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The world is indebted to the Portuguese navigators of the. 
fifteenth century for the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Some traditions of Phoenician voyagers having circumnavigated 
Africa in earlier times have been handed down to us by ancient 
writers ; but the first unquestionable historical record we have of 
any explorers sailing round the southern extremity of this con- 
tinent is that relating to the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz and 
Joa Infanta in 1486. 

Towards the end of August in that ye? x, the King of Portugal, 
John II., sent out two ships of fifty tons each, and a tender laden 
with surplus supplies of food, to proceed along the coast of 
Africa, beyond the points which had already been explored, in the 
hope that they might reach its further extremity and ultimately 
discover a seaway to India. 

The navigators carried with them stone pillars, each in the form 
of a cross, which they erected at such capes, bays and headlands as 
they discovered ; and amongst other points selected for this purpose 
was the mouth of the Orange River (now the north-western boundary 
of the Cape Colony), which they named Cape Voltas, owing .to the 
many tacks (voltas) they had to make from adverse winds at that 
place. Steering thence seawards, they were compelled to run for 
thirteen days with sails shortened, encountering seas which, as 
their vessels were small, they considered highly dangerous. 
However, the tempest which lashed the waves with fury having 
abated, they tried to reach the land by shaping their course east- 
wards, thinking the coast line still extended north and south. 
But, finding that they sailed several days without sighting it, they 
took a northerly course until they came to a bay which they 
named " Los Vaquiros," or the Bay of Cowherds (the present 
Vleesch Bay, near Grouritz River), on account ot the number of 
cattle they saw on land tended by native herdsmen. 

Proceeding further along the coast, on their new course, they 
came to an indent (now known as Algoa Bay) where they landed 
on a small Island, and Diaz set up a pillar named "Santa Cruz," 
but, as there were two springs on the island, some o^^Hed it the 

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** Fountain Eock," and by both terms the island is still known. 
This was the first land, beyond the Cape, which was trodden by 
European feet. The crews of the ships at this point began to 
complain ; they were worn out with fatigue and alarmed at the 
great seas they had passed, and protested against going further, 
saying that quite enough had been discovered ; that they were sure 
the land trended more and more eastward, whence it would seem 
there was behind them some great Cape, and that it would be a 
better plan to turn back for the purpose of seeking it. I)iaz 
greatly desired to prosecute the voyage, but by way of compromise 
proposed that they should proceed two or three days further along 
the coast, and should they not by that time make any 
discovery which might induce them to continue, they would be 
at liberty to turn back. This was agreed to. At the end of the 
time mentioned, however, they had only reached a river some 
twenty-five leagues eastward, and as Joa Infanta, the Captain of 
the second ship, was the first to land there, the river was called 
Rio de Infanta. It was the estuary now known as the Great Fish 
Eiver mouth 

On the return voyage, the navigators sighted the remarkable 
mountain range of the Cape Peninsula ; and Diaz and his com- 
panions named its southern extremity "Cabo Tormentos," or 
Stormy Cape, in remembrancfe of the rough seas they had passed 
through in doubling it ; but upon their arrival in Portugal, when 
they made report of their discovery, the King, on account of the 
promise it gave of the much longed-for ocean-route to India, be- 
stowed upon it the name by which the southern land of Africa has 
ever since been known, " Cabo de Boa Esperanca " — The Cape 
OF Good Hope. 

After an interval of ten years, another fleet was sent out from 
Portugal, in confident expectation of reaching India by the Cape 
route. The command was given to Vasco da Gama, who doubled 
the Cape of Good Hope on the 20th of March, 1497, and, after 
touching at Natal and Mozambique, successfully reached India in 
the following month of May. In rounding the Cape he touched 
at Mossel Bay (which Diaz had named San Bras), and there he 
was the first to hold intercourse with the Hottentots of South 
Africa. He describes them as " negroes with frizzly hair ; they 
value their flocks of cattle very highly, and some of them our men 
saw were very fat and clean, and women rode upon them, on pack 
saddles of reed. Our crews were much entertained by these natives, 
as they are a pleasure-loving people, given to playing on musical 
instruments and dancing; and among them were some who played 
upon a kind of pastoral reed, which seemed good after its fashion.'' 

The incidents of Da Gama's voyage furnished material to the 
Portuguese poet Camoens for his great national epic, the "Lusiad,'' 

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in which he thus romantically describes the Cape and its aboriginal 
inhabitants : — 

As from the wave the chariot of the day, 
Whirrd by the fiery coursers, springs away, 
There, full in view, the giant Cape appears, 
"Wide spread its limbs, and high its shoulders rears. 

Behind us, now, it curves the bending side, 
And our bold vessels plough the eastern tide. 
Nor long excursive off at sea we stand, 
A cultured shore invitee us to the land. 
Here their sweet scenes the rural joys bestow, 
And give our wearied limbs a lively glow. 

The tenants of the coast, a festive band. 
With dances meet us on the yellow sand ; 
Their brides on slow-pac'd oxen rode behind ; 
The spreading horns with flow*ry garlands twin*d, 
Bespoke the dew-lapp'd beeves their proudest boast. 
Of all their bestial store they valued most. 

By turns the husbands, and the brides, prolong 
The various measures of the rural song. 
Now, to the dance the rustic reeds resound ; 
Tho dancer's heels, light quivering, beat the ground : 
And now, the lambs around them bleating stray, 
Feed from their hands, or round them frisking play. 

Methought I saw the sylvan reign of Pan, 
And heard the music of the Mantuan swan : 
With smiles we hail them, and with joy behold 
The blissful manners of the age of gold. 

During the centuiy and a half succeeding these discoveries, the- 
Cape was used as a temporary place of call by the Portu- 
guese, English, and Dutch, respectively, who engaged in the^ 
Eastern ocean-trade. Their ships resorted to Table Bay for water 
and live-stock, which they obtained from the natives. They also 
made it a means of postal communication : outward-bound vessels - 
buried their letters or despatches and European news at certain 
spots, indicated by square stones, on which were cd graved the names^ 
of the ships ; and the return fleets carefully searched for these to- 
obtain intelligence from their homes or of their countrymen. But 
no permanent settlement was attempted by any of the maritime- 
powers of Europe until 1652, when the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, under charter granted by the States-Q-eneral of the United 
JProvinces of Holland, took possession of Table Bay, establishing a. 
fort, and occupying the lands skirting the foot of Table Mcimtain, 
chiefly with the object of having always in readiness supplies for* 
the refreshment of their passing ships. 

Jan Anthony van Riebeek, a surgeon and merchant in ihe service- 
of the Company, who in one of its return fleets had spent a few 
weeks at the Cape, and had previously voyaged to China, Japan^ 
the West Indies and Greenland, was chosen the first Commander, 
or Governor, of the new settlement. He left the Texel on the- 
24th December, 1651, with three ships, the Dromedarls (which 
carried his flag), the Reij'ger^ and tho Gfoede Hope, and anchored 
in Table Bay on the 6th of April, 1652. He was accompanied 
by his family, and was provided with necessary materials and mer- 


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chandize, and authorized to land from the ships about a hundred 
men to form a garrison, erect a residence and defensive works, and 
'Constitute the embryo colony. 

In accordance with instructions, they erected near the beach 
on what is now the Military Parade-ground, Cape Town, a small 
earthenwork fort, " as a stronghold against any attempts of the 
savages," and, under protection of its eight-pounder cannon, the 
first inhabitants laid out their gardens and pastures. They first 
raised vegetables and grew com. They afterwards introduced and 
|ax)pagated the vine, the orange, the olive and other fruit trees. 
They bartered brass, beads, brandy and tobacco for the cattle 
and sheep of the Hottentots. And from time to time they sent 

• out small expeditions, to penetrate into the Interior, with a view 
to make search for more profitable commodities for trade, and to 

learn " more and more of the secrets of Africa," and especially 
to try and find a way inland to the auriferous lands of Monomo- 
tapa and Sofala, which even in those days were believed to be the 
true Ophir whence King Solomon had imported his gold. 

The daily life and progress of the little garrison of the Fort de 
Goede Hope are minutely detailed in the quaint and interesting 

■*' journals " and " despatches " of Van liiebeek and his successors, 

■still preserved in the Archives of the Colony. 

The first act of the founder of the settlement, immediately 
after his arrival in Table Bay, was to hold a council of his officers 

-on board the principal ship, the Dro7tiedaris. The proceedings 
were solemnly opened by supplicating the blessings of Heaven 
upon the important work in which they were about to engage. 

They prayed that " as they were called to the government of the 

-affairs of the Cape of Good Hope, — to advise and take such 
aaeasures as might best tend to promote the interests of the East 
India Company — to maintain justice, and, if possible, to implant 

:and propagate the true Reformed Christian doctrine amongst the 
wild and savage inhabitants, for the praise and honour of God 
and the benefit of their employers, — ^it might please the Almighty 
Father to preside at their assembly, and with heavenly wisdom 

* enlighten their hearts, and remove all perverse passions, misunder- 
•atandings and other defects and human weaknesses, that their 

minds might be so composed, that in all their deliberations they 
should not resolve anything which would not tend to the praise 
and glory of His holy name and the benefit of their masters, with- 
out considering in the least their own personal advantage or profit." 
This form of prayer was in use at every succeeding meeting of the 
♦Council, and on every Sabbath day service was held, and a sermon 
read either by the Commander, or by Willian Barends Wylandt, 
'the Chaplain, or " sick comforter" as he was called, who, although 
mot ordained discharged minor clerical functions. 

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The Council at their first meeting resolved that the Commander 
Jan van Eiebeek, accompanied by the Captains of the ships, David 
Connick, Johan Hoegsat, and Simon Tnrver, should land with some • 
armed soldiers, to inspect and measure a place fitted for a fort, and 
that the carpenter and men of the ships with all speed should erect,, 
within the boundaries of the fort, a convenient store and dwelling 
house according to a plan furnished to them. 

The landing of Van Riebeek to select the site of the fort, and 
his interview with the Hottentots, " making use of signs and many^ 
broken Dutch and English words," has furnished a subject for one- 
of the few historical paintings to be foimd in the Colony. The 
accompanying illustration is a copy of an admirable picture^, 
executed by the late Charles Davidson Bell, formerly Colonial 
Surveyor-Q-eneral, which was originally in the possession of the 
Hon. William Porter, and was by him presented in 1861 to the 
South African Public Library. 

On the 10th of April, work was commenced on the fort ; but a 
number of the men landed from the ships proved to be so 
unskilful, weak, sea-worn, and scorbutic, as to render compara- 
tively little aid ; and the Commander had to set to work himself 
as engineer, excavator, carpenter, mason and blacksmith. He and 
his family took up their quarters in a leaky hut on shore until 
better accommodation could be provided for them. By his con- 
tinual presence, however, the work advanced. The end of the 
following month saw the Eesidency sufficiently completed for 
occupation ; and on the 6th of June, within its walls the Chaplain's 
wife was delivered of a child, the first of European stock bom at 
the Cape. Meanwhile, the Commander made several excursions- 
to acquaint himself with the surrounding country. In the kloofs or 
ravines of Table Mountain he found fine, thick and fairly long trees^ 
fit for masts for ships, but difficult to remove. On some of them the 
dates 1604, 1620, and 1622 were found carved. Harts, elands^ 
steenbuck and other game were plentiful ; but so wild that they 
could not be approached. The hippopotamus and rhinoceros were 
in near neighbourhood ; and one evening a lion killed the cattle 
of a Hottentot quite close to the fort. A day or two afterwards,, 
says the Journal : " The Commander while walking in the garden 
[where the Parliament Houses now stand] found traces of 
wild animals all over it, and soon after a large lion sprung 
up from the outside of the ground, forty or fifty paces ofF,. 
and walked slowly towards the mountain. "We therefore sent 
after him a sergeant, a hunter, and four or five soldiers with 
firelocks; upon which fully two hundred Hottentots instantly 
pursued with all their sheep and cattle and surrounded the lion in 
a deep kloof on the side of the mountain, so that he could turn in 
no direction without forcing his way through the sheep, whichi 

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they opposed to the lion as their breastwork, while he lay under a 
rstump. They stood outside of the flock of sheep, and between 
them and the cattle, and whenever the lion gave a spring and a 
roar, and seized a sheep, they threw their assegais over the sheep 
'with loud cries, on which the lion retreated. It was a very 
singular spectacle; but as they could not well hit him, the 
sergeant, standing with the rest eight or ten yards from the lion, 
:fired but without effect, when the hunter fired and shot him dead 
•with three balls through the head. The Hottentots then showed 
Tthemselves brave men, and would have stabbed him a hundred 
times after he was dead, but they were prevented lest they should 
injure the skin which, when stuffed, will be hung in the great hall 
used as a church. The lion weighed four hundred and twenty-six 
pounds Dutch weight. The lioness was, the following night 
-seeking her mate near the gate, and also ate part of his carcase." 

The winter of 1652, from July to August, was an exception- 
ally severe one ; part of Table Moimtain was white with snow, 
.and so much rain fell that the land resembled a sea. There was 
-much sickness and several deaths among the garrison. But all 
the privations and discomforts of these months were forgotten 
with the advent of the Cape spring, in September, when the verdure 
'of the hills and the valleys afforded pleasure to the eye ; and the 
Commander had the satisfaction of enjoying some of the products 
of his own garden — " giving a parting dinner to the officers of the 
j'acht Goede Hope, entirely of chickens reared at the Cape, shell- 
less peas, spinach, chervil, pot-herbs, asparagus as thick as the 
finger, and salad as compact as a cabbage, weighing fully a pound 
;and a quarter." 

The natives appear to have received the Europeans in a 
tfriendly manner. The skipper. Captain Hoegsat, on first landing, 
Tnet nine of them at the Salt Kiver; "they were handsome 
:active men of particularly good stature, dressed in ox-hides, 
■tolerably prepared and carried gracefully on one arm, with 
:xin air as courageous as any brave in Holland could carry his 
cloak on arm or shoulder. When they heard that he commanded 
one of the ships, they clasped him round the neck with great joy, 
intimating that for copper and tobacco they would bring cattle 
•<3nough." Other officers of the garrison, upon visiting neighbouring 
kraals, were likewise courteously received. " Upon arriving at the 
residence of the chief or captain they found him very polite. He 
welcomed them and led them round to see his riches in huts — 
rfifteen in number — and in cattle and sheep, in all 1,500 or 1,600 in 
number ; after which he let them enter and rest and sit in his 
liouse of mats, very handsomely made and rather large, and having 
desired some women to bring milk entertained them in a very kind 
.and friendly manner. Here they saw the children sucked at the 

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udders of the sheep, which the mothers gave them. The chief 
seemed much respected, and understood also very well how to 
maintain his dignity." 

Van Eiebeek himself met with an equally demonstrative 
welcome on the occasion of his visit to a kraal or encampment on 
the eastern side of Table Moimtain. The camp, which numbered 100 
inhabitants, including women and children, consisted of sixteen 
tolerably large mat houses, neatly disposed in a circle and enclosed 
with brushwood fastened together as a breastwork, with two open- 
ings or passages for the cattle to be driven out or in, morning or 
evening. This passage was occupied by about thirty yoimg fellows, 
their skins and cloaks thrown ofF, entirely naked, but well provided 
with assagais, bows and arrows. On approaching, the Ghovemor 
held out his hand to them with a friendly gesture, and " instantly 
they kissed their hands and came on joining hands with him and 
embracing with great fervour like the greatest friends in the world.'* 
The Grovemor, however, had occasion to lament these amicable 
embraces, for he says, ** We had again a suit of clothes destroyed 
from the greasiness of the oil and filth with which they, and par- 
ticularly the greatest amongst them, had so besmeared themselves, 
that they shone like looking-glasses in the sun, the fat trickling 
down from their heads and along their whole bodies, which 
appealed to be their greatest mark of distinction." 

As the object of the settlement, at the beginning, was to furnish 
supplies to the outward and homeward bound ships, and as the 
prmcipal supplies in the shape of sheep and cattle were only to be 
obtained from the Hottentot tribes, special directions were given 
to treat them with all kindness and favour, so as to gain their 
affection and confidence. Anyone foimd abusing, ill-treating or 
pushing any of them, whether he was in the right or in the wrong, 
was liable to be pimished with lashes in their presence. The 
beach-rangers and watermen occupying Table Valley frequently 
manifested a pilfering and thievish disposition, and on one occasion 
some of them treacherously murdered a European youth who was 
herding cattle near the Lion's Hill ; but the Commander forbad 
all reprisals ; and indeed ordered that the people should be treated 
with greater kindness than before, lest by indiscriminate vengeance 
the innocent should suffer for the guilty. 

For a few years, the intercourse between the new and the 
ancient occupants of the country was carried on in an amicable and 
humane spirit. Van Eiebeek having suggested to his masters 
that their original plan of settlement might be extended and some 
free men allowed to take up their residence at the Cape as " boers " 
or farmers, but subject to the Company, authority was given in 
1656, that the cultivation of the lands might be enlarged for the 
promotion of agriculture and the growth of all kinds of garden 

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fruits. Nine soldiers and sailors at this time received their dis- 
charge, and were granted the privilege of free men and burghers, 
and located near Kondebosch. When the tribe known as " Caep- 
mans " saw these white men ploughing the ground where they were 
wont to dig out roots for their winter food, and their cattle had been 
accustomed to graze from time immemorial, they became alarmed. 
It looked as if the Europeans intended to take permanent posses- 
sion of their country, and according to the words of one of them, 
they resolved to prevent and to " disheeirten the colonists by taking 
away their cattle, and if that did not produce the effect, then to 
bum their houses and com until they were forced to go away." 
They called the tribe of the Gorachouquas to their aid, and swept • 
off a number of the colonists' cattle. Thus commenced the first 
colonial war, which occurred in 1669. The colonists and garrison 
at the time were few in number, but they were fortimately 
reinforced by the crews of some vessels which had put into Table 
Bay. Hostilities continued for many months ; and after two 
engagements, in which seven natives were kUled and one of their 
leaders wounded, they came to the Company's Fort sueing for 
peace, which was at once concluded, and both parties engaged not 
to molest each other in future. 

How they smoked the calumet of peace is thus told in the 
Journal of van Biebeek : — 

1660. April 6. This day peace was renewed at the Fort with the 
Captain and chief of the Caepmans, Herry and all the principal and 
oldest of the tribe. . . . They dwelt long upon our taking every 
day for our own use more of the land, which had belonged to them 
from all ages and on which they were accustomed to depasture their 
cattle, &c. They also asked, whether, if they were to come into Hol- 
land, they would be permitted to act in a similar manner, saying, 
** What would it signify if you remained here at the Fort, but you 
come quite into the interior, selecting the best for yourselves, and never 
once asking whether we like it, or whether it will put us to any incon- 
venience." They therefore insisted very strenuously that they should 
be again allowed free access to the pasture. It was at first objected 
that there was not grass enough for their cattle and for ours also. 
They said in reply, **Have we then no cause to prevent you from 
procuring any cattle ? for if you get many cattle, you come and occupy 
our pasture with them, and then say the land is not 'wide enough for us 
both. Who then can be required, with the greatest degree of justice, 
to give way, the natural owner or the foreign invaders ? " They in- 
sisted much upon their natural right of property, &c., and that they 
should at least be at liberty to gather for their winter food the bitter 
almonds and roots which -grew there naturally ; but this also could 
not be acceded to, because, on the one hand, it would give them too 
many opportunities to injure the colonists, and on tie other, because 
we this year had need of the bitter almonds ourselves, for the 
purpose of planting the projected hedge or live fence (a reason whicl^ 

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was not stated to them), but they insisted so much on this point, that 
our word must out at last : That they had now lost that land in war 
and therefore could only expect to be henceforth entirely deprived of 
it, the rather because they could not be induced to restore the cattle 
which they had, wrongfully and without cause, stolen from us ; that 
their country had thus fallen to our lot, being justly won by the 
sword in defensive warfare, and that it was our intention to retain it. 
In opposition to this, they complained much that the colonists and 
others living in the country had given them much annoyance, with 
now and then perhaps stealing a sheep or a calf, &c., taking from them 
their beads, earrings, and bracelets, and giving them to their slaves, 
also with beating and pushing, &c., without the Commander knowing 
exactly about it tdl (in which there is some truth), and that they there- 
fore, not being able to bear this any longer, had resolved to take re- 
venge by stealing the cattle ; and thus they roundly maintained that 
they had cause enough. 

In reply to this, we reminded them of the numerous instances of 
pimishments enacted by us against those of whom they were accustomed 
to complain, for these and similar annoyances, &c., and that if they 
were not to be satisfied thus but were always to revenge themselves by 
robbery and theft, peace could never be maintained betwixt us, and 
they would lose still more of their land by the right of conquest, imlebs 
indeed they had the courage to expel us, in which case they would 
become, by virtue of the same right, owners of the Fort and all, and 
would continue such as long as they could hold it, and if they were dis- 
posed to try that, we should consider of what we must do. 

On this they said, that this was a recital of past events, and that they 
were contented henceforth never to think of molesting any of our 
people, but to complain to us of any that molested them, in order 
that they might, after due enquiry, be punished by us according to their 
deserts, as they also would do upon their side ; and that they would 
wait for scfme day when the Commander went out, that he might 
point out to them the roads they must take and the limits beyond 
which they must remain, &c. ; this was postponed until the departure 
of the ships now in the roads. 

The peace was then concluded, and the chief Gogosoa, Herry, and 
all the principal people, about 40 in number, received presents of brass, 
beads and tobacco, and were so well entertained with food and brandy, 
that they were all well fuddled, and if we had chosen, we could have 
easily kept them in our power, but for many weighty reasons this 
was not deemed expedient, as we can do that at any time, and 
meanwhile their disposition can be still further sounded. 

The authorities in Holland, on receipt of news of the war, were 
very uneasy. Their hopes of a peaceful occupation of the Cape 
were rudely dispelled by these hostilities with the Hottentots ; and 
they feared sucn conflicts would be continually repeated with one 
or other of the more inland tribes. They wrote, " The discontent 
shewn by these people in consequence of our appropriating to our- 
selves — and to their exclusion — the laud wJuoa they h^ve used for 

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their cattle from time immemorial is neither surprising nor ground- 
less, and we therefore should be glad to see that we could purchase it 
from them, or otherwise satisfy them/' 

This suggestion of purchasing territory was carried into effect 
a few years afterwards. A purchase was made in 1672 from two of 
the Hottentot Chiefs, who claimed to be hereditary sovereigns, of 
all the country from the Cape Peninsula to Saldanha Bay, " lands 
rivers, creeks, forests, and pastures inclusive," but with the condi- 
tion that where the colonists did not occupy the arable lands or 
pastures, the natives might erect their kraals and ^aze their cattle 
freely. The purchase amount of this cession was paid for in brandy, 
tobacco, beads, and merchandize of the value of little more 
than one hundred florins, or not quite ten pounds sterling. 

The handful of men who, under the title of " Free Burghers," 
took their discharge from the garrison and the Company's service, 
may be termed the first colonists of the Cape of Good Hope. 
They were natives of Holland and Germany, the latter ooimtry 
furnishing the Dutch East India Company with a large proportion 
of its servants. They were well supplied by the Company, on 
credit, with cattle, implements, and seed, with which to carry on 
their farming operations. As no servants could be got on hire 
from the Hottentots, slaves were imported for them, and in some 
cases the services of a few of the single men forming the garrison 
were lent to them.. They were allowed as much land as they could 
bring under cultivation, and were exempted from the payment of 
taxes for three years, but subsequently were made Kable to an 
assessment, which was fixed at one-tenth of all produce raised from 
their lands and also a tenth of all stock from the pasture land 
they were allowed to occupy. The Chamber of Seventeen directed 
that they were to be encouraged as much as might be without 
injury to the Company ; and so far they were treated with all the 
liberality of which its system was susceptible. 

Care was taken, however, that the Company should be lords and 
masters of the settlement in every way ; monopolising the impor- 
tations, productions, and trade of the inhabitants altogether for its 
own advantage. The free burghers might not buy anything but 
what came from the Company's store and at the Company's price, 
and they were bound to deliver all their produce to the Company 
on terms to be fixed at the discretion of its officers. Traffic with 
the natives was strictly forbidden, lest prices should become too 
high for the Company when inclined to purchase. This rule for a 
short time was so far relaxed as to allow them to buy breeding 
cattle, provided that the articles employed in barter, such as brass 
and tobacco, had been previously bought from the Company. 
Afterwards the privilege was withdrawn, and trade with natives 
and foreigners stringently prohibited. There were also restrictions 

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on the variety of crops they raised, and on their intercourse with 
the crews of ships visiting the port ; and the value of imported 
goods they recceived on credit from the Company was secured by 
special mortgages upon their estates. 

When the burghers, after expending their toil and labour on 
their lands, found that they were thus trammelled, and a fair price 
for their produce denied them, they naturally became discontented, 
and at length, in 1658, gave vent to their grievances in a petition 
signed by all the burghers and freemen, "no one excepted," with 
which they waited upon the Commander. 

In this petition they set forth that they became free on certain 
conditions, in order to support themselves by agriculture, and also 
to have free trade in cattle and with the Hottentots ; but now after 
they had slaved on their lands, trade was forbidden them. That 
the cattle given them to work their lands, instead of being the best, 
were of the worst description — some being oxen no larger than 
mastiffs, and thin cadaverous-looking cows. They had reaped and 
thrashed, and brought in their harvest, but they wanted to know 
before delivering their com what they were to get for it ; their 
price was ten guilders per muid, and if they did not get their price 
they should not cultivate any land, and would bring back all the 
stores and cattle and everything they had in hand, for they Hid not 
work to be slaves of the Company nor to be ordered in their farm- 
ing arrangements. They requested to be allowed to barter cattle 
freely : also to go on board the ships in the roadsteads without being 
prosecuted by the Fiscal. They further represented that they 
suffered damage and loss from the Hottentots, and that they were 
the defenders of the country ; and they concluded, " We have too 
long been paid in words. We are not the slaves of the Company. 
We are the protectors of the land."* 

To this, the Commander and Council replied by reading to 
them the papers and conditions they had signed when they became 
freemen — and particularly the condition that they would submit 
to all rules existing and still to be made by the Grovemor. Their 
threats to compel the Company to give a certain price for their 
corn, or to do one thing or another, were characterised as seditious 
and rebellious, and they were reminded that they had been fed 
and supported, and raised from a low condition, at great expense 
and imder serious difficulties. That the Directors had already 
made the calculation that, as the burghers had the land for nothing, 
they could get on with less thtui six guilders per muid for com ; 
but the Commander hoped to get more for them, as he himself 

* Of the 16 or 17 who signed the petition seven only made their marks : the signatures 
Included those of Steven Jansen, Casper Branckman, Frans Gerrits, Herman Rama- 
guene, Jan Martens, Johannes Rietvleit, and Jacob Cloeten. Johannes Reitvleit was 
said to have written the petition, — ** with too sharp a pen," says Van Riebeek. 

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was allowed to carry on agriculture, and like the burghers would, 
like to get the highest price. They were further told that the 
Company had forbi^dden barter with the Hottentots, as it neces- 
sarily raised the price of cattle, and moreover by making 
expeditions inland they neglected their work on the farms, for 
which alone they had been made free. 

The Commander added, that as regarded himself, he could 
overlook the matter ; but in the threats they had offered against 
the Company, they had run their head against a wall, and he re- 
minded them of the reply of Commander Groens to a previous 
memorial of the freemen — viz., those who would not cultivate for 
themselves would be compelled to do so for the Company, and 
other freemen were ready to take their grounds should it be 
confiscated by the rebellious conduct of the present owners. He 
therefore cautioned them to take care of what they were about, 
and hereafter " do their best with the plough and keep the thresh- 
ing-floor warm." 

When this reply and reprimand was read publicly in the Coim- 
cil-room to the petitioners, their representatives confessed their 
faults, and begged the Commander would not be too much 
offended, as they now found that he had all along been in their 
favour, and endeavoured to help them. They promised in the 
future to do their best. After these words, each received a 
bokaal, or goblet of wine, from the Commander. Peace and quiet 
were restored (says the chronicle), and everjr one went home 
with a smiling face, the one making merry with the other because 
every one had got his due. 

Van Eiebeek took credit to himself for having promptly re- 
duced the burghers to subjection and due submission. Writing 
to the Chamber of Seventeen, he says : — " We trust it may afford 
you satisfaction, and be worth the perusal, to see how quickly we 
made them hide their heads and submit to the orders issued and 
to be issued by your Honours, in accordance with their letters of 
freedom and with their freeholds." 

How the matter was regarded by the Chamber may be in- 
ferred from their despatch in reply: "We have carefully ex- 
amined the substance of the petition presented to you by the free- 
men and burghers, which we find to be full of sedition and mutiny ; 
you ought not to have received it, but torn it up and thrown it 
away in their presence ; and we hereby warn them not to present 
or transmit such papers in future, otherwise we shall be compelled 
to provide against the same by severe measures." At the same 
time it was intimated that the freemen should be somewhat 
assisted, in particular at the outset, so that they might be able to 
maintain themselves, and not acquire a distaste for labour ; and, 
further, that care should be taken that every contract entered 

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into, and every promise made them, should be observed and ful- 
filled. It is noticeable that in the expressed aims and intentions of 
the Company there was much that appears good and beneficial ; 
yet, practically, in all that affected the encouragement or even the 
toleration of free trade or industry amongst its subjects, every- 
thing was held secondary to immediate profit. 

After nearly eleven years of service. Van Riebeek was 
rewarded by promotion to the Eastern possessions of the Dutch 
East India Company. The main object for which he had 
laboui^ed was successfully accomplished. He had converted the 
Cape from a barren waste into a desirable place for the refresh- 
ment of the out-ward and homeward bound fleets. Thirty-two 
tons of grain, the produce of one harvest, were stored in the 
granaries, and cattle were regularly supplied by the Hottentots 
with whom he was in amity. His zeal, industry and devotion 
to the Company were acknowledged by his appointment to the 
government of Malacca, and he afterwards filled the office of 
Secretary to the Council of Batavia. His son, bom at the Cape 
in 1653, rose to the high position of Governor-General of the 
Dutch East Indies. 

Among the Commanders who succeeded van Eiebeek, the most 
able and conspicuously active was Simon Van der Stell, who was 
Governor from 1679 to 1699. Immediately upon his arrival, he 
made excursions into the country, and established a government 
farm (now in the possession of the Theunissen family at Hot- 
tentots Holland), and laid out a village on the Eerste River at 
Stellenbosch, and new farms on the Dwars River at Drakenstein. 
By this time the nimiber of colonial burghers had considerably 
increased, new men (Germans, Danes, Flemings and Dutch) taking 
their discharge year after year, to try their fortune as colonial 
proprietors, including the Company's servants and the burghers 
with their wives and children, the European population in 1680 
amounted to about six hundred souls. In Table Valley and about 
the Castle there were thirty families, chiefly subsisting by lodging 
houses or taverns and keeping gardens and a few cattle. From 
Table Valley to Steenberg, there were twenty-four houses, the 
owners subsisting by farms and vineyards. In Stellenbosch there 
were ninety-nine families, all betaking themselves to farming. 

Van der Stell did not rest satisfied with the Cape being a mere 
refreshment station, and urged that something more should be 
made of the country, as there was land of excellent character in 
abundance awaiting labourers to till it. " The Colony is now," he 
wrote, " by God's blessing, brought so far that we have weathered 
the Cape of want of bread, wine, beer, fiesh, fish, fruit and vege- 
tables ; an4 as our colonists chiefiy consist of strong, gallant and 
industrious bachelors, who for the solace of their cares and for 

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managing of domestic concerns would most gladly be married ; 
and as such bonds would establish the Colony on an immovable 
basis, we request that thirty or forty respectable young women be 
sent out, all of whom will be well disposed of in this place." The 
Directors of the Company received the suggestion for an exten- 
sion of the Colony very favourably. They considered that the 
enlargement of the Cape settlement might eventually afford the 
Company, as sovereigns and patrons of the territory, a revenue 
for the payment and maintenance of their garrisons. They 
therefore determined to comply with Van der Stell's requisition as 
regards the young women, and also to reinforce the Colony 
with a number of settlers of the agricultural class. 

It happened that Holland at this time was receiving with 
sympathy and kindness the Protestant refugees who were driven 
from France on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The East 
India Company offered these " exiles for conscience sake " a home 
in their African possessions, and a number of them, amounting in 
all to about three hundred men, women and children, accepted the 
offer. In 1687 the Chambers of Amsterdam and of Delft 
informed Van der Stell that in addition to other freemen, some 
French and Piedmontese refugees were willing to emigrate to the 
Cape. " Among them,'' says the despatch, " are persons who 
understand the culture of the vine, who will in time be able to 
benefit the Company and themselves. We consider that as these 
people know how to manage with very little, they will without 
difficulty be able to accommodate themselves to their work at the 
Cape, also especially as they feel themselves safe imder a mild 
Government and freed from the persecution which they suffered. 
It will be your duty, as they are destitute of everything, on their 
arrival to furnish them with what they may require for their 
subsistence, until they are settled and can earn their own liveli- 
hood. Further you will have to deal with them, as we have on 
former occasions directed you to do, in regaid to freemen of our 

These refugees arrived in the Colony in 1688 and 1689 ; and 
the public records contain a register of the names of nearly 
all of them. Among them are those of Du Plessis, Malherbe, 
Rosseau, Fouche, De Villiers, Du Toit, Malan, Marais, Jourdan, 
Mesnard, Du Pre, Notier, Le Febre, Cordier, Eetief, Therou, 
Hugo, Joubert, Le Eoux, La Grange, Labuscagne and others, 
whose descendants are now widely scattered over the whole of 
South Africa. 

The greater number of them upon their arrival, were placed on 
the lands along the Berg River Valley, where they soon taught 
the waste to yield them daily bread, and within a few years 
became a self-supporting community. Besides cultivating "the 

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cornfields green and sunny vines," with which they had been 
familiar from childhood, they planted French names throughout 
the district ; and the titles of such estates as Le Parais, Lamotte, 
Cabrier, Normandy, Ehone, Champagne, Languedoc, and the like, 
which frequently occur in the neighbourhood of the Paarl, Fransche 
Hoek (La Petite Eochelle), Stellenbosch, and Wellington, remain 
memorials of the localities where they fixed their abodes. 

A Minister of the Walloon Church, the Eev. Pierre Simond, 
accompanied and remained with them for a few years, holding 
religious sevices for them in the French language, on alternate 
Sundays at Stellenbosch and Drakenstein. An application to be 
permitted to form their own congregation at the latter place, and 
to elect their Vestry, was sternly refused them by Van der Stell. 
They were only for a very short time permitted to exercise 
their worship apart and unconnected with the Dutch Eeformed 
Church, and were soon after, as Calvinists, merged in it and placed 
on the same footing, the authorities not allowing, for nearly a 
century afterwards, the least semblance of any other ecclesiastical 
establishment or worship in the settlement. 

The refugees also endeavoured to preserve their language, and 
taught it to their children ; but this was discouraged by order of 
the Company, who directed that " French should, in time, entirely 
die out, and nothing but Dutch should be taught to the young to read 
and write." In 1709, the use of French in addressing the Grovem- 
ment upon official matters was publicly prohibited ; and in 17x54, 
the reading of the lessons at the church service in the French 
language took place for the last time. 

The French astronomer, the Abbe la Caille, who visited the Cape 
in 1752, refers in his " Journal," to the condition of his fellow- 
countrymen, and notes the gradual extinction of the language 
amongst their children. He says — " With respect to the refugees, 
they have preserved the French language and have taught it to 
their children ; but the latter, partly because they trade with the 
Dutch and Germans who speak the Dutch language, and have 
married or become connected with the Dutch and Germans, have 
not taught French to their children. There are no longer any of 
the old refugees of 1680 to 1690 at the Cape, only their children 
remain who speak French, and they are very old. I did not meet 
any person under forty years of age who spoke French, unless he 
had just arrived from France. I cannot, however, be sure that this 
is altogether general ; but I have heard those who speak French 
say that in twenty years there would not be any one in Drakenstein 
who would know how to speak it." Le Vaillant, the French 
naturalist, who visited the Colony in 1780, states that he found 
but one old man who understood French. Before the close of 
last century, the language had quite ceased to be spoken. 

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In 1699 Simon van der Stell retired from office to live upon the 
wine farm which he himself had laid out and planted, — the cele- 
brated estate of Oonstantia. He was succeeded, as Governor, by 
his son, William Adrian van der Stell, who during the five years 
of his administration appears to have abused the privileges of his 
position in such a manner as to create grievous discontent among 
the burghers. The main cause of this discontent was that he 
" attempted to play the master over all," and it was charged 
against him that he had, in an underhand manner, enriched him- 
self by barter with the natives, and acquired an immoderately large 
estate at Hottentots Holland where he employed the Company's 
rslaves for his own interests. Corn farmers complained that when 
they deUvered the tenth of their produce as a tax at the 
'Company's store, he compelled them to load their wagons on 
returning with requisites for his farm ; and that in the name of his 
brother and other friends, he furnished the Company's magazine 
with large quantities of wheat at higher prices than he paid the 
farmers. Wine farmers complained that they had to deliver their 
vintage at ten to twenty rix-dollars per leaguer, while it was sold 
to ship captains at 150 rix-dollars. Grantees of land, who wanted 
their title-deeds, said they could not- obtain them unless the 
solicitation was accompanied with the necessary douceur^ " for the 
Governor listened readily to reasons that jingle." Coupled with 
these charges against the Governor, there were complaints against 
his brother and other functionaries, including the second officer 
Samuel Elzevier, and the clergyman Petrus Kalden, who it was 
said ** occupied himself far more with agricultural operations than 
with the pulpit." 

A memorial setting forth these complaints was signed by sixty- 
one burghers and secretly conveyed by one of the outward-bound 
.ships to the Government at Batavia. When Van der Stell received 
intelligence of this from Java, he was furious, and commenced a 
course of persecution against all whom he suspected of being dis- 
affected. Amongst them were several of the refugees. Some 
secreted themselves in the inland parts of the country until the 
storm blew over. Others were seized, banished to Robben Island, 
JJ!auritius, Batavia, or ordered to Holland in the return ships. 

Three of the burghers thus expelled, Messrs. Van der Byl, 
Hussing, and Van der Heiden, on their arrival in Holland were 
instrumental in obtaining attention to the case of the colonists, and 
At length secured the recall of the Governor. 

In 1707, the Chamber of Seventeen wrote : — " We have had the 
dissatisfaction to perceive that grave commotions and differences 
-exist between a great number of the colonists and the Cape Govern- 
ment. Much paper hath been covered with complaints and refu- 
tations which have occupied much of our time and given us much 

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trouble. Of all this we say no more than that we expect that such 
like matters will not again arise ; and for the conservation of the 
public peace and for other good reasons, we have resolved and do 
now order that the Governor W. A. van der Stell, Samuel Elzevier, 
as well as the clergyman Petrus Kalden and the Landdrost Johan 
Starreberg, shall be removed and sent hither, retaining their rank 
and pay, but without any authority or ofl&oe." At the same time 
a new Governor (Van Assenberg) was appointed, and it was an- 
nounced that " all the colonists sent away and detained on the 
^ound 6f alleged conspiracy and rebellion are restored to their 
former position and honours." This, as the despatch set forth, 
was done for the restoration of tranquillity, but no change what- 
ever was made in the policy of the Company, which was avowed 
to be the enrichment of itself and not of the Colonists. 

The history of the country under the Dutch East India 
Company'is rule during the remaining portion of the eighteenth 
century, shews that there was a continuous but vain struggle on the 
part of the free burghers to obtain some relaxation of the capricious 
and oppressive enactments of the Government, which not only 
excluded them from participation in foreign trade, but hampered 
them in all their transactions. 

In 1719, representations were made to the Directors that, unless 
some alteration of the system was conceded, the inhabitants would 
no longer be able to find subsistence, and would be compelled to 
ask the Company to take them back again into their service. The 
concession they prayed for was the liberty of free trade along the 
coast, and to Softda, Mozambique, and Madagascar. By means of 
such trade, it was urged, the poor inhabitants, who were only 
versed in agriculture, would find a living in the various occupations 
connected with navigation ; the com, wine and other produce raised 
in the Colony might with greater convenience and profit be sold ,- 
and, if the coast traffic were to succeed, a good lot of merchandize 
woidd be bought from the Company to traffic with, so that the 
latter would also be greatly benefited. To gain this object, they 
added that they would be prepared to pay a reasonable import and 
export duty. 

Foreign trade in any form, except in their own hands, was n>3t 
acceptable to the East India Company, and the application of the 
burghers met with no favourable response. They were assured, 
however, that the Company would receive all the produce they 
could deliver so long as there was sufficient consumption, and that 
the surplus of such articles as the Company did not need might be 
sold by the owners to foreign ships in Table Bay upon the pay- 
ment of a small duty in the shape of a fee or perquisite to a high 
judicial functionary — ^the Fiscal. This privilege gave some 
impulse to production on the occasional arrival of foreign shipping, 

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and when the French and English fleets victualled there, the period 
was considered " the golden age of the Cape." There was an in- 
creased consumption of produce, and the facility of earning and 
obtaining money enabled the residents in and around Cape Town 
to enlarge their houses and extend their farming operations. 
But when, in consequence of European wars, foreign fleets no longer 
touched at Table Bay, the colonists again keenly felt the want 
of a market, and were reduced to an impoverished state by the 
absence of such an outlet. , 

In most of the Company's possessions, and especially at Batavia, 
at this time, distinctions of precedency and rank were punctiliously 
attended to. When the Governor rode out, everyone meeting him 
had to pay him homage, and persons happening to be in a carriage 
must stop and get out of it till the Grovernor rode by. When His 
Excellency entered church, all persons, both men and women, stood 
up in token of respect ; and his lady received the same honours. 
Likewise, when a member of the Council of Policy, or his lady, 
entered church, all the men stood up in the same manner as for the 
Grovernor, but the women remained sitting. Some of these 
regulations were adopted at the Cape ; and in the days of William 
Adrian van der Stell, in 1705, a septuagenarian burgher, named 
Rotterdam, was publicly threatened with expulsion from the Colony 
for not standing up in church on the entrance of the Governor. 

Net only at church and other public gatherings and 
assemblies, but also in private intercourse, every individual was 
as stiff and formal and as keenly alive to any infraction of his 
privilege as if his happiness or misery depended upon it. The 
ladies too were particularly prone to insist upon every prerogative 
attached to the position of their husbands, and the records of 
the Council gravely chronicle the decisions come to, on the com- 
plaint of high officials as to the places given to their wives' chairs 
in church. 

Governor Eyk van Tulbagh, in addition to those rules, 
promulgated, in 1755, certain sumptuary laws, entering into detail 
as to the rank of those who should or should not use umbrellas, 
or wear silk dresses, embroidery, or other ornaments ; the number 
of servants and horses that each rank might have ; the costume 
of the coachman and footmen ; the dresses of brides and their 
friends at wedding ceremonies ; even the style of mourning and 
of burial, in case of death, — all were minutely laid down, and 
lai^er or smaller fines were the penalties attached to the infraction 
of these regulations. 

Many of the inhabitants, unable to endure the system of 
government and the monopoly of the market which prevailed, 
moved away from the neighbourhood of the Company's garrison. 
They crossed the mountain ranges and passed into the inland 

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plains, where they obtained a subsistence by imitating the natire- 
mode of life, killing game and depasturing cattle. Others soon 
followed their example. The authorities, although at first 
opposed to the movement, after a time discovered it to be of some- 
advantage, inasmuch as it "would add to their revenue, and increase 
the food supplies of the settlement." In 1705, they give their 
formal sanction to the extension of the territory by issuing " loan 
leases," or revocable squatting licences, to such as preferred a re- 
quest for them, but always subject to the condition of resumption 
of the property at any time by the Company. Wherever there was 
vacant or disposable land, whoever chose to do so might apply for 
it; and if after temporary occupation, he found difficiity in- 
securing permanent waters, or in grazing his cattle, he immedi- 
ately enlarged his range, and moved further into the interior. It 
was in this manner that the early Cape " Boers" or farmers adopted 
the nomad habit of "trekking," which has been continued by 
their descendants along the border of the European settlements- 
until the present time. 

The dispersion of the European population, however, was int 
many ways detrimental alike to themselves and their descendants.- 
In the inland districts, then designated " Overberg " (beyond the 
mountains), they were confined to an isolated world of their own,, 
where any energy or industry was cramped by the obstacles of 
travel to, or the impossibility of getting, a market for their produce,, 
and they and their children were compelled to endure an unpro- 
gressive mode of existence, without any available means of 
advancement. Among them for many months in the year, bread 
was a luxury scarcely attainable, — biltong, the dried flesh of game- 
or oxen, takmg its place. Earely could they gladden their hearts^ 
with a glass of wine. The most wealthy farmer was considered 
as well-dressed in a jacket of cloth*, breeches of undressed- 
leather, woollen stockings, a cotton handkerchief about his neck,, 
a coarse calico shirt, Hottentot veldt-schoen, or else leather shoes- 
with brass buckles, and a coarse hat. A plain close cap, and 
a coarse cotton gown, virtue, and good house-vrifery were- 
looked upon by the fair sex as sufficient adornments for their- 
person. They had neither church nor school within one or two- 
hundred miles of them; but every morning and evening the- 
patriarch of the family offered up prayer and praise, and read fronv 
the cherished family Bible, whose simple teaclongs served ta 
maintain the principles as well as the forms of morality and 
civilization amongst them. 

Governor-General Imhoff, who touched at. the Cape in 1743, 
reported that the state of the farmers in the remote districts was 
most lamentable, and he represented that if their children were 
farther neglected they would lapse into barbmans. As a remedy, 

c 2 

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:a majnstraoy and ohurcli were established at Swellendam in 1745, 
the Qamtoos Eiver being then declared the farthest limit of the 
•settlement. But when the colonists spread to the Bmintjes 
Hoogte, Camdeboo, and the Sneeuwberg mountains, a magistracy 
-was established in 1786, at Gxaaff-Bemet " to prevent hostilities 
with the natives, and any foreign power settling at Algoa Bay ;" 
•and the Ghreat Fish River was proclaimed as the territorial 
boundary of the Company's prosessions. 

Although measures had, from time to time, been taken to confine 
the inhabitants within the limits of the old districts, the Govern- 
ment were never really able to control or restrain them. From the 
-Castle at Cape Town proclamations and placaats were issued for- 
bidding any burgher to leave his loan-farm, without permission, on 
rany pretext whatever, " or to proceed into the interior on pain of 
corporal or capital punishment, aye, even to the death, and the 
.confiscation of all property." But these orders were treated with 
indifEerence and contempt, and the border farmers moved from one . 
^place to another as their fancy led them, some as elephant hunters 
*crossipg the boundary after the large game, and others as " togt- 
jgangers " or traders, bartering goods with the natives around or 
beyond them. Under these circumstances, collisions and conflicts 
-with the native races were inevitable. 

"Within one or two hundred miles of the capital, the early 
>pioneers foimd excellent tracts of land unoccupied, except by 
^remnants of the weak and scattered Hottentot tribes, — ^the Khoi 
IKhoin, or "men of men" as they termed themselves, — ^who 
peaceably accepted service with them in return for food and 
^p^otection. But the colonists passing further inward, through the 
karoo plains, encountered the hostility of the Bushmen, who were 
-widely spread over the country from the Nieuwveldt and Camdeboo 
mountains to the Orange River. The white man destroyed 
their game, and they retaliated by taking the white man's 
^cattle. Then followed reprisals and acts of violence and revenge ; 
and the miseries which fell to the lot of both colonists and 
taborigines at this time form one of the saddest pages in the annals 
♦of the country. 

In the absence of military protection, the farmers, who almost 
rfrom their youth were expert in the use of firearms, assembled for 
mutual defence, and proceeded in pursuit of depredators, or 
rottacked those by whom they were threatened or disturbed. These 
armed assemblages were caUed " Commandoes," and the system 
^was recognised by Government, who appointed a Field-Commandant 
-to each district and a Field-comet to each sub-division of a 
•district. The Govemment, however, owing to its distance from 
-the common scene of hostilities, and also from the want of a true 
knowledge of the state of things there, exercised but little 
♦control over them. 

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There was continual fighting with .the Bushmen for nearljr 
thirty years, apparently producing no other effect than to render 
them the implacable enemy of the white man, and finally resulting 
in what was virtually a war of extermination. The official records* 
of Gfraaff-Reinet show that between 1786 and 1794, upwards of 
two hundred persons were murdered by the Bushmen, and that the-' 
number of the latter killed by " Commandoes " was not far short 
of two thousand five hundred. 

Those of the pioneers advancing eastward encountered the* 
formidable Kafirs of the Amakosa nation. Some of the latter' 
had been, for years previously, steadily encroaching upon and 
conquering the Gronaqua Hottentots, westwards of the Gbeat Kei 
Eiver. About the time of their first conflict with the colonists,, 
they appear to have been engaged in an intertribal war with their 
neighbours, the Ama-Tembus, by whom they were signaUy 
defeated, their chief Khahabe being killed and their cattle- 
becoming the prize of the victors. Being impoverished by 
these losses, a considerable number of them crossed the- 
Fish Eiver and commenced plundering the Europeans, their 
mischief and rapacity being often accompanied by cruel murders- 
Amicable means were tried to induce them to retire, but without 
success. The border inhabitants then determined to do them- 
selves justice by the law of force. They assembled a Commando^ 
under Commandant van Jansveld, and successfully repulsed the 
Kafirs in several actions, capturing 5,300 head of their cattle, a 
good portion of which was recognised as cattle stolen from the- 
colonists. This, the first rupture between the two races, took 
place in 1781 and 1782. Afterwards it was agreed between some* 
Chiefs of the tribes and Governor Van Plettenberg, on his- 
journey to the interior in 1778, that in order to avoid all 
disputes in the future, the Fish Biver from its source to the sea 
should be mutually reco^;nised as the boimdary between the Kafirs, 
and the European inhabitants. 

In the meantime, the struggle between England and her 
American Colonies had been some time in progress, and Holland 
became allied with France and the armed Is eutxality Powers, and 
an active enemy against England. In 1780, war with Holland 
was declared, and the Britisn Government planned an expedition 
in the following year to seize the Cape of Good Hope. This 
intention became known through a spy named De la Motte, and a 
French fleet, imder Admiral Suffren, was without delay despatched 
for the protection of the Dutch Company's possessions at the Cape. 
On its way out, off the Cape Verde islands, it accidentally met 
with the fleet of English ships of war, imder Commodore JohnstonCy 
equipped for the capture of the Cape. After a severe engagement^ 
in which the Englisn ships were more or less disabled for a tm^e, th^ 

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French Admiral pursued his way to Simon's Bay, where he landed 
Ms troops, some two of three thousand in number. The presence 
•of this force preserved Cape Town against any attack upon the 
part of the English fleet, and at the same time prevented the 
^K5oloiiists from attempting to imitate the conduct of the Americans 
in their struggle for independence. 

During the war, however supplies of specie from Holland were 
•stopped, and to meet the exigencies of the Government a colonial 
paper currency, was thrown into circulation by Governor Van 
j?lettenberg to the amoimt of nearly one million rix-doUars (then 
< f the value of four shillings each), with a promise that the same 
would be redeemed at par on the arrival of ships from Fatherland. 
On the resumption of peace in 1783, this pledge was only partially 
tfulfilled. "When the French troops took their departure, the 
■defects of the monopolising system imder which the settlement 
had grown up were again keenly felt, and discontent generally 
prevailed amongst the burghers. 

Two or three years before (in 1779), they had sent to Holland 
four delegates — ^Messrs. Jacob van Reenen, Barend J. Artoys, 
Tielman JRoos, and N. G. Heyns, — ^with a list of accusations 
ragainst Governor Plettenberg and other functionaries, and a petition 
for redress of their grievances. They complained of the corruption 
and exactions of the oflBcials of the Company ; and of the arbitrary 
power exercised by the Governor and the independent fiscal Boers, 
especially in the compulsory removal from the Colony of persons 
whom they thought fit to designate as " useless " or " dangerous *' 
subjects. They asked for a reform of the Court of Justice, for a 
definition of burgher rights and privileges, and for the establish- 
ment of a printing press, or at least, that the members of the 
<jommunity should be able to obtain copies of the laws in force. 
And, as in every previous petition, they prayed for the concession 
of a limited export trade. 

Some of these demands were met, and regulations promulgated 
to check the abuses on the part of oflBcials which were com- 
]>lained of. But, with regetrd to the aspirations for civil and 
•commercial privileges, the petitioners were reminded that they had 
been only permitted " as a matter of grace to have a residence in 
the land" and gain a livelihood as tillers of the earth, and that 
the settlement was planted not for their commercial advantage, 
but for the welfare of the Company. 

This did not serve to allay the dissatisfaction so generally preva- 
lent, and in 1785 other delegates, named Redlinghuys, Bergh, 
Roos, and Bresler were sent to Holland, to obtain, if possible, 
Tedress from the Company, and failing in that to appeal to the 
States-General of the Provinces, for a reform of the evils which 
were at the root of the Company's impopularity. The burghers 

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in their memorial demanded the right to sell their produce to who- 
ever they chose — "that all that commerce introduces into the 
country shall be freely landed, and all that the country produces 
shall be freely exported ; it being an established rule that the 
farmer cannot maintain himself without a sufficient vent for what- 
ever his labour may produce from the land ; and a Colony like 
this, composed of farmers alone, can have jio durable means of 
supporting itself without a steady demand for produce propor- 
tioned to its quantity ; nor without facilitating internal communi- 
ation as much as possible, as the difficulties of transport must 
otherwise neutralise all the effort-s of the farmers by diminisldng 
their profits." 

The long-continued prosperity of the Dutch East India Company 
was at this period on the decline. Its finances were in confusion, 
and there were complaints of misgovernment in other of its posses- 
sions besides the Cape of Good Hope. The Stadtholder of the 
Netherlands, in 1791, appointed two Commissioners, Messrs. Neder- 
berg and Frekenius, to inquire into the affairs of all the settlements. 
On their arrival at the Cape in 1793, there was great expectation 
of the redress of abuses, and of reform in the system of adminis- 
tration ; but nothing was immediately done, excepting establishing 
a bank of loans (caUed the Lombetrd Bank), to assist the inhabi- 
tants by enabling them to get advances on mortage bonds and other 
decurities. They also issued a proclamation warning the inhabi- 
tants not to live beyond their means, and not to keep costly 
equipages and establishments ; but to cultivate silk, wool, cotton, 
oil, wax, and indigo. They then proceeded on to Batavia, leaving 
the Cape in charge of Commissary-General Sluysken and the chief 
officers of the Company as a Council of Regency. 

Internal troubles had meanwhile been accumulating. In the 
border districts, the absence of any power of control on the part of 
the Government produced its natural effect upon the colonists 
— evoking a restless independence, which resented any mandate 
or interference on the part of the authorities. Hostilities between 
the colonists and Kafirs were frequent; and it was charged 
against the former, by the first magistrate placed at GraafE-Keinet, 
that these disturbances were stimulated by covetousness for their 
neighbour's cattle. The Government instructed their officers to 
inculcate amongst them principles of humanity and the policy of 
living in harmony with the Kafir tribes ; but that course was 
characterised " as working the destruction of the land," and distur- 
bances rose to such a height that the authorities found themselves 
under the necessity of giving their sanction to " Commapdoes" as 
before. Afterwards, when called upon to contribute their share of 
the taxes for the support of Government, the border men of GraafE- 
Reinet repudiated their obligation to pay anything "for places 

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24 S3n> OF THE oompakt's kuijk. 

wbidi iheyliadbeen oUigedto defend at their own expanse." They 
at the same time coanplained of the restrictions on the sale 
of thrar pfodnce, and the inoonTenienoe and loss occasioned to 
them hy the depreciation of the pqper (nniencjr, whidi it had been 
promised would have been redeemed after the aniTal of ships from 
Holland, bat of which a consideTable amount was stiU in circnlation.*' 

Several disbanded soldiers had prior to this be^i allowed to 
settle in the country, and almost every Boer of any consid^iation 
had one of them employed as a sdioolmaster to his children. 
Those men diEhised the principles of Jacobinism and BepubUoan- 
ism, which at this time had spread even to the Cape. Parties 
of what were termed *' LoyaliBts " and " Nationalists ^' wete or- 
gamzed, and " Liberty, equality and fraternity " became a cry 
even in the remote connbry districts. The proceedings of these parties 
— although very ridiculous — ^were then considered very formidable, 
simply because of the weakness of the GoTemment, whidi had no 
garrison outside of Cape Town to siqiport its authority. 

At length, on the 6th of February, 1795, the inhabitants of 
SweUendam and Graaff-Beinet assembled in arms, imd made — as 
they termed it — ^^ a rerolution "; expelling the Magistrates from 
their offices; and declaring themselyes *^ unwilling to obey the 
Dutdi East India Company any longer ; and that they would be 

A general spirit of disaffection against tiie Company's rule 
existed throughout the length and breadth of the land; but at this 
very jund^ure, when the disagreement bd^ween the people and the 
GroTemment threatened the tranquillity of the country, an 
unexpected solution of the internal difficulty was brought about 
by the course of political events in Europe. 

The occupation of Holland by the Frendi Bevolutiomsts made 
the Prince of Orange (the Stadtiiolder) a refugee in England ; 
and the l«!ii gli«h GK>vemm^it, with the concurrence of the Prince, 
sent out a fleet and troops under Admiral Elphinstone and Generals 
Clarke and Craig, who f ordbly took possession of the Colony in 
the name of TTia Majesty the King of Great Britain on the 16th 
September, 1795. 

An effort for the recapture of the Cape was made in the follow- 
ing year, but the Dutch squadron, which was fitted out for the pur- 
pose, numbering nine vessels of war, with 342 guns and 2,000 
troops, under command of Sear-Admiral Lucas, was captured by 
Admiral Elphinstone, without any resistance, in the harbour of 
Saldanha Bay in August, 1796. 

At the peace of Amiens, the Cape of Gtood Hope was again 

* B7 a proclamation of Afoil, 1790, a fine of 1,000 lix-doUais was imposed on 
persons wno would not accept the Government paper money, except at a discount <rf 
8 to 10 per cent. 

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restored to Holland, in 1803 ; but the East India Company was then 
replaced by the Batavian Eepublic, who sent out, as their repre- 
sentatives to the Colony, the Governor-General Janssen and 
Commissioner-General De Mist, who at once set about establishing 
a new and efficient administration upon just and liberal principles — 
"no longer dependent upon any commercial body,** but such as 
might tend to reconcile the burghers who had rebelled against the 
unpopular Company, and soothe the continued animosities between 
them and the Aborigines. 

Scarcely three years had passed, however, when the sovereignty 
of the country was changed once more. On the renewal of the war 
in Europe, England determined upon the recapture of the Cape 
of Good Hope, and sent out a well-appointed force imder General 
Sir David Baird. After a brief but honourable struggle, 
Governor-General Janssen, on the 19th January, 1806, surren- 
dered the Colony, his troops being embarked and sent to Holland 
by the English Government. 

At the peace which followed, in 1815, the King of the Nether- 
lands, by convention, and in consideration of a payment of 
between two and three millions sterling, towards the settlement 
of the Low Coimtries, finally ceded the Cape, along with other 
possessions, in perpetuity to the British Crown. 

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From 1795 to 1803, the British Government held the Cape 
-temporarily as a possession by conquest. Their principal reason tor 
doing so was its importance as a military station, and its being 
considered the key to India and the East, which the leading navcd 
power of the world must hold possession of in all contingencies. 
A considerable armed force was maintained at Cape Town, defensive 
works were constructed, and there was a liberal expenditure of 
money. In the seven years of their occupancy it was estimated 
that more than a million and a half sterling of English money 
was spent in the Colony, whose exports at that time did not exceed 
£15,000 per annum, and whose European population af all ages 
.and sexes was not above 25,000 in number. 

By the terms of capitulation, the inhabitants were guaranteed the 
ipreservation of all the prerogatives they enjoyed, and the protection 
-of all private property, whether belonging to individuals, churches, 
orphans or public institutions; the free exercise of their public 
worship without alteration ; that no new taxes should be intro- 
duced, and those existing should be modified as much as possible 
in consideration of the decay of the Colony ; and that the paper 
currency then in existence should be continued at its then current 
value, and all the lands and houses, the property of the Dutch 
East India Company, taken over by the new Government were 
T^ound security for the paper-money in circulation. 

The British Commanders, Elphinstone and Craig, adopted ev^ry 
jneasure calculated to promote the prosperity of thfe settlement. 
They at once annoimced that the monopolies and restrictions on 
the internal trade of the Colony, hitherto in force for the benefit 
of the Dutch East India Company, were now at an end ; that 
internal trade was entirely free and imrestricted ; that every 
person might sell his produce to whom, and in what 
manner, he pleased, as best suited his interests ; and that 
all inhabitants so disposed were at liberty to exercise any trade or 
profession which might suit their inclination ; that the navigation 
of the coast from harbour to harbour was also free, and that there 
existed no restraint in regard to the possession of boats or vessels 
^f any sort by which the produce of any part of the Colony might 
be conveyed to a market. 

Major-General Craig assumed the reins of Government for a 
year or two, imtil the arrival of his successor, Eaxl Macartney, who 
AS a civilian of high rank and character was chosen for the office of 
♦Governor. He endeavoured to soften the national feelings and 

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prejudices of the inhabitants by a conciliatory and enlightened 
policy, dealing kindly and liberally with individuals a^o had 
sustained losses by the change of sovereignty of the country ; re- 
taining in office many of the former functionaries, and largely em- 
ploying colonial-bom persons in places of trust in the administra- 
tion. Among other reforms he took steps for putting an end to 
the practice of proceeding by torture against persons suspected of 
crime, and of punishment after conviction by breaking on the 
wheel. Capital punishment — especially of slaves and natives — ^was, 
according to the Dutch law, carried out by the executioner, who, in 
the terms of the sentence, had to see that the criminals were 
" bound to a cross and broken thereon alive, fromimder upwards with 
the coup de grace "; or laid upon a wheel or himg on the gallows, 
^' there to remain a prey to the air and the birds of the heavens.'* 
Heports from the Courts of Justice relative to the subject were 
obtained by Craie, who urged upon the Home Government to 
authorise a stop being put to the inhuman procedure. In the 
Commission issued to his successor, Earl Macartney, the necessary 
instniction was given by the King's command. The racks, 
wheels, and other instruments of torture were destroyed, and for 
capital crimes the cord was made the instnmient of death as in 

Earl M«w3artney 's governorship only extended over twelve months. 
In accepting office he made it a condition that should his health 
give way he would be authorised to transfer his duties to the 
officer next in command, Lieut. -General Francis Dundas. The 
emoluments allowed the Governor at this time were a salary of 
£10,000 per annum and £2,000 table money ; the Secretary to 
the Governor received £3,000 ; and it was provided that in case 
tiie revenue of the Colony fell short of the cost of the establish- 
ments, the deficiency was to be made up by the Home Government. 

Before his departure. Earl Macartney proclaimed the boundary 
of the Colony to be, on the eastern frontier, the Great Fish River, 
on the north the Zekoe River, behind the Sneeuwberg, and the 
Caxee or Roodeberg behind Camdeboo ; and the Zak River, the 
Roggeveld and the Hantam, forming a semi-circle from the east 
to me western limits, the Koussie River. He also issued a procla- 
mation with regard to commerce and navigation. When the 
settlement was under the Dutch East India Company, it ws usual 
to admit vessels of ooimtiies in amity with Holland into the ports ; 
so now it was announced that British ships, or those of countries in 
amity with Gbeat Britain only were permitted to do the same, and 
to import or export free of any duty ; but no goods from the East 
could be imported except by English East India Company's vessels. 

Sir George Tonge was sent out as successor to Macartney, but 
his term of office was also of short duration. During it, however. 

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a printing press was established for the first time — ^Messrs. Walker 
and Robinson being authorised to this effect by Proclamation of Ist 
July, 1800; but the privilege was accompanied with the con- 
dition that no paper, book or pamphlet was to be put to press 
until the same had been approved by the Government. 

Much discontent prevailed during Sir George Tonge's adminis- 
tration, and many complaints having reached England, he was 
suddenly and unexpectedly recalled, and a Commission appointed 
to enquire into the abuses charged against his government. 

The first of his acts, which gave a great degree of offence and 
dissatisfaction, was the shutting up of the public gardens in Cape 
Town. This happened almost immediately after ms arrival in the 
Colony, and at a season of the year (the middle of summer), when 
the inhabitants were accustomed to enjoy the refreshing coolness of 
the shady walks — then the only avenues of the kind in the vicinity 
of the town. In consequence of complaints, an order was issued by 
the Governor stating that his object was to put the avenues in re- 
pair, and all respectable persons were permitted to enter on writing 
down their names at the entrance-gate ; but very few would accept 
as an indulgence what they had always considered as a right. 

Another matter complained of was that, in direct violation 
of the articles of Capitulation, which expressly stated that no 
new taxes would be imposed, the Governor had augmented those 
already estabKshed by issuing proclamations requiring licences 
to be taken out for keeping billiard tables, holding clubs or 
societies, and for the killing of game. The regulations respecting 
licences for billiard tables and clubs were considered to be of little 
harm, as they tended to check disorderly meetings, gambling, and 
dissipation, and were meant also to suppress Jacobin gatherings ; 
but the laws enforced with regard to the killing of game, and the 
taking out of an annual licence for that purpose, created very 
general discontent. At that time, game, both large and small, 
was so abimdant in the colony, that the prohibition inflicted an injury 
on the farmers, especially those in the remote parts, many of them 
having been in the habit of killing game for the maintenance of their 
families, and others to protect their fields from destruction. The 
complaints on this point at length produced an amendment of the 
law on the 6th November, 1800, modifying the restrictions laid 

The discontent occasioned by the foregoing acts was increased 
by a proclamation of the 14th August, 1800, imposing additional 
charges on colonial produce — brandy being increased from three 
to six rixdollars per leaguer, when brought into town : also by a 
proclamation ordering the establishment of the office of wine-taster, 
to which the Governor's own private secretary was appointed. It 
was further complained of that he attempted to grant in perpetuity 

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the pubKc lands mortgaged for the paper currency, by giving a 
grant of land to Mr. Duckitt, who had been sent out by the Secre- 
tary of State as a model agriculturist, to teach and introduce im- 
proved modes of husbandry ; the Burgher Senate (who had to 
report upon all alienations of ground) holding that so long as the 
Capitulation treaty was in force, Q-ovemment had no power to 
alienate by permanent grant any of the lands mortgaged for the 
redemption of the paper currency circulating in the colony. 

But there were other and graver chaiges, to the effect that the 
aide-de-camp, private secretary, and others around the Governor, 
were in the habit of exacting a part of the profits accruing to indi- 
viduals, who obtained through their means certain privileges not 
granted in common — in other words, " for facilitating their affairs 
with the Q-ovemment." The evidence before the Commission 
fully established the fact tliat a practice prevailed of taking 
douceurs or bribes for obtaining or granting certain privileges or 
contracts, although there was nothing whatever to show that the 
Governor was cognisant of or shared in these. The prevailing 
opinion (says the Commission appointed to examine into these 
abuses) was that the most effectual way of carrying a point with 
the Governor was by pecuniary ofBces to those about his 

An instance of the depravity and profligacy of those imme- 
diately connected with the representative of the Sovereign, was 
given in the case of an official, who wanted one-half, but 
afterwards agreed to take one-third, of the profits on the importa- 
tion of a cargo of slaves. A Mr. Hogan was one of those for 
whom this official " facilitated affairs." He had a vessel named 
the Collector, which he employed as a privateer ; she was remark- 
able for the number of prize slave cargoes which she brought into 
port, having ostensibly captured them from prizes off the coast of 
Madagascar. But the Captain and officers of a Danish ship which 
arrived at the Cape while the Collector was in harbour, identified 
her as weU known in the slave trade. They declared the Collector 
had never captured any prize, but that the slaves were purchased 
and put on board the vessel at Mozambique. This case was 
investigated by the Court of Justice, and it was proved that 
the Court of Vice- Admiralty had been grossly imposed upon by 
false witnesses and false log-books; and Hogan seems to have 
been the person who planned the whole of it. Sentence was given 
against the Captain of the Collector^ who bore the name of Smart, 
but he fled the Colony, and was declared an outlaw. 

Governor Tonge was exonerated from all knowledge of these 
affairs ; but a despatch from Downing-street, dated 14tn January, 
1801, directed him to resign his government into the hands of 
lieut-General Dundas, without waiting the arrival of Lord Glen- 

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burvie, who was appointed his successor, but who accepted the 
appointment of Paymaster to the Forces instead. 

The condition of the country districts in the meanwhile called 
for the serious attention of each successive Q-ovemor. At Swellen- 
dam, after the capitulation, the former Landdrost, Mr. Faure, was 
reinstated; and the people received him to his satisfaction. At 
Grraaff-Reinet the burghers were apprehensive that t:heir conduct 
might be represented in a very bad light by some one or other of 
the old servants of the Company, and they addressed a communi- 
cation to Governor Craig, setting forth the reasons of their dis- 
content and their grievances ; at the same time requesting that he 
would be pleased to appoint a proper magistrate over them; 
provide a clergyman to fill the vacant pulpit of their Church, and 
furnish the district with the necessary gunpowder and lead for its 

It was deemed undesirable to re-appoint the former Landdrost, 
Mr. Maynier, to the magistracy, and one was selected for the 
oflSce who was likely to be acceptable to the people. He was 
accompanied by a clergyman who was known to many of the inhab- 
itants. On their arrival at QxaafE-Reinet, they found there was 
no person disposed to come forward ta take the oath of allegiance ; 
but the people made a representation of their views, for the infor- 
mation of the Governor, setting forth that " they were willing to 
bring to Cape Town all their produce; that they would observe 
all reasonable orders and laws provided the Government furnished 
them with what the country was in want of ; that they would not 
take the sword against the English, and that they only refused to 
take the oath, because when their High Mightinesses of the 
Netherlands should re-take the country they would not be able 
to justify themselves for so doing." 

After a short stay, and finding themselves surrounded by an 
insubordinate people, who showed as little respect for the magistrate 
and clergyman as they did for what they termed the " aristocrats 
of the old Company," whom they had previously sent about their 
business, — ^the magistrate, Mr. Bresler, and the clergyman, the Eev* 
Mr. Manger, took their departure and returned to Cape Town. 

General Craig ordered a military force into the coimtry to 
subdue the burghers and to secure obedience to authority. 
But meanwhile a change came over the representatives of 
GraafE-Reinet. At a pubUc meeting held in August, 1796, they 
resolved to throw themselves on the protection of the British, 
and submit to the order of the Governor. By this time Earl 
Macartney had arrived at Cape Town, and he sent Mr. Bresler back 
as Landdrost to Graaff-Reinet, accompanied by his own private 
secretary, Mr. Barrow — afterwards widely known as Sir John 
Barrow. They were amicably received by the inhabitants, and 
for a while peace and tranquillity was restored. 

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Two years afterwards, however, disturbances again occurred, 
which led to most unfortunate and disastrous results. The Court 
of Justice had issued a decree for the apprehension of Comman- 
dant Adrian van Jaarsveld, on a charge of falsifying a receipt with 
the object of defrauding the Orphan Chamber of an amount of 
arreax interest due on a mortgage on the building of his loan-place 
named " De Vreede " at the foot of the Nieuweld Mountains. 
He was arrested and sent from Graaff-Reinet to Cape Town in 
charge of four dragoons and the Secretary to the Landdrost. A 
short distance from Gbaaff-Remet, the escort was met by an armed 
body of Boers, who rescued the prisoner. They then strengthened 
their number by simimoning all the farmers between the Lange 
Kloof and Bushman's River to join them, under threat of being; 
considered as " traitors to the country, who would be dealt with 
after the affair was over." The ringleaders and their followers 
took an oath to be faithful to each other to the last drop of their' 
blood. The inhabitants of Bruintjes Hoogte were most prominent 
amongst them. The Sneeuwberg farmers appear to have kept 
aloof from the rising. 

This force marched on Graaff-Reinet, and on arrival at the 
Sunday's River Drift, lay there encamped for about a month,, 
prescribing rules how the Kafirs should be treated, and threatening 
to hang the Landdrost and exterminate the garrison, which 
consisted only of a sergeant and seven Dragoons. The new 
clergyman of Ghraaff-Reinet, the Rev. Mr. Ballot^ repeatedly went 
out to interview the insurgents, and endeavoured to persuade them 
of their folly ; and he succeeded so far as to retard their plans and 
prevent acts of personal violence. Meanwhile, news of the revolt 
having reached the authorities in Cape Town, the Acting Governor,. 
General Dundas, at once dispatched two divisions of troops, one 
overland and the other by sea, to Algca Bay, for the relief of 
Graaff-Reinet. Major McNab, with a detatchment of Dragoons^ 
and Hottentots, proceeded overland, and as it was known the 
insurgents had sent emissaries to induce the people to come to their 
assistance, along his route, he issued proclamations exhorting and 
ordering the inhabitants to remain quietlv at their homes. 

General Vandeleur had command of the troops landed at 
Algoa Bay. He at once proceeded inland, but met with no 
opposition on the road. On his arrival at Graaff-Reinet, he found 
that the insurgents had retired to Bruintjes Hoogte, and had sent 
in two of their nimiber submissively applying for pardon. Van- 
deleur then followed them to Bruintjes Hoogte, where the people 
laid down their arms. The leaders, Marthmus Prinsloo, van 
Jaarsveld, and others, who were considered more culpable, were 
apprehended and sent on to Cape Town to await their trial, and . 
the rest were pardoned on their paying a fine to Government . 

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of one or two horses for the cavalry, according to th^ir means. A 
few of them, who refused to surrender, retired as fugitives into 

Duringthese movements of the British troops, crowds of Hotten- 
tots flocked after them. Some came from their Kraals; others availed 
themselves of the prevailing disturbances to abandon the service 
of the farmers, which they complained had been cruel and oppressive 
to them. When the insurgents surrendered, these Hottentots took 
advantage of the opportunity of possessing themselves of some of 
their weapons ; but the general traiiquillity of the country demanded 
their being disarmed, and this was accordingly done. Their dis- 
armament made them suspicious of the intentions of the English 
towards them, and when, upon order being restored in the dis&ict, 
they saw the troops being withdrawn, they dreaded the probability 
of having to return to the service of the Boer masters from whom 
they had fled, and to whose an^er and ill-will they feared they 
would fall a sacrifice. Some of them asked the authorities to point 
out some means for their subsistence, and to allot them certain un- 
occupied lands. Their appeal did not receive immediate attention ; 
and, with characteristic imprudence and fickleness, a considerable 
number of them joined their barbarous neighbours, the Kafirs, who 
were then investing the bushy country from the Bushman^s to the 
Simday's River, and aggressively advancing on the Europeans. 
The Kafirs welcomed the Hottentot reinforcement to their side, as 
several of them were well accustomed to the use of firearms. 
Immediately upon this union, they set about plimdenng and 
burning the farmers' houses, in many cases murdering the defence- 
less inhabitants on the thresholds of their dwellings, and desolating 
the whole coimtry from the Bushman's and Simday's Rivers west- 
ward even to Langekloof and Kiiysna. 

The border farmers were conf oimded by this unexpected insur- 
rection of the Hottentots, and panic-stricken at their first 
successes. The confederacy was a formidable one, and consisted of 
seven himdred men who had already with them more than three 
himdred horses and one hundred and fifty fire-locks, and the 
Hottentots who still remained under the farmers were suspected of 
not being well disposed but rather inclined to join them on the first 
opportunity. A commando of burghers was formed under Com- 
mandant Tjart van der Walt, and a detachment of troops under 
Major Sherlock took the field, to suppress these plimdenng bands, 
the latter checking their advance westward at Langekloof. Un- 
fortunately Van der Walt, — one who is described as "inspiring con- 
fidence into his own people and striking terror into his oppo- 
nents," — ^was struck down by a musket biJl, when penetrating the 
woods near the Gamtoos River. Deprived, of his services, tiie^oer 
Commando broke up, without accomplishing any favourable result. 

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WhUe the country districts were in this deplorable state, General 
Dnndas sent for the former Landrost of GraafE-Eeinet, Mr. 
Maynier, and commissioned him to use his efforts for the restora- 
tion of peace. Dandas, remembering the unfortunate events at San 
Domingo, Hayti, in 1791, feared the most serious consequences 
would follow from a war of races, if the anarchy which prevailed 
was not suppressed. He counselled that the Hottentots should be 
appeased by all fair means. The question was, how to enter into 
negotiations with them. Mr. Maynier tendered his services, and 
went imarmed into the territory between the Sunday's and 
Bushman's Eiver, where the confederacy was assembled. 

After much trouble, he concluded a peace with the Hottentots, 
the terms of which were " that Government should protect them 
against the ill-treatment of the Boers in the most efficacious 
manner, and should provide that when they served the Boers they 
fihould be well paid and well treated." He then returned to the 
General, bringing with him the principal chiefs of the confederacy, 
Klaas Stuurman, Boezak, and Bovelander, with whom the General 
ratified this peace. A similar plan was adopted with regard to the 
chiefs of the Kafirs, to whom presents were forwarded, and with 
whom the General also agreed on terms of peace. 

Mr. Maynier was then appointed Eesident Commissioner at 
GraafE-Eeinet, charged with superintending and carrying out 
the regulations necessary to give effect to the agreement made with 
the Hottentots, and to restore order in the district. The plan he 
adopted was to open a register of the time, wages, and other terms 
upon which each Hottentot entered the service of any European 
master ; so as, in case of dispute, reference could be had thereto as 
to their mutual engagements. He urged the farmers, now re- 
covering from the panic and apprehension which had seized them, 
to return and take possession of their farms, as the only way of 
restoring confidence and tranquillity. But a state of unrest 
^continued throughout the country owing to the circulation of 
mischievous reports, which were in many cases believed by the 
inhabitants, who were extremely credulous and easily imposed upon. 

A number of Boers assembled in arms at Zwager's Hoek, as it 
was rumoured the Kafirs and Hottentots were preparing to extirpate 
the farmers at Bruintjes Hoogte. Their leaders. Commandant Eens- 
burg and Field-cornet Erasmus, said they were unable to restrain 
the people at their places, and were obliged to go with them. They 
marched to Gxaaff-Eeinet, where they requested ammunition and 
leave to go on commando ; at the same time complaining of the privi- 
leges granted to the Hottentots, and especially their being permitted 
to use the Church, thus placing them on an equal footing with the 
Christians; and, finally, demanding that those Hottentots who 
had. murdered their relations should be giY&a up into their hands. 

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At this time, there were a large number of Hottentots in the 
town ; many of them alarmed by the movements of the farmers, 
having fled from their kraals, or from their masters' service, to the 
Drostdy for protection. They were received and provided for by 
the Commissioner, as a temporary measure, it being considered 
prudent to have them under supervision and control there, lest 
they might form roaming bands and renew the system of plimder 
and depredation which had previously prevailed. The Commis- 
sioner, parleying with the insurgents, consented that the Hottentots 
should be kept out of the Church, where the Missionary Dr. Van 
der Kemp had been ministering to them, and that the use of that 
building should be left entirely to the Europeans ; that such of the 
Hottentots as were accused of murder should be arrested and tried 
according to the laws of the country, but not delivered into the 
hands of their accusers without any proof of their crimes. A 
small body of dragoons, with four field pieces, in addition to the 
Hottentots, were prepared to defend the town; the other 
inhabitants having laid down their arms, refusing to use them 
against their countrymen. The insurgents threatened that if the 
Hottentots were not delivered up, they would destroy the place. 
The Commissioner received this challenge with firmness, and after 
their refusal to lay down arms, or retire, opened fire upon them. 
The fire was returned on the side of Van Rensburg and his party, 
and was continued from morning until sunset, but they at length 
retired and dispersed to their farms, without subduing the 
Drostdy, and happily even without any bloodshed on either side. 

Mr. Maynier continued his efforts to restore order, and 
endeavoured to get the Hottentots to enter, for the second time, 
into the service of their masters ; but his firmness and occasional 
severity in carrying out his plans, in conformity with the principles 
he had laid down, made him exceedingly unpopular with the 
farmers. Reports to his discredit were circulated aU over the 
country ; amongst others, that one of the best and most respectable 
of the inhabitants of the Camdeboo, a Mr. Naude, had been cruelly 
murdered by a band of Kafirs, and that he had in some way 
connived at this atrocity. 

The general dissatisfaction amongst the GraafE-Reinet colonists 
was such as to force General Dundas, much against his will, to 
recall Mr. Maynier ; and upon the return of the latter to Cape 
Town, a commission was appointed by the Government to enquire 
into the accusations brought against him. These charges were : — 
Delaying to acquaint the Government with the turbulent state of 
the country; obtaining cattle from the Kafirs and Hottentots 
for beads and other trifles, inadequate to their value; sending 
emissaries among the Hottentots to dissuade them from entering 
the British service; refusing to bring certain Hottentots to 

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Gh:uafE-Eeinet accused of murder, and permitting them with< 
impunity to escape; injustice and cruelty in the matter of the 
murder of Naude, and also in delivering into the hands of the- 
Boers a number of Hottentots who fled to him for protection. 
The Commission, after a lengthened investigation, reported that 
Mr. Maynier was " entirely innocent of all and every of the^ 
charges preferred against him, and that some of the evidence- 
was such as to merit the most serious reprobation." He was at 
once re-appointed to office, as a member of the Court of Justice. 

Meanwhile, an intimation of the probable early restoration of the- 
Cape to the Dutch Government reached the Colony ; and the 
Governor, General Francis Dundas, made arrangements for the- 
termination of his administration. He shewed a generous inten- 
tion towards the Hottentots who had taken refuge at Graafif-Eeinet 
and were indisposed to re-enter the service of their former masters. 
He proposed to the Eev. Dr. Van der Kemp to locate them, under 
his charge, on a farm-place near Algoa Bay, where they would 
have the protection of the Military detachment stationed at Fort 
Frederick. The proposal was accepted, and Van der Kemp left 
GraafE-Eeinet with 300 Hottentots, men, women, and children, 
and founded the mission institution of Bethelsdorp, which became- 
an asylum for numbers of the race who left their kraals and 
hiding-places in the woods, and settled down as peaceful 

The Boer prisoners who had surrendered to General Vandeleur 
in 1799, had been all this time in custody within the Castle of Cape 
Town. Their trial took place in 1800, before the Court of Justice^ 
consisting of Messrs. 0. G. de Wet, A. Fleck, C. Matthiessen, H. 
A. Truter, J. P. Baumgardt and J. A. Truter, Secretary. The 
leaders, Prinsloo and van Jaarsveld, were condemned to death -y 
others were ordered " to be delivered to the executioner blind-folded,. 
and having kneeled down upon a heap of sand, to have the sword 
waved over their head for pimishment, and then to be banished for 
the remainder of their lives from the settlement ;" and some were- 
recommended to mercy and set at liberty. Owing to the change- 
of Governors, and the disturbances in the country, the execution 
of the sentence of the Court of Justice was postponed from time to 
time ; and Governor Dundas, in December, 1801, recommended 
that, in consideration of these circumstances, clemency should bo 
shewn to the prisoners by some modification of the capital part of 
their pimishment, if not by a full remission of their sentence,, 
" thereby demonstrating the mild spirit of the English, and tho 
placable forbearing system actuating the Government." Shortly 
after this, information of the Treaty of Amiens, restoring the Cape 
to the Batavian Government, was received, and on the evacuation 
of the Colony by Great Britain in February, 1803, the prisoners 


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were free to leave the Castle under the amnesty granted by the 
iBatavian Commissioners. 

During the short interregnum from 1803 to 1806, while the 
Oape was under the Batavian Government, Governor Janssen, 
•and his colleague. Commissioner de Mist, gave their earnest 
^attention to the condition of the frontier districts. They visited 
the Border, and personally interviewed the Hottentots and 
fthe Kafir chiefs, with the object of re-establishing a good under- 
standing between them and the Colonists. In the course of their 
journey, they witnessed the deplorable results of the disturbances 
•which had occurred — ^houses in ruins, fields desolated, and numerous 
families impoverished, wandering about homeless, and living 
scantily upon the small remnants of cattle they had been able to 
save from the hands of their invaders. A number of the farmers 
were induced to return to their old habitations and commence life 
anew. At Gbaaff-Eeinet, a new Landdrost, Mr. Stockenstrom, was 
-appointed, under whom tranquillity was restored ; and the district 
was sub-divided, another Magistracy being formed at the Zwartkops 
Eiver Valley, to which the name of " Uitenhage " was given. 
Between the Sundays and Fish Eivers, however, the country was 
«till occupied by Kafirs under the chiefs T'Slambie, Congo and 
others, who were then in revolt against their paramount chief, 
-Gaika. They acknowledged that the Great Fish Eiver was the 
?30undary of the Kafir territory, and promised to return there as 
■soon as they had conquered or were reconciled to their chief, with 
whom they were at war. But these promises were never fulfilled. 
All the endeavours of the Dutch Border Commissioner, Capt. 
Alberti, to induce them to quit the Colony and retire to their 
'Own country, were in vain. The Government had no force to 
♦compel their retirement, and was therefore obliged to content itself 
with being on a half friendly footing with them. In this situa- 
Ttion relations with the Kafirs remained, until the Colony was 
.again taken under British dominion. 

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From the date of the surrender of the Cape to the British f orce^^ 
under General Sir David Baird, in 1806, the country may be said* 
to have entered upon a new era. It then virtually became a 
British Colony. By the articles of capitulation, however, the 
burghers and inhabitants .were guaranteed all the rights ani 
privileges including their form of public worship, which they had« 
hitherto enjoyed. The paper .money actually in circulation was- 
continued current as before, until the pleasure of His Britannic- 
Majesty should be known. All bona fide private property re-^ 
mained free and untouched. Public lands and houses, the property 
of the Batavian Republic, were delivered up and remained as- 
security for such of the paper money as was not already secured by 
mortgage upon the estates of individuals, without prejudice, how- 
ever, to free use being made of the said lands and houses for 
public purposes. 

The total population of the Colony at this period, was 73,663^ 
souls, of whom 26,720 were of European descent ; and the lands> 
in occupation of individuals consisted of 96 places, measuring 
26,136 morgen held in freehold ; 355 morgen held in quitrent ;. 
and 1,739 places held on "loan-leases." The population was- 
distributed as follows : — 


Men. Women. Men. Women. Men. Women- 
Cape Town 3,263 3,034 233 202 5,513 3,322l 

Cape District 802 630 343 244 3,154 1,139* 

Stellenbosch 2,613 2,286 1,221 1,239 5,728 2,986 

Swellendam 2,551 2,235 2,108 2,174 1,795 1,064. 

Graaff-Eeinet 2,394 2,103 2,239 2,491 899 483 

Uitenhage 1,257 1,094 1,047 1,278 346 245» 

Tulbagh 1,289 1,169 1,416 1,422 1,621 991 

Total 14,169 12,551 8,607 9,050 19,056 10,230» 

The general character of the policy adopted by Sir David Baird,. 
and the several British Governors who succeeded him, partook in- 
some measure of the liberal principles of administration introduced 
under the auspices of the Batavian Government. The Colonists 
were free to dispose of their produce upon the most advantageous 
terms, and a profitable market was at once provided by the large^ 
Naval and MHitary expenditure within the Colony itself, and at a 
later period by the establishment and supply of a garrison and 
squa(^on at St. Helena. 

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Earl Oaledon, who wad3 G-ovemor from 1807 to 1811, established 
■B, system of postal communication between Cape Town and the 
oountry districts by relays of post-riders. He also instituted 
•** Circuit Courts," appointing Commissioners from the Court of 
Justice to proceed once a year or oftener throughout the whole of 
the Colony and administer the laws among all classes of the in- 
habitants with the same power and authority as was exercised by 
the Court in Cape Town. He likewise sought to ameliorate the 
condition of the Hottentots by issuing regiJations requiring that 
they should have a fixed place of abode, or otherwise be treated as 
vagabonds ; and that all contracts entered into by them should be 
Tegistered with the conditions as to wages, time of payment, 
jsjid date of termination of contract, so that no master could act 
(unfairly to them, or detain them, their wives, or children after the 
'expiry of such term of contract. The object of these regulations 
was to protect the Hottentots, and encourage them to prefer 
entering the service of the inhabitants to leading an indolent life, 
by which they were rendered useless to themselves and the com- 
munity at large. 

The abolition of the slave trade and the discontinuance of the 
importation of slaves, at this time, were not without a beneficial 
influence on domestic life and the habits, manners and morals of the 
inhabitants. But considerable alarm was created in the western 
"districts by an attempted insurrection of a number of the negroes in 
servitude. The plot originated with a slave named Louis, and two 
Irishmen, Hooper and Kelly. Their plan was to incite the slaves 
in the inland districts to rebel, and having armed them with such 
weapons as they could procure in the country, to march them to 
Cape Town, seize the batteries, and despatch a letter to the Governor 
demanding the liberty of the slaves of the Colony ; and in cose of 
"this being refused, they were to make themselves masters of the 
magazines, force the prisons, release the prisoners, and fight for 
their liberty. Louis, Hopper and Kelly, dressed in grotesque 
uniform with gold and silver epaulettes, and the first wearing a 
large sword, drove to the farm of a Mr. P. G. Louw, of Zwart- 
land, and passed themselves off as Spanish officers. The master 
l)eing absent, the mistress did her best to provide a good supper 
and entertain them properly. Next morning they took possession 
of Louw's wagons and horses, and proceeded to the residence of 
his neighbour Basson, where they boimd the proprietor and 
made themselves masters of the guns, powder, and ammunition, 
stating that their instructions were from the Government and the 
Piscal, to take all Christians and carry them to Cape Town. 
Proceeding then from farm to f axm, gathering wagons, horses and 
arms, and inciting the slaves at each place to join them, they 
formed a considerable cavalcade passing through Koeberg and 

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Tygerberg. Some of them plimdered tliQ farmers' houses, outraged 
the farmers' wives, and forced their European masters, tied and 
bound, into their wagons. News of the outbreak soon reached Cape 
Town, and a detachment of Infantry and Cavaky were marched 
out with such promptitude that the insurgents were surrounded 
and captured, some at Salt River and others at Koeberg. The 
niimber of prisoners taken was 326. Those of the slaves who 
were passive in the affair were returned to their masters, and the 
wagons, horses, saddles, guns and other property were given back 
to the owners. The remainder of the prisoners were sent to trial, 
and the leaders, Louis, Hooper, and Abraham Jepta, were 
sentenced to death, while KTelly was transported from the 

A system of predatory warfare was reported to prevail on 
the eastern frontier, between the Colonists and the fugitive 
Kafirs ; and complaints were also made of the incursions of 
Bushmen upon the farmers of the Nieuwveld and Zak River. Earl 
Caledon felt it desirable to obtain accurate information respecting 
these matters, and the way to remedy the evils complained of. He 
appointed an officer on whom he could rely, Colonel CoUins of the 
83rd Regiment, to visit these territories, and report the result of his 
observations. The reports furnished by Col. Collins contained very 
full and interesting information as to the character and history of 
the two races, the Bushman and Kafir. With regard to the 
Bushmen, he recommended the establishment of two or three 
Mission Institutions, around which they might be attracted and 
induced to settle down, and thus weaned from their predatory and 
wild life in the plain and moimtains. As to the steps necessary to 
be taken for checking Kafir aggression and securing the permanent 
tranquillity of the Eastern Districts, his recommendation was to 
oblige all the Kafirs settled in the Zuurveld to withdraw to their 
own country across the Fish River, and to oppose innumerable 
obstacles to their return to the Colony. 

It fell to the lot of Eaxl Caledon's successor, Sir John Francis 
Cradock (afterwards Lord Howden) to carry out this policy of 
expulsion. The landdrosts of QraafE-Reinet and Uitenhage, in 
1811, reported that the country was overrun with Kafirs, and that 
their depredations were quite without precedent. Several colonists 
and their herdsmen were murdered, and in one instance the body 
of a young man, named Jacobus de Winter, was f oimd by his 
father suspended to a tree by the lash of a wagon-whip, 
with both hands covering the face, giving reason to imagine 
that the assegais with which he had been pierced did not occasion 
instant death, and that he had endured most cruel and barbarous 
torture. An armed force, composed partly of troops and partly of 
burghers, from all the districts of the Colony, was called into the 

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40 COL. 

field, and placed under the command of lieut.-Colonel Graham 
of the Cape Regiment. 

In the instructions to that Officer, Sir John Cradock stated that 
the basis of his action was to secure the imdisturbed establishment 
of the territory surrendered by the Dutch. "Ic is imneces- 
sary," he said, " to expatiate upon a subject of so plain a nature, 
where the arguments are so fully proved by the repeated aggression 
of the Kafir nation, who have made such continual inroads into our 
territories, and have to a great extent, after outrages of the most 
atrocious kind, banished the peaceable inhabitants from their 
dwellings and property. As the measures of passive conciliation 
and forbearance have proved ineffectual, it is necessary to adopt 
another mode of proceeding, and their complete expulsion from 
our Territory must be accompKshed. I experience much satisfac- 
tion, while entering upon a measure of this description, from the 
general information that His Majesty's subjects have not in any 
of the late proceedings been the aggressors, but that the Kafir 
nation have been constantly the depredators and offenders. 
After this general view, it will be my desire that you take the 
most effectual measures to clear His Majesty's Territory from the 
Kafir nation or marauders of any description, and that they be 
repelled permanently within their own boimdaries." The 
Amakosa Chief, Graika, was informed of the intention of the 
Q-ovemment, and expressed approval of the steps to be taken for 
driving the Kafirs into their own territory, as he said they had 
only occupied the Zuurveld in order to withdraw their allegiance 
from him, whose vassals they were. 

The country in which the expeditionary force had to operate 
was one of the most difficult for military movements which could 
be conceived. Prom the Sunday's River to the Bushman's River, 
there is an extended jimgle of high bush, affording cover, even at 
the present day, to the elephant and- the buffalo ; and behind this 
bush there rises a series of broken mountain ridges intersected 
with thickly wooded ravines, extending for a distance of forty to 
fifty miles in length and varying from nine to twelve miles in 
breadth. These ridges are known as the Zuurberg and Rietberg 
mountains, and the Bushman's River Pass; they are within 
view of the traveller by railway between Port Elizabeth and 
Alicedale Jimction. 

In November, 1811, Colonel Ghraham proceeded with his force, 
which he divided into three divisions — the right under his own 
command ; the centre under Major Cuyler ; and the left under - 
Mr. Stockenstrom, landdrost of Gfraaff-Reinet. The armed 
burghers and the Cape Regiment, with some dragoons and artillery 
formed the advanced column ; while the regular troops, including de- 
tachments of the Cape Regiment, the 83rd and the 60th Regiments, 

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formed the reserve, to guard against the Kafirs penetrating through'' 
any of the country to the rear of the commando, and entering the- 
inhabited districts of the Colony. 

Major Cuyler, with the centre division, went direct to Congo's- 
Kjaal ; the chief was not visible, but all his troops were drawn up 
in battle array and ornamented with crane feathers, the emblem* 
of war. By the messages sent, Congo appeared inclined to 
follow the advice given to him of quietly retiring to his own coim- 
try, and was therefore allowed till next day to consider of it. Next 
day, however, the chief T'Slambie and many of his Kafirs were 
observed going towards an adjacent wood, and it was ascertained 
that the main body of his and Congo's followers were assembled^ 
around him. Col. Gfraham then imited the right and centre forces, 
and dividing nearly one-half of them into companies of dismounted' 
men, each sixty strong, ordered them to enter the wood and remain^ 
there while one of the enemy was to be foimd. This plan was^ 
repeated as other wooded fastnesses were reached, and tdtimately 
proved effectual. The Kafirs had never been attacked on foot or' 
in a wood before, and in the jungle their only arm, at that time- 
the " assegai," was a miserable weapon, as room is required to throw 
it with effect. After several of their number had fallen, they fled 
from their favourite and hitherto imdisturbed haunts — ^the chief 
T'Slambie foremost amongst them, with a whole herd of followers- 
and cattle, retiring across the Gh^at Fish Eiver near to its mouth. 
Their abandoned kraals were burnt and their gardens and fields 
laid waste ; but their women and children were invariably pro- 
tected and restored to them, together with all captured cattle. 
The services of the burghers during the campaign were highly 
spoken of by Col. Ghraham; and he mentioned the following 
colonists as having specially distinguished themselves : Comman-- 
dant Jacobus linde, of Swellendam ; Botha, of George ; Grabriel 
Stoltz, Ignatius Muller, William Nel, and John and Isaac van 
Niekerk of Uitenhage, and Piet Pretorius of Ghraaff-Reinet. 

During the early part of these operations, which extended over 
twelve days. Col. Graham sent orders to Mr. Stockenstrom, who 
was on the north side of the Zuurberg, to join the right division 
on the south side ; and the latter at once left his quarters, accom- 
panied by twenty-four men, chiefiy burgher commandants. When 
more than half-way across, on the top of the Zuurberg moimtain, 
at a spot known as Doom Nek, where there was open smooth 
ground, a number of Kafirs met the party, and Mr. Stockenstrom, 
placing a fatal confidence in their friendly professions, dismoimted 
and entered into conversation with them. For nearly half an 
hour the venerable magistrate smoked his pipe with them, and 
passed the tobacco-bag round amongst them, while the subject of 
the expulsion was discussed. He did all he could to persuade them 

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to leave, and assured them that not a shot should be fired if they 
xwent across the Fish Eiver quietly. While the " palaver " was 
proceeding, some other Kafirs arrived, who reported that blood had 
been shed. The character of the meeting at once changed. The 
Kafirs, now upwards of one himdred in number, rushed upon Mr. 
:Stockenstrom and those who were next to him, as they were 
moimting their horses, and instantly murdered the old gentleman, 
eight of the farmers who were with him, and a Hottentot. The 
rest of the party managed to effect their escape and brought the 
sad tidings to Col. Ghraham. 

For some time aft^r the expulsion of the Kafirs, the military 
and burghers continued to guard the boimdary along the Great 
Fish River. Col. Graham urged that the vacated tract should at 
once be occupied, and the former residents of the districts invited 
to retam to them ; but the Governor resisted this, as he sought to 
maintain the country as " neutral ground," and only sanctioned a 
small niunber of farmers being encouraged to settle there for the 
convenience of the supply of the troops at the military head- 
quarters, which received the name of Graham's Town. 

Sir John Cradock was disposed to think that, to prevent the 
evils which had to be overcome on the frontier, it was desirable to 
concentrate the population of the country and secure their 
attention to agriculture more than to pastoral pursuits, which 
tended to a roving life, and was the cause of their weakness and 
.occasional troubles. The system of "loan-leases" appeared to 
him from this point of view to be very injurious, and he was 
determined not to perpetuate it. The question of land tenure had 
been under consideration of the Government for some time, and 
by Imperial as well as Colonial authorities it was considered desir- 
able that the holders of land should no longer be subject to a 
revocable lease, but have such a tenure as would enable them to 
apply capital to the improvement of their estates. In 1812, a 
proclamation was issued by Sir J. Cradock, allowing the holders of 
all lands on loan to convert them into perpetual quitrent properties 
and to hold the same hereditarily for the annual payment of a 
sum to be prescribed according to the situation, fertility, and other 
circumstances of the ground. The object of this was, as the pro- 
clamation states, " a paternal desire to give to the farmers the 
security of title to their land, without any claim to resumption on 
the part of Government, so that they might be encourajged to 
plant timber, and improve and extend agriculture, by having the 
right to dispose of their places as they chose, by dividing 
the same among their children, letting, selling, or otherwise 
alienating it." In the following year, Cradock resigned the 
Government, much to the regret of all classes of colonists, who in 
^public addresses testified that his three years' administration of 

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the Cape had conduced greatly to the happiness and prosperity of 
the inhabitants. 

He was succeeded by Lord Charles Somerset, who arrived on 
the 5th April, 1814. He found the troublous affairs of the border 
varied by a rebellion among some of the colonists of European 
descent, of which he gave a detailed account to Earl Bathurst. 

The circumstances which led to this outbreak arose out of the 
relations between master and servant. A Hottentot who had 
been several years in the service of Frederick Bezuidenhout, 
residing near the border, in what is now known as (3-len Lynden 
(then termed the Baviaan's River), complained of ill-treatment. 
His complaint was made to Mr. (afterwards Sir Andries) 
Stockenstrom, who, in succession to his father, filled the office of 
Landdrost at Gfraaff-Reinet. The Field-comet of Baviaan's River, 
a colonist named Opperman, was directed to inquire into the case, 
and to see that justice was done to the complainant. Bezuidenhout 
considered this interference between him and his servant to be an 
innovation of his right — an intolerable exhibition of authority; 
and set both the Field-comet and the Magistrate at defiance. In 
consequence of this, application was made to the Commission of 
Circuit, and a warrant issued for his apprehension. 

The Under-Sheriff was then dispatched by Mr. Stockenstrom 
to take Bezuidenhout into custody, and as it was reported he had 
sworn never to surrender himself, the officer of justice was accom- 
panied by a military escort, under Lieut. Rosseau, a native of the 
Colony, with twenty men of the Cape Corps. When they 
approached Bezuidenhout's dwelling, he called to them not to 
advance farther, and he himself retreated, accompanied by two 
others, behind a parapet wall, from whence, after calling to the 
party to leave his premises, he commenced firing upon them. 
He fired twelve or fourteen rounds before the party noticed it, 
after which they returned his fire, and he with the two men 
with him retired to a cave in a rock, which it subsequently 
appeared he originally intended to do, as he had lodged there 
a considerable quantity of ammunition. The mouth of this 
cave could only be approached by one man at a time, but from the 
top its occupants coidd be heard and spoken to. From thence 
Bezuidenhout was repeatedly simmioned to surrender, which 
he with vehement imprecations refused to do, saying also that they 
should never arrest him while alive, and that he wotdd shoot 
many of them before he himself shoidd faU. The sergeant of the 
party, however, approached near to the mouth of the cave, and 
while Bezuidenhout was in the act of levelling at him, shot him 
dead. His companions surrendered and were carried prisoners 
to Ghraaff-Reinet. 

