Tywy, and became also Prince of Powys. He 
bore or, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules. 
He is called by Camden " the illustrious Briton". His 
chief residence was at Nannau, in the parish of Llan- 
fachraith, in the comot of Tal y Bont, in the cantref of 
Meirion. The other two comots in Meirion were those 
of Pennal and Ystura Aner. In 1094, Prince Cadwgan 
ab Bleddyn and Gruffydd ah Cynan, King of Gwynedd, 
marched their forces into Dyfed and Ceredigion, and 
defeated and slew many of the Normans, for the Cymry 
could no longer bear the injustice, privation of privilege, 
and arrogance the Normans exercised over them, and 
thus the country acquired much of its privilege and 

At this time the Normans invaded Gwynedd with a 
great force, and Prince Cadwgan marched against them, 
and a battle was fought at Coed Yspys, in which 
Cadwgan defeated the Normans, and killed many of 
them. Then Cadwgan, together with Gruffydd ab 
Cynan, invaded England, and ravaged Hereford, Shrews- 
bury, and Worcester, and slew an immense number of 
the English ; and when William Rufus, King of England, 
understood this, he went against them, but to little pur- 
pose, for the Cymry enticed him to the mountains, and 
there, without a regular battle, they killed half his men, 
and he was forced to retire with great loss and shame. 

In 1095, Uchtryd and Hywel, the sons of Edwyn ab 
Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, and the sons of Prince 
Cadwgan, came into Dyfed and Ceredigion, and devas- 
tated the lands and castles of the Normans, and slew 
them unsparingly wherever they found them, and then 
returned home with an immense booty ; and in this year 
also, Prince Cadwgan took the Norman Castle of Mont- 
gomery by storm, slew the garrison, and razed the 
walls to the ground. 

In 1096, William Rufus, King of England, went to 
revenge the slaughter of his nation committed by the 
Cymry ; but the Cymry prayed with confidence to God, 

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bestowed .alms, and did justice, and went to meet the 
great array of the king, and slew them without trepi- 
dation, until' he was obliged to return empty-handed, 
and with great shame. 

In the same year the nobles of lion revolted against 
their lawful prince, Gruffydd ab Cynan, and put them- 
selves under the protection of Hugh Lupus, Earl Pala- 
tine of Chester, and Lord of Aber Lleiniog 1 (azure, 
a wolfs head, erased argent), and were joined by the men 
of the country and many of the army, for treachery sub- 
sisted in that country ever since the time of Edwin, 
King of the Saxons. Then the nobles of the country 
held their lands under Earl Hugh, and the Princes, 
Gruffydd ab Cynan and Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, were 
obliged to flee to Ireland, and leave them to do as they 
pleased. Then the Normans and English came to the 
Isle of Mon, and made Owain, son of Edwyn ab Goronwy, 
Prince of Tegeingl, a fictitious prince there to reconcile 
the Cymry. Owain bore gules, three men's legs, con- 
joined at the thighs in triangle argent Owain, who 
thus became Prince of Gwynedd, by siding with the 

1 Aber Lleiniawg lies in the parish of Penmon in M6n. Here is 
Castell Aber Lleiniawg, a small square fort, with the remains of a 
little round tower at each corner. In the middle stood a square 
tower. A foss surrounds the whole. A hollow way is carried quite 
to the shore, and at its extremity is a large mound of earth, designed 
to cover the landing. This castle was founded by Hugh Lupus, Earl 
Palatine of Chester, and Hugh the Bed (de Montgomerie), Earl of 
Shrewsbury, in 1098, when they made an invasion, and committed 
more ravages on the poor natives, especially upon one Cynwrig, a 
priest, than ever stained the annals of any country. Providence sent 
Magnus, King of Norway, to revenge these cruelties. His cooling 
was, to all appearance, casual. He offered to land, but was opposed 
by the earls. Magnus stood on the prow of his ship, and calling to 
him a most expert bowman, they at once directed their arrows at the 
Earl of Shrewsbury, who stood all armed on the shore. An arrow 
pierced his brain through one of his eyes, the only defenceless part. 
The victor, seeing him spring up in the agonies of death, insultingly 
cried out, Leite loupe, " Let him dance". — Torftei, Hist Norveg., iii, 
423 ; Gerald. Cambr., Iter. Camb., 867. Hugh was succeeded in 
1098 by Robert de Montgomerie, who was divested of the Earldom of 
Shrewsbury in 1102. 


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enemies of his country, was called Owain Vradur, or the 
Traitor, in consequence. He was the Prime Minister 
and father-in-law of Gruffydd ab Cynan, who had 
married his daughter Angharad. He reigned, however, 
but a short time, as Gruffydd returned at the end of two 
years, and recovered possession of his territories. Owain 
died of consumption in 1103, and was succeeded in his 
possessions by his son Goronwy. 

Iu 1101, Prince Maredudd, the eldest son of Bleddyn 
ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, was betrayed into the 
hands of Henry I, surnamed Beauclerk, King of 
Eugland, by the treachery of his brother Iorwerth 
Goch. Iorwerth embraced the party of King Henry 
in opposition to the Frenchmen, destroying their lands, 
castles, and men, and that by the couusei of King 
Henry, and by promises of honourable recompenses ; 
but the king deceived him, and after having obtained 
his assistance against Robert de Montgomerie, Earl of 
Shrewsbury (who was unfaithful to Henry, and divested 
in 1102), he advanced a complaint against Iorwerth of 
intention of treason and deceit against him, and threw 
Iorwerth into prison unmercifully and unjustly, which 
was a great loss to the Cyrary. 

In 1105, Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn 
escaped from prison, and in the same year the princes 
Meurig and Gruffudd, the sons of King Trahaiarn ab 
Caradawg, were slain by .Sir Owain ab Cadwgan ab 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn. 

In 1107, Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, having secured 
the possession of Ceredigion, gave a splendid feast at the 
Castle of Caerdigan at Christmas time, to which he 
invited the princes and chiefs of all parts of Wales, and 
the most distinguished bards and minstrels, who con- 
tended according to the rules of the Court of King 
Arthur, and were dismissed with rewards and honours. 
An event, however, happened at this season which almost 
ruined the fortunes of Cadwgan. Among the honoured 
guests was Nest, daughter of Rhys ab Tewdwr, and wife 
of Gerald de Windsor, Lieutenant of Pembroke Castle, 

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whose charms so overcame the unruly Owain, the son of 
Prince Cadwgan, that he followed her on her return to 
Pembroke Castle, which he attacked and obtained pos- 
session of, Gerald escaping with difficulty, and Nest, 
against her will, carried away captive by him to Powys. 
This atrocity involved the innocent father in trouble, 
who, with his son, was compelled to flee to Ireland from 
an invading army raised by his nephews, Ithael and 
Madog, the sons of Prince Rhirid ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 
who took possession of his territories at the instigation 
of Henry I, King of England. Cadwgan, however, 
returned in the following year, and having proved his 
innocence, he was permitted by King Henry to recover 
his principal possessions in Cardiganshire on payment of 
one hundred pounds, and promisiug not to permit the 
return of his son Owain. He maintained his power 
against all the efforts of his nephews until the year 1109, 
when he was suddenly attacked by his nephew, Madog 
ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, at Welshpool, and slain before he 
could draw his sword to defend himself. 1 

Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, according to the Brut 
y Tywysogion, married five times. By his first con- 
sort, the Princess Gwenllian, daughter of Gruffydd 
ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, he had four sons — 
Einiawn ab Cadwgwn, Lord of Meirionydd, of whom 
presently. 2. Maredodd ab Cadwgawn, of whom pre- 
sently. 3. Madog, Lord of Nannau; and 4, Morgan. Prince 
Cadwgan married, secondly, Frances, daughter of Pictot, 
or Pigot, de Saii or Say, a Norman prince, by whom he 
had two sons, Henri, and Gruffudd who married Ang- 
harad, daughter and heiress of David ab Owain, Prince 
of North Wales, and by her had an only daughter and 
heiress Angharad, who married Sanddef Hardd, or the 
Handsome, lord of Morton, or Burton, and Llai. The 
third wife of Prince Cadwgan was Gwenllian, daughter 
of Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he 
had three sons — 

1 Williams's Eminent Welshmen. For a farther accouut of Prince 
Cadwgan, see Mont Coll., April 1876, art " Peiillyn". 

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1. Sir Owain ab Cadwgan, Lord of Powys, called 
also Syr Owain Farchog. He was knighted by Henry I, • 
in Normandy, with whom he and his father Cadwgan 
had had great wars, that were then over. In 1114, 
however, at the instigation of Henry I, he and Lly- 
warch ab Trahaiarn ab Ithel, marched an army against 
Gruffydd ab Rhys ab Tewdwr. prince of South Wales ; 
and when Gerald de Windsor, the constable of Pembroke 
Castle, heard that Sir Owain had arrived in Ceredigion, 
calling to mind what Owain had done to his wife Nest, 
he meditated revenging that injury, and went with his 
men against Sir Owain and his men ; and early in the 
onset, Owain was slain by an arrow ; and so it happened 
to him for the injuries he had done to the nation of the 
Cymry, greater than had ever been inflicted before him 
by the worst traitor ever known. From him originated 
the Mawddwy banditti. 

2. Llywelyn ab Cadwgan, who was killed in 1098, by 
the men of Brecheiniog, in the interest of Bernard de 
Newmarch ; it was in this same year that his father, 
Prince Cadwgan, returned from Ireland, and regained 
his territories. 

3. Goronwy ab Cadwgan. Prince Cadwgan had 
another son, named Gwrgau, by his wife Elyw, the 
daughter of Cadifor ab Dyfnwal, Lord of Castell Hywel. 

Einiawn ab Cadwgawn succeeded his father as Lord of 
Meirionydd. In 1113, he, together with his cousin 
Gruflfudd, the second son of Prince Maredudd ab Bled- 
dyn, besieged and took the castle of Cymmer in Mei- 
rionydd, which belonged to Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog, 
one of the sons of Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of 
Tegeingl, and which Uchdryd had built, and took from 
him the provinces of Meirionydd, Cyfeiliawg, Mawddwy, 
and Penllyn, and divided the territories between them. 
Prince Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn had given these districts 
to Uchdryd, as Iwerydd, the mother of Owain and 
Uchdryd, was full sister of his father, Bleddyn ab Cyn- . 
fyn, and he, at the same time, hoped that Uchdryd ' 
would have been a faithful friend, both to himself and 




his sons, and an assistance against their enemies. But 
he proved to be their enemy and opponent. Having, 
therefore, recovered these provinces, they apportioned 
them so, that Cyfeiliawg, Mawddwy, and half of Penllyn 
fell to Gruffudd ab Maredudd, whose eldest son was called 
Owain Cyfeiliawg. The other half of Penllyn, and the 
cantref of Meirionedd, containing the comots of Tal y 
Bout, Pennal, and Ystyin Aner, fell to the sons of Cad- 
wgan ab Bleddyn. 

Einiawn ab Cadwgawn died in 1121, without issue, 
and bequeathed his land and territory to bis brother 
Maredudd ; but Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn, his uncle, 
and his cousin Ithael ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, took his 
lands and territory from him ; and when GrufFydd ab 
Cynan, King of Gwynedd, heard in what manner that 
happened, he sent his two sons, Cadwallawn and Owain, 
with a strong force, to JMeirion to execute justice, and 
restore to his nephew, Maredudd ab Cadwgawn, his 
territory and lands. Cadwallawn and Owain subdued 
Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn, and regained the country 
for Maredudd ab Cadwgawn, and cruelly ravaged the 
lands of Llywarch ab Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, for 
assisting Maredudd ab Bleddyn. Einiawn, therefore, 
was succeeded by his brother — 

Maredudd ab Cadwgawn, who enjoyed the Lordship 
but for a short time, for in the following year a quarrel 
arose between Maredudd and his younger brother 
Morgan, and in this quarrel Morgan killed his brother 
Maredudd with his own hand. This occurred in 1122. 

In 1127, Morgan ab Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn, who had 
been very active in the work of killing and pulling out 
eyes, began to feel the compunctions of conscience ; and 
on his repentance, went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 
and, on his return, he died in the island of Cyprus, in the 
Grecian Sea. 

Soon after this the Lordship of Meirionydd passed 
into the hands of Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwy- 
nedd, and his brother Gruffudd ab Cynan ab Owain. In 
1137, "Ygwrthladwyt Maredudd ab Cynan o Veirionydd 

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y gau Hywel ab Gruffydd y nei ab y vrawt ac yd 
yspeilwyt yn Llwyr cithyr y varch." 1 

In 1142, a quarrel arose between Anarawd, one of the 
sons of Gruffydd ab Rhys, Prince of South Wales, and his 
father-in-law, Cadwaladr ab Gruffydd ab Cynan ab 
lago, aud Cadwaladr stabbed Anarawd in his ribs so 
that he died, and Rhydderch ab Iestyn and Roderig ab 
Hywel caught Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain, and put 
him in prison. 

Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, and his 
brother, Gruffydd ab Cynan ab Owain, founded the 
Abbey of Cymmer, in the parish of Llanfachraith, in the 
comot of Tal y Bont, in the cantref of Meirionydd. 
Gruffydd subsequently took the religious habit in the 
Abbey of Aber Conwy, where he died in 1202. 
Maredudd ab Cynan was lord, also, of Lleyn : but in 
1202, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, took this 
province from him for his want of fidelity, and soon 
afterwards deprived him of his Lordship of Meirionydd. 
Upon this, he fled for protection to Gwenwynwyn, Prince 
of Upper Povvys, who gave him the manors of Rhiw- 
hiraeth, Neuadd Wen, Llysin, and Coed Talog. Mare- 
dudd ab Cynan bore quarterly, gules and argent, four 
lions passant gardant counterchanged. 

In 1215, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, 
accompanied by most of the Welsh princes and chief- 
tains, marched an army into South Wales, and reduced 
that country to obedience by defeating the English and 
Normans, and taking their Castles of Gower, Caer- 
mardden, Llanstephan, Tal y Cham, St. Clare, the Castle 
of Emlyn, and the Castles of Trefdraith, Aberystwyth, 
and Cilgcrran, after which all the Welsh princes who 
were with him returned to their countries, happy and 
joyful with victory. The princes who took part in this 
expedition were — Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of 
Gwynedd ; Hywel ab Gruffydd ab Cynan ; Llywelyn 
ab Maredudd ab Cynan, from Gwynedd ; Wenwynwyn 
ab Owain Cyfciliawg ; Maredudd ab Rotpert, of Cyde- 
1 Brut y Tywysogion, Llyfr Coch o Hergest 

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wen ; the family of Madog ab Gruffydd Maelawr ; and 
the two sons of Madog ab Cadwallawn. From South 
Wales, Maelgwn ab Rhys ; Rhys Grtig, his brother ; and 
Rhys leuanc and Owain, the sons of Gruffydd ab Rhys. 1 

In 1216, John, King of England, devastated Maes \Vy 
fed (Radnorshire), and from thence he proceeded to Croes 
Oswallt which he burnt and destroyed. 3 

In 1255, Maredudd ab Llywelyn ab Maredudd ab 
Cynan departed this life, leaving an only son and heir, by 
Gwenllian, daughter of Maelgwn. 3 Gwenllian was the 
daughter (by the Princess Angharad, his wife, daughter 
of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales) of Maelgwn 
Fychan, son of Maelgwn, an illegitimate son of the Lord 
Rhys ab Gruffydd, Prince of South Wales. Gwenllian 
died at Llanvihangl Gelynrod, and was buried in the 
Abbey of Strata Florida, in 1255 ; and soon afterwards, 
on the Feast of St. John, died Rhys, the only son of 
Maelgwn Fychan, ^vho had taken the habit of religion at 
Strata Florida, and there he was buried. 

In the same year, the Devil stirred up a quarrel 
between the sons of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn, Prince of 
North Wales, viz., Owain Goch, and his younger brother, 
David ab Gruffudd, on one side, and Llywelyn ab Gruf- 
fudd on the other. Whereupon a battle was fought at 
Bryn Derwyn, in which Llywelyn was victorious, and 
David fled, and Owain Goch was taken prisoner. 4 

In this year also died Margaret, the daughter of Mael- 
gwn Fychan ab Maelgwn, Lord of Ceredigion Uwch 
Aeron, and wife of Owain ab Maredudd ab Rotpert, 
Lord of Cydywen (see p. 86). 

In 1256 Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, 
unable any longer to submit to the tyrannical oppression 
of the English king and his son Edward, invaded that 
district which now forms the counties of Denbigh and 
Flint, which had been given to Prince Edward by the 
king, and subdued the whole of it before the end of the 
week, except the Castles of Diganwy and Diserth. ,He 

1 Brut y Tywyeogion, from the Lyfr Coch o Hergest. 
* Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 

VOL. I. 

7 I 

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then went to Meirionydd, which he also took possession 
of, as Llywelyn ab Maredudd ab Cynan, the Lord of 
Meirionydd, had sided with the English king. Mr. 
Shirley, the editor of Royal and other Letters Illustrative 
of the Reign of Henry III, gives a letter, which was 
apparently written at this time, from Llywelyn ab 
Maredudd to the king, in which he prays the king to 
make some provision for him until he can recover his 
land of Meirionydd, from which he had been ejected by 
Prince Llywelyn ab Gruflfudd. 1 On August 8th, 1259, 
the Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire had orders 
to pay to Llywelyn, the son of Maredudd, who had been 
disinherited on account of his adherence to the king, the 
sum of forty marks, which the king granted to him, to 
be received annually, for the support of himself and his 
wife and children ; and on May 30th, 1260, the king 
ordered the then Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire, 
in which it is stated that the former sheriff William 
Bagod, had received the above-mentioned order, but that 
the said Llywelyn had only received ten marks from the 
said William Bagod ; and the present sheriff is therefore 
ordered to pay Llywelyn the remaining thirty marks 
out of the issues of his bailiwick. 

This Llywelyn ab Maredudd is sometimes styled 
Lly welyn Fawr ab Maredudd. He had a brother called 
Llywelyn Fychan ab Maredudd, as we find from an 
extract from the record of an inquisition held at Bala on 
the next Monday after the Festival of St. Michael the 
Archangel, 6 Henry VI ;* relative to Einion ab Seisyllt, 
of Mathafarn, in the parish of Llanwrin, in Cyfeiliawg. 

"Et etiam (Juratores) dicunt quod quidam Eignion ab 
Seysyllt fait seizitus in dominico suo ut de feodo de tota 
terra que fait & est inter Aquas de Dyvi & Dewlaa tempore 
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth nuper Principis. Et quod terra ilia 
tunc fuit pars & parcella Comoti de Estimaner in Comitatu 
Merioneth & adhuc de jure esse debet. Et quod idem Eignion 
ab Seysyllt terram illam tunc tenuit de Llywelyn Fawr ab 

1 History of the Princes of South Wales. 

2 Hengxvrt MS. 119. 

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Meredith ab Kynan & Llywelyn Fychan fratre ejus dominis 
de Merioneth in capite. Et quod idem Eignion propter dis- 
centionem & discordiam inter ipsos Llywelyn Fawr & Llywelyn 
Fychan et ipsum Eignion tunc habitam fugit ad Owenum 
Kevelock Dominum de Powys & devenit tenens ejus de terra 
predicta et fecit homagium et fidelitatem suam sibi pro terris 
predictis. Et sic hucusque terra ilia tenta fuit. Et est par- 
cella dominorum de Powys iniuste, etc/' 

Record Office. Chancery. Liberate Roll. 43 Henry III, m. 3 


P' Leweuno fil* Mereduci. 

R x vie' Staff r' Salop' saltm\ Quia Lewelinus fil' Mere- 
duci p' nob 1 exhe'datus est, nos de consilio p' teru qui sut de 
consilio n'ro dedim' ei ad sustentacVem suam r' ux sue r* 
libor' suor* xl a marc* a festo Sc'i Pet' ad vincla' anno Jc' 
xliij 8 p' unii annu. Et ii l 1 p'cipim' q'd de exitib' comita- 
tuu tuor* fac' t'rre eide' Lewelino p' d'eas xl* marc*. Et 
comp' ti' ad sce'm. T" ut sa\ [Apud Wind' viij, die Aug.] 

Liberate Roll. 44 Henry III, m. 7. 
P' Lewelino fil' M'eduk. 

R x vu' Stafford r' Sallop* saltm'. Cum nup' mandav' 
imus Witto Bagod q'nda' vie' n'ro Com predcor' p' tre* 
n'rm* de Comput' q'd Lewelino fit* Merednci qui p' nob' ex- 
heredatus est de exitib* eor'dem Comitatuu fae'et h're xl» 
m areas quas ei de cosilio p' ternm qui sunt de cosilio n'ro 
dederain' ad sustentaVoem sue' r> ux* sue libor' qj suor* lu 
idem Lewelinus de ill' xl a marc' a p'fato Will'o decern marcas 
tatumodo recep'it tibi precipim' q'd de exittfyj Comitatuu 
pred'eor' eidem Lewelino residuas triginta marcas h're fac'. 
Et comp* etc. T'ut s a . [T' me ip'o apud Westm* xxx die 
Maij.] P' Justic' r* alios de cosilio R x . 

Einion ab Seisyllt was lineally descended from 
Gwyddno Garan Hir, Prince of the Cantref y Gwaelod. 
which was inundated by the sea in the sixth century, 
and now forms the present bay of Cardigan. Einion 
bore argent, a lion passant, sable, inter three fleurs-de-lys : 
gules ; and was the ancestor of the ancient family of the 
Pughs of Mathafarn and Ktig. (See Edeirnicm.) 


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In 1105, after having been imprisoned by Henry I, for 
four years, Maredydd ab Bleddyn escaped from his 
confinement and regained possession of Powys, which 
he restored to its ancient boundaries, by the acquisition 
of the territories of his brothers, Cadwgan and Iorwerth, 
who were both slain, as before stated, in 1109. 

In 1108, Prince Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn came back 
from Ireland, and put himself under the king's safety, 
and represented to him that he was not concerned in 
the deed of his son Owain. Then he made his peace 
with the king for one hundred pounds, and had pos- 
session of his territory. Before the end of the year, 
Owain came from Ireland to Powys, and endeavoured 
to make his peace with the king, but could not. Then 
Owain became reconciled with Madog ab Rhirid ab 
Bleddyn, between whom there was hatred and enmity 
before ; and they made a mutual compact. Then they 
ravaged the country, and committed depredations in 
their progress, and neither relative nor counsel could 
induce them to do otherwise. 

In 1109, Iorwerth ab Bleddyn, who was called Lord 
of Powys, who had been a long time in prison, pur- 
chased his freedom and territory for three hundred 
pounds ; and after coming to his territory, he expelled 
Owain and Madog ab Rhirid from his country, who 
fled to Ceredigion and Dyfed, doing the utmost mischief 
in their power in their progress, and carried the whole 
of their spoil to Iorwerth's land. A short time after they 
killed some of the king's officers, on which account the 
king was greatly enraged against Cadwgawn, because he 
did not oppose his son Owain, and took the province of 

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Ceredigion from him, and forbad him his country. 1 
Ceredigion was then offered by the king to Gilbert de 
Clare (son of Richard), who became the first English 
Earl of Pembroke in 1138. This Gilbert was a good 
and powerful man, and gladly accepting the kings 
offer, he raised an army for the conquest of Ceredigion ; 
which, having accomplished, he built two castles there, 
one at Aberystwyth, opposite the Church of Padarn, 
and the other at Aberteifi, where the Earl Roger had 
once built one. 2 Gilbert de Clare died in 1148, and 
was succeeded by his son Richard de Clare, surnamed 
Strongbow, second Earl of Pembroke, or, three chev- 
ronels, gales, a label of five points, azure. In the mean- 
time, Cadwgan was honourably entertained in London, 
without being put into prison, but was not allowed, on 
any account, to go back into Wales. 

A short time after this, Madog ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn 
came from Ireland to Wales with some outlaw Irishmen, 
and took up his abode in the territory of his uncle Iorwerth; 
and when Iorwerth knew that, he harrassed him so that 
he was obliged to hide in rocky caves ; and Lly warch 
ab Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, who hated Iorwerth, con- 
federated with them, and they watched Iorwerth, and 
discovered him in the house of a relation of his, at Caer 
Einion, when they came upon him and killed him, and 
burnt the house and everything within it; and when 
King Henry heard that, he gave Powys to Cadwgawn, 
and placed him in his country and territory, and sent 
to Owain in Ireland, and made peace with him, on 
condition that he delivered Madog ab Rhirid, and his 
men, to his disposal, to be dealt with according to law ; 
and when Madog understood that, he projected treachery 
against Cadwgawn, and before long came upon him at 

1 Brut y Tywytogion. 

* Brut y Sae*on. Roger de Montgomerie, Earl of Arundel, became 
Earl of Shrewsbury in 1067. He had two sons — 1, Hugh, who be- 
came Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury in 1094, and died s.p. in 1094; 
and 2, Robert de Belesme, third earl, who was divested of both earl- 
doms in 1102. Azure, a lion rampant in a border or. 

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Welshpool unawares, and mercilessly killed him. there. 
Then Owain went to the king, and purchased his 
land and territory from him, for the value of a hundred 
pounds, in oxen and horses. Then Madog procured 
peace from the king by purchase, and obtained his land 
and territory for the value of a hundred pounds in 

In 1110, Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn took Madog 
ab Rhirid, and gave him to Owain ab Cadwgawn, 
who pulled out his eyes, and set him at liberty; but 
Owain and Maredudd shared his territory, which con- 
sisted of Caer Einion, Aber Rhiw, and the third part 
of Deuddwr, between them. He left a son named Meu- 
rig. About this time, Owain ab Cadwgawn was ravaging, 
without remorse, all around him, being so habituated to 
crimes, that he had no inclination to do otherwise ; and 
Gruffydd ab Cynan determined upon recovering his law- 
ful rights from the hands of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester. 
And when King Henry heard that, he collected a mighty 
army from every district in the island, and came against 
Gwynedd and Powys ; upon which GrufFudd ab Cynan and 
Owain ab Cadwgan removed their men and their goods 
to the mountains of Snowdon ; and the king's men, in 
following them, were miserably slaughtered, without 
being able to injure the Welsh. The following account 
of what took place is from the Brut. 

" Henry, King of England, collected an army from the 
whole island, from Pengwern Pengwaedd in Ireland (Kernyw) 
to Penrhyn Blataon in the north, against Gwynedd and 
Powys. And when Maredudd ab Bleddyn heard that, he 
went to make an alliance with the king; and when Owain 
heard that, he collected all his men and property, and went to 
the mountains of Eryri, for that place was the strongest for 
protection from the enemy. Wherefore the king sent three 
armies, one with Gilbert, Prince of Cornwall, and Britons of 
the south, and the Normans and English of Dyfed, and all the 
south; and another army from the north, and Alban, with two 
princes, in command of them, namely, Alexander, son of Moel 
Cwlwm, and the son of Hugh, Earl of Chester; and the third 
he commanded himself; and then the king came, and his family 


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with him, to the place called Mar Castell, and Alexander and 
the earl went to Pennant Bachwy. In consequence of this, 
Owain sent messengers to Gruflydd ab Cynan and Owain his 
son to order them to make a firm peace between themselves 
against the enemies who were determined to destroy them, or 
to drive them into the sea, so that the name of a Briton might 
perish for ever. And they joined together to make no peace 
or agreement with their enemies. After that, Alexander, son 
of Moel Cwlwm, and the earl with him, sent messengers to 
Gruflydd ab Cynan to demand them to accept the king's peace, 
and to make them great promises, to deceive them, to join with 
them. And the king sent messengers to Owain to ask him to 
accept his peace, and to promise his men so that they could have 
neither help or strength. And Owain would not agree to this. 
And on the spot he saw one coming to him, and saying to him, 
' Be careful and do what you do wisely. Here is Gruffudd and 
Owain his son have accepted the peace with the son of Moel 
Cwlwm and the earl, after promising them to have their land free 
from tribute and taxes (cyllid), nor a castle in it during the 
king's life.' And yet Owain would not agree to this. And again, 
the second time, the king sent messengers to Owain, and with 
them Maredudd ab Bleddyn, his uncle, who, when he saw 
Owain, he said to him, ' Look, that you do not delay to come 
to the king, lest others hinder you from having his friendship'; 
and he believed these words and came to the king. And the 
king welcomed him warmly, with great love and honour. And 
then the king said to Owain, ' As you have so willingly come 
to me, and believed my messengers, I will exalt you and 
raise you up to be the highest and the chief of your nation, 
and I will pay you whatever your nation may ask from you, 
and I will give you all your land free*. And when Gruffudd 
heard that, he sent messengers to the king to ask his peace, 
and the king took him to his peace on condition that he paid 
him a heavy tribute. And the king returned immediately to 

In 1111, Owain ab Cadwgawn, after having accepted 
the king's peace, went to the court of the English 
monarch, and was made a knight, and accompanied the 
king to Normandy, and received great honours from 
him, befitting a traitor from the hand of an English 
king ; for, the greater the deceit of a Welsh chieftain, 
the greater his estimation and honour at the king's hands. 
Prince Gruffudd ab Cynan confirmed to Hugh, Earl of 

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Chester, his men and lands in Tegeingl, Rhiwfawniawg, 
and Mon, so that nothing could be done against him 
ever after. 

In 1112, Sir Owain ab Cadwgawn returned from 
Normandy with the king, and came to Wales, where the 
king visited him honourably. 

In 1115, there was a contention between Hywel, the 
Lord of Rh6s, and Rhiwfawniawg, the son of Rhirid ab 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, and Goronwy, and Rbirid, and 
Llywarch, the sons of Owain ab Edwyn, Prince of 
Tegeingl ; and as it could not be settled, Hywel sent to 
Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn, and to Madog and 
Einiawn, the sons of Prince Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, for 
assistance ; because, in order to defend them and their 
nation, he was keeping that part of the land that fell to 
his share. And they, when they heard that he was 
oppressed by the sons of Owain, collected their men and 
all their friends, as much as they could have ready, 
about 400 horsemen. With these, Prince Maredudd 
advanced to Dyffryn Clwyd, where he encountered the 
army of the sons of Owain ab Edwyn, assisted by a 
large body of men, under the command of their uncle 
Uchdryd ab Owain ab Goronwy, with whom came also 
a great number of Norman troops from Caer Lleon 
(Chester), and there a severe and bloody battle took 
place, in which the best men in Gwynedd and Powys 
were slain, and among them Llywarch ab Owain ab 
Edwyn, and Iorwerth ab Nudd, a noble and illustrious 
man, who had killed and wounded many, and put others 
to flight : and Hywel, by the assistance he received, 
conquered his enemies ; but before long, he died from 
a wound he received in the battle. Then Prince Mare- 
dudd returned home, and the sons of Cadwgan returned 
to Meirion, and took immense spoil with them in spoil 
and cattle. 

In the summer of 1118, King Henry came to Powys 
with a large and strong army against Prince Maredudd 
ab Bleddyn, and Einiawn, and Madog, and Morgan, the 
sons of Prince Cadwgawn. And when they heard it, they 


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sent to Gruffydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, to request 
assistance, but without effect, for Gruffudd would not 
break the king's peace nor afford them asylum. And 
when Maredudd and the sons of Cadwgan heard that, 
they took council, and in that council they had to pro- 
mise the boundaries of their country, and to be under 
their protection. And the king and his army approached 
the confines of Powys, upon which Maredudd sent 
a few young archers to oppose the king in a steep, 
exposed, wooded hill, opposite to the way he was 
approaching, so that they might cause some disturbance 
in the army. And it happened that just as the young 
archers arrived at that place, the king and his army 
arrived there also. And these young men opposed the 
king and his army, and by their shooting they caused a 
great disturbance in the army. And after having killed 
many and wounded others, one of the young men drew 
his bow, and shot into the midst of the army, and that 
shot happened to pierce the king's armour against his 
heart. And the men did not know or think that the 
arrow would pierce the king's armour, because it was so 
thick, for it was a coat of mail, so that the arrow stuck 
fast in it. And the king feared greatly, and great terror 
seized him, as much as if he had been really wounded. 
And he ordered the army to encamp, and to find out 
who had been so daring as to wound him. And he was 
told that it was one of the young men who had been sent 
by Maredudd ab Bleddyn to do it. And he sent mes- 
sengers to ask the young men to come to him, and they 
came ; and he asked them who sent them there, and 
they said that Maredudd had sent them ; and he asked 
them if they knew where Maredudd was, and they 
answered that they did ; and he asked Maredudd to 
accept his peace. And after making that peace, the 
king returned to England, through promising ten thou- 
sand cattle as tribute to Powys, and thus this year ter- 

In 1121, Einiawn abCadwgawn died, and bequeathed 
his land and territory to his brother Maredudd; but 


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Maredudd ab Bleddyn, his uncle, and his cousin Ithael 
ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, took his lands and territory from 
him. And when Gruffydd ab Cynan heard in what 
manner that happened, he sent his two sons, Cadwallawn 
and Owain, with a strong army, to Meirion to do justice, 
and restore to his nephew Maredudd his lands and terri- 
tory. Cadwallawn and Owain subdued Maredudd ab 
Bleddyn, and regained the country for Maredudd ab 
Cadwgawn, and cruelly ravaged the lands of Llywarch 
ab Trahaiarn ab Caradawg for having assisted Maredudd 
ab Bleddyn. 

In 1122, Maredudd ab Bleddyn killed his nephew 
Ithael ab Rhirid ab Bleddyn, and Cadwallawn ab Gruf- 
fudd ab Cynan pulled out the eyes of his uncles, 
Goronwy, Rhirid, and Meilir, the sons of Owain ab 
Edwyn, Prince of Tegeingl. Afterwards, he dismem- 
bered them, and a short time afterwards he killed them. 
About the same time, Morgan ab Cadwgawn ab Bleddyn 
and his brother Maredudd had a dissention, and in this 
quarrel Morgan killed his brother Maredudd with his 
own hand. 

In 1124, Maredudd ab Llywarch was very justly 
imprisoned by Owain ab Gruffydd ab Cynan for pulling 
out the eyes of the sons of Gruffydd, but he broke out 
of prison, and was caught, and his eyes pulled out by the 
sons of Meurig ab Gruffydd, and he was placed upon the 
top of a desert mountain, where he perished from hunger 
and cold ; and so he was requited for his cruelty (p. 81). 

In 1125, Ieuaf ab Owain pulled out the eyes of his two 
brothers, as was usual in the families of Gwynedd and 
Powys ; and in this year Gruffydd, the second son of 
Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn, died. 

In 1126, Llywelyn ab Sir Owain slew Iorwerth ab 
Llywarch ; and soon after Lly welyn's eyes were pulled 
out, and he was emasculated by Maredudd ab Bleddyn ; 
and about the same time Ieuaf ab Owain was killed by 
the same Maredudd ; and soon afterwards, Madog ab 
Llywarch ab Madog was killed by his cousin, Meurig ab 

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Khirid, and before long Meurig had his eyes pulled out 
and was emasculated. 

In 1129, Iorwerth ab Owain was killed by Cad- 
wallawn ab Gruffudd ab Cynan. Then Einion ab 
Owain sought to revenge the death of his brother on 
Cadwallawn, and in conjunction with Cadwgawn ab 
Goronwy ab Owain, knowing where Cadwallawn was to 
come in Nanheudwy, lay in ambush ; and when he came 
that way, rushed upon him and killed him, and gave him 
as meat for dogs. 

In 1130, Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn ab Cynvyn 
died, the ornament, safety, and protection of Powysland, 
after having taken healthful penance for his body, and 
sincere repentance in his spirit, and having taken the 
body of Christ and the oil ac aghen. 

Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn married, first, Eunydd, 
daughter of Eunydd ab Gwernwy, Lord of Dyffryn 
Clwyd. This Eunyd came into Powysland in the time 
of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, and fought under him against 
the English. For his services, fileddyn gave him the 
townships of Trefalun, Almor, y Groesfford in Maelor 
Gymraeg, and Lleprog Fawr, Lleprog Fechan, and Tref- 
nant y Khiw in Tegeingl. He bore azure, a lion salient 
or, armed and langued gules ; quartered with azure, a fess 
or, inter three horses' heads, erased argent. By this 
lady, Maredudd had issue three sons — 1. Madog, of 
whom presently ; 2. Gruffudd, ancestor of the Princes 
of Upper Powys. He bore or, a lion's gamb erased 
bendways gules. He conquered Cyfeiliawg, Mawddwy, 
and half of Penllyn in 1113, and died in his father's life- 
time in 1125 ; and 3. Hywel, who was slain by his own 
men in 1140, and left a daughter and heiress, Angharad, 
who married ab Iorwerth ab Llywarch ab Br&n, Lord of 
Cwmmwd Menai. Maredudd had also a daughter 
named Dyddgu, who was married to Cadwallawn ab 
Gruffydd ab Cynan, who was slain in Nanheudwy 
in 1129. 

Prince Maredudd married, secondly, Eva, or Christian, 
daughter and heiress of Bledrws ab Ednowain Bendew, 


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who bore argent, a chevron gules inter three boars* heads 
couped sable. By this lady he had issue two sons — 1. 
Iorwerth Goch, of Cae Hywel, in the parish of Kinnersley, 
who had part of Tre'r Main in Meivod, Burgedin Hope, 
and Whittington. He married Maude, daughter of Sir 
Richard de Manley, of Cheshire, Knight, by whom he 
was ancestor of the Kynastons, Parrys of Main, 
Matthewses of Tref Nannau, Maurices of Bryn y 
Gwaliau and Bodynfol, and the Pryses of Cyfronydd. 
2. David ab Maredudd ab Bleddyn, who had part of 
Burgedin, Whittington, and Tre'r Main. He married 
Arddun, daughter of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn, Lord of 
Maelor Gymraeg, who was slain in Lleyn by Gruffudd 
ab Cynan in 1074, by whom he had issue Ithel Goch, of 
Burgedin, ancestor of the Rogerses, of that place. 
Lewys Dwnn (vol. i, p. 136) mentions another daughter 
of Maredudd ab Bleddyn, named Jane, who married 
Iorwerth ab Trahaiarn, Lord of Cydewen, whose only 
daughter and heiress, Arianwen, married Cadavael, Judge 
of the Court of Powys, then held at the Castell Dinas 
Bran, and thus Cadavael became Lord of Cydywaun 
(see p. 82). Maredudd ab Bleddyn had likewise three 
illegitimate sons — 1. Hywel ab Maredudd ; 2. Cadwgan 
ab Maredudd; and 3. Adda ab Maredudd, who had 
lands in Main. 

Maredudd ab Bleddyn, at his death, in 1130, divided 
his principality of Powys into two portions. The upper 
part, subsequently called Powys Wenwynwyn, he gave 
to his grandson, Owain Cyfeiliawg, the son of his second 
son Gruffudd, who had conquered Cyfeilawg, Mawddwy, 
and half of Penllyn from Uchdryd ab Edwyn ab 
Goronwy in 1113. The remaining portion of Powysland 
Maredudd gave to his eldest son Madog, which, from him 
was called Powys Fadog. 

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HarU MS., 2299. 

Maredndd ab Bleddyn ab Cynvyn. 

Hywel. He had part of « 
Main in Meivod. | 

Cadwgan bad part of 


. had part of 

Maredndd Hln. 

Angharad, d. of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn. Ieuan of =7 
Hywel ab Cynan ab Tad- BlodweL 
wal ab Gru ffydd ab Cynan. | 

Jane, ux. Shirid Foel, jure uioria of Blodwel. 

B hys ab Maredndd. = = 

Ma redndd ab Bhys.^ 

Maredydd Fychan, of==Lleucu, d. of Hwfa ab Iorwerth, of Havod y Wern. 
Abertanad. ] Sable, three lions passant in pal e argent. 

Eva, nz. Madog ab 
Samwel ab Cada- 
vael Yr Ynad, 
Lord of Oyde- 

Ednyfed.— Cynwrig. 


■Mali, d. of Goronwy 
ab Iorwerth ab Hy- 
wel ab Moreiddig 

Bhys; his daughter and heiress 
Jane married David Bromfield, of 
Bhiwabon, ab Gruffydd ab Madog. 

Lleucu, ux. Madog 
Goch ab Ieuaf, of 
Lloran Uchat 

Catherine, ux. Ior- 
werth Fychan ab 
Iorwerth Foel, of 
Mynydd Mawr. 


Ieuan ab Llwelyn ab Hywel ab Maredydd ab Llewelyn ab Hywel,= 
illegitimate son of Maredndd ab Bleddyn ab Cynvyn . | 

Llywelyn. =Angharad, d. of Ieuan Blaeney ab Philip ab Ieuan Fychan ab 
Ieuan ab Bhys ab Llawdden, Lord of Uwch Aeron. QvXes, a 
griffin segreant or. 

Bhys.=Anghared, d. of Maredndd ab 
Hywel ab Gruffydd Moel ab 
Hywel ab Adda Fawr ab 
Adda ab Gwgan ab Rhys 
ab Tudor Mawr. 

Mare- : 


Goleubryd, d. 

of Ieuan ab 

Bhys ab 



Gwenllian, ux. David Lloyd ab 
David ab Bhydderch. 

)igiti; ed by LiOOQ 



Hywel of Rhos y=. Margaret, d. of Gruffydd ab Ieuan ab 

Garreg in Pene 

goes in Cy« 


Buys Wynn,; 

of Rhoe y 


Maredudd ab Rhys ab Ieuan ab 
David Goch, of Caelan, in Llanbryn- 
xnair, in Cyfeiliog. 

Hywel. =p 

Mabli, d. and heiress of Maredydd ab 
Gruffydd ab Maredudd ab Hywel ab 
Rhys ab Owen Fychan, of Cyfeiliog, 
ab Owain ab Gruffydd ab Gwen ab 
Goronwy ab Einion ab Seisyllt. Ar- 
gent, a lion passant sable, inter three 
fleurs-de-lys gules. (See p. 99.) 



John Bhydd- 
Lloyd, erch, 

ob. ob. s.p. 


Catherine, ==-Richard, of D61 Mallt. 

heiress of 

of Hugh ab Ieuan, of 
Mathafarn. Argent, a 
lion passant sable, inter 
three fleurs-de-lys gules. 

Goch. 1 





ab Rhys ab David ab 
Hywel Fychan, of 

Goch ab 
ab Ieuan ab 
Thomas ab 
Perkin Cor- 

Rowland Pugh, Gruffydd Pueh, Jane, ux. Richard 
" ~ ' ~ of Dol y Fondu. Lloyd, of Nant- 

of Dol y Cors- 

(See p. 99.) 


Argent, a lion rampant sable, 


The first thing mentioned with regard to Madog in 
the Bruts, is that, in 1138, he put Cynwrig, one of the 
illegitimate sons of Prince Owain Gwynedd, to death. 
In 1139, Madog ab Idnerth ab Cadwgan, Prince of 
Maelienydd died. In 1140, Hywel ab Maredudd ab 
Bleddyn was slain, some state by his own people, but 

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others state that no one knew who killed him. In 
1142, Hywcl and Cadwgawn, the sons of Madog ab 
Idnerth ab/Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of 
Fferlis, were slain. (See Hist, of the Parish Llangurig, 
p. 341, and also pp. 351 and 357, where the elegy on 
his death, by Llygad Gwr, and translated by Howel W. 
Lloyd, Esq., is given.) These two princes were slain by 
the contrivance of Elias de Saii, or Say, 1 son of Hugh 
de Say, who, with Roger Mortimer, was worsted by 
Rhys ab Gruffydd in an attempt to defend Radnor in 
1144. In 1143, Randolph de Gernoniis, Earl of Chester, 
ravaged Maelienydd, and added it to his own dominions, 
and erected the castles of Elvael and Colynwy. 

In 1145, Meurig ab Madog ab Rhirid, and Maredudd 
ab Madog ab Idnerth ab Cadwgan were killed by Hugh 
Mortimer. In this same year, Owain Gwynedd, Prince 
of North Wales, took the Castle of Mont Alto or Mold, 
and slew immense hosts of the English and Normans, 
who attempted to support and defend it, and razed it to 
the ground, which nobody before that had been able to 
take. This castle was built by Robert, son and heir of 
Ralph Fitz Norman, one of the barons of Hugh Lupus, 
nephew of the Conqueror, who became Earl falatine of 
Chester in 1070. This Robert attacked and slew Y 
Gwion ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of I&l and Ystrad 
Alun, and took possession of the lordship of Ystrad 
Alun, and built this castle, where was a high and con- 
spicuous tumulus called Y Wydd Grug, and from 
thence took his surname of "De Monte Alto". This 
Robert de Mont Alto had issue, Robert, his son and heir, 
who was the father of Roger, who was reputed one of 
the greatest barons of the realm, temp. Henry III, and 

* Helias de Say, Lord of Colynwy or Clun, bore gules, two bars 
vair6e, argent and azure. His only daughter and heir, Isabel, Lady 
of Cluu, married William FitzAlan, by whom she had a son and 
heir William FitzAlan, Baron of Clun, who died 19th Henry II, 1173, 
and was father of John FitzAlan, Baron of Clun, who married Isabel, 
sister and heir of Hugh de Albini, fifth Earl of Arundel, of that house, 
who died s. p. in 1243. Gides, a lion rampant or, armed and langued 

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attended Prince Edward to the Holy Land. He died 
44 Henry III, 1260, leaving, by Cecilia his wife, second 
sister and coheir of Robert de Albini, Earl of Arundel 
{gules, a lion rampant or), two sons, John and Robert, 
and a daughter Leucha, wife of Philip de Oreby the 
younger. John, deceased s.p., leaving Robert his bro- 
ther his heir, who had two sons, Roger and Robert, of 
whom Roger, summoned to Parliament, 23 Edward I, 
1295, died s.p. 25 Edward I, 1297, leaving Robert his 
brother his heir, who had summons to Parliament from 
28 Edward I to 3 Edward III, 1330, in which year he 
deceased s.p., having settled his lands, for want of male 
issue, on Isabel, Queen of England, mother of Edward 
III, for life, and afterwards to John of Eltham, brother 
of the king, and his heirs for ever. 

In 1148, Prince Owain Gwynedd built a castle in 
141, and in the autumn, Madog ab Maredudd, Prince of 
Powys Fadog, built the Castle of Oswestry, and gave 
Cyfeiliog to his nephews, Owain, and Meurig ab Grunydd 
ab Bleddyn. 

In 1150, Madog ab Meredudd joined his forces with 
those of Randolphus de Gernoniis, Earl of Chester (or, 
a lion rampant gules, his tail erect), and marched against 
Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, and was, with 
the earl, totally defeated, after a great slaughter at the 
battle of Consyllt in Tegeingl ; and in 1152-3, Ran- 
dolphus, Earl Palatine of Chester, the most powerful 
enemy of Owain Gwynedd, died. 

In 1155, Prince Madog ab Maredudd built the castle 
of Caer Einion in Powys, near Cymer, and took his 
nephew, Meurig ab Gruffydd, out of prison, and soon 
after this he consecrated Eglwys Fair in Meivod. He built 
also the castle of Overton, which he made his chief resi- 
dence, from which circumstance the place received the 
name of Overton Madog. 

In 1156, Cadwaladr, son of GrufFudd, and Madawg ab 
Maredudd, incited King Henry to devastate Gwynedd ; 
and when Prince Owain Gwynedd understood that, he 
assembled an army against him, and in the action of 

VOL. i. | 8 

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Coed Eulo they were slaughtered as if devoured. And 
Owain overcame them with honour, although he had only 
one man to every ten of Henry. And during these pro- 
ceedings, Iorwerth Goch, the son of Prince Maredudd ab 
Bleddyn, took the castle of 141 and demolished it. Then 
the king made peace with Prince Owain, and Cadwaladr 
obtained his territory. 1 Among those who greatly dis- 
tinguished themselves in the army of Prince Owain Gwy- 
nedd in the several engagements at Coed Eulo, was 
Carwed, Lord of Twrcelyn in Mon, and his son Tegerin. 
Car wed bore sable, an oak tree, fructed, or, the stem 
crossed by two arrows, saltierways, pointed upwards, 
argent, and his son Tegerin, who was ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Llwydiarth yn Mon, bore or, a falcon, sur- 
gerant, azure, beaked and membered gules. 


Iorwerth aer gannerth eur ganhorthuy kyrd 

Nyt kerdaur nyu moluy 

Nyt cablaut ya molaut may 

Moli hael mal y haeduy 
Haeduys deifnauc ri devnyd vymbardaur 

Lluru llavnaur llaur llaurydd 

Llary Hit aerleu lieu lluyd 

Lleissyaun Has y hynevyd 
Hynevyd arglwyd ar eurglaur Powys 

Porthes glwys gloes waewaur 

Glyw lovrud geieurud gaur 

Glewdrut golut geloraur 
Bu gelyn bryneich branes gyvuyrein 

Bard goelvein beird gyvles 

Bleidgruydyr bruydyr brydeu aches 

Bryt yn arvot a dodes 
Ny dodes vygkerd ygkyvreit eryoet 

Dreic argoet hoed hydyrveith 

Hirwaur toryf coryf ky varweith 

Hirvalch gwalch gwae ui oe leith 

1 The Rev. R. W. Eyton, M.A., states that this battle was fought 
in July 1157. — See Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological 
Society, Part I, vol. ii, 1878, p. 24. 

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Lleithicluyth hyduyth hyd wasgar o gat 
' Brwysc luchiat breisc lachar 

/ Ef oed leu oed lyw trydar 

Ef oed lary o lin gasnar 
Kaswallaun eissyor eisseu y dyvot 

Balch arvot bwlch arveu 

beleidyr reeidyr rudgreu 

beleidryat kat kigleu 
Kigleu beleidyr briu brith o gyvergyr 

gwaet gwyr y ar wlith 

A gwyach hylef hylith 

A guydva bleid yn y blith 
blith guyrd a chyrd a chein amser guin 

A guiraut wrth leuuer 

Berth yt borthynt amniver 

Am Iorwerth amnwych nerth ner 
Aervlaud kyvadraud ky vadref kerdeu 

Cledyr cadeu kat wodef 

Ny tholyes bud beird achref 

Ny tholyir guaut guedi ef 
Ef oed gatvarchauc get verchyr am cluyf 

Cledyvrud nyt etkyr 

Gueilchlyu glyu gleidraut eryr 

Gwalchlann ganuerth gualchnerth guyr 
Gur y gaur dyraur deryu ygkreulan 

Hael am rann am ruythvyu 

Bu truy lewyt voes gloes glyu 

Nyt o lyvyrder y deryu 
Kan deryu dor glyu glot diogan hael 

Kann bu guael an guahan 

Ny chel vykerd vygkuyvnan 

Ny chud vyggrud vyggridvan 
Gridvan darogan drycyruerth am cluyf - t 

Clotvan ruyf ruydget nerth 

Aernalch balch bulch y darmerth 

Aryf taryf toryf agor yoruerth 1 

Iorwerth aer ganuerth eur ganhorthuy kyrd. 

In 1156, King Henry brought his army as far as 
Morfa Caer Lleon (Saltney), and there he encamped, 
and against him Owain Gwynedd and his army came 
as far as Dinas Basing, and there he measured the ground 
for a castle and raised great walls. And when the king 

1 Aerdoryf. 

I 82 

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heard it he sent the princes, the earls, and barons, and a 

Seat army with them to that place, and against them 
avid ab Owain came as far as Traeth Caer and slew 
them. And when the king saw this, he collected his 
whole army and went along the shore to Rhuddlan, and 
Owain came to Tal Llwyn Pennant to measure ground 
for a castle, to drive the king and his army from there. 
And from there came Madawg, Prince of fowys, and a 
large part of the king's army with him in ships to Aber 
Menai, and then they came to Mon and sacked the 
church of Eglwys Fair and Eglwys Pedr, and many 
other churches. And thus did God revenge upon them, 
for the following day the young men of Mon came to 
fight with them, and the Normans fled, and a great 
many of them were killed, others drowned, and a very 
few of them narrowly escaped to their ships. And then 
Henry, the son of King Henry, was slain, and all the 
princes of the ships were slain, and then peace was made 
between the king and Owain, and Cadwaladr had his 


Add. MS., No. 14,869, /o. 65.— No. 33. 


Ardwyreaf naf o naw ran vyg kert 
O naw rif angert o naw ryw vann 
T voli gwron gwrhyd ogyrnan 
Goruu morgymlawt ae goglawfc glam 
Pargoch glyw glewdraws maws mab kadaan 
Pell yd wletych wyr wledic aruan 
Pergig kyniweir peir pedrydan 
Pedrydawc uadawc narchawc midlan 
Vy martlef is nef nyd agkyuan 
Vy marteir yth barth nyd gwarth nyd gwan 
Taer am aer am gaer am gein walchlan 
Tew am lew trylew treul aryangan 
Taryf am gelennic toryf am galan 

1 Brut y Saeson. 

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Twryf sonn fraeth am draeth am draed gwylan 
Peryerin yg govur yg gouan vyg gwawd 

pergnawd parch volawd ual nad diulan 
Ercliwynyawc esgar ysgwyd trywan 
Yp yueis yth lys leissyawn gyman 
Eurmydedawc lynn erbyn eurbann 
Eurgyrn buelm bueilgyrn bann 
Eiryoed y pertheif parth ac attan 
Emys llaw llamhir a dan Human 
Ercnlyayn arcblyn keirw vch cein ebran 
Eiliw pysgawd glas gleissyad dylan 
Ermid y greulaw ar y grealan 
Eryr argyarein yr yn gyngran 
Enjyrwaew kynkad ar ueirch kynkan 
Erlynyad uleinyad vleit kyuvaran 
Arwar uyg gwrtuar ar uyg gwrtvan rwyf 

Canwyf py ganwyf cad clwyf cluduan 
Eanaf can karaf can wyf gwaethyluann 
Kano kert am borth am byrth cloduan 
Kyfodwch kenwch kenyf om baun 
A mi neirt y mewn a chwi allan. 



Translated by Howel W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

A Sovereign Prince will extol, of nine parts is my poem, 
With all the force of numbers nine — nine are its topics, 
A hero 'tis to celebrate, Gogyrfan's like in stature. 
As rolls the surge from off the sea, — the coast line scarcely 
stems it — 

1 Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, one of the most celebrated of the 
Welsh bards, flourished from about 1150 to 1200. He was bard to 
the Princes Owain Gwynedd, Madog ab Maredudd ab Bleddyn, and 
David ab Owain Gwynedd. Many of his poems are preserved, and 
are valuable for the historical notices contained therein, as well as for 
the excellence of the poetry, which proves that his fame was no more 
than he was entitled to. His works are published in the first volume 
of the Myvyrian Archaiology y and comprise fifty-four pages in double 
columns. He was in advance of the age he lived in, and he was a 
decided enemy of the superstitions of his time. We learn from an 
Englyn by him, that during his last illness, the monks of Ystrad 

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E'en so the valour stubborn is of Cadvan's gentle scion. 
Thou chieftain of the crimson spear, o'er Arran's men who 

rulest, / 

Protector roving far and wide, Madog, mayst thou govern 
"With all pervading energy, a perfect knight in tourney 1 
Beneath the vault of Heaven is my Bardic voice unbroken, 
In thy regard my Bardic speech hath neither shame nor 

True to the hero fair and pure, the fortress and the battle. 
It courts the brave, whose bounteous wealth on song is e'er 

And scatters largess lavishly, his heart is in his people, 
As bounds the billow on the strand, and under feet of sea-mew, 
A pilgrim of the hill and forge, am I with panegyric, 
"Whose praise shall ne'er from mem'ry fade, with its sweet 

rev' rent greeting. 
O thou, whose shield pierced through and through, hath e'er 

repelled the foeman, 
How oft have I, a guest within thy lovely court of Lleision, 
Quaff d oft, received in golden cup, the golden-waving liquor ! 
The gilded horns of buffalo — the lofty horns of oxen. 
Hast thou to us directed aye, and standard bearing coursers, 
The steeds that stretch their striding limbs, far reaching in 

their gallop, 
Their colour that of fishes blue, the salmon of the ocean. 
Their bodies those of slender stags, fine provender consuming, 
In conflict on his gory field, his hand is gory ever, 
An eagle he to tear his prey since first he was a chieftain, 
On steeds with foreheads white he thrusts his spear in van of 

With "Wolf-like bearing doth he lead the chase of flying 


Marchell, in Powys, sent a deputation to him with a requisition that 
he should renounce his errors, and make satisfaction to the Church, 
threatening, in case of non-compliance, that he should be excom- 
municated and deprived of Christian burial. His answer may be 
thus translated, " Since no covenant could be produced against me, 
which the God of purity knoweth, it would have been more just in 
the monks to receive than to reject me" (Myv. Arch., i, 263). Wil- 
liams's Eminent Welshmen. The lines he sent the monks were these : 

" Cen ni bai ammod dyfod — i'm herbyn 
A Duw gwyn yn gwybod 
Oedd iawnach i fynach fod j 

Im gwrthefyn nag im gwrthod." 

Myvyrian Archaiology, p. 290. 


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Bat cease! my wrath is soothed, that for my high-soul' d 

prince was rising, 
Be it of whomso'er I sing, a mighty plague in battle ! 
I sing, because I love, because with loud contention striving, 
A song around the glorious gates for some to aid me singing. 
Arise, and sing ! the brimful horn is my secure possession ; 
For I, Bards ! am safe within, and ye without the palace. 

Prince Madog ab Maredudd married, first, Susanna, 
daughter of Gruffydd ab Cynan ab Iago, King of Gwy- 
nedd, gules, three lions passant in pale argent. He 
married, secondly, an English, or rather a Norman, lady, 
Maude, daughter of Roese de Verdun, upon whom he 
settled the lordship of Oswestry, on herself for life, and 
afterwards upon his children by her. This marriage 
proved to be a most unhappy and unfortunate one, and, 
in the end, caused the prince's ruin. In consequence of 
disagreements she left the prince, her husband, and went 
to Henry II, King of England, for the purpose, as she 
alleged, of laying her case before him. The king upon 
this sent to Madog requesting him to come and state hid 
cause before the judges appointed for causes of this 
nature, and to come for that purpose to Winchester, and, 
at the same time, desiring him not to bring more than 
four and twenty horse with him. The Lady Maude was 
to bring no more with her. On the day appointed for 
the meeting, Madog arrived with the four and twenty- 
horsemen after him, as had been agreed upon. Maude 
came also with twenty-four horses, but two men on each 
horse; and then, by direct treachery and treason, Madog 
was overpowered, caught and thrown into prison at 
Winchester ; and for this purpose it was that the king 
and Maude allured him from his own country and 
friends, that when they got him into their own power 
they might compel him to settle the lordship of Oswestry 
upon her, and the heirs of her body, by whomsoever 
they might be begotten. 

Thus betrayed by his wife, and by one whom he had 
always aided in war and trusted as his friend, Madog 
languished in the prison of Winchester, with no friend 


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near him, till death freed him from his misery in the 
year 1159. 1 

His body, we are told, was conveyed from Winchester 
with great pomp to Powys-land, and honourably interred 
in the church of St. Tyssilio, at Meivod. Other writers, 
however, say that he was buried in St. Mary's Church at 
Meivod, which he had consecrated in 1155. Our his- 
torians tell us that he was a prince who honoured God, 
and relieved the poor and indigent. 

"After life's fitful fever he sleeps well, 
Treason has done her worst : no steel, nor poison, 
Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing 
Can touch him farther." 

" Since he lost his life, may he in recompense for the 
flagitious injustice, remain in the glorious hierarchy of 
Saints, in the presence of grace, in perfect bliss. Amen." 
(See his Elegy by Cynddelw y Brydydd Mawr, p. 137). 

After the death of Madog, Maude married John Fitz 
Alan, Earl of Arundel and Baron of Colynwy, now 
called Ciun, who died in 1268, by whom she had a son, 
John Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel and Baron of Oswestry 
and Clun ; " and this", says Rhys Cain,* " was the way 
how the English obtained the lordship of Oswestry". 8 

Prince Madog ab Maredydd, had issue by his first 
consort, Susanna, the daughter of Gruffydd ab Cynan ab 
Iago, King of Gwynedd, four sons and three daughters, 

I. Gruftydd Maelor, of whom presently. 

li. Llywjelyn ab Madog, who is called in the Bruts 
"the hope of all Powys". He was slain just after his 
fathers death in 1159. How or where is not stated. 
The following stanzas were composed by the bard Cyn- 

1 Cae Cyriog MS. , 

2 Rhys Cain was a poet and painter who flourished about the year 
1500. He was born in the parish of Trawsfynydd in Meirioneddshire, 
on the river Cain, whence he assumed his name ; but he resided the 
greatest part of his life in Oswestry. He was a disciple of William 
Lleyn's, " and was a perfect man, and hath written concerning all 
Wales".— Lewye Bwnn, vol. i, 331 ; Williams's Eminent Wel&men. 

3 Cae Cyriog 2£S. 

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A gant Ctoddelw i Gynydion Llywelyn am Madawc am Maredud 
ac i'w gym o achos rodi iddo y Carw a ladassant yn ymyl 
ei dy. A llyma yr Enlynion. 

Belch ei fugannawr ban nefawr ei lef 
Pan gauer cyrn cydawr 
Corn Llywelyn llyw Uuydfawr 
Bon ehang blaen hang bloedfawr. 
Corn wedi Had corn Uawen 
Corn llugynawr Llywelyn 
Corn gwyd gwydr ai can 
Corn rueinell yn ol gellgwn. 



By Lltwabch Llew Cad. 

Gofynnwys nebun, ny bu raen gan rei 

Cyn rndaw haerngaen 
Pa was a wisg e laesgaen 
Pa walch y w y balch o'r blaen. 

Lleissiawn werennic o ranned dyall 

Nid arall ae harwed 
Llyw glyw glew tinhangryud 
Llywelyn gelyn Gwynei 

Pieu yr ysgwyt esgutwal cynnwau 

At canwaew am y tal 
Pwy'r glew llew llit aer ddywal 
Ae deily cyfrwng dwy brennial. 


Has no one asked ? — Have none been anxions to know, 
Before his iron garb be stained with red, 
. What yonth is he that wears his glittering vestment, 
What hero is the stately person in front ? 

An exalted chieftain is he, we give to know, 

None other wears them ; 
A leader bold, daring and warlike, 
Llywelyn, the enemy of Gwynedd. 

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Whose is the shield rapidly moved, of noble rank, 

With the burnished lance in its front ? 
Who is the hero of lion wrath, dauntless in battle, 
Who grasps it by its two handles f 

It is the shield of Llywelyn, the chief of his country's honour, 

Such is that shield, we do assert, 
A shield with a shoulder in it ; 
A shield with terror in its front. 

Whose is the sword so boldly brandished, 

Of inevitable wounds ? 
Renowned champion ! doubtless it will be related, 
How it committed slaughter in his right hand. 

He that brandishes it is the defender of dwellings ; 

Amidst the rapid hewing down 
Of the besieging combatants, in the day of battle, — 
He is the hero of Mechain, the glory of his country. 

Whose is the helmet of the red-visaged battle, 

With the fierce wolf on its summit ? 
Who is the valiant one on the grey steed ? 
What is his name of such distinguished rank ? 

He is called the long-handed Llywelyn, 

The chieftain who terminates the tumults of the land ; 
Loud is the battle shout of his warriors, 
The ravager of Lloegyr. 

Whose is the coat of mail, compact, unyielding ? 

It will not retreat till death — 
What man is he of noble extraction ? 
We demand before all what is his origin ? 

He is the renowned and valiant leader ; 

He is bold and slaughtering ; 
Powerful with the mighty lance, wrathful in conflict ; 
The son of Madawg, the son of Maredudd. 

Whose is the war-horse, daring the foremost ranks 

With the fearless march ? 
And the warrior enjoying the respect of his followers ? 
And the spear with the impetuous thrust ? 

He is a firm support, 

As long as God continues with him. 
The vanquisher of warriors, manly, and fame-enjoying, 
The protector of the congregation of Tysilio." 

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in. Owain ab Madog, Lord of Mechain is y Coed, 
argent, a lion rampant sable, in a border indented gules. 
In 1164 he, together with his cousin, Owain Cyfeiliog, 
son of GrufFydd ab Maredudd ab Bleddyn, took the ter- 
ritory of their uncle, Iorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant, 
and shared it between them. In this partition, Mochnant- 
is-Rhaiadr fell to Owain ab Madog, and Mochnant-Uwch- 
Rhaiadr to Owain Cyfeiliog. The Bmt y Saeson states 
that these two princes and Maredudd ab Hywel, 1 one of 
the illegitimate sons of Prince Maredudd ab Bleddyn, 
seized upon the Castle of Careg Hwfa, which belonged 
to Iorwerth Goch, 2 after which they took the territory. 
This Maredudd is styled in the Genealogies Maredudd 
H£n, to distinguish him from his grandson, Maredydd ab 
Rhys. 3 Owain, or Owain Fychan ab Madog, as he is 
sometimes called, kept possession of Careg Hwfa Castle, 4 
which he seems to have made his chief residence. 

In 1167, the Lord Rhys ab Gruffydd, Prince of South 
Wales, together with Owain Gwynedd and his brother 
Cadwaladr, Princes of North Wales, came against Owain 
Cyfeiliawg, Prince of Upper Powys, who had allied him- 
self with the English. They took from him Caer Einion, 
which they gave to his cousin, Owain Fychan, son of 
Madog ab Maredudd, Prince of Powys Fadog. 

In 1186, Llywelyn, son of Prince Cadwallon ab Gruf- 

1 Brvt y Saeson. 2 Brut y Tywysoyion. 3 See p. 110. 

4 Careg Hwfa Castle stood in the township of that name, on the 
banks of the river Y Vvrnwv. 

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fydd ab Cynan, who had been put to death by the En- 

flish, was deprived of his eyesight in the Castle of Careg 
Iwfa by his brethren ; and, in a.d. l'l87, Gwenwynwyn, 
Prince of Powys Uchaf, and his illegitimate orother, 
Caswallawn ab Owain Cyfeiliog, captured this castle in a 
treacherous nocturnal attack, and immediately assassin- 
ated its lord, Owain Fychan ab Madog, after he had had 
possession of it for twenty-three years. 

Owain ab Madog, Lord of Mechain is y Coed, married 
Gwladys, daughter (by Angharad his wife, daughter of 
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales) of Mael- 
gwn Fychan, one of the lords of Ceredigion, son of Mael- 
gwn Mawr, an illegitimate son of the Lord Rhys ab 
Gruffudd, Prince of South Wales, by whom he had issue 
two sons — 1. Owain Fychan, of whom presently ; and 2. 
Llywelyn ab Owain, who died s. p. ; and a daughter, 
Tangwystl, who married Hwfa ab Iorwerth of Havod y 
Wern, in Maelor Gymraeg, sable, three lions passant in 
pale argent. 

Owain Fychan, Lord of Mechain Isgoed, married 
Gwladys, daughter of Maredudd ab Owain ab Gruffydd 
ab Yr Arglwydd Rhys, Prince of South Wales, by whom 
he had a son and heir, Llywelyn, the father of Llywelyn 
Fychan, the father of Maredudd, the father of Madog of 
Mechain is y Coed, who had two daughters coheirs. — 
1. Gwerfyl, who married Gruffydd of Maelor Saesneg, 
second son of Iorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, Maelor, 
Saesneg, and Nanheudy, and jure uxorie of Abertanad 
and Blodwel in Mechain ; and, 2. Angharad, who mar- 
ried David le Clerk, Baron of Malpas, argent, cross 
flory sable. 

iv. Elissau ab Madog, Lord of Edeyrnion. In 1183, 
he gave to the monks of Ystrad Marchell the land 
called Llecheudin, in the parish of Gwyddelwern in 
Edeyrnion; and, in 1198, he gave to the same abbey 
other lands in Gwyddelwern, and by the same charter 
confirmed the grant of the lands of Eskengainog, which 
had been made to the monks of Ystrad Marchell by his 
predecessor, Maredudd ab Hywcl, Lord of Edeyrnion, in 

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1176. The witnesses to both these charters were Ior- 
werth Saeth Marchog and Hywel ab Ithael. In 1202, 
Elissau refused to join Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of 
North Wales, against Prince Gwenwynwyn, and, there- 
fore, after the clergy and religious had concluded a peace 
between them, the territory of Elissau was taken from 
him, and ultimately, out of compassion, there was given 
him for his maintenance, in charity, the Castle of Crogen 
(Chirk Castle), with seven small townships. 

The three daughters of Madog ab Maredudd were, 
Margaret, consort of Iorwerth Drwyndwn ; Gwenllian, 
consort of the Lord Ehys ab GrufFydd, Prince of South 
Wales ; and Eva. 

Besides these, Madog had three illegitimate sons, 
viz. — 

Owain Brogyntyn was the illegitimate son of Prince 
Madog ab Maredudd, by a daughter of the Maer Ddu, 
or Black Mayor of RAg, in Edeyrnion. He resided at 
Brogyntyn, near Oswestry, whence he assumed his sur- 
name, and some remains of fortifications, called Castell 
Brogyntyn, mark the site of bis abode. His dagger and 
cup were long preserved at RAg. Owain, who was a 
young man of great promise, was made by his father 
Lord of Dinmael, and, after the deposition of his half 
brother, Elissau, in 1202, he appears to have become 
Lord of Edeyrnion also. He was living in 1215, as he, 
together with his two sons, Cadwgawn and Hywel, were 
witnesses to a deed from Owain de Brithdir, confirming 

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, to the monks of Strata Florida all their lands in Ar- 
/ wystli, dated 1215. 1 Owain Brogyntyn is also stated 
to have made a grant to the Abbey of Basingwerke, in 
Tegeingl, " of a certain water in Penthlinn, called Thlin- 
tegyd, and all the pasture of the said land of Penthlin". 
This was witnessed by Reyner, who was Bishop of St. 
Asaph from 1186 to 1224, and by Ithel, Owain's chap- 
lain. 2 He also gave " Wenhewm", with all the men of 
the same township, and with their appurtenances. This 
last gift was confirmed by David ab Lly welyn, Prince of 
North Wales, who also confirmed the donation of the 
Lord Lly welyn his father, " of the lands and pastures of 
Penllyn, by measures and divisions which are named in 
my father's charter, which they hold of it". This charter 
was given at Coleshill,, but no mention is made 
of Owain Brogyntyn having given Llyn Tegid, or the 
pastures of Penllyn, to the abbey. 

Owain Brogyntyn married, first, Sioned, the daughter 
of Hywel ab Madog ab Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab Elystan 
Glodrudd. This Hywel ab Madog was slain by the ma- 
chinations of Helias de Saii or Say, Lord of Clun, in 
1142. 8 By this lady, Owain had no issue. He married, 
secondly, Marred or Margaret, daughter of Einion ab 
Seisyllt, Lord of Mathavern in Cyfeiliog {argent, a lion 

Eassant sable, inter three fleurs-de-lys gules), by whom he 
ad three sons — 1. Gruffydd, Baron of Yr Hendwr, 
Branas Uchaf, Branas Isaf, and Gwynodl in Edeyrnion ; 
2. Bleddyn, Lord of Dinmael ; and 3. Iorwerth, Baron 
of Cymmer and Llangar, in Edeyrnion. "Ar Varred 
oedd vam plant Owain Brogyntyn medd Llyvr Sion 
"Wynn ab Davydd ab Gruffri." 4 An account of the de- 
scendants of Owain Brogyntyn will be found in the April, 
July, and October numbers of the Archceologia Cam- 
brensis for 1877. 

The other two illegitimate sons of Madog ab Mare- 
dudd were twins, viz,, Einion Efell and Cynwrig Efell. 

1 Bye-Gones, TF., 1876. * Sebright MS. 

3 History of the Paris/i of Llangurig, pp. 351-57. 

4 Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, 109. 

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Emos Efell, Lord of Cynllaith ir Iarll, bore party 
per fess sable and argent, a lion rampant counterchanged. 
He -lived at Llwyn y Maen, near Oswestry, and died in 
1196. He married Arddun, daughter of Madog Fychan 
ab Madog ab Einion Hael. He was the ancestor of the 
families of Maurice of Lloran Uchaf, Maurice of Pen y 
Bont or Glan Cynllaith, Maurice of Tref Edryd, of Farm, 
of Cefn Hir and Cae Hir, Kyffin of Glasgoed and Bod- 
fach, Swynae of Maenan, Tanat of Abertanad, Lloyds of 
Aston, of Foords, and of Pentref Coed ; Powels of Whit- 
tington Park, Wynn of Moel Iwrch, Lloyds of Moelfre, 
Hughes of Llanarmon Mynydd Mawr, Daniel of Cefn yr 
Odfa, Davies of Pentref Cae, Edward ab Thomas of 
Llangynhafal, Maurice of Cwm Blawty, and Hughes of 
Pentref Back 

Cynwrio Efell, Lord of Y Glwysegl, bore gules, on 
a bend argent, a lion passant sable. He was the an- 
cestor of the families of Davies of Plassau Gwysanau and 


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Llanereh, Wynn of Twr Moel, Eyton of Coed y Llai or 
Leeswood, Parry of Pwl Halawg in Tegeingl, Davies of 
Y Glwysegl, Davies of Brynbwa, Griffith of Gwysannau, 
Williams of Arddynwent, Davies of Arddynwent, and 
Parry of Gwern Ddu, near Oswestry. 


Ardwyriav deym eurgyrn adawd 
Eisor cor cwbldawn estrawn drallawd 
Tstryw dra-raesur 
Ysgawl pybl pobldur 
Present penadur 

Prysur durawd 
Prydain & danad 
Paydydion borthiad 
Boed cyfoed dy rad 

A th wlad a'th wawd 
Ethiw dy ergryd 
Tn eithavoed byd 
Arthur gadernyd 

Menwyd medrawd 
Madawg maws cdrud 
Mygrfal Maredud 
Meiriau drablud 

Drablawd fosawd 

1 Gwalohmai was one of the most eminent poets of the twelfth 
century, and a skilful performer on the harp. He was a native of 
Anglesey, and is said to have accompanied Richard Coeur de Lion to 
the Holy Wars. He flourished from 1150 to 1190. Twelve of his 
poems are preserved and printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, which 
are admirable for their poetio excellence, and one of them addressed 
to Owain Gwynedd, on the battle of Tal y Voel in 1158, is printed 
with an English translation in the Cambrian- Register, i, 407. 
(Williams's Eminent Welshmen.) 

Gwalchmai was the son of Meilir ab Mabon ab Iarddur ab Mor ab 
Tegeryn ab Aulawg ab Greiddef ab Cwnws Ddu ab Cillin Tnad ab 
Peredur Teirnog ab Meilur Eryr Gwyr y Gorsedd. He married Gen- 
hedles, daughter of Gwrgeneu ab Ednowain ab Ithel, Lord of the 
Bryn, in Pennant Melangell, in Powys, by whom he had a son Einion 
ab GwalchmaL 

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Ac yssid arnad ar neb uwy gnawd 
Na mwy gronni ear nog erwaint flawd 
Ni ryd rwysg eryr 
Hyd troed oi dymtryr 
Tr ofn herwyr 

Yn herw ystawd 
Nyd haws yth esgar esgor dy gosbawd 
Na chaffael ty wyn ni bo tywawd 
Nid oes gystedlyd 
I hael hefelyd 
Or a pyrth bedyd 
A fyd a fawd 
Nyd ydyw yn fyw 
Ni daw ni dodyw 
Ni chynan ni chlyw 
Ni chlud molawd 
Hed pan del Cynan cain adfwyndawd 
A Chadwaladr mawr mur pob ciwdawd. 



I will extol the Prince ; the dispenser of the golden ban- 
queting horns ; the shield of the host, of perfect endowment ; 
the harasser of the foe, of measureless penetration, the active 
potent chief of the armed people of tne land, vigorous and 

Britain shall submit to thee, thou supporter of poets ; may 
thy prosperity be of equal duration with thy country and thy 
fame! Thy dread has proceeded to the extremities of the 
world ; thou hast the power of Arthur, and the talent of Me- 
drod ; Madawg, courteous and valiant, the splendid son of 
Maredudd, in the turmoil of leaders, in the tumult of gashing, 
there is none more practised than thou art. No more wouldst 
thou hoard up gold than thou wouldst the blossom of the 
mountain weed. Not free is the course of the eagle a foot 
length from his abode, for fear of thy troops in the progress 
of their ranging. Not more easy is it for the enemy to 
achieve thy punishment than it is to find a beach where there 
is no sand ; there is no competitor, there is no equal to this 
generous one, from the gates of Christendom as far as the 
world extends. There is not living, nor will he come, nor be 
appointed. Such will not be mentioned nor heard of, nor 
will poetic eulogy bear him forth, until Cynan arrives, of 
vol. i. 9 

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bright and gentle qualities, and the great Cadwaladr, the 
bulwark of each tribe. 1 / 


Ym maes Bryn Actun canhun neu rifais 
Am rhudlafh ar fy nghlun 
Ar untrai trychan catcun 
Ya elont ncf ar nun 

Ym maes Didlystun oed duhun ein glyw 
Nid oed glod gwarafun 
Pob llary ar llyfnfarch diffun 
Pob Hew a Uafn ar glun 

Ym maes y croessau croessassam deon 
Marchogion meirch gwinau 
Hawlwyr hwylynt am breidiau 
Haelon cledyfau rhudion clau 

Ym maes tref galw lys torf emys ein glyw 

A gly wir yn hyspys 

Twrf marchogion meirch gochwys 

Mai turf torredwynt am brys 

Ym maes Mathrafal mathredig tyweirch 
Gan draed meirch mawrydig 
Ar dadl cynnadl cedfudie 
Arwyd iawn wladlwyd wledig 

Nis gwyr namyn duw a dewinion byd 

A diwyd Derwydon 

O eurdorf eurdorchogion 

Ein rif yn riweirth afon 

Llawer gorwyd blawr yn llanfawr llogawd 

Llemenyc yn ionawr 

A llawer gror gwrd yngaur 

Gan Llywe]yn lies kerdawr 

Llawer gwr a march ym maessing hedyw 

Hedychdir digyfing 

A llawer gwr gwrd yn ing 

Gan hael o hil gadelling 

1 " Cynan and Cadwaladr are two legendary personages, who, ac- 
cording to the predictions of Merlin and other bards, are to appear j 
amongst the Welsh." — Literary Remains of the Rev. Tlwma* Price* 
(Carmianawc.J . 


Tn Ystrad Langwm ystyriais ein glyw 
Ystyrient a genaia 
Torf Fadawg fynawg fur trais 
Torf Lly welyn rywelais 

Elian Llywelyn lly w aere 
Or rug hyd ym mudug wre 
Llawer Marchog march dyre 
Lliawa gwaa ar hyd glasfre 

Ban in dyfhnwyd i gynwyd gadfor 
Ein cyngor cynnigiwyd 
Cedwyr balch bwlch en hysgwyd 
Hyd y pasg in gwascarwyd 

Nid adawo duw dyn yn fyw bellach 
Deu byllawg er deryw 
Marw Madawg mawr ym eilyw 
Llad Llywelyn llwyr dilyw 

Hawdamor waclest edwy 
Ar llys gan ystlys Dyfrdwy 
A lie teg tebyg i draeth 
A wnaetn fy hiraeth fwyfwy 

Hawd ammaur i Gwm Brwynawg 
Ar tai ar terfynau enwawg 
A lie ni llyssir cynnrann 
Ar Han od uch llys Fadawg 

Er pan yw marw Madawg Wynn 
Nid Uawen llawer unbenu 
Gwae yw y byd hyd i gwxin 
A brainfc diffaeth y weithion 

Canys bu marw tarw trydar 
Ac nyd byw fy llyw Uawhir 
thyrr calonn rag galar 
Y fau a fyd dau hanner 

Pei byw llary lleissiawn 

Ni luestai wyned ym mherfed Edeyrniawn 

Heb wyr Had gan llyw camawn 

Llith berion lluydion llawn 

Ym mywyd Madawg ni feidiai undyn 
Dwyn terfyn tra hyfryd 
Nid medwl medu hefyd 
Namyn o Duw dim o*r byd. 


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A gant Cyndeljw fawr i Fadawg fab Maredud. 

Madawg ai ceidw can urdaa 
Bryn diormail diormes 
Bre uchel braint ardangos 
Lie trydar Llech ysgar Uys 

Tssid yth Uys liaws dyn 
A chedyrn a chyrn amgen 
A gwawd gwedi gwirawd gwm 
Ac aur llathr yn Haw deon 

Deon unged yd ungoel 

Ys berth yd borthir y'ngwyl 

A glew ynial ynniail 

T glyw ym myw Madawg hael. — Diwbdd. 


A gant Oyndelw y Deulu Madawg mob Maredut. Pan fu 
varxo Madawg. Am glybod eu Oodwyryf. 

God wry t a glywaf am glawr maelenyt 

Mar eluit eilaann 1 gawp 
Teulu Madawc mad anawr 2 
Mai teulu bann Benlli Gawr 
Godwrf a glywaf am glawr yeithyon hir 

Hyd yr y wir ar Saesson 
Teulu Madawc mur dragon 8 
Mai twryf tormennoet Kynon 
Godwryf a glywaf godor drein waewawr 
Gwae wyr lloegyr 4 yn deit kein 
Teulu Madawc mur prydein 
Yn llwythawc yn Uithyaw brein 
Godwryf a glywaf am glawr llafur rei 

Ryvelglod disegur 
Teulu Madawc mawrglodmur 5 
Mai gawr toryf teulu Arthur 
Godwryf a glywaf 8 am glawr vagu glyw 
Glew 7 Vadawc bieufw 
Trinva cyva kynytu 
Trydyt tri diweir deulu 
Tyll eu hysgwydaur tervysc vawr va on. 


1 Elfan. 

5 Eglur Mur. 

2 Anhawr. 


3 Galon. 
6 Ar. 

4 Gwae lloegr. 
7 Gloew. 

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Owalchmai ah Meilur ai cant. ' 

Cam Daw diwellig ymdired 
Cyrchaf car cerennyd avneued 
Car am oedd nym oes 
Corawg fynawg foes 

Corf eirioes, aur fy nghed 
Cam dyn nid dilys ogoned 
Can dyddaw i fraw frwyn dynged 
Cerais ud Powys 
Cerifi fordwya 

Cosb lloegrwys Haw hyged 
A hedyw ni hawdd wyf oy tyned 
Nym byd bun nym beidd dyn dyliuded 
Dyhed dym goryw 
Diwed arwyd yw 
Diliw ryw, rin golled 
Bewin mawr am wyr wawr waredred 
Bwysg heb warth 
Bwyd o'i barth ymborthed 
Bydost fy mhenyd 
Bydrwm fy nhristyd 
Eym ergyd oed goded 
Bag galar garw afar efrifed 
Byfei farw cyn Madawg mad aned 
Cynawon cadud 
Cadr feib Maredud 
Cad gyhud gynnired 
Cyn arfod yn oes fod fy nghed 
Mor gresin frenhin gwyn gogoned 
Gruffud gredf uwel 
A grym hy hywel 
A hywyd oloed 
A hwyaf arnaf ernywed 
At deurud Fadawg fod tudwed 
Tudwed to yd edrith fyth fyd cymry 

A chymri a chymrwyn 
A chymradw a hirgadw hirgwyn 
A hirgur o dolur ei dwyn 
Ac i duw o'i dawn 
Td archaf i arch iawn ! 

Awdl frwyth lawn 
Frwyth gymmwyn } 

Digit zed by 



Cyfednig geilig gal wenwyn 
Cyfeisor dchdor ach drylwyn 

Trilliw ei lafnawr 

Treulyn ysgwydawr 

Trylew fawr falch derwyn 
Tyrfa torf terfysg heb difwyn 
Heb diwad yn orwlad orllwyn 

Gorllecheisi eisiau 

O'i oesfriw aesfrau 

O'i angau anghlaear 
freidin freeahin freidgar 
Fadawg o'i fod yn daear 

nenbren Powys 

draig dragon wys 
diphwys ei dafar 

difeithiad Lloegr llafn dyar wrth ud 

Nyd wrtli fedr ei alar 
Galwaf Duw gan deifniawg adfar 
Gal ofyd huenyd huarwar 

Hywir draws draglew 

Hywerth feirch orthew 
Earllew llecli ysgar 
Llucli ysgwn pan esgen nfeliar 
Llawch eirchiad Haw borthiad adat 

Llerw falch farchawg 

Llafr fawr fam Fadawg 
Llary llysawg llaosgar 
Llywelyn llyw diarchar 
A Uawen cyn y bo llafar 

Llawfryded frydau 

Yr Madawg ys mau 
Martb gofiau gyfesgar 
Aes gychwyn ysgwyd wyn wanar 
Ysgor corf ysglyf torf taerfar 

Esgud ei angad 

1 esglywu gwlad 
Gwleidiadon gyngwasgar 

Gwae gymry gymri gyfagar 
Goloed grud hyged hygar 

Hygar glew hael ud 

Huel fab Maredud 

Hawl odrud gwaedreid cad 
Ced eglur cedeyrn gur gyrthiad 
Cad amlwg crai cyflwg cywlad 
Cywleidiadon cyhoed ucrth oed nawd 

Cun gynnawd gynnifiad 

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Cenytesid llawr Hwyr drefad 
Llesgen deg llysoed cyfarad 
/ ben Pumlumon 
' Hyd borth Caerlleon 

Pair dragon draig furthiad 
O Fangor fangeibr oleuad 
Hyd orwyd Meirionyd meidriad 
Medresid mawr ri 
Mawr ran gan deithi 
Arwystli arwyste rad 
Aur hwysgynt wyr Bledynt bleiniad 
Aergorf torf terfyn achubiad 
Och Duw na dodyw 
Dydbrawd can deryw 
Derwydon weini nad 1 
Diwreidiws Powys peleidriad ryfel 

By farw ud gwlyb ystrad 
Astms chwedl ry chweiris i Gymry 

Tstryw chwerw nid chweriau i ryle 
Ail marth mawr mor de 
Ail yrth ail syrth fe 
Ail gawd gne gnawd gyfre 
Ail diliw dilain draig erhy 
Ail dyd brawd braw ystawd ystle , 
Ail Ham am edfyn 
Yw Had Llywelyn 

Ail dechryn am dechre 
Ail dewr ud ai trymgud trymde 
Ail drais wael am hael am hynny 
Am orwyn Bledynt 
Ym gorflawd lledeynt 
Ami edfynt am dyle 
Aen adfod arth arfod arf he 
Heb edfryd y^ngweiyd wely 
Gwelais dorf am dwr 
Gwelais wyr am wr 
Am wledig Edeyrniawn 
Gwelais frad a chad a chamawn 
Cyfrwng Hew a llyw Merfyniawn 
Gwelais Loegr y'ngrwn 
Gwelais ais yn dwn 
A thonwaed ar estrawn 


1 Nen, veinin ad. 

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Gwelais haul yn heiliaw ban llawn 
Yn medu medged i oru eirchiawn 

Gwelais wehelyth 

Ac eu treftiau tryth 
Ac y treth ni ogawn 
Gwelais gynt wy cenynt cw dawn 
Kag Madawg mechdeyrn Lleifiawn 

Lliaws twr twnfriw 

A gwaed fren am frin 

A Ffranc trwch trathawys 
Lliaws torf o derwyn Argoedwys 
Am ud glew a glywid a Lloegrwys 
Lliaws bard a borthid ar ei wys 
Ar ei fed o felged gwlad achrwys 

Lliaws eurfeil fawr 

Tn Uys llary a llawr 
Heb hyd fawr orffowys 
Lliaws aes esmwyth falch Gaerwys 
Ar ei helw a hwylynt trallynwys 

Lliaws cledyf claer 

A glaif rnd raid aer 
A gawr daer drag i wys 
Lliaws teth rag treth tra brimwys 
A bydin a bedrawd tu eglwys 
Lliaws gorwyd gwelw gwalch frowys 
Prwysg fferffraeth fraisg grawn faeth grewys 
Lliaws gwinau fadw frawd tywys 
Tu hir tref trerayniad amdyfrwys 

Lliaws llwyd a Uai 

Lliaws erch erfai 

Lliaws grai grym difivrys 

Lliaw coch ceinwiw 

Cynfyn ford fawliw 
Felaig riw redecdwys 
Lliaws du a dwn a mygdwn melyn 

A milwyr dragonwys 
Can ry gallas Duw draig Powys 
Crei dechryn dechreu garawys 
As rodwy fy ren reidun drugarawg 

I Fadawg fad gynnwys 
Gan lain y'nglan Baradwys 
Gan engylion gloywon glwys. 


