Skip to main content


See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

SJt - 


s- . /y^-y^i ^. ^ 






American Antiquarian Society. 

VOLUME V. y^^S^lf^. 


Special Committee ha/oing charge of thie PvMication. 

Saxuil F. Hatsh, 
Nathanikl Painb, 
jobl hunbxll. 

J.^.:^A y^ 



















VOL. I. 




VOL. I. 


Pbsfacb, ix 

Memoib of thb Author, xvii 

Spanish Amebiga, 1 

Fbsnch Amebica, 10 

Dutch Ahbrica, 11 

Portuguese America, 11 

Enqush America, kow the United States, .... 13 

Introduction of the Art, 18 

Paper Hakino, 18 

Paper Mills, 25 

Type FouNDERiEs, 27 

Stereotype Printing, 82 

Engraving, 88 

Printino Presses, 8S 

Rolling Presses, 87 

Massachusetts, 88 

Cambridge, 42 

Catalogue of Books Printed bt Date, ... 46 

•* Gbeen 68 

" Johnson, ... 82 

Boston, 84 

Salem, 177 

Newbubtpobt, 179 

Worcester, 180 

Connecticut, 184 

New London, 184 

New Haven, 188 

Hartford, 190 

Norwich, 192 

Rhode Island, 194 

Newport, 194 

Providence, 201 

New Hampshire, 205 

Portsmouth, 205 

Exeter, 207 

viii Contents. 

. Paoi. 

Pennsylvania, 208 

Philadblfhia, 208 

Germantown, 270 

Lancaster. 286 

Ephrata, 287 

New York, 290 

New York, 290 

Albany, ^18 

New Jersey, 814 

tvoodbridoe, 814 

burlinoton, 816 

Delaware 818 

Wilmington, 818 

Maryland, 820 

Annapolis, 820 

Baltimore, 822 

VmoiNiA, 880 

Williamsburg, 882 

North Carolina, 838 

Newbern, 888 

Wilmington, 889 

SoiTTH Carolina, 840 

Charleston, 840 

Georgia, 852 

Savannah, 852 

New States, 852 

Vermont, 858 

Kentucky, ... 854 

Tennessee, 354 

Ohio 854 

Mississippi Territory, 854 

Michigan Territory, 854 

Louisiana, 855 

British Colonies, 856 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, . 356 

QxTEBEC, Canada, 862 

Appendix, 365 

See Index at the End op Vol. II. 


The Committee appointed to supervise the republication of Tho- 
mas's " History of Printing in America^** have endeavored to carry 
out, as nearly as practicable, the intentions of the author, disclosed 
in a corrected copy, left by him for a ne.w edition. ^ 

This requirement being regarded as paramount to every other 
consideration, no change in the plan or arrangement has been deemed 
justifiable, beyond the apparent purpose of the' writer, and the autho- 
rity expressed or implied in the general statement of his design. 

Mr. Thomas made omissions and alterations in the text of an 
interleaved copy, and provided material for insertion not always 
entirely digested; but his ideas in regard to the manner of prepar- 
ing the work for republication were sufficiently indicated by what 
he had already accomplished. He says, in a memorandum, that he 
proposed to take another copy, and make all the alterations, etc., in 
that, with more care; adding the request: " If I should not live to 
fulfil my intention, and the work should be again printed, I hope 
some friend will do it.'' 

The expediency of omitting his preliminary account of the begin- 
ning and progress of printing in the Old World, has been deter- 
mined by the circumstances of the case, rather than by an intimation 
of the author's wishes. Mr. Thomas had, indeed, bestowed consid- 
erable labor on a revision of that part of his book; but, though 
very desirable at the period when he wrote, it has been viewed by 
the Committee as less adapted to the present state of information on 
that subject, as requiring too much modification and enlargement, as 
occupying space demanded for additional matter of an important 
character, and as not essential to the special object of presenting a 
history of the American Press The full and interesting memoir 
of Mr. Th(\mas, by an eminent descendant, may, fitly and accept- 
ably, take the place of an essay concocted with industrious research 
from such sources of information as were then accessible, yet which 

*Tho first edition appt^ared in 1810. 


X Preface. 

might appear to disadvantage bj the side of later and more elaborate, 
and thence likely to be more accurate compilations. 

The American Antiquarian Society are gratified in being able to 
reproduce the History of Printing in America, Mr. Thomases great 
and distinctive enterprise, after his own revision, as an appropriate 
memorial of their honored Founder and first President. 

The original book is rarely met with in the market, and large 
prices have been paid for copies occasionally found. A desire to 
reprint has often been manifested by prominent publishers, but has 
usually been connected with some project impairing the identity of 
the work, and involving a continuation of the history of the art, and 
the biographical notices, to a later period. 

Mr. Munsell, who prints this edition, had long held a similar 
purpose in mind, and had made collections with reference to it; but 
since the Antiquarian Society, of which he is a member, decided to 
put to press the revised copy left in their possession, he has given the 
advantage of his information and judgment to that object, being 
joined to the Committee in charge of the publication. Mr. Paine, 
the Treasurer of the Society, has served faithfully on the Committee 
from the beginning. The principal responsibility and labor have, 
however, necessarily devolved on the chairman, with whatever 
accountability belongs to that position. 

Mr. Thomas's account of printing in Spanish America was not 
satisfactory to himself, from a consciousness of imperfections which 
he could not overcome with the means at his command, and he men- 
tions his expectation of better facilities in the future. The biblio- 
graphy of that part of the country is now much better understood, 
and Hon. John R. Bartlett, one of the Society, who has given spe- 
cial attention to the subject, kindly furnishes a valuable paper relat- 
ing to it, which is printed in an Appendix. 

At the close of the preface to his first edition, Mr. Thomas says, 
in a note: " It was my design to have given a catalogue of the books 
printed in the English colonies previous to the revolution ; finding, 
however, that it would enlarge this work to another volume, I have 
deferred the publication ; but it may appear hereafter." 

It is extremely unfortunate that this design was not executed at 
the time. No person since has been so favorably situated for its 
accomplishment. Mr. Thomas left to the Antiquarian Society se- 
veral memorandum books and loose sheets of foolscap containing 
titles, a considerable portion of which had been transcribed several 
times, with an effort to arrange them alphabetically and under the 
names of the places where they were printed — "the product," he 

Preface. xi 

states ^*of many months' research/' His plan included the insertion 
of various points of information, such as the number of pages in 
each work, when known, and the indication of reprints by a sign. 
With titles collected from miscellaneous sources, from newspapers, 
bookseller's lists, and library catalogues, in all degrees of fullness 
and literalness of description, the task of adjustment upon a rigid 
or uniform principle was discouraging, and was finally relinquished, 
with the declaration that " all these volumes must be reviaed, cor- 
rected, and transcribed, and better arranged." 

Before the breaking out of the recent rebellion, the copying of 
these titles, and their rearrangement in order of date, a simpler and 
better system for the purpose in view, was undertaken by Samuel 
F. Haven Jr., M. D., who had just commenced medical practice, with 
some leisure for the gratification of a literary taste and love of in- 

Having placed Mr. Thomas's titles upon cards, under the plan 
adopted, Dr. Haven continued the research for more. He examined 
the advertisements of early Newspapers, and the Publishers' an- 
nouncements often contained in old books, studied library catalogues, 
and looked over libraries that were without catalogues. He had 
the advantage of admission to the unequalled collection of American 
publications made by George Brinley Esq , of Hartford, and of the 
cordial assistance of the accomplished owner in the examination of 
its treasures and the enlargement of his lists. 

The result of much zeal and a good deal of patient toil was a card 
catalogue of publications in this country previous to the revolution, 
which on brevier type would make a volume of four or five hundred 

Dr. Haven left his literary occupations, and his professional em- 
ployments at home, to accompany the 15th Massachusetts Regiment 
of volunteers, one of the earliest to enter into the national service at 
the beginning of the late civil war. While engaged, as surgeon of 
the regiment, in active duty under fire, at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, he was mortally wounded by a shell from the enemy's battery. 
Had he returned in safety the catalogue would doubtless have been 
subjected to a most careful preparation for the press. He could, 
perhaps, have followed his memoranda of titles back to their sources 
for reexamination, and by means of his studies might, to a certain 
extent, have treated Mr. Thomas's titles in the same way. Their 
precise verification would demand the virtual impossibility of com- 
parison with the publications themselves. The most trusted autho- 
rities will sometimes lead into error, and the chances of mistake are 

xii Preface. 

greatly multiplied where vouchers are at secondhand, or still further 
removed from their source, and of informal and irresponsible origin. 
In adopting the catalogue as left by Dr. Haven, without material 
alteration, other than occasional abridgment, the Committee believe 
they shall substantially execute the cherished purpose of Mr. Thomas, 
and attach to his work what may be claimed to be, in accordance 
with the expression of his own expectation, '* the only Catalogue of 
(early) American printed books, of any consequence, or in any way 
general, to be met with, or that has been made." Catalogues are 
not wanting of American publications of later periods, with which 
many of an early date are mixed ; but as the basis of an exhaustive 
list of both the major and minor issues of the American press, pre- 
vious to that turning point of national history known as the Revolu- 
tion, the effort here presented stands by itself. 

The first edition of the History of Printing in America was dedi- 
cated to " The President and other Officers and Members of the 
American Philosophical Society in Fennst/lvania, and The 
President J Counsellors^ and other members^ of the AMERICAN 
Academy of Arts and Sciences in Massachusetts.^' If the new 
edition had come from the hand of the author there is the best 
reason for presuming that it would have been inscribed to the society 
of his chief interest and affections, the American Antiquarian Society, 
whose later birth and ini'ancy had been so largely the object of his 

The following extracts from the original Preface are all that may 
suitably be repeated in this place. 

** Amidst the darkness which surrounds the discovery of many of 
the arts, it has been ascertained that it is practicable to trace the 
introduction and progress of Printing, in the northern part of Ame- 
rica, to the period of the revolution. A history of this kind has 
not, until now, been attempted, although the subject, in one point of 
view, is more interesting to us than to any other nation. We are 
able to convey to posterity a correct account of the manner in which 
we have grown up to be an independent people, and can delineate 
the progress of the useful and polite arts among us with a degree of 
certainty which cannot be attained by the nations of the old world, 
in respect to themselves. 

** I am sensible that a work of this kind might, in other hands, have 
been rendered more interesting. It has a long time been the wish 
of many, that some person distinguished for literature would bring 
it forward ; but, as no one has appeared who was disposed to render 

Preface. xiii 

this service to the repablic of letters, the partiality of some of my 
friends led them to entertain the opinion, that my long acquaintance 
with Printing must have afforded me a knowledge of many interest- 
ing facts, and pointed out the way for further inquiry, and that, 
therefore, I should assume the undertaking. Thus I have been, 
perhaps too easily, led to engage in a task which has proved more 
arduous than I had previously apprehended; and which has been 
attended with much expense. 

" It is true, that in the course of fifty years, during which I have 
been intimately connected with the art, I became acquainted with 
many of its respectable professors ; some of "Whom had, long before 
me, been engaged in business. From them I. received information 
respecting the transactions and events which occurred in their own 
time, and also concerning those of which they received the details 
from their predecessors. By these means I have been enabled to 
record many circumstances and events which must soon have been 
buried in oblivion. My long acquaintance with printing, and the 
researches I made in several of the colonies before the revolution, 
certainly afforded me no inconsiderable aid in this undertaking; 
and, to this advantage, I may add, and I do it with sincere and 
grateful acknowledgments, that I have received the most friendly 
attention to my inquiries from gentlemen in different parts of the 
United States ; among whom I must be permitted to name the fol- 
lowing, viz. — Ebenezer Hazard, esq. and judge J. B. Smith, of 
Philadelphia ; the hon. David Ramsay, of Charleston^ Southcaro- 
lina; rev. doctor Miller, of Newyork; rev. Aaron Bancroft, 
and mr. William Sheldon, of Worcester; the rev. Tdaddi!:us M. 
Harris, of Dorchester; the rev. doctor John Kliot, of Boston; 
and the rev. William Bentley, of Salem; Massachusetts. To 
these I must add, among the elder brethren of the type, William 
GrODDARD and JoHN CARTER, csqrs. of Providence ; and mr. Tho- 
mas Bradford, and the late mr. James Humphreys, of Phila- 
delphia. Many others belonging to the profession, in various parts 
of the union, have laid me under obligations for the information 
they have given me. 

*' Throu^jh the politeness of various gentlemen, I have had access 
to the ancient MS. records of the counties of Middlesex and Suffolk, 
in Massachusetts, where Printing was first introduced to this coun- 
try; to those of the colony of Massachusetts, and of the university 
of Cambridge; and, also, to those of the United Newengland Colo- 
nies; all of the seventeenth century; — likewise, to the records of 
several of the southern states; and, to many of the principal libra- 

xiv Preface. 

ries in different parts of the United States. From these documents 
and institutions I have obtained much valuable intelligence. 

*^ Yet, nothwithstanding all these advantages, I have experienced 
much difficulty in collecting, through this extensive country, the 
facts which relate to the introduction of the art of Printing in the 
several states. These facte were all to be sought for, and the inquiry 
after them had so long been neglected that the greater part of them 
would soon have passed beyond the reach of our researches. Most 
of the printers mentioned in these volumes have long since been 
numbered with the dead, of whom many were but little known 
while living; yet, the essential circumstances respecting them, as 
connected with the art, will, I believe, be found in the following 
pages ; although I cannot flatter myself that they will be entirely 
free from unintentional errors or omissions. 

*'The biographical sketches of printers are principally confined to 
their professional concerns, and to such events as are connected 
with them. 

" Newspapers are placed in the proper order of succession, or agree- 
ably to the periods in which they were established in the various 
cities, towns, &c. 

"• The narratives respecting such persons as remained in business 
after the American revolution, and such newspapers as were con- 
tinued after this event, are brought down to the time when those 
printers quitted business, or died, or these publications were discon- 
tinued. From the settlement of the country to the establishment of 
the independence of the United States, few Printers, and not many 
Newspapers, have, I believe, escaped my observation ; and, I may 
venture to assert that the data respecting them are as correct, as can, 
at this period of time, be obtained by the researches of an individual. 

**The history of printing in America, I have brought down to the 
most important event in the annals of our country — the Revolution. 
To have continued it beyond this period, all will admit would have 
been superfluous. 

'* From the consideration that the press, and particularly the news- 
papers to which it gave birth, had a powerful influence in produc- 
ing the revolution, I have been led to conceive there would be much 
propriety in giving accounts of the prosecutions of printers for pub- 
lishing Libels, which occurred under the several colonial govern- 
ments. Articles of this description, will be found in such parts of 
this work as contain memoirs of the Printers who were prosecuted, 
or descriptions of the Newspapers in which the supposed libels were 

Preface. xv 

" With a view to gratify the admirers of typographical antiquities, 
I have, in several instances, given, as accurately as the nature of the 
case would admit, representations of the titles of the most ancient 
Newspapers; from which a tolerable idea may be formed of the fashion 
of the originals. 

" Although a work oi this nature may be principally interesting 
to the professors of the typographic art, yet the facts relating to 
printing are necessarily connected with others which I have thought 
it proper to enlarge upon. This circumstance may render these 
volumes amusing to the man of letters, and not altogether uninterest- 
ing to the antiquary. 

" I devoted sometime to obtaining a correct account of the book- 
sellers in Boston ; it having been my intention to take notice of all 
who were in the trade from the first settlement of each colony to the 
year 1775 ; but I discovered that particular information from other 
states respecting many, ^ho, in this character, have passed over the 
stage of life, could not be procured, therefore, the statement is not 
so complete as I intended it should be. But supposing that the par- 
ticulars which I have collected may afford some gratification, I have 
annexed them to tbis work.'' 

It only remains to be stated that the notes in this edition, are those 
of Mr. Thomas unless accompanied by an initial letter or other indi- 
cation of different authorship. Thus B. is for Hon. John B.. Bartlett, 
H. is for the chairman of the Committee, and M. is for Mr. Munsell. 
The notes respecting Paper Making, etc., in Pennsylvania, communi- 
cated by Mr. H. G. Jones of Philadelphia, bear his name or initials. 




" On the 5th of June, 1632," says Governor Winthrop, 
"arrived in Boston the ship William and Francis, Mr. 
Thomas master, with about fifty passengers — whereof Mr. 
Welde and old Mr. Batehelor (being aged 71) were with 
their families and many other honest men.'' This Mr. 
Thomas, master, was, I believe, Evan Thomas, who in 1639 
or 1640 settled in the colony of Massachusetts Bay. 

The first notice of him upon the colony records is of 
September 1st, 1640. " Evan Thomas, having a wife and 
four children, is allowed twenty bushels of corne at har- 
vest." He was admitted a freeman of the colony in 1641, 
and a member of the Artillery Company in 1652. Evan 
was a successful vintner, paying into the colony treasury 
from twenty to forty pounds a year for licence or duty or as 
his proportion of the " rents of wine." We are sorry to 
have discovered any stain upon his escutcheon ; but we find 
on the General Court record this entry, October 17th, 1654. 
" Lieut Hudson and Evan Thomas having been flSned for 
selling beere above two pence the quart and also ffbr- 
feited bond for appearance at the Court of Assistance to 

answer the same ; this court upon their pet, thinkes meet to 


xviii History of Printing in America. 

remitt their bonds, but se no cause to take off their ffines." 
Occasionally, like more modem merchants and vintners, 
Evan seems to have dabbled in speculation outside of his 
regular line of business. In the Suffolk Registry of deeds, 
vol. 2d, p. 192, is recorded a receipt by Isaac AUerton Se- 
nior (one of the principal men of Plymouth colony and its 
first assistant) dated New Haven, Nov. 29th, 1653, for 
one hogshead and four barrels of mackerel from Evan 
Thomas, vintner, of Boston, to adventure for half profits. 
Evan died August 25th, 1661. . 

It is the family tradition that Peter Thomas, the grand- 
father of Isaiah Thomas, was the grandson of Evan. Peter, 
the eldest son of George and Rebecca Thomas, was born 
in Boston February Ist, 1682. He married Elizabeth Bur- 
roughs the daughter of the Rev. George Burroughs, who 
in August, 1692, was hung at Salem as a witch. The only 
evidence of his guilt consisted in the fact that though of 
rather small stature and frame he had remarkable physical 
strength. The thorough research and careful judgment 
of Mr. Upham leave him as man and Christian minister 
without stain or reproach. He was the victim, not of fanata- 
cism, but of malice and perjury. Peter was a merchant 
and acquired a good estate. He owned a store and carried 
on his business on the town dock. 

Peter's fourth son was Moses Thomas, soldier, mariner, 
trader, farmer, and schoolmaster. Without the consent 
or knowledge of his father, in 1740 he enlisted as common 
soldier in the expedition against Cuba. His father, after 
futile eftbrts to procure his discharge, secured him the 
position of clerk of one of the officers. He was one of the 
few who escaped the sword, and the more wasting pestilence 
of that disastrous expedition. On his return he sailed on 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xix 

a voyage to the Mediterranean. Afterwards, for some 
years, he was a school master at Hampstead, Long Island. 
Weary of teaching the " young idea how to shoot," he 
bought and cultivated a farm at Hampstead. Soon tired of 
this he became a trader and kept a store in the village. He 
was not an exception to the adage ; he gathered no moss. 
It was while living in Hampstead, that he met, fell in love 
with, and married Fidelity Grant. Fidelity was a native of 
Rhode Island. Her father was a merchant of that colony, 
trading to Philadelphia and the West Indies. Dying and 
leaving his business in a very unsettled condition, his 
widow, taking the daughter with her, went to the West 
Indies and thence to Philadelphia to settle his estate. 
They had relatives in Hampstead, and on their return 
went there to reside. Moses remained at Long Island 
some three or four years after his marriage and then re- 
turned to Boston. Trying many things, holding fast to 
none, he wasted a few years in Boston, and then went to 
seek fortune in North Carolina, where he died in 1752, 

His father, an active, stable, frugal merchant, a solid 
man of Boston, not relishing the roving life and infirm pur- 
pose of his son, made a will in which he cut him off with 
five shillings. Though the father survived the son, he 
died without altering his will, and the widow and children 
of Moses were left entirely destitute. Two children, born 
at Hampstead, had been left with the relatives of their 
mother at that place. The relatives had become much at- 
tached to, and desired to retain them. The circumstances 
of the mother obliged her to acquiesce. We shall not ap- 
preciate the sacrifice required of this young mother of 
twenty-six years, unless we understand how entire the 
separation was. In 1752, and till after the revolution, there 

XX History op Printing in America. 

was no communication from Long Island by mail to any 
part of the continent. Opportunities for the private con- 
veyance of letters seldom occurred, the mother could not 
afford the expense of visiting her children, and the result 
was that, for many years together, she did not hear from 

Three children born after the return to Boston remained 
under the mother's care. She had the energy and business 
capacity wanting in the father. She had no money, but 
she had friends ready to help her in the best way, by ena- 
bling her to help herself. Women then engaged in active 
outside business more frequently than now. It was a quite 
common thing for widows, especially of printers, innkeepers, 
and traders, to take up and carry on the husband's trade, 
and not uncommon for them to set up business of their own. 
The friends of this young widow loaned her money with 
which to open a small shop. 

Putting her children to board in the near country, she 
devoted herself to their support. By industry and frugality 
she was able to do this and something more. Little by little 
she laid by enough to purchase a small estate in Cambridge. 
This, she ultimately lost. Having a large price oftered for 
it in Continental paper, and having faith that these paper 
promises would sooner or later be transmuted into silver 
and gold, she sold house and land and, the story is short, 
was one of the thousands of victims of paper money. She 
was however never reduced to want, but lived to a good old 
age to witness the success of her son and to share the fruits 
of it. 

Isaiah Thomas, the youngest son of Fidelity and Moses, 
was born January 19th, 1749, old style. At the age of six 
years he was brought home to Boston. If he was ever in 

Memoir op Isaiah Thomas. xxi 

a 8choolhou8e it was before his return. He used to say 
that six weeks " schooling " was all he ever had, and poor 
at that. The mother meant the boy should have the com- 
mon school education of the time, be taught to read, write, 
and cipher, and be trained to some mechanical pursuit. 

There was in Boston in 1755, Zechariah Fowle, a printer 
and pedler of ballads and small books ; it was the custom 
of that day to hawk about the streets new publications. 
Mr. Fowle, having no children desired to take Isaiah. 
He promised the mother that he would treat the child 
as his own, give him a good school education, instruct 
him in the art of printing, and if, when arriving at the age 
of fourteen, the boy did not wish to remain with him, he 
should be at liberty to choose another place and trade. The 
lad had been mth him about a year, when Mr. Fowle per- 
suaded the mother to have him bound to him as an ap- 
prentice. The writer has before him the original indenture 
of apprenticeship, bearing date June 4th, 1756. Its prin- 
cipal provisions it may be well to give, not only as an illus- 
tration of the usages of the time, but to enable us to judge 
how far, in his dealings with the boy, the cpvenants of the 
master were kept. After fixing the time the apprenticeship 
was to continue — to the age of twenty-one — the conditions 
of the service to Fowle and his wife and heirs are thus 
stated : " During all which said time or term, the said ap- 
prentice, his said master and mistress, well and faithfully 
shall serve ; their secrets he shall keep close ; their com- 
mandments lawful and honest everywhere he shall gladly 
obey; he shall do no damage to his said master, etc., nor 
suflfer it to be done by others without letting or giving 
seasonable notice thereof to his said master, etc. ; he shall 
not waste the goods of his said master, etc., nor lend them 

xxii History of Printing in America. 

unlawful! jr to any ; at cards, dice, or any other unlawful 
game or games he shall not play ; fornication he shall Hot 
commit; matrimony during the said term he shall not con- 
tract ; taverns, alehouses or places of gaming he shall not 
haunt or frequent: from the service of his said master, etc., 
hy day nor night he shall not ahsent himself; but in all 
things and at all times he shall carry and behave himself 
towards his said master, etc./ and all theirs, as a good and 
faithful apprentice ought to do, to his utmost ability during 
all the time or term aforesaid." The covenants of the master, 
if not so comprehensive are equally plain and explicit. 
" And the said master doth hereby covenant and agree for 
himself, his wife and heirs, to teach or cause to be taught 
the said apprentice, by the best way and means he can, the 
art and mistery of a printer, also to read, write and cypher ; 
and also shall and will well and truly find, allow unto, and 
provide for the said appprentice, sufficient and wholesome 
meat and drink, with washing lodging and apparrell, and 
other necessaries meet and convenient for such an appren- 
tice, during all the time or term aforesaid ; and at the end 
or expiration thereof shall dismiss the said apprentice with 


two good suits of apparrell for all parts of his body, one 
for the Lord's day, the other for working days, suitable to 
his degree." 

Mr. Fowle had a small printing office and shop on Mid- 
dle street, near Cross street. His printing apparatus con- 
sisted of one press, one font of small pica of about three 
hundred and fifty pounds, about two hundred pounds of 
English and one 'hundred pounds of double pica. The 
library of the office was made up of a " tattered dictionary 
and an inkstained Bible." The master was a singular man, 
irritable and rather effeminate. With little industry, and no 

Memoir op Isaiah Thomas. xxiii 

enterprise, he was honest and did work enough to support 
himself and wife. He was in debt for his press and types 
when he began business, and he seemed to be equally care- 
ful not to increase nor diminish the debt. 

Having got the boy into his power, the master, as the 
apprentice always charged, put the lad to all the servile 
work he had strength to do, and when such work was want- 
ing set him up to the type cases. Such statements are to 
be taken with some grains of allowance, especially when 
made as to a master on whose ignorance and want of ca- 
pacity the boy early learned to look with contempt. The 
call upon the boy for services which he regarded as menial 
was not unusual in the relation of master and apprentice 
at that period. The boy, if a member of the master's 
family, was expected to do the " chores." 

Mr. Thomas has left in print, and in brief memoranda 
before me, a few anecdotes which may enable us to see 
something of the interior of that little printing office, and 
to learn with how small help and aid he grew up to 
manhood. In order that the child, of seven years, might 
reach the boxes to set types, he was mounted on a bench 
eighteen inches high and of the length of a double frame, 
which contained cases of the roman and italic. His first 
essay with the composing stick was on a ballad called the 
Lawyer^s Pedigree^ the licentious character of which gives 
us an idea of the taste and sense of the master and his in- 
terest in the moral welfare of the boy. The child set the 
types for this ballad (double pica) in two days, " though he 
knew then only the letters and had not been taught to put 
them together and spell." 

The skill of the master and his capacity to teach the " art 
andmistery of printing" are well illustrated in the following 

xxiv History op Printing in America. 

story. A young man, a barber's apprentice, illiterate, but 
as he fondly believed a favorite child of the Muses, com- 
posed a poem on the proposed expedition of the British and 
Provincial troops against Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 
Unable to write legibly, the poet recited his verse to a friend 
whose pen put it into black and white. It was sent to 
Mr. Fowle to be printed as quickly as possible. Fowle 
began to set the types, the boy at work near him. He 
had set but a line, when he discovered the absence of 
punctuation in the manuscript. The hurried Muse had 
made no stop from beginning to end. The master was in 
sore distress. He had a friend to whom he used to apply 
for aid and direction, but this friend could not be found. 
His genius suggested to him a mode of relief quite original. 
He went to his shelves of ballads, took one that he thought 
would answer his purpose, and, placing it by the side of his 
manuscript, put at the end of every line of the barber's 
poem the same point that was in the ballad. That the 
subject, composition and metre of the poem did not even 
faintly resemble those of the ballad seems to have ^ven 
him no pause. Young and ignorant as the pupil was, he 
viewed the proceeding with surprise. He tells us that 
with the mechanical part of his work the master had but 
little more acquaintance than with the rules of punctuation. 
The master never taught the child to read, write, or 
cypher, nor caused it to be done by others. His only essay 
at teaching was a weekly lesson, on the Sabbath, in the 
Assembly's Catechism. This was by rote merely. " I re- 
collect," said the pupil, " his putting me the question from 
the catechism * What are the decrees of God ; ' I answered 
I could not fell, and then, boy-like, asked him what they 
were. He read the answer from the book. I was of 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxv 

opinion he knew as little about the matter as myself." 
Poor boy ! very likely, and as many wiser boys and wiser 
men before and since. 

For three years, from 1758 to 1761, Mr. Fowle had a 
partner, Samuel Draper, a good printer and kind man, 
from whom the lad got some valuable instruction in the 
art. During the partnership the business was not confined 
to ballads and pamphlets, but some books were printed, 
as Janeway^s Heaven on Earthy Waiis^s PsalmSy and a large 
edition of the Youth^s Instructor^ a spelling book in gene- 
ral use at the time. The spelling book and Watts, the 
boy fully mastered, the " Heaven on Earth " he failed to 
attain. Fowle and Draper did not get along very smoothly, 
and to the sorrow and loss of the boy the partnership was 
dissolved. Thomas was then about twelve years old, and 
from this time seems to have had the principal charge of 
the business of the office. He did the work in his own 
way, corrected the press as well as he could, and when the 
form was ready, Fowle having no other help, assisted him 
at the press. 

At- this period there were. few persons in Boston who 
could " cut " on wood or type metal. Thomas Fleet, the 
printer of the Boston Evening Post, was also a rival of Fowle 
in the printing of ballads. Fleet had a negro who illus- 
trated his ballads by cuts. Young Thomas was induced to 
try his hand in decorating those printed by Fowle. He 
'* cut " about an hundred plates, rude and coarse indeed, 
" but nearly a match," he says, " for those done by the 

The young printer found friends outside of the office. 
Among those whom he held in grateful remembrance was 

xxvi History of Printing in America. 

an old man by the name of Gamaliel Rogers. Gamaliel had 
been a printer of the firm of Rogers and Fowle, who printed 
the first edition in America of the New Testament in 
the English language. The work had to be done secretly, 
and to bear the imprint of the London copy from which 
it was reprinted, to avoid prosecution from those who in 
England and Scotland published the Bible by a patent from 
the Crown, or cum privilegiOj as did the Universities of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge. 

f Rogers's printing oflice was destroyed by fire and he lost 
most of his property. With the little that was left, he, 
in his old age, set up a little shop opposite the (now old) 
South Church. Thomas used to go frequently to his store, 
and the old printer was very kind to him, gave him some 
of the books which he had printed, and what Mr. Thomas 
used to say was of much more value to him, " he admon- 
ished me, diligently to attend to my business, that I might 
become a reputable printer. I held him in high veneration 
and often recalled his instructions, which on many occasions 
proved beneficial to me." 

This entrance upon the way and work of life is not pro- 
mising, but the spirit, energy, and strength of will of the 
boy will make way for him. There is in him the germ of 
a noble manhood, and in the school of early struggle and 
narrowest fortune he will develop it. The printing oflice, 
as the history of our country has abundantly shown, is one 
of the best of schools, and printing the most encyclopedic 
of arts. ' In helping to difiiise knowledge the printer ac- 
quires it ; in lighting the torch for others, he kindles his 
own. Self-developed, he will be strongly developed. We 
are apt in our day to over- value the facilities of culture ; 
there may be too much dandling and nursing. Vigor and 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxvii 

self-reliance come from effort and trial. The tattered dic- 
tionary, the ink-stained Bible, the spelling book and Watts's 
Psalms ; there is food enough in these for large and vigor- 
ous growth. 

Thomas continued in the service of Mr. Fowle ten or 
eleven years. In this time he had acquired the elementary 

branches of learning, could think for himself, write good, 
plain English, with a dash of satire in it, put his thought 
in type without writing, and make, so he told the writer, 
tolerable verses for the poet's corner. He made the most 
diligent use of the means and opportunities within his 
reach to learn the art of printing. He was esteemed at 
the age of seventeen an excellent workman. He loved 
the art, and had an earnest desire to go to London to 
perfect himself in it. In his old age he used to say that if 
. he could live his life over again, and choose his employment, 
it would be that of a printer. He evinced quite early a 
strong taste for reading, and a fondness of theatrical enter- 
tainments — private they must have been for there was then 
no theatre in Boston. Tall and handsome in person, of 
attractive manners, neat and careful in his dress, the young 
printer impressed favorably the men, and most favorably 
the women, with whom he was brought in contact. He 
had fitted himself to do useful work in the world, and there 
was work for him to do. 

At three different times in early boyhood his life was 
in imminent peril. On one of the occasions (1756), he was 
playing with a young boy in a woodshed, where there was 
a large cistern of rain water, left at the time uncovered. 
The boy pushing young Thomas with a stick, he fell back 
into the cistern. His companion was too much frightened 
to assist or even to give notice of what he had done. Mean- 

xxviii JTisTORY of Printing in America. 

time the little printer was drowning. There was near to 
the shed a tallow chandler's shop. An aged negro, Boston 
Peckens, at work in the shop, somehow or other discovered 
that the boy was in the cistern and came to his rescue. 
By means of the pole with a hook on the end of it, used to 
draw the bucket of water from the cistern, he brought him 
to the surface and took him out. He was insensible, but 
with the help of rubbing and other appliances was restored. 
Thomas, grateful to his kind preserver, used to express his 
deep regret that the old man died before it was in his 
power to give him any substantial proof of his gratitude. 

About a year after this, the lad was standing at an 
oyster board on the town dock, before it was filled up. 
A man called for oysters. The oyster vender, having 
no bread, the buyer asked the lad to go to a shop and 
get him a biscuit; and the weather being unpleasant, 
went on board the oyster vessel to eat his oysters. 
The boy returning with his biscuit tried to jump on 
board. Not springing far enough he fell into the water. 
It was dark, and he was nearly drowned before he was dis- 
covered. The gentleman impatient for his biscuit came 
on deck to look for his messenger. He heard a noise in 
the water and the first thing he saw was the biscuit, by 
which he judged the boy was not far off. He was soon 
found, taken up and carried home. 

The third of these accidents, in 1758 or 1759, so connects 
itself with the manners of the time that it may be well to 
state it with some detail. Nowhere in the British do- 
minions was the fifth of November, the anniversary of the 
discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, celebrated with more 
zeal and zest, and mock pomp and ceremony, than in the 
good town of Boston. Strife and rivalry had for sometime 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxix 

existed between the north and south ends of the town, which 
should have the more august celebration and soonest 
put to rout the procession and parade of the other. The 
line of division between the North and the South was 
the old Mill creek, now Blackstone street. Collections 
were levied upon the inhabitants on the morning of the 
day ; naked for^ but few thought it quite safe to refuse. 
The money was spent in part for the pomp and circum- 
stance of war, and largely for liquor. The principal 
effigies of the pope and the devil, the supposed insti- 
gators of the plot, were placed upon a stage mounted on 
cart wheels and drawn by horses. At the front of the stage 
was a large lantern of oiled paper, four or five feet wide 
and eight or nine feet high. On the front was painted in 
large letters, " The devil take the pope ;" and just below 
this " North end forever" or " South end forever." Behind 
the lantern sat the pope in an arm chair, and behind the 
pope was the devil standing erect with extended arms, one 
hand holding a smaller lantern, the other grasping a pitch- 
fork. The heads of pope and devil were on poles which went 
through their bodies and the stage beneath. Boxed up 
out of sight sat a boy whose mission was to sway the heads 
from side to side as fancy suggested. The devil, without 
consideration for his home climate, was clad in tar and 
feathers " from top to toe," " from head to foot." Other 
effigies were sometimes seen, suspended from gallows, of 
persons who had incurred the indignation and hatred of the 
mob, as the Pretender, Admiral Byng, Earl Bute, and Lord 
North. Ancillary devils and popes were drawn or carried 
by men and boys, as various in size as the men and boys 
who bore them ; some even on shingles and bits of board. 
Assembling about dusk, North end and South end under 

XXX History of Printing in America. 

their respective leaders, processions were formed, the lan- 
terns, great and small, lighted, and through a speaking 
trumpet the order was given to " move on." With this the 
noise and tumult began, the blowing of conch shells, whis- 
tling through the fingers, beating with clubs the sides of the 
houses, cheering, huzzaing, swearing, and rising above all 
the din the cry " North end forever " or " South end for- 
ever." The devils on the stages were not the only or chiefest 
proof that the under world was let loose. The procession 
that first reached the Mill creek gave three cheers and 
rushed on to meet their foes. As they approached the 
strife began ; clubs, stones, and brickbats were freely used, 
and though persons were not often killed, bruised shins, 
broken heads and bones, were not infrequent. 

It was on one of these "peaceful nights" when the North- 
enders had been as far south as the elm tree, soon after so 
well known as the Liberty Tree, and were on their re- 
turn, masters of the situation, though now and then re- 
ceiving a complimentary brick from South-eiiders secreted 
in lane or passage way, that our little printer, with a large 
bump of curiosity and a small one of caution, pressed 
through the crowd to read the labels on the lanterns. A 
brick aimed at the lantern, lighted on his head and struck 
him to the ground. The chances were for the little fellow 
to be trampled to death by the rushing crowd, but as his 
good fortune or a kind Providence would have it, the first 
man whose foot struck him, hearing his groans lifted him 
up, and persons coming around with lights, one of them 
recognized him, took him in his arms, and carried him to 
his master's house. A surgeon being sent for, it was found 
that no bone was broken, and in a few days he was able to 
return to his types. Such is in substance the account given 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxxi 

by Mr. Thomas in later years. It does not speak very well 
for the refinement of manners of what was then the most 
cultivated town of British America, and is worth perhaps 
the passing notice of those who are continually asking " why 
the former days were better than these." 

In 1766, between 17 and 18 years of age, the apprentice 
had what he called a " serious fracas " with his master. I 
can throw no ligl^t upon the cause, merits or demerits, of 
the quarrel. Thomas left Boston secretly, taking passage 
for Halifax, with the hope of finding his way from Halifax 
to London, to acquire a more perfect knowledge of printing. 
In this he was wholly disappointed. So far from obtain- 
ing the means of going to England it was diflicult to earn 
his daily bread. He found work and wages to pay board 
and lodging with one Anthony Henry. Henry was a good- 
natured, heavy moulded Dutchman, who had been a printer 
in his youth, but left his master and came to Halifax as fifer 
in a British regiment. There being no printing oflEice in 
the province, Henry got discharged from military service 
and set up the business. It might not seem the easiest 
thing in the world for a fifer to find means to purchase 
press and types. But there was a pastry cook in Halifax, 
of African descent, who had acquired a snug little property. 
Henry married her, endowed himself with her wordly 
goods, and with them purchased printing materials and built 
a house. Some three years after the marriage the pastry- 
cook died without issue. The relict was left in comfort- 
able condition. He was a cheerful, good natured fellow, 
not very skillful in his art, and loving his ease. He was 
at the time of Thomas's arrival the printer and publisher 

of the Halifax Gazette^ and government printer. The mas- 
ter indolent, and the young man ambitious and willing to 

xxxii History of Printing in America. 

work, the editing and printing the Gazette soon fell into 
his hands. He is found quite competent to the task. He 
remodelled the paper as well as he could with the means 
he had, and went to work. 

Thomas was fresh from the debates of Boston, and brought 
with him the Boston notions of liberty. The Gazette soon 
after his arrival was printed on stamped paper. Thomas 
could not brook this, and aparagraph appeared in its columns 
stating that " the people of the province were disgusted 
with the stamp act." The paragraph gave great offence 
to the loyal government of that loyal province, and Henry 
was called .to account for printing sedition. He had not 
even seen the paper in which the seditious paragraph was 
published, and pleaded ignorance, saying that the paper in 
his absence was conducted by his journeyman. He was 
reprimanded, and threatened with the loss of the public 
printing if anything of the kind should again be found in 
his columns. 

The young patriot could not keep quiet, and, soon after, 
a paragraph of the same import appeared. This time the 
master pleaded that he had been confined to his house by 
sickness, and made a most humble apology. The young 
journeyman was sent for by the secretary of the province. 
He was probably not known to the secretary, who sternly 
asked him what he wanted. 

A. Nothing, sir. 

Q. Why came you here ? 

A. Because I was sent for. 

Q. What is your name ? 

A, Isaiah Thomas. 

Q. Are you the young New England man that prints 
for Henry? 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxxiii 

A. Yes, sir. "* 

Q. How dare you publish in the Gazette that the people 
of Nova Scotia were displeased with the Stamp Act. 

A. I thought it was true. 

Secretary. You had no right to think so. If you publish 
any more of such stuff you shall be punished. You may 
go, but remember you are not in Xew England. 

T. I will, sir. 

5f ot long after the interview the year's stock of stamped 
paper for the Gazette, some six reams only, arrived from 
England. It was soon discovered that the paper had been 
denuded of the stamps, and in the next Gazette was a notice 
that " all the stamped paper had been used, and as no more 
could be had the paper would in future be published with- 
out stamps." 

A few days later a vessel came from Philadelphia bring- 
ing the newspapers published in that city, among others the 
Pennsylvania Journal in full mourning for the passage of 
the Stamp Act. Thick black lines surrounded the pages 
and were placed between the columns. A death's head and 
cross-bones were over the title, and at the bottom of the 
last page was the figure of a coffin, beneath which was 
printed the age of the paper with the statement that it had 
died of a disorder called the Stamp Act. Thomas wished 
to do the like with the Gazette. To do it directly was a 
little too hazardous. As near an imitation was made of 
the Journal as possible, and the Gazette appeared with this 
notice. " We are desired by a number of our readers to 
give a description of the extraordinary appearance of the 
Pennsylvania Journal of the 30th of October last (1765). 
We can in no better way comply with their request than 


xxxiv History of Printing in America. 

by the exemplification we have given of that Journal in 
this day's Gazette" The publication made, no small stir in 
the town, but led to no immediate action. 

One morning soon after, an effigy of the stamp master 
and one of Lord Bute were found suspended on the public 
gallows, behind the citadel. The oflEicers of the govern- 
ment, who had prided themselves upon the good behavior 
of th« province, were dismayed. Somehow or other a sus- 
picion prevailed that the young printer from Boston might 
have some knowledge of the matter. A sheriff thereupon 
went to the printing office and told Thomas he had a pre- 
cept against him and meant to take him to prison unless 
he gave information of the persons engaged in the trans- 
action. The sheriff stated some circumstances which had 
convinced him that Thomas himself had been engaged in 
these seditious proceedings. Thomas making no reply to 
the kind suggestions, the sheriff ordered him to go with 
him before a magistrate. In the simplicity of his heart 
he was about to go, when it occurred to him that the 
action of the sheriff might be merely intended to alarm 
him into an acknowledgment of his privity with the se- 
ditious acts. He thereupon told the sheriff that he had not 
the pleasure of knowing him, and demanded to be told 
by what authority he acted. The sheriff replied that he had 
sufficient authority. On being requested to show it, the 
oflUcer was evidently disconcerted, but answered he would 
show his authority when necessary, and again ordered the 
" printer of sedition," as he was pleased to call him, to go 
with him. Thomas replied he would not obey unless the 
sherift' produced his precept or proper authority for taking 
him prisoner. After further parley the officer left him 
with the assurance that he would soon return ; but Thomas 

Memoir op Isaiah Thomas. xxxv 

saw him no more, and afterwlards learned that this was a 
plan concerted for the purpose of surprising him into con- 
fession. There was too old a head on those young shoul- 
ders for such a trap. 

Such, in substance, is the narrative Mr. Thomas left us 
of his sojourn at Halifax. He has not in this history dis- 
closed the circumstances of extreme poverty to whicTi he 
was reduced. He used to say, not without satisfaction in 
the contrast with his affluent condition in later life, that 
his linen was reduced to one check shirt, and that the 
only coat he had he sent to a tailor to turn, and the tailor 
ran away with it. 

Henry had no little liking for his young and quick-witted 
journeyman, but it became plain that he must part with 
him or with the government business, and Thomas, after 
seven months' residence, left Halifax in a New England sloop 
bound for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The compensa- 
tions of life are greater than men think. In what school 
or university could a boy of eighteen years have got so 
much or so valuable training, discipline, and self-reliance, as 
this young printer got in that obscure newspaper office in 

On his arrival at Portsmouth the people were celebrating 
with great enthusiasm the repeal of the Stamp Act. His 
presence at Portsmouth was suspected by his Boston friends 
by the remodelling and improvement in the newspaper on 
which he worked, which must have been either the New 
Hampshire GazeUe, printed by Daniel and Robert Fowle, 
or the Portsmouth Mercury^ printed by Furber and Russell. 
Mr. Fowle learns that he is in Portsmouth, and invites 
him to return to Boston. He comes back and goes to his 
old master, who fails to recognize him. He returns to his 

xxxvi History of Printing in America. 

service and gets along quietly for a few weeks. In July 
1766, on the day of the funeral of Jonathan Mayhew, whom 
the whole town followed to his grave, he has fresh trouble, 
but the difficulty is compromised and he lives with him 
once more. He remains but a few weeks and then, with 
the full consent of his master, leaves his service finally. 

Young as he was he seems to have thought of setting 
up for himself. On the look out for place and opportunity, 
he receives an invitation from a captain 'of a vessel to go 
with him to Wilmington, North Carolina, where, he was as- 
sured, a printer was wanted. With all the new facilities 
of intercourse it would require no little pluck now for a 
youth of eighteen to leave Boston and go to North Carolina 
to establish himself in business ; especially if he had neither 
friends there nor money. But the young man had more 
courage than prudence or stability. Industrious, enter- 
prising, and fearless, he had yet to acquire the steadiness of 
will and purpose which afterwards characterized him and 
assured success. 

A violent storm compelled the captain to put in for a 
while at Holmes Hole at the Vineyard. From this port 
he went to Newport, and took in, as a passenger, Martin 
Howard who, during the excitement of the Stamp Act, had 
been hung in effigy at Newport, his house destroyed and 
his person injured. Howard was afterwards appointed 
chief justice of North Carolina, and used to say he had no 
quarrel with the " Sons of Liberty?' at Newport, for they 
had made him chief justice of North Carolina, with a 
thousand pounds sterling a year. On the voyage the young 
printer got acquainted with the future judge, who advised 
him (advice costs nothing) to set up a press in Wilmington, 
and promised him his countenance and support. On going 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxxvii 

ashore at Wilmington, Thomas was introduced, by the 
captain of the ship, to a lady who kept a coffee-house in 
the town, and who seenas to have been greatly impressed, 
if not charmed, by the young New England man. The 
good lady proposes to him a partnership in business, he to 
print and publish a newspaper, she to keep the coffee house, 
and the profits of the two concerns to be equally divided 
between them. Whether the partnership was to be further 
extended does not appear. Under the advice of Mr. 
Howard, and other gentlemen, young Thomas waited upon 
Lieutenant Gov. Tryon, then acting governor of the colony, 
afterwards famous and infamous in the history of the re- 
volution. The governor encouraged him to remain, and 
flattered him that he should be favored with a part of the 
government printing. It may be doubted whether Mr. 
Howard or the governor knew much of the young man's 
opinions or recent history. 

There was, as before suggested, a somewhat formidable 
difliculty in his setting up the business of printing in Wil- 
mington or elsewhere. He had not press, or types, or 
money to buy them. But something in the young man 
won confidence and credit There was at Wilmington a 
printer, Andrew Stuart, who had fallen into disfavor and 
was about to leave the town. He had a press and three 
small fonts of letters for sale. Some gentlemen of Wil- 
mington oftered to advance money on a long credit to en- 
able Thomas to make the purchase. Stuart, sensible that 
Thomas could not get a press and types elsewhere, asked 
about three times as much for them as they cost when new. 
After some chaffering he came down to about double the 
cost price. Finding that Thomas could raise the money 
he insisted upon including in the sale a negro woman and 

xxxviii History of Printing in America. 

her child. Thomas concluded to take press, types, woman 
and child, when the seller insisted upon adding to the sale 
his household furniture. This broke off the negotiation, 
and when Stuart relented it was too late. Thomas had 
become discouraged at the aspect and business look of the 
place. The little money he had was gone, and his desire 
to go to England revived. Though amerchant of Wilming- 
ton offered to send to London for printing apparatus by 
the first opportunity, neither this, nor the landlady's tender 
of partnership, had power to detain him. 

To reach England being still his prevailing wish, he en- 
gages as steward on board the brig in which he came as a 
passenger from Boston, and which was now to Bail for the 
West Indies, with the hope of readily finding his way from 
'the West Indies to London. The change of relation from 
passenger to steward seems to have worked a sudden change 
in the feelings of the captain of the brig. Thomas finds 
the labors of his new position hard and disagreeable. Twice 
he is sent in a boat up the river with slaves fresh from 
Africa to procure lumber. The captain requires him to 
attend him on shore with a lantern and to wait on him as 
a servant. The young man's pride, and he had a good 
stock of it, revolts at this treatment, and he determines that 
he will not go with him. The will with him was apt to 
find the way. He rose soon after midnight, " dressed him- 
self in his long clothes" and sat on the quarter deck wish- 
ing, like Paul and his fellow voyagers, for the day. He 
recollects at the moment a letter of recommendation which 
had been given him by a gentleman in Newport to Robert 
Wells, a printer in Charleston, South Carojjna. He leaves 
the brig with the first break of dawn and goes in search of 
a vessel bound for Charleston. He finds a packet that is 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xxxix 

to sail in three days, engages a passage, and then seeks the 
captain of the brig and asks for a dismission from his ser- 
vice, which the captain very reluctantly grants. After the 
dismission, the captain was again quite friendly, and assisted 
him in procuring some provisions for the voyage. He had 
been employed some ten days in the service of the brig 
without visiting the lady of the coiTee house. He goes to 
see her and meets with the same kind reception as before. 
The project of the partnership is renewed, and he is to go to 
Charleston, work till he could provide materials for his 
printing house, and then return to Wilmington to put his 
plan into execution. He goes on board the packet. As 
it was about leaving the wharf, the lady sends by her maid 
a present of stores for the voyage. She lived but a few 
steps from the wharf, and he must needs step on shore and 
thank her for the kindness. As he is conversing with her, 
he sees the packet under way, and leaving his thanks half 
paid, he runs to the wharf, but the vessel had gone. He 
hastens to a lower wharf, but is too late. He meets the 
captain of the brig, who befriends him in his distress, takes 
his own boat with two men and after rowing an hour, the 
weather being calm, overtakes the packet and puts him 
on board. 

The packet had a slow passage down the river. After 
its arrival at Fort Johnson it was detained a week by head 
winds. The provisions were exhausted and a contribution 
was called for to get a new supply. Thomas was obliged 
to borrow a dollar to make up his share. The captain had 
to send back a boat thirty miles to procure the supplies. 
On their arrival they set sail and had a quick passage to 
Charleston. The young man's mortification does not end 
here. He has no money to pay his passage ; he leaves his 

xl History of Printing in America. 

chest in pledge and hurries on shore to find employment. 
In the space of two hours he had visited all the printers in 
Charleston in fruitless search of work. They were, how- 
ever, very kind to him. One of them, Mr. Couch, invites 
him to dine with him and to make his house his home, 
working as he pleased " till he could better himself." 

Soon after he receives an oiTer of small wages from 
Mr. Wells and accepts it* Applying himself closely and 
diligently to his work, after ten days he asks of his em- 
ployer seven dollars and goes in search of the packet to 
redeem his chest. He is dismayed to find that the packet 
had' already returned to Wilmington. Upon further in- 
quiry he learns that his chest is stored in the warehouse 
of the owner of the packet. He pays his passage money 
and the dollar he had borrowed, and is as happy as if a 
fortune had poured her full horn into his lap. His skill 
in his art and steady application won the good will of Mr. 
Wells, who raised his wages. He continued in his service 
till he left Charleston. 

Mr. Robert Wells, an excellent printer and good man, 
was the publisher of the South Carolina and American 
General Gazette. He kept also what was for the time an 
extensive bookstore, supplying the wants of both the Caro- 
linas. He was a loyalist and supported the government, but 
the friendly relations between him and young Thomas were 
never disturbed. The young man had an opportunity to im- 
prove in his art and freedom of access to books which he 
had never before enjoyed. Little is known of his sojourn 
at Charleston. His promise to the fair keeper of the Coffee 
House seems to have been too easily forgotten. The present 
of supplies for the voyage and the half uttered thanks are 
the last we hear of her ; she passes into the silence. Some 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xli 

things and scenes he saw at Charleston made fast hold upon 
his memory ; the arrival and inauguration of the statue to 
William Pitt ; the hurning at the stake of two negroes, 
man and woman, for the crime of poisoning their master, 
with the multitudinous sea of upturned black faces ; an 
election of members of the assembly with candle light pro- 
cessions and temporary hospitals for the inebriated; the 
meeting with several Bostonians who had left their native 
town, as he expresses it " for the sin of being in debt." 

While at Charleston, in December 1769, Mr. Thomas 
was married to Mary Dill, daughter of Joseph Dill of the 
isle of Bermuda. The connection was not a happy one, and 
he was separated from her a few years afterward. He had 

a plan of going to settle in the West Indies ; it was nearly 
perfected, but his health failing, after a short tour among 

the Southern Colonies, he came back to Boston in the 
spring of 1770. 

The condition of Boston in the early months of that 
year is matter of familiar history. It was then a town of 
not more than twenty thousand inhabitants, intelligent, 
wealthy, energetic, self reliant, loving the mother country 
when the mother country did not meddle with their affairs. 
The political controversies which had sprung up (from 
seeds long in the soil) soon after the close of the seven 
years war, had now for seven years been enlarging their 
scope and increasing in intensity and bitterness. Discus- 
sion had served only to widen the differences of opinion 
and policy. The growing claim, a natural growth, of the 
colonies for self government, was met by a larger claim for 
power and restraint on the part of parliament and the 
crown. Upon this town, sensitive and jealous of its rights, 
the British ministry had, in the autumn of 1769, quartered 

xlii History of Printing in America. 

some nine hundred troops. The contention, hot enough 
before^ was brought to white heat by the personal collisions 
of the populace and soldiers. What history has called, 
without much propriety, the " Boston Massacre," was a 
probable, natural result of the attempt to overawe such a 
people by military force. There was not room on the 
little peninsula, physical or moral, for soldiers and people. 

Such was the excited state of the capital, and such indeed 
that of the province of Massachusetts Bay, when Mr. 
Thomas came back, to begin life for himself. With his 
temperament and convictions he could not long keep out 
of the thickest of the fight ; and no suggestion of fear, or 
foreboding of loss or peril to himself, ever held him back. 

In the July following, Mr. Thomas formed a partnership 
with Mr. Fowle. We must, I think, find in this feet some 
mitigation of the judgment he has passed upon his old 
master. The firm commenced business in Salem street 
by issuing, in July 1770, the first number of a small news- 
paper called the Massachusetts Spy. This number was 
distributed gratuitously through the town. The paper 
was to be published three times a week, twice on a quarter 
sheet and once on a half sheet. The frequent issue of the 
paper, a new thing in Boston, was not to meet the com- 
mercial or business needs of the town. It was thought it 
would meet the wants of mechanics and other classes of 
people who had each day but little time to read, and to 
whom the news and instruction of the paper would be con- 
venient in small doses. The second number of the paper 
was published on the 7th of August 1770. The publica- 
tion was continued in this form for three months. The 
partnership of Fowle and Thomas was then dissolved, 
Thomas buying of Fowle the same press and types on 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xliii 

which he had worked as a child. They had been pur- 
chased by Powle nineteen years before, had been paid for 
by borrowing the money of a relative who was content to 
let the principal lie, if he was paid punctually the interest. 
Thomas became the owner by giving to the creditor new 
security for the payment of the loan. He moved his office 
to School street, and changed the publication of the Spy 
from three times to twice a week, each number a half sheet. 
He continued the publication in this way for three months 
more, and then dropped it to make preparations for the 
weekly publication of a larger newspaper than had before 
been printed in Boston. On the 7th of March 1771, from 
his printing office, now changed to Union street, the new 
weekly appeared, printed on a whole sheet royal size folio 
of four pages ; but not Cowper's folio of four pages, " happy 
work which not even critics criticize." In the new form 
the paper had to start with less than two hundred sub- 
scribers. After the first week the n umber rapidly increased, 
till, at the end of two years, the subscription list was larger 
than that of any other newspaper in Boston. 

The new sheet bore the name of the MassachicseUs Spy. 
The title was between two cuts, on the left the Goddess of 
Liberty, on the right two infants culling flowers from a 
basket. JSTothing could be ruder, less artistic, than these 
prints ; but that on the left had its meaning for the time, 
soon after made clearer by the motto from Addison's Cato. 

" Do thou, great Liberty, inspire our Souls, 
>< And make our lives in thy possession happy, 
" Or our deaths glorious in thy just defence.'' 

It was with the publication of this paper that our printer 
really entered upon his own career of life. It was in this 

xliv History of Printing in America. 

work that he was ahle to render valuable service to his 
country and to connect his name with its history. With 
it, though its place of publication was changed, he was 
connected for thirty years, and, after many trials and re- 
verses, it laid the foundation of his fortune. 

Mr. Thomas was printer, publisher, and editor. A num- 
ber of writers however supplied the paper with political 
essays. Some of the earlier essays were intended to be espe- 
cially adapted to that class of citizens who had made up the 
majority of the early readers of the Spy. " Common sense 
in common language," said Mr. Thomas, "is necessary 
to influence one class of citizens as much as learning and 
elegance of composition to produce an effect upon another : 
the cause of America was just, and it was only necessary 
to state this cause in a clear and impressive manner to 
unite the American people in its support." We incline to 
think that elegance of composition, rhetoric, and eloquence, 
are as agreeable to one class of citizens as to another. 
Whether this be so or not, the distinction suggested by 
Mr. Thomas was not kept up. The Spy circulated through- 
out the continent, and its writers addressed alike all classes 
of the people. At the start the publisher opened the 
columns of the paper to Whigs and Royalists, but the con- 
troversy had become too warm for such a course; it 
satisfied neither party. Overtures were made by friends 
of government to induce the printer to enlist the Spy in its 
defence. They were of course rejected, and Mr. Thomas 
gave the paper without reserve to the cause of the people. 

In an early number there is a pretty explicit statement of 
the relation of rulers and people. " Rulers are made for 
the people, not the people for the rulers. The people are 
bound to obey the rulers, when the rulers obey the laws ; 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xlv 

and when the rulers are aiTectionate fathers, the people 
are bound to be dutiful children. Rulers were insti- 
tuted to be servants to the people, and ministers of 
God for good ; but if instead of servants they become 
masters, and instead of ministers for good they are 
ministers for evil, they are no longer rulers according 
to their institution, liulers are appointed to be the repre- 
sentatives of God among men ; and when they imitate him 
in righteousness the people are under the strongest obli- 
gations to give them great honour and reward. The people 
always have a right to judge of the conduct of their rulers, 
and reward them according to their deeds." 

The Spy soon became a power in the Massachusetts Bay, 
for it was conducted with vigor, zeal, and entire devotion 
to Whig principles. The government hoped to buy the 
young printer ; he was not in the market. It tried to drive 
him ; he could not be driven. It tried to alarm him ; he 
was without fear. It tried to suppress him : but he baffled 
and defeated every attempt to this end and gained new 
strength and influence by every conflict. 

The proposal to make the Spy a loyalist paper having 
failed, the next step was to force compliance or deprive 
the printer of his press and types. His creditor was an 
officer of the Crown, and, though a worthy man, was pushed 
on to demand payment of the debt contrary to his verbal 
agreement. Thomas had given a bond payable in one 
year, with an assurance that the principal should not be 
called for if the interest was promptly paid. Thomas, 
though without property, had the confidence and credit 
of his friends ; he borrowed the money and paid the old 
debt by contracting a new one. The plan of suppression 
failing, the most paltry attempts were made to annoy 

xlvi History of Printing in America. 

him and impair the value of his paper. One of these 
was a refusal to permit him to obtain from the Custom 
House an account of the arrivals and clearances of the 
port of Boston. The printer of the Massachusetts Gazette^ 
and News-Letter y acknowledges that he had refused Tho- 
mas a copy of the list, under the influence of the Custom 
House officers. Thomas also charges Governor Hutchin- 
son with attempting to get work out of his hands and give 
it to a tool of his own, and with saying of the Spy " Long 
ago would I have stopped the press could I but have per- 
suaded the council to join with me." " A man" the editor 
adds " whom we could not more disgrace than by saying 

he is, and how he became the g ^r of this p e." 

The Spy had among its contributors several able and 
pungent writers who did not put on their gloves when 
they wrote. Among the early contributions was a series 
of essays signed Centinel, extending to over forty num- 
bers, the first with a motto from the ballad of Chevy Chase. 

" The child that is uDborn 
Will rue the hanting of that day." 

I have not been able to discover the writer of these 
essays. John Adams evidently knew the author, but he 
gives no clue. The question puzzled Governor Hutchin- 
son. They are written with much learning and marked 
ability. In vindicating the liberties of the people of the 
province the writer does not confine himself to the 
charter, or their rights as English subjects, but lays for 
them deeper and broader foundations in the natural rights 
of man. The manner is clear, incisive, bitter, without the 
least recognition of the doctrine that the powers that be 
are ordained of God. 

Memoir op Isaiah Thomas. xlvii 

But the boldest of the writers for the Spy was Joseph 
Qreenleaf, over the signature of Mutius Scsevola. In the 
Spy of Ifoveinber 14th 1771, he declares that Hutchinson 
is not the legal governor of the Province, that he is an 
usurper and ought to be dismissed and punished as such. 
We give one or two brief extracts. " An Englishman 
should never part with a penny but by his consent, or the 
consent of his agent or representative, especially as the 
money thus forced from us is to hire a man to tyrannize 
over us, whom his master calls our governor. This seems 
to me to be Mr. Hutchinson's situation, therefore I cannot 
but view him as an usurper, and absolutely deny his juris- 
diction over this people, and am of opinion that any act of 
assembly consented to by him in his capacity as governor 
is ipso facto null and void and consequently not binding 
upon us. ***** * 

"If the pretended Governor or Lieutenant-Governor by 
being independent on us for their support are rendered in- 
capable of completing acts of government, it is time we 
had a lawful one to preside or that the pretended go- 
vernors were dismissed and punished as usurpers, and that 
the council, according to charter, should take upon them- 
selves the government of the province." The article 
caused no little stir and excitement in the Bay. 

The Evening Post of the next Monday says, " it is said 
the piece referred to, from its nature and tendency, is the 
most daring production ever published in America." The 
Post refers to, without venturing to print it. 

The paper was printed on Thursday. On Friday after- 
noon Governor Hutchinson convened his Council. The 
Council, after deliberating upon the matter till sundown, 
adjourned to the next day, when they met again, and after 

xlviii History of Printing in America. 

further discussion, resolved that the printer should be sent 
for. The messenger of the Council appeared in Mr. 
Thomas's office and told him that his presence was required 
in the Council chamber. Mr. Thomas replied that " he 
was busily employed in his office and could not wait upon 
his Excellency and their Honors." An hour later the mes- 
senger again appeared and informed him that the Governor 
and Council awaited his attendance, and by their direction 
he (the messenger) asked whether Mr. Thomas was ready 
to appear before them. Thomas answered that he was 
not. The messenger went to make report, and Thomas 
went for legal advice — the tradition is, to John Adams. 
He was instructed to persist in his refusal to appear before 
the Council, that they had no right to summon him before 
them. The messenger was sent a third time and brought 
this order. " The Governor and Council order your im- 
mediate attendance before them in the Council chamber." 

T, I will not go. 

Mess. You do not give this answer with the intention 
that I should repeat it to the Governor and Council ? 

T, Have you anything written by which to show the au- 
thority under which you act ? 

Mess. I have delivered to you the order of the Governor 
and Council as it was given to me. 

r. If I understand you, the Governor and Council order 
my immediate attendance before them ? 

Mess. They do. 

T. Have you the order in writing ? 

Mess. No. 

T. Then, sir, with all due respect to the Governor and 
Council, I anil engaged in my own concerns and shall not 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. xlix 

Mess. Will you commit your answer to writing ? 

T, No, sir. 

Mess. You had better go, you may repent your refusal 
to comply with the order of the Council ? 

T. I must abide by the result.* 

Upon the return of the messenger with this unexpected 
and firm refusal, the Governor and Council deliberated 
whether they should not commit the printer for contempt. 
Two difficulties were suggested. First, he had not ap- 
peared before them ; if he had, his answers might have been 
construed as contempt of the Council. The other was yet 
graver and went to the root of the matter, that the Council 
could not compel his appearance before them to answer 
for any crime or misdemeanor ; the judicial tribunals alone 
having jurisdiction and cognizance of criminal oiTences. 
If these considerations had had their just weight before, 
instead of after, the refusal, the Governor and Council would 
have escaped the mortification of being baffled and defied, 
by a young mechanic of twenty-two, on a question of law 
and right. So a more careful examination of the article 
itself would have disarmed it of its force. For the ground 
upon which Governor Hutchinson is denounced as an 
usurper is that he receives his salary from the Crown and 
not from the Province. The fact itself was well known, 
and as to the conclusion the Governor and Council might 
well have said valeat quantum, it is worth what it is worth. 
In judging of the conduct of Thomas we are not to for- 
get, that he had often heard from his master how his 
brother Daniel Fowle, a few years before, had been 
imprisoned by the General Court among thieves and 

* The conversation is ^ivcn from memoranda made at the time by Mr. 

1 History of Printing in America. 

murderers, denied the sight of his wife, or the means of 
communicating with his family, for an alleged libel upon 
the General Court; and how James Franklin had been 
imprisoned and forbidden to publish his paper for the same 

Governor Hutchinson was, it would seem, too good a 
lawyer not to have seen that the Governor and Council had 
no legal power in the matter. When, in 1774, notice was 
given him that the House of Representatives proposed to 
present to the Council articles of impeachment against 
Chief Justice Oliver, he replied that " he knew of no crimes, 
misdemeanors, nor offences, that were not cognizable before- 
some judicatory or other ; and he knew of no criminal case 
of which the Governor and Council, as a court of judicature, 
could take cognizance." 

Defeated in their attempt, the Governor and Council 
ordered the Attorney General to prosecute the printer for 
a libel. Great efforts were made to accomplish the object. 
The Chief Justice (Lieutenant Governor Oliver) at the fol- 
lowing term of the Court in Boston, in his charge to the 
Grand Jury, dwelt largely on the doctrine of libels, the li- 
centiousness of the press, and the necessity of restraining 
it. The Attorney General drew up an elaborate bill of in- 
dictment against Isaiah Thomas for a libel, but the Grand 
Jury refused to find it; they said " ignorarausJ^ Foiled in 
this second method, the Attorney General was directed to 
file an information against Thomas. The fact became 
known, and the legality of the course was so bitterly at- 
tacked, and with such force of argument and authority, that 
it was thought best to drop the matter. The effort to 
prosecute in Suffolk failing, one other expedient was sug- 
gested. The Spy was circulated throughout the province. 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. li 

"Wherever the paper circulated the libel waa published, 
and in the view of the law it was as truly published in 
Essex as in Suflfolk. Let the printer be indicted in Essex, 
where the people are as yet more faithful and loyal to his 
Majesty, and his Majesty's faithful servants, the Governor 
and Council of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Mr. 
Thomas states that the fallacy of this argument was made 
apparent. The legal view was perhaps sound enough, but 
the prosecution was not instituted. The Governor and 
Council had learned prudence, or had become satisfied that 
Essex also was growing seditious. 

While these measures were being taken against the 
printer, the Governor and Council proceeded with more 
rapid steps against the writer of the article, Mr. Greenleaf. 
A written order was served upon him to appear on the 
10th of December before the Governor and Council to be 
examined touching a certain paper, called the Massachusetts 
Spy, published the 14th of JSTovember 1771. Greenleaf 
paid no heed to the summons, and on the 12th of December 
an order appeared in the Boston Newsletter, the Court Ga- 
zette, dismissing him from his office of Justice of the Peace 
for the county of Plymouth. The order was as follows : 

" At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, 
Tuesday Dec. 10th, 1771. 

His Excellency having acquainted the Board, at their last 
meeting, that Joseph Greenleaf Esq. a Justice of the Peace 
for the county of Plymouth, was generally reputed to be 
connected with Isaiah Thomas in printing and publishing 
a newspaper called the Massachusetts Spy, and the said 
Joseph Greenleaf having thereupon been summoned to at- 
tend the Board on this day, in order to his examination 
touching the same, and not attending according to sum- 

lii History op Printing in America. 

mens, it was thereupon unanimously advised, that the said 
Joseph Greenleaf be dismissed from the office of a Justice 
of the Peace, which advice was approved of and consented 
to by his Excellency ; and the said Joseph Greenleaf is dis- 
missed from the said office accordingly. 

A true copy from the minutes of the Council. 

Thomas Flucker, Secretary." 

These attempts to restrain the Spj were not merely abor- 
tive, they kindled the editor to greater zeal for the country's 
cause, and to intenser hatred of its oppressors. 

But bitter as was the tone of the Spy^ it is a striking fact 
that the tone of English papers and of prominent English* 
statesmen upon the course of the Ministry toward the co- 
lonies was as severe and relentless as that of the Colonial 
press and statesmen. In the Spy of September 10th, 1772, 
appeared an address to the King, signed Akolax. Upon 
its appearance the Governor and Council ordered the 
Attorney General to prosecute the printer in what manner he 
thought best. The notice Thomas took of this was to repub- 
lish in the Spy of Oct 10th, 1772, an address to the King 
copied from the (English) Middlesex Journal, He calls at- 
tention to the fact that the latter address, far more disloyal 
in its tone and spirit, had passed unnoticed not only in 
England but on its republication in a neighboring province. 
He thereupon charges that the purpose and order of the 
Governor and Council to prosecute him were malicious, 
closing a bitter article with the words " we may next have 
padlocks on our lips and fetters on our legs, or fight our 
WAY to constitutional FREEDOM.'' The Original letter, and 
the republication from the Middlesex Joimml^ were alike of- 
fensive to the officers of the Crown. Mr. Thomas was in- 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. liii 

formed by friends on whom he relied, that Governor 
Hutchinson had remarked that to secure a verdict against 
him stronger ground would be taken than in the case of 
Mutius Scaevola. What this stronger ground was, must 
be left to conjecture. It would seem as if no weapon had 
been left unused. The difficulty was insuperable. He 
could not find a grand jury to indict or a petit jury to 

For some two years before these events men had seen 
the noble mind of James Otis o'erthrown, and 

"That noble and most sovereign reason 
Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh." 

It was before the republication of the most obnoxious 
of the addresses to the King that Mr. Otis called upon 
Mr. Thomas and desired to have a private conference 
with him, in what he called his sanctum sanctorum^ a 
private room up two flights of stairs, and adjoining the 
printing office, which the tories called the " sedition 
foundry." Being seated, Mr. Otis called for two sheets 
of paper. He doubled each sheet, and after putting them 
together indented them at the top. On one of the sheets 
he wrote his own signature, and requested Mr. Thomas to 
sign the second. He folded the latter carefully, put it in 
his pocket, leaving the other with Mr. Thomas, and, as- 
suring him he should hear from him, went out. 

After the publication of the letters to the King and the 
report that Thomas was to be prosecuted Mr. Otis came 
again, apparently composed and in the possession of his 
reason. He said to Mr. Thomas that he had heard of the 
publication of the address and of the impending prosecu- 
tion. The address he had not read. Mr. Thomas gave it 

Hv History of Printing in America. 

to him, and sitting down he read it very attentively. After 
reading it once he went over it again paragraph by para- 
graph, repeating at the end of each there is no treason in 
that. When he came to a particular passage, he paused, 
read it again and again, and after pondering upon it some 
time exclaimed, " Touch and go, by G — d." Having 
read the address entirely through again, he assured Mr. 
Thomas that the whole of it was defensible, and in case 
the prosecution should take place, he would come forward 
in his defence without fee or reward, or would point out to 
his counsel the ground of defence, which, in his opinion, 
ought to be assumed. On taking leave he said " James 
Otis still retains some knowledge of law." This is what 
Hutchinson would have called " one of the flashes of our 

The character of the Spy, its bold, defiant tone, and the 
attempts at prosecution successfully baffled, drew attention 
to the young printer in all parts of the continent. In 
North Carolina, the loyalists caused the Spy to be burned 
by the common hangman, and the printer to be burned in 
effigy. On the other hand applications were made to Mr. 
Thomas from the Whigs in diflferent parts of the continent 
to set up presses, one even coming from Quebec. The 
hostility of the loyalists of the Province was bitter in the 
extreme. After the passage of the Boston Port Bill and 
the arrival of additional troops he was frequently threatened 
with violence. A British officer, whom he had befriended, 
informed him that his assassination even had been proposed. 
The following incident illustrates very well the state of 
feeling among the soldiers. A countryman, Thomas Dit- 
son Jr. of Billerica, was charged with attempting to pur- 
chase of a soldier his musket, and thus enticing him to 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Iv 

steal and sell the property of the King. Ditson declared 
that a plan had heen laid to entrap him and that he was 
innocent of any had intention. Col. Neshitt of the 47th 
Regiment gave Ditson a mock-trial, then stripped him of 
his clothes and, coating him from head to foot with tar and 
feathers, carted him through the streets. The soldiers, with 
the Colonel at their head, halted before the office of the 
Spy ; the music playing the rogues march, and some of the 
soldiers crying out, the printer of the Spy shall be the 
next to receive this punishment. Other illustrations of 
the state of feeling towards the printer of the Spy abound. 

In the Boston Evmmg Post of September 19th, 1774, is 
printed a circular letter, which was scattered among the 
forces, addressed " to the officers and soldiers of His Ma- 
jesty's troops in Boston." After giving a list of the authors 
of the rebellion, Samuel Adams, Bowdoin, Hancock, and 
others, it says" The friends of your King and Country and 
of America hope and expect from you soldiers, the instant 
rebellion happens, that you will put the above persons to 
the sword, destroy their houses and plunder their effiicts. 
N. B. Don't forget those trumpeters of sedition, the prin- 
ters Edes and Gill, and Thomas." 

It would not be easy to over estimate the services Mr. 
Thomas rendered the country as the editor and printer of 
the Spy. He gave the paper and he gave himself without 
reserve to the cause of freedom. He well understood 
that if the cause failed he would be one of the earliest 
victims. He led no man to risk and peril he did not incur 
himself. Reading the Spy now in the quiet of the library, 
and in the quiet of peace, one would find much in matter 
and manner to criticize. But revolutions are not fed and 
nurtured upon milk and water, or even the clear milk of 

Ivi History of Printing in America. 

human kindness. Contests are bitter when men are strug- 
gling for life or all that makes life worth the living. 

Eev. Dr. John Eliot in an article in the collections of 
the Historical Society of 1799 (vol. 6), avers that a more 
violent class of politicians filled the Sjyy with their specula- 
tions than the Whigs who wrote in the Boston Gazette. 
Referring especially to the articles signed Centinel, which 
we have already noticed, he says any one who reads them 
will now see that the same spirit and principles lead to a 
dissolution of all Society, and are, like more modern pub- 
lications on equality and the rights of many direct attacks on 
all authority and law. We have read them without reach- 
ing this conclusion. Allowance must be made for the 
diiFerence of things in 1771, and 1799. It is doubtless 
true, speaking in general terms, that the writers of the Spy^ 
as compared with those of the Gazette, assumed more radi- 
cal ground and claimed, at an earlier date, for the colonists 
not only the rights of Englishmen but the rights of man. 
Perhaps the position of our printer cannot be better in- 
dicated than in the superscription of a letter now before 
me, addressed, April 4th 1775, by John Hancock from the 
Provincial Congress then sitting at Concord; "To Mr. 
Isaiah Thomas, Supporter of the Eights and Liberties of 

The Spy early took the ground which the controversy 
ultimately assumed, and which gives to it its highest dignity 
and its most profound interest in the history of human 
progress. When the Spy entered upon the controversy, the 
gulf, at first narrow between the parties, had been widened 
and deepened. Substantially the question had become 
this, the unlimited power of Parliament on the one hand 
and the rights of self government on the other. The dis- 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ivii 

tinction between internal taxes and external had lost its 
hold upon the popular mind. While the power of regu- 
lating commerce was in abeyance, or the laws to enforce it 
so readily and so commonly evaded, the Colonies were 
content. The moment they should have been brought into 
full activity submission would have been at an end. Indeed 
it was through the partial exercise of this power to regulate 
trade that the Colonies had suffered their heaviest practical 

All revolutions outgrow and leave behind them the 
issues on which they are started. When the power of 
Parliament to regulate the trade of the Empire began to 
be fully understood, when the colonial statesmen saw what 
had been already the restrictions its exercise had imposed 
upon the commerce and manufactures of the Colonies and 
their gro\^"th and expansion, when they understood clearly 
that in the future the interests of the Colonies were to be 
subordinated to those of the mother-country, and her wealth 
and prosperity to be secured at the cost of their own, they 
began to see that it was this very power they had most 
reason to dread and to contest. 

The course pursued by Parliament and the Crown had 
brought the Colonies into concert and union of action and 
to a sense of their power and strength, and when that 
began to be felt, the question of separation was one of time 
only. The Colonies found, as Montesquieu expresses it, that 
" they had grown to be great nations in the forests they 
were sent to inhabit." 

Governor Pownal had said truly, that " it was essential 
to the preservation of the empire to keep the Colonies dis- 
connected and independent of each other, that they must 
cohere in one centre (the mother country), and that they 


Iviii History of Printing in America. 

must be guarded against having or forming any principle 
of coherence witli each other above that whereby they co- 
here in this centre." Coherence and Union of their own 
motion he deemed utterly improbable, and so great in fact 
were the differences of the colonies in their settlements, 
in their charters and frames of government, in their man- 
ners, religion, culture, trade and domestic policy, that 
Franklin, who best understood the subject, said, that no- 
thing but the oppression of the mother country would ever 
unite them. In seeking for a policy and institutions fitted 
to their then condition they were led to look beyond 
their rights as colonists to their rights as men. 

But to return to the Sjyy. If it be true, as I think can- 
not fairly be denied, that its doctrines struck at the roots 
of the power of Crown and Parliament, insisting that the 
time of swaddling clothes had long since past, it was only a 
little early, possibly a little premature, in assuming the 
position to which the colonies were finally brought. That 
in times of revolution extravagant doctrines should be ad- 
vanced by some of the writers in its columns, history would 
lead us to expect. It must be admitted also that the tone 
of the Spy was bitter, sarcastic, sometimes fierce, defiant 
and exasperating to the last degree ; but in this regard it 
but showed " the age and body of the time, its form and 
pressure." One has but to glance at the newspapers to see 
how the questions at issue engrossed the public attention, 
how little space is given to, how little apparent interest is 
taken in, the news of the day, and how the columns are 
crowded with elaborate essays upon questions of abstract 
right and law. Never was a people better instructed in 
matters of right and duty. The questions of natural right 
were more easily understood, and touched and moved more 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. lix 

deeply the mind and heart of the people. In this regard 
the Spj/ had signal advantage. 

In doing justice to the Spy we would do no injustice to the 
Boston Gazette, with which Mr. Eliot compares it. The 
articles in the Gazette, perhaps, as a general rule indicated 
more literary culture in the writers ) their historical and 
legal d-rguments were more elaborate and finished. It 
would be a mistake to suppose that the articles in the Ga- 
zette were less personal, bitter and inflammatory, than those 
of the Spy. There was for example a series of papers in 
the Gazette, beginning December 20th 1772, entitled 
Needham's Remembrancer written by Josiah Quincy Jr., 
the noblest Roman of them all. Nothing in the co- 
lumns of the Spy is more bitter, not to say ferocious, than 
some of these articles. As the discussion and controversy 
went on the writers for the Gazette, ad well as those of the 
Spy, are from to-day expanding the claims of the colonies 
for self government, and narrowing and restricting the 
powers of Parliament and Crown — rising rapidly to the 
plane on which the controversy was finally placed. It was 
self-government to which our fathers were tending, it may 
be at the first unconsciously, but nevertheless tending. 
History, from 1763, is a prophesy of the result. It was be- 
coming necessary for one people to dissolve the political 
bands which connected them with another, and to assume 
among the nations of the earth the separate and equal 
station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God 
entitled them. 

Mr. Thomas would have been the last person to ques- 
tion the merits of the Boston Gazette, He was a rival, but 
a generous one. " During the long controversy" he re- 
marks " between Great Britain and her colonies no paper 

Ix History of Printing in America. 

on the continent took a more active part in defence of the 
country or more ably supported its rights than the Boston 

We can hardly help glancing at the future fortune of 
the Gazette and its principal proprietor, Benjamin Edes. 
After the Revolution it lost its great contributors and its 
tone and policy were changed. It bitterly opposed the 
adoption of the constitution of the United States and the 
administration of Washington. The paper declined in 
power, interest and popular favor, till, after a long struggle, 
in 1798, it was discontinued for want of support. One can- 
not but be touched by the old man's farewell address. 
" The Editor of the Boston Gazette, after repeated attempts 
to prosecute his professional occupation in the declining 
period of his life, is at length obliged to relinquish his ex- 
ertions and to retire to those melancholy paths of domestic 
embarrassments to which misfortune has consigned him. 
While thus passing the gloomy valley of old age and in- 
firmity, his consolation still rests on that staff which can 
support a mind conscious of its own rectitude ; and though 
he often feels the thorns and briers on the road, goading 
him in his passage, yet he patiently suffers under these af- 
flictions, hoping that ere long he shall arrive at that 
peaceful abode * where the weary are at rest.' The cause 
of Liberty is not always the chaimel of preferment or 
pecuniary reward. The little property which he acquired 
has long since fell a sacrifice ; the paper-evidences of his 
services were soon consumed by their rapid depreciation, 
and the cares of a numerous family were too powerful to 
be resisted, though he fed them with property at four shil- 
lings and sixpence in the pound, which he faithfully and 
industriously earned at twenty shillings." 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixi 

Mr. Buckingham, in his very interesting reminiscences 
of printers and editors, thus speaks of the unfortunate old 
man. " In 1801, I had occasion to call on him at his 
printing room and found him at work on a small job at the 
case, while an elderly female (probably one of his daughters) 
was at the press striking oft* shop bills. The venerable 
form of the old man setting types " with spectacles on 
nose," and the singular sight of a woman, beating and pull- 
ing at the press, together with the aspect of destitution 
that pervaded the whole apartment, presented a scene well 
adapted to excite sympathy, and to make an impression on 
tlie mind, which the vicissitudes of fifty years have not ef- 
faced. At length the infirmities of age overcame his 
physical powers and the curse of poverty lay heavily on 
his spirit. Oppressed with years and sickness, neglected 
and forgotten by those who enjoyed the blessings he had 
helped to secure, he died in December 1803 at the age of 
eighty years." 

July Ist 1773, nearly two years before he left Boston, 
Mr. Thomas sent out the prospectus of the Eoyal American 
Magazine, to be issued monthly. The vessel containing the 
types for it was cast ashore on Cape Cod, and the first 
number (for January 1774) was not in fact issued till 
Febry. 6th 1774. After six months, " on account of the dis- 
tresses of the town of Boston," Mr. Thomas suspended the 
publication. It was however purchased by Joseph Green- 
leaf, the Scfevola of the Spy, and continued till March 
1775. A singular feature of the magazine, considering 
the relation of both Thomas and Greenleaf to Governor 
Hutchinson, is thus stated by the editor. " To complete 
this plan will be added (to begin at the end of the first 
number and to continue until the whole is finished, printed 

Ixii History of Printing in America. 

in an elegant manner, on fine paper, and occasionally or- 
namented with copper plate prints, exclusive of those par- 
ticularly for the magazine) Governor Hutchinson's History 
of the Massachusetts Bay ; which when finished will be 
worth the cost of the magazine." 

The magazine is illustrated by nineteen engravings, the 
most of which are by Paul Eevere. The first number has 
the well known view of the town of Boston, with the 
several ships of war in the harbor. 

The last year Mr. Thomas was in Boston, he began the 
publication of an Almanac. The first number is styled 
" Thomas' New England Almanac, or the Massachusetts Cal- 
endar for the year of our Lord Christ 1775." Its imprint is 
" Massachusetts Bay, Boston. Printed and sold by Isaiah 
Thomas at the printing office, the south corner of Marshall's 
Lane near the mill bridge." The Almanac was published 
by Mr. Thomas from 1775 to 1803, and from 1803 to 1819 
inclusive, by his son Isaiah Thomas Jr. There is nothing 
in these Almanacs calling for especial notice. They aided 
in making the publisher well known, and some fortunate 
prophecies or guesses as to the weather gained for it some- 
thing of the reputation of " old Probabilities." They con- 
tained a good deal of useful matter which found its way to 
places where books were little read. In a number before 
me, that for 1790, are published the tariiFof 1789, the pro- 
posed Amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States, the Federal Register, headed by the President of 
the United States, " His Highness George Washington 
Esquire," and the Judiciary Act of 1789. In that of 1791 
is the whole of Franklin's Way to Wealth. 

To resume our story. It was not alone as editor and 
printer of an influential journal that Mr. Thomas was able 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixiii 

or ready to serve his country. He was personally one of 
the most active of Sons of Liberty. Wherever work 
difficult and hazardous was to be done, he was to be found. 
The meetings of the patriots are frequently held at his 
office. After the workmen have retired, the master re- 
mains to print hand-bills that are posted throughout the 
town before morning, to startle the timid and rouse the 
lethargic. For the five years following his return to Bos- 
ton his life was a daily warfare. The tone of his paper, its 
sharp criticisms not only upon the provincial civil officers 
but upon the conduct and bearing of the military, excited 
against him hostility personal as well as political . Threats, 
as before stated, of violence, of assassination even, are fre- 
quently made ; whether to alarm only cannot now be de- 
termined. His friends did not so regard them. They knew 
he was on the list of the proscribed, and believed he would be 
among the earliest victims. He sent his family to Water- 
town to be safe from the perils to which he was daily ex- 
posed. For a few days before the battle of Lexington his 
friends insisted upon his keeping himself secluded. He 
went to Concord to consult with Mr. Hancock and other 
leading members of the Provincial Congress. He opened 
to them his situation, which indeed the Boston members 
well understood. Mr. Hancock and his other friends ad- 
vised and urged him to remove from Boston immediately ; 
in a few days, they said, it would be too late. They 
seemed to understand well what a few days would bring 
forth. He came back to Boston, packed up his presses 
and types, and on the 16th of April, to use his own phrase, 
" stole them out of town in the dead of night." Thomas 
was aided in their removal by General Warren and Colonel 
Bigelow. They were carried across the ferry to Charles- 

Ixiv History of Printing in America. 

town and thence put on their way to Worcester. Two 
nights after, the royal troops were on their way to Lexing- 
ton, and the next evening after, Boston was entirely shut 
up. Mr. Thomas did not go with his presses and types to 
Worcester. Having seen them on their way he returned 
to the city. The conversation at Concord, as well as his 
own observation, had satisfied him that important events 
were at hand. 

He went out on the night of the 18th of April, to assist 
in giving notice that the troops were crossing the Charles 
river. He returned, but was out again by daylight. 
Crossing the ferry with Dr. Warren he went into a public 
meeting at Charlestownand urged the arming of the people, 
and was opposed by one Mr. Russell " on principles of pru- 
dence." As one of the minute men, he engages in the 
fight which was the beginning of the end. At night he 
goes to Medford. On the morning of the 20th, he makes a 
flying visit to his family at Watertown, and then starts on 
foot for Worcester. He is constantly met on his journey 
by bodies of armed men on their way to Cambridge, 
anxious to learn even the minutest details of yesterday's 
fight. After traveling on foot some miles, he meets with 
a friend who procures him the loan of a horse. Late at 
night, weary and travel worn, he arrives at Worcester to 
begin life anew ; a good head and stout heart his only 
capital. Worcester was one of the places where Mr. 
Thomas had been invited to set up a press. The necessity 
for a Whig paper in this stronghold of the loyalists had 
been felt by Colonel Bigelow, the patriot blacksmith sol- 
dier and statesman, and the other leading Whigs of the 
town and county. Mt. Thomas made an agreement to do 
so early in 1775, but without any purpose of giving up the 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixv 

press at Boston. The presses and types sent before him 
were all that were left as the fruit of five years' toil and 
peril. A sum exceeding three thousand dollars (and a dol- 
lar meant something then, though soon to lose its meaning) 
was due him from subscribers, scattered over the continent. 
In times of peace most of this would have been collected. 
It was now worthless. Paper it was hard to get at any 
price, and the printer's means of purchase, present and 
prospective, were cut off. The list of Worcester subscrib- 
ers was less than two hundred, town and county. 

Things were at a stand still. On the 24th of April, 1775, 
Samuel Adams and John Hancock were at Worcester, on 
their way to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. 
They were there, some days, waiting the arrival of their 
colleagues and a military escort. We have no report of the 
interview between the patriot printer and the patriot states- 
men. But on the journal of the Committee of Safety of 
the Province is this entry, April 29th, 1775. " Letters from 
Colonel Hancock now at Worcester were read, whereupon 
voted that four reams of paper be immediately ordered to 
Worcester for the use of Mr. Thomas, printer; he to be ac- 
countable." Though the letter requesting that paper be 
sent to Mr. Thomas has been lost, a very interesting one 
written from Worcester by Mr. Hancock, on the evening 
of his arrival, has been preserved. It is addressed to the 
Committee of Safety. I have space for a brief extract only. 
"Boston must be entered, the troops must be sent away 
or (blank). Our friends are valuable but our country 
must be saved. I have an interest in that town ; what can 
be the enjoyment of that to me if I am obliged to hold it 
at the will of General Gage, or any one else. I doubt not 

your vigilance, your fortitude and resolution." One can- 


Ixvi History of Printing in America. 

not but conjecture that the young printer may have seen 
and read, with delight, that letter before it was put on its 
way to Watertown. 

On the third of May the Spy reappears at Worcester. 
In his address to his readers the editor says : " I beg the 
assistance of all the friends of our righteous cause to cir- 
culate this paper. They may rely that the utmost of 
my poor endeavors shall be used to maintain those rights 
and privileges for which ?(?e'and our fathers have bled ;^^ 
words that on the 30th of May, 1775, were something more 
than rhetoric. The place of publication was not however 
definitely settled. Mr. Thomas was directed by the Com- 
mittee of Safety to bring his press to Concord. He goes 
there to find that the Provincial Congress had adjourned 
to Watertown. He goes to Watertown, and is advised by 
leading members of the Congress that it will be best to 
remain at Worcester for the present, to do the printing for 
Congress, the army and Committee of Safety, at that place 
establishing a post, what we should call an express, between 
Worcester and Watertown and Cambridge, to transmit 
orders and return the work when done. Following this 
course, on the 8th "of May the Provincial Congress 
appoints a committee to transcribe the narrative of the 
proceedings of the King's troops on the 19th ult., together 
with depositions thereof accompanying, to be transmitted 
to Mr. Thomas for immediate publication." 

On the 12th of May the Committee of Safety " voted, 
that Mr. Isaiah Thomas have sixty reams of printing crown 
paper and eight reams of printing demy paper supplied to 
him by the committee of supplies ; they taking his obli- 
gation to be accountable to the Colony for the amount 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixvii 

Mr. Thomas did account for the paper Bent him to the last 
penny. Though the Congress and the Committee of Safety 
assumed to direct his movements, I cannot find that he ever 
received any favor from them, or sought any. They sup- 
plied him twice with paper, and he paid for it by his work. 
In his day of extremest want he would not feed from the 
public crib. In the summer, Samuel and Ebenezer Hall 
moved from Salem and set up a press in Stoughton Hall, 
Cambridge. Mr. Edes also escaped from Boston and set 
up a press at Watertown. After their removal, the print- 
ing of the Congress and the Committee of Safety passed 
into their hands. There was no further occasion for the 
risk and expense of sending their work to Worcester. 

With some view and for some purpose, which I have not 
been able to discover, in the latter part of May, Mr. Thomas 
started on foot for a journey to New York. So well was 
the printer of the Spy known, so familiar was his story, 
that innkeepers on the way would receive no pay for meals 
and lodging, nor boatmen for carrying him across the 
ferries. From New York he went to Philadelphia to see 
the members of the Continental Congress. Some of its 
leaders were personally known to him. He returned to 
his labors deeply impressed by their wisdom and patriotism, 
more ready and willing than ever to work for the " right- 
eous cause" to which they were devoting themselves. 

Materials are wanting for a connected and detailed nar- 
rative of Mr. Thomas's life during the Revolution. The 
Spy is indeed the weekly record of thought and opinion, 
but he seldom speaks of matters merely personal. A few 
incidents only can now be gathered up. In May, 1775, the 
Provincial Congress established a system of post-riders and 
post-offices to continue until other provision was made by 

Ixviii History of Printing in America. 

the Continental Congress or the Province. In the resolve 
establishing the system Mr. Thomas was appointed Post- 
master for Worcester. In the fall of 1775 the Continental 
Congress established a post-oflSce department for all the 
colonies; that which had existed under the Crown having 
been broken np by the disorders of the times. Dr. Frank- 
lin was appointed Postmaster, with power to establish such 
post routes and appoint such deputies as he should think 
proper. He selected Mr Thomas for the office at Wor- 
cester. His commission was several times renewed by 
Franklin's successors. It was in the year following (1776) 
that Franklin was at Worcester, and Mr. Thomas first 
became acquainted with the man to whose history and 
character his own, in a humble way, had many points of 

We get some glimpses of Mr. Thomas in the autumn of 
1775 and spring of 1776 from the recollections of Benjamin 
Russell, better known as Ben Russell, afterward the dis- 
tinguished editor of the Boston Ceniinel, who in August 
1775 was carried by his father to Worcester and indentured 
as an apprentice to Mr. Thomas. The stories which old 
men tell of their youth are seldom spoiled from lack of 
condiment. Those of Mr. Russell were always racy. His 
master, Mr. Russell used to say, was not at that time in 
very affluent circumstances. During the first year, he 
with a fellow apprentice slept in a garret over the printing 
office on the rags that were taken from time to time for 
the paper maker. Not only his apprentices but the mas- 
ter himself frequently made their meals at the office on 
bread and milk, bought by the pennyworth at a time. 

Mr. Thomas remained at Worcester editing and print- 
ing the Spy till the spring of 1776, when he leased for a 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixix 

year a part of his printing apparatus and his newspaper to 
William Stearns and Daniel Bigelow, two young gentle- 
men of the Bar of Worcester, intelligent and patriotic, but 
with no experience in editing, much less in printing a 

With the small remaining part of his printing materials 
he went to Salem, with the view of starting business, but 
" obstructions arising" he sold his press and types and 
gave up the plan. The nature of the obstructions will be 
understood when we learn that three writs of attachment 
were served upon his press and types in a single evening ; 
and that he was compelled to sell them to pay his debts. 

In the year 1777 he leased again the Spy and his press at 
Worcester to Antony Haswell. His family, in 1776 and 
1777, were living on a small farm in Londonderry, New 
Hampshire. They must have been dark years to him. 
How he was employed I have not been able to learn. I 
only know that he was always industrious, and that, some- 
how or other, he got through them and supported his family. 
There was at least one bright day for him in their calendar. 
While on a visit to Worcester, July 24th, 1776, he read from 
the porch of the South Church, to an assembly consisting 
of almost the entire population of that and adjoining towns, 
the declaration of independence. He may well have had a 
just pride in the reading of that declaration. He could not 
fail to see it was grounded on principles he had been among 
the earliest to espouse and defend. The declaration was 
received with every demonstration of joy and confidence. 
The King's arms were taken from the Court House and 
burned to ashes. The sign was removed from the King's 
Arms tavern, and a joyful celebration had there in the 
evening, when twenty-one patriotic toasts were given, and 

Ixx History of Printing in America. 

the punch flowed freely. Russell, who seems to have been 
leased to Stearns and Bigelow with the press and paper, in 
describing the afiair to Mr. Buckingham said, "we were 
all so happy we did not know exactly what we did, but we 
gave full vent to our patriotic feelings till a late hour in 
the evening. We were a little surprised in the morning to 
find that about a dozen. of us had enlisted as private sol- 
diers in the army ; a recruiting officer being then in the 
town." Mr. Thomas however got him released on the 
ground that he was not sixteen years of age. 

In the spring of 1778, Mr. Thomas returned to Worcester, 
took possession of his press, and resumed the publication 
of the Spy. Worcester was thenceforth to be his home ; 
in it he was to pass the remainder of his long life. He 
was very fortunate in the place of his residence. There 
were disadvantages in doing business so far from the sea- 
board, but saving this, all else was propitious. Worcester 
was one of the largest and most beautiful of the inland 
towns of Massachusetts Bay, indeed of the New England 
Colonies. The village was then, and for half a century 
later, on one broad, beautiful street, in a lovely valley en- 
vironed by hills of gentle ascent and well rounded sum- 
mits. The view as you entered the village from the east 
was charming. The long broad street arched with graceful 
elms ; the neat, many of them elegant and spacious, man- 
sions standing back from the way with grass plats or flower 
beds in front, and shrubbery at their sides, and the general 
air of comfort, refinement and taste, delighted all travelers. 
The town was some six miles square, and agriculture its 
chief pursuit ; but it was the shire of the county and in its 
centra,l village. Within a mile's compass, were gathered 
the county officers, eminent lawyers, and a number of mer- 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxi 

chants and traders who supplied the wants of a large sur- 
rounding country. It had several large inns, like the 
Kings Arms, well known throughout the Bay and places 
of much resort, not only during the terms of the courts, but 
at all seasons of the year. 

John Adams, w^hen its village schoolmaster, has, in his 
diary, given us some pleasant sketches of society in Wor- 
cester some twenty years beforciour date, and of his tak- 
ing tea with the Putnams, Qreens, Chandlers, and Ma- 
cartys of the village; a custom not yet obsolete. Then, 
as ever since, Worcester was distinguished for its agree- 
able and cultivated society, for the number of its emi- 
nent men and attractive and accomplished women. Some 
members of the older families who had adhered to the 
crown had left in 1778, but there were new accessions 
among the Whigs, the Lincolns and Aliens, Waldos and 
Salisburys, to fill their places. But the fact of greatest im- 
portance in this new home of the young printer is that it 
was alive and growing. As well bury a young man at 
once as plant him in a place that is torpid or retroceding, 
where the spirit of enterprise and thrift has died out. Few 
young men are capable of resisting its repressing and 
becalming influences. 

It was a hard time to begin business anew. All business 
was disordered by a paper currency daily depreciating ; 
materials and labor were difficult to be procured ; sub- 
scriptions to his paper hard to be got and harder to be 
collected. Mr. Thomas however started with new resolu- 
tion and courage which carried him through the war even, 
with some small measure of pecuniary success. In a few 
months after his return he was so fortunate as to purchase 
some new types, which were taken in a vessel from London 

Ixxii History of Printing in America. 

and the Spy came out in a new dress. Removed from the 
personal collisions, insults and threats, to which he had 
been subjected by the officers and soldiers, and their allies 
in Boston, the tone and temper of the paper, while equally 
patriotic and firm, were more temperate and impersonal. 
Many of the loyalists had left the province ; those who re- 
mained were quiet and inactive. Though Mr. Thomas 
was the editor, many able writers among the patriots con- 
tributed to the columns of the Spy. It did an excellent 
work, not merely by giving accurate information of the 
progress of the war but in keeping up the hope and trust 
of the people. The " trumpeter" gave no uncertain sound. 
In 1780 Mr. Thomas was drafted as a soldier. He must 
go or procure a substitute ; there was no money commu- 
tation. He was felt to be an useful soldier at home that 
could not be spared from his press ; and his apprentice Rus- 
sell readily consented to go in his place. Russell's term was 
but six months and he never was in battle. He joined the 
army at West Point and was one of the guard who attended 
Major Andre to the place of execution. Upon his return, 
Mr. Russell thought that in consideration of his service he 
ought to be discharged from his apprenticeship, and 
Thomas, though reluctant to part with so good a workman, 
consented. Mr. Thomas from his return to Worcester in 
1778 seems to have gained ground slowly but steadily. 
The circulation of his paper was extended, and he added to 
his income a little by job printing. From 1781, and es- 
pecially after the peace of 1783, his progress was more 
marked and rapid. New types and better paper were 
procured for the Spy^ and it was enlarged to five columns. 
It was, says Mr. Buckingham, a most competent judge, 
well conducted and filled with excellent matter. Besides 

Memoir of Isaiau Thomas. Ixxiii 

selections of news and communications on interesting sub- 
jects, the whole oi Robertson^ s History of America^ Gordon's 
History of the Revolution^ and large extracts from Guthrie's 
Geographpj and other British publications, enriched its 
pages and made it more valuable than any paper published 
in Massachusetts," 

To the business of editing and publishing a newspaper 
he added that of printing, publisl^ng and selling books, at 
the first however in a small way. 

For the two years from March 1786 to March 1788 the 
publication of the Spy was suspended, and in its place was 
printed, in octavo form, the Woy^ester Magazine, The 
reasons for the suspension were these. In March, 1785, 
the General Court laid a stamp duty of two thirds of a 
penny on newspapers and a penny on almanacs. This 
law revived the memories of 1765, and was so odious that 
it was repealed before it went into operation. In July, 
1785, an act was passed imposing a duty on all advertise- 
ments in newspapers printed in the state. This act was 
thought by Thomas and other printers to be a still greater 
grievance. " A shackle," says the Spy^ " which no legisla- 
ture but ours, in British or United America, have laid upon 
the press, which when free is the great bulwark of liberty." 
The act was very unpopular (the only excuse for it was 
that government must be supported), and was repealed. 
In April, 1788, the Sjyy reappeared. " The printer has once 
more the pleasure of presenting to the public the Massa- 
chusetts Spy or Worcester Gazette, restored to its constitu- 
tional liberty (thanks to our present legislature) after a 
suspension of two years." 

The Worcester Magazine was after all the Spy with a 
new name and form without the advertisements. The 


Ixxiv History of Printing in America. 

magazine for the two years makes four volumes octavo. 
In it will be found, with much other interesting matter, 
very full accounts of the Shays rebellion, and of the pro- 
ceedings and discussions leading to the formation and 
adoption of the constitution of the United States. Mr. 
Thomas, though appreciating and sympathizing with the 
sufferings of the people, was a firm supporter of the govern- 
ment. In a position with his postriders to obtain early in- 
formation of the plans and movements of the rebels, he 
was able to render important aid to the authorities in Bos- 
ton. He was not by nature rebel or radical. He had a 
strong love of liberty, of the state and personal, but it was 
liberty regulated by law. 

In the Spy and Magazine Mr. Thomas supported the adop- 
tion of the constitution of the United States. Popular 
opinion in the county was against it. We observe that 
he is very careful to publish everj^thing that Washington 
said or wrote on the subject, and this not only from the 
unbounded reverence he had for the man but from a 
sense of the vast influence his voice and judgment would 
have in determining the question. It is not perhaps too 
much to say, that the weight of that influence turned 
the scale. The knowledge that Washington approved of 
it, the general expectation that he would be called to 
administer it, conciliated and drew to its support men 
whose prepossessions were all against it, who found it 
difficult to reconcile such large central power with local 
independence and home government. Washington, it is 
well known, felt a deep interest in the action of Massachu- 
setts. On the last page of the last number of the magazine 
is a letter of his to a gentleman in Boston (General Lincoln), 
in which after speaking of the candid and conciliatory 

Memoir of Isaiau Thomas. Ixxv 

course of the minority of the convention after the vote had 
been taken, he says ; " The adoption of the constitution in 
Massachusetts will, I presume, have great influence in ob- 
taining a favorable determination upon it in those states 
which have not yet decided." 