The occurrence created considerable sensation. At the burial of 

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the deceased, his brother, in a state of great exoitement, called 
upon all around him to avenge his death ; and from that day he 
and his family connections seem to have set themselves to mature 
and carry out plans of retaliation upon the civil and military 
authorities. They sought to call in the aid of the Kafirs to 
extirpate the " tyrants," promising them the Zuurveld and the 
cattle of those colonists who would not join them against the 
Grovemment. Captain Andrews, the officer in command of the 
nearest military post, obtained information of the movement, and 
at once arrested one of the most influential of those concerned in 
it, named Hendrik Prinsloo. This led to the immediate assemblage 
of an insurgent band, demanding Prinsloo's release. Many were 
intimidated into joining them by a story being circulated that 
those who did not assist would be given over to the plimder of the 
Kafirs. But the chief Gaika, who had been appealed to, could not 
be induced to move ; he gave them clearly to understand that he 
wotdd not embroil himself in their quarrels. Meanwhile, martial 
law was proclaimed, and the military were strengthened by the 
arrival of reinforcements and of many loyal burghers imder their 
field-commandants. In face of the force thus arrayed against 
them, the rebel leaders fled away, while numbers of their followers 
came forward and laid down their arms. Bezuidenhout, with some 
of his family and his brother-in-law Faber, endeavoured to escape 
into Kafirland, but their intention becoming known a detachment 
of the Cape regiment under Captain Eraser proceeded to overtake 
them. They came up to them and demanded their surrender. 
Bezuidenhout's reply was to raise his gun and fire upon the 
soldiers. His wife assisted him in re-loading his gun and even 
fired a shot herself, exclaiming " Let us never be taken alive ! 
let us die here together.'' After this Bezuidenhout fell mortally 
woimded, and thereupon the others surrendered themselves. 

The sequel of the affair was that thirty-nine out of the whole of 
the insurgents were taken as prisoners to Uitenhage on the charge 
of high treason and waging war against the Crown. A special 
commission of the Court of Justice was sent to hear the case, and 
after a lengthened trial in the Drostdy of TJitenhage, five of the 
prisoners were sentenced to be executed, viz., H. F. Prinsloo, 
8. C. Bothma, 0. J. Faber, T. C. de Klerck, and A. C. Bothma, 
Otners were transported and banished from the border, and the 
remainder were ordered to witness the execution of their comrades, 
and then to be released. The fiat executio put in force on this 
occasion was the first instance of colonists of European stock 
suffering death for treason against 1 he Crown. Many of the friends 
of the delinquents hoped to the last that the utmost severity of the 
law would not be enforced, and the abhorrent circumstances attend- 
ing a created an excitement and ill-feeling which were not allayed 

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LORD C. somerset's KAFIR POLICY. 45 

for many years after. The spot selected as the place of execution 
was the hill known as Slaghters Nek, overlooking the valley of the 
Ghreat Fish Eiver, where the chief act of rebeUion had been com- 
mitted. There the machinery of death was erected. The hang- 
man was a negro. The halters were insufficient to bear the weight 
of the unfortunate men, or as some suspected were intentionally 
cut ; and no sooner had the platform been removed than four of 
the five fell from the gaUows. The imf ortunate men cried for mercy, 
and one addressing himself to the bystanders, exclaimed that by 
this accident it was clearly manifest God would not permit them to 
be put to death. The officer in charge. Colonel Cuyler, in the 
stem performance of his duty, had the execution carried out 
according to the letter of the sentence. 

The Governor, in his despatch, added that it did not appear 
from the examinations and confessions of the prisoners that they 
had any groimd of complaint beyond that already mentioned ; but 
accustomed to consider the Hottentot as an inferior being, they 
were extremely impatient of the restraint the British regulations 
put upon them, and it was particularly obnoxious to have the Cape 
regiment, chiefly composed of Hottentots, among them to enforce 
these regulations. His Excellency added : " This feeling is very 
general, and although the Cape Corps has done its duty on this 
and on every occasion and merits my warmest acknowledgments, 
yet, had I a British battalion with which I could replace it, I 
would withdraw it from the frontier on account of the prejudices 
of the people." 

The troops at his disposal, however, were by no means sufficient 
to maintain the security of the border, and complaints of Kafir 
depredations became as rife as ever. Lord Somerset then con- 
ceived the policy of recognising the ascendancy of the chief 
Gaika over all the Kafir tribes inhabiting the border, and of 
maintaining pacific relations with them by means of his controlling 
authority. He repaired to the frontier in 1817, and held an 
interview with this chieftain, at which T'Slambie and others were 
present. After some discussion, arrangements were made with 
them on the basis of the recognition of the supremacy of Gaika 
over the other tribes west of the Kei Eiver, and it was stipulated 
that all intercourse with the Colony should be prohibited except 
through the medium of that chief. It was also agreed on the part 
of the chiefs to accept the principle of Kafir law known as "collec- 
tive responsibility," by which the head of a kraal is responsible 
for the families under him, the headman of a number of kraals for 
the kraals or villages imder him, and so the area of responsibility 
gradually extending until the supreme authority, the chief, is 
reached, to which all are answerable. His Excellency told them 
that he intended in future to send to the kraals to which stolen 

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46 COL. brereton's expedition. 

cattle should be traced, and to call upon such kraal to restore it, 
and if the people of that kraal should have permitted the stolen 
cattle to pass flirough and not have stopped it, that he should then 
require of the kraal an equal number of Kafir cattle in lieu of that 
which had been stolen. 

The agreement thus entered into was adhered to with tolerable 
good faith for a while ; but tribal feuds between Gaika and his 
uncle T'Slambie, and jealousy of the alliance of the former with 
the Colony, led to a combination against Gaika by the other chiefs. 
In November, 1818, he was attacked and defeated by them at 
Amalinda, near Debe Nek, in the King William's Town district, 
and compelled to take flight to the Kahaberg, near the sources of 
the Koonap Eiver. 

Q-aika appealed for aid to the Colonial Q-ovemment, and it was 
felt that it was essential his cause should be espoused. The system 
of Kafir plundering was daily increasing, and with it the usual 
number of murders, some of which were traced to T'Slambie's 
people. The oflScer commanding on the frontier, Lieut.-Col. 
Brereton, was authorised to call T'Slambie to account, and in 1819 
he entered KafPraria with a large force of military and moimted 
burghers. T'Slambie and the minor hostile chiefs, however, 
evaded him, and retired to the impenetrable fastnesses of the bush. 
Brereton's force carried off vast herds of cattle from the 
people's kraals, and returned to Graham's Town, without having 
effected anything against the chiefs. He restored Gaika to his 
former residence, and presented him with a large quantity of cattle 
beyond what he had been plundered of, and also gave to the 
colonists a number of Kafir cattle equal to what they had been 
dispossessed of. He then disbanded the burgher commando, which 
had accompanied him. 

This gave T'Slambie's followers an opportunity of entering the 
Colony at a time when the Government had but a small force to 
repel them. The wholesale capture of their cattle had roused 
them to a frenzy of revenge against the military and the colonists, 
and their excited feelings were still more inflamed by the native 
eloquence of a seer or prophet, named Makanna or Lynx, who 
claimed to have been sent by the Great Spirit to assist them in 
battle against the white man. He coimselled them to unite their 
forces for a simultaneous attack upon Graham's Town, the head- 
quarters of the British troops and the depot of stores and ammuni- 
tion. On the 22nd April, 1819, they mustered their army, 10,000 
in number, and suddenly made their appearance on the hills above 
the military cantonment. Lord Somerset, in reporting the event, 
said : — 

**The close bushy country which intervenes between Graham's 
Town and the Kafir Border, had enabled this body to approach very 

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near the place before they were discovered, and when they were 
partially so, Lieut.-Colonel Willshire was absent inspecting a part of 
the Coloniid Troop of Cavalry, at some distance from the town. The 
small garrison, not exceeding altogether 320 men, was ably drawn 
out and formed by Capt. Trappes, of the 72nd Regiment, for the defence 
of the place, and 60 men of the R. A. Corps, under Lieut. Cartwright, 
were detached for the protection of the Barracks, which are situated 
about 2,000 paces from the town, which itself is straggling and open. 
As soon as Lieut.-Colonel Willshire was apprised of what was going 
on, he put himself at the head of his troop and rode towards the 
enemy to reconnoitre, and found him advancing with a. rapidity which 
had nearly prevented the Lieut.-Coloners retreat upon the town. How- 
ever he joined his small force, and made the necessary dispositions for 
receiving the attack. The Kafirs halted on an eminence to make 
their last arrangement, and divided their force into three columns, 
commanded, it is supposed, by the three chiefs who are known to be 
principally hostile to the Colony, viz., — T'Slambie, Congo, and Lynx. 
Two of the columns were directed upon the town, the third advanced 
against the Barracks, while about 1,000 men were posted between 
Graham's Town and the nearest station from whence relief could come 
to our troops (Blue Krans). They advanced by signal (at a discharge 
of musketry from an adjoining hill) and rushed forward with great 
impetuosity, making the air resound with their appalling shrieks. 
Lieut.-Colonel Willshire received them with firmness, and when but 
within a few paces opened his fire of artillery and musketry upon 
them with such effect, as very soon to check their progress and 
evidently to make them waver. Our little band cheered in its turn ; 
and advanced towards the enemy, who very soon retreated, dragging 
away numbers of his wounded. The attack at the Barracks lasted 
longer, the enemy having penetrated even into the Barrack Square, 
but Lieut. Cartwright defended his post with great intrepidity, and 
drove back the enemy, after having killed nearly treble his own num- 
bers, of whom 102 were afterwards counted in the Barrack Square 
alone. The whole loss of the Kafirs on this occasion, in killed, can- 
not be estimated at less than between 700 and 800, whilst our loss 
only consisted in three killed and five wounded. We learn that 
T'Slambie lost three sons in this affair, and that the Kafirs retreated 
into their own country with a great number of wounded." 

Not only Graham's Town, but other parts of the district of 
Uitenhage, suffered from the Kafir inroad at this time. The 
invading tribes proceeded as far as the Sunday's River, destroying 
farms, killing thirty inhabitants, including nine unoffending 
members of the Moravian Mission Institution, and carrying off 
troops of cattle, horses, and sheep. 

The burgher forces of the Colony from west and east were again 
summoned to assemble, and between the 22nd and 31st of July,^ 
two thousand of them marched into Kafirland, supported by 
detachments of the regulars and artillery. Aiter protracted 
and fatiguing movements, to clear the enemy out of the bushy 

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fastnesses of the Chumie and Keiskamma valleys, some of the 
hostile chiefs treated for mercy and peace. Makanna or Lynx 
voluntarily surrendered himself to Commandant Stookensixom 
-as a prisoner. Walking into camp, with the magnanimity of a 
Roman, he said, " If 1 have occasioned the war, let me see if 
^dehvering myself up to the conquerors will restore peace to my 
country ! and he begged that the war should not be continued, as 
.all their cattle had oeen taken by Colonel Brereton, and the 
people were starving. Congo, Habanna, and others of minor 
note surrendered to Colonel Willshire. T'Slambie took refuge for a 
time beyond the Tembu territory. Gaika was permanently restored 
•to the lands whence he had been driven, and the inferior chiefs, 
<who had surrendered, declared themselves subordinate to him. 

During all this period a considerable portion of the scant 
population of the Colony was withdrawn from their ordinary 
avocations, performing the duties of armed burghers, at great 
personal expense and sacrifice. The Commando called out in 
1811 had not been disbanded until 1815. Three years after- 
wards they were simmioned for two months to accompany Col. 
Brereton in his raid upon T'Slambie. In 1819 they were in the 
field for seven months, mounted and equipped at their own cost 
.And submitting to fatigue and privation without a murmur. Lord 
Somerset did not fail to represent the merits and value of the 
force. "The burghers and their respective Commandants," he 
said, " have fulfilled their duties with unexampled perseverance ; 
;but no praise which I could bestow would describe the merits of 
Mr. Landdrost Stockenstrom, who on every occasion has led his 
gnen with the greatest dexterity, courage and foresight, and to 
whose knowledge of the country the Officer Commanding has been 
greatly indebted." 

At the termination of hostilities in October, 1819, the Q-ovemor, 
M> a conference with Qaika and other Chiefs, took steps for 
^securing to the Colony some permanent advantages as a result 
^f the recent operations. The occupation of the thickets 
along the Fish Eiver had exposed the Colony to invasion, 
.and it was stipulated at this conference that the bush country was 
to be cleared of all Kafirs, the Chief Congo and his adherents who 
inhabited these fastnesses being compelled to retire behind the 
Keiskamma. It was further stipulated that the Kafir border 
rshould in future be the ridge of the Kat Eiver Hills from the 
Winterberg to where that ridge joins the Eiver Chumie, the 
-Chumie itself to its junction with the Keiskamma, and thence the 
Keiskamma to its embouchure. The Colonial boundary was thus 
extended eastward to the Keiskamma Eiver, and two military posts 
were to be established in the most commanding situations of the 
.ceded territory. At the same time, missionary agents (the Eev. J. 

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Brownlee and the Rev. W. E. Thomson) were appointed to reside 
near Gaika, in Kafirland, with instructions to cultivate friendly 
intercourse with the tribe, and by the influence of example to 
attempt to diffuse amongst them the principles of the Christian 
religion and the arts of civilized life. 

" The country thus ceded," wrote Lord Somerset, on the 15th 
October, 1819, from his camp on the Gwanga, to the Secretary of 
State, " is as fine a portion of ground as is to be found in any part 
of the world ; and, together with the unappropriated lands in the 
Zuurveld might perhaps be worthy of your Lordship's considera- 
tion with the view of systematic colonization." 

During his previous visit to the frontier, in 1817, His Excellency 
had been so favourably impressed with the appearance of the 
Tinoccupied country between the Simday and Fish Rivers that he 
expressed a wish that it could be settled by many of those who, in 
England, were anxious to find employment and food in new 
countries, and to whom it was understood the Home Government 
was willing to afford facilities for emigration. He then wrote : — 

" Here is, indeed, a very fine country upon which to employ and 
maintain a multitude of settlers. This tract, particularly healthy for 
every description of cattle and sheep, well wooded and having very 
fine springs in it, is nearly uninhabited. The paucity of borderers 
has been such that they have never been able to settle in quiet. The 
Kafirs whose territory is on the east side of the Great Fish Biver, and 
whose propensity to thieving is similar to that of most other savages, 
have continually viewed the occupation of this fine country by the 
colonists with jealousy, and have molested them so systematically by 
constant depredations upon their lands that insulated settlers have 
imbibed a great dread of occupying land in the vicinity of tnese 
artful marauders. 

It was found necessary in 1812 to drive them back by military 
measures, as your lordship is aware, and since that period to 
keep a mihtary force on the Frontier to check further inroad and 
to give time for settlers to estabHsh themselves in such strength and 
numbers as shall supersede the necessity of keeping a military force 
for their protection. 

" This, then, is the situation of that part of this coimtry which I 
would wish to draw your lordship's attention to the settlement thereof, 
as a measure of Government; fairly stating to your lordship the 
disadvantages to which settlers would be at first exposed, and not 
disguising from you that I am much swayed in recommending the 
plan by a strong wish to be able eventually to withdraw the mmtary 
detachments from that quarter, for many reasons wnich are not at this 
moment the subject of discussion. 

" It is just tiiat settlers should be aware that their property will 
be, in some measure, exposed, in the first instance, to be plundered 
by their restless neighbours, unless their own vigilance and courage 
shall considerably aid in protecting it ; but it is, at the same time. 

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proper to tell them that vigilance and courage will have the effect of 
giving their property efficient protection; that the BLafirs do not 
molest those hanuetB where six or seven families unite together for 
mutual support, and are constantly on the alert for their defence in 
case of attack. We have several instances of associations of this 
nature living in perfect security qmte on the border of the Fish Eiver, 
not one hundred yards from the Kafir country. The Kafirs are con- 
stantly on the watch, and commit their thefts when they discover our 
settlers to be o£E their guard. The herds of these families are tended 
in common by armed watchmen ; should these be indolent or negligent 
they are the victims of their supineness by the loss of their property, 
and sometimes the sleeping herdsmen lose their lives. It is obvious 
that increase of population will remedy this evil, and that the Kafirs 
cannot, from their not using firearms, be any match for Europeans 
who have such to oppose to them. 

*' Having thus stated the disadvantages to which settlers would be 
liable in the country we have to offer them, it is now necessary to 
advert to the more favourable side of the picture, and to say that 
their reward is to be found in the cultivation of a most fertile soil in 
the most healthy and temperate climate in the universe, where cold is 
never so piercing as to congeal water, and where the rays of the sun 
are never so powerful as to render exposure to them injurious, or to 
impede the usual labours of the field. . . Upon a most fruitful 
soil, the same species of cultivation which affords food to man 
in our country is most likely to be successful here ; added to which, 
that when the immediate wants of the new settlers are supplied, 
no country yields finer wool than may be here reared ; that the corn of 
this country has brought in the London market the highest price 
known there ; that tobacco is an article which might be advantageously 
cultivated and prepared so as to equal the best American produce ; 
and that experiments upon the cotton plant have proved that it may 
be cultivated here to the greatest advantage." 

Lord Somerset was clear and candid in his statement of the 
drawbacks as well as of the attractions which the Cape frontier 
districts then offered to those who were looking for " a new land of 
promise." The events happening along the border from 1817 ta 
1819, must also have kept the Secretary of State well informed 
of what the new settlers might have to contend with. But na 
reference to these drawbacks was made when the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, in 1819, asked the House of Commons for a vote of 
£50,000 for the encouragement of emigration to the Cape. The 
country was glowingly represented as unrivalled in the world for 
its climate, natural beauty, and fertility ; and when the vote waS" 
granted, the eagerness and anxiety of individuals to be allowed to 
emigrate to South Africa were unbounded, there being no fewer 
than 90,000 applicants while the number accepted amounted 
altogether to about 5,000. 

Tae scheme of emigration was carried out on the lines originjJly 

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suggested by Lord Somerset. The emigrants were required to be- 
of good character and possessed of some means. No one was* 
accepted who had not sufficient to carry out, at the least, ten able- 
bodied individuals above eighteen years of age, with or without 
families. And to give security to the Government that they had. 
such means, the leaders of parties had to deposit at the rate of £10 
for every family, provided that the family did not consist of more- 
than one man, one woman, and two children under fourteen years 
of age. 

Passages were to be pix)vided for them at the eicpense of Govem-- 
ment, and they were to receive a free grant of land at the rate of 
100 acres for every person or family taJken out. Of the deposit of' 
£10 made to the Government, one-third was to be repaid on^ 
landing, when the victualling at the expense of Government 
ceased ; a further proportion of one-third was to be repaid as soom 
as it was certified that the settlers jiinder the direction of the 
person taking them out were actually located upon the land', 
assigned to mem ; and the remainder at the expiration of three 
months from the date of their location. A supply of agricultural, 
implements was to be sent out, with a view to disposing of them to* 
such settlers as might require them at prime cost or on credit, and 
seed com was to be supplied if necessary on terms equally favour- 
able. Bibles and Common Prayer Books were also distributed to* 
those who might apply to receive them. In cases where one 
himdred families went together and asked to carry out with them a 
minister of their own persuasion. Government was to assign a salary 
to such a minister, if ne should be approved of by the Secretary off 

Subsequently, it was, by the King's pleasure, made a speciaL 
condition of the several grants in the new settlement, that the- 
lands should be cultivated by means of free labour alone, and that, 
any emplovment of slaves upon them would render the lands sub- 
ject to lorieiture. And, later on, the King's commands were given 
to make provision, by proclamation, that English settlers coming- 
to reside in the Colony should, as long as they remained in the^ 
state in which they arrived, enjoy the same rights and powers of 
devising property which they had under the law of England ; and. 
that, in case of entering into the marriage state within the Colony, 
they might, by an ante-nuptial contract, exclude community of 
property according to the Colonial law, and retain to themselves 
the right of free testamentary disposition as in England — such con- 
tracts, however, not affecting or destroying the rights of children^ 
acquired at their birth, under the common law of the Colony.* 

* By Act No. 23 of 1874, aU lestiictions on the freedom of the dispositioD of 
property has been removed ; but without interference with the Roman Dutch law of 
oommunity of property, or the laws of inheritance ab intettato. 

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In the month of November, 1819, Lord Somerset received inti- 
mation that the transport ships, with the emigrants, would leave 
lEngland that month, so as to arrive at the Cape at the commence- 
ment of the planting season, and he was directed to make the 
necessary arrangements for their reception in the Colony. He was 
given a discretionary authority to afford them assistance in every 
practicable manner so as to enable them to carry their ultimate 
objects into effect. " But," wrote Earl Bathurst, " experience has 
shown that the settlement and cultivation of waste land is best 
achieved by the active application of the means which the settlers 
'On it may themselves possess ; and your lordship will not give this 
further assistance, except in cases where it may be essentially 
necessary to prevent the industrious settler from being over- 
-whelmed by the pressure of imavoidable difficulties. . . . And 
generally it is my duty to convey to you the anxious wish 
and injimctions of th6 frince Eegent that in confiding these 
settlers to your lordship's care, they will not j&nd that they have 
lo«t the protection of His Majesty's Paternal Government." 

This despatch reached Lord Somerset when he was on the eve 
•of leaving the Cape for England, in consequence of the state of 
health of one of the members of his family ; and the duty of re- 
-ceiving and locating the emigrants devolved upon the Acting 
^Governor, Sir Eufane Shaw Donkin, who was ably assisted by 
KUolonel Bird, the Colonial Secretary, and Mr. Henry Ellis, the 
deputy Secretary. 

The first transport ships, the Nautilis, Ocean and Chapman^ 
.amved in Algoa Bay in April, 1820, and during the succeeding 
months, they were followed by twenty-three other vessels convey- 
ing the remainder of the emigrant band. The landing place was 
^hen imnamed; it consisted of a wave- washed beach, lined by 
ridges of barren sand-hills, with a small fortification crowning the 
heights, and a few cottages and huts. The Acting Governor anti- 
cipated from the introduction of British industry and enterprise 
tthe formation of an important commercial town at this place. He 
named it "Port EHzabeth" after his deceased lady, to whose 
-memory he erected an obelisk on the hill, still known as Donkin's 

Among the emigrants was Thomas Pringle, the Scottish lyric 
ipoet, who in his " Narrative of a Eesidence in South Africa," has 
given us a graphic word-picture of the landing of the settlers : — 
'" It was," he says, " an animated and interestmg scene. Around 
»us in the west comer of the spacious bay were anchored ten or twelve 
large vessels, which had recently arrived with emigrants, of whom a 
;^eat proportion was still on board. Directly in front, on a rising 
I'grouiid a few himdred yards from the beach, stood the little forti- 
i£ed barrack or block-house, called Fort Frederick, occupied by a 

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division of the 72nd regiment, with the tents and pavilions of the 
officers pitched on the heights around it. At the foot of those* 
heights, nearer the heach, stood three thatched cottages, and one 
or two wooden houses brought out from England, which now 
formed the offices of the commissaries and other civil functionaries* 
appointed to transact the business of the emigration, and to- 
provide the settlers with provisions and other stores, and witb 
carriages for their conveyance up the country. Interspersed) 
among these offices, and among the pavilions of the G-ovemment 
functionaries and naval officers employed on shore, were scattered 
large depots of agricultural implements, carpenters' and black- 
smiths' tools, and ironware of all descriptions, sent out by the- 
home government to be furnished to the settlers at prime cost. 
About two furlongs to the eastward, on a level spot between the* 
sand-hills on the beach and the stony heights beyond, lay the- 
camp of the emigrants. Nearly a thousand souls on an average 
were at present lodged there in military tents ; but parties were 
daily moving off in long trains of bullock waggons, to proceed to 
their appointed places of location in the interior, while their place 
was immediately occupied by fresh bands, hourly disembarking 
from the vessels in the bay. A suitable background to this ani-- 
mated picture, as viewed fy us from the anchorage, was supplied 
by the heights over the Zwartkops River, covered with a dense- 
jungle, and by the picturesque peaks of the Winterhoek and the 
dark masses of the Zuurberg ridge far to the northward, dis- 
tinctly outlined in the clear blue sky.. The whole scene was such 
as could not fail to impress deeply the most unconcerned spectator^ 
To us — ^who had embarked all our worldly property and earthly 
prospects, our own future fortunes and the fate of our posterity,, 
in this enterprise — it was interesting and exciting to an intense 

The accompanying illustration is from a painting by the late- 
Mr. T. Baines, now in the possession of Beuben Ayliff, Esq., of 
Graham's Town, a descendant of one of the orginal settlers. 

A few detached parties of the emigrants were distributed in the- 
Western districts of the Colony ; the Scotch settlers under Mr. 
Pringle were located on the Baviaan's Eiver, in the Somerset 
district ; but the main body, numbering about 3,800 souls, were 
placed in the country between the Fish and Bushman's Rivers,, 
which received the name of Albany. Among the "heads of 
parties " were gentlemen of high acquirements and ^ood family 
connexions, retired military and naval officers, and other persons- 
of the greatest respectabifity, while the parties themselves com- 
prised all kinds of handicraftsmen and husbandmen. 

Arrived in Albany, in a favourable season, all seemed fair and 
beautiful. Fine grassy hills and dales, variegated with bush and 

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forest, everywhere exhibited to the eye the most enchanting views. 
When all were located in their several parties, the country 
presented a singular aspect. ** At this period," says the Rev. W. 
rShaw, who accompanied them from England, " in the discharge 
-of my duties as a minister, I often made the tour of the entire 
^settlement. It was curious to see so many small encampments 
•scattered through every part of the country, the tents contrasting 
strikingly with the foliage of the copse and brushwood, near 
which, for convenience of shade and shelter, many of them were 
pitched. It was interesting in many places to see the first tree 
-felled — the commencement of the Jirst wattle-and-dauh house — and 
^he first furrow made by the plough in the virgin soil. And I 
must bear my humble testimony, that if any people ever began 
in good earnest the necessary operations for causing mother earth 
-to yield the needful supplies, with which she is wont to bless the 
industrious, the British Settlers in Albany, with but few exceptions, 
4id so. They seemed resolved that, though they could not ensure 
success, they would at least strive to deserve it." 

Wheat was extensively sown in all parts of the settlement, and 
nothing could be more promising than the crops in the early stage 
of their growth ; but just as the grains formed in the ear, the blight 
known as " rust " attacked them and the whole became worthless. 
'The wheat crops proved a total failure, not only for the first 
j-ear, but for two or three succeeding seasons. This calamity was 
followed by long-continued and heavy floods, which caused serious 
damage to houses and gardens and stock, and subjected most of the 
^emigrants to great suffering and privation. Their fellow-colonists 
and their countrymen in England and in India, on learning of 
-their disasters, generously contributed to their relief. But the 
liberality of the Govemment, who through the Commissariat of 
the frontier army, continued to supply them with rations, 
tremoved anything like absolute want ; and the settlers themselves 
tshewed a brave determination to endure and make the best of 
their hardships — ^notwithstanding their first disappointments, 
believing firmly in the natural resources of the country. Indian 
com or maize and pumpkins and potatoes supplied the place of 
-wheat ; roasted barley, ground into a fine powder, formed a sub- 
;stitute for coffee, and wild honey from the rooks or woods 
furnished the means of sweetening it ; the leaves of \vild shrubs 
and plants were used as a refreshing beverage, instead of tea; 
well-dressed sheepskins were converted into jackets and trowsers 
;and skirts ; and the leaves of the palmiet, growing in some of the 
•streams, formed material for the broad-brimmed hats of the men 
and children, and even provided trim bonnets for the fair sex. 

As they became accustomed to the novelty of their situation, 
several of them realised that it was impossible for families to live 

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on the one hundred acre grants of land which had been allotted 
them, and they petitioned the Government for an augmentation of 
their lands, which in some instances was acceded to, while in other 
oases adjacent grants were obtained by purchase, enabling many 
of the settlers to pursue the mode of farming — ^pastoral as well as 
agricultural — ^usual in the Colony. 

Meanwhile, there was a movement of several of the more 
energetic and restless spirits to seek other occupations and 
create new industries. Some of the handicraftsmen foimd 
employment in Ghraham's Town and other places where skilled 
laboiir was in demand. Others made hunting expeditions into 
the country eastward along the coast, which was full of game 
of all kinds, including troops of elephants; and not a few 
began a contraband trade in cattle and ivory with the Kafirs. 
Tliis led to the establishment in 1821, of a fair at Fort Wilshire, 
on the banks of the Keiskamma, where open and legitimate barter 
was carried on. Elephants' tusks, com, gimi, mats, baskets, skins of 
wild animals, &c., were the articles of produce brought in for sale 
by the Kafirs ; while the stock in trade of the English traders 
consisted of beads and buttons (then the native circulating medium), 
and blankets, pots, brass and tinware — ^the value of which had. 
begun to be appreciated by the Kafirs. This was the beginning 
of a conmierce which soon increased to an extent far beyond what 
could have been then anticipated. Many of the settlers com- 
menced trafficking with small investments, of the value of merely 
a few pounds sterling, and found their way to the fair on foot or 
on horseback, or in rude sleighs drawn by oxen ; but, pushing 
trade with energy and skill, not only among the natives, but also 
among their Dutch fellow-colonists, they ultimately laid the 
foundations of large and successful mercantile establishments and 
accumulated very handsome fertimes. 

Before the close of 1821, Lord Charles Somerset returned to the 
Colony. He took umbrage at the action of his locum tenens, Sir 
Euf ane Donkin, who had reprimanded his son, Capt. Somerset, for 
some infraction of military discipline ; and, violating ordinary 
official courtesy, refused to meet him on arrival at Government 
House. This feeling of hostility seems to have been extended to 
the details of the policy which Sir Euf ane Donkin had adopted 
during his administration as Acting Govemor. A settlement 
named Fredericksburg, on the river Beka, in the ceded territory, 
formed of the half-pay officers and discharged soldiers of the 
African Corps, was ordered to be abandoned; the fair at 
Fort "Wilshire was abolished, and traffic with the natives 
forbidden; a line of posts along the Fish River, which had 
previously efEeetually protected the settlers, was withdrawn; 
the seat of magistracy was removed from Bathurst to Graham's 

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Town, and the magistrate appointed by Sir Rufane Donkin 

These aots created a general distrust in the stability of the 
measures of the Government ; and a number of the principal 
settlers made arrangements for holding a meeting at uTaham'& 
Town to express their opinion, in true British manner, on the 
state of public affairs. Lord Somerset being informed of their 
intention, immediately issued a hi^h-handed proclamation,, 
notifying that public meetings for the discussion of public matters 
and political subjects were contrary to the ancient laws and usages 
of the Colony, and anyone attempting any assemblage of such 
nature without his sanction, or that of the local magistrate in 
distant districts, was guilty of a high misdemeanour, severely 

Finding this obstacle in their path, they resolved upon making 
their position known to His Majesty's Government; and in 
1823, they addressed a memorial to the Secretary of State. 
They prefaced their complaints by stating, "That whatever 
may have been the individual (fisappointments and failure* 
inddental to so numerous an emigration, they do not present 
themselves to His Majesty's Government with any complaint 
of the natural disadvantages of the country to whidi they 
have been sent; and they have ever been actuated by one 
undivided feeling of respect and gratitude for the liberal assistance 
of the British Government, a feeling which future reverses can 
never efface." They then set forth their grievances, the most 
pressing and insupportable being the insecurity of the border, and 
the depredations of the Kafirs, which they asserted were in a great 
measure produced by the vacillating policy pursued by the Colo- 
nial Government in the management of their affairs. They con- 
cluded, however, by cherishing the hope that their interests would 
receive due regard and attention, and " that at no distant period a 
numerous and flourishing colony might be here governed upon 
British principles and by British laws. 

Not only at Graham's Town, but also in Cape Town, the intro- 
duction of the British settlers had excited amongst the population 
a greater spirit of vigilance and attention to the acts of the 
Government than had existed before, rendering any exercise 
of official authority objectionable that was not foimded upon the 

Mr. Thomas Pringle, the poet, after having resided for two years- 
at Glen Lynden and having seen his Scotch party fairly settled and 
established there, proceeded to Cape Town, where he was joined by 
a former College-companion, Mr. John Fairbaim, They opened 
an Academy for the instruction of young men, and commenced the 
publication of a literary periodical for the diffusion of useful 

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information. At the same time a printing-press was established 
by Mr. George Gfxeig, who, in Jannaxy, 1824, issued a newspaper, 
the South African Commercial Advertiser^ and shortly afterwards 
soKcited and obtained the aid of Fairbaim and Pringle in its 
editorial management. 

The new broad sheet was received with delight by the public, as 
a medium of conmiunicating general information — the only 
publication previously existing being the dry-as-dust oflSlcial Cape 
Gazette. It was continued for sixteen successive numbers without 
eliciting any interference from the authorities. But a trial for 
libel was proceeding in the Court of Justice, in the course of 
which the defendant, named Edwards, indulged in aspersions on 
the character of the Governor. Lord Somerset was apprehensive 
that the proceedings would be published, and under lus instruc- 
tions, the Fiscal (or Crown Prosecutor) made a demand upon Mr. 
Ghreig for the proof sheets of the paper which was to appear next 
day. These were supplied, and the Fiscal returned them with a 
qualified imprimatur — not approving of the whole contents but 
allowing the paper to be published. He required of the publisher, 
however, to give substantial security that nothing ofEensive should 
appear in any future number. Mr. Greig, with his friends, Fairbaim 
and Pringle, at once determined upon the course to be pursued ; 
and next morning publicly announced that they disdained, 
as British subjects, to submit to the degradation of a censorship of 
the press, and therefore discontinued the publication of the paper, 
pending an appeal to the British Government, This action 
greatly incensed the Governor, who issued a warrant directing the 
Fiscal to seal up the printing presses, and notify to Greig that as 
"his conduct had proved subversive of due submission to the 
lawful commands of the constituted authorities," he was to quit 
the Colony in one month, in default of which he was to be arrested 
and sent out of it. 

The literary periodical — the South African Journal — ^which had 
only reached two numbers, was next looked after by the Fiscal, 
and a warning conveyed to Pringle that criticism of the Colonial 
Administration might involve a public prosecution. Pringle and 
Fairbaim at once notified their intention of discontinuing its 
publication under such circumstances. 

■ Meanwhile, Mr. Greig proceeded to England, and, backed upon 
a strong memorial from the colonists, was successful in his appeal 
to the home authorities. By order of Earl Bathurst, his press was 
relieved from the odious incubus of the censorship, and a written 
authority was given that his license to publish should be liable to be 
cancelled by the Governor in Council only, and not by the Governor 
alone. Under this guarantee the publication of the newspaper 
was resumed, Mr. Fairbaim being its sole editor ; but, unf or- 

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tunately , a year or two afterwards, it again fell under the ban of the 
Government. The occasion for this act was not the publication of 
any obnoxious ori^al article, but of an extract copied from the 
London Times, which Lord Charles Somerset represented as of a 
calumnious nature. The Cape community felt the suppresion of 
their favourite paj^er to be a loss to the colonists generally ; and 
as they were denied the liberty of holding a public meeting in 
the Colony to take the circumstances into consideration, they 
resolved upon an appeal to the British Ministry, and failing that, 
to the British public. Mr. Fairbaim was delegated to undertake 
this mission, and on his arrival in England he was supported by 
all the influence of the merchants and others connected with the 
Colony residing in London. A change of ministry had also taken 
place, and Mr. Huskisson, who was then at the Colonial Office, 
frankly conceded to the expressed wishes of the colonists, and on 
behalf of the Q-ovemment intimated his determination that " the 
Press should be placed imder the control and the protection of the 
laic, and no arbitrary suppressions should take place in future." 
Upon this independent footing, secured for it by the exertions of 
Mr. Fairbaim, the South African Press has been conducted evei 

The Colonial Office and the British Parliament, prior to this, 
had their attention repeatedly directed to the condition of the 
Colony and the impopularity of Lord Somerset's administration. 
In 1822, the House of Commons agreed to an address for the 
appointment of a Eoyal Commission to enquire into the state of 
the Colony as far as regards its revenue, its institutions and the 
conduct of its Q-ovemor. Messrs. Bigge, Colebroke, and Blair, 
formed this Commission, and they were engaged with their labours 
imtil 1826 ; but before their reports were finally completed, per- 
mission was given to Lord Charles Somerset to return to England, 
ostensibly to rebut some of the charges brought against him, but 
really to prepare for retirement from office. During the period 
of his Administration, he exercised an absolute despotism, tem- 
pered by favouritism, in matters both political and social ; but he 
took an active interest in the material development of the Colony, 
giving personal encouragement to the improvement of the breed of 
horses, cattle, and sheep by the importation of the best stock. And 
if " he who makes two blades of grass grow where only one grew 
before," deserves well of a country. Lord Somerset will be grate- 
fully remembered for having set in motion the emigration scheme 
of 1820, which introduced a population whose energy has spread 
out in manifold enterprises throughout all South Africa. 

The reports of the Commissioners of Enquiry were in due time 
in the hands of the Imperial Government, and led to the intro- 
duction of many changes, which went chiefly in the direction of 

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anglicizing the Colony. An Executive Council was appointed to 
assist the Governor with advice in matters of importance or 
difficulty. A Supreme Court of Justice, consisting of a Chief Justice 
and three Puisine Judges, was established by Koyal Charter. A 
Circuit Court, presided over by one of the Judges, was to sit in 
every district of the Colony once in every six months. Magis- 
trates were placed in charge of divisions, and to hold court in every 
district town twice a week, or as often as was necessary, — taking the 
place of the old courts of landdrost and heemraden, composed 
chiefly of the burgher inhabitants. Justices of the peace were 
appointed in some of the towns and hamlets. And, simultaneous 
with these changes, the English language was ordered to be used in 
all official proceedings and business. 

Major-General Bourke, who succeeded Lord Somerset in 1826, 
was originally selected to exercise the functions of lieutenant- 
Govemor of the Eastern Districts, as it was then intended to create 
these districts into a separate and distinct government. This was 
in accordance with a recommendation of the Royal Conunissioners, 
who urged the importance of applying imiform and consistent 
principles to the intercourse of the colonists with the Kafir and 
other tribes. But the plan was afterwards modified ; and a Com- 
missioner-General appointed (Mr. Stockenstrom being chosen for 
the office) to superintend the affairs of the border. 

At this time, a state of panic arose among some of the frontier 
Kafir tribes, owing to their being threatened with invasion by 
marauding hordes of what were termed the "Fetcani." The 
^' Fetcani proved to be a tribe of Zulus known as the Amang- 
wane, imder the chief Matiwane^ who, in the native revolutionary 
wars paused by Chaka, fled southward, overpowering and conquer- 
ing their neighbours, and finally threatening the destruction of the 
Tembus and Galekas on the colonial border. Governor Bourke 
promptly resolved to aid the Kafirs in repelling these invaders, and 
a force of burghers imder Col. Somerset, together with the Kafir 
ehiefs and their people, defeated and dispersed them near the 
XJmtata, in 1828. Among the burgher commando on this occasion 
were some of the yoimg Albany settlers, to whom the service was 
as novel as it was imexpected. 

Many of the dispersed tribes seeking refuge along the border of 
the Colony, Major-General Bourke deemed it advisable to pass an 
ordinance to legalise their admission, imder certain restrictions, as 
free labourers, and to regulate the terms of their employment. 
At the same time he gave attention to the improvement of the 
condition of the Hottentots, and after consulting with the Rev. 
Dr. Philip, of the London Missionary Society, and Mr. Stocken- 
strom, who were acquainted with these people, he framed the 
Ordinance No. 60, for consolidating and amending the laws 

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respecting them. Of this enactment, the Governor wrote, " I 
thought it ri^ht to promulgate it immediately after the Ordinance 
No. 49, lest it should seem that more care was taken for the pro- 
tection of foreigners than for the welfare of the ancient inhabitants 
of the Colony. The enactment was ratified and confirmed by an 
Order in Council dated from Windsor, the 16th January, 1829, which 
declared that " all Hottentots and other free persons of colour law- 
fully residing within the Colony are in the most full and ample 
manner entitled to all and every right, benefit and privilege to 
which any other British subjects are entitled." This was the 
Magna Charca of the colonial aboriginal races. 

In 1828 the Chief T'Slambie died, having lived to a great a^e ; 
and in the following year, the Chief Gaika passed away, having 
hastened his end by intemperance. His heir, Sandilli, being a minor, 
the mother, Sutu (who still survives, residing at XJmgwafi Mission 
Station, Stutterheim), became Regent, and Macomo and Tyali, elder 
sons, were appointed to assist her. The ceded territory between 
the Fish and Keiskamma Eivers, was still in a great measure 
imoccupied, with the exception of the Kat Eiver Valley, where 
Macomo and his followers had been allowed during good behaviour 
to reside. But in 1829 they broke the peace by attacking a tribe of 
the Ama-Tembus living behind the featberg, pursuing some of 
them into the Tarka District, within the Colony, and slaughtering 
them there. For this outrage, Macomo and his people were re- 
moved eastward of the Chuime River ; but the chief never ceased 
to look back with covetous eye on the Eden from which he had 
been expelled. The Commissioner-G-eneral, Mr. Stockenstrom, 
then suggested that the country so vacated should be filled up 
with the descendants of the Hottentot race, scattered about the 
country, and sanction was ^ven to the scheme by the Governor, 
Sir Lowry Cole. The beautiful fertile valleys of the Kat River 
were laid out in locations, on which the Hottentots were placed, 
each family receiving a certain number of acres of arable land as 
their allotment, and the pasturage being reserved as commonage 
for the community. 

Early in 1834, Sir Benjamin Durban arrived as Governor. The 
revenue of the Colony for some time before had been inadequate 
to meet the charges of the civil establishments, and the Home 
Government ordered extensive reductions to be made. The 
Governor's emoluments were fixed at £5,000, without any 
allowances ; the Commissioner-General's oflSlce was abolished ; and 
every official's salary, from the Chief Justice down to a junior 
clerk, was subjected to some reduction. At the same time, the 
Governor had to give effect to the Act for the emancipation of 
the Slaves, which had passed the Imperial Parliament in 1833.* 

♦ In 1833, the total jinmber of slaves in the British Dominions was 780,000, valued 

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He had to initiate the new Legislative Council which had been 
granted to the Colony. He was also directed to devise new mea- 
sures for the protection of the border, and to cultivate the good- 
will of the chiefs, by having qualified men stationed with them as 
agents. While he was detained in Cape Town, preparing and 
maturing his plans for giving effect to this policy, the frontier of 
the Colony was suddenly invaded by hordes of Kafirs. 

The expulsion of Macomo from the Kat Eiver was followed, 
in 1834, by the ejectment of some of Tyali's people from the 
Gaga River, and their removal across the Chumie River. 
Numbers of them, however, persisted in going back and 
re-occupying the coimtry. The military patrol, charged vdth the 
duty of removing them, destroyed their kraals 'and seized some 
nulch cows ; a skirmish ensued, and a brother of Tyali, named 
Klu-Elu, was slightly wounded. " The blood of a chief had been 
shed." Macomo, and Tyali, who were exasperated with the 
Government, made this a cause of war, and fired the train already 
laid. Botma and Eno were joimed with them, and they were 
supported and coimtenanced by the large tribe of Gcalekas, 
under Hintza. Before the morning of the 23rd of December, 
1834, ten thousand Kafirs rushed over the border, like troops of 
wolves, carrying terror and death into the homes of the astonished 
and imofEending settlers. The inhabitants, livinjj on widely 
separated farms, had no warning, and could offer no resistance. 
Within a week, fifty farmers were slain, hundreds of homesteads 
were burned down, and loads of spoil, consisting of horses, cattle, 
goats, sheep, clothes, and whatever could be laid hold of, carried 
off into Kafirland. 

The defensive power of the Colony was at the time scanty, but 
all available forces were mustered under Col. Smith (afterwards 
Sir Harry Smith), who rode the distance to Graham's Town, about 
600 miles, in six days after news of the rising reached Cape Town. 
The enemy's territory was entered, and after several montJis' 
fighting, the Kafirs were subdued. As an indemnity for the 
past and a security for the future, a proclamation was then issued 
by Sir Benjamin Durban, declaring British sovereignty to be 
extended over the territory of the tnbes as far as the Kei River. 
The people were not to be removed from their lands, but 
governed, restrained and improved upon them, by the gradual 
introduction of British law and order. At the same time, a num- 
ber of natives named Fingoes, remnants of the Fetcani refugees, 
who were in a state of servitude under the Gcaleka Kafirs, and had 

at £45,000,000. The number in the Cape Colony was 35,700, appraised at £3,000,000, 
and of the grant of £20,000,000 voted by Parliament, for the emancipation of the 
slaves, the amount apportioned to the Cape was £1,200,000. The first day of 
December, 1838, witnessed the freedom of aU the slave and indentured class in the 

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kept aloof from the war, were brought out of Kafirland, and 
located in the oountij between the Keiakamma and Fish Eivers. 

But the Governor's proclamation extending the colonial border to 
the Great Kei River, was unfortunately disapproved of in England, 
and ordered to be reversed — ^the allegiance of the chiefs and tribes 
who had submitted being renounced, and the limits of colonial 
authority moved back to where it was prior to 1819, along the 
dense thickets of the Fish River. 

Against this reversal of his policy. Sir Benjamin Durban stoutly 
protested ; he declared " it is one which so sure as certain causes 
must produce certain effects, cannot fail to be pregnant with in- 
security, disorder and danger." His expostulation with the Secre- 
tary of state (Lord Glenelg) on the subject, caused his dismissal, 
and brought his public services in the Colony to a close. His 
retirement from office, however, called forth an universal expression 
of regret, as well as substantial tokens of affection and gratitude 
on the part of the colonists. 

Previous to this time, various causes had contributed to create 
dissatisfaction in the minds of many of the old Cape Dutch 
Colonists ; and they began "trekking " or moving away into the 
interior, with the avowed object of getting beyond the control 
and jurisdiction of the British Government. In 1825, silver 
coinage was made a legal tender in all the British possessions, the 
rate of exchange for the paper rix-dollar at the Cape being fixed 
at Is. 6d. sterling; and this was regarded by many as abroach 
of the pledge given by Government for the redemption of 
the colonial paper currency. Soon afterwards, in 1826, the 
promulgation of the law for ameliorating the condition of slaves 
created a considerable sensation among them. In Cape Town, 
the Burgher Senate declined to give publicity to it in the 
usual form by readinff it aloud from the Town-house, and finally 
it was only read by the President alone (who afterwards tendered 
his resignation;, none of the members of the Senate attending. In 
the district of Stellenbosch and elsewhere, the same opposition and 
delay occurred, none of the Heemraden chosing to attend. After- 
wards, when the Slave Emancipation Act was promulgated, the 
slave owners bitterly complained that the Government, which for 
years previously imported and encouraged the sale of that species 
of property, enjoying the taxes and emoluments therefrom, should 
now arbitrarily deprive them of it. They also regarded the 
compensation offered as inadequate and unjust ; and some of them 
refused to take any of the money, of which £5,000 has remained 
unclaimed to the present day. To these and other causes of dis- 
content were now added the losses sustained during the war, and 
the inadequate protection afforded the border inhabitants against 
the Kafirs by the policy of the English Government. This 

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intensified the feeling of dislike entertained by many of them to 
rulers whose nationality differed from their own. 

During 1835-37 the exodus of these people went on. The num- 
ber who voluntarily expatriated, themselves has been variously 
estimated at from 5,000 to 10,000. They sold their properties for 
whatever they could realise — ^many a good estate being hastily 
exchanged for a wagon and team of oxen, and some for even less 
value, — and went off with their wives and children into what was 
then the wilderness north of the Orange Eiver. The story of their 
adventures and exploits, imder their leaders — Eetief, Maritz, 
Potgieter, TJys and Pretorius ; their encounters with the savage 
hordes of Moselekatze and Dingaan, by whom they were trea- 
cherously assailed; and their final settlement in Natal, the Orange 
Free State and the Transvaal Eepublic, forms one of the most 
stirring and romantic chapters of modem history.* 

But we must revert to events in the Cape Colony. By the 
policy of Lord Glenelg, the Kafir chiefs were reinstated as masters 
of the country between the Great Fish and the Kei Eivers, with 
the exception of the Hottentot settlement at Kat Eiver and the 
Fingo settlement on the lower course of the Fish Eiver. Mr, 
Stoakenstrom was appointed Lieutenant-Governor, with instruc- 
tions to establish by treaty the new system of relations with the 
natives — the rules guiding him being, the abolition of the com- 
mando and reprisal system of 1817 ; the acknowledgment of the 
independence of the tribes within their own territories; the 
appointment of British Agents to reside near to the chiefs, and all 
complaints from colonists or natives to be made through them ; 
the chiefs agreeing on their part to find and restore, or give 
compensation for, any property stolen from the Colony, and to 
protect traders and Christian Missionaries residing with their leave 
in Kafirland. 

Some modifications of these treaties were made by Governor 
Sir George Napier, who held office until 1844, and also by his 
successor. Sir Peregrine Maitland, who secured for converts to 
Christianity in Kafirland the liberty to settle at missionary institu- 
tions, and freedom from persecution for non-compliance with Kafir 

The Chief Sandilli had by this time come of age, and was 
surrounded by a war party eager to test their strength against 
the colonists. In 1846 a Kafir of his tribe was being sent from 
Fort Beaufort to Graham's Town for trial, on a charge of theft of 
an axe, when he was rescued by some of his countrymen, and 
another prisoner to whom the Kafir was fastened was cruelly 

* A valuable compilation of the Annals of Natal, for the period A.D. 1497-1846 
inclunre, containing almost every available record relating to the Boer Exodus, has 
just been completed for the Natal Society, Pietermaritzburg, by the Honourable John 
Bkd, late Treasurer- General of that Colony. 

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64 KAFIR WARS OF 1846 AND 1850 '53. 

mutilated and miirdered. The surrender of the parties conoemed 
in this outrage was refused, and war was declared by the Governor. 
The military force advancing into Kafirland met with a reverse 
near Bumshill, having to retire and leave in possession of the 
Kafirs a lengthy wagon train, containing the baggage of the 
7th Dragoon Guards. All the available forces of the Colony 
were then again called into the field, — Sir Andries Stockenstrom 
being at the head of the burghers, and Sir John Molteno, Messrs. 
Onkruydt, Joubert, Pringle, and Du Toit, among his commandants. 
The Kafirs were routed out of their steongholds in the Amatola 
Mountains; SandiUi surrendered the parties concerned in the 
outrage on the Colonial prisoner; and Kreli, the Gcaleka 
Chief, acknowledged the British right by conquest to all lands 
west of the Kei Kiver. In 1847, Governor Maitland was super- 
seded by General Pottinger, and he in turn was relieved by Sir 
Harry Smith, who, as Governor and High Commissioner, in 1847, 
proclaimed the boundaries of the Colony to be the Eaeskamma 
Eiver on the east, thence across the Stormberg to the Kraai Eiver, 
and thence along the Orange Eiver to the sea on the west. He 
also proclaimed British sovereinty over that portion of Kafbraria 
between the Keiskamma and Kei Rivers, as had been done twelve 
years before by Sir Benjamin Durban. 

The peace of 1847 did not last long. The chiefs, dissatisfied 
with the loss of their power, supported a witch-doctor, named 
TJmlanjeni, who made his followers believe he had the power to 
turn the Englishmen's buUets into water. Sandilli was called to 
account for coimtenancing this imposture, and failed to appear 
before the Governor. For this act of contumacy he was, by pro- 
clamation, deprived from his rank as chief. The Kafirs at once 
resimied hostilities. On the 24th December, 1850, they attacked 
a military force in the Boomah Pass ; and on the following day 
massacred a nimiber of military settlers, who had been located in 
ihe Chimiie Valley, and who, in fancied security, were preparing 
to celebrate the usual Christmas festivities. The Governor himself 
was, for several days, surrounded by the enemy, and shut up in 
Fort Cox, and at last only escaped by dashing out with an escort 
^f Cape Moimted Rifies and vigorously riding on to K ing 
William's Town. To add to the difficulties of the position, severed 
-natives serving in the Cape Corps, and many of the Kat Eiver 
Hottentots, who on former occasions sided with the colonists, and 
^helped the colonists against the Kafirs, now revolted and joined 
fthe latter, forming marauding bands, attacking the homesteads 
0nd properties of their former friends and employers. 

The war was a protracted and costly one ; and m 1852 the Home 
•Government, dissatisfied with its progress, recalled Sir Harry 
£mith and appointed General Sir George Cathoart as Governor 

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and Commander-in-Chief. He brought hostilities to a close in 
1853. The Qaika tribe, under San^Ui, were removed from the 
Keiskanuna and Amatola, and placed eastward of the Thomas 
Eiver, their former possessions being filled up by a settlement of 
Fingoes and other natives, who had proved their loyalty to 
Government during the war ; while a portion of the Ama-Tembu 
territory was declared forfeited, and created into a new district, 
named "Queen's Town," its lands being occupied by a burgher 
population, under an orffanisation for mutual support and defence. 

This long series of Kafir wars contributed to give the Cape a 
bad name, causing it to be regarded as an imdesirable place for 
settlement, and subjecting the Colonists to the groimdless and 
unjust imputation that they were enriching themselves by the 
military expenditure incurred at the expense of the Imperial 
Government. These wars and disturbances were really ruinous to 
aU classes of the inhabitants, and greatly retarded the advance and 
development of the coimtry itself. 

The Colonists had not, at this time, any share in the management 
of their own affairs. The Legislative CouncU was a nominee body, 
its constitution being based upon the principle of representation 
by election of the Crown. The pubKc began to realise that while 
their interests were often materially affected by its proceedings, 
they were excluded from all influence upon its action. Petitions 
for an elected House of Representatives had been presented to ths 
Secretary of State as early as 1827 ; and applications for the pri- 
vilege of representation by the people were renewed at various 
periods after that, imtil, in 1849, an intimation was received that 
the Home Government was favourably disposed to entertain the 
matter. At this time an event occurred which brought the Colony 
into some prominence, and obtained for it the respect if not the 
applause and approval of almost every other colony of the British 

The Secretary of State, Earl Gh-ey, proposed to turn the Cape 
into a penal settlement, and directed three hundred convicts, some 
of whom were Irish political offenders, to be removed from Ber- 
muda to Cape Town. As soon as this became known, memorials 
and petitions from all parts of the country, remonstrating and pro- 
testing against the action, poured in upon the Governor. The 
Colony fiom its first settlement was free from the taint of oon- 
victism, and the people were infuriated at the idea of their country 
being degraded and their characters tarnished by its conversion 
into a penal station. They also reasonably dreaded the evils 
which might ensue if felons and bush-rangers once got intermixed 
with the uncivilized natives along the borders. When the ship 
Neptune^ freighted with tlie convicts, arrived in Simon's Bay, the 
spirit of the Colonists was fairly aroiwed. Meetings were held in 

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the open air ; petitions to the Queen, to the two Houses of Parlia- 
ment, and to the people of England were adopted ; and the com- 
munity entered into a solemn league and pledge to suspend alL 
business transactions with the Government, in any shape or on 
any terms, imtil the order making the Cape a penal station was 
reversed, and the convict ship was sent away. This method of 
"passive resistance" — more recently known as "boycotting" — 
was soon put into operation, and the Government f oimd nearly all its- 
ordinary channels of supply stopped. Such was the popular feel- 
ing in favour of the " pledge," that even any suspicion of being 
concerned in dealing with tne Government, or rendering it sup- 
plies in any form, placed a man under the ban of social excom- 
munication. The struggle was prolonged for fully six months ;: 
but the determined staiid made by the Colonists was successful^ 
Earl Grey confessed that he had committed an error; and in^ 
February, 1850, an Order in Council was issued revoking the for- 
mer one by which the Cape was named as a penal settlement, and 
the ship Neptune with the convicts sailed out of Simon's Bay for 
Van Dieman's Land. 

The satisfactory issue of this contest stimulated the desire of the- 
Colonists for Representative Government, and Mr. Pairbaim and 
Sir A. Stockenstrom were deputed to proceed to England to* 
vindicate the rights and interests of the Colonists before the British 
Parliament and people. By letters patent, dated 23rd May, 1850^ 
the Governor and Legislative Coimcil were empowered to enact 
Ordinances for the establishment of a Eepresentative Government^ 
consisting of two elective Chambers ; and three years later that 
form of Government was brought into force. The first ParKa- 
ment met and was formally opened by Lieutenant-Governor Darling 
on the 1st July, 1854. 

In the same year. Sir George Grey, who had previously very 
successfully adnunistered the aSairs of South Australia and New 
Zealand, was appointed Governor and High Commissioner. He 
at once asked Great Britain to vote £40,000 per annum, to defray 
the cost of public works, to subsidise some of the chiefs, and to 
maintain educational and benevolent institutions, so as to promote 
civilization amongst the Kafir tribes. He held out the prospect 
that in eight or ten years' time, the mother country might be 
relieved from the constant anxiety and expense which the Cape 
frontier had for a long period entailed. Her Majesty's adviser* 
agreed to the proposal of the expenditure of £40,000 from 
Imperial funds, and the Cape Parliament voted a sum of about 
£50,000 for the equipment and maintenance of a poKce force for 
the security of the frontier and its inhabitants. A further develop- 
ment of Sir George Grey's policy was to improve the tenure on 
"which the native people held their lands, giving them a vested 

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interest in the soil ; and also to open up their country to oommeree- 
by constructing roads, which would be of equal use in peace or 
war — ^the Kafirs being employed on these road- works, and thus- 
acquiring habits of labour which they had formerly never known. 

Meanwhile a political movement of a most singular character 
was in progress in Kafirland. A Kafir seer, Umhlagaza, arose- 
among the &calekas, under the patronage of the chief Kreli ; and, 
professing to have held converse with the departed Kafir heroes- 
and chiefs, he conveyed a message from them to all Kafirs to- 
destroy their cattle and com, and refrain from cultivating the 
groimd, assuring them that when these orders were carried out a 
new state of things would follow — the past heroes and aU the dead 
of the Kafirs were to arise, all cattle would also be restored to life, 
and the white man and Fingoes would be swept from the face of 
the earth. It is inconceivable the extent to which these predictions 
were believed and acted upon. Thousands upon thousands of fine 
cattle were slaughtered. In the Gcaleka country, Kreli gave the 
word that the spirit of their ancestors must be obeyed, and such- 
quantities of com and cattle were destroyed that hunger began to* 
make havoc among the ranks of his followers. 

This was a critical time for the peace of the frontier. The- 
political aim of the delusion was to incite the people, after they had 
destroyed their means of subsistence, to make an onslaught on the- 
Colony; but there was not that simultaniety of action among theim 
to ensure success. While the Gaika chief was considering what 
he should do, the other tribes were broken and starving. It was- 
thought by many that Government should have interfered and. 
apprehended the prophet and his patrons, but such a step would 
probably have precipitated war. Every means, however, were 
adopted that could be devised to protect life and property in the 
Colony, and to be prepared for the worst. As soon as the crisis-- 
was passed, those of the natives who survived the delusion were- 
fed by the Government and private charity; and the Colonists 
benevolently came forward and co-operated with the authorities in- 
relieving the sick and suffering, and saving the remnant of the 
nation, as far as possible, from the consequences of its mad act of 
self-destruction. It was estimated that 25,000 Kafirs, chiefly 
women, children and aged persons, perished, and that nearly 
100,000 disappeared for a time from the country, driven out by 
the famine which they had themselves created. 

One result of this depopulation of the country was that large 
tracts in British KafEraria were cleared of their former occupants.. 
The Governor filled up some portions of these with European- 
farmers from the Colony on a system of military tenure. The 
Anglo-German Legion, disbanded after the close of the Crimean 
War, were also introduced and located there — the Cape Colony 


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■contributing towards the expense of bringing them out. And 
shortly afterwards a body of agricultural labourers, with their 
wives and children, to the number of two thousand, from North 
Germany, were introduced and settled in the neighbourhood of 
the military villages along the Buffalo Eiver. 

While these matters of frontier policy more immediately 
occupied Sir George Grey's attention, he was not neglectful of 
other interests affecting the welfare and prosperity of the Colony 
generally. In Australia he had witnessed the extraordinary 
•development which followed from a systematic introduction of 
immigrants, and from what he had seen of the Cape of Good Hope, 
he was satisfied that it offered at least equal advantages as a field 
for the profitable employment of industry, as well as of capital in 
ijhe occupation of lands. He proposed a scheme to Parliament for 
raising a loan for immigration purposes, which was sanctioned. 
He also devised various plans for developing the internal resources 
of the country. In 1857, authority was given for the construction 
of the first line of railway from Cape Town to Wellington. Eoads 
;and bridges, in various directions, were authorised ; and measures 
were passed for promoting a harbour of refuge in Table Bay, and 
for the construction of har Dour works at the mouths of the Kowie and 
Buffalo rivers. New divisions were created, additional magistrates 
rappointed, and numerous new villages rapidly sprung up, forming 
•centres of population throughout the coimtry. 

The commerce of the Cape, during the ten years following the 
re-establishment of peace and the first meeting of the Parliament, 
indicated a remarkable development of its resources. In 1854, its 
exports were valued at £764,461. In 1864 they were more than 
trebled, amoimting to £2,594,594. The quantity of wool 
produced increased from 8,567,457 lbs. in 1854, to 36,296,698 lbs. 
in 1864. The imports of goods in 1854, were £1,648,037, and 
in 1864 they had advanced to £2,471,339. 

Sir P. E. Wodehouse succeeded to the Governorship in 1862. 
An Imperial policy of economy in all expenditure upon the 

* Colonies was then beingadopted, and he was instructed to use all 
means to make British Kaffraria self-supporting, or to incorporate 
it with the Cape. The Kaffrarians, however, resisted annexation, as 
they wished to retain their separate government, and the colonists 

• opposed it, from an apprehension that they would be burdened 
with the expense of the general military defence of the Kaffirarian 
frontier, of which they could see no precise limit. The Governor 
suggested to the Secretary of State that if it was desired to unite 
the two colonies, it had better be done by an Act of the Imperial 
Parliament. This suggestion was adopted, and an annexing Bill 
was introduced into the House of Commons and became law — ^but 

it contained a provision that the Cape Parliament might, if so 

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disposed, pass another enactment arranging details, before it came 
into operation. This proceeding was regarded as a violation of 
the constitutional rights of the colonists ; but the Imperial Act 
being held in terrorem, the Cape Legislature accepted the position, 
and, after a severe struggle oi parties, in 1865, agreed to a Bill 
incorporating British KaSraria with the Colony, and increasing 
the number of constituencies entitled to representation in the 
Assembly, as well as enlarging the Legislative Coimcil. 

The tract of coimtry beyond the Grreat Kei River was at this 
time almost unoccupied, having been depopulated during the 
famine of 1857, and the chief Kreli expelled beyond the Bashee 
Biver, as a punishment for the evils he had caused in Kaffraria, 
Sir G. Grey had filled up a small portion of it with friendly 
natives, Kafirs and Fingoes, placed under European magistrates ; 
and he proposed occupying other parts with a European population 
reared in the Colony, and holding their lands on a system of 
military tenure, similar to the Cathoart grantee system in Queen's 
Town. Governor Wodehouse proposed a similar scheme for its 
settlement, with the addition that an armed force should be 
organised for the defence of the new frontier. But the Secretary of 
State, apprehending that such an occupation would increase the 
risk of further Imperial expenditure, (toected British authority 
to be withdrawn, and the Kei River made the colonial 

Sir Philip "Wodehouse thereupon granted Kreli permission ta 
return with his followers to a portion of the vacant territory ; 
while the remainder of it was allotted to Fingoes and Tembus, 
who crowded some of the Frontier districts, and whose excessive 
population was thus drawn off. The transfer of these natives- 
from within the Colony was finally carried out in 1866, and the 
fertile country, now known as the Transkei, became peopled with 
portions of Fingo and other tribes, having no alliance with their 
Gcaleka neighbours, and believed to be fnendly and loyal to the 
British Government, from a consciousness of benefits received and 
an appreciation of the peace secured to them by its infiuence. 

Some important questions occupied public attention during the 
administration of Governor Wodehouse. One was the long con- 
tinued but imsuccessf ul agitation for a division of the Colony into 
two separate governments. Another was the unsatisfactory rela- 
tions between the Executive Government and the Legislature. By 
the Constitution granted in 1853, the Parliament was composed of 
representatives elected by the people, while the members of the 
Executive, who held seats in both Chambers, were appointed by 
and responsible to the Lnperial Government. The remedy for 
this was a change to the system of responsible or party Govern- 
ment; but to such a change a majority of the colonists were 

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^opposed, considering it to be premature and unsuited to the country . 
^Between 1867 and 1869 the finances showed a marked decline, and 
to equalise revenue and expenditure, a large scheme of taxation was 
submitted by Government. The House of Assembly resolved that 
instead of this taxation there should be considerable retrenchment 
of the public expenditure. Matters threatened to come to a dead- 
lock. Sir Philip Wodehouse reported the Constitution to be 
^unworkable. He dissolved Parliament, and, with the approval 
of the Secretary of State, made an appeal to the coimtiy at the 
^elections, — the issue being whether the Ijegislature should be modi- 
ified, as Sir Philip proposed, so as to consist of a single chamber of 
thirty-six members, giving the Executive increased powers; 
or whether the Colony shoiSd have the administration conducted 
^B in England by a Cabinet possessing the confidence of the 
Legislature, "When the new Parliament met, it at once rejected 
Tthe reactionary proposal of the Governor, and his period of service 
being completed he left the Colony. 

Governor Sir Henry Barkly, experienced in the working of con- 
rstitutional Government in Australia, was then sent out, with 
authority to press the adoption of full self-government upon the 
<Colony, which he did with success. In 1872, he introduced a 
aneasure, which, after five days' debate, was passed in the House of 
Assembly by a majority of ten votes, and in the Legislative Coun- 
cil by a bare majority of one. The new constitution thus created was 
;assented to by the Queen and proclaimed on the 29th November, 
.the first Ministry being formed by Sir John Charles Molteno. 

Following upon the inauguration of Responsible Government 
tthere was another marked advance of the prosperity of the Colony. 
Shortly before there had been a long period of adversity. Abnor- 
mal seasons and protracted droughts had occasioned great loss of 
:«heep and cattle ; the wine farms were devastated with oidium ; and 
the wine trade itself was imiversally depressed, as Mr. Gladstone's 
;alcoholic scale of duty excluded it from the English market. 
Added to this, a war on the border, between the Orange Free State 
.^nd the Basuto tribe, disastrously affected colonial business. But 
just at the time when the prospects of the country were most 
gloomy, a change in its fortunes occurred. Diamonds were found 
;along the banks of the Vaal Eiver ; and the success of the first search 
parties brought numerous others from the neighbouring colonies 
:and republics, as well as from abroad. The rich mines of Ghriqua- 
land W est,* which were then opened, gave employment to large 
bodies of men; and this, combined with a return of favourable 
reasons, reacted upon the agricultural and pastoral classes throughout 
the whole Colony, producing such beneficial effects that the public re- 

* An epitome of the History of Griqualand West will be found in Ihe chapter on 
-^^ Diamond Mining at the Cape." 

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venue, which had previously exhibited deficits, shewed for several 
jears an uninterrupted annual increase and a handsome surplus 
over each year's expenditure. In 1874, the exports of the Colony 
(which in 1854 were only £764,461), amounted in value to 
£4,233,561, exclusive of a large unregistered exportation of 
diamonds, estimated in that year at £200,000. The export of wool 
reached 42,620,481 lbs., of the value of £2,948,671. The imports 
in the same year advanced to £6,568,215, the greater part of which 
were from Ghreat Britain, and the public revenue which in 1854 
was only £300,000, rose to above one million and a half sterling 
The census of the Colony taken in 1875, shewed that the total 
population numbered 720,984 persons, of which the European or 
whites amounted to 236,783, and the various native and coloured 
• classes to 484,201. The total area of holdings was close upon 
eighty million acres, of which about sixty millions were held upon 
•quitrent tenure, over eighteen millions on leasehold, and a million 
were freehold properties. The number of different kinds of live- 
stock was;— Sheep (wooUed), 9,986,240; other sheep, 990,423; 
horses, 205,985 ; mules and asses., 29,318 ; draught cattle, 421,762; 
other cattle, 689,951; angora goats, 877,988; other goats, 
2,187,214; pigs, 116,738; ostriches, 21,751. 

Twenty years of peace had almost lulled the Colony into forget- 
ftdness of native disturbances and war, when in 1876 rumours 
began to spread of " looming troubles " owing to the restless state 
of some of the Kafir tribes. Although the feeling of insecurity 
was attributed to groundless " scares," Sir Henry Barkly, with the 
advice of his ministers, appointed a Commission to consider the 
question of frontier defence. This Commission, after taking the 
evidence of military and other officials, brought up a report, stating 
that "the Colony was living upon a mine that might at any moment 
be sprung beneath its feet." JDifferent opinions prevailed as to the 
.extent of the danger, but the Government felt it to be its duty to 
; strengthen the deiensive forces of the country. 

In 1877, Sir Bartle Frere was appointed Governor, in succession 
to Sir H. Barkly, and was charged as High Commissioner with 
the supervision of British interests in Ghiqualand West, in Natal, 
. and South Africa generally. On his arrival, he loyally co-operated 
with the ministry of Sir John Molteno, then in office, and made 
arrangements, after meeting Parliament, for visiting the frontier. 
Just at this time, the accident of a fight at a wedding feast in the 
Transkei set the tribes on the border in commotion. Some 
Fingoes had been beaten and one Gcaleka kiUed. This revived 
the old animosity which had existed for nxany years between these 
two tribes. 

The Gcalekas entered Fingoland at four points, sweeping oif 
-cattle from the Fingo villages, and one of their armed parties 

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72 THE WAK OF 1877-78. 

attacked the Mounted Police Force at Ghwadana, killmg one 
officer and four men. Measures were at once taken by the Govern- 
ment for the protection of the Fingoes and the punishment of their 
enemies. The Colonial Forces and Volimteers from the principal 
districts and towns, as well as two of H.M.'s infantry regiments, 
a naval brigade, and artillery, were brought into the field, and 
Kreli and Ms forces were defeated and driven over the Bashee 
Biver. It was thought the disturbance was then at an end ; but 
the Gcalekas shortly afterwards reappeared in considerable force, 
and a body of them crossed the Kei River into the Gaika 
territory, and induced that tribe, under the chief Sandilli, to 
engage in hostilities. A portion of the Gaikas, however, remained 
faithful to the Government, as did many of the smaller tribes. 
After a few months' fighting, the war was brought to a close by 
the dispersion of the Gcalekas, the death of the Gaika chief, Sandilli, 
and the surrender or capture of the minor Gaika and Tembu 
chiefs who took part in the rebellion. The Gtdka territory was 
declared forfeited, with the exception of the several Chnstian 
mission stations; and the remainder of the Gaika tribe was 
removed across the Kei, into a portion of the fine country left 
vacant by the dispersion of the Gcalekas. Kreli was outlawed, 
but took refuge in Bomvanaland; and, after seven years' life 
" in the bush, he has now been pardoned by the Government, 
and permitted to settle down as a peaceful subject in a portion of 
that district. 

During the course of the war, in the early part of 1878, the 
Governor and his Ministers unhappily were not in accord-*— the 
point of difEerence between them having reference to the control 
of the forces in the field, and who should conduct the operations 
for the suppression of the rebellion. The Governor ultimately 
dismissed Sir John Molteno and his colleagues from office, and 
summoned Mr. John Gordon Sprigg to form a ministry, which was 
at once done. Parliament was assembled shortly afterwards, and 
the action of the Governor was challenged in the House of 
Assembly, but after a long debate, the House resolved by a 
. majority of 37 to 22 that, imder all the circumstances of the case, 
the removal of the Ministers was unavoidable. 

Parliament, before it arose, voted its thanks to the Officers 
Commanding and to all the forces, regulars and colonial, who had 
been engaged in the suppression of the rebellion. It also made 
provision for the self-defence of the Colony in the future, by 
sanctioning considerable votes for increasing the Cape Mounted 
Police, and passing laws for the organisation of a Yeomanry Corps, 
Volunteers, and the Burgher and Levy forces — ^the latter embracing 
every able-bodied man in the Colony between 18 and 60 years of 
age, with some necessary exceptions. It likewise gave the Govem- 

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ment the power to proolaim areas, within which it would not be- 
lawful for any persons to have arms or weapons without a licence. 
Under this Peace Preservation Act, as it was termed, the Kafirs- 
and Fingoes on the Frontier and in the Transkei were disarmed 
of their guns and assegais, compensation being allowed them for 
the same ; and an intimation was given that the law would also be- 
extended to the Bcusuto tribe, occupying the territory of Basuto-^ 

This tribe, as already mentioned, had been at war with the- 
Orange Free State in 1868, and were on the point of being 
entirely subjugated and broken up, when Sir Philip Wodehouse, 
in his capcwdty of Hieh Commissioner, stepped in and saved them 
by proclaiming BritiMi sovereignty over them. In the Free State- 
and in some parts of the Colony, at the time, the interference was 
regarded as an unwarrantable act, but it was approved of and- 
confirmed by the Imperial Government. For a year or two afters- 
wards, the territory was held by the Cape Mounted Police Fotcc ;- 
and in 1871, before the introduction of Responsible G-ovemment, 
Parliament ;was induced, at the instance of Governor Sir H. 
Barkly, to annex it to the Colony, which became responsible- 
for its expenditure and administration. From this period, the 
tribe made marked progress in material prosperity and civilization, 
and their government by European magistrates imder Col. 
Ghriffith, C.M.G., was deemed to be a success. 

There were some of the chiefs, however, who chafed under the 
control of the Ma^strates ; and in 1879, Moroisi, a Bahputi chief, 
defied the authorities and went into rebellion. His death and 
the forfeiture of his lands followed. The Basutos, some of 
whom had aided in the suppression of the revolt, were troubled 
about this confiscation of territory; and when the extension 
to them of the Peace Preservation Act was annoimced, their 
chiefs seized the occasion of arousing and influencing the tribe to- 
oppose it. The feeling against the disarmament policy was further' 
encouraged by the statement, made through the ordinary public 
channels, that the Colonial Ministry was not supported by the 
Home Government. On the issue of the disarming proclamation, 
some loyal people obeyed the order, and surrendered their arms ; 
but the fact of their doin^ so drew upon them the enmity of the chiefs, 
who according to native custom "ate them up," threatening* 
their lives and carrying off their cattle. A troop of the Cape 
Mounted Riflemen then moved up to Basutoland, for the protection 
of the loyalists. They were met on the border by armed forces of the- 
Basutos, who essayed to resist their entry, and afterwards in great 
numbers attacked their camps and the magistrates' stations. In 
September, 1880, nearly the whole tribe was in revolt; and within a^ 
week or two afterwards, there was a rising of the Basutos in East 

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74 THE HIGH commissioner's AWARD. 

Qxiqualand, followed, by that of the Pondomise, Amaquate, and 
Tembus, and other tribes east of the Drakensbere. This rising 
was ^gnalised by the treacherous murder of one of the m«igistrates, 
Mr. Hamilton Hope, who was stationed with the Pondomise chief 
XJmhlonhlo. The chief volunteered to go with Mr. Hope to aid 
the Government ; but, when on the way, the Pondomise, forming 
a semi-circle, began a war dance, supposed to be loyal, the warriors 
of the tribe making, as is the custom, feints at stabbing, when 
they suddenly rushed at Mr. Hope and two of his companies, 
Warrene and Henman, killing them on the spot. ^ 

At this time. Sir Q-. C. Strahan was temporarily administering 
the Q-ovemment, in succession to Sir Bartle Frere, who had been 
recalled owing to the divergence between his views and that of 
Her Majesty's Government on the affairs of South Africa. Sir G. 
Strahan issued a proclamation, calling out 2,000 of the burgher forces, 
and these together with Volunteers and auxiliary Corps from all the 
principal towns, were at once sent to the front, and in a compara- 
tively short time the outbreak in Qriqualand East and Tembu- 
land was suppressed. Afterwards, strenuous efforts were made to 
reduce the JBasutos to submission by force of arms, but without 

In 1881, Sir Hercules Robinson arrived as Governor and High 
Commissioner, and he was instructed to offer his services as 
mediator between the Colonial Government and the Basutos. 
Both being willinff to accept his arbitration. His Excellency 
gave his award on me 29th of April — the terms being a surrender 
of guns by the Basutos, and liberal issue of licences to carry arms 
on payment of a licence fee; restoration of the property taken 
from the loyals ; compensation to traders for loss of property ; and 
payment of a fine of cattle by the tribe. These conditions being 
complied with, there was to be a complete amnesty, and no con- 
fiscation of territory. A few days after this, the Hon. Mr. Sprigg 
and his colleagues resigned ofl&ce, and a new Ministry was formed 
imder the Premiership of Sir Thomas Scanlen. 

Although the award of Sir Hercules Robinson was accepted by 
the Basutos, and some cattle paid as a fine, little was done towards 
fulfilling its other conditions. After the lapse of about twelve 
months, the award being still imoomplied with, it was cancelled. 
A Commission was then appointed to assess the losses sustained by 
the loyal Basutos, and to compensate them for the same out 
of funds voted by Parliament; the disarmament proclamation 
was also withdrawn ; and nothing was required of the JBasuto tribe 
than payment of hut-tax and orcfinary obedience to the law. Yet 
all these conciliatory efforts to re-establish the Government 
of Basutoland on a satisfactory footing proVed unsuccessful. 
There was, meanwhile, a growing colomal feeling in favour of 

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ihe abandonment of the territory ; and the Ministry deputed one 
of their colleagues, the Hon. Mr. Merriman, to visit England and 
j)lace the whole matter before the Imperial Govemment. In view 
of the , disastrous effect which the abandonment of Basutoland 
might produce, the Imperial Government decided to undertake the 
Administration of the country, on certain conditions — one being 
that the Colony paid towards the cost of its government an 
•equivalent to the amount of customs duties received on goods 
«eiit into the territory ; the other being that, if the Basutos did 
not give proof of their appreciation of British intervention, by 
Assisting the administration in every way, the Imperial Govern- 
ment would not hold themselves bound to continue it. This 
Arrangement, with a slight modification, was accepted by the 
•Colony ; and an Act for the Dis-annexation of Basutoland was 
j)assed in 1883, making provision for the payment of a sum, 
mot exceeding £20,000, as a contribution towards any deficiency 
ihat may arise in the revenue of Basutoland. The territory is 
now governed by a B>esident Commissioner, who is imder the 
direction of Her Majesty's High Commissioner in South Africa. 

In 1883, the Colonial Parliament expired by effluxion of time, 
and on the meeting of the new Parliament after the elections, in 
1884, the Ministry of Sir Thomas Scanlen intimated their intention 
of asking the Legislature, by resolution, to cause enquiry to be 
made whether the Imperial Government would not assume direct 
control over the TrandLeian territories, as well as over Basutoland ; 
but before this could be carried out, they found themselves defeated 
on a motion respecting the prohibition of the introduction of 
plants under the Phylloxera Prevention Act. Sir Thomas Scanlen 
Accepted this as a non-confidence vote, and resigned. A new 
Ministry was then formed under the Premiership of the Hon. 
Thomas Upington, Q.C, who annoimced that his Cabinet con- 
sidered the policy of retrocession of the Transkeian territories 
unadvisable, and that they were prepared to submit proposals to 
complete their annexation. 

They had, however, first to deal with the question, which suddenly 
Arose, of a German Protectorate being established on the border of 
ihe Colony north of the Orange River, alon^ the West Coast. 
Some years before this. Sir Sartle EVere had recommended 
ihe annexing of this coast right up to the Portuguese boundary 
at Cape Frio, but the Imperial Government took no action in the 
matter, beyond sanctioning the British fiag being hoisted at 
Walwioh Bay and a small piece of ground surrounding it. 
A German subject, Mr. Luderitz, had in the meantime acquired 
rights of property at Angra Pequina Bay, and his Government, 
through the German Ambassador in London, enquired of the 
Secretary of State whether British protection would be extended 

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to Mr. Luderifz, intimating that failing British action, Germany 
would itself take its subjects at Angra Pequina imder protection. 
The Secretary of State commimicated with the Colony, enquiring, 
if the place was declared British, whether the Cape would be 
prepared to take the responsibility and control of it. When 
the matter was submitted to the Cape Parliament, it at once 
passed resolutions in favour of the annexation of the whole coast 
up to the Portuguese boundary. But in the interval, during 
which this reference to the Colony was made, a German man-of-war 
made its appearance and proclaimed a Protectorate over the coast 
from the Orange lliver to the twenty-sixth parallel of south latitude, 
and soon after another German gun-boat took possession of the 
whole of the rest of the West Coast, Walwich ^ay and certain 
Islands excepted, in the name of the German Emperor. The 
British Government acquiesced in the action of the German Govern- 
ment ; and this settled the question. The Cape Government, how- 
ever, lost no time in legalising the annexation to the Colony of 
Walwich Bay, which was done by proclamation of Sir Hercules 
Robinson under Act 35 of 1884, and at the same time the annexa- 
tion of the Port of St. John's, at the mouth of the TJmzimvubu 
River on the East Coast, which had been proclaimed British 
territory in 1878, was completed. 

The Government then carried through the incorporation of the 
whole of the Transkeian Territories. The districts of Griqualand 
East, Idutywa and Fingoland had been annexed by Act in 1877 ; 
and in 1885 the territories of Tembuland, Emigrant Tembuland, 
Gcalekaland and Bomvanaland, were ma^e integral portions of the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

xhe present inland boundaries of the Cape Colony are : — On the 
Eastern coast, the Umtata River from its mouth to the town of 
XJmtata, and from thence along the line of road separating Ghriqua- 
land East from Pondoland, to a point on the Umtamvima River 
touching the boimdary of Natal, thence to the TJmzimkulu River, 
and north to the Drakensberg range of mountains, following them 
to the sources of the Telle River, and thence its jimction with the 
Orange River, and along the course of the Orange River to a 
point named Ramah; then in a northern direction, along the 
boundary of the Orange Free State to Platberg, on the Vaal River; 
then following down the Vaal River to its jimction with the Orange 
River, and thence to the mouth of that river on the Western Coast. 

The total area of the Colony thus described embraces an extent 
of 213,636 square miles, being nearly double the area of the whole 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The present population is computed at a total of 1 ,252,347 

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The leading features of the physical geography of the Cape 
Colony, which greatly determine its climate and natural produc- 
tions, are the several ranges of moimtains that cross the country 
in irregular lines, and, separated from each other by valleys and 
plains, form a series of terraces rising in successively-increasing 
altitudes, from the seaboard to the interior. 

The Cape Peninsula, which is generally the first land sighted 
by the voyager from England, presents a characteristic specimen 
of the form and structure of these mountain ranges, its tabular 
summit and peaks shooting up abruptly from the sea, and standing 
out bold and high. Table Mountain rises almost perpendicularly 
to a height of 3,862 feet above Table Bay. It is flanked on the 
right by the remarkable Lion's Head 2,100 feet high, the slopes 
.on its neck covered by the beautiful satin-leafed Silver Tree, and 
its long round-backed extremity stretching outward as the Lion's 
Bump. On the left again there is the picturesque Devil's Peak (or 
Wind Berg of the old l)utch mariners) 3,315 feet in height ; while 
in the horse-shoe valley between these points, the city of Cape 
Town is spread out, with its suburbs extending around the 
mountains for fourteen miles, from Sea Point to Constantia. 

A heath-covered sandy tract, forming the isthmus between Table 
Bay and False Bay, connects the Cape Peninsula with the Dra- 
kenstein and Hottentots HoUand moimtain range, which is the 
first high barrier between the coast region and the inland districts. 
Ihese mountains stretx^h southward to Cape Hanglip at the 
entrance of False Bay, and northwards in a somewhat irregular 
series through ClanwiluaaooL and Namaqualand to the Orange River. 
The vine-growing valleys of Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Paarl, 
Wellington, Twenty-four Rivers and the OKfant's River are 
along the seaward slopes and spurs of these mountains, while the 
undulating plains reaching from them to the coast are exten- 
sive grain-producing districts, known as the "granary" of the 
Colony. The Berg River runs through a portion of tms ooimtry, 
from iVansche Hoek to St. Helena Bay, over a course of 63 miles. 

Immediately behind the first range, is another having its highest 
point in the Winterhoek 6,840 feet near Tulbagh. This forms 
the principal watershed of the west; the drainage on one side 
running to the Olifant's River, which empties itself into the 
Atlantic, and on the other to the Breede River, which flows into 
the Indian Ocean. The Breede River is navigable for small 
vessels for some distance from it mouth. The fertile valleys of the 

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"Warm Bokkeveld, Worcester, Goudini, Hex River, Robertson, and 
Montagu, are in this tract. 

Proceeding eastward, tlie range is known as the Hex River^ 
Langebergen, Outeniqua and Tzitzikamma mountains, nmning^ 
parallel to the coast, and subsiding near Cape St. Francis. Thi* 
part of the coimtry has been occupied for several generations by 
the descendants of the early colonists. There are many towns and 
villages established in it, such as Oaledon, Swellendam, Heidelberg, 
Riversdale, George, and Mossel Bay, and the lands are occupied 
as com farms, vineyards, orchards, tobacco plantations, sheep and 
cattle pastures, and ostrich enclosures. From George and the 
Ejiysna to the Tzitzikamma, near Himiansdorp, it is well wooded y 
the forests nmning for a distance of 170 miles with a varying 
depth of from ten to twenty miles from the sea. 

A third range, known as the Zwarteberg, diverges from the 
elevated Hex lliver Heights, and encloses on one side the 
Ghannaland Karoo, Tradouw and the fertile districts of Ladismith^ 
Oudtshoom, and Lange Kloof, while on the other it forms the 
boundary of the " Great Karoo.'' The same range extends east- 
ward as the Antoniesberg, Elandsberg, and the Cockscomb or 
Ghreat Winterhoek, rising to 5,967 feet in the Uitenhage division, 
and there joining the hilly ridges of the Zuurberg, which die 
away some distance beyond Graham's Town, near the mouth of 
the Great Fish River. 

The Great " Karoo " — signifying a dry or arid coimtry — 
consists of extended undulating plains, dotted over with small 
bushes, and is characterised by a general absence of shade, of 
verdure, and of permanent surface waters. Behind this Great Karoo 
there rises a bold escarpment of flat-topped hills, known on the 
western side as the Roggeveld and Nieuwveld mountains, and further 
eastward as the Sneeuwbergen. These form the higher plateau of 
the Upper Karoo districts, eloping away to the valley of the 
Orange River. Here the wide-spreading bushy plains are more or 
less diversified by hills of sandstone and shale, and conical dykea 
or kopjes of black trap rock. The hills of the Roggeveld reach to 
5,150 feet ; but the highest point of the Sneeuwbergen (the 
Compassberg or Spitzkop moimtain, in the Richmond district) rise* 
to 7,800 feet above sea level. This constitutes the central water- 
shed of the Colony ; the drainage on one side running north to the 
Orange River, and on the other flowing south-eastward to the 
Indian Ocean. 

The plains of the Karoo bear no resemblance to the sandy wastes 
of Sahara. In seasons of drought, the soil is parched and arid, 
and vegetation scorched and shrivelled ; but after rains it is trans- 
formed into luxuriant pastures, carrying coimtless flocks of sheep^ 
and herds of cattle and horses, which thrive wonderfully on the 

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axomatio herbage, and peculiar dryness and salubritj of its olimate. 
In former years, these plains abounded with wild game ; and even 
as late as 1844, the notable Nimrod, Roualeyn Gordon Gumming, 
of Altjrre (whose spoils of the chase from South Africa attracted so 
much notice in London during the first Gbeat Exhibition of 1851), 
had his hunting groimds in the neighbourhood of the Thebus 
Mountain, on the borders of the Middelbur^ and Cradock districts. 
Thousands of springboks, interspersed with troops of gnus, or 
wildebeeste, quaggas, zebras, ostriches and other game, then dotted 
the immense flats, which are now occupied with flocks of wool- 
bearing sheep, farmers' dwellings, orchards and gardens. Of the 
larger game, there eure few at present to be found within the 
boimdmes of the Colony ; but springboks are generally to be seen 
quietly grazing or scouring over the plain, and a small troop of 
zebras still occupy the mountain pastures within five miles of 
Cradock. In other portions of the Colony, the stately Koodo and 
the beautiful bontebok are preserved on private properties ; and in 
the Knysna forests and Addo Bush, elephants and buffalo are 
more numerous than in the Transvaal. 

From the central range of the Sneeuwbergen, an arm runs 
eastward under the names of Tandtjesberg, Zwt^ershoek, and 
Boschberg, linking on to the Gfreat Winterberg Mountain, over 
7,000 feet high, then extending along the grassy heights of the 
Katberg, Elandsberg, Gaikaskop, the Hogsback and the Amatolas, 
and terminating with the Buffalo and Kologha ranges, in the 
division of King William's Town. 

This grassy plateau stretches further northward to the boimdary 
of the Queen's Town district, rising from there by another step to 
the Stormberg Mountains, 6,000 to 7,000 feet in height, where 
are situate the border districts of Wodehouse, Aliwal North and 
Barkly ; and then it joins on to the Drakensberg or Quathlamba 
Mountains, whose highest peak, 10,000 feet, is on the borders of 
the adjacent Colony of Natal. 

The structure of these various moimtain ranges and the Geology 
of the Colony generally, has now been pretty accurately 
determined ; although there are still many important points and 
details to be worked out by accurate survey. The three classes of 
formations, primary, secondary and tertiary, have each their 
representatives in South Africa, and are to be met with under cir- 
cumstances analaffous to those in which they are f oimd on other 
parts of the eartlr s crust. 

The moimtains nearest the seaboard, and the rocks forming the 
littoral of the south and eastern parts of the Colony, consist of the 
Palaeozoic or primary formation, pierced and penetrated by intru- 
sive rocks. Clay-slate, sometimes broken through and altered by 
granite, is the underlying formation over the whole of the southern 

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districts; while on the west coast, from the Oliphants Biver 
northwards and extending into Bushmanland, the prevailing 
formation is granite and gneiss, passing into metamorphic schist 
as the Orange Eiver is approached. It is in this tract that the 
valuable Namaqaaland copper mines are situate. 

Metamorphic rocks similar to che Namaqnaland schists also 
;appear on the east side of the colony, at George and Knysna, 
associated with gneiss, and penetrated by granite veins, and veins 
«.nd reef of quartz ; traces of gold have been f oimd here over a 
<x)nsiderable area, but not sufficient to encourage working. 

Above the clay-slate, is a great sedimentary deposit of quartzose 
sandstone, with • in some places imbedded pebbles, such as forms 
the upper portion of the Table Mountain, Lion's Head, and also 
the Hottentots Holland and Langebergen ranges. Both the clay- 
slate and this sandstone have as yet proved imf ossilif erous. 

Resting conformably on the sandstone, in the second range of 
moimtains, are a series of argillaceous shales and coarse red sand- 
stones, which contain numerous fossils, chiefly trilobites, brachio- 
pods, and encrinites, characteristic of the Upper Silurian or 
Devonian rocks. These fossiliferous deposits extend along the 
moimtains northward from the G^ydow, behind Ceres, to the 
•Cedarbergen, and eastward along the Hex River heights and the 
Oreat Zwarteberg towards Uitenhage. 

At the base of the Zwarteberg range, which is considered to be 
of the Devonian or Old Red Sandstone period, there is a limestone 
which belongs to the Namaqualand schists formation. In this 
limestone occurs the famed Cango caves, a series of very curious 
:and interesting stalactite caverns or grottoes, which were visited 
in 1874 by Sir H. Barkly, accompanied by 300 of the neigh- 
l)ouring residents. Although persons have penetrated these caves 
for more than a mile distance, they have never been explored to 
^}he end ; and their inner recesses still remain as a field of adventure 
ior any one ambitious of going where man has never been before. 
The caves have been thus described by Lieut. Shirwell, an Indian 
visitor, who declared that Elephanta, and other caves of India, did 
not gratify him so much as these : — 

*' At the mouth of the caves, a stout ladder was lowered down, and we 
descended to the depth of about 33 or 34 feet, and found ourselves 
standing in a vast hall of six hundred feet in length, about one 
hundred in breadth, and from sixty to seventy feet high. In the 
centre of this magnificent cave stands a colossal stalactite of seventy 
feet in height, white as the purest marble, and sparkling as if strewn 
with diamonds. 

*' From the roof depend enormous masses of lime, gradually growing 
into stalactital columns, whilst on the damp ground rising to meet 
ihese pendant masses, are hiige stalagmites formed by the continual 
filtration of lime through the superincumbent rocks; some have 

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nearly met and formed columns, others are but commencing to form ; 
in fact the whole floor of the cave is strewed with stalagmites of 
various growths, and on the roof, opposite to each, hangs a corre- 
sponding mass. 

** The work of filtration of calcareous matter is proceeding steadily, 
and in time this vast hall wiU become a labyrinth of pure alabaster- 
like columns. This cave is known by the name of Van Zyl's Flak, 
after the discoverer, a Dutch Boer, who discovered the caverns whilst 
hunting in these mountains. 

** Leaving this haJl, we entered a small cavern about forty feet 
square, and thirty feet high. This is called the Registry, from a 
practice of visitors writing their names on the pure snow white lime 
walls. A few more paces brought us to the most beautiful and most 
wonderful part of the caverns. Whilst writing our names in the 
registry, all the boers except one, who had delayed us purposely by 
pointing out various names and superscriptions, had quietly slipped 
away, but on passing from this spot through a narrow passage and 
entering the next cave, we soon perceived why they had left us. A 
sight at once beautiful and astonishing now burst upon our sight. 
We stood in a vast cave, one hundred and forty feet square, and 
about fifty in height, the whole of the most dazzling and sparkling 
whiteness; columns and pillars snow white, and some transparent 
crystallized lime stood on all sides, the roof covered with innumerable 
small and delicate icicle looking stalectites, each with a huge drop of 
pure water hanging from their extremities, and as each drop parted 
company with its filter and fell to the ground, it had the appearance 
as if a shower of diamonds was falling from the roof. The boers had 
all taken up positions with their lights to enable us to see the whole 
of this fairy-like cavern at one cotip tToeil, I stood bewildered and 
astonished at this wonderful sight. In the centre of the cavern stands 
a column as pure and as white as alabaster. It is the height of the 
hall, fifty feet, and about nine feet in circumference, and worked in 
the most minute manner. It is of pure crystallized lime, surrounded 
by horizontal bands or raised divisions at every three or four feet. 
These divisions are filled up with minute filigree work and vertical 
lines, in fact the column appears, to use a borrowed simile, as if 
** raised by a giant, and finished by a jeweller." At either end of the 
hall are groups of the same substance, resembling bed curtains and 
flowery Papery, running into elegant arabesques. All around the 
sides of the hall the lime has taken the forms of various objects, 
amongst which fancy may discover a high altar of a Catholic church, 
decked out with all the paraphernalia of grand mass; stalactites, 
resembling high and lofty candelabra, cups and goblets, steps and 
censors ; in another comer maybe seen a collection of elegant drapery, 
flowers, trees and animals ; one mass in particular bears the exact 
resemblance to the head of a gigantic bull. 

" Being continually saturated with water, the groups appear semi- 
transparent, the hanging and falling drops of water also reflect the 
light of the torches, giving to the whole a dazzling and sparkHng 
appearance. The spar when broken off, driep and loses its trans- 


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To some English readers, it may come as a surprise that South 
African scenery, instead of fean^ dreary and monotonous, has a fair 
proportion of grand and n^'estic as well as wondrously beautiful 
:and picturesque i)oint8. Tm bold, towering moimtains of the 
Eastern districts, of the Stormberg, and the Drakensberg, compare 
f aTourably with anything in Wales, the West of Ireland, or the 
Highlands of Scotland. The combination of hill and lake and 
woodland in the divisions of George and Knysna, and along the 
reaches of the St. John's River, bear contrast in some respects with 
<yumberland and Westmoreland. The jimgly ravines and the 
'dense primeval forests, where "Nature reigns supreme in awful 
loneliness," have a rare wild beauty of their own ; in their deep 
Tccesses, beneath the shade of majestic yellowwoods, you may 
wander for hours, so far as the tangled undergrowth will let you, 
the silence imbroken save by the wind among the trees, the subdued 
note of a bird, or the chirp of an insect. There is also a great 
charm in the pure translucent atmosphere of the coimtry ; in its 
•strange yet exquisite vegetation, and m the brilliant colouring of 
moimtain slope or forest glade under the purple light of morning, 
or the rosy glow of sunset — 

When the sultry summer noon is past, 
And mellow eyening comes at last. 
With a low and languid breeze 
Fanning the Mimosa trees. 

Even the wide-extending pastoral plains of the Karoo have a cer- 
tain attraction for many — not merely as valuable sheep-walks, or 
for the herds of wild game occasionally met with, but from the 
freedom as weU as the exhilarating buoyant air of the desert, and 
that strange sense of solitude whim is realised as one gazes over 
the imbroken perspective of blue sky and fading distance, 

When no tree, nor cloud, nor misty mount, 
Appear to refresh the aching eye ; 
But the barren earth and the burning sky, 
And the blank horizon round and round. 
Spread— Yoid of liying sight and sound. 

The traveller who journeys up country, in crossing several of 
-the mountain ranges, may enjoy a diversity of panorama scarcely 
inferior to that wiiich is obtamed along the ^eat Alpine passes. 
"The Hottentot's Holland E^loof, on the mam route from Cape 
Town to the frontier, is one of these elevations, rising a sheer 
height of near a thousand feet, and overlooking the whole of the 
•Cape Peninsula from False Bay to Table Bay. Still more attrac- 
tive, as well as imposing, is the entrance to the interior by Bain's 
Eloof , Mitchell's Tass, and Karoo Poort. The railway carries you 
from Cape Town to the pretty village of Wellington, at the toot 
of the mountain range, where the road winds up with many a 

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bain's pass. 85^ 

curve and stretch for seven or eight miles to the crown of Bain's- 
Pass, commanding a magnificent panorama of the surrounding 
coimtry. Here the prospect extends over a distance of forty or 
fifty miles, yet the atmosphere generally is so clear and trans- 
parent that every feature stands revealed with the most minute 
distinctness. The silvery stream of the Berg Eiver, the tree- 
embowered township of the Paarl, stretching at the base of the- 
immense glistening domes of granite rock which the old colonists- 
named the Pearl and Diamond ; the village of Wellington, with 
its white- washed houses and brown orchards ; and the succession of 
trim homesteads, vineyards, and corn-fields, spreading out mile 
after mile, to the white line of surf which marks the deep blue sea 
north of Table Bay, are all as plain to the eye as the smooth 
velvet slopes of the Ghroeneberg, and the dark green and gold of 
the orange groves surroimding the farms snugly nestled in the- 
Wagonmaker's Valley many hundreds of feet immediately below. 
The scene is one of pleasing landscape beauty, such as no other 
part of the Colony affords ; and it contrasts most strikingly with 
the wild grandeur of the eastern side of the Eloof, a few yards^ 
further on. Huge moimtain masses there form the portal of the 
Titanic gorge, tliJough which the Pass gradually descends for about 
ten miles to the Breede Eiver Valley. Nearly all along this way^ 
the road has been blasted and scarped out of a hard quartzose- 
sandstone — in some places being cut through frowning krantzeSy- 
leaving gigantic gates, natural arches, and overhanging ledges ^ 
in others crossing abyss-like gaps and fissures, which have been 
built up with precipitous retaining and parapet walls from 100 to* 
300 feet high. " Hills upon hills in quick succession rise " as you» 
advance, and new objects of admiration or astonishment are ever- 
presenting themselves. The rock scenery is singularly weird audi 
fantastic — now rising high in majestic buttressed walls, then piled 
up in craggy pinnacles — here standing in gaunt spectral groups, or 
there strewn in broken and crumbled confusion. Its scathed andi 
weather-worn character in many places might convey a dreary and 
perhaps monotonous impression, if it were not for the endless charms^ 
of light and shade arising from the winding, course of the road,, 
and the varied colours and forms of the vegetation which fringes* 
the sides of the moimtains. Although not so luxuriant nor so^ 
dense as in other places, there is generally a rich display of charac- 
teristic Cape fiora. Heaths of scarlet, purple, and other hues ;: 
bulbs of great variety ; orchids, ferns, and several handsome 
shrubs and dwarf trees, alternate together with grasses, creepers^ 
and soft mosses ; and the stratified formation of the sandstone en- 
closes many himiid recesses whence issue rills and streams which 
keep these evergreen and fresh all the year roimd. The flowering 
season of September, however, is the time to see the Pass to ad- 

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vantage ; then after the winter rains, there are ooimtless sprays, 
cascades, and waterfalls, leaping from ledge and precipice, and 
rushing down to swell the dark tarn-like pools and roaring tor- 
rent of the Witte Eiver at the bottom of the deep ravine. 