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Add. MS., 14,869, 656.— No. 34. 

AI CANT.— a.d. 1159. 

Kyuarchaf ym ri rad obeith 
Kyuarchaf Kyuercheis ganweith 
T broni prydu om prifyeith ourgert 

Tm arglwyt gedymdeith. 
Y gwynaw madawc metueith ei alan 
Ae alon ym pob yeith 
Dor ysgor ysgwyd ganhymdeith 
Taryan yn aewan yn eurweith 
Twryf gruc yg gotuc yg goteith 
Taryf esgar ysgwyd yn dyleith 
Rwyf myrt kyrt Rertoryon wobeith 
Rut dilut diletyf gedymdeith 
Ry gelwid madawc kyn noe leith 
Rwyd galon dinogyon diffeith 
Rwyt attaf attes vy gobeith 
Ryt wiscoet wesgwyn ganhymdeith 
Rut ongyr bran vab llyr lledyeith 
Rwyt y glod o gludaw anreith 
Rutuoawc vaon ny oleith 
Rad wastad wystlon ganhymdeith 
Uauyn arurad ygkad yg kunlleith 
llanyn gwyar a gar o cydweith 
Haw estud dan ysgwyd galchoreith 
Uyw powys penes diobeith 
hawl ofyn gwr ny myn mabweith 
hwyl ysgwn ysgwyd pedeiryeith 
hil teyrn yn heyrn henweith 
hael vadawc vender anhyweith 
Can deryw darvuam oe leith 
Can daerawd dai*vn gedymdeith 
Oet beirtgar bartglwm diledyeith 
Oet kadarn agor dyfynuor diffeith 
Oet hir y drwyted oet hyged hygar 

oet llauar hygar oe gruarweith 
Oet bnelin bias gwanas gwaedreith 
Oet eurllew o aerllin gadyeith 
Oet diuarn gadarn gedymdeith vnbyn 

Oet dyrn yn heyrn haedarn daleith 
Ae diwet ysbo can bu y leith 

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y diffwyn y cam gymeint y affeith 

yg goleuder seint yg golendeith } 

yg goleuad rad rydid perffeith. / 

Add. MS., No. 14,869, /o. 68 to 71.— No. 86. 


Gorvynawc drythyll goruynt a dygaf 

urth ar a volafa voleisy gynt 
Kymrawd ewyn dwfyr ae dyurrw gwynt 
Kymraec laedec o lys dyfrynt 
Kyfleuer gwawr dyt pan dwyre hynt 
Kytlew eiry gorwynn gorwyt epynt 
Rin woleith woletyf woleu dremynt 
Riein nym rifei y ked am rinynt 
Rianet iti a dywedynt 
Rieingert eaa a vawrheynt 
Tremyn y treitwny treuyn agodwynt 
Treitlo glyw powya pei am getynt 
Pan dreiteisy yno ynyt oetynt 
Trwy fenestri gwydyr yt ym gwelynt 
Try belid wylein a wylynt arnaf 
Treul attep attaf a danuonynt 
Hawen y carwn y Kenym keiynt 
Uawuorynyon ffwery gwiryon oetynt 
Am gall a bwyllad a bell bwyllynt 
Am gyndelw brydyt yd bryderynt 
Gornynawc drythyll gorwych yolwyf 
gordawc pall ourawc pell mas gwelwyf 
Goruelyn called colledic wyf 
Colleis gall attep y nep am wtoyf 
ym pwyllad newid nead adwyf am vun 

ym anhun anhed kyd ry . . . s porthwyf 
Gorthewifi wrthyfy gwerth uy hirglwyf 
nyd gorthaw a wnaf wrth a garwyf 
Keladwy lywy liw tonn am rwyf 
Rwy gennyf gennyd yr nad ydwyf 
Cadyr am neid ganneid ged ath yolwyf 
Cany wewnedy erof yr a ganwyf 
Na wna ni veinwen val na hunwyf j 

Nyth wnaf ernywed yr nath gaffwyf 
Nyd yr chwetyl amgen yt amgyrwyf 


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Namyn amgaru ny gerytwyf 

Nym dawr verch pennyaetn pryd nath welwyf 

Nyd yr keisyaw tal tros a ganwyf 

Goruynawc drythyll gortyuyn dy uyned 

Gwrthrych lys leissyawn y ystlyned 

llys y daw deon yw darymred 

Uys ena y veirt y digoned 

Uysseit y hirdwst oe heur duted 

llaes weim gall wenngaun wenngaen dercd 

llif dragon vauon valch y tryged 

lliw ewyn vryw tec rac tonn nawued 

Nawued rann ym poen yr pan aned 

Nys ryborthes nep na thebyked 

Ny riuafy ar vnn vod yn galed 

Nyd clod uyg gwrthod gwrthuy naed 

A dywed yno emwed o honaf 

A. dywan attaf ac attep ked 
Ac yrof na chel vy ryweled 
Ac yrti y t wyf o nwyf nym kred 
Ac yrod tithen nam amheued 
Ac er peryf nef nam diuanwed 
Diuanw am goren kyn nom gwared 
y gwaret oet reid pei rybuehed 
Gwarvart wyf iti o dylyed 
Gwar eir ym kyueir nym kynaered 
A chenym karo nam ceryted uyth 

om karytawd nawd nam ditoled 
Pell ym treit treitgof oe rygolled 
Preit preitwyr preitwyr yg kynired 
Pargoch gad gadarn rac calchdoed 
Pergig kynverchin kym noe vyned 
Gwedy hael ywein hawl ordiued § 

hwyl dihwyl diofyn am y drefred 
neud wy ae gofwy nyd gouyged 
Goualon eilon aelwyd regea 
Goruynawr drythyll gortyfVndy gyweith 
Gortawn ked kyrted uawr kertawr kywreith 
Gortyfuyad bual buarth metueith 
Goreu ar veinwen vyned eilweith 
Na chymyt a hi o hir obeith 
Na chymer wrthep a dan wrthyeith 
Nyd af y ar hir dwf ny dal hirdeith 
Y ar draid awel y drydweith 
Ny theweis er moed oe moli mal drud 
Ny pheir gosfymud ym gosfymdeith 

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Ac nym rify gwenn riein ryuet a weith 

Ac ym vet y Haw uy llawen reith 

Ao nyd oes uart dwfyn dinus gyfyeith 

A garwy yn hwy o hir obeith 

Nym athreity meingann meingadyr y hystlys 

Nyn hu vrys oe llys y llaes ymdeith 
Gwiryon dec dawel y chyuaryeith 
Gwann detyf dof ym cof ym canhymdeith 
6 wery uanon vanwl gwar uetwl veith 
Gome gwawr vore ar vor diffeith 

Goruynawc drythyll gortyuyn syll fy na saflwy 
y saffwn yt wyf o nwyf neud rwy 
Neum rydraeth hiraeth uetnaeth uaccwy 

Neud Uutedir glann rac glas vordwy 
Neud Uawen awen awel neud mwy 
Neud llawer ym llify lliw amaerwy sonn 

ban llewych y bron ger e breichrwy 
Golwc dof dewis gan ac syllwy 
Goleuliw golwc yr ae gwelwy caflwy 
Gweleisy ystlys glwys gloyw y gylchwy 
Ny ry welis tec nwy ry gwelwy 
Ac adan rut ein ruteur vodrwy 
Ac veh wynep gwyn gwineu vagwy 
deuawd a gadwaf can ae catwy 
A berthyn rae dyn nwy dylynwy 
uy rin a riein nys rybuchwy 
nys gwybyt rewyt nys ry gelwy 
Keledir uy hun yn hir ofwy lie 

Tn lledrad vore gan auarwy 

Goruynawo drythyll gortyuyndy gywir 
• eil gwynn goruynawc gorpwy enwir 
manyled meinwenn mal yt yolir 
mal yd ardunaf ym ardunir 
Ardunedir dyn a dwe y ffynyant 

ardunyant molyant mal yd glywir 
A glywch chwi deon adywedir 
A dyweid riem ny ry gebbir 
yg golud amhio amy] ym rohr 
nyd amgen ym ryt nym rybuchir 
Handid om kyuoeth om kyuarch pan wyf 
I om rieu om rwyf ry gystlynir 
Bart llywelyn hael hud ym gelwir 
Geleurut gelyn y bob enwir 


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Enwawc ym keinyoes ym keinnygyr 

Anwar vy Uuchwar onym Uothir , 

Pall gwyluann gwylein gwylualch, wrth gertawr 

o ruteur gwerthuar y gorthoir 
Pellynnic vyg cof yg caerwys dir 
Petestrie yolic pa hyd yth yolir 

Add. MS., No. 14,869, fo. 66b to 68.— No. 35. 



Ardwyreaf dreic o drud veith awen 

Hew Uawen llawr osbeith 
Llewenyf llu bedyt bydreith 
Uyw anaw Uauyn eurllaw aerlleith 
Uary y wein Uoegyr dilem dileith 
Hid ysgwn ysgwyd pedeiryeith 
^©rgyg glyw glewdraws maws metueith 
Par gremyd peir gwrhyd gwr roith 
Pedrydawc pwyllawc pwyll goteith 
Pell y glod o ffludaw anreith 
Preit wasgar dreisuar driseith gyuarpar 

yg gwear yg gwynyeith 
By gelwir gelyn agkyfyeith 
Geleu rut geloreu dyrreith 
Gretyf diletyf dilut gyuarweith 
Glew difraw glyw gaullaw gunlleith 
Brys yg gwrys yn efuys vuyn wreith 
Bryd yg gryd yg greidyawl afeith 
Breist abrwyst abrwysgyl anorreith 
Bleit a blwg ablaengar gyweith 
Bro amnawt oesgawfc oesgeith y gynnygyn 

y gynhal nyd hawt weith 
dremhynt hynt sirualch walch osteith 
dremrut prut preityawr rwy canwreith 
dor dewdor deon arwyreith 
doeth dewr goeth dewrglod ganhymdeith 
drud aerlud aerlew yn aerlleith 
dwya aergwys aergun gedymdeith 
dwrn dradwrn dradegyn yd peith 
dyrn heym hadarn y daleith j 

Brt drydar arwar anoleith 
Braw broundor bar dyfynuor dynynueith 


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Blawt esgar ysgor yn diffeith 

Balch eryr baran Uyr lledyeith 

Brad eurgrwydyr gynurwydyr gynureith y daryan 

yn aerwan yn eurweith 
Byrt kyrt cadw ag kadw agkyureith 
Breint ongar angert ag kyuleith 
Brein borthyad gweiniuyad gwinueith 
Gwin a met a metgyni ruy meith 
By talaf ym rwyf om rwylweith molawd 

nyd molyant o uriwyeith 
Delw ym peirch a meirch mygyr Hydeith 
Mynw eilon mal gwyllon gwellueith 
delw ym daw oelaw lawer gweith 
Prist ragor plu porfor perfeith 
delw yt wytt pen rieu penn reith 
yt wyf pen prifueirt om prifyeith 
delw yt wytt wawr soryf coryf kyureith 
yt wyf dann dednryd wyd oleith 
nyd wyf uart dylaw wyf dyleith ar gert 

wyf dilut ym pob yeith 
Bym keinuyt om keinualch areith 
Aros gwarth yr gwrthod anyeith 
Nyd wyf dlawd om gwawd om gweiuryeith 
Gweiuryd bryd bryssyaw y ymdeitb 
Heirt veirt vnt ar neirch rut rawngeith 
Eael hebod ny hebaf nosweith 
o honawd handid ny gobeith 
O honaf hanbych weU ganweith 

Y Ywein mab Madawc. 

Ywein aer dilein a dylef yg gawr 

A llafnawr Hat heb rif 

Ac o du gwaedlafyn gwaedlif 

Ac ar dir kynnygyn kynnif 

Kynnytwa aeruleit aerulawt teyrnet 
Teyrnaa gyuadrawt 
Ny bu trwy hnnaw tra hawt 
Ny bu trwy gyscu gasgawt 
Gosgortuawr keduawr cadw amuod wrthyf 

Y wrthyd nam gwrthod 
Om bot ny bytwn hebod 
Nyd ef oet uy mot uy mod 

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Gan vod yn unvreint yn mivryd am llyw 

Llaw wrydet nym ergyd 
Dragonawl wrawl wrhyd 
Dreic wynua dragon wynoyd 
Gwynuydio y ueirt oe uawrdawn rebyt 

Gwr am ryt rut eurdawn 
Arlleg toryf rae turyf kamawn 
Ual twryf ebyr yn Uyr llawn 
Llawn am ly w estrawn am lyw ystrad mawr 

Gwyr am lawr gwyr amlad 
Ac yn dyt rebyt rotyad 
Rotyon o oeirch rutyon rad 
Ead wallaw anaw yn oed awyt kyrt 

Cawt arnaw ny gyflwyt 
Pryder dragon rotyon rwyt 
Prydein glawr eurglawr arghvyt 
Argiwyti gyntwryf gyntorawr yn toryf 

Yn tervysc bytinawr 
Marchawc balch bwlch y aesawr 
Meirch anvonawc mynawc mawr 
Mawr ged agkaled ygkalan yonawr 

Mawr llyw Uawr llaw gyfran 
Pan dygyrch cludveirch cloduan 
Pan vyt hyd kedwyr am pann 
Am pennaeth yt ym am pennaf terrwyn 

Tyrrant veirt am alaf 
Teyrneit hael teyrnaf 
Teyrnet orset orsaf 
Nyth orseif esgar esgynvaen mawruro 

Mawnrrydic yth adwaen 
Gwawr glyw glew dinwg blwg blaen 
Gwalch yn enrgalch yn enrgaen 
Eurgoloiyn arwr yn arwein eurgrwydyr 

Yn eurgrein gywyrein 
Yn aergreu mawr yn aergrein 
Ergryd byd bid rac ewein. Ewein. 


Ewein arwyrein yr oroet ar bawb 
bybyr genedloet 
Mygyr varchawg deifnyawg da oet 
Mygedvys y magadoet. 

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Lleith Ywein Uith brein breit uiys y uaran 

Auarwy aet nab klys 

Llafur Uafyu dolur dilys 

Llid carant cad wrygyant wrys 

Gwrys aerureu dechreu nn dechryn a hwnn 

Honneid uyt y deruyn 
Lloegyr al am ear mal melyn 
Er lleas Daw ny Has dyn 
Dynyadon oesgawt as gwtant oe uarw 

Gwr oe uar am peidyant 
Coll arglwyt call argledyr cant 
Eurglet y muchet Mochnant 
Mochnant diheuchwant erchwynawc gwledig 

Gwlad Vrochuael Tsgithrawc 
Dyfynuet a orchut deifhyawc 
Detyf hael mad auael Madawc 
Madawc essillyt oes ellwg aergawt 

Eurged beirt neud echwg 
Kedernyd bleit aergryd blwg 
Ked wallaw kadoet ollwg 
Neud kygkolled ym colli rwyf Mechein 
Rwym achaws oe gygklwyf 
Ar gorea yt ym gyrwyf 
Am gar neid auar neud wyf 
Nyd wyf dilethynt am diletcawt hael 

Ohil Yoruerth Hiralawt 2 
Colled gwr enrged aergawt 
Oe golh tewi nyd hawt 
Nyt hawt ym wybod neud anobeith kyrt 

Kertoryon neud ynt geith 
Och nad byw keinllyw Kynlleith 
Achaws uu liaws oe leith. Leith Ywein. 


Auch rotaf arawd orawen gyffes 
Auch rotes auch reen 
Wrth awch bot awch bod yn llawen 
Wrth awch bryd awch breint o ueigen 

i v. f. 124. 2 v. f. 88. 

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Auch rotaf arawd arovnn a wnaf 
Aruogyon gydyhun 
Ygwyth lid yggwythlawn orun 
Yg gwaedlanu yg gwaedle gwytgun 

Auch rotaf arawd auch rotyon am keidw 
Ked wallaw kaduaon 
Bendith Duw gennwch gynnreinyoa 
Uuawd y vart veudigaw haelon 

Auch rotaf arawd aerwosgryn Bowys 
Argoedwys dwys dengyn 
TJy mawret uy mawreir ae mynn 
Uym bareu uym bar an kychwyn 

Auch rotaf arawd aerdihauarch wyr 
Nym gwehyr gwahan arch 
Neura kyinwys dreic Bowys trwy barch 
Neum arwar neutn car neutn cyuarch 

Cyuarchaf y Duw cyfarchdawn volyant 
Y vilyoet enwogawn 
Eurdorchawc uarchawc ueirch agkrawn 
Eryr gwyr gwelygorfc lleissyawn 

Eil welygort vawr veirt wellig am peirch 
Ar ugyrueirch ar aygyr uyg 
Bleityeu toryf leruysc diechyg 
Bleinnyeid kunyeid kadellig 

Trydet welygort trydar ordiuwg 

Treis wollwg vlwg vlaengar 
Lloegyr llutyeid llofrufcyeid llachar 
Yorueirthyawn y vurthyaw esgar 

Pedwaret welygort pedweryt molawd 
Molafy ly ae dyrllyt 
Mawr doryf daryf gyuaryf gyweithyt 
Madogyon Madawc essillyt 

Pymhed welygort pymhedran om kert 
Keritor yn eu bann 
Aerwyr gawr arnod vawr varan 
Arotyawn creulawn rac creulann. 

Chweched athrugar athraon Cadwallawn 
Eil llutyawn llafyn rutyon 
Kyunewid eruid aruogyon 
Kynnifyeid kunyeid Caer eillyon 
vol. i. 10 

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146 nrsTORY of powys fadog. 

Seithued welyort oleugor tros wawd 

Ae traetbawd traethitor / 

Gwrt uytiu veityeid yn Tewdor f 

Gwyr weirnyawn gwrbyd diachor 

Wythued iwyth gynnwyth gynwan eu detyf 
Eu dewis gyflauan 1 
Llawen doryf am goryf am gyurdan 
Llaurotyon llofrutyeid garthan 

Nawued eu riued rut wet yg kyfranc 
Kynn bu tranc eu trosset 
Tygyryawn tyglied oruolet 
Ny charws tyngyr tagneuet 

Decued yw am klyw om clad eurdaun kerb 
Kenitor canys iawn 
Toryf ysgwn ys gnawd yg camaun 
Taryf rac cad rac kwcwll urryaun 

Undec uad awen vn decued awyt 
A weinyt vyn tyghed 
Om gwawd rann om bann om bartged 
walch ualch o wuilchyawn 2 giwed 

Deudecued amgen am geinwiw garthan 
Gyrth yn gwan rac gwaeduriw 
Hydyr eu gwir or gwr ny diw 
Hil gwryaeth ysgoew ysgwyduriw 

Trydet yw ar dec a digawn raclod 
Yn ragod ragor dawn 
Flam luchlam y luchlat estrann 
Faw gyngbyr fwyr wyr fynudyawn 

Pedwaret ar dec ardunyant a geiff 
Ardunwawd diatrec 
Kynnifyeid cynnygyn ogywec 
Cyndrwyn Kyudelw ae hanrec 3 

Auch rotaf arawd orawen gyffes 
Auch rotes auch reen 
Wrth auch bot auch bod yn llawen 
Wrth auch bryd auch breint o ueigen. 

Eu dewis gyflan. 2 JYVm, feilchyawn. 8 v. f. 10. 


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Kertawr huenyt liuanaw aach mawl 

Kert hep dswl heb dwyllaw 
Kerfc uchel antawel antaw 
Nyd kasgert kosgort Dyssiliaw 
O dawn mawr mab Daw dylyaf ardelw 

Dull kynhelw kynhalyaf 
O gerteu bleityeu blaen gwyraf 
ganon kertoryon kanaf 
Canaon Selyf Seirff Cadeu meigyen 

Nyd meigoll y kiglea 
Kynniuyeid kynneurawd oreu 
Kynnytws brenhinet breinyeu 
Cynnytws Powys per aolyant yr pell 

Nyd pall yr digonssant 
Dragon dwfyn deuawd a gadwant 
Dreigyeu dewr deu prid ny dalyant 
Ny thelir o wir o wreitrwyt breisc 

A brwysgaw yn rodwynt 
Ebediw gwr briw braw dygwyt 
Yn dyt brwydyr rac bron y arglwyt 
Ny thai gwyr Powys henn reith ar Gymry 

Gan gyinryd ag kyureith 
Wedy treul trylew dioleith 
Wedi trin traean o anreith 
O anreith y dyvu dioual anrec 

. Anrydet kyuartal 
Ermydet terrwyn teyrnual 
Ear nybarch hebane a bual 
Buant kyd yg gryd yg gretyf kyuaruod 

Kyaaruagyon dilotyf 
Y wrthod annod ac annetyf 
O grealan o greulawn gynnetyf 
Cynnetyf gwyr metueith metgyrn ortyfneid 

Metgwyn greid gretyf heyrn 
Gwyllyoet gynt ny gedwynt gedeyra 
Gwyl bentan am dan am deyrn 
Cynnetyf y aergan argoedwys werin 

A warawd rac Lloegrwys 
Rann y vrawd y vreint ae towys 
Rann y chwaer ny oheir o Bowys 
Cynnetyf y Bowys benn ymadrawt gwyr 

10 2 

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Vch gwiraud eur gymlawt 
I Yn nep llys yn Dep He anhawt 

/ Nad ef daw ar eu llaw Uedcant 

' Cynnetyf y Bowys kynossod yn aer 

Yn aros en raclod 
Ym blaen caden cadw arnod 
Ac yn ol diwetwyr dyuod 
Cynnetyf y Bowys ban el ar dreinyn 

Y deruyn diogel 
Na bo tro tramwy gyuarchwel 
Na bo caeth na bo carr dichwel 
Cynnetyf ywch Bowys ban wnaethauch gorassaf 

Auch gorset na bei gaeth 
Glyw gwyrthuawr gwyrthodwch cliwi et waeth 
Gwrthodes rywyr righyllaeth 
Cynnetyf yr dreigyeu negys dragon berth 

Ny borthynt anetuon 
Yn en byw ar en ry w rotyon 
Na rennid rannen kynytion 
Cynnetyf a waraud y werin argoed 

Nyd argel om bartrin 
Nas gonwy gordwy na gortin 
Goual tal teledic brenhin 
Cynnetyf yr cedwyr ced ysgein y veirt 
Cedweilch heirt hart yd uein 
Eil gwerth gwarth gwrthodes kynvein 
Eil gormeil gormesgylch riein 
Gwrthodwch auch cam cenedloet — Powys 

Peues cyrt a chyhoet 
Glyw kyrchuawr kylchynneirch nyd oet 
Gwgl hebauc hebock nend adoet 
Nyd adoet nyn dawn yn ouer — om gwlad 

Am gwledic ae dirper 
Nym gwna tro treigylueirt nn amser 
Nym twyll pwyll pam ym kynarcher 
Gwyr Powys pobyl disgywen 
Cad orllawes orllawen 
Pedeir kynnelyf cadw cadyr vrten 
Ar dec yr dugant o ueigen. 

Madawg Madogyon, who is mentioned at p. 145, was 
descended from Llywarch Hen (v. p. 10). and was the 
hncestor of Llywelyn Eurdorchog, Lord of ISA and 
Ystrad' Alun. 


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Gruffudd Maelawr succeeded his father, Madog ab 
Maredudd, as Prince of Powis Fadog, in 1159, but the 
only lordships he had left him by his father were those 
of Maelor Gymraeg or Bromfield, Maelor Saesneg, Chirk, 
Mochnant is Rhaiadr, 141, Yr H6b, Nanheudwy, Glyn- 
dyfrdwy, and half of Cynllaith. He bore, argent, four 
pales gules, a lion salient sable. 

In 1163, Henry II came with an immense army into 
Wales, composed of troops from England, Normandy, 
Aquitaine, Anjou, Bretagne, and Flanders ; and the Lord 
Rhys ab Gruffudd, Prince of South Wales ; Owain Gwy- 
nedd, King of North Wales, Gruffudd Maelawr, Prince 
of Powys Fadog ; Owain Cyfeiliawg, Prince of Upper 
Powys ; Cadwallawn ab Madog, Lord of Maelienydd ; 
and his brother, Einion Cltid, Lord of Elfael ; Iorwerth 
Goch, Lord of Mochnant, and other chieftains, opposed 
him with all their forces and united power, and the 
action of Berwyn took place, in which the king was put 
to flight ; and, in his anger and wrath on that account, 
he put out the eyes of the hostages he had received some 
time back from the Lord Rhys and Owain Gwynedd. 
These were, Cynwrig and Maredudd, the sons of Prince 
Rhys ab Gruffudd ; and Rhys and Cadwallawn, the sons 
of Owain Gwynedd. He likewise pulled out the eyes of 
three hundred of the Welsh taken in war ; and this the 

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king did with his own hand, 1 following, thereby, the ex- 
ample of the Assyrian monarchs, who blinded their cap- 
tives by the point of the javelin, as shown in the As- 
syrian sculptures. 

Dr. Powell of Rhuddallt, the Welsh historian, states 
hat — 

" Henry had assembled a vast army at Oswestry, and 
Owain Gwynedd had collected all his chieftains, with their 
dependants, at Corwen in Edeyrnion. The king hearing that 
his antagonist was so near, resolved to bring the matter to a 
speedy decision. He therefore marched towards him, and, 
finding himself entangled in impenetrable woods in Glyn 
Ceiriog, and recollecting his ill fortune among the forests of 
Eulo, directed his vanguard to make the passage clear by 
cutting down the trees, in order to secure himself from ambus- 
cade. The pikemen and the flower of his army were posted 
so as to cover the workmen. The spirit of the common soldier 
of the British army grew indignant at this attempt of the Eng- 
lish king, and, without the knowledge of their officers, fell 
with unspeakable fury on these troops. The contest was 
violent; numbers of brave men perished, and then the 
Cymru retired to their camp at Corwen. Henry gained the 
summit of the Berwyn, but was so distressed by dreadful 
rains, and by the activity and prudence of Prince Owain Gwy- 
nedd, who cut him off from all supplies, that he was obliged 
to return ingloriously, with great loss of men and equipage/ 12 

This conflict is called the battle of Crogen ; for it was 
fought beneath the walls of Castell Crogen, the present 
Chirk Castle. Near the battle field is a place called 
Adwy 'r Beddau, i.e., the Pass of the Graves of the men 
who were slain in the action. 

The account of this battle is thus given in another of 
the Bruts — 

" Y vlwydyn 1163 y diffeithawd Dauyd uab Ovvein Gwyned, 
Tegigyl, ac y mudawd y dynyon ae hanifeileit y gyt ac ef hyt 
yn Dyffryn Clwyt. A gwedy tebygu or brehin y bydei ymlad 
ar y Castell a oed yn Thegygyl (Tegeungl) kyffroi a oruc drwy 
dirvawr vrys a dyvot hyt yn Rudlan a phebyllu yno deirnos. 
A gwedy hynny yuichoelut y Loegr, a chynnullau dirvawr la 
y gyt ac e f a detholedigyon ymladwyr Lloegyr a Normandi, a 

1 Brut y Tyvnjtogion. s Dr. Powell, View of Rhiwalxm. 

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Fflandrys ac Angiw a Gwasgwin, a boll Brydeiu a dyvot hyt 
y Groes Oswallt, gan dar para alltudaw a difetha yr holl Yry- 
tanyeit. Ac yn y erbyn ynteu y deuth Owein Gwyned a 
Chatwaladyr veibion Grufud ab Kynnn a holl lu Gwyned y gyt 
ac wynt. Ar Arglwydd Rhys ab Grufud a holl Deheubarth y 
gyt ac ef. Ac Owein Keveilawc a lorwerth Goch vab Marcdud 
a meibon Madawc vab Maredud a holl Bowys y gyt ac wynt. 
a den vab Madawg vab lorwerth, ac holl gyfoeth y gyt ac 
wynt. Ac y gyt yn gyfun diergrynedic y doethant hyt yn 
Edeirnawn, a phebyllu a wnaethant yn Coruaen. A gwedy 
trigyaw yn hir yn y pebyllen yno heb arueidaw o un gyrchu at 
y gelyd y ymlad. llidyaw a oruc y brenirin yn dirvawr. a chy- 
ffroi y llu hyt yghoet Dyffryn Keiriawc. a pheri torri y coet ac 
burw yr llawr. Ac yno yd ymerbynyawl ac ef yn wrawl 
ychydic o Gymry etholedigion y rei ny wydynt odef eu goruct 
yn awsen y tywyssogyon. A llawer or rei kadarnaf a dygwy- 
dawd o bob tu. Ac yna y pebyllyawd y brenhin arbydinoed. 
y gyt ac ef. A gwedy trigyaw yno ychydic o dydyeu y kyfar- 
sagwyt ef o dirvawr dymestyl awyr a thra llifeireint glawogyd. 
A gwedy pallu ymborth idaw yd ymchoelawd y pebylleu ae lu 
y vaestir Lloegyr. Ac yn gyflawn o diruawr lit y peris dallu 
y gwystlon a vnassei ygkarchar gantaw. Yr ys talym o amser 
hyn no hynny. Nyt amgen den nab Owein Gwyned, Kad- 
wallawn a Chynwric a Maredud nab yr Arglwydd Rhys a rei 
ereill. A gwedy kymryt kygor y symudawd y lu hyt yg 
kaer Lleon. ac yno pebyllyaw a oruc llawer o dydyeu yn y 
doeth llogeu o Dulyn ac or dinassoed ereill o Iwerdon attaw. 
A gwedy nat oed digawn gantaw hynny o logeu rodi rodyon 
a oruc y logeu Dulyn ae gellwg drachefyn ac ynteu ae lu a 
ymchoelawd y Loegyr." 

In the year 1163, David, the son of Owain Gwynedd, 
ravaged Tegeingl, and removed all the men and animals 
with him to Dyffryn Clwyd. And when the king heard 
that there would probably be a battle at the castle in 
Tegeingl, he was alarmed, and came with great speed to 
Rhuddlan, and encamped there three nights. After that 
he went to England, and collected a great army with him 
of the choicest warriors of England, Normandy, Flanders, 
Anjou, Gascoigne, and all Britain, and came to Croes Os- 
wallt, with the intention of exterminating and destroying 
all the Britons. And against him came Owain Gwynedd 
and Cadwalladr, son3 of Gruffiuld ab Cynan, and the 
whole army of Gwynedd with them ; and the Lord Rhys 

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ab Gruffudd, and all South Wales with him ; and Owain 
Cyfeiliog, and Iorwerth Goch ab Maredudd, and the sons 
of Madawg ab Maredudd, and all Powys with them ; 
and the two sons of Madawg ab Iorwerth, and all their 
wealth with them, and they came altogether as far as 
Edeyrnion, and encamped at Corvaen. And after a long 
encampment there without any sign of fighting, the 
king was greatly enraged, and marched his army to the 
woods of Dyffryn Ceiriog, and cut down all the trees. 
And there opposed him a few noble Welshmen, and 
many of the strongest fell on both sides, and then the 
king and his army encamped, and, after he had been 
there a few days, they were overtaken by a terrific thun- 
derstorm, and their food failing them, he returned with 
his tents and his army to England. And full of great 
anger he caused the eyes of the hostages to be taken 
out who had been a long time in prison. No less per- 
sons than two sons of Owain Gwynedd, Cadwallawn and 
Cynwrig, and Maredudd, the son of the Lord Khys, and 
many others. And after having taken counsel, he 
marched his army to Caer Lleon, and there he encamped 
for many days, till the ships from Dublin and other 
cities of Ireland came to him ; and when they came there 
was not enough, so he made them presents, and returned 
with his army to England. 

Amongst those who greatly distinguished themselves 
at the battle of Crogen was Ynyr, the son of Hywel ab 
Moreuddig ab Sanddef Hardd, or the Handsome, Lord 
of Mortyn or Burton and Llai, in the parish of Gresford, 
and as a reward for his bravery, his Prince, Gruffudd 
Maelawr, drew his four bloody fingers over the shield of 
Ynyr from top to bottom, and told him to bear that as 
his coat of arms, which thus became argent, four pales 
gules, and at the same time conferred upon him the 
township of Gelli Gynan in Ial. This coat was after- 
wards changed to gules, three pales or, in a border of 
the second, charged with eight ogresses. 

In 1164, Owain Fychan, Lord of Mechain, son of 
Prince Madog ab Maredudd, and OwainCyfeiliawg, took 


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the whole territory of Iorwerth Goch, Lord of Mochnant, 
and shared it between them, as previously stated. In J 
this partition, Mochnant is Rhaiadr fell to Owain ab / 
Madog, and Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr to Owain Cyfeili- 
awg. But Owain Gwynedd, and his brother Cadwaladr, 
Princes of North Wales, and the Lord Rhys ab Gruffudd, 
Prince of South Wales, came against Owain Cyfeiliawg, 
Prince of Upper Powys, who had now allied himself 
with the English. They took Caer Einion from him, 
which they gave to his cousin, Owain Fychan, son of 
Madog ab Maredudd, Prince of Powys, and from thence 
proceeded to Cyfeiliawg, and look the Lordship and 
Castle of Tavolwern, and this was given to the Lord 
Rhys ab Gruffydd, as it was said to have formerly ap- 
pertained to his dominions. 1 But Owain Cyfeiliog, having 
obtained the assistance of the English, burnt the Castle 
of Caer Einion to the ground. 

In 1185, died Hywel ab Ieuaf, Lord of Arwystli, and 
was honourably buried at Strata Florida Abbey ; Meurig, 
Abbot of Cwm Hir ; David, Abbot of Strata Florida ; 
and Ithel, Abbot of Strata Marcella. (Brut y Tyicys- 

Prince Gruffudd Maelor appears to have resided 
chiefly at the Castle of Dinas Bran, in Nanheudwy. He 
was a prince of great wisdom and experience, excelling 
all the princes and nobility of his time in prudence and 
generosity. He died in 1190, and his body was carried 
with great pomp from Castell Dinas Br4n to Meivod, 
and honourably interred there, in the church of St. Ty- 
silio, being attended by most of the persons of the highest 
rank throughout the whole country. 51 

He married Angharad, daughter of Owain Gwynedd, 
King of North Wales, by his second consort, Christina, 
daughter of Goronwy ab Owain ab Edwyn, Prince of 
Tegeingl. By this princess he had issue four sons and 
three daughters: — 1, Madog, his successor; 2, Mare- 
dudd, who had two sons, Gruffydd and Maredudd Fy-, 

1 Brut y Tywysoqio)i o Llyfr Coch o Uergist 

2 UarL XX. 1981. 


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chan, who both died December 7th, 1269, and were 
/ buried in the church of the Cistercian Monastery, " De 
> Valle Crucis", in Glyn Y Gwystl, as is stated in the 
Welsh Chronicles* 3, Roderig, who married Beatrice, 
daughter of David le Gere, Baron of Malpas, argent, a 
cross flory sable, son and heir of William Belward, Baron 
of Malpas; and, 4, Owain, who died in 1197. The 
three daughters were : — 1, Christina, who married Meurig 
ab Rotpert ab Hywel ; 2, Catherine, vx. Rotpert ab 
; and, 3, Gweullian Fechan. 

A gant Llygat Gwr y Ruff at uab Madtuuc. 


Hanbych well Raffut ueirt uat aydked 
Hael Cloduawr eurwaar arwymp gerted 
Hyneuyt Powys peues uyged hir 

Perchen gwir a thir a they raged 
Post Prydein vrtein wrt gyhussed 
Penny ad ur llafyndur Haw egored 
Pendeuic gwledic gwlad amgyfred naf 

Eawssam ny ut pennaf pan yth aned 
Pan uei urwydyr eurgrwydyr aergun dyged 
Yr hod ath alon pan yth holed 
A thitheu yn gwychaw pan goched dy par 

Ny chaei dy esgar escor Hated 
Kiliaw ny uynny yr nep caled 
Colofyn cad cadarnuleit lliwed 
Kellenic frwythic frwythlawn gored 
Kyrt — kertoryon eiduned 
Ti goreu rieu rut wise ar lied 
O gywan amws ar y ganued 
Ti ureiscaf mab dyn o dir credawn 

Tin prifgyrch pryffwn praff dylyed 
Gnawd yt dreic dragon yraddired 
Gryra ysgwn ysgwyd wyarlled 
Dyuod a goruod a gwared ath doryf 

Ath deruyn yn Hedled 
Gnawd yth lys lysseit gynnired 
Gorulycheu gan valch gyfyued 

1 Cue Cyrimj J/,V. 

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A metgyrn teyrn tec haelged yn llawa 

A lliaws galch doed 
Llwyr y gwyr gwrawl dy weithred 
Dy uod yn arglwyt eurglawr treured 
Y nep ath welo wrth weled dy dawn 

Y gan Duw gogoned. 

Gogonyant frwythyant fraethlew gwaewmt 
Gogyflawn o dawn yw y deurufc 
Gorwymp heirt dy ueirt dy uut neud adwen 

Nad ydyw y dan gut 
Gorawenus dreic ar dragon prut 
Gwreitrwys emries dros dreis drablut 
Gwrawl liael kedawl cad lofrut arglwyt 

Vn eurglod wyd a nut. 
Eryr teyrnet teyrneit vt 
Ar fyrt kyrt kertoryon duhut 
Aer yrdang kyfrang kyfrannnt 
Gwryaf gorofyn Lloegyr ae chythrut 
Aryf toruoet teruyn heb warthrut 
Aruthyr goeluein brein bryneich gystut 
vertun ffwawr guwchuawr dy gochrut uylchlafyn 

Dy ualcnlys nyd ymgut 
Anwer lyw luoet diry but 
Enwawc wyr Madawc uap Maredut 
honawd henyw dadannut 
honaf hanpych well Ruffut. 

Dewissaf arglwyt didramgwyt dro 
Dy wyssawc breinyawc brynn a tbyno 
Da gwyr dewiasaw ae dewisso ef 

Gwr a gynneil nef ae nertbao 
Grym erdrym aerdreic yn deffro 
Gretuawl hawl hwyl gynnyt Pabo 
Gruffut ged ddilut a dalyo Powys 

Gwrtuar a gynnwys vrcwys vranvro 
Goruolet y uyrt kyrt ae kyrcho 
Goruynt chwetyl kenetyl ae canlyno 
Gwr a obryn faw heb fo vn troeduet 
Nyd mawr oe drosset neb ny dreissyo 
Rwysc goteith pan lwyrweith Iosco 
Rwyf diuefyl douyt ae gatto 
Ry byt nrtedic a vrto uy ner 

Ny chyiner hyder ae adawo 


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Bolchlafyn lud am dad a derllyto 
Balch eryr dewrwyr doryf anosco 
Beilch yw y gadweilch gadarnglo Maelawr 

Breisclyrn orwytawr rotyon ymo 
Cloduoraf fy naf naws a gryno 
Ny byt angloduan y barm y bo 
Gvviw yw clod hynod a honno tanawd 

Yr aerllew parawd ae dirpero 
Piflisc wise wascawdueirt ymdro 
Detueu hael wrth pawb ae holo 
Dilesc eurgrwydyr brwydyr bryd ar gyffro cad 
Dioual wlad a wledycho 
Dinac Loegyr a rac wrawl flamdo 
Dewrwalch teyrneit urenhineit uro 
Donnyawc yw uy lly w llafyngoch Gymro 

Ny dwe Daw y dawn a roto. 


Y syt yn argluyt earglefc ganllaa 
Yssant y gynnelu ardelu vrthau 
Ys da y gauapea heb gaympau yn afyrdul 

Ysyaun difygul oe uygythyaa 
Gryraus vtbyr yn ruthyr yn anreithyau 
Greddyf ddiletrf ddilesc urth gymrau 
Gruffut eur dilut daylau egored 

Guaur Maelaar drefred ged gyfluytaa • 
Gorea kyrchlarn ym kyrcha attau 
Kanyd hart y uart uod y urthau 
Guraul yu y haul yu hnylau y gryd 

Gur hyfryd yr byd bod y danau 
Kyd anamyl y vut heb orchutyau 
Nyd etiu heb da dyn y urthau 
Nyd anheirt yu ueirt uyrtoet uallau 
Nyd annaud tafaud diuyd itau 
Araf toruoet teruyn achubau 
Aruyt coeluein brein bryueich dreis.syau 
Ar oleu ys mev myuyryau y gert 

Arureit augert ongyr uriuuu 
Ruyf kyuir ker tirTyssilyau 
Ruythaus deus diofyn raeddau 
Ruysc aerllcn tryleu yn treulyau arueu 

A guyr dros uylcheu yn ualch uruau 

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Ruyl carrec oua cauas yndau 
Baud saesson lladron 711 eu lludaau 
Ys dir oe uareu ddifuryau pob tur 

Ts anaut i ur y arueityau 
Drud a glad guladoefc ymandau 
Doeth a choeth kyuoeth kyfunau 
Duys aerguys pouys poed eityau 
Detfeu teg tygu oe eurllau 
Dinam ddreig dragon eitunau 
Diryad cad kedeirn ordduyau 
Daun yssyt yn seuyll ganthau 
Duu nef a no nerth itau. 


Hanbych well o bell bwyll ardderchawc 
Duw yn gyntaf naf niuerawc 
Heneuyt dedwyt odidawc dy bar 

Anescor dy uar uur torrnenawc 
Ys byt yt arglwyt rwyt rutuoawc 
Llywelyn lluyt ueirch arnawc 
A chlod a goruod am geiryawc ddyffrynt 

Gwruwl hawl hwysgynt hynt hirlidyawc 
A rechdyr ae wyr bynt waretawc 
Yt ddreic y weun wayw kyudynnyawc 
Ar drewen yn boeth genhyd beithyawc rwyf 

Ac ar elsmer glwyf glud uygedawc 
Rugyl eryr ongyr angert vreinyawc 
Rac nlaen cad cadarn dy wyssawo 
Ragod gynhossod kyhoetawc colofyn 

Ef a dyf gorofyn hyd Gaer Efrawc 
Mab Gruffut gleifrut glod wasgarawo 
if awrddud afael hael o hil Madawc 
Mawr beir kyghy weir kynuarchawg yghad 

Mawetus dy wlad rad redegawc 
A mi mal athro ethrylithawo 
Myfyr yw ynof cof Cadeiryawc 
Prydaf yn ddyfnaf y tt ddeifnyawc Powys 

Pryduerth dy gynnwys gennhyf nerthawc 
Ys keffych ys kyffuryf enwawc 
Wrth dy not nod yn gyuoethawc 
Ac yn y gorfien gorflawc anrydet 

Trugaret gan Duw trugarawc 

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Madoo succeeded his father as Prince of Powis Fadog 
in 11.90. He had the Lordships of Maelawr Gymraeg, 
Maelawr Saesneg, Chirk, Mochnant is Rhaiadr, Ial, 
Ystrad Aliln, Yr Hob, Cynllaith, Nanheudwy, and Glyn- 

In 1195, the Castle of Carcg Hwfa was regained by 
the English through the influence of an enterprising 
ecclesiastic, Archbishop Hubert, the Justiciary and Vice- 
roy of Richard I. We are in possession of a curious 
document which throws light on this transaction. It 
relates to the interests of Lilleshall Abbey, at Albright 
Lee, near Shrewsbury, wheu Thomas Burnell of Acton 
Burnell was the abbot's tenant in 1195. The agree- 
ment was entered into May 10th, 1195, soon after Arch- 
bishop Hubert had reduced Careg Hwfa Castle, and 
during the last illness of Thomas Burnell, and com- 
mences thus : — 

" Hoc est convencio inter Abbatum de Lilleshull et Thomas 
Burnell in yigilift Ascensionis proximas postquam Castellum de 
Karrcchov& redditum fuit a Waliensibus Dominio Regi per 
Dominum Cantuarensem." 

The English, however, only retained possession of the 
Castle of Careg Hwfa for a short time, and then restored 
it to Gwenwynwyn, who had besieged and captured it 
from Owain ab Madog, Lord of Mechain Isgoed, in 1187. 1 

In 1197, Gwenwynwyn, son of Owain Cyfeiliawg, 
Prince of Upper Powys, conquered Arwystli. Owain 
Cyfeiliawg, Prince of Powys, died in the abbey of 
Strata Marcella, and was buried there, having previously 
taken the religious habit. In this year, also, died Owain 
ab Gruffudd Maelor; and Owain of Brithdir, son of 
Hywel ab Ieuaf, Lord of Arwystli ; and Maelgwn ab 
Cadwallawn of Maelienydd. 8 

In 1200, Prince Madog ab Gruffudd Maelawr, being 

1 MonL CM., Oct 1874, pp. 382-3. 

2 Brut y Tywyiogioiit Bnit y Saesou. 

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inspired with the love of God, and at the solicitation of 
Peter, Abbot of Alma Doraus, in South Wales ; Dinia- 
wel, Abbot of Strata Florida (Ystrad Flur>; Rhirid, 
Abbot of Cwmhir, in Maelienydd ; and Philip, Abbot 
of Strata Marcella (Ystrad Marchell), gave to God, the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and the monks of Ystrad Marchell, 
the ville or township of Llynheguestel, 1 with all con- 
tained within its limits, to build there a monastery in 
honour of God and the Blessed Mother, the ever Virgin 
Mary, so that they might there serve God according to 
the rules of the Cistercian order ; and also the lands of 
Llanhekeneyl, Rhynderch, Banhadlen, 2 Buducore, 3 Creu- 
thauch, 4 Cumbrwynauch, Cefn Lluestyn, Tong, half of 
the ville of Mustuyr, 6 and certain lands in Wrexham, 8 
Borasham, and Actun. 7 

The witnesses to this charter were Philip, Abbot de 
Pola (Strata Marcella) ; Philip, Abbot of Valle Crucis ; 
and, of the laity, Caradawg ab Hugh, and Ednowain 

Huw Lleyn states that Madog founded this monas- 
tery, " dros enaid i dad", for the soul of his father. 8 

In 1202, Madog granted to God, the Blessed Mary, 
and the monks of Valle Crucis, the townships of Linne- 
guestel, Lanegeinel, Halltyn, 9 Tone, lands in Hacton, 10 
Wrechessam and Kreichauc, half of the township or 
ville called Buchubre, and Banhadlan, Cwm Broneauc, 
Camprouth, Gimeruh, Meivoch, 11 Cwm Kefil, and the 
half of the ville of Mistwir 12 and Cefn Luestyn. The wit- 

1 Glyn Y Gwestl, Cat Cyriog MS. A manor in Ial. 

2 A manor in Ial. * Buddugre, a manor in Ial. 
4 Creigiawg, a manor in Ial. 

6 Mwstwr, a township in Glyndyfrdwy. 

6 These lands form the manor of Wrexham Abbot. 

7 Borasham and Acton are both townships in Maelawr Cymraeg. 

8 Llyfr Huw Lleyn, p. 321. — Britisfi Museum MS. 
• Halchdyu, a manor in the Lordship of Chirk. 

10 Acton, a township in Maelawr Gymraeg. j 

11 Meivod, a township in Nanheudwy. 

12 Mwstwr, a township in Glyndyfrdwy. 


)igiti; ed by LiOOQU 


nesses to this charter were, Owain 1 vab Traliaiarn, Ieuaf 
vab Maredudd, David Ruffo, Iorwerth 9 vab Kachwallaun, 
Seisel, Decanus de Coruain, and John Ruffo. 8 

In the same year, Madog also gave to God, the 
Blessed Mary, and the convent of Valle Crucis — 

" Omnem parturam tociuVre raee scilicet Malaur Raesnec 
et provincie de Maylaur et Yayl et Nanheudu et Ken y Heid* 
excepto hoc quod heredes ear^dem p'vi'ciar' ad opus sun* sibi 
occupavern't, ita ut jam p'd'cus co'vent communitate' pasture 
h'at ubiq'in p'd'ci's p'vi'ciis in quib' nulli alii religiose viri 
habeant potestate aliq'am i'l facultafce h'endi aliquid v*l emendi 
v'l conducendi."* 

In this same year, 1202, a battle was fought at Gwem 
y Figin, a place about half a mile from Careg Hwfa 

In 1206, Prince Madog granted and confirmed by 
charter to the monks of Strata Marcella, Eskengainog, 
which they held " ante dominium meum in Edeyrniaun". 
He also granted and confirmed " Gwthelwern quam 
emerunt ab Hellise et Owino antecessoribus meis" 6 The 
Owain here mentioned must have been Owain Brogyn- 
tyn, who succeeded his half brother, Elisseu ab Madog, 
when the latter was deprived of that lordship in 1202. 

On August 2, 1212, Robert de Vipont being besieged 
in Mathravel Castle by the Welsh, was rescued by King 
John in person. Within the next four days, Robert de 
Vipont undertook the custody of the four castles of Os- 
westry, Castle Crogen, now Chirk Castle, Careg Hwfa, 
and . Eggelawe ; and William Briwere, Peter Fitz Her- 
bert, Alan and Thomas Basset, John Marescall, and 
Thomas de Erdington, accepted on the king's behalf De 
Vipont's undertaking. On June 10, 1213, King John 
orders John de Vipont to deliver up Careg Hwfa Castle 

1 Owain ab Trahaiam ab Ithel ab Eunydd, Lord of Dyffryn Clwyd, 
Tref Alun, and Y Groesfford. 

* Iorwerth of Llys y Cil in Ial, ab Caswallawn ab Hwfa ab Ithel 
Felyn, Lord of Ial and Ystrad Alun. 

3 Archceologia Cambrensis, Oct. 1866. 

* Cyullaith. 5 Ardwsologia Cambrensi*, 1£66. 
Mont. Coll., iv, 305. 

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> i ft <«» 

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to the custody of John le Strange, and John Marescall 
was to see that this was done. A third patent, addressed 
to John le Strauge himself, appoints him Castellan of 
Careg Hwfa Castle during the king's pleasure. 

The castle of Careg Hwfa was first built in 1101, for 
we learn from Florence of Worcester that, in that year, 
1101, when Robert de Belesme, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
commenced the fortification of Bridgnorth against King 
Henry I, he also began another fortress in Waltonia, 
in a place called Caraclove. 

In 1215, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, with 
other Welsh princes, collected a great army at Caer 
Vyrddin, and, in less than five days, they took the castle 
and razed it to the ground ; they then took and disman- 
tled the castles of Llan Ystyffan, Talacharn, and St. 
Cler. From thence, on the eve of St. Thomas the 
Apostle, they went to Ceredigiawn, and took the castle 
of Cardigan. Then the men of Cemeis did homage to 
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, and surrendered to him the castle 
of Trefdraeth, and by general consent it was demolished. 
And when the garrison of Aber Teivi saw that they 
could no longer defend the castle, they delivered it up to 
Llywelvn on the Feast of St. Stephen, and, on the Feast 
of St. ^ohn the Apostle, they delivered up the castle of 
Cel Gerran to him. After which, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, 
and all the Welsh princes that were with him, returned 
to their own countries again happy and joyful with vic- 
tory. These are the names of the princes who went 
from Gwynedd : Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, Prince of Gwy- 
nedd : and Hywel ab Gruffudd ab Cynan, 1 and Llywelyn 
ad Maredudd ab Cynan 1 . And from Powys : Gwenwyn- 
wyn ab Owain Cyfeiliawg, and Maredudd ab Rot pert of 
Cydewen, and the family of Madog ab Gruffudd Mael- 
awr, the two sons of Maelgwn ab Cadwailawn. From 
South Wales: Maelgwn ab Rhys and Rhys Grug his 
brother, and Rhys Ieuanc and Owein, the sons of Gruf- 
fydd ab Rhys. And these are the names of the castles 

1 Cynan was one of the sons of Owain Gwynedd, King of North 

VOL. I. 11 

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that they took in this expedition : Senghenydd, Cidweli, 
Caer Vyrddin, Llan Ystyffan, St. Clcr, Tatycharn, Tref- 
draeth, Aber Teivi, and Cil Gerran. And After this the 
winter passed away more happily and peacefully than 
was ever known before. 

In 1216, John, King of England, assailed by the for- 
midable insurrection of the barons and most powerful 
subjects, and being menaced by Louis, the Dauphin of 
France, sought to form an alliance with the Welsh 
princes and chieftains ; this they refused to grant him, 
and, in revenge, he destroyed the castles of Hay and 
Radnor, and two of the castles of the Fitz Alans, Co- 
lynwy and Oswestry, which last was burnt to the ground. 

In 1219, the castle and lordship of Whittington were 
taken by the English under the command of Sir Fulke 
Fitz Warren. (See Archceologia Cambrensis.) 

From a document in the Llyfr Coch Asaph, we find 
that Prince Madog gave the patronage of the church of 
Wrexham to this monastery. This document is entitled, 
"Renunciatio juris patronatus ad ecclesiam de Wrexham, 
Abbati et conveotui de Valle Crucis per Madocum filium 
Gruffyd". He also confirmed the donation by the free- 
men of Llangollen to the monks of the right of fishing 
in the river Dyfrdwy, or Dee, by a document dated in 
1234. 1 

This prince was one of the first to join the standard of 
Prince Lly welyn when he determined, after a degrading 
peace, to make one more effort to rescue his country 
from the power of the kings of England By his con- 
sort Ysota, sister of Rhiwallawn Liwyd, and daughter of 
Ithel, Kins of Gwent, son of Rhys ab Ivor ab Hy wel ab 
Morgan of Ewias ab Morgan Hir, a younger son of 
Testyn ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, he had issue 
four sons, 

I. Gruffydd, his successor. 

II. Maredudd, Lord of Rhiwabon, where he resided at 
a place subsequently called Watstay, and now Wynnstay. 
He married the Princess Catherine, daughter of Gruf- 

1 Arch. Cambr., 18G6. i 


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fudd ab Llywelyn ab Iorwerth Drwyn Dwn, Prince 
of Wales, quarterly, gules and o?% four lions rampant, 
counterchanged. After the death of Marcdudd, Cathe- 
rine married Iorwerth Fychan ab Iorwerth Hen, Lord of 
Chirk, Nanheudwy, and Maelor Saesneg. By his con- 
sort, Catherine, Maredudd had issue an only daughter 
and heiress, named Angharad, who married Llywelyn ab 
Gruffudd ab Cadwgawn, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 
Borasham {ermine, a lion rampant azure, armed and 
langued gules). She had the landed estate of Rhiw 
Abon, and the ancient camp of Y Gaerddin for her por- 
tion, which through her came into the Eyton family ;* 
but, as Maredudd had no male issue, the lordship of 
Rhiwabon went to his eldest brother, Prince Gruffudd. 2 
Maredudd ab Madog was killed by David ab Llywelyn, 
Prince of Wales, in 1240. 3 

in. Hywel, who having no male issue, his lordship 
went also at his death to his brother Gruffudd. 4 Huw 
Lleyn in his book states that Hywel and his brother, 
Madog Fychan, died without male issue, " a vuant veirw 
yn ddietifedd o feibion, ai rrandir hwynt a ddigwyddodd 
i Gruffydd", Hywel's eldest brother. He left an only 
daughter and heiress, Elen, who married David, Lord of 
Caer Einion, fifth son of Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyh, 
Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn (w\ a lion rampant gules, 
armed and langued azure), by whom she had two daugh- 
ters, coheirs : — 1. Margaret, who married Hywel Grach 
of Bodylltyn in Rhiwabon, fourth son of Llywelyn ab 
Gruffudd ab Cadwgan, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 
Borasham, by whom she had an only daughter and heiress, 
who married Madog Yr Athraw (see Plas Madog) ; and, 2. 
Mary, who married Caradog ab Collwyn ab Y Llyr Craff of 
Meivod, son of Maredudd ab Cynan ab Owain Grwynedd, 
Lord of Rhiwhiracth Neuadd Wen, Llysin, and Coed 
Talog (quarterly, gules and argent, four lions passant, 
gardt. counterchanged). 6 (See Hist, of Llangurig, p. 72.) 

1 Eyton Pedigree, Cae Cyriog MS. 2 Hurl. MS. 2299. 

3 Brut y Tywysogion, Llyfr Cock o Hergi&t. 4 Earl. MS. 2299. 
» Harl. MS. 2299, 4181. Add. MS. 9864, 5. 

11 ' 

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iv. Madog Fychan, ob. s. p. 

Besides these children who were legitimate, Madog had 
also /an illegitimate son named Iorwerth Ddu, who had 
lands in Whittington. He was the father of Gruffudd 
ab Iorwerth, the father of David Salop, who bore quar- 
terly, 1st and 4th, argent, in base, a snake's head vert, 
" ai cholyn", sable, a chief of the third ; 2nd and 3rd, 
argent, " catell", sable, over its head a stag passant vert, 
armed and unguled or, with a chain twisted over its 
neck of the fourth. Prince Madog died in 1236. (See 
p. 167.) 

In 1220, Rayner, Bishop of St. Asaph, gave a moiety 
of the church of Wrexham to the abbot and convent of 
Valle Crucis, towards the support of the fabric of the 

In 1227, Abraham, Bishop of St. Asaph, gave the 
other moiety. 

In 1232, Abraham, Bishop of St. Asaph, granted a 
portion of the church of Llangollen to the abbot and 
convent. Bishop Abraham died in 1235. 

In 1236, Hugh, Bishop of St. Asaph, confirmed this 
grant of the tithes of Llangollen. 

Llywarch ab Llywelyn, sev prydydd y Moch, ai Cant. 

Am vnic treissic y traws yolav duw 

A ddigawn yach o glav 
Milwr Milwyr uodrydav 
Madawg law ddeawc lary nav 
Naf ner rac trymder trist gythrud dolur 

Dilys ym y ear rod 
Mab duw nef noda vy vd 
Gredeuawl greidyawl gruffud 
Greit eryr milwyr Maylawr a archaf 

Y erchwyn nef a Uawr 
Vd dinac dinas gwxyawr 
Vn dinam vn mab mam mawr 
j Yn mab duw ehun oe heneint na lud 

Gwr ny lwyd beird oe heint 
Rwym galon nyt gelyn seint 

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Rwyf powys peues hoffeynt 
Powyssed anghea powyssuc ae gwyr 

Or goreu y hamwc f 

A edeu rieu ryddrwc 
Ac a uo da ef ac dwc 
Dvc ywein wynnuein ny wnn haa ae hoefc 

Neut y hoedyl am erwan 
Hil gruffud taer rybud tan 
Ten angfaeu anghyflauan 
Kyflauan yuan vu ar dreigyeu byt 

A bedyd kyn bwyn teu 
Kadyr grist rac cadwen anglieu 
Kadw vadawc uynawc yn veu 
ilea bryder llawer llwrw khvyf ym 

Deuryd — ym dewrid nyt ydwyf 

(Englynion ar goll) 
Llyw gwrawl breinyawl brenhineitaf 
Llywyawdyr gwenndref nef nerth a archaf 
Llwydyant pob carant caraf dy uoli 

Llewycnuawr geli ri rywoccaf 
Llwyr ym kyfyd bryd brys ny gelaf 
Lluur veith a weith aweinydaf 
Llyryeid uawl trethawl traethaf o naw 
Uan — Uwydran ellylw gan a genydaf 
Llaweu eidnn van uyd diorssaf 
Lleueir ry ffwbl eir ny rygablaf 
Lletyf dihol dethol doethaf or gwraged 

Llaryed gluduawred a gloduoraf 
Llawr mawr mebwynyawn dawn diwarthaf 
Llewychdud meinhir ywr tir teccaf 
Lin diarawd hyffawd hofifuf ker meuryo 

Lliw gwynnblyc gwenyc gwen y hadaf 
Leuur eiry didreul neu heul yn haf 
Lliawr canmawl or mawl mwyaf 
Llin gwinuaeth pennaeth pennaf o gymry 

Llun hy ae dyly ieitb atalaf 
Llwrw gwir nyw cenir ual y canaf 
Llauar car kerdrod o uod uydaf 
Lloer hynot ar glot yr gloewaf denrnd 

Llaesuerch uarednd a brud brydaf 
Lleduryd yw ffou yn dyn diweiraf 
Llit cant o volyant gwarant gwiraf 
Llawer geir — neir a wnaf ker aeron 

Llif dragon yanon vonhediccaf 


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Llebliw ardal gwiw gwydyr bias yd af 
Lie uym llwyd eilwyd arwyd araf 
Lies uymoet eres evraf am tavawt 
Llathreit wawt hyd urawt hut nawt hoet naf 
Lliw cer enwysc riw rin dawl om tafawd 

Neut diwethl anueidrawl 
LHn arglwydd Uary hylwyd hawl 
Llun diweiruun dy wiruawl 
Mawl ran ellylw gan gynyd gwyd hydec 

Y gwawd hydyr ny deruyd 
Milyoed dreul ne heul hafdyd 
Molyant pwyll uedyant pell uyd 
Ny byd amdlawd gwawd gwawr hynod 
Ellylw — all wed dawn a gwybod 
Nawd yw rac ran o dannod 
Nwyf rieu glwyf rwy o glod 
Cloduawr dwn kyrchwn kyrch dilud 
Ueinuarch — ar fwynuerch varedud 
Claer orne dwyre deurud 
Clwyf cant uryd uedyant veird uud 
Buduawr yawn hydawn hediw hawl 
Dylyn — yw heul dolyd hebliw 
Bod rod rin diurawd wawd wiw 
Bun laes wanllun lwys wynlliw 


Sef yw teyrullyw teyrnllaw Fadawg 

Par enwawg pair annaw 
Teyrnedd teyrn gaullaw 
Teyrnas addas iddaw 
Iddaw lu ganllaw geinllyw hyfag cyrdd 

Cerddorion ofynag 
Rhwyf ner by archer bynuag 
Nid rhyw i'm ner rhoddi nag 
Dinag Loegr arac eryres amwyn 

Bardd gyflwyn beirdd gyfles 
Dyn a'i mawl llwyr gan mawl lies 
Dawn i'un rhwyf Duw ai rhoddes 
Rhoddes Duw yra llyw y llafn waedlif 
A'i ysgyr— ysgyrion ynguif 
Rhad o'i genniad y gennyf 
Ynghynnif Madawg anghynnwys ei dorf 

A'i daerfar ar Lloegnvys 

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Rhwydd y ceidw cad am ddiffwys 
Rhwydd glyw tra fo byw Bowys 
Powys nen perchen parch woddef espyd 

Vs bo Duw gylag ef 
Rhwym cad yn cadw ei addef 
Rhwyf byd ys hyfryd os ef. 

Einion ivan ai cant. — 1236. 

Neud rliaid am Fadawg trengi ciododoedd 

Gwalch cadoedd cadrfalch ri 
Neud trai calon donn dug fi 
Ac neud trwydoll oi golli 
O golli Madawg edgyllaetb co6on 

Gwyw calon gan hiraeth 
Gwawr llawr llwyddedig bennaetli 
Gwae ei fro ai frodyr maeth 
Maeth Madawg mynawg mynudrwydd wyrth lyw 

Ac wrth lew yuiorchwydd 
Arf tarf terfyn ehangrwydd 
Aerwr oreu pel canmolwydd 
Canmolwydd ydd oedd raid ruddelwch i fod 

I fad gynnhal heddwch 
Gwalch biynn brenin ynialwch 
Gwael nad byw byd neud amdrwch 
Trwch yw'r gwr arwr ardwyad gweriu 

A goreu o fab tab 
Ef oedd aerllew arllwybr cad 
Ef oedd arlleng pymthengwlad 
Gwladoedd ni debyg glud oeddliw 
Ymmyd — Madawg oedd cyn heddiw 
Esgor oi dud nad ydiw 
Ysgor gadw ysgwyd fradw friw 
Briw galch ei rodawg o ryw tymhestyl cad 

Cynnoer wely diddestl 
Gwr a wnair fal gwair fab gwestl 
Gwyr wawr yn llawr Uynn Egwestl 2 
Diwestl ei ysgor yscwynais nad byw 

Hael or rhwy rygollais 
Blaidd blaengar blawdd trydar trais 

Trei hoeddyl ei hoed yr borthais 

1 Madog ab GrufFudd Maelor died in the year 1236, and was buried 
in the Church of Valle Crucis Abbey. 2 See p. 159. 


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Porthais alar trwm tramawr odrig gwyth 

Am wawr llwyth a lleithig 
Am eryr gwyr gwaith fuddig 
Am ior aerddor urddedig 
Arddas teyrnas teyrn arfrudd cad 

TriDgyrchiad tra fu fudd 
Trymfryd byd bod yn achludd 
Traws maws Madawg mab Gruffudd 
Am fab Gruffudd lary lawch ynaid i'm lien 

Nid mau wen wedd honuaid 
I bob rhwyf rhwysg orddyfnaid 
Diwedd nod rhuddfedd neud rhaid 


Gruffudd ab Madog, Prince of Powys Farlog, and 
styled also Lord of Dinas Bran, possessed all the lord- 
ships that his father head, and whom he succeeded in 
1236. In this year died Owain ab Maredudd ab Rot- 
pert, Lord of Cydewaun ; and in this, the first year of 
his reign, Gruffudd gave aud confirmed the grant of his 
father, Prince Madog, to the abbot and convent of the 
Cistercian Order of Valle Crucis, viz., Lumeswestal, 
Llannekeivel, Kelli, Vorhauc, Rinttirht, Baunack, Len, 
Buchuchbre, Kreichauc, Wrettesham, Tunch, Halchtun, 
Kevenlluestyn, Cumkefil, Abelauc, Mustoir, Werinvei- 
noch, 1 Hetteren, " piscariam eciam monasterii sup' De- 
verdui ex utraque parted 

He likewise confirmed the grants of the coheirs of the 
said Madog, " videl't Owini de Porkintun* et filis ejus- 
dem de Cumbruinauc, Campull, Weunruth filior eciam 
Owini Parvi de Gwernmevoc eisdem monachis confir- 
mavi", etc. Hiis testibus Gervasio, Senescallo meo, 
Ytail filio Griffini, Madoco Rufo, Goraun filio lorwerth. 
De religiosis Philippo tu'c temporis Priore de Valle 
Crucis, et multis aliis. 

From a document amongst the Peniarth MSS., and 
printed in the ArchcBologia Cambrensis, vol. iii, 228, 
1848, and dated December 5, 1247, it appears that a 
1 Gwern Fcivod iu Nanheudwy. 2 Brugyutyn. 

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dispute arose between the sons of Ieuaf ab MaredudcV on 
the one part, and the Lord Madog, the abbot and the 
convent of Valle Crucis on the other part, relative to the 
boundaries between Crevauc (Creigiog), which belonged 
to the abbey, and Allthenbeber (Allt y Gymbyd). The 
folio wiug persons of the seculars of Maelawr were wit- 
nesses to this document : Llywelyn ab Madog ; Ithel and 
Goronwy, the sons of Gruffudd Sais ; Iorwerth and Enrius, 
the sons of Ieuaf (ab Maredudd) ; and the following 
seculars of Ial were likewise witnesses, viz., Llywelyn ab 
Ynyr, Madog ab Iorwerth, and Cadwgan Goch. Of 
these, Llywelyn ab Ynyr was Lord of Gelli Gynan in 
Ial, and ancestor of the baronet family of Lloyd of Bodi- 
dris yn 141, now represented by the Lord Mostyn of 
Mostyn, late of Bodidris, and Llys Pengwern in Nan- 
heudwy; the Lloyds of Llys Vassi, Trowyn, and Foel 
Fodig ; and the Ellises of Brond^g and Y Groes Newydd 
near Wrexham. 2 

Cadwgan Goch, Lord of Iftl, was the son of Y Gwion, 
Lord of I&l and Ystrad Alun, who was slain by Robert 
de Monte Alto, who attacked Y Gwion, and took the 
fortress of Y Wyddgrftg. In this action, Y Gwion, 
Lord of Ystrad Alun and I&l, was slain, and Robert took 
the lordship, and the surname of " De Monte Alto", in 
the British language, Y Wyddgrftg, the conspicuous 
tumulus. Cadwgan Goch was the son of Y Gwion ab 
Hwva ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of I&l and Ystrad Alun, who 
bore sable, on a fess inter three goats' heads erased or, 
three trefoils of the field. He was the ancestor of the 
Bithels of Llwyn Egryn near Mold (Y Gwydd Grug), 
of John Thomas of Y Gaer Ddin in Rhiwabon, who was 
living in 1680, and of Edward ab Randle ab Iohn ab 
Iohn ab Madog of Rhuddallt Isaf. 8 

In 1237, Hugh, Bishop of St. Asaph, granted to the 
abbey the remaining portion of the tithes of Llangollen, 
with a reservation of five meres. 

In 1238, Prince Llywelyn ab Iorwerth convened a 

1 Of Bod Idris. * Lewys Dwnn y vol ii. — Reynolds' Pedigrees. 
8 Cae Cijriog MS., Earl. MS. 2299. 

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meeting of the Welsh lords at Ystrad FlAr, where they 
renewed to him their oaths of allegiance; and likewise 
did homage to David, his son by the Princess Joan, who 
was preferred by Lly welyn, to his elder son, Gruffudd, as 
his successor. But the king was so jealous of his autho- 
rity over Wales that he sent him a summons to appear 
before him at Worcester, under a safe conduct, to answer 
for this proceeding. Aud Matthew Paris informs us 
that, Prince Llywelyn being impotent, by reason of a 
palsy, and sore disquieted by his son, Gruffudd, sent am- 
bassadors to the King of England, signifying to him 
that, forasmuch as he could not expect to live long by 
reason of his age, he was desirous to lead the remainder 
of his days in peace and quietness, and, therefore, he now 
proposed to submit himself to the government and pro- 
tection of the king, of whom he was willing to hold his 
lands ; promising withal that, whenever the king required 
his assistance, he would serve him both with men and 
money to the utmost of his power. And thus peace was 
concluded. Prince Llywelyn, therefore, gave up his 
power to his son, Prince David. David took from his 
brother Gruffudd his lordships of Arwystli, and Ceri, and 
Cyfeiliawg, and Mawddwy, and Mochnant, and Caer 
Einion, and left him nothing but the cantref of Lleyn 
only. And then he killed Maredudd ab Madawg ab 
Gruffudd Maelor, the brother of Prince Gruffudd ab 
Madog. And on that account Llywelyn ab Iorwerth 
took away his wealth from him, and then came David ab 
Llywelyn and Gruffudd his brother for breaking agree- 
ment with him, and he imprisoned him and his son-in- 
law in the castle of Crugaeth. 

In 1238, Hugh, Bishop of St. Asaph, made "concessio 
totius ecclesiae de Llangollen domini de Valle Crucis, 
reservata institutione vicarii." 

In 1249 and 1261, Bishop Anian I confirmed these 
grants to the abbey, and, in 1261, these grants, together 
with those relating to Wrexham, were again confirmed 
by Maurice, the custodian of the see during the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Anian I. 

1 Brat y Tywysogion, Llyfr Coch o Hergcst. 

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The churches of Wrexham, Ehiwabon, Y Waun or 
Chirk, Llansant Ffraid, Glyn Ceiriog, and Llandcgla, 
were formerly chapels of ease to the mother church of 
Llangollen. The chapel of Ehiwabon was anciently 
dedicated to St. Collen, and the festival was kept on 
May 21, " Kappel Kolhen a gal want gae He mae kroes 
ymplwy Rhiwabon : Ei gwyl Mabsant a gadwant dhydh 
wyrthnos o hav". 1 But subsequently the chapel was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the festival was kept 
on August 15. This change in the dedication was pro- 
bably made when the whole of the church of Llangollen, 
which of course included its dependencies, was made 
over to the abbey in 1238. 

Prince Grutfiidd married an English lady, Emma, 
daughter of James, Lord Audley, who bore gules, a fret 
or, and, after this marriage, he sided with Henry III 
against Prince Llywelyn ab Gruffudd. In 1257, he 
assisted the English against that prince when he was 
advancing to Chester to punish Edward, the eldest son of 
King Henry III, who was the earl of that county, for 
the extortions he practised upon the Welsh in the neigh- 
bourhood of the city; but, in 1258, Prince Llywelyn re- 
venged himself by laying waste Maelawr Gymraeg with 
fire and sword, and Gruffudd failing to receive the succour 
he cxpecte.d from the English king, submitted himself to 
Prince Llywelyn, and was obliged to confine himself to 
his castle of Dinas Bran, where he died in 1270, and 
was buried in the church of Valle Crucis Abbey. 

By his consort Emma, upon whom he had settled the 
lordships of Maelawr Saesneg, Ystrad Alfln, and Yr Hob, 
he had four sons — 1, Madog Fychan, of whom presently ; 
2, Llywelyn, who was Lord of Chirk and Nanheudwy, 
and died without issue. In November 1282, Llywelyn 
complained to the Archbishop of Canterbury that the 
king's constable of Croes Oswallt, and the men of that 
town, had spoiled him of a third part of the township of 
Lledrod in Cynllaith, and other rights; moreover, the 
King of England had granted his letters patent to a cer- 

1 Edward Lhwyd. 



tain bastard, Gruffudd Fychan of CynUaith, to litigate 
against the said Llywelyn, for the purpose of obtaining 
his whole dominion, by reason of which letters he had 
been put to a cost of £200. (Warrington's History of 
Wales, appendix.) 3, Gruffudd, surnamed Y Barwn 
Gwyn, i.e., the White Baron, who had the lordships of 
Glyndyfrdwy and Ial, and, 4, Owain, who was a learned 
scholar, "ysgolhaig urddasol", who died young, without 
issue. He had half the lordship of CynUaith, which was 
called CynUaith Owain, and afterwards devolved upon 
Gruffudd Fychan, Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, and thus de- 
volved upon Owain Glyndwr. 1 Hugh Lleyn states that 
Owain had Bangor, "A gafas yni ran haner Kynllaith a 
Bangor, tra vu yn aros ysgobaith, kanys ysgolhaig ur- 
ddasol oedd, ac yn ieuangk i bu varw." 

All these four sons were witnesses to the settlement 
made by their father Prince Gruffudd on their mother 
Emma, and after his death the four joined in a renewal 
or confirmation of their father's settlement, and made to 
it considerable additions ; they must, therefore, all have 
been of age at the time of their father's death." 4 


Madog ab Gruffudd, Prince of Powys Fadog, and 
Lord of Dinas Bran, succeeded his father in the year 
1270. He had the lordships of Maelor Gymraeg or 
Bromfield, I&l, Chirk, Nanheudwy, and the reversion of 
the lordships of Maelor Saesneg, Ystrad Alun, and Yr 
Hob, which were settled on his mother the Lady Emma 
for her dowry. 

In 1270, by deed dated at Dinas Bran, on the morrow 
of St. Thomas the Apostle, Madog, Llywelyn, Owain, 
and Gruffudd, the sons of Gruffudd ab Madog, conceded 
to the Lady Emma their mother for the term of her life 
all the lands and tenements which the said Gruffudd 

i 1 Cat Ct/riog MS. 

2 MS. of Sir John Sebright, quoted by Pennant in his Tour in 
Wales, vol. i, 280. 


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their father gave to her during his life, namely, the pro- 
vince of Maelor Saesneg, with the appurtenances ; the 
manor of Overton, with the frrill and stream, and all the 
appurtenances ; and all the vills which are in the pro- 
vince of Maelor Saesneg ; the manor of E)'tou in Maelor 
Bemorat, with the mill and park, and all other appur- 
tenances, and two portions of lands situate in the said 
park, of which the one was purchased by the Lord 
Hywel ab Madogfrom all the heirs of Herbestog, subject 
to an annual rent of twelve gallons of beer, or the piice 
thereof, at the Feast of St. Michael, and the other part 
was freely given by the aforesaid heirs of Herbestog to 
the Lord Gruffudd their father, the vili of Llanarmon, 
with the appurtenances in Beulleston, together with 
those lands which the Lady Ysota their grandmother, 
with the consent of the Lord Madog their grandfather, 
and the Lord Gruffudd their father, purchased from 
Cadwgan, and Eivit (Rhirid), and Einion, the sons of 

Doyoc, which are called Lloytlier to have and 

to hold all the aforesaid tenements, with the appurte- 
nances of them and their heirs, as long as she should 

In the Llyfr Coch Asaph there is a copy of a deed 
between Madog ab Llyvvelyn and Owain ab Gruffudd ab 
Madog, Lord of Bromfield and 141, in which the follow- 
ing persons are mentioned as witnesses. The Lord 
Anian, 1 Bishop of St. Asaph ; David, Dean of Brom- 

i Anian or Einion II, surnamed de Schonan, Prior of the House of 
the Black Friars at Rhuddlan, was the son of Ynyr ab Meurig, Lord 
of Nannau, and was called Y Brawd Du o Nannau. He was conse- 
crated Bishop of St. Asaph, as Anian II, September 24th, 1268. He 
was also Confessor to Edward I, whom he attended in his voyage to 
the Holy Land. In 1271, he obtained from John Fitz Alan, Earl of 
Arundel, and Lord of Oswestry and Clun, the grant of more than an 
hundred acres of land in St. Martin's for the church there, paying 
yearly for ever one pair of gilt spurs, at Midsummer, with condition 
that it should not be lawful for the Bishop or his successors to alien- 
ate the same. This grant bears date " Apud Album Monasterium in 
crastino Paschse, 1271". It was afterwards conBrmed by Richard, 
the son of John Fitz Alan, who also gave forty-four acres more, with 
the seat of the Manor House thereto belonging. In 1 278, he got from 


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field ; Brother Cynwrig, Prior of Rhuddlan ; and the 
Lord Gervasius (Iorwerth), Abbot of Valle Cruris. This 
deed was executed at Dinas Bran in 1270. 

At this time, Anian II, Bishop of St. Asaph, appointed 
vicars to the churches of Llangollen and Wrexham, 
against which the Abbot of Valle Crucis appealed, on 
the plea that Wrexham, Rhiwabon, Chirk, Llansant 
Ffraid, and Llandegla, were capelloe to Llangollen, aud 
that, therefore, one vicar was enough for all. And, in 
1274, sentence was passed by the Abbot of Tal y 
Llecheu, the pope's delegate, condemning the bishop to 
a fine of five pounds and the said vicars to a penalty of 
sixty pounds (pro fructibus per eos receptis), and to re- 
store the said chapelries to the abbey. Against this 
sentence the bishop appealed to the archbishop of the 
province, whose official at once gave the bishop letters of 
protection, and issued a mandate to the Archdeacon of 
Caer Ffyrddin to inhibit the Abbot of Tal y Llecheu 
from further proceedings, and to cite him to answer for 
his conduct. The abbot, however, supported by the 
pope, resisted, and excommunicated the archbishop and 
suspended the archdeacon, and the result was (by way 
of compromise) that the sequestered benefices were given 
up to the abbey by the bishop at his visitation in 1275. 

I have not been able to discover who Prince. Madog 
married ; but we learn from the documents in the Record 

Gruffudd Fychan, Lord of Ial, the Manor of Llandegla, to be settled 
upon himself and his successors. He gave two-tbirds of the tithes of 
Bryn Eglys to the Abbey of Valle Crucis. He died February 5th, 
1292-3, and was succeeded in the See by Llywelyn de Bromiield, 
vho died iu 1314. 

Sale of Church Lands belonging to (lie See of St. Asaph in Powys 


May 9th, 1649. — Two Messuages in St. Martin's, co. 

Salop; sold to William Fell and Jonathan Pilcot for £195 10 

Aug. 20th, 1649. — Part of the Manor of Wrexham; sold 

to James Lloyd for £50 0- 

March 25th, 1650.— The Manors of Llandegla, and of 
Gwytherin and Meliden in Gwynedd, with other 
lordships, manors, and lands ; sold to John Jones 
and George Twistletou, Esqrs., for - £3797 

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Office in London that the name of his consort was Mar- 
garet. Madog ab Gruffudd died in 1277, leaving two 
infant children, Llywelyu and Gruffudd, as his heirs. 

Immediately after the death of Madog, Edward I, 
King of England, by a document dated at Shrewsbury, 
December 3, 1278, and the sixth year of his reign, 
directed Roger I/Estrange, the guardian of territories 
and estates that formerly belonged to Gruffudd ab 
Madog of Bromfield, to make over the proceeds of the 
lands and tenements to the Bishop of St. Asaph for the 
benefit of the sons and heirs of the said Gruffudd, who 
were under age, but that the tenants were to look to 
Roger alone as the guardian appointed by the king 
during his pleasure. 1 On December 4 in the same year, 
the king appointed Roger Mortimer to be guardian to 
the two young princes. 

On December 10 in the same year, in a document 
dated at Shrewsbury, the king informed Roger L'Estrange 
that he had deputed Gruffudd ab Iorwerth to be his 
justiciary in the lands which belonged to Madog of Brom- 
field, to execute justice according to the laws and customs 
of those parts of which the said Madog was seized in his 
lordship and fee on the day on which he died, and to 
receive all the rents and profits of those lands, and to 
deliver them to Margaret, who was the wife of the afore- 
said Madog (and who lately swore before him that the 
two sons and heirs of the said Madog whom the king de- 
livered to herself, should be sent and placed under the 
guardianship of the said Roger at the kings command) 
for the sustentation of those boys, and what was over 
and above that sustentation should be laid by for the use 
of those boys according to what the venerable father the 
Bishop of St. Asaph, the aforesaid Margaret, and the 
aforesaid Gruffudd, who was appointed for that special 
purpose in the kings place, should think best, so that 
the said Gruffudd should have the custody of those lands, 
and receive their rents and profits, and be answerable by 
a reasonable computation before the aforesaid bishop and 
1 Rotuli Walliaiy 6 Edw. I, m. 12. 

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Margaret, or any other person whom the king might 
appoint for that purpose ; with the exception that the 
conservation of the king's peace and the punishment of 
robbers and other malefactors, if there were any, against 
the king's peace, should be dealt with by the said Roger 
L'Estrauge and his servants iu such a way as the said 
Roger 1/ Estrange might think best. And that the guar- 
dianship of the aforesaid lands and their profits was to 
be made over to Gruffudd from the octave day of St. 
Martin last past, on which day the king received the 
homage of the two boys during the kings pleasure. 1 

On the 4th January, 1278, the king, by a document 
dated from the Tower of London, directed Roger Mor- 
timer and Walter de Hopton to settle a complaint that 
had been brought before him by Margaret, who had been 
the wife of Madog Fychan, against Llywelyn Fychan,' 
who had unjustly, as she affirmed, taken possession of 
the province of Mechain, which she asserted to be the 
patrimony of Llywelyn and Gruffudd, the sons and heirs 
of the aforesaid Madog, and to decide the case justly, 
according to the laws and customs of the country.* 

On the same day, the king directed Roger Mortimer 
and Walter de Hopton to settle a complaint brought by 
the above-named Margaret, the widow of Madog Fychan, 
against the kings beloved and faithful Roger TEstrange, 
for unjustly seizing the manor of Maelawr Saesneg, which 
was the patrimony of Llywelyn and Gruffudd, the sons 
and heirs of the aforesaid Madog Fychan, and of which 
province she, and men approved by the said heirs, ought 
to be the guardians, and no one else, according to the 
law and custom of those parts, till the time when the 
aforesaid heirs knew how to govern themselves and their 
inheritance, and no longer. Accordingly, the king gave 
directions to Roger Mortimer and Walter de Hopton to 
call the parties before them, and to decide the case 
according to the law and custom of those parts. 8 

On the 4th January, 1278, by a document dated from 
the Tower of London, the king gave directions to the 
1 Rotuli Wallice, 6 Edw. I, ra. 12. * Ibid. a Ibid. 

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above-named Roger Mortimer and Walter de Hopton, to 
settle a dispute that had arisen between the Lady Emma, 
who had been the wife of Gruffudd ab Modog, and the 
Lady Margaret, who had been the wife of her (the Lady 
Emmas) son, Madog Fychan. The Lady Emma claimed 
manorial rights in the manor of Eyton, which had been 
settled upon her as a dowry by her husband ; but the 
manorial rights were then in the possession of the Lady 
Margaret, who held them in consequence of their having 
been settled upon her as part of her dowry. The king 
then directs Mortimer and Walter de Hopton to see 
what rights the Lady Emma had in the manor ; then to 
take possession of the manor for the king, and to give 
her an equivalent for it in the county of Chester, to be 
held during the time of her life in recompense for the 
above-named manor, but that after her death the manor 
was to revert to the king and his heirs ; and if they shall 
find that the Lady Margaret is justly entitled to hold the 
manor by right of dowry, then that they shall similarly 
provide that, after the death of the said Lady Margaret, 
the said manor should revert to the king and his heirs. 1 

On the same day, the king gave directions to Mortimer 
and Walter de Hopton to settle a dispute, according to 
the laws of the country, between the Lady Margaret, 
who had been the wife of Madog Fychan, who claimed 
manorial rights in Corwen, 2 Carrog, Mwstwr, Bonwm, 3 
and Rechald, which had been assigned to her by her 
husband as her dower, and Gruffudd Fychan of Ial, who 
was stated to have unjustly taken possession of them. 

On the 12th January, 1278, the king directed Roger 
L'Estrange to assign to Margaret, who had been the 
wife of Madog of Bromfield, all the land of which the 
said Madog of Bromfield was seised in his lordship and 
in fee, in the bailiwick of the said Roger L'Estrange, on 
the day on which he died, for the benefit of the sons of 
the aforesaid Madog, but that the said Lady Margaret 

1 Rotidi Wall ice, 6 Edw. I, mem. 12, dorso. 

2 A mauor in Edeyrniou. 

3 Ctirrog, Mwstwr, and Bonwm are manors in Glyndyfrdwy. 

vol. i. ]2 

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was to take an oath before Anian, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
that she would give up the land and the children to the 
king when he wished to demand them. 

On the 20th January, 1280, the king gave directions 
to Master Gruffudd ab Iorwerth, Archdeacon of St. 
Asaph, and Nicholas Bovil, to appoint a certain day and 
place, and then and there to summon Gruffudd ab Ior- 
werth, the kings bailiff for the lordship of .Bromfield, 
to give an account to them of all the rents and profits 
issuing out of the third part of the lordship of Bromfield, 
which the king had conceded to the sons and heirs of 
Madog Fychan, deceased. 1 

In the following year, 1281, the two unfortunate young 
princes, Llewelyn and Gruffudd, were drowned in the 
river Dee, under Holt Bridge, by their guardians, John, 
Earl of Warren, and Roger Mortimer, Justiciary of North 
Wales, third son of Roger Mortimer, Baron of Wigmore. 
The chronicler who continued the History of Wcdes, 
commenced by Caradawg of Llancarvan, expressly states 
that these murders were committed by the express order 
of the English king, Edward I, himself ; and what ren- 
ders this view of the matter most probable, is the fact, 
that the king gave the fortress of Dinas Br&n, and the 
lordships of Maelawr Gymraeg and 141, to John, Earl of 
Warren, and the lordship and castle of Chirk, or Castell 
Crogen, to Roger Mortimer. 

By a charter dated at Rhuddlan, 7th October, 1282, 
and in the tenth year of his reign, the king, after his 
conquest of Wales, gave the castle of Dinas Br&n, and the 
lordship of Maelawr Gymraeg, or Bromfield and Ml, to 
John, Earl of Warren. The following is a translation of 
this document. 