No man felt more quickly the invigorating influences 
of the adoption of the national constitution and the putting 
into operation the national government than Mr. Thomas. 
His business was rapidly built up and extended. He em- 
barked in the art or mystery of making and selling books 
in all its branches. He conducted it with great enterprise, 
skill and judgment, and as the fruit of these with great 

He built a large paper mill and made his own paper, he 
printed books, he established an extensive bindery, and he 
sold at wholesale and retail his own publications and all new 
works from the presses at London. His business extended 
to almost every part of the Union. At one time he had under 
his control, and that of his partners, sixteen presses con- 
stantly employed, seven of them in Worcester. He had 
five bookstores in Massachusetts, one in Concord, New 
Hampshire, one in Albany, New York, and one in Balti- 
more. His business at Worcester alone would be regarded 
as extensive even in this age of the multiplication of books. 
Viewed with reference to the time and place, a village then 
so far in the interior and with so few facilities of communi- 
cation, it aflPbrds striking proof of his business capacity. 

In 1788 Mr. Thomas established a printing and book- 
selling business in Boston, taking with him as partner a 
former apprentice, Ebenezer T. Andrews, under the firm of 
Thomas and Andrews. This store was in Newbury street 
under the sign of Faust's head. It speaks well for Mr. 

Ixxvi History of Printing in America. 

Thomas that his partners, in almost every instance, were 
persons who had learned their art and trade with him. A 
large and successful business was carried on by the firm of 
Thomas and Andrews. They published from 1789 to 
1793, inclusive, the 3Iassachusetts Magazine^ a monthly de- 
voted to letters and the arts, and illustrated by engravings. 
It was quite popular and useful in its day ; and an examina- 
tion of it now may serve at least to mark the progress 
we have made in general culture and in art. The store 
and printing office in Boston were but a branch of his 
business. Mr. Thomas remained at Worcester, and his 
principal establishment was there. It may give some 
further idea of its materials and resources to state that his, 
for that day, splendid editions of the Bible, in folio (with 
fifty copper plates) and quarto, were carried through in a 
little more than twelve months. He was in fact one of the 
largest book publishers of his time on either side of the 
Atlantic. As editor of a newspaper and almanac, as 
printer, publisher and seller of school books. Bibles, law 
books, and books of general literature, the name of Isaiah 
Thomas became throughout the country a household word. 
His work was remarkable for elegance and accuracy. 
Rev. Peter Whitney, the historian of Worcester county, 
says, " his editions of the Bible are found upon examina- 
tion the most correct of any now extant." The celebrated 
Brissot (de Warville), the famous Girondist leader, in his 
travels in the United States in 1788, says : " Nous allames' 
diner i Worcester k 48 miles de Boston ; cette ville est joue et 
bien peupl6e ; Timprimeur Isaias Thomas Ta rendue celebre 
dans tout le continent Americain. II imprime la plupart 
des ouvrages que paroissent ; et I'on avouer que ses editions 
sont correctes et bien soignccs. Thomas est le DiihA des 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxvii 

Etuts-TJnis." A relative of Dr. Franklin, in a letter before 
nie, says : " Being one day in the Doctor's library, I opened 
an elegant folio Bible and said, this is a most splendid edi- 
tion. Yes, he said, it was printed by Baskerville, the 
greatest printer in England, and your countryman Mr. 
Thomas of "Worcester is the Baskerville of America." As 
England produces now in the art of printing no superior to 
Baskerville we shall have to give considerable force to the 
addition " of America." The remark no doubt had some- 
thing in it of personal kindness. Mr. Thomas had known 
Franklin for many years. He had been appointed post> 
master by him, and Franklin had visited him at Worcester. 
It would have been enough to have secured Franklin's re- 
gard that Mr. Thomas was so good a patriot ; his skill in 
printing was another bond of sympathy. Dr. Franklin, like 
all printers who have become eminent, retained a great 
affection for the art. Mr. Thomas saw him for the last 
time in 1788, when a number of printers and booksellers 
met at Philadelphia to form some rules for the benefit of 
the trade. Mr. Thomas and Benjamin Franklin Bache, 
the grandson of Franklin, were of the number. After the 
first meeting Mr. Thomas had a long conversation with 
Dr. Franklin upon the objects of the meeting. Dr. Franklin 
manifested a deep interest in the matter. • Unable to go 
abroad from the state of his health, he desired to have the 
next meeting at his own house. The convention of course 
,felt itself greatly honored by such a request, and the Doctor, 
though suffering constant pain from the calculus, entered 
freely into the plans and discussions of the meeting. He was 
then in his eighty-third year, suffering constant bodily pain, 
but with a mind as vigorous, a wisdom as large and practical, 
and manners as easy and winning, as in the noon of life. 

Ixxviii History of Printing in America. 

The man for whom Mr. Thomas had, if possible, a yet 
higher reverence, Washington, visited Worcester in tlie 
course of his New England tour in the autumn of 1789. 
The Spy of October 22d 1789 has a notice of his brief visit. 
" Information being received on Thursday morning (Octo- 
ber 22d) that his Highness would be in town the next 
morning, a number of respectable citizens, about forty, par- 
raded before sunrise on horseback, and went as far as 
Leicester line to welcome him, and escorted him into 
town. The Worcester company of artillery, commanded 
by Major Treadwell, were already assembled; on notice 
being given that his Highness was approaching, five 
cannon were fired for the five New England States ; three 
for the three in the Union ; one for Vermont which will 
speedily be admitted ; and one as a call to Rhode Island to 
be ready before it be too late. When the President Gene- 
ral arrived in sight of the meeting house, eleven cannon 
were fired ; he viewed with attention the artillery company 
as he passed, and expressed to the inhabitants his sense of 
the honor done him. He stopped at the United States 
Arms and breakfasted, and then proceeded on his journey. 
To gratify the inhabitants he politely passed through the 
town on horseback, dressed in a brown suit, and pleasure 
glowed in every countenance; eleven cannon were then 
fired. The gentlemen of the town escorted him a few 
miles, when they took their leave." 

E. Smith Thomas, a nephew of Isaiah Thomas, was then 
one of his apprentices. " A. boy of fourteen," he writes 
many years afterwards, " I was presented to Washington 
by my distinguished kinsman, Isaiah Thomas. I can never 
forget his words or my feelings on the occasion. * Young 
man,' he said, 'your uncle has set you a bright example of 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxix 

patriotism, and never forget that next to our God wo owe 
our highest duty to our country." ' 

Smith Thomas went to live with his uncle, to learn the 
art of printing, in 1788. In the reminiscences of his life 
and times, published in 1840, we find some notices of his 
kinsman. Speaking of the Spy^ he says : " Mr. Thomas was 
a pungent writer, possessing a clear and strong style, with 
the most biting sarcasm." This is extravagant. " He was 
constantly aided by the powerful pens of General Ward, 
Dwight Poster, Edward Bangs, and others, so that his 
paper, which was a small weekly sheet, was always well 
filled with matter calculated to confirm the patriotic in 
their course and prevent the wavering from going over to 
the enemy." (He had then built his extensive printing 
office, bookstore and bindery.) " Pew gentlemen passed 
through Worcester without calling to see the proprietor and 
his establishment, who never failed to treat them with the 
most marked politeness. In his person Mr. Thomas was 
tall and elegantly formed, in his dress fashionable to a 
fault, in his manners elegant, with a mind stored by a most 
extensive acquaintance with the best authors whether in 
literature or science." With fair allowance for the rela- 
tion of the parties and the impression the accomplished 
master makes on the apprentice, and the teacher on the 
pupil, the description conforms to the general recollection 
of Mr. Thomas's contemporaries. 

Into the cultivated society of the town, the self educated 
printer and bookseller made easy way, and in intellectual 
culture and manners found himself among equals. When 
his business had expanded, and his income enlarged, he 
built what was for the time a spacious and elegant mansion, 

Ixxx History of Printing in America. 

which during his long life was the seat of an open, refined 
and generous hospitality. 

Mr. Thomas was a supporter of the administration of 
"Washington and of the Federal party. He was not, ac- 
cording to the standard of his times, a bitter partizan, but 
those were times when men had strong convictions and 
expressed them clearly, not to say fiercely. We have seen 
with what ardor and at what peril and sacrifice he main- 
tained the liberties of the colonies — indeed liberty every- 
where. The experience of the war and of the seven years 
of confusion and disorder which followed it, taught him 
the necessity of a strong, stable, eflicient, national govern- 
ment. He believed the constitution had been so framed and 
adopted, and should be so administered, as to give the 
country such a government. Under such a government 
he lived to see his country free, prosperous, happy. In 
his preface to his edition of the Bible, in 1791, he says : " The 
general state of our country must afford satisfaction to 
every benevolent mind. Evidences of increasing prosperity 
present themselves on every side to our view. Abroad, 
our national character is rising to dignity and eminence, 
at home, confidence is established in our government, the 
spirit of patriotism appears to be the actuating principle 
with the distinguished characters of our age, and the 
greatest exertions are making for the public good. The 
civil and religious rights of men are generally understood, 
and by all enjoyed. The sciences which open to the minds 
of men a view of the works and ways of God, and the arts 
which tend to the support, the convenience, and the orna- 
ment of society, begin to receive proper encouragement 
from the administration of state and national governments ; 
and by the application and enterprise of individuals are 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxxi 

approaching to excellence and perfection. The means of 
a good education are daily becoming more general, and 
the present spirit of industry and economy, which pervades 
all classes of men, furnishes the brightest prospects of 
future prosperity and welfare. While a general solicitude 
prevails to encourage the Arts and to promote national 
honor, dignity and happiness, can any be indifferent to 
those improvements which are necessary to secure to all 
the free and independent exercise of the Rights of Con- 
science ? The civil authority hath set an example of mode- 
ration and candor to all Christians, by securing equal 
privileges to all ; and it must be their ardent and united 
wish, independently of foreign aid, to be supplied with 
copies of the sacred Scriptures — the foundation of their re- 
ligion — a religion which furnishes motives to the faithful 
performance of every patriotick, civil and social duty, 
superior to the temptations of ambition, avarice and selfish- 
ness ; which opens prospects to the human mind that will 
be realized when the relation to civil government shall be 
dissolved, and which will raise its real disciples to their 
highest glory and happiness, when the monuments of 
human genius, art and enterprise, shall be lost in the gene- 
ral dissolution of nature." 

In 1802 Mr. Thomas relinquished his business in Wor- 
cester to his son, who bore his name and shared his tastes. 
Though he had acquired an ample fortune he was not a 
man to remain idle. He was not merely a printer of books 
but a reader^ and early began the collection of a library. 
Amid the cares of a vast business he always found some 
time for reading and study. He was strongly attached to 
* the art to which, for nearly half a century, he had been 
devoted. There was no history of printing in America, 

Ixxxii History of Printing in America. 

and he would try to supply the want. There was danger 
that many of the facts would be irrecoverably lost. He 
had known personally the leading printers of his time and 
had heard the story of many earlier printers from their 
successors. No person then living had so much knowledge 
of the subject, not to be found in books — the unwritten his- 
tory. But he spares no labor or expense in gathering the 
materials for his work. The collection of newspapers for 
the purpose, with those he already possessed, made the 
largest collection in the country. The modest \dew of 
Mr. Thomas was not so much to write the history as to 
collect and preserve the materials for a history. He 
" makes no pretence to elegance of diction" but is content 
with a plain, unadorned statement of facts;" yet there are 
some of the biographical sketches whose easy, simple and 
attractive style, reminds us of the greatest American printer, 
writer, statesman and thinker. 

The result of his researches and labors was the History 
of Printing^ published in 1810, in two volumes octavo. 
Upon the value of this contribution to the history of the 
country I w^ill not enlarge. Its general accuracy and 
fidelity have been recognized by historians, students, and 

In his business as printer and bookseller, in gathering 
the materials for his history of printing, having a deep per- 
sonal interest in the annals of a country whose course he 
had watched, not idly, from colonial dependence to national 
greatness, a lover and reader of books, touched early by 
the gentlest of infirmities, bibliomania, he had collected a 
library especially rich as to the fountains and springs {fontes 
el orlfjines) of American history. Ilis researches had 
taught him the value of such a collection ; his observation 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxxiii 

and experience had shown him how quickly the sources of 
our history were drying up, liow rapidly the monuments 
of the past were crumbling and wasting away. He saw 
and understood, no man better, from what infinitely varied 
and minute sources the history of a nation's life was to be 
drawn ; that the only safe rule was to gather up all the 
fragments so that nothing be lost. 

It was in the light of this experience, and with a view to 
garner up and preserve the materials of our history, that 
he conceived the plan of the American Antiquarian Society, 
of making his own library the basis of its collections, and 
of giving to the cause of good letters a liberal share of the 
fortune he had acquired in their service. It was in January, 
1812, that his intent and, purpose of founding the society 
were first suggested to his friends, the Rev. Dr. Bancroft 
and Dr. Oliver Fiske of Worcester. In the spring and 
summer of that year, in consultation with them and other 
friends, a plan was matured, and on the 12th of October a 
petition was presented to the legislature of Massachusetts 
for an act of incorporation. The petition was signed by 
Isaiah Thomas, William Paine, Levi Lincoln, N'athaniel 
Paine, Aaron Bancroft, and Edward Bangs. This was in 
the war, when political strife was bitter, but the cause of 
letters brought together men who were antipodes in 
political faith. 

On the 19th of October Mr. Thomas went to Boston to 
wait upon the committee to whom the petition had been 
referred, and on the 20th a bill was drawn. It passed the 
House the 23d, the Senate the 24th, and was approved by 
Governor Strong, and became a law the same day. The 
petition, in stating the objects of the society, has one line 
which is the key to the society's history, " to assist the re- 

Ixxxiv History of Printing in America. 

searches of the future historians of our country." The 
persons incorporated were among the most eminent citizens 
of the commonwe^ilth in all the walks of cultivated life. 
The society was organized at the Exchange Coffee House 
in Boston on the 19th of November 1812, and Mr. Thomas 
elected president. 

At the beginning the annual meeti ngs were held in Boston. 
On the first, Oct. 23d, 1813, a public address was delivered 
at the Stone Chapel by the Kev. Dr. Jenks. In 1814 an 
address was delivered in the same church by Dr. Wm. 
Paine, and the society was escorted to and from tlie Chapel 
by the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 

The library given by Mr. Thomas, consisting of about 
three thousand volumes, was kept for eight years in his 
mansion on Court Hill ; he, constantly, we might say daily, 
adding to its collections. In the fall of 1820, it was re- 
moved to Antiquarian Hall, erected for the society by 
Mr. Thomas at a cost of ten thousand dollars. The first 
volume of the Collections and Transactions of the society 
was also prepared and published at his expense. 

His interest in the society never abated. He was at 
work for it diligently and happily to the very close of his 
ilfe. He was reelected president till his death. By his 
will he gave funds for the support of a permanent librarian, 
and for incidental purposes, amounting in the whole to 
twenty-four thousand dollars. His entire gifts to the so- 
ciety in books, land, building, and legacies by his will, would 
not fall short of fifty thousand dollars. His was among 
the early examples in our country of giving in a man's 
lifetime, and so giving his own. " Defer not charities till 
death," says Lord Bacon, " for certainly, if a man weigh it 
riirhtlv, he that doth so is rather liberal of another man's 

Memoir of Isaiah Thomas. Ixxxv 

than his own." Mr. Thomas's gifts to public uses during 
his lifetime exceeded those by his will. Indeed, I incline 
to the opinion that he gave away in his life more than he 
accumulated. Since Mr. Thomas's death, the society has 
gone on quietly, without parade, successfully accomplish- 
ing the purpose, gradually becoming more and more clearly 
defined, of collecting and preserving the materials of 
American history. It has published four volumes of Col- 
lections and Transactions, which, where original, are marked 
with precise learning and thorough research ; and, where 
republications, by careful editing and annotations. It is 
not too much to say they are most valuable contributions 
to our history. The library has rapidly increased, so that 
it has now over fifty-three thousand volumes, reckoning ten 
pamphlets as a volume. Thanks to the munificence of its 
present president and other friends, it has now a new library 
building, and land for its extension, and well invested funds 
to the amount of eighty thousand dollars. 

The services of Mr. Thomas to his country and to letters 
were appreciated and recognized by his fellow citizens. 
So far as I can learn, he had no aspirations for political life 
or ofiSicial service. The party to whose principles he con- 
stantly adhered was in the minority at Worcester during 
most of his active life. Had it been otherwise, he had 
neither taste, nor perhaps any peculiar aptitude, for public 
service. Beside this, though just and kind to others, he 
liked to do his own thinking, and the free use of lips and 
pen ; and such men are apt to find the post of honor in a 
private station. In that station he wielded a large influ- 
ence, and few men of his day were more widely known. 
He was made a member of many scientific, historical and 
philanthropic societies throughout the country; among nu- 

Ixxxvi History of Printing in America. 

merous others, the American Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia, the New York Historical Society, the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. He received the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts from Dartmouth College, and that of Doctor 
of Laws from Alleghany College, Pennsylvania. 

He died on the 4th of April 1831. His funeral took 
place on the 7th, when a very interesting address on his 
life and public services was delivered by Isaac Goodwin 
Esq. of the Worcester Bar. 

This imperfect memoir, the materials for which have 
been collected with much tribulation, has shown, I hope, 
that, in three things especially, Mr. Thomas rendered valu- 
able service to his country — as the editor and printer of a 
newspaper which was an able and fearless advocate of the 
rights of the colonies and of man, as the author of the His- 
tory of Printing^ and as the founder and benefactor of the 
American Antiquarian Society. 

In the relations of townsman, neighbor, friend, we have 
estimates of his life and character by those who had the 
fullest opportunity and capacity to judge. The late Go- 
vcrnor Lincoln, and this is laudari ab laudato viro, in his 
pleasant reminiscences of the Worcester Fire Society, thus 
speaks of Mr. Thomas. ' "With a strong and vigorous mind 
and a cultivated intellect, enterprise, energy and industry in 
early life gave him wealth, and possessed of this, he lived in 
courtly style, and with beneficent liberality. * * * He was 
a public spirited citizen, generous in his contributions to all 
worthy objects, and a most efficient cooperator with others 
in promoting the growth, improvement and prosperity of the 
place. The city is full of memorials of his good deeds." 
Perhaps a higher tribute was paid to him by his counsellor 

Memoir of Isaiah Tuomas. Ixxxvii 

and friend of many years, Samuel M. Burnside, when he 
said that " Young men, just entering into active life, and en- 
gaging in the untried and perplexing mazes of business, 
seldom looked to him in vain for advice, for patronage, for 

William Lincoln, the accomplished historian of Wor- 
cester, familiar with every detail of its record, says : " while 

his private charity relieved the distresses, his public mu- 
nificence promoted the improvements of the town." After 

an enumeration of his benefactions to the municipal cor- 

poration he adds, " few local works for the public good were 

accomplished without the aid of his purse or eftbrts." 

Mr. Lincoln closes his interestingmemoir of Mr. Thomas 
with eulogy not more beautiful than it is just. " The in- 
cidents of the life of Dr. Thomas have occupied broad 
space in these poor annals. His memory will be kept 
green when the recollection of our other eminent citizens 
shall have faded in oblivion. His reputation in future 
time will rest as a patriot on the manly independence which 
gave, through the initiatory stages and progress of the revo- 
lution, the strong influence of the press he directed to the 
cause of freedom, when royal flattery and favor would 
have seduced, and the powers of government subdued its 
action; as an antiquarian, by the minuteness and fidelity of 
research in the History of Pointing ; as a philanthropist, on 
the foundation and support of a great national society 
whose usefulness, with the blessing of Providence, will in- 
crease through distant centuries." 






The art of printing was first introduced into Spanish 
America, as early as the middle of the sixteenth century. 
The historians, whose works I have consulted, are all 
silent as to the time when it was first practiced on the 
American continent ; and the knowledge we have of the 
Spanish territories, especially of Mexico and Peru, is so 
circumscribed, that we cannot fix on any precise date as 
the period of its commencement ; but it is certain that 
printing was executed, both in Mexico and Peru, long 
before it made its appearance in the British North Ameri- 
can colonies. I do not mean to assert, however, that it is 
impossible to ascertain the place where, and the exact date 
when, the first printing was performed in the extensive 
provinces belonging to Spain in America ; but as respects 
myself, I have found that insurmountable difficulties have 
attended the inquiry.* 

* When Mr. Thomas wrote his IlUtory of Printing in America^ little was 
known of its introduction in Spanish America. All the works he had 
consulted on the subject were silent as to the time. Historians of the art 
were ignorant on this point, for the reason that if there exi.sted in Europe 
any si)ecimens of very early printing in America, the investigator did 
not know under what name to search for them. A writer sixty years 
ago is excusable for the lack of correct information, since Mr. Humphreys, 
one of the highest authorities and most recent authors on the history of 
printing, says that the art " was introduced in America by Mendoza in 


2 History op Printing in America. 

Chevillier refers his readers to some books printed 
early at Lima, the capital of Peru.^ 

Luckombe writes* that "Printing was extended to 
Afiiea and America, not indeed at the invitation of the 
natives, especially of America, but by means of the Euro- 
peans ; and, particularly, of the Spanish missionaries, who 
carried it to the latter for their ends ; accordingly, we find 
that several printing houses were established very early in 
the city of Lima, and in several cities of the kingdom of 

I am of opinion that the first printing press erected in 
America was in the city of Mexico. I have, however, been 
enabled to ascertain the time when the art of printing was 
introduced into Mexico with greater precision than any 
writer whose works have come under my inspection, and 
have become acquainted with the name of one of the 
earliest Spanish American printers, and can state with a 
tolerable degree of certainty that the press was established 
some years before 1569, in the city of Mexico. Li 1571 a 
large and laborious work was printed there, entitled Vb- 
cabvlario En-Lengva OasteUana y Mexicana, compuesio per el 
muy Beuerendo Padre Fray Alonso de MoUna de la Orden del 
bienanenturado rmestro Padre SarU Francisco. Dirigido al mvy 
exceknte senor Don Martin Ervriquez Visorrey destanueua JKls- 
pana. En Mexico^ en Casa de Antonio de Spinosa, 1571.* 

1566, his printer being Antonio Espinoza." (Etst. Art of Printing. 
Lond., 1868, p. 206). Rather than attempt to alter Mr. Thomas's remarks, 
we have preferred to give in the appendix a new article on the history 
of printing in Spanish America, which has been furnished us by Hon. 
John R. Bartlett, of Providence, R I. See Appendix A. — 2/. 

• Chevillier, a French writer, was library keeper at the Sorbonne, (b. 1636, 
d. 1700). 

• History and Art of Printing ^ p. 41. 

• Spanish, as well as English and French orthography, has varied since 
this book was printed. The words Sant^ Visorrey ^ destanueua^ are now 
written San^ msrey, de esta nueva. The title and imprint of this curious 
book, which is a folio volume of 568 pages, when translated into Eng- 

Spanish America. 3 

A press was secretly established by the Jesuits at Cor- 
dova soon after they settled in Spanish America, at which 
were printed grammars and dictionaries of Peru and the 
missions. Printing was prohibited, excepting for the use 
of government, in all the Spanish provinces ; and Vicente 
Pazos asserts that " at the breaking out of the. revobition, 
in 1810, from Lima to Monte Video, for an extent of more 
than one thousand leagues, including Peru, Chili, and Rio 
de la Plata, countries filled with cities, villages, universi- 
ties, colleges, schools, tribunals 'of justice, and men of 
wealth and science, there was but one miserable old print- 
ing press, and this formerly belonged to the Jesuits of 

Molina's book is numbered by leaves, not by pages. 
The license for printing it is dated in 1569, and aflTords in- 
dubitable evidence that a press was then operant in Mexico. 
The epistle dedicatory is of the same date; and these 
circumstances show that the book was two years in the press ; 
which is not at all improbable, as works of this kind can- 
not be correct when hastily executed. Even at this time a 
work of that class and magnitude, would not, in the ordi- 
nary course of business, be printed from manuscript copy in 
a much shorter period. It is to be presumed that the prac- 
tice with regard to title pages, was the same then as at the 
present day ; and that the title page of this book did not 
go to press until the rest of the work was completed. 

This dictionary, in two parts, consists, first, of 122 leaves, 
or 244 pages, of Spanish and Mexican ; and, secondly, of 
162 leaves, or 324 pages, of Mexican and Spanish. A very 

lish, reads thus: A Dictionary in the CoitUian and Mexican Languages 
composed by the very reverend Fatfier Priar Alamo de Molina^ of the order 
of our fjcell disposed Fatlier Saint Francis. Dedicated to the very excellent 
Don Martin Enriquez, Viceroy of t/iis Nevo Spain. Imprint — In Mexico^ in 
the House of Antonio de Spinosa. 1571. 
* See the letters of Vicente Pazos to the Hon, Henry Clay. . 

4 History of Printing in America. 

large cut of a coat of arms, probably that of the viceroy to 
whom the book is dedicated, fills two-thirds of the title 
page; the arms are in eight compartments, surmounted 
with a coronet. 

This book furnishes incontestable evidence that the 
Spaniards established the press, in the American con- 
tinent, many years before the English planted a colony 
in this quarter of the world. 

The abb6 Clavigero,* a Mexican writer, mentions that 
" the laborious Franciscan, Bernardino Sahagun, composed 
in pure and elegant Mexican language, three hundred and 
sixty-five hymns, one for each day in the year;" and in a 
note he adds, that he " saw a copy of this book in a library 
of the Jesuits of Angelopoli, printed at Mexico, to the best 
of his recollection, in the year 1540. K Clavigero is correct, 
printing was introduced into Spanish America one hundred 
years before it appeared in the English colonies. 

Antonio de Herrera, in his General History of America, 
from the discovery to 1554, observes in relation to the 
rebuilding of Mexico by the Spaniards, which began in 
1524, " such was the care and industry of Cortes the con- 
queror, that all sorts of artificers resorted to the place. 
There were soon erected a mint, a college, and a printing 
house. So that the city became as renowned as any in 
Europe." He afterwards mentions that in 1537, " the 
viceroy ordered the college, founded by the Franciscan 
friars, at Mexico, for teaching boys the Latin grammar, 
should be finished." From this account we may conclude 
that printing was introduced into Mexico previously to the 
year 1540, and probably as early as 1530. 

The religion of the Spaniards has suffered very little, if 
any innovation ; and many of the books they have printed 
in America are on religious subjects. Copies of these, 

*See Clattgero's lEstort/ of Mexico, Philadelphia edition, vol. u,p. 206. 

Mexico and Peru. 5 

together with those of various histories of the old world, 
and of the discovery and settlement of America, which 
have, jfrom time to time, issued from the Mexican and 
. Peruvian presses, are, it is said, preserved in the colleges 
of the capital cities in those provinces, together with many 
heavy folio volumes in manuscript, respecting the country, 
and written there. In this age of revolutions, those, and 
the other provinces of Spain, may experience some con- 
vulsions of the revolutionary tornado, by which their 
parent state is desolated, in common with the other Euro- 
pean kingdoms. The time may not be far distant when 
a spirit of freedom and a consciousness of their own 
strength, may lead the people of the south to follow the 
example of their northern neighbors, and establish their 
independence ; when that time shall arrive, strangers may 
be permitted to explore their country without difficulty or 

Mexico and Peru. 

The books published in both English and Spanish 
America, till within the last century, were, principally, 
on religious subjects. Perhaps those produced in the 
British colonies, anterior to our revolution, exceed in 
number those published in Mexico and Peru ; but, from 
the best information I have been able to obtain, it appears 
they were inferior, in point of magnitude, to the many 
large and voluminous labors of the monks, on subjects of 
devotion and scholastic theology, that have been printed 
in the Spanish part of the continent. Besides books on 

' The above was written in the beginning of the year 1809. It now 
appeal's that the revolution I then contemplated, has been already 
partially produced New Spain becomes daily more practicable to the 
researches of the curious and learned; and we have a pleasing pro- 
spect that we shall speedily become more intimate; and possibly, on 
more friendly terms with these near neighbors, who have hitherto been 
estranged from us by the genius of their government. 

6 History of Printing in America. 

religious and devotional concerns, many large historical 
works, a variety of dictionaries, grammars, etc., were pro- 
duced by the presses of Spanish America. 

Notwithstanding the press in Spanish America was under 
severe restrictions, yet the books allowed to be printed, 
together with the works necessary for the purposes of 
government, afforded it much employment; and, from 
the best information I can procure, it appears that the 
typographical performances, both in Mexico and Peru, 
were not badly executed. 

Gazettes have, for many years, been published in that 
country; some say they were printed before the end of 
the seventeenth century ; that they were so, in the cities 
of Mexico and Lima, is not improbable. An excellent 
literary journal was for some time published in Lima, 
entitled Mercurio Penmno} Dr. Robertson, in his History 
of America^ mentions his being furnished with the Gazette 
of Mexico for the yeats 1728, 1729, and 1780, printed in 
quarto. Having examined the contents, he observes, 
" The Gazette of Mexico is filled almost entirely with 
accounts of religious functions, with descriptions of pro- 
cessions, consecrations of churches, beatifications of saints, 
festivals, autos da f6, &c. Civil or commercial affairs, 
and even the transactions of Europe, occupy but a small 
corner of this monthly magazine of intelligence.'* He 
mentions, also, that the titles of new books were regu- 
larly inserted in the Gazette; whence it appeared that 
two-thirds of them were treatises on religion.^ 

A literary journal, entitled Gazeta de Literatura was for 
a long time published in Mexico, and was continued in 

^ Mercurio Peruano de Historia, Literatura y Noticias publicas, qua da 
a la luz la Sociedad Academica de Amantes de Lima, 1791-1794. 12 vol8.» 
small 4to. — B, 

• Bobertson^B America^ vol. in, p. 401, 7th edition, London. 

Mexico and Peru. 7 

1760, by M. Alzate, an astronomer; and in the govern- 
ment of Guatemala, the Gazeta de OuaiemalcL was continued 
in 1800. 

The press being under the absolute control of govern- 
ment, we might expect to find the catalogue of Spanish 
American publications confined within narrow limits; but 
the fact is, that the works which treat of religion, history, 
morals, and classical books, which in that country have 
been printed, are numerous. Even the dictionaries and 
grammars, for the use of the various nations of aborigines 
in the Mexican provinces only, excite our surprise. Of 
these the Abbi Clavigero,* the historian, mentions five 
Mexican dictionaries and twenty Mexican grammars; 
three Otomi dictionaries and four grammars; two Ta- 
rascan dictionaries and three grammars; one Zapotecan 
dictionary and one grammar; one Miztecan grammar; 
three Maya dictionaries and three grammars ; two Toto- 
nacan dictionaries and two grammars; one Popolucan 
dictionary and one grammar; one Matiazincan diction- 
ary and one grammar ; two Huaxtecan dictionaries, and 
two grammars ; one Mixe dictionary, and one grammar ; 
one Cakciquel dictionary, and one grammar; one Tara- 
maran dictionary, and two grammars; one Tepehuanan 
dictionary, and three grammars. 

Clavigero also mentions eighty-six authors held in high 
estimation by the learned; thirty-three of whom were 
Creoles, " who have written on the doctrines of Christianity, 
and on morality, in the lomgwiges of New Spain;" and he 
remarks, " the books published in Mexico on religion are 
so numerous, that of them alone might be formed a large 
library." Their works, and the dictionaries and grammars 
before mentioned, were, unquestionably, printed in the 

' A learned native of New Spain who published the history of ancient 
Mexico, and the conquest of it, by the Spaniards, in two large volumes, 

8 History of Printing in America. 

provinces of Mexico ; and it is not improbable that many 
books, of the like kind, have been published in the exten- 
sive provinces of Peru, in South America.* 

Dr. Robertson prefixed to the seventh edition of his 
history, a list of Spanish books and manuscripts, which he 
consulted for that work.^ 

It evidently appears, that the most voluminous and 
expensive works were published by the Spaniards; and 
this is not altogether strange, as they possessed by far the 
richest part of the country; and the settlement of the 
southern part of the continent, and of Mexico, commenced 
a century before that of the British colonies. 

Saint Domingo. 

A printing press was early introduced into the Spanish 
part of this island ; probably about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. It was seldom used, except for 
printing the lists and returns, and other papers for the 
different branches of the administration. 

M. de St. Mery,* in his Description of the Spanish 
part of St. Domingo, informs us, that " No works con- 
cerning the colonies can be printed in them, without the 
permission of the council of the Indies, and it is well 
known that the council is not over fond of granting such 
permissions. In the examination of the vessels that arrive, 
strict search is made after the books proscribed by the 

* See 8quier*s Monograph of Central American Authors^ 1861, pp. 70. — M. 

An excellent little volume by the learned and reliable bibliographer, 
Don Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta, on the subject of books on the American 
aboriginal languflgcs has lately appeared. It is entitled Apuntea para 
un catdloga de Encriiores en lengtias indigenos de America. Mexico en la 
imprenta particular del autor, 1860. 12mo. — B. 

•An extract from Robertson's list, which, with some additions, was in- 
serted in the first edition, it is not deemed expedient to reprint. — 1£. 

■ M. de St. Mery lived at Cape Fran<;oi8, previous to the destruction of 
it by the blacks. In 1798, he was a bookseller in Philadelphia, and a 
member of the Philosophical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Spanish America. 9 

inquisition; and, as the convent of St. Lawrence the 
Koyal, has, in Spain, the exclusive privilege of printing 
religious books, the senior auditor is exclusively charged 
with the causes that this privilege may give rise to in the 
island. If a work be printed at St. Domingo, twenty 
copies of it must be delivered to the president, to be sent 
by him to the council of the Indies, there to be buried, 
like every thing else that is sent thither." * 

In 1790, the printing house in the city of St. Domingo 
stood in the vicinity of the palace of the president, or 
governor general, and not far from the ancient cathedral ; 
which, with the prisons, and many ancient private houses, 
form a square, which is used for a market place. The 
cathedral was begun in 1512, and finished in 1540 ; and in 
it were interred the remains of the celebrated Christopher 
Columbus, the discoverer of this continent, which ought to 
have borne his name. The cathedral also contained the 
remains of his brother Bartholomew, or of Diego, the son 

* Similar regulations have existed throughout the vast territories of 
Spain in South and North America. No book could be printed without 
permission from the officers of the high courts of the inquisition ; and no 
books be sold, or even read, on any subjects but such as received 
their approbation. Major Pike was employed by our government to 
explore the sources of the Arkansa, and the internal parts of Louisiana, 
when, on that expedition in 1807, he was taken prisoner, with the party 
under his command, by the Spanish troops, and carried to Santa Fe in 
New Mexico, and from thence to Chihuahua in New Biscay. He 
mentions in the appendix to his interesting journals, under the article, 
Religion in New Spain, that the officers of the inquisition "examine 
and condemn to the flames all books of a modem sentiment, either 
as to religion or politics, and excommunicate any one in whose hands 
they may be found. I recollect," continues the major, " to have seen 
a decree of theirs published in the Mexican Gazette, condemning a 
number of books as heretical and contrary to the sacred principles of 
the holy catholic church, and the peace and durability of the government 
of his catholic majesty, amongst which were mentioned: Helvetiuson 
War ; J. J. Rousseau's Works ; Voltaire's, Mirabeau's, and a number of 
others of that description ; and even at so great a distance as Chiiiuahua, a 
Spanish officer dared not take Pope's Essay on Man to his quarters, but 
used to come to mine to read it.'* 

10 History of Printing in Ambriga. 

of Columbus. The coffins which contained their bodies 
were discovered in 1783, when, in repairing the cathedral, 
part of a thick wall was taken down. This fact St. Mery 
mentions on good authority ; which is corroborated by the 
certificates of Don Joseph Nunez, dean, dignitary of the 
holy metropolitan and primatial church of the Indies, Don 
Manuel Sanchez, canon, dignitary, Ac, and Don Pedro de 
Galvez, preceptor, canon, dignitary of the cathedral church, 
and primate of the Indies. These certificates are dated at 
Santo Domingo, April 26, 1788. 

This part of the island was ceded by the king of Spain 
to the French in 1795. The dust of Columbus was not, 
however, suffered to remain in its deposit, subject to the 
control of the French ; the leaden coffin, with its contents, 
was removed to the Havana, and on the 20th of January, 
1796, with great pomp and ceremony, buried a third time. 


Saint Domingo. 

A royal printing house was established in Port au Prince, 
on the French part of this island, as early as 1750, in which 
in 1750, was printed an account of a great earthquake 
which happened at that time in the island. 

Among other works permitted to be printed at the king's 
press, was a volume of memoirs of a literary institution of 
the colony. It was published in 1788. 

M. Mozard was a printer in Port au Prince in 1790, 
and for some time previous to that year.* 

' M. Mozard was afterwards appointed a consul for the French republic 
and resided in Boston. He brought with him to Massachusetts a valuable 
portable printing apparatus, which he had used in Saint Domingo. This 
apparatus consisted of a small press, and several small fonts of neat types, 
&c., manufactured in Paris. When he was about leaving Boston, ho sold 

Spanish America. 11 

There was a press in Cape Franjois also belonging to 
the king, as early as 1765, and probably several years pre- 
ceding. In 1766 appeared from this press a Treatise on 
Coffee^ giving its history in ninety pages. 

Batilliot k Co. printed at the press of the municipality 
in 1790 ; and from this press they issued in 1793, the third 
volume the Monitor Gerieral of Saint Domingo. 

Du Tour de Eians styled himself printer to the general 

assembly of the colony in 1791, in the imprint to a 

pamphlet entitled, A Project of a Constitution for the French 



A press was established on this island, for the use of 
government, many years preceding the revolution in 
Prance, after which there were several. 



Printing was performed in this colony at Paramaribo 
before the year 1775. 

The Dutch also introduced the press at their islands of 
Cura9oa and Saint Eustatius. 


Printing has been long practiced in the Portuguese 
settlements ; but, I believe, the press has been kept almost 
solely for the use of the government If any literary pro- 

them to John Mycall, formerly a printer in Newburyport, who removed 
them to Harvard, county of Worcester, where I have frequently seen 
them. They were subsequently in possession of Mycall, at Cambridgeport. 

12 History of Printing in America. 

ductions were ever issued from it, I am unacquainted with 

From the intercourse between the United States and 
Brazil, we may hope to obtain, at no distant period, the 
history of printing in this part of South America.* 

' In 1792, according to Sir George Staunton's account, there were but 
two booksellers in Rio Janeiro, and they sold books on the subjects of 
divinity and medicine only. 




— ♦— 

Introduction of the Art. 

The early part of the history of the United States, is 
not, like that of most other nations, blended with fable. 
Many of the first European settlers of this country were 
men of letters ; they made records of events as they passed, 
and they, from the first, adopted effectual methods to 
transmit the knowledge of them to their posterity. The 
rise and progress of English America, therefore, from its 
colonization to the period at which it took a name and 
place among sovereign and independent nations, may be 
traced with the clearness and certainty of authentic history. 

That art which is the preserver of all arts, is worthy of 
the attention of the learned and the curious. An account 
of the first printing executed in the English colonies of 
America, combines many of the important transactions of 
the settlement, as well as many incidents interesting in the 
revolutions of nations; and exhibits the pious and charita- 
ble efforts of our ancestors in New England, to translate the 
sacred books into a language which, at this short distance 
of time is, probably, not spoken by an individual of the 
human race, and for the use of a nation ^ which is now 
virtually extinct. Such is the fluctuation of human affairs ! 

Part of the aborigines of the country. 

14 History of Printing in America. 

The particulars respecting the printing and printers of 
this country, it is presumed, will gratify professional men ; 
and a general history of this nature will certainly preserve 
many important facts which, in a few years, would be 
irrecoverably lost. 

Among the first settlers of New England were not 
only pious but educated men. They emigrated jfrom 
a country where the press had more license than in 
other parts of Europe, and they were acquainted with the 
usefulness of it. As soon as they had made those provi- 
sions that were necessary for their existence in this land, 
which was then a rude wilderness, their next objects were, 
the establishment of schools, and a printing press ; the 
latter of which was not tolerated, till many years after- 
ward, by the elder colony of Virginia. 

The founders of the colony of Massachusetts ^ consisted 
of but a small number of persons, who arrived at Salem in 
1628." A few more joined them in 1629 ; and Governor 
"Winthrop, with the addition of his company of settlers, 
arrived in 1630. These last landed at the place since 
called Charlestown, opposite to Boston, where they pitched 
their tents and built a few huts for shelter. In 1681, they 
began to settle Cambridge, four miles from the place 
where they landed. They also began a settlement on the 
identical spot where Boston now stands. In 1638, they 
built an academy at Cambridge, which in process of time 
was increased to a college : and they also established 
a printing house in that place. In January, 1639, print- 
ing was first performed in that part of North America 

^ The reader will observe that I am here speaking of Massachusetts 
proper, not of the colony of Plymouth, where a settlement was made in 
the year 1620. That colony has, however, long since been incorporated 
into that of Massachusetts. 

■ The Cape Anne fishermen selected and occupied the position of Salem 
before the arrival of the colonists of 1628. — H. 

Engush America. 15 

which extends from the gulf of Mexico to the Frozen 

For this press our country is chiefly indebted to the Rev. 
Mr. Glover, a nonconformist minister, who possessed a 
considerable estate, and had left his native country with a 
determination to settle among his friends, who had emi- 
grated to Massachusetts; because in this wilderness, he 
could freely enjoy, with them, those opinions which were 
not countenanced by the government and a majority of the 
people in England. 

Another press, with types, and another printer, were, 
in 1660, sent over from England by the corporation for 
propagating the gospel among the Indians in New Eng- 
land. This press, Ac, was designed solely for the pur- 
pose of printing the Bible, and other books, in the Indian 
language. On their arrival they were carried to Cambridge, 
and employed in the printing house already established in 
that place. 

Notwithstanding printing continued to be performed in 
Cambridge, from a variety of causes it happened, that many 
original works were sent from New England, Massachu- 
setts in particular, to London, to be printed. Among these 
causes the principal were — first, the press at Cambridge 
had, generally, full employment; secondly, the printing 
done there was executed in an inferior style ; and, thirdly, 
many works on controverted points of religion, were not 
allowed to be printed in this country. Hence it happened 
that for more than eighty years after printing was first 
practiced in the colony, manuscripts were occasionally sent 
to England for publication. 

The fathers of Massachusetts kept a watchful eye on the 
press ; and in neither a religious nor civil point of view, 
were they disposed to give it much liberty. Both the civil 
and ecclesiastical rulers were fearful that if it was not under 
wholesome restraints, contentions and heresies would arise 

16 History of Printing in America. 

among the people. In 1662, the government of Massa- 
chusetts appointed licensers of the press ; * and afterward, 
in 1664, passed a law that " no printing should be allowed 
in any town within the jurisdiction, except in Cambridge; " 
nor should any thing be printed there but what the govern- 
ment permitted through the agency of those persons who 
were empowered for the purpose. Offenders against this 
regulation were to forfeit their presses to the country, and 
to be disfranchised of the privilege of printing thereafter.* 
In a short time, this law was so far repealed as to permit 
the use of a press at Boston, and a person was authorized 
to conduct it; subject, however, to the licensers who were 
appointed for the purpose of inspecting it. 

It does not appear that the press, in Massachusetts, was 
free from legal restraints till about the year 1755. HoU 
yoke^s Almanack, for 1715, has, in the title page, " Impri- 
matur, J. Dudley." A pamphlet, printed in Boston, on the 
subject of building market houses in that town, has the 
addition of, " Imprimatur, Samuel Shute, Boston, Feb. 19, 
1719." James Franklin, in 1723, was ordered by the 
government not to publish The New England Courantj 
without previously submitting its contents to the secretary 
of the province; and Daniel Fowle was imprisoned by 
the house of representatives, in 1754, barely on suspicion of 
his having printed a pamphlet said to contain reflections 
on some members of the general court.* 

Forseveralyearsprecedingtheyear 1730, the government 
of Massachusetts had been less rigid than formerly ; and, 
after that period, I do not find that any officer is mentioned 
as having a particular control over the press. For a long 

* Gen. Daniel Qookin, and the Rev. Mr. Mitchel, of Cambridge, were 
the first appohited licensers of the press in this country. 

' See this stated more at length in the account given of Samuel Green, 
printer at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

' See Franklin, and Fowle. 

English America. 17 

time, however, the press appeared to be under greater restric- 
tions here than in England; that is, till toward the close of 
the seventeenth century. 

In the course of this work it will appear, that the presses 
established in other colonies were not entirely free from 

The rulers in the colony of Virginia in the seventeenth 
century, judged it best not to permit public schools, nor 
to allow the use of the press.' And thus, by keeping the 
people in ignorance, they thought to render them more 
obedient to the laws, to prevent them from libelling the 
government, and to impede the growth of heresy, &c. 

The press had become free some years previous to the 
commencement of the revolution ; but it continued for a 
long time duly to discriminate between liberty and licen- 

Except in Massachusetts, no presses were set up in the 
colonies till near, the close of the seventeenth century. 
Printing then was performed in Pennsylvania, " near 
Philadelphia," and afterward in that city, by the same 
press, which, in a few years subsequent, was removed to 
New York. The use of types commenced in Virginia 
about 1681 ; in 1682 the press was prohibited. In 1709, a 
press was established at New London, in Connecticut; 
and, from this period, it was gradually introduced into the 
other colonies ; as well as into several of the West India 
islands, belonging to Great Britain. 

In 1775 the whole number of printing houses in the 
British colonies, now comprising the United States, was 

Till the year 1760, it appears that more books were 
printed in Massachusetts, annually, than in any of the 
other colonies ; and, before 1740, more printing wa^ done 

' C/uilmerit's Annals^ yol. i, p. 32, and 345. 


18 History op Printing in America. 

there than in all the other colonies. After 1760, the 
quantum of printing done in Boston and Philadelphia was 
nearly equal, till the commencement of the war. New 
York produced some octavo and duodecimo Tolumes. 
The presses of Connecticut Were not idle ; they furnished 
many pamphlets on various subjects, and some small 
volumes. Some books were handsomely printed in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland ; and folio volumes of laws, and a few 
octavos and duodecimos, on religion, history and politics, 
issued from the presses of Carolina, Rhode Island, New 
Hampshire, &c. 

Before 1775, printing was confined to the capitals of the 
colonies ; but the war occasioned the dispersion of presses, 
and many were set up in other towns. After the establish- 
ment of our independence, by the peace of 1783, presses 
multiplied very fast, not only in seaports, but in all the 
principal inland towns and villages. 


The ancient Mexicans made great use of paper. They 
manufactured it from the leaves of a genus of the aloe, or 
the palm icxotly and from the thin bark of other trees, by a 
process not now known. They formed it into sheets of 
various dimensions and thicknesses, so as to answer sundry 
purposes ; some of the sheets were similar, in thickness, 
to the thin pasteboard, and press paper for clothiers, 
manufactured in Europe; and some were thinner, but 
softer, smoother, and easy to write on. The sheets were 
generally made very long, and were polished suitably for 
the use to which they were intended to be applied. For 
preservation they were made up into rolls, or folded in the 
manner of bed screens, and thus formed into books.^ 

* Clavigero's History of Mexico ^ vol. n, p. 219, Am. ed. ; EumJbMt's Essay 
on New SpaiUy toI. i, Am. ed., p. 120. 

Engush America. 19 

Clavigero, who saw and handled specimens which were 
preserved in Mexico, informs us, that on this kind of paper 
the ancient Mexicans painted, in beautiful and permanent 
colors, the representations of their gods, their kings, their 
heroes, their animals, their plants, and whatever objects 
their fancy dictated, or circumstances might require. 
On paper they delineated, in hieroglyphics, painted with 
colors which were appropriated to the subject, "the sym- 
bols of their religion, accounts of remarkable events, their 
laws, their rites, their customs, their taxes or tributes. 
Some of these paintings on paper were chronological, 
astronomical, or astrological, in which were represented 
their calendar, the positions of the stars, eclipses, changes 
of the moon, prognostications of the variations of the 
weather ; this kind of painting was called, by them, tona-^ 
lamatl. Other paintings were topographical, or choro- 
graphical, which served not only to show the extent and 
boundaries of possessions, but, likewise, the situation 
of places, the direction of the coasts, and courses of the 
rivers. The Mexican empire abounded with all these 
kinds of paintings on paper; for their painters were innu- 
merable, and there was hardly anything left unpainted. 
If these had been preserved, there would have been nothing 
wanting to explain the history of Mexico ; but, after the 
conquest of the country by the Spaniards, the first 
preachers of the gospel, suspicious that superstition was 
mixed with all these paintings, made a furious destruction 
of them." ^ 

Humboldt mentions that "the paper made by the 
ancient Mexicans, on which they painted their hiero- 
glyphical figures, was made of the fibres of agave leaves, 
macerated in water, and disposed in layers like the fibres 
of the Egyptian cyperus, and the mulberry of the South 

» Clavigero's History of Mexico, 

20 History of Printing in America. 

Sea islands."^ lie mentions that he had in his posses- 
sion " some fragments of the ritual books composed by 
the Indians in hieroglyphics at the beginning of the con- 
quest, written on maguey paper, of a thickness so diflferent 
that some of them resembled pasteboard, while others 
resembled Chinese paper." ^ 

Paper similar to that of Mexico, it is said, was made in 

Clavigero says " the invention of paper is certainly 
more ancient in America than in Egypt, from whence it 
was communicated to Europe. It is true that the paper 
of the Mexicans is not ^comparable with paper of the 
Egyptians, but it ought to be observed that the former did 
not make theirs for writing but painting." 

In an account of Pennsylvania by Gabriel Thomas, 
published in 1698, he mentions " all sorts of very good 
paper are made in the German Town." The mill at which 
this paper was made, was the first paper mill erected in the 
British colonies. What was then called the German Town,^ 
was afterwards, and is now, known by the name of Ger- 
mantown, five miles distant from Philadelphia.* The mill 
was constructed with logs. The building covered a water 
wheel set over a small branch of the Wissahickon. For 
this mill there was neither dam nor race. It was built by 
Nicholas (or as he was then called Claus) Rittenhouse,* 

^Ilurnboldt's Esmy on New Spain, vol. n, p. 375. 

»iMrf., vol. I, p. 124. 

■ This name of the German Town was not confined merely to w^hat 
is now known as Germantown, but included also Roxborough township 
at present forming the Twenty-first ward of Philadelphia. — //. O.Janes. 

* The first settlement of Germans is stated to have been in 1692. This 
mill, from many circumstances, must have been erected prior to that 
period, and in 1088, with the log mill and log house of Rittenhouse. 
Nicholas Rittenhouse, the first paper-maker, died in May, 1734, aged 68, 
and was succeeded by his son William, who was bom in 1691, and died 
in 1774. 

• Mr. Thomas has fallen into error. The first paper-maker was not 

English America. 21 

about the year 1689, with the Assistance of William Brad- 
ford, then the only printer in the colonies southward or 
westward of New England, who procured the tract of 
land, then considered of little, if any value, on which the 
log mill and a log house for Claus were placed. Bradford 
also procured molds and other ftirniture for the mill. 
Claus was from Holland,* and a paper-maker by trade. 
He was only twenty-one years of age when he arrived in 
America. He was something of a carpenter, and did the 
chief of the work of these buildings himself. This small 
mill was carried away by a freshet.* Another mill built 

Nicholas Rittenhouse, but William Rittenhouse, a native of the Princi- 
pality of Broich in Holland. The mill was built in the year 1690, by a com- 
pany composed of such prominent men as Robert Turner, Thomas 
Tresse, William Bradford, Samuel Carpenter, William Rittenhouse and 
others. The mill was erected on a stream of wat^r which empties into 
Wissahickon creek about a mile above its confluence with the river 
Schuylkill, in the township of Roxborough. This stream still bears the 
name of PapermiU run. The deed for the land on part of which the 
mill was erected, comprising about twenty acres, is dated " tlie Ninth day 
of the Twelfth month called ffebruary, in the ffourth year of the Reign 
of Queen Ann 17(>|," and the grantee w^as William Rittenhouse. This 
deed recites that in the year 1690, it was agreed between the said parties 
" and others Viat undertook to build a paper mill upon the land" above 
referred to, that said Carpenter should demise to them the said land, and 
then proceeds as follows : " And whereas the said paper mUl was afterwards 
hiiUt^ but no Lease actually signed or executed according to the said Agree- 
ment"— IT G^. J. 

* Claus, or Nicolas, Rittenhouse was bom In Holland, June 15, 1666, 
came to America with his father, William Rittenhouse, who settled in 
German town and afterwards removed to Roxborough, where he had 
erected his paper mill. Nicholas was a member of the Mennonist meeting 
at Germantown, and officiated as a minister in that society. — Ibid. 

"This terrible calamity occurred in the year 1700 or 1701, during the 
second visit of William Penn to his colony. Barton, in his Memoirs of 
David Rittenhouse, pages 83-4, says : " There is now before tlie writer a 
paper in the hand writing of the celebrated William Penn, and subscribed 
with his name, certifying that William Rittinghausen and Claus his son, 
then part ow^ners of the paper mill near German tow^n, had recently sus- 
tained a very great loss by a violent and sudden flood, which carried away 
the said mill, with a considerable quantity of paper, materials and tools, 
with other things therein, whereby they were reduced to great distress ; and 
therefore recommending to such jwrsons as should be disposed to lend 

22 History of Printing in America. 

of stone was erected near to the spot where the first mill 
stood. At length this mill was found to he too small for 
the increased business of its owner. He built another of 
stone, which was larger than the one already erected. 
This mill spot was occupied, and the paper-making busi- 
ness carried on, by the first Claus, or Nicholas, and his 
descendants, from 1689 to 1798,^ one hundred and nine 
years, who from time to time made many valuable im- 
provements in the mills, and in the art of paper-making. 
Appendix B. 

From Claus, or Nicholas Rittenhouse,* and his brother, 
(Garrett) who came with him from Holland to America in 
1687, or 1688, are descended all of that name now in 
Pennsylvania or New Jersey. The late David Ritten- 
house, the philosopher of Pennsylvania, was the grand- 
son of Claus, the first manufacturer of paper in British 

them aid, to give the Bufferere * relief and encouragement, in their needful 
and conmiendable employment,* as they were * desirous to set up the paper 
mill again.* " 

The Rittenhouses rebuilt the mill in 1703, and on the 30th of June, 
1704, William Kittenhouse became the sole owner of the mill, and in 1705, 
secured the land from Samuel Carpenter on a lease for 975 years. — H. O. J. 

* William Rittenhousc, the first paper maker in America, died in the 
year 1708, aged about 64 years. Shortly before his death he gave his 
share in the paper mill to his son Nicholas, who carried on the business 
until May, 1734, when he died. He deeded the pai)cr mill to his oldest 
son William Rittenhousc, and when he died the mill property fell to his 
son Jacob Rittenhousc, also a paper-maker, who carried on the business, 
and died in 1811. The mill was erected by a family named Markle, who 
continued to manufacture paper there for many years. So that the 
paper-making business was carried on by the same family for a period of 
one hundred and twenty-one years at the same place. — Ibid, 

' It was not Nicholas but William Rittenhousc who was the progenitor 
of the family in America. He arrived here about 1688, and settled in 
Germantown. He had only two sons, Nicholas or Claus, and Garrett or 
Gerhard, and a daughter Elizabeth who married Heiver Papen. Nicholas 
married Wilhelmina De Wees, a sister of William De Wees of Ger- 
mantown. Garrett resided at Cresheim, a part of Germantown, and was 
a miller. — Ibid. 

English America. 23 

The second establishment of a paper mill erected in 
Pennsylvania, or in British America, was built with brick 
on the west branch of Chester creek, Delaware county, 
twenty miles distant from Philadelphia, by Thomas Wilcox, 
who was bom in England, and there brought up to paper- 
making.* Wilcox came to America about the year 1712, 
and applied to Rittenhouse for employment, but could not 
obtain it, as but little business was then done at the mill. 
For fourteen years Wilcox followed other business, and by 
his industry and economy he acquired and laid up a small 
sum of money, when in 1726, he erected a small paper mill, 
and began to make fuller's boards. He continued this 
business fourteen years without manufacturing either writ- 
ing or printing paper. He gave up his mill to his son 
Mark in 1767- Wilcox the father died November 11, 
1779, aged ninety.* 

The paper-making business was carried on in 1815, 
by the sons of Mark, who was then living aged seventy. 
He made the paper for the bills issued by congress during 
the revolutionary war; for the bills of the first bank 
established in Philadelphia; for many other banks and 

'The second paper mill in America was not that of Thomas Wilcox. 
Dr. George Smith, in his Uistoty of Delaware County, Pa., says, that " the 
old Ivy Mill of Wilcox was not erected until the year 1729, or very shortly 
afterwards." He claims that it was the second place at which paper was 
manufactured in Pennsylvania. But this is an error. The second paper 
mill in America was erected by another settler of Germantown named 
William De Wees, who was a brother-in-law of Nicholas Rittenhouse, 
and, as Mr. Thomas says, had been an apprentice at the Rittenhouse mill. 
This second mill was buUt in the year 1710, on the west side of the 
Wissahickon creek in that part of Germantown known in early times as 
Crefdd, near the line of the present Montgomery county. I have seen 
papers which show that this mill was in full and active operation in that 
year and in 1713.— H. O. J. 

■The firet purchase of land that Thomas Wilcox made for his mill 
seat was from the proprietors of Pennsylvania. The additional piece for 
his dam he agreed for at one shilling sterling a year forever. This seems, 
at the present time, to have been a small compensation ; but lands were 

24 History of Printing in America. 

public offices. He was undoubtedly the first who made 
good paper in the United States. In 1770 he was ap- 
pointed associate judge for Delaware county. 

The third paper mill establishment in Pennsylvania was 
erected by William De Wees and John Qorgas, who had 
been the apprentices of Eittenhouse. Their mill was on 
the Wissahickon creek, eleven miles from Philadelphia, 
and built in 1728. They manufactured an imitation of 
asses skin paper for memorandum books, which Avas well 

The fourth mill was also on the Wissahickon, nine 
miles from Philadelphia, built by William De Wees, Jr., 
about 1736. 

The fifth was erected by Christopher Sower, the first of 
the name, about the year 1744, on a branch of Frankford 
creek. This was on the lower end of his land. 

The improvements in paper-making at Wilcox's and 
other mills in Pennsylvania, were principally owing to an 
Englishman by the name of John Readen. He was a man 
of great professional ingenuity, and a first rate workman. 
He had indented himself to the master of the vessel who 
brought him from Europe. .Wilcox redeemed him, and 
employed him several years. He died in 1806, aged sixty. 

Engines Were not used in the American paper mills before 
1756 ; until then, rags for making paper were pounded. 

then plenty, and money scarce. Lands were leased out at one penny an 
acre ; but this price was thought high. Quantities of land were after- 
wards taken up at one shilling sterling for every hundred acres. The 
state, about the commencement of the revolution, bought out the quit 
rents from the proprietors for £30,000, but the proprietors still retain the 

* John Brighter, an aged paper-maker, who conducted a mill for more 
than half a century in Pennsylvania, and who gave this account, observed 
that this kind of paper was made out of rotten stone, which is found 
in several places near and to the northward of Philadelphia, and that 
the method of cleansing this paper was to throw it in the fire for a short 
lime, when it was taken out perfectly fair. 

English America. 25 

There were several paper mills in New England, and 
two or three in New York, before the revolution. 

About the year 1730, an enterf rising bookseller in 
Boston, having petitioned for, and received some aid 
from the legislature of Massachusetts,^ erected a paper mill, 
which was the first set up in that colony. After 1775, 
paper mills increased rapidly, in all parts of the Union. 

Paper Mills. 

My endeavors to obtain an accurate account of the 
paper mills in the United States, have not succeeded 
agreeably to my wishes, as I am not enabled to procure a 
complete list of the mills, and the quantity of paper 
manufactured in all the states. I have not received any 
particulars that can be relied on from some of the states ; 
but I believe the following statement will come near the 
truth. From the information I have collected it appears 
that the mills for manufacturing paper, are in number 
about one hundred and eighty-five, viz : in New Hamp- 
shire, 7 ; Massachusetts, 40 ; Rhode Island, 4 ; Connec- 
ticut, 17; Vermont, 9; New York, 12; Delaware, 10; 
Maryland, 3; Virginia, 4; South Carolina, 1; Kentucky, 
6; Tennessee, 4; Pennsylvania, about 60; in all the 
other states and territories, say 18. Total 195, in the year 

At these mills it may be estimated that there are manu- 
factured annually 50,000 reams of paper which is consumed 
in the publication of 22,500,000 newspapers. This kind 
of paper is at various prices according to the quality and 
size, and will average three dollars per ream ; at which, 
this quantity will amount to 150,000 dollars. The weight 
of the paper will be about 500 tons. 

* Daniel Henchman. He produced in 1731, to the General court, a 
sample of paper made at his mill. 

26 History of Printing in America. 

The paper manufactured, and used, for book printing, 
may be calculated at about 70,000 reams per annum, a 
considerable part of which is used for spelling, and other 
small school books. This paper is also of various qualities 
and prices, of which the average may be three dollars and 
a half per ream, and at that price it will amount to 245,000 
dollars, and may weigh about 630 tons. 

Of writing paper, supposing each mill should make 600 
reams per annum, it will amount to 111,000 reams; which 
at the average price of three dollars per ream, will be 
equal in value to 333,000 dollars, and the weight of it 
will be about 650 tons.^ 

Of wrapping paper the quantity made may be computed 
at least at 100,000 reams, which will amount to about 
83,000 dollars. 

Beside the preceding articles, of paper for hangings, 
for clothiers, for cards, bonnets, cartridge paper, paste- 
boards, &c., a sufficient quantity is made for home con- 

Most of the mills in New England have two vats each. 
Some in New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Mary- 
land, have three or more — those with two vats can make, 
of various descriptions of paper, from 2,000 to 3,000 reams 
per annum. A mill with two vats requires a capital of 
about 10,000 dollars, and employs twelve or more persons, 
consisting of men, boys and girls. Collecting rags, mak- 
ing paper, &c., may be said to give employment to not less 
than 2,500 persons in the United States. 

* Some of the mills are known to make upwards of 3,000 reams of writ- 
ing paper per annum ; a few do not make any ; but there are not many 
that make less than 500 reams. The quantity of rags, old sails, ropes, 
junk, and other substances of which various kinds of paper and paste- 
boards are made, may be computed to amount to not less than three 
thousand five hundred tons yearly. 

English America. 27 

7)/pe Founderies, 

An attempt was made to establiBh a foundery for casting 
tjrpes in Boston about 1768, by a Mr. Mitchelson from 
Scotland, but he did not succeed. 

In 1769, Abel Buel of Killingworth in Connecticut, who 
was a skillfuljeweller and goldsmith, began atype foundery, 
without any other aid than his own ingenuity, and perhaps 
some assistance he derived from books. In the course of 
a few years he completed several fonts of long primer, 
which were tolerably well executed, and some persons in 
the trade made use of them. 

The first regular foundery was established at German- 
town, Pennsylvania, in 1772, by Christopher Sower, the 
second of that name. All the implements for this foundery 
were imported from Germany, and intended solely for 
casting German types. It is somewhat remarkable that 
the first establishments for paper making and type found- 
ing in the English colonies, should be in this place. The 
interval between the two establishments was eighty-four 
years. Sower's first object in setting up the foundery was 
to cast pica types for a quarto edition of the German Bible. 
His father had, many years before, printed an edition on 
long primer, and the son had printed another on pica. 
This was for a third edition, and it was his intention to cast 
a sufficiency of types to keep the whole work standing. 

When the materials for this foundery arrived from 
Germany, they were placed by Sower in a house opposite 
to his printing house, and committed to the care and 
management of one of his workmen, who, although not a 
type founder, was very ingenious. This workman was 
named Justus Fox, born in 1736, at Manheim, Germany, 
where he received a good education. After his arrival 
in America he aerved as an apprentice with Sower, and was 

28 History of Printing in America. 


by him employed in various occupations. Fox is said to 
have been a farrier, an apothecary, a bleeder and cupper, a 
dentist, an engraver, a cutler, a tanner, a lamp-black maker, 
a physician, a maker of printing ink, and a type founder. 
At most of these pursuits he was a proficient. 

The molds of this foundery, and some other implements, 
were found to be very imperfect ; but Fox set himself at 
work, cut a number of new punches, supplied all deficien- 
cies, and put the whole in order for casting. The first 
font that was cast was a German pica for the Bible. After- 
wards Fox cut the punches for roman and italics of several 
sizes, for English works. Fox acquired the art of mixing 
metal. His types were very durable. 

As the materials which composed this foundery remained 
in the possession of Fox they were thought to be his pro- 
perty, and therefore escaped seizure when all the other 
property of Sower was confiscated. Afterwards, in 1784, 
Fox purchased them, and continued the business somewhat 
extensively in partnership with his son for nine years; 
after which Fox conducted the business till he died, which 
was on the twenty-sixth of January, 1805, aged seventy 

Fox was a man of pleasing manners, and his character 
was in conformity with his name, Justus. lie was of 
the sect of Tunkers; humorous, also very pious, exem- 
plary, humane and charitable. lie acquired a hand- 
some property. He had but one child whom he named 

The year after Fox died, his son sold the foundery 
to Samuel Sower, a son of the unfortunate Christopher, 
junior (or second), the first owner. Samuel Sower had 
previously begun a foundery in Baltimore, and in 1815, 
continued the business in that city. 

The second type foundery was also established in Ger- 
mantown, by Jacob Bay, a man of great ingenuity, born 

English America. 29 

near Basil, in Switzerland. He was brought up to silk 
weaving. He came to Philadelphia in 1771. In this 
place he worked for a short time at calico printing, and 
then was engaged by Sower to work in his foundery in 
Qermantown as an assistant to Fox. After being two 
years in this foundery, he began business for himself in 
a small house not far from Sower. He made all the 
apparatus for his foundery himself. The punches which 
he cut were for roman and itahc types of the sizes of pica, 
long primer, and bourgeois. He cast for Sower a font 
of German faced bourgeois for the whole of the German 
Hymn Book of four hundred octavo pages, which Sower 
kept standing. 

He bought a house and removed to it, and continued 
the business of type-making in German town, till 1789. 
During the time he removed his foundery to other parts of 
the town. At length he sold all his material to Francis 
Bailey, a printer, who made use of it chiefly for a supply 
of types for himself. Bay then commenced diaper weaving, 
removed to Frankford, and then to Philadelphia. Bay's 
ingenuity has been exceeded by very few. He was at any 
time able, without a model before him, to construct, by 
the aid of his memory, any machine he had ever seen, 
however complicated. Among his weaving machines was 
a loom with six shackles. A patent for one of the same 
kind has since been obtained as a new invention, and the 
right to use it sold in several places, at a high price. But 
he was poor, the fate of many ingenious men. He engaged 
at the mint as an engraver, and about six months after 
fell a victim to the yellow fever which prevailed in Phila- 
delphia in 1793, aged 54. 

Dr. Franklin was desirous of establishing in Phila- 
delphia a more extensive type foundery than either of 
those just mentioned. For this purpose, he purchased in 
Paris, of P. S. Fournier, the materials of an old foundery. 

30 History of Printing in America. 

Foumier was a type founder, and B. F. Bache, Franklin^s 
grandson, resided sometime with him for instruction in 
this art, and that he might otherwise be qualified for 
managing the foundery in Philadephia. Franklin and 
his grandson arrived in Philadelphia in 1775, soon after 
the revolutionary war commenced, and Bache set up his 
foundery in Franklin court. Market street, where his 
grandfather resided. Although the materials of this 
foundery enabled the proprietor to make Greek, Hebrew, 
Roman, and all other kinds of types in use in Europe or 
America, the foundery was but little employed. The 
implements for making roman and italic types, especially, 
would not produce handsome specimens. This difficulty 
was in some sort removed by means of a German artist, 
named Frederick Geiger. This person was a mathematical 
instrument maker. He came from Germany to Philadel- 
phia, like thousands of others who were called Redemp- 
(toners. Franklin paid for his passage, and placed him in 
his foundery. He cut a number of punches, and made 
great proficiency as a type maker, and in the improve- 
ment of the foundery. Geiger, after serving the time 
stipulated for his redemption, was, in 1794, employed in 
the mint ; but quitting the mint, he plodded a long time on 
perpetual motion. He appeared confident of success, and 
anticipated receiving the promised reward for this dis- 
covery. Disappointed in this, he next applied himself to 
finding out the longitude by lunar observations. He was 
allured to this study by the great bounty which he who 
should be successful was to receive from the British 
government. But, unfortunately, perpetual motion caused 
an irregular motion of his brains, and his observations of 
the moon caused lunacy. He was eventually confined in 
the cells of the Philadelphia almshouse. 

The foundery was neglected, and Bache turned his 
attention to printing. 

English America. 31 

The fourth establishment of this kind was that belong- 
ing to the Messrs. Baine, the grandfather and grandson, 
from Scotland. They settled in Philadelphia by advice 
of Young & McCuUock, printers in that city, about the 
year 1785. Bayne, the senior, possessed a great mechanical 
genius. His knowledge in type founding was the effect 
of his own industry, for he was self-taught He, it is said, 
communicated to the celebrated Wilson of Glasgow the 
first insight into the business, and they together set up a 
foundery in Glasgow. They soon after separated, and 
Baine went to Dublin, where he established a foundery. 
He removed thence to Edinburgh, and commenced a type 
foundery in that city. Thence with his grandson he came 
with all his materials to America. They were good work- 
men, and had full employment. The types for the Ency- 
clopedia, which was completed some years ago from the 
press of Dobson in Philadelphia, were made by them. 
The elder Baine died in August, 1790, aged seventy-seven. 
He was seventy-two years of age when he arrived in 
America. His grandson relinquished the business soon 
after the death of his grandfather. He removed from 
Philadelphia, and died at Augusta in Georgia, about the 
year 1799. 

At the commencement of the troubles occasioned by the 
Prussians, under the Duke of Brunswick, entering Hol- 
land for the purpose of reforming the stadtholdership, 
an ingenious type founder, Adam G. Mapper, left that 
country, and took with him the whole apparatus of his 
foundery, and came to New York, where he began busi- 
ness.^ His foundery was designed principally for making 
Dutch and German types, the casts of which were hand- 
some. Those for roman were but ordinary. He soon left 

* He was a Dutch patriot, lost most of his property, and was obliged for 
safety to leave his country. 

32 History of Printing in America. 

tj^e making for other employment, and was concerned in 
the Holland Land Company. 

There were, in 1830, eight or more type founderies in 
the United States. One was established in Philadelphia, 
by Binney & Ronaldson, in 1796. They were from Scot^ 
land. They had to encounter many difficulties before 
they could succeed in obtaining a permanency to their 
establishment, but by perseverance and industry over- 
came them, and made valuable improvements in their art. 
Their foundery produced types equal in beauty to those of 
any foundery in Europe, and was said to excel them all 
in the economy of operation. 

Samuel Sower and Co., of Baltimore, had a somewhat 
extensive foundery. Sower cut the punches, and cast both 
roman and italics for a font of diamond types, on which 
has been printed, in that city, an edition of the Bible. An 
italic to this smallest of types has not been, until very 
recently, attempted in Europe. 

Stereotype Printing, 

About the year 1775, an attempt at stereotype printing 
was made by Benjamin Mecom, printer, nephew of Dr. 
Franklin.^ He cast the plates for a number of pages of the 
New Testament ; but never completed them. I shall have 
occasion to mention Mecom, in the course of this work, 
several times. He was skillful, but not successful. Stereo- 
typing is now very common in the United States, and is 
well executed. 

The ingenious Jacob Perkins, of Xewburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, invented a new kind of stereotype, for impressing 

■ In 1743, Dr. C. Colden explained to franklin a process of stereotyping, 
which was published in the American Med, and Phil. Register ^ vol. i, 
1810. The Lftrffer Cai4>chism of the Westminster Assembiy, stereotyped and 
printed by J. Watt & Co., of New York, in June, 1818, claims upon its 
title page to have been the first work stereotyped in America. — M. 

English America. 33 

copper and other plates. From plates so impressed most 
of the bank bills of Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
were printed at rolling presses, and were called stereo- 
typed bills. 


Man in his primeval state discovered a propensity to 
represent, by figures, on various substances, the animated 
works of his Creator. From sketching, painting, or en- 
graving these images, or representations, on the surface of 
those substances, he proceeded to the business of the 
sculptor or statuary, and produced all the features and 
proportions of men, and the other various descriptions of 
the animal creation, in wood and stone. 

The invention of hieroglyphics has been generally attri- 
buted to the priests of ancient Egypt, who made use of 
them to convey the knowledge they possessed of the 
mysteries of nature, and the secrets of their morality and 
history, to their successors in the priesthood, without dis- 
covering them to the vulgar ; but Dr. Warburton, who 
appears to have been well acquainted with the subject 
of hieroglyphic engravings, although his knowledge of 
coins and medals was questioned by Pinkerton, has, with 
great ingenuity, shown, that hieroglyphics were not the 
invention of Egyptian priests.* He remarks, that " the 
general concurrence of different nations in this method of 
recording their thoughts, can never be supposed to be the 
effect of imitation, sinister views, or chance ; but must be 
considered as the uniform voice of nature, speaking to the 
rude conceptions of mankind ; for, not only the Chinese of 
the east, the Americans of the west, the Egyptians of the 
south, but the Scythians, likewise, of the north, and the 
intermediate inhabitants of the earth, viz : the Phoenicians, 

*8ee WarbuTtoTCs Works, 


34 History of Printing in America. 

the Ethiopians, the natives of India, etc., used the same 
methods of hieroglyphic and picture." 

The American continent is not destitute of vestiges of 
ancient engraving. Long before the discovery of America 
by Columbus, we are told, the Mexicans made money 
of tin and copper, which was stamped by the authority 
of their sovereigns and feudal lords.* They were ac- 
quainted with the arts of sculpture and engraving ; and, 
Frangois Coreal says, that the ornaments of the doors 
of the temple of the sun, in Peru, were formed of jasper 
and granite, and were sculptured in birds, quadrupeds, 
and animals of imaginary being, such as the sphinx, etc., 
and in the most exquisite manner. Don UUoa gives an 
account of vases dug up in South America, which have 
figures designed upon them, completely in the Etruscan 
taste, formed of earth, or composition, which, like the old 
Etruscan, is now nowhere to be found. They were red, 
black, and extremely light, and sometimes had the figures 
in relief. What is very remarkable is, that, like the 
Etruscan vases, they have been discovered in no othe^ 
places than sepulchres. 

The Mexicans had learned to express in their statues 
" all the attitudes and postures of which the human body is 
capable ; they observed the proportions exactly, and could, 
when necessary, execute the most delicate and minute 
strokes *' with their chisels of flint, or of hardened copper.* 
They excelled in the art of founding and casting, with the 
precious metals, the most perfect images of natural bodies. 
They were expert lapidaries, and knew how to form gems 
into such shapes and figures as fancy dictated ; and to 
finish them with an exquisite polish. Among their pre- 
cious stones were the emerald, amethyst, cornelian, tur- 
quoise, and some which were unknown in Europe. They 

* CUtvigero's History of Mexico. 

English America. 35 

Bet these stones in gold, and in silver, wrought in a very 
skilful manner, and rendered of great value. Condamine 
and Clavigero were both astonished at the industry and 
patience with which they must have worked in marble. 
They were workmen in linen and cloth of various descrip- 
tions, as well as painters and engravers. The specimens of 
their art, which were carried to Europe by Cortes, and 
others who visited the country, were found to be nearly 
inimitable by the most expert artists of the old world. 
Their copper instruments and weapons they hardened to a 
temper which was equal to that of steel ; an art which 
the Greeks and Romans possessed to the time of the taking 
of Constantinople, by Mahomet 11.^ 

The United States also contain several vestiges of en- 
graving, by the rude hands of the aborigines. Thus we 
find that there is hardly any inhabited part of the world, 
which did not, before it became civilized, produce some 
specimens of engraving. 

The modern European art of engraving was not greatly 
encouraged in America before the revolution, and the 
artists did not appear to possess first rate abilities. 

Printing Presses. 

The printing presses made use of in the English colo- 
nies, before the revolution, were, generally, imported from 
England, but some were manufactured in the country. 
Christopher Sower, Jr., had his printing presses made 
under his own inspection, in Germantown, as early as 

After 1775, good presses were made in many of the 
capital towns in the United States, particularly in Phila- 
delphia, and in Hartford, Connecticut. Some of these 
presses underwent several partial alterations in their 

' Allowance must be made for exaggeration in these statements. — H. 

36 History of Printing in America. 

machinery, but no essential change in the construction 
was made from the common English printing press.* A 
few were contrived to perform the operation of printing in 
a difterent manner from that press, but these were not 
found to be useful. 

Some years since, Dr. Kinsley, of Connecticut, who pos- 
sessed great mechanical ingenuity, produced, among other 
inventions, a model of a cylindrical letter press. It was a 
subject of much conversation among printers, but was never 
brought into use. The invention, however, did not ori- 
ginate with Kinsley. ' Cylindrical letter presses were in- 
vented in 1789, by William Nicholson, of London, who 
obtained a patent for them in 1790. Kinsley's model 
was from Nicholson's plan, with some variation. Nicholson 

1 This remark seems hardly just in respect to the presses of Adam 
Ramage, unless intended to apply to presses made preyi<ltis to the reyolu- 
tion. It is true that from Moxon's time in 1683, the English had made no 
change in the screw of the common book press, which was uniformly two 
and a quarter inches in diameter, with a descent of two and a half inches in 
a revolution. The diameter was even smaller in job presses, but the same 
fall was always maintained, by which the platen was made to rise and 
fall five-eighths of an inch in a quarter of a revolution ; a space deemed 
necessary for the free passage of the form and f risket under the platen. 
Mr. Ramage enlarged the diameter of the screw to three inches, and where 
much power was required to three and a half inches, and at the same time 
reduced the fall in a revolution to two inches, which very nearly doubled 
the impressing power, but decreased the rapidity of the action. It was an 
improvement made necessary by the finer hair lines the type founders 
Introduced, requiring increased power in the press, and thtf reduction in 
the descent of the screw to one-half an inch was met by a more careful 
finish of the frisket and its hinges, which were made to slide freely under 
the platen in a space of half an inch. Mr. Ramage came from Scotland 
and settled in Philadelphia. He made his presses of Honduras mahogany, 
with ample substance and a good finish, which gave them a better appear- 
ance than foreign made presses, and they were less liable to warp. Im- 
portation had in consequence almost entirely ceased as early as 1800. 
His great improvement on the screw and working parts connected there- 
with were made seven years later. He died in 1850, at a great age. See 
further, Printer^ Circular, Philadelphia, 1868, p. 108.— if. 

' Dr. Kinsley was a native of Massachusetts, but settled in Connecticut. 
He invented a machine for making pins, and another for preparing clay 
and moulding bricks, etc. 

English America. 37 

placed his forms of types horizontally ; Kinsley placed his 
perpendicularly ; his method was not calculated for neat 
printing. Nicholson's presses were used, and, it is said, 
made excellent work.' 

RoUing Presses. 

The rolling press, as it is called, by copperplate printers, 
was not used in England till the reign of King James 
L It was carried from Antwerp to England, by one 
Speed. I cannot determine when it was first brought into 
English America, but I believe about the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. 

' For an account of the introduction of cylinder presses into this country, 
see Senior's Mirror of Typog^raphy, 1871, p. 2.— M, 

38 History of Printing in America. 


So far as relates to the introduction of the art of printing, 
and establishing the press in this section of the continent, 
Massachusetts claims precedence over all the other colo- 
nies. The press was erected here nearly at the end of the 
year 1638 ; and it was more than forty years later when 
printing commenced in any other part of what, before the 
revolution, was called British America. 

Hitherto justice has not been done to the man by 
whose agency the art was first introduced into the English 
colonies. Although he was one of the best and firmest 
friends to New England, his name has not been handed 
down to us with so much publicity as were those of other 
distinguished characters, who were his contemporaries 
and fellow laborers in the great work of settling a dreary 
country and civilizing the children of the wilderness. 
The principal cause of this seeming neglect in our his- 
torians and biographers may, perhaps, arise from the 
circumstance, that his destiny was similar to that of 
Moses, who, although zealously engaged in conducting 
the children of Israel from Egypt to Canaan, yet never 
reached the land of promise himself. 

As the founder of the Anglo-American press died on 
his passage from Europe to this country, he, of course, did 
not become so well known as he would have been had he 
arrived and resided here. This circumstance, probably, 
prevented his acquiring that celebrity to which his merits 
justly entitled him. Although his name is barely men- 
tioned by two or three journalists, yet, after a diligent 
research, I have been enabled to obtain the following 
particulars respecting this venerable Father of the Ame- 
rican Press. 

Massachusetts. 39 

The Rev. Joseph Glover was ^ worthy and wealthy 
dissenting clergyman in England, who engaged in the 
business of the settlement of Massachusetts, and had been 
attentively pursuing such measures for its interest and 
prosperity as he judged WQuld best tend to promote them. 
Among other things for the benefit of the infant colony, he 
was very desirous of establishing a press to accommodate 
the business of both church and state;* he contributed 
liberally towards a sum suflGicient to purchase printing 
materials, and for this purpose solicited, in England and 
Holland, the aid of others.* 

The ancient records of Harvard College mention, that 
" Mr. Joss. Glover gave to the college a font of printing 
letters, and some gentlemen of Amsterdam gave towards 
furnishing of aprinting press with letters forty-nine pounds, 
and something more."^ The same records give us, also, 
the following names as " benefectors to the first fonts of 
letters for printing in Cambridge, in New England, Major 
Thomas Clark, Capt James Oliver, Capt Allen, Mr. 
Stoddard, Mr. Freake, and Mr. Hues." 

In the year 1638, Mr. Glover, having obtained the 
means, procured a good printing apparatus, and engaged 

* Wonder- Working Providence of Stones Saviour in New England. London 
edition, 4to, page 129. It is a "History of New England from the 
English planting in the yeere 1628 until the yeere 1652." It was written 
by Major Edward Johnson, who was one of the first settlers of Woburn, 
a very judicious and active man in the settlement of the colony; he 
was a member of the general court, and employed in several import- 
ant concerns of the government. He was father of the Hon. William 
Johnson, who was chosen assistant in 1684. Johnson bears testimony to 
the worth of Mr. Glover, and speaks of his exertions to promote the 
interests of the infant colony. He mentions him as " being able in person 
and estate for the work in which he was engaged ; " and " for further com- 
pl eating the colonies in church and common- wealth-work, he provided 
[in 1638] a printer, which hath been very usefull in many respects." 

* Governor Winthrop mentions that " a printing house was begun at 
Cambridge, at the charge of Mr. Glover." See his Journal^ p. 171. 

* Ancient Records of Harvard College^ vol. i, and ui, in manuscript. 

40 History of Printing in America. 

a printer to accompany it in a ship bound to New England. 
Mr. Glover, with his family, embarked in the same vessel ; 
but unfortunately he did not live to reach the shores of 
this new world. His widow and children, it is supposed, 
arrived in the autumn of that year, and settled at Cam- 
bridge ; she afterwards became the wife of Mr. Henry 
Dunster, who was elected the first president of Harvard 

It is not known whether Mr. Glover had been in New 
England previous to his embarking for this country in 
1638 ; but I find by the records of the county of Middlesex, 
that he possessed a valuable real and personal estate in 
Massachusetts; that he had two sons and three daugh- 
ters ; that John Glover, one of the sons, was educated at 
Harvard College, and graduated in 1650, and was ap- 
pointed a magistrate in 1652; that one of the daughters 
was married to Mr. Adam Winthrop, and another to Mr. 

Mr. Glover had doubtless been written to and requested 
by his friends, among whom were the leading men in the 
new settlement of Massachusetts, who were then establish- 
ing an academy, which soon acquired the appellation of 
college — to provide a press, etc., not only for the advan- 
tage of the church and state, but particularly for the 
benefit of the academy ; the records of which prove that 
the types and press were procured for, and, types particu- 
larly, were the property of, that institution. The press, as 
appears by the records of the county court of Middlesex, 
1656, was the property of Mr. Glover's heirs. Mr. Glover, 
it should seem, intended to have carried on both printing 
and book selling ; for, besides the printing materials, he 
had provided a stock of printing paper, and a quantity of 
books for sale. 

John Glover, one of the sons of Mr. Glover, after the 
death of his mother brought an action, in the court above 

Massachusetts. 41 

mentioned, against his father-in-law Dunster, for the 
recovery of the estate which had belonged to his father 
and mother, and which was detained by Dunster. An 
inventory of the estate was filed in court ; among the items 
were the printing press, printing paper, and a quantity of 
books. The inventory proves that the press, then the only 
one in the country, was the property of the plaintiff in the 
action ; and it is shown by the said inventory, and by the 
records of the general court, that Dunster had had the 
management of the press, in right of his wife, and as 
president of the college; and that he had received the 
" profits of it." * As it may amuse those who feel an interest 
in whatever concerns the first press, and the person by 
whose agency the art of printing was introduced into the 
colonies, and as others may be gratified by the perusal of 

' We gather some additional facts respecting Mr. Glover from the 
Olotier Memorials and Genealogieshy Anna Glover, Boston, 1867. 

The Rev. Joseph Glover was rector of Sutton, in Surrey, England, 
from 1628 to 1636, when he tendered his resignation for the purpose of 
coming to New England. He preached in London, and traveled through 
parts of England endeavoring to obtain funds for the college already 
commenced at Cambridge. He embarked in the summer of 1688, with 
his family, consisting of wife and five children, in the John of London, 
bound for New England, and died on the passage. He had with him a 
printing press, and a printer (Stephen Daye) who was to superintend the 
printing ; and also three men servants to work the press. 

His name, which has been variously stated by different writers, was 
Joseph. It is so written by Gov. Winthrop in his Journal^ vol. i, p. 242, 
and in the Records of Sutton in Surrey, and wherever it occurs in 
English documents. 

Mr. Glover was twice married. His first wife was Sarah Owfield, 
daughter of Roger Owfield of London. They had three children, (viz). : 

1. Roger, died in Scotland. 

2. Elizabeth, married Adam Winthrop, Esq. 
8. Sarah, married Deane Winthrop, Esq. 

The second wife to whom he was married about 1630, was Elizabeth 
Harris of England, By her he had two children, (viz.) : 

1. Priscilla, married John Appleton, Esq., of Ipswich. 

2. John, died in London in 1668, unmarried. Mrs. Elizabeth Glover, 
soon after her arrival at Cambridge, married Rev. Henry Dunster, and 
died in 1643. See, also K E. Hist. Gen. Eegr,, xxm, p. 135.— IT. 

42 History of Printing in America. 

the proceedings in, and decision of, one of the courts of 
justice holden in the primitive state of the countrj', I have 
extracted them, verbatim et literatim^ from the records, and 
added them with the inventory before mentioned in a note. 
Appendix C. 


The printing apparatus, as has been related, was, in the 
year 1638,* brought to Cambridge, then as much settled as 
Boston, both places being founded in a situation which 
eight years before this event, was, in scriptural language, a 
howling wilderness. At Cambridge the building of an 
academy was begun ; and, it was at that place the rulers 
both of church and state then held their assembUes. These 
circumstances, probably, induced those who had the 
management of public affairs to fix the press there; 
and there it remained for sixty years, altogether under 
their control, as were other presses afterwards established 
in the colony ; but for upwards of thirty years, printing 
was exclusively carried on in that town. 

Stephen Daye was the first who printed in this part of 
America. He was the person whom Mr. Glover engaged 
to come to New England, and conduct the press. He was 
supposed to be a descendant of John Daye, a very eminent 
printer, in London, from 1560 till 1583, but this cannot be 
accurately ascertained. He was, however, born in London, 
and there served his apprenticeship to a jjrinter. 

Daye having, by the direction of the magistrates and 
elders, previously erected the press and prepared the other 
parts of the apparatus, began business in the first month of 

* The press was set up in the house of the president of Harvard College, 
the Kev. Henry Dunster, in 1639.— M, 
' Gov. Winthrop's Journal^ p. 171. 

Massachusetts. 43 

The first work which issued from the press was the Free- 
marCs Oath — to which succeeded, an almanack. 

However eminent Daye's predecessors, as printers, might 
have been, it does not appear that he was well skilled in 
the art. It is probable he was bred to the press ; his work 
discovers but little of that knowledge which is requisite for 
a compositor. In the ancient manuscript records of the 
colony, are several particulars respecting Daye ; the first 
is as follows : 

" Att a General Court held at Boston, on the eighth 
day of the eighth moneth [October] 1641. Steeven Daye 
being the first that sett vpon printing, is graunted three 
hundred acres of land, where it may be convenient 
without prejudice to any town." 

In 1642, he owned several lots of land " in the bounds 
of Cambridge." He mortgaged one of those lots as security 
for the payment of a cow, calf, and a heifer ; whence, we 
may conclude, he was not in very affluent circumstances.' 

In 1643, Daye, for some offence, was by order of the 
general court taken into custody ; his crime does not appear 
on record ; the court " ordered, that Steeven Day shall be 

' A simple memorandum of the fact, made in the book of records, was 
then judged sufficient, without recording a formal mortgage ; this appears 
by the first book of records kept in the colony, now in the registry of 
deeds of the county of Suffolk, Massachusetti^, from which the following 
are extracted, viz : 

" Steeven Day of Cambridge graunted vnto John Whyte twenty-Seaven 
Acres of Land lying in the Bounds of Cambridg for the payment of a 
cowe and a calf and a two yeares old heiffer." Dated the 25th of the 5th 
month, 1643. 

" Steeven Day of Cambridg graunted vnto Nicholaus Davidson of 
Meadford, all his lands on the south side of Charles River, being aboute 
one hundred Acres in Cambridg bounds, for surety of payment of sixty 
pounds, with simdry provisions." Dated the 25th of the 5th month, 1642. 

" Steeven Day of Cambridg bound over to Thomas Crosby, five lots of 
land in the new field beyond the water in Cambridg, number 24, 25, 26, 
27, and 29th, in all sixety Acres, for the payment of fif tey seaven pounds, 
with liberty to tiike off all wood and timber." &c. Dated 16th of 2d 
month, 164;i. 

44 History of Printing in America. 

released, giving 1001. Bond for appearance when called 

Daye continued to print till about the close of the year 
1648, or the beginning of 1649 ; at which time the printing 
house was put under the management of Samuel Green. 
Whether the resignation of the oflBice of manager of the 
printing house was or was not voluntary in Daye, cannot 
be ascertained. Neither the press nor the types belonged 
to him ; he had been employed only as the master work- 
man; his wages were undoubtedly low; and it evidently 
appears he was embarrassed with debts. His industry and 
economy might not be suited to the state of his finances. 
Circumstances like these might cause Mr. Dunster, who it 
seems then conducted the printing business, to be dissatis- 
fied, and induce him to place the printing house in other 
hands ; or, it was possible that Daye, finding himself and 
the press under a control he was unwilling to be subjected 
to, resigned his station. * 

Daye remained in Cambridge ; and, some years after he 
had ceased to be master workman in the printing house, 
brought an action against President Dunster, to recover 
one hundred pounds for former services. The record of 
the decision of the County court in that case, is as follows : 
"Att a County Court held at Cambridge, April, 1656, 
Steeven Day, Plant, against Mr. Henry Dunster, Deffi. 
in an action of the case for Labour and Expenses about 
the Printing Presse and the utensils and appurtenances 
thereof and the manageing the said worke to the valine 
of one hundred pounds. The jury finds for the Deflft. 
costs of court." 

In 1655, he had not obtained the land granted to him 
in 1641. This appears by the following extracts from the 
public records, viz : 

*In some legal papers after 1650, Daye is styled locksmith. Dr, 
Page's Mantuicript UUt. of Cambridge, — IL 

Massachusetts . 4 5 

" At a General Court of Elections holden at Boston 29th 
of May 1655, In answer to the Petieon of Steeven Day of 
Camhridge craving that the Graunt within the year 1641 
of this Court of three hundred Acres of Land to him for 
Recompence of his Care and Charg in furthering the 
worke of Printing, might be recorded, the Record whereof 
appears not,* the Court Graunt his Request and doeth 
hereby confirme the former graunt thereof to him/' 

" At a General Court of Elections holden at Boston, 6th 
of May 1657, Steeven Day of Cambridg having often 
complayned that he hath suffered much dammage by 
Erecting the Printing Presse at Cambridg, at the Request 
of the Magistrates and Elders, for which he never had yett 
any Considerable Sattisfaction. This Court doe Graunt 
him three hundred Acres of Land in any place not for- 
merly Qraunted by this Court." 

In the records of 1667, is the following order of the 
General Court relative to another petition from Daye, viz : 
" In answer to the Petieon of Steeven Daye, It is ordered 
that the Peticoner hath liberty to procure of the Sagamore 
of Nashoway [now Lancaster] by sale, or otherwise, to 
the quantity of one hundred and fifty acres of Vpland, and 
this Court doeth also graunt the peticoner twenty Acres 
of meadow where he can find it free of former Graunts." 

Daye died in Cambridge, December 22, 1668, aged 
about 68 years. Rebecca Daye, probably his wife, died, 
October 17, of the same year. 

I have found but few books printed by Daye. I have 
never seen his name in an imprint, and, I believe, it never 
appeared in one. Several books printed at Cambridge, 
by his successor, are without the name of the printer ; 
and some of them do not give even the year in which 
they were printed ; but I have identified^the following 

* The record appears to have been regularly made in 1641. I extracted 
it from the original record book of the colony for that year. 

46 History of Printing in America. 

Catalogite of Books printed by Daye. 

1639. The Freeman's Oath. 

1639. An Almanack, calculated for New England. By Mr. 
Pierce, Mariner. The year begins with March. 

1640. The Psalms in Metre, Faithfully translated for the Use, 
Edification, and Comfort of the Saints in Publick and Private, 
especially in New England. Crown 8vo. 300 pages. I have no 
doubt that it is the first hook printed in this country. The type is 
Roman, of the size of small bodied English, entirely new, and may 
be called a very good letter. In this edition there are no Hymns 
or Spiritual Songs ; it contains only the Psalms, the original long 
preface, and ^^ An Admonition to the Reader ** of half a page, at the 
end of the Psalms after Finis. — This ^* admonition " respects the tunes 
suited to the psalms. The second edition in 1647, contained a few 
Spiritual Songs. The third edition, revised and amended by Presi- 
dent Dunster, &c., had a large addition of Scripture Songs and 
Hymns, written by Mr. Lyon. The first edition abounds with 
typographical errors, many of which were corrected in the second 
edition. This specimen of Daye's printing does not exhibit the 
appearance of good workmanship. The compositor must have been 
wholly unacquainted with punctuation. ^^ The Preface," is the 
running title to that part of the work. ^' The " with a period, is on 
the left hand page, and ^^ Preface," on the right. Periods are 
often omitted where they should be placed, and not seldom used 
where a comma only was necessary. Words of one syllable, at the 
end of lines, are sometimes divided by a hyphen ; at other times 
those of two or more syllables are divided without one ; the spelling 
is bad and irregular. One thing is very singular — at the head of 
every left hand page throughout the book, the work ^^ Psalm " is 
spelled as it should be ; at the head of every right hand page, it has 
an £ final thus, " Psalhe." Daye was probably bred a pressman ; 
the press work is passable. 

This was commonly called The Bay Psalm Book, but afterwards 
The New England Version of the Psalms. The Rev. Thomas 
Prince, of Boston, who published a revised and improved edition in 
1758, gives, in his preface, the following account of its origin and of 
the first edition printed by Daye, viz : '^ By 1636 there were come 
over hither, near thirty pious and learned Ministers, educated in the 
Universities of England ; and from the same exalted Principles of 
Scripture Purity in Religious Worship, they set themselves to 

Massachusetts. 47 

translate the Psalms and other Scripture Songs into English Metre 
as near as possible to the inspired Original. They committed this 
Work especially to the Rev. Mr. Weld, and the Rev. John Eliot' of 
Roxbury, well acquainted with the Hebrew, in which the Old Testa- 
ment, and with the Greek, in which the New, were originally written. 
They finished the Psalms in 1640, which were first printed by Mr. 
Daye that year, at our Cambridge, and had the Honor of being the 
First Book printed in North America, and as far as I find in this 
whole New World." » 

1640. An Almanack for 1640. 

1641. A Catechism, agreed upon by the Elders at the Desire of 
the General Court. 3 

1641. Body of Liberties. [This book confjiined an hundred 
Laws, which had been drawn up pursuant to an order of the General 
court by Nathaniel Ward, pastor of the church in Ipswich. Mr. 
Ward had been a minister in England, and formerly a practitioner 
of law in the courts of that country.] * 

1641. An Almanack for 1641. [One or more almanacs were 
every year printed at the Cambridge press. In all of them the 
year begins with March.] 

1642. Theses, etc., in Latin, of the first graduates in Harvard 

1647. The Psalms in Metre. Faithfully translated for the use. 
Edification and Comfort of the Saints, in public and private, espe- 
cially in New England. Cro. 8vo, 300 pages. 

[This was a second edition, somewhat amended, and a few Spiritual 
Songs added. After this edition was published, the Rev. Henry 
Dunster, President of Harvard College, and a master of the Oriental 
languages, and Mr. Richard Lyon, educated at a university in 
Europe, were appointed a committee further to revise and improve 
the PsaimSy which service they performed in two or three years ; 

* Eliot who translated the Bible into the Indian language. 

* The reverend annalist is here in an error. Printing was introduced 
into Mexico, and other Spanish provinces in America, many years before 
the settlement of the English colonies in North America. 

* This work is mentioned in Gov. Winthrop's Journal. 

* The Body of Liberties had been revised and altered by the general 
court, and sent to everj' town for further consideration. This year the 
court again revised and amended the laws contained in that book, and 
published and established them as an exi>eriment for three years. 

Mr. Ward was the author of The Simple Gobkr of Agawam, a book 
celebrated in New England in the seventeenth centur}'. 

48 History op Printing in America. 

when another edition was published, with the addition of other 
scriptural songs. This revised version went through numerous 
editions, in New England. It was reprinted in England and Scot- 
land ; and was used in many of the English dissenting congregations, 
as well as in a number of the churches in Scotland — it was added 
to several English and Scotch editions of the Bible; and, went 
through fifty editions, including those published in Europe ]' 

1647. Danforth's [Samuel] Almanack. " Cambridg, Printed 
1648." The typography is rather better than usual.'^ 

1648. The Laws of the Colony of Massachusetts; drawn up by 
order of, and adopted by, the General Court, etc. Folio. I have 
not found a copy of this work. 

1648. [About] Astronomical Calculations. By a Youth. [Urian 
Oakes, then student at Cambridge ; where he was afterwards settled 
in the ministry, and elected president of Harvard College] The 
Almanack had the motto — Parvum parua decent ; sed inest sua 
gratia parvts. The year in which this was published is not ascer- 
tained, nor by whom printed.'^ 

1649. Danforth's [Samuel] Almanack. "Cambridg, Printed." 

Besides the works already enumerated, there were many 
others printed by Daye; but no copies of them are now 
to be found.* 

Although I have not been able to discover a copy of the 
laws, printed in 1648 ; yet, respecting this edition, there 
is the following record, viz : 

' It was first published in London, by John Blayne, bookseller, 1652. 

• Memorandum by Mr. Thomas — [Inquire of John Farmer the date of an 
Almanack printed at Cambridge by Matthew Daye. 

Matthew Daye, I presume, was a brother or son of Stephen Daye. He 
is not noticed as a printer in any record. I have discovered nothing 
printed by him but this almanac. It was undoubtedly done in Stephen 
Daye's office by his permission.] 

The Almanac referred to as in the possession of Mr. Farmer, the well 
known antiquary, is now in the rich collection of George Brinley, Esq., 
of Hartford, Conn. The date is 1647. The imprint " Cambridge printed 
by Mathew Daye ; and to be sold by Hezekiah Usher, at Boston." For 
notice of Mathew Daye, see Mom. Htst. Sac. Proceedings^ in, 154 

■ It is mentioned by Mather in his Magnolia^ by Holmes in his History 
of Canibridgey in Uist. Soc. CoU,^ and by others. 

*A list of all known publications in this country before 1776, is 
appended to this edition. — II. 

Massachusetts. 49 

'^ At a Qeneral Court of Elections held at Boston 8th month, 
1648. It is ordered by the court that the Booke of Lawes now at 
the presse may be sould m Quires, at 3s. the booke, provided that 
every member of this court shall have one without price, and the 
Auditor Qenerall and Mr. Joseph Hills ; for which there shall be 
fifty in all taken up to be so disposed by the appointment of this 
court." Appendix D, 

Samuel Green, was the son of Bartholomew and Eliza- 
beth Green, who, with their children and other relations, 
were among the early settlers of Cambridge. Samuel 
Green, then only sixteen years of age, arrived with Governor 
Winthrop. He was in Cambridge eight years before Daye 
came from England; but was unknown as a printer 
until about 1649, nearly eleven years after Daye's arrival. 
Some writers, since the year 1733, erroneously mention 
Green as " the first who printed in New England, or in 
North America." ^ 

All the records I have examined are silent respecting 
the cause of Daye's relinquishing the management of the 
press ; nor do they give any reason why his place in the 
printing house was supplied by the appointment of Green. 
The similarity of Green's first printing to that of Daye's, 
induces me to believe that Green was unacquainted with 
the art when he undertook the management of the press, 

* " December 28th, deceased here Mr. Bartholomew Green, one of the 
deacons of the South Church ; who has been the principal printer of this 
town and country near forty years, in the 67th year of liis age." 

" His father was Capt. Samuel Green the famous printer of Cambridge, 
who arrived with Gov. Winthrop in 1630. He used to tell his children 
that, upon their first coming ashore, he and several others were for some 
time glad to lodge in empty casks, to shelter them from the weather. 
This Capt Green was a commission officer of the military company at 
Cambridge for above 60 years together. He died there Jan. 1, 1701-2, 
aged 87, highly esteemed and beloved both for piety and a martial genius. 
He had nineteen children, eight by the first wife, and eleven by his second, 
who was a daughter of Elder Clark of Cambridge." — Boston News Letter^ 
Jan. 4, 1733. 


50 History of Printing in America. 

and that he was assisted by Daye, who continued to 
reside in Cambridge; and whose poverty, probably, in- 
duced him to become, not only an instructor, but a 
journeyman to Green. 

By the records of the colony, it appears, that the 
president of the college still had the direction of the 
concerns of the printing house, and made contracts for 
printing; and that he was responsible for the produc- 
tions of the press, until licensers were appointed. I have 
extracted the following from the records of 1650 and 1654 : 

" At a third meeting of the General Court of Elections 
at Boston, the 15th of October, 1650, It is ordered that 
Richard Bellingham, Esquir, the Secretary, and Mr. Hills, 
or aney Two of them, are appointed a Comittee to take 
order for the printing of Lawes Agreed vppon to be 
printed, to determine of all Things in reference thereunto. 
Agreeing with the President ffor the printing of them with 
all Expedition and to Alter the title if there be Cawse." 