Emerging from the E^loof at Darling Bridge, the flats forming 
ithe Tulbarfi and Worcester valley are traversed, and then the 
Michell's Pass in Mostert's Hoek greets you. This is another 
)moimtain scene of great boldness and picturesque beauty. The 
Breede River, a clear wide stream, is bridged across at the entrance, 
and the road ascends along the left bank for a length of about six 
miles, the whole of it bein^ scarped out of the rock, and strength- 
•ened by a retaining wall, from three to forty feet in height. The 
old road — little more than a cattle track — ^is still to be seen climb- 
ing over projecting krantzes, and then descending abruptly to the 
river bed, and farmers delight to tell of their perilous adventures 
in crossing it, not many years ago, when waggons and produce 
had to be carried over piecemeal, or on the backs of oxen, and after- 
wards put together and re-arranged, when they had managed to 
scramble through. In this kloof the mountains appear more 
huddled together, and tower up in grand and wild confusion, the 
cliffs, and peaks, and crags seeming to topple every way from the 
iiighly inclined stratification of the rocks, while the many grassy 
hollows and patches of flowering heaths and shrubs clothing their 
-sides give a soft verdant character to the scene. On reaching its 
summit, which is about 2,000 feet above the sea, the village of 
Ceres and the District of Warm Bokkeveld are seen stretched out 
on a circular undulating plain bounded by the heights of the Cold 
Bokkeveld, which are all snow-clad in winter. From here one road 
passes over these heights by the Gydow Mountain to the northern 
parts of the Bokkeveld, and another proceeds by the steep and 
4;oilsome ascent of the Hottentot's E^loof to the Karoo Poort, 
leading to Calvinia and Roggeveld, and Beaufort West and the 

From Port Elizabeth, a few hours journey by rail brings you to 
the Zuurberg Mountain Pass, which is unrivalled in point of 
T)eauty of vegetation and novelty of scene. Stopping at the 
Coemey Station, the approach to the Pass is for some distance 
through portion of the Addo Bush — a dense jungle consisting 
<5hiefly of spekboom and other succulent plants, growine in such 
rank luxuriance as to be almost impervious imless a path be cut 
through them. Many parts of the frontier are covered with such 
thickets, which in the tmio of war were occupied by the Kafirs as 
natural strongholds, whence they could suprise their objects of 
Attack or elude their pursuers. At this place the Bush gives 
shelter to a few herds of elephants, whose foot-prints and tracks 
are occasionally to be seen crossing the road ; and the old Dutch 

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colonist who is owner of a farm about half-way to the'mountain is 
sometimes subjeoted to nocturnal visits from them. *^ The flies and 
the elephants/^ he says, are the only troubles of his life ; the for- 
mer swarm and tease him during the day, whilst the latter trample 
the corn-fields at night, and are " too bi^ to wrestle with/' Their 
numbers, however, are now fast diminishing, and apparently 
they are getting more timid and suspicious of man, as they 
have removed their haunts to the extreme recesses of the 

Nearing the foot of the Pass, the moimtain heights in the fore- 
groimd, clothed with the strange, stifiE, gaunt forms of the gigantic 
Euphorbia, have rather a gloomy, sombre effect ; but this is soon 
lightened and improved as the view changes when the first ascent 
of a quarter of a mile is made, and the grandeur and beauty of the 
hill and forest scenery is disclosed. Then there are imposing bushy 
cliffs and weather-stained rocks bristling against the sky overhead, 
while in the vaUey outstretched below lofty trees, draped with grey 
lichens, or festooned with convolvolus, wild vine, or monkey rope 
parasites stand up like ancient monarehs, as they are, out of the 
tangled mass of copse, clustering shrubs, flowering plants, grasses, 
and ferns, which form the undergrowth vegetation. Through this 
the road rises, cut out of the solid rock on one side, with deep 
perpendicular precipices on the other, until it passes through a 
rocky gateway, and emerges at the top, on what is apparently a 
table-land of grassy downs, but in reality is one of the several 
hilly ridges, running off into deep fmrows and kloofs in every 
direction. It is in crossing these "necks" or ridges that the 
peculiar character of the Zuurberg is realised and seen to advantage. 
The poet Pringle was strikingly impressed with it, as far surpassing 
anything of the kind he had wibiessed elsewhere, or formed a 
conception of from the accoimts of others. He describes it as " a 
billowy chaos of naked mountains, rocks, precipices, and yawning 
abysses, that looked as if hurled together by some prodigious con- 
vulsion of nature, while over the lower declivities and deep sunk 
dells a dark impenetrable forest spreads its shaggy skirts, and adds 
to the whole a still more wild and savage sublimity.'* It is indeed 
a superb scene when looked upon from the summit of the moim- 
tain which commands a bird's-eye view of all the lower ranges. 
There you can mark the great arches and deep troughs of the 
Zuurberg formation, now rising in soft rounded contours, then 
swelling out in gentle undulations, the emerald grassy slopes con- 
trasting with the grey precipices and dark foliage of the forest 
recesses, or the bright silvery fleams of the streams in the inter- 
vening deep valleys. There is also a sjdendid prospect of the 
fiurroimding country stretching to the coast and the waters of the 
Indian Ocaon, as well as of the fantastic peaks of the Winterhoek 

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mountain (the Cockscomb), which in the clear atmosphere appears 
much nearer than it actually is. 

The heights above the city of Ghraham's Town also command a 
magnificent view of characteristic frontier scenery — an exquisite 
landscape of tumbled hills and dales, variegated with verdant slopes 
and wooded heights, and backed by massive mountains, whose tops 
fade into the blue haze on the far distant horizon. Woest 
Hill on the one side and Botha's Hill on the other, each afford a 
good prospect, but the culminating point of view is Governor's Kop, 
an eminence about 2,700 feet high, ten miles east of the city. 
Directly in front and north-eastwcurd, the gloomy dark valleys of 
the Gfreat Fish Eiver extend ; one can discern the tower of Fort 
Peddie, and the sand hills between the Fish Eiver and the Beka, 
and in the distance the mountains of Kaffraria, with the peak of 
Tabindoda or the Man Moimtain. To the right there appear 
spread out 

The gardens of Albany with their evergreen parks and rich com land, 

Their soft grassy slopes, wooded kloofs and deep vleis, with the broad-leaved lotus 

Wafting delicious perfume around ; 

wlele in the distance the white farm-houses of Bathurst and the 
Kowie are scattered in groups, and the coast line is girded with a 
beautiful sapphire belt, formed by the Indian Ocean, extend- 
ing as far as the eye can reach, from the Bushman's River to the 

On the great northern road, leading from Gfraham's Town to 
Queen's Town, there is another mountain pass, the Elatberg, 
of striking grandeur and romantic beauty, and the approach to 
it through Fort Beaufort and the Kat Eiver district is fittingly 
picturesque. The mountcdn, at the i)oint where the road crosses it, 
cannot be less than 3,000 or 4,000 feet high, and the pass winds 
up on the ridge of a kloof, through bush and forest and rocky 
krantzes and over waterfalls and fearfully deep gullies, which make 
one marvel at the intrepidity pnd skill of the engineer who laid it 
out. On the breast of the Katberg there are three distinct belts or 
zones, the lower consisting of undulating slopes and coombs, some 
of them of richest emerald M*een : others, hardly less beautiful, of 
a ripe russet-yellow tint, wiich harmonize delightfully with the 
dark sombre forest foliage in the zone immediately above. This 
forest covers not merely the ravines, but the whole toeadth of the 
mountain within the limits of elevation to which it extends ; and 
at some points in the Pass nothing can be more striking than to 
gaze upwards to the forest-clothed heights above you, and then 
glance down into the yawning depths of still grander forest in the 
ravines and gullies almost perpendicularly beneath. Above all 
this agedn, you have the third zone of magnificently precipitous 
roek, rising in oolunmar basalt, and forming a perfect diadem along 

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the mountaiii crest. From the top a magnificent outlook over the 
valleys far below is to be had, and according to the season of the 
year or the state of the weather, it changes from the picturesque 
to the wild and fantastical. We visited it on a bright clear 
summer's day, but it may be seen under different circimistances,. 
such as in winter, when snow enwraps the heights in its white 
wreaths, giving it a perfectly Alpine appearance ; or in dark etorm^ 
when loud thimders echo over the rock peaks, and vivid lightning^ 
illumine the yawning precipices around ; and at other times, when 
the spreading vales below are covered with a sea of silvery mist,- 
out of which the tops of the hiUs rise up like islands on an expanse 
of ocean. 

The whole of what once was Kafirland, but now is more com^ 
monly known as KafEraria and the Transkeian Territories, is a 
glorious coimtry, fertile and beautiful, and frequently grandly 
picturesque. The Drakensberg Moimtains, which are more or less 
snow-clad during the winter months, present many magnificent 
scenes. Their native name " Quathlamba *' — heaped up in a^ 
jagged manner — ^is descriptive of their general appearance. They 
assimie the most fantastic shapes and forms, and it requires but & 
small stretch of the imagination to see depicted, castles and 
castellated turrets, spires, and pinnacles, in their rugged heights. 
Streams without number have their sources in them, and fiow" 
onward to the lower plateau, half-way to the sea-coast, where they 
are joined by many others, and their strength and volume in- 
creased until they unite and form the larger rivers, such as the 
Bashee, Umtata, and XJmzimvubu. This tract consists of undu- 
lating plains and open valleys, abounding in rich grassy pasturage 
and very fertile soil. Dotted here and there over the surface of 
the country are the nimiberless huts and kraals of the native 
inhabitants, with their sleek cattle grazing on the grassy slopes — a 
picture of real pastoral beauty. Belts of hills and kops rise here 
and there along the valleys, their sides or crests covered with the 
dark rich foliage of Kafir forest trees and bush, while glinting out 
from between their cover may be seen streamlets falling from con- 
siderable heights in magnificent cascades. 

In this land waterfalls are numerous, as they may also be said 
to be along a good portion of the eastern moimtain slopes of the 
Colony. One of the largest and most magnificent is on the Tsitza 
Eiver, near to Shawbury Mission station, alonff the main road 
from Umtata to Kokstad. Below Shawbury me river takes ar 
bend, and after running through some picturesque gorges wooded 
to the water's ridge, it passes across a flat country imtU it reaches 
the edge of a huge precipice, over which it rushes. This rift or 
chasm is some 150 yards across, and the volxmies of seething Water 
make a gigantic leap into the abyss. In heavy floods this is a 

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grand sight to witness — ^the whole forming one continuous broad 
sheet, and each foaming wave seeming to endeavour to overtake ita 
predecessor before reachina; the depths below. The falls have been 
measured, and reach the height of 376 feet, they therefore take 
pre-eminence as the highest in the Colony. 

The gi'andest and most romantic scenery, however, is met with 
at the St. John's River, which may be reached by road ;from 
XJmtata through Western Pondoland, or by vessel or steamer along 
the coast. From seaward, the river mouth is a noticeable object, 
and so remarkable that any one having once seen it, or even a 
sketch of it, cannot fail to recognise it again. A lofty table-topped 
mountain appears to have been cleft to its base, leaving a wedge- 
shaped gap through which the river flows to the sea. The edges 
of the cleft which, near the mouth, lie about 2,000 feet asunder, 
approach each other, until near the top of the first reach they are 
about 1,500 feet apart. They rise in abrupt forest-clad steeps 
until they attain a height of six to seven hundred feet. From 
these edges, on both sides of the river, plateaus extend until, on 
each side, other precipituous cliffs rise, which culminate about 
a mile and a half from the sea, where they attain a height of 
about 1,200 feefc, and lie only 4,000 feet apart, considerably less 
than a mile. These are the well-known " Gates '* of St. John's, or 
the Umzimvubu Eiver. 

" Like giant sentinels on either hand, 

The stately portals of the river stand, 

Their rugged crests, and headlands bold and free, 

Rising in silent grandeur o'er the sea. 

Whose foaming waves engird with silvery showers 

St. John's grand cliffs and castellated towers. 

Low at their feet, in deep eternal shade, 

The river flows past mountain, krantz, and glade. 

Onward and onward from its distant source, 

Till, midst this scene sublime, it ends its course." 

Inside of the ** Gates " the river partakes more of the character 
of a lake or lagoon than a stream. There is an expanse of sky- 
blue water nearly 500 yards wide, between stately mountains and 
luxuriantly wooded hills. The steep wooded slopes come down 
close to the edge of the water, and in many places the thick tangled 
forest overhangs the margin, forming beautiful arcades. To appre- 
ciate the nature of this river scenery, one must witness the inde- 
scribable beauties of the spot, and its surroundings — ^long silent 
vistas of forest, with the ripple of water sounding through them, 
tumbled masses of rock covered with mosses, ferns and flowering 
creepers of all sorts in most bewildering luxuriance twining in 
heavy clustering masses around majestic old trees, whose every 
bough and leaf find their refiection as in a mirror in the placid 
waters, until in some places it is difficult to tell where the reality 

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ends and the shadow' begins. The exquisite semi-trcpioal vegeta- 
tion, African in its ^tyfre and fttoo^ Braziliian in its beauty ; the 
eharms of light an4 $|latcle over tHi^ g4:and panorama of mountain, 
wood, and water; q^^tj^lhe gUmpa^^iDX kill and dale, forming the 
high lands in the eilljl erne disj^fiiit)^ Ahd seeijiingly merging into 
the coballr sky, f unifell*a piotu»5^|if> tirgin Nuliure untouched by Art 
rarely to be; met w^tft, . ^^^ .^ -A. 

The niouth of tlya tiveyiuike most of the rivers on the coast, is 
obstructed by a bar of shiJH|ilg Band, the channel contracting, ex- 
panding, |ind changing its^^ tsiadition according to the volume of 
water or flOods^ in the ft^r. It is reported to have been so 
flooded 0^; Oiie occasion as to have had a width of 900 feet with a 
depth of 30 feet neai^ly tixe whole of the distance across. After 
the shallows and iatridaeles of the mouth and first half nule have 
been passed, the depths and channel are favourable for navigation, 
but this is hot uniformly maintained, for, as the river is ascended, 
shallow banj:s^ and an average lesser depth, but with alternating 
deep holeis, are met;, so th^-t it is necessary that a vessel of over 
seven f eei dicaf t shotild wait for the high- water tides. The river 
remains navigable; fee shallow-draft barges or canoe boats for a 
total distanci^ of 10 to 12 miles from the sea, at which point the 
tidal wav^i and ail possible navigation is abruptly stopped by a 
pebbly stee^ inolinatioii^'- (iown which the river waters flow from 
their distant drjeiinage area, the rolling uplands of Pondoland and 
Chriqualand East. 

The verdure- of thi^^e Eastern coast lands is due to the supplies 
of moisture ei^-med to them by the trade winds of the Indian Ocean. 
The vapbur-ladeti elouds are arrested or caught by the high 
mountain bai^iers, upon whose summits and sides their refreshing 
and fertilizing' sii^wers descend. And this brings us to a brief 
notice of 4te dim4tic and meteorological conditions of the Colony. 
The seaSoagi «t the Cape it must be remembered come in reverse 
order to tho^ in the northern hemisphere ;— thus, the Cape sum- 
mer is ff ^; l&ecember to February ; Autumn from March to May ; 
Winter -fro^m June to August, and Spring from September to 
Novemfii^fc <:y 

Oji<6 'w^^cnstance which has an important influence on the 
climate of^vthe Colony is the existence of two ocean currents on its 
coasts-^ihe one, the tropical ocean current coming down from the 
Mozambique channel along the east coast and around Cape L' Agul- 
haa ; and the other the cold South Atlantic current on the West 
Coast. Table Bay and False Bay mark the difEerences of tem- 
perature of the two — ^the waters of the latter at times registering 
15° higher than those of the former. 

Another striking distinction is, that in Autumn and Winter, 
the equatorial or return winds from the North-west discharge their 

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moisture in oopious rains over the Western districts as far as the 
boundary of the Karoo and the Gouritz River, while at the same 
seasons of the year the Midland and Eastern districts are usually dry. 
In Spring and Summer again, the south-easterly winds laden with 
moisture from the tropical current of the Indian Ocean precipitate 
their rains along the mountain-ranges of the Eastern districts and 
the high plateaux extending to the centre of the Colony, while at 
this season the Western districts are comparatively dry. 

Thanks to the labours of the Q-ovemment Meteorological 
Commission and of Mr. J. Q-. Gamble, Hydraulic Engineer, the 
distribution of rainfall in South Africa is beginning to be fairly 
understood, as will be seen from the Rainfall Map, which accom- 
panies this Handbook, prefacing the chapter on the •* Cape as a 
Health Resort." Rain-gauges are placed at every seat of magis- 
tracy in the Colony and the observations registered are regularly 
tabulated and published. From these several stations the monthly 
averages have been taken and diagrams prepared shewing the 
rainfall at various places during each season of the year. Mr. 
Gamble thus simis up the result of these observations : — 

** The North-west of the Colony is almost rainless. The south-west 
has abxmdant winter rains. The south coast has rain in all months^ 
December and January being the driest time ; in the midlands, a» 
well as in the north and east, the rains occur generally in February 
and Metrch, though near the coast there is a second maximum in 
October and November. 

*' Droughts seldom occur all over the Colony in the same year ; in 
fact it seems as if a drought in the interior frequently occurs in the 
same year as abundant rains on the south-west coast. 

" The statement is frequently made that South Africa is drying up. 
If by this is meant that the springs and streams are not so constant 
as they used to be, the statement is undoubtedly true. If it is meant 
that less rain falls than in former historic times, the statement has 
certainly not been proved, and is most probably untrue. The early 
books of travels speak of droughts in the interior ; Sparrman mentions 
the great drought of 1775. The forty-five years of rainfall measure- 
ment at the Royal Observatory give no support to the view that the 
quantity of rain is diminishing. But the cutting down of trees, and 
the burning of the veld has affected and is affecting the permanence 
of springs and streams. Both white men and natives seem to act 
recklessly in this matter, cutting down bush for kraals and firewood, 
the natives especially using large quantities of young trees for their 
huts and game traps. The increased number of flocks has also 
contributed to this residt. Where the grasses and bushes are eaten 
off the sun bakes the soil, and the rain runs off into the rivers, 
forming new * sluits ' as it runs, and is lost in the sea without 
replenishing the undergroimd supplies." 

The rainfall is variable in amount, as will be seen from the 
following examples. At PeUa, on the north-west border, the 

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average yearly fall is 2^ inches, one-fifth of which falls in May. 
For five years there has been no rains during November. At the 
Royal Observatory, near Cape Town, the average is about 25 
inches, three-fifths of which falls during the winter months. May, 
June, and July. August is also one of the rainiest months. At 
Mossel Bay and Port Elizabeth, as well as at most coast towns the 
rednf aU is irregularly distributed thi'oughout the year. The yearly 
fall at the former town is 16 inches ; at the latter 23 inches. At 
Mossel Bay the wettest months are February and March, at Port 
Elizabeth, May and October. January is the driest month at both 
places. At Carnarvon, a town in the Northern Karroo, and fairly 
typical of that district, the average rainfall is 8 inches, one-fifth of 
which falls in March ; from June to December, the average for 
each month is less than half an inch. At QraafE-Eeinet, in the 
east central Karroo, the average is 14J inches, and the wettest 
month, March. Queen's Town and Aliwal North, towns on the 
Eastern border, have average yearly falls of 20f inches and 24J 
inches respectively. Their greatest rains generally occur in 
February and March, and their droughts in June, July, and 
August, — ^in these respects resembling the towns in the Karroo. 

In the course of the winter season, during some days, the peaks 
of the Drakenstein and Winterhoek mountains within sight of 
Cape Town are white with snow ; and up-country the mountain 
ranges such as the Sneeuwbergen and Ainatolas are frequently 
covered; while on the Drakensberg and about Barkly East snow lies 
for weeks together. The up-country winters are usually very 
dry, but at intervals of some years, snow sufficient to enable snow- 
balling to be indulged in, has fallen at Kimberley, Beaufort West 
and Queen's Town. The accompanying illustration is from a 
photograph by Mr. Dugmore of Queen s Town, giving a view 
from the Octagon-square of that place, shewing the surrounding 
hills enveloped in a snowy mantle. 

With regard to the temperature of the air, the Cape, generally 
speaking, is not a hot country. During some days in the month of 
January the heat is excessive, but it never lasts for more than a 
short tune. The greatest heat of summer is not more than in the 
hottest parts of Europe; and the prevailing winds and dry 
atmosphere temper such excesses, rendering the warmest day 
supportable, whfie the balmy coolness of the nights are surpass- ' 
ingly agreeable and enjoyable. 

At the Eoyal Observatory, two miles from the coast, 
the mean temperature of the air throughout the year is 
about 61^ 26^ Fahr. in the shade, the hottest days being in 
January, with an average temperature of 68^ 92^, the coldest cubout 
July, with an average temperature of 64° 03 /. Elsewhere, in the 
Colony, the observations have been rather intermittent and not 

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extended over so long a period, but they are sufficiently reliable to 
serve as an index to the climate. Mr. Gamble has observed that 
" places on the coast have a much less range both in the annual and 
daily period than those in the interior. The siunmers and the 
noondays are hotter up-country than by the sea ; and the winters 
and the early mornings before dawn are milder by the ocean than 
inland." He gives the following table of temperature means 
reduced from a series of observations : — 

Height Winter. Summer, 
above t ^ ^ , ^ n 

sea. min. mean. max. min. mean. max. 

feet. dog. d^g. deg. deg. deg. deg. 

Eoyal Observatory 37 47 55 62 58 68 79 

Wynberg 250 48 55 65 57 67 80 

Simon's Town ..? 100 52 58 65 64 70 80 
SomersetWest. . ?1G0 46 55 64 59 74 84 

Wellington 360 45 54 63 59 71 81 

Worcester 794 43 56 65 58 75 86 

aanwilUam 300 38 57 66 56 80 91 

MosselBay 105 51 57 64 63 69 77 

Port Elizabeth ..181 51 58 66 63 69 77 
Nel'sPoort ....3,100 41 51 66 56 72 89 
GhraafE-Eeinet ..2,500 44 56 67 62 75 88 
Somerset East ..2,500 46 55 63 61 69 79 
Graham's Town. .1,800 45 57 65 60 69 79 
K.WilUam'sTownl,314 39 53 67 56 68 81 

East London 30 50 58 68 62 65 76 

AUwal North ..4,300 33 44 60 59 70 88 
In some of the Eastern Districts hot winds are occasionally ex- 
perienced during summer; they come from the north-west, 
carrying with them waves of heated air from the central plains, 
blowing as if from a furnace; but, fortunately, they are not of long 
duration. Hail-storms are rare in the West, but in the Midland, 
Northern, and Border districts they occur with such violence as to 
cause considerable damage to vegetation and stock. Thunder- 
storms are also very rare in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, but 
more inland they are frequent in summer, and often very grand — 
fleecy clouds rising on the horizon, and swelling and darkening until 
the KghtniQg fletshes along them and the thunder peals out with 
prolonged and increetsing reverberation ; it is then a sight to watch 
the brilliant colours and forms of the electric discharges and their 
varied track against the inky black sky, now forked, now straight, 
now zig-zagged, now in quivering rays and horizontal flashes, 
appearing and disappearing rapidly, in the twinkling of an eye. 
Such striking exhibitions of Nature's elements, however, do not 
last long ; after them the rain ceases, clouds roll up and disperse, 
and a delicious cool atmosphere foUows. 

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The city of Cape Town is the metropolis of the Cape Colony. It is 
by far the most populous of the towns scattered throughout South 
Africa ; and its position as the seat of Q-ovemment, as the meeting 
place of the Legislature, and as an important commercial entrepot, 
together with its many natural attractions and advantages, have 
contributed to gather around it a comparatively wealthy and 
stationary community, whose social circles possess all the charms 
of old established and cultivated European society. 

The nmnber of inhabitants of the city and suburbs is about 
60,000, of whom two-thirds may be said to be residents of the city 
proper within its municipal boundaries. This embraces both white 
and coloured races, with all their varieties of nationality and 
gradations of blood, from fairest Saxon to darkest Ethiopian. 

The first glimpse of Cape Town from seaward does not impress 
a stranger with its dimensions. The massive wall of Table 
Mountam forming the back ground, and the Devil's Peak and 
Lion's Head enclosing it on either flank, dwarfs the valley where 
the city is laid out. The houses present a mass of flat-roofed 
dwellings, a few church towers and some factory or mill chimneys 
rising up amongst them, with alternate villas, gardens, and vine- 
yards on the outskirts, joining on to the pine and silver-tree 
plantations which clothe the base of the mountain. But if anyone 
takes the trouble to visit the more elevated points of view, such as 
are afforded by the Garden suburbs, or the drive along the Kloof 
Boad, a perfect bird's-eye picture of the town and circling bay 
may be had, in many respects comparing favourably with Naples 
or Rio de Janeiro. 

The Dutch founders of Cape Town laid out its squares and 
streets with mathematical preciseness. The main thoroughfares run 
parallel to each other from the mountain to the sea, and are crossed 
at right angles by secondary streets of lesser width. The central 
and principal street is Adderley-street, or the " Heerengracht," as 
it was formerly termed. Here, on the left hand are the Railway 
Station buildings, the Commercial Exchange and Eeading-room, 
the imposing Standard Bank buildings, and, higher up, the capacious 
Dutch Reformed Church, with its quaint old vane-topped Flemish 
spire ; while on the right hand there stretches a line of mer- 
chants' stores, the Cape of Good Hope Bank, warehouses, offices 
and shops — many of them large buildings with decorated exteriors, 
plftte-glass windows, and all the attractions of the modem style of 

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fStreet architecture. St. George's-street, adjoining Adderley-street, 
is also a fine open handsome street, in wluoh the Post Office, the 
City Club, the South African Bank, the Bank of Africa, the Union 
Bank, the Cape Times and other newspaper offices are situate, and 
St. George's Cathedral with its Grecian front and ornamented tower 
stands at its upper end. Westward of these central throughf ares, 
in such streets as Loop, Burg and Bree-streets, the old-fashioned 
Dutch mansions of the early colonists may be seen. The houses, 
which are spacious and lofty, have invariably flat roofs, massive 
white-washed fronts, numerous windows with small panes, and a 
^toep or terrace rising from the street at the entrance, while behind 
them is frequently a small garden or court ornamented with a 
trelissed vine. Eastward again, the modem part of the town where 
the English immigrants have settled, is distinctly marked. Kows 
of semi-detached cottages or pretentious villa residences, with slate 
roofs and little wardens, are extending with the growth of popu- 
lation all over the Table Valley and on to the suburbs of Wood- 
stock, Maitland, and Mowbray. 

The Government Gardens, at the top of Adderley-street, serve 
the purposes of a public park. The central walk or Avenue extends 
for three quarters of a mile through rows of grand old oaks, 
affording a grateful shade and pleasant place of resort to the 
inhabitants. The new Parliament Houses and the Public Library 
rand Museum are close to the entrance of this Avenue, and adjoining 
it is the Fine Arts Gallery in New-street, facing the Botanic Gardens. 
The Botanic Gardens, although not more than fourteen acres in 
extent, are laid out with grass plots, shrubberies, and handsome 
rconservatories, and contain upwards of 8,000 varieties of trees and 
plants, embracing rare exotic productions as well as ^ecimens of 
ihe indigenous Flora. An extensive collection of Cape plants, 
authenticated by Harvey, Sender, and other authorities, is also 
-available for reference in the Herbarium attached to the institu- 

Government House, the official residence of Her Majesty's 
B»epresentative in the Colony, is on the left side of the Qturdens, 
witn a public entrance from the top of Ghrave-street. It is a heavy 
irregular building, originally commenced by the Dutch Company's 
officials, more than a century and a half ago, and altered and 
modernized from time to time. The other public buildings, 
occupied by the various chief departments of the Civil Govern- 
ment, and the Courts of Law, form a massive flat-fronted quad- 
rangle, stretching from the lower end of Grave-street to Adderley- 
-street. There fire accommodated the Treasury, Audit, Deeds' 
Eegistry, Survey, the Attorney-General's, the Judges', and other 
.offices ; and the Supreme Court of the Colony. 

The handsomest public buildings in Cape Town, however, are 

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the Parliament Houses, which forpa a substantial pile of con- 
siderable architectural beauty between the Government Gardens 
Avenue and Grave-street. These were completed and opened for 
public use last year. The principal front of the building faces- 
Ghrave-street, and measures 264 feet in length; it is divided, roughly 
speaking, into a central portico, leading into the grand vestibule, 
the two debating chambers, and side pavilions. The portico is o£ 
massive dimensions, and is approached by a commanding flight 
of granite steps, which runs round three sides of it. The pavilions 
are relieved by groups of pilasters with Corinthian capitals, and 
are surmoimted by domes and ventilators. The whole of the ground, 
floor up to the level of the main floor has been built of PaarL 
granite, which makes a most suitable base. The building above 
this is of red brick, relieved by pilasters and window dressing of 
Portland cement, the effect being very pleasing and gratifying to 
the eye. The interior accommodation, for the business of the two 
Houses of Parliament is most complete, and arranged with a care- 
ful view to comfort and convenience. Besides the Debating 
Chambers, which are sixty-seven feet in length h^ thirty-six feet 
in width (only ten feet in length and width less than the 
House of Commons), there is a lofty hall of stately appearance,, 
with marble pillars and tessellated pavement, which forms the Central 
Lobby or grand vestibule. Adjoining this is the Parliamentary 
Library, a beautiful apartment, flfty- three feet by thirty-two, with, 
galleries above each other reaching to the full height of the build- 
ing. There are a number of Committee rooms and spacious offices 
for the President and Speaker and officers of the Leffislature. 
Refreshment and luncheon rooms, as well as smoking and billiard 
rooms, complete the arrangements for the comfort of members. - 
For the accommodation of the public, there are roomy galleries for 
strangers, ladies, distinguished visitors, and the press. The- 
lighting is effected by g£is as well as electricity; the House of 
Assembly being illuminated by a tasteful equipment of Edison's 
incandescent lamps placed in convolvolus-shaped glass cups, on 
pendant brass electroliers. The ground floor of the building is 
occupied by the premier department of the Government, that of* 
the Colonial Secretary, and by flre-proof vaults in which the records 
of Pal'liament and the Archives of the Colony are deposited. The- 
entire cost of the buildings and grounds, including the furniture 
(provided by Messrs. GiUow, of London), has been £220,000.. 
The Architect was Mr. H. S. Greaves, of the Colonial Public 
Works Department ; and the Contractors, Messrs. Bull & Sons, of 

Another striking and handsome building is the colonial head- 
quarter's establishment of our principal banking institution — the 
Standard Bank of British South Afirica. It is situated at the^ 

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•4X)nier of Adderlev and Daxling-streets. The tellers' room, both 
in dimensions and finish, would do credit to any of the offices of 
the rich banking corporations of England or Scotland. The height 
from floor to ceiling is fifty feet, and the area of space set apart 
ifor the bank's customers is about 1,600 square feet. The buildmg, 
^hich is surmounted b^ a marble figure of Britannia, was design^ 
by Mr. Freeman, architect, and built by Mr. Inglesby, contractor, 
At a cost of about £32,000. 

The military head-quarters of the Conmiander of the Forces and 
his staff are in the Castle — a quaint specimen of the ancient 
^itadd, of pentagonal form, with ravelins, glacis, ditches, ^ate, 
sallyport, and all the other paraphernalia of the old fortifications. 
It was designed and commenced as early as 1672, and the bell on 
Tthe gate tower bears date 1697, but the greater patrt of the existing 
♦quarters within the Castle appear to have been built or re-built 
between 1780 and 1785. oome years ago it was offered for sale 
ito the colonial authorities by the Imperial Q-ovemment. It is of 
little use for defensive purposes, and me space occupied by it could 
be very profitably turned to account for the convenience and 
.improvement of the city. Ample garrison accommodation for the 
troops is provided in the main barradks in Caledon-square, and in 
ithe healthy camp at Wynberg. 

Another possession £rom the olden time is the Town House in 
Oreenmarket-square, where the Mayor and Town Council carry on 
ithe municipal administration. It is a plain but substantial build- 
ing, with cool, roomy halls and offices. The City has a regular 
-water supply, is well lighted by gas, and a system of drainage and 
paving is being proceeded with which will improve its sanitary 
^condition. The public traffic is carried on by omnibuses, tramcars, 
-and cabs. There are spacious markets generally plentifully supplied 
^th fish, vegetables, and fruit; and j)ublic sales of produce, wool, 
leathers, &c., take place weekly. A singular sight is the '^Parade 
tsales" held e^ery Saturday, near the Military Parade-gyound, 
where articles of the most miscellaneous character-elands, shares, 
'Cattle, horns and skins of wild game, equipages, furniture and 
"old clo's" — are put up to auction, attracting crowds of citizens 
«of all classes, either as buyers or as loimgers and lookerfr-on. 

The surroundings of Cape Town are very pleasant. The marine 
:8uburbs of Ghreen roint and Sea Point are connected with the city 
by a tramway, and at any hour of the day one may exchange the 
flowing heat and dusty streets for the pretty residences along the 
sea-shore, or the healthful breeze and magnificent Ocean view of 
Botany or Camp's Bays. But the most populous and fashionable 
^suburban resorts are Eondebosch, the Camp Ghround, Newlands, 
Claremont, and Wynberg on the eastern side of Table Mountain. 
In such pleasant sylvan retreats nestled among the oak, poplar. 

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fir, and gum trees, the city merchants and officials delight to dwell, 
and there is a great deal to justify their choice ; for during the 
summer months they are cooler, the difference of temperature at 
Wynberg being as much as ten degrees less than that of Cape 
Town, owing to its more elevated position and its exposure to the 
winds coming up from the south. And for those who wish 
further change of scene and air, there are the beaches of Muizen- 
berg and the warm waters of Kalk Bay, now connected by rail 
with Cape Town. Any one travelling by the railway from 
the City wiU be charmed with the green lanes along the Hue 
from Mowbray and Eosebank to Claremont, the glimpses of shaggy 
wood and mountain precipices above Eondebosch and Newlands, 
and the open breezy flats stretching from Kenilworth across to the 
Stellenbosch hills. The drive along the main road in the same direc- 
tion is even more delightful, — through the glorious avenue of pines 
and oaks extending onwards from Mowbray ; . past the Eondebosch 
village church and the woods of Westbrook; past the shady 
groves of Newlands and the slopes of Protea, the episcopal resi- 
dence of the Bishop of Cape Town ; up the Wynberg Hill, 
with its climips and thickets of silver trees ; and on to Cogill's, 
Eathfelder'fl, or the hospitable homesteads and rich vineyards of 
Constantia. Along this route, the alternate views of hill and dale, 
dotted with cottages, mansions, and verandahed retreats, with the 
grand background of mountains, are as charming as can be met 
with in any part of the Colony. 

JPort Elizabeth, situate on the shores of Algoa Bay, is one of 
the principal commercial towns of the Colony. Its population is 
about 18,000, of whom the greater portion are Europeans. The 
visitor arriving there by any of the mail steamers will find before 
him all the evidences of an enterprising, energetic, and prosperous 
place. For two or three miles along the water-side, and up the 
sloping hill ascending from it, and on the brow of the height 
above, there rise in succession warehouses, stores, manufactories, 
shops, offices, dwelling-houses, churches, schools, hospitals, vUlas, 
and other buildings of every description and variety of architecture. 
Close to the principal landiiig-place, in Jetty-street, is the Eailway 
station, and along the sea-wall skirting the water's edge, the lines 
of rail are laid connecting Ghraham's Town, Uitenhage, and 
GhraafE-Eeinet as well as Colesberg and Kimberley with the port. 
Immediately above this is the central and business part of the 
town, forming what is known as the Main-street, containing the 
principal banking and mercantile establishments, shops, stores, and 
places of business, extending from Market-square through Queen's- 
street and Prince's-street to the Prison-buildings and the Park at 
the North-end. 

Among the public buildings are the Town-haU ; the capacious 

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Graham's town. 101 

Produce-markets recently erected by the Town Council at a cost 
of £70,000, and covering an extensive area ; the newly completed 
Government offices, the Post and Telegraph office, and the Hospital. 
The Town-hall in Market-square is a stately and commodious 
structure, somewhat in the Italian style, but with a portico of 
Corinthian columns. The Town Council offices are thfere, as well 
as the Chamber of Commerce, the public reading-room and library, 
and a small museum ; and there is a hall about eighty feet long 
by forty broad — ^undoubtedly one of the finest in the colony for public 
assemblies and entertainments. Standing on the broad flight of 
steps at the entrance of this building, the Bayonian (as a resident 
here is termed) may feel proud as he surveys the unmistakable 
evidences of commercial enterprise and substantial wealth aroimd 
him — all the growth of little more than sixty-five years' British 

The fashionable quarter is on what is termed the " Hill," — ^in 
contradistiDction to the " town below " — a flat tableland, on the 
terraced ground above the Main-street. Its aspect and sur- 
roundings are very pleasant and enjoyable, as this height is 
generally fanned by fresh cool breezes from the sea. Many 
superior mansions and pretty villa residences have been erected 
here. There are also some handsome churches, such as St. 
Augustine's Eoman Catholic Church, the Scottish Presbyterian 
Church, and Trinity Church; an admirably managed Provincial 
Hospital ; a well endowed collegiate establishment, the Ghrey 
Institute ; and a well regulated Club, where, after the labours 
of the day, the mercantile class usually congregate for relaxation, 
and courteously extend their hospitality to visitors. On the open 
flat beyond the Hill, there is the attractive St. George's Park, laid 
out and maintaiaed by the Corporation of the town. It has very 
agreeable walks through avenues of trees; shrubs, and flowering 
plants, and is ornamented with a fine conservatory, water basins, 
and grassy plots. 

The country about Port Elizabeth is very bare and uninviting ; 
but there are some localities such as the Eed-house on the banks of 
the Zwartkop Eiver, and the coast lands of Emerald Hill and Van 
Staden's River, which afEord good suburban retreats ; and the 
pleasant town of Uitenhage is within an hour's reach by railway. 

Graham's Town is inland about 106 miles by rail from Port 
Elizabeth, and 43 from Port Alfred. Next to the beautiful 
environs of the Western metropolis, it is beyond question the most 
pleasant place of residence in the Colony. Embosomed in green 
hiUs — the spurs of the Zuurberg range — at an elevation of 1,760 
feet above the sea, the city, with its broad streets lined with trees, 
and its houses interspersed with gardens, presents a thoroughly 
English appearance, and is an acknowledged and favourite health- 

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102 KING William's town. 

resort. The prinoipal thoroughfare and business place is High 
street. At its upper end stand the old Drostdj buildings (now 
a public school) where the Colonial Parliament had its sittings 
in the session of 1864. Not far from it are the Botanic Qurdens, 
where there is a conservatory erected to the memory of Colonel 
Fordyce, of H.M's 74th regmient, who fell in the Kafir war of 
1851. In the middle of Hig^h-street stands the St. George's 
Oathedraly where in front of tne communion table, a monument 
is erected to the memory of Col. Ghraham, from whom the city 
takes its name. Lower down the street is Commemoration 
Chapel, the principal place of worship of the Wesleyan denomina- 
tion, erected to commemorate the gratitude of the British immi- 
grants of 1820 for the blessings enjoyed by them in the Albany 

Although much smaller than Port Elizabeth in point of popula- 
tion (its white inhabitants numbering about 7,000), and the coloured 
natiyes 3,000, Ghraham's Town ranks as the metropolis of the Eastern 
and Frontier Districts. It is a cathedral city, and the place of 
residence of the Bishops of the Church of England and the Roman 
Catholic Church, and the Superintendent of the Wesleyan body. 
It is also the seat of the Eastern Districts Court, with attendant 
judges, solicitor-general, barristers and members of the side bar. 
There are among its local institutions a Museum, a Natural 
History Society, and a Public Library. Formerly the city was- 
the head-quarters of the military, and the residence of the Lieut.- 
Govemor. The extensive military barracks are now appropriated 
to public uses. There is an excellent Public Hospital and a^ 
Provincial Limatic Asylum. A spacious assembly room, the Albany 
Hall, is available for meetings and amusements, and there are 
various Masonic, Odd-fellows, Templars, and other societies,, 
largely patronised by the inhabitants. The city has recently been 
connected by railway with its port, the Kowie lUver Mouth (Port 
Alfred), a favourite watering place. 

King William's Town, or " King," as it is sometimes shortly 
termed, ranks as an important commercial centre, being on 
the highway from the harbour of East London to the interior, 
and from the Eastern Districts to the Transkei and Kafirland. 
It has also the chief command of the native trade, extending 
beyond the Border and north to Basutoland. The town itsett 
is pleasantly situated, stretehing along the banks of the 
Buffalo Biver, and connected by a branch line with the railway 
from East London to Aliwal North. At the western end is the 
native location. Next comes the military barracks and officers^ 
quarters. Then there is the business part of the town, with its 
public buildings, churches, dubs, stores, and private residences ; 
while more to the eastward is the G-erman settlors' town, with it& 

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thatched verandahed cottages ; and beyond that the camp and head- 
quarters of our colonial defensive force. The Town-hall is a large- 
and captious building, reflecting credit on the place. Between it 
and the river is the Botanic G-arden, with an area of about f ourteen» 
acres of alluvial soil of the richest description, where everything^ 
grows in the greatest luxuriance. On a rise, to the north, are the- 
public offices, on which has been erected a memorial clock tower in 
remembrance of the Eev. J. Brownlee, who commenced the first 
mission station in KafEraria on the site of the present town.. 
Adjacent to this is the handsome and imposing edifice erected by 
Sir George Grey (and known as the Grey Native Hospital), for 
the purpose of breaking the belief of the natives in witdhi-dootorsy 
by placmg skilful medical treatment and maintenance within their 
reach, free of charge. It has now been established more than & 
quarter of a century, and the success of the Institution amongst 
the Natives, is proved by the number who travel hundreds of miles 
to seek medical and surgical aid, showing that the Kafir people^ 
are breaking through their race prejudices and acknowledging the- 
superiority of scientific treatment oi ordinary diseases. 

Graafi-Eeinet, the oldest and the largest of the towns in the 
midland districts, is situated near the centre of the Colony at the- 
base of the hilly range where the Simday^s Eiver leaves the 
Sneeuwbergen Mountains for the plains. These hills rise behind it 
to a height of 1,000 or 1,500 feet. The sunmiit of one of them, 
the Spandeau Kop, has a rough resemblance to a haystack, and 
adjoining it there is a ridge of loosely-piled trap rook with pillars^ 
of colimmar basalt, standing out in bold relief to the height of 
300 or 400 feet, having a very picturesque effect. This spot is 
known by the name of the Valley of Desolation. At the foot of 
these hiUs, the Sxmday's Eiver sweeps roimd and forms a beni 
about a mile across, and in this bend the town is laid out, ani 
abundant supply of water being distributed through it by several 
channels from the bed of the stream. The streets are wide, and. 
many of them are planted with rows of trees on each side. The 
principal buildings are the Dutch Eeformed Church, with it& 
clock tower and spire, a handsome English Church, the G-ovem- 
ment Offices, the Town-hall, the College, Masonic Lodge, and the 
Public Library. There are several large and comfortable private 
buildings and stores of modem style, but the houses generally are 
of the old-fashioned type, with thatched roofs, gables and "stoeps,'*' 
or terraces, the usual form of dwelling of the old colonists. Nearly 
all have vineyards, gardens, or orchards, or some spot of greenery 
attached to them. These give the town a very pleasmg appearance, 
and its marked contrast with the surroundmg arid Earoo plains 
obtained for it long ago the appropriate title of the " Gem of the 

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Kimberley, the inland terminus of the railway system, has 
•advanced from the position of a mushroom camp to that of a 
permanent mining centre, presenting an industrial activity which 
compares favourably with any portion of the Colony. The popu- 
lation of the town and its adjacent mining townships is computed 
at between 25,000 and 30,000, more than one-half of whom are 
whites. Of late years considerable improvements have been 
effected in Kimberley; many of the temporary corrugated iron 
houses have been removed and given place to substantial and 
^ comfortable dwellings. The Bank of Africa, the Cape of Good 
Hope and the Standard Banks have each of them erected hand- 
-some and commodious premises ; and the Kimberley Club-house, 
built at a cost of £18,000, is one of the most roomy and well 
-arranged in South Africa. The High Court of Qriqualand, the 
Post and Telegraph Offices, and the Town-hall,* are also very 
spacious and commodious buildings ; and the same may be said of 
the chief hostelry of the town, the Queen's, which was built at an 
expense of about £20,000. There are churches belonging to all 
denominations, and amongst the local institutions is the admirably- 
managed Carnarvon Hospital, where there is extensive accommo- 
-dation for both European and coloured patients and admirable 
^convalescent wards for the better class of invalids, who can pay 
for the same. The streets and roads, which extend over a distance 
of about 20 miles, are well laid out and kept in good order. 
The jewellers' and drapery establishments are fully as attractive 
as some of the same class in Eegent-street ; and there is an 
air of business and activity all over the place. The drainage of 
the town has lately been much improved; all sewage is carried 
outside its limits. There is a plentiful water supply brought 
in from the Vaal River, and available to the inhabitants for 
household and garden purposes, at a charge not exceeding Is. 3d. 
per hundred gallons. The lighting of the town is effected by 
^2 electric Brush lights of 2,000 candle-power each. The daily 
morning market is generally a busy scene, crowded with groups 
of dealers and wagons, with their long teams of oxen, laden 
^th produce from the Orange Free State, Bechuanaland, 
the Transvaal, and the far interior up to the Zambesi region. The 
value of produce sold in the Kimberley market annually is 
over £231,862 lis., and the number of wagons and other velucles 
conveying produce to the market 18,186. On the adjacent Du 
Toit's Pan (Beaconsfield) market the value of produce is over 
£163,392, and the nimiber of wagons and other vehicles 20,468. 

There are several other coimtry towns, such as Stellenbosch, the 
Paarl, Worcester, Beaufort West, Queen's Town, Cradock, Coles- 
berg, and AJiwal North, of considerable size and importance. 

The Colony is now divided for electoral purposes into seven 

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ProTinoes, and for fiscal and magisterial purposes into seventy 
divisions or districts. The following is an enumeration of the 
several provinces and divisions, and the chief towns and villages : — 

Western Province, 

Divisions and Districts. Towns and Villages. 

Cape Town Cape Town and Green Point. 

Cape Division Woodstock, Maitland, Mowbray, Rondebosch, 

Wynberg. Newlands, Claremont, Kenilworth, Wyn- 

Simon's Town. berg, Constantia, Mnizenberg, Kalk Bay, 

Simon's Town, Kuil's Eiver, Blueberg, and 

Stellenbosch Stellenbosch, Eerste River, Somerset West, 

and the Strand. 
Paarl Paarl, Wellington, Drakenstein, Frenchhoek. 

North- Western Province, 

Mabnesbnry Malmesbury, Darling, Hopefield, St. Helena 

Bay, Riebeek West, Mamre, Groenekloof . 

Piquetberg Piquetberg, Porterville, and Goedverwacht. 

Namaqualand Springbokfontein, Hondeklip Bay, Port Nol- 

Port NoUoth. loth, Bowesdorp, and Leliefontein. 

Clanwilliam ClanwiUiam, Tree Troe, Calvinia, Brandvley, 

Calvinia. and Katkop. 

Worcester Worcester, Ceres, Tulbagh, Steinthal, Gouda, 

Tulbagh. BergviUe, Hermon, Wolseley, and Prince 

Ceres. Alfred. 

South- Western Province, 

SweUendam Swellendam, Heidelberg, Zum'braak, Malagas, 

Robertson. Port Beaufort, Robertson, Montagu, and 

Lady Grey. 

Riversdale Riversdale, Ladismith, and Amalienstein. 


Caledon Caledon, Genadendal, ViUiersdorp, Grey ton, 

Bredasdorp. Bredasdorp, Elim, and Napier. 

Oudtshoom Gudtshoom, Cango, and Calitzdorp. 

George George, Blanco, Hopedale, Uniondale, Schoon- 

Uniondale. berg, Pacaltsdorp, Lyon, Aliwal South, 

Mossel Bay. Plettenberg's Bay, Melville, Belvidere, 

Knysna. Newhaven, Redboume, and Edmundton. 

Midland Province, 

Graaff-Reinet GraafE-Reinet, Petersburg, Aberdeen, and 

Murraysburg. Murraysburg. 


Beaufort Beaufort, Prince Albert, Petersburg, Willow- 
Prince Albert. more. 

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Midland Province — continued. 

Diyisiana and Distriots. Towna and YlUages. 

Victoria West Victoria West, Frieska, Fraserburg, Onderste 

Prieska. Dooms, Kenhardt, Upington, Sutherland, 

Fraserburg. and Carnarvon. 


Richmond. Bichmond, Britz Town, and Hope Town. 

Hope Town. 

South-JEaetem Province, 

Albany Graham's Town, Salem, Sidbury, Eiebeek, 

Bathurst. Bathurst, Port Frances, and Port Alfred. 

Victoria East Alice, Aberdeen, and Peddie. 

Uitenhage Uitenhage, JansenviUe, Humansdorp, Hankey, 

Jansenville. Alexandria, Paterson. 


Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth, Zwartkops, and Walmer. 

Nbrth'Uastern Province, 
Fort Beaufort Fort Beaufort, Post Eetief, Adelaide, Heald 

Stockenstrom. Town, Elands Post (Seymour), Hertzog, 

Balfour, and Philip Town. 

Albert Burghersdorp, Molteno, Sterkstroom, and 

Somerset East Somerset East, Qroote Vlakte, Been Leegte, 

Bedford. Pearston, Bedford, and Glenlynden. 

Oradock Oradock, Steynsburg, and Maraisberg. 

Colesberg Colesberg, Phillipstown, Hanover, and Middel- 

Hanover. berg. 


Eastern Province, 
King William's Town. King William's Town, Berlin, Breidbach, 

Stutterheim Braunsweigh, Frankfort, Stutterheim, and 

Komgha Komgha. 

East London East London, Panmure, Potsdam, and Maclean. 

Queen's Town Queen's Town, Whittlesea, Tarkastad, Lady 

Cathcart. Frere, Glen Grey, and Cathcaxt. 

Aliwal North Aliwal North, Lady Grey, James Town, and 

Herschel Herschel. 

Wodehouse Dordrecht and Barkly East. 

Barkly East. 

Gfriqualand West Province, 
Kimberley Kimberley, De Beer's, Beaconsfield, Du Toit's 

Herbert. Pan, Herbert, Barkly West, Pniel, Douglas, 

Barkly West. and Griqua Town. 

Upper Hay. 

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During the oooupation of the Cape as a Dependency of the 
Dutch East India Company from 1652 to 1795, all exeoutive, 
legislative, and judicial authority was exercised by a Governor 
and Coimcil, who were appointed by the Company and respon- 
sible for their proceedings to the directors in Holland. A 
similar form of administration prevailed from 1803 to 1806, 
during the time the Colony was transferred to the Batavian Re- 
public — ^the Q-ovemor and Coimcil, however, being no longer 
dependetit upon a commercial body, but only subject to the 
supreme power of the State. 

Under the British Government from 1795 to 1803, and after- 
wards from 1806, the Governors alone exercised all the power and 
authority, until, in 1825, an Executive Coimcil was appointed to 
assist them. Ten years afterwards, in 1835, a Legislative Council, 
whose proceedings were open to the public, was established by 
Boyal Listructions. The Coimcil consisted of not more than twelve 
persons, exclusive of the Governor, who was president ; and of 
these, six were persons holding office under the Crown, and the 
other six were selected from the chief landed proprietors and 
merchants, and nominated by the Governor. The first persons so 
nominated to the Council were : — P. L. Cloete, sen., J. JB. Ebden, 
M. van Breda, C. S. Pillans, and J. J. du Toit, J. son. 

By Letterp Patent issued by Her Majesty Queen Victoria in 
1850, this Legislative Council was authorised to enact ordinances 
for the establishment of complete representative Government ; and 
by an Order-in-Council dated 11th March, 1853, what is termed 
the "Constitution Ordinance," providing for the creation of a 
Colonial Parliament, consisting of a House of Assembly and 
liOjgislative Council, came into force. 

The Governor was empowered to have an Executive Council to 
advise and assist him, composed of the Colonial Secretary, the 
Attorney-General, the Auditor-General, the Treasurer-General, 
and the Collector of Customs — all of whom, with the exception of 
the last-named, were entitled to sit and take part in the debates 
and proceedings of Parliament. These officers, however, had no 
right to vote as members of the Legislature; and, although 
charged with the conduct of public affairs, were in no way 
required to enjoy the confidence and support of a majority of the 
electors or their representatives. Hence there occasionally arose 
an antagcmism m action and policy between the Government of 
the day and the Parliament. 

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A*Ghange to the British system of Responsible or Party Q-oveniment 
was proposed, and continued to be agitated for, at different periods 
afterwards ; but it was not adopted until 1872. In that year an 
Act was passed by the Legislature, and received the Royal Assent, 
which provides that the members of the Executive Council may- 
hold seats and vote in either House of Parliament. Under this 
authority, His Excellency the Governor now selects his advisers or 
" Cabinet Ministers " from among those persons possessing the 
confidence of the majority of the people's representatives, and 
who as such are responsible to the Legislature for the acts of the 
Government. These Ministers, once installed, hold office imtil 
they find that they are unable to secure in the Legislature the 
requisite support of their policy, — or the Governor deems it his 
duty to act on important questions in opposition to their policy 
and advice, — when theygive place to others, in analogy with the 
usage prevailing in the United Kingdom. 

While the gifts of Representative and Responsible Government 
have thus been conceded to the Colony, the Crown has still the 
prerogative of appointing its own Govei^iors and of exercising a 
veto on all legislation ; it also remains the supreme f oxmtain of 
justice, to which ultimate appeals from the Judicatures of the Colony 
are preferred ; and the Imperial Parliament holds its indisputable 
omnipotence over this, as over every part of the whole Empire. 
The Crown, however, exercises no control over any public officer, 
.except the Governor. The direction of internal affairs, the man- 
agement of departments, and the appointment to all public offices, 
rest with the Ministers forming the Executive Council. 
' The Ministry or Cabinet, who, together with the Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor, form the Exec]^tive Council, is composed of : 

A Colonial Secretary, whose office supervises the Civil Service 
throughout the various divisions of the Colony, and controls the 
Post and Telegraph Departments, Deeds Registry, Defence, 
Education, Hospitals and Asylimis, and Police. 

An Attorney-General, who is the law adviser and public prose- 
cutor, and controls the Department of the Administration of Justice. 

A Treasurer-General, who is the Receiver-General and Finance 
officer, and principal Collector and Controller of Customs and 

A Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works, charged 
with the administration of the Land Laws and supervision of 
Railways and other public works, Diamond and other Mines, 
Irrigation, Forests, Agriculture, Lighthouses, and Harbours. 

A Secretary for Native Affairs, who is charged with the man- 
agement of all the relations with the aboriginal tribes. 

All the above Ministers have permanent Under-Secretaries, or 
assistants, as heads of their seversd Departments. 

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Frequent change of Ministries was a noticeable characteristic 
of the AustraKan Legislatures, after they first entered upon their 
career of self-government, and it was prophesied that the same 
liability to frequent political crisis would be experienced at the 
Cape. But the prediction has not been fulfilled. There have 
been only four Ministries in office since 1872, and their average 
duration has been considerably over three years. The following is 
a list of them : — 

MoLTENO Ministry. 
From December, 1872, to February, 1878. 
Premier and Colonial Secretary . . Sir J. C. Molteno, M.L.A, 
Treasurer of the Colony . . , . H. White, M.L.C. 

( J. H. de YiUiers, M.L.A. 
Attorneys-General . . . . . . < S. Jacobs, M.L.A. 

( A. Stockenstrom, M.L.A. 
Commissioners of Crown Lands j C. A. Smith, M.L.A. 

and Public Works I J. X. Merriman, M.L.A. 

Secretary for Native Affairs . . C. Brownlee, M.L.A. 
Sprigg Ministry. 
From February, 1878, to May, 1881. 
Premier and Colonial Secretary . . J. Gordon Sprigg, M.L.A. 

Treasurers of the Colony . . 

J. Miller, M.L.C. 
H. W. Pearson, M.L.A. 
Thos. Upington, M.L.A^ 
J. W- Leonard, M.L.A. 

Attorneys-General . . , , . . 

Commissioner of Crown Lands 

and Public Works . . . . J. Laing, M.L.A. 

Secretary for Native Affairs . . W. Ayllff, M.L.A. 
ScANLEN Ministry. 
From May, 1881, to May, 1884. 
Premier, Attorney-General, and 

Colonial Secretary. . . . Sir T. C. Scanlen, M.L.A^ 

Colonial Secretaries . . . . J. C. Molteno, M.L.A. 

>n i! XI. n 1 ( C. W. Hutton, M.L.C. 

Treasurers of the Colony . . • • J c. J. Ehodes, M.L.A. 

Attorney-General . . . . ^ . J. W. Leonard, M.L.A. 
Commissioner of Crown Lands 

and Public Works. . .. J. X. Merriman, M.L.A. 

Secretary for Native Affairs . . J. W. Sauer, M.L.A. 
Minister without portfolio . . J. H. Hofmeyr, M.L.A, 

Upington Ministry. 
Entered on Office 13th May, 1884. 
Premier and Attorney-General . . Thos. Upington, M.L.A, 

Colonial Secretaries . . . . [ J; t2op? M.L.2''*^ 

Treasurer of the Colony . . J. Gordon Sprigg, M.L.A. 

Commissioner of Crown Lands and 

Public Works . . . . F. Schermbrucker, M.L.C* 
Secretary for Native Affairs . . J. A. de Wet, M.L.A. 

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The Legislature oonsists of two branches. The Lower House, or 
House of Assembly, numbers seventy-four members, elected to serve 
for five years, unless Parliament is sooner dissolved. It nominates 
its own Speaker and officers, and members residing beyond a certain 
distance from the seat of G-ovemment are paid an allowance of £1 
per day, in addition to travelling expenses, for attendance during 
any session for a term of ninety days. Witii the exception of paid 
officers under Q-ovemment (omer than members of the Executive 
Council), any qualified voter may be elected as a member of the 
House of Assembly. The qualification required of voters is, beiilg 
a bom or naturalized British subject resident in the Colony for 
twelve months before registration, and an occupier of property of 
the value of £25, or in receipt of salary or wa&;es of not less tiian 
£50 per annum, or not less than £25 with board and lodging. 
This very liberal franchise — approaching to imiversal suffrage — 
gives nearly every colonist the privilege of taking part either as 
elector or elected representative in the conduct of public affairs and 
in promotion of the welfare of the commimity. 

The Upper House, or Legislative Councfi, consists of twenty- 
two members, who are elected by the same voters as the House of 
Assembly, but a property qualification is required for membership 
— ^namely, the possession of immovable property worth £2,000 or 
of movable property worth £4,000. For the election of members of 
the Council, the Colony was formerly divided into two constituencies 
or provinces (West and East) ; but, by Acts passed in 1874 and 1877, 
it has been divided into eight electoral circles or provinces, seven of 
which return three members, and the other f Qriqualand West) one. 
The Chief Justice is ex-offido President oi the Council, and the 
members are designated " Honourable." 

The Parliament must meet once in every year, and oftener if 
necessary. Its sessions are usually held during the months from 
April to July, in Cape Town. The rules of procedure observed by 
its members are substantially the same as those adopted by the 
British Parliament. The journals, entries, and proceedings are 
made and recorded in the English language; but since 1882, 
debates and discussions may be conducted either in English or 
Dutch, but in no other languae^e. 

The CTeat bulk of the law oi the Colony consists of the Roman- 
Dutch Law, modified by the customs and laws of HoUand, by 
placaats and proclamations up to 1824, and aft^ that by the 
Ordinances of Council and of the LM;islative Council, and by the 
Acts of the Colonial Parlicanent. There is also a large body of 
statute law, scattered throughout the Imperial statute book, wmch, 
has force within it. 

The highest Court of Judicature in the Colony is the "Supreme 
Court," which has its sittings in Cape Town. It has cognizance 

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of all pleas, and jurisdiotion in all causes, civil, crinunal, and 
mixed, arising in the Colony, over all persons resident and being 
within the Colony. It has, moreover, fuU powers to review, 
correct, or set aside the proceedings of all inferior courts of justice 
within the Colony, and may order the re-heoring of any im- 
portant case before five or more judges. 

The Court consists of one Chief Jiistice and eight puisne Judges, 
two forming a quorum. Three of these judges form the " Court of 
the Eastern Districts " sitting at Graham's Town ; and three form 
the " High Court of Ghiqualand '' sitting at Kimberley, the pre- 
siding judge in each of these Courts being entitled " Judge 
President." The Court sitting in Cape Town is usually composed 
of the Chief Justice and two judges. 

There is also a Court of Appeal for hearing appeals from the 
Court of the Eastern Districts, or the High Court of Kimberley, 
or any Circuit Court. This court also sits at Cape Town, and . 
consists of the Chief Justice, the Judge Presidents of the Eastern 
Districts and High Court respectively, and two other Judges. 

From the judgment of the Supreme Court an appeal lies to the 
Queen in Her Privy Council, in case such judgment is given for, 
or involves, any claim to the value of five hundred pounds sterling, 
or directly or indirectly affects civil rights, — ^leave to appeal 
having been first obtained from the Supreme Court. 

Circuit Courts are held twice in every year, at such times and 
places as the Q-ovemor directs. Such courts have each in their 
respective districts the same powers which the Supreme Court has 
throughout the Colony. 

The Attomey-G-enend has the ri^ht and duty to prosecute all 
crimes in all courts in the Colony, m person or by deputy ; and 
the riffht of prosecution is entirely in his own control. He is 
aided by an assistant law adviser to the Crown. For the Eastern 
Districts, a Solicitor-General is empowered to exercise the functions 
of the Attorney-General in regard to all criminal business ; and a 
Crown Prosecutor has similar powers and functions in Griqualand 

There is a Vice-Admiralty Court, the Chief Justice being judffe, 
which sits at Cape Town for the trial of offences committed on Sie 
hi^ seas and for the adjudication of maritime disputes. 

Besides these higher courts, there are courts of Kesident Magis- 
trates held in each town or division of the Colony ; also Periodical 
Courts held in outlying villages; and Courts of special paid 
Justices of the Peace, who have jurisdiction within certain limits. 

Justices of the Peace are appointed by the Governor ; they keep 
the pubUc peace, summon offenders, and witnesses, arrest criminals, 
and take examinations ; they likewise take recognizances of men 
to be on their good behaviour, and attest declarations. 

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Field-comets are also appointed by the Governor; and are 
bound to apprehend without warrant and to commit to prison any 
person who in their presence commits, or whom they have reason- 
able grounds to suspect of having committed, any crime. They 
conform to the special instructions of the Resident Magistrate, 
within whose jurisdiction their ward is situated. In cases of wreck, 
when their wards adjoin the sea they are bound to repair to the 
spot where the wreck occurs, and to use every endeavour to save 
Irfe and property. The Commissioners of Police and members of the 
constabulary of a district are empowered to arrest persons for any 
crime or offence, and they are required to suppress all tumults and 
other breaches of the peace. The Colonial police force numbers 
800 men. 

Among other institutions, there is one connected with the 
transfer of land, which was established at a very early date by 
the Dutch East India Company, and is deserving of particular 
notice. It is the Government Department known as the " Deeds 
Registry Office;" which secures in a very simple yet perfect 
manner the registration of all titles to landed property and 
mortgages upon the same. The registry extends back to 1685, 
shortly after the Cape was first occupied by Europeans ; and at 
any moment the purchaser of an estate may refer to and ascertain 
all the by-gone circumstances, servitudes, encumbrances, and other 
matters connected with any old property, without the troublesome 
complexity or enormous expense which attends the same pro- 
ceeding in England. 

Titles to land are in the first instance issued by Government, 
representing the Crown, and registry of such issue is preserved in 
the Surveyor-General's Office. All subsequent conveyance, transfer, 
or exchange of any property is required to be recorded at the 
" Deeds Registry Office," where regular entry is made of the 
description of the property, its extent, the name of the seller, the 
purchaser, and the amoimt for which it is sold. A duty of 4 per 
cent, on tiie purchase amoimt is paid to the colonial revenue on 
the sale of any property, and gdso a succession duty on properties 
bequeathed ; and certificates of these having been paid are required 
to be produced before transfer is given. 

The "Deeds Office " likewise provides for the registration of 
hypothecations and mortgages. To have any legal right or title, 
or to be effectual against creditors, all such bonds are entered in 
what is termed the " debt registry," which is indexed, and daily 
open to public inspection on payment of a small fee. No transfer 
of land can be obtained until after a settlement of these bonds, 
either by repayment, or by the mortgagee consenting to continue 
.his loan on tiie securities of the new purchaser, or by the mort- 
gagee consenting to transfer of the land. 

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THE master's office. 113 

Under this system the most perfect security is given to the 
capitalist, and the conveyance of landed property is made certain, 
simple, and economical. The Conveyancers, who are authorised to 
practise by the Supreme Court, satisfy themselves before passing 
any deeds that the transferer has a clear title to the property, and 
not merely a life interest in it ; that there are no servitudes or 
prohibitory conditions in the way of transfer ; that there are no 
mortgages upon it in the " debt registry ;" that the diagrams are 
oorrect; and that the proper transfer or succession duties have 
been paid. Thus the largest, best-conditioned, or most involved 
estate, may be sold and transferred from one owner to another on 
a couple of sheets or less of paper ; and the facilities are so great 
that the time occupied in passing any deeds is not more than 
about seven days. The Department also provides for a registry 
of all rights secured imder the Copyright Act, the Trades Marks 
Act, and the Friendly Societies' Act. 

The " Master's Office " is another very important department, 
charged* with the performance of duties corresponding to those of 
a Master of Chancery and a Commissioner of Insolvent Estates 
combined. It rests with the Master to register wills, to control 
the proceedings of trustees or executors in the administration 
of estates and properties of minors, lunatics, and absent persons. 
He also regulates all proceedings in bankruptcy, and assists 
the Supreme Court in matters which it refers to him for report 
or opinion. The duties connected with the administration of 
minors' and absent persons' estates, are of a specially responsible 

The inheritance of minors who have no tutors appointed by their 
parents, and the moneys in the hands of tutors-dative and curators- 
dative, after payment of the debts due by the estate and the 
amount required for the immediate maintenance of the person 
under their guardianship, must be paid into the hands of the 
Master, by Imn put out to interest, and the interest, when re- 
quired, paid for their maintenance and education, — at one per cent, 
less than the usual rate of interest. The moneys thus paid into 
his office for account of minors, lunatics, and unknown and foreign 
heirs having no legal representatives in the Colony, forms what is 
denominated the " Ghiardian's Fund." The capital of this Fxmd 
amounts at present to about £600,000, and is invested partly in 
mortgage bonds imder security of landed property, and partly in 
Oovemment stock and debentures. The yearly interest at present 
allowed on minors' inheritances is at the rate of four and a half per 
cent. This ceases on their attaining their majority. Foreign 
heirs not having legal representatives in the Colony, are allowed 
at one-half of the legal rate current in the Colony, and for a period 
not exceeding five years. Their names and residences, where 

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known, and the amounts due to them, are published twiee a year^ 
namely, in July and in October, in the Oovernnient Gazette , also 
in the London Gazette^ and other papers. 

The Government is represented in each division or district by a 
Civil Commissioner or a Magistrate ; in some cases the two offices 
being combined in one person. The civil ocaamissioners are charged 
with the collection of all revenues as well as the administration of 
justice and other matters. In colonial terms, a " division " means 
the territory over which the authority of a civil commissioner 
extends ; a " district," the territory in wJiich a resident meigistrate 
has jurisdiction. 

In all the divisions there are local bodies termed Divisional 
Councils, elected by the ratepayers. To them is entrusted the 
repair and maintenance of roads and bridges, and the settlement 
of questions relating to land boundaries ; and they have also to 
inspect and report upon Crown waste lands proposed to be offered 
for sale. In most of the towns there are Municipal Councils, elected 
by the householders, for the management of local affairs: These 
Divisional Councils and Muncipalities are empowered to raise 
revenues for their respective purposes, by the levy of rates upon 
landed properties, by tolls, and by licences. There are also 
Village Management Boards, and Public Health Boards. The 
receipts administered by the Divisional Councils amounted, in 
1884, to £173,796 per annum ; and by Municipalities to £541,851, 
The value of the fixed property throughout the Colony, for rateable 
purpose (exclusive of all the territories of Transkei, Tembuland 
and Griqualand East) is £37,799,508. 

The defence of the Colony is provided for by permanent and 
volunteer forces, consisting of the Cape Moimted Riflemen (includ- 
ing the Cape Field Artillery), nimibering 700 officers and men; 
.the Cape Infantry Eegiment, nimibering 520 officers and men ; 
and Volunteer Corps — artillery, cayalry, engineers and riflemen — 
numbering 3,223 men. The armament includes fifteen field-guns, 
and stores of Martini-Henry and Snider rifles and carbines. Besides 
the above, there is an auxiliary force, composed of the burghers 
and levies, comprising every able-bodied man in the colony more 
than eighteen and under fifty years of age (with certain excep- 
tions), their numbers, according to the list, being computed at 
46,000 burghers and 77,000 levies. In case of a call for active 
service, the first drafts are taken from those between the ages of 
eighteen and thirty years. For some years past, the annual 
expenditure on Colonial Defence amoimted to over £200,000; 
but considerable retrenchment has lately been effected ; and the 
vote for 1885-6 was £155,000. The outlay of the Imperial 
Government in 1884 on military services in the Colony is stated 
to have been £88,752. 

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From the period when the Colony became a British possession,, 
contributions towards the support of the clergy of several denomi- 
nations were granted by the Government at various times. 
In 1853 these grants amounted to £16,060 per annum ; and 
by a sohedxde to the Constitution Ordinance that sum was- 
set aside to be annually appropriated for the service of " religious 
worship." But the unequal distribution of this amount among- 
the different churches, and the growing claims of new congre- 
gations excluded from a share in it, as well as the persistent 
agitation of the advocates of the " Voluntary Principle," finally 
induced the Legislature in 1875 to pass an Act. providing for its- 
gradual withdrawal and abolition. This Act secured the con- 
tinuance of stipends during the life-time of existing incumbents,, 
and to the successors of such of them as might die or resign before- 
the expiration of five years from the taking effect of the Act.. 
Existing incumbents appointed to vacancies where previous- 
incumbents were in receipt of stipends, receive the same salary,, 
whether more or less, as was paid to the predecessor in such, 

The congregations of the different religious denominations in 
the Colony (exclusive of the Transkeian Territories) number as far 
as ascertained 383,765 members, 232,046 being classed as whites- 
and 150,719 as coloured. Of these the Dutch Eeformed Churck 
numbers 162,739; Wesleyans 68,814; Church of England 57,895;. 
Congregationalists, Independents and London Missionsiry Society, 
33,065 ; the Moravian or United Brethren 10,053 ; the Ehenish 
Mission, 10,011; Eoman Catholics, 9,694; Presbyterian (Free* 
Church of Scotland), 8,646; and besides these there are Baptists,, 
Lutherans, French Eeformed Church, Free Protestant, and. 
Hebrew, and Mahommedan Congregations. 

Aming the aboriginal tribes, various Christian Missionary^ 
Societies have their agencies ; and their good influence in raising" 
the natives, both morally, educationally and industrially, are^ 
acknowledged by all who observe their labours. The Government 
commission on Kafir Laws and Customs, which sat in 1881-82,. 
and of which the present Premier was a member, bore its unani- 
mous testimony to the good which has been and is being effected by 
them, and recommended that all the countenance, protection and 
support which may be possible should be extended to them. Dr, 
Dale, the head of the Education Department of the Colony, has- 
truly remarked that every one who woxdd honestly measure the 
result of these missionary labours, should extend the horizon of his- 
observation some sixty years back, and contrast what the native 
population was then and now. Thousands of the heathen inhabi- 
tants of Kafirland have in the intervening period taken the first 
step towards civilization; have acquired handicrafts, engaged in 


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industrial trades, and accummulated fixed property ; and many of 
tiiem may proudly point to churches and chapels that have arisen 
wchiefly from their own efforts, where large congregations, neatly- 
•dressed and well behaved, now regularly assemble at the sound of 
the Sabbath-bell. 

The heterogeneous population of the Colony may be classed 
mnder three main sections : — The first, comprising the inhabitants 
-of European origin, English, Dutch, French, German, and other ; 
the second, those of mixed race, who form the bulk of the domestic 
rservants and day-labourers in the towns and villages ; and the 
third, the aborigines, Kafirs, Fingoes, Basutos, and Bechuanas. 

To meet the educational wants of this tripartite community, the 
isystem of Public Education has been adjusted, and consists of 

(1). The Public and District Boarding and Day Schools, under 
local boards of management. 

(2). The Mission Schools under the control of Eeligious or Mis- 
^ion£»,ry Bodies. 

(3). The Aborigines Day Schools, trade-classes, and Training In- 
rstitutions, in connection with Missionary Societies. 

The Public Schools lead up to the Colleges, in which the course 
-of study is regulated by' the requirements for degrees in the Uni- 
versity of the Cape of Good Hope, which is an examining body 
forming the copestone of the system of Public Education. 

The .Government co-operates with each section of the com- 
munity in promoting education, by means of grants-in-aid from 
-the public revenue. 

The objects to which grants are appropriated under the provi- 
usions of the Higher and Elementary Education Acts are these : — 

(1). Grant in aid of the general expenses of the University, and 

(2). Grants in aid of salaries of professors and lecturers in colleges, 
-which offer facilities to students to qualify themselves for degrees in 
-the University of the Cape of Good Hope. 

(3). The half salaries of Principal and Assistant teachers in the 
«three grades of Public Schools. 

(4). The half salaries of superintendents and teachers of District 
Boarding Schools among the agricultural and pastoral population, and 
■K)f Boarding Departments in connection with the Public Schools. 

(5). Capitation allowances towards the maintenance of indigent 
tscholars r^^sident in District Boarding Schools, and aid towards the 
-expenses of industrial departments connected with these schools. 

(6). Aid towards the salaries of teachers of District Mission Schools 
under the direction of religious bodies, with the view of assisting the 
managers to provide secular instruction for the children of the poorer 
-class, who are not reached through the agency of the Public Schools. 

(7). Aid towards the salaries of teachers of Day Schools among the 

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Aborigines, Kafirs, Fingoes, Basutos, &c.; also of trade teachers in the- 
Native Training and Induslrial Institutions. 

(8). Capitation allowances for part maintenance of native boys and 
girls, resident in Industrial Institutions and receiving general indus- 
trial training besides ordinary school instruction. 

(9). Capitation allowances to native apprentices in the Trade Schools. 

(10). Assistance in equipping schools with all necessary appliances^ 
furniture, books, maps, blackboards, scientific apparatus, &c., sewing 
materials when a seamtress is employed to teach sewing and cutting: 
out clothes ; and tools for the native workshops. 

(11). The training of Elementary Teachers. 

(12). Schools of Art. 

Through these several agencies, the primary instruction of all 
classes, without distinction of creed or colour, is sought to be pro- 
moted ; and whilst at the same time, the superior instruction of 
those who aspire to professional pursuits and University degrees is 
not overlooked, special attention has been given to the instruction 
of native lads in trades, such as carpentry, waggonmaking, print- 
ing and bookbinding, &o., and to the training of native girls for 
domestic employments. 

To encourage native lads to become skilled workmen, an allow- 
ance of £15 per annimi, maintenance money, is made for those 
who, after one year's probation, have entered into a definite engage- 
ment with the authorities of the institution with which they are 
connected, for a further period not exceeding four years, nor less- 
than two years, as apprentices to one of the following trades : — 
carpentry, waggonmaking, blacksmith's work, tailoring, shoe- 
making, printing, and bookbinding. 

To encourage native girls to become habituated to and skilled 
in the performance of the duties of domestic civilised life, an allow- 
ance 01 £10 per annum, maintenance money, is made for those 
who, after three months' probation, have entered into a definite 
engagement with the authorities of the institution. 

The day-schools among the aborigines are usually kept by 
native teachers who have passed the elementary Teachers'" 
Examination ; but the Trade-teachers are Europeans. 

The managers of a school may provide for the religious instruc-^ 
tion of the scholars at a time set apart by them for that purpose^ 
in addition to the ordinary school hours ; but no scholars may be- 
compelled to attend at that time for religious instruction without 
the consent of their parents or guardians. 

Freedom of action as regards education in the Colony has been 
promoted without any undue striving for uniformity, either in. 
modes of teaching or resxdts. Parents are expected to feel their 
obligation to educate their children^ teachers have free scope 
for their zeal and prof essional . experience ; and local authorities. 

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;are enoouraged to co-operate in inaintaining their own schools in 
^efficiency. Thus Parents, Teachers, and School Managers contri- 
bute to their' own individual and collective interests ; and the 
'Q-ovemment intervenes not to damp voluntary zeal, nor to check 
private and municipal efforts, but to foster the progress of Educa- 
tion ; to keep alive a spirit of generous emulation among Teachers 
as well as Pupils : in short, to supply whatever appears to be de- 
fective in the local agencies, whether it be inadequacy of funds, 
weakness of control, or a low conception of the scope and methods 
•of true education. 

The latest statistics to June, 1885, are as follow : — 

University and Colleges, 

In the five Colleges aided in connection with the University of the 
♦Cape of Good Hope, there were 305 students ; 

of these 216 were preparing for Matriculation. 

75 ,, for the B.A. Degrees, 

and 14 „ for the Survey Certificate. 

Schools for the year ended 30^A June, 1885. 


:Schools and Institutions in actual operation during some 

portion of the year . . 
New Schools opened during the year . . 
.'Schools closed during some portion of th'e year 


Annual enrolment of scholars . . 
Highest Quarterly Ditto 
Daily attendance . . 

Tublic Schools, Classes 1, 2, 3, and Farm Schools . 
Boarding Schools and Departments 
Mission Schools . . 

^Special Institutions (Training and Art Schools, &c.). 
Aborigines' Schools — Colonial . . 

,, Transkei . . 

„ Tembuland 

,, East Qxiqualand 









The Government Expenditure for public Education for the 
financial year ended June, 1885, amoimted to £95,000, including 
administration. Of this amount, the University and Colleges 
absorbed £8,000; the Public Schools, £28,000; the Mission 
^Schools, £18,000 and the Aborigines' Day and Industrial Schools, 

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The agencies which are supported for the education of the white 
population -enjoy about 40 per cent, of the Government Ghrants ; 
those for the education of children of mixed races about 19 per 
oent. ; and the Aborigiaies day and trade-schools 21 per cent. 

The Department of Public Education is directed by the 
Superintendent-General of Education, who is responsible for the 
administration of the grants in accordance with* the School 
Regulations which have been assented to by both Houses of 
Parliament by resolution. A regular inspection of all Schools 
is maintained through a staff of Deputy Inspectors. 

The Department encourages and co-operat^ with local efforts for 
the extension and improvement of elementary and superior 
education, and without iAterfering in the management and 
discipline of any schools presses upon the attention of managers 
and teachers such changes as appear desirable in the accommoda- 
tion for the school and the teacher, the methods of teaching, the 
text-books, furniture, and other apparatus, as well as the discipline 
and .general organization of the school. Teachers can obtain by 
results a merit grant or good service allowance as a recognition 
not of mere length of service but of distinguished merit, where 
a school is reported as excellent throughout. 

Public Libraries, Museums, Botanic Gardens, and an Association 
for the Promotion of the Fine Arts, have been established and 
supported by the public, and partly by the State. One of the best 
thmgs the Colony has to boast of is the handsome building in Cape 
Town containing uader one roof the South African Library and 
Museum. The Library Hall is a fine room about eighty feet long 
by forty feet broad, well lighted and fitted with galleries and 
recesses, which are lined with bookshelves and books. It contains 
upwards of 40,000 volumes in every department of literature and 
ficience, besides the valuable collection presented by Sir George 
Grey, consisting of rare manuscripts, original editions of early 
printed works, and many volumes illustrative of the native languages 
of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. It is open and available 
for study daily to all classes of the community ; while subscribers 
of from ^1 to £3 per annum may take out one or more sets of 
T^ooks and periodicals for pemsal at their homes. A narrow 
vestibule leads from the Library to the Museum, which occupies 
the other wing of the building, and is filled with a very interesting 
-collection, numbering many mousand specimens of the mammalia, 
birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, and minerals. 

The coimtry Libraries are fifty-one in number, the most notice- 
able being one at Port Elizabeth which contains 14,758 volumes ; 
one at Graham's Town containing over 7,000 volumes ; one at King 
William's Town with 10,264 vokunes ; one at Graaff-Eeinet with 
5,150 volumes; and one at Alice (Lovedale) with 6,438 volumes. 

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The Press, from its first establishment in 1824, has exerted a 
highly educational influence in the Colony. There are now 42 
newspapers published in English; 22 in English and Dutch; 
7 in Dutch ; 1 in German ; 1 in Kafir ; and 1 in Kafir and 
English. Of these papers, 10 are dailies ; 9 published twice a 
week ; 14 twice ; 38 once ; 1 fortnightly and 2 monthly. 

Of Benevolent and Charitable Institutions, the Government 
maintains a General Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum on Robben 
Island, at the entrance of Table Bay, and a Lunatic Asylum at 
Graham's Town. There are also commodious public hospitals at 
Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Graham's Town, King William's 
Town, Queen's Town, and Kimberley. There is a fine roomy 
Sailor^s Home, for the accommodation of seamen connected with 
Table Bay. Orphanages and other benevolent societies, under the 
care of philanthropic bodies, are voluntarily supported. There is 
an admirable Young Men's Christian Association in Cape Town ; 
and Masonic, Odd-Fellows' and Good Templars' lodges are 
niunerous throughout the Colony. 

To foster habits of prudence and forethought, without which 
neither communities nor individuals can be prosperous, there is an 
old-established Savings' Bank Society at the metropolis, with some 
branches in the country districts, whose permanently invested 
funds now amoimt to £345,599. The Government Post Office 
Department has also opened Savings Banks at most of its offices 
since the Ist January, 1884, and the statement of business done 
from the opening up to 31st December, 1885, shows an excess of 
deposits over withdrawals of £174,000, which is invested under 
security of the public revenue. 

The Postal service throughout the colony is well performed. 
There are 620 post-offices, and the estimated number of letters 
annually posted is six and a lialf millions. The postal rate for 
letters is one penny per half -ounce within town delivery ; two- 
pence within the colony, or South Africa, and sixpenee to ]&igland ; 
to Continental parts an extra charge is made. Money can be 
transmitted by post-office or telegraph order ; and, by parcel-post, 
parcels can iJe forwarded to or from any place in South Airica 
and the United Kingdom. 

The Ocean Mail service with England is now a weekly one. By 
the contracts entered into with the Union Company and Sir Donald 
Currie's Castle Company, the voyage is required to be performed 
in 21 J days via Madeira or Lisbon, and 22^ days when St. Helena 
and Ascension have to be touched at. Premiums for speed at the 
rate of £6 6s. per hour, are given for passages completed under the 
allotted time. A postal subsidy of £25,000 i paid to each 
Company, instead of the proceeds of postage on the mail matter 

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The progress of the Colony is perhaps nowhere more apparent 
than in the improvements which have' taken place in the means of 
travelling from the sea-board to the inland districts. 

In a country with no rivers available for internal navigation, 
and where the physical features presented formidable obstacles to- 
ordinary communication, its material advancement was heavily 
handicapped until roads were made, mountain barriers crossed, 
and rivers bridged. 

Lord Charles Somerset was the first to commence the opening of 
the mountain passes by constructing a road over the French Hoek;. 
and about ten years later, Sir Lowry Cole authorised the line of 
road across the Hottentots Holland Mountain, which still bears 
his name. In 1844, however, a system of public road-making" 
was initiated by Mr. John Montagu, Colonial Secretary, which 
conferred most extensive benefits upon the community. He de- 
vised the construction of main lines of communication throughout 
the Colony, together with the advantageous employment of colonial 
convict labour upon them; and, aided by a public bosird of 
administration (the Central Road Board), and the professional 
services of Colonel Michell and Mr. A. G. Bain, as engineers, he^ 
was successful in carrying out to completion undertakings which, 
to use the language of Governor Sir Harry Smith, ** woxdd do 
honour to a great nation instead of a mere dependency of the- 
British Crown." 

There sire now about 4,100 miles of constructed main road 
throughout the Colony, and the roads other than main roads, or a» 
they are officially known, divisional roads, extend to fuUy four' 
thousand three hundred additional miles. 

Over such a great extent of communication there are necessarily 
a considerable nimiber of bridges, and some of them are very large 
and important structures. The principal ones, however, are 
those which span the Orange River at different points. This river 
which traverses the continent almost from east to west, having its 
sources in the highest points of the Drakensberg mountain and 
emptying itself into the South Atlantic Ocean on the West Coast,^ 
is subject to great and heavy floods, due to its extensive drainage- 
area, which is estimated at 400,000 square miles. The interruption 
to trade with the interior occasioned by the stoppage of traffic when 
the river was swollen after heavy rains, was felt to be a very serious^ 
drawback, and the Colonial Parliament, in 1874, authorised the river 

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being spanned bjr four separate iron bridges. That at Hope Town 
is the largest, being 1,480 feet long, and cost £114,260. * The next 
in size is the one at Colesberg, measuring 1,339 feet in length, and 
which cost £108,726. There is another at Bethulie, 1,350 feet long 
which cost £78,874 ; and the fourth is at Aliwal North, 860 feet in 
length, and cost £59,904. The cost of construction was con- 
siderably increased by the heavy charges which had to be paid for 
the transport of the material (ironwork, &c.) from the seaports to 
the Orange Eiver. 

Another bridge, similar in design and structure to those over the 
Orange River, spans the Q-reat Kei Eiver, uniting the old Colony 
proper with the Transkeian territories. It is of iron lattice super- 
structure, resting upon iron piers filled with cement, and has 
thirteen spans of 94 feet 11 inches each. Its cost was over £49,000. 
This work was undertaken by the Government at the instance of 
Capt. Blyth, O.M.G., the chief magistrate of the Transkei, who 
urged the importamce of it on the ground that a bridge over the 
formidable dnft of the Kei River would secure free access to the 
Territory at all seasons, and have a most civilizing and beneficial 
effect upon the natives. The Fingoes themselves showed their appre- 
ciation of it by voluntarily contributing £1,500 towards making 
the approaches. The progress of construction was interrupted for 
some time during the war of 1877-78, but soon afterwai-ds the 
bridge was completed, when the Kafirs significantly made the 
remark, " Now we see that we are conquered ; the land of the Ama- 
settlers (British settlers) and of the Amakosa is one." 

Electric telegraphs have been extensively constructed, and there 
are few towns throughout the Colony which are not in communica- 
tion with the Metropolis. The total expenditure on purchase and 
construction of lines up to the end of 1884 was £351,000. The 
number of stations open and available in 1885 for the use of the 
public was 203, and the number of miles of wire, 8,663. The 
maximum cost of a telegram of ten words between the extreme 
points of the system (1,500 miles) is one shilling, with a charge of 
sixpence for every additional five words. 

But the works which afford strongest evidence of the enterprise 
and progressive spirit of the Cape Colony are the extensive rail- 
ways whieh have been undertaken chiefly within the last twelve or 
fifteen years. Railway communication was first projected during 
the governorship of Sir George Grey, who turned the first sod of 
the Cape Town and Wellington line on the 31st March, 1859. 
This liiie, 58 miles in length, was constructed by an English Com- 
pany under a guarantee of a rate of interest of 6 per cent, per 
annum on a sum of £500,000. In 1862, private Colonial enter- 
prise started a short branch line, from Salt River to Wynberg, 
without any guarantee or subsidy; and later on, another line 

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from Port Elizabeth to XJitenhage was commenced by a private 
company. All these lines, however, afterwards passed by purchase 
into the hands of the Q-ovemment. In 1874, consequent upon 
the general prosperity resulting from the discovery and develop- 
ment of the diamond mines in Ghriqualand West, legislative 
authority was given for carrying on rafiway construction upon a 
large scale from the three principal seaports of the Colony, Cape 
Town, Port Elizabeth, and East London. These lines were sub- 
sequently authorised to be extended inland, until now they form 
'three main systems, converging* towards Kimberley and the 
Interior, and the Orange Free State. 

At the commencement of the present year (1886), the total 
number of miles of Government railway open for traffic in the 
Cape Colony was 1,599 miles, purcheised, constructed, and completed 
At a cost of £13,407,385. The following is an enimieration of the 
several main and connecting lines : — 

Western System. 

Cape Xown Dock to Kimberley 
Stellenbosch Branch . . 
Malmesbury Branch . . 
Salt Eiver to Kalk Bay 

Midland System, 
Port Elizabeth to De Aar Jimction 
Naauwpoort to Colesberg 
Zwartkops to Qraaff-Reinet . . 
Alicedale to Graham's Town . . 




Eastern System. 
East London Harbour to Aliwal North 282 
Blaney to King William's Town ' . . 10 



Total .... . . 1,599 

These railways have been carried out on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, 
jand with the exception of the Cape Town and Wynberg line, and 
the first seven miles of the Port Elizabeth and TJitenhage line, 
are all single lines. The general direction of the Western system 
is north-east, crossing the nvers forming the main drainage of the 
■country, and intervening ridges, and the bridges are consequently 
both nimierous and important. The Midland system nms north, 
following chiefly the main drainage of the country; while the 
principal characteristic of the Eastern system is its severe gradients 
and curves. 

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Some portions of the lines axe, in an engineering point of view, 
highly creditable to the engineers who laid them out and superin- 
tended their construction. The entry into the Karoo over the Hex 
River range of mountains is specially worthy of notice. From the 
town of Worcester (780 feet above sea level) the line proceeds up 
the beautiful Hex River Valley, and then begins to climb the moun- 
tains by curves and zigzags along their sides, piercing some of the 
mountain spurs by tunnels, and crossing gullies spanned- by 
viaducts, imtil within a distance of 36 miles it attains an altitude 
of 3,193 feet. Looking dotm from the top of the moun- 
tain there is a magnificent view of the valley, some 2,000 feet 
below ; and the stupendous character of the engineering work by 
which the ascent has been accomplished can be f uUy appreciated. 
For upwards of twenty miles the line' is steep in gradient (1 in 40 
and 1 in 45), sharp in curve, deep in rock cutting, and precipitous 
in embankment. The highest point, however, is at Pieter Meintjes 
Fontein, 77 miles from Worcester, where a height of 3,588 feet is 
attained — a little higher than the summit of Table Mountain. 
Beyond this high level it again descends, being 2,717 feet at Buffel's 
River, and 1,537 feet (the lowest point beyond Worcester) at the 
Dwyka River; then ascending again, the altitude of 2,379 feet is 
attained between Prince Albert and Fraserburg Road, and it finally 
runs into Beaufort West at an altitude of 2,778 feet. From thence 
to Kimberley the Western line is on comparatively easy ground. 
The highest point (5,185 feet) on the Midland system is at 
Bosworth, nesir Naauwpoort, 164 miles from Port Elizabeth, from 
whence the country is generally flat to De Aar, the jimction with 
the Western system, at 339 miles from Port Elizabeth and 500 
miles from Cape Town. The Eastern system attains its summit 
(5,586 feet) on the top of the Stormberg range, 207 miles from 
the coast at East London. Owing to the nature of the country 
traversed, there is a large amount of waterway to be provided for. 
On the Eastern system there are eleveji bridges of 100 feet opening 
and upwards, with a total waterway of 1,798 feet. On the Midland 
there are, including those across tidal rivers, fourteen bridges with 
a Traterway of 4,229 feet ; and on the Western, twenty-one such 
bridges with a waterway of 5,743 feet. The latter includes the 
bridge over the Buff els River, consisting of six spans of 100 feet each ; 
that over the Greelbeck River, consisting of five spans of the same 
length; a third over the Blood River, consisting of seven spans; 
and a fourth and fifth over the Dwyka and Bitter Water Rivers, 
consisting respectively of four and seven spans of the regulation 

The largest however is the " Good Hope " bridge spanning the 
Orange River on the Kimberley extension line. It is a substantial 
and magnificent piece of engineering skill. Its total length is 

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1,230 feet, in nine spans of 130 feet each, plus the width of the 
piers. From the water to the rail, the height is fifty-six feet, and 
the weight is ninety-five tons per span, giving a total of 855 tons 
for the whole structure. The piers were commenced with the foun- 
dation being laid in July, 1884, and the erection of the girders in 
Jime, 1885, and the bridge was opened for traffic on the 28th 
November, 1886. The total cost of the bridge is estimated at 

For some years, all the rolling-stock and coaching required for 
the Railways was imported; out now well-equipped Railway 
Workshops have been established at TJitenhage and at 8alt Eiver, 
where repairs and transformations, as well as construction, are 
executed departmentally. Among other improvements carried out 
at these workshops, may be mentioned a most comfortable adapta- 
tion of the Pullman car, for through journeys from Cape Town 
to Port Elizabeth and Eamberley ; and also a successful alteration 
of the locomotive engines, some of which are fitted up with long 
fire-boxes and ash-pans and an arrangement of movable bars, 
specially adapted for burning Colonicd coal containing a con- 
siderable per centage of dross. 

This Colonial coal is now extensively used on the Eastern system 
of Railways, from Bast London to Aliwal North ; and contracts 
have been entered into by the Government for its regular supply. 
Three of the mines, Cyj^ergat, Molteno and Fair view, are in 
close proximity to the Railway line, on the Stormberg, while 
another mine, the Indwe, which yields coal of better quality, is dis- 
tant some miles. The contract prices are for the former 16s. per 
ton, and the latter 25s. per ton. When a jimction is effected 
between the Eastern and Midland systems, the whole of the Rail- 
ways may be worked with Colonial fuel. 

Taking the total cost of purchase and construction of the Govern- 
ment Railways, including rolling-stock, locomotive establishments, 
and raising of loans, the amoimt disbursed has been about thirteen 
and a half million sterling, or an average of about £8,613 per mile. 
The contribution towards interest on tms capital from the receipts 
or earnings is equal to rather more than 2^ per cent. But it must 
be borne in mind that it is only now that the systems have attained 
completion, and some time should be allowed to realise the full 
benefit which must inevitably result from the stimulus given to 
the trade and resources of the interior by the recent opening of the 
Main Trunk Line to Kimberley. 

The following table shews in respect to each of the last five years, 
the progress of the lines of Railway, the average length open, the 
earnings and expenses per mile, capital invested, cost per mile, the 
amoimt of passenger and goods traffic, and the quantity of work- 
ing rolling stock, &c. : — 

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Lengrth of line ) Sanctioned miles 






On Slat Dec. } Opened ... „ 






each year. ) To be opened „ 





Average lengrih open ... „ 






Earnings per mile of line open £ 

726 17s. 6d. 

1,006 16s. 4d. 

840 98. 6d. 

717 18s. 8d. 

699 10s. Od. 

Train miles run miles 






Earnings per train mile... 8. d. 

68. 10* Id. 

6s. 8'3d. 

78. 0-87d. 

8s. Od 

7s. 6d. 

Expenses „ „ ... „ 

4s. 11 -Sd. 

4s. ll-8d. 

4s. ll'87d. 

6s. 3.4d. 

4s. lOd. 

Expenses per cent, of earnings 


Capital invested on lines open £ 











Net receipts, per cent, of capital £ 
Cost per mile to 81st December 

2. 48. 2d. 

2. 78. lOd. 

2. 10s. 8^. 

2. 14s. Id. 

2. 14s. 6d. 

each year 




8,860 8,618,4s. lld.| 

EJamings ... £ 

















Gtoods Tonnage 






Working, Rolling Stock: 

Locomotives ... No. 






Carnages ... „ 






Trucks „ 






Other Vehicles 






Besides the Government railway lines, there are others in 
the Colony constructed by private companies. One is in the min- 
ing district of Namaqualand, constructed by the Cape Copper 
Mining Company from Port Nolloth to O'okiep, a distance of 
92 miles, and worked with mules. Another is the line which has 
been constructed from Graham's Town to Port Alfred, some 43 miles 
long, to which, however, the Government contributed a subsidy of 
£50,000. The principle of stimulating private enterprise in the 
construction of local lines, has also been adopted in reference to a 
line now in course of construction and equipment by the Central 
Railways Company between Worcester, Robertson, and Roodewal, 
a distance of about 40 miles, for which a subsidy of £75,000 has 
been granted. For the purpose of developing the valuable coal- 
fields at the Indwe, in the Wodehouse. district, a subsidy of 1,000 
acres of land and a grant of £50,000 (or in lieu of one moiety of 
that amount a grant of 25,000 morgen of land), have likewise been 
authorised to a Company for the construction and equipment of 
a railway connecting the Indwe with the Eastern system of railways 
at Imvani. 

On the various Harbour Works of the Colony, a sum of 
£1,602,000 has been spent, out of moneys raised on the credit of 
the Government ; and interest on the capital amount so invested 
is paid by the Harbour Boards of the several ports, out of revenues 
collected by them from dock dues, wharfage, and other sources. 

Tht necessity of protecting the andiorage of Table Bay from 
the disastrous effects of the north and north-westerly gales to 
which it was exposed, led at various times to the production of 

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Lvtfhcgrapjvtd/iji/ the/ (JUnv^yvn OtneraZkOtp^ PHrVted/ i(y Solorrvon/ /t^C^ Cap*/ Hf/yrv. 

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designs for works having that object in view, which, together with 
an increasing demand for dock accommodation, resulted in 1860 in 
the formation of the Table Bay Harbour Board, and their ultimate 
adoption of Sir John Coode's plans as the best suited to fulfil the 
reouired conditions of the port. 

The first work imdertaken was that of runmng out from the 
shore a Breakwater in a N. by E. ^ E. direction, formed of stones 
of varying sizes excavated &om a quarry partly on the site of the 
old Chavonne Battery. The first wagon of stone was deposited 
by H. E. H. Prince Alfred on 7th Jidy, 1860. During the pro- 
gress of the Breakwater it was determined to convert the quarry 
in process of formation into a basin, and its form was modified 
with that object. 

The Breakwater mound was completed to a length of 1,870 feet 
in July, 1868, having been carried out into 5j fathoms of water, 
and it effectually protected a portion of the anchorage together 
with the dock and outlying works. These consisted of the Alfred 
Dock or inner basin having an area of 8 J ficres, and an outer basin 
protected by a jetty GIO feet long, run out from the Breakwater 
on its south side at 970 feet from its root. They were opened for 
traflSc on the 20th November 1869, and the formal ceremony took 
place on July 11th, 1870, in the presence of H.E.H. Prince 
Alfred. Prior to the completion of these works, the Board acquired 
by purchase the Patent Slip belonging to Messrs. De Pass & Co., 
and removed it to the south end of the Alfred Dock. ^ 

The means of repairing large vessels being still wanting, arrange- 
ments were made with the Lords of the Admiralty to assist with 
funds towards the construction of a Graving Dock of such pro- 
portions that it would suffice to accommodate the largest of Her 
Majesty's ship likely to visit these waters. Plans were accordingly 
prepared by Sir John Coode and approved of by the Imperial 
Government, but some difficulty as to certain restrictions both of 
priority and in matters of finance having arisen, the Harbour Board 
imdertook the cost of construction themselves, and during the pro- 
gress of the work an additional one hundred feet in length was 
given. This structure, which is built of granite (obtained from 
the Paarl 36 miles distant from Cape Town), will bear comparison 
with any similar work in the world. The foundation stone was laid 
in 1867, on the 24th August, by H.E.H. Prince Alfred. It was 
opened by the Governor Sir ^Hercules Eobinson on the 20th 
October, 1882, and was named after His Excellency the " Eobinson '^ 
Graving Dock. 

Since its completion it has been largely used by vessels requiring 
either to be repaired or cleaned, and from the 4th to the 5th 
November of 1885, it was occupied by the White Star Line 
S.S. " Coptic'' of 4,448 tons and 438 feet length, which had met 

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with the loss of one of the blades to her propeller. She was 
docked, a new blade affixed, and undocked in 24 hours. 

During the construction of the Gh»,ving Dock, a timber jetty 
was erected 500 feet in length and 68 feet wide, running out from 
the Breakwater at 1,630 feet from its root for the accommodation 
of the large steamers from England to Australia and New Zealand 
requiring coal en route, A depth of water of 28 feet is here ob- 
tainable, and as much as 1,300 tons of coal has been put on board 
one of these vessels in 12 hours. At the same time a Quay wall, 
600 feet long, wajs constructed parallel to the Breakwater between 
ihe above structure and the jetty forming the east side of the outer 

The rapidly developing trade of the port having rendered further 
increase of accommodation desirable, plans for works providing 
this were submitted, in 1880, by Sir John Coode, and sanctioned. 
To protect these, and in order to afford largely increased ancbor- 
ege, an extension of the Breakwater was necessary, and authority 
was obtained in August, 1880. It was determined to lengthen the 
mound 800 feet in the same direction as the existing structure, and 
continue it a further distance of. 1,000 feet in a north-easterly 
direction into 7^ fathoms of water. At the present time this work 
has been carried out a distance of 660 feet and is still proceeding, 
«, total length of Breakwater of 2,530 feet having been constructed, 
which gives an extensive sheltered area of anchorage in Table Bay. 

The bend referred to is already half finished, and each foot that 
the breakwater is now advanced will afford in proportion a much 
larger protected area than a similar advance did formerly. The 
quarry, from which the material for the breakwater is being 
excavated, is so designed that it may be made to give, with but 
fimaU expenditure, additional dock acoomiliodation of 8 acres, with 
ft minimum depth at low water springs of 27 feet ; an entrance 
would in that case be made through the West Quay inmiediately 
to the South of the entrance to the Gtraving dock. 

The scheme, dated 2nd February, 1883, of Sir John Coode for an 
Outer Harbour of sixty-two acres has been adopted, and all the 
works are being carried on with due regard to its requirements. 
The mound of the South arm, which will run parallel to the break- 
water at a distance 1,650 feet south of it, will shortly be commenced. 
This work will protect the Quay Wall between the East and 
breakwater jetties from the effect of seas due to South East winds, 
find make it available as additional berthage room. 

The whole of the docks are most efficiently lit by the Anglo- 
American " Brush " arc and incandescent light system, and a 
well organized fire brigade and fire extinguishing apparatus are 
maintained. There is an adequate supply of excellent water, 
which is delivered on board vessels at 3s. per ton. 

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The increased importance of the trade of the port, largely due 
to the facilities now afforded to the shipping by the Breakwater and 
Docks, rendered it necessary that its defences against any attack of 
an hostile fleet should be considerably increased. With this object 
in view the Amsterdam Battery was greatly strengthened in 1879, 
by the deposit of surplus material in &ont of it from the Break- 
water quarry excavation, and two new Batteries of considerable 
power have been erected this year, one at Mouille Point and the 
other at the South head of the Bay at Craig's Tower ; the labour 
and tools for which were supplied from the Table Bay Harbour 

As the trade of the port has increased, the dock dues charged 
have been considerably reduced, and the following are the rates 
at the present time : — 

Bock Dtiet on Goods. 

Upon aU goods landed from or shipped to ports or places beyond the limits of 
this Colony, ** honajide^^ in transit, or from distressed vessels, to be re-shipped, or 
ooals, 2s. per ton. 

Upon all goods transhipped, landed from or shipped to ports or places within the 
limits of this Colony, ** bona fide " in transit or from distressed vessels, Is. per ton. 

On horses, mules, asses, homed cattle and ostriches landed, shipped or tran- 
shipped, 5s. each. 

On calves, sheep, pigs and goats landed, shipped or transhipped, 3d. each. 

On Vessels. 

On aU vessels entering the Dock or Basins with the privilege of remaining therein 
for twenty-one days, including the day of arrival and departure, per ton, 6d. 

For every week or portion of a week after the above period, per ton in Docks or 
Basins, 2d. 

On every vessel re-entering Docks or Basins within forty days from her firsb 
entrance on that voyage, per week or portion of a week, per ton, 3d. 

On aU. coasters or craft of 50 tons and under, at per month of thirty days, per 
ton, 4d. 

