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Full text of "History and progress of the county of Marion, West Virginia, from its earliest settlement by the whites, down to the present, together with biographical sketches of its most prominent citizens"

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Gc M. L. 






1833 02258 7304 





Earlikst Settlp:ment ry the Whites, do\Vx\ to 


CAL Sketches of its Most 
Prominent CiTizENri. 


Aided by Notes and Mc.tuoranda left by the late UICIIARD P. LOTT. 





1 X 







'JA^T'E have designed in the following })ages 
^ to relate in detail the principal events 
that have transpired in Marion county from 
its first settlement to the present. We are 
aware that the work has many imperfections, 
but they could not be helped. To write a 
history without having any authentic or w^rit- 
ten records to aid us, was almost akin to ''creat- 
ing something out of nothing." The early set- 
tlers of this section have all died, their children 
have, with a few exceptions, followed them; 
and many events of interest in connection with 
the early history have been lost in oblivion. 
We have endeavored to rescue as many as 
possible, however, and herewith present them. 
In giving the history of the county since its 
organization, we have aimed to incorporate 
only the princij^al events which have trans- 

4 Preface. 

pired, and which are worthy of being preserv- 
ed. This part of the book is necessarily writ- 
ten in a somewhat rambling manner, for 
reasons which tlie intelligent reader can plainly 

A considerable amount of the information 
connected with the formation of the county, and 
on down to the present has been gleaned from 
the memoranda loft by the late Richard P. 
Lott, whose purpose was to write a histor}" of 
the county during that period, having been 
solicited to do so by the undersigned. The 
hand of Death interrupted him, however, ere 
he could commence the work. 

In the narrative proper, we h.tx\o made but 
little reference to the political history of the 
county — this will be found largely in the bio- 
gra2)hical sketches annexed. They are mostly 
of the men who have taken the most promi- 
nent jmrts in the politics of the county. 

For much of the information re(-eived, we 
are indebted to Gov. F. II. Pieri)oint, 3Iessrs. 
Charles ]Morgaii. William Cochran, Robert P. 
Nixon, Zebulon Musgrove, George Merrill, 


Preface. 5 

Luther Haymond and others ; besides AYither's 
Border' Warfare, Doddridge's Xotes on Wes- 
tern Virginia, old liles of county newspapers, 

Hoping that this little volume will prove all 
that is expected of it, and thanking the public 
for their encouragement in the past, we are, 

Your O'bt Servant, 

G. A. D. 

Fairmont, Feb. 1, 1880. 

First Settlements, 




About the I,and Titles held by the Settlers, - - - 18 


The Characteristics and Hardships of the Early Settlers, - 22 

Commencement of the Indian Troubles — Forts established, etc. 2S 


Murder of Josiah Prickett — Continuation of Indian Atrocities — 

Murder of Miss Coon — Attack on Fort Harbert, - - 32 

Captain Booth killed— Capture of Captain Cochran— David 

Morgan's encounter with two Indians, - - - 39 

Horatio Morgan — Massacre of the Thomas Family, - - 48 

Continued Hostilities of the Savages — Attack on the Cunning- 
hams and Capture of Mrs. (unningliam, - - - 53 

A Boy's Adventure — The Indian's on BufTalo Creek— Levi 

Morgan's Adventure, - - - - - - 60 

'iiifZ •ijuu'i 


8 Contents. 

Murder of the Mclntires — End of Indian depredations, - 66 

Progress of Civilization from 1785 to 1S19. - - - 70 

The Towns of the County, - - - - - 73 


Organization of the County -The First Cuiut— The Jail— The 

Court House, etc. - - - - - - 78 

The Irish Riot— The Great Freshet— Cotnpletion of the rail- 
road— Suspension Bridge built, etc. - - - - 85 

The Churches and Schools of the County, - - - 95 

The First Steamboat— The Ranks of Marion County— Journal- 
ism in the County, -...-. 103 

The War of the Rebellion— Division of the State. - - 110 

The Mining Interests — The Fire at Fairmont — Marion Militia, 

etc. 116 


The Resources of the County— Its Politiral Cumplexion— Con- 
clusion, -------- 126 


Hon. William S. Morj;nn, Hon. Zedekiah Kidwell, Hon. Francis 
H. Pierpoint, Col. Thomas S. Ilaymond, Hon. 15 F. Martin, 
Hon. A. Brooks Flen\ing, John W. McCoy, Esi| , Hon. J. 
C. Bceson, Hon. U. N. Arnott, Judf,^' A. F, Haymoii<l, 
James Morrow. Jr., E.-(|., Robert H. Lett, ICsq , Ricbard P. 
Lott, Esfj.. Fontain Smith, Ei.4., Albert S. Huyden, Escj., 
C. M. Davison, Esci. Other Promineut Men, - - 134 


County of Marion 



T tlic time wlien thip sccticni of Virginia wiis 
lirst known to the whites, it was occupied hy a 
trihf of Indians known as tlie Maf<sawonie(^s. As set- 
th'Mients were extended westward and over thr inoun- 
tains, the Massawoniees g:radnally retired until the 
country between tlie AUeghenies and the Ohio river 
was almost entirely unused by them as a regular place 
of h:ibitatii)n. There soon remained but few Indian 
villages, and those that did contained but small 
numbers of inhabitants. What is now thf Stiite of 
West N'irginia, however, was usi>d us a hunting giound 
by the savages, anil as a battle ground by eont<'nding 

in many parts of Clarion and adjoining countu;s 
evidences of a }>reinstoric people are found. Imple- 

10 History of >rAR[ON County. 

ments of war, crockery, and curiously shaped instru- 
ments of various kinds are occasionally pLjwed up in 
the fields, and, in short, the signs are upon every side 
that some of the race of semi-civilized people, who in- 
habited this country ages before its discovery, dAvelt 
in this immcKliato vicinity. Some years ago, some 
workmen, in preparing to build a bridge which spans 
Paw PaAV creek, at the upper end of tlie village of 
Rivesville, unearthed three skeletons, wliich were 
those of giants, each measuring over seven feet in 
length. Upon " Fort Hill,"' about two miles nortli of 
Fairmont, were found traces of an aboriginal fort. 
Along the l)ank of the Monongaliela, and run- 
ning through Palatine, wlien^ the eartli has been 
washed away by fresliets, can be setui traces of an (jld 
McAdamized road. It is some feet below the surface 
and can hn traced for quite a distance. The l>ed of 
the road seems to vary from ten to fourteen inches in 
thickness, and tlie stone is broken with great regu- 
larity. The earth al)ove the )>cd is black and pre- 
sents somewhat the appearance of an alluvial deposit. 
It is very probable that this deposit formed the bed 
of what we now call a M(?Adamized road, at some 
former period of the world. Since the settlement of 
the county, skeh.'tons have been found at various 
times in the vicinity of Poothsvillc and otiier towns. 
Traces of tlie Massawomees are also found in many 
places. For instance, a mile b<>low IJivesvillc near 

HtsTOKV OF Marion County. 11 

the Mor^'autowu and Fairmont pike, upon the farm 
of Mr. Wm. Arnett, there is a very interesting relic 
in the shape of a large rock, upon whicli is roughly 
cut a picture of an Indian leading a bear. Kepresen- 
tations of turkey and bear tracks, and other figures 
are also upon the rock. About twenty-five years ago 
a large wild cherry tree was by a storm torn up by the 
roots, leaving tliis rock with its inscription exposed 
ti> view. < )tlier interesting relics may also be found 
in the county. 

After tlie ^[assawoiuees retired from the country 
lying between thi^ mountains and the Ohio river, tlie 
sole permanent inhabitants of that region were the 
boasts and birds of tlie forests, until the white settle- 
ments were made. During the winter the Buli'alo 
would had their way into Kentudk\', and live among 
the cane-brakes to be found there. As spring ap- 
j»roached they woidd again seek our luxuriant pas- 
tures, where they, witii the abundance of other game, 
would full victims of the savages from Pennsylvania 
and tire countr}' west of the Ohio, who came here in 
• [Uest of food. As the various tribes who made this a 
hunting ground were at constant enmity, tiie fact that 
they all claimed the territory was sufficient to make 
it a field of contention; consequently, it was often 
made tin- scene of carnage and bloodshetl. 

rp to the year 17;>8 all that part of ^'irginia west 
uf the l>lue liidt'e mountains was included in the 

12 History ok Maiuon County. 

county of Orange. At tlie fall session of the Colonial 
Legislature, in the above year, the counties of Freder- 
ick and Augusta were foi'med out of Orange. Fred- 
erick county was bounded on the north b}- the iVjto- 
mac river, on the east by the Blue IJidge, and on the 
south and west by aline drawn from the head spring 
of Hedgenian's to the licad spring of the Potonuic. 
Augusta county consisted of all the remainder of the 
State west of the J]lue Ridge, and within the limits 
were included much of Virginia and West A'irginia 
as they now are, and the territories embraced in Ohio, 
Indiana and parts of Western i'ennsylvania, Michi- 
gan, Illinois and Kentucky. Nearly forty vears after- 
wards, in 177C), the counties of Ohio, Monongalia and 
Youghiogania were formed out of the distrie-t of West 
Augusta, and at the same time the boundary between 
Augusta county and the district of West Augusta 
was fixed as follows: "Beginning on the Allegheny 
mountains, between the heads (»f Potomac, Cheat and 
Greenbrier rivers; thence along the Ividge which di- 
vides the waters of C'heat river from those of (Jieeu- 
brier, and that branch of the Monongahela called Ty- 
gart's Valley river to the Monongahela: thence up 
the said river, and the West Fork thereof to Binga- 
nion's creek, on the northwest side of said West Fork; 
thence up the said creek to the head thereof: thence 
in direct course to the head of Middle island creek, a 
branch of the Ohio; and tiience to the Ohio, iuclud- 

HisTOKY OK Marion County. 1-^ 

ing all the waters of the said creek in the aforesaid 
district of West Augusta — all that territory lying to 
the northward of the aforesaid boundary, and to the 
westward of the States of Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, shall be deemed, and is hereby declared to be 
within the district of West Augusta." 

And to render the benefits of government and the 
administration of justice more easy and convenient to 
the people, this act formed out of West Augusta the 
three counties above mentioned. Several years after- 
wards, tiie greater part of Youghiogania county, by the 
ext<;nsion of the western boundary between IVnnsyl- 
vania and Virginia, fell within the limits of the form- 
er State. The residue was, by an act of 1785, added 
to tlie county of Ohio, and Youghiogania became 
extinct. All that part of the district of West Au- 
gusta lying to the northward of the county of Augusta, 
to the westward of the meridian of the head fountain 
of thf I'otomac, to the southward of the county of 
Youghiogania, and to tlie eastward of Ohio t-ounty, was 
comprised in the limits of Monongalia county. In 
17>!4 Harrison county was formed out of Monongalia 
and West Augusta. As Clarion county, nearly seventy 
years afterwards, was taken from the counties of Mon- 
ongalia and Harrison, we will give an account of the 
early settlement of the territory in the two latter, 
now comprising the former. 



DT^X the beginning of the foregoing chapter mention 
(^ was made of the Indians who occupied Western 
Virginia previous to the coming of the whites, and of 
their abandonment of the country as a pLace of resi- 
dence. When, in 17-')4, David Tygart and a Mr. Files 
made the first attempt to settle this section of the 
State, the only Indians to be found composed the (jc- 
casional hunting or war parties from the north and 
west. The two gentlemen named were probably the 
first white men who ever built cabins in Virginia 
west of the Allegheny mountains. Files settled at 
the mouth of the creek whicli now bears his name — 
where the town of lieverly now is — and Tygart settled 
a few miles further up tlie river, (winch has since 
been called Tygart's Valley river,) in wiiat is known 
as Tygart's Vallc}-. They st)on determined to aban- 
don their settlements on aci-ount of the hostility of 
the Indians, and the ditllculty experienced in obtain- 
ing breadstutVs for their families. Before they were 
enabled to earrv out their determination th(> family 

History of Marion Cointy. 15 

of Files fell victim? to savage (>ruelty A strolling 
party of Indians fell upon them and massacred them 
all save one — -a hoy — who escaped and warned theTy- 
gart's of the danger in time for them to save them- 
selves by flight. 

Not long after this a settlement was made on Cheat 
river, a few miles east of where stands ]\Ioi-gantown, 
by a party of Dunkards, comprising Dr. Thomas Eck- 
erly and his two brothers. Dunkard's creek owes its 
n;ime to the circumstances of their having camped at 
its mouth while they were engaged in (exploring the 
vicinity for a suitable place to settle. They finally 
located in Dunkard's bottom, wliich lies on Cheat. 
They spent some years there unmolested l)y the In- 
dians, although a bloody war was then waging. Tlu- 
Doctor left Cheat once to visit a trading post on the 
Slicnandoah, to procure ammunition and other ncediMl 
supplies. Hi.s story that he had lived on Cheat so 
long unmolested by the Indians, seemed so improba- 
ble to the people on the Shenandoah that they ac- 
cused him of telling an untruth, and suspicioned him 
of being a confederate of the enemy. Ho was a<-coi-d- 
ingly arrested and placed in confinement. In vain 
did he declare that he had n(n'er even seen a savage 
during his sojourn in Dunkard's bottom. He tin;dly 
retpiested that a guard be sent with him to his little 
?ettlen)ent, that he might be able to prove the truth of 
his statements. His re(]uest was complicMl with, and 

16 History of Marion County. 

upon arriving at the spot, only a heap of ruins were 
found where had stood the cabin, and the mutilated 
bodies of his brothers were lying upon th^ ground. 
Thus his story that they were not confederates of the 
Indians was awfully confirmed. 

In the fall of 1758 Thomas Decker and others com- 
menced a settlement on the Monongahela river, at the 
mouth of the creek since called by his name, but in 
the spring following it was broken up by a war party 
of Delawares and Mingoes. 

These were the only attempts to effect settlements 
upon the Monongahela or its branches prior to the 
French and Indian war, and it was not until the year 
1772 that any permanent settlements were made. 

About the year 1772 settlements were made upon 
the upper branches of the Monongahela river. Cap- 
tain James Booth and Mr. John Thomas established 
themselves upon what is now known as Booth's creek, 
near the i)resent town of Booths ville, this county. 
Captain Booth settled at the place known as the "old 
Jesse Martin farm," and Mr. Thomas on the "old 
William Martin place." Withers, in speaking of this 
latter farm, in lS:n,said: "It is perhaps the most 
valuable landed estate in Northwestern Virginia."^!= • 
About this time David Morgan, afterwards cimsj-icu- 
ous for his personal daring and prowess, during the 
hostilities^of the Indians, established himself upon 

*" Bonlor Wnrfnre "— page 'J.;. " 

History of Makion County. 17 

tlie Monougalielu about five miles ht-low Fairmont, 
near the month of Prieketfs ereek. Amunt!; other 
emigrants settling hero al)ont this time, were tlie 
I'rieketts, Ice^, Halls, Coclirans, llavcs, Cunninghams, 
Hartleys, Barns. Haymonds, Flemings. Springers and 
many others, whose descendants now eomiirise the 
greater ])art of the |)<»j)ulation of Mtii'ion county. A 
great number of them eaiu(? from tin' then colonies i»f 
Maryland, Virginia and Delaware, crossing the nuMin- 
tains by a route called Jlradduck's trail. 

NoTK. — In a burying ground at IJarracksville is the 
grave of the first white child ever burn west of the 
Allegheny mountains. His name was Adam Ice, and 
he was bcn-n in 17G7, at Ice's ferry, on Cheat, a short 
time previous to the removal of the Ice family to the 
."Hettloments here, and died in IS-ll. 



y^\F course, the tnaiu object of the early settlors in 
^t)^ coming into this region was to procure for theni- 
:<elves and families homes, for land could be secured 
upon easy terms. Bnilding a cabin and raising acroj) 
of grain entitled the occupant to four hundred acres 
of land and a ])re-cmi)ti(»n right to one thousand or 
more adjoining, to be secured by a hnul ollico warrant. 
At first there was a kind of land title, denominated 
the " tomahawk right." This was made by deaden- 
ing a few trees upon tiie premises, and marking the 
bark of one of them with the initials of the i>erson 
making the improvement. A narration of tlie cir- 
cumstances under which these land titles were lield 
by the settlers, is here in order. 

In the year 1754 (h»vernor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, 
issued a prt)clamation by authority of his council, 
authorizing a fort to be built at the continence of tiu; 
Monongahela and Allegheny rivers (Fort Duqucsne.) 
to opjjose the encroaclirnents of the French and tiieir 

History of Marion County, It) 

Imliiin alliei:^, and for tlie protection of his majesty's 
subjects in liis colony — providing for sufficient mili- 
tary force to protect the same. In order to encourage 
volunteers to enter the military service, he set apart 
•iOOjOCK") acres of land above tlieir pay -100,000 acres 
contiguous to the fort, and the other 100,000 acres on. 
or near the Ohio river — to be laid oif and granted to 
such persons " who by thidr v(jluntary engagements 
and good bel\avior in said service shall deserve the 
same." Tiie said lands were to be free of (piit rents 
for the t(M-m of fifteen years. 

After the conclusion of tlie French and Indian war, 
in ITH's Dr. Franklin, with a number of associates, 
petitioned the king of England for a grant of that 
territory lying west of the water slieds of the Alle- 
gheny mountains and south of tlie Ohio river, extend- 
ing southwest along the Ohio to the mouth of tlie l>ig 
San<ly, and up the same to the water sheds of the Alle- 
glienies. (ieorge the Third refused the petition on tlie 
grounds of luiving retained that territory for hunt- 
ing grounds for the friendly Indians, in consideration 
of their valualde services, and issued his proclamation 
granting the erection of tlie governments of (Quebec, 
Ka.>^t Idorida, West Florida and (rranada.='= The colony 
of (Quebec lay nortiieast of New York and New Eng- 
land : l']ast Idoritla constituted what is now tlie east- 
ren part of the State of Florida; West Florida extended 

•Set- llciiiiiiiK'sSiatules— .Vi.pen.lix t.. vol. 7. 

20 Hl><T()RY OF MAfiiON C(»rNTV. 

from the Aiialarhacola river, along tlic ( Julf of Mexico, 
westward to T>akr Poiitchartrai)i, and tlionce north- 
ward to r.ake Mauripas and tln^ Mississij^pi rivor to 
31° north hititndo ; thence dnc east on the line of this 
latitude t(^ the Apalachacola river. 

It will be -seen that none of these grants include 
any territory west of the ^li.ssissippi river, nor 
of the Allegheny n^nintains, except that region east 
of the Mississip])i and helow the thirty-first degree of 
north latitude, wliich conij)rises small portions of the 
States of F.ouisiana, .Missis>ippi, Alahama and Florida. 
In this proclamation (n-orge the Third forbids any of 
the new colonies from gi-anting any warrants of sur- 
veys or patents for any lands beyond the boundaries of 
their respective governments as described. Also, no 
governoi' or comnian<ler-ia-chief of any of our other 
colonies or plantations in America do presunui for the 
present, and until our furtiier pleasure be known, t<> 
grant warrants of surveys, or pass patents for anv 
lands beyond the heads or sources of any rivers which 
fall into the Atlantic ocean from the west, northwest, 
or up<jn any lands whatever, which not having been 
ceded to or purchas(Ml by us, as aforesaid, .are reserved 
lo the said Indians, or any of them. 

It will be seen that tlu'rc; is a conlliet betwe<'n the 
proclamation of (iovernor Dinwiddle and that of the 
King. The (iovernor [)romises liOU,(XX> aen-s adjacent 
to Pittsburgh. These lands, with a large amount of 

History of Marion County. 21 

others, were settled in West Virginia immediately 
thereafter. The Revolutionary war came on soon af- 
terwards. The lands of the settlers were held under 
different rights, and the Legislature of Virginia, in 
order to settle all these titles, and to secure the set- 
tlers, passed the act of 1779, in which they recognized 
both proclamations, and gave no validity to that of 
the King. By this act of the Virginia Legislature, 
the previously uncertain titles of the lands settled 
here were made good, and the titles of many of the 
estates in Marion and adjoining counties are held un- 
der this law. 



tS soon as it wus known east that this field of 
. ^^ wealth hiy west of tht^ mountains, that " the 
land could lie had for the takin>; uii." and that settle- 
ments had heen comnienced here, hundreds lioeked in 
from dillerent parts of I'^astt-i-n N'irginia and Mary- 
land. The spii-it of emigration began to develop it- 
self, and the motives which have .^inee induced the 
peopling of our far West prompted the adventurer to 
overcome his youthful attachments, and wend his wav 
into this dreary waste to assist in tin? foundation of 
what is now a i)owerful and j)rogressive State. As 
has been wtdl said, "former homes, encircled by the 
comforts of civilization, endeared by tiie gratel'ul re- 
collections of by-g(tne <lays, and not unfr(.'4uently as 
the spot where their tenants had first inhaled the 
vital fluid, were readily exchanged for the variety of 
untried being, the new seenes and changes which 
were to be passed bt;forc the trees of tin; forest could 
be supplanted by the fruits of the field, or society be 

lIisTOKv OF ^Fahion CorxTV. 2;') 

reared in the solitude of the desert." With the same 
cheerfulness, hardihood, and adventurous davin» that 
characterized the pioneers years before in the layin» 
of the corner stone of this vast empire, these brave 
men and women faced the hardships and dangers that 
presented themselves, and surmounted them all in a 
comparatively l)rief space of time. It was a natural 
consequence of their situation that their morals should 
suffer, and that their manners should become rough 
and uncouth. This lias been the state of things in all 
new colonies. 

Some of the early settlers, according to Doddridge, 
took the precaution to come over the mountains in 
the spring, to raise a crop of corn, leaving their fami- 
lies behind, and then return and bring them out inthe 
fall. Others, whose families wer(^ not large, brought 
their wives and cliildrcn witli them in the spring. 
Sometimes, those wlio took the latter course would 
suffer for it, for the Indian meal they brought over 
the mountains with them would b(^ expendcul too soon, 
and they were obliged to live without bread until the 
corn was ready to pull. Venison and the breast of the 
wild turkey then served them as a substitute for bread, 
and the tlesh of the bear was denoujinated meat. Kut 
this was a hard way to live — it did not satisfy the 
cravings of the stomach, " which seemed to be always 
empty, and tormented with a sense of hunger.''— 
" Light" bread was a luxury th<'y seldom indulged in 

■24 History of Marion Couxty. 

or could get hold of, as was also butter. The venera- 
ble VV^iUiam llaymond, in a letter to Luther Hay- 
mond, in 18i2, referring to the manners of living of 
the early settlers, as he remembered them, said •''" I 
remember brother John and myself went to Ruble's 
mill, in Pennsylvania, distant eleven miles, and re- 
mained all night. Next morning, when we were on 
our horses to start for home, Ruble, or some other per- 
son, brought each of us a piece of light bread spread 
with butter. This I thought such a great feast that I 
have it in my mind to this day." 

Of course, in these primitive times there were no 
carpenters, tailors, cabinet-makers, shoemakers, wea- 
vers, or any of the tradesmen who are now considered 
indispensable to a community. Every familv was 
under the necessity of doing everything for 'itself. 
Hand-mills were used in most <,f the houses, with 
which each family grouud its own corn. Their cloth- 
ing was all of domestic manufacture. Linsey was the 
most substantial cloth they <:.n.l.l make, and the wo- 
men did the weaving. Every family t.nned its own 
leather, made its own shoes and manufactured its 
own clothing. In short, these were the days of bridle- 
ways, pack-saddles, rope-bri.lles, tread-mills, wooden 
plows, and Hails. Ahnost every house contained a 
loom and a spinning wheel. All the women k.iew 
ii..w to knit, spiu, weave and sew, and with rare 
ceptions, they all wore narro^v-skirted flannel dresse^ 


History of Marion County. 25 

The men were usually habited in doer or coon-skin 
caps, red flannel jackets or hunting shirts, blue linsey 
breeches and moccasins. They knew nothing of our 
present McAdamized roads and elegant mud-pikes, 
neither had they any conception of the luxury of a 
cushioned saddle, a leather bridle, a nice buggy or a 
tine carriage; or the iron plow, threshing machine, 
reaper or steam mill. The nearest place where sup- 
plies could be procured was east of the mountains, and 
it was often that the barest necessities of life were 
^uf}e^ed for when extremely heavy snows or freshets 
prevented any communication between the settle- 
ments and the stores. 