" At a General Court of Elections, held at Boston, the 
third of May, 1654. It is ordered by this Court that 
henceforth the Secretary shall, within tenn dayes after 
this present sessions, and so from time to time, deliver a 
copie of all Lawes that are to be published unto the 
President or printer, who shall forthwith make an Impres- 
sion thereof to the noumber of five. Six, or Seven hundred 
as the Court shall order, all which Coppies the Treasurer 
shall take of and pay for in wheate, or otherwise to Con- 
tent, for the Noumber of five hundred, after the rate of 
one penny a Sheete, or eight shillings a hundred for five 
hundred sheetes of a Sorte, for so manv shectes as the 
bookes shall contajnc, and the Treasurer shall disterbute 
the bookea, to every magistrate one, to every Court one, 
to the Secretary one, to each towne where no magistrate 
dwells one, and the rest amongst the Townes that beare 
publick charge with this jurisdiction, according to the 

Massachusetts. 51 

noumber of freemen in each Towne. And the order that 
Ingageth the Secretary to transcribe coppies for the Townes 
and others, is in that respect repealed." * 

" At a General Court held at Boston 9th of June, 1654, 
Upon Conference with Mr. Dunster, [president of the 
college] and the printer in reference to the imprinting of 
the Acts of the General Court, whereby we understand 
some inconveniencies may accrue to the Printer by print- 
ing that Law which recites the agreement for printing. 
It is therefore ordered, that the said law be not put forth 
in print, but kept amongst the written records of this 

Whether Green was, or was not acquainted with print- 
ing, he certainly, some time after he began that business, 
prosecuted it in such a way as, generally, met approbation. 
He might, by frequenting the printing house, when it was 
under the care of Daye, have obtained that knowledge of 
the art, which enabled him, with good workmen, to carry 
it on ; be this as it may, it is certain that as he proceeded 
with the execution of the business, he seems to have 
acquired more consequence as a printer ; his work, how- 
ever, did not discover that skill of the compositor, or 
the pressman, that was afterwards shown when Johnson, 
who was sent over to assist in printing the Indian Bihle^ 

In 1658, Green petitioned the general court for a grant 
of land. The court took his petition into consideration, 
and determined as follows, viz. 

" At the Second Sessions of the General Court held at 
Boston the 19th of October, 1658, in answer to the Peticon 
of Samuel Green, of Cambridge, printer. The Court 

* I have quoted ancient records in many instances, as they not only 
give facts correctly, but convey to us the language, etc., of the periods in 
which they were made. 

52 History of Printing in America. 

judgeth it meete for his Encouragement to graunt him 
three hundred acres of Land where it is to be found." 

In 1659, the records of the colony contain the following 
order of the General court. " It is ordered by this Court 
that the Treasurer shall be and hereby is empowered to dis- 
burse out of the Treasury what shall be necessary tending 
towards the printing of the Lawes, to Samuel Greene, re- 
ferring to his Pajnes therein or otherwise." This edition 
of the Laws was ordered to be printed December 1658, 
and was finished at the press, October 16th, 1660. 

From the Manuscript records of the commissioners of 
the United Colonies, who were agents for the corporation 
in England for propagating the gospel among the Indians 
in New England, we find that in 1656 there were two 
presses in Cambridge, both under the care of Green. One 
belonged to the college, which undoubtedly was the press 
that Mr. Glover purchased in England, and Daye brought 
over to America; the other was the property of the 
corporation in England. There were types appropriated 
to each. 

The corporation, for a time, had their printing executed 
in London ; but when the Indian youth had been taught 
to read, &c., at the school at Cambridge, established for 
the purpose, and Mr. Eliot and Mr. Pierson had translated 
Primers and Catechisms into the Indian language for the 
common use of the Indians, and eventually translated the 
Bible, it became necessary that these works should be 
printed in America, under the inspection of the transla- 
tors. For this reason the corporation sent over a press 
and types, furnished every printing material for their 
work, and even paid for mending of the press when out of 
repair. In September, 1654, the commissioners in the 
United Colonies found that a sufiicient quantity of paper 
and types for the purpose of executing the works which 
were projected had not been received, they therefore, 

Massachusetts. 53 

wrote to the corporation in England for an augmentation 
to the value of £20.^ The articles arrived in 1655. 

Green judging it necessary to have more types for the 
Indian work, in 1658, petitioned the General Court to 
that purpose. The court decided thereon as follows, viz. 

" At a General Court holden at Boston 19th of May, 
1658. In answer to the Peticon of Samuel Green, printer, 
at Cambridge, The Court Judgeth it meete to Comend 
the consideration therof to the Comissioners of the United 
Colonjes at their next meeting that so if they see meete 
they may write to the Corporation in England for the 
procuring of twenty pounds worth more of letters for the 
vse of the Indian CoUedg." 

When the press and types, &c., sent by the corporation 
in England, for printing the Bible and other books in the 
Indian Language, arrived they were added to the printing 
materials belonging to the college, and altogether made a 
well furnished printing house.' The types were very good , 
and the faces of them as handsome as any that were made 
at that time; they consisted of small founts of nonpareil, 
brevier, long primer, small pica, pica, english, great primer, 
and double pica ; also, small casts of long primer and pica 
Hebrew, Greek, and blacks. The building occupied for a 
printing house, was well suited to the business. It had 
been designed for a college for the Indian youth. 

' All the sums are in sterling money. 

• General Daniel Gookin, who lived in Cambridge, and who, in 1662, 
was appointed one of the two first licensers of the press, mentions in his 
work, entitled niatorical Collections of tlie Indians of New J^w^toTuf dedicated 
to King Charles II, that " the houses erected for the Indian college, built 
strong and substantial of brick, at the expense of the Corporation in 
England for propagating the (Sospel in New England, and cost between 
30oV and 400^. not being improved for the ends intended, by reason of 
the death and failing of Indian scholars, was taken to accommodate 
English scholars, and for placing and using the Printing Press belonging 
to the college," «fec. This building was taken down many years since. 
It stood not far from the other buildings of the college. 

54 History of Printing in America. 

Green now began printing the Bible in the Indian lan- 
guage, which even at this day would be thought a work of 
labor, and must, at that early period of the settlement of 
the country, have been considered a business difficult 
to accomplish, and of great magnitude. It was a work of 
so much consequence as to arrest the attention of the 
nobility and gentry of England, as well as that of King 
Charles, to whom it was dedicated. The press of Harvard 
college, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was for a time, as 
celebrated as the presses of the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, in England. Having obtained many particu- 
lars relating to the printing of this edition of the Bible, I 
will follow Green through that arduous undertaking. 

In 1659, Hezekiah Usher, merchant, and bookseller, of 
Boston, agent for the corporation, charges that body £40 
paid Green for printing " the Psalms and Mr. Pierson^s 
Cattechi8me,"&c., and credits 80 £ in printing types; he 
also gives credit for one hundred and four reams of paper 
sent by the corporation toward printing the New Testa- 
ment " in the Indian language." The corporation in a 
letter dated London, April 28, 1660, and directed to the 
commissioners, observes : " Conserning youer Printing 
the New Testament in the Indian Language, a sheet 
whereof you haue transmitted to vs, wee concurr with 
youerselues therin, and doe approue of that prouision you 
have made for printing the same conceiueing and offering 
as our judgments that it is better to print fifteen hundred 
than but a thousand ; liopeing that by incurragement 
from Sion Collidge, with whom we haue late conference, 
you may bee enabled to print fifteen hundred of the 
Ould Testament likewise." 

Usher, in his account rendered to the corporation in 
1660, debits the stock of the corporation with two hundred 
reams of printing paper, "bought since he rendered his 
last account," and with printing ink and types, and 

Massachusetts. 55 

" setting them in the presse," the gross sum of £120 1 8 ; 
and, to " cash paid Mr. Green for distributing the ffont of 
letters and printing six sheets of the ]S'ew Testament in 
Indian att four pounds per sheet, £24." 

In September 1661, the commissioners, who that year 
met at Plymouth, wrote to Mr. Usher ; and among other 
things, thanked him for his " care in prouiding Matterials 
and furthering the printing of the Bible, and desire the 
continuance of the same vntill it bee Issved ; " and to 
" pay Mr. Green for printing the same as formerly ; " also 
to " demaund and receiue of Mr. Green the whole Impres- 
sion of the Xew Testament in Indian, now finished ; and 
take care for the binding of two hundred of them strongly 
and as speedily as may bee with leather or as may bee 
most serviceable for the Indians ; and deliuer them forth 
as you shall haue direction from any of the commissioners 
for the time being of which keep an exact account that 
soe it may bee seen how they are Improved and disposed 
of; alsoe, wee pray you take order for the printing of a 
thousand coppyes of Mr. Eliotts Catichismes which we 
vhderstand are much wanting amongst the Indians, which 
being finished, Receiue from the Pressc and dispose of 
them according to order abouesaid." 

The agent, in his account current with the corporation 
in 1662, has, among other charges, one for " Disbursements 
for printing the Bible as per bill of particulars £234 11 8."^ 

* The following is the bill of particulars, as charged by Green, viz : 
To mending of the windowesof the printing house,. . . £ 1 6 

To pack thrid and uellum, 5 6 

To 2 barrells of Inke and leather for balls, 20 

To hide for the presse being broken, 1 00 

To 160 Reams of Paper Att 68. per ream, 48 00 

To printing the Title sheet to the New Testament,. . . 10 

To printing 1500 Cattechismes, 15 

To printing 21 sheets of the Old Testament, att 31b. 10s. 
per sheet Mr. lohnson being absent, 73 10 

56 History of Printing in America. 

This bill was only for one year ending September, 1662. 
At that time Green, by direction, gave to the commis- 
sioners : 

*' An account of the Ytensils for printing belonging to the Corporation, 
in the custody of Samuell Green of Cambridge Printer and giuen 
in vnder his hand, viz : 
The pressewith what belongs to it with onetinn pann and two frisk- 

Item two table of Cases of letters [types] with one ode [odd] Case. 
Item the ffontt of letters together with Imperfections that came 

Item one brasse bed, one Imposing stone. 
Item two barrells of Inke, 3 Chases, 2 composing stickes one ley 

brush 2 candlestickes one for the Case the other for the Presse. 
Item the frame and box for the sesteren [water trough.] 
Item the Riglet brasse rules and scabbard the Sponge 1 galley 1 

mallett 1 sheeting [shooting] sticke and furniture for the chases. 
Item the letters [types] that came before that were mingled with the 



At the meeting of the commissioners in September, 1663, 
the agent charges the corporation with the balance due for 
printing the Bible, which he paid that month to Green, in 
full for his services, £140 12 6. Green, at this meeting, 
gave in an account of all the printing paper he had received 
at different times, from the corporation and their agent, 
amounting to 469 reams ; 368 reams of which he had used 
in printing the Bible, 30 reams in printing two Catechisms, 
and there remained in his hands 71 reams. 

At the meeting of the commissioners in September, 
1664, among the articles charged in the agent's account 

To printing 25 shcete with his healp att 50 shill. per 

sheet, 62 10 

To binding 200 Testaments att 6 d. a peece, 5 

To Mr. Johnsons board, 7 5 9 

£234 11 8 

Massachusetts. 57 

with the corporation, was the following bill of sundries 
paid to Green, viz : 

"To ezpences about the preese for mending it; makeing 

new Chases, and to twenty seauen skins for balls &c. JC 4 4 4 
To two smale Chests to put the Biblee in [20 Copies] that 

were sent to England. 5 

To printing the Indian Psalmes to go with the Bible, 13 

sheets att 2 lb per sheet, 26 

To printing the Epistle dedicatory to the Bible, 10 

To printing Batter's Call in Indian, eight sheets at 50s. 

per sheet, 20 

To printing the Psalter in Indian, 9 sheets, at 20s. 9 

To one yeares board of Johnson, 15 

The agent, in his account for 1669, charges, " Cash 
paid Green for binding and clasping 200 Indian Bibles 
at 2 8. 6 d. £25.— For binding 200 Practice of Piety 
at 6d. £5.— For do. 400 Baxter's Call at 3s. per 100, 
12s." &c. 

I have made a calculation from the documents I have 
seen, and find the whole expense attending the carrying 
through the press, 1000 copies of the Bible, 500 additional 
copies of the New Testament, an edition of Baxter's Call 
to the Unconverted, an edition of the Psalter, and two 
editions of Eliot's Catechism, all in the Indian language, 
including the cost of the types for printing the Bible, and 
the binding a part of fliem, and also the binding of a part 
of Baxter's Call, and the Psalters, amounted to a fraction 
more than £1200, sterling. The Bible was printed on a 
fine paper of pot size, and in quarto. After the first 
edition of the Bible, and some other books in the Indian 
language, had been completed* at the press belonging to 
the corporation for propagating the gospel, &c., the cor- 
poration made a present of their printing materials to the 
college. On this occasion the government of the college 
ordered as follows : 

58 History of Printing in America. 

"Harvard CoUedge Sept. 20, 1670. The honorable 
Corporation for the Indians having ordered their Print- 
ing Presse, letters, and Vtensils to be delivered to the 
Colledge, the Treasurer is ordered forthwith to take order 
for the receiveing thereof, and to dispose of the same for 
the Colledge use and improvement."^ Green, by direc- 
tion, gave to the president a schedule of the articles, and 
valued them at £80. That sum must have been very low. 
With these types he began another edition of the Indian 

Some small religious treatises having been published in 
1662, which the general court, or some of the ruling 
clergy, judged rather too liberal, and tending to open the 
door of heresy, licensers of the press were appointed ; * 
but on the 27th of May, 1663, the general court " Ordered 
that the Printing Presse be at liberty as formerly, till this 
Court shall take further order, and the late order is 
hereby repealed."* After this order was passed, a more 
free use of the press seems to have been made ; this 
immediately arrested the attention of government, and 
soon awakened their fears; and the following rigid edict 
was in consequence passed, viz. 

" At a General Court called by order from the Gover- 
nour, Deputy Governour, and other Magistrates, held at 
Boston 19tli of October 1664. For the preventing of 
Irregularytics and abuse to the authority of this Country, 
by the Printing Presse, it is ordered by this Court and the 
authority thereof, that theeir shall no Printing Presse be 
allowed in any Towne within this Jurisdiction, but in 

* College Records vol. i. 

•The New Testament, of which five hundred octavo copies were 
printed, was first put to the press, and finished, in 1681, and the whole 
Bible completed in 1680. 

■ Major Daniel Gookin and the Rev. Jonathan Mitchell were the first 
appointed licensers of the press. [Ancient records of the colony.] 

* Ancient records of the colony. 

Massachusetts. 59 

Cambridge,^ nor shall any person or persons presume to 
print any Copie but by the allowance first had and 
obtayned under the hands of such as this court shall from 
tjme to tjme Impower; the President of the Colledge, 
Mr. John Shearman, Mr. Jonathan Mitchell and Mr. 
Thomas Shepheard, or any two of them to survey such 
Copie or Coppies and to prohibit or allow the same 
according to this order; and in case of non observance 
of this order, to forfeit the Presse to the Country and be 
disabled from Vsing any such profession within this Juris- 
diction for the tjme to Come. Provided this order shall 
not extend to the obstruction of any Coppies which 
this Court shall Judge meete to order to be published 
in Print." ^ 

Government appears not only to have required a com- 
pliance with the above law, but to have exercised a power 
independent of it. The licensers of the press had per- 
mitted the reprinting of a book written by Thomas k 
Kempis, entitled Imitation of Christ Ac, a work well 
known in the Christian world. This treatise was repre- 
sented to the court by some of its members, in their 
session in 1667, as being heretical ; whereupon the court 
passed an order as follows : " This Court being informed 
that there is now in the Presse reprinting, a book that 
Imitates of Christ, or to that purpose, written by Thomas 
Kempis, a popish minister, wherein is contayned some 
things that are lesse safe to be infused amongst the people 
of this place. Doe comend to the licensers of the Presse 
the more full revisale thereof, and that in the meane tjme 
there be no further progresse in that work." 

* By this order it should seem that another press had been set up, or 
what is most probable, intended to be, in Boston. But I have not found 
any book printed in Boston, or in any other town in Massachusetts, 
excepting Cambridge, until the yejir 1674. 

• Ancient manuscript records of the colony. 

60 History of Printing in America. 

In 1671, the general court ordered an edition of the 
laws, revised, &c., to be printed. Heretofore the laws had 
been published at the expense of the colony. John Usher, 
a wealthy bookseller, who was then or soon after treasurer 
of the province, made interest to have the publishing of 
this edition on his own account. This circumstance pro- 
duced the first instance in this country of the security of 
copyright by law. Usher contracted with Green to print 
the work, but suspecting that Green might print additional 
copies for himself, or that Johnson, who was permitted to 
print at Cambridge, would reprint from his copy, two 
laws, at the request of Usher, were passed to secure to 
him this particular work. These laws are copied from 
the manuscript records ; the first was in May, 1672, and 
is as follows, viz : " In answer to the petition of John 
Vsher, the Court Judgeth it meete to order, and be it by 
this Court ordered and Enacted, That no Printer shall 
print any more Coppies than are agreed and paid for by 
the owner of the Coppie or Coppies, nor shall he nor any 
other reprint or make Sale of any of the same without the 
said Owner's consent upon the forfeiture and penalty 
of treble the whole charge of Printing and paper of the 
quantity paid for by the owner of the Coppie, to the 
said owner or his Assigns." 

When the book was published. Usher, not satisfied 
with the law already made in his favor, petitioned the 
court to secure him the copyright for seven years. In 
compliance with the prayer of his petition, the court in 
May, 1673, decreed as follows: "John Vsher Having 
been at the sole Chardge of the Impression of the booke 
of Lawes, and presented the Governour, Magistrates, 
Secretary, as also every Deputy, and the Clark of the 
deputation with one. The Court Judgeth it meete to 
order that for at least Seven years, Vnlesse he shall have 
sold them all before that tjme, there shall be no other or 

Massachusetts. 61 

further Impression made by any person thereof in this 
Jurisdiction, under the penalty this court shall see cause 
to lay on any that shall adventure in that Kind, Ijesides 
making ffuU sattisfaction to the -said Jno Vsher or his 
Assigns, for his chardge and damage thereon. Voted by 
the whole court met together." 

A revised edition of the laws of the colony was put to 
the press in 1685. Respecting this edition the court 
" Ordered, for the greater expedition in the present revisal 
of the Laws they shall be sent to the Presse Sheete by 
Sheete, and the Treasurer shall make payment to the 
Printer Tor the same. Paper and work ; and Elisha Cook 
and Samuel Sewall Esqrs. are desired to oversee the 
Presse about that work." 

There is among the records of the colony for 1667, 
one as follows: "Layd out to Ensign Samuel Green of 
Cambridge printer three hundred Acres of land in the 
wilderness on the north of Merrimacht River on the west 
side of Haverhill, bounded on the north east of two little 
ponds beginning at a red oak in Haverhill," &c. " The 
court allowed of the returne of this farme as laid out." By 
the records of the earliest English proprietors of Cam- 
bridge, it appears that Green was the owner of several 
valuable tracts of land in and about that town. 

Green often mentioned to his children, that for some 
time after his arrival in New England, he, and several 
others, were obliged to lodge in large empty casks, hav- 
ing no other shelter from the weather; so few were the 
huts then erected by our hardy and venerable ancestors. 
He had nineteen children; eight by his first wife, and 
eleven by a second, who was daughter of Mr. CJarke, 
an elder in the church in Cambridge, and to whom he 
was married Feb. 23, 1662.^ Nine of the children by 

* Middlesex Recortls of Marriages and Deaths, vol. m. 

62 History of Printing in America. 

the second wife lived to the age of fifty-two years, or 

The. Cambridge company of Militia elected Green to 
be their captain ; and, as such, he bore a commission for 
thirty years. He took great pleasure in military exer- 
cises ; and when he became through age too infirm to walk 
to the field, he insisted on being carried there in his chair 
on days of muster, that he might review and exercise his 

He was for many years chosen town clerk. And in the 
Middlesex Records, vol. i, is the following particular, viz : 
"At a County Court held at Cambridge the 5th 8th 
month 1652, Samuel Green is alowed Clearke of the 
Writts for Cambridge." 

Green continued printing till he became aged. He was 

a pious and benevolent man, and as such was greatly 

esteemed. He died at Cambridge, January Ist, 1702, 
aged eighty-seven years. 

Until the commencement of the revolution in 1775, 
Boston was not without one or more printers by the name 
of Green. These all descended from Green of Cambridge. 
Some of his descendants have, for nearly a century past, 
been printers in Connecticut. One of them, in 1740, 
removed to Annapolis, and established the Maryland 
Gazette^ which was long continued by the family. 

No printing was done at Cambridge after Green's death. 
The press was established in this place sixty years ; and, 
about fifty of them. Green, under government, was the 
manager of it. He was printer to the college as long as 
he continued in business. 

Soon after his decease, the printing materials were 
removed from Cambridge and probably sold. It does 
not appear that the corporation of the college owned any 

* Boston News Letter^ Jan., 1733. 

Massachusetts. 63 

types after this time till about the year 1718, when Mr. 
Thomas Hollis, of London, a great benefactor to the col- 
lege, among other gifts, presented to the university a 
fount, or cast, of Hebrew, and another of Greek types, 
both of them of the size of long primer. The Greek was 
not used till 1761, when the government of the college 
had a work printed entitled, Pietas et Gratulatio CoUegii 
Qmtabrigiensis apud Novanglos, dedicated to King George 
m, on his accession to the throne ; two of these poetical 
essays being written in Greek, called these types into 
use. They were never used but at that time, and were in 
January, 1764, destroyed by the fire that consumed Har- 
vard hall, one of the college buildings, in which the types 
and college library were deposited; the cast of Hebrew 
escaped, having been sent to Boston some time before to 
print Professor SewalPs Hebrew Grammar. 

The following is a catalogue of the books that I have 
ascertained were printed by Green, and by Green and 
Johnson ; the greater part of them I have seen. Those 
in which Marmaduke Johnson was concerned, have the 
names of the printers added. 

Catalogue o/ Books printed hy Green. 

1649. " A Platform of Church Discipline gathered out of the 
word of God : and agreed upon hj the Elders ] and Messengers of 
the Churches assemhled in the Synod at Cambridge in New Eng- 
land to be presented to the Churches and General! Court for their 
consideration and acceptance, in the Lord. The Eight Moneth 
Anno 1G49. Printed bv S. G, at Cambridge in New England and 
are to be Sold at Cambridge and Boston Anno Dom : 1649." Quarto, 
of pot size, 44 pages. 

[This book appears to be printed by one who was but little ac- 
quainted with the typographic art ; it is a proof that Green was not 
bred to it, and that this was one of the first books from the press 
after he began printing. The type is new pica, or one but little 
worn ; the press work is very bad, and that of the case no better. 
The punctuation in the title is exactly copied ; the compoditor did 

64 History of Printing in America. 

not seem to know the use of points ; there are spaces before com- 
mas, periods, parentheses, &c. The head of The Preface is in two 
lines of large capitals, but has no point after it — nor is there any 
after FINIS, which word is in two line capitals at the end of 
the book. The pages of the Preface have a running title ; with 
the folio, or number of the pages, in brackets immediately follow- 
ing in the centre of a line, thus, 

The Preface [2] 

The printer did not appear to have any acquaintance with sig- 
natures. The book is printed and folded in whole sheets, without 
insets ; in the first sheet, at the bottom of the second page, is Aa, 
third page Aaa, fifth page Aaa, seventh page Aaaa. The second 
sheet has the signature A at the bottom of the first page of that 
sheet ; A a, third page, A a a, fifth page, and A a a a, seventh 
page. The third sheet begins with B, which the following sheets, 
have as many signatures to each as the first and second; but 
all, excepting those on the first and third pages of a sheet, were 
uncommon, and have not any apparent meaning. Every part of the 
work shows the want of common skill in the compositor. Facs, and 
ornamented large capitals cut on wood, are used at the beginning of 
the preface, and at the first chapter of the work. A head piece of 
flowers is placed at the beginning of the text, and a line of flowers 
between each chapter. In the book are many references to scrip- 
ture, in marginal notes, on brevier. Letters of abbreviation are 
frequently used — such as c5mend, allowace, compay, acquait, fro, 
05*606, ofiFeded, partakig, cofession, &c. The spelling is very ancient, 
as els, forme, vpon, owne, wildernes, powr, eyther, wee, acknow- 
ledg, minde, doctrin, therin, wherin, himselfe, patrone, choyce, 
soveraigne, sinne, satisfie, griefe, &c. As I believe this book to be 
one of the first printed by Green, I have been thus particular in 
describing it ] soon after this period his printing was much im- 
proved.] [The Platform, &c., was reprinted in London, in 1653, 
for " Peter Cole, at the Sign of the printing Press, in Cornhill, near 
the Royal Exchange."] 

1650. Norton's [John] Heart of New England rent at the Blas- 
phemies of the present Generation. 4to. 58 pages. 

1650. The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the Old and 
New Testament, faithfully translated into English Metre. For the 
Use, Edification and Comfort of the Saints in publick and private, 
especially in New England. 2 Tim. 3:16, 17. Col. 3:16, Eph. 5 : 

Massachusetts. 65 

18, 19. James 5 : 13." Crown 8vo, 308 pages. [This was the 
New England version of the Psalms, revised and improved by 
President Dnnster and Richard Lyon, mentioned by the Rev. 
Thomas Prince.] 

1653. Eliot's [John] Catechism. [In the Indian language. 
Printed at the expense of the corporation in England for propagat- 
ing the gospel among the Indians in New England.] 

1655. God's Mercy shewed to his People in giving them a &ithfal 
Ministry and Schooles of Learning, for the continual Supplyes thereof. 
Delivered in a sermon Preached at Cambridge the Day after the 
Commencement, by Charles Chauncy, B. D., President of Harvard 
College, in New England . Published with some additions thereto, at 
the Request of divers Honoured and much Hespected Friends, for 
publick Benefit, as they judged. Small 8vo, 56 pages. 

1656. An Almanack for the year of our Lord 1656. By T. S. 
Philomathemat. Foolscap. 8vo. 16 pages [This Almanack I own. 
It appears that an Almanack was annually printed at Cambridge 
from the first establishment of the press, till near the close of the 
17th century. Many of them I have seen, and these I shall more 
particularly notice.] 

1657. An Almanack for the year of our Lord 1657. By S. B. 
Philomathemat. Foolscap. 8vo. 16 pages. [I have a copy of this.] 

1657. Mather *s [Richard] Farewell Exhortation to the Church 
and People of Dorchester, in New England. "Printed at Cam- 
bridge." 4to. 28 pages. 

The Life and Death of that deservedly Famous Mr. John Cotton, 
the late Reverend Teacher of the Church of Christ at Boston in 
New England. Collected out of the Writings and Information of 
the Rev. Mr. John Davenport, of New Haven, the Rev. Mr. Samuel 
Whiting at Lynne, the pious Widow of the Deceased, and others. 
And compiled by his unworthy Successour. 4to. 56 pages. 

1658. Pierson's Catechism. [In the Indian language, for the 
use of the Indians in New Haven jurisdiction.] 

1659. Versions of the Psalms in the Indian Language. 

1660. The Humble Petition and Address of the General Court 
Sitting at Boston, New England, unto the High and Mighty Prince, 
Charles the Second. 4to, 8 pages. 

1660. The Book of the General Lawes and Libertyes concerning 
the Inhabitants of the Massachusets, collected out of the Records 
of the General Court, for the several years wherein they were made 
and established. And now Revised by the same Court, and disposed 


66 History of Printing in America. 

into an Alphabetical order, and publisbed by the same Anthority in 
the General Court holden at Boston, in May, 1649. WTiosoever 
therefore resisteth the Power, resisteih the Ordinance of God^ and 
they that resist, receive to themselves damnation. Rom. 13 : 2. 
Folio, 100 pages. Cambridge, [N. E.] Printed according to Order 
of the General Court, 1660. [This volume has a Preface addressed 
'* To our Beloved Brethren and Neighbours the Inhabitants of the 
Massachusets, the Governour, Assistants, and Deputies Assembled 
in the General Court of that Jurisdiction wish Grace and Peace in 
our Lord Jesus Christ," signed, " By Order of the Generall Court, 
Edward Rawson, Secret." There is an Alphabetical Table or Index 
at the end. It was printed by Samuel Green, but his name does 
not appear in the imprint. Only one perfect copy of this work can 
be found, and that is in the Library of the American Antiquarian 
Society.] * 

1661. The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
Translated into the Indian Language and ordered to be printed by 
the Commissioners of the United Colonies in New England, at the 
Charge, and with the Consent of the Corporation in England for the 
Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England. 
The Indian title is thus, Wusku Wuttestamentum Nul-Lordumun 
Jesus Christ Nuppoquohwussuaeneumun. With marginal notes. 
Printed by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, The whole in 
the Indian language, except having two title pages, one of which is 
in English. Quarto. [Appendix E."] [Some copies were dedicated 
to the king.] 

1661. Eliot's [John] Catechism. [In the Indian language.] 
Second edition. [1000 copies were printed.] 

1661. The Psalms of David in Indian Verse, entitled, Wame 
Ketoohomae Uketoohomaongash David. 4to. [This Indian version 
accompanied the New Testament, and when the Old Testament was 
finished they were bound up together.] 

1662. Propositions to the Elders and other Messengers of the 
Churches, concerning Baptisme. Recommended by the General 
Court. 4to, 48 pages. 

1662. Answer of the Elders and other Messengers of the 
Churches assembled at Boston 1662, to the Questions proposed to 
them by order of the Honoured General Court. 4to. 60 pages. 

1662. An Almanack for 1662. 

* It was Secretary Rawson's private copy, — H. 

Massachusetts. 67 

1662. Anti-Synodalia Scripta Americana. By John Allin of 
Dedham. 4to. 38 pages. > [No printer's name nor year are men- 
tioned. This was reprinted in London.] 

1663. The Holy Bihle : Containing the Old Testament and the 
New. Translated into the^ Indian Language, and ordered to he 
printed by the Commissioners of the United Colonies in New Eng- 
land, at the Charge and with the Consent of the Corporation m 

. England for the Propagation of the Gospel am,ongst the Indians in 
New England. {^Appendix E."] Quarto. Printed by Samuel Green 
and Marmaduke Johnson. It had marginal notes -, and also an Indian 
title page, for which see the second edition in 1685. [This work 
was printed with new types, full faced bourgeois on brevier body 
cast for the purpose, and on good paper. The New Testament which 
was first pryited in 1661, was on the same types and like paper. 
The Old Testament was three years in the press. 

1663. An Almanack for 1663. By Israel Chauncy. ^iXo|uuz^>)g' 
Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1663. Davenport's [John, of New Haven] Another Essay for 
investigation of the Truth in answer to two Questions concerning, 
I. The subject of Baptisme. 11. The Consociation of Churches. 
Cambridge. Printed by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson. 
4to. 82 pages. 

1663. ^^epard's Church Membership. 4to. 50 pages. 

1663. Shepard's Letter on the Church Membership of Children 
and their Right to Baptisme. Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

Certain Positions out of the Holy Scriptures, premissed 

to the whole ensuing Discourse. Printed at Cambridge. 4to. 80 
pages. [Year and printer's name not mentioned.] 

1663. Cotton's [John] Discourse on Civil Government in a New 
Plantation. 4to. 24 pages. Printed by S. Green and 3i. Johnson. 

1663. Higginson's [John] Cause of God and his People in New 
England. An Election Sermon at Boston, 1663. 4to. 28 pages. 

1663. Several Laws and Orders made at Several General Courts. 
In the years 1661, 1662, 1663. Printed and Published by order of 
the General Court. 8 pages. Folio. No imprint. [Printed by 
Samuel Green.] 

1664. Shepard's Sincere Convert. 12mo. 

1664. Anti-Synodalia Americana. 4to. 100 pages. Second 
edition. Reprinted at Cambridge by S. G. & M. J., for Hezekiah 
Usher of Boston. 

* This is an error, the author was Rev. Charles Chauncy, John Allin 
wrote a reply. — H. 

68 History op Printing in America. 

1664. Animadversions upon tbe Anti-Synodalia Americana, 
printed in Old England in the Name of the Dissenting Brethren 
in the Synod held at Boston in New England 1662, and written 
by John AUin, Pastor of the Chnrch in Dedham. 4to. 86 pages. 
Reprinted by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1664. Defence of the Answers and Arguments of the Synod 
met at Boston in the yeare 1662. 4to. 150 pages. Printed by S. 
Green & M. Johnson, for Hezekiah Usher of Boston. By Richard 

1664. Defence of the Synod by some of the Elders. 48 pages, 
small type. Printed by S. G. & M. J., for Hezekiah Usher of 

1664. Several Laws and Orders made at Several (general Courts. 
In the years 1661, 1662, 1664. Printed and Published by Order 
of the General Court. 4 pages, folio. No imprint. [Printed by 
8. Green.] 

1664. Baxter's Call to the Unconverted. Translated into the 
Indian Language by the Rev. John Eliot. Small 8vo. 130 pages. 
[1000 copies were printed.] 

1664. The Psalter. Translated into the Indian Language by 
the Rev. John Eliot. Small 8vo. 150 pages. [500 copies were 

1664. Indian Grammar. About 60 pages. 4to. [No year is 
mentioned, as I find is often the case with other printers besides 
Green, but it must have been printed about 1664.] 

1664. Whiting'^ [Samuel] Discourse on the Last Judgment. 
12mo. 170 pages. Printed by S. G, and M, J. 

1664. Chauncy's [Israel] Almanack for 1664. Printed by S. 
Green and M. Johnson. 

1665. Nowell's [Alexander] Almanack for 1665. 

1665. Collection of the Testimonies of the Fathers of the New 
England Churches respecting Baptism. 4to. 32 pages. 

1665. Laws and Orders made at the General Courts in 
May 3, August 1, and October 11, 1665. Printed and Published 
by order of the General Court. 4 pages, folio. No imprint. 
[Printed by Samuel Green.] 

1665. Manitowompae Pomantamoonk : Sampwshanau Christi- 
anoh uttoh woh an Pomantog wussikkitteahonat God. 12mo. 400 
pages. [Written in the language of the aborigines of New England.] 

The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the Old and 

New Testament, Faithfully Translated into English Metre. For the 
Use, Edification and Comfort of the Saints in publick and private, 

Massachusetts. 69 

wpeciallj in New Englaad. Small 12mo. 100 pages, two columns 
to each, in nonpareil. '^ Cambridge. Printed for Hezekiah Usher 
of Boston/' 

[This was, I believe, the third edition of the New England Ver- 
sion of the Psalms after it had been revised and improved by presi- 
dent Dunster, &o., and the fifth, inolnding all the former editions. 
[Appendix E."] I have a complete copy of this edition, but the name of 
the printer, and the year in which it was printed, are not mentioned. 
It is calculated by being printed in a small page, with a very small 
type, to bind up with English editions of the pocket Bible ; and, as 
the printing is executed by a good workman, and is the best that I 
have seen from the Cambridge press, I conclude, therefore, it could 
not be printed by Green before the arrival of Marmaduke Johnson 
in 1660 ; I have no doubt it was printed under Johnson's care ; and, 
probably, soon after the Indian Bible came from the press in 1663. 
Johnson was a good printer, and so called by the corporation in 
England, who engaged, and sent him over, to assist G-reen in print- 
ing that work. Although in this edition the typography far exceeds 
in neatness any work then printed in the country, it is very incor- 
rect; but this might have been more the fault of the corrector of 
the press, than of the printer. My belief that it was published 
about the year 1664, or 1665, is confirmed by its being printed for 
Hezekiah Usher, the only bookseller that I can find an account of 
at that time, in New England. He dealt largely in merchandise, 
and was then agent to the corporation in England, for propagating 
the Qospel in New England. It is a curious fact, that nonpareil 
types were used so early in this country ; I have not seen them in 
any other book printed either at Cambridge, or Boston, before the 
revolution ; even brevier types had been but seldom used in the 
printing houses in Boston, earlier than 1760. The nonpareil used 
for the Psalms was new, and a very handsome faced letter.] 

1665. The Conditions for New Planters in the territories of his 
Royal Highness the Duke of York. Printed at Cambridge, on the 
face of half a sheet. 

1665. Practice of Piety. [Translated into the Indian language.] 
Small 8vo. about 160 pages. 

1666. Whiting's [Samuel, of Lynn] Meditations upon Genesis 
xviii, from ver. 23 to the end of the chapter. 12mo. 350 pages. 
'^ Printed and Sold at Cambridge." [No printer's name, but un- 
doubtedly from Green's press.] 

1666. Flint's [Josiah] Almanack for 1666. ^iXofia^i]^, after 
Flint's name. " Printed Anno Dom. 1666." 

70 History of Printing in America. 

1666. Several Laws and Orders made at the General Court 
Held at Boston the 23d of May, 1666, and 10th of Oct#ber follow- 
ing. Printed and published by Order of the General Conrt. 4 
pages, folio. [Printed by S. Green.] 

1667. Mitcheirs [Jonathan] Nehemiah upon the Wall. An 
Election Sermon, May, 1667. "Printed at Cambridge." [No 
printer's name.] 

1667. Practice of Piety. Translated into the Indian language, 
by the Rev. John Eliot. Second edition. 

1667. Beakenbury's [Samuel] Almanack for 1667. 

1668. Dudley's [Joseph] Almanack for 1668. 

1668. Elegy on the Rev. Thomas Shepard, Pastor of the Church 
in Charlestown. By Urian Oakes. 4to. 

1668. Wilsoniana Memoria. Or the Life of the Rev. John 
Wilson. 12 mo. 

1668. Several Laws and Orders made at the General Courts of 
Election, held at Boston, New England, the 29th of April, 1668. 
Printed and Published by their Order. 12 pages, folio. No im- 
print. [Printed by S. Green.] 

1668. Several Laws and Orders made at the General Court held 
at Boston, in New England, October 14th, 1668. Printed and 
Published by their Order. 16 pages, folio. [Printed by S. 

1669. Morton's [Nathaniel] New England's Memorial. 216 
pages, 4to. Printed by S- G. & M, J, for John Usher of Boston. 

1669. An Almanack for 1669. By J. B. Printed by S. G. & 

1670. Danforth's Election Sermon at Boston, 1670. 4to. 24 
pages. Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1670. Stoughton's [William] Election Sermon, 1670. 4to. 

1670. An Almanack for 1670. By J. R. Printed by S. G. & 
M. J. 

1670. Life and Death of that Reverend Man of God, Mr. Rich- 
ard Mather, Teacher of the Church in Dorchester, New England. 
4to. 42 pages. Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1670. Walley's [Thomaa, of Boston] Balm of Gilead to heal 
Sion's Wounds. An Election Sermon, preached at New Plimouth, 
1669. 20 pages, 4to. Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 

1670. Mather's [Samuel] Testimony from the Scripture against 
Idolatry and Superstition, preached in Dublin 1660. 4to. 80 pages. 
[No printer's name.] " Reprinted at Cambridge." 

Massachusetts. 71 

1671. Mather's [Eleazar, of Nortbampton] Exhortation to the 
pretsent ai^ saooeeding Qenerations. 4to. 32 pages. Printed bj 
S. G. & M J. 

1 67 1 . An Almanack for 1 671 . 

1672. An Artillery Election Sermon 1672. Bj the Rev. Urian 
Oakes. 4to. 

1672. Mather's [Increase] Word to the present and succeeding 
Generations of New England. 4to. 36 pages. 

1672. Eye Salve, or a Watch Word from our Lord Jesus Christ 
unto his Churches, especially in the Colony of Massachusetts. An 
Election Sermon preached at Boston 1672. By Thomas Shepard, 
of Charleetown. 4to. 56 pages. 

1672. Allin's [John, of Dedham] Spouse of Christ coming out 
of Affliction leaning upon her Beloved. 4to. 32 pages. " Printed 
at Cambridge by Samuel Green, and are to be Sold by John Tappan 
of Boston." 

1672. The General Laws and Liberties of the Massachusetts 
Colony, Revised and alphabetically arranged. To which are added, 
Precedents and Forms of things frequently used. With a com- 
plete index to the whole. Re-printed by order of the General 
Court Holden at Boston, May 15, 1672. Edward Rawson, Seer. 
Whosoever there/ore resisteth the Power, resuteth the Ordinance of 
God; and they thai resist shall receive to themselves damnation, 
Rom. 13, 2. Folio, 200 pages. [Well printed. There is a small 
wooden cut of the colony arms as a frontispiece opposite to the title 
page, indifferently executed, and a large handsome head piece cut 
on wood at the beginning of the first page of the laws. Printed by 
8. Green, for John Usher of Boston.] 

1672. The Book of the General Laws of the Inhabitants of 
New Plimouth, collected out of the Records of the General Court. 
Published by the Authority of the General Court of that Jurisdic- 
tion, held at Plimouth the 6th day of June, 1671. The following 
text of scripture is in the title page — Be subject [?] to every Ordi- 
nance of Man for the Lord^s sake. 1 Pet. ii. 13. Folio. 50 pages. 

1672. Indian Logic Primer. By John Eliot. 

1672. Several " Laws and Orders " made at the General Court 
at Boston, 1672. 8 pages. Folio. 

1673. The Book of the General Laws for the People within the 
Jurisdiction of Connecticut. Collected out of the Records of the 
General Court. Lately revised and published by the Authority of 
the General Court of Connecticut, 1672. Has a text from scripture 

72 History of Printing in America. 

in the title page, viz. — Let us waUc honestly as in the Day^ not in 
Rioting and Drunkenness ; not in Chambering and J^ntonness ; 
not in Strife and Envying, Kom. xiii. 13.^ [There is a small 
wooden ont of the arms of Connecticut in the title page. The arms 
are fifteen grape vines, with a hand over them holding a scroll, on 
which is this motto. — Sustvnet qui tranttuHt,"] Folio. 76 pages. 

1673. New England Pleaded with, and pressed to Consider the 
Things which concern her Peace. An Election Sermon 1673. By 
Urian Oakes. 4to. 64 pages. 

1674. Samuel Torrey, of Weymouth. Election Sermon at Ply- 
mouth. 4 to. 

1674. The Unconquerable, All-Conquering, and more than Con- 
quering Souldier, or the Successful Warre which a Believer wageth 
with the Enemies of his Soul. An Artillery Election Sermon, 
June, 1672. By Urian Oakes. 4to. 46 pages. 

1674. David Serving his Generation. An Election Sermon be- 
fore the General Court of New Plimouth, June, 1674. By Samuel 
Arnold of Marshfield. 4to. 24 pages. Imprima^r John Oxen- 
bridge and Increase Mather. 

1674. Several << Laws and Orders," made at the General Court 
at Boston, 1674. 4 pages. Folio. 

1674. Moody's [Joshua] Souldiers Spiritualized, or the Christian 
Souldier orderly and Strenuously engaged in the Spiritual Warre, 
and so fighting the Grood Fight. A Sermon preached at Boston on 
Artillery Election 1674. 4to. 48 pages. 

1674. Fitch's [James, of Norwich] Holy Connexion. An Elec- 
tion Sermon at Hartford, Connecticut, 1674. 4to. 24 pages. 

1675. Several "Laws and Orders" made at the Sessions of the 
General Court at Boston in 1675. Folio, 20 pages. 

1675. Mather's [Increase] First Principles of New England 
concerning the subject of Baptisme and Church Communion. 4to. 
56 pages. 

1675. Mather's [Increase] Discourse concerning the subject of 
Baptisms. 4to. 82 pages. 

1676. Heart Garrisoned; or the Wisdome and Care of the 
Spiritual Souldier above all Things to Safeguard hLs Heart. An 
Artillery Election Sermon. By Samuel Willard. 4to. 24 pages. 

1676. A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New 
England from June 24, 1675, when the first Englishman was 

* In Mr. Brinley*8 copy the citation is from " Rom. 18. 1. 2," two more 
appropriate verses. — II, 

Massachusetts. 73 

murdered by the Indians, to August, 1776, when Philip, alias Meta- 
comet, priacipal Author and Beginner of the War was slain. By 
Increase Mather. 4to. 56 pages. 

1677. Several '< Laws and Orders," made at the first Session of 
the General Court for Elections 1677, at Boston. Folio. 4 pages. 

1679. An Aknanaok for 1679. By Philomath. 

1680. Wusku Wuttestamentum Nul-lordumun Jesus Christ 
Nuppoquohwussuaeneumun. [The New Testament in the Indian 
Language. The greater part, including the title page, was printed 
in 1680, but the Testament was not completed till the year following. 
This was a second edition and consisted of 2,500 copies ; 500 of 
which were bound up with the Indian Catechism, and the remainder 
reserred to complete a second edition of the whole Bible which came 
from the press in the beginning of the year 1686. 

1680. A Confession of Faith owned and consented to by the 
Elders and Messengers of the Churches assembled at Boston, May 
12, 1680, being the Second Session of that Synod. 

1682. Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary 
Rowlandson. 8vo. 

1682. Oakes's [Urian] Fast Sermon, delivered at Cambridge 
4to. 32 pages. 

1682. Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion; or the Character 
and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman. By Cotton Mather. 12mo. 
116 pages. Printed by S. G, & B. G. for Samuel Phillips of Bos- 

1684. An Almanack for 1684. 

1684. Dennison's [Daniel] Irenicon ; or a Salve for New Eng« 
land's Sore. 8vo. 50 pages. 

1685. The New England Almanack for 1686. ''Printed at 
Cambridge by Samuel Green, sen., Printer to Harvard Col. A. D. 

1685. The Holy Bible, containing the Old Testament and the 
New. Translated into the Indian Language, and ordered to be 
printed by the Commissioners of the United Colonies in New Eng- 
land, &c. This was a second edition of Eliot's Indian Bible ] and, 
like the first, it had marginal notes, and an Indian translation of the 
New England Version of the Psalms. The Rev. Mr. Cotton, a great 
proficient in the Indian language, assisted Mr. Eliot in revising and 
correcting this edition. Both editions had title pages in English 
and Indian. The title in the Indian language is as follows : Mamvsse 
Wunneetupanatamwe TJp-Biblum God Naneeswe Nukkone-Testament 
kah wonk Wusku Testament. Ne quoshkinnumuk nashpe Wuttineu- 

74 History of Printing in America. 

moll Christ noh asoowesit John Eliot. Nahchtdea ontchetde 
PriDtewoomuk. Cambridge: PriQteuoop nashpe Samuel Green. 4to. 
It was six years' in the press. Two thousand copies were printed.^ 
It was not so expensive as the first edition. Mr. Eliot had the 
management of it; and, in his letters to the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
president of the corporation for propagating the gospel among the 
Indians in New England, he acknowledges the reception of £900 
sterling, in three payments, for carrying it through the press. 

1685. Manitowampae pomantamoonk sampwshanau Christianoh. 
&c., second edition, 400 pp. small 8vo. [Practice of Piety.] 

1686. The New England Almanack for 1687. 

1687. Practice of Piety. [Translated into the Indian language.] 
Third edition. 

1687. Eliot's Catechism. [In the Indian language. This was 
a third or fourth edition printed at the expense of the corporation.] 

1687. Primer, in the Indian Language. [It had gone through 
several previous editions at the expense of the corporation.] 

1689. Sampwutteahae Quinnuppekompauaenin, Wahuwomook 
oggussemesuog Sampwutteahae Wunnamptamwaenuog, &c. Noh 
asoowesit Thomas Shepard. This is Shepard's Sincere Convert, 
translated into Indian by the Eev. John Eliot, and was licensed to 
be printed by Orindal Rawson. 12mo, 164 pages. 

1691. An Almanack. ByJohnTully. "Cambridge. Printed 
by Samuel Green and B. Green, and are to be sold by Nicholas 
Buttolph at Gutteridge's Coffee House, in Boston, 1691." 

1691. Nashauanittue Meninnunk wutch Mukkiesog' Wasses^- 
mumun wutch Sogkodtunganash Naneeswe Testamentsash ; wutch 
TJkkesitchippooonganoo Ukketeahogkounooh. Noh asoow^it John 
Cotton. [This is John Cotton's Spiritual Milk for American Babes. 
Translated by Grindal Rawson.] 12mo. 14 pages. [See old edi- 
tions of the New England Primer.] Printeuoop nashpe Samuel 
Chreen kah Bartholomew Green. 

1691. Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion; or the Character 
and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman. By Cotton Mather. 12mo. 
114 pages. Re-Printed by Samuel Green and Bartholomew Green 
for Nicholas Buttolph, at Gutteridge's Coffee House, Boston. 

* Letter from the Rev. John Eliot to the Hon. Robert Boyle in London. 
Mr. Eliot gave a part of his salary toward printing the work. It went to 
the press in the be^nning of the year 1080, and was not completed till 
the beginning of 1686. Mr. Eliot lived till 1690. 

Massachusetts. 75 

1691. Things to be look^ for. Ad Election Sermon. By 
Cotton Mather. 12mo. 84 pages. Reprinted by Samuel Oreen and 
Bartholomew Oreen. 

1692. Tully's Ahnanack for 1692. Printed by Samuel Oreen 
and Bartholomew Oreen for Samuel Phillips of Boston. 

Mabmaduke Johnson was an Englishman, and had been 
bred to the printing business in London. The corpora- 
tion in England for propagating the gospel among the 
Indians engaged and sent him over to America in 1660, 
to assist in printing the Bible in Indian. 

In a letter dated, Cooper's Hall in London, April 28th, 
1660, and directed to the commissioners of the United Colo- 
nies, who had the whole management of Indian affairs, the 
corporation writes : " Wee haue out of our desire to fur- 
ther a worke of soe great consernment, [printing the 
whole Bible in the Indian language] agreed with an able 
printer for three yeares vpon the tearmes and conditions 
enclosed. Wee desire you at the earnest request of Mr. 
Johnson the printer, and for his incurragement in this 
undertaking of printing the bible in the Indian language, 
his nam^ may bee mentioned with others as a printer and 
person that hath bine instrumentall therin; for whose 
diet, lodging and washing wee desire you to take care of." 

The commissioners in their answer to the corporation, 
dated New Haven the 10th of September, 1660, observe : 
" Such order is taken by aduice of Mr. Eliott Mr. Vsher 
Mr. Qreen and Mr. Johnson that the Impression of the 
ould and New Testament carryed on together 
which they have alredy begun and Resolue to prosecute 
with all diligence ; a sheet of Geneses wee have seen which 
wee have ordered shalbee Transmitted vnto you; the 
printers doubte not but to print a sheete euery weeke and 
compute the whole to amount to a hundred and fifty 
sheets. Mr. Johnson wilbee gratifyed with the honour 

76 History of Printing in America. 

of the Impression and acomodp-ted in other respects wee 
hope to content." The commissioners this year charged 
the corporation with £1 4s. paid for " the expenses of 
Johnson the printer att his first arrivall before he settled 
at Cambridge." 

In a letter dated, Boston Sept. 10, 1662, and addressed 
to the Hon. Robert Boyle, governor of the corporation in 
England, the commissioners of theUnited Colonies observe : 
" The bible is now about half done ; and constant pro- 
gresse therin is made ; the other halfe is likp to bee finished 
in a yeare ; the future charge is vncertain ; wee have heer 
with sent twenty coppies of the New Testament [in Indian] 
to bee disposed of as youer honors shall see meet. The 
trust youer honors hath seen meet to repose in vs for the 
manageing of this worke we shall endeauor in all faithful- 
ness to discharge. Wee craue leave att present for the 
preuenting of an objection that may arise concerning the 
particulars charged for the printing wherin you will find 
2 sheets att three pounds ten shillings a sheet, and the 
rest butt att 50 shillings a sheet, the reason wherof lyes 
heer : It pleased the honored corporation to send ouer one 
Marmeduke Johnson a printer to attend the worke on 
condition as they will enforme 'you ; whoe hath caryed 
heer very vnworthyly of which hee hath bine openly Con- 
victed and sencured in some of our Courts although as 
yett noe execution of sentence against him: peculiare 
fauor haueing bine showed him with respect to the cor- 
poration that sent him ouer; but notwithstanding all 
patience and lenitie vsed towards him hee hath proued 
uery idle and nought and absented himselfe from the 
worke more than halfe a yeare att one time ; for want of 
whose assistance the printer [Green] by his agreement 
with vs was to haue the allowance of 21 lb. the which is 
to bee defallcated out of his sallery in England by the 
honored Corporation there." 

Massachusetts. 77 

The commissioners, in this letter to the corporation, 
mentioned some bad conduct of Johnson, of which he 
was convicted, but they do not particularize his oflfence. 
I find in the records of the county court of Middlesex for 
1662, that in April of that year, Johnson was indicted for 
" alluring the daughter of Samuel Green, printer, and 
drawing away her aflfection without the consent of her 
father." This was a direct breach of a law of the colony. 
Johnson was convicted, fined five pounds for that ofifence ; 
and having a wife in England, was ordered " to go home 
to her," on penalty of twenty pounds for neglecting so to 
do. At the same court Johnson was fined twenty pounds 
for threatening the life of any man who should pay his 
addresses to Green's daughter. In October, 1663, Johnson, 
not having left the country agreeably to his sentence, was 
fined twenty pounds, and ordered " to be committed till 
he gave security that he would depart home to England 
to his wife the first opportunity." Samuel Goflfe and John 
Bernard were his sureties that he should depart the 
country within six weeks, or in a vessel then bound to 
England. Johnson, however, for some cause that cannot 
be ascertained, [the records of the next county court be- 
in^ destroyed by fire] was permitted to remain in the 
country. His wife might have died; he had infiuential 
friends; and made his peace with Green, with whom he 
was afterwards concerned in printing several books. 

The commissioners received an answer to the letter last 
mentioned, from the governor of the corporation, dated 
London April 9th, 1663, at the close of which the go- 
vernor remarks : " Conserning Marmeduke Johnson the 
printer wee are sorry hee hath soe miscarryed by which 
meanes the printing of the bible hath bin retarded we are 
resolved to default the 21 lb. you mention out of his sallary. 
Mr. Elliott whose letter beares date three monthes after 
youers, writes that Johnson is againe Returned into the 

78 History op Printing in America. 

worke whose brother alsoe hath bine with vs and gives vs 
great assurance of his brothers Keformation and following 
his busines diligently for the time to come ; and hee being 
(as Mr. Elliott writes) an able and vsefuU man in the 
presse we haue thought fitt further to make tryall of him 
for one yeare longer and the rather because vpon Mr. 
Elliotts motion and the goodnes of the worke ; wee have 
thought fitt and ordered that the Psalmes of Dauid in 
meter shallbee printed in the Indian language, and soe 
wee hope that the said Johnson performing his promise of 
amendment for time to come may bee vsefull in the fur- 
thering of this worke which we soe much desire the finish- 
ing of: We haue no more but comend you to the Lord. 
Signed in the name and by the appointment of the Cor- 
poration for the propagating of the Gospell in America. 

Per Robert Boyle Qouernor." 

The commissioners wrote from Boston, Sept. 18th, 1663, 
to the corporation, as was their annual custom, rendering 
a particular account of their concerns, and of the expendi- 
tures of the money of the corporation. Respecting John- 
son they observe : " Some time after our last letter Mar- 
meduke Johnson Returned to the Presse and hath carried 
himselfe Indifferently well since soe farr as wee know but 
the bible being finished and little other worke presenting ; 
wee dismised him att the end of the tearme you had con- 
tracted with him for ; but vnderstanding youer honorable 
Corporation hath agreed with him for another yeare ; wee 
shall Indeavour to Imploy him as wee can by printing the 
Psalmes and another little Treatise of Mr. Baxters which 
Mr. Elliott is translateing into the Indian language which 
is thought may bee vsefull and profitable to the Indians ; 
and yett there will not bee full Imployment for him ; and 
for after times our owne printer wilbee sufficiently able to 
print of any other worke that wilbee necessary for theire 

Massachusetts. 79 

vse 8oe that att the yeares end hee may be dismised ; or 
sooner if hee please : and If there bee occation farther to 
Imploy him It were much better to contract with him heer 
to print by the sheete than by allowing him standing 
wages : Wee were forced vpon his earnest Request to lett 
him flue pounds in parte of his wages to supply his present 
nessesitie which must bee defaulted by youer honors with 
his brother : his last yeare by agreement with him begin- 
eth the 20th of August last from the end of his former 
contract till that time hee was out of this Imployment 
and followed his own occacions." 

The corporation in their next letter to the commissioners 
write : " Concerning Marmeduke Johnson the printer 
whose Demeanor hath not been suitable to what hee 
promised wee shall leave him to youerselues to dismisse 
him as soone as his yeare is expired if you soe think fit." 

The next meeting of the Commissioners was at Hart- 
ford, September 1, 1664 ; they then informed the corpora- 
tion in England, that they had "dismised Marmeduke 
Johnson the Printer att the end of his tearme agreed for 
hauing Improued him as well as wee could for the yeare 
past by imploying him with our owne printer to print such 
Indian workes as could be prepared wliich hee was not 
able to doe alone with such other English Treatises which 
did present ; for which allowance hath bine made propor- 
tionable to his laboure ; some time hath bine lost for want 
of imployment but for after time wee hope to haue all 
books for the Indians vse printed vpon ezier tearmes by 
our owne printer especially if it please youer honers to 
send oner a fonte of Pica letters Roman and Italian which 
are much wanting for printeing the practice of piety and 
other workes ; and soe when the Presses shallbee Improued 
for the vse of the English wee shalbe carefull that due 
alowance be made to the Stocke for the same ; It seemed 
Mr. Johnson ordered all his Sallery to be receiued and 

80 History of Printing in America. 

disposed of in England which hath put him to some 
straightes heer which forced vs to allow him fine pounds 
formerly (as we Intimated in our last) and since hee hath 
taken vp the sume of four pounds all which is to be 
accoumpted as parte of his Sallery for the last yeare ; the 
remainder wherof wee doubt not youer honors will satisfy 

Before the Bible was finished, Johnson, being in great 
want of money, applied to the commissioners of the United 
Colonies to pay him his wages here instead of receiving 
them, agreeably to contract, in England. Upon which the 
commissioners "ordered in Answare to the request of 
Marmeduke Johnson for payment of his wages heer in 
New England; notwithstanding his couenant with the 
Corporation to receiue the same in England which hee 
sayeth is detained from him; which yett not appearing 
to the comissioners they could not giue any order for the 
payment of it heer; but vpon his earnest request that 
there might bee some Impowered to relieue him in case it 
could appeer before the next meeting of the Comissioners 
that noe payment was made to him in England the Comis- 
sioners of the Massachusetts Collonie is Impowered to act 
therein according to theire Discretion." 

The Rev. Mr. Eliot, ^ who translated the Bible into the 
Indian language, appears to have been very friendly to 
Johnson. After he was dismissed from employment at 
the press of the corporation, Mr. Eliot proposed to the 
commissioners in September, 1667, that Johnson should 
have " the font of letters [types] which the Corporation 
sent over for their vse by him, when he came from Eng- 
land," and which had been but little worn, at the price 
they cost in England, which was £81 17s. 8d. sterling ; 

* Mr. Eliot was by 8ome styled " Apostolus nostroruiu Temporum inter 
Indos Nov Angliae." He died 1090, aged 80. 

Massachusetts. 81 

to which proposal the comtnisaioners assented. These 
types he received in part payment of his salary. 

In 1670, April 28th, Johnson, being released by death 
or divorce from his wife in England, married Ruth Cane 
of Cambridge, which is recorded in the register of the 
town for that year. 

In September, 1672, the commissioners ordered their 
agent, Hezekiah Usher, to pay Johnson £6 " for printing, 
stitching and cutting of a thousand Indian Logick Primers.** 
This is the last business I can find performed by Johnson 
for the corporation. His name appeared after Green's in 
the imprint of the first edition of the Indian translation 
of the Old and New Testament, and to several other books 
which were not printed for the corporation for propagating 
the gospel among the Indians. It is not probable that they 
had any regular partnership, but printed a book in con- 
nexion when convenient. I have seen no book with his 
name in the imprint after 1674. 

Johnson was constable of Cambridge in 1673, and per- 
haps some years preceding. In April, 1674, the county 
court allowed him " his bill of costs, amounting to three 
shillings ; and ten shillings and six pence for journeys 
that were by law to be paid by the county treasurer." It 
appears that he was poor, and rather indolent. He de- 
parted this life in 1675, and his wife soon followed him. 

The fi)l]owing is an extract from the Middlesex records, 
vol. Ill, p. 176. " At a County Court held at Charlestowne 
June 19, 1677. Mr. John Hayward Attorney in behalfe 
of the Commissioners of the United Coloneys pl'ff against 
Jonathan Cane, Executor to the last will and testament of 
Ruth Johnson administratrix to the estate of her husband 
Marmaduke Johnson deceased, in an action of the case 
for deteyniug a font of Letters, bought by the said John- 
son with money y** he received for y** end and use of y** 
Honourable Corporation in London constituted by his 


82 History op Printing in America. 

Majestie for propagating of the gospell to the Indians in 
New England, and also for deteyning a Printers chase, 
and other implements that belong to a Printing Presse, 
and is apperteyning to the said Indian Stocke according 
to attachmt. dated 8, 4, 77. Both parties appeared & joyned 
issue in the case. The Jury having heard their respective 
pleas & evidences in the case, brought in their verdict, 
finding for the plVe that the Defdt. shall deliver the wt. 
of Letters expressed in the attachment, with other mate- 
rials expressed in the attachment, or the value thereof in 
money, which wee find to be forty pounds, with costs of 
court. The Defdt. made his appeale to the next Court of 

Beside the books printed by Green and him, which 
appear in Green's catalogue, I find the following printed 
sglely by Johnson, viz. 

Cataloffue of Books printed by Johnson. 

1665. Communion of Churches; or, the Divine Management of 
Gospel Churches by the Ordinance of Councils, constituted in Order, 
according to the Scriptures. As also the Way of bringing all 
Christian Parishes to be particular reforming Congregational 
Churches : humify proposed as a Way which hath so muche light 
from the Scriptures of Truth, as that it may be lawfully submitted 
unto by all ; and may by the Blessing of the Lord be a means of 
uniteing those two Holy and eminent Parties^ the Presbyterians and 
the Congregationalists — As also to prepare for the hoped-for Resur- 
rection of the Churches ] and to propose a Way to bring all Christ- 
ian Nations unto an Unity of the Faith and Order of the Gospel. 
Written by John Eliot ^ Teacher of Roxbury in N. E. Crown 8vo. 
38 pages. The following is the Preface to the work. 

** Although a few copies of this small script are printed, yet it is 
not published, only committed privately to some godly and able 
hands to be viewed, corrected, amended, or rejected, as it shall be 
found to hold weight in the sanctuary ballance, or not. And it is 
the humble request of the Author, that whatever objections, rectifi- 
cations or emendations may occurre, they may be conveyed unto 
him ; who desireth nothing may be accepted in the Churches, but 

Massachusetts. 83 

wbat is accordiDg to tbe will and minde of God, and tendeth to 
holiness, peace, and promotion of the holy kingdome of Jesas Christ. 
The procaring of half so many copies written and corrected, would 
be more difficult and chargeable than the printing of these few. I 
beg the prayers as well as the pains of the precious Servants of the 
Lord, that I may never have the least finger in doing any thing that 
may be derogatory to the holiness and honour of Jesus Christ and 
his churches. And to this I subscribe myself, one of the least oi 
the labourers in the Lord's vineyard. John Eliot." 

1668. The Rise, Spring and Foundation of the Anabaptists : or 
the Re-Baptised of our Times. 58 pages. Quarto. 

1668. God's Terrible Voice in the City of London, wherein you 
have the Narration of the late dreadful Judgment of Plague and 
Fire; the former in the year 1665 and the latter in the year 1666. 
32 pages. Quarto. 

1668. The Righteous Man's Evidence of Heaven. By Timothy 
Rogers. Small Quarto. 

1671. Cambridge Platform of Church Discipline. Second Edi- 
tion. 40 pages. Quarto. 

1672. " Indian Logick Primer." 

1673. Wakeman's Young Man's Legacy to the Rising Genera- 
tion. A Sermon, preached on the Death of John Tappin, of Boston. 
46 pages. Quarto. 

1673. Mather's [Increase] Woe to Drunkards. Two Sermons. 
34 pages. Quarto. [Printed by Johnson] " and sold by Edmund 
Ranger, Book Binder, in Boston." * 

1674. Exhortation unto Reformation. An Election Sermon. 
By Samuel Torrey, of Weymouth. 50 pages. Quarto. 

1674. Cry of Sodom enquired into, upon occasion of the Ar- 
raignment and Condemnation of Benjamin Groad, for his prodigious 
Villany. By S. D. Quarto. 30 pages. 

Bartholomew Grben, son of Samael Green, by his 
second wife, was in basin ess a few years with his father at 
Cambridge. In the year 1690 he removed to Boston, and 
set up his press. The same year his printing house and 
materials were destroyed by fire ; and he, in consequence 
of his loss, returned to Cambridge, and was again con- 
nected with his father. The few books which I have seen 
that were printed by his father and him in company, are 

84 History of Printing in America. 

taken notice of with his father's. He resumed business 
in Boston in 1692. [See Printers in Boston.'] 


About forty-five years from the beginning of the settle- 
ment of Boston a printing house was opened, and the 
first book I have found printed in this town was by 

John Foster. He was bom in Dorchester, near Boston, 
and educated at Harvard College, where he graduated in 
1667. Printers at this time were considered as mere 
agents to execute the typographic art ; the presses were 
the property of the college, but all their productions were 
under the control of licensers appointed by the govern- 
ment of the colony ; that government had restricted print- 
ing, and confined it solely to Cambridge, but it now 
authorized Foster to set up a press in Boston. It does 
not appear that he was bred to printing, or that he was 
acquainted with the art; the probability is, that he was 
not; but having obtained permission to print, he employed 
workmen, carried on printing in his own name, and was 
accountable to government for the productions of his press. 

The General court, at the session in May, 1674, passed 
the order following : " Whereas there is now granted that 
there may be a printing Presse elsewhere than at Cam- 
bridge ; for the better regulation of the Presse it is ordered 
and Enacted that the Rev. Mr. Thomas Thatcher and Rev. 
Increase Mather, of Boston, be added unto the former 
Licensers, and they are hereby impowered to act accord- 

If Foster's printing equalled, it could not be said to 
excel, that of Green or Johnson, either in neatness or 
correctness. He printed a number of small tracts for 
himself and others. The earliest book which I have seen 

Massachusetts. 85 

from the press under his care was published in 1676, and 
the latest in 1680. He calculated and published Almanacks. 
To his Almanack for 1681 he annexed an ingenious dis- 
sertation on comets seen at Boston in November and 
December, 1680.* He died at Dorchester, September 9, 
1681, aged thirty three years. His grave stone bears the 
following inscription, viz: 

'^ Astra colis yivens, moriens super sethera Foster 
Scande precor, ocelam metiri disce supremum : 
Metior atque meum est, emit mihi dives Jesus, 
Nee tenior quicquam nisi grates solvere." 

In English thus? 

Thott, Foster, who on earth didst study the heavenly 
bodies, now ascend above the firmament and survey the 
highest heaven. I do survey and inhabit this divine region. 
To its possession I am admitted through the grace of 
Jesus ; and to pay the debt of gratitude I hold the most 
sacred obligation. 

Two poems on the death of Foster were printed in 1681 ; 
one of them was written by Thomas Tilestone, of Dor- 
chester, and the other by Joseph Capen, afterwards minis- 
ter of Topsfield, Massachusetts. The latter concluded with 
the following lines : 

^^ Thy body, which no activeuess did lack, 
Now's laid aside like an old Almanack ; 
But for the present only's out of date, 
'Twill have at length a far more active state. 
Yea, though with dust thy body soiled be, 
Yet at the resurrection we shall see 
A fair Edition, and of matchless worth, 
Free from Erratas, new in Heaven set forth ; 
'Tis but a word from Ood, the great Creator, 
It shall be done when he saith MmptMdtVtxJ*^ 

'See CoUectionsof Massaehusetts Historical Society^ vol. ix. Chrono- 
logical and to])ographical account of Dorchester, written by the Rev. T. M. 

86 History op Printing in America. 

Whoever has read the celebrated epitaph, by Franklin, 
on himself, will have some suspicion that it was taken 
from this original. 

Samuel Sbwall. When Foster died, Boston was with- 
out the benefit of the press ; but a continuance of it in 
this place being thought necessary, Samuel Sewall, not 
a printer but a magistrate, &c., a man much respected, was 
selected as a proper person to manage the concerns of it, 
and as such was recommended to the General court. In 
consequence of this recommendation, the court in October, 
1681, gave him liberty to carry on the business of printing 
in Boston. The license is thus recorded : ^ " Samuel 
Sewall, at the Instance of some Friends, with respect to 
the accommodation of the Publick, being prevailed with 
to undertake the Management of the Printing Presse in 
Boston, late under the command of Mr. John Foster, de- 
ceased, liberty is accordingly granted to him for the same 
by this court, and none may presume to set up any other 
Presse without the like Liberty first granted." 

Sewall became a bookseller. Books for himself and 
others were printed at the press under his management, 
as were several acts and laws, with other work for govern- 
ment. Samuel Green, jun., was his printer. In 1682 an 
order passed the General court for the treasurer to pay 
Sewall £10 175., for printing the election sermon delivered 
that year by the Rev. Mr. Torrey. I have seen several 
books printed by the assignment of Sewall. 

In 1684, Sewall by some means was unable to conduct 
the press, and requested permission of the General court 
to be released from his engagement, which was granted. 
The record of his release is in the words following: 
" Samuel Sewall by the providence of God being unable 

> Heeords of the Cohny for 1681. 

Massachusetts. 87 

to attend the press &c., requested leave to be freed from 
his obligations concerning it, which was granted." 

In 1684, and for several subsequent years, the loss of 
the charter occasioned great confusion and disorder in the 
political concerns of the colony. Soon after Sewall re- 
signed his office as conductor of the press in Boston, he 
went to England ; whence he returned in 1692. He was, 
undoubtedly, the same Samuel Sewall who, when a new 
charter was granted by Eling William, was for many years 
one of the council for the province ; and who, in 1692, 
was appointed one of the judges of the superior court ; in 
1716 judge of probate ; and in 1718 chief justice of Massa- 
chusetts. He died January 1, 1729-80, aged seventy-eight 

James Glen. Printed for or by the assignment of Samuel 
Sewall, to whom government had committed the manage- 
ment of the press after the death of Foster. He printed 
under Sewall less than two years. I have seen only three or 
four works which bear his name in the imprint, and these 
were printed for Sewall. One was entitled Oovenant Keeping^ 
the Way to Blessedness, by Samuel Willard. 12rao. 240 pages. 
" Boston : Printed by James Glen, for S. Sewall, 1682." 
I do not recollect the titles of the others, which were 
pamphlets. All the printing done by Glen was at Sewall's 

Samuel Green, Junior, was the son, by his first wife, 
of Samuel Green, who at that time printed at Cambridge. 
He was taught the art in the printing house of his father. 
His books bear the next earliest dates to Foster's and 
Glen's. In 1682, he printed at the press which, by order 

' See Prince's Funeral Sermon^ and AUen*s Biographieal Dictionary. 

88 History op Printing in America. 

of the General court, was under the management of Bewail, 
and for some time by virtue of an assignment from Bewail. 
He worked chiefly for booksellers. Many books printed 
for them are without the name of the printer, and some 
without date.^ After Bewail ceased to conduct the press, 
Green was permitted to continue printing, subject to the 
control of the licensers. 

John Dunton, a London bookseller, who visited Boston 
while Green was in business, in 1686, and after his return 
to England published the history of his own lAJe and 
MrorSy mentions Green in his publication in the following 
manner : " I contracted a great friendship for this man ; 
to name his trade will convince the world he was a man 
of good sense and understanding ; he was so facetious and 
obliging in his conversation that I took a great delight in 
his company, and made use of his house to while away 
my melancholy hours."* Dunton gives biographical 
sketches of a number of men and women whom he visited 
in Boston in 1686, and represents Green's wife as a most 
excellent woman, even as a model from which to draw 
the picture of the best of wivesJ^ ' 

Green printed for government, and soon after his death 
the General court ordered the treasurer to pay his heirs 
£22 17s. " due him for his last printing." 

In 1690, Boston was visited with the small pox. Before 
the practice of inoculation was introduced, this disease, at 

' Printers should insert in their imprints to books, newspapers, «&c., not 
only their names, but the year, and mention both the state and town where 
their presses are established. Many towns in the United States bear the 
same name. Some newspapers, and many books, have been published 
in certain towns; and the state not being designated in the imprints, 
in many instances it cannot be determined, especially by those at a dis- 
tance, in which of the states they were printed. 

■Dunton's Life and Errors^ printed at London, 1705, pp. 129. 

* Her maiden name was Elizabetli Sill. She was born m Cambridge. 

Massachusetts. 89 

every visitation, swept off a large number of inhabitants. 
In July of that year, Green fell a victim to that loathsome 
disorder ; he died after an illness of three days ; and his 
amiable wife, within a few days after her husband,* was 
carried off by the same epidemic. 

Richard Pierce. On an* examination of the books 
printed in Boston before the year 1700, it appears that 
Richard Pierce was the fifth person who carried on the 
printing business in that place. Whether he had been 
bred a printer in England, or had served an apprenticeship 
with Green at our Cambridge, cannot be determined. 
There was a printer in London by the name of Richard 
Pierce, in 1679 ; and it is not improbable that he emigrated 
to this country, and set up his press in Boston. I have 
seen some books printed by him on his own account, and 
a number for booksellers ; they are mentioned in the cata- 
logue of books printed in America before the revolution. 
I have not found any thing printed by him before 1684, or 
after 1690. 

Bartholomew Green has been mentioned as a printer 
at Cambridge, in connection with his father. He began 
business at Boston in 1690, immediately after the death of 
his brother, with the best printing apparatus then in the 
country. He was married the same year ; and soon after 
his printing house was consumed, and his press and types 

* I am favored by RoBseter Cotton, Esq., of Plymouth, with an original 
letter, dated at Plymouth, Aug. 5, 1690, to his great grandfather, the Rev. 
John Cotton, then on a visit to Barnstable, from his son, which mentions 
among other articles of information from Boston, " the small pox is as 
bad as ever ; Printer Green died of it in Three days; his wive also is dead 
with it." This letter contains much news of tlie day ; it states that, " on 
Saturday Evening about fourteen houses, besides warehouses and Brue- 
houses, were burnt at Boston, from the Mill Bridgh down half way to 
the Draw Bridgh." By this it should seem, that at that time, there was 
a street along side of the Mill creek. 

90 History op Printing in America. 

entirely destroyed by a fire, which began in his neighbor- 
hood. This misfortune obliged him to return to Cam- 
bridge; and he continued there two years, doing busi- 
ness in company with his father. Being again furnished 
with a press and types, he reestablished himself in Bos- 
ton, and opened a printing house in Newbury street. 
The imprint to several of the first books from his press, 
is, " Boston : Printed by B. Green, at the South End of 
the Town." 

In April, 1704, he began the publication of a newspaper, 
entitled The Boston News Letter. Published by Authority. 
It was printed weekly, on Mondays, for John Campbell, 
postmaster, who was the proprietor. After the News- 
Letter had been printed eighteen years for Campbell, 
Green published it on his own account. It was the first 
newspaper printed in the British colonies of North America, 
and had been published fifteen years before any other 
work of the kind made its appearance. It was continued 
by Green and his successors until the year 1776, when the 
British troops evacuated Boston.* 

After his father's death Bartholomew Green printed for 
the college, and he was for nearly forty years printer to 
the governor and council of Massachusetts ; but the acts 
and laws printed by him were done for a bookseller, Ben- 
jamin Elliot, from 1703 to 1729, as appears from the im- 
prints. He was the most distinguished printer of that 

* Bartholomew Green began the printing of T?ie Boston News-Letter ^ 
in Newbury street, m a small wooden building, to which another room 
was annexed some years after, for the accommodation of his son. This 
building was burnt down in January, 1734 ; it was previously occupied 
as a printing house both by young Green and John Draper, who did busi- 
ness independently of each other. Another house of like dimensions was 
built on the same spot by John Draper, the successor of the elder B. 
Green. This building was occupied as a printing house until the British 
troops evacuated Boston, in 1776. At that place began and ended the 
printing of The Boston News-Letter. That house was built and occupied 
by Richard, the son and successor of John Draper. 

Massachusetts. 91 

period in this country, and did more business than any 
other of the profession; yet he worked chiefly for the 
booksellers. John Allen was concerned with him in 
printing many books, in the imprints of which both their 
names appeared ; there was not, however, a regular part>- 
nership between them. 

Through the whole course of his life. Green was dis- 
tinguished for piety and benevolence; he was highly 
respected ; and, for many years, held the office of a deacon 
in the Old South church in Boston. He died December 
28, 1782. The following character of him is extracted 
from The Boston News-Letter^ of January 4, 1733 : 

"Bartholomew Green was a person generally known 
and esteemed among us, as a very humble and exemplary 
Christian, one who had much of that primitive Christianity 
in him which has always been the distinguishing glory of 
Ifew England. We may further remember his eminency 
for a strict observing the sabbath ; his household piety ; 
his keeping close and diligent to the work of his calling ; 
his meek and peaceable spirit ; his caution of publishing 
any thing offensive, light or hurtful ; and his tender sym- 
pathy to the poor and afflicted. He always spoke of the 
wonderful spirit of piety that prevailed in the land in his 
youth with a singular pleasure." [See History of Newspapers 
in the second volume of this workJ] 

John Allbn. I have not seen any book with his name 
in the imprint, published earlier than the year 1690. He 
printed, sometimes in connection with Bartholomew Green, 
and sometimes with Benjamin Harris; but was not in 
regular partnership with either. There is no evidence 
that he had printing materials of his own until 1707; at 
this time he opened a printing house in Pudding lane, near 
the post office, and did business on his own account. In 
Ifovember of this year he began printing The Boston News- 

92 History op Printing in America. 

Letter, for the proprietor, Mr. Campl)ell, postmaster. 
Soon after this event he published the following advertise- 
ment, viz : 

" These are to give N"otice, that there lately came from 
London a Printing Press, with all sorts of good new 
Letter, which is now set up in Pudding Lane near Tthe 
Post-Office in Boston for publick use : Where all persons 
that have any thing to print may be served on reasonable 

Allen printed The News-Letter four years ; when a fire 
which consumed most of the buildings in Cornhill, and 
many in King street, Queen street, and the contiguous 
lanes, is supposed to have burnt his printing house. The 
fire broke out on the evening of the 2d of October, 1711. 
On the preceding day he had printed The News-Letter ; 
but on the next week that paper was again printed by 
Green ; or as the imprint runs, " Printed in Newbury- 
Street, for John Campbell, Post-Master." I have seen a 
number of books printed after this time by Allen alone, 
the last of which is Whittemore's Almanack, bearing the 
date of 1724. 

While he was connected with Green, and previous to 
1708, the acts, laws, proclamations, Ac, of government, 
were printed by them, and Allen's name appeared with 
Green's as "Printers to the Governour and Council." 
Allen printed no book that I have seen on his own account ; 
all the business he executed in the line of his profession 
was for booksellers. He was from England. There is in 
an ancient library in Boston, a copy of Licreaee Mather's 
Mystery of Israel's Salvation^ printed in London, by John 
Allen, in 1669. It is supposed that he came to Boston by 
encouragement from the Mathers. 

Massachusetts. 93 

Benjamin Harris. Hie printing house was " over against 
the Old Meeting House in Cornhill." * He removed 
several times ; and once printed " at the London Coflfee- 
House,*' which I believe he kept, in King's street; at 
another time in Cornhill, " over against the Blew Anchor." 
The last place of his residence I find mentioned, was in 
Cornhill, " at the Sign of the Bible." 

He printed, principally, for booksellers; but he did 
some work on his own account. He kept a shop, and 
sold books. I have not met with any book of his printing 
earlier than 1690, nor later than 1694. In 1692 and 1693, 
he printed The Acts and Laws of Massachusetts^ containing 
about one hundred and thirty pages, folio, to which the 
charter was prefixed. The imprint is, " Boston : Printed 
by Benjamin Harris, Printer to his Excellency the Go- 
vemour and Council." His commission from Governor 
Phips, to print them, is published opposite to the title 
page of the volume in the words following : 

" By his Excellency. — I order BeDJamiQ Harris to print the Acts 

and Laws made by the Great and General Court, or Assembly of 

Their Majesties Province of Massachusetts Bay in New England, 

that so the people may be informed thereof. 

William Phips. 

" Boston, December 16, 1692." 

In the title page of the laws, printed by him in 1693, is 
a handsome cut of their majesties' arms. This was in the 
reign of William and Mary.* 

' This church in Boston was burnt down in the great fire of 1711 ; but 
was soon rebuilt, on a new site, a number of rods to the south of the spot 
where the old building stood, and was, for many years, known by the 
name of The Old Brick ; which, in 1808, was taken down, a new church 
having been erected for the society in Summer street. 

' The following is a more accurate description of this rare volume from 
the copy in the library of the Antiquarian Society : It contains 1. The 
Charter of William and Mary. Imprint : " Printed at London^ and Re- 

94 History op Printing jn America. 

Harris was from London ; he returned there about the 
year 1694, Before and after his emigration to America 
he owned a considerable bookstore in that city. John 
Dunton's account of him is thus : 

" He had been a brisk asserter of English Liberties, and 
once printed a Book with that very title. He sold a pro- 
testant Petition in King Charles's Reign, for which he was 
fined five Pounds ; and he was once set in the Pillory, but 
his wife (like a kind Rib) stood by him to defend her Hus- 
band against the Mob. After this (having a deal of Mer- 
cury in his natural temper) he travelled to New England, 
where he followed Bookselling, and then Coflfee -selling, 
and then Printing, but continued Ben Harris still, and is 
now both Bookseller and Printer in Grace Church Street, 
as we find by his London Post ; so that his Conversation is 
general (but never impertinent) and his Wit pliable to all 
inventions. But yet his Vanity, if he has any, gives no 
oRoy to his Wit, and is no more than might justly spring 
from conscious virtue; and I do him but justice in this 
part of his Character, for in once travelling with him from 

Printed at Boston, in New England. By Benjamin HarrUy over against 
the (M Meeting House, 1692," 13 pp. 

3. SewralAets and Laws, &c. Imprint, Boston. Printed by Benjamin 
Harris, Printer to His Excellency the Goveraour and Council, 1692. 16 pp. 
These are the Acts, &c., of the first Session, begun June 8, 1692. 

3. Ads and Latcs, dx., with the Imprint and the order of Gov. Phips as 
stated by Mr. Thomas. These are the Acts, &c., of what is called in the 
title page the Second Session, " Begun the eighth day of June, 1692, and 
continued by adjournment unto Wednesday the twelfth day of October 
following." Besides the title and table of contents there are ninety pages 
to this part. 

4. Another title page, with the Acts and Laws of the Third Session, ter- 
minating on the succeeding eighth of February. 6 pp. The date is 


5. Another title page, with the Acts and Laws of the Fourth Session, 
ending on the second day of March. 2 pp. This has upon the title page 
the arms of the English crown. Subsequent Acts and Laws of 1693, 
bear the imprint of Bartholomew Green. — U. 


Bury-Fair, I found him to be the most ingenious and 
innocent Companion, that I had ever met with." ^ 

Timothy Green was the son of Samuel Green, junior, 
of Boston, and grandson of Samuel Green of Cambridge. 
The earliest books which I have met with of his print- 
ing, bear date in 1700. He had a printing house at the 
north part of the town, in Middle street, near Cross street 
He printed and sold some books on his own account ; but, 
as was customary, printed principally for booksellers. 
The imprint to some of his books is, " Boston : Printed 
by Timothy Green, at the North Part of the Town.'' I have 
seen other books printed at the same time by his uncle 
Bartholomew, with this imprint, " Boston : Printed by B. 
Green, at the South Part of the Town.'' Althougfi several 
printers had succeeded each other, there had never been 
more than two printing houses open at the same time in 
Boston ; and, at this period, it does not appear that the 
number was increased. T. Green continued in business, 
at Boston, until 1714. He then received encouragement 
from the general assembly of Connecticut, and removed 
his press to New London. [See Printers in Connecticut.'] 

Jambs Printer, alias James the Printer. This man was 
an Indian native ; born at an Indian town called Hassana- 
mesitt,* now the town of Grafton, in the county of Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. His father was a deacon of the 
church of Indian Christians established in that place. 
James had two brothers; the one, named Anaweakin, 

^Dunton't Life aiid Errors^ printed in London, 1705. Dun ton was an 
English bookseller, who had been in Boston ; he was bred to this business 
by Thomas Parkhurst, who published Ma therms Magnalia, and other books 
for New England ministers. Dun ton had a knowledge of the booksellers 
in England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and New England ; and published 
sketches of their characters. [See Booksellers^ Boston.] 

* Signifying a place of small stones. 

96 History of Printing ^in America. 

was their ruler ; the other, named Tarkuppawillin, was 
their teacher ; they were all esteemed on account of their 
piety, and considered as the principal persons of that Indian 
village.* James, when a child, was taught at the Indian 
charity school, at Cambridge, to read and write the English 
language, where, probably, he received the Christian name 
of James. In 1659, he was put apprentice to Samuel 
Green, printer, in that place, which gave him the surname 
of Printer. Green instructed him in the art of printing ; 
and employed him whilst his apprentice as a pressman, 
&c., in printing the first edition of the Indian Bible. 

A war taking place between James's countrymen and 
the white people, James, fired with a spark of the amor 
patricBj left his master secretly, and joined his brethren in 
arms. A number of skirmishes were fought, in all which 
the Indians were repulsed with loss ; they, in consequence, 
became disheartened ; and the associated tribes separated, 
and retired to their respective places of residence; at 
which time, 1676, the government of Massachusetts issued 
a proclamation, or, as Hubbard, in his Narrative of the 
Indian WarSj terms it, " Put forth a Declaration, that what- 
soever Indians should within fourteen days next ensuing, 
come in to the English, might hope for mercy. Amongst 
sundry who came in, there was one named James the 
Printer, the superadded Title distinguishing him from others 
of that name, who being a notorious Apostate, that had 
learned so much of the English, as not only to read 
and write, but had attained some skill in printing, and 
might have attained more, had he not like a false villain 
run away from his Master before his time was out; he 
having seen and read the said Declaration of the English, 
did venture himself upon the Truth thereof, and came to 
sue for his life ; he aflirmed with others that came along 

* Major Daniel Gookin's account of the Indians in New England. 


with him, that more Indians had died since the War began 
of diseases (such as at other times they used not to be 
acquainted withal) than by the sword of the English." * 
In this war, the Narraganset Indians lost their celebrated 
chief, king Philip, of Mount Hope ; after which the colony 
enjoyed great tranquillity. 

James, it is supposed, remained in and near Boston till 
1680; and, doubtless, worked at the printing business, 
either with his former master, at Cambridge, or with 
Foster, who had lately set up a press, the first established 
in Boston, and must have well known James, who lived 
with Green when Foster was at college. In 1680, he was 
engaged with Green at Cambridge in printing the second 
edition of the Indian Bible. The Rev. John Eliot, in a 
letter to the Hon. Robert Boyle at London, dated March, 
1682-3, observes respecting this second edition, " I desire 
to see it done before I die, and I am so deep in years, that 
I cannot expect to live long ; besides, we have but one 
man, viz., the Indian Printer, that is able to compose the 
Sheets, and correct the Press with understanding." In 
another letter, dated " Roxbury, April 22, 1684," to the 
Hon. Mr. Boyle, from the Rev. Mr. Eliot, he mentions, 
" We present your honours with one book, so far as we 
have gone in the work, and humbly beseech that it may 
be acceptable till the whole Bible is finished ; and then 
the whole impression (which is two thousand) is at your 
honours command. Our slow progress needeth an apol- 
ogy- W® have been much hindered by the sickness 
the last year. Our workmen have been all sick, and we 
have but few hands (at printing) one Englishman, and 
a boy, and one Indian^ and many interruptions and 

* Hubbard's Narrattte of the Troubles with Hie Indians in New England^ 
&c., 4to edition ; " printed by Autliority," at Boston, 1677, p. 96. 

' Undoubtedly J. Printer. This surname of Printer was continued by 
the descendants of James, who owned and left to his posterity some 


98 History of Printing in America. 

diversions do befall us, and we could do but little this 
very hard winter." 

We hear no more of James until the year 1709, when an 
edition of the Psalter, in the Indian and English languages, 
made its appearance with the following imprint. — " Bos- 
ton, N. E. Printed by B. Green and J. Printer^ for the 
Honourable Company for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in New England, &c." — In Indian thus, Upprinihoviunneau 
B. Green, kah J. Printer, wutche quhiianiamwe Chapanukkeg 
wutche onchektouunnat wunnaunchummookaonk ut New En- 
gland. 1709.* 

Some of James's descendants were long living in 
Grafton ; they bore the surname of Printer. 

Thomas Fleet was born in England and there bred to 
the printing business. When young he took an active part 
in opposition to the high church party. On some public 
procession, probably that of Dr. Sacheverel, when many 
of the zealous members of the high church decorated their 
doors and windows with garlands, as the head of their 
party passed in the streets. Fleet is said to have hung 
out of his window an ensign of contempt, which inflamed 
the resentment of his opponents to that degree, that he 
was obliged to secrete himself from their rage, and to 
embrace the first opportunity to quit his country. 

valuable tracts of land in Grafton, county of Worcester, Mass., the place 
of bis nativity. An action respecting a part of this land, owned by 
Abigail Printer, was decided in the Court of Common Pleas, in said 
Worcester in 1810. She was probably, the great-granddaughter of James. 

'Bartholomew Green was the son of James's former master; James 
was well known among all the neighboring tribes ; and one motive for 
employing him in printing this Psalter, might have been, to excite the 
greater attention among the Indians, and give it a wider circulation ; 
besides, his knowledge of both* languages enabled him to expedite the 
work with more facility and correctness than any other person. 

Several books were, about this time, translated into the Indian language, 
and print<;d, which might have afforded employment to James ; but I have 
seen only the Psalter with his name as the printer. 

Massachusetts. 99 

He arrived at Boston about the year 1712, and soon 
opened a printing house in Pudding Lane, now Devon- 
shire street. The eariiest book I have seen of his print- 
ing bears date 1713. He was a good workman ; was a 
book printer, and he and T. Crump were concerned in 
printing some books together. 

But the principal performances of Fleet, until he began 
the publication of a newspaper, consisted of pamphlets 
for booksellers, small books for children, and ballads. He 
made a profit on these, which was sufficient to support 
his family reputably. He owned several negroes, one of 
which worked at the printing business, both at the press 
and at setting types; he was an ingenious man, and cut, 
on wooden blocks, all the pictures which decorated the 
ballads and small books of his master. Fleet had also two 
negro boys born in his house; sons, I believe, to the man 
just mentioned, whom he brought up to work at press and 
case ; one named Pompey and the other Cesar ; they were 
young when their master died ; but they remained in the 
family, and continued to labor regularly in the printing 
house with the sons of Mr. Fleet, who succeeded their 
father, until the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted in 
1780, made them freemen.* 

Fleet continued printing in Pudding Lane, till early in 
1731, he then hired a handsome house in Cornhill, on the 
north comer of Water street, which he afterwards pur- 
chased ; and occupied it through the residue of his life. 
He erected a sign of the Heart and Crown, which he never 
altered ; but after his death, when crowns became unpopu- 
lar, his sons changed the Crown for a Bible, and let the 
Heart remain. Fleet's new house was spacious, and con- 
tained sufficient room for the accommodation of his 

' See discussion of this question in Massaehuselts Historical Collections^ 4th 
series, iv, 333, and Moore's Notes on the History of Slavery in MassachasettSy 
200.— IT. 

100 History of Printing in America. 

family and the prosecution of his printing business, besides 
a convenient shop, and a good chamber for an auction 
room. He held his vendues in the evening, and sold 
books, household goods, &c., as appears by the following 
advertisement which he inserted in the Boston Weekly 
News-Letter, March 7th, 1731. 

" This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Merchants, 
Shopkeepers and others, that Thomas Fleet of Boston, 
Printer, (who formeriy kept his Printing House in Pud- 
ding Lane but is now removed into Cornhill at the sign of 
the Heart ^ Orowriy near the lower end of School Street), 
is willing to undertake the Sale of Books, Household 
Goods, Wearing Apparel, or any other Merchandize, by 
T^ endue or Auction. The said Fleet having a large & 
commodious Front Chamber fit for this Business, and a 
Talent well known and approved, doubts not of giving 
entire Satisfaction to such as may employ him in it ; he 
hereby engaging to make it appear that this Service may 
be performed with more Convenience and less Charge at 
a private House well situated, than at a Tavern. And, 
for further Encouragement, said Fleet promises to make 
up Accompts with the Owners of the Goods Sold by him, 
in a few Days after the sale thereof." 

In September, 1731, a new periodical paper was pub- 
lished in Boston, entitled. The Weekly Rehearsal; intended 
principally, to contain essays, moral, political and com- 
mercial.^ John Draper wa« first employed to print the 
Bchearsal for the editor, but soon relinquished it, and 
Fleet succeeded him as the printer of it ; and, in April, 
1733, he published the Rehearsal on his own account. It 
was then, and had been in fact, from the beginning, no 
more than a weekly newspaper ; but, while in the manage- 
ment of Fleet, it was the best paper at that time published 

> See Heli^arsal, in tlie History of Newspai)er8 in this work. 

Massachusetts. 101 

in New England. In August, 1735, Fleet changed The 
Weekly Rehearsal into The Boston Evening Post. The last 
number of the Rehearsal was 201, and the first number of 
the Evening Post, was 202, which shows that the Evening 
Post was then intended to be a continuation of the Rehear- 
sal; but the next Boston Evening Post was numbered 2, 
and it became a new hebdomadal paper, which was pub- 
lished every Monday evening. 

Fleet was industrious and economical ; free from super- 
stition ; and possessed a fund of wit and humor, which 
were often displayed in his paragraphs and advertisements. 
The members of Fleet's family, although they were very 
worthy, good people, were not, all of them, remarkable for 
the pleasantness of their countenances ; on which account 
he would, sometimes, indulge himself in jokes which were 
rather coarse, at their expense. He once invited an inti- 
mate friend to .dine with him on pouts ; a kind of fish 
of which the gentleman was remarkably fond. When 
dinner appeared, the guest remarked that the pouts were 
wanting. " no,*' said Fleet, " only look at my wife and 

The following is an advertisement of Fleet, for the sale 
of a negro woman — it is short and pithy, viz : " To be 
sold by the Printer of this paper, the very best Negro 
Woman in this Town, who has had the small pox and the 
measles ; is as hearty as a Horse, as brisk as a Bird, and 
will work like a Beaver." The Evening Post, Aug, 23, 1742. 

In number 50 of The Boston Evening Post, Fleet pub- 
lished the following paragraph, under the Boston head : 
" We have lately received from an intelligent and worthy 
Friend in a neighboring Government, to the Southward of 
us, the following remarkable Piece of If ews, which we beg 
our Readers Patience to hear, viz : That the printer there 
gets a great deal of Money, has Twenty Shillings for every 
Advertisement published in his Xews-Paper, calls Us 


102 History of Printing in America. 

Fools for working for nothing, and has lately purchased 
an Estate of Fourteen Hundred Pounds Value.^ We should 
be heartily glad (had we Cause for it) to return our Friend 
a like surprizing Account of the Printers Prosperity here. 
But alas! the reverse of our Brother's Circumstances 
seems hereditary to Us: It is well known we are the 
most humble, self-denying Set of Mortals (we wish we 
could say Men) breathing ; for where there is a Penny to 
be got, we readily resign it up to those who are no Ways 
related to the Business, nor have any Pretence or Claim 
to the Advantages of it* And whoever has observed our 
Conduct hitherto, has Reason enough to think, that we 
hold it a mortal Crime to make any other Use of our 
Brains and Hands, than barely to help us 

*' To purchase homely Fare, and fresh small Beer, 
(Hard Fate indeed, we can't have better Cheer ! ) 
And buy a new Blue Apron once a year.^ 

'* But as we propose in a short Time to publish a Disser- 
tation upon the mean and humble state of the Printers of this 
Town, we shall say no more at present upon this important 
Subject, and humbly Pardon for so large a Digression. 
Only we would inform, that in this most necessary Work, 
we are promised the Assistance of a worthy Friend and 
able Casuist, who says he doubts not but that he shall 
easily make it appear, even to the Satisfaction of the 

"This friend, it is supposed, was James Franklin, nephew to Dr. Ben- 
jamin Franklin, who was established in Rhode Island ; and, at that time, 
the paper currency of that colony was greatly depreciated. 

• Two or three of the Boston newspapers were then printed for post- 
masters, or past postmasters ; and printing in general was done for book- 
sellers. Master printers had but little more profit on their labor than 

■ It was usual then, and for many years after, for printers, when at 
work, to wear blue or green cloth aprons ; and it would have been well if 
this practice had not been laid aside. 

Massachusetts. 103 

Printers themselves, that they may be as good Christians/ 
as useful ITeighbors, and as loyal Subjects, altho' they 
should sometimes feed upon Beef and Pudding^ as they 
have hitherto approved themselves by their most rigid 
abstemious way of living." 

In February, 1744, a comet made its appearance and 
excited much alarm. Fleet on this occasion published the 
following remarks : " The Comet now rises about five 
o'clock in the Morning, and appears very large and bright, 
and of late it has been seen (with its lucid Train) in the 
Day-time, notwithstanding the Luster of the Sun. This 
uncommon Appearance gives much uneasiness to timo- 
rous People, especially Women, who will needs have it, 
that it portends some dreadful Judgments to this our Land : 
And if, from the Apprehension of deserved Judgments, 
we should be induced to abate of our present Pride and 
Extravagance, &c., and should become more humble, 
peaceable and charitable, honest and just, industrious and 
frugal, there will be Reason to think, that the Covfut is the 
most profitable Itinerant Preacher* and friendly New Light 
that has yet appeared among us." — Evening Post, No. 446. 

Fleet had often occasion to complain of the delin- 
quency of his customers in making payment for his 
paper; and in reminding them of their deficiency he 
sometimes indulged himself in severity of remark, that 
men of great religious professions and service should 
neglect to pay him his just demands. One of his dunning 
advertisements is as follows : 

" It will be happy for many People, if Injustice, Extor- 
tion and Oppression are found not to be Crimes at the last ; 
which seems now by their Practice to be their settled 

' Most of the printers in Boston, at tliat time, were members of the 
church ; to which circumstance Fleet, probably, alluded. 

'Preachers of this class, w^ho with their adherents w^cre vulgarly called 
New LightSy were then frequent in and about Boston. 

104 History of Printing in America. 

Opinion : And it would be well for the Publisher of this 
Paper, if a great many of his Customers were not of the 
same Sentiments. Every one, almost, thinks he has a 
Right to read News ; but few find themselves inclined to 
pay for it. 'Tis great pity a Soil that will bear Piety so 
well, should not produce a tolerable Crop of Common 
Honesty."— Evening Post, ITo. 690, Oct., 1748. 

The preceding extracts from the Evening Post, are sufli- 
cient to enable our readers to form some acquaintance 
with the publisher of that paper ; and, when they consider 
the time when the extracts were published, they will be 
the more pleased with his independence of character. 
Fleet published the Evening Post until his death ; and his 
sons continued it till the memorable battle at Lexington, 
in 1775, the commencement of the revolutionary war, 
when its publication ceased. He was printer to the house 
of representatives in 1729, 1730 and 1731. He died in 
July, 1758, aged seventy-three years ; was possessed of a 
handsome property, and left a widow, three sons, and two 
daughters. One of the sons, and the two daughters, were 
never married. 

T. Crump. — The first book I have seen with Crump's 
name in it, was printed in 1716, by T. Fleet and himself. 
Fleet and Crump printed several books together, but never, 
I believe, formed a regular partnership. It seems to have 
been the custom with master printers in Boston, at that 
time, when their business was on a very small scale, 
instead of hiring those who had served a regular appren- 
ticeship at the trade, as journeymen, to admit them as 
temporary partners in work, and to draw a proportion of 
the profit. For example, two printers agreed to a joint 
agency in printing a book, and their names appeared in 
the imprint; if one of them was destitute of types, he 
allowed the other for the use of his printing materials, the 

Massachusetts. 105 

service of apprentices, &c., and when the book came from 
the press, the bookseller (most books were then printed 
for booksellers), paid each of the printers the sum due for 
his proportion of the work; and the connection ceased 
until a contract was formed for a new job. This method 
accounts for a fact of which many have taken notice, viz., 
books appear to have been printed the same year by T. 
Fleet and T. Crump, and by T. Fleet separately ; and so 
of others. This was the case with Samuel Green and 
Marmaduke Johnson, at Cambridge. Their names appear 
together in the imprint of a book, and in the same year 
the name of S. Green appears alone. The same thing took 
place with Bartholomew Green and John Allen, and with 
Benjamin Harris and John Allen. Allen's name often 
appeared with Green's, and sometimes with Harris's ; but 
still oftener the names of Green and Harris appear alone 
in the books isaued from their respective printing houses. 
I can recollect that, when a lad, I knew several instances 
of this kind of partnership. 

Crump, after his connection with Fleet, printed some 
books, in which his name only appears in the imprints. 
He did but little business. I have not seen any thing 
printed by him after the year 1718. 

Samuel Kneeland began business about the year 1718. 
His printing house was in Prison lane,^ the corner of 
Dorset's alley. This building wag occupied for eighty 
years as a printing house by Kneeland and those who suc- 
ceeded him; Eneeland was born in Boston, and served 
an apprenticeship with Bartholomew Green. He had 
respectable friends, who, soon after he became of age, fur- 
nished him with means to procure printing materials. 
Eneeland was a good workman, industrious in his business, 

* Now Court street. 

106 History of Printing in America, 

and punctual to his engagements. Many books issued 
from his press for himself and for booksellers, before and 
during his partnership with Timothy Green, the second 
printer of that name, 

William Brooker, being appointed postmaster at Boston, 
he, on Monday, December 21st, 1719, began the publica- 
tion of another newspaper in that place. This was the 
second published in the British colonies, in North Ame- 
rica, and was entitled The Boston Gazette, James Franklin 
was originally employed as the printer of this paper ; but, 
in two or three months after the publication commenced, 
Philip Musgrave was appointed postmaster, and became 
the proprietor. He took the printing of it from Frank- 
lin, and gave it to Kneeland. 