" The king to the archbishops, etc., health : know, that for 
the greater tranquillity and common utility of ourself and our 
heirs, and of our whole realm, we have given, granted, and by 
this charter have confirmed, to our beloved and faithful John 
de Warren, Earl of Surrey, the fortress of Dinas Bran (Cas- 
trum de Dynasbran), which was in our hands in the com- 

1 Rotuli Wallice, 8 Edw. I, mem. 8. 


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mencement of our present war in Wales, and all the territory 
of Bromfield, with its dependencies, which Gruffudd and Lly- 
welyn, the sons of JIadog Fychan, held by themselves or their 
tutors and guardians in the beginning of this war; reserving 
to ourself and our heirs the fortress and land of Hope, with 
all belonging to them, which we wish to reserve for ourself 
and our heirs as fully and integrally as David 1 ab Gruffudd) 
our enemy and rebel, held them in the commencement of the 
above-mentioned war. We give also, and grant to the same 
earl, the territory of Ial, which formerly belonged to Gruffudd 
Fychan, the son of Gruffudd of Bromfield, our enemy. That 
the aforesaid fortress of Dinas Bran, aud the aforesaid terri- 
tories of Bromfield and Ial, are to be had and held from us 
and our heirs, by the same earl and his heirs, as fully and in- 
tegrally as the aforesaid Gruffudd and Llywelyn held the ter- 
ritory of Bromfield, and the aforesaid Gruffudd Fychan held 
the territory of Ial, as aforesaid, together with (foris facturis) 
forfeiture of the men of those territories of Bromfield and Ial, 
which can or may belong to us, with all other rights belonging 
to them. Reserving to ourself and our heirs the aforesaid 
fortress and lands of Hope, with all belonging to them, as be- 
fore stated, by doing to us and our heirs the service of four 
knights' fees for all accustomed and demanded services. 
Wherefore we wish and strongly order, in behalf of ourself and 
our heirs, that the aforesaid earl and his heirs, should have 
and hold in perpetuity the aforesaid fortress of Dinas Bran, 
and the aforesaid territories of Bromfield and Ial, as fully and 
integrally as the aforesaid Gruffudd and Llywelyn held the ter- 
ritory of Bromfield, and the aforesaid Gruffudd Fychan held 
the territory of Ial, as aforesaid, together with the fforis fac- 
turis) forfeiture of the men of those same territories of Brom- 
field and Ial, which can or ought to belong to us, and with all 
other things belonging to them. Reserving to ourself and our 
heirs the aforesaid fortress and lands of Hope, and all their 
appurtenances as aforesaid, by doing for us and our heirs the 
service of four knights' fees for all services, accustomed and 
demanded, as aforesaid. Witnesses: Edmund our brother; 

1 David, Lord of Denbigh, was the second son of Gruffudd ab 
Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, and brother of Llewelyn ab Gruffudd, the 
last Prince of Wales, of the ancient Blood Royal of Britain, who was 
slain in battle 10th December 1 282. He married a daughter of Robert 
De Ferrars, Earl of Derby, and dying in 1283, left an only daughter, 
who died in the Nunnery of Sempringham. Hope Castle is now 
called Caer Gwrle Castle, and is in the Lordship of Yr Hob. 

12 2 

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Soger de Bvgod, Earl of Norfolk, and Mareschal of England ; 
Henri de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln ; William de Bello Campo / 
(Beauchamp), Earl of Warwick; Otto de Grandison ; Galfrid ' 
de Geynville ; Richard de Brus ; Hugo Fitz Otto ; Robert Fitz 
John, and others. 

" Given by our hand at Rothelam (Rhuddlan), October 7, 
in the tenth year of our reign. 

" And a command is hereby given to Reginald de Grey, the 
king's justiciary of Chester, that the said earl should have full 
seisin of the aforesaid fortress of Dinas Bran and the aforesaid 
territories of Bromfield and Ial. 

"And it is commanded to the military, the freemen, and all 
other tenants of the aforesaid fortress of Dinas Bran, and the 
aforesaid territories of Bromfield and Ial, that they should 
submit and respond (intendentes sint et respondentes) to the 
said earl, as to their own lord, in everything appertaining to 
the fortress of Dinas Bran, and the territories of Bromfield 
and 141. 

" Given under the king's hand as above." 1 

On the 20th May, 1282, Roger Mortimer had autho- 
rity to receive the Welshmen of Llywelyn Fychan of 
Mechain Isgoed to the king's peace, 2 and by charter 
dated Salop, on the 2nd June following, the king granted 
to Roger Mortimer the younger, the lands which were 
the property of Llywelyn. Fychan, the king's enemy and 
felon, together with the dowers belonging to the said 

?roperty, whenever they should happen to fall in. 8 This 
llywelyn Fychan had a son and heir named Maredudd, 
of Abertanad and Mechain, who was the father of Madog 
of Abertanad and Mechain, whose daughter and coheiress 
Gwerfyl married Gruffudd of Maelor Saesneg, the second 
son of Iorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, and 
Maelor Saesneg. 4 (See p. 124.) 

On the 15th June of the same year, 1282 (which 
year commenced on the first day of the preceding No- 
vember), the king, by a document dated from Chester, 
gave orders to the men of Bromfield and 141, who held 
under those lordships, to appear before Reginald de Grey, 

1 Rotuli Walliai, 10 Edw. I, memb. 3, No. 7. j 

2 Ibid., 10 Edw. I, memb. 7. 3 Ibid. 
4 ArcJueologut Cambrensis, July 1873, p. 253. 

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to whom he had given powers for that purpose, to re- 
ceive seisin of their lands during the king's pleasure, and 
likewise ordered Urian de Sancto Petro to give seisin of 
the lands of Bromfield and Ial to Reginald de Grey 
during the king's pleasure. 1 

In November 1282 Llywelyn ab Gruffudd, Prince of 
Wales, complained to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
that — " Whereas it is stipulated in the peace that Gruf- 
fudd Fychan should do homage to the king for the land 
in Ial, and to the prince for the land in Edeyrnion, the 
king's justices brought the Lady of Maelor into all the 
said lands of Edeyrnion ; the knowledge of which per- 
tained to the prince and not to the said justices ; and 
yet, for the sake of peace, the prince did tolerate all this, 
being at all times ready to do justice to the said lady." 2 

The lordships of Maelor Saesneg, Ystrad Alun, and Yr 
H6b, with the presentation to the rectory of Bangor Is y 
Coed, had been settled on the Lady Emma, the relict of 
Gruffudd ab Madog, Lord of Dinas Br&n, as her dower, 
and at her death was to have reverted to her grandson, 
the eldest son of Madog Fychan. But Emma, seeing 
the children of her eldest son, Madog Fychan, murdered, 
and their territories granted by the English king to their 
assassins, conveyed her estates to the Audleys, her own 
kindred, who took possession of them, and did homage 
for them to the king. (See p. 172.) 

In the reign of Henry IV, the lordship of Maelor 
Saesneg was granted to Sir John Stanley, Knt., and it 
remained in his family till 41st Elizabeth (1599), when 
William Stanley, Earl of Derby, devised it to Sir Kandle 
Brereton of Malpas, Knt., and it has since devolved to 
the Hanmers of Hanmer, and the Fletchers of Gwern 
Hauled. 3 

1 Warrington's History of Wales, Appendix. 
» Botuli Wallice, 10 Edw. I, memb. 6. 
3 Pennant's Tour, voL ii, 300. 

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6 Edw. I, m. 12. a.d. 1278. 

Rex dilecto et fideli suo Rogero Extraneo custodi terrarum 
et tenementorum que fuerunt Griffini filii Madoci de Bromp- 
feld, salutem. Mandamus vobis quod omnes exitus proveni- 
eutes de terris et tenementis predictis et qui filios et heredes 
ejusdem Griffini que sunt minoris etatis contingunt sine dila- 
cione liberetis Venerabili patri Assafensi Episcopo custodiendos 
ad opus eoruindem quamdiu nobis placuerit prout eidem Epis- 
copo ex parte vestra una voce est volumus tamen quod omnes 
tenentes de terris predictis vobis tanquam custodi nostro 
ibidem nichilominus intendant et respondeant donee aliud 
inde preceperimus. In cujus, etc. Datum apud Salopiam 
tertio die Decembris anno regni nostri sexto. 

6 Edw. I, mem. 12. 

Rex dilecto et fideli suo Rogero Extraneo salutem. Sciatis 
quod deputavimus Griffinum filium Ynorth presentem exhibit- 
orem ad tenendum justiciam in terris que fuerunt Madoci de 
Bromfeld secundum legem et consuetudinem partium illarum 
de quibus idem Madocus fuit seisitus in dominico sno nt d« 
feodo, die quo obiit et ad percipiendum omnes exitus earun- 
dem terrarum et eos liberandum Margarete que fuit uxor pre- 
dicti Madoci et que nuper prestitit sacramentum coram nobis 
quod duos filios et heredes ejusdem Madoci quos sibi tradidi- 
mus mittendos et custodiendos vobis restituet ad mandatum 
nostrum ad sustentacionem puerorum illorum et ad id ultra 
sustentacionem ilia superfuerit ponendum in commodum eorum- 
dem puerorum secundum quod de consilio venerabilis patris 
Assavensis episcopi et predicte Margarete ac prefati Griffini 
loco nostri ad hoc assignati maximfevident expediri quod idem 
Griffinus custodium terrarum illarum Habeat et exitus pre- 
dictos percipiat in forma predicta et custodire terrarum illarum 
intendat et inde coram prefatis Episcopo et Margareta vel 
alio per nos ad hoc assignando per racionabilem computa- 
cionern respondeat excepto hoc quod conservacio pacis nostre 
et judicia latronum et aliorum malefactorum si qui fuerint contra 
pacem nostra in per vos et ministros vestros fiant in terris illis 
secundum quod niagis videbitis expedire. Et ideo vobis man- 
damus quod custodiam terrarum predictarum et exitus quos ab 
Octabis Sancti Martini proximfe preteritis quando cepimus 
hovnagium predictorum puerorum inde recepistis prefato Grif- 
fino liberutis in formn predicta. In cujus rei etc. quamdiu 
ut Datum etc. a]iud Salop x die Decembris. 

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Et inandatum est omnibus tenentibus de terris que fuerunt 
Madoci de Benfeld quod prefatus Griffinus in omnibus que ad 
premissa pertinent intendentes sint et respondentes in forma •' 
predicta. In cujus etc. durat ut supra. Datum ut supra. / 

6 Edw. I, m. 12. 

Rex dilecto et fideli suo Rogero Extraneo, salutem. Quia 
volumus quod terra de qua Madok de Brumfeld fuit seisitus 
in dominico suo ut de feodo in ballivatu vestro, die quo obiit 
Margareta que fuit uxor ipsius Madoci assignetur. Tenenda 
ad opus liberorum predicti Madoci quamdiu nobis placuerit 
vobis mandamus quod terram illam prefate Margarete liberetis 
tenendum sicut predictum est. 

Ita cum quod predicta Margareta coram venerabili patri A. 
Assavensi Episcopo vel ofBciario suo sacramentum prestet 
corporale quod terram illam et liberos predictos nobis restituet 
cum eos repetere voluerimus. Teste liege apud Turrim 
London* x die Januarii. 

6 Edw. 7, m. 12 dorso. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Roeero de Mortuo Mari et 
Waltero de Hopton, salutem. Quia Margareta quae fuit uxor 
Madoci Vaghan nobis conquerando monstravit quod Lewelinus 
Yaghan terram de Meghey'n que est de hereditate Lewelin et 
Griffini filiorum et heredum predicti Madoci minus juste detinet 
occupatam eo quod terra ilia per eandem Margaretam et probos 
homines hereditatis predicte et non per alios custodin debet 
juxta legem et consuetudinem parcium illarum usque ad tem- 
pus quod predicti heredes se ipsos et hereditatem suam regere 
sciverint, et non ultra, vobis mandamus quod vocatis partibus 
coram vobis et audita querela predicte Margarete debitam 
justiciam inde fieri facietis, secundum legem et consuetudinem 
parcium predictarum, salvo nobis in omnibus jure nostro. 
Teste Rege apud Turrim London' iiij die Januarii. 

6 Edw. J, m. 12 dvrso. a.d. 1278. 

Rex eisdem, salutem. Quia Margareta que fuit uxor Ma- 
doci Yaghan nobis conquerando monstravit quod dilectus et 
fidelis noster Rogerus le Estraunge terram de Maylorsenek que 
est de hereditate Lewelini et Griffini filiorum et heredum pre- 
dicti Madoci minus juste detinet occupacionem, eo quod terra 
ilia per eandem Margariam et probos homines hereditatis pre- 
dicte et non per alios custodiri debet juxta legem et consuetudi- 
nem parcium illarum usque ad tempus quod [predicte ?] here- 
des se ipsos et hereditatem regere sciverint, et non ultra vobis 


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mandamus quod vocatis partibus coram vobis et audita querela 
/ dicte Margarie debitam inde justiciam fieri facietis, secundum 

/ legem et consuetudinem parcium predictarum, salvo in nobis 

in omnibus jure nostro. Teste, ut supra. 

6 Edw. I, in. 1 2. dorso. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Rogero de Mortuo[mari] et 
Waltero de Hopton, salutem. Quia Emma que fuit uxor 
Griffini filii Madoci, clamat terre jus in manerio de Eyton, 
cum pertinentiis ut ineo quod predictus GriflBnus eidem Emme 
assignavit in dote et quod Margareta que fuit uxor Madoci 
Vaghan nunc tenet in dote, Vobis mandamus quod vocatis 
partibus coram vobis et inquisitus de jure utriusque predicta- 
rum Emme et Margarete in hac parte summonitis, quod pre- 
dictum manerium ad predictam Emmam pertinet, habendum 
et tenendum in dotera ad vitam suam secundum legem et con- 
suetudinem parcium illarum tunc manerium illud capi facietis 
in manum nostram et assignacionem facietis eidem Emme de 
terris suis in Comitatu Castrie in denarratum valorem ma- 
nerii predicti. Tenendum ad totam vitam suam in recompen- 
sacionem manerii predicti et quod terre ille post mortem ejus- 
dem Emme ad nos et heredes nostros integre revertantur si 
vero manerium predictum predicte Margarete juxta legem et 
consuetudinem parcium predictarum remanere debeat in dote, 
tunc similiter permittatis quod manerium illud post mortem 
ejusdem Margarete ad nos [et] heredes nostros revertatur. 
Teste Rege apud Turrim London, iiij die Januarii. 

6 Edw. I, m. 12. dorso. 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Rogero de Mortuo Mari et 
Waltero de Hopton, salutem. Quia Margareta que fuit uxor 
Madoci Vachan clamat terre jus in Corneyn Carraie Mistwer 
Bonu et Rechald ut in eis que predictus Madocum eidem Mar- 
gerete assignavit in dotem et que Griffinus Vaghan de Yale ei 
detenit minus injuste sicut dicit, vobis mandamus quod vocatis 
partibus coram vobis et audita querela predicte Margarete 
debitam inde justiciam juxta formam predictis factam et 
secundum legem et consuetudinem illarum fieri faciatis eidem, 
salvo nobis in omnibus jure nostro. Teste Rege apud Turrim 
London, iiij die Januarii. 

6 Edw. I, m. 12. a.d. 1278. 

! Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Rogero de Mortuo Mari et 

Waltero de Hop tone, salutem. Volentes Emme que fuit uxor 
Griffini de Bromfeld, super terras de Maillor seysenek qui est 

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in manu nostra justiciam exhibere, assignamns vos ad quere- 
lam suam inde audiendam et intellectis rationibus pro jure 
nostro proponendis t^rminandam. £t idem vobis mandamus 
quod ad certos diem et locum quos ad hoc provideritis pre- 
niissa facietis mandamus enim ailecto et fideli nostro Eogero 
Extraneo Ballivo nostro partium illarum, quod ad dies et 
loca que ei scire facietis venire facietis coram vobis tot et 
tales de partibus predictis per quorum veritatem premissa 
facere poteritis ut predictum est. In cujus etc. Teste Rege 
apud Turrim London, x die Januarii. 

6 Edw. I, mem. 11. 

Bex tenentibus de terris que fuerunt Madoci de Bromfeld de 
quo obiit ad quos presente littere pervenerint, salutem. Cum 
deputaverimus Griffinum filium Iorueth ad tenendam justiciam 
in terris que fuerunt dicti Madoci et de quibus idem Madocus 
fuit seisitus in dominico suo ut de feodo, die quo obiit, et ad 
percipiendum omnes exitus earumdem terrarum et ad liberan- 
dum Margarete que fuit uxor ejusdem Madoci, et ad quedam 
alia facienda que terras illas contingunt prout in Uteris pa- 
tentibus nostris quas eidem Griffino indo fieri fecimus plenius 
continetur, vobis mandamus quod predicto Griffino in premissis 
intendentes sitis et responaentes, juxta tenorem literarum 
earumdem. In cujus etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium 
xviij die Januarii. 

8 Edw. I, mem. 8. a.d. 1280. 

Rex dilecto et fideli Magistro Griffino filio Iornorth Archi- 
diaconi Assavensis et Nicolao Bovil, salutem. Cum de Con- 
silio nostro concesserimus duobus filiis et heredibus Madoci 
Vagban defuncti tertiam partem exituum provenientium de 
manerio de Bromfeld ad eorum sustentacionem volentes scire 
qualiter Griffinus filius Ioruerth. Ballivus noster ejusdem ma- 
nerii eisdem heredibus de tercia parte exituum predictorum 
hactenns respondent et commodum eorum inde fecerit assig- 
navimus vos ad audiendum et recipiendum compotum ipsius 
Griffini de omnibus que predictis heredibus de eisdem exitibus 
liberavit et posuit aut expendidit in ipsis heredibus de tem- 
pore dicte concessionis nostre eis inde facte. Et ideo vobis 
mandamus quod ad certos diem et locum quos ad hoc pro- 
videritis compotum predictum audiatis et terminefcis et nobis 
scire facietis qualiter predictis heredibus respondit de exitibus 
predictis. Mandamus enim eidem Griffino quod ad certos 
diem et locum quos ei scire facietis, coram vobis sum rotulis et 
omnibus aiiis compotum predictum tangentibus veniat, ad 


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reddendum compotum de exitibus et expensis suis supradictis. 
In cujus etc. 

Teste Rege apud Londhurst xx die Januarii. 

10 Edw. I, mem. 3, No. 7. a.d. 1282. 

Rex Archiepiscopis etc., salutem. Sciatis quod ad majorem 
tranquillitatem et communem utilitatem nostri et heredum 
nostrorum et totius regni nostri dedimus, concessimus, et hac 
carta nostra confirmavimus dilecto et fideli nostro Johanni de 
Warenna, Comiti Surrie, Castruin de Dynasbrau, quod fuit in 
manu nostra in principio presentis guerre nostre Wallie et 
totam terram de Bromfeld cum pertinenciis, quam Griffinus et 
Lewelinus filii Madoci Vaghan per se vel per tutores seu cus- 
todes suos in principio guerre illius tenuerunt. Salvo nobis et 
heredibus nostris Castro et terra de hope, cum omnibus perti- 
nenciis suis que nobis et heredibus nostris remanere volumus 
adeo plene et integre, sicut David filius Griffini inimicus et 
rebellis noster ea tenuit in principio guerre supradicte. Dedi- 
mus eciam et concessimus eidem Comiti terram de Yal que 
fuit Griffini Vaghan filii Griffini de Bromfeld inimici nostri. 
Habendum et tenendum de nobis et heredibus nostris, eidem 
Comiti et heredibus suis, predictum Castrum de Dynasbran et 
predictas terras de Bromfelde et de Yal, adeo plene et integre 
sicut predicti Griffinus et Lewelinus, terram illam de Bromfeld 
et predictus Griffinus Vaghan, terram illam de Yal tenuerunt 
sicut predictum est, una cum forisfacturis hominum de eisdem 
terris de Bromfeld et de Yale, que ad nos pertinere poterant 
vel debebant et cum omnibus aliis ad ea pertinentibus. Salvis 
nobis et heredibus nostris predictis Castro et terra de Hope, 
cum omnibus pertinenciis suis sicut predictum est, faciendo 
inde nobis et heredibus nostris, servicium quatuor feodorum 
militum pro omni servicio consuetudiue et demanda. Quare 
volumus et firmiter precipimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, 
quod predictus Comes et heredes sui in perpetuum habeant et 
teneant predictum Castrum de Dynaston et predictas terras de 
Bromfeld et de Yale adeo plene et integre sicut predicti Grif- 
finus et Lewelinus, terram illam de Bromfeld et predictus 
Griffinus Vaghan terrain illam de Yal tenuerunt, sicut pre- 
dictum est, una cum forisfacturis hominum de eisdem terris de 
Bromfeld et de Yal, que ad nos pertinere poterant vel debe- 
bant, et cum omnibus aliis ad ea pertinentibus. Salvis nobis 
et heredibus nostris predictis Castro et terra do Hope cum 
omnibus pertinenciis suis sicut predictum est, faciendo inde 
nobis et heredibus nostris servicium quatuor feodorum militis 
pro omni servicio consuetudine et demanda, sicut predictum 

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est. Hiis testibus, Edmundo fratre nostro, Rogero de Bygod, 
Comite Norfolcie et Marescallo Anglie, Henrico de Lacy, 
Comite Lincolnie, Willelmo de Bello Campo, Comite Warre- 
wik, Ottone de Grandesono, Galfrido de Geynville, Ricardo de 
Brus, Hugone filio Ottonis, Roberto filio Johannis, et aliis. 
Datum per manum nostram apud Rothelam, septimo die Octo- 
bris, Anno regni nostri decimo. 

Et mandatum est Reginaldo de Grey, Justiciario Regis, 
Cestrie, quod eidem Comiti de predicto Castro de Dynasbran et 
de predictis terris de Bromfelde et de Yal plenam seisinam 
habere faciatis in forma predicta. Teste Rege apud Rothel* 
vij die Octobris. 

Et mandatum est militibus, liberis hominibus et omnibus 
aliis tenentibus, de predicto Castro de Dynasbran et predictis 
terris de Bromfeld et de Yal, quod eidem Comiti tanquatn 
domino suo in omnibus que ad predictum Castrum de Dynas- 
bran et ad predictas terras de Bromfeld et de Yal pertinent 
intendentes sint et respondentes in forma predicta. Teste ut 

10 12dw. I, mem. 6. (1282.) 

Rex hominibus de Bromfeld et de Yalrecipientibus ad volun- 
tatem. Regis seisinam terrarum de Bromfeld et de Yal libe- 
ram. (?) 

Rex omnibus, etc., salutem. Sciatis quod dedimus potesta- 
tem dilecto et fideli nostro Reginaldo de Grey, recipiendi 
homines de Bromfeld et de Yal ad voluntatem nostram. In 
cujns, etc. 

Mandatum est Uriano de Sancto Petro quod seisinam 
terrarum de Bromfeld et de Yal liberet Reginaldo de Grey 
tenendum ad voluntatem. Et in cujus, etc. Teste Rege 
apud Cestriam xv die Junii. 

10 Edw. I, mem. 7. (No. 14.) 

Rex archiepiscopis etc., salutem. Sciatis nos concessisse 
et hac carta nostra confirmasse quantum in nobis est, dilecto, 
et fideli nostro Rogero de Mortuo Mari, Juniori, terras illas et 
tenementa cum pertinentiis que fuerunt de proparte Lewelini 
Vaghan, inimici, et felonii nostro cum dotibus ejusdem pro- 
partium cum acciderint. Habendum et tenendum de nobis et 
heredibus nostris eidem Rogero etheredibussuisfaciendisinde 
servicium duorum feodorum militum pro omni servicio et con- 
suetudine ad nos inde pertinentibus. Quare volumus, etc., 
sicut predictum est salvo jure cujuslibet. Hiis Testibus, 
Henrico de Lacy, Comite Lincolnensi, Ottone de Grendisono, 

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Bogero Estraneo, Petro Corbet, Hugone de Turberville, Gun- 
telmo de Badelesmere, Hugone filio Oweni, Willelmo Bagot, 
Petro de Huntingfeld, et aliis. Datum per manum nostram. 
Teste Rege apud Sallop secundo die JuniL £t mandatum est 
Bogero de mortuo uiari, capitaneo exercitus sui in partibus 
Albi Monasterii, quod prefato Bogero de terris et tenementis 
predictis plenam seisinam habere facietis in forma predicts. 

11 Edw. I, m. 3. a.d. 1288. 

Bex omnibus ballivis et fidelibus suis ad quos, etc., salutem. 
Sciatis quod ad requisicionem dilecti et fidelis nostri Johannis 
de Warrene Comitis Surrie, concessionus Griffino Vaghan filio 
Madoci quod teneat terram de Glyndendo de nobis ad volunta- 
tem nostram. Ita tamen quod idem Griffinus Vaghan inde 
nobis faciat literas suas patentes per quas faciat se nullam jus 
habere in tenantia predicte terre nisi ad voluntatem nostram. 
In cujus rei, etc. Teste Bege apud Bothel 1 xij die Februarii. 

11 Edw. I, anno 12, m. 5. — Mem : quod erratum fuit in con- 
cessione istius litere facta Griffino filio Griffini de Brum- 
feld quia non tenet terras suas nisi ad voluntatem Regis. 

Bex omnibus ad quos, etc., salutem. Sciatis quod de gratia 
nostra concessimus Griffini filio Griffini de Brumfeld et heredi- 
bus suis quod habeant et teneant omnes terras suas per Ba- 
roniam sicut antecessores sui eas tenuerunt. Et habeant in 
terris suis liberas furcas et visum franci plegii. Et quod possiut 
in Curiis suis placitare omnia placita que ad Curiam Baronis per- 
tinent placitanda, et amerciamenta de hujusmodi placitis per* 
venientia percipere et habere, sicut alii Barones regni nostri 
hujusmodi placita in Curiis suis placitare et amerciamenta 
percipere et habere debent et hactenus rationabiliter placita 
ilia placitare et amerciamenta percipere consueverunt. Con- 
cessimus etiam eidem Griffino quod in terris et boscis suis 
propriis fugare et omnimodas feras in eisdem capere et eas 
quo voluerit asportare possit sine occasione vel impedimento 
nostri vel heredum nostrorum. Justiciariorum seu aliorum 
ministrorum nostrorum foreste. In cujus, etc. Teste Bege 
apud Karnarvan xxij die Julii per ipsum regem nunciante 
Johanne de Haveringe per literas suas patentes. 

Upon the death of Prince Llywelyn ab Gruffudd, who 
was slain at Aber Edw, near Buallt, on December 10, 
1282, his brother, Prince David ab Grufludd, Lord of 

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Denbigh, quarterly gules and or, four lions rampant, 
counterchanged, became the lawful Prince of Wales ; 
and 'when the news reached him of the slaughter of his 
brother, " he summoned all the chieftains and barons of 
Wales to assemble at Denbigh, to hold a national council. 
This proves that Denbigh was still in his possession, and 
even then a place of sufficient strength to afford security 
for a deliberating council of war, and to declare him 
Prince of Wales, as the hereditary successor of his bro- 
ther, although Edward had a powerful army then lying 
at Rhuddlan, only a few miles off. 1 It appears, indeed, 
strange that Edward had not made himself master of 
David's Castle of Denbigh while the prince was in Snow- 
donia. Probably it was considered too strongly fortified 
and garrisoned for present attack ; that he did not 
wish to waste his resources in endeavouring to reduce it, 
which could only have been effected by a long siege, 
when he had no such spare forces at his disposal. It is 
probable that it was taken afterwards by Henri de Lacy, 
upon the fall or capture of Prince David, where the gar- 
rison either surrendered, or abandoned it in despair. 

" While the Welsh were drowned in unfathomable 
depths of sorrow, and lost in the very abyss of despair, 
by the death of their beloved prince, Llywelyn, Edward 
burst upon them with all the ferocity of a tiger, spread- 
ing universal carnage among thorn. In vain did they 
fly for shelter to the caves of the mountains and the 
tops of the ragged rocks of the Snowdonian Alps ; those 
bloodhounds in human form, whom he had hired for the 
purpose from the Basque provinces, chased them from cliff 
to cliff, and from cave to cave, giving no quarter to those 

1 The probability is, that Edward himself was then in Snowdonia, 
where he advanced immediately on the information of Prince Lly- 
welyn's death. It seems probable that Prince David intended to 
make this stronghold (Denbigh) the seat of his government, and that 
he conveyed the crown and regalia hither immediately after his 
brother's death. It should also be observed, that a portion of the 
Welsh crown jewels was discovered, a few years back, at Maes 
Mynnan, where Prince Llywelyn once resided. They had evidently 
been hidden at the time above alluded to. 

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who had thrown down their arms, and putting upwards 
of three thousand to the sword in cold blood ! In vain 
did David endeavour to throw dejected garrisons — literal 
' forlorn hopes' — into his various castles, while he himself 
was swept with the torrent of universal despair which 
had overwhelmed his people, and was forced to conceal 
himself in the deepest recesses of the forests and mo- 
rasses of the country. For some months he, his princess 
and children (two sons and seven daughters), and a few 
adherents and companions in misery, evaded the search 
of their merciless pursuers, suffering almost every priva- 
tion which human nature can endure, when he was one 
night (June 21, 1283) surprised in a morass near Aber, 
within sight of the ancient palace of his royal ancestors, 
and carried in chains to Rhuddlan, where Edward was 
then residing. He earnestly begged to see the king, 
probably thinking that early recollections might awaken 
some degree of pity in Edward's breast, and, like Claudius 
with Caractacus, he might be moved to commiserate the 
condition of a fallen prince, who had staked his domi- 
nions, his liberty, and life, for his country ; but he was 
sternly refused, and kept a close prisoner for three 
months. When he was taken, the crown-jewels of the 
ancient British princes were found in his possession — 
King Arthur's crown, and a curious relic, highly prized 
by the Welsh princes, called croesenydd, which was said 
to be made from the very tree on which Jesus Christ 
was crucified, and brought to Wales by the Empress 

" Prince David was then carried to Shrewsbury, where 
he was tried for high treason and other alleged crimes. 

"On June 28, 1283, summonses were issued to eleven 
earls, one hundred temporal barons, nineteen justices and 
members of the council, two citizens of upwards of 
twenty towns, and two knights of each shire in England; 
but not more than one half attended the trial. The king 
presided in person. Being already prejudged by the 
royal injunction, which accused him of every crime and 
ingratitude which the thirst for his blood could rake up 

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or invent, he was very soon found guilty, and 'con- 
demned to five different kinds of punishment : — to be 
drawn at the tails of horses through the streets of Shrews- 
bury to the place of execution, because he was a traitor 
to the king, who had made him a knight ; to be hanged 
for having murdered Foulk Trigald and other knights in 
the castle of Hawarden ; his heart and bowels to be 
burnt, because those murders had been perpetrated on 
Palm Sunday ; his head to be cut off ; his body to be 
quartered, and to be hung up in four different parts of 
the kingdom, because he had conspired the death of the 
king in several places of England'. The latter charge 
must be considered false. This sentence was executed 
in its literal severity. ' He was torn to pieces by horses', 
as Hartshorne observes, 'then hung and beheaded, his 
heart and bowels plucked out from the palpitating corpse, 
the mangled carcase distributed among four of the chief 
towns of England, to the eternal infamy of a barbarous 
age, and to glut the greedy appetite of sycophants, 
who savagely contested the possession of them, and the 
head stuck up at the Tower of London by the side of 
his brother's/ 1 

" These were the last acts of this mournful tragedy." 
"The citizens of York and Winchester", says War- 
rington, u contended, with savage eagerness, for the right 
shoulder of this unfortunate prince. That honour was 
decided in favour of Winchester, and the remaining 
quarters were sent, with the utmost dispatch,' to the 
cities of York and Bristol, and the town of North- 

It is also said that the knight who had the honour of 
burning his entrails, enjoyed the delight of probing the 
flaming heart with the point of his poignard, but that 

1 " The King of the English had ordered the head of Prince Lly- 
welyn, that had nobly worn a crown more ancient and illustrious than 
his own, to be fixed on the point of a spear, with a wreath round the 
temples, etc., to be paraded through the principal streets of London 
and afterwards set upon the highest turret of the tower — a monument 
unintended, but most true, of ruthless cruelty and fiendish malice." 

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the heart, swollen by the heat, exploded, and flew into 
his face, blinding him for life, as its final act of revenge 
— andhowiust. ' 

But we should have prefaced that " his sons remained 
with him to the middle of July, when the English king 
sent a writ from Caernarvon to Henri de Lacy, ordering 
him to deliver the young Prince Llywelyn to Richard de 
Boys, and another writ to Reginald de Grey to deliver 
up the Prince Owain, the other son, to the same Richard 
de Boys. 

" Both of them were to wait further mandates, the dark 
nature of which we are only permitted silently to con- 
jecture. We know not the ultimate fate of the princess, 
his widow, who was a daughter of Robert de Ferrars, the 
sixth and last Earl of Derby of that house, vair or and 
gules. The fate of their sons was discreetly hidden from 
the world ; but we are informed that the daughters of 
the two last Princes of Wales sought, under the habit of 
nuns, in the convent of Sempringham, a more certain 
tranquillity than regal life can bestow." 

"The death of rrince David closed the only sove- 
reignty which remained of the ancient British empire; 
an empire which, through various changes of fortune, had 
opposed the arms of imperial Rome, and, for more than 
eight hundred years, had resisted the utmost efforts of 
the Saxon and Norman princes " l 

Prince David left also an illegitimate son, David Goch 
of Nant Conwy, who bore sable, a lion rampant argent, 
in a border engrailed or, and was the father of Gruffudd 
ab David Goch, who was buried at Bettws AVyrion Iddon, 
or Bettws y Coed, where his tomb still exists, on which 
he is represented recumbent, in armour, with the follow- 
ing inscription, "hic iacet grcjfud ap david goch, 
agnus dei miserere mei". A full description of this 
tomb has been given by Mr. Bloxham, Archceologia 
Cambrensis, 1874, p. 128. It appears from the Extent 
of Nant Conwy, or Record of Caernarvon, or Great 
Extent of North Wales, as it is also called, taken on the 
1 Ancient and Modem Denbigh. By John Williams (Glanmor.). 


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next Monday after the translation of St. Thomas of Can- 
terbury, 26 Edw. Ill (1352), that Gruffudd was the 
foreman of the jury for taking that extent. Gruffudd 
ab David Goch was the father of the Baron Hywel Coet- 
mor of Gwydir, and Castell Cefel Ynghoedmor, in the 
parish of Bettws y Coed or Llanrwst, at which last 
place he lived. This place once belonged to Peredur ab 
Efrawg. 1 The Baron Hywel Coetmor bore azure, a 
chevron, inter three fleurs-de-lys argent. He had a 
brother named Rhys Gethin, who lived at Hendref Rhys 
Gethin, in the parish of Bettws y Coed. The sepulchral 
effigy of the Baron Hywel Coetmor is in the church of 
Llanrwst, recumbent, in plate armour, with a tabard of 
his arms, with this inscription, " mc iacet hoel coet- 


Peredur ab Evrawg who, as before stated, once lived 
at Castell Cefcl Ynghoedmor, was a chieftain who flou- 
rished in the early part of the sixth century. He is 
mentioned by Aneurin in the Gododin, as " Peredur 
arvau Dur", who fell at the fatal battle of Cattraeth in 
540, and frequent allusions are made to his deeds of 
prowess by the poets of the Middle Ages. He is also a 
distinguished character in Welsh romance. He is re- 
corded in the Triads as one of the three knights of the 
court of King Arthur who were engaged in seeking the 
Greal, and are celebrated for* their continency. The 
other two being Bort, the son of King Bort, and Galath, 
the son of Lancelot du Lac. The adventures of Peredur 
ab Evrawg form one of the interesting series of the 
Mabinogion, published by Lady Charlotte Guest. A 
saying of Peredur is preserved in Chedleu y 1 Doethion — 
"Hast thou heard the saying of Peredur, sovereign of 
the isle of Britain ? * Harder is the brave than a blade of 
steel'." 8 

1 Llyfr Gruffudd Hirattliog, p. 3, c. 2. 

2 Arcliaeologia Cambrensis, 1874, pp. 128-131 ; and 1876, p. 178. 

3 Williams's Eminent Weldwien. 

vol. I. r> 

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Gruffudd Fychan, the third son of Gruffudd ab Madog, 
Lord of Dinas Br&n and Prince of Powys Fadog, was 
surnamed " Y Barwn Gwyn", or the White Baron, and 
had the lordships of Glyndyfrdwy 1 and I&l 2 for his share 
of his father's territories. He was nursed in Glyndyfr- 
dwy, as we learn from Huw Lleyn. 

The lordship of Glyndyfrdwy contained the parishes 
of Llansanfraid yn Nglyn Nyfrdwy, Gwyddelwern, Ael- 
haiarn, and parts of the parishes of Corwen, and Llanfi- 
hangel Glyn Myvyr, and the parish of Bettws Gwerfyl 
Goch. The lordship of 141 contains the parishes of Llan- 
veris, Llanarmon, Llandegla, Bryn Eglwys, and Llan- 

By a treaty between King Edward I and Lly welyn ab 
Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, dated on the Tuesday next 
before the Feast of St. Martin, 5 Edw. I, 1277, it is 
stipulated that Gruffudd Fychan shall do homage to the 
king for the lands which he holds in Ial, and to Llywelyn 
for the lands which he holds in Prince Llywelyn's domi- 
nions, j 

By a charter dated the fifth of the ides of February 

1 Archoeologia Camhrcmis. 


2 See ArcJutologia Cambrensis. 

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1278, Gruffudd Fychan gave Anian II, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, the manor of Llandegla in Ial ; l but after this 
he was deprived of his lordship of 1^1 by Edward I, 
who granted it to John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, 
cheque or and azure, by a charter dated at Rhuddlan, 
October 7, 1282. 

In 1283, at the request of John, Earl of Warren, the 
•king confirmed the lordship of Glyndyfrdwy to Gruffudd 
Fychan, as we learn from the following charters. 

" The king to all his bailiffs and faithful, etc. Know, that 
at the requisition of our beloved and faithful John de War- 
rene, Earl of Surrey, we have granted to Gruffudd Fychan, 
son of Madog, permission to hold the territory of Glyndy- 
frdwy from us during our pleasure. But that the said Gruf- 
fudd Fychan shall make out for us his letters patent, by which 
he shall assert that he holds those lauds by no other right 
than our pleasure. Given at Rhuddlan, Feb. 12, 1283, 11 
Edw. l."» 

On July 22, 1284, the king sent another charter, 
stating that an error had been made in the previous do- 
cument, asserting that Gruffudd, the son of Gruffudd of 
Bromfield, only held his lands by right of the king's 
pleasure ; and, in this second charter, he tells all whom it 
may concern, that, out of his favour, he has granted to 
Gruffudd, the son of Gruffudd of Bromfield, and his 
heirs, the power to hold their lands "per Baron ium", as 
their ancestors held them, and that they might have in 
their lands " liberas furcas", i.e., the power of executing 
criminals ; and " visum franciplegii", the view of frank 
pledge. 3 And that, in all their courts, all causes might 
be pleaded which should be pleaded in the court of a 
baron. " Et quod possint in Curiis suis placitare omnia 
placita que ad Curiam Baronis pertinent placitanda, et 

1 Llyfr Coch Asaph. 2 Rotuli Wallice, 11 Edw. I, memb. 3. 

8 Frank pledge. The pledge or surety anciently given by all free- 
men for their truth towards the king and his subjects. " Visus franci 
plegii", view of, etc, is the office which the sheriff in his county court, 
or the bailiff in his hundred, performs in looking to the king's peace, 
and seeing that every man is in some " plegii". 

i 13 2 

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amerciamenta percipere et habere debent et hactenus 
ration abiliter placita ilia placitare et amerciamenta per- 
cipere consueverunt." We grant, also, to the said Gruf- 
fudd, the power to chase the game on his own lands 
and in his woods, and to capture them of whatsoever 
kind they may be, and to carry them away without let 
or hindrance from ourself or our heirs, our justiciaries, or 
our foresters. In testimony of which, this is attested by" 
the king at Caernarvon, July 22, in the twelfth year of 
his reign, sent by the king himself, by John de Haver- 
inge, by his letters* patent (" Teste Rege apud Karnar- 
van, xxij die Julii, per ipsum Regem nunciante Johanne 
de Haveringe, per literas suas patenles.") 1 

Oruffudd Fychan, I Baron of Glyndyfrdwy by En- 
glish tenure, married Margaret, eldest daughter of Gruf- 
fudd ab Cadwgan ab Meilur Eyton, Lord of Eyton, 
Erlisham, and Borisham, ermine, a lion rampant azure, 
armed and langued gules, by whom he had, besides a 
daughter, Margaret, wife of GrufFudd, Lord of Rtig, 
eldest son of Owain ab Bleddyn ab Owain Brogyntyn, a 
son and heir, 

Madog ap Gruffudd, ii Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, and 
Lord of Cynllaith Owain, who died November 11, 1306. 
He married Gwenllian, daughter of Ithel Fychan, 2 Lord 
of Mostyn in Tegeingl, ab Ithel Llwyd ab Ithel Gam, 
Lord of Mostyn, who bore azure, a lion statant argent, 
son of Maredudd ab Uchdryd ab Edwyn ab Goronwy, 
Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had a daughter, Janet, 
who married John Croft of Croft Castle, Lord of Croft in 
Herefordshire, and a son and heir, 

Grufudd of Rhuddallt, hi Baron of Glyndyfrdwy. 
He married in 1304 Elizabeth, daughter of John l'Els- 
trange, Lord Strange of Knockyn Castle, gules, two 
lions passant argent, by whom he had issue, one son, 
Gruffudd Fychan, of whom presently ; and a daughter, 
Isabel, wife of Goronwy ab Gruffudd of Penllyn, ab 
Madog ab Iorwerth ab Madog ab Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of 

1 Rotuli Wallice, 12 Erhv. I, ra. 5. 

2 Brut y Tywysogion, Llyfr Coch o Hergist. 

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Gruffudd had likewise two illegitimate daughters, 

I Margaret, who married Madog ab Lly welyn ab Gruffudd 

/ ab Iorwerth Fychan, ancestor of the Traffords of Trafford 

in Esclusham ; and Lucy, wife of Y Badi of Rhuddallt, 

ab Madog ab Iorwerth Goch, second son of Madog ab 

Lly welyn, Lord of Eyton. 

Gruffudd of Rhuddallt was succeeded by his son and 

Gruffudd Fychas, iv Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, and 
Lord of Cynllaith Owain. He married Elen, daughter 
and coheiress of Thomas ab Llywelyn ab Owain, heir of 
the Sovereign Princes of South Wales, ab Maredudd ab 
Owain ab Gruffudd ab Yr Arglwydd Rhys ab Gruffudd 
ab Rhys ab Tudor Mawr, Prince of South Wales, gules, 
a lion rampant in a border indented or, armed and langued 
gules, by whom he had issue three sons — 1, Owain de 
Glyndwr, his successor, of whom presently ; 2, Tudor, 
Lord of Gwyddelwern in Glyndyfrdwy, who was 
born about 1362. He was upwards of twenty-four 
years of age on September 3, 1386, when, under the 
designation of " Tudor de Glyndore", he appeared as a 
witness in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, and 
slain in battle at Mynydd y Pwll Melyn, in Brecknock- 
shire, on March 11, 1405, in the wars of Owain de 
Glyndwr. He married Maud, daughter and heiress of Ieuaf 
ab Adda ab Hy wel ab Ieuaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trefor, in 
Nanheudwy. (Her mother was Gwenhwyfar, daughter 
and heir of Robert ab Robert, sable, a chevron inter 
three mullets argent.) By Maud, Tudor had issue an 
only daughter and heiress, named Lowri, who married, 
first, Robert ab Robin ab Gruffudd Goch, Lord of Rh&s, 
who bare argent, a griffin segreant, with wings erect 
gules. Gruffudd Goch was the son of Madog ab Tudor 
ab Cynwrig ab David ab Rhys ab Edryd ab Ionathal, 
Prince of Abergeleu, who died in the year 850, ab 
Iasseth ab Carwed ab Maredudd, Lord of Is Dulas. 1 
; Lowri married, secondly, 2 Gruffudd ab Einion of Gwydd- 
elwern, ab Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Cynwrig ab Os- 

1 Lewy$ Dvmn, vol. ii, 353. * Ibid. 


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bern Wyddel, of Cors y Gedol (ermine, a saltire gules, a 
crescent or for difference) ; and, 3, Gruffudd, who had an 
only daughter and heiress, Eva, ux. David ab Gruffudd ab 
Caradog ab Thomas ab Roderig ab Owain Gwynedd. 1 

Gruffudd Fychan had, likewise, four daughters — 1, 
Lowri, ux. Robert Puleston of Emral, Esq. (sable, three 
molets argent) ; 2, Isabel, ux. Adda ab Iorwerth Ddil, of 
Llys Pengwern, ancestor of the Mostyn family ; 3, 
Morfudd, who married, first, Sir Richard Croft of Croft 
Castle, in Herefordshire, Knt. ; and, secondly, David ab 
Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern, by whom she had no 
issue ; and, 4, Gwenllian, ux. Gruffudd Fychan ab Gruf- 
fudd ab Madog. 

Gruffudd Fychan was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Owaix Glyndyfrdwy, 2 or, as he is generally called, 
Owain Glyndwr, or, as he wrote it himself, Glyndourdy, 
was. born in the year 1349. He received a liberal educa- 
tion, and entered at the Inns of Court in London, where 
he studied until he became a barrister. It is probable 
that he quitted his profession, for we find that he was 
appointed esquire of the body to Richard II, whose for- 
tunes he followed to the last, and was taken with him at 
Flint Castle. The Messrs. Owen and Blakeway, in their 
History of Shrewsbury, state that it was into the family 
of Henry of Bollingbroke, Duke of Hereford (France and 
England, a label ermine), afterwards Henry IV, 8 that he 
he became an esquire. He was knighted by King 
Richard, and was married, early in life, to Margaret, 
daughter of Sir David Hanmer of Hanmer, in Maelor 
Saesneg, Knt, one of the Justices of the King's Bench; 
by her he had five sons, Gruffudd, Madog, Maredudd, 

1 Cat Cyriog MS. 

2 This account of Owain Glyndwr, with the exception of the docu- 
ments and other statements, taken from other sources, to which refer- 
ence is made, is taken almost exclusively from Williams's Lives of 
Eminent Welshmen. 

3 Henry de Bollingbroke married Mary, daughter and co-heiress of 
Humphrey do Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Lord Constable, who died in 
1371. Azure, a bend argent, inter two cottises, and six lions rampant 

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Thomas, and John, and five daughters. Most of the sons 
fell during the war on various fields of battle. On Sep- 
tember 3, 1386, he appeared in the celebrated contro- 
versy between Sir Richard le Scrope, Knt., and Sir 
Robert Grosvenor, Knt., as to whom the right to bear 
the shield emblazoned azure, a bend or, should apper- 
tain. He then stated in his deposition that he was 
twenty-seven years of age and more. It happened 
afterwards that Reginald, Lord Grey de Ruthin, whose 
lordship adjoined that of Glyndyfrdwy, had by force 
taken possession of a certain common, called Croesau, 
which Owain Glyndyfrdwy, in the former reign, had 
recovered from him by course of law. Owain laid the 
case before Parliament, but Henry, espousing the cause 
of Lord Grey, his suit was dismissed. This injury was 
aggravated by another ; Reginald purposely detained the 
writ that had been issued to summon Owain and the 
other barons to join Henry IV in his expedition against 
the Scots. Lord Grey misrepresented the absence of 
Owain to the king as an act of wilful disobedience, and 
afterwards treacherously took possession of his lands 
under pretence of forfeiture. More temperate mea- 
sures were recommended by John Trevor, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, who knew well the feelings of the Welsh towards 
the king, and the influence and abilities of Owain ; but 
his advice was rejected, and he was told there could be 
no fear about such a barefooted rabble as the Welsh. 
The Welsh, however, who were strongly attached to the 
cause of Richard II, thought the present a favourable 
opportunity for freeing themselves from the oppressive 
yoke of the English, and they rose up in arms, and 
chose Glyndyfrdwy for their chief, both on account of 
his attachment to the king (Richard II), and his here- 
ditary claim to the principality of Wales. That this 
was the fact, is corroborated by the circumstance of no 
personal mention being made of Owain Glyndyfrdwy in 
King Henry's first proclamation against the rebellion of the 
Welsh, dated September 19,1400. In the summer of 1400, 
he attacked the estates of his enemy, Lord Grey of Ruthin, 

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and seized upon his lands. As soon as the news reached 
Henry, he sent Lord Talbot and Lord Grey to reduce 
him, and their attack on his house was so sudden that 
he escaped with difficulty. He next marched upon the 
town of Ruthin, which he pillaged and burnt to the 
ground, at the time that a fair was being held there. 
His proceedings caused so much alarm to the king, that 
he resolved to march against him in person. In Sep- 
tember 1400 a proclamation was issued from Northamp- 
ton, commanding the lieutenants of Warwickshire, Lei- 
cestershire, and eight other counties, to assemble their 
forces, and join the regular army at Coventry. A grant 
was also made of wain's estates to the king's brother, 
John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, eldest son of John of 
Gaunt, by his third wife (France and England, a border 
gobony, argent and azure), of which the following is a 
translation. 1 

"On the 8th Nov. 1400, the manors and lordships of Glen- 
dourdy in Edeyrnion, Sawarth (Sycharth) in Kenllith (Cynll- 
aith) in North Wales, and the manors and lordships of Hiscote 
(Iscoed) and Guynyoneth in South Wales, were granted by 
King Henry IV to his brother John, Earl of Somerset, by the 
names of all the manors, lands, and tenements which were of 
Owyn de Glyndordy, as well in South Wales as in North 
Wales, and which were forfeited to the king by the high trea- 
son of the said Owyn, to have and to hold all the said manors 
lands, and tenements, together with all regalies, regalities, 
knights 9 fees, advowsons and patronages of churches, fran- 
chises, liberties, customs, wards, marriages, reliefs, escheats, 
forfeitures, rights of execution of criminals (fori* facturis), 
chases, parks, warrens, wrecks at sea, and all other profits 
and advantages to the said manors belonging, as freely as the 
said Owyn held them." 

Patent Roll, 2 H. 4, Part I, M. 19.— P' comite Som's. 

W om'nibj ad quos etc. salt'm. Sciatis q'd de gra' n'ra 
spaPi dedimus et concessimus carissimo fri* n'ro Joh'i Comiti 
Som's om'ia mardia t'ras et ten* que fuerunt Oswini de 
Glyndordy tarn in Suthwall', qui' i in Northwall' que r'one 

1 Patent Rolls, 2 Henry IV, Tort i, m. 19. 


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*-*W?? Mmrl MM9.201&. * H M..Jf/t 

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f gr-i^fi,. «**«• 


AwAM "*». f^J ^f £tf. 

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alte' p' dicionis contra regiam inagestatem n'ram p' p'fatum 
Oswini Pee et p'petrate noV forisf'ca' existunt et que ad 
p'sens valorem trescentar' marcar' p* annu' p' estiinac o'nem 
ut dicit' non excedunt. Hend' et tenend' om'ia man'ia t'ras 
et tent' p'd'ca una cum regaliis regalitatib5 feodis militum advo- 
cacoib^ et p'ronatibj om'imodor' b'n'ficior' eccl'iasticor' fran- 
chesiis lib'tatibj costumi9 Wardis maritagiis releviis releviia 
escaetis forisf'turis chaceis parcis Warernis Wrecco maris et 
om'ibg aliis p' ficuis et commoditatibg quibus cumq' ad p'dca 
mandia t'ras et ten' spectantibj sine p'tinentibg p'fato Comiti et 
heredibj suis de nob' et heredibg n'ris p' s'uicia inde debita 
et consueta adeo lit're plene et integre siout p'd'eus Oswinus 
ea h'uit et tenuit aliquo tempore pVito absq' aliquo noV vel 
heredibg inde reddendo donacVe et concessione p' nos nup' 
eidem Comiti de Castris man'iis t'ris et ten* que fuerunt Radi' 
de Lumley Chivaler r'one forisf cure ejusdem EoVti que 
valent p' annu' eidem comiti trescentas et sexaginta libras aut 
quadam annuitate viginti librar' p' Ric'm nup Regem Angl' 
sed'm post conquestum eidem Comiti p'nomine Comitis Soin's 
de exitibus Com' Som's p' manus vu' ibidem p'cipiend' seu 
quadam alia annuitate sexaginta et ses librar* tresdecim 
solidar* et quatuor denarior 'p' p'fatum nup* Rege eidem Comiti 
de exitibg honoris de Walynford p'cipiend* aut officio Cam' 
ar* AngP cujus valor non est c'tus eo q'd casualis existit f'cis 
non obstantibj. In cujus, etc. T. R. apud Westm' viij die 
Novemb'r. P' ip'm Regem. 

In 1401, Henry IV assembled a Parliament to West- 
minster, when the deliberate voice of the assembled re- 
presentatives ordained that no one whole born in Wales 
should purchase lands upon the Marches or borders; 
that they should neither bear office nor armour, and that 
such as dwelt in franchised towns should produce sure- 
ties for their good behaviour. 1 The next act of his reign 
he followed up the same striDgent ordinances, by decree- 
ing that no Englishman should be convicted in Wales, 
and that no minstrels should be suffered to gather the 
people together. 8 

The king then advanced to Anglesey, and plundered 
the Franciscan monastery of Llanvaes, slew some of the 

1 Statutes of the Realm, 2 Henry IV, chap. xi. 

2 4th Hen. IV, H02, chaps, xxvi to xxxiv. 

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monks, and took the rest away with him ; but he after- 
wards restored them to liberty, taking care, however, 
to place Englishmen in their room, as the Franciscans 
were well known to have been firm adherents to the 
cause of Owain. Henry at last withdrew his army, not 
being able to follow Owain, who retreated with his troops 
to the mountains of Snowdon. At the suggestion of 
Prince Henry, a free pardon was offered to the Welsh of 
several counties, which brought over to the king's autho- 
rity thirty-two of the principal adherents; but Glyn- 
dyfrdwy's army was, nevertheless, receiving constant ad- 
ditions by the great resort of his countrymen, not only 
from every part of Wales, but also from England, 
whither they had removed for the sake of education, or 
were engaged and settled in various professions. In the 
summer of 1401, Glyndyfrdwy marched to Pumlumon. 
which he made the base of his future operations, and 
thence proceeded to lay waste the surrounding country. 
He sacked Montgomery, burned the suburbs of Welsh- 
pool, destroyed Abbey Cwmhir, and took the castle of 
Eadnor, where he beheaded the garrison to the number 
of sixty. The Flemings who had been planted in Pem- 
brokeshire suffered so much from him that they raised a 
force of 1,500 men, and marched so expeditiously, that 
they surrounded Owain and his forces on Mynydd Hydd- 
gant before he was aware of their approach. Hemmed in 
on every side, he broke through their ranks, and 200 of 
the Flemings lay dead on the field. Henry, alarmed at 
his success, led another army into Wales, and destroyed 
the abbey of Strata Florida, or Ystrad Flfir, in Ceredi- 
gion, and ravaged the country ; but he was obliged to 
make a disgraceful retreat, his army being exhausted by 
famine and disease. Another expedition in the same 
year, commanded by the king in person, met with the 
same success. 

In 1402, the occurrence of a comet was interpreted by 
the bards as an omen most favourable to Owain, and 
their predictions instilled spirit into the minds of his coun- 
trymen. His next action was fought against Lord Grey 

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de Ruthin, whom he took prisoner, and kept long in 
captivity, nor did he give him his liberty until he had 
paid the large ransom of 10,000 marks, and bound him- 
self to observe a strict neutrality ; and, immediately after 
his release, for his better security, he married Jane, the 
third daughter of Owain. Being now freed from 
hi3 English enemies, Owain turned his arms against 
those oi his own countrymen who adhered to the English 
king, and burned their mansions, and ravaged their 
estates ; the cathedral of Bangor, and the cathedral, palace, 
and canons' houses of St. Asaph were destroyed at his 
command ; the bishop of St. Asaph, however, John 
Trevor, 1 sided with Owain afterwards, and was confirmed 
by him in his see. It was at this time that Henry, irri- 

1 John Trevor became Bishop of St. Asaph in 1395. He obtained 
permission to hold in commendam with his bishopric, as some of his 
predecessors had done, the livings of Pool, Cegidfa (Guilsfield), and 
Meivod-. Notwithstanding this, he proved ungrateful to the king, 
Richard II, for, in 1399, when that unfortunate monarch was a 
prisoner in his diocese, at the castle of Flint, under the power of 
Henry, Duke of Hereford, the bishop was prevailed upon to pro- 
nounce the sentence of deposition against the king in favour of the 
usurper ; and he was also sent ambassador into Spain to justify the 
proceedings of Henry IV to that court. But at his return in 1403, 
he found his countrymen in arms against the usurpation of Henry, 
under Owain Glyndyfrdwy, who, on account of the bishop's zeal, had 
burnt down his cathedral church, and episcopal. palace, and also the 
canons 1 houses, to the ground, because they were disaffected to his 
cause. The bishop joined Owain, and became one of his most trusted 
adherents, for which he was deprived of the revenues of his see. It 
was at this time that Henry promulgated the unjust and tyrannical 
laws above-mentioned. Bishop Trevor had strongly opposed these 
laws, and had very rationally set forth the danger of disgusting so 
irritable a people, to whom the English Lords in Parliament made 
the insolent answer, "Se de illis scurris nudipedibus non curare". 
The bishop died in Paris, whither he had been sent by Owain upon 
an embassy to procure aid from the King of France, and he was 
buried there in the Abbey of St. Victoire, with the following epitaph, 
in which Herefordtnsis has been inserted by mistake for Assavensis. 
"In Capella Infirmarii Abbatice S. Victoris Parisiensis, Hie jacet 
Reverend us in Christo Pater, Johannes, Episcopus Herefordensis in 
Wallia, qui obiit, a.d. 1410. Die Veneris 10 Meusis Aprilis, cujus 
anima feliciter requiescat in pace. Amen." — Williams's Lives of 
Eminent Welshmen. 

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tated at the spirited resistance of the Welsh to his go- 
vernment, had promulgated a set of impolitic laws, which 
tended to give the highest offence to the Welsh, and 
separate their interests from those of the English. Ac- 
cording to these laws, " the Welsh were prohibited from 
purchasing lands, from holding any corporate office, and 
from bearing arms within any city, borough, or market 
town ; in all lawsuits between an Englishman and a 
Welshman, the former should be convicted only by the 
judgment of English justices, or the verdict of all the 
English burgesses, or by inquests of English boroughs 
and towns of the lordships in which the respective suits 
lay ; all English burgesses who were married to Welsh- 
women were disfranchised ; all Welshmen were forbidden 
to assemble together for conference without licence from 
the local authorities and in their presence. No provi- 
sions or arms were to be received into Wales without 
special permission from the king or his council. No 
Welshman was allowed to have the charge of any castle, 
fortress, or place of defence, even though he might be its 
owner, nor to execute the offices of lieutenant, justice, 
chancellor, treasurer, chamberlain, sheriff, steward, co- 
roner, or any other office of trust, any patent or licence 
to the contrary notwithstanding. Moreover, the Welsh- 
men were forbidden to bring up their children as scholars, 
or to apprentice them to any occupation within any town 
or borough in the realm". 1 These enactments remained 
in force till the 21 James I (1624). 

The king being determined on another expedition into 
Wales, issued orders for the army to meet at Lichfield ; 
but, in the meantime, Owain obtained a great victory, 
June 22, over Sir Edmund Mortimer, at Pilleth Hill, 
near Knighton, in Radnorshire, where 1,100 of Morti- 
mer's followers were slain, and himself taken prisoner. 
Sir Edmund was uncle to Edward Mortimer, the young 
Earl of March, then about ten years of age, whose title to 
the crown of England having jbeen acknowledged by the 
Parliament, he himself was kept in close custody at 

1 History of Wales, bv Jane Williams. 


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Windsor. In consequence of this relationship, it may 
be supposed that Henry took no steps for hi3 ransom, 
and Mortimer, finding Owain inclined to favour the right j 

of his nephew, sided with him, and brought on the alliance 
with the Percies. Henry finding that his own safety 
demanded his utmost exertion, instead of assembling one 
army at Lichfield, determined to raise three separate 
divisions, and to attack the Welsh from three quarters at 
the same time. It was arranged that the king should 
muster the first division at Shrewsbury. Richard Beau- 
champ, Earl of Warwick, Regent of France (gules, a fess 
inter six cross crosslets or), Edmond Stafford, Earl of 
Stafford (or, a chevron gules), and others, were to assemble 
the second at Hereford, while Prince Henry was to take - 
the command of the third at Chester. We learn from a 
letter of the prince, dated at Shrewsbury in May, that he 
led his army and burnt Owain's chief palace at Sycharth, 
in the parish of Llansilin, in Cynllaith, and then went to 
Glyndyfrdwy, where he burnt the house in his park, and 
then, after burning and ravaging, not only Glyndyfrdwy, 
but also Edeyrnion, they returned through Powys to 
Shrewsbury. It is to Sycharth that lolo Goch's magni- 
ficent description appertains. 

In the meantime Owain was ravaging Glamorgan on 
account of the defection of the inhabitants from his 
cause; he burned the houses of the bishop and arch- 
deacon of Llandaff, set fire to Caerdiff and Abergavenny, 
"and demolished the castles of Penlline, Llandough, 
Flemingston, Dunraven of the Butlers, Tal y Van, Llan- 
bleddian, Llanguirn, Malefant, and that of Penmark ; 
and burnt many of the villages and churches about them. 
He burnt also the churches of Llanfrynach and Aber- 
thin ; and many houses at Llantwit Major, and other 
places, the men of which would not join him. But many 
of the country people collected round him with one 
accord, and they demolished castles and houses innu- 
merable, laid waste and quite fenceless the lands, and 
gave them in common to all. They took away from the 
powerful and rich, and distributed the plunder among 
the weak and indigent. Many of the higher order and 

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chieftains had to fly to England and put themselves 
I under the protection and support of the king. A bloody 
/ battle took place on Bryn Owain mountain, near Cow- 
bridge, between Owain Glyndyfrdwy and his men and 
the king's men, but the latter were put to flight after 
eighteen hours' hard fighting, during which the blood was 
up to the horses' fetlocks, at Pant y Wennol, a place so 
called from its being a favourite haunt of the swallows, 
the harbingers of spring, but it is now known by the un- 
romantic English name of Stilling Down. 

One of Owain Glyndyfrdwy 's captains was Cadwgan, 
Lord of Glyn Rhondda, generally known by the name of 
Cadwgan y Fwyall, i. e., Cadwgan of the Battle Axe. 
When Cadwgan was preparing for battle, he used to 
perambulate Glyn Rhonda, whetting his battle axe as he 
proceeded along ; from which circumstance Owain would 
call out to Cadwgan, "Cadwgan, whet thy battle-axe", 
and the moment that Cadwgan was heard to do so, all 
living persons, both male and female, in Glyn Rhondda, 
collected about him in military order (for the ladies were 
in those times well drilled and obedient), and from that 
day to this, the battle shout of the men of Glyn Rhondda, 
has been, " Cadwgan, whet thy battle-axe" and, at the 
word, they all assembled as an army. 

One day, when Owain Glyndyfrdwy was travelling on 
horseback about the country of Glamorgan, in the guise 
of a strange gentleman, attended by a faithful friend in 
the habit of a servant, and going about to ascertain the 
disposition of the inhabitants, he went to the castle of 
East Orchard, St. Athan's, the residence of Sir Laurence 
de Berkrolles, who was Lord of St. Athan's and Coetty, 
and requested in French a night's reception for himself 
and servant, which was readily granted, attended by a 
hearty welcome, the best of everything in the castle 
being laid before him ; and so pleased was Sir Laurence 
with his friend that he earnestly pressed him to remain 
with him some days, observing that he soon expected 
Owain Glyndyfrdwy there, and that he had despatched 
all his tenants and servants, with many other confidential 

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persons, under an oath of fidelity, through all parts of 
the country, to seize Owain, who, he had been told, had 
come to that district pf the principality, and that he 
was himself sworn to give honourable rewards to his 
men who should bring Owain Glyndyfrdwy there, either 
alive or dead. " It would be very well, indeed", said 
Owain, " to secure that man, were any persons able to do 
so." Having remained at Sir Lawrence's castle for four 
days and three nights, Owain thought that it would be 
"wise to leave ; therefore, giving his hand to Sir Law- 
rence, he addressed him thus : " Owain Glyndyfrdwy, as 
a sincere friend, having neither hatred, treachery, or de- 
ception in his heart, gives his hand to Sir Lawrence de 
Berkrolles, and thanks him for the kindness and courteous 
reception which he and his friend (in the guise of a ser- 
vant) experienced from him at his castle ; and desires to 
assure him on oath, hand in hand, and hand on heart, 
that it will never enter his mind to avenge the intentions 
of Sir Lawrence towards him ; and that he will not, as 
far as he may, allow such desires to exist in his own 
knowledge or memory, or in the minds of any of his rela- 
tions or adherents", and then he and his servant de- 
parted ; but Sir Lawrence de Berkrolles was struck dumb 
with astonishment, and never afterwards recovered his 
speech; no word, thenceforth, having ever escaped his 

" Sir Lawrence de Berkrolles was descended from one 
of Fitz Hamon's twelve Norman knights, to whom the 
castle of East Orchard, St. Athan's, was given in the 
general spoliation. He married Matilda, the daughter of 
Sir Thomas Despencer, Lord of Glamorgan, who lived at 
the castle of Caer Ffili, or Senghenydd. This lady we 
are told was very beautiful — so far, at least, as outward 
appearance goes ; whether she ever really loved him or 
not, or whether, after he had unfortunately lost his 
speech, she had got tired of him, we are not told ; but, 
be the cause what it may, she determined to get rid of 
him, and she poisoned her husband, Sir Lawrence, so 
effectually, that he died ; whereupon she was buried 


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alive, agreeable to the sentence pronounced on her by 
the country, and the Lord Sir Richard Began, who was 
Lord of Glamorgan. This circumstance is mentioned in 
Horn fray's Norman Castles of Glamorgan. It is also 
additionally supported by the tradition current at St. 
Athan's, where the ' Arglwyddes Wen' (the White Lady) 
is still believed to haunt the reported scene of her cruel 
death, near the by-road leading to Bat's Lays, an ancient 
residence, a little to the west of St. Athan's village." 

" Dream't she of torture's frantic start, 
When, light of foot, and light of heart, 
Beside Senghenydd's lordly towers, 
She ranged among her rosy bowers, 
Herself the beauteous flower of flowers/ 11 

After his success in Glamorgan, Owain returned to 
oppose the English. Too prudent to hazard a battle 
with a force superior in numbers and equipments to his 
own, he drove away all the cattle, and destroyed all the 
means of subsistence for the enemy, whose formidable 
invasion ended in a most inglorious retreat. His cause 
now seemed to be gaining strength by the alliance of the 
Mortimers and Percies, and a treaty was made at the 
house of Davydd Daron, Dean of Bangor,* who entered 
strongly into their views, by which it was agreed that 
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, should take all the 
country from the Trent and Severn to the eastern and 
southern limits of the island ; Henry Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, Lord Constable of England, was to 
have all the countries north of the Trent, and Owain 
Glyndyfrdwy all the countries westward of the Severn. 

1 Iolo MS. 

2 Davydd Daron held the Deanery of Bangor in 1399, and was 
outlawed by Henry IV in 1406, for taking part with Owain Glyndy- 
frdwy, whose conspiracy against that prince is said to have been con- 
trived in that person's house. Davydd Daron was the son of Ieuan 
ab Davydd ab Gruffudd ab Gwrgeneu Fychan ab Gwrgeneu ab 
Iorwerth ab Lleision ab Morgan ab Caradog ab Iestyn ab Gwrgant 
Gules, three chevronells, argent He was the ancestor of the Joneses 
of Ddol in Edeyrnion and of Llanraiadr Hall, in Ceinmeirch, and 
the Joneses of Dol y Moch, in Ffestiniog. 

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Owain was now in the meridian of his glory, and he 
assembled the estates of Wales at Machynllaith, in Cyfei- 
liog, where his title to the principality was acknowledged, 
and he was formally crowned. It was on this occasion 
that Sir Davydd Gam attempted to assassinate him. 
On June 21, 1403, was fought the battle of Shrewsbury, 
in which his first division only, consisting of 4,000 men, 
was present ; he himself, with the great body of his 
troops, amounting to 12,000, not being able to approach 
nearer than Oswestry, having been detained by the siege 
of Kidweli Castle. In this battle, Edward Stafford, Earl 
of Stafford, was slain. His son, Humphrey Stafford, was 
created Duke of Buckingham, and was slain at the battle 
of Northampton, 38 Henry VI. After this, Owain laid 
waste the English borders, and took several of the castles 
held by the enemy. 

A letter from Jankyn Havard, Constable of Dinevor 
Castle, to the receiver of Brecknock, states, " that Oweyn 
Glyndour, Henri Don, Rhys Duy, Rhys ab Gruffudd ab 
Llywelyn, and Rhys Gethin", had won the town of Caer- 
mardden, Wymor, the constable of its castle, having given 
it up ; also, " that Jankyn ab Llywelyn had yielded up 
the castle of Emlyn with free will, and William Gwyn, 
Thomas ab David ab Gruffudd, and many gentlemen, 
have been in person with Oweyn". (See Ellis's Original 
Letters, second series, p. 14.) 

In 1404, Owain made a treaty with Charles, King of 
France, and defeated an English army at Craig y Dorth, 
near Monmouth. 

In 1405, a body of his partisans, to the number of 
8,000, was defeated in Monmouthshire ; and another 
army sent by Owain, under the command of one of his 
sons, was defeated by the English, under Prince Henry, 
at Mynydd y Pwll Melyn, in Brecknockshire, with a loss 
of 1,500 men, either slain or taken prisoners. Among 
the slain was Tudor ab Gruffudd Fychan, Lord of 
Gwyddelwern, brother of Owain Glyndyfrdwy. After 
these defeats, all Glamorgan submitted to the king, and 
it was at this time that O wain's followers dispersed, and 
VOL. i. 14 

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he was obliged to conceal himself in caves and retired 

A cavern near the seaside in the parish of Llangely- 
nen, in Meirionyddshire, is still called Ogaf Owain, in 
which he was secretly supported by Ednyfed ab Aaron. 
King Henry again entered Wales with an army of 37,000 
men, but, owing to the tempestuous weather, he was 
obliged to make a hasty retreat with considerable loss. 
wain's affairs were again improved by the aid of his 
ally, the King of France, who sent a fleet to Milford- 
haven, with an army of 12,000 men, whom Owain joined 
with 10,000 more at Tenby, and the combined armies 
advanced into Worcestershire, where they encamped, 
and were opposed by the English king ; for eight days 
they respectively presented themselves in order of battle, 
but beyond skirmishes, in which many were slain, 
nothing more decisive occurred, and the king, having cut 
off the means of supply, the Welsh and French secretly 
retreated to Wales, and the latter returned to France 
without making any further attempt. 

From the end of 1406 O wain's affairs began to de- 
cline, and his military undertakings were confined to 
laying waste the borders, but he continued to keep pos- 
session of the mountainous parts of Wales. In 1408, he 
laid waste the Marches, and seized the property of those 
who .refused to join him ; but Lord Powys, who was 
commanded by the king to oppose him, fortified several 
castles, and took prisoners, Rhys Ddu and Philip Scuda- 
more, who were sent to London, and there executed. 

In October 1410 the following Welsh prisoners were 
received at Windsor Castle : Howel ab Ieuan ab Howel, 
Walter ab Ieuan Fychan, Rhys ab Ieuan ab Rhys, Ieuan 
Goch ab Morgan, Davydd ab Tydyr, Rhys ab Maredudd, 
Madoc Bach, Jenkyn Bachen, Davydd ab Cadwgan, 
and Thomas Dayler. In this year, likewise, the king 
issued his letters to Richard Grey of Codnor, Constable 
of Nottingham Castle, to deliver to the Constable of the 
Tower of London, Gruffydd ab Owain Glyndourdy, and 
Owain ab Gruffydd ab Richard, his prisoners. (See Ry- 

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mer's Fcedera.) Leland tells us that, in the same year, 
Rise Die, an esquire of Wales, and a supporter of Owain 
Glyndour, was taken and hanged in London. 1 On 
Henry's death in 1412 Owain still remained uncon- 
quered, and Henry V endeavoured to put an end to the 
warfare by conciliation ; but, being unable to succeed, he 
enacted several severe laws against the Welsh. 

In 1415, however, wain's affairs again began to im- 
prove, and assumed so formidable an aspect that the 
king deputed Sir Gilbert Talbot to negotiate a treaty 
with him, offering him and his followers a free pardon 
should they request it. The result of these proceedings 
is unknown, and it is supposed that they were inter- 
rupted by the decease of Glyndyfrdwy, which occurred 
September 30, 1415, at the house of one of his daughters, 
and he is traditionally said to have been buried in the 
churchyard of Monnington on Wye. 

Owain Glyndyfrdwy, by his wife Margaret, daughter 
of Sir David Hanmer of Hanmer, knight, had issue six 
sons, — 1, Gruffydd ab Owain, who was unfortunately 
taken prisoner by the English, and confined in Notting- 
ham Castle, and from thence he was sent to the Tower 
of London in 1410; 2, Madog; 3, Maredudd ; 4, 
Thomas ; 5, John ; and, 6, David, who is said by Lewys 
Dwnn to have been illegitimate 2 — but all of whom were 
either taken prisoners, and were mercilessly put to death, 
or fell valiantly on the field of battle, and died without 

Owain Glyndyfrdwy had likewise four daughters, — 

1. Alice (by her birth, which came to her by the 
favour — i.e., the grace or permission — of her Creator, on 
the death of her brothers without issue), Lady of Glyn- 
dyfrdwy and Cynllaith, and heiress, de jure, of the 
Principalities of Powys, South Wales, and Gwynedd. 
For the title of Alice to the thrones of South Wales and 
Gwynedd I refer the reader to a most excellent work, 
just published, by the Eev. the Hon. George T. 0. 
Bridgeman, M.A. The excellence of this work is such, 

1 Lewys Dwnn> vol. i, p. 333. 3 Cue Ct/riog JfS 

14 2 

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as far as regards the princes of South Wales, that, 
without giving the maternal ancestry of Owain Glyn- 
dyfrdwy, I refer the reader to his most valuable History 
of the Princes of South Wales to see the right he, Owain, 
had to prove his claim to the principality of Dinefawr 
(or, properly, Dinasfawr) and Gwynedd. 

The Lady Alice married Sir John Scudamore of Kent- 
church, in Herefordshire, knight, son and heir (by Alice 
his wife, daughter and heir of Sir Walter de Bred- 
wardiue, knight) of Sir Jenkyn Scudamore, knight, son 
and heir (by Joyce, his wife, daughter and heir of Sir 
Robert Marbury, knight) of Sir John Scudamore, knight, 
son and heir (by Jane, daughter of Sir Walter Basker- 
ville of Erdisley, in com. Hereford, knight) of Sir John 
Scudamore, knight, son and heir (by Alice, or Agnes, his 
wife, daughter and heir of Sir Robert d'Ewyas, knight) 
of Jenkyn Scudamore, esquire, son and heir (by Joyce, 
his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Clifford, knight, Lord of 
Clifford) of Sir Titus Scudamore, knight, Lord of Troy and 
Bigswear, son and heir of Sir Alan Scudamore, knight, 
living 4th William Rufus, 1091, and Jane, his wife, 
daughter and heir of Sir Alexander Ketchmay, knight, 
Lord of Troy and Bigswear, in Monmouthshire. It seems, 
from what follows, that Sir John Scudamore and the Lady 
Alice, his wife, had laid claim to the lordships of Glyn- 
dyfrdwy and Cynllaith, as the Lady Alice was the eldest 
daughter and (as her brothers had died without issue) heir 
to Owain Glyndyfrdwy. For this purpose, they endea- 
voured to prove their claim in the king's court, in the 
county of Meirionydd, by writ directed to the sheriff; 
whereupon John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, then a 
prisoner in France, presented the following petition to 
the king in parliament 

Bolls of Parliament, vol. iv, p. 140. — Pro Oomite Somerset. 

xi Ren. VI. 
29. Item, un Petition furst bailie a n're S'r le Roy en cest 
present Parlement, pur son jtres chier Cosyn John Count de 
Somerset, en la fourme q'ensuyt. 
Au Roy n're tres soverain S'r, supplie v're humblie Liege 


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John Count de Somers', ore esteant prisoner dein' v're 
Roialme de France. Qe come le noble Roy Henry v're Aiel, 
q' Dieu assoile, le VIII me jour de Novembr', Pan de son reigne 
secunde, graunta p' ses Lettres Patent' au John Count de 
Somerset, pier du dit Suppliaunt, p' noun de son tres chier 
frier John Count de Somerset, le Manoir and Seygnourie de 
Glendourdy, ove les appurtenaunt', in Ederyn. Le Manoir et 
S'rie de Sawarth, ove les appurtenaunt' en Kentlith, en North 
Gales. . Les Manoirs et S'ries de Hiscote et Guynyoneth, ove 
lour appurtenaunces, en South Gales ; entre autres Series et 
Manoirs, p' noun de tout' les Manoirs, Terres et Tenementes, 
queux furent a Owyn de Glyndordy, sib'n en South Gales 
come en North Gales, queux p' reson de haut Treson encountre 
sa Roiall Mageste, p' 1' avauntdit Owyn fait et perpetre, a luy 
adonges furent forfait' ; pur avoir et tenir les dit' Manoirs, 
Terres et Tenements, ensemblement ovesq' Regalies, Regalites, 
Fees de Chivalers, advowes' et patronages de Benefises d' 
Eglises, Fraunchises, Libertees, Custumes, Wardes, Manages, 
Releves, Eschetes, Forfaitures, Chaces, Parkes, Warennes, 
Wrek de Meer, et tout' autres Profites et Coramodites quel- 
conq's as avauntdit' Manoirs, Terres et Tenementes regard- 
ant^ ou appurtenaunt', a l'avauntdit Count le Pier et a ses 
heires, de l'avauntdit Aiel et ses heirs, p' services ent due' 
et acustume', auxi franchement, pleinement et entierraent, 
come l'avauntdit Owyn eux avoit et tenoit en ascun temps 
passe, sicome en mesmes les Lettres Patent' y est declare 
plus au plein. Et ore est ensy, q' un' John Skydemore 
Chivaler, et Alice sa Femme, pretendant' la dite Alice estre 
file et heir au dit Owyn, ount suy Bre' de Formedon, direct 
al Viscount de Salop', retournable et retourne en v're com- 
mune Bank a Westm', devaunt S'r William de Babyngton et 
ses Compaignons, vo' justic' illeoq's, de les Manoirs de Glen- 
dourdy et Kentlyth, ove lour appurtenaunces, en North Gales, 
les queux sount parcell des Manoirs, Terres et Tenements, 
comprise' deint' les Lettres Patentez avauntdit, del doun un 
Wauter Mitton et Wauter Huse, fait a un Griffith Glyn- 
douerde, besaill du dit Alice, et a un Elizabeth sa Femme, a 
eux, et a les heirs de lour deux corps engendre', envers le 
dit Suppliant; le quel Bre' pende emqure nient discuose; 
et ount conveie le discent en mesme le Bre' au dit Alice; Et 
mient obstant cell suyte; Et auxi q' tout' les S'ries, Manoirs, 
Terres et Tenementes avaunt dit, sount tenu' de Vous, come 
en droit de v're corone, sicome appiert de record, p' les Lettres 
Patent' avauntdit', le avauntdit' John Skydemore et Alice, 
p' non de John Skydemore Chivaler, et Alice sa Femme, omit 

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sue un Brief de q'd ei deforc', vers le dit Suppliant, direct al 
Vise' de Merion; retournable devaunt vo' justic' dein' v're 
fraunchise la, des dit' Man ours de Glyndourde et Kentlith, 
au verray semblable disheritaunce de luy, encountre ley et 
droit, s'il ne soit p' vous graciousement eide et socourre en 
cest cas. Que please a v're Hautesse pur considerer les pre- 
misses, et pour ordeigner p' auctoritee de cest present Parlia- 
ment, q' tout' actions nomine* envers le dit Suppliant p* les 
dit' John Skidmore et Alice, des dit* Manoirs of Glyndourde 
et Kentlith, forspri' soulement le dit Bre' que ore est pendant 
en le dit commune Bank, devaunt vo' dit' Justices a Weston', 
purrent estre casse', irrite', et tenu' come voide a tout* 
jours. Et en outre ceo, pur ordeigner p' mesme Fauctorite, 
q* les dit' John Skydemore et Alice, ne lour heirs, ne null des 
heirs du dit Owyn, eit ne mainten 1 en temps advenir, ascun 
action ou demande, p* Brief, ne saun' Brief, envers nully, 
d'ascun parcell' des dit' Series, Manoirs, Torres et Tenements, 
et autres desuis especifie', forspri' p' Petition au Eoy, au p 
Brief retournable devaunt les justic' de dit commune Bank, 
q' pur le temps serront. Et q' si ascun Jug' soit don', sur 
ascun autre suyt, des dit' Manoirs, Terres ou Tenements, ou 
d'ascun parcell d'icell, envers ascun person, s'il ne soit p' 
Petition sue a vous, ou vo* heirs, ou p' Brief retournable en 
le dit commune Bank, devaunt les justic' illeoq's pur le temps 
esteant', soit cett Jug' tenu* come voide et de null effect pur 
tout' jours. Et en vutre ceo, q' le dit Suppliant, ses heirs ou 
assignes, p' l'auctorite suisdit, puissent avoir Briefs tielx et 
tant' come lour bosoignera, de temps en temps, ezpressement 
commandant' as quelconqs justices et autres officers, forspri* 
soulement les justices et officers, p' force de Petition, ou 
justices de commune Bank avauntdit', q'ilx ne teignent null 
plee sur ascun action ou demaunde, a mover des dit' Manoirs, 
Terres et Tenements, ou ascun parcell d'icelles, encountre le 
ten our et effect de l'ordinaunce avauntdit. 

Le quelle Petition en mesme le Parliament lewe et entendue, 
de Padvys et assent des Seign'rs Espirituelx et Temporelx, 
et auxi des Communes esteant' en mesme le Parliament, fuist 
respondu' en la fourme q'ensuyt. 

Responsio. — Le Roy le voet. 

The heir and representative of Sir John Scudamore of 
Kentchurch, knight, and the Lady Alice, his wife, is the 
present John Lucy Scudamore of Kentchurch Court, in 
the county of Hereford, Esq., D.L. (born February 20th, 
1798), who married, October 1S22, Sara Laura, elder 

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daughter of Sir Harford Jones Brydges of Boultibrook 
Court, Bart., by whom he had issue a son, born at 
Florence, November 24th, 1823, who died in infancy, 
and a daughter, Laura Adelaide, who married, 1852, 
Major Fitzherbert Dacre Lucas, second son of the Right 
Hon. Edward Lucas of Castle Shane, co. Monaghan. 

The arms of the Scudamores are, quarterly, 1st and 
4th, gules, three stirrups, leathered and buckled or; 
2nd and 3rd, or, a cross pat£e fitch^e, gules (Scudamore, 

2. Jane, who married Henry, Lord Grey de Ruthin, 
and died without issue. 

3. Janet, who married Sir John de Croft of Croft 
Castle, in Herefordshire, knight, captain of Merk Castle, 
near Calais, who was frequently employed in negocia- 
tions in Flanders, between 1402 and 1404. The family 
of Croft, which is of Saxon origin, settled in Hereford- 
shire at a very remote period. Camden, in his descrip- 
tion of that county, says, "Not far off (from Richard's 
Castle) stands Croft Castle, belonging to the very ancient 
and knightly family of the Crofts' ; and in Domesday 
Booh, Bernard de Croft is mentioned as holding the lands 
of Croft, which his descendants inherited until the elose 
of the eighteenth century, when Sir Archer Croft, the 
third baronet, sold Croft Castle to Thomas Johnes of 
Havod Uchdryd, in Cardiganshire, Esq. This Sir Archer 
Croft married Elizabeth, daughter of Ashley Cowper, 
Esq., by whom he had three daughters, co-heirs, the 
eldest of whom, Elizabeth, married James Woodcock of 
Birkhamstead, Esq. (who assumed the name and arms of 
Croft), and, dying in 1832, left, besides other issue, a 
son and heir, the present' Archer James Croft of Green- 
ham Lodge, Berks. 

The present Sir Archer Denman Croft, eighth baronet, 
descends from Francis, second son of Sir Herbert Croft 
of Croft Castle, who was created a baronet in 1671. 
Arms : Quarterly, per fesse, indented, azure and argent ; 
in the first quarter, a lion passant guardant, or. 

Janet, Lady de Croft, married secondly Sir John 
Upton, knight, according to some. 

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4. Margaret, who married Sir Richard Monnington 
of Monnington, in Herefordshire, knight. 

On the attainder of Owain Glyndyfrdwy, the lordships 
of Glyndyfrdwy and Cynllaith were conferred upon John 
Beaufort, who succeeded to the earldom of Somerset in 
1443, and was afterwards created Duke of Somerset 
Quarterly, France and England, a border gobonny, 
argent and azure. He died in 1448, and was suc- 
ceeded by Edmond Beaufort, second duke, who was 
succeeded, in 1455, by Henry Beaufort, third duke, who 
was beheaded in 1463, and succeeded by Edmond Beau- 
fort, the last Duke and Earl of Somerset of this house, 
who was beheaded in 1471, 11 Edward IV, and his 
estates fell to the crown, where the lordship of Glyn- 
dyfrdwy remained till August 5th, 1551 (5 Edward VI), 
when it was granted to William Lord Grey of Wilton 
and John Banaster, Esq. In this grant a licence was 
inserted, authorising them to sell the manor to Robert 
Salesbury of Ktig, Esq. The lordship of Cynllaith 
remained in the crown till it was granted by Queen 
Elizabeth to the Earl of Leicester, who died in 1588. 
Subsequently it again fell to the crown, and certain 
manorial rights and certain lands in Cynllaith Owain, 
formerly belonging to Owain Glyndwr, attainted, were 
granted (11 James I, 1614) to Owain Vaughan of Llwyd- 
iarth, Esq. 1 


Earl. MS. 2299. Co* Cyrxog MS. 

Owain Glyndyfrdwy. 


leuan. Gwenllian, 1 ax. Philip ab Myfanwy, nz. Llywelyn ab Adda ab 

Rhys ab Philip Fychan, David ab Ieuaf ab Adda ab Awr, of 

of St. Harmons. Trevor. 

la \b 

1 Arch. Camb., January 1874, "Cynllaith", p. 22. 

2 Lewys Glyn Cothi wrote an elegy upon Gwenllian, the wife of 
Philip ab Khys of Cenarth, and daughter of Owain Glyndyfrdwy ; he 
says that Owain was a powerful prince, having the whole of Wales 
under his command, with forty dukes for his allies, and that in his 
old age he supported sixty-two female pensioners. 

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Robert = 



Edw ard= Sir John, a Priest. 

Edward. Robert. Catherine, 
ux. Gruff- 
thog. 1 

Gwladys, dr. of lolyn ab 
leaan ab Einion, of Tref 
ben y Clawdd Uchaf. 