As stated in the beginning of this chapt(>r, the 
manners of society were very rude in those days. As 
an illustration of this, it may be in place to give 
an account of how a marriage was conducted. As a 
general rule the settlers married quite young, and, 
with very rare exceptions, their's were real " love 
matches." On this account their marriagfS proved 
mostly happy ones. The whole neighborhood would 
turn out en to a wedding, and considering tlie 
fact that a marriage celebration was about the only 
gathering " which was not accompanied with the la- 
bor of reaping, building a cabin, or planning some 
scout or campaign," this is not surprising. The cere- 
mony u.sually took place before dinner, which wa.s a 
substantial feast of beef, pork, venison and bear meat, 

26 ItisTORY OF Mariox CorxTv. 

potatoes, cabbage and other kinds of vegetables. The 
tables would perhaps bo e(instruet(>d of a large slab of 
timber, hewed out with a broad-axe, supj)orted by four 
sticks set in augur holes, and its furniture would con- 
sist of pewter dishes, wooden bowls and trenchers. 
The spoons were of pewter and often much battered. 
If knives were scarce, the scalping knives were 
brought from their sheathes and used to supplv the 
deficiency. After dinner the dancing would com- 
mence and last until the next morning, while occa- 
sionally the jug would be passed around among the 
com])any. The figures of the dances were three and 
four handed reels, or scjuare sets and jigs. The mazy 
waltz, the enchanting j)olka, or the enlivening schot- 
tische they knew nothing of. About nine or ten 
o'clock a dej)utation of young ladies would steal oft 
the bride and put her to bed. The l)iidal chamber was 
usually in the loft of tiie cal)in, and was reached by a 
ladder instead of a pair of stairs. The floor of the loft 
or chamber above was g^>n('rally made of cla{)-boards 
loosely laid down and without luiils. The hulder 
leading upstairs was hidd<'n from- view, being in a 
corner of the room, curtain(^d otf with huiiting shirts, 
petticoats and otluu- clothing, so tin' exit of the bride 
was unnoticed. After this a d(>putation of young men 
in like manner made way with the groom, whom they 
would place beside iiis bride, and the dauee would 

History of ^Marion County. 27 

It'soat;^ were scarce, it was cii.>^tomary, and consid- 
ered the height of u-aUanti'v, for the young men to 
otter their hijjs to the young hidie.s, and the girls ac- 
<'epted the proffered seats with i)erfect propriety. Oc- 
casionally during the niglit, tlie bottle would be sent 
up the ladder to the i'ou])le in the loft, and it would 
often be accompanied with i-efi'cshments of other 
kinds, such as bread, beef, pork and cabbage. The 
feasting and dancing would last for several days, un- 
til tlic company, from sheer exhaustion, would return 
to their honit-s to rest. 

Such was the rude state of society in Marion county 
a hundred years ago. 



jm^OR a period of neaiiy ten years after the close of 
,:ii;§. tlie French and Indian war in 1765, and pre- 
vious to 1774, thei-e were no outbreaks among the 
Indians of Northwestern Virginia, and the settlers 
were free from tlieir depredations. This state of 
things would have doubtless continued had it not 
been for the unprovoked murder of three Indians by 
John Ryan, on the Ohio, Monongahela and Cheat 
rivers, at different periods during these years. The 
first of Ryan's victims was a chief of some distinction, 
known as Captain Peter, and the others were warriors 
on friendly terms with the whites. Several Indians 
were likewise killed in the vicinity by other settlers, 
while they were upon friendly visits. 

Bald Eagle was an Indian on very friendly terms 
with the whites in this vicinity, and was in the habit 
of associating with them. While on one of his friendly 
visits to the white settlements, he was waylaid by 
three men, .Jacob Scott, William Hacker and Elijah 

History of Marion County. 29 

Runner, and murdered in cold blood. Their wanton 
thirst for Indian blood thus gratified, they seated the 
b(xly in the stern of a canoe and set it afloat in the 
Monongahela river, after thrusting in the mouth of 
the dead warrior a piece of *' journey cake." Several 
persons noticed the canoe and its ghastly burden de- 
scending the river, but supposed he was merely re- 
turning from a visit to his Avhite friends at the settle- 
ments at the head of the stream. Finally, below the 
mouth of George's 3reek, the canoe floated near the 
shore, where it was observed by a Mrs. Province, who 
recognized the unfortunate old man, had him brought 
to shore and decently buried. 

These, and various other murders of a like charac- 
ter, in different parts of the colony, aroused the pas- 
sions of the heretofore peaceful Indians, and they very 
soon re-opened hostilities and visited their terrible 
vengeance upon the heads of the innocent settlers, 
whenever opportunity afforded. Men, women and 
children everywhere fell victims to the savage ferocity 
thus excited. It was the opinion of many, however, 
that the hostilities of the Indians upon the American 
frontier at this time were not provoked by these or 
other massacres — that they were urged to war by 
emissaries of Great Britain and Canadian traders. It 
is true that the agents of Great Britain aided and en- 
couraged the Indians in the war commenced by them 

in 1774, but that their prime incentive was the out- 

30 History of Marion County. 

rages perpetrated by the whites, together with the 
realization that the settlers were crowding them out 
of their lands — their rightful inheritance — there can 
be no doubt. 

As soon as it was manifest that the Indians were 
intent upon waging a bloody war, the inhabitants on 
the frontiers of Northwestern Virginia proceeded to 
put themselves in a state of defense. Some took refuge 
in the forts, and others collected together into certain 
houses, which were converted into temporary fort- 
resses. Many made their way to Fort Pitt, at the con- 
fluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela river — 
the present site of Pittsburgh. It was then that 
there were a number of private forts established in 
various settlements. In Tygart's Valley the princi- 
pal forts erected were Westfall's and Cassino's. About 
five miles below Fairmont on the Monongahela, at the 
mouth of Prickett's creek was erected Prickett's fort, 
which afforded protection to all the settlers on the 
upper Monongahela, in the vicinity of where now 
stands the towns of Fairmont, Palatine, Rivesville 
and Newport. Nutter's fort, near Clarksburg, afforded 
protection to the inhabitants on the West Fork from 
its source to its confluence with the Valley river. 
Jackson's fort was also established on Ten Mile, and 
was a rendezvous for the settlers in that neighborhood. 
These were the most important stations in this vicin- 
ity, but there were quite a number of private strong- 

History of Marion County. 31 

holds, in which two or three families only would take 
refuge, when signs of the Indians appeared in their 
immediate neighborhood. 

The region of the upper ]\Ionongahela and those set- 
tlements now embraced in ^Marion county were not 
the scenes of active Avar, but suffered from occasional 
depredations by straggling parties of savages, who 
would detach themselves from the main bodies and 
descend upon our settlements. The great chief, Lo- 
gan, justly celebrated for his prowess and eloquence 
led a party through the country from the Ohio to the 
West Fork, and committed several massacres in the 
vicinity of Simpkins. This was about the nearest 
that any regular war party came to this region. The 
straggling bands mentioned above, however, com- 
mitted more dreadful deeds than did the regular war 
parties. Their acts of vengeance were accompanied 
with more terror to the unfortunate victims, because 
they were unlooked for. They would steal upon the 
settlers when least expected, and when they were not 
in a state of defence — when they were at work in 
their fields, or upon the unguarded family at home, 
and massacre them in cold blood. 



S soon as the new. of the depredations connnit- 
^ ted by Logan and his band became knou-n in 
the settlements of this vicinity, the inhabitants very 
much alarmed for their safety, retired immediately 
into the forts and other places of refu.^e. Strolling 
parties of savages were heard of ooeasionally : but no 
acts of violence took place in our settlements until 
the month of Se^.tember. One day during that month 
Josiah Prickett and Mrs. Susan Ox left Pricketfsfort 
near Newport, for the purpose of driving up their" 
cows. A party of Indians, attracted by the tinklin. i 
of the cow-bells, waylaid the.n on their return to th^ I 
for and succeeded in killing and scalping Prickett I 
and taking Mrs. Ox prisoner. ' 

It may be a matter of astonishment to tlie reader 
that the,.ottlers could thus recklessly expose them- 
Bolves, by leaving the fort, knowing that Indians were 
lurking in the vicinity. Son.e explanation may be 

History of Marion County. 33 

found in the fact, that previous to this our settlers had 
been accustomed to come and go at will, hence the 
confinement of the forts was very irksome to them, 
and rather than pine under this present restraint 
the}' would hazard their lives in pursuit of their prin- 
cipal means of existence— game, or to attend to some 
duty connected with their farm work. Often, for 
weeks not a hostile sound would disturb the peaceful 
quiet reigningover the surrounding liills and valleys, 
until some settlers, deceived by the quiet stillness, 
ventured from his retreat, only to meet his death at 
the hands of the wily savage, who had awaited all 
this time for an unguarded moment in which to 
spring upon his deluded victim. Others, unwilling 
to risk the danger, would rcunain within the fort, tor- 
tured with the thought that their crops, long ago "ripe 
unto the harvest," and for tiie production of which 
they had toiled many weary days, were rotting in the 
fields. This latter fact, coupled with the necessity of 
procuring the necessaries of life, would cause many to 
brave even death itself 

On the 10th of October of this year U""-!), tl'<' l>:it- 
tle of Point Pleasant virtually put an end to what has 
since been known as Gov. Dunmore's war, but the 
outrages by these strolling bandsof Indians continued. 
Instead of following up the victory of Point Pleasant 
by a raid into the Indian territory and reducing their 
towns, the army disbanded, leaving the Indians at 

34 History of Marion County^ 

liberty to make further inroads upon our frontiers, in 
the pursuit of vengeance on those who had recently 
sent-so many of their bravest warriors to the "happy 
hunting grounds." ■ The character of therehitions be- 
tween Great Britain and the American colonies was 
becoming more and more unfriendly, and the whole 
attention of the colonists was directed to it, leaving 
the frontier settlements for a time forgotten. The In- 
dians, knowing that Virginia needed all her available 
strength to defend herself from the invading hosts of 
Great Britain, and could not extend any aid to the 
frontier settlements, took advantage of this state of 
affairs and re-opened hostilities, utterly ignoring the 
treaty of peace made after the battle of Point Pleas- 
ant. The respite, then, after the close of the Dunmore 
war, was but momentary. 

Between Wheeling and Point Pleasant, a distance 
of nearly two hundred miles by the Oiiio river, there 
was no obstacle to prevent the raids of the Indian war 
parties from their territories west of tiie river upon 
our settlements on the upper Monongahela and its 
branches; yet, for two years after the killing of Josiah 
Prickett, there were no serious outrages in this imme- 
diate vicinity. Subsequent to this, the next import- 
ant event of the kind occurred in a settlement near 
the West Fork, in Harrison county, at the house of 
Charles Grisby. During the absence of Mr. Grisby, a 
party of Indians entered his house, and after plunder- 

History of Marion County. B5 

ing it of everything valuable, departed, taking with 
them Mrs. Grisby and her two children as prisoners. 
The husband and father returned soon after, compre- 
hending instantly what had been done, and knowing 
the terrible danger of his wife and little ones, he has- 
tily gathered together some of his neighbors and set 
out in hot pui'suit. After following the trail about 
six miles, they suddenly came upon a ghastly scene,. 
which put to flight all the hopes they had entertained 
of being able to recover at least two of the captives ; 
for lying on the ground were the bodies of Mrs. Grisby 
and her younger child, both scalped and killed by 
their inhuman captors. The settlers, leaving two of 
their number to take care of the remains of the unfor- 
tunate victims, pushed forward with renewed exer- 
tions in pursuit of the Indians, earnestly desiring to 
overtake them and avenge the bloody deed ; but they 
did not succeed, and were obliged to give up in despair 
and return home. i954I205 

Shortly after this, two Indians secreted themselves 
near Coon's fort on West Fork, waiting an opportu- 
nity to do some mischief; the occasion was not long in 
presenting itself, for a daughter of Mr. Coon came out 
of the fort for the purpose of performing some slight 
labor in a field near the roadside. Two men, P^noch 
Jones and Thomas Cunningham, came down the road, 
and after a short conversation with her, walked on. 
In the meantime tlio Indians were waiting for her to 

36 History of Marion CorNTv. 

come near enough for them to capture her without 
alarming the people in the fort ; but sh(.', turning 
suddenly, observed thera and started to run home ; in- 
stantly one of the savages shot at her, while the other 
rushed to her, tomahawked and scalped her heforo the 
eyes of the horrified men who had only gone a short 
distance down the road, yet were not near enough to 
render any assistance. The settlers immediately 
turned out in pursuit of the murderers, but no traces 
of them could be discovered. 

In the month of March following, a party of Indians 
came suddenly on a number of children playing in a 
yard on Ten Mile. The children ran screaming to the 
house (which was serving as a place of refuge for the 
settlers in that neighboi-hood, and was known as Fort 
Harbert,) and apprised the inmates of the Indians 
approach. John Murphey, rushing to the door to 
see if danger reall}- was near, was instantly shot 
and fell bac^k into the house; tlu? Indian who iiad 
fired the shot, not knowing there were other men 
in the house, sprang in and was instantly grappled 
by Mr. Harbert, who threw him upon the fioor and 
struck him with his tomahawk. While maintaining 
his position over the prostrate savage, two shots were 
fired at Harbert fi-om without — the first wounding 
him, and tiie second, passing tlirough his head, killed 
him. In the meantime, Kdwarti (Uinningham was 
having a terrible stru^tile with a warrior who had 

History of Maiuox CorNTv. o7 

entered innuediately after the first one. He drew up 
his gun to shoot the !?avage, but it flashed, and tlie 
two men closed in a hand-to-liand encounter. .Vfter 
a contest of some moments, Cunningham wrenelied 
froTu the hand of tlie Indian his tomaliawk, and 
buried the spike end of it in l>is hack, while ^Nlrs. 
Cunningham, rushing up to the savagi^, struck him 
with an axe, causing him to release his hold upon 
Mr. Cunningham and retire bleeding from the house. 
The third Indian who entered the door wore a cap 
made of the unshorn front of a buffalo, witii the ears 
and horns still attached to it, presenting the most 
hideous aspect ; a Miss Reece was standing near him 
and at her he aimed a blow wincii wounded her 
severely. Mrs. Reece seeing her daughter's terrible 
danger, seized the horrible head-dress of the savage 
by its horns, hoping to turn aside the blow, but it 
came off in her hands and the blow fell on the head of 
the girl. The father of the girl then attacked the In- 
dian, but was quickly thrown to tiie floor, and the 
savage would have made short work of him had not 
Cunningham rushed to the rescue and tomahawked 
his assailant. During this time the rest of the In- 
dians, who had been prevented from entering the 
door by the women, were engaged in securing such of 
the children in the yard as were capable of being 
carried away prisoners. These, evidently not relish- 
ing the idea of furth9r attack, retreated, carrying 

38 History of Marion County. 

with them the children they had captured. In this 
attack one white person was killed in the house and 
four wounded. 

In the yard eight children were either killed or 
taken prisoners, while the Indians had one killed and 
two wounded. This was the most serious of the In- 
dian depredations of that year in this section, and, 
althougli it did not transpire within the boundaries 
of what is now called Marion county, but in Harrison, 
it is given here for reasons that are obvious. Some 
of the settlers concerned in the incident belonged to 
this vicinity, or were inhabitants of this county; it is 
therefore appropriate as well as interesting to give it 
in this connection. 



^N the 16th of June, 1778, Captain James -Booth 
- and Nathaniel Cochran were at work in a field 
on Booth's creek, near where the little village of Brier- 
town is now situated. They were surprised by a party 
of Indians, who fired upon them killing Booth, and 
slightly wounding Cochran, who betook himself to 
flight, hoping to get beyond the range of the Indians' 
guns and escape ; in this he did not succeed, for he 
was overtaken by them, made prisoner and carried 
into their towns. 

The death of Captain Booth was mournfully regret- 
ted by the settlers, for he was a man of great energv, 
good education, and possessed extraordinary talents. 
He was probably the most prominent man in the set- 
tlements, and his death was felt to be a very great loss. 
Cochran was afterwards taken by the Indians from 
their towns in Ohio to Detroit, where he was sold and 
remained a captive for a long period. While at De- 

40 History of Marion County. 

troit he made an attempt to escape, and would have 
succeeded had he not unfortunately taken a path 
which led him directly to the old Maumee towns, 
where he was recaptured, and, after being detained 
for a time, was sent back to Detroit. After enduring 
many hardships and suffering many privations, being 
traded backwards and forwards among the Indians of 
that section and Canada, he was finally exchanged, 
and found his way home. 

A youth of scarce eighteen when taken by the In- 
dians, he returned a man of thirty-five. He was after- 
wards a Captian in the militia, and lived to a ripe old 
age. Five of 'his children arc still living in this 
state. They are William Cochran, the oldest, ago 
91, living at Worthington; James, father of Nathaniel 
Cochran of Fairmont, who lives in Jackson county; 
John, living near the mouth of Booth's creek ; Mrs. 
Hannah Rowan, and Mrs. Polly Bowman, who live 
near Booth's creek. 

Two or three days after the killing of Capt. Booth, 
the same party of Indians met Benjamin Shinn, Win. 
Grundy and Benjamin Washburn returning from the 
head of Booth's creek, and Grundy fell a victim to the 
savages ; going on farther, the Indians saw a boy 
about sixteen years old standing in the path leading 
from Simpson's to Booth's creek, mending his saddle- 
girth. They fired at him, and the ball passing di- 
rectly through him, killing both him self and his horse. 

History of Marion County. 41 

These inrouds made by the Indians in 1778 led the 
inhabitants to make greater preparations for security 
than ever before, fearing that when the winter was 
over hostilities would be again renewed. Many of 
the settlements received accessions to their number 
from the emigrants who were constantly arriving, 
and the population gradually increased until it was 
evident that the time was rapidly approaching when 
the progress of civilization would be .so great that the 
uncivilized must give way before it, for every settler 
lessened the dangers of frontier life as he increased its 
power to repel them. 

Their troubles were not yet over, however, for early 
in the year 1779, the settlers were alarmed by circum- 
stances which led to the belief that Indians were lurk- 
ing in the neighborhood. The inhabitants around 
Prickett's fort especially became alarmed and entered 
the fort ; yet their fears seemed groundless, for days 
passed and no signs of the Indians were seen. A sense 
of security began to take possession of them ; but as 
spring was rapidly approaching, the season when the 
savages usually commenced their depredations, they 
continued to make the fort their place of abode at 
night, but attended to their farm duties during the 
day. Among those who .sought refuge in Prickett's 
fort was the David Morgan mentioned in a former 
chapter, who at the time was upwards of seventy 
years of age. About the first of April, being unwell 

42 History of Makiox CoUxNty. 

himself, he sent his two children — Stephen, a youth 
of sixteen (afterwards the fatlier of the late Hons. 
William S. and Charles Morgan,) and Sarah, a girl of 
fourteen— to feed the cattle on his farm, which was 
on the opposite side of the river about a mile distant. 
Unknown to their father, who supposed tiiey would 
return immediately, the children took with them 
tJread and meat for a lunch, and resolved to spend the 
day on the farm, preparing the ground for watermel- 
ons. Accordingly, after feeding the stock, Stephen 
set himself to work, his sister helping him in various 
ways, and occasionally going to the cabin, a short dis- 
tance west of where they were, to wet some linen she 
was bleaching. After the children left the house 
Morgan, whose illness increased, went to bed, and fall- 
ing asleep, dreamed that he saw Sarah and Stephen 
walking about the yard of the fort, scalped. This 
dream, which under any circunistances would not 
tend to produce a (comfortable fctding in the mind of 
the dreamer, causeil Morgan no little apprehension, 
when on awaking he found the children were still 
absent. Taking with him his gun he immediately 
set out for the farm to see what detained tiiem. Im- 
pressed with the fear that he would find his horrible 
dream realized, lie ascended a slight eminence which 
overlooked the Held where the children were, and was 
overjoyed to see them safe talking busily as they 
worked. Unobserved by them, he sat down to rest on 

History of Marion County. 43 

an old log, comiuanding a full view of them and the 
cabin, he had been there but a short time when, 
happening to look towards the house, he saw two In- 
dians stealing from it towards the children. Fear- 
ing a sudden alarm would deprive them of their self- 
possession and unfit them for escape, Morgan retained 
his seat upon the log, and in a low voice, with as 
careless a manner as he could assume, told them o*f 
their danger and said, •' run to the fort." The 
children instantly started and the Indians with 
hideous yells immediately pursued them. At this 
moment Morgan made himself known, and the Indians 
giving up the chase, sheltered themselves from his 
bullets behind two trees. Believing that discretion 
is the better part of valor, and not wishing to fight 
against such odds, Morgan then attempted to place 
himself out of danger by flight, but age and infirmity 
prevented his making much headway, and he soon 
realized that he would be speedily overtaken by the 
Indians, who were following in hot pursuit. Resolved 
to die game, he suddenly wheeled and made ready to 
fire at them, but seeing. the motion they instantly 
sprang behind trees, and Morgan, wishing to save 
himself in the same manner, got behind a sugar sap- 
ling, but finding it insufficient for his protection lie 
quitted it for a large oak a short distance further on. 
One of the Indians then took possession of the sap- 
ling he had just left, but seeing it could not shelter 

44 History of Marion County. 

him, threw himself down behind a log which lay at the 
root of the tree. This also was not sufficient to cover 
him, and Morgan seeing him exposed, fired at him. 
The ball took effect and the savage, rolling over on 
his back stabbed himself twice. Having thus rid 
himself of one of his pursuers Morgan again took to 
flight, the surviving Indian close upon him. There 
were now no trees to shield him, and the Indian could 
readily overtake him ; and his gun being unloaded he 
had no means of defense. The race had continued for 
about ten yards, when looking over his shoulder Mor- 
gan observed the Indian almost upon him with his 
gun raised. Morgan watched closely the Indian's 
finger upon the trigger and as he pressed it sprang 
to one side, letting the bullet whiz harmlessly by. 
Seeing that a hand-to-hand encounter was inevitable, 
Morgan then aimed a blow with his gun at his ad- 
versary, who in return hurled his tomaliawk at him, 
cutting ofFthree fingcM's of his left hand and knockino- 
the weapon from his grasp. They then closed, and 
Morgan, being a good wrestler in spite of his years, 
succeeded in throwing the Indian. He was not 
strong enough to maintain his position, however, for 
the Indian was soon on top of him, and with a yell of 
triumph began feeling for his knife, with which to 
dispatch him. Fortunately for Morgan, the sava^^e, 
while in the house had seen a woman's apron, and, 
pleased with its bright color, had taken and bound it 

History of Marion County. 45 

around his waist above the knife ; this hindered him 
from getting at the knife quickly and while he con- 
tinued fumbling for it, Morgan succeeded in getting 
one of the Indian's fingers in his mouth. Finally the 
Indian found his knife, grasping it near the blade, 
while Morgan caught hold of the extremity of the 
handle, and as the redskin drew it from its scabbard, 
the old man closed his teeth on the finger he held 
with terrible force, causing the savage involuntarily 
to relax his grasp, Morgan quickly drew the knife 
through his hand and in an instant plunged it into 
his body; then, feeling the Indian sink lifeless back 
in his arms, he loosed his grasp and started for the 
fort. Meantime, Sarah, unable to keep pace with her 
brother, who by this time had reached the fort, 
followed in his footsteps until she came to the river 
where he had plunged in and swam across. She was 
making her way to the canoe when her father over- 
took her and they crossed to the fort together. After 
relating his adventures to the occupants of the fort, 
Morgan, well nigh exhausted, retired to rest, while a 
party of men went to the farm to see if traces of any 
other Indians could be found. On arriving at the 
place where the struggle had taken place the wound- 
ed Indian was not to be seen. They trailed him by 
the blood which had flowed from his side, and 
presently found him concealed in the branches of a 

46 History of Marion County. 

tree. As they came towards him he greeted them 
appealingly with the salutation, " How do do broder, 
how do broder," and surrendered himself into their 
hands. Then occurred a most shocking scene. The 
vindictive passions of the men were fully aroused, so 
that they tomahawked and scalped the wounded In- 
dian — a proceeding worthy of savage warfare — and as 
if the measure of their revenge was not filled, they 
flayed him, tanned his skin, and converted it into shot 
pouches and belts. 