In 1727, a new postmaster became proprietor of the 
Gazette, and the printer was again changed. Soon after 
this event, in the same year, Kneeland commenced 
the publication of a fourth newspaper,^ entitled. The New 
England Journal. This was the second newspaper in New 
England published by a printer on his own account. In 
four months after the establishment of this paper, Knee- 
land formed a partnership with Green already mentioned, 
son of that Timothy Green who, some years before, 
removed to New London. The firm was Kneeland & 
Green. Wh6n this partnership took place, Kneeland 
opened a bookshop in King, now State street, on his own 
account, and Green managed the business of the printing 
house for their mutual interest. After attending to book- 
selling, for four or five years, Kneeland gave up his shop, 
returned to the printing house, and took an active part in 
all its concerns. They continued the publication of The 
New England Journal^ nearly fifteen years ; when, on the 

* The New England Courant had been printed several years before, but 
at this time was discontinued. 

Massachusetts. 107 

decease of the proprietor of the Boston Gazette^ his heirs, 
for a small consideration, resigned that paper to Xneeland 
and Green. They united the two papers under the title 
of The Boston Gazette, and Weekly Journal. 

The partnership of Kneeland and Green was continued 
for twenty-five years. In 1752, in consequence of the 
father of Green, in New London, having become aged and 
infirm, the partnership was dissolved, and Green removed 
to that place, where he assumed his father's business.^ 
The concerns of the printing house were, after Green went 
to Connecticut, continued by Kneeland with his accustomed 
energy. Soon after the dissolution of their partnership, 
The Boston Gazette and Weekly Journal was discontinued ; 
and Kneeland, when a few months had elapsed, began 
another paper entitled The Boston Gazette or Weekly Adver- 

The booksellers of this time were enterprising. Knee- 
land and Green printed, principally for Daniel Henchman, 
an edition of the Bible in small 4to. This was the first 
Bible printed, in America, in the English language. It 
was carried through the press as privately as possible, and 
had the London imprint of the copy from which it was 
reprinted, viz : " London : Printed by Mark Baskett, 
Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty," in order 
to prevent a prosecution from those in England and Scot- 
land, who published the Bible by a patent from the crown ; 
or, Ciim pridlegiOj as did the English universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. When I was an apprentice, I often 
heard those who had assisted at the case and press in 
printing this Bible, make mention of the fact. The late 

' In the Hiatorical Magazine^ ix, new series, 39, and Boston TrareUer^ Sept. 
6, 1866, the Christian History^ printed weekly for Thomas Prince Jr. by 
Kneeland and Green, in 1743-4, is claimed to have been the first religious 
newspaper in the world. — M. 

^ See Newspapers, Appendix, vol. ii. 

108 History of Printing in America. 

Governor Hancock was related to Henchman, and knew 
the particulars of the transaction. He possessed a copy of 
this impression. As it has a London imprint, at this day 
it can be distinguished from an English edition, of the 
same date, only by those who are acquainted with the 
niceties of typography. This Bible issued from the i>re88 
about the time that the partnership of Kneeland and Green 
expired. The edition was not large ; I have been informed 
that it did not exceed seven or eight hundred copies.' 

An edition of the New Testament, in duodecimo, was 
printed by Rogers and Fowle, not long before the time 
when this impression of the Bible came from the press, 
for those at whose expense it was issued. Both the 
Bible and the Testament were well executed. These 
were heavy undertakings for that day, but Henchman was 
a man of property ; and it is said that several other prin- 
cipal booksellers in Boston were concerned with him in 
this business. The credit of this edition of the Testament 
was, for the reason I have mentioned, transferred to the 
king's printer, in London, by the insertion of his imprint 

Kneeland was, for a great length of time, printer to the 
governor and council, and during several years he printed 
the acts, laws and journals of the house of representatives. 
He was diligent, and worked at case when far advanced in 
years. The books he published were chiefly on religious 
subjects; he printed some political pamphlets. He was 
independent in his circumstances ; a member of the Old 
South church ; and was a pious, friendly, and benevolent 
man. He left four sons, all of whom were printers ; two 
of them, Daniel and John, set up a press, in partnership, 

* The authenticity of tliis statement has been questioned by Bancroft, 
the historian, and an account of some fruitless investigations concerning 
the edition is given in 0' Callagfian's Lhl of Editions of Atnerican Bibles^ 
p. xiii. — M. 

Massachusetts. 109 

before their father's death ; but the other two never were 
in business on their own account. 

He died December 14, 1769, aged seventy-three years. 
The following is extracted from the Evening Post of Decem- 
ber 18, 1769 : " Last Thursday died, after a long indispo- 
sition, Mr. Samuel Kneeland, formerly, for many years, 
an eminent Printer in this Town. He sustained the 
character of an upright man and a good Christian, and as 
such was universally esteemed. He continued in business 
till through age and bodily Infirmities he was obliged to 
quit it. His Funeral was very respectfully attended on 
Saturday Evening last." 

James Franklin was the brother of the celebrated Dr. Ben- 
jamin Franklin. He was born in Boston, where his father, 
who was a respectable man, carried on the business of a 
tallow chandler, at the Blue Ball, corner of Union street. 
With this brother Dr. Franklin lived several years, as an 
apprentice, and learned the art of printing. I have been 
informed that James Franklin served an apprenticeship 
with a printer in England, where his father was born, and 
had connections. 

In March, 17jf ,^ J. Franklin came from London with a 
press and types, and began business in Boston. At first 
he printed a few pamphlets for booksellers. In 1719, a 

* Before the new style took place in 1752, there was much confusion 
respecting daies^ particularly in regard to the months of January and 
February. Some writers began the year in January, and others in March. 
The difficulty was to determine whether January and February closed an 
old year, or began a new one. It became necessary to have some mode, 
by which it might be known to what year January and February belonged, 
whenever these months were mentioned. For this purpose the following 
method was adopted: During January, February, and to the 25th of 
March, the year was thus marked, 1716-17, or 17}f, meaning, that by the 
ancient mode of calculating, the month mentioned belonged to the year 
1716 ; but, by the new calculation, to tlie year 1717. After the 24th of 
March there was no difficulty ; for by both calculations, the succeeding 
months were Included in the new year. 

110 History of Printing in America. 

postmaster was appointed who established a second news- 
paper ; for until this time The Boston News-Letter was the 
only paper which had been published in British America. 
The title of the new paper was The Boston Gazette^ and J. 
Franklin was employed to print it;^ but, within seven 
months, Philip Musgrave, being appointed to the postr 
office, became the proprietor of the Gazette^ and employed 
another printer ; and Franklin employed his press other- 
wise until August 6, 1721 ; when, encouraged by a num- 
ber of respectable characters, who were desirous of having 
a paper of a different cast from those then published, he 
began the publication, at his own risk, of a third news- 
paper, entitled. The New England Courant. Franklin's 
father and many of his friends were inimical to this under- 
taking. They supposed that one newspaper was enough 
for the whole continent; and they apprehended that 
another must occasion absolute ruin to the printer. 
Franklin, notwithstanding their remonstrances, continued. 
This weekly publication, like the others issued in Boston, 
contained only a foolscap half sheet, but occasionally was 
enlarged to a whole sheet. The patrons of the paper 
formed themselves into a club, and furnished it with short 
original essays, generally one for each week, in imitation 
of the Spectator and other periodical publications of that 
class. These essays soon brought the Courant into notice ; 
the rigid puritans warmly opposed it ; but men of differ- 

^ Dr. Franklin, in writing his life, was incorrect in asserting, that the 
Courant was the second newspaper published in America. There were 
three papers published at that time, viz., first, Tlie Boston News-Letter ; 
secondly, The Boston Gazette ; and the third was The American Mercury, 
published at Philadelphia ; of course the Courant was the fourth. The 
doctor probably fell into this mistake, from his knowledge that his brother 
first printed the Gazette, which, in fact, was the second paper published 
in Boston. He seems to have mentioned the events of his youth 
from recollection only; therefore, we cannot wonder if he erred in 
respect to some circumstances of minor importance. In more matei'ial 
concerns, he was substantially correct. 

Massachusetts. Ill 

ent sentiments supported it. Among others, the Rev. 
Increase Mather, who was one of Franklin^s first sub- 
scribers, very soon denounced The Couranty by an adver- 
tisement in The Boston Gazette^ No, 114.^ 

The Courant contained very little news, and but few 
advertisements. It took a decided part against the advo- 
cates of inoculation for the small pox, which was then 
beginning to be introduced : it was hostile to the clergy, 
and to some of the most influential men in civil govern- 
ment ; and, it attacked some of the religious opinions of 
the day; in consequence, frequent assaults were made 
upon its writers; and, in their defence, they * abounded 
more in severe, and not always the most refined, satire, 
than in argument. While, therefore, the Courant gained 
a currency with one part of the community, it excited the 
resentment of another, and soon attracted the notice of 

Franklin had not published The New England Courant 
twelve months, before he was taken into custody, publicly 
censured, and imprisoned four weeks, by the government, 
for publishing what were called scandalous libels, &c.' 

Being released from his confinement, he continued the 
publication of the Courant until January 14, 1723, when 
an order of council, in which the house of representatives 
concurred, directed, " That James Franklin be strictly 
forbidden by this Court to Print or Publish the New 
England Courant^ or any Pamphlet or Paper of the like 
Nature, except it be first supervised by the Secretary of 
this Province."* This order, this stride of despotism, 
could, it seems, at that time, be carried into eflfect ; but, 
at this day, a similar attempt would excite indignation, or 
a contemptuous smile. 

* For this advertisement, see History of New»papei'8 — Boston. 

' See resolve of council, July 5th, 1722, in HUtory of Newspapers. 

* For this act of the legislature, see Newspapers. 

112 ^ History of Printing in America. 

Franklin was not inclined to subject his paper to licensers 
of the press, and he was unwilling to stop the publication 
of it ; but, he dared not proceed in defiance of the order 
of the legislature. The club wished for the continuance 
of the paper; and, a consultation on the subject was 
held in Franklin's printing house, the result of which 
was, that to evade the order of the legislature, the New 
England Courant should, in future, be published by Benja- 
min Franklin, then an apprentice to James. Accordingly, 
the next Courant had the following imprint: "Boston, 
printed and sold by Benjamin Franklin, in Queen Street, 
where advertisements are taken in." About a year after- 
ward, J. Franklin removed his printing house to TJnion 
street. The Courant was published in the name of Benja- 
min Franklin, for more than three years ; ^ and, probably, 
until its publication ceased; but it appears from Dr. 
Franklin's life, that he did not remain for a long time 
with his brother after the Courant began to be printed in 
his name. 

J. Franklin remained in Boston for several years. He 
continued to publish the Courant^ and printed several 
small works. He had a brother, by the name of John, 
who was married and settled at Newport in the business 
of a tallow chandler. Not satisfied with his situation in 
Boston, and receiving an invitation from his brother and 
other persons in Rhode Island, he removed to Newport, 
and set up the first printing press in that colony ; and, in 
the latter part of September, 1732, he published the first 
number of The Rhode Island Gazette. — See Rhode Island. 

James Franklin had learned, in England, the art of 
calico printing, and did something at the business, both 
in Boston and Newport. The Boston Gazette of April 25, 
1720, then printed by him for the postmaster, contains 

' Appendix G. 

Massachusetts. 113 

the following advertisement : " The Printer hereof prints 
Linens, Calicoes, Silks, &c., in good Figures, very lively 
and durable colours, and without the offensive smell which 
commonly attends the Linens printed here."^ 

Benjamin Franklin. Well known and highly cele- 
brated in this country and in Europe, was born in Boston, 
January 17th, 170|. His father was an Englishman, and 
served an apprenticeship with a silk dyer in ITorthamp- 
tonshire.* He came to Boston with his wife and three 
children ; and, after his arrival in America, he had four 
other children by the same wife. She dying, he married 
a native of New England, by whom he had ten children ; 
two daughters excepted, Benjamin was the youngest child 
by the second wife.* 

Franklin's father settled in Boston; but, finding the 
business to which he had been bred insufficient to afford 
him a maintenance, he relinquished it, and assumed that 
of a soap boiler and tallow chandler, in which occupations 
Benjamin was employed from the tenth to the twelfth 
year of his life. 

Franklin was dissatisfied with the business of his father, 
and felt a strong inclination for a seafaring life. His 
father was extremely averse to that plan, and through fear 
that Benjamin might, in a clandestine manner, get to sea, 
he concluded to bind him apprentice to his nephew, who 
was settled in Boston, as a cutler ; but not agreeing with 
his nephew on conditions, and Benjamin expressing a 
wish to be a printer, his father consented to gratify this 

' James Franklin died in 1735, leaving his printing office to his wife 
and family, who continued it successfully for several years after his 
death. — M. 

•More probably wool dyer in Oxfordshire. See Autobiography of B. 
Franklin.— iZ: 

■ Franklin^ s Life, first London edition, 12mo, from which I have taken 
most of the particulars respecting him. 


114 History of Printing in America. 

inclination. At this time, 1717, James Franklin returned 
from England with printing materials, and commenced 
business in Boston ; and Benjamin, at the age of twelve 


years, signed indentures, and became his apprentice. 

Pleased with his new employment, Franklin soon be- 
came useful to his brother. He borrowed books, and read 
them with avidity and profit. At an early age, he wrote 
stanzas on the capture of Black Beard, a noted pirate, 
and on other occurrences. These verses, he observes, 
" were miserable ditties," but his brother printed them, and 
sent Benjamin about the town to sell them. One of these 
compositions, he remarks, " had a prodigious run, because 
the event was recent, and had made a great noise." 

When his brother printed a newspaper, Benjamin felt 
increased satisfaction with his business ; and he soon 
began, privately, to compose short essays, which he art- 
fully introduced for publication without exciting suspicion 
of his being the author. These were examined and 
approved by the club of writers for the Couranty to the 
great gratification of the writer, who eventually made 
himself known. 

It has already been stated, in the account given of James 
Franklin, that he was forbidden by the General court to 
proceed in the publication of the Courant, except on cer- 
tain conditions. With the terms dictated James deter- 
mined that he would not comply ; and, with a view to 
evade the injunctions of the government, the name of his 
brother Benjamin was substituted in the place of his own, 
and the publication was continued. " To avoid the censure 
of the General assembly, who might charge James Frank- 
lin with still printing the paper under the name of his 
apprentice, it was resolved that Benjamin's indentures 
should be given up to him, with a full and entire discharge 
written on the back, in order to be produced on any 
emergency; but that to secure to James the service of 

Massachusetts. 115 

Benjamin, it was agreed the latter should sign a new eon- 
tract, which should be kept secret during the remainder 
of the term." This, Benjamin observes, in his Life, was 
a very shallow arrangement, but it was put into immediate 
execution'. Though the paper was still issued in Benjamin's 
name, he did not remain with his brother long after this 
arrangement was made. They disagreed, and in the 
eighteenth year of his age he privately quitted James, and 
took passage in a vessel for New York. At this time 
there was but one printer in New York, and from him 
Franklin could obtain no employment ; but he gave our 
adventurer encouragement, that his son, who printed in 
Philadelphia, would furnish him with work. In pursuit of 
this object, he entered a ferry boat on his way to Phila- 
delphia; and, after a very disagreeable passage, reached 
Amboy. From that place he traveled on foot to Burling- 
ton, where he was hospitably entertained, for several days, 
by an aged woman who sold gingerbread. When an 
opportunity presented to take passage in a boat, he 
embraced it, and reached Philadelphia in safety. 

As Franklin afterwards obtained the highest offices in 
civil government, and was greatly celebrated as a states- 
man and a philosopher, the particulars of this apparently 
inauspicious period of his life are singularly interesting ; 
I will, therefore, give his own narrative of his entrance 
into the capital of Pennsylvania, of which he was destined 
to become the governor. 

" On my arrival at Philadelphia, I was in my working 
dress, my best clothes being to come by sea. I was 
covered with dirt ; my pockets were filled with shirts and 
stockings ; I was unacquainted with a single soul in the 
place, and knew not where to seek for a lodging. Fatigued 
with walking, rowing, and having past the night without 
sleep, I was extremely hungry, and all my money consisted 
of a Dutch dollar, and about a shilling's worth of coppers, 

116 History of Printing in America. 

which I gave to the boatmen for my passage. As I had 
assisted them in rowing, they refused it at first; but I 
insisted on their taking it. A man is sometimes more gene- 
rous when he has little, than when he has much money ; 
probably because in the first case he is desirous of con- 
cealing his poverty. I walked towards the top of the street, 
looking eagerly on both sides, till I came to Market street, 
where I met a child with a loaf of bread. Often had I 
made my dinner on dry bread. I enquired where he had 
bought it, and went straight to the baker's shop, which 
he pointed out to me. I asked for some biscuits, expect- 
ing to find such as we had at Boston ; but they made, it 
seems, none of that sort in Philadelphia. I then asked 
for a threepenny loaf. They made no loaves of that price. 
Finding myself ignorant of the prices, as well as the dif- 
ferent kinds of bread, I desired him to let me have three 
penny worth of bread of some kind or other. He gave 
me three large rolls. I was surprized at receiving so 
much; I took them, however, and having no room in my 
pockets, I walked on with a roll under each arm, eating 
the third. In this manner I went through Market street 
to Fourth street, and passed the house of Mr. Read, the 
father of my future wife. She was standing at the door, 
observed me, and thought, with reason, that I made a verj' 
singular and grotesque appearance. 

" I then turned the corner, and went through .Chestnut 
street, eating my roll all the way ; and, having made this 
round, I found myself again on Market street wharf, near 
the boat in which I had arrived. I stepped into it to take 
a draught of the river water ; and, finding myself satisfied 
with my first roll, I gave the other two to a woman and 
her child, who had come down the river with us in the 
boat, and was waiting to continue her journey. Thus 
refreshed, I regained the street, which was now full of 
well dressed people, all going the same way. I joined 

Massachusetts. 117 

them, and was thus led to a large Quaker's meeting-house, 
near the market place. I sat down with the rest, and 
after looking round me for some time, hearing nothing 
said, and being drowsy from my last night's labor and 
want of rest, I fell into a sound sleep. In this state I 
continued till the assembly dispersed, when one of the 
congregation had the goodness to wake me. This was 
consequently the first house I entered, or in which I slept, 
at Philadelphia. 

" I began again to walk along the street by the river 
side, and looking attentively in the face of every one I met, 
I at length perceived a young quaker, whose countenance 
pleased me. I accosted him, and begged him to inform 
me where a stranger might find a lodging. We were 
then near the sign of the Three Mariners. They receive 
travellers here, said he, but it is not a house that bears a 
good character ; if you will go with me I will shew you a 
better one. He conducted me to the Crooked Billet, in 
Water street. There I ordered something for dinner, and 
during my meal a number of curious questions were put 
to me ; my youth and appearance exciting the suspicion 
that I was a runaway. After dinner my drowsiness 
returned, and I threw myself on a bed without taking off 
my clothes, and slept till six o'clock in the evening, when 
I was called to supper. I afterward went to bed at a very 
early hour, and did not awake till the next morning. 

" As soon as I got up I put myself in as decent a trim 
as I could, and went to the house of Andrew Bradford 
the printer. I found his father in the shop, whom I had 
seen at New York. Having travelled on horseback, he 
had arrived at Philadelphia before me. He introduced 
me to his son, who received me with civility, and gave me 
some breakfast; but told me he had no occasion at present 
for a journeyman, having lately procured one. He added, 
that there was another printer newly settled in the town, 

118 History of Printing in America. 

of the name of Keimer, who might, perhaps, employ me ; 
and, that in case of a refusal, I should he welcome to lodge 
at his house, and he would give me a little work now and 
then, till something better should offer. 

" The old man offered to introduce me to the new printer. 
"When we were at his house, * Neighbor,' said he, * I bring 
you a young man in the printing business ; perhaps you 
may have need of his services.' Keimer asked me some 
questions, put a composing stick in my hand to see how I 
could work, and then said, that at present he had nothing 
for me to do, but that he should soon be able to employ 
me. At the same time, taking old Bradford for an 
inhabitant of the town well disposed towards him, he com- 
municated his project to him, and the prospect he had of 
success. Bradford was careful not to betray that he was 
the father of the other printer ; and from what Keimer 
had said, that he hoped shortly to be in possession of the 
greater part of the business of the town, led him by artful 
questions, and by starting some difficulties, to disclose all 
his views, what his hopes were founded upon, and how 
he intended to proceed. I was present, and heard it all. 
I instantly saw that one of the two was a cunning old fox, 
and the other a perfect novice. Bradford left me with 
Keimer, who was strangely surprized when I informed 
him who the old man was." 

Keimer encouraged Franklin with the hope of employ- 
ment in a short time, and he returned to Bradford's. In 
a few days after he began to work for Keimer, but con- 
tinued to board with Bradford. This was not agreeable 
to Keimer, and he procured a lodging for him at Mr. 
Read's, who has been already mentioned. "My trunk 
and effects being now arrived," says Franklin, " I thought 
of making, in the eyes of Miss Read, a more respectable 
appearance, than when chance exhibited me to her view, 
eating my rolls and wandering in the streets." 

Massachusetts. 119 

Franklin remained about seven months in Philadelphia, 
worked for Keimer, and formed many acquaintances, 
some of them very respectable. Accident procured him 
an interview with Governor Keith, who made him great 
promises of friendship and patronage ; persuaded him to 
visit his father, which he accordingly did, and was bearer 
of a letter the governor wrote to him, mentioning the son 
in the most flattering terms ; and recommending his esta- 
blishment as a printer at Philadelphia, under assurances 
of success. Franklin was at this time only in the nine- 
teenth year of his age, and his father declined to assist in 
establishing him in business on account of his youth and 
inexperience ; but he answered Governor Keith's letter, 
thanking him for the attentions and patronage he had 
exercised toward his son. Franklin determined to return 
to Philadelphia. At New York, on his way, he received 
some attentions from the governor of that colony.^ On 
his arrival at Philadelphia he presented his father's letter 
to Governor Keith. The governor disapproved of the cau- 
tion of his father ; still urged the prosecution of the scheme ; 
promised himself to be at all the expense of procuring 
printing materials ; and advised Franklin to make a voy- 
age to England, and select the types, under his own eye, 
at the foundery. To this plan Franklin agreed, and it was 
settled that the design should be kept secret, until an 
opportunity presented for his taking passage for London. 
In the meantime he continued to work for Keimer. 

When a vessel was about to sail, the governor promised 
from day to day to give Franklin letters of credit upon his 
correspondent in London ; and, when he was called on board 
ship, the governor told him that he would send his letters 
to him on board. At the moment of sailing, letters were 
brought from the governor and put into the ship's letter 

* Burnet, who was 8oon after governor of Massachusetts. 

120 History of Printing in America. 

bag; among which Franklin supposed were those that 
had been promised him. But when he reached his port, 
he found, on investigation, that he had neither letters of 
credit nor introduction. The governor had deceived him, 
and he landed a stranger in a strange country. 

Destitute and friendless, Franklin's only means of sup- 
port consisted in his capacity to labor. He immediately 
applied to a printer for employment as a journeyman, and 
obtained it. In this situation he continued for eighteen 
months, and gained much knowledge in the art of print- 
ing. He then formed a connection with a mercantile 
friend, whom he assisted as a clerk ; and, with him, he 
returned to Philadelphia. This friend soon died, and 
Franklin relinquished the plan of mercantile pursuits. 
He returned to the business of a printer as a journeyman; 
but, soon after, opened a printing house of his own ^in 
Philadelphia. [See Philadelphia Priiiters.'] 

Timothy Green, Jun. He was the son of Timothy 
Green, who removed from Boston to New London in 1714 ; 
and great grandson of Samuel Green, of Cambridge. I 
have seen no printing with his name before 1726. One or 
two pamphlets were then printed by S. Kneeland and T. 
Green. Several small publications appeared afterwards 
with Kneeland's name only. In 1727, a regular partner- 
ship took place between them, under the firm of S. Knee- 
land & T. Green. This partnership, as has been mentioned, 
continued till 1752, when he removed to New London, 
and succeeded his father. [See Kneeland and Green^ and 
printers in Connecticut.'] 

Bartholomew Green, Jun., was the son of Bartholomew 
Green, printer of The Boston News-Letter, grandson to 
Samuel Green, who printed at Cambridge, and served an 
apprenticeship with his father. The earliest works I have 

Massachusetts. 121 

Been printed by Bartholomew Green, Jan., are, a small 
book published in 1726, and the Boston Gazette ^ for the 
postmaster, Henry Marshall, in 1727. 

He made use of his press and types in the printing house 
of his father, till 1734 ; and was, occasionally, connected 
with John Draper, his brother-in-law, in printing pamph- 
lets, etc. Draper succeeded to the business of B. Green 
the elder in 1732, in the same house. On the night of the 
30th of January, 1734, this house, with the greatest part 
of its contents, was destroyed by fire. After this misfor- 
tune, B. Green, Jr., formed a copartnership with John 
Bushell and Bezoune Allen.* The firm of this company 
was Green, Bushell k Allen. They printed a number 
of small books for the trade, which were very well executed* 
They used handsome types, and printed on good paper. 
How long this partnership continued, I cannot say ; it was 
dissolved before 1751. 

In September, 1751, Green with his printing materials 
removed to Halifax, Nova Scotia, intending to establish a 
press in that place ; but he died in about five weeks after 
his arrival there, at the age of fifty-two years. On his 
decease, his late partner Bushell went to Halifax, and 
commenced business with Green's press. 

Green left several children, and two of his sons were 
printers. Bartholomew, the eldest of them, never had a 
press of his own. The following peculiarity in his cha- 
racter introduced him to a particular intercourse with the 
merchants of the town ; he made himself so well acquainted 
with every vessel which sailed out of the port of Boston, 

^Bezoune, Bozoun, Bozoune or Bozoon Allen, was an ancient and 
respectable name in Boston. In 1647, an order of the court was signed 
by John Winthrop, Governor, and Bozoun Allen, on the part of the house. 
In 1691, Capt. Bezoone Allen was one of the selectmen. In 1693, Bozoun 
Allen held the same office. In 1694, Capt. Bozoone Allen was assessor. 
In 1700, Bozoon Allen was chosen representative. — Drake's Boston^ pp. 
827, 492, 503, 506, 522.— i?. 

122 History of Printing in America. 

as to know each at sight. Perpetually on the watch, as 
soon as a vessel could be discovered with a spyglass in 
the harbor, he knew it, and gave immediate information 
to the owner; and, by the small fees for this kind of 
information, he principally maintained himself for several 
years. Afterwards he had some office in the custom house. 
John, another son, will be mentioned hereafter. One of 
the daughters of Green was the mother of Mr. Joseph 
Dennie, formerly editor of The Farmer^ s Museum^ at Wal- 
pole, New Hampshire, and also of The Port Folio, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia. Mr. Dennie was reckoned among 
the first scholars in the belles-lettres, which our country 
has produced. 

Gamaliel Rogers served his apprenticeship with Bar- 
tholomew Green the elder. About the year 1729, he 
began business in a printing house near the Mill Bridge. 
He printed for the booksellers. In 1742, he commenced 
a partnership with Daniel Fowle, under the firm of EocJers 
& Fowle. They opened a printing house in Prison lane, 
for some time called Queen street, and now named Court 
street. For those times they entered largely into business, 
and the books they printed, in magnitude and variety, 
exceeded the usual works of the country. A number of 
octavo and duodecimo volumes issued from their house; and 
their printing was executed with accuracy and neatness. 
Several of these books were printed on their own account. 

In 1743, they issued J7ie American Magazine, It was 
published in numbers, monthly, printed in a handsome 
manner, and in its execution was deemed equal to any work 
of the kind then published in London. Several respecta- 
ble booksellers were interested in this magazine. It was 
continued for three years. 

In the beginning of the year 1748, they commenced the 
publication of a newspaper entitled The Independent Adver- 

Massachusetts. 123 

User. A'number of able writers supported and enlivened 
this publication. Its prominent features were political. 
In 1750, they closed the business of the firm, and the 
Independent Advertiser was then discontinued. 

During the partnership of Rogers and Fowle, they 
printed an edition of about two thousand copies of the 
New Testament, 12mo, for D. H6nchman and two or 
three other principal booksellers, as has been already 
observed. This impression of the Testament, the first in 
the English language printed in this country, was, as I 
have been informed, completed at the press before Knee- 
land and Green began the edition of the Bible which has 
been mentioned. Zechariah Fowle, with whom I served 
my apprenticeship, as well as several others, repeatedly 
mentioned to me this edition of the Testament. He was, 
at the time, a journeyman with Rogers and Fowle, and 
worked at the press. He informed me that, on account 
of the weakness of his constitution, he greatly injured his 
health by the performance. Privacy in the business was 
necessary; and as few hands were intrusted with the 
secret, the press work was, as he thought, very laborious. 
I mention these minute circumstances in proof that an 
edition of the Testament did issue from the office of Rogers 
and Fowle, because I have heard that the fact has been 

Rogers and Fowle were correct printers. They used 
good types, paper, and excellent ink of their own manu- 
facture. They were the only printers, I believe, who at 
that time could make good ink. The printing ink used 
in this country, until later, was chiefly imported from 
Europe. In the first stages of printing, printers made 
their own ink and types ; but the manufacture of types 
and ink soon became separate branches of business. Most 
of the bad printing in the United States, particularly in 
New England, during the revolutionary war, was occa- 

124 History of Printing in America. 

sioned by the wretched ink, and more wretched paper, 
which printers were then under the necessity of using. 

After the dissolution of the partnership of Rogers and 
Fowle, Rogers removed to the west part of the town, then 
called New Boston ; and there opened a printing house. 
For two or three years he did a little business in this place, 
when his printing house was, unfortunately, burnt down. 
By this accident he was deprived of his press, and the 
principal part of his types. Having lost most of his pro- 
perty, he did no more business as a printer. His spirits 
were broken, and he appeared dejected. At an advanced 
period of life he opened a small shop opposite to the Old 
South church, where he supported his family by retailing 
ardent spirits in small quantities, trifling articles of grocery, 
and by vending a few pamphlets, the remnant of his stock. 
I went myself frequently to his shop, when a minor. He 
knew that I lived with a printer, and for this, or some 
other reason, was very kind to me; he gave me some 
books of his printing, and, what was of more value to me, 
good advice. He admonished me diligently to attend to 
my business, that I might become a reputable printer. I 
held him in high veneration, and often recollected his 
instructions, which, on many occasions, proved beneficial 
to me. 

Rogers was industrious, and an excellent workman ; an 
amiable, sensible man, and a good Christian. In 1775, 
soon after the battle at Bunker's hill, when Boston was 
wholly in possession of the British troops, and besieged by 
the provincials, Rogers was among a number of the infirm 
and invalid inhabitants of that town who obtained permis- 
sion from the British general to leave it He sought an 
asylum at Ipswich ; removed there, and died at that place 
in the autumn of that year, aged 70. He left several 
daughters but no sons; two of his daughters married 
clergymen; one of them was the wife of the Rev. Elijah 

Massachusetts. 125 

Parsons of EastHaddam, in Connecticut, and the other the 
second wife of the Reverend Mr. Dana of Ipswich. 

John Draper, was the son of Richard Draper, a trader 
in Boston. He served his apprenticeship with Bartholo- 
mew Green, Sen., whose daughter he married ; and, at the 
decease of his father-in-law, occupied his printing house in 
Newhury street. 

In September, 1731, Draper commenced the publication 
of a political paper, entitled The Weekly Rekearsal. It was 
printed, according to the custom of those times, on a half 
sheet of small paper ; and was carried on at the expense 
of some gentlemen who formed themselves into a political 
or literary club, and wrote for it. At the head of this club 
was the late celebrated Jeremy Gridley, Esq.,* who was 
the real editor of the paper. The receipts for the Rehearsal 
never amounted to more than enough to defray the expense 
of publication. Draper printed this paper only about a 
year and a half, and at the expiration of about four years 
it was discontinued. 

On the 28th of December, 1732, Bartholomew Green 
died, and Draper succeeded him in his business ; particu- 
larly as publisher of The Boston Weekly News-Letter. In 
1734, he printed the laws of the province. He was after- 
ward appointed printer to the governor and council, and 
was honored with that mark of confidence and favor as 
long as he lived. 

Draper not only succeeded Bartholomew Green in his 
business, but he was heir to his calamities also. On the 
night of the 30th of January, 1734, the flames were seen 
to burst from his printing house, but too late for any 

* Mr. Gridley was afterward attorney general of the province of Massa- 
chusetts, grand master of the society of free masons, president of the 
marine society, and a member of the general court. He died in Septem- 
ber, 1767. 

126 History of Printing in America. 

effectual assistance to be afforded. The fire had kindled 
in the interior part of the building, which was burnt to 
the ground, and nearly the whole of the printing mate- 
rials were destroyed. This loss was in some measure 
repaired by the friendship of his brethren of the type, who 
loaned to him a press, and several founts of letters, till he 
could replace those articles by a new printing apparatus 
from. England. 

He printed a number of books for the trade ; but pub- 
lished only a few small pamphlets for his own sales. He 
annually printed Ames's famous Almanac, for himself 
and for booksellers ; of which about sixty thousand copies 
were annually sold in the New England colonies. 

Draper owned the house in which he resided. It was 
in Cornhill, the east corner of the short alley leading to 
the church in Brattle street. He was an industrious and 
useful member of society, and was held in estimation by 
his friends and acquaintances. He died November 29th, 
1762, and was succeeded in business by his son. 

The following character of Draper is extracted from the 
Boston Evening Post of December 6, 176^ : 

" On Monday Evening last departed this Life after a 
slow and hectic Disorder, having just entered the 61st 
Year of his Age, Mr. John Draper, Printer, who for a long 
Time has been the Publisher of a News-Paper in this 
Town ; and by his Industry, Fidelity and Prudence in his 
Business, rendered himself very agreeable to the Public. 
His Charity and Benevolence ; his pleasant and sociable 
Turn of Mind ; his tender Aftection as a Husband and 
Parent ; his Piety and Devotion to his Maker, has made 
his Death as sensibly felt by his Friends and Kelations, as 
his Life is worthy Imitation." * 

' See Histarieal Magazine^ vii, 2d series, p. 219. 

Massachusetts. 127 

John Bushell was bom in Boston, where he served an 
apprenticeship. He began business about the year 1734 ; 
and, as I have been informed, printed The Boston Weekly 
Post Boj/y during a short period, for Ellis Huske, postmas- 
ter. He was afterward of the firm of Green, Bushell & 
Allen. They did but little business while together, and 
the connection was dissolved about 1750. Upon the ter- 
mination of the partnership. Green, as has been mentioned, 
removed to Halifax, Nova Scotia ; and, as he died a few 
weeks after his arrival, Bushell went to Halifax, and with 
Green's apparatus established a press in that place. He 
was the first who printed in that province. [^See Nova 

Bezoune Allen was, probably, the son of John Allen. 
He entered on business, according to report, about the 
year 1734 ; and was, for several years, of the firm of Green, 
Bushell and Allen. This copartnership was formed, I 
believe, in 1736. I have seen books printed by them as 
late as 1745; but I have not discovered that any thing 
was printed by Allen separately. They never were in 
extensive business ; and what they did consisted, princi- 
pally, of small works for the booksellers. 

Jonas Green was the son of the elder Timothy Green, 
who removed from Boston and settled at New London in 
1714, and great-grandson of Samuel Green, printer at 
Cambridge. He was born at Boston, and served his 
apprenticeship with his father in New London. When of 
age, he came to Boston, and was several years in the print- 
ing house of his brother, who was then the partner of S. 

I have seen but one book printed by Jonas Green in 
Boston, viz. : A Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue^ by Judah 
Monis, professor of the Hebrew language, at Harvard Col- 

128 History of Printing in America. 

lege, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Good judges pro- 
nounced this work to be correctly printed. I have seen a 
copy of it in the theological library in Boston, where the 
original manuscript is preserved. The Hebrew types 
were a cast belonging to the college, which have since 
been used in printing Professor SewalPs Hebrew Grammar^ 
and I suppose are now in the museum of the University. 

Green resided several years in Philadelphia ; and dur- 
ing that time was employed in the printing houses of 
Bradford and Franklin. 

In 1739, as there was not a printer in Maryland, the 
legislature of that province employed an agent to procure 
one. Green, being well recommended by his employers, 
made application to the agent, and obtained the place of 
printer to that government. In consequence of the liberal 
encouragement he received, he opened a printing house at 
Annapolis in 1740. [See printers in Maryland^] 

Ebenezer Love. I have not been able to obtain much 
information respecting Love. He was born in, or near 
Boston, and served his apprenticeship in that town. I 
have seen nothing of his printing ; but he was known in 
Boston as a printer; indeed, I recollect, myself, that, when 
a lad, I heard mention made of him ; but I cannot ascer- 
tain that he was at any time actively engaged in the print- 
ing business. 

In The Boston Evening Post of May 14th, 1770, under the 
Boston head, is the following parapraph, viz. : " We hear 
from New Providence, that on the 23d of January last, 
died there after a few days illness of a Bilious Cholic, 
Ebenezer Love, Esq., formerly of this town, Printer. For 
a number of years past he had resided at that Island, and 
carried on Merchandize ; was well esteemed by the Gen- 
tlemen there, and elected a member of their House of 

Massachusetts. 129 

Daniel Powlb was born in Charlestown, near Boston, 
and served his apprenticeship with Samuel Kneeland. He 
began printing, on his own account, in 1740, " north side 
of King street, opposite the town house." In 1742, he, 
and Gamaliel Rogersj formed a partnership in business, 
under the firm of Rogers & Fowle.^ A brother of Fowle, 
named John, was a silent partner in this firm. They 
opened a printing house in Prison lane, the house next but 
one to the old stone jail, where the court house now (in 
1815) stands. In the account given of Rogers, I have men- 
tioned the works done by this company ; and, particularly, 
the New Testament, the American Magazine, and the 
newspaper, entitled The Independent Advertiser. In taking 
notice of Fowle, therefore, I shall begin with the period 
at which the partnership was dissolved, that is, in 1750. 
Soon after that event, Fowle opened a printing house on 
the south side of Anne street, not far from the Fiat con- 
duit, so called, which at that time stood in Union street 
At the same place he also opened a shop, and kept a small 
collection of books for sale. Here he printed a number of 
works, chiefly pamphlets, most of which were for his own 

In October, 1754, Fowle, while at dinner, was arrested, 
by virtue of an order of the house of representatives, 
signed by Thomas Hubbard, their speaker, and taken 
before that house, on suspicion of having printed a pamph- 
let which reflected upon some of the members. It was 
entitled. The Monster of MonsterSj by Tom Thumb, Esq. 
After an hour's confinement in the lobby, he was brought 
before the house. The speaker, holding a copy of the 
pamphlet in his hand, asked him, "Do you know any 
thing of the printing of this Book ? " Fowle requested to 
see it; and it was given him. After examination, he 

^ See Rogers and Fowle. 


130 History of Printing in America. 

said that it was not of his printing ; and that he had not 
such types in his printing house. Tlie speaker then asked, 
" Do you know any thing relating to the said Book ? " 
Fowle requested the decision of the house, whether he 
was bound to answer the question. No vote was taken, 
but a few members answered, " Yes ! " He then observed, 
that he had '^ bought some copies, and had sold them at 
his shop." This observation occasioned the following 
questions and answers, viz : ^ 

Question. [By the speaker.] "Who did you buy them 

Answer. They were, I believe, sent by a young man, 
but I cannot tell his name. 

Q. Who did he live with ? 

[Fowle again desired the decision of the house, whether 
he was obliged to give the required information, and a 
number of individual members again replied, " Yes ! " 
Upon which Fowle answered] 

The young man, I believe, lives with Royall Tyler. 

Q. Did you have any conversation with him [Tyler] 
about them ? 

A. I believe I might, in the same manner I had with 
many others ; not that I thought him the author. It was 
never offered me to print 

Q. Did any of your hands assist in doing it ? 

A. I believe my negro might, as he sometimes worked 
for my brother.* 

* Vide Total EcUpse of Liberty^ a pamphlet written and published by D. 
Fowle, containing a full account of this arbitrary procedure. 

' This negro was named Primus. He was an African. I well remem- 
ber him ; he worked at press with or without an assistant ; he continued 
to do press work until prevented by age. He went to Portsmouth with 
his master, and there died, being more than ninety years of age ; about 
fifty of which he was a pressman. There is now [1815] in Philadelphia, 
a negro pressman named Andrew Cain, but now unable to do hard labor. 
He is ninety-four years old. It is said that he has been a good workman. 

Massachusetts. 131 

Q. Has your brother any help ? 

A. No. 

Q. Did you see any of it whilst printing ? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Whose house was it in ? 

A. I think it was my brother's. 

Q. Where does he live ? 

A. Down by Cross street 

Q. What is his name ? 

A. Zechariah. 

One of the members then said to Fowle, You do not know 
when you lie ! Fowle replied, " Begging your pardon, sir, 
I know when I lie, and what a lie is as well as yourself." 

After this examination, Fowle was again confined for 
several hours in the lobby ; and from thence, about ten 
o'clock at night, was, by order of the house, taken to the 
" common gaol," and there closely confined " among thieves 
and murderers." ^ He was denied the sight of his wife, 
although she, with tears, petitioned to see him ; no friend 
was permitted to speak to him; and he was. debarred the 
use of pen, ink and paper. 

Roy all Tyler, Esq., was arrested, and carried before the 
house. When interrogated, he claimed the rightof silence, 
" Nemo tenetur seipsum dccusare^^ was the only answer he 
made. He was committed for contempt ; but was soon 
released, on a promise that he would be forthcoming 
when required. 

The house ordered their messenger to take Fowlers bro- 
ther Zechariah into custody, with some others ;*T)ut his 
physician gave a certificate of his indisposition, and by 
this means he escaped imprisonment 

' Fowle was confined in the same room with a thief and a notorious 
cheat ; and, in the next cell, was one Wyer, then under sentence of death 
for murder, and was soon after executed. [Vide Fowl^s Total Eclipse of 

132 History op Printing in America. 

After two days close confinement, Fowle was taken 
to the keeper's house, and told that " He might go ! " but 
he refused ; observing, that as he was confined at midnight 
uncondemned by the law, he desired that the authority 
which confined, should liberate him, and not ihrxist him out 
privily. He remained with the jailer three days longer ; 
when learning from a respectable physician, that his wife 
was seriously indisposed, that her life was endangered by 
her anxiety on account of his confinement, and his friends 
joining their persuasion to this call upon his tenderness, 
Fowle was induced to ask for his liberation. He was accord- 
ingly dismissed ; and here the prosecution ended. He 
endeavored to obtain some satisfaction for the deprivation 
of his liberty, but he did not succeed in the attempt. 

Disgusted with the government of Massachusetts by this 
treatment, and being invited by a number of respectable 
gentlemen in New Hampshire to remove into that colony, 
he accepted their invitation ; and, at the close of the follow- 
ing year, established his press at Portsmouth. He was 
the first printer who settled in that province ; and, in 1756, 
he began the publication of The New Hampshire Gazette} 

Fowle was, I believe, the third person whom the 
legislature of Massachusetts imprisoned for printing what 
was deemed a libel on that body, or on some of ita mem- 
bers, or for publishing heretical opinions, &c. 

Living in the family of Daniel Fowle's brother, I early 
became minutely acquainted with the whole transaction, 
and deep impressions were then made upon my mind in 
favor oif the liberty of the press. For this liberty I am now 
an advocate, but I still, as I ever did, hold the opinion, 
that a line should be drawn between the liberty and the 
licentiousness of the press. [See New Hampshire,^ 

^ This paper is still printed, and is the oldest paper extant in the United 
8tatcH. — M. 

Massachusetts. • 133 

Zechariah Fowle. He was born at Charlestown, near 
Boston, of very respectable parents, and served his appren- 
ticeship with his brother Daniel, who was at that period 
in partnership with Gamaliel Rogers. The first book 
which bears the name of Z. Fowle as printer, was^begun 
by Rogers and Fowle, viz., PomfreVs Poems ^ on a new 
small pica. On the dissolution of that firm, they assigned 
this book over to Z. Fowle, who completed it, and sold 
the greater part of the copies, in sheets, to booksellers. 
He soon after opened a printing hoase, and a small shop, 
in Middle street, near Cross street, where he printed and 
sold ballads and small pamphlets. 

Not being much known as a printer, and living in a 
street where but little business was transacted, he was 
selected by a number of gentlemen, who were in opposi- 
tion to the measures of the general court, and particularly 
to an excise act, to print a pamphlet entitled. The Monster 
of MonsierSy satirizing this act, and bearing with some 
severity upon individual members of the court Daniel 
was prevailed upon to assist his brother in carrying this 
work through the press. Joseph Russell, his apprentice, 
then nearly of age, worked at the case, and a negro man 
at the press. The pamphlet was small, and appeared with- 
out the name of the printer. It was the custom of that 
day to hawk about the streets every new publication. 
Select hawkers were engaged to sell this work ; and were 
directed what answers to give to enquiries into its origin, 
who printed it, &c. The general court was at the time in 
session. The hawkers appeared on the Exchange with 
the pamphlet, bawling out, " The Monster of Monsters ! " 
Curiosity was roused, and the book sold. The purchasers 
inquired of the hawkers, where the Monster came from ? 
all the reply was, " // dropped from the moon ! " Several 
members of the general court bought the pamphlet. Its 
contents soon excited the attention of the house. Daniel 

134 History op Printing in America. 

Fowle, who was suspected to be the printer, was brought 
before the house of representatives and examined, as has 
been observed.' Z. Fowle was then ordered into custody, 
and Russell who assisted him. Russell was brought before 
the house, examined and released. Z. Fowle hearing 
that his brother and Russell were arrested, and that the 
officer was in search of him, was instantly seized with a 
violent fit of the cholic. His illness was not feigned ; he 
possessed a slender constitution, was often subject to this 
complaint ; and, at this time, it was brought on by the fear 
of an arrest. When the officer appeared, the attending 
physician certified that he was dangerously ill. With this 
certificate the officer departed, and Fowle escaped punish- 
ment, the punishment which his brother unjustly expe- 

When Daniel Fowle removed to Portsmouth, Zechariah 
took the printing house which he had occupied, in Anne 
street. Until the year 1757, Z. Fowle printed little else than 
ballads; he then began an edition of the Psalter for the book- 
sellers. In this work he was aided by two young printers 
just freed from their indentures, and to whom Fowle 
allowed a proportionate partof the profits of the impression. 
One of these, Samuel Draper, a very worthy young man, 
became a partner with Fowle after the Psalter was printed. 
The firm was Fowle & Draper. They took a house in 
Marlborough street, opposite the Founder's Arms ; here 
they printed, and opened a shop. They kept a great sup- 
ply of ballads, and small pamphlets for book pedlers, of 
whom there were many at that time. They printed seve- 
ral works of higher consequence, viz. : an edition consist- 
ing of twenty thousand copies of The Youih^s Instructor in 
the English Tongue^ commonly called the New England 
Spelling Book. This school book was in great repute, and 

Vide Daniel Fowle. 

Massachusetts. 135 

in general use for many years. Janeway^s Heaven upon 
Earthy octavo, Watis*s Psalms^ and several smaller duode- 
cimo volumes, all for the trade. They printed, also, many 
pamphlets of various sizes on their own account ; and had 
full employment for themselves and two lads. Draper was 
a diligent man, and gave unremitted attendance in the 
printing house. Powle was bred to the business, but he 
was an indifferent hand at the press, and much worse at 
the case. He was never in the printing house when he 
could find a pretence for being absent. 

After the death of John Draper, Richard, his son, took 
his kinsman Samuel as a partner, and Fowle again printed 
by himself. The business in his printing house was then 
principally managed by a young lad, his only apprentice. 
Soon after he separated from Draper, he removed to Back 
street, where he continued printing and vending ballads 
and small books until 1770 ; at which time Isaiah Thomas 
became his partner. This connection was dissolved in 
less than three months, and Thomas purchased his press 
and types. 

Fowle having on hand a considerable stock of the small 
articles he usually sold, continued his shop till 1775. 
Boston being then a garrison town in the possession of 
the British troops, he obtained a permit to leave it, and 
removed to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. While in this 
place he resided with his brother, and died in his house in 

Fowle was a singular man, very irritable and effeminate, 
and better skilled in the domestic work of females, than 
in the business of a printing house. His first wife dying in 
1759, he married a second ; but had no children by either. 
Fowle could not be called an industrious man ; yet, in 
justice to his character, it ought to be mentioned, that he 
did business enough to give himself and family a decent 
maintenance. Although he did not acquire property, he 

136 History of Printing in America. 

took care not to be involved in debt. He was honest in 
his dealings, and punctual to his engagements. 

Benjamin Edes was born in Charlestown, Oct. 14, 1732. 
He began business with John Gill, in the year 1755, under 
the firm of Edes & Gill. They continued in partnership 
until the commencement of the revolutionary war. Their 
printing house, for a time, was in King street, now State 
street ; they afterward occupied the printing house for- 
merly kept by Rogers and Fowle, then the second house 
west of the Court House in Court street. After the 
death of Samuel Kneeland, they removed to the printing 
house which he, for about forty years, occupied, and there 
they remained until hostilities commenced between the 
parent state and the colonies. 

Two newspapers had been published, entitled The Boston 
Gazette^ and were, in succession, discontinued. Edes and 
Gill began a new paper yndcr the title of The Boston GazettCy 
and Country Journal^ which soon gained an establishment, 
and became distinguished for the spirited political essays 
which appeared in it. They published many political 
pamphlets, and for a number of years were appointed 
printers to the general court. They did some business 
for booksellers. A small number of octavo and duode- 
cimo volumes were occasionally issued from their press ; 
but their principal business consisted in the publication or 
the Gazette, "When the dispute between Great Britain and 
her colonies assumed a serious aspect, this paper arrested 
the public attention, from the part its able writers took in 
the cause of liberty and their country ; and it gained a 
very extensive circulation. Edes was a warm and a firm 
patriot, and Gill was an honest whig.* 

* In September, 1775, Gill underwent an imprisonment by the British, 
of twenty-nine days, for printing treason, sedition and rebellion. — ^^IV 
Force's Americun ArMves^ ni, 712. — Jf. 

Massachusetts. - 137 

Soon after the revolutionary war b^gan, the British 
troops closed the avenues between Boston and the country ; 
but Edes fortunately made his escape by night, in a boat, 
with a press and a few types. 

He opened a printing house in Watertown, where he 
continued the Gazettey and printed for the provincial con- 
gress of Massachusetts. Here he found full employment, 
and his zeal in the cause of his country animated him to 
redoubled diligence. 

The printing he executed at Watertown, did not, indeed, 
do much credit to the art; but the work, at this time, 
done at other presses, was not greatly superior. The war 
broke out suddenly, and few of any profession were pre- 
pared for the event All kinds of printing materials 
had usually been imported from England; even ink for 
printers had not, in any great quantity, been made in 
America. This resource was, by the war, cut off; and a 
great scarcity of these articles soon ensued. At that time, 
there were but three small paper mills in Massachusetts ; 
in New Hampshire there were none ; and Rhode Island 
contained only one, which was out of repair. The paper 
which these mills could make fell far short of the neces- 
sary supply. Paper, of course, was extremely scarce, and 
what could be procured was badly manufactured, not hav- 
ing more than half the requisite labor bestowed upon it. 
It was often taken from the mill wet, and unsized. People 
had not been in the habit of saving rags, and stock for the 
manufacture of paper was obtained with great difficulty. 
Every thing like rags was ground up together to make a 
substitute for paper. This, with wretched ink, and worn 
out types, produced miserable printing. 

In 1776, Edes returned to Boston, on the evacuation of 
the town by the British army. Gill had remained recluse 
in Boston during the siege. They now dissolved their 


138 History op Printing in America. 

connection, and divided their printing materials. Edes 
continued to print for the state several years. In 1779, he 
took his two sons Benjamin and Peter into partnership ; 
their firm was Bbnjamin Edes & Sons. Ahout three years 
after this event Peter hegan business for himself in Bos- 
ton, but was not successful. Benjamin continued with 
his father some time longer, and then set up a press and 
printed a newspaper in Haverhill, Massachusetts ; but he 
was not more fortunate than his brother. The father con- 
tinued the business alone, and labored along with The Bos- 
ton Gazette. This paper had had its day, and it now 
languished for want of that support it derived from the 
splendid talents of its former writers, some of whom were 
dead, some were gone abroad, and others were employed 
in affairs of state. It was further depressed and paralyzed 
by the establishment of other newspapers, and by the 
exertions of another class of writers, who enlivened the 
columns of the new journals with their literary productions. 

Edes was a man of great industry. At the beginning 
of the revolutionary war he had accumulated a very decent 
property, which was not lessened when he returned to 
Boston, in 1776. At that time he took a good house in 
Comhill, part of which formed the alley leading to Brattle 
street ; it was next to that formerly owned by John Dra- 
per ; but, some years before his death, he moved into a 
house which he then owned in Temple street, and hired 
a chamber over the shop of a tin plate worker in Elby 
street, where he erected his press. 

The rapid depreciation of paper money proved fatal to 
the property of Edes, as well as to that of many others. 
He had a large family to support; and he continued to 
work, as had been his custom, at case and press, until the 
infirmities of age compelled him to cease from labor. In 
the advanced period of his life competence and ease for- 
sook him, and he was oppressed by poverty and sickness. 

Massachusetts. 139 

His important services were too soon forgotten by his 
prosperous, independent countrymen. 

He died December 11, 1803, at the age of seventy-one 
years. His second son, Peter Edes, printed at Augusta, 
in the district of Maine.^ 

Edes began the Boston Grozeite and Country Journal^ and 
with him it ended. No publisher of a newspaper felt a 
greater interest in the establishment of the independence 
of the United States than Benjamin Edes ; and no news- 
paper was more instrumental in bringing forward this 
important event than The Boston Gazette. [See Newspapers."] 

John Gill, the partner of Benjamin Edes, and the 
junior publisher of The Boston Gazette and Gountry Journal^ 
was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He served his 
apprenticeship with Samuel Eneeland, and married one of 
his daughters. Gill was a sound whig, but did not possess 
the political energy of his partner. He was industrious, 
constantly in the printing house, and there worked at 
case or press as occasion required. His partnership with 
Edes continued for twenty years. They separated at the 
commencement of hostilities by the British, in 1775. Gill 
remained in Boston during the siege ; he did no business, 
and thought it prudent to confine himself to his own 
house. He had, fortunately, acquired a competency for 
the support of his family under that trial. 

After the evacuation of Boston, his connection with 
Edes ended. They divided their stock, and settled their 
concerns. While Edes continued the publication of the 
Gazette J Gill issued another paper, entitled The Continental 

* In Sept., 1775, Peter Edes was a prisoner of the British in Boston, under 
a sentence of seventy-five days, for having fire-arms concealed in his 
house. — IV Force'9 Archives^ ni, 712. See also EUtarical Magazine^ vii, 
219, 220, 2d series. He was one of the Boston tea party, so called 
He died at Bangor, Me., March 30, 1840. Benjamin Edes, Jr. died at 
Boston, May 15, 1801, aged 46.— Jtf. 

140 History of Printing in America. 

Journal. Having published this paper several years, he 
sold the right of it, in 1785, with his printing materials, to 
James D. Griffith. 

Gill was brother to the Hon. Moses Gill, who, subse- 
quently to the revolution, was for several years lieutenant- 
governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts. He 
died August 25, 1785, and left several children. Thz Con- 
tinmtal Joumalj which announced to the public the death 
of Gill, contains the following observations respecting 
him, viz. : 

" Capt. John Gill, for disseminating principles destruc- 
tive of tyranny, suffered during the siege of this town in 
1775, what many other printers were threatened with, a 
cruel imprisonment. He, however, was so fortunate as to 
survive the conflict ; but had the mortification, lately, of 
seeing the press ready to be shackled by a stamp act 
fabricated in his native state ; h^, therefore, resigned his 
business, not choosing to submit to a measure which 
Britain artfully adopted as the foundation of her intended 
tyranny in America. His remains were very respectfully 
entombed last Monday afternoon." [See JEdes, — Boston 

John Green was the son of Bartholomew Green, Jr., 
who died at Halifax, and the great grandson of Samuel 
Green of Cambridge. He was boxn in Boston, served an 
apprenticeship with John Draper, whose daughter he 
married, and in the year 1755 began business with Joseph 
Russell. The firm was Green & Russell. Their press 
was established in Tremont street, in a house which was 
taken down to make room for ScoUay's Buildings. In 
August, 1757, they issued from their press a newspaper, 
entitled The Boston Weekly Advertiser. They repeatedly 
altered the title of this paper, but continued its publica- 
tion until 1773, when they sold their right in it, to Mills 

Massachusetts. 141 

and Hicks.^ In 1758 they removed, and opened a printing 
house in Queen street, in the brick building which made 
the east corner of Dorset's alley, and nearly opposite to 
the Court House. They printed for some time the jour- 
nals of the house of representatives, and the laws of the 
government. They also did the printing of the custom 
house, and published a number of pamphlets; but they 
never engaged largely in book work. 

A few years after this partnership was formed, Russell 
opened an auction office, the profits of which were shared 
by the firm. Green managed the printing house, and 
Russell the auction room. They continued together until 
1775, and by their attention to business acquired a hand- 
some property. 

Green remained in Boston during the siege, and when 
the British troops left the town he became interested in 
the Indq)endent Chronicle^ then published by Powars and 
Willis, but his name did not appear. He was a man of 
steady habits, true to his engagements, and well respected. 
He died November, 1787, aged sixty years. He had no 
children. He was, I believe, the last of the descendants 
of Samuel Green of Cambridge who printed in this state. 

Joseph Russell was born in Boston, served an appren- 
ticeship with Daniel Fowle, and in 1765, entered into part- 
nership with John Green.* Russell was a good workman 
in the printing business ; but his talents were more par- 
ticularly adapted to the duties of an auctioneer. When 
Green and Russell united auctioneering with printing, 
Russell took the sole management of the vendue room ; , 
he soon arrived at celebrity in this line, and had more 
employment in it than any other person in Boston. When 

' See Newspapers. 

' Russell lived with David Fowle, at the time Fowle was imprisoned, 
on suspicion of printing The Monster of Monsters. Vid. Zcchariah Fowle. 

142 History of Printing in America. 


his i^artnership with Green was dissolved, he formed a 
connection with Samuel Clap ; and this company, under 
the firm of Russell & Clap, continued the business of 
auctioneers till the deajh of Russell. 

Russell was full of life, very facetious, but attentive to 
his concerns. Few men had more friends, or were more 
esteemed. In all companies he rendered himself agree- 
able. He acquired considerable property, but did not 
hoard up his wealth, for benevolence was one of his 
virtues. He was a worthy citizen, and a friend to his 
country. He died at the end of November, 1795, aged 
sixty-one years. 


Benjamin Mecom was a native of Boston. His mother 
was sister of James Franklin and of the celebrated 
Benjamin Franklin. Mecom served his apprenticeship 
with his uncle Benjamin Franklin at Philadelphia. When 
of age, having received some assistance from his uncle, 
he went to Antigua, and there printed a newspaper ; but 
in 1756, he quitted that island, and returned to Boston. 
In 1757, he opened a printing house in Cornhill, nearly 
opposite to the old brick church. At the same place he 
kept a shop and sold books. His first work was a large 
edition, thirty thousand copies, of The Psalter^ for the 
booksellers. He printed these on terms so low, that his 
profits did not amount to journeymen's wages. This 
edition was two years worrying through his press. After 
the Psaifer Mecom began to print and publish, on his own 
account, a periodical work, which he intended should 
appear monthly. It was entitled. The New England Muga- 
zine of Knowledge and Pleasure. It contained about fifty 
pages 12mo, but he published only three or four numbers. 
These were issued in 1758 ; but no date either of month 
or year appeared in the title page, or in the imprint. In 
this magazine were inserted several articles under the 

Massachusetts. 143 

head of Queer Notions. Each number, when published, 
was sent about town for sale by hawkers ; but few copies 
were vended, and the work, of course, was discontinued. 

His business was not extensive ; he printed several pam- 
phlets for his own sale, and a few for that of others. He 
remained in Boston for a number of years; but when 
James Parker & Co., who printed at New Haven, removed 
to New York, Mecom succeeded them. Soon afterwards 
Dr. Franklin procured Mecom the office of postmaster for 
New Haven. 

He married in New Jersey, before he set up his press 
in Boston. He possessed good printing materials, but 
there was something singular in his work, as well as in 
himself. He was in Boston several months before the 
arrival of his press and types from Antigua, and had much 
leisure. During this interval he frequently came to the 
house where I was an apprentice. He was handsomely 
dressed, wore a powdered bob wig, ruffles and gloves; 
gentlemanlike appendages which the printers of that day 
did not assume, and thus apparelled, would often assist, 
for an hour, at the press. 

An edition of The New Migland Primer being wanted by 
the booksellers, Z. Fowle consulted with Mecom on the 
subject, who consented to assist in the impression, on con- 
dition that he might print a certain number for himself. 
To this proposal Fowle consented, and made his contract 
with the booksellers. Fowle had no help but myself, then 
a lad in my eighth year. The impression consisted of ten 
thousand copies. The form was a small sixteens, on 
foolscap paper. The first form of the Primer being set 
up, while it was worked at the press I was put to case to 
set the types for the second. Having completed this, and 
set up the whole cast of types employed in the work, and 
the first form being still at press I was employed as a 
fly ; that is, to take oS the sheets from the tympan as they 

144 History of Printing in America. 

were printed, and pile them in a heap ; this expedited the 
work. "While I was engaged in this business, I viewed 
Mecom at the press with admiration. He indeed put on 
an apron to save his clothes from blacking, and guarded 
his ruffles ; but he wore his coat, his wig, his hat and his 
gloves, whilst working at press ; and at case, laid aside 
' his apron. When he published his magazine with Queer 
Notions, this singularity, and some addenda, known to 
the trade, induced them to give him the appellation of 
Queer Notions. Mecora was, however, a gentleman in his 
appearance and manners, had been well educated to his 
business, and if queer ^ was honest and sensible, and called 
a correct and good printer. [See New Haven^ PhUadelphuiy 

Thomas Flket, Jr., & John Fleet. They were brothers, 
and having learned from their father the art of printing, 
succeeded him in business at his house in Cornhill, in 
1758. I mention them together, because they commenced 
printing in partnership, and continued in connection until 
separated by death. They carried on the publication of 
The Boston Evening Post until the commencement of the 
revolutionary war; when they suspended the publication 
of that newspaper, and it was never after resumed. The 
impartiality with which the paper was conducted, in those 
most critical times, the authenticity of its news, and the 
judicious selections of its publishers, gained them great 
and deserved reputation. 

Both brothers were born in Boston. Their father gave 
them a good school education ; they were correct printers, 
very attentive to their concerns, punctual in their dealings, 
good citizens, and much respected. They printed several 
works in octavo, and some volumes in duodecimo, on 
their own account; and some in connection with other 
printers. Their shop was always supplied with smaller 

• Massachusetts. 145 

articles for the benefit of their sisters, who were never 

They remained in Boston during the siege ; and, after- 
ward, revived the publication of the Massachusetts Begister^ 
which originated with Mein and Fleming some years 
before, and had been continued by Mills and Hicks. 
Thomas died a bachelor, March 2, 1797, aged sixty-five 
years. John was married; he died March 18, 1806, aged 
seventy-one, and left several children ; one of whom, by the 
name of Thomas, was a printer in Boston at the same house 
in which his grandfather began the The Boston Evening Post} 

Richard Draper. He was the son of John Draper, the 
successor of Bartholomew Green, proprietor and printer 
of The Boston News Letter. He was brought up a printer 
by his father, continued with him after he became of age, 
and, for some years before his father's death, was a silent 
partner with him. On the death of his father, Richard 
continued the News Letter. He was early appointed to 
the office of printer to the governor and council, which he 
retained during life. His paper was devoted to the go- 

^ Ann Fleet, the daughter of John, and the last of the name, died in 
Boston, July, 1860, aged 89. The estate of Thomas Fleet Sen., at the 
northerly comer of Washington and Water streets, which he purchased 
in 1744, and from which the Evening BMt was issued for upwards of 
thirty years, still remained in the hands of his descendants in 1860, 
although they had discontinued the business of printing in 1808. — Boston 
Tranftynpt. Thomas Fleet Sen. was the putative compiler of Mother 
Qooee'e MdodieSy which he first published in 1719. Among the entries 
of marriages in the City Registry, under date of June 8, 1715, is that 
of Thomas Fleet to Elizabeth Goose, and the idea of the collection is 
said to have arisen from hearing his mother-in-law repeat nursery 
rhymes to his chUdren. It was characteristic of the man to make such a 
collection ; and the first book of the kind known to hare been printed 
in this country bears his imprint, and the title of Songs for the Nursery^ 
or Mother Qooeie Mdodies for ClUldren. The name of Goose is now 
extinct in Boston, but monuments remaining in the Granary burial 
ground in that city mark the family resting place. — M. 


146 History op Printing in America. 

vernment ; and, in the controversy between Great Britain 
and the American colonies, strongly supported the royal 
cause. He added the title of The Massachusetts Gazette, to 
Tlie Boston News Letter, and decorated it with the king's 
arms.* Many able advocates for the government filled the 
columns of the News Letter, but the opposition papers 
were supported by writers at least equally powerful, and 
more numerous. 

The constitution of Richard Draper was very feeble, and 
he was often confined by sickness. Soon after his father's 
death, he took his kinsman, Samuel Draper, who was 
connected with Z. Fowle, into partnership, under the firm 
of R. & S. Draper. Samuel was not permitted to share 
in the honor of printing for the governor and council. 
In all the work done for them, Richard's name alone 
appeared as printer. Samuel Draper died a few years 
after this connection was formed. 

Richard Draper, having been successful in his business, 
erected a handsome brick house, on a convenient spot in 
front of the old printing house in Newbury street, in which 
he resided. He was attentive to his affairs, and was 
esteemed the best compiler of news of his day. He died 
June 6, 1774, aged forty-seven years. He left no children, 
and was succeeded by his widow. 

Draper, alone, did very little book printing ; but he was 
concerned with Edes & Gill, and the Fleets, in publishing 
several volumes of sermons, etc. One month preceding 
his death, he commenced a limited copartnership with 
John Boyle. Boyle's name appeared in the Gazette with 
Draper's, whose ill health rendering him unable to attend 
closely to business, Boyle undertook the chief care and 

* It was customary, many years before the revolution, among, pub- 
lishers of newspapers, especially those whose titles embraced the word 
Gazette, to ornament the titles with this ensign of royalty. But the 
printers in Boston had not followed the fashion. 

Massachusetts. 147 

management of it The following sketch of the character 
of Richard Draper is taken from the Eoerdng Post of June 
13, 1774. 

" He was a man remarkable for the amiable delicacy of 
his mind, and gentleness of his manners. A habit en- 
feebled and emaciated by remorseless disease, and unre- 
mitted distress, could never banish the smile from his 
countenance. A well founded confidence in the mercies 
of his God, and the happy consciousness of a life well 
spent, smoothed the pillow of anguish, and irradiated the 
gloom of death with the promise of succeeding joy ; in 
every relation he sustained in life, his endearing manners 
and inflexible integrity rendered him truly exemplary." 

Samuel Draper was the nephew and apprentice of John 
Draper. He was born at Martha's T^neyard. In 1758, 
soon after he became of age, he went into trade with 
Zechariah Fowle, who stood in much need of a partner 
like Draper. Their connection was mutually advantage- 
ous. Fowle had been in business seven years ; but had 
made no progress in the advancement of his fortune. 
Draper was more enterprising, but had no capital to esta- 
blish himself as a printer. He was a young man of cor- 
rect habits and handsome abilities. He was industrious, 
and, for those times, a good workman. Draper was an 
important acquisition to his partner, although Fowle did 
not appear to be highly sensible of it. The connection 
continued five years ; during which time they printed, as 
has been remarked, three or four volumes of some magni- 
tude, a large edition of the YoutKs Instructor in the English 
Tongue^ another of the Psalter ; also, a variety of pamphlets, 
chapmen's small books, and ballads. They so far suc- 
ceeded in trade as to keep free of debt, to. obtain a good 
livelihood, and increase their stock. Their printing house 
was in Marlborough street; it was taken down in 

148 History op Printing in America, 

later years, and a new house built on its site, at the 
south comer of Franklin street, at the entrance from Marl- 
borough street 

The articles of copartnership contemplated a continu- 
ance of the connection of Fowle and Draper for seven 
years ; but, on the death of John Draper, Richard, his 
son, succeeded to his business. Richard was often con- 
fined to his house by ill health, and wanted an assistant ; 
he therefore made liberal proposals to Samuel, which 
were accepted; and they entered into partnership. In 
pursuance of this new arrangement, the connection between 
Fowle and Draper was dissolved; and Draper recom- 
menced business with a more active and enterprising part- 
ner. S. Draper continued with his kinsman until his 
death, which happened March 15, 1767, at the age of 
thirty years. While he was in partnership with Fowle, he 
married an agreeable young lady, of a respectable femily, 
by whom he had two daughters. His widow died in 1812. 
He had two brothers who were printers, the eldest of 
whom, named Richard, died before 1810 ; the other whose 
name was Edward, with a partner, published, for * some 
time during the war, a newspaper in Boston. 

Daniel Kneeland was the son of Samuel Eneeland, and 
served his apprenticeship with his father. He began trade 
as a bookbinder, in plain work, having been bred to bind- 
ing as well as printing. A dispute had arisen between 
the printers and booksellers respecting Anies^s Almanack^ 
the particulars of which I do not fully recollect ; but, in 
substance, it was as follows. John Draper, and his prede- 
cessor Bartholomew Green, had always purchased the 
copy of that Almanac, and printed it on their own 
account ; but they had supplied the booksellers, in sheets, 
by the hundred, the thousand, or any quantity wanted. 
About the year 1759, this Almanac was enlarged from 

Massachusetts. 149 

sixteen pages on a foolscap sheet to three half sheets. 
Draper fonned a connection with Green & Russel and T. 
& J. Fleet, in its publication. A half sheet was printed at 
each of their printing houses ; and they were not disposed 
to supply booksellers as formerly. The booksellers, imme- 
diately on the publication of the Almanack, had it reprinted ; 
and soon after a number of the principal of them set up a 
printing house for themselves and engaged Daniel 
Ejieeland, and John his brother, to conduct it for them, 
under the firm of D. & J. Knebland. The Kneelands con- 
tinued to piint for these booksellers several years, in part 
of the building occupied by their father as a printing 
house ; after which some difficulty arising, the booksellers 
put a stop to their press, and divided among them the 
printing materials. Daniel Kneeland then dissolved his 
connection with his brother John ; and, being furnished 
with the press, and a part of the types, which had been 
owned by the booksellers, he engaged in printing on his 
own account, but worked chiefly for the trade. 

About the year 1772, Daniel took, as a partner, a young 
man -by the name of Nathaniel Davis. The firm was 
Kneeland & Davis. This company was, in the course of 
two or three years, dissolved by the death of Davis. 

Kneeland's business before the revolutionary war was 
inconsiderable, and it afterward became still more con- 
tracted. He died in May, 1789, aged sixty-eight years. 

John Kkeeland was another son of Samuel Eneeland, 
and he was taught the art by his father. He began print- 
ing, in connection with his brother Daniel, for the book- 
sellers; for whom they worked during their partnership, 
as has been related. When the connection between the 
brothers was dissolved, John entered into partnership 
with Beth Adams, under the firm of Kneeland & Adams. 

150 History of Printing in America. 

They opened a printing house in Milk street, at the corner 
of the alley leading to Trinity church. 

The principal work of Kneeland & Adams was psalters, 
spelling books, and psalm books, for booksellers. Their 
partnership continued only a few years. Adams quitted 
printing, and became a postrider. J. Kneeland did little, 
if any, business, after the commencement of the revolu- 
tionary war. He died in March, 1795, aged sixty-two 

William Macalpinb was a mative of Scotland, where 
he was bred to bookbinding. He came to Boston early in 
life, and set up the trade of a binder; and, afterward, 
opened a shop, for the sale of a few common books, in 
Marlborough street, opposite to the Old South church. 
His business was soon enlarged by supplies of books from 
Glasgow. He removed several times to houses in the 
same street A disagreement taking place between the 
booksellers and the printers of Ames's Almanack^ the princi- 
pal booksellers, who set up a press for themselves, and re- 
printed this Almanac,^ refused to furnish Macalpine 
with copies either of their Almanac, or of any books 
printed at their press. Macalpine, being thus denied a 
supply of Ameses Almanack^ both by the original printers 
of it and by the booksellers who reprinted it, sent to 
Edinburgh for a press and types, and for a foreman to 
superintend a printing house. In 1762, he commenced 
printing; and, annually, furnished himself with Ames's 
Almanackj and other books for his own sales. 

John Fleming, previous to his connection with John 
Mein, was one or two years concerned with Macalpine in 

Cop3^rights were not Uien secured by law in the colonies. 

Massachusetts. 151 

Macalpine continued in business until the commence- 
ment of the revolutionary war ; he was a royalist, and 
remained in Boston during the siege ; but he quitted the 
town with the British army. He died at Glasgow, Scotland, 
in 1788. 

John Fleming was from Scotland, where he was brought 
up to printing. He came to Boston in 1764 ; and was, 
for a short time, connected with his countryman William 
Macalpine. Mein, a bookseller, from Edinburgh, having 
opened a very large collection of books for sale, Fleming 
separated from Macalpine, and formed a partnership with 
Mein. Fleming made a voyage to Scotland, there pur- 
chased printing materials for the firm, hired three or four 
journeymen printers, and accompanied by them re- 
turned to Boston. The company then opened a printing 
house in Wing's lane, since Elm street, and began printing 
under the firm of Mein & Fleming. Fleming was not 
concerned with Mein in bookselling. Several books were 
printed at their house for Mein, it being an object with 
him to supply his own sales ; none of ihem, however, were 
of great magnitude. Some of these books had a false 
imprint, and were palmed upon the public for London 
editions, because Mein apprehended that books printed in 
London, however executed, sold better than those which 
were printed in America ; and, at that time, many pur- 
chasers sanctioned his opinion. 

Li less than two years after the establishment of this 
company they removed their printing materials to New- 
bury street. In December, 1767, they began the publica- 
tion of a weekly newspaper, entitled. The Boston Chronicle. 
This paper was printed on demy, in quarto, imitating, in 
its form, Tfie London Chronicle. 

The Boston Chronicle obtained reputation ; but Mein, 
who edited the paper, soon devoted it zealously to the 

152 History op Printing in America. 

support of the measures of the British administration 
against the colonies ; and, in consequence, the publishers, 
and particularly Mein, incurred the displeasure and the 
resentment of the whigs, who were warm advocates for 
American liberty. The publishers were threatened with 
the effects of popular resentment. Mein, according to 
his deserts, experienced some specimens of it The 
Chronicle was discontinued in May, 1770, and Mein re- 
turned to Europe. 

Fleming was less obnoxious. He remained in Boston ; 
and as the Chronicle had been discontinued, the popular 
resentment soon subsided. He married a young lady of 
a respectable family in Boston ; and soon after his late 
partner went to Europe he opened a printing house in 
King street, and printed books on his own account. He 
issued proposals for publishing Chrk^s Family Bible in 
folio, but did not meet with encouragement. 

Fleming continued in Boston until 1773, when he sold 
his printing materials to Mills and Hicks, and went to 
England with his family. He more than once visited this 
country after 1790, as an agent for a commercial house in 
Europe ; and subsequently resided some time in France, 
where he died. 

John Mein, of the firm of Mein & Fleming, was born in 
Scotland, and there bred to the business of a bookseller. 
He had received a good education, was enterprising, and 
possessed handsome literary talents. He arrived at Bos- 
ton, from Glasgow, in November, 1764, in company with 
Mr. Robert Sandeman,^ a kinsman of Mr. Sandeman of 
the same Christian name who for a short time was the 

^ Mr. Sandeman was the author of the then celebrated letters on the 
Rev. Mr. Hervey's Theron and Aapano. A type founder by the name of 
Mitchclson, I believe, arrived in the same vessel with Mein and Sande- 

Massachusetts. 153 

partner of Mein, and a number of other Scotchmen, on a 
visit to this country with a view of settling here. Mein 
brought with him a good assortment of books, a quantity 
of Irish linens and other goods, and opened a shop in 
Marlborough street in connection with Sandeman.^ Their 
shop was an old wooden building at the north corner of 
the entrance to what is now called Franklin street Their 
firm was Mein & Sandeman. 

They continued in company only a few months ; and, 
when they separated, Mein took a house in King street, at 
the corner of the alley leading to the market, and there 
opened a large bookstore and circulating library. He 
was connected with a bookseller in Scotland, who** was 
extensively in trade ; and, by this means, he was supplied, 
as he wanted, with both Scotch and English editions of 
the most saleable books. He soon found that a concern 
in printing would be convenient and profitable. His 
countryman, John Fleming, who was a good printer, was 
then in Boston ; and with him he formed a connection in 
a printing establishment. Fleming went to Scotland, and 
procured printing materials, workmen, etc. On his return 
they, in 1766, opened a printing house, and printed a 
number of books for Mein's sales, and published The Bos- 
ton Chronieky as has been already mentioned. 

The Chronicle was printed on a larger sheet than other 
Boston newspapers of that day, but did not exceed them 
in price. For a time it was well filled with news, enter- 
taining and useful extracts from the best European publi- 
cations, and some interesting original essays. Mein was 
doing business to great advantage, but he soon took a 

^ The first Robert Sandeman, above mentioned, was brought up a Imen 
manufacturer. He became a preacher, and adopting the peculiar views 
of Rev. John Glass, of Dundee, his father-in-law, lie established in Great 
Britain and in this country the sect called after him Sandenumian. Ue 
was settled in Danbury, Conn., where he died in 1771. — II. 


154 History op Printing in America. 

decided part in favor of the obnoxious measures of the 
British administration against the colonies, and. the 
Chronicle became a vehicle for the most bitter pieces, 
' calumniating and vilifying some of those characters in 
whom the people of Massachusetts placed high confidence ; 
and, in consequence, it lost its credit as rapidly as it had 
gained it. Mein, its editor, became extremely odious, 
and to avoid the effects of popular resentment, he secreted 
himself until an opportunity was presented for a passage 
to England. Mein had unquestionably been encouraged, 
in Boston, as a partisan and an advocate for the measures 
of government. In London, he engaged himself under the 
pay of the ministry, as a writer against the colonies ; but 
after the war commenced he sought other employment. 

Seth Adams served his apprenticeship with Samuel 
Kneeland. He began printing in Queen street, with John 
Kneeland ; they afterwards occupied a printing house in 
Milk street, at the corner of Boarded alley, since known by 
the name of Hawley street. They were three or four 
years in business, and printed chiefly for the booksellers. 
Adams's father-in-law was the first postrider between Bos- 
ton and Hartford. When he died, Adams quitted print- 
ing and continued the occupation of his father-in-law. 
He died a few years after. 

EzEKiEL Russell was bom in Boston, and served an 
apprenticeship with his brother, Joseph Russell, the part- 
ner of John Green. In 1765, he began printing with 
Thomas Furber, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, under 
the firm of Furber & Russell. Not succeeding in business, 
they dissolved their partnership, and Russell returned to 
Boston. He worked with various printers until 1769, 
when he procured a press and a few types. With these 
he printed on his own account, in a house near Concert 

Massachusetts. 155 

Hall. He afterward removed to Union street, where to the 
business of printing he added that of an auctioneer, which 
he soon quitted, and adhered to printing. Excepting an 
edition of Watis^s PsalmSy he published nothing of more 
consequence than pamphlets, most of which were small. 
In November, 1771, he began a political publication enti- 
tled The Censor. This paper was supported, during the 
short period of its existence, by those who were in the 
interest of the British government. 

Russell afterward removed to Salem, and attempted the 
publication of a newspaper, but did not succeed. He 
again removed, and went to Danvers, and printed in a 
house known by the name of the Bell tavern. In a few 
years he returned once more to Boston ; and, finally, took 
his stand in Essex street, near the spot on which grew the 
great elms, one of which was then standing, and was called 
Liberty tree. Here he printed and sold ballads, and pub- 
lished whole and half sheet pamphlets for peddlers. In 
these small articles his trade principally consisted, and 
aflforded him a very decent support. 

The wife of Russell was indeed an " help meet for him.** 
She was a very industrious, active woman ; and assisted 
her husband in the printing house* A young woman who 
lived in Russell's family sometimes invoked the muse, 
and wrote ballads on recent tragical events, which being 
immediately printed, and set off with wooden cuts of 
coffins, etc., had frequently " a considerable run.'* 

Russell died in September, 1796, aged fifty-two years. 
His wife continued the business. 

Isaiah Thomas descended from a respectable family 
which had settled near Boston not many years after that 
town was founded. His grandfather carried on mercan- 
tile business in that place, in a store which he owned, on 
the town dock ; and died in the year 1746, leaving four 

156 History op Printing in America. 

sons and two daughters, who were all arrived at the age 
of maturity. His second son, Moses, lived some time on 
Long Island, where he married and had two children ; 
after which he returned to Boston, and had three more 
children; the youngest of whom is the subject of this 

Moses Thomas having expended nearly all his patrimony, 
went away, and died in North Carolina; leaving his 
widow in narrow circumstances with five dependent child- 
ren. Her friends on Long Island took the charge of pro- 
viding for the two who were bom there, and had been 
left in their care ; the others she supported by the profits 
of a small shop she kept in Boston. Her diligence and 
prudent management ensured success; insomuch that 
besides making provision for her family, she was enabled 
to purchase a small estate in Cambridge. This place she 
afterward unfortunately lost; for being fully possessed 
with the idea that the continental paper money, issued 
during the revolutionary war, would ultimately be paid 
in specie, and having what she thought a very advantage- 
ous offer for her house and land in that kind of currency, 
she sold the same, and became one among the number of 
unfortunate people who lost nearly the whole of their pro- 
perty from a misplaced confidence in the paper currency 
of the day. 

When her son, Isaiah, born at Boston, January 19, 
1749, O. S., was six years of age, he was apprenticed by 
his mother to Zechariah Fowle ; who, as has been already 
stated, principally made use of his press in printing 

' He was engaged as clerk to an officer in the expedition against Cuba, 
in 1740, much against the wishes of his father Peter, from whom he 
absconded and enlisted as a common soldier. The interest of the father 
placed him in a better situation than he would have held in the ranks, but 
did not obtain his discharge. Tie afterwards sailed on a voyage to the 
Mediterranean. He owned a farm on Long Island, which he cultivated, 
wliile he kept a shop. 

Massachusetts. 157 

ballads, and by whom he was soon employed to set types ; 
for which purpose he was mounted on a bench eighteen 
inches high, and the whole length of a double frame which 
contained cases of both roman and italic. His first essay 
with the composing stick, was on a ballad entitled The 
Lawyer^ s Pedigree ; which was set in types of the size of 
double pica. 

He remained eleven years with Fowle; after which 
period they separated, in consequence of a disagreement. 
Op quitting Fowle, in 1765, he went to Nova Scotia, with a 
view to go from thence to England, in order to acquire a 
more perfect knowledge of his business. He found typo- 
graphy in a miserable state in that province ; and, so far 
was he from obtaining the means of going to England, 
that he soon discovered that the only printer in Halifax 
could hardly procure, by his business, a decent livelihood. 
However, he remained there seven months; during which 
time the memorable British stamp act took effect in Nova 
Scotia, which, in the other colonies, met with a spirited 
and successfol opposition. 

The Halifax Grozette was printed by a Dutchman, whose 
name was Henry. He was a good ilatured, pleasant man, 
who in common concerns did not want for ingenuity and 
capacity ; but he might, with propriety, be called a very 
unskilful printer. To his want of knowledge or abilities 
in his profession, he added indolence ; and, as is too often 
the case, left his business to be transacted by boys or 
journeymen, instead of attending to it himself. His print- 
ing affairs were on a very contracted scale ; and he made 
no efforts to render them more extensive. As he had two 
apprentices, he was not in want of assistance in his print- 
ing house ; but Thomas accepted an offer of board for his 
services ; and the sole management of the Gazette was im- 
mediately left to him. He new modelled the Gazette 
according to the best of his judgment, and as far as 

158 History op Printing in America. 

the worn out printing materials would admit. It was soon 
after printed on stamped paper, made for the purpose in 
England. To the use of this paper, "the young New 
Englandman," as he was called, was opposed ; and, to the 
stamp act he was extremely hostile. 

A paragraph appeared in the Gazette^ purporting that 
the people of Nova Scotia were, generally, disgusted with 
the stamp act. This paragraph gave great offence to the 
officers of government, who called Henry to account for 
publishing what they termed sedition. Henry had not 
so much as seen the Gazette in which the offensive article 
had appeared; consequently he pleaded ignorance; and, 
in answer to their interrogatories, informed them that the 
paper was, in his absence, conducted by his journeyman. 
He was reprimanded, and admonished that he would be 
deprived of the work of government, should he, in future, 
suffer any thing of the kind to appear in the Gazette. It 
was not long before Henry was again sent for, on account 
of another offence of a similar nature ; however, he escaped 
the consequences he might have apprehended, by assuring 
the officers of government that he Had been confined by 
sickness ; and he apologized in a satisfactory manner for 
the appearance of the obnoxious publication. But his 
journeyman was summoned to appear before the secretary 
of the province ; to whose office he accordingly went. He 
was, probably, not known to Mr. Secretary, who sternly 
demanded of him, what he wanted ? 

A. Nothing, sir. 

Q. Why came you here ? 

A. Because I was sent for. 

Q. What is your name ? 

A. Isaiah Thomas. 

Q. Are you the young New Englandman who prints for 
Henry ? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Massachusetts. 159 

Q. How dare you publish in the Gazette that the people 
of Nova Scotia are displeased with the stamp act ? 

A. I thought it was true. 

Sec, You had no right to think so. If you publish any 
thing more of such stuflTjyou shall be punished. Ton may 
go ; but, remember you are not in New England. 

A. I will, sir. 

Not long after this adventure occurred, a vessel arrived 
at Halifax from Philadelphia, and brought some of the 
newspapers published in that city. 

The Pennsylvania Journal^ published the day preceding 
that on which the stamp act was to take effect, was in full 
mourning. Thick black lines surrounded th^ pages, and 
were placed between the columns ; a death's head and 
cross bones were surmounted over the title ; and at the 
bottom of the last page was a large figure of a coffin, 
beneath which was printed the age of the paper, and an 
account of its having died of a disorder called the stamp 
act. A death's head, &c., as a substitute for a stamp, was 
placed at the end of the last column on the first page. 
Thomas had a strongdesire to decorate The Halifax Gazette 
in the same manner; but he dared not do it, on account 
of his apprehension of the displeasure of the officers of 
government. However, an expedient was thought of 
to obviate that difficulty, which was to insert in the 
Gazette an article of the following import : " We are 
desired by a number of our readers, to give a description 
of the extraordinary appearance of the Pennsylvania Journal 
of the 30th of October last, 1765. We can in no better 
way comply with this request, than by the exemplification 
we have given of that journal in this day's Gazette,'^ As 
near as possible, a representation was made of the several 
figures, emblems of mortality, and mourning columns ; 
all which, accompanied by the qualifying paragraph. 

160 History of Printing in America. 

appeared together in The Halifax Gazeitey and made no 
trifling bustle in the place. 

Soon after this event, the efligy of the stampmaster was 
hung on the gallows near the citadel ; and other tokens of 
hostility to the stamp act were exhibited. These disloyal 
actions were done silently and secretly ; but they created 
some alarm ; and a captain's guard was continually sta- 
tioned at the house of the stampmaster, to protect him 
from those injuries which were expected to befal him. It 
is supposed the apprehensions entertained on his account 
were entirely groundless. The oflBlcers of government had 
prided themselves on the loyalty of the people of that 
province in not having shown any opposition to the stamp 
act. " These things were against them ; " and a facetious 
oflicer was heard to repeat to some of his friends, the old 
English proverb : " We have not saved our bacon." 

An opinion prevailed, that Thomas not only knew the 
parties concerned in these transactions but had a hand in 
them himself; on which account, a few days after the 
exhibition of the stampmaster's efligy, a sheriflf went to 
the printing house, and informed Thomas that he had a 
precept against him, and intended to take him to prison, 
unless he would give information respecting the persons 
concerned in making and exposing the effigy of the stamp- 
master. He mentioned, that some circumstances had pro- 
duced a conviction in his mind that Thomas was one of 
those who had been engaged in these seditious proceed- 
ings. The sheriff receiving no satisfactory answer to his 
inquiries, ordered Thomas to go with him before a magis- 
trate ; and he, having no person to consult, or to give him 
advice, in the honest simplicity of his heart was about to 
obey the orders of this terrible alguazil; but being 
suddenly struck with the idea that this proceeding might 
be intended merely to alarm him into an acknowledg- 
ment of his privity to the transactions in question, he told 

Massachusetts. 161 

the sheriff he did not know him and demanded informa- 
tion respecting the authority by which he acted. The 
sheriff answered, that he had sufficient authority; but on 
being requested to exhibit it, the officer was evidently 
disconcerted, and showed some symptoms of his not acting 
under " the king's authority." However, he answered that 
he would show his authority when it was necessary ; and 
again ordered this " printer of sedition" to go with him. 
Thomas answered, he would not obey him unless he 
produced a precept, or proper authority for taking him 
prisoner. After further parley the sheriff left him, with 
an assurance that he would soon return ; but Thomas saw 
him no more ; and he afterward learned that this was a 
plan concerted for the purpose of surprising him into a 

A short time before the exhibition of the effigy of the 
stampmaster, Henry had received from the stamp-office 
the whole stock of paper that was sent ready stamped 
from England for the use of the Gazette. The quantity 
did not exceed six or eight reams; but as only three 
iquires were wanted weekly for the newspaper, it would 
have sufficed for the purpose intended twelve months. 
It was not many weeks after the sheriff, already men- 
tioned, made his exit from the printing house, when 
it was discovered that this paper was divested of the 
stamps ; not one remained ; they had been cut off and 
destroyed. On this occasion, an article appeared in the 
Gazette^ announcing that " all the stamped paper for the 
Gazette was used, and as no more could be had, it would 
in future be published without stamps." 

In March, 1767, Thomas quitted Halifax, and went to 
New Hampshire ; where he worked, for some time, in the 
printing houses of Daniel Powle, and Furber & Russell. 
In July following he returned to Boston. There he re- 


162 History of Printing in America, 

mained several months, in the employ of his old master, 
Z. Fowle. 

Receiving an invitation from the captain of a vessel to go 
to Wilmington, in North Carolina, where he was assured a 
printer was wanted, he arranged his affairs with Fowle, 
again left him, by agreement, and went to Newport. There 
he waited on Martin Howard, Esq,, chief justice of North 
Carolina, who was then at that place, and was about de- 
parting for Wilmington. To this gentleman he made 
known his intention of going to North Carolina, and re- 
ceived encouragement from the judge, who gave him 
assurances of his influence in procuring business for him 
at Cape Fear ; for which place they sailed in the same 

A gentleman at Newport also favored him with a letter 
of recommendation to Robert Wells, printer, in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

When he arrived at Wilmington, he, in pursuance of 
advice from Judge Howard, and several other gentlemen, 
waited on Governor Tryon, then at that place. The 
governor encouraged him to settle there, and flattered him 
that he would be favored with a part of the printing for 
government. But as a printer he labored under no incon- 
siderable diflSlculty, that is, he had neither press, nor types, 
nor money to purchase them. * 

It happened that Andrew Steuart, a printer, was then 
at Wilmington, who had a press with two or three very 
small founts of letters for sale. He had printed a news- 
paper, and as some work was given him by the government, 
he called himself king's printer ; but at this period he was 
without business, having given great offence to the go- 
vernor and the principal gentlemen at Cape Fear. For this 
reason he was desirous to sell the materials he had then 
in that place, and to return to Philadelphia, where he had 
another small printing establishment. 

Massachusetts. 163 

Pursuant to the advice of several gentlemen, Thomas 
applied to Steuart, to purchase the press, etc. ; but Steuart, 
knowing he could not easily be accommodated with these 
articles elsewhere, took advantage of his situation, and 
demanded about three times as much for them as they 
cost when new. After some debate, Steuart lowered his 
price to about double the value. Several gentlemen of 
Wilmington offered to advance money, on a generous 
credit, to enable Thomas to make the purchase. When 
Steuart found the money could be raised, he refused to 
let the types go without an appendage of a negro woman 
and her child, whom he wished to sell before he quitted 
the place. An argument ensued; but Steuart persisted 
in his refusal to part with the printing materials, unless 
the negroes were included in the sale. Thomas, after 
advising with friends, agreed to take them, finding he 
could dispose of them for nearly the price he was to give 
for them. He then thought the bargain was concluded ; 
but Steuart threw a new difficulty in the way. He had a 
quantity of common household furniture, not the better 
for wear, which he also wanted to dispose of; and would 
not part with the other articles unless the purchaser would 
take these also. The furniture was entirely out of Thomas's 
line of business, and he had no use for it. He, therefore, 
declared himself off the bargain; and afterward, when 
Steuart retracted respecting the sale of furniture, Thomas 
began to be discouraged by the prospects the place afforded ; 
he was not pleased with the appearance of the country ; 
his money was all gone ; and his inclination to visit Eng- 
land was renewed. For these reasons he renounced all 
thoughts of settling at Cape Fear at that time ; although 
a merchant there offered to send to England by the first 
opportunity for a printing apparatus, which he would en- 
gage Thomas should have on a long credit. 

164 History of Printing in America. 

With a view to go to England, he entered himself as 
steward on board a ship bound to the West Indies; 
expecting when he arrived there he should easily find an 
opportunity to go to London, He did duty on board the 
vessel ten days ; but imbibing a dislike to the captain, who 
was often intoxicated, and attempted to reduce him into a 
mere cabin boy, and to employ him about the most servile 
and menial offices, he revolted at these indignities, and 
procured his discharge. On this occasion he remembered 
the recommendation he had received at Newport to a 
printer at Charleston ; and, finding a packet bound there, 
he quitted a very kind friend he had gained at Wilming- 
ton, and after a long passage, in which he met with many 
adventures, besides that lamentable one of spending his 
last shilling, he arrived at Charleston. 

When he presented the letter of recommendation to 
Wells, the printer, he had the mortification to learn he 
was not in want of a journeyman. However, Wells civilly 
employed him at low wages, and soon put him into full 
pay. He continued at Charleston two years; and had 
nearly completed a contract to go and settle in the West 
Indies ; but his health declining, he returned to Boston in 
1770, after having visited several of the southern colonies. 

He now formed a connection with Zechariah Fowle, and 
began business by publishing The Massachusetts Spj/y a 
small newspaper printed three times in a week. 

Thomas's partnership with his former master, Fowle, 
continued but three months. He then purchased the 
printing materials which Fowle had in his possession, and 
gave his security to Fowle's creditor for the payment 
Fowle had, during nineteen years, been in possession of 
his press and types, and had not paid for them. The 
creditor was a near relation by marriage, and had exacted 
only the payment of the annual interest of the debt. 
Thomas continued the Spj/j but altered the publication of 

Massachusetts. 165 

it from three times to twice a week. Each publication con- 
tained a half sheet. After having published it three 
months in the new form, he discontinued it in December, 
1770. On the 5th of March, 1771, he began another paper 
with the same title, which was published weekly, on a large 
sheet folio. 

It was at first the determination of Thomas that his paper 
should be free to both parties which then agitated the 
country, and, impartially, lay before the public their 
respective communications ; but he soon found that this 
ground could not be maintained. The dispute between 
Britain and her American colonies became more and more 
serious, and deeply interested every class of men in the 
community. The parties in the dispute took the names of 
Whigs and Tories ; the tories were the warm supporters of 
the measures of the British cabinet, and the whigs the 
animated advocates for American liberty. The tories soon 
discontinued their subscriptions for the Spy ; and the 
publisher was convinced that to produce an abiding and 
salutary effect his paper must have a fixed character. He 
was in principle attached to the party which opposed the 
measures of the British ministry; and he therefore an- 
nounced that the Spy would be devoted to the support 
of the whig interest. 

Some overtures had been previously made by the friends 
of the British government to induce him to have the Spy 
conducted wholly on their side of the question ; and, these 
having been rejected, an attempt was made to force a 
compliance, or to deprive him of his press and types. It 
was known that he was in debt for these articles, and that 
his creditor was an ofiicer of government, appointed by 
the crown. This oflicer, notwithstanding he was a very 
worthy man, was pushed on to make a demand of pay- 
ment, contrary to his verbal agreement, under the appre- 
hension that the monev could not be raised. When 

166 History of Printing in America. 

Thomas assumed the debt of Fowle, he gave his bond, 
payable in one year, under an assurance that the capital 
might lay as it had done, if the interest annually due should 
be punctually paid ; and when contrary to stipulation the 
capital was demanded, he borrowed money, and paid one 
debt by contracting another. 

An essay published in the Spi/, November, 1771, under 
the signature of Mucius Scsevola, attracted the attention 
of the executive of the province. Governor Hutchinson 
assembled his council on the occasion ; and, after consulta- 
tion, the board determined that the printer should be 
ordered before them. In pursuance of this resolution, their 
messenger was sent to inform Thomas that his attendance 
was required in the council chamber. To this message he 
replied, " that he was busily employed in his office, and 
could not wait upon his excellency and their honors." 
The messenger returned to the council with this answer, 
and, in an hour after, again came into Thomas's printing 
house and informed him that the governor and council 
waited for his attendance ; and, by their direction, inquired, 
whether he was ready to appear before them. Thomas 
answered, that he was not. The messenger went to make 
his report to the council, and Thomas to ask advice of a 
distinguished law character. He was instructed to persist 
in his refusal to appear before the council, as they had no 
legal right to summon him before them ; but, should a war- 
rant issue from the proper authority, he must then submit 
to the sheriff who should serve such a process upon him. 
This was a critical moment ; the affair had taken air, and the 
public took an interest in the event. The council pro- 
ceeded with caution, for the principle was at issue, whether 
they possessed authority arbitrarily to summon whom they 
pleased before their board, to answer to them for their con- 
duct. The messenger was, however, the third time sent to 
Thomas, and brought him this verbal order. 

Massachusetts. 167 

Mess. The governor and council order your immediate 
attendance before them in the council chamber, 

T, I will not go. 

Mess. You do not give this answer with an intention 
that I should report it to the governor and council ? 

T. Have you any thing written, by which to show the 
authority under which you act ? 

- Mess. I have delivered to you the order of the governor 
and council, as it was given to me. 

71 If I understand you, the governor and council order 
my immediate attendance before them ? 

Mess. They do. 

T. Have you the order in writing ? 

Mess. No. 

T. Then, sir, with all due respect to the governor and 
council, I am engaged in my own concerns, and shall not 

Mess. Will you commit your answer to writing? 

T. No, sir. 

Mess. You had better go ; you may repent your refusal 
to comply with the order of the council. 

T. I must abide by the result.^ 

The messenger carried the refusal to the council. The 
board for several hours debated the question, whether they 
should commit Thomas for contempt ; but it was suggested 
by some member that he could not legally be committed 
unless he had appeared before them ; in that case his an- 
swers might have been construed into a contempt of their 
body, and been made the ground of commitment. It was 
also suggested that they had not authority to compel his 
appearance before them to answer for any supposed crime 
or misdemeanor punishable by law, as particular tribunals 
had the exclusive cognizance of such offences. The sup- 

* This conversation with the messenger is taken from a memorandum 
made at the time. 

168 History op Printing in America. 

posed want of authority was, indeed, the reason why a 
compulsory process had not been adopted in the first 
instance. There were not now, as formerly, licensers of 
the press. 

The council, being defeated in the design to get the 
printer before them, ordered the attorney general to prose- 
cute him at common law. A prosecution was accordingly 
soon attempted, and great effort made to effect his con- 
viction. The chief justice, at the following term of the 
supreme court in Boston, in his charge to the grand jury, 
dwelt largely on the doctrine of libels; on the present 
licentiousness of the press ; and on the necessity of restrain- 
ing it. The attorney general presented a bill of indict- 
ment to the grand inquest against Isaiah Thomas for 
publishing an obnoxious libel. The Court House was 
crowded from day to day to learn the issue. The grand 
jury returned this bill. Ignoramus. Foiled by the grand 
jury in this mode of prosecution, the attorney general was 
directed to adopt a different process ; and to file an in- 
formation against Thomas. This direction of the court 
was soon known to the writers in the opposition, who 
attacked it with so much warmth and animation, and 
offered such cogent arguments to prove that it infringed 
the rights and liberties of the subject, that the court thought 
proper to drop the measure. Unable to convict the printer 
either by indictment or information in Suffolk, a proposal 
was made to prosecute him in some other county, under 
the following pretext. The printers of newspapers circu- 
late them through the province, and of course publish them 
as extensively as they are circulated. Thomas, for in- 
stance, circulates the Spy in the county of Essex, and as 
truly publishes the libel in that county as in Suffolk where 
the paper is printed. The fallacy of this argument was 
made apparent ; the measure was not adopted, and govern- 
ment for that time gave over the prosecution ; but, on a 

Massachusetts. 169 

subsequent occasion, some attempts of that kind were 

It became at length apparent to all reflecting men that 
hostilities must soon take place between Great Britain and 
her American colonies. Thomas had rendered himself 
very obnoxious to the friends of the British administra- 
tion; and, in consequence, the tories, and some of the 
British soldiery in the town, openly threatened him with 
the eflTects of their resentment. For these and other 
reasons, he was induced to pack up, privately, a press and 
types, and to send them in the night over Charles river 
to Charlestown, whence they were conveyed to Worcester. 
This was only a few days before the affair at Lexington. 
The press and types constituted the whole of the property 
he saved from the proceeds of five years labor. The 
remainder was destroyed or carried off by the followers 
and adherents of the royal army when it quitted Boston . 

On the night of April 18, 1775,.it was discovered that a 
considerable number of British troops were embarking in 
boats on the river near the common, with the manifest 
design to destroy the stores collected by the provincials 
at Concord, eighteen miles from Boston; and he was 
concerned, with others, in giving the alarm. At day 
break, the next morning, he crossed from Boston over to 
Charlestown in a boat with Dr. Joseph Warren,* went to 
Lexington, and joined the provincial militia in opposing the 
king's troops. On the 20th, he went to Worcester, opened 
a printing house, and soon after recommenced the publica- 
tion of his newspaper.' 

' On account of some essays addressed to the king, published in the 
Spy in September, 1772, and at other periods. 

' Dr. Warren was soon after appointed major general of the pro- 
vincial troops, and was killed in the battle of Breed's, often called Bunk- 
er's hill, June 17, 1775. 

■The publication of the Spy ceased for three weeks. It appeared 
from the press in Worcester, May 3d, 1775. This was the first printing 
done in any inland town in New England. 


170 History of Printing in America. 

The provincial congress, assembled at Watertown, pro- 
posed that Thomas's press should be removed to that 
place ; but, as all concerns of a public nature were then in 
a state of derangement, it was finally determined that his 
press should remain at Worcester, and that postriders 
should be established to facilitate an intercourse between 
that place, Watertown and Cambridge ; and at Worces- 
ter he continued to print for congress until a press was 
established at Cambridge and at Watertown. 