Gruffudd Goch.=Lucy, d. of Ienan ab David 
| ab Cynwrig ab Iorwerth 
I ab Cynwrig ab Ithel. 


John.= Gwerfyl. Gwen. Elizabeth. 

Thomas. =Lowri, d. of Robert ab Gruffudd 
j Llywelyn, of LlangynafaL 

Lewys, of Tir Llannerch Glyndyfrdwy. 

leuan, ■ 
born be- 

Margaret, d. of 

David Fvchan, 

of Gfyn 


David. =lst. Elizabeth, d.=f 2nd. Elon, d. of 

j of Maredudd ab Edward ab Wil- 

I Tudor, of Meivod liam, of Waun 

William. "* Powys. | Uchat 




John. Thomas. 5 : 5 Catherine, <*• of Ro- 
[ bert Wynn Sonlli, 
of Sonlli. 

Annesta, ux. David 

Goch, of Llandegla, 



Thomas. Edward. 


John of 

Edward of John of 
Trevor Yr H6b. 


Margaret, uz ux. Edward ab 

Edward ab leuan ab Hywel ab 
leuan ab Robert, of Cwm Alia, 

Gruffudd. in the parish of Llan- 




I Owain Glyndwe, cyn iddo godi mewn rhyfel, yn erbyn y 
Brenhin Harri'r Pedwerydd, i ganmol adeilodaeth ei Lys ef, 
lle'r oedd Tolo, wedi cael ami wahawdd, yn dyfod i dario yn 
hen wr, fel y tystia'r Cywydd. 

Addewais i't hyn ddwywaith, 
Addewid teg, addaw taith, 

1 Gruffydd Hiraethog was a celebrated poet of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. He was a native of Denbighshire, and lived near the Hirae- 
thog range of mountains in that county, whence he assumed his 
bardic name. He wrote from 1520 to 1550. He was a pupil of 
Tudyr Aled, and he himself instructed the poets William Lleyn, 
Simwnt Vychan, William Cynwal, and Sion Tudyr, in the difficult 
rules of Welsh prosody. He was buried in the chancel of Llangollen 

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Taled bawb t&l hyd y bo 

Addewid a addawo ; / 

Beth anwyl mae'n bwyth uniawn, / 

Perwyl, mor anwyl mawr iawn. 

Myned mae adduned old'ain, 

Lies yw, tua Llys Owain ; 

Yno yn ddidro ydd &f, 

Nid drwg, ag yno trigaf ; 

I gym'ryd i'm bywyd barch, 

Gydag ef, o gyd gyfarcb. 

Fe all fy naf, uchaf ich, 

Aur ben der, dderbyn cleiriach. 

Clywed, bod nis c61 Awen 

Ddiwarth hwyl, yn dda wrth hen ; 

I'r Llys, arddyfrys ydd &t, 

Odeucant, odioccaf ; 

Llys Barwn lie syberwyd, 

Lie daw Beirdd, am He da byd, 

Gwnawr Bowys fawr, bens faig, 

Golfyniad, gwrio a fynaig ; 

Llyna model, y linn y mae, 

Mewn enrgyich, dftr mewn argae ; 

Pand da'r Llys, pont ar y Uyn, 

Ag unporth Ue'r ai ganpyn. 

Cypplau fydd, bob Uwpplws fnt, 

Cwppledig, bob cwppl, ydynt ; 

Clochdy Padrig, firengig, ffrwyth, 

Cloystr Wesmestr, cloau ystwyth, 

Cenglynrhwyn, bob congl a unrhyw, 

Capell o aur cyfa oil yw ; 

Cenfflynion jrn y frou fry ; 

Dordor megis daeardy ; 

A phob un, fal linn llynriwm, 

Sydd yn en gilydd yn pwm, 

Tai napl, ar folt deunawplas, 

Tf pren gl&n, mewn top brynglas. 

Ar pedwar Piler eres, 

Ei Lys ef, i nef yn n6s. 

Ar ben pob piler pren praff, 

Llofffc, ar dalgrofffc adeilgraff ; 

Ar pedair llofft, o hoffder, 

Tngh^d gwplws, clau cwsg cler : 

Aeth y pedair, disglair llofft, | 

N^th lwyth, teg iawn yn Wyth lofil; 

To toils, ar bob tf talwg, ■, 

Simneiau, He magai, mwg. * 

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Naw nenadd, copladd, cyflun, 
A naw wardrob, ar bob un ; 
Siopau glan glwys, gynwys gain, 
Stop landeg, fal Siop Lnndain. 
Croes Eglwys, gylchlwys, galchliw, 
Capelan & gwydrau gwrio ; 
Pob tu'n llawn, pob tf'n y Llys, 
Perllan, gwinllan gaer wenllys. 
Garllaw'r Llys, gorlliwrio'r llall, 
Y pawr ceirw mewn pare arall ; 
Pare owning, meistr Por cenedl, 
Erydr, a meirch hydr, mawr chwedl. 
Dolydd gl&n gwyran, a gwair 
Ydau, mewn caeau cy wair ; 
Melin d$g, ar ddifreg dd\vr. 
A'i g'lomendy, gloywmaendwr. 
Pysgodlyn, cuddiglyn can, 
A fo rhaid, i fwrw rhwydau ; 
Amlaf, He nid yr ymliw, 
Penhwydaid, a gwyniaid gwiw ; 
A'i dri bwrdd a i adar byw, 
Peanod, cryhyrod, hoywryw : 
Ag iaith, i bob gwaith fo gwiw, 
Cyfreidiau, cyfair ydyw. 
Dwyn blaenffrwyth, cwrw Amwytliig. 
Gwiredydd, bragodydd brig ; 
Pob llyn, bara gwyn, a (jwln, 
A'i gog, a'i d&n i'w gegin. 
Pebyll y Beirdd, pawb He bo, 
Pe beunydd, caiff pawb yno. 
A gwraig, orau o'r gwragedd, 
Gwyn y myd, o'i gwin aM medd. 
Merch eglur, llin marchawg lyw, 
Urddol, hael, o reiol, ryw. 
A'i blant, a ddeuant bob ddau, 
Nythed, tfig o bennaethan ! 
Anodd, yn fynych yno, 
Weled, na chlicced na chlo ; 
Na phorthoriaeth, ni wnaeth, neb, 
Ni bydd eisiau, budd oseb ; 
Na gwall, na newyn, na gwarth, 
Na syched, fyth yn Sycharth. 

Gorau Cymro, tro, traglew, 
Piau'r llyn, power y Llew ; 
Gwr meingryf, gorau mangro, 
A phiau'r Llys, hoff yw'r Tie. 

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I Owain Glyndwr, Wedi eifyned ar ddifanooll, o waith 
Iolo Goch. 

YGwr hir ni'th g&r Harri, 
Adfyd aeth, a wyd fyw di ? 
Ag od wy'd, a gwayw o d&u, 
Dyred, dangos dy darian. 
Owlad, garw aergad, eurgylch, 
Rhufain dwg arfau'n dy gylch ; 
Dwg feddiant Pedr Sant dau sel, 
Drwy iawnswydd Daw ar insel. 
Dyred o wlad y Dwyrain, 
Darw mawr, a bwrw dyraa main ; 
Rhwydd y daw, rheiddiau o dan, 
Rhagod, pawb a'th anrhegan'. 
Eryr glwys, dos, lor o'r Glyn, 
Iarll awchlaif, i dir Llychlyn ; 
Y gwr a ddwg, arwydd iach. 
Yn ei darian bedeirach ; 
Tri Llew glas fal yr asur (azure) 
Trwy wyllt dan, a'r tair rhwyll dur. 
Rhown ni, ar y paun diwarth, 
Rhowch rwyf, ar yr Hwch, a'r Arth ; 
Llyna'r tair bwyall unyd, 
Lie mae'r gwaith, Uu mawr i gyd. 
Gollwng, yn gynta' gellych, 
Saith long, a saith ganllong gw^ch ; 
Dyred wrth ddymnned M6n, 
Or Nordd, hyd yn Iwerddon. 
Rhaid yw i ti, rho Duw Tad, 
Gael Owtih, a'i galw attad ; 
Cyfod, o glan Galiod gl&n, 
Cawn glywed, cyn gwyl Ienan : 
Dyro mam, benadur fflwch, 
Drawn Nulyn, drwy' anialwch, 
Gwna lynges gain o longwwyr, 
gynfyl, Gwyddyl, a'i gwyr. 
Tyred, wr, a draeturwyd, 
O Fanaw dir Penaid wyd ; 
Goran arwydd gan Wyddyl, 
Melyn, a choch, ymlaen chwyl; 


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Urdda bensel, Llywelyn, 

Arddel hwy, a'r ddeuliw hyn. » 

Galw gar bron, gwae Loegr o'r br&d, / 

Lu Bryttaen, a'i lwybr attad. ' 

Dyred i'n gwlad, dur iawn gledd, 

Deyrnaswr, drwy Ynysedd ; 

Cynneu dan cyn oed unawr, 

I oror Mdn, Eryr mawr ! 

Cur gestyll, caerau gystudd, 

Cwncweria wal Cwn Caer Ludd. 

Cur, a lladd, y wadd a'i w£r, 

Cyrn aur Mon, cur Norman wyr. 

Dir yw gwnai, darogan oedd, 

Fyd teilwng, o fatteloedd \ 

Gwna frwydr, a gwaith grwydr yngroch, 

A'r Llew mwyn, lor, He mynoch ; 

Gwaith dy law a ddaw yn ddig, 

Gwyr meirw a geir ym Merwyg. 

Gwna drwy'r haf, gwn droi'r rhod, 

Gymmynu, brwydr, gwminod ; 

Gwna g&d, fal toriad deri, 

Fochno a h£n tych na hi. 

Gwna daith, yn rhyd Glyn Iaithon. 

Gw^r lawer a maner M6n ; 

Gwna naw c&d, yn daladwy, 

Yn nn inodd, ag na wna mwy. 

Deigr Cadwaladr Fendigaid, 

Dyred, a dwg dir dy daid ; 

Dyga ran dy garennydd, 

Dwg ni, onn rhwym, dygn yn rh£dd. 

When the life sun of Owain Glyndyfrdwy set in the night 
of death, the last faint glimmer of Royalty emanating from 
the ancient Blood Royal of Britain died oat with him. — Sic 
transit gloria mundi. 

" Car mundas militat snb vana gloria, 
Cujus prosperitas est transitoria? 
Tam cito labitur ejus potentia, 
Quam vasa figuli, qua sunt fragilia, 
Plus crede litteris scrip tis in glacie 
Quam mundi fragilis vana fallaciae. 
Die ubi Salomon, olim tam nobilis, 
Vel ubi Sampson est, dux invincibilis, 
Vel polcher Absalon, vultu mirabilis, 
Vel dulcis Ionatas, multum amabilis?" 


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Quo Caesar abiit, celsus imperio, 
Vel Dives, splendidus totus in prandio ? 
Die ubi Tullius, clarus eloquio ? 
Yel Aristoteles, summus ingenio ? 
Tot clari proceres, tot rerum spatia 
Tot ora prasulum, tot regna fortia ? 
Tot mundi principes, tanta potentia ? 
In ictu ocali claudenter omnia. 
Qaam breve festum est, hac mundi gloria ! 
Ut umbra hominis, sic ejus gaudia. 
Quae semper subtrahunt aeterna praemia, 
Et ducunt hominem ad dura devia 
O esca vermium, massa pulveris, 
ros, vanitas cur sic extolleris ? 
Tgnoras penitus, utrum eras vixeris. 
Fac bonum omnibus, quamdiu poteris, 
Haec mundi gloria, qua magni penditur, 
Sacris in litteris flos fani dicitur. 
Ut leve folium, quod vento vapitur, 
Sic vita hominum haec vita toilitur. 
Nil tuum dixeris, quod potes perdere, 
Quod mundus tribuit, intendit rapere, 
Superna cogita, cor sit in ©there, 
Felix qui potuit mundum contemnere." 1 

Where, then, are the souls of the departed, and what 
is their state ? 

" They are gone from us for ever, 
Longer here they might not stay, 
They have reached a fairer region, 
Far away, far away." 2 

** Plato, in the Ph&do, represents Socrates as describing 
the place to which souls repair after death. He imagines 
a sort of ethereal earth above that in which we live, and 
of which our earth is, as it were, the foundation on 
which it rests, formed by the sediment of a much purer 
matter, and resembling the bottom of a vast gulf, in 
which water, darkness, and dense air are collected to- 
gether. We crawl along on this, the surface of our earth, 
on which the atmosphere rests ; and it is only through 
this dense atmosphere, in which we are able to breathe, 
that, when we look up, we can see the purer atmosphere, 
1 Jocoponus, of Todi, in Umbria. 2 Miss Lindsay. 

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which, gradually getting more rarefied, extends to the 
pure region of the ether into the realms of light, in 
yhich the stars are placed and the planets have their 
courses. Thus, we who exist and crawl along on the 
surface of this material earth are just like a man who 
should crawl along the bottom of the sea, and who, 
seeing the sun and stars through the water, should think 
that the sky is the surface of the sea. That which would 
happen to this man, if he had never been able to reach 
the surface, or raise his head above the water, to see how 
much more beautiful and luminous the region of the 
ether is, happens to us, who take the upper portion of 
the air for the sky, as though that were actually the 
heaven in which the stars move. If our weakness and 
the laws of gravity did not prevent us from rising to the 
summit of the air, or atmosphere, we should be enabled 
to enjoy the brilliant spectacle of that glorious region 
which the true sky conceals, and where the true light 
shines. Our earth contains nothing that can be com- 
pared to the wonders of this, from us, distant region. 
Colours are brighter and more brilliant there ; vegetation 
is more luxuriant ; trees, flowers, and fruits are infinitely 
more perfect than here below." " To watch, to feel, to 
think, is for us the greatest happiness. "We possess it 
only by flashes, as it were, but God possesses it con- 
stantly. Enjoyment, for Him, is action. (Aristotle, 
Metaph. xii, 7.) How, then, can we look forward to an 
eternity of idleness? The Greeks gave the soul its 
best and truest name, 'Asthma/ aspiration. Ever 
aspiring, yet never satisfied, it is constantly progressing 
in its path towards that perfection which ultimately, after 
many trials, and having overcome its spiritual ememies, 
it hopes to attain." 

The soul, when it leaves the body, possesses the same 
desires, affections, hatreds, antipathies, and propensities 
as it had when it occupied its earthly tenement of the 
flesh. This we see fully exemplified in nature with 
Regard to the dragon-fly. A certain voracious grub in- 
habits the bottom of a stagnant pool. This grub, or 


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pupa, which is provided with legs, climbs some way up 
a flag, or other water plant, which it grasps tightly, 
and then stretches and strains itself in every direction ; 
presently the head bursts, and the antennae and head of 
the fly protrude, also its two front legs. The pupa holds 
on with its legs ; the fly endeavours to extricate itself 
from the pupa with its own, and finally succeeds, leaving 
the lifeless husk on the plant which it ascended. But 
the sight of an apparent struggle between two animals 
possessing the same body is very unpleasant. 1 When 
free from its pupa, or corpse, the dragon-fly hovers over 
the pool of water with the same voracious propensities 
as it possessed when it occupied the body in the shape 
of a grub at the bottom of a pond. 

That the dead retain the same affection and interest 
in those that they loved on earth, each one, or most of 
us, at least, particularly those who have attended death- 
beds, must be well aware of, from the frequency of the 
spirits of the departed coming round the death-beds of 
those they loved or liked. The following stories are in- 
stances in point of the truth of this assertion. King 
Amenemhat I, of Egypt, represents himself as "now 
being one of the happy dead, he has already begun 
prayers for the welfare of his son". 

Mr. Thomas Brevior relates the following story in the 
Psychological Revieto for April 1878. 

There were two companies of the 74th Highlanders at 
Shorapoor with Colonel Hughes's force. After the place was 
taken, one company was located, as I have before stated, in 
my house on the hill, the other remaining in camp below the 
town, till they should return to Bellary. One afternoon — 

I have forgotten the date — Captain , the senior officer, 

was sitting in his tent, writing 1 letters to England, as the mail 
letters had to be forwarded by that evening's post, and had 
had the side wall of his tent opened for light and air, when a 
young man of his company appeared suddenly before him in 
his hospital dress, without his cap, and without saluting him, 
said, " I wish, Sir, you would have my arrears of pay sent to 

my mother, who lives at , please take down the address". 

Captain took down the address mechanically, and said, 

1 The Unseen World. Masters, New Bond Street. 

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All right, my man, that will do"; and again making no 

salute, the man went away. A moment after, Captain 

remembered that the dress and appearance of the soldier, and 
his manner of coming in were highly irregular, and desired 
his orderly to send the sergeant to him directly. 

" Why did you allow — — to come to me in that irregular 
manner?" he asked, as soon as the sergeant came. 

The man was thunderstruck. "Sir," he exclaimed, "do 
yon not remember he died yesterday in hospital, and wus 
buried this morning ? Are you sure, Sir, you saw him ?" 

" Quite sure," was the reply ; " and here is the memorandum 
I took down from him of his mother's address, to whom he 
wished his pay should be sent." 

" That is strange, Sir," said the sergeant ; " his things were 
sold by auction to-day, and I could not find where the money 
should be sent, in the company's registry ; but it may be with 
the general registry with the regiment." 

The books were searched; the address taken down was 
proved to be correct, and the circumstance made a profound 
impression upon all who knew the facts. 

' The following occurrence is related in Burke's Tales of the 
Peerage. Gabriel Hamilton, of Westburn, in the county of 
Lanark, was the representative of an ancient and distinguished 
branch of the Duke of Hamilton's family, viz., Hamilton of 
Torrance, a cadet of the great house of Raploch, which was 
immediately sprung from the Lords of Cadzow, the ancestors 
of the Earls of Arran and Dukes of Hamilton. The grand- 
mother of this Hamilton of Westburn was a daughter of Sir 
Walter Stuart of Allanton. And thus Westburn and Allanton 
were near kinsmen, at a time when relationship and intimacy 
were synonymous. The death of Westburn took place in 
1757 or 1758, and Allanton had predeceased him several years. 
Their estates, moreover, were situated in the same county, 
and they were on the most affectionate and familiar terms 
with each other. 

Westburn, who was an elderly man, and not in very strong 
health, was in the habit of reposing during an hour after 
dinner; and his wife, the beautiful and estimable Agnes 
Dundas, heiress of Duddingston, usually sat by the side of 
the conch, reading to him, or conversing till he fell asleep. 
One day he slept longer, and apparently more soundly than 
usual, and at length he suddenly awoke, and said that he had 
been roused by the fluttering of the wings of doves. He 
then addressed his wife, and related to her the following 
remarkable dream : — 

vol. i. 15 

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" I was walking in the most lovely gardens and pleasure- 
grounds that I ever beheld, and so struck was I with their 
extraordinary extent and romantic beauty* and with the bright 
and glorious colours of the flowers which sprung up around 
me on every side, that I exclaimed, 'This can be no other 

flace than Paradise ! this must be the garden of the Lord ! ' 
had hardly uttered these words, when a youth of radiant 
beauty and heavenly expression approached me, and smiling 
sweetly on me, he accosted me familiarly by name, giving me 
a cordial welcome to his happy home. I expressed my sur- 
prise at his friendly and familiar greeting, seeing that we 
were but strangers. ' And yet,' said I, ' there is that in your 
countenance which makes me feel as if you were my friend ! ' 
' Seek not/ said he, e to deny our old and intimate acquaint- 
ance. You are my near kinsman, and familiar neighbour and 
friend ;' and observing that 1 looked astonished and incredu- 
lous, he said, ' Is it possible that you have forgotten me ? Is 
it even with you, so soon, out of sight, out of mind ? Do not 
you know me? I am your cousin, Stewart of Allan ton/ 
r Impossible,' said I ; 'for my dear friend Allanton was old and 
plain-looking, whereas you are the most beautiful youth my 
eyes did ever behold/ * Even so/ said the youth ; ' all those 
who come here are made youthful and beautiful. There is 
here neither age nor plainness. I am no other than your dear 
cousin and old friend Allanton, and within twenty-four hours 
you will be here with me, and you will be young and beautiful 
like me.' Hereupon I heard the loud fluttering of the wings 
of doves, and I suddenly awoke." 

It may be imagined that Westburn's dream made a deep 
impression, not unmingled with awe, on his affectionate wife. 
She deemed it to be a warning that she must hold herself in 
readiness to resign him ere long, at the call of his heavenly 
Master and Father; and even so it came to pass. On the 
following morning Westburn was found dead in his bed. His 
spirit had departed during the night, and had gone to join his 
early friend and kinsman in the garden of Paradise. 

Plutarch relates that a certain man, named Thespesius, 
having fallen from a great height, was taken up apparently 
dead from the shock, although no external wound was to be 
discovered. On the third day after the accident, however, 
when they were about to bury him, he unexpectedly revived ; 
and it was afterwards observed, to the surprise of all who 
knew him, that from being a vicious reprobate, he became 
one of the most virtuous of men. On being interrogated with 


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respect to the cause of the change, he related that, daring the 
period of his bodily insensibility, it appeared to him that he • 

was dead, and that he had been first plunged into the depths / 

of an ocean, out of which, however, he soon emerged, and 
then, at one view, the whole of space was disclosed to him. 
Everything appeared in a different aspect, and the dimensions 
of the planetary bodies, and the intervals betwixt them, were 
tremendous ; whilst his spirit seemed to float in a sea of light, 
like a ship in calm waters. He also described many other 
things that he had seen : he said that the souls of the dead, 
on quitting the body, appeared like a bubble of light, out of 
which a human form was quickly evolved. That, of these, 
some shot away at once in a direct line, with great rapidity ; 
whilst others, on the contrary, seemed unable to find their due 
course, and continued to hover about, going hither and thither, 
till at length they also darted away in one direction or another. 
He recoguised few of these persons he saw, but those whom 
he did, and sought to address, appeared as if they were 
stunned and amazed, and avoided him with terror. Their 
voices were indistinct, and seemed to be uttering vague 
lamentings. There were others, also, who floated farther 
from the earth, who looked bright, and were gracious ; these 
avoided the approach of the last. In short, the demeanour 
and appearance of these spirits manifested clearly their de- 
grees of joy and grief. Thespesius was then informed by one 
of them that he was not dead, but that he had been permitted 
to come there by a Divine decree, and that his soul, which was 
yet attached to his body as by an anchor, would return to it 
again. Thespesius then observed that he was different to 
the dead by whom he was surrounded ; and this observation 
seemed to restore him to his recollection. They were trans- 
parent, and environed by a radiance, but he seemed to trail 
after him a dark ray or shadow. These spirits also presented 
very different aspects; some were entirely pervaded by a 
mild, clear radiance, like that of the full moon; through 
others there appeared faint streaks, that diminished this 
splendour ; whilst others, on the contrary, were distinguished 
by spots, or stripes of black, or of a dark colour, like the 
marks on the skin of a viper. 

The Wliite Lady of Comlongan. — A young Chief of the 
Maxwell clan deeply loved a daughter of the House of Athol ; 
but as there existed some misunderstanding between the ! 

families at that time, he forbore to press his suit till matters 
could be accommodated. In the interim, young Maxwell was > 

15« 4 

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cruelly assassinated at Merklenburn, near Graitney, in the 
/incursion of Douglas and Albany, where the beautiful funeral 
/ cross is erected over his remains. The lady, in a momentary 
fit of anguish for the untimely fate of her lover, threw herself 
into the draw-well of the castle, where she perished, and for 
many years afterwards the apparition of a " White Lady" was 
seen to wander through the groves surrounding the castle of 

By Solway's shores, how wildly ring 
The gull's loud shriek at opening morn ; 

When high their ranks on storm- tost wing, 
Across the Locher's wastes are borne. 

But wilder still, along the deep, 

Is heard at solemn close of day. 
What time the western breezes sleep, 

The sad White Lady's ghostly lay. 

Fair Margaret's form was lovely light, 

And whiter than the ocean spray ; 
And round her neck and shoulders bright, 

Her golden glittering ringlets play. 

Soft did a lute's entrancing swell 
Oft linger round the haunted grove, 

Where beauty's lingering visions dwell, 
Bewailing scenes of hapless love. 

And here beneath the silver moon, 

Comlongan's lovely woods among, 
Wan'd beauty's sweet seraphic noon, 

WaiTd by the merlet's plaintive song. 

Her's is the spectral form still seen, 

At twilight's holy haunted hours, 
Slow stealing down the castle green, 

Where bloom the opening birken bowers. 

Sweet 's the dream of recollection, 
Sweet the scene of pleasure o'er, 

Sweet the days of young affection, 
Days of happiness no more." 

Where shall the lover rest, 
I Whom the fates sever 

' From his true maiden's breast, 

On earth for ever ? 

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Where through groves deep and high 

Sounds the far billow, 
Where early violets die 

Under the willow, 
Eleu loro, Eleu loro, 

Soft shall be his pillow. 
There, through the summer day 

Cool streams are laving, 
There while the tempests sway, 

Scarce are boughs waving. 
There shall thy body lie 

False wert thou never, 
Meet will your souls on high, 

Where flowers bloom ever, 
Never again to die, 

Never, never. 1 

The following story was related to me by the present 
vicar of Llan . . . . g. It occurred about forty years 

A young man of some landed property in Lleyn, in 
the county of Carnarvon, a few years ago gained the 
affections of a young woman in a lower grade of life 
than his own. He forsook her, and she died within a 
twelvemonth afterwards. Subsequently he paid his 
addresses to a young lady in the same county, and 
was accepted. However, before the marriage could take 
place, he was taken very seriously ill. One day, his 
intended bride, who was in the habit of going to visit 
him, was sitting at the foot of the bed, when suddenly 
the apparition of a young woman, in white garments, 
with a child in her arms, came and stood close to the 
side of the bed. Presently the sick man saw her, and 
ordered her to leave him ; but it was useless, for there 
she remained, with her eyes fixed glaring upon him. 
Horror-stricken, he turned his head the other way, so 
as not to see her, crying out, " Dduw ! gwared fi rhag 
yr ysprydion ty wyllwch" (0 God ! deliver me from the 
spirits of darkness), and immediately expired. His 

1 Adapted from the song of Fitz Eustace in Marmion. 



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fiancee, who witnessed this fearful termination of the 
life of her lover, is still living in Lleyn, a widow. 

Where is the friendship, the love for whose spell 
We have been waiting so long and so well ? — 

Patting oar faith in the false ones of earth, 
Waking to sorrow from visions of mirth. 

The dove has its mate, and the eagle his home; 

Doabt not for as there's a solace to come. 
If not on earth, there are regions above, 

Where friendship 's undying, omnipotent love. 1 

" Hope's fairy promise charms to betray, 
All that is earthly fadeth away/' 

About four years ago, I was staying on a visit with 
the Rev. G. G., at Llan .... g, in North Wales. Mrs. 
G. was accustomed to have an afternoon tea in the 
drawing-room. In one of the corners of this room, 
between the door and the fireplace, was a bracket 
of three shelves, with various ornaments upon them. 
Among them was the couchant figure of a greyhound, 
beautifully executed in white Parian china. We were 
all sitting round the table, when suddenly we heard 
something fall and break. Mrs. G. immediately went to 
the spot, to see what had happened, and found that the 
figure of the greyhound had fallen, and was broken to 
pieces. The good lady was much distressed at what had 
occurred, as tne ornament was the parting gift of her 
oldest and dearest friend, whom she had left behind her, 
in the Isle of M., when she came to Llah . . . . g. For 
some reason or another, some one happened to look at 
their watch, and found that it was just half-past four. 
The next morning Mrs. G. got a letter to say that her 
friend had died at that very time the previous afternoon. 
What, then, was the power that lifted the inanimate 
figure of the dog from its place in the centre of the 
second shelf of the bracket, and then let it fall and 
break? — apparently, too, at the very time when the 
spirit of the lady had just freed itself from its body in 

the city of C , in England. 

1 J. E. Carpenter, Esq. 

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The cases where the spirits of those who have been 
slain in battle abroad, or drowned at sea, have appeared 
at the moment of death to those they loved best at home 
are innumerable. A spirit must be where its affections 

During the latter part of the month of October 1880, 
a Mr. de C. was spending a short time in the parish of 
Llangurig. On the night of Monday the 26th, he had 
the following dream or vision. He observed that he was 
in bed, as usual, and that the corpse of a tall man, whom 
he did not know, with nothing on but a flannel shirt, 
was stretched out on the outside of the quilt alongside of 
him. He looked at it with great attention for some 
time, when presently the corpse appeared to be lying in 
a coffin with no lid on, so that the naked body was as 
visible as before. After a short time, it appeared as if a 
pall had been placed over it, the edge of which came 
down to the counterpane. Whilst Mr. de C. was looking at 
this, he observed his mother, who died in 1856, enter 
the room, apparently through the side wall, at the oppo- 
site corner, and stand in the middle of the apartment. 
Although she died when about seventy, she did not 
appear to be more than thirty years of age. Mr. de C, 
perceiving his mother was in the room, got out of bed, 
went up to her, and asked why that strange corpse should 
be placed on his bed. His mother replied, " It is my 
wish that it should be don<F y and then vanished. Mr. de C. 
then returned to bed, and, after looking for some time at 
the coffin and its sable covering, lying beside him, he 
went to sleep. The next morning (Tuesday), Mr. de C. 
told his servant of the extraordinary dream he had had. 
The man said that it must have been caused by indi- 
gestion, and Mr. de C, concurring in this view of the 
matter, thought no more about it. 

About three o'clock that afternoon, Mr. de C.'s servant 
came to tell him that a young man from Llanidloes, 
named Dafydd R., wanted particularly to see him, as his 
father had died on the previous afternoon. The young 
man, Dafydd R . . s was admitted, and told Mr. de C. that 

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his father had died of inflammation of the lungs, at two 
o'clock on the previous day ; but just before he died, 
he called his son to him, and told him that, as soon as 
he was dead, he was to go to Mr. de C, and tell him that 
he was the nearest relation that Mr. deC. had in Llanidloes. 
Dafydd, as soon as his father was dead, instead of going 
up to Mr. de C, as his father had told him, went to an 
undertaker, to order a sbroud and coffin for his father, 
but he was refused both unless he brought ready money 
with him. This he could not do, for there was no ready 
money in the house. So the father had to lie the next 
night and the next day without anything on but his 
flannel shirt, exactly as he appeared on that identical 
night to Mr. de C. On Tuesday morning Dafydd went to 
those farmers in the neighbourhood who owed him 
money, but could not get one sixpence. He then, half 
broken-hearted, went to Mr. de C, and told his story, and 
his poor father's body was decently buried in Llanidloes 
churchyard. Knowing that his son had not gone to 
Llangurig to see Mr. de C, the father of Dafydd went him- 
self in the night, to show Mr. de C. the state his body was 
lying in. This man's mother was Eleanor Owen, one of 
the family of Owen, who once owned Llwyn Gwyn and 
Glyn Gynwydd, mentioned in the History of Llangurig. 
A lady of the name of LI. had been suffering from a 
long and painful illness. During the last week of her 
sickness she observed that her mother, who had been 
dead for five and twenty years, was constantly in the 
room, watching her, and either standing at the foot of 
the bed, or sitting on a vacant chair at the bedside, 
when no one else was at the time sitting by her. 
Although her mother was nearly seventy years of age 
when she died, she said that her mother appeared to be 
about thirty-five, and that her hair was of a beautiful 
glossy raven hue. The morning of her death, on the 27th 
of April 1880, the doctor, her brother, and two servants 
were standing round the bed, talking with her, not 
expecting that she would go so soon, when suddenly 
her face beamed with joy, and she exclaimed, " Oh, my 

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darling sister, Julia ! My darling sister ! I shall not be 
long now before I shall be with you", and in a few 
minutes after she expired. Her sister Julia died in 
1845. The remains of this family are interred at Llan- 

" The soul's dark cottage, battered and betrayed, 
Let's in fresh light through chinks that time has made." 1 

If, then, those who loved us while on earth still watch 
over and cling to us in our hour of trouble, should we, 
when praying for our own wants, forget to pray for those 
who, though now for the present lost to sight, may still, 
for all that, be near to very many of us. They have still 
to make progress to still higher regions, till they reach 
the beatific vision of the Author of their existence, from 
whom they came. " If men are traced back to their first 
origin, all alike come from the Gods." 2 " The human mind 
is descended from the great celestial Spirit/' 3 "The human 
mind, a detached part of Divine Intelligence, can be 
compared with nothing else but with God Himself. " 4 
"Our natures are parts of the universe." 6 "We have all 
the same Father, we are born of heavenly seed." 6 

The appearance of the Duchess of Mazarine to Madame de 
Beauclair. — (By an eye-witness.) • 

It is well known to most people acquainted with English 
history, that the celebrated Duchess of Mazarine was one of 
the most lovely of the many beautiful women attached to the 
Court of King Charles 11. Mr. Waller particularly takes 
notice of her in the following lines : — 

" When through the world fair Mazarine had run, 
Bright as her fellow traveller, the Sun, 
Hither at last the Roman eagle flies, 
As the last triumph of her conquering 6768/' 

1 Waller. * Senec, Epist, 44. 

* Ibid. 4 Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 

5 Diog. Laert, vii. ° Lucretius, ii, 991, 992. 

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Madame de Beauclair was a lady equally admired and be- 
loved by his brother and successor, King James II. Between 
these two distinguished ladies there existed an uncommon 
friendship, such as is rarely found in /persons bred up in 
courts, particularly those of the same sex, and in the same 

But the singularity of their circumstances might contribute 
a good deal towards it, they having both lost their Royal 
lovers, the one by death, the other by abdication. They were 
both women of excellent understandings, had enjoyed all that 
the world could give them, and were arrived at an age in 
which they might be supposed to despise all its pomps and 

After the burning of Whitehall, these two ladies were 
allotted very handsome apartments in the stable-yard, St. 
James's; but the face of public affairs being then wholly 
changed, and a new set of courtiers, as well as rules of be- 
haviour, come into vogue, they conversed almost only with 
each other. 

About this time it was that Reason first began to oppose 
itself to Faith, or at least to be sec up against it, by some 
who had an ambition to be thought more penetrating than 
their neighbours. The doctrine soon spread, and was too 
much talked about not to be frequently a subject of conver- 
sation for these two ladies; and though I cannot say that 
either of them was thoroughly convinced by it, yet the 
specious arguments made use of by persons of high reputa- 
tion for their learning, had such an effect on both as to raise 
great doubts in them concerning the immateriality of the soul, 
and the certainty of its existence after death. In one of the 
serious consultations they had together on this head, it was 
agreed between them that on whichever of them the lot should 
fall to be first called from this world, she should return, if 
there was a possibility of doing so, and give the other an 
account in what manner she was disposed of. This promise, 
it seems, was often repeated ; and the Duchess happening to 
fall sick, and her life despaired of by all about her, Madame 
de Beauclair reminded her of what she expected from her; 
to which her Grace replied, she might depend on her per- 
formance. These words passed between them not above an 
hour before the dissolution of that great lady, and were 
spoken before several persons who were in the room, but at 
that time they were far from comprehending the meaning of 
what they heard. j 

Some years after the decease of the Duchess, happening, in 



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a visit I made to Madame de Beauclair, to fall on the topic of 
futurity, she expressed her disbelief of it with a great deal of 
warmth, which a little surprised me, as being of a quite con- 
trary way of thinking myself, and had always, by the religion 
she professed, supposed her highly so. I took the liberty of 
offering some arguments, which I imagined would have been 
convincing, to prove the reasonableness of depending on a life 
to come. To which she answered, that not all that the whole 
world could say should ever persuade her to that opinion ; and 
then related to me the contract made between her and her 
dear departed friend the Duchess of Mazarine. 

It was in vain I urged the strong probability there was that 
souls in another world might not be permitted to perform the 
engagements they had entered into in this, especially when 
they were of a nature repugnant to the Divine will, — which, 
I said, has manifestly placed a flaming sword between human 
knowledge and the prospect of that glorious Eden, we hope, by 
faith, to be inheritors of hereafter : Therefore, added I, her 
Grace of Mazerine may be in possession of all those immense 
felicities which are promised to the virtuous, and even now inter- 
ceding that the dear partner of her heart may share the same, 
yet may be denied the privilege of imparting to you what she 
is, or that she exists at all. 

Nothing that I could say made the least impression ; and I 
found, to my great concern, that she was become as great an 
advocate for the new doctrine of non-existence after death, as 
any of those who first proposed it ; on which, from that time 
forward, I avoided all discourse with her on that head. 

It was not, however, many months after we had this con- 
versation, that I happened to be at the house of a person of 
condition, whom, since the death of the Duchess of Mazarine, 
Madame de Beauclair had the greatest intimacy with of any 
of her acquaintance. We were just sat down to cards, about 
nine o'clock in the evening, as near as I can remember, when 
a servant came hastily into the room, and acquainted the lady 
I was with, that Madame de Beauclair had sent to intreat she 
would come that moment to her ; adding, that if she desired 
to see her more in this world, she must not delay her visit. 

So odd a message might very well surprise the person to 
whom it was delivered ; and not knowing what to think of it, 
she asked who brought it ? and being told it was Madame de 
Beauclair s groom of the chambers, ordered he should come in, 
and demanded of him if his lady were well, or if he knew of 
anything extraordinary that had happened to her which should 
occasion this hasty summons ? To which he answered, that 


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he was entirely incapable of telling her the meaning ; only as 
to his lady's health, he never saw or heard her complain of 
any indisposition. 

"Well, then," said the lady (a little out of humour), "I 
desire that you will make my excuse, as I have really a great 
cold, and am fearful lest the night air might increase it, but 
to-morrow I will not fail to wait on her very early in the 

The man being gone, we were beginning to form several 
conjectures on this message of Madame de Beauclair; but 
before we had time to agree on what might be the most 
feasible occasion, he returned again, and with him Mrs. Ward, 
her woman, both seemingly very much confused, and out of 

" 0, madam," cried she, " my lady expresses an infinite 
concern that you should refuse this request, which, she says, 
will be her last. She says that she is convinced of her not 
being in a condition to receive your visit to-morrow ; but, as 
a token of her friendship, bequeaths you this little casket, 
containing her watch, necklace, and some jewels, which she 
desires you will wear in remembrance of her." 

These words were accompanied with the delivery of the 
legacy she mentioned, and that, as well as Mrs. Ward's words, 
threw us both into a consternation we were not able to ex- 
press. The lady would fain have entered into some discus- 
sion with Mrs. Ward concerning the affair, but she evaded it 
by saying, that she had only left an under-maid with Madame 
de Beauclair, and must return immediately; on which the 
lady cried, all at once, " I will go with you ; there must be 
something very extraordinary, certainly, in this." I offered 
to attend her, being, as well I might, desirous of getting 
some light into what, at present, appeared so mysterious. 

In fine, we went that instant; but as no mention was made 
of me, and Madame de Beauclair might not probably be in- 
formed that I was with the lady when her servant came, good 
manners and decency obliged me to wait in a lower apart- 
ment, unless she gave leave for my admittance. 

She was, however, no sooner informed that I was there, 
than she desired I would come up ; I did so, and found her 
sitting in an easy chair near her bedside, and in my eyes, as 
well as all those present, seemed in as perfect health as ever 
she had been. 

On our enquiring if she felt any inward disorder which 
should give room for the melancholy apprehensions her mes- 
sage testified, she replied in the negative ; " Yet", said she, 

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with a little sigh, "you will soon, very soon, behold me pass 
from this world into that eternity which I once doubted, bat 
am now assured of." / 

As she spoke these last words, she looked full in my face, 
as it were to remind me of the conversation we frequently 
had held together on that subject. 

I told her that "I was heartily glad to find so great a 
change in her ladyship's sentiments; but that I hoped that 
she had no reason to imagine the conviction would be fatal", 
which she only answered by a gloomy smile ; a priest, whom 
she had sent for, that moment coming in, we all quitted the 
room, to leave him at liberty to exercise his function. 

It did not exceed more than half-an-hour before we were 
called in again, and she appeared, after having disburthened 
her conscience, to be more cheerful than before; her eyes, 
which were as piercing as possible, sparkled with an un- 
common vivacity; and she told us she should die with the 
more satisfaction, as she enjoyed, in her last moments, the 
presence of two persons the most agreeable to her in the 
world, and in the next would be sure of enjoying the society 
of one who, in life, had been the dearest to her. 

We were both beginning to dissuade her from giving way 
to thoughts which there seemed not the least probability of 
being verified ; when she put a stop to what we were about to 
urge, by saying, " Talk no more on that subject — my time is 
short, and I would not have the small space allowed me to be 
with you wasted in vain delusion. Know' 1 , continued she, 
" I have seen my dear Duchess of Mazarine. I perceived not 
how she entered ; but turning my eyes towards yonder corner 
of the room, I saw her stand in the same form and habit she 
was accustomed to appear in when living ; fain would I have 
spoken, but had not the power of utterance; she took a little 
circuit round the chamber, seeming rather to glide than walk ; 
then stopped by the side of that Indian chest, and looking on 
me with her usual sweetness, ' Beauclair*, said she, ' between 
the hours of twelve and one this night you will be with me'. 
The surprise I was in at first being a little abated, I began 
to ask some questions concerning the future world I was so 
soon to visit ; but on the opening of my lips, for that purpose, 
she vanished from my sight, I know not how." 

The clock was now very near striking twelve ; and as she 
discovered not the least symptoms of any ailment, we again 
aimed to remove all apprehension of a dissolution; but we 
had scarcely begun to speak, when on a sudden her coun- 
tenance changed, and she cried out, " ! I am sick at heart !" 


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Mrs. Ward, who all this while had stood leaning on her chair, 
applied some drops, but to no effect ; she grew still worse ; 
and in about half-an-hour expired, it being exactly the time 
the apparition had foretold. 

From Mr. Aubrey's Miscellanies. 

Two persons (ladies) f fortune, both not being long de- 
ceased, were intimate acquaintance, and loved each other sin- 
cerely. It so happened that one of them fell sick of the 
small-pox, and desired mightily to see the other, who would 
not come, being fearful of catching the distemper ; the afflicted 
lady at last died of it. She had not been buried long before 
she appeared at the other's house in the dress of a widow, 
and asked for her friend, who was then playing cards ; she 
sends down her woman to know her business ; the answer was 
that she must impart it to none but her lady, who, after she 
had received this message, bid her woman to introduce her 
into a room, and desire her to stay till the game was done, 
and she would then wait on her. The game being finished, 
down stairs she goes to the apparition to know her business. 
" Madam" (said the ghost, turning up her veil, and her face 
appearing full of the small-pox), "you know very well that 
you and I loved entirely ; though I took it very ill of you that 
you were not so kind as to come and see me, yet I could not 
rest till I had seen you. Believe me, my dear, I am not come 
to frighten you, but only out of regard to your eternal happi- 
ness to forewarn you of your approaching end, which I am 
sorry to say will be very miserable, if you do not prepare for 
it ; for there is a righteous God above, and you know that you 
have led a very unthinking, giddy life, for many years; I 
cannot stay, I am going — my time is just spent, — prepare to 
die ; and remember this, that when you make the thirtieth at 
a ball, you have but a few days to live/' She then vanished. 
To conclude, she was at a ball, where she made the thirtieth 
in number ; and was afterwards asked by the brother of the 
deceased whether his sister had appeared to her, as was re- 
ported ; she made him no answer, but fell a weeping, and died 
in a short time after. 

Apparition of Major Sydenham. — (From Mr. Aubrey's 

Concerning the apparition of the ghost of Major George 
Sydenham, late of Dulverton, i« the county of Somerset, to 

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Captain William Dyke, late of Skilgate, in the same county, 
ana now likewise deceased, be pleased to take the relation of 
it as I have it, from the worthy and learned Dr. Thomas Dyke, 
a near kinsman of the captain's, thus: — Shortly after the 
major's death, the doctor was desired to come to the honse to 
take care of a child that was there sick, and on his way thither 
he called upon the captain, who was very willing to attend 
him to the place; because he must, as he said, have gone 
thither that night, though he had not met with so encouraging 
an opportunity. After their arrival at the house, and the 
civility of the people shewn them in their entertainment, 
they were seasonably conducted to their lodging, which they 
desired might be together in the same bed, where, after they 
had Iain awhile, the captain knocked, and bid the servant bring 
him two of the largest candles lighted that he could possibly 
get. Whereupon the doctor enauired what he meant by 
this ? The captain answered, " You know, cousin, what dis- 
putes my major and I have had touching the being of a God, 
and the immortality of the soul ; in which points we could 
never be yet resolved, though we so much sought for and 
desired it. And therefore it was at length fully agreed upon 
between us, that he of us that died first should, the third 
night after his funeral, between the hours of twelve and one, 
come to the summer-house that is here in the garden, and 
there give a full account to the survivor touching these matters, 
who should be sure to be present at the set time, and so re- 
ceive a full satisfaction. And this," said the captain, "is 
the very night, and I am come on purpose to fulfil my pro- 
mise." The doctor dissuaded him, reminding him of the 
danger of following those strange counsels. The captain re- 
plied, that he had solemnly engaged, and that nothing should 
discourage him ; and added, that if the doctor would sit 
up awhile with him, he would thank him — if not, he might 
compose himself to rest ; but for his own part, he was resolved 
to watch, that he might be sure to be present at the hour 
appointed. To that purpose he set his watch by him, and as 
soon as he perceived by it that it was half-an-hour past eleven, 
he rose, and took a candle in each hand, went out by the back 
door, of which he had before gotten the key, and walked to 
the garden-house, where he continued about two hours and 
a-half, and at his return declared that he had neither seen nor 
heard anything more than what was usual. " But I know/' 
said he, "that my major would surely have come, had he 
been able." 

About six weeks after, the captain rode to Eton, to place 

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his sou a scholar there, when the doctor went there with him. 
They lodged at an inn, the sign of which was the "Chris- 
topher", and stayed two or three nights, not lying together 
now, as at Dulverton, but in two several chambers. 

The morning before they went from Eton, the captain 
stayed in his chamber longer than usual, before he called upon 
the doctor. At length he came into the doctor's chamber, 
but in a visage and form much differing from himself, with his 
hair standing upright, and his eyes staring, and his whole 
body shaking and trembling ; whereat the doctor wondering, 

?resently demanded, "what was the matter, cousin captain?" 
he captain replied, "I have seen my major"; at which the 
doctor, seeming to smile, the captain immediately confirmed it, 
saying, " If ever I saw him in my life, I saw him just now." 
And then he related to the doctor what had passed, thus : — 
" This morning, after it was light, a man came to my bedside, 
and suddenly drawing back the curtains, calls Cap. ! Cap. ! 
(which was the name of familiarity that the major used to call 
the captain by), to whom I replied, 'What, my major V To 
which he answered, ' I could not come at the time appointed, 
but I am now come to tell you that there is a Ood 9 ana a very 
Just and terrible one ; and if you do not turn over a new leaf 9 
(the identical expression as is by the doctor punctually re- 
membered), € you will find it so'" The captain proceeded, " On 
the table there lay a sword, which the major bad formerly 
given me. Now, after the apparition had walked a turn or 
two about the chamber, he took up the sword, drew it out, and 
finding it not so clean and bright as it ought to have been, 
' Cap. ! Cap. ! ' says he, ' this sword did not use to he kept after 
this manner when it was mine/" After which words he sud- 
denly disappeared. Captain William Dyke died about two 
years after this occurrence. 

Apparition of Mrs. Bretton.— (From Dr. St. Clair's 
Invisible World.) 

Dr. Bretton, late Hector of Pembridge, near Hereford, was 

married to the daughter of Dr. S . This gentlewoman 

was a person of extraordinary piety, which she expressed, as 
in her life, so at her death. She had a maid, of whom she 
was very fond, whose name was Alice, who was subsequently 
married to a young carpenter, a near neighbour. Not long 
after Mrs. Bretton' s decease, as Alice was rocking her infant 
in the night, she was called from her cradle by a knocking at 
the door, which opening, she was surprised at the sight of a 

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gentlewoman, not to be distinguished from her late mistress, 
either in person or habit. She was in a morning gown, the 
same tp appearance with that she had often seen her mistress 
wear. At first sight she expressed very great amazement, 
and said, "Were not my mistress dead ? I should not question 
but that you were she". She replied, " I am the same that 
was your mistress", and took her by the hand, which Alice 
declared was as cold as ice ; she added, that she had business 
of great importance to employ her in, and that she must im- 
mediately go a little way with her. Alice trembled, and 
besought her to excuse her, and entreated her very impor- 
tunely to go to her master, who must needs be more fit to be 
employed ; the spectre answered, that he who was her hus- 
band was not at all concerned, but yet she had a desire rather 
to make use of him, and in order thereto had several times 
been in his chamber, but he was still asleep, nor had she power 
to do more than once uncover his feet, in order to awaken 
him ; and the doctor said he had heard walking in his chamber 
at night, which till now he could not account for. Alice next 
objected, that her husband was gone on a journey, and she had 
no one to look after her child, and that it was very apt to cry 
vehemently, and she feared if it awoke before her return, it 
would cry itself to death, or do itself a mischief; the spectre 
replied, " the child should sleep till her return". 

Alice, seeing there was no avoiding of it, sorely against her 
will, followed her over a stile into a large field, when the 
spectre said to her, " Observe how much of this field I measure 
with my feet"; and when she had taken a good large leisurely 
compass, she said, " All this belongs to the poor, it has been 
gotten from them by wrongful means"; and charged her to 
go and tell her brother whose it was at that time, that he 
should give it up forthwith, as he loved her and his dear aged 
mother. This brother was not the person who did this unjust 
act, but his father ; she added, that she was the more con- 
cerned, because her name had been made use of in some 
writing that related to this land. 

Alice asked her how she could satisfy her brother that 
this was no cheat or delusion of her fancy? She replied, 
" Tell him this secret, which he knows only himself, and I am 
privy to, and he will believe you". Alice having promised to 
go on this errand, the spectre proceeded to give her good 
advice, and entertained her all the rest of the night with 
heavenly and divine discourse. When the dawn appeared, 
they heard the whistling of carters, and the noise of horse- 
vol. i. 16 

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bells, whereupon the spectre said, u Alice, I must be seen by 
none but yourself", ana then disappeared. 

Immediately Alice makes all haste home, being thoughtful 
of her child, but found it as 'the spectre had said, asleep, as 
she left it. When she had dressed it, and committed it to the 
care of a neighbour, away she went to her master the doctor, 
who, amazed at the accounts she gave him, sent her to his 
brother-in-law. He, at first hearing Alice's story and message, 
laughed at it heartily; but she had no sooner told him the 
secret, but he changed his countenance, told her that he would 
give the poor their own, and accordingly he did so, and they 
now enjoy it. 

This is attested by me, 17th February 1681. Edward Fowler, 

Apparition of the Lady Lee. 

Sir Charles Lee, of Warwickshire, by his first lady, had 
only one daughter, of which she died in child-birth ; and when 
she died, her sister, the Lady Everard, of Waltham, in Essex, 
desired to have the education of the child; and she was very 
well educated till she was marriageable, and a match was con- 
cluded for her with Sir William Perkins, but was then pre- 
vented in an extraordinary manner. 

Upon a Thursday night, she, thinking that she saw a light 
in her chamber, after she was in bed, knocked for her maid, 
who presently came to her; and she asked why she left a 
candle burning in her chamber ? The maid said, that she had left 
none, and that there was none, but what she brought with her 
at that time. Then she said it must be the fire; but that, 
the maid assued her, was quite out, and said she believed it 
was only a dream; whereupon she said it might be so, 
and composed herself again to sleep ; but about two of the 
clock she was awaked again, and saw the apparition of a little 
woman between her curtain and her pillow, who told her she 
was her mother, and that she was happy, and that by twelve 
of the clock that day she should be with her ; whereupon she 
knocked again for the maid, called for her clothes, and when 
she was dressed went into her closet, and came not out again 
till nine ; and then brought out with her a letter, sealed, to 
her father, gave it to her aunt, the Lady Everard, told her 
what had happened, and desired that as soon as she was dead, 
the letter might be sent to her father. But the lady thought 
that she was suddenly fallen mad, and thereupon sent pre- 


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sently to Chelmsford for a physician and a surgeon, who both 
came immediately ; but the physician could discern no indi- 
cation of what the lady imagined, or any indisposition of her / 
body; notwithstanding, the lady would needs have her let / 
blood, which was done accordingly ; and when the young lady 
had patiently let them do what they would with her, she 
desired that the chaplain might be called to read prayers, and 
when prayers were ended, she took her guitar and psalm-book, 
and sat down on a chair without arms, and played and sung 
so melodiously and admirably, that her music-master, who was 
then there, admired at it ; and near the stroke of twelve, she 
rose and set herself down in a great chair with arms, and pre- 
sently fetching a strong breathing or two, immediately ex- 
pired, and was so suddenly cold, as was much wondered at by 
the physician and surgeon. She died at Waltham, in Essex, 
three miles from Chelmsford, and the letter was sent to Sir 
Charles, at his house in Warwickshire ; but he was so afflicted 
with the death of his daughter, that he came not till she was 
buried ; but when he came he caused her to be taken up, and 
to be buried by the side of her mother at Edmonton, as she 
desired in her letter. This was about the year 1662, or 1663. 

A Haunted Mansion and Lane in Anglesey. 

A lady, a friend of mine, who has estates in Anglesey and 
Carnarvonshire, in answer to some information I was anxious 
to obtain, has very kindly sent me the following curious state- 
ments of what has recently occurred in Anglesey. 

This lady writes, — I think that I have heard fewer ghost 
stories than most people. But I have experienced facts that 
are curious, from places said to be haunted. A lane near 
Llandyfnan — a part of the road on to Pentraeth is so. When 
I was a child, six years old, my father, riding over to see Mrs. 
Lewis, not arriving by lunch they sent out to look for him ; 
he was found on the ground, insensible, his horse— a fine 
hunter — trembling by him. My father, for three days after, 
spoke and wrote in an unknown language. My daughters, 
five summers ago, were driving a stout pony in their basket- 
carriage. At this same spot the pony trembled, was greatly 
distressed, and fell as though shot, in a fit. Many tales of 
such occurrences are told as happening at this spot : — a Lady 
Gwenllian haunts it. 

At Pl&s Tref. n, there has always been a ghost, and now 

a naval officer of high rank (the grandfather of the late 

16 2 

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Squire), sometimes appears. Mildred T. was on a visit to as 
j there, and as it happened, she slept in what had been that 

~ / officer's bed-room. She was reading in bed late at night, 

' when suddenly she felt as though some one was looking at 

her. She raised her eyes, and saw an old man at the foot of 
her bed, leaning with both his hands on a twisted stick ; she 
noticed his dress, closed her eyes, and offered up a prayer, 
looked up, and saw him passing away by the side of her bed, 
where a door was, but he passed through without opening it. 
"When she came down to breakfast, she told us of what she had 
seen, describing his dress, and the particular stick. Robert 
at once said, " My grandfather always leaned so — on such a 
stick — and wore just what you saw". When she was shown 
his portrait, she nearly fainted ; it was the exact resemblance 
of the apparition she had seen in her bedroom. 

I myself have only seen at Pl&s Tref. n what was in- 
tensely lovely. I was one night asleep, and was suddenly 
- awakened by an impression made upon me by some external 
influence, and I at once saw a light, such as in paintings re- 
presents the halo round the head of saints. I sat up, looked 
long at it, till it faded away. 

Soon after this, my brother, his wife, and child came here 
from India ; as they wished the child to sleep in their room, I 

Save them this same room, the largest in the house. They 
ad, of course, not heard of what I had seen. My brother, 
the next morning at breakfast, said, " You should have told 
me that you had put us into a haunted room"; he then told 
me precisely what I had felt and seen of the appearance of 
the glorious effulgence of this radiant light. 

Some months after this, three ladies who were sisters came 
to visit me, two arriving in the morning, the other later. The 
two first asked me to let them have rooms near each other. 
I sent them to choose their own. They fixed on the large 
room, which contained a large and a smaller bed, consequently 
the three sisters slept in the same room. 

The next morning, when they came down to breakfast, they 
said that they were awakened in the night, and saw and de- 
scribed what they never could have heard of — the lovely light, 
my brother and I had seen. Months after I again saw it; 
and although I lighted a candle, I could still perceive its ex- 
quisite light, till it had softly faded away. We have tried to 
look for a cause for it, but hitherto we have quite failed in our 
endeavours to account for its continued appearance. 

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Apparition of a young Lady to her Lover, 

This young gentle woman lived at St. Ives, in Cornwall, and 
died of the small-pox there, in September 1764; and her 
sweetheart was the son of Mr. Haine, a respectable fanner, at 
Scar, abont twenty miles from Plymouth. The match was 
not approved of by the young woman's friends ; and during 
her illness they would not suffer the young man to come to 
see her, although she greatly desired to see him. About the 
time of her illness, he also was taken sick of a fever, and con- 
fined to his room ; so that it was above a month after her 
death before she made her first appearance to him. 

" After I recovered from my illness," says he, " I went out 
on horseback for a little airing; and, returning home just at 
dusk, about a mile from my father's house, I saw something, as 
on horseback, pass very swiftly by me ; which so frightened 
my horse, that he flew home with me as fast as possible, and 
I was also very much alarmed. A short time after this she 
appeared again to me, and then I knew her ; and what is re- 
markable, whenever I was on horseback, she also appeared on 
horseback ; and when I was on foot, she appeared so too ; and 
her appearances to me were so frequent, that she became quite 
familiar, and I had no fear at all on seeing her ; which she 
never failed to do if I went out ; bnt she never appeared to 
me in my father's house. 

"It was above a month before I had any power given me to 
speak to her, although I thought to do it from time to time, 
but could not speak ; though she gave me all the opportunity 
she could, by walking often by my side, or very near me. 
This was a great trouble to me, as well as to her; and it 
began to bring a great weakness on me. 

u About a week after I had last seen her, as I was sitting in 
my father's house, it was strongly impressed upon my mind 
to go out that night, and, with God's leave, to speak to her. 
Accordingly, about ten o'clock, I went out with all the courage 
imaginable, and she appeared to me as usual ; and I said to 
her, 'In the name of God, why do you thus trouble me?' 
and I was going to lay hold of her arm. She shrunk back, 
and said, ' Do not touch me, I am as cold as clay' ; she spoke 
out, and blamed me for not speaking to her sooner ; and said, 
' that this was the very last night of her liberty to appear to 
me ; ' and had you not spoken to me now', said she, ' I should 
have had power to do you some mischief. Then she related 
to me what she had to say about her family, who had cruelly 


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hindered her from seeing some of her dear relations. 1 After 
telling me about her whole mind, Bhe gave me plain directions 
concerning herself. We conversed together for nearly two 
hours, till twelve o'clock ; and I promised, if possible, to fulfil 
all her instructions. 

"Accordingly, I set out early next morning, rode nearly fifty 
miles, to different parts, fulfilled all her commands, and got 
back safe to my father's house. She appointed me to meet her 
that night, if I had done my business before twelve, at the 
church door, where she was buried : this was about two miles 
from my father's house. She met me at the church porch, 
expressed her entire approbation of all that I had done, saying, 
she would now be at rest, and would trouble me no more. 

" After a short discourse, which she charged me never to 
divulge, she said, 'My time is nearly expired, follow me into 
the church/ The door opening, she entered the church, which 
was illuminated with the most glorious light; and my hearing 
the most soft and heavenly music betokened her happiness. 
She bid me take notice, when the music began to cease, to go 
then out of the church, which I did ; and being very glad that 
all my trouble in this affair was ended, I hastened away, and 
saw her no more. * J. Hainb." 

An account of an Apparition attested by the Rev. Mr. Ruddle, 
minister at Launceston, in Cornwall. 

In the beginning of the year 1665 a disease happened in 
this town of Launceston, and some of my scholars aied of it. 
Among others who fell under its malignity was John Elliott, 
the eldest son of Edward Elliott of Treberse, Esq., a stripling 
of about sixteen years of age, but of uncommon parts and in- 
genuity. At his own particular request I preached at the 
funeral, which happened on the 20tn day of June 1665. In 
my discourse I spoke some words in commendation of the 
young gentleman ; such as might endear his memory to those 
who knew him, and withal tend to preserve his example to 
those who went to school with him, and were to continue after 
him. An ancient gentleman, who was then in the church, was 
much affected with the discourse, and often heard to repeat 
the same evening, one expression I then used out of Yirgil. 
" Et puer ipse fuit cantari dignus." 

1 This young lady lived and died with her relations, who, having 
most of her property in their hands, concealed her sickness from her 
friends ; their not beiug suffered to visit her, was supposed to be the 
cause of her disquiet, and of Mr. Haine's conference with her. 

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The reason why this grave gentleman was so concerned at 
the character, was a reflection made upon a son of his own, 
who, being about the same age, and but a few months before 
not unworthy of the like character I gave of the young Mr. 
Elliott, was now, by a strange accident, quite lost as to his 
parent's hopes, and all expectations of any further comfort 
by him. 

The funeral rites being over, I was no sooner come out of 
the church, but I found myself most courteously accosted by 
this old gentleman ; and with an unusual importunity, almost 
forced against my humour to his house that night ; nor could 
I have rescued myself from his kindness, had not Mr. Elliott 
interposed, and pleaded title to me for the whole day, which, 
as he said, he would resign to no man. Hereupon I got 
loose for that time, but was constrained to leave a promise 
behind me to wait upon him at his own house the Monday 
following. This, then, seemed to satisfy, but before Monday 
came, I had a new message to request me, that if it were pos- 
sible I would be there the Sunday. The second attempt I 
resisted, by answering that it was against my convenience, 
and the duty which mine own people expected from me. Yet 
was not the gentleman at rest, for he sent me another letter 
the Saturday, by no means to fail the Monday, and so to order 
my business as to spend with him two or three days at least. 
I was indeed startled at so much eagerness, and so many 
dunnings for a visit, without any business ; and began to sus- 
pect that there must needs be some design in the bottom of 
all this excess of courtesy. For I had no familiarity, scarce 
common acquaintance with the gentleman, or his family ; nor 
could I imagine whence should arise such a flush of friendship 
on the sudden. 

On the Monday I went and paid my promised devoir, and 
met with entertainment as free and plentiful, as the invitation 
was importunate. There, also, I found a neighbouring min- 
ister, who pretended to call in accidentally, but by the sequel 
I suppose it otherwise. After dinner, this brother of the 
coat undertook to show me the gardens, where, as we were 
walking, he gave me the first discovery of what was mainly 
intended in all this treat and compliment. 

First, he began to inform me of the infelicity of the family 
in general, and then gave instance in the youngest son. He 
related what a hopeful, sprightly lad he lately was, and how 
melancholick and sottish he was now grown. Then did he 
with much passion lament, that his ill-humour should so in- 
credibly subdue his reason ; saith he, " The poor boy believes 

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himself to be haunted with ghosts, and is confident that he 
meets with an evil spirit in a certain field, about half a mile 
from this place, as often as he goes that way to school". In 
the midst of our discourse, the old gentleman and his lady (as 
observing their cue most exactly) came up to us. Upon their 
approach, and pointing me to the arbour, the parson renewed 
the relation to, and they (the parents of the youth) confirmed 
what he said, and added many minute circumstances, in a long 
narrative of the whole. In fine, they all three desired my 
thoughts and advice in the affair. 

I was not able to collect my thoughts enough on the sudden, 
to frame a judgment upon what they had said. Only I an- 
swered, that the tiring which the youth reported to them 
was strange, yet not incredible, and that I knew not then 
what to think or say of it; but if the lad would be free to me 
in talk, and trust me with his counsels, I had hopes to give 
them a better account of my opinion the next day. 

I had no sooner spoken so much, but I perceived myself in 
the spring their courtesy had laid for me ; for the old lady • 
was not able to hide her impatience, but her son must be called 
immediately. This I was forced to comply with, and consent 
to ; so that, drawing off from the company to an orchard hard 
by, she went herself, and brought him to me, and left him 
with me. 

It was the main drift of all these three to persuade me, that 
either the boy was lazy, and glad of an excuse to keep from 
the school, or that he was in love with some wench, and 
ashamed to confess it ; or that he had a fetch upon his father 
to get money and new clothes, that he might range to London 
after a brother he had there ; and therefore they begged of 
me to discover the root of the matter; and accordingly to 
dissuade, advise, or reprove him ; but chiefly by all means to 
undeceive him, as to the fancy of ghosts and spirits. 

I soon entered into close conference with the youth, and at 
first was very cautious not to displease him, but by smooth 
words to ingratiate myself and get within him ; for I doubted 
he would be too distrustful or too reserved. But we had 
scarce passed the first situation, and began to speak to the 
business, before I found that there needed no policy to screw ' 
myself into his heart ; for he most openly, and with all obliging 
candour did aver that he loved his book, and desired nothing 
more than to be bred a scholar; that he had not the leust 
respect for any of womankind, as his mother gave out ; and 
that the only request he would make to his parents was, that 
they would but believe his constant assertions concerning the 

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woman Be was disturbed with in the field called the Higher- 
Broom-Quartils. He told me, with all naked freedom aud a 
flood of tears, that his friends were unkind and unjust to him, 
neither to believe nor pity him ; and that if any man (making 
a bow to me) would but go with him to the place, he might be 
convinced that the thing was real, etc. 

By this time he found me apt to compassionate his condi- 
• tion, and to be attentive to his relation of it ; and therefore 
he went on in this manner. 

"This woman which appears to me," said he, "lived a 
neighbour here to mv father, and died about eight years since; 
her name Dorothy 6ingley, of such a stature, such age, and 
such complexion. She never speaks to me, but passeth by 
hastily, and always leaves the foot path to me, and she 
commonly meets me twice or three times in the breadth of 
the field. 

" It was about two months before I took any notice of it ; 
and though the shape of the face was in my memory, yet 1 
"eould not Recall the name of the person ; but without more 
thoughtfulness, I did suppose it was some woman who lived 
thereabout, and had frequent occasion that way. Nor did I 
imagine anything to the contrary, before she began to meet 
me constantly morning and evening, and always in the same 
field, and sometimes twice or thrice in the breadth of it. 

" The first time I took notice of her was about a year Bince ; 
and when I began to suspect and believe it to be a ghost, I 
had courage enough not to be afraid ; but kept it to myself a 
good while, and only wondered very much at it. I did often 
speak to it, but never had a word in answer. Then I changed 
my way, and went to school the under horse road, and then 
she always met me in the narrow lane, between the quarry 
park and the nursery, which was worse. 

" At length I began to be terrified at it, and prayed con- 
tinually that God would either free me from it, or let me 
know the meaning of it. Night and day, sleeping and waking, 
the shape was ever running in my mind ; and I often did re- 
peat these places in scripture" (with that he took a small Bible 
out of his pocket). Job vii, 14 : " Thou scarest me with 
dreams, and terrifiest me through visions ;" and Dent, xxviii, 
67: "In the morning thou shalt say, would God it were 
evening; and at evening thou shalt say, would God it were 
morning, for the fear of thine heart, wherewith thou shalt 
fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see." I 
was very much pleased with the lad's ingenuity, in the appli- 
cation of these pertinent scriptures to his condition, aud 

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desired him to proceed, " Thus", said he " by decrees I grew 
very pensive, insomuch that it was taken notice of by all our 
family; whereupon, bping urged to it, I told my brother 
William of it; and he privately acquainted my father and 
mother, and they kept it to themselves for some time. 

"The success of this discovery was only this ; they did some- 
times laugh at me, sometimes chide me, but still commanded 
me to keep my school, and put such fopperies out of my head. 
I did accordingly go to school often, but always met the 
woman in the way.' 

This, and much more to the same purpose (yea, as much as 
held a dialogue of near two hours) was our conference in the 
orchard ; which ended with my proffer to him, that (without 
making any privy to our intents) I would next morning walk 
with him to tne place about six o'clock. He was even trans- 
ported with joy at the mention of it, and replied, €t But will 
{ou sure, sir ? Will you really, sir ? Thank God, now I hope 
shall be believed." From this conclusion we retired into 
the house. 

The gentleman, his wife, and Mr. Williams were impatient 
to know the event, insomuch that they came out of the parlour 
into the hall to meet us ; and seeing the lad look cheerfully, 
the first compliment from the old man was, "Come, Mr. 
Ruddle, you have talked with Sam, I hope now he will have 
more wit ; an idle boy, an idle boy I" At these words the lad 
ran upstairs to his chamber, without replying, and I soon 
stopped the curiosity of the three expectants, by telling them 
I had promised silence, and was resolved to be as good as my 
word, but when things were riper they might know all ; at 
present I desired them to rest in my faithful promise, that I 
would do my utmost in their service, and for the good of their 
son. With this they were silenced, I cannot say satisfied. 

The next morning, before five o'clock, the lad was in my 
chamber, and very brisk ; I arose and went with him. The 
field he led me to I guessed to be twenty acres, in an open 
country, and about three furlongs from any house. We went 
into the field, and had not gone above a third part, before the 
spectrum, in the shape of a woman, with all the circumstances 
he had described her to me in the orchard the day before, (as 
much as the suddenness of its appearance and evanition 
would permit me to discover) met us and passed by. I was a 
little surprised at it ; and though I had taken up a firm reso- 
lution to speak to it, yet I had not the power, nor indeed durst 
I look back, yet I took care not to show my fear to my pupil 
and guide, and therefore telling him that I was satisfied in the 


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truth of his complaint, we walked to the end of the field, and 
returned, nor did the ghost meet us at that time above once. 
I perceived in the young man a kind of boldness mixed with 
astonishment; the "first caused by my presence, and the proof 
he had given of his own relation, and the other by the sight 
of his prosecutor. 

In short, we went home; I, somewhat puzzled, he much 
animated. At our return, the gentlewoman (whose inquisi- 
tiveness had missed us) watched to speak with me ; I gave her 
a convenience, and told her that my opinion was that her son's 
complaint was not to be slighted, nor altogether discredited, 
yet that my judgment in his case was not settled. I gave her 
caution, moreover, that the thing might not take wind, lest 
the whole country should ring with what we yet had no 
assurance of. 

In this juncture of time I had business which would admit 
no delay ; wherefore I went to Launceston that evening, but 
promised to see them again next week. Yet I was prevented 
by an occasion which pleaded a sufficient excuse, for my wife 
was that week brought home very ill. However, my mind 
was upon the adventure ; I studied the case, and about three 
weeks after went again, resolving, by the help of God, to see 
the utmost. 

The next morning, being the 27th day of July 1665, I went 
to the haunted field myself, and walked the breadth of it with- 
out any encounter. I returned and took the other walk, and 
then the spectrum appeared to me much about the same place 
I saw it before when the young gentleman was with me ; in 
zny thoughts this moved swifter than the time before, and 
about ten feet distant from me on my right hand ; insomuch 
that I had not time to speak to it, as I had determined with 
myself beforehand. 

The evening of this day, the parents, the son, and myself, 
being in the chamber where I lay, I proposed to them our 
going altogether to the place next morning, and on some asse- 
veration that there was no danger in it, we all resolved upon 
it. The morning being come, lest we should alarm the family 
of servants, they went under the pretence of seeing a field of 
wheat, and I took my horse, and fetched a compass another 
way, and so met at the stile we had appointed. 

Thence we all four walked leisurely into the quartils, and 
had passed above half the field before the ghost made its ap- 
pearance. It then came over the stile just before, us, and 
moved with that swiftness, that by the time we had gone six 
or seven steps it passed by. I immediately turned my 


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head and ran after it, with the young man by my side ; we 
saw it pass over the stile at which we entered, but no farther ; 
I stept upon the hedge at one place, and he at another, but 
could discern nothing ; whereas I dare aver, that the swiftest 
horse in England could not have conveyed himself out of sight 
in that short space of time. Two things I observed in this 
day's appearance : — 

1. That a spaniel dog, who followed the company unregarded, 
did bark and run away, as the spectrum passed by ; whence 
it is easy to conclude that it was not our fear or fancy which 
made the apparition. 

2. That the motion of the spectre was not gradatim, or by 
steps, and moving of the feet; but a kind of gliding, as 
children upon the ice, or a boat down a swift river, which 
punctually answers the descriptions the ancients gave of the 
motion of their Lemurs. 

But to proceed, this ocular evidence clearly convinced, but 
withall strangely affrighted, the old gentleman and his wife, 
who knew this Dorothy Dingley in her life-time, were at her 
burial, and now plainly saw her features in this present appa- 
rition. I encouraged them as well as I could ; but after this 
they went no more. However, I was resolved to proceed, and 
use such lawful means as God hath discovered, and learned 
men have successfully practised, in these uncommon cases. 

The next morning being Thursday, I went out very early by 
myself, and walked for about an hour's space in meditation and 
prayer in the fields next adjoining to the quartils. Soon after 
five, I stepped over the stile into the disturbed field, and had 
not gone above thirty or forty paces before the ghost appeared 
at the farther stile. I spake to it with a loud voice, in some 
such sentences as the way of these dealings directed me, 
whereupon it approached but slowly, and when I came near it 
moved not. 1 spake again, and it answered in a voice neither 
very audible nor intelligible. I was not in the least terrified, 
and therefore persisted, spake again and gave me 

But the work could not be finished at this time ; wherefore 
the same evening, an hour after sunset, it met me again near 
the same place, and after a few words on each side it quietly 
vanished, and neither doth appear since, nor ever will more, 
to any man's disturbance. The discourse in the morning 
lasted about a quarter of an hour. 

These things are true, and I know them to be so with as 
much certainty as eyes and ears can give me ; and until I can be 
persuaded that my senses do deceive me about their proper 

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object, and by that persuasion deprive myself of the strongest 
inducement to believe the christian religion, I must and will 
assert that these things in this paper are true. 

Mr. Aubrey gives us the story, in his Miscellanea, of the 
apparition to Cashio Burroughs, Esq., in the time of King 
Charles I, which I shall here relate. 

Sir John Burroughs being sent Envoy to the Emperor by 
King Charles I, took his eldest son Cashio Burroughs along 
with him ; and pursuing his journey through Italy, left his 
son at Florence to learn the language; where, having an in- 
trigue with a beautiful courtesan, mistress to the Grand Duke, 
their familiarity became so public, that it came to the Duke's 
ear, who took a resolution to have him murdered; but Cashio 
having had timely notice of the Duke's design, by some of 
the English there, immediately left the city, without ac- 
quainting hi3 mistress of it, and came to England ; whereupon 
the Duke, being disappointed of his revenge, fell upon his 
mistress in the most reproachful language ; she, on the other 
hand, resenting the sudden departure of her gallant, of whom 
she was most passionately enamoured, killed herself. At the 
same moment that she expired, she appeared to Cashio at his 
lodgings in London. Colonel Hemes was then in bed with 
him, who saw her as well as he, giving him an account of her 
resentments of his ingratitude to her, in leaving her so sud- 
denly, and exposing her to the fury of the Duke, and not omit- 
ting her own tragical exit, adding, withal, that he should be 
slain in a duel, which accordingly happened. And thus she 
appeared to him frequently, even when his younger brother 
(who was afterwards Sir John) was in bed with him. As often 
as she appeared, he wonld cry out with great shrieking, and 
trembling of his body, as well as anguish of mind, saying, 
"O God! here she comes! she comes I" and in this manner 
she haunted him till he was killed. She appeared to him the 
morning before he was killed. Some of my acquaintance 
(says Aubrey) have told me that he was one of the handsomest 
men in England, and very valiant. 

Mrs. VeaVs Visit to Mrs. Bargrave, at Canterbury. 

Mrs. Margaret Veal, and Mrs. Mary Bargrave (before her 
marriage called Lodowick) had contracted a great intimacy 
in their younger years, at which time the father of one was 
customer, and that of the other minister, of Dover. 

This friendship, as it served the true ends, was of use to 


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Mrs. Veal in one particular, for when her father, by his extra* 
vagance, had reduced his family, she found a seasonable relief 
from it in her necessity. 

Besides this, Mrs. Bargrave was instrumental to her better 
fortune, for by her interest with a gentleman, one Mr. Boyce, 
her relation, Mrs. Veal's brother was recommended to Arch- 
bishop Tillotson, by whom he was introduced to Queen Mary ; 
and her Majesty, for his relation by the mother to the Hyde 
family, gave him the post of comptroller of the customs at 
Dover, which he enjoyed to his death. 

This is a part into which Mrs. Bargrave is loth to enter, 
being reduced to it by the treatment she had met with from 
Mr. Veal, who, to invalidate the story of his sister's appear- 
ance, would make the world believe she had little or nothing 
of her acquaintance. 

Time and alteration of circumstances on either side had 
interrupted their friendship for some years, and Mrs. Bar- 
grave, by being half a year in London, and afterwards settling 
at Canterbury, had neither seen nor heard from her a year 
and a half. 

Mrs. Veal, sometime before her death, had the addresses of 
a gentleman of the army, Major-General Sibourg (a natural 
son of the Duke of Scomberg), since killed in the battle of 
Mods, and was engaged so far, that her brother's not con- 
senting to it is believed to have brought on those fits which 
were the cause of her death. She died at Dover, on Friday, 
in the month of September 1705. 

On Saturday, a little before twelve in the morning, Mrs. 
Bargrave, being by herself in her own house in Canterbury, 
at which time she had been reflecting on her misfortunes, and 
comforting herself with better hopes, as she was taking her 
work in her hand, heard somebody knock at the door, and 
going out, to her astonishment, found it to be her old friend 
Mrs. Veal. 

After expressing her surprise to see so great a stranger, she 
offered to salute her, which the other declined, as it were, by 
hanging down her head, and saying, she was not well, on 
which Mrs. Bargrave desired her to walk in and sit down, 
which she did. 

An apparition (as one has observed) is a restless, disem- 
bodied spirit ; and although it appears to have its own natural 
body, clothes, etc., yet it will never suffer itself to be touched 
by any it appears to, which plainly shows that an apparition 
is only an airy phantom or spirit, which can vanish out of 
sight. Why God sometimes permits such things we cannot 

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tell, though generally it appears to be for some good purpose, 
either respecting the person they appear to, or some others, 
and perhaps to ease their own disquieted spirit, which cannot 
rest until it hath revealed to some the cause of their un- 

She was dressed in a silk dove-coloured riding gown, with 
French night-clothes ; she appeared expressly the same, with- 
out alterations, and Mrs. Bargrave remembers to have heard 
her steps distinctly as she walked in. 

Mrs. Bargrave began by asking where she was going in 
that dress ? She answered she was going her journey, which 
the other took to be to Tunbridge, where she went every year 
for the benefit of her health, and said, you are going to the 
old place. 

Mrs. Veal being never trusted abroad without attendance, 
on account of her fits, she asked how she came alone from her 
uncle's (meaning one Captain Watson, in Canterbury, with 
whom she always lodged). She replied, she had given them 
the slip to see her. She then asked how she came to find her 
out in such a house, being reduced, by her husband's extra- 
vagance, to take up a much smaller one than she had been 
wont to have done ? To which the other made answer, she 
should find her out anywhere. 

Mrs. Bargrave' s husband was a barrister-at-law, a man who 
spent all in excesses ; and as he was the worst of husbands, 
his wife had gone through a long course of ill-usage, which 
was, in a great measure, unknown to the world. The use of 
this is to show one end of Mrs. Veal's visit, whieh seems to 
be to eive her the relief they had often communicated to each 
other in the course of their friendship. 

Mrs. Veal then began with Mrs. Bargrave, by asking her 
what was the matter with her, she looking so ill ? She re- 
plied, she had been thinking on her misfortunes. " I must 
now act the part you did to me under my misfortunes (says 
Mrs. Veal), I must comfort yon as you used to do me. I 
would have you by no means think that God Almighty is dis- 
pleased with you; but that his intention is only to try and 
perfect you, for God does not afflict willingly, nor grieve the 
children of men. Besides, one moment's happiness of the 
other world will be more than a reward for all your sufferings, 
when, as upon a hill, you shall be above all the storms and 
dangers of a troublesome world. We are now in the dark as 
to a great many of God's dispensations, but we shall then see 
a perfect harmony in them all." She went on a great way in 
this manner, with unusual vehemence, and striking her hand 
often on her knees, she cried, " You must believe it." 

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Mrs. Bargrave being so earnestly pressed, asked if she did 
not think she believed it ? To which she replied, " No doubt 
but you do ; but you must believe it thoroughly ." j 

Mrs. Bargrave, moved with the discourse, chanced, by a turn 
of her chair, to throw down from a shelf Drelincourt' s Treatise 
of the Christian's Defence against tJie Fears of Death, which 
gave the first hint to tell her, there was Drelincourt they had 
so often read together. "I see/' says Mrs. Veal, "you keep 
on your old way of reading, which, if you continue to do, will 
not fail to bring you to the happy condition he speaks of." 
The other mentioning Dr. Sherlock and some others on that 
subject, she said, Drelincourt had the clearest notions of 
death ; and that neither Dr. Sherlock, nor any other on that 
subject, were comparable to him (as she expressed it) to her 
understanding. "Dear Mrs. Bargrave," said she, "if the 
eyes of our faith were but as open as the eyes of our bodily 
senses, we should see innumerable angels about us for our 
guard ; but our notions of heaven are nothing like what it is, 
as Drelincourt says. Believe me, my dear friend, one moment 
of future happiness will be more than amends for all your 
suffering ; nor yet can I believe that God will suffer you to 
spend all your days in this afflicted condition, but be assured 
your sufferings will leave you, or you them, in a short time, 
therefore be comforted under them, and be assured that God 
Almighty has a particular regard for you, that they are marks 
of his favour, and when they have done the business they were 
sent for, will be removed." Mrs. Bargrave, speaking how dark 
such a condition as her's was, that had no alloy at present ; 
she said, at the worst these storms would be recompensed 
by the reception she would meet with in her Father's house, 
and from the 57th of Isaiah, " that God would not contend for 
ever, nor be always wrath, for the spirit should fail before him, 
and the souls which he had made''. Mrs. Bargrave's husband 
dying about two years after that event, made her reflect on 
this part of her discourse, as pointing to her deliverance. 

In the course of conversation, Mrs. Veal entered upon the 
subject of friendship, and saying, there was now little friend- 
ship in the world; the other replied, she hoped she herself 
had no reason to complain, every one being a friend to the 
rich ; " I mean", says Mrs. Veal, " such a friendship as you and 
I had to improve one another in what is useful". Mrs. Bar- 
grave mentioning Dr. Horneck's Treatise, where he treats of 
the lives of the Primitive Christians, Mrs. Veal went on to re- 
commend their example, sajing, that their conversation was 
different from that of the present age, which is made up of 


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nothing but vain, frothy discourse ; their's was to edification, 
to build up one another in faith ; their's was a hearty friend- 
ship, but where is it now to be found? " It is hard, indeed/' 
says Mrs. Bargrave, "to find a friend in these days." " What 
did you think of my friendship ?" says Mrs. Veal, " which I 
am sure has not at all answered what I owe you. If you can 
forgive me, you are the best natured creature in the world." 
Says Mrs. Bargrave, " do not mention such a thing, I have 
not had an uneasy thought about it, I can forgive you." " But 
what do you think of me?" says Mrs. Veal. "I thought of 
you", says Mrs. Bargrave, " that, like the rest of the world, 
prosperity had altered you." " I have been," says Mrs. Veal, 
" the most ungrateful wretch in the world," and then recounted 
many of the kindnesses she had received from her in her ad- 
versity, saying, she wished her brother knew how she was 
troubled about it. Being asked why she did not acquaint 
her brother of it, if it was such a trouble to her, she said, 
she did not think of it till her coming away. 

To divert the discourse, Mrs. Bargrave asked her if she had 
seen a copy of verses of Mr. Norris's, on friendship, in a dia- 
logue between Damon and Pithias. She said she had seen 
other parts of his works, but not that : says Mrs. Bargrave, 
" I have them of my own writing," and the other desiring to 
see them, she went upstairs and brought them to her to read ; 
but Mrs. Veal said, " It is your own scrawl, pray read it your- 
self, holding down my head will make it ache" ; so Mrs. Bar- 
grave read them. There was a passage that friendship sur- 
vives after death, which the other desired to have repeated, 
and said, ,€ Mrs. Bargrave, these poets call heaven by a strange 
name, that is Elysiuin"; and added, with a particular emphasis, 
that their friendship should have no end in a future world. 
"There are some," says she, "who are apt to deny women to have 
any souls, and make it a thing indifferent whether they are of 
any religion or no ; but we shall be found to have souls as well 
as men, and are not a little obliged to a certain divine, who is 
of opinion that they shall make the greater number of the 

Some discourses they had upon charity, with respect to our 
differences in religion ; as to which, she said, people had but 
little religion while they talked so much about it, and were so 
little influenced by it in their temper and practice, and when 
they were all going to heaven, were to blame to fall out by the 
way. This part of their discourse lasted near an hour and a 
half, which at this distance of time is not to be expected that 
it should be entire and perfect. 

vol. i. 17 

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As the conversation was upon the usual subjects, so it was 
in the usual manner, part in French and part in English ; all 
which time Mrs. Bargrave observed nothing particular of her 
but the vehemence of her discourse ; when she looked earnestly 
at her, she rubbed her eyes, and asked if her fits had not quite 
altered her senses ? to which Mrs. Bargrave replied, that she 
thought she never saw her look better in her life. 

Mrs. Yeal then asked her what was become of her husband ? 
and being told he was abroad, said, she wished he might not 
come home while she was there, for though he had always 
treated her with respect, yet she had sometimes been frighted 
with his frolics. Mrs. Bargrave then asked if she would drink 
tea ? "I warrant you", says she, " this madman has broke all 
your trinkets" ; but the other said she would get something 
to drink in for all that. "I will", says she, "if I want it." 

At last, she said, she had great apprehensions of her fits, 
and that in case she should die of them, desired Mrs. Bargrave 
to write to her brother, and tell him she would have him do 
such and such things, viz., give her best clothes to her uncle 
Watson's daughter, as also two small pieces of gold laid up in 
a cabinet in a purse ; so many pieces to another person, two 
rings to Mr. Bretton, commissioner of the customs, a ring to 
Major-General Sibourg, of which Mrs. Bargrave sent him a 
letter ; and further desired to charge her brother not to take 
any interest of such a person she had a kindness for, whose 
plate she had in security. 

As she often pressed this message, the other as often de- 
clined it ; saying it would be disagreeable to trouble such a 
young gentleman as her brother was with their conversation, 
that he would wonder at her impertinence, and that she had 
better do it herself. To which she replied, that though it 
might seem impertinent now, she would see the reason of it 
hereafter; that her brother, though a sober man, and free 
from other vices, was yet vain, which she desired her to tell 
him ; as also of their discourse, and, to give her credit, told 
her some secret of consequence between him and herself. 
Seeing her so importunate, Mrs. Bargrave fetched pen and 
ink, upon which the other said, " Let it alone till I am gone, 
but be sure that you do it." 

This kind of discourse gave Mrs. Bargrave apprehensions 
of her fits, so that she drew her chair close to her to prevent 
her from falling, during which she several times took hold of 
the sleeve of her gown, which Mrs. Veal told her was scoured 
the second time ; and Mrs. Bargrave commended it for a pretty 
silk. Mrs. Veal said she had better take it for herself; the 


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other answered, " You are going a journey, how will you do 
without it?" She said, "As well as you, who have often taken 
off your gown from your back for me." / 

Towards the latter end of this discourse, she told Mrs. Bar- 
grave that she had received a pension of ten pounds a-year 
from Mr. Bretton, commissioner of the customs, who, she said, 
had been her great friend and benefactor. 