The above incident took place on that part of Mor- 
gan's plantation which is a short distance north-east 
of the residence of the late George P. ^Morgan. David's 
cabin stood near where the burying ground of the 
Morgan family is now situated, and his body, with 
those of his family, rest within the inclosure. 

About two months after this occurrence, as John 
Owens, John Juggins and Owen Owens were going to 
their corn field on Booth's creek, they were attacked 
by Indians, who killed and scalped John Owens and 
John Juggins, but Owen Owens succeeded in making 
his escape. A son of John Owens, who had been sent 
to the pasture for the horses, to use in plowing, heard 
the report of the gun, and not suspecting anything 
was wrong, came riding along on one horse, leading 
another. lie was first observed by the Indians, and 
made aware of their presence by the bullets that came 

46 History of Marion County. 

tree. As they came towards him he greeted them 
appealingly with the salutation, " How do do broder, 
how do broder," and surrendered himself into their 
hands. Then occurred a most shocking scene. The 
vindictive passions of the men were fully aroused, so 
that they tomahawked and scalped the wounded In- 
dian — a proceeding worthy of savage warfare — and as 
if the measure of their revenge was not filled, they 
flayed him, tanned his skin, and converted it into shot 
pouches and belts. 

The above incident took place on that part of Mor- 
gan's plantation which is a short distance north-east 
of the residence of the late George P. ^Morgan. David's 
cabin stood near where the burying ground of the 
Morgan family is now situated, and his body, with 
those of his family, rest within the inclosure. 

About two months after this occurrence, as John 
Owens, John Juggins and Owen Owens were going to 
their corn field on Booth's creek, they were attacked 
by Indians, who killed and scalped John Owens and 
John Juggins, but Owen Owens succeeded in making 
his escape. A son of John Owens, who had been sent 
to the pasture for the horses, to use in plowing, heard 
the report of the gun, and not suspecting anything 
was wrong, came riding along on one horse, leading 
another. He was first observed by the Indians, and 
made aware of their presence by the bullets that came 

History of Marion County. 47 

whistling past him. Xone of them took effect, how- 
ever, and the Indians made a futile attempt to capture 
him by catching hold of the bridle reins, but he urged 
forward his horse and escaped unhurt. 



tHP] bloody deeds committed by the Indians, crea- 
ted within the hearts of the settlers a bitter en- 
mity toward them, and often led them to retaliate by 
the commission of about as barbarous acts as the sav- 
ages themselves were guilty of, as in the case of the 
Indian with whom Morgan had the encounter, related 
in the last chapter. Their vindictive passions once 
aroused they would forget for tlie moment that they 
were civilized men, and the bare sight of an Indian, 
whether friimdly or otherwise, woukl arouse this spirit 
of revenge in their hearts, and they would be led to 
commit acts wliich in their thouglitful moments they 
regretted. A striking incident of tliis kind occurred, 
in which Horatio Morgan, of Prickett's fort, was the 
principal actor. 

Wliile hunting one day, lie unexpectedly c;iine 
upon an Indian seated near a fire built on the river 
bank. Concealing himself behind a tree. ^Morgan 
watched the scene for some moments. Over the fire 

History of Marion County. 49 

was suspended a pot in vvhicli an Indian boy was 
stirring a mixture of herbs and water. The lirst 
mentioned savage— an old man — sat upon a log Avith 
his liead bowed in his hands, evidently very sick, and 
the boy was boiling the gruel to relieve his sutl'erings, 
which appeared to be intense. Not a considerate 
thought for the pitiable condition of the old Indian 
seemed to enter tlie mind of Morgan, but raising his 
gun, after watching the scene awhile, he fired. The 
ball went crashing throngli the brain of the sick man, 
and he was forever freed from his sufferings. The 
boy, frightened at this sudden evidence that an enemy 
was at hand, took to the woods and made his escape. 

Morgan was overcome with remorse the moment 
after he had fired the shot, and would have given the 
world to have been able to recall it. So stricken witli 
shame was he at the cowardh- advantage he had taken 
of the Indian, that it was not until years afterwards 
that he related the circumstance; and then it was 
with a feeling of deep regret at what he had so 
thouglitlessly done. 

ICarly in the month of March, 1781, a party of In- 
dians raided upon tlie settlentents of this neighbor- 
hood, and on the niglit of the fifth arrived at the of Captain Jolm Thomas, on Booth's creek, near 
the site of the town of Ikiothsville. Elizabetli .lug- 
gins, daughter t)f tlie .lohn -Juggins whose murder is 

chronicled in a previous chapter, was visitintr at tlic 

50 History of Marion Cointv. 

liouse at the time. When the Indians arrived at the 
house the occupants were engaged in family devotion 
to God, and Captain Thomas was in the act of repeat- 
ing the lines of the hymn, " (tO worship at Emanuel's 
feet." Scarcely had he commenced when a gun was 
fired at him from without and he fell. The Indians 
then forced o])en the door and commence<l the most 
dreadful tragedy that had yet taken place in this 
neighborhood. It was in vain that Mrs. Tliomas im- 
plored the mercy of the savages for herself and ehil- . 
dren. She was answered with a blow from a toma- 
hawk in the hands of a l)rawi\y warrior, and in quick 
succession six of her children lay weltering in their 
blood around her body and that of her husband. The 
savages then i)roceeded to scalp their victims, and to 
plunder the house, after which they left, taking with 
them one little boy as a prisoner. Miss Juggins, as 
soon as she observed Cnjitaiii Thomas fall, realized the 
danger and threw herself under a bed, where she re- 
mained hidden from the view of the Indians all 
through the terrible tragedy. When the savage.s had 
departed she came out from her hiding place, and 
found that ^Irs. Thomas was still alive, though unable 
to move. She asked Miss .Juggins to hand her the 
body of her murdered infant that lay a short distance 
from her, and the young lady afterwards said that lier' 
pitiful glances around upon the bloody seene were 
enough to melt ti\e stoutest heart. What a terrible 

History of Marion County. 51 

contrast between the scene now and the one of a half 
hour before I The unfortunate mother of the murder- 
ed family begged Elizabeth not to leave her; but, 
anxious for her own safe t}', the girl left the house and 
took refuge the rest of the night between two logs. 
In the morning she spread the alarm among the 
neighbors, who hastened to the scene of the enormities. 
Mrs. Thomas was found lying in the yard, where she 
had crawled and died during the night. Her body 
was terribly mangled by the tomahawk, and had been 
torn by hogs. The Indians had evidently made the 
place a second visit, for all that remained of the house 
and the bodies of Captain Thomas and his children 
was a heap of ashes. 

After this massacie, the settlement on Booth's creek 
was forsaken ; the settlers becoming alarmed for their 
safety, they went to Simpson's creek for greater secur- 
ity. Not long afterwards, John Owens, accompanied 
by some young men of the latter settlement, returned 
to his farm on Booth's creek for the purpose of thresh- 
ing some wheat, and while Owens was upon a stack 
throwing down sheaves, several shots were fired at 
him by a party of Indians who were concealed a short 
distance off. He leaped from the stack and the men 
placed themselves on the defensive. It was soon evi- 
dent that the savages had departed, and they con- 
cluded to go ba(;k to Sim])Son's, j)rocure reinforce- 
ments and pursue the enemy. This resolve was acted 

52 History of Mauiox County. 

upon and the trail of the Indians was afterwards fol- 
lowed to a point some distance beyond Sliinnston, 
where the savages were observed in camp and lying 
about their fires. The whites fired at them, but with- 
out effect, and the Indians took to flight, one of tliem 
turning and firing at the pursuers. The sliot was re- 
turned by Benjamin Coplin, and it was supposed the 
Indian was icilled, though his body Avas not afterw ards 
found. The pursuit was finally abandoned, and the 
settlers returned to the place where they had found 
the Indians encamped, and took possession of the 
horses and plunder they had left behind them in their 

t iiu. 



tMONG the settlers who came into the county 
. ^__ about this time (1780-5,) were David Evans, 
one or two families of Witemans, Henry Leeper, 
Benjamin Veach, the Holbcrts and others. The 
tirst three settled in the vicinity of Yellow Rock 
ford on the West Fork. Veach settled upon the farm 
now occupied by Mr. Zebulon ^Nlusgrave, a short dis- 
tance west of Fairmont. Jonathan Nixon, from whoin 
the Nixons of this county are descended, also located 
at this time near Boothsville. A great many other 
immigrants came into this region during these years 
following the close of the revolutionary war, and the 
population was thereby greatly increased, but the In- 
dians did not cease their depredations. 

Up to the middle of the year 17^2, the knowledge 
of the surrender of Cornwallis, which virtually ended 
the War of Independence, had been kept from the In- 
dians by their British friends ; but it was now known 

^"^ History of Marion County. 

to them, and they began to fear that Virginia, now 
being rid of the English invaders, would concentrate 
her forces on her frontier and exterminate them at 
once. A grand council of several tribes convened at 
Chillicothe, and it was determined, by the advice of 
Simon Girty— a renegade white— to make the best of 
tlie present time, and prosecute with greater effort 
their war against the frontier, which resolve thev 
carried out. More terrible raids than ever were made 
upon some of the frontier stations by large bodies of 
Indians,=i= but our more secluded and less important 
settlements did not suffer so much as formerly. 

There were no serious depredations in this imme- 
diate neighborhood until the year 17S5, when six In- 
dians came to the farm of Thomas and Edward 
Cunningham, on Bingamon creek, which empties 
into the West Fork a short distance above Worthing- 
ton. The two brothers lived with their respective 
families in separate houses almost adjoining each 
other. Thomas was east of the mountains on a trad- 
ing visit at this time, and his wife and four children 
were engaged in eating dinner, as was also Edward 
and his tamily in their house. Suddenly an Indian 
entered the former house and closed the door after 
him. J:dward Cunningham, from his cabin, observed 
the proceeding, and after fastening his own door, 

♦The celel.ratcl att:,ck7;^n Whc■clin^^ (irTwhich i^ai;..tirz;.neTlis^ 
mshed herself,) ICi.c-Vs for,, ..., .hoOhio river. ...d t he inU.r.n..liate sottlcmenu 
»H^t«e.-n Fort Pitt an.l Wheeliu^-, occurred during these raids 

History of Marion County. 55 

stepped to a small window in the wall next the other 
house, and stood ready to fire the moment he should 
catch sight of the Indian. But the savage saw at once 
that if he retired from the house as he went in he 
would be exposed to Edward's fire; for, through a 
similar window, he had observed the latter's actions. 
As soon as he saw Cunningham at the window of the 
other house he fired at him, but Edward saw the aim 
of the savage in time to avoid it. The moment the 
redskin saw he had missed his mark he seized an axe 
standing in the room and commenced cutting his way 
out of the house through the back wall, so as not to 
expose himself to a shot from the other building by 
going out the front way. In the meantime another 
Indian came into the yard, and Edward fired at and 
wounded him. 

All this time Mrs. Cunningham and her chihlren, 
who were in the house with the Indian, had remained 
perfectly quiet, knowing that an attempt to escape 
would arouse his fury, and that if they succeeded in 
getting outside they would be killed by the savages 
in the yard. She hoped that he would withdraw 
without molesting any of them, af(fer creating the 
aperture he had commen(;ed. In this she was doonud 
to be sadly disappointed. When the opening was 
made suHiciently large, the savage approached the 
frightened group, and sinking his tomahawk into the 
brains of one of the children, threw the body into the 

^^ Hi.sTORY OF Marion Cointv. 

yard and ordered Mrs. Cunningliam to follow. She 
obeyed, holding an infant in her arms and with two 
other screaming children clinging to her. She was 
then made the unwilling witness of the scalping of 
her murdered son. After setting tire to the house, the 
Indian retired with his prisoners to an eminence in 
an adjoining field, where two of his brethren were with 
the one wounded by Edward. The other two were in 
the yard watching for the opening of the door of the 
other house when the fire should drive the family from 
their shelter. When his cabin caught from the one 
already burning, however, Edward Cunningham and 
his son ascended to the loft, and throwing off the loose 
boards which formed the roof, extinguished the flames. 
In doing this they were "in great risk of losing their 
lives, for the savages were shooting at them all the 
while, and the balls would frequently strike very Satisfied with the damage already done, the 
Indians finally abandoned fur a time their designs 
against Edward and his family and made preparations 
to depart. They first tomahawked and scalped the 
remaining son of Mrs. Cunningham, and sank the 
hatchet into the head of her little daughter, whom 
they then took by the legs and beat her brains out 
against a tree. Mrs. Cunningham and her babe were 
carried off into captivity. The party crossed at JJing- 
amon creek and concealed themselves in a cave, 
where they remained until after nightfall. Thev then 

History of ^NIaiuox County. 57 

returned to Edward Cunningham'.^, and finding no 
signs of life, plundered and set fire to the house. 

Fearful lest the Indians should renew the attack, 
the Cunninghams sought shelter in the woods, where 
they remained through the night, there being no other 
settlement nearer than eight miles. As soon as morn- 
ing dawned they proceeded to the nearest house and 
gave the alarm, and a company of men was formed to 
go in -pursuit of the Indians. After burying the 
bodies of the murdered children, a search for the sav- 
ages was instituted, but the wily foe had so covered 
up their retreat that it was found impossible to dis- 
cover any traces of them, and the men returned to 
their homes. Several days afterwards the search was 
renewed, owing to circumstances which induced the 
belief that the Indians had not yet left the country. 
The trail was found and followed nearly to the cave 
before mentioned, where it was lost, because of the 
great care the savages had taken to cover it up. 
Night finally compelled them to desist. One of the 
party — Major Robinson — happened to think of the 
cave that niglit, and mentioned to his companions 
his suspicions that the savages were concealed there. 

Early next morning the cave was examined, but 
the Indians had departed during the night, and were 
by that time far be^'ond the reach of pursuit. During 
the search the day previous the Indians were in the 
cave, and so close were the men to its mouth several 


lIlSTUIiV (-K ArAl;[<».\ ColXTV. 

tiiiu.s, tluit Mrs. Cunuiiiwhaiii, a.s sin' afttTvanls saiJ 
could hear their voices. The .sava-cs stood ready to 
liiv in ca^e they shoidd he diseovcTed, and compelled 
1'^^'" ^" l^'''!' tl"' I'ahe to her hreast that its crying 
ini-lit not attraet the attellticjli ,,1' the white,^. 

It is hcyond Ihe ]H.w,:r nl^ pen to.lesuihe fhesuirer- 
''^-"'•''•^f'-^- <'nniiiii-ham.ii,eolal and physieal, .lur- 
ill- thc' joiiiuey ((- (he Indian ei-iiutry. ohji-ed to 
walk Uie entire distance, ,^he sulliTed internally from 
i"ati-ue. Deprived of the ne(;es>ary lo^ni, .sj,e herscdl' 
almost pcrislied from Imn-er, while the hahe at Jier 
l'iea>t>on-ht in vain for the milk it needed to sustain 
■tsliltlelife- hloodonlveame. I'ere.ivinjr thi., one 
'•I llie Indians, with a tomahawk, ).ut an end to its 
-uu; rinu. while it was still elm-in- to the hreast. 
!•'■ ll'-i' ca>l it toth<. sid...,f the path, where it was 
''■'■^ 't prev lor heasts. Ihit the,>. were not (he wor.t 
"I' Mrs. Cunuinghanrs trials. 11, .r an-uish (..f mind 
■""' til- intensity of hrr hodily sulferin-s durin- the 
I't'xt ten days, eauunt In- <le.erihed. Durin-- this 
whole time her (udy food eonsi>ted of three paw paws 
and the head of a wild turkey. WUeii .she arrived at 
-'" li"iian town an. I was permitte.l I'uv the lii'st tinu, 
t"'li''\vuirher.toekim,s the skin and i,ai Is of h,_.r l\.et 
'•^""'•"'I'^vith theoi, \,y reaMui nf the .sealdin;... they 
l''i'l ie,-,.i\',,,| hy fre(|U.u,t wadin-^ ,,f uatei'. 

'A'hen they linally ari'ived at th.^ir own town, the' 
I'l'lian.deliviued .Mr>. Cunnin-ham over 1,, the fat her 

Hh'I'ok^' (»!■ .Mai;1(».\ ('<i1:NTV. 


of tlu; savni,^e \vlio had hccii wouuilcd ]>}• l^hvaid. IL 
soon bucauu; ai)pai'cut to her that sho was ii.'scrvud 
lor soiiiu tunihh; tuitiin;: loi- slic was lu.t inTiuittcd 
tochaii,-L' her rh.thrs, hut wa-nhli-cd to wear tho.M- 
she li;nl oil, Ihoil-h ilu-y Wm- ext ivnirl _v dirty/:- Oiu; 
(.;\'(.'iii 111;- Simon ( i irty an i \'i'(l at Ihc \' ilhi,uc, and she 
i-ooIvimI (u ph'ad with him to iji tcivc.],. toi- li.-i- dcliv- 
eranrc, wijii Ji I'l sulve >hr at'tid ui)ou tlu' next day as 
soon a -^ the oiiiHii'tiinity At lir.<t lu' was in- 
rlinrd to njakf li.iild (A' her i.ctitiou ; |,ut llnally 
lici' tears an. 1 ph-a.lin-s melted the haid hrait of the 
wretelied whlti; sa\a,Lr(.' and lie relentnl. lie jiaid hei' 
ransom and had her (■miducled In the e.ajimissi.niers 
f..i' negotiating- with (he Indians, and hy tlnnn she 
was talom to a .-talion in Keiitiu-ky. ih'r.: she was 
l'nrni>hed with a horse, and atlcr ex |»erien(nnjj,- iiian\- 
liard-hi|H, reaehrd ijol^teiii, and Iniin tlimicc .sh,. 
IHOrce.lcd lip the ValleV and lio,,p'. 1 1 er h ud.aiid was 
not llii-ie lo wi-lemne lirr, ha\in;4- [eaiiu'd -^diiic days 
l>Ol'ui-e that sill- had heen ransomed and taken to Keii- 
tU(d<y, and had ,-et out in (|Uestot' her. lleai'inii; at 
llolsddn of hci- lia\in- l)ecn thrre, In; rcHuriUMJ, ami 
the merlin- hctwi.MMi lue-haiid ami w itr in a lew days 
was a -lad mie, tlmuuh ihe icrwl lerl i.,ns ol' th.- sad 
fale of iheir cliihlreii eaiisrd ih.-m al'lrrward^ many 
hour.-, ot hilhr -ri.rl'. 



I MONO the ni;iny inciilcnts; which serve to show 
the hanJ.-;liips to which the settlers were ex- 
posed, the following- irr not the least interesting: 

Early in the month of March, ITSO, Jonathan Nix- 
on, with his eltlest son, George — then a lad nine years 
of age— went from Edwards' fort- to his farm, for the 
purpose of building a house and improving the land. 
After wm-king two days in the woods, hite on the 
second evening, -lonathan started for tiie house of 
John Tucker, where he spent the night, and directed 
his son to go hack to tiie fort, a <li^tance of iive miles. 
The boy started but soon lost his way, and after wan- 
dering about in the forest for som.' time, he returne<l 
to the camp and laid down for the niudit. Next morn- 
ing he awoke to iind that a siK.w ha<l fallen to the 

i'lAlwards' «:is .1 m.-.n tlio (J.-.>r>;.' T. M:i 
of l?unlliMiIlo. 

History of Marion County. 61 

depth of eight or ten inches. After a second unsuc- 
cessful eftbrt to find his way to the fort, the little fel- 
low returned again to the camp and lay down, cover- 
ing himself with a blanket. 

In the meantime, his father, on awakening at 
Tucker's and finding that the snow' had fallen, con- 
cluded not to return to his work, ))ut to go hunting 
instead in company with Isaac Tucker. Sometime 
during the day, the hunters happened to come near 
the camp where George was, and observed the boy 
lying there almost frozen and unconscious. It Avas 
only by great exertions on the part of the men that 
the brave little fellow was resuscitated. 

In the fall of the same year (17SG), .lohn Ice and 
James Snodgrass, left home to look for some horses 
they had lost while hunting buffalo on Fishing creek, 
and were attacked by the Indians, killed and scalped. 
The particulars of this tragedy were never known. 
Their remains, when afterwards found, were torn 
very much by the wolves. 

A few days after this occurrence, a party of Indians 
came to Buffalo creek. ^Nfrs. Dragoo and her son were 
in a cornfield gathering l)eans, when the savages sud- 
denly came upon them and took them prisoners. In 
hopes that the detention of their captives would bo 
noticed, and parties from the house come to look for 
them, the Indians concealed -themselves in ambush 

by the side of the path leading from the house. They 

62 History of Marion County. 

were not disappointed, for, uneajiy at the continued 
absence of Mrs. Dragoo and licr son, Nicholas Wood 
and Jacob Straigiit came out to ascertain the cause. 
The Indians tired at tliein, killing Wood, and Straight 
took to llight, but was after a short chase, captured. 
The wife and daughter uf Mr. Straiglit heard the 
firing, and seeing the savages in })ursuit of the hus- 
band and father, also tied — not, however, unobserved 
by the Indians, who gave chase. The daughter con- 
cealed herself in a thicket, and Mrs. Straight sought 
shelter under a shelving rock, neither of them being 
afterwards discovered by the pursuers, though they 
passed very close to where the mother was sheltered. 
After Straight had been captured he said to a warrior, 
"don't kill me, and I will go with you." " Will you?'' 
said the monster, and raising tii<i fatal hatchet, he 
sank it into the brain t)f the wretched captive. j\[rs. 
Straight could hear ail this from her {)lace of conceal- 

Mrs. Dragoo was afterwards murdered, being too in- 
firm to travel to the towns of tlie Indians. Her 
son, who was tiien a lad of seven 3'ears, was taken 
into captivity and remained with the savages nearly 
twenty years. lie married a squaw and became the 
father of four children by her. At length he forsook 
the Indians and returned to his home on Buffalo 
creek, bringing with him two of his children. 