During the time he had been in business at Boston he 
had published a number of pamphlets, but not many books 
of more consequence. Having made an addition to his 
printing materials, in 1773, he sent a press and types to 
Newburyport,^ and committed the management of the 
same to a young printer whom he soon after took into 
partnership in his concerns in that place ; and in December 
of the same year, he began the publication of a newspaper 
in that town. His partner managed their affairs impru- 
dently, and involved the-company in debt; in consequence 
of which Thomas sold out at considerable loss. In Janu- 
ary, 1774, he began in Boston the publication of The Royal 
American Magazine ; but the general distress and commotion 
in the town, occasioned by the operation of the act of the 
British parliament to blockade the port of Boston, obliged 
him to discontinue it before the expiration of the year, 
much to the injury of his pecuniary interests. [See Wor- 
cester — Newspapers J ^c.'] 

John Boyle served un apprenticeship with Green k 
Russell. He purchased the types of Fletcher of Halifax, 
and began business as a printer and bookseller in Marl- 
borough street in 1771, and printed a few books on his 
own account. In May, 1774, Boyle formed a partnership 
with Richard Draper, publisher of The Massachusetts 

* This was the first press set up in Newbiiryport. 

Massachusetts. 171 


Gazette^ or Boston News Letter. Draper died the following 
month, but his widow continued the newspaper, &c. 
Boyle was in partnership with the widow until August 
following ; they then dissolved their connection, and Boyle 
returned to his former stand. 

In 1775, Boyle sold his printing materials, but retained 
his bookstore, which he continued to keep in the same 
place.* • 

Nathaniel Davis served his apprenticeship with Daniel 
Kneeland, and during the year 1772 and 1773 was in 
partnership with him ; soon after which he died. They 
had a small printing house, where Scollay 's Buildings now 
stand, at the head of Court street.* They published a 
number of pamphlets, and did some work for booksellers. 
[^See Daniel Kneeland.'] 

Nathaniel Mills was born within a few miles of Bos- 
ton, and served his apprenticeship with John Fleming. 

Mills had just completed his time of service when 
Fleming quitted business. John Hicks and Mills were 
nearly of an age, and they formed a copartnership under 
the firm of Mills & Hicks. The controversy between 
Britain and her American colonies at this period assumed 
a very serious aspect, and government was disposed to enlist 
the press in support of the measures of the British ministry. 
Mills k Hicks were urged by the partisans of government 
to purchase Fleming^s printing materials, and the right 
which Green & Russell had in the newspaper entitled 
The Massachusetts Gazette^ and Boston Post Boy^ &c. They 
pursued the advice given them ; and being by this purchase 

* Boyle died in 1819. See Buckingham's Reminiscences, i, 42, for further 
particulars of him. — M, 

^ Scollay^s Buildings have recently been removed and the land made 
part of the street. — II. 

172 History of Printing in America. 

furaisbed with types and with a newspaper, they opened 
a printing house in April, 1773, in School street, neariy 
opposite to the small church erected for the use of the 
French Protestants.^ 

The British party handsomely supported the paper of 
Mills & Hicks, and afforded pecuniary aid to the printers. 
Several able writers defended the British administration 
from the attack of their American opponents; and the 
selection of articles in support of government for this 
paper as well as its foreign and domestic intelligence dis- 
played the discernment and assiduity of the compilers. 

Mills was a sensible, genteel young man, and a good 
printer, and had the principal management of the printing 
house. The newspaper was their chief concern ; besides 
which they printed during the two years they were in Boston 
only a few political pamphlets and the Massachusetts Register. 
The commencement of hostilities, in April, 1775, put an 
eiiA. to the publication of their Gazette. Soon after the 
war began. Mills came out of Boston, and resided a few 
weeks at Cambridge; but returned to Boston, where 
he and his partner remained until the town was evacuated 
by the British troops. They, with others who had been 
in opposition to the country went with the British army 
to Halifax, and from thence to Great Britain. After two 
years residence in England they came to New York, then 
in possession of the British troops. 

In New York they opened a stationery store, and did 
some printing for the royal army and navy. They after- 
wards formed a partnership with Alexander and James 
Eobertson, who published the Royal American Gazette in 
that city. The firm was Robertsons, Mills & Hicks, and 
so continued until peace took place in 1783. Mills and 
Hicks then returned to Halifax, Nova Scotia ; but their 

' A number of Separatists afterward purchased tliis church, and settled 
as their minister the Rev. Andrew Croswell. 

Massachusetts. 173 

partnership was soon after dissolved, and Mills went and 
resided at Shelburne, in that province. 

John Hicks was bom in Cambridge, near Boston, and 
served an apprenticeship with Green & Russell. He was 
the partner of Nathaniel Mills. [-For particulars respecting 
this company see Nathaniel MUls.'] 

Hicks, previous to his entering into partnership with 
Mills, was supposed to be a zealous young whig. He was 
reputed to have been one of the young men who had the 
afeay with some British soldiers which led to the memo- 
rable massacre in King street, Boston, on the 5th of 
March, 1770. 

Interest too often biasses the human mind. The officers 
and friends of government at that time, unquestionably 
gave encouragement to the few printers who enlisted 
themselves for the support of the British parliament. 
Draper's Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News 
Letter was the only paper in Boston, when, and for some 
time before. Mills & Hicks began printing, which disco- 
vered the least appearance of zeal in supporting the 
measures of the British administration against the colo- 
nies — and Draper was the printer to the governor and 

The Massachusetts Guzette and Post Boy^ &c., printed by 
Green & Russell, was a rather dull recorder of common 
occurrences. Its publishers, although instigated by print- 
ing for the custom house, and by other profitable work 
for government, did not appear to take an active part in 
its favor. The dispute with the parent country daily be- 
came more and more important ; and it evidently appeared 
that the administration deemed it necessary that there 
should be a greater number of newspapers zealously de- 
voted to the support of the cause of Great Britain. It was 
therefore decided that Green & Russell should resign the 

174 History of Printing in America. 

printing of their Gazette to Mills & Hicks ; and these were 
animated by extraordinary encouragement to carry it on 
with spirit and energy in support of the royal cause. A 
number of writers, some of them said to be oflBlcers of the 
British army, were engaged to give new life and spirit to 
this Gazette. Mills & Hicks managed the paper to the 
satisfaction of their employers until the commencement 
of the revolutionary war, which took place in two years 
after they began printing. 

The father of Hicks was one of the first who fell in this 
war. When a detachment of the British troops marched 
to Concord to destroy the public stores collected there by 
order of the provincial congress, Hicks's father was among 
the most forward to fly to arms, in order to attack this 
detachment on its return to Boston, after it had killed a 
number of Americans at Lexington, and partially exe- 
cuted the design of the expedition to Concord ; and in the 
defence of his country he lost his life. 

Notwithstanding this sacrifice of his father on the altar 
of liberty, Hicks still adhered to the British, and remained 
with the royal army, supporting, as a printer, their cause, 
until a peace was concluded by the acknowledgment of 
the independence of the United States. When the British 
army quitted New York, Hicks, with many other Ameri- 
can loyalists, went with them to Halifax. After remaining 
there a few years, he returned to Boston. Having acquired 
a very considerable property by his business during the 
war, he purchased a handsome estate at Newton, on which 
he resided until his death. 

Joseph Qreenlbaf was a justice of the peace for the 
county of Plymouth, and lived at Abington, Massachusetts. 
He possessed some talents as a popular writer, and in 
consequence was advised, in 1771, to remove into Boston, 

Massachusetts. 175 

and write occasionally on the side of the patriots. He fur- 
nished a number of pieces for the Massachusetts Spy. 
These displayed an ardent zeal in the cause of American 
liberty, and in the then state of the popular mind, amidst 
many pungent, and some more elegantly written communi- 
cations, they produced a salutary effect. 

Not long after he came to Boston, a piece under the 
signature of Mucins Scseyola, as has been already men- 
tioned, appeared in the Massachusetts Spy, which attracted 
the attention of the governor and council of Massachusetts. 
They sent for Thomas, the printer, but he did not appear 
before them. Qreenleaf who was suspected of being con- 
cerned in the publication of that paper, was also required to 
attend in the council chamber ; but he did not make his 
appearance before that board. The council then advised 
the governor to take from Greenleaf his commission as a 
justice of the peace, as he " was generally reputed to be 
concerned with Isaiah Thomas in printing and publishing 
a newspaper called the Massachusetts Spy.^' Greenleaf was 
accordingly dismissed as a magistrate. 

In 1773, Greenleaf purchased a press and types, and 
opened a printing house in Hanover street, near Concert 
Hall. He printed several pamphlets, and An Abridgment of 
Bum's Justice of the Peace. 

In August, 1774, he continued the publication of The 
Royal American Magazine begun by Thomas. The revo- 
lutionary war closed his printing business. Greenleaf was 
not bred a printer ; but having little property, he set up 
a press at an advanced period of his life, as the means of 
procuring a livelihood. A son of his, nearly of age, had 
learned printing of Thomas,^ and managed his father's print- 
ing house during the short time he carried on business. 

' Thomas Greenleaf, afterward the publisher of a newspaper in New 

176 History of Printing in America. 

Margaret Draper was the widow of Richard Draper. 
She published the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News 
Letter after his death. Boyle, who had been connected 
with her husband a short time before he died, continued 
the management of her printing house for about four 
months ; and, during that time, his name appeared after 
Margaret Draper's in the imprint of the Gazette. At the 
expiration of this period their partnership was dissolved. 
Margaret Draper conducted the concerns of the printing 
house for several months, and then formed a connection 
with John Howe, who managed the business of the com- 
pany, agreeably to the advice of her friends, whilst she 
remained in Boston. She printed for the governor and 
council ; but the newspaper was the principal work done 
in her printing house. 

A few weeks after the revolutionary war commenced, 
and Boston was besieged, all the newspapers, excepting 
her's, ceased to be published ; and but one of them, The 
Boston Gazette^ was revived after the British evacuated the 
town. It is noteworthy that The News Letter was the first 
and the last newspaper which was published in Boston 
prior to the declaration of independence. 

Margaret Draper left Boston with the British army, and 
went to Halifax : from thence she soon took passage, with 
a number of her friends, for England. She received a 
pension from the British government, and remained in 
England until her death. 

John Howe was born in Boston, and there served a 
regular apprenticeship at the printing business. His father 
was a reputable tradesman in Marshall's lane. In the 
account given of Margaret Draper, mention is made 
that Howe became connected with her in publishing her 
GazettCy etc. He had recently become of age, and was 
a sober, discreet young man ; Mrs. Draper, therefore, was 

Massachusetts. 177 

induced, a short time before the commencement of the 
war, to take him into partnership ; but his name did not 
appear in the imprint of the Massachusetts Gazette till Bos- 
ton was besieged by the continental army. Howe remained 
with his partner until they were obliged to leave Boston, 
in consequence of the evacuation of the town by the British 
troops in March, 1776. He then went to Halifax, where 
he published a newspaper, and printed for the government 
of Nova Scotia.^ 


Was the third place in the province of Massachusetts 
in which a press was established. The first printing house 
was opened in 1768, by Samuel Hall. He was born in 
Medford, Massachusetts, served an apprenticeship with his 
uncle, Daniel Fowle, of Portsmouth, and first began busi- 
ness in Newport, in 1763, in company with Anne Franklin, 
whose daughter he married. 

He left Newport in March, 1768, opened a printing house 
in Salem in April following, and began the publication of 
The Essex Gazette in August of that year. In three or 
four years after he settled in this town, he admitted his 
brother, Ebenezer Hall, as a partner. Their firm was 
Samuel & Ebenezer Hall. They remained in Salem 
until 1775. Soon after the commencement of the war, to 
accommodate the state convention and the army, they 
removed to Cambridge, and printed in Stoughton Hall, 
one of the buildings belonging to Harvard University. 

In February, 1776, Ebenezer Hall died, aged twenty- 

' A letter from Mr. E. M. MacDonald of Halifax, states that John 
Howe died in tliat city in 18»35, aged 82. For some years previous to his 
death he held the office of postmaster at Halifax, and also that of king's 
printer for the province, the latter office securing to him all the govern- 
ment printing, including the publishing of the official gazette. He also 
for some years had an interest as partner with John Munro in the HiUifitz 
JournfU, although his name did not appear in it. — J/1 


178 History of Printing in America. 

seven years. He was an amiable young man, and a good 
printer. He was born in Medford, and was tanght the art 
of printing by his brother. 

In 1776, on the evacuation of Boston by the British 
troops, Samuel Hall removed into that town, and remained 
there until 1781, when he returned to Salem. He con- 
tinued in Salem until November, 1785 ; at which time he 
again went to Boston, and opened a printing house, and a 
book and stationery store, in Comhill. 

In April, 1789, he began printing, in the French 
language, a newspaper, entitled Courier de Boston, This 
was a weekly paper, printed on a sheet of crown in quarto, 
for J. Nancredo, a Frenchman, who then taught the 
language of his nation at the university, and was after- 
ward a bookseller in Boston ; but his name did not appear 
in the imprint of the paper. Courier de Boston was pub- 
lished only six months. 

After Hall relinquished the publication of a newspaper, 
he printed a few octavo and duodecimo volumes, a variety of 
small books with cuts, for children, and many pamphlets, 
particularly sennons. He was a correct printer, and 
judicious editor ; industrious, faithful to his engagements, 
a respectable citizen, and a firm friend to his country. He 
died October 30, 1807, aged sixty-seven years. 

EzBKiEL Russell has been already mentioned. He 
removed from Boston to Salem in 1774, /md opened, in 
Ruck street, the second printing house established in that 
place. In the same year he began the publication of a 
newspaper, but did not meet with success. He printed 
ballads and small books. Having remained about two 
years ia Salem, he removed to Danvers, and opened a print- 
ing house ; from thence, about the year 1778, he returned 
with his press to Boston. [See Boston — Portsmouth^ ^r.] 

Massachusetts. 179 

John Rogers was born in Boston and served an appren- 
ticeship there, with William Macalpine. He began the 
publication of a newspaper in Salem, at the printing house 
of Russell, who was interested in the paper ; but it was 
printed only a few weeks. After this failure in the attempt 
to establish a paper, I do not recollect to have seen Rogers's 
name to any publication. lie did not own either press 
or types. 

Mary Crouch was the widow of Charles Crouch, of 
Charleston, South Carolina. She left Charleston in 1780, a 
short time before that city was surrendered to the British 
troops, and brought with her the press and types of her 
late husband. She opened a printing house in Salem, near 
the east church, where she published a newspaper for a 
short time. Wheii she sold her press, &c., she removed to 
Providence, Rhode Island, the place of her nativity, and 
there resided. 


At the request of several gentlemen, particularly the 
late Rev. Jonathan Parsons, a press was first established 
in that town, in 1773, by Isaiah Thomas. lie opened a 
printing house in King street, Newburyport, opposite to 
the Presbyterian church. The town was settled at an 
early period. In point of magnitude it held the third 
rank, and it was the fourth where the press was 
established, in the colony. Thomas took as a partner 
Henry Walter Tinges. The firm was Thomas & Tinges. 
Thomas continued his business in Boston, and Tinges had 
the principal management of the concerns at Newbuiyport. 
They there printed a newspaper, and in that work the 
press was principally employed. Before the close of a 
year, Thomas sold the printing materials to Ezra Lunt, the 
proprietor of a stage, who was unacquainted with printing ; 

180 History op Printing in America. 

but he took Tinges as a partner, and the firm of this com- 
pany was LuNT & TiNGBs. They continued their connection 
until the country became involved in the revolutionary 
war ; soon after which Lunt transferred the press and his 
concern in printing to John Mycall. Tinges now became 
the partner of Mycall. 

The partnership of Mycall & Tinges ended in six 
months. The business was then conducted by Mycall, 
who soon became so well acquainted with it, as to carry it 
on, and continue it on a respectable footing, for about 
twenty years ; when he quitted printing, and retired to a 
farm at Harvard, in the county of Worcester, from whence 
he removed to Cambridgeport.* 

Tinges was born in Boston, was of Dutch parentage, 
and served part of his apprenticeship with Fleming, and 
the residue with Thomas. He went from Newburyport 
to Baltimore, and from thence to sea, but never returned. 

Lunt joined the American army, and finally removed to 
Marietta. He was a native of Newburyport. 

Mycall was not brought up to printing, but he was a 
man of great ingenuity. He was bom at Worcester, in 
England ; and was a schoolmaster at Amesbury at the 
time he purchased of Lunt. Some years after he began 
printing his printing house and all his printing materials 
were consumed by fire. Those materials were soon 
replaced by a very valuable printing apparatus. 


This was the fifth town in Massachusetts in wliich the 
press was established. In 1774, a number of gentlemen 
in the county of Worcester, zealously engaged in the cause 
of the country, were, from the then appearance of public 
affairs, desirous to have a press established in Worcester, 

' Thoiiiaa Mycall died about llic year 1826. These Uirec printers are 
noticed by Buckingbam in his Reminiscences^ i, 28(^-303. — M. 

Massachusetts. 181 

the shire town of the county. In December of that year, 
they applied to a printer in Boston, who engaged to open 
a printing house, and to publish a newspaper there, in the 
course of the ensuing spring. 

Isaiah Thomas, in consequence of an agreement with 
the gentlemen as above related, to send a press, with a 
suitable person to manage the concerns of it, to this town, 
in February, 1775, issued a proposal for publishing a 
newspaper, to be entitled The Worcester Gazette ; or^ Ame- 
rican Oracle of Liberty. The war commencing sooner than 
was expected, he was obliged to leave Boston, and came him- 
self to Worcester, opened a printing house, and on the 3d 
of May, 1775, executed the first printing done in the town. 

Thomas remained at Worcester until 1776, when he let 
a part of his printing apparatus, and his newspaper, to 
two gentlemen of the bar, William Stearns and Daniel 
Bigelow, and with the other part removed to Salem, with 
an intention to commence business in that place; but 
many obstructions to the plan arising in consequence of 
the war, he sold the printing materials which he carried 
to that town, and, in 1778, returned to Worcester, took 
into possession the press which he had left there, and 
resumed the publication of the Spy. 

He received his types worn down, and found paper, 
wretchedly as it was then manufactured, difficult to be 
obtained ; but, in a few months, he was fortunate enough 
to purchase some new types which were taken in a vessel 
from London. After some time he also procured paper 
which was superior in quality to what was generally 
manufactured at that period ; and thus he was enabled to 
keep his printing business alive whilst the war continued. 

During two or three years he was concerned with Joseph 
Trumbull in a medicinal store. On the establishment of 
peace, an intercourse was opened with Europe, and he 

182 History op Printing in America. 

procured a liberal supply of new printing materials, engaged 
in book printing, opened a bookstore, and united the two 
branches of printing and bookselling. 

In September, 1788, he recommenced printing in Bos- 
ton, and at the same time opened a bookstore there. At 
first, the business was managed by three partners, under 
the firm of I. Thomas & Co. ; but one of the partners leav- 
ing the company, Thomas formed a copartnership with 
the other, Ebenezer T. Andrews, who had served his 
apprenticeship with him, and the house took the firm of 
Thomas & Andrews. 

In 1793, he set up a press and opened a bookstore at 
Walpole, New Hampshire, where he began the publication 
of a newspaper entitled Tlie Fanner's Museum} 

In 1794, he opened another printing house and a book- 
store at Brookfield, Massachusetts. All these concerns 
were managed by partners, and distinct fron;i his business 
in Worcester ; where he continued to reside, and to carry 
on printing and bookselling on his sole account. At 
Worcester, he also erected a paper mill, and set up a 
bindery; and was thus enabled to go through the whole 
process of manufacturing books. 

Li 1794, he and his partner at Boston extended a branch 
of their bookselling business to Baltimore. The house 
there established was known as the firm of Thomas, 
Andrews & Butler; and, in 1796, they established 
another branch of their business at Albany, under the firm 
of Thomas, Andrews & Penniman, and there opened a 
printing house and bookstore. 

The books printed by him at Worcester, and by him 
and his partners in other places, form a very considerable 
catalogue. At one time they had sixteen presses in use ; 

* It was finally abandoned, after several suspensions and revivals, in 
October, 1810. See Buckingham's lieminiscences^ vol. ii, p. 174, for an ac- 
count of its career. — ^f. 

Massachusetts. 183 

seven of them at his printing house in Worcester, and five 
at the company's printing house in Boston. They printed 
three newspapers in the country, and a magazine in 
Boston ; and they had five bookstores in Massachusetts, 
one in New Hampshire, one at Albany, and one at Balti- 

Among the books which issued from Thomas's press at 
Worcester, were, in 1791, an edition of the Bible, in folio, 
with copperplates, and, an edition, in royal quarto, with 
a concordance ; in 1793, a large edition of the Bible in 
octavo ; and, in 1797, the Bible in duodecimo. Of this last 
size, several editions were printed, as the types, complete 
for the work, were kept standing. In 1802, he printed a 
second edition of the octavo Bible. 

Among the books printed by the company in Boston, 
were, The Massachusetts Magazine^ published monthly, in 
numbers, for five years, constituting five octavo volumes ; 
five editions of The Universal Geography^ in two volumes 
octavo, and several other heavy works ; also, the Bible in 
12mo, numerous editions; the types for which were re- 
moved from Worcester to Boston. 

In 1802, Thomas resigned the printing at Worcester to 
his son Isaiah Thomas, jun., and soon after, transferred to 
him the management of the Massachusetts Spy. His son 
continued the publication of that paper, and carried on 
printing and bookselling. 

[Slee Boston — Neioburyport — Hist, of Newspapers ^ in 
vol. ii.] 

184 History op Printing in America. 


There was no press in this colony until 1709 ; and, I 
believe, not more than four printing houses in it before 

New London. 

The first printing done in Connecticut was in that town ; 
forty-five years before a press was established elsewhere 
in the colony.^ 

Thomas Short was the first who printed in Connecticut. 
He set up his press in the town of New London in 1709." He 
was recommended by Bartholomew Green, who at that 
time printed in Boston, and from whom he, probably, 
learned the art of printing. 

In the year 1710,* he printed an original work, well 
known in New England, by the title of The Saybrook Plat^ 
form of Church Discipline. This is said to be the first book 
printed in the colony. After the Platform he printed a 
number of sermons, and sundry pamphlets on religious 

1" The state of the case is thus: Nov. 27th, 1707, Gov. Winthrop died. 
Dec. 7th, following, the general court was called together, and chose Gov. 
Saltonstall. He, minding to have the government furnished with a 
printer, moved to the assembly to have one sent for/' " Timothy Green 
was first applied to, but declined the invitation. Afterwards an engage- 
ment was made with Mr. Short" — OreerCi Memorial^ 1745, in Conn. 
Arehirea (Finance, iii, 282).— T. 

• In October, 1708, the general court accepted Mr. Short's proposition to 
print the PuUic Acts of the Colony for four years, commencing May, 1709, 
and " to give a copy for every Town or place in the Colony that hath a 
Clerk or llegister," for £50 a year ; and to print all proclamations, etc., with 
" all other public business." It was provided, however, that " he shall set 
up a printing press in this Colony." — Col. Sec. of Conn.y v, 69. — T. 

' Although the title page has the date 1710, the work was not completed 
before 1711, and the greater part, if not the whole, of the edition remained 
in the hands of Mr. Short'H widow until 1714. — Conn. Council liccortls, 
1714, p. 3C.— 7: 

Connecticut. 18t5 

subjects, and was employed by the governor and company 
to do the work for the colony. He died at New London, 
three or four years after his settlement there.* 

Timothy Green has already been taken notice of, as 
the son of Samuel Green junior, of Boston, and grandson 
of Samuel Green senior, of Cambridge. He conducted a 
press in Boston thirteen years. Receiving an invitation 
from the council and assembly of Connecticut colony,* in 
the year 1714 he removed to New London, and was ap- 
pointed printer to the governor and company, on a salary 
of fifty pounds per annum.* It was stipulated that for this 
sum he should print the election sermons, proclamations, 
and the laws which should be enacted at the several sessions 
of the assembly. 

Besides the work of government, Green printed a number 
of pamphlets on religious subjects, particularly sermons. 
It has been said of him, that whenever he heard a sermon 
which he highly approved, he would solicit a copy from the 
author, and print it for his own sales. This honest zeal in 
the cause of religion often proved injurious to his interest. 
Large quantities of these sermons lay on hand as dead 
stock ; and, after his decease, they were put into baskets, 
appraised by the bushel, and sold under the value of com- 
mon waste paper. 

'Miss Caulkins records, that a small headstone in the burial ground at 
New London bears this inscription : " Here lyeth the body of Thomas 
Short, who deceased Sept. 27th, 1712, in the 30th year of his age." Two 
children of Thomas and Elizabeth Short are on record in New London — 
Catharine bom 1709, and Charles, 1711. His widow married Solomon 
Coit, Aug. 8, 1714— M, 

' He had receiyed a similar invitation before the engagement of Mr. 
Short in 1708. In a memorial to the general court in 1738, he says : 
" Thirty years since, this Government sent to me to come to be their 
printer. I then answered the gentlemen that treated with me, that I was not 
willing to leave a certainty for an uncertainty. Mr. Short then came up, 
and died here." — Gonn. Archives {Finance lu, 1, 2). — T. 

* Trumbuirs Ilintory of Connecticut. 


186 History of Printing in America. 

He printed a revised edition of the laws, entitled, Acts 
and Laws of his Majestic^ s Colony of Connecticut in New Eng- 
land. Imprint — "New-London, Reprinted by Timothy 
Green, Printer to his Honour the Governour and Coun- 
cil, 1715." He published, also, an edition of the laws 
from 1715 to 1750. As eariy as 1727, he printed Robert 
Treat's Almanack; the celestial signs for which were 
rudely cut on em quadrates, and raised to the height of 
the letter. Some years before his death he resigned his 
printing house and business to his son Timothyj who at 
the time was a printer in Boston, and the partner of 
Samuel Eneeland. 

Green was a deacon of the church in New London; 
and as a Christian was held in high estimation. His 
piety was free from the gloominess and asperity of the 
bigot, and he was benevolent in his heart, and virtuous in 
his life. He was of a very facetious disposition, and many 
of his anecdotes are handed down to the present time. 

He died May 6, 1757,^ aged seventy-eight years. He 
left six sons, and one daughter who died in East Haddam 
in 1808. Three of his sons were printers ; the eldest, who 
succeeded him ; the second settled at Annapolis, in Mary- 
land ; and the third who was connected with his father, 
but died before him. Another of his sons by the name of 
Thomas, by trade a pewterer, settled in Boston, where he 
died leaving several children. 

Samuel Green, third son of Timothy Green, was born in 
Boston two years before his father left that town. He was 
taught printing by his father, and was for several years in 
partnership with him. He died in May,1752, at forty years 
of age, leaving a family of nine children, three of them sons, 
who were printers, and of whom due notice will be taken 
in course. 

* 1758, (^aulkins'H IIi*t Newljondon^ p. 489, 2d edition. — M. 

Connecticut. 187 

Timothy Green Junior, was born in Boston, and came to 
New Loudon with his father, who instructed him in the art. 
He began printing in Boston,^ and was for twenty-five 
years the partner of Samuel Kneeland, as has been related. 
On the death of his brother Samuel, his father being aged, 
and unable to manage the concerns of the printing house, 
he closed his partnership with Kneeland, and, in compli- 
ance with his father's request, removed to New London. 
The whole business was resigned to him. He succeeded 
his father as printer of the colony ; and, at that time, there 
was not another printing house in Connecticut. 

On the 8th of August, 1758, he published a newspaper. 
This was the second establishment of the kind in the 

After a life of industry, he died October 3,* 1763, aged 
sixty years. He was amiable in his manners, and much 
esteemed by his friends and acquaintances. [See Boston 

Timothy Green, 3d, was the son of Samuel Green, and 
nephew to the last mentioned Timothy. He was born in 
New London, and was taught the art by his uncle, to 
whose business he succeeded. The newspaper begun by 
his uncle was discontinued, and he established another, 
afterwards published by his son. In 1773, he set up a 
press in Norwich, in company with his brother-in-law, 
which was afterwards removed to Vermont. 

* Thomas had " seen no printing with his name before 1726." In 1724, 
Cotton Mather's Memoirs of Bemarkables in the Life of Dr. Increase Matfier 
was printed in Boston, in the name of Bartholomew Green. In an " Ad- 
vertisement " of errata, at the end of the volume, Mather says : " My 
young printer, the nephew of him whose name stands in the title page, 
tho* this be the first hook that ?ias entirely passed thro* his handy has bid 
pretty fair towards the exactness of that honest and careful Christian " 
[Wechsel, the " faultless printer" of Paris.] The " young printer" was 
Timothy Jr., the grand-nephew of Bartholomew." — T. 

' August 3, Caulkins's History of New London^ p. 655, 2d cd. — if. 

188 History of Printing in America. 

Green was printer to the colony. In his profession, and 
as a citizen, he was respectable ; a firm and honest whig, 
he was attached to the federal constitution of the United 
States. He died on the 10th of March, 1796, aged fifty- 
nine years. He had eleven children, eight sons and three 
daughters. Two sons were printers, one of whom, Samuel, 
succeeded his father, the other settled at Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, and, in 1787, first printed The Virginia Herald. 
Two of his sons, Thomas and John, were booksellers and 
binders ; another son, named William, was an Episcopal 

New Havbn. 

The second printing house, established in Connecticut, 
was in this town. 

James Parker k Compant. At the commencement of 
the war between England and France, in 1754, Benjamin 
Franklin and William Hunter were joint deputy postmas- 
ters general for America. As the principal seat of the 
war with France, in this country, was to the northward, 
the establishment of a post oflice in New Haven became 
an object of some consequence. James P&rker, in 1754, 
obtained from Franklin the first appointment of post- 
master in that place, associated with John Holt, who had 
been unfortunate in his commercial business, and was 
brother-in-law to Hunter. 

Having secured the post oflBice, Parker, who was then 
the principal printer at New York, by the advice of Frank- 
lin established a press in New Haven at the close of the 
year 1754. The first work from his press was the laws of 
Tale College, in Latin. On the first of January, 1755, he 
published a newspaper. 

Holt directed the concerns of the printing house and 
post office in behalf of James Parker & Co. Parker 

Connecticut. 189 

remained at New York. Post riders were established for 
the army, and considerable business was done at the post 
office and printing house during the war. 

Parker had a partner, named Weyman, in New York, 
who managed their affairs in that city until the year 1759, 
when the partnership was dissolved. This event made it 
necessary that a new arrangement should take place. 
Holt went to New York in 1760, took the direction of Par- 
ker's printing house in that city, and conducted its concerns. 
The press and post office in New Haven were left to the 
agency of Thomas Green ; Parker & Co. still remaining 
proprietors, and continuing their firm on the Gazette till 
1764, when they resigned the business to Benjamin Mecom. 

Benjamin Mecom, who has been mentioned as a printer, 
first at Antigua, and afterward in Boston, removed to 
New Haven in 1764, and succeeded Parker A Co. Frank- 
lin appointed him postmaster. He revived the Gazette 
which had been discontinued, but did very little other 
printing. He remained in that city until 1767, and then 
removed to Philadelphia. ^See Philadelphia^ etc,'] 

Samuel Green was the third son of Samuel Green, and 
grandson of the first Timothy Green, both printers in 
New London, where he was born. He was taught printing 
by his uncle Timothy, who succeeded his father and grand- 
&ther, in New London ; and was the successor of Mecom, 
at New Haven, in 1767. He was joined by his brother 
Thomas, from Hartford, and they became partners, under 
the firm of Thomas & Samuel Green. The newspaper, 
which was begun by Parker & Co., and continued byi 
Mecom, had again been discontinued. These brothers 
established another. Their partnership remained until 
dissolved by the death of Samuel, one of the parties, in 
Febniary, 1799, aged fifty-six years. 

190 History of Printing in America. 

After the death of Samuel, the son of Thomas became 
a partner with his father, under the firm of Thomas Green 
& Son. This son was also named Thomas. The establish- 
ment continued ten years. 

In 1809, a nephew of Richard Draper, Thomas Collier, 
who had been a printer at Litchfield, was connected with 
Green and his son ; but the same year Thomas Green the 
father retired from business. On this occasion he pub- 
lished a very aiFectionate and pathetic address to the public. 
He died May, 1812, aged seventy-seven years. 

The newspaper established by Thomas and Samuel 
Green was continued by Eli Hudson. 


Printing was first introduced into Hartford, in the year 

Thomas Green, who has been just mentioned as the 
partner of Samuel Green in K'ew Haven, was born at New 
London. He was the eldest son of Samuel Green, printer, 
in that place. His father dying, during the early part of 
his life he waa instructed in printing by his uncle. Green 
first commenced printing in Hartford, in 1764. Until that 
time New London and New Haven were the only places 
in the colony in which presses had been established. He 
began the publication of a newspaper, which was the third 
printed in Connecticut ; he remained there till 1767, when 
he removed to New Haven, and went into a partnership 
with his brother. Previous to his leaving Hartford, he 
formed a connection with Ebenezer "Watson, and con- 
ducted the press two years under the firm of Green & 

Thomas Green was a great-great-grandson of Samuel 
Green, who printed at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He died 
in 1812, aged 73. 

Connecticut. 191 

Frederick Green,^ printer of the Maryland GazettCj at 
Annapolis, was from the same stock, and also a great-great- 
grandson of the same Samuel Green. 

Samuel Green, printer of the Connecticut Gazette at New 
London, and Thomas Green junior, one of the publishers 
of the Connecticut Journal^ at New Haven, were of the sixth 
generation of the name of Green, who had been printers 
in this countiy, being great-great-great-grandsons of 
Samuel Green of Cambridge. 

Ebenezer Watson succeeded Thomas Green, in Hart- 
ford, from whom he learned printing. He continued the 
newspaper established by Green. Publishing this paper 
was his principal employment, and he became its pro- 
prietor at the close of the year 1769. It does not appear 
that Watson was a thoroughly taught printer, though he 
practised the art ten years. He died September 16, 1777, 
aged thirty-three years. He was remarkable for his hu- 
manity, and anxious for the safety of his country, then 
contending for its independence, devoted his press to her 
cause. He was an ensign in the governor's company of 
cadets. This company attended his funeral, and he was 
buried with military honors. 

Watson's widow continued the Connecticut Courant in 
company with George Goodwin, until she married Bar- 
zillai Hudson. Goodwin served his apprenticeship with 
Watson, and was a correct printer. Hudson was not bred 
a printer, but came into the business by marrying the 
widow of Watson. Goodwin became the partner of 
Hudson, and they were very respectable printers under 
the firm of Hudson & Goodwin. 

192 History of Printing in America. 


This is the fourth town in Connecticut where a press 
was established before the revolution. Two printing 
houses were opened in the same year. 

'Green & Spooner. Timothy Green the third, printed in 
New London. Judah Paddock Spooner was his brother- 
in-law, and served his apprenticeship with him. 

Green took Spooner into partnership and furnished press 
and types ; and they opened a printing house in Norwich 
in 1773. Spooner, by agreement, managed the concerns 
of the firm. Their business not answering their expecta- 
tions, after the trial of a few years, they removed their 
press to "Westminster in Vermont.^ 

Robertsons A Trumbull. Alexander and James Robert- 
son were sons of a respectable printer in Scotland. I have 
mentioned them as at Albany, where they began printing 
and remained for several years. John Trumbull was, 
I believe, born in Charlestown, Massachusetts ; he served 
an apprenticeship with Samuel Kneeland in Boston. 
Trumbull entered into partnership with the Robertsons, 
and in 1773 they opened a second printing house in Nor- 
wich, and soon after published a newspaper. This con- 
nection was not dissolved until after the British troops took 
possession of the city of New York in 1776. The Robert- 
sons were royalists ; and, soon after that event, they left 
Norwich, and went to New York. 

Trumbull remained at Norwich, and continued printing. 
He differed in his politics with his partners, one of whom, 
James, had been in the political school of Mein & Fleming 
of Boston, for whom he worked two or three years as a 

* Spooner established himself first at Hanover, in 1778, and removed to 
WcHtiiilnHKT in 1781. flee History of Nonoich, 3G4, 2d cd.— M. 

Connecticut. 193 

journeyman ; but, politics apart, James was a worthy man 
and a very good printer. Of Alexander I had no know- 
ledge ; but I have been informed that he was, unfortunately, 
deprived of the use of his limbs, and incapacitated for 
labor. He was, however, intelligent, well educated, and 
possessed some abilities as a writer. 

Trumbull was an honest, well meaning man, and attached 
to his country. His printing was chiefly confined to his 
newspaper, and small articles with which he supplied 
country chapmen. He died in August, 1802, at the age of 
fifty-two years. 

Alexander and James Robertson remained in New York 
till 1783, when the royal army and the refugees quitted the 
city. The Robertsons went to Shelbume, in Nova Scotia, 
where they published a newspaper. Alexander died in 
Shelburne, in December, 1784. James returned to Scot- 
land, his native country, and began business as a printer 
and bookseller in Edinburgh. * 

* Miss Caulkins, in her History of Norwich has additional facts relating to 
these partners. She says of Trumbull : " He was remarkable for his genial 
humor, and always had a merry turn or witty remark at hand." — H. 


194 History op Printing in America. 


Printing was introduced into Connecticut about twenty- 
two years before a press was established in Rhode Island. 
There were but three printing houses in the colony before 
1775, and only two newspapers. 

Gregory Dbxtbr, a printer in London, was a corre- 
spondent of the celebrated Roger 'Williams the founder of 
Providence. Dexter printed, in England, in 1643, Wil- 
liams's Key into the Language of America, and the first Alma- 
nack for Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in New Eng- 
land. Soon after, Dexter quitted printing, left his native 
country, and joined Williams in Providence, where he be- 
came a distinguished character in the colony. He was one 
of the parties named in the charter, and for a number of 
years one of the assistants under the authority granted by 
that charter. He was one of the first town clerks, and 
wrote an uncommonly good hand. He possessed hand- 
some talents, and had been well educated. From him de- 
scended the respectable family of the Dexters in Rhode 

It is said that after Samuel Gredn began printing at 
Cambridge, Dexter went there, annually, for several years, 
to assist him in printing an Almanac. ^ 


The press was first established in this town in the year 
1732 ; and was the only one in the colony till 1762. 

James Franklin. It has been stated that Franklin was 
the publisher of The New-England Courant. Soon after 

Manuscript papers of President Stiles, of New Ilaven. 

Rhode Island. 195 

that paper was discontinued he removed from Boston with 
his printing materials to Newport, and there set up his 
press in a room " under the Town School-House." He did 
some printing for government, published a newspaper a 
few months, and an Almanac annually. 

He was the first who printed in Ehode Island ; but only 
published a few pamphlets, and other small articles, be- 
side those mentioned above. He died in February, 1736. 
\^Se£ Boston.'] 

Anne Franklin, the widow of James Franklin, suc- 
ceeded her husband. She printed for the colony, supplied 
blanks for the public ofS.ces, and published pamphlets, &c. 
In 1746, she printed for government an edition of the laws, 
containing three hundred and forty pages folio. She was 
aided in her printing by her two daughters, and afterward 
by her son when he attained to a competent age. Her 
daughters were correct and quick compositors at case ; and 
were instructed by their father whom they assisted. A 
gentleman who was acquainted with Anne Franklin and 
her family, informed me that he had often seen her daugh- 
ters at work in the printing house, and that they were 
sensible and amiable women. 

James Franklin Junior, the son of James and Anne 
Franklin, was born in Newport : and, as soon as he was of 
age, became the partner of his mother, and conducted their 
concerns in his own name. He began printing about the 
year 1764, published The Mercury in 1758, and died August 
22, 1762. He possessed integrity and handsome talenta, 
which endeared him to very respectable associates. 

After his death, his mother resumed the business ; but 
soon resigned the management of it to Samuel Hall, with 
whom she formed a partnership under the firm name of 

196 History of Printing in America. 

Franklin AHall.* This firm was of short duration, and 
was dissolved by the death of Anne Franklin, April 19, 
1763, at the age of sixty-eight. They printed an edition 
of the laws in folio, which was completed about the time 
that Anne Franklin died. 

Samuel IIall. After the death of his partner. Hall 
printed in his own name. An account of him has already 
been given among the printers of Massachusetts. He re- 
mained at Newport five years, continued the publication of 
the Mercury^ and found considerable employment for his 

In March, 1768, he resigned the printing house in New- 
port to Solomon Southwick, and removed to Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts. [See Salem.'] 

Solomon Southwick was born in Newport, but not brought 
up to the business of printing. He was the son of a fisher- 
man ; and, when a lad, assisted his father in selling fish in 
the market place. The attention he paid to that employ- 
ment, the comeliness of his person, and the evidences he 
gave of a sprightly genius, attracted the notice of the 
worthy Henry Collins, who at that time was said to be the 
most wealthy citizen in Newport, one of the first mercan- 
tile characters in New England, and greatly distinguished 
in the colony of Rhode Island for philanthropy and benevo- 
lence. Mr. Collins took a number of illiterate boys, whose 
parents were poor, under his patronage, and gave each an 
education suited to his capacity ; several of whom became 
men distinguished in the learned professions. Among the 
objects of his care and liberality was young Southwick, 
who was placed at the academy in Philadelphia, and there 

* Anne Franklin's brother-in-law, the celebrated Benjamin Franklin, 
who then printed in Philadelphia, had, at that time, a partner by the 
name of IIall ; and the firm in Philadelphia was likewise Franklin & Hall. 


Rhode Island. 197 

provided for till he had completed his studies. Mr. Collins 
then established him as a merchant, with a partner by the 
name of Clarke, 

Southwick and Clarke did business on an extensive scale. 
They built several vessels and were engaged in trade to 
London and elsewhere ; but eventually they became bank- 
rupts, and their partnership was dissolved. 

After this misfortune, Southwick married a daughter of 
Colonel John Gardner, who for several years had been 
governor of the colony, and by this marriage he became 
possessed of a handsome estate. 

About this time Samuel Hall, who had a desire to leave 
Newport and remove to Salem, offered his printing esta- 
blishment for sale. Southwick became the purchaser in 
March, 1768, and succeeded to the business of Hall. He 
continued the publication of The New York Mercury, and 
made some attempts at book printing. He published for 
his own sales several small volumes; but the turbulence 
of the times checked his progress in this branch of printing, 

Southwick discovered a sincere and warm attachment 
to the interests of the country. He was a firm whig, a 
sensible and spirited writer, and in other respects was 
qualified to be the editor of a newspaper, and the con- 
ductor of a press in times of revolutionary commotion. 

The severity of the British government, to the province 
of Massachusetts particularly, was manifested by several 
acts of parliament which were passed in 1774. By one of 
these acts the people were deprived of many of their 
chartered rights and privileges. By another the port of 
Boston was shut, and the transaction of every kind of com- 
mercial business on the waters of this harbor was inter- 
dicted. These arbitrary edicts kroused the indignation 
of the people in all the colonies. They loudly expressed 
their resentment in various ways, and the press became 
the organ through which their sentiments were energetic- 
ally announced. 

198 History of Printing in America. 

South wick was among the number of printers who were 
not backward to blow the trumpet in our ZioUy and to sound 
an alarm in the holy mountain of our liberties. He wrote 
and printed an address to the people of Rhode Island, 
which was headed with the motto, " Join or die ! " This 
motto had appeared in several of the newspapers, as will 
be mentioned hereafter. In this appeal, Boston was re- 
presented as in a state of siege ; which was actually true ; 
for the harbor was completely blockaded by ships of war, 
and a large number of troops were quartered in the town. 
It was also further stated that these measures of the British 
government were a " direct hostile invasion of all the colo- 
nies." The address was concluded by observing, that " the 
generals of despotism are now drawing the lines of circum- 
vallation around our bulwarks of liberty, and nothing but 
unity, resolution and perseverance, can save ourselves and 
posterity from what is worse than death, slavery." 

Southwick, by his publications and exertions in the 
cause of the country, became very obnoxious to those who 
were of the opposite party ; and he, with other zealous 
whigs, were marked as objects for punishment. When 
the British fleet and army took possession of Newport, in 
1776, he barely eluded the threatened evil. As soon as a 
part of the army had landed, detachments of both horse 
and foot were sent into all parts of the town to arrest the 
patriots, who were endeavoring to eflfect an escape. 
Southwick, his wife, with a child in her arms, and some 
other persons, had got on board an open boat, and were 
just putting off from the shore into a very rough sea, 
occasioned by a high wind, when a party of soldiers who 
were in pursuit of them came in sight. Southwick's 
wife had a brother who was a royalist, and as such was 
known to the British oflS^cers; who however, wished to 
secure the retreat of his sister and her husband. Aware 
of their danger, this brother put himself in the way of 

Rhode Island. 199 

their pursuers, and for a few moments arrested their 
attention, by ^ving them information of the several parts 
of the town whence the proscribed whigs would probably 
attempt to make their retreat, &c. This friendly inter* 
ference gave Southwick and his friends time to get a few 
rods from the 'shore before the party arrived at the spot 
they had just quitted. The boat was yet within reach of 
their shot The soldiers fired at them but without effect. 
The passengers fortunately recaived no injury, and were 
soon wafted to a place of safety.* 

Southwick was, at this time, a member of the general 
assembly of Rhode Island. He owned two new houses in 
Newport, that, with other property which he left at that 
place, were destroyed. He sought an asylum in Attle- 
borough, on the frontier of Massachusetts, and there 
erected a press ; but being soon after appointed commis- 
sary-general of issues for the state of Rhode Island, he re- 
moved to Providence. 

As soon as the British troops evacuated ITewport he 
returned to that town and resumed the publication of his 
newspaper, which he continued till the year 1787, when, by 
ill health, and embarrassed circumstances, he was obliged 
to relinquish business, and to place the Mercury in other 

His pecuniary concerns were greatly impaired by the 
rapid depreciation of the paper currency, before the esta- 

'Mr. Southwick escaped with his wife and eldest son Solomon, but a 
younger child and its nurse were captured. — M, 

* In a historical sketch of the Mercury^ published in that paper when it 
had completed a century of its existence, Jime 12, 1858, it is asserted that 
Southwick did not return to resume his paper, but that Henry Barber re- 
vived its publication in 1780. As yet no copies of the Mercury have been 
found that were published from 1776 to 1780, when Barber's name appears ; 
but it is mentioned by Mr. Thomas in the second volume of this work, that 
Southwick resumed its publication at Attleborough, Mass. Copies of the 
Mercury are preserved in the library of the American Antiquarian Society 
at Worcester, which show that Southwick was associated with Barber in 
May, 1785 ; that he was printing it alone in 1787 ; and that Barber was 

200 History op Printing in America. 

blishment of peace. He, like many others, cherished a 
belief that the nominal sum specified in the bills would 
eventually be made good in specie. The impracticability 
of the thing was not considered, even when one hundred 
dollars in paper would purchase but one of silver. The 
delusion was not discovered by some till they found them- 
selves involved in ruin. The government of the union 
were indebted to Southwick both for his services and for 
money loaned. This debt, like others of the kind, was 
liquidated by notes known by the name of final settlement. 
In the course of some months after they were issued, they 
were sold in the market for one-eighth part of their nomi- 
nal value. To this depreciated state was national paper 
reduced before the assumption of the public debt by the 
new government ; and, when it was in that state, South- 
wick was compelled to sell his final settlement notes for 
the support of himself and family. He was engaged in the 
cause of his country in the times of her adversity and dan- 
ger, but he had no portion of the benefits resulting from 
her prosperity. Assailed by poverty, and borne down by 

again printing it in his own name in 1788. Southwick's monument is 
still seen in the cemetery at Newport A copy of the inscription has been 
furnished by Mr. Fred. A. Pratt, the present editor of the Mercury^ as 
follows : 

" In memory of | Solomon Southwick, Esq., | a gentleman of liberal | 
education and expansive mind, | for many years | editor and proprietor 
of the I Newport Mercury \ and commissary general for the | state of 
Rhode Island | in the Revolutionary war. | He died Dec. 23, 1797, | in 
the 66th year of his age. 

Just, generous, benevolent and sincere, 
Was he whose hallowed dust reposes here ; 
If e'er a partial prayer he breathed to heaven, 
That prayer was for his country's glory given." 

The house which Mr. Southwick occupied on his return to Newport, 
with his printing office, is that in which the Newport Bank is now lo- 
cated. Children of his son, Ilenry C, reside in Albany, and preserve 
volumes of the Mercury and other mementos of their ancestor, among 
which is a diploma from tlic College und Academy of Philadelphia for 
proficiency in Philosophy and Mathematics, 1757, conferring upon him 
the degree of B.A. — M. 

Rhode Island. 201 

infirmity, he lived in obscurity from the year 1788 to the 
time of his death ; and, being unable to provide for his 
children, he left them to make their own way in the world. 

He lost his wife, who was an excellent woman, in 1788 ; 
and he died himself December 23, 1797, aged sixty-six 

His son who bore his name, settled at Albany, and was 
for many years the publisher of The Albany Register} 


For many years the principal part of the trade of the 
colony was carried on at Newport. At length Providence 
rose to eminence and became the successful rival of New- 
port Printing was introduced there in 1762. 

William Goddard, the son of Doctor Giles Goddard, 
postmaster at New London, in Connecticut, was the first 
who established a printing press in Providence, and was 
soon after appointed deputy post-master. 

*Mr. Southwick left five children: Solomon, Henry C, Wilmarth, 
Eliza, and John. Solomon became editor of The Albany Begisiery which 
was began in 1788 as a democratic paper, and with which he was con- 
nected for a f)eriod of nearly thirty years. He was successively clerk 
of the house of assembly at Albany ; clerk of the senate ; sheriff of the 
county ; manager of the state literature lottery ; state printer ; regent of 
the university ; postmaster of the city ; and president of the Mechanics 
and Farmers' bank. For a considerable time he was at the head of the 
democratic party, wielding almost unlimited influence upon the political 
destinies of the state. Besides the Register^ which he published in his own 
name from 1808 to 1817, he also published The Christian Visitant, in 1815, 
and The PUmgh Bay, an agricultural paper, in 1819. He edited the National 
Democrat, in 1817 ; the National Observer, inl826 ; the Family Newspaper, in 
1838. He was twice nominated for governor, but his party was at the time 
in the minority. He was a voluminous writer, and left several published 
volumes. He died suddenly Nov. 18, 1839, aged 66. His brother 
Henry C, was a practical printer, and was sometime associated with him 
in the business. He married Jane, a sister of John Barber who established 
the Register, and whom he succeeded as its proprietor. She survived him 
several years. Of six sons but one left iwsterity. The Albany Barbers 
were of a different family from those of Newport.— M. 


202 History op Printing in America. 

Goddard served his apprenticeship with James Parker, 
printer in New York. He opened a printing house in 
Providence in 1762, and soon after published a newspaper. 
There was at that time but one other paper printed in the 
colony, viz. at Newport ; yet after a trial of several years, 
Goddard did not meet with such encouragement as to in- 
duce him to continue his Gazette. He left his printing 
house, &c., in the care of his mother, and sought for him- 
self a more favorable place of residence. 

On leaving Providence he was for a short time concerned 
with Holt, in New York, in publishing Parker's Gazette and 
Post Boy ; and as a silent partner drew a share of the pro- 
fits. After the repeal of the stamp act, in 1766, he closed 
his concerns with his friends Parker and Holt, and went 
to Philadelphia, and there printed a newspaper, &c. 

I shall have occasion again to mention Goddard, who 
was in business several years in Philadelphia ; and after- 
wards at Baltimore, where he finished his professional 

As a printer he was ingenious and enterprising. He 
made several strong efforts to acquire property, as well as 
reputation ; but by some means his plang of business fre- 
quently failed of success. He was most fortunate in his 
concerns for a few years after the termination of the war. 
At length he supposed that he had become possessed of a 
competency to carry him through life " without hard rub- 
bing." In this apprehension he quitted business, returned 
to New England, and resided several years on a large farm 
near Providence, of which he was the proprietor, and died 
Dec. 23, 1817, aged 77. 

Major General Charles Lee, an oflS.cer in the American 
army during the revolutionary war, owned a landed estate 
in Berkeley county, Virginia, and left by will one-third 
part of this estate to Goddard and Eleazar Oswald, to whom 
he professed himself to have been under obligations. 

Rhode Island. 203 

Few could conduct a newspaper better than Goddard. 
He was a capable editor, and his talents were often drawn 
into requisition. He, like many others, was a laborious 
agent in the cause of his country, and in many instances 
where he had neither honor nor profit for his reward. 
When the loaves and fishes were to be divided, aspiring, 
interested, nominal patriots, crowded him into the back 
ground, and his services were in a great measure forgotten. 

Goddard, however, received from the postmaster general 
the appointment of surveyor general of post roads ; and, 
in this instance, fared better than many others, whose public 
services were never rewarded by any oflice whatever, either 
of profit or honor. [See Philadelphia — Baltimore — News- 

Sarah Goddard, the mother of William Goddard, was 
the daughter of Lodowick Updike, whose ancestors were 
among the first settlers of Rhode Island, and her brother 
was for some years attorney general of the colony. She 
received a good education, acquired an acquaintance with 
several branches of useful and polite learning, and married 
Dr. Giles Goddard, of New London, who left her a widow. 

After her son had been a few years in business, she became 
his partner. He left the management of the printing house 
and newspaper to her, and she conducted them with much 
ability for about two years, when John Carter supplied the 
place of her son ; the firm was then Sarah Goddard k Com- 
pany. She resigned the business to Carter in 1769, removed 
to Philadelphia the same year, and died there in January, 
1770. [See Newspapers in vol. ii.] 

John Carter was born in Philadelphia, and served his 
apprenticeship with Franklin & Hall, in that city. He 
was the partner of Sarah Goddard from 1766 to 1768 in- 
clusive; and, in 1769, he became the successor of William 

204 History op Printing in America. 

and Sarah Goddard, and proprietor of the Providence 

For more than twenty years his printing house was 
"at Shakespear's Head, opposite to the Court House;" 
after which it was near the bridge, and opposite to the 

He was postmaster before the revolution, and for many 
years subsequent to it. He was well acquainted with the 
art which he practised, and the productions of his press 
exhibit evidence of a good and correct workman. 

He was a staunch supporter of the cause of our country, 
before its independence; and after that important event 
took place, he did not lose sight of her best interests. He 
prosecuted printing in an accurate manner for forty-six 
years. His character as a man of honor and integrity was 
well established : he died in August, 1814, aged sixty-nine 

John Waterman was Jbred a seaman, and became the 
master of a vessel. Preferring the mechanic arts, he left 
the pursuits of commerce, and built a paper mill two miles 
from Providence, which probably was the first erected in 
the colony. In 1769, he purchased the press and types 
which were, for many years, owned and used by Samuel 
Kneeland of Boston ; with these he opened a printing house 
near his paper mill, but made little use of them. 

New Hampshire. 205 


The printing for this colony was executed in Boston, 
Massachusetts, until 1756. Only two printing houses were 
opened in New Hampshire before the year 1775, and one of 
these had for several years been shut. The productions of 
the press were few : the largest work printed was the laws 
of the province. 


Although this place was the capital of the colony, and 
had been settled a long time, yet no means had been used 
to introduce printing into it until about the year 1755, 
when several of the influential inhabitants exerted them- 
selves for this purpose ; and, in the year following, the press 
was established there, at which was executed the first print- 
ing done in New Hampshire. 

Daniel Powle, who had been arrested and imprisoned 
in Boston, on a charge of having published a libel against 
the government of Massachusetts, was, as has been stated, 
solicited by several gentlemen in Portsmouth, and after- 
wards encouraged by the government, to set up a press in 
that town. He accordingly removed from Boston to Ports- 
mouth in July, 1756, and soon after published a newspaper. 
Fowle did but little at book printing ; it being his princi- 
pal business to publish the newspaper. He was appointed 
printer to the government; and the laws, &c., were issued 
from his press. 

In September, 1764, he took his nephew Robert Fowle 
as his partner. The firm of the company was Daniel & 
Robert Fowle. They remained together until 1774, when 
they separated, and Robert soon after removed to Exeter. 

Daniel Fowle continued in business until his death, but 

206 History of Printing in America. 

did not acquire much property. He married into a very 
respectable family in Boston, some years before he re- 
moved from that town, but had no children. He received 
the commission of a magistrate a short time after he set- 
tled at Portsmouth. He was a correct printer and indus- 
trious. He was mild in his disposition, agreeable in his 
manners, liberal in his sentiments, and attached to the cause 
of his country. He died in June, 1787, aged 72 years. 
[See Boston — Hist. Nexosp.'] 

Thomas Furbbr was born in Portsmouth, and served 
his apprenticeship with Daniel Fowle. Some zealous whigs, 
who thought the Fowles were too timid in the cause of 
liberty, or their press too much under the influence of the 
officers of the crown, encouraged Furber to set up a second 
press in the province. He in consequence opened a printing 
house in Portsmouth, toward the end of 1764, and soon 
after published a newspaper. In 1765, he received as a 
partner Ezekiel Eussell. Their firm was Furbbr & Rus- 
sell. Excepting the newspaper, they printed only a few 
hand-bills and blanks. The company became embarrassed, 
and in less than a year its concerns terminated, and the 
partnership was dissolved. Upon the dissolution of the 
firm, the press and types were purchased by the Fowles. 
Furber became their journeyman, and Russell went to 

Furber had been taught plain binding, and undertook 
to connect it with printing. Although he was not very 
skillful, either as a printer or as a binder, he began the 
world under favorable circumstances ; and, had he been 
attentive to his affiiirs, he might have been successful. 
He was good natured and friendly, but naturally indolent ; 
and, like too many others, gave himself up to the enjoyment 
of a companion, when he should have been attending to his 
business. He died in Baltimore, at the house of William 

New HAMPsmRE. 207 

Goddard, who had employed him for a long time and 
shown him much friendship. He left a widow and several 


A diflference in the political sentiments of D. and R. 
Fowle, printers and copartners at Portsmouth, was the 
cause of their separation in 1774 ; and probably the reason 
of the establishment of a press in Exeter. 

Robert Fowle was the son of John Fowle, who was 
several years a silent partner with Rogers & Fowle in Bos- 
ton, and afterwards an Episcopal clergyman at Norwalk in 
Connecticut. He served his apprenticeship with his Oncle, 
at Portsmouth; and when of age became his partner, as 
has been mentioned. This copartnership being ended they 
divided their printing materials. Robert, who was neither 
a skillful nor a correct printer, took the press and types 
which had been used by Furber, and settled at Exeter. 
He did some work for the old government, and, in 1775, 
some for the new. He made several attempts to establish 
a newspaper, and in 1776 began one, which he published 
more than a year. 

The new paper currency of New Hampshire had been 
printed by Fowle, and it was counterfeited ; and suspicion 
rested on him as having been concerned in this criminal 
act. He was a royalist, and fled within the British lines 
in New York. By this step the suspicion, which might 
not have been well founded, was confirmed. Thus ended 
the typographical career of Robert Fowle. With other 
refugees from the United States, he was placed upon the 
British pension list. Some time after the establishment 
of peace, he returned to this country, married the widow 
of his younger brother, who had succeeded him at Exeter, 
and resided in New Hampshire until he died. Robert 
Fowle had very respectable connections. 

208 History of Printing in America. 


This was the second English colony in America, where 
the press was established. 

The charter of the province was granted to William 
Penn, in the year 1681 ; and, about the year 1686, a print- 
ing press was established " near Philadelphia." 


This city was laid out, and the building of it begun by 
its proprietor, in 1683. In less than six years after the 
city was founded printing was practiced here. 

William Bradford was the first printer who settled in 
this colony. He was the son of William and Anne Brad- 
ford, of Leicester, England, at which place he was born 
in the year 1660.* He served his apprenticeship in London, 
with Andrew Sowle, printer in Grace Church street, and 
married his daughter Elizabeth. Sowle was intimately 
acquainted with George Pox, a shoemaker of Nottingham, 
and the founder of the English sect of quakers. Sowle 
was one of this sect, and printed for the society. Brad- 
ford adopted the principles of the quakers, and was among 
the first emigrants from England to Pennsylvania in 1682, 
and landed at the spot where Philadelphia was soon after 
laid out before a house was built. The next year his wife 

* The inscription on Bradford's tombstone, in Trinity church yard, New 
York, says : *' He was bom in Leicestershire, in old England, in 1660." But 
The American Alnuinackfor 1739, printed by him, has in the record of events 
which have occurred in the month of May : " The printer bom the 20th 
1663." That day was accordingly selected for commemoration in 1863. 
(See Wallace's Address).— H. 

•Tliomas Holme, who was William Penn*s siureyor general, drew a 
plan of the city of Philadelphia, which was engraved and printed in 

Pennsyltania. 209 

At what place he first settled is rather uncertain ; but 
it was, as he expresses it, " near Philadelphia." The 
Swedes had begun a colony in Delaware as early as 1626, 
and made a settlement at Chester, now a part of Penn- 
sylvania. The Dutch conquered the Swedes and attached 
Delaware to the government of New York. By agreement 
with the Duke of York, Penn, after his arrival, assumed 
the government of Delaware, and united it^ in matters of 
legislation, with Pennsylvania. The general assembly 
was holden at Chester, and this borough became for a time 
a place of consequence. It is probable that Bradford 
resided there until Philadelphia assumed the appearance 
of a city. He might, however, have set up his press at 
Burlington, which is but eighteen miles distant from Phila- 
delphia, and was then the capital of New Jersey. The 
first work printed by Bradford, which has reached us with 
a date, is, " An Almanack for the year of the Christian 
account 1687. Particularly respecting the Meridian and 
Latitude of Burlington, but may indifferently serve all 
places adjacent. By Daniel Leeds, Student in Agriculture. 
Printed and sold by William Bradford, near Philadelphia 
in Pmnsilvarm pro Anno 1687.*' This is a sheet almanac 
in twelve compartments for the twelve months. The 
year begins with March and ends with February, as was 
usual in the seventeenth century. At the bottom of the 
sheet are an explanation of the almanac, an account of 
the eclipses for the year, courts and fairs at Burlington and 
Philadelphia, and short rules in husbandry.* 

London, in 1663, and had this title and imprint, viz : *^ A portraitnre of the 
city of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania in America, by 
Thomas Holme, surveyor-general. Sold by Andrew Sowle in Shoreditch, 
London." By this It appears that in 1683, Sowle cither lived or had a shop 
in Shoreditch. 

' Mr. Wallace, in his Commemorative Address, says : " The earliest issue of 
Bradford's press, known to me, is an Almanack for tlie year 1686, pro- 


210 History of Printing in America. 

It appears that at the time Bradford printed this 
almanac he lived near Philadelphia, and Chester, as I 
have said, was near this city.* 

In 1689, Bradfoi'd lived in the city. I possess a quarto 
pamphlet by George Keith, respecting the New England 
churches, printed by Bradford in Philadelphia that year. 

It is the oldest book I have seen printed in the city. I have 
another pamphlet, of seventy-four pages, printed by him in 
1690, entitled, " A Refutation of Three Opposers of Truth 
by plain Evidence of the holy Scriptures, viz : Pardon Til- 
linghast, B. Keech, and Cotton Mather ; and a few Words 
of a Letter to John Cotton. By George Keith." — Imprint 
"Philadelphia, Printed and Sold by William Bradford 
Anno 1690." I have another quarto pamphlet, of seventy- 

dnccd of course in 1685. It was called Kalendwium Pennsyhanierue or 
Anwriea's Messenger, an Almanack. 

" In 1686 he produced BumyeaVs Epistle. The title is * An Epistle 
from John Bumyeat to friends in Pennsylvania, to be by tliem dispensed 
to the Neighboring Provinces, which for Convenience and Dispatch was 
thought good to be Printed, and so ordered by the Quarterly meeting of 
Philadelphia the 7th of 4tU Month 1686. Printed and Sold by William 
Bradford, near Philadelphia, 1686." 

" Of an Almanack which was issued in 1687, more than one copy is 
cxtAnV— Address, pp. 26-29. 

The fact that in 1688, Bradford issued proi)06als for printing " a large 
Bible," was accidentally discovered by Mr. Nathan Kite of Philadelphia, 
one hundred and fifty years afterwards, he having found a copy of the 
proposals in print serving as the inner lining paper of the cover of a 
book. The proposals are given in full in the appendix to Mr. Wallace's 
address. — H. 

1 It has been suggosteil that Bradford first settled at Kensington, about 
two miles to the eastward of Philadelphia, on the banks of the Delaware ; 
at which place there were at that time two or three houses, and where 
remained the great oak tree, under which William Penn held a treaty 
with the Indians, until the 3d of March, 1810, when it was overthrown by 
a tornado. Proud, in his History of Pennsylrania, observes in a note: 
" The quakers had meetings for religious worship, and for the economy 
of their society, as eftrly as the fore part of the year 1681, at the house of 
Thomas Fairlamb, at Shakamaxon, near or about the place where Kensing- 
ton now stands, nigh Philadelphia." This fact renders it, in a degree, pro- 
bable, that Bradford did settle at Kensington. The creek at the north 
end of the city is known to this day by the Indian name Shakamaxon. 

Pennsylvania. 211 

two pages, written by George Keith, entitled : " A Serious 
Appeal to all the more Sober, Impartial and Judicious 
People of New England, to whose Hands this may come/* 
It ia a vindication of the quakers from the attack of Cotton. 
Mather, etc. " Printed and Sold by William Bradford at 
Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, in the year 1692." 

In the year 1692, much contention prevailed among the 
quakers in Philadelphia, and Bi*adford took an active part 
in the quarrel. George Keith, by birth a Scotchman, a. 
man of good abilities and well educated, was surveyor 
general in New Jersey ; and the society of Friends in the 
city employed him in 1689, as the superintendent of their 
schools. Keith having attended to this duty nearly twa 
years became a public speaker in their religious assemblies ; 
but being, as the quakers asserted, of a turbulent and over- 
bearing spirit, he gave them much trouble. They forbade 
him speaking as a teacher, or minister, in their meetings. 
This, and some other irritating circumstances, caused a 
division among the Friends, and the parties were violently 
hostile to each other. Bradford was of the party which 
was attached to Keith, and supported him ; their opponents 
were the majority. Among them were Lieutenant Go- 
vernor Lloyd, and most of the quaker magistrates. Keith 
and Thomas Budd wrote against the majority, and Brad- 
ford published their writings. 

Keith was condemned in the city meetings, but appealed 
to the general meeting of the Friends ; and, in order that 
his case might be generally known and understood, he 
wrote an address to that body which he caused to be 
printed, and copies of it to be dispersed among the Friends 
previous to their general meeting. This conduct was 
highly resented by his opponents. The address was de- 
nominated seditious, and Bradford was arrested and im- 
prisoned for printing it. The sheriff seized a form 
containing four quarto pages of the typos of the address ; 

212 History of Printing in America. 

and also took into his custody a quantity of paper, and a 
number of books, which were in Bradford's shop, with all 
the copies of the address which he could find. The civil 
authority took up the business ; and, as Keith and Brad- 
ford state the facts, they who persecuted them in the reli- 
gious assemblies condemned and imprisoned them by civil 
process; the judges of the courts being the leading cha- 
racters in the meetings. Several of Keith's party were 
apprehended and imprisoned with Bradford; and among 
them, Thomas Budd, and John McComb. The offence of 
the latter consisted in his having two copies of the address 
which he gave to two friends in compliance with their 

The following was a warrant for committing Bradford 
and MacComb : 

" Whereas William Bradford, printer, and John Mac- 
Comb, taylor, being brought before us upon an informa- 
tion of Publishing, Uttering and Spreading a Malitious 
and Seditious paper, intituled An Appeal from the twenty- 
eight Judges* to the Spirit of Truth, &c. Tending to the 
disturbance of the Peace and the Subversion of the present 
government, and the said Persons being required to give 
Securitie to answer it at the next Court, but they refused 
so to do. These are therefore by the King and Queens 
Authoritie and in our Proprietarys Name, to require you 
to take into your Custody the Bodies of William Bradford 
and John MacComb, and them safely keep till they shall 
be discharged by due Course of Law. Whereof fail not 
at your Peril ; and for your so Doing, this shall be your 
sufficient Warrant. Given under our Hands and Seales 
this 24th of August, 1692. 

" These to John White Sheriff of Philadelphia or his 

' ^* Twenty-eight," meaning those who condemned Keith, in what h& 
railed "their Spiritual' Court." 

Pennsylvania. 213 

Signed by Arthur Cook, and four othere. 

The day after the imprisonment of Bradford and his 
friends, a " Private Sessions," as it was called, of the 
county court, was holden by sixjustices, all quakers, who, 
to put a better complexion on their proceedings, requested 
the attendance of two magistrates who were not quakers. 

This court assembled, it seems, for the purpose of con- 
victing Keith, Budd, and their connections, of seditious 
conduct, and of condemning them without a hearing; but 
the two magistrates who were not quakers, if we credit 
Eeith and Bradford, reprobated the measure, and refused 
to have any concern in it, declaring that the whole transac- 
tion was a mere dispute among the quakers respecting 
their religion, in which the government had no concern. 
They, however, advised that Keith, and others accused, 
should be sent for, and allowed to defend themselves, and 
affirmed that if any thing like sedition appeared in their 
practice, they would join heart and hand in their prosecu- 
tion. To this the quaker magistrates would not consent, 
and the others in consequence left the court. The court 
then, as is stated in a pamphlet,* "proceeded in their 
work, and as they judged George Keith in their spiritual 
court, without all hearing or trial, so in like manner, they 
prosecuted him in their temporal court without all hear- 
ing." The pamphlet further states that " one of ihejudges 
declared that the court could judge of matter of fact without 
evidence, and therefore without more to do proclaimed 
George Keith, by the common cryer, in the market place, 
to be a seditious person, and an enemy to the king and 
queen's government" [^Appendix -K] 

^ This pamphlet is entitled, " New England Spirit of Persecution, trans- 
mitted to Pennsilvania, and the Pretended Quaker found Persecuting the 
Tnie Christian Quaker in the Tiyal of Peter Boss, George Keith, Thomas 
Budd and William Bradford, at the Sessyons held at Philadelphia the 
Ninth, Tenth, and Twelfth Days of December, 1692. Giring an account 
of the most Arbitrary Proceedings of that Court." 

214 History of Printing in America. 

Bradford and MacComb, who had been imprisoned, 
appeared at this court, and requested that they might be 
brought to trial; pleading that it was very injurious to 
them and their familes to remain in confinement. They 
claimed, as free born English subjects, the rights secured 
by Magna Chartd) among which was the prompt adminis- 
tration of justice ; and Bradford, in particular, desired that 
his trial might then take place, "because, not only his 
person was restrained, but his working tools, and the paper 
and books from his shop, were taken from him, and 
without these he could not work and maintain his family." 

At this court the following conversation took place 
between the judges and the prisoners, all of whom were 
quakers : 

" Justice Cook. What bold, impudent and confident 
men are these to stand thus confidently before the Court? 

" MacComb. You may cause our hats to be taken off 
if you please. 

" Bradford. We are here only to desire that which is the 
right of every free bom English subject, which is speedy 
justice, and it is strange that that should be accounted 
impudence, and we impudent fellows therefore, when we 
have spoke nothing but words of truth and soberness, in 
requesting that which is our right, and which we want ; 
it being greatly to our prejudice to be detained prisoners. 

" Justice Cook. If thou hadst been in England, thou 
would have had thy back lashed before now. 

" Bradford. I do not know wherein I have broke any 
law so as to incur any such punishment 

" Justice Jennings. Thou art very ignorant in the law. 
Does not thee know that there's a law that every printer 
shall put his name to the books he prints, or his press is 
forfeited ? 

" Bradford. I know that there waB such a law, and I 
know when it expired. 

Pennsylvania. 215 

" Justice Cook. But it is revived again, and is in force 
and without any regard to the matter of the book provides 
that the printer shall put his name to the books he prints, 
which thou hast not done." 

The prisoners continued to press for a trial. 

" Justice Cook. A trial thou shall have, and that to 
your cost, it may be. 

" Justice Jennings. A trial thou shalt have, but, for 
some reason known to us, the court defers it to the next 
sessions, and that is the answer we give, and no other you 
shall have." 

The trial was, accordingly, put over to the next term. 
The only oflFence which appeared against MacComb was 
his joining with Keith and his party, and disposing of two 
copies of Keith's printed address to his quaker brethren. 
For this he was not only imprisoned, but also deprived by 
Lieutenant Governor Lloyd of a license to keep an ordi- 
nary, or house of public entertainment, for which he had, 
a few months before his confinement, paid the lieutenant 
governor twelve pieces of eight, or three pounds twelve 
shillings of the then currency. 

At the next session of the court, on the 6th of the fol- 
lowing December, Bradford was placed at the bar. " The 
presentment was read," the substance of which was, that 
the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th articles of the pamphlet 
called " An Appeal," had a tendency to weaken the hands 
of the magistrates ; and William Bradford was presented 
•as the printer of that seditious paper. The following pro- 
ceedings of the court are extracted from the pamphlet 
above mentioned: 

" Clerk. What say you William Bradford, are you 
guilty as you stand presented, or not guilty ? 

" Bradford. In the first place, I desire to know whether 
I am clear of the mittimus, which differs from the pre- 
sentment ? 

216 History op Printing in America. 

" The clerk and the attorney for the government read 
and perused the mittimus and presentment, and finding 
them to differ, said, that when William Bradford was 
cleared according to law he was cleared of the mittimus. 
Bradford insisted on knowing whether, on the issue of the 
presentment, he was clear of the mittimus. After a long 
debate on the subject, Bradford was told that he was clear 
of the mittimus on the issue of the presentment. 
" Bradford. What law is the presentment founded on? 
^^ Attorney for the Govermyicnt. It is grounded both on 
statute and common law. 

" Bradford. Pray let me see that statute and common 
law, else how shall I make my plea ? Justice Cook told 
us last court, that one reason why ye deferred our trial 
then, was that we might have time to prepare ourselves 
to answer it ; but ye never let me have a copy of my pre- 
sentment, nor will ye now let me know what law ye pro- 
secute me upon. 

" Attorney, It's not usual to insert in indictments against 
what statute the offence is, when it's against several statutes 
and laws made. 

" Justice While. K thou wilt not plead guilty, or not 
guilty, thou wilt lose thy opportunity of being tried by thy 

" The court then ordered the clerk to write down that 
William Bradford refused to plead ; which he did ; but as 
be was writing it down, Bradford desired they would not 
take advantage against him, for he refused not to plead, but 
only requested that which was greatly necessary in order 
to his making his own defence. Several in the court re« 
questing on the prisoner's behalf that the court would not 
take advantage against him, they admitted him to plead, 
and he pleaded not guilty. 

"The jury were then called over, and attested; but 
before they were attested, Bradford was asked if he bad 

Pennsylvania. 217 

any exceptions to make against any of them that were 
returned for the jnry. 

" Bradford, Yes, I have, and particularly against two 
of them, Joseph Kirle and James Fox ; for at the time when 
I was committed to prison, Arthur Cook[one of the judges] 
told me, that Joseph Kirle had said, that if the proceed- 
ings of the magistrates were thus found fault with, that 
they must not defend themselves against thieves and rob- 
bers, merchants would be discouraged of coming here with 
their vessels, &c. ; and I except against James Fox, because 
the first day after Babbit and his company were taken, I 
being at Sam Carpenter's, there was Governor Lloyd, 
James Fox, and several others, and in discourse concerning 
the taking of the said privateers, James Fox greatly 
blamed William Walker, because he found fault with 
some justices that were quakers for commanding men, 
and as it were pressing them to go against the said pri- 
vateers; and also James Fox joined with Thomas Lloyd 
in saying he would mark them as enemies to the govern- 
ment and well being of the province, who were neutral in 
the case of going against Babbit and his crew ; by which 
instances I think it appears that these two persons have 
prejudged the cause that is now to come before them. 

" Joseph Kirle acknowledged that he had spoken such 
words, and desired to be discharged ; but the court would 
not allow of the exceptions. 

" Clerk. These are no exceptions in law. 

^^ Attorney. Hast thou at any time heard them say 
that thou printed that paper ? for that is only what they 
are to find. 

" Bradford. That is not only what they are to find, 
they are to find also, whether this be a seditious paper or 
not, and whether it does tend to the weakening of the 
hands of the magistrates. 


218 HisTORr OF Printing in America. 

^^ Attorney. No, that is matter of law, which the 
jury is not to meddle with, but find whether William 
Bradford printed it or not, and the bench is to judge 
whether it be a seditious paper or not, for the law has 
determined what is a breach of the peace, and the penalty, 
which the bench only is to give judgment on. 

" Justice Jennings. You are only to try, whether Wil- 
liam Bradford printed it or not. 

" Bradford. This is wrong, for the jury are judges in 
law as well as the matter of fact. 

" The attorney again denied it; whereupon some of the 
jury desired to know what they were to try, for they did 
believe in their consciences, they were obliged to try and 
find whether that paper was seditious, as well as whether 
Bradford printed it ; and some of them desired to be dis- 

" A great noise and confusion among the people. 

" Some on the bench showing their willingness to allow 
of Bradford's exceptions to the two jurors. Justice Cook 
said, ' I will not allow of it ; is there four of us of a mind ? ' 
Then the attorney read the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th articles 
of the said printed appeal, &c., and commented thereupon, 
and then said, William Bradford is presented for printing 
and publishing this seditious paper, whereof you of the 
jury are to find him guilty, if it appears to you that he has 
printed it. 

" Bradford. I desire you of the jury, and all men pre- 
sent to take notice, that what is contained in this paper is 
not seditious, but wholly relating to a religious difierence, 
and asserting the quakers' ancient principles, and it is not 
laid down positive that they ought not to have proceeded 
against the privateers, but laid down by the way of query 
for the people called quakers to consider and resolve at 
their yearly meeting, whether it was not a transgression 

Pennsylvania. 219 

of the quakera' principles to hire and commissionate men 
to fight ? 

" Justice Cook. If it was intended for the yearly meet- 
ing at Burlington, why was it published before the meeting ? 

" Bradford. Because it might be perused and considered 
of by Friends before the meeting, even as the bills that are 
proposed to be passed into laws, they are promulgated a 
certain number of days before the assembly meets, that 
each may have opportunity to consider them. 

" Then the attorney read the act' against printing any 
book without the printer's name to them ; and he said, 
That was one act which they prosecuted William Bradford 

" George Keith answered the attorney. * It may be 
observed the singular and extraordinary severity of those 
justices, called quakers, who will pick out a statute made in 
Old England, and prosecute a man upon it here, which might 
ruin him and his family, though it's not certain whether 
that act be in force ; most of William Penn's and the 
quakers' books were printed without the name of the printer 
when that act was in force, and yet we never heard that any 
printer in England was prosecuted for that; these here 
because they cannot fix the matter to be any breach of the 
peace they'll prosecute the printer for not putting his name 
to what they suppose he printed.' 

" Note. That all the time those persons were on trial, 
the grand jury sat by them, overawing and threatening 
them, when they spoke boldly in their own defence, and 
one of the jury wrote down such words as they disliked, 
signifying that they would present them. Justice Cook bid 
them take notice of such and such words, thereby overawing 
the prisoners, that they had not liberty to plead freely. 
When Thomas Harris, at the request of the prisoners. 

> An act of the British parliament 14 Car. 2 cap. 38. 

220 History of Printing in America. 

began to say something to the matter, they stopt him and 
bid an officer take him away, and Arthur [justice] Cook 
said that he should plead no more there. 

" After a long pleading, D. Lloyd, their attorney, began 
to summons up the matter to the jury, and concluded by 
saying, it was evident William Bradford printed the sedi- 
tious paper, he being the printer in this place, and the 
frame ^ on which it was printed was found in his house. 

" Bradford. I desire the jury and all present to take 
notice, that there ought to be two evidences to prove the 
matter of fact, but not one evidence has been brought in 
this case. 

" Justice Jennings,' The frame on which it was printed 
is evidence enough. 

^^ Bradford. But where is the frame? There has no 
frame been produced here ; and if there had, it is no evi- 
dence, unless you saw me print on it. 

" Justice Jennings. The jury shall have the frame with 
them; it cannot well be brought here; and besides the 
season is cold, and we are not to sit here to endanger our 
health. You are minded to put tricks upon us. 

^^ Bradford. You of the jury, and all here present, 
I desire you to take notice, that there has not one evidence 
been brought to prove that I printed the sheet, called An 
Appeal ; and, whereas they say the frame is evidence which 
the jury shall have; I say, the jury ought not to hear, or 
have any evidence whatsoever, but in the presence of the 
judges and prisoners. 
' "Yet this was nothing minded, but Sam [justice] Jen- 
nings summoned up to the jury, what they were to do, 
viz: to find, first, whether or not that paper, called the 
Appeal, had not a tendency to the weakening the hands 
of the magistrates, and the encouragement of wickedness ? 

^ CaUed by printers form, containing the pages in types. 

Pennsylvania. 221 

Secondly, whether it did not tend to the disturbance of the 
peace ? and, thirdly, whether William Bradford did not 
print it, without putting his name to it as the law requires ? 
The jury had a room provided for them, and the sheriff 
caused the frame to be carried in to them for an evidence 
that William Bradford printed the Appeal. The jury con- 
tinued about forty-eight hours together, and could not 
agree; then they came into court to ask whether the law 
did require two evidences to find a man guilty? To 
answer this question, the attorney read a passage out of a 
law book, that they were to find it by evidences, or on 
their own knowledge, or otherwise ; now, says the attorney, 
this otherwise is the frame which you have, which is evi- 
dence sufficient. 

" Bradford. The frame which they have is no evidence 
for I have not seen it; and how do I, or the jury, know 
that that which was carried in to them is mine ? 

"Bradford was interrupted; the jury were sent forth 
again, and an officer commanded to keep them without meat, 
drink, fire, or tobacco. In the afternoon the jury came 
into the court again, and told, they were not like to agree ; 
whereupon the court discharged them. 

" Bradford then said to the court, that seeing he had 
been detained so long a prisoner, and his utensils with 
which he should work had been so long kept from him, 
he hoped now to have his utensils returned, and to be dis- 
charged from his imprisonment. 

^^ Justice Jennings. No! Thou shalt not have thy 
things again, nor be discharged ; but I now let thee know 
thou stand in the same capacity to answer next court, as 

" Next court being come, Bradford attended, and desired 
to know, if the court would let him have his utensils, and 
he be discharged ? 

222 History of Printing in America. 

^^ Justice Cook. Thou shalt not have thy goods until 
released by law. 

" Bradford. The law will not release them unless 

" Justice Cook. If thou wilt request a trial, thou may 
have it. 

" Whereupon Bradford queried, whether it be according 
to law to seize men's goods, and imprison their persons, 
and to detain them under the terror of a gaol, one six 
months after another, and not bring them to trial unless 
requested by the imprisoned? Whether, when a jury is 
sworn, well and truly to try, and true deliverauce make 
between the proprietor and prisoner, it is not illegal to 
absolve them from their oaths, dismiss them, and put the 
cause to trial to another Jury ?" * 

Soon after this session of the court Bradford was by 
some means released from his confinement. It is said, 
that in the examination of the frame, the juiy, not being 
acquainted with reading backwards, attempted to raise it 
from the plank on which it was placed, and to put it in a 
more favorable situation for inspection ; and that one of 
them assisting with his cane, pushed against the bottom 
of the types as the form was placed perpendicularly, when, 
like magic, this evidence against Bradford instantly 
vanished, the types fell from the frame, or chase as it is 
termed by printers, formed a confused heap, and prevented 
further investigation.* 

^ These extracts from the printed contemporaneous account of Brad- 
ford's trial are not literal transcripts of the original ; but the forms of 
expression were sometimes condensed, and sometimes paraphrased, by 
Thomas, while meaning always to preserve the sense. — H. 

' Proud, in his History of Pennsylvania ^ mentions, that George Keith 
had published several virulent pieces, one of which indecently reflected 
on several of the principal magistrates in their judicial capacity, 
whereby their authority with the lower classes of the people was lessened. 
The printer, William Bradford, and John MacComb who had published 
it, were apprehended by a warrant from Ave magistrates, and examined, 

Pennsylvania. 223 

Bradford having incurred the displeasure of the domi- 
nant party in Pennsylvania, and receiving encouragement 
to settle in New York, he, in 1693, removed to that city ; 
but it is supposed he had a concern in the press which 
was continued in Philadelphia. [See New York.'] 

Keinier Jansen. At this distance of time, it cannot be 
ascertained how long before or after 1699 Jansen printed 
in Philadelphia; nor is it certain that he owned a press. 
It has been supposed by some, that after William Bradford 
differed and seceded from his quaker brethren who had 
the principal concern in public affairs, they procured and 
set up another press ; and by others, that Jansen was either 
an apprentice, or a jourtieyman to Bradford; that after 
Bradford had removed to New York, in 1693, he left Jan- 
sen to manage a press in Philadelphia ; and that, for pru- 
dential reasons, Jansen conducted the press in his own 
name, and had a share in the profits of the business. Some 
arrangement of this kind, probably, took place, and con- 
tinued during the minority of Andrew, the son of William 

Whatever was the nature of this connection, it is certain 
that there was little business for the press in Philadelphia, 
excepting the disputes among the quakers ; but there was 
more employment for that in New York ; and that the ma- 
terials of both the printing houses united would not have 
formed a large apparatus. 

and upon their contemptuous behavior, and refusal to give security, were 
committed. He adds, '* But they were soon discharged, without being 
brought to a trial." This does not altogether agree with the account of 
the trial printed at the time, and which it is probable had not come to 
the knowledge of Proud. Respecting Keith and Budd, Proud says, they 
were also presented by the grand jury of Philadelphia, as authors of 
another book of the like tendency, entitled, The Plea of the Innocent^ in 
which they defamed Samuel Jennings, "a judge and a magistrate." 
This presentment was prosecuted ; ** so the matter was brought to a trial, 
and the parties fined 5^. each ; but the fines were never exacted." 

224 History of Printing in America. 

I have met with only one book with Jansen's name in 
the imprint. The title of that one, at large, is, " God's 
Protecting Providence Man's surest Help and Defence in 
the Times of the greatest difficulty and most Imminent 
danger. Evidenced in the Remarkable Deliverance of Divers 
Persons from the Devouring Waves of the Sea, amongst 
which they Suftered Shipwreck. And also from the more 
cruelly devouring jawes of the inhumane Canibals of 
Florida. Faithfully related by one of the persons con- 
cerned therein. Printed in Philadelphia by Reinier JanseUy 

Jacob Taylor. I have not met with any thing printed 
by him, and doubt his having beeh a printer. As it appears 
by the journals of the assembly that he was consulted about 
printing the laws of the province in 1712, some persons 
have been of opinion that at that time he printed in Phila- 
delphia. I can find no other evidence of this fact than 
what appears in the following extracts from the journals 
of the assembly of Pennsylvania, viz : 

In 1712, " on the ninth of the third month," the assembly 
determined that it would " be of great use and benefit to 
the country to have the laws printed, and thereupon sent 
for Jacob Taylor, to treat with him about the same. He 
informed the house, that according to the best of his judg- 
ment, the charges thereof would amount to one hundred 
pounds besides paper." 

It was this circumstance, I am led to suppose, that in- 
duced Andrew Bradford, who was connected with his 
father in New York, to leave that city, and commence 
printing in Philadelphia; for on the " twenty-fourth of the 
ninth month," the assembly chose a committee, " to treat 
with Jacob Taylor, and the other printers in town^ about the 
charge it will require to print the laws of this province, and 
report the same to this house (his afternoon " The printers 

Pennsylvania. 225 

then in toum} were doubtless William and Andrew Bradford 
from N^ew York, as it cannot be discovered that, at that 
time, there were any other professors of the art nearer than 
New London and Boston. It is possible that Jansen might 
have been of the number, but it is believed that he died, or 
had left Philadelphia, before this time. However this may 
have been, the committee performed the service which was 
required of them, and made their report in the after part of 
that day. Seven persons were then immediately chosen, who 
" with the speaker's assistance, were appointed trustees on 
behalf of the province to employ one or more persons in 
printing five hundred volumes of the laws thereof, and that 
50 pounds of the province stock shall be paid by the trea- 
surer as money comes iato his hands, (after paying 500^. 
to the lieutenant governor, &c.), unto the said trustees, 
towards defraying the charges aforesaid ; and, that what 
it amounts to more by a true account of the whole expense, 
and due credit given for the sales made of the said books, 
produced to the assembly for the time being, the same 
shall be a debt chargeable on this province, to be paid out 
of the public stock thereof." 

As there would not be sufficient money in the treasurer's 
hands for the use of printing the laws, after paying the 500?. 
to the lieutenant governor, and the members of the assembly 
for their services, it was, on the " seventh of the fourth 
month. Ordered, That the trustees appointed to get the laws 

' I conceive that this expression, to correspond with others in the ex- 
tracts from the journals which follow, should read thus, "to treat with 
Jacob Taylor, and others who are printers in town" — meaning the 
printers who came to town on this business. This remark is justified, in 
some measure, by the delay of the assembly, which it seems waited a fort- 
night after they toolt up the subject before they proceeded farther with 
it. This gave time for the printers in New York to get information of 
what was transacting relative to printing the laws, and to come to Phila- 
delphia ; and, it appears that as soon as they arrived, a committee was 
chosen to consult with them and Taylor, and was directed to make a re- 
port the same day. 


226 History of Printing in America. 

printed may take up money at interest to defray the charges 
thereof, which shall he allowed a debt upon this province, 
to be discharged with the first public money that comes 
to the treasurer's hands, after the aforesaid payments are 
discharged, and that the note issued for the said fifty pounds 
be made payable accordingly." 

Notwithstanding all these preparatory measures for 
printing the laws, the trustees did not proceed with the 
business. On " the thirteenth of the eleventh month in 
171J," the subject was again* brought forward in the 
assembly, and a committee of three persons was appointed, 
" to treat with any printer, or other person or persons of 
this city J about the charge and method of printing the said 
laws, and bring their proposals in writing to this house." 

On the " fifteenth of the eleventh month," the same 
year, " the committee appointed to treat, Ac, brought in a 
proposal in writingfrom Jacob Taylor, which was read, and 
ordered to lie on the table." On the " third of the twelfth 
month, a proposal from Andrew Bradford, printer^ was 
read and ordered to lie on the table." And on the tenth 
of that month, another committee was chosen to contract 
" with such printer m they shall think jit to print the 
laws ; " and were authorized to " employ such clerks as 
they shall find necessary, to procure a correct copy of the 
said laws for the press." The committee had power, 
" where they shall observe any two or more laws of the 
same tenor or^ effect, (unless they be supplementary to 
each other) to omit such of them as shall appear to be 
redundant, only taking care that their titles be printed." 
Andrew Bradford was employed to print the laws; and, it 
is probable that it was at this time he established himself 
in Philadelphia. 

Although the following extract from the journals of the 
assembly relates to Bradford, I will insert it in this place 
as it is the conclusion of the business respecting this 

Pennsylvania. 227 

edition of the laws, which made a volume of one hundred 
and eighty-four pages, folio, viz : 

" 1714. ethjno. 4. A petition from Andrew Bradford, 
setting forth that by order of the governor and assembly 
he has printed the laws of this province ; that the repeal 
of several laws by her Majesty, has put a stop to the sale 
of them ; and desiring to be relieved by this house ; was 
received, and ordered to lie on the table." 

" 1714. 6th mo. 5. Resolved that the speaker issue his 
warrant unto Richard Hill, to pay unto Andrew Bradford, 
printer, thirty pounds for fifty bound volumes of the laws 
of this province. 

If Taylor was not a printer, it is not improbable that he 
might be desirous to contract for printing the laws, with a 
view of having the work executed in Boston, and making 
a profit thereby. There was a Jacob Taylor, who for 
about thirty years annually calculated an almanac, which 
was published in Philadelphia, by Andrew Bradford ; he 
was probably the same person ; he died in 1746. I can 
learn nothing farther of him. 

Andrew Bradford, was the son of William Bradford, who 
first printed in Pennsylvania. He was born in Philadelphia, 
went to New York with his father, and of him learned the 
art of printing. When his minority ended, he was one 
year the partner of his father. About the year 1712, he 
returned to Philadelphia, and from that time to 1723, was 
the only printer in the colony. 

His printing house was " in Second street, at the sign 
of the Bible." He sold pamphlets and school books, and 
till 1730 frequently advertised other articles for sale, such 
as whalebone, live geese feathers, pickled sturgeon, choco- 
late, Spanish snuff, &c., and executed common binding. 
He printed for the government, and published polemical 
pamphlets, which, during many years, afforded employment 

228 History of Printing in America. 

for the press wherever it was established. In 1732, he was 
postmaster/ and, in 1735, became a considerable dealer in 
books and stationery. December 22, 1719,JBradford pub- 
lished the first newspaper printed in Pennsylvania, The 
American Mercury. John Copson appears to have been a 
partner in this publication for about two years.* In 1739, 
his foster son, William, was his partner; this connection 
lasted about eleven months, and ended in 1740. 

When Franklin made his first visit to Philadelphia in 
1723, a second printing house was opening by Keimer. 
Franklin, although a journeyman in this rival printing 
house, boarded some time with Bradford. It is evident 
from Franklin's statement, that Bradford was not merely 
civil, he was friendly to this young stranger ; and, although 
he had no employment for him, yet he made him welcome 
to his house, " till something better should offer." When 
mentioning Bradford, and his rival Keimer, Franklin ob- 
serves, they were both " destitute of every qualification 
necessary to their profession." The first " was very illi- 
terate,' and the latter " ignorant of the world." 

In 1738, Andrew Bradford purchased the house, in South 
Front street, which was kept in possession of the family, 
and long after occupied as a printing house by Thomas 
Bradford, publisher of The Tine American^ a daily news- 
paper. He printed three or four Almanacs annually,* viz : 

^ In the Diacouree on Andrew Bradford before the Hi&torical Society of 
Pennsylvania, in 1869, by Horatio Gates Jones, Esq., it is said that Brad- 
ford's paper, the Weekly Mercury of April 4th, 1728, has a statement that 
" the Post Office will be kept at the house of Andrew Bradford." He 
may therefore have had the appointment thus early.— J?. 

■Bradford, in 1720, calls Copson a bookseller; but, in 1721, Copson 
styles himself a merchant. 

■ Mr. Jones, in his discourse, controverts this charge of illiteracy against 
Bradford — H. 

*Mr. Jones, p. 21, enumerates seven almanacs printed by Bradford, 
rivals of Poor RichanI, besides a sheet almanac. — M, 

Pennsylvania. 229 

Jacob Taylor's, Titan Leeds's, John Jerman's, and William 
Birkett's ; these he published many years. 

Bradford inqreased his property, and became easy in his 
circumstances. He was postmaster; and retained the 
office for several years after Franklin opened a third print- 
ing house in Philadelphia. However correct Franklin's 
opinion of him may be, it is certain that Bradford possessed, 
in a considerable degree, the confidence and esteem of his 
fellow citizens; as he was chosen one of the common 
council of the city, and was in this office at the time of his 

In 1741, he published a periodical work, entitled, The 
American Magazine^ or Monthly Vieio of (he Political State of 
the British Colonies. This work was soon discontinued. 

His wife died in December, 1739; and, in 1740, he 
married Cornelia Smith, a native of New York, who was 
related to his father's second wife. He died November 
23, 1742,* aged about fifty-six years ; and was buried in 
Christ church burying ground. On this occasion The 
American Mercury appeared in mourning six weeks. 

\_See Neiospapers — Philadelphia.'] 

Samuel Kbimer was bred to printing in London, where 
he married ; and leaving his wife in England, he came to 
this country and opened a printing house " in High street, 
near the Market-House, at Philadelphia," in 1723.. Until 
that time Bradford was the only printer in the colony. 
Keimer's printing materials consisted '^ of an old damaged 
press, and a small cast of worn out English types, con- 
tained in one pair of cases."* He soon made a small addi- 
tion to his types, which enabled him to print pamphlets, 
and other small works. He was bred a compositor, and 

' Mr. Jones in his discourse on Andrew Bradford, says he died " on the 
night of the 24th of November."— J/". 
" Franklin^s Life. 

230 History of Printing in America. 

like other European compositors, knew little of the ma- 
nagement of the press. When he wanted to use this small 
printing apparatus, he had neither man nor boy to assist 
him. His press was found to be deficient in some of its 
parts, and it had not been put together. At this time 
Franklin arrived in Philadelphia, and sought employment. 
Keimer engaged him to put his press in order, and hired 
him as a journeyman. 

The first production of Keimer's press was an elegy of his 
own on the death of AquillaRose, printer, a young man of 
excellent character, secretary to the general assembly, «nd 
the principal workman in Bradford's printing house. 
Keimer was engaged on this elegy mentally and manually 
when he first saw Franklin, who observes that Keimer was 
a poet, but " could not be said to write in verse, for his 
method was to set the lines in types as they flowed from 
his muse." ^ 

Soon after printing this elegy he published a small 
pamphlet, which he called A Parable. This was said to be 
the joint work of himself and Franklin. It gave offence to 
the quakers, and produced the following advertisement in 
The American Ma'citry^ viz : 

".Whereas one Samuel Keimer, who lately came into 
this Province of Pennsylvania, hath Printed and Published 
divers Papers, particularly one Entituled A Parable^ -&c., 
in some Parts of which he assumes to use such a SiiU and 
Languagey as that perhaps he may be Deemed, where he is 
not known, to be one of the People called Quakers. This 
may therefore Certifie, That the said Samuel Keimer is 
not one of the said People, nor Countenanced by them in 
the aforesaid Practices. Signed by Order of the Monthly 
Meeting of the said People called Quakers, held at Phila-. 
delphia, the 29th Day of the Ninth Month, 1723. 

" Samuel Preston, CV 

1 See the article Barbadoes, for a spccinien of Keimer's poetry. 

Pennsylvania. 231 

Keimer kept a small shop and sold blanks, and a few 
other articles. Among other things, in July, 1724, bayberry 
wax candles, and fine white Liverpool soap. He printed 
pamphlets, and " rubbed along " for some time, till Frank- 
lin left him. His business, thus far, had not been very pro- 
ductive of profit; but, during the absence of Franklin, he 
took a larger house, procured new types, opened a shop 
which was well supplied with stationery, employed four or 
five hands in his printing house, and improved his condi- 
tion in life. Franklin found Keimer in this situation when 
he returned from England ; and having been disappointed 
in his expectations he again became a journeyman to his 
former employer. 

Among other small works printed by Keimer, was a 
spurious edition of Jacob Taylor's Almanac for 1726, of 
which all but the calculations were compiled and written 
by Keimer. Taylor disowned the work in a long poetical 
essay, not of the most delicate kind, which he published 
in Bradford's paper, and it was soon after followed by an 
advertisement of the following purport : 

" Whereas there hath been lately Published and Spread 
abroad in this Province and elsewhere, a lying Pamphlet, 
called an Almanack,set out and Printed by Samuel Keimer, 
to reproach, ridicule, and rob an honest Man of his Repu- 
tation, and strengthening his Adversaries, and not only 
so, but he hath Notoriously Branded the Gospel Minister 
of the Church of England with ignominious Names, for 
Maintaining a Gospel Truth, and reproacheth all the Pro- 
fessors of Christ and Christianity, as may be seen in his 
Almanack in the Month of December; now all judicious 
Evaders may fairly see what this Man's Religion Consisteth 
-in, only in his Beard and his sham keeping of the Seventh 
Day Sabbath, following Christ only for Loaves and Fishes. 
This may give Notice to the Author of this Mischief, that 
if he do not readily Condemn what he hath done, and 

232 History of Printing in America. 

Satisfy the Abased, he may expect to be Prosecuted as the 
Law shall direct. 

•* Aaron Goforth, Senior." 

The following year he printed another Almanac for 

1727, which he called Titan Leeds's, and sent a parcel of 
them to Boston, New York, &c., for sale, where they met 
a good market. The publication of this Almanac was 
the cause of a quarrel between him and Bradford, who pro- 
nounced it to be a forgery. Keimer made a contract with 
the legislature of New Jersey, to print the money bills for 
that province ; and he sent Franklin with a press to Bur- 
lington to execute this business ; who, having accomplished 
the job, returned to Philadelphia. He soon after quitted 
the employment of Keimer, and, with a partner, opened 
another printing house. 

No friendship appeared to exist between Keimer and 
Franklin, who soon became a powerful rival to Keimer, 
whose affairs were in an embarrassed state. Franklin in- 
tended to publish a newspaper, and kept, as he thought, 
his intention secret, until he could make the necessary 
preparation for the undertaking. The design, however, 
came to the knowledge of Keimer, who immediately pub- 
lished a prospectus of one which would speedily issue from 
his own press ; and, notwiflistanding Franklin's endeavors 
to prevent it, the paper made its appearance December 24, 

1728. Franklin, being thus anticipated in the execution 
of a favorite plan, under a borrowed signature ridiculed 
Keimer and his paper in Bradford's Mercury ; and by this 
and other means, succeeded in counteracting the circulation 
of the paper. Keimer soon found that he was unable to 
continue his gazette. Franklin well knew his situation, 
and offered to pay him a small sum, if he would resign the 
paper to him. The offer was accepted. 

Pennsylvania. 233 

Soon after this transaction, Keimer became inattentive 
to business ; and, in consequence, involved himself in debt 
and was obliged to sell his stock and his printing ma- 
terials to satisQr his creditors ; which having done, he went 
to Barbadoes and settled there. Franklin mentions Keimer 
as " having been one of the French prophets," and that " he 
knew how to imitate their supernatural agitations." * He 
characterizes him as " a perfect novice, and totally ignorant 
of the world ;" but, afterward observes, that " he was a 
great knave at heart, that he possessed no particular reli- 
gion, but a little of all upon occasion." It does not appear 
that he was destitute of all worldly knowledge, but he was 
unfortunate. He might possibly have been more success- 
ful in business, had not his exertions been counteracted by 
those who in pecuniary concerns possessed more sagacity 
than he did. [^See West Indies.'] 

Benjamin Franklin. A sketch of the early part of the 
life of Franklin, as one of the printers in Boston, has 
already been given. We left him, after his return from 
England, employed for a second time in the printing 
house of Keimer. Hugh Meredith was then an appren- 
tice in the same house, but his apprenticeship had nearly 
expired. Dissentions took place between Keimer and 
Franklin, and they paAed. Franklin was about returning 
to Boston ; but Meredith persuaded him to remain in 
Philadelphia. He represented to him that Keimer was 
embarrassed in business and must soon fail ; and observed 
that this event would make an opening for Franklin, who 
said he could not go into business for the want of capital. 
Meredith proposed a connection, and mentioned that his 
father, who had a high opinion of Franklin, would advance 
whatever sum was necessary to establish them in business. 

* The risionaries he referred to appeared about the year 1724 


234 History of Printing in America. 

Franklin closed with the proposal. Meredith's father 
approved of the partnership ; and engaged with a merchant 
in the city to send to England for a press and types. 