Note, — AU vessels are charged at the above rates at per register ton gross, and 
^txe found in fenders and stages only. 

AU vessels, whether ships of war, transports, or belonging to the mercantile 
marine of any nation, visiting this port for coal or stores only, and not remaining 
more than eight days in Dock or at the Quays, and neither landing nor receiving 
cargo, will be charged at the rate of 4d. per ton, otherwise the charge wiU be 
<6d. pel ton, as per Dock regulations. 

On ballast. 

Stone Ballast put on board at per ton, ds. 

Earth Ballast do. 3s. 

Ballasting vessels after hours, an extra charge of one shilling per ton will be 

AU ballast landed in the Dock to become the property of the Board. 

Graving Dock and Patent Slip, 

For docking and undocking vessels, or for taking up and launching from the 
Patent Slip, per ton register gross, induding days of docking and imdocking, or of 
taking up and launching, 2s. 

The minimun charge, however, to be in no case less than £25 for the above. 

Bent charge for Graving Dock and Patent Slip, 
Vessels of 260 tons and under for every twenty -four hours' occupation of Dock 
fiUp, £6. 


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Veesels above 250 tons for eveiy twenty-four hours' occupation of Dock or Slip at 
per ton register gross, 6d. 

All Tessels taken into the Dock or on the Slip for the purposes of inspection or 
cleaning and painting onlj will be allowed a deduction of 25 per cent, on the above 

Sir John Coode is Engineer-in-Chief , and to him the suoeessful 
development of all the works is due. The Breakwater, Alfred 
Dock, and outer Basin, were carried out under the immediate 
superintendence of Mr. A. T. Andrews, who was succeeded in 1871 
by Mr. A. C. Jenour, during whose regime the extension of the 
Breakwater was commenced and the Graving Dock and Break- 
water jetty, &c., constructed; he retired in March, 1884, and Mr. H. 
Thwaites is the present Resident Engineer. 

The cost of the entire works up to the 31st December, 1884, has 
been £1,273,078, while the revenue during the same period has 
been £938,048, the lajst yearly revenue being £72,197, which is 
sufficient to pay the interest of the money already expended or 
likely to be required to complete the works in hand and to provide 
for their proper maintenance. The comparative small cost of these 
important undertakings has been due in a great measure to the 
extensive employment of convict labour. 

The total gross tonnage entered inwards and outwards in the 
year after the opening of the Alfred Docks was 110^058 tonsy 
which had increased last year to 814,840 tons, the whole of the 
shipping arrangements being under the charge of Captain Hewaty 
the Dock Superintendent. 

Simon's Bay is the naval station and dockyard for Her 
Majesty's vessels. 

Mossel Bay, situate midway between Table and Algoa Bays, 
is from its geographical position the natural port for the central 
coast divisions of the Colony ; there is a first-class lighthouse, an 
excellent harbour, warehouses, jetties, steam cranes, and other 
facilities for landing and loading cargoes. 

Algoa Bay, the chief port for the eastern and midland districts, 
and the Interior, is an open but safe roadstead with good holding 
ground, and the loading and discharging of vessels are very ex- 
peditiously done by means of steam tugs and lighters and surf- 
boats, and gangs of native labourers. But this method, being found 
subject to occasional interruptions from the state of the surf, large 
iron jetties have recently been constructed and run into d«-ep 
water ; and these are fitted with steam and hand cranes, by which 
the landing and shipping operations are greatly facilitated. An 
elaborate scheme for an outer harbour capable of sheltering vessels 
of any size has been designed by Sir John Coode, who contemplates 
the construction of an iron viaduct extending seaward for a distance 
of 3,000 feet, and at its outer end a breakwater pier 2,000 feet in 
length in a N. by E. direction, having a depth of 33 feet at the 

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south or inner end, and 36 feet at the outer end at low water of 
spring tides. The estimated aggregate cost will be about a million^ 
sterling ; but the prosecution of this large undertaking is at present 
in Abeyance. 

At Port Alfred (the Kowie Eiver Mouth) there is good holding; 
ground at the outer anchorage ; and a steam tug and lighters for 
loading and discharging, or for bringing vessels of moderate 
draught (nine to twelve feet) into the river to the wharves, a mile- 
from the entrance, where there are stores, a bonding warehouse, 
and the railway to Graham's Town. The harbour works were 
commenced many years ago by a private company, but were- 
taken over by the Government in 1869. They were afterwards 
carried on, according to plans recommended by Sir John Coode,. 
and designed to affect the flow of the river and tides so as to in- 
crease the depth of water at the entrance. 

East London, at the Buffalo Eiver Mouth, is another river har- 
bour where similar works, under Sir John Coode's direction, have 
been in progress. These were intended to remove the " bar," and 
keep clear the passage to the deep reaches of water inside. Train- 
ing walls, forming quays, were built so as to narrow the river 
channel and thereby increase the scour, and a breakwater of concrete- 
blocks, like that of Portland, constructed in the form of an arm 
outside, to prevent the sea from checking the river's outflow and^ 
driving the sand back upon the bar. In former years occasional 
floods or freshets in the Buffalo Kiver served to clear the "bar 
sometimes to a depth of seventeen feet, and vessels were then able 
to pass inside and discharge cargo, without the use of surf -boats 
or the delays and risk attendant upon lying at an open anchorage 
outside. But since the works have been proceeded with, no freshets 
have occurred, and the sand accumulation has shallowed the entrance 
of the river. To remove this obstruction, in the absence of a freshet, 
a powerful dredger or sand pump has been ordered, and will shortly 
be at work to scour out the sand from the entrance, so as to enable 
vessels of large draught to utilise the spacious water accommodation 
inside the river's mouth. 

Government, recognising the crude and unsystematic manner in 
which irrigation was generally conducted by private persons, and 
being desirous of affording them the benefits of professional advice, 
as well as of being inclined to commence large works on its account^ 
in 1875 instituted the present Hydraulic Engineer's Department, 
with Mr. J. G. Gamble, M. Inst. C.E., as its head. Under the- 
direction of this Department, the most likely districts of the Colony 
have been inspected, with a view either to the improvement of the 
method of irrigation in vogue, or the inauguration of large public 
works. Advice has been given to private persons and to public 
bodies and companies, and a large number of works for irrigation 


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.and for town water supply have been constructed under the 
i«upervision of the Department. 

Witha view to encourage farmers and pubKc bodies to undertake 
irrigation works, an Irrigation Act was passed by the Legislature 
in 1877. Under this Act, provision is made for the constitution of 
Irrigation Boards in districts, wherever three or more owners of land 
, agree to act in combination for carrying out irrigation works, or the 
.storage of water. The members of the board are chosen from 
. and elected by the landowners. They have borrowing and rating 
ipowers, and the Government is authorised to assist them with loans 
*of money on the credit of the rates assessed ; but the character of 
the works to be carried out is in every case to be decided by a 
professional engineer appointed by the Government. Provision is 
also made for aiding individual proprietors and farmers desirous of 
storing water or irrigating their lands ; they may receive assistance 
from Government in the shape of an advance, on undertaking to 
pay a rent-charge for the same at the rate of 8 per cent, for a term 
not exceeding 24 years. An Act passed in 1879 extended the 
provisions of the second part of the Act of 1877 to municipal 
bodies, thus enabling the Government to lend money to munici- 
palities for the purpose of improving the water supply of the 
towns; and an Act sassed in 1880 introduced several further 

The conditions under which loans for irrigation works may be 
obtained were republished in a concise form in 1885. They are 
-briefly as follows ; — 

The loan must be secured by first mortgage upon the land on which the works are 
to be constructed, and will be granted for a term of any number of years, at the dis- 
. cretion of the recipient, not exceeding twenty-four. 

The loan will be repayable, through the Civil Commissioner, by means of fixed 

annual payments varying with the term of the loan. For twenty-four years, the 

longest term for which money can be borrowed, the annual payments would be at the 

• rate of eight per cent, per annum on the amount of the loan. For a less number of 

years the annual payments would be larger in proportion. The recipient of the loan will 

tinderstand that after having made all the annual payments he is relieved from all 

further liability whatsoever, and will have discharged both principal and interest. 

The annual payments above referred to may, at tiie discretion of the recipient, be 

1. redeemed at any time before the expiration of the term for which the loan is granted, 

'by a payment calculated by a scale fixed for this purpose. 

The existence of a previous mortgage or other incumbrance need not be a bar to a 
loan under the Irrigation Acts, provided the previous mortgagee or others consent to 
the preference of the (Government Loan. The Government will give the necessary 
notices to t^e persons previously interested (if any), whether mortgagee or others: 
allowing a period of four months within which they may object to the preference of 
the Government Bond. 

Land under mortgage for a loan under the Irrigation Acts cannot be transferred 
-without the consent of the Government, and unless the rent-charge (or annual re-pa> - 
ment) is fully paid up. 

The works must be constructed npon plans and specifications approved by the 
< Oovemment, who will bear aU costs of inspection and examination of the scheme. If 
it be desired, designs will be furnished by Government free of charge ; but in this case, 
' to guard against loss, the applicant will be required to undertake to make good the cost 
- of the necessary surveys in the event of the works not being carried out. Only where 
there is much measurement required will this guarantee exceed Ten Pounds (£10), and 
vin BO case will it exceed Fifty Pounds (£50). 

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Until the repayment of the entire loan the owner is bound to keep the works in 
efficient repair, and to certify once a year, through the Civil Commissioner, as to the 
condition of his work, under pain of an action for default and damages resulting there»- 

The loan will be issued in instalments. One-fifth of the whole amount will be 
advanced upon the completion and re^stration of the Mortgage Bond, to enable the 
works to be commenced. Subsequent instalments will be paid on the certificate of the - 
Hydraulic Engineer that sums previously advanced have been properly spent. 

The facilities for making reservoirs, while more abundant ini 
some districts than in others, are fairly plentiful in all parts of the 
Colony. This of course applies to ordinary farmers' dams. It is- 
obvious that lar^e works requiring special circumstances cannot be- 
constructed equally well in all parts, yet there are numerous sites- 
of the most promising kind scattered through the Colony, the- 
utilisation of which is a mere matter of money directed by a little 

Calvinia has of late years been the scene of considerable dam- 
making, the works being constructed by the farmers fromi)ecuniary 
assistance obtained from Government imder the Irrigation Act- 
In that, as well ajs in numerous other districts, there are immwise- 
tracts of the most fertile land, which only need water to produce the- 
most astonishing crops. An average of 70 bushels of wheat from 
one bushel sown can be relied on, while a return of 1 30 bushels- 
is not infrequent. 

In the division of Beaufort West, Victoria West, Prince Albert^ 
Jansenville, &c., there are large reservoirs for the use of stock. 
Little use is made of them for irrigation, as the farmers prefer 
the less laborious occupation of sheep-farming. Qriqualand West 
is not sufficiently diversified in character to admit of the construc- 
tion of numerous reservoirs ; there are, however, many f armerV 
reservoirs in existence. Some Karroo districts, owing to their flat 
character, are quite imsuited for reservoirs, while others which are- 
intersected by low ranges of hills, afford at breaks in the range- 
unrivalled sites for dams. 

In the divisions of Worcester, Swellendam, Caledon, and in fact 
along the low ground at the foot of aU the great mountain ranges, 
the configuration is well suited for reservoirs, but little use has^ 
been made of the sites. 

In Oudtshoom and along the sides of the Great Fish River the 
side valleys and kloofs are well adapted for dams. The drainage 
area of the Great Fish Eiver is well worth a close investigation^ 
for the land is of first rate quality, and its proximity to the rail- 
way admits of a ready market. A properly organised association^, 
or a company more intent on developing the land than in speculat- 
ing, could not fail to find this locality one of the best in the Colony^ 
for agriculture. 

Farmers' reservoirs as ordinarily constructed, generally have- 
many defects. They are seldom proportioned to the drainage area- 

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"from which they colleot their supply : they are too shallow, the 
-water seldom standing more than 12 feet against the bank, con- 
rsequently there is a large loss from evaporation in comparison with 
fthe quantity stored. The embankment is nearly always wanting 
^n strength, the base being to narrow, the slopes too steep, and the 
inner one seldom pitched with stones. As little provision is made 
for the escape of storm water the flow in floods overtops the bank 
rand ends by breaching it. 

In works constructed by loans under the Irrigation Acts, Govern- 
ment insist on proper designs and methods of construction, a 
^course which is gradually introducing numerous examples of what 
reservoir embankments should be, but even in cases where the 
work is being done without aid from Government, experience is 
l)eginning to convince farmers that it is more economical to build 
a substantial dam at first than to rebuild an inferior une after 
^overy storm. 

Until 1876 Government had not constructed any irrigation 
'Works, but in that year it sanctioned the construction of a small 
reservoir at Brand Vley, a small village in the division of Calvinia, 
about half way between the villages of Calvinia and Kenhardt. 
The work consists of an embankment which blocks up a " poortje " 
r^bove the village, through which " poortje " a branch on the Zak 
Eiver runs in times of flood. The embankmeat forms a shallow 
lake about two square miles in area when full, and averaging 5 
ifeet deep. It was intended to make the depth greater, but the 
work required for this was omitted until Government should see 
what success the village will have. The water can be drawn 
off by means of a six-inch siphon, which was erected at a cost of 
£165. The total cost of the work has been £835, of -which Govern- 
ment contributed £745, the erfholders finding the balance. 

The reservoir, shallow though it is, has proved of great service 
io the neighbourhood, thousands of animals naving been kept alive 
-that would otherwise have perished for want of water. The value 
•of stock thus saved must have long ago exceeded the cost of the 
work. But the usefulness of the dam is not confined to saving 
stock, for in 1879 eighty muids of wheat were sown on the village 
•erven, from which a return of from 60 to 100 fold was obtained. 

During the year 1882 operations were commenced by Govern- 
ment at Annshaw, in the division of King William's Town, for 
the purpose of supplying water to a native location. This work 
was undertaken in fulfilment of a promise made many years ago 
to Chief Kama by former Governors, in recognition of his loyalty 
during frontier troubles. This work consists of a furrow, 8 miles 
long, which conducts water from the Keiskama Eiver to the lands 
•occupied by the natives. The cost was slightly over £4,000. 

In 1882, Parliament sanctioned the raising of a loan for con- 

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fitructing irrigation works on a somewhat extensive scale at Stols- 
ihoek, near Beaufort West, and at Van Wyk's Vley, in the Carnar- 
von division. The work at Stolshoek, completed in 1884, was 
undertaken for the purpose of irrigating a fuel plantation for the 
railway. The principal work is a masonry wall, which blocks up 
an opening in a low ridge of trap hills at the foot of the southern 
«lope of the Nieuweldt mountains, thereby forming a reservoir 
having a drainage area of about five square miles, and capable of 
holding 96,000,000 gallons of water. The greatest depth of water 
is 20 feet. The wall is 500 feet long, 21 feet high, and contains 
3,000 cubic yards of cement masonry, the cost of which was 
£2 78. 6d. per cubic yard, exclusive of the cost of carrying water 
for mortar a distance of two miles. The water is conducted from 
the reservoir to the intended plantation in oast iron pipes. This 
work has cost about £8,700. 

Van Wyk^s Vley is by far the most important irrigation work 
which has been constructed in South Africa. The work is designed 
for the purpose of storing the rainfall so as to irrigate an extensive 
tract of fertile country, which without water is practically worth- 
less. The drainage area of the reservoir is 460 square miles, an 
extent which to the casual observer would appear capable of yield- 
ing an immense volume of Water. However, owing to the scanty 
and extremely irregular rainfall of the surrounding country, the 
flow into the reservoir is not in keeping with the extent of the 
drainage area. As an example of the scanty rainfall it may be 
mentioned that the averages for the years 1883 and 1884 did not 
exceed four inches. The works consist of an earthwork embankment 
a little more than 300 yards long, and 31 feet high at its highest 
point, a masonry tower at the inside toe of the embankment for 
drawing off the water, a masonry culvert containing cast iron pipes 
for leading the water through the embankment, and an overflow for 
storm water. The water is led to the irrigable lands in a large 
-canal. The reservoir when full will hold 35,000 million gallons, and 
the extent of the water surface will be 19 square miles, with an 
average depth of over 10 feet. The greatest depth is 27 feet. 
The total cost of the work, exclusive of land, has been between 
£23,000 and £24,000. 

The water supply of various towns have of late years been im- 
proved under the supervision of the Hydraulic Engineer's Depart- 
ment, and among them may be mentioned King William's Town, 
Queen's Town, East London and Port Elizabeth. 

The old works which supplied Xing William's Town with water 
consisted of a weir on the feuffsdo River, from which the water 
WeiQ led out by means of an open furrow to a turbine placed near 
the town. The fall of a large quantity of water was used to 
pump up :a portiooi into a high level reservoir from which it was 

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distributed through the town m pipes. Unfortunately in dry 
sesisons the flow in the Buffalo was too small to work the turbine^ 
consequently the town had at these seasons to do without its high 
level service. In 1878 Mr. Gamble recommended the Town 
Council to lead out the Buffalo in pipes at a point high enough to 
bring the water into the town by gravitation. These works were- 
begun about two years afterwards. The water is conveyed from 
the Izeli, a branch of the Buffalo, in cast-iron pipes, to a ser\ice 
reservoir commanding the whole of King William's Town. The 
length of the main from the intake to the service reservoir i* 
8 miles, and its diameter 10 inches. 

The general features of the works constructed at Queen's Town 
are, a reservoir for the purpose of storing the storm-water fi'om 
the Komani River, the water being conducted into the reservoir by 
means of a weir and furrow, a siphon to draw off the water, and aj 
6-inch main with distributing pipes and hydrants for the supply of 
the town. The embankment is 650 yards long and 31 feet high 
at the highest part. The reservoir is estimated to hold 80 million 
gallons of water. 

At East London, the works comprise a reservoir in the Ama- 
linda Valley which collects the rain water from the drainage area 
of the uppermost part of the valley. This drainage area extendsT 
to 1,500 acres. The surface is covered with green turf and studded 
with mimosa trees. The length of the embankment is 300 yardsy 
and its greatest height, measured from the surface of the valley, 
31 feet. The water area when full covers 26 acres, with a depth at 
the bank of 25 feet. There is a substantial masonry culvert 
through the embankment with a cast iron tower at its inner end 
for drawing off the water. This tower is the first of its kind in 
the Colony, if not in South Africa. From the storage-reservoir 
the water is led by a cast iron main to a covered service-reservoir 
4^ miles distant ; thence it is conducted into the town by a main 
which delivers it into the distributing pipes. Hydrants are attached 
to the distributing pipes for fire-extinguishing purposes. 

Until quite recently the water supply of Port Eliaabeth was 
very scanty. The lower, or business part of the town drew water 
from a main laid along the beach from a small vaUey called 
Shark's Eiver, in the sand-dunes between Port Elizabeth and Cape 
Recife. The upper part of the town, however, — ^where most of 
the best houses have been built — was dependent on undergroimd 
tanks in which the rain caught on the roofs was stored. To remedy 
such a condition of affairs, a scheme was devised and approved by 
Mr. Gamble, for bringing in the water from the basin of " Van 
Staaden's Eiver," over some twenty-eight miles of difficult, and in 
several places moimtainous country, into the town. The work con-^ 
sists of a small intake weir in the mountains, from whieh a cast 

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iron main is laid to Port Elizabeth, commiinicating with and pass- 
ing hy a service reservoir at the highest point of the suburbs of 
the town. The present main was designed to carry 840,000 gallons 
per diem, but from actual measurement the main itself gave on one 
occasion 930,000 gallons and on another 960,000 gallons in twenty- 
four hours. The total cost has been about £130,000. The 
construction of these waterworks has very materially aided the 
expansion of Port Elizabeth, and numbers of houses and gardens 
have been built and laid out year by year on the " Hill," which 
has now very much the aspect of a neat, well-ordered English 

At Kiversdale, Somerset East, George Town, Wellington, and 
Mossel Bay, gravitation works for the distribution of water have 
also been carried out ; that at Mossel Bay costing £26,000, the 
length of piping being 22 miles. 

At Beaufort West, a very large dam or reservoir has been 
constructed by the local Municipal Corporation. Previous to the 
formation of this dam the town was solely dependent for its water 
supply on two springs, the yield of which often fell to 20,000 
gallons a day — a supply which was quite insufficient in the dry 
seasons. Accordingly the Municipal Commissioners constructed 
a reservoir by throwing an embankment across an opening in a 
ridge of low hills, thereby collecting the drainage from an area of 
60 square miles. The capacity of the reservoir newly-made, under 
the supervision of Mr. Brand, in 1880, is estimated at 
572,000,000 gallons. The greatest depth of water at the embank- 
ment is 19 feet, and the height of the embankment at its highest 
part is 25 feet. The cost of the works was £13,800. In 1883, 
the direct revenue derived from leasing new lands to be irrigated 
from the dam is stated to have been £1,000. The indirect revenue 
can scarcely be estimated, consisting as it does in a great improve- 
ment in the health and comfort of the inhabitants. 

Another important undertaking — that of supplying water to 
the Diamond Fields at Kimberley from the Vaal Eiver (a distance 
of 17 miles) — has been very successfully carried out by the Kim- 
berley Waterworks Company (Limited), an English association, 
with a capital of £350,000. The intake is in the centre of the 
Vaal Eiver, and the water flows through two eighteen-inoh wrought 
iron pipes into a well 70 feet deep, bmlt of stone in cement. At 
the head of the well in the engine house is a powerful A frame 
engine, which lifts the water from the well and forces it through 
eighteen-inch pipes into reservoirs or settling tanks, of which there 
are four, each capable of containing one million gallons. From 
these tanks the water is conducted through suction pipes, fourteen 
inches in diameter, to the main engines, by which it is now forced 
a distance of seventeen miles through f ourteen-inch wrought iron 

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pipes into the storage reservoir at Kimberley, a height above 
the river of about 470 feet. The engine-house at the 
river is divided into three separate compartments : — ^the 
lowlift engine-house, where stands the A frame engine 
to lift the water from the well ; the boiler-house, in which are 
four compound sectional boilers, and the main engine-honse where 
are two 60 n. h.p. horizontal compound surface condensing engines 
which can be used separately or together as may be required. The 
engines and boilers were specially designed for this Company, 
and constructed by Messrs. Simpson & Co., of London. In the 
first instance, it was thought advisable to break the distance 
and lift from the River to Kimberley, and an intermediate 
Station, about halfway between the two points, was accordingly 
constructed. At this station there is a reservoir of a capacity of 
300,000 gallons, and an engine-house containing two horizontal 
engines and three boilers precisely similar to those at the river. 
The water was originally pumped from the reservoirs at the river 
into this one, and thence almost simultaneously pumped to the 
storage reservoir at Kimberley. After numerous tests and experi- 
ments it was found to be feasible to pump direct the entire distance 
from the river to Kimberley, and consequently the intermediate 
station is not now in use. 

The storage reservoir at Kimberley is a large circular basin, 
constructed at the highest point above the town, and capable of 
containing ten millions of gallons. The water for consumption in 
the town is conducted through 14-inch pipes to the filtering reser- 
voir (200,000 gallons) in the vicinity where, after being filtered, it 
is discharged into a clear water reservoir adjoining, capacity 
300,000 gallons, and thence flows by gravitation through a 
14-inch wrought iron pipe into the heart of the town, and is then 
distributed through branches of 6 and 3-inch cast iron pipes. 
There are mains through nearly every street and a large number 
of hydrants have been fixed for the protection of property. 

The town system is divided by means of valves into 24 sections, 
so that while one section may be undergoing repair the general 
supply is not interrupted. The condition of the water for use in 
the mines being immaterial, the four mines, Kimberley, De 
Beer's, Dutoitspan, and Bultfontein are served direct from the 
storage reservoir. There are now about seventy miles of mains 
laid. Mr. P. E. Despard, As., M.I.G.E., is the manager and 
superintending engineer. 

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By a. W. Hbywood, Forest Dbpaktmbnt. 

The large forests of the Colony exist in the temperate regions 
of the Southern mountain chains near the sea, running almost 
parallel to the coast. Altogether these wooded tracts cover 
an area of something over 350 square miles. About one- 
half of this forms a nearly continuous strip in the Divisions 
of George, Knysna, and Humansdorp, constituting the Conserva- 
torship of Knysna. The other half (the Conservatorship of King 
William's Town) is situated in the Amatola mountains and 
subsidiary ranges, in the Divisions of Stutterheim, King Wil- 
liam's Town, Victoria East and Stockenstrom. There are also 
some small patches of higli timber forests in the Fort Beaufort 
Division, and a larger area in the Zuurberg mountains of the 
Uitenhage Division; in addition to which, the Eastern forests 
comprise about 50 square miles of low but valuable forest partially 
demarcated near the coast. 

The Transkeian Territories lately annexed to Cape Colony are 
reported to contain many fine forests; but their extent is not 
accurately known, nor have they as yet been placed under the 
administration of the Forest Department. They are said to 
abound in both the Stinkwood of the Western, and the Sneeze- 
wood of the Eastern forests, a circimistance unknown in the older 
portions of the Colony. 

Until within a recent period, the management and working 
of the Cape forests was of a very unsystematic and thriftless cha- 
racter. Fellings were not confined to limited areas or sections; 
woodcutters were allowed to pick and choose their trees indiscri- 
minately throughout the forests, and to pay only for the wood 
actually removed. The consequence of such a method was that 
only the choicest trees were felled, and their rejected portions left to 
cumber the ground. It has been estimated that by working on 
this system nearly thirty cubic feet of wood were wasted for every 
one utilised and paid for. Natural reproduction was thus severely 
handicapped ; many forests disappeared altogether ; and those 
which now remain and are at all accessible, have been impoverished 
to the last degree. 

In 1880, the question of forest management was brought before 
Parliament. It was pointed out that the officers in charge had 
received no special training for the work which had in conse- 

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quence suffered severely, and the salary for a trained forest officer 
was voted by the Legislature. The Crown Agents in London were 
consulted, and with the assistance of Colonel Pearson, then at 
Nancy, the services of Count de Vasselot de E^gn^, of the French 
Forest Department, were secured. This officer arrived in Cape 
Town early in 1881, and as Superintendent of Woods and Forests 
undertook the organisation of the present Forest Department. In 
1883, by the courtesy of the Indian Grovemment, the services of 
Mr. Hutchins, Deputy Conservator of Forests, were made tem- 
porarily available to the Colony. 

Count de Vasselot first set about the introduction of a proper 
management scheme for the Knysna and adjoining forests, whilst 
Mr. Hutchins proceeded with the demarcation of Beserves in the 
King William s Town and neighbouring divisions. 


Having regard to the conditions prevailing at George, Knysna 
and Tzitzikamma, Count de Vasselot adopted the method of dividing 
the forests into blocks, and sub-dividing them again into sections. 
Fellings now proceed regidarly in bi-annual sections, so that the 
re-growth in the first section cut may develop into mature trees 
by the time the working of the last section is finished, and there 
will thus be no occasion at any time to close the entire forest. 
The period for the " revolution " of fellings has been fixed at 40 
years. (For a full description of the system adopted see Intro- 
duction to Systematic Forestry : Cte. M. de Vasselot.) 

The forest staff at the Knysna consists of one Conservator, 
3 officers of the higher grade, and 6 forest rangers or guards. 

The work of eacn officer of the higher grade extends over an 
area varying, according to circumstances, from 10,000 to 30,000 
acres. The timber, or high forests, are surveyed by him. He 
determines the boundaries of series or blocks, and draws up work- 
ing plans for the formation of sections. All working schemes are 
submitted to the Superintendent of Woods and Forests, and after 
approval the lineg are opened, sections surveyed, and trees avail- 
able for felling coimted and stamped. 

The total forest area in the Knysna conservation is approxi- 
mately 100,000 acres, of which about three-quarters have been 
considerably exhausted by reckless and indiscrimate felling. Not- 
withstanding this, sixteen series or blocks have already been formed 
and twenty-one sections opened for felling. No working is allowed 
under any circimistances in forests not properly surveyed and 
demarcated. Two-thirds of the Knysna forests have yet to be so 
treated. It is estimated that these forests, even in their present 
condition, properly worked, will yi^d annually 1,200,000 cubic 
feet of squared timber valued at £15,000 at licence rates. 

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The tariffs for standing trees at present in force at Knysna vary 
from one penny to three pence per cubic foot of sound wood, with 
one exception, Stinkwood, for which the rate is fixed at one shilling 
per foot, as this, the most valuable species, was threatened with 
extermination. Poles from six inches to ten inches in diameter are 
sold at one penny per running foot ; spars from four inches to six 
inches in diameter, sixpence per 100 running feet. 

The following Kst includes the principal woods found in the 
Knysna forests. The weirfits and cost of working have been 
calculated by Messrs. J. Bisset, M.I.C.E., and Henry Hall, 
F.E.G.S. :— 

Common Name. 

Botanical Name, 

htof a 
c foot 
in lbs. 




Upright Yellowwood 

Podocarpus latif olius . . 



Outeniqua do. 

Do. elongatus . . 



Black Lronwood . . 

Olea laurifolia.. 



White do 

Vepris lanceolata 


Stinkwood . . 

Oreodaphne bullata 


1- 6 

Olyvenhout (Olive) 

Olea verrucosa . . 




Curtisia f aginea . . 


1- 5 

White Pear 

Pterocelastrus rostratus. . 


Kersehout (Candle wood) . . 

Do. variabilis . . 


Wit Els (White Alder) .. 

Platylophus trif oliatus . . 




Eloeodendron croceum . . 



Eaclea undulata . . 


VHer (Wnd Elder) 

Nuxia floribunda 


Eed Els (Bed Alder) 

Cunonia Capensis 



Essenhout (Cape Ash) 

Eckebergia Capensis 



Hard Pear 

Olinea Capensis . . 


Beukenhout (Beech) 

Myrsine melanopleos . . 


Kamassi (Cape Box) 
White Wood 

Oonioma Kamassi 




Celastrus acuminatus . . 


Zwarthout . . 


Eed Wood 

Ochna arborea . . 

Melkhout (Milk Wood) .. 

Mimusops obovata 



Eed Pear 

Scalopia Ecklonii 

Zwart Bast (Black Bark) . . 

Eoyena lucida 


KHp Els (Eock Alder) . . 

Plectonia mimdtiana 


Terblantz . . 

Protea sp. 

The great difficulty attending the preparation of all Colonial 
woods has been to overcome their excessive tendency to warp and 

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crack when dried. It is hardly possible to successfully seasou 
wood in open yards, so dry is the climate, and so great the daily 
range of temperature. The question of the most suitable time for 
f ellmg is therefore of the greatest moment, and has been carefully 
considered by Count de Vasselot, whose remarks on this subject 
are of considerable interest. He says : — 

I am of opinion that the period for felling all wood (in the Colony) 
should be between the Ist of April and the Slst of August, and that a 
felling season of three months is long enough for any species. Thus 
if a species be of late vegetation (as the assegai for instance in 1884), 
the cutting season might be limited .from the 1st of May or even the 
1st of June to the 31st of August ; and in the same manner if species 
commence vegetation early, the season might be from the 1st of April 
to the 1st of July. (Selection and Seasoning of Wood. Count M. de 

Nearly 50 per cent, of the total yield of Colonial high timber 
forests consists of the two species of yellowwood {Podocarpus lati- 
folius and P. elongatus) . Of these the former, or " Upright " has 
sometimes been C9.11ed the " real " or true yellowwood, but its 
claim to such title is open to dispute. The name is derived from 
the Dutch " opregte." 

The latter, or Outeniqua yellowwood, attains larger dimensions 
than any other tree in the Colony. Its crown is massive, fre- 
quently sixty feet in diameter, and its trunk short and bifurcated. 

Upright yellowwood, on the contrary, has a comparatively light 
covert, and a greater length of bole. It is difficult to distinguish 
between the wood of these species; both are of a light-yellow 
colour, and very close grained, but the bark of the Upright is of a 
whitish appearance, and fibrous, whereas that of the Outeniqua is 
almost black, thin, and scaly. The largest Outeniquas measure 
thirty feet in girth and about eighty feet in height. Upright, 
though sometimes found with a clean bole of fifty feet, does not 
average more than six feet in girth. Both species have an equal 
commercial value, and may be regeirded as the " Colonial pine." 

The economic career of yellowwood has been somewhat chequer- 
ed. The floorings, ceilings, doorways, and window sashes of many 
old Colonial homesteads were made of this wood, and in- 
stances are numerous of its having withstood the influences of wind 
and weather for upwards of a hundred and twenty years. Some 
of the piles used in constructing the old jetty at Knysna were of 
yellowwood, and for twenty years remained sound and untouched 
by the voracious teredo. On the other hand sleepers of unpickled 
yellowwood have been known to rot in the second year after they 
were laid down, and their average duration has not exceeded four 
or five years. 

In cases where reHable information has been forthcoming, it has 

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been ascertained that much of the wood giving unsatisf jictory re- 
sults had been felled in Spring after the sap had risen, and employed 
in an utterly unseasoned condition. In one instance, green wood 
out in summer had been coated with tar. The sap was thus shut 
in, evaporation prevented, and rot was the natural sequence. With 
results so variable, large consumers of timber have systematically 
avoided yellowwood, but it has been demonstrated that the wood has 
has not been fairly tried, and that failures have resulted not from 
any inherent defect, but from improper felling and carelessness 
in seasoning. 

In 1877 twenty-four railway, sleepers were experimentally creo- 
soted in England, and laid in the Cape main line. For the pur-^ 
pose of examination, five were taken up in 1883, and found to be 
' sound, and the remainder, half Upright and half Outeniqua, axe 
still in the ground. Further experiments, made by Messrs. J. 
Bland & Co., of Cardiff, S. Wales, in 1883, demonstrated that 
yellowwood readily absorbs creosote, and is capable of resisting the 
various shocks and strains to which a railway sleeper is subjected, 
more effectually than the Baltic fir now principally in use. The 
success of these trials induced Government to purchase sawrmills 
at Gouna, near Knysna, and to erect a creosoting apparatus capable 
of turning out a sleeper supply sufficient for the whole Colony. 
This work has already been t^^en in hand by a special Government 
department. Contracts for 50,000 sleepers have been entered intoy 
and a first shipment of 10,000 forwarded to Cape Town, creosoted 
and ready to lay down. 

Besides the creosoting method, experiments are also in progress 
for the protection of yellowwood by the injection of chloride of 
zinc, a process attended with marked success in Holland. 

The result of this extensive trial is awaited with considerable 
interest. If successful the Baltic sleeper will be superseded so far 
as Cape Colony is concerned ; for her forests are well able to yield 
the supply necessary to maintain existing lines, and it is expected 
that other woods, notably Ironwood, will be found equal to the* 
service. For 1886 requirements are estimated at 80,000 sleepers. 

Large sums have been annually voted by Parliament for forest 
conservation purposes with as yet but small return so f aras revenue 
is concerned. If, however, Yellowwood proves itself the good wood 
its few friends believe it to be, and can be manufactured at a price 
to compete with Baltic fir, then the large amounts annually sent 
abroad, £83,000 in 1883, and £44,000 in 1884, for the purchase of 
sleepers may be retained within the Colony, and encouragement 
will be given for more extensive schemes of conservation. 

The most valuable timber grown in the Knysna forests is- 
undoubtedly Stinkwood {Oreodaphne btillata). About one-eightb 
of the wood marked for felling in these forests consists of Stink-^ 

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wood. In organic structure the wood bears a remarkable resem- 
blance to Burmah teak, and has been called the " Teak " of South 
Africa. Stinkwood naturally reproduces itself with great facility 
from seeds and coppice shoots, but as a nursery tree its qualities 
have not been ascertained. Its growth is rapid : perhaps more 
rapid than that of any other indigenous tree in the Colony ; as few 
as six annual rings of growth are frequently counted to the inch. 

Three distinct varieties axe produced by this species, — ^white, 
mottled, and black, owing to different conditions of growth. When 
freshly worked a somewhat disagreeable odour is exhaled from the 
wood, but all unpleasantness quickly disappears. Stinkwood has 
been extensively used for biulding purposes and wagonmaking. 
The black variety is highly prized for cabinetmaking. It takes an 
excellent polish, and has a wavy irridescent appearance ; otherwise 
it is not unlike walnut. Used as railway sleepers, Stinkwood has 
lasted ten or twelve years in the ground, but it has now become too 
valuable for the purpose. The mgh prices obtained for logs, and 
the former relatively low licence rate for felling, naturally led to a 
large trade in this wood to the neglect of other species, and to 
the detriment of the forests. Stinkwood was therefore fast dis- 
appearing, and in 1883 the licence was raised to one shilling per 
cubic foot, a higher rate than for any other Knysna woods. 

As with all Colonial woods the greatest care is necessary in 
seasoning Stinkwood. The climate of the country is such that the 
period of repose in vegetation is very short, and not easily deter- 
mined ; the difficulty of taking trees at the moment they contain 
their minimum of sap is therefore correspondingly great. Added 
to this the extreme dryness of the atmosphere induces a too rapid 
evaporation of the moisture in the wood, and splits and cracks can 
only be avoided by the greatest care. A tried has been made to 
overcome these difficulties by immersing the wood in brackish 
water for three months. Three hundred Togs intended for the con- 
struction of railway rolling stock, have been thus treated. The 
results so far appear satisfactory, but too short a time has elapsed 
to report fully on this process. When successful methods for its 
preparation have been discovered, and when the measures now 
adopted for restoring and improving the forests shall have pro- 
duced an increased supply, it is not too much to expect that Stink- 
wood will be used in the manufacture of all Colonial rolling stock, 
and the inlportation of this considerable item discontinued so far 
as the woodwork is concerned. The quantity of Stinkwood avail- 
able for felling in 1885 in the surveyed portions of the Knysna 
and Tzitzikama forests was 65,500 cubic feet, valued at licence 
rates at £3,132, and worth £11,500, delivered in Cape Town. 

The order Jasminaceje is represented in the Knysna and Tzitzi- 
kama forests by three principal varieties : Olea verrucosa (olive 

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wood, or Olyvenhout) ; Oka hurifolia (Black Ironwood) ; and 
Oka faveohta (Bastard Iroiiwood). The wood commonly called 
white Ironwood ( Vqyi^is lanceolata) belongs to a totally different 
order, Xanthoxylese. 

Black Ironwood largely predominates, and constitutes about 
one-sixth of the contents of these forests. It is extremely hard, 
heavy, and difficult to work, and its economic uses in the Colony 
are few. For furniture, wagonmaking, and fencing poles a small 
•quantity is consumed, but its testings as railway sleepers (uncreo- 
fioted) have not been sufficiently encouraging to justify its extended 
use for this purpose. Trials have not yet been made of its 
durability when creosoted. They are, however, proposed, and if 
successful Ironwood will form a valuable supplement to Yellow- 
wood in this service, and the forests will be greatly benefited by 
the removal of large quantities of mature timber now simply rot- 
ting away. 

Under instructions from Sir John Coode, Ironwood has been 
experimented on for piles at Yarmouth (where only American 
Gxeenheart can endure), and of seven species of Cape hardwoods, 
excluding Sneezewood {Pteroxylon utik) which was not tried, it has 
best withstood the action of the sea-worm. On the Breakwater at 
Table Bay, it is used above water, but below is rapidly attacked by 
the teredo. 

Black Ironwood takes an excellent polish and is peculiarly 
marked. Selected logs might be exported with profit for the 
manufacture of mechanical appliances, engine-bearings, &c., re- 
quiring a hard, heavy, dose-grained wood. 

Of other Kiiysna trees none attain the dimensions of those 
already described. For the most part they are hard, tough, close 
grained, and principally used in the construction of carts, wagons, 
agricultural implements and for fencing poles and furniture. For 
•cabinetmaking of a high class, some Cape woods might be 
exported with adva ntag e. Hard Pear, Wild Olive, Kersehout, 
iissenhout, Eed and "Wmte Els are specially worthy of notice. 

For the requirements of the colonial wagon-making industry, the 
Bjiysna woods are admirably adapted, possessing all the touglmess 
«aad elasticity necessary to withstand the perpetual shocks and strains 
occasioned by roads, in some localities of the very worst description. 
The ordinary load of a transport wagon is 10,000 lbs., and the usual 
team consists of ' sixteen oxen, though in some mountain passes 
a, double team is required. In the Western Province, the Paarl 
and Worcester are centres of the wagon-making trade. In the 
prosperous years following the discovery of the Diamond Fields, 
hundreds of carts and wagons were sent away every month to 
Ximberley, the Transvaal, and Free State. Of late years the 
industry has considerably declined, partly owing to the railway 

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having in many districts superseded the primitive mode of convey- 
ance, and partly to the diminution of trade. Large numbers of 
the imique Cape cart, with fixed or folding hood, are, however, 
still manufactured. For strength, endurance, and comfort in 
travelling they are unequalled by any American imitations which 
have endeavoured to compete with them. Wagons are usually 
built in the hottest part of the year^ and are thus able to 
withstand the severest droughts. 

At the Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition, it was ascertained that 
several Colonial hard woods might be advantageously used for 
engraving purposes. Specimens* were therefore prepared (cross 
sections, one inch thick), and forwarded to Messrs. C. and A. 
Young, engravers on wood, Ludgate Circus, and their report is as 
follows : — 

Kamassi {Gonioma Kamasst). Suitable for the finest mci^anical 
engraving, such as machinery of all descriptions; also 
adapted for ordinary engraving purposes. 

QuAR {Euclea undulata). Nearly equal Eamassi, and quite 
suitable for ordinary engraving. 

Ebdwood [Ochna arborea). Very suitable for ordinary en- 
graving, also most excellent for wood type. 

Salie Wood (Buddleia salvicefolia). Quite suitable for th& 
bolder kinds of engraving, also exceUent for wood type. 

Safer AAN {Elceodendron crocmm). Excellent for the large size 
of wood type, posters, and bold engraving generally. 

White Pear {Pterocelastrm roBtrattis), A good useful wood for 
all the larger kinds of engraving, wood type^ posters, &c. 

With the exception of SaflEraan, the trees mentioned in this list 
are under two feet in diameter. Some of them rarely exceed twelve 
inches in diameter, and are at the present time sold at the rate of one 
penny per running foot as poles. As their small size would pro- 
bably not militate against their usefulness for engraving purposes, 
and for the manufacture of mechanical appliances^ such as weaver's 
shuttles, skate-rollers, &c., it is expected that further trials will 
lead to an export trade in these valuable woods to meet the demand 
for the ever diminishing supply of true box- wood. 

No estimate of the quantity of these woods is at present avail- 
able, as all trees under twelve inches in diameter, when marked for 
sale, have been indiscriminately described as " poles." The num- 
ber is, however, considerable, and arrangements are in progress for 
the enumeration of each species. 

* Specimens were not tested of Cape Box (Gala-gala), probably a more valuable- 
wx)od than any of those submitted. Its qualities will be mentioned in connexion with 
the Eastern forests of the Colony. 

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The principal timber trees in the Eastern forests are : — 

Common Name. 

Botanical Name. 


Pteroxylon utile. 

Upright Yellowwood 

Podocarpus latifolius. 

Bastard do. 

Do. pruinosus. 

Outeniqua do. 

Do. elongatus. 

White Ironwood 

Vepris lanceolata. 

Black do 

Olea laurif olia. 

Eed Els 

Cunonia Capensis. 
Scalopia Ecklonii. 

Eed Pear 

White Pear 

Pterocelastrus rostratus. 

Hard Pear 

Olinea Capensis. 

Thorn Pear 

Scolopia Zeyheri. 

Kafir Plum 

Harpephyllum Caffrum. 


Schotia latif olia. 

Kamdeboo* Stinkwood 

Celtis rhamnifolia. 


Eloedendron croceum. 

Essenwood (Cape Ash) .. 

Eckebergia Capensis. 

Wnd Olive 

Olea verrucosa. 


Xanthoxylon Capense. 
Sideroxylon inerme. 

White Milkwood 

Cape Plane. . 

Ochna arborea. 


Myrsine melanopleos. 

Eed Milkwood 

Wild Lemon 

Grumilia cymosa (?) 


Curtisia faginea. 

Paardepis, or Foul Leafwood 

Hippobromus alata. 

Cape Box ( Gala-gala) 


Black Bark or Swart Bast 

Eoyena lucida. 


Euclea lanceolata. 

Eed Currant 

Euclea sp. 
Calodendron Capense. 

Wild Chestnut 

Natal Mahogany, Blinkbar, or 

Wild Peach 

Eed Stinkwood or Bitter Almond 

Brabejimi stellatifolium ? 


HaJleria elliptica. 

Kajatenhout, or Cape Teak 

Atherstonea decussata. 

The forests in the East of the Colony are somewhat larger than 
the Enysna forests, but less compact and less well known. They 
are naturally classified into mountain forests and coast forests. 
The bulk of the mountain forests lies North of King William's- 
Town, on the slopes of the two parallel ranges of the Perie and 
Amatola Mountains. In addition there are detached portions of 


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forest commonages, and the total area of the Eastern mountain 
forests is 152 square miles. 

The licences charged by Government for felling in the Eastern 
forests are considerably higher than at Knysna. Thus Upright 
Tellowwood, which costs 3d. per cubic foot at Knysna, is 
. charged at the rate of 7d. in the King William's Town divisions. 
Nor has the old system of selling by load been altogether dispensed 
with in some districts. An entire revision of the King William's 
Town tariff is considered necessary, both for the well being of the 
forests and the true interests of consumers. 

As at Knysna about fifty per cent, of the timber is Tellowwood. 
In the Amatolas both species. Upright and Outeniqua, abound ; 
r some of the largest in the Colony are found in the Kinff William's 
Town forests. The " Eastern Monarch " (Outeniqua) nas a girth 
of thirty feet, a clean bole of 40 feet, and a total heirfit of 90 
feet. The most important tree is, however, Sneezewood (Pteroxyhn 
utile). On the Amatolas it is probably on the verge of its habitat 
in the west, whilst eastward it flourishes at intervals, as far as 
Natal, where it is said to grow better than in this Colony. Within 
the Colony Sneezewood and Stinkwood {Oreodaphne hullata) are 
never found growing together. The Knysna forests possess no 
i Sneezewood and the Amatolas no Stinkwood, with the exception of 
a few small specimens which may be regarded as botanical 
^curiosities. In the forests of the Transkeian territories both are 
found growing side by side. This is somewhat remarkable, and 
would appear to denote a blending of the climatic conditions 
prevailing in the more western regions, favourable to both 

Sneezewood is one of the most valuable woods in South Africa. 
In point of durability it ranks with Grreenheart, Jarrah, and 

• Camphor. On the Port Elizabeth breakwater, where the attacks of 
the sea worm {teredo navalis) are exceptionally virulent, it has 

: successfully withstood the test of partial immersion for upwards of 
twenty years. The heartwood of Sneezewood is regarded as 
imperishable for fencing posts. It is not attacked by the white 

: ant, and posts put in by the earliest colonists are sound to the 
present day. Unfortunately the supply of large wood is now very 
limited. Its extirpation was imminent when the forests were 
taken over for management, and felling is now prohibited in 

^ Government reserves. Natural regrowth is everywhere abundant, 
and with careful conservation much may be done towards the 
restoration of Sneezewood to the economic uses it is so eminently 
suited to fulfil. 

The Coast Forests lie either directly along the sea shore or in the 
valleys of the larger rivers as they approach the coast. They have 

vno pretension to the grandeur of the Amatola forests, and in many 

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BOXWOOD. 149"' 

places, notably in the neighbourhood of Alexandria and Bathurst, 
have been reduced to mere scrub. They are chiefly valuable for 
the Sneezewood and Boxwood* they contain. Only during the - 
past year has the value of the latter wood been brought to notice, . 
and Boxwood now bids fair to take its place as by far the most 
valuable wood in South Africa. The Box-producing country is • 
unfortunately limited at present to the south-east comer of the 
Colony in the neighbourhood of East London. The total area 
probably does not exceed fifteen or sixteen square miles, half of ' 
which is in the hands of private proprietors. Until quite recently 
this valuable product has been sold as firewood at five shillings a 
load on the East London market. 

The average diameter of Boxwood rarely exceeds a foot, and its 
length of bole twenty feet. An approximate calculation has been 
made of the Boxwood contained in the Crown forests of Fort Pato- 
and Fort Grey, 7,000 and 12,000 acres in extent respectively. It 
is estimated that together they contain 861,400 cubic feet of 
serviceable wood of different sizes, besides an ample natural, 
re-growth of young trees. Assuming 35 cubic feet to weigh a 
ton, by which weight the wood is sold, the stock in these forests- 
may be considered roughly 10,000 tons, and, at a price of £20 per 
ton in the rough log, should be worth £200,000 on the English, 
market. Or if, in order to maintain a continued supply and to- 
keep up natural reproduction, one-fortieth part of the stock be^- 
annually felled, a revenue of £5,000 per annum should be derived 
by the Colony from these two small forests alone. The totaL 
area producing Boxwood should yield more than double that 

Kamassi wood, which, as previously mentioned, grows abundantly 
at Knysna, is in many respects similar, and by some declared^ 
superior to the Boxwood of East London. Together it is hoped 
these woods may in some measure meet the decreasing supply of 
hardwoods referred to above. 

The Conservator of King William's Town is assisted by a staff 
of six European foresters and four native forest guards. Each 
forester is stationed in the forest of which he has charge, and 
besides the ordinary police and inspection duties required of him 
as well as of similar ofiicers at the Knysna, he is entrusted with, 
the management of a nursery, two or more acres in extent^ 
adjoining his cottage. Each forester is expected to raise 40,000 
young trees during the year for planting out on bare patches it is 
desirable to re-forest. 

* The genus of this tree has not been determined by Cape Botanists. It has many 
characteristics of BuxaceaCy a genus not hitherto recognised at the Cape. Species of 
true BuxtM are found in Madagascar and in tropical AMca, and this may prove to be a 
new species. 

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Pima), The success of this method has been complete,, and the 
sandy wastes in the vicinity of the railway, in area about four 
miles, aie now clothed with a luxuriant growth of grass and trees- 
with an almost park-like appearance. Pyp ffrass grows readily and 
quickly, fixing the sand until such time as the more efBective tree^ 
spring up. The more difficult portions have cost about £6 per 
acre to reclaim, but the average of the entire area does not exceed 
£2 per acre. A return equal to the interest on the money thus 
invested may now safely be drawn from the plantation. 

The Pines have not been altogether successful, but the Black 
Wattle {A. Saligna) could not apparently have found a more con- 
genial home. The trees first planted are now eight years old, and 
where special care has been given to their cultivation, some- 
measure five feet in girth at one foot from the ground, where the 
branches bi-furcate. Self-sown seedlings spread rapidly, and in a 
few years the entire area will doubtless be covered with this valu- 
able wood, and a handsome revenue may be looked for. The bark 
is highly esteemed by tanners, who pay for it £7 10s. per ton^ 
dry, and for fuel the wood is far superior to the fir, now almost 
universally consumed. The percentage of tannin yielded by this 
Wattle has not been definitely ascertained in the Colony, but it iS' 
supposed to be not inferior to the Australian yield, viz., 30 per 
cent. The entire isthmus between Table Bay and False Bay ap- 
pears to be admirably adapted for the cultivation of Australian 
tannin-producing Acacias. Special prizes are offered by Govern- 
ment for the cultivation of these sandy flats, and private enterprise- 
is now being directed, though somewhat languidly, to meet an in- 
creasing want of tanning material. Acacia Gluucophylla is alsa 
extensively grown, and A. melanoxyhn has been very successfully 
introduced. The latter variety has, however, been almost entirely 
eradicated, and its planting discouraged, owing to its ready attack 
by the Dorthesia or Australian Bug.* 


In 1876 a stimulus was given to tree-cultivation by the passings 
of an Act, whereby public bodies were aided by Grovemment to- 
the extent of one-half their expenditure on such work, and 
£1,000 is annually voted for the purpose. In the same year an 
experimental fuel plantation, principally Blue Ghim, was com- 
menced by Government at Worcester, about 100 miles from Cape 
Town. The area of this plantation is 80 acres, and it contains- 
about 40,000 well grown poles ; many of them, now ten years old^ 

♦To the ravages of this pest the Colony is indebted for the loss of many of her finest 
orange groves in the neighbourhood of Wellington, Stellenbosch> and Piquetberg. 
The Dorthesia has been described in the United States, where it also destroys orange- 
trees, as Icerya JPurehasi, According to the reports of Professor McCoy, of the Mel- 
bourne Museum, it is undoubtedly a native of victoria, Austialia.^ 

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are five feet six inches in girth, and all nearly 100 feet high. 
The annual increment is calculated to be eleven tons of dry wood 
per acre. 

A similar plantation, eight acres in extent, was commenced, and 
is now flourishing, at Beaufort West, but the scarcity of water, 
and the brak (saline) nature of the soil rendered the work too 
costly to be continued. 

The success of the Worcester plantation has lead to the forma- 
tion of nurseries and plantations at Tokai, on the Table Mountain 
range near Constantia, and at Ceres Eoad. At Tokai plants have 
been raised of about 150 species of extra-tropical trees, of which 
the seeds have been imported from all the warm-temperate 
countries of the world. There are 33 varieties of Eucalypts, and 
about 20 varieties of Pines. The Oak (Q. pedunculataj j and 
Camphor Tree, acclimatised for upwards of 200 years, are exten- 
sively propagated. Nearly a million tree-plants are now flourishing 
in these nurseries. It is proposed to re-forest the whole of Table 
Mountain, and in two seasons nearly 1,000 acres have been planted. 

At Ceres Eoad an area of about 3,000 acres bordering the 
railway is in process of re-foresting. In one season 500 acres 
have been planted wifch 105,000 trees, comprising 75 species. — 
Special attention is given to the cultivation of Jarrah {JE. marginata)^ 
and Camphor Tree, which are expected to prove most useful in 
railway works. 


This is an important function of the Forest Department in the 
Western Division. In four years, 1882-85, fully a quarter of a 
million plants have been distributed throughout the colony from 
the Worcester nurseries, at an almost nominal rate ; and in two 
seasons Tokai has supplied the public with 140,000 plants. 

Of seeds, 19,000 pounds weight have been disposed of in four 
years, consisting principally of Pinus pinea, P. pinaster, and Acacia 
saliyna, A large proportion is supplied gratis to perpetual lease- 
holders of certain Crown lands. 

With such machinery at work, and with a growing appreciation 
of the utility of tree-planting and forest conservation, it is con- 
fidently hoped that the efforts of Grovemment in this direction, 
will, in future years, render the colony independent of foreign 
markets for her timber supply. 

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The Cape Peninsula. 

By C. Lawhbncb Herman, M.B. ; M.C. ; M.R.C.S. 

Though the Cape climate has already for a long time enjoyed a 
reputation for its salubrity, and many travellers have been warm in 
their praises of its health-giving properties, it is incomprehensible 
that so little is known in Europe of its advantages as a resort for 
invalids, " even by our best physicians."* 

The South African Medical Association, with a view to placing 
on record some definite and reliable information on the subject, 
appointed a committee, with the sanction of the Colonial Govern- 
ment, to collect and collate information dealing with this impor- 
tant subject. Circulars were sent to medical men all over the 
Colony askiDg for assistance, and a large niunber of replies were 
-elicited, containing most valuable information. 

The space allotted in the Handbook to this subject unfortimately 
renders it impossible to do more than give a few extracts from 
some of these replies. It will be suiBficient, however, to say that 
they were of a uniformly favourable character, and establish 
incontestably the beneficial effects of this climate on invalids suffer- 
ing from chest affections. 

The appended reports, necessarily very brief, written by gentle- 
men who have a practical knowledge of the districts they describe, 
and using the information obtained in reply to the committee's 
circular, may serve as a guide to the most important areas into 
which, for purposes of description, it has been found necessary io 
divide the Colony. 

It must be remembered that over so extensive an area, presenting 
such varied physical features, high mountains, low-lying valleys, 
elevated table lands interpersed by patches of desert here and there, 
the climate must needs vary very considerably in different parts, 
and it is necessary therefore carefully to examine the meteorological 
circumstances of each area before recommending invalids to take 
up their residence in any particular locality. 

The seasons here are not so well marked as in Europe. Spring 
merges into summer, and there is little change between autumn 
and winter. Christmas time sees us at the Cape in nearly mid- 
summer. Spring is a most delightful season, when glad nature 

* Dr. Harry Leech, Notes on South Africa for Invalids. 

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Tejoioes, and the earth is covered with the greenest verdure, crop 
after crop of the most beautiful flowers succeed each other, covering 
the voldt on every side, as far as the eye can reach with a red, 
white, or yellow carpet. 

The heat is nowhere excessive, and though the direct rays of 
ihe sun, particularly in summer, maybe very great, yet the peculiar 
■dryness and rarefaction of the atmosphere render it easily bearable. 
In some of the deep -lying valleys where the motionless air becomes 
heated by the large mountain masses, the heat is in summer oppres- 
sive, but the actual heat is at no time excessive. Taking as an 
•example Kimberley, notably one of the warmest places in the 
Colony, we find tiie absolute maximum temperature during 
1882 :— 

For January 105*5 

February 101*3 

March 94*2 

April 91-5 

May 79*1 

June 750 

For July 75*6 

August 85-0 

September 92*7 

October 96*0 

November 97*5 

December 101*0 

Tet there is no place in the Colony whose people have more 
-ceaseless activity, or more restless energy. Europeans work 
here all day, heedless of the heat. The day is characterised by a 
maximum of sunlight, a balmy, buoyant atmosphere with a clear 
<}loudless sky of the purest blue, and a cool night succeeds a warm 

In former years, before the opening of the Suez Canal, the Cape 
was Ihe favoured resort for invalids from India. It was the 
winter season that evoked their enthusiasm. Dr. Stovell, writing in 
the Bombay Medical Journal, says : " No climate in the world could 
be more agreeable to the feelings — and very few more beneficial 
for the usual class of Indian invalids than a Cape winter. There 
is an invigorating freshness about this season equally delightful 
and beneficial; the moment the rain ceases, the clouds rapidly 
clear away and the sky remains bright for several days." 

The total mean annual temperature is 61*26 F. in the shade, a 
xemarkable approach to the mean annual temperature of England, 
62^, and when to this fact is added the peculiar characteristics of 
the Cape climate, the excessive dryness, clearness, and rarefaction 
of the atmosphere, with a maximum of simlight, a series of condi- 
tions of an almost typical character are met with for the treatment 
of pulmonary affections. 

The peculiar dryness of our climate, while it gives it such valuable 
properties for invalids suffering from pulmonary disease, is, as Dr. 
W. H. Eoss remarks, " the cause at once of all our woes and our 
wants. The periodical and long-continued droughts have made 

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all agricultural speculations a mere matter of reliance on St. 
Switlun ; while the gradual denudation of the soil by bush-fires, 
and careless cutting down of trees, has intensified the action of 
the sun and the desert winds. The greater part of our colonial 
land is glazed with baked clay, from which the water runs off as 
fast as it falls. There is nothing to retain moisture and allow of 
slow filtration, and except in the neighbourhood ^f the Knysna 
and George forests, and the few mUes of territory that are 
moderately well wooded, there is really no certainty as to water 

Such beinff the broad characteristics of the Cape climate, it is 
easy to see what class of patients will be most benefited by a sojourn 
here. The rainy seasons vary in different parts, so that the invalid 
need find no (fifficulty in travelling from place to place to avoid 
the wet. In the most advanced cases, it would be best to winter 
on the plains and pass the summer in the cooler and more elevated 
mountain lands of the interior; but in less marked conditions 
the coast need not be left, as the late Dr. Harry Leech (Medical 
Officer for the port of London) remarks in his " Notes on S. Africa 
for invalids : " — 

** I can safely say that even the air of Wynberg on the one side, 
and of Green and Sea Points on the other side of Cape Town, are very 
good atmospheres for invalids, and indeed far better than can be 
found at most times of the year at any so-caUed Sanitaria in the 
United Kingdom or the Continent of Europe. Even for the invalid 
who does not care, or is not able, to go beyond the precincts of Cape 
Town, a residence in the Wynberg district during the summer (Cape 
summer) and at Sea Point during the winter months, will avoid 
the disagreeable circumstances that obtain on both sides of the capital 
at certain seasons of the year." 

The prevalent diseases are those of Europe ; epidemic disease is 
rare. There is no ague, or yellow fever, nor has cholera ever 
visited our shores, and hydrophobia is unknown. Cases of chronic 
lung disease are infrequently met with among the European 
population, and acute lung disease is not attended with so much 
danger as in Europe ; even infants a few weeks old recover from 
severe attacks of bronchitis which would invariably have proved 
fatal in Europe. The fevers are of a mild type, and are seldom 
followed by sequelae. Diseases of a parasitic nature are rare, 
and Hydatids are infrequent. Rheumatisms and neuralgise 
are common, due to some extent, doubtless, to the large 
amount of meat consumed, and perhaps also to a diluted malarial 

Whilst all pulmonary affections are benefited by a residence in 
this climate, it cannot be too earnestly recommended that cases 
sent out here should be carefully picked; frequently invalids 

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sufEering from pulmonaxy phthisis arrive here in the l6wt stages of 
their complaint, and are landed only to die. To derive any real 
benefit they must arrive early, and to effect any lasting ameliora- 
tion in their condition it is advisable for them to take up residence 
here for a considerable period ; in fact, they must be encouraged to 
make this coimtry their home. 

Sufferers from bronchial and asthmatic affections derive ffreat 
benefit here. Where there is any marked hereditary phthisical 
tendency, a residence is most strongly to be recommended, 
particularly in the case of children. In other conditions of 
debilitating and wasting disease, much benefit will be derived 
from travelling in our equable climate ; and a convalescence from 
a serious illness can be most profitably spent by voyaging to the 
Cape, spending a short time here, and then returning. 

The voyage to the Cape has justly become famed as one 
of the most pleasant and enjoyable it is possible to make, and the 
great ocean steamers of the Cape lines have become celebrated for 
their comfort and pimctuab'ty. Provided with every necessary 
and every comfort, each carrying a surgeon, they touch, either 
outward or homeward, at Lisbon, Madeira, St. Helena, and 
sometimes Ascension, and a,ccomplish the voyage to Cape Town in 
somewhat less than three weeks. 

Cape Town is the most convenient place for the invalid to land 
at ; it is provided with the best means of communication with the 
interior. " In all the world," says Mr. Froude, in his Oceana, 
^ there is no place so beautifully situated." The sanitary condition 
of the town itself is unfortunately not over good, though vastly 
improved in the last year or two. Hotels and private boarding- 
houses are numerous, and everything obtainable m the European 
towns can be got here. It is advisable, however, for the invaKd 
suffering from distinct pulmonary disease not to tarry too long in 
Cape Town, but to select a locality to proceed up-eoimtry, and by 
rail in six, twelve, twenty-four, or thirty-six hours he can comfort- 
ably, in a Pullman car, be transported hundreds of miles at very 
small expense and without any discomfort. 

The cost of living fiuctuates very much and differs considerably 
in different localities, but on the whole it is not more expensive 
than in Englcmd. Luxuries are dear, and servants bad, but the 
ordinary necessaries of Ufe are cheap and plentiful. In the 
western parts of the colony fruit is very plentiful. House rent 
is generally high, and the accommodation as a rule is not 
pertect. The hotels and boarding-houses are open to improve- 
ment, particularly up-country. A great stride would be made 
if a good sanitorium for invalids was established on European 

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By the Hon. W. Guybon Atherstone, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. 

This area may De said to include all that portion of the Cape 
Colony between the main chains of moimt^ns and the seaboard 
to the eastward of the 26th parallel of longitude; the home, 
in fact, of the British Settlers of 1820 and their descendcmts. It 
is divided, as are the southern and western parts of the Colony, 
into three terraces, separated by mountain ranges running parallel 
to the C06wt. 

1st. A coast plateau extending to the base of the first moun- 
tain range, about 1,000 feet fdtitude, embracing the districts of 
Alexandna, Bathurst, Peddie, East London, and Komgha. 

2nd. The midland terrace, between the altitudes of 1,000 and 
2,500 feet, comprising Albany, Somerset, Bedford, Port Beaufort, 
Victoria East, Stockenstrom, and King William's Town. 

3rd. The upper plateau, from 2,500 to 5,000 feet above the 
sea, in which are situated the districts of Cradock, Tarkastad, 
Queen's Town, Stutterheim, Cathcart, Wodehouse cmd Aliwal 

The climate of this important and interesting part of the 
Colony is as varied as the physical character of its fiscal sub- 
divisions are diversified in altitude, soil, vegetation, geological for- 
mation, and capacity for absorbing and retaining or throwing off the 
rainfall, and thus affecting the moisture or dryness of the climate, 
cmd its range of temperature, — the chief meteorological factors in 
considering the claims of particular localities for selection as health 

In these three terraces, we have thus a coast climate, warm cmd 
moist and equable, its winter cold moderated by the warm sea ; 
a midland climate, cooler and drier and more genial, but with a 
greater range of temperature, due to its altitude and the greater 
amount of evaporation from diminished pressure, its mecm range 
varying from 18° to 20^ ; and a mountain climate drier still, 
and more bracing, but with much gireater extremes of temper- 
ature, cold nights and hot days, the mecm ran^e being more than 
double that of the lower or coast plateau. Takmg Port Elizabeth, 
Ghraham's Town, and Aliwal North as representing the three 
types of climates, the following, taken from tables compiled by 
the Cape Astronomer-Eoyal in 1881, of four years observations, 
1876 to 1879, will justify these remarks, which are also substan- 
tially borne out by later and more complete tables compiled by the 
Meteorological Department. 

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(E) 1879. 
1. Coaat plateau. 











1. Port Elizabeth 
alt. 180 ft. 








76 j 






2. Midland. 

Graham's Town 

alt. 1800 ft. 








74 i 




3. Mountain. 

AUwal North ... 

alt. 4330 ft. 









77 J 




3. Mountain. 

Colesberg Bridge 

alt. 3600 ft. 









73 i 




1. Coast (W.) 


alt. 250 ft. 








17 2 





It will be seen that Graham's Town has the lowesi mean 
temperature in summer, and the smallest range in winter, and the 
largest rainfall, which occurring in summer cools the heat, and 
explains its low temperature. The humidity is also less than at 
Port Elizabeth, although the rainfall is ^ more (nearly 30 inches 
to 20 inches, at the coast station ;) whilst the dry winter reduces 
the range to 12-8, that of Port Elizabeth 14-1. 

The character of the vegetation, soil, and geological formation 
exerts also a considerable influence on climate and health. The rank 
luxuriant hairy grass is generally met with in the coast lands, and 
on the " Zuurberg '' Mountains, hence named " Zuur veldt " or 
" Sour grass " country. The greater part of Lower Albany, 
Alexandria, Bathurst, Peddie, East London and Keiskama to Port 
Beaufort, is of this character. It is far less nutritive than the 
grass of the middle terrace which is generally " sweet grass," or 
alkaline bush, the rook formation being shales or conglomerate, 
rich in alkalies and lime. Stock from this country sent down to 
the coast lands often sicken and die from the change, gorging them- 
selves on the coarse grass which requires twice the quantity to 
give the same amount of nutriment. A mixed herbage is met 
with on the moimtains of the upper terraces, a luxuriant red 
grass, highly nutritious : and on the plains the stunted karoa 
shrubs, bitter and alkaline, or a mixture of both, called " gebroken 
veldt ; " and in some parts the mimosa thorns, always an indicative 
of good country for stock. 

The special advantages of the climate of each district for indivi-^ 

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dual cases has, of course, to be considered separately. Dr. Drew lias 
ably set forth the claims of Alexandria ; Dr. Egan those of King 
William's Town ; Dr. Pearson, those of Seymour and the Kat- 
berg ; but geneiilly the whole of the Eastern Districts have a 
reputation for salubrity cmd almost entire absence of malarious and 
endemic diseases. The extraordinary increase of the descendants 
of the original settlers during the two-thirds of a century that have 
elapsed since their arrival here in 1820 ; the advanced age to which 
so many of them have attained; the tall stature, and healthy 

fhysical development of the frontier residents generally, both 
)utch and English, as well as the splendid physique and healthy 
appearance cf the native races, Kafirs and others, and their rapid 
rate of increase, all point to the healthy character of climate and 

One of the advantages of Ghraham's Town as a sanitarium, in 
addition to its elevated site, fine climate, and pure air, is, as 
already related, the facility with which invalids can remove by rail 
to a higher or lower level, to the soft warm balmy air of the coast, 
where no frosts are known, or the keen dry mountain air of the 
Katberff, Winterberg, or Stormberg. Another is, that the patient 
is within easy reach of the comforts and luxuries as well as the 
necessities of civilized life, and the pleasures of English society — 
advantages most important yet too often overlooked or disregarded 
in the choice of a suitable residence for invalids. Of what avail to 
the unhappy consumptive with body and mind out of gear, is a 
healthful climate if shut out from the world and society, and from 
all sources of mental and physical enjoyment. Here pleasurable 
occupation and amusement suited to every taste, with sufficient 
inducement for out-door exercise — often as essential as medical 
treatment or pure air in cases of lingering diseases — are readily 
obtsdnable. To the sportsman the deep wooded kloofs of the 
neighbourhood offer abundant excitement. Antelopes of various 
kinds, the rhebok, blauwbok, cmd boschbok, with hares, pheasants, 
partridges, are found close by ; herds of buffaloes still haimt the 
tangled thickets of the Kowie bush ; the duyker and oribie on the 
grassy flats near Bathurst, and the graceful gazelle of the Cape 
(the springbok), with korhaan and guinea-fowl on the plains to- 
wards Bedford and Somerset. To the angler the deep shady pools 
of the Kareiga, within a few miles, offer tempting attractions, cmd 
to lovers of the picturesque, those enjoyable picnic and boating 
excursions to the different watering places — ^the Kowie, Kasouga, 
and Kleinemont — afford in all seasons pleasing change and variety. 
Whilst to those of intellectual habits and litwary taste, the various 
institutions of the city, its reading-rooms, circulating library, 
xnuseum, and botanical gardens, are at all times accessible. 

Invalids who have experienced the effects of both climates, assert 

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that there is no comparison between the clear, dry, invigorating 
climate of this part of the Colony, and the warm, moist, relaxing 
heat of Madeira, which has hitherto enjoyed the monopoly of a 
sanitarium for chest complaints. 

During my professional life of 45 years in Graham's Town, I 
have known cases of consumption /ar advanced completely recover, 
and even phthisical cavities have cicatrised, and the progress of 
the disease has been entirely checked when confined to one lung. 
I have known also cases of hereditary consumption completely 
eliminated from the system by a prolonged residence in the drier 
inland parts of the Colony ; and I can confidently state, that 
if the unhappy victim of hereditary consumption were to be 
sent out to this Colony three or four years before the expected 
period of attack (as shewn by the history of other members of the 
family), and kept here in some favourable locality imtil three or 
four years after that age, there would be every chance of the 
hereditary taint being entirely eliminated from the system. In 
most cases the patient returns home too soon after he feels him- 
self well, and the irritative matter in the air of his native climate 
lights up again the dormant germs of his old complaint. 

By H. W. Saunders, M.B., Lond., F.R.C.S., Eng. 

The plateau of the " Karroo '' or " Great Karroo " is a vast 
tract of country in the Western and Midland Provinces of South 
Africa, lying between the Roggeveld and Nieuwveld mountains on 
the north, and the Zwarteberg mountsdns on the south, and 
extending from the Hantam in Calvinia District to Sunday's 
River in the Graaff-Eeinet District, that is, over five degrees of 

It includes, for the purposes of a general description, the fiscal 
Divisions of Tulbagh, "Worcester, Prince Albert, Beaufort West, 
Murraysburg, Willowmore, Aberdeen, Jansenville, part of Somerset 
East, Cradock and Graaff-Reinet. 

The approximate average level of the Karroo is about 3,000 feet 
above sea level. To shew the gradual rise to the north we may 
give the approximate heights of the chief towns, viz. : — Tulbagh, 
400 feet ; Worcester, 780 ; Ceres, 1,700 ; Prince Albert, 2,100 ; 
Beaufort West, 2,850 ; Aberdeen, 2,400 ; Somerset East, 2,400 ; 
Graaff-Reinet, 2,500 ; Murraysburg, 3,800 ; Cradock, 2,856. The 
average height of the Nieuwveld, Roggeveld and Zwartberg 
mountains may be taken at 5,000 feet, but some of the peaks rise 
over 7,000 feet. 

The climate of the Great Karroo is characterised by its extreme 


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dryness, severe and prolonged droughts occurring at interrals, 
whilst at the best seasons rains seldom fall. 

The temperature is intensely hot in summer, much more bear- 
able, however, than an equivalent heat in a moister atmosphere, 
and the nights are cool, at least on the ^ains* away from the im- 
mediate vicinity of the mountains. The skies in summer are 
mostly of brass, unclouded, except by the cirrus of heat on the 

Winds in summer are not infrequent, but they are mostly from 
the north and north-west, and having passed over or perhaps 
originated in the desert, are comparable to the simoon on a small 
scale, bringing great clouds of red dust with them, and feeling as 
if coming from an oven ; they seldom blow long. Some places 
nearer the coast come under the influence of the south-east trades, 
such as Tulbagh, Prince Albert, Worcester, &c. 

Thunderstorms are not very frequent, but are often of great 
violence, and often follow in the wake of the north-west winds ; 
in a few hours vast tracts of coimtry may be transformed into 
temporary lakes, and great damage is done by the bursting of 
dams and overflow of rivers at these times. 

The winter is characterised by very cold niffhts and early morn- 
ings, with several hours of bright, sunny weather between 9 a.m. 
and 3 p.m., or thereabouts. The air is remarkably clear, bright 
and bracing ; yet, except in the higher parts of the Karroo, a fire 
in the sitting room is generally a luxury rather than a necessity, 
although often acceptable in the evening. 

Snow generally falls on the mountams, and sometimes on the 
higher plains ; but for the mosi part no snow lies in the plains of the 
Karroo proper — ^Beaufort, arid especially Murraysburg and Cradock, 
being exceptions. 

The winter of the Karroo is, in the writer's opinion, the best 
season for pulmonary invalids ; but, unfortimately, it is just the 
time at which none such arrive, coinciding as it does with the 
European summer. Of this more will be said hereafter. 

Taken as a whole, the air of the Karroo may be considered to 
present some, at least, of the features of moimtain air, of which, 
according to Dr. Weber, the main physical features should be : — 

1. Purity ; comparative absence of floating matter. 

2. Dryness of air and soil. 

3. Coolness or coldness of air temperature and great warmth of 

sun temperature. 

4. Baref action. 

5. Intensity of light. 

6. Stillness of air in winter. 

7. A large amount of ozone. 

In winter all these features are present in greater or less per- 

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f ection, but in summer the great heat, the prevalence of winds,, 
often dust-bearing and very hot, and other drawbacks, often lead 
to lassitude and loss of appetite ; there is further the impossibility,, 
except in the robust, of taking the amount of exercise and out-door 
life demanded by the disease ; further, the inadequate ventilation^ 
found in most of the houses renders in-door life ipihealthy. 

The most feasible escape from these drawbacks is, in my opinion,, 
to get to the mountain heights in the summer ; up to the present 
time this ha^ not been practicable from the want of any accom- 
modation for invalids, but steps are being taken to supply thiS' 

For instance, Dr. Davey, of Beaufort West, is now recommend- 
ing in the Lancet, a comfortable home with a Scotch family on the- 
*' Nieuwveld Mountains." The summit of the pass now in course- 
of construction over the Zwartberg Mountains, from Prince Albert,, 
is also highly recommended by my friend, Dr. Meams, of that 
village, having the advantages of ozone-laden winds in summer 
from the sea, a plentiful supply of pure mountain water from a 
beautiful stream at hand, and a view over the fertile district of 
Oudtshoorn ; hence also a short excursion leads one to the beautiful 
stalactite caves of the Oango. If sufficient encouragement coulA 
be given, no doubt properly constructed institutions could be es- 
tablished under medical supervision at these and other favourable^ 
spots, and the Karroo would then offer the invalid an all-the-year 
round residence which would compare with advantage with that 
in any part of the world — the summer to be spent in the moun- 
tains, the winter on the plains — thus fulfilling the indications now 
greatly and wisely insisted upon, namely, an uninterrupted 
residence in and about the same locality. 

Nothing has astonished the writer more than the hap-hazard 
manner in which consumptive patients are bundled off to South 
Africa without regard to the phase of the disease, peculiarities 
of temperament, or the appropriateness of the climate ; and the 
ignorance displayed of the varieties of climate in South Africa 
would be laughable, if its consequences were not often so sad. 
Probably within the boimds of the Colony we possess climates 
more varied than can be found in any equivalent area in Europe^ 
and yet the formula suffices, " go to the Cape." The wet season* 
on the south and south-western coast, for example, is the winter ;: 
on the eastern seaboard it is the summer. 

Too often invalids act at their own or friends' instigation^ 
having an instinctive preference for a warm climate, or attracted 
by the reputation of "the Cape;" but still more frequently the 
medical attendant or even the consulting physician is equally care- 
less or ignorant in this respect, and either sends incurable and- 
unsuitable cases to die far away from friends and the comforts of 


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home, or having selected an appropriate case sends the patient, 

without any precise instructions, to take his chance. 

Even Dr. Weber in his recent Croonian Lectures has fallen into 
-error about South Africa. He advises patients to travel up-country 

by ox-wagon from Wynberg or Grahamstovm. Considerable 
.astonishment would be caused by this method of travelling in 

a country, all, or nearly all, the chief towns of which are now 
-either on or near lines of railway, and even Bloemf ontein is little 

more than a day's journey from the present terminus at Kimberley. 
No doubt the opportunities of acquiring precise information 

regarding these points are extremely meagre ; neither the countless 

fopular books of travel, nor even the writings of the late Dr. Harry 
jeach and others, are to be relied upon as accurate, and it was the 
intention of the medical profession here to compile a medical 
handbook for the Cape (with full particulars of each district cmd 
village) for the Indian cmd Colonial Exhibition, but it was found 

-that the time allotted was too short ; but this is a desideratum we 

may shortly hope to see supplied. 

As Dr. Weber says, the influence of long standing routine 

anostly guides the practitioner when he selects the most appropriate 

-climate for consumption, the idea of this bein^ ultimately 
associated as regards treatment with that of warm chmates. The 
formula is " choose the warmest climate accessible," and so one 

docality is chosen above another on account of an insignificant 

-difference in the mean heat of the year or season. These premises, 
that cold favours the formation and development of tubercle and 
that heat deters them, rest upon no proof, and a reaction has set in 
in some quarters, resulting in an opposite theory, viz., that cold 
climates should be exclusively employed. These extremes have 
produced as a resultant the theory of altittide as the great preven- 

^tative and curative of phthisis. 

Dr. Jaccond's writing on this subject is diffuse and somewhat 

'difficult to follow, but his argument condensed is to this effect : — 
"That, seeing that alike in very hot and very cold climates phthisis 

OS very prevflSent, whilst there are numerous elevated places in the 
Andes, Switzerland, Silesia, &c., where at a certain altitude con- 

>simiption is almost unknown, one is inclined to favour the 
altitude theory. This altitude varies for different places according 
to conditions of temperature. The altitude which preserves at 
one region will not do so at another, which at the same height 

^has a warmer temperature." 

If this theory be applied to the Karroo, it is doubtful whether 

' on account of the latitude, any altitude obtainable on the plains, 

-comes up to the standard of requirement, and it is pretty certain 
that there is no region in which absohcte immunity from phthisis 

vamongst the native bom inhabitants can be claimed. Nevertheless 

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the writer knows from the experience of a three years' residence,- 
and from communications from various medical men in these^ 
districts, that phthisis, especially tubercular phthisis, is almost 
unknown in many parts. 

The study of the whole question shows decisively the healthful 
influence of life in the open air ; so that with an agricultural or 
pastoral people, the lower limit of protection descends, and vice 
versa sedentary occupations cause it to ascend. It might be 
inferred that the protection conferred by altitude is illusory, and 
that the result depends upon mode of life — ^yet this would be a^ 
complete error, since the most favourable mode of life, that of an 
agricultural population, is powerless against the effects of low 

The climatic conditions which are associated in South Africa 
with an altitude which confers immunity from phthisis, are chiefly 
a temperature cold in winter and cool in summer, the winds 
having a special direction at fixed times during summer, and 
scarcely existing in winter, and a complete pureness of air. These 
conditions, plus a high altitude, give us the type of climates which 
are tonic and stimulant, i.e., curative. I believe they may be 
found at several places in the maimer already hinted at, viz., a 
residence on the summit of the mountain ranges in summer and 
on the plains in winter, if the cold be foimd too severe in the 
hiriier altitude. 

The forms of consumption in which altitude climates are 
advisable are thus siimmed up by Dr. Hermann Weber : — 

1. Hereditary and acquired tendency to phthisis. 

2. The so-caUed '* phthisical habitus." 

3. All conditions comprised by the term '* phthisis," excepting cases 
which are described as non-suitahley e.g. : — 

{a) Patients of the irritable constitution at any stage of the 
disease. (J) Very advanced phthisis. (<?) Phthisis com- 
plicated by emphysema. (S) Phthisis complicated by 
albuminuria, {e) Phthisis complicated by disease of the? 
heart. (/) Phthisis complicated with ulceration of the 
larynx, {g) Phthisis complicated with rapid progress and 
constant fever. {K) Phthisis complicated with great loss of 
weight. [%) Phthisis complicated with considerable em- 
pyema, {jf) Phthisis in persons who cannot sleep or eat at 
• high stations, or feel the cold too severely. 

A tendency to ncemoptysis was formerly regarded as forbidding 
mountain climates, but this is now reffarded as an error ; it is said^. 
in fact, that it occurs less frequently m these high regions; never- 
theless, in such cases, considering the remarkable call made upon 
the circulatory and pulmonary systems by a sudden change to a 
highly rarefied atmosphere, it would, I thmk, be better, as a matter 

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of prudence, when there is a great tendency to Hsemoptysis, to 
make the upward journey by easy stages. 

Probably in theory the open air, tent and waggon life recom- 
unended by Livingstone for the Kalihari region, would be the most 
perfect, but it is seldom practicable, except for the most robust ; it 
-would be too hot in summer, too cold in winter, besides being 
^mfitted in other ways. 

On the whole, however, the Karroo climate is favourable to 
out-door life. In summer the whole day can be passed in 
a well shaded verandah, or in a hammock slung between trees, and 
in winter the calm, dry, cold air is inviting to exercise, and the 
summer evenings, if the patient be prudently clothed, can be 
utilized for exercise. 

Unfortunately the house accommodation, from an invalid's point 
of view, leaves much to be desired. The common plan of keeping 
the house cool is to shut it up all day long in summer, opening the 
♦doors and windows only in tne early morning ; the result is good, 
:ss far as coolness is concerned, but an atmosphere is produced 
i;hereby which lacks the constcmt interchange of fresh and foul air 
demanded by conditions of health, and still more by those of 
-disease. The houses are also as a rule badly ventilated and ill- 
-oonstructed, comfort being sacrificed to economy, building being 
-excessively dear. 

There is a great lack of shady walks, also, on account of the 
rabsence of woods. In some villages the streets are well planted, 
notably Worcester, Beaufort West, and GraafE-Reinet. 

The farm houses are for the most part situated on the open 
plains, and have a few trees planted in the vicinity, and frequently 
productive vegetable and fruit gardens and orchards. 

Pood is on the whole cheap and wholesome, but lacks variety, 
;and the cooking leaves much to be desired for invalids ; the supply 
of milk, fresh butter and eggs varies very much according to the 
locality and the season ; " always a feast or a famine '' is almost a 
South African proverb. Vegetables are well supplied at some 
places and very scanty at others ; a fact dependent more upon the 
.abundance or otherwise of the water supply than upon difference 
•of local industry. 

Most of the villages contain several hotels, at which the charges 
are moderate, about £7 10s. to £10 per month for board and 
lodging, and boarding houses somewhat lower ; and lodgings with 
privato families can generally be negotiated. A fair house can 
often be obtained for from £3 to £6 per month imf umished. 

Illustrative eases, — The nature and scope of the Handbook forbid 
the insertion of cases reported in extenso, but a few jottings from 
various sources may not be uninteresting, as illustra<£ig the 
■remarks already made. 

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Dr. 2iahn, of Cerest, reports that the death rate for lun^j and 
pleura diseases in the district, with an European population of 
:^,000, is as follows : — Between 1872 and 1884, five cases of chronic 
and six of acute lung disease (exclusive of children and of those 
who have emigrated with diseased lungs). In the case of coloured 
natives. Dr. Zahn is unable to make a satisfactory statement, as 
they do not as a rule fall under his notice, but he believes lung 
disease to be rather prevalent among them, due to poverty, intem- 
perance and bad hygienic surroundings. 

Since 1872 only one case of mileory tubercle in a youth of 

Many invalids suffering from phthisis have visited Ceres, and 
have as a rule been benefited, but Dr. Zahn is unable to report a 
single instance of complete recovery, usually he believes because 
the stay was too short or the disease already far advanced. 

Dr. Hurford, of Ceres, reports that many cases of pulmonary 
disease have been greatly benefited by a sojourn there. 

Dr. Davey, of Beaufort West, reports that many cases of 
advanced phthisis have come to Beaufort, with often the result of 
a certain improvement at first, but, with the exception of a very 
few, this was temporary only; the comforts of home and the 
presence of friends and relatives are much missed, and their want 
helps to make matters unsatisfactory. It is far otherwise in the 
earlier stages of phthisis : here a residence in these parts often 
works wondeiiB, especially if patients are in fairly comfortable 

Dr. Meams, of Prince Albert, reports that during a residence of 
more than seven years he has remarked a special immunity from 
pulmonary consumption and asthma. The plstce is not much 
resorted to by invalids because the virtues of the climate have never 
l)een made known, cmd perhaps also because there is no first-class 
accommodation for invalids. 

Dr. M. reports the following cases among others : — 

1. G.R., aged 19, came in 1879 with marked dulness at both apices; 
on left, breaMng down of tissue, muco-purulent, frequently sanguineous 
expectoration, night sweats, emaciation, bad appetite. After four 
months he left with marked improvement in all symptoms, the disease 
of left apex stationary. 

2. W.C, aged 42, came in January, 1882, advised by his medical 
men that he had not six months to live. Cavities in both limgs, great 
emaciation, night sweats, purulent expectoration, with frequent 
haemorrhages, loss of appetite, and in short he appeared to be sinking 
rapidly. Improvement was steady and marked ; he gained weight, 
Appetite returned, night sweats almost ceased, and one cavity appeaxed 
to have closed; he continued to improve until 1883, when he got 
chiUed in returning from Cape Town, pleurisy supervened and it was 
long ere he regained strength. He continued moderately well, taking 

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a good amount of exercise, till 1884, when he again visited Cape Town 
and contracted pneumonia, from which he died a few days after his 

3. L.A., aged 24, has spent three winters here. He came with 
catarrh at both apices, whicn disappeared after a time but reappeared 
after returning home (in a neighbouring district) on two occasions ; 
the last time she stayed some months and her medical adviser told me 
that she remains, fifteen months later, strong and well. 

4. H.N., aged 18, with bad family history, had dulness at left apex 
and harsh breathing at the right, troublesome cough, night sweats 
and loss of flesh. He remained here six months, during which time 
above symptoms quite disappeared, and two years later when seen 
again he was well and chest quite healthy. 

5. P.T., aged 35, bad family history, was given up about ten years 
ago as an incurable consimiptive. There is no reliable account of the- 
state of his lungs then, but now they show evidence of old pleuritic 
adhesions and consolidation. He is not robust but strong enough to 
follow the avocation of a sheep farmer, and his is a case which the 
climate of the Karroo has very much benefited. 

No reports have unfortunately been received from Cradock^ 
Gtraaff-Reinet, or Somerset East ; the first named town has a high 
reputation as a place of resort for pulmonary invalids. 

The writer is acquainted with a number of cases of phthisis- 
which have very greatly benefited by the climate of the Karoo^ 
and in two cases where a sojourn of a couple of years has been 
made a complete cure has resulted ; these cases were both in an 
early stage. He knows of one case of "fibroid phthisis with 
dilated bronchi," where the sufEerer for many years has had all the^ 
appearance of a hale old man, and the disease is almost always in- 

Me has sent cases of bronchial catarrh of an inveterate kind 
from Cape Town to the Karroo, with the invariable result of cure 
within a very short time. 

Oases of asthma, unless complicated with excessive emphysema,, 
are nearly always benefited, and the disease kept in abeyance. 

Itinerary. — ^A few words regarding the accessibility of the^ 
various towns mentioned may oe useful. They may be thus 
epitomised : — 

1. On a Line of Railway : — 

1. Worcester^ 109 miles from Cape Town. 2. Beaufort Westy, 
339 miles from Cape Town. 3. Cradocky 181 nules from 
Port Elizabeth; 658 miles from Cape Town. 4. Qraajf-- 
Reinetj 185 miles from Port Elizabeth. 

2. Of a Line of Railway : — 

1. Tulbaghj from Tulbarfi Eoad Station a few miles by 
cart (76 miles from Cape Town). 2. CereSy 10 miles from. 

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Ceres Road Station, which is 85 miles from Cape Town, 

3. Prince Alberty 30 miles by passenger cart from Prince 
Albert Eoad Station, which is 265 miles from Cape Town. 

4. Murray shir g J about 50 miles from Nelspoort Station, 371 miles 
from Cape Town. 5. Somerset Eastj 16 miles from Cook- 
house Station, which is 126 miles from Port Elizabeth. 
6. Jansenvilky 18 miles from Mount Stewart Station, which is 
113 miles from Port Elizabeth. 7. Aberdeen, about 30 miles 
from Aberdeen Eoad Station, which is 145 miles from Port 
Elizabeth. 8. Willowmore, 73 miles from Baroe Station, 
which is 103 miles from Port Elizabeth. 

By J. Baird, M.D., L.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Ed. 

The immense tract of country included under this area embraced 
the Upper Karroo plateau sloping from the midland moimtain 
ranges to the valley of the Orange Eiver. It includes the fiscal 
divisions of Aliwal North, Albert, Colesberg, Middelburg, Hanover, 
Hopetown, Herbert, Kimberley, Richmond, Victoria West, Fraser- 
burg, Carnarvon, Calvinia, and part of Namaqualand. This plateau 
varies in height from 2,700 to 6,000 feet above sea level, one point, 
the Compassberg, 7,800 feet, being the highest point in the Cape 

To medical men and invalids the great and characteristic feature 
of this elevated plateau is the nature of its climate and its suitability 
as a residence in certain diseases of the lungs. The following 
remarks are intended to shew this, as far as can be done by 

There cannot be said to exist any well marked division of the 
year into Spring, Simmier, Autumn and Winter ; rather it may 
be described as a long summer and a long winter. The former 
begins rather suddenly about the month of September, increases 
in intensity tillJanuary, and then decreasing till the end of April, 
while the latter may be said to last from the end of April till the 
month of September. During the first half of the summer months 
a westerly or north-westerly wind prevails during the day which 
is very warm and dry ; it often blows with great force, bringing 
with it clouds of red sand. Towards evening the wind abates, ana 
is followed by a steady, cool and refreshing breeze from the south- 
east during the night, which quite invigorates and braces after the 
hot winds of the day. Towards the end of December or the 
beginning of January thunderstorms are common, accompanied 
by a great downfall of rain, often with hail showers. These 
storms are of short duration, and their effect is such as to infuse 
new life into every living thing. With the exception of these 

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thunderstorms, it may be said that for the whole summer life is 
led imder a cloudless sky. The heat in summer, although great — 
and on some days the thermometer ranges as high as 110^ F. in 
the shade — cannot be described as oppressive, except it be shortly 
before a thunderstorm when the sky is overcast. This is owing to 
the excessive dryness of the air and to a gentle current of wind 
which almost always blows. But even with the very hottest days 
a cool night can almost invariably be depended on. The winter 
in this region is most delightful during the day. The air is dry, 
clear and sharp. But durmg the hours between sunset and sun- 
rise the air is very cold, accompanied by sharp frosts. Often the 
pools of water are frozen over, out the ice melts soon after the sun 
rises. Snow falls but rarely, in some places once in five or six 
yeeirs, and that in no great quantity. While these remarks apply 
generally to this whole area, it will be understood that the climate 
will vary somewhat as we approach or recede from the mountains 
which form its boundary. 

To enable an idea to be formed of the climate of the different 
Divisions, I shall quote from the reports of competent medical 
observers on their different towns and districts. 

At the extreme east of this area lies the Division of Albert. 
From Burghersdorp, the chief town of this Division, Dr. Kanne- 
meyer thus reports : — " The chief summer months are hot and 
relaxing during the day: — ^the mid-winter nights are cold. During 
the rest of the year the weather is temperate and delightful. The 
Sim is rarely obscured, never for a whole day, mostly and grate- 
fully by thunder-clouds during the hot summer afternoons. We 
live practically imder a cloudless sky. Our principal rainfall is 
in summer, sharp and short thunderstorms. These showers are 
very refreshing. The range of temperature in simimer is high 
on the plains. In the Stormbergen (Mountains) it is more 
equable, the heat never oppressive during the day, nor are the 
nights cold ; and there is more verdure and humidity. In winter, 
the days are cloudless, rainless, simny, and very dry on the plains. 
Between sunset and sunrise, the air is very cold and frosty. Snow 
is rare. The mouDtainous parts are cold and comparatively 
damp, — ^frosts heavy and snow occasionally. Mists or fogs are 
unknown on the plains ; in the mountains they occur frequently." 

A little further to the West of Albert, and not far from the 
Sneuwberg range of moimtains, lies the Division of Hanover. 
From Hanover, the chief town of this Division, Dr. Wm. Bourke 
sends the following report : — " The climate of this district is a 
particularly dry and bracing one. The winter is seldom severe, — 
being comparable to that of the South of France, the days 
throughout that season being bright and balmy. On only one 
occasion was the thermometer known to register 20^ of frost. The 

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summer months are warm, and in the absence of the Kght prevail- 
ing winds, they approach a tropical heat ; but as a rule you can 
depend on a gratefully cool evening. The sun throughout the 
year reigns supreme in the heavens, and seldom, indeed, if ever, a 
day passes without his radiant beams being both seen and felt. 
For the past three years the average rainfall was 10*2 inches — 
distributed on an average over 34 days or portion of days in the 
year. There is little or no snow during the winter." 

To the West of Hanover lies the Division of Eichmond. Dr. 
Fick thus reports of his town and district : — " To the South and • 
East, the district of Richmond is bounded by a formidable range 
of moimtains, the Sneuwbergen, one point of which, the Compass- 
berg, is the highest in the Cape Colony, being 7,800 ft. above sea 
level. During winter we often have beautiful days — ^no wind or 
dust — a cloudless sky — a bracing air, and the sun sufficiently 
strong to make staying out of doors a pleasure. The winter nights 
are cold — the minimum of temperature measured once by me was 
— 8^C. When the summer sets in the windy days begin, bringing 
a great deal of fine and coarse sand even tlurough closed shutters. 
Mornings and afternoons are always fresh and pleasant even in 
the hottest time of the year. In summer, heat at midday is 
piercing, but not oppressive." 

To the North of the Divisions of Hanover and Eichmond lies 
the large Division of Hopetown, having for its northern 
boundary the Orange Eiver. From Hopetown, the chief town of 
the Division, Dr. E. B. Muskett thus reports : — " The surrounding 
coimtry consists chiefly of large plains, often sandy, with hills, 
some of considerable elevation. The town itself is situated in a 
valley opening towards the Orange Eiver, the river being distant 
about l| miles. The prevailing wind is from the Westward, and 
blows frequently with force during the early summer months. 
The thermometer may rise to 100^ F. in the shade in summer and 
fall to 20^ F. in winter. The air is extremely dry. Eainf all very 
scanty, said to average 5 inches, and falls almost entirely in thun- 
der-showers, rain without lightning being rare. Snow is rare, but 
tolerably severe frosts occur at night in winter. Ice always melts 
before the middle of the day." 

Further to the West of the Division of Eichmond, and forming 
the apex of this* triangular area lies the extensive Division of 
Fraserburg. From its chief town. Dr. H. P. Butler reports as 
follows : — " In winter there is dry cold for the most part, out the 
frost is very severe, sometimes registering 19^. In summer it is 
very hot and dry in daytime ; but the evenings are very pleasant, 
beiDg cool. The sun is rarely obscured either in summer or in 
winter. The thermometer varies in summer from 90^ to 110^ F. 
in the shade. In winter it varies from 24^ to 70^ F. The rain- 

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fall is very slight^ being 2 to 4 inches for the past few years. Snow 
often falls in winter. The air is very dry." 

From the Division of Carnarvon to the North of Fraserburg, 
Dr. Hanau reports very much in the same terms as those of Dr. 

When we take into consideration the extreme dryness and porous 
nature of the soil, the great elevation above sea level, the tem- 
perature and dryness of the air, the practically cloudless sky, 
permitting almost constant outdoor life, and if to these we add the 
scantiness of population and the absence of hurry, worry and 
bustle which characterise European life, we have an almost ideal 
set of conditions requisite for the alleviation and cure of certain 
diseases of the lungs, and especially phthisis. I say cure of phthisis 
advisedly, because cases of cure are within the experience of almost 
every medical man practising in this area. Further, the all but 
complete absence of pulmonary phthisis in persons bom and bred 
in this area is proof of the favourable operation of the above con- 
ditions in this direction. The most convincing proof, however, 
is ajfforded by the record of cases by competent medical men. 

In a personal experience of ten years practice as a physician, in 
a district in the Division of Colesberg, with a population of about 
3,000 white and coloured, and including all ages, only two cases of 
pulmonary phthisis came under my care, originating in natives of 
the district, but neither of which were tubercular. One case was 
that of a girl aged 16 ; she had a slight attack of pneumonia, 
which ultimately developed into phthisis. After careful treatment 
she gradually recovered, married, and is now the mother of several 
children. The other case was one of syphylitic phthisis in a mar- 
ried woman. She died in childbed. Several cases from near the 
coast of this Colony, and from Europe, came under my care with 
phthisis, all of wMch were greatly benefited by residence, and 
followed active and useful lives. One case especially I can call to 
mind, that of a Mrs. A. B., who, in spite of extensive 
disease of both lungs, carried on an active business, reared a large 
family of children, and nursed for some years a paralytic husband. 
The only signs of illness she exhibited were occasional attacks of 
coughing, and in the summer slight streaks of blood in the spectum. 
I am fully convinced that had this patient been living at or near 
the sea coast of this Colony, or in any part of Great Britain, she 
would long ago have succumbed to this dire disease, whereas she 
is alive and actively employed at this present time. 

The following short history by Dr. E. B. Muskett, of Hopetown, 
of two cases which came imder his notice within the last few years, 
speaks volumes : — 

" E. P. and C. P., two brothers, aged respectively 18 and 19 
years, arrived in Hopetown three years ago. Their two elder 

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brothers died within eighteen months of rapidly developing con- 
Biimption. On the death of the last they took fright, and had 
their lungs examined by two physicians, separately, one a 
specialist. Both pronounced the young men to be suffering from 
tne incipient stages of phthisis, and recommended them to leave 
England immediately, which they at once did. On examination 
of their chest on their arrival in Hopetown, both were found to be 
in an almost similar state — dullness over a considerable area at the 
apices of both lungs, more pronounced on the left side, lengthened 
expiratory murmur, some crepitation, flattening of the chest in the 
affected region and diminished movement. In addition they suf- 
fered from muscular weakness, shortness of breath on exertion, and 
loss of flesh. They also had slight cough but no expectoration. 
At the end of six tnonths the physical siffns had much diminished, 
and they had regained strength and flesh, the younger so much so 
that his clothes were too small for him. At the expiration of a 
yeary the physical signs had disappeared, and they felt othermse well. 
Now, after three years the one pursues a laborious profession in 
Kimherley^ the other has returned to England \ both are in the 
enjoyment of excellent health." 

Dr. Fick, of Eichmond, thus reports of his own case : — " I, 
myself, am a fair sample of a man who has benefited by residence 
in this climate. I came from Germany in 1879, partly because 
I was suspected to be Consumptive. After a few years stay in 
Bichmond, my whole appearance was altered. I became hale and 
hardy, and had gained in weight 40 lbs., weighing 180 to 190 lbs." 

From Burghersdorp in the Division of Albert, Dr. Kanne- 
meyer reports as follows : — " I have more than once had the 
opportunity to see ctuses of phthisis coming from Europe, but 
too far advanced for cure, denve temporary benefit during their 
sojourn amongst us. Incipient or earlj'* cases at once improve. 
Hitherto invalids frequentmg this part of the coimtry in search of 
health have made their stay too short, or have come too late. 
Continuous residence is necessary to establish a cure. There are 
about half-a-dozen persons residing in this town at present, leading 
useful lives, who came here as confirmed invalids, and whose lives 
have been undoubtedly saved by continuous residence." 

From the town of Hanover, Dr. Bourke sends the following : — 
" There seems to be a special immunity from Consumption enjoyed 
by the inhabitants of this district, as it is seldom if ever met with 

among the people bom and bred in this district There are 

to my knowledge two cases of Consumption in this district to all 
intents and purposes cured. The individuals in question arrived 
from England with the disease in a most aggravated form ; and 
now after several years residence, they are practically restored to 
their former health and ^dgour. The late District Surgeon of this 

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place is another instance in point. For notwithstanding the 
advanced stage of the malady on his arrival in this Colony, he was 
enabled, through the beneficial effect of this climate, to carry on 
the arduous duties of a general practitioner for ten years ; and it 
was only on his return to England that he succumbed to the 
disease. Other two cases occur to my memory in which the 
patients are being gradually restored to health and vigour." 

Dr. J. Hanau sends the following instances from the town of 
Carnarvon: — "A German gentleman (a missionary), about 54 
years of age, is reported to me by good autliority, as having > 
suffered from Consumption some twelve to fifteen years ago. He 
is now so well that as long as I have known him, he has not 
required medical attendance. Another German, aged 30, in whose 
family there is hereditary predisposition to Consumption, became 
ill in this Colony, and esdiibited signs of phthisis after an attack of 
pleurisy. He is now attending to his business, and seldom requires 

?rofes8ional advice. — A young gentleman, aged 21, bom in Cape 
lown, with a family predisposition, was warned by his former 
medical attendant, and while resident in Cape Town was constantly 
troubled with attacks of Bronchitis, now finds himself as well as 
possible, and is never troubled by his old complaint." 