She asked Mrs. Bargrave if she knew her sister, Mrs. Hasle- 
wood, who, she said, was coming to see her as she was taking 
her journey ? The other asked again how she came to order 
matters so strangely ? She said the house was ready for them. 
It proved that Mrs. Haslewood and her husband came to her 
house just as she was dying. 

By this time she began to look disordered, and forgetful 
of what she had said, as if the fits were coming upon her, 
which was like the acting a part to take away the suspicion 
of death. As this visit seems in a great measure designed 
out of gratitude to a friend, without giving any apprehensions, 
so the several parts of her discourse, that relating to Mr. 
Bretton's pension, her sister Haslewood, the scouring her 
gown, the quantity of gold in the purse, the rings and the 
plate in pawn, are designed as credentials to her brother and 
the world. 

At last she asked Mrs. Bargrave, "Where is Molly ?" meaning 
her daughter ; she replied, "She is at school; but if you have 
a mind to see her, I will send for her"; to which the other 
agreeing, she went to a neighbour's house to send for her, 
and at her return found Mrs. Veal without the door of the 
house, in readiness to be gone. 

Mrs. Veal asked if she would not go with her ? which the 
other took to be to Captain Watson's, in Canterbury, and said, 
" You know it is as much as my life is worth ; but I will see you 
to-morrow in the afternoon, after sermon. But why are you 
in such a haste ?" Mrs. Veal then said, " In case you should not 
come, or should not see me, you will remember what I have 
said to you." She saw her walk off till she came to the turning 
of a corner, and then lost sight of her. It was market day, 
and immediately after the clock struck two. 

Mrs. Bargrave, at that instant, told a neighbour of Mrs. 
Veal's visit, and the matter of their conversation; and a 
neighbour's servant, from a yard near her window, heard some 
of their discourse, and being asked by her mistress if Mr. 
Bargrave was talking with his wife ? made answer that they 
never talked of anything so good. 

At night, her husband came home in a frolicsome humour, 



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and taking her by the hand, said, " Molly, you are hot, you want 
to be cooled", and so opening the door to the garden, put her 
out there, where she continued all night, at which time she 
thinks it a mercy she had no apprehensions about Mrs. Veal's 
apparition, which; if she had, it probably would have cost her 
her life. 

All Sunday she kept her bed, in a downright fever, and on 
Monday morning sent to Mrs. Watson's to enquire after Mrs. 
Veal, and as she could have no satisfaction, went herself and 
had as little. They were surprised at her enquiring for Mrs. 
Veal, and said, they were sure, by their not seeing her, that 
she could not have been at Canterbury ; but when Mrs. Bar- 
grave persisted that she was, and described her dress, saying, 
she had on a scoured silk of such a colour, Mrs. Watson's 
daughter said that she had indeed seen her, for none knew of 
the gown being scoured but themselves, and that her mother 
helped to make it up. In the meantime, Captain Watson came 
in, and told them that preparation was making in town for the 
funeral of some person of note in Dover. This quickly raised 
apprehensions in Mrs. Bargrave, who went away directly to 
the undertaker's, and was no sooner informed it was for 
Mrs. Veal, but she fainted away in the street. 

For a long time she was harried with crowds of all kinds of 
people, who came far and near to gratify their curiosity, the 
most sceptical on one hand, and the most superstitious on the 
other, and during her husband's life-time she was most un- 
mercifully exposed to his raillery. 

Mr. Veal, to save the legacies, or out of an imaginary regard 
to his sister's character, would have bantered off the matter 
by saying, that Mrs. Bargrave had but little of his sister's ac- 
quaintance, and that the gold said to be in his sister's cabinet 
was in another place. This obliged Mrs. Bargrave to send him 
a letter, by a gentleman she could trust, to be delivered before 
witnesses, and with the exactness to write in what manner it 
was sealed. In this, among other things, was communicated 
the secret delivered by Mrs. Veal, which, though at present 
it put him into a great passion, yet obliged him to pay the 
legacies. From that time, whether from a fright he had one 
night (as she was informed by his servants), or however else, 
he would not lie without servants in his room ; and though he 
had declared before against marrying, yet married in six weeks. 

His evasions were so frivolous to Dr. Stanhope, Dean of 
Canterbury, that when he endeavoured to make the doctor 
disbelieve the story, and the doctor pressed him how she should 
come to know so much of her secret affairs ? to divert the 

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argument of her appearing after her death, he owned his 
sister could conceal nothing from her, intimating she might 
have told t her in her life-time. He was so picqued at tho 
doctor, that when he came to Canterbury to be married by 
him, he was married by another; nor was he ever able to 
encounter Mrs. Bargrave, but industriously avoided her. 

Mrs. Bargrave was a person who had had the education of 
a gentlewoman, of a great share of modesty and good sense, 
and a temper so little given to fancies, that none could have 
more contempt for the common weaknesses of this kind. She 
said she should have laid this to imagination, if it had not 
been by day, attended with so long and particular conversa- 
tion, at a time when she knew no other than that the person 
was living, and was under no sort of apprehensions; but as it 
was, she could not give up her reason and her senses in com- 
pliance with such as would have it she had been in a dream. 

Such as knew her many years, and could be trusted as to 
her character, said she was a person who had all the reality of 
religion, with the easiness that became it, of which she had 
given substantial proofs in her life ; so that her fidelity would 
take off any suspicion of her inventing such a story; what- 
ever end or advantage might have been proposed by it, when, 
as the case was, there could be none. 

It is true, things of this kind are beset with difficulties of a 
very hard solution ; but if we consider how many things there 
are abroad in nature, and even in ourselves, the manner of 
which is no less hard to be explained, and yet no one is so 
sceptical as to deny their being ; upon the evidence of a fact 
so fairly attested, a man may be induced to believe it without 
any risk of his understanding : nor is any consequence to be 
raised against things of this nature, from the numberless weak 
and fanciful stories of apparitions. It may be safely said, that 
the one is no more affected by the other, than true miracles 
are by what the Holy Scriptures call lying wonders, i. e., 
sorcery or legerdemain. 

Warning given by a Strange Messenger to James IV, 
at Linlithgow Church. 

That there is a spiritual world inhabited by spirits, angels, 
and happy beings, and that of a very different nature and con- 
stitution from what we live in here, is a truth acknowledged by 
the whole Christian world ; and although no angel has come 
down from heaven to declare and explain the nature of their 
being to us ; nor any man, whilst in the body, hath ascended 


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up and seen it, yet that we should not be entirely ignorant in 
this particular, it has happened from time to time, that many 
credible witnesses have, upon some extraordinary occasions, 
received warnings and messages from both the heavenly and 
hellish kingdoms of spirits. 

The following relation is taken from the annals of the king- 
dom of Scotland : — 

While James IV stayed at Linlithgow, to gather op the 
scattered remains of his army, which had been defeated by 
the Earl of Surrey at Flodden -field, he went into the church 
of St. Michael there, to hear evening prayer. While he was 
at his devotion, a remarkable figure of an ancient man, with 
Sowing amber hair hanging over his shoulders, his forehead 
high, and inclining to baldness, his garments of a fine blue 
colour, somewhat long and girded together, with a fine white 
cloth ; of comely and very reverend aspect, was seen enquiring 
for the king; when his majesty being pointed out to him, he 
made his way. through the crowd till he came to "him, and 
then, with a clownish simplicity, leaning over the canon's seat, 
he addressed him in the following words : — " Sir, I am sent 
hither to entreat you to delay your intended expedition for 
this time, and proceed no farther, for if you do you will be 
unfortunate, and not prosper in your enterprise, nor any of 
your followers. I am further charged to warn you not to 
follow the acquaintance, company, or counsel of women, as you 
value your life, honour, and estate." After giving him this 
admonition, he withdrew himself back again through the 
crowd, and disappeared. When service was ended, the king 
enquired earnestly after him, but he could not be found or 
heard of anywhere, neither could any of the by-standers (of 
whom many narrowly watched him, resolving afterwards to 
have discoursed with him) feel or perceive how, when, or where 
he passed from them, having in a manner vanished from their 

Spirit of a Poor Man just deceased, appearing, is Uie means of 
a gentleman *s preservation. 

Mr. Weston, of Old Swinford, in Worcestershire, was walk* 
ing, one evening in the summer of 1 759, in the park of Lord 
Lyttleton at Hagley, and being overtaken by a sudden shower, 
ran for shelter into a grotto, and stood under a spreading oak, 
under whose shade several cattle were standing. He had not 
been ten minutes in that situation, before he saw the form of 
a man pass over the brook almost close to the shade. Sup- 

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posing it to be a poor peasant who had long worked for hira, 
ne called him by name, bat received no answer, and the appa- 
rition quickly disappearing, he found his mind much agitated. 
Eegardless of the storm, Mr. Weston withdrew from the place 
where he had sought an asylum, and ran round a rising hill, in 
order to discover the form which had presented itself to him. 
That, however, had not the effect desired — but one abundantly 
more salutary it certainly had ; for just as he had gained the 
summit of the hill, on his return to the grotto, a tremendous 
flash of lightning darted its forked fury on the venerable oak, 
shivered it to pieces, and killed two of the cattle under its 

On Mr. Weston's return* to Swinford, he found that the 
death of the labourer was just announced in the neighbour- 
hood. He told the story to his friends, who, on the ground 
of his known veracity, could not well refuse it credit. He saw 
the body, at his own expense, decently interred, and after- 
wards contributed to the support of the widow, not only by 
remitting a year's rent for her cottage and piece of ground, 
but also by settling a small annuity upon her till she should 

We have told this tale simply as it was related by Mr. 
Weston, and leave the reader to make his own reflections on 
so marvellous an interposition of Divine Providence, without 
deciding in this, or such other case, whether the form that 
appeared was the soul of the deceased, exerting its philan- 
thropy in its flight to the unknown country, or the guardian 
angel of that soul returning to give up his charge, and produce 
his account at the bar of the Supreme. 

Two apparitions to young Mr. William Lilly. . 

The following affair made no inconsiderable noise in the 
North, about the middle of the present [18th] century, and is 
still in the memory of many men yet living. On the first 
Sabbath-day in the year 1749, Mr. Thomas Lilly, the son of 
a farmer in the parish of Kelso, in Roxburghshire, a young man 
intended for the church of Scotland, and who then had made 
no small progress in literature, remained at home to keep the 
house, in company with a shepherd's boy, all the rest of the 
family, excepting a maid-servant, being at sermon. The young 
stndent and the boy, being sitting by the fire, whilst the girl 
was gone to the well for seme water, a venerable old gentle- 
man, clad in an antique garb, presented himself, and after 
some little ceremony, desired the student to take up the fumily 

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Bible, which lay on a table, and turn over to a certain chapter 
and verse in the second book of Kings. The student did so, 
and read — " There is death in the pot." j 

On this the old man, with much apparent agitation, pointed 
to the great family pot boiling on the fire, declaring that the 
maid had cast a great quantity of arsenic into it, with intent 
to poison the whole family, to the end she might rob the house 
of the hundred guineas which she knew her master had lately 
taken for sheep and grain, which he bad sold. Just as he was 
so saying, the maid came to the door, announcing her approach 
by the noise of the nails in her shoe heels. The old gentleman 
said to the student, "Remember my warning, and save the lives 
of the family !" and that instant disappeared. 

The maid entered with a smiling countenance, emptied her 
pail, and returned to the well for a fresh supply. Meanwhile, 
young Lilly put some oatmeal into a wooden dish, skimmed 
the pot of the fat, and mixed it for what is called brose or 
croudy, and when the maid returned, he, with the boy, ap- 
peared busily employed in eating the mixture. "Come, Peggy," 
said the student, "here is enough left for you ; are not you fond 
of croudy?" She smiled, took up the dish, and reaching a 
horn spoon, withdrew to the back room. The shepherd's dog 
followed her, unseen by the boy; and the poor animal, on the 
croudy being put down by the maid, fell a victim to his vora- 
cious appetite ; for before the return of the family from church, 
it was enormously swelled, and expired in great agony. 

The student enjoined the boy to remain quite passive for 
the present, meanwhile he attempted to show his ingenuity in 
resolving the cause of the canine catastrophe into insanity, iu 
order to keep the girl in countenance, till a fit opportunity of 
discovering the plot should present itself. 

Soon after, his father, mother, brothers, and sisters, with 
the other servants, returned from church, all hungering after 
the Word, and eager to sit down round the rustic board. 

The table was instantly replenished with wooden bowls and 
trenchers, while a heap of barley bannocks graced the top. 
The kail or broth, infused with leaks or winter cabbages, was 
poured forth in plenty ; and Peggy, with a prodigal hand, 
filled all the dishes with the homely dainties of Tiviotdale. 
The master began grace, and all hats and bonnets were in- 
stantly off. " Lord/' prayed the farmer, " we have been hear- 
ing Thy Word, from the mouth of Thy aged servant, Mr. 
Ramsay ; we have been alarmed by the awful famine in Sa- 
maria, and of death being in the pot." Here the young scholar 
interrupted his father by exclaiming, " Yes, Sir, there is death 

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in the pot now here, as well as there was once in Israel ! 
Touch not ; taste not ; see the dog dead by the poisoned pot/' 
"What !" cried the farmer, " have you been raising the devil 
by your conjuration ? Is this the effect of your study, Sir?" 
" No, father," said the student, " I pretend to no such arts of 
magic or necromancy; but this day, as the boy can testify, I had 
a solemn warning from one whom I take to be no demon, but 
a good angel. To him we all owe our lives. As to Peggy, 
according to his intimation, she has put poison into the pot, 
for the purpose of destroying the whole family, root and 
branch." Here the girl fell into a fit, from which being with 
some trouble recovered, she confessed the whole of her deadly 
design, and was suffered to withdraw from the family and her 
native country. She was soon after executed at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, for the murder of her bastard child, again making 
ample confession of the above diabolical design. 

Second Apparition to Mr. William Lilly. 

About the beginning of the year 1750, the same young 
Lilly was one day reading the 20th chapter of the Revelation 
of John the Divine. Just as he was entering upon that part 
which describes the angel binding the devil a thousand years, 
after which he was to be loosed a little, a very venerable old 
personage appeared at his elbow ; the young man fell on the 
floor, but quickly arose, and, in the name of the Lord, de- 
manded who he was, and the nature of his business ; " Shall I 
call thee Satan, the crooked serpent, the devil, Beelzebub, or 
Lucifer, son of the morning V 

Ghost. I am a messenger arisen from the dead, to see or to 
cause justice to be done to thee and thy father. I am the 
spirit of one of thy ancestors. 

Lilly. Art thou the soul of my grandfather, who, amidst un- 
counted riches, perished for want of food ? 

Ghost Thou art right. Money was my deity, and Mammon 
my master. 1 heaped up the gold of Ophir like Solomon, but 
possessed none of his wisdom to use it as the blessing of 

Lilly. I have frequently heard my father mention you, as a 
sordid, avaricious, miserable man. How did you dispose of 
the immense riches which you are said to have accumulated by 
so much toil, drudgery, and self-mortification ? 

Ghost. It is, for the most part, hidden in a field, in the farm 
of your father, and I intend that you, his son, shall be the sole 
possessor of it, without suffering your father to know from 

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whence your riches originated. Do not you recognise my 
face since the beginning of last year ? 

Lilly. Are you the old gentleman whose tiinous intelligence 
saved the lives of all our family ? 

Ghost. I am ; therefore, think not yonr father ill rewarded 

Lilly, How can I account to him for the immediate accu- 
mulation of so much money as you seem to intimate ? 

Ghost Twenty thousand pounds, sterling money. 

Lilly. Ton seem even now, in your disembodied state, to 
feel much emotion at the mention of much money. 

Ghost But now I cannot touch the money of mortals ; else 
could I quickly wing my unwearied way to the Bank of Eng- 
land, or the mines of Mexico, and with gold give a superior 
glory to my native land. But I cannot stay ; follow me to the 
field, and I will point out the precise place where you are 
to dig. 

Here the apparition stalked forth around the barnyard, and 
Lilly followed him, dreadless and undismayed, till he came to 
a field about three furlongs from his father's door, when the 
ghost stood still on a certain spot, wheeled thrice round, and 
vanished into air. 

This proved to be the precise place where young Lilly and 
his companions had often devoted to pastime, being a hollow, 
where stone had formerly been dug from. He lost but little 
time in consideration, for, having procured a pickaxe and a 
spade, he employed a moonlight evening in search of the trea- 
sure, and actually discovered it. However, having made the 
discovery, and not knowing how to apply it to immediate use, 
being but nineteen years old, and little acquainted with busi- 
ness, he found himself obliged to tell his mother of the ad- 
venture, and she told her sister-in-law, and the whole business 
came to the knowledge of the farmer himself, who sent his son 
to the university of Edinburgh, and settled upon him a hand- 
some fortune; which, with the stipend and glebe, and the 
manse which he enjoys in the establishment in Scotland, has 
ever since rendered him respectable, and enabled him to per- 
form many acts of charity in that country, as many can testify 
to this day. 

The pots in which the money, consisting of large pieces of 
gold and silver, were deposited, are still in the possession of 
the parson, and have often been shown as curiosities hardly to 
be equalled in the south of Scotland. 

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Remarkable Conversion of Henry Welb, related by credible 
witnesses, and attested for facts. ! 

There is no truer maxim than that, in endeavouring to shun 
one extreme, we are often apt to fall into another; this the 
great Mr. Addison has observed in respect to religion ; that, 
by endeavouring to avoid the cant and hypocrisy formerly too 
much x practised, we have fallen into a habit of being quite 
ashamed of any religion at all. This, too, has been the case 
with everything uncommon or more than ordinary, especially 
in regard to spiritual matters. The fear of being imposed 
upon, and the many idle stories we often hear, make us refuse 
to give credit to anything of this sort, though ever so well 
attested, and though we have very sensible evidence of a 
great and good end being answered thereby. 

That God Almighty does sometimes make use of extraor- 
dinary means, more particularly in the conversion of some 
sinners, is too well attested by scripture, repeated experience, 
and the testimony of the wisest and best of men, to admit of 
any doubt ; and, likewise, that he has made use of no method 
so often as that of visions of the night. Many are the proofs 
which might be brought from scripture of the truth of this, 
particularly that very striking and amazing instance, recorded 
in the book of Job, which the ingenious Mr. Harvey, in his 
Book of Meditations, lately published, justly says, " is a proof 
of the reality of them upon some very extraordinary emer- 
gencies, while it discountenances those legions of idle tales, 
which superstition has raised, and credulity received ; since it 
teaches us, that when they come to pass, it is not upon any 
errand of frivolous consequences, but to convey intelligencies 
of the utmost moment, or to work impressions of the highest 
advantage". In the 4th chapter of Job, and the 12th verse, 
Eliphaz the Temanite, describes a vision of this nature, which 
had happened to himself. 

Henry Webb, the subject of this relation, was born at Crew- 
kerne, in Somersetshire, being the son of John and Mary 
Webb, both known for many years in that place, his father 
being deceased but fourteen months ago, and his mother still 
residing in or near that place. He had a common education 
given him, according to their abilities, and was, when young, 
put out apprentice to Mr. John Hooper, a cordwainer, in that 
place ; but being wild and disobedient, he soon ran away from 
his master and parents, and going many miles distant, and 
falling into bad company, he soon became a reprobate liver, a 
common swearer, and Sabbath-breaker, having no thoughts of 


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goodness or religion at all. In this state he continued, without 
any serious reflection, till the twenty-first year of his age, at 
which time he worked with Mr. Thomas Eades, at a place 
called Euley, about five miles from Lymington in Hampshire, 
where, on Monday, the 11th of February 1749-50, he was 
seized with an oppression on the spirits, but continued working 
till Tuesday about noon, when, finding himself worse, he was 
bled, after which he walked about half a mile, drank half a pint 
of warm ale at a public-house, and then returned home, and 
sat down by the fire till four or five o'clock in the afternoon, 
still growing worse, when he went up to bed, in which he had 
not been long before he seemed to himself to be dying or 
famting away, or rather his soul going out of his body; at 
which time (as he has since been told) the people belonging to 
the house, hearing a deep groan, came upstairs, and found his 
arm had burst out a bleeding to the Quantity of near two 
quarts, and him to all appearance dead, his eyes and teeth 
being closed, and not the least breath perceivable, upon which, 
after having applied several remedies to no purpose, they 
resolved to lay him out in order to be buried ; but his master, 
Mr. Eades, perceiving a small warmth in his body, was resolved 
he should not be moved out of the bed till he was cold, and in 
this manner he lay for the space of three nights and days, all 
which time he received no manner of sustenance, for though 
they endeavoured to open his teeth with a spoon, and pour 
down some cordials, yet, as he is informed by those who admi- 
nistered it, none of it went down. 

At the time he felt himself dying away, as we have men- 
tioned above, he seemed to go into fields inexpressibly 
delightful and pleasant, beautiful with streams and fountains 
of water clearer than crystal, having at the same time a glorious 
prospect of heaven before him, to which he directed his steps, 
not once thinking upon this world, or reflecting on the heinous- 
ness of his sin. After some time, he seemed to arrive at the 
gates of heaven, which shone more glorious and bright than 
the sun in its greatest lustre. He knocked at the gates, which 
were immediately opened to him, and he saw within three men 
in bright and shining clothing, far exceeding everything he 
had ever seen, and far more glorious than ne can express. 
Two of them came out to him, and the gates were imme- 
diately shut to again. He entreated of these two men in 
shining clothes admittance in at the gate, but was told by them 
it was not a place for any such wicked sinners as he was. 
It was at this moment he first had any sense of his sinful life, 
for as quick as fire catches the dry stubble, so quick and pene- 

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This account Sir William Dugdale had from the Bishop of 
Edinburgh, who had inserted it in his Miscellanies, which is 
/ now deposited, with other books, in the Museum ac Oxford. 

The Apparition of a Gentleman to the late Rev. and learned 

Dr. Scott, on account of an original deed belonging to 

his grandson's estate. 

The doctor was sitting alone by the fire, either in his study 
or in his parlour, in Broad Street, where he lived, and reading 
a book, his door being fast shut and locked ; he was well as- 
sured there was nobody in the room but himself, when acci- 
dentally raising his head a little, he was exceedingly surprised 
to see sitting in an elbow chair, at the other side of the fire- 
place or chimney, an ancient grave gentleman in a black velvet 
gown, a long wig, and looking with a pleasing countenance 
towards the doctor as if just going to speak. 

The doctor, as we may reasonably suppose, was greatly sur- 
prised at the sight of him, and indeed the seeing him as sit- 
ting in the chair was the most likely to be surprising ; because, 
the doctor knowiug the door to be locked, and then seeing a 
man sitting in the chair, he must immediately and at first 
sight conclude him to be a spirit, or apparition, or devil, call 
it as you will. Had he seen him come in at the door, he 
might at first have supposed him to be really a gentleman 
come to speak with him, and might think he had omitted 
fastening the door, as he intended to have done. 

The doctor appeared in great disorder at the sight, as he 
acknowledged to those whom he told the story, and from 
whom, says my author, I received this account, with very little 
remove of hands between. 

The spectre, it seems, began, for the doctor had not courage 
at first, as he said, to speak to it ; I say the spectre or appari- 
tion spoke first, and desired the doctor not to be frighted, nor 
to be surprised, for that he would not do him any hurt ; but 
that he came to him upon a matter of great importance to an 
injured family, which was in great danger of being ruined ; and 
though he (the doctor) was a stranger to the family, yet know- 
ing him to be a man of integrity, he had pitched upon him to 
do an act of very great charity, as well as justice ; and that 
he could depend upon him for a punctual performance. 

The doctor was not at first composed enough to receive the 

introduction of the business with a due attention, but seemed 

I rather inclined to get out of the room if he could, and once or 

twice made some attempt to knock for some of the family 

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the room to pray with and for him ; bat daring all the con- 
tinuance of his fever (though he was sometimes light-headed), 
yet he never saw anything of what he had done before, which 
makes it more probable that it did not then proceed from the 
force of a disordered imagination, for if it had, it is certain 
that something of the same nature would have happened 
during his fever, more especially as his whole mind and 
thoughts had been entirely fixed ever since on what he then 

After some time, as it pleased God, the violence of the 
fever abated, so that he has been able to go about and work 
at his business, though he still continues in a weak condition. 

He has ever since lived a regular, sober, Christian life, 
shunning all loose and unprofitable company, not being able 
to hear any profane discourse or oaths from the mouths of 
others without the greatest uneasiness, and even reproving 
them for it. He daily bewails his evil deeds, and is leading 
a good and steady life. 

Lord Bacon's Apparition to Lord Middleton, as related by 
Mr. Aubrey. 

Sir William Dugdale informed several gentlemen that Major- 
General Middleton, afterwards created Lord, went into the 
Highlands of Scotland, to endeavour to make a party for 
King Charles I. An old gentleman, that was second-sighted, 
met him and told him that his attempt, though laudable, would 
not be successful ; and that, besides, they would put the king 
to death ; and that several other attempts would be made, but 
all in vain, but that his son would come in, although it would 
be long first, and should at last be restored. This nobleman 
had a great friendship with the Laird Bocconi, and they made 
an agreement, that the first of them that died should appear 
to the other in extremity. It happened that the Lord Mid- 
dleton was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, and sent 
np to London. While he was confined in the Tower, under 
three locks, one day in the morning, lying pensive in his bed, 
Bocconi appeared to him. My Lord Middleton asked him if 
he were dead or alive ? He replied, that he was dead, and 
had been so many years, but that he was come to revive his 
hopes, for that in a very short time, within three days, he 
should escape : this fell out as it was foretold, and he did so, 
in his wife's clothes. When he had performed his message, 
he lightly tripped about the room, like a vapour, then gathered 
up and vanished. 

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trating were the words of the shining one ; for no sooner were 
they spoke, than all the sins he had ever committed in his life 
seemed to arise before him with all their weight and horror, so 
that he believes the agonies of hell itself cannot exceed what 
he felt at that time. However, he still kept begging in the 
most earnest and passionate manner for entrance in at the 
gate, bat was still denied, and in this manner he seemed to 
continue for several hours. At last, one of the men in bright 
clothes bid him to look on his left hand, which he doing, saw at 
some distance from him hell itself opened, which seemed 
covered with the most dismal, lonesome, and doleful darkness 
it is possible to imagine, and sent forth a suffocating smell of 
sulphur, but he did not discern any flame. He saw a great 
multitude of persons in it, seemingly in the utmost agonies 
and torments, and the prince of darkness, as it were, raging 
as a ravenous lion to come at him ; but what struck him with 
still more horror and despair was to distinguish the faces of 
three of his old wicked companions among these tormented 
wretches, as plain as he ever saw any person with his eyes, 
and to hear them utter the most dismal cries and sad lamen- 
tations. His eyes and attention seemed to fix upon this dread- 
ful scene, that he was not able once to take them off for 
several hours, or even turn them towards heaven. Neither 
was he able to utter a word all this time, but at length, 
gaining utterance, he entreated in the most moving manner 
the person in the shining clothes that he would let him return 
back and have some time to repent of and reform his wicked 
life ; but he answered him, those were the torments he was 
going to; which made him beg the more vehemently that he 
might be allowed to return and repent, which seemed to be 
denied him still, till at last the person told him that if he was 
allowed to return he would lead the same course of life ; but 
he cried out and promised in the most solemn manner that he 
would amend and lead a new life, upon which this glorious 
person told him he would allow him a few months longer ; but 
that if he continued in the same wicked course of life he had 
hitherto done, he would shorten that time. Then he seemed 
to turn about, and direct his steps back again to this world, 
the person in bright clothing walking with him for (as it 
seemed) the space of two or three miles, rebuking him all the 
way for his sinful life, and telling him he had deserved the 
punishment he had seen repeated times, and adding that if he 
led the same wicked course of life again, the torments he had 
seen would be his portion for ever and ever. 

After the departure of this glorious person from him, 

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he seemed to travel for many miles through places dark, 
desolate, and horrible, beyond all that tongue or pen can 
express, being at the same time grievously oppressed with 
this heavy burden of his sins, which then seemed to be all 
before his eyes, set against him in terrible array. He cannot 
describe in what manner he returned to life, but is informed 
that some of the people below stairs, hearing a deep groan, 
came up into the room, and found life coming into him, which 
they were greatly surprised at, as for two hours before he had 
felt colder than he had done at all ; that he lay for the sp&ce of 
half an hour or more in great stragglings and agonies, and 
then came quite to himself, and recovered his speech, telling 
them what things he had seen, and desiring the minister of 
the place to be fetched to hitn, who was accordingly sent for, 
and soon came with his master, Mr. Thomas Eades, and 
several of the neighbours, who enquired how he did, upon 
which he repeated to them the same account he had given 
before of what had happened to him. But the minister suspected 
he might probably be light-headed, asked him several ques- 
tions, and whether he knew those who were in the room, 
asking him the name of each particular person ; and finding 
him to be thoroughly sensible, and that he gave rational 
answers to all he asked him, he began (like a truly pious divine), 
talking to him in a more serious manner, telling him how 
happy a thing it was that God, through his great mercy and 
goodness, had not taken him away in his sins, exhorting him 
to place his faith and confidence in Jesus Christ (and not in 
his own works;, for that it was through and by Him that he 
must be saved ; for unless he was washed clean in His blood he 
could not enter into the kingdom of heaven, for no unclean 
thing could enter there. After some further pious Christian 
discourse, the minister and all who were present went to 
prayers with him, and then left him to take some repose. 

The next day but one, this worthy divine visited him again, 
and enquired how he was, to which he replied, he was much 
easier in his mind, but abhorred himself for his sins, and could 
tear himself to pieces that he had not had a sense of them 

Many other times was he visited by this clergyman, who in 
all his visits instructed and exhorted him by religious conver- 
sation to amendment of life and faith in Christ Jesus. 

But in about a fortnight's time he was seized with a very 
violent fever, so that his life was despaired: of, at whch time 
the heinousness of his sins overwhelmed him with horror, for 
that he was continually begging every person who came into 


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to come up, at which the apparition appeared a little dis- 
pleased. , 

Bat it seems he need not ; for, as* the doctor said, he had 
no power to go out of the room if h& had been next the door, 
or to knock for help if any had been at hand. 

But here the apparition, seeing the doctor still in confusion, 
desired hi in again to compose himself, for he would not do 
him the least injury, or offer anything to make him uneasy ; 
but desired that he would give him leave to deliver the busi- 
ness he came about, which, when he had heard, perhaps he 
would see less cause to be surprised or apprehensive than he 
did now. 

By this time, and by the calm way of discourse above men- 
tioned, the doctor recovered himself so much, though not 
with any kind of composure, as to speak. 

" In the name of God," says the doctor, " what art thou ?" 

"I desired you would not be frightened/' said the appa- 
rition to him again; "I am a stranger to you, and if I tell 
you my name, you do not know it, but you may do the busi- 
ness without enquiriug." 

The doctor continued discomposed and uneasy, and said 
nothing for some time. 

The apparition spoke again to him not to be surprised, and 
received only for answer the old ignorant question, " In the 
name of God, who art thou V 9 

Upon this, the spectre seemed displeased, as if the doctor 
had not treated him with respect ; and expostulated a little 
with him, telling him he could have terrified him into a com- 
pliance, but he chose to come calmly and quietly to him ; and 
used some other discourses, so civil and obliging, that by this 
time he began to be a little more familiar, and at length the 
doctor asked, " What is it you would have with me V 9 

At this, the apparition, as if gratified with the question, 
began his story thus : — 

" I lived in the county of Somerset, where I left a very 
good estate, which my grandson enjoys at this time. But he 
is sued for the possession by my two nephews, the sons of my 
younger brother." 

Here he gave his own name, the name of his younger bro- 
ther, and the names of his two nephews; but I am not allowed 
to publish the names in this relation, nor might it be proper 
for many reasons. 

The doctor then interrupted, and asked him how long the 
grandsou had been in possession of. the estate ; which he told 
him was seven years, intimating that he had been so long dead. 

vol. i. - t 18 


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Then ho went on, and told him, that his nephews would bo 
too hard for his grandson in the suit, and would deprive him 
of the mansion house and estate, so that he would be in 
danger of being entirely ruined, and his family reduced. 

Still the doctor could not see into the matter, or what he 
could do to remedy the evil that threatened the family, and, 
therefore, asked him some questions, for now they began to 
be a little better acquainted than at first. 

Says the doctor, " and what am I able to do in it if the 
law be against him V y 

" Why", says the spectre, " it is not that the nephews have 
any right ; but the grand deed of settlement, being the con- 
veyance of the inheritance, is lost ; and, for want of that 
deed, they will not be able to make out their title to the 

•' Well", says the doctor, " and still what can I do in the 
case ?" 

" Why", says the spectre, " if you will go down to my 
grandson's house, and take such persons with you as you can 
trust, I will give you such instructions as that you shall find 
out the deed or settlement, which lies concealed in a place 
where I put it with my own hands, and where you shall direct 
my grandson to take it out in your presence." 

" But why, then, can you not direct your grandson himself 
to do this V says the doctor. 

" Ask me not about that", says the apparition ; €€ there are 
divers reasons which you may know hereafter. I can depend 
upon your honesty in it; in the meantime, and you may so 
dispose of matters, that you shall have your expenses paid 
you, and be handsomely allowed for your trouble/' 

After this discourse, and several other expostulations (for 
the doctor was not easily prevailed upon to go, till the spectre 
seemed to look angrily, and even to threaten him for refusing), 
he did at last promise to go. 

Having obtained a promise of him, he told him he might let 
his grandson know that he had formerly conversed with his 
grandfather (but not how lately, or in what manner), and ask 
to see the house ; and that in such an upper room, or loft, he 
should see a deal of old lumber, old coffers, old chests, and 
such things as were out of fashion now, thrown by, and piled 
up one upon another, to make room for fashionable furniture, 
cabinets, chests of drawers, and the like. 

That, in such a particular corner, was such a certain old 
chest, with an old broken lock upon it, and a key in it, which 
could neither be turned in the lock, or pulled out "In 

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that chest", says he, "and in that place, lies the grand 
deed or charter of the estate, which conveys the inheritance, 
and without which the family will be turned out of doors/' 

After this discourse, the doctor promised to go down into 
the country and dispatch this important commission. The 
apparition, putting on a very pleasant and smiling aspect, 
thanked him, and disappeared. 

After some days, and within the time limited by the pro- 
posal of the spectre, the doctor went down accordingly into 
Somersetshire, and finding the gentleman's house very readily, 
by the direction, knockedat the door, and asked if he was at 
home; and, after being told he was, and the servants informing 
their master it was a clergyman, the gentleman came to the 
door, and very courteously invited him in. 

After the doctor had been there some time, he observed the 
gentleman received him with unexpected civility, though a 
stranger, and without business. They entered upon many 
friendly discourses, and the doctor pretended to have heard 
much of the family (as so indeed he had), and of his grand- 
father ; " from whom, sir", says he, " I perceive the estate 
more immediately descends to yourself". 

" Aye", says the gentleman, and shook his head, " my father 
died young, and my grandfather has left things so confused, 
that for want of one principal writing, which is not yet come 
to hand, I have met with a great deal of trouble from a couple 
of cousins, my grandfather's brother's children, who have put 
me to very great expenses about it". And with that the 
doctor seemed a little inquisitive. 

" But I hope you have got over it, sir ?" says he. 

" No, truly", says the gentleman, " to be so open with you, 
we shall never get quite over it, unless we can find this old 
deed ; which, however, I hope we shall find, for I intend to 
make a general search after it." 

" I wish with all my heart you may find it, sir," says the 

" I don't doubt but we shall ; I had a strange dream about 
it last night," says the gentleman. 

"A dream about the writing!" says the doctor; "I hope it 
was that you should find it then/' 

" I dreamed", says the other, " that a strange gentleman 
came to me that I had never seen in my life and helped me to 
look for it. I don't know but you are the man." 

" I should be very glad to be the man, I'm sure", says the 

18 2 

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" Nay", says the gentleman, " you may be the man to help 
me to look after it. 

"Aye, sir", says the doctor, "I may help you to look after 
it, indeed, and I'll do that with all my heart ; but I would 
much rather be the man that should help you to find it. 
Pray, when do you intend to search ?" 

" To-morrow", says the gentleman, " I have appointed to 
do it." 

" But", says the doctor, " in what manner do you intend to 

" Why", replies the gentlemen, " it is all our opinions that 
my grandfather was so very much concerned to preserve this 
writing, and had so much jealousy that some that were about 
him would take it from him if they could, that he hid it in 
some secret place ; and I am resolved to pull half the house 
down but I'll find it, if it is above ground. 

" Truly," says the doctor, " he may have hid it, so that you 
may pull the whole house down before you find it, and perhaps 
not then. I have known such things utterly lost by the very 
care taken to preserve them." 

" If it was made of something the fire would not destroy," 
says the gentleman, " I would burn the house down, but I 
would find it." 

" I suppose you have searched all the old gentleman's chests, 
and trunks, and coffers, over and over," says the doctor. 

"Ay," says the gentleman, "and turned them all inside out- 
ward, and there they lay in a heap up in a great loft, or garret, 
with nothing in them ; nay, we knocked three or four of them 
in pieces to search for private drawers, and then I burnt them 
for anger, though they were fine old cypress chests, that cost 
money enough when they were in fashion." 

"I am sorry you burnt them," says the doctor. 

" Nay," says the gentleman, " I did not burn a scrap of 
them till they were all split to pieces, and it was not possible 
there could be anything there." 

This made the doctor a little easy, for he began to be sur- 
prised when he told him " he had split some of them, and 
burnt them." 

"Well," says the doctor, "if I cannot do you any service 
in your search, I will come to see you again to-morrow, and 
wait upon you during it with my best good wishes." 

" Nay," says the gentleman, " I don't design to part with 
you, since you are so kind to offer me your help; you shall 
stay all night then, and be at the first of it." 

The doctor had now gained his point, so far as to make 

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himself acquainted and desirable in the house, and to have a 
kind of intimacy; so that though he made as if he would go, 
he did not want many entreaties to make him stay ; therefore 
he consented to lay in the house all night. 

A little before evening, the gentleman asked him to take a 
walk in the park ; but he put it off with a jest, "I had rather, 
sir," said he, smiling, " you'd let rae see this fine old mansion 
house, that is to be demolished to-morrow ; methinks Fd fain 
see the house once, before you pull it down/' 

"With all my heart/' says the gentleman. So he took 
him immediately upstairs, showed him all the best apartments, 
and all his fine furniture and pictures ; and coming to the 
head of the staircase, where they came up, offered to go down 

" But, sir," says the doctor, " shall we not go up higher V 

"There is nothing there," says he, "but garrets and old 
lofts, full of rubbish, and a place to go out in the turret, and 
the clock-house." 

" 0, let me see it all, now we are going," says the doctor ; 
"I love to see the old lofty towers and turrets, the magnifi- 
cence of our ancestors, though they are out of fashion now : 
pray let us see all now." 

" Why, 't will tire you," says the gentleman. 

" No, no," says the doctor, " if it don't tire you that have 
seen it so often, it won't tire me, I assure you; pray let ns go 
up." So away the gentleman goes, and the doctor after him. 

After they had rambled over the wild part of this large 
house, I need not describe, he passed by a great room, the 
door of which was open, and in it a great deal of lumber. 
"And what place is this, pray?" says the doctor, but not 
offering to go in. 

" ! that's the room," says the gentleman, softly, because 
there was a servant attending them ; that's the room I told 
you of, where all the rubbish lay — the chests, coffers, and 
trunks ; look there, see how they are piled up, one upon an- 
other, almost to the ceiling." 

With this the doctor goes and looks about him ; for this 
was the place he was directed to, and which he went to see. 
He was not in the room two minutes, but he found everything 
just as the spectre in London had described ; he went directly 
to the pile he had been told of, and fixed his eye upon the 
very chest with the old rusty lock upon it, with the key in 
it, which would neither turn round or come out. 

" On my word, sir," says the doctor, " you have taken pains 
enough if you have rummaged all these drawers, chests, and 
coffers, and everything that may have been in them." 

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" Indeed, sir/' says the gentleman " I have emptied every 
one of them myself, and looked over all the old mnsty writings 
one by one; with some help, indeed;* but they every one 
passed through my hand, and under my' eye/' 

" Well, sir," says the doctor, "I see you have been in earnest, 
and I find the thing is of great consequence to you ; I have a 
strange fancy come into my head this very moment; will you 
gratify my curiosity with opening and emptying one small 
chest or coffer that I have cast my eye upon ? There may be 
nothing in it : you are satisfied, 1 believe, that I was never 
here before, yet I have a strange notion there are some private 

E laces in it, which you have not found — perhaps there may 
e nothing in them when they are found. 

The gentleman, looking at the chest, said, smiling, " I re- 
member opening it very well;" and turning to his servant, 
"Will/' says he, "don't you remember that chest ?" "Yes, 
sir/' says Will, " very well ; I remember you were so weary, 
you sat down upon the chest when everything was out of it ; 
you clapped down the lid, and sat down, and sent me to my 
lady to bring you a drachm of citron ; you said you was ready 
to faint." 

" Well, sir, it is only a fancy of mine, and very likely to 
have nothing in it." 

" No matter for that," says the gentleman, " you shall see 
it turned bottom up again, before your face, and so you shall 
all the rest, if you do but speak the word." 

" Well, sir," says the doctor, " if yon will oblige me with 
this one, I will trouble you no further." 

Immediately the gentleman causes the coffer to be dragged 
out and opened ; for it could net be locked, the key would 
neither lock it nor unlock it. When the papers were all out, 
the doctor, turning his face another way, as if he would look 
among the papers, but taking little or no notice of the chest, 
stooped down, and as if supporting himself with his cane, 
strikes his cane into the chest, but snatched it out again 
hastily, as if it had been a mistake, and turning to the chest, 
he claps the lid of it down, and sits down upon it, as if he 
was weary too. 

However, he takes an opportunity to speak to the gentle- 
man softly, to send away his man a moment ; " for I would 
speak a word or two with you, sir," says he, " out of his hear- 
ing ;" and then recollecting himself, continued aloud, " cannot 
you send for a hammer and a chisel ?" 

" Yes, sir," say the gentleman ; "go, Will, fetch a hammer 
and chisel." 



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As soon as Will was gone, " Now, sir/' says lie, " let me 
-say a bold word to you, I have found your writing ; I have 
found your grand deed of settlement ; Pll lay you a hundred j 

guineas I have it in this coffer." / 

The gentleman takes up the lid again, handles the chest, 
looks over every part of it, but could see nothing ; he is con- 
founded and amazed. "What do you mean?" says be to the 
doctor, "you have no unusual art, I hope, no conjuring in 
hand, here is nothing but an empty coffer/ 1 

" Not I, upon my word/' says the doctor, " I am no magi- 
cian, no cunning man, I abhor it ; but I tell you again, the 
writing is in this coffer/' 

The gentleman knocks, and calls, as if he was frighted, for 
his man with the hammer, but the doctor sat composed again 
upon the lid of the coffer. 

At last up comes the man with the hammer and chisel, and 
the doctor goes to work with the chest, knocks upon the flat 
of the bottom. " Hark !" says he, " don't you hear it, sir ? 
don't you hear it, plainly?" 

"Hear what?" says the gentleman; "I don't understand 
you, indeed." 

" Why, the chest has a double bottom, sir, a false bottom, 
sir/' says the doctor; don't you hear it sound hollow ?" 

In a word, they immediately split the inner bottom open, 
and there lay the parchment spread abroad flat on the whole 
breadth of the bottom of the trunk, as a quire of paper is 
laid on the flat of a drawer. 

It is impossible for me to describe the joy and surprise of 
the gentleman, and soon after of the whole family; for the 
gentleman, sent for his lady, and two of his daughters, up into 
the garret, among all the rubbish, to see, not the writing only, 
but the place where it was found, and the manner how. 

You may easily suppose the doctor was caressed with un- 
common civilities in the family, and sent up (after about a 
week's stay) in the gentleman's own coach to London. I do 
not remember whether he disclosed the secret to the gentle- 
man or no ; I mean the secret of the apparition, by which the 
place where the writing was to be found was discovered to 
him, and who obliged him to come down on purpose to find it ; 
I say I do not remember that part, neither is it material. As 
far as I have had the story related, so far I have handed it 
forward ; and I have the truth of it affirmed in such a manner 
that I cannot doubt it. 

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A few years ago a trading vessel left Weymouth for the 
East, with a crew of Weymouth men. One of them, who was 
a noted bad character, was taken dangerously ill on the voy- 
age, and the mate, Mr. William V., used to look after him. 
He gradually got worse and worse, till one day he fell into a 
comatose state. After some time he came to himself again, 
and asked for some water to drink. Mr. Y. gave him some, 
and, after drinking it, he seemed to revive a little ; but, sud- 
denly looking round the bed, he exclaimed, " Why, William, 
here are Dick A., Tom B., Harry C, and Fred D., all standing 
round the bed beckoning me to go to them." These men had 
been all very bad characters, and had been his former friends 
and companions in Weymouth, but were now all dead, and 
their bodies buried there. "Oh!" he exclaimed, " William, 
don't you see them, they are close to us, and are beckoning 
for me to go to them V* with that he gave a gasp, and 

A wonderful relation of the apparition of old Sir George ViU 
tiers, father of the then Duke of Buckingham, to one Mr. 
Parker, to warn the Duke against something, ichich, if not 
prevented, would end in his death; which so fell out (he 
not regarding the advice), and soon after he was stabbed by 
one John Felton, an officer. 

There were many stories scattered abroad at that time of 
several prophecies and predictions of the duke's untimely and 
violent death; amongst the rest, there was one that was upon 
a better foundation of credit. There was an officer in the 
king's wardrobe in Windsor Castle, of good reputation for 
honesty and discretion, and then about the age of fifty or 
more. This man had in his youth been bred in a school in the 
parish where Sir George Villiers, the father of the duke, lived, 
and had been much cherished and much obliged in that season 
of his age by the said Sir George, whom afterwards he never 
saw. About six months before the miserable end of the Duke 
of Buckingham, at midnight, this man being in his bed at 
Windsor, where his office was, and in very good health, there 
appeared to him on the side of his bed a man of a very vener- 
able aspect, who drew the curtains of his bed, and, fixing his 
eyes upon him, asked him if he knew him. 

The poor man, half dead with fear and apprehension, being 
asked the second time if he remembered him, and, having in 
that time colled to his memory the presence of Sir George 
Villiers, and the very clothes he used to wear, in which, at 

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that time, lie seemed to be habited ; he answered him, that he 
thought him to be that person; he replied, he was in the 
right, that he was the same, and that he expected a service 
from him, which was that he should go from him to his son, 
the Duke of Buckingham, and tell him, if he did not somewhat 
to ingratiate himself to the people, or at least to abate the ex- 
treme malice which they had against him, he would be suffered 
to live but a short time. 

After this discourse he disappeared, and the poor man (if he 
had been at all waking) slept very well till morning, when he 
believed all this to be a dream, and considered it no otherwise. 

The next night, or shortly after, the same person appeared 
to him again, in the same place, and about the same time of 
the night, with an aspect a little more severe than before, and 
asked him whether he had done as he had required of him ; 
and, perceiving he had not, gave him some severe reprehen- 
sions, told him he expected more compliance from him, and 
that, if he did not perform his commands, he should enjoy no 
peace of mind, but should always be pursued by him ; upon 
which he promised him to obey. But the next morning, 
waking out of a good sleep, though he was exceedingly per- 
plexed with the lively representation of all particulars to his 
memory, he was still willing to persuade himself he had only 
dreamed, and considered that he was a person at such a dis- 
tance from the duke, that he knew not how to find out any 
admission to his presence, much less to be believed in what he 
should say ; so, with great trouble and unquietness, he spent 
some time in thinking what he should do, and, in the end, re- 
solved to do nothing in the matter. 

The same person appeared to him a third time with a ter- 
rible countenance, and bitterly reproached him for not per- 
forming what he had promised him to do. The poor man 
had, by this time, recovered the courage to tell him, in truth 
he had deferred the execution of his commands upon consi- 
dering how difficult a thing it would be for him to get any 
access to the duke, having acquaintance with no person about 
him ; and, if he should obtain admission to him, he never would 
be able to persuade him that he was sent in such a manner ; 
that he should at least be thought to be mad, or to be set on 
and employed by his own, or the malice of other men to abuse 
the duke, and he should be sure to be undone. 

The spectre replied, as he had done before, that he should 
never find rest till he had performed what he required, and, 
therefore, he had better to dispatch it ; that the access to his 
son was known to be very easy, and that few men waited long 


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for him ; and, for the gaining him credit, he would tell him 
two or three particulars, which he charged him never to men- 
tion to any person but the duke himself. And he should no 
sooner hear them than he should believe all the rest he should 
say ; and so, repeating his threats, he left him. 

In the morning, the poor man, more confirmed by the last 
appearance, made his journey to London, where the court then 
was. He was very well known by Sir Ralph Freeman, one of 
the masters of requests, who had married a lady that was 
nearly allied to the duke, and was himself well received by 
him. To him this man went, and though he did not acauaint 
him with all his particulars, he said enough to let him know 
there was something extraordinary in it ; and the knowledge 
he had of the sobriety and discretion of the man made the 
more impression on him. He desired that, by his means, he 
might be brought to the duke in such a place, and in such a 
manner as should be thought fit, affirming that he had much 
to say to him, and of a nature as would require much privacy, 
and some time and patience in the hearing. 

Sir Kalph promised that he would speak first to the duke of 
him, and then he should understand his pleasure; and, ac- 
cordingly, the first opportunity, he did inform him of the 
reputation and honesty of the man, and then what he desired, 
and what he knew of the matter. 

The duke, according to his usual openness and condescen- 
sion, told him that he was the next day early to hunt with the 
king ; that his horses should attend him at Lambeth Bridge, 
where he should land by five of the clock in the morning ; and 
if the man attended him there at that hour, he would walk 
and speak with him as long as should be necessary. 

Sir Ralph carried the man with him the next morning, and 
presented him to the duke at his landing, who received him 
courteously, and walked aside in conference near an hour; 
none but his own servants being at that hour in the place, 
and they and Sir Ralph at such a distance that they could not 
hear a word, though the duke sometimes spoke loud and with 
great commotion, which Sir Ralph the more easily observed 
and perceived, because he kept his eyes always fixed upon the 
duke, having procured the conference upon somewhat he knew 
was very extraordinary. 

The man told him in his return over the water that when 
he mentioned those particulars that was to gain him credit 
(the substance whereof he said he durst not impart unto him), 
the duke's colour changed, and he swore he could come at 
that knowledge only by the devil ; for that those particulars 

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APP*\R1TI0NS. 283 

were only known to himself and to one person more, who, he 
was sure, would never speak of it. 

How strongly does this confirm the opinion that the soul, 
when departed, has a knowledge of the actions of the living, 
and willing to do any office for their good if permitted. 

The duke pursued his purpose of hunting, but was observed 
to ride all the morning with great pensiveness and in deep 
thought, without any delight in the exercise he was upon ; and, 
before the morning was spent, left the field, and alighted at 
his mother's lodgings in Whitehall, with whom he was shut up 
for the space of two or three hours, the noise of their discourse 
frequently reaching the ears of those who attended in the next 
rooms. And when the duke left her his countenance appeared 
full of trouble, with a mixture of anger; a countenance that 
was never before observed in him in any conversation with 
her, towards whom he had a profound reverence; and the 
countess herself (for though she was married to a private gen- 
tleman, Sir Thomas Compton, she had been created Countess 
of Buckingham shortly after her son had first assumed that 
title) was, at the duke's leaving her, found overwhelmed in 
tears, and in the highest agony imaginable. 

Whatever there was of all this, it is a notorious truth that, 
when the news of the duke's murder, which happened within 
a few months after, was brought to his mother, she seemed 
not in the least degree surprised, but received it as if she had 
foreseen it ; nor did afterwards express such a degree of sor- 
row as was expected from such a mother for the loss of such 
a son. 

This story is related, with some little circumstantial differ- 
ence, by several considerable authors, who all seem to agree in 
the most material parts of it. Vide Baker's Chronicle. 

Fame, though with some privacy, says, that the secret 
token was an incestuous breach of modesty between the duke 
and a certain lady too nearly related to him, which it surprised 
the duke to hear of; aad that as he thought he had good rea- 
sons to be sure ike lady would not tell it of herself, so he 
thought none but the devil could tell it besides her, and this 
astonished him, so that he was very far from receiving the man 
slightly, or laughing at his message. 

A considerable time before this happened, Sir Clement 
Throckmorton dreamed that an assassin would kill his grace, 
therefore he took the first opportunity to advise him to wear a 
privy coat ; the duke thanked him for his counsel very kindly, 
but gave him this answer, that he thought a coat of mail 
would signify little in a popular commotion, and from any 

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single person he apprehended no danger. Reliqne Wotton, 
p. 14 i. 

This relation is recorded by three different authors, viz., 
Mr. Lilly, the astrologer, in a work of his ; Lord Clarendon's 
History of England; and Mr. Baker's Chronicle. It is also 
mentioned by Mr. Flavel in his treatise on the soul. 

A lady of fortune, whose estates lie in Carnarvonshire and 
Anglesey, the widow of one of my oldest and most valued 
friends, in a recent letter writes as follows : — " Do you not 
find the Welsh all, more or less, gifted with a mental electri- 
city (if there is such a thing) that gives such a sympathy of 
feeling, often constituting almost second sight ? I have 
known so many cases of it." 

The night that the Royal Charter went down, or rather 
struck ou the Moelfra Rocks — an old man, who was prevented 
from sleeping by the terrific storm, found himself suddenly as 
it were, compelled to get up and go through the raging tem- 
pest, on to the cliffs, and in the bright moonlight he saw that 
large ship on those terrible rocks, and clinging to some part 
of it he saw his son, who had been absent for years ; and his 
son saw him, for, stretching out his arms, he called out — 
"Fy Nhad fy Nh&d" — when a wave broke over the ship, 
washing him overboard, and he was drowned, as were so many 
next morning, when the ship broke up. The distant-working 
spirit-power of the son evidently acted on the father, and by 
a powerful attraction led him to the edge of the cliffib, to see 
his son before he was drowned. 

" Omnem crede diem tibi dihmsse supremam." 

The following story is so very similar to this last one, that 
I feel tempted to give it here. In the beginning of October 
1869, being then in the Zouaves, I had obtained leave of ab- 
sence from my regiment on account of illness, and was staying 
at a watering-place on the coast, called Ardenza, a little to the 
south of Spezzia. One Sunday night, after vespers, I told my 
servant that I felt so much better, that I would stay there for 
another month, and that he might go home to Florence for a 
week to see his father and mother, to whom he was greatly 
attached, and whom he had not seen for some years. I then went 
to bed, leaving my poor man greatly delighted with the thoughts 
of going home. However, according to the old saying, "We 
can choose good or evil," but as to controlling our circum- 
stances, it is utterly out of our power. I awoke suddenly at 

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5 o'clock the next morning (Monday), and without any reason 
whatever, jumped up, rang my bell, and told Gulielmo to pack 
up instantly, to pay the bill, and order a cab to go to the 
station to catch the first train, so as to get to Rome that 
night, a distance of about 400 miles, My man was, of course, 
dreadfully disappointed, but we fortunately caught the train, 
which took us through the most charming scenery, and 
more or less by the shore of that lovely sea, to Civita 
Vecchia, where we had to change for Rome, where we ar- 
rived late at night. I must here remark, that the autumn is 
the most unhealthy part of the year to stay in Rome. There 
was scarcely an inhabitant who could get away, or a soldier 
left in the city. On my arrival at the hotel, and after having 
got some dinner, it first suddenly struck me, for what causo 
on earth had I come to Rome ? I had no reason, that I was 
aware of, and I was certain that there was nobody there that 
I knew. However, not knowing what to do, I made up my 
mind to go to my barracks, near the Poute S. Angelo, to seo 
whether or not there might possibly be some one left behind 
there that I might know ; so, on my arrival, I asked for a 

friend of mine, George B , whom I had known for some 

years. I was told that he was on the frontier, and would not 
be back till Christmas ; but if I went to the English Club, I 
might hear more about him. Accordingly, the next morning 

I went there, and on my asking for Mr. George B , received 

the same answer. Not knowing what to do, and repenting of 
my sudden rashness and folly, in coming without any reason 
that I could account for, to Rome, I made up my mind to go 
by the next train to Naples. I was proceeding along the 
corridor to go out, when who should I see standing in the 

doorway but the very man, George B , who had just arrived 

in Rome from Monte Rotundo, to get some guns and ammu- 
nition. He was (and is) a tall and very delicate man, not fit 
for any laborious work. As soon as he saw me he turned very 
pale, and exclaimed, "0 God! Sir, I thought that you were 
in England ; what causes you to come here now V As he ap- 
peared to be very much overcome and astonished, I asked 
him why he was so surprised at seeing me ? When he replied, 
" On Sunday night, Sir, I went to bed in the barrack-room as 
usual, and I was thinking of my family, and my old friend in 
England, but not more so than usual, for I am always thinking 
of tbem ; presently I went to sleep, but I do not know any- 
thing of what I dreamed about ; but early on Monday morning 
I was awakened by finding myself sitting up in bed, and call- 
ing'upon you, with my fists clenched, to come here, and here 

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you are. You can perceive, Sir, the energy I must have called 
into play, by the marks of the nails on the flesh, which have 

cut the skin so deeply." My friend, Mr. George B , is still 

living in London, but in a very delicate state of health. 

In the month of August 1843, 1 was staying at Ciochfaen, 
in the parish of Llangurig, in Arwystli TJwch y Coed, and one 
morning I received a letter from my mother, who was at that 
time living at the Castle House, now the College, at Aberyst- 
wyth, desiring me to come there immediately, as my sister 
Julia had been taken suddenly ill. I therefore went down to 
the village, and waited at a little inn called the Blue Bell, 
kept by a worthy, excellent old lady, named Mrs. Jenny 
Bennett. On entering the house, I told her that I was come 
there to wait for the mail, which at that time ran from 
Gloucester to Aberystwyth, as I was obliged to go home on 
account of the illness of my poor sister. It happened that 
that morning, a young woman from Pembrokeshire, a niece 
of Mrs. Jenny Bennett's, had arrived at Llanguri?, from 
Aberystwyth. As soon as I left, this young woman asked her 
aunt who that gentleman was? her aunt only replied that 
she should not ask questions about gentlemen. " O aunt," 
the girl replied, " I do not mean anything of that sort ; but 
did he not say that there was a young lady, his sister, who 
was very ill.* ' "Yes," replied the aunt, "he did, but what 
can that matter to you, who know nothing" whatever about 
her ; and besides that, you should never ask questions about 
what concerns the old ancient families ; you should only listen, 
and not ask questions about them." " Well, aunt/' replied 
the young woman (who, by-the-bye, had never been to Llan- 
gurig before, and this was the first time that her aunt had 
ever seen her), I cannot tell what is the cause, but the moment 
that gentleman said that his sister was ill, a heavy sorrow 
fell on my heart, as if my heart would break, and I feel for 
her as if she was my own sister, and I am wretched and 
miserable." Upon hearing this, Mrs. Bennett thought that 
her niece must be out of her mind, so, trying to cheer her up, 
she took her up with her into the hayfield, where the people 
were working, and where she could enjoy the bright sunshine, 
and the cool mountain breezes. However, instead of getting 
better, she got more melancholy and depressed than ever, and 
they had to take her into the house, and put her to bed. 
During the two or three days that she kept her bed, she was 
continually saying, "Oh! aunt, what can be the reason of 


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this? I feel, and I know for a certainty, notwithstanding all 
that you say to the contrary, that I am a relation of that young 
lady's ;" and her aunt as constantly told her to drive ail such 
presumptuous thoughts out of her head. On the third night 
she got so much worse, that to sooth her mind, and thinking 
she might not live, her aunt said to her, " Well, my dear, I 
will now tell you, that all that you believed to be the cause of 
your illness is perfectly true. That young lady is your seventh 
cousin." After hearing this, she appeared to be greatly re- 
lieved, and fell off to sleep. The next morning she awoke 
about five o'clock, and told her aunt that the young lady was 
then dying, and that she would not be buried at Rhiwabon, 
but that her body would be brought to Llaugurig, for during 
the night she had seen the Dyrchiolaeth, i. e., the funeral 
procession. She then minutely described the funeral, the 
number of persons that would come with it, and one gentle- 
man in particular she described by a certain spot or mark on 
his face, the late M. Davies Williams, Esq., of Cwm Cynfelyn. 
About a few hours afterwards, a messenger arrived at Llau- 
gurig, to order the passing bell to toll, as my poor sister had 
just departed. My sister, who was born at Plis Madog, died 
on the 11th of August, in the above-named year, and was 
buried at Llaugurig, as the young woman said she would be, 
and all happened exactly as she saw and described it. 

" Millions of spirits walk the world unseen, 
Both when we wake, and when we sleep ; 
These execute their airy purposes, 
And works of love or enmity fulfil." 


I have attended many death-beds myself, both of the 
good and bad, and have almost invariably found that 
their departed friends and companions assembled round 
the bed of the dying one. Many sick nurses have also 
told me the same thing, and have heard the invalids con- 
versing with their visitors. I also have witnessed and 
heard the same thing on several occasions. Where, 
then, are the departed spirits of those who are so con- 
stantly watching over us 1 

A valued friend of mine, who has assisted me greatly 
in the kindest possible manner in giving me much 
valuable information for my work, Mrs. Jones Parry of 

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Pl&s Tref Gaian and Aberdunant, remarks, " The Welsh 
/ have stronger perceptive powers, and dream far more 

/ vividly than the English. Their hands mostly have the 

delicate, shapely proportions of imaginative natures, such 
as would make us believe that the influence of the stars 
survived in them ; though the belief in the creed and 
knowledge of Zoroaster and the Magi, with regard to 
planetary influences, has passed away here, yet it still 
exists as strongly as ever in the East." 

The moral condition of the wicked man must be very 
much the same after death as it was at the time of his 
departure from this life, nothing having intervened to 
alter it. He has left behind him his outward fleshly 
covering, and in his inner man has passed into another 
sphere ; but with whatever sense of unrelieved guilt he 
has made the passage, he must remain loaded as he 
enters upon the new scene to which he has been trans- 
ferred ; the guilt attaching to the inner man, and not 
embracing the fleshly garment he has cast off and aban- 
doned, to be dissolved into its elementary particles in the 
grave. It is time that the world should give attention 
to the gospel of humanity, founded upon the true per- 
ceptions and necessities of their souls, wherein their 
Maker is their friend, equally in the life to come as 
He confessedly is in this life ; wherein there is the 
recognition of something in every man upon which 
He can act for their ultimate good ; and wherein there 
is the certainty that He who has undertaken for them 
will not withdraw His hand until He has accomplished 
His work, and brought all His creatures to the recog- 
nition of Himself and a willing conformity to Him in all 
things. It is, therefore, a good and holy thing to pray 
for those who have passed away, that they may be loosed 
from the burden of their sins, so that they may reach a 
higher and brighter region. For the heavy weight of 
their guilt will chain them down to the earth, where 
their affections are, or where they have committed evil 
deeds, till they are released by prayer and penance from 
the load that binds them down, and prevents their rising 

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to their proper sphere. And this can only be done by 
their own endeavour to amend and the prayers of their 
friends. It is, therefore, a good and holy thing to pray 
for the dead, that they may be loosed from the chain of 
their sins, which binds them down, as a ship is chained 
by its anchor to the earth. 


With regard to that mysterious problem, the Origin of 
Evil, Zoroaster is said by the Parsees to have taught that 
" two opposite — but not on that account opposing — prin- 
ciples or forces, which he calls ' Twins', were inherent in 
Gods nature, and were set in action by Him, as His 
appointed mode of maintaining the continuity of the 
universe. The one was constructive, the other de- 
structive. One created, moulded, and fashioned, while 
the other decomposed and disintegrated, but only to co- 
operate energy. There could be no life without death, 
no good without evil." Such opposites appeared to be 
involved by some eternal and immutable law of con- 
tract. The only antagonism was between the resulting 
good and evil, 1 brought about by the free agent man, 
according to his own free will and election. 8 

And again, we read in the Bible, " I am the Lord, and 
there is none else. I form the light and create darkness : 
I make peace, and create evil: I, the Lord, do all these 
things." 3 

" Behold, I show you truth ! Lower than hell, 
Higher than heaven, outside the utmost stars, 
Farther than Bralim doth dwell. 

" Before beginning, and without an end, 
As space eternal and as surety sure ; 
Is fixed a power which moves to good, 
Only its laws endure. 

1 Ormazd and Ahriman. 

2 Nineteenth Century, Jan. 1881, p. 170. 

8 Isaiah xlv, 6, 7. Ezekiel xiv, 9 ; xx, 25. See also Numbers, 
xxxi, 13, 35 to 40. 

vol. i. ! 19 

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" Out of the dark it wrought the heart of man, 

Oat of dull shells the pheasant's pencilled neck ; 
Ever at toil, it brings to loveliness 
All ancient wrath and wreck. 

" It slayeth aud it saveth, nowise moved, 
Except unto the working out of doom ; 
Its threads are Love and Light, and Death and Pain 
The shuttles of its loom." 1 

That these statements are incontcstably true, we may 
be perfectly certain by what we learn from the study of 
geology, for — " from whatever point we contemplate the 
history of the earth, the instability of the conditions — 
whether mechanical, biological, or climatic — to which 
it has been subjected, stands forth prominently. The 
story is simply that of changes wrought by instruments 
employed over and over again in building up and pulling 
down every portion of the fabric, to rear a yet more per- 
fect structure upon the ruins — more clearly indicative of 
the force of the Creative impulse, and ever tending to- 
wards the production of new phases of life. 8 

"From the stratified rocks we learn the marvellous 
history of life. They are the records, which nothing can 
falsify, of a steady progress under eternal laws from 
lower to higher forms of being. They tell us that the 
earth has been the scene of life and death, pain and 
pleasure, for incalculable ages. The plan has ever been 
the same — immutable as the laws of matter — but it has 
been expanded by gradations, always, as far as we can 
judge, tending to a higher order of things. Geology 
teaches us in unmistakable language that the land and 
water have changed places repeatedly, that continents 
have sunk, that oceans have been filled up, that both 
inorganic and organic rocks have been raised into moun- 
tain chains, that there has been a long succession of 
forms of life appearing and disappearing through cycles 
of time, whose vastness we cannot fully comprehend. 

1 Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia. 

1 Chapter* from the Physical History of the Earth, by Nichols. 
(Kegan Paul and Co., London.) Price five shillings. 

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Thousands of years must be as seconds of time to him 
who would compute the earth's age, and whole species 
and genera of plants and animals are but as so many 
finely graduated marks on the great scale of life-dura- 
tion." 1 Dr. Charles Darwin, in his work on The Origin 
of Species, says : " , \Yheu I view all beings, not as special 
creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few 
beings which lived long before the first bed of the 
Cambrian was deposited, they seem to me to become 
ennobled. As all the living forms of life are the lineal 
descendants of those which lived before the Cambrian 
epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession 
by generation has never once been broken, and that no 
cataclysm has desolated the world. There is a grandeur 
in this view of life, with its several powers, having been 
originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms, or 
into one ; and that whilst this planet has gone cycling 
on, according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple 
a beginning, endless forms, most beautiful and most 
wonderful, have been and are being evolved/' 

" The series of diverse forms which every individual of 
a species passes through from the earliest dawn of its 
existence is simply a short and rapid recapitulation of 
the series of specific multiple forms through which its 
progenitors have passed, the ancestors of the existing 
species throughout the enormous duration of the geolo- 
gical periods; 2 and for innumerable ages after his first 
appearance on earth, man led the life of a wild beast, but 
after having discovered the use of fire, he gradually 
arrived at the state of civilisation, in which he exists at 
the present time. From certain calculations Professor 
S. Haughton has arrived at the conclusion that the 
whole of geological time is represented by a minimum 
period of 200,000,000 years." 

A human skeleton has been discovered beneath four 
strata of forest growths in the delta of the Mississippi, 
by Dr. Dowler, who, from an examination of all the 

1 Chapters from the Physical History of the Earth. 
* Hockcl, Origin of Jfan. 

19 » 

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circumstances, concludes that 50,000 years have passed 
away since that man lived on the earth. 1 Remains of 
man have been found in caves and breccias, with imple- 
ments of stone, bone, and horn, of the Palaeolithic period, 
during the Pleistocene epoch. 

The ancestors of the British dog first made their 
appearance here, in the lower Pleistocene era, along with 
elephants and oxen. They were unknown to the cave 
men, but their remains appear in the Neolithic age. 
Professor Owen, in his British Fossil Mammals, as- 
cribes certain canine bones discovered in a British bone 
cave to canis familiaris, and these are probably the 
earliest authentic remains of the British dog. 

After the conquest of Britain by the Romans (see 
p. 51), dogs are frequently found represented on the 
Romano-Keltic pottery of Britain, especially on the 
Durobrivan ware. These dogs commonly fall under 
one or two types. They are large and fierce, like our 
present bull dogs and mastiffs, or they resemble a fleet, 
slender, hunting dog, such as our greyhound. Strabo, 
who lived in the time of Caesar, after speaking as the 
latter did of the numerous herds of cattle to be seen in 
Britain, adds that " hides, slaves, and dogs of good breed- 
ing, useful for hunting, are exported from it. The Kelts 
also use these and the dogs of their own lands for warlike 
purposes. "* The dogs on the lands must have been sheep 
dogs, who also then, as now, looked after the cattle. 

Gratius Faliscus, who wrote a poem on dogs, and who 
is supposed to have lived in the Augustan age, as he is 
mentioned by Ovid, thus speaks of the British hound : — 

" Quid freta si Morinum, dubio refluentia ponto, 
Veneris atque ipsos libeat penetrare Brittannos ? 
O quanta est merces, et quantum impendia supra ! 
Si non ad speciem mentiturosque decores 

1 See an account of the forraatiou of the Deltas of the Mississippi 
and other rivers, by Draper, Conflict of Religion and Science (Kegan 
Paul and Co.). 

2 See Monximenta Hhtorica Brittanica, 1848, voL i, p. 141. 

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Protinus : Lffic una est catulis jactura Britannis, 
Ad magnum cum venib opus, promendaque virtus, 
Et vocat extreme) praeceps discrimine Mavors, 
Kon tunc egregios tantum admirere Molossos." 

Nemesianius, a Carthaginian poet, also celebrates the 
hunting dog3 of Britain — 

" Sed non Spartanos tantum tantumve Molossos 
Pascenduui catulos, divisa Britannia mittit 
Veloces, nostrique orbis venatibus aptos." 1 

Claudian, who lived about a.d. 400, writing about 
British clogs, speaks of the Molossus "hunting with 
tender nose", and again of the "immortal Molossus 
barking amid the thick mists surrounding the mountain 
tops". In the end of the sixth century, however, we 
find King Brochmael Ysgythrawg hunting the hare with 
"little clogs'* (see p. 12). Oppian who lived about 140, 
says, " There is a certain kind of whelps, apt for tracking 
game, but of small power ; little in size, but worthy of 
much song ; these the fierce tribes of painted Britons 
rear, and they are known particularly as agassei. In 
; Doint of size they resemble those good-for-nothing dainty 
household pets, lap-dogs; round in shape, with very 
iittle flesh on their bones, covered with shaggy hair, 
slow of vision, but armed on their feet with cruel claws, 
and sharply provided with many poisonous canine teeth. 
For its scenting powers, however, the agasseus is chiefly 
renowned, and it is excellent at tracking, since it is very 
skilled to discover the least footprint of any running 
game, and even to mark the very taint of its quarry in 
the air." 8 The Agassei, therefore, were probably the 
identical dogs that the king was hunting with when the 
hare fled for refuge to the Virgin Monacella, at Pennant 
llelangell. Is this breed extinct, or may it not be 
represented at the present time by the Skye terrier ? 

1 Nemisianius, Cynegeticon, v. 123. 

2 Oppian, Cynegeticon, i, 468. 

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I have stated, at page 53*, that the Druids believed ia 

the transmigration of souls. Many persons believe that 

Buddhism teaches this doctrine, but Mr. T. W. Rhys 

Davids, in his Buddhist Birth Stones, 1 has done his best 

to correct this misconception, and points out that what 

it really does teach " would be better summarized as the 

Transmigration of Character" (p. lxxv). When a mau 

dies, the elements of his body, and with it the whole 

organization of his consciousness, are dissolved and 

disappear. "The only thing which continues to exist 

when a man dies is his Karma, the result of his words, 

and thoughts, and deeds (literally his ' doing')". Out of 

this there grows a new being, whose condition, habits, 

and powers, are all determined by the conduct of the 

individual preceding him in a former birth. 2 

When one asked Gotama Buddha " What must I do 

to lay up in store future blessedness?" he replied, 

" Ministering to the worthy, doing harm to none, 
Always ready to render reverence to whom it is due ; 
Loving righteousness and righteous conversation, 
Ever willing to listen to that which may profit another. 
Rejoicing to meditate on the true Law, 
And to reflect on the words of Divine Wisdom ; 
Practising every kind of self-discipline and a pure life, 
Always doing good to those around you." 3 

Gotama or Gautama Buddha lived about five hundred 
years before Jesus of Nazareth was born. 


Caesar informs us that the Druids in Britain, when 
they wished to propitiate the Deity, offered Him human 
sacrifices, in a way similar to the practice of those na- 

* Buddhist Birth Stories. Translated by T. W. Rhys Davids 
(London : Trubner and Co., 18S0). 2 Ibid, 

3 " Obligations of the New Testament to Buddhism". Professor 
J. Estlin Carpenter. — Nineteenth Century •, December, 1880. 

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tions who worshipped Kronos and Baal Moloch. (See 
p. 52.) From the following interesting narrative, related 
by Pausanias and other authors, we learn that Zeus Diq*- 
nysos sometimes also required a human victim to satisfy 
his vengeance against those sinners who had offended 
him. " When Caledon was still inhabited, Dionvsos had 
among other priests a certain Coresos, who suffered 
much trouble through love. He loved, namely, a virgin 
whose name was Callirrhoe ; as much love, however, as 
he bore to her, as much hatred did she feel towards him, 
and her mind being immovable either by prayers or 
presents, he at length sought assistance from Dionysos. 
Then the Deity listened to his priest, and struck the 
Caledonians with a severe sickness, and death swept 
them off. But when they sought aid from the oracle of 
Dodona, to learn the truth through the doves and the 
oak, they received the answer that the anger of Dionysos 
would not abate till Corcso3 should have sacrificed Cal- 
lirrhoe to the god, or some one else who would die for 
her. Nothing remained for the virgin but death ; when, 
however, everything was prepared for the sacrifice, and 
she was led to the altar ornamented like a consecrated 
animal, Coresos, following love and not anger, gave his 
life for his beloved. Now that Callirrhoe saw Coresos 
dead before her, her mind changed, pity and sorrow 
seized upon her, and she killed herself close to the foun- 
tain at the harbour of Calydon. From her this fountain 
was called the fountain of Callirrhoe. " 

Pausanius also tells us, that the sacred oak at Dodona 
was still green about the year a.d. 180 ; and his contem- 
porary, J&lius Aristides, speaks of the Dodonian priest- 
esses in a manner which clearly shows that at that time 
they still prophesied. It appears that it was only in the 
third century that an Illyrian robber cut down the sacred 
tree, and the oracle became for ever silent. 

From the books of the Old and New Testament we 
learn that Jehovah required human sacrifices, for in one 
of them we are told that Jehovah said to Abraham, 

"Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou 


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lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer 
/ him there for a burnt offering upon one of the moun- 

/ tains which I will tell thee of." Abraham immediately 

prepared to do what the Deity ordered him, which act 
so pleased Jehovah, that he told Abraham not to kill his 
son, as he now knew that Abraham feared Him. Out of 
gratitude, Abraham took a ram that was caught in a 
thicket by his horns and offered him up to Jehovah as a 
burnt offering instead of his son. The ram supplied the 
favourite sacrifice to Zeus Dionysos. (See p. 42.) From 
the New Testament we learn that Jehovah was so in- 
censed against the wickedness of mankind, that to appease 
Him, His son, Jesus Christ, offered Himself as a sacrifice 
on the Cross, and Jehovah accepted this sacrifice of His 
son as an atonement or satisfaction for the sins of man- 
kind ; and the Xicene Creed confirms this by stating that 
Jesus Christ, " for us men, and for our salvation, came 
down from heaven, was made man, and was crucified 
also for us under Pontius Pilate". St. Athanasius also 
states in his Creed, that Jesus Christ suffered for our 
salvation, but still that, unless a man believe faithfully 
the doctrines set forth in this Creed, without doubt he 
shall perish everlastingly, and cannot be saved. 


It has been stated at page 42, that it is the custom 
in many parts of France to have bonfires on Mid- 
summer Eve, and to put a number of live cats into a 
large wicker-basket, and then to throw them into one of 
the bonfires. 

Horst, in his D enteroscopy, tells us that the High- 
landers of Scotland were in the habit of sacrificing 
black cats at the incantation ceremony of the Taigheirm, 
and these were dedicated to the subterranean gods ; or, 
later to the demons of Christianity. The midnight 
hour, between Friday and Saturday, was the authentic 
time for these horrible practices and invocations; and 
the sacrifice was continued four whole days and nights, 

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without the operator taking any nourishment. " After 
the cats were dedicated to all the devils, and put into a 
magico-sympathetic condition, by the shameful things 
done to them, and 'the agony occasioned to them, one of 
them was at once put alive upon the spit, and amid ter- 
rific howlings, roasted before a slow fire. The moment 
that the howls of one tortured cat ceased iu death, an- 
other was put upon the spit, for a minute of interval 
must not take place if they would control hell ; and this 
continued for the four entire days and nights. If the 
exorcist could hold it out still longer, and even till his 
physical powers were absolutely exhausted, he must do so. 

" After a certain continuance of the sacrifice, infernal 
spirits appeared in the shape of black cats. There came 
continually more and more of these cats ; and their 
howlings, mingled with those roasting on the spit, were 
terrific. Finally appeared a cat of a monstrous size, 
with dreadful menaces. When the Taigheirm was com- 
plete, the sacrificer demanded of the spirits the reward 
of his offering, which consisted of various things ; as 
riches, children, food, and clothing. The gift of second 
sight, which they had not had before, was, however, the 
usual recompense; and they retained it to the day of 
their death." 

One of the last Taigheirm, according to Horst, was 
held in the island of Mull. The inhabitants still show 
the place where Allan Maclean, at that time the incan- 
tator and sacrificial priest, stood with his assistant, 
Lachlain Maclean, both men of a determined and un- 
bending character, of a powerful build of body, and both 
unmarried. We may here mention that the offering of 
cats is remarkable, for it was also practised by the ancient 
Egyptians. Not only in Scotland, but throughout all 
Europe, cats were sacrificed to the subterranean gods, as 
a peculiarly effective means of coming into communi- 
cation with the powers of darkness. 

Allan Maclean continued his sacrifice to the fourth 
day, when he was exhausted both in body and mind, and 
sunk in a swoon ; but, from this day he received the 


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second-sight to the time of his death, as also did his 
assistant. In the people, the belief was unshaken, that 
the second-sight was the natural consequence of cele- 
brating the Taigheirra. 

" The infernal spirits appeared, some in the early pro- 
gress of the sacrifices, in the shape of black cats. The 
first who appeared during the sacrifice, after they had 
cast a furious glance at the sacrificer, said — Lachlain 
Oer, that is ' Injurer of Cats'. Allan, the chief operator, 
warned Lachlain, whatever he might see or hear, not to 
waver, but to keep the spit incessantly turning. At 
length, the cat of monstrous size appeared ; and, after it 
had set up a horrible howl, said to Lachlain Oer, that if 
he did not cease before their largest brother came, he 
w r ould never see the face of God. Lachlain answered, 
that he would not cease till he had finished his work, if all 
the devils in hell came. At the end of the fourth day, 
there sat on the end of the beam, in the roof of the barn, 
a black cat with fire-flaming eyes, and there was heard 
a terrific howl, quite across the straits of Mull, into 
JMorven." Allan was wholly exhausted on the fourth 
clay, from the horrible apparitions, and could only utter 
the word "Prosperity". But Lachlain, though the younger, 
was stronger of spirit, and perfectly self-possessed. He 
demanded posterity and wealth, and each of them re- 
ceived that which he had asked for. When Allan lay on 
his death-bed, and his Christian friends pressed round 
him, and bade him beware of the stratagems of the 
devil, he replied with great courage, that if Lachlain 
Oer, who was already dead, and he, had been able a little 
longer to have carried their weapons, they would have 
driven Satan himself from his throne, and, at all events, 
would have caught the best birds in his kingdom. 

When the funeral of Allan reached the churchyard, the 
persons endowed with second-sight saw at some distance 
Lachlain Oer, standing fully armed at the head of a host 
of black cats, and every one could perceive the smell of 
brimstone which streamed from those cats. Allan's 
effigy, in complete armour, is carved on his tomb, and 

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his name is yet linked with the memory of the Taig- 

Shortly before that time also, Cameron of Lochiel per- 
formed a Taigheirm, and received from the infernal 
spirits a small silver shoe, which was to be put on the 
left foot of each new-born son of his family, and from 
which he would receive courage and fortitude in the pre- 
sence of his enemies ; a custom which continued till 
1746, when his house was consumed with fire. This shoe 
fitted all the boys of his family but one, who fled before 
the enemy at Sheriff Muir, he having inherited a larger 
foot from his mother, who was of another clan. The 
word Taigheirm means an armoury, as well as the cry of 
cats, according as it is pronounced. 

About fifteen years ago, one dark November day, as 
an old woman, who had the gift of second-sight, was 
sitting in her cottage by the fire-side, she suddenly ex- 
claimed, " I see a hearse going over the bridge of Spey ; 
I see a second hearse going over the bridge of Spey ; I 
see a third hearse going over the bridge of Spey '. On 
that very morning, three gentlemen, one of whom was 

young Mac Kenzie of S , went out grouse-shooting 

on the mountains, when, soon after they had started, a 
dense sea-fog came on. This caused them to lose their 
way, and they wandered about, not knowing where they 
were till about two o'clock, p.m., when they found them- 
selves close up to the walls of a small house. This 
turned out to be the manse of the Catholic priest of the 
district, and the good priest gave them a hearty welcome, 
insisted upon their staying the night, as he had plenty of 
heather for beds, and a good number of blankets to cover 
them. He also told them that he could give them a good 
dinner, for that luckily he had got a good piece of beef 
in the house ; this his housekeeper would roast, and in a 
couple of hours or so it would be ready, and that he had 
also got some capital whiskey. It is needless to say that 
they gratefully accepted his generous hospitality. It got 
quite dark before the meat was ready, and when the 

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housekeeper thought that it was done enough, she went 
in the dark to the garden to get some horse-radish, but 
instead of gathering horse-radish, she gathered some 
roots of aconite ; these she ignorantly served up with 
the beef; three of the party, including the poor, kind- 
hearted priest, and Mr. Mac Kenzie, partook of this 
deadly poison, and immediately expired. On that day 
week, their three bodies were taken in three separate 
hearses over the bridge of Spey, as the old woman had 


The Trinity adored in ancient times (see pp. 35-6) 
were the Sun, Fire, and Air. These three objects were 
adored as a kind of natural Trinity, the triple repositary 
of mighty beneficent forces whose operation was 
essential to the welfare of mankind. It is certain that 
in worshipping Nature through all her multiplicity of 
manifestations, the Aiyans regarded her as essentially 
one. We find that the earliest Aryan designation for 
their objects of adoration was Deva "luminous ones", 
and the earliest special names for Sun, Fire, and Air, 
were Mitra (melting), Athar (piercing), and Yayu or 
Vata (blowing), respectively, while the earliest name for 
the All-investing deity of heaven, sometimes regarded as 
one supreme Deity, was either Dyaus, which like Deva 
meant " the Luminous One", or Varuna, the "All-Investor", 
or Asura, " the Breather". In Genesis ii, 7, God is said 
to have created Adam and "breathed into his nostrils 
the breath of life". 1 

The Zoroastrians believed that there was but one God, 
Ahura Mazda (see p. 49), and that he created the 
universe. Matter was also created by him, but was 

1 " The Religion of Zoroaster", by Professor Monier W illiams, C.T.E. 
— Xineteenth Century, January 1881. And for a long and interesting 
account of " Ancient Eastern Legends and Customs", tbe reader is 
referred to Miss Gordon Cummiug's work, From the Hebrides to the 
Himalayas (London : Sampson Low and Co.) 


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neither identified with him, or an emanation from him. 
He was the sole object of worship as the sole source of 
life, light, goodness, wisdom, and creative power. They 
believed in a distribution of rewards and punishments 
after death according to deeds done in the body. The 
moral code was comprised in six words, "Pure thoughts, 
pure words, pure deeds". 

Other doctrines to be noted are the following : — A 
man's only hope of salvation was to be seen in his own 
self-righteousness. He was to be rewarded hereafter, 
not according to his belief in any particular religious 
dogma, but according to the perfection of his thoughts, 
words, and deeds. He was gifted with free will. He 
could choose hi3 owu coarse ; he was not the helpless 
slave of fate or destiny. He was to be judged according 
to his own works. The soul that sinned was to die, and 
no sacrifice or substitute was to be accepted. Nor was 
salvation or religious merit procurable through self-mor- 

Herodotus tells us that, " it is not customary among 
the Persians to make idols, to build temples and erect 
altars ; they even upbraid with folly those who do". 
The reason of this he declares to be that the Persians do 
not believe the gods to be like men, as the Hellenes do, 
but that they identify the whole celestial circle with the 
Supreme Being. 

Cyrus the Great, who was a Zoroastrian, is thus de- 
scribed in the Bible : ." Thus saith the Lord to Jerusalem, 
Thou shalt be inhabited ; and to the cities of Judah, 
Ye shall be built ; that saith of Cyrus, He is my shep- 
herd, and shall perform all my pleasure : even saying to 
Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built ; and to the temple, Thy 
foundation shall be laid. Thus saith the Lord to His 
anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden." 1 

•' Now, in the first year of Cyrus, King of Persia, the 

Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, King of Persia, that 

he made proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and 

put it also in writing, saying, Thus saith Cyrus, King of 

1 Isaiah, chapters zli, xliv, xlv. 

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Persia, the Lord God of heaven hath given me all the 
kingdoms of the earth, and He hath charged me to build 
Him a house at Jerusalem. m 

The religious opinions of the Jews and the ancient 
Persians were very similar. Zoroaster taught that 
" Every one was to be judged according to his own 
works. The soul that sinned was to die, and no sacri- 
fice or substitute was to be accepted. A man's only 
hope of salvation was to be in his own self-righteous- 
ness.." 2 

God declares in the Old Testament, " that the right- 
eousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the 
wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. When a 
righteous man turneth away from his righteousness, and 
committeth iniquity, and dieth in them, for the iniquity 
that he hath done shall he die. When the wicked man 
turneth away from his wickedness that he hath com- 
mitted, and doeth that that is lawful and right, he shall 
save his soul alive." If a man be just, and do that 
-which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, saith the 
Lord God. By which it appears that a man is to be 
saved by his own self-righteousness, and that he must 
•work out himself his own salvation, and not depend upon 
the merits of any other persons, whoever they may be. 
" The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither 
shall the father bear the iniquity of the son." 3 If this is 
true, mankind can be saved without believing in the 
Creed of St. Athanasius. For with God can be no 
changeableness or shadow of turning. 