Franklin, in consequence of this arratigement, com- 
promised his difference with Keimer and returned to his 
employment The agreement was kept secret, until the 
printing apparatus arrived. At this time Meredith's in- 
dentures expired ; and he and Franklin immediately com- 
pleted articles of association. They took a house near the 
market, set up their press, and began to use it under the 
firm of Meredith & Franklin. Their first work was forty 
sheets of foolscap, folio, of the History of the Quakers^ 
printed for the use of those of that sect who resided in or 
near Philadelphia. Franklin daily completed at case the 
work of a sheet and distributed the forms; Meredith did 
the press work. The text was on a pica type, and the 
notes, which were long, on smaller letter. After they had 
been in business twelve months, they became, as has been 
mentioned, the proprietors of Keimer's newspaper; and 
were appointed printers to the general assembly. These 
advantages resulted from the management of Franklin, 
who soon after succeeded in his plan of supplanting Brad- 
ford in the post office. 

Before the complete revolution of two years, this part- 
nership was dissolved, and Franklin came into possession 
of the whole business, which he conducted with skill and 
reputation. By means of his industry and economy he 
soon paid his debts, and began to accumulate property. 
He opened a shop well tilled with stationery, and did some- 
thing at bookbinding and bookselling. He annually pub- 
lished Poor liichard's Almanack, which became celebrated ; 
likewise a neat pocket almanac; and in 1741, he com- 
menced the publication of a magazine, which was con- 
tinued six months. In 1741, he printed Cicero's Oato 
Major on old Age, with numerous notes in octavo and 

Pennsylvania. 235 

quarto. This work was translated by J. Logaa of Phila- 
delphia, and is, probably, the very first translation of a 
Latin classic, made and published in British America.^ 
The Greek words were printed from Italic characters. After 
this he became a considerable bookseller. 

Franklin remained fifteen years without another partner, 
but being much engaged in public life, he, in January 
1745, entered into a connection with David Hall. The firm 
was Franklin & Hall. At this time the Gazette had an 
extensive circulation in Pennsylvania and in the neighbor- 
ing colonies, and the business of the printing house was 
very lucrative. Hall took the sole management of the 
concern ; and, as I am well informed, Franklin received 
j£l,000. currency per annum, for a number of years, as a 
relinquishment of his share of the profits of the business. 
In 1765, Franklin sold out all his interest in the printing 
house to Hall, and the partnership was dissolved February 
1, 1766. Besides his connection with Hall, Franklin had 
a copartnership with Anthony Arabruster," the printer of 
a newspaper in Philadelphia, in the German language. 
This concern began in 1754 or 1755, and ended in 1758. 

In 1730, he married the daughter of Mr. Read.* She was 
the young woman whom he saw standing at the door of her 
father's house, when he walked the streets of Philadelphia 
with a roll of bread under each arm, while eating a third. 

^ The reader wiU call to mind the fact that a translation of the last ten 
books of Ovid's Metamorphoses was made in Virginia by George Sandys, 
the colonial treasurer, between 1621 and 1626. It was printed in London 
in 1626.— if. 

• See Anthony Ambruster, further on. 

" The birthday of Deborah Read cannot now be ascertained ; she was 
married to Franklin 1 Sept., 1730, and died 19 Dec, 1774. The head-stone 
of John Read, who died 2 Sept., 1724, found under the Franklin monu- 
ments, is supposed to be that of her father. The two are always mentioned 
as Mr. and Miss Read in the notices of them. There is a pedigree of Frank- 
lin's descendants in the N. E. Gen. Register, viii, 374.— M. 

236 History of Printing in America. 

In 1753, Franklin was appointed a deputy postmaster 
general for the colonies. In 1755, he received a commission 
as colonel of a regiment of militia, and after the defeat of 
General Braddock, he raised, by order of government, a 
body of troops, and marched them to the western frontier, 
then invaded by the enemy. He built a fort, and placed a 
competent garrison in it, and then returned to Philadelphia. 
In 1757 he was appointed agent for the province of Penn- 
sylvania, and in this capacity went to England, with a 
petition to the king. He remained in England until 1762, 
when he returned to Philadelphia. In 1764 he again went 
to London as agent for the province. In 1766 he visited 
Holland, and the next year went to France. While in 
England, he was appointed agentforthe province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. Soon after the commencement of the revo- 
lutionary war he returned to America, and was employed 
in her councils. In 1776 he was appointed to assist in the 
negotiations at the court of France, and went to Paris for 
that purpose ; and in 1778 he concluded a treaty of alliance 
between that cabinet and the United States of America. 
In September, 1783, he, with Mr. Jay and Mr. Adams, 
signed at Paris the articles of peace on the part of the 
United States, with Mr. David Hartley on the part of Great 
Britain. He afterward signed articles of amity and com- 
merce between this country and Sweden, and Prussia. In 
1784 he returned to Philadelphia. In 1786 he was elected 
president of the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania 
and was soon after chosen president of several distinguished 
societies formed in Philadelphia, some of which had, by his 
former exertions, been greatly aided in their establishment. 

Franklin was celebrated as an electrician ; but as my 
principal object is only to take notice of him as a printer, 
I must refer those who wish to be acquainted with him as 
a philosopher, to his Life and Works. 

Pennsylvania. 237 

His SOD, William, was postmaster in Philadelphia in 
1754; clerk of the assembly of Pennsylvania in 1756; 
appointed governor of New Jersey in 1762, and was in that 
office when the revolutionary war began. 

The following anecdote, which has been published on 
both sides of the Atlantic, discovers the spirit with which 
Franklin edited his paper, and marks his pointed dislike 
of prostituting the press to purposes of defamation and 

Soon after the establishment of his paper, a person 
brought him a piece, which he requested him to publish 
in the Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin desired that the 
piece might be left for his consideration until next day, 
when he would give an answer. The person returned at 
the time appointed, and received from Franklin this com- 
munication : " I have perused your piece, and find it to be 
scurrilous and defamatory. To determine whether I 
should publish it or not, I went home in the evening, pur- 
chased a two penny loaf at the baker's, and with water 
from the pump made my supper; I then wrapped myself 
up in my great coat, and laid down on the floor and slept 
till morning, when, on another loaf and a mug of water, I 
made my breakfast. From this regimen I feel no incon- 
venience whatever. Finding I can live in this manner, I 
have formed a determination never to prostitute my press 
to the purposes of corruption, and abuse of this kind, for 
the sake of gaining a more comfortable subsistence." * 

The following facts will show that Franklin retained a 
regard for the trade until the close of his life. In 1788, 
about two years before his death, a number of printers and 

* Bills of lading formerly began with " Shipped by the Grace of God," 
&c. Some people of Philadelphia objected to this phraseology as making 
light of serious things. Franklin therefore printed some without these 
words and inserted in his paper the following advertiseraent : *' Bills of 
Lading for sale at this office, with or without the Grace of Grod/' 

238 History of Printing in America. 

booksellers met together in Philadelphia, to form some 
regulations for the benefit of the trade. Bache, grandson 
of Franklin, and myself, were of the number. After the 
first meeting, I conversed with Dr. Franklin on the subject of 
our convention. He approved the measures proposed, 
and requested that the next meeting might be at his house, 
as he was unable himself to go abroad. The meeting was 
accordingly holden there ; and although he was much 
afflicted with pain, he voluntarily took minutes of the pro- 
ceedings," and appeared to be interested in them.^ He evi- 
dently had much at heart the success of his grandson, 
who was then printing, at the recommendation of his 
grandfather, an edition of the minor classics. 

Franklin, after the commencement of the war, brought 
from Europe a very valuable printing apparatus, which he 
purchased in London. He also imported the materials of 
a type foundery, which had been used in Paris. These 
articles for a foundery, though extensive, did not prove 
very valuable. He put the whole into the possession of 
bis grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, who for some 
time carried on book printing, but eventually published a 
newspaper well known by the name of The Aurora ; and 
made litttle use of the materials for the foundery. 

In 1788, Franklin retired from public business. He 
had, for several of the preceding years, been troubled with 
a calculus, which increased to such a degree as, during a 
few months preceding his death, to confine him to his bed. 
In April, 1790, he was seized with an inflammation of the 
breast, attended with a fever, which terminated his earthly 
existence on the 19th of that month, at the age of eighty- 
five years.^ He left by will 1,000/. to the city of Philadelphia, 

* Several attempts have been made to establish rules and regulations for 
the benefit of the trade, but they have generally not proved successful. 

'On the 30th of April, 1800, ten years after his death, " a fete was cele- 
brated in the Temple of Victory, at Paris [France] in memory of Ben- 

Pennsylvania. 239 

and the same sum to his native town Boston. These sums 
were to be loaned annually to young mechanics of a cer- 
tain descriplion in the manner and on the conditions by him 
prescribed for one hundred years, a certain part of the pro- 
ceeds then to be applied to particular public uses, and the 
other part again loaned for another hundred years, after 
which the final amount to be appropriated for the benefit of 
the public in the manner directed in his will. He be- 
queathed to the Pennsylvania Hospital the old debts due to 
him as a printer, stationer and postmaster previous to the 
year 1757. The sums are small, and although numerous, 
have produced little or nothing. 

Long before his death, he wrote the following epitaph 
upon himself: 

The Body of 

Benjamin Franklin, Printer, 

(Like the cover of an old Book, 

Its contents worn out, 

And Btript of its lettering and gilding) 

Lies here, food for worms ! 

Yet the work itself shall not be lost, 

For it will, as he believed, appear once more 

In a new 

And more beautiful edition, 

Corrected and amended 

By its Author. 

Hugh Meredith was the son of a worthy and respectable 
farmer. He was bom in Pennsylvania, and bred to hus- 

Having more taste for books than for agriculture, at the 
age of thirty he came to Philadelphia, and bound himself for 
several years as a pressman to Keimer. He was with him 

- - 

jamin Franklin, one of the benefactors of humanity." — Publiciste Paris 
paper. Franklin's father died in Boston, January 16, 1745. Peter Frank- 
lin, brother to the doctor, and postmaster in Philadelphia, died in July, 
1766, aged 74. 

240 History of Printing in America. 

when Franklin returned from his first voyage to London. 
Franklin, being again employed in Keimer's office, became 
intimate with Meredith. Their acquaintance produced 
the copartnership of which an account has already been 
given. Franklin mentions Meredith as " honest, sensible, 
having some experience, and fond of reading, but addicted to 
drinking." Meredith, the father, avare of this propensity 
in his son, was the more ready to promote his connection 
with Franklin, and readily helped them, in the hope that 
Franklin, whom he knew to be temperate, " would cure 
his son of the too free use of brandy." Franklin, however, 
in that attempt, did not succeed. He soon considered 
Meredith as a dead weight, and was desirous to throw him 
off, which he effected with ease. 

Meredith was frank and ingenuous. He found that his 
partner was dissatisfied, and discovered that he himself 
was not well qualified to be a printer. His father, owing 
to some recent disappointments, was not able to make the 
last payment for the press and types, now become due to 
the merchant who imported them. From these considera- 
tions, Meredith was induced to propose a dissolution of 
the partnership, and offered to relinquish his right in 
the stock and business, on the moderate condition that 
Franklin should take upon himself the debts of the com- 
pany, pay Meredith thirty pounds currency, and furnish 
him with a new saddle. The offer was gladly embraced ; 
the necessary writings were immediately executed, and the 
partnership was dissolved. Meredith received the thirty 
pounds and the saddle, joined a number of his Pennsyl- 
vania friends who were farmers, and with them went and 
settled in North Carolina. 

David Harry was born in Pennsylvania. His parents 
were respectable, and his connections opulent. He served 
an apprenticeship with Keimer, and had just completed it 

Pennsylvania. 241 

when Keiraer was obliged to sell his press and types. 
Harry purchased them, and succeeded his master in busi- 
ness. This took place about July, 1729. 

Franklin, who had then separated from Meredith, was 
fearful that in Harry he should find a powerful rival, and 
was induced to propose a partnership to him. Harry re- 
jected the proposal with some disdain. Franklin observes, 
that "Harry lived extravagantly, pursued amusements, 
neglected business, and business neglected him." Before 
the expiration of the year 1730, he followed his late master, 
Keimer, to Barbadoes, and took with him his printing 

In Barbadoes Harry began printing, and employed 
Keimer as his journeyman. He had never acquired the 
habit of industry, and Barbadoes was not a place calcu- 
lated to cure him of a dissipated course of life. In a few 
months he became deeply involved in debt, and was induced 
to sell his press and types to Keimer, who found friends 
to assist him in the purchase. Harry returned to Pennsyl- 
vania, and followed husbandry. 

William Bradford Third, was the son of William 
Bradford Junior, and grandson of the first William Brad- 
ford who printed in Philadelphia. He was born in New 
York. When very young, his uncle, Andrew Bradford, 
who had no children, adopted and educated him as his son 
and heir, and instructed him in the art of printing. When 
he was about nineteen years of age, his affectionate foster 
mother, the wife of Andrew, died, and some time after, 
his foster father married Cornelia Smith, of New York. 
She had an adopted niece, whom she was desirous that 
William Bradford, the adopted nephew of her husband, 
should marry when he became of age. William's affec- 
tions being engaged by another object, the plan was frus- 
trated ; and, in consequence, she imbibed a settled prejudice 


242 History of Printing in America. 

against him, and did not attempt to conceal it. She treated 
him unkindly, and finally he was obliged to leave the 
house of his foster father. She prevailed on her husband 
to revoke the will which he had made in favor of William, 
and to make one in her own favor. It has been said, that 
her conduct in general was such as rendered her husband 
very unhappy. William when about twenty years of age 
became the partner of Andrew ; but the wife caused this 
partnership to be dissolved, after it had continued one 
year. It began in December, 1739, and ended in De- 
cember, 1740.^ 

In 1741 Bradford went to England; visited his rela- 
tions there ; returned in 1742 with printing materials and 
a collection of books, and began business on the west side 
of Second street, between Market and Chestnut streets. 
In the same year he married the daughter of Thomas Budd 
who was imprisoned with the first William Bradford in 
1692. In December, 1742, he commenced the publication 
of a newspaper, which was continued by him and his suc- 
cessors until after the year 1800. In 1743, he removed to 
the southeast corner of Blackhorse alley, where, at the 
sign of the Bible, he printed and sold books. 

In 1748 he was chosen lieutenant of a militia company, 
and in 1756 was made captain. 

In 1754 Bradford removed to the corner of Market and 
Front streets, and there opened a house for the con- 
venience of the commercial part of the community, which 
was called the London Coffee House. In 1762 he opened, 
in company with a Mr. Kydd, a marine insurance office, 
where much business was done. In 1766 he took his son 
Thomas as a partner in the printing business. Their firm 
was William & Thomas Bradford." 

' These circumstances were related to me by one of the family. 
' Tliey printed the journals of ccmgress in 1776. — M. 

Pennsylvania. 243 

Bradford was a warm advocate for, and a staunch de- 
fender of the rights of his country. He was among the 
first in the city to oppose the British stamp act, in 1765 ; 
and he was equally hostile to the succeeding offensive 
measures of the British ministry. He literally complied 
with a resolve of the early revolutionists, " to risk life and 
fortune for the preservation of the liberty of his country." 
by taking arms in an early stage of the revolutionary war ; 
and, although he had reached the age at which the law 
exempts men from military service, he encountered the 
fatigues of a winter campaign, and did duty as a major of 
militia in the memorable battle of Trenton. He shared 
the honors of the day at Princeton, and returned colonel 
of the regiment of which he went out major. He was at 
Fort Mifflin when it was attacked by the Hessians ; and 
in several other engagements.' 

A few days before the British troops took possession of 
Philadelphia, Bradford was entrusted by Governor Whar- 
ton with the command of the city, and the superintend- 
ence of removing the stores. Having performed this duty, 
he left the city as the enemy was entering it, and re- 
paired to Fort Mifflin, where he remained until that fort- 
ress was evacuated. From that time Bradford remained 
at Trenton until the British army left Philadelphia, when 
he returned to the city, and reopened his printing house 
and coffee room ; but the customs and manners of the 
citizens were changed, and he perceived that business had 
found new channels. He returned from the hazards of 
public service ^vith a broken constitution and a shattered 

1 He was afterwards appointed deputy commissary general. On Sep- 
tember 11, 1777, congress resolved : " That Major General Armstrong be 
directed, forthwith to cause airthe printing presses and types in this city 
and German town, to be removed to secure places in the country, ex- 
cepting Mr. Bradford's press in this city, with English types." But it 
does not appear that this resolve was carried into effect. 

244 History of Printing in America. 

» fortune. He soon lost his affectionate wife. Age ad- 

vanced upon him with hasty steps, and a paralytic stroke 
warned him of his approaching dissolution. After a few 
more feeble attacks, he calmly yielded to the king of terrors. 

After peace was established, he had consoled himself 
under his misfortunes ; and, in his most solitary hours, re- 
flected with pleasure, that he had done all in his power to 
secure for his country a name among independent nations; 
and he frequently said to his children, " though I bequeath 
you no estate, I leave you in the enjoyment of liberty." 
He was a very respectable printer. 

He died September 25, 1791, aged 72. His body was 

interred in the Presbyterian graveyard, in Arch street; 

and his obsequies were attended by a large number of 

citizens, and particularly by those who were the early and 

i steady friends of the revolution. 

Bradford left three sons, and three daughters. His 
eldest son, Thomas, has been mentioned as the partner of 
his father. The second son, William, studied law, became 
attorney general of the United States, and died August 
25, 1793; Schuyler, the third son, died in the East Indies. 

Cornelia Bradford was the second wife, and eventually 
the widow of Andrew Bradford. She succeeded her hus- 
band in the business of printing and bookselling in 1742. 
About four months after his death, she took Warner as a 
partner in the concerns of the printing house. The firm 
was Isaiah Warner & Cornelia Bradford. This partner- 
ship lasted only till October, 1744, when the widow resumed 
the press, and continued printing until 1746, at which 
time, or soon after, she retired from business. She died 
in 1755. Her estate was settled by George Smith and 
Cornelia his wife, who, on the 11th of September of that 
year, published an advertisement for that purpose in The 
Pennsylvania Journal. 

Pennsylvania. 245 

Isaiah Warner was bom in Philadelphia, and served his 
apprenticeship either with Bradford or Franklin. In 1742, 
he opened, in Chestnut street, the fourth printing house in 
that city; and published Jacob Taylor's Almanack, and 
several small works, which appear to be well executed. 
Soon after the death of Andrew Bradford, Warner entered 
into partnership with his widow. This partnership ended 
in the autumn of 1744. I have seen none of his printing 
after that time, and cannot find any further account of him. 
At the close of this year, three newspapers were printed 
in Philadelphia, viz. : The Mercury^ the Gazette^ and the 

George Brintal. I am not sure that Brintal was a 
printer. All that I can gather respecting him, is, that 
when Warner's partnership with Cornelia Bradford ceased, 
Brintal managed the concerns of her printing house ; and 
some time after had an interest in the publication of the 
American Mercury. I have not found his name in the 
imprint to that paper, of which I have files to 1746. 

Joseph Crbllius. In 1743, he lived in Market street, 
but the same year removed to Arch street. He was a 
German, and printed a newspaper weekly in his native 
language. He kept an evening school, and taught the 
English and German languages grammatically. 

His was the first German newspaper published in Phila- 
delphia. I cannot learn how long it existed ; but it was 
certainly continued several years. 

GoDHART Armbrustbr. He was from Manheim, Ger- 
many, where he served his apprenticeship to the printing 
business. He came to Philadelphia in the year 1743, and 
soon after began printing in the German language. In 
1746, he advertised several small books from his press, to 

246 History of Printing in America. 

be sold by him " at the German printing house in Kace 
street." About this time he began the publication of a 
newspaper in German. 

His brother, Anthony Armbruster, was for some time 
connected with him; but the business appears to have 
been conducted in the name of Godhart till 1752, when it 
was carried on by Anthony. A few years after Godhart 
returned to Europe, where he died. 

David Hall has been mentioned as the partner of 
Franklin. He was born in Scotland ; and brought up a 
printer in Edinburgh. From that place he went to Lon- 
don, and worked in a printing house in which Strahan, 
afterward a famous law printer to the king, was at that 
time a journeyman. After Hall came to this country he 
was eighteen years in partnership with Franklin ; and, in 
May, 1766, when that connection was dissolved, he formed 
another with William Sellers, under the firm of Hall & 
Sellers. Their business was lucrative ; they printed for 
government, and continued the Pennsylcania Gazette, 
Besides printing. Hall, before, during, and after his partner- 
ship with Franklin, conducted a book and stationery store 
on a large scale, on his own account. Had he not been 
connected with Franklin he might have been a formidable 
rival to him in the business of printing and bookjiclling. 
Hall & Sellers were the printers of the paper money issued 
by congress during the revolutionary war. 

He died December 24, 1772, aged fifty eight years. 
Hall was well acquainted with tlie art of printing ; and 
was an industrious workman, of first rate abilities ; a pru- 
dent and impartial conductor of the Gazette ; and a be- 
nevolent and worthy man. 

James Chattin printed in Philadelphia as early as 1752. 
His printing house was " in Chureh-Allcy, next door to 

Pennsylvania. 247 

the Pipe." He was employed chiefly on pamphlets ; and 
was, I believe, a quaker. In 1755 he advertised his pub- 
lications at reduced prices, for sale " at the Newest Print- 
ing-Oflice in Market Street, South Side of the Jersey 
Market." In 1771 he informed the public that he had 
long been out of employment ; and that he proposed to do 
business punctually, and with secresy, as a conveyancer 
and bookkeeper, and had taken an office for that purpose 
in Second street. After being several years a master 
printer, he was reduced to the condition of a journeyman. 

Anthony Armbruster was born in Manheim, in Ger- 
many and was the brother of Gotthart, alias Godhart, 
Armbruster, who has been mentioned as a printer of books 
etc., in the German language, in Philadelphia. Anthony 
left Germany and came to Philadelphia with his brother, 
or arrived soon after him, about 1743. Whether he served 
a part, or the whole of his apprenticeship in Germany, is 
not known, but he was employed in the printing house of 
his brother many years after his arrival. Although his 
name did not ai anytime appear in copartnership with his 
brother, they were thought to be connected together in 
business from 1748 to 1753. 

A society was formed in London for the benevolent 
purpose of " promoting religious knowledge among the 
Gennan emigrants in Pennsylvania.'' I cannot ascertain 
the exact time when this society was instituted, but it was, 
probably, as early as 1740. A press for printing religious 
tracts, school books, etc., in the German language, was, by 
this society, established in Philadelphia. From the funds 
of this society it is supposed Joseph Crellius received some 
aid in printing a newspaper and some small school books 
in the German language, in Philadelphia, as early as 1743. 
Sower of Germantown, about this time, was assisted in 

248 History of Printing in America. 

carrying through his press an edition of the German trans- 
lation of the Bible. 

Crellius, in his publication of a German newspaper, was 
followed by Godhart Armbruster, and he was succeeded by 
his brother Anthony, all of whom, it is probable, were 
printers to the society, and made use of their press. The 
fact is substantiated as relates to Anthony Armbruster.* 

In 1753 the business was conducted by him, and until 
1756, in Third street He there printed in German, The 
History of the First Martyrs^ 326 pages, 12mo. Also The True 
Christianas Monumentj with copper plates. Anthony under- 
stood copper-plate as well as letter-press printing. The 
latter he could perform, as was then fashionable, with two 
colors, black and red. In this way he printed, for several 
years, his German Almanac. Sower of Germantown, at 
that time, printed his Almanac in like manner, but both 
discontinued the practice about 1758. 

Anthony Armbruster, in 1754, entered into a copartner- 
ship with Benjamin Franklin, which continued till 1758.* 
Part of the time Franklin was in England. In Anthony's 
books is kept, from 1754 to 1758, an account current with 
Benjamin Franklin, which relates to the German office. 
Before, and for the first two or three years of the partner- 
ship between ArmbrusterandFranklin, they were on very 
intimate terms. Armbruster named one of his children 
Benjamin Franklin, and on this occasion Franklin stood 
its godfather. Armbruster failed in business while Franklin 
was in England, and a general settlement of his printing 

^ See larther on, an account of German newspapers published in Phila- 

' This appeared from the account books of Armbruster, in the posses- 
sion of one of his sons who resided in Philadelphia. In these books Arm- 
bruster charges Franklin for translating the Almanac into German, £200 
each year; 4 years, £800. The almanacs were charged at 5«. per dozen ; 
demy paper is charged at 12«. per ream ; calf skins, 1«. per pair. 

Pennsylvania. 249 

concern did not take place until after Franklin's return, in 
1762. They then differed, and it seems were no longer 
friends. Armbruster soon after, to ridicule Franklin, pub- 
lished a caricature print, in which, within a group, Franklin 
was conspicuously represented in a very ludicrous situation. 

Anthony Armbruster's printing materials, in 1760, passed 
into the hands of Lewis Weiss and Peter Miller, neither of 
whom were printers. They were conveyancers, and both 
Germans. They continued the German paper, and Anthony 
was their printer during the short time they had the press. 

In 1762 Anthony again obtained the press and types 
which had been used by Weiss and Miller, or otherwise 
procured a printing apparatus, for in July, that year, he 
opened a printing house " at the upper end of Moravian 
Alley." There he printed German school books, and some 
small articles in English. Nicholas Hasselbaugh, it is said, 
was for a short time the silent partner of Anthony. Whether 
Anthony continued the publication of the German news- 
paper in 1763, 1 cannot learn, but he published one in 1764, 
when the press was removed to Arch street. Miller at the 
same time advertised that "he has now set up a new print- 
ing office in Moravian Alley, near the Brethren's church." 
During the time he was in business, Anthony made seve- 
ral removals, and at one time he resided in Race street. 

Armbruster again failed in business, and could not re- 
cover his standing as a master printer. Again his press 
and types went into other hands. He now became a jour- 
neyman, and was employed for several years by printers in 
the city; after which he was a pressman to Isaac Collins, 
in Trenton, New Jersey. After remaining some considera- 
ble time with Collins, he returned to Philadelphia, and 
from thence went to Germantown, where he was again 
employed as a journeyman. He was three times married. 
His first wife was a good worker at press, and often assisted 
her husband in that employment 


250 History of Printing in America. 

Anthony was naturally very superstitious, and after he 
became a journeyman, he was, at times, under a species of 
insanity. Many accounts are given of his extraordinary 
conduct when he was afflicted with mental derangement 
Like many others, he believed that Blanchard and other 
pirates had, in their time, hid money and other treasures 
along the sea coast of the northern part of this continent, 
and on the shores of the Delaware and other rivers. With 
a number of associates he spent much time in fruitless 
searches after that which they could not find. He im- 
agined that he could, by a special charm, raise or lay the 
devil ; notwithstanding which he was often in great fear and 
dread of a visit from his Satanic majesty. He believed in 
witchcraft, and was in fear of attacks from witches. Like 
Baron Swedenborg he apprehended that he had inter- 
course with invisible spirits. Many stories are related of 
him as evidence of his mental delusion. 

He died at German town, July, 1796, at the age of seventy- 
nine years, and was buried in the Dutch church burying 
ground, in Fifth street^ Philadelphia. He left several 

Wkiss & Miller. Lewis Weiss and Peter Miller were 
Germans. They were both conveyancers, and unacquainted 
with printing. They appear to have been friends to An- 
thony Armbruster, and in 1760, when he failed in business, 
took his press and types, and employed him to conduct 
the concerns of the printing house. The German Gazette 
was continued, and the printing of that and other works, 
done in their names, for about two years, when this con- 
nection seems to have dissolved, and Armbruster again 
began printing on his own account. 

Whilst this partnership continued, they published the 
German Almanack that had for many preceding years been 
printed by Armbruster. The imprint to that for 1762 is. 

Pennsylvania. 251 

in English, thus : " Printed and to be sold at the High 
Dutch Printing-House, in Bace street, and also sold by 
Peter Miller, and by distant merchants." At the end of 
this Almanac is an advertisement of " Peter Miller, in 
Second street, at the sign of the hand and pen, where he 
writes deeds, &c., agreeably to the latest forms." In 1762 
"Lewis Weiss and Peter Miller" advertise "just pub- 
lished and to be sold by them in Philadelphia, the char- 
ters and acts," etc. 

The same year William Bradford, David Hand, and 
Lewis Weiss, advertised to take in subscriptions, at their 
several places of abode, for an engraved plan of the 
city and liberties of Philadelphia. In 1764, Armbruster 
advertises his intention of printing " a new edition of 
Backmeyer^s English and Dutch Grammar j^ for which sub- 
scriptions were received by himself, and several others 
whose names are mentioned. Among them is that of 
Peter Miller, in Second street. This Peter Miller was 
called a man of wit. He was for many years employed 
by the city proprietors as a surveyor. He died of the 
dropsy, in 1794, and was buried in the Quaker^s burying 
ground, between Third and Fourth streets. 

Weiss & Miller, August 12, 1762, advertise " Charters 
and Acts of Assembly from the first settlement of the pro- 
vince, and collection of Laws that have been in force, etc., 

in 2 volumes, to be had either in folio or price 405. 

bound. Published by Lewis Weiss and Peter Miller." 

Andrew Stbuart was born in Belfast, Ireland, and served 
his apprenticeship with James Macgee, in that city. He 
set up a press " in Lsetitia^Court," Philadelphia, in 1758. 
His business was confined to pamphlets, ballads, and small 
jobs. He afterwards lived at the Bible-in-Heart in Second 
street, between Market and Arch streets. 

252 History op Printing in America. 

Stenart was not over nice as it respected the publications 
of others. In 1762, he reprinted, immediately after its 
first appearance from the press, Science, a Poem, by Francis 
Hopkinson, Esq. This poem was published in quarto, 
price Is. 6d. by Dunlap, Hall, and others. Steuart's edi- 
tion was in 12mo. and he advertised it for sale " at three 
pence single, one shilling per dozen, or six shillings a hun- 
dred,'* with this remark, that as his " object was to promote 
the circulation of this excellent piece, he hoped that neither 
the author or anyone else would imagine that he intended to 

" Rob him of hifl gain," 

Or, that his design was 

" To reap the laboured harvest of his brain." 

About the year 1764, Steuart ^ent to Wilmington, North 
Carolina, with a press, and part of his types ; and he left 
the other part, and his book shop, in the care of Thomas 
Macgee and his apprentice Joseph Crukshank. He never 
returned. The business was continued in Philadelphia, in 
his name, until he died. This event took place in 1769, at 
Cape Fear. 

He owned a lot of land in Spruce street, and had accu- 
mulated other property. [See North Carolina.'] 

William Dunlap was a native of the north of Ireland. 
He served his apprenticeship in Philadelphia, with William 
Bradford. In 1754, he began printing at Lancaster; but 
removed from thence to Philadelphia in 1757, and married 
a relation of Mrs. Franklin, wife of Benjamin Franklin, in 
consequence of which connection Franklin appointed him 

He opened a printing house and bookstore in Market 
street, and did considerable business as a printer, bookseller 
and stationer, till 1765. His printing wm correctly and 

Pennsylvania. 253 

bandsomely executed. He also engaged in the stadj of 
divinity. , In the year 1766, he sold off the principal part of 
his stock in trade at auction, resigned the management of 
his printing house to his nephew John Dunlap, as a partner, 
and went to England. He obtained ordination in the 
church of England, and returned to America in 1767; and 
in 1768 became the rector of the parish of Stratton, in 
King and Queen's county, Virginia. 

He printed John Jerman^s Almanack in 1757, and began the 
publication of Father Ahraham^s Almanack^ which he con- 
tinued annually. When he settled in Virginia, he resigned 
his business and his printing materials to his nephew for 
an ample consideration, to be paid by installments. 

Henry Miller. A friend of his, well acquainted with his 
history, has informed me his name was John Henry Miller ; 
but that he styled himself in the imprint to the books he 
published in Philadelphia, Henry Miller only. He was 
born in the principality of Waldeck on the Upper Rhine, 
March 12, 1702, where his parents then resided. In 1715, 
they returned to their native place, a town near Zurich, in 
Switzerland, and took with them their son whom they ap- 
prenticed to a printer in Basle. After his apprenticeship 
he was at first employed in a printing house at Zurich, 
but soon set up a press and published a newspaper. Quit- 
ting business at Zurich, he traveled to Leipsic and Altona ; 
from thence to London; from London to Amsterdam ; then 
through France ; and again to Germany and Holland. In 
1741 he came to America, and was for sometime in Frank- 
lin's printing house in Philadelphia. In 1742 he returned 
to Europe ; married there in 1743, and in 1744 opened a 
printing house in Marienburg, Germany, and there pub- 
lished a newspaper. His residence at Marienburg was not 
of long continuance ; as he again set out on his travels, 
visited England a second, and Holland a third time, and 

254 History op Printing in America. 

returned to Germany. In 1751 he came again to America, 
and was concerned in a German printing house in Phila- 
delphia or Lancaster; but soon after was employed by 
William Bradford. In 1754 he once more embarked for 
Europe, where he remained until 1760, when he returned 
to Philadelphia with new printing materials and opened a 
printing house in Second street. 

In 1762 he began the publication of a newspaper in the 
German language, which he continued some years after 
the reyolutionary war ended. He published annually a 
German almanac. 

He printed school and some other books in the German, 
and a few in the English language; and dealt considerably 
as a bookseller. In 1771, his printing house was " in 
Race Street, opposite Moravian Alley." In 1776, he com- 
pleted printing in six volumes, folio, The Votes ^ etc., of the 
General assembly of Pennsylvania, passed in many of the 
preceding years. 

Miller was a good scholar and an excellent printer. He 
corresponded with some literary characters in Germany 
and Holland. In his religion he was a Moravian, and in 
politics a whig. He was a warm advocate of American 
liberty. He removed from Philadelphia at the time the 
royal army took possession of the city in 1777. He left 
his printing materials in his house. These were used by 
the British in printing proclamations, etc. They carried 
off part of them when they left Philadelphia. After they 
evacuated the city. Miller returned to it, and resumed the 
publication of his newspaper, etc. 

On the 26th of May, 1779, he discontinued his public 
journal, and at that time published a farewell address to 
his readers. In that address he observed, that it was nearly 
fifty years since he first published a newspaper in Switzer- 
land ; that he had been obliged to continue business till 
that time of life ; that he was then approaching the age of 

Pennsylvania. 255 

fourscore ; but, that a man, when he arrives to his sixtieth 
year, should commence his sabbath, or day of rest from 
the cares and troubles of this life. In 1780, he resigned 
business altogether ; sold his printing materials, and re- 
tired to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He died there March 
31, 1782, aged eighty years. His wife died some years 
before, at the same place. She was a well-bred woman ; 
spoke the French language fluently, and was an excellent 
painter in water colors. In this employment she was for 
some time-engaged as a preceptress in Bethlehem. Miller 
was noted as a pedestrian, and frequently went to Bethle- 
hem, fifty-three miles from Philadelphia, and returned on 
foot. Having no family, he bequeathed, it is said, a part of 
his property to Melchior Steiner, who had been his ap- 

James Adams began printing in Philadelphia about the 
year 1760 ; and, in 1761, he removed to Wilmington, De- 
laware. [See Delaware.'] 

Thomas Bradford was the eldest sou of William Brad- 
ford, the second printer of that name in Philadelphia, and 
was born on the 4th of May, 1745. Thomas's mother was 
daughter of Thomas Budd, who sided with George Keith, 
etc., in their opposition to Lieutenant Governor Lloyd and 
his party, in the noted quarrel among the quakers in 1692. 
Budd, at this time, was arrested and imprisoned with the 
first William Bradford for writing and publishing against 
the prevailing party of their quaker brethren. Thomas 
was named after his father-in-law. He was for several 
years in the college at Philadelphia ; but in 1762, his father 
took him from that seminary, and placed him in his print- 
ing house; and in 1766, received him as a partner in busi- 
ness, as has been before related. Their printing house 
was then at the corner of Front and Market streets. The 

256 History of Printing in America. 

father died. in 1791 ; the son continued the business, and 
published a daily paper in Philadelphia, till 1814. 

Thomas Bradford was the great grandson of TVllliam 
Bradford, who first printed in Pennsylvania, and who was 
one of the first settlers of the colony. 

William Sellers, the partner of David Hall, was from 
England, and served his apprenticeship in London. He 
began business about 1764, and kept a book and station- 
ery store "in Arch Street, between Second and Third 
Street." On the death of David Hall, his sons, William 
and David, became the partners of Sellers. The firm of 
Hall & Sellers was continued, and printing executed, as 
usual, at the old stand in Market street.^ Sellers was a 
correct and experienced printer, a good citizen, well known, 
and as well respected. 

He died February, 1804, aged seventy-nine years. 

William Goddard has already been mentioned as a 
printer at Providence. He opened a printing house in 
Philadelphia, November, 1766. There he entered into 
partnership with two men of eminence in their line, Joseph 
Galloway, by profession a lawyer, speaker of the house 
of assembly, and afterwards a delegate to congress, and 
Thomas Wharton the elder, a merchant of the sect of 
quakers ; both men of large property and great influence. 
They were to supply a capital to carry on business exten- 
sively, and each of them to own a quarter part of the 
printing materials, and to draw a proportional part of the 
profits. Goddard was to pay for and to own half of the 
materials, to manage the concerns of the printing house 
in his own name, and to draw one half of the proceeds of 

* " The Newest Printing Office" on the board over the door, remained 
until 1814. It was placed there by Franklin. 

Pennsylvania. 257 

trade. The last clause in the contract between the par- 
ties, was, from the political character of Galloway and 
"Wharton, thought to be singular; it was as follows, 
viz. : " In case Benjamin Franklin, Esq., [then in Eng- 
land] on his return to Philadelphia, should incline to be- 
come a partner in the business, he shall be admitted as 
such ; and in that case, the shares, parts and proportions 
of the expense, charges and profits aforesaid, shall be as 
follows, viz., two ninths thereof shall belong to Joseph 
Galloway, two ninths thereof to Thomas Wharton, two 
ninths to Benjamin Franklin, and three ninths thereof to 
William Goddard.'* Galloway and Wharton were strongly 
attached to the measures of the British ministry, but cau- 
tious of expressing their opinions. The firm printed for 
the assembly of Pennsylvania, and published a newspaper, 
The Pennsylvania Ghrcmicle, which for some time bore the 
appearance of impartiality ; but at length Mr. Dickinson, 
author of the celebrated Farmer^s LetterSy and several 
other reputable characters on the side of the country, 
were violently attacked and abused. Galloway and others, 
behind the curtain, wrote, and Goddard,^ who was tied to 
the pursestrings of his partners, was compelled to publish 
as they directed. Difficulties soon arose, from various 
causes, between the members of this partnership. God- 
dard was dissatisfied with the power which Galloway and 
Wharton arrogated over him, and they were displeased 
with his management of the paper, and other concerns of 
the firm. He stated, in a pamphlet entitled The Part- 
ner ship, which he published after their separation, that 
they threatened to ruin him, if he did not follow their di- 
rections, and accede to their proposal to admit anotiier 
partner into the firm, viz., Benjamin Towne, then a jour- 
neyman printer. This intended partner Qt)ddard knew 

' See bis account of the partnership. 


258 History of Printing in America. 

was to be a spy upon his actions, and a check upon his 
management of the concerns of the company; but he was 
obliged to submit and receive him in November, 1769. 
The finn of the company was now Goddard & Townb. 
In July, 1770, their disagreement grew to a rupture; and 
after a connection of about nine months with Towne, they 

A state of hostility ensued, and newspapers, handbills, 
and pamphlets were filled with the ebullitions of their ani- 
mosity. Goddard endeavored to prevent the reelection of 
Galloway to a seat in the house of assembly, but failed ; 
for although Galloway did not succeed in the county of 
Philadelphia, he obtained his election in the county of 
Bucks. His real political character was not then known, 
and his influence continued to be greater than Goddard 
could counteract, although he fought like a veteran. God- 
dard was unable to answer the demands of the creditors of 
the company, who were urged to press him for payment ; 
and he became embarrassed, but was enabled to leave the 
city honorably in 1773, and go to Baltimore, where he 
hoped to obtain business more lucrative, and a residence 
more tranquil. He succeeded in gaining many valuable 
friends in Maryland and the states adjacent. 

Goddard's partners, Galloway, Wharton, and Towne, 
after the establishment of independence, were all proscribed 
as enemies to the country, by the legislature of Pennsylva- 
nia.* [^See Providence — Baltimore — Newspapers.'] 

John Dunlap was bom in the north of Ireland. He was 
the nephew of William Dunlap, by whom he was taught 

* GaUoway fled to England at the commencement of the revolution, and 
his large estate was confiscated. Wharton, who had more prudence, 
remained in the country. He had many worthy connections, and, politics 
aside, was not destitute of those amiable qualities which create respect 
His estate was not confiscated. 

Pennsylvania. 259 

printing in Philadelphia. When William went to Eng- 
land to take ordera for the church, in 1766, he left the 
management of his printing house to his nephew, who, in 
his own name, conducted the business for their joint bene- 
fit. Book printing had been their object ; but, after the 
uncle was settled in the church at Virginia, he resigned the 
printing house and its concerns to John, who purchased 
the printing materials and printed on his own account, and 
established a newspaper. His printing house was '^ on the 
south side of the Jersey Market.'' In 1778 congress 
appointed Dunlap to print their journals, and for five years 
he continued to be their printer. He retired from busi- 
ness in 1795, with a handsome fortune and a good 
reputation. He received from government, as paytnent 
for printing, several lots of land in Philadelphia. This 
land when it came into his possession was valued at only 
a few hundred pounds, Pennsylvania currency ; but the 
great increase of buildings soon made it more valuable, 
and in 1809 he sold one square, extending from Market to 
Chestnut street, and from Eleventh to Twelfth street, for 
more than one hundred thousand dollars. 

Dunlap executed his printing in a neat and correct man- 
ner. It is said that, whilst he conducted a newspaper, he 
never inserted a paragraph which wounded the feelings of 
an individual ! After the war commenced, in 1775, he was 
appointed a captain of a company of horse in the city 
militia. In 1808 he resigned his commission. 

Dunlap died, in Philadelphia, November 27, 1812, of 
apoplexy, aged sixty five. His funeral was attended by 
the field, stafi*and commissioned ofiicers of the first brigade, 
first division, of Pennsylvania militia, the troop of horse of 
which he was formerly commander, and by a large con- 
course of other citizens. 

260 History of Printing in America. 

Benjamin Mecom has been mentioned as a printer in 
Antigua, Boston, and If ew Haven. He removed from Con- 
necticut, and opened a printing house in Philadelphia, in 
1768. He attempted a small periodical work, which will 
be mentioned with the newspapers and magazines published 
in that city. Afterwards he was in the printing house of 
Qoddard in Philadelphia, and, in 1774, he left the city, 
and was employed by Isaac Collins, at Burlington, New 
Jersey, where he closed his typographical career. He lived 
some time in Salem county, and finished his earthly pilgrim- 
age soon after the beginning of the revolutionary war. 

Mecom, though singular in his manners, and deficient 
in the art of managing business to profit, was a man of 
ingenuity and integrity ; and as a printer he was correct 
and skillful. He was the first person in this country, as 
far as I know, who attempted stereotype printing. He 
actually cast plates for several pages of the Ifew Testament 
and made considerable progress towards the completion of 
them, but he never effected it 

Robert Bell was bom in Glasgow, Scotland, where he 
was brought up to book-binding. He then went to Berwick- 
upon-Tweed, and worked sometime at that business; after 
which he removed to Dublin and commenced bookseller, 
and had an extensive trade ; but in a few years failed. He 
married in Dublin, and was for some time the partner of 
George Alexander Stevens, of facetious memory. 

He came to America about the year 1767, and esta- 
blished himself first as a book auctioneer, and afterwards 
as a bookseller, in Philadelphia. In 1772, he published 
Blacksione's Commentaries in four volumes octavo ; in which 
undertaking he was supported by a liberal subscription. 
He had before published Robertson's Charles FifiK The8§ 
two works may be considered as the first fruits of a spirit 
of enterprise in book printing in that city. Soon after the 

Pennsylvania. 261 

publication of Blackstone^s Commentaries^ he opened a print- 
ing house in Third street, where the Union library had 
lately been kept, and printed several other works of less 

Bell was the publisher of the celebrated pamphlet en- 
titled Qmimon Sense^ written by Thomas Paine. He em- 
ployed Paine some time afterwards as a clerk, etc. When 
Common Sense was committed to the press, there was a 
scarcity of paper ; and all the broken quires of paper in 
BelPs warehouse were collected and culled for the first im- 
pression. The work had a very rapid sale, went through 
several editions in Philadelphia, and was republished in 
all parts of United America. 

After the war took place, Bell became celebrated as a 
book auctioneer ; and as such was known from Virginia 
to Ifew Hampshire. He disposed, in that way, of his 
"jewels and diamonds," in New York, Boston, Baltimore, 
Norfolk, etc.' He was a thorough bookseller, punctual 
and fair in his dealings ; and, as a companion, he was 
sensible, social and witty. 

He left Philadelphia in 1784, with an intention to visit 
Charleston, South Carolina, where he had sent a quantity 
of books to sell at auction ; but on his way was taken sick 
at Richmond, Virginia, and died there September 23, 
1784, aged nearly sixty years. 

Joseph Crueshane was born in Philadelphia, and 
served an apprenticeship with Andrew Steuart. He was 
one of the society of Friends, and printed books for them 
as well as for his own sales. He opened a printing house 
in 1769, and soon after a book and stationery store, in 
Third street, near Market street, in company with Isaac 

* His advertisements for the sale of books by auction, were commonly 
headed with " Jewels and Diamonds to be sold or sacrificed, by Robert 
Bell, humble Proyedore to the Sentimentalists." 

262 History. OP Printing in America. 

Collins. Their firm was Crukshank & Collins. The 
partnership continued only one year, when it was dissolved, 
and Collins removed to Burlington. 

Crukshank took a good stand in Market street, and 
traded very considerably. In 1772, he printed for Bell 
Blackstoiie's Commentaries in four volumes octavo; also 
several other works of importance. Fair in his dealings, 
punctual in his payments, and amiable in his manners, he 
was greatly esteemed by his fellow citizens. 

William Evitt, was born in Pennsylvania, and served 
an apprenticeship with Andrew Steuart. In 1770, he 
printed " at the Bible-in-Heart, Strawberry- Alley," with 
the press and types which had been Steuart's, which he 
purchased. He issued proposals for publishing weekly, 
on Saturday evening, a newspaper, to be entitled The 
Pennsylvania Evening Post, This paper never made its 
appearance ; but one of the same title was, afterwards, pub- 
lished by Benjamin Towne. 

I can find no other particulars of Evitt which will be 
creditable to the trade. He was, for a time, a journey- 
man ; and, afterwards, became a soldier in the American 
army, and died in the service of his country. 

William Hall k David Hall Junior, were the sons of 
David Hall, and were taught printing by their father. 
After his death, in 1772, they became the partners of 
Sellers ; and the firm of Hall & Sellbrs was continued 
until the death of Sellers. The business was then for seve- 
ral years managed in the names of William & David Hall. 
It was, afterwards, transferred to William Hall Junior. 
William Hall Senior, was for several successive years, a 
member of the Pennsylvania legislature. 

Pennsylvania. 263 

James Humphreys Junior, was the son of James Hum- 
phreys, a conveyancer, etc. He was born in Philadelphia, 
received an education at the college in that city, and was 
there placed under the care of an uncle, to study physic ; but 
disliking the profession, he became an apprentice to Wil- 
liam Bradford, and was by him taught printing. Supplied 
with good printing materials, he began business " at the 
lower comer of Black-horse Alley, in Front Street," and 
in January, 1775, he published a newspaper. 

Humphreys printed several books before the commence- 
ment of the revolutionary war, and among them .were 
Siemens W(yrks in five volumes, duodecimo, WettenhalVs Greek 
Grammar^ corrected for the use of the college in Philadel- 
phia ; and afterwards. Strictures on Paine' s Common Sense. 
Two editions of the last work, consisting of several thousand 
copies each, were sold in a few months. 

Humphreys having acted as clerk in the court of chan- 
cery, and, as a qualification, taken the oath of allegiance 
to the British king; he, on that account, reftised to bear 
arms in favor of his country, and against the government 
of England ; and was, in consequence, denounced as a tory. 
His paper, it has been said, was under the influence of the 
British government, and he was several times in the hands 
of the people. He had done no injury to the individu- 
als who were dissatisfied with his political opinions, and 
from them he received no essential abuse. Among the 
whigs he had good friends, one of whom was Doctor Rit- 
tenhouse, a literary character well known in our country. 
Benjamin Towne, who began the publication of The 
Ecening Post^ a rival paper, was not friendly to Humphreys, 
and published a number of pieces calculated to excite the 
popular resentment against him. Ifovember 16, 1776, 
Humphreys was attacked by a writer in Towne's paper 
under the signature of A Tory. Not knowing what might 
be the consequence of these assaults, in those times of 

264 History of Printing in America. 

commotion, Humphreys discontinued his paper, quitted 
business, and went into the country. At the very time 
Towne published these pieces, Humphreys had loaned 
him the paper on which The Evening Post was published, 
without any prospect of payment 

Humphreys, thus driven from Philadelphia, remained 
in the countiy till the British army approached the city; 
and then returned and remained there while it was pos- 
sessed by the British troops ; with whom he again left the 
city, accompanied the army to New York, and there con- 
tinued as a merchant until the establishment of peace. 
He then went to England, procured a supply of good 
printing materials, and after some time went to Nova 
Scotia, and opened a printing house in Shelburne, and 
published a newspaper called 7%c Nova Scotia Packet. Not 
meeting with sufficient encouragement, the Packet was 
discontinued ; he closed his printing and employed him- 
self as a merchant at Shelburne ; in this situation he re* 
mained until 1797, when, having suffered loss by French 
privateers, he again returned to Philadelphia, and there 
opened a printing house. From that time till he died he 
was employed in book printing, and a number of valuable 
works have come from his press. He was a good and ac- 
curate printer, and a worthy citizen. He died February 
10, 1810, aged sixty-three years. 

His sons, who succeeded to their father's business, re- 
linquished it in 1812, and the stock was disposed of at 
auction. Several of his daughters were good compositors, 
and often worked at the case. 

Benjamin Townb was born in Lincolnshire, and brought 
up to printing in England. He was first a journeyman to 
Goddard, and then his partner. He purchased the right 
which Galloway and Wharton had in the printing house 
managed by Goddard. This partnership did not continue 

Pennsylvania. 265 

a year, but ended in 1770. In 1774, Towne opened a print- 
ing house on his own account. 

James Humphreys had proposed to publish a news- 
paper, professedly impartial. Towne immediately issued 
a proposal for another paper. It was supposed that Hum- 
phreys's paper would be in the British interest. Towne 
took opposite ground. Both papers appeared before the 
public in January, 1775. Suspicion was soon excited 
against Humphreys's Ledger ^ and was kept awake by the 
publications in Towne's Evening Post, In less than two 
years Towne succeeded in obliging Humphreys to discon- 
tinue the Ledger ; and, through fear of popular resentment, 
to leave the city. 

Towne remained a whig until the British army took 
possession of Philadelphia; he then became a royalist 
At that time Humphreys returned and renewed the Led- 
ger. Towne continued The Evening Post There was this 
difference between Humphreys and Towne : the first pos- 
sessed a candid mind, and was apparently guided by 
moral principle ; Towne appeared to be artful, and gov- 
erned by self interest. When the British troops evacuated 
the city, Humphreys went with them. Towne, although 
proscribed by the state government for joining the royal 
standard, remained ; and again adopted the language of a 
whig ; but his conduct gained no friends among the loyal- 
ists, and it lost him the confidence of those who had been 
his patrons. But he was permitted, without molestation, 
to pursue his business, and I believe he continued his 
paper, which was handsomely executed, till 1782. 

When congress first met in Philadelphia, after the Brit- 
ish army evacuated it. Doctor Witherspoon, who was then 
a member, went into the bookstore of Aitken, where he 
met with Towne. After some conversation, Towne re- 
quested the doctor to furnish him with intelligence and 


266 History op Printing in America. 

essays for the Evcnivg Posiy as he formerly had done. The 
doctor refused, and told him that it would be very impro- 
per for a member of congress to hold intercourse with a 
man who was proscribed by law; but he added, "if you 
make your peace with the country first, I will then assist 
you.*' "How shall I do it, doctor?** "Why," answered 
the doctor, "write and publish a piece acknowledging 
your fault, professing repentance, and asking forgiveness." 
" But what shall I say ?" The doctor gave some hints ; 
upon which Towne said, " Doctor, you write expeditiously 
and to the purpose ; I will thank you to write something 
for me, and I will publish it.*' " Will you ? then I will 
do it,'* replied the doctor. The doctor applied to Aitken 
for paper and ink, and immediately wrote, " The humble 
Confession, Recantation and Apology of Benjamin Towne," 
etc. It was an excellent production, and humorously iron- 
ical; but Towne refused to comply with his promise to 
publish, because the doctor would not allow him to omit 
some sentences in it It, however, made its appearance, 
some time after, in several newspapers; and, passing for 
the genuine work of Towne, raised his reputation as a 
writer. When Doctor Witherspoon's works were pub- 
lished, this recantation was among them. Appendix H. 

Towne was not deficient in intellect and was a decent 
workman. He was a bon vivanU but he did not possess the 
art of accumulating and retaining wealth. He died July 
8, 1793. 

Robert Aitken was born at Dalkeith, in Scotland, and 
served a regular apprenticeship with a bookbinder in 
Edinburgh. He came to Philadelphia, as a bookseller, in 
1769 ; returned to Scotland the same year, came back to 
Philadelphia in 1771, and followed the business of book- 
selling and binding, both before and after the revolution. 
In 1774, he became a printer. In 1775, he published a 

Pennsylvania. 267 

magazine, and in 1782, an edition of the Bible, small dao- 
decimo, on a brevier type. This edition, said to be the first 
printed in America, which is, however, a mistake,* was 
recommended to the public by congress, as a pious and 
laudable undertaking in the existing state of the country. 
A copy of this resolve of congress is printed at the end of 
the Old Testament. Imprint — " Philadelphia, Printed 
and sold by R. Aitken, at Pope's head, above the Coffee 
House in Market street, mdcclxxxii." 

After the revolutionary war he printed several valuable 
works. Among them were the first three volumes, in 
quarto, of Tke Transactions of the American Philosophical S> 
eiet}/. He had a son bred to printing, who was some time 
his partner. 

Aitken died in July, 1802, aged sixty-eight years. For 
thirty-one years he had been a citizen of Philadelphia, 
He was industrious and frugal. His printing was neat and 
correct In his dealings he was punctual, and he acquired 
the respect of those who became acquainted with him. 

Jane Aitken, his daughter, continued his business. She 
had in 1810 a printing house in Philadelphia; and printed 
Thompson's Translation of the Bibkj in four volumes, octavo. 
The printing was well and handsomely executed. She 
obtained much reputation by the productions which issued 
from her press. 

Story & Humphreys, Enoch Story, the elder, and 
Daniel Humphreys, were copartners. They began print- 
ing " in Norris's alley, near Front Street," in 1775. The 
well known Joseph Galloway, once the partner of Qod- 
dard, in order to promote his political views, is said to have 
procured the materials of a printing house for Story, who 
took Humphreys, not then engaged in business, into part- 
nership. Their chief employment was a newspaper, which 

See Printer* in Cambridge^ Boston and Oermantawn, 

268 History of Printing in America. 

they had published but a few monthe when their printing 
house and materials were burnt, and their partnership 
was in consequence dissolved. Story was bred a mer- 
chant, but was unfortunate in mercantile affairs, and un- 
successful in other business. 

Daniel Humphreys, son of Joshua Humphreys, served 
his time with William Bradford, and was a fellow appren- 
tice with James Humphreys ; but they were not related. 
Daniel, some time after his misfortune by fire, opened 
another printing house ; and from June, 1783, to July, 1784, 
was a partner of Ebenezer Oswald in the publication of the 
Independent Gazetteer ; and afterwards began another news- 
paper, which he published several years. The typography 
of this paper was neatly executed. He had a printing 
house in Philadelphia till 1811 ; was noted as a good proof 
reader, and in this business was often employed. He died 
June 12, 1812. 

Enoch Story, the younger^ was the kinsman of Enoch 
Story, who was the partner of Daniel Humphreys. He served 
his apprenticeship with William Hall, and began business 
at Baltimore. In 1775, and for some time after, he was a 
job printer in Strawberry alley, Philadelphia. He died in 

John Douglas Macdouqall, printed in Chestnut street, 
in Philadelphia, in 1775, and probably before that time. 
He was not, I believe, long or largely in trade. He was 
born iu Ireland, and had, previously to engaging in busi- 
ness in this city, worked in the printing house of John 
Waterman, Providence, Rhode Island. He died in New 
York, August, 1787. 

Samuel Dellap, printed several small works, which he 
sold at his shop '' in Front street, between Market and 

Pennsylvania. 269 

Arch streets," in 1771, and after. About the year 1792, he 
sold books by auction in an outhouse belonging to the 
Black Horse Tavern, in Market street, north side, between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. In this place he died of the 
yellow fever in 1793, aged about fifty-three years. 

He went frequently to New York, where he advertised 
his publications, and collected old books ; these he sold at 
auction in Philadelphia. 

Melchior Steiner and Charles Cist. Steiner was born 
in Switzerland. He was the son of the Rev. John Conrad 
Steiner, who came to Philadelphia, and was, for some time, 
pastor of the Dutch Presbyterian church in Race street. 
He served his apprenticeship with Henry Miller, and suc- 
ceeded him in business. Cist was born in St. Petersburgh , 
Russia, where he received a good education , and was brought 
up a druggist and apothecary, and afterwards studied phy- 
sic. He came to America in 1769, and engaged with 
Henry Miller as a translator of English into German ; by 
continuing in the employment of Miller several years he 
acquired a considerable knowledge of printing. These 
two entered into partnership under the firm of Steiner & 
Cist. They executed book and job work, in both the Ger- 
man and English languages, "in Second street, at the 
corner of Coat's alley." This copartnership was of short 
continuance. Not long after the commencement of the 
revolutionary war, they published a newspaper in the Ger- 
man language ; but, for want of sufficient encouragement, 
it was discontinued in April, 1776. 

They left Philadelphia when the British army approached 
it; and returned when it was evacuated in 1778. In 
1779 they published a German newspaper. In 1781 they 
dissolved their copartnership. Steiner continued the paper 
three or four years, but by neglecting business, became 
poor. Cist pursued it prudently, and acquired considera- 

270 History op Printing in America. 

ble property. When the seat of government was removed 
to Washington, Cist carried his press there, remained with 
it several years, and built two or three houses in that city. 

Cist died near Bethlehem, December 1, 1805, and was 
buried in the Moravian churchyard, in that place. 

Steiner ceased to be a master printer, and became a 
clerk in a public oflfice, in 1794. He died in Washington 
in the winter of 1807, aged about fifty years. 

In 1810 there were in the county and in the city of 
Philadelphia, fifty-one printing houses, one hundred and 
fifty-three printing presses, and seven paper mills.^ 

The first press established west of the Allegany, was in 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1786, by John Scull, under 
the patronage of Judge Brackenridge. 


Christopher Sauer, alias Sower. This eminent printer 
was born in the town of Lauterburg, in Germany, in the 
year 1694. The business he was bred to was that of a tailor. 
He came to America in 1724, and took up his residence in 
German town , where for some time his principal employment 
was making button molds, which he found to be profitable. 
He followed various other occupations for fourteen years 
after his arrival, but had no concern in printing. He left 
Germantown, and was, at one time, engaged as a farmer ; 
at other times was concerned in casting stoves at a furnace 
near Reading, in Pennsylvania, and discovered great in- 
genuity in casting. After being several years absent from 
Germantown, he returned to that place, and for some time 
lived with a noted German doctor by the name of Witt, 
who was commonly called a conjuror. From this man, 
Sower gained some medical knowledge. At length by 
accident he became a printer. 

Mease's Ptcture of Philadelphia, published 1811. 

Pennsylvania. 271 

The Baptists, or Tunkers, in Germany, raised by sub- 
Bcription, a sum of money, in order to purchase religious 
books and disperse them among their poor friends in Penn- 
sylvania, and to establish a press there to print for the same 
purpose. Accordingly a press and types, with a quantity 
of books, were sent out and intrusted to the management 
of a German Baptist by the name of Jacob Gaus. He was 
to have the use of, and the emolument arising from the 
press, on condition that he should distribute a certain num- 
ber of copies of each of the religious books he should print, 
among the poor Germans. This person did not possess 
the ability necessary for the undertaking, and no other 
person who was thought to have sufficient ability for the 
purpose was found to take his place. The business was 
suspended and the press and types viewed as useless lum- 
ber. At length Sower appeared, and was so fortunate as 
to get the press, types, and the books ^ into his possession, 
though not without much opposition. He was opposed by 
the friends of Gaus, and particularly by Alexander Mack, 
the first minister, and the spiritual father of all the Tun- 
kers, or German Baptists, at that time in Pennsylvania. 
The transfer of the property being made to Sower, he 
immediately began business according to the benevolent 
intentions of those who were at the expense of the esta- 
blishment. The German books sent over were distributed 
grratuitously among the poor. The press was set to work 
on religious tracts, and a proportion of them given away. 
Others were sold, and produced a profit to the printer. In 
a short time. Sower so managed the concern as to gain the 

'It is uncertain whether these were from the society formed in England 
for diffusing religious information among the German settlers, or from a 
similar society in Germany, hut there can he no doubt that one or more 
presses were established in Pennsylvania by pious friends in Europe ; and 
that not only the press at Germantown, but that at Ephrata, was supported 
for this purpose. 

272 History of Printing in America. 

approbation even of his opposers. The ingenuity of Sower, 
his great attention to the establishment, with the aid of 
some good workmen whom he procured from Germany, 
soon placed the business on a respectable footing, and it 
became profitable to him. In 1738 he published a German 
Almanac. This was the first in that language printed in 
the country. It was continued annually by him and his 
successors, for forty years. In the year 1739 he published 
a small newspaper in German ; and in 1743, he issued from 
his press, on a German long primer type, and in that 
language, an edition of the Bible, in 4to. This was the 
second Bible printed in British America. The first was 
the Indian translation, from the press in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, as early as 1663. Sower's edition of the 
German Bible was nearly three years in the press. The 
price to subscribers was only fourteen shillings currency, 
bound ; but it was to others twenty shillings. This was 
the largest work that had issued from any press in that 
colony, and it was not equalled for many years after. The 
edition consisted of a thousand copies.^ 

Sower printed a number of minor works in German, 
and Juvenal in English. For those in English he employed 
a proof reader, as he never could acquire the correct or- 
thography of the language. 

After he printed the Bible, he erected a mill for manu- 
facturing paper, and was, for a short time, concerned in 
that business ; and also in that of book binding. 

When particular sorts of his types were deficient, he 
contrived to cast new ones as they were wanted. In short, 
his ingenuity enabled him to complete the manufacture of 
any article which he undertook. It is said he was suffi- 
ciently adroit at sixteen different trades or avocations, by 

* For a bibliographical account of this edition of the German Bible, see 
O'Callaghan's Ldt ofEdUiansofthe Holy Scriptures, pp. xii, 32. e< ieq. — M, 

Pennsylvania. 273 

following either of which he could secure a maintenance. 
Among them were those of stove caster, farmer, clock- 
maker, tailor, distiller, farrier, apothecary, paper maker, 
tanner, tin plate worker, lampblack maker, printers' ink- 
maker, bookbinder and printer. To the last of these he 
was particularly attached ; as an evidence of which, he 
desired on his death bed, that the printing business might 
always continue among his descendants ; and that some 
one or other of them would acquire and practice the art. 

He was religious in the temper of his mind, and quiet 
in his deportment. Although inclining to Mennonism, 
he was called a Separatist ; but in fact, did not join any 
particular sect. 

He married in Germany. His wife died December 24, 
1752. He died September 25, 1758, aged sixty-four, and 
was buried in his own land, at the back of his dwelling 
house in Germautown. He had but one child, a sou, who 
succeeded him in business. 

Christopher Sower Junior, was bom in Witgenstein, 
near Marburg in Germany, and was only three years of age 
when he arrived in Philadelphia with his father, by whom 
he was employed in various occupations until 1738, when 
his father commenced printing ; he was then instructed in 
that art. 

He commenced business as a bookbinder some years 
before the death of his father, but at his decease he suc- 
ceeded him in the printing house. This was in 1758, 
when he was thirty-seven years old. He continued the 
establishment on an enlarged scale, printed many valuable 
books, .and published a weekly newspaper. In 1768, he 
finished a quarto edition of the Bible, in German, on a 
pica type ; and completed another in 1776.^ The types for 

' For a particular account of Bibles and Testaments printed in America, 
see O'Callaghan's List of Anieriean Bibies, — //. 


274 History of Printing in America. 

that last mentioned, were cast at his own foundery. This 
foifndery was the first of the kind in British America. 
The materials for it he received from Germany in 1772.' 

In 1773 he built a paper mill on the Schuylkill, and 
manufactured both writing and printing paper. He had 
previously established a bindery. He made printing ink 
of the best quality, and excellent lampblack for this pur- 
pose. His presses were made under his own inspection, 
in his extensive establishment. Thus the various branches 
of business necessary to complete a printed book were exe- 
cuted by him, or by his own immediate workmen. Most 
of these branches he could perform himself, and at some 
of them he was a first-rate workman. He possessed in this 
respect the genius of his progenitor. The printing exe- 
cuted at his German press was both neat and correct. 
His ink was remarkably good. 

Besides the various branches of bookmaking, he dealt 
in drugs and medicines. Of these articles he imported and 
sold large quantities. He conducted his business with 
high reputation. His influence in the community, espe- 
cially among the Germans, was very extensive. No medi- 
cines could be esteemed effectual, unless procured at 
Sower's apothecary shop; no almanac, unless published 
by him, could be correct in time and weather; and no 
newspaper promulgated truth but Christopher Sower's 
German Gazette. As an instance of his popularity among 
his neighbors, it is mentioned that at the time when there 
was a warm contention between the people of Pennsylva- 
nia and the proprietors, the quakers, who were desirous of 
obtaining some exclusive privileges, had an ascendency in 
the legislature, to which body they had petitioned, A new 
election was approaching. The petition of the quakers 
was unpopular with those who were not of that sect. 

' See Tt^pe Fbun/ferieti in America^ vol. i, p. 28. 

Pennsylvania. 275 

Sower, in hie German Gazette^ zealously opposed the peti- 
tion, and at the time of the election of new members, at 
the head of three hundred qualified voters, proceeded in 
regular order from Qermantown to Philadelphia, and suc- 
cessfully supported the candidates opposed to the quakers. 
This happened about the year 1760, and appears to be the 
only instance of his taking such an active part in political 

In 1777 he gave up the management of the printing 
house to two of his sons. He possessed by inheritance from 
his father, and from his own exertions, an independent 
estate, and was inclined to quit the fatigues of business 
and the further pursuit of wealth, and pass the remainder 
of his life in religious repose. He is represented as well 
balanced in his temper ; in his disposition, pacific ; in his 
habits, industrious and plodding ; in conduct, exemplary ; 
and in religion a saint, commanding respect, and the silent 
and sullen veneration even of the most profligate. " Such 
was the even tenor of his way." But ^' man is born to 
trouble as the sparks fly upward." The days of his afflic- 
tion approached. Often does the mariner, after a long and 
successful voyage, approach within view of his desired 
haven, when suddenly, by adverse gales, on an unseen 
rock, he suffers shipwreck. Sower now began to experi- 
ience such trying scenes as would prove his fortitude as a 
man, and test his virtue as a Christian. 

It does not appear that he actually declared himself, 
during the revolutionary struggle, either for or against the 
colonists. It rather seems that he was disposed " to sub- 
mit to the powers that be for conscience sake." The Tun* 
kers, or German Baptists, were generally rich. Men of 
property are at all times generally opposed to a revolution. 
It was supposed that Sowei' and his Christian brethren 
wished to remain neutral, and that they consented " rather 
to bear the ills they had, than to fly to those they knew 

276 History op Printing in America. 

not of." His property was greatly injured by the war; 
particularly by the battle of Qermantown. The war had 
commenced in favor of the British, and it was uncertain 
how the contest would end. 

His son Christopher had rendered himself obnoxious to 
the whigs, and had fled to the enemy. He and other 
friends of Sower had alarmed his feara, and strongly in- 
sisted on his going for safety to Philadelphia, then in pos- 
session of the British troops. Whatever might lead him 
to the measure, true it is that on the nineteenth of Octo- 
ber, 1777, fifteen days after that battle he deserted his 
home, and went into the city. He remained there till 
May 23, 1777, [ ? 8], when^ he returned to Germantown. 
This was twenty-four days before the enemy evacuated 
Philadelphia. After his arrival he was arrested in his own 
house. This measure was justified by his having been 
with the British army. With an inflamed and exasperated 
populace this was suflicient proof of his being a traitor. 

They went to bim and demanded his signature to the 
oath prescribed by congress. He replied that he would 
cheerfully swear allegiance to the state, but could not, con- 
sistently with his religious faith, engage to perform all 
which that oath required. He was therefore made a 
prisoner and taken to the American army and confined five 
days. He was afterwards released on parole, and allowed 
to reside in Mathatchen, twenty-one miles from German- 
town. While in durance, before he reached the army, some 
ill-disposed persons deprived him of his remarkable and 
full grown beard, and otherwise maltreated him. Whilst a 
prisoner with the army he had to endure other indignities 
from the soldiers. He bore all, however, with Christian 

One circumstance, rather extraordinary, took place at 
this time, which has often been mentioned, and the fact 
attested, both by his ftiends, and those who were then 

Pennsylvania. 277 

his political enemies. He was denuded at the camp hy 
the soldiers, then arrayed in tattered regimentals, and pa- 
raded. His pantaloons were seized hy a soldier who put 
them on his own limbs. A short time after, this soldier 
was seized with agonizing pains in all parts of his body, 
and exclaimed : '* I can neither live nor die ! I am in tor- 
ment. Take off the old man's trowsers, that I may die !'' 
They were taken off, and the soldier presently expired. 
The cause that produced the pains and sudden death of 
the soldier is not stated. By some of the friends of Sower, 
who esteemed him a saint, this incident was thought to 
be a judgment of God for the cruelty with which he had 
been treated. 

He returned to Mathatchen on the twenty-third of 
June, 1778. While he remained there, the court for the 
confiscation of estates opened its session in the town of 
Lancaster, whither all those concerned were, by public 
advertisement, notified to appear during the month of 
June, and show cause, if any they had, why final proceed- 
ings as to their estates should not be taken. His case 
came on at this court the very day he arrived in German - 
town. A newspaper was rarely seen in Germantown at 
that time, and not having seen the notification he knew 
nothing of the sitting of the court until it was too late for 
him to make his appearance. His estate was confiscated, 
and neither he nor his friends had faith enough to petition 
the court on the subject. This was a fatal blow to the 
fortunes of Sower. Had he appeared in court this stroke 
might have been arrested. As no overt act could be 
alleged against him, his property to the amount of 90,000 
dollars, might have remained in his hands It was now 
seized, and soon after sold at auction at a very low rate. 
Besides his house, lands, drugs, medicines, paper, and 
types, all his books, bound and in quires, were sold. 
Among the books in sheets was the greater part of his 

278 History of Printing in America. 

edition of the German Bible, consisting of a thousand copies. 
These went off by the hammer for less than a quarter of 
the price of a like quantity of ordinary wrapping paper. 
The books were in the German language, with which the 
very few persons who attended the sale in order to make 
purchases were acquainted, and they placed but little 
value on the articles. His printing materials and book 
stock were purchased by a printer from the city, who did 
not know their value. Instead of having the book stock 
bound, he sold a part of it to be used as covers for cart- 
ridges, proper paper for that purpose being at that time 
not to be obtained. Thus what was, at first, intended for 
the salvation of men's souls, proved eventually the de- 
struction of their bodies. 

Sower's property was seized on the twenty-seventh of 
July, 1778. When the officers came to his house for this 
purpose he was at breakfast. They began to take an in- 
ventory of his property, and demanded his keys. He de- 
livered them with much composure, only observing that 
if they had a better right to them than himself, they must 
take them. The day following he received notice to quit 
the premises, and he took a final leave of his home and of 
his effects, and went to the house of his brother-in-law, 
Henry Sharpnach, in the same town. Here Sower resided 
two years, and employed himself in binding books. In 
addition to his misfortunes, having been in extensive 
trade, he had many debts due to him, which were now 
cancelled in continental bills. These were a lawful tender, 
but had depreciated in value at the rate of ninety dollars 
in bills to one dollar in specie. But he was otherwise 
treated by some of his Christian brethren. He had con- 
siderable sums in their hands and they paid him the full 
value of the sums which they had borrowed. 

His type foundery, having been in the possession of 
Justin Fox, the master workman, and kept and used in 

Pennsylvania. 279 

buildings in the neighborhood occupied by him, was on 
this account supposed to be his property, and thus escaped 

It was the opinion of many of Sower's friends, that when 
the war should end he would be indemnified for the loss 
ho sustained. For this reason neither he nor his friends 
interfered in the sales of his confiscated property. 

A German bookbinder in Germantown, by the name of 
Siebert, and his son-in-law Michael Breemeyer, who shortly 
after established himself as a printer in that place, hearing 
that the Bible sheets were selling for the use already men- 
tioned, went to Philadelphia and repurchased what re- 
mained, and also a part of the printing material^ They 
recommenced the printing business in Germantown. 
They reprinted such parts of the Bible as had been de- 
stroyed, and having completed the purchased copies, they 
bound and sold them. 

The greater part of Sower's types had been wantonly 
mixed and thrown together in heaps. Several thousand 
pounds weight were afterwards sold by the peraon who 
purchased them at auction, to Justin Fox, Sower's type 
founder in Germantown. 

He had, cast and standing in his printing house, types 
for the whole of the German hymn book. After he com- 
pleted his last issue of the quarto edition of the Bible, 
his foundery was engaged in casting types sufficient to keep 
the whole Bible standing. The battle of Germantown 
put a stop to this proceeding when the work was nearly 

Sower removed from the house of his brother-in-law in 
1780 to Mathatchen. He kept house at this place, assisted 
by his daughters. 

He was fond of walking, and preferred that mode of 

' See tlie article, Type Faunderies. 

280 History of Printing in America. 

traveling to riding. It is said he usually progressed on 
foot four miles an hour. Within a fortnight before his 
death, he walked on a sabbath morning, twelve miles from 
his home, up to Shippack, to supply the pulpit for his 
Christian brethren in that place. After the reli^ous ser- 
vices for the day were over, he returned home on foot. 
On this day, it has been said, he appeared to have a pre- 
sentiment of his approaching dissolution, as he observed to 
the congregation, in the course of his preaching, that this 
was the last time he could perform that service for them. 

At the request of a worthy member of congress, the Hon. 
Frederick Augustus Muhlenburgh, afterwards speaker, 
he drew up a statement of his sufferings. This was com- 
pleted eight days before his death, when he observed that 
he had "now finished nearly all he had to do." The 
minister who preached his funeral sermon mentioned that 
to him Sower had foretold his death, and that two of his 
sons would speedily follow him.^ 

His working hours at Mathatchen were employed in 
binding books ; and this business, it appears, was to be the 
means by which his pilgrimage on earth was to be ended. 

He had undertaken to bind some of the same quarto Bibles 
which he had last printed, and which had been repurchased. 
He began the process of binding these books by the labor- 
ious employment of beating them, as is usual, and impru- 
dently completed as much of this work in half a day as is 
usually done in a whole day. The weather was warm, and 
by this exertion he became overheated. He went out to 
a spring where he drank so freely of water as to produce 
a fit of apoplexy, which soon after terminated his mortal 

He was a rigid and exemplary member of the society 
called Tankers, a sect of the German Baptists, and em- 

* This prediction was fulfilled. 

Pennsylvania. 281 

braced their creed, not by education, but by conversion, 
and was ordained a minister in their reli^ous assemblies, 
June 10, 1753. His wife and some of his children were 
church members of the same society. 

He, with a number of his friends of this sect, had at one 
time agreed not to marry, but to devote their time as much 
as possible to religious duties. Sower, however, was the 
first to annul this agreement, and married in 1751. His 
wife died in 1777. 

The rapid emigration of Germans to Pennsylvania may 
in considerable degree be attributed to Sower and his 
father. The letters which they wrote and sent to the land 
of their nativity, gave such a favorable representation of the 
climate of the province, where land was so easily to be 
obtained, as induced great numbers of their countrymen, 
with their families, to emigrate, and settle there. 

Sower was a very conscientious printer. The Associate 
Presbytery of Pennsylvania (or, Seceders, as sometimes 
called) ordered, about the year 1765, that some of their 
actions, or something of the kind, should be published, and 
deputized John Fulton, a papermaker of Oxford township, 
near Lancaster, to engage the printing. Fulton called on 
Sower to have it done. " My friend," replied Sower, " I do 
not print everything. If irreligious, or otherwise danger- 
ous, I always refuse ; but if you will leave the piece for my 
perusal I will give you an answer." Fulton called again, 
and Sower informed him he would gladly print the piece. 

Sower was remarkably temperate and regular in his 
habits. He never drank ardent spirits, was very economi- 
cal, rose at four in the morning, and spent an hour in 
devotional exercises. At five his whole family were called 
up and proceeded to their various employments. 

He died August 26, 1784, aged sixty-two years, leaving 
eight children — five sons and three daughters. On his 


282 History of Printing in America. 

tombstone in the burying ground of the Mennonists in 
Mathatchen, the following lines are sculptured, viz : 

" Death, thou haBt conquered me, 
* Twas by thy darts I'm slain ^ 
But Christ shall conquer thee, 
And I shall rise again. 

'* Time hastens on the hour, 
We just shall rise and sing, 
Grave I where is thy power f 
Death ! where is thy sting ? " 

Christopher Sower Third, was brought up a printer 
by his father, Christopher Sower Junior, and was for some 
time concerned with him in business. He was a member 
of the German Baptist church, and of the sect called 
Tunkers, from which he withdrew, and left the United 
States with the British army, at the close of the revolu- 
tionary war. 

In 1777, his mother dying, his father resigned the 
management of the printing house to Christopher and 
his brother Peter. Soon after this connection in business 
commenced, the troubles occasioned by the war increased, 
especially in the neighborhood of Qermantown, and caused 
at first temporary suspension, and soon after a total end 
to their business in Qermantown. On the fourth of Octo- 
ber, of this year, the day on which the battle was fought 
in this place, they fled to Philadelphia. Till this time they 
continued the German newspaper, and had printed the 
German Almanack for 1778. This was the 40th number 
of this annual publication which had issued from the press 
of the Sowers. This ended the partnership of these 
brothers. They had both become obnoxious to their 
countrymen by speaking and acting in favor of the enemy. 
Peter remained in Philadelphia till it was evacuated by 
the British army. He then went to New York, and be- 

Pennsylvania. 283 

came a student in physic. At the close of the war he left 
that city in a vessel for New Providence, where he died 
soon after his arrival. 

Christopher the third did not possess the prudence of his 
father or his grandfather. At the beginniug of the war he 
warmly espoused the cause of the country, and thus became 
popular; but he soon turned to the opposite side, and so 
conducted as to endanger the safety of his person. It is 
said this change in him was effected by the instigation of 
Joseph Galloway, who was an intimate in the family, and 
a notorious adherent to the cause of the British govern- 
ment. He was a man of influence, a member of the 
Pennsylvania legislature, and had for some years preced- 
ing been the silent partner of William Qoddard in the 
publication of the Pennsylvania Chronicle} He was a man 
who was possessed of handsome talents, and he conducted 
his Gazette with ability, though with severity against his 

Christopher resumed the publication of the Germanlown 
Oazette^ in Philadelphia, as soon as he could get his press 
and German types for the purpose. This business was 
speedily accomplished, and the paper was published till the 
British army removed from that city to New York. 

Sometime after the battle of German town, a detachment 
of the British army left Philadelphia, and for some forage, 
or other purpose, proposed to pass through Germantown, 
and return by the ridge road. Sower 3d, having some pri- 
vate business to transact, took advantage of this escort to 
proceed to his former residence, to obtain some papers of 
family importance. He stepped into his house, obtained 
the papers, and was proceeding to join the detachment, 
when, unapprehensive of danger, he was apprehended 
opposite the market house, by Capt. Coleman, an officer in 

See an accoant of that public journal in the second Yolunie. 

284 History of Printing in America. 

the American army, who was lurking for stragglers. Sower 
was then taken to the American camp, detained five weeks, 
and then exchanged. Captain Coleman was an active par- 
tisan. He lived many years after the war, in Third street, 
opposite to the Golden Swan tavern. 

When Sower 8d was brought to headquarters. General 
Washington, after some interrogatories, addressed him 
thus : " Well, Mr. Sower, you will be likely now to get 
some sour sauce." Sower would not have been exchanged 
at all, or at least not so soon as he was, but for the occur- 
rence of a fortunate incident. He had somehow received 
information of George Lusk, a powder manufacturer, 
being at a certain place unprotected. Lusk had been a 
next door neighbor to Sower, and was now the princi- 
pal person on whom the Americans depended for a supply 
of gunpowder. Sower knew the estimation in which he 
was held, and instantly formed the plan for making bim a 
prisoner, in order to eflfect his own release. The plan suc- 
ceeded and Lusk was taken prisoner, and some time after 
exchanged for Christopher, who returned to Philadelphia. 
Threats were given out against the lives of both ; but an 
even exchange was at length effected. They, perhaps, 
owed their lives to each other. 

Christopher went to New York with the British army, 
and sometime after embarked in a ship of war for Eng- 
land. He returned to New York, where he remained 
till the war was ended. He visited England again ; after 
remaining there two years, he went with his family to 
New Brunswick, and there published The JRoyal Gazette. 
He was appointed postmast-er for that province, and he 
obtained a colonel's brevet from the British government, 
which entitled him to half pay for life. 

Li 1779 he left that colony, and went in search of health, 
and to visit his brothers, to Baltimore, where, shortly after 
his arrival, he was attacked with apoplexy and died on 
the third of July of that year, aged forty-six. 

Pennsylvania. * 285 

Daniel Sower, another brother of Christopher 8d, was 
by profession, a papermaker, and after his apprenticeship 
was ended, condacted the mill built by his father. This 
mill was given to Daniel by his father, but the legal con- 
veyance not having been made, the property was confis- 
cated and sold as the property of the father. Daniel 
purchased another mill, but within a short time after, sold 
it, and turned his attention to agriculture in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania. 

David Sower was also brother to Christopher 3d, He 
acquired a knowledge of the art of printing, and estab- 
lished a printing house in N^orristown, Pennsylvania, and 
there published a newspaper, which he relinquished to his 
son Charles in 1711. ? (1811.) After which David opened 
a store in Mathatchen ; besides which he now pursued the 
business of a farmer. 

Samuel Sower, the youngest brother to Christopher, 
was brought up a housewright, and settled on Chestnut hill, 
near Germantown. He then became a printer, and also 
an apothecary. In 1794, he removed to Baltimore, where 
he attended to the business of printing and bookselling 
till 1804, when he commenced a type foundery in copart- 
nership with William Gwynn. He afterwards purchased 
the foundery which had been owned by his father and 
worked by Justus Fox. He continues now, [1815] the 
type making business in Baltimore, under the firm of S. 
Sower & Co. Samuel is an ingenious mechanician. He 
cast the diamond type for a small pocket Bible which was 
lately printed in that city. To this type he added an 
italic. Diamond italic has not been, I believe, attempted in 
Europe, unless very recently. 

Of Christopher's three sisters, one died in infancy, another 
in two or three years after her father, and the third is now 
[1815] living. 

286 History of Printing in America. 

The treaty of peace iu 1808 would have enabled Christo- 
pher Sower, the second of that name, to have recovered a 
part of his landed estate, but as the Tunkers will not, in 
any case, commence lawsuits, he received no benefit from- 
the provision made in the treaty for those in his situation ; 
and it is added that several of the children received some 
compensation from the British government. 

See note at the end of the volume in relation to Christo- 
pher Sower, 8d. 


Miller & Holland were copartners in a printing es- 
tablishment in Lancaster in 1751. They printed some small 
works in the German language, and, in 1752, published a 
newspaper in German and English. This firm was of short 
continuance. In 1758 I find that a book, then lately pub- 
lished, was advertised for sale " by Samuel Holland, printer 
in Lancaster, and no mention was made of Miller.^ 

William Dunlap, began printing in Lancaster in 
1754, in the English and German languages. He remained 
there till the beginning of the year 1757, when he removed 
to Philadelphia. [See Philadelphia.'] 

Lahn, Albright and Stiemer, mentioned in the first 
edition of this work, I am informed did not begin business 
until the conclusion of the revolutionary war. 

Francis Bailey began business in 1771, in company 
with Stewart Herbert, but they did not continue a long 
time in partnership. In 1772, and after, Bailey's printing 
house was in Spring street, Lancaster. The types with 

* This was probably Henry Miller, then lately returned from Europe, 
and who went again to Europe in 1754, but previously worked about 
twelve months for Bradford in Philadelphia. [See Henry Miller.] 

Pennsylvania. 287 

which he began business, were manufactured in German- 
town. Afterwards he manufactured types for himself and 
others. As a mechanician he was celebrated. 

Bailey was instructed in printing by Peter Miller at 
Ephrata, Lancaster county. He removed to Philadelphia 
in 1778 or 1779, and published a newspaper in that city. 
He eventually returned to Lancaster. His daughter-in-law 
in 1818 conducted a press in Philadelphia. 

Stewart Herbert began printing with Francis Bailey 
in 1771. A separation appears to have taken place soon 
after, and Herbert opened a printing house " in Queen 
street, Lancaster,'' and printed there in 1774. He after- 
wards printed a small newspaper in Hagerstown, Mary- 

Andrew Steuart in 1761, had a shop in Lancaster; but 
I do not find that he had a press there. 


This place, situated near Cocalico creek in Lan- 
caster county, has been called Dunkardtown, and Tun- 
kardtown, but is now known by the name of Ephrata. It 
was settled in 1733, by a sect called, by some, Tunkers, 
and by others, Dunkers or German Baptists, most of 
whom were from Germany, or of German extraction. They 
believe in the general redemption and salvation of the 
human race. They are generally well informed, peaceable 
in their disposition, simple in their language, and plain in 
their dress. They neither swear nor fight, nor go to law, 
nor take interest for money loaned. They commonly wear 
their beards. At first they kept the first day sabbath, but 
afterwards the seventh day. 


Peter Miller, a venerable and pious leader and teacher 
among the Tunkers, began with them the settlement 

288 History of Printing in America. 

of Ephrata. About the yea,r 1746, Miller opened a printing 
house, and he and his associates erected a paper mill. 
Miller printed a number of books in the German language, 
and a few in English ; all on religious subjects, and written 
chiefly by himself. 

In 1748 and 1749, he wrote and printed in Dutch, a work 
entitled Slutiqcn ©C^au ^latjcS.* It made fourteen hun- 
dred and twenty-eight pages, which he published in two 
volumes, and then translated it into German. The paper 
on which it was printed, was manufactured at Ephrata 
village. This work gave employment to Miller for more 
than two years. During that time his bed was a bench ; 
his pillow a wooden block of about four inches in thick- 
ness^and width, and ten inches in length ; and he slept but 
four hours in twenty-four.* 

" Miller was born in Germany in 1709 ; had his educa- 
tion in the university of Heidelberg ; came to this country 

' In the title page of each volume is an impression from a cut One cut 
is enclosed with a circle, and engraved on wood; the other on type 

' This information I received from Mr. Francis Bailey, of Lancaster, 
Pa., an ingenious and very respectable printer, taught by Miller. Mr. 
Bailey mentions that he has often witnessed Miller resting in the manner 
I have represented, and that he has slept in the same room with Miller in 
a similar way. He also informs me " that during the time SSIutigen 8cI)qu 
$lQtjc6 was in the press, particular sorts of the fonts of types on which it 
was printed ran short. To overcome this difficulty, one of the workmen 
constructed a mold that could be moved so as to suit the body of any 
type not smaller than brevier, nor larger than double pica. The mold con- 
sisted of four quadrangular pieces of brass ; two of them with mortices to 
shift to a suitable body, and secured by screws. The best type they could 
select from the sort wanted, was then placed in the mold, and after a 
slight corrosion of the surface of the letter with aquafortis to prevent sol- 
dering, or adhesion, a leaden matrix was cast on the face of the type, 
from which, after a slight stroke of a hammer on the type in the matrix, 
we cast the letters whi(^h were wanted. Types thus cast answer tolerably 
well. I have often adopted a method somewhat like this to obtain sorts 
which were short; but instead of four pieces of brass, made use of an 
even and accurate composing stick, and one piece of iron or copper 
having an even surface on the sides ; and instead of a leaden matrix, have 
substituted one of clay, especially for letters with a bold face. 

Pennsylvania. 289 

in 1730 ; settled with the Dutch Presbyterians in Phila- 
delphia ; and was the same year ordained a preacher among 
them. In 1735 he embraced the principles of the Baptists ; 
and in 1744 he received another ordination to be the prior 
or head of the society at Ephrata."* After Miller left the 
Presbyterian society in Philadelphia, he removed to Berks 
county, where he discovered a valuable quarry of agate, 
and he, in company with one Conrad Weiser, a celebrated 
Indian interpreter, became concerned in working this 
quarry, and in exporting large quantities of the agate to 
Germany. But Miller's religious impressions soon led him 
to believe that his time and talents should be more usefully 
employed ; and Weiser dying, Miller forsook the business 
of the quarry, and then associated with the Dunkers, and 
began the settlement of Ephrata. 

Among the brethren of his religious sect, Miller went 
by the paternal name of Jabez, alluding to I Chronicles, 
chap, iv, verses 9 and 10. His chin bore that digni- 
fied and characteristic mark of manhood given by the 
creator, a beard, flowing over his bosom. His counten- 
ance, it is said, was continually so serene that all who saw 
him might pronounce that he had not only made a treaty 
of peace with himself, but with all the world. 

It is not supposed that Miller was bred to printing; but 
it is understood he obtained a knowledge of the art after 
he arrived in Pennsylvania from the second Christopher 
Sower of Qermantown. They were of the same religious 
sect, and in some way associated in the general government 
of the church of which they were members. 

Miller was a good classical scholar, a man of most amia- 
ble manners, and highly respected. He died about the 
year 1790, aged eighty years. 

Edwards's Hiitory of Baptists^ printed 1770. 


290 History of Printing in America. 


This colony was settled by the Dutch, and remained 
in their possession until 1664, when it was surrendered to 
the king of England, and by him granted to the duke of 
York. No press was established under the Dutch govern- 

In 1665, The Conditions for New Planters in the Territories 
of His Royal Highness the Duke of York^ who was afterwards 
king of England, were printed on one side of a foolscap 
half sheet. A gentleman,* who possessed one of the printed 
copies of these conditions, informed me that, on its margin, 
in ancient writing, were these words, " This was printed 
at Boston in May 1665." Cambridge was undoubtedly 
meant, as a press was not established in Boston till some 
years after this time. This writing is, however, proof that 
in 1665 there was no printing prQss in New York. The 
small quantity of printing necessary for the colony was 
probably done at Cambridge, or at Boston, until about 
1684, when William Bradford began printing in Pennsyl- 
vania. It does not appear that any printing was executed 
in New York until 1693. 

In 1700, some gentlemen in Boston applied to Bartho- 
lomew Green of that town, to print a pamphlet, entitled, 
" Gospel Order Revived, Being an Answer to a Book lately 
set forth by the Reverend Mr. Increase Mather ^ President 
of Harvard College, &c. entituled, The Order of the Gospel, 
^c. Dedicated to the Churches of Christ in New-England. 
By sundry Ministers of the Gospel in New-England.^^ Green 
declined printing the pamphlet before it had been sub- 
mitted to the licensers of the press, to which the authors 
would not consent. Some months after, the pamphlet 

* Hon. Ebenezer Hazard, of Philadelphia ; late postmaster general. 

New York- 291 

was published, and appeared without the name of the 
printer, or the place of his residence. The imprint was, 
" Printed in the year 1700." To the pamphlet was pre- 
fixed the following advertisement, viz. 

" The Reader is desired to take Notice, that the Press 
in Boston is so much under the aw of the Reverend Author 
whom we answer, and his Friends, that we could not obtain 
of the Printer there to print the following sheets, which is 
the only true Reason why we have sent the Copy so far 
for its Impression." 

The pamphlet, on its appearance in Boston, particularly 
the advertisement attached to it, produced considerable 
agitation. Green to clear himself of the aspersion, as he 
termed it, of his press being under control, etc., published 
a handbill, a newspaper was not then published in English 
America. In this handbill, Green asserts that the pamphlet 
was printed at New York. Appendix. 1 

This pamphlet, of which I have a copy, cont-ains fifty 
two pages, small quarto, incorrectly and badly printed, 
and is, the laws excepted, the only book printed in New 
York as early as 1700, which I have seen, that contained 
more than thirty-eight pages.^ 

New York. 

The first press in the colony was erected in that city, 
in the year 1698. 

William Bradford, the first who printed in Pennsylva- 
nia, introduced the art into New York. He continued 
his printing in Philadelphia until some time in the year 
1693, when he set up a press in New York, and was ap- 
pointed printer to the government. The first book from 

* The first printing done in New York was Gk)v. Fletcher's proclamation, 
printed by Bradford in 1693, and dated Aug. 25. The Laws noticed above 
were printed the same year. — M. 

292 History of Printing in America. 

his press was a small folio volume of the laws of the colony, 
bearing the date of that year. In the imprint he styles 
himself " Printer to their Majesties," and directs to his 
printing house, V at the Sign of the Bible/' 

In 1698, he printed " The Proceedings of His Excellency 
Earle Bellemount, Governor of New York, and his council, 
on the 8th of May 1698," one sheet folio. Imprint — " New 
York, printed by William Bradford, printer to the Eing, 

His imprint to " an account of the illegal trial of 
Nicholas Bayard in 170J," is, " Printed by William Brad- 
ford at Sign of the Bible New York, 1702." 

In 1709, November 12, the general assembly of the 
colony ordered, " that Mr. Bradford do print all the acts 
of the general assembly of this colony now in force." A 
warrant from the speaker, of the same date, " appoints and 
orders William Bradford" to print the laws in conformity 
to the resolve of the general assembly. The laws were 
printed by him accordingly, and he completed them in the 
year following, with this imprint. " Printed by WiUiam 
Bradford^ printer to the Queen's most excellent majesty 
for the colony of New York, 1710." » 

I have a pamphlet printed in that city in 1711, by " Wil- 
liam and Andrew Bradford," from which it appears that, 
at that time, there was some connection in business between 
Bradford and his son Andrew ; but that concern could 
have been only for a year or two, for Andrew, in 1712, 
removed to Philadelphia. 

» Smith in his Jlwtory ofAeto York, pp. 109, 110, mentions that in 1708, 
the governor proposed to the assembly to lay a duty of ten per cent on 
certain articles, but they resolved to the contrary. On which " the very 
printer, clerk, and door keeper, were denied their salaries." He also 
says, p. 117, "the assembly of 1709, ag^ed to raise money for several 
designated purposes, among which were small salaries to the printer ,cUTk 
of the council, and Indian interpreter." 

New York. 293 

Franklin* mentions that when he first visited New York 
about 1723, William Bradford was a printer, and it appears 
the only printer, in that city. Franklin applied to him for 
work ; Bradford having but little business could not employ 
him ; but he recommended him to his son, who then printed 
in Philadelphia, and Franklin accordingly went there. 

Franklin observes, thatBradford was the first who printed 
in Pennsylvania, but had " quitted that province on account 
of a quarrel with Oecrge Keiihj the governor," etc. He 
must have made a mistake ; there had been no governor of 
Pennsylvania by the name of George Keith. Sir William 
Keith was appointed governor in 1717 ; but Bradford had 
settled in New York twenty four years prior to that event. 
There was a George Keith ,2 who has already been taken 
notice of as a man of abilities, a schoolmaster, and preacher 
among the quakers, and the author of several tracts in 
their defence, which were printed by Bradford when he 
resided in Philadelphia. This George Keith was violently 
hostile to President Lloyd, who governed Pennsylvania in 
the absence of the proprietor.' Bradford as has been stated 
became interested in the quarrel, and he, with Keith and 
others, seceded from the quakers, which eventually caused 
Bradford's removal to New York. 

' Life of Franklin. 

* Gkorge Keith repelled the attack of Increase and Cotton Mather upon 
the quakers, and then differed with his brethren, who in consequence 
disowned him ; afterwards he went to England, took holy orders, returned 
to America, as a missionary from the Society for propagating the gos- 
pel in foreign parts, and, in 1702, preached a sermon " at her Majesties 
Chapel, at Boston in New England/' entitled ** The Doctrine of the Holy 
Apostles and Prophets the Foundation of the Church of Christ." This 
sermon was printed, at Boston, the same year. He again returned to Eng- 
land, and in 1706, published " a journal of [his] travels from New Hamp- 
shire to Caratuck, on the continent of America." At this time he was 
rector of Edburton in Sussex, England. It was posterior to this event that 
he became a Baptist, and the founder of a sect called Eeithian Baptists. 

' See William Bradford, under the head of Philadelphia. 

294 History of Printing in America. 

Bradford continued to print for the government of New 
York ; and during thirty years was the only printer in the 
province. On the 16th of October, 1725, he began the publi- 
cation of the first newspaper printed in that colony. 

Bradford is characterized by Franklin as " a cunning old 
fox." Be this as it may, he was very kind to Franklin 
when the latter was a young and needy adventurer, as is 
apparent from the account which Franklin himself gives 
of their first and second interviews. He had two sons, An- 
drew and William, and a daughter, all by his first wife ; both 
sons were brought up to printing. Andrew, who was 
named after his grandfather Andrew Sowles, printer in 
London, settled in Philadelphia. William not enjoying 
health on land, soon after he became of age adopted the 
life of a seaman. Tacey, his daughter, who was named 
after her grandmother, the wife of Andrew Sowles, was 
married to Mr. Hyat, who was several years sheriff of 
Philadelphia county. 

Bradford, having buried his first wife, married a widow 
in the city of New York, of the name of Smith, who had 
several children by her former husband. This marriage, 
it has been said, was attended with no small injury to his 
pecuniary interests. He continued his residence in the city, 
and enjoyed a long life without experiencing sickness or 
the usual infirmities of age. Several years before his death 
he retired from business, and lived with his son William, 
in Hanover square^ As early as 1728, he owned a paper- 
mill at Elizabethtown, New Jersey. When this mill was 
built, I cannot determine ; but probably it was the first that 
was erected in New Jersey. 

On the morning of the day which closed his life, he 
walked over a great part of the city. He died May 23, 
1752, aged ninety two years. The New York Gazette 
which announced his death on the Monday following, men- 
tions, " that he came to America seventy years ago ; was 

New York. 295 

printer to the government upwards of fifty years, and was 
a man of great sobriety and industry; a real friend to the 
poor and needy, and kind and affable to all. His temper- 
ance was e^eedingly conspicuous ; and he was almost a 
stranger to sickness all his life. He had left off business 
several years past, and being quite worn out with old age 
and labor, his lamp of life went out for want of oil." He 
was buried in Trinity churchyard, where his tombstone yet 
remains. The inscription on this stone concludes thus. 

'^ Reader, reflect how soon you'll quit this stage, 
You'll find but few attain to such an age ', 
Life's full of pain ; lo, here's a place of rest ; 
Prepare to meet your God, then you are blest. 

" Here also lies the body of Elizabeth, wife to the said William Brad- 
ford, who departed this life July 8, 1731, aged 68 years." 

[&€ Philadelphia — HisL of Newspaper sJ] 

John Peter Zenger was established in New York as 
early as 1726, and printed in Smith street. Afterwards, 
in 1734, he removed " to Broad-Street near the upper End 
of the Long Bridge." It appears that his business for 
several years was confined to printing pamphlets for the 
authors of them, and some small articles for himself. 

In the latter part of the year 1733 he began the publica- 
tion of a newspaper. Until this time only one had been 
printed in the city, and there was no other paper issued 
from any press between Philadelphia and Boston. 

Zenger's Journal soon assumed political features which 
excited general attention in the colony ; several writers in 
this paper attacked the measures of government with a 
boldness which was unusual in those days. Zenger was, 
in consequence, arrested, confined in prison for several 
months, debarred the use of pen, ink and paper, denied 
the conversation of his friends, and finally tried upon a 

296 History of Printing in America. 

charge of libellous publications in his Journal ; but he was 
acquitted by the jury, to the great mortification of the 
officers of the government, and to the no less gratification 
of the citizens.^ 

Zenger was poor.* Sometime after his commitment his 
counsel moved that he might be admitted to bail ; but the 
court demanded bail which was deemed to be excessive. 
Zenger was examined respecting his property ; and he made 
oath " that, his debts being paid, he was not worth forty 
pounds, the tools of his trade and his wearing apparel ex- 
cepted." !N"otwith8tanding this oath, the court " ordered 
that he might be admitted to bail, himself in 4001. with 
two sureties, each in 200^., and that he should be remanded 
till he gave it. Zenger " knowing this sum to be ten times 
the amount of what indemnity he could give to any per- 
son to whom he might apply to be his bondsman, declined 
to ask that favor of his friends, and submitted to further 

Zenger was a German. In one of his newspapers, pub- 
lished during his imprisonment, he mentioned, that " tho' 
he was a poor printer, he should remember that he had 
good German blood in his veins."* He and Bradford 
were, for a number of years, the only printers in !N"ew York, 
and for a long time they carried on a paper war against 
each othei:. In December, 1734, a writer in Bradford's 
Gazette accused Zenger of publishing " pieces tending to 

* See Newspapers. 

• See Doe. Hist. iV: F., iv, 830 ; Life Lard SUrling, 45 ; SnUOC^ Hi^. A. 
F., n, 16, et seq, — M. 

■ Among the Palatines that arrived in New York in 1710 were Johanna 
Zangerin aged 33, and her son John Peter aged 18. On the 26th Oct. of 
that year, the latter was apprenticed to William Bradford, the printer, 
by Gov. Hunter, when his mother's name was written Hannah Zenger 
(in being a common termination to feminine names in German.) Bee 
N. Y. Doe. Hist, 4to, iii, 840, 841. His hidentures are to be found in 
HUt. Mag., 1864, pp. 85, 36. — M. 