In the following year (,17S7), the Indians came 

History of INFarton Coi:nty. 63 

again to the settlement on BufFalo creek, near where 
stands the town of Farmington. Levi Morgan was 
not far from his 'home engaged in skinning a wolf 
which he had just caught in a trap, and on looking 
up from his occupation, observed three Indians com- 
ing toward him. One of them was mounted upon a 
horse, which Morgan recognized as belonging to a 
near neighbor, and lie supposed at first that the rider 
was the owner. A second glance showed him his mis- 
take, and seizing his gun, he sprang quickly behind a 
large rock near by, the Indians taking refuge behind 
a tree. Looking out from his shelter, he observed the 
savages watching tlie far side of the rocks, evidently 
expecting him to make his appearance there. He 
fired at them and killed one, and on attempting to 
reload his gun, was obliged to deVsist, owing to his 
powder having all been wasted, by reason of the stop- 
per coming out of the horn while he was engaged in 
skinning the wolf. His only recourse then was flight, 
and he started oil', one of the savages pursuing him. 
Finding his pursues- rapidly gaining on him, Morgan 
threw down his gun, lioping that it would tempt the 
Indian to delay a moment, but in vain. He then 
threw off his coat and shot pouch, ])ut this design fail- 
ed, and the Indian still gainiMl upon him. Morgan 
finally thought of another plan to arrest tlie pursuit, 
and immediately acted upon thr idea. Arriving at 
the summit of a hill up which he had taken his flight, 

64 History of Marion County. 

he halted, and making motions as if he observed some 
friends approaching from the other side, he shouted : 
" Come on ! come on — make haste ; here is one ! " The 
Indian, supposing there were really some friends of 
Morgan ascending from tlie other side, turned and 
fled as precipitately as the latter had run from him, 
Levi, overjoyed at the success of his ruse, kept up the 
deception by shouting, " shoot quick, or he will get 
away ! " hearing which tlie Indian seemed to redouble 
his exertions, and was soon out of sight. Morgan then 
hastened home, leaving his gun and coat for the 

Sometime after this, Morgan attended the treaty of 
Au Glaize, and met with this same Indian, who still 
had his gun. After good-humoredly talking over the 
circumstance, Levi proposed that they test each 
other's speed in. a friendly race, to which the Indian 
assented and was beaten. Whereupon he rubbed his 
limbs and said, " stiff, stiff; too old, too old." Morgan 
laughed, and replied, " Well, you got my gun by out- 
running me then, and I should have it back now for 
outrunning you," and he took it from the Indian, who 
yielded it cheerfully. 

About this time (in the year 1791,) a small com- 
pany of settlers, including Horatio and Levi Morgan, 
Jacob and John Hayes, and several otliers made an 
expedition from here to an Indian town on Sunfish 
creek, in Ohio, for the ])urpose of destroying it. Ar- 

History of Marion County. 65 

riving there they found the vilhigo deserted by the 
warriors, and the only remaining inhabitants a few 
women and children, and old men. They stole up to 
the outskirts of the town, where they could obtain a 
good view of the situation. Observing an old man 
sitting quietly smoking a pipe in the door of his wig- 
wam, Levi Morgan told the rest of the party to watch 
him exhibit his extraordinary marksmanship, and 
taking steady aim at the center of the old man's fore- 
head, fired. The ball did not vary a hair's breadth 
from the spot, and the Indian rolled over dead. This 
was a signal for the attack, and the men plundered 
the village and returned home, bringing with them 
several prisoners. 



SHORT distance above Worthington, near the 
^^/:/^ mouth of Bingamon creek, occurred the last of 
the depredations committed by the savages in this 
immediate neighborhood. 

In May, 17'.)1, as John Mclntire and his wife were 
returning from a visit, they j)assed through the yard of 
Uriah Ashcraft. A few minutes afterwards, Mr. Asli- 
craft was startled by tlie growling of one of his dogs, 
and stepped to the door to see what had aroused him. 
He had scarcely reached the entrance when he espied 
an Indian on the outside. Hosing the door he ascend- 
ed the stairs and attempted three times to tire from a 
window at the redskin, Init his gun snapped. lie 
then observed that there were other Indians at 
hand, and he raised a loud shout for help, hoping that 
friends in the vicinity might hear and come to his 
relief. The Indians presently retreated, and shortly 
afterward.^ three brothers of Mclutire came up. Ash- 
craft explained the situation, and the four set out to 

History of ^[AR^ON County. 67 

follow the trail of the savages. About a mile oil' they 
found the body of John Mclntire, whom the Indians 
had overtaken, tomahawked, scalped and strip})ed ; 
and concluding that Mrs. Mclntire, whom they knew 
to have been with her husband, was taken prisoner, 
they sent to Clarksburg for assistance to follow the 
murderers and recover the captive. 

A company of eleven men, led by Col. John llay- 
mond and Col. George Jackson, started shortly after- 
wards in pursuit of the Indians, and followed the trail 
to Middle Island creek, where it appeared fresh. Col. 
Jackson proposed that six men should be chosen, who 
would strip as light as they could, and goaliead of the 
horses. William Haymond, of Palatine, who was one of 
the number, in a letter to Luther IIa3'mond, lifty 3'ears 
afterwards, thus gives an account of what followed . 

"George Jackson, Benjamin Robinson, N. Carpen- 
ter, John Haymond, John Harbert and myself (the 
sixth,) were those chosen. We stripped ourselves as 
light as we could, tied handkerchiefs around our 
heads, and proceeded as fast as we could. The In- 
dians appeared to travel very carelessly, and as it was 
in May, and the weeds were young and tender, we 
could follow a man very easily. Arriving on a high 
bank, Jackson turned around and said, " where do 3-ou 
think they have gone ?'' With that, lie jumped down 
the bank, and we proceeded down on tiie ])each a 
short distance, when suddenly we were tired upon by 

68 History OF Marion County. 

one of the Indians. We started in a run and had 
gone ten or fifteen yards when the other three fired. 
John Harbert and brother John caught sight of them 
first running up the hill and fired at them. Robinson 
and myself ran and jumped upon the bank where the 
Indians left their knapsacks, and I fired the third 
shot, the savages then being about fifty yards distant. 
* * * The Indian I shot bled considerable, 

and we trailed him for about a quarter of a mile, 
where he had cut a stick, which we supposed was to 
stop the blood. We followed him for about a mile, 
but the men thought it dangerous to go farther, think- 
ing he had his gun with him, and would hide and 
kill one of us, and we returned. '''- * * The 
other Indians we did not follow, but on arriving at 
the place of attack found all their knapsacks, a shot 
pouch, four hatchets and all their plunder, including 
the woman's scalp.* ''' * * I have since 
heard that one of the Cunninghams, who was a i^ris- 
oner with the Indians at that time, on his return said 
that an Indian came home anil said he had been with 
three others on Muddy river (West Fork,) and killed 
a man and a woman ; that they were followed ; that 
they fired on the white men ; and that the white men 
fired on them and wounded three, one of whom died 

*It was thus iiSL'ertiiiued tluU Mrs. Mclntirc had been iminlerea with her 
husband, and on the rotiirn of the party her body was found noar whero that 
of her husband had bcon. 

History of Marion County. 69 

after crossing the second ridge at a run). Wo were 
on the second ridge and near the second run). If this 
account be true, and the Indians we followed the same, 
we must have shot wt:!!." 

After the murder of the Mclntires, there were no 
more massacres by the Indians in, this vicinity, 
though it was not until the year 1795 that Indian 
hostilities ceased altogether in Northwestern Virginia 
— when the rapid increase of the white population, 
and the determined measures adopted by the govern- 
ment, soon put an end to the Indian wars, and drove 
the tribes further west. 


178.5 TO 1811). 

FTFU the close of the Indian hostilities, noth- 
ing of importance transpired for several years, 
except the rapid progress consequent upon the re- 
moval of all danger from attack by the savages. 

Every month brought new comers who took up 
claims and began the work of clearing and fencing 
their farms. Tlie population rapidly increased, and 
the counties of ^lonongalia and Harrison (which lat- 
ter county had been formed in 1784,) were devrdoping 
into wealthy and thickly populated communities. In 
October, 1785, Morgantown had been regular!}' estab- 
lished ui)on the lands of Zackquell ^hu'gan. Fiftv 
acres of his land lying upon a beautiful bottom on the 
Monongahela river, was " vested in Samuel Ilanway, 
John Evans. David Scott, Michael Kfarnes, and James 
Dougherty, gentlemen, trust((\s, to be by them, or any 
of them, laid otV in lots of half an acre each, with 
convenient streets, which shall be, and the same are 
hereby established a town by the nanie of A[organs- 

HrsTOKY OF Marion County. 71 

At the same time an act was passed establishing 
the town of Clarksburg, in Harrison county. Wil- 
liam Raymond, Nicholas Carpenter John Myers, 
John McAlly, and John Davison, were appointed trus- 
tees. These two towns were the only ones in this vi- 
cinity for some years, and they were made the mar- 
keting head-quarters for all the settlers of the sur- 
rounding country. 

From time to time after this, other various improve- 
ments were made. ^lills were erected along the riv- 
ers, the buildings constructed not so rough as those 
formerly put up, and stores began to be established. 

On December 5th, 1793, an act was passed by the 
General Assembly providing for the clearing and ex- 
tending of the navigation of the ]Monongahela and 
West Fork rivers, in the counties of Monongalia and 
Harrison, and trustees were appointed to receive sub- 
scriptions for the ])urpose. This was the first move 
ever made towards the improvement of the Upper 
Monongahela. Tlie act also directed that "any person 
who shoidd erect any dam across the said Monongahela 
or West Fork rivers, sliould at the time of making 
the same, erect a slope in or through the said dam, in 
such a manner as should admit the easy passage of 
fish ; and also erect a siifiicient lock at such dam for 
the convenient pas.sage of canoes, batteaus and flat- 
bottomed boats, at least twelve feet wide, and keep 

72 History of Marion County. 

the same iu good repair." Such improvements as 
these after a while became more frequent. 

Owing to tlie advances made in civilization, many 
of the inconveniences incident to pioneer life, began 
to disappear and better accommodations were found on 
every hand. The mail facilities, especially, were 
much improved, a regular route being established, 
which allowed the citizens to communicate with the 
outside world at least once a month! Previous to 
this there had been no regular mails, and the inhabi- 
tants of the new country were not made aware of what 
transpired away from home, save through the medium 
of travelers that would be passing, or some settler 
who had been away visiting, or upon business, and 
would bring with him on his return a budget of news- 
papers or letters. 

The war of 1812 with Great Britain did not affect 
this part of the country. Indeed, the inhabitants 
might scarcely have known tliat the war was waging, 
so little were its effects felt by them. A few volun- 
teers, however, went from this region, but very few. 
The settlements here had furnished but few Revolu- 
tionary soldiers, owing to the fact that the men were 
all needed at home to defend their families from the 
savages just at that time, and now, in this second 
war, there was not so great a demand for volunteers ; 
besides, we were so far removed from the immediate 
scene of the difficulties. 



DTlN the year 1811), Fairinoiit (then called Middle- 
(^ town) was established and regularly laid out. 
The people of this vicinit}^, feeling a need of a town, 
determined to locate one, and held a meeting to de- 
cide upon a site. The farm of Boaz Fleming was 
considered by them tlie roughest and poorest, and 
least adapted to farming purposes, and having little 
idea that the new town would ever be more than a 
small hamlet, they finally selected his land. The new 
place was named Middletowu, because it was about 
half way between the towns of Clarksburg and 'Mov- 
gantown, and served as a stopping i^lace for travelers 
going to and fro between the two latter places. At 
that time much of !Middletown was a laurel thicket, 
the only house being a log cabin occupicMl by Mr. 
Fleming, which stood near the corner of -lelierson 
street and Decatur Alley, or near where Mr. John 
Crane now resides. The old pear tree wbi(th stands 
in Mr. Crane's garden was planted by Mr. Fleming 
about the year 1800. A wolf trap stood n(>ar his house 

74 History of Marion County. 

at the time Middletown was Laid out. The first house 
built after the laying oft' of the town was by Mr. Sam- 
uel Jackson, father of Messrs. Oliver and James R. 
Jackson, of Fairmont. The first child born in Mid- 
dletown was E. M. Conaway, who is now in his fifty- 
ninth year. -j 

From this time on to the organization of Marion 
county there were no events worthy of note happened 
within the territory now embraced therein, save the 
occasional laying out of a town, as the increase in 
l.)opuLation, and the need of a headquarters, would 
make it necessary. 

In 1837, Rivesville was hiid out upon the land of 
Elisha Snodgrass, and named in honor of Hon. Henry 
C. Rives. 

In the year 1833, there had been a postotfice estab- 
lished at Robert Reed's tavern, near the forks of 
Booth's creek, and named Boothsville, in honor of Cap- 
tain Booth, whose murder by the Indians is related 
in a former chapter, and in 18;V,) a small town was laid 
oflF by Reed, adjacent to the postoftice, and has since 
grown to be quite a flourishing village, with a popula- 
tion of one hundred and fifty. 

In 1838, Palatine was established opposite Middle- 
town on the east bank of the Monongahela river, when 
the land owned by William Haymond ana John S. 
Barns, sr., who had jointly purchased it frotn Daniel 
and John Paulsley,the sons of Jacob Paulsley, who had 

History of Marion County. 75 

moved upon the land in 1798. The tract was originally 
purchased by William Haymond, sr., for $140. Pala- 
tine is now the second town, in point of size and pop- 
ulation, in the county. It contains at present about 
six hundred inhabitants, and is in a very flourishing 
co'ndition. Here are located the Marion Machine 
Works, the oldest manufacturing establishment of any 
kind in the county. These works, over thirty years 
ago, manufactured the iMcCorniick Reaper, the first 
reaping machine ever built for sale in the United 
States — a fact Avorthy of note. The Palatine Pottery 
is another very important branch of industry, which 
is located at this place. A large number of the male 
population of Palatine are employed in the several 
coal mines in the vicinity of Fairmont. 

Fairview, one of. Marion county's most flourishing 
villages, was laid otf in the summer of 1845. The 
only houses now standing upon the ground embraced 
within the limits Avere those built by Isaac Cotton 
(now occupied by Dr. Knos Amos) and David Iliggins. 
Fairview is about eleven miles northwest of Fairmont, 
and is a picturesque town of over one hundred and 
fifty inhabitants. It contains one of the largest 
steam llouring mills in this section of the State, and 
is the center of the trade of (luite a large scope of sur- 
rounding country. Basnettsville is a small settlement 
lying about half a mile south of Fairview. 

The third town in the county in population anil 

76 History of Marion County. 

importance, and the second in point of wealth, is 
Mannington, lying eighteen miles west of the county 
seat, on the B. ct 0. R. R. It is also the youngest 
place, for previous to the year 1850 there were but few 
houses on the ground of what is now a beautiful and 
prosperous town. All the land upon which Manning- 
ton is built belonged to Geo. H.J. Koon and James 
Furbee, the descendants of whom constitute a large 
portion of the leading inhabitants. Mannington is 
one of the most prominent towns of this section of 
West Virginia, considerable business boing done there. 
One of the most important branches of trade carried 
on is that of the manufacture of leather. ^Mannington 
sole leather received a prize at the Centennial Expo- 
sition at Philadelphia, in LS7G. Quite a large lum- 
ber business is also carried on here. 

Worthington, Glover's Gap, Farmington and Bar- 
rack ville are other villages of considerable importance 
which have sprung into existence. 

Newport, Wiufield, Forksburg, Valley Falls, Nu- 
zum's Mills, Texas, Benton's Ferry, Basnettsville, Bob- 
town, Houlttown and Ijarnesville may be classed among 
the smaller villages, some of them older than the coun- 
ty itself, but the majority are merely small stations 
upon the railroad which have been established since it 
was built. 

Benton's Ferry takes its name from Mr. Benton, 
who keeps the ferry upon the Valley river at that 

History of Marion County. 77 

point. This ferry was established by Asa Bee, father 
of Ephraiiii Bee, of Doddridge county, who was suc- 
ceeded by a family of Pettijohns, wlio gave way to 
John Mellett, which gentleman's son-in-law, Thomas 
Veach, afterwards had charge of it until Mr. Benton 
took possession. 

Valley Falls takes its n«me from the falls that are in 
theTygart's Valley river at this point. The river is a 
beautiful winding stream of gentle current, but at 
these falls the river descends, principally by three or 
four perpendicular pitches, some seventy feet in about 
a mile. They were discovered b}^ Jonathan Nixon, in 
the summer of 1785, while he was upon a hunting 



jfS^ ARION County was funned in 1.^42 from parts 
ci^^:: of Monongalia and Harrison counties. From 
the time of the close of the Indian depredations the 
population had increased so rai)idly that it was found 
necessary, for the conveniences of government to or- 
ganize a new county, and the people of the southern 
part of Monongalia and the northern part of Harrison 
counties accordingly petitioned tiie Legislature for 
the formation of what was afterwards called Marion 
county, in honor of General Francis Clarion, of Revo- 
lutionary memory. The choice of thi.-^ name eviden- 
ced that the projectors of the new county had not for- 
gotten their patriotism. Doubtless a foretaste of the 
ardent patriotism, so common about tbat time in Vir- 
ginia, and especially of tiie mode of giving vent to its 
pulsations, acted as a stimulus in those davs in keep- 
ing alive the names of tbo>e who tlourished conspicu- 
ously in the great War of Independence, and in caus- 
ing cities, towns and counties, as well as babies, both 

History of ]\[auion County. 79 

black and white, to be named for them. At about 
that period there was no State in the I'nion had more 
burning patriotism than \'iriiinia, and it usually 
manifested itself in feasting on ginger-bread and beer, 
hard cider and good wliisky, at big musters and on 
Fourth of July occasions, and in naming chihlrtMi and 
corporations for great and reninvned military men. 

The delegate in the Virginia Legishiture from this 
end of ^Monongalia county, in 1842, was William S. 
Morgan, and it was he wlio introduced the bill in the ^ 

House. The measure met with considerable opposi- 
tion, especially from the other delegates from ^^lonon- 
galia and oriC membei' from Harrison, but Mr. Morgan, 
assisted by Hon. William .J. Willey, the State Sena- 
tor from this district, and .lohn .J. Moore, Es(i., a lobby 
member, he linally con(|Uored all opposition and se- 
cured tlu' passage of the bill, January 14th, 1S42. 
jNIiddletown was mad*; the county seat, A year or 
two afterwards the name of the town was changed to 

On the 4th of April following, the fTrst county :;^^?^ 
court was held at the house of Willia^n Kerr, father 
of E. C. Kerr, of Fairmont, which stood on the corner 
of Main and JetVerson streets. John S. Barnes, Sr., 
Thomas S. Haymond, Thomas A\''atson and William 
Swearingen, justices of the peace, eom])osed tlie court. 
John Nuzum, William .1. \\'illey, Matthew' L. Flem- 
ing, Isaac ^Tcans, Leouard Lauib, (Jeorgc Dawson, Le- 

80 History of Marion Couxty. 

andor S. Laidlcy, Elias Bhickshere, David Cunning- 
ham, Abraham IIoss, Jolm S. Chisler, Absalom Knotts, 
Benjamin J. l>rice, Albert ^h)r<ian, David Musgrave, 
Hillcry Boggoss, \\'illiani T. ]\hjrgan, John Chiyton, 
Thomas Rhea, William Cochran, Jolm S. Smith, .lohn 
Musgrave, William I>. Snodgrass, William Uradley, 
Thomas A. Little, Je^se Sturm, John S. Uarnes, Sr.,' 
Sixi'd Henry J>t)gg('ss were the justices of the peace of 
the county. Zehulon Musgrave was appointed crier 
of the court, anil the following attorneys were permit- 
ted to practici^ in court : Cidcon Camden, William 
C. Haymond, lUirton Despard, Charles A. Harper, 
James M. Jackson, John J. Mortrc. (ieorge H. Lee, 
Waitman T. Willcy, Moses A. Harjx'r, and Eusebius 
Lowman. The court adjourned to meet in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal (th(> reciMitly diinolishetl Protestant 
Episcopali.ui) C'hureh, wIktc the future S(\'^sions of 
the court were held until the court house was built. 

Thomas L. Boggess was elected the lirst clerk of the 
county court, William C. li.iymoud was the lirst i)ros- 
ecuting attorney, and iMiijamin J. lirice the first 
sherift" of the county. 

Tlie crier of the court wa- ordeicd to enter into a 
contract with Daniel >L 'riiomj>son for tiie upper 
room of his dwelling house for a j.iil, •■ provided said 
Thompson >honld make such improvements as would 
make it secure." The i.nt was live d(»lhirs ])er month 
and Thompson \\a> ai»i)ointed jailor. The j.risou was 

History of Marion County. 81 

a queer structure, to be sure. It was situated on 
Washington street, the same site whereon stands the 
dwelling now occupied by William E. Hough. It 
was a small log house, and tbe upper room, which the 
court ordered to be used as a jail, was only a half story 
ry high ; had holes sawed out at the gable ends, giving 
it the appearance of an old fashioned Indian fort. 
Whether prisoners really stayed within the enclosure 
any longer than they were watched by sentinels from 
the outside is doubtful. Then, however, jails were 
mostly used for confining failing debtors, and it mat- 
tered but little whether they remained in or out of the 
enclosure of the jail. If they got out they were too poor 
to abscond. Some years afterwards, and when it had 
ceased to serve as a jail, the house Avas moved, and now 
stands some distance east on the same street — owned 
and occupied by .Jame^ Murphy. 

F. H. Pierpoint, attorney, wa.^ qualified at the May 
term of the court, and Dan'l M. Thompson was awarded 
the contract for building the court house for the sum 
of 63,150.75, which were the principal items of business 
transacted that term. The court liouse was considered 
a fine building when it was completed. It bore such 
a contrast to the other buildings in Fairmont at that 
time that it no doubt presented an imposing appear- 
ance. Since the recent improvements inihe county 
seat, however, and tin? erection of so many handsome 

82 History of Marion County. 

business houses, the contrast is the other way. The 
court house, together with its gi'ouuds, occupies about 
one-tliird tiie space between Jeticvson and Monroe 
streets, on tlie North side of Main, and is u large two 
story brick, surmounted by a cupohi, containing a 
splendidly toned bell. Si.x. heavy columns grace the 
front of the building and support the gable, which 
extends over a pavement in front of the door. In the 
first story are contained the county ollices— that of the 
clerk of the county coui-t on the right of the entrance, 
and the circuit court clerk's oliice on the left. On 
either side of the hall-way leading to the back of the 
building are various other offices. In the second stor}' 
isthe large court room. and. two jury rooms. In front 
of the building is a large yard, containing sliade trees, 
and in the rear is the jail, with the shcriti's residence, 
which buildings are new, having been erected in 1.S77 
at a cost of about -S'^^jOOO. The business of the county 
has increased, and continues to increase, to such an 
extent that it will soon be found necessary to tear 
down the present court house and build a greater and 
more convenient one — which, it is hoped, will be more 
creditable to the county in point of architectural 
beauty, than the one ni>w standing. 

In those days everybody that could possibly make 
it convenient came to town during tlie sitting of the 
county court. Especially was this tlie case on the 

History of Marton' (Bounty. 83 

first and secoiid days of each term. They were set 
apart as general trading days. On tliese days, men, 
women and children came to town v\-ith their horses, 
cattle, grain, butter, eggs, chickens, and soap, and ex- 
changed them for such articles as supplied their de- 
mands and necessities. Court days, were famous, too, 
for ending disputations in fisticuffs and drinking 
whisky. All the <[uarrels and wranglings among the 
baser sort of the people of the county were refen-ed 
to county court days for final adjustment, and they 
usually ended in knock-downs and bloody noses. 

Thomas S. JIaymond and .lohn ('. Clayton were the 
first representatives of the county in the House of 
Delegates, and William J. Willey in tlie Senate. Mon- 
ongalia, Preston, IJandolph and Marion, composed the 
Senatorial district. Messrs. Haynioud and Clayton 
were delegates of more than average abilitv; espec- 
ially is this merit accorded to Mr. Hayinond. 

Mr. Willey, the Senat(»r, was a resident of the 
county ; was noted for his many eccentricities, an<l for 
his abilities as a legislator. He was by no means a 
handsome man, an<l for this reason was not called up- 
on to divide his time with the ladies of Richmond, 
but was enabled to devote himself solely to the best 
interests of his constituency, It is related of Mr. 
Willey that when he used to go to iiichmond as a rep- 
resentative he was as fond of i)ersonating the pecu- 

84 History of Marion County. 

liar style of dress of the people as he was of repre- 
senting their local interests in the Legislature. On 
one occasion he went to Richmond dressed in blue 
linsey breeches and brown linsey hunting shirt. 