" The highest attributes of the Supreme Being are, by 
the Zoroastrians, symbolised by His creations, fire, light, 
and the sun. Worship is conducted by regularly ap- 
pointed priests dressed in pure white garments, in the 
presence of sacred fire, or rather with the face turned 
towards it. The fire is first consecrated by solemn for- 

1 Ezra i. 

2 The Religion of Zoroaster, by Professor Monier Williams. 

3 Ezekiel xviii. Was this book written by Divine Inspiration or 
not ? - 

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mularies, and then maintained in fire-temples by offer- 
ings of sandal-wood and other fragrant substances ; every 
attendant priest being required to wear a veil before his 
mouth and nostrils so as not to contaminate the fire with 
his breath. Worship may also be performed in the open 
air, prayers being repeated with the face towards the 
sun (compare Ezekiel, viii, 16), or towards the sea, as ob- 
jects typical of God's power and majesty. There is no 
image worship, but homage must be paid to the heavenly 
hierarchy, and no animals ought ever to be sacrificed. x " 

The religion of the Magians was a worship of the 
forces and phenomena of nature, of the sun, moon, and 
elements, and of all the host of heaven. The Magians 
were great astrologers. (See p. 46.) 

In the temple of Dionysos Stylos at Tyre, no images 
were allowed, but fire was kept constantly burning on 
the altar, which being reflected on the grand columns of 
smaragdus, illumined the whole temple. The obelisk, 
as before stated, was the emblem of Dionysos Stylos 
(see p. 54), and has the same signification as the Ser- 
pent and the Tree of Life, both of which are mentioned 
in Genesis in connection with Adam and Eve. 

The three cardinal requirements of Egyptian piety 
were love to God, love to virtue, love to man. Truth- 
fulness was an essential part of the Egyptian moral 
code ; and when, after death, the soul enters the " Hall 
of the Two Truths, or Perfect Justice", it repeats the 
words learned upon earth, " 0, Thou great God, Lord of 
Truth ! I have known Thee. I have known Thy name. 
Lord of Truth is Thy name. I never told a lie at the 
tribunal of truth. 2 " 

The honour due to parents sprang naturally from the 
belief in God as our Father who is in heaven. We con- 
stantly find inscriptions on the tombs such as the follow- 
ing : " I honoured my father and my mother. I loved 
my brothers. I taught little children. I took care of 

1 The Religion of Zoroaster 9 by Professor Monier Williams, CLE. 
* Ritual of the Dead. 

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orphans as though they had been my own children/' 1 

} In letters of excellent advice addressed by an old man 

/ of 110 years of age to a young friend — which form the 

' most ancient book in fhe world, dating 3,000 years 

before Christ— he says, "The obedience of a docile son 

is a blessing. God loves obedience. Disobedience is 

hated by God. The obedience of a son maketh glad the 

heart of his father. A son teachable in God's service 

will be happy in consequence of his obedience, he will 

grow to be old, he will find favour ." 

The moral code of the Egyptians was exceedingly 
elaborate. It consisted of forty-two commaudments, or 
heads, under which all sins might be classed. This code 
was the ideal placed before men on earth : it was the 
standard of perfection according to which they would be 
judged in heaven. Men were taught from childhood, 
that they must appear in the presence of the Divine 
Judge, and say, " I have not privily done evil to my 
neighbours. I have not afflicted any, nor caused any to 
weep. I have not told lies. I have not done any wicked 
thing. I have not done what was hateful to the gods. 
I have not calumniated the slave to his master. I have 
not been idle. I have not stolen. I have not committed 
adultery. I have not committed murder", and so on. 

The Egyptians had a contempt for idleness. " God 
loathes idle hands." (Hymne au Nil.) " Ka (the Sun) 
the giver of food, destroys all place for idleness." 
{Ritual of the Dead, xv, 20.) In one of the Letters we 
read, " Why is thy heart volatile as the chaff before the 
wind ? Give thy heart to something worthy of a man's 
doing. Give not thy heart to pleasure. Idleness is un- 
profitable. It is of no service to a man in the day of 
account. His work is found wanting when weighed in 
the balance. Such is the man whose heart is not in his 
business, whose eye scorns it." 2 

But their commandments were positive as well as 
negative. On the tombs (b.c. 4000) we find the common 

1 Die agyptitche Grdbonoelt (Leipzig: Von H. Brugsch, 1868). 
8 Goodwin, Essay*. 

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formula : " I have given bread to the hungry, water to 
the thirsty, clothes to the naked, shelter to the stranger." 
In the larnentatiops at funerals, the mourners see the 
deceased enter the presence of the Divine Judge, and 
they chant the words : " There is no fault in him. No 
accuser riseth up against him. In the truth he liveth, 
with the truth he nourisheth himself. The gods are 

satisfied with all that he hath done He succoured 

the afflicted, he gave bread to the hungry, drink to the 
thirsty, clothes to the naked, he sheltered the outcast, 
his doors were open to the stranger, he was a father to 
the fatherless/' 1 

This tenderness for suffering humanity i3 characteristic 
of the nation. Gratefully does a mau acknowledge in 
his autobiography (b.c. 4000) : " Wandering I wandered 
and was hungry, bread was set before me. I fled from 
the land naked, there was given me fine linen." 2 In a 
volume of maxims we read : " Maltreat not an inferior. 
Let your wife find in you her protector, maltreat her 
not. Save not thine own life at the cost of another." 
On the tomb of a man at El-Kalh (b.c. 4000) it is re- 
corded that he "never left home with anger in his heart." 3 


Addressed to Hywel ab Teuaf, Lord of Anvystli, by the Bard 
Cynddeho. (See pp. 77, 79, 153.) 

Rheiddin a'm rhoddes Hywel, 
Kheiddiawg, feiniawg, fanawg fil ; 
Cefais, g^an dreth orddethawl, 
Tarw teg Talgarth yngwarthawl. 

Lief a glywaf gloew eilyrth, 
Lief eilon yn eilwydd ferth, 
Lief ban corn blaen cad ehorth, 
Llais garw, a lief tarw Talgarth. 5 

1 Liber Metempsychosis veterum JSgypt. Von H. Brugsh, Berlin, 
1851. * Chabas, 1863. 

8 Deutsch, Lit. Rem*, p. 197. 

4 Hist, of Hie Parish of Llangurig, translated by Howel W. Lloyd, 
Esq., M. A. 6 Talgarth is in the parish of Tref Eglwys in Arwystli. 

vol. i. 1 '20 

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To me, with lavish lips hath Hywel given 
A sleek and monstrous beast that tears the ground ; 
A contribution choice have I received, 
Talgarth's fair bull in bountiful exchange. 


I hear a startling sound of music clear, 

Of perfect and harmonious melody ; 

A horn loud sounding in the van of war, 

A deep-toned sound, and that from Talgarth's bull. 


Gloutw Glwad Ltda.n, King and Founder of the city of Loutw, 
or Gloucester. T= 

Gwyd olin. q= 
Gwy dodoL=F 


Caer Louyw, Erging, and Ewiae 
and King of Britain 425-448. 

Cynd eyrn, slain 457. == 
Bhud dfedel Frych. = 
Bhy dwf. ? 

w r~ 

Pasg en.= 

Cajdbll Detbnllwq, 580. 

Cas var Wledig, King of Gwent.T 


Rh un Bhudd Baladr.y 

By wdeg.== 

By wliw.« 

Gw ineu dda ei Vreaddwyd.= 


Tego nwy.y 


Caenawg Gawr. 




Caradawg Ffreichfras. 1 ^ 
HyfaidcL = 

Owain. =F 
Cadvan. 7 

Bledrws. = 


Gwnawg Goch. == Lluddoeca£ 
| see p. 308. 

Lies lilawddeawg. == 

Cadivor Wynwyn. T 



If or. =F Cecilia, 
| e s.p. 309. 

1 Jones's History of Brecknockshire, 

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Co llwyp.= 

Gw yn. 7 : 


Trahairx ab Caradawo, 
King of Gvrrnedd and 
Powys, and Lord of Ar- 
wystli, ob. 1080. See 
pp. 67, 70. 


Carad awg.= 
Gwry dnr Hir .= 



I 5 

Cuhelynjp Rhiengar, 
I see p. 308. 

Eltstan Glodbudd, 

Prince of Fferlia, 

ob. 1010. 

v.p. 102. 

Blxddtn ap Ctnvtn, 

Prince of Powys, 

ob. 1072. 


Gwnfyw Frych, the second son of Cadell Deyrnlhvg, 
King of Powys (see p. 8), was Lord of both Maelors, 
Chirk, Whittington, Nantheudwy, and Croes Oswallt or 
Oswestry. He was the ancestor of — 

Gwrgeneu, Lord of the above-named Lordships, and 
Chief of the fourteenth noble tribe of Gwynedd. 1 Gwr- 
geneu was the son of Gwaethgar, ab Bywyn, ab Bior- 
dderch, 2 ab Gwriawn, ab Gwnan, ab Gwylawg, ab Gwn- 
fyw Frych, ab Cadell Deyrnlhvg, 3 King of Powys, and 
was father of — 

1 Leiai/s Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 83. 

2 Iorddwfri according to others. 

3 Gutyn Owain and Sir John Leiaf. 

See Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, xv, 

20 2 

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Cadfarch ab Gwrgeneot, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg, 
Maelor Saesneg, Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry, and Nant- 
heudwy. He was the father of — 

Ynyr ab Cadfarch, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg, Maelor 
Saesneg, Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry, and Nantheudwy. 
He built the castle of Whittington, in the latter part of 
the ninth century, and married Rhiengar, daughter of 
Lluddoccaf, ab Hyfaidd, 1 ab Caradawg Ffreichfras, King 
of Gloucester, Hereford, Erging, and Ewias, 2 who bore 
azure, a lion rampant, party per fess, or and argent, in a 
bordure of the third, eight annulets sable; by whom he 
had issue, besides a younger son, Ynyr Frych, Abbot of 
Abbey d'Or, in the Golden Vale in Herefordshire, an 
elder son, 

Tctdor Trefor, King of Gloucester, Hereford, Erging, 
Ewias, Maelor Uchaf, now called Maelor Gymraeg, 8 
Maelor Isaf, now called Maelor Saesneg, 4 Chirk, Whit- 
tington, Oswestry, and Nantheudwy. He bore, party 
per bend sinister, ermine and ermines, a lion rampant 
or, armed and langued gules. In 907, he married An- 
gharad, daughter of Hywel Dda, King of Wales, who 
bore argent, three lions passant regardant in pale, gules ; 
and dying in 94S, left issue three sons : — 1. Goronwy ; 
— 2. Lluddoccaf ; and — 3. Dingad, of whom presently ; 
and two daughters : 1. Arddun, ux. Gwrydr Hen ; 6 and 
2. Ehiengar, ux. Cadell, a prince of the line of Rhoderig 
the Great. 6 

1. Goronwy ab Tudor, the eldest son of Tudor 
Trevor, married Tangwystl, daughter of Dyfnwal ab 
Alan ab Alsar ab Tudwal Gloff, Prince of Dyfed, fourth 
son of Rhoderig the Great, King of Wales. 7 He died in 
the lifetime of his father, leaving issue an only daughter 
and heiress Rhiengar, who married Cuhelyn ab Ivor ab 
Severus ab Cadifor ab Gwenwynwyn ab Idnerth ab Ior- 

i HarL MS. 4181. 

* Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, p. 297 ; vol. ii, p. 1 52. See p. 306. 

1 Cae Cyriog MS. 4 Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 307. 

5 Lexeys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 307. • Eyton Pedigree. 

7 Eyton Pedigree, Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 307. 

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werth Hir Flawdd ab Tegonwy ab Teon, Lord of Buallt, 
Maes Hyfaidd or Radnor, Ceri, Maelienydd, Elfael and 
Cydewen, who bore, autre, three open crowns in pale, or 
(see p. 307). By Cuhelyn, Rhiengar was the mother of 
Elystax Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis, who had all 
his father's lordships, and who, in right of his mother, 
became King of Gloucester, Hereford, Erging, and 
Ewias. 1 He was born in the castle of Hereford, in 927; 
or, according to others, 933, 2 and was living in 1010, but 
was slain in a civil broil at Cefn Digoll, in Powys. He 
was the founder of one of the royal tribes of Wales, and 
ruled over all the country between the Wye and the 
Severn, and bore gules, a lion rampant regardant or. 
His son, Prince Cadwgan, succeeded him in his princi- 
pality; but William the Conqueror defeated Cadwgan 
in battle, and took from him his kingdom of Gloucester 
and Hereford. 3 For a further account of the descendants 
of Cadwgan ab Elystan, see the History of the Parish 
of Llangurig. 

2. Lluddocoap ab Tcjdor, of whom presently, 

3. Dingad ab Tudor, Lord of Maelor Uchaf, now 
called Maelor Gymraeg or Brom6eld, and Yr H6b. 4 He 
bore ermine, a lion rampant sable, armed and langued 
gules, and married Cecilia, daughter of Severus ab Cadi- 
for ab Gwenwynwyn, Lord of Buallt, Maes Hyfaidd, 
Ceri, Maelienydd, Elfael, and Cydewen ; azure, three open 
crowns in pale or (see p. 306), by whom he had a son 
and heir, 

Rhiwallawn ab Dingad, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg 
and Yr Hob. He married Letitia, daughter of Cadwaladr 
ab Peredur Goch of Mon ; and dying in 1040, was suc- 
ceeded by his sou, 

Cyswrig ab Rhiwallawn, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg 
and Yr H6b, who bore ermine, a lion rampant sable, 
armed and langued gules. He was slain, as previously 
stated, by Grutfudd ab Cynan, in Lleyn, in 1074. An 

1 Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, p. 313 ; vol. ii, p. 152. 

2 Ibid., vol. i, p. 313. 3 Ibid. 
4 Cue CyriiHj MS. 

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account of his descendants will be given in a future 
chapter. Cynwris; was King of Gwynedd and Powys, 
from 1072 to 1074. (See pp. 72-3.) 

Lluddoccaf, the second son of Tudor Trevor, was 
Lord of Chirk, Nantheudwy, Whittington, Oswestry, 
Maelor Isaf and Ellesmere. 1 He married Angharad, 
daughter of Iago ab Idwal ab Meurig, King of Gwynedd ; 
and dying in 1037, left issue, besides a daughter, Gwer- 
fyl, the wife of Ednowain Bendew, chief of one of the 
noble tribes of Gwynedd, who lived at Llys Coed y My- 
nydd, in the parish of Bod Vari in Tegeingl, argent, a 
chevron inter three boar's heads couped sable, tusked or, 
and langued gules ; a son and heir, 

Llywarch Gam, Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, Whit- 
tington, Oswestry, Maelor Isaf, and Ellesmere. He 
married Letitia, daughter of Gwrystan ab Gwaethfoed, 
vert, a lion rampant argent, head, feet, and tail imbrued, 
son of Gwrydyr ab Caradawg ab Lies Llawddeawg, 
ab Ednyfed ab Gwineu ab Gwinawg Varv Sych, ab 
Ceidio ab Corv al Cynog Vaur ab Tegonwy ab Teon, by 
whom he had issue, besides a younger son, lorwerth 
Hir of Maelor, an elder one, 

Ednyved ab Llywarch, Lord of Chirk, Nantheudwy, 
Whittington, Oswestry, Maelor Isaf, and Ellesmere. He 
married Janet, daughter and co-heiress of Prince Rhiwal- 
lawn 2 ab Cynvyn, who was slain at the battle of Me- 
chain in 1068 (see p. 109), by whom he had issue four 
sons, — 1, Rhys Sais, of whom presently; 2, Rhys 
Fychan ; 3, Maredudd ; and, 4, Adda ; and a daughter, 
named Margaret. Gwladys, the other daughter and co- 
heiress of Prince Rhiwallawn ab Cynvyn, married Rhys 
ab Tudor Mawr, Prince of South Wales, who was slain 
in 1089. 

Rhys Sais, Lord of Chirk, Nantheudwy, Whittington, 
Oswestry, Maelor Isaf, and Ellesmere. I am unable to 

1 Cat Cyriofj MS. 

2 Prince Rhiwallawn had three sons, Caradawg, Oruffudd, and 
Meilir, who were all three slain at the fatal battle of Mynydd j Gam, 
in 1080. See p. 76. . 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


ascertain whom he married, for it is quite impossible that 
Rhys Sais, own nephew to Gwladys, the consort of Rhys 
ab Tudor Mawr, could have married, as Lewys Dwnn 1 
states that he did, Eva, daughter and heiress of Gruffudd 
Hir ab Gruffudd ab Tr Argwydd, Rhys ab Gruffydd ab 
Rhys ab Tudor Mawr. Rhys Sais died in 1070, leaviug 
three sons : 1, Tudor ab Rhys, of whom presently ; 2, 
Elidur, Lord of Trefwy or Eytou Isaf, Erlisham, Bora- 
sham, Sutton, and Tref y Rftg or Rhwyton. He bore 
ermine, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules. 
An account of his descendants will be given in a future 
chapter : and, 3, Iddon, Lord of Dudlyston, and part of 
Oswestry. 3 He bore argent, a chevron inter three boar's 
heads couped gules, tusked or, and langued azure. In 
1079, these three sons of Rhys Sais slew Gwrgan ab 
Seisyllt ab Ithael ab Gwrystan ab Gwaethfoed, King of 
Powys. 2 Rhys acquired his surname of Sais from his 
having learned the English language ; and, besides the 
three sons already enumerated, he had also a daughter 
named Generys, who married Ednowain ab Ithel, Lord 
of the Bryn, in the parish of Llantihangel ym Mlodwel. 
Argent, three greyhounds (or wolves), passant in pale 

Ttoor ab Rhys Sais, Lord of Chirk, WhittingtoD, 
Nantheudwy, and Maelor Isaf. He married Janet, 
daughter of Rhys Fychan ab Rhys ab Maredudd, by 
whom he had issue four sons: 1, Bleddyn, of whom 
presently ; 2, Goronwy Befr (Wrenoc), of Whittington 
Castle, Lord of Whittington ; 3, Cuhelyn, Lord of 
Trevor, ancestor of the Trevors of Llys Trevor, the 
Lloyds of Rhagad, and other families in Trevor; and 
4, Meurig, who had lands in Trevor. He was the an- 
cestor of David ab Ieuan ab Iorwerth, Abbot of Valle 
Crucis Abbey, and Bishop of St. Asaph, from 1500 to 
1503. Iorwerth was the son of Ieuan Baladur ab Y Ce- 
thin ab Ieuan ab Iorwerth Fawr ab Iorwerth ab Heilin 

1 Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 307; and the Harl. MS. 4181. 

2 Brut y Tywy&ogion. 

Digitized by 



ab Madog ab David ab Hywel ab Meurig ab Tudor ab 
I Rhys Sais. 

f Bleddyn ab Tudor, the eldest son, was Lord of 

Chirk, Nantheudwy, and Maelor Isaf. He married Agnes, 
or Annesta, daughter of Llywelyn ab Idnerth ab Mare- 
dudd Hen, Lord of Buallt, descended from Elystan 
Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis, by whom he had issue three 
sons : 1, Owain ; 2, Madog ab Bleddyn ; and 3, Bled- 
dyn Fychan. 

Owain ab Bleddyn, the eldest son, succeeded his father 
as Lord of Chirk, Xantheudwy, and Maelor Isaf. He 
married Eva, daughter and heiress of Madog Goch, Lord 
of Mawddwy and Caer Einion, illegitimate son of Gwcu- 
wynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, and relict of Iorwerth 
ab Owain Brogyntyn, by whom he had issue, besides a 
daughter, Elen, wife of Ieuan ab Llywelyn Fychan, five 
sons : ], Cynwrig Sais, of whom presently ; 2, Iorwerth 
Hen, of whom presently ; 3, Rhirid ab Owain, of whom 
presently ; 4, Thomas ab Owain, ancestor of the Lloyds 
of the Bryn, in the parish of Hanmer, 1 and the Pennants 
of Downing and Penrhyn Castle ; and 5, Owain Fychan, 
ancestor of the Dimokes of Wellington and Penley. 

1. Cynwrig Sais, the eldest son of Owain ab Bleddyn, 
was the father of Gwilym, the father of Ieuan Voel, who 
married Gwerfyl, daughter and sole heiress of Maradudd 
ab Roger Fychan, Lord of Estwick, second son of Sir 
Roger de Powys, of Whittington Castle, knight, ab 
Goronwy, Lord of Whittington, second son of Tudor ab 
Rhys Sais. Vert, a boar or, for Sir Roger de Powys, 
knight. By this lady Ieuan Voel had issue, a son Bled- 
dyn, the father of Ieuan, the father of Maredudd. 

3. Rhirid, the third son of Owain ab Bleddyn, was the 
father of Madog ab Rhirid, the father of Madog Fychan, 
who married Gwladys, daughter of Gruffudd ab Iorwerth 
ab Ieuaf ab Nyniaw of Llwyn On ; ermine, a lion ram- 
pant sable, by whom he had an only daughter and heiress, 
Margaret, who married Llywelyn L)du of Abertanad, and 

1 Uarl/MS. 4181. 

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*" r 

Blodwell in Mechain, son of Gruffudd ab Iorwerth Foel, 
Lord of Maelor Saesneg, or Maelor Isaf. 

2. Iorwerth Hf.^, the second son of Owain ab Bled- 
dyn, succeeded his father as Lord of Chirk, Nantheudwy, 
and JMaelor Isaf. He married Angharad, the eldest of 
the four daughters and co-heiresses of Gruffudd, the 
third son of Meilir Eyton, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 
Borasham, ermine, a lion rampant azure. Her mother 
was Angharad, daughter and heiress of Llywelyn ab 
Meurig ab Caradawg ab Iestyn ab Gwrgant, Prince of 
Glamorgan, founder of one of the five royal tribes of 
Wales, gules, three chevronells argent, by whom he had 
issue, besides a daughter Dyddgu, wife of Ieuan, son of 
Gruffudd ab Yr Arglwydd Rhys, Prince of South Wales, 
a son and heir. 

Iorwerth Fychan, Lord of Chirk, Xantheudwy, and 
Maelor Isaf. He married the Princess Catherine, relict 
of Maredudd, Lord of Ehiwabon, second son of AJadog ab 
Gruffudd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog, and daughter 
of Gruffudd ab Llywelyn ab Iorwerth Drwyn Dwn, 
Prince of Wales, quarterly, gules and or, four lions ram- 
pant counterchanged, and sister of Llywelyn ab Gruffudd, 
the last sovereign Prince of Wales, who was slain near 
Buallt, in 1282. Quarterly gules and or, four lions pas- 
sant gardant counterchanged. By this lady, Iorwerth 
Fychan had issue four sons : 1, Iorwerth Yoel, his suc- 
cessor; 2, Tudor ab Iorwerth; 3, Cynwrig ab Iorwerth, 
and 4, Rhys ab Iorwerth. 

Iorwerth Foel (Llwydd Nantheudwy) succeeded his 
father as Lord of Chirk, Kantheudwy, and Maelor Saes- 
neg. He was living in 1313. Roger Mortimer, Lord of 
Chirk, gave lands to Iorwerth Foel ab Iorwerth Fychan, 
son and heir of Iorwerth Hen, on the payment of twenty 
pounds per annum sterling ; these lands were in the 
townships of Gwern Osbern and Pen y Clawdd, in the 
Lordship of Chirk. The witnesses of this grant were 
— Ieuaf ab Adda, . Lord of Trevor ;* Llywelyn, his 

1 Ieuaf ab Adda ab Awr ab Ieuaf ab Cuhelyn, Lord of Trevor, 
third sou of Tudor ab Kins Sais (see p. 311), aud bis wile Myfuuwy 


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son j 1 Owain ab Gruffudd Foel ; Sir Hwfa, his brother ; 
Llywelyn ab Cynwrig ab Osbern ; 2 Madog ab Cynwrig 

Attached to the deed is the seal of Roger Mortimer, 
with this circumscription, " sigillum rogeri de mortui 
mare". Roger Mortimer (medd Rhys Cain) yn rhoddi 
Gafael Iorwerth Farch yr hon a elwir Gafael Feilfarch, 
ym Mhen y Clawdd o fewn Swydd y Waun, yr hwn dir 
a gowsai Iorwerth Farch am ei wasanaeth da i Llywelyn 
ab Gruffudd, Arglwydd Xauheudwy, a Madog ei frawd, 
ac ai gorfoliodd am dorri heddwch y Brenhin. 8 (V. f. 

" Roger Mortimer", says Rhys Cain, " gave Iorwerth 
Farchs holding, which is called 'Gafael Feilfarch', the 
. Holding of the Mailed Steed, at Pen y Clawdd (Clawdd 
Offa, or Offa's Dyke), in the Lordship of Chirk, which 
Iorwerth Farch had got for his good service to Llywelyn 
ab Gruffudd, Lord of Nantheudwy (see p. 171), and Madog 
his brother, and praised him greatly for breaking the 
king's peace." 4 

These lands were given by Iorwerth Foel to his fourth 
son, Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern in Nantheudwy, 
and they remained a part of the Pengwern estate till 
Ieuan ab Adda ab Iorwerth Ddft of Llys Pengwern set- 
tled them upon his third son, Iorwerth or Edward, who 
was surnamed Yn lawn, or the Just, and was the an- 
cestor of the Edwardscs of Pl&s Newydd and Cefn y 
Wern. See p. 316. 

were buried side by side, in the nave of the church of the Abbey 
of Valle Crucis, near the chancel steps, where their effigies on the 
stone coffin-lids are still to be seen. The Trevors, now Thomases, of 
Coed Helen, and Llys Trevor, descend from them, and own the Abbey 

1 Llywelyn was the father of John Trevor, Bishop of St. Asaph's, 
who built Llangollen Bridge. One of Llywelyn's brothers, Hywel of 
Llys Trevor, was the ancestor of the Trevors of Llys Trevor, now 
called Trevor Hall ; the Lloyds of Rhagatt, and many other families, 
whose pedigrees will be given in a future volume. 

2 Of Cora y Gedol. Ei°mine, a saltier gules, a crescent or, for dif- 
ference. He was the ancestor of the Vaughans of Cors y Gedol, now 
represented by Lord Mostyn, who sold the Cors y Gedol estate. 

3 Cue Cyriog MS. 

4 Translated by Howel W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

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The above-named Roger Mortimer got possession of 
the Lordship of Chirk by grant from Edward I, dated 
7th October 12S2 (see p. 178) ; and was imprisoned in 
the Tower of London in the year 1333, where he died in 

Iorwerth Foel married Gwladys, daughter and co- 
heiress of Iorwerth ab Gruffudd ab Heilin of Y Fron 
Goch, now called Celynog in Mochnant, ab Meurig ab 
Ieuan ab Adda Goch of Mochnant, ab Cynwrig ab Pasgen 
ab Gwyn ab Gruffudd, Lord of Cegidfa and Deuddwr. 
Iorwerth ab Gruffudd of Fron Goch bore, 1, sable, three 
horse's heads erased argent ; and 2, argent, a chev. inter 
three Cornish choughs, with ermine in their beaks sable. 
The mother of Gwladys was Alice, daughter of Hwfa ab 
Iorwerth ab Gruffudd of Bersham, ab Ieuaf ab Nyniaf ab 
Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn, 1 gules, two lions passant, 
argent, for Iorwerth ab Gruffudd of Bersham, 

Gwladys, the wife of Iorwerth Foel, was buried in 
Hanmer Church, where her tomb yet remains with this 
inscription : — " Hie iacet wladys vxor ierwerth voyl. 
orate, p. ea.", round the coffin lid. Within the inscrip- 
tion on the area of the stone lid is a very fine floriated 
cross, almost identical with that described by Camden, i, 
12, as being at St. Buriens, in Cornwall. 2 

By this lady, Iorwerth Foel had issue five sons : 

i. Madog Lloyd, of Bryn Cunallt, Lord of Chirk. 
He bore the coat of Tudor Trevor in a border gules, and 
was ancestor of John Wynn Jones of Bryn Cunallt, (who 
sold that estate to Sir Edward Trevor), and several other 
families, of whom an account has been given in the 
Archceologia Cawbrensis, January 1877, p. 22. 

ii. Gruffudd, of Maelor Saesneg, who married Gwer- 
fyl, daughter and coheiress of Madog ab Maredudd ab 
Lly welyn Fychan, of Abertanad and Blodwel in Mechain, 
ab Lly welyn ab Owain Fychan ab Owain, Lord of 
Mechain Isgoed, argent, a lion rampant sable, in a border 
indented gules, second son of Madog ab Maredudd, 
Prince of Powys Fadog, by whom he had issue seven 
• i Add. MS. 9864. * Rev. M. fl. Lee, Vicar of Hanmer. 

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sons : 1, Madog Lloyd, of Isgoed in Maelor Saesneg, 
ancestor of the Lloyds of Tal y Wern ; 2, Llywelyn DdA 
of Abertanad and Blodwel ; 3, David, grandfather of 
Edward ab Madog ab David of Bodylltyn in Rhiwabon ; 
4, Madog Ddft ; 5, Iorwerth Foel ; 6, Morgan Goch of 
Willington, whose line is now represented through heirs 
female by the Dimokes of Penley Hall and Willington ; 
and, 7, Goronwy DdA of Abertanad. 

in. Morgan ab Iorwerth Foel of Maelor Saesneg, 
ancestor of the Yonges of Bryn Iorcyn and Croxton in 
the parish of Hanmer. 

iv. Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern in Nantheudwy, 
who married Gwladys, daughter and coheiress of Llewe- 
lyn ab Madog ab Einion of 141, ab Rhirid ab Madog ab 
Maredudd ab Uchdryd, Lord of Cyfeiliawg, ab Edwyn 
ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had issue 
six sons : 1, Llywelyn ab Ednyfed of Halchdyn in Mae- 
lor Saesneg, ancestor of the Lloyds of Halchdyn; 2, 
Iorwerth DdA of Llys Pengwern in Nantheudwy, an- 
cestor of the families of Mostyn, Lord Mostyn of Mostyn, 
Sir Pyers Mostyn of Talacre, Bart. ; Mostyn, Lord Vaux 
of Harrowden ; Mostyn, now Mostyn Owen of Wood- 
house, and Mostyn of Segrwyd ; the Edwardses of P14s 
Newydd and Cefn y Wern in the Swydd y Waun (Lord- 
ship of Chirk), the Lloyds of Pl&s Is y Clawdd in the 
same lordship ; and the Hughes of Pennant y Belan in 
Rhiwabon ; 3, David, ancestor of the Trevors of Pl&s Teg 
yn Yr H6b, of Bryn Cunallt, of Pentref Cynwrig and Bo- 
dynfol, of Trefalun and Croes Oswallt, or Oswestry ; 4, 
Ieaun ab Ednyfed,ancestor of the Joneses of Westyn Rhyn, 
and Edward ab Iohn ab Edward of Ty 'ny Celyn in the 
parish of St. Martin ; 5, Maredudd, fourth in descent 
from whom was William ab Reignallt ab David ab Gruf- 
fudd of Careg Hwfa, whose daughter and heiress, Mar- 
garet, married Robert Lloyd of Bryn Gwyn, Esq. ; and 
6, Gruffudd, ancestor of the Pughs of Ty Cerrig in Llan 
y Myneich. 

v. Ieuan ab Iorwerth Foel, of Llanvechain. 

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Brocbmael Ysgythrog, King of Powys ; sable, three 
horse's heads erased argent 

Merfyn, King of Powys ; or, a lion's gamb bend ways, 
erased gules, armed azure. 

Trahaiarn ab Caradawg, King of Gwynedd and Powys ; 
argent, a lion rampant sable, crowned or, armed and 
langued gules. 

Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys ; or, a lion ram- 
pant gules, armed and langued gules. 

Madawg ab Maredudd, Prince of Powys ; argent, a 
lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules. 

Gruffudd Maelawr; argent, four pales gules, a lion 
salient sable, armed and langued azure. 

Gruffudd ab Maredudd, Prince of Upper Powys ; or, 
a lion's gamb bendways erased gules, armed azure. 

Owain Cyfeiliawg ; as above. 

Gwenwenwyn ; as above. 

Gruffudd ab Gwenwynwyn ; or, a lion rampant gules, 
armed and langued azure. 

Cadwgan of Nannau ; or, a lion rampant azure, armed 
and langued gules 

Hywel ab Ieuaf, Lord of Arwystli ; argent, a lion 
rampant sable, crowned or, which arms, after his mar- 
riage with the Princess Merinedd, daughter of Gruffudd 
ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, who bore gules, three lions 
passant in pale argent, were changed to gules, a lion 
rampant argent, crowned or, and langued azure, when 
he obtained the Lordship of Arwystli as a marriage por- 
tion with his wife. 

Lly warch ab Trahairn ; argent, a lion rampant sable, 
crowned or, armed and langued azure. 

Maredudd ab Rotpert, Lord of Cydewen ; as above. 

Madog ab Trahaiarn ; argent, a lion rampant gules, 
armed and langued azure. 


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Gwrystan ab Gwaethfoed ; vert, a lion rampant argent, 
head, feet, and tail, imbrued 

Maredudd ab Cynan, Lord of Meirionydd ; quarterly, 
gules aud argent, four lions passant gardant counter- 

Owain ab Madawg, Lord of Mechain is y Coed ; ar- 
gent, a lion rampant sable, in a border indented gules. 

Owain Brogyntyn ; argent, a lion rampant sable, de- 
bruised by a baton sinister gules. 

Einion Efell ; party per fe3S sable and argent, a lion 
rampant counterchanged, armed and langued gules. 

Cynwrig Efell ; gules, on a bend argent, a lion passant 

Cynfelyn ab Dolphwyn, Lord of Manafon, ab Rhi- 
wallawn ab Madawg ab Cadwgan, Lord of Nannau; 
azure, a lion passant argent. 

Madawg Heddgam ; azure, a bow and arrow distended 
partly downwards argent. 

Brochmael ab Aeddan of Llanerch Brochmael, Lord of 
Cegidfa, Broniarth, and Deuddwr ; party per pale, or 
and gules, two lions rampant addorsed counterchanged. 

Tudor Trevor; party per bend sinister, ermine and 
ermines, over all a lion rampant or, armed and langued 

Lluddoccaf ab Hyfaidd ab Caradawg Ffreichfras, King 
of Gloucester and Hereford ; azure, a lion rampant, party 
per fess or and argent, in a border of the third, eight 
annulets sable. 

Elidur ab Rhys Sais ; ermine, a lion rampant azure. 

Iddon ab Rhys Sais; argent, a chev. inter three boar's 
heads couped gules, tusked or, and langued azure. 

Adda ab Awr, of Trefor; party per bend sinister, 
ermine and ermines, a lion rampant or in a border gules. 

Adda Goch, of Trevor ; the arms of Tudor Trevor, 
in a border gobonated argent and gules, pellaty counter- 

Madog Lloyd, of Bryn Cunallt ; arms of Tudor Trevor, 
in a plain border gules. 

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Dingad ab Tudor Trevor ; ermine, a lion rampant 
sable, armed and languecl gules. 

Cynwrig ab Rhiwall.awn,- as above. 

Ednyfed ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn ; ermine, a lion 
statant gardant gules, armed, etc., azure. 

Hwfa ab Iorwerth, of Havod y Wern ; sable, tbree 
lions passant in pale argent. 

Iorwerth ab Gruffudd, of Bersham ; gules, two lions 
passant in pale argent 

Madog Danwr, of Llangurig ; ermine, a lion rampant 
sable, armed and langued gules, in a border gules, charged 
with eight mullets ; or, according to others, eight lions 
passant or. (See page 78.) 

Sanddef Hardd, Lord of Mortyn ; veH, seme of 
broomslips, a lion rampant or. 

Eunydd, Lord of Dyffryn Clwyd, Trefalun and Gres- 
ford. 1, azure, a lion salient or; 2, azure, a fess or, 
inter three horse's heads erased argent, for Rhys ab Mar- 
chan, Lord of Dyffryn Clwyd. 

Ednowain ab Ithel, Lord of the Bryn, in Llanfihangl 
y Pennant ; argent three wolves, courant in pale sable, 
armed and langued gules, collared of the field. 

Idnerth Benfras, Lord of Maesbrwg; argent, a cross 
flory engrailed sable, inter four Cornish choughs ppr. ; 
on a chief azure, a boar's head couped argent, tusked or, 
and langued gules. 

Cadwgan y Saethydd, of Mochnant, Lord of Henfa- 
chau ; argent, a chev. gules, inter three pheons pointed- 
to the centre, sable. 

Sir Roger de Powys, of Whittington, knight ; vert, a 
boar or. 

Lly welyn Foelgrwn of Main ; argent, a lion passant 
sable, in a border indented gules. 

Lly welyn Eurdorchog, Lord of 141 and Ystrad Alun ; 
azure, a lion passant gardant, his tail between his legs, 
and reflected over his back or. 

Ithel Felyn, Lord of 141 and Ystrad Alun ; sable, on 
a chev., inter three goat's heads erased or, three trefoils 
of the field. 

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Madog, of Hendwr; argent, on a chev. gules, three 
fleurs de lys or. j 

Trahaiarn ab Iorwerth, Lord of Garthmul ; argent, f 
three lions passant in pale gules, armed and langued 

Ednowain ab Bradwen, Lord of Dolgelli ; gules, three 
snakes cnnowcd in triangle argent, 

Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn ; vert, a chev. inter three 
wolfs heads erased argent. 

The Myddletons ; argent, on a bend vert, three wolfs 
heads erased argent. 

Cowryd ab Cadfan ; argent, three boar s heads couped 
sable, tusked or, and langued gules. 

Jonas, of Penley ; azure, three boars passant in pale 
argent, tusked and unguled or. 

Dafydd Llwch ; azure, three sea gulls argent. 

Ynyr of I&l, ab Hywel ab Moreuddig ab Sanddef 
Hardd, or the Handsome, Lord of Mortyn ; argent, four 
pales gules. This coat was afterwards changed to gules, 
three pales or, in a border of the second, charged with 
eight ogresses. The Baronet family of Lloyd of Bodi- 
dris in Ial, were descended from him, and are now 
represented by the Lord Mostyn, who sold Bodidris. 
(See p. 152.) 

By the Bard Cynddelw. 

Add. MS. 14, 886, /o. 91. 

Eglynyon marwnad y ririd vleit 
Kyndelu brydyt ae cant 

Ririd rwyf gwrhyd gwrhaf o gyfet 

A gefeis y alaf 
A duw ae due y arnaf 
A dwe pawb a vo pemaf 

Petinhaf y treitem trwy ryuayc gwron 1 

ffroen wynnyon friw dyfryc I 

1 Gwron. 

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lies beirt heirt oe hart wenyc 1 
Uys kelynyn kelynnyc 

Kelennic ruteur am rotei Riryd 

wym rotes a vei lei 
Nyd aruanwl vut vytei 
Nyd ar vanarch yn parchei 

Nyd ar an perchis an peirch y weithon 

Or deon diheueirch 
Tny kyrchem karcharueircli 
Karcharoryon kocoron 2 keirch 

Gwnaeth goronw gwr anlew 
gyflanan anhelediw 3 
Adlat Ririd rwyf anaw 
A byth nys beitei bei byw. 


By the Bard Cynddelw. 

Add. MS. 14,869, fo. 81b. 

Marwnad Ririd Uleit ap Gwrgenew ac Arthen ei frawd. 
E p' r p' 11. et p' aluid vetnshed 
Kyndelw brydyt ae cant 

Ym peryf digart bwyf dygen geinyad 
yr mab yr mawrdad rotyad uy reen 
Yr yspryd vchel or vn echen* 
Yr arglwyt gwlad lwyt gwledic moysen 
Mor wyf gert geinrwyf hyglwyf kagen 
Mor wyf hygleu uart o ueirt ogyruen 5 
Mor wyf gwyn gofrwys nyd wyf gyfyrwen 
Mor oet gyfryw" fyrt kyrt kyrriduen 
Mor eissyeu eu dwyn yn eu dyrwen 8 
Aessar andianc oes anien 
Mor wyf Dirrwyn nrwyn am urwydyr a doden 
Breise Uab Gorgeneu brydeu braduen 
Mor debic uy mod megys gwydyen 
Gogwytaw pob 11a wr ker Haw y benn 
Mor nawd pob rahawd 9 na byt ryhen 

1 G wenyc. 4 Echen. 7 Gyfrinw. 

8 Kotoron. 6 Ogyrfen. 8 Dyrloen. 

* Amhelediw. 6 Gofrwyf. • Rhahawd. 

TOL. I. 21 

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Mor wenwyn ym kwyn am yd ym ken 1 
Mor \vyf godedic die disgy wen 3 
Mor ;uynych mor veith lleith llwyth pobyen 
Gwyr yn auyrdwl 3 gwyr gwer in vrten* 
Gwyr yn auy dwyth 5 gwyth yr gweith ueigen 
Gwyr yn amwyn greid gretyf ychen yg gwet 

Gwyr yn 6 kywrysset gwyr gwlet gwlytyen 
Gwyr yn kyd berchid uch gwid g wen en 
Gwr an kyd barchei oe barch amgen 
Gwyr y buam y gyd am ged orten 7 
Nyd ym gyd am vut am vetu gwen 
Ny threuyd hebof aghof aghen 
Aghen Ririd wynn wedy arthen 
Kyn kanwyf o dwfyn o dofyn awen 
Awyt neud aflwyt neud aflawen 
Neud aflawen wyf neud aflauar drift 

Nenm rym cotes Crist creawdyr trugar 8 
Nend am rygwyn ym nend am rygar 
Nend am rygyr kyrt kyd ymarwar* 
Neud am dragon dwfyn dyfneisy auar 10 
Neud am dreic bennant bennaf galar 
Neud 11 gwaruet meuet mynwent uranar 
Neud gweryd Riryd rwysc uuelyar 12 
Neud gordiwanw 13 hoen hoetyl abar 14 lledkyut 

Neud gordiuynt hynt gwynt gwrth donnyar 
Neud wy ae gonwy neud gordyar 15 
Neud gordiuet 16 gwr gwrt y uannyar 17 
Gwr ny oet hygawt 18 a oet hygar 
Hygyrch y neuat kyn Hat llacnar 19 
Gwr oet gyhaual 20 dial dyar 21 
Argoreu a vu o veib gleissyar 
Gwr oet ueirt aruoll kartgoll kertgar 
Gwr oet vleit Uysseit lyssid y uar 
Gwr oet rut y lauyn o lif gwyar 
Gwr oet ruthyr aruthyr ar y escar 32 
Gwr athrigyad aer gwr athrugar 

1 Ken. 

Y mar war. 

16 Gordiwet 

2 Disgywn. 

10 Afar. 

17 Baduiar. 

8 Afrdwl. 

11 Neuedd. 

18 Hygawdd. 

* Vrdden. 

12 Vfeliar. 

19 Llacher. 

5 Afrdwyth. 

13 Gorddifauw. 

20 CyhafeL 

• Yng. 1 

14 Arbar. 

21 Dyar. 

7 Ordden. 

13 Gorddyar. 

22 Esgar. 

8 Trugar., 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Gwr athrist y ueirt oe vod yn war 

Gwr am gwnaeth hiraeth liir ysgar ac ef 

Yny del llu nef a llu daear / 

Gwr gweionyad 1 j T g cad gwr gwanar yn 

Gwr o dinodyng gwr bergig 2 bar 
Paraud oe adaf kyn noe adaw 
Pareu post en weir peir pedrylaw 3 
Pedryliw 4 y lauyn y Iat raedaw 
Pedry let' 5 kwynuan kyrt am danaw 
Pedry dawc deifnyawc dyfneis y gwynaw 
Kwynaf ym er moed hoed o honaw 
Eil kwyn am tremyn tremid 6 yrdaw 
Eil gwr gwrt gorten Arthen eirthyaw 7 
Eduynt edryuynt wrth edrinaw rot 

a geueris oe vot o vut gauthaw 
Eryr glyw 8 glewaf 9 neuaf na daw 
Edlid a berid oe beriglaw 
Ernywed 10 arnafy o uod arnaw 
Deyerin derwin dir eu kutyaw 
Er pan yw tawel ryuel rwyuaw 
Rwynan tan taerwres 11 trachwres trinnaw 
Rym gwnaeth yn athrist athreityaw Pennant 

ae phennyadur wedy syrthyaw 
Priodawr 12 dinmawr prutuawr preityaw 
Preityn oet y gwyn kyn noe gwytaw 18 
Prydein am galwant om gwarandaw 
Prydyt ny hepcyr yr breyr braw 
Pryder am danuer prydaf itaw 
Prydeis y rwyf treis cyn treul athaw 
Athal eur vual a vu eityaw 
Ethiw hael hebofy athwyf hepdaw 
Nyd etiw om kof keissyaw uyg kyuefc 

Kyuoed oneret y uetylyaw 
Y mywyd Riryd wryd wognaw 14 
Delw ym doeth anoeth ym doeth anaw. 
Delw yt oetwn vart y ueirt ganllaw 
Canlles am rotes ruteur wallaw 15 
Delw yd oreu duw y dewissaw 
Dewissed y duw y dwyn attaw 


1 Gweiniad. 

• Tremid. 

2 Pergnig. 

* Pedrylau. 
4 Pedryliw. 

* Pedrylef. 

7 Eirthiaw. 

8 Gly. 

• Neuafl 
10 Erniwed. 

11 Trachwros. 

12 Praidd. 
} s Cwyddo. 

14 Wognaw. 

15 Gwailaw. 
I 21 * 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Delw y doeth ataf alaf oe law 
Delw yt oet wrthyfy yt wyf wrthaw 
Wrth ar am carei caraf gymen gadw 

kerrynt assawr bradw brad gyghallem 
Ruthyr aruthyr eirthyaw 1 Artheu vubenn 
Run venwyd 2 Riryd rut y onnea 
Nyd oet dylaw dreic dragon woen 3 
Nyd oot Vleit ainprut nyd oet ampren 4 
Eurdwrn oet y lauyn yuy loflen* 
Eurglet 6 kymynet kymynei benn 
Eurdorchogyon dewr deyerin lenn 
Edlid ym dilid yw 7 eu dilen 
Aervleityeid vleinyeid vleitieu kynaruod 

erlynassant glod yr bod yn benn 
Ergrynynt eu bar seirff 8 saffar senn 
Ergyr 9 waewawr treis traus y gynhenn 
Eryron trychyon trychwyd 10 orfenn 
yr yuassamny uedw vet y drefwenn 
ym buchet gwledic gwladoet berchenn 
Madawc mor kyhoet niueroet nenn 
Meidryad cad cadyr dor car cor kynyrbenn 
Medreis not uy rwyf ar uy rwychren 
Mechdevrn metgyrn metgwyn pemryadur 

medel gwyr gwaedvur oesgur asgen 11 
Maws 12 massarn cadarn callon yaeu 
Moes ysbwys ysbys echrys ochren 18 
Mygedawc 14 y hoedyl hoed ar orfen 
Mygyr yd latei loegyr hyd lewdir trenn 
Mynw 15 traglew Hew llawr mwynuawr mesprenn 
Mur gwryd gwynnuyd gwenn eluyten 
Nyd llawen uy mryd y mro gyngen 
Ar llary Haw hyged gweled gwythenn 
Gwythenn ae gortho gorthaw dristlawn wyr 

Gwytlan ac gwerchyr 16 gorchut gwythlawn 
Gwytuet en gwytua gwytuid estrawn 
Gwytun am rotes bntles botlawn 
Gwytueirch eirch 17 erchlyuyn erchliw krychrawn 
Gwy tuiled gyfred gratyuyged grawn 

1 Eirthiaw. 

7 Yn. 

18 Ochren. 

2 Menwyd. 
8 Woen. 

4 Ammchen. 

5 Lloflen. 

8 Saffar. 

9 Ergyr. 

10 Trychwydr. 

11 Asgen. 

14 Mygedawc. 

15 Mynw. 

16 Gwerchyr. 

17 Erch. 

6 Cymynedd. 

12 Maws. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Ymuchet mur treis traws y gamawn 1 
Creshwyr 2 fwyr faglawr fraeth lawr frwy th lawn 
Can Riryd rwyf cad kunyad creulawn 
Callon oet agraff kedoet agrawn 
rotyon gwron gomn eigyawn raor 

Madawc mur Tewdor cor Cass walla wn 
Gogyraan 3 eluduan eludueirt wogawn 4 
Cludeisy alauoet 5 llyssoet lleissywn 
Gwedy pargoch grym parllym peirllaw 
Kyrchwn hael dimuael din maw r nyd awn 
Duw damnant 6 eiryoes einyoes einyawn 
Mawruab ytnyued mawrged gyflawn 
Nym golut mawrvut mab 7 Riwallawn 
llyw llafnawr Hew llawr Llystynwallawn 
Ririd nym gochel am gochawn oe breit 

wedy Riryd 8 Uleit vlawt haearndawn 
Toryf aergoryf argoed hoed hiraeth lawn 
Twryf taerdreul taerdan yn gwan gwynan 
Aer deaer deruyst daryf aryf arodryawn 
Arth warth wrthodyad am nad am nawn 
Tra vu vyg kyuet yg kyuoeth yawn 
Nym Hauarei y nep nam bei digawn 
Nym ditolei y lary* o lawer dawn 
Nym goruc dewr wr deurut warchlawn 10 
Ny bu warchlef 11 kert kynverching werin 

benn Talyessin bartrin beirtrig 
Barteir om kyveir ny byt kyuig 
Ym kyueten breu brwdyr diedig 1 * 
Handoet eu hachoet kyn en hechig 18 
y merw derw dnruet vachet vechig 
or kedeym kedawl hawl hirdiuig 
gad ell ener 14 o gadelling 
Or glan essillit gloew essillig 
Or glyw 15 glew dy wal ie ny dal ny dig 17 
vonet keolig coelvut kertoryon 

o arvon o uon o vaelgyuig 18 
Wedy cad wosut mawr mygyi-vut mig 1 * 

1 Camawn. 

7 Mabl. 

" Ener. 

* Trefwyr. 

8 Blawdd. 

15 Glyw. 

s Cymau. 

9 Llarv. 

16 Dvwal. 

4 Wogawn. 

10 Warthlawn. 

17 Ding. 

* Alafoedd. 

" Warthlef. 

18 Vaelgynig. 

6 Dumnant; 


12 Dieding. 

» Ming. 


13 Heching. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Wedy ced wosep 1 neb nym deiring 
Hew llawr Hid enweir llydw beir bergig 2 
llwrw 3 trylew llawr 4 Hew 5 Huric deilig 6 
ym buchet Arthen arthuar yn ig 
y mywyd Riryd ruteur wellig 3 
Rotynt rut a gwyrt rwyf kyrt kunig 
Roted ardunyant ar Dinodig 9 



By the Bard Ctnddelw. 

Add, MS. 14,869, fo. 227b. 

Kyndelw ae cant y ririd vleit, ex. p. aliud et pliuat 

Mae ym vleit am car om caffael wrthaw 

yn 10 wrthep archauael 11 
Nyd bleit coed coll y auael 
Namwyn bleit maes moessawc hael 
Cleddyf clod wasgar a wisgaf ar glun 

rwg uy Hun am llassar 12 
Cleddyf cloynneu hygar 
Cleddyf Ririd Uleit viae ngar 
Priodawr Pennant pennaf vchelwr 

uchelwyr uodrydaf 
Nyd y uleit preit y prydaf 
Namyn y vleit glyw y glewhaf. 

More iddig ab Rhys ab Gwrystan ab Arandur, etc. See Chirk Castle, t 

Collwyn ab ?...'... daughter and heiress of Gwrgeneu ab Ednowain ab Ithel, 

of Powys. 


Lord of the Bryn, Pennant Melangell, and the Eleven 
Towns in the Lordship of Oswestry. Argent, three wolves 
passant table, collared of the field. 

Gwrgeneu ab =F Generis, daughter and co-heiress of Convyn Hirdref, Lord of 


Lord of 


Nevyn, in the comot of Dinlleyn, in the cantref of Lleyn ; 
and Haer, his wife, daughter of Cunillon ab Y Bkudd 
Ehudd, Lord of G£st, in the comot of Eivionydd and can- 
tref of Dunodig, who bore azure, a wolf passant argent, his 
head and neck, gvlee. Haer married secondly, Bleddyn ab 
Cynvyn. Prince of Powys. See p. 83. 



1 Gesep. 

5 Llawr. 

9 Dinoding. 

8 Perging. 

• Llaw. 

10 Ym. 

s Llwru. 

7 Teilinp. 

11 Archafael. 

4 Llabwr. 

8 Gwelling. 

13 Al's Uachar. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


\a \b 

Ehirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, Pennant Melangell in Mechain Arthen 
Isgoed, Gljn, and the Eleven Towns in the cantref of Trefryd, ab 

and of Gest in Eivionydd in GwynedcL Vert, a Chevron, Gwrgeneu. 
inter three wolves' heads erased argent. He lived at a place 
called Xeuaddau Gleision, in the township of Rhiwaedawg 
in Penllyn, in the time of Madawg ab Maredudd, Prince of 
Powys, 1129 to 1159. 


By the Baud Cynddelw. (See pp. 78, 123.) 

Add. MS., 14,869, /o. 756. 

Canu y ywein Kyueilyawc 1 
Kyndelw brydyt ae cant. 

Dysgogan derwyton dewrwlad y esgar 

y wysgwyd weiiniuyad 
Dys gweinid 2 kyrt kydneid kydnad 
Kyd uolyant gwv gormant 3 gormeissyad 
Dysgweyd keinyeid kyua enad eu rwyf 

eu rwyt uot yn am had 4 
Dy brydeich bnvyd yr daer aer aerurad 
Dy briw dreio dragon beleidryad 
Dybrys alaf 5 deifyr y drefad Bowya 

y beues 6 y hendad 
Dy gostwng arthan 7 dy gwystyl dy 

waen dy gwan dywynnyc 8 ae aghad 
Dygwisc aragenwise amgeinyad 
Dy gwasgar trychyeid mal trochyad 
Dychanaf ym naf ym neirthyad Ywein 

peir prydein 9 preit gyrchyad 
Br6isc y doryf am goryf am geinrad 
Beirt gynnull am drull 10 am dri Had 11 ' 
Botawc y rodawc y rodyaw toruoet 

twryf kyhoet kyhutyad 
Bot rot rann gym an 12 gymynad 
Bolch lauyn goch heb guchyed 18 o gad 
Brondor wrt ortud ordyuynyad 14 knudoet 15 

vch knawd meirw ar ystrad 

1 Ob. 1197. • Peues. " Llad. 

2 Dysgweiuad. 7 Arthan. 12 Cyman. 

s Gormant. 8 Dywynnyc. ls Cuchied. 

4 Amliod. * Praidd. 14 Knui. 

5 Alaf. 10 Trull. 15 Gorddyfuiad. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Byron hyged hygawt y gywlad 
Bro hygadw a diuradw a diurad 
Duirad dygymrad dygymrwyn 1 ognaw* 

digymrut wrth eirchyad / 

dilwfwr vt dilut vut veityad 
dilyw gly w glewdrawa gynn iuy ad 3 
Difwys beith* odwys beithynyad glud glwys 

Argoedwys 5 argleidrad 
Diachris kartwys kert vorad 8 
Diechrys llwry llwyrwys llwy 7 prad 
Diecliig wellig wallouyad 
Diachor wosgort wosgrynyad 
Diachar 8 llachar 9 lluchyad y laspar 

llacheu uar Haw weiwyad 10 

Lleweuyt preitwyr 11 preitwr yawn 
lleithiawc Ywein llwyth ogawn 12 
lleithgar llym grym gryd 13 ) 
Ueityad kad kert glyd j 

Kedernyd kafwailawn 
Pasgen wrya pascueirch vrys M vrei sedawn 
Pas cad ar toruoet twryf eigyawn 
Pascbe kun kyflawn kyflafan 15 goteith 

gwyth gwynnyeith wrth wynnawn 
Par odrut parawd vut votlawn 
Paladyrgoch paladur estrawn 
Gwnaeth gwr gwrhyd vann ) 
Gwrualch yg gwalchlan ) 

Gwawr creulaft mal creulawn 
Gwaew drwy benn drwy beri camawn 18 
Gwaed ar wallt rac allt Gadwallawn 
Tn Uannerch ynlleudir meruyayawn 
Tn Hew glew yn llyw rac lleissyawn 
llatei llauyn gasnar llathrei galch Uassar 17 

mal llachar 18 Haw digrawn 

Digrawn 19 rwyf rwyt vann rwyi 
digrifwch dragon dreic ofrwy 20 

nan rwy 

1 Brteyn. 

8 Diachar. 

15 Cyflafan. 

2 Ognaw. 

• Llachar. 

18 Cancawn. 

8 Cynnifiad. 

10 Gweiniad. 

17 Caich Uassar. 

* Paith. 

11 Praidd. 

18 Llashar. 

6 Argoedwys. 

12 Ogawn. 

19 prawn; Digrawn. 

6 Morad. 

13 Gryd. 

20 Ofrwy. 

T Llwry. 

14 Gwrys. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


dinas gwestiuyteint 1 gosty gws mal gwr 

Gwestun dwr dorradwy 

Gwesti 2 gwlet gwledic aruordwy 3 
Gwesti gwyr yn gwastad gwarwy 4 
Gwesti gwastador ) 
Gwastad rad ragor J 

Gwawr tewdor toryf arlwy 
Gwesti ked kedernyd uwyuwy 
Gwesti kyrt keiryadawc owy 
Gwesti gwystyl greu Agwystyl deheu 

Gwesti creu a chymwy 5 
Rutbres kad beityad beirt wantwy 
Rutbeir bar llachar 6 ban llatwy 
Rutbraf y saffwy 7 ny syll 8 ae olwc 

o olud ny rotfwy 
Rut bareu a beir yn adwy 
Ryt bebyll rynn gestyll gystwy 
Rut uyt gryd 9 grym aer \ 
Ysgor glyw 10 glew dear J 

ysgwyd glear glod arlwy 
Rut ongyr 11 angert alasswy 
Rut lwy byr gwaed gwae lwuyr ae gwelwy 
Run auael auwy rugyl ordwy ortrud 

ar ordrych auarwy 
Rut uedel ryuel ryuertpwy 
Ruthyr uthyr ualch 12 eur galch y gylchwy 

Kylchwy kyuryuel kyureith orden 13 rwyf 
kynny gyn u glwyf glod urten 15 

Kyuaruod oruod orawen 

Kyuaryf taryf twryf llu yn dyrwen 16 

Kyfle niueroet kyflaun y eiryoes 
Kywlad loes znoes maxen 

Mawr draws dreis dra Uyr henuelen 17 

Mawr bar beir o bedeir echen 18 

Marchawc meirch can welw 1 

Meu grenhyd gynnhelw J 
Mi Gyndelw gert o gyruen 19 


1 Gwestifiaint 

8 Syll 

14 Cynnygn. 

2 GwestL 

9 Gryd. 

w Vrdden. 

8 Arfordwy. 

10 Glyw Ysgor. 

18 Dyrwen. 

4 Gwarwy. 

11 Ongyr. 

17 Henuuelen. 

6 Cymwy. 

« Catch. 

• 1B Echen. 

6 Llachar. 

13 Orden. 

19 Ogyrfen. 

7 Saffwy. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Brwysc rwysc rwyf tewdor dor dy gen 
Brwyd rwyd rad rannawc om awen 
Brwyd yr gy grown gygres 
Bryssyws bwyd branhes 

vch kawres kaer amgen 
Balch ongyr 1 angert uraven 
Ball ar lyw am lameu Hafren 
Braw rac y wryawr gwrtwarwr 2 a gwrthwan 

a gwrtwaew yn aglien 
Bangor toryf taerlew Hew Uawen 
Blaengar glew gletyual 3 uryen 
Blaengar y volawd yn hartwawd hytestyl* 

yn hywestyl 5 yn hywen 
Baranres aeruleit aeruen 7 y waedlafyn 

ae waedlan disgywen 

Disgywen gorten 8 gordawn fraeth gordwy 

hydyr goryw uilwryaeth 9 
Gorpo 10 teymnar tywyssogaeth brut 

ar brydein dirogyaeth 
Gomawr glyw 11 glewyd dialaeth 
Gorulwg aryf aeruetawc bennaeth 
Gorchynnann gosgort gwasgawd 12 calchdaed 18 

Gwasgargert gwisgogaeth 
Gorwytawd 1 * pen keirw pennhiliuaeth an ryt 

anrydet uarchogaeth 
Gorun toryf twryf aches 15 ar draeth 
Gormes draws gwenwynoaws 16 gwinnaeth 
Gortyfuyad bual butugolyaeth ualch 

ny uwlch dyn y aruaeth 

Aryf toruoet toruysc eigyl 17 yg kydoch 

O Vangor hyd Vangeibyr 18 dydoch 

Amyl vwch veirt yw vut } 

Einys llys nyw Hut > 

Emys rut ruthyr gwytuoch j 

T ordawn a ordyfyn drosoch 

Y ueirch kann kyfran kyfryngoch 

1 Ongyr. 

7 Aerfen. 

18 Calchdoed. 

2 Gwriawr. 

8 Gorden ; Gordwy. 

14 Gorwyddaw. 

8 Cleddyfal. 

9 uc vu.f.ia. 

18 Aches. 

j 4 Hyddestl. 

10 Gorpo. 

18 Maws. 

5 Hyweste. 

» Glyw. 

17 Eingl. 

* Bar a u res. 

13 Gosgordd. 

18 Bangoibr. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Y ysgwnn gynnif 1 y yogwyd yg gnif* 

y yscwyteu vochuorch 
T dreiswaen y dreiswan mor groch 
T drosset ny dressir nemoch 

Y drylew yn riw \ 

Y doryf drylwyn 3 wiw j 

y daryan dryliw droch 

Y bareu y aruew aruoloch 4 

Y bebyll y byll 5 y ball 6 coch 

Korcli wist yosgort 7 am byrth marmor raawr 

mab Gruffut greid 8 oror 
Coch y lauyn o lat yn ragor 
Yn raclan yn raclyra eissor 9 
Koch arueu aeruan Koch liw luman 

rac baran 10 beirt vangor 
Koch rodawc pedrydawc 11 pedror 12 
y ar orwyt pearogyl pedreindor 13 
Koch bwlch y lein" o drim o drydar 

Koch y bar o borfor 
Porthes gwr gwrtualch yg kyntor 15 
Gwyth vorc yn racre 17 rac yor 18 
Treis ar ysgwyd rac ysgor 19 dinteiriw 

A gwyr meirw rac mwr cor 
Tres 29 rac Hew rac Uyw pedeir or 
Treis ar llosgyr a llu wrth agor 
Taryf rac tniyf glasuor a thewdwr a theruyse 

a thrylew a thrylwyn vrondor 
A thrychyon a thrychan el or 

Gelyn traws ryuel tros ruuein yd wys 

tros y llys yn Llundein 
Mynw 20 ehofyn colofyn kyfwyrein 21 
Mur metgyrn merchdeyrn 22 Mechein 
Mwyn ouyt y veirt y ueith goelvein 23 rann 
meirch mygyruann kynkan 24 kein 


1 Ysgwn;cynnif. 

2 Gnif. 

• Eissor. 
10 Baran. 

17 Bore. 

18 Yscar. 

8 Trylwyn. 
* Arfoloch. 

11 Pedrydawc. 

12 Pedror. 

19 Tres. 

20 Mynw. 

8 PyU. 
• Pail. 

7 Gosgordd. 

8 Graid. 

13 Pedrongc. 
*♦ Llain. 

15 Cyntor. 

16 Ilhacrc. 

21 Cyfwyrain. 

22 Mechdeyrn. 

23 Coeluain. 

24 Cyncan. 

Digitized by LiOOQ 



Yn rith ryna ysgwyd 1 
rac ysgwnn 1 blymnwyd 2 J 

ar ysgwyt yn arwein 
Yn rith Hew rac llyw goradein 8 
Ynrith Hauyn* anwar llachar llein 
Yn rith cletyf claer clod ysgein 5 yn aer 

yn aroloet kyngrein 
Yn rith dreir rac dragon prydein 
Yn rith bleit blaengar vn Ywein 

Ewein awytuawr Argledyr toryf twryf gawr 

angert llawr llu gyngrwn 
Ny hirgeidw ar geirch meirch mygdwn 8 
Ny hwyrgyrch cludlann clod adwn 
Ny fy rac teruyfc rac taryf yg gosgort 7 

tarw tewdor dor dyrwn 8 
Ny phlyc y brafaw ym pryfwn 9 
Ny phyrth gwarth eorthrnm y gystlwn 10 
Nys ergryd gorwryd na gorthrwm glewyd 

nys treuyd nys traeth wn 
Nys crawn 11 ked escnd rac ysgwn 12 
Na theawc mygawc 13 na mygdwn 14 
Ny dodaf uyg kert yg kynhelw camdull 

om kynnull canys gwnn 16 
Nys Hut Hew Hauynnriw kanmiw krwnn 
Ny dotwyf arhael hyd arhwnn 

Horitor 18 y glod o gy flawnder kyrfe 
Kertoryon ae daduer 17 
Dychynyd 18 glewyd glew hyder 
Dychyfry 18 fossawd fwyr 20 gnawd fer 21 
Dychynne 22 flamdreis y dan flamdei lleogyr 

a phlant digyl 28 yg gwander 
Dy glud glod mal y clyw llawer 
Dychyrch 24 cad dy rann rad rif ser 
Dychymmell 25 prydein or pryder yd vu 

prif deyru ae differ 28 

1 Ysgwn. 

10 Gystlwn. 

2 Plymnwy. 

11 Crawn. 

8 Coradain. 

12 Ysgwn. 

4 Llain. 

13 Myngawc. 

6 Ysgain. 

14 Mygdwy. 

8 Mygdwn. 

15 Miw ; biw. 

7 Gosgordd. 

u Horitor. 

8 Dyrwn. 

17 Dadfer. 

8 Pryffwn. 

18 Dychyfyd. 

18 Dychyffry. 
» Ffwyr. 

21 Ffer. 

22 Dychynnen. 
28 EingL 

24 Dychyrch. 

25 DyshymmelL 
28 Differ. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Drud ysgwnn 1 ysgwyd dau hanner 
Drud auyrdwyth 2 amnwyth 3 araniver 
Drudyon a veirtyon a vawl neb dragon 

namwyn dreic ae dirper 4 
Drud wr gwrt gortrud y lasuer 
Drud rwyf toryf turyf llanw yn aber 
Druduleit gawr drud vwynuawr 5 vuner 
Drud lachar 6 drudlauyn a gymer 
Drud lawn y eurdyrn o lad y eurgyrn 

Am lugyrn am leuaer 
Drud urwyf ri drudureisc y haelder 
Drud uannyer druduar 7 drudualch ner 

Drudlwyr 8 y drafwyr y ar drafun 9 veirch 

oe draferth 10 rac fordun 
Saeson sag dyllest 11 yg gwestun 
Bu creu eu callon eu kymun 
Gwrtlann dihauarch ( 

Gwrtuenn perchen parch J 

y ar erchuarch* 2 veinllun 
Gwruawr glyw 13 a glewyd ar nun 
Gwr osgeth 14 o wise borforun 
Scodit rac cart 15 kert orun deyrn 

Kledyr kedeyrn cad eitun 
Ysgryd gryd 16 rac greid eborthun 17 
Tsgrud wlyt 18 ar wbet y melltun 
Ys guawd rac Ywein \ 
Ys gauael y wrein J 

Ysgauaeth y veit kun 
Ar ysgwyd rwyd rodwyt ual run 
Ysgawl 19 toryf rac trefred alon 
Ysgordor dyrron ysgwn 
oet ysgwn ysgwyd twnn tal rugun 

Taer peir par llachar 20 lloegyr diwael 
Taryf lutyaw toryf gyuyaw 21 gyuael 


1 Ysgwn. 

8 Truffwyr. 

» Cardd. 

2 Afrdwyth. 

• Traffu. 

18 Ysgryd gryd. 

* Amnwy. 

10 Trafferch. 

17 Greid eborthvn. 

4 Dirper. 

11 Dyllest 

18 Ysgryd gwlydd. 

6 Ma ner. 

12 Erchfarch. 

18 YsgawL 

• Llachar. 

13 Glyw. 

20 Llacher. 

7 Barmiar. 

14 Osgesh. 

21 Cyfiaw. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Kymvalch valch uygyrdor kyuachauael 1 cor 

kyuerchei ueint kafael » 

Eryr cad gwrthodyad gwarthwael * 

Erchwyn greid 2 eirchyeid archauael 8 ' 

Erchwynyawc pedrydawc pedryael y lenn 

Powys wenn wlad Urochuael 
Eardym wal gletyual 4 glywael 
Ettiaet kynuyn kert auael 

Gauael glew yg cad gauaeled y wlad 

gauaelant ueirt y ged 
Gal dywal 5 dyual diarbed 
Gwawr ofrwy kylchwy calchdoed 
Granwynnyon trychyon trachywet eitun 

trachwytynt 6 been o draed 
Yn llidwm yn llydan drefred 
Yd wanei wauar yd waned 
Baryf ar uaryf ac aryf yn greoled 
Tal tra thai trannyal 7 tra chaled 
Yn llys Ywein hael ha anred 8 y wir 

Hydyr y dir ae daered 
Yny mae gwaret a gwared 
Yny mae gware gwaradred 9 
Yny mae yued heb neued 10 heb nac 

heb nebawd essywed 
Gorpo 11 teyrn twryf Uanwed 
Yn teyrnaa nef noted 

Add MS. 14,869, fo. 103. 

Eglynyon a gant teulu Ywein 

Kyveilyawc i gylchvau Kymry 

Exr. p. 11. C. (Mortyn 9.) 

Teulu Ywein Han anhun treis 

yn eu traws arovun 
fyrt kyrt kyueteu duhun 
Pa fort yt awn o Fortun 

1 Cyfarchafael. * Gal Dywal. • Gwaredred. 

* Graid. « Trachwyddo. 10 Neued. 
8 Archafael. 7 Trainal. xl Gorpo. 

* Cleddyfal. • Anred. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Dos was yn ebrwyt heb roti geirda 

Yr gwrda ysy yndi 
Dywan wan trywan trwydi 
Dywed an dyuod y Geri 1 
Dos was o Geri ac archwn wrthid 

rac an Hid an llochi 
Duvet y doetham iti 
Dywed y down Arwystli 2 
Dygychwyn gennad gan vawurydic doryf 

y deruyn Keredic 3 
dywan ar wyllt ar wallt pic 
Dywed y down Benwedic 4 
Dos obenwedic boeti ouyt gennad 

gan yth wna kewilyt 
Dywan ar gynan gynyt 
dywed y down Veiryonnyt 5 
Dygychwyn gennad gyuyl mordwy gwyrt 

gordyar 6 y gylchwy 
Dywan yr traean tramwy 
Dywed y down Ardudwy 7 
Dygychwyn gennad gein deruyn y wlad 

a nrletchywys meruyn 
Dos y west ar nest neuyn 
Dywed an dyuod Leyn 8 
Dygychwyn gennad o gylch dragon llary* 

lluossawc y galon 
Dos varchawc aruawc Aruon 10 
A Dywed an dyuod Mon 11 
Teulu y wein hael hawl dioleith 12 lloegyr 

lluossawc am anreith 
A ennir wedy hirdeith 
A annwny yn Ros 13 nosweith 
Dos was y gennyf ac nac annerch nep 

ony 'byt uyg gorterch 
Dywan ar vuan veinerch 
Dywed an dywod Lannerch 14 
Dygchywyn gennad gadyr ardal teulu 

teilwg met o vual 

1 KerL 6 Gorddyar. u Mon. 

2 Arwystli. 7 Ardudwy. 12 Dioleith. 
8 Keredic. 8 Lleyn. 13 Ros. 

4 Penwedic. 9 Llary. w Llannerch. 

5 Meirionyd. 10 Arfou. 

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A dywan dyno Bydwal 1 
A dywed an dyuod Tal 2 
Kycbwyn yu theruyn pathawr eu hoe wet 

hirvelyn eu gwaewawr 
Dy wan diw calan yanawr 
Dywed an dyuod Uaelawr 3 
Dos was na olut na oleith* dy lwru 5 

dy lustyaw nyd hawtweith 
Dywan o Vaelawr vawrdeith 
Dywed an dyuod Gynlleith 6 
Dos was a chyghor na chygein an toryf 

ual teiluoet bychein 
Dywan dwc rybut hytwein 
Dywed an dyuod Uechein 7 
Teulu Ywein rwyf rwystrassam wladoet 

poed gwlad nef a welam? 
Kyrch kyfrwyt kyflwyt adlam* 
Kyrch Kymry hjmerassam. 


Lord of Meibionedd. (See p. 96.) 

Add. MS. 14,869, fo. 26. 

Marwnad Ruffutt vabkynan vab Ywain Gwyned. 

qui Morit a'o d'ni 1200. 
Grufiut ap Gwrgeneu ae cant. v. f. 96. 

Gwr a gynneil y lloer yuy llawnwet 

a genniw pob tra trwydi beruet 10 
De gannyad oe rad oe rinwet, yn Uawch 

llewychedic heul yuy gynted 
Ac ynteu an dwc on diwet 

oe dyg trigyant yn drugaret 

Edry ant trachwant trachywet, 11 an knawd 

yt yn knyny daear yn y diwet 
drwg yw ynn dryked an buchet 
eil drwc yn kyflwc 12 an kyflyet 18 
Trydyt twyll herwyt kymwyll camwet 
Pedweryt 14 rewyt pymhed ryuet 

1 Bydwal. 

» Yal. 

8 Maelawr. 

4 Oleiss. 

5 Llwru. 

6 Kynllaith. 

7 Mechein. 

6 LI. C. oin adlam. 
9 LI. C. cyflam. 
» Perfedd. 

11 Cywedd. 

12 Cyflwg. 
18 Cyflyedd. 
14 Rhewydd. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Chweched am galed amgelet am ear 

a mireinwch 1 byd ae anrydet 
Seithucd bwrw gwythlwrw 2 gweithlonet 
Geir syberw 3 a berw 4 yny beruet 
Wythued yw Hat a llafnew cochwet 
Kelein a chathyl brein ar y bronnwet 
Nawued yn ryred nyd yn anryuet 5 
lleidyr na all edrych crist yn y grocwet 
Decued anwaraed yw anwaret an war 
dall nydar kym tylluet 
Dreir anhuenyt 6 herwyt haeret 
Hiruod heb gymod yny gamwek 
duw a uynn dyuod yw orset, 
hydyr a Haw nyd llai yw omet 
dadwyrein o uein o uet an dyhyt 

y an Dibnryaw o an cam wet 
Treisswr yw agheu ar bob trosset 
Trameint nyd kywreint an kywrysset 7 
O Ruffut gwaewrut goruolet, ym ken 8 

am Kynnygyws ear a raeirch hywet 
Hil Kynan erwan 9 erwydet 10 
Hael y wan hil Twein Gwynet 
Hil Madawc hydyr aynawc 11 vonhet 
in Wynnyant Kert nyd cart 12 y di wet 
Kynetach uorach 18 aawret, oruchel 

or achwet 14 ornen o deyrnet 
Neum bu oe agad mwyndyad met 
Wy bn oesdlawd beirt oe ystlynet 16 
Ysgereis a gwr nyd yw gornolet 
Ysgar byw a marw garw argywet w 
Am arglwyt diwyd am diwet ysgar 

an ysgafyn a wr y vreuolet 17 
Ny byt Kynoed pawb pymcan mlynet 
Noc y bn gyuyg gwlyd teilyg 13 gwlet 19 
Ny bo Kyuyg duw ym kyuet yg kyuawr 

synnhwyr vawr Senet 

1 Miremwcb. 

8 Ken. 

14 Achwedd. 

2 Gwythlwrw. 
8 Syberw. 
* Perfedd. 

• Erwan. 

10 Erwydedd. 

11 Mynawc. 

w Ystlynedd. 

16 Argywedd 

17 Breuoledd 

5 Anryfedd. 

6 Anhuenydd. 

7 Cywryaaedd. 

" Cardd. 
13 Morach. 

18 Leilyng. 

» Gwlydd. ! 

VOL. I. 


Digitized by LiOO 1 



/ NANTHEUDWY. (See page 171.) 

Add. ITS. U,869,/o. 29. 

Llygrad gwr ae cant y 
Lywelyn mab Gruffut Mab 
Madog ab Gruffut Maelor v. f. 171. 
ex r p' aliu* et p' aim* 

Hanbych well o bell bwyll arcZJerchawc 
Duw yn gyntaf naf niuerawc 
Heneuyt 1 dedwyt odidawc dy bar 

anescor dy uar uur torinenawr 2 
ys byt yt arglwyt rwyt rutnoawc 8 
Llywelyn Uuyt* ueirch aruawc 
A chlod a goruod am geiryawc *Wyffrynt 

gwrawl hawl hwysgynt 5 hynt hirlidyawc 
A rechdyr ae wyr bynt waretawo 
Yt ddreic y weun wayw kyndynnyawc 
Ar Drewen yn beeth genhyd beithyawc, 6 rwyf 

ac ar Elsmer glwyf glud uygedawc 7 
Rugyl oryr ongyr 8 angert vreinyawc 
Rac ulaen cad cadarn dywyssawc 
Ragod gynhossod Kyhoetawc colofyn 

ef a dyf gorofyn hyd Gaer Efrawc 
Mab Gruffut gleifrut glod wasgarawc 
MawrtfcZrud afael hael o hil Madawc 
Mawr beir kyghyweir kynuarchawc yghad 
Mawretus dy wlad rad redegawc 
A mi mal athro ethrylithawc 
Myfyr y w ynof cof cadeiryawc 
Prydaf yu d'iyfnaf y tt ddeifnyawc 9 Powys 

pryduerth dy gynmvys gennhyf nerthawc 
ys Keffych ys kyffuiyf enwawc 
wrth dy uot uod yn gyuoethawc 
Ac yn y gorffen gorffawc anrydet 

trugar'et gan Duw trugarawc. 

1 Heneuydd. 4 Lluydd. 7 Mygedawo. 

2 Tormenawr. * Hwysgynt. 8 Ongyr. 

j s Rhuddfoawr. fl Peithiawc. 9 Deifniawc. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


/ (See page 120.) 
Add. MS. 11,869, fo. ISO. 

Eglynnyon agant Llywarth Llaety 
y Lin ap Sladawc ap Maredud. (ob. 1159.) 
v. f. 120. 

Gouynuwys nebun ny bu raen ganrei 

Kyn rudaw haearngaen 
Pa was a wisg e lasgaen 1 
Pa walch yw y balch or blaen 
Lleissyawn werennic 2 o ranned dyall 

nyd arall ae harwed 
Hyw g'y w glew anhangnyued 
Llywelyn gelyn Gwyned 
Pieu yr ysgwt egutwal kynwan 

ar kanwaew am y thai 
Pwy r glew Hew Hit aer ddywal 
Ae deily kyfrwg dwy brennyal 
Y sgwyt Lywelyn lyw kadeithi bro 

eu honno yw honni 
Ysgwyt ac ysgwyd yndi 
Ysgwyt ac ysgryt recdi 
Pieu y cledyf cleu a dranodir* 

klywyfhir diamheu 
Klotuawr kly witor 4 nad geu 
Kauas Had ar Haw deheu 
Yessef ae treuyt treuat amdiffyn 

amdiffwys gyuiyuat 
Gweilch argae yn dyd aergat 
Gwalch Machein 6 gorwyrein 6 gwlat 
Piew y rodawc rud uaran 7 aerule 

ae haervleid gyr y ban 
Pwy briw vch browysuarch can* 
Pwy y henw hynot gynrann 
Yssef y gelwir llawhir Llywelyn 

llyw teruyn teruysc dir 
llawr gawr goruchel y wir 
Lloegyr ddina ddiueuyl gywir 

1 Caen. ' 4 Clywiton. 6 Gorwyrain. 

* G werennic 5 Mechain. 7 Baran. 

8 Trafodi. ; 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Pieu yr araea araot heb gilyaw 

uy gilyant hyt aghea 
Pwy wr pennaetheid genea 
Rac pawb pieu y dechren 
Yssef y w hwnnw honneit nud or gly w 

ef yw glew a Hofrud 
Mygyr gawr uar trablawr trablud 
.Mab Madawc vab Maredud 
Pieu y katuarch catulaen ae goraeid 

ar goroud dihauarch 
Ar gwr ar gwyr am y barch 
Ar gwaew ar gwan anghyuarch 
Yssef yw hwnnw honneit ganllaw draws 

drasauo daw ganthaw 
Gwyr oruod gwrd glot glndaw 
Gwr rac gwerin Dyssilyaw 
Yssef ae herly arlwy garthan dyn 

Llywelyn gwawtwyn gwan 
Gwyr eryr aer aarogan 
Gwr yn gware Uawessan 
Dygychwyn gennat ar vreint keinyat kail 

ath dyall 1 ath dyat 
Kyrch uarch yr Llywarch Hew cat 
Ar Llywelyn Haw rodyat 
Dos a Duw gennyt yn hyuryt yn hawd 

ar gadolawd* gatulaen gryt 8 
Poet hwyl y holi diwyt 
Poet ef enw dy rod bod byt 
Odyuydyd nyth o ueith dremyn jbwyr 

ar fwyr* Iwyr loegyr gymyn 
Annerch ac yr dyn 

Ygan Lywarch Lywel/n 
Tremytyat mynyd manot tew nyth lnd 

wyth loseo eiry na rew 
Annerch was mrlas hirlew 
Annwyl dyn Llywelyn Hew 
Llwydit mat a rat deest finis. 

1 Dyad. 8 Gryd. 

* Blawdd. 4 Ffwyr. 

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By the Baed Pbydydd y Moch. (See page 96.) 

Add. MS. 14,869, fo. 179. 

Awdyl a gant prydyt y moch 

Ruffut ap kynan ap Ywein Gwynet. v. f. 96. 

Rac vwy Dygannwy dygynwyre glyw 

o Uon hyd Uyayw llyw llu agde 
Dy ryd y doryf dy re orwydaur 

hyd y llewych llawr gwawr gwymp vore 
Dychymysc avrffysc yn aryfle aesdur 

ae gledyf flamdur ay glot dy re 1 
Mab medel vtkyrn heyyrn dy he 
G ruffut teyrnud tut olisse 
Mab cor dor dewred ef dwyre prifgat 

Megys y hendat oe rat rodre 2 
Molawt yw ygnif mal ym danure 
Edinueirch a seirch serygyl kynnwe 
Moladwy y ryd rod y bore 
Moidyd essillyd ny syll eurde 
Moleis y rwyf kemeis kamre ysgaylan 

yn amwyn garthan gyrch y daudde 
Mele haelder ner nyt aghyfie 
Aghyflym uuner ueirch fer fyryfne 
Pan diowng trawsulwug tros vre y dreissyon 

ysgyluyon ysgylue 
Rac colouyn lliawa maws mab nwyfre 
Rac gelyn bryneich branhes dychre 8 
Ny byd arodryd ar odre Prydein 

prydydyon arwyre 
Ef yw fenn fynnyant dibelre 4 
Ef ae dwc oy dec werydre 5 
Ef Kymer hyder hyt uuddugre 6 lys 

Ef dengys emys amyl ea gorne 
Ef yn freu 7 tereu tarole Saysson 

mur eryglon mon mynestyr greude 
Poet ef y offen orffowysle 
A rfedawo eirchydit arch oe vulle 
Y gkyuaruot clot cludueird dyle 
Yg kyurwys gynnwys gan wawr yele. 

1 Dyre. * Pelrhe. • iiuddugre. 

2 Rhodre. * G werydre. 7 Ffreu. 
8 Dyshre. 

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Relative to 3Iadog ab AIaredudd, Prince of Powis Fadog. 

(Seep. 111.) 

Add. 315.14,869, /o. 22Sb. 

Amrysson kyndelw a seissyll bry fwrcli 
am benkeirtaeth uadawc. M. Maredut 
A chyndelw a dechreuwyo. 

Yin hynryd yn kymryd kylck 
gan llyw kyuet Hew kyfwlch 
Marckogwny marchogaeth ualch 
Marchogyon meirch gweilwon gweilch 

Gweilch radeu yn cadwyd maes 
Gwyr gwanar gwawr trydar treis 
Gwynnuyd beirt bod yn eu hoes 
Gwenndoryf gwynn deyrn Powys 

Ked bei teu wledic hyd wlad bor eurawc 
Aer uarchawc deifnyawc 1 dor 
Ry bytei ueu ueith ragor 
Ry bytwn bennkert benn cor 

Am uaes trefgalw lys turyf emys 

a g'j w a glywir yn hysbys 
Twryf gawr gortwytawc gochwys 
ual turyf torredwynt am brys. 

Ked bei tea wledic wlad run am Maelgwn 

Maelgying a borthun 
ry bytei ueu net anhun 
ry bytwn bennkert benn cun 

Mi breu bod yn bonnkert 
O yawnlliu yawn llwyth culuart 
A hyn Kyncielw uawr cawr kyrt 
honn ny heniw beirt 

Kym gelwic yn fyryf yn fyse arab hwyl 

yn arab hawl deruysc . 

Yn fyrt kyrt kert dau awdlysc ' 

Yn brydyt yn brifuart dysc. 

1 Deimiawc. '- Ffysg. i 

Digitized by VjO 3QU 



By the Bard Cynddelw. (See page 78.) 

Add. MS. 14,869, /o. 216. 

Eglynyon a gant kyndelw y 
ewein kyueilyawc. Ex r . p' 11' C. 

Gwirawd Ywein draw dra digoll uy uyt 

mor vynych y haruoll 
win kyuyrgein nyd kyuyrgoU 
vet o vuelin oil 
Gwirawd am daerawd am daw gan rebut 

am rybuch 1 oe wenllaw 
Pennyadur cad ked wallaw 
Penn cor penkert wyf itaw 
Gwirawd a dygyr o digawn atan 

gwin o bann rann radlawn 
Tn llys lies glyw llyw lleissawn 
Yn Haw llew cad Kym Had llawn 
Gwirawd Ywein Uary Uawen yd rotir 

yny tir tu Hafren 
A threul hygar yw hagen 
A thraw y daw a dygen 
Gwirawd Ywein llary llachar y demysc 

Ar deruyn y esgar 2 
Balcli y daw yn Haw Uuchuar 
Metw y thoryf met y thounyar 3 
Gwirawd an gwrthuyn gwrth syr a Ueuad 

ean rwyf rad rut vyhyr 
Ann niruryn hirvreix eryr 
Am hauren hyuryd gwen gwyr 
Ar Haw Ywein hael hawl dilin gwrualch 

y mae gorvlwch eurin 
Anrydet gwymo arwet gwin 
Anrec brifdeo breyenhin 
Vt yssym eliw ar geir 
Nys arueit llew a dan lloer 
Gwaew crwm yn dyt trwm trwy fwyr 4 
Gwan fysc 5 yn eurwrysc yn aer 

1 Rhyburh. 3 Tonniar. 6 Ffyog. 

2 Esgar. * Ffwyr. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 




By the Babd Ctoddblw. 

Add. MS. 14,869, /o.218b. 

Eglynyon a gant kyndelw y wen wyn wyn. Ex. p* IF C. 
et p* alia'. 