New^ York. 297 

set the province in a flame, and to raise sedition and tu- 
mults ;" and deridingly upbraided him with being brought 
to America at the expense of government, etc. Zenger, 
in his Journal^ refutes the charges of criminality brought 
against him. He was then in confinement, and dates 
" From my prison, December 20, 1734." Respecting his 
being sent to America at the expense of the government, 
he observes : " That I was brought over at the chari- 
table expense of the crown is the only truth that groaping 
fumbler found when he studied that clumsy performance. — 
I acknowledge it ; thanks to Queen Anne, whose name I 
mention with reverence, her bounty to me and my dis- 
tressed country folks will be gratefully remembered," etc. 
The writer in the Gazette had made some remarks on 
Zenger's sword ; and stated that the sheriff had no private 
orders relative to his confinement. To these remarks 
Zenger replied — ^^ My sword was never intended to protect 
me against a sworn officer in the discharge of his duty : But 
since this scribbler must needs make himself merry with 
it, I think it may not be amiss to tell my readers a serious 
but true story. About eight weeks ago the Honorable 
Francis Harrison [one of the council] came to my house, 
and swore by the God that made him he would lay his 
cane over me the first time he met me in the street, with 
some other scurrilous expressions more fit to be uttered 
by a drayman than a gentleman. Against such Assaults 
my sword not only could but would have protected me, 
and shall while I have it against any man that has impu- 
dence enough to attempt any thing of that nature. — Vim 
vi repellere licet. What private orders the sheriff had con- 
cerning me are best known to himself. This I know that 
from the time of my being appehended till the return of the 
precept by virtue of which I was taken, I was deny'd the 
use of pen, ink, and paper ; alterations were purposely 
made on my account, to put me into a place by myself, 


298 History of Printing in America. 

where I was so strictly confined above fifty hours that my 
wife might not speak to me but in presence of the sub- 
sheriff; to say this was done without orders is lybelling 
the sheriff, and I hope he will ref^ent it/' 

It appears that Zenger was a good workman, and a 
scholar ; but not a correct printer of English, He had a 
family, and two of his sons were his apprentices. He con- 
tinued in business till about August, 1746, when he died, 
and was succeeded by his widow. 

One of his daughters was mistress of a tavern in New 
York in 1768, and her house was frequently resorted to 
by printers who respected her father. 

James Parker was born in Woodbridge, !N"ew Jersey, 
and served his apprenticeship with William Bradford in 
New York. He began business about the year 1742, when 
Bradford quitted it. Bradford's New York Gazette being 
discontinued, Parker established another newspaper of the 
same title, with the addition of Post Boy. 

Parker was well acquainted with printing, a neat work- 
man, and active in business.' By the aid of partners, he 
established a press at New Haven ; and, conducted one in 
New York, and another in Woodbridge. In 1762, he 
began the publication of a periodical work, entitled, The 
Reflector.^ In January, 1763, Parker commenced a partner- 
ship in New York with William Weyman, under the firm 
of Parker & Weyman. Weyman managed the concerns 
of the firm. They published several books, and printed 
for government. Their newspaper was in good repute ; it 
had an extensive circulation, and they acquired property.* 

* Gov. Clinton, by a written order under his hand, dated 20 Oct., 1747, 
forbade James Parker, who usually printed the journals of the liouse of 
assembly, to publish the assembly's remonstrance to his message and pro- 
ceedings. — Smithy n, 150. — iT. 

* See Newspapers, and other periodical works, under the head of New 

New York. 299 

Parker purchased the press and types which had been 
owned by Zenger; and, in 1765, he opened a printing 
house in New Haven, in partnership with John Holt, 
During his connection with Weyman, Parker resided for 
the greater part of his time at Woodbridge, and managed 
the press in that place on his own account. In January, 

1759, Parker and Weyman dissolved their partnership. 
Parker continued the business a few weeks, and then as- 
signed it over to his nephew Samuel Parker. In July, 

1760, James Parker resumed his printing house and news- 
paper in New York. Holt, having closed his concerns at 
New Haven, came to New York, and Parker and he 
formed a partnership under the firm of Jambs Parker k 
Company. This partnership ended in April, 1762, when 
Parker, who still resided in New Jersey, leased his news- 
paper and printing house to Holt, 

In 1766, Holt quitted the premises, and Parker again 
resumed them, and carried on the business of the printing 
house, in connection with his son, until a few months 
before his death. He had long been an invalid. It was 
his intention when he separated from Holt, to have resided 
wholly in the city ; but his declining health obliged him 
to be a great part of his time at Woodbridge, and finally 
to retire from business. In 1770, he closed all his earthly 
concerns.* [^See History of Newspapers^ New Jersey. '] 

Catharine Zenger. She was the widow of John Peter 
Zenger. Her printing house was " in Stone-street, near 
Fort George. Catharine Zenger continued the printing 
business, and The Nexo York Weekly Journal^ after her 
husband's death in 1746. In December 1748, she resigned 
her printing house to her son John Zenger ; and, about 
two years after, removed to " Gk)lden-Hill, near Hermanns 
Rutgers," where she sold pamphlets, etc. 

* For a more extended sketch of Parker see New York Col. Doc.^ viii, 221, 
note by Dr. O'CaUaghan ; also N. T. Doc. HiH., 4to, iii,323.— if 

300 History of Printing in America. 

Henry Db Forbest was bom in !N"ew York, * and served 
his apprenticeship with either Bradford or Zenger, probably 
with the latter. I can learn but little respecting him. In 
1746, he published a newspaper, entitled, The New York 
Evening PosU I cannot ascertain how long before or after 
1746, this paper was published. But De Foreest was not 
many years in business. He printed several pamphlets, 
which I have seen advertised for sale by him in Zenger's 
Journal ; also, The Whole Book of FormSy and the Liturgy of 
the Dutch Reformed Churchy etc., an octavo volume of 216 

John Zenger was the eldest son of John Peter Zenger, 
and was taught printing by his father, who died before he 
became of age, and he completed his apprenticeship with 
his mother. His mother resigned her printing house to 
him in 1748. He published a few pamphlets, and printed 
blanks for his own sales ; but it does not appear that his 
press was employed in any thing of more consequence than 
the newspaper, which was begun by his father, continued 
by his mother, and now published by him. He printed 
the Joumaltill January 1761. How long after that time he 
remained in business, I cannot determine. His printing 
house was " in Stone-Street." He printed with the types 
that were used by his father, which, in 1760, appeared to 
be much worn. His work is not so well executed as that 
done by his father. 

Hugh Qainb was born in Ireland. He served his ap- 
prenticeship with James Macgee, printer in Belfast, by 
whom Andrew Steuart, who has been mentioned as a 
a printer in Philadelphia, was also taught printing. After 

> I formerly heard that he waB a foreigner, but a grandson of his name, 
now living in Philadelphia, has since informed me, that his grandfather 
was bom in New York, although he can give no account of him as a printer 

New York. 301 

his arrival in New York he worked several years as a jour- 
ney-man to James Parker. 

Gaine set up a press in New York, about the year 1760, 
and in 1762 published a newspaper, entitled, The New 
York Mercury. He was industrious and economical, and he 
experienced the advantages which usually result from such 
habits. Having acquired a small property, he took a house 
in Hanover square, opened a book and stationery store, 
and increased his printing, etc., until his business soon be- 
came extensive and lucrative. He kept the stand in Han- 
over square above forty years, where he published several 
duodecimo and octavo volumes for his own sales, and a 
number 6f pamphlets for himself and others. In 1764 
and 1765 he printed for government, the Journal of the Votes 
and Proceedings of the House of Assembly y from 1691 to 1765, 
in two large folio volumes of one thousand pages each. 
He continued to print and sell books until the close of a 
long life. 

Gaine's political creed, it seems, was to join the strongest 
party. When the British troops were about to take pos- 
session of New York in 1776, he left the city, and set up 
his press at Newark; but soon after, in the belief that ap- 
pearances were against the ultimate success of the United 
States, he privately withdrew from Newark, and returned 
to New York. At the conclusion of the war, he petitioned 
the state legislature for leave to remain in the city, and 
having obtained permission, his press was employed in 
book printing, etc., but his newspaper was discontinued 
when the British army left. 

Gaine was punctual in his dealings, of correct moral 
habits, and respectable as a citizen. He began the world 
a poor man, but by close application to successful business 
through a long period of time, he acquired a large property. 
He died April 26, 1807, aged eighty-one years.* [See Hist, 
of NeiDspapers.'] 

• See N, r., l)oc. UUlory, iv, 384-87.— .V. 

302 History op Printing in America. 

William "Wbyman, bom in Pennsylvania, was the son 
of an episcopal clergyman, who was rector of the church 
in Oxford, county of Philadelphia. He served his appren- 
ticeship with William Bradford, in Philadelphia. He has 
already been taken notice of as the partner of James Par- 
ker. Parker was the proprietor of the newspaper published 
by the company, and the owner of the printing materials. 
They printed for the government six years ; and, in the 
various branches of their profession, did more business 
than any other printers in the city. Weyman was the 
principal manager of their press from the commencement 
of their connection, and of course was well known to the 
public. These circumstances rendered it easy for him to 
form an establishment of his own. 

The partnership of Parker and Weyman ended in 1759, 
and Weyman, having provided himself with new types 
and other necessary materials, opened a printing house ; 
and, in February of that year, introduced another news- 
paper to the public, by the title of The New York Gazette. 
It appears that Parker and Weyman were not on friendly 
terms after they separated. 

Weyman's business was principally confined to his news- 
paper, and it yielded him only a maintenance. He died 
July 18, 17t)8. His death was thus announced in the Mer- 
cury. " Died at his house in this city, of a lingering ill- 
ness, which had for some time rendered him incapable of 
business, Mr. William Weyman, for many years past a 
printer of note." * [See Parker — Hist, of Newspapers.'] 

*Iii 1763 Weyman began the printing of a new edition of the Indian 
Common Prayer Book, under the patronage of Sir WiUiam Johnson, the 
Rev. Dr. Barclay having undertaken to superintend it. It absorbed 
certain sorts to such an extent, that after borrowing all he could get from 
the other offices, he was enabled to set up but half a sheet, and the work 
went on with the safest haste. The death of Dr. Barclay in 1764 brought 
the work to a stand. In a letter to Sir William, dated March 25, 1764, he 
wn>te that the work " still lies dead, " and suggested that the Rev. Mr. Ogil vie 
should be engaged to go on with its supervision. Mr. Weyman having 

New York. 303 

John Holt was bom in Virginia. He received a good 
education, and was instructed in the business of a mer- 
chant. He commenced his active life with commercial 
concerns, which he followed for several years, during which 
time he was elected mayor of Williamsburg, in his native 
province. In his pursuits as a merchant he was unsuc- 
cessful, and in consequence he left Virginia, came to New 
York, and formed a connection with James Parker, who 
was then about setting up a press in New Haven. Holt 
went to New Haven, and conducted their affairs in that 
place under the firm of James Parker & Company, as has 
been related. After the business at New Haven was dis- 
continued, Holt, in the summer of 1760, returned to New 
York, and there, as a partner, had the direction of Parker's 
GazBtte about two years. During the four succeeding 
years he hired Parker's printing materials, and managed 
ITie NeiD York Gazette and Post-Boy^ as his own concern. 
In 1765, he kept a bookstore. In 1766, he left Park- 
er's printing house, opened another, and began the publi- 
cation of The New York Journal^ in the October following, 
and retained a large number of the subscribers to the 

Holt was a man of ardent feelings, and a high church- 
man, but a firm whig, a good writer, and a warm advo- 
cate of the cause of his country. A short time before the 
British army took possession of New York, he removed to 
Esopus, and thence to Poughkeepsie, where he remained 
and published his Journal during the war. He left at 

died in July, 1768, Hugh Gaine was induced to investigate the condition 
and progress made by Weyman, who reported that 74 pages had been print- 
ed ; that by reprinting two sheets, 400 copies could be made up ; that Wey- 
man was indebted to him £300, and was involved several hundred pounds 
more than his estate could pay. {See N T, Doc. Hut. iv, 327 - 84.) Weyman 
also printed for the Rev. Theodoras Frielinghuyscn, of the Dutch Reformed 
church at Albany, a Catechism in Low Dutch, without date of publication, 
but bearing the date to the preface of 1747. —if. 

304 History of Printing in America. 

New York a considerable part of his effects, whicli he 
totally lost. Another portion of his property, which had 
been sent to Danbury, was pillaged or burnt in that place 
by a detachment of the British anny ; and a part of his 
types, with his household furniture, etc., were destroyed 
by the enemy at Esopus. In the autumn of 1783, he re- 
turned to New York, and there continued the publication 
of the Journal. 

He was printer to the state during the war ; and his 
widow, at his decease, was appointed to that office. Holt 
was brother-in-law to William Hunter, printer at Williams- 
burgh, who was deputy postmaster general with Franklin. 
Soon after his death, his widow printed the following 
memorial of him on cards, which she dispersed among her 
friends and acquaintances, viz. 

" A Due Tribute 
To the Memory of 


Printer to this State, 

A Native of Virginia, 

Who patiently obeyed Death's awful Summons 

On the 30th of January, 1784, 

In the 64th year of his Age. 

To say that His Family lament Him, 

Is Needless ; 

That His Friends Bewail Him, 

Useless ; 

That all Regret Him, 

Unnecessary ; 

For, that He merited Every Esteem 

Is certain. 

The Tongue of Slander can't say less, 

Tho' Justice might say more. 

In Token of Sincere Affection 

His Disconsolate Widow 

Hath caused this Memorial 

To be erected." 

New York. 305 

Samubl Parker was the nephew of James Parker, with 
whom he served his apprenticeship. He was only seven- 
teen months in business which he did not manage to the 
best advantage. He was, however, an expert workman. 
His uncle assigned his printing house to him in February, 
1759 ; but resumed it in July, 1760. Parker died at Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, previous to the revolution. 

Samuel Farley came from Bristol, England. He was 
the son of Felix Farley, formerly the proprietor and printer 
of the Bristol JoumaL He settled in New York in 1760, 
and published a newspaper in 1761, when William God- 
dard and Charles Crouch were his journeymen. In 1762, 
his printing house was burnt, in which calamity most of 
his printing materials- were destroyed. Some time after 
this event, he went to Georgia, and having passed through 
the preparatory studies, he there commenced the practice 
of law. He left Georgia about the year 1775. When he 
died I cannot say. 

Jambs Robertson & Company had a printing house in 
Broad street in 1768, and in 1769 removed to " the comer 
of Beaver street, opposite to his Excellency Governor 
Gage's." Robertson was the son of a printer in Scotland, 
and, as has elsewhere been stated, went from thence to 
Boston with John Fleming. When Robertson was in New 
York, the firm of the company was altered to Alexander 
& Jambs Robertson, who were brothers, and royalists. 
They published a newspaper ; but after a trial of some 
months it was discontinued ; and they removed to Albany, 
and printed a newspaper in that city. They afterwards, in 
connection with John Trumbull, opened a printing house 
in N"orwich. The Robertsons returned to New York when 
it was in possession of the royal army, in the time of the 


306 History of Printing in America. 

war. On the establishment of peace, they removed to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia. [See Norwich.'] 

Samuel F. Parker, the son of James Parker, had an 
interest in the printing house and business of his father in 
New York several years before his father died. Not long 
after the death of James Parker, Samuel leased his print- 
ing house, with the apparatus and the Gazette, to Inslee & 
Carr, and otherwise disposed of the press and types in 
"Woodbridge. Being infirm in health, he did but little busi- 
ness at printing, after his father's death. In 1778, he, in 
company with John Anderson, endeavored to reestablish 
The Gazette and Post Bay^ which had been discontinued by 
Inslee & Carr, but did not succeed. He died some time 

Samuel Inslee & Anthony Carr were copartners, 
and had for some time been in the printing house of James 
Parker, with whom Carr served his apprenticeship. In 
1770, soon after Parker died, they took his printing house 
and materials on a lease from his son, and continued The 
New York Gazette and Post Boy for more thantwo years, 
but did little other printing. Inslee was afterwards employed 
by Collins at Trenton, and died suddenly in his printing 

James Rivington, was from Loudon. He was bred a 
bookseller,* and as such went extensively into business in 

' The house of RiTington, still extant in London, was established in 1711 
by Charles Rivington, who succeeded Richard Chisweil in Paternoster 
row in that year, and it has ever since been familiar to the readers of 
religious books in every part of the world wherever the English language 
is spoken. He was succeeded in 1742 by his sons John and James, the 
latter of whom is the subject of this sketch. John died in 1792, and the 
business is still continued by his descendants. James was the original 
publisher of 8molkU*s ilistory of England^ by which it is said that he made 
£10,000, a larger sum than had ever before been made by one book.— Jtf. 

New York. 307 

that city, ^o man in the trade was better acquainted with 
it than he. He possessed good talents, polite manners, 
was well informed, and acquired so much property as to 
be able to keep a carriage. He formed an acquaintance 
with many of the nobility, which led him into a dissipated 
and expensive course of life. Rivington became fond of 
amusements, and regularly attended the horse races at 
Newmarket ; at one of which he lost so much money as 
to conceive himself to be ruined. He was, therefore, in- 
duced to persuade one of his principal creditors to take 
out a commission of bankruptcy against him. After due 
examination into his affairs, his creditor assured him that 
it was unneccessary, as he possessed property more than 
sufficient to pay all demands- against him. Bivington, 
however, persisted in his request, and went through the 
process required by the bankrupt act. He eventually paid 
twenty shillings in the pound, and had something left* 

This event determined Rivington to remove to America, 
where he arrived in 1760, and settled as a bookseller in 
Philadelphia. The year following he left his business in 
Philadelphia with a partner by the name of Brown, and 
went to New York, opened a bookstore at the " Lower 
end of Wall street," * and made that city his place of resi- 
dence. In 1762, he commenced bookselling in Boston, 
by an agent, William Miller, who the same year became 
his partner, but died in 1766 ; and, in consequence, the 
bookstore in Boston was discontinued. 

After some years he failed ; but very speedily settling 
his affairs, he recommenced business, which he confined 
to New York. He eventually adopted printing ; and in 
April, 1773, published a newspaper, which was soon de- 

^ This information was received from one of his assignees by a gentle- 
man, who communicated it to me. « 

' In September, 1760, Rivington advertised that he had just opened in 
Hanover square, and is styled the only London bookseller in America. — M. 

308 History of Printing in America. 

voted to the royal cause. Rivington printed several books 
for his own sales, among which was Cookers Voyage^ in two 
volumes 12mo., and dealt largely as a bookseller and sta- 
tioner. He knew how to get money, and knew as well how 
to spend it ; being facetious, companionable, and still fond 
of high living ; but, like a man acquainted with the world, 
he distinguished the guests who were his best customers. 
Rivington, in his Gazette, fought the Rebels^ a term of 
which he made very frequent use while he entertained the 
opinion that the Americans would be subjected by the 
British arms ; but, when he despaired of this event, and 
believed that Great Britain would, herself, acknowledge 
the independence of the United States, he deemed it pru- 
dent to conciliate the minds of some of tlie leading Ame- 
ricans. To this end, it is said, he sent out of the city 
such communications as he knew would be interesting 
to the commanders of the American army, and he ven- 
tured to remain in New York when the British troops 
evacuated it, at the conclusion of the war. Rivington, in 
consequence of his peace offerings, was protected from the 
chastisement he might othei'wise have received on the 
part of those whom he had personally abused in his paper ; 
among whom were several officers of the American army.^ 

^ He used to relate a story of his interview with the noted Ethan Allen, 
who paid him a visit for the purpose of administering chastisement. 
He says, " I was sitting alone, after a good dinner, with a bottle of Ma- 
deira before me, when I heard an unusual noise in the street and a huzza 
from the boys. I was in the second story, and stepping to the window, 
saw a tall figure in tarnished regimentals, with a large cocked hat and an 
enormous long sword, followed by a crowd of boys, who occasionally 
cheered him with huzzas of which he seemed insensible. He came up to 
my door and stopped. I could see no more, my heart told me it was 
Ethan Allen. I shut my window and retired behind my table and my 
bottle. I was certain the hour of reckoning had come. Tliere was no 
retreat. Mr. Staples, my clerk, came in paler than ever, and clasping his 
hands, said, * Master, he has come I ' 'I know it.* * He entered the store 
and asked if James Rivington lived there, I answered yes, sir. Is he at 
home ? I will go and see, sir, I said, and now master what is to be done ! 
There he is in the store and the boys peeping at him from the street.' I 

New .York. 309 

BlviDgton, at this period, quitted printing; and discon- 
tinued his Gazette, which failed for want of customers to 
support it ; but he uninterruptedly, and to a large extent, 
traded in books and stationery several years after the 
establishment of peace. He finally failed again, and being 
advanced in years, closed his business, and soon after his 
life. He died at the age of seventy-eight years, in July, 

It is but justice to add, that Rivington, for some time, 
conducted his Gazette with such moderation and im- 
partiality as did him honor. To the other qualities of a 
gentleman he added benevolence, vivacity, and with the 
exceptions already mentioned, punctuality in his business. 
Interest often produces a change of opinion, and the causes 
which induced Rivington to support the measures of the 
British cabinet were sufficiently apparent. And the visit 
made to him by a party of men from Connecticut, who 

had made up my mind. I looked at the Madeira — possibly took a glass. 
Show him up, said I, and if such Madeira cannot mollify him he must be 
harder than adamant. There was a fearful moment of suspense. I heard 
him on the stairs, his long sword clanking at every step. In he stalked. 
* Is your name James Rivington V ' It is, sir, and no man could be more 

happy to see Colonel Ethan Allen. * Sir, I have come ' Not another 

word, my dear Colonel, until you have taken a seat and a glass of old 

Madeira. *But, sir, I don*t think it proper ' Not another word, 

Colonel ; taste this wine, I have had it in glass for ten years ; old wine 
you know, unless it is originally sound, never improves by age. He 
took the glass, swallowed the wine, smacked his lips and shook his head 

approvingly. ' Sir, I come ' Not another word until you have taken 

another glass, and then, my dear Colonel, we will talk of old affairs, and 
I have some queer events to detail. In short, we finished two bottles of 
Madeira, and parted as good friends as if we had never had cause to be 
otherwise." — See Publishers^ Circular^ xv, 10 ; N. T. Col, History, viu, 
568 ; Sabine's Loyalists.— M, 

^ Rivington was twice married, first to Miss Minshull in England, and 
second to Miss Elisabeth Van Home, of New York The latter died 
in July, 1705, leaving descendants. Susan Rivington, daughter of James, 
died June 16, 1843, aged 74. His portrait is preserved in the gallery of 
the New York Historical Society, and one of the streets in that city still 
bears his name. — Jf. 

310 History of Printing in America. 

destroyed his press, etc., as will be hereafter related, doubt- 
less tended to prejudice his mind against the American 
cause ; and prompted him, after he was appointed printer 
to the king, and placed under the protection of the royal 
army, boldly, and without disguise, to carry his resentment 
beyond the bounds of truth and justice. [^See. Newspapers^ 
New York.2 

Robert Hodob was born in Scotland, served his appren- 
ticeship with a printer in Edinburgh, and, when out of his 
time, went to London, where he worked as a journeyman 
two years. In 1770, he came to America, and was 
employed in the printing house of John Dunlap, in Phila- 
delphia. Hodge was industrious, prudent, and a good 
workman. He became acquainted with a young printer 
possessing similar qualifications. By their industry and 
economy they soon acquired sufficient property to purchase 
printing materials. With these, in 1772, they began busi- 
ness in Baltimore, where they intended to have published 
a newspaper ; but, not meeting with the encouragement 
they expected, before the end of the year they left Balti- 
more, and settled in New York. Here they opened a 
printing house in Maiden lane, and commenced business 
under the firm of Hodge & Shobbr. Their partnership 
continued for more than two years. Early in 1775, Hodge 
sold his part of the press and types to his partner, and they 

During their partnership they printed the greater part 
of an edition of Josephus's WorkSy in four volumes octavo, 
for a bookseller in Philadelphia. But it appearing in the 
event, that he was not able to support the expense of the 
whole of the edition through the press, Hodge completed 
the impression. On the approach of the British troops, 
who in 1776 took the city, Hodge removed into the country, 
but could not take with him all his books ; he left in the 

New York. 311 

city one half of them in sheets, and those he lost. He re- 
mained in the country in the state of New York for a year 
or two, when he went to Boston, and there, in connection 
with others, opened a printing house. 

When peace was restored to the country, he returned to 
New York, and began the business of a bookseller. Soon 
after he entered into partnership with two other booksellers, 
who were liis countrymen, and they opened a printing 
house of which he had the management. This company 
continued in business for more than three years. During 
this period, Hodge's dwelling house and bookstore were 
consumed by fire, by which unfortunate event he lost a 
considerable part of his property ; and, soon after, the partr 
nership was dissolved. 

Hodge continued the business of a bookseller for several 
subsequent years; he then sold his stock in trade, pur- 
chased an estate in Brooklyn, on Long Island, to which he 
retired. He died in August, 1813, aged 67 years. 

Frederick Shober was born in Germany, but served an 
apprenticeship with AnthonyArmbruster, a German printer, 
in Philadelphia. He worked as a journeyman for two or 
three years, was attentive to business, and very prudent. 
In 1772, he entered into partnership with Robert Hodge, 
and they opened a printing house in Baltimore. They 
remained in Baltimore a few months, and then removed 
to New York. In 1775, they closed the concerns of the 
company. Shober purchased the property of Hodge in the 
printing house, and sold it to Samuel Loudon, who became 
his partner. The name of the company was, Shober & 
Loudon. The confusion into which business of every kind 
was thrown by the commencement of hostilities alarmed 
Shober; and, before the close of the year 1775, he sold 
his right in the printing materials to Loudon, retired to 
the country, purchased a farm, engaged in the business of 

312 History of Printing in America. 

agriculture, and never resumed, printing. He died about 
1806, at, or near, Shrewsbury in New Jersey. 

Samuel Loudon, was born in Ireland, and settled in 
New York some years before the revolution as a ship 
chandler. In 1775, he purchased a part of the printing 
materials owned by Shober ; iji company with whom he 
began printing. They were but a few months together 
before Shober judged it prudent, from the existing situation 
of public aflPairs, to leave New York, and. retire to a farm. 
Loudon purchased the remainder of the printing materials, 
and opened a printing house " in Water street, between 
the Coflfee house and the Old Slip." 

Loudon was decidedly a whig, and in the first week in 
January, 1776, published a newspaper devoted to the cause 
of the country. A short time before the British army took 
possession of the city, in 1776, he removed with his press 
to Fishkill, and there published The New York Packet until 
the establishment of peace ; when he returned to the city, 
and remained in business long after. 

Loudon printed a few books, and kept a book store ; he 
was an elder in " the Scotch Seceder church." He died 
at Middletown Point, New Jersey, February 24, 1813, 
aged eighty-six years. 

John Anderson, was the partner of Samuel F. Parker 
in 1773 ; and, having made an unsuccessful attempt to re- 
vive Parker's Neio York Gazette j they separated ; after which 
Anderson opened a printing house " on Beekman's-Slip ;" 
and issued some inconsiderable articles from his press. In 
1775, he published a small newspaper. 

I have been informed that he was from Scotland. 

New York. 313 


Albxandbr and Jambs Bobbrtson. James Bobertson 
first set up his press in New York, in 1768. After remain- 
ing there a short period, he entered into partnership with 
his brother. They published in that city The New York 
Chranielej which, after a trial of about two years, was dis- 
continued, and they removed to Albany. Until that time. 
New York was the only place in the colony where printing 
had been introduced. 

The Robertsons were the first who opened a printing 
house in Albany. They were patronized by Sir William 
Johnson, then superintendant of Indian affairs, who ad- 
vanced them money to purchase a press and types. They 
began business there about the year 1771, and soon after 
published a newspaper. 

They set up a press in Norwich, Conn., in 1775, in com- 
pany with John Trumbull, but continued their printing 
house in Albany until the commencement of the revolu- 
tionary war; when, being detected in publishingand circu- 
lating in a private manner, highly obnoxious handbills, etc., 
in support of the royal cause which they decidedly espoused, 
they judged it expedient hastily to leave the city, and went 
to Norwich. They left their press and types in the care 
of a friend who resided in the vicinity of Albany. This 
friend removed them privately to his farm, and there buried 
them. They were afterwards taken up and sold to Solomon 
Balantine, who began the establishment of a second news- 
paper in that city in 1782. 

The Robertsons remained in Norwich until the British 
army, in 1776, took possession of New Yoit, when they 
went to that city, and there published The Royal American 
Gazette. [See New York — Norwich."] 


314 History of Printing in America. 


Several presses were occasionally set up in this province 
by Keimer, and others, from Philadelphia and New York, 
to print the bills of credit, or paper currency, and to do other 
occasional printing for the government; and, when the 
particular business was accomplished, the printers returned 
to the place of their permanent residence with their presses. 


The first press established in New Jersey, it appears, 
was at "Woodbridge, and for many years this was the only 
one in the colony. 

The printing which had been done for government by 
presses set up occasionally, as mentioned above, was exe- 
cuted at Burlington. It was there that Keimer, in 1727, 
sent Franklin to print the bills of credit ; for which, Frank- 
lin observes, he " engraved various ornaments, and pei'- 
formed the business to general satisfaction." 

James Parker, who has been mentioned among the 
printers of New Haven and New York, was born in that 
borough, and there began business about the year 1761. 
He had for several years conducted a press and a news- 
paper in New York, but having taken William Weyman 
as a partner in his concerns in that city, he intrusted the 
management of the establishment to him, and returned 
himself to the place of his nativity. There he printed a 
folio edition of the Laws of the Province^ and, from time 
to time, the votes and resolves of the legislature, and did 

* The copies of this edition of The Laws of New Jersey ^ were sold for five 
doHars each. The editor was Judge NeviU, who had it printed on his 
own account. 

New Jersey. 315 

other work for goverment. There also he published, 
monthly, more than two years, a magazine, and otherwise 
employed his press on his own account. 

To accommodate the printing of Smith's History of New 
Jersey y in 1765, Parker removed his press to Burlington, 
and there began and completed the work, consisting of 
570 pages, demy octavo, and then returned with his press 
to Woodbridge. 

Parker was a correct and eminent printer. Besides his 
professional concerns, he was much employed in the pub- 
lic transactions ; he was a magistrate, a captain of a troop 
of horse, in ITew Jersey, and comptroller and secretary 
of the general, postoffice for the northern district of the 
British colonies. He possessed a sound judgment, and a 
good heart; was industrious in business, and upright in 
his dealings. 

He died July 2, 1770, at Burlington, where he had re- 
sided a short time for the benefit of his health. His 
funeral was attended five miles from Burlington, by a 
number of gentlemen of that city, and was met at Amboy 
by others, who then joined the procession to his house in 
"Woodbridge, where a numerous concourse was collected, 
and accompanied his remains to the cemetery where those 
of his ancestors reposed. 

[See N. Haven — New York — HisU Newspapers^] 

Samuel F. Parker has been mentioned, as connected 
with his father in the printing business, during several 
years ; and, afterward, with John Anderson, in New York. 

After the death of his father, he became possessed of a 
large printing apparatus ; but from it he derived very little 
benefit, as he leased the establishment at New York, not 
much to his advantage, and sold that at Woodbridge, in 
the course of a few years. He did not improve either his 
time or his talents; his health decayed; and he slept with 

316 History of Printing in America. 

his fathers, before he had attained the number of years to 
which they arrived. 


Some suppose that William Bradford introduced printing 
into that city before the settlement of Philadelphia ; but that 
opinion is so far from being certain it is not even probable. 

Isaac Collins, was a native of Delaware. His parents 
were from England, and died in eariy life. He served his 
apprenticeship, until he was twenty years of age, with 
James Adams, at Wilmington. He then went, by the con- 
sent of Adams, who had but little business, and finished 
his apprenticeship with William Kind at Williamsburg, 
Virginia. When of age, he was employed by Goddard 
and others in Philadelphia; and for his extraordinary 
attention to business, received twenty-five per cent more 
wages than other journeymen in the same printing house. 
For a short time he was the partner of Joseph Crukshank, 
in that city. 

By the death of James Parker, there was an opening for 
the settlement of a . printer in that colony. Collins em- 
braced the opportunity ; and, being supplied with a press, 
types, etc., by his late partner, he removed to, and began 
business in Burlington in 1770, and resided there for 
several years after the commencement of the war. In 1770 
he was appointed printer to the government, or, " to the 
King's Most Excellent Majesty," as appears from the im- 
print of proclamations, etc., which issued from his press. 
In 1777 he began a newspaper. 

He afterwards removed to Trenton, and there prosecuted 
his business for a number of years. He continued to be 
printer to the state, and at Trenton he printed a handsome 
and very correct quarto edition of the Bible; also, an edi- 

New Jersey. 317 

tion in octavo of the New Testament ; and several other 

Collins was of the society of Friends, and was a correct 
and neat printer. He received much assistance from the 
quakers in printing the Bible, particularly from those in 
Philadelphia, New Jersey, and New York. He subse- 
quently removed to New York, there set up his press, and 
continued active in book printing for some years. His 
parents dying when he was very young, he had nothing on 
which he could depend for his advancement in life, but his 
own exertions. After an attention to business for thirty- 
five years, he was enabled to retire and enjoy, in the society 
of his friends, the reward of his industiy. He brought up, 
and educated in a reputable manner, a large family, and 
had a son a printer in New York. He died in March, 1817, 
in Burlington aged 71 years. 

l^See Newspapers.'] 

318 History of Printing in America. 


Printing had a late introduction into Delaware ; it was, 
Georgia excepted, the last of the thirteen colonies where a 
press was established. The laws, etc., were printed in 
Philadelphia pre nous to the year 1761. 


The first printing house introduced into that colony was 
opened in that town only about fourteen years before the 
commencement of the war, by 

James Adams, who was born in Ireland, and learned 
the art of printing in Londonderry. When of age, he 
came to Philadelphia, and was there employed seven years 
by Franklin & Hall. 

He began business for himself, in that city, about the 
year 1760; but, in 1761, he removed his press to Wil- 
mington, and established himself there. In 1762, he 
published proposals for printing a newspaper; but not 
meeting with encouragement, it was discontinued after 
being published six months. 

He printed for government, and although his business 
was not extensive, he acquired considerable property. 
Several works on religious subjects, came from his press ; 
and he published one or more almanacs annually, and 
bound and sold books. 

Adams was a good workman, an exemplary Christian, 
and much esteemed. When the British army were ap- 
proaching Philadelphia, in 1777, he removed his printing 
materials, family, etc., to the vicinity of Doylestown, Bucks 
county. Pa. There he printed an Almanac, but other- 
wise his press was not employed. When the British 

Delaware. 319 

evacuated Philadelphia, in 1778, he returned with his 
press, etc., to Wilmington. 

He died near the close of the year 1792, aged sixty 
three years. He left a large family; four sons and six 
daughters. The sons were all brought up to printing. 
Two of them succeeded their father, but were not suc- 
cessful in business. 

The following anecdote finds a place here. Adams had 
hired a man to pull a press, while an apprentice was em- 
ployed to beat the form. The man had engaged at a 
shilling a token. The boy was repeatedly, in the course 
of a day, called by the mistress for culinary and house 
purposes, whereby the man was much injured. Finding 
his bill, each week, to fall short of his maintenance, he 
fell upon a plan to augment his wages, and at the same 
time fulfil his engagement. When the boy was called 
away he would still pound and pull the sheets as usual, 
leaving sufficient time between each for the form to be 
inked. Adams on inspecting the heap, and perceiving so 
many faintly impressed copies, asked the meaning. " I 
suppose the boy has not beat them;" replied the man, 
" and I am sure I leave him time enough and have also 
performed my duty in pulling." Adams was diverted 
with the humor of the man, and ordered the boy to be no 
more called from the press. 

Adams was the only printer who settled in Delaware 
before 1775. 

320 History of Printing in America. 


A printing house was not established in Maryland for 
more than ninety years after the province was granted by 
King Charles I, to George Calvert, baron of Baltimore, in 


The first press was set up in that city, in 1726.* Before 
that time the printing for the colony was done at Philadel- 
phia, by Andrew Bradford. 

William Parks. The earliest book I have met with, 
printed in Maryland is, A complete Collection of the Laws of 
Maryland. Collected by Authority. This work is dedicated 
to Lord Baltimore. Imprint — "Annapolis, Printed by 
William Parks. 1727.'' 

Parks began a newspaper either in 1727 or in 1728, most 
probably the year last mentioned. This paper, it appears 
from the best information, was carried on about eight 
years, when it was discontinued, and Parks established 
himself in Virginia. He had, in 1729, printed at Williams- 
burg, the Laws of Virginia^ etc. During several years he 
printed for both colonies, and had a press in each. 

About the year 1733, he quitted Maryland; and, some 
time after, the government of the colony procured another 
printer. By Keimer's account, the government of each 

* Mr. J. Sabin sends the following title : The | Declaration | of the | Rea- 
sons and Motives | For the Present | Appearing in Arms | of | Their Ma- 
jesties I Protestant Subjects | In the Province of | Maryland. | Licensed, 
November 28th, 1689. J. F. | [Colophon : ] Maryland, Printed by WUUam 
Nuthead at the City of 8t. \ Maries. \ Reprinted in Londanfand Sold by Ban- 
dai Tay- \ lor, near Stationers HaU, 1689. | Folio, pp. 8. No clue has been 
found to any press in Maryland so early as this. — M. 

Maryland. 321 

colony paid Parks a salary of two hundred pounds per 
annum in country produce.* 

Jonas Green was born in Boston ; he was the son of 
Timothy Green, who, in 1714, removed from Boston to 
New London. The government of Maryland having 
offered a generous consideration to a printer who would 
establish a press in Annapolis, he closed with the proposal 
and in 1740 opened a printing house in that city. He was 
appointed printer for the colony, and had granted to him 
an annual salary of 500L currency. For this sum he printed 
the laws as they were made from session to session, pro- 
clamations, etc., he being paid the cost of paper used in 
the work. In 1745 he began a newspaper which was con- 
tinued by his successors. He printed in 1755 a revised 
edition of the Laws ; and in 1765, Bacon's Laws of Mary- 
hmdy in a large folio volume. His printing was correct, 
and few, if any, in the colonies exceeded him in the neat- 
ness of his work. Green possessed handsome talents, was 
respected for his conduct in private life, and, in the circle 
of his acquaintance, was celebrated for his wit and urbanity. 

A few years before he died he received William Rind 
as a partner. The firm of the company was. Green & 
Rind. In 1765, Rind removed to, and settled in, Virginia. 

Green died April 7th, 1767, aged fifty-six years. 

Anne Catharine Green, was born in Holland, and 
came when an infant, with her parents, to Maryland. She 
married Jonas Green ; and, in 1767, succeeded him in his 
business. She printed for the colony, and published the 
Gazette. William Green, her son, became her i^rtner in 

' See Keimer's poetical address to his customers at Barbadoes, extracted 
from the Barbadoes Gazette of May 4th, 1734 Keimer had been a printer 
in Philadelphia, and must have been acquainted with the public and pri- 
vate concerns of the few printers then in the colonies. 


322 History of Printing in America. 

1768 ; the firm was, Anne Catharine Green & Son. "Wil- 
liam died in August 1770, and Anne Catharine continued 
the business in her own name. She was the mother of 
six sons and eight daughters. She died March 23, 1775, 
aged forty-two years. 

Frederick Green, the son of Jonas and Anne Catharine, 
was born in Annapolis, and brought up to printing by his 
father. He succeeded his mother as printer to the colony, 
and in other business, in 1775 ; and about the year 1777 
he entered into partnership with his brother Samuel, 
under the firm of Frederick & Samuel Green. They 
then printed, and kept the postoffice, " in Charles-Street." 
They were the fifth generation of a regular descent of 
printers in this country. Their great^great grandfather 
began printing at Cambridge, Massachusetts, about 1649; 
as has been mentioned in the account given of him and 
his other descendants. 

After the decease of Frederick and Samuel Green, the 
business was continued by Green, son of the last men- 
tioned Green, a great-great-great grandson of Samuel Green 
printer in Cambridge. 


This city was but a small village in 1755. Printing was 
not introduced there till several years after that time. 

Nicholas Hasselbaugh was bom in Penny si vania, of 
parents who were of German extraction. He was taught 
printing by Sower, in Germantown, and also acquired a 
knowledge of papermaking. This last branch of manu- 
facturing he followed some time near that place; but, 
eventually, removed and established a printing press in 

He was well supplied with types, manufactured in Ger- 

Maryland. 323 

mantowny for printing both in the German and English 
languages ; and was the first who printed in that city. He 
issued school and other small books, etc., from his press, iu 
both languages ; and contemplated publishing a German 
translation of the Bible. The following anecdote, which 
many years since was circulated in Maryland, gives strength 
to the supposition that he was actually engaged in that 

A missionary for propagating the gospel among the 
Indians, was engaged in that benevolent design in the 
back settlements of Maryland; and, at a time when a 
number of Indians were assembled to hear him unfold and 
explain the doctrines of the Christian religion, he had a 
Bible in his hand, which he held forth, and with much 
zeal pronounced it to be " thegospel — the truth — the work 
of God !" He was interrupted — " What !" said one of 
them, " did the great all powerful spirit make this hook ?" 
" Yes," replied the missionary, " it is his work." The 
Indian, taking the expression according to the literal im- 
port of the words, answered indignantly — "I believe it to 
be a great lie ! I go to Baltimore last month, where I see 
Dutchmen vuike him. Great Spirit want no Dutchmen to 
help him." With these words the savage took an abrupt 
leave of his instructor. 

This anecdote might have given rise to the opinion that 
Hasselbaugh had printed a part of the Bible. It was related 
when there was no other printer in Baltimore. The fact, 
after all, might have been, that the Indian, when at Balti- 
more, had seen some printing performed ; perhaps a spel- 
ling book was at the time in the press, and probably he 
did not know one book from another. 

Hasselbaugh was an inhabitant of Baltimore for several 
years. He possessed a spirit of enterprise, was fertile in 
invention, and acquired a handsome property. To facili- 
tate some plan of business which he had newly formed, he 

324 History of Printing in America. 

went abroad and was lost at sea. His widow, in 1773, sold 
his printing materials to William Qoddard, who again 
sold part of them to Bailey, printer in Lancaster, Pennsyl- 

Enoch Story, the Younger, was bom in Pennsylvania, 
and served an apprenticeship with Hall & Sellers in Phila- 
delphia, as has been related in treating of the printers of 
that city. He began printing in Baltimore previous to the 
year 1773. Story sold his types to Qoddard, returned to 
Philadelphia, and printed in Strawberry alley. 

Hodge and Shober opened a printing house in Balti- 
more, in 1772 ; and issued proposals for publishing a news- 
paper ; but, before the end of the year, they removed to 
New York. [See New York.'] 

William Qoddard has been mentioned as the first 
printer in Providence, Rhode Island ; and, afterwards, as 
the publisher of the Pennsylvania Chronicle in Philadelphia. 
In 1773 he removed to Baltimore. 

I have already observed that Qoddard was a good printer, 
and an able editor ; but he, in many instances, was unsuc- 
cessful. The partnership with Qalloway and Wharton in 
Philadelphia proved very unfortunate, and terminated un- 
profitably for Qoddard, and the parties separated much 
dissatisfied with each other. After two trials to establish 
himself in business, he began " anew," as he relates, " on 
the small capital of a single^ solitary guinea.'^ He made in- 
terest to purchase the materials in the printing house of 
Hasselbaugh, and added to them the few owned by Enoch 
Story. He again began a newspaper, the third attempted 
in the province ; but at this time there was only one pub- 
lished, the Maryland Gazette. After remaining at Balii- 

Maryland. 325 

more nearly two years, he found it necessary to devote 
some time to the settlement of his former concerns. 

Another object at this period attracted his attention. A 
plan was formed to abolish, in effect, the general postoffice 
nnder the direction of the British government, by estab- 
lishing, in opposition, a line of postriders from Georgia to 
New Hampshire. This system was to have been supported 
from a fund to be raised by the subscriptions of individuals. 
Goddard l^ft his printing house in the care of his sister, 
and went through the colonies with a '^ew to carry this 
plan into operation. A large sum was subscribed, and the 
scheme was in a rapid state of progression, when the revo- 
lutionary war began. 

When congress superseded the British government in 
the management of the post office, Franklin wa« continued 
as postmaster general, with the privilege of giving com- 
missions to all other officers in the department. The ser- 
vices rendered by Goddard to this establishment, led him 
to believe, and his friends to expect, that he would receive 
the appointment of secretary and comptroller of the post 
office ; but Franklin thought proper to give this office to 
Richard Bache, his son-in-law, and tendered to Goddard 
the choice of surveyorship of post roads, or the office of 
deputy postmaster for Baltimore and Norfolk. Goddard 
was greatly disappointed, but the state of his affairs made 
it expedient that he should accept either the one or the 
other of these places, and he chose that of surveyor of 
post roads. In 1776, Franklin was sent on an embassy to 
Europe ; and his son-in-law, Bache, succeeded him as post- 
master general. Goddard again expected the office of 
comptroller, but being again disappointed he resigned his 
surveyorship ; and it was apprehended that there was, from 
that time, some change in his political principles. 

Goddard, after having resigned his commission, returned 
to Baltimore, and there resided ; but the business of the 

326 History op Printing in America. 

printing house continued to be under the management, 
and in the name of his sister. It was, however, well 
known that he was interested in the Maryland Journal^ and 
had the control of it. 

A number of zealous advocates for the American cause 
had associated in Baltimore, and were called the Whig 
club. Of this club Commodore Nicholson, then com- 
mander of the frigate Virginia, belonging to the United 
States, was president In February, 1777, a report was 
circulated that the British general Howe had offered the 
most eligible terms of accommodation to congress, which 
had been rejected and concealed from the people. To 
ridicule this false and idle report, an ironical piece, signed 
Tom Tell Truth, written by a member of congress,' appeared 
in Goddard's paper, published by his sister ; but for fear 
this piece might be misconceived by some, and produce a 
serious belief in them that these offers had actually been 
made to congress, another piece was published in the 
same paper to counteract any bad tendencies of the first. 
Both pieces were written by the same person. The "Whig 
club was alarmed ; the members of it believed these pieces 
would produce dangerous effects, and supposed that they 
were written by some British emissary. They enquired of 
Miss Goddard who was the author ; she referred them to her 
brother. Goddard was applied to, and refused to give up 
the author, who was not in town, and could not then be 
consulted. Some warm words passed between Goddard 
and the deputed members of the club. The deputation 
was renewed, with a written mandate ordering him to 
appear before them the next evening. Goddard treated 
the mandate and the deputies who bore it rather cavalierly, 
and did not obey. The club then deputed a committee of 
six of its members to bring him before them, and if neces- 

* Judge C***e, as I am informed. 

Maryland. 327 

sary, to use force. Goddard refused to accompany the 
committee ; some of them were armed, and they seized 
him, and by violence carried him to the club room ; here 
he was refractory, and would not discover the author. 
The club, in consequence, passed the following resolution, 

" In Whig Club, March 4, 1777. 
" Besolvedy that William Qoddard do leave this town by 
twelve o'clock to-morrow morning, and the county in three 
days. Should he refuse due obedience to this notice, he 
will be subject to the resentment of a Lbgion." 

Goddard went the next day to Annapolis, where the 
general assembly was then in session, and presented a 
memorial to the legislature, detailing his case, and pray- 
ing for protection. The house referred the case to their 
committee of aggrievances, which reported, that " the pro- 
ceedings of the whig club were a manifest violation of the 
constitution, and directly contrary to the declaration of 
righte assented to by the representatives of the freemen 
of the state. The club published a vindication of their 
proceedings. Goddard, in reply, published a pamphlet, 
giving an account of the whole transaction, and satirizing 
the members of the club with some severity. This pamph- 
let increased the violence of the club, and Goddard thought 
himself in danger from their resentment. He therefore 
presented a second memorial to the house of delegates ; 
in consequence of which, the house, on the 11th of April, 
1777, passed the following resolutions. 

" Resolved^ That the proceedings of the persons in Balti- 
more town, associated and stiled. The Whig Club, are a 
most daring infringement and a manifest violation of the 
constitution of this state, directly contrary to the Declara- 
tion of Bights, and tend, in their consequences, unless 

328 History of Printing in America. 

timely checked, to the destruction of all regular govern- 

" Resolved unanimously ^ That the governor be requested 
to issue his proclamation, declaring all bodies of men asso- 
ciated together, or meeting for the purpose, and usurping 
any of the powers of government, and presuming to exercise 
any power over the persons or property of any subjects of 
this state, oY* to carry into execution any of the laws thereof, 
unlawful assemblies, and requiring all such assemblies and 
meetings instantly to disperse. 

" Resolved^ That the governor be requested to afford 
William Goddard the protection of the law of the land, and 
to direct the justices of Baltimore county to give him every 
protection in their power, against all violence or injury to 
his person or property." 

Governor Johnson, on the 17th of -April, 1777, issued his 
proclamation conformably to the above resolutions. The 
interposition of government in favor of Goddard, did not 
immediately secure to him a state of tranquility. He was 
accused of toryism, but the accusation did not appear to be 
supported. It was, however, sometime before his enemies 
ceased to be troublesome. 

In June, 1779, Goddard and Eleazar Oswald advertised 
that they had formed a partnership as printers, booksellers 
and stationers; but this connection was of very short 
duration. Goddard's sister continued to publish the Jour- 
nal. On the 6th of July, 1779, appeared in that paper 
certain " Queries political and military," written by General 
Charles Lee. These were sent to the press by Goddard, 
and when published they occasioned great commotion in 
Baltimore. An assembly of " the people" was holden, 
and a committee consisting of about forty was chosen to 
wait on Goddard and demand the author of the queries. 

This occasioned a considerable ferment, and the disagree- 
ment between Goddard and the Whig Club rose to a very 

Maryland. 329 

high pitch. The violence of the clubists was excessive ; 
but he resisted them with much energy. However, after a 
long and arduous contest, in which Goddard was, agreeably 
to the language of the day, " several times mobbed, and 
grievously insulted," the " rage of the people " subsided ; 
and he finally quitted Baltimore on good terras with Legion 
and the profanum vulgus. 

Goddard was variously employed until 1784, 'when he re- 
sumed his printing house, and recommenced the publication 
of the Journal, About this time a rival paper was pub- 
lished by Hayes, which produced, occasionally, a little 
typographical sparring from each of the editors. In 1787, 
an almanac published by Goddard was ridiculed by Hayes. 
This produced a fierce paper war, in which neither party 
spared the other; but Goddard appeared to be fully a 
match for his antagonist. 

Goddard continued in active business until 1792;^ he 
then sold his printing establishment to his brother-in-law, 
who, although not a printer, had been in partnership with 
him. He published, in the Journal, a valedictory address 
to the citizens of Maryland, whom he left in friendship, 
and retired himself in peace to a farm in Johnston, near 
Providence, in the state of Rhode Island. 

Mary Ejltharinb Goddard was born in Connecticut, and 
was the sister of William Goddard. She was an expert and 
correct compositor of types, and ably conducted the print- 
ing house of her brother during the time he was engaged 
in other concerns. For a period of about eight years, 
the Journal and every work which issued from that press, 
were printed and published in her name, and partly on her 
account. She kept the postoffice, and continued the news- 
paper, until her brother resumed its publication in 1784. 

' Goddard loaned a press and types to George Richards, who first pub- 
lished a newspaper in Richmond, entitled Th^ Virginia Oazette, 


330 History of Printing in America. 


This colony was the first British settlement in America; 
but it is not the oldest in printing. Printing was not 
courted, and it would seem not desired, till many years 
after the establishment of the province. 

Sir William Berkeley, who was governor of the colony 
thirty-eight years, in his twenty-third answer to the in- 
quiries of the lords of the committee for the colonies in 
1671, sixty-four years after the settlement of Virginia, 
says, " I thank God we have not free schools nor printing ; 
and I hope we shall not have these hundred years. For 
learning has brought disobedience and heresy, and sects 
into the world ; and printing has divulged them and libels 
against the government. God keep us from both." ^ 

I had heard many years since, that printing, at an early 
period after the settlement of the colony, had been prohi- 
bited. I made many inquiries respecting this fact, which 
led to a strict search among the ancient records of the 
colony, by several of the first law characters, but no trace 
of any act of government for that purpose was discovered. 
For this reason some of the most intelligent Virginians 
were led into the opinion that no such despotic regulation 
had been made. But the fact is now ascertained. The 
discovery was made by William W. Hening, a very re- 
spectable lawyer of Richmond, who, on the 21st of July, 
1810, favored me with a letter on the subject, of which 
the following is an extract. 

^' I am now, and have been for some time past, engaged 
in publishing the statutes at large of Virginia, from the 
first session of the legislature, under the colonial govern- 

* Chalmer*8 AnnaU, vol. ii, p. 328. Gordon's HUi, EevohtUan^ American 
ed., vol. I, p. 58. 

Virginia. 331 

ment, in the year 1619 ; and I have in my possession not 
only all the manuscripts of Mr. Jefferson, late president of 
the United States, but several of my own collection, which 
contain the laws, and other public documents relating to 
Virginia, till the period when the art of printing was gene- 
rally diffused among us. 

" These manuscripts are so void of method, that I am 
compelled to read them page by page, in order to select 
matter proper for my publication. In perusing one of 
them yesterday, which contains minutes of the proceedings 
of the governor and council, in their executive character, I 
found the following entry, which is here transcribed ver- 
batim, from the manuscript. 

"*Feb. 21st, 1682. John Buckner called before the 
Ld. Culpeper and his council for printing the laws of 
1680, without his excellency's license, and he and the 
printer ordered to enter into bond in 100£. not to print 
any thing hereafter, until his majesty's pleasure shall be 

" I am induced to give you this information the earlier, 
because, although it had been handed down by tradition, 
that the use of the press had, at some period of our colo- 
nial subjugation, been prohibited in Virginia, the evidence 
of the fact had eluded all my researches till this time." ^ 

This information makes it sufficiently evident, that there 
was a press in Virginia as early as 1681 ; but the name of 
the printer does not appear ; and the record shows, that 
the press was speedily prohibited. Lord Culpeper was 
appointed governor of Virginia in November, 1682; ' the 
old style was then used, which placed February at the end 
of the year. In 1683, Lord Effingham received a commis- 

* See in N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register for Jan. 7, 1872, an article on Early 
Printing in Virginia^ communicated by Col. A. H. Hoyt. It contains the 
correspondence which grew out of Mr. Thomas's application for informa- 
tion on the subject. — U. 

' Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 285, Boston edition, 1801. 

332 History of Printing in America. 

sion as governor of the colony ^ and he was ordered ex- 
pressly, " to allow no person to use a printing press on 
any occasion whatsoever." ^ And it does not appear that 
any printing was performed in Virginia from the year 1682 
till about the year 1729. Until 1766, there was but one 
printing house in the colony, and this was thought to be 
too much under the control of the governor. 


By the foregoing it is evident there was a printing press 
in Virginia, in or near Williamsburg, as early as 1681, and 
that it was discontinued in 1682. The printer's name is 
not known, or if known, I have not been able to ascertain 
it. The first permanent printing establishment in the 
colony was made in Williamsburg by William Parks, 
who at that time, had a press at Annapolis, as already 
mentioned. He was, by the appointment of each govern- 
ment, printer to both colonies, and received 200/. currency, 
per annum, from Virginia, and the same sum from Mary- 
land. Accommodations of this sort were not unusual in 
provinces south of Connecticut, during the infancy of 

Parks, it has been said, was born and bred to printing 
in England. About the year 1733, he left Annapolis and 
made Williamsburg the place of his permanent abode. 
His appointment as printer to the government was con- 
tinued, and his salary enlarged. 8oon after he became a 
resident of that city he published a newspaper ;' and, for 
many years, his press was the only one in Virginia. 

* Jefferson's Notes on Virgiiiia^ p. 286, Boston edition, 1801. 
'Chalmers's Annals^ vol. i, p. 345. 

• It was claimed by the WilUanuburg Gazette in 1870, that it was the 
oldest paper published in the United States, havinjr been commenced in 
1736. It was rejoined that the Gazette had been often suspended, at one 
time for six years. — M 

Virginia. 333 

Parks was prosecuted by a member of the hoase of bur- 
gesses, for publishing a libel, as appears by the following 
anecdote, extracted from the newspapers printed more than 
forty years ago. This was inserted in the journals of that 
time, as a striking instance of the influence and effect which 
the press has on public men and oflicers of government. 

" Some few years ago, a man was convicted of stealing 
sheep, at Williamsburg, in Virginia, for which crime he 
was prosecuted; and, on answering the demands of public 
justice, retired into what was called the backwoods of that 
dominion, in order to avoid the reproaches of his neighbors. 
Several years passed away ; during which time he acquired 
considerable property, and that part of the country where 
he took up his residence being made a new county he was 
by his neighbors chosen to represent them in the house of 
burgesses, which then met at Williamsburg. A mischiev- 
ous K6e/fer, who remembered the crime formerly committed 
by the burgess, published an account of it in the Gazette^ 
and although he did not mention the name, he clearly 
pointed out the transgressor, who, it seems, had defended 
some measures in the government that were considered as 
arbitrary, and who was highly offended with the freedom 
of the printer. The house was also displeased that one of 
their honorable body should be accused in a public paper 
of being guilty of such a base transaction. 

" Parks was prosecuted for printing and publishing a 
libel against Mr. ****, an honorable and worthy burgess; 
and many members of the honorable house would no doubt 
have been highly gratified, if, on that occasion, they could 
have introduced the Star chamber doctrine of libels, and 
punished Parks for daring to publish an article which, as 
they observed, scandalized the government by reflecting 
on those who are intrusted with the administration of pub- 
lic affairs. But Parks begged that the records of the court 
might be produced, which would prove the truth of the 

334 History of Printing in America. 

libel. This was allowed, and the records were examined, 
though contrary to the doctrine of some men, who would 
impose on the community as law, that a libel is not less a 
libel for being true, and that its being true is an aggrava- 
tion of the offence ; and, such men observe, no one must 
speak ill of rulers, or those who are intrusted with power 
or authority, be they ever so base and oppressive, and daily 
abuse that power. Now, mark the sequel : the prosecutor 
stood recorded for sheep stealing ; a circumstance which 
he supposed time had fully obliterated, both from the re- 
cords of the court, and from the minds of the people ; and 
he withdrew, overwhelmed with disgrace, from public 
life, and never more ventured to obtrude himself into a 
conspicuous situation, or to trouble printers with prose- 
cutions for libels. Thus, it is obvious that a free press is, 
of all things, the best check and restraint on wicked men 
and arbitrary magistrates." » 

Parks was well acquainted with the art of printing, and 
his work was both neat and correct. He acquired a hand- 


some property, was a respectable member of the commu- 
nity, extensively known in Virginia and Maryland, and 
much este.emed by his acquaintances in both provinces. 

On the 23d of March, 1750, he embarked in one of the 
trading ships for England. Soon after the vessel sailed, 
he was seized with pleurisy, which terminated his life on 
the first of April of that year. His remains were carried 
to England, and interred at Qosport. 

William Hunter was born in Virginia, and probably 
served his apprenticeship with Parks, whom he succeeded 
in 1751. He printed for the house of burgesses, and pub- 
lished a newspaper. He had a relation who was paymaster 
to the king's troops in America, by whose influence he 

Republished nut many years ago. 

Virginia. 335 

was appointed deputy postmaster general, with Franklin, 
for the colonies; which office he held during life. He 
died in August, 1761. 

JosBPH RoYLiE succeeded Hunter in 1761. He was bred 
to printing in England, and had for several years been a 
foreman in Hunter's printing house. He printed for the 
government, and continued the Gazette. 

Hunter at his death left an infant son, and he bequeathed 
Royle 1000?. currency, on condition that he would continue 
the business for the joint interest of himself and this son, 
whose name was William. Royle, who married a sister of 
Hunter, died before his nephew became of age. 

Young Hunter attained to his majority about the time 
the revolutionary struggle commenced. He began business, 
but being a royalist, he soon joined the British standard, 
and eventually left the country. 

Alexander Purdie was born in Scotland, and there 
brought up to printing. He continued the business at 
Williamsburg after the death of Royle, for the benefit of 
the widow of Royle, young Hunter and himself. Purdie 
died in 1779, of the dropsy. He possessed talents and in- 

John Dixon, who married the widow of Royle, was not 
a printer. After his marriage a partnership was formed 
between him and Purdie. The firm was Purdie & Dixon. 
They remained together until the commencement of the 
war. Purdie was appointed postmaster, and continued to 
print at Williamsburg until he died. Dixon removed to 
Richmond, and died there in May, 1791. He was greatly 

William Rind opened a second printing house in Wil- 

336 History of Printing in America. 

liamsburg in 1766. He served his apprenticeship with 
Jonas Green of Annapolis, and it appears was a short time 
his partner. 

As there was but one newspaper published in Virginia 
in 1765 ; and but one press in the province, which was 
judged to have an undue bias from the officers of govern- 
ment, a number of gentlemen who were desirous of having 
a free and uninfluenced Gazette, gave an invitation to 
Rind to settle in Williamsburg, with a promise of support-; 
he accordingly opened a printing house in that city, and 
received satisfactory encouragement.* Bind published a 
newspaper, and was, soon after his establishment, appointed 
by the legislature printer to the government. This office 
was at that time lucrative. 

October 16, 1766, Rind, and Purdie & Dixon, the printers 
of the two Virginia Gazettes, were presented for publish- 
ing libels, at the instance of John Wayles, and the Hon. 
William Bird, respecting the bailment of Col. Chiswell ; 
but the grand jury found no bills. Chiswell was supposed 
to have been under such anxiety of mind, on this account, 
as occasioned his death. ^ 

Rind died August 19, 1773. 

Clemintina Rind was born in Maryland. She was the 
widow of William Rind, and succeeded to his business in 
1773, and printed the Gazette, etc. She died within two 
years after the death of her husband. 

* This fact is corroborated by the foUowing extract of a letter to the 
author from Thomas Jefferson, late president of the United States, dated 
July, 18«)9. 

" I do not know that the publication of newspapers was ever prohibited 
in Virginia. Until the beginning of our revolutionary disputes, we had 
but one press, and that having the whole business of the government, and 
no competitor for public favor, nothing disagreeable to the governor 
could be got into it We procured Rind to come from Maryland to pub- 
lish a free paper." 

' Rind's Virginia Gazette, Oct. 17, 1766. 

Virginia. 337 

John Pinkney was the successor of Clementina Rind ; 
and, probably, was previously her partner. He continued 
the Gazette in 1775, and did other printing after the war 
began, but died at Williamsburg, soon after that event. 

John Clarkson & Augustine Davis were printers and 
copartners, in Williamsburg, in 1778. They commenced 
the publication of a newspaper in April of that year. They 
were printers to the state in 1779, and, probably, before 
that time. 

Clarkson was nephew to Alexander Purdie. Davis was 
born in Yorktown, and was taught printing by Purdie. 
He published a newspaper several years in Williamsburg ; 
then removed to Richmond ; and was a respectable printer 
in that place. 


338 History of Printing in America. 


Printing was introduced into this colony about 1755; 
before that time, the necessary printing for the public was 
principally done at Williamsburg, Virginia, and at Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. There were only two presses in North 
Carolina before 1775. 


The first press established in the colony was set up at 
Newbern, about twenty years before the revolution com- 
menced. Until that time, there was only one press in both 
the Carolinas. 

James Davis was the first printer in this colony. He 
began his establishment in 1754, or 1755. He was, I be- 
lieve, from Virginia. 

In December of the year last mentioned, he published a 
newspaper. He received some encouragement from go- 
vernment, and was appointed post master by Franklin and 

Davis printed for the colony, and, in 1773, completed an 
edition of the Laws of North Carolina. The volume is in 
folio, and contains five hundred and eighty pages. 

His printing appears to have been well executed ; but 
there was not much employment for his press before the 
declaration of Independence. 

He was a respectable man, and held a commission as a 
magistrate, which I believe he received during the ad- 
ministration of Governor Tryon. 

North Carolina. 339 


The second press established in this colony, was set up 
at Wilmington, near the close of the year 1763, or the be- 
ginning of 1764, by 

Andrew Steuart, who was from Ireland, as was men- 
tioned when he was taken notice of as a printer in Phila- 
delphia, where he had resided and printed several years. 
He commenced the publication of a newspaper, but it was 
soon discontinued. Although he had but few printing ma- 
terials, his printing shows tokens of a good workman. 

On settling at Wilmington he was encouraged with a 
share of the printing for government, and was patronized 
by gentlemen of the first respectability in the colony ; but 
he soon lost their confidence, and fell into discredit. It 
was said that he intercepted and opened some private 
letters to a gentleman of distinction in the colony, and 
made their contents known. Be this as it may, he no 
longer received encouragement, and the work of the go- 
vernment was taken from him, so that he was obliged to 
discontinue his newspaper for the want of customers. 

The end of Steuart was tragical. In 1769, he was drowned 
in the river near his own residence, where he went to bathe. 

\^See Philadelphia.'] 

Adam Boyd was born in Great Britain. He was not 
brought up to printing. In 1769 he purchased the press 
and types which had been used by Steuart. Boyd was the 
second person who printed in Wilmington ; he published a 
newspaper. It has been said that he possessed some 
classical knowledge, which is not improbable ; but his 
printing was, certainly, that of an unskilful workman. In 
1776, he exchanged the press for the pulpit. 

340 History of Printing in America. 


Printing was introduced into South Carolina as early as 
1730. The government is said to have offered a liberal 
encouragement to any printer who would settle in Charles- 
ton;^ and that, in consequence of this offer, three printers 
arrived therein 1730, and 1731, one of whom was appointed 
printer to the province; another in the year following, 
published a newspaper. 


The first press introduced into the Carolinas was estab- 
lished in this city. 

Eleazar Phillips was born in Boston, and served his 
apprenticeship with Thomas Fleet of that town. He was 
the son of Eleazar Phillips, bookseller and binder, who lived 
at Charlestown, near Boston. 

Phillips opened a printing house in 1730, and executed 
the printing for the colony. He was but a short time in 
business, when he was seized by the sickness which pre- 
vailed in that city in 1731, and became one of its numerous 
victims. The following words are a part of the inscription 

* I am informed that a record of this offer cannot now be found, but the 
fact can, I believe, be fully authenticated. It was usual for the colonial 
governments in the new settlements to make such offers. The Barbaebes 
Mercury of October 16th, 1732, and the Weekly Reheanal printed at 
Boston, of December 25, 1732, contain the following paragraph. " We 
hear from South Carolina, that there has been such a sickness, that near 
twenty on a day have been buried there ; that of the three Printers that 
arrived there, for the sake of the 1000/. Carolina Currency offered by 
the government, there is but one left ; and he that received the premium 
is one that is lately dead." 

A Himilar paragraph a])peared in other newspaiH*rs, printed on the 
rontincnt ut that tinu*. 

South Carolina. 341 

engraven on his tomb stone — " He was first printer to his 

Thomas Whitmarsh arrived with a press soon after 
Phillips, and began the publication of a newspaper, the 
first printed in either of the Carolinas. After Phillips died , 
Whitmarsh was appointed printer to the government, but 
was very soon arrested by death. He died in 1733. [^Sce 
Hist. Newspapers.'] 

Louis TiMOTHBE was the son of a French protestant re- 
fugee, who left France in consequence of the revocation of 
the edict of Nantz, and went to Holland. Timoth6e came 
from Holland, where he had acquired the art of printing, 
to Philadelphia. He was employed some time in the print- 
ing house of Franklin; and was the first who was ap- 
pointed librarian of the Philadelphia library company.^ 
That oflice he resigned in December 1733, and removed to 
Charleston, where he arrived soon after the death of Whit- 
marsh, succeeded to his business, and accommodated his 
name to the English language by changing it to Lewis 
Timothy. Li February, 1734, he published a newspaper, 
which, although not the earliest printed in the colony, was 
the first which gained permanency. 

Timothy did the work for government, which with his 
newspaper formed his principal employment. His course 
was short, as he died in December, 1738. 

Elizabeth Timothy, the widow of Lewis Timothy, with 
the aid of her son, conducted the press for a year or two, 
and then the son, being of age, carried on the concern in 
his own name. She died in April 1757. 

* The Philadelphia library company was established in 1781 ; there 
was no librarian till November 1732, when Timothee was chosen. 

342 History of Printing in America. 

Peter Timothy, the son of Lewis, went into business on 
his own account in 1740 ; and, in January 1741, he was ar- 
rested for publishing a letter written by Hugh Bryan, in 
which it was asserted, that " the clergy of South Carolina 
broke their canons daily." The celebrated Qeorge White- 
field and Hugh Bryan were arrested at the same time, by a 
warrant from Chief Justice Whitaker: Timothy for pub- 
lishing, Bryan for writing, and Whitefield for correcting 
Bryan's letter for the press. They were all admitted to 
bail. Whitefield was then bound to England ;* he con- 
fessed the charge, and entered into a recognizance to ap- 
pear by his attorney, at the next general session. 

Timothy succeeded his father as printer to the colony, 
and was, after the revolution, printer to the state. He 
remained in Charleston during the time that city was be- 
sieged ; and in 1780, when it was surrendered, he was 
taken prisoner by the British. In August, 1780, he was 
sent as a prisoner to St. Augustine. In 1781, he was ex- 
changed and delivered at Philadelphia, where he remained 
until the autumn of the next year, and then embarked 
with two daughters and a grandchild for St. Domingo. 
His ultimate object was to reach Antigua, where his 

^ This celebrated itinerant preacher, when he viflited America, like a 
comet drew the attention of all classes of people. The blaze of his minis- 
tration was extended through the continent, and he became the common 
topic of conversation from Georgia to New Hampshire. All the news- 
papers were filled with paragraphs of information respecting him, or with 
pieces of animated disputation pro or con ; and the press groaned with 
pamphlets written in favor of, or against, his i>erson and ministry. In 
short, his early visits to America excited a great and general agitation 
throughout the country, which did not wholly subside when he returned 
to EuroiH*. Each succeeding visit occasioned a renewal of zeal and ardor 
in his advocates and opponents ; and, it has been said, that from his 
example American preachers became more animated in their manner. 
Whitefield died very suddenly in Newburyport, Mass., Sept 30, 1770, of 
an asthmatic fit His remains were de{)osited under the pulpit of the 
Presbyterian church in that town. He was on his seventh visit to that 

South Carolina. 343 

widowed daughter, Mrs. Marchant, had some property ; 
but, soon after he left the capes of Delaware, the vessel 
in which he was a passenger foundered in a violent gale of 
wind, and every soul on board perished. 

Timothy was a decided and active friend of his country. 
He was a very intelligent and good printer and editor, and 
was for several years clerk of the general assembly. As a 
citizen he was much respected. 

Anne Timothy, the widow of the before mentioned 
Peter Timothy, after the war ceased, revived the Gazette^ 
which had been established by the elder Timothy, but was 
discontinued while the British troops were in possession 
of Charleston. She was appointed printer to the state, 
and held the appointment until September, 1792, when 
she died. Her printing house was at the' corner of Broad 
and King streets. 

Robert Wells was born in Scotland, and there educated 
as a bookseller. He opened a bookstore and printing 
house at Charleston in 1758, and published a newspaper. 
His Gazette was the second established in the colony. 
Wells had a partner in the printing establishment, by 
the name of George Bruce, who managed the concerns of 
the printing house. His name appeared after Wells's in 
the imprint of their works. Wells was the owner of the 
press and types, and the business was under his sole con- 
trol. Bruce remained with Wells several years, and when 
they separated Wells conducted his printing house by the 
aid of journeymen. 

Wells kept a large book and stationery store, well sup- 
plied. For many years he was the principal bookseller for 
both the Carolinas. His business was extensive, and he 
acquired property. He was marshal of the court of admi- 
ralty, and one of the principal auctioneers in the city. 

344 History of Printing in America. 

This last business was very lucrative, especially the sale of 
cargoes of slaves. He owned a number of negroes; two 
or three of whom were taught to work at press. It was a 
common custom in the Carolinas, and in the West Indies, 
to have blacks for pressmen. Wells's slaves were fre- 
quently intoxicated, and unfit for work when they were 
wanted at press ; at such times, he adopted a singular 
method to render them sober. The water in the city is unfit 
to drink; and, as on many it operates medicinally, he would 
take his drunken negroes to the pump, and pour water 
down their throats until they began to sicken ; then shut 
them up for an hour or two ; and, the operation being 
there completed, they were taken out and put to press. 

His printing house and bookstore were on the bay, near 
Tradd street. He was a staunch royalist, but a good 
editor, active in business, and just and punctual in his deal- 
ings. About the time when the revolutionary war com- 
menced, he resigned his establishment to his son, went to 
Europe, and never returned. 

Georgb Bruce was born in Scotland, learned printing 
there, whence he came to Robert Wells in Charleston. 
He managed, several years, the concerns of Wells's print- 
ing house, and his name, as has been mentioned, appeared 
after Wells's in their imprints. When they parted, he 
opened a printing house on his own account. He lived 
in Church street, where he commenced a trade in English 
goods, and paid but little attention to typographical con- 
cerns. His printing house was furnished with new types ; 
but he had only those founts which were most in use. He 
remained in the city, in 1775, after the war began. 

Charles Crouch was bom in Charleston ; he was brother- 
in-law to Peter Timothy, with whom he served an appren- 
ticeship. In 1765, he opened the fourth printing house in 

South Carolina. 345 

the colony. He was encouraged to set up a press, and to 
print a newspaper in opposition to the stamp act, at the 
time the act was to have taken effect. He was a sound whig. 
Crouch printed but little excepting his paper, which w^ 
lucrative. He was in business when the war commenced ; 
soon after which, he took passage in a vessel bound to New 
York, and was drowned. He lived in Eliott street, and 
his printing house was in Gadsden's alley. 

Thomas Powell was an Englishman, and served his 
apprenticeship in London. He came to Charleston in 
1769, and was employed by Timothy as foreman in his 
printing house. Powell was a correct printer, his education 
had been good, and in his manners he was a gentleman. 
In 1772, Timothy admitted Powell as a partner. The firm 
was, Thomas Powbll & Company. Their printing house 
was near the Exchange. Timothy, as a silent partner, 
edited the Gazette^ and directed the general concerns of the 

On the Slst of August, 1773, in consequence of a motion 
made by the chief justice in the council, or upper house of 
assembly, it was ordered, that Powell should immediately 
attend that house. Powell accordingly attended, and " was 
examined if he was the printer and publisher of the SoiUh 
Carolina Gazeiie/^ then shown to him. He answered that 
he was. He was then asked, '^ by what authority he pre- 
sumed to print as an article of news in his paper, a matter 
purporting to be a part of the proceedings of this house, 
on the 26th of August instant ?" To which he replied, 
" That the copy of the matter there printed was delivered 
to him by the Hon. William Henry Drayton, one of the 
members of that house, who desired him to printthe same." 
The house " Besolved^^^ That as he acknowledged himself 
to be the printer of a part of their proceedings, without 


346 History of Printing in America. 

their order or leave, he was " thereby guilty of a high 
breach of the privileges, and a contempt of the house/' 

Powell was told to ask pardon ; he declined. The house 
then ordered him to be taken into the custody of the ser- 
geant at arms, and brought to the bar. This was done ; 
and, when at the bar, he was again informed of the charge 
against him ; and that the house desired to hear what he 
could say in exculpation of said charge. Powell declared 
that '* he did not know that he had committed any offence." 
It was again demanded of him, if he would ask pardon ; 
he answered, he would not. 

The Hon. Mr. Drayton, in his place, acknowledged that 
he was the person who sent the copy of that part of the 
journals printed by Powell, to the press ; biit, without in- 
tention to offend the house, etc. The house then 

" Resolved J That Thomas Powell, who hath this day been 
adjudged, by this house, to have been guilty of a high 
breach of privilege, and a contempt of this house, be for 
his said offence committed to the common gaol of Charles- 
ton ; and that his honor, the president of this house, do 
issue his warrant accordingly." Before putting the ques- 
tion, Mr. Drayton claimed leave to enter his protest and 
dissent ; which he did accordingly. The president, the 
Hon. Egerton Leigh, agreeably to the resolution of the 
house, issued his warrant Powell was imprisoned, and 
remained in confinement until the morning of the second 
of September following. 

On the second of September, the Hon. Rawlins Lowndes, 
speaker of the lower house, or " commons house of assem- 
bly," and George Qabriel Powell, one of its members, jus- 
tices of the peace, etc., had Powell brought before them by a 
writ of habeas corpus, and discharged him. 

On the same day, Powell published a Gazette extra- 
ordinary, in which Drayton's dissent and protest were in- 
serted. The council resolved, that the protest, as pub- 

South Carolina. 347 

lished that day, was materially diflferent from that on their 
journals, and was therefore " false, scandalous and mali- 
cious, tending to reflect upon the honor and justice of the 
house ; " and, " that "William Henry Drayton was instru- 
mental to the publication." Before putting the question, 
Mr. Drayton claimed leave to enter his dissent and pro- 
test ; which he accordingly did. In this protest Mr. Dray- 
ton asserted, that the protest as published, excepting some 
misspelling in copying by the clerk, and the misprinting 
the word fulJUled for pubUshedy was expressly the same 
as the original. 

The next day the council, styling themselves, " the upper 
house of assembly," resolved, " That Mr. Drayton had 
been guilty of a breach of privilege and contempt of that 
house, in being instrumental to the publication of the pro- 
test," etc. Before putting the question, Mr. Drayton entered 
his dissent and protest. The resolve was passed, and Mr. 
Drayton directed to withdraw. He withdrew accordingly. 
The council then passed the following resolve. 

" That when T. Powell was before this house, his whole 
deportment and behavior manifested the most insolent 
disrespect ; and, so far was he from discovering any con- 
trition for his offence, that he flatly declared that he did 
not know that he had committed any, and therefore thought 
it hard to ask pardon ; and, being informed by the presi- 
dent, that the house was of a different opinion, he still ob- 
stinately persisted that he could not ask pardon." 

In the afternoon of the same day, Mr. Drayton, in con- 
sideration that the house had not proceeded with him ''to 
the last extremity," informed that body, " that he neither 
sent the protest to the press, nor ordered any person to 
carry it, or even desired the printer, or any person to pub- 
lish it; that Mr. Edward Rutledge sent the copy to the 
printer." On this information, the house resolved, that 

348 History of Printing in America. 

Mr. Drayton " had purged himself of the contempt and 
breach of privilege with which he stood charged.^* 

On the fourth of September, the sheriff of Charleston 
district, having attended the council agreeably to order, 
was directed by the president to make out a copy of the 
writ of habeas corjpuSj issued by the Justices Lowndes and 
G. G. Powell, Esquires, by virtue of which he had two days 
before removed T. Powell from prison and carried him 
before said justices, with his return thereon. A committee 
was appointed to "take under their consideration the 
nature of the discharge of T. Powell, printer, to report 
such resolutions as may be necessary for the house to enter 
into ; and to prepare an humble address on the subject to 
his majesty, and another to his honor the lieutenant gov- 
ernor." The chief justice, and two other members were 
of this committee, who reported the following resolutions, 
which were agreed to by the house. 

" Resolved^ That the power of commitment is so neces- 
sarily incident to each house of assembly, that without it 
neither their authority nor dignity can, in any degree what- 
soever, be maintained or supported. 

" Resolved^ That Rawlins Lowndes, Esquire, speaker of 
the commons house of assembly, and George Gabriel 
Powell, Esq., member of said house, being two justices of 
the peace, unus quorum^ lately assistant judges and justices 
of his majesty's court of common pleas, have, by virtue of 
habeas corpus by them issued, caused the body of T. Powell 
to be brought before them, on the second of this instant 
September, and the said justices, disregarding the com- 
mitment of this house, did presumptuously discharge said 
T. Powell out of the custody of the sheriff under the com- 
mitment of this house. 

" Resolved^ That the said justices have been guilty of 
the most atrocious contempt of this house, by their public 

South Carolina. 349 

avowal and declaration, made by them in pronouncing 
judgment, that this house is no upper house of assembly ; 
on which principle alone they did discharge the said T. 
Powell ; they have, as far as in them lay, absolutely and 
actually abolished one of the branches of the legislature ; 
and, in so doing, have subverted the constitution of this 
government, and have expressly sounded the most danger- 
ous alarm to the good subjects of this province. 

" Resolved^ That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the commons house of assembly, together with a message, 
complaining of such conduct and breach of our privilege, 
by their members ; and, setting forth, that, as this house 
has always been careful to support its own just rights and 
privileges, so it has always been cautious not to infringe 
the rights and privileges of the commons house ; and, that 
this house, relying on the justice of the commons house, 
does expect they will direct Rawlins Lowndes and George 
Gabriel Powell, Esqrs., two of their members, to waive their 
privilege, in order that this house may proceed to the cog- 
nizance of their said breach of privilege and contempt," 

The committee reported, also, according to order, a 
message to the commons house of assembly ; an address to 
the king, and another to the lieutenant governor ; * with 
all which the council agreed, and presented and forwarded 
them according to their respective destinations. 

The commons house of assembly did not comply with 
the requisition of the upper house ; on the contrary, they 
justified the conduct of their speaker and Judge Powell, 
and directed the agent of the province in London, " to 

* The upper house of assembly, in their address to the lieutenant goyemor, 
observe, that Powell was discharged by the justices, " by virtue of a 
power given by a provincial act, passed December 12, 1712, to two justices, 
one being of the quorum, to put in execution the habeas corpus act, to such 
intents and purposes, as the said act can be put in execution in the kingdom 
of England ; upon the sole and avowed principle that we are not an upper 
house of legislature." 

350 History of Printing in America. 

make the most humble representations to his majesty of 
the conduct of his council [upper house] and to implore 
their removal ; or, such marks of his royal displeasure to 
them, as may prevent, for the future, such an encroach- 
ment on the liberties of his people," The commons house, 
at the same time, addressed the lieutenant governor, in- 
forming him of the conduct of the council, and that they 
had directed the agent of the province to represent it to 
the king, etc., and concluded vnth earnestly requesting his 
honor, that, as a considerable time must elapse, before their 
complaint to the king could be heard, etc., he would " be 
pleased to suspend such members ofthe council as ordered 
the said commitment, until his majesty's royal pleasure 
should be known ; and to appoint in their stead men who 
really have at heart the service of his majesty, and the 
interest of the province." The governor, as was expected, 
declined complying with the request of the commons, and 
in this situation the affair rested, until the pleasure of his 
majesty should be known. 

The business remained before the king and council, I 
presume in an unsettled state, at the commencement of the 
war, which event, probably, stayed all proceedings upon it, 
and it was never more agitated. As to what became of 
Powell, or respecting the part he took in the war, or 
whether he returned to England, I have not been able to 
obtain any information. The Gazette was discontinued 
some time after the war commenced, but was revived by 

Mary Crouch was born in Providence, Rhode Island. 
She was the wife of Charles Crouch, and continued the 
business of printing in Charleston some time after his 
death. In 1780, she removed with her press and types to 
Salem, Massachusetts. [See SalemJ] 

South Carolina. 351 

John Wblls, the eldest son of Robert Wells, was born 
ID Charleston, and served an apprenticeship at Donaldson's 
printing honse in Edinburgh. He succeeded his father as 
a printer and bookseller at Charleston, in 1775. Although 
the father was a zealous royalist, the son took a decided 
part in favor of the country. He printed and fought in 
its defence, until the city fell into the hands of the British 
in 1780. 

Wells belonged to a military company in Charleston 
which marched to assist in the siege of Savannah, by the 
allied American and French armies, in 1779, and during 
this unsuccessful campaign, he acquired the reputation of 
a brave and vigilant soldier. When Charleston fell into 
the possession of the British, he, with many others, to save 
his property, signed an address to the British commander, 
and he printed a royal Gazette^ which he continued until 
December 1782. For these offences he was proscribed by 
the state government, at the close of the war. Appre- 
hending that he could not safely remain in Charleston 
when the British surrendered the place to the American 
government, he left the city, and went with his press to 
Nassau, New Providence, published the Bahama Gazette^ 
and never more returned to the United States. [See New 

Except in Charleston, there was no printer in South 
Carolina before the revolution. 

352 History of Printing in America. 


The settlement of this province, named after George IE, 
king of Great Britain, did not begin until the year 1732. 
The public printing, till 1762, was done in Charleston, 
South Carolina. There was only one press established in 
Georgia before the revolution. 


Printing was introduced into this colony at this place, 
and a printing house was opened early in 1762, by James 
Johnston, who was born in Scotland, and there served a 
regular apprenticeship. After his establishment in Savan- 
nah, he printed for the government. 

The government of the colony gave Johnston a hand- 
some pecuniary consideration for settling in that place. 
He printed a^n edition of the laws ; and, in 1763, began 
the publication of a newspaper. This newspaper, and 
printing for the colony, was the chief employment of his 
press. He did some business as a bookseller.; was a very 
honest, reputable man, acquainted with the art he pro- 
fessed to practice ; and in his general conduct was a good 
and useful member of society. He died in October, 1808, 
aged seventy years, leaving a widow and six children. 


Foundedy and admitted into the UnioUy since the Revolution ; and 

Territories of the United States. 

As these states and territories were not settled, or were 
not located as distinct governments, before 1775, 1 shall 
only take notice of the period when the art was introduced 
into them. 

Vermont. 353 


This district became a state after the revolution; no 
press had previously been established in it.* 

JuBAH Paddock Spw)nbr and Timothy Green, who 
have been mentioned as printers at Norwich, in Connecti- 
cut, removed from that place to Hanover in New Hampshire, 
then claimed, with other towns on the east side of Con- 
necticut river, by the people inhabiting Vermont, where, 
for a short time, they published a newspaper. They then 
carried their press to "Westminister, and were the first who 
introduced printing into Vermont. In "Westminster they 
published The Vermont Gazette; or^ Green Mountain Post 
Boy. This paper made its first appearance in February, 

Spooner had the whole management of their printing 
house, as Green still prosecuted the printing business in 
New London. The firm continued only a short time. 
Green relinquished his interest in it; and the press and 
types which were owned by him were sold, after the lapse 
of four or five years. George Hough was the purchaser. 
He removed them to Windsor in 1783, and there formed 
a partnership with Alden Spooner. Alden was the brother 
of Judah. 

^ The Yermonters had their printing done at Hartford, and before and 
during the revolution, were dependent upon the columns of the Conmeti- 
cut Oaurant to cany on their warfare with the citizens and authorities of 
New York, respecting their title to the present territory of Vermont — 2f. 


354 History of Printing in America. 


John Bradford began printing at Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1786. After which presses were set up at Frankfort, 
and in other towns. 


R. RouLSTONK, from Massachusetts, set up . a press at 
Knoxville, 1793. 


S. Fkebman & Son introduced printing into Cincinnati 
in 1795. 


A press was established at Natchez in 1815. 


Printing is said^ have been introduced into Detroit in 

Louisiana. 355 


Several printing houses were opened at New Orieans, as 
soon as that country came under the government of the 
United States. 

Most of these new states and settlements, at the time of 
the war were hut little known. The white inhabitants 
were hut few, and they were scattered in solitary settle- 
ments, or in a few straggling towns and villages through 
a vast tract of country, where the art of printing had not 

' It may be interesting to notice the gradual extension of printing be- 
yond the region embraced above. A paper was published in Maine at 
Falmouth in 1785 ; in Missouri in 1806 ; Mississippi, 1808 ; Indiana, 1808 ; 
Michigan, 1809 ; Illinois, 18U ; Wisconsm, 1831 ; Texas, 1834 ; Ibwa, 1836 ; 
Oregon, 1847 ; California, 1848 ; Minnesota, 1849. These will be found 
more particularly noticed under the account of Newspapers, in the next 
volume. — Jf. 




Printing was introduced into Nova Scotia in 1751 ; but, 
at that time, there was but little encouragement for the 


The first press was established at Halifax, and there was 
not a second in the province until 1766. 

Bartholomew Oreen Junior has already been men- 
tioned. He was the grandson of Samuel Green, of Cam- 
bridge, and was of the firm of Green, Bushell k Allen, of 
Boston. He removed to Halifax with a press and types in 
August, 1751. He died in about six weeks after his arrival , 
aged fifty-two years. 

John Bushell, who had been the partner of Green in 
Boston, immediately succeeded him in Halifax. He printed 
for government, and in the first week of January, 1752, 
published the first newspaper printed in Nova Scotia. The 
work for government was inconsiderable, but was the chief 
support of Bushell. He was a good workman, but had not 
the art of acquiring property ; nor did he make the most 
economical use of the little which fell into his hands. 

Bushell died in February, 1761. He left one son and a 
daughter. The son was sent to New England, and served 
an apprenticeship with Daniel Fowle, printer in Ports- 

358 History of Printing in America. 

mouth, New Hampshire. When of age, he worked as a 
journeyman in Philadelphia, and at the same time kept a 
tavern at the Cross Keys in Front street* He died Feb- 
ruary 4, 1797. 

The daughter, whose name was Elizabeth, had been ac- 
customed to assist her father in the printing house. She 
could work both at case and press ; and was, in the lan- 
guage of printers, a swift and correct compositor.^ Bush- 
ell left little, if any, property to his family. His daughter 
was handsome, but unfortunate. 

Anthony Hbnry succeeded Bushell as a printer at Hali- 
fax. He was a Oerman, and had lived some time with a 
printer, but had left his master, and became a fifer in one 
of the British regiments. With this regiment he came to 
America. In 1758, the time for which Henry had enlisted 
being ended, he was discharged from the regiment, which 
was then stationed in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. He 
then went to Woodbridge, and was employed some months 
in the printing house of James Parker ; after which he 
went to Nova Scotia. There was then no printer in the 
province, and his pretensions to skill in this art greatly 
facilitated his introduction to business in Halifax. He 
began with the press and types which had been used by 
Bushell. He published the Gazette; and government. 

' There have been many instances of women performing the work of 
the printing house. The nieces of Dr. Franklin, in Newport, [See Newport) 
were expert compositors ; and so were, it is said, the daughters of Mr. D. H. 
of Philadelphia. Mr. William Mc Culloch,of Philadelphia, informs me that 
he saw in a printing house near Philadelphia, two women at the press, 
who could perform their week's work with as much fidelity as most of the 
Journeymen. As compositors, women and girls have not imfrequently 
been employed, not only in America, but in Europe. Some printers from 
Scotland have assured us that the daughter of the celebrated typographer 
of Glasgow, Foulis, was an adept at the business. Foulls & Son flour- 
ished as printers about 1765. 

These remarks apply to the year 1815. 

Nova Scxxtia. 359 

through necessity, gave him some work, which was badly 

In 1766, a printer with a new and good apparatus, came 
from London, and opened another printing house in Hali- 
fax. He published a newspaper, and was employed to 
print for government. 

Henry, who had been indolent, and inattentive to his 
affairs, did not despond at the gstablishraent of a formidable 
rival ; but, much to his credit, exerted himself and did better 
than he had done before. After a few years trial, his rival, 
not finding his business so profitable, nor the place so 
agreeable as he expected, returned to England, and Henry 
was again the only printer in the province. He procured 
new types and a workman better skilled than himself. 
Henry's printing from this period was executed in a more 
workmanlike manner than formerly'; he having employed 
a good workman in his printing house as a journeyman. 

He remained without another rival until the British 
army evacuated Boston in March, 1776,*whenthe printers 
in that town, who adhered to the royal cause, were obliged 
to leave that place ; and they, with other refugees, went to 
Halifax. Henry continued printing until his death. He 
possessed a fund of good nature, and was of a very cheer- 
ful disposition. Although not skillful as a printer, he was 
otherwise ingenious. In 1787, Henry having procured 
German types from the foundery of Justus Fox, in Ger- 
mantown, Pa., published a newspaper in the German 
language, of the same title with that which he continued 
to publish in English. This German paper was conducted 
by the journeyman* before mentioned. 

* This joumejrman, named Henry Steiner, arrived at Halifax, in 1782, 
with the last detachment of Hessian troops that came as auxiliaries to the 
British in our revolutionary war. He was a corporal. He had been 
regularly bred to printing. As hostilities ceased soon after his arrival, he 
obtained a furlough, to work with Henry. When the detachment to 

360 History of Printing in America. 

When Henry arrived in Halifax, he became acquainted 
with a woman of African extraction, who was a pastry 
cook, and possessed a small property, the fruit of her in- 
dustry. To acquire this property, Henry consented to a 
connection with this sable female. The property which he 
acquired by this negotiation enabled him to purchase the 
few printing materials which had belonged to Bushell, 
and to build a house in which he afterward lived. His 
companion died, in two or three years, without issue by 
him. Desdemona, in another case of particolored nuptials, 

wished : 

*' That Heayen bad made ber such man.'' 

Henry's consort had probably a like desire, for it is said 
the proffer of marriage came from her. 

In 1773, Henry married a countrywoman of his, who 
had been his housekeeper for ten years.* 

He died December, 1800, aged sixty-six. 

Robert Flbtchbr arrived at Halifax from London, in 
1766, with new printing materials, and a valuable collec- 
tion of books and stationery. He opened a printing house 
and bookstore near the parade ; published a newspaper, 
and printed for government. Until this time there had 

which Steiner belonged was about to return to Europe, his officers, ac- 
cording to his account, contracted to sell him to Henry for the term of 
eighteen months, for thirty-six guineas. Steiner, supposing this sale to 
be legal, continued with Henry the time stipulated ; after which, receiving 
good wages, he remained with him till 1789. Steiner then went to 
Philadelphia. When Steiner left Henry, his German paper was dis- 

* On the occasion, the following paragraph appeared, February, 1774, 
in the Boston Evening PoBt. "Married at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Mr. 
Anthony Henry, aged about 30, to Mrs. Barbary Springhoff, aged about 
96 ; it is said she has two husbands now living, seven children, ten grand 
children, and fifty great grand cbildren." 

This statement is not correct. Henry was then forty years old, and 
Barbary not more than fifty-five. She had several children and grand- 
children ; but not near the number mentioned. 

Nova Scotia. 861 

been no bookstore in the province. Fletcher executed his 
printing with neatness, and raised the reputation of the 
art in Nova Scotia. He remained at Halifax until 1770, 
then sent his printing materials to Boston for sale, and 
returned himself to England. 

John Howe began printing in Halifax, in 1776.* 
After the peace, in 1784, printing found its way into the 
province of New Brunswick. 

' See ante, p. 176-7, also Sabine*s LayalisU cf t?ta American lievdlution^ i, 
648-60.— if. 


362 History op Printing in Abierioa. 


The art was introduced into Canada soon after its con- 
quest by the British. There was, however, but one press 
established there before 1775. 


Soon after the organization of the government of the 
province by the British, a printing house was established 
in Quebec by William Brown and Thomas Gilmore, under 
the firm of Brown & Gilmore. They were the first who 
introduced the art into Canada. They printed in both 
English and French ; and their work was executed in a 
very handsome manner. Brown, I am informed, was a 
Scotchman, and had been employed some years in the 
printing house of William Hunter, in Williamsburg, Va. 
Oilmore was a native of Pennsylvania, and served an ap- 
prenticeship with William Dunlap, in Philadelphia.* Their 
partnership continued till 1774. From that time, Brown, 
the senior partner, carried on the business for himself. 

' The intelligence sent to me from Canada respecting the country where 
these printers were born, as published in the firat edition, I find was 
erroneous. I have since received more correct information respecting 


Christopher Sower Third. — The following article, 
handed to the author &om a gentleman in Philadelphia, 
reflects much honor on the character of Christopher Sower, 
the third. 

Capt. Coleman, who took Sower prisoner in his excursion 
to Germantown, was himself, sometime after Sower^s re- 
lease, taken prisoner by the British, and confined on board 
a prison-ship in New York, with others from Germantown 
who were acquainted with Sower. Some time after their 
confinement. Sower, with some of his British friends, went 
on board of the prison-ship, but did not know of the capture 
and confinement of his Germantown acquaintance. Sower 
poon recognized Coleman and the others, who rather 
shunned than courted an interview with him. However, 
Sower went to them, familiarly accosted them, and ex- 
pressed his surprise at finding them in their present situa- 
tion. He told them, particularly Coleman, that they had 
nothing to fear from his resentment, but that, on the con- 
trary, he was disposed to befriend them as much as lay in 
his power ; and for that purpose inquired into their present 
circumstances. Soon after Sower left the prison-ship he 
supplied Coleman with linen and other necessaries, and in 
the course of a few days effected his liberation, and that of 
the two others, his companions, without an exchange. 



CoMJcnincATBD BT HoN. John S. Babtlstt. 

The precise date of the introduction of printing into Mexico, was 
for a long time in doubt. Mr. Thomas is correct in his statement 
that the art was introduced into that country before the year 1569, 
the date of the license for printing Molina's dictionary, and he is 
not far from the mark, after reading what the Abbe Clayigero says, 
in saying that '< We may conclude that printing was introduced into 
Mexico previous to the year 1540." When Mr. Thomas wrote his 
History of Printing in America, early works on America were 
rare, and it is probable that there was not one in the country printed 
in either America or Europe in the XYIth century, except the 
copy of Molina's dictionary ; now many of the period may be found 
in our great private libraries. The dictionary of Molina, in Mexi- 
can and Spanish, printed in Mexico, in 1571, in folio, was, by many, 
asserted and believed to be the earliest book printed in America. 
It was found in several collections, both public and private, and no 
one here had seen an earlier book until the Doctrina Christiana 
printed in the house of Juan Cromberger, in the city of Mexico, in 
the year 1544, was discovered. Copies of this rare work were found 
in two well known private libraries in New York and Providence. 
For a long time the honor was awarded to this as the earliest book 
printed in America. But there is now strong evidence that printing 
was really introduced in Mexico nine years before that tune, and 
positive evidence, by existing books, that a press was established in 

366 History of Printing in America. 

Eeaders familiar with early books relating to Mexico have seen 
mention of a book printed there as early as 1535. The particulars 
are given by Padilla, in his work entitled Historia de la Fundacion 
y Discurso de la Provincia de Santiago de Mexico^ de la Or den de 
PredxcadoreSy etc., 1625, folio. At page 542, speaking of Fr. Juan 
de Estrada, he says : " Estando en casa de novicios hizo una cosa, que 
por la primera que se hizo en esta tierra bastaba para darle memoria, 
cuando el autor no la tuviera como la tiene ganada por haber side 
quien fu^. El primer libro que en est^ nuevo mundo se escribid y 
la primera cosa en que se ejerciUS la imprenta en esta tierra, fu^obra' 
suya. Ddbaseles & los novicios un libro de S. Juan Climaoo, y como 
no los hubiese en romance mandaronle que lo tradujese de latin. 
Hizolo asi con pre«/^za y elegancia, por ser muy buen latino y roman- 
cista, y fu^ su libro el primero que se imprimid por Juan Pabhs^ 
primer impresor que d esta tierra vino. Bien se muestra la devocion 
de Sto. Domingo de Mexico en que un hijo suyo haya sido el primero 
que en este nuevo mundo imprimiese, y cosa tan devota como la Es- 
cala espiritual de San Juan Glimaco." 

" Being in the house of the novices, he did a thing, which, being 
first done by him in this country, was enough to give him fame, if 
he had not otherwise gained it, as he has gained it, by being what 
he was. The first book which in this new world was written, and 
the first thing in which the art of printing was employed in this 
land, was his work. There was usually given to the novices a book 
of St. John Climacus, and as it did not exist in our language, [en 
romance] he was ordered to translate it from the Latin. He did it 
with quickness and elegance, for he was a good Latin and Spanish 
scholar ; and his book was the first which was printed by John 
Pablos, the first printer who came to this country. It shows well 
the devotion of [the Province of ] San Domingo, of Mexico, that 
one of her sons was the first who printed in this new world, and 
that he printed so devout a work as the Spiritual Ladder of St. 
John Climacus." 

The next writer who refers to this early translation of Climaous 
is Fr. Alonzo Fernandez, in his Ilistoria Ecclesiastica de Nuestros 
Tiempos.** Toledo, 1611, folio. Speaking of Fr. Juan de Estrada, 
(page 122), he says : " Este padre imprimid la traduccion que hiac 

Appendix. 367 

de San Juan Climaco, may proyecbosa, etc. Este fu^ el primero 
libro que se imprimid en Mexico, y fu^ ano de mil y qainientos y 
trienta y oinco." 

<< This Father printed the translation which he made of St. John 
Climacus, very profitable, etc. This was the first book printed in 
Mexico, and it was in the year 1535." 

The next authority is found in the Teatro Edesictstico de la 
primitiva Iglesia de las Induis Occidentales by Gil Gonzales Davila, 
Madrid, 1649, folio, page 23. He says " En el afio de mil y quini- 
entos y trienta y dos el Yirey B. Antonio de Mendoza llev<5 la im- 
prenta & Mexico. El primer impresor fu4 Juan Pablos : y el primer 
libro que se imprimid en el Nuevo Mundo, fu6 el que escribid S. 
ifusLU Climaco con el titulo de Escala espiritual para Uegar cd cteloy 
traducido del latin al castellano, por el V. P. Fr. Juan de la Magda- 
lena, religioQo dominico.'' 

In the year 1532, the Viceroy D. Antonio de Mendoza carried 
printing to Mexico. The first printer was Juan Pablos, and the 
first book printed in the new world was that written by St. John 
Climacus, entitled Spiritual Ladder to ascend to Heaven, Trans- 
lated from the Latin into the Castilian by the Yen. P. Fr. Juan de 
la Magdelena, Dominican Religious." 

These three writers who refer to the " translation of the Spiritual 
Ladder " of Climacus, agree except in the date. They all state that 
it was the first book printed in Mexico ; and two of them add that 
Juan Pablos was the printer. Davila, the last author mentioned, 
says the translation was made by Juan de la Magdalena, while Pa- 
dilla and Fernandez say that Juan de Estrada was the translator. 
These names refer to the same person, " Magdalena being the cloister 
name of Estrada.^ The date of 1532 given by Gonzales Davila is 
evidently wrong. He says Mendoza carried printing to Mexico in 
1532 ; whereas it is a well known fact that Mendoza was appointed 
viceroy in April 1535, and did not arrive in Mexico until the mid- 
dle of October, of the same year. (See Die, Universal de Hist, y de 
Geog.^ tom. y, p. 240, article Mendoza), Brunet notices the same 
discrepancy in the date of Mendoza's arrival. He does not however 

' See Davila PadUla, p. 542, also Antonio BibUotheca Nora, tom. i, p. 
085. Botli in speaking of Estrada say, " Kstrada alias Magdalena." 

368 History of Printing in America. 

refer to the work of Fernandez, and says the epoch of the introduc- 
tion of printing in the new world remains to be fixed. The true 
date of Mendoza's arrival in Mexico being 1535, the date corre- 
sponds with that given by Alonzo Fernandez for the introduction of 
printing, and with the time when Estrada made his profession after 
one year's novitiate, daring which time he is said to have made his 

It seems that no copy of the Spiritual Ladder has ever been seen 
in recent times, and the quoted testimonials are the only ones yet 
found which refer to it. The disappearance of this book in more 
than three hundred years after its publication is by no means sur- 
prising, for a work of its kind, of which, as Mr. Icazbalceta remarks, 
[being intended for the use of the novices,] but a small number was 
probably printed. These, perhaps, were never circulated outside 
the convent, but used up as school books generally are, sooner than 
any other class. 

D. Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta, of the city of Mexico, has carefully 
examined the subject of Mexican typography, and published the 
results in an elaborate article in the ZHcdonario Universal de Hit- 
toria y de Geografia, Tom. V. Mexico. 1854. Folio, page 961. 
This learned writer gives a list of books printed in Mexico prior to 
1600, and the places where copies still exist. We quote the titles of 
those printed before the year 1544, the date of the Doctrina ChriUi- 
ana hitherto supposed to be the first book printed in America.' 