Ifs^/A ARION county made no rapid strides in the 
l^^ " March of progre.^s," until the year 1849, 
when a decided increase in her population com- 
menced, the tide of immigration following closely in 
the footsteps of the engineers of the Baltimore and. 
Ohio Railroad, who completed their survey during 
this year. Some of the immigrants, however, were 
not of the most desirable character, and the history of 
Marion county at this time teems with stories of the 
feuds of the Irislimcn who were employed in con- 
structing the railroad. These Irishmen, fresh from 
the bogs of Connaught and the Lakes of Killarny, 
brought with them all their local feuds and predju- 
dices. They had not been in this country long 
enough to learn that *' all men are born free and 
equal," so that in their work it was necessary to keep 
the men of the ditlerent elans apart, for certain as a 
Fardowner met a Connaughter, a light ensued — the 

86 History of Marion County. 

fact that they were of different clans being sufficient 
cause for the most active liostilities. The Con- 
naughters who were employed at Benton's Ferry con- 
cluded one morning to make an attack on the Far- 
downers at Ice's ]\rills, a few miles distant, settle all 
old scores, and by one grand stroke drive them from 
the county. Accordingly they formed themselves into 
a band two hundred strong, and made a descent on 
Ice's Mills. The Fardowners, taken entirely by sur- 
prise, threw all work aside .and fled in dismay to 
Fairmont for protection. The Connaughters pursued 
them closely, firing oft' an occasional gun, or stopping 
to beat a poor fellow who was down, until, with shouts 
and Irish yells, they came rushing down the hills into 
•the town. Here pursued and pursuers were brought 
to a stand still, for the citizens soon recovering from 
their astonishment turned out c?/ mcis^r, and arrested 
every assailant they saw, so tliat in a very short time 
eighty-eight men were in jail. Not a very remark- 
able feat, when it is known that the raw Irishmen 
offered no resistance when being arrested. So great 
was thier terror of the law that a negro slave captured 
six men b}' simply grasping each by the arm and 
saying, "I arrest you, sir, you must go to jail." The 
prisoners were kept until the next da}' when nearly 
all were released. Shortly after, the remaining few 
were given their liberty, thus ending the Irish riot, 
long famous in the annals of Fairmont. 

History of Marion County. 87 

In the summer of this year, 184U, the construction 
of three turn pikes — one leading to Weston, another 
to Beverly and the third to Fishing Creek — was be- 
gun. This enterprise, coupled with that of the rail- 
road, was the greatest incentive to industry and pro- 
gress the people of Marion had ever received. 

The year 1852 is notable in the history of Marion 
county for three important events : The great flood, 
the completion of the Baltimore and (Jhio Railroad 
and the building of the wire suspension bridge con- 
necting Fairmont and Palatine. 

The great tlood, whi(;h destroyed thousands of dol- 
lars worth of property, occurred on Monday the 5th of 
April, 1852. ]>}' reason of the heavy rains that had 
fallen the day before the West Fork and Mononga- 
hela rivers rose with fearful rapidity until o o'clock 
on Tuesday, rising at the rate of five feet per hour 
during part of the time — when the Monongahela at 
Fairmont attained a perpendicular height of forty- 
three feet above an ordinarily low stage of water, and 
eight feet higher than a great rise in 1807. The de- 
struction of i)roperty, particularly on the West Fork, 
was very great. On Monday about forty houses 
floated by Fairmont. How many passed during the 
night was unknown. Among them were the mills of 
Mr. Griflin, of Harrison county, and Mr. I.ucas, of 
Worthington, and the mill and carding machine house 
of a Mr. Brice, of this county. 

88 History of Marion County. 

"In the town of Worthington every house, except 
one and the parts of two others, was swept away, and 
with them a large quantity of household goods. We 
insert the following, clipped from the account of the 
fresliet, which appeared in the Fairmont Trae Virgin- 
ian the Saturday after the flood : 

"The apothecary shop of our friend Dr. P. Davis, was 
seen passing by our town with cases, books and med- 
icines apparently uninjured. A cat was in a window, 
seemingly surveying, with much composure, the roam- 
ing element on which it was riding. A portion of his 
property was rescued and brought to shore. The only 
house which remains in Worthington, is the brick 
standing back from the river, and a part of that of R. 
Parish, occupied by T. P. Lilly as a hotel, and a part 
of W. Hood's house. Mr. Hood lost his store house, 
and the greater part of his goods. The mill of Mr. 
Hoult, below town, has also been carried away by the 
flood. But little damage, comparativel\', has been 
sustained by the citizens of this place or Palatine. 
The greatest sufferers are the Messrs. .Tacksons and 
William Gallahue. The mill pro{)erty of the former 
has been consideral)ly injured, but it is supposed that 
$700 will cover the loss. The house of Mr. Gallahue, 
near the lower ferry, with all his household goods and 
much of his provisions laid in for the year, and a 
small house below his, on the river l)ank, were swept 
away. It is impo.^siblc to enumerate all the cases of 
loss and suffering. One hundred thousand dollars 
will hardly cover the damages sustained by the citi- 
zens of this county alone. The railroad has also been 

History of Marion Coi'nty. 89 

greatly injured, and it is apprehtmded tliat its com- 
pletion to this point will be delayed some two weeks. 
What has been the injury in Taylor county, we liave 
not learned, but not much, we hope and suppose. 
And we sincereh' hope it may not be as bad in Harrison 
as has been estimated by persons up the river. The 
5th of April, 1852. will long be remembered as an 
important epoch in the history of this county, b.dng 
the date of, by far, the greatest freshet witliin the 
memory of our oldest inhabitants, or known to them 
by tradition. 

" P. S. — Rivesville also has sustained very great 
damage. Several of the best houses tliere have been 
carried away. Among them are the house and shop 
of S. F. Morri-^. the warehouse at the Pawpaw bridge 
ahd the bridge, all the stabling and out-buildings of 
Mr. Snodgrass, besides smaller tenemimts and sho[)S. 

"Newj»ort, a little village on the opposite bank of 
the river, b(!tween this and Morgantown was com- 
pletely inundatei], and we learn that one or two of 
the houses tliere wt>re floated off. Almost every 
hour since tlie fresbet we havt- received intelli- 
gence of sonu^ additional disaster. There seems in- 
deed to be no end to the destruction of property. 

"The Tygart's Valley river was not so high as it 
was in 184G, and but little or no damage, therefore, has 
been sustained on that river. The great rise w\is in 
the West Fork."' 

On the 2od of June of the same year the comple- 
tion of the railroad to Fairujont was celebrated. The 
President and Directors of the Company, together 
with a large number of gentlemen from tiie cities of 

90 History of Marion County. 

Baltimore, Cumberland, Wheeling, Martinsburg, etc., 
and a large number of ^[arion county citizens, assem- 
bled in an arbor erected for tlie occasion, at a place 
now known as *' the Y," about half a mile beloAv town. 
We again clip from the True Virginian of June 26th, 
1852 : 

"According to appointment the President and Di- 
rectors of the BaltiuKtre and Ohio liailroad. a portion 
of the Cit}' Council, with a large number of other gen- 
tlemen from the city of J>altimore, from Cumberland. 
Wheeling, Martin.sburg, c^-c, and also a portion of our 
county men as the guests of the Company assend)led 
at the arbor erected for the occasion, about half a mile 
below town, near Mr. U. Barns", on the evening of the 
22d inst., to celebrate the com])letion of the road to 
this point. The train from I>altiniore did not arrive 
until about S o'clock in tlic cvtMiing, owing to a tem- 
porary obstruction at tlie Big Tunn(4. This was a 
disappointment to many of our citizens who had come 
a long distanci> to see tbc oars arrive, but who were 
compelled, in consequence of tlie lateness of the liour, 
to leave without gratifying tlieir curiositv. 

" Immediately after the arrival of the cars the com- 
pany were seated at the table which was well filled 
with the choicest viands and every luxury of the 
season — not omitting that •' which brings aood cheer." 
The company was a very large one, consisting of sev- 
eral hundre.j. In ;i short time the Hon. Mr. Swann, 
the President of the Railroad Company, was called out 
for a speech, and most ably did he respon.l to tht; call. 
We would like to give, at least, the head of his chaste 

History of Marion County. 91 

and elegant address, but the want of time and room 
forbid at present. He was followed by Mr. Young, of 
the Baltimore City Council, who introduced to the 
audience Mr. H. D. Brooke, of the Fourteenth City 
Ward, and in a speech, rich, racy and musical, he put 
the crowd in the very finest humor. He was fol- 
lowed by Mr. F. H. Peirpoint, and him by Mr, A. F. 
Haymond. These gentlemen made most excellent 
and appropriate speeches in their usual eloc|uent style. 
Mr. B. H. Latrobe was then called to the floor and 
made a highly interesting spec^ch. He was followed 
by a Mr. Grey, who dilated upon the services- of Mr. 
George Brown, of Baltimore, which brought that gen- 
tleman to his feet, but only to call out Mr. Latrobe, 
the distinguished attorney for the Company. This 
gentleman made an eloquent and beautiful speech. 
He was followed ])y Col. T. S. Haymond, which wound 
up, to the best of our knowledge and belief, the truly 
agreeable and interesting entertainment. It was the 
feast of reason and tiow of soul. Between the speeches, 
that fine and justly celebrated brass band from Balti- 
more discoursed some of the sweetest music, employing 
none but sweetest notes for the occasion. Every at- 
tention was shown the visitors and strangers, and 
the regret was that their stay could not have been pro- 
longed. They left about 10 o'clock on Wednesday 
morning. The occasion was one which merited the 
celebration, and the celebration was worthy of the 

Shortly afterward the road was completed through 
to Wheeling, passing through the following towns 
and villages in Marion county: Valley Falls, Nu- 

92 History of Marion (Bounty. 

zum's Mills, Benton's Ferry, Texas, Flemiugsburg, 
[Johntown], Fairmont, Uztown, Barnesvillo, Barrack- 
ville, Farniington, Mannington and Glover's (jap. At 
Flemingsburg, which lies a short distance below the 
confluence of the Tygart's Valley and West Fork riv- 
ers, one mile west of Fairmont, the Monongahela is 
•crossed by the railroad by means of a magnificent iron 
bridge, constructed at great cost to the company. The 
viaduct is 6oU feet long and 35 feet alwve low water 
surface. This bridge was destroyed by the Confeder- 
ates during the War of the llebellfon, but shortl}' af- 
terward was rebuilt. 

The suspension bridge across the j\[onongahela riv- 
er, connecting Fairmont and Palatine, which was fin- 
ished during this year, was built under the direction 
of Mr. James L. Randolph, assistant engineer of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ; at a cost of about thirty 
thousand dollars. The State of Virginia subscribed 
twelve thousand and the citizens of Fairmont and 
Palatine eight thousand dollars of stock. The resi- 
due necessary to complete the bridge was borrowed 
and afterwards ail paid from the tolls of the company. 
This bridge, seen from a distance, is a most beautiful 
structure, hanging like a spider's web from the mas- 
sive stone towers that rise aijove, suj) porting it on 
either side — a very long and high web, however, for 
the distance from tower to tower is five hundred and 
sixty feet, while the bridge is fifty feet above the wa- 

History of Makion County. 9<5 

ter at its ordinary stage. The platform which con- 
nects the bridge proper with the land is eighty-five 
feet in length. 

April 22d, of this year, the county was divided off 
into seven districts or townships, pursuant to an act 
passed April 3d, by the Legislature. The commission- 
ers who performed the work were Austin Merrill, r>en- 
jamin Fleming, George M. Ryan, Elijah B. Ross, Z. 
Musgrave, M. Vangildor, .John Conaway, J. C. Beaty, 
Aaron Hawkins, and .Jacob Straight. The names of 
the districts were: Boothsville district, No. I — voting 
place at William Shaver's; Palatine district, No. 2 — 
voting places at the store of Hezekiah Boggess, and 
the house of Enos Nu7um ; Eastern district. No. 3 — 
voting places at ^Meredith's tavern, and the house of 
Henry S. I^ride; Fairmont district,' No. -1 — voting pla- 
ces at the court house in Fairmont, and Conaway & 
Son's store in Barrackvillo; Pawpaw district. No. 5 — 
voting places at Basnett's store in Basnettsville, and 
at the house of Amus Snodgrass in Milford; Worth- 
ington district. No. G — voting places at Thomiis P. 
Lilly's tavern in Wortliington, and Col. W. J. Wil- 
ley's store in Farmington; Mannington district, No. 
7 — voting places at the tavern of Alexander Talking- 
ton in Mannington, and at the tavern in Beaty'.s 

Afterwards the names of the districts were changed 
to those they now hold and they were called toi(m.'<hips; 

94 History of Marion County. 

they are now, however, called districts as before. The 
names of the districts at present are as follows : Fair- 
mont, Union, Grant, Winfield, Pawpaw, Lincoln and 
Mannington. The name "township,'' was changed 
to "district" by a new constitution made in 1872. 



5TLN the year 1815, a Presbyterian minister, who had 
@^ been holding a series of meetings in the neigh- 
borhood of Fairmont, preaching wherever he could 
obtain a room jarge enough to contain the people, 
effected a regular church organization. This event 
took place in a barn on the farm of Asa Hall, near 
Barnesville, and is believed to be the first permanent 
church organization within the bounds of Marion 
county, though there is one at Gilboa which claims to 
have a prior existence. The former organization, now 
known as the Presbyterian Church of Fairmont, in 
1822 built a frame church on the ground afterwards 
occupied by the old brick building that has recently 
been demolished, which stood on Jefferson street, op- 
posite the Mountain City House. This frame church 
was of the most primitive description. No lath or 
plaster covered its walls, and no ceiling reflected the 
light of the tallow candles in their dim candle-sticks 
fastended to the posts, or held in position against the 

90 History of Marion CoUxNtv. 

wall by two nails driven into the studding. In 1850, 
this church gave place to the old brick that, in turn, 
has been pulled down to help furnish material fur the 
handsome Presbyterian Church that now stands on 
the corner of Jefferson and Jackson streets, built in 

The first brick church built within the town 
of Fairmont was the recently demolished Protestant 
Episcopal Church, which was built by the Methodist 
P]piscopal denomination, and used by them until the 
building of their present commodious place of wor- 
ship on ^lain street, in the year 1<S52. Among the 
events which took place wichin its walls, are some of 
secular as well as of religious interest, for here the first 
court that ever convened in the county, held its regu- 
lar sessions, and it continued to be used for that pur- 
pose until a court house was built. 

In 1834, the ^Methodist Protestant denomination 
built a frame church on (^uincy street, and after a 
lapse of seventeen years, it was pulled down to make 
room for the substantial brick structure which now 
stands on the same ground. This latter churchy 
erected in 1851, is still used as a place of worship by 
the Methodist Protestant denomination. 

It seems hard to realize, on looking at an old log 
building, now used as a barn, standing at Yellow 
Rock Ford, two and a half mil(!S from the mouth of 
the West Fork, that was ever a church. It was^ 

Hlstory of JNIariox County. 97 

however, the first Baptist Church ever built in this 
region, though the exact date of it.s erection is un- 
known. Here Josluui Hickman, and other celebrated 
clergymen, })reached the Word to the inhabitants of 
the surrounding country. 

The Runian Catholic Churcli, of Fairmont, was 
biiilt in 1858, and i> tlic only regular organization of 
the kind in Marion county, though there are quite a 
number of that faith, especially along the route of the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad. 

As time passed on other churches began to dot the 
green hills and vales of the county, until now there 
are a great number of all denominations, and all are 
prosperous, com})rising in their membership the bulk 
of the population. There is scarcely a home in the 
county that is inaccessible to a church of some kind. 
The only African church in the county is in Fair- 
mont, and is called the African M. E. Church. 

For many years Marion county has had good schools, 
and especially is this true sinc(> the establishment of 
the free schot)l system, .\uiong the principal instruc- 
tors of her youtii during the few years previous to and 
during the civil war, were J. L. ]M(_)rehead, George W. 
L. Kidwell, B. F. ^fartin, Alexander Steele, Miss Mary 
J. Shore, Prrtf. Lanigan, and others. The Fairmont 
Male and Female Seminary, under Prof. W. R. White, 
from I80G to 1804, was a very successful institution, 
being an educational power in the community, and 


98 History of Marion County, 

having students from all parts of the State, man}' of 
whom now occupy prominent positions in life. Prof. 
White is the author of the "Alphabet Made Easy" — 
a very popular primmer in general use throughout the 

Since the establishment of the free school system 
the progress of Marion county in educational matters 
has been rapid, until now every advantage to gain a 
common school education is afforded the youth. T"p- 
on every hand are neat, convenient school houses, pro- 
vided with first-class teachers. The following table 
from the report of the county superintendent, J. N. 
Satterfield, for 1879, will serve to show the reader the 
condition of the schools in Marion county in that 
year, financially and otherwise : 

Total value of all school property in county, $70,002.75 
Aggregate value of buildings, . . 60,825.00 

Number of common schools in county, . . 103 
Number of graded schools in county, . .5 

Number of high schools in county, ... 1 

Total number of schools, .... 109 

Whole number of buildings, .... 105 

Number of districts, 5 

Number of sub-districts, 102 


Number of white males, .... 3,304 

Number of white females, . . . 2,927 

Number of colored males, .... 15 

History of Marion County. 99 

Number of colored Females, ... 18 

Total number of males, .... 3,319 

Total number of Females, . . . 2,945 

Whole number of youths between ages of 6 and 21, 6,2G4 
Of these, the whole number attending school is 4,710 

Number of males, 2,644 

Number of females, 2,066 

Average daily attendance, . . . 3,164 

Average age of pupils, . . . . 11.5 

Number of male teachers ... 94 

Number of female teachers, . , . . 26 

Whole number of teachers, . . . 120 

A branch of the State Normal Scho(jl is located in 
Fairmont, and as it is celebrated tliroughout the 
State for its excellence, and an institution of which 
Marion county may well be proud, it deserves special 
mention : The act establishing a system of free 
schools was passed December 10, 186^, and it was im- 
mediately found that there was need of well trained 
teachers. The State did not at first provide for a 
school for teacliers and many such institutions were 
started as private enterprises. Tlu^ first of these was 
the Fairmont Normal School, whicli was opened in 
in 1865, by J. N. Boyd, then editor of the National, in 
the basement of the .M. P. (""hurch. The success of 
this school prom})ted the citizens to take stej)s t(»wards 
securing such an institution permanently in Fair- 
mont, and in the winter of 18(55-6 a bill proposing to 
establish a State Normal School at that place was in- 

100 History of Marion County. 

troduced into the I.p,<j:islature, but that body adjourned 
without taking any action upon the bill. The citi- 
zens of Fairmont formed a joint stock company un- 
der the tith^ of -'The Regency of the "West Virginia 
Normal Sidiool," and secured a ciiarter for the same. 
The incorporators were Oliver Jackson, Jacob C. Bee- 
son, Ellery R. Hall, John N. Boyd, Dennis B. Dorsey, 
James J. Burns, T. A. Fleming, J. H. Browntield, T. 
A. Maulsby and A. Brooks Fleming. A board of di- 
rectors was elected, of which Oliver Jackson was Pres- 
ident. Ellery R. Hall, Secretary, and J. J. r>urn.«. Treas- 
urer. A lot was purchased of Judge E. B. Hall for 
$1,500 and the wing of the present building was be- 
gun in the summcu- of ISG?. It was GSx40 fec't and 
two stories high. In P'ebruary, l.S()7, the l.egislature 
voted 65,000 to this school, on condition that 82,000 
additional be paid by citizens of Marion county. The 
condition was complied with and tlie institution 
passed into the hands of the State. In 1872 the main 
building, whi(di is 80x40 feet, and thn-e stt>ries high, 
was erected. The entire cost of the building has been 
about S2U,()00, of which the State gave 610,000 
and the distrii;t of Faii'mont the remainder. After 
its purchase by the State, Prof. W. R. White, who 
had been the first state superintendent of free schools, 
was the first principal of the Normal School. Prof. 
White secured of Dr. Sears, agent of the Peabody 
fund, a gift of 6500 for the normal department and 

HisTOKY OF Marion County. 101 

$1,000 for the model school, which donation was con- 
tinued through the four years following. In 1870, 
Prof. White resigned, and was succeeded in the Prin- 
cipalship by Prof. J. C. Gilchrist (now Principal of 
the State Normal School located at Cedar Falls, Iowa), 
who continued in office until the late Dr. J. G. Blair 
received the appointment, in 1871. The latter gen- 
tleman retained the ofhce until his death, December 
22d, 1878. In 1874 the Normal and Public Schools 
were separated, and from this time on the benefits of 
the separation have been felt by both schools. On 
the death of Dr. Blair, Miss M. L. Dickey, who had for 
eight years been the first assistant teacher, was ap- 
pointed to fill his place, which position she now holds. 
Dr. Blair was a man of profound learning and bore an 
almost national reputation as an instructor, and it is 
conceded by the friends of the school everywhere that 
Miss Dickey, whose reputation for talent and tact in 
discii)lining and teaching a school of this kind is en- 
viable, is well worthy to lill his place. The lowest 
number of students attending thv school at any one 
time during its existence was ;'(), and the highest 221. 
They come from all j)arts of the State, and many have 
been from Ohio, Penney 1 vania and Maryland. In 1879, 
19 counties of West Virginia were represented in the 
school. The faculty at present consists of Miss M. L. 
Dickey, Principal; Mi.-s Lucy Fleming and Prof. U. S. 

Fleming, assistants; and Mrs. A. ^1. J. Pinnell, teacher 

102 History of aVfARioN County. 

of music. The building is provided with a commodious 
hall or chapel, contaiuiiig an organ, and is capable of 
holding five hundred people, a large main school 
room, library and ai)paratus room, the several neces- 
sary class rooms, and a music room, appropriately fur- i 
nished with a piano, etc. The school has two pros- 
perous literary societies — the Mozart Society and the 
Normal Lyceum. This latter organization has re- 
cently laid the foundation of a library. 

The Normal School is worthy the encouragement 
of the county, for it not only reflects great credit 
upon the community, but it is a source of considera- 
ble revenue. • 



,N the 11th of Fehruary, 1850, the first steamboat 
that ever followed tlie Monongahela river to 
its head arrived at Fairmont. It was called the Globe, 
and its appeararice created intense excitement among 
the citizens. Fairmont is the proper head of naviga- 
tion of the Ohio river, for it is here that the ]\Ionon- 
gahela is formed by the confluence of the two smaller 
streams, tlie Tygart's Valley and West Fork rivers; 
and the Gl-ohe, in making the trip, proved successfully 
that the river was navigable to this point. At 
various times during several years following, other 
boats came this far up the river, and during the high 
water of 1852, the T/tomns P. Ray and others made 
regular trips for some time. It was no unusual thing 
for the Fairmont newspapers of those days to contain 
reports like the following, which are clip])ed from the 
True Virglntan of March 13th and April 10th, 1852, 
respectively ; 

104 History of Marion County. 


"Arrival, March 6th, 

"Steamer Tnos. P. Ray, departed same day. 

"Our town was cheered with the welcome ichistle 
of the Steamer Thomaa P. Ray., on Saturday last. 
The river, though unusually high for boats to run 
above the slack water, seemed to offer little resistance 
to her powerful engines. The trip was made in less 
time, we are informed, than any boat that has prece- 
ded her. Her principal lading was salt and whisk3^" 


" The favorite Steamer, T/ioma.<i P. Ray, Captain 
Hughes, arrived on Wednesday, the 7th inst., about 
10 o'clock in the evening, with a heavy cargo of gro- 
ceries, salt and merchandise of different descriptions 
for various persons. 

" She left this port on Thursday morning about 10 
o'clock with tobacco fTOm Logan &, Carr's and other 
articles of traffic. The Thomas P. Ray is a finely 
finished boat, antl the officers are spoken of as gentle- 
men and are accommodating men."" 