Gwenwynwyn erchwyn eirchyeid yr molyant 

mur milcant Maelgwn greid 1 
Hawl wawl wastad remyad reid 
Hael wael wared ged gydneid 
Kydneid kynniuyeid kynniuyad arglwyt 

didramgwyt o dromgad 
Cas traws trablawt 2 cawt kywlad 
Cadeu dor car cor kyrchyad 
Cyrcheis eryr treis trim ohep 3 hep got 

Gad wossut ked wossep 
Ar wr ar wir y wynep 
Ar wyr wawr wrach nonep 
Gwryd diogel diogan fy scyad 

yn fyagyaw biw garthan 
Aerua uawr aerwawr eurw&n 
Eurwalch balch bolch y daryan 
Taryamawc enwawc ennweir agkyfiwya 

Argoedwys 4 Bowys beir 
A dyrr ongyr* angert weir 
Ac ny dyrr y deyrneir 
Teyrnet ordwy 8 ordyfwyad gorllin 

yn gorllwyn dwy gawad 
Yg kyfaryf taryf toryf amnad 
Yg kynaruod kyfnod cad 
Cadwyn kyuriew kyfrwyt yn roti 

Ked westi wastadrwyt 
Gryd worllwyn a greid worllwyt 
Glyw argledyr a glew arglwyt 
A rglwyt teithiawc twythuawr yn arueu 

yn arurwydyr bydinawo 
Argac toryf rac twryf aessawr 
Argleidryad vleinyad vleit gawr 

1 Graid. j 8 Goheb. 5 Ongyr. 

2 Blawdd. 4 Argoedwys. • Gorddwy. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Gawrferdd huysgwn huysgein a uyt 
am vetwl mab Ywein 
Gawr ualch rac preitualch Prydein / 

Gawr vawr am breit yawr am brein 1 / 
Preit wasgar anwar anwas y gelwir 

enwir hir liydyr y gas 
Enwawc dreic dragon wanas 
Gly w dinac a glew dinas 
Dioas teyrnas teyrn or uu toryf 

Twryf aches 2 anotun 
Rwyf dragon rotyon reitun 
Reitruc royad rwytrad run 
Run gygretyf gynnetyf gynneuawd oreu 

fiut bareu rot barawd 
A dal eur mal yr molawd 
Ac ny beirch poscueirch pascnawd 3 
Gnawd gretyf ar ysgwyd ar ysgwn* terrwyn 

ym prafdwyn ym pryffwn 6 
Hid odrut Hut Hu gygrwn 
Uuoet orthew Hew Uafyndwn 
T lafyn ygkreulif yg kreulynn gwyar 

yg kreulawn ymwrthrynn 
gwychyr y gwylcli gweilch amdiffyn 
gwalch gwenwynualch Gwenwynwyn. 



By the Bard Ctoddilw. (See pp. 78, 79.) 

Add. MS. li,869,fo. 217. 

Eglynyon molyant y weuwynwyn 
ifyndelw ac cant. Ex r . p 11. 

Essym arglwyt gwrt gortiuwg y uar 

gortwy neb nyw hystwg 
Glyw diwreit gortuleit gorulwg 
Glew dywal ny dal ny dwg 
Esid ym arglwyt aerglwyf ner nerthfawr 

Aer Hew llawr Uawch nieur 
Ny oleith Ueith yr Hyuyrder 
Ny otef cam nyw kymer 

1 Prain. 8 Pascuawd. 5 Pryflfwn. 

2 Aches. 4 Ysgwn. 



digitized by LiOOQ IC 


Essid ym arglwyt curgledyfrnt gawr 

breisc lafnawr brwysc lofrut 
Ny dawl wrth ac mawl mawrvut 
Ny grawn golud nyw golut 
Essid ym arglwyt argledyr anaw beirt 

am barteir yn eityaw 
Am caryad cadarn arnaw 
Am kert am kynhelw 
Essid ym arglwyt argledyr cad a tharyf 

a theruyn ar gywlad 
Clodaawr llawr Haw agkaead 
Coryf toryf teruysc oe agkad 
Essid ym wledic wlad amdiffyn llary 

Uawer dyn ae gouyn 
Gwaedlaun osbarth warth wrthryn 1 
Gwychuar gwanar Gwenwynwyn 



By the Babd Cynddelw. 

Add. MS. 14,869, /o.217b. 

Eglynyon molyant y wenwyn- 
wyn Kyndelw at cant. 

1. Detholeis oles leissyawn uy rwyf 

yn rwytualch am y dawn 
yn hawl wrt ortyfyn camawn 2 
Yn hael digraff yn digrawn 8 

2. Detholeis uy rwyf yn rwyt rad wasgar 

yn llachar yn lluchyad 
Yn llary Uawr yn llaw rotyad 
Yn Hew glew glyw difreidyad 

3. Detholeis uy rwyf yn rwysc aerllew toryf 

yn teruysc a thrylew 
Yn anreith odeith odew 
Yn wrt ortrud yn lud lew 

4. Detholeis uy rwyf yn rwyd gelynyon 

gal ynal ym plymnwyd 
Yn wawr glyw glew diarswyd 
Yn walch balch bolch y ysgwyd 

1 G wrthryn. 2 Camawn. 8 Digrawn. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


5. Detholeis uy rwyf yn rwyt am olud 
. rwyt wan rut yn rodwyt 

/ Yn rotawc vriw vreisc arwyt 
/ Kn argledyr ym yn arglwyt 

6. Detholeis uy rwyf yn rad wellig 1 mawr 

Uwythuawr llawr Haw derchwyn 
Yn eurllyw glyw glew degyn 2 
Yn eryr gwyr gwen wyn wyn 
Detholeis rwyf llu Uuryglas, deyrn 

Uugyrn gyrn gyuadas 
Yn doethgar kertgar eartwas 
Yn dor cor coelig 3 dinas 
Dinas teyrnas teyrnweis ohen 

Teyrnwalcli Din Enireis 
Bu da dethol a geueis 
Bu doeth mal y detholeis 
Detholeis o les, etc. 


Bleddyn ab Cynvn, Prince of Powrs.—Haer, d. and co-heiress of Cyllin ab Y 
Or, a lion ramp, gules. Ob. 1072. | Blaidd Rhudd, of Gest, in Eivionydd. 

Maredndd ab Bleddyn, Prince of==Hunydd, d. of Eunyddab Gwernwy, Lord 
Powys. Or, a lion ramp, gules. I of Dyffryn Clwyd, Trefalun, and Y 
Ob. 1130. | Groesffordd. See p. 107. 


Prince of Grnffudd, Lord of Cyfeiliawg, Mawddwy, and half of* 8 


Powys Fadog. Penllyn. Or, a lion's gamb, erased bendways gules. 

Ob. 1125. 

Owain Cyfeiliawg, Prince of Upper Powys. Or, a lion's gamb, erased= 
bendways gules. He was the founder of the Cistercian Monastery of 
Ys trad Marchell. where he died and was baried in the year 1197. 

Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, which from him was called Powys== 
Wenwynwyn. Or, a lion's gamb, erased bendways gules. Ob. 1218, 
(S ee pp. 78 t 79.) 

Grnffudd, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn. ==Hawys, d. of Sir John TEstrange, 
Or, a lion ramp, gules. of Ness, Knt. 

|1 |2 |3 

Owain, Lord of Arwystli, Cyfeiliawg, Ystrad Llywelyn, Lord of John, a 

Marchell, etc. Or, a lion ramp, gules. (See Tal y Bont and Priest, 

p. 79.) Deuddwr. 


4 | 5 | 6 

illiam, Lord David, Lord of Pentyrch, Celli Grnffudd Fychan, 

of Mawddwy. Caswallon, Penarth and Rhiw- Lord of Moch- 

i hirarth. nant. 

1 G welling. 2 Deg}T. 3 Coeling. 

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By the Babd Peydydd y Moch. (See p. 96.) 

Add. MS. 14,869, fo. 237. 

Marwnad Mared. M. Kynan Prydyd 
y moch oe ca . • . . nt. 

Maredut llofrut Uoegyrroya diarchar 

diorchrawn orthywys 
Y mer nef nota vt glwys 
Ym parawd ym paradwys 
Parawd ysbytawd y esbyd Prydein 

vt pryduawr y wrhyd 
Maredut marw yw hewyd 
Mai modur arthur arthgryd 
Greidyawl arwynyawl arwyntbet gly w 

gloew eryr teyrnet 
Clwyf dygyn deheu a goglet 
Clywed y uyned y net 
Detrawd an daerawd pob deurut prydus 

pryderwn yn achlut 
Dadar vn kyuar 1 an cat 
Deon derw maredu Maredut 
Maredut Gruffut grym aduan 2 teyrn 

teyrnet ar gwynuan 
Meibyon dewr derynt* ychlan 
Mur greid kynniuyeid feynan 
Dwyn meibyon Kynan cyn bn Uwyd yr nn 

arwynawl ym plymnwyd 

Angheu agkynartal 4 wyd 

Angheu an goren gormeil kenetloet 

can edlid yn adueil 
Nyd hawt ny nawt neb ynyeil 
Nyd hyn hoes dyn noc oes deil 
Deilyadon dyfrynt am defry hiraeth 

o hiruod dreic Kymry 
Yth weryd hydyr wrhyd hy 
Yth achles wales wely 
Gwelytyn teyrn tad gynnan ae ceidw 

ae cedwis pob calan 

1 Cyfar. 2 Adfan. 8 Derynt. * Augbyfiirtal. 

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Bro heirt y ueirt y ueirch can 
Boconn gedawl uch bro gaduan 
Caduan ner ener anaw kertoryon 

Kertassant ar eityaw 
■ Arwar trydar trin ognaw 
Eryr gwyr frawt dymhyr fraw 
Fraw gyrchyad cant cad kyn bu Uawr y dy 

ae deyrn vytinawr 
Ny elwid rwyd ysg wydawr 
ry gelwir rann varw rann varw 
Mawr deyrn kedeyrn kyd gyurannu eur 

ac aryant ym pob ta 
Milwr milwyr gynytu 
Maredut mawr adwyn vu 
Maredut Uofrnt, etc. 



Br the Bard Iobwerth Cybioo. (See pp. 98, 99.) 

Add. MS. 14,964, /o. 27b. 

Mar. Einion ap Seisyllt 

Awst y Has yngastelli 
Eilon dor o Lan Dy vi 
Pan fu ymgyrchu gorchest 
'Eb rydu 'r ffyn a brwydr ffest 
Rhwng Cyveiliog enwog oed 
Ac Arwystli torri tiroed 
Yno Einion a ennynod 
At un y fn y tan oi fod 
Ein cadpenan pen an parth 
An pann cor an pen cy varth 
A fa Einion iw foned 
Penaeth farn panaeth iw ved 
Rhagorad yn rhiw gergnt 
A'n blaen y gwyr blauna gynt 
Ymdre9od trawod at rai 
A rhyn vilwyr rhyvelai 
Ei vriw a gas errog oed 
Fry dywedynt ai frad ydoed 
Gwr oed Einion gwrdenwog 
Car ir i aril fy'n euro rog 
Aer Seisyllt a roe'r siasoed 

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Aur lew da ar ei wlad oed 

Gwr mar9 a grym ci orchwyl J 

I goethi gwyr gwaith a gwyl / 

Ac Onnen fraisg Einion frau 

A raes hwn ar i sennau 

Pan ladwyd hwn gwn y gwir 

Llad Cenedl lluoed cwynir 

Mathavarn gadarn gydwed 

Mewn aur gynt mae'u oer eu gwed 

Dwy Ian Dyfi *n gwaedi 'n got} 

Y deg ynys dy gwynoQ 

Llanwrin pob He'n oeria 

Glai iu pob llu clodu ia 

Gwae'r chivellan gwydan i gyd 

Gwaefiloed mewn govulvrd 

Machynllaeth am ei chanllaw 

Ai Hew was drud y Has draw 

Dwyn Enion deunau ynys 

Duw lwyd fu'n duo i lys 

Je cliawsai Gwalchmai y gwyr 

Raith moliant Gyvraith milwyr 

Gwr a gwr milwr moliant 

Gwir iu'rgwir y gair ar gant 

Ni ladesid gwrid gredens 

Wr gwyn ffurf er gwayu na Sens 

Ei fard aedwn fevrd idaw 

Ai vrawd maeth air draeth draw 

Tn wylaw byth yn al bod 

Yr wy f yma arf'amod 

Ymled fyrhodion amled 

Llanwrin ar fin ei fed 

Gwiliaw fyth a gwelwyf fo 

A gosod bob awr iw geisio 

Yntau 'n fud nid a'n fard 

Nef i Einion a fynnai 

Felly byth afu He bai 

Ac iw fab arab irwytj 

Doed ar hwn dau oed yr hy$ 

Cwmpai elyn campolaeth 

Au Uysgo'n ffrom llosgi'n ffraeth 

Bo i Ronwy boccer einioes 

A bid iw ran bedwair oes 

Byth i Einion byth anwyl j 

Yno fevyran nw yr wyl 



Digit zed by VjOO 



By Llywelyn Fardd. (See p. 79.) 

Add. MS. 15,001, /o. 256. 

Llwelyn fardd a gant yr Awdl hon i Ywein 
ap Gruffiidd ap Gwenwynwyn. 

Clod ysgain Ywain clod ysgaiu 

ysgwyd ddrud dylud dyliffain 

clwyf iddaw ni ddaw ni ddamwain gorofn 

cleu eofn golofn aur ei goelfain 

Clud gam Ian cynran o fil eynrain 

mal Clydao Eiddin prif gyfrin prain 

cler ysgwn llafn-dwn orofn Llundain lawr 

arwr-wawr 1 pryd-fawr warant Prydain 

Aer-bybyr eryr dewr-wyr dwyrain 

aur-gyfrwy gyfr-wydd orwydd arwain 

Ar wydd na elwir yn elain feddiant 

arddelwawg hyddgant cwbl foliant cain 

Erddrym ced wych-rym cadoedd acliv7rain 

nrddad ni blygud yn awr blygain 

wrth ofwy arlwy eur-lain teyrnedd 

eur-gledd gwr gwedd gwyar gywain 

M&b Gruffudd didyb Udd dadiain 

myfyr nad didraul molawd didrain 

wyr Gwenwynwyn wyn a wna rhain gorplien 2 

bleiddau y gogen 3 ain ei gigwaia 

Ef Nudd ced ddiludd cedyrn ddilain 

Ear-frenhin cywrennin cywrain 

Ef ddeddfau goran goradain cenedl 

pan ddoeth cychwedl am lwytli Cichwain 

Rhysswr parch perchen march archfain 

rhysedd balch cyflym-walch celain 

rhwysg eur-gor cyngor yn y cyngain ddawn 

rhydd alaf ddigrawn alon ddigrain 

Rhi rhndd-bar cyfar cyfwyrain 

ryn ddiorddin Brynaich ran orddawn brain 

rhifir i ddewr-llwrw rhyfel ddarllain gledd 

rheufedd nid rhyfedd hyd yn Rhufain 

Rhif pybyr eryr arwyrain 

rhwyf "difradw rhwym achadw Mechain 

1 Mawr. 2 Gorphen. 3 (iogeu. 

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rhybadd drad ardad golud gwylain blaid 
mal y daid i*n rhaid yn rhyd angain 
Rybo Duw rybydd 1 ddadwyrain 
rliy garawr daer-wawr darywain 
rhwydd ynni roddi main ei anwyd 
clwyd ysgwyd clod ysgain 
Clod ysgain Twain, etc. 


In the time of Beli Mawr there were only sixteen 
" Awgryms", or letter signs, and these were afterwards 
increased to twenty, and finally to twenty-four. One 
account states that in the first period of the race of the 
Kymry the letters were called " Ystorrynau". Before 
the time of Beli ab Manogan, there were ten primary 
Ystorryn or Ystorrynau, which had been a secret from 
everlasting with the Bards of the Isle of Britain. Beli 
called them letters, and added six more to the earlier ten. 
The sixteen were made public, but the original ten Ystor- 
rynau were left under the seal of secresy. It will be sug- 
gested hereafter, that Beli is the Sabean Baal, the first son 
of the mother who, in Egypt, was Barsutckh (Sut-Anubis), 
the earliest form of Mercury, who became the British 
Gwydion, called the inventor of letters ; that Gwvd is 
Khet or Sut, and that the same original supplied the 
Greeks with their Kadmus, who is also accredited with 
introducing the sixteen letters into Greece. 

But at first there were only ten primary letters, or 
Ystorrynau. Now, in Egypt, " Teru" is a type name 
for drawing, writings, papyrus rolls, stems, roots, litera- 
ture, the " rites" of Talit, the divine scribe. Nan (Nu) 
denotes the divine or typical. Ys is the well-known 
Welsh prefix, which augments and intensifies. There 
were ten of these branches on the first tree of know- 
ledge. Kat, in Egyptian, is the name of the tree of 
knowledge. That is our British K6d, who is the tree ; 
and Kat; or K&d, re-appears as the Gwyd, or wood of 

} » Rcbydd. 


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the Druids. The typical tree of Ked, or Ogyrven, one 
of her two chief characters, was an apple-tree, on which 
the mistletoe, the divine branch, is Qften found growing, 
and this gave the type name to the tree of knowledge 
with the British bards. Taliesin says, "seven score 
Ogyrvens pertain to the British muse". 1 The brindled 
ox of Hu Gadarn had seven score knobs on his collar. 
The number of stones at Stonehenge has been computed 
at seven score. The " Avallenau", or apple-trees, were 
the wood of the tree of knowledge ; and these were 
represented as being 147 in number. From a poem, 
written by Merddin, we gather that there was a garden, 
or orchard, containing 147 apple-trees., or sprigs, which 
could be carried about by him in all his wanderings. 
The bard bemoans that the tree of knowledge, and the 
shoots, have now to be concealed in the secresy of a 
Caledonian wood. The tree still' grows at "the conflu- 
ence of streams" the two waters, but has no longer " the 
raised circle', and the protective surroundings of old. 
The Druids, and their lore, are being hunted to death 
by the Christians, the " men in black". Merddin, and 
a faithful few, still guard the tree of knowledge, although 
their persecutors are now more numerous than their dis- 
ciples. This tree of knowledge has seven score and 
seven shoots or sprigs, composing the whole book, and 
these may now be claimed as ideographs and hiero- 
glyphics, which deposited their phonetic values in the 
three alphabets. Thus, the tree of knowledge, the Egyp- 
tian Kad, the Welsh Gwyd, is the representative of the 
mother Ked, who is identified by Taliesin with Ogyrven. 1 
Ogyrven, or Gogyrven, and Khekr (Egyp.), means to 
adorn, a collar, or necklace, which, in the lunar reckoning, 
had ten points or branches, as is implied by the name of 
Menat. Afterwards, the collar worn by the mother Isis, 
had nine points or beads, according to the Solar reckon- 
ing. Ogyrven is one of the two characters of Ked, and 
Keridwen the other. When interpreted by the Egyptian 

1 Preidden Annwn, 5. 
vol. i. i 23 

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doctrine of the Two Truths (see p. 303), these are iden- 
tical with the divine sisters, Neith and Nephthys. 

The tree of knowledge put forth its ten branches. It 
was at a time when the number ten was reckoned on 
both hands. In Egyptian, Kabti is two arms. Khep is 
the hand, and ti is two ; thus, Khepti, or Khep, which 
becomes Kat and Ked, is equivalent to both hands, or 
ten digits. The Ogham alphabet is digital, and five of 
its digits read qv (Welsh), that is Khef (Eg.), one hand. 
Two hands, or ten digits, then, represent the tree of 
Ked, or Kat, called knowledge. And as the ten digits 
were a primary limit, it may be conjectured that the ten 
original Ystorrynau were represented by the ten first 
signs of the Ogham alphabet, the cyphers spoken of 
by Boece, who states that "the antient inhabitants of 
Scotland used the rites and manners of the Egyptians, 
from whom they took their first beginning. In all their 
secret business, they did not write with common letters, 
used among other people, but with cyphers and figures 
of beasts, made in manner of letters". 

The Druids were in possession of the symbolic branch 
for the type of the youthful Sun-god, who was annually 
reborn as the offshoot from the tree. The mistletoe was 
their branch that symbolized the new birth of the Sun at 
the time of the winter Solstice. All its meaning is care- 
fully wrapt up in its name. Mes (Eg.), is birth, born, 
child. Ter is time, and a shoot, which was the sign of a 
time. Ta is a type, also to register. The mistletoe is the 
branch typical of another birth of time, personified as 
the child, the prince, the branch; prince and branch 
being identical, a form of the branch of the Panygeries, 
on which Taht, the registrar, registered the new birth of 
the Renpu. The branch, in Welsh, is Pren, correspond- 
ing to Renpu (Eg.), the shoot sign of youth and renewal. 
The branch of mistletoe was called Pren Puraur, the 
branch of pure gold, and Pren Uchelvar. 

The shoot of Renpu is carried in the hands of Taht, 
the god of speech, of numbering and naming, who is the 
divine Word in person. From the branch, the Druids 

db?Vj ( 


derived their Colbren, the wood of credibility, the staves 
/ on which their runes were cut. Bren, or Pren, is the 
f Ren ; just as Peep, the snake, is the Ret. The Ren is 
the branch, and ren (Eg.), means to call by name. Co el 
answers to Kher (Eg.), the word, to speak, utterance, 
speech, voice. Thus, the Coelbren is the branch of the 
word, the wood of speech, identical with the Ren (renpu) 
of Taht, and the emblem of that branch, which was the 
word, or Logos, impersonated as the British Dovydd. 1 

Pliny tells us, " that the Druids hold nothing in greater 
reverence than the mistletoe, and the tree upon which it 
grows, so that it be an oak. They choose forests of oaks, 
for the sake of the tree itself, and perform no sacred 
rites without oak leaves ; so that one might fancy they 
had even been called for this reason, turning the word 
into Greek, Druids. But whatever grows upon these 
trees they hold to have been sent from heaven, and to 
be a sign that the Deity himself had chosen the tree for 
his own. The thing, however, is very rarely found, and 
when found, is gathered with much ceremony ; and, 
above all, on the sixth day of the moon, by which these 
men reckon the beginnings of their months and years, 
and of their cycle of thirty years (the Egyptian Sut- 
Heb), because the moon has then sufficient power, yet 
has not reached half its size. Addressing it in their 
own language, by the epithet of All-healing ; after duly 
preparing sacrifices and banquets under the tree, they 
bring to the spot two white bulls, the horns of which 
are then, for the first time, garlanded. The priest, clothed 
in a white dress, ascends the tree, and cuts the mistletoe 
with a golden knife; it is caught in a white cloak. 
Thereupon they slay the victims, with a prayer that the 
Deity may prosper his own gift to them, to whom he 
had given it. They fancy that by drinking it, fertility 
is given to any barren animal, and that it is a remedy 
against all poisons/' 

! l A Booh of the Beginnings, by Gerald Massey, Esq. 2 vols. 
Williams and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, London. 1881. Price 
i 32s. 
I 23 2 

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The Leek, or onion, worn by the Welsh as a national 
symbol, is one of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Leeks 
and onions were identified with the young Sun-god Abon, 
at Byblos. They were exhibited in pots, with other 
vegetables, called the Gardens of the Deity. The Welsh 
wore the leek in honour of Hu, one of whose names was 
Aeddon. The onion, with its heat and its circles, was a 
symbol of the sun-god Hu, in Egypt. It was named 
after him, the Hut. One sign of Hu, in the hiero- 
glyphics, is the Tebhut, or winged disk of the Sun, sign 
of the great God, the Lord of Heaven, and the Giver 
of life. It is the solar disk spread out. The leek, or 
sprouting onion (Hut) of Wales, is equally a Tebhut and 
type of the solar god and source of life. 

In the British mythology, we have the solar bull, and 
the solar birth-place, identified with the sign Taurus, the 
Bull. The birth-place is where the sun rises at the time 
of the vernal equinox ; and this, in the Druidic cult, is 
continually identified with the Bull, which must have 
been over four thousand years ago, as the equinox entered 
that sign 6,190 years since (dating from the year 1880), 
and left it 4,035 years ago. 1 

The Scarabseus, or beetle (see p. 31), than which no 
symbol was more reverenced in Egypt, was the likeness 
in which the god . Khepr was fashioned, as the Former 
and Transformer. He is represented as rolling the solar 
disk, and has the title of Khepr-Ra. But transformer of 
time, of one cycle into another, is the idea conveyed. 
Khepr was the type of transformation, the Egyptian 
mode of figuring immortality as continuity, and the 
Beetle was stationed on that part of the zodiac where 
Cancer (the Crab) is now. This point was the beginning 
and end of the solsticial year (June 24th). Khepr clasped 
the zodiacal circle of the sun with one hand to each half 
of the whole. Here he received the sun, and passed it 
on in what is termed his boat, the golden boat of the 
sun, which was of a lunette form, in which the sun's disk 
appeared to ride, from the east to the west, where it sets, 

1 A Book of the Beginnings, by Gerald Massey. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


and after passing through the darkness of Hades (the 
night), rises again in the east, bringing with him the 
souls of the faithful departed, whom he has rescued from 
the dreaded dragon Apophis, in the wonder- world. 

Khepr was also identified with the Sun itself, that went 
round for ever, and ringed the world with the safety of 
light continually renewed. Khepr, in his boat, is the 
antithesis of the Deluge. Khepr- Ra is, literally, the sun- 
beetle ; and this symbol of continuity, transformation, 
aud resurrection, was so profoundly lavished in burial of 
the dead, that the ancient scarabEei are plentiful in Egypt 
to this day. 

The beetle appeared on the Nile banks in the month 
previous to that of the inundation, the month of Nebirth, 
and formed its ark in the shape of a round ball of earth, 
in which it encased its seed against the coming flood, to 
save up and reproduce its seed in due season. This ball 
it buries with itself in the soil. The inundation lasts for 
three months, at the end of which time the scarab em- 
blem of Khepr, the beetle, that went underground to 
make his transformation, issues forth once more in the 
shape of his own seed. Moufet, in his Tlieatrum Insec- 
torum, says the beetle has no female, but shapes its own 
from itself. For it die3 once in a year, and from its 
own corruption, like a phoenix, it lives again, as Moninus 
witnesseth, by the heat of the sun. It was depicted as 
rolling the sun through the heavens, and that course 
ended visibly with sunset. It made the annual circle, 
and was thus the symbol of a year ; hence, said to die, 
and be renewed once a year. The beetle was that celes- 
tial sign in which the solar year ended, and a new year 


1 A Book of the Beginning*, by Gerald Massey. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



« or 


Chequ^e or and axurt. 




The first of the family of Warren who came to Eng- 
land, 1 was William, Earl of Warren, in Normandy, who 
was created Earl of Surrey. 1st. William Rufus, ac- 
cording to Dugdale, but created Earl by William the 
Conqueror, according to Brooke. He founded the Priory 
of Lewes, in Sussex, and died 24th June, A.D. 1088, 
and was buried at Lewes. He married Gundreda, 
daughter of William the Conqueror, who died in child- 
bed, 27th May 1085, and was buried at Lewes, by 
whom he had issue — 1. William, his successor ; 2. Re- 
ginald; and two daughters, Edith, who married, first, 
Lirerard de Gornay, and, secondly, Drew de Monceaux ; 
and another daughter, who was wife of Ermise de 

ii. William, Earl of Warren and Surrey, who died 
10th May, a.d. 1136, and was buried at Lewes. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh, Count of Ver- 
mandois, and widow of Robert, Count of Millent, by 
whom he had issue two sons and two daughters — 1. 

1 Bank's Dormant and Extinct Baronage. — Brayley's Hist, of 
Murrey, vol. i, 113. ( 



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"William, his successor; 2. Reginald, Baron Warren, of 
Wirmgay ; Gundred, who married Roger, Earl of War- 
wick ; and Adeline, wife of Henry, sou of David, King 
of Scotland. 

in. William, Earl of Warren and Surrey. In a.d. 
1147, he went to the Holy Land, where he was slain, 
1145, and was buried at Lewes. He married Alice, 
who died 4th December 1174, daughter of William Tal- 
vace, son of Robert de Belesme, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
by whom he had issue one only daughter and heiress, 
Isabel, Countess of Warren and Surrey, who died 13 th 
July, a.d. 1199, and was buried at Lewes. She married, 
first, AVilliam, Count de Blois, natural son of King 
Stephen, who, in her right, became Fourth Earl of 
Warren and Surrey. He bore gules, three pellets, vaire, 
on a chief or, an eagle displayed gvles, membered azure, 
and died without issue, in October, a.d. 1160. The 
Countess married, secondly, Hamiline Plantagenet (na- 
tural son of Geoffroi, Count of Anjou), who bore azure, 
semee of fleurs-de-lis of France, and a border of Eng- 
land ; and also cheeky o?* and azure for Warren, on his 
becoming fifth Earl, by right of his wife. He died 3rd 
June, a.d. 1201, leaving issue, 

vi. William, Earl of Warren and Surrey. In 1216, 
John, King of England, assailed by the formidable in- 
surrection* of his Barons, and most powerful subjects, 
and being menaced by Louis, the Dauphin of France, 
sought to form an alliance with the Welsh Princes and 
Chieftains. This they refused to grant him, and in re- 
venge, he destroyed the castles of Hay and Radnor, 
and two of the castles of the Fitz Alans, Colynwy, and 
Oswestry, which last was burnt to the ground. 1 Earl 
William died 27th May 1240, and was buried at Lewes. 
He married, first, Maude, daughter of William de Al- 
bini, Earl of Arundel, by whom he had no issue. He 
married, secondly, Maude, sister and co-heir of Anselme 
Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, who died a.d. 1248, and was 
buried in Tintern Abbey, by whom he had issue, 

1 See p. 162. 

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vii. John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, guardian, 
together with Eoger Mortimer, Justiciary of North 
/Wales, of the two young princes, Llewelyn, ami 
' GrufFydd. As before stated, this Earl John was the 
guardian of Llewelyn, who was to have had the fortress 
of Dinas Br&n, and the Lordships of Bromfield and Ial, 
when he came of age ; and murdered him, by drowning 
him under Holt Bridge, a.d. 1281. In 1282, Edward I 
granted the assassin the castle and lordships of the mur- 
dered child. 1 Thus it was that John, Earl of Warren, 
became the first English Lord of Maelor Gymraeg and 
Ial. The better to secure himself in his ill-gotten terri- 
tories, he commenced to build the Castle of Holt, of 
which a drawing and plans, as it stood in 1620, will be 
given further on. It would appear, from the following 
document, that he did not live at Castle Dinas Bran ; 
for, haunted, most probably, by the terrors of a guilty 
conscience, he left Bromfield, leaving the castle of Holt 
unfinished, and went to England, leaving his son William 
in Powysland, to whom he appears to have given the 
fortress of Castell Dinas Bran, and the Lordship of 
Bromfield and Ial, in the year 1284. 

If all were written on the brow 

That inwardly gives pain. 
How many who're thought happy now 

Compassion would obtaiu. 

For oft concealed beneath their breast, 

They hide their deadliest foe, 
And being thought by others blest, 

la all the bliss they know. 2 

This William de Warren finished building the Castle 
of Holt 3 He died in his father's lifetime, 16th December 
1285, leaving Joan, his lady, great with child — with 
John, his son and heir, afterwards born 2, kalends of 
July in the same year, and was buried before the high 
altar of the Abbey of Lewes. He married Joan, daughter 

! * See p. 1 78. 2 Translated from the original Italian. 

3 Pennant's Tour, vol. i, p. 81. 

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+4 £f *-• 




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£r 770&~t(O 


OCT 20 1987 

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of Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford. She died xi kal. 
Dec. 1293, and was buried with her husband, under a 
high tomb at Lewes, having had issue one son John, and 
a daughter named Alice, of \i'hom presently. 

In a.d. 1287, an Inquisition was held at Chester, 
relative to William de Warren. 

Warren, William de. Inquisition taken on a " Man- 
damus", before Reginald de Grey, Chief Justice of 
Chester, on Tuesday next before the Feast of St. George. 
The jury say, that they know not whether the said 
William, when he died, held the lands of Bromfield and 
Yale, and the Castle of Dinasbran, in his demesne, as of 
fee or for life, but that Walter de la Mare, and Robert 
de Tunle, came by command of John de Warrenne, Earl 
of Surrey, to Wrightisham, 1 on Thursday next after the 
Feast of St. Peter ad Vinculo, in the 12th year of 
Edward I, and delivered seisin of the aforesaid lands 
and castle to the same William, on behalf of the aforesaid 
Earl ; that the said Walter and Robert commanded all 
the tenants of the said Earl, in Bromfield and Ial, to do 
homage and service to the said William in the name of 
the said Earl ; that the said William received the 
homage of the said tenants on that day, removing the 
bailiffs of the said Earl, and appointing bailiffs of his 
own, and gave certain of the demesne lands in the towns 
of Seswick and Hunkel to Madoc Gouth and David 
Gouth ab Houuel ; that the same bailiff took a hundred 
marks from the commonalty as in aid, de aaxilio, and 
that the lands and castle were of the yearly value of four 
hundred marks. (15 Edw. I, mem. l.d.) 8 

Earl. 2072. [Boll 15 Edw. I, No. 1. Com 9 die martis p'x 
p'fm? Sc'i Barth'i an' R. R. Edw. 15'.] Fo. 14 b. 

D'no Rex mandauit dil'co et fidel'o buo Reg'm de Grey 
Just* suo cestr' q'd diligent' inquir* p* sacrum p'bor* et leg' 

1 Wrexham. j 

2 Twenty-Sixth Report of tlie Deputy -Keeper of the Public Records. 
Appendix ±, p. 38. 

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horn* de WalHas sua vtru' Will* de Warrenna tra's de Brum- 
feld et de Ial' at de castru' de Dinasbran tenuit earn p'tin' 
in d'mi'o ut de feod' die q* obiit an ad term' vite sue uef alit' 
et q'liter et q' modo et q'ntu' terre et castru' p'dic cu p'tin 
valeant p' annu' ut in d'nifcis seruic' redditibg villiuagiis et in 
oib*;' aliis exitib' tre' etc.... quod Regni' in pleno com' cestr' 
die martis p'x an' f m Sci* Georgius an'o R. R. Edw. 15' in- 
quisc' feet' diligenta p' sacr'm p'bor' et leg* hoin' de Ballia sua 
tarn de com Cestr' q'm de Com' de Flint viz. Hug* de Dutton, 
Rog' Dunuil' Edmund Phiton milit'u' Will' de Bunebury, 
Patric de Barton, Will' de Broxne, Will' de Bulkeley, Rob't 
de Rideley, Will' de Bykirton, Maddoc de Broctbton, dd' fit 
Griffin de Scheghlach' et Io de Wertinhall Anglor* Iorwerth 
Leycgh, Leulyn ap Philip, Blethin ap Madoc, Griffin Cougth, 
Griffin Legch, dd' vagchan, Howell ap Phillipp, dd' ap 
Ririth, dd' ap Tudir, Leuuelyn ap Kenewreyk, maddock ap 
Phillip et Jorworth ap Neuuen Wallens, ad hoc jur' qui dicunt, 
q'd p'dic Will' tenuit p'dic' terras et castru' in d'm co suo ut 
feod' die quo obiit au ad termu' vite sue Ac. et dicut cfd 
Mag'r Walt' de la Mare et Rob't de Tunle p' raandatu' Io de 
Warrenna com' Surr die jouis p'x p' f 'm S'c'i Petri ad Vinc'la 
an'o R. R. Edw. 12' ven'unt apud Wrightisham et seisma'm 
p'dic terrar* et castr* cu p'ti'n eide Will' ex p'te p'dic' com' 
lib'audunt postea p'dic Walt' et Rob't ou'es tenentes p'dc'i 
com' de Brumfeld et Jal' de Homa'g' et Seruitiis suis p'd'co 
Will' noi'e p'd'ci com' ordinau'unt &c et snos proprios Balt'os 
cepit de tota communitate ibid'm de aux' centu' marcas de 
valore trar* di'unt q'd p'de' tra's et castr' valet' p* anu' qu'dri- 
gent marcas &c. 

[Rot? 3. Com* die Martis p'p' fm Tynuf an 9 r. r. Edw. 15'. 

Fo. 16]. 

Bromfeld Liberty.— Ric' de Pulford, Will' fil' Io de Pulford, 
Rio fil' Radi' de Pulford, Ric' Stel de Pulford, Will' Keeks de 
Pulford u' Eirnou' fil' Griff' W'ronoc' fil' Iorworth Ririth ap 
dd' Griff' goch, Jorwarth frem eig cu' aliis cu' et armis apud 
pulford venerunt et bona et catal ipor* cepunt Ac, ip'i uo' veu' 
et mandatu est Ball's lib'tatis de Bromfeld q'd poueret eos p' 
vad' etc' q'd essent tr' ad hue' die' ad respond'd' Ac. Ideo 
p'cept est vie' q'd uo' omitat p'p' lib'tate illam quin eos ingrede- 
atur et pou'at p' vadu &c. 

John, Earl of Warrenne (the assassin) died at Ken- 
nington, near London, 5 cafencC Oct. 32, Edw. I (27th 

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Sept. 1304), and was buried in the middle of the pave- 
ment, in the choir of the Abbey Church of Lewes, 
before the high altar, with this epitaph : — 

" Vous ke passer au bouche close, 
Prier pur cely ke cy repose : 

En vie come vous esti jadi fu, 

Et vous tiel, fervetz come je su ; 
Sire Iohan Count de Garenne gist ycy ; 
Dieu de sa alme eit mercy. 

Ky pur sa alme priera 

Trois mil jours de pardon avera." 

Certain it is, that this earl was a person of high es- 
teem with the king, as may be seen by that special pre- 
cept directed to the then Bishop Elect of London ; 
whereby signifying how pious, and before Almighty God 
a meritorious work it was to pray continually for the 
dead, that so they might be the more easily delivered 
from the burden of their sins ; and that this our earl, 
who had been a most faithful and useful subject and 
servant to him and the -whole realm, was then departed 
this life, to his very great sorrow ; he required him, that 
he should cause his soul to be commended to the mercy 
of God, by all religious and ecclesiastical persons through- 
out his whole diocese of London. 

The like precept was directed by the king unto the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, for his whole province ; as 
also to the Abbots of St. Augustine's in Canterbury, 
Westminster, Waltham, St. Alban's, St. Edmondsbury, 
and Evesham. 

Moreover, for indulgencies to such as should pray for 
his soul, Robert, then Archbishop of Canterbury, granted 
forty days ; Gilbert, Bishop of Chichester, forty days ; 
Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, forty days ; the Bishop of 
Durham, forty days ; the Bishop of Carlisle, forty days ; 
the Bishop of Lincoln, forty days;' the Bishop of Co- 
ventry and Lichfield, forty days ; and John, Bishop of 
Chichester, forty days. 

This John, the seventh earl, married in 1247, being 
then young, Alicia, sister, by the mother's side, to King 

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Henry III, and daughter of Hugh le Bran, Earl of 
March and Angoulesme, the second husband of the 
king's mother ; Alicia was sister also of William de Va- 
leface, Earl of Pembroke. She died 9th February 1290, 
and was buried under a marble stone, with the figure of 
a dragon, holding a branch in its mouth, engraved on it* 
before the high altar of the Abbey Church of Lewes. 
By this lady, John had issue, besides two daughters, 
(Eleanor, who married first the Lord Percy, and secondly, 
a Scottish earl; and Isabel, who married John Baliol, 
King of Scotland), one son William, Lord of Castell Dinas 
Brdn, before mentioned, the father of Alice and 

viii. John, Earl of Warren, Surrey, and Strathern, 
and second English Lord of Bromfield and 141. This 
John had an offer made him by the king, in his 
chamber at Westminster, in Parliament, upon Monday 
next before the Feast of St. Edward, king and martyr 
(33 Edw. I) of Joan, daughter of Henri, Count de Barre, 
which he gratefully accepted, and married her, although 
he was not then twenty-one. 

34 Edw. I. He received the honour of knighthood, 
together with Prince Edward, at the Feast of Pentecost 
Two hundred and sixty-five others were likewise created 
knights at the same time. 

In the next year, 1307, he was with the king in his 
Scottish expedition, where the king died. And in the 
2nd Edw. II, 1309, he was at the great tournament at 
Wallingford, to which Piers Gaveston brought such a 
multitude of strangers, to the great affront and abuse of 
the English nobility. 

In 1310, writs were issued to the Lords Marchers by 
the king, dated 18th June, 3 Edw. II, for foot soldiers; 
to Ioannis de Warrena, Earl of Surrey, for 200 foot 
soldiers, from his lordship of Bromfield ; Ioannis de 
Grey, for 100 foot soldiers, from his lordship of Duffiyn 
Clwyd ; Rogerus de Mortuo Mare de Chirk, for 200 
foot soldiers, from his lordships of Nantheudwy and 
Glyndyfrdwy ; Hcnricus de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, for 
200 foot soldiers, from his lordships of Rhos and Rhiw- 

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fawniog; and to Robertas de Monte Alto, for 100 foot 
soldiers, from his lordship of Moldsdale. 1 

4 Edw. II, 1311. In this year he went with his 200 
foot into Scotland, and being in such high favour with 
the king, that he obtained a free grant the same year of 
the castle and honour of Peke, in Derbyshire, together 
with the whole forest of High Peke, to hold during his 
life, in as full and ample a manner as AVilliam de Peverel 
anciently enjoyed the same. In 12th Edw. II, he was 
again iu the wars in Scotland. 

It is observable, that the Earl having no issue by his 
wife, did, by a special grant, give the inheritance of all 
his lands to the king and his heirs ; which grant bears 
date at Westminster, upon Thursday, the morrow after 
the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul, 9 Edw. II, wherein are 
mentioned all his lordships, castles, towns, and manors 
in the several counties of Surrey, Sussex, Essex, York- 
shire, and Lincolnshire, with the castles of Dinas Brftn 
and Holt, with the lands of Bromfield, Ial, and Writtle- 
sham or Wrexham, in Wales. 

In the 19 Edw. II, 1326, the king assigned him for 
life, out of his great property, the castles and manors of 
Coningsburgh and Scarsdale, and the manors of Wake- 
field, Souresby, Bathewell, Fishlake, Dcwsbury, and Hali- 
fax, in Yorkshire. 

In the 1 Edw. Ill, 1327, he was with' the king in his 
expedition to Scotland ; and in the 7th Edw. Ill, he as- 
sisted Edward Baliol, King of Scotland, against his sub- 
jects, who had rebelled against him for doing homage 
to the King of England. For his services, the King of 
Scotland created him Earl of Strathern, which earldom 
had been forfeited by the rebellion of Melissus, earl of 
that county. 

In the 19th Edw. HI, 1346, Joan, Countess of Warren, 
wife of the earl, went beyond sea, upon some special em- 
ployment for the king, and had protection for all her 
lands in England, which were assigned for her support, 
and the stock thereon ; for the better defence and safe- 
1 Parliamentary Writs y vol. ii, div. 1, p. 46. 

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guard of them in her absence. But soon afterwards she 
died, in 1361, and was not buried in England. Where- 
upon, the earl married a second wife ; for, by an inden- 
ture, between King Edward III and himself, bearing date 
Chautone, 2nd June, 20 Edw. Ill, it was agreed between 
them, that the king should thenceforth protect and defend 
him against all persons whatsoever, natives or strangers, 
in all quarrels and causes which might in reason concern 
him; and also that he should support him in the peace- 
able possession of all his lands, whereof he was at that 
time seised, either in England or Wales. And that, if 
God should please to send him an heir, by Isabel de 
Howland, then his wife, should the same be male or 
female, it should be joined in marriage to some one of 
the Blood Royal, unto which the king should think fittest; 
so that the whole inheritance of this earl, with the name 
and arms of Warrenne, should be preserved by the Blood 
Royal, in the blood of him the said earL And, in case 
he should depart this life without any such issue, be- 
gotten on the body of her the said Isabel, that then all 
his castles, manors, lands, and tenements, in Surrey, 
Sussex, and Wales, should, after such his decease, remain 
to the king, to be bestowed upon one of his own sons, on 
whom he should think fit, on condition that, in the person 
of such son and his heir, the name, honour, and arms of 
Warrenne should be for ever maintained. And, more- 
over, it was further agreed, that if the said Isabel should, 
by the law of the realm, be endowed by those lands and 
tenements, lying in the counties of Surrey and Sussex, 
and in Wales, before specified, whereof he was at that 
time possessed, that then she should only be endowed 
of those manors, lands, and tenements, reserving the 
castles to the king, and to such of his sons on whom the 
king should think to bestow them, she having a reason- 
able assignation otherwise in lieu of them. 

He was the last earl of this ancient family. In his 
will, which is dated from his Castle of Coningsburgh, in 
Yorkshire, he styles himself John, Earl of Warren, Surrey, 
and Strathern, Lord of Bromfield and 141. 


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He died without any lawful issue, on the morrow pre- 
ceding the calends of July 1348 (21 Edw. Ill) in the J 
61st year of his age, and lies buried alone under a raised / 
tomb, near the high altar at Lewes, leaving Alice his 
sister, wife of Edmund, Earl of Arundel, his next heir 
of blood. 

At the inquisition taken after his death, he was found 
to be seised of the manor of Tyburn, in Middlesex* 

The manors of Grantham, Standford, and Paunton- 
Magna, in Com. Lincoln. 

The castle and town of Lewes, with the lordships 
of Cokefield, Clenton, Brighthelmstone, Rottingdean, 
Houndesden, Northess, Rademild, Kymer, Middleton, 
Alington, Worth, Pycombe, Pydinghore, and Seaford, in 

The castle and town of Reigate, with the manors of 
Dorking and Beckesworth, in Surrey. 

The manors of Trowbridge, Winterbourne, and Ames- 
bury, in Wiltshire, by the king's grant. 

The castle of Clere, and the manor of Beston, in Norfolk. 

The manor of Tyrringham, and the advowson of the 
Abbey of Neasham. 

The manor of Middle would, and the hundreds of Mal- 
how and Brotham Cross, in Norfolk. 

The manor of Medmenham, in Com. Buck. 

The manors of Caneford and Slap wick, in Com. Dorset, 
for term of life, with remainder to Thomas, Earl of Lan- 
caster, and his heirs. 

The manors of Coningsburgh, Hatfield, and Wake- 
field, in Com. Ebor (York). 

The manor of Henstrig and Cherleton, in Com. Somerset. 

The manor of Bokeland, in right of Joan, his Countess. 

The manor of Wanton, in Surrey, for term of life, of 
the inheritance of John de Breause. 

It appears that the Earl and the Countess Joan had 
been divorced, upon pretence of a former contract made 
by him with Maude de Neriford (a lady of a great family . 
in Norfolk), and that he allowed to the same Joan seven ' 
hundred and forty marks per annum. And also, that he 



had two sons by Maude de Neriford, viz., John and 
Thomas, who were surnaraed Warren, for whose sake 
he obtained from King Edward II a grant of part of 
those great possessions which he had given to him before, 
viz., the castle and town of Reigate, with divers other 
lordships in Surrey ; the castle and town of Lewes, with 
many lordships in Sussex ; the castles of Dinas Br&n, and 
Leons or Holt ; as also the lands of Bromfield, 141, and 
Writtlesham (Wrexham) in Wales, to himself for life ; 
with remainder to John de Warren, son of Maude de 
Neriford, and to the heirs male of his body; and for want 
of such to Thomas de Warren, another son of the said 
Maude, and the heira male of his body ; and for lack of 
such issue, to the right heirs of him the said earl, with 
remainder to the king and his heirs. 

And, moreover, by indenture, bearing date at West- 
minster, 20th May, 20 Edw. III., he settled upon the 
said Maude de Neriford, for the time of her life, the 
castles, towns, and manors of Coningsburgh and Sandale, 
with the manors of Wakefield, Hatfield, Souresby, Bre- 
thewel, Fishlake, Dewsbury, and Halifax ; and after her 
decease, upon the said John and Thomas, and the heirs 
male of their bodies, in like sort as above said, with re- 
mainder to his right heirs. Unto which indenture his 
seal was affixed ; whereon, on the one side is his effigy 
in a gown, and sitting in a chair, holding a hawk in his 
left hand, with this circumscription, viz., " Sigillum Io- 
hannis Comitis Warrenniae et Strathcrniae et Comitis 
Palatu". And on the other side, on horseback, with his 
sword in his right hand, and on his left side his shield of 
arms, with this circumscription, "Sigillum Iohannis 
Comitis Warrenniae et Surreye, Domini de Bromfield et 

John de Warren, the son of the earl by Maude de Neri- 
ford, bore for his arms chequee or and azure, on a canton 
gules, a lion rampant ermine, the proper coat of Neriford. 
From this John de Warren, the Warrens of Poynton in 
Cheshire derive their descent. 1 

1 Du gdale's Raronaf/e of England. 

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This John, the eighth earl, dying without lawful issue 
in 1347, he was therefore succeeded by his sister Alice, 
who was the widow of Edmond Fitz-Alan, fourth Earl 
of Arundel, and Lord of Clun or Colynwy, and Oswestry, 
who was beheaded at Hereford in 1326. The Countess 
Alice had issue by her husband, two sons, Richard Fitz- 
Alan, fifth Earl of Arundel, and Lord of Clun and Os- 
westry, and succeeded his uncle as ninth Earl of Warren 
and Surrey, and third English Lord of Bromfield and 
Ial, and Edmond Fitz-Alan ; and two daughters, Alice, 
wife of John de Bohun, Earl of Hereford ; and Jane, the 
wife of Warren Gerard, Lord de Lisle. Richard Fitz- 
Alan bought the castle and lordship of Chirk from John, 
Lord Mortimer, and thus acquired almost all the terri- 
tories of the two murdered children. 

It is to be observed, that in the second generation 
from John, seventh Earl of AVarren and Surrey, who 
was one of the murderers of the two infant princes, 
the male line ended. The Countess Alice, heiress of this 
great house, married Edmund Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel ; 
and in the third generation, the line of this family, who 
still possessed Castle Dinas Bntn, and the lordships of 
Bromfield, I&l, and Chirk, ended in an heir female, Eliza- 
beth, who had a moiety of those lordships, and married 
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk; and in the third 
generation, the made line failed again in that house. 

Exchequer Q. ft., Ancient Miscellanea; Ministers 9 Accounts 
Wallia ; Bundle 710. J. K G. 11,132. 21 Edw. Ill (1848.; 

Exp'n's fact' circa seisin' Castri Leonis ad opus d'ni et 
Principis capiend* tarn in exp'n's Rig'o de Harwell Ric'i del 
Hogh r' Mag'ri Joh'is de Brnnh'm Junioris tene'c' Cur' in d'nio 
de Brounfeld r' Tal p' div'sas vices q'ni in exp'n's Ric'i del 
Hogh Jun\ Willi' de Aldelyne. Ric'i de Lyndesey. Joh'is de 
Pnlesdon' r' Nich'i fr'is sui Ric'i le Hewestere David Gogan 
Joh'is de Wodhull r' Willi' de Pulesdou' continue moranc' 
ibid' p' custod' eiusd'm Castri a ix die Jul' anno r' r' E. t'cij 

Sost conquest' xxj' vsj' vj diem Augusti p'x seg'n p* xxix 
ies vtroq' die comput' vid'l't p' xxix dies p' l'ras d'ni Prin- 
vol. i. | 24 

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cipis p'd'ci eid'm Mag'ro Joh'i de Brunh'm inde direct' quar' 
dat' est apud Lond' q'rto die Jul* anno i** r* E. t'cij xxj'. 

Die Lune ix' die Jul*. In pan' empt' iijs. In c'vis ijs. vd. q'. 
In earn' ijs. ob\ In pulcin* iiijd. ob'. In candel' ijd. 
In lect' iijd. In herbag' p' equis ijd. ob\ In p'be'd ijs. 

S'm' xs. vd. ob' q\ 

Die M'rtis x' die Jul* In pan' ijs. vjd. In c'vis xxiijd. 
ob'. In earn* ijs. ijd, In pulcin' vjd. oh'. In fari* ave'n ob*. 
In pi'pe ijd. In croco ob*. In cas ijd. ob'. In lectis iijd. 
ob\ In p bend' xviijd. SW ixs. ixd. 

Die M'cur' xj' die Jul*. In pan' iijs. In c'vi's xxjd. In 
car'n xviijd. In pulcin' iiijd. In pi'pe jd. In croco ob*. In 
sal' jd. In ovis r' butiro ob'. In candel' jd. In lect' iijd. 
ob\ In p'ben'd xviijd. S'm' viijs. vijd. ob'. 

Die Jovis xij' die Jul'. In pan* xs. viijd. In vino vjd. In 
c'vi's xxd. ob'. In cam' xxd. In pulcin' iijd. ob\ In sal' ijd. 
In pi'pe ijd. In fari' p' pastell' faci' vna en* piscac'oe eor'd'm 
vjd. In naper' ob\ In candel' jd. In lectis vjd. ob'. In 
feno iiijd. In p'bend' ijs. S'ra' xs. viijd. 

Die ven'is xiij' die Jul'. In pan 1 ijs. ixd. In vino ixd. In 
c'vi's ijs. ob\ In sal'm recent' xviijd. In piscib' recent' 
xvijd. ob'. In candel' id. In s'peb vjd. In fari' aven'jd. 
ob'. In naper' ijd. In lectis vjd. ob'. In feno xijd. In 
p'bend' ijs. S'm' xijs. xjd. 

Die sabb'ti xiiij' die Jul'. In pan' xviijd. In vino xijd. 
In c'vi's. In c'vi's xvjd. ob'. In allec' iijd. ob'. In ovis r' 
butir' jd. ob'. In salm' recent' xxd. In lect' vjd. 

. S'm' vj*. vd. ob'. 
S'm' istius sept' lviijs. xd. ob'. q. 

Die d'nica xv' die Jul'. In pan' empt' viijd. In vino vjd. 
In c'v's xjd. In earn* xvijd. In fari' aven' ob'. q\ In allea 
q'. In sal' jd. ob'. In pulv'e pip'is jd. ob'. In croco ijd. 
In lect' iijd. In pulv'e zinzib'is vd. ob. S'm' iiijs. viijd. ob'. 

Die Lune xvj' die Jul'. In pan' ijs. ijd. In vino vjd. In 
c'vi's xxiijd. ob.' In earn' xxiijd. In pnlcin' vd. In sal iiijd. 
In pulv'e pipi's iijd. In croco ijd. In lect' iijd. In candel' jd. 

S'm' viijs. jd. 

Die M'rtis xvij' die Jul'. In pan' ijs. xd. In c'vis xxiijd 
ob'. In pulcin' ijd. ob'. a.' In anguill' jd. In fari' aven* jd. 
In pip'e ob'. It'm cuid garc'i eunti apud Cestr' p' quod' 
ferro ibid'm petend' p' plubo sign' d' jd. In lect' iijd. 

S'm' vs. vjd. ob' q'. 

1 Sic twice. 

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Die M'cur' xviij die Jul'. In pan* vjd. In cVis vjd. In 
cam' viijd. In lectis iijd. eo min' qz apud Langewistel. 

S'm' xxiijd. 

Die Jovis xix die Jul*. In pan* xixd. ob'. In c'vis xd. In 
earn' vijd. In pulcin' vjd. In allea ob'. In candel' jd. In 
lect' ijd. S'm' iijs. xd. 

Dieven'is xx' die Jul*. In pan* xijd. In c'vi's xijd. ob. In 
allec vjd. ob*. In pise* recent* ixd. ob'. q\ In salm' recent* 
vjd. S'ra' iij*. ixd. ob*. q. 

Die sabb'ti xxj' die Jul'. In pan* xviijd. In c'vi's xixd. 
In c'vi's r' butiro jd. ob\ q\ In fari' aven' ob'. In pip'e ob'. 
In sal* jd. Incand el' q'. In allec* r fflok vjd. In lect' ijd. ob'. 

S'm' iiijs. jd. ob'. 
S'm' istius sept' xxxijs. ob'. 

Die d'nica xxij die Jul'. In pan* xixd. In c'vi's xviijd. 
In earn' xixd. In fari' aven* ob'. In croco ijd. q'. In lect* 
iijd. S'm' vs. jd. ob\ q' 

Die Lune xxiij' die Jul'. In pan' xxjd. oV. In vino vjd. 
In c'vi's xvjd. ob'. In ovis jd. ob'. In croco ob'. In lect' 
iiijd. ob'. S'm' iiijs. ijd. ob'. 

Die M'rtis xxiiij' die Jul'. In pan' xijd. In c'vi's xiijd. 
In allec' ijd. In pise' recent' vd. ob'. In ovis jd. ob'. In 
candel' jd. In lect' iijd. S'm' iij*. ijd. 

Die M'cur' xxv' die Jul'. In pan' ijs. In c'vi's ijs. In 
ovis jd. In fari' aven' jd. In lect* iijd. S'm' iiijs. vd. 

Die Jovis xxvj die Jul'. In pan' r' c'vi's de p'comp'. In 
c'vi's ijd. In butiro ob'. In croco r' pip'e iijd. In lact' ob'. 
In candel' ob'. In lect' iijd. S'm' ixd. ob'. 

Die ven'is xxvij die Jul'. In pan' vjd. In c'vi's iiijd. In 

J)isc' recent' iijd. ob'. In allec' vd. ob'. In butiro ob'. In 
ect' iijd. S'm' xxijd. ob'. 

Die sab'bti xxviij die Jul'. In pan' xijd. In c'vi's iiijd. 
In pise' recent' ijd. ob' In fab' p. potag' ob'. In fari' fri' q\ 
In lect' iijd. S'm' xxijd. q\ 

S'm' istius sept' xxj*. vd. ob'. q\ 

Die d'nica xxix' die Jul'. In pan' xviijd. In c'vi's xiijd. 
In earn' viijd. In fari* aven' q. In croco ob'. In candel' jd. 
In pan' viijd. In lect' iiijd. S'm' iiijs. iiijd. ob.' q\ 

Die Lune xxx' die Jul'. In pane xjd. In c'vi's ixd. In 
earn' yjd. ob'. In pise' jd. In lact' ob*. In lect' iijd. 

S'm' ijs. vijd. 
94 2 

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Die M'rtis xxxj* die Jol\ In pan' xij\i Inovisjd. ob\ In 

candel' ob\ In lect' iiijcZ. 

Die M'cur' p'uio die Augusti. 
In earn* viijd. ol>\ In lact/ ob\ 
}d. In ovis ob\ In candel 1 ]d. 

Die Jovis sVde die Augusti 
ob\ In cam' vjd. In lact' ob\ 

S'ln ij5. v<7. ob'. 
In pan' xvjci In cVi's xiji. 
In allea ob'. In fan' aveu 1 
In lect' iiijVL 

S'tti' iij*. viijrf. 
In pan 1 xijd. In c'vi's xd. 
In lect* iiijoL 

S'm' ijs. ixi. 

Die ven'is t'cio die Augusti. In pan* xijd. In c'vi's xijrf. 
In allec ijtZ. In pise* recent 1 iijei. q'. In pip'e ob'. In lact' 
ob*. In fab' p' postag' ob'. In lect' iiijd. S'm' ijs. xd. ob'. 

Die sabVti q'rto die Augusti. In pan' x\yl. In c'vi's 
vijtZ. In allec' ijJ. In lact' ob'. In cas' ijJ. ob'. In fari' 
aven' ob'. In lect iiijcZ. Sui' ijs. iiijrf. ob'. 

S'm' istius sept' xxja. jd. ob*. 
Die d'nica q'nto die Augusti. In pan' xijd. In c'vi's vijd. 
In earn' vijd. ob*. In fan' aven' ob'. En lect' iiijd. 

S'm' ij*. vijd. 
Die Lnne vj' die Augusti. In pan' iiijd. In c'vi's xijd. 
In cam' vijV?. ob'. In lect' iiijrf. S'm* ij*. iijd. ob'. 

SW to' vtiusq* p'tis vjli. xviijs. vd. 


William Fitz Alan. = Isabel, Lady of Colynwy or Clan, sole daughter and 
heir of Helyaa de Say, Baron of Colynwy, in the time 
of King Stephen. Gules, two bars vairee, argent and 

William Fitz Alan, Lord of Colynwy, ob. 9 Henry II, 1173.= 



Fitz Alan, 

Baron of 


or Clun. 


Isabel, sister and co-heir of Hugh de Albini, fifth Earl 
of Arundel, who died in the prime of youth, 1241, 
27 Henry III, and daughter of William de Albini, 
fourth Earl of Arundel. Earl Hugh leaving no 
children, his sister proved his heir, and the Castle 
of Arundel became the property of Isabel The 
male line therefore of the house of Albini, thus fail* 
ing, the title, by virtue of the tenure of the Castle of 
Arundel was next enjoyed by John Fitz Alan, son 
of Isabel. Cules, a lion rampant or, armed and 
langued azure. 

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John Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, == Maude, d. of Eoese de Verdun, and relict 

Lord of Clun, and jure uxoria 
of Oswestry. GuUs, a lion 
rampant or. Ob. 52 Henry III. 


of Madog ab Maredydd, Prince of Powys 
Fadog. She had the Lordship of Os- 
westry settled upon her by her first 

John Fitz Alan, second Earl of Arundel, Lord of Clun and = Isabel de Morti- 
Oswestry, survived his father about two years. | mer. 

Richard Fitz Alan, third Earl of Arundel, Lord == Alicia, d. of the Marquis 
of Clun and Oswestry ; ob. 30 Edw. I, 1301. \ of Salace, in Italy. 

Maude, ux. Philip, Lord Margaret, ux. William Botaler, 
Burnell. of "Weinme. 

Edmund Fitz Alan, fourth Earl of== Alice, d. of William, and sister and 

Arundel, Lord of Clun and Oswestry. 
He was put to death at Hereford, 
first drawn, then beheaded and hung 
on a gibbet at the gates of the Castle 
of Hereford, on the Feast of St. 
Denis, 1:326. 

heir of John, last Earl of Warren 
and Surrey* and Lord of Maelor 
Gymraeg, or Brom field, Dinas 
Bran, and Ial, who died in 1347. 
Cuequee, or and axure. 

Richard Fitz Alan, fifth Edmund. 
Earl of Arundel, 
Warren, and Surrey. 

Alice, ux. John de 
Bohun, Earl of 

Jane, nx. Warine 

Gerard, Lord 


This Richard, fifth Earl of Arundel, and ninth Earl of 
Warren and Surrey, was restored by the 4th Edward III. 
By descent, he had the lordships of Bromfield, Ial, and 
Dinas Br&n ; and in 1334, 7th Edward III, he was 
made governor of Chirk Castle ; and in the year follow- 
ing had a grant of the inheritance of that castle, with all 
the territories thereto belonging, being part of the pos- 
sessions of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, attainted. 
In 1356, he granted the following charter, a copy of 
which, taken from the books of Gruflfydd, Hiraethog, and 
Edward ab Davydd ab Edward, is to be found amongst 
the Cae Cyriog MS. 

(Cae Cyrioej MS.J 

Welsh Copy of a Latin Charter to the District of 
Chirk in the Earl of Arundel's time (a.d, 1356). 

From the Books of Crvfydd Hiraethog and Edward ab Dafydd 
ab Edward. (Cae Cyriog M.S.) 

Be it known to all who see or hear this letter, that Richard 
Earl of Arundel and Lord of Chirk, sends greeting to his sub- 
jects of the some lordship as follows : Know ye that we have 

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seen and understood the charter of our honoured father, Ed- 
mund, Earl of Arundel, which' he granted to his commons 
(subjects) of the land of the district of Chirk in confirmation 
made by ourselves of the same charter. And this liberty and 
profit thereafter in respect of circumstances so ordering has 
been taken into our hand, and we by the instance and pur- 
suance of the same commons have granted to them the whole 
of the aforesaid privileges and liberty and profit, and have 
confirmed the same charter for ourselves and our heirs to them 
and to their heirs in every point, preserving to us and to our 
heirs for all time, timber for building and brushwood for our 
own necessary use (and to be granted and ordered at our 
pleasure anything that has been granted to them by the above 
charter notwithstanding, or by the confirmation of the same 
charter, securing to them also a sufficiency). And, moreover, 
we have granted for ourselves and our heirs to the same com- 
mons and to their heirs, that there shall be neither claim nor 
retribution against them because of the lands that they have 
taken, or their forefathers out of our waste land within the 
lordship of Chirk, without our permission, while maintaining 
us harmless for everything that has been done within the bounds 
of our forests separately, and securing to us these same lands 
with satisfaction and punishment for every man that has been 
taken from the waste, after the delivery that has been made 
to our officers of lands by proclamation, the twenty-sixth year 
of the reign of Edward the Third, King of England, and all 
the lands that have been taken from the waste theretofore, 
that had not been given up to our officers by proclamation, as 
has been aforesaid. And we have also granted for ourselves 
and our heirs, to the same commons and to their heirs, 
that there shall be from henceforth no punishment of 
them on account of lands that they have taken, or their fore- 
fathers, freely of our " meibion eillion", of our " tir caeth", 
by reason of our " meibion eillion", who possessed the land, or 
their heirs, releasing their land at what time soever they will, 
and their obtaining an allowance in the payment by reasonable 
reckoning of all profit received from the land theretofore, or 
obtaining their land free, if the profit shall amount to the sum 
total of the ground, or exceed it ; and if it shall be that one of 
the " meibion eillion", after raising the sum total (absolute 
value) of the ground, or profit of the land, shall not be willing 
to come to the reckoning, then let our officers, or our heirs of 
such like, make our profit, and take the same land into our 
own hand, according as we shall have seen just to deal with. 
For this confirmation and grant the same commons have pro- 



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mised to pay to ns twelve hundred marks, to be paid within 
the next twelve years, that is to say, a hundred marks every 
year on the Feast of S. Oswald and the Feast of S. Andrew, by 
just proportions, and to raise the same upon all proportionately 
according (gyfawch) to the profit that has been received or 
shall be received, and according to the trespass that has been 
done in the takings and the purchases as aforesaid. And that 
all who may have been otherwise dealt with may obtain a 
hearing in the suits at law, and upon that that justice and rea- 
son be done to him. 

And in witness thereof, on the one part of this indenture 
remaining with the aforesaid commons, we have set our seal, 
and on the other part remaining with us, Master Gruffydd 
Trevor, Madog Cyffin, 1 Einion Foel, Einion ab y iloelfrych, 2 
Iorwerth ab Einion Gethin, Hwfa ab Iorwerth, Einion ab 
Dafydd Vychan, Madog Llwyd, 8 Iorwerth ab Ednyfed/ Adda 
[Adam) Goch ab Ieuaf, 5 Maredydd ab Ednyfed Gam, 6 Ievav 
Llwyd, 7 and Ievav ab Madog, have set their seals on behalf of 
the said commons. And this was done in Castell y Waun 
(Chirk Castle) on the third day of the month of November, 
the nine and twentieth year of the reign of the third Edward 
after the Conquest (1336.) 

This Earl Richard bore gules, a lion rampant or, armed 
and langued azure, and died 24th January 1375, and 
was buried at Lewes. He married first, Isabella, 
daughter of Hugh Despencer, Earl of Gloucester, by 
whom he had issue a daughter, Philippa, wife of Sir 
Richard Sergeaux, of Cornwall, Knt. This marriage was 
annulled, 29 Edw. III. He married, secondly, Eleanor, 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, and widow of 
John, Lord Beaumont, who was buried at Lewes, by 
whom he had issue, three sons — 1, Richard, his successor ; 
2, John, Lord Maltravers, in right of his wife Eleanor, 
sister and heir to Henry, Lord Maltravers, by whom he 
had a son John, who died vita patris, who was the father 

1 Madog Cyffin, of Lloran Uchaf in Cynllaith. 

2 Of Mochnant and Mynydd Mawr. 8 Of Bryn Cunallt. 

4 Of Lys Pengwern in Nanheudwy. 

5 Of Trevor iu Nanheudwy. 

6 Maredydd was the fifth son of Ednyfed Gam, of Llys Pengwern. 

7 Ievav Llwyd was the fifth son of Ieuaf ab Adda ab Awr, of Llys 

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of John, eighth Earl of Arundel, the aucestor of the pre- 
sent Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Arundel, etc. ; 3, Thoma3, 
Lord Archbishop of Canterbury ; and four daughters — 1, 
Alice, ux. Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent; 2, Eleanor, 
died young ; 3, Ioane, ux. Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford ; and — 4, Mary, ux. John, Lord Strange, of 

x. Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Warren and Surrey, 
sixth Earl of Arundel, Lord Treasurer, and Lord of Dinas 
Brdn, Bromfield, 141, Oswestry, Chirk, and Colynwy, or 
Gun, K.G. Jn 1398, he was attainted and beheaded in 
Cheapside (21 Richard II). King Richard seized all his 
honours and estates, and conferred them upon William, 
Lord Scrope, King of the Isle of Man. 

Chancery Inq. Post Mortem, 21 Rich. II {Bundle of Forfeitures). 
Richard, Earl of Arundel. (No. 1. d.) 

Inquisition taken at Castle "Leonis", in the Marches of 
Wales, 3rd Nov. 21 R. II. 

The jury say " quod RiVus comes Arundell fuit seisit* in 
d'nico suo ut de feodo die quo forisfecit et p'tea de Castro 
Leonis una cum d'nio de Bromfeld et Yale in March p'dict que 
quidem castru' et D'um cura consuetudinib* et p'tinenc* suis 
valent p' ann' in oib' exit ult' feoda sen7£ Const Recept Janitor 
ac oi'm alior* officiar' ib'm et ult' repris ib'm coi'b' anuis fac't 
dcccclxZi. It'ui dicunt q'd p'd'cus Comes Arundell fuit seisitus 
iu d'nico suo ut de feodo d'co die quo forisfecit et p'te'a de ad- 
vocac'one Abbie de Valle Crucis in deo d'nio de Yale et de 
advocacVe eccl'ie de Grefford cum capellis S'c'i Leonardi de 
Glyn et villa de Holt eidem eccl'ie anner* et valet eadem eccl'ia 
cum capellis p'dcis cli. p' annu* Et de advocac'one deciar* terr* 
d'nical'm man'iorura de Llanarmon in Yale, Wrixham, Eyton, 
Pichull, Sessewick, M'ford et Hosseley, et val' ead* advocac* 
p' anim' xxxiija. iiijd. Et dicunt q'd p'dtus comes Arundell 
Don tenuit plura Castr* d'nia t'r tenta' rev'siones feoda advo- 
cac'ones franchesias lib'tat' vel alias possessiones nee aliquis 
alius ad opus suu* in d'ea Marchia principal p'd'ce adjacente 
die quo forisfecit sen p'tca' p' ut aliqnaliV inquirer." 

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Inq. post mortem, 21 R. II. (No. 1 h.) 

Inquisition; taken at Chirk, in the Marches of Wales, in co. 
/ of Salop, 6th November, 21 R. II. 

The jury say that Richard, Earl of Arundel], "qui erga 
dVin 1 d'uin Regetn forisfecit fuit seisitus in d'nico suo ut de 
feodo dni post decimu/ nonu' diem Novembr* anno regni ejus- 
dem d'ui Regis decimo de Castro et d'nio de Chirk r' Chirkes- 
lond cu' p'tin* in March* p'd'ee' r' inde feoffavit ad usum et p' 
ficuu* ejusdem comitis Thomam Archiep'm Cantuar tunc 
Archiep'in Ebor' Rob'm Ep'm London Will'm Ep'm Wynton 
Paganu' Tiptote Chr' Johem Wiltshire Chr' Johem Whethales 
Dauid Holbech Rob'm Pubelowe cHcum r' Thomam Herlyng 
cl'icum h'end sibi r' heredib' suis set die* q'd p'd'cus Comes 
exitus r' p' ficua Castri r' dn'ij p'd'cor* a tempore feoffaraenti 
p'd'ci h'uit r' p'cepit. Et die* q'd castru r' d'nium p'd'ca cu 7 
consuetudinib* suis valent p' annu' in omib' exit' ul'ta feoda 
Senescalli Constabul' Janatoris r* oi'm alior' officiarior* ib'm r' 
ult'a om'es repris' ib'ni coib' annis Pea's ccccxiijZJ. vj*. viijd. It* 
die* q'd ijdem feoffati fuerunt seisiti eisdem modo r' forma ad 
usum r p' ficuu' pd'ci' Comitis Arundell de advocac'o'e deci- 
mal t'rar' d'uicaliu' Castri r* d'nii p'd'eor'. Et val* eadem 
advocacio' p* annu' vj*. viijd." 

Inq. post mortem, 21 JRic. II. (No. 1 i.) 

Inquisition taken at Clone, in the Marches of Wales, 21st 


The jury say " sup* sacr'm suu' q*d Ric'us comes Arundell 
fuit seisit* in d'nico suo ut de feodo aecimo nono dieNoveinbr' 
anno d'ei* d'ni Reg. decimo quo die erga eundem d'um Regem 
forisfecit r' postea de Castro villa et d'nio de Clone r* de 
Cloneslond cu' p'tin' suis in d'ea' March* Wall* que valet p* 
annu' cu' consuetudinib' membris r* aliis p'tin' suis ulta* feoda 
oim* officiarior' ib'm ulta' omes repris' ib'm coib 1 annis Peas 
exxiiij xiiijK. xviijs. vd." 

Inquisition taken at Salop, 17th November, upon the 
Knight's fees, etc., held of the Earl. (No. 11.) 

" ij foed' milit' cu' p'tin' .... Kynaston, Donaston, 
Maysbrook, Morton, Knokyn r' Osbaston que Johe's fiP r' here's 
Johis le Straunge de Knokyn Chr* ten' r' que xxZt. i-* d . . . 
d'eo die quo forisfecit r 1 postea ut de Castro de Oswaldestre." 

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Chancery mortem 21 Bic. II. No. 1, m. 11. (1398.) 
[Bundle of Forfeitures.] 

Inquisicio capta apud Oswaldestre in March* Wall' Com* 
Salop* adjacente ix die Novembr* Anno r. r. Ric'i sc'di post 
conq'm vicesimo primo coram Joh'e Speigne Joh'e Pygot 
Crico seniore Ric'o Kays s'viente d'ni Reg' ad armae 't Will'o 
Stokley Escaetore ejusd'm Reg' in Com' 't March p'd'eis virtute 
cujusdam Com'issionis ejusd'm d'ni Reg' eisd'm Joh'i Joh'i 
Ric'o 't Escaetori ac alijs directe p' sacr'm WilTi Morgan Ric'o 
Salt Joh'is lloid Eigino ap Ri'c Thome Englys Will* Haston 
Thome ap DD. Eigino Corveser Joh'is .... unge Thome 
Robynsone Rog'i Dirlond David Lloid Egino ap Rio' Rog'i ap 

Gruffuth David ap Jen'n Vaghm Mad' ap David ethin 

Gruff ap Meu'r Jen'n ap Hoell apEig'n Wyllym lloid Eynos 
ap Blethin Jor ap Jen'n Gruff ap DD. Vaghn Joh'is Sail' Gruff 
ap Ith 't Joh'is ap Ric' Jur\ Qui die' sup sacr'm suu' q'd 
Thomas Archiep'us Cantuar Thorn. Dux Gloucest'r 't Thomas 
Comes War'r qui erga dun'c Reg* forisfecerunt nulla tenueru't 
Castra d'nia t'ras cu' rev'siones feoda advocac'ones franche- 
sias lib'tates vel alias possessiones nee aliquis alius ad opus 
eor'dem Archiep'i duci 't Comitis Warr' seu eor* alicuj' dieb' 
quib' forisfecerunt seu postea infa d'um de Oswaldestre in 
March' p'd'ea. Set die' q'd Ric'us Comes Arundell fuit 
se'itus in d'nico suo ut de feodo die quo forisfecit 't postea de 
Castro villa 't d'nio de Oswaldestre in d'ea March' Wall' et 
val' p' annu' cu' consuetudinib' 't p'tin' suis ulta' feoda oi'm 
Officiarior' ib'm 't ult'a om'es repri's ib'm co'ib' annis fac't 
cclij/i. xyjs. ijd. Item die' q'd id'm Comes Arundell fuit 
seisitus in d'nico suo ut de feodo d'e' diem quo forisfecit 't 
postea de Mand'iode Ruyton cu' membris 't p'tin' suis in March' 

f'd'ca et val' p' annu' in o'ib' exitib* ult' repris lvjZt. ijs. vijd. 
t'm die' q'd idem Comes Arundell similil' fuit seisitus in 
d'nico suo ut de feodo de mandio de Kynardeslee cu' p'tin 9 in 
March' p'd'ea et val' p' annu' in oib' exit' ulta 1 repris xxvK. 
ijd It'm die' q'd idem Comes Arundell similit' fuit seisitus 
in d'nico suo ut de feodo de Man'io de Sanfford cu' Oseleston 
't al' p'tin' suis et val' p' annu' in oi'b' exit' ult' repris ixli 
vj*. vijd. It'm die' q'd idem Comes Arundell similit' fuit sei- 
situs in d'nico suo ut de feodo de Man'io de Astan cu' p'tin' et 
val' p' annu' in o'ib' exitib' ult' repris' xvjft. xj*. ijef. It'm 
die' q'd idem Comes Arundell fuit seisitus in d'nico suo 
ut de feodo diu post d'e'm diem quo forisfecit de uno mesu- 
agio' cu' p'tin' in d'ea villa de Oswaldestre 't inde p' cartam 
suam ffeoffavit quondam Joh'em ap Wyllym Hend' sibi hered' 

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't assign' suis imp'p'm et valet p' annu' nit* repris' vj*. viijd. 
It'm die' q'd idem Comes Arundell fuit seisitus in d'nico suo' 
ut de feodo' die quo* forisfecifc 't postea de rev'sione uni' 
mesuag' cu' p'tin' in ead'm villa de Oswaldestre post mortem 
Alani Thorpp Cli'ci qui mesuag' illud tenet ad vitam suam ex 
concessione p'd'ci Comitis Arundell eid'tn Alano' diu ante diem 
quo* idem Comes forisfecit inde fact. Et die* q'd mesuagiu' 
illud nichil valet p' annu' ult' repris'. It'm die' q'd id'in 
Comes Arundell fuit seisitus in d'nico suo' ut de feodo' d'eo 
die quo* forisfecit' 't postea de advocac'one eccl'ie de ffelton in 
March p'd'ca 't val' p* annu' xx m're' et de advocac'o'e lib'e 
Capelle SV,i Nich'i inf Castru' de Oswaldestre 't valet p' 
annu' xlvjs. viijcZ. Et de advocac'o'e de'eiar' l'rar' d'nicaliu' 
de Kynardeslee 't valet p' annu* vjs. viijd It'm die q'd p'd'eus 
Comes Arundell h'uit infra d'e'm Castru' de Oswaldestre xviij 
die July p'x' pTit 't postea bona 't catall' subscript' videl't in 
garderoba ib'm v arcus de taxo iiij arcus de hulino xx garb' 
sagitt\ vj balist'. v lane' cu' yj capit'. i Gune. i barell de 
gunepoudre. cc. querell'. iij polaxes. ij sparthes. iij Jackes 
debil'. iij p'ia cerotic de plate, iij palett\ i bauderik p' balist'. 
i tabr. i par' stipit'. iij p'ia compedu'. vi p'ia de mamcis ffereis 
cu' bolt de ferro. i coler cu' ij shakyls de ferro. i luna\ i mali- 
olu\ In magna Cam'a i copeborde. ij tabul' iiij formal'. In 
media Cam'a iij cist', ij formal' i tabul'. In alta Cam'a unu* 
molendinu' manuale p'cell' cujusda' Trepeget. In aula Con- 
stabular' iij tabul' iiij trestell iij formul'. i pelium cu' lanacro i 
p'va' cista'. In bot'ia i cist' debil' ad fonte' i sicul' cu' cal'- 
hena ferrea i barell p' armatur' xxxl claves de div's' seru'r. 
In capella i va's p' aqua bened'ea. i missale. i calic' de aurat' ij 
tuell de lino cu' frontello ij alb. ij casul' cu' paru'r i molendinu' 
manuale p' blad molend'. In coquina i mort'iu' de petra cu' i 
pila de ligno. In lardaria ij dor debil' cu' vj b' salis que- 
quidem artillar' armatur bona 't catall dimissa sunt in custodia 
Madoc lloid locu'ten' Rob'ti de Legh Chivaler Constabular' 
Castri p'd'ci p' garnistura ejusd'm Castri. It'm die' q'd sunt 
ib'm 't in parcis de Bromhurst 't Oswaldestre Ix carect' feni p' 
estimac'o'm p'c' carect' xld. x/i.ib'm ad opus d'ni fiegis 

It'm die' q'd p'd'eus Comes Arundell similit' h'uit ib'm 
p'd'co xviij die July 't postea armatur' Artillar* bona 't catall' 
subscripta videl't iij Jackes iij palett' iij p'ia cerotec' de plate 
ij polaxes v ar'o de taxo. ix garb d'i sagitt' i lane vj capit' 
lane', ij cist' p' arcub' t' sagitt' unfun. iij balist'. c querell. iiij 
vasa plumbi. ij ollas eneas. i Vern de ferro. i modi a' ferro 
ligat' iij p'ia compedu'. i fetirlok. i scala. Set eju' de seu in 

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quo' manib' d'ca armatur' artillar' bona 'fc catalla existunt 
jur* p'd'ci penitus ignorant. Set di'c q'd quidain Rpg'us 
Slane nup' Constabular' d'ci Castri 't quidam Joh'es £e Pole 
nup' Const' ib'm ac qnidaui Will'o Banastre Costos ejusd'm 
Castr' sunt int'se de eisdem armatar' artillar' bona 't catalT 
d'no Regi responsur'. 

It'm die' q'd idem Comes Arundell siniilit* hait alia bona 't 
catalla post d'e'm xviij diem July in locis subscript' videl't. 
In castro p'd'co Saltyntrogh p'c' xiij*. iiijrf. vi cis't p'c' xvij$. 
viijd. v p'va pln'ba debil' iiij p'v de fracto plumbo pV xx*. 
viijef. iiij tubbes pV xxijcZ. i batyng pipe cu' i trogb pV xijd. 
quandam p'cella* vet'is uiaeremij p'c? vj*. jollam even, i pa tell, 
i gobard. i cratricula debit pV in toto iij*. iiijcZ. iiij standres de 
Worstede debil' de arm' Arundell p'c' iiijrf. 't unum stal' p'c' 
xiij*. iiijcZ. It'm in p'co de Bromhurst x juvent' pV capit' xiijs. 
iiijcZ. x/i. xiij*. iiiicZ. vj pulliu' fe. etat' iij ann' d'i p'c' capit' vj*. 
viij d. X.U. et in p co de Oswaldestre inferiori xj pnllau' unde iij 
mas', viij fe. etat* i an' pV capit ix*. viijeZ. et in queda' domo 
in villa de Oswaldestre D.C. j. vellar' lane ponder' p* estimac'on' 
ij sacc' d'i quart' j sacc' p'c' sacc' C3. 1 lagen' mell p'c' lagen' 

It'm die' q'd p'd'eus Comes Arundell h'uit p'd'ca xviij die 
Julij 't postea infra Castrn' p'd'c'm i albu' stalone' p'c' x m're. 
i nigra' stalone' p'c' xZi. i equ' cursorm' voc' Tongesorell pV 
xiijft. vj*. viijeZ. Et in p'co de Oswaldestre sup'ior xvj. pullan' 
ma's unde xiij etat' iij ann'. iij etat' ij ann' pV in toto lxvjZi. 
xiij*. iiijcZ. Et die' q'd quidam Wall'us Usshere nup' custos 
equitij p'd'ca Comit' Arnndell' p' comunia' fact' int Joh'em 
Whethales nup' senescallu' p'd'ci comit* in d'nio p'd'co et 
quenda' Adam de Peshale militem vendit Stalon' 't pullan' 
p'dic't absq' recepc'o'e alicuj' denarij cuidam Joh'i Colteman p' 
fraudem 't colusione ad usu' 't p'ficuu' p'd'co' Joh'is Whet- 
hales 't Ade p' quod ijdem Joh'es Whethales 't Adam sunt 
de p'd'eis xxiiij xvjZ?. xiijs. iiijcZ. de p'c' .... d'no Keg' 
responsur'. It'm die' q'd quidem Will's Banestre nup' Custos 
Castri p'd'ci cepit 't abduxit ii Jument' p'd'ci Comit' cu' j 
pullan' fe. p'c' xxxiijs. iiijcZ. ext p'cu' de Bromhurst post d'e'm 
xviij diem Julij unde ip'e est d'no Bege responsur'. Et 
p'd'eus Wall'us Ussher sil'it j Jument' cu' j pullan' mas' p'c' 
xk Unde ip'e est d'no Rege responsur\ It'm die' q'd 
Thomas Richardesone de Osewaldestre cepit 't asportavit post 
d'e'm xviij diem Julij ext' d'e'm Castru* lx veller' laneponder' 
p' estimac'o'em j q'rt. i sacc' p'c' xxv*. unde ip'e est d'no Rege 
responsur'. It'm die' q'd p'd'eus Comes h'uit inf , Castru' 


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p'cTcm post p'd'cm xviij diem Julij D.C.C.xxZi. in pecunia 
num'ata *t q'd quidam Thomas Harlyng nup' gen'alis Receptor 
p'd'ci comit' cepit 't asportavit pecunia* p'd'cam 't inde est 
d'no Begi responsur'. It'm die' q'd . . . . de Thorp 
Cli'cus nup' Receptor ib'm lib'avit de . . . . p'd'ci 
Comit* Arundel .... sui3 ... . Rob' to de Hilton 
arniig'o C. marc' unde ijdem Alanus 't Rob'tus sunt int' se 
d'no Regi responsur. It'm die q'd arrerag' firm' 't reddit' 
Castr* viV d'n'm 't Man'ior' p'd'eor' usq' ad vigil' SVi 
Mich'is pV ante que se extendunt p' estimacVem ad 
CCC.xxxiij/i. sunt in manib' div's .... ent' ballior' 
p'p'oitor* 't alior' Ministror' ib'm coraputanciu' qui inde sunt 
computabir 't responsur. It'm die' q'd reddit 't firm' ad 
t'rai'o S'c'i Mich'is pV pTit' qui se extendunt p' estimacW ad 
Ixvj//. xiijs. iiijei. sunt in manib' teneuc' ib'm unde Recep't 
ib'm est computabil'. In cuj* rei testio'm huic Inquisi'coi jur' 
p'd'ci sigilla sua apposuerunt. Dat die loco 't anno suprad'eis. 

William le Scrope, Lord Scrope, Lord Treasurer, / 
who became King of the Isle of Man in 1395, and ; 
created Earl of Wiltshire in 1397. In 1398, he became / 
Lord of Oswestry, Clun, Chirk, Dinas Brdn, Bromfield, : k 
and I&l. Azure, a bend or, for Scrope ; and gules, ' 
three men's legs armed ppr., conjoined in fess at the 
upper part of the thigh, flexed in triangle, argent, gar- 
nished and spurred or, for the Isle of Man. He did 
not, however, long enjoy his honours, for, on the depo- 
sition of King Richard, he fell a victim to popular fury 
in 1399. 

Richard, Earl of Warren, married first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, 
son of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, 
Lord Constable of England, azure, on a bend between 
two cottises, and six lions rampant or, three mullets, 
sable; and secondly, he married Philippa, daughter of 
Edmond Mortimer, Earl of March, and widow of John 
Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, or a maunch gules, in which 
family it is remarkable that no son ever saw his own 
father, the father dying always before the son was born. 1 
By this lady the earl had no issue ; but, by his first wife, 
1 Help to English History. By P. Heylyn, D.D. 