1. Manual de Adultos, of which only the last leaves have been 
saved, bearing the following termination : *^ Imprimiose este Manual 
de Adultos en la gran ciudad de Mexico par mandado de los Bev. 
Senores Obispos de la Nueva Espafia y & sus expensas : en casa de 
Juan Cromberger. Afio del nacimiento de nuestro Sefior Jesa 
Christo de mill y quinientos y quarenta. A xiij diaa del mes de 
Deziembre." 4to. Gothic Letter, [1540.]*^ 

The above description was furnished Sefior Icazbalceta by D. 
Francisco Gonzalez de Vera, of Madrid. 

* For a note on this book and its claims to being tlic first book printed 
in AmcricA, sec Rich's Bihliotheca Aituriatna. 

' We regret that we cannot give tlie number of pages in these several 
bonks naiiied, as they are not sUited in the work from which we quote. 

Appendix. 369 

Doeirlna Christiana, etc. Merioo. No date. 

This volume, ankaowa to bibliographers, was found by Mr. Har- 
risse in the Proviacial Library at Toledo. It is described by him 
in his Additions to his Bibliotheca Americana Vetustmimay and for 
reasons there given, placed under the date of 1540. 

2. " Relacion del espantable terremoto, que agora nuevamenta ha 
aconteeido en la oibdad de Guatemala : es cosa de grande admira- 
cion y de grande ejemplo para que todos nos emendemos de nuestros 
peoados y estemos aprescividos para quando Bios fuere servido de nos 
Uamar." At the end " Fu6 impreaa en la gran ciudad de Mexico en 
casa de Juan Cromberger afio mill y quinientos y quarenta y uno." 
4to. 4 leaves. Gothic letter. [1541.] 

Description furnished by Don Francisco Oonsalez de Vera of 

3. " Boctrina breve muy provechosa de las cosas que pertenecen 
& la fe catholica y a nuestra cristiandad en estilo llano para comun 
inteligencia. Compuesto por el Rev. P. don fray Juan Zumarraga, 
primer obispo de Mexico, del consejo de su magestad. Impressa en 
la misma ciudad de Mexico por su mandado y & su oosta. Afio de 
Mdxliij. [1543] 4to. Gothic letUr, Title 1543, colophon 1544. 

In the possession of Senor Icazbalceta, of Mexico. 

4. " Este es un compendio breve que tracta de la manera de como 
se han de hazer las processiones : compuesto por Bionisio Richel car- 
tuxano : que esta en latin en la primera parte de sus preciosos opus- 
cules : romanzado para comun utilidad.'' 

At the end : " Se imprimid en esta gran ciudad de Tenuchtitlan 
Mexico de esta nueva Espaiia por mandado del muy reverendo seSor 

don Fray Juan Zumarraga : primer obispo de la misma ciudad 

En casa de Juan Cromberger. Ano de M.B.xliiij.'' [1544] 4to. 
Gothic letter. 

In the possession of Senor Icasbalceta, of Mexico. 

5. " Este es un compendio " etc., (the same as the previous work). 
At the end, " Aqui se acaba este breve compendio de Bionysio car- 
tuxano: con la adicion de los argumentos con sus respuestas, etc., 
que tracta de lo que es mandado y vedado en las processiones : en 
especial en la de Corpus Christi, por cuya causa se romanzo. Im- 


370 HiSTORr of Printing in America. 

presso en Mexico per mandado de 8. obispo don fray Jnan Zumar- 
raga : en casa de Jnan Cromberger. 4to. Gothic letter. 

In the library of the Conyent de San Cosme. An edition, Mr. 
Icazbalceta says, very different and fuller than the one preyionsly 
mentioned. Mr. I. does not give the date of this work, but from 
his placing it with the publications of 1544, this very careful and 
reliable author doubtless had authority in the book itself for so 

6. *^ Tripartito del Christian issimo y consolatorio doctor Juan 
Oerson de doctrina Christiana : a cualquiera muy proyechosa. Tra- 
duzido de latin en lengua Castellana para el bien de muchos neces- 
sario. Impresso en Mexico : en casa de Juan Cromberger. Por 
mandado y & costa del R. S. Obispo de la misma ciudad F. Juan 
Zumarraga. Revisto y examinado por sa mandado. ASo de M.D.- 
xliiij." [1544] 4to. Gothic letter. 

In the possession of Senor Icazbalceta. 

7. ** Doctrina Christiana para instruccion ^ informacion de los 
Indies, por manera de hysteria. Compuesta por el muy reyerendo 
padre fray Pedro de Cordoya, de buena memoria primero fundador 
de la orden de los Predicadores en las yslas del mar Oceano: y 
por otros religiosos doctos de la misma orden. ... La qual fu^ em- 
pressa en Mexico por mandada del muy R. S. don fray Juan Zu- 
marraga primer Obispo desta ciudad : del consejo de su Majestad 
&c. y a su costa. Aflo de M.dxliiij." [1544.] 

At the end : " Impressa en la grande y mas leal ciudad de Mexico : 
en casa de Juan Cromberger : que santa gloria aya a costa del dicho 
seilor obispo," etc. Acabose de imprimir ASo de M.d.xliiij." [1544] 
4to. Gothic Utter. 

Copies are in the possession of Senor Icazbalceta, of Mexico, and 
of Mr. John Carter Brown, of Proyidence, R. I. 

The same doubt which exists as to the first printed book, exists also 
in regard to the first printer. In 1540, we find a book, the Manual 
Adultos before referred to, issued from the press of Juan Cromberger, 
in the city of Mexico. This Cromberger was a celebrated printer in 
Seville. Other known works bear his imprint with the dates of 1541 
and 1544 in Mexico. Before and during the same years, books bear- 
ing Crombcrger's imprint at Seville also appeared, several of them 

Appendix. 371 

(for example the Onzeno de Amadis^ 1546, and as early as 1541, 
Sepulveda's Didlogo Uamado Democrates) followed bj a remark 
indicatiag that he was deceased, viz. : " que santa gloria haya,'' and 
^^ difunto que Dios haya.'' The printing may have been carried on 
by his family after his death, as was often the case with eminent 
printers. The Regla Christiana breve, printed in Mexico in 1547, 
4to, Gothic letter, has no printer's name; while the Doctrina 
Christiana en lengua Espanolay Mexicana" printed in 1550, bears 
the name of Joan Pablos as printer, the same one who is said to 
have printed the Escala Espiritual, and who calls himself the first 
printer in the new world, at the end of a book printed by him in 
Mexico, in 1556, folio, Gothic Utter, entitled Constitutiones del 
arzobispado y provincia de la muy insigne y muy leal ciudad de 
Tenuchtitlan, Mexico, de la Nueva Espana, 

Mr. Icazbalceta, in his article before referred to, from which we 
have quoted these titles, makes a very happy conjecture by which 
the apparent contradiction seems removed. He suggests that Juan 
Pablos may have been at Seville in the employ of Cromberger, who 
was charged by Mendoza with the establishment of a printing press 
in the city of Mexico, and who sent Juan Pablos over to conduct the 
business in the name and for the benefit of his master. That after 
the death of Cromberger, Pablos became the owner of the establish- 
ment, and was in this way, although not the first owner of a printing 
press, nevertheless entitled to the honor of calling himself the first 
printer in Mexico. 

Although we know of no book with a date as early as that attri- 
buted to the translation of Climacus, it remains for us to note two 
other works of this period which we find mentioned. Oil Oonzales 
Davila, already quoted, says on page 7 of his Theatro Ecdesiastico, 
*^ £1 primer Cateohismo que se imprimid en Lengua Mexicana, para 
ensefianza de los Indios le escrivid el M. F. Juan Bamires, Religioso 
Dominico, en el afio 1537, que dciipues fu4 dignissimo Obispo de 
la Santa Iglesia de Guatemala.^' 

Nicholas Antonio, vol. I, p. 765, Madrid ed., mentions only as 
written by Juan Ramirez Advertencia sobre el servicio personal, 
etc., and Campo Florida, ejemplos para exhortar a la virtud, etc. 
Alonzo Fernandes, in his Historia Ecclesiastica ie Nuestros Tiempos. 

372 History of Printing in America. 

Toledo, 1611, folio, where be speaks of the Dominicans who had 
written and printed religious books for the instruction of the Indians, 
mentions F. Juan Ramirez having written " Un libro copiosissimo 
de ejemploB para exhortar a toda virtud,'' etc. Pr : Augtutin Da- 
Vila FadiUa, before cited, mentions only the Exemplos para ea>- 
hortar, etc. 

8. Caucionero Spiritual en que de contierien obvas muj prove- 
chofias y edificantes, etc. Mexico. 1546. Juan Pahlos. 

[From Sr. Pascqual de Gayangos, Spanish translator of Tickncr's 
Hist, of Spanish Literature.'] 

9. A de Mendoza, Orderanzas, etc. Mexico. 1548. Folio. Juan 
Pahlos. [Harrisse.] 

Antonio de Leon does not mention our author, but Don Antonio 
de Alcedo y Bexarano, in his Bihlioteca Americana^ 1807, Ms. 2 
Tols. folio (copy in the possession of Mr. John Carter Brown*), attri- 
butes to him the following : Catedsmo en lengua Mexicana para 
instruir d las Indios en la Religion Christiana^ Mexico, 1594, 4to. 

The actual existence of this catechism of Ramirez we find no 
where shown. Gonzales Davilla's assertion that it was the first 
catechism printed in the Mexican language, and the date of 1537 
given by the same on page 7, does not interfere with his statement 
on page 23, as already quoted. We have seen that the date of 
1532 has to be changed to 1535, when, according to his assertion, 
printing was introduced into the new world. The year given by 
Alcedo may be either a mistake, or it may refer to a later edition. 

There is yet another statement about a pretended first print of the 
Mexican press. C. Falkenstein, in his Geschichte der Buck drucker- 
kunst^ Leipzig, 1840, 4to, p. 329, says that " Girolamo Paolo Lorn- 
bardo of Brescia, had been called by the Viceroy Mendoza to Mexico, 
in order to print the ordinationes legumque coUectiones pro con- 
vento juridico MexicanOj and that this work, a folio, published in 
1549, may be considered as the first American print. He names 
Gonzales for authority; and part of his quotation answers per* 
fectly to the above extract from Gonzales Davila. But we have not 
found the given title, year and size in the Teatro Eclesiasticoy nor 
any other reference to such a work. Antonio de Leon, in his 

Appendix. 373 

Epitome says, that the Licenciado Antonio Maldonado was the first 
to undertake a Reportorio de las Cedulas^ Provxsiones^ y Ordenangaa 
ReakSf for which work he was authorized by a royal decree issued 
in the year 1556. It is not known that he ever finished it. Anto- 
nio de Leon further says, Dr. Yasco de Puga carried out the same 
plan in his work entitled Provisumes Cedtdas Insiruccumes de 9u 
Majestad^ etc. Mexico ; en ccua de Pedro Ocharte, 1563. Folio. 
Black letter. This book exists, but neither in the royal decree 
ordering the viceroy to have such a collection made, nor in the 
author's preface is found any indication that an earlier work of the 
same character was known at the time. Nicholas Antonio does not 
furnish any additional light as to the first law collections of New 
Spain. He did not even know of the Cedidario of Puga. 

A List of Books Printed in Mexico between the Years 

1540 AND 1600 inclusive. 

1 540. Manual de Adultos, [of which only the last leaves are known , 
bearing the following termination :] Imprimiose este Manual de 
Adultoe en la gran ciudad de Mexico por mandado do los Rev. 
SeSores Obispos de la Nueva Espafia y a sus ezpensas : en casa de 
Juan Cromberger. Afio del nacimiento de nuestro Senor Jesu 
Christo de mil y quinientos y quarenta. A xiij dias del mes de 
Deziembre. 4to. Gothic letter, 

1540. Dortrina Christiana. [No date] assigned to this year 
by Harrisse. 

1541. Relaoion del espantable terremoto, que agora nuevamenta 
ha acontecido en la cibdad de Ouatemala, etc. Mexico. Juan Orom- 
herger, 4to. Gothic tetter, 

♦1543. Juan Zumarraga. Doctrina breve uruy provechosa de- 
las cosas que pertenecen 4 la fi catholica y a nuestra cristiandad en 
estilo llano paracomun inteligencia. Mexico. Juan Cromberger, 4to. 
Gothic letter, (^Catalogue Andrade, No. 2369.) 

1544. DiONisio Rich EL. Este es un compendio breue que tracta 
de la manera de como se han de hacer las procesiones, etc. Mexico : 
Juan Cromberger. 4to . Gothic letter, ( Catalogue Andrade, N o. 2667 .) 

374 History of Printing in America. 

1544. DiONisio RiGHEL. Este es ua oompeadio, etc. Another 
edition of the same work. Mexico : Juan Cromberger [without 
date] 4to. Gothic letter, (^Catalogue Andradey No. 2666,) this edi- 
tion is pkced by Mr. Icazbalceta among the publications of 1544. 

'*'1544. Juan Gerson. Tripartite del ohristianissimo j consola- 
torio doctor Juan Gerson de doctrina Christiana : a cualquiera muj 
proyechosa, etc. Mexioo : Juan Cromberger. 4to. Gothic letter. 
(^Cortalogue Andrade, No. 2477.) 

f 1544. Pedro de Cordova. Doctrina Christiana por instruccion 
6 informacion de los Indios : por manera de historia, etc. Mexico : 
Juan Oromherger. 4 to. Gothic letter, 

1546. Juan ^umarraqa. Doctrina cristi&na: mas cierta y yer- 
dadera pa gete sin erudicio y tetras. Mexico, [no printer's name.] 
4to. Gothic letter, (^Catalogue Andrcuie, No. 2370.) 

1546. Cancionero Spiritual en que de contierien obyras muy proye- 
chosas y edificantes, etc. Mexico. 1546. Juan Pahlos. 

[From Sr. Pascqual de Gayangos, Spanish translator of Tickner's 
Hist, of Spanish Literature,'] 

1547. Regla Christiana breue : p ordenar hi yida y tpo d'l xpiano 
q. se qere saluar y tener su alma dispuesta : pa q. Jesu xpo more 
enella. Mexico: [no printer's name.] 4to. Gothicletter, (^Catalogue 
Andrade, No. 2658.) 

1548. Ordenanzas de Antonio de Mendoza. Folio. Juan Pablos 

'''1548. Doctrina en Mezicano. Mexico : Juan^ Pablos, 4to. 
Gothic letter. 

This is said by Mr. Icazbalceta to be the earliest book known^ 
printed in an aboriginal language of America. 

1549. F. Bravo de Orsuna. Opera Medicinalia. Mexico : 4to. 
'*'1550. Doctrina Christiana en lengua Espanola y Mexicana. 

Mexico : Juan Pablos, 4to. Gothic letter, 

*1553. Pedro de Gante. Doctrina cristiana en lengua Mexi- 
cana. Mexico : Juan Pablos, 8yo. 

1554. Alph. a. Veracruce. Recognitio Summularum. Mexico. 

1554. Alpu. a. Veracruce. Dialectica Resolutio. Mexico. 

Appendix. 375 

1554. F. Cervantes Salazar. Dialogi. Mexico: 8vo. 

'*'1555. Alonzo de Molina. Yocabalario mezicano. Mexico : 
Juan Pahhs, 4to. 

1556. Alph. A. Yeracbuce. Speculum con jugiorum. Mexico. 
Juan Pahlos, 4to. 

1556. Alph. A. Yeracruce. Constituciones del arzobispado de 
Mexico. Mexico. Fol. 

1556. Alph. A. Yeracruce. OrdiDariumsacriordinisboercmit- 
arum. Mexico. 4to. 

1556. Francisco Marroquin. Doctrina Cbristiana eu lengua 
Utlatleca. Mexico. 4to. (liemeaaly Chiapa^jWh.iUyCSi^, 
vii, Temaux, No. 98.) 

1556. Fretre. Sumario de las quentas de plata y oro eu los rej- 
nos del Pir&. Mexico. 8vo. CTemaux, No. 73). 

1557. Alph. A. Yeracruce. Phjsicaspeculatio. Mexico. Folio. 
*1558. Maturino Oilberti. Arte en lengua de Mecboaoan : 

Mexico. «7uan Pahlos. 8vo. Italics. 

*1559. Maturino Gilberti. Dialogo de doctrina cbristiana en 
lengua de Mecbuacan. Mexico. Juan Pahlos Bressano. 4to. 
Gothic letter. 

*1559. Maturino Gilberti. Yocabulario en lengua de Mecbu- 
acan. Mexico. Juan Pahlos Bressano. 

1559. Maturino Gilberti. Grammatica latina. Mexico. 8vo. 

1559. A. DE LA Vera Cruz. Carta [witbout date]. Mexico. 

1560. Andres de Olmos. Grammatica et Lexicon Linguae Mex- 
icanae. Totonaquse et Huastecae. Mexico. 2 vols. 4to. (Squier's 
Monograph of Authors on the Languages of Central America^ p. 

1560. Manual para administrar los sacramentos. Mexico. 4to. 
f 1560. Francisco de Cepeda. Arte de las lenguas Cbiapa, Zoque, 

celdales y cinacanteca. Mexico. 4 to. 

1561. Missale Romanum. Mexico. Folio. 

fl563. Vasgo de Puqa. Provisiones, c^ulas, instrucciones de su 
Majestad, para la buena expedicion de los negocios y administracion 
de justicia, y governacion desta Nueva Espafia etc. Mexico. Pedro 
Ocharte. Folio. 

376 History op Printing in America, 


1565. Catalogus Patrom CoQcilii Tridentiai. [without date]. 
Mexico. 4to. 

f 1565 Alonzo de Molina. Confessiooario mayor eo lengua 
Mezicana y CastellaSa. Mexico. Antonio de JEspinosa. 4to. 

f 1565. Alonzo de Molina. Confessionario breue en lengua Mex- 
ioana y Caatellana. Mexico. Antonio de Espinosa, 4to. 

1565. Domingo de La Anunciacion. Dootrina Christiana en Cas- 
tellano y Mexicano. Mexico. Pedro Ocharte, 4to. (iPemattx, No. 
93. Bibliotheca Americana^ Le Clerkj No. 467). 

1566. B. A. Ledesma. De Septem nov» legis sacramentis. Mex- 
co : 4to. (Rich's Bib. Americana Vettts, No. 46). 

1567. Reglas y constituciones de la Confradia de los juramentos. 
Mexico. Folio [one leaf]. 

f 1567. Pedro de Feria. Dootrina Christiana en lengua Caa- 
tellana y Capoteoa. Mexico : Pedro Ocharte. 4to. 

1567. Instituta ordinis Beati Francisci. Mexico. 4to. 

*1567. Benito Fernandez. Doctrinaen lengua Mixteca. Mex- 
ico. Pedro Ocharte. 4to. Gothic letter. 

'*'1568. Benito Fernandez. Another edition of the same work. 
Mexico. Pedro Ocharte, 4to. 

1568. Manual para administrar los sacramentos. Mexico. 4to. 
tl571. Alonzo de'Molina. Arte dela lengua Mexicana y Cas- 

tellana. Mexico. Pedro Ocharte. 12mo. Gothic letter. 

f 1571. Alonzo de Molina. Yocabulario en lengua Mexicana y 
Castellana. Mexico. Antonio de Spinosa. Folio. 

f 1571. Alonzo de Molina. Yocabulario en Castellana y Mexi- 
cana. Mexico. Antonio de Spinosa. Folio. 

1573. P. DE AauRTO. Tratado de que se deben administrar los 
sacramentos & los indios. Mexico. Sto. 

*1574. J. B. de Laguna. Arte yDictionario en lengua Michoa- 
cana. Mexico. Pedro BaUi. 8vo. 

1574. Ordenanzas sobre alcabalas. Mexico. Folio. 

*1575. Maturing Gilberti. Tesoro spiritual de pobres en len- 
gua de Michuacan. Mexico. Antonio de Spinosa. Svo. 

*1575. J. DE LA Anunciacion. Doctrina Christiana muy com- 
plida (en Castillana y Mexicana). Mexico. Pedro BaUi. 4to. 

Appendix. 377 

1575. S. J. E. BusNAYBNTURA. Mlsteoa Theologia. Mbxico. 

tl576. Alonzode Molina. Arte de la lengma Mexioana 7 Caa- 
tellana. Mexico. Pedro Balli. 8vo. 

*1576. M. DB YAaaAS. Bootrina Ohristiaaa en Gastellano, 
Mezicano, y Otomi. Mexico. Pedro BaUi. 4to. 

*1577. J. Medina. Dootrinalis fidei in Meoboaoaneiifliniii indo- 
nm lingua. Mbxioo. Ant. Ricardo, Folio. 

*1577. J. DE LA Anunoiaoion. Sermonario en lengva Mezicana. 
Mexico. AnUmio Ricardo. 4to. 

1577. Commentario & la logica de Aristotles. Mexico* Sto. 

1577. Ovidii Naaonis tfiai de tristibos. Mexico. Syo. 

1577. Omnia Domini Andreas Alciati Emblemata. Mexico. 8vo. 

*1578. Alonzo de Molina. Confeasionario Mayor en la lengua 
Mexicana y Castellana. Mexico. Pedro BaUi, 4to. 

*1578. Alonzode Molina. Doctrina^bristiajoaen lengoa Mexi- 
cana. Mexico. Pedro Orchctrte, Svo. 

*1578. J. DE Cordova. Arte en lengua Zapoteoa. Mexico. 
Pedro BaUi, 8vo. 

1579. Ceremonial y rubrieaa general eon la orden de celebrar laa 
mismas. Mexico. 8yo. 

1579. Inatraccion y arte para regular el oficio divino. Mexico. 

'*'1580. Barth. Roldan. Cartilla y doetrina Cbriatiana breve, en 
la lengua Cbucbona. Mexico. Pedro Ocharie. 4to. 

*1582. J. DE Gaona. Coloquio dela paa y tranquilidad^ en len- 
gua Mexicana. BIexico. Pedro charte, 8yo. (^(sntaux, No. 155.) 

1583. Garcia del Palacio. Dialogoa militarea de la formacion 
^ informacion de peraonaa, inatrumentoa y ooaas neoeaaariaa para el 
uao de la guerra. Mexico. Pedro Ocharte, 4to. 

1583. Forma breve adminiatrar ap. Indioa S. Baptiami Sacramen- 
tum. Mexico. 8vo. 

*1585. Bern, de Sahaoun. Paalmodia Xpiana y Sermonario de 
loa Santoa del afio, etc. Mexico. Pedro Ocharte. 4to. 

1585. Eatatutoa general de Barcelona. Mexico. 4to. 


378 History of Printing in America. 

1587. Garcia de Palacio. Instmccioo nautica para el buen nso 
7 regimiento de las Naos sa traza y gobierno, coDforme & la altiira 
de M^jico. Mexico. 4to. {Temaux, No. 167.) 

1587. CoDstitutionesordin. fratr. cremit. S.Aug. Mexico. Svo. 

1589. Forma y modo de fandar las cofradias del cordon de S. Fr. 
Mexico. 8vo. 

1592. Ao. Farfak. Tratado breve de Medecina. Mexico. 4to. 

1593. GeronimodeOre. SymboloCatholicoIndiaDO. Mexico. 
( Temauxj No. 224.) 

1593. J. GuiONA. CoUoquioB en lengna Mezicana. Mexico. 
( Temaux, No. 190.) 

*1593. Ant. de los Retes. Arte en lengua Mixteca. Mexico. 
Pedro Balli. 8vo. {Temaux, No. 189.) 

*1593. Francisco de Alvarado. Vocabulario en lengna Mis- 
teca. Mexico. Pedro Balli. 4to. 

1594. J. E., DE Buenaventura. Misteca Theologia. Mexico. 

1595. Regla de los frailes menores. Mexico. 4to. 

"^1595. Antonio del Rincon. Arte de la lengua Mexioana. 
Mexico. Pedro Balli, 8vo. (Antonio. Bib. Histpan, JNova, torn. 
I, p. 158.) 

1595. Fundacion e Indulgencias de la orden de la merced. Mex- 
ico. 8vo. 

1598. Antonio de Rincon. Arte de la lengua Mexioana. Mex- 
ico. 12mo., second edition (Temaux,l^o. 225.) 

*1599. Juan Baptista. Confessionario en lengua Mexicana y 
Castellana. Mexico : en el convento de Santiago Tlatilulco. 
Melch. Orcharte. 2 vols, in 1. 

1599. Juan Baptista. Hvehvetlahtolli. Mexico. 12mo. 
[This is probably the work noticed by Temaux, No. 263 as 

**PIatica8 morales de los Indios para la doctrina de sas hijos, en 
lengua Mexicana intituiade huehuetlatolli." The copy described, 
which is the only one known, is without the title page, but on ita 
back bears the date of 1599. Beristain gives the date of 1601.] 

1599. Juan Baptista. Platicas antiquas que en la excellentis- 
sima lengua Nahuatl eomendo y creceoto. Mexico 8vo. {Ter^ 
naux^ No. 234.) 

Appendix. 379 

. 1599. Juan Baptista. Compendio en las Exoelsias, de la Bulla 
de la Saocta Cruzada, ea leagua MezicaDa. Mexioo. Enrico Mar- 
tinez, 8yo. (Catalogue of Mexican books sold by Puttick and 
Simson. London, 1869. No. 151.) 

*1600. Juan Baptista. Advertencias para los confessores de 
los naturales. Mexico. M, OcharU. Svo. 

f 1600. Relaclon Historiadadelas Exequias Funerales de Felipe II. 

Mexico. Pedro BdUL 4to. 

As there may be doubts of the existence of some of the books, the titles 
of which are given above, it has been deemed best to state where they 
are to be found, or upon whose authority they have been placed in this 
list. Those marked thus * have been seen by Senor Icazbalceta, of 
Mexico and Dr. C. H. Berendt Those marked thus f are in the collec- 
tion of Mr. John Carter Brown, Providence. The authorities for many of 
the others are Ternaux, Rich, and others as stated ; the remaining are 
taken from Mr. Harrisse's Bibliotheea Americana Veiuitiseima. 

Books Printed in Peru before the Year 1600. 

1584. Doctrina Christiana (en Qaichna y Aymara) En la ciadad 
de loB Reyes. (Lima). Antonio Ricardo. 4to. (Brunet, yoI. 
II, col. 780). Le Cleeo, Bih, Americana^ No. 462. 

1585. Confessionario para los ouras de Indies con la instrnccion 
contra sus ritos traducido en las lenguas Quichna y Aymara. Lima. 
Ant, Ricardo. 4to. 

f 1585. Tercero Cateohismo y exposicion de la Dootrina Christiana, 
por Sermones. Para los ooras y otros ministros prediquen y ensefien 
a los Indies. £n la ciudad de los Reyes. Ant. Ricardo, 4to. 

1586. Yocabulario en la lengoa general del Pern y en lengna Es- 
paSola. Lima. Small 8vo. {Temaux, No. 164). 

1594. Ordenanzas que mando hacer D. Oarcia Hurtado de Men- 
doza, para remedio de los ezcesos que los oorregidores de los natu- 

380 History op Printing in America. 

rales haceio entratar y contractar cod Iob Indios. Lima. Folo. 
(Temaux, No, 192). 

1596. Pedro de OSa. Primera parte de Arauco domado. Im- 
preso en la ciudad de los Reyea por Ant. Ricardo de Turin. 4to. 
(Temaux, No. 201). 

1599. P£DRO DE OfiA. Trembler de Lima del ailo 1599. Poema. 
Lima. (^Temaux, No. 230). 

^t In the library of Mr. John Carter Brown, Providence. 

Appendix. 381 


[Page 22.] 

Jacob Bittibnhouss, dow, in 1818, eighty-six years of age, a 
grandson of Nicholas Rittenhonse the first papermaker in British 
America, is living. He has been many years blind, but possesses an 
excellent memory, which seems to be unimpaired. He received from 
his father and grandfather many interesting narratives of the settle- 
ment of Philadelphia and Germantown, and of the first printers and 
papermakers in those places. 

He says that William Bradford, the first printer in Philadelphia, 
after he left this city, and settled in New York, often visited Phila- 
delphia, and that he would sometimes ride from one of these places 
to the other in a day. [The connected distance then was one hun- 
dred miles.] That when his grandfather and a few others settled in 
Germantown, there was no gristmill nearer than Chester, fifteen miles 
southeast of Philadelphia. There was no horse in the settlement for 
some time afterwards, when an old horse was procured from New 
York, and this horse was continually employed in carrying sacks of 
grain to the mill at Chester, to be ground, and bringing it back 
when ground. This was, at the time, continued Mr. Rittenhouse, 
the only horse for common use either in the Germantown settlement, 
or in Philadelphia. The grain for those living in Philadelphia, etc., 
continued to be ground in Chester, until William Penn built a grist- 
mill in Philadelphia, afterwards called the Globe mill, from a tavern 
being erected near to it, the site of which is in Third street. This 
mill was used as a gristmill until a short time before the reyolution. 

He mentions, among other things, the following, which shows the 
estimation in which land iras held in the early settlement of Phila- 
delphia, and the difiierence between its value then and at the present 
day. Claus, the grandfather, was something of a carpenter, as well as 
a papermaker. He constructed a kind of batteau on the papermill 
stream, and occasionally descended with it to the Schuylkill, for the 
purpose of fishing in its stream. A person from Philadelphia who 

382 History op Printing in America. 

owned a large traot of land on the borders of this riyer, was one time 
yiewing and examining his possessions, when he espied Clans in his 
boat fishing. The owner of the ground was so much pleased with 
the nnezpected sight of a boat, the first belonging to a white man 
which had been seen in that stream, that he became desirous of 
possessing it, and offered Clans, in exchange, a piece of land border- 
ing on the Schuylkill, of which he described the limits, and which, 
it is said, contained about two thousand acres. Claus refused the 

Jacob Rittenhouse also mentions that hb progenitors, when they 
first arrived at Philadelphia, dwelt in caves dug in the banks of the 
Delaware, during part of the winter 1687-8. Proud, in his HUtory 
of Pennsylvania, mentions these caves, and observes that thej were 
for many years reserved for the habitations of new comers, who had 
not the means of obtaining other lodgings. 

Appendix. 88 



[ Page 42. ] 

At a CouDty Court held at Cambridge, April 1, 1656. 

Jd^' Gloveri Gent. Plant, against Mr. Henry Dunster Deff^* in 
an acton of the case for an acct. of an estate of houses, lands, goods, 
and chattels, debts, legacies, and gifts, or other estate, together with 
the deeds, leases, and other manuscripts, and evidences thereof, w*^^ 
by any manner of wayes or means, eyther have been (or at present 
bee) in the possession of the said Henry, or under his rule, costody 
or dispose. And of right due and belonging unto the said Jn^- 
Olover, by the last will and testament of his father Mr. Josse Glover 
deceased, or Elizabeth his wife, or their, or eyther of their gifts, or 
by the last will of W"*- Harris deceased or otherwise to him the 
said Jn<^' Glover appteyning and of right due and belonging by any 
manner of wayes or means whatsoever, and, also for debteyning and 
with-holding the same, viz^* both the account and estate, with the 
effects and profits thereof and damages to the said Jn^- Glover 
thereby susteyned. 

The Plaintiffe appeared by his attorneyes Edw. Goffe, and Thomas 
Danforth, the deff^* appeared personally and pleaded to the case, 
The Court having heard the PFt's demands and the proffe thereof, 
and Mr. Dunster's acknowledgm^* and Answ^" w^^^ are upon file 
with the Records of this Court, the Jury findes for the plaintiffe, 
as appeareth by their verdict given into Court in writeing (w^^ ia 
also upon y^ file) theis following p'tic* 

Imp** The Inventory as it is brought in 140 00 00 

It. The Presse and the p'fitt of it 040 00 00 

It. The prise of Mr. Dayes house 030 00 00 

It. Debts received by Mr. Dunster 143 00 00 

' He studied medicine, became a practitioner, married, and settled in 

384 History of Printing in America. 

It. More debts received by Mr. Duoster 015 00 00 

It. Re<^- of Mr. Hompberies 080 00 00 

It. The plate mentioned in the Inventory 448 00 00 

It. more acknowledged in the Coart by Mr. Dnnster 
one silver tankard, and one tipt Jag, and a silver 
It. one watch. 
It. acknowledged by Mr. Dnnster 12 Rheam of refuse 

It. The profit of the houses and lands in Cam- 
bridge. 177 10 00 
It. Given by Mr. Harris 040 00 00 
It. Household stuffe at Sudbury 005 00 00 
It. The house in Boston sould to Theodore Atkinson 200 00 00 
It. Kent received for the farme at Sudbury six years 060 00 00 
It. the Rent of the stocke of 15 Kine 067 10 00 
It. the prise of eight steers and bulls and fiften kine 118 16 00 
It. for the rent received for the farme at Sudbury 

seaven yeares 042 00 00 

It. the rent of meadow 010 00 00 

It. two swine 002 00 00 

It. Lead pans 722 16 00 

448 00 00 

1170 16 00 

It. the farme that Robert Wilson now oooupieth to be Mr. Glover's. 
It all the Bookes of Mr. Glover's that came to Mr. Dnnster, 

whereof he promised to give in a Cattologue. 
It. the farme that Goodman Rice now occupieth bo be Mr. Glover's. 
It. that Mr. Dnnster shall give to the Court, an account according 
to the attachm^ when the Honoured Court shall require it. 

Charles Chadwicke in the name of the rest. 
Execution granted June 17, 1656. 
The Court orders that Mr. Dunster shall bring in his full account 
to the Court the 9th of May next. 

[Midd. Records^ vol. I, p. 77, &c.] 

Appendix. 385 

At a second Sessions of the County Court held at Cambridge, 9th 

(3) mo. 1656. 

In the case between Jn^* Glover Plant, against Mr. Henry Dun- 
ster Deff^' entered at the last sessions of this Court, Mr. Henry 
Dunster presented his answ to the Juries verdict in writeing, con- 
taining his account under his hand, also a Cattologue of the bookes. 
with some other testimonies in refference to the case, all w^^^ are upon 
file with the Reccords of the last Court, whereupon the Plaintiffe 
not being sattisfied with the accounts presented, The Court advised 
both parties to endeavour a peaceable composure of the whole buis- 
sines, eyther between themselves or by able men Indifferently chosen 
between them. \^Midd. Records^ vol. i, p. 83.] 

At a County Court held at Charles-Towne June 19, 1656. 

Mr. Henry Dunster PL against Mr. Jn®* Glover Defft. in an action 
of Review of the suite upon attachm^- to the valine of two thousand 
pounds comenced and prosecuted in the last County Court holden at 
Cambridge, by the said Jn*** or his attorneyes for accounts and estate 
pretended to be with-held by the said Henry from the said Jn°' As 
also for the auditing the accounts, according to the advice of the 
Honoured Magistrates, and for the ballancing, setling and sattisfying 
what upon the said Accounts is right and just to be done, according 
to attachm^ dated 12th 4th mo. 1656. 
The Jury found a non liquet. \^Midd. Records^ vol. i, p. 83.] 

At a County Court held at Cambridge, by adjournment, June^24th, 


Mr. Henry Dunster [sometimes husband to Elizabeth the relict 
widow of Josse Glover deceased] Plant, ag'- Jn®- Glover Gent. Deff^- 
In an action of the case for debt upon accounts, and for rights and 
interests in any wise appertayneing to the said Henry from the estate 
now claimed by the said Jn®- Glover by vertue of the last will of his 
father Josse Glover deceased. 

The Plaintive and Deff"* appearing in Court legally. They mutually 
agreed to refcrre this case to the Hearing and determination of the 


386 History of Printing in America. 

honoured Bench of Magistrates. The Courts determination and 
judgm^ in the said case is as followeth. 

Whereas there hath been some actions and suites of debt, account, 
and review, in this Court, between Jn®- Glover Gent. And Henry 
Punster his father in Law and Guardian, concerning the estate, under 
the managem^* belonging to the said John Glover by the will of 
his father Josse Glover deceased. The premises considered, and the 
parties consenting to issue the whole case, included in the former 
actions, and judgm^> to the determination of this Court. The Court 
having taken paynes to examine all matters explicitly in refference 
to the whole case, doe find the estate of Josse Glover is Creditor, 
One thousand foure hundred forty and seaven pounds, nine shillings 
and nine pence, and a silver tankard in kinde, also Mr. Glover's 
bookes according to Cattologue given in to the Court, to be delivered 
in kinde, also the price of a house at Hingham that was received of 
Pay n tree at fifleen pounds. 

And the estate, is also justly debtor, one thousand thre hundred 
and thirty pounds, one shilling and seven pence, the particulars 
whereof are expressed in an account hereunto annexed. 

The Court therefore do find for John Glover, one hundred and 
seventcn pounds, eight shillings and two pence, due from Henry 
Dunster, according to the account, leaving some debts explicitly 
expressed in the account to the valine of fifty seaven pounds eleven 
shillings foure pence to be further cleared by the said Henry before 
any credit be given for him it. 

Also we find for Mr. Henry Dunster the lands in Sudbury bounds, 
purchased by the said Henry called the farme now in the occupation 
of Wilson. 

1656. June 25. The Account in refference to the aforenamed 
case, being drawn up and examined by the Honoured Court is as 

Mr. Henry Dunster is debitor £. s. d. 

Imp^- To plate 030 12 03 

To a tipt Jugg und a watch 006 06 06 

To rents of land in Cambric whiles in Blower's hands 04U 00 00 

To rents rec<i of John Stedman for ditto 070 00 00 

To rent of ditto rec<> of Richard French 012 00 00 



To rent rec'' for marsh land all the time 

To rent of the slate house all the time 

To the house and land at Boston sold Mr. Atkinson 

To a Legacy giyen Jn** Glover by his Uncle Harris 

To utensils at Sudbury five pounds 

To rent of fourten Cowes six yeares, at 15' pr. cow 

To rent of seaven oxen 6 yeares at 20« pr. ox 

To the stocke fourten oowes and seyen oxen 

To rent for meadow 

To two swine 

To one lead pan sould for 

To sale of Bookes 

To so much rec^ of Mr. Tho» Fowle 

To rents from Boston and Cambridge 

To advance upon the Inventory 

To advance upon plate 

To so much disbursed in building and other things 

upon Henry Dunster's land in Sudbury bounds 
To the Inventory in Goodes 
To printing presse and paper 
To Mr. Dayes house sold for 
To debts reo^ of severall persons £73 and of Peacock 

and Sill £8. 
To so much received of Mr. Humphery 
To plate and other things that I had vies et modies, 

gift of my wife, not vallued 
To plate and bedding for Mr. Harris and Simon Smith 
To paper — 16 Bheams. 
To 2 oxen and one cow killed for the family 
To profits of stocke and crop the first yeare of his 

marriage with Mrs. Glover, not yet accounted for, 

abating for Servants wages and diet 

To a silver tankard in kind. 

To all Mr. Glover's bookes unsold, to be delivered ac- 
cording to Cattologue. 

£. s. d, 
015 15 00 

019 14 04 
214 00 00 
040 00 00 
005 00 00 
063 00 00 
042 00 00 
118 16 00 
010 00 00 
002 00 00 

001 02 06 
026 10 00 
099 11 04 

049 06 08 

020 00 00 

002 17 06 

050 00 00 
140 00 00 
050 00 00 
030 00 00 

081 00 00 
071 04 09 

073 16 11 
025 00 00 
002 00 11 
020 00 00 

015 00 00 
1447 09 09 

388 History of Printing in America. 

To a house at IliDgham of Panteryes, the value to be 
made good 
Mr. Henry Dunster creditor. 

Imp"' By lands in Sudbury bounds purchased by the 
said Dunster, called the farme now in the occupa- 
tion of Wilson, found in kind to belong to the 

By the diet, apparell and education of Roger and Jn®* 

Olover two yeares two m*^* after their mother's mar- £. s. d, 
iage with the said Dunster till her death at £20. 086 06 08 

By disbursem^" for the maintenance of Mrs. Glover for 
diet and apparrell in sicknes and health two yeares 
and two months, after her marriage with Mr. Dun- 
ster, until her death, with a mayd to attend her at 
£30 pr. annum 065 00 00 

By a bill for physicke payd Mr. Ayres 015 00 00 

By funerall charges expended for Mrs. Glover 010 00 00 

By disbursements for the diet and app'i of Mrs. Eliz^* 
Glover 7 m<>* with her marriage feast^, being mar- 
ried to Mr. Adam Winthrop 030 00 00 

By diet and apparrall for Mrs. Sarah and Mrs. Prisoilla 
Glover, during their mother's life, being two yeares 
2 m'^- a peece at £16 pr. annum 069 06 08 

By diet and ezpences of Mr. Richard Harris two years 
and two monthes, it being due from the estate to 
him for the interest of £250. of his in the estate 
at £20 pr. annum 043 03 04 

By maintenance of the children after the death of their 
mother, viz. 

By Jno' Glover's liberall education for diet, apparell 
and schooleing mostly at the Colledge for seven 
years and two months at £20 pr. an">* 143 03 04 

' The three Miss Glovers (not Mrs.), viz. Elizabeth, and 8arah and 
Priscilla Glover, mentioned in the next article of charge, were the three 
daughters of Mr. Jesse, or Jossc Glover deceased. Priscilla married John 
Appleton, who also commenced in 1655, an action against Dunster for 
100^. left to his wife by her father, and detained by Dunster, which sum 
Api)h't()n recovercMl. 


Appendix. 389 

By diet, apparrell of Mrs. Sarah Gloyer fiye years at £. s. d, 
sixteen pounds pi** annum 080 00 00 

By so much recoYered out of the estate by Mr. Apple- 
ton, for his wife Mrs. Priscilla Olover, her mainte- 
nance after her mother's death, and before 
marriage with him 088 00 00 

By so much paid for extraordinary expences by Mr. Jn^- 

Glover, as by note of particulars 006 15 00 

By charges disbursed concerning nine arbitrations, and 

p«J* for writeings to scriven" Ac, £2 in all 007 00 00 

'By debts paid by Mr. Dunster which were due from 

the estate, in Mr. Josse GloYer's life time 334 12 00 

By debts made by Mrs. Glover in the time of her wi- 
dowhood, payd by Mr. Dunster clerely proved 183 15 09 

By losses and damages befalling the estate at Sudbury, 
payd for fencing on John Glover's farme at Sud- 
bury 034 19 03 

By expences, rates and suites concerning lands at 

Oambrg«- 045 19 04 

By disbursemtP* for reparations of the house at Cam- 
bridge in Mrs. Glover's life 016 04 00 

By repaires of the said house after her death 016 01 04 

By cattle added to the estate, viz<. three cowes, one calf, 

2 oxen at 031 16 11 

By rates payd to the meeting house 002 00 06 

1309 03 07 
By so much payd to Mr. Haris for redeeming a tank- 
ard, and a porringer of silver, payd him in part of 
his debt 005 18 00 

1315 01 07 

»To Mr. Harris 0260 00 00 

To Mr. Turner 0076 12 00 

To Ootton Slacke 0008 00 00 

0334 12 00 

390 History of Printing in America. 

By acooant of some debts contracted by Mrs. Glover in 

her widowhood, w^^ Mr. Dunster alleadgetb he 

hath payd; not allowed at present for want of 

cleare proof vizt. £. s. cL 

By Mr. King of Lex. 06 12 04 

By so much to Mr. Morecrofl 25 00 00 

By so mnoh to Skidmore Smith 08 00 00 

By so much to Mr. Harris 12 19 00 

By so mnch pd. Major Bourne 05 00 00 

57 11 04 
By so much p^* to Capt. Kaine being a debt due before 

marriage as appears by bill 0015 00 00 

1330 01 07 

Mr. Bellingham declared his dissent from this account and de- 
parted out of Court before the Court's determination and judgmt. 
was drawne up. {^Midd. Records, vol. i. p. 87, &o.] 

Appendix. 391 


[ Page 49. ] 

The author of Wonder Working Providence^ page 205, gives the 
following account of this edition of the laws. ** This year [1646] 
the General Court appointed a Committee of diverse persons to draw 
up a body of Laws for the well ordering this little Commonwealth ) 
and to the end that they might be most agreeable with the rule of 
Scripture, in every County there were appointed two Magistrates, 
two Ministers, and two able persons from among the people, who 
having provided such a competent number as was meet, together 
with the former that were enacted newly amended, they presented 
them to the General Court, where they were again perused and 
amended ; and then another Committee chosen to bring them into 
form, and present them to the Court again, who the year following 
passed an act of confirmation upon them, and so committed them to 
the press, and in the year 1648, they were printed, and now are to 
be seen of all men, to the end that none may plead ignorance, and 
that all who intend to transport themselves hither may know that 
this is no place of licentious liberty, nor will this people suffer any 
to trample down this vineyard of the Lord, but with diligent exe- 
cution will cut off from the city of the Lord, the wicked doers, 
and if any man can show wherein any of them derogate from the 
word of God, very willingly will they accept thereof, and amend 
their imperfection (the Lord assisting), but let not any ill affected 
person find fault with them, because they suit not with their own 
humour, or because they meddle with matters of religion, for it is no 
wrong to any man, that a people who have spent their estates, many 
of them, and ventured their lives for to keep faith and a pure con- 
science, to use all means that the word of God allows for mainte- 
nance and continuance of the same, especially they have taken up 
a desolate wilderness to be their habitation, and not deluded any by 
keeping their profession in huggermug, but print and proclaim to all 
the way and course they intend, God willing, to walk in. If any will 

392 History op Printing in America. 

yet notwithstaading seek to jostle them out of their own right, let 
them not wonder if they meet with all the opposition a people put to 
their greatest straits can make, as in all their undertaking their 
chiefest aim hath been to promote the ordinances of Christ, so also 
in contriving their Laws, Liberties and Privileges, they have not 
been wanting, which hath caused many to malign their civil govern- 
ment, and more especially for punishing any by law, that walk con- 
trary to the rule of the gospel which they profess, but to them it 
seems unreasonable, and savours too much of hypocrisie, that any 
people should pray unto the Lord for the speedy accomplishment of 
his word in the overthrow of Antichrist, and in the mean time be- 
come a patron to sinful opinions and damnable errors that oppose the 
truths of Christ, admit it be but in the bare permission of them/' 
• See in this connection " Remarks on the Early Laws of Massachu- 
setts Bay; with the Code adopted in 1641, and called The Bodt 
OF Liberties, now first printed. By F. C. Gray, LL.D." 

Mass, Hist, CoU.^ 3d se., Ylli, p. 192. 

Appendix. 393 


[ Pages 66, 67. ] 

The New Testament was translated into the Indian languscge by 
the Rev. John Eliot, then pastor of the church in Roxburj. Mr. 
Eliot was called the Apostle of the Indians^ and he truly was so. 
He also translated the Old Testament into their language, and gave 
them a version of the Psalms. They were all completed at the press 
in 1663, and were bound together. The Rev. Cotton Mather, in his 
Moffnalia, mentions that Mr. Eliot wrote the whole of this great 
work with one pen ; if so, we may presume that his pen was not made 
of a goose quill, but of metal. > After Mr. Eliot had acquired the 
Indian language, he taught English to the Indians, and made an 
Indian Grammar. He went among them and preached the gospel, 
instituted schools, and formed churches. The colonies of Massachu- 
setts, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven, ^ in 1643, entered into 
articles of confederation for their mutual safety and support. Each 
colony was annually to choose two commissioners, who were to meet 
yearly and alternately in the several colonies. These commissioners 
tad the power to manage all concerns, in which the colonies were 
generally interested ; comprising those of war as well as peace, and 
each colony retained the direction of its own internal policy. The 
commissioners were chosen by the general court, or assembly of the 
respective colonies, and were called the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies; to this office, men of the most respectable talents were 
elected, and, not unfrequently, the governors of the colonies. 

By the agency of Massachusetts, a society had been formed in 
London, for propagating the Gospel among the Indians in New Eng- 
land. Some time after the confederation of the colonies took place, 


■ I have been informed that Edward Gibbon, the celebrated author of 
the Decline and FaUof the Roman Empire^ wrote the volumes of which 
that work consists with one pen ; which, at her request, he presented to the 
beautiful Duchess of Devonshu'e, and it was by her preserved in a golden 

*New Haven was at that time, a distinct colony from Connecticut. 


394 History of Printing in America. 

the society in EDgland for Propagating the Gospel was incorporated 
by act of Parliament ; by which act, the commissioners of the United 
Colonies were appointed the agents of the society, to manage its con- 
cerns, and to dispose of the property which might be forwarded to 
America, in such manner as might promote, in the most useful de- 
gree, the design of the institution. In time, the funds of the Corpo- 
ration 1 enabled them to send missionaries among the Indians, to 
instruct them in the Christian faith, and to build a number of small 
meeting houses, in which the Christianized Indians might assemble 
for public worship. An addition was made to the college at the ex- 
pense of the corporation, to make room for the education of Indian 
youth. Several small books were written, and others translated into 
the Indian language ; and, eventually, the design was conceived of 
translating the whole of the Holy Scriptures into Indian, and to print 
the translation. For this great undertaking the corporation supplied 
the means, and the commissioners of the United Colonies attended 
to its execution. 

"Before the New Testament was finished at the press, the corpora- 
tion in England was, at the restoration of King Charles II, for some 
reason, deprived of their charter ; but after some time it was restored 
and confirmed by the king.^ Before the charter was restored, the 

^ The society in England for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians 
was so called. It was incorporated in 1649. 

• After the charter was restored, the corporation sent over to the com- 
missioners by their request, as a remittance towartl printing the Bible, 
and in other ways promoting the propagation of the gospel, a quantity of 
pieces of eight, to be recoined here ; which is taken notice of In the fol- 
lowing manner in a letter from the corporation to the commissioners : 
" We have thought good in pursuance of the trust committed to vs and 
for the Improvement of that little wee have to send you ouer 433 peeces of 
eight, which costs vs one hundred pounds heer, hauing obtained this pri- 
viledge in our Charter that what wee shall send ouer shal be without any 
charge or custom pay'd for the same, and that the coyning thereof into 
youer coyne, and according to youer standard will make a considerable 
aduance for your supply," &c. 

The commissioners, September 18, 1663, in answer to the corporation 
observe, " Youer honores accepting our bill of fine hundred pounds, and 
sending ouer a supply of an hundred pounds in peeces of eight wee hum- 
bly acknowledge, and haue Improued the said peeces to the vttermostwee 
could, whereof by minting or otherwise is 1171b. Os. 07d. by which youer 
lionoroH may see what aduance there may be made to the stocke by send- 
in*; of such p<*4*coa." — Rfrords of the United Coloniat. 

Appendix. 395 

New Testament was completed, and tlie commissioners here, and the 
late members of the corporation in England, judged it good policy 
to present to the king one of the first copies of this work ; and to 
make it acceptable to his majesty, a dedication was written, printed 
and prefixed to the few copies of the Testament which were sent to 
England. This measure had the effect desired, and the king became 
interested in the restoration of the charter. The copy for the king 
and nineteen copies more were forwarded in sheets to the members 
of the late corporation in England, with a letter from the commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, an extract from which as recorded, 
follows, yiz: 

" The New Testament is alreddy finished, and of all the old the 
five bookes of Moses ; wee have heerwith sent you 20 peeces [copies] 
of the New Testament which wee desire may bee thus disposed viz : 
that two of the speciall being uery well bound yp the one may bee 
presented to his Majestic in the first place, the other to the Lord 
Chancellor ; and that five more be presented to Doctor Reynolds Mr. 
Carrill Mr. Baxter and the two vischancellors of the Yniuersities 
whoe wee vnderstand have greatly Incurraged the worke ; the rest 
to bee disposed of as you shall see cause." 

The dedication is recorded among the proceedings of the commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, and is there prefaced in the following 

" Vpon the enformation of the Desolution of the Corporation, and 
intimation of hopes that his Majestic would [renew and] confeirme 
the same, &c. The Commissioners thought meet to present his 
Majestic with the New Testament printed in the Indian language 
with these presents following/' &c. 

The dedication as printed in the few copies of the Testament sent 
to England, is in the following words. 

" To the High and Mighty Prince, Charles the Second, hy the Grace 
of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, De- 
fender of the Faith, &c, 

*'The Commissioners of the United Colonies in New England, wish 

increase of all happiness, &c. 

" Most Dread Soveraign, 

^^ If our weak apprehensions have not misled us, this Work will be 

uo unacceptable Present to Your Majesty, as having a greater In- 

396 History op Printing in America. 

terest therein, thaD we believe is generally understood : which (upon 
this Occasion) we conceive it onr Duty to declare. 

" The People of these four Colonies (Confederated for Matoal 
Defence, in the time of the late Distractions of our dear Native 
Country) Tour Majesties natural born Subjects, by the Favour and 
Grant of Tour Royal Father and Grandfather- of Famous Memory, 
put themselves upon this great and hazardous Undertaking, of Plant- 
ing themselves at their own Charge in these remote ends of the 
Earth, that without offence or provocation to our dear Brethren 
and Countrymen, we might enjoy that liberty to Worship God, 
which our owb Consciences informed us, was not onely our Right, 
but Duty : As also that we might (if it so pleased God) be instru- 
mental to spread the light of the Gospel, the knowledg of the Son 
of God our Saviour, to the poor barbarous Heathen, which by His 
late Majesty, in some of our Patents, is declared to be His principal 

" These honest and Pious Intentions, have, through the grace 
and goodness of God and our Kings, been seconded with proportion- 
able success : for, omitting the Immunities indulged us by Tour High- 
ness Royal Predecessors, we have been greatly encouraged by Tour 
Majesties gracious expressions of Favour and Approbation signified, 
unto the Address made by the principal of our Colonies, to which 
the rest do most cordially Subscribe, though wanting the like season- 
able opportunity, they have been (till now) deprived of the means 
to Congratulate Tour Majesties happy Restitution, after Tour long 
Buffering, which we implore may yet be graciously accepted, that 
we may be equal partakers of Tour Royal Favour and Moderation } 
which hath been so Illustrious that (to admiration) the animosities 
and different Perswasions of men have been so soon Composed, and 
so much cause of hope, that (unless the signs of the nation prevent)*^ 
a blessed calm will succeed the late horrid Confusions of Church 
and State. And shall not we (^Dread Soveraign) your Subjects 
of these Colonies, of the same Faith and Belief in all Points of 
Doctrine with our Countrymen, and the other Reformed Churches, 
(though perhaps not alike perswaded in some matters of Order, 
which in outward respects hath been unhappy for us) promise and 

Appendix. 397 

assure oanelves of all just favour and indulgence from a Prince so 
happily and graciously endowed ? 

" The other part of our Errand hither, hath been attended with 
Endevours and Blessing ; many of the wilde Indians being taught, 
and understanding the Doctrine of the Christian Religion, and with 
much affection attending such Preachers as are sent to teach them, 
many of their Children are instructed to Write and Beade, and some 
of them have proceeded further, to attain the knowledge of the 
Latine and Greek Tongues, and are brought up with our English 
youth in University-learning : There are divers of them that can and 
do reade some parts of the Scripture, and some Catechisms, which 
formerly have been Translated into their own Language, which hath 
Occasioned the undertaking of a greater Work, viz : The Printing 
of the whole Bible, which (being Translated by a painful Labourer 
amongst them, who was desirous to see the Work accomplished in 
his dayes) hath already proceeded to the finishing of the New Testa- 
ment, which we here humbly present to Tour Majesty, as the first 
fruits and accomplishment of the Pious Design of your Royal Ances- 
tors. The Old Testament is now under the Press, wanting and 
craving your Royal Favour and Assistance for the perfecting thereof. 

" We may not conceal, that though this Work hath been begun 
and prosecuted by such Instruments as God hath raised up here, 
yet the chief Charge and Cost, which hath supported and carried it 
thus far, hath been from the Charity and Piety of divers of our well- 
affected Countrymen in England; who being sensible of our inability 
in that respect, and studious to promote so good a Work, contributed 
large Sums of Money, which were to be improved according to the 
Direction and Order of the then-prevailing Powers, which hath been 
faithfully and religiously attended both there and here, according to 
•the pious intentions of the Benefactors. And we do most humbly 
beseech your Majesty, that a matter of so much Devotion and Piety, 
tending so much to the Honour of God, may suffer no disappoint- 
ment through any Legal defect (without the fault of the Donors, or 
the poor Indians, who onely receive the benefit) but that your Majesty 
be graciously pleased to Establish and Confirm the same, being con- 
trived and done (as we conceive) in the first year of your Majesties 

398 History of Printing in America. 

Reign, as this Book was begun and now finished in the first jear of 
yoar Establishment; which doth not onely presage the happy sncceas 
of your Highness Government, but will be a perpetual monument, 
that by your Majesties Favour the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christy was first made known to the Indians: An Honour 
whereof (we are assured) your Majesty will not a little esteem. 

" Sir, The shines of Your Royal Favour upon these VndertakingSy 
will make these tender Plants to flourish, notwithstanding any malevo- 
lent Aspect from those that bear evil will to this Sion, and render 
Your Majesty more Illustrious ami Glorious to after Generations. 

" T?ie God of Heaven long preserve and bless Your Majesty with 
m^xny happy Dayes, to his Glory , the good and contort of his 
Church and People. Amen." 

In 1663, when the whole Bible, and a version of the New England 
Psalms, translated into the language of the aborigines of New England, 
were completed from the press, a copy, elegantly bound, was pre- 
sented to the king with another address, or dedication. This address, 
and that presented to his majesty with the New Testament, were 
printed together and prefixed to those complete copies of the whole 
work, which were sent tu England as presents. Few of the copies 
which were circulated in this country contained those addresses. I 
recollect to have seen, many years since, a copy that contained them ; 
that which I possess is without them, as are all others which I have 
lately examined. The Rev. Thaddeus M. Harris, some time since, 
fortunately discovered in a barber's shop, a mutilated copy of the 
Indian Bible, which the barber was using for waste paper. In this 
copy the addresses to King Charles are entire. He transcribed the 
addresses, and afterward published them in vol. vii of the Collections 
of the Historical Society. I have extracted them from that volume, 
finding them exactly to agree with the copies on the Records of the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies, in every thing but the spell- 
ing, which on the records is in a mode more obsolete and incorrect, 
but doubtless conformable to the originals, which we may well suppose 
were carefully corrected before they were printed and prefixed to the 

Appendix. 399 

The Second Address, or Dedication, is as follows : 

*' To the High and Mighty Prince^ Ohurles the Sec-ond, by the Grace 
of Godj King of England^ Scotland^ France and Ireland^ De- 
fender of the Faith J &c. 

'^ The Commissioners of the United Colonies in New-England, wish 

all happiness, &c. 

" Mo%t Dread Soveraign, 

" As our former Presentation of the New Testament was Graciously 
Accepted by Your Majesty ; so with all Humble Thankfulness for 
that Royal Favour, and with the like hope, We are bold now to 
Present the WHOLE BIBLE, Translated into the Language of 
the Natives of this Country, by A Painful Labourer in that Work, 
and now Printed and FinisJied, by means of the Pious Beneficence 
of Your Majesties Subjects in England: which also by Your 
Special Favour hath been Continued and Confirmed to the intended 
Use and Advancement of so Great and Good a Work, as is the 
Propagation of the Gospel to these poor Barbarians in this (Ere- 
while) Unknown World. 

Translations of Holy Scripture, The Word of the King of Kings, 
have ever been deemed not unworthy of the most Princely Dedica- 
tions : Examples whereof are extant in divers Languages. But 
Your Majesty is the First that hath Received one in this Language, 
or from this American World, or from any Parts so Remote from 
Europe as these are, for ought that ever we heard of 

** Publications also of these Sacred Writings to the Sons of Men 
(who here, and here onely, have the Mysteries of their Eternal Sal- 
vation revealed to them by the God of Heaven) is a Work that the 
Greatest Princes have Honoured themselves by. But to Publish 
and Communicate the same to a Lost People, as remote from Enow- 
ledge and Civility, much more from Christianity, as they were from 
all Knowing, Civil and Christian Nations; a People without Law, 
without Letters, without Riches, or Means to procure any such 
thing ; a people that sate as deep in Darkness, and in the shadow 
of Death, as (we think) any since the Creation : This puts a Lustre 
upon it that is Superlative ; and to have given Royal Patronage 
and Countenance to such a Publication, or to the Means thereof. 

400 History of Printing in America. 

will stand among the Marks of Lasting Honour in the eyes of all 
that are Considerate, even unto After-Generations. 

^^ And though there be in this Western World many Colonies of 
other Europasan Nations, yet we humbly oonceive, no Prince hath 
had a Return of such a Work as this ; which may be some Token 
of the Success of Tour Majesties Plantation of New-England^ 
Undertaken and Setlcd under the Encouragement and Security of 
Grants from Your Royal Father and Grandfather, of Famous Memory, 
and Cherished with late Gracious Aspects from Tour Majesty. 
Though indeed, the present Poverty of these Plantations could not 
have Accomplished this Work, had not the forementioned Bounty 
of England lent Relief; Nor could that have Continued to stand 
us in stead, without the Influence of Your Royal Favour and Au- 
thority, whereby the Corporation there, for Propagating the Gospel 
among these Natives^ hath been Established and Encouraged (whose 
Labour of Love, Care, and Faithfulness in that Trust, must ever be 
remembred with Honour.) Yea, when private persons, for their 
private Ends, have of late sought Advantages to deprive the said 
Corporation of Half the Possessions that had been, by Liberal Con- 
tributions, obtained for so Religious Ends ; We understand. That 
by an Honourable and Righteous Decision in Your Majesties Court 
of Chancery^ their Hopes have been defeated, and the Thing Settled 
where it was and is. For which great Favour, and Illustrious Fruit 
of Your Majesties Government, we cannot but return our most 
Humble Thanks in this Publick Manner : And, as the J^ult, of 
the joynt Endeavours of Your Majesties Subjects there and here, 
acting under Your Royal Influence, We Present Tou with this 
Work, which upon sundry accounts is to be called Yours. 

'' The Southern Colonies of the Spanish Nation have sent home 
from this American Continent^ much Gold and Silver, as the Fruit 
and End oftheir Discoveries and Transplantations: That (we confess 
is a scarce Commodity in this Colder Climate. But (sutable to the 
Ends of our Undertaking) we Present this, and other Concomittint 
Fruits of our poor Endeavors to Plant and Propagate the Gospel 
here; which, upon a true account, is as much better than Gold, as 
the Souls of men are more worth than the whole World. This is a 

Appendix. 401 

Nobler Fruit (and indeed, in the Coansela of All-Disposing Prov- 
idence, was an higher intended End) of Golunibuu his adventure. 
And though by his Brother's being hindred from a seasonable Ap- 
plication, your Famous Predecessour and Ancestor, King Henry the 
Seventh, missed of being sole owner of that first Discovery, and of 
the Riches thereof; yet, if the Honour of first Discovering the True 
and Saving Knowledge of the G-ospel unto the poor Americans, and 
of Erecting the Kingdome of JESUS CHRIST among them, be 
Reserved for, and do Redound unto your Majesty, and the English 
Nation, After-ages Will not reckon this Inferiour to the other. Re- 
ligion is the End and G-lory of Mankinde; and as it was the Pro- 
fessed End of this Plantation ; so we desire ever to keep it in our 
Eye as our main design (both as to ourselves, and the Xatives about 
us) and that our Products may be answerable thereunto. Give us 
therefore leave (^Dread Soveraign) yet again humbly to Beg the 
Continuance of your Royal Favour, and of the Influences thereof, 
upon this poor Plantation, The United Colonies of NEW ENG- 
LAND, for the Securing and Establishment of our Civil Priviledges, 
and Religious Liberties hitherto Enjoyed; and, upon this Good 
Work of Propagating Religion to these Natives, that the Supports 
and Encouragements thereof from England may be still counten- 
anced and Confirmed. May this Nursling still suck the Breast of 
Kings, and be fostered by your Majesty, as it hath been by your 
Royal Predecessors, unto the Preservation of its main Concernments ; 
It shall tltrive and prosper to the Glory of God, and the Honour of 
your Majesty : Neither will it be any loss or grief unto our Lord 
the King, to have the Blessings of the Poor to come upon Him, 
and that from these Ends of the Earth. 

" The God hy tohom Kings Reign^ and Princes Decree Justice, 

Bless Your Majesty, and Establish your Throne in Righteous- 

nessy in Mercy, and in Truth, to the Glory of His Name, the 

Good of his People, and to your own Comfort and Rejoycing^ 

not in this ondy, but in another World" 

Specimen of the Language of the Indians of New England, taken 
from the first edition of the Rev. Mr. Eliot's translation of the Bible. 
Printed at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1661. 


402 History of Printing in America. 

The Lord's Prayer. Mat vi, 9, &c 

Nooshun kesukqut, quttianata- Our Father which art in hea- 

munach koowesaonk. Pejau- yen, hallowed be thy name. Thy 

mooutch knkketassootamoonk, kingdom come. Thy will be done 

kuttenantamoonk nen nach ohkeit in earth as it is in heaven. Give 

neane kcsukqut. Nummeetsuon- ns this day our daily bread. And 

gash asekesukokish assamaiinean forgive us our debts, as we forgive 

yeuyeu kesukod. Kah ahquon- our debtors. And lead us not 

tamaiinneannummatcheseongash, into temptation, but deliver us 

neane matchenehukqeagig nutah- from evil : For thine is the king- 

quontamounnonog. Ahque sag- dom, the power, and the glory 

kompagunaiinnean en qutchhua- forever. Amen, 
oongauit, webe pohquohwussin- 
nean wutch matchitut. Ncwutche 
kutahtaun ketassootamoonk, kah 
menuhkesuonk, kah sohsumoonk 
micheme. Amen. 

Some writers have mentioned that the second edition of the Bible 
in the Indian language was published after the death of the trans- 
lator, and that it was revised and corrected by the Kev. John 
Cotton, of Plymouth. Others observe, that to the second edition an 
Indian Grammar was added by Mr. Cotton. They must have been 
misinformed, as appears by the statement of Mr. Eliot. In a letter 
dated Roxbury, Nov. 4, 1680, to the Hon. Robert Boyle, president 
of the corporation for propagating the gospel in New England, Mr. 
Eliot mentions, "We are now at the 19th chap, of the Acts; and 
when we have impressed the New Testament, our commissioners 
approve of my preparing and impressing also the old." Nov. 27, 
1683, Mr. Eliot in another letter to the same person, writes, " The 
work [second edition of the Bible, which had then been more than 
three years in the press] goeth on now with more comfort, though 
we have had many impediments, &c. They [the Indians] have still 
fragments of their old Bibles [first edition] which they make constant 
use of." Aug. 29, 1686, Mr. Eliot informs the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
" the Bible is come forth ; many hundreds bound up, and disposed to 
the Indians, whose thankfulness I intimate and testify to your honor." 

Appendix. 403 

And in another letter of July, 1688, he requests that 10^. may be 
given to the Rev. John Cotton, " who has helped him much in the 
second edition of the Bible." ^ It appears, as has been elsewhere 
observed, that the second edition was six years in the press. Mr. 
Eliot died two years aHer this edition was published ; according to 
Mather/-^ in 1690, aged 86. The New England Version of the 
Psalms was printed with the Bible but I cannot find that the Indian 
Grammar was published with either of the editions. It accompanied 
some copies of the Psalter ; i e. they were occasionally bound to- 
gether in one volume small octavo.^ 

1 See the letters at large, Hist. Od.y vol. in, p. 177, et seq. 

• Magnalia. — Life of Eliot. 

* Since Dr. Thomas's time much more has become known of EIiot*s 
Bible, and the particularities of different copies. For an elaborate account 
and collation, see O'Callaghan's List of American Bibles. — H. 

404 History of Printing in America. 


[ Page 69. ] 

The following is given as a specimen of the New England yersion 

of the Psalms ; first, as they were originally printed ; and, secondly, 

as they appeared after being revised and corrected by President Dun- 

ster and Mr. Lyon. The first psalm of each edition is selected for 

the purpose. 

V^. I— By BUot tad othan.] 


In Metre. 


O Blessed man, that in th'adyice 
of wicked doeth not walk: 
nor stand in sinner's way, nor sit 
in chayre af scomfull folk. 

2 But in the law of lehovah, 
is his longing delight : 
and in his law doth meditate, 
by day and eke by night. 

8 And he shall be like to a tree 
planted by water-rivers : 
that in his season yeilds his fruit, 
and his leaf e never withers. 

4 And all he doth, shall prosper well, 
the wicked are not so : 
but they are like vnto the chaffe, 
which winde drives to and fro. 

6 Therefore shall not ungodly men, 
rise to stand in the doome, 
nor shall the sinners with the Just, 
in their assemblic came. 

Appendix. 405 

6 For of the righteous men, the Lord 
acknowledgeth the way : 
but the way of yngodly men, 
shall vtterly decay. 

[No. n— Corrected by DmiBter and Lyon.] 



O Blessed man that walks not in 
th'advice of wicked men 
Nor standeth in the sinners way 
nor scomers seat sits in. 

d But he upon Jehoyah's law 
doth set his whole delight : 
And in his law doth meditate 
Both in the day and night 

8 He shall be like a planted tree 
by water brooks, which shall 
In his due season yield his fruit 
whose leaf shall never fall : 

4 And all he doth shall prosper well. 

The wicked are not so : 
But they are like unto the chaff, 
which wind driyed to and fro. 

5 Therefore shall no ungodly men 

in judgement stand upright 
Nor in th'assembly of the Just 
shall stand the sinf uU wight. 

6 For of y* righteous men, y^ LORD 

acknowledgeth the way : 
Whereas the way of wicked men 
shall utterly decay. 

406 History of Printing in America. 


[ Page 112. ] 

Iq the Life of Dr. Franklin, written by himself, little attention 
seems to have been paid to dates, particularly in narrating events 
which took place during his minority. He informs us that he was 
born in Boston, but does not mention the month nor the year; he, 
however, observes,* that his brother returned from England in 1717, 
with a press and types ; and, that his father determined to make 
him a printer, and was anxious that he should be fixed with his 
brother. He also observes, that he himself held back for some time, 
but suffered himself to be persuaded, and signed his indentures. By 
the manner in which he mentions these circumstances, we may sup- 
pose that they took place within a short period, and as soon as his 
brother began business, which was within a few weeks after he re- 
turned from London. The doctor mentions that when he signed his 
indentures, he was only twelve years of age ; this was in 1717. The 
New-England Oourant was not published till August, 1721 ; at this 
time Benjamin Franklin must have been in his seventeenth year. 
The first Gourant published by Benjamin Franklin, after his brother 
was ordered to print it no longer, is No. 80, datedTebruary 11, 1723 ; 
of course Benjamin must then have been advanced in his eighteenth 
year. I have seen a file of the Courant from the time it began to 
be published in the name of Benjamin Franklin to the middle of 
the year 1726, '^ the whole of which was published in the name of 
Benjamin Franklin. The doctor does not mention how long the 
paper was published in his name ; he only says that it was for " some 
months.'' From the doctor's manner of relating this part of his 
history, we may conclude that he did not leave his brother short of 
one year after the Gourant was printed in his, Benjamin's name ; 

* In the London 12mo. edit, of 1793, p. 29. 
'Tills file is in the Historic^al Library at Boston. 

Appendix. 407 

and, if so, he must have been nearly nineteen years of age ; but, if 
he remained with his brother till the year 1726, he would then have 
been twenty-one years old. Tet he states, page 53, that after 
he left his brother, "he found himself at New York, nearly 
three hundred miles from his home, at the age only of sevefiUeen 
years." It is evident from the doctor's account of himself after he 
left his brother, that he did not remain with him so long as the Cour- 
ant was published in the name of Benjamin Franklin; for he gives 
an account of his return to Boston, remaining there some time, his 
going again to Philadelphia, working with Keimer, and aflerward 
making a voyage to London, where he was near two years a journey- 
man, and returning back to America, and again arriving in Phila- 
delphia in October, 1726. It is difficult to reconcile all these events 
with the few dates which the doctor has mentioned. But I leave 
them with those who are inclined to make ftirther investigation. 

408 History op Printing in America. 


[ Page 213. ] 

The following is a copy of tlie denunciation of George Keith, and 
his printed address ; proclaimed by the common crier, in the Market 
place, Philadelphia, August 25, 1692. 

'^ At a Private Sessions held for the County of Philadelphia the 
25th of the 6th month, 1692, before Arthur Cook, Samuel Jennings, 
Samuel Richardson, Humphrey Murray, Anthony Morris, - Robert 
Ewer, Justices of the County. 

" Whereas the Government of this Province, being by the late 
King of England's peculiar favor vested, and sithence continued in 
Governor Penn, who thought fit to make his and our worthy friend 
Thomas Lloyd his deputy governor, by and under whom the Magis- 
trates do act in this Government — And whereas it hath been proved 
before us, that George Keith being a resident here, did, contrary to 
his duty, publickly revile the said Deputy Governor, calling him an 
Impudent man, telling him he was not fit to be Gt)vernor, and that 
his name would stink, with many other slighting and abusive Ex- 
pressions, both to him and the Magistrates ; and he that useth such 
exorbitancy of speech towards the said Governor, may be supposed 
will easily dare to call the Members of Council and Magistrates 
Impudent Bjiscals, as he hath lately called one in an open Assembly, 
that was constituted by the Proprietary to be a Magistrate — and he 
also charges the Magistrates who are Ministers here, with engross- 
ing the Magistratical Power into their hands, that they might usurp 
Authority over him, saying also, he hoped in God he should shortly 
see their Power taken from them; and otherwise conducted in a 
most undecent manner. And further the said G. K. with several of 
his adherents, having some few days since, with an unusual insolency, 
by a printed sheet, called An Appeal, &c. Traduced, and vilely mis- 
represented the Industry, Care, Readiness and Yigilancy of some 
Magistrates and others here, in their late Proceedings against some 
Privateers, viz. Babit and his Crew, in order to bring them to con- 
dign punishment, whereby to discourage such attempts for the future; 
and hath thereby also defamed and arraigned the Determinations of 

Appendix. 409 

Proviocial Judioatory against Murderers; and not only so, but by 
a wrong insinuation, have laboured to possess the readers of their 
Pamphlet, that it is inconsistent for those who are Ministers of the 
Gospel to act as Magistrates. Now, forasmuch, as we, as well as 
others, have borne, and still do patiently endure from the said George 
Keith and his adherents many personal Beflections against us, and 
their Gross Bevilings of our Religious Society; yet we cannot without 
the violation of our trust to the King and Governor, as also to the 
inhabitants of this Government, pass by or connive at such part of 
the said Pamphlet and Speeches, that has a tendency to sedition 
and disturbance of the peace, as also to the subversion of the present 
Government, or to the aspersing the Magistracy thereof. — Therefore 
for the undeceiving of all people we have thought fit by this Publick 
Writing, not only to signify that our Procedure against the persons 
now in the Sheriff's custody, as well as what we intend against others 
concerned, in its proper place, respects only that part of the' said 
printed sheet, which appears to have the tendency aforesaid, and not 
any part relating to Differences in Religion. But also, these are to 
Caution such who are well affected to the Security, Peace and Legal 
Administration of Justice in this Place, that they give no countenance 
to any Revilers and Contemners of Authority, Magistrates or Magis- 
tracy ; as also, to warn all other persons, that they forbear the future 
publishing and spreading of the said Pamphlet, as they will answer 
the contrary at their peril. Given under our Hands and County-Seal, 
the Day, Year and Place aforesaid. 

" Arthub Cook, Humphrey Murrey, 

Samuel Jennings, Robert Ewer, 

Samuel Richardson, Anthony Morris." 

George Keith published an answer to the foregoing^ in which he 
denies that he blamed Governor Lloyd and the magistrates, for their 
proceedings against the privateers [pirates;] or, that he called in 
question their power, as magistrates, respecting that business ; that 
their conduct, as magistrates, relating to the pirates, was commend- 
able, &c.; that he only asserted, *' that as quakers and ministers, the 
magistrates in hiring and fitting out men to fight, had acted diamet- 
rically opposite and contrary to the often declared and known prin- 
ciple of the quakers, not to make any use of the carnal sword." 


410 History of Printing in America. 


[ Page 266. ] 

Towne's recantation first appeared in Loudon's New York Packet y 
published at Fishkill, October 1, 1771 ; and, afterwards, in the works 
of Dr. Witherspoon, of Philadelphia, by whom it was written. 

Recantation of Benjamin Towne. 

^^ The following facts are well known : Ist. That I Benjamin 
Towne, used to print the Pennsylvania Evening Posty under the pro- 
tection of Congress, and did frequently and earnestly solicit sundry 
members of the said Congress for dissertations and articles of intelli- 
gence, professing myself to be a very firm and zealous friend to 
American Liberty. 2d. That on the English taking possession of 
Philadelphia, I turned fairly round, and printed my Evening Post 
under the protection of General Howe and his army, calling the Con- 
gress and all their adherents, Rebels, Rascals, and Raggamuffins, 
and several other unsavoury names, with which the humane and 
Polite English are pleased to honor them — neither did I ever refuse 
to insert any dissertation however scurrilous, or any article of intel- 
ligence sent to me, altho' many of them I well knew to be, as a cer- 
tain gentleman elegantly expresses it, /acts that never happened. 
3d. I am now willing and desirous to turn once more, to unsay all 
that I have last said, and to print and publish for the United States 
of America, which are likely to be uppermost, against the British 
Tyrant ; nor will I be backward in calling him, after the example of 
the great and eminent author i of Common Sense, The Royal Brute^ 
or giving him any other name more opprobrious, if such can be found. 
The facts being thus stated, (I will presume to say altogether fully 
and fairly) I proceed to observe, that I am not only proscribed by the 
President and supreme executive Council of Pennsylvania, but that 

' ThoinuH Paine. 

Appendix. 411 

several other Persons are for reprobating my paper, and allege that in- 
stead of being suffered to print, I ought to be hanged as a Traitor to 
my Country. On this account I have thought proper to publish the 
following humble confession, declaration, recantation, and apology, 
hoping that it will assuage the wrath of my enemies, and in some 
degree restore me to the favor and indulgence of the Public. In the 
first place then, I desire it may be observed, that I never was, nor 
ever pretended to be a man of character, repute or dignity. I was 
originally an understrapper to the famou$ Galloway ^ in his infamoiu 
squabble with G-oddard,*'^ and did in that service contract such a habit 
of meanness in thinking, and scurrility in Writing, that nothing ex- 
alted, as brother Bell,^ provedore to the sentimentalists, would say, 
could ever be expected from me. Now, changing sides is not any 
way surprising in a person answering the above description. I re- 
member to have read in the Roman History, that when Cato of Utica 
had put himself to death, being unable to survive the dissolution of 
the Republic, and the extinction of Liberty, another senator of infe- 
rior note, whose name I cannot recollect, did the same thing. But 
what thanks did he receive for this ? The men of reflection only 
laughed at his absurd imitation of so great a personage, and said — 
he might have lived tho' the Republic had come to its period. Had 
a Hancock or an Adams changed sides, I grant you they would 
have deserved no quarter, and I believe would have received none ; 
but to pass the same judgment on the conduct of an obscure Printer 
is miserable reasoning indeed. Afler all, why so much noise about 
a trifle ? what occasion is there for the public to pour out all its 
wrath upon poor Towne; are turncoats so rare? do they not walk on 

every side ? have we not seen Dr. S , J A , T C ,* 

and many others who were first champions for Liberty; then friends 
to government — and now discover a laudable inclination to fall into 

' Joseph Galloway, Esq., formerly speaker of the house of assembly of 
Pennsylvania, and partner of William Goddard, &c. 

■ William Goddard, a printer of The Penntfylvania Chronide, to whom 
Towne had been a journeyman. 

* Robert Bell, a well known book auctioneer of Philadelphia. 

* Supposed to mean Doctor S — li, John A — n and T — C — e, of Pliilii- 

412 History of Printing in America. 

their ranks as quiet and orderly Bubjects of the commoDwealth of 

The rational moralists of the last age used to tell us that there 
was an essential difference between virtue and vice, because there 
was an essential difference to be observed in the nature and reason 
of things. Now, with all due deference to these great men, I think 
I am as much of a Philosopher as to know that there are no circum- 
stances of action more important than those of time and place, there- 
fore, if a man pay no regard to the changes that may happen in these 
circumstances, there will be very little Virtue, and still less Prudence 
in his behavior. Perhaps I have got rather too deep for common 
readers, and therefore shall ask any plain Quaker in this city, what 
he would say to a man who should wear the same coat in summer as 
in winter in this climate? He would certainly say, *' Friend thy 
wisdom is not great." Now whether I have not had as good reason 
to change my conduct as my coat, since last January, I leave to every 
impartial person to determine. 2dly, I do hereby declare and confess, 
that when I printed for Congress, and on the side of Liberty, it was 
not by any means from principle, or a desire that the cause of Liberty 
should prevail, but purely and simply from the love of gain. I 
could have made nothing but tar and feathers by printing against 
them as things then stood. I make this candid acknowledgment 
not only as a penitent to obtain pardon, but to show that there was 
more consistency in my conduct than my enemies are willing to 
allow. They are pleased to charge me with hypocrisy in pretending 
to be a Whig when I was none. This charge is false ; I was neither 
whig nor tory but a Printer. I detest and abhor hypocrisy. I had 
no more regard for General Howe or General Clinton, * or even for 
Mrs. Lowring,- or any other of the Chaste Nymphs, that attended 
the fete Champetre,'^ alias Mischianzawhen I printed in their behalf, 
than for the congress on the day of their retreat. It is pretended 
that I certainly did in my heart incline to the English, because that 
I printed much bigger lies and in greater number for them, than 

' Two British goncnils, sent over to subjui^te the colonies. 
' A married lady, said to have been the mistress of the British General 
H— c. 

* A public exhibition in honor of the British General Howe. 

Appendix. 413 

for the Congress. This is a most false and unjust insinuation. It 
was entirely the fault of the Congress themselves, who thought fit 
(being but a new potentate upon the earth,) to be much more modest, 
and keep nearer the truth than their adversaries. Had any of them 
bro't me in a lie as big as a mountain it should have issued from my 
press. This gives me an opportunity of showing the folly as well as 
malignity of those who are actuated by party spirit ; many of them 
have affirmed that I printed monstrous and incredible lies for Gen- 
eral Howe. Now pray what harm could incredible lies do ? the only 
hurt, I conceive, that any lie can do, is by obtaining belief, as a truth ; 
but an incredible lie can obtain no belief, and therefore at least 
must be perfectly harmless. What will those cavillers think, if I 
should turn this argument against them, and say that the most effec- 
tual way to disgrace any cause is to publish monstrous and incredible 
lies in its favor. In this view, I have not only innocence, but some 
degree of merit to plead. However, take it wbich way you will, 
there never was a lie published in Philadelphia that could bear the 
least comparison with those published by James Rivington,i in New 
York. This in my opinion is to be imputed to the superiority not 
of the Printer, but of the Prompter or Prompters. I reckon Mr. 

T '^ to have excelled in that branch; and he had probably many 

coadjutors. — What do you think of 40,000 Eussians and 20,000 
Moors, which Moors too were said by Mr. Rivington to be dreadful 
among the women ? as also the boats building at the forks of the 
Monongahela to carry the Congress down the Ohio to New Orleans ? 

these were swingers. — As to myself and friend H s.*^ we 

contented ourselves with publishing affidavits to prove that the king 
of France was determined to preserve the friendship that subsisted 
between him and his good brother the King of England, of which 
he has given a new proof by entering into and communicating his 
treaty with the United States of America. Upon the whole I hope 
the public will attribute my conduct, not to disaffection, but to at- 

^ " Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty," in New York. 

• Supposed to refer to a former governor of North Carolina, and after- 
wards governor of New York. 

* James H s, printer in Philadelphia, whilst the British troops 

were in possession of that city, and before that time. 

414 History op Printing in America. 

tacliment to my own interest and desire of gain in my professioEi ; a 
principle, if I mistake not, pretty general and pretty powerful in the pre- 
sent day. 3dly. I hope the public will consider that I have been a tim- 
orous man, or, if you will, a coward, from my youth, so that I cannot 
fight — my belly is so big that I cannot run — and I am so great a lover 
of eating and drinking that I cannot starve. When those three things 
are considered, I hope they will fully account for my past conduct, 
and procure me the liberty of going on in the same uniform tenor 
for the future. No just judgment can be formed of a man's cha- 
racter and conduct unless every circumstance is taken in and fairly 
attended to ; I therefore hope that this justice will be done in my 
case. I am also verily pursuaded that if all those who are cowards 
as well as myself, but who are better off in other respects, and there- 
fore can and do ran whenever danger is near them, would befriend 
me, I should have no inconsiderable body on my side. Peace be 
with the Congress and the army ; I mean no reflections ; but the 
world is a wide field, and I wish everybody would do as they would 
be done by. Finally, I do hereby recant, draw back, eat in, and 
swallow down, every word that I have ever spoken, written or printed 
to the prejudice of the United States of America, hoping it will not 
only satisfy the good people in general, but also all those scatter- 
brained fellows, who call one another out to shoot pistols in the air, 
while they tremble so much they cannot hit the mark. In the mean 
time I will return to labor with assiduity in my lawful calling, and 
essays and intelligence as before shall be gratefully accepted by the 
Public's most obedient humble servant, 


Appendix. 415 


[ Page 291. ] 

Green's Handbill, and the depositions consequent thereon, which 
were all published at the time, will give the reader some idea of the 
state of the press in New England in 1700. I have taken them 
from a copy in my possession ; they are as follow. 

" The Printers Advertisement." 

" Whereas there is Prefixed unto a late Pamphlet, Entituled, Gos- 
pel Order Revived, Printed at New- York, An Advertisement, which 
runs in these words, viz. TJie Reader is desired to take Notice, that 
the Press in Boston is so much under the aw of the Reverend Author, 
whom we answer, and his Friends, that we could not obtain of the 
Printer there to Print the foUowing Sheets, which is the ordy true 
Reason why we have sent the Copy so far for its Impression, and 
where it is Printed with some Difficulty, I count my self bound in 
Justice unto all Persons aspers'd by that Advertisement, to Declare 
and Publish to the World the Truth of the matter, which briefly is 
this : Certain Persons bringing to the Press, the Pamphlet above 
mentioned, after some Discourse concerning the number of Copies 
and Price, I Consented to its being Published : But when they in- 
sisted upon doing it with Secresy, I considered that for aught I knew 
Good men in the Country might be Offended at it : Therefore I only 
proposed this Reasonable thing. That before I proceeded, I might 
mention to 11 is Honor the Lieutenant Govern our, what was offered to 
the Press ; This they denied me ; But when they angrily went away 
some of my last words to them were, That I did not refuse to Print it. 
And neither the Reverend Prsesident of the Colledge, nor any of his 
Friends, ever spoke one word unto me to Dbcourage my Printing of 


" Bartholomew Green. 

** Boston December 21st, 1700. 

416 History of Printing in America. 


" The Printer having by this Advertisement Vindicated those 
that were unworthily reflected on in the Advertisement^ Prefixed 
to the above mentioned LiheUcms Pamphlet^ (which no man is 
as yet so Hardy as to own himself to be the Author of) the world 
may Judge of other things contained therein by this. It will in 
due Time appear, that besides the Profane Scoffs and Scurrilities, 
(not only on particular persons, who never deserved such Treat- 
ments, but also on the Holy Churches of the Lord, and on the 
most Sacred Actions performed in them, which is the Spirit of their 
whole Pamphlet — as if they had designed to have that Scripture ful- 
filled upon them. 2. Tim. 2.9. The^ shall proceed no further^ for 
their folly shall he manifest to all men — besides all this, it will ap- 
pear that there are other more Impudent Falsehoods than that ia 
their Advertisement^ which the Printer in Boston, has (as became aa 
Honest and Just man) made a discovery of. 

« Dated in Boston, December 24th, 1700." 

" The depositions of TJiomas Brattle, Gent, and Zechariah TuthtUy 


*' These Deponents say, That on Saturday, the 13th of JuJy last, 
they went to Bartholomew Green's to Treat with him about Printing 
an answer to Old Mr. Mather's Book, called, The Order of the Gospel : 
Who, after he had taken said Answer into his hands, and seen both 
what it was, and how much there was of it, told them he reckoned 
Three Sheets of Paper might contain it, and seven Ream of Paper 
Print about a Thousand of them ; for which they agreed with him 
for Twenty Shillings the sheet. He made not any Objection to them 
against Printing said Answer ; only said he could not go about it, 
till he had Printed off the Laws, which would not be till the Tuesday 
following. They further say, There was never any other person that 
brought said Answer to the Press, but the deponents ; and they never 
brought it, but at this time. But neither did the said Green pro- 
pose to them the mentioning to his Honour the Lieutenant Gover- 

' Those rnmarks were writt^'n by Cotton Mather. 

Appendix. 417 

nour, what was offered to the Press, nor did thej deny it him ; nor 

did they go away in any Anger from him, nor did they hear him say 

any such word : (^That he did not re/use to print it), all which the 

said Green in his late Advertisement of 21th Instant most unfairly 

Declares, That certain persons bringing to the Press the Answer 

above mentioned, did. 

" Tho. Brattle. 

" Boston, Dec. 27, 1700. " Zech Tuthill. 

The Suhscriheri offering to make Oath to what is above written^ 

the same being several times distinctly read over in the hearing o/*Bar- 

tholomew Oreen, he owned the same to be what pawed between him and 


'* Coram, Isaao Addington, ) Justices of 
Nathaniel Byfield. J the Peace." 

" The Depositions of John Mico <fe Zechariah TuthiUy Merchants, 

^' These Deponents say, That on or about the 16^^ of July last, they 
went to Bartholomew Green's to see if he were ready to Print the An- 
swer to Old Mr. Mather's Gospel Order, but he was then unwilling to 
Print it because (as he said) it would displease some of his Friends ; 
and to the best of their remembrance, he mentioned particularly the 
MatJiers. They told him it was strange he would Print any thing for 
the said Mathers, and particularly the said Gospel Order, and noth- 
ing in Answer to it or them, by which means the World might think 
those Principles to be approved by all, which were abhorred by sun- 
dry Worthy Ministers in the Land. The unfiiirness of which prac- 
tice they laboured to convince him of, yet he still declined to Print 
it ; but at length said, if they would admit the Lieutenant Governor 
to be askt, to give his Approbation to it, he would Print it ; which 
they were unwilling to for this reason : Because they conceived it a 
new Method, not practised heretofore, and which the said Green 
would not have required of them now, but to put off the Printing 
of this Book which answered the Mathers, whom he seemed loth to 
displease. These Deponents hereupon asked said Printer, whether 


418 History of Printing in America. 

be liad his Honours leave to Print the Gospel Order 7 he said, he 

had not. They then asked him if he would Print this, if Young 

Mr. Mather would be Imprimatur to it ? he readily said, he would. 

Then they told him, it was a shame so Worthy a Minister as Mr. 

Stoddard must send so far as England to have his book printed, 

when young Mr. Mather had the Press at his pleasure ? To which 

he replied, he hoped Mr. Mather was another guess man than Mr 

Stoddard, At length they told him, if he would not Print it, they 

would have it Printed elsewhere ; but did not hear him say those 

words in his Advertisement of the 2\st Instant, namely. That he did 

not refuse to print it, 

" John Mico 

" Boston^ December 27, 1700. Zeoh. Tuthill." 

" Sworn hy the two persons Subscribing, Bartholomew Green being 
present, and excepting against those words in the Evidence ; particu- 
larly the Mathers, and that he would Print it, if young Mr. Mather 
would be Imprimatur to it : Also affirming he said those words, He 
did not refuse to Print it, and nothing further, 

" Coram, Isaac Addington, 1 Justices of 
Nathanel Btfield. 3 the Peace." 

" Mr. Green the Printer, being by these 'Depositions Convicted of 
sundry Mistakes in his late Advertisement, so that his Folly and 
theirs who set him on work is manifest unto all men ; there is just 
reason to suspect the truth of what he saith in the Fag-end of his 
Advertisement, that neither the Reverend Prsesident, nor any of his 
Friends ever spoke a word to him to discourage his printing the 
Answer to the Order of the Gospel. But whether that be true or false, 
concerns not the Advertisement prefixed to said Answer, which saith 
nothing of any one speaking to the Printer, to discourage him ; but 
only that his Press was so much under the aw of the Reverend Author 
and his friends, that we could not obtain of him to Print it; Than 
which nothing can be more evident from these Depositions, which 
say, The said Printer after he had positively agreed for the Printing 
said Answer, fell off from his Bargain, and declined to Print it, be- 
cause it would displease some of his Friends, and particularly the 

Appendix. 419 

Mathers, who are known by all to have been hh particular Friends 
and Imployers, So that the Reverend Author of that Libellous 
Scribble, at the tail of said Greens Advertisement (to which the Rev- 
erend Author was not yet so Hardy as to set his Name) had no reason 
to Reflect as he did on the Advertisement prefixed to said Answer, 
or to Boast of the Printer's Vindication, bat might be ashamed of 
both. As for the prophane Scoffs and Scarrilities not only on par- 
ticular persons, but on the Holy Churches of the Lord, and the most 
Sacred Actions therein performed (by which are meant HORRI- 
BLE ! his two dear and precious Creatures^ RELATIONS and the 
CHURCH COVENANT,) which that infamous Scribble saith, is 
the Spirit of the whole Answer, and those other Falsehoods it is 
threatened shall appear therein ; they are but Bruta Fulmina to 
fright and scare the poor deluded, bigotted people withal, which is 
the very Spirit and Quintessence of the Reverend Scribler. But all 
these little Artifices and Cavils were plainly foreseen, and so fully 
provided against by the Ingenious Authors of said Answer, that 
there's no need of taking any further notice of them here. 

^' I shall therefore at present say no more, h\xt that the World may 
Judg what base and injurious treatment that Answer must expect 
from its Enraged Adversaries, by what is contained in that one little 
Canting, Scandalous Libel, wherein there are far more profane 
Scoffs, Scurrilities and, Impudent Falsehoods, than are in all that 

Tho. Beattle." 

" Boston, December 27, 1700. " Boston, printed by J. Allen." 

The Deposition of Bartholomew Green Printer. 

" Who Testifies and Says, That on Saturday, some time last 
Summer, Mr. Thomas Brattle, and Mr. Zech. TuthiU came to my 
Work House in Boston, and brought with them a Manuscript of 
small Writing for me to Print ; and calling me aside to one end of 
the Room, desired me to be private in it, and to keep it from the 
Mathers; informing me that it was an Answer to Old Mr. Mathers 
Book, of the Order of the Gospel. And after I had taken it into 
my hand, Mr. Brattle told me, it was not yet ready, he would Trans^ 

420 History of Printing in America. 

cribe it. They asked me how much I thought it would make : I 
answered, Three Sheets, or something more, in Octavo ; and told 
them I could not do it before the Laws were Printed, which would 
be next Monday or Tuesday, They asked me how much Paper 
Three Sheets would take to Print a Thousand : I answered about 
Seven Ream. They asked me how much I would have a Sheet ) I 
answered. Two and Twenty Shillings, They said, I could do it 
cheaper. I reply'd, Mr. Brattle was very curious in Correcting. 
They told me, That would be for my Credit, or to that purpose. 
After some other words I consented to do it for Twenty ShiUing 
Per Sheet : Whereupon they told me, they would have the Paper 
of Mr. George; and so went away, taking the Copy with them. 
After they were gone, it came into my mind what great disturbance 
the iSlani&StO had made (which I Printed very privately at said 
TuthilVs desire) which made me the more thoughtful, lest this might 
give more Offence. Yet for all, I went not to the Reverend Praesident; 
neither did I receive any Discouragement from him, or any of his 
Friends, as to my Printing of it. 

" The Monday or Tuesday following, Mr. Zechariah TuthiU came 
alone to my Printing House, where I was, and guessing at his Busi- 
ness, I desired him to walk out with me. Then I told him, I was 
much concerned about the Book, and prayed him to tell me who was 
the Author of it. What ? said he, Now you have been with Mr. 
Mather. To which I replied, I have not. Whereupon he said, 
There are three or four that are the Authors of it. Then I desired 
only that I might mention it to the Lieutenant Govarnour, or ask his 
Approbation ; which said I, I ought to do in Books of Controversy. 
Mr. TuthiU seem'd to be willing I should ; which greatly satisfied 
me. And understanding His Honour was to be in Town that day, 
I was to wait on him for that end. This is the substance of what 
passed between Mr. TuthiU and me. 

** A little while after, in the same day, Mr. John Mico, and the 
said Mr. Zechariah TuthiU came to me to my Printing Room, and 
charged me by no means to go to the Lieutenant Gk)vernour, for 
they would not have him know of it. After this, there passed some 
discourse concerning Mr. Increase Mather's Book, the Order of the 
Gospel^ and of Mr. Stoddard's Book, of Instituted Churches, as I 

Appendix. 421 

understood. Mr. Mice asked me if it were not pity, dr a shame, 
that such a man as Mr. Stoddard should send so far as England to 
have his Book Printed. The Answer to which I do not justly 
remember, nor for what reason he spake it to me : for Mr. Stoddard* i 
Book was never offered me to Print ; by himself or any other person. 
Afterward Mr. Mko said to me, Well ! you do refuse to Print it, 
meaning the Manuscript that was an Answer to Mr. IncreoM 
Mathef^s Order of the Gotapel, I answered No, I do not refuse to 
Print it : but am not willing to do it without the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor's Leave, or to that purpose. Whereupon they said they 
would have it printed elsewhere ; and went away in some Anger. 
<< Boston Jan. 4th, 1700, — 1. Bartholomew Green." 
" Boston Jan. 4th, 1700, — 1. Sworn by Barthol. Green, 
Printer ; Mr. Thomas Brattle, Mr. John Mico, and Mr. Zechariah 
Tuthill, being Notified and Present. 

C Samuel Sew all. '\ Justices 
" Coram Nobis, j Peter Sergeant. >• of the 

( Penn Townsend. j Peace " 

The Deposition of John AUen and Timothy Green, Printers. 

" These Deponents can and do Testify, That being at Bartholmew 
Green's Printing house at or about the 13th of Jufy 1700. Where 
Mr. Thomxis Brattle and Mr. Zechariah Tuthill came, and caird 
the said Green aside to another part of the Room, where they had 
some Private Discourse ; which said Green afterwards informed us, 
that it was to Print an Answer to Mr. Mather's Order of the Gospel. 
Some few days after, the aforesaid Zechariah Tuthill came alone to 
the aforesaid Prin ting-House, where we also then were. And the 
said Green and Tuthill went out together, and had some discourse 
together. After the said Tuthill was gone, the said Green told us 
that he had proposed to the said Tuthill the acquainting the Lieu- 
tenant Governour with it before he proceeded in doing it ; which 
the said Green said, that the said Tuthill was willing to : Whereat 
the said Green seem'd mightily well pleased. But some time after 
in the same day, came the aforesaid Tuthill with Mr. John Mico to 
the aforesaid Printing house ; and we do Testify that we heard the 
said Mico forbid the said Green acquainting the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernour with it ; but that he should say nothing of it. Other dis- 

422 History op Printing in America. 

course happened, which we took not much notice of. But this we 
can, and do Testify to, That we heard the said Mr. John Mico^ or 
Tuthill^ one of them say, Well ! or What, then you Refuse to Print 
it. Unto which the said Green Replyed, No, I do not Refuse to 
Print it : hut am unwilling without the Lieutenant Gh>Ternour'8 
Leave, or Approhation. Hereupon they went away seemingly Angrj, 
saying. We will have it Printed elsewhere. 
" Boston January 4th. << John Allen. 

"1700. Timothy Gbebn." 

" 1701. [N. S.] 

^^ Boston Jan, 4, 1700, I. Sworn hy the Subscribers, John Allen, 

and Timothy Green ; Mr. Thomas Brattle, and Mr, John Mico, 

and Mr, Zechariah Tuthill being Notified and Present. 

C Samuel Sew all. '\ Justices 
" Coram Nobis \ Peter Sergeant. >■ of the 

(^Penn Townsend. J Peace." 

To the Candid READER. 

" THE shortness of my Advertisement of the 2\st of December^ 
1700, having rendred it less intelliglhle, & given Occasion for some 
Exceptions that have been since taken against it : for this reason I 
have explained it in the Foregoing Depositions. As also because 
there being no mention made in the Deposition of Mr. Thomas 
Brattle and Mr. Zechariah Tuthill of the 27th of December, of 
their speaking to me to Print their Copy privately ; some might 
happily think, I Owned that they did not speak to me to do it pri- 
vately : Whenas I declared to the contrary. And some might think 
and boast, that I had Owned that I had most untruly, or at least 
most unfairly declared in my said Advertisement : Which I never 
did Own ; neither doth the Attestation of the Honourable Justices 
import I did. 

'^ And because what pass'd between Mr. Zechariah Tuthill & me 
singly, is wholly Omitted in both the Depositions said Tuthill was 
concerned in. 

^' The Sum is, Whenas no Name appeared in the Title Page ; nor 
so much as the Name of any Author was told me, when I re- 
quested it; & I had no opportunity to read it over my self; the Piece 

Appendix. 423 

being also Controversal : I concluded it would be altogether incon- 
venient for me to Print it upon my own head without asking advice ; 
for which I referred myself ta the Honourable WILLIAM STOUGH- 
TON, Esq; our Lieutenant Governour, who became Commander 
in Chief of the Province before the Week was out. For His Excel- 
lency the Lord BELLOMONT^ our Governour, began his Voyage 
to New Tark^ upon Wednesday the Vlth of July^ 1700. the very 
next day ailer Mr. Mico and Mr. TuthiU were with me. Nor was 
it a new thing to show Copies to the Lieutenant Governour in order 
to their being Printed. Mr. SewalCs PJixnomena Apocalyptica was 
taken off the Press, and carried to the Lieutenant Governour for his 
Allowance. By the same Token, one Half Sheet being wrought off 
too soon : the Author was at the Charge to Print it over again, to 
gratify His Honour in some Alterations that could not otherwise be 
made. Besides other Instances that might be given. And consid- 
ering the Lieut. Governours Eminent Qualification to judge of Books ; 
the Station God has given him in the Ifew Engluh Church ; and 
the good Offices he has done for Mr. Benjamin Cohnan and his 
Church in particular : Every one that is not a Stranger in Boston 
mav wonder at it, that a Book Dedicated to the Churches of Christ 
in N» England^ a motion to have it first viewed by his Honour, 
should be rejected with so much Disdain. For my own part, The 
obstinate Refusal of so fair an Arbiter, made me fear some foul 
Play : which is the principal Aw that I remember my self to have 
been under. 

'* In fine, the Maintenance of my self & Family of small Children, 
depending under God, upon the good will of them that please to set 
me on Work, I have no intent to provoke or affront any person or 
Order of men ; but to oblige them so far as is consistent with clear- 
ing of my Reputation ; which (as little and low as I am) ought to be 
more eligible to me than much gainful business. And now having 
truly and uprightly given an Account of my doing in this matter, I 
humbly submit it to the Charitable Censure of every judicious & 
Impartial Reader. 

"Boston, January 10, 1700, — 1. B. Grbbn."