The most recent arrivals of this kind at the " Port 
of Fairmont " were the West Virrjinia, a small boat, 
which landed July 5th, 1873, and returned to Morgan- 
town the same evening, and the Klertor, a large side- 
wheel steamer, arriving January "iltli, 1876, and de- 
parting the following day. 

The arrival of the Globe aroused considerable en- 
thusiasm in the breasts of the people of Marion 

History of Marion County. 105 

county on the subject of slack-water. Meetings were 
held, and steps taken to secure permanent navigation. 
Major O'Bannon, editor of the Demorrntic Banner, 
agitated the question in the columns of his paper, 
and took a strong personal interest in the matter. A 
company was formed called the Monongahela Naviga- 
tion Company, and books were opened to receive sub- 
scriptions of stock, Major O'Bannon, making journeys 
to Pittsburgli, Wheeling, Baltimore and other places, 
delivering addresses before the Boards of Trade, and 
endeavoring to interest capitalists in the project. 
The matter did not receive suOicient and substantial 
encouragement from the people of tlie county, how- 
ever, and the enterprise soon fell through. The fol- 
lowing, clipped from a lengthy editorial on the sub- 
ject in the Bannrr, will show how the. press labored to 
secure slack-water; and the reader may infer from it 
that the citizens did not encourage the thing as they 
should — after the excitement incident to the arrival 
of the Globe had worn off: 

'•Improve this river, and this place becomes at once 
the grand entrepot for all the trade on the line of the 
railroad for thirty or forty miles, and south of us for 
fifty miles, intended f(M- the Pittsburgh market, and 
all the trade within striking distance of the river, 
intended for Baltimore. This is not all: this place 
becomes the mart for the entire region of country 
south and south-west, and north and north-east of this 
for some forty miles, lieal estate within ten miles of 

106 History of Marion County. 0' 

this river, would immediately advance from twenty- 
five to fift}' per cent. Omit to make this ijnprove- 
ment and that same property is bound to depreciate 
in the same ratio. Is it not time then for the people 
to wake up? We would like to see a lively interest 
felt and evinced on the subject. Too great lethargy 
has been resting on the people in relation to this mat- 
ter. There is too much at stake to slumber over'."' 

In the year 185:'., and the month of October, the 
First National ]>ank of Fairmont was organized as a 
State Stock Bank. It was afterwards, in 1858, changed 
to a free banking system, with Oliver .lackson as 
President, and Thomas F. (!onaway, Cashier. It was 
made a National Bank on the 2d of April, 18(55, with 
Jacob C. Beeson as President, and .Joseph E. Sands, 
Cashier. The handsome banking house and cashier's 
residence now occupied 1)y tlie bank, was erected in 
1875, at a cost of $35,000. 

The Mountain City Bank began business August 
1st, 1874. ; 

In 1875 the Farmer's Bank, of Fairmont, began bu- 
siness with William Ridgely as President, and Jacob 
N. Gould, Cashier, the latter gentleman having been 
previous to this time a teller in the First National 

These are the only banks in the county. 

The first newspaper issued in Marion county was 
published at Fairmont, and called the Marlon County 
Pioneer, Lindscy Boggess, editor and propri(>tor, and 

History of Marion County. 107 

afterwards R. Fulton Cooper took charge of it. It was 
issued about the year 1S40. Tliis was followed by the 
BaptUt Recorder, of which Dr. \\\ D. Eyster was pub- 
lisher and proprietor, Joseph Walker, editor, and 
Daniel S. Morris, printer. Then caiuc the Democratlr 
Banner, edited and publisht^d by Morris, which. com- 
menced publication in March, 1850. Mr. Morris sold 
the Banner in 1851 to A. J. O'Uannon, who in a short 
time changed the name of the paper to The True Vir- 
ginian and Tran-i-Albglteiiij Adcertixer, associating with 
him in the publication Benjamin F. Beall. After- 
wards Beall's interest was transferrtjd to George P. 
Morgan, when the last j)art of the name was dropped, 
it being called then simply The True Virginian. W. 
F. Drinkard purchased tlie paj>er in 1853, and contin- 
ued to publish it until b'^Hl, when it ceased to exist. 
During the last years of its existence William Mac- 
Donnell, celebrated for his humorous style of writing, 
was the local editor. The political complexion of the 
paper was Democratic. 

In 1858 the Fairmont R'puhli/an was issued by J. M. 
Scrogin, and edited by Dr. W. W. Granger, during 
the following year. Next tlie Methodist Protestant Sen- 
tinel made its appearance, conducted b}' Dr. D. B. Dor- 
sey, then by Rev. Samuel Young. In 1862, Col. A. F. 
Ritchie launched upon the sea of journalism the Fair- 
mont National, whose corps of editors comprised J. T. 
BenGough, J. N. Boyd and Timothy B. Taylor. Then 

108 History of Marion County. 

followed, in 1866, the Vedette, a Republican paper, ed- 
ited and published by J. N. Boyd and Timothy B. 
Taylor, in turn, who disposed of the paper to Josiah 
Dillon, who changed the name to The Went Virginian, 
and it was afterwards puicliased by Henry W. Rook 
and Charles M. Shinn. In 1873, Mr. Shinn assumed 
entire control of the journal, and in 1875 sold it to 
the present i)roprieters, A. H. Fleming and Lamar C. 
Powell. The paper is now in a prosperous condition, 
and is the organ of the Republican party of Marion 
county. The otiice was destroyed in the great tire of 
1876. A new one was speedily purchased by the pro- 
prietors, and tlie paper continued, being much im- 
proved in appearance by reason of its new dress. 

After the suspension of the True Virginian, in 1861, 
the Democratic party of >iarion ct)unty had no paper 
again until 1870, when the Libenilist was started bj' 
Fontain Smith it Son, who in a few weeks disposed of 
it to J. R. Gros'C. James ]\h)rrovv, jr.. then became its 
editor and William S. Iluymond it> kx-al editor. The 
Liberalid lived bavdy througli the Presidential cam- 
paign of 1872. In February. 1874, Maji)r \V. P. 
Cooper commenced the publi(;ation of the Fairmont 
Index, which lias since been the organ of the Marion 
county Democracy. In April, 1876, the fire which 
destroyed the W^t Virginian otlice, likewise almost 
totally burned the Judex material. The little that 
was saved from the tlames, together with the books of 

History of Marion County. 109 

the office, and the good will of the business, were pur- 
chased of Major Cooper by Clarence L. Smith and 
George A. Dunnington, who continued the publica- 
tion of the sheet, enlarging it to its present propor- 
tions. In February, 1877, after having conducted the 
paper through the Presidential campaign of 1S76, 
Smith and Dunnington disposed of the Index to 
the present proprietors, William A. Ohley. and 
Albert J. Dick. This paper has also quite recovered 
from the effects of the lire, and the Democratic party 
can at last boast of one organ which is permanently 

The Mannington Ventilator, an Independent paper, 
was published by E. S. Zeveley in 1875 and 1876, but 
it did not live but a portion of each year. 

The West Vlrrjlnla Real Estate Journal, published 
monthly at Fairmont, by Thomas H. B. Staggers and 
Charles J. Corbin, was started in August, 1879, and 
isthc latest journalistic venture in the county. It is 
principally devoted to the real estate interests of Ma- 
rion and surrounding counties. 

With this last exception all the journals men- 
tioned above have been weeklies. The only daily pa- 
per that has ever been published in the county was 
the Normal Srfiool Dail>i. pubhMied by R. S. ^Miller 
and W. S. Meredith, at Fairmont, during the progress 
of commencement at that institution in June, 1S79. 




ETEK tlie events rduted in the sixteenth chap- 
ter nothing i){ great interest trans])ire(l in tlie 
county for several years. The War of tlie Rebellion, 
which broke out in ISdl, attracted the attention of 
citizens to other seen(\< than the ct)niparatively in- 
significant things that were ha[)|)ening in Marion, 
and many of those who wei'e fit for s'M-v'ice enlistetl in 
the conflict either upon one side or upon the other. 
Those whose sympathies were with the South (and 
they comprised a large numlier of the most i)rominent 
men in the county) left their farms and houses and 
joined the Coniederate Army — many taking with 
them their families, and leaving their pn^perty to be 
confiscated by the Government. After the elose of the 
war tlie majority of them returned, while a few re- 
mained in the South, having taken up their perma- 
nent residence there. During the four years struggle 
which followed the passage of the Ordinance of Seces- 
sion in Virginia, Marion countv furnished manv 

History of ^rAfuox Covsty. Ill 

bnive soldiers for Ijotli sides. Some left home never 
to return alive, and their bones lie in the fields of the 
Sunny South, or upon the mountains and in the 
valleys of their native State. Others returned battle- 
scarred veterans, and have lived to see the chasm, 
which divided the opposing hosts, bridijed, and to 
forgive and try to forget the bitter past. Men who for 
four long years fought upon op[)ositc sides — each 
striving for what he eoneeived to 1»e the right — now, 
as in days of old, partake of one another's hospitality, 
and calmly and g(x")d-naturedly discuss their political 
differences of the past and of the present. 

The county of Marion fortunately was not em- 
braced in that part of \'irginin which was so long the 
seat of active war; conseiiuently her citizens were in 
a measure spared the terrible scenes which were en- 
acted in other portions of tlie State. The only event 
of any special interest whidi transpired within the 
county was the raiil of the Confederate General 
Jones on the 2!)th of April, 1^6:1 The principal ob- 
ject of th(; raid, wliich was extended throughout the 
State — was to destroy property and obtain for the Con- 
federate Army horses and ])rovisions. On the morn- 
ing of the da}' above mentioned tbe army entered 
Fairmont and proceed(Ml at once to take possession of 
the town. Tbe railroad bridge, mentioned in a 
former chapter, wiiicji crosses the Mcmongahela one 
mile above Fairmont, was destroyed, and at this place 

112 History of Marion County. 

the Confederatos had a short skirmish with a com- 
pany of Union men. There was also considerable 
skirmishing during the entire day in and around the 
town. It was the intention of the Confederates to 
burn the suspension bridge between Palatine and 
Fairmont, but the idea was finally abandoned. Gov- 
ernor F. H. Pierpoint was at this time the Union 
Governor of the State, and his home being in Fair- 
mont, it was sought out by the raiders, and his library 
taken from the house and burned in the street. The 
arrival of Mulligan's Union battery in the evening 
was too late to do effective service, for Jones and 
his men had taken their departure. This was the 
nearest Marion county came during the war of having 
anything like a battle within her borders. In the 
skirmishes during the day several men on both sides 
were wounded, but none were killed. 

As this county is within tlio limits of what is now 
the State of West Virginia, it is proper to give in this 
connection a brief account of the formation of the 
State, which occurred in 1S63, and the causes which 
led to it. 

For many years before the adoption of the new 
constitution of 1852 there had been considerable dis- 
satisfaction among some of the b:^st men of Virginia 
on the subject of equal representation, and threats of 
dividing the State had been made by those of the wes- 
tern portion. This alarmed the eastern men, and in 

History of Marion County. 113 

1847 they passed in the Legislature an act making it 
treason for any person to instigate others to establish 
a usurped government within the State. Any person 
so doing, either by writing or speaking, were liable 
to be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months, 
and fined not exceeding one thousand dollars. This 
law was intended to suppress the discussion of the 
subject of a division of the State. In order to satisfy 
the people of the west on the subject of equal repre- 
sentation, the constitutional convention of 1851-2 
fixed the basis of representation in the House of Del- 
egates on tile population. This gave the western part 
of the State a majority in the House; but in the Sen- 
ate the representations were still by districts, and 
some of the districts of western Virginia, witii popu- 
lations of from fifty to sixty thousand were represented 
by one Senator — no more than the districts in tide- 
water with populations of less than twenty thousand 
each. Tlie westerners, in order tt) procure this com- 
promise from the east, were obliged to consent to a 
clause in the constitution to the etlcct that all slaves 
under the age of twelve years should not be taxed, 
and all over that age were to be valued at three hun- 
dred dollars for the purposes of taxation. This pro- 
duced great dissatisfaction in the west. They had 
but few slaves, and the constitution provided that all 
other property shcjuld be taxed ad vahrum—so that a 
pig or a calf, a month old on the first day of Februa- 

114 History of I\rARiox County. 

ry, was taxed at full value, while young negroes were 
not taxed. The constitution did not prohibit the tax- 
ing of incomes and salaries, and the Legislature taxed 
incomes of over one thousand d(^llars at two per (tent, 
while negroes Avero taxed at forty cents on the hun- 
dred dollars; so to give an extreme case, a merchant's 
clerk with a salary of eleven hundred dollars paid 
twenty-two dollars tax, and a negro valued at three 
hundred dollars, ])aid one dollar and twenty cents — 
the clerk paying as much as about fifteen sUives. The 
slaves might b; hired out at two hundred and tifty 
dollars a year, and thereby yield their master an in- 
come of nearh^ four thousand dollars, but this income 
was not taxed because the slave had already been 
taxed. These inequalities of taxation produced, as 
above mentioned, great dissatisfaction. It was oppres- 
sive, and prepared the minds of the people to throw 
off the yoke at the first opportunity. The war gave 
them this opportunity, and they took advantage of it. 
The Union citizens of the State called a convention 
composed of the members elected to the General iVs- 
sembly, on the fourth Thursday of ^[a\-, 1801, and in 
addition thereto, doubled the number of delegates 
that each county was entitled to in the popular 
branch of the Legislature. The Capital of the State, 
being in tlie hands of the Secessionists, the conven- 
tion assembled at Wheeling on the lltli of .Tune, 18(51, 
to t'dke into consideration what was best to be done 

History of Marion County. 115 

for Virginia. The convention declared the offices of 
Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General 
vacant, (^becau:<e the inciinibents had joined the Con- 
federacy; and proceeded to elect officers to fill their 
places for the term of six niontlis, until tlieir succes- 
sors shouhl be duly elected. Francis II. Pierpoint, of 
Fairmont, was chosen Provisional (iovernor, and at 
the expiration of the term named he Avas regularly 
elected Governor of what was known as the " Restored 
Government of Virginia.'' After the State was divi- 
ded Pierpoint removed the seat of Government from 
Wheeling to Alexandria. 

On the 20th of June, ISGo, West Virginia was made 
a State. It passed tiirough the forms of legislation 
prescribed in the Constitution of the United States 
for the formation of a new State, and was made one of 
the States of the Union. Thus were the threats of 
the past fully carried out, and the erection of the 
State of West Vii'ginia was not altogether one of the 
results of the Rebellion, but of oppression in the days 
previous to tlie Rebellion. Wheeling was made the 
temporary Capital, and the business of the new State 
was immediately entered upon, with Arthur I. Bore- 
man as Governor. 



FTER the war liad ceased, and the discharged 
soldiers returned to their homes, they went to 
work with energy upon the farms or in tlie shops 
which had so long remained idle. During several 
years following, until about the year 1870, very little 
was done, however, towards the development of the 
resources of the county, and the people of Marion 
lived a comparatively humdrum existence. About 
the year mentioned capitalists became interested in 
the mineral resources of the county, and large amounts 
of coal lands were purchased by tlieni along the line 
of the railroad. In quick succession the West Fair- 
mont, the American, the New York, the Marion and 
the Central Mines were opened and set to work, each 
employing quite a number of miners and making 
large shipments of coal. The three first named mines 
were owned by Eastern companies. The Pierpoint 
and Watson and the O'Donncll are tlie oldest mines 
in the county, having been in operation for several 

HisTOEY OF Marion County. 117 

years previous to the opening of the others. The 
West Fairmont and the Central (the hitter owned by 
an individual, Mr. 0. Jackson, of Fairmont,) do quite 
"a large coke business — the West Fairmont especially, 
burning and shipping large quantities. The latest 
coal mine of any importance which has been opened 
in the vicinity of Fairmont is the Gaston Mine, owned 
by Mr. J. 0. Watson. It is ut present doing a large 
business and employing a considerable number of 
hands. Shortly after the opening of the Marion 
Mine it was consolidated with the West Fairmont, 
and they were afterwards known as the West Fair- 
mont and Marion Gas Coal and Coke Company. 

The comm-jnccment of these industries did more to 
bring wealth and population into the county than 
anything since the buikling of the raih'oad, and had 
it not hi'on for the memorable " panic," which brought 
such distress upon the commercial interests of our 
country generally, and the high rates of freight charged 
by the Baltimaro and Ohio Railroad for carrying coal 
to the markets, they would have, ere this, reached 
gigantic proi:)ortions. For some time the American, 
New York and Picrpoint S: Watson Mines have been 
idle, partly for the reasons above mentioned, and 
partly for reasons known only to the proprietors. The 
O'Donnell, the Gaston, the West Fairmont and Ma- 
rion, and the Central, have recently received fresh 


lis History of Marion County. 

contracts, and are at present running .steadily, giving 
employment to quite a number of men. 

On September 21st, 22d and 23d, 1S70, wa.-^ held the 
first annual fair of the Marion County Agricultural, 
Mechanical and Mineral Association, upon their 
grounds near Fairmont. The Association continued 
to hold annual fairs until 1877, when the last one Avas 
held — it being unsuccessful. For the first three or 
four years the exhibitions were very creditable and 
the receipts of the Association were good. A new in- 
terest in the products of the county seemed to be 
awakened and the spirit of competition interested the 
farmers to such an extent that the good effects of the 
fairs were materially felt. Owing to the lack of in- 
terest on the part of some of the Association, how- 
ever, and to other reasons, there have been no exhi- 
bitions for three years, and the splendid grounds 
owned by the company are lying comparatively idle 
— used only for picnic and holiday celebration pur- 

Passing over a period of nearly six years, during 
which time Dothing of importance transpired within 
the bounds of the county, and the industries men- 
tioned in the beginning of the chapter were daily 
proving of great benefit to Marion, and the citizens 
generally were hard at work improving their lands, 
and enjoying universal prosperity, we come to the 
year 1876 — memorable in the history of the United 

History of Marion County. 1J.9 

States as the great Centennial year, and also in the 
history of Marion county for other reasons. In this 
year, on Sunday morning, the second of April, occur- 
red the great fire which destroyed the principal busi- 
ness portion of Fairmont, the county seat, besides ren- 
dering eleven families homeless. When discovered, 
the fire was burning up the steps leading to Foreman's 
photograph gallery and Bean's furniture room, be- 
tween Swisher 6i Carpenter's and Pendergrast's store 
rooms, on Main street, and before the alarm could be 
given the two latter buildings were wrapped in flames. 
Efforts to quench tlie fire were futile, and nothing of 
importance within the buildings were saved. The 
stores of T. F. Brock and M. A. Chisler and the resi- 
dence of Dr. Brown field were then destroyed, and, 
spreading across the street, the flames, with fearful 
rapidity burned tlie entire block between Jefferson 
and Bridge streets down to Decatur Alley, except the 
residence of Mrs. Sommers (now occupied by Mr. 
John Crane). A strong wind from the north-east 
blew great flakes of burning shingles as far as across 
the river into Palatine, and the scene was one of 
great excitement. 

There being no fire engines in the town, the only 
means at hand by wliich the flames could be extin- 
guished were buckets of water in the hands of the 
citizens — and even the women and children worked 
steadily currying water and salt and assisting to 

120 History of MAnioN County. 

remove goods from burning houses, or to pull down 
buildings. The wind finally changed and the flames 
Averc brought under control. The principal losers in 
the fire were Dr. J. 11. Brownficld, residence ; M. A. 
Chisler, grocery store: Swisher & Carpenter, dry 
goods store; Israel Foreman, photograph gallery; 
Barton Bean, stock of furniture; A. R. Mencar, furni- 
ture store ; J. W. Lott, produce dealer; John Fisher, 
meat market and residence ; Francis Christy, dwelling 
and tailor shop; Stone ..t Bcbout, hardware store; 
Mrs. Fitzgcrakl, dwelling and millinery store; Mona- 
hon heirs, three buildings ; .John Schubach, bakery ; 
E. C. Kerr, shoe store and dwelling; Jane Laidley's 
heirs, dwelling; Thomas ]M. Fleming, household 
goods; ]\Iiss ]\Iaria Van/andt, millinery goods; Mrs. 
Ella Horan, millinery and notion store; A. G. Ilnll, 
post oince, book store and residence; J. E. Fleming, 
grocery store ; Iiulcx newspaper oflicc ; J. 0, Watson, 
business house; F. M. Fleming, shoo and hat store ; 
M. A. Chisler, busim-ss house; Chas. Corbin, cif^ar 
manufactory; Stephen Cakes, barber shop; i\[rs. E. 
Arnett, building containing millinery and notion 
store; M. M. Comerford, drug store; C. B. Carney, 
drug store; dVo..' Vinjinian newspaper ofllce ; Mrs. 
Anna Turney, business house and dwelling. 

In addition to the above property, which was to- 
tally destroyed, the following persons had property 
BCorcheJ by the flames or damaged considerably by 

HrsTor.Y of M.vnioN County. l2l 

wator: Mrs. M. M. SDmmors, rosidenco; B. A. Flem- 
ing, residence; Captain T. A. Manlsby, steam mill; 
R. C. Dunnington & Co., stock of dry goods. 

Tho fire was thought by many to be the work of an 
incendiary, and circumstances were strong to induce 
this belief, but the guilty parties were never brought 
to light. A large portion of the loss, which was about 
S75,000, was covered by insurance, the money from 
which helped the losers by the fire to replace tho 
burned buildings with new and handsome ones. Al- 
most the entire burnt district has been rebuilt, and 
in the places of the old structures are elegant modern 
brick business blocks and residences, so that now 
there is no town in West Virginia the size of Fair- 
mont, can boast of as fine business houses. Tho. 
citizens of the town scarcely consider tho fire of 1S7G 
as a calamity, since, from that time, they date an era, 
of improvements in Fairmont. Large and costly 
buildings have been erected, streets have been graded, 
new streets have boon opened, old buildings have 
been improved, and other important improvements 
have taken place. The town and its suburbs have a 
population of probably two thousand, which is con- 
stantly increasing. Besides its coal interest.', the 
county scat contains other branches of trade which 
contribute largely to tho revenue of tho town and 
county. Cabinet shops, a foundry, a planing mill, 
and steam and water power saw and flouring mills 

122 History of Marion County. 

arc amon;? the most important, while a mile north of 
town is situated the Barnes villo Woolen Factory and 
flouring mills, and within a mile, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, up the river, is a large saw mill 
and lumber yard and a brewery. 

The Fourth of July, 1S7G, is memorable throughout 
the country for having been the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the Declaration of Independence. On this 
day the citizens of Marion county assembled at the 
county seat and celebrated the event by an immense 
procession, and a grand picnic upon the fair grounds. 
Addresses were delivered, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence read and patriotic airs were played by the 
bands. At night a grand display of fireworks took 
place from Hamilton's Hill in Fairmont. An im- 
mense crowd of people took part in the celebration, 
and it was a day long to be remembered in the an- 
nals of Marion county. 