The late Dr. L. Gogol, District Surgeon of Murraysburg — a 
district to the South of Eichmond, — in reporting to the Govern- 
ment in the year 1882, says : — " During a practice extending over 
five years, I have not hit upon one patient with pulmonary 
phthisis, bom in this or the adjoining disbicts." 

These are but a few of the examples of benefit devided from 
residence in this area. If space permitted, their number could be 
very largely increased by drawing on the case-books of any 
physician practising within its limits. They will, however, suffice 
to establish the truth of the statement, that not only can phthisis 
be alleviated and life prolonged, but that it can actually be cured 
by a sufficiently long residence. 

Although, from the grave nature of the disease, and because of 
the brilliant results recorded of its cure, phthisis has been chiefly 
and especially mentioned, this is not the only disease benefited 
by residence. Many cases of Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis are 
on record where benefit has been derived. Indeed, speaking 
generally, cases requiring a dry warm air and altitude are all 

With a record such as the foregoing, it would seem strange that 
the advantages of residence here are not more widely known and 
generally used by Europeans than they at present are. One 
reason lor this is the fact that sufficient attention has not been 
drawn to it by medical men in the European Medical Journals. 
But the chief reason for its neglect is the fact that until quite 

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recently it was very difficult of access. Before the discovery of 
the Diamond Fields, which lie beyond this area, it was to Euro- 
peans at least an unknown country, the usual mode of travelling 
at that time was the slow ox-wagon or on horseback. When the 
wealth of Kimberley attracted a large population from all parts of 
the world, the ox- wagon gave place to the speedier passenger coach 
and the post-cart. These are now supplanted by the Kailway, 
which runs right through the centre of this area into Kimberley 
beyond. What was twelve years ago a journey causing much 
expense, time and trouble, can now be accomplished with cheap- 
ness, speed, and all the ease and comfort of a Pullman car. What 
it formerly took days to accomplish can now be executed with 
comfort in hours. 

There are no Hospitals or Sanatoria for the reception of 
invalids in this area. Those, therefore, who contemplate a resi- 
dence here will have to depend upon Hotels, Boarding Houses and 
private lodgings. Board and lodging in any of these establish- 
ments ranges &om £6 to o612 per month according to the mode of 
life and accommodation. For those who contemplate housekeeping 
on their own account the following information will be of service. 
Unfurnished houses are obtainable in most of the towns and 
villages, and cost from £2 to £6 10s. per month according to 
accommodation. Domestic servants are almost aU drawn from the 
coloured classes. Their wages range from 15s. to 30s. per month 
with food. These servants as a general rule are by no means of 
the best, but often very good, well trained, and faithful servants 
are to be met with. The general rule is that servants do not sleep 
in the houses of their employers, but leave for their own homes at 
night and return early in the morning. With regard to food, 
beef and mutton are cheap and plentiful, the average price being 
6d. per lb. ; Bread, 2 lb. loaf, 6d. Milk and Butter depend so 
much on the nature of the seasons and the rainfall, that no general 
rule holds good for the whole area. After a good season with 
heavy rainfall, both butter and milk are plentiful, and the latter 
very good in quality. The prices will then range for butter from 
Is. to 3s. per lb., and for milk 3d. to 4d. per quart bottle. In dry 
seasons, again, milk is scarcely to be had for payment, but where it 
can be had it varies from 4d. to 8d. per quart bottle, while butter 
ranges from 2s. to 4s. per lb. Canned or imported milk and 
butter are both extensively used during the dry seasons. During 
the simimer eggs are cheap and plentiful, but during the winter 
they are dear and scarce : the price varies from Is. to 28. 6d. per 
doz. When the towns are situated on or near a river, such places, 
for example as Aliwal North, Oolesberg, Hanover, Philip's Town, 
Hope Town, river fish are obtainable. In winter, sea fish can be 
had by rail from the different Coast Ports. No prices can be stated 

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for this kind oi^food, as it is looked upon more as luxury than 
necessary, and the supply is irregular. With regard to Fruit and 
Vegetables, the same remark applies as to butter and milk, all 
depends on the nature of the season. If rain is plentiful, and 
there are no untimely frosts, fruit and vegetables are abundant, 
cheap, and of good quality in most of the towns. Amongst the 
fruits grown in the town or on the surrounding farms, the chief 
flre Oranges, Naartjes, Apples, Pears, Plums, Peaches and Apricots, 
-Grapes, Figs, Mulberries, Loquats, Pomegranates, Quinces, Water 
Melons and Musk Melons. 

Of the towns and villages within this area, and in which invalids 
•would naturally be inclined to live, it may be said that they vary 
very much in appearance and size, according to the amount of 
water supply for irrigation purposes, and their age. Where water 
is abundant, foliage is plentiful, and the town or village has a 
<3heerful and comfortable appearance ; where it is absent, the town 
has a dry and desolate look. There is here none of the historical 
essooiations, the beauteous landscapes, the refined society, or art 
<3ollections of a Mediterranean health resort, nor the grand scenery 
of the Swiss Alps. The characteristics are, rather, a rough, whole- 
some plenty, and a free and primitive state of society. Many 
of the towns are dull and dreary, and when an invalid has no 
employment, time will hang heavy on his hands. It must be 
distinctly imderstood that a cure wUl not be the result of a few 
weeks or months stay, but extend into years ; indeed, it cannot 
be too often repeated, that to ensure a cure continuous residence is 
necessary. It must also be remembered that, although the JEnglish 
language is pretty generally spoken in the towns and villages, the 
prevailing language is Dutch, and that the habits and customs of 
the people are in many ways different fiom what prevails in 

In spite of these disadvantages, after a few years residence, the 
free and easy mode of life in these coxmtry towns becomes very 
pleasant, and is often looked back to with regret on the return to 
ft large city. The conclusion of the whole matter is, what will not 
one do for dear life ! To gain this one pearl of great price, all 
others can be dispensed with. 

One word with regard to clotlung. Many people, on leaving 
Europe for this country, load themselves with light, and omit 
to take warm, clothing, supposing the latter not to be necessary. 
This is a great mistake. As wiU be seen from the foregoing 
reports, the nights are very cold, especially in midwinter. It 
fihould be distinctly imderstood that exactly the same kind of 
clothing is necessary here as in Great Britain. Flannel and tweed 
are just as essential here as in the North of Scotland. Bearing 
this in mind will save much useless expense. 

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By Theodore Reunert, M. Inst. M.E. 

The existence of diamonds is recorded in such primitive times 
and their occurrence is so widely distributed over the globe, that it 
is impossible to say when and where they were first discovered. 
Even if the mention of the diamond in the Book of Exodus (chap. 
xxxix, V. 11) amongst the jewels in the high priest's breast- 
plate be declared an error on the part of the translators, there is 
evidence enough that diamonds were possessed by the Hindoos and 
Grreeks many centuries before the Christian era; nay, it is declared 
on good authority that the history of the Koh-i-noor may be traced 
back for 5,000 years, at which remote period it is celebrated in one 
of the songs of the Vedas as having formed part of the treasures 
I of an old Indian chief. There is little doubt that the earliest 
I known diamonds came from India. The writers under the Roman 
I Empire and those of the Middle Ages who allude to diamonds and 
I their origin, refer only to the Indian mines, an^d, indeed, until 
[ quite modern times no other source of supply was known. 

The Indian mines are scattered along the whole centre of the 
peninsula from near the southern bank of the Ganges in the 
province of Bundelcund, lat. 25^ N., to the banks of the Pennaur 
JEliver in the Madras Presidency, lat. 15^ N. The famous mines of 
Oolconda are in the Nizam's Dominions, about lat. 17^, though it 
is probable no diamonds were ever found in or near the city itself. 
To-day the only Indian mines regularly worked are the northern 
ones at Punnah in Bundelcimd, but the total yield is of trifling 
importance to the world's traffic, the bulk of the production being 
consumed by the local markets, the principal of which is at Benares. 
It is estimated that the annual Weight of Indian diamonds ex- 
ported to Europe does not exceed 100 carats. They are chiefly 
interesting through their historical associations, nearly all the 
celebrated crown-] ewels of Europe having been derived from India. 
The opening of the Brazilian mines at the beginning of the last 
century practically closed the mines of the Deccan. 

The Brazilian diamond-fields are situated in the Serra do Espin- 
ha90, a chain of mountains running parallel with the coast between 
Bahia and Rio Janeiro, following the direction of the 43rd meridian 
between latitudes 10"^ and 20° north. In this range occur the re- 
nowned mines of Diamantina in the province of Minas Gleraes, but 
other rich diamond mines exist in the very centre of the Continent 
near Yilla Bella (or Masso Grrosso), at Cuyaba and other places on 

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the Paraguay river. For a hxindred and fifty years these mine* 
continued to supply the world with diamonds, till the discovery of 
the vastly richer diamond deposits of Soath Africa ruined the 
Brazilian trade, as that had previously ruined the Indian mines. 

Several other widely distant coxmtries have yielded diamonds, 
though in much less quantities than India and Brazil. In the 
North American continent diamonds have been found in North 
Carolina, Georgia, Arizona, California, as well as in Mexico. Twa 
coimtries in Europe have also supplied a few stones In the year 
1829, some diamonds were discovered in the gold washings on the 
European side of the Ural Mountains near the iron mines of 
Bissersk, and a single diamond is reported to have been found at 
Dlaschkowitz, in Bohemia. Small quantities are said on doubtful 
authority to occur also in Algeria, and in some parts of Siberia, 
More important than any of the last named are the mines of the 
East India Archipelago. About the year 1840 diamonds were 
found in Sumatra, subsequently in Celebes, but the island of 
Borneo alone in that group has continued to produce a regular 
supply, sending, it is computed, about 3,000 carats annually inta 
the European market. One of the largest diamonds in the world, 
a pure white stone of 367 ceurats, was found near Landak in 
Borneo ; it is stiU uncut and belongs to the Eajah of Matam. 
One other diamondiferous region only, but that completing the 
number of the continents, remains to be mentioned. Diamonds 
were discovered in Australia in the year 1852, and again in 1859, 
on the Macquarie River in New South Wales, 100 mUes north-east 
of Sydney, also ten years later near Eylstone on the Cudgegong 
Eiver, and latterly at Bingeria near the G-wydir River, in the ex- 
treme north of the Colony, about lat. 30° S. long. 151 °. 

The Diamond Fields of South Africa, though of later discovery 
than any of the above, have eclipsed them all in richness and 
extent. They are situated north of the Orange River, in the pro- 
vince of Ghiqualand West, at a distance of 500 miles from the 
coast, and an elevation of 4,000 feet above the sea. The story of 
their discovery, of which many slightly different versions exist, is 
as follows. 

Early in the year 1867, a trader named John O'Reilly, 
travellmg southwards from the Orange River, rested his oxen at 
the farm " De Kalk," the property of one Schalk van Niekerk, in 
the Hopetown district ; and this is Mr. O'Reilly's account of what 
he saw there, given in a letter addressed some five years later to 
the Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir Henry Barkly : — 

" In March, 1867, 1 was on my way to Colesberg from the Junc- 
tion of the Vaal and Orange Rivers; I outspanned at Mr. Niekerk's 
Farm, where I saw a beautiful lot of Orange River stones on hi& 
table, and which I examined. I told Niekerk they were very 

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pretty. He shewed me another lot, out of which I at once pickedt 
the " first diamond." I asked him for it, and he told me I couldi 
have it, as it belonged to a Bushman boy of Daniel Jacobs. I 
took it at once to Hope Town, and made Mr. Chalmers, Civil 
Commissioner, aware of the discovery. I then took it on to' 
Colesberg, and gave it to the Acting Civil Commissioner there for 
transmission to Cape Town to the High Commissioner. The- 
Aoting Civil Commissioner sent it to Dr. Atherstone, of GhrahamV 
Town, who forwarded it to Cape Town." 

Dr. Atherstone wrote back to the Colesberg Commissioner — Mr.. 
Lorenzo Boyes, who is still a member of the Civil Service in 
another part of the Colony — "I congratulate you on the stone- 
you have sent me. It is a veritable diamond, weighs 21^ carats, 
and is worth £500. It has spoiled all the jeweller's files in 
Ghraham's Town, and where that came from there must be lots 
more." Dr. Atherstone's opinion was confirmed by Messrs*. 
Himt and Roskell, the Crown jewellers in London, to whom the^ 
stone was sent for inspection, and it was subsequently purchased at 
the above valuation by ISir Philip Wodehouse, who preceded Sir- 
Henry Baxkly in the Q-ovemorship, and who sent it to the Paris- 
Exhibition of 1867. 

It may be imagined that Messrs. Boyes and O'Eeilly, who- 
shared the proceeds- of this sale, were well satisfied with their 
bargain. They lost no time in returning to the scene of the first 
discovery, where otliers soon joined in the exciting search, but the 
success was so small that for another two years the existence of 
diamond fields in South Africa continued to be disputed. How- 
ever, in 1869, Van Niekerk secured from a Ghriqua or Hottentot a- 
large stone for which he gave the sum of £400 or live-stock to-^ 
about that value, and which he sold directly after to Messrs^ 
Ldlienfeld of Hope Town for over £10,000. This was the famous- 
" Star of South Africa." . It weighed 83^ carats in the rough, and 
was estimated in June, 1870, to be worth £25,000. It has been 
out, and now figures amongst the jewels of the Countess of 
Dudley, its present weight being 46^ carats. 

When it was clearly authenicated that a gem of such value hadl 
been f oxmd, the first large " rush " of diggers made their way up- 
to the Orange Eiver, but it is a curious fact that though the- 
earliest finds were in the Hope Town District no mine has been 
discovered there. However, careful prospecting soon proved that 
the banks of the Vaal Eiver were rich in diamonds. The search- 
ing parties worked their way from the jimction of the Orange 
and Vaal up the latter stream as far as Hebron, leaving detach- 
ments of diggers along the whole course. About 100 m3es above- 
the junction following the windings of the river, they reached 
Klipdrift, or Barkly, which little town has since remained the^ 

N 2 

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18» RUSH TO THE VAAL, 1869-70. 

centre of the twenty or thirty mining camps where with more or 
less of intermission and with varying success the banks of the Vaal 
have continued to be explored for diamonds up to the present 
time (1886). 

In 1870 a large population, numbering not less than 10,000, 
chiefly males, had spread itself along the river, constant recruits 
arriving from till parts of South Africa, with a goodly sprinkling 
of Yankees and other keen-witted miners, who brought to bear on 
the new industry their valuable experience gained in Calif omia and 

In the latter part of 1870 news came of the discovery of 
diamonds some twenty miles further south, about midway between 
the Vaal and Modder Rivers, near to where the town of Kimberley 
now stands, and many of the Eiver Diggings were soon abandoned 
by the rush to the farms of Dutoitspan and Bultfontein. The 
improvement was not very encouraging. Neither the river 
diggings nor the newly opened mines were sufficiently rich to 
prove remunerative to so lar^e an influx of -workers with the pri- 
mitive appliances at their disposal, whilst the change from the 
green banks and shady trees of the limpid Vaal to the arid sand 
of Dutoitspan, where water even for domestic purposes was almost 
a luxury and at times quite unobtainable, was not conducive to 
cheer the spirits of men whose hopes of speedy fortime had been 
rudely disappointed. 

Hardly a more dreary existence can be imagined than that of 
the early days on the Diamond Fields. Comforts there were 
^absolutely none. Not a single substantial dwelling afforded shelter 
jfrom the burning sun : men lived under canvas, and the owner of 
jftH iron or wooden shanty was looked upon as a lord. If you 
^crossed the street you trod ankle deep in sand, and probably before 
reaching the other side a small dust storm in embryo had choked 
and blinded you. The dust and the flies, and worse, pervaded 
everywhere ; they sat down with you to meals and escorted you to 
fbed. The want of good food and pure water brought on disease, 
rand many a poor feUow who had expected to flnd an Eldorado on 
rthe Fields succumbed to the fever which threatened to become 
endemic. Yet the men who had subjected themselves to this sort 
•iof life were mostly fresh from the comforts of civilization. There 
was an entire absence of the rowdy uncouth class such as peopled 
:the " Roaring Camps " of the far West. The expense and difficulty 
•of reaching the Diamonds Fields, even from the nearest towns of 
the Cape Colony, kept rogues and loafers out of the place. Though 
distant only 650 miles from Cape Town, and 500 from Port 
Elizabeth, the journey from the latter port occupied a month and 
six weeks from the former. It had to be performed in a spring- 
less transport- wagon, drawn by ten to sixteen bullocks, over roads 

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Du toit's pan and colesberg kopje. 181 

that no description could convey the vileness of, and the cost per 
passenger was not less than fifty pounds. . 

To-day all this is changed. The railway, which has placed the 
Diamond Fields within 30 hours' journey of the coast, now brings a 
daily supply of aU the luxuries the Colony can produce, whilst the 
establishment of the Kimberley waterworks provides a constant 
store of good and cheap water, which not only removes the greatest 
hardship of the early days, but gives an impetus to gardening, so 
that thousands of trees have been planted, and nearly every house 
now boasts its flower-plot. In the last five years large sums have 
been spent in building and other permanent improvements. The 
town has been drained, paved, and lighted, and the public health 
has so greatly improved that '' camp fever " is said to be dying 
out, and seldom now proves fatal. 

The talisman that has wrought these alterations and converted 
within fifteen years a diggers' encampment into a thriving populous 
city, is the wealth produced by Kimberley Mine. 

Early in the year 1871 a new digging was discovered two miles 
distant from Dutoitspan, in a north-westerly direction, and situated 
on a farm named Vooruitzigt, the property of one De Beer, from 
whom it was termed " Old De Beer's." And on this same farm 
in July, 1871, the famous *' Colesberg Kopje " or " De Beer's New 
Eush," as it was variously called, was discovered by a Mr. 
Eawstorne of Colesberg, which town had thus the honour of giving 
its name to the richest mine in the world. By a Government pro- 
clamation issued three years later (see Statute Law of Griqualand 
West, No. 7 of 1874) these diggings were converted into " Mines" 
with the respective titles of "Dutoitspan Mine," "De Beer's- 
Mine," and " Kimberley Mine." The Bultfontein diggings were 
not proclaimed a mine till 1882 (Proc. No. 2J0 of '82). 

Kimberley Mine lies due West of De Beer's, and Bultfonteia 
Mine is to the South West of Dutoitspan. The centres of Kim- 
berley and De Beer's Mines are exactly one mile apart, the centres 
of De Beer's and Dutoitspan just over two miles, whilst the centres 
of Dutoitspan and Bultfontein are less than three-quarters of a^ 
mile. A circle three and a half miles in diameter would enclose 
the whole of the four mines. 

The three adjacent farms containing these four Mines changed 
hands very shortly after the opening of the diggings. The real 
name of the farm containing the Dutoitspan Mine is Dorstfontein. 
This farm was owned in 1870 by one Van Wyk, Dutoit having- 
been the former proprietor, whilst the neighbouring farm of Bult- 
fontein belonged to another Dutchman named Du Plooy. The 
owners had at first issued " brief jes," or licences to dig, at a^ 
trifling charge, but the growing number of diggers soon proved too- 
great for their pastoral tastes, and both owners disposed of their 

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property to Mr. H. B. Webb, through whom it eventually passed 
}into the hands of the London and South African Exploration 

The Vooruitzigt estate was similarly purchased from its owner, 
De Beer, by Messrs. Dunell, Ebden and Co., a Port Elizabeth 
tfirm of merchants, for the sum of £6,000. 

The new proprietors of the several farms were not slow in raising 
.handsome revenues out of the diggers, and not a few complications 
.arose as the rapid development of the industry, particularly on 
Vooruitzigt, demanded an ever increasing area for the prosecution 
'Of the digging operations. 

In addition to the disputes between landlord and tenant, inter- 
national difficulties arose respeotingthe right of government over 
rthe whole territory of Gfriqualand West. 

The Orange Free State (which had been converted into a 
Republic out of the British Orange River Sovereignty in 1854) 
held nominally the reins of government over the digging popula- 
ition till 1871, but its organisation was manifestly imfit to maintain 
Jaw and order amongst that growing independent commimity. 
Moreover its right to tne territory was more than questionable, the 
\true owner being doubtless the chief of the West Qriquas, Kicholas 
Waterboer. This chief had previously petitioned the British 
KJovemment to take him under its protection, and on a renewal of 
his prayer, backed by many of the diggers, his allegiance was 
^accepted, and Sir Henry Barkly, as Her Majesty's High Com- 
missioner in South Africa, by a Proclamation of 27th October, 1871,- 
^declared Waterboer and his tribe to be British subjects, and 
ttheir territory British territory. 

The Free State officials retired, but their government continued 
^0 dispute the legality of the annexation. However in 1876 the 
President, Mr. Brand, visited England, and on 19th July of 
^hat year a convention was signed in London between Lord 
^Carnarvon and himself, whereby the Free State relinquished all 
^ture claim to the territory of Griqualand West, and received 
rfrom the British Government the sum of £90,000 in substitution. 

The administration of the province was for a couple of years 
-entrusted to three Local Commissioners; but in 1873, a change 
%eing needed, Mr. Richard Southey was appointed Lieutenant- 
<}ovemor of Qriqualand West, assisted by a Legislative Council of 
ifour nominee members and four elective members. Under this 
government occurred the memorable " rebellion " of April, 1875, 
when the irritation of the diggers against their rulers rose to such 
:a pitch that the black flag was hoisted and men openly armed 
themselves to conflict the authorities. The disturbance passed off 
without bloodshed, and the subsquent purchase by the Government 
of the farm of Vooruitzigt for the sum of £100,000 led to amitiga- 

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tion of the grievances. Mr. Southey was recalled, and Colonel 
Crossman sent out from England to inyestigate the matter, he 
heing in his turn succeeded by Major Lanyon, who acted as 
"Administrator" till January, 1879 (when he was removed to 
govern the Transvaal), and Colonel Warren was appointed " Acting 
Administrator," in which office he was followed nm« months later 
hy Mr. J. Rose Innes. Mention should be made of the good ser- 
vice rendered by the Diamond Fields Volunteers in the Native 
Wars of 1878-9, which, as well as the sentiments displayed at the 
time of the Transvaal (1879) and Bechuanaland (1885) Expeditions, 
proved the loyalty of the Mining Community. 

On the 18th October, 1880, Qriqualand West was formally incor- 
porated in the Cape Colony. The annexation was much opposed 
on the Fields at the time, but probably the presence of GWqualand 
West Members in the Cape Parliament has assisted the passing 
of wholesome measures needed for the protection of the diamond 

The JDiamond Trade Act (No. 48 of '82) was passed on 30th June, 
1882, the Precious Stones and Minerals Mining Act (No. 19 of 
^83) on 27th September, 1883, and the Eegulation of Trade in 
Diamonds within the Colony Act (No. 14 of '85) on 25th July, 1885. 
The object of these Acts is to consolidate and amend the various 
Mining Ordinances promulgated by the Qriqualand West Govern- 
ment, also to place restrictions on the traffic in diamonds ; to con- 
stitute a Special Court at Kimberley with power to inflict heavy 
penalties (up to fifteen years' imprisonment with hard labour) on 
those convicted of unlawful possession, illicit dealing, and theft ; 
to provide for the better management and supervision of the diggings 
and mines; and finally to extend the diamond trade laws enforced in 
Oriqualand West to the whole of the Cape Colony. 

As early as 1869 a few boers and Kafirs were scraping on the 
surface of the Du Toit's Pan forms, but their finds were insigni- 
ficant, and the appearance of the ground was so different from the 
diamondif erous deposits worked on the Vaal, that the diggers at 
the Eiver paid slight attention to the dry workings. Even after the 
four mines of Du Toits Pan, Bultfontein, De Beer's and Kimber- 
ley had been successively " rushed," no one suspected what a vast 
depth of diamond-bearing rock they contained ; they were supposed 
to be merely another kmd of alluvial deposits, and consequently 
operations were conducted without thought of permanency, which 
has most seriously impeded the subsequent development of the 

Before describing in detail the " Four Mines " which have 
given stability to the diamond industry of South Africa, a few words 
may be said about some surroimding diggings in diluvial soil which 
eaiised a little excitement four or five years ago, but nearly all of 

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which have since been abandoned as unpayable ; indeed, it i& 
doubtful whether at some of these so-called "mines" any 
diamonds at all were discovered. 

The years 1880-81 witnessed the memorable " share mania " 
on the Fields, during which not only most of the private holdings 
in the four mines were converted into Limited Liability Com- 
panies, but the immense demand for mining shares set a nimiber 
of prospectors at work searching for new mines, and trying to open 
up others which, though previously known, had either never been 
worked or were already abandoned. Thus, whilst each morning's 
paper announced the formation of some fresh company for working 
clcams in one or other of the established mines, hardly a month 
went by but some new digging was " rushed," till nearly every 
landowner in the district had begun finding diamonds on his farm. 
The game was a lively one whilst it lasted, and though these 
speculations proved entirely disastrous to the rashly investing 
public, they yielded for some time a considerable revenue in claim 
and stand licences to the Government or proprietors, as the case 
might be. 

In 1881 three new diggings were allotted on the Vooruitzigt 
Estate, namely, St. Augustine's Mine, Taylor's Kopje, and Otto'& 
Kopje, all situated to the westward of Kimberley Mine, and the 
consequent additional revenue to the Government in licence moneys 
amoimted for that year to £4,000 ; in 1882 it had simk to- 
less than half this amount, whilst in the following two years it 
dwindled down to next to nothing at all, evidencing the total 
abandonment of the diggings. A similar fate attended the dig- 
mng of Kamfer's Dam, some three miles to the north-west of 
Kimberley on the Barkly Road, where large sums of money were 
wasted on the erection of costly machinery. Meanwhile some 
half-dozen dry diggings had been " rushed " beyond the Orange 
Free State border, not one of which continues to be worked 
to-day, except Jagersfontein, an old-established mine, 80 miles 
south of Kimberley, in the Fauresmith district, which still 
produces about £50,000 worth of diamonds annually, of a 
peculiarly white quality, about midway in value between 
Kimberley and river stones. Five dry mines have also been 
discovered in the Barkly district, on the tongue of land formed by 
the junction of the Harts and Vaal Rivers. Of these, Victoria 
Mine and Newlands " No. 1 " were opened in 1881, " Newlands 
No. 2 " in 1882, Wrigley's and Borrell's Kopjes both in 1883 ; but 
after yielding a revenue of about £2,000 per annimi for the years 
1883-4, they have all been declared abandoned, except Newlands 
" No. 2," an exceedingly small digging, not to be called a mine at 
all, consisting of only some 10 claims within the " reef," which 
here is a sandstone of unknown depth. A diamond of 6 carata 

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weight is said to have been found here. Within the last few 
months a company has started working St. Augustine's Mine. It 
is situated within the Kimberley township, not much over a 
quarter of a mile from the latter mine, and contains only about 70 

The Kimberley Mine was opened to the public on the 21st of 
July, 1871. It is situated near the centre of the town of 
Kimberley (that has since spnmg up round it) in lat. 28 deg. 42 
min. 54 sec. S., long. 24 deg. 50 min. 15 sec. E., at a height of 
4,050 feet above the sea, so that the mean height of the barometer 
is about 26 inches. 

In the face of a good deal of opposition from the diggers, the 
Government (Orange Free State) Inspector of Mines wisely 
decided to lay out the claims on a different plan than had been 
adopted at the three mines previously opened. Instead of allotting 
the whole area within the mine to be worked as the diggers 
thought fit, he insisted on a reserve strip off each claim being left 
unworked to form roadways. The size of a claim in Kimberley 
Mine is a square measuring 31 feet by 31 feet, the mine itself 
forming an irregular ellipse, of which the major axis points 
approximately east and west. The roadways were designed to 
run parallel with the claim-lines across the narrower width of the* 
Mine from north to south, and each roadway was fifteen feet wide, 
half of this width being cut alternately from the east and the west 
of successive claims, leaving a space of 47 feet of workable ground 
between the roads, so that each claimholder lost a strip of 7 J feet 
off one side of his claim. This loss of ground was more than 
compensated for by the extra facilities for working afforded by 
the roadway. 

The richness of the new mine was apparent from the outset. 
The demand for claims was so great that they were subdivided^ 
first into halves and quarters, then down to eighths and sixteenths. 
By law no individual could hold more than two claims, and the* 
" blocking " of claims was also prohibited, so that although there 
were only about 500 claims in the mine, the number of holders 
was more than threefold, or about 1,600. Many diggers who had 
only paid the customary license of 10s. per month for their claim, 
disposed of it for over £100, and the value went on increasing 
from month to month, till ten years later claims changed hands at 
£10,000 to £15,000 each. But this is anticipating the 
chronological order of events. 

It has been said that the roctdways facilitated the working of 
the Mine. They were 14 or 15 in number, numbered from east ta 
west, and the names of them still survive for convenience of 
describing spots in the mine, or on the plans, though every vestige 
of them has long since disappeared. As early as the beginning 

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1«6 THE "ROADWAYS," 1871-1872. 

of 1872 they began to be unsafe ; the working down of the claims 
on either side in perpendicular walls left precipitous caverns on 
both sides of the roads, and many were the accidents both to the 
workers below and to the carts and passengers along the roads 
before the latter began to cave in. The appearance of the mine at 
this period of its development was most picturesque ; hundreds of 
carts and wheel-barrows careering along the roads, bearing their 
precious freight of excavated groimd clear of the mine to be sorted ; 
down below, at all distances from the surface, a succession of 
rectangular ledges, representing the various working levels of 
different claims, where thousandB of diggers and native labourers, 
crowded together on the narrow working spaces, were busy picking 
and shovelling the ground and filling it into the original tubs and 
buckets of all sorts and sizes employed for conveying it to the 
surface ; some of these were hauled up by ropes and tackle, others 
carried by hand up inclined planks and staircases cut in the 
perpendicular walls ; each man worked on his own device, without 
regard to his neighbour, the only general rule being that the 
roadways must be kept intact. Whether from design or accident, it 
frequently happened that masses of the high ground subsided, 
leaving great chasms in the roads that had to be bridged over by 
the owner to enable the traffic to go on, and by the middle of 1872 
the number of these slips had increased so as to leave the roadways 
little more than a succession of bridges thrown across the mine 
from block to block of claim-ground. It became evident then 
that some change in the system of working was needed, but whilst 
men were wondering what it was to be, the remaining solid 
portions of the roads collapsed, converting the whole works into 
ruins. Some of the diggers were in despair and sold out at once, 
thinking the mine could never recover from such a disaster. But 
it was only the first of a series of imanticipated mishaps that 
Kimberley Mine has experienced, and that any less rich property 
would have succumbed under. 

It is to be regretted that no statistics have been preserved of 
the number of workers employed in the mine at this period. It 
can hardly have been less than ten thousand or twelve thousand, 
and is estimated by many at double that number. The problem, 
now the roadways had collapsed, was how to work the large 
number of separate holdings, so as to preserve free access to each, 
and still let no claimholder encroach or trespass on his neighbour's 

As a temporary expedient, the endless rope principle of haulage 
was adopted, a couple of grooved wheels being fixed, one on the 
margin of the mine, the other in the claim, whilst to the endless 
rope passing over these wheels the bucket was attached, which was 
filled with ground in the claim, and then hauled up and down by 

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A handle on the upper wheel. The objection to this method was ^ 
that the entire circumference of the mine did not afford frontage 
enough for the erection of a hauling gear to each claim, and 
further, that, even had the frontage sufficed, the crossing of ropes 
would have been a serious difficulty. 

Both these difficulties were overcome by the following ingenious 
device. A succession of tall massive timber stagings were erected 
round the margin of the mine. Each staging carried four or six 
platforms one above the other, every platform serving as an inde- 
pendent level from which to communicate with the claims below. 
Stationary ropes were then stretched from the platforms to the 
<3laims, the upper platforms communicating with the claims in the 
<}entre of the mine, the lower platforms with those nearer the 
margin. On each platform from ten to twenty grooved wheels 
were fixed, over which the ropes passed which brought up the 
buckets from the mine, the bucket being swung from the guide or 
stationary rope by a little overhead pulley and frame of original 
design. The hauling ropes were attached to windlasses on the 
fiurface-level, each windlass being worked by four Kafirs. The 
buckets most generally used were constructed of leather, aYid the 
ropes of twisted hide, till the introduction of galvanised iron and 
later of steel-wire ropes gradually superseded them. Arrived at 
the level of the platform, the bucket was tipped into a narrow 
fihoot, down which the ground ran into a bag held ready to receive 
it, in which it was conveyed away to be sorted. The din and rattle 
of these thousands of wheels, and the twang of the buckets along 
the ropes were something deafening, whilst the mine itself seemed 
almost darkened by the thick cobweb of wires, so numerous as to 
appear almost touching one another. This mode of haulage con- 
tinued in vogue during the whole of 1873, and if the appearance of 
the mine was less picturesque than whilst the roadways existed, it was, 
if anything, more arresting in its uniqueness. 

The year 1874 witnessed the establishment of the first Kim- 
berley Mining Board (under Ordinance No. 10 of '74) the internal 
affairs of the Mine having been previously managed by a Diggers' 
Committee. The depth of the Mine had now reached 100 feet, 
and with the increased depth many unforeseen difficulties arose. 
The first of these was an accumulation of water in the lower 
workings ; then the encasing rock of the Mine, or the " Reef," as 
the diggers called it, being exposed by the removal of the diamon- 
difftrous ground, began to disintegrate and fall into the Mine. 
Claimholders in the centre of the Mine suffered most from the 
water ; those near the margin were most troubled by the reef ; but 
it soon became a recognised principle that both reef and water 
should be treated as common enemies, and accordingly a general 
rate was levied on the whole mine to deal with them. The water 

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difficulty would never have been serious, had anything like adequate 
pumping appliances been provided, as no strong springs were met 
with in the workings, and it was mainly surface drainage that had 
to be dealt with. Much more serious have been the reef troubles, 
forming a long chapter of accidents in themselves, from which the 
mine has not even recovered at the present day. 

The first necessity was to provide more powerful hauling 
machinery than the hand tackle hitherto employed. The " horse- 
whim" was introduced in 1874, a large timber wheel, some 20 feet 
in diameter, fixed horizontally 8 feet above the ground with an 
iron hoop reaching down to ihe level of horse's or mule's collar. 
The hauling wire, wound several times round the whim, had its two 
free ends attached to two buckets, one of which ascended from the 
mine as the whim revolved, whilst the other bucket was lowered 

This enabled larger tubs of two or three cubic feet capacity to be 
used, till the introduction of steam engines in the following year 
gradually replaced all other motors. It may seem surprising that 
the advent of steam power was so long delayed, but when it is 
borne in mind that the cost of transit from the coast was £30 to 
£40 per ton, and that no one could foresee the diamondiferous soil 
would have extended to such an unprecedented depth, surprise on 
this score vanishes. 

Indeed, in reviewing the history of diamond mining in South 
Africa, the perfectly novel features of the industry must never be 
forgotten. It is easy to look back and criticise, but to the 
pioneers of the industry there was absolutely no previous ex- 
perience to be guided by. It was a perpetual groping in the dark 
and a necessary waiting for events, and the wonder is that, with all 
the drawbacks of the situation, so much should have been accom- 

Before tracing the more recent development of Kimberley Mine, 
a short description may be given of the methods employed for 
extracting the diamonds from the ground brought to the surface. 

The earliest method was that known as " dry-sorting " — anala- 
gous to the use of the " baby " at the Kiver diggings — and con- 
sisted merely in sifting the excavated ground through hand sieves, 
thereby separating the finer portions from the stones and coarse 
gravel, and then passing the latter over a sorting-table. By this 
method as many diamonds were missed as found, but the scarcity 
of water rendered any process of washing the ground inexpedient 
at the outset. 

An enormous quantity of ground from all the four mines was 
sorted on this principle, the resulting sand or refuse, being known 
as " Debris," has formed the huge heaps of. yellow mounds which 
still disfigure so large a portion of the township. Since the era 

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of washing machines the most of these debris-heaps have been 
washed, and the re-sorting often yields better results than were 
obtained from the maiden ground by the dry process. 

The first washing machine was a modification of the " cradle " 
used at the River, and consisted of an inclined plane on rockers, a 
number of transverse ribs across the plane arresting the heavier 
fituff whilst the lighter groimd flowed over the ribs, leaving the 
rough gravel behind the latter. This was known as the cradle- 
ripple washing machine, and was used from 1874 to 1875, when 
the Rotary Machine was introduced. 

The Rotary Washing Machine is still almost universally em- 
ployed at all the four ifines. It consists of an annular shaped pan, 
oight to fourteen feet in diameter, being closed by an outer and 
an inner rim, the latter being about four feet diameter and not so 
high as the outer rim. A vertical shaft rotates in the centre of 
the open space, and carries ten arms ranged radially round the 
ehaft, each arm having about six vertical knives or teeth which are 
6et to be within half-an-inch of scraping the bottom of the pan. 
The diamondif erous ground mixed witn water enters through an 
orifice in the outer rim of the pan, and is stirred up into a ripple 
by the revolving knives, whereby the lighter stirff comes to the 
fiurf ace and continually floats away through an orifice in the inner 
rim, whilst the heavier gravel falls to the bottom of the pan. For 
Additional safety the teeth are set so as to form a spiral in revolving, 
and co-operate with centrifugal force in throwing every stone they 
fitrike towards the outer rim of the pan. The mud or ** tailings " 
which flows to waste over the inner rim is led by a shoot to a pit, 
whence it is lifted by a chain and bucket elevator some twenty or 
thirty feet high. At the top of the elevator the buckets deliver the 
tailings on to suitable screens, over which the solid mud runs to 
waste, whilst the muddy water is led back by an overhead shoot to 
the machine, to assist in forming a puddle of sufficient consistency 
to float the lighter stones in the pan and allow only the heaviest 
gravel to accumulate at the bottom. For the better mixing of this 
puddle an inclined cylindrical screen is fixed above the level of the 
pan. The dry ground from the Mine is tipped into the upper end 
of the screen, where it is met by the muddy water from the elevator 
and a certain amount of clean water. The large stones of a size 
unlikely to include diamonds roll out at the lower end of the 
cylinder, but the puddle, carrying all the smaller stones with it, 
passes through the wire netting of the screen and down a shoot into 
the pan, as above described. At the end of the day's work, the 
machine is stopped, and the contents of the pan emptied on to the 
sorting table, first undergoing an intermediate process of cleaning, 
-either in an ordinary " cradle " or a small gravitating machine, 
Hstyled a " pulsator." 

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The "pulsator," well known in principle as applied to most 
ore- washing, is employed by some diggers so as entirely to dispense 
with the " panning" process, and affords complete satisfaction. 

Returning now to the operations within the Mine, something 
more must be said about the ill-starred Kimberley Reef, that ha& 
earned for itself a world-wide reputation by its awkward inter- 
ference with workings that, without its presence, would have 
bestowed fabulous wealth on the claimholders. Like the malignant 
elf who came iminvited to the festival and succeeded in mixing a 
curse with all the previous blessings, the reef has been the bane 
and nightmare of Kimberley Mine and its owners. 

To deal more eifectually with the reef removal the Mining 
Board erected costly hauUng machinery on the north-east and 
south-west comers of the mine, at the same time sinking a large 
vertical shaft through the reef at the north-east corner some 200 yards 
back from the limit of the claim-ground. At the depth of 286 feet 
from the surface an exceedingly hard rock was struck upon, and the 
further sinking of the shaft abandoned. But it is deplorable that 
no tunnels were driven towards the mine on the surface of this 
rock, as they might certainly have been used for removing a large 
quantity of dangerous reef from the north and east margins, which 
subsequently fell into the mine, and had to be hauled out by the 
claimholders at an increased cost, after serious stoppage of payable 
work. For conducting operations on a larger scale tramways were 
laid to supersede Scotch carts, and the hauling gears in use by the 
diggers were improved, so as to accommodate tubs of an increased 
capacity. The whims had only drawn up tubs of 3 to 4 cubic 
feet, but the first steam engines in 1875 hauled tubs of three to 
four times that size. At the same time the aerial standing wires 
of each gear were increased from two to four, each tub having a 
carriage with four grooved wheels running on two wires. The 
size 01 these standing wire-ropes has been perpetually increased, 
till to-day the largest are 4J to 5 inches in circimif erenoe, and the 
largest hauling ropes 2 to 2J inches, the power of the hauling 
engines advancing in the same period from 6 to 25 and even 50 
nom. h.p. 

Early in the year 1878 one quarter of the claims were covered 
by reef ; this was being hauled out at a cost to the Board of 4s. 
per load of 16 cubic feet. In the years 1879-80 the Board's 
expenditure on the removal of reef, debris, and water exceeded 
£300,000, although the reef tariff had been reduced from 4s. to 
2s. 6d. per load. At the end of 1881 the Mining Board had 7 
miles of tramway in use, whilst another 12 miles had been laid 
down by claimholders. During that year the Board expended over 
£200,000 in reef removal ; but the work had been commenced too 
late, the slips became ever greater, so that in 1882 more than half" 

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THE "reef" difficulty, 1878-1883. 191 

Or-million sterling was needed to defray the cost of the reef actually 
removed, and still claims were covered and other slips impendiog. 
The bulk of this removal had been done by the claimholders 
themselves, at the Board's expense. A couple of private shafts 
had been sunk some years previously, one on the north, the other 
on the south reef, at distances of about 450 and 650 feet 
respectively from the limit of claim-ground, and through these 
shafts a quantity of the upper reef was removed by means of 
timnels and " passes," the fallen reef from the lower claims being 
hauled out by the aerial trams. A third shaft sunk through the 
north-east reef to a depth of 100 feet in the latter part of 1882, 
was used for lightening the top reef in that part of the mine ; 
whilst inclined tramways on the west and east sides of the mine 
were conducting similar operations in the open. Notwithstanding 
all these appliances the reef removal did not keep pace with the 
constantly recuiTing slips. The tariff had been raised in October, 
1881, to 3s. 9d. per load, and during the following eighteen 
months the reef hauled by claimholders alone cost the Board over 
£650,000. Unable to meet this large expenditure by cash 
payments the board had recourse to bills, with the result that by 
the end of March, 1883, its books showed a deficit of over a 
quarter of a million sterling. The local ban^s refusing then to 
discount its reef -bills any further, a financial crisis arose, causing a 
dead-lock in the operations of the mine. Outsiders freely stated 
that Kimberley mine was ruined. 

During 1882, in spite of the unprecedented amount of reef 
removed, more than half the claims in the mine remained encum- 
bered, and even these were only able to be worked intermitteutlyy 
so that the total operations for the year showed three loads of reef 
hauled for every single load of diamondiferous groimd. It is- 
probable that had this heavy quantity of dead work been performed 
systematically, spread over a number of years, and with due regard 
to economy, the whole mine might have been cleared of dangerous 
reef long prior to this date, and without any excessive strain on 
the finances of claimholders or the Board. The total amoimt of 
solid and fallen reef removed since the opening of the mine in 
1871 to the end of 1882 was imder ten million loads of sixteen 
cubic feet each ; but of this amount nearly one-third, or almost 
three million loads, had been removed in the year 1882 alone. 
The gross cost to the Board, up to this date, had been about one- 
and-a-half million sterling, expended on reef removal alone (in 
addition to expenses of removing water and debris), and yet 
nearly an equal amount of reef remained to be removed to make 
the mine permanently safe for open working, and of this quantity 
of dead-work still to be done a largo portion was urgently called 
for, if it was not to be too late to afford relief to tne workings 

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-threatened, or already submerged. As evidence of how tardily 
and expensively the past reef removal had been conducted, it may 
be stated that if the work had proceeded uniformly through the 
previous ten years, instead of being mainly done in the four years 
ending 1882, it would not have entailed a greater expenditure 
than £10,000 per month ; and that such a burden might have 
been borne without inconvenience is shown by the fact that in the 
.eighteen months ending 31st March, 1883, the self-imposed rates 
borne by claimholders exceeded £32,000 per month, and yet 
xiuring that period less than half the area of the mine was yielding 
J8L revenue and the price of diamonds was lower than it has ever 
been before or since. In the month of June, 1882, the enormous 
flimi of £70,000 was expended on reef removal alone. Taking the 
above considerations together, it is not too much to say that the 
burden of reef-removal has been six-fold greater on claimholders 
-than it need have been. 

Still, as previously remarked, these statements must not be 
regarded as conveying any serious reflection on the ability of 
those who had the mining operations under their control. It is 
easy to be wise after the event, and in Kimberley Mine it would 
have been miraculous had no mistakes been made, new in every 
respect and fraught with a succession of surprises as the develop- 
ment the mine has been. 

At a depth of about 100 feet below the surface the appearance 
of the diamondiferous soil suddenly changed. Hitherto it had 
been of a soft friable nature, yellowish in colour, and crumbling as 
fioon as exposed to the air. But below that level it grew gradually 
harder and altered from yellow to a slate blue colour. Once more a 
panic seized the workers, who thought this time the bottom of the 
mine had been surely reached. It was soon found, however, that 
the " blue ground," (as it was called) also pulverised after short 
^exposure to the atmosphere, and that far from being barren of 
diamonds, it yielded even better returns than the upper layers of 
^'yellow groimd." It is now known that the latter is simply the 
^* blue ground " changed from its original toughness and colour by 
the action of the atmosphere. The deepest sinkings in Kimberley 
Mine are now 600 feet below the surface, but the nature of the 
^* blue " has not altered, except by becoming harder and more 
-crystallised. The rocks encasing the diamond-bearing soil were 
also found to imdergo a corresponding change. The surface of the 
whole country is covered with red sandy soil, varying from a few 
inches to a couple of feet in depth ; underneath this is a thin layer 
of calcareous tufa never extending beyond a few feet ; both these 
layers are of recent date, even still in course of formation, and are 
found equally over the Mine and the surrounding coimtry. But 
beneath the lime the distinction between the Mine proper and the 

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outside rooks or " reef " first becomes apparent. The upper reef 
in Kimberley Mine is a yellow shale, exhibiting many varieties of 
shade from grey to pink. This extended to a depth of 35 to 50 
feet, beneath which as the contents of the Mine, or diamond- 
bearing " pipe," were worked out, a layer of black carbonaceous 
shale was made visible. The strata of both shales are roughly 
horizontal, though much disturbed in places, and where cut 
through by the vertical "pipe," they have their edges turned 
sharply upwards, as by a pressure from below. At a depth varying 
from 260 to 285 feet from the surface of the red sand the lower 
shale ceases, giving place to an imstratified basaltic rock, the 
^* hard rock " of the miners. The extent of this hard rock is as 
yet imknown; though not quite all the "blue" has been re- 
moved to this level, it has been recently ascertained that the 
basaltic rock encircles the entire mine. It is an amygdaloidal 
dolorite, identical in character with the bed-rock at the Vaal River 
diggings, and the quantity of agate it contains renders it most 
expensive to sink through. In tne shale on the south side of the 
mine a limip of coal was discovered, and within the mine itself 
eharredwood fossils have been foimd. Thin veins of calc-spar are 
of frequent occurrence, vaalite, mica, iron pyrites and hornblende, are 
disseminated throughout the "blue," besides fragments and masses 
of shale, sandstone, and boulders of dolorite. Though elaborate 
analyses of the diamond-bearing rock have been made, its precise 
nature is still doubtful ; a catalogue of all it contains would fill a 
page. It is a hydrous magnesian conglomerate, with silica as a 
base. The generaUy accepted theory is that the "pipe " is the funnel 
of an extinct volcano, and that the diamond-bearing rock, which now 
fills it and forms the mine, has been upheaved from a vast depth, 
the diamonds themselves being of earlier date than the upheaval. 

The discovery of the hard rock practically confined the reef diffi- 
culty within manageable limits, as there is little doubt the former 
will stand without disintegrating, even when exposed to a great 
depth. But the experience of successive reef slips has considerably 
increased the estimate of the shale to be removed to render the 
mine safe for working on the open or quarry principle. It was 
first supposed the reef would stand if cut back to an angle of 60 
degrees receding from the mine. Then for several years 45 
degrees was spoken of as the angle of repose, and now it is found 
that an angle of 30 degrees will be needful. A scheme was started 
some five years ago for cutting down the reef to a safe angle in 
spiral terraces, and heavy rollmg stock and locomotives were pro- 
cured for the purpose, but the work was undertaken at too low a 
rate — Is. 7d. per load of 16 cubic feet — and the contractors, Messrs. 
Teague and Co., failed before much more than a commencement 
had been made. 

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As before stated, the bulk of the reef has been removed by the 
fixed hauling gears of claimholders themselves, either through 
shafts or by aerial trains. The excavated reef was tipped in long^ 
embankments branching out to the north and west of the miney 
without much regard to the valuable areas thus encumbered and 
broken up. This tipping should have been confined to one locality^ 
so as not to interfere with the space needed for washing operations^ 
and depositing sites, a vast area being required for spreading out 
the excavated blue ground in thin layers to enable it to pulverize. 

The yellow groimd pulverized so readily that it could be taken 
direct from the mine to the washing machines. As a consequence 
these were fixed much too near the margin of the mine, and the , 
accumulation of " tailings " as well as of " debris " from the " dry- 
sorting " days aggravated the subsidence of the reef. This was 
further hastened by the heavy blasting carried on in the mine, the 
toughness of the " blue " necessitating the use of dynamite. 

An immense quantity of this explosive is annually consumed on 
the Fields, and the careless storage of it led to the terrific explosion 
of the 10th of January, 1884, when, probably through the 
accidental ignition of petroleimi stored in the immediate vicinity^ 
twelve powder-magazines, containing 30 tons of dynamite, 10 ton» 
of powder and blasting gelatine, and several himdred thousand 
detonators and rifle cajrtridges, were blown to atoms. Luckily^ 
little damage was done to life or property, beyond the value of the 
explosives themselves, estimated at £17,000, but the horrible 
report of the explosion and the ghastly column of smoke which 
seemed as if it would bear down the town, as well as the scene on 
the groimd after the disaster, wiU not soon be forgotten by those 
who heard and saw them. The smoke-column, over a thouscaid 
feet high, was clearly visible at the farthest Eiver Diggings, 3& 
miles away. The hours of blasting on the Fields are at mid-day 
and after sunset, and a stranger hearing it for the first time woidd 
fancy himself in a besieged city. The firing in the four mines 
continues for ten or fifteen minutes. It is most interesting to* 
stand on the margin of one of them, looking down into the vast 
cavern, and watch the shots go off. Some are fired by battery, 
others by slow fuse ; the fuse may be seen smoking, then f ollows^ 
the dull heavy report, and a few seconds after the maas of detached 
ground slowly breaks away, rolling down till it finds a resting^ 

Elace, where it remains ready for loading into the tubs when the 
tbourers return and work is resumed. 

Kafir labour is mainly employed in all the less responsible 
operations of the mines : in drilling holes for the dynamite 
cartridges, in picking and breaking up the grotrnd in the claim* 
and trucking it to the tub lowered to receive it ; then in trucking' 
it away from the depositing boxes and the margin of the mine and 

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tipping it on the depositing floors, where it undergoes a variety oF 
processes before it is ready for washing, and is again filled into- 
trucks and driven to the machines. For every three truck-loads* 
of ground daily hauled out of the mine there is on an average one* 
KaSr labourer employed, and to every five Kafirs there is one white- 
overseer or artizan. In 1882 the number of native labourers in- 
Kimberley Mine was 4,000 ; but in 1884, owing to the serious- 
stoppage of works, they had sunk to 1,500. These labourers are 
recruited from 16 or 20 different native tribes from various parte* 
of the Colony and the Interior, the proportion of the several tribes at 
any time on the Fields varying greatly according to the internals 
state, whether of peace or war, of the district whence they hail. 
Out of 20,000 natives arriving in search of work in the first half' 
of 1882, 8,000 were Seoocoeni's Basutos, 6,000 Shangans, 1,500- 
British Basutos, and 1,000 Zulus, the balance consisting of repre- 
sentatives of no less than 16 other different tribes and races. The-^ 
market afforded for the employment of native labour and the 
consequent development of native trade is not the least of the 
incidental benefits conferred on South Africa by the discovery of 
the Diamond Fields. 

It was remarked above that had the reef removal, performed up- 
to the end of 1882, been spread uniformly over the preceding ten^ 
years, instead of done under urgent pressure in the last five,, 
the mine might have been kept clear of reef slips without any 
excessive burden of rates on the claimholders. Even in 1883,, 
after more than a million and a half sterling had been spent on? 
this work, the mine might rapidly have been cleared of what had * 
already fallen, and subsequent reef slips averted, could the work, 
have been continued with the same vigour as exhibited during- 
1882, and by the present time the whole margin of the mine- 
would have been worked down to a safe angle. There can be no- 
question that, considering how much of this work had already- 
been completed, it would have been the wisest plan to proceed 
with it, as though nearly an equal quantity still remained to be* 
done, ilie reduced cost of working in these latter years would have 
enabled the expenditure of another million sterling to see the^ 
mine permanently clear of its reef troubles. Unfortimately, the- 
funds for the prosecution of further dead work on a large scaler 
were not forthcoming. Sev^al attempts to obtain a loan in 
Europe for this purpose were abortive, mainly, no doubt, througL 
a clawiing of interests and want of unanimity amongst the claim- 
holders themselves. That the mine had ample security to offer- 
must be evident to anyone acquainted with its capabilities. 
Notwithstanding its encumbered position, with not one quarter of* 
its claims free to yield diamonds, and in spite of an unprecedented 
fall in prices, the year 1883 saw Kimberley mine turn out 


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"diamonds to the value of £846,706. In the following year, 
owing entirely to the stoppage of payable work through continuous 
'Teef -slips, the production nad fallen to £634,332; whilst in 
1885 it has been only £458,858, or not more than the mine 
produced in the last four months of 1882, viz., £456,420. Had 
it been possible to continue the open workings, there is no doubt 
the annual production would have exceeded one million sterling. 
How Kimberley has suffered through the cessation of energetic 
reef -work may be seen from a comparison with the other three 
mines of the (Ustrict, which, being shallower and also larger in area, 
have so far had little interference from reef -slips. In the eighteen 
months ending February, 1884, Elimberley mine produced 
4,429,727 carats of diamonds, bein^ equal to the combined pro- 
duction of Bultfontein and Dutoitspan, each of which mines 
produced a little over 700,000 carats in the same period. In the 
'following eighteen months ending 31st August, 1885, Kimberley 
produced only 850,396 carats, as against Bultfontein 877,648; 
be Beer's, 790,908 ; and Dutoitspan, 773,307. 

The area of Elimberley mine, origincJly enclosed within the 
^reef , was about eleven statute acres. Successive slips and removal 
of reef have widened this area, till to-day the huge orifice 
?presented to the spectator displays a gap of twenty-five or thirty 
^cres. If the reef were cut back to the 30° angle, the mouth of 
-^e orifice would measure over 40 acres or about one-sixteenth of 
a square mile. 

The enclosing rocks of the mine, which form the walls of the 
'•diamond bearing " pipe," are not perpendicular, but converge in- 
wards from the surface downwards. The average dip of the reef 
or shale was 1 in 3, forming a natural angle, before it began to 
Hshell off, of about 70 degrees with the horizon. The hard rock, which 
is reached at a depth of about 270 feet from the surface, also in- 
clines inwards, though at a much less rate than the shale. The 
average inclination of the hard rock is about 1 in 12, and it is 
greater at the south than at the north side of the mine. It will 
Tthus be seen that the area of claim groimd is constantly reduced as 
the mine deepens. 

The last Mining Board assessment shows 331 claims on which 
licences were still paid at the end of 1885, but some of these are 
• claims at the west end of the mine, on which a quantity of high 
,ground is still standing. The actual size of the mine at the level 
of the top of the hard rock is not more than 280 claims, or about 6 
. acres. How deep this continual " cutting-out " of claims will ex- 
tend cannot yet be ascertained. It is stated that in some of the 
lowest underground sinkings, more than 600 feet below the surface, 
"the rock is found to recede from the mine, thus regaining a certain 
i»area of diamondif erous ground. 

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This contingenoy, which is likely enough to happen, has been^ 
provided for in the Precious Stones and Minerals Act of 1883* 
(Section LXTK) in which it is enacted that the whole mine shall 
participate in any such event, the diamonds from such expanded 
claims to be the common property of the then registered claim- 
holders, with a reservation of 2^ per cent, of their gross returns to- 
the Government. 

The greatest depth to which workings in the open mine had ex- 
tended by the end of 1885 was 450 feet. The cubical contents of 
this huge cavity measure about 9,000,000 cubic yards, of which 
about half represents the reef hauled out, and the other half 
diamondiferous ground, both *' yellow " and " blue." The yield. 
of diamonds from this big excavation since the opening of the 
mine in 1871 to the end of 1885 has probably exceeded seventeen 
and a half million carats, equal to three and one-half tons weight 
of precious stones, in value about £20,000,000, whilst the total 
weight of reef and ground excavated exceeds 20,000,000 tons. 

Large fortunes had been made out of Kimberley Mine prior 
to the bulk of the claims being formed into companies in 1880. 
But even since that date, in spite of all the drawbacks of the 
situation, the profits made whenever work could proceed have been 
enormous. One company with a capital of over £100,000 paid 
back in the three years after formation 87 per cent, in dividencb to 
the shareholders, and another company with a capital of a little 
over half a million paid within the same period nearly £300,000 
in dividends ; whilst a third company with a capital rather imder 
£350,000, and which was £33,000 in debt at the end of 1883, 
managed to pay ofE the whole of this liability in the following year^ 
besides showing £15,000 to the good ; and in 1885, after paying 
out £27,500 in dividends, there was still a profit of over £40,000 
to carry forward. Slowly, but surely, Kimberlejr mine is recover- 
ing from the reverses of me last three years, and it may confidently 
be stated that a most brilliant future awaits it. With ground 
yielding, on an average, from 10s. to 30s. profit per load (equiva- 
lent to 30s. and 90s. per cubic yard), even the colossal burdens it- 
has been suddenly called upon to bear, joined to an almost total 
stoppage of works, and wholesale destruction of property through 
reef-faUs, cannot do more than cause temporary depression in the 
fortunes of the mine. It is probable that out of the gross returns- 
mentioned above fully seven millions sterling have been nett profit. 

A few words must now be said about the manner in which the- 
mine has overcome the accumulation of reef troubles which three- 
years ago seemed to threaten it with disaster. The dilemma was 
really a most grave one. The financial position of the Mining 
Board rendered a continuance of heavy reef work in the absence 
of outside assistance impossible. Still less could any individual 

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Kjlaimholders contemplate reaohing their submerged grounds by 
means of tunnels and shafts sunk outside the mine, the expense of 
Coring through the hard rook, besides being too costly, was too 
lengthy an operation to afford the speedy relief that was needed. 
At this juncture a mining engineer who had been conducting 
targe reef contracts for some time previously propounded a scheme 
which, though startling in its novelty and pooh-poohed by most 
practical miners at the time, was shortly afterwards carried into 
•execution by the inventor at his own risk, and has actually enabled 
•the mine to tide over its gravest diflBciilties. ThB question was 
how to get out diamondiferous ground at once without the prose- 
-cution of further dead work. 

" Jones System," as it has been styled after its inventor, over- 
*came these diflSculties in the following manner. A shaft was sunk 
'through the fallen reef within the mine, on the "cofEer-dam" 
principle of gradually lowering a square timber box, without 
^bottom, through the loose stuff, shovelling out the reef from the 
inside, and fixmg-on box after box to the first one, till it had sunk 
right down to the bottom of the fallen reef, forming a strong 
timbered shaft within the latter, and resting, at last, on the solid 
"** blue ground." In this mode more than a hundred feet of loose 
sreef were successfully sunk through, after which the shaft could 
•easily be extended to any desired depth into the " blue," and 
funnels driven in all directions, so as to continue the excavation of 
the mine underground. The great merit of the scheme was that 
it entailed little initial outlay, whilst as soon as the " blue" was 
-reached the work of " opening up" the galleries more than paid 
for itself, in the value of the ground removed, which was reached 
•within a few months after starting the shaft. At the present day 
there are no less than six shafts m Kimberley mine sunk on this 
/principle, and by their means several hundred thousand loads of 
"** blue" have been hauled out. 

Meanwhile, the two private shafts on the north and south reefs, 
vpreviously mentioned, have been deepened ; the former having 
recently been connected with the underground workings in the 
enine at a depth of over 520 feet, so that the excavated " blue " 
may be hauled either direct to the surface, up the outside shaft, 
OT to the level of the bottom of the open mine up the 
internal shaft, and thence by the aerial trams to the surface. In 
the event of any further reef -slips damaging the head gear of the 
^latter shaft, egress will be preserved through the former, and as 
>even this shaft is rather near to the present edge of the Mine, 
isecond outside shaft has been sunk 120 yards further back, down 
to the top of the hard rock, and a tunnel driven along the surface 
of this rock connecting the two outside shafts together. Connected 
wth this system of workings there are two other shafts within the 

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mine, making three mine shafts and two outside shafts in all. The 
main tunnel connecting the deeper outside shaft with the shaft in 
the centre of the mine is 700 feet long, of which 500 feet are driven 
through the " hard rock," IngersoU drills, with compressed air, 
having been used for the purpose. The lower half of the deep 
shaft IS also sunk through the hard rock to a depth of 230 feet 
through the latter, and at the bottom of this shaft a large direct- 
acting oondensinff steam pump is fixed, capable of dealing with the 
whole drainage oi the mine. Tramways are, of course, laid through 
all the imderground tunnels as well as on the level of the open 
workings in the mine, the material consisting chiefly of light steel 
rails, 12 to 14 lbs. to the yard, and light wagons of 16 cubic feet 
capacity, constructed wholly of steel, the gauge of tramway being 
18 inches. The shafts are made to accomm^ate two cages, each 
holding one of these wagons, of which one ascends whilst the other 
goes down, and the wagons arrived at the top of the main shaft 
are drawn away to the depositing floors by locomotives. The mode 
of excavation adopted is shown on the accompanying plan of 
(section of the mine. 

Where the main tunnel cuts through the junction of the hard 
rock or " blue," a couple of cross tunnels are driven at right angles 
to the first one, and running in opposite directions till they reach 
the boundaries of the company's claims. These cross tunnels have 
therefore a wall of hard rook on one side, whilst the roof and other 
side are solid " blue." The excavation is then continued by cutting 
down the " blue " from the roof overhead, but instead of trucking 
away the " blue " as it falls, the rails in the tunnel are taken up 
and the " blue " allowed to pack underfoot, the miners therefore 
being continually climbing to a higher level, whilst the height of 
the tunnel in which they are workmen remains imiform, just high 
enough for them to be in touch with me roof. In order to preserve 
safe means of access and egress for the workers in this continually 
rising chamber, a couple of cross headings are driven parallel with 
it five feet high by four feet wide, branching out at right angles 
from either side of the main tunnel and leaving a solid wall of 
^* blue " ten feet thick between the cross headings and the working 
chamber. A number of inclined passes are then driven at a sharp 
angle through this wall of blue connecting the cross-headings with 
the working chamber, and where they strike the latter vertical 
" pass-pits " are carried up, rising simultaneously with the chamber 
and separated from it by a three-inch plank which prevents the 
loose pack of " blue " from filling the passes. At last the overhead 
excavation of the chamber has proceeded so far as to nearly strike 
the fallen reef which at present covers all the open workings in the 
mine. The crown of the chamber is then broken through at either 
end, and the loose reef allowed to enter and pack on the top of the 

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excavated " blue." A sliding door in the planks at the bottom of 
the pass-pits is then opened and the excavated " blue " drawn ofif, 
sliding down the incKned passes into trucks in the cross-headings^ 
which convey it through the main tunnel and shaft to me 
surface. As the " blue " is drayni off, the loose reef aboye it sub- 
sides and takes its place till the chamber is entirely emptied of 
" blue " and filled with reef. The sliding-doors are then closed, 
and the excavation of that chamber is complete. Meanwhile a 
second set of cross-leadings have been driven ten feet further back 
and parallel with the first set, and now the opening up of a second 
chamber commences which isvorks down the ten-feet wall of " blue "^ 
previously left, and also the " blue " above the first eross-headings, 
vertical pass-pits being carried up as before connected at the bottom 
by inclined passes wim the second cross-headings. A thin partition 
of solid " blue " is left between the second chamber and the reef 
which now fills the first chamber, but the operations in this second 
chamber differ slightly from those of the first. Instead of allow- 
ing the " blue " cut from the crown to pack underfoot, it is sent 
down the inclined passes to the trucks as soon as excavated. In 
order, then, to continually raise the miners to the level of their 
work at the crown, the thin partition of " blue " is broken through 
under foot suiB&ciently to allow the reef from the first chamber to 
flow laterally into the second one and afford a footing for the 
miners. The planks which formed the screens of the first pass- 
pits are carried into the new chamber by the inflowing reef, and 
utilised again as screens for the second series of pass-pits, down 
which the " blue " is being shot as quickly as it can be made loose. 
A third chamber is started and worked up in the same way aa the 
second, which has been kept a uniform height by the reef flowing 
in at the feet of the workers, and the reef again from the second 
chamber is passed on into the third, the supply of reef being kept 
up from overhead where there is a practically unlimited store of it, 
as it lies more than a hundred feet thick over what were once the 
open workings of the mine. When an entire level some sixty or 
seventy feet tnick has in this manner been excavated of ''blue" and 
filled with reef, a set of workings are commenced at a lower level 
and the reef again passed down to do service there, as it previously 
passed to the higher level from the open mine. In the manner 
above described twelve to fifteen hundred loads of rich blue ground 
are being daily excavated and sent to the surface. 

In another part of the mine an entirely opposite system of ex- 
cavation is being successfully conducted. In this Company'^ 
claims a shaft is sunk in the " blue " to a total depth of 612 feet 
below the red soil, and two sets of workings opened up, one at thi» 
lowest level in course of preparation, whilst a first level eighty feet 
higher is now being worked out. At each level two sets of tunnels 

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are used one above the other at a vertical distance of fifty feet 
apart, the upper tunnels being the level at which the excavation of 
large chambers is commenced which are gradually worked down- 
ward, the roof being left untouched and the excavated ground 
delivered down vertical passes to the trucks in the lower or main 
tunnels, which are also the level from which the hauling is done. 
The shaft measures about ten feet by five feet in cross section, 
leaving room for two cages and a ladder-way, which is used at 
present for drawing up the ground from the lowest level workings 
that are being made ready against the time when the 432 feet level 
will be worked out. No reef is let down to fill up the chambers 
in this system, but on the contrary, when these have attained such 
dimensions as to appear imsafe to work in, they are abandoned a& 
underground workmgs for workings that have been meanwhile 
prepared at the lower level. What becomes then of the consider- 
able mass of solid " blue " ground left standing in the crown and 
pillars of the abandoned chambers ? As every cubic yard is worth 
from £3 to £6 it can evidently not be thrown away. A clearance 
is made of the fallen reef lying around the Company's shaft 
in the open mine, till the surface of the " blue " is reached, 
after which it is possible to work down in the open mine until 
the pillars and crowns of the last abandoned underground chambers 
have been all removed by the aerial tram. These chambers were 
fifty feet high in the first level, but it has been f oimd expedient 
4>o reduce the maximum height for the future to 32 feet. 

Before taking leave of Kimberley Mine it may be well to convey 
some idea of the large profits which by judicious management may 
still be drawn from this rich ground in spite of the low price of 

The following is an abridged Profit and Loss Account of the 
Company last referred to for the year ending 30th November, 1885 : 

Dr. £ s. d. 
To Wages, Salaries, Fees, 

&o 49,481 7 

„ Fuel and Water . . 10,930 6 
„ Explosives . . . . 3,673 17 1 
„ Forage & Stable Account 3,523 1 9 
„ Material used for Main- 
tenance and Stores . . 5,242 6 3 
„ Rates and Licenses and 

General Expenses . . 3,655 2 4 

„ Balance of Profit . . 78,802 13 6 

£155,308 8 5 

£ s. d. 

5 9 

880 19 3 
1,977 15 6 


By Diamonds Account : 

135,684 Carats at 19/2i 130,466 
„ Debris, Tailings, &c. : 
Sold, washed on per- 
„ Hauling for other Com- 

„ Kimberley Mining Board : 
Water Hauling, 
2,325,296 gaUons . . 1,442 7 11 
„ Blue Ground on Floors: 
Less 13,649 Loads at 10/ 
on Floor Nov.- 30th, 
64,731 Loads on Floor 
on Nov. 30th, 1885, 
£27,365 10s. Od. 
Increase 41,082 Loads at 10/ 20,541 

£155,308 8 5 

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The preceding Account represents the cost and profits resulting 
from washing 88,185 loads of blue ground (16 cub. feet to the load), 
which yielded an average of 1*54 carats of diamonds per load, or 
a total of 135,684 carats, realizing 19/2f per carat, so that the 
value of the ground per load was 29/7. The cost of washing, 
including manipulation on the depositing floors, was 3/6 per load. 
The above expenses include also the cost of hauling 125,021 loads 
of reef, towards clearing the Company's claims, at a cost of 2/ per 
load ; also of hauling by the tubs of the aerial tram 2,325,296 
gallons of water out of the mine at a cost of 1/3 per 100 gallons ; 
finally the cost of excavating, hauling, and depositing on the 
Company's floors 134,701 loads of blue ground, (of which 70,000 
loads were drawn from the underground workings) at a cost of 6/9 
per load. Thus the entire cost of winning the diamonds from one 
load of blue ground, including all expenses of management, 
maintenance, and necessitating the removal of about an equal 
bulk of fallen reef, and including also a heavy amount written 
off for depreciation of machinery, amounted to about sixteen 
sMlUngs per had^ showing a clear proflt of about 13/6 per loadj or 
66 per cent on the gross production. 

The De Beer's Mine, situated likewise within the township of 
Kimberley, on the Government Estate of Vooruitzigt, is similar in 
formation to Eimberley Mine, though about a fifth larger in area. 
It is of irregular oblong shape, with a bulge at the south-east comer, 
and measures about 320 yards over surface from east to west, and 
about 210 yards from north to south. The reef encasing the mine 
for a depth of 100 feet is a yellow basalt, after which succeeds a 
layer of black shale which extends to a total average depth of 290 
feet from the red sand at which level the hard igneous rock is 
struck. Within the mine diamondiferous soil is " yellow groimd " 
to a depth of 100 feet from the surface, followed by an 
imknown depth of "blue ground." Across the mine from 
south to north a great belt of blue shale originally covered 
a large area of claim ground, but the bulk of this inside 
shale (termed "floating reef" by the miners) has been 
removed, as the blue groimd beneath is known to be peculiarily 
rich. Just as in Kimberley Mine there is a great difference in the 
relative richness of ground in different sections of the mine. A 
belt of rich claims spans the centre of the mine from north to south 
running out towards the north-east comer where some of the 
richest ground is found. The western portion of the mine, com- 
prising one third of the entire claims, was left unworked for many 
years, as it was found on the surface to be unpayable, but the 
deepening of the workings in the centre of the mine eventually 
left so high a wall of yeUow ground standing on the western 
boundary that at last it collapsed, causing in March, 1886, 

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THE DE beer's MINE. 203 

-the largest fall of diamondiferous ground that has ever occurred at 
say of the Mines. Taking warning from the experience of Kim- 
T^erley the De Beers' Mine has been steered clear of serious reef 
difficulties. As the deep workings have been mostly confined to 
the north and north-east sections, it has been possible to cut down 
the marginal reef in this locality so as to enable the sinking in the 
open mine to proceed until recent years without much interruption 
from this cause. In September, 1883, however, a considerable faU 
of main reef took place in the north-east comer, followed early in 
the succeeding year by another fall of like magnitude, and when 
-fco these troubles was added the huge fall of nearly half a million 
loads of top impayable ground from the south-west comer, claim- 
holders were necessarilly forced to consider some alternative to 
continuous working in the open mine, unless they could contem- 
plate laimching into an enormous expenditure for cutting down the 
Teef to a safe angle. As regards the future of Kimberley Mine it 
is still an open question whether at some not distant date it may 
not be expedient to continue the reef hauling till the entire mine 
has been cleared of the rubbish now encumbering it and rendered 
€afe from further reef falls. After nearly two-thirds of this dead 
work has been completed at a gross cost of some £1,800,000 it may 
seem wise to complete the remaining third, for which a further 
expenditure of probably less than £700,000 would suffice, after 
which the difficidties, dangers and expense of imderground working 
would be reduced to a miTn'mum. But in De Beer's Mine the 
conditions are quite different. Comparatively little reef work has 
yet been done, owing to the deep workings being confined to one 
portion of the mine, the total expenditure on reef hauled at the 
Mining Board's expense not having exceeded £150,000, whilst a 
gross cost of something like £2,500,000 would be incurred iu 
cutting down the whole reef to the level of the hard rock. It is 
therefore apparent that abandoniug aU idea of grappling with the 
xeef the future excavation of the De Beer's Mine must proceed 

This is actually the conclusion which claimholders have come to, 
and within the last year five out of the seven companies at present 
holding the entire mine have sunk shafts within the mine for the 
purpose of reaching their "blue" ground. One company owning a 
large portion of the east end of the mine has been working its claims 
for some years past by a large shaft sunk 200 yards outside the 
reef margin, with a tunnel driven from the shaft into the mine 
at a depth of 150 feet from the surface. Two years ago another 
company, the largest holders in the mine, commenced sinking a 
large circular shaft 1,000 feet outside the northern margin of the 
mine, which was designed to penetrate the hard rock, but the great 
expense this would have incurred has induced it to be temporarily 

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abandoned, and in the place of it an inclined shaft has been sunk 
on the west margin at an angle of 34 degrees from the vertical. 
Starting 130 feet back from the boundary of the claim ground, 
this inclined shaft penetrates the basaltic rock and black shale and 
enters the claim ground at a depth of 200 feet from the surface, 
thus missing the hard rock altogether. The extreme length of 
the shaft is 645 feet, its lowest end being 500 feet vertically below 
the surface. Two sets of working galleries are opened up, one at 
this lowest 500 feet level, another set 120 feet higher, at a distance of 
380 feet from the surface, and the higher level workings commxmi- 
cate also with the open workings in the mine. The inclined shaft 
is strongly timbered throughout its entire length and has two sets 
of rails laid in it, on which a couple of triangular cages pass up 
and down. Many novel features connected with the development 
of underground working in diamond mines might be dwelt upon 
if space permitted, but to the financial mind a lew figures relative 
to cost of working and profit in De Beer^s may be of greater 

Like Kimberley, this mine has been considerably reduced in size 
by the cutting in of the hard rock. Recent borings make it pro- 
bable that at 300 feet below the surface the number of claims left 
in the De Beer's Mine will be less than 400, or but two-thirds of 
the original number at surface. The greatest depth reached in 
the open workings is 370 feet, whilst the underground workings 
have extended to 630 feet deep. The present area or orifice is 
about 15 acres, or about two acres larger than the original area of 
claims at the surface. The area of claim ground at level of hard 
rock will be probably not much over 8 acres. The mean depth of 
the mine, as at present developed, is 200 feet, about 60 claims at 
the West End being still untouched, and a great mass of yellow 
ground remaining there to be worked. The volume of diamond- 
Serous groimd excavated from the whole mine measures about 
3,250,000 cubic yards, in addition to some 750,000 cubic yards of 
main and floating reef. The gross value of diamonds produced by 
De Beer's Mine between the years 1871 and 1885 inclusive is 
not much under £9,000,000, representing about 1^ tons weight of 
precious stones. The present average production in value amounts 
to £500,000 per annum. 

As previously stated, the value of ground from different parts 
of the mine varies greatly, the best ground in De Beer's being 
quite as rich as Kimberley Mine. 

As an instance of the most profitable working, the following 
abridged profit and loss account may be taken, shewing the half- 
year's working for the period ended 30th April, 1885, of a small 
company of about 11 claims in the central and southern portion of 
the mine known as the Australian Ghilly, a deep open working 

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THB DE beer's MINE. 205 

bounded on the west by high yellow ground, and on the east by 
floating shale : — 


£ s. d. 
To wages, explosives, stores, 

&c 9,088 14 5 

„ Fuel 1,706 3 9 

„ Produce 1,022 6 8 

„ Rates and Upenses . . 168 12 
„ General expenses . . 900 11 11 
„ Decrease of blue ground 
on floors during half- 
year, 916 loads at 3s. . 137 8 

„ Balance of profit . . 26,418 12 

£38,431 8 9 


£ 8. d* 
By diamond account, 43,046 

carats at 17/lOi . . 38,431 8' 9 

£38,431 8 9 

The above account represents the cost and profits resulting from 
washing 28,944 loads of blue ground, which yielded an average of 
1*42 carats per load, also from^ washing 5,380 loads of " lumps " 
(i.e., fragments of pulverized ground which at the first washing 
were not sufficiently reduced to pass through the cylindrical screen 
into the pan, and therefore were re-carted to the depositing fioor 
for further weathering there), the limips yielding an average of 0*56 
carat per load. This total washing resulted in the finding of 43,045 
carats of diamonds, which realised an average of 17/101- per carat, so 
that the first yield of the " maiden blue " was twenty-Ave shillings 
and four pence per load, and of the lumps ten shillings per loady or 
26/6i per load total value of the blue ground. The above detailed 
expenses included the cost of hauling out 4,871 loads of main reef 
and 1556 loads of reef and ground for other daimholders, besides 
hauling and depositing 28,028 loads of " blue " on the Company's 
fioors, so that the entire cost of winning the diamonds from one load 
of blue ground amounted to eight shillings and five pence per load, 
leaving a profit of 18/1^ per load, or 68 per cent on the total pro- 
duction of the Company. This Company with a capital a little 
over £100,000 was nearly £4,000 in debt at the end of 1883, 
owing to an accumulation of water in its claims which hindered 
their working, but after starting full work in 1884 this debt was 
not only rapidly wiped out, but within that same year dividends 
amounting to 30 per cent of the capital were paid to the share- 

As another instance of the richness of Be Beer's ground the case 
of a small company holding some 17 claims in the north-east comer 
may be cited, which in the five years since formation has paid back 
nearly two-thirds of the subscribed capital in dividends to the share- 
holders; whilst a third company adjoining the last, and about the 
same size, even more successrul still, in the three years 1882-84 
paid out over £75,000 in dividends; and lastly, as a case of 

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successful working on a large scale it may be stated that the com- 
pany, which now owns two-thirds of the entire De Beer's Mine, has- 
paid out a Quarter of a Million Sterling in dividends during the 
last five years, its capital having meanwhile risen through amalga- 
mation with smaller neighbours from £665,000 to over £1,000,000. 

The quality of diamonds produced in the Kimberley and Der 
Beer's Mines is similar, a considerable nimiber of large stones^ 
being found in both including a good deal of yellow and spotted 
ones, the colour being better in Kimberley, but the size larger in 
De Beer's. The value of a diamond depends on the purity of its- 
colour, its freedom from flaws and spots and its relative size. The 
finest diamond ever found in South Africa was the famous " Porter 
Ehodes," discovered in claim No. 375 near the centre of Kimberley 
Mine on the 12th of February, 1880. It is a pure white 
octahedron weighing 160 carats, and was valued at £60,000. The 
largest stone found in De Beer's Mine was one of 302 carats, 
yeUow octahedron, discovered on the 27th of March, 1884, in the 
east end of the mine. 

The Bultf ontein mine is situated on the farm of the same name^ 
rather under 2 J miles to the south of De Beer's, and just over 2f 
miles south east of Kimberley, measured from centre to centre of 
the mines. It is of almost circular shape, about 360 yards across, 
and contained over 1,000 claims on the surface. Owing to the 
encroachment of a mass of shale abutting on the main reef a large 
number of claims on the west side of the mine have recently been 
abandoned, so that at the end of 1885 the number of assessed 
claims was only 886 ; a line of fioating reef extended also along 
the eastern boundary of the mine, stniing thence across to the 
opposite side, so as to shut off about one-fourth of the claims to 
the north from the deeper workings in the centre and south-east 
portion of the mine. The bidk of this northern block of claims i» 
stiU unworked. A recent faU of main reef has covered the 
southern line of claims to a distance of 60 yards from the edge of 
the mine, so that within the central area left unencumbered the 
deepening of the mine is proceeding rather rapidly. The deepest 
workings at the end of 1885 were nearly 300 feet below the 
surfa-ce, the mean depth of the mine being over 200 feet. No 
underground workings have as yet been commenced, so that to a 
casual observer the Bultfontein mine presents to-day a better idea 
of what the operations of the last ten years have been like than 
any of the other three mines. For this reason it has been selected 
to furnish a model of diamond mining for the Indian and Colonial 
Exhibition. No attempt has been made to deal with the reef- 
question in Bultfontein, though a good deal of the central fioating 
shale has been removed by individual claim-holders. The 
incasing rock beneath the sand is a calcareous shale, followed by a 

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stratum of black rock, as yet iindefined. It is not known whether 
the hard igneous rock occurs below this, but, assuming it does, the 
cost of cuttiQg down the encasing shale to a safe angle to allow an 
indefinite extension of open-mine working would probably exceed 
£3,000,000. It is therefore likely that some cheap system of 
underground works will have to be devised for the future excava- 
tion of this mine. Its present contents, as excavated, is about 6f 
million cubic yards, representing a yield of some £5,000,000 worth 
of diamonds, since the opening of the mine to date. The acreage 
of assessed claim groimd is 18^ acres. The size of a claim in Bult- 
fontein and Du Toit's Pan is rather smaller than in the other 
two mines, being only 30 feet X 30 feet, or 100 square yards. 

The profits realized in Bultf ontein and Du Toit's Pan are much 
smaller than in the Vooruitzigt mines, owing to the inferior quality 
of the ground. The following abridged profit and loss account 
will convey an idea of the expense and results of working the best 
Bultf ontein ground ; being for the six months ended 30th June, 

To wages, salaries, explo- 
sives, &c £20,716 12 4 

„ Forage and stable acct., 1,528 1 

„ Water and fuel .. 6,830 5 

, , Machinery — mainten - 

ance and stores . . 3,342 10 6 

„ General expenses, 

licenses, &c 2,087 18 10 

„ Decrease of lumps on 

floor 34 8 

„ Balance of profit .. 6,293 17 7 


By diamonds sold and on 

land £36,256 5 

„ Blue ground sold 1,209 2 
„ Increase of "blue" 

on floors : 16,437 

loads at 28. 6d. 2,054 12 
„ Rent of certain claims 313 7 




£39,833 7 


£39,833 7 9 

The above expenses represent the cost of excavating from the- 
mine and delivering on the depositing floor 136,409 loads of blue 
ground, also of exferaoting the diamonds from 107,466 loads of blue 
passed through the washing machines, which together with the 
proceeds of 17,615 loads of " Lumps " washed, yielded 35,835 
carats, or an average of '3335 carat per load, equivalent to sioc^ 
shillings and five-pence per load^ the diamonds having averaged 
19s. 2d. per carat all round. The cost of manipulating the groimdy 
all charges included, was/ot^r shillings and sioopenceper ^a^(of 16cubio 
feet). The Company in question possesses 72 claims, of which 50 
are in the centre and 22 on the margin of the mine. From this 
latter block over 80,000 loads of floating reef were removed at a 
cost of 2s. per load. The ground washed was all taken from the 
centre block, which are about the richest in the whole mine, so that 
the profit made out of these central claims was at the rate of 
J6250 per claim per year. 

The Du Toit's Pan Mine derives its name from the " pan " or 
small lake which lies to the southward of it, at a distance of some 

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600 yards, and about equi-distant from the Bidtfontein mine. 
The ran is filled by the surface drainage which gravitates there 
after heavy rains, and it has frequently been 50 or 60 acres in extent, 
when pleasure-boating and wild duck shooting may be had there. 
At the present time, owing to the continuous drought, the Pan is 
quite empty of water, and the same is the state of Blankenberg's 
Vley, a similar but smaller lake lyin^ about a mile and a quaiter 
to tiie north-east of Du Toit's Pan Mine. The water of both these 
^*pans" is leased by the diggers for mining purposes, twelve 
companies from the two mines forming what is called the Pan 
Pumping Association, whilst Blankenberg's Vley is leased by three 
Du Toit's Pan Companies. The rental is drawn by the London 
and South African Exploration Company, Limited, who possess not 
only the two farms of Bidtfontein and Dorstfontein, on which the two 
mines are situated, but also the adjoining farm to the southward of 
Alexandersfontein, on which are laid out a great portion of the 
depositing sites for the Bultf ontein mine. The southern boundary 
line of Bultf ontein farm touches the southern margin of Bidtfontein 
mine, the eastern boundary of the farm almost touching the western 
extremity of Du Toit's ran, whilst the northern boundary line of 
Bultf ontein farm actually touches the south-east comer of De Beer^s 
mine, whence it runs westward through the centre of the town of 
Kimberley, the southern half of which, known as the Newton Estate, 
is built on London and South Afrioan Company's property, whilst 
iihe northern half of TTimberley township, including Gladstone 
and De Beer's, lies on the Vooruitzi^ Estate of the Govem- 
ment. The Exploration Company likewise owns the site of 
the town of Beaconsfield, which is built on the north-west of 
the Bultf ontein and Du Toit's Pan mines, and is rapidly growing 
to considerable dimensions. Freehold tenure is granted on the 
Oovemment estate, but the leases on the Bultf ontein farm, on 
which a monthly rental of 10s. per " stand " (measuring 60 by 80 
feet) is payable, may any time be cancelled if the site should be 
required for mining purposes. Great friction has existed on this score 
between standholders and the Exploration Company, but attempts 
iu*e being made to amicably settle some of the differences. The 
Company also receives a monthly rental of 30s. per daim from the 
two mines on its estate, which rental includes the use of one acre per 
claim for depositing floors. The Government have hitherto made 
no charge for floor rent on the Vooruitzigt estate, but a charge of 
5s. per acre is now to be levied for the depositing floors of Kim- 
berley and De Beer's mines. This, in addition to the monthly 
licence of 10s. per claim, will afford a revenue to the Government 
of some £8,000 per annum, whilst the revenue from the claim 
licences of Bultf ontein and Du Toit's Pan mines, amounts to about 
JB40,000 annually. The London and South African Exploration 

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Du toit's pan mine. 209 

Company has proved one of the finest investments in the world ; 
its 10s. shares are worth £7 10s. in the market to-day. 

The Du Toit's Pan Mine is in the shape of a half hoop, measur- 
ing an average of 200 yards wide and 750 yards long, the greater 
length being from east to west. The number of assessed claims 
at the end of 1885 was 1,430, equal to 30 statute acres. The 
greatest depth attained in the open workings was about 295 feet, 
but one of the Companies situated near the centre of the mine on 
the northern side has ^unk a shaft in its claims to a depth of 
some 500 feet, and the finds from this level are said to be much 
more satisfactory than nearer the surface. This is the only in- 
stance of undergroimd working at present carried on in Du Toit's 
Pan, it being the general impression that, owing to its small average 
yield of diamonds, Du Toit's Pan, as a mine, will not pay to work 
underground. Further experience, however, may prove this view 
to be erroneous. The present average depth of the whole mine is 
only about 165 feet, there being still many high banks of floating 
reef and impayable groimd that have been left standing at neaar 
their original level. Some of the claims at the western extremity 
are encumbered by a fall of main reef which there seems no inclin- 
ation of removing at present, though the jground below is known 
to be some of the richest in the mine. The encasing rocks (or 
reef) of the mine are similar to those described in Bultfontein ; a 
yellow shale on top, followed by a black shale of yet imdefined depth. 
In both these mines the modem workings have been much hindered 
by the accumulation of " debris "left from the early days of dry 
sorting. The total excavation of Du Toit's Pan Mine measures 
some 8 million cubic yards, representing a gross yield of about 
£5,800,000 worth of diamonds. 

The following abridged Profit and Loss Account shows the 
results of a company working 43 claims on the southern reef 
during the period ended 31st December, 1885 : — 

Db. ' Cb. 

To wages, salary, &c. . . £10,079 1 4 

,, Forage and stable, &c. 869 6 4 

„ Fuel and water .. 1,946 2 11 

„ Explosives .. .. 1,030 2 3 

^4 Maintenance and stores 876 6 7 

,, General expenses .. 1,171 18 3 

,, Balance of profit .. 5,763 8 4 

£21,736 6 

By diamonds sold . . £17,672 10 

Increase of Blue on 
Floor, 27,09? loads 3s. 4,063 16 

£21,736 6 

The above represents the cost of excavating and depositing on 
the floor 80,488 loads of blue ground, also of hauling out 1,902 
loads of reef, besides washing 53,396 loads of blue, wluch yielded 
13,931 carats of diamonds equivalent to 26 carats per load averag- 
ing 25s. 4Jd. per carat, or six shillings and sevenpence half-penny 

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per load. The total cost of manipulating the ground was four 
shillings and sevenpence half-penny per load, leaving a profit equal 
to £268 per claim per year. This is a most favourable instance 
of Du Toit's Pan working, the average results from the whole 
mine being not half so good b& the above. Du Toit's Pan yields 
the largest and most valuable diamonds of any of the four mines, 
though in average value per load it stands last of the four. 

The largest £amond ever found in Ghriqualand West was dis- 
covered near the west end of Du Toit's Pan Mine on the 29th 
September, 1885. It was a large irregular octahedron stone, 
slightly spotted, of yellow colour, and weighed 404 carats or nearly 
3 ounces. In the month of February previous, a similar stone of 
362 carats was found near the east end of the mine. The former 
of these stones is probably the largest diamond the world has yet 
produced, excepting a very imperfect stone of some 600 carats 
found in Jagersfontein in the year 1881. 

The largest diamond ever found in Bultfontein was one weighing 
a little over 160 carats discovered in the north-east comer of the 
mine in the latter part of 1884. The average size of diamonds 
foimd in Bultfontein is smaller than in any of the other three 
mines, though the colour of Bultfontein stones is superior to the 
rest. Experts can generally tell, on inspecting any rough diamond, 
from which of the four mines it has come ; and the Kiver diamonds 
again are distinct in character from those of the Kimberley mines. 
Quite recently the special court for the trial of contraventions of 
the Diamond Trade Act, was enabled to convict some Eiver 
diggers of being in unlawful possession of diamonds, on the 
evidence of experts who unhesitatingly declared the stones produced 
could not possibly have come from the River diggings. 

The most serious obstacle to the profitable working of the Cape 
mines is the large illicit trajBSo in diamonds that continues to be 
carried on, in spite of the stringent penal laws and the elaborate 
searching system in vogue for its suppression. 

It is estimated that from one-fourth to one-fifth of all the 
diamonds found in the mines never reach their lawful owners, and 
with an annual production exceeding two millions sterling, the 
importance of suppressing this nefarious traffic can haraly be 

In conclusion, it may be interesting to quote some figures of 
the gross production. Prior to Ist September, 1882, when the 
Diamond Trade Act came into force in Qriqualand West, no 
accurate official returns were made of the exact weight and value 
of diamonds produced in the several mines, but since that date 
careful monthly statistics are collected by the chief of the Detective 
Department at Kimberley, with whom, under penalty, every digger 
is bound to register exact particulars of his monthly finds. 

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The following is an abstract of these returns up to the end of 
December, 1885 : — 





i 8 


|5< Value 



Frodaction in Carate 
... £ 
Average per Carat ... 

Production in Carats 

Value £ 

Average per Carat . . . 

Production in Carats 

Value £ 

Average per Carat . . . 

Production in Carats 

Value £ 

Average per Carat . . . 

Production in Carats 

Value £ 

Average per Carat . . . 























































Shewing a total production from the four mines for the three and 
a third years of over 8J millions sterling. The imports into Kim- 
berley are made up of 123,847f carats from the Free State Mines 
(mainly Jagersfontein), valued by the importers at £193,717 ;; 
68,2454 carats from the River Diggings, valued at £167,884; 
and 80,212f carats from England, the Cape Colony, etc. (diamonds- 
returned for sale in the Kimberley market), and valued at 

It will be noted that the prices realized in 1883 shew a great 
faUing-off from those of the previous year — also that in 1884 a» 
considerable revival occurred, whilst in 1885 prices ruled lower 
than in any of the preceding years. 

It is further interesting to note that whilst Du Toit's Pan stuff 
always fetches a much higher price per carat than diamonds from 
the other mines, the relative value per carat of diamonds from the* 
other three mines fluctuates constantly. 


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The weight of diamonds sent through the Kimberley Post Office 
tin 1884 was 1,801 lbs. (gross), and in 1885 it was 1,630 lbs. Forty 
'per cent, must be deducted from these weights for weight of 
•packages, leaving respectively 1,080. lbs. and 1,100 lbs. as the net 
-weight of diamonds shipped each year, equivalent to 2,385,000 and 
2,430,000 weight in carats, so that it will be seen, by reference to 
above table, that the Post Office Returns agree very nearly with 
those of the Detective Department. 

From a comparison of various official sources of information it 
has been estimated that the gross value of diamonds exported from 
the Cape Colony up to the end of 1885 amoimted to £35,000,000. 
But this estimate does not include exports on the person prior to 
iihe existence of an export duty, nor the large number of stolen 
^diamonds known to be illicitly exported. 

By calculation of the amoimt of diamondif erous ground removed 
from each of the four mines to date, and from the known average 
yield per load in each, it is found that not less than 33 million 
'Carats of diamonds {or more than t)J tons weight) must have been 
-extracted from the four mines up to the present time, realizing in 
TTOund numbers /or^y millions sterling. 

The total number of claims in the four mines is at present 3,238, 
•or about 70 acres of diamondiferous groimd. Its present assessed 
•value is £5,172,975, being at the rate of £75,000 per acre. 

This property is divided amongst 98 holders, of whom 42 are 
.Joint Stock Companies and the remaining 56 private firms and 
individuals. The gross capital of the above 42 companies, holding 
•:2,211 claims, is £7,970,490. 

Taking the property of the 56 private holders in the same pro- 
^portion to the assessed value of their claims as is obtained from the 
i above capital of the companies, the value of private property in the 
four mines would stand at £1,624,900, making the gross capital of 
ithe entire mines £9,595,390. 

Within the last few months a syndicate has been formed in 
London, under the title of the " Unified Diamond Mines, Limited," 
'for the object of bringing about an amalgamation of all the hold- 
^ings in the several Kimberley Mines, and taking such other steps 
r-as may tend to regulate production and keep up prices. The 
•^capital of the Unified Company is to be ten millions sterling, and 
: if established it is likely to prove one of the most powerful com- 
>mercial monopolies in the world. 

The amount of labour and machinery employed at the Diamond 

Fields is of course considerable. Something like 10,000 native 

labourers and 1,200 European overseers and artizans are daily 

: at work in and about the four mines, the average wage earned 

^by a Kafir being about 20s. per week and by a white man £5 

]lfper week. 

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The population of the Fields at the time of the last Census^ 
taken in 1877, was as follows : — 

Europeans. Others. Total. 

Kimberley and De Beer's . . 6,486 7,104 13,190* 

Bultfontein and Dutoitspan . . 1,648 2,611 4,259' 


At the present time, however, owing to the increased activity in. 
working the mines of Bultfontein and Dutoitspan, the population* 
around the latter has more than doubled. 

In addition to the above manual labour some 2,500 horses, mules 
and oxen are daily employed about the mines. 

The total length of tramways is about 160 miles. 

About 350 steam engines, at work and idle, are fixed around the 
four mines, aggregating nearly 4,000 nominal horse power. 

The annual expenditure in labour, material, &o., is not less than 
two millions sterling, distributed somewhat as follows : — 

Wages, Salaries, etc. 
Fuel and Water . . 
Mining Material and Stores 


Forage and Stable Expenses 

Bates and Taxes, General Expenses, &c. 




Diamonds have been found in the bed, and on the banks of the 
Vaal Eiver from its junction with the Orange in latitude -28^ 
20 ', longitude 24° 30 ', to above Christiana, latitude 28°, longitude 
26° 30'. The Eiver Diggings are situated between these two 
points on both banks of the Vaal, those at present worked extend- 
ing from Delport's Hope at the junction of the Harts and Vaal 
Eivers to above Hebron on the latter stream, a distance of some 
fifty miles across eoimtry, or about seventy miles following the 
winding of the river. 

The farms traversed by this length of river are partly private 
property, partly Crown lands. In the former case a distinction i& 
drawn between lands on which the Crown reserves the right to 
precious stones and minerals, and lands on which there is no such 
reservation. Within the latter category falls the " Pniel Estate,'' 
owned by the Berlin Missionary Society, and also the " Vaal Eiver 
Estate," the property of some Kimberley capitalists. Both these 
farms are on the south bank of the river, opposite and below the 
town of Barkly which is on the north bank. 

The rising ground above the river at Barkly imdulates into a 

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mumber of hills containing diggings known as Oolesberg Kopje, 
Magazine Kopje, etc., and indeed it is next to impossible to give 
<^ complete list of all the fanciful names which diggers have 
bestowed on the numberless hills or " Kopjes " through which 
ihe Vaal Eiver cuts its way from Christiana to Delport's. Note- 
*worthy, however, is the circumstance that when a digging occurs 
•on one bank of the river the " Kopje " on the opposite bank is 
pretty certain to be found diamondiferous also. Thus Pniel 
diggings are immediately opposite Barkly, Webster's opposite 
Q-ood Hope, Cawood's opposite Gong-Gong, Waldek's opposite 
IJJnion Kopje, and so on. 

The River diggings are all in alluvial soil, a heavy deposit of 
ferruginous gravel mixed with red sand, lime and- boulders, that 
has been washed into the crevices of the rocks by the action of 
water. Whether the <iiamonds which this heavy deposit contains 
ihave been formed in situ, or whether they were brought from a 
•distance, is still a vexed question. The balance of evidence is in 
favour of the former hypothesis. A large number of the river 
•diamonds when unearthed are found coated -with oxide of iron, 
which, in the case of cracked stones, has penetrated inside the 
-cracks of the diamonds. Some French geologists have argued that 
the Drakensberg is the home of the diamonds, but in that case it 
is hard to conceive why none of the other rivers taking their rise 
in those mountains should have brought down diamonds, and why, 
'even if the Vaal could be supposed to have got the monopoly of 
^hem, few diamonds should be found nearer its source than 
Ohristiana, or much below its junction with the Harts at Delport's. 
It will be seen from above table that the Vaal is being worked for 
•diamonds along a length of banks extending over seventy miles. 
Within these limits, however, there is a stretch of half that dis- 
tance, between Hebron and Barkly, where next to no digging is 
♦carried on. Indeed, the area of banks and river bed, that may be 
^considered diamondiferous, is perfectly undefined, the diggers 
having shifted about from spot to spot, opening up a digging only 
to abandon it as worthless and then perhaps after several years 
returning to work it with profit. The size of a " claim " varies in 
^different mines. At the Eiver diggings it was originally thirty 
feet square, or nine hundred square feet, but in the latter part 
•of 1882, owing to the faUing-off of population at the alluvial 
diggings. Government increased the size of a claim to double that 
.area, so that it now measures sixty feet by thirty. On Crown 
lands the Government of course retains the whole of the licence 
tnoney. On private property where the Crown has the reservation 
of precious stones, the licence moneys are divided equally between 
the Government and the proprietor, whilst on private property 
^where there is no such reservation, the proprietor is at liberty to 

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fix the amount of licence money, rent, or royalty to be paid 
by diggers, subject to a contribution to the Government of ten per 
eent. 01 such revenue. 

The present revenue collected from the alluvial diggings is at 
ithe rate of about £1,500 per annum, of which about £1,000 flows 
into the Q-ovemment coffers, and the remainder to the proprietors. 

From the statistics published by the Board for the Protection of 
Mining Interests, it appears that in the three years ended 31st 
August, 1885, the river diggings produced 56,514 carats of dia- 
monds, valued at £132,042, equiviient to 47s. 6d. per carat. This 
valuation is probably excessive, but, after making every allowance, 
ihe superior quality of river stones will still be very apparent. 
Within the same period the total exportation of diamonds from the 
entire province amounted to 7,011,382 carats, valued at £8,292,870, 
or 23s. 6d. per carat ; or, in other words, whilst the weight of dia- 
monds from the Vaal Eiver was only about y^ of the entire 
exports, their declared value was as much as -g*j of the total value 

There is no means of arriving at an approximate estimate of the 
^oss yield of diamonds from the river diggings since their opening 
fifteen years ago. But comparing what imperfect statistics are 
Available, it is probable that the total yield of diamonds from the 
Vaal Eiver to date has exceeded £2,000,000. 

A short accoimt of the mode of working at the Eiver diggings 
will not be out of place here. 

It has been stated above that the diamondiferous deposit is 
embedded between boulders, and mixed with a quantity of fine red 
«and, and in many places with a good deal of lime. The diggers 
•draw a distinction between " red kopjes " and " lime kopjes." At 
fiome of the diggings this lime forms a hard crust, or " clinker 
layer," on the surface, varying in thickness from two to twenty 
feet, and shafts are sunk through it before the payable groimd is 
^ot at. At Gong-Gong some of these shafts are over a hundred feet 
deep before they strike the bed-rock, which is a dolerite of amygda- 
loidal structure. At other diggings the workings are exceedingly 
•shallow, consisting only of a few inches of red sand before the bed- 
rock is reached. The hardest work consists in excavating and 
lifting the heavy boulders, under which the richest ffravel is 
generally f oimd. At the present time a large number of the claims 
are encumbered with debris from the early workings, which has to 
be removed before the maiden ground can be dug. Another diffi- 
-culty is the presence of water at a depth of forty or fifty feet at 
Gong-Gong and Waldek's, the majority of diggers not having the 
.capital for puttiug down pumps. Occasionally, too, the river 
rises and submerges claims, which /are then subject to a reduced 
cental of only one shilling per month whilst imder water, the 

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ordinary rental being ten Bhillings. There is little doubt that 
the river bed itself is rich in diamonds, but the Vaal is too well 
supplied with water all the year round to render prospecting 
of its bed an easy matter with the limited funds and appliances 
at the diggers* disposal. In a time of drought, some four year& 
ago, a narrow arm of the river at Niekerk's Eush was diverted, and 
diamonds to the value of £30,000 taken out of the bed. The Vaal 
has continually changed its course, and occasionally a digger is 
lucky enough to strike a portion of an old river bed, silted up with 
lime and gravel, when his finds are sure to be good. There are 
eviddnces along the whole banks of a vast denudation; rocks on the 
summits of the hills, more than a himdred feet above the river levels 
are water-worn, with the marks of great eddies in their sides. 