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Elizabeth de Bohun, he had issue four sons : Thomas, 
his successor, and Robert and William, who died young, 
and four daughters — 1, Elizabeth, who married, first, 
William de Montacute, son of William, Earl of Salisbury, 
argent, three fusils in fess gules; secondly, Thomas 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, KG. ; thirdly, Sir Robert 
Goushill, knight -, 1 and lastly, Sir Gerard Ufflete, knight f 
2, Joanna, wife of William de Beauchamp, Lord Aber- 
gavenny; 3, Margaret, wife of Sir Rowland Lenthall, 
knight ; and — 4, Alice, wife of John Charltou, Lord 

xt. — Thomas Fitz-Alax, Earl of Warren and Surrey, 
seventh Earl of Arundel, and Lord of Oswestry, Clun, 
Chirk, Dinas Br&n, Bromfield, and HI, had all the other 
lordships of his father. He was restored, 1 Henry IV, 
1399, and subsequently created a Knight of the Garter. 
In the 13th of Henry IV (1412), he granted to the bur- 
gesses of the town of Holt, their English heirs and 
assigns, and the tenants of that town, " license of dig- 
ging, taking, and freely carrying sea coals and turves in 
our wastes of Coed Poeth and Brinbawe, in all other 
wastes and places where other our English or Welsh 
subjects dig coal and turves for their fuel in their houses 
within our town aforesaid, at their own freewill, without 
the contradiction of us, our heirs, or ministers whom- 
soever". He was a great benefactor to the town of Os- 
westry, and obtained a pardon from the king for his 
vassals in the lordships of Bromfield, Chirk, and Oswestry, 
who had joined Owain Glyndyfrdwy. He died in 1421, 
3rd Henry V, and had by Beatrice his wife (a natural 
daughter of John, King of Portugal), who was buried at 
Arundel, two sons, Richard and William, who died young, 
and his unsettled estates, including the lordship of Brom- 

1 Sir Robert Goushill, of Heveringham, co. Notts. By his wife Eliza- 
beth, he had some daughters, co-heirs, oue of whom, Joau, married 
Sir Thomas Stanley, K.G., Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Comptroller 
of the Household, and Chamberlain to Henry VI, who was summoned 
to Parliament as Baron Stanley, 34th Henry VI, 20th January 1456. 

2 Brayle's Hist, of Surrey, i, 113. 

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field, fell to his sisters — Elizabeth, who had married 
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, who, in her right, 
became Justiciary of Chester and Flint j and Joane, who 
was married to William Beauchamp, who was created 
Baron of Abergavenny, by writ, 16 Kichard II, 1393. 

Chancery Inquis. post mortem, Henry V, No. 5 1, m. 19. 

Inquis' capt* ap* Salop die ven'is p'x' ante festu SVe Mar- 
garete virg'is anno regni Regis Henrici quinti post conquest* 
quarto cora' Will'mo Horde Esc' d'ni Regis in com' Salon 't 
March' Wall* eid'm com' adjac' virtute cujusd'm Vris ejusd'm 
d'ni Rege eid'm Esc' direct' 't huic Inquis* consul p' sacrum 
Rob'ti Corbet Rog'i Corbet Joh'is Scryveyn Edwardi de 
Whaton Joh'is Bot'ell Joh'is Leghton Rog i Drayton Willi' 
Halghton Ric'i de Horton RoVti de Rodynton Joh'is Pater- 
noster 't Rob'ti Lee de Uffynton Jur\ Qui dicu't sup* sacr'm 
8uu* q'd Thomas nup* Comes Arundell defunct iu d'co b'ri 
no'ia'tus tenuit die quo obijt in d'nico suo ut de feodo talliato 
Castra de Dynasbran *t Leonis 't t'ras de Bromfeld 't Tale 't 
Wrightesham cu* p'tin* p'cell com' de Warenna in March* 

{/diet unde in p'd'co Vri fit mencio virtute cujusdam finis 
evati in Cur* d'ni Reg'. Et l'cij p'avi d*ni Regis nu'c a die 
Pasche in unu* mensem anno regni ejusd'm p'avi a conquest' 
quadragesimo cora' Rob'to de Thorp 't soc' suis tu'c justic' 
ejusdem p'avi. Int* Ric'm Comite Arundell 't Suit* 't Alianora* 
ux'em ej' fil' Henr* nun' Comit' Lancastr' quer' 9 t Joh'm 
Ducem Lancastr* fil* p'crci p'avi 't alios deforc' de Castris *t 
t'ris p'd'eus ac de alijs t'ris Wat' p* que, q'id'm fine* p'd'eus 
Ric'us nup* Comes recognivat Castra 't IV p'd'ca cu p'tin' 
int' alia esse jus ipos Ducis 't alios ut ilia que ijdem Dux 't 
alij h'uerunt de dono p'd'ci Ric'i imp' Comitis p' qua quidem 
recognicVe ijd'm Dux *t alij concesser* p'd'eis Ric'o nup' 
comiti 't Alianore p'd'ca Castra 't l'ras cu' p'tin' unacu' feod' 
militu' 't advocacVib' ecc'liary 't om'ib' alijs reb* ad p'd'ca 
Castra 't t'ras quibnscu'q' spectant 't ilia eisd'm Ric'o nup' 
Comiti 't Alianore reddiderunt in eadem Cur* Hend' t' tenend' 
eiscjem Rico nnp' Comiti 't Alianore de Rege 't hered' suis 
tota veta ip'ius Ric'i nup' Comitis et post morte p'd'ci Ric'i 
nup' Comitis ead'm Castra 't t'r cum p'tin' integre remanerent 
Ric'o de Arundell Juniori 't Elizabeth ux'i ejus ten end' de d'no 
Rege 't hered' suis tota vita ip'ius Ric'i de Arundell Juniori s 
una cum feod' inilitu' 't advocac'oi'b' eccl'iar* ac alijs p'missis 
p* s'vicia inde debite 't consueta. Ita q'd post mortem p'd'ci 


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Ric'i' de Arundell Junioris p'd'ca Castra 't t're cum p'tin' 
integr' remanerent hered' de corp'e p'd'ci Ric'i de Arundell 
junioris p'creat' tenend' de d'no Rege 't hered' suis p' s'vicia 
inde debita 't consueta imp'p'm p'ut p' tusc'iptum finis p'd'ci 
p'fat fur sup* capc'one Inquis' p'd'ce in evidencia raonstrat 't 
p* t'ras patentes d'ni Regis nunc exemplificat plene liquet. 
Et dicunt d'ci Jur' q'd p'd'ci Ric'us nup' Comes 't Alianora 
fuerunt seisiti de Castr' 't t'r p'd'cis cu' p'tin' virtute finis 
p'd'ci ut de lib'o tonto' 't dicu't q'd post postea p'd'cus Ri'cus 
nup' Comes obijt 't postea p'd'ca Alianora obijt post cujus 
mortem p'd'ci Ric'us de Arundell junior 't Elizabeth us' ejus 
in Castr* 't t'r* p'dict cu' p'tin' int'a ver' ut in remaner* suo 
virtute finis p'd'ci et h'uerent exit' int' eos p'dict' Thomam 
nup' Comite' Arundell in d'co b'ri noiat 't Elizabeth Ducissam 
Norff modo ux'em Gerardi Unlet e Chivaler Johannem de Beau- 
champ d'nam de Bergevenny 't Margaretera ux'ern . . Roland 
Leynthale Chivaler que quidem tres filie adhuc sunt sup'stites. 
Et dicunt q'd postea p'fata Elizabeth ux' Ric'i obijc 't post 
modu' p'd'cus Ric'us de Arundell junior . . . post cujus mortem 
p'd'cus Thomas in Castr' 't t'r' p'dict' cu' p'tin' intravit ut 
filius 't h'eres p'd-ci Ric'i de Arundell Junioris de Corpore suo 
legitte' p'creat inde fuit seisitus virtute finis p'd'ci 't de tali 
statu inde obijt seisitus post cujus mortem ead'm Castr* 't 

t'r* cu' p'tin' p'fatis Ducisse Johanne ut sororiV 't 

hered' p'd'ci Thome nup' Comitis Aruudell descenderunt vir- 
tute finis p'd'ci eo q'd idem Thomas nup' Comes obijt sine 
hered' de corpe suo exeunt. Et dicu't q'd ead'm Castr' 't 
t'r' cu' p'tin' tenent' de d'na Rege in capite p' s'vic' militar' 
't valent p' annu' in oinib' exit ult'arepris' ccc marc. In cujus 
rei testimon' p'd'ci Jur' huic Inquis' sigili' suo apposuer Dat' 
die loco 't anno sup d'cis. 

Inq. post mortem, Edmundus de Mortuo Mari, 3 H. VI. No. 82. 

Inquis' capta apud Bruggnorth coram Joh'is Boterell EsV 
d'ni Reg' in com' Salop ac march' Wallia eidem com' ad- 
iacent'. die Jouis p'x ante fm S'c'e Thome mar* Anno 
regni Regis H. sexti t'tio, etc. — (8 H. 6.) 

The jury say " sup sacr'm suu' q'd Edmundus nup' Comes 
Marchie in deo' br'i noiat tenuit die quo obijt in d nico suo 
ut de feodo de d'no Rege in capite p' s vie' in militar' Castrum 
D'n'm 't t'ram de Dynbygh cum suis p'tin' in Marchia Wallie 
d'co corn' Salop adjacent quid quid' Castrum nichil val' p' 
annu' ult' repris'. Et sunt ib'm t'm de firme t'rax ten' t 

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molend' q'm de redditu annuatim solvend' ad festa Pent* r* 

SVi Mich'is cccxxxZt. equalit. 

/ * * * * 

H'm sunt ib'm de fi^m , Hevedelwey iiij Stag' Galhed r* 
Bund' de Dynmayll ac pannag' foreste de Altrugg lxijs. iiiji. 
sol' ad p'd'ca festa Pent r' SVi Mich'is equis porconib'. 
* * * * 

Inq. post mortem, 11 H. VI, No. 43, mem. 20. John de Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk 

Inquis' capta apud Wenlok die Jouis p'x ante fest'm conn* sio* 
SVi Pauli an'o regui Regis Henrici Sexti. vndeciino coram 
Will'o Cowley Esc'.— (11 H. VI.) 

It'm juratores p'd'ci dicunt q'd p'factus Joh'is nup* Dux 
[Norff] tenuit die quo obiit in d'nico suo, vt de feodo talliato 
sibi et her' de corpe' suo exeunt t'tiam p'tera duar' p't'm 
Castror' de Dynasbran r' leonis ac trar' d'nor* de Bromfelde 
Yale necnon Ma'nore de Sondesford r' Osleston cu' p'tin' in 

march Wallia Et die' q'd t'tia p's duar' pVm p'd'eor* 

Castror' trar' r' d'nior' de Bromfelde Tale cu' p'tin' tenet de 
d'no Rege in capite p' s'uiciu* militare. 

It'm jur' p'd'ci die' q'd in p'd'ca t'tia p'te* duar* pVm castru' 
de Dynasbran r' leonis sunt de reddit ass' \vs. vijd. soluend* 
t'mis Annuncia'cois b'te Marie r' sVi Mich'is equalet. Et sunt 
ib'm de diu'c ccc acr* t're quar* quelt acr* valet p' annu' iiijd, 
Et sunt ib'm xlviij acr' prati quar' quelt acr* valet p' annu' 
xxri. Et sunt ib'm de reddit mobit xis. ij<2. sol' ad t'nu' na- 
talis d'm t'ra. Et sunt ib'm lxiiij aci*' pastur' quar' quelt acra 
valet p' annu' iiijti. Et p'q'uis cur* ib'm valent p* annu' 
xxxviija. iyl. Et die* q'd in p'd'ca t'tia p'te' duar' p't'm trar' r* 
d'nior' de Bromfelde Yale sunt de reddit ass* xiijs. iiijcZ. Sol' 
ueud' ad t'mas Annuncia'cois b'te Marie r' S'c'i Mich'is equalit. 
Et sunt ib'm mlxxiiij acr' t're d'nie quai*' quelt acra valet p' 
annu' iiijd. Et sunt ib'm cccc acr' pastur quar* quelt acra 
valet p' annu* xiicZ. Et sunt ib'm cciiij ij acra prati quar' quelt 
acr' valet p f annu' xxd. Et sunt ib'm de firma molendini 
aquatic ixZi. x*. Et p'quis cur ib'm valent p' annu' iiijZi iijs. iiijd. 

Chancery Inq. post mortem, 18 Henry VI. No. 28, memh'ani 23, 

Inquisition taken at Ludlowe, in Pentecost week, 18 Henry 
i VI, upon the death of Beatrix, Countess of Arundel 

It set forth that Richard, Earl of Arundel, aud Alianor, his 
wife, a daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, by a fine levied 
Ivol. i. 25 

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in Easter, 40 Edw. Ill, became possessed of the Castle .of 
Dynasbran, and of Castle Leonis, and lands in Bromfeld, and 
Yale, and Wrightesham, with the appurtenances in Wales, 
together with knight's fees, reversions, advowsons of churches, 
etc., etc., homages, and also services of free tenants, etc., fairs, 
markets, warrens, chaces, parkes, etc., fishings, feedings, 
pastures, etc., and other things which to the said castles, etc., 
appertain, with remainder to Richard Arundel, junior, and 
Elizabeth his wife. To hold of the king and his heirs, during 
the life of the said Richard Arundel, junior, and his heirs 
male by the services due and accustomed for euer. The Earl 
and Alianor died thereof so seized in their demesne as of free 
tenement. Richard Arundel, junior, had issue Thomas, Earl 
of Arundel, his son, and Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, Joan 
de Beauchamp, late Lady Abergavenny, and Margaret, late 
wife of Rowland Leynthale, knight, his daughters. Richard 
Arundel, and Elizabeth his wife, died, after whose deaths, 
Thomas, late Earl of Arundel, entered into and became seized 
of the castles, manors, etc., in his demesne, as of fee tail. He 
married Beatrix, and died without issue in the reign of Henry 
Yth, who, by his escheator, assigned a third of the gaol within 
the Castle Leonis, by the name of the Castle of Holt, with 
free ingress and egress, and safe custody of the prisoners, and 
also the third part of a house called the " Chekers" within the 
said castle ; also the third part of all houses outside the ward 
of the castle. Also assigned to Beatrix a certain stable for 
five horses next the court-house, and near the ditch of the said 
castle ; also the third part of a garden, together with a pasture 
called "le Quarrer", adjoining the same. Also assigned to 
Beatrix the lordships "prouostr", escheatorship, and park 
underwritten, viz., the town of Wryxham,* with court and 
court-house, etc.; together with all tolls to the said town, and 
the lordships of Bromfield and Yale belonging. Also assigned 
to the said Beatrix the manor of Heulyngton, etc., the manors 
of Pikhull and Sessewyk, and the " Ryngeldriam" de Yscoya, 
u p'uostr" de Merford, the lordship and baliwik of Almore, the 
office of Escheator of Yale, " p'uostr" de Yale, baliwik of 
Bedewelle, park of Merseley, with the appurtenances, and 
with the third part of the mines there for fuel. All which 
were assigned to the said Beatrix, and are members, etc., of 
the castles and lands aforesaid, and which Roger Corbet, the 
king's escheator, assigned to her in full allowance of her dower 
for term of her life, by virtue whereof she entered into the 
said premises. And after her death the said premises shonM 
descend to John, Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth, wife of Ed- 

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fort? t*.M±*r 7, —Jl A 

'**" «*"t MS. J< 9 4 jfi f. 

#r 7700-6 CO 


OCT 20 1987 

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X~.Hvi.JUm.UpMk ** 

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ward Neville, Lord of Bergavenny, and Edmund Lenthale, as 
kinsmen and heirs of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, viz., ,the duke 
as son and heir of John, late Duke of Norfolk, and; of Eliza- 
beth, sister and co-heiress of Thomas. Elizabeth, wife of 
Edward Neville, as daughter of Richard, Earl of Wigorn, son 
of Joan, another sister of Thomas, and Edmund as son of Mar- 
garet, third sister of Thomas. The premises are held by the 
third part of a knight's fee. The jury further say that the 
said Thomas, Earl of Arundel, was seized of the castle town 
and manor of Shrewardyn, which he granted to Edward de 
Charleton de Powys, Chevaler, and others, in the reign of 
Hemy IV, to the use of himself and Beatrix conjointly during 
their respective lives, and for the whole life of Beatrix, with 
remainders as above, the said castle being held in capita by 
knights' service. She also held the manor of Childesercall, 
alms Arklowe, for term of her life. This was not held of the 
king, nor is the service known. She also held the manor of 
Felton Boteler, services not known. The jury say that the 
third part of the gaol is of no value, beyond repairs and cus- 
tody of the prisoners ; the third part of the house called the 
€€ Cheker", no value ; the third part of the houses outside the 
ward of the Castle of Holt, no value. The stable, valued at 
vj*. viijd. yearly. The third part of the garden with pasture, 
called the " Querrer", iij*. iiijd. yearly. In the town of Wryx- 
ham is a certain p'uostr, valued at vj*. viijd.; also an escheator, 
valued at xs., rents of assize, xli., xl acres of arable land, 
valued at Id. per acre ; x acres of meadow, at vjd. per acre; 
cxx acres of pasture, at £d. per acre ; court baron every three 
weeks, xls. View of Frank pledge, xs. ; tolls, vjK. ; court- 
house of no value ; site of the manor of Heulyngton nothing, 
rents of assize, vjZ*. ; xxxij acres of arable land, ijd. per acre ; 
vj acres of meadow, at vjd. per acre ; xl acres of pasture, at 
£d. The site of the manor of Pykhull no value, rents of 
assize, vjK. ; 1 acres of arable land, valued at ijd. per acre; 
xij acres of meadow, at iiijd. per acre ; ij acres of pasture, at 
Id. per acre. The site of the manor of Sessewik, no value; 
rents of assize, iii*. viiid. ; xxiiij acres of arable land, at Id. 
per acre ; iiij acres of meadow, at viijd. per acre ; xxx acres 
of pasture, at \d. per acre; Byngeler of Yscoyd xli. p'uostr 
of Merford, xixK. vi*. vj£d. ; demesne and bailiwick of Almore, 
lxxiijs. viijd.; escheator of Tale, Ixs.; p'uostr of Yale, 
iiijZi. ij*. xxd. ; bailiwick of Bedewalle, xiij*. ijd.;. park of 
Meresley, valued at x*., beyond the custody and sustenance of 
the deer, etc. ; mine, nothing this year, because not occupied. 
The castle of Shrewardyn, with the houses and buildings, no 

| 25 * 

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value beyond repairs, etc. ; rents of assize, xvj/i. ; ccc acres 
of arable land, at ijti. per acre ; xvi acres of meadow, at xijd. 
per acre; 100 acres of pasture, at Id. ; coney warren, v$. 
yearly; water passage across the Severn, iijs. yearly; park 
nothing, beyond the custody and sustenance of the deer, etc. ; 
wood called Abrams, containing 500 acres, nothing, because 
not felled this year; another called Dadwode, 300 acre^, 
nothing, from same cause; another called Valydswyk, 100 
acres, nothing, from same cause ; court baron, x\s. ; view of 
Frank pledge, xls. ; site of the manor of Childerescali, alias 
Arklowe, nothing ; rents of assize, 305. ; 40 acres arable land, 
at ijtZ. per acre ; xx acres of meadow, at vj<7. per acre; xl acres 
of pasture, at 11 per acre. The manor of Fetton Boteler, 
value iiij/i. Also, the jury say that " Richard, late Earl of 
Arundel, was seised of the castles, towns, and manors of Clone, 
Oswaldestre, and other manors, etc., viz., Ruton, etc. After 
the death of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, the castles, etc., de- 
scended to John de Arundel, Chevaler, as kinsman and heir 
male of Thomas, late Earl of Arundel, viz., son of John, the 
son of Richard, late Earl of Arundel by Alianor, and brother 
of Richard Arundel, son of Richard, Earl of Arundel. Thomas, 
Earl of Arundel, died without issue. Beatrix survived him, 
and held in dower the lands, etc., underwritten, parcel of the 
castles, towns, and manors of Clone, and Oswaldestre, and 
other manors, viz., in castle of Oswaldestre, a new hall, with 
an upper chamber annexed, and other chambers and offices. 
Also a third part of the chapel there, third part of kitchen 
with larder, third part of a grange, outside the castle. Also 
a stable, with a small granary, with third part of garden, 
next the Barbican ; third part of court-house, third part of a 
well in the said castle, third part of all the hundred of Os- 
waldestre ; also the entire lordship of Ruyton, with members 
of the same. Held of the king by knight's seruice, value 
liij*. iiijcZ. ; the third part of the hundred of Oswaldestre, called 
Troyan, valued yearly at v marks. The lordship of Ruyton, 
valued yearly, beyond reprises, liij*. iiijVi.; rents of assize, 
xls. ; xxx acres of arable land, valued iiijcl per acre ; lxxx acres 
of pasture land, valued at \d. per acre yearly, etc. Beatrix 
died without heirs, 23rd of October List past. The present 
Duke of Norfolk is aged 24 years. 

Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Not- 
tingham, Earl Marshall, and Baron Fitz-Alan, Mowbray, 
Maltravers, and Segrave, who bore gules, a lion rampant 
argent, became possessed of the moiety of the lordship 

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of Bromfield, by right of his wife. He was disgraced 
and exiled in 1397, and died in 1399. He had issue 
two sons — 1, Thomas, called the Earl Marshall, who died 
s. p.; and — 2, John, of whom presently; and two 
daughters, who eventually became co-heirs — 1, Margaret, 
who married Sir Robert Howard, knight, by whom she 
had Sir John Howard, Knight, who was created Duke of 
Norfolk, 28th June 1433; and Isabel, who married James, 
Lord Berkeley, ancestor of the present Earl of Berkeley. 

John Mowbray, who was restored as second Duke 
of Norfolk, had also his share of the lordships of Brom- 
field and Ial. He married Catherine, daughter of Ralph, 
Earl of Westmoreland, and died 11th Henry VI, 1442, 
leaving issue, 

John Mowbray, third Duke of Norfolk, lord of the 
moiety of Bromfield and I&l. He died 1st Edw. IV 
(1461). leaving issue by Eleauor, his wife, daughter of 
William, Lord Bourchier, a son and heir. 

John Mowbray, fourth Duke of Norfolk, and Lord of 
the moiety of Bromfield and lal. He died 15th Edw. IV 
(1476). He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Talbot, 
Earl of Shrewsbur}-, by whom he had an only daughter 
and heiress, Anne Mowbray, the greatest heiress of her 
time, contracted to Richard, Duke of York, second son 
of King Edward IV, but died before consummation of 

On the strength of this betrothal, Richard, Duke of 
York, was created, in 1475, Earl of Nottingham, when 
he was two years old ; and Earl Warren, and Duke of 
Norfolk, when he was three years of age. He was mur- 
dered when he was nine, and his jiancGe died when she 
was not much older. Thus, the line of John, second 
Duke of Norfolk, became extinct ; and the lordships of 
Bromfield, Chirkland, and I&l, with the castles of Dinas 
Brdn, Holt, and Chirk, reverted to the Crown. 

John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, acquired the 
lordships of Maelor Gymraeg (Bromfield), Chirk, and 
I&l, by assassinating the two infant Princes of Powys, 
Madog and Llywelyn, in 1281 ; and Richard, the 


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last Earl of Warren and Surrey who held these castles 
and lordships, was likewise assassinated when an in- 
fant, in 1480. This is another clear proof of the truth 
that a curse follows the possessors of ill-gotten lands and 
wealth; for hundreds of years, an avenging Nemesis 
watches over the affairs of men ; and although she may 
come with a slow foot, as in this instance, she will, sooner 
or later, most assuredly overtake the guilty. 

Of persons who have acted unjustly, and who were 
not punished for it at the time, and have not shown their 
sincere repentance by surrendering their ill-gotten pos- 
sessions to the rightful heirs, Plato writes as follows : — 
"A person acting unjustly, and escaping punishment 
and all suffering on account of his injustice, and con- 
gratulating himself upon such exemption, would be more 
miserable and deluded than a sick person who should 
rejoice in not undergoing the operation which alone could 
effect the cure of his body. In fine, the not receiving 
punishment for evils is the first and greatest of all ca- 
lamities ; so that, if rhetoric be of any use to one who is 
unjust, it can only be by enabling him to expose fully 
and manfully his own injustice, in order that it may 
receive the proper punishment, whether of chains, or 
banishment, or death ; so that his soul may be healed in 
the same manner as he would offer his limb to the knife 
or 'fire of the surgeon, in order to have it restored to 
soundness. Therefore, each person should be his own 
accuser, and should beware of concealing his wickedness, 
and should employ all his rhetoric to this end, that he 
may be loosed from the greatest evil of injustice." 1 

Inquisition, post mortem, 11 H. VI, m. 20. {No. 48) John de 
Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. 

Inquis' capta apud Wenlok die Jo'nis p'x ante fest'm conu'- 
sio S'c'i Pauli ano' regni Regis Hen* sexti vndecimo. (11 H. VI.) 

It'm Invatores p'd'ci dicunt q'd p'factus Joh'is nap* Dax 
tenuit die quo obiit in d'nico suo, vt de feodo talliato sibi et 
her de corp* suo exeunt t'tiam p'tem duar* pYm Castror de 

1 Plato, Georgia*. 

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^Y.i:%f\>] ft', -■?. !te» 
k; r .-'it%ii ,J </ . 1 ■V 1 \ ' A 

K^mim r •• • 

a 14 v i 

M' iU 

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I 1 Ml 


'.It t 

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Dynasbran et leonis ac trar' duar' ao Bromfelde Yale .... 
necnon manor' de Sondesford et Osleston cu f p'tin* in march' 
Wallia, eta Et die' q'd t'tiap's duar' p't'm p'd'corCastror' t'rar' 
r' d'nior' de Bromfelde Yale cu' p'tin* tene't de d'no Rege in 
capite p' s'uiciu' militar'. It'ra jur p'd'ci die' q'd in p'd'co* t'tia 
p'te* duar* p't'm Castr'm de Dynasbran r* leonis sunt de reddit 
an* \v8. viid. soluend' t'mis Annunciaco'es b'te' Marie r' SV i 
Mich'is equalit. Et sunt ib'in de d'ni ccc acr' t're quar' que 
le acr' valet p' annn' iiijd. Et sunt ib'm xlviij acr' prati quar 
quelt acr' valet p' anna' xxd. Et sunt ib'm de reddit mobil' 
X}8. ijd. sol' ad t'mi' natalis d'ni t'm. Et sunt ib'm lxiiij acr' 
pastur quar' quelt acra valet p' annn' iiijd. Et p'quis our' 
ib'm p' annu' xxxviij*. ijd. Et die' q'd in p'd'ca t'tia p'te duar' 
p't'm t'rar' r' d'nior' de Bromfeld Yale sunt de reddit an' 
xiijs. iiijd. Solvend' ad t'mas Annuntiaco's b'te Marie et S'c'i 
Mich'is equalit. Et sunt ib'm mZ. xxiiij acr^ t're d'me quar' 
quelt acra valet p' annu' iiijd. Et sunt ib'm cccc acr' pastur' 
quar' quelt acra valet p' annu' xiid. Et sunt ib'm cciiij ij acr' 
prati quar' quelt acr' valet p' annn' xxd. Et sunt ib'm de 
firma molend' aquatic ixZt. x*. Et p'quis cur* ib'm valent p' 
annu' iiijZt. iij*. iiijd 

Having given an account of the descendants of Eliza- 
beth, the eldest sister and co-heir of Thomas Fitz-Alan, 
eleventh Earl of Warren and Surrey, KG., we shall now 
give some account of the descendants of Joane, the 
second sister and co-heir of Earl Thomas. 

The Lady Joane, heiress of the moiety of Bromfield 
and IA1, married Sir William de Beauchamp, K.G., who 
was summoned to Parliament as William, Baron de Ber- 
gavenny, by writ, 16 Kichard II, from 23rd Nov. 1392, 

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to 26th August 1408. He was the fourth son of Thomas 
de Beaucbamp, Earl of Warwick, and died in 1410, on 
the day' of the Seven Sleepers. Joane died 14th Henry 
VI, leaving issue a son and heir, Richard, and two 
daughters, Joane and Elizabeth. 

Richard Beauchamp, Lord Abergavenny, and Lord of 
the moiety of Bromfield and 141, was aged fourteen at 
the time of his father's death. In the 4th Henry V 
(1422), upon the death of Constance, widow of Thomas, 
late Lord Le Despencer, he had livery of those lands 
lying in the counties of Cornwall and Devon, which she 
held in dower for her term of life ; and the same year, 
being retained to serve the king in his wars in France, 
received four hundred and seventy-seven pounds in hand, 
for the better support of himself in that employment. 
After which, continuing for the most part there, and 
meriting well for his fidelity and valour, he was advanced 
to the title of Earl of Worcester, in the eighth year of 
that king, 1426; and the next year following, in con- 
sideration of his special services in those wars, he ob- 
tained a grant from the king of all the lands, castles, and 
lordships which formerly belonged to Sir Gilbert de Urn- 
fraville, knight, as well within the Duchy of Normandy 
as any other place which the king had conquered, viz , 
all those which, before the king's coming to Tangrec, did 
belong to the lord of Tretteville, to hold to himself, and 
the heirs male of his body, paying yearly to the king, 
his heirs and successors, a coat of mail of pure calibre, at 
the feast of St. John the Baptist. 

In 1442, Richard Roy don, of Kent, the ancestor of 
the Roydons of Is y Coed, is said to have come iuto 
Bromfield with the Commissioners of Lord Abergavenny, 
lord of the moiety of Bromfield, 20th Henry VI. 1 

Still attending the Court, the earl was at length un- 
happily wounded in his side at Mewtoubury, in France, 
by a stone from a sling, which putting a period to his 
life in 1421, he was buried at Dewsbury, at the end of 
the choir, near to the chapel of the famous Robert Fitz- 
Hnmon, and the male line again becomes extinct. 
| l Penuaut's Tour, vol. i, p. 290. 

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Ho married Isabel, sister and heir of Richard, eighth 
Lord Le De Spencer, son and heir of Thomas, Lord Le 
Dcspencer. By this lady he had is^ue one only daughter 
and heiress, Elizabeth, born at Han ley Castle, co. Wor- 
cester, 16th December 1415, who married Sir Edward 
Neville, K.G., fourth surviving son of Ralph, first Earl 
of Westmoreland, who, thus becoming possessed of the 
castle and lands of Abergavenny, was summoned to Par- 
liament as Lord Abergavenny, from 5th September 1450 
(29th Henry VI), to 1.9th August 1472 (12 Edw. IV; 
gules, on a saltier argent, a rose of the field, barbed and 
seeded ppr. By this marriage, Elizabeth had issue, two 
sons, Richard Neville, who died s. p. in his father's life- 
time ; and Sir George Neville, who succeeded his father 
as Lord Abergavenny, aud lord of the muiety of Biom- 
field. He was knighted at the celebrated battle of 
Tewkesbury, 9th May 1471, and died 20th September 
1492. He married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir 
Hugh Fenne, knight, Treasurer of England, by whom he 
had, besides other issue, two sons — 1, Sir George Neville, 
Lord Abcrgaveuny. He was created a Knight of the 
Bath in the reign of Henry V; was distinguished against 
the Cornish rebels temp. Henry VII ; and became the 
companion in arms of Henry* VIII in his French wars. 
By the last monarch he was made a Knight of the Garter, 
and obtained many high and important commands, and 
was summoned to Parliament in the twenty- first of the 
king's reign, as George Neville de Bergavenny, Chivaler. 
He died 27th Henry VIII, 1536, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son (Henry) by his second wife, Mary, 
daughter of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham. 
For an account of his descendants, see Burke's Peerage. 

2. Sir Edward Nevill, of Adlington Park, in Kent, 
who was a military man of high reputation and a knight 
banneret in the time of Henry VIII. He was, together 
with his father, Lord of the Moiety of Bromfield, in 7th 
Edw. IV, 1468 (see p. 399). He was eventually, how- 
ever, attainted and beheaded on the charge "of devising 
to maintain, promote, and advance one Reginald Pole, 


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late Dean of Exeter, enemy of the king, beyond the sea, 
and to deprive the king". Sir Edward married Eleanor, 
daughter of Andrew, Lord Windsor, and relict of Ralph, 
Lord Scrope, of Upsal, by whom he had two sons : 1, 
Edward, Lord Abergavenny, ancestor of the present 
Marquess of Abergavenny ; and 2, Henry, ancestor of 
the Nevilles, Lords Braybrooke. On the attainder and 
execution of Sir Edward, the last remaining moiety of 
Bromfield reverted to the crown. (See pp. 389, 390.) 

In 1485, Henry VII commenced his reign, and we 
find that the lordships of Bromfield, Chirk, and 141 were 
then in the crown, for Henry, in the fifth year of his 
reign (1490), granted them, with the Castles of Holt and 
Chirk, to Sir William Stanley, knight, who had saved his 
life at the battle of Bosworth. Sir William was the 
second son of Sir Thomas Stanley, K.G., who was sum- 
moned to Parliament as Baron Stanley, 20th January 
1456 (34th Henry VI). This Sir William Stanley, of 
Holt Castle, was the richest subject in the kingdom, 
having no less than 40,000 marks in ready money, and 
£3,000 a year. He thoroughly repaired Chirk Castle. 
Subsequently, however, Sir William was beheaded for 
his participation in the rebellion of Perkin Warbeck. 
On his execution, Henry not only resumed the lordships, 
but seized on his vast effects, and found in Holt Castle. 
40,000 marks, besides plate, jewels, household goods, and 
cattle on the ground. He died unmarried, and. was, as 
before stated, the second son of Thomas, the first Lord 
Stanley, by Joan his wife, daughter and co-heir of Sir 
Robert Goushill, of Heverineham, Co. Nottingham, 
knight, by Elizabeth, his wife, relict of Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk, and daughter and co-heir of Richard 
Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundell. (Refer to pp. 389, 390.) 


On the 22nd of April 1509, Henry VIII commenced 
his reign, and among the State letters and papers, foreign 
and domestic, we find the following appointments made 
by the king's letters patent. 

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Seal of Caste11 Leone. (Tem^.'2en.w) 

r/TCS/M/lS from H/T/?L. MS$. IfffCfoit. 10+. 

Seal of Cardinal ¥b)e. 

3ea1 of Castetl Leane.CRrm^enYrOw 

/v/W/i l/oyd deft. 

lartooAf D*AV*A*c Qm€UE.PHaTOLrrM. 

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1509. 26th May. John Pate, groom of the wardrobe 
of bedchamber, to be* porter at Chirk Castle, in the 
Marches of Wales, a£ held by Edward Whittington. 
Greenwich, 19th May, 1st Henry VIII. 

1509. 26th May. Launcelot Lother to be receiver 
of the lordships of Bromfield, Chirk, and Chirkland in 
the Marches of Wales. Greenwich, 18th May, 1st 
Henry VIII ; Del. Croydon, 26th May. 

1509. 13th October. William Aylmer, yeoman of 
the crown, to be keeper of Merseley tark, in the lord- 
ship of Bromfield, in the king's hands by the rebellion of 
Sir William Stanley, dec. Richmond, 2nd October, 1st 
Henry VIII. ; Del. West., 13th October. 

1509. 22nd November. Edward Guldeford to be 
chief steward, during pleasure, of the lordships of Lyon 
(Holt), Bromfield, and 141, lately held by Sir John Lang- 
ford, deceased. Greenwich, 18th November ; Del. West. 

On the same day by letters patent, for Edward Guide- 
ford, of Halden, in Kent, esquire of the body. Pardon 
and release as son and heir and administrator of Sir 
Eichard Guldeford, master of the king's armoury, and 
bailiff of Winchelsea, farmer of Higham, alias Iham, in 
Co. Sussex. Greenwich, 10th November ; Del. West. 

1510. 24th January. Grant of the free chapel in the 
castle of Lyon, alias Holt, in the lordship of Bromfield 
and Yale, to Sir Anthony Byrne, clerk, in the same 
manner as William Alom formerly held it. West., 20th 
January ; Del. West., 24th January. 


(1 Henry VIII. 1510.) 

Henry, by the grace of God, etc., greeting. We have in- 
spected the letters patent of our progenitor, Henry VII, of 
worthy memory, late King of England, to the following effect. 
Henry, by the grace of God, etc., know ye that, although in a 
Parliament of the Lord Henry IV, King of England, our 
ancestor, held at Westminster, in the fourth year of his reign, 
it was ordained, enacted, and appointed by authority of the 


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said Parliament, that 110 Welshman, nor person from Wales, 
should be allowed to acquire or obtain any lands, tenements, 
domains, manors, townships, hamlets, rents, reversions, ser- 
vices, or any hereditaments whatsoever in England, or in any 
English boroughs or townships in Wales, to be held for him- 
self or bis heirs in fee-simple, fee- tail, or in any other mode 
whatsoever; so that no Welshman of this description, or 
person from Wales, should bear, hold, occupy, or assume any 
office of sheriff, mayor, bailiff, constable, or the like, in any 
city, borough, or township in England, or in any English 
borough or township in Wales, under certain penalties ex- 
pressed and defined in the statute aforesaid, as is more fully 
mentioned in the said statute. 

We, however, taking into consideration the gratuitous bene- 
fits and laudable services which our beloved subjects, tenants, 
or residents, within our counties of Caernarvon and Merioneth, 
in North Wales, have, in divers manners, conferred upon us 
in times past, and which they cease not daily to confer, out 
of our own peculiar grace and certain knowledge, and our 
own mere motion, as well as by the advice of our council, have 
granted in behalf of ourselves and our heirs, that all and 
singular the tenants and other inhabitants within the counties 
aforesaid, or any one of them, their heirs aud successors, or 
any of them, should, in future, acquire, have, receive, and hold 
any lands, tenements, domains, manors, townships, hamlets, 
castles, rents, revenues, and services, possessions, or heredita- 
ments whatsoever in England, and in English boroughs aud 
towns in Wales, for themselves and their heirs in fee simple, 
or for the term of their life, or a number of years in fee-tail, 
or in any other mode in perpetuity. And that such tenants and 
inhabitants, their heirs and successors, and any of them, should 
be free, and that they should be empowered freely to bear, 
hold, enjoy, and occupy, in peace and quietness, the office of 
sheriff, mayor, guardian of the peace, bailiff, constable, aud 
any other office whatsoever, if they should have been elected 
and called to those offices in England, and in English boroughs 
and towns in Wales, and that the said tenants and inhabitants, 
their heirs and successors, or any of them, should have the 
power to become burgesses in any English boroughs aud towns 
in Wales, and be held and considered as burgesses in the bo- 
roughs and towns aforesaid, in the same manuer aud form as 
the English are held and considered, without any contradiction, 
let, disturbance, molestation, or annoyance whatsoever from 
us, or our heirs, or officials, or servants, or any other persons 

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And we have granted, moreover, in behalf of ourselves, and 
cur heirs aforesaid, that all those lauds, tenements, rents, re- 
versions, services, possessions, and hereditaments within the 
counties aforesaid, which are divided by the tenure of gavel- 
kind or the WeUh tenure, amongst male heirs, should in future 
not be divided, but desceud to, and be inherited by the first- 
born, or elder son or heir, according to form and custom, and 
even as lands aud tenements descend, revert, and becomo 
revertable, according to the common law of our kingdom of 

We have also granted, in behalf of ourselves and our said 
heirs, that none of the tenants or inhabitants aforesaid, or any 
of them, their heirs or successors, should hereafter be amerced, 
or be compelled to pay amerciaments, otherwise or in any 
other manner than the English, who reside iu the English towns 
of the aforesaid counties, give and pay, or are obliged to give 
and pay. And that a certain custom or exaction, there called 
Ainobragium, 1 should in future not be exacted, used, or levied, 
but that Ainobragium should by ail means be eutirely abolished 
for ever. And, moreover, when it is used in the said counties, 
if a Welshman called an Arthelman, 2 or a Welshwoman called 
Arthelwoman, should not have died intestate, or shall have 
made his or her will in their lifetime, aud nominated and as- 
signed executors under the said will, the local officer, distin- 
guished by the name of lthaglaw Arthel, takes and seizes all 
the goods of the deceased into his own bauds. And also the 
said officer takes and receives anuually of every person called 
an Arthelman or Arthelwoman, the sum of fourpence towards 
the expense of the execution and fulfilling of the will of the 
deceased, and against common justice, wherefore we will, 
aud by these presents we grant, in behalf of ourselves and 
our heirs aforesaid, that neither the said officer called Bhaglaw 
Arthel, nor any other officer hereafter, within the said counties 
or any one of them, shall seize or take any such goods, nor 
any portion of the same, nor any annual sum of money in 
lieu of the same. And that the said custom of Arthel, and 
every profit accruing therefrom, shall henceforth cease, and 
shall not come under the coguizauce of any officer ; but that 

1 Amobragium, in Welsh Amobr or Amobrwy, which was a 
customary fee paid by a vassal to his lord on the marriage of his 

2 Arddeler. "In legibus Sc. Wallicis jonitur pro vindiciis vel tes- 
timoniis, exceptiouibus, vel dcfensiouihins quihiusHi»et, quibus in can- 
sis proband is actor vel reus nti possir vel volit." — Wotton. 

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the men and women called Arthelman and Arthelwoman shall 
be free, and be empowered freely to make their own wills, 
certain provisions had and used to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And that the customs or exactions there called Woodwardeth 
and Pforestorwth, and a certain exaction or custom called 
Kilghey, shall in future be abolished and repealed, and that 
the sum of money in lieu or in respect of the same shall not 
be levied, nor be liable to be levied, by the woodman or forester 
within the counties aforesaid, nor any one of them, nor by any 
other officer whatsoever. And that every priest, or any other 
beneficed clergyman, within the counties aforesaid, shall have 
the liberty of making his own will; and that the said will 
shall be duly executed, without let or interruption on the part 
of the local escheator, or of any other officer or miuister for 
the time being, the statute aforesaid, or any other statutes, 
acts, ordinances, proclamations, provisions, or customs here- 
tofore made, published, enacted, provided, or used contrary to 
the premises, or any other suits, causes, or matters whatsoever, 
notwithstanding. And this shall be done without the payment 
or receiving of any fine or fee for our own purposes. 

In testimony of which we have issued these our letters 
patent. Witness my hand at Westminster, the 28 th day of 
October, in the twentieth year of our reign. 

We have likewise inspected other letters patent of the Lord 
Henry, late King of England, our father. [Here follows the 
preceding Charter of Henry VII, dated at Westminster, iu 
the 22nd year of his reign.] 

We, allowing and ratifying the aforesaid letters, and all and 
singular their contents, do, in behalf of ourselves and our 
heirs, as much as in us lies, accept and approve them ; and 
we, by the tenor of these presents, do ratify and confirm them 
for our beloved tenants and people within the counties afore- 
said in North Wales, their heirs and successors, even as the 
aforesaid letters reasonably testify. 

In testimony of which we have issued these letters patent. 
Witness my hand at Westminster, the 4th day of March, in 
the first year of our reign. 1 

1511. 29th March. William Aylmer, yeoman of the 
Crown, to be bailiff, during pleasure, of the townships 
of Burton and Alyntoil, in the lordship of Bromfield. 
Greenwich, 27th March. 

1511. 24th May. Del. West. Launcelot Lother. 

1 Arckaeologia Camhrenxis, vol. ii, p. 292 (see pp. 314, 316.) 

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Grant of the farm of the toll and new mill of Wrexham, 
in the lordship of Bromfield, in the Marches of Wales, 
for twenty years from Michaelmas, 2 Henry VIII, at the 
annual rent of £18 13s. 4d., together with a pasture, the 
" Fryth and Hemles", in the said lordship, at the rent of 
£15, as he held it under Henry VIII. Greenwich, 22nd 
May, 3 Henry VIIL 

1511. 2nd July. Del. West. Edward Guldeford, 
Esquire of the Body, to be steward of the castle of Lyon, 
alias Hollt, of Chirk and Chirkland, and of Cynllaith 
Owain, in Chirkland, in the said Marches, and constable 
of the castle of Chirk, from Michaelmas, 1 Henry VIII, 
during pleasure. Greenwich, 10th June, 3 Henry VIIL 

1513. 2 1st April. Del. West. Sir Cbarle3 Brandon, 
Knight of the Body, to be receiver, during pleasure, of 
the castle of Lyon, alias Holte, the manors of Lyon, 
Bromfield, and Yale, the castle of Chirk, and the manor 
of Chirk and Chirkland, and Cynllaith Owain, in Chirk- 
land, in the Marches of Wales, 1 9 th April, 4 th Henry VIIL 

1513. 21st April. Del. West. Sir Charles Brandon 
to be chief steward of the above. Greenwich, 19th April, 
4th Henry VIIL 

Note. — Charles Brandon, Esquire of the Body, was 
made Chamberlain of the Principality of North Wales, 
during pleasure, as held by William Griffith, and Sir 
Sampson Norton. Greenwich," 12th November, 1 Henry 
VIIL Del. West., 22nd November. 1610. 6th Feb- 
ruary, Marshall of the King's Bench, as held by Sir 
Thomas Brandon, Knight of the Body, deceased. 

1515. 25th October. For Sir William Smyth. Grant 
of the lands of Edward ab Howel, in Bromfield, Flint- 
shire, of which the reversion was forfeited by Sir William 

1517. 9th March, 8th Henry VIIL Del. West. For 
Edward ab Howel ab Maurice Goch, Pardon, as of Nant- 
kenyn, or of Llancylarn, in the lordship of Chirk. 

In 1522, an annual grant was ordered to be made by 
the Spiritualities, for the king's personal expenses in 
Franco, for the recovery of the Crown of the same. 

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Amongst other religious houses, I find that the abbots of 
the following monasteries had to pay as follows : — 

I £ 8. d. 

The Abbot of Vulle Crucis - - 66 13 4 

The Abbot of Basingwerke - - 40 

The Abbot of Conwy - - - 40 

The Abbot of Strata Florida - - 40 

The other Welsh abbeys are not mentioned in the 
document in the Calendar of State Papers, Henry VIII 
(1552). This document is in a very bad and imperfect 
state, and the names of the other abbeys may have been 

1523. 24th Jul}'. Commission for Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk, as Chief Justice of North Wales, 
steward of the lordships of the Holte, Bromfield, and 
I&l, in Chirklaud, and steward of divers lands of spiritual 
and temporal persons within the realm, to assemble the 
king's tenants and others in co. Anglesey, Carnarvon, 
and Merioned, North Wales, in the said lordship, in the 
borough of Southwark, Surrey, and in all the lordships 
of which he is steward, and muster them for war. Del. 

1526. Charles, Duke of Suffolk, seneschal and receiver 
of Bromfield, Yale, and Chirk, and chief justice of North 
Wales. £81 135. id. 

William Edwards, 1 constable of Chirk Castle, £10. 

John and Thomas Wrenne, auditors of Bromfield and 
Yale, Chirk and Dyffryn Clwyd cum Rhuthiu, £19. 

William Edwards, 1 constable of Chirk Castle, and 
keeper of Black park, £13 0s 8rf. 

Jn 1534, Henry VIII bestowed the lordships of Brom- 
field, Chirk, and I&l on his natural son, Henry Fitz-Roy, 
Duke of Richmond and Somerset, who had the posses- 
sion of them given to him at Holt Castle, by the Duke 
of Norfolk and others ; but he enjoyed these honours but 
a short time, as he died at the age of seventeen, in 1536, 
and the lordships and castles again reverted to the Crown. 

1 Of Plas Newvdd, Esq. (sec pp. 3U, 31 6\ 


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The arms of Henry Fitz-Roy (who was created Duke of 
Richmond and Somerset in 1525), as they appeared in 
the east window of Holt Church, were France and Eng- 
land, a border quarterly, ermine, and com pony, argent 
and azure, a baton sinister of the second. An es- 
cutcheon, quarterly gales, and vaire or and vert, a lion 
rampant argent, on a chief azure, a castle between two 
buck's heads, caboched argent In 1535, the monastery 
of Valle Crucis was suppressed, John Heme being then 
abbot. In 1538, 29th Henry VIII, the king granted 
Thomas Byrde, clerk, the free chapel or chantry in Holt 
Castle. 1 

1539. Henry VIII appointed Galfrid Bromfield, one of 
the Grooms of his chamber, to be keeper of the Little 
Park, at the king's castle of Chirk. 2 (See Bryn y Wiwer, 
in the manor and parish of Rhiwabon.) 

" 1539. 30th Henry VIII. The king gave the monas- 
tery of Valle Crucis, in the lordship of 141, and its de- 
pendencies in Bromfield and Chirk, to Sir William Pick- 
ering, of Oswald Kirke, in Yorkshire, knight. This 
grant is to be seen in the Exchequer Minister's Accounts, 
29-30 Hen. VIII, No. 131, m. 7. In 1586, the abbey was 
wholly decayed, according to Camden. (See 141.) 
" Say, ivied Valle Crucis, time decayed, 

Dim on the brink of Deva's wandering floods, 
Tour ivied arch glittering through the tangled shade ; 

Tour grey hills towering o'er your night of woods, 
Deep in the vale's recesses, as you stand, 

And desolately great the rising sigh command." 

Miss Seward's Vale of Llangollen. 



Add. MS. 15,022, fol. 54. 

Pale y Cladwyd y Prydydion hyn 

?35 Afed 1 £ n n £™' £*£*** i 

T. Namnor J Yngbaerfyrdm ! 

1 Calendar of Patent Rolls, vol. 84. ; 

* Patent Polls, 30 Henry VIII, part 7, m. 2 (30). | 
vol. i. 26 

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GSr^ynn } Yn Llauegwest. (Valle Crucis Abbey.) 


Yn Han ufud 

Hywel ap Enion 
Ieun du'r bilwg 
Iolo Got 

Rys gof o Eryri ym Med' Celert 

Rhys gof Eryri oed 

Ddisgybl GrufPd Lluyd ap Enion 

Robin su Yra Mhen 

D's ap Edmwnd y Hanmer 

Lie garevy d' 

Dafs Nanmor yn y Tygwesuav Daf 

Deio ap Ieuan du yn Llangynfelyn 

Lewys Glyn Cothi Tn Aberguusli 

lor. Fynglwyd yn Saint y Brid 

Yn Llan Uwch Llyn. 

> Yn Llanfor. 
J- Yn Llanegwod 

y YnNhitfod. 

Llawden, Huw Cae Llwyd 
Mad Benras brydyd 
Hywel Swrdwal, B.D. 
Ieuan ap Ryderf 
Tudur Penllyn 

Hywel Reinallt 
Bedo Aerren 
Bedo Bruusnllys 

Lewys Daron 
Wiliam Egward 

Graff. Leiaf 
Robt. Leeaf 
Ieuan Breffa 
Tomas Dorllys 
Ieuan ap Howel 

Ieuan Tudur Penllyn Llandegla 
Guttyn Owen Llanfarthin 
Ieuan ap Gruff leiaf 
Dofyd ap Hawel 
Rys gof Glyndyfrduus 
Rys Pennard 
Haw Pennal 
Hawel Cilan 

Ieuan Tew. Yn Llanidloes.— (J. Y. W. LI.) 
Ieuan Dyfi 
Daf'dd Gorlef 
Cad Trefnan 

Yn llan Drillo. 

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Ieuan Tiler ^ 

Sion Trefor j 

Wm, Alaw y Yn Rhiwabon. 

Huw Dafyd j 

Tomas Gwyned j 

Ieuan Bryd'sd N'ir ) v i c j- 
Mathew feromfild } Yghaerfyrd.a 

Lewys Morganwg yu y bant faen 
Ieuan Deulwyn — Ynghedweli 
Lewys ap Daf'd Ym Mod farri 
Morys ap How ap Tudar yn Han 
Wiliam llyn Ynghroesoswallt 
Howel ap Mathew Yn Han 
Wiliam Cynwal Yd Ysbytty Ieuan 
Huw Llyn Yn Llan Gyndeyrn 

Huw Arwystli \ 

Sion Tudur !• Yn Llan Elwy. 

Owen Gwyned J 

lfonct a eivab } Ynghroeoswall, 

Inq. post mortem 14 H. 6, No. 35, mem. 19, Joanna vx. Will 1 
de Bello Campo. 

Inq. xxijdo die Novembris anno .... Henrici sexti .... 
quarto decimo, coram Guidone Whytyngton Ese 1 [place 
and county (Salop ?) torn off]. 

The jury say — q/d Johanna in d'co bri* noiat* nulla tenuit 
terr' sen ten* in D'nico vt de Feodo in d'co Com' nee in 
Marchia Wallia .... die quo obiit. Set dicunt q'd Will'm's 
Beauchamp' dVs de Bergevenny vir ipius Johanne fuit seisit 
in d'nico sno vt de feodo de Castro dominio villa 't terr* de 
Bergevenny in Wallia .... et set inde seisit idem "Will'm's 
Beauchamp in vi'tute 't hereditate Henrici Grene 't Willi* 
Bagot militum Will J i Wenlok Joh'is Picard Joh'is Styneile 't 
Joh'is Olney plene confidens ip'os Henricum Grene Will'm 
Bagot Will'm Wenlok Joh'em Pycard Joh'em Styneile 't 
Joh'em Olney he p'd'eis castro dominio villa 't terr* cum 
p'tin' feoffant, Habend sibi 't heredib' suis i'p'p'm Ad inten- 
c'o'em 't effect' q'd ipi* inde p'fie'ent 't p'miplerent voluntatem 
ipius Willi' Beauchamp ip'is Henrico WilPo Bagot Will'o Wen- 
lok Joh'i Pycard Joh*i Styneile *t Joh'i Olney in scriptis sub 
I " . 26 2 

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sigillo ipius Willi* Beauchamp postea declarand. Virtute cui' 
feoffamenti p'd'ci Henricns Will'm's Bagot Will'm's Wenlok 
Joh'is Pycard Joh'is Styneile 't Joh'is Olney de in statu inde fue- 
runt seisiti postea p'diet' Will'm's Beauchamp d'n's de Ber- 
gevenny p' quoddam script urn suu' sigillo An nor' suor' sigillat 

.... cui' dat est vicesirao die ffebruarii an' Rici 

sc'di .... decimo nono. Recitans int' alia vt cu' ipe' de 
eisd'm Castro dominio villa 't tr* cum p'tin' feoffasset p'dict' 
Henrici Will'm Bagot Will'm Wenlok Joh'ein Pycard Joh'em 
Styneile 't Joh'em Olney habend' sibi 't heredit' suis i'p'p'm. 
Tamen voluntatem suam p' idem script' de 't in p'miss' de- 
clarent 't p' idem script* voluit q'd p'd'ici Henricus Will'm's 
Bagot Will's Wenlok Joh'es Pycard Joh'es Styneile 't Joh'es 
Olney de p'd'us Castro dominio villa 't terra cu* p'tin' p'd'cos 
Will'm Beauchamp' 't Johannam adtunc vxorem suam feoffa- 
rent hend' sibi 't heredit' masculis de corpit' suis legitime 
p'creat' * • * * 

Et dicunt q'd diet' castru' dominu' villa 't terr* cu' p'tin' 
tenent' de d'no Bege in capite p' s'uiciu' militar' et q'd valent 

p' annu' in omit' exit* vlt' repris cc libras. 

* * * * * 

Membrane 28. 

Inquisicio capta apud Wenlok in com' Salop vltimo die 
Januare Anno .... Henrici sexti .... quarto decimo 
coram Will'o Durley, etc. 

The jury say — q'd Johanna que fuit vx. Will'i de Bello 
Carapo militis .... tenuit die quo obiit in d'nico suo vt de 
feodo n'r com' 't Marchia Wallia terciara p'tem duar' p't'm 
castror' de Denasbran 't ' leonis ac manor' de Bromfelde 
Tale Welingtone hay necnon terciam p'tem mandor' de Sond- 
ford Oscleton 't Kymbton cum p'tin' * * * * 

Et sunt in d'ea' p'te duar* p't'm Castror' de Denasbran 't 
leonis ac in t'cia p'te duar' p't'm deor' manor' de Bromfelde 
Tale Sondford 't Osleton de redd' assis* xliiijs. soluend' ad 
festa Annunciac'onis b'te Marie virginis. Nat' s'ci* Joh'is 
Bapt'e S'c'i Mich' Arch' 't natal d'ni' cuis porconib'. Et sunt 
ib'm xl mes' quor' quodl't val' p' annu' ij*. Et sunt ib'm xl 
tost' quor' quadl't valet p' ann' x\jd. et sunt ib'm centum 
crofta quor' quodl't val' p' annu' xijd Et sunt ib'm ducent' 
acr' terr' de tr'is d'nu'ealib' quar' quelt valet p' annu' iijd. et 
sunt ib'm xl acr' prati quai^ quelt' val' p* annu xijd. Et sunt 
ib'm centum aci^ bosci quar' quelt val' p' annu' jrf. Et est 

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ib'm tercia p's d'nor 1 molendinor' aquat' que valet p' annu' 

xls. Et est ib'm tercia p's p'quis cur' que valat p' annu' xx*. 

* * * * * 

It'm Jur' p'd'ci dicunt q'd p'd'ca t'tia p's d'ca duar' p't'm 
Castror' de Dinasbran leonis Broinfelde Yale 't Wellington 
hay tenet de d'no Rege in capite set p' quo s'uicia Jur' p'd'ci 

penitus ignorant. 

* * * * * 

Inq. post mortem, 29 H. 6. No. 27, mem. 6. Rowland 


Inq. capt' apud Lodilowe in com' Salop die Jouis p'x post 
festum S'ci' Rici Epi' anno regni Regis Henrici Sexti 
vicesimo nono, coram Joh'ne Wychecote, etc. 

The jury say — q'd Rowland Lenthale miles in d'co noiatus 
Margarete vxor eius vna soror' 't heredu' Thom'e nup' comitis 
Arundell in jure eiusd'in Margarete nup' fuerunt seisiti in 
d'nico suo vt de feodo de tercia p'te duar' part'm Castri de 
Holt 't d'nii de Bromfelde 't Tale cum p'tin' in Wallia, etc. 
Et se inde seisiti h'uerunt exitu' int' eos Edm' Lenthale 
Armig' et postea p'd'ca Margarete obiit post cuius mortem 
p'dictus Rolandus se tenuit in dicta tertia p'te duar' partem 
Castr' 't d'nii p'd'cor' cu' p'tin' p' legem Anglie. Post modum 
q' p'd'cus Ed'us filius p'd cor' Rolandi 't Margarete p' cartam 
suam cuius data vltimo die Novembris anno .... Henrici 
Sexti vicesimo tertio Jur' p'd'cis sup cap* huius Inquis' in 
euidenc' oftens p' nomen Ed'i Lenthale ariuig' concessit q'd 
d'ca t'tia pars duar' part'm castri *t d'ni p'd'cor* cu* p'tin' 
quam p'facr Rolandus int' alir tenuit ad t'mi vite suo p' legem 

Anglie post mortem p'd'ce Margarete de hereditate p'd'ci Ed'i. 

* * * * * 

Virtute p'd'ce concessionis eis inde p' p'fac'Epos Radiu' Ric'm 
Galfridum Ric'iu' 't Joh'em Wodye confect remanere debet. Et 
vlt'ius dicunt Jur' p'd'ci sup' sacrum suu' q'd ville de Burton 
Alyington Hunkeley 't Hay ac tertie partes Duar' part'm ville 
Leon'u Ringeldr' de Esclush'm Ringildr' de Ruyabon Ringeldr' 
de Esgloisek Ringildr' de Abbembury Ringildr' de Dymnile 
Ringildr' de Burton .... Morton ffabror' 't Rideley ac Miner' 
ib'm Raglor' de Tale parcor' de Eytoun Dymnille 't Elyu' 
Anro .... rage 't decimar' Capelle infra Casti^ ib'm ac 
gardin 't d'n .... non existit fuerunt membra 't p'cell' d'i'e 
tertie partes dual** part'm Castri' de Holt ac d'ni de Brom- 
felde 't Tale p'dict\ Et dicunt q'd p'd'ca tertia pars duar' 
part'm Castri t d'nii p'dict' cu' p'tin' tenet de d'uo Rege in 

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capite p* s'tiiciu 1 quncte p't trai' feod 1 milit'. Et valet ead'm 
tertia pars dear* part'm castri 't d'ni p'dict' cu' p'tin* p* 
Anno' in omit' exit snis iuxta vera* valorem einsdem,' vk a 
repris qnadraginta libr*. In snp' Jur* p'd'ci die* sup* sacrum 
sua' q'd p'd'ce Bolandas 't Margareta in iure eiusdem Mar- 
garete nup 1 fnerunt seisiti in d'nico sno vt de feodo de tertia p'te 

cuiusd'm bosci 't pastur' voeat Welyngton hay, cum p'tin. 


The jury say — q'd p'dicus Rolandas obiit die d'nica p'x 
ante festum SVe Katerine Virgin* vltim* p'ta, etc. 

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I omitted to state at page 62 that Eliseg, King of 
Powys, who died in the year 773, besides his eldest son, 
Brochmael II, had another son named Gwylawg, who 
was the father of Cyngen, the father of Aeddan, the 
father of Brochwael ab Aeddan of Llanerch Brochwael, 
Lord of Cegidfa, Broniarth, and Deuddwr, who bore 
party per pale or and gules, two lions rampant addorsed, 
counterchanged. From him descend a great many fami- 
lies in the county of Montgomery, and full accounts of 
most of them have been given in the Historical Collec- 
tions of the Powys-land Club. 

Apparition of Mr. Philip Weld and St. Stanislaus Kostka. 

On the 16th April 1846, as the late James Weld of Archer's 
Lodge, near Southampton, Esq., and his daughter, Miss 
Catherine Weld, were walking on the platform by the side of 
Southampton water, they saw a skiff pulled to shore, out of 
which stepped two gentlemen. They stood on the platform 
for a moment or two, when Miss Weld immediately recognised 
one of them as her brother Philip, who was at St. Edmund's 
College in Hertfordshire ; the other, who appeared to be young 
also, was dressed as a priest. Both of them left the platform 
and went up the High Street, followed by Mr. and Miss Weld, 
who eveiy now and then lost sight of them, as the street was 
crowded with people, it being market day. However, Mr. 
and Miss Wela went straight honie, and, on entering their 
own grounds, they saw the two strangers standing under an 
oak-tree. " Oh, papa ! look there", said the young lady, 
" there is Philip." Mr. Weld replied, " It is Philip, indeed, 
but he has the look of an angel", not suspecting that he was 
dead, though greatly wondering what brought him there. 
They went forward to embrace him, but, before they could 
reach him, Philip smiled sweetly on them, and then both he 

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and his companion vanished away. Philip was the nephew of 
the late Joseph Weld of Lnlworth Castle, Esq., well known 
for his splendid yachts, with which he won so many prizes. 

Soon afterwards, tlie Very Rev. Dr. Cox, the President of 
the College, arrived at Arthur's Lodge, and told Mr. Weld 
that his son had been drowned that morning in the river 
Ware, at the very hour when he first appeared coming out of 
the skiff on the shore of Southampton water. None of them, 
however, could make out who the young man in a black robe 
could be. 

A few weeks afterwards, however, Mr. Weld was on a 
visit to his brother, Mr. John Weld of Leagrim Park, near 
Stonyhurst College, which formerly belonged to the Weld 
family. After hearing mass one morning in the chapel, he, 
while waiting for his carnage, was shown into the guest-room, 
where, walking up to the fireplace, he saw a picture above the 
chimneypiece which represented a young man in a black robe, 
with the very face, form, and attitude of the companion of 
Philip, as he saw him standing under the tree, and beneath 
the picture was inscribed " St. Stanislaus Kostka", and the 
one whom Philip had chosen for his patron saint at his con- 

In the chapter on Purgatory, in a work entitled The 
Court of Heaven, and written by a Jesuit for the benefit 
of his pupil, king Louis XIV of France, it is related 
that once a Spanish nobleman, who was a widower, was 
lying asleep in bed in his castle ; there was a fire of wood 
burning on the hearth, and over the chimney-piece was 
an image of the Virgin Mary with a light burning before 
it ; besides this, the moon was shining brightly. All of 
a sudden he awoke, and felt as though he was compelled 
to look towards one of the windows, where he saw two 
men, one of whom entered the apartment, the other re- 
maining outside. The one who came into the room 
came and stood at the foot of the bed, whom the noble- 
man immediately recognised as a soldier who had been 
his servant many years ago in the army. He was de- 
lighted to see him again, and asked, him as to his state, 
and how he was able to come and see him, and to tell 
his companion to come in with him. The soldier replied 
that it was impossible, as he only had permission to come 


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and see his old master. Both he and his friend, he said, 
were on their way to do their penance in a certain 
place ; for, my Lord, he said, you are aware of the sins 
that most of us committed when we were in the army, 
and we are bound to do penance in the identical local- 
ities in which we committed the sins. The nobleman 
then asked him about the king of Castile, and if he was 
happy. The soldier replied that he had not seen him 
for a long time, as his majesty had ascended to a higher 
and happier region, which he hoped eventually to reach 
himself. After a long conversation, he joined his friend 
and both vanished. 1 

" The sin thou art about 

May peradventure 'scape the eye of man ; 
Yet God shall find thee out 
For all thy pondered plan/* 

€t When ocean-waves of wealth around thee roll, 

Be calm amid their noise; 
Nor warp thro' care the freedom of thy soul. 
Life's barque is ever battered by the shocks 

Of storm-winds lacking poise, 
And drives from side to side and wildly rocks. 

But righteousness stands fast amid the strife ; 
Nought else there is that buoys 

The soul in safety through the seas of life/' 

Translated from the Greek Anthology. 2 

1 I gave a black letter copy of the Court of Heaven to the College 
of St. Beuno's in Tegeingl. If the Jesuit Fathers there would pub- 
lish the chapter on " Purgatory", I think that it would do a great 
deal of good. 

2 By A. J. Butler, M.A., Oxford. London: C. Kegan Paul and Co. 

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Abbey of Aberconwy, 96, 400 
Abbey of Baaingwerk, 126, 400 
Abbey of Cymmer, 96 
Abbey of Cwm Hir, 159, 202 
Abbey of Strata Florida, 78, 97, 126, 

159, 170, 202, 400 
Abbey of Strata Marcella, 153, 153, 159, 

Abbey of Valle Crude, 154, 159, 160, 

164, 168, 169, 170, 171, 174, 376, 400, 

401, 402 
Abbey of St. Victoire, 203 
Aber Edw, 188 
Abergavenny, Lords of, 391 
Aber Havesp, 78 
Aber Lleiniawg, 91 
Aber Menai, 74 
Aber Rhiw, 15, 83 
Aber Tanad, 110, 180 
Aber Teifi, 161 
Aber Tywy, battle of, 65 
Adoni Zedec, 3 
Aeddan, 68 
JEtiua, 51 
^Ethelfleda, 52 
Agricola, 50 
Ai, City of, 2 
Aides, 48, 49 
Amobr, 397 

Alexander Moel Cwlwm, 102 
Algar, Earl, 69 
Alice, 211, 359 
Altrugg, 385 
Aneurin, 8 
Angharad, 66, 67 
Anian, Bishop, 173, 174 
Apparitions, 227 
Apollon, Klarios, 48 
Arglwyddes Wen, 208 
Ananwen, 83 

Arms of Powya Families, 817 
Arran, 36, 118 
Arundell, Earls of, 372 
Arwyatli, Lords of, 79, 170 
Arthel, custom of, 227 
Ahklepios, 44 
Athene*, 30 

Athens, 30 

Athol, 227 

Aquileia, 8 

Audley, Lord, 171, 178 

Aurelius Ambrosius, 6, \ 

Austen, 10, 11 

Avebury, 86 

Aylmer, 395, 398 

Baal, 43, 44 
Baal, Molock, 43, 52 
Baal,Samin, 44 
Baird, Lady, 41 
Bali, 39 

Banastre, W., 380 
Bangor, 9, 172, 181, 208 
Barda, 357 
Barwn Qwyn, Y, 194 
Baschurch, 10 
Basilisk, 30 
Beatrix, 3S5 

Beauchamp, Family of, 899 
Bel, 43 

Ben Cruachan, 83, 35 
Benlli Gawr, 1, 5, 132 
Benryn, 153 
Bettws y Cedwg, 15 
BeUwa y Coed, 192 
Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, 71, 87 
Bledrws, 12 
Boadicia, 50 
Brandon, 899, 400 
Brazen Serpent, 44 
Breinyeu Powys, 147 
Brimham Crags, 43 
British Dog, 292 
Brochmael, 10, 62 
Brochmael ab Aeddan, 382, 407 
Bron y Voel, 73 
Bron yr Erw, 74 
Bronwen'8 Tower, 73 
Brynbwa, 382 
Bryn 0\rain, 206 
Buallt, 309 

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Cadavael, 82, 83 
Cadell ab Owain, 65 
CadeU, 1, % 8, 62, 64 
Cadiz, 43 ' 
Cadvan, 58 
Cadwgan, Prince, 89 
Cadwgan, Ddu, 206 
Cadwgan, Goch, 169 
Cadwgan, Y Vwyall, 206 
Cadwallawn, 59, 106, 107 
Cad walla wn ab Madog, 149 
Caelestine, Pope, 1 
Caer Collwyn, 73 
Caer Fnli, 207 
Caer Glouyw, 1, 306 
Caer Gwrtheyra, 7 
Caer Gwrle, 179 
Caer Lleon, 51 

Caer Mardden, 96, 162, 401, 403 
Cain, Rhys, 120, 403 
Caxnbrae, 32 

. Caradog ab Rhiwallawn, 76 
Carrog, 177 
Carwed, 114 
Caatell Cefel, 193 
Caatell Caer Einion, 113, 153 
Castell Dinas Bran, 153, 171, 172, 174, 

178, 361, 362, 364, 369, 381, 333, 389, 

891, 404, 405 
Castell Crogen, 125, 160 
Caatell Goronwy, 6, 7 
Castle of Aber Lleiniawg, 91 
Castle of Aber Teifi, 162 
Castle of Aber Ystwyth, 96, 101 
Castle of Caerxnardden, 96, 162 
Castle of Cardigan, 92, 161 
Castle of Careg Hwfa, 123, 158, 160, 

Castle of Chirk, 125, 178, 369, 373, 375, 

894, 895, 399, 400, 401 
Castle of Cidweli, 162 
Castle of Cilgerran, 96, 161, 162 
Castle of Colynwy, 162 
Castle of Croft, 212 
Castle of Cymmer, 94 
Castle of Comlongan, 227 
Castle of Dinevor, 209 
Castle of Dunraven, 205 
Castle of Dunstafihage, 31 
Castle of East Orchard, 206 
Castle of Flint, 108, 203 
Castle of Leonis, 363, 376, 383, 3*6, 404 
Castle of Talacharn, 161 
Castle of Llanystephan, 96, 161 
Castle of Mathrafel, 160 
Castle of Montgomery, 90 
Castle of Nottingham, 2 1 1 
Castle of Oswestry, 133, 377, 378, 379, 


Castle of Overton, 113 

Castle of Pembroke, 92 

Castle of Rhuddlan, 68, 73, 195 

Castle of St. Clere, 96, 161, 162 

Castle of Sengenydd, 162, 207 

Castle of Tafalwern, 77 

Castle of Trefdraeth, 96, 162 

Castle of Tal y Charn, 162 

Castle of Tal y Van, 207 

Castle of WhittingtoD, 162, 303 

Castle of Windsor, 210 

Caer Lleon, 11 

Caernarvon, 192 

Cattraeth, 8, 193 

Cattwg, 8 

Caw, 8 

Cefn Digoll, 59 

Cedewen, Lords of, 15, SI 

Celsus, 56 

Ceneu, 8 

Ceylon, 39 

Charter, 373 

Chester, 11 

Chirk, 377, 8S2 

Church-lands, sale of, 174 

Clun, 112, 372, 377 

Coed Ewlo, 114 

Coed Poeth, 832 

Coed Talog, 96, 163 

Coed Yspys, 90 

Collen, Capel, 171 

Colonia Devana, 51 

Colvnwy, 112, 372 

Collwyn ab Tangno, 73 

Consyllt, 113 

Corwen, 152, 177 

Cors Einion, 66 

Croesenydd, 190 

Croes Oswallt, 97, 403 

Croft, Family of, 215 

Crogen, battle of, 149 

Crux Ansata, 53, 54 

Cyfeiliog, 64, 94, 98, 349 

Cynan Garwyn, 15, 58 

Cynan Tindaethwy, 63 

Cynddelw, 117 

Cyndevrn, 1, 8 

Cynddylan, King, 10 

Cynfyn, 68 

Cyngen, 3, 9 

CynUaith, 127, 171, 172, 211 

Cynwrig ab Rhiwallawn, 72, 78, 74, 309 

Cynwrig Efell, 127 

Cywryd ab Cadvan, 8 

Dead, prayers for, 288 
Dnfydd Daron, 208 
Dafyrlcl Gam, Sir, 209 

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Dafydd ab Gruflfydd, 188 

Dafydd ab Llywelyn, 170 

Dafydd Goch, 192 

Dartmoor, 42 

Deisul, 37 

Denbigh, David, Lord of, 179, 189, 192 

D'Albini, 372 

De Belesme, 101, 161 

De Bello Campo, 180 . 

Da Berkerolles, 206, 207 

De Bohun, 373 

De Bygod, 180 

De Clare, 101 

De Cherleton, 80, 382, 387 

De Croft, family of, 215 

De Ferrara, 179, 192 

De Grandison, 180 

De Gray, 180, 181, 199 

De Hilton, 381 

De Hopton, 176, 177 

De Lad, 180, 192, 864 

De Lancaster 

De Monte Alto, 112, 365 

De Montgomerie, 91, 92, 101 

De Puleadon, 869 

De Mortuo Mare, 864 

De Ruthin, 199, 215 

De Sancto Petro, 181 

De Say, 112 

De Spencer, 392, 393 

De Valence, 864 

De Verdun, 119, 373 

Da Vipont, 160 

De Windsor, 92 

Devonshire, 42 

Dinas Bangor, 2 

Dinas Basing, 115 

Dinevor Castle, 209, 212 

Dinmael, 125 

Dionysos, 43, 47, 48 

Druids, 352 

Dunawd, 9, 11 

Dynbygh, 384 

Dynmayll, 385 

Dyffryn Ceiriog, 152 

Dyffiyn Clwyd, 104, 150, 151 

Edelfled, 11 
Ednowain, 77 
Edwards, W., 400 
Edwin, 59, 60, 65 
Edwyn ab Einiawn, 65, 67 
Edwyn ab Goronwy, 65 
Eglwys Bassa, 10 
Einiawn ab Cadwgan, 94, 105 
Einion ab Seisyllt, 98, 99, 349 
Einion Clud, 149 

Einion Efell, 127 

Elfael, 112, 149 

Elidir ab Rhys Sais, 75 

Eliseg, 1, 62 

Eliseg, Cross of, 68 

Elissau, 67, 124 

Eleutherius, Pope, 11 

Elmet, 52 

Emma, the Lady, 172, 177, 181 

Emrys, 6 

Erging, 308, 309 

Erw yr Allt, 74 

Esgen Gainog, 124 

Estimaner, 98 

Ethelfleda, 52, 65 

Eunydd ab Gwernwy, 187 

Eve, 53 

Evil, Origin of, 289 

Ewlo, 114 

Ewyas, 308, 309 

Eyton of Eyton, 163 

Eyton, 173, 177, 405 

Fern Tower, 41 

Fir Tree, 44 

Fitz-Alan, 372 

Fits- Warren, 162 

Fitz-Roy, Henry, Duke of Richmond, 

Fleance, Mac Banquo, 69 

Gades, 43 

Gervasius, Abbot, 174 
Glen Feochan, 32 
Glyn Ceiriog, 150 
Glyn, Dyfrdwy, 172 
Glyn Dvfrdwy, Lords of, 194 
Glyn, Alice Lady of, 211 
Glyn, Rhondda, 206 
Gododin, 9 

Goronwy ab Cadell, 65 
Goronwy ab Einiawn 
Greidiawl, 27 
Gresford, 107 
Grosvenor, 199 

Gruflfydd ab Cynan, 72, 73, 75, 77, 102 
Grufrydd ab Llywelyn, 68, 70 
Gruffydd ab Madog, 123, 168 
Gruffydd ab Madog Fychan, 176, 178 
Gruflydd ab Rhiwallawn, 75, 76 
Gruffydd ab Rhuddallt, 196 
Gruffydd ab Trahaiarn, 92 
Gruffydd Hiraethog, 217 
Gruffydd Maelawr, 149 
Guldeford, Edward, 395, 399 
Gwalchmai, 128 
Gwallawg, 9 
Gwartimer, 1 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Gwelygorteu, Powys, 144 
Gwenwynwyn, 96, 153, 344, 347 
Gwern y Figio, 160 
Gwrgeneu, 74, 75 
Gwrtheyrn, 1, 6, 7, 8 
Gwyddelwern, 58, 124 
Gwynfyw Frych, 8 

Hamilton, 225 
Hanmer, Sir David, 198, 211 
Harddlech, 73 
Havod Elwy, 385 
Hazel nuts, 34 
Hebrides, 37 
Hereford, 69, 303, 318 
Highlanders, 74th Regiment, 224 
Holbech, David, 377 
Holne, 42 
Holt Bridge, 178 

Holt Castle, 360, 376, 3S6, 339, 405 
Horns, 47 

Howel ab Edwyn, 65 
Howel ab Ieuaf, 77, 305 
Howel ab Gruffydd, 96 
Howel ab Rhirid, 104 
Howel ab Maredudd, 111 
Howel Coetmor, 193 
Howel Dda, 65 
Hugh Lupus, 72, 91 
Hywel ab Madog, 163 
Hywel Grach, 163 
Human sacrifices, 294 

Iao, 49 

Iddon ab Rhys Sais, 75 
Idwal Foel, 65, 67 
Idol worship, 55 
Inapeximus charters, 395 
Inrerary, 32 
Iolo Goch, 217, 220 
Iorwerth Goch, 81, 92, 100, 101, 114, 

149, 153 
Iowchel, King, 13 
Ireland, 1, 13, 72, 74, 152 
Isia, 46, 47 

Ithel ab Gruffudd, 70, 71 
Ithel Felyn, 169 

Jericho, 2 

Jerusalem, King of, 3 
Julian, Emperor, 55 

Karthada, 52 
Kentchurch, 212, 214 
Kepr Ra, 30, 31 

Klorach, 7 
Knockyn, 377 

Leek, the, 356 

Legion XX, 50, 51 

L'Estrange, 161, 175, 377 

Le Scrope, 190, 381 

Llanaelhaiarn, 7 

Llanarmon yn Idl, 376 

Llanbadarn, 69 

Llandegla, 40 

Llandestephan, 161, 162 

Llandinam, 78 

Llanfachraith, 96 

Llanfihangl, 97 

Llangadwaladr, 58 

Llangollen, 64 

Llangelynen, 210 

Llangurig, 73 

Llangwm, 65, 67 

Llanidloes, 78, 402 

Llanllugan, 84 

Llanraes. 201 

Llanwrin, 98, 850 

Llecheudin, 124 


Lleenawg, 9 

Lloyn, 75, S3, 229 

Llyueg^eatel, 159 

Llya DiDwen&an, 10 

Llyalu, 96, 163 

Llymirch ab O wain, 66 

Llywarch ab Trahairn, 77, 89 

Llyweljn ab Grutfydd, 97, 171, 338 

Llyweljn ab Iorwerth, 96, 161 

Llywelyn &k Madog, 120, 339 

Llywdyn ab Madog Fychan, 176, 178 

Llv^elrn ab Maredudd, 98 

LlvTvriyn ab Mervyn, 65, 66 

Llywelyn ab Sitayllt, 67 

Uy welyn ab Y&yr, 169 

LJywelyn Fychan, 199 

Ltywelyn Hio, 8 

Loch E'tive, 31 

Loch Nell, £1, 33 

Leather, Lauucelot, 395, 398 ' 

Ludlow, 3S5, 405 

M&crobius, 47, 48 
Madog ab Cadwgan, 98 
Madog ab Qrutfydd Maelor, 159 
Madog nb LI nerth, 111 
Madog ab Maredudd, 111, 342 
Madog ab Uhind, 81, 101, 102 
Madog ab Samwel, 83 
Madog Datwr, 73, 319 
Madog Madngioti, 143 
Madog Min, 68, 70 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Maelor Gymraeg, 308, 309 

Maelor Saesneg, 171, 180, 181 

Machynllaith, 209 

Maelgwn Fychan, 87, 97 

Maen Hir, 42, 53, 55 

Maes Mawr, 5 

Man, Isle of, 32 

Man, Kings of. 63, 381 

Mathavern, 350 

Maredudd ab Bleddyn, 92, 100, 107 

Maredudd ab Cadwgan, 95, 106 

Maredudd ab Cynan, 95, 96, 163, 378 

Maredudd ab Edwyn, 65 

Maredudd ab Gryffudd, 71 

Maredudd ab Llywelyn, 97 

Maredudd ab Llywarch, 82 

Maredudd ab Madog, 162 

Maredudd ab Owain, 66, 67, 70, 71 

Maredudd ab Rotpert, 83, 96 

Marcus Aurelius, 4 

Margaret, the Lady, 175, 176, 177 

Maserfelth, 61 

Maypole, 53 

Maximus, Emperor, 8 

Maximus, of Tyre, 57 

Meini Hirion, 53 

Mechain Isgoed, 180 

Mechain, 12, 71, 87, 176, 339 

Meirionydd, 94 

Meirionydd, Lords of, 89 

Meifod, 24, 113, 153 

Meilur ab Rhiwallawn, 75, 76 

Merinedd, Princess, 77 

Mervyn, Prince, 64 

Mervyn Frych, King, 63 

Merwydd ab Collwyn, 72 

Meurig ab Trahaiarn, 92 

Midsummer Eve, 42 

Mistletoe, 44, 355 

Mithras, 40 

Monnington, 211 


Moel Fenlli, 1 

Moel Tryf an 

Moloch Baal, 52 

Monacella, 13, 293 

Mont' Alto, 112 

Morgan ab Cadwgan, 95, 106 

Mortimer, 175, 176, 178, 204 

Mowbray, family, 388 

Mynydd Denarch 

Mynydd Klorach, 7 

Mynydd y Qarn, 75, 77 

Mynydd y Pwll Melyn, 209 

Nantheudwy, 107, 338 
Nannau, 90 
Nant Conwy 
Nant Owrtlieyrn, 7 

Nennius, 1, 2 
Xeuadd Wen, 96, 163 i 
Neville, family of, 3S»3 / 
Nile, 17 / 

Norfolk, Dukes of, 388 
Notitia, 51 
Nubia, 32 

Oban, 31, 32 

Obelisks, 32 


Osiris, 45, 48 

Oswald, 60 

Oswestrv, 97, 377, 378, 379, 382, 338, 403 

Ottadinf, 9 

Owain ab Cadwgan, 94, 102, 103 

Owain ab Edwyn, 91 

Owain ab Gruffudd, 351 

Owain ab Hvwel Dda, 65, 66 

Owain ab Madog, 123, 141, 144 

Owain ab Maredudd, 87 

Owain Brogyntvn, 125 

Owain Cyfeiliawg, 108, 158, 327, 343 

Owain Glyn Dyfrdwy, 198 

Owain Gwynedd, 113, 115 

Owain of Brithdir, 79 

Pabo, King, 9, 14 

Pant y Wennal, 206 

Pascens, King, 1, 8 

Pate, John, 395 

Pencadair, battle of, 69 

Pen Coed Colwyn, battle of, 65 

Pen Egoes, 110 

Pengwern, 12 

Penllyn, 94 

Pen Mynydd, 67 

Pennal, 90 

Pennant 12 

Pennant Melange^ 14, 326, 327 

Peredur ab Evrawg, 193 

Pikhull, 386, 387 

Pillar Cult, 54 

Pilhom, town of, 53 

Pilleth, battle of, 204 

Pius IX, Pope, 4 

Plato, 57, 222 

Plutarch, 48, 226 

Porth Clais, 75 

Pumlumon, 202 

Pwll Dyfach, 69 

Pwll Gwttig, 74 

Pythagoras, 5 

R. i 
Rhirid Flaidd, 320 
Rhiwabon, 162, 171, 403 
Rhiwallawn, 71 j 

Digitizec by LiOO 1 



Rhiw Fawniawg, 104 
Rhiw Hiraeth, 96, 163 
Rhos, 104 

Rhos y Garreg, 110 
Rhuddlan, 116 
Rhyd y Gyvartha, 5 
Rhys ab Chvain, 66, 71 
Rhys ab Tudor, 75 
Rhys Cain, 120, 403 
Roderick, the Great, 64 
Rotpert ab Llywarch, 82 
Roydon, 392 

Sacrifices, human, 294 

Samwel ab Cadafael, 83 

Sanchoniathon, 29 

Santhals, 23 

Scarabteus, 356 

Scudamore, family of, 212 

Selyf, 61 

Semiramis, Queen, 44 

Sempringham, 192 

Serpent, 29 

Serpent, brazen, 53 

Serpent, mounds, 31 

Severus, Emperor, 50 

Shamrock, 35 

Sherapoor, 224 

Sight, second, 299 

Smyth, Sir W., 399 

Solway, 228 

Souls, transmigration of, 294 

St Asaph, 203 

St Beuno, 15, 58 

St Germanus, 1, 6 

St. Patrick, 35 

St. Stanislaus Kostka, 403 

Stauros, 53 

Stewart, 225 

Stonehenge, 36, 55 

Strata Florida, 78 

Strata Mareella, 158, 159 

Strath Clyde, 52 

Stylos Dionysos, 43, 54, 303 

Suetonius, 50 

Sun, birthday of, 46 

Sycharth, 205 

Taautos, 29 
Tacitus, 51 
Taigheirm, 296 
Taliesin, 9 
Tal y Bont, 90, 96 
Taval Wern, 77 
Tau, the, 53, 54 
Teyrnllwg, 6, 8 


Thespesius, 226 

Tithes, grants of, 164, 169, 170, 171 

Tiptoft, 80 

Trahaiarn, King, 72 

Tref Gayan, 73 

Tren, 10 

Trevor, John, 199, 203 

Tribe of the Marches, 307 

Trinity of Aryan Nations, 300 

Tudor ab Gruffydd, 197, 209 

Tudor ab Rhys Sais, 75 

Tudor Trefor, 308 

Typhon, 43 

Tyre, 43, 303 

Tyssiliaw, 14, 15 

Uchdryd, 90, 94, 104 
Uraeus, 30 
Uthyr, 6 


Valle Cnicis, 154, 159, 164, 168, 169, 

170, 171, 400, 401, 402 
Vortigern, 1, 6, 7, 8 

Warren, John, Earl of, 178 
Warren, Earls of, 358 
Watstay, 162 
Weld, 407 
Wenlock, 385, 404 
Whittington, 8, 162 
Wiltshire, Earl of, 331 
Winchester, 119 
Windsor Castle, 210 
Wolves, 65 

World, the next, 222, 408 
Wrexham, 171, 361, 368, 376, 386 
Wynn, Sir W. W., 80 

Y Barwn Gwyn, 172 
T Gaerddin, 163 

Y Glewysegl 

Y Gwaed Erw, 73 
Ynyr of Ial, 152 
Yr Hdb, 171, 181 

jYstrad Alun, 171, 181 
Ysota, the Lady, 173 
Ystrad Marchell, 153, 159 
Ystym Aner, 90, 98 
Ystyvachau, 7 
Yule, 45 

Zeus, 48, 295 
Zoroaster, 289, 300, 302 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



Page 8, for Gwynfyn, read Gwynfyw. 
„ 11, for Ysgythrowc, read Ysgythrawc. 
„ 55, for Mein, read Maen. 
„ 65, for Maredydd, read Maredudd. 
n 83, for Cydywen, read Cedewen. 
„ 97, /or Maes Wyf ed, read Maes Tfed. 
„ 104, for Uchdryd ab Owain, read Uchdryd ab EdwyiL. 
„ 161, for Cel Gerran, read Cil Gerran. 





I !73 096 

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