Since the war there had been no military organiza- 
tions in this county, owing to the poor provisions 
that the State had made for its militia, but in the 
summer of 1877, a military spirit seemed to take pos- 
session of many of the young men in Fairmont, and 
the organization of a company was effected. This 
company was named Davis Light Guards, in honor of 
Hon. Henry G. Davis, United States Senator from 
this State, and E. \V. S. Moore was elected captain, 
with S.vmuel N. Jackson and Ed. L. Watson first and 

History of Marto:v County. 123 

Recond lieutenants, respectively. The company soon 
grew very proficient in drill, well disciplined, and cel- 
ebrated in military circles throughout the State. 
Captain Moore, removing from the State, resigned in 
1878, and Sergeant J. W. Lott became captain. Upon 
Captain Lott's promotion in the summer of 1879 to 
the position of major in the First Regiment, in which 
regiment the company holds the position of Company 
"B," Lieutenant Jackson became captain. Shortly 
afterwards Jackson resigned, having received an ap- 
pointment in the postal service, and Lieutenant Wat- 
son Avas made captain, with Clarence L. Smith as 
first lieutenant, and J. M. McCoy as second lieuten- 
ant. Shortly after the organization of the Davis 
LiglU Guards, the Delaplain Guards, of Manning- 
ton, were organized and named in honor of Col. R. 
M. Delaplain, of Wheeling. Charles E. Wells was 
made captain, with A. N. Prichard and A. N. Parish, 
as first and second lieutenants. In the fall of 1879 
Lieutenant Prichard wa.-=! elected captain, Captain 
Wells resigning. A. N. Parish shortly after also re- 
signed, after being elected first lieutenant, and Ever- 
ett Koon was elected second lieutenant. This com- 
pany has also gained considerable notoriety for its 
proficiency in drill and the excellent and soldierly 
conduct of its men. The Martin Guards, of Fairview, 
named in lionor of Hon. B. F. Martin, M. C, was or- 
ganized in 1878. Cax>tain Clarke is the commandin<T 

124 History of Marion County. 

officer, and James Seals and A. B. Yost the lieuten- 
ants. The company is composed of a fine looking 
body of men, is v/cU drilled and in a prosperous con- 
dition. Tlie last and largest military organization 
effected in Marion county was the Garrett Rifles, 
named for John \V. Garrett. President of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad Company. This company 
was organized in 1878, with Ellis A. Billingslea as 
captain, E. L. Basnctt, first lieutenant, Waitman Sat- 
terficld, second, and Joseph P. Fleming, third. About 
the first of January, 1880, the ofiice of third lieuten- 
ant was abolished, and Billingsloa and Satterfield 
having resigned their offices. Lieutenant Basnett was 
made captain of the corapan}-. Third Lieutenant 
Fleming was promoted to the ofiice of first lieutenant 
and George W. Merrill was made second lieutenant. 
Thus. Marion county possesses four excellent mili- 
tary organizations, all well equipped, uniformed and 
armed with breech-loading rifles. Two of tlic com- 
panies, the Davis Light Guards and the Martin 
Guards, wear grey uniforms, and the remaining two 
companies wear blue. In October, 1878, a grand 
Military Reunion and Sham Battle was hehl on the 
Marion County Fair Grounds, under the auspices of 
the Davis Guards, at which time the military from 
Wheeling, Burton and Mannington, and tho Uni- 
versity Cadets and battery from Morgantown wcro 
present and x^^i'ticipatcd. On the 17th of October, 

History of Marion County. 125 

1879. a similar entertainment was held at the same 
place, at which time the Davis Light Guards were 
awarded a prize sword for their proficiency in drill 
over the Waynesburg (Pa.") Blues, who had previously 
won a sword at a competitive drill in their own State. 
The militia of Marion county, and, indeed, of the 
entire State, is self-sustaining, the State furnishing 
them nothing save arms and company equipments. 



thp: resouuces of the county — the 
political complexiox— conclusion. 

j^Vr ARlON county is about forty miles long, with 
cJ^^S^ ^ mean width of fifteen miles. It is watered 
by the upper Monongahela, tlie West Fork and Valley- 
rivers and their branehes. At the time of its organ- 
ization, in 184"_', it contained between six and seven 
thousand inhalntants, and at present the population 
Avill probably reach seventeen thousand. 

The surface of the county is hilly and well timbered ; 
much of the soil is fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats, 
rye, tlax and potato<'S and beans — and, in fact, almost 
all kinds of vegetables and grain, while its adaptation 
to grazing is une.Kcelled. No better grass growing land 
can be found anywhere. The finest gras.«! for grazing 
purposes may be grown upon its highest hills — some 
of which rise over 1,000 feet above the meadow lands 
of the valleys. The soil is generally of a rich loamy 
clay and will produce all the staples common to the 
Middle States of the Union. There is but little land 
in the county too rough for cultivation. Such of it as 
cannot be used for the production of grass, wheat, 

History of Marion County. 127 

corn, oats, etc., can be profitably turned into vine- 
yards and orchards. The county is abundantly, 
watered, thus affording an ample supply of pure 
water for all kinds of live stock. 

The earth is stored with iron ore, line stone of 
various kinds, glass sand of a superior quality, and 
with coal of different kinds, and of the very best 
quality. Excellent potter's clay is also found in many 
sections of the county. ^Farion lies within the 
boundaries of the great Monongahela Valley coal 
fields. In some places in the cf»unty the veins of coal 
are from ten to twelve feet in thickness, below which. 
and separated chiefl}' by a heavy bed of sand stone, 
there lies a thinner stratum of a more higlily l)itu- 
minous character. Prof. Rogers, in speaking of these 
coal fields, says; "We may form some idea of the 
vast extent of these coal seams fmm the faet that from 
some distance above Clarksl>urg [the southern borders 
of Marion county] they may be followed with scarcely 
any interrui)ti()us throughout the whole length of the 
Valley of the Monongahela down to Pittsburgh." 

In the fall of 187"), Captain T. P. Rolterts was em- 
ployed by the Government to survey the river from 
Morgantown to Fairmont. Tpon his arrival at the 
latter place the citizens tendered to him and his men 
a reception at the Continental Hotel. Being called 
upon there for an expression of his views, he mailt; 

128 History of Marion County. 

some remarks, from which the following extracts are 

"The improvement of our navigable rivers is a sub- 
ject worthy of very careful consideration, and I am 
glad that I have the opportunity to express to j'ou, 
gentlemen, the warm sympathy I have, as an Ameri- 
can citizen, for this present proposed undertaking, 
namely, the improvement of the Upper INIonongahehi 
from Morgantovvn to Fairmont by means of locks and 

"About thirty-five years ago my father, W. Milnor 
Roberts, superintenaed the improvement of the Mon- 
ongahela from Pittsburgh to Brownsville, as the com- 
pany's chief engineer. I recollect hearing him say that 
upon the occasion of the opening of the slack-water 
navigation, he prophesied that before thirty years 
would pass by, the demand for coal in the southern 
cities along the Ohio and Mississippi to the Gulf 
would be so great that at least fifteen million bushels 
of it would be shipped annually from the ports above 
Pittsburgh. * -'^ * His prophecy was ridiculed 
by some; but the facts showed that instead of fifteen 
million bushels being shipped from the Monongahela 
Valley, in 1870 the quantity was nearly ninety mil- 
lion bushels. 

"Gentlemen, I propose to follow in my father's foot- 
steps, and attempt a prophecy also, and it is not so 
hard now in the light of experience, which is this: 
That in less than twenty years the shipment of coal 
from the ^Monongahela Valley will exceed three hun- 
dred and tifty million bushels per annum. Already 
there are engaged in the trade one hundred and twen- 

History of Marion County. 129 

ty-five staunch steain tow-boats, and three thousand 
barges and boats, forniin.;^; an aggregate of one million 
three hundred thousand tonnage, owned in Pitts- 
burgh ; a tonnage greater than all the rest afloat in 
the Mississippi ^■'alley from the Gulf to the lakes, 
greater than the combined tonnage of New York and 
Boston, our great maritime centers." 

After stating several other important facts, he pro- 
ceeds to say : 

"As 3'-ou West Virginians mine coal for about one- 
half of what is paid in Pennsylvania, I am firmly 
persuaded that it woul pay to extend the slack-water 
up to the eleven-foot vein between ]\Iorgantown and 
Fairmont. At least I shall certainly, in my report to 
Colonel Merrill, of the United States Engineer Corps, 
urge the extension of the slack-water to Fairmont. It 
is only here, in my opinion, that it should terminate. 
Here, properly speaking, is the head of navigation of 
the Ohio river. Here there is an outlet to the sea- 
board over the grand-trunk line, the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad.'' 

An important branch of industry carried on in 
Marion county is the raising of live stock — h.orses, 
cattle, .-iheep and mules, and selling of the same. It 
has become quite a business as well as an extensive 
source of revenue. Taking into consideration the 
wonderful adaptation of tlu< soil for grass, it would 
not be surprising that the future attention of the 
farmer is chiefly turned to raising horses cattle and 
sheep. Since corn is a more sure crop than wheat in 

130 History of Marion County. 

nearly every part of West A'ir^inia, it is thought that 
our farmers will speedily see the iiuportaiice of using 
more of their lands for its production. Corn fed into 
hogs would yield a nuicli larger profit than wheat. 

Fruit growing is rapidly becoming a source of 
profit. Apples and grapes are each year becoming 
more and more an object of consideration. Much of 
the upland, which is unsuited to the production of 
grain, is admirably adapted to the planting of or- 
chards and vineyards. 

At the Centennial E.^hibition at Philadelphia, in 
1876, Marion county resources were well represented 
in the way of exhibits. The following report is from 
the catalogue of West Virginia exhibits : 


Bituminous coal, from the " Pittsburgh Seam," as 
worked by the Gaston Mine, at Fairmont. Seam is 
eight to nine feet thick. The coal is especially 
adapted to gas. 

Coke, 67.5 

Volatile matter, 32.5 


Ash in coal, 2.1 

Sulphur in coal, 0.95 

Sulphur in coke, 0.69 

Sulphur in volatile matter, , . . . 0.27 

Two thousand two hundred and forty pounds of 
coal has a maximum, production of 11,043.12 cubic feet 
of sixteen candle power. 

Bituminous coal from the "Redstone " seam, which 

History of Marion County. 131 

in Marion county lies fifty to eighty feet above the 
"Pittsburgh," on the land of R. S. Radcliffe. The 
thickness at the place whence the specimen was taken 
is six feet four inclies. 

Water, l.OOD 

Volatile combustible material, . . 40,967 

Fixed carbon, 50.327 

Ash, 7.797 

Sulphur in coal, .... 4.263 per cent. 

Sulphur in coke. .... 2.86-5 per cent, 

346. Carbonate of iron, from IS-inch seam, II miles 
from Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and 2^ miles from 
Nuzum's Mill, on the land of A. E. Garloe. 

349. Limestone, from a heavy stratum on the land of 
R. S. Radcliffe. 

351. Fire-clay, from (Hade Fire lirick Company, 
Nuzum's Mills. Seam -ih, great heat is required. 
Capacity of the works, 4,000 bricks per day. This 
clay is superior to that from Mount Savage, as it con- 
tains no trace of oxide of iron (the greatest enemy to 
a refractory nature in tire-clay), while Mount Savage 
has 1.5 per cent. (C. K. l^wight, chemist.) 

Hygroscophic water, 0.70 

Combined water and organic matter, , 8.35 

Silica, 45.86 

Alumina, 44.23 

Lime, 0.24 

Magnesia, 0.36 

Oxide magnese. trace. 

Oxide of iron none. 

Potash and soda trace. 

Loss, 0.26 


132 History of Marion CoUxNty. 

352. Potters' clay, uised at Palatine. From land of 
R. M. Hill. 

353. Yellow corn. } p ,^ vu^iricr 
.3o4. Wheat. | '^ 

355. Pupils' work. Fairmont Normal School. 

356. Pupils' work. Public School, Fairmont. 

Taking into consideration all the resources of Ma- 
rion, and the advantage it holds out fcp new-comers, 
it is safe to say that the future (;f the county is a 
bright one. There are few counties in the State of 
West Virginia, in whose hills are stored more wealth, 
and which possess greater advantages or offer better 
inducements to immigrants, than Marion. 

At present the political complexion of Marion 
county is Democratic, by a small majority — the voting 
population being slightly over three thousand. In 
some parts of the county tlie Greenback party polls a 
considerable vote. There is but little feeling of ani- 
mosity existing between tlio difierent factions — the 
voters generally casting their votes for their favorites 
without respect to party. From the fact that the 
lines are not drawn closely, several Republicans hold 
oflice in the county, notwithstanding the Demcratic 

Among those who have represented the county in 
the Legi.^latnre,and who did good service while there, 
are David Cunningham, Richard Thomas, Benjamin 
Fleming, F. H. Pierpoint, Z. Kidwell, William T. Wil- 

History of Marion County. 133 

ley, U. N. Arnett, sr., Charles Wells, A. W. Knotts, 
Robert Lowe, A. B. Fleming, W. B. Ice, Alf. Prichard, 
John S. Barns, Jesse Flowers, John Righter, and many 
others. Much of the political history of the county 
will be found in the biographical sketches which 
follow this chapter. 

The times for holding courts in the county are as 
follows : Circuit Court, Judge Fleming, April 18th 
and October 28th ; Clarence L. Smith, Clerk. County 
Court, Colonel Austin Merrill, President, second Tues- 
days in January, March, 'May, July, September and 
November ; John B. Crane, Clerk ; H. Manley, Sheriff. 


Pen Sketches of Prominent Citizens. 


The subject of this sketch was Ijorn near the pres- 
ent site of Rivesville, this county, (then Monongalia) 
Septeml)er 7, 1801. He was a son of Ste])lien Mor- 
gan, whose father, David Mori^au, liuurcil prominently 
in the early iiistoi'v of the county. He passed most 
of his life up^n liis father's estate, until he arrived at 
the age of twenty-one, when he entered the ministry 
of the Methodist Church, and was a circuit rider 
from 1822 to 18-_'7. ^Ir. Morgan was a self-made man 
in the strict sense of tlu^ term, bcin,^ self-educated, 
with the exception of the little learning he received 
at the old time country sc1k)o1s. 

In 1835, he was chosen to represent his district in 
Congress and was re-elected in 18;>7. While a Rep- 
resentative he was chaii'inan of the C'(»mmittee on 
Revolutionary Pensions. ][^e did not seek for office 
and decliiied the nomination fur a third term, after, 
which he was appointed a clerk in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. In 1841, he was sent to the Virginia 
Legislature, and secured the passage of the bill form- 
ing Marion county in 1842, and was idected a member 
of the Legislature from the new county, the same 
year. In 1844, Mr. Morgan was rrcsidential l']lector 

History of Marion County. 135 

for this district u})0u tlie Democratic ticket, and in 
the year followincr received an appointment to ;i, clerk- 
ship in the United States Treasury Department, 
which position he held until ISOl. During the two 
years following (lS6l-3t he was engaged in painting 
in water colors for th.e Smithsonian Institute, at 
Washington, and produced numerous illustrations For 
the works on Oology, by Prof. S. F. Baird and ^Ir. 
Elliott. These illustrations were pronounced by crit- 
ics to be the most accurate that f'(Hdd be procured. 
He invented and presented to the Institute a machine 
used in drawing the outlines of eggs, which is still 
in use there. 

He was a man of extraordinary endowments, and 
his knowledge of th(^ sciences was very accurate. 
American natural histoi-y and botany wer.e his favorite 
studies, and he was one of the best botanists .in the 
country. Mr. Morgan numbered among his personal 
friends some of the most distinguished of American 

After leaving Washington, he lived with his broth- 
er-in-law, Colonel Austin ^Merrill, at Rives ville, until 
his death. While on a visit to his son, in Washing- 
ton, on the 3d of Septend)er, 1>>78, he died of malarial 
fever, and was buric(l in the Congressional Cemetery, 
of that city. 

Marion county has [troduced few such men as Wil- 
liam S. ^Forgan. for he was, indeed, an extraordinary 
character, as his career shows. Possessed of noble im- 
pulses, a great intellect, and many christian virtues, 
he was universally l»eloved, and died mourned l)y all 
who knew him. 

136 History of Marton County. 

tion, zedekiah kidwei,l. 

Dr._ Zedekiah Kidwell, was one of the prominent 
characters whose life was closely identified with the 
political history of Marion county, and the entire 
Congressional district which he represented in Con- 
gress twice in succession. He was born in Fairfax 
county, Virginia, January 4, 1S14, and died in Fair- 
mont, West Virginia, April 26, 1872. He belonged to 
one of those old Virginia families whose ancestry 
were English emigrants of noble blood. The Doctor 
was a son of Captain Kidwell, who figured in the war 
of 1812, and contributed no little in various ways to 
the opening up and improvement of West Virginia, 
his business being that of a contractor and bridge- 

Whea a youth, Zedekiah received nothing more 
than a practical English education in the schools of 
his native county, but he was a good scholar, ac- 
quiring knowledge with ease, and was proficient in 
his studies. In after years he read and wrote a great 
deal, proving himself a rapid thinker and writer. At 
the age of nineteen he entered upon the study of med- 
icine with Dr. Grinnell, of Fairfax Court House. In 
the fall of 1884 his father rcnjoved to Clarksburg, and 
here the student was interrupted in his professional 
studies, two or three years being spent in teaching, 
clerking in a store and assisting his father in his 
business. In lS;i7, he resumed the study of medicine 
with Drs. Wilson and Carr, of Fai;:^iont (then Middle- 
town), an(:T.\i:pon the death of T>r."Carr he entered 
upon the practice of his profession in partnership 
with Dr. Wilsuu. . 

History of Marion County. 137 

In 1S41 and 1842, Dr. Kidwell took a very active. 
part in procuring; the formation of Marion county, 
and entered political life as a delegate to the Virginia 
Legislature in 1814 — being re-elected several times. 
He now became an active and influential politician 
in the Democratic party, and in the Presidential cam- 
paign of 1848, was elector for his district, upon that 
ticket. His labors, about this time, were enormous 
for one man, and he brought on hemorrhage of the 
lungs from speaking in the open air while hoarse, 
which came near terminating his life. After a long 
illness, he rallied, and entered again upon the active 
duties of life, being obliged, however, to give up the 
practice of medicine. He entered upon the study of 
law. and it was not long until he was admitted to the 
bar. In 1852, he was again drawn into politics and 
was elected to represent his district in Congress. He 
served two terms — frcim ISo'i to 185U. At the close 
of the second term he was elected a member of the 
Board of Public Works of Virginia, which office he 
filled until the breaking out of the War of the Rebel- 
lion. He was never a defeated candidate and was the 
most popular man in his district. President Buch- 
anan tendered him the office of sixth auditor of the 
Treasury, but he declined to accept it. 

Dr. Kidwell stood higli in Congress, and was a faith- 
ful legislator. His report in opposition to the con- 
struction of the Pacilic Piailroad, on the route and un- 
der the circumstances tlien proposed, was considered 
an able document, and elicited high praise from many 
of the leading papers of the country. He also made 
an able speech in Congress upon what was known as 
the " Louisiana question." It was through his agency 

138 History of ^Marion County. 

that Wheeling;- was made a port of <,'iitry in 1854. Ke 
was one of the "immortal seventy'' who held out so long 
pending the fierce struggle which resulted in the elec- 
tion of Banks as Speaker of the Ifou'^e. He was an 
able stump speaker, and the late Governor Wise, of 
Virginia, pronouncxl him the ablest campaign mana- 
ger in the State. His public life terminated with the 
commencement of the War. He was a hearty sympa- 
thizer with the Soutli and Sontliern principles in the 
great struggle, and the coui'se he took was a pure mat- 
ter of conscience with him. 

Of his private character, mucb that is gtjod can be 
said. He was an earnest christian, and a member of 
of the M. P. Church, Fairmont. He gave liberally of 
his means to the support of various charitable insti- 
tutions, and was widely celebrated for his kindness 
and benevolence to the })oor. 


The subject of this sketch is a man whose history 
is inseperably connecsted with that of Virginia during 
a period when the eyes of the whole world were di- 
rected upon her. ICx-Governor Francis H. Picrpi^it 
was born on the 2')t\[ of June, l-Sll, and is the son of 
Francis and Catliarine Pierpont,-'= the former a son of 
John Pierpont, wlio settled near Morgantown about 
the close of the Revolutionary War. His parents re- 
moved to a i)lantation oi\ West Fork while he was 

<'PlKRPi)NT is the coriont name, thoui^li it ii <irten spt-Ilcd Pikui'OINT. In 
giving Joliii PiorpoiH :i titli", a ciirelfss cIitIc tluis ii>is-i(ii'lle(l tlw iianu', aii'l tlm 
infant Ihmcs wore rtllirw.inls obligtil lu .i.s.siinie the .-upcilUious "i" iu coii- 

History of Marion County. 130 

quite a child, where they lived some twelve years, at 
the end of wliicli time they moved to Fairmont. 
Here ho worked upon his f.ithei-'s farm and in his 
tan-yard until he arrived at the age of twenty -one 
years, when ho (letcrminc(l to acquire a colegiate edu- 
cation, and S(dceted Allegheny College, at ?>[eadville. 
Pa., distant ISO miles from his h(jme as the place 
where he would })rosoeute his studies. ^N'o railroads, 
and scarce a stage coach tlien ccmnected the little 
village of Fairmont with tlie outside world; hence 
this journey was undertaken and accomitlished on 
foot. Up to this time he had had hut the advantages 
of a common school education, pursuing his studies 
under many adverse eircumstanei\-.;, and he entered 
the preparatory de})artment of the college — graduat- 
ing in four years and a half. Cordon P>attelle, Jiishop 
Simpson, Bishop Kingslea and Homer Clarke were 
connected with the college at that time, and hetween 
them and Mr. Fierpont a strong and lasting friend- 
ship was formed. 

After graduating he taught school in West Virginia 
for eight months, and for a year in Mississippi, dur- 
ing which time he stu'lietl law. The failing health 
of his father hrought him home from Mississippi, and 
lie enter(;d upon the ju'actice of law in Fairmont, in 
which he was engaged until tlie hreaking out of the 
llehellion. He was dui'iug tliis time actively engaged 
in politics, tiiough nev'er a candidat(\ nt)r held any 
office, except that of Frc-idential IClector, until he 
was made Goveiuor. lie was a thorough .Vholition- 
ist, and did more' than any other man in West \'ir- 
ginla to cultivate anti-slavery sentiment. l>y puhlic 
speeches and through the press, Mr. Fiei'pont de- 

140 History of Marion County. 

nounced the oppressive clause in the new constitu- 
tion, regarding the taxation of the slaves of the east, 
and the unjust taxation of the free labor of the west,* 
and attached to it all the odium possible. After the 
passage of the Ordinance of Secession in 1861, he ad- 
dressed the people at all places he could reach in the 
western part of tlie State, urging them to resistance, 
and was threatened with arrest for resisting the civil 
authorities of the State; but with extraordinar}- 
pluck he defied all threats in the very face of the mil- 
itary organizations. 

Mr. Pierpont was strongly in favor of a division of 
the State, but at the convention of May 12, 1861, he op- 
posed a movement to organize Western Virginia into 
a new State, giving for his reasons that it was prema- 
ture. He then induced the convention to appoint a 
Committee of Vigilance to determine " what was best 
to be done for Virginia." He laid his plans before 
this committee — which were to ask the General Gov- 
ernment to organize the State Government by de- 
claring vacant the offices of all Secessionists holding 
office in the State, call a convention at Wheeling, 
June 18th, to elect a new Governor and State officers, 
and call it tlie "Restored Government of Virginia.'' 
The matter was decided feasible and the programme 
was carried out. Mr. Pierpont was unanimously 
made Provisional Governor by the convention, and at 
the end of the year he was regularly elected Governor 
by the people. At the expiration of two years he was- 
re-elected for four years more. After tiie division of the 
State, in 1863, Governor Pierpont removed the seat of 

■•''See Cbapter xvill. 

History op Marion County. 141 

government from Wheeling to Alexandria, where he 
had a small Legislature. After the surrender of 
General Lee he removed the seat of government to 
Richmond, arriving there in the spring of ISGo. 
Here his old neighbors and fellow citizens who had 
joined the Confederacy, greeted him cordially. The 
long and cruel war that lay between them and him 
was forgotten, and they greeted each other with al- 
most dramatic feeling. 