The proportion of diamondiferous gravel varies at different 
diggings. In four loads of solid ground there is on an average one 
load of boulders, one load of rough stones, one load of fine sand, 
and finally one load of pebbles wiich remains to be washed. This 
is in the red sand kopjes. In the lime kopjes there are less boulders, 
but more calcareous sand and gravel. The mode of working is a& 
follows : — 

After the excavation has been made with pick and shovel (there 
is seldom any explosive used) the boulders and large stones are 
thrown aside, and the gravel secured is taken to a sifting- 
machine, styled a **Baby." This consists of an oblong sieve swing- 
ing by four thongs or chains from four upright poles, and inclined 
slightly, so that the pebbles may roll over it. At the higher, or 
feeding end, a small square sieve, about two feet square, and coarse 
enough for stones three-eighths of an inch thick to pass through it, 
is fixed over the oblong sieve, which is about five feet lonff and of 
very fine mesh. The gravel from the claim is emptied by hand 
buckets on to the coarse sieve ; the worker, standing behind it^ 
swings it alternately towards and away from him, whereby the 
finer stuff passes through on to the lower long sieve, which again 
allows only the fine sand to pass through, miilst the pebbles roll 
ofE the lower end into a tub put to receive them. The coarse stones- 
from the top sieve, as well as the fine sand which passes through 
the lower one, are refuse to be thrown away, but'the medium-sized 
pebbles which have tumbled into the tub will contain the diamonds, 
u there are any in the ground. Any diamonds too large to have 
passed the first sieve would have been noticed at once by the 
worker, who has it immediately under his eye, and who continually 
throws out the rough stones to make room for fresh ground from 
the claim, whilst any diamond so small as to have passed away 
with the fine sand is not worth the trouble of further search. Tlii& 
is the " dry-sorting " process. 

The process that follows consists in " gravitating " the content* 

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of the tub, so as to separate all the heavier pebbles^ including the 
diamonds, from the light soil and stones. TMs may be done by 
hand, if the operator is skilful. A small roimd siere of medium 
mesh is used lor this purpose, and into it is emptied a bucketful 
of the pebbles from the " baby." The workman, bending over a 
tub of water and holding the sieve in both hands, immerses it just 
below the surface and gives it a succession of sharp twists, pulsa- 
ting it gently in the water so as to let the light stuff come to the 
top ; then, when he is satisfied that the heavier contents have been 
separated from the lighter stones, he deftly turns over the sieve 
on to a flat board, termed a " sorting table," when, if he has 
managed successfully, all the heavy pebbles will appear on the 
surface of the mould and any diamonds there will at once be 
visible. To guard against the risk of losing any he dissects the 
mould with a little sorting-knife of thin wedge-shaped iron, scrap- 
ing off the top layer of pebbles first, till the bottom of the mould 
is reached and the whole of it brushed off on to the ground to 
make room for the next sieveful. An experienced digger can tell 
at a glance, from the appearance of the deposit, what chance there 
is of folding well in it. He knows by sight the heaviest stones that 
occur in diamond-bearing ground, and their presence is a sure sign 
of diamonds being there too. This is particularly so of a curiously 
marked pebble that is streaked with a succession of parallel rings^ 
from which it has received the descriptive name of " banddoom " 
(band-round). The specific gravity of the "banddoom" is 
almost identical with that of the diamond, and where the former 
is found experience has taught the latter may be confidently ex- 
pected. Beautiful agates are also found in this deposit, as well as 
quartz-crystals, jaspers, caloedony, but few garnets, and no iron- 
pyrites, or carbon, which occur so plentifully in the Kimberley 
mines. An assortment of " river stones " forms a very pretty 
collection, and it is conceivable enough that, prior to the opening 
of the diggings, diamonds should have been picked up by children 
of the natives and valued as more than ordinarily pretty pebbles, 
which would account for their being carried about and some left iu 
the district of Hope Town, where Mr. O'Reilly first discovered them. 
In the earlier days of the diggings the value of gravitating wafr 
not understood. The excavated ground was washed in a '* cradle," 
consisting of a tier of two or three square sieves on a pair of 
rockers; the top sieve, being the coarser, retained the larger stones, 
whilst the mud and sand passed through the lower fine sieve, leaving 
the clean pebbles and mamonds in the latter. The invention of 
the " baby " derives its name neither from its association with the 
" cradle," nor from its swinging motion suggestive of infancy, but 
from its inventor, an American named Baoe, who was diggmg at 
the river about 1870. The rotary washing machine in use at 

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Kimberley, has been tried at the river, and though not so satis- 
tfactory as gravitating, it answers fairly well. 

Some six years ago a machine was devised to save the labour 
-oi hand-sieving and supersede the imperfect washing of the 
" cradle." This contrivance, known as the " Rule and Henry " 
or " Haddocks " machine, is an arrangement of suitable mechanism 
for " jigging " a sieve up and down whilst immersed in a tank 
-of water, and providing proper shoots for separating the heavy 
deposit from the tailings. 

The average quantity of maiden-ground that one man can 
excavate per day is about one and a half loads of rough gravel 
and sand, which after beinff " babied," yield half a load of pebbles 
to be washed. The cost of picking, sifting, and washing is about 
two shillings and sixpence per load (of 22^ cubic feet) of maiden- 

No estimate whatever can be framed of the average yield of 
diamonds, their occurrence being too uncertain. Sometimes 
hundreds of loads are manipulated without finding a single precious 
•stone, then perhaps a rich " pocket " is hit upon and a handful of 
diamonds are turned out. Still, with all this uncertainty to an 
individual digger, the gross yield of diamonds from the river 
remains pretty uniform throughout the year, being at the present 
time at the rate of about £4,000 worth per month, which is very 
near the average of the last three years. This represents the finds 
of not more than 360 diggers distributed over the various diggings 
from Jonas' to Delport's, of which number about 300 are 
Europeans and 50 Kafir-diggers, besides some 500 native labourers. 

It will thus be seen that diamond digging on the Vaal is not a 
vvery lucrative occupation, bringing in on an average an income of 
about £120 per annum. The expenses that have to be paid out of 
this are not very heavy, and living is cheap ; the life itself healthy 
and certainly preferable to that of artizans in the Kimberley 
Mines. At some spots, such as Pniel, Gong-Gong and Hebron, 
there is a pleasant profusion of foliage, and the mud -huts and tents 
of the diggers are picturesquely pitched amongst the trees on the 
hill-sides overlooking the river, whilst here and there a rustic 
arbour, with dining table and wooden benches, may be seen hidden 
in the leafy shade. But the majority of the diggings are bleak 
•stone-kopjes, where there is nothing but the frewi air, wide view 
and free life to compensate for an arduous existence, though to 
these inducements must, of course, be added the fascination of the 
pursuit that still draws men from all quarters of the globe, so that 
on a single small digging there may be nearly as many nationalities 
as workers. GeniflJ, hearty fellows the most of them are, and not 
wanting in tastes not usually associated with remote mining 
'Camps. Books are here in plenty, and the author of " Culture and 

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Anarchy " would probably be pleased to hear of his works reaching 
this distant outpost of civilisation. 

There is no diamond-market at the river diggings, and as the 
expense of frequent visits to Kimberley would absorb a large 
part of the digger's earnings, one or more of the Kimberley 
diamond-buyers takes a weekly trip to the Vaal, making the tour 
of the several camps where work at the time happens to be 
chiefly carried on. 

The most actively worked diggings at the present moment 
(January, 1886,) are Barkly, Delport's, Longland's, Niekerk's, 
Waldek's and Hebron, besides the newly opened alluvial digging 
at Jonas Kopje, which are situated a mile back from the river, six 
miles above Hebron. The diggings here, though shallow, con- 
sisting only of two or three feet of red deposit, are turning out 

During the speculation mania of 1881, companies were formed for 
-working the diggings at Gong-Gong and Waldek's Plant, but as no 
method was employed for operating on a large scale, the undertakings 
soon collapsed. It is not at all unlikely, however, that a properly 
matured scheme for extensive operations might meet with success. 
At the present time there is as much debris-washing going on as 
mining in maiden-ground, and the finds in the former are said to 
pay better to small diggers, as there is no excavation to be done, 
and the very imperfect washing and sorting of the early days has 
left plenty of diamonds still amongst the pebbles ; besides, the 
debris is mostly close to the margin of tibe river, whilst the 
unworked maiden-groimd is, perhaps, half a mile away, and neces- 
sitates carrying water that distance, or else bringing the groimd 
down to the banks. Most interesting are the worHngs at Waldek's 
Plant, where a deep gully has been excavated over a mile long, 
varying in width and depth from twenty to seventy feet. The 
ground from this gully is hauled to the surface by windlass and 
bucket, running on an inclined wire-rope, after the style originally 
adopted in Kimberley mine, and bears a great resemblance to the 
Kimberley " yellow ground," whilst the containing rock forms a 
wall of reef on either side of the gully, and is basaltic, like the 
liver bed and the lower rocks at Kimberley. 

The largest diamond found on the Vaal Eiver, known as the 
" Spalding " or " Stewart " diamond, was discovered at Waldek's 
in November, 1872. It weighed 288 carats, and was valued then 
at £5,000. It has since been cut and weighs now 128 carats, being 
owned by Messrs. Pittar Leverson, of London. In 1881 a 
perfect yellow stone of 148^ carats was foimd at Gong-Gong by 
Mr. Dowling, and in January, 1885, a native digger at Keiskamma 
f oimd a similar diamond of 147^ carats, each of mese stones having 
been sold on the spot at the same price, viz., £600. 

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The Colony, in its varied aspects and conditions, gives scope for 
every kind of pastoral and agricultural occupation. Flocks of 
sheep and goats, and herds of cattle and horses, feed entirely on 
the natureJ. plants and grasses; wheat and pther varieties of 
, grain yield excellent returns from the soil ; and most of the pro- 
ducts of the temperate or semi-tropical zone may with moderate 
ease and trouble be successfully cultivated. Farming at the Cape 
is accordingly, in judicious and industrious hands, a profitable as 
well as an mdependent employment. 

It should be understood, however, by persons desirous of push- 
ing theit fortunes in this direction, that an initiation into 
the colonial peculiarities of seasons, soil, pasture, management of 
stock, and, it may be added, native labour, as well as the vernacular 
Cape Dutch, the spoken language of a large portion of the country 
population, will be of essential service. A short time spent 
in observing and getting accustomed to colonial ways is amply 
repaid by the experience gained. 

The value of any farm in the Colony depends much upon the 
quality of its herbaee, the strength and permanency of its foun- 
tains, the nature of the improvements that have been made upon it 
in the form of dams, buildings, homestead, &c., as well as its extent 
of arable land, and proximity to a market. The best first-class farms, 
combining " horn, com, wool, and wine," are worth at present 
from £3 to £1 a morgen, and others range from that price down 
to 10s. per morgen, while inferior spots may be had as low as Is. 
or Is. 6d. per mor^n, or two acres. In some districts, however, 
such as the fertile irrigable lands of Gudtshoom, fractions of farms 
sometimes sell at the rate of from £50 to £250 an acre. 

Although the greater portion of the country is settled, and 
become the property of private individuals, there is a large extent 
of waste land belonging to the Crown, which is from time to time 
surveyed and offered for sale by public auction and disposed of on 
perpetual quit-rent (equivalent to an annual rental) for the highest 
annual sum obtainable. If such land offered at public anction fails 
to obtain a purchaser at the price reserved, any person prepared to 
fulfil all conditions required may, upon application within one 
year from the date of the sale, become the purchaser of the ground 
at the upset price. 

This is provided for by Acts 14 of 1878, and 37 of 1882, 
which form the present land law of the Colony. Each lot is put 

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up at an upset annual quit-rent, which is one-twentieth part of the 
actual assessed value of the land, and the highest bidder who offers 
not less than such upset quit-rent is declared the purchaser of the 
lot on quit-rent, dating from the day of sale; and every such 
purchaser is bound to pay the first year's quit-rent in advance on 
that day, and to secure the payment for the two next years by 
sureties whom the Civil Commissioner shall deem sufficient : provided 
that the Civil Commissioner shall^ ii required by the purchaser, 
receive two years' rent in advance, in which event the said 
security is not required. The expenses of survey and erection of 
beacons and the expenses of title deed (viz. : stamp according to 
tariff, and the office fee of 12s. 3d.) are paid on the day of sale. 
Upon due payments being made, and surety bond (if required) 
passed as above, the purchaser becomes entitled to receive title 
deed on quit-rent to the said land, which is issued to him accord- 
ingly. The annual quit-rent payable upon any quit-rent grant, 
whether a grant made after the taking effect of the said Act No. 
24 of 1878, or upon any grant made previously, may be redeemed 
at any time by the payment of a sum equal to not less than twenty 
times such annual quit-rent, which redemption in no way alters 
the nature of the tenure. 

The disposal of small areas for agricultural purposes is pro- 
vided for by Act 37 of 1882, amended by Act 40 of 1885. This 
bids fair to become a most popular means of acquiring small hold- 
ings, its advantages being appreciated by Europeans and Natives 
alike. The following is a synopsis of its provisions : — 

Gfrants of available waste Crown land not exceeding 250 nor less 
than 4 morgen in extent, and not being forest land, may be made to 
approved applicants upon perpetual quit-rent under conditions as 
follows : 

The applicant, who must address the Civil Commissioner of the 
division in which the land he appHes for is situated, must declare that 
he is 21 years of age or upwards, that he is not the owner of ground 
of 250 morgen or upwards, that he applies for the land for Ms own 
use and benefit, that he is not in collusion with other persons respect- 
ing the application, and that he does not already hold land under the 
Act. The land must already have been surveyed, and he must either 
describe it accurately or generally so as to lead to its identification. 
When applying he must deposit with the Civil Commissioner a sum 
equal to Is. per morgen, which goes in diminution of the first year's 
payment, or otherwise if ihe application be refused, is returned. The 
application, if in order, is referred to a Land Board consisting of three 
]3ersons of whom the Civil Commissioner is one ex-officio^ specially 
appointed for each division ; which Board reports to the Conmiissioner 
of Crown Lands and Public Works. 

An approved applicant receives a licence to occupy for five years, 
dating from the Ist July or 1st January following the date of the 

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licence, for a yearly fee equal to one-twentieth of the price fixed for 
the land. Within six months he must personally reside upon hid 
ground, and within two years must either enclose or bring under 
cultivation a twentieth part of the holding ; — ^failure to act upon these 
conditions rendering him liable to forfeiture. Power is given to enter 
upon the land at any time and inspect the improvements. Upon the 
expiration of the period of licence and completion of all conditions, 
upon the certificate of the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public 
Works, quit-rent title may be issued under the provisions of Act No. 
14 of 1878, the quit-rent being the same as the licence fee. 

Owing to the excellent capabilities of the available ground iu 
the part of the Colony commonly known as Kaffraria, where small 
holdings have been so successfully worked by immigrants, the 
abready surveyed four-acre allotments in that locality are now 
available for the purposes of the Act, and applications are at present 
being received for them. Where more than one allotment exists, 
they may be grouped together for the purposes of a single licence, 
provided one compact lot can be made of them, personal occupation 
being a chief feature of the licence. 

Much trouble, delay, and inconvenience having been experienced 
in subdividing and transferring land, on account of the existence 
of title-deeds and deeds of transfers (mostly of old dates) which 
were based on erroneous diagrams, an Act was passed in 1879 for 
facilitating the obtaining, at a very trifling cost, amended registry 
of such properties, based on diagrams correctly representing the 
land as defined by beacons agreed to by all concerned. This Act 
is working very satisfactorily, and the number of applications for 
amended titles under its provisions is greatly on the increase. 

The portions of the Colony most favourably situated for Agricul- 
ture are those regularly visited by copious rains, and where 
artificial irrigation is unnecessary. The coast districts, especially 
those contiguous to Cape Town, possess this advantage, and, as has 
already been stated, form the principal granary of the Colony. 

The Cape division (the grain-growing portion of which is called 
the Koeberg), being situated nearest the metropolis, is naturally 
the most advanced in cidtivation and the oldest settled portion ; the 
rental, or purchase price of land is also higher, and the individual 
holdings smaller. There are some good old families settled here and 
there, who still own three to four thousand acres of land, but the 
greater number of farms range from 200 to 2,000 acres. 

Oathay and wheat are the great staples of this district; its 
nearness to the large market of Cape Town enables growers to 
carry their produce to market by their own waggons, the hay in 
sheaves, as it comes from the land. The oats intended for hay are 
sown thickly and out down just as they begin to show signs of 
ripening, and while the sap or juice is still in the stalk. The hay 

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or oatsheaves so made form a sweet and wholesome fodder for 
horses and cattle, which fetches, if fair or good quality, from 3s. 
to 6s. or 7s. per 100 lbs. weight, according to season and demand. 

Barley is very prolific ; the Cape barley more so than English 
malting kinds ; but it requires well manured virgin soil. The actual 
return on two farms which could be named was three hundred 
and thirty bushels from three ; the aveo^ge return is about forty 
bushels per acre ; and it realises about from nine to fifteen shillings 
per bag of three bushels. Rye is not so largely cultivated as other 
cereals; it is generally used for horse feed and the straw for thatch- 
ing purposes; it yields largely and requires the lightest and most 
sandy soil. 

In the Cape and Malmesbury districts, some of our best 
wheat is grown, which would gladden the heart of an English com 
chandler or miller, weighing from 200 to 212 lbs. per muid of 
three bushels, which is at the rate of 67 to 70 lbs. per bushel ; and 
it oertainiy seems strange that with thousands upon thousands of 
acres of ground equally adapted to the growth of wheat, but still 
lying uncultivated, we should be importing £300,000 to £600,000 
value of breadstuffs yearly to supply our own wants, of 
which imdoubtedly every bushel could and ought to be grown in: 
the Colony. 

Some people are sanguine enough to think that we ought to- 
export, but whilst there is such a wide range between the price- 
of wheat in the Colony, and that obtained by the farmers of 
Australia or America, to stand all the charges and risk conse- 
quent on bringing it over sea four thousand or six thousand miles^ 
the soluj^ion of that problem may be left for the future. To* 
the above charges must be added an import duty of Is. per 
lOOlbs., which, in all, really means a protection to the Cape farmer 
of 25 per cent, to 33 percent., according to price and season. And 
this with a climate and soil specially adapted to the growth of 
wheat, where the yield (even with the present mode of culture) 
shows a good average for the acreage ploughed and quantity sown ;: 
with labour at least equally cheap and obtainable as it is in the* 
countries competing with us in our own markets ; and the price* 
of good groimd from £1 to £2 per acre, and that sometimes in-^ 
eluding a fairly built homestead. When, in addition to all this,, 
we remember that the crops here are subject to fewer drawbacks,, 
all things considered, than most countries have to contend against^. 
it surely is only the want of a knowledge of these facts, that 
keeps many of the struggling agricultural farmers of Europe^ 
(if with a family so much the better) from trying their fortune* 
here. There is no doubt that we have ample room, even at this^ 
western end of the Colony, within easy distance of the larger 
markets, for the gradual settlement of thousands of families in the 

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cultivation of cereals, vines, and sheep-farming. But they must 
be of the right stamp, with sufficient capital to give them a start, 
willing to work, and not too proud or self-willed to learn, because the 
most intelligent man, no matter how experienced, can ffain many 
useful, nay, necessary hints, from local usages, which it is well not 
io ignore, although they may appear strange or wrong. If thp new- 
comer acts with due caution, and accommodates himself to his 
fiurroimdings, applying his experience only where he feels sure 
it would give better results than the system or mode of culture 
generally followed by his new neighbours, there is not the slightest 
doubt that the same amount of energy, forethought and capital 
expended in the Colony, would give far better returns than if 
employed in older, more developed, and keenly contested centres of 
agriculture ; and this remark equally applies to every branch of 
industry in the country. 

To give the reader, if a stranger, some general idea of the 
routine followed and the work done on an agricultural farm in the 
<)om-growing districts of the West, let us suppose we are on a farm 
of 1,000 morgen (2,000 acres) in the Mabnesbury district. As 
we must have a'starting point, let us take the 15th to the 30th of 
April, the time we look for our first rains ; and all farmers who are 
on the alert ought to be ready by the 15th, because if a few earlier 
showers have given the grass a fair start, the sooner the crops are 
in the better, so that they may get the benefit of the full rainfall. 
If no rain has fallen before the 15th April most farmers prefer 
waiting imtil the commencement of May, after which they 
l^egin to plough in oats and any early crops, although it may prove 
;a dusty operation. In fair seasons, oats are sown from the 20th of 
April to the 30th of May ; wheat from the 15th of May to the 
30th of June. In exceptional seasons much later ploughing is 
done, with good results. 

We must not forget the all-important work of manuring. The 
manure, after being thoroughly worked and taken out of the kraal, 
is ridden to the lands from about the middle of March, and plax^ed 
in small heaps, ready to spread out just before ploughing. A good 
deal of guano is used by some farmers, either alone or mixed with 
the ordinary farm manure. If used alone about 1 ton of 2,000 lbs. 
of guano is given to say 3 muids (3 bushels=l muid) of seed wheat. 
This guano costs about £6 10s. in Cape Town, and is generally 
well mixed with sand before being sold. The better qualities 
oost £10 to £12. 

The seed is sown broadcast, and ploughed in (some people think 
■ihe way this is usually done is open to great improvement) and 
harrowed afterwards. Howard's and Ransome's single, double, 
iand three-furrow ploughs are generally used, and the two-furrow 
iseem most liked, drawn by eight horses or mules, and attended to by 

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a ploughman, a driver, and boy or girl to lead the cattle ; frequently- 
only one man and a leader. This turn-out is supposed to cover 
about one and a half acres per day. 

An "acre" is generally taken as 300 strides long by 18 wide — 
divided into two of nine by 300 —but as a rule, farmers are not at 
all particular as to a few yards more or less. About one muid 
(three bushels) of wheat is sown to nine full "acres" of land, that is 
one-third of a bushel to each acre. Three muids of oats and one- 
half of barley are generally sown on the same quantity of land as 
one muid of wheat, but only half a muid of rye to the land of 
one muid of wheat. The yield in wheat, according to culture or 
season, if ten-fold, would be considered poor, fifteen-fold fair, 
twenty good, and twenty-five to thirty very good. Of course one 
sometimes hears of 50 and even 100-fold under exceptional 
circumstances, but we are dealing with practical averages. 

Taking eighteen-fold as a low medium, it would give six bushels 
to the acre, the value of T^hich, in Cape Town, ranges from 16s. 6d. 
to 22s., without bag, per three bushels (2031bs. gross is generally 
delivered to millers as the average weight of three bushels). In 
justice to both climate and soil, it must be remembered that the 
above result is not the outcome of high-class farming. Manure is 
scarce and land plentiful. 

Mr. John Eaton, of " Droogvlei," in the Malmesbury division, 
a good farmer of long experience, writing to the Qape Times a 
short time ago, estimates our last five years average yield of wheat 
per acre at 7^ bushels (and this includes two of the worst years 
known in the Colony) . Mr. Eaton further says, " My experience in 
grain culture in the Cape Colony, that is in the Malmesbury and 
Cape districts, is that we only sow half the quantity of wheat pr r 
acre that is sown in England." Necessarily, all kinds of grain 
are sown thin ; otherwise, owing to their quick growth under an 
African sim, if sown too full they are liable to run to straw. 

The cost of labour in the ploughing season is for a coloured man 

Eer month, about 15s. wages and food, viz., one sheep, say 18s. ; one 
ushel of meal, say 6s. 6d. ; 30 salt harders (a mullet about the 
size of and much like a herring) which cost 10s. to 12s. per 100, or 
say 4s. ; wine three times a day, say 6s. per month — making in all 
about 50s. per month, with free lodging ; which, if for a married 
man, consists of one or two rooms in an out-house, or if single, 
some kind of shake-down anywhere ; they are not fastidious as to 

After the ploughing and harrowing are finished, the next 
operation is to break up new lands or clear them of bush to be 
ready for ploughing in the succeeding season. The groimd is 
generally covered by a scrub or bush, known as the Rhenoster 
bush, a pretty sure indication of the suitability of the soil for 


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cereals. This is cleared by having the bush rolled or grubbed 
up by the bush pick, and afterwards burnt. The cost of clear- 
ing say thirty thousfiuid square yards of the above would be 
al^ut 401* The efforts made by farmers to get as much land 
broken as possible shew that they know the value of this work. 
They usually take good care of their land and do not exhaust it. 
After the first year's break-up and ploughing, a wheat crop is raised ; 
in the f ollowiAg year a crop of oats, sometimes it may be another 
crop, and after that it is allowed to lie fallow. 

From the middle of July to September and October, the " veld " 
or field is in splendid condition ; there is a wealth of grass every- 
where and flowers of every hue and shade carpet the sward in all 
directions. Towards the end of October again, it is a most enjoy- 
able treat to drive through these grain-growing districts; for fifty 
or sixty miles on a stretch the eye resting everywhere on the fast 
ripening harvest of all shades and stages of growth waving and 
glittering in the brilliant sunlight. 

By the end of October the early crops begin to ripen, and the har- 
vest is soon in full swing, continuing to about the first of December 
according to season. The crops are reaped by reaping machines, 
scythes, and sickles. The state of cultivation is not always 
adapted for machines ; the field being too rough, and the roller 
seldom used, so that the breakage is constant, and the expense of 
procuring extras considerable. The cradle scythe is largely used 
for oats, barley, and rye, but the waste is very great with wheat, 
for which they are in no way adapted ; the hot sun during the 
harvest season causes the straw to become so hard that it is not 
possible to keep an edge on the blade. A mower receives 2s. 6d. 
a day with his food and wine. The wheat is sometimes reaped by 
the sickle. Six reapers, two binders, and two bimdle makers, form a 
team, and go round the country. They take a strip of eight yards 
and go at it with a will. At times there are as many as seven 
teams in a field, each divided from the other by a furrow ; these 
teams commence at five in the morning and continue until six 
in the evening. It would astonish a European labourer to wit- 
ness their reaping contests. They go at it as merrily as possible, 
each team straining every nerve to outdo the next one. They cut 
these eight-yard lands in strips of 60 yards, and the team that 
finishes his strip first, takes the lead and is called the front team, 
and so on. It is considered a great achievement to be the first 
of several teams; they never flag until all is reaped. The harvest 
home consists of allowing them to have as much wine — the vin- 
ordinaire of the country — as 'they can hold. Fiddlers are not idle ; 
and powder is given them to enable them to carry out what is 
known in the vernacular as " shooting the com off." The day 
9.fter, they 6^re ready to engage to any who may require th^ir 

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TraE\T GROWING. 227 

services ; like the mowers, they earn 28, 6d. per diem, with foo 
and wine. 

The scythe and self-delivery reaper are, however, gradually re* 
placing the sickle. The Johnston's Harvester, "Walter A. Wood, 
McGregor's Albion, Homsby's Indispensable, and McCormack's 
Daisy are all worked, but the two first are most used in the wes- 
tern districts. All do their work well, and it is surprising Reapers 
have not met with more ready sale, when we look at the cost and 
trouble they save. Let us take the cost of a day's harvesting with 
a Reaper, and the amount of work done in that day. First, a 
Reaper cuts about two muids or six bushels of seed wheat per 
ordinary day's run, or eighteen acres. Allow only fifteen 
days' actual work in the season for a machine ; we get 270 
acres. Say first cost of Reaper is jfc>32, and deduct 25 per cent, for 
wear and tear; this gives about 7d. per acre cut. The machine 
requires a driver, Ss. per day wages ; one leader, a boy, in front of 
cattle. Is ; four binders 2s. 6d. each, 10s ; add food for the six at 28. 
each, 12s ; in harvest each man generally gets wine six times a day 
(or near two bottles), which at £6 per leaguer comes to, say 2d. per 
bottle, that is 2s. for wine in the day ; and cost of feeding four mmes 
4s. This gives us £1 12s. as the cost of labour to cut down two 
muids of seed wheat or eighteen acres of land, equal to Is. 9d. per 
acre ; add the 7d. for proportion of cost of machine, and a, total of 
2s. 4d. is reached. If cut by the sickle, allowing one muid or three 
bushels of seed, as a day's work for each span, as they are 
called, of eight men and two women or boys, at the same rate 
of wages and cost of food, gives about os. 6d. per acre. The 
workpeople are supposed to set lodgings, but that does 
not trouble them much, as little shelter is required at this time of 
the year. The above operation leaves the sheaves on the land in 
fair sized heaps, from whence it is ridden to the homestead at the 
earliest convenience, and stacked imtil a thrasher can be obtained. 
About 400 sheaves weighing about 2,200 to 2,500 lbs. may be taken 
as a load, and four to five muids of wheat or ten muids of oats 
are expected from each load. Several disastrous fires, sweeping 
away the labours of a whole year, have taught our farmers the 
necessity of insuring, or, safer still, getting the grain into store as 
soon as possible. 

Thrashing is the next work on the list. December and January 
are the principal months in which it is done. There are now a 
large number of steam-thrashers, mostly Clayton and Shuttleworth's 
make, competing with each other, and as pre-arranged, the 
farmer's mules, horses, or cattle fetch the machine and engine 
from some neighbour's farm, where it is just finished, and no 
time is lost in setting to work, as all preparation is made for the 
day they expect to oommenoe, Coals are fetched and boys hired. 

Q 2 

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The owner, or conductor and engineer, as a rule, undertakes to 
thrash the stack or stacks, for a given sum, the farmer telling 
him how many loads it contains, and he, with his practised eye, 
judging by bulk. This generally averages say £4 or £4 10s. per 
day for his machine, self and fire-boy. . The engineer earns 12s. 
6d. to 158., and the fire-boy 3s. per day. For this they are sup- 
posed to find themselves, but when at work, they, as a rule, get 
food. The farmer provides 15 to 20 men, at Is. 6d. to Is. 9d. per 
day and food, with wine five or six times a day. The engine con- 
sumes about 30s. worth of coal per day, if used alone, but where 
stumps of bush or other wood is obtainable, it will cost less. (Best 
steam coal can be bought for 438. to 45s. per ton of 2,240 lbs. in 
Cape Town). 

An 8-horse thrasher (the size generally used) in fair working 
order, will clean in a day's work, 250 to 300 muids of wheat or 
450 to 550 muids of oats. Barley or rye is generally tramped, or if 
thatching straw is required, the latter is beaten out in bunches by 
the hand. Tramping means the old-fashioned practice (as described 
in Scripture) of driving the mules or horses round a circular thrash- 
ing-floor, their feet beating out the grain. It is then cleaned by 
throwing it up against the wind, the heavy grain falling to the 
ground, the chaff being carried away ; but this tedious process is 
seldom practised now for wheat and oats, or only by the small and 
poor farmers. 

The riding season, or bringing the grain to maxket, used to 
occupy three months of the year, but railways have brought them so 
much nearer, that far less time is now necessary, and the farmer 
has also a better pick of markets. January and February are the 
months for this ; but some of the well-to-do farmers hold a little to 
sell, after the ploughing and breaking season, in the hope of partici- 
pating in any rise that may have taken place. 

Formerly a poor harvest insured high prices, but in these days 
of quick and cheap freight, aided by the telegraph, the price is 
regulated by what grain can be imported for, which, taking the 
last five years, has ranged from 16s. 6d. to 22s. per 3 bushels, 
203 lbs. gross, including 2s. duty and cost of bag. Our Gape 
wheat always commands the top market value, if not a slight 
advance, on even the best Australian imports. In the above 
we have quoted Cape Town and coast ports price ; further inland, if 
supplies had to be drawn from the coast, carriage woidd tell on 
value, the railway carriage being 2d. per ton of 2,000 lbs. (10 
muids of wheat or 20 muids of oats are taken as 2,000 lbs.) from 
station to station, per mile, irrespective of distance ; cartage, &c., 
to buyers' stores is, say. Is. 3d. per ton more. Imported cereals 
are charged at a rate of 3d. per ton per mile. 

JdCpst of the corn farmers have a few sheep, ranging in number 

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from 50 to 1,000 ; and these lamb about June when the grass is 
beginning to get strong, and thrive well despite the want of care. 
They are shorn twice a year — ^in September and October, and 
February and March. The average weight of wool per sheep, 
each shearing, is only about 2 Ids. Artificial food is never 
provided or thought of, no matter how dry or bad a season may be ; 
tod yet there is no reason why hundreds of " silos " should not be 
filled with the natural grasses which cover the fields in spring- 
time, to supply this want. Stock usually pays well ; and towairds 
Saldanha Bay, and the coast, a fair number of cattle are reared ; 
they form a large proportion of the Bay farmers' source of income. 
Also on the wide open valleys and flats, towards the coast, wild 
ostriches are still met with, and when the mania for ostrich-breeding 
was at its height, the birds proved a small gold mine to the 
farmers in that quarter. 

In the Eastern portion of the Colony, the most extensive arable 
lands are those in the Zuurveld districts of Lower Albany and 
Oliphant's Hoek, and next to them Queenstown, Aliwal North 
and other border districts. In these upper districts wheat is 
usually sown after the turn of the winter, in June or July ; and 
on the coast lands as late as September. Since the country was 
first settled this grain has been more or less liable to be damaged 
by " rust," and only the hardy, flinty kinds are sown with any 
chance of a crop. The return in Lower Albany, when not so 
aflEected, is from 30 to 35 bags for one sown, if sown early — about 
ten acres being covered with a three-bushel sack (or muid) of seed. 
Barley, or here, returns from 10 to 15 buhsels per acre. Oats are 
largely grown for forage^ forming the staple horse food of the 
country. The best variety sown is the white side, or Tartar oat, 
which, though occasionally slightly affected, withstands the rust 
better than any other sort which has been tried. The average 
yield of oat-hay is from 2,000 lbs. to 3,000 lbs. per acre, but as 
much as 6,000 lbs. has been reaped oflE an acre. The return of 
gi*ain is from 36 to 49 per cent. A bag of good side oats (3 bushels) 
usually weighs 160 lbs ; but since rust has commenced its ravages, 
the average is not more than 130 lb. Wheat averages, in full 
three bushels sacks, as high as 230 lbs. Barley (5-rowed), if 
thrashed soon after being reaped, 180 lbs. to 200 lbs. per sack ; 
and English, or 2-ro wed barley, 210 lbs. to 220 lbs. The divisions 
of Albany and Bathurst and Alexandria grow a great deal more 
wheat now than formerly, and some of it is of very excellent quality. 

Indian com or maize, known under the name of " mealies," is 
grown all over the country, and yields most abundant crops of 
good food, both for man a»nd beast. Throughout the border and 
in the KafErarian districts, where it enjoys the summer rainfall' 
especially, it is largely cultivated. This grain possesses the advau-* 

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tage of comiDg to perfection in a shorter time than most other 
cereals. It requires but little cafe in cultivation, and is not 
affected by rust, or any other disease of any importance. 

Kafir-corp, or millet, is chiefly raised by the natives, being 
largely used by them, either boiled for food or malted as beer. 

Jrotatoes, and all kinds of European garden vegetables and pot- 
herbs, do well, and can be grown all the year round. Sweet 
potatoes, pumpkins and melons are produced and supplied in 
wagon loads, ^eet is raised extensively, and from some toals tha*; 
have been made to test tiie quality of sugar it contained, it is 
found equal in this respect to any samples of the plant grown in 
France, Belgium, or elsewhere. The kindred plant, mangel 
wurzel, when tried, has likewise proved a satisftictory crop, asJiave 
also Swede turnips. 

Tobacco is cidtivated in several parts of the Colony, from 
Glanwilliam and Piquetberg on the west, and all along the east coast 
up to Kaffraria. The soil in many parts seems well adapted to the 
growth of the plant ; but in the process of curing the leaf and 
preparing it for consumption, there is much room for improvement. 
To secure a knowledge of the best method of cultivating and 
preparing this product, the Grovemment was authorised by Parlia- 
ment last year, to obtain the services of an expert who will be able 
to give cidtivators instruction in these matters ; and Mr. Pieter 
Johan Bosch, from Amheim, Holland, who has excellent testi- 
monials of an experience gained in Java, has been selected for the 

In the rich limestone valley of Oudtshoom, with great facilities 
for irrigation, and considered the most fertile in the Colony, the 
production of tobacco amounts to 3,000,000 lbs. per annum. 
As much as 4,000 lbs. weight have been raised there from one 
morgen of ground (two acres). Tobacco has been grown on the 
same soil in this district for nearly a century, without any 
deterioration. The following notes on the present mode of 
cultivation are furnished to us by an inhabitant of the highest 
authority: — 

Cultivation of Tobacco in the District of Oudtshoorn. 

Seed, — The original seed was probably introduced by the old Dutch 
settlers from Holland and Batavia ; of late different varieties have 
from time to time been distributed amongst the farmers. 

When sown, — ^The time for sowing is horn. May to July. The seed 
is mixed with ash or finely pulverized soil, and sown in carefully pre- 
pared beds, which are also covered with thorn bushes as a protection 
against frost. 

Transplanting, — In the months of September and October, the young 
plants are sufficiently developed to admit of their being transplanted. 
They are planted in rows about three feet apart. 

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Manure, — The ground is well prepared and manured. Goat, sheep, 
cow and horse manure, the only kinds available, are used; ash is 
being tried on a small scale by a few farmers. The tobacco fields are 
manured every alternate year, the best soils every third year ; this is 
a remarkable fact, when it is remembered that the same fields have 
been planted without intermission for from 25 to 75 years, and that 
not the least deterioration is perceptible, the growth, on the contrary, 
being most luxuriant. On the best soils each plant yields 1 lb. of 
tobacco in the roll. The soil is, of course, exceedingly rich in lime, 
as is the entire tract extending from here through Ladismith and 
Montagu, to Robertson. It may be added, that no tob&cco can be 
grown here without regular irrigation. 

Suckering, — About three or four months after transplanting the 
plants are carefully cleared of all suckers or shoots in order to pro- 
mote strength in the leaf; the tops also are removed, from 15 to 20 
leaves are allowed on each plant. 

Blight, — ^The plantations are as a rule remarkably free from blight. 
Occasionally rust^ sometimes white rust, makes its appearance ; the 
leaves are then mottled with patches of red or white. Much trouble is, 
in some years, experienced from the ravages of a g^ub that attacks the 
young plants. The farmer^s dread is a hailstorm in between Decem- 
ber and February ; fortunately, however, these are but rare. 

Gathering the Crop. — In the months of January and February the 
plants are cut down, yellow spots on the leaves being evidence of 
maturity. The plants are left lying in the sun until evening in order 
to effect proper withering. 

Drying, — They are then taken to the drying shed, which is, in most 
cases, a roughly thatched structure. But very frequently they are 
hung closely on low staging either in the open or under orange or oak 
trees. Here they are left for about a month until considered properly 

Stripping, — When the plants are taken down from the drying shed, the 
leaves are stripped from the stems. Hitherto, as it was uni^ecessary 
for the purpose in view, there has been no sorting or classifying of the 
leaves. About 15 or 20 leaves go to make a '* bosch " or bundle, bound 
together with a cord of a species of rush (matjesgoed). These are then 
damped slightly on the outside and stowed away in the shed, until the 
want of money or the state of the market induces the farmer to twist 
the leaves into long strings and make them up into rolls, when he takes 
them by waggon, principally to the markets in the Eastern Districts, 
or to the Diamond Fields and the Orange Free State. 

Little or none of the dry leaf finds its way to the market or mer- 
chants, as there is no exportation and but very little local manufacture. 
So much," however, as is manufactured for sn^oking purposes by Mr. 
A. Pocock of Oudtshoorn finds a ready sale throughout the Colony. 

Roll or Twist Tobacco. — In making the rolls the process is as follows 
After a rough sorting of outsides, the leaves are steeped in lye pre- 
pared from the ash of a small succulent shrub (lidjesboschje), which is 
found here in abundance, or from that of another shrub ; they are then 
allowed to ferment for two or three days before twisting into long 

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232 tHE KAROO DtSTRlCtS. ^ 

strings, d sufficient length of whicli is done up into rolls of six or eight 
lbs. in weight. This work is performed chiefly by the coloured people, 
men, women, and children, who receive very good pay, as they in many 
cases suffer considerably from the effects of the narcotic. These rolls 
are apt to rot unless care be taken that the leaves are not soaked with 
water when twisted. 

Production, — It is estimated that the yield of tobacco in this district 
aJone amounts to about 3,000,000 lbs. per annum. This is consumed 
within this and the neighbouring colonies ; a large proportion being 
used for sheep-dipping. 

General prospects of the trade, — Much of the leaf grown in this dis- 
trict will compare very favourably with the generality of that grown 
in other countries ; but up to the present time enterprise and capital 
have been wanting to place the article in the markets of the world. 
Were this to be done, the production would be largely increased, and 
more careful attention given to the cultivation and general manipula- 
tion of our tobacco. New interest is now being awakened in this im- 
portant branch of industry, and it is confidently expected that the 
apointment of a competent expert, sanctioned during the last session 
of Parliament, will lead to its speedy development. Roll tobacco sells 
in the Colony at prices ranging from 3d. to 9d. per lb. Good leaf at 
from 3Jd. to 6d. per lb., though this quotation is not of much value, 
as there is no demand for large quantities. 

Although the Karoo districts are chiefly pastoral, the soil, like 
that of Oudtshoorn, is naturally rich, and only wants the fertilis- 
ing power of water to produce the heaviest crops. In favourable 
situations along the rivers, farmers form dams or weirs and lead 
out furrows from which the arable lands are irrigated ; in other 
eases they raise the water by centrifugal pumps from the bed of 
the streams, which run at great depths below the surface of the 
adjacent lands. Thus at many places along the Orange River, 
there are several pumps worked by stream power, supplying water 
from its bed, and large areas adjacent to it are brought under 

Over the greater part of the Karoo, water can be found by sink- 
ing wells. The horizontal beds of sandstone and shale, which 
form the flats or level plains, are generally intersected by igneous 
dykes known to the farmers as " Yzer Klip Kopjes " or iron stone 
ridges. These cross the beds of sand and shale vertically, and 
arrest the veins of water which permeate them, forming natural 
underground reservoirs. Generally, by observing the natural 
drainage area, and sinking alongside these dykes, where they form 
breaks or " poortjes," springs of considerable volume may be 
found. In addition to the igneous dykes, there are also limestone 
bands traversing the shale beds, and these sometimes seal up the 
fissures of the stratified beds so hermetically that springs are pro- 
duced by their interposition in the same way as with the dykes. 

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WArER-riNDlNG. . ^ 233 

Natui'e has rnnde it easy to follow the course of the dykes, for 
they are marked by a low ridge of dark colour tra\'ersing the 
country, while those covered with soil are rendered conspicuous 
by the "Karreedoom" and "Wolvedoorn," and other bushes 
growing along their course. The sub-surface water-courses are 
known to the farmers as " aars " or arteries, and from the vegeta- 
tion above them are almost as legible as footpaths. An interesting 
pamphlet on the subject of opening up these springs and wells 
has been published bv Mr. Thomas Bain, Eoad Engineer,* who 
mentions a remarkable instance of an unbroken dyke running 
across a valley a little below the village of Calvinia. The village, 
being above the dyke, stands on an underground reservoir, sup- 
ported by a tolerably good drainage ai*ea. Hence it is that, by 
sinking wells, water can be found at a depth of 8 or 10 feet in 
any pwi of the village. 

The number of windmills which now are to be seen dotted over 
the plains of the Karoo indicate that springs and well-sinking have 
of late years been much resorted to. The usual way, however, of 
conserving the limited rainfall of these central elevated plateaux 
is by the construction of dams, and impounding the flood waters 
which would otherwise flow off to the sea. There are a great 
many forms of dams existing, indeed the larger paxt of the coimtry 
is entirely dependent upon water thus collected for the use of 
itook and other purposes. Some few of these dams contain when 
toll as much as two hundred million gallons of water, and in 
ieveral instances farmers have proved themselves very successful 
m producing sufficient grain for their individual wants, some even 
raising a surplus. 

As an instance of what can be done in the way of irriga- 
tion, the Fish Eiver, draining part of the Fraserburg and Calvinia 
districts, affords an example. It nas there been f oimd possible, by the 
construction of simple weirs of stone and bush, to raise the flood 
waters to a height sufficient to cover the enormous flats bordering 
the river on either side, and of this fact farmers have largely 
availed themselves. The eaxly operations were carried out by 
unassisted private enterprise, and met with fair success; but, 
of late years, considerable sums have been advanced imder the 
Irrigation Act for the better construction and strengthening of the 
weirs now in use, with the result that the yield has been increased 
sevenfold within that time. 

Some similar works have been constructed along the banks of 
the Zak River, into which the Pish Eiver flows some distance 
above its junction with the Orange Eiver, and it is anticipated 

* "Practical Hints on Water Finding in connection with Geolopy niid on the Con- 
struction of Dams," by Thomas Bain, C.K., Cape Town-. Richards & Sons, Govern- 
ment Printers, 1835. 

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that very large areas on both streams, in addition to those now 
cultivated, w3l be brought under the plough within a comparatively 
short period of time. The soil is of great depth and is peculiarly 
rich, the width of the valleys varying from a naif to five miles in 
extent. Capt. Balfour, C.E., says of thi8 locality : — "The average 
height to which the crops grow varies from five to seven feet, and 
the ears measure from six to nine inches, full and well developed. 
After the first crop is reaped, a second one may be expected without 
sowing;'* and sometimes even a third comes up. The yield last 
year (1885), which has been what is considered in that back country 
a fair season, woidd probably exceed thirty thousand bushels. 
The conditions necessary to tne securing of a reasonable harvest 
may be stated generally to be one thorough soaking of the soil 
before seed time and one flooding after the plants are well grovm ; 
an additional flooding in season naturally enhances the yield. 

The only effort that has been made to effect artificial irriffation 
on a scale of any magnitude, is the Government scheme of Van 
Wyk's Vlei, described in a preceding chapter. The reserve for 
this wdrk was about eighty thousand acres, but, owing to the 
serious losses farmers have sustained during the recent years 
of drought. Government have been compelled to resume possession 
of at leAst an equal extent of land lymg contiguous to the pro- 
perty. The dam closes the mouth of a gorge, the sides of which 
are of no great elevation, and through which the water passes 
to a lower level, the outlet to the dam being over a depression 
in the ridge to the eastward of the earthworks, through which 
superfluous water is discharged to a point in the valley more than 
a quarter of a mile below the works, thus aflEording absolute 
safety in periods of flood. The area feeding the dam represents 
about an eighth part of the drainage area discharging its 
waters over the property; the dam, in fact, being upon a side 
stream about seven miles above its junction with a larger main 
stream. A canal of some four and a half miles in length has been 
constructed from the dam towards the junction oi these two 
streams, commanding a large extent of arable land, of which two 
thousand five hundred acres are now imder survey, the area stiU 
available for survey being at least three or four times as great as 
that now meastured. Apart from the fact that these lands can be 
irrigated by water caught in the dam, floods from the main stream 
are of frequent occurrence during the sowing season, and can, at 
very slight cost, be led out and utilized for the first soakage of aU 
sowing lands to be offered for sale, thus giving the leaseholders 
the very exceptional power of being able to husband the water in 
the dam for use at a later period. 

The lands available for irrigation below Van Wyk's Vlei are 
variable in qutdity. Those in the maiir vaUey are probably equal 

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iu riohnesB to the Fish and Zak River lands, some patches 
amounting perhaps to a fifth of the whole, being of iiidifPerent 
quality, and a little, here and there, is too poor for cultivation. 
The enormous area, however, of good level groimd below the 
dam, affords a choice of far more than suflBcient land on which 
to employ the impounded waters. Cultivation of a similar class 
of land to that now obtainable has been effected on -parts of 
these lands, but the experiments hitherto made by aid of 
water in the dam are too recent to allow of a decisive opinion 
being formed as to whether the yield will exceed that gained 
by what is called natural irrigation. It is, however, satis- 
factorily proved that wheat, barley, and oats yield abundantly. 
All common vegetables thrive well. Some five hundred trees have 
been planted within the last few months, and are growing freely. 
Vines are a success as far as their growth is concerned, but it is 
doubtful whether viticulture can be carried on to any great extent, 
owing to the fact that untimely frosts are apt to damage the crop. 
Broots, such as mangel, sugar, beet, carrots, turnip, &c., thrive 
splendidly. Mealies, sorghimi, and lucerne can be depended upon 
for a full crop of forage during the summer months, and ensilage 
can be carried on to any extent. 

Turning eastward again, in the direction of the country 
adjacent to Port Elizabeth, the valley of the Sunday's River offers 
a fine field for the promotion of irrigation. Here an association 
has already been formed — ^the Sunday's River Land and Irrigation 
Company — which is setting an example of what may be done on a 
large scale by private enterprise. They have acquired upwards of 
74,000 acres of varied "veld," 16,000 to 16,000 acres of which are 
capable of being irrigated, comprising the vast valley through 
which the river winds for a distance of 15 miles, irrigation canals 
for six miles having been already constructed. The soil of this 
valley is a very rich alluvial, being composed of the periodical 
deposits of the river for ages. The depth of soil varies from 20 to 
45 feet ; and wherever cultivation has been attemtited the growth 
has been most luxuriant. On the homestead " Hillside," occupied 
by Mr. J. 8. Kirkwood, mealies (or Indian com) grow 
fourteen feet high. Tobacco thrives well there, and Mr. Kirkwood 
has a vineyard in a very healthy condition. Indeed, there are on 
the banks of the Sunday's River, at Darlington, Jansenville, and 
Gt-aaff-Reinet, some of the finest vineyards in the Eastern part of 
the Colony, proving the fitness of the soil and climate for viticul- 
ture. Wheat, barley, and all kinds of cereals, as well as vege- 
tables, ffrow abundantly wherever they have been planted ; wmle 
under the former proprietors orchards containing as many as 500 
trees were in existence. Of the remaining 60,000 acres a great 
part is grass and bush, affording both grazing ^d shelter for live 

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stock ; cattle, goats, and ostriches thrive well on this pasture. The 
estate extends some way into the densely wooded kloofs of the 
Zuurberg Mountains, which abound ^n valuable timber, suitable for 
fencing, building and other purposes. There are twelve home- 
steads on the estate. Indeed, it consisted of twelve farms when it 
was acquired by the company. Twenty years ago fine crops 
of grain were raised on many of these farms, the land being 
irrigated by water led out from the river by means of gravitation. 
On the discovery of the Diamond Fields the sons of the old owners 
of the farms were tempted, by the large prices paid for the 
carriage of merchandise, to the new Adamantia, and abandoned 
husbandry for the more lucrative occupation of " kurveying." Thus 
the old dams and watercourses fell out of repair, and the rich 
land has practically been lying fallow ever since, having being 
turned into runs for the numerous herds of oxen employed in the 
carrying. On one portion of the estate a village is being formed 
by about 20 to 30 families (European). Each holder has a certain 
portion of arable land, and has proportionate grazing rights over the 
extensive commonage. On another portion e500 Natives live. 
They cultivate mealies extensively, and have 1,400 head of cattle 
grazing on the commonage assigned to them. The facilities for 
sending produce, agricultural and dairy, to market are good, 
the Midland Railway running through the estate at a distance 
of about four miles from the river; and on the other side the 
Addo Station on the North Eastern line is only fifteen miles 
distant. Thus all the principal markets of the Colony are 
easily accessible. Should the attempt now being made to establish 
cotton-growing as a Colonial industry succeed, there is no doubt 
that the Sunday's River Valley will be found most suitable for it. 

With the facts proven that with natural irrigation astonishingly 
remunerative returns may be obtained from the soil, and that life- 
giving water can at no great cost be artificially impounded and so 
distributed that adjacent fertile lands can be utilized for agricul- 
tural purposes, especially ffrain and fruit-growing, it is certain that, 
under proper direction and management, there is ample room for the 
extension of Irrigation, and that a great future awaits its general 
practice throughout the Colony. 

The chief rastoral pursuits of the colonists are horse, cattle, 
goat> ostrich and sheep-breeding; and fully one-third of the 
entire population may be said to be engaged in these and other 
occupations subsidiary thereto. 

The horse-stock of the Colony at last census was 205,985. 
That number has now probably doubled, but at present there is no 
extensive market for horses, and breeders are wishful that the 
Imperial or Indian Govetnments would establish a remount 
establishment here, or m^ke their requirements known and the 

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price a certain class of animal would always command, as there 
would not be any difficulty in providing a regular steady supply. 
Cape horses are celebrated for their hardy and enduring qualities. 
The original stock came from South America; they were jifter- 
wards improved by pure Arabs, who gave them their characteristic 
of good constitution and indomitable pluck ; and they have since 
had a large infusion of English thoroughbred blood, both racers 
and roadsters. There are a considerable number of notable sires in 
the Colony,* and several thoroughbred dams have also been 
brought out, much more attention being now given to the character 
of brood mares than formerly. The principal studs in the we^ 
are those of Messrs. Melck, Kotz^, Breda, Van der Byl, Faure, and 
Alport; in the Midlands are Mr. Bose of Beaufort, Mr. Burgers of 
Murraysburg, the Messrs. Southey and Distin of Middelburg, and 
Messrs. Hilton Barber, Heathcote, and Mechau of Cradock ; Mr. 
Moorcroft of Dordrecht ; and the famous establishments of Messrs. 
Yan Zyl, Oosthuysen, and ethers in the Hantam, Colesberg. 

The cattle of the Colony include the descendants of the long- 
homed native species which the Hottehtots possessed in Van 
Riebeek's time, crossed with the Dutch breed introduced by the 
early colonists. To these have been added contributions from 
nearly every breed known in England and Holland — Shorthorns, 
Herefords, Ayrshires, Devons, Aldemeys and Kerries. A great 
extent of the grass pasturage along the coast districts is well 
adapted for cattle, including the tracts known as the " Zuurveld " 
or sour grass country, where they attain to magnificent condition, 
the finest oxen employed for transport riding being supplied from 
that quarter. Many of the farmers of Albany, Peddie, Victoria, 
and King William's Town are not only cattle breeders but also 
" kurveyors " (transport riders) and have always some wagons and 
teams on the road. 

At the last census the total number of draught cattle in th6 
Colony was returned as 421,762 ; and other cattle 689,951 ; to 
this has to be added the cattle in the Transkeian Territories, now 
annexed to the Colony, numbering 218,931 head, making a total 
in 1875 of 1,330,644. The average value of draught oxen in the 
Colony during the last five years has varied from £9 down to the 
present price of £6 10s. per head, and in the Transkei it is about 
£6 per head. 

Dairy farming near to the centres of population is very 
profitable to those who have a knowledge of it, the average price of 
fresh butter being 2s. per lb., and sometimes it has been known to 

* The Racing Calendar (1884), gives the following as among the notable sires in 
South Africa :— Almoner, Berzelius, Bismarck, Buxton, Capillaire, Catalpa, Conductor, 
Deluder, Elf King, Eurus, Fire King, Glastonbury, II Gladiatore, Ivanhoe, Jacobin, 
Mr. Dodd, The Monk, Morning Star, Plunger, Selbome, Sir Marmaduke, St. 
Augustine, Student, Ta^estrj^, The Minstrel, Visconti, Whackum, Winchester. 

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run up as high as 4s. or 6s. per lb. In the inland districts the yield 
ol milk very much depends upon the quantity of food the cows can 
get ; and as the animals are entirely dependent upon the natural 
yejdy unless there is a good rainy season the share of milk that 
oomes to the dairy is but small. Up to the present time very 
little has been done towards the systematic cultivation of food for 
milch cows or other stock; but m some parts the wild grasses 
growing on ^^ vley " grounds are being out and stacked for winter 
food, and ^^ silos " are also being built, and ensilage will no doubt 
ere long form an important addition to the food supplies of the 

Yery many farmers have flocks of goats — ^in most cases the 
common goat of the country, but often mixed with various grades 
of Angora blood. These original goats are a very hardy race of 
animals, and live where sheep cannot, and supply meat which, 
though not equal to Southdown wether mutton, is quite passable, 
and very useful on a farm. They breed and increase very fast, 
having as many as five kids at a birth; and seldom less than two ; 
they are, altogether, a useful animal, and give a skin which is 
unequalled for the manufacture of superior leathers. 

The beautiful Angora goats, yielding the valuable mohair, were 
first introduced to me Cape by Colonel Henderson of Bombay. 
Afterwards the Hon. Dr. White obtained some through Sir 
Titus Salt ; and the stock resulting from these found its way to 
Caledon, SweUendam, Ghraaff-Eeinet, and Eichmond districts. 
Later on, Messrs. Mosenthal Brothers, who appreciated the value 
and importance of a fleece-bearing goat as next to a wool-bearing 
sheep, ^ied to secure some pure-bi^ animals from Angora, and 
in 1856 succeeded in doing so. Since then importations have 
been effected by other private individuals and mercantile firms. 
One of the latest and most important was that by Mr. J. B. Evans, 
who visited Asia Minor, and obtained some goats from the moun- 
tain districts of Teherkess and Geredeh ; these were introduced into 
the Colony in 1880, and some of the rams were sold at from £100 to 
£400 to the breeders of Graaff-Beinet and the Eastern districts. 

Although mohair only began to figure in our exports in 1862, 
the quantity then being 1,036 lbs., it has steadily advanoed in 
quantity and quality, and last year (1885) it amounted to 
5,251,301 lbs., of the declared value of £204,018. Cape mohair 
promises, with care and attention, to excel Turkish in the various 
qualities prized by the manufacturers. A Bradford authori^, 
writing to Messrs. Savage and Hill, of Port Elizabeths-says: — "In 
time with careful and intelligent cultivation, the Cape might take 
its place as equal if not superior to Turkey as a mohair-producing 
country. The lustre, as a rule, is nearly equal to that of Turkey 
mohair, and it is softer and finer. In the best lots there is nearly 

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as much freedom from kemp, and the kempe are not usually so 
thick and coarse as those in Tiu'kish mohair. The colour is gene- 
rally superior. The medium are largely used for wraps for 
making mohair plush, and here again the fineness of Cape mohair 
is most suitable, as it makes a full, rich plush. There is no 
doubt that South Africa is eminently suited for the growth of 
mohair, and that it only rests with the people of the Colony to 
make it some day the greatest mohair-producing country in the 

With Angoras, as with our Merino wool-bearing sheep, the 
fundamental rule which will determine the value of our staple 
products for the future is the degree of attention given to the 
selection of the best of stud rams, the proper classification of 
ewes, and the syst«aiatic culling of flocks — carefully eliminating 
the worst, and breeding only from the best specimens of each 
generation. The same rule will also apply to the breeding of 

The Colony is more like Spain, the original home of the Merino 
sheep, than any other country ; and wool of excellent quality can 
be grown throughout omr various divisions. But in many parts the 
evils of injudicious and indiscriminate breeding, and the irrational 
system of farming and kraalin^ stock, has tended to deteriorate 
the general character of the staple. The small farmers have been 
content to grow wool on no very definite plan, and to shear twice 
a year as a matter of profit, or on account of scab in their flocks ; the 
consequence being a good deal of produce of an indefinite, inferior, 
and rubbishy type. The exhibition held at Port Elizabeth in Decem- 
ber last, shows, nowever, that wool of a well-defined character and 
superior quality is raised by our leading flockmasters. The gold 
medal for the best exhibit of grease wool was awarded to Mr. A. 
W. Hart, of Cathcart, the sample being described as of " superior 
quality, long sound staple, splendidly got up, and in every way 
suitable for combing purposes.'' The gold medal for grass-veldt 
wool was given to Messrs. Geo. King and Son, of Bedford district, 
for long, fine, well-bred wools, strong in staple, Mr. J. Kemp, of 
Cathcart, was also recommended a gold medal. Amongst the other 
prominent and successful exhibitors were Mr. R. Kubidge, of 
Qraatf-Reinet, whose stud stock is of high repute ; Mr. Murray, 
of Colesberg, whose clip was considered very desirable for combing 
purposes, and altogether creditable to the district ; Mr. Yermaak 
of Burghersdorp, Mr. Brown of Cathcart, and Mr. A. Vigne, of 
Middolburg, who were recommended silver medals ; and a nost of 
others who received honourable mention. It was noticeable that 
several of the exhibits were wools of the Australian character, 
many of the frontier flockmasters having recently imported rtims 
wd jewes from Australian stud flocks, considering that the accU- 

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matised Spanish Merino of Australia is well adapted to our oHmate 
and pasture, and that by careful selection and pure breeding they 
may maintain their character for uniform fleebes and the finest 
wool in the world, as judged by the standard of the highest 
attainable market value. 

Our foremost sheep-farmers work their farms on the most 
modem and improved principles. Notably in Caledon, Swel- 
lendam, Beaufort West, QraafE-Reinet, Willowmore, Rich- 
mond, Middelburg, Cradock, Somerset and Bedford, there are 
estates having large and comfortable homesteads and outbuildings, 
surrounded by trees and cultivated grounds, shewing every evi- 
dence of enterprise and energy. There axe washing pools, dipping 
tanks, drafting pens, and roomy, clean sheds, where the wool is 
shorn and sorted according to its several qualities or descriptions. 
At suitable places throughout the sheep-runs, dams or reservoirs 
are constructed, where the flocks are watered without having any 
distance to travel, and at several of them there are small houses or 
stations where the superintendents or stockmen with their herds 
live for weeks together, visiting the head station only at intervals, 
as occasion may require. These superintendents, in many cases, 
are young men of good family, who thus acquire a practical 
knowledge of pastoral pursuits, and in a few years are qualified to 
take the charge of other farms, or work lands on their own 

Throughout the country generally, however, the old and still 
most common practice of farming is to graze the flocks by day, 
under the care of a native herd, who guides their depasturing over 
the part of the farm allotted to the special flock under his charge, 
and at evening time drives them home to the " kraal," where they 
are kept all night. These kraals or folds are made of various 
materials, the commonest fences being a high, thick hedge of 
thorny bushes, or an enclosure built with blocks cut out of the 
accumulated dung and debris of the old kraal. Stone walls are 
erected in many places where stones are handy, and in some of 
the more exposed situations, where the farmer has the enterprise 
and the ability, the stone walls are converted into sheds. 

The decrease of stock and the deterioration of some farms on 
the frontier which formerly carried sheep well, led the Government, 
in 1876, to appoint a Commission to enquire into the matter. 
This Commission attributed the evils complained of to three causes, 
namely, overstocking, whereby the best and most nutritious food 
was trampled and eaten down without any opportunity of propa- 
gating itself ; the wearing out of the veld by the sheep travelling 
to and from the kraals morning and night ; and the conditions of 
the kraals — chiefly the manure accumulations of years — favouring 
the development of various kinds of parasites. The remedies they 

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proposed were fencing in and subdividing the farms ; allowing 
portions yearly to seed down and recover ; sowing grasses and 
karroo plants ; and making provision for times of drought by pre- 
servingthe veld forany such emergency. The Commission stated : — 

" The time has passed, or is rapidly passing, when sheep-farming 
can be carried on profitably under the old system. Besides this, there 
are the general advantages of fencing experienced in other colonies, 
such as the cheapening the working of sheep-nms, the improved con- 
dition of the sheep by avoiding the driving of them in the heat and 
when they are full of water and food, the prevention of contagion 
from scab and other contagious diseases, the spread of parasites by 
stray sheep going over a clean run, the increased yield of wool, the 
saving of tramping out the grass by driving to and fro, the being able 
to let the grasses seed and multiply by sparing annually parts of the 
run, the depositing of the excrement of the stock on the land as nature 
meant it to be, instead of heaping it up in kraals where it breeds 
innimierable flies, and the making it practicable to scatter grass and 
Karoo seeds during rains, with a fair prospect of their becoming per- 
manent, by keeping the stock off, which is impracticable under the 
kraaling and herding system." 

Prior to this time, fencing had been adopted by many flock- 
masters, those of the Caledon district having been amongst the 
first to form enclosures, in which their stud sheep, troops oi blood 
mares, and herds of antelopes (chiefly bonteboks) respectively 
grazed. The extension of ostrich-farming and the necessity of 
the formation of camps for these birds, gave a stimulus to fencing ; 
and experience of its advantages for the improvement of stock 
generally, led to the passing of an enactment by the Legislature, 
in 1883, to regulate the erection and maintenance of dividing 
fences, and providing for occupiers of adjoining lands contributing 
to the expense of constructing the same ; the operation of the Act, 
however, being limited to proclaimed divisions. 

This system of fencing of runs is silently bringing about a 
revolution in stock-fanning. Subjected as portions of the Colony 
are to severe and protracted droughts, it enables the farmer to keep 
a part of his pastures in reserve to meet any such contingency. 
Even in the karoo districts, the benefit of enclosing, and the 
improved condition of the pasturage and health of the flocks re- 
sulting from it, are now being realised by the generality of sheep- 
farmers, and every man of any means is carrying it out as far as 
practicable. Some of the more enterprising have spent several 
thousands of poimds upon enclosures, and meir stone and wire- 
fencing may be reckoned by tens and twenties of miles. Many 
names might be mentioned, but without any invidious distinction 
one may be selected, who was foremost in the adoption of the 
system — Mr. J. S. Distin, of Tafelberg Hall. 

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Tafelberg Hall estate is situ$,te on the upper Karoo Plateau, 
about 20 miles from the district town of Middelburg. A railway- 
station is on the estate, and within half an hour's drive of the 
homestead. The property is about 22,800 acres in extent, lyinff 
on the extensive plains, studded with flat-topped hills, which 
slope away on the eastward side of the Sneeuwberg moimtain 
chain. Its lands are all enclosed and divided into camps, the 
fences consisting of stone and wire, extending over some 50 to 60 
miles. The stone enclosures were commenced before the days of 
wire-fencing, and were constructed by native labourers ; the walls 
average 4 feet 6 inches in height, and are three feet wide at bottom 
(with ample provision at short distances for water-wav), and from 
18 inches to 2 feet at top. About half of the wire fence is com- 
posed of eight wires with poles five yards apart ; in the other half 
the poles stand ten yards apart with the wires laced between them, 
the spaD between the wires being 4 six inches apart, 3 eight inches, 
and 1 nine inches. 

. Behind the homestead rises the table-topped hill from which 
the property takes its name, and on each side of it as well as in its 
rear are broad valleys stretching away to the mountain ridges on 
the horizon. Here, in their respective camps, horses, cattle, sheep, 
fi^oats and ostriches are pastured on the aromatic Karoo busn, 
which has the advantage over grass that it is not injured by frost 
in winter, and even when in driest seasons it appears but a parched 
brown stubble, sapless as a worn-out broom, it still affords nourish- 
ment to the animals, and, provided drinking water is available, 
stock can be maintained in good condition throughout the year. 
In each of the enclosures the storage of water is regarded as of 
great importance, and where there are no fountains, small semi- 
circular dams or tanks are constructed of sufficient depth to prevent 
rapid evaporation. Near to the homestead again are smaller 
enclosures, some of which are set apart for the horses, mules and 
cattle required for the daily work of the farm. The utility of 
these small camps was established during the period when ostrich- 
breeding was at its height ; at that time, within six years, Mr. 
Distin sold chicks and birds to the value of £11,167, and over a 
period of eleven years the value of ostrich feathers disposed of by 
him was £26,674. 

Another feature of the estate is the capacious dam or reservoir, 
which has been formed by the construction of an embankment of 
about 300 yards across the foot of the valley on the left side of the 
Tafelberg. When full, which it is in every season, it forms a magnifi- 
cent sheet of water about two or three miles in circumference, with 
a depth of from 12 to 14 feet in the deepest part. This is the source 
of all the profusion of foliage which environs the homestead of 
Tafelberg Hall. On approaching it, one may imagine oneself 

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V ifve>Sarvt^vf Gw^ralk D«pax^mjent . Pr-auudj^y ■SojjJj Solomorv JiCf. Cape^Tot^^m^- 

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drlTing up the grounds surrounding some villa residence at Eonde- 
bosch or Wynberg, with shady trees and roses and other choice 
flowering shrubs on either hand. The water irrigates a large 
extent of garden ground, vineyards, corn lands and lucerne fields, 
and is also utilized for driving a com mill, and other purposes. 
Hundreds of fruit t^ees of all kinds grow luxuriantly here, some 
of the fig trees covering a space of 25 by 10 yards, and mulberry 
trees standing 40 to 50 feet high. The orange, apple, pear, peach, 
plum, nectarine, apricot, loquat, lemon, quince, pomegranate, walnut, 
almond, cherry and strawberry, one and all, thrive well and yield 
plentifully. About 1 ,000 bushels of wheat are raised from the 
corn lands, the average yield without manure being 15 to 25 fold. 
In ordinary seasons water is led to the lands three times, but in 
dry seasons it requires to be led as often as six times. The farm 
buildings, it may be added, are on a large scale, and the accommo- 
dation for overseers, ploughmen and labourers is as substantial 
and comfortable as upon any estate in the mother country. 

Tafelberg Hall is not an exceptional instance of what can be 
done in the way of converting the plains of the Karoo into fertile 
and valuable stock-bearing properties. Many others might be 
mentioned. In the same district, and in close proximity, there is 
the estate of " Varkenskop,'' belonging to Mr. W. R. Southey, about 
12,000 acres in extent, which is wholly enclosed by wire fencing 
and divided into five camps. This farm is on the Great Brak 
River, and the stream is led out by a furrow which supplies a 
large reservoir, whence the water can soak the arable lands 
on the adjacent level flats for miles, and afterwards re-enter the 
river further on. At " Culmstock," a property of 14,000 acres, 
owned by Mr. Charles Southey, the whole extent is also enclosed 
partly by stone walls and partly by post and wire fencing. In the 
camps on these places, wild game is preserved and troops of 
springboks playfully disport themselves alongside of the ostriches. 
On the estates of Messrs. A. Vigne & Co., at " Doorstfontein," and 
on Messrs. Hilton Barber's and Heathcote's extensive properties, 
the same system of enclosure is carried out. These examples 
have stimulated the farmers of the old colonial stamp to follow in 
their wake, and now the many advantages of fencing have become 
so evident, especially during the recent severe droughts, that in the 
Cradock and Middelburg districts there are few places where it is 
not adopted, more or less. 

All this is tending to the improvement and conservation of 
stock, and, with good seasons and better markets, will increase the 
profits of farming and the wealth of the ooimtry. 


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By W. Spilhaus,* 

Since Jason set out on his expedition in search of the golden 
iieece, many thousands have followed his example, but when 
we examine the records of their success we are obliged to give 
the prize to those who have directed their attention to the 
animal that furnishes the genuine fleece, the woollen fleece, and 
the metaphor of the Ghreeks has become a reality for the humble 
substance from which it was borrowed. 

The total quantity of wool imported into the United King- 
dom from British Colonies in 1831 amoimted to 11,859 bales; 
since then it has been rapidly increasing, and in 1884 the imports 
from Australia and the Cape had reached 1,273,732 bales. The 
total of the 55 years gives the stupendous amount of 21,322,592 
bales, which represents at £19 15s. per bale (the average selling 
price in London of the last 25 years), the magnificent amount of 
£421,121,192. South Africa participates in this with 3,919,834 
bales, to the value of £77,416,721.t 

It will be interesting to compare with this the total value of 
Gold extracted from the rich deposits of the Australian Colonies. 
As far as we can ascertain this was altogether £264,000,000 to 
the end of 1884. By far the largest part of this wealth was 
gained during a comparatively short time. From 1852 to 1857, 
£82,000,000 were produced. From that yearthe production dwindled 
down gradually to £4,000,000 in 1878 ; and after all we are not 
sure whether it was real wealth. The gold was simply and 
quickly transformed into counters. As the number of these 
increased they represented less value in all other commodities, 
prices of everything else rose rapidly, only to fall again, now that 
the increase of the number of counters available has not kept pace 
with the growing population of the world. 

Wool, on the other hand, has slowly but materially increased 
the national wealth; a steady increasing supply has been 
kept up, and many millions of industrious hands have found 
employment in converting it for the use of mankind. Some 
conception of this may be formed when we compare the value of 

* The writer has thankfully to acknowledge the assistance kindlv rendered to him by 
the Editor, who had, in his Handbook of the Cape and South Africa, for the Paris 
Exhibition, already exhaustively treated the subject of this paper. He is further 
under great obligation to the of&ce of the Colonial Secretary for the readiness with 
which information has been collected for hira from all parts of the country. 

t All these figures are compiled from Messrs. Helmuth, Schwartze ^ Co/s Annual 
Wool Reports. 

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the raw material with that of the manufactured article. The 
highest price paid for any wool in the November-December Series 
of auctions in London in 1884 was 2s. 9d. per lb. for a lot of Port 
Phillip lambs' wool, whilst good woollen tweeds still cost from 
5s. to 6s. per yard, the finest goods being quoted as high as 
12s. 9d. per yard, and the yard of such material will weigh only 
about half-a-pound. The weight of a woollen shirt, the wholesale 
price of which is 7s. 3d., is 16 oimoes; a yard of fine flannel costing 
13d. weighs 4 ounces ; blankets are sold at from 14d. per lb. for 
union (wool and cotton mixed), to 22d. per lb., material for blankets 
being of the cheapest. 

It must be a matter for congratulation that the British Colo- 
nies in the Southern Hemisphere are mostly particularly well 
adapted for the production of the Merino sheep. Through their 
aid there is no fear that for many years to come the British 
manufacturers will lack profitable employment. Amongst these 
Colonies it is true the Cape takes but a modest place. 

The following Returns will show our Export of Wool from 
1850 up to 1884 :— 

lbs. Value. 

1850 .. 5,912,927 .. £285,610 
1860 .. 23,219,689 .. £1,448,629 

1870 .. 37,283,291 .. 1,669,518 

1871 .. 46,279,639 .. 2,191,233 

1872 .. 48,822,562 .. 3,275,150 

1873 .. 40,393,746 .. 2,710,481 

1874 .. 42,620,481 .. 2,948,571 

1875 .. 40,339,674 .. 2,855,899 

1876 .. 34,861,339 .. 2,278,942 

1877 .. 36,020,571 .. 2,232,755 

1878 .. 32,127,167 .. 2,114,341 

1879 .. 40,087,593 .. 2,156,609 

1880 .. 42,467,962 .. 2,429,360 

1881 .. 42,770,244 .. 2,181,897 

1882 . . 41,689,128 . . 2,062,180 

1883 .. 38,029,495 .. 1,992,745 

1884 .. 37,270,615 .. 1,745,189 

1885 .. 34,432,562 .. 1,426,108 

In 1830 the Cape exported only 33,000 lbs. Then the 
production increased with rapid strides until it apparently reached 
its climax in 1872. In that year the country had been enjoying 
successive good seasons, and the price then was the highest 
during the la-st 25 years. Messrs. Helmuth, Schwartze & Co. give 
the average value of a bale of wool in 1872 as £26 10s., whereas 
in 1884 it would be only £18. Since 1872 the quantity exported 
has been fluctuating, until in 1884 it amounted to the same weight 

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as in 1870. This reduction is owing to several causes. The Orange 
River Free State is a large sheep-producing country. In 1880 the 
Census Eetums there showed 5,056,301 Merino sheep, which would 
produce about 25,000,000 lbs. unwashed wool. Most of this wool 
used to be exported through the Cape Colony ; but since the Diamond 
Fields became a large market for Natal produce, facilities for the 
transport of wool to the Sister Colony increased, and much of the 
Free State produce must have found its way for shipment to 
Durban. Besides this, great and long-protracted droughts have 
unfortunately visited the Colony, and in some districts largely 
decimated the flocks. Last but not least, the retrogression in weight 
is accounted for by much wool being now scoured in the Colony 
which used to be shipped in the grease : this is proved by a com- 
parison of the value. Although in 1884 the weight of wool 
exported was about 13,000 lbs. less than in 1870, the value shows 
about £75,000 more, notwithstanding that prices in 1884 were 
£2 15s. per bale lower than fourteen years previously. 

The wool-washing establishments have greatly developed lately. 
There are a large number of them throughout the country, 
of which we may mention two at Colesberg and Aliwal North, 
one at Brak River (George), Cradock, liiiddelburg, Hanover, 
Hay, Somerset East, one private washing establishment at Ceres 
Road station, and four at Albert, turning out yearly about 16,000 
bales together. Both at King William's Town and East London 
steam washeries are now in course of construction. At Uitenhage 
there are eleven establishments, employing about 250 hands 
each. In these washeries, somewhat more than 53,000 bales are 
yearly scoured, ready for shipment. The quantity last year was 
in all, 21,266,746 lbs. grease wool or 53,162 bales. 

Besides these, there are two important Western establishments, the 
Waverley Mills, close to Ceres Koad Station and the Zoete Inval 
washery at the Paarl Station, in which, together 10,000 bales of 
wool were scoured last year for shipment to England, Germany, 
Italy and Canada; one lot even having been sent to Rio de 

Most of these washeries employ a Cape Colonial invention for 
cleansing the wool — ^Niven's Patent. It is very simple and parti- 
cularly well adapted for short stapled wools. After yolk and 
grease are dissolved in the hot water bath, the wool is conducted 
into one end of drums in which an axle with spirally arranged spokes 
revolves quickly carrying the wool out at the other end. During this 
process it is subjected to rinsing in a strong stream of clean cold 
water, which is made to pass through the drimis. Subsequently 
the wool is spread out over grounds loosely paved with round stones, 
and the African sun soon completes the drying and bleaching. 
Great sums have been expended on drying-machines, and many 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

WOOL. 247 

are in use for rainy weather, but the brilliant whiteness of our best 
wools is only obtained in the sun. The capital invested in these 
washing establishments is very considerable, and it is satisfactory 
to notice that progress is made from year to year in the efficiency 
of their manipulation. 

It is an open question whether the same may be said of the 
quality of the product itself, and in fact complaints axe heard that 
our wool is deteriorating and not keeping pace with the advance 
shown by other Colonies. There may be some truth in thi^, but 
the amoimt of agitation about this matter at present will act as 
a powerful ferment, and is a guarantee that we shall not drop out 
of the race. There are good men all over the country investing 
money, despite of the low value of wool, to import fresh blood and 
to judiciously improve the breeds. Wool will for many years 
remain the most important production of the farming industry of 
this Colony, and the low values at present will be a blessing in 
disguise, as they will force our farmers to the closest attention 
towards perfecting their staple product. 

It may be remarked here that unf ortimately a great deal of scab is 
still prevalent throughout the Colony. Generally speaking, farmers 
are earnestly endeavouring to keep their flocks clean, and quite 
considerable amoimts of capital and labour are yearly expended on 
curing the sheep ; the most favoured remedy is tobacco, either boiled 
by the farmers, who grow or buy the colonial grown article, or from 
imported extract. Besides this, arsenic, lime and sulphur, Cooper's 
powders, and a great many other chemical preparations, are used ; 
but a uniform, energetic action is still wanting. It is, however, to 
be hoped, and may be expected, that in the next Session of our 
Parliament an efficient law will be enacted. 

Deep-rooted as the Merino sheep-farlning industry has now 
become, it took a long time imtil it found a grateful soil in our 
country. It is reported that the first woolled sheep were introduced 
into this Colony by a Colonel Gordon, who was in the Dutch 
service, in 1790. He procured a number of rams of the fine- 
wooUed sheep of the Escurial breed, which had been presented to 
the Dutch Government by the King of Spain. Of these he kept 
some himself and others he distributed amongst some farmers 
between Cape Town and Mossel Bay, who crossed them with 
the hairy native sheep, producing an animal with a rough, 
lustreless but heavy and abundant fleece.* There was, however, 

* It wUl be interesting to know that part of the sheep brought out by Colonel Gordon 
were the original progenitors of the many millions of fine woolled sheep, which now 
form the principal wealth of Australasia. It app^rs that, when Colonel Gordon 
died, his widow had to sell his stock, and 29 of his sheep were put on board two 
English war ships, the " Reliance" and the " Supply," which happened to be in Table 
Bay, for the purpose of taking supplies to Sydney. (See " The Colonies and India^* 
December, 18850 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

34^ ik\iou 

not Bittiji apft^^daticii ^.^vn for this sev pomiL Hie 
£ftnM«s^ Btoi^T gonyting of de5i.n»>jLuits fr:?cn the DutiJi and 
FthkIu had no tnditioiks aKxit tbe miing of Ifgrroo ahecp ; and 
«^irem to this da j there t$ ]k< a vcmdizi acioiig the Dutch fjarmhig 
|)op«IatioQ iriio iiz^5tef:§tiC!^ cocToting vo:I into atoddmgs or 
jmebi^ ! TSfee natiT^^ haiir. fac-taiLed sbe^ which hal been found 
W the &sl iKitch cecupiats oi th^ Cj{«e in paBBOEDOii of the 
alKidgttte HoCt^ctoCSv K^rafrTg !df^ d'>:ks. h^ boen f.^and ledal 
and hattiy for the eadr white fazars^rs. It k fro^Tn^v acaredj 
;sttb;<^>^ to diseise acd ivrr budy : it& vt&rn^e frrgj^^htfR excdient 
tt^xttoft : the £tf .'i ij^ esiOixxvcii^ tail ^ r::3i:h va^aed, ami takes the 
fiae» of batter asd laid ia tibe «^<i:itzx : the r^fffn ^ mdilT eon- 
TettrCk<e into a :^'& Leather. Et^^i 2Cw thi^ Cafe ^eep s Wed on 
ittiBT fanifi^ iji f rei^s»C!t^ to rts^ ^'j^^»^ ci£iiT^^ rrral* and the 
tiis( ciHftSQis ci ISro ^ow«d a t.'Cil iLxn-M- cr saicLT a rniUkMi 
oc Ca^ ^iieep in the cccntrv^ Thi^ TiriirTJigr is* eljw xaShcr 
hia«ued thaa. diziinis^tied. ais tire Iiazg^sr p:cfi'arf"g. zl the Colony 
hn^ axml^ the ; r>iai:cb:^a ::£ SL:irtwa sick pmitahuf ix scut parts 
tha& thi^ ^M'^^;^^ fv3r wcirL 

BecnTTriT^t^ i^w^^iar. to the hisconr ^ the TnvTTTTc aaei^.. w^ find 
thafi is w«^ :xs.^c :ncil l>li thac a .n:ai2Xsai*.!em]3Lt was smife in 
eamast to *aaiictcase iie-wwlledscieer. Tw^; j^rT^^nnm, MftBis. 
J- F. Siiita aai yS ma*i ^«aa BreCiW miTr^ra^^fti sime ^eep oi the 
ganfmf ?iIei:Co«I hreed fr:jit Sisr.^Jiy. iaii Incased taem Jir hanns 
at tif Biriidafiah:cp Jm titit ti-rre ^Kmjdfie^ ir tie Swcjueoiiam) 
Dtscra:^ Xhej kr^ct :i^ tie j(rr?i hr^i^ :?ir auiaj tohcs. aad in 
spvasail ±>is ia tbi Sw^taaiaaL rTtscrrut to tiiii isj thif Sason 
<d:!t:^caIt}r:>$3itiiT^CQiscg!i::$ed. Snziewhac laosc. Scaziiah saecriiQ 
aitow^ ^wdT^jr Sc:irg«oxu w^as iztjcrc^^ ^:j j Lcri Chaiiaf SunaaaC 
ami jwt jfi the 'Sc^na^mieiii: itrar iC cir.vDi T.*^ :ieaj: Caps Towx, 
ami jc toe B^»!hhis*^.. a jorrrrTrrfflwgac tagrAJ^^fKrrrmiiC HLwhziC wia^^^fla 
the irrmnier^ 30w tie r^vn ^c Scmersec ^uise»i;I!Hr^iJ* hr 1>A*^ 
the ItTrTg-Ttfa ^ectlecs ia Aliaaj im^rtsj^ i jiecst smnher it ioal 
SganrHT nerno sbieg wrdiiae wcou jad-ji:£ie Sjtfc ^hr ths^ Wist 
j»at jTsaraR wei& Tnafe :ii ikynmrrr;trmr ^.^oi £Di :niir*nsg9[&Eel 
3i>::bL 5ie Afrlgupctfr Bv^g»* wxh tofeir aacirsL :^tc9W)i£ttas 
izxii ijiC:^u:ygme :20vrir sii^ tiiac i.r then: uiurr^^ii^ wzsoi^ ^ rtnAwMd 
hj thiar uiCcuracarse wtcj. tie xinter ^2^ -mm ^j^j^trrN. isah frsoL 
titt ^"£iaed wuiiL tiac :i»j^r ^^ur^ ioD.* tae ^woiiny^ tiex 
wouai Vase ae^^r^wijiHi wxh means- X^ ^muaciii^ ir tzn* mew 
^mamc A ^ \,f^m Sur^c ur Ool^ M;ik :&. me J*' jwact wi,. p»>- 
4UESIL j(«tt :ateep irint tie ^^a^silemiaai. liijc::i:r . x inui jitsat 
F^MOSL iicr«i«mued. ^^ep trr^ni JLhanj ami C£iftOi«&. PWtn& 
^'inOKt jmi r^fit He^oar ^cj^^ir^i ^ome zrii: tie CotuigMq^ DigcxaftN 

* '^ .}*ic*A *utn Jv*r>tm*-^ ^iMUte- ;%Otteo 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

WOOL. ^49 

Kinnear took some of Mr. Eeitz's flock to Beaufort West, and 
Dirk de Wet of the same flock to Victoria West, and P. J. J. 
Burger introduced thoroughbred sheep from Ghraham's Town to 
Murraysburg, and all these Districts became again centres for 
distribution elsewhere. 

The breed has of course been modified and altered as the 
exigencies of market and fancy of breeders suggested. It was 
soon seen that for mass production, neither the fine-woolled electoral 
sheep nor even the Sturgeon sheep was the most profitable. 
Although Messrs. Eeitz and Breda produced wool as fine and 
valuable, probably, as any from Saxony or Silesia, weights of both 
fleece and carcase were very small. Besides, there seemed to be a 
larger outlet for strong combing wools, and various breeds were in- 
troduced, the favourite being the Rambouillet sheep bred in the 
Famous french stud of this name, and most of the well-bred sheep 
of the Colony are now of this stamp. Latterly some importations 
have been made from Australia, from Pomerania, and Hanover ; and 
in some districts, where it is noticeable that the wool loses too much 
of its fineness. Sturgeons will now be employed with advantage by 
breeders who judiciously study their busmess. 

The character of the wool varies of course with the pasturage 
of the different districts, and with the care bestowed by farmers 
upon their flocks. . The best wool, finest and strongest in fibre, is 
still produced in the area where thoroughbred merino breedmg 
was first commenced in the west, comprising the coast lands east 
of the Hottentot Holland moimtains. Along the moimtain ranges 
of these districts, the homesteads, surrounded with oaks and other 
shady trees, with their gardens full of beautiful roses and the 
honeysuckle twining over inviting jporches, and with their hospitable 
and kind occupants, remind us of the most pleasant parts of the 
old country. Most of the farms produce grain as well as wine, 
besides furnishing splendid grazing for sheep and cattle. The 
fertile soil gives six successive crops when virgin, and five crops 
when it has been under the plough before, without artificial 
manuring. Ghrape-vines grow ea.sily and abundantly on the hill- 
sides, and the merino sheep here may be brought to produce the 
finest and strongest wool. Close to the coast, along the downs, the 
soil is more sandy and level. This is called the Duineveldt, where 
merino sheep thnve well and are subject to few diseases. Flocks 
from the upper country are frequently brought here for change of 
air and pasturage. The wool produced is characterised mostly by 
its strength of staple, not so much by its fineness, and from the 
different bushes growing here it assumes a blueish tinge. Between 
the Duineveldt and the moimtain farms there are the " Kuggens " — 
undulating country, nothing but hills and valleys, here and 
there intersected by a small stream or rivulet, except where the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

2hb WOOL. 

Breede river, with the waters of the Eiver 2iOnder End and the 
Birffeljagt's river, takes its course towards the sea. These Ruggens 
are dry, and dotted here and there with mostly uninteresting farm- 
houses erected of clay with thatch-roof, seldom whitewashed, 
scarcely ever relieved by trees and shrubberies. But the extensive 
sheep walks on the Euggens form excellent pasturage, although 
the wool here does not attain the strength of that from the higher 
and better situated farms. The characteristic feature of the 
whole of this country is the " Rhenosterbush " (Elytropappus 
rhinocerotis), a bush which has become evenly distributed through 
the agency of the merino sheep, the seed being transported across 
the country in its fleece. The l3ush is of no use except for fuel, 
but underneath it the grass sprouts readily, the bush probably 
promoting its growth rather than checking it, as it wards off the 
greatest heat of the sun, and yet with its wiry leaves does not 
shut out the light altogether. 

According to the last census (1875) there were in these Districts 
in all 1,778 holdings with 929,588 merino sheep, and these figures 
probably do not require much modification now. A moderate 
farm holds about an average of 1,200 sheep, there are small farms 
down to 100 to 500 sheep, but there are also well managed estates 
with 5,000 to 7,000 sheep, and the largest flock-master owns alto- 
gether about 12,000 well-bred merino sheep. These farms are 
rationally managed; the sheep are divided about the groimds with 
outlying stations and sheds, and they are depastured in such a 
way as not to exhaust the runs all at once. The country carries 
from one to two sheep per morgen grazing-land. The animals 
owing to their origin from Saxony stock are mostly of small structure, 
but the mutton is valued for the delicacy of its flavour. They 
yield about 3 lbs. washed wool in the average. In these Districts 
the universal rule is to shear once a year. Formerly nearly all 
farmers used to wash their sheep before shearing them, either in 
a river or under a pump, but now much wool is shorn and exported 
in the grease. The fleeces are tied up in bundles and the locks 
and pieces should be taken off and packed separately. In many 
cases neglect is shown in this respect, but an improvement is already 
noticeable. The clip occurs during the month of October, and 
about this time the yearly wool-fairs in the more important 
inland towns take place. 

Another complex of sheep-producing Districts stretches out 

Sarallel with the west coast, comprising the eastern parts of the 
)ivision8 of Clanwilliam, Piquetberg, Malmesbury and part of the 
Paarl ; these are pre-eminently grain districts, and not so much 
importance therefore is attached to the rearing of sheep. However 
according to the census of 1875, there were 266,469 woolled sheep 
there, which may now be considered to have increased to about 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

WOOL. 251 

325,000. There are 1,434 holdings altogether; most of which 
have but a small number of sheep ; nearly all shear twice a year, 
and the character of the wool does not as a rule show a high 

The great division of Namaqualand produces but few Merino 
sheep ; here the Cape sheep has still a greater hold upon the 
farmers, and along the sea-coast down to Table Bay, the country, 
being very sandy, is not adapted for sheep. The same may be said 
of the coast lands of the other side of George, Knysna and Tzitzi- 
kama, Port Elizabeth, Alexandria, and Bathurst. All along the 
vaUey called Longkloof , however, Uniondale, and Himiansdorp, into 
the Uitenhage District, there are a number of sheep farms, and on 
the eastern side of the Sneeuwberg mountain range we get into 
the grass districts of Somerset East, Bedford, and Albany. These 
divisions contained in 1875, 1,033 holdings with 671,366 sheep, and 
here, it will be remembered, was another centre from which the 
merino sheep invaded the Colony. Here there are famous stock- 
breeders, and large flockmasters, the better farms owning from 
6,000 to 10,000 sheep. 

Further to the east the frontier districts furnish a formidable 
contingent towards our army of wool-bearers. These are the grass 
lands of Fort Beaufort, Stookenstrom, Victoria East, King 
William's Town, Queen's Town, and Cathcart. Some part of this 
territory has only recently been conquered, but the 1782 holdings 
of the first-named four divisions possessed in 1875 in all as many 
as 611,851 sheep ; of this number by far the larger part, viz., 
446,474 sheep, belongs to the division of King William's Town. 
The bad custom of shearing twice a year also prevails in these 
parts of the country, but lately sheep-breeding here has made 
great progress, and the wool known as the Kaffrarian enjoys a 
good reputation in the London market. Much has been done in 
importing superior rams, principally from Australia, and in fencing, 
and in other improvements of the industry. 

Returning to the west again, we have two peculiar sheep 
Districts, the Warm and Cold Bokkeveldt in the Clanwilliam and 
Tulbagh divisions, with Ceres as outlet, and the Boschjesveldt in 
the Worcester District. The wool is shorn once a year in the 
grease, is fairly well bred, of good staple, but generally remains 
duU of colour when scoured. There are in all 595 holdings with, 
in 1875, 211,935 merino sheep. 

But the greatest portion of the coimtry taken up for sheep farming 
and the most remarkable pjurt, peculiar to the Colony, is the 
Karoo. This large marvellous tract of country which has been 
regarded as semi-desert, is as fertile as the banks of the Nile, pro- 
vided it receives sufficient moisture. But even the severest drought 
cannot destroy its vegetation. You look around for miles and miles 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

252 WOOL. 

and see nothing but dusty ground and small stumps of bushes 
sparingly strewn over the suriaoe, not a green leaf, not a blade of 
grass, except, at long intervals, rows of mimosa trees along the dry 
beds of nvers. Tou think this is desolation, a life-destroying 
desert. But at last you notice a building at the distance ; you see 
trees near the house, you get to a farm, you are hospitably received, 
are treated with cofiee and bokke melk (goat's milk) ; the old man 
shows you his fountain (spring) which he has newly opened 
up by aid of dynamite ; he shows you his steam engine to pump 
up water for the flocks; his dam, that cost him hundreds of 
poimds; his garden with wonderful wheat and oats, splendid 
fruit trees, enormous pumpkins ; he tells you, yes, it is *banj 
droog (very dry), during three years there has been rain only twice 
or tlu'ee times ; his lambs are lost, he had to cut their throats to save 
the ewes, and many of his big sheep are dead also, but the remainder 
is all right ; as long as his fountain runs he has no fear ; while they 
have water, they keep alive on the stumps of the bushes. And 
when rain, good rain comes, then all these bushes revive; there is a 
general resurrection, grass springs up, and there is an abundance 
of food for the flocks, which after first sufEering from the sudden 
change, soon prosper and increase as nowhere else in the world.t 

Tins remarkable territory takes its commencement from the first 
range of mountains in the west, it covers the terrace that runs along 
these mountains north of the Wittebergen and Zwartebergen 
Ranges out to the great Sneeuwberg Range, which extends from 
north to south ; it covers the whole of the large upper Plateau 
north of the Eoggeveld and Nieuweveld mountains till it is 
bordered in the east by the Stormbergen and slopes off towards 
the north to the Orange River. This vast area covers about 48 
millions of acres ; there are according to the last census — about 
4,700 holdings scattered over it, and it carries approximately 
five millions of merino sheep. This territory, although of most 
fertile grounds, is subject to great and continuous droughts, and 

* ** Banj," corrupted from ** Verbannd," banished, mild form of swearing, as in 
Swedish " forbannade." 

t A contributor writes to the Ch'aaff-Reinet Advertiser : — It is a fact and circum- 
stance worthy of remark, I think, that there has sprung up since the heavy rains in 
May last, all over the country, a most extraordinary, and, as far as I can learn, unpre- 
cedentedly luxuriant crop of countless millions of young seedling karoo bushes. Should 
one-fourtn of this new crop atlain maturity, it cannot but enhance the value of huid for 
grazing purposes, by double its present worth. From personal observation I am led to 
believe that it extends over the whole colony in all its karoo districts, though it may not 
be so thickly studded in all as I have noticed it is in the Aberdeen, Oraaff-Reinet, WiUow- 
more, and part of the Jansenville and Ultenhage districts. This remarkable phenome- 
non is but one more surprising evidence of the wonderful powers of rejuvenation and 
renovation possessed by our arid-looking Karoo plains and barren hills, that have stood 
the wind's fiery blast and the sun's scorching rays for many a^;id many a drought- 
stricken summer, even in the remote past ; and still maintain their character as the best 
grazing grounds for all stock in South Africa, and perhaps equal to any other in the 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

/ WOOL, 253 

even in good seasons it receives but seldom rain, whieli then 
generally comes down in torrents. The farmers therefore are 
mostly dependent upon springs (fountains), near which they build 
their homesteads, and gram can generally only be raised by irrigat- 
ing the ground. The single farms are of large extent, and one to 
three and in some parts six morgen ground are required for each 
sheep. The average number of woolled sheep for small Karoo 
farms may be taken as about 1,5U0, but 3,000 is a common 
number, there are many of 7,000 to 10,000, and in the Beaufort 
West District there is one farmer, who owns as many as 20,000 
sheep, and shears every year about 230 bales of well-grown and 
well-packed wool. This clip has been sold by the agents, Messrs. 
"Wilman, Spilhaus & Co., Cape Town, for many years regularly 
for the American market, where it is well known and appreciated. 
As a rule the fanning is done in a rough and ready way. The 
sheep are driven out in the morning and brought in again at 
sundown, to be kept during the night in rou^h enclosures, called 
kraals, erected sometimes of stones (the flat slate slabs are 
abundant in most localities), or built up of the sheep's own 
dung cut out from the floor of the kraals. This substance 
accumulates here rapidly, it becomes soon like hard baked peat, 
and is used extensively as fuel, a great boon in this wood- 
less country. The sheep are of large build, much appreciated by 
the butcher, and the character of the wool is improved upon con- 
tinually. In all the Divisions west of Victoria West, the universal 
custom is to shear once a year, although each farmer has his own 
particular time for this, modified often through dry weather and 
consequent poor condition of sheep. In the Midland districts the 
sheep are shorn mostly every seven or eight months, but in some of 
the north-eastern districts the more rapacious system of shearing 
twice a year prevails. Progress, however, is also noticeable in this 
respect, and in the Colesberg Division, as well as in Hope Town, 
many farmers are content to deprive their sheep of their fleeces 
only once a year. Generally speaking, the sheep yield from five to 
six lbs. average of unwashed wool, wmch will lose in scouring from 
60 to 70 per cent. The wool is packed in bales, loose and mostly 
without locks and pieces being separated. The better clips of this 
wool, being of long staple, yellow colour and light in the grease, 
are eagerly bought up for the American market. 

The divisions of Griqualand West with a portion of the district 
of Hope Town to the North West and the divisions of Aliwal 
North and Wodehouse to the South East of the Orange Eiver Free 
State, complete the group of South African grazing-lands. Qxiqua- 
land West has only lately embarked upon pastoral pursuits, yet 
numerous flocks cover the district already. In Hay alone the 
number of merino sheep is estimated at 70,000, for the other divi- 

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254 WOOL. 

sions no estimates oxe available. The division of Hope Town has 
suffered much through drought. In 1875 its 305 holdings possessed 
395,287 merino sheep, whilst now the number must be estimated 
at somewhat less.* In Aliwal North and Wodehouse the census 
returns of 1875 showed 628 holdings with 975,489 merino sheep. 
This number will at present probably not exceed 865,000, also owing 
to losses through drought. In these North Eastern districts 
like in the Free State the veldt is mostly a sort of prairie grass. 
Since some time however the Karoo bushes, transported by means 
of seed in the fleeces of the sheep, have commenced the invasion of 
this territory, and at present the character, at least of Qriqualand 
West, is already essentially changed, numerous Karoo bushes 
covering the surface where before there was only ffrass. 

In 1873, an interesting paper, contributed W fir. Shaw, of this 
city, was read before the Linnean Society. He described some of 
the changes going on in the vegetation of South Africa through 
the introduction of the Merino sheep. 

Seeds furnished with barbs and hooks have naturally the greatest 
chance of being sown out, through sheep, over large areas, and the 
author describes how, in an incredibly short period, the Xanthium 
spinosum, after being introduced through imported Merino 
sheep, spread over the coimtry. It was threatening the very life 
of the wool-growing industry, but fortimately, through especial 
legislative enactments for its extirpation, it received a powerful 
check, and the war against it is still being carried on, not alone in 
this Colony, but also in the Free State. Another troublesome 
parasite on the wool is what is called, by wool buyers, the carrot 
seed,t the small hard seed, with numerous hooks, of a kind of herb. 
The more the intercourse between the several districts of this Colony 
increases, the more this seed is noticeable in the wool. The so- 
called burr weed, Medicago laciniata, whose seed does so much to 
deteriorate wool from the La Plata, is probably also introduced to 
this Colony through Merino sheep. In some parts there is a good 
deal of it, but as it is a plant that requires regular moisture, it 
cannot spread much in the Karoo districts. JBesides the dis- 
tribution of these plants, other changes are effected by the 
sheep. As their energy is foremost directed to those plants which 
form their best food, these naturally suffer most, and lose ground 
in the struggle for existence, and room is made for others which 
are less suitable as food. Thus, Dr. Shaw points out, the Gom- 
phocarpus species have been favoured particularly, especially 
the G. lanceolatus, a plant indigenous to the midlands of the 
Colony, never eaten by any sheep, has come in consequence to 
cover extensive tracks of the coimtry. In the same way the 

* Xn the neighbourhood of Colesberg the loss hj droughts is estimated at 26 per ceut. 
t Caucalis Africana Thunb, 

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WOOL. * 255 

Chrysocoma tennifolia has become the prevailing plant of late 
years, originally belonging to the S.W. of the Colony. It was 
first eschewed by sheep but is now in some parts their only 
sustenance, so much so that the mutton becomes impregnated with 
its rather plea,sant aromatic flavour. The best Karoo Bushes are 
the Pentzia virgata and the Pentzia globosa, seed of which has 
been sent to Australia, also a species of Adenaohaena ; these are 
widely distributed over the lower Karoo. The Atripflex halimi- 
folius and the A. capensis fun^^h also good pasturage for sheep. 
(The hot. names have been kindly supplied by Mr. Harry Bolus.) 
The influences operating on the changes in the pasturage were 
aggravated by the system of overstocking which prevailed through- 
out the Colony (except in the S.W. coast districts), and it was 
feared at one time that the sheep walks of the country were 
gradually approaching their destruction. However, long years of 
drought intervened, the flocks were thinned out, all weak and 
delicate animals having to perish, and of the vegetation only what 
was really adapted to withstand rainless seasons could survive. 
Thus the most useful plants were preserved, plants that extend 
their roots to remarkable depths imder the surface, whose seeds 
will remain germinable for many years, exposed to the hottest sun 
and to the severe cold of winter. What seemed a dire misfortune 
has been punishment and remedy at the same time, and where 
nature has provided so much assistance and so many facilities, it 
will now behove man to improve upon his opportunities. The 
South African farmer has his path clearly laid out for him, through 
care in selection of breeding animals, through the passing of 
energetic laws for the eradication of scab, through the fencing of 
his lands and through also improving his sheep runs by sowing 
useful plants, by giving them time to grow and by keeping down 
unsuitable vegetation, he can do much to improve his staple product 
and to enrich his country, and he will do it. Whatever may be 
said against our Afrikander Boer, slowly but steadily he advances, 
without the feverishness of the modem money-maker, but with the 
steadfast perseverance of his Batavian and Huguenot forefathers. 

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By Arthur Douglass, M.L.A. 

From time immemorial the Ostrich Feather has been highly 
prized as one of the most beautiful productions in nature, and also 
as being different to all other feathers in having the fluff on both 
sides of the quill equal in length and quantity. 

In early times they were much esteemed by knights and men of 
hi^h degree as plumes for their apnour, and have been especially 
prized by the English nation, from the time that the Black 
Prince at the battle of Crecy in 1346, having slain the King 
of Bohemia, plucked the plume of ostrich feamers from the de- 
ceased King's helmet, and placing it in his own, assimied it as the 
crest of the Prince of Wales, which it has ever since remained. 
In those days the feathers coidd be obtained only from wild birds 
in Northern Africa, but after the colonisation of South Africa, the 
wild Ostrich was found to inhabit the whole of Africa, though it is 
found in no other part of the world. 

From the extreme shyness and great swiftness of foot of the 
Ostrich, and from its retiring rapidly into the Desert as colonisation 
extended, the export of Feathers from both North and South 
Africa remained on a small scale, and the article being in such 
limited supply could not come into that general use as a lady's 
head ornament, and for dress trimming, which of late years it has 
become, and for which purposes its intrinsic beauty must always 
insure it a pre-eminent position. It is only since the domestica- 
tion, and consequently large increase of the importation of Ostrich 
Feathers into England, that we find it becoming a staple article 
of commerce. 

The domestication and farming of the ostrich began in and has 
hitherto been confined to our Colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Up to 1864 it was commonly thought that the day was not far 
distant when the ostrich would be numbered amongst the extinct 
animals of the world. Already driven out of the better favoured 
parts of Africa, and compelled to live in the sandy desert, where, 
only in exceptionally good seasons, it could rear its young, whilst 
at the same time the hunters, both black and white, incessantly 
preyed upon the bird, it certainly seemed as though it must soon 
become extinct ; more especially as the usual way of hunting them 
was to watch where they had made a nest, and then take advan- 
tage of their sitting on the eggs to steal up near enough to shoot 
them. But all this was about to be changed. In the place of 
ladies being adorned at the cost of the destruction of these noble 

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birds, a new industry was to be given to the world, another 
animal added to our domesticated Kst, and new life and vigor 
thrown into our farming population at the Cape; an industry 
that would cause large tracts of country to be fenced in, that would 
give the more intelligent and enterprising of our farmers an oppor- 
tunity to rise to the surface, and woidd bear fruit in a hundred 
ways, by inducing men to look round and search in other directions 
for the latent wealth that lies in South Africa, only wanting 

About 1864 two farmers in difFerent pai-ts of the Colony had 
succeeded in capturing some wild Ostrich chicks, and it was found 
there was no difficulty in getting them moderately tame, sufficiently 
so to allow them to be kept in a well fenced paddock, and to allow 
of their being caught twice a year and their feathers removed. 
But old hunters and travellers from the interior, all prognosticated 
that any attempts to breed them in a tame state would prove 
abortive, it being commonly said that so shy was the Ostrich, that 
if the nest was once seen by man, the bird would never return to 
it. But this and many other difficulties in the successful domes- 
tication of the Ostrich were to be solved in a maimer then never 
dreamt of, and a foundation laid to a complete change in the 
nature of the bird, and from being the shyest and most timid of all 
birds, to make it in a few years as tame and easily farmed as any 
of our domesticated animals. 

In 1865 we have the first record of the tamed but not yet 
domesticated ostrich being farmed. In the census of the Cape 
Colony taken in that year, we find in the return of live stock in tne 
Colony 80 ostriches. The total export of ostrich feathers in that 
year being 17,522 lbs. weight, valued at £65,736, these being 
feathers entirely from wild birds, with the exception of 120 lbs. 
weight from the above noticed 80 tame birds. At about this 
amount the export remained, little progress being made in the domes- 
tication of the birds, till in 1869 Mr. A. Douglass, of Heatherton, 
in Albany, succeeded in perfecting an Incubator and hatching 
the eggs in large numbers, thus solving what had hitherto been 
the ffreat difficiSty to successful ostrich farming. Previous to this, 
the few birds that were hatched, generally got wild and unmanage- 
able, but the successful development of Artificial Hatohinff at once 
gave an impetus to the industry, and the export of f earners the 
following year rose to 28,786 lbs., valued at £91,229. 

The industry was now fairly started, artificial hatching entail- 
ing artificial rearing ; this again caused a close study of the wants 
of the birds, and the knowledge thus acquired enabled those 
farmers who did not hatch artificially to remove the chicks from 
the parent birds as soon as hatched, and rear them by hand. 
Thus they became rapidly free from the innate wildness that had 

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hitherto been the great drawback to successfully farming them, 
each succeeding generation showing more and more signs of per- 
fect domestication. The result was that in 1875, five years later, 
the export had risen to 49,569 lbs. weight, valued at £304,933. In 
this year (1875) a census was taken of the Cape Colony, the return 
of live stock shewing 21,751 domesticated ostriches, as against 80 
at the beginning of the decade. 

The next five years saw the production of feathers rise rapidly, 
the export in 1880 being 163,065 lbs. weight, valued at £883,632. 
At this time the industry was most lucrative, pairs of birds that 
had already bred, or that were sold with a guarantee that they 
would breed, realised readily £200 a pair and upwards, whilst as 
high as a thousand pounds was in more than one instance given 
for particularly well known birds of superior plumage, and £10 
each was the standing price for chicks a few days old. This state 
of things induced a mania for Ostrich farming, everybody who 
could scrape money together plunged into it. Companies were 
formed in every town and village. And the talk on the market or 
in business offices would be all of Ostriches and their requirements : 
the Doctor and the Lawyer, the Baker and the Barber, each 
vying with the other as to who could speak most learnedly on the 
sub] ect. But, alas ! for frail human nature, how quickly, and to their 
sorrow, did these gentlemen discover what a deal of truth there is 
in the old proverb " every cobbler to his own last.'' When the 
money was invested and it was too late to retrace the steps, it was 
found that the successful management of Ostriches was a delicate 
matter requiring knowledge and experience, and above all close 
personal supervision. 

The highest export return as to quantity of feathers yet reached 
was in 1882, when the export was 253,954 lbs. weight, valued at 
£1,093,989, but the next two years showed a decrease in both 
quantity and value, the last returns published being these for 1884, 
showing a decrease of 20,543 lbs. in weight and £127,510 in 
value. This decrease in the export being mainly owing to drought 
and a virulent fever that of late years has attacked and carried ofE 
large numbers of the chicks when about a month old, and which 
promises to put a check to any further rapid increase in the 
number of domesticated birds. 

This check to the hitherto rapid increase of Ostriches is not 
altogether to be deplored, as the increase had before been at a rate 
that was certainly alarming as to the stability of the industry, and 
the heavy fall in the value of feathers that has just occurred, 
s:howed that to some extent production was exceeding demand. 
But it should be borne in mind that production has exceeded 
demand in everyone of the principal articles of export from our 
great Colonies, and this, taken in conjunction with a temporary 

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turn of fashions against Ostrich feathers, fully accounts for the 
heavy fall, and should prevent anything like a panic as to their 
future value. 

There having been no census taken since 1875, the number of 
Ostriches in the Cape Colony at the present time is not exactly 
known, but taking the known production of an Ostrich to be 
1 J lbs. of feathers in a year, allowing eieht months between each 
crop, and dividing this into the total weight exported in 1884, after 
deducting the small amount of wild birds' feathers still exported, we 
get a return of 150,000 domesticated Ostriches living in the Cape 
Colony at the present time, giving employment to not less than 
eight millions of capital. 


We can imagine nothing more delightful and interesting to a 
traveller than a visit to a large ostrich farm. Let us try and describe 
what may be seen on one we know well. The size of the farm is 
13,000 acres, situated in the Eastern Province of the Cape Colony. 
The herbage is a mixture of grass. Karoo (a sort of heather) and, 
succulent bushes. The rainfall in this part of the Eajstem Pro- 
vince is too uncertain to allow of cultivation without irrigation, so 
the cultivation is confined to a few acres of lucerne irrigated by 
pumps, some soft green food being indispensable for rearing the 
little ostrich chicks during droughts. On the farm are kept 600 
ostriches and 400 breeding cattle. The whole property is enclosed 
by strong wire fences 5 feet high, and sub-divided into numerous 
camps, with similar fences. Near the homestead the camps are of 
about 100 acres each, being appropriated to the rearing of the 
young birds. Beyond these again are camps of about 25 acres 
each, these being given up to a single pair of superior old birds in 
■each camp for breeding, whilst beyond these again are large camps 
of about 2,600 acres in extent, with 150 birds in each. But let 
us take a stroll in these camps and see what is going on. Here in 
the first we find an old Hottentot with about 30 little ostriches 
only a few days old around him, these have all been hatched in the 
Incubator, and he is doing nurse to them, cutting up lucerne for 
them to eat, supplying them with fine gravel to fill their gizzards 
with to grind their food, breaking up bones for them to let them 
get a supply of phosphates, and giving them wheat and water, and 
at sundown he mil bring them back to the Incubator for warmth, or 
should the weather change and rain come on he will be seen 
hurrjdng home with his 30 little children following him to a warm 
well lighted room, with a clean sanded floor. In the next camp 
we have a pair of birds and about 15 chicks accompanied by a * 
Kaffir man, who has been with them every day from the time they 
hatched to get them tame and accustomed to man. These have 


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been hatched by the parent birds who will brood them at 
night in the camp. But great risks are run by this method of 
rearing, from wild carnivorous animals catching the chicks, as 
great number of carnivorous animals of nearly every known species 
aboimd in South Africa, the most destructive to younff ostriches 
being the jackals, a single one of which will destroy a whole brood 
in a night. Our host informs us that he is compelled to ke^) a 
man constantly employed laying poison and setting traps. The 
poison is laid by inserting strychnia in pieces of meat and laying 
the pieces at short distances all round the camps. In consequence 
of this wholesale destruction of the camivara, game abounds on 
the farm, and as we walk beautiful antelopes of different kinds are 
constantly springing up and bounding away in front of us, and 
in the afternoon our host lends us a rifle and taking us into some 
unoccupied camps we bring down our first buck. 

But here we come to another camp in which we are told there i& 
a nest, and as we enter a heavy thorn bush is given to us, and we 
are told that if the male bird charges we are to hold it to his eyes. 
But we do not see the cook bird, and have got some distance in^ 
and can just see the hen bird upon the nest with its neck stretched 
along the ground, making itself look as much as possible like one 
of the monster ant-heaps that abound in the country, when we are 
startled by three tremendous roars behind us, and only just have 
time to put up our bush, when the infuriated cock charges down a& 
fast as a horse can gallop, making every nerve in our body 
shiver with fear, as we remember having heard of broken ribs and 
legs, and men killed by savage male birds ; but we follow the 
example of our conductor and keep the bush at a level with the 
bird's eyes, when just as he reaches the bush he stops suddenly, his 
instincts teaching him not to risk his eyesight against the thorns. 
Then we move on to the nest keeping the cook at bay with our 
bushes, but we are thankful when it is over, as the cock dodees 
round us, first on this side then on that, always trying to get his 
head past our bush, and should he succeed, he would instantly floor 
us with a kick from his foot, armed as it is with the formidable 
homy nail. The kick is delivered forward and downwards, and 
with immense force when at the height of a man's breast, 
gradually losing its force as the foot nears the ground, in conse- 
quence of which many men have saved their lives when attacked 
unprepared, by lying flat on the ground, thereby escaping with a 
severe trampling, but no broken bones. 

We, however, arrive at the nest without accident, when to our 
astonishment our conductor suddenly lays his bush down, and 
handles the eggs, when we find that the hitherto infuriated cock's 
nature has quite changed ; he that a moment ago was trying with all 
his might to get at us and kill us now stands a dejected, beseeching 

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oreature, uttering a plaintive noise and beseeching us in every 
possible way not to break his eggs. The nest we find to be 
merely a scratched hollow in a sandy place, with 15 eggs in it, 
weiglung three pc»unds each, upon which the parent birds must 
«it for six weeks, the cock sitting by night and the hen by day, 
the eggs being exposed to many risks of destruction by jackals, 
baboons and carrion crows, or by heavy rains filling the nest with 
water. The " modus operandi " of the carrion crows to get at the 
contents of the eggs is very ingenious ; the bills are not strong 
enough to break the shell, so they take a good-sized stone in their 
olaws and rising up to a considerable height, let it drop on the 
eggs, but unless there are suitable stones near the nest they cannot 
do this, seeming not to be able to carry the stones horizontally. 
We have noticed the same peculiarity of a want of power in the 
crow to carry horizontally when trying to get at a tortoise by 
letting it fall to break its shell ; in every case where we have seen 
them do it,, they have caught the tortoise on a rock, in no case have 
we known them to carry the tortoise till they get over a rock. 

But now we arrive at one of the large camps with a troop of 
150 full grown birds in it, and here in the cora^er we have a 
planked yard : this is where the birds are plucked, the one end 
being movable, so that when the birds are in, the end can be 
moved up and the birds packed in so closely that they have no 
room to kick. Just as we enter, we observe the birds coming over 
the hill, being driven on by ten men on horseback, each man 
<jaiTying his thorn bush to turn a refractory bird, or to master a 
savage cock. The birds being yarded the plucking begins, the 
tails and long black and drab feathers are pulled out, the white 
feathers being cut off and the stiunps left for two months, till the 
quill is ripe, this being done to get the feather before it is 
damaged, and the quill being left in so as not to injure the socket 
by pidling it before it is ready to be shed. 

We now return to the Homestead and visit the Incubator room, 
which is constructed to be as little afEected by changes of tempera- 
ture as possible. The machines used are the "Douglass" Patents. 
Then we visit the feather room and see the feathers being sorted 
into the different qualities, and done up in bunches, either for 
sale in the Colony or for shipment to England. We then visit 
the kraals, and find some 70 or 80 cows being milked, as dairy 
farming can be most successfully carried on in conjunction with 
Ostrich farming ; the cattle eating the coarser grasses, and 
tending to keep the bush from getting too thick for the Ostriches 
to pass amongst it. We find all the labor on the farm is done 
by natives, who make excellent servants for managing stock, 
and as the natives are exceedingly fond of milk, the Ostrich 
farmer who has an imlimited amount of milk to give them, 

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greatly reduces the cost of their food, and makes them contented 
and happy. 

Such are shortly some of the sights with many variations that 
may be seen on an ostrich farm, whilst the visitor will probably 
be regaled at dinner with a luscious omelette made from an Ostrich 
®gg> or he may be asked to have a slice of roast Ostrich, the meat 
being very good eating though as yet little used. 


The following table showing the value per lb. of all Ostrich 
Feathers exported from the Cape, given at quinquennial periods, 
may prove of interest. It must be borne in mind that they are 
average values of all kinds of Ostrich featherd exported, including 
"Dark Chicks" worth 2s. per lb., and "Prime Whites" worth 
very many pounds per lb. 

£ 8. d. 

1850, Average per lb. . . 

. . 3 13 

1855 „ „ .. 


1860 „ „ .. 


1865 „ „ .. 

. 3 14 

1870 „ „ .. 


1875 „ „ .. 


1880 „ „ .. 


1884 „ „ .. 


1884 is the last year for which the Customs return at the Cape are 

In concluding this short notice of Ostrich farming, we must 
remind our readers that the Cape Colony, as it was the first to 
domesticate the ostrich, so has it hitherto had a practical monopoly 
of the Industry. But in 1883 several shipments of ostriches took 
place to South Australia, the Argentine Eepublic, and to 
California ; and the Cape Parliament taking the alarm that the 
Colony was in danger of losing its lucrative monopoly, imposed 
an export tax of £100 on every ostrich and £5 on every ostrich 
egg exported. 

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By Professor P. D. Hahn Ph. D., M.A. 

Shortly after the arrival of the first European settlers in Table 
Bay, the first vine-sticks were brought into the Colony, in 1653, 
from the borders of the Ehine. They appear to have flourished 
rapidly, and many more sticks were brought in 1656, principally 
from the Ehenish provinces and France. The earliest account of 
a vintage is from the muscadel grape in 1659. In 1681 the first 
brandy was made, and ever since those days viticulture has occupied 
the most prominent position /amongst the several branches of 
Agriculture in the Cape Colony. 

According to the returns of the first census taken at the Cape in 
1687, the total number of the vines planted in the vineyards of the 
settlers, and in the government plantations, was more than half a 
million. It has been thought that the Huguenots brought with 
them the art of viticulture, and the varieties of vines which are 
now found in the -Colony to be principally cultivated. This is not 
so, as the Huguenots only arrived here in 1688, and twenty- five 
years earlier the first cuttings were introduced from Germany and 
France. It was certainly hoped that the skill of this people 
would improve the character of the wine, and they have done very 
much towards improving the ways of growing and making wine 
in the Cape Colony. 

The last statistical returns of the vineyards of the Colony, taken 
in 1880, shewed that there were about 60,000,000 vines in the 
Colony on 20,000 acres of land. A large nimiber of vineyards 
have been laid out since that time, and there is reason to believe 
that the number of vines now in the Colony exceeds 70,000,000. 

The cultivation of the vine is not met with in all parts of the 
Colony. Most of the wine districts are in the Western Province ; 
the production of wine and brandy in the Eastern Province being 
comparatively small. This is not so much due to the fact that the 
first wine-growers settled in the western part of the present Cape 
Colony, or that for a long time the western part of the Colony 
formed the principal part of the European establishment, but 
principally to climatic conditions. There is certainly no country 
in the world which possesses a climate more favourable to the cul- 
tivation of the grape, than the Western Province of the Colony. 
Here we have in spring a sufficient number of fine days with bright 
sunshine, and also as much rain as will cause a very vigorous de- 
velopment of the buds, and a most luxuriant growth of the young 

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shoots. Towards summer, bright simshine reigns supreme, but the 
humidity of the air is still sufficient for the further growth of the 
bunches, which in January and February mature under an almost 
cloudless sky, and in a tropical temperature. Only certain parts of 
California, and of Southern France, enjoy a climate which is 
similar — ^but not equal — to that of the Cape. The enormous pro- 
duction of the vineyards of the Cape, to which reference is made 
below, is solely due to the climate ; it is true the soil is also fertile, 
but it is not superior to the soil in other wine-producing countries. 
The principal wine districts are the divisions of the Cape, 
Stellenbosch, Paarl, Malmesbury, Worcester, Eobertson, Montagu, 
Ladismith, Prince Albert and Oudtshoom ; the production of 
wine and brandy in all these districts is by far the greater portion 
of the total yield of the Colonial vineyards. They may con- 
veniently be distinguished as coast districts and inland districts, 
inasmuch as the physical condition and chemical composition of 
the soil, and also the climatic conditions in these districts, are so 
different as to compel the wine-farmer to adopt two different ways 
of cultivating the vine in these districts. The divisions of the 
Cape, Stellenbosch, Caledon, Malmesbury, and Paarl, exhibit a 
great similarity in soil and climate, and form the group of the 
coast districts, whereas all the other abovementioned divisions 
may be called the inland districts. The rocks which contribute 
towards the formation of soil in the coast districts are granite, 
clay-slate, and sandstone. The vineyards situated on hills or slopes 
in these districts are all on granite ; the best vineyards in these 
districts, such as those of Constantia, Bottelary, Moddergat, 
Jonkers Hoek, Paarl, Grroeneberg, and Eiebeeks Casteel, are all on 
decomposed granitic soil, and there is no doubt that the produce 
of these vineyards is qualitatively superior to the wine produced 
in lower situations. The alluvial soil in the coast districts is 
formed from the constituents of granite, clay-slate and sandstone, 
and is found along the courses of the Kuils, Eerste, Laurentz, 
ai;id Berg Eiver vineyards, on stiff yellow clay, on rich black clay, 
on sandy clay soil, and even on loose sand. The greatest difference 
in the physical properties, and in the chemical composition, may 
be observed in these vineyards, but in all these districts the soil is 
distinguished by a very small amount of lime. This want of lime 
is the characteristic feature of the soil in all the vineyards in the 
coast districts. Numerous analyses have been made of these soils, 
and the results of all shew that the amount of lime in these wine 
districts is deficient, seldom exceeding '1 per cent. Many wine 
farmers have adopted a system of manuring by which they supply 
the soil with this necessary ingredient, and their method has 
always been rewarded with excellent results. As a rule the vine- 
yards in the coast districts are not irrigated, and this must be 

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attributed to another important constituent of the ^anite soils, 
ihe ferruginous clay, whioh possesses a most peculiar power of 
retaining moisture, whereas the porous sandy soils, or the loose 
•calcareous soils of the inland districts readily part with the 
moisture they contain, and therefore these soils require irrigation. 
The rainfall in the coast districts is much greater than in the in- 
land districts, and the maximum rainfall is during the winter 
months. It is evident that this latter circumstance is most 
favourable to viticulture. 

The returns of the Meteorological Commission give the average 
rainfall of Wynberg (Gonstantia district), Somerset West (Stel- 
lenbosch district), and Wellington (Paarl district) as follows: — 



Somerset West. 





i . 



February . 

. . . H ' 


' i 






2i . 




64 . 




7f . 

. H 




. H 



6^ . 




H . 







November . 




December . 

. . . 7 . 

. H 


Some time before the winter rains set in the grapes are ripe, and 
it is quite exceptional that the crops suffer from rain. The great 
difference in the rainfall between the coast and inland districts is 
not the only cause of the different method of cultivating the vine- 
yards in the inland districts. The physical condition and the 
chemical composition of the soil of the vineyards in these districts 
are most pecidiar, and are the cause of the enormous production, 
which is greater than in any other part of the world. A bed of 
ferruginous marl, the so-called " kalkbank," stretches for miles and 
miles almost at the same level through the lowlands of the districts 
of Worcester, Robertson, Montagu, Ladysmith, and Oudtshoom. 
It commences on the Hex Eiver and extends along the Lange- 
bergen as far as Oogman's Kloof. The whole belt of land between 
the Langebergen and Zwartebergen, from the Koo to Meiring's 
Poort, is characterised by the occurrence of this " kalkbank.'^ The 
ferruginous marl frequently changes into calcareous clay, which 
readily decomposes, forming a very rich, loose, and deep soil. The 
value of this soil is, even in the Colony, not sufficiently appreciated, 
although there cannot be any doubt about the fact that no more 
fertile soil can be found throughout the length and breadth of 
South Africa. 

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The methods of cultivating the vineyards are different in every 
district, each farmer having his own ways ; it is therefore quite 
impossible to give an accurate description of the planting and 
growing of vines in the Colony. The following account contains 
thQ recomijaendations to the wine farmers of the Colony from Seb. 
van Eeenen, Esq., of High Constantia, who is undoubtedly the most 
experienced wine farmer in South Africa, These recommendations 
have been acted upon by most of the more successful wine farmers, 
and they can testify to the practicability of the same. His recom- 
mendations are as follows : — 

The season for planting depends much on circumstances, in this 
country, generally in the month of July ; but if possible, it should 
always be done as soon as possible after separation from the parent 
stock ; the cane has thus a chance of making a first growth in its 
future home, instead of leaving it to exhaUst its force while laying in 
the ground as a cutting, and necessitating a fresh effort when perma- 
nently planted. 

Very much of the future success of a vineyard depends upon the 
care with which the planting is done. A good start will not only en- 
sure a more healthy and vigorous plant, but greater longevity ; to 
secure this, deep trenching is essential, however rich may be the 
soil, to enable the young roots to strike well down. The trench 
should not be less than two to three feet, three feet is better, as the 
canes, which should not be less than 18 inches in length, will thus 
with facility strike deeply down, and have freer rooting ground ; if 
the soil be poor, some manure should be placed at the bottom of the 
trench ; the distance between the canes depends much on the variety 
of the grape, as well as the aspect of the vineyard ; in a hot district, 
it is admissable to plant closer, but, generally speaking, four by four 
feet is a safe distance ; also in very rich soils, and for luxuriant 
growing vines, even more space is desirable. 

For the two first years especially, the young vines should be kept 
scrupulously clean ; a very general error is committed in occupying 
the ground during this time with melons and vegetables of various 
descriptions, thus im^roverishing the soil at the very time the young 
vine requires every aid, besides the evils of necessarily treading the 
ground, and injuring the young sticks in gathering the temporary 
crops, and further preventing that careful and diligent hoeing, which 
is so essential in giving free access of air to the soil, and permitting 
the spring rains to carry down the fertilizing matters. 

The young vines should not be pruned or interfered with the first 
two years, so as to enable them to give as many shoots as possi- 
ble : it is erroneous to suppose that earlier pruning ensures a quicker 
return, as, even if it does, it is at the cost of the future strength of the 
plant, in fact its free growth in infancy necessitates an extraordinary 
root action, which insures ultimately a far more vigorous growth and 
vine ; when the vine is pnmed, say, the third year, the first care should 
be the formation of a well shaped stock with a single trunk, and four 
or five arms radiating as nearly as possible from a common centre, so 

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as to ensure an even supply of sap to all the future arms, and acquire 
the cup-shaped form. 

The attainment of an early harvest should always be subordinate, 
as the vines when once well cut for fruit spurs, will yield a return far 
beyond what can be gained by an early crop. It is now that the 
advantages of deep trenching will be manifested, as the plant, thus 
enabled to root itself deeply, will evince the greatest vigour and luxuri- 
ance. There is another practice which must be condemned, viz: 
shallow trenching and irrigating, the result of which is that 
the roots are kept near the surface, instead of striking down 
towards moisture, which by capillary attraction a deeply loosened 
and porous soil will always furnish. 

Digging, — All vines are benefited by digging, even though the soil 
be porous and loose, but this should be finished in the month of May> 
as digging and pulverizinff the soil towards the end of winter tends to 
favour the increased productiveness of insect life, especially of the 
Oalandra. The scarcity of labour has led to the practice of ploughing, 
and with very ill result, the subsoil becomes hardened by flie horses* 
hoofs, and in addition the plough continually passing at a uniform 
depth, causes a hardening of the subsoil, from the flat bottom of the 
iron share constantly pressing it down, and further, with a careless 
leader or driver, an immense number of arms and shoots are destroyed. 
A good many instruments have been invented for hoeing, but the 
hand-hoe is by far the best ; if a ^rubber, or horse-hoe, be desired 
from motives of economy, it should be so light that a donkey can draw 
it ; the heavy foot pressure of a horse is very injurious in the freshly 
dug and moist rows of a vineyard, especially if the soil be tenacious. 

Pruning, — We need hardly say that at all periods this should be 
done by experienced hands with a sharp knife or scissors: it i& 
marvellous how vines can at all sustain the rough treatment of a 
club-stick or hatchet, with which the young branches are too fre- 
quently broken off. The vine when three years old, may be said to have 
fairly entered on its bearing career, but it does not the less require 
diligent care and skill, in fact the operations of nature in every form 
resent neglect ; too much care and attention can hardly be bestowed on 
the pruning, from the age the vine is now supposed to have attained ; 
bad pruning affects both quantity and quality of the crop, impairs the 
vigorous growth of the plant, and leads to premature decay. 

The pruning should, we repeat, ensure an open space in the middle 
of the stock, to admit of free ventilation, without which the fruit 
cannot well mature even if it escape the other ills consequent on faulty 
work ; the arms should, as before said, be three or four in nimiber, 
branching from a common centre ; they should then be trained some- 
what horizontally, and then pruned, so as to get the fruit spurs per- 
pendicular ; those fruit spurs must be left from the current year's 
growth, and have only two eyes each ; if this nimiber be adhered to, 
the young shoots will be strong and healthy, the lower bud will ^ve 
the thickest shoot, which will serve for the succeeding year's pruning, 
and thus give a e^ort jointed wood, and consolidated well set stem ; 
whereas, if three or more eyes be left the uppermost will form the stoutest 

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cane, and be selected for tlie next year's pruning, as the fruit spur, the 
effect of which will be long-jointed wood, the internodes being thus 
thin and weakly instead of stout and well developed, as in the result 
of the two -eye system. By this treatment the vine is kept vigorous, 
and may attain the age of 100 years while the three-eye system will 
give a lanky taU vine, without the same robust wood, and may very 
probably' fade off, or become what is termed diseased within twenty 
years. Some varieties, however, as the green grape, must be cut 
somewhat longer than others, but the viticulturist must aim at en- 
suring a robust stem, and a paying result will necessarily feUow. 

The operation of pruning should be carried out at two distant 
periods, the first commencing directly the vintage is harvested, and 
continuing to the 15th May : this is called early pruning, and consists 
of the removal of all unnecessary shoots and suckers. The second 
operation is termed the fruit pruning proper, and should be com- 
menced as soon as the buds begin to swell, and varies, according to 
the different sorts of vines, soils and aspects ; this fruit pruning con- 
sists in cutting the canes back to two eyes from the old wood. The 
reason why early pruning should be finished by the 1 5th May, is that 
the albumen* setting in Autumn, heals the wounds and prevents any 
rotting in, which destroys the sap channels and consequently impairs 
vigorous growth. 

We have so frequently insisted upon the importance of keeping a 
vineyard clean and free from weeds, that there is not much left to 
enforce on this head ; it is most essential that this work be well done. 

Sulj^huring , — This important and efficacious work is happily very 
simple, and only requires care. Well constructed bellows are alone 
permissible, all other devices are attended with more or less failure, 
but with a good instrument and attention, not a single berry need be 
lost ; to ensure success, sulphuring must be commenced at the earliest 
stage of development, i.e., when the shoots are about six inches long, 
and repeated every ten days, until the grape has coloured. This 
constant application will keep a vineyard free from disease, and is 
necessary where oidium is generally virulent and where dew falls : in 
such cases an imperfect sulphuring not only loses the crop of that 
year, but the wood and buds are so much affected that the evil only 
passes off after two years ; such copious dressing may only be neces- 
sary in exceptional cases, but it should be borne in mind that a 
moderate excess is in any case a stimulant to the vine, while a too 
sparing application is fatal to the crop when the disease has once 
appeared ; dry weather must always be chosen for the work, and not 
too much sulphur applied at one time. A careful man will soon learn 
to take advantage of the gusts and currents of air, so that a light 
coating be spread on all parts of the vine, particularly on the shadiest 
and densest portions where the disease is invariably first manifested. 

Manuring. — The materials which are being used as manure for vines 
are of a most different nature. Pure animal manure of horses, cattle, 
and sheep is used by some though it is often condemned by others, and 
the same is the case with manure composed solely of vegetable sub- 
stances. Colonial viticulturists also differ in their opinion as to guano 

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and artificial manures. The nature of the vineyard manure is, however, 
greatly dependent on the nature of the soil. Guano may, for instance, 
be used with c^eat success in a soil containing all the necessary ferti- 
lizers in sufficient quantity, whilst it will prove ruinous in a soil which 
is lacking in the one or other of the necessary fertilizers, which is not at 
the same time contained in the guano itself. In this case, the guano 
acts as a powerful stimulant, in the first and even in the second year, 
but in the third year the equilibrium between the quantity and quality 
of the fertilizers of the soil available to the plant, is disturbed to such 
an extent, that it can only be restored by an expensive and careful 
treatment during many years. 

The best manure for the vine is a well decomposed compost of vege- 
table substance and animal manure. But it must always be remem- 
bered that ammoniacal ingredients, as chiefly supplied by animal man- 
ure, are apt to produce too great a development of shoots and leaves, 
and too much albuminous matter in the juice of the grape, which, 
later on, will interfere with the good qualities of the wine. 

The materials which may be used for making a good vineyard 
manure are : cuttings and leaves of the vines, grass, straw, and ashes ; 
further, all kinds of animal manure, such as that of cattle, horses, 
sheep and fowls ; all sweepings from the yard, ditches, roads, &c ; 
bones, burnt and unburnt ; in short, every kind of refuse of vegetable 
and animal matter. Before these materials are used they must be 
thoroughly mixed and decomposed. 

There ought always to be at least two compost heaps on a wine 
farm, the one almost ready for use, or containing the materials col- 
lected the year before, the other in preparation. A rectangular hole 
of about 10 yards by 20 yards and two yards deep, is first constructed 
on a place on a farm which allows the urinary excrements of the 
stables, or, if there be not any stable, occasionally water, to run into 
it. The above named materials are stratified with thin layers of 
earth until the hole is filled, and left from three to four months, during 
which time the materials are frequently wetted, so as to allow a 
thorough decomposition to set in. The contents are after that time 
thoroughly worked up and mixed and covered once more with a thin 
layer of earth to prevent the escape of volatile matter. It is then left 
for another twelve months, whilst the second heap is in preparation. 
After that time it is once more thoroughly worked through, and is 
then ready for use. 

It is evident that on farms where much material is to be had, three 
and four of such compost heaps may be prepared. This compost 
generally forms a dark loose powdery mass, which contains all the 
fertilizers for the vine in the proper condition, and at the same time 
much improves the physical character of the soil. Manure prepared 
in this way will on the one hand be found superior, by its immediate 
effect, to any other, and on the other hand by not deteriorating the soil in 
course of time as, for instance, guano often does. 

There are few varieties of natural soil which will continue to yield 
fruit for years without being improved or manured. Some soils will, 
however, continue to yield for a longer time than other soils, 

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utrhich have not had the same quantity of manure put upon them. A 
sandy soil will need manuring much more often than a clay soil. 
Again some varieties of vines require more manure than others. The 
<ji3tivator being satisfied as to the required constituents, and the com- 
posts being ready, it may be arranged that an interval of three years 
should elapse between one manuring and another. The fact, however, 
that vines have their main roots two feet or eighteen inches below 
the surface, at once indicates where nourishment is most needed. The 
main roots of the vine must be kept up to the mark. In order to effect 
this the manure must be put some distance below the surface of the soil. 
This just suits our climate, for the south-east wind has such a dessi- 
cating power, as to dry up several inches of the upper soil, even in 
spring. The manure, therefore, if placed near the surface would be 
useless; it is consequently desirable to place it at least six inches 
under the surface, where no dryness can affect it, and from which 
depth of the soil no volatile matters can escape into the atmosphere, 
and thus be lost. The best plan is to make a square hole in between 
the vines, and sufficiently wide and deep to contain a bushel of manure. 
This being placed in the hole is levelled, and then covered with a slight 
layer of earth ; as the rains descend during winter, the water rushes into 
the half filled holes, and washes out the soluble matter, carrying it 
down to the main roots. Meantime, throughout the whole winter, the 
surplus soil has been exposed to the action of wind, rain, and sunshine, 
and consequently considerably improved. This then is put into the 
hole, and spread on the surface in spring, and adds to the fertility of 
the soil. If this plan be adopted, and the vines manured every three 
years, it naturally follows that twelve years must elapse before the 
roots need be touched again, for the vines being planted four feet by 
four feet, and in lines at right angles to each other, it follows, if the 
holes be changed at each manuring at intervals of three years, it would 
be just twelve years before the roots would be disturbed again, by 
which time they will have exhausted every particle of nutriment con- 
tained in the manure. The best time to manure is in autumn, and as 
early in autumn as possible, in order that the rains may wash out all 
that is soluble and furnish the plant with food, so that, when spring 
comes round, it may be in full working order. Late manuring is 
detrimental to the vine, unless especially prepared and very soluble. 

The production of the vineyards of the Cape Colony surpasses 
as to quantity and quality that of any other wine-producing coun- 
try in the world. This statement will be readily understood and 
accepted by the reader who pays some attention to the following 
figures. The average annual yield in the Cape, Stellenbosch, 
Paarl and Malmesbury districts is 1 J leaguer per 1,000 vines ; 
expressed in continental measures this yield is equal to 86j^ hecto- 
litres per 10,000 vines, which are as a rule planted in Europe on 1 
hectare of land, a square of which the side is 100 metres. If 1,000 
vines yield IJ leaguers at the Cape, 10,000 vines will yield 15 
leaguers ; as 1 leaffuer of 127 Imperial gallons is equal to a very 
little more than 5f hectolitres, 15 leaguers are equal to 86 J hecto- 

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Ktres, and this quantity is the average yield in the coast districts 
in the Colony. In the Worcester, Robertson, Montagu and 
Oudtshoom districts, the yield is generally 3 leaguers, and even 
more, per 1,000 vines, which corresponds with 173 hectolitres per 
10,000 vines. The writer of this knows many fanners in the 
Worcester, Montagu and Ladismith districts, who year for year 
obtain as much as 6 leaguers from 1,000 vines, which amoimts to 
the fabulous quantity of 287 hectolitres per 10,000 vines. This 
enormous, and for the European wine farmer, incredible produc- 
tion of the Cape vineyards, is of course a source of wealth to the 
Colony, but if it be remembered that only a small portion of the 
area which is suitable for viticulture is imder cultivation, it is 
obvious that no coimtry offers the same chances to intending 
viticulturists as the Cape Colony. If we compare the gigantic pro- 
duction with the yield of the vineyards in other parts of the world 
it will become still more evident that the Cape Colony is the wine- 
producinff coimtry par excellence. 

The following table gives a comparative statement of the pro- 
duction of wine per 10,000 vines, or per 1 hectare, in the chief 
wine-producing countries in the world. The figures ju'e taken 
from the standard work on viticulture, by Baron von Babo of 
Klostemeuburg, near Yienna, who is the first authority in Europe 
on matters referring to viticulture. 

Hungary 1861-1872 .. 

. . 24 hectolitres 

per hectare. 


. 24 „ 

Austria 1874-1880 . . 

. m „ 


..42 „ 

France 1873-1883 . . 

.. 18^ „ 


.. m „ 


.. 17 „ 

Greece . . 

• 17f „ 

Algeria 1882 

. 25i „ 

United States 

• 14J „ 


. 14i „ 

Cape Colony, Coast districts . 

. m „ 

Inland districts 

. 173 „ 

The productive power of the vineyards of the Cape greatly 
exceeds that of any other viticultural coimtry in the world : in no 
country in the world can there be raised from the same axea, an 
amount of wine equal to that raised at the Cape. It is not neces- 
sary to say more regarding these figures, they speak for them- 
selves ! As has been stated before, the quality of the juice of the 
Cape grapes is also superior to that of the European grapes. In 
support 01 this latter statement the following table is added, which 
contains the results of determinations of sugar and acid in the 
juice of the different kinds of grapes from almost all the principal 
wine districts of the Colony : — 

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VINTAGES OF 1883-4. 



Feb. 19 
„ 25 

Mar. 4 

April 24 

Name of Farmer. 

E. Atherton . . 

A. Brink 

A. Marais 

J. H. L. Minnaar 

P. C. le Roux 

R. V. d. Merwe 

D. Hugo 

D. Roux 

A. Steyn 

W. Meiring, jun. 

L. Viljoen 

M. de Vo8 

M. de Vo8 

P. C. V. Blommestein 

A. Joubert 

J. Malherbe . . 

W. Upton . . 

G. J. V. Byl .. 

Widow de Villiers 

M. de Vo8 

S. V. Renen . . 


Dal Josaphat, Wellington 
Boven Vley, do. 

Paarl . . 


do. . . 
Hex River 
Riebeek's Casteel 
Hex River East 
Stellenbosoh . . 
Hex River East 












. 15 





M. de Vos 
S. V. Renen 
S. V. Renen 

Hex River East 




Average Acidity, 3*9. Average Specific Weight, 1*090. 










Mar. 26 1 S. v. Renen 

I Constantia 

I 4-3 I 21-0 I 1-105 

Mar. 26 I S. v. Renen 

. . I Constantia 

I 4-4 I 20-7 I 1-103 

Feb. 14 

„ 14 

„ 14 

„ 14 

„ 19 

„ 25 

„ 25 

„ 25 

„ 25 

„ 25 

„ 25 

„ 26 

„ 26 

„ 27 

Mar. 4 

„ 5 

„ 6 

Enslin . . 

J. D. de Klerk 

J. H. L^ Minnaar 

J. J. le Roux 



C. a. Furter . . 

P. Kreigler . . 

J. J. Malan . . 

a. M. J. Retief 

J.D. Retief .. 

H. Pepler 

J. J. le Roux 

J. Roux 

J. M. de Villiers 

J. M. Beyers . . 

F. Michau 



Klein Brakenstein 



Dal Josaphat, Wellington 
Groen Berg, do. 

do. do. 

Boven Vley, do. 

do. do. 


French Hoek . . 

Moddergat, Stellenbosch 
Paarl . . 
Stellenbosch . . 








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Max.. 5 
















Name of Farmer. 


A. Koiix 

A. Cloete 

J. Boux 

A. Watermeyer 

A. Watermeyer 

R. V. d. Merwe 

P. de Vos 

D. Hugo 

D. Roux 

i). Malan 

N. Mostert . . 

J. Meiring 

"W. Meiring, sen. 

W. Meiring, jun. 

M. de Vos 

S. V. Reenen . . 

Eerste River 

Jonker's Hoek, Stellenbosch 

do. do 

do. do. 

do. do. 

Hex River , , 

Riebeek's Casteel 
Hex River East 








, , 






























Average Acidity, 4-4. 

The making of the wine is on the whole very primitive, in no 
way corresponding with the excellence of the grape. In order to 
raise the wine-industry in the Colony, and to introduce better 
methods of wine-making, the Colonial Government decided two 
years ago to appoint a colonial viticultural expert, and it may now 
be said that no better man could be appointed to this very im- 
portant position than Baron C. v. Babo, the son of Baron F. von 
Babo of Klosterneuburg. Since his arrival in the Colony, the 
Colonial Q-ovemment has purchased the famous estate of " Great 
Constantia," where under the superintendence of Baron von Babo 
and two other European viticulturists, the best methods of growing 
and making wine are carried out, where at the same time a number 
of young wine-farmers receive instruction in all the different 
branches of viticulture. The last report of Baron von Babo, to the 
Colonial Parliament contains the following obsevations : — 

The different hinds of Grwpes in the Colony.^ The most common grape 
is the Green grajpe. This is, however, not due to the superiority of this 
grape over the others, but principally to the fact that this grape with- 
stands the action of insects and of fungus better than others, and that 
it has a more vigorous growth. It will certainly produce a good wine 
for export. 

The Saanepot is distinguished by a strong bouquet which might make 
the hanepot wine very superior ; the wine is, however, very delicate 
with regard to soil, oidiimi, and rust. Until a better manipulation of 
wine has been generally adopted, it will be etdvisable to use the hane- 
pot only for making raisins. The present way of making raisins is 
unsatisfactory, the dipping into ash-lye before drying imparts a harsh 
by-taste to the raisins, which renders them unfit for the European 
market. Large quantities of raisins are then made into wine, and 
good raisins will find a ready market. The hanepot can also be used 

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with advantage for export, as it is more fleshy than other grapes. At 
present this grape is sent as far as Kimberley and the Transyaal during 
the hot summer months, and stands a journey of ten days ; therefore 
if properlypacked, and if kept in a cool place, it must stand the long 
Toyage to Europe. 

The Stein Grape, — This grape is not common, but is distinguished 
under favourable conditions by a large yield. The Stein wine is a 
most delicate wine. 

Red Mmcadel, — This grape ripens early and produces good wine. 
The wine when old is a superior invalid wine. 

White Mmcadel, — ^The white muscadel possesses a strong muscat taste. 
It is not much grown, but will most Hkely be suitabfe for mating 
sweet wines. 

Of the dark grapes the Pontac is the most valuable. With careful 
manipulation it will give a very fine dark wine, which equals the Bor- 
deaux, and which will always find a market in Europe. It f& 
comparatively too little grown, and if properly manipulated will not 
cover the demand in the Colony. Besides the above-mentioned 
yarieties there are some others grown in the Colony, but it is at present 
impossible to say anything definite as to the quality of the wine which 
would be made from these grapes. In many vineyards two or more 
kinds of grapes are planted all mixed up, and on the whole sufficient 
attention is not paid to planting the vineyards uniformly with one kind 
of grape. As the different kinds of grapes ripen at different times a 
great deal of inconvenience is experienced at the time of harvest, be- 
cause t^e men have to go through the vineyard twice. If the grape» 
of different varieties are all plucked at the same time and thrown to* 
gether, an inferior wine is produced. 

2he making of the Wine, — In the sun of South Africa the grape» 
ripen to perfection, and the South African grapes are an excellent 
material of which to make wine which will find ready customers. 
But in consequence of great negligence and bad or insufficient mani- 
pulation, a wine is produced which does not deserve the name of 
**wine." This is borne out by the ill success of the numerous 
attempts made with a view to exporting Cape wine to Europe in 
large quantities. The fact that smaU samples of better wine arrived 
in a sound condition in Europe does not disprove the fact that the 
bulk of the Cape wine would not stand the journey to Europe. I haver 
frequently heard the opinion expressed, that no wine made at the 
Cape could stand the voyage to Europe. This is entirely erroneous 
and false ; all wine merchants in Europe know perfectly well in what 
condition a wine must be in order to stand a sea voyage, during which 
it is exposed to very high and very low temperatures. If common 
Cape wine {i.e., wine with fusel or spirits taste) is taken to Europe, it 
is obvious that such an article cannot find friends amongst a publicr 
which is accustomed to the exquisite wines of Europe. They do not 
like the Cape taste, but I still doubt whether the taste of the public at the 
Cape is such, as to object to wines which have been properly prepared. 
I hold that properly manipulated Cape wines will find a market in the 
Cape Colony as well as in other parts of South Africa. 

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Character of the wines of the merchants, — These wines, with a very few 
exceptions, have in common a disagreeable and strong brandy taste.. 
Such wines have been mixed with so much brandy that they cease to be 
wines; they are liqueurs. Notwithstanding the large amount of 
alcohol which they contain, they are not clear and always somewhat 
** dusty." In consequence of the addition of other substances they 
acquire a by taste which does not improve them. And they are not 
free from diseases ; many are distinguished by a pronounced acetous^ 
taste. The colour is often made darker by means of burnt sugar, ta 
let it appear older ; but the immature character of the wine is not 
done away with by these experiments. No attention is paid at all ta^ 
the difference between table wines and sweet wines. A considerable- 
fraction of the wine-drinking community wants sweet tasting wine, 
and this compels the merchant to make dry wines sweet, and this is- 
generally done by sugar, or by the addition of extract wines. It is 
obvious that wines of this nature cannot find favour with all wine- 
drinkers, and the consumers are compelled to turn to beer or brandy, 
which are imported in large quantities. And how readily could, 
good wine compete with these articles ! These wines, of course, cannot 
ever be expected to be fit for export. Also some very old wines are- 
met with here and there ; and, they are very good, but in quantity 
too insignificant for purposes of export. It was the old wines which, 
in former times established the reputation of the Cape wines. Some- 
thing very superior was then meant by the words " Cape wine," and* 
it is to be hoped that this old reputation will be re-established, to the 
benefit of the active, ambitious, and unprejudiced wine farmer and 
wine merchants at the Cape. 

As I have stated already, it is the manipulation of the mne which is- 
to be blamed for the quality of the Cape wine. The cutting of the- 
grapes, the separating of the ripe &om the unripe grapes, the collect- 
ing of the grapes before pressing, is all done, with a few exceptions,, 
in a careless manner. But the climax of the untidy proceedings is^ 
reached in the tramping of the grapes. During this operation the 
germs of the acetous fermentation are carried on the feet from the- 
floor into the fermenting liquid. There is in almost all cellars wine- 
spilt on the floor, in which lie acetous germs develop and exist ; they 
fill the air of the stores and get also in this way into the wine. Inu 
those districts where the grapes ripen late, the chances for the develop- 
ment of acetous germs are less favourable, and i?iore sound wine is- 
found there than where the pressing is in the hottest time of Feburary.. 
The liquid obtained by means of tramping from the grapes is brought 
into the fermenting vats. The mistakes made in this operation are the 
following : — The fermenting tubs are open ; the air has free access, and 
with the air the enormous quantity of acetous germs which are in the- 
wine store, and they can freely and beautifully increase and develope.. 
The free access of warm, ainost hot, air also allows a luxuriant 
development of the germs of the alcoholic fermentation ; the fermen- 
tation is therefore much too powerful, the fermenting wine gets too hot, 
BO that the germs of the alcoholic fermentation are interfered with in 
their action on the sugar, and a portion of the sugar remains unfer-^ 


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inented, and tlius the fermentation is unfinished and the wine sweet, 
and is difficult to manipulate, on account of the still unf ermented por- 
iion of the sugar, wMch may any time commence to ferment again. 
"The rapid fermentation in open vats also affects the taste and the 
bouquet compounds. By fermenting the must on the husks the raw 
tannin-containing compounds are extracted from the husks ; husks 
and stalks should therefore be separated from the must of the light 
wines. The juice of the dark wines must ferment on the husks. The 
fermentation of the juice of the dark grapes should only be carried on 
an closed tubs. The fermentation of the juice of the white grapes 
must be done in casks provided with fermentation bungs. 

The more or less fermented must is transported into casks. The 
•<)asks, as well as the stores in which they are, are often deficient ; most 
Btores are not well kept. A wine store in this hot climate, which is 
not kept scrupulously clean, cannot produce a sound wine. Clean- 
liness, and only cleaidiness, is the first condition in the manipulation 
of wine. The wine store should not serve as a receptacle of aU sorts 
•of things ; it should be a wine store only. 

The old wine stores, which may still be found on many farms, were 
better constructed. They were in the shade of trees, covered with 
thick thatch, with solid substantial walls, and cool in summer. In 
-these stores was made, with the application of more caxe, a better 
wine, and even now these stores distinguish themselves by the better 
^quality of wine which they contain. The wine could at least properly 
mature in such stores, and could gain the reputation which formerly 
-the Cape wines had. The modem stores are light structures. They 
must be as cheap as possible ; the roof is made of iron, the walls are 
-thin, and the whole flimsy framework is exposed to the rays of a 
burning sun. The temperature is in summer excessively high, and 
nn winter very low. The wine now, insufficiently prepared and kept 
Hn such stores, cannot be good. 

But in order to keep the wine all sorts of means are employed. One 
of these is to sulphur the wine. The sulphuring prevents, of course, 
i;he complete turning of the wine, but keeps it sweet, and thus prevents 
any maturing or getting to perfection of the wine. Another means 
for keeping the wine is brandy. It is added in such exorbitant quan- 
tities as to prevent any further development of fermentation ; the 
character of the wine is, of course, by this completely altered. If 
sound wine is kept in clean casks in a good store, there is no need for 
brandy. The addition of alcohol can only be recommended for making 
sweet wine. Many wine farmers want to fine the wine the first year. 
Blood and lime are used for this purpose, but the use of both must be 
strongly condemned. The whole secret of making wine is to press the 
juice in the cleanest possible way; to ferment the juice in closed 
casks, or in peculiarly constructed fermenting vats (for red wine) ; to 
keep it in dean casks in a clean store ; and to draw it orer four times 
during the first year ; after this it is ready to undergo the more refined 

On the making of brandy and raisins and on the export of 
sgrapes Baron van Babo reports as follows : — 

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The making of brandy is of greater importance in those districts- 
where little wine is made. It is made here in the following way : the 
grape juice with all the husks is left in the tubs until the first fermen- 
tation is over ; huSks and must are carried into the still and submitted 
to distillation. As the grape juice has only passed through the first 
fermentation a very considerable amount of sugar remains unfer- 
mented and is completely lost. The farmers are compelled, however, to- 
proceed in this way, because there is such a complete want of the 
necessary amount of fustage, tubs, &c. As they can only proceeds 
with cutting grapes after the tubs are empty, it is evident that a very- 
large amount of the yield of the vineyards is wasted. It is certainly 
not the way to derive the greatest possible benefit from the vineyard.. 
Wine which is intended for making good brandy should pass through' 
the following stages : — The grapes are cut, cleanly pressed, and the- 
must fermented in closed vessels. After the first fermentation the- 
wine is frequently racked, and aU particles of yeast which remain for 
a long time in suspension should be removed by filtration. By this^ 
treatment the bouquet of the wine is developed to perfection and the 
wine is ready for distillation ; the bouquet of the wine passes into the- 
brandy and renders it valuable, exportable and marketable every- 
where in Europe. 

Kaisins are also made at the Cape, and there used as such ; that is 
to say, they are not used for wine making. ITiere are two kinds of 
grapes used for making raisins, the Haanepot and the Currant grape, 
which yield very different products. The Haanepot raisins are large 
and thick-skinned, the latter small thin-skinned currants ; but the 
value of the latter is three times that of the Haanepot raisins. As the 
Currant grape bears more and can be more easily dried, its cultivation 
is much to l?e recommended ; it would be a good export article. The' 
Haanepot is dried in the same way as has been described in the pre- 
paration of sweet wines. But the unsatisfactory way of preparing- 
the raisins shows itself here, more than in the preparation of sweet 
wines. I should reconamend only artificial drying, using the large- 
drying apparatus, which is employed in the southern European coun- 
tries for drying fruit. By means of this apparatus it is easy to get. 
light coloured raisins, and they are specially valuable for making sweet 
wines. The French wine manufacturers only use fresh raisins, and 
only those which have the least raisin taste. 

Some varieties of grapes are certainly an excellent material of which 
to make raisins ; if they are made in good quality they will have a 
reliable market in Europe. But if good wine be made, it will pay- 
better than raisins. 

Fresh grapes, which have to stand a long journey before they reach 
their destination, must possess certain qualities. They must belong: 
to that class of grapes which is called ** grapes for eating." They 
must be fieshy, hard, and the skin tough, and they must not be readily 
putrifiable. All these properties are to be found in the White Haane- 
pot grape. The second point of importance in the export of grapes is. 
the packing. In an experiment which has been made this year, in 
sending &esh grapes to England, which arrived there in perfect con- 

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edition, the packing was the following : properly selected bunches were 
*carefiiUy examined, to remove all berries which were not perfect or 
were damaged, and also those which made the bunch too compact. 
The point of the stalk, which was cut, was sealed with wax. This 
prevents the drying and shrinking of the grapes. The bunches were 
then wrapped in soft paper (tracing paper) to prevent their being 
:soiled by the packing materials. In the one box charcoal was used 
for packing and in the other cork dust. The bunches were put in 
layers in the boxes and these separated by layers of cork dust or 
•charcoal. The place in which they are kept on the voyage should not 
be too hot nor too cold. The most suitable temperature is 35° to 45° 
F. As the Cape grapes could reach the European market just at the 
•time when the price of grapes is highest, aU expenses would be paid 
and a handsome profit left. 

It will be of very great importance to the European wine mer- 
*chant to know that in the Cape Colony spirit is only made from 
j^apes, and that of late the most excellent wine-spirit, containing all 
ihe aromatic bouquet compounds of the wine, has been prepared in 
the Colony. Samples of it are now being exhibited in London. 
This wine-spirit is most suitable for improving the inferior European 
wines, and for the manufacture of sparkling wines. Much has 
been done by some merchants of Cape Town and others interested 
in the development of the resources of the country, to induce the 
^wine-farmers to bestow more care upon the preparation of raisins, 
than has been the case before. 

With regard to the export of grapes to Europe, it is not likely 
that the Colonial wine-farmer vdll ever carry this out on a large 
"^scale, and much chance of success is here left for European enter- 

The Phylloxera has now made its appearance at the Cape, but 
♦only a few vineyards have so far been affected. The insect was 
•discovered at the beginning of this year (1886) in some vineyards 
near Cape Town. It is to be hoped that the Government will, by 
the means which are adopted, succeed in retarding the progress of 
^he phylloxera, so that the wine-farmers of the Colony wUl have 
Ttime to replant their vineyards with grafted cuttings of American 
Tines, which are not attacked by the insect. If this be done the 
Colony need not fear the plague, and the wine-industry at the 
•Cape will remain what it is now, a source of revenue to the greater 
f)art of the population of the Western Province. 

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The greater part of our Colonial products consists of raw mate- 
rials which are sent to the English markets for manufacture; 
but there are many of them which, in their preparation or in their 
conversion into articles of domestic use and consumption, give 
-employment to a considerable amount of capital and labour. 

The manipulation of wines, the manufacture of spirits, and the 
brewing of beer, are industries which have taken firm root 
amongst us, and are now of considerable proportions. In Cape 
Town and its suburbs there are seven large breweries ; and recently 
the cultivation of hops has been commenced, and promises to be 
carried on with success. There are also many extensive steam 
milling establishments for converting wheat into flour of several 
descriptions, and for the manufacture of biscuits of first-class quality. 

Articles of fiuniture from the indigenous woods of the country 
have been for many years in general use, and recently the produc- 
tion of some exquisite suites of drawing-room and bed-room requi- 
sites from the y ellowwood and Cape laurel (stinkwood) has brought 
this industry into considerable favour. Carriage and wagon- 
making give continual occupation to many workmen, there beiug an 
extensive trade carried on with the inland districts in the supply 
of transport and travelling wagons, light hooded spring carts, and 
carriages. There are also iron foundries and engineering establish- 
ment, capable of executing any mechanical requirements. 

The manufacture of woollen fabrics has not become an estab- 
lished industry; but a beginning is now being made at the Waver- 
ley Woolwashing Company's Works, near to Ceres Road railway 
station. There is a boundless supply of water power there, at 
present utilised by a Lef ell double turbine, for working the wool- 
washery, which is capable of turning out 120 bales in a day ; this 
will be applied to power-loom machinery, for the manufacture of 
woollen blankets fr^m the colonial staple for the colonial market ; 
and there is eveay reason to believe that the industry will be most 

Leather manufacture has been in operation for some years, and 
there are seyeral lajrge tanneries, both in Cape Town, ,Port Eliza- 
beth, and Ghraham's Town. Ox and horse nides, calf, goat, and 
sheep skins are plentiful, and the very best materials for prepar- 
ing them are to be had in any quantiy. Many indigenous plants 
£Qid trees, such as kreuppelboom, wagenboom, kliphout, wild plum 
(shumac), assegai, saffron, and mimosa, as well as the European 
oak, are in common use for tanning purposes. Fellmongenng has 

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been commenced, and many skins, formerly Kttle valued, are* 
bought up, and by this process have the wool upon them turned 
to accoimt, as well as the pelt preserved. Soap-making has also 
been established, and the colonial article is to a great extent sup- 
planting the imported one. 

Boot and shoe manufacturing, saddle and harness making, brick 
making, iron and tinware work, tobacco, cigar and snull making* 
and ©rated water manufactories are also widely distributed over 
the Colony. 

Confectionery and jam making have received a stimulus during 
the last year or two, from the provision made by the Legislature 
for granting a rebate of duty on sugar used wholesale for the 
manufacture of jams, preserves, and confectionery. The preserves' 
of the Cape — gooseberry, naartje, orange, lime, guava, quince, 
melon, citron, peach, fig, apricot, and other varieties — surpass any 
of the English manufactured fruits. Many of these are now being 
made for wholesale exportation. 

Mineral springs are numerous throughout the Colony. They 
are chiefly sulphur, chalybeate, and thermal ; and are distributed 
over some thirty or forty different districts. At the town of 
Caledon there are four thermal chalybeate springs, containing 
carbinate of soda 2*10 grains ; sulphate of soda '862 grains, and 
common salt 4*027 grains per gallon, the total of soluble ingre- 
dients being 12*225 per gallon ; temperature 120° F. At 
Malmesbury, there is a sulphur spring, temperattire 88°. At 
Brandvlei and Goudini (Worcester division) there are thermal 
springs, the first-named with a temperature of 145°. Near ta 
Graaff-Reinet, at Kruidfontein, there is a cold sulphur spring. 
Near XJitenhage, there are two mineral springs, at " Balmoral,'^ 
the farm of General Nixon, and at Sandf ontein. Midway between: 
Willowmore and Uniondale, there is a thermal chalybeate springy 
temperature 112°. Near to Robertson and Montagu, and at 
Prince Albert, there are other springs of considerable repute. All 
of the mineral springs are considered to possess more or less of 
curative powers in chronic cases of rheumatic and cutaneous dis- 
eases. Samples of the mineral waters of the Caledon springs have 
been forwarded to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 

The medicinal plants of the Colony are many and varied, about 
100 of them, commonly used as remedies by the colonists and 
natives, have been enumerated by the late Dr. Pappe,* who, 
however, stated that there were others of imquestionable worth which 
he had not enumerated because they were not actually employed 
by the inhabitants. From the richness and extent of the South 
African Flora, no doubt many useful efficient drugs will still be 

* Florae Capensis Medicse Prodiomus : By L. Pappe, M.D., Cape Town, 1857. 

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discovered, and form a valuable addition to the Pharmacopoeia. 
A contribution to the South African Materia Medica, chiefly from' 
plants in use among Kafir natives, has also been made by Dr. A. 
omith, M.A., of the Lovedale Institution, and among them are- 
some used as antidotes for snake-bite, one being a tincture or' 
infusion of the Wild Dagga or Wild Hemp {Leonotis Leonunis), 

Fishing is carried on in all the bays which indent the coast. At 
some places there are large private establishments for the curing* 
and export of the bountiful treasures of the deep, which give em-- 
ployment to nimibers of the coloured people. 335 boats and 1,800 
persons, are engaged in connection with the sea fisheries, and the 
quantity and value of salted or cured fish exported in 1884 was- 
respectively 2,741,966 lbs. weight, and £16,206 value. 

On the small islands along the west coast of the Colony, andi 
forming part of it, there are valuable deposits of guano, which finds 
a ready market both in the Colony and in England. Prior to the 
year 1877 all these Guano Islands were leased out of hand under* 
the superintendence of the Officer in charge of H.M.'s Customs. 
Since then the leases, as they lapsed, have been disposed of by 
public tender by the Surveyor- Greneral, subject to tne approval* 
of Government, and under this arrangement all the following 
existing leases have been entered into, with the exception of No. 1,. 
Ichaboe, the lease of which does not expire imtil 29th June, 1895 : — 


Description of Bock or Island. 

Ichaboe, West Coast 

Yzerklip Bock, Malmesburv . . . 

Elephant's Bock & Bird Islands, 
Ohphants Biver, Clan-william 

Islet, Lamberts Bay, Clanwilliam 

North West Bock, St. Helena Bay 

Paternoster Island, Malmeebury 

Marcus Island, Saldanha Bay... 

Jutten Island, do. 

Jacobs Bock &Bobbenstein,near 
Saldanha Bay 

Malagas Island, Malmesbury . . . 

Schaapen Meeuwen Eiland, 
Saldanha Bav 

Foundling Island or Bock near 
Saldanha Bay 

Dassenlsland, Malmeebury Coast 

Vogelstein Blaauwberg Beach. . . 

Duiker Klip, Hout Bay 

Seal Island, False Bay 

Dyker's Island & Contiguous Is- 
lands, Caledon Coast 

St. Croix Island, Algoa Bay . . . 

Present Lessee. 

Term of 

Lease Expires 
on the 


£ 8. d. 

De Pass, Spence & Co. 




30th June, 1895 
31st July, 1889 
31st Aug., 1887 



105 10 

Stephan Brothers ... 


31st Oct., 1889 
31st Aug., 1887 




31st Dec., 1885 




5th Feb., 1888 


J. Spence 

J. W. Stigling 


31st Dec., 1886 
30th Sep., 1885 

12 10 

W. Humphris 


30th Nov., 1889 


Stephan Bros. 



W. Humphris 



31st Oct., 1889 
31st Aug., 1887 
31st Aug., 1887 
30th Nov., 1889 
30th June, 1887 






W.&B. Messina ... 


31st Aug., 1888 



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There are extensive and valuable salt pans throughout the 
'Colony. One of them, situated nine miles from Uitenhage> has 
been valued for rateable purposes at £18,000. The salt produced 
there is of an excellent quality ; and the quantity appears inex- 
haustible, for, although 40,000 muids per annum are taken out, 
there is no apparent diminution of yield. The " pan " is a depres- 
sion about forty feet below the adjacent country ; and in the 
bottom are alternate crusts of salt from one to ten inches in thick- 
ness and black mud. Several layers of salt are known, but 
no shaft has been sunk to test the thickness of the deposit. Here, 
as in other pans, the salt is dissolved by rain, and when re-deposited 
on evaporation is scraped ofE with spades. In the district of 
Middelburg, between the village of Maraisburg and the Pish Eiver, 
there are three salt pans each with an area of 400 or 600 acres. 
At one of these the salt is raised and evaporated in artificial pans, 
thereby securing an increased and constant supply of a quality 
equal to any imported. 

The following return shows the number of the principal Pans 
in the several divisions of the Colony ; the average annual yield 
of Salt, and the average value per muid (three bushels) : — 


No. of 

Total Annual 

yields, Average 

(in Muids) 

Value, Average (per 

Caledon. . 


rarelv worked 

8s. to 9s. 




88. to 10s. 




38. to 6s. 




3s. to 9s. 





Herbert. . 



58. to 10s. 

Hope Town 







l8. 6d. to 2s. 





NamaquaJand . 




Port Elizabeth . 





12,800 Is. 9d. 




6s. to 16s. 

Simon's Town . 



4s. to 8s. 




7s. 6d. to 10s. 




7s. 6d. 




5s. to 7s 6d. 

Victoria West . 


not given 

20s. to 25s. 

Of the mineral resources of the Colony, after the Diamond Mines 
of Ghriqualand West, already fully described, the most important 

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product is copper, which is fo^.md throughout the district of 
Namaqualand. The existence of copper in that locality was knpwn 
nearly two centuries ago, and as early as 1685 attempts to turn it 
to account were made by the Dutch Company's Governor, Simon van 
der Stell, and afterwards by others, out without success. The 
want of fuel and the difficulties of transport in those days were 
probably insurmoimtable obstacles to enterprise. It was only 
thirty-four years ago that the working of the mines was commenced 
l3y a Cape Town firm, the late Messrs. Phillips & King, now King 
and Son. They opened the ground at Springbok, which then was a 
•desolate place, with merely a mud cabin and a few mat huts 
occupied by the natives. The first elevren tons of ore were shipped 
i)y the steamer Bosphoi^m on the 31st August, 1862. Since then the 
•exports have year by year largely increased, \mtil now the annual 
production is about 20,213 tons of ore. 

The principal mining station is Ookiep, situate five miles north 
of Springbok, and ninety miles from Port Nolloth, with which it is 
oonnected by a railway. This is the most important of the Cape 
Copper Mining Company's centres. There is a population of 
about 1,800 persons on the place, a portion of whom work under- 
ground and the remainder on the surface, in the different occupa- 
tions connected with the mine. A number of these are Cornish 
men and skilled European artisans ; but there are also labourers 
from St. Helena, and Hottentots, Bastards, Damaras, and other 
natives employed. 

The Cape Copper Mining Company, although the largest and 
most important, is not the only association engaged in mining. 
The Namaqua Mining Company are busily and economically 
working the Concordia Mines, including Hester Maria, Wheal 
Julia, £uid Tweefontein. There are many other mines in the 
district, which are leased from the Government ; but the mines 
worked by these two Companies are the only ones from which 
ores are at present extracted. 

Another mineral product to which special attention is now 
being directed, as the needful base of many industries for 
which there cure openings in the Colony, is that of coal. In the 
Stormberg Range, extending over the districts of Albert, Aliwal, 
and Wodehouse, Xalanga and Maclear, deposits of vast extent 
0(jcur. At one or two places, known as Molteno and Indwe, the 
coal seams have been worked for some years past, chiefly for local 
consumption within a radius of eighty miles from the pits mouth ; 
beyond that distance the cost of carriage being prohibitive. 
Since the railways have been carried to the neighbourhood of the 
mines, however, the economic importance of this coal is being 
developed, and it has already displaced the English imported 
article on the Eastern system of communications. One encouraging 

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feature of the coal seams of the Stormberg is the ease with which 
they can be worked. There is no sinking of shafts required, 
witn elaborate machinery for lifting the coal, pumping out 
water and suppljdng of air. A simple heading is made at the 
outcrop of the seam, which is seen under the sandstone strata, and 
the tunnelling proceeds forthwith into the hill-side. At Cyphergat 
a siding extends from the railway towards the mine, and the coal 
is brought from the workings on wagons on a small tramway and 
tipped into the railway trucks. There are three seams of coal in 
the working at present open, which are 6, 4, and 16 inches thick 
respectively, making in all 26 inches of coal and 28 inches of 
shsle ; the height of the working being 4 ft. 6 in. The work is 
done with picks, no gunpowder being used ; and the miners are 
both white men and Aafirs. 

At Indwe a seam of coal, four feet six inches in thickness, and of 
a better quality, has been opened, and 500 tons can be put out 
per mensem. At present the quantities of coal supplied under 
contract with the Government from the different mines is a& 
follows : — Vice's Mine, three hundred tons per month, at 16s. per 
ton ; Pair View Mine, three hundred tons per month, at 17s. per 
ton, or if five hundred tons are delivered, then 16s. per ton; 
Cyphergat, five hundred tons per month, at 16s. per month ; 
Indwe, two hundred tons per month, at 25s, 

Trial borings in the Karroo beds are about to be made, 
with a view to the settlement of the question as to any deposits of 
coal being found there that would be servicable to the central 
and western districts of the Colony. If the result prove Tinfavour- 
able, the development of the Stormberg mines, and their connection 
with tlie whole railway system of the Colony, will be a settled 

Manganese ore occurs on the ranges of the Cape Peninsula and 
Drakenstein mountains. Near Du Toit's Kloof, about 30 mile& 
from Cape Town, a mine has been opened and worked by a 
private company ; the ore is plentiful and rich, yielding from 70 
to 90 per cent. 

The ornamental stones of the country are very beautiful, and of 
considerable variety. Foremost among the gems is the diamond. 
These are found of every tint, from the perfectly limpid stones, 
possessing great fire, found at Jagersf ontein and the Biver diggings, 
through many shades of yellow, &c., to dark yellowish-brown 
stones. In size they range from a large walnut down to the 
minutest specks. All are beautifully crystallized. 

Garnets, both red and green, are found in the north-western 
portion of the colony : they are abundant at the diamond mines as 
coarse fragments ; but at the River diggings there are rounded 
forms of very beautiful appearance, some rivalling the ruby in colour. 

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The Agates axe specially beautiful, and are of many colours and 
shades. In the Vaal Eiver they are so ground down and polished 
as scarcely to require any further polishing. In the Orange Eiver 
also they are numerous and handsome. 

Crocidolite, an asbestiform mineral of interest, occurs in Griqua- 
land West. This is commonly confounded with asbestos, which is, 
however, quite a distinct species. The crocidolite usually occurs 
between the bedding plains of jasper, in layers of one to three 
inches in thickness, and of dark bluish colour. This fibrous 
mineral might be found useful for some economic purposes. 

The pseudo-Orocidolite is a remarkably handsome ornamental 
fitone^ f oimd in Gxiqualand West, and also south of the Orange 
River. It is a species of fibrous quartz that displays a distinct ray 
of light down the centre when properly cut. Vast quantities of it 
are now being worked up into jewellery, as lockets and ornaments 
of all sorts. It is especially susceptible of artistic effect on accoimt 
of the great variety of shades and colours in which it is f oimd. 

The quartz minerals are well represented. There are cairn- 
gorms, quartz crystal, amethyst, rose quartz, &c. Red and yellow 
jaspers, and striped and clouded jaspers. Chalcedony is very 
abundant along the courses of the Orange and Vaal Rivers. 
Bloodstone is also found in the Orange River. Prehnite, a 
mineral of beautiful sea-green colour and very handsome as an 
ornamental stone, is found in many parts of the colony. 

Iron ores of many varieties, and some very rich in iron, are very 
abimdant in many parts of the country. Lead ore has been found 
at the Orange River, and elsewhere ; and zincblende occurs in 
various localities. 

Sandstones and freestones, suitable for building, are widely dis- 
tributed. Marble of very beautiful colour and handsomely mottled 
is found in many localities. The Paarl granite is especially fine 
and durable. Sandstones and grits, suitable for mill-stones, grind- 
stones, scythe-stones, &c., are abundant, especially in the motm- 
tainous districts, such as the Stormberg. Clays of great value and 
adapted for the production of every description of pottery, from 
the finest porcelain to brick and tiles, are abimdant, but have, as 
yet, received but little attention. 

Nimierous other substances of economic value may be discovered, 
if a systematic examination of the country is made — ^f or it is true 
of the Cape Colony, as of Africa generally, that it is always 
rewarding search with something new. 

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By Harry Bolus, F.L.S. 

I have been asked to contribute to this Handbook an account of 
the Flora of South Africa. I willingly comply ; but I desire it 
to be understood that, since the time and space placed at my dis- 
posal are restricted within narrow limits, I cannot give more than 
the merest outlines of a great subject, and but a small part of a 
large mass of observations made during many years. 


Ever since the time of its first settlement the Cape has been Or 
constant source of pleasure and delight to the botanist and the 
ffardener. Though Cape plants have somewhat gone out of 
fashion of late years, it is still probably true that no single country 
in the world has contributed so largely to European conservatories 
and gardens as the Cape of Good Hope. The despatch of plants, 
indeed, began before the settlement by Van Riebeek, for we find 
that one Heumius, a missionary en route to the East, had sent to 
his brother at T-eyden, several curious plants which were figured 
by Stapel in his edition of Theophrastus' History of Plants, pub- 
lished at Amsterdam in 1644. These are the earliest known 
figures of Cape plants, and tunongst them was the well known 
Orhea variegata of the Lion's Rump, which was called a Fritillary, 
and an Oxalis which, with equal reason, was styled a Trifolium I 
But those were the days before Linnaeus had arisen with master 
mind to reduce to order the rapidly increasing stores of vegetable 
forms. In 1772 came Thimberg, the Father of Cape Botany ; in 
1810, BurcheU ; in 1825—1834, Ecklon, Zeyher and Drege. AJl 
these made journeys of thousands of miles, and of several years in 
duration, exploring the vegetation of the country. Besides them 
were others of less note, and a host of gardeners and collectors of 
seeds and living plants. Prom 1775 to 1835, Cape plants may be 
said to have been quite the rage. The conservatories, temperate 
houses, and gardens of England and the continent teemed witii the 
Pelargoniimis, Heaths, Proteas and other handsome flowering 
shrubs, and the lovely bulbous plants of Kdeae, Amaryllideae 
and Liliaceae ; and the pages of tne Botanical Magazine and other 
similar periodicals were fifled with figures and descriptions of them. 

The public taste of that day was amply justified. Perhaps the 
recently increasing exportation of flowering bulbs may be taken as 
an indication that the fashion will be revived. But though fashion 
in flowers may be variable, the interest of science is more perma- 
nent ; and notwithstanding the diligent exploration of the country 

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ti^ CO 

w I z 

^ CO 




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for the last hundred years, the constant discovery of new forms,, 
even up to the present day, has largely occupied the attention of 
systematic botanists. 

Without the means, in the present state of our knowledge, of 
precisely comparing the relative number of species of flowering' 
plants in this, and any other portion of the earth's surface, enough 
is known to enable us to say that South Africa ranks amongst the 
richest of regions. But if we ascend to those higher systematic- 
groups called Genera and Orders, we can speak with a greater' 
approach to accuracy. These may be compared in two ways. 
I'irst, for the sake of the general reader, the numbers of these in 
South Africa (and by the term South Africa let it be understood^ 
that I mean always Africa South of the Tropic of Capricorn) may 
be compared with the known total for the whole world. The* 
latter is taken from Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantamm 
(Journal of Botany xxi, 156) : — 

Whole World Orders 200 : Genera 7669 
South Africa „ 142: „ 1255 

Secondly, we may compare South Africa with another country, in 
the same hemisphere, for the most part in the same temperate zone,, 
and of which the Flora is about as well known as that of South 
Africa, e.g,y Australia. 

I take the figures for the latter from Sir J. D. Hooker's well- 
known Essay: On the Flora of Australia {London, 1859). And we* 
have the following result : — 

AustraUa Orders 152 : Genera 1300 

South Africa „ 142: „ 1255 

The area, however, of Australia is five times larger than that of 
extra-tropical South Africa ; and whatsis of more importance is the- 
fact that its eastern coast line runs up into the tropics to nearly the 
10th degree of S. latitude. It will be evident, therefore, how 
much richer in variety of forms, relatively to area, is the Southern^ 
extremity of the African continent, than that of Australia. 

There is another interesting point in the number of endemic- 
genera in each area, that is, of genera exclusively restricted to each 
country. In Australia these are about 520 (Hooker) ; in South 
Africa 446. 

Why South Africa should be so rich in vegetable forms, is a 
question which cannot yet be fully answered. Proximate causes- 
appear to be 

(1) The meeting and partial imion of two (perhaps three) 
distinct Floras of widely difEerent age and origin. 

(2) A highly diversified surface of the land and of soil. 

(3) A climate with much sunlight (or little cloud) ; a condi- 

tion which seems everywhere favourable to the multipli- 
cation of forms. 

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No one could form an adequate or accurate conception of the 

JFlora of South Africa who should regard it as a single Hegion. 
Meyer and Drege (Comment, de Plant, Afr, Amtr, LipsiaCy 1835) 

r divided the Colony south of the Orange River and Natal, into five 
Regions, and numerous districts and sub-districts. The value of 
Drege's observations cannot be over-estimated, and form the neces- 
sary basis of all later investigations; but the divisions were too 
numerous, and broad distinctions were over-loaded with a mass of 
subordinate detail. Ghisebach ( Vegetation der JErde, Leivzig 1872) 

iregarded the Colony proper as far eastward as the Keif River, b& 
forming one Region : the " Cape " ; Eastward of this he brought 
down the continuation of his vast " Soudan Region," and north 
of the Orange River, he constitute! his " Kalahari Region " out 
of Great Namaqualand, Damaraland, Bechuanaland, &c. As far 

•as they go, and except for the error in supposing the Orange River 

tto be a floral boundary, these Regions appear to me to be natural. 
But Ghisebach's " Cape Region " cannot possibly be regarded as 

•one ; it must be divided into two at least ; and perhaps with more 
propriety into three. The Flora of the Karroo of the Cape may 
probably prove to be more distinct from that of the South-western 
portion of the Colony, than is the latter from that of Australia. 
I propose, therefore, to regard South Africa as including five 

natural Regions, two of which extend beyond its limits, wh2e the 

♦others are included within them. These are : — 

(1) The South Western Region 

(2) The Tropical African „ (Grisebach's "Soudan") 

(3) The Karroo 

(4) The Composite „ 

(5) The Kalahari „ (Grisebach) 

The South "Western Region. 

It is the South Western Region which haa for the most part 
^furnished that large quantity of garden plants which I nave 
referred to abov^e, and which is the home of what has been for the 
last hundred years popularly known as the Cape Flora. It is an 
.angular littoral strip, bounded on the west coast by the Olif ant's 
River and the mountains near it, but including properly the moun- 
-tain range from Cedarbergen up to the Khamiesbergen ; on the 
•^ast by the Yan Staden's mountains ; and inland by considerable 
mountain chains imder various names. Its greatest width 
4oes not exceed eirfity nules, and probably averaj^es not more 
"ihan fifty nules. The inland moimtain chains referred to may 
^average 4,000 feet in height, attaining sometimes (Ghreat Winter- 
hoek) 6,800 feet. The surface of the Region is extremely 
diversified ; sandy and bushy tracts alternating on tiie ooast wiui 
grassy downs, and vast mountain slopes of the most barren 

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appearance when lying a short distance inland, but clothed with an. 
immense variety of small plants. 

The soils are varied, the exposed rooks being chiefly granite, 
clayslate (Malmesbury beds: Silurian?) and sandstone (Tablo 
Moimtain Sandstone : Devonian) ; with insignificant exceptions, 
tertiary deposits are absent, occurring only in low places and of 
shallow depths. Throughout South Africa the influence of soils 
upon the distribution of plants appears to be less important than 
that of climate and exposure. 

Rivers are few, and badly supplied with water except in winter ; 
practically, none of them are navigable. 

The mean annual temperature of Cape Town is 16°25 0. (61°25 
Fahr.) ; of the six simmier months 20° C, and on the six winter 
months 12°5 0. ; the mean annual humidity of the atmosphere 71 -85 
per cent. ; the mean annual rainfall in the city itself is 23 'SO 
mohes ; but in the suburbs it reaches in some localities to 60 inches. 
Further inland the temperature is higher, the extremes greater^ 
and the humidity and rainfall much less. At Worcester, situato 
about 60 miles from Cape Town, the mean annual temperature 
rises to 16*93 0, ; the humidity is 54*40 per cent. ; and the 
average rainfall is 12*47 inches. About two-thirds of the whole 
rainfall takes place during May, Jime, July and August ; and the 
months of January to April are usually very dry. The whole 
rainfall of this SiC^on attains its maximum near Gape Town ; 
and diminishes rapioly as we proceed northward up the west coast. 

The prevailing aspect of the vegetation of this and the two next 
Ee^ons, thus of the whole Cape Colony except the eastern coast 
region, is that of a number of low-growing scattered shrubs of a 
dark or blueish green hue. With considerable exceptions this is, 
nevertheless, the appearance which most commonly meets the eye. 
Almost everywhere the " bush " is present. There are vast tracts 
called the " Bosohjesveld ' ■ (bush country), from the uniformity of 
this appearance. There, the chief bush is the ^^ Ithenosterbush '^ 
{Elytropappus rhinocerotis) ; but these are intermingled with others, 
and in general they belong to the most various Orders. All have 
usually very small leaves, or of greyish green colour, or so covered 
with a dull coloured indument, as to produce at a distance a 
generally sombre aspect. On the coast the bushes are larger, 
ranging from 4 to 8 feet. The following genera are some of those 
which by their abundance largely contribute to make up the floral 
landscape: — ^Mundtia, Pelargonium, Ag^athosma, Celastrus, Cas- 
sine, Phylica, Ehus, Cyclopia, Borbonia, Aspalathus, Cliffortia, 
Berzelia, Brunia, Staavia, Tetragonia, Aster, Athanasia, Stoebe, 
Metalafiia, Erica, Simocheilus, Myrsine, Euclea, Lycium, Loboste- 
mon. Salvia, Penaea, Passerina, Leucadendron, Protea, Leuco- 
spermum, Serruria, Myrica, &c. Interspersed among these ttre 


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numerous plants of the orders OrohidesB, Irideae, Amaryllideee, 
LUiaceae, with scattered tufts of Bestiaoeae, sedges^ and grasses. 

In the deep ravines of the mountain sides are dwarf trees, 
growing closely, with dark foliage. Few indigenous trees attain 
a greater height than 25 to 30 feet; and amongst these is the 
Silver Tree {Leucadendron argenteum)^ peculiar to Hihe Cape 
Peninsula. Forests are only met with towards the Knysna and 
Zitzikamma. These are chiefly composed of species of Podocarpus 
(Yellow- wood), Ocotea (Stinkwood), Ptseroxylon (Sneezewood), 
Olea ^Olive), Eteodendron (Saflfronwood), Cunonia (Rood Els), 
Virgiha (Keurboom), Olinia (Ironwood), Oussonia, Ficus, Qrewia, 
Curtisia, Sideroxylon (Milkwood), Ehus, &c., &c. Those of which 
the vernacular ncanes are quoted yield excellent timber. Trees of 
the Podocarpus occasionally attain a height of 50 to 60 feet ; but 
few of the others exceed 25 to 30 feet. 

There is little change in the aspect of the vegetation even at 
greatly varying heights on the mountains; and near the coast 
especially it is much less affected by altitude than is the case in 
Europe. On Table Mountain some species are f oxmd from the 
bottom to the top, having thus a verticd range of 3,500 feet ; and 
there are many with a range of from 1,000 to 2,500 feet. 

The flowering season begins about the end of May immediately 
after the first winter rains. The numerous species of Oxalis first 
made their appearance, and these are soon followed by great mmi- 
bers of Irideae, Amaryllideae, Liliaceae, and other bulbous plants 
besides Mesembryanthemums and various Compositae. On the 
mountains the flowering begins later and continues longer ; but 
thouffh few plants may be f oimd in flower in March and April, 
yet tney are never wholly absent. The imported oak has shed its 
leaves for a period of six or eight weeks only (during May and 
Jime) before the new growth begins. Everything points to the 
fact that the true winter, the period of rest, is here the dry reason, 
viz., March — ^May ; as soon as rain falls even the winter tempera- 
ture is suiB&oient, and vegetable life is at once aroused to activity. 

A few of the most beautiful, striking, or curious vegetable forms 
of the region may here be mentioned, the majority of the examples 
being taken from the highly representative and rich flora of the 
Cape Peninsula, lying on its western extremity. The palm of 
beauty must be awarded to the Diaa grandifloray the grandest of 
southern terrestrial orchids, as Cypripedium spectabileis of thenorthem 
hemisphere. This is abundant on the streams of Table Moimtain, 
and is found also on the Hottentot's Holland mountains, thirty to 
forty miles inland. Other fine orchids are Satyrium confolium^ a 
brilliant orange, 8, carneum and 8, erectuniy Disa hngicorniSy a 
lovely blue, D. secunda^ the delicate white D. fasciata^ and others ; 
Pterygodium acutifoUumj a fine deep golden yellow, Ceratandra 

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chloroleiica, and C, Harvey ana ; the brilliaiit blue Dim (Herschelia) 
graminifolia (long known as S. coelestis) and the allied D. 
f^entista^ and Z>. purpurascens ; and, finally, the small beautifully 
fringed spider-like Bartholina pectinata and B. Ethelae. Close 
upon these presses the so-called " Arum," the Richardia africana^ 
with its pure white spathe, — almost as common an ornament of all 
moist low-lying ground as the common dock is an accompaniment of 
English ditches. The Proteas are universal objects of admiration, 
and few things can surpass P. ct/naroides, with its flesh-colouied 
involucres, P. speciosa, P. coccinea, and a few others. The singular 
Leucadendron argenteum^ or Silver Tree, is a striking ornament of 
the mountains about Cape Town. Next come the Heaths, whose 
names would be legion. The most beautiful, and those with the 
largest flowers, are denizens of the mountains lyinff between the 
Hottentot's Holland range and the town of Sweflendam, being 
especially abundant about Caledon and Genadendal. On Table 
Mountain, Erica cerinthoides, E. mammosa, E. coccinea^ E, spnmosa, 
and E. hirta are amongst the finest, the latter sometimes making a 
whole mountain side glow with its warm pink tints. There are, 
probably 360 species of true heaths found in this Eegion alone. 
Amongst Oompositae, Oazania has some fine species, while 
Helich^aum vestitum, Selipterumy spp., and Phoenocoma pro- 
li/era, are amongst the showiest of the everlasting flowers, 
the heads of the flrst-named being gathered, dried, and ex- 
ported in large quantities to Europe as immortelles. Dimorphotheca 
annua has gay white rays, and, with some species of ArctotiSy makes 
the flelds look bright in spring. In the large Order, Leguminosae, 
Podalyria calyptrata^ with its large rosy flowers, may, perhaps, 
lead the list, and Virgilia CapensiSy Cyclopia spp.^ Mypocalyptus 
obcordatus, and the wide spread Sutherlandia frutescens, are 
amongst the few handsome plants of an Order not remarkable for 
its beauty in this Region, but which consists for the most part of 
inconspicuous shrublets. The Acacias are deflcient ; onlj AJiorrida 
occurrmg sparingly in the drier parts of the Region. The Pelar- 
goniums are abundant, and several species, P. ctunillafum, P. 
betulinum, &c., are very handsome. Oxalises with white, red, and 
yeUow flowers, stud the flelds in early spring. The numerous 
fipedes of the tribe Diosmeae, including Diosma, Barosma (some 
of which as J9. crenulata, &c., furnish the Buchu of medicine), 
Agathosma, Adenandra, &c., are mostly conflned to this Region. 
The attractive JRochea coccinea, is one of the chief ornaments of 
Table Mountain; while the Cotyledons contribute some of the 
most curious plants of the Region, especially C. fascicularts, with 
its smooth, thick, swollen tree-like stem ; very abundant in the 
neighbourhood of Worcester and Hex River. Near the Tulbagh 
Waterfall occurs the rare and pretty Ixianthes retzioides, and in 


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the same neighbourhood, the curious Roridula dentata, a shrubby 
Droseraoeous plant with extremely viscid leaves, which the farmers 
hang up in their houses [in order to catch flies. The showy Polj/- 
gala qppositifoUa and P. myrtifolia are both widely distributed. 
Plants parasitic on the roots of others take a prominent position in 
our Flora. They include several handsome Harveyas, white, purple, 
and orange ; and in other orders the Cytinus dtoictis, the curious 
Hydnora africana ; the foul smelling Sarcophyte sanguinea and 
Mystropetaion spp. Labiatae are not plentiful, but Salvia panicu- 
lata and 8. nivea are fine species. Turning to the Monocotyledom^ 
OrdiidesB have already been mentioned, IrideaB are abundantly 
represented in handsome species of Itomulea, G-eissorhiza, Ixia, 
Gladiolus, Watsonia, Babiana, etc. ; AmarylUdeae in Amaryllis 
Bell<id(mnay Nerine, Brunsvigia, VaUota, etc. ; Scitamineae in the 
peculiar and noble Strelitzise. LiliacesB are very varied and 
numerous. The most conspicuous are the Aloes, — A pUcatilis with 
an arborescent trunk, attaining a height on the western mountains 
of 12 to 15 feet ; the beautiful blue Agapanthus ; the star-like 
Omithogalums ; Kniphofia alooidesy and many others. Prionium 
Palmita is a remarkable plant with the flower of a Junous, and the 
habit of a pine-apple, which in some parts fills the beds of certain 
western rivers, and reaches a height of eight or ten feet. Some 
Restiaoeae and OyperacecB attain to six or seven feet, and often 
form a striking feature in the landscape. Ferns are not very 
abundant, chiefly occurring in the deep ravines, where the arbor- 
escent Hemitelia Capensis is found several feet in height; and 
Todea africana forms a handsome plant. Osmunda regalia is 
sparingly met with, while Pteris AquiUna is more commonly 
scattered on the open hillsides. 

It is in the orders and genera of plants exclusively or chiefly 
found here that the most striking differences are to be found be- 
tween this and the other Eegions of South Africa. An immense 
mass of observations has been collected, but has not yet been 
tabulated. It must suffice to say that this Ee^on is distmgmshed 
by the comparative abundance of the Orders : Eutacese, Bruniaceae 
Ericaceae, Penaeaceae, Proteaceae, Irideae and Bestiaceae ; by the 
tribe Stilbeae of the Order Verbenaceae ; and by the large popor- 
tionate number of the following Cape genera, of those richest in 
species, belonging to other Orders : Pelargonium, Oxalis, Phylica^ 
Aspalathus, OHffortia. 

The following list of the sequence of Orders according to the 
numbers of species of each is chiefly based upon Drdge s collec- 
tions which were very large and general. He, however, or rather 
Ernst Meyer, considerably over estimated the number of speciea 
both of Eestiaceae and Irideae ; and to follow his results implicitly 
would be misleading. I have therefore framed the following list 
in which the position of those Orders has been reduced : — 

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8. CyperacfiB 

9. EestiaoesB 

10. Liliaoese 

11. Orchides© 

12. Eutaceae 

13. ScrophtdarineaB 

1. CompoBitae 

2. Leguminosae 

3. Ericaceae 

4. Proteaceae 

5. Irideae 

6. Qeraniaceae 

7. Ghramineae 
The fact of five such Orders as Ericaceae, Proteaceae, Irideae, 

Geraniaceae, and Eestiaceae, occupying so high a position, is 
sufiicient to stamp this Eegion with a character peculiarly 
its own. 

Very remarkable is the deficiency of Eubiaceae. This Order, 
which is the fifth natural Order of the World, and the 2nd of 
India, does not only not find a place in the above list, but actually 
constitutes less than one per cent. . of the total Flora. The follow- 
ing large Orders are also very poorly represented: Myrtaceae, 
Aroideae (each 1 species) ; Laurineae (3 sp.) ; Acanthaceae, 
Labiatae and Asclepiaideae. 

No trustworthy calculation of the number of species occurring in 
the Eegion is available. Drege collected 2,914 species ; I should 
estimate the total at about 4,500 species. The richness of certain 
localities is very great. On the Cape Peninsula alone, an area 
. about one-fourth larger than the Isle of Wight, I have collected 
eighty species of Erica, and nearly one hundred species of 
Orchideae ; and the total number of species of flowering plants is 
probably nearly two thousand. 

The aflBnities of the Flora of this Eegion with that of Australia, 
especially of South Western Australia, are very striking, and have 
already been shewn by Sir J. D. Hooker (loc. cit.), from the 
Australian point of view. 

Two very distinct Orders: Proteaceae, and Eestiaceae, are 
abundant in both regions, and, except for a few outliers, do not 
occur in any other coimtries : yet they have no single species, and 
only two or three genera, in common, out of many. Proteaceae 
f orDi the third Order of the Australian Flora, and the fourth of 
this Eegion. Diosmeae, a large tribe of Eutaceae abundant in 
this Eegion, find a counterpart in Australia, in the tribe Boro- 
niese of t^^ same Order. The tribe Ericeae of the order Ericaceae, 
has over 400 species in this Eegion alone ; not one occurs in 
Australia, but the place of the tnbe is taken by the large Order 
Epacrideae, closely allied to it, and which is almost confined to 

The following table of the nine largest Australian Orders is 
taken from the same source, and is compared with the preceding, 
list of the Orders of this Eegion. I carry the latter up to twelve, 
not being quite sure of the sequence of the smaller orders : — 

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1. Leguminosee. 

2. Myrtaoese. 

3. Proteaoeee. 

4. Compositee. 

5. Gbamineae. 

6. Oyperaceee. 

7. Epaorideae. 

8. Goodenovieee 

9. Orohideae. 

8. W. Region^ 8. Africa, 













The number of identical genera in the foregoing orders is 
extremely small. Of species, not one is known to be common to 
both Eegions. There is no genus of Eutaoeae or Proteaoeae ; and 
only three of Eestiaceae (Eestio, Leptocarpus, Hypolaena), common 
to both Eegions. In other Orders the number oi identical genera, 
if we except those of world-wide distribution, is extremely small. 
The following in Compositae have been pointed out by Bentham 
{Linn. Soc. Journ. xiii, 552) :—^ 

Brachycome 1 South African 36 

Helipterum 12 „ 30 

Helichrysum 137 „ 52 

Cassinia 1 „ 13 

Athrixia 6 „ 5 

Cotula 22 „ 9 

besides the cosmopolitan genera Senecio and Quaphalium. Not 
all of these South African genera belong to this Eegion, nor any 
of them exclusively so ; but Heliptenmi is very nearly restricted 
to it, while Helicluysum is widely distributed over the whole of 
Tropical as well as Southern Africa, though chiefly abundant in 
the latter. On this subject Bentham remarks {I.e. 553) : — " This 
approximation of the Compositae of Australia and South Africa 
may possibly date from times less ancient than those in which they 
established a communication between the New and the Old World ; 
and it may even have been less remote than the period in which 
flourished the common parents of Australian and South African 
Proteaceae and Eestiaceae, or of Australian Epacrideae and South- 
African Ericeae ; for it is exemplified not in mbes only, but also 
in identical genera and sections." Amount Liliaceae may be 
mentioned the recent discovery in this Eegion of Nanolirion, a 
close ally of Herpolirion hitherto only found in similar alpine 
situations in Austmia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

Australian species 

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The following Orders, characteristic of Australian vegetation, 
abound most, after Australia, in South Africa: Thymelese, 
Haemodoraceae, Drosoraceae (Hooker) ; and another point of 
approach is found in the remarkable deficiency in both countries 
of the widely diffused Orders, Rubiaceae, Laurineae, and Aroideae. 

On the other hand there are certain remarkable divergencies, os 
pointed out in the following list, taken with modifications from Sir 
J. Hooker's Essay before quoted. 

The following Orders are represented in the Flora of this Region, 
but are either comparatively rare or absent in Australia : — 

Fumariaceae, absent in Australia 



Eosaceae (Cliff ortia). 

Bruniaceae, absent 


Dipsaceae, ditto 


Ericeae, absent in Australia 
Selagineae, ditto 

Stilbeae (tribe Verhen.) ditto 

Penaeaceae ditto 

Podostemaceae ditto 

Cytinaceae ditto 

Piperaceae ditto 

Aloineae (tribe Liliac) ditto 

Temperate Australia contains the following orders that are rare 
or absent in this Region :- 

Dilleniaceae, absent in S. Africa 

Epacrideae, absent in S. Africa 






Johnsonieae ftribe of Liliac.) do 

Xeroteae (trioe of Juncac) do 



Myrtaceae (1 species) 
Oaprifoliaceae, absent 
StyUdieae, ditto 

Goodenovieae, (1 species) 

It is also noteworthy that whereas in the Orchideae of Australia 
it is the tribes Vandeae and Neottieae which most largely prevail 
(Ophrydeae being restricted to two species), in this Eerion the 
Vandeae are few, and Neottieae completely absent, while Ophrydeae 

Sir J. Hooker conjectures the probability of a common origin 
of the Australian and South African Floras, derived from ancestors 
inhabiting a vast antarctic continent, of which the greater part has 
been submerged. In connection with this it is not a little 
remarkable that geologists tell us that the surface of the S.W. 
Region consists of the older rocks which are known to exist in 
South Africa ; the most recent being the Table Mountain Sand- 
stone, which seems to be generally regarded £is Devonian. But 
this hypothesis must be imderstood as referring exclusively to that 
portion of South Africa which is included in the Region I am 

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now treating of. The affinities of this Region with that of other 
^countries are more obscure, are certainly very slight and have not 
hitherto been elucidated. 

On the eastern boundary the Flora of this Eegion passes gra- 
dually into that of the Tropical African Eegion, and on the north, 
where, however the boundary is much sharper and more defined, 
into that of the Karroo Eegion. 

The foreign vegetation naturalised in the Eegion demands a 
brief notice. I have made a list of about 168 species, of which 
the great majority are wide-spread European plants, with a few 
American and Indian species, which have been recorded as more or 
less naturalised throughout South Africa. The observations are im- 
perfect as regards the eastern region, and the whole nimiber would 
probably be nearer 200 species. Of these about 130 may be found 
within ten miles of Cape Town. Yet only the following can be 
said to occur in sufficient number in that locality to attract atten- 
tion: — Fumaria officinaliSj Sisymbrium officinale^ Bvassica nigra^ 
Raphanus Itaphanistrum, Trifolinm angusti/oliumy 8eipicula repensj 
Sonchus oleraceuSj Sokinum Sodomaeum, Datura Stramoniumj 
Nicotiana glauca, Rumex acetosella^ Panicum sanguinak, Briza 
maxima^ Pteria aquilina, A species of prickly pear, Opuntia Tuna ? 
which is very abimdant and troublesome in the Karroo Eegion, 
occurs also in the drier eastern portions of this Eegion. Pinus 
pinea (the stone pine) Pinus pinaster^ and Quercus pedunculata, have 
been largely planted, but cannot be said to grow spontaneously ; 
although when once sown, the first named is one of the few intro- 
duced plants which can contend successfully against the indigenous 
undergrowth, in which the seed may be deposited without clearing, 
and which it at length overtops and finally destroys. Few of the 
introduced plants are found far from roadsides or human habita- 
tions, and it is remarkable how small upon the whole is the in- 
fluence they exert upon the aspect of the vegetation, and how weak 
(with the sole exception of the Opuntia referred to) is their 
aggressive power as against the indigenous Flora. 


This Eegion occupies almost the whole portion of the continent 
which lies between the tropics. Owing to the warm and moist 
climate caused by the currents of the Indian Ocean, the Flora re- 
tains a sub-tropical character to an extent very much greater than 
that of the west coast ; and the Eegion puts forth an arm, which 
reaches about as far south as Port Elizabeth, and the Van Staden's 
mountains. From the Zitzikamma forest on the one side, to the 
-ending of the Zuurberg range near Qraham's Town on the other, 
may be regarded as a debateable territory, where the present 
Eegion overlaps and intermingles with the South Western Kegion. 

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•ti-enerally speaking, its inland boundary appears to be the highest 
range of mountains which, under various names, and not always 
•quite continuously, run parallel with the coast — the Bosohberg, 
Kagaberg, Winterberg, Stormbergen, Quathlamba mountains, 
Drakensbergen, &c. Thus it includes the Colonial districts of 
Uitenhage and Somerset (in part), Albany, Bedford, Fort Beaufort, 
Peddie, Queen's Town, King William's Town, East London, and 
all the Transkeian territories, Natal, and Zululand, up to the 
tropic. The width of the Eegion ranges in this portion from 60 
to 100 miles. 

The physical features of the country may be easily understood 
if it be remembered that a lofty mountain chain, reaching from 
5,000 to 10,000 feet in height, slopes down gradually to the sea, 
sending down numerous rivers which cut up the intervening coun- 
try by their deep vallevs. The surface of the country is extremely 
varied ; large tracts oi bush alternating with open grassy downs, 
grass and bush sometimes intermingled in park-fike stretches. 
In the western portion (the Addo and Fish River) there are dense 
thickets of bushes 10 to 15 feet high ; further eastward and north- 
ward these become forests, and in many parts the slopes of the 
mountains facing the sea are covered with woods to the summit. 

The general aspect of the country is much greener and more 
luxuriant than that of the South Western Eegion. 

The climate of a Eegion stretching from the tropic to 34^ S is, 
of course, in some respects very d&erent in difEerent localities. 
At King William's Town, 1,300 feet above the sea, the mean 
annual temperature is about 18*9 (66*^ Fahr.), the rainfall about 
26 in.; further inland the rainfall diminishes ; towards Natal the 
temperature gradually rises, and the rainfall is somewhat greater. 
At rietermaritzburg, in Natal, at an elevation of 2,096 feet above 
the sea, the mean annual temperature was 18*25 (64®* 83 Fahr) ; 
the rainfall 30'23 inches ; the humidity of the air 70*30 per cent. 
(9 years^ ohservations^ Br, Mann). But the most striking difference 
between the climate of this and the South Western Ee^on is the 
fact that the one has chiefly summer, the latter chiefly winter 

The gradual transition from the South Western to the Tropical 
Flora is noticeable in the bordering districts abeady named. The 
Cycadaceous Encephalartos (Kaffir bread) pushes one of its species 
along the ridges of the Zuurberg as far west as the pass known as 
Salt ran's Neck. Leguminous plants begin to abound, especially 
the bush Schotia speciosa (Boer boon) a decidedly eastern type ; and 
the same dry tracts are occupied by a succulent Euphorbia with four 
angled thorny stems, J5. tetragona (Noorsdoom). In the woods 
near the coast, from the Knysna eastward, epiphytic orchids be^in 
:to occur (Polystachya, Angrsecum and Mystacidium). Q-enera be- 

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longing to Malvaoese, Sterouliaoese, Eubiaceae, Asolepiadeae, and 
Aoantnacese, become more numerous, both in individuals and species. 
The only Sterculia hitherto known in the Colony, 8, Alexandriy 
occurs in the Van Staden's Mountains, but has been found nowhere 
else. Sameviera thyrsiflora covers the hill-sides over large tracts, and 
a£Eords excellent fibre, at present the subject of experiments in rope 
manufacture. The beautiful Calodendron Capeme (Wild Chestnut) 
a tree of the Order Kutaceae, occurs throughout the Eegion ; it has 
been met with on the Zambesi, and even on the Kilimanjaro Moun- 
tain, a few de^es south of the equator. The number of trees of 
handsome fohage and showy flowers might almost be said to 
characterise the Kegion. I can only mention a few of them occur- 
ring in the Colony, KaflEraria and Natal : — Boscia Caffra^ Oncoba 
Kraussiana, Dombeya (3 species), Sparrmannia Africana, 8. palmatoy. * 
Turraea obtusifolia^ Acridocarpris natalitiua^ Millettia caffra^ M^ 
8utkerlandiy Erythrina caffra^ JE. latisaimaj 8ophora nitens^ Calpurnia 
spp.j 8chotia speciosa, 8, brachypetahj 8. latifoUa, Gardenia spp,^ 
Pavetta (many species), BurchelUa CapensiSy Alberta magna y 
Trkalyaia Capenm, &c. The number of flowering shrubs is also very 
considerable amongst Malvaceae, Sterculiaceee, Eubiace», Ascle- 
piadeae, Scrophularineae, Aoanthacese, and many others. Qreyia 
8utherlandi is a curious Sapindaoeous tree, with handsome crimson 
flowers, which extends from KafEraria to Natal ; it is allied to the 
endemic genera MeUanthus, Aitonia and Erythrophysa, the two 
latter belonging, however, to the Karroo Flora. Oldenburgia 
arbmcula^ a singular looking composite of dwarf arboreous habit and 
very large flower heads, occurs along the Zuurberg range, but must 
rather be regarded as an outlier from the South Western Eegion, 
where it has two congeners, 0. Papionum and 0. paradoxa. Vemonia, 
which is almost entirely absent from the latter Eegion, begins to 
abound here, and increases in species as we proceed towards the 
tropic. The " everlastings " are well represented in many fine 
species of Helichrysum; and even the Elytropappus rhinocerotis 
(the Ehenoster bush) has pushed up as far as Ghraliam's Town. The 
Euphorbiaceae begin to occur in considerable numbers in Albany and 
as will be seen presently, occupy a very important position in thifr 
Ee^on. Amongst the succulent species is the noble E. grandidenSy 
which attains a height of 30 feet or more in favourable situations, 
and forms a very characteristic feature in the the wooded ravines 
of the Eegion. The Coniferae are not better represented than in 
the western districts— two Podocarpi (Yellow Woods), and the 
same Widdnngtonia cupressoides, being all that occur. The 
Cycadaceae have been mentioned already, but besides several 
species of Encephalartos there is the curious 8tangeria paradoxa 
which comes down as far south as Lower Albany ; and here it may 
be mentioned that the same genial climatic influences bring a 

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Palm within our limits, Phcenix recUnata being found in the valley 
of the Kap River in the same district, this being probably ite 
extreme boimdary on the western side. 

Amongst the Monocotyledons the Orchidese have already been 
mentioned. The difference between the South Western Eegion 
and the present one is here again evidenced. In the former the 
species of the tribe Ophrydeee largely predominate over the Vandeee ; 
here, the proportions are reversed. In Natal, Eiilophia, Lissochilm^ 
and Pohjstachya, are abimdant in species, and take the place of the 
DissB and Satyria of the west. Calanthe nataiensis has lately been 
found as far south as the Perie Bush, near King William's Town. 
The Strelitzice are found as far north as Natal, and may occur 
beyond that country. Some of the finest Lideae belong to this 
Begion, especially the Gladioli, O. psittacimis, O, papilio^ G. Saun- 
derail^ &c. Amongst Amaryllideee may be mentioned several fine 
species of Orinum, Brunsvigia, Haemanthus and Olivia; of 
liiliacese the noble Aloe Bainesii, a tree of from 40 to 60 feet in 
height, and by far the largest and finest of the genus; alsa 
species of GHoriosa, Sandersonia, and Littonia. The Oyperacese and 
Graminese, as will be seen hereafter, yield a consideraole number 
of species; Prionium Palmita occurs in Lower Albany; and 
amongst the latter Panicum and Eragrostis predominate. But 
beyond the statement that a large part of the intervening table- 
land, (if that may be so called wmch is really a country of sloping^ 
downs; between the mountains and the coast, consists of grassy 
tracts, I have no information as to the predominance of particular 
genera or species in individuals. 

Coming now to the composition of the systematic groups most 
prevalent in and characteristic of the Region, we possess three 
considerable collections. That made by Drege, some fifty years^ 
ago, included 2,278 entries of flowering plants, and was collected 
over the whole area of the three Distncts into which he divided 
the Eegion. Many of the entries are, however, of the same species, 
collected twice, or even thrice ; so that it is only available for use 
as a whole, and even then upon the assumption that the number 
of species collected more than once, in each Order, bore an equal 
proportion to the whole. Secondly, a list of 1,193 plants, collected 
in Albany district, mostly r(>und Graham's Town, by my friend 
Professor MacOwan, and which he has kindly given me for this 
purpose. Lastly, a list of 1,320 species collected by Mr. J. M. Wood 
in and near the Inanda, not far from Durban, Natal. 

A few explanations are necessary respecting these collections. 
It is true that the broadest result would have been obtained by 
amalgamating them; but this would have required more time 
than is available to me. The collection of Drege, being made 
over the widest area, should be the most representative ; but it is. 

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oertain that the OrchidesB were neglected by him. In MacOwan's 
collection there are 46 distinct species of Orchids; in Drege^s 
only 41 entries over the whole area, including duplicate 
enfepies of the same species. In Wood's collection the Orchids 
probably occupy too high a place; many in his list were not 
named; I coimted them, necessarily, as distinct species, when 
doubtless some were repetitions of the same species. On the other 
hand, the Cyperacese and Qraminefle in his list, reaching to only 
2*2 and 1*4 per cent, respectively, have clearly been collected 
much below the average. With these remarks, I think it will be 
better to give the three lists, side by side ; and in some respects, 
it will be more instructive, since a comparison of Wood's and 
MacOwan's well illustrates the known increase, as we proceed nearer 
to the tropic, of the Orders Eubiacese, Euphorbiacese and Acan- 
thacese, and the decrease of Ficoidese and GeraniacesB : — 

Dbeob's List. 



Wood's List. 




Per cent. 

Per cent. 

. Per cent. 

Compositae . . 



.. 17-6 


. 13-1 




.. 7-6 

Leguminosae . 

. 8-4 




.. 6-9 


. 6- 

Cyperaceee . . 


Orchideae . . 

.. 3-8 


. 4-2 




.. 3-1 






.' 31 

Euphorbiaceae . 





.. 3- 

Asclepiadeae . 
Acanthaceae . 

. 3-9 

Rubiaceae . . 



.. 2-9 

. 31 




.. 2-4 

Irideae .. 

. 2-8 



Iride» . . 

.. 2- 



Acanthaceae . . 


. 2- 

Labiatae.. ! 

. 2-2 

Malvaceae . . 


T<11i843eae .. 

. 2- 

. 2-2 



Ficoideae .. 

.. 2- 


. 1-8 



Rubiaceae . . 

.. 1-8 






. 1-8 


. 1-3 

The difference between any one of these lists and that of the 
South- Western Region will be apparent at a glance : Ericaceae, 
Proteaoeae, Restiaceae, and Rutaceae do not appear in the former 
at all ; and Geraniaceae in only one of them, viz., that one collected 
nearest to the South-Western Region ; while the position of the 
other Orders common to both, excepting Compositae and Legum- 
inosae, is widely different. Wood's list includes 2 Rutiwjeae, 
7 Eriose, 2 Proteaceae; Bruniaceae and Restiaceae are entirely 
absent from it. About Gbraham's Town, however, MacOwan 
iound 6 Rutaceae, 1 Bruniacea, 8 Ericee, 6 Proteaceae, 6 Restiaceae. 
The two Regions appear to overlap widely ; a few Ericaceae have 
been found on the mountain tops nearly up to the tropic, and 
one or two Proteae occur in the Transvaal ; while outliers of a 
tropical type ''penetrate the South Western Region as far as the 
Knysna forests, and even a little beyond. 

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I have not suffioient data of the Flora of tropical Africa, as a 
msfls, to attempt to trace the affinities between it and the South 
Western Eegion. So far as that portion of the former is con- 
cerned which stretches south of the actual tropic, and constitutes 
the subject of the present sketch, there is an agreement in the fact that 
Compositae and Lieguminosae occupy respectively the first and 
second place amongst the Orders of each Kegion, as they do amongst 
the Orders of the whole "World. This is important when we bear 
in mind the imdoubted affinity which exists between the Flora of 
Tropical Africa and that of India, because in the latter country 
the Orders Leguminosse and Eubiaceae take the first and second 
place. The similarity, in other respects, will be shewn if we com- 
pare the sequence of Orders in India with that of Wood's Natal 

JuDiA. {Rooker) Natal (Wood) 

LeguminoBae Compositae 

RubiacesB Leguminosee 

Orchidese Idliaoese 

Gompositee Orohidese 

Graminese Rubiaceae 

Eupliorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae 

AoanthaoeaB Asdepiadeas 

Cyperaoeae Acanthaceae 

liabiatae Irideae 

If it be remembered that, as I have said above, Wood's list is 
certainly unduly deficient in Gramineae and Cyperacese, which 
should probably be included in the above, and would throw out 
the two lowest orders, it will be seen that there is a considerable 
agreement between the two. 

The lists of Drege, MacOwan, and Wood, given above, contain 
comparatively few naturalized foreign plants; yet we may not 
infer that they exist only in such proportion ; and exact informa- 
tion is, in fact, wanting. My own personal acquaintance with 
the Eegion is somewhat limited, extending only for about 150 
miles of its south-western extremity. In the parts I have seen, 
introduced plants, excepting Opuntia Tuna (?), in some of the drier 
western parts of the Uitenhage district, Xanthium spinosum occa- 
sionally, and Nicotiana glauca, are few in individuals, and exert but a 
very small influence upon the aspect of the Flora. They do not 
appear to differ much in character from those that have been 
referred to under the South- Western Region. In Wood's list, 
however, there are certain tropical weeds which, as might be 
expected, do not occur in the older Colony. 


This Eegion includes on the west side the coast strip of 
Namaqualand lying between the mountains and the sea. How 

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far it may extend north of the Orange River is unknown. South- 
ward it stretches between the Khamiesbergen and the sea, and 
thence passes over by tracts little known botanically, to the south 
and west slopes of the Roggeveld mountains. Here it widens out 
and includes all that large tract known colonially as the Karroo ; 
bounded on the north by the Roggeveld, Nieuwveld and Sneeuw- 
berg moimtains, on the east by tne mountains fringing the Fish 
River ; on the south by the Zwarteberg range, Kamanassiebergen, 
and finally the Zuurbergen, and on the west by the moimtains of 
the Warm and Cold Bokkeveld. 

Speaking broadly, it is a vast, shallow basin, surroimded by 
mountains ; but the mountains, while always loftier on the northern 
side, are sometimes a mere rim on the southern. Its height above 
the sea ranges from 1,800 to 2,500 feet. But for the purposes of 
floral computations I have reckoned all plants collected on the 
southern slopes of the northern mountains, up to a height of about 
3,750 feet, as belonging to this Region. Above that height, in 
certain localities, at least, the vegetation changes, and belongs to 
the next (the Composite) Region. 

It is traversed by numerous river-beds or torrents, mostly dry 
or nearly so, except when filled by the summer thunderstorms, when 
the beds suddenly fill, carry ofE a vast quantity of muddy water for 
a few days, and soon again become dry. But water, generally, is 
scarce, and springs are infrequent. 

The coimtry has been subjected to long ages of denudation by 
rains and rivers, and exhibits its traces everywhere. It is probable 
that since the interference of man, which, by sheep pasturage has 
killed much vegetation andloosenedand opened the soil, this denuda- 
tion has proceeded more rapidly, and in some places enormous gullies 
have been formed where previously moist and fertile valleys existed. 
The surface consists chiefly of vast plains of light, reddish soil, which, 
when irrigated, is extremely fertile ; in other parts it is more sandy, 
and in some places the soil is shaly, hard and barren. The plains 
are, however, broken by hills or moimtains, sometimes with flat 
tabular tops. Everywhere the exposed rock is sandstone in beds, 
of varying colours and hardness, which have been regarded by Wyley 
and Dunn as belonging to the carboniferous measures. In the 
north eastern portion these are traversed by frequent doleritic 
dykes, which are sometimes vertical, and sometimes lateral, f orm- 
inff cappings to the sandstone hills. 

The climate is one of great dryness and extremes of heat and 
cold. The following observations have been recorded at Ghraaff- 
Reinet, a town on the northern edge of the region, 2,476 feet 
above the sea : — ^Mean annual temperature 18° 0. (64*41 Fahr.) 
mean of greatest range on any one day 3°'26 0. (37°*88 Fahr.) 
extreme finits of temperature (Dec. 20) 40°-55 0. (105° Fahr.) 

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June 24, 3-56^ C. (28° Fahr.) ; rainfaU 13-19 in., of which about 
two-thirds fell during the six summer months. The foregoing 
are from three years' observations. Twenty-three years' obser- 
vations give an average of 14*5 in. of raiu. Other observations 
of rainfall for other stations in the region for at least five years 
ai'e : — Prince Albert, 7*71 in. ; Beaufort West, 9*19 in. ; Willow- 
more, 7*40 In. ; Aberdeen, 12 in. ; Jansenville, 9*44 in. ; Spring- 
bok (Namaqualand), 8*05 in. The following are from one year's 
(1883) observations only :— -Port Nolloth, 2*66 in. ; Touws Eiver 
Station, 8*86 in. ; Matjesfontein, 10*21 in. The greater part of 
the rains take place during the summer thimderstorms; occasionally, 
in the Eastern portions, a strong south-east wind brings up ^enei^l 
rain, but this is rare, the clouds being usually discharged in the 
intervening mountain ranges which divide this Eegion from the two 
coast Regions, and intercept its rains. 

Daring periods of drought nothing can be imagined more 
desolate and mournful than the appearance of the vegetation. The 
soil is rarely covered, bare patches of greater or less extent inter- 
vening between shrubs and bushes. These are frequently blackened 
by drought as if they had been killed by fire. The largest and 
indeed almost the only trees are those of the Acacia honHda 
(Doomboom) which line the banks of the dry river beds as with a 
fringe ; and occasionally, on the higher moimtain sides, a few 
other trees of shrubby habit occur. For the most part the shrubs 
are scattered, and range from 5 to 8 feet in height ; with inter- 
vening shrublets of 1 to 2 feet. Yet after copious rains all will 
be changed within a week or two, as if by magic. Many of the 
apparently dead bushes put forth bright green leaves; the 
shrublets are covered with flowers often before leaves can be 
seen; bulbous plants, which may not have flowered for several 
years previously, send up their scapes with incredible rapidity, 
and annual flowering herbs and grasses are everywhere seen where 
formerly all was bare and barren. Namaqualand, perhaps, 
exhibits this phenomenon to the most striking extent. I was 
amazed on visiting that desert country after the rains of June to 
July, 1883, to see tracts, himdreds of acres in extent, covered with 
sheets of living fire, or glowing purple, visible from several miles 
distance, caused by the beautiful Compositae in fiower; and 
nothing is more singular than to see this luxuriance intermingled 
with the black or white branches of dead shrubs killed by previous 
droughts, standing like ghostly intruders on a scene of merriment 
and joy. These charming displays pass away all too rapidly, and 
in a month or two little that is beautiful remains. 

I proceed to speak of a few of the chief plants of the Region most 
noteworthy, either from their beauty, singularity, or from their 
being confined to, or peculiarly characteristic of it. I am best 

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acquainted with the Karroo of the GraafE-Eeinot district, partly^ 
with that of Namaqualand, and for the rest have only passed 
through it as a rapid traveller. Several species of Heliophua are 
extremely bright in spring, especially in the west; and the 
monotypic Patmsit^uckia CapensiSy which had only been gathered 
before by Thunberg, has just been re-discovered in Namaqualand. 
Cadaba juncea with its dark crimson flowers is a singidar and 
characteristic plant both of this and the next Region; while 
Cappans oleoides (the Witgat boom) standing generally alone, 10 
to 15 feet high, with its white tnmk which has given its vernacular 
name, is a prominent f eatui*e of many of the Karroo plains ; the 
young buds are nearly or quite as good for culinary purposes as 
those of the Caper of Southern Europe. The Portulaceae occupy a 
prominent place chiefly by the well-known Portulamria afra (the 
%pek booniy or fat tree), a large shrub with fleshy acid leaves and 
panicles of small pink flowers. This occupies the hill sides, often 
ffrowing sub-socially in great masses and affording the most 
lavourite food for live-stock of all kinds. It also occurs, though 
less abundantly, in the Tropical Region. In addition there are 
several species of Anacampseros, one of Talinimi, and one of 
Portulaca besides the ubiquitous P. oleracea. Tamarix tismoides 
occurs in Namaqualand, where it is used as fuel, and is the only 
plant of the Order in our Region ; it is recorded also by Drege as 
from the central and eastern Karroo. Amongst MalvacesB are 
four species of Hibiscus, one of the most curious of which is JST. 
urensy which looks at a short distance so much like a plant of the 
gourd family that every botanist is astonished to find upon it the 
flowers of a Hibiscus. Burchell says his Hottentots called it 
Wilde Kalahas (Wild Calabash). Of Sterculiacse, the genera Her- 
mannia and Mahemia, are represented by 10 and 5 species re- 
spectively. The large Order Sapindacese includes Pappea Capensis 
(the Wild Plimi) a shrub of 15 or 20 feet frequent on moimtains 
sides ; Aitonia CapemiSy also a shrub, the curious pendulous papery 
capsules of which look like miniature Chinese lanterns hung on a 
Christmas tree ; the allied and even hAudsome Srythrophi/sa undulatay 
of Namaqualand ; and several species of Melianthus. The Gera- 
niaceae are a numerous Order. The curious candle-bush, Sarco- 
caulon Patersoni is here, besides nimierous species of Pelargonium. 
The latter areespecially frequentin individuals, and much diversified 
in structure, those with succulent stems and leaves constituting a 
marked feature of the Flora. These include P. oblongatuniy a hand- 
some species from Namaqualand, with yellow flowers, lately figured 
in the Botanical Magazine (t. 5996), P.flavuMy P. carnosuniy P. crith- 
mifoliuniy P.ferulaceuniy P . pulchellumy P. sericeuniyP. quinatuniy the 
VOTy curious andrush-like, almost leafless, P. tetragonuniy P.peltatumy 
P. echinatuniy and many others. The Uxalideae, though numerous, 

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and often brilliant, axe less common than in the South Western 
Begion. The Eutaeeae are conspicuous by their absence. I never 
found but one species in the Region, a Diosma, on the moimtains 
of Namaqualand, evidently a straggler from their great home fur- 
ther South. The Zygophyllums are frequent and mostly with 
succulent leaves ; of ttie same family is Augea Capensis, a mono- 
typic genus peculiar to the Central l^arroo and abundant in many 
places, with thick terete leaves like those of a Mesembryanthemum. 
Phylica, so common in the South Western districts, is here absent ; 
one or two species hover on the boundary line of some of the 
mountains, but they are scarcely members of this Region. Anacar- 
diacesB are only represented by Rhus, of which there are about a 
dozen species. The Leguminosee do not occupy nearly so promi« 
nent a place here as elsewhere. There are, however, several 
species of Lotononis; Lebeckia, Indigof era, Rhynchosia, the widely 
distributed Sutherlandia frtttescens; and' Splitra hiflora, found in 
this Region only. 8chotia speciosa, an outlier of the IVopical Region^ 
occurs sparingly. Aeada horridUy the only species of this genus 
within our limits, is scattered widely, but especially fringes the 
river beds, the timber is largely used for fuel, and the bark for 
tanning. The almost complete absence of Aspalathus is very 
remarkable. Of Rosacese there are but two species of GWelum ; 
while ClifBortia and Rubus are both absent. Orassulacese are an 
important constitu^it of the Region, Crassula and Cotyledon being 
numerous both in species and individuals. It is the Order 
Ficoidese, however, that we may regard as the one most typical of 
the Region. Mesembryanthemimis are met with everywhere, from 
the annual herb to the shrub with leaves of the most diverse 
and curious shapes, with flowers of white, yellow, 
and reds of many shades. In some portions vast tracts 
are covered with M, spinosum growing sub-socially almost to th» 
exclusion of anything else. In Namaqualand is a huge species 
resembling M. cn/stallinum, but as large as a cabbage. Some of 
the larger flowered species are extremely brilliant. Cmsonia 
spicata and C, paniculaia are trees of the order AraUaceee with con- 

§eners spread over the whole Colony. Rubiacese are here, as in the 
. W. Region, remarkably deficient, not more than half a dozen 
species occurring near QraafE-Reinet. Of Compositse the larger 
genera are Pteronia, Pentzia, Helichrysimi, Senecio, Othonna, 
feuryops. Those most abundant in individuals are Aster filifoUuSy 
Ckrysocoma tenuifoUay Adenachaena parvifoUa, Pentzia virgata, and 
P. globosa, Eriocephalus glaber, HeKchrysum spp. ; most of them^ 
are very aromatic, and, excepting the second, furnish excellent food 
for live stock. In Namaqualand a large species of Didelta, D, 
spinosumy is used as a substitute for spinach, and is eaten greedily 
by all animals. Several species of Arctotis, Venidium, Gorteria, &c.. 

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^are exceedingly brilliant, and make a great display after rains. 
Ericaceae are entirely absent. Oha verrucosa is one of the few 
trees of the Region occurring sparingly in mountain ravines, and 
furnishing the most useful wood for fencing poles and for fuel. 
Of the order Ebenacese there are several species of Eoyena and 
Euclea. Some genera of Asclepiadeae seem to indicate an affinity 
with the Tropical Region and India. Such are Gomphocarpus, 
Sarcostemma, Oeropegia. Of the genus Stapelia there are many 
species, thinly scattered, besides Huemia, Piaranthus, Decabelone, 
€uid the remarkable HoodisB of Namaqualand. Adenium- Nam- 
aqtMnum (or Elephants' Trunk) is a curious Apocynaceous plant 
of the same country. Gentianeae are almost, if not entirely, want- 
inff. Scrophularinea^ occupy a comparatively poor place, — 
Diascia, Nemesia, Lyperia bemg the chief genera, with some of the 
root parasites Alectra, Striga, and Myobanche sanguinea, Rhigozum 
trichotonmm is a handsome Bignoniaceous shrub. Acanthaceae are 
very deficient and probably constitute less than one per cent of the 
whole Flora. Selagineae are also few ; Selago leptostachya {Aar- 
ioschje) is one of the good stock food plants. The ashes of 
Sakola aphylla (Kanna-bosch) are used for soap making; and 
Atriplex Halimua and A, Capensis {Vaal-boschje) are considered 
most valuable food plants for sheep and goats. Hydmra Africana 
occurs in the eastern, aCnd M, triceps in the western Karroo. San- 
talaceae are represented in Osyris compressa^ the leaves of which 
here and in the two preceding Regions, are very generally in 
use for tanning; there are also several species of Thesium. 
Euphorbiaceae are chiefly confined to succulent Euphorbiae, in 
naany forms, — ^melon shaped, 4-ajigled, many-angled, and club- 
shaped, in some tracts immensely abundant in individuals. Dur- 
ing severe droughts E. Caput-medmae {FingerpoU) is in some 
places cut up as food for cattle ; as is also a spinous species 
{Euphorbia sp.) after the spines have been previously burnt off. 
Several species of Viscum, and a few Loranthi occur ; Forskohlea 
Candida seems to be peculiar to the Region. There are one 
or two species of Ficus ; and the widely distributed Salix Capemis 
occurs along many of the river banks. Ooniferae are entirely 

Orchidese are scarce. In the whole eastern Karroo I found 
but one species, Rabenaria arenaria ; but in Namaqualand on the 
mountains where the average rainfall does not exceed seven inches 
;yearly, I saw a Holothnk, Satyrium pustulatum^ Pterygodium 
Volucris, and Disperis purpurata var. Of Hsemodoraceae, Sanseviera 
Hhyrsifiora is common on many hill sides, but rarely flowers. It 
may here be mentioned that this is a common condition of many 
of the Karroo Monocotyledons. They pass years in a dormant 
state : not until rain and temperature coincide suitably to their 

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need will they flower. Hence one may live seven years near a 
mountain side, and then first see it nearly covered with Hesjyemntha 
fakata) or one may watch the numerous bulbs of Ammocharis 
fahata in leaf for tei;i years, as I have done, and never see them in 
flower. Irideee and Amaryllidese are neither by any means 
abimdant in species or individuals. Liliacese are much richer, and 
include Aloe (of which there are many fine species, A. dichotoma 
of Namaqualand being one of the largest) Haworthia, Apiera, 
Omithogalum, Albuca, &c., in great variety and beauty ; there are 
also many Asparagi. Testudinaria ele^yhantipes is one of the best 
known and most curious plants of the Region. Juncacese are 
scarce ; Cyperacese also but few, while Carex is entirely absent. 
Of Restiacese, also, none have been found. Grraminese are some- 
what rich in species, and occupy the second place amongst 
the Orders of the Region ; yet they occur chiefly in isolated 
tufts, and rarely except in some specially favoured spot can 
anything like turf be seen. They belong to many genera 
amongst which may be named Panicum, Andropogon, Ajristida 
and Eragrostis. 

Of Ferns there are perhaps 8 or 10 species in the whole Region. 
These are chiefly Cheilanthes, Pellaea, and Nothochlaena ; most of 
them are peculiar to the Region, and five at least, according to 
Lady Barkly, are found in Namaqualand only. 

The predominating feature of this Region is the peculiar adapta- 
tion of its vegetable life to meet the severe conditions of the dry 
and hot climate and soil. Succulence, which may here be taken to 
include thickened roots, stems or leaves, is displayed in the most 
diverse Orders. At QraafE-Reinet, on the north-eastern border of the 
Region, and where the climate is far less severe than further west, 
I counted thirty-one per cent, of all flowering plants as more or 
less succulent. In the central and western Karroo the proportion 
would be much larger. The prevalence of thorny plants is also 
very noticeable. 

The following list of the chief Orders of the Region is taken from 
a list of 611 flowering plants collected by me mostly near Gxaaff- 
Reinet, all below 3,750 feet above the sea, and being nearly a complete 
collection of the plants within twenty miles of that centre ; to which 
are added 66 others collected by Drege, and by myself, in other 
parts of the Region, further south and west. But it does not in- 
clude plants from Namaqualand, nor from the western Karroo 
generally. Substantially, it is a fair representation of the eastern 
Karroo ; but I think it probable that a fuller and more general 
collection would reduce the position of Qramineae, raise that of 
Ficoideae and Greraniacese, and introduce the order IrideoB into the 
first twelve. 

w 2 

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Per cent. 

1. Compositae 17*1 

2. Gramhiese 9*2 

3. Ficoidese 6*8 

4. LQiaoese 6*5 

5. Grassulacese . . .. 5'3 

6. Leguminosse .. .. .. .. .. 3*8 

7. G^raniacese 2*9 

8. Scrophularineee 29 

9. Asclepiadee 2*5 

10. Sterculiaoese 2*5 

11. Solanacese 2*2 

12. CyperacesB . . . . . . 2* 

The Flora shows but weak aflSnities with either of the two pre- 
ceding Begions, and these are chiefly exhibited in widely distri- 
buted genera common to the whole of Southern Africa. From the 
South Western Region it differs in the complete absence of 
Rutacese, Bruniacese, Ericacese, Proteacese, Penaeacese, and Res- 
tiacese, the six most characteristic orders of that Region ; further, 
in the scarcity of Leguminosse ; and in the almost complete absence 
of the following large genera which are so abundant in and 
characteristic of that Re^on : Muraltia, Phylica, Aq)alathus, 
Cliftortia, Athanasia, Arctotis, Gnidia, Struthiola. There is a point 
of approach in the abundance of Geraniacese ; and there is a com- 
mon scarcity of Rubiacese and Acanthacese. From the Tropical 
Region it is distinguished by abundance in Ficoideae and Crassu- 
lacese ; and by its paucity of Leguminosse, Rubiacese and Acan- 
thacese ; to these might perhaps be added Malvacese, and Euphor- 
biacese, for these occur chiefly in the eastern Karroo, where it bor- 
ders on the Tropical Region. It may hereafter be found that the 
afliiiities of this Region, together with the succeeding one, are 
greater with the Kalahari Region than with any other, if indeed 
they might not be regarded as an extension of ^ it. But at present 
our knowledge of the Kalahari is too imperfect to enable us to form 
a judgment. 

With respect to the naturalized foreign plants of the Region, it 
may readily be supposed that the heat and drought of the climate 
would be unfavourable to European colonists. The number is 
indeed few, and chiefly confined to weeds of cultivation, which is 
here synonymous with irrigation ; or to a few wayside weeds. 
The number known to me does not exceed twenty-five. Those of 
American origin are more prominent. Opuntia Tuna (?) already 
mentioned, has a branched stem with obovate articulated joints, 
covered with tufts of strong prickles ; the flowers are yellow, and 
the fruit much eaten by the natives and colonists. l)rege does 
not mention this plant, so that it must have been introduced, or, at 
least, have spread, since his visit (1826-1834). It is now a most 
troublesome pest, growing in some places sub-socially, and killing 

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out the native vegetation. So tenacious of life is it that a piece of 
stem of a few square inches dropped upon the surface of the hot 
dry soil, will take root and grow readily. Cattle and goats, 
driven to browse upon it hj drought, suffer by the laceration of 
their mouths, and fall off in condition. Its eradication is slow 
and laborious, needing either to be completely buried, or burnt. 
The Xanthium spinosum is also a troublesome weed owing to its 
hooked achenes becoming entangled in the wool of sheep. 
Nicotiana glauca springs up immediately wherever quarries are 
opened; Argemme Mexicana has fairly established itself , though 
not yet abundant ;. and Amsinckia angiistifoliay from Chili, has 
been found in Namaqualand. 


This Region is bounded on the west by the Hantam and Rogge- 
veld mountains ; southward by the continuation of the Roggeveld 
range ; the Nieuwveld, the Sneeuwberg range ; thence across by the 
Boschberg and by 4he mountains about Daggaboer's Nek, towards 
the north-western flanks of the Great winterberg mountain; 
eastward by the watershed which separates the waters of the Fish 
River from those of the Kei, so as to include the districts of 
Tarkastad and Albert, to the Orange River. Its northern 
boundary is in part unexplored. I am informed by Mr. E. J. 
Dunn, F.G.S., who has travelled through that part of the country 
for the purpose of exploring its geology, that the boundary line on 
the northwest is well marked and co-incident with the line of his 
Dwyka Conglomerate and the Karroo Beds, the former beiag 
covered by the Twa-grass {Arthratherum hrevifoUum) so characteristic 
of the Kalahari Region, while the latter bear the stunted bushes 
peculiar to this Region. This line would begin near the Kabis- 
kouw mountain, thence it extends in a curve towards Hope Town 
where it is certainly existent about thirtv miles south of that town. 
It then runs northward, crossing the Orange River. The exact 
boimdary in the Orange Free State is unknown to me, but it is 
probable that it takes a wide curve eastward between Bloemf on- 
tein and Smithfield, and again cuts the Orange R. southwest of 
Aliwal North. It is thus an elevated country sloping gently from 
the southern edge towards the Orange River, at an average eleva- 
tion of from 5,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea. I have Included 
in the Region that part of the districts of Middelburg, Cradoek and 
Tarkastad, which is formed by the basin of the Great Fish River 
above Dagaboers Neck. Is it imcertain whether this is correct, 
Drege regarded this tract as belonging to the Karroo Region ; but 
he passed rapidly through it (as I have also done) and scarcely 
collected anything. His view would have this consistency : that 
it would make the waters of the whole Upper Region run into the 

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Orange Eiver ; and those of the whole Karroo Eegion into the 
Southern Ocean. But the tract in question is somewhat more 
elevated than the rest of the Karroo, and appeared to me from its 
deficiency in succulents to belong rather to the present Be^ion. 
The matter must be decided by further evidence, since no cmlec- 
tions, so far as I know, have been made there. 

The general aspect of the country is that of a vast treeless 
plain, interspersed at great distances by a few isolated and flat- 
topped mountains, or short ranges ; or lower, and then very rugged 
rocky hills. On these hills or in the few ravines of the monotonous 
moimtain sides, may be found a few stimted bushes. In fertile 
shallow vallies ("vleis"), grassy patches, with more luxuriant 
bushes 6 to 8 feet high, may be seen ; but trees never, except such 
few as have been planted by the hand of man ; or except the few 
(chiefly Salix capemis) which fringe the banks of tne Orange 
Eiver, where it flows through this Eegion; and the predomi- 
nant and constantly prevailing aspect of the jpuntry is that of a 
heathy tract, or dry elevated moorland, covers with small shrub- 
lets of a dull green hue, the few intervening plants of different 
growth which occur being too small or too few to alter or modify 
the general appearance above described. 

Eespeoting the climate of this Eegion no observations for any 
considerable length of time, excepting of the rainfall, have been 
made. The extremes of temperature are considerable, the summer 
maximum being nearly as high as in the Karroo Eegion although 
the summer nights are always cool ; while the winter temperature 
is much lower. Severe frosts are common, with occasional snows 
in winter and hailstorms in summer. The rains are almost 
entirely in the simmier months, and usually accompanied by 
thunderstorms. The following list of stations at which the 
rainfall has been observed for a period of five years or more is 
taken from the Eeportof the Meteorological CoDMuission for 1883. 
I take the stations in their order from west to east : — ^Fraserburg, 
6*11 inches; Carnarvon, 778; Victoria West, 9*82; Eichmond, 
11-64; Hanover, 1377; Middelburg, 14-17; Oolesberg, 12*82; 
Oradock, 13-19 ; Tarkastad, 17*08. 

The following remarks on the plants chiefly characteristic of this 
Eegion are based upon collections of 507 species of flowering plants 
made by myself chiefly on the loftier portions of the Qraan-Eeniet 
district (above 3,750 feet above the sea) with a few in the districts 
of Murraysburff, Eichmond, Hanover and Oolesberg; of 331 (other) 
species collected by Drege in the same districts, together with Albert 
and Aliwal North ; and of 135 (other) species omlected by Mr. W. 
Tyson, chiefly in the district of Murraysburg ; being a total of 
973 species. These lists and the calculations upon them, which 
will be found on page 313, were made some time ago. I have 

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smce doubted whether the higher mountain regions of the^ 
Sneeuwberg, and of Aliwal, should not rather be regarded 
as outlying tracts of the Tropical Eegion; the conditions of 
greater moisture favouring the extension of eastern types which 
do not occur in the immediately contiguous lower levels. The 
same conditions have permitted the lodgment of a very few south- 
western types. The result is to mate the Eegion appear more 
rich in forms than it otherwise would be, to the extent of probably 
15 per cent, of the species, and 6 per cent, of the genera ; and in 
so far to increase the appearance of its affinities with the Tropical 
African Region. I regret that time does not allow the revision 
of the list, and that this statement must suffice. 

The GeraniacesB are fairly numerous, but do not here occupy,, 
either as to singularity of form, or in respect of the nimiber of in- 
dividuals, the same prominent position they hold in the preceding^ 
Regions. One Eutacea, Barosma venusta, occurs on the Koudveld 
Mountain, at about 6,000 feet ; also two Phvlicae on the moun- 
tains near GraafM^einet. The species of Rhus {Taai-bosch) are 
numerous, 13 being recorded in our list. Leguminosae are mostly 
small and inconspicuous shrublets of the genera Lotononis, Argyro- 
lobium, Indigofera, and Lessertia. Lessertia annularis is said ta 
have poisonous effects upon cattle. The only handsome plant of 
the Order, which has here 19 genera and 52 species, is the wide- 

3>read Sutherlandia frutescens. Acacia horrida, the only tree of the- 
rder, and the only species of that genus occurring in the Region,, 
hardly belongs strictly to it, being found only sparingly in sheltered 
valleys of the Sneeuwbergen, &c. A few species of Cliffortia are^ 
outliers of the South-western type growing only on the highest 
mountains. Orassulacese, similarly, though our list includes 33 
species, are found very gparingly everywhere except upon the 
southern border of the Region; and are few in individuals. 
Outhriea capenais is a curious Passifloraceous plant with the habit 
of a Primrose, only found hitherto upon the highest parts of the 
Sneeuwbergen. Ficoidese are very deficient in Individuals, and 
the majority of those in our lists belong to the warmer parts about 
Murraysburg. Rubiaceae have 11 species only, chiefly of Anthos- 
permtim, Rubia, and Galium. It is in Compositae that we. find the 
great strength of this Region, there being not less than 61 genera 
with 231 species. The largest genera are Helichrysum with 36 
species; Senecio with 35 species; Berkheya, 11; Euryops, 10; 
Pentzia and Gazania each 8 species. The species most numerous 
in individuals are Chrysocoma tenuifoUa, a small shrublet of little 
or no value for stock, covering vast tracks in the central part of the 
Region not indeed sociably, but intermingled with others, also, for 
the most part, Oompositse ; Helichrysum hamulosum^ JEriocephalus 
glaber, and other species ; Pentzia globosa, P. JBurchellii, P. Cooperiy 

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all good stock plants; Othonnopsis cluytiaefolia and 0, pallens ; 
Euryopsspp,; Gamolepis trifurcata ; Tnpterk kptoioba, T. spines- 
cens ; Arctotis stoechadifoUa, 8fc. Five species of Ericaceae are 
found on the hi^est mountains only. Ebenaoeee have five species 
of Bioyena and Euclea, usually stunted rigid bushes. Oka verru- 
cosa (the Olive) is sparingly distributed, and grows very pooriy. 
Of Asclepiadese there are twelve genera and 27 species. jRiree 
species oi Lycium are scattered, and one of them is a characteristic 
shrub of the bleak and dreary Eoggeveld. Scrophularineae are well 
represented in 20 genera and 38 species, of which the beautiful 
deep blue flowers of Aptosimum depressum, and the sky blue 
Peliostonmm origanoides, alone deserve notice, and are worthy of 
cultivation. Hhigozum trickotomum is a Bignoniaceous shrub with 
handsome yellow flowers, belonging to this as well as to the 
Karroo Region. Acanthaceae are deficient, having only 5 species ; 
Selagineae, 15 ; Labiatse, 18 ; Thymeleae only 7, of which Arthro^ 
solen polycephalm, a useless wiry shrub, grows almost sociably in 
some spots. Salix Capensis is only found In a few sheltered 
valleys in the lowest part of the Eegion, or on the banks of the 
Orange Eiver. 

Amongst the Monocotyledons Orchidese have four species aU of 
the higher mountains. Irideae are greatly diversified, having 
12 genera and 20 species. Amaryllidese are nearly as many, 
Brumvigia multifloraoGiag one of the handsomest, and there are 
several species of Hypoxis mostly from the eastern motrntains. 
Aroidese are entirely absent. Liliacese are numerous ; Aloes are 
very few ; and there are several species of Kniphofia (4) ; SciUa 
(4) ; Omithogalum (4) ; Bulbine (5) ; Asparagus (7) ; in aU 20 

fenera with 47 species. Of Eestiaceae, 3 have been foimd on the 
ighest moimtains, outliers from the S.W. Region. Cyperacese 
have 22 species, including 2 Carices. Qxamineae occupy a hi^h 
position with 37 genera and 78 species. Though thus highly 
diversified they do not occupy a prominent place in the landscape 
of the coimtry, Everywhere occurring in isolated tufts, usually fcur 
apart from each other. Those most abundant in individuals 
appear to be Andropogon marginatus, Anthistiria ciliata^ Artstida 
^estita^ &c., Danthonia disticha, D. villosa and others, JEragrostis 
brizoidesy JE. striata, Melica dendroides (Dronkgras of the Colonists, 
from its apparently intoxicating effects upon cattle which feed 
upon it), Festuca scabra, &c., but I speak only of those parts of the 
country which I have actually visited. 

The following list of the sequence of Orders according to their 
number in species is prepared from the collections already men- 
tioned : — 

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CoHPOSiTE Region (Eastebn Pobtion). 

Per cent. 

1. Compositee 23*6 

2. Graminese 8* 

3. Legroniinosse 5*3 

4. LiUacese . . 4*8 

6. Scrophularineee 3*9 

6. Crassulacese 3*3 

7. Asdepiadeae 27 

8. G^raniacese 2'5 

9. Ficoideae 2-4 

10. Cyperaoeae 2*2 

11. IridecB 20 

12. Amaryllideee 19 

It will at once be seen that the abundance of Compositae is the 
most striking characteristic of the Eegion. Here suso, the pre- 
ponderance of individuals is immensely in excess of the numerical 
proportion of M)ecies, 

As in the Karroo Eegion, Rutacese, Ericaceae, Restiacese, are 
practically absent ; Bruniacese, Penaeacese, and Proteacese, abso- 
lutely so. In comparison with the Karroo Flora, Crassulaceae and 
FicoidesB occupy a much lower position ; while in this case again 
the reduced proportion of species by no means represents the 
paucity of individuals. Notwithstanding this circumstance the 
relations with tte Karroo Region are considerable in identical 
genera and species ; in a similar deficiency of Rubiaceae, Acanthaoeae, 
Verbenaceae and Aroidcae ; and it may hereafter be found desirable 
to treat the two Regions as sub-divisions of one. 

With respect to the Tropical African Region and the South 
Western Re^on the differences are more marked, as will be seen 
by a comparison of the predominating Orders of each. 

The naturalised plants of foreign origin call for little remark. 
Those from Europe are confined to a few wayside weeds, or weeds 
of cultivation. Xanthium spinomm is a troublesome pest ; Argemone 
Mexicana and Datura Metel have established themselves near the 
Orange River. The Opuntia Tuna (?) so annoying in the Karroo 
Region, is here little seen, only a few individuals straggling up the 
warmer vallies of the mountains on the southern edge of the 


This Region extends but a slight distance into the Colony, and 
since our knowledge of its Flora excepting the eastern part, is 
stfll copiparatively small, I shall make but few remarks concerning 
it. Qrisebach (loc. cit.) has carefully collected all that was known 
up to 1872, and the reaider is referred to his pages for more details 
than can be given here. 

The northern boundary begins on the coast at about 18° S. lat., 
thence runs nearly due east, until it reaches about 30° of east 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


longitude, when it turns south to the Orange River, crosses thia 
near Hope Town, runs westwardly along the river and south of it 
conterminously with the boundary of our Composite Re^on, until 
it reaches the neighbourhood of the Kabiskouw Mountain ; thence 
northerly along the east side of the Namaqualand mountains to 
the Orange River. Where it touches the coast again is unknown. 
It thus includes Ghreat Namaqualand, Damaraland, Ovampoland,^ 
Bechunaland, and great part, if not the whole, of the Transvaal, and 
the Free State. 

The surface of the country is mostly very sandy, and generally 
speaking surface water is everywhere very scarce, and springs in- 
frequent. Nevertheless, when they do occur they are sometimes 
strong and copious, and there is every reason to believe that im- 
mense stores of imderground water exist at no great depth over a 
large pai* of the Region. 

The climate is not yet well known. The heat in suminer is^ 
great, the nights cool, and even frosty in winter, and the rain- 
fall which does not seem to be inconsiderable, is entirely one of 
summer thunderstorms. In the colonial Karroo the soil being 
baked, a large part of the rain runs off to the sea ; here, on account 
of the sandy nature of the soil, the greater part is retained, and, 
in the case of heavy falls, goes to increase the imderground stores. 
The coast strip from 16° S. down to the Orange River mouth,- and 
bounded by the interior mountains, is even more dry and rainless 
than that of Little Namaqualand, and probably should be joined 
with the Karroo Region of the Colony. 

The Kalahari is essentially a grass country interspersed with 
isolated shrubs or trees. Towards the northern boundary, which 
there corresponds with the southern limit of palms, these trees are- 
grouped in dense forests. Further south me country is open. 
After the summer rains the grasses, which do not grow con- 
tinuously like turf, but in ti2ts like stooling wheat, shoot up 
rapidly and acquire a h^ght of three or four feet, sometimes even 
of five and six feet. Eaist of the copper mines of Namaqualand 
they have frequently been cut by the natives, and brought in loads 
for sale as fodder. Species of Aristida (Twa-gras) are the most 
abundant, but there are others coarser, and some of spinous growth. 

The trees appear to be chiefly Acacise of several species, of which 
A. giraffae (the Kameel doom)^ is one of the most widely dis- 
tributed; others are armed with formidable thorns. These occur also 
though sparingly, on the southern side of the Orange River ; and 
from their existence, from the abundance of Twa grass, the presence- 
of certain genera which do not occur further south and the absence 
of the composite shrubs, we may infer that this tract, known as- 
Bushmanland, belongs to the Kalahari Region. The much 
controverted point as to whether the Orange River forms the floral 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


boundary of the Colony, may now be regarded as decided in the 
negative.* The Olive of the Colony {01m verrucosa)^ also oocur& 
here, and a number of smaller shrubs as Capparis, 2jizyphus, 
Qxewia, Rhus, Tarchonanthus, Vangueria, Sudea, Royena, 
Lycium, &c. The Mesembryanthemums of the Cape, and other 
succulent Fiooidese, as also Crassulaoese, appear to be very scarce,, 
though not entirely absent. A species of Atriplex is regarded aa 
valuable for stock in Bechuanaland. As very little is generally 
known respecting the plants found in this Region, I will give the 
following list of genera mentioned by Burchell, who travelled be- 
yond Litakim, collected by Dr. Muskett near Hope Town, or 
found by myself near Kimberley and Barkly, in the south-eastern 
part of the Region : Clematis, Cissampelos, Sisymbrium, Helio- 
phila, Senebiera, Lepidium, Cleome, Cadaba, Capparis, Oligomeris, 
rolygala, Anacampseros, Talinum, Sida, Sphseralcea, Hibiscus, 
Melhania, Hermannia, Maherina, Qrewia, Corchorus, Triaspis, 
Celastrus, Zizyphus, Aitonia, Rhus, Crotalaria, Aigyrolobium, 
Psoralea, Indigofera, Bolusia, Sesbania, Vigna, Cassia, Bauhinia, 
Elephantorrhiza, Vahlia, Cotyledon, Myriophyllum, Terminaliay 
Combretum, Mesembiyanthemum, Tetragonia, Aizoon, Phar- 
naceum, Vangueria, Yemonia, Pteronia, Nidorella, Nolletia, 
Ohrysocoma, Tarchonanthus, Helichrysum, Geigeria, Pentzia, 
Senecio, Othonnopsis, Osteo^ermum, Wahlenbergia, Lobelia, 
Royena, Euclea, Menodora, Olea, Raphionacme, Pachypodnim, 
Gomphocarpus, Dsemia, Barrowia, Ceroperia, Sebsea, Chironia, 
Triohodesma, Heliotropiimi, Lithospermum, Ipomsea, Convolvulus, 
Evolvulus, Falkia, Solanum, Lycium, Aptosimum, Peliostomum^ 
Nemesia, Rhigozum, Pterodiscus, Harpagophytum, Sesamum^ 
Barleria, Justicia, Bouchea, Ocimimi, Salvia, Stachys, Leucas^ 
Boerhaavia, Celosia, Hermbstaedtia, Sericocoma, Atriplex, Salsola^ 
Oxygonum, Arthrosolen, Loranthus, Euphorbia, Croton, Fious, 
Salix, Lanaria, CyaneUa, Babiana, Gladiolus, Crinum, Brunsyigia, 
Buphane, Asparagus, Aloe, Bulbine, Eriospermum, Anthericum^ 
TSilbaffhia, Dipcadi, Omithogalimi, Cyperus, Andropogon, Anthis- 
tiria, Aristida. 

On the west coast near Walwich Bay is the very remarkable 
Wehcitschia mirabiHs, (Tumboa) of the Order Gnetacese ; and the 
singular Cucurbit, Acanthosicyos horrida, the fruit of which is used 
by the natives. 

Towards the eastern edge of the Region, including part of the 
Transvaal, and the Free State the Flora passes gradually over to that 
of the Tropical African Region, and is especially rich in tropical 
types in the neighbourhood of the well-lmown Magaliesbergen. 

♦ On this point I am indebted for valuable information to Mr. E.J. Dunn, and also 
to Dr. E. B. Muskett of Hope Town, who first pointed out to me that the statements 
on this subject of Burchell, usuaUy so accurate, were mistaken. 

Digitized by 



The oolleotions in the Transvaal have been eonsiderablo,. but I do 
not treat of them here chiefly because of their intermediate 

European Plants in the Cape Colony. 

The following remarks on the European plants found in the 
Cape Colony apply to all those parts of the several Regions I 
have visited ; but not to Kaffraria and Natal, which I do not 
know, except from the reports of others. I have already referred 
to the fact that such plants are seldom found at any con- 
siderable distance from human habitations, or from waysides. 
One may walk for a whole day over mountain-sides, or even plains, 
and scarcely see a European plant. On Table Mountain, which, 
as everyone knows, is close to Cape Town, the resort of Europeans 
for 200 years past, if the observer leaves the low vallies, where, up 
to 500 feet, the common species I have named above on page 296 
may be found* together with such plants as Verbena officinalis^ 
Verbascum virgatum^ Phytolacca decandra^ Sanicula Europaeay 
Hypochaeris glabra^ Anagallis arvemis, &c., he will find little or 
nothing beyond. In fact I can remember no plant at an elevation 
of 1,000 feet except Bartsia Trixago, and even that is by no means 
frequent. It is abnost the same on the plains when one has left 
houses and roads a few miles away, fiy some watercourse or 
stream, Epilobium hirsutum, Lyth)*um hyssopifolium^ Cotula carono- 
pifolia, or some other water-loving plants may be met with, but 
little else. Nor is the case different in other parts of the Colony 
and on the higher mountains. On the highest parts of Compass- 
berg (8,500 feet ?) and on the Winterhoeksberg (6,500 feet) I did 
not find a single European species, or indeed any foreign species. 
It is true the situation was there imf avourable for many plants, 
being steep, rocky and sometimes dry. Yet the first named has 
Slimmer thimderstorms and winter snows, and the latter regular 
winter rain and snow, and it might have been expected that some 
hardy alpine species could here have found a lodgment. On 
the lower mountains of the Eastern Region may be found 
Thalictrum minus, Agrimonia Eupatoria, Bartsia Trixago ; I can 
recoUect no others. On the Sneeuwberg mountains the first-named 
and Blitum vlrgatum. 

These facts seem to show that the arrival of the majority of the 
introduced foreign plants in South Africa is of comparatively recent 
date ; of the great bulk of them probably contemporaneous with 
that of civilized-man. 

The subject of European genera found within the Colony is a 
much wider one ; but I am imable to enter upon it here. 

* I have there omitted Erigerofi Canadefisey a common wayside weed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Speaking generally, and disregarding exceptions, the Flora of 
the Regions of South Africa is distinguished : — 

1. By its highly differentiated character, 

2. By its want of luxuriance of growth (but from this the 

Tropical Eegion must be excepted). 

3. By the narrow distribution area of each species. 

4. By the deficiency of trees. 

5. By the paucity of sociable plants. 

6. By its power to resist the aggression of foreign invaders. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The statistics of the Cape Colony are not as complete in some 
respects as could be desired. Since the census of 1875, there has 
heen no official enumeration of the population, agricultural indus- 
tries, or pastoral productions. But with regard to Revenue and 
Expenditure, the public Assets and Liabiuties, and the Trade 
transactions of the Colony, the returns available are most full and 
accurate, as will be seen from the appended tables. 

A computation has been made of the area and population of the 
Colony, mcluding Ghiqualand West, the Transkeian Territories 
and Gfriqualand East, and the results give a total area of 213,636*1 
square miles and a population of 1,252,347 persons, of whom 340,000 
are European or white, and the remainder coloured or native races. 

From the other statistics at our disposal, we present the follow- 
ing information as to the actual condition of the Colony, in a brief 
and succinct form : — 

Public Revenue (1884-85) :— 

From taxation £1,650,841 

For services rendered . . . . 1,351,799 

Income from Colonial estates . . 236,636 

Fines, forfeitures, interest, &c. . . 78,876 


Public expenditure (1884-5) £3,375,682 

Government Public Debt £20,41 7, 227 

Corporate Bodies Debt £1,264,935 

Valuation of fixed Property for rateable purposes . . £37,799,508 

Area of Crown Lands undisposed of 45,298,808 acres 

Extent of Railways opened 1,599 miles 

Do. Telegraph Lines 8,663 miles of wire 

Roads, Main and Divisional 8,400 miles 

Number of Vines in the Colony 70,000,000 vines 

Diamonds, production of (1884-5; 2,282,433} carats 

Do. declared value exported £2,553,671 

Wool exported 1885, quantity 34,432,662 lbs. 

Do. declared value £1,426,108 

Mohair exported 1885, quantity 6,261,301 lbs. 

Do. value £204,018 

Ostrich feathers exported 1886 251,084 lbs. 

Do. value £585,278 

Copper ore, exported 1885 . . . . . . . . 20,213 tons 

Do. value £395,675 

Hides, ox and cow, exported 1885 (number of ) .. 290,010 

Do. value .£128,915 

Skins (goat and sheep) exported 1885, number of . . 3,827,336 

Do. value of £295,840 

Tonnage of British vessels entered and cleared 1885 . . 5, 106,328 tons 
Do. of Foreign vessels 275,789 tons 

The commercial transactions of the Colony are shewn in detail 
in the accompanying Customs Trade Returns (Tables A and B), 
giving the quantity or value of the articles imported and entered 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


for consumption as well as the quantity and value of the articles 
of export. But to illustrate how materially these trade operations 
add to the commerce of Ghreat Britain, we present a return of the 
aggregate value of the imports and exports for the period from 
1880 to 1885 :— 

Exports, total value of, from 1880-85 45,852,234 

Imports, total value of, from 1880-85 44,473,151 

Total value of Imports and Exports, 1880-85 90,325,385 

Importsfromthe united Kingdom, 1880-85 34,336,687 

Do. from British Possessions do 5,696,352 

Do. from Foreign Countries do 3,444,112 

Exports to the United Kingdom, 1880-85 43,292,750 

Do. to British Possessions do. 821,110 

Do. to Foreign Countries do. 1,738,374 

The sources of Colonial Revenue are customs duty, excise duty, 
transfer duty, auction duty, succession duty, bank note duty, 
house duty, and stamps, licences, and office fees. Besides these, 
there are receipts from railways, telegraphs, post offices, lands and 
mines, forests, native hut-tax, tolls on bridges, &c. 

Although the Revenue for the last year shows a decline in 
sympathy with the prevailing general depression and shrinkage of 
business, the annexed comparative statement (prepared by the 
Hon. C. Abercrombie Smith, Controller and Auditor-General) of 
the ordinary revenue and expenditure from 1870 to 1885 (vide 
table E) demonstrates the remarkable financial prosperity which 
the Colony enjoyed during the greater part of that period. Begin- 
ning on the 1st January, 1870, with a balance deficit of over a 
million sterling, the excess of revenue over expenditure for a 
continnous number of years was such as to clear off the deficit, 
and leave a surplus of over half a million on the 30th June, 

The table C exhibits the various purposes to which the public 
Revenue has been applied from 1867 to 1885. In the Expenditure 
for the nine financi«d years, chargeable to ordinary revenue, it will 
be seen that £1,143,930 was disbursed for Native Affairs, including 
the education of natives, and £1,782,604 for internal Defence. 

The table D shows the various services for which the loans now 
constituting the public debt have been raised and appropriated, 
namely, railways, harbours, bridges, buildings, telegraphs, irriga- 
tion works, immigration, and suppression of native rebellion. 

With the exception of the last item — expenditure for native 
rebellion, chiefly in Basutoland, nearly the whole of the public 
debt of the Colony has been incurred on works, either of a directly 
reproductive and remunerative character or of permanent improve- 
ment, many of which are now contributing to a large extent 
towards the payment of interest, and most of them in course of 
time will become income-producing investments. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



to (« tiT 

So I •« 



s s I g I f s; t i I § § 




: S S 8. 
t* 35 lo 

t^ «o -^ 

i i 

• B i I I 

kT oT eg «* 
S5 S 




i 2 

8 S 





•H OS 

o « 

§ § i 
I i i 

00 « ©r 



f I ! I 1 I I 

So So So 


I - 

I I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 







. ^ 1 ' 1 







1882-83. 1 1883-4. 1884-6. 

Customs (includ- 







£ 1 £ £ 

ing Harbour Dues) 










Land Sales 










Land Revenue .. 










Rent (exclusive 
of Land) 
Transfer Dues... 



















Auction Dues . . . 










Succession Dues 










Taxes, House 














Stamps and 







Stamped Licences 




Bank Notes Duty 




















Excise Duty . 








Fines, Forfeitures, 


( 15673 
\ 5991 








& Fees of Court 

! 15113 

Fees of Office ... 









Sales of Govern- 
ment Property 
R eimbursements 

























' Miscellaneous 











Interest & Pre- 











Special Receipts 










Railway iieceipts 










Telegraph Receipts 
Revenue from 
Tiunskein Terri- 














d above 

Stores issued ... 
















3806638 2968629 !3818163 | 

Ekturn of the Total Imports and Exports of the Colony, and the Value of Imports from and 
Eyports to the United Kingdom, British Possessions and Foreign Countries during each of 
the last Six Years. 










Imports and Exports ... 














Utiited Kingdom. 
Imi)orts from 
Exports to 







British Posgeaaions. 
Imports from 
Exports to 







Foreign Countries. 
Imports from 
Exports to 



' 316,118 




NoTK. — Specie included in above Returns. 

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Eetubn of the Total Number and Tonnage of British and Foreign Shipping en4»red and 
cleared during each of the last six years. 












Inwakds : 






Outward : 













1 711 




























Rbtitrn of the Number of Immigrants introduced into the C!olony from Europe through the 
Agency of the Goyemment from the date of the establishment of the London Emigratiuu 





























August, 1878 to December Slst, »73 
































































































German AgriculturUts. 













A^o<«. -Ordinary or Government Immigrants consisted of A^culturists settled under the 
Regulations; skilled labourers for Railway and other Public Works; and Becruits for tibe 
«Cape Mounted Rifles and Cape Intantry Regiments. 

Aided Immigrants comprised the class of Domestic Servants, Artizans, &c., introduced by 
Employers in the Colony, 

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first 6 


Titles issued ... No. 
Extent alienated acres 
Purchase amount 

paid £ 

Annual quitrent 

payable ... £ 
Area of the 

Colony (a) ... acres 

Area undisposed of acres 


























a). Inclusive of East and West Oriqualand, exdusive of Tembuland and Transkei. 
b). Exclusive of Tembuland and Tnmskei. 

A. DE BTVrrnT, Surveyor-General. 














Port Elizabeth . . 



AHwal North . . 



Victoria West 



Herbert . . 





Mossel Bay 



Cradock . . 



Calvinia . . 






Tulbagh .. 


















Aberdeen . > 






Fort Beaufort . . 









Graaff-Reinet . . 



Hanover .. 



Queen's Town 



Barkly West 



King Wm*8. Town 






Beaufort West . . 



Barkly East 



Somerset . . 






Colesberg . . 









George . . 





















Caledon . . 















Cathcart .. 



Hope Town 



Knysna . . 


Prince Albert 



Stockenstroom . . 






Bathurst .. 











Victoria East 









Tarka . . 



Peddie . . 




Eomgha .. 



East London 



Simon* 8 Town . . 
Total .. 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 


£ 8. d. 

Agrionltural Implements, for every £100 value (1) 10 0* 

Ale and Beer, the gallon OlS* 

Bags for Flour, Qrain, Coal and Wool, for every £100 value ..1000* 

Boots and Shoes, viz : 

Hen*s the do^en pairs 080 

Women's do. 6 0* 

Boys' and Girls' do. 3 0- 

Children's do. 2 

Slippers and Gk>loshes do. 2 O' 

and for every £100 value 10 

Butter, including Butterine or any other substance in^ported for mixing 

with, or for use as Butter, the 100 lb 12 fr 

Candles, the lb 3 

Carriages, Carts, Waggons, and otiier wheeled vehicles, including 

wheelbarrows, for every £100 value ^2) 20 0- 

Axles, Springs and Lamps for Carts and Carriages, for every £100 value 10 

Cartridges, for every £100 full vahie 15 0- 

and for every lb. of Gunpowder therein 6 

Cement, per 400 lbs 16- 

Cheese, the 100 lb 16 8 

Chicory do. 16 8- 

Cider, the gallon 6* 

Cinnamon or Cassia, the lb 3- 

Cloves, the lb 3- 

Coals, Coke, and Patent Fuel, the ton of 2,000 lbs 10 

Cocoa and Chocolate, the 160 lbs 16 8 

Coffee, the 100 lbs 16 8 

Confectionery: Jams, Jellies, and Manufactured Sweets, not being 
medicated or properly classed as Apothecaryware, but including 
Sweetmeats of afl. sorts, and other articles with which sugar is 

largely compounded for preserving purposes (3), the 100 lbs. . . 16 8^ 

Corks and Bungs, for every £100 value 10 

Com and Grain, viz. : 

Barley, the 100 lbs 010 

Maize do. 10" 

Oats do. 10- 

Rye do. 1 O 

Wheat do. 10 

Dates 042* 

Dynamite, Blasting Powder, Blasting Compound, Gun Cotton, and 

Fuse, the lb. 6 

Flour, Wheaten and Wheaten Meal, the 100 lbs 3 6 

Fruits, Dried : Currants, Raisins, and Figs, the 100 lbs. . . . . 12 6 

Other Sorts do. .. . . 12 6 

Ginger, Dry, the lb 3- 

Preserved Chow Chow and other similar Preserves, the lb 4 

Gunpowder, the lb . . . . , . . . 6- 

Guns or Gun Barrels, the barrel 100 

Hops, for every £100 value 10 

Iron, Bar, Bolt and Rod, for every £100 value 1000 

Steel wSe ^^^ fencing, for every £100 value , . 10 a 

Lard, the 100 lbs 12 6 

Mace, the lb. . . 3 

Malt, for every £100 value 10 O 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


£ 8. d.. 

Marble, for every £100 Talue 10 

Matches : viz. : 

Wooden, in boxes or other packages containing not more than 100 

matches, the gross 4 0* 

In boxes or other packages containing more than 100 and not more 

than 200 matches, the gross 8 0- 

(And at the same rate for larger boxes) 

Wax Vestas and Fusees in boxes or other packages, containing up 

to 50 Vestas or Fusees, the g^ross 4 0' 

In boxes or other packages containing up to 100 Vestas or Fusees, 

the gross 080 

(Ajid at the same rate for every additional 50 Vestas or Fusees) 
Meat, Salted or Cured, and not in cases hermetically sealed, the 100 lbs. 8 4 
Metal Composition and Sheathing, for every £100 value . . ... 10 0* 

Mules, each 10 0- 

Nutmegs, the lb 003 

Nuts, all kinds, excepting Cocoa Nuts, the 100 lbs. (4) 8 4 

Oils, of all descriptions, including Mineral, imported in vessels contain- 
ing not less uian one Imperial Pint (Chemical, Essential, Perfumed, 
and Castor Oils, and Fish Oils in the raw state, the produce of 

Africa excepted), the Imperial gaUon (6) . . 10- 

Paddy, the 100 lbs - G- 

Pepper, the lb 3 

Pictures and Engravings, and Frames for same, for every £100 value (6) 15 0' 

Pimento, the lb. 3- 

Pistols or Pistol Barrels, each 10 (V 

Rattans, for every £100 value 15 0* 

Rice, the 100 lbs. (7) 4 2 

Rosin, for every £100 value 10 0- 

Salt, in Bulk or in BagB, or other packages of not less than 100 lb., the 

100 lb. (8) 3- 

Soap, Common, Brown, Blue, Yellow, or Mottled, not perfumed, the 

lOOlbs. (9) 4 2 

Soda Caustic, for every £100 value 10 0' 

Spirits or Strong Waters of all sorts, not sweetened, mixed, or perfumed, 
and not exceeding the strength of proof by Sykes' hydrometer, and 
so in proportion for any greater strength of proof, imported in 
bottles, each of not greater content than six to the Imperiid gallon, 
per dozen bottles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 

Spirits or Strong Waters, of all sorts, not sweetened, mixed, or perfumed, 
and not exceeding iJie strength of proof by Sykes' hydrometer, and 
so in proportion for any greater strength of proof, imported in 
bottles each of not greater content thsm twelve to the Imperial 

gallon, per dozen botUes 10 6* 

Spirits or Strong Waters, in bottles of greater capacity or content than 

the above, per Imperial gallon . . . . . . . . . , . . 10 

Spirits or Strong Waters, not in bottles, per rmx>erial gpallon . , . . 10 0' 
Spirits, sweetened or mixed, so that the degree of strength cannot be 
ascertained, imported in bottles, each of not greater content than 

six to the Imperial gallon, per dozen bottles (10) 14 

Spirits, do. do., imported in bottles, each of not greater content than 

twelve to the imperial gaUon, per dozen bottles 12 

Spirits do., do., not in bottle, the Imperial gallon . . . . 12 

Spirits, Perfumed, the Imperial gallon (1) 15 0- 

Sugar, Refined or Candy, the 100 lbs 084« 

Unrefined, do. (12) .. ..084 

Molasses, do. ..084- 

Staves, for every £100 value (13) 10 0- 

Tallow, the 100 lbs 4 2- 

Tamarinds, do . . . . . . . . 8 4- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


£ s. d. 

Tea, per lb . . . . .v 

Tin, viz. :— Plate or sheet, for every £100 value 10 (f 

Tobacco, not Manufactured, the lb. (14) Manufactured . . . . . . 10 

(not Cigars, or Snuff), the lb 2 ()• 

Cigars, the lb 4 () 

And for every £100 value 10 (► 

Cigarettes, the lb. (gross) 3 (^ 

Snuff, the lb 4 (^ 

Turmeric, the lb. . . . . . . . . . . . o 

Turpentine, the gaUou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (V 

Varnish, „ 3 (> 

Vinegar, y> • • . • • • • •>• 
Wine, in bottles each of not greater content than six to the Imperial 

gallon, per dozen bottles . . . . , . . . . . 12 

In bottles each of not greater content than twelve to the Imperial 

gallon, per dozen bottles .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. 06O 

In other bottles, or in wood, the Imperial gallon . . 5 

Wood, Unmanufactured, other than Teak, the cubic foot (15) . . . . 2 

Wood, other than Teak, planed or grooved, the cubic foot . . . . 0.'^ 

Teak, the cubic foot .. .. .. .. .. .. 004 

Goods not being enumerated or described, nor otlierwise charged with 
Duty, and not prohibited to be imported or used in the Colony of 

the Cape of Good Hope, for every £100 value . . . . . . lo 

Animals, Living, excepting Mules. 
Anchors and Chain Cables for ships' use. 
Bottles of Common Glass, imported full of Wine, Beer, or other liquid 

liable to Customs Duty. (16) 
Books, printed, not being Foreign Reprints of British Copyright Works. 

Bullion or Coin. 
Cotton in its raw st^e. 

Diamonds or other Gems in their rough state. 
Feathers, Ostrich, undressed. 

Flowers of Sulphur. (18) 
Fruit, green— including Cocoanuts. (19) 
Guano and other Manures. 
Hair, viz. : Angora.* 
Hides, viz. : Ox and Cow.* 
Horns, viz. : Ox and Cow.* 

Wild Animalfs. * 


Machinery, viz. : Agricultural, Mining and Sawing. (20) 
Maps and Charts. 
Printed Music. 
Oil, Fish, in a raw state. 
Or«, Copper and other.* 
Paper for Printing purposes. 
Prmters' and Bookbinders* Materials. 
Provisions or other Stores for H.M.'s Land and Sea Forces, when the Customs 

Duties shall not have been paid thereon. 
Railway Materials. (21) 
Seeds, Bulbs or Plants (Garden). (22) 
Sheep Dip. 

*Being the giowth and produce of Africa, and not manufactured, but in the raw atate. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Skins, viz. : Goat.* 
Wild Animals,* 

Specimens Illustrative of Natural History. 

Telegraph Materials. 

Wine imported or taken out of Bond for the use of military officers serving on 
full pay in this Colony, and also for the use of officers of Her Majesty's 
Navy serving on board any of Her Majesty's ships, subject, however to 
such regulations, as the Governor shall think lit to make : and, provided, 
that if any such wine ^hall be subsequently sold in this Colony, except 
for the use or consumption of any of Her Majesty's military or naval 
officers serving as aforesaid, the same shall be forfeited and be liable to 
seizure accordmgly. (23) 

Wool, viz.. Sheep's.* 

All Articles of liiClitary, Naval, or Volunteer Uniforms or Appointments imported 
by Imperial and Colonial Officers stationed in this Colony for their own use. 

Maize and other Farm Produce, the growth of St. John's River Territory. 

The following explanations shew in what way some of the terms in the tariff are 
interpreted in the Customs and Audit Offices. The items in the tariff to which the 
explanations refer are numbered ( ) and the corresponding explanations have the 
.same numbers prefixed. 

(1.) Includes ploughs, spades, hoes, sickles, scythes, rakes, harrows, &c. 
(2.) Includes bicycles, tricycles and perambulators, but not toys. 
(3.) On fruits preserved in their own juice without or with a very small pro- 
portion of sugar, a duty of 16 per cent, ad valorem is chargeable. 
(4.) Includes shelled almonds and ground nuts. 

(5.) If oil is imported in vessels of less than one Imperial pint, duty at the 

rate of 15 per cent, ad valorem is chargeable. Fish oil in a raw state 

appears to be exempt from duty, only when it is the produce of Africa. 

{6.) Includes every description, except photographs, which are free. 

(7.) Kice mixed with paddy is taken to consist of two -thirds rice and one- third 

(8.) On salt in packages of less than 100 lbs. each, duty at the rate of 15 per 

cent, ad valorem is chargeable. * 

(9.) Includes soft soap. Perfumed soap is chargeable with the duty of 16 per 
cent, ad valorem. 
(10.) Spirits, sweetened or mixed, include ginger brandy, punch, old torn, 

absinthe, kummel, bitters, cordials, liqueurs, Ac. 
(11.) Includes Eau de Cologne,pFlorida water, toilet vinegar, lavender water, &o. 
(12.) Does not include glucose and saccharum, which are chargeable with the 
duty of 15 per cent, ad valoi'em (Treasury Letter, 26th September, 1884.) 
(13.) Whether manufactured or unmanufactured, but not to include shooks, i,e.f 
casks not made up, but in bundles, composed of side and head staves 
and hoops. Head staves made into heads are liable to duty (Govern- 
ment Authority, 20th August, 1876.) 
(14.) Tobacco, unmanufactured, includes Boer tobacco in the roll. 
(15.) Wood unmanufactured, includes deals, logs, and any rough wood, not 

tongued and grooved, such as planks, and flooring boards. 
(16.) Bottles, if imported empty, are chargeable with the duty of 15 per cent. 

ad valorem. 
(17.) Does not include printed stationery for the use of schools. 
(18.) Does not include sulphur imported in the lump, or in sticks. 
(19.) Includes pine apples, bananas, oranges, &o. 
(20.) Does not include chaff-cutters and com shellers. 

(21.) Include rails, sleepers, fastenings, culvert tops, iron girders for bridg^ee, 
locomotives, ballast trucks, goods wagons, and carriages for railways, 
or tramways. 
(22.) Does not include bird, coriander, caraway seed, &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


(23.) Naval Officers are not entitled to wine free of duty when on shorff, 
except when stationed on fuU pay at the victualling yard, Simon's Town 
in which case they are to be treated as if serving on board ship. 
(Government Authority, 20th October, 1874.) 

On articles entered to be forwarded overland to either the Orange 
Free State or the South African Republic, a rebate is granted, m 
accordance with the regulations under Government Notice No. 759 of 
1 884 ; but all goods entered for rebate mut be conveyed to their 
•destination beyond the borders of the Colony through one of the 
inland ports appointed by the G-ovemor's Proclamation, and the mode 
^of conveyance shall be by railway as far as practicable. 

\ ^ 

FHnted by W. A, Michards ^ Sons, Government Printers^ Cape Toton, 

.Digitized by 






















046 52,391,796 
439 419,782 




* 2i 2i;441 
, \ 4,339 

9,% 436 








t 29,272 




AlJ 1,230,243 




ATI 629,093 




Ba^ 65,45i 
b3 1,121,904 







Cat 2,118,145 





J 1,328,656 









Co) 9,883,150 




Col 3,705,773 












1 484,932 

























































• 286,050 






































1 1,041,778 




' 10,009 













• 150,819 







, , 




















F. W. BU 








' le8 of Colonial Produce Exported. 







Copper C ^ 






Com, Or 

Cotton *,»«» 






Fish «ali 306,^90 











Fmit dr ^'042 






Sir Nil. 






Hrdes, S83'632 






Horns *^7,616 






Horeei l'-^*9 






j;^^"* 206,471 


253 128 









Skins. G*- ^'^^^ 






She N^^- 






Q^ 107,428 
















Wool, Sh 172,264 






»y uoi, on ^28 





























Value of *1^»775 







F. W. BURROWES, Collector. 


al Govtemment Articles (excluding Specie) Imported and Exported. 




Imports ' 
Exports 489,381 
* :ept. 















F. W. BURROWES, CoUector.- 



J 785 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Sa, ekargeable a gaingt ordinary Revenue. 





















8. d. 

9 5 

3 3 

10 3 






2 7 
14 9 

4 1 


16 4 

18 6 
4 6 
6 & 
8 10 

3 8 

19 10 
16 3 

4 11 
4 5 

19 4 

785 5 3 






















8. d, 
12 10 
3 5 
14 8 
14 8 
12 1 
14 11 



18 11 
16 6 
10 8 
3 5 
16 1 

1 2 

2 11 
13 6 
10 5 

3,636,288 9 
















8. d. 

8 11 
12 10 
11 2 
11 8 

2 5 
14 1 
17 9 

9 4 

£ 8. d. 
19,169 3 11 

131,752 19 7 
70,651 13 
81,875 1 
9,978 9 

107,413 11 

263,483 4 
66,696 1 
80,683 17 

631,472 16 

11 6 

6 2 

7 1 
13 10 
*8 11 
17 10 

12 2 
5 1 

10 8 


67,963 13 11 
191,486 2 3 

54,361 17 
127,843 8 

3,502,487 12 11 

41,481 16 

27,906 7 

54,479 19 

1,180,289 15 

3,375,682 1 6 

£ 8. 


159,513 5 


943,034 8 


615,945 18 


620,810 3 


113,946 4 


829,310 18 


1,556,356 14 

500,076 6 


660,712 19 


4,610,772 3 


34,622 1 


478,248 6 


1,659,956 10 


1,092.926 10 


1,143,930 8 


1,782,604 12 


127,677 11 


327,379 2 


177,531 17 


438,725 5 


6,241,884 2 


24,115,965 12 1 

C, ABERCaOMBIE SMITH, Controller and Auditor-General. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

•lonial Parliament. 






Total to 
3l8t June,^ 1885. 

e 8. d. 
,666 14 9 





£ 8. 

1,522,150 18 


£ 8. 

665,787 17 



£ 8. d. 
13,746,728 6 11 

,839 13 11 




46,611 3 


16,825 16 


502,189 18 3 

,398 6 9 




12,794 16 


11,933 15 


290,647 15 9 

,583 3 1 




533 11 

6,673 1 


416,144 10 5 

,044 6 8 




95,769 15 




213,289 14 9 

,288 16 6 




2,242 13 



165,097 18 I 

• • 



15,316 6 


3,059 19 


33,379 6 6 

,171 13 8 




6,349 18 


3,217 4 


85,872 5 

,840 3 8 




60,389 12 


32,401 4 


4,794,762 13 4 

,096 19 10 




—503 17 


—9,067 10 


310,662 19 3 




108,748 11 


51,978 12 


219,102 2 

1,870,897 8 


845,229 11 


—603 17 


—9,067 10 


,929 17 9 




1,870,393 11 



20,777,877 8 6 

iry Expenditure. 

0. ABERCROMBIE SMITH, Controller and Auditor- General. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 







25 d 27, CURTAIN ROAD d 18, HEWETT ST., 


Timber Merchants at the Knysrta and elsewhere at the Cape 
could create a large demand for 


&c., &c., 

By Shipping Seasoned Timber to above, who will manufacture 
same into Drawing, Dining, and Bed Room Suites, to dispose 
of either in London, or Ship to the Cape. 

Jlriti^fic ^furniture of evextj bc^cxiptxon xnabe 
^peciattt} to otanb <^oi gJCimafe^. 

^^_ ogK 

The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
1 Bxhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon & Co. 

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SK o -' — •SK 




F. PoRTBR, Chairman, F. W. Mills, E. Landsbbro, A. B. Marais, J. B. 

Marquard, G. Mtburgh, C. Poppb, J. F. Wight & D. D. Krynauw. 

F. FERGXTSSON, Secretary. 

WTho accept Marine Risks on behalf of the Company. 




CAPITAL - - - - £50,000. 


Hon'ble JOHN MILLER, M.L.C., Chairman. 



The COMPANY accepts Risks in Town and Country on Properties, Live-Stock, 
&c., upon favourable Terms. 

FRED. AYERS, Secretary. 







U.S. Flag Ship Brooklyn^ Cape Town, April, 1884.— Messrs. Gowanb & Baik having done work 
for U8 in their line during onr stay here, we take pleasure in testifying to the good fit, quality and 
taste of their work, and in recommending them to others who may need their services. — 
H. M. Martin, P.N. Surgeon Jno. M. Steele, P.O. Suigeon ; Thos. Sncwdsn, Ensign." 

The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon & Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


m^- — 

i Stence for idYertisera 

K(^I<I^S ^ixxn^ be^xxon^ of pfacing 

t^eiv ^ave^ pxoxnxxxexxUtf Before f^e 

'^wBCtc of §ouf^ Jlfrica ^^onCb fafte 
abvatxtaQC of f^e gtoCumn^ of f^e 

^^e #C&e0f §ngCi0^ 5>atCi? "g^aper puBCte^ed at 
t^e gape, §0iaBCt)^^e6 m i$^J. 

/]&// // /7 Gr/?/// Newspaper with a guaranteed bouse^to-bouse Circula- 
tion in Cape Town and its Suburbs of 30,000 Copies per Weeky and is 
also sent to all parts of Soutb Africa, It is tbe Family Organ of tbe 
Cape^ tbe Proprietors catering for tbe tastes of all. It contains tbe Latest 
Telegrapbic, Commercial and General Intelligence^ Local and General 
News, Original Stories, Poetry and Essays , Facetia, Housebold Recipes^ 
and selected Extracts from Englisb and American Papers, 

Jlcftnott>Ce&ge& B^ aCC to Be i^e mo^i Jlmu^ing, 
gn0irucfit)e anb gnfere^fing ^oxixf ^aper in 
f oui^ Jlfrica, anb te te^ued FREE io aii. 

Sln^lQ Column, 28. 6d, per Inch. Double Column, 58, One ln8ertlon. 
Standing Adverthement at Low Rate8, 

»•- •* 

The Ofticial Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cap« 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon A Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





Uudertahe the Selling and Purchasing 



B. & L. having always a large number of the Finest 

Properties in South Africa on their books, are in 

an exceptional position for enabling the Public 

to Purchase on favourable terms. 





Capital Subscribed and Paid Up £2B,000. 

Capital Paid Up, Accumulated and Invested .. .. £44,000. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS :— W. G. Anderson, Esq., Chairman, L. H. Goldbohhidt, Esq., 
J. L. M. Brown, Esq., J. A. Rbid, Esq., H. K. TREDOoiiD, Esq., L. J. Cauvin, Esq., W. Marsh, 

5sq., G. SiCHEi., Esq., H. Bkard, Esq. 

iITORS :— E. VAN Statbrbn, Esq. and E. G. Aspbuno, Esq. 

FIRE BRANCH:— For the Assurance of Immovable and Movable Property from Loss or 

Damage by Fire. Risks taken at Lowest Rates. Proposals considered and decided on forthwith. 
TRUST BRANCH :— For the Administration and Management of Estates and other Trusts as 
Executors, Trustees, Administrators, Guardians, or Agents. Terms Liberal.— Special 
arrangements if required. 


Agencies throughout the Colcmy^ Orange Free StcUe, and Transvaal, 




gEF TEIWIBEl^, 1838. 

.. £40,000. 

DIRECTORS .'—Paul de Villiers, Esq., Chairman; Charles T. Vos, Esq., 
. Vice-Chairman ; J. C. Hofmeyr^ Esq., R. Myburgh, Esq., J. C. Wbssels, Esq., 

F. J. B. Langbrman, Esq., J. H. Hopmeyr, Esq., W. S. Darter, Esq., 

I. P. H. van der Poel, Esq. 
A UDITORS:- S. V. Hofmeyr, Esq. and G. W. Steytler, Esq. 

Special Assurance according to the nature of the Risk. POLICIES GRATIS. 

«. J. DE KOCK, Secretary. 


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Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <St Co. 

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'^ ^O 1^C( I "Have you seen JOHNSON'S New Nurse- f% ^C^mm I T 
§Ji IV H V I ries?" Nobody should fail in doing so, most Uf |V H V I ' 
Xlv/k/JUk/ ■ particularly his Boses. Only fancy the J/i t/LjJTj^ ■ 
picture represented in one unbroken series of 
- ~- • tTej ■ ■ - ----- 

beds containing over 3,000 Choicest Tea and other Roses, whilst in bloom, each Plant varying in 
size from 2 to 6 ft. in height and "^^ ^\ ^ W^ O I as many through. From these 
over 20,000 Plants have been M I 1^ H ^ I propagated and will be sold in due 
Season at the exceptionally low JLl^/L/ JL^LJ ■ price, viz,, 12s. and 18s.perdoz. 
In conjunctiou with those and the unlimited quantity of Trees, 

Shrubs, Climbers, &c., on hand, particular attention is drawn to Johnson's renowned Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds, together with his unrivalled "The Upjohn Collection" of Cape Bulbs. 
Established 50 years. Catalogues Free. 


articular attention is draw: 
his unrivalled "The Upj 





©[^©/5\R0 ©IF 7K1^ [^®[^ir ARO© [g®[^[D)[E[^a 





The following ia an extract from the speech of tlie Hon. J. GORDON SPRIQQ on Nomination 
Day, February 7th, 1884 :— 
There was a time when East London was not the great town which it now was, but 
when they were earnestly praying that it might become so. It was now on the high 
road to becoming what he would almost venture to say would be the leading port in 
the Colony. They saw the great advantages that were derived already from the 
public works, which only needed supplementing with mechanical appliances to effect 
that great object, the opening of the mouth of ^e river ; and then they had not only 
the river, but they had a great back country with which the connections of the port 
must in due time be fully established. 

Note the above, and advertise in the "Dispatch/' the Or^an of the Port and Border. 

StTBSciiiPTiON — In Town, 26s.*per annum. In Country, SOs. per annum. ^ 

Terms fob Advbbtisements— 2s. 6d. per inch Single Column ; 4s. per inch Double Column. 

Standing Advertisements at from SOs. per quarter Double Column or 158. per quarter Single 










m •i 

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Exhibition Cornrnittee by Contractors, Saul Solomon & Co. 

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(Laie Jiianager, 

Seed Department, Botanic 

Garden, Cape Town), 


GOLD MEDAL Awarded, South African Exhibition, Fort Elizabeth, 

Dec, 1885, for Best Collection Cape Bulbs and Everlastings. 
VEGETABLE SEEDS.— ^ large Stock aiways on hand, 

FLOWER SEEDS.— ^ large AssoHmentfor all Seascms kept in Stock, 

TREE SEEDS.— 5^Me Gum, Hakea, CasuaHna, Carob Tree, dsc, dkc, 
CAPE BULBS.- 'In great variety, for Export during Months December to MarcK 
Collections made up for Mail Weekly, 






Shippers of every description of Cape Wines, 

Sherries, Madeiras, Hocks, Hermitage. 

Pontacs and Constantia Sweet Wines, 

also Brand 

of fine qual 


directed to 

at 1/- dut: 

White and 

Samples can be seen a^ 
our London Offices, 



]. Hoiradailr k Co., 150, LeadrDhail-st 

;he Largest Stock of Wines in the 
emises comprise a Whole Block. 




ANTWERP, 1885. 

.........AMSTERDAM, 1883. 



Successors to C. SCHMIETERLOEW & CO., 








TJie OfYiciai Handbook is Published, and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
EKhibitlon Committee by Contractors, Saul Solonaon di Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






^50USE, -f est;^™ -f ^-f ii}m -f j(mi%'^ 



Inrolljcd ^gxnt or th£ Magistratjcs* Courts. 

^ ^ <**^j^ 







■ H rr n ^^^ *^ draw the attention of the Public to their 
Up P U Large and WeU-Selected Stock of Real, Good, 

■I UIbIbII Wholesome colonial WINES, &c., noted 
for their excellence, made from the Pure Grape Juice and free from all impurities. 
Their extensive Stores in Somerset Road and Dixon Street hold a Stock of Wine of 
different Vintages and A BIR ORIRIT ^^^^^P^^^^^* ^ot only 
selected from the best llllll| N||nll -^^^™^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
superior quality of their rilVU wl 1 1 II I Wines, but prepared 
imder their own direction and supervision, and which, combined with the 
experience of Thirty Years in the Wine Trade, gives them an advantage which 
very few possess. In support of the asser- BflfRnil J| UTO 
tions thus set forth, they may be permitted to |1l| P U I H fl III I ^ 
mention that they hold the following Awards : llllBllUllrlH I U 

GOLD „ BORDEAUX „ 1883. 

SILVER „ PARIS „ 1878. 




BRANCH STORES ^— Long-street, Plein-street and Somerset Road, also Simon's 
Town, Wynbcrg, Claremont, Rondebosch, Woodstock and Kimberley. 


— H»M 

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Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <& Co. 

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Agent for the Celebrated Berlin Readingy Table and Hanging Lamps (with 
Mound Burners J, which received the Gold Medal at the Exhibition, 













O.A.PE3 TO"WBff. 







Everything required for a Complete OUTFIT will be foimd at this EstftbliHhment. 


The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon A Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The best Channel fob Communications with Bdybes and Consumers in 







FOR 78, A YEAR. 

" The Wynbbrg Times " enjoys a most valuable oirculation amongst Capitalists, Farmers, 
Merohante, ARrioultorists, Store and Shopkeepers, and the Residents generally throughout the 
Western, Midland and Eastern Provinces ; and is to be found in the Reading Rooms of Hotels, 
Libraries, Chambers of Commerce, Agricultural Societies, &c, in all parts of South Africa. 

" The Wtnbbbg Times " omits party discussions, but considers matters affecting viticulture, 
agriculture, arboriculture, trade and commerce of the country* and the moral and social condition 
of the people ; brings under the notice of its readers new inventions, improvements and novelties, 
and is so useful to every household, tiiat each copy is carefully filed for reference. As often as space 
permits, notices of labour saving machines and appliances, Recii>e8 for the kitchen and dining* 
room, and valuable items of information are published. 

" The Wykbebo Times " is a high-class Family Newspaper, from which objectionable matters 
are excluded ; it advocates well considered progress in all matters ot general interest to the 
well-being of residents of South Africa, and strives to elevate the Tillers of the Soil above their 
present standard. 



^fft^t^h ^a2:ettje fat th^ districts of ^etxtgo 
and Knijsna, ^nthtxtized Medium for the 
f ublicatian of iJimsianal and }^unii:jipal Council 

j^otices ftxt ^jeotge, Knijsna and ^nitxndnU. 




The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
a Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon & Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 














Engravers and Wholesale Stationers, 

mf^ >rowK. 


m^ •m 

The Official Handbook is Publishedt and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
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LONDON AGENTSr^^^^^ Mary Axe. 




■«^Jt^ DKfflI?©[^iIK ©IF -^s^ 

I0MINA. .•• ^LASS. .-. ^AMPS .-. AN» .•- ^ARTKENWAHE. 




30*&*31,* BREE* STREET. 






Wholesale Price Lists forwarded on application to 20, Darling Street, Cape Town. 

»• -•» 

Th© omcial Handbook is PubilisJaed. and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <§r Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 







E^TABXklgHHD 1858. 






(HE "ARGUS'' has been for many years 
recognized as the foremost advocate in the 
South African Press of Civil Liberty and 
Progress, combined with the maintenance of 
the Imperial connection. Special prominence is 
given in its columns to all matters bearing upon 
Commercial Interests. The WEEKLY EDI- 
TION has the widest general circulation of any 
Newspaper published on the African Continent, 
and is held in special favour by Farming and 
Mercantile Classes alike. 

—fi 1%^^— Wi»'i «- 

MUslier:— FRANCIS J. DORHEB, Whitehall, Cape Ton. 
Agents In London :— STREET ft CO., 30, Cornbill, E.C. 



The omeialHandbook is Published, and lUustpations Printed for Cap« 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon^<§r Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




U?bolesale and IJetail ©racers, Frouision Sealers, Wme au4 
Spirit aaerehants, ^c, ^c* 


Corner Of ADDERLEY STREET d STRAND STREET {Opposite the Railway Station), 


All Gtooda packed and deliyered frte of extra charge in Gape Town and Sabtirbs and to the 

Shipping in the Docks. 


Steam Blscnlt lannfactorers, 


Exhibit— South African Court, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886. 




— — — <«/e<^fI^>.st— > 

W. S. deals only in Teas and keeps in Stock a Choice Variety from China, India, 

Ceylon, &c. 

BLENDED TEAS to suit all tastes supplied in Parcels, Boxes and Half Chests. 

Country orders promptly despatched on receipt of remittance. 



122 & 124, SIR LO'WRY ROAD, 



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Exhibition Cemnaittee by Contractors, Saul Solomon A Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


I|^- : 



Wiman < Stjeamsl^ip < Comgang, 


JO and from ENGLAND and all SOUTH AFRICAN PORTS every 
' Fortnight, touching at MADEIRA, with calls at ST. HELENA 
and ASCENSION at stated intervals. 

EXTRA BOATS are . also despatched between the Mail Boats when 
occasion requires. 


The Departures are after arrival of each Steamer from ENGLAND. 

The Company's splendid Steamers have made the fastest Passages out 
and Home, and are well known for their excellent accommodation and 
unrivalled arrangements for the comfort of Passengers. 


Nome. Tonnage. H.F. Name. Tonnage. H.P. 

4339 S700\ GERMAN.. .. 3028 2650 

4669 i70o\ DURBAN.. .. 2874 2800 

3877 3700 | ANGLIAN . . 2245 1400 

3688 AAOOI ASIATIC. .. 2087 1100 

3491 Z7Q0\ DANUBE.. .. 2038 1200 

3554 3400 ROMAN .. .. 1850 1200 

3170 3000 AFRICAN .. 1250 


3199 3000 UNION .. .. 113 60 
3091 1800 \ CARNARVON .. 103 40 

Full particulars with regard to Freight or Passage may be obtained on 
application at the COMPANY'S AGENCIES in every Port in South and 
East Africa, and at all the principal Inland Towns. 


11, leadenhall-street, London. | Oriental-pl&ce, Soatbampton. 
Adderley-street, Gape Town. 

s*^ . ^ 

The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <ft Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




The Steamers of the Castle Mail Packets Company (Limited) 

ABB despatched AS FOLLOWS: — 

rrom London., via laitmouthj to Cajpe Town, Mossel 
Bay, Knysna, Algoa Bay, the K-owie, East London and 
Uatal, every alternate Wednesday ; and 

Prom Cape Town, via Plymouth, to London, every 
alternate Wednesday (calling at St. Helena, Ascension, 
Madeira and Lisbon, at stated intervals). 

In connection with the above, the Inter-Colonial 
Steamers of this line are Despatched regularlj from Cape 
Town, with Mails, Passengers and Cargo, as foUows :— 

To Mossel Bay^ Algoa Ba;^, East London and liTatal, 
once every fortnight, on arrival of the Mail Steamers 
from England. 

To Magoa Bay, Inhambane, Chiloane, Quilimane and 
Mozambique (connecting with the British In^a Com- 
pany's Steamers at Mozambique. taJdng Passengers and 
Car^ at through rates to and irom Zanzibar, Aden and 
Indian Ports), once every four weeks. . 

To Mauritius, once every four weeks. 

Por Freight or Passage apply to any of the Company's 
Agents, or to the Managers, 


3 & 4, Eenchurch-street, 



The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
8 Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <fc Co. 

Digitized by 









MONUMENTS, MABBLE & GRANITE, Erected on the Shortest Notice and on 

the most reasonable terms. 
HEADSTONES in Marble or Slate. GRANITE WORE & TOMB RAILINGS supplied. 
INSCRIPTIONS Cut in any Style. 



By Appointment to H. E. The Right Hon'ble Sir H. Q, R. ROBINSON, G.C.M.G, 

W. H. GRAY7^°^^2.".^r'"°^ 





Carruges Banght and Sold on Commusion. Bepain promptly and neatly exeouted. 

^ T. IP '^ 





ft« ^m 

The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon 6c Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 














i|p €ajip tms 

















The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by^Contractors, Saul Solomon A Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






























The "Advertiser" is the authorized Medium of all Grovemment Notices in 
the Province of 6ri(][ualand West, and is the recognised Organ of local public 
opinion, and of the Mining and Commercial Interest of the Diamond-Fields. 


Terms op Subscription : 20s. per Quarter. Postage paid for Daily Copies. 
Weekly Summary containing the whole of the Week's Colonial and Diamond-Fields 
News, 6s. per Quarter. 




The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <ft Co. 

Digitized by 











£30,000. I RESERVE FUND- - £3,000. 



GEO. BOTTOMLEY, Esq., Chairman. 

GEO. H. GOCHj^EsQ.^ M.L.A. | S. J. LANGE, Esq. (Lanob Bros & Co.) 

JAMES HAY. isQ. ('fRvniK & Co.) 
JOHN A. ROGER, Esq. (Wood & Co.) 



B. HAMPSON, Esq. (Hampson & Co.) 

The Company Undertakes :— The Raising of Loans ; the Investment of Capital; 
the Administration of Testate, Intestate, and Insolvent Estates or Companies ; the 
Agency and Management of affairs of persons resident or non-resident ; the Sale and 
Purchase of Shares, Mining Claims, Landed and other Properties ; the Collection of 
Bonds, Bills, Rents, Accounts, and all other kinds of Trust, Insurance and General 
Agency. This Company offers special advantages, particularly to persons leaving the 
Province, and to those who desire to have an Agent here, havine a CAPITAL and 
RESERVE FUND of £33,500, which is good security for the faithful performance of 
all matters entrusted to its care or Agency, and an important guard against ride of 











The most Fashionable Fabrics in Fancy Dress Goods and all Requisites 
FOR Wedding Outfits and the Ball Room. 






The Official Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Bxhibition Committee by .Contractors, Saul Solo»ion & Co. * 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






iozwcBA.3r A.Birz> ^xtz^z^a-odbeie:. 







„ MATHESON .. 8984 

„ MACINTOSH .. 8984 

„ MACARTHUR.. 8984 

„ GRANT . . . . 8546 

„ MACGREGOR.. 2956 

„ MACKENZIE .. 2954 

„ BUCHANAN .. 2938 









. 2197 

. 2171 

. 2106 

. 2094 

. 2092 

. 2091 

. 2091 

These Steamers, all constructed in excess of requirements for highest class at Lloyd's, are 
despatched as above at regular intervals. Saloons and State Rooms are on the Upper Deck, and 
are fitted with every requisite comfort in tropical as well as in cold climates. Full Particulars with 
regard to FREIGHT or PASSAGE may be obtained on application to 

c.A.^vzsxi, ixi'viNrx: ac Co., 

Leadenhall Buildings, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 
4, Albert Square, Manchester. 
40, Chapel Street, Liverpool. 
109, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

or to the following Agents, at 

Oape Totth, JAMCES SE^IM«H:T & Co. 

Mossel Bay, HUDSON, VBEEDE & CO. 
Kowie, C. A. BEZANT. 
East London, GEO. B. CHRISTIAN & CO. 
Mauritius, PIPON, ADAM & CO. 

Oaloutta. ) 

niSDLA^Y, m:xjir. &> Co. 


Tlie;.OfTicial Handbook is Published and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon & Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 










Sample Show Rooms: 





Innporter of Pure Drugs and 
Chemicals^ <&c. 






J. H. ROSE, 



OA.PE rro'WBir. 

• O " ' 








Marcus Ward & Co. (Ltd.) 
Wm. Barbour & Sons (Ltd^ 
The Belfast Ropework Co. (Ltd.) 


POTOSI SILVER The best and most perfect 
invention of the age. 

POTOSI SILVER Has all the good qualities of 
Silver, and is infinitely less 

POTOSI SILVER Being a Pure White Metali 
must of necessity retain its 
colour and wear white 
throughout I 

POTOSI SILVER Entirely supersedes the 
cheaper qnalitieB of Electro- 
Plate, which, having a very 
limited superficial coating of 
silver, soon assume an objec- 
tionable YXLLow appearance, 
which renders the article 
comparatively worthless. 

POTOSI SILVER Bears no colouring matter 

POTOSI SILVER The beautiful whiteness 
which it possesses is the 
natural colour of the metal I 

Letters and Telegrams should be addressed to the 







The Official Handbook is PublisJned and Illustrations Printed for Cape 
Exhibition Committee by Contractors^ Saul Solomon A Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Are reminded of the Undersigned's Address, where the Choicest 
and most Fashiondbh Materials for Gentlemen! s wear are to he 
seeny New Goods being constantly received, all of which are 
selected hy our Mr. W. D. CORN WELL, who is now in London, 


Samples and Forms of Self Measurement on application. 

CORNWELL & CO., merchant tailors, 







For Admmisterixig Properties and Estates as they may be lawfully appointed to, aa Exeoutors, 
Administrators, Tutors, Curators, Agents and Trustees in InsolTent Estates. 

jDiRscrroRS : 

E. LANDdBEBO, Esq., ChairmaB. 



F. POBTEB, Esq. | C. T. YOS, Esq. 

J. C. HOFMEYB and D. P. KBYNAUW, Bsqrs. 

Persons desirous of appointing them will be pleased to nominate and appoint them as " The 
Board of Direeton of the Colonial Orphan Chamber and Trust Company.** 

IS* The InsolTent Branch will be conducted by the Secretary, for whose Acts the Company will 
be responsible. 

For guaranteeing the himesty, integrity and fidelity of persons in situations of trust. 
The Directors meet every Thursday, at 10 o'clock, for Uie despatch of business. 

O. W. 8TETTLEB, Secretary. 

g|«— . 9\ 

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Bxhibition Committee by Contractors, Saul Solomon <& Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 










: — :o: 

Subscribed Capital, £250,000, with power to increase to Ji 5 00,000. 

Paid-Up Capital, £55,000. Reserve Fund, £10,000, 


W. Berg, Chairman. L. Wiener, M.L.A., Vice-Ouiirman. 

J. W. Attwell. H. C. van Breda. E. J. Earp. 

D. P. Krynauw. p. Marais. 

— :o; 

Medical Officer : Secretary : 

A. Abercromby, M.D. A. W. Brooke Smith. 




M ARINE.— Iiis^urances to or from all parts of the World, 
including PasseD gers^ Baggage, Live Stock, Cargo, 
Freight and Hulls. 

FIRE.— Insurances of every description throughout the 
Colony, Free State, Transvaal and Natal. 

TRANSIT.— Insurances on Merchandise, Diamonds, 
Feathers and Specie by Post, Rail and Road. 

ACCIDENT.— Insurances against Loss of Life and 
Limb. No Medical Examination required. 

Ko Extra Premium for Outdoor Amusements. 

Weekly Compensation for Disablement. 

£1,000 AT DEATH BY ACCIDENT FOR £1 15s. per Annum. 


























Ttie Official Handbook is Published ar d lUusirations P'inted for Cape 
Exhibition Corxinnii.iee by Ccnirfcciois, Saul Solonicn <i Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 







Established agreeably to an Ordinance of His Excellency 
the Governor in Council, 6th June, 183L . 



Hon. J. H. HoFMEYR, Esq., M.L.C. 


A. D. Krynauw, Esq. 

W. HiDDlNGH, Esq. 

P. J. KOTZE, Esq. 
F. Maskew, Esq. 
Hon. A. Ebden, Esq. 


H. C. Jarvis, Esq. 
W. Y. Eldridge, Esq. 
J. C. Wessels, Esq. 
J. SpENCE, Esq. 


R. C. Nelson, Esq. 
F. F. Rutherfoord, Esq. 
H. J..DE Wet, O.s.', Esq. 
A. H. Sinclair, Esq. 


\V. HiDDiNGH, C. \\^vtermeyer aild H. H. Marais, Esqs. 


S. V. Hofmeyr, Esq., Secretary. 

»T. P. de Wet,' Teller CasJdcr. ^ J. C. Gohl, Bookkeeper. 

W. A. ELi)RiDaJ8,'C7er^. . F. DE Villiers, Junior Cl^rk, 

C. Watermeyer, Esq. 
E. Landsberg, Esq. 
G. C. GlE, Esq. 

J. R. Marquard, Esq 

J. C. DB KORTE, Esq. 

Dr. J. P. Roux. 

I. P. H. V. D. PoEL, Esq. 
C* C. DE Villiers, Esq. 
H. H. Marais> Esq. 

H. Solomon, sen., Esq. 

L. '^lENER, Esq. 

C. A. Dickson Esq: 


Ths OfTicial Hs^ndbook is Publisbed and Illustration'^ Printed for Cape 
E^bibition Conqnr^itlee by ContraGiors^ Saul Solonfiotl & Co. 

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