In a few months after his arrival, Pierpont had 
completely restored the State Government. Nearly 
the whole Judiciary was changed, and it has been 
said by the leading journals and statesmen of the 
south that he gave Virginia the best Judiciary it ever 
had. It is worthy of note that there never was a 
word of suspicion, or any dishonest transaction about 
any oflicers connected witli the State Government 
during his administration. He was the first Gov- 
ernor of Virginia who ever proclaimed a Thanksgiv- 

At the expiration of his term of office, Governor 
Pierpont returned to his boyhood's home in Fairmont, 
where he has since resided. During these years he 
has served one term in the Legislature, and was a 
Judge in the shoe and leather department of the Cen- 
tennial Exposition, at Philadelphia, in 1876. In 1871, 
he was elected President of the General Conference of 
the M. P, Church, held at Pittsburgh, being the only 
layman that has ever held that position, and for 
which lie received many eongratuhitions from tlie 
press anil clergy throughout ICugland and America. 
The position is e<iuivalont to that of a bishop in the 
E])iscopal Cluucli. 

142 History of Marion County. 


Thomas S. iiayuiond was oiio of the luost promi- 
nent characters of his clay in the county. He was 
a son of William Haymonil, jr., whose father was one 
of the earliest settlers of this region of the country — 
and a man who was ceh^brated for his intelligence and 
benevolence. Colonel Haymond was born upon his 
father's estate, in this county, .January !•"), 1794, and 
died in Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of 1869- 
He received a fair education, and his studious habits, 
coupled with his rare natural e ndowments, soon won 
for him a great and good rci)utation, which clung to 
him through life. When quite a young man, scarcely 
thirty years of age, he represented his native county 
in the Virginia Legislature, and while there held the 
respect and gained the admiration of his constituency 
for the admirable manner in whicb he discharged tiie 
duties of his ollicc. In the fall of 1840, Mr. Haymond 
was .sent to the United States House of Representa- 
tives by the people of bis district, and while there 
he proved himself an able legislator and an efh- 
cient worker for the best interests of his State. At 
the breaking out of the W^ar of the Rebellion, he 
removed south, and was in Richmond at the time of 
his death. For sometime previous to the Avar, Mr. 
Haymond held the office of colonel of a regiment of 
militia; bonce the title which is generally prefixed 
to his name. 


Though at present not residing in Clarion, Mr, 
Martin is a native of the county and spent a great 
portion of his life here. He was born near Farming- 

History of Marion- County. 143 

ton, October 2, 182.S. He is a son of Jesse Martin, of 
that place, upon whose farm he lived and worked un- 
til he was twenty-one years of age. He was chiefly 
educated at Allegheny Collesre, at Meadville, Pa"., 
where he graduated with college lionors in .June, 
1854. xVfter returning from college he taught school 
in Fairmont for eighteen months, during which time 
he studied law. Tie was admitted to th(^ bar and 
commenced to praetiee iu :\rarch, ls56, removing in 
the following November to I'runtytown, where he 
has since resided. In 1^72, ]Mr. :\[artin was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional Convention of West Vir- 
ginia, and was a delegate to the National Democratic 
Convention at Baltimore the same yotlr. votiu"- 
against the nomination Mf Horace Greeley. In the 
campaign which followed, however, he yielded him 
active and earnest support. In 1872, he was a candi- 
date for Congress from this distcrict, on the Democratic 
ticket against Hon. J. M. Hagans. Both candidates 
claimed the election and the .seat was contested re- 
sulting in the declaration of the election of Hagans. 
In 187G, Mr. Martin was elected to the Forty-sixth 
Congress, and in 1878 he was re-elected. His term of 
office expires .lanuary 1, ISSl. Mr. :Martin is an effi- 
cient and faithful lleprescntative and is very poi)uiar 
among the people of his district. 


Tlic subject of this sketch, .ludgo A. B. Fleming, 
was born October l:',, 18:^.9. upon his father's farm, two 
miles west of Fairmont. He is the .sou of lienjamin 
F. and ilhoda Fleming, tiie latter. a daughter of Uev. 

144 History of Marion County. 

Asa Brooks. Until ho arrived at the age of j^wenty lie 
worked upon his father's farm about half of each 3^ear, 
attending school the other half. In 1859, he com- 
menced the study of law at the University of Vir- 
ginia; was admitted to the bar and commenced to 
practice at Fairmont, in 1S62. In the year following 
(1863) he was elected Prosecuting Attorney of IMarion 
county, which office he held until 1867. He was 
married September 7, I860 to Carrie M., daughter of 
James 0. Watson. In 1872, Mr. Fleming was elected 
on the Democratic ticket a member of the West Vir- 
ginia Legislature, and was re-elected in 187-0. While 
in the Legislature he rendered much important ser- 
vice to the State, fulfilled faithfully his duties as a 
legislator, and worked earnestly for the best interests 
of Marion county. In February, 1878, he was, b\' the 
Governor, a})pointed .Fudge of the Second Judicial 
Circuit (composed of the counties of Taylor, Harrison, 
Doddridge, Wetzel, JMunongalia and Marion), to fill the 
unexpired term of Judge Lewis, deceased, until a suc- 
cesssor could be elected, and in the October following 
was elected by the people to fill the vacanc3\ His term 
of office will expire January 1, 1881. 

For a number of years past Judge Fleming has 
been engaged in mining (uiterprises in connection 
with his father-in-law, Mr. Watson, and in farming, 
and has succeeded in accumulating (^uite a compe- 
tency. He is an able jurist, and is a gentleman of 
fine literary and business attainments, while his en- 
tire political and private life liave been above re- 
proach, ])eing v(a-y popular among his fellow citizens 
of all parties. 

History of Marion County. 145 

JOHN w. m'coy, esq. 

The above named gentleman is a member of the 
Marion county bar, and is a lawyer of considerable 
reputation throughout the State. He was born near 
Middlebourne, Tyler county, Virginia (now West Vir- 
ginia), on the '14th of September, 1826; worked on 
his father's farm until he arrived at the age of twen- 
ty-one, going to school in the winters; was princi- 
pally educated at the Clarksburg Academy; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1854, and commenced the prac- 
tice of law at Middlebourne. He lived there until 
the spring of ISGS, when he removed to Fairmont, 
Marion county, and has since resided there. In 1858, 
Mr. INIcCoy was elected prosecuting attorney of Tyler 
county, and was re-elected in 1860. In 1870, he was 
elected to the oflice of prosecuting attorney of Marion 
county, and at the expiration of his term was re-el- 
ected. In 1870, a bill organizing the county courts of 
Marshall, Wetzel and Marion into a circuit with a 
judge, was brought before the Legislature, and by that 
body put to the vote of the prople of the three coun- 
ties. Mr. McCoy was .almost unanimously nominated 
for the judgeship of the new court. At the polls he 
received an overwhelming vote for the office, but the 
bill — known as the "County Court Bill" — was de- 
feated, thus leaving 'Sir. McCoy a judge without a cir- 
cuit. The large vote he received upon this occasion 
served to show his exceeding popularity among the 
people. Mr. McCoy is considered one of the best read 
lawyers in the State, and, as a counsel, has but few 

146 History of Mariox Cousty. 

hon. j. c. beeson. 

Jacob Clark Boeson, son of Jesse and Anna Beeson, 
was born in Martinslnirg. Berkeley count}', this State 
on the 29th (hiy of January, 1S14, where he passed his 
life until March, ISoy, when he came to Fairmont and 
engaged in the hardware business. He has since re- 
sided in that })lace, tilling many important places of 
public trust. He was mayor of Fairmont, and mem- 
ber of the council at various times from 1862 to 1878, 
and in 1853, was elected Treasurer of Marion county. 
In 186G-7, Mr. Beeson represented this county in the 
West Virginia Legislature, being elected on the Re- 
publican ticket. Among other positions which he 
has held are those of President of the l)oard of super- 
visors of the county, and President of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Fairmont, which position he now 
holds and has held for some years. Mr. Beeson, 
having accumulated a competency, some years ago 
retired from the mercantile business, and has since 
lived a comparatively inactive life at his beautiful 
home in Fairmont. ?Ie is a popular and influential 
citizen of the town and county. 


This gentleman is well known throughout the State 
of West Virginia as a politician, having for some 
years taken an active part in the politics of his 
county and State. .He was born March 7, 1S2U, and 
is, therefore, now sixty years of age. ile is a son of 
Jonathan and Elizabeth Arnett, who lived near 
Rivesville, this county, where Mr. Arnett now re- 
sides, his calling being that of a farmer and grazier. 

History of Marion County. 147 

His boyhood was passed upon the farm,, working at 
that calling in the summer, and in the winter attend- 
ing the common schools of the day. He entered pub- 
lic life in LSol, as a representative of ^Marion county 
in the Virginia Legislature, serving in that capacity 
for a period of six years. From that time up to 1870. 
he served at various times as a justice of the peace 
and as foreman of the grand jury, wliich latter posi- 
tion he held for over twenty vears. In 1872, Mr. 
Arnett was a memher of the constitutional conven- 
tion of West Virginia, and was soon afterwards elected 
State Senator from his district, which office he held 
for four years, two years of the time serving as 
President of the Senate. Mr. Arnett is a Democrat, 
and is one of the most popular men of his party in 
the county. He also possesses many friends belong- 
ing to other i)arties, they recognizing in him an hon- 
est opponent, and a faithful and distinguished legis- 
lator during the time he served in the Senate. He is 
one of our most wealthy citizens, and is the proprie- 
tor of a beautiful home, upon his estate on the Mon- 
ongahela river, near the towi\ of Rivesvillc. 

.irD(;E A. F. IIAYMONO. 

The subject of this sketch was born on the loth 
day of December, 182:). upon his father's farm, about 
three miles from Fairmont. He is a son of Colonel 
Thomas S. and Harriot .V. Haymond. He attended 
the country schools in tlie neighborhood of liis liome 
until he arrived at the age of thirteen, when his 
father sent him to sdiool at the .Morgantown Academy, 
which institution he attended for about t\vo\'ears, 
and was then sent to the William and Marv College, 

148 History of Marion County. 

at Williamsburg, Virginia, for a term of nine months. 
He did not return to the college after this session, on 
account of ill health, but began the study of law at 
home, and in the ofBce of Edgar E. Wilson, at Mor- 
gantown. In 1842, when he was but nineteen years 
of age, he was admitted to the bar, and immediately 
commenced the practice of law in Fairmont, which 
profession he continued to follow here until the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, serving in the mean- 
time for several years as Prosecuting Attorney of Cla- 
rion county. In the spring of 1853, he was elected a 
member of the Virginia Legislature from this county, 
and again in 1857. He was a delegate from ]\[arion to 
the Virginia Convention of 18G1, and strongly opposed 
all movements towards Secession. He continued to 
oppose Secession until after that ordinance was passed 
and the war had fairly commenced, when he felt in 
his conscience that it was his duty to acquiesce, and 
go with his native State. He accordingly acted upon 
the promptings of his conscience and entered the field 
against the Union early in January, 18G2. He re- 
mained in the military service of the south until the 
surrender of General Lee at Appomatox Court House, 
in April, 18G5, when he was surrendered and paroled 
with Lee's army. He returned to Fairmont in June, 
1865, and shortly afterwards resumed the practice of 
law. Mr. Haymond, however, was soon prohibited 
from the practice of his profession in the State courts 
by the "lawyer's test oath." S<nnetime afterwards, 
on a petition of Union citizens of ^farion and Monon- 
galia counties, the Legislature of \\^,•st X'irginia 
passed a special act permitting him to practice in the 
State courts without taking the test oath, this being 

History of MarioxX County. 149 

the first act of the kind passed by the Legislature. 
By an act of Congress he was afterwards relieved 
of his political disabilities, incurred by reason of his 
participation in the Rebellion. In 1S72, Mr. Hay- 
mond was a member of the constitutional convention 
at Charleston, West V^irginia, and on the 22d of Au- 
gust, of the same year, was elected a Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Appeals of the State. In October, 
1876, he was re-elected to this high office for a term 
of twelve years, commencing .January 1, 1877. He is 
one of the most popular men in the State, and at the 
late election received a very large majority over his 
opponents, running considerably "ahead of his ticket." 
He was ever popular as a law\'er and as a citizen, and 
in the position which he now holds, he gives uni- 
versal satisfaction, being one of the ablest jurists in 
the State, and one of. the most dignified and learned 
Judges upon the bench. He is a man of whom his 
fellow citizens in Marion county are proud, because 
of his many intellectual and social qualities, as well 
as of his great popularity throughout the State. 


The position which the above named gentleman oc- 
cupies among the legal fraternity of West Virginia is 
second to none. He is one of the brightest and best 
known lawyers in the State, and is a distinguished citi- 
zen of ^[arion county. Mr. Morrow was born in that 
portion of Brooke county, Va., which now comprises 
Hancock county. West Virginia, in theyear 1837, and ' 
passed his boyhood days upon his father's farm, at- 
tending school in the neighborhood, and laying the 

150 History of Marion County. 

foundation of his after life of usefulness. He received 
a classical education in the neighboring States of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio — "the people of the Northern 
Pan-Handle being in that day," as ^Nlr. Morrow himself 
humorously expresses it, " obliged to resort to their 
more highly cultured neighbors for the humanizing 
agencies of higher education and harvest whisky." 
At the age of twenty years he commenced the study of 
law and continued to prosecute his legal studies until 
the year 18G2, when he was admitted to the bar in Illi- 
nois. Three years afterwards, in 1S65, he located in 
Fairmont and has since engaged constantly in the 
practiceof his profession in Marion andadjoiningcoun- 
ties. In 1871, he represented Murion county in the 
West Virginia Legislature — the first session of that 
body after the removal of the C'apital to Charleston — 
and was a member of the Committee on the Judiciary. 
He was a member of the Special Court in the con- 
tested election case of Harrison against Lewis for the 
office of Judge of this circuit, and wrote the opinion of 
the majority of the Court ; he was also counsel for 
Auditor Bennett and Treasurer Burdette in their im- 
peachment trials before the West Virginia Senate. 
In 1870-71, he occupied the editorial chair of the Fair- 
mont Liheralifit for some months. 

There are few such men as .James ^Morrow in the 
State. He possesses rare legal abilities, and as an 
orator has few superiors. By his quiet humor, spark- 
ling wit, cutting sarcasm, eloquent and dignified lan- 
guage and manners, as well as by his great knowledge 
of the law, he has attained an enviable reputation as 
a pleader in court, while as a public speaker he is ex- 

History of Marion County. 151 

ceedingly popular. Aside from his abilities as a law- 
yer, Mr. Morrow is a gentleman of culture and refine- 
ment from a literary and social standpoint. 


In these days of political trickery and thirst for of- 
fice, it is a rare thing to see a man who, for almost a 
score of years, has held one office and proved satisfac- 
tory to his fellow citizens of all parties, and against 
whom there was never a word uttered, but whose 
praise is sounded by all men, be they friends or foes. 
The subject of this sketch was such a man. Robert 
B. Lott was born June 19, 1835, at Washington, Penn- 
sylvania, and when he was about three years of age 
his parents removed to Fairmont (then Middletown) 
where he passed nearly all the remainder of his life. 
Here he received a common school education and al- 
ways bore a reputation for studious, sobsr and indus- 
trious habits. This reputation, formed in his youth, 
clung to him through life. When a young man he 
worked some as a tanner, but finally gave that busi- 
ness up, and became engaged as a grocer, which call- 
ing he followed until elected clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Marion county in 1861, which office he con- 
tinued to fill for several terms in succession, and un- 
til a few months previous to his death in 1S79. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the War of the Rebellion he 
served in the Union army, leaving the office in charge 
of a deputy, but after his discharge in 1S65, he again 
assumed control. Although of Ki-publican principles 
in his politics, he was very popular throughout the 
county among citizens of all parties, because of the 

152 History of Marion County. 

excellence and faithfulness with which he discharged 
the duties of his office. During the last few years of 
his life he was afflicted with hemorrhage of the lungs, 
and in the summer of 1878, in the hopes that it would 
benefit him, he visited Colorado, the fame of whose 
health-giving climate had reached him. This being 
the year for the election of clerks, he was pressed to 
become a candidate for re-electi(jn. He refused, how- 
ever, giving for his reasons, the poor state of liis 
health. So earnest Avas the request of his Repub- 
lican friends, (in which they were joined by many 
Democrats) that ho finally, but reluctantly, consented 
to become a candidate. He was in Colorado during 
the entire campaign, and the fact of his absence and 
non-participation in the canvass, together with the 
bad state of his health (many feeling sure that he 
would not live to fill the office should he be elected) 
contributed largely towards his defeat, by the Demo- 
cratic nominee, Mr. Chirence L. Smith, who defeated 
him by twenty-six votes. After the election, Mr. 
Lett's health being somewhat improved by the west- 
ern climate, he deemed it prudent to take up his resi- 
dence there with his family until he should recover 
sufficiently to again make Fairmont his home. He 
accordingly returned for his family, and bidding his 
many friends in the county adieu, he departed for 
Greeley, Colorado, where on the fifth of ISlarch, 187'.), 
following, he died, his disease having made too much 
headway for the climate to prove permanently bene- 
ficial. His remains were brought to Fairmont, where 
they were followed to the grave by an immense con- 
course of friends, besides the masonic and military 
organizations of the town. In speaking of his death, 

History of Marion County. 153 

the Fairmont lVe>it Virginian said among other things: 
"Having few faults and many virtues; possessing a 
character above reproach, and a name blemislied by 
no unworthy act, 'Bob' Lott goes down to the grave 
in honor, his memory cherished by warm personal 
friends in every quarter of Marion count}-, and 
throughout the State." 


Richard P. Lott, a brother of Robert B. Lott, was 
born in the town of Washington, Pennsylvania, 
March 16, 1833; he died in Fairmont, West Virginia, 
September 7, 1879, in the fort \'-se vent h year of his age. 
This brief statement compasses the life history of a 
remarkable man, 3'et the task of appropriately elabo- 
rating that statement is b}- no means an easy one. 
He who occupies a position in his community so 
prominent as that occupied by Richard P. Lott, can- 
not have his connection with that community sev- 
ered, whether by death or other cause, and pass away 
beyond the portals unregrettcd, his deeds forgotten. 
As viewed from the active field to which our common 
humanity is summoned, his was largely an isolated 
existence. From his early youth through a life full 
of work and a career of much usefulness, he was the 
weary bearer of the burden of deformity, and, to 
a great degree, of physical helplessness. 

At the early age of three years he fell a victim to an 
uncontrollable disease, the eilects of which proved to 
him a grievous misfortune, since thenceforward he 
was a hopeless cripple, utterly unable to walk. The 
despair he felt when his terrible afiliction became 

154 History of Marion County. 

fully confirmed, and as even in his youthful fancy he 
confronted himself with a future barren of those pleas- 
ures found only in equal participation with his fel- 
lows in life's pursuits, can be imagined, but not fully 
realized by one not similarly situated ; and none but 
those who held his most intimate confidence in his 
manhood can estimate the intensity of the dark 
shadow that seemed to cloud his life when he allowed 
himself to contemplate his limited sphere. Yet pos- 
sessed of a rare faculty for suppressing his emotions 
he seldom betrayed the thouglit. For reasons obvious 
he was never able to attend school, excepting occa- 
sionally during one term in his early youth, when he 
was conveyed to and from the school house by others; 
he was, therefore, a self-educated man. Without other 
occupation he early turned his attention to books; 
and as he progressed in his studies, a strong desire for 
knowledge was engendered. He soon became master 
of the elementary, then of the more advanced 
branches; and not content with these he took up the 
more diflicult studies, including the languages, and 
his zeal and ambition found reward in success. As 
he grew older lie became a close observer of public af- 
fairs, and entered intelligently and with force into 
discussions of all topics demanding public attention, 
none enjoying an "intellectual battle" more than he. 
Having a taste for newspaper writing, he used the 
press as the channel through which to present his 
views upon questions of public import, and was ever 
welcomed as a contributor by all the journals in 
whose columns ho sought space. He was a logical 
reasoner in debate, wielding a vigorous pen, yet wri- 
ting with a graceful freedom that won respectful at- 

History of Marion County. 155 

tention from friend and opponent. Since he so closely 
identified himself with the politics of the day, he 
may be regarded as having been a " public man " in 
this respect, and in that field evidenced ability that, 
had he been favorably situated, would have won him 
distinction, and honors at the hands of the people. 
Originally he was of the Democratic school and an 
ardent admirer of Stephen A. Douglas— entering up- 
on political thought and action at the most brilliant 
period of that eminent gentleman's career, Mr. Lott 
took an active interest in his fortunes up to the as- 
sembling of the Charleston Convention of historic 
fame. With a clear perception, he foresaw the disas- 
ters awaiting the "Little Giant,'" and, in common 
with thousands of others, he recognized in the pro- 
ceedings of that convention the gathering of the clouds 
portending the storm of civil war, and with an earnest 
desire for peace, he regretfully transferred his alle- 
giance elsewhere. Espousing the cause of the Union, 
he addressed himself to the task of assisting in the 
perpetuation of the Federal Government. He was 
not prepared to endorse Mr. Lincoln, however, and 
cast his ballot for Bell and Everett. He afterwards 
became a warm supporter of the Lincoln administra- 
tion. During the campaign of ISfiO, and the years of 
turmoil that followed, Mr. Lott was a constant con- 
tributor to tlie political literature of the day. He 
vigorously opposed the ordinance of secession, and to 
him, probably, as nmch as to many others more pre- 
tentious, is due the large vote cast in opposition to 
that measure in the western part of the Old Dominion. 
When Virginia seceded, and war was inevitable, he 

156 History of Marion County. 

was among the foremost advocates of the proposition 
for a new state. 

Though a constant writer for the press, Mr. Lott's 
name rarely appeared in print, he preferring to em- 
ploy a nom de jAume for all his productions. He 
was, however, at one time the recognized local editor 
of the Fairmont National. Early in the year 1861, he 
was placed in charge of the Fairmont Postoffice, and 
throughout the war, and for a period of eight years 
thereafter, as deputy and as chief, lie discharged the 
duties of the position with signal ability, and to the 
satisfaction of the public. This was the only office 
he ever held. 

For several years preceding his death, ]\[r. Lott was 
the subject of a disease emanating principally from 
his previous affliction, and he was finally compelled 
to abandon all occupation, which he did with great 
reluctance. At last, yielding to the summons, he 
passed away, closing an honorable life with the same 
practical stoicism that had characterized him 'midst 
his long years of suffering. A firm, true hearted 
friend, an intelligent, high-minded man and patriotic 
citizen, he passed into the unknown realms, leaving 
impressed upon the hearts of a whole community, en- 
dearing remembrances of " Dick Lott." 

FONTAIN smith, ESQ. 

The subject of this sketch is a native Virginian. 
He was born and reared in the interior of the state, 
and is now upwards of fifty years of age. He com- 
menced the study of law in 1848, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1830. He came to Marion county in the 
Spring of 1857, locating at Mannington, where he 

History of Marion County. 157 

engaged for a short time in school teaching, while he 
practiced in the courts of this and adjoining counties. 
The Marion county bar at that time was composed of 
a number of gentlemen of eminent ability — such men 
as ex-Gov. F. H. Pierpoint, who has since attained a 
national reputation, James Neeson, Esq., now one of 
the most distinguished members of the Richmond bar, 
Hon. A. F. Raymond, at present a member of the 
Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia, Hon. E. 
B. Hall, who afterwards presided over the Eleventh 
Judicial Circuit of West Virginia, (since made the 
Third,) now a resident of California, Hon. B. F. Mar- 
tin, present Representative in Congress, Albert S. 
Hayden, EUery R. Hall, and others. In 1860, Mr. 
Smith, being conservative in his political opinions, 
espoused the cause of Stephen A. Douglas, for Presi- 
dent, and was appointed by the Douglas convention, 
elector for the Senatorial district, composed of Marion, 
Wetzel and Tyler counties. In the following year he 
was nominated u candidate for a seat in the memora- 
ble convention, which convened in Richmond in Feb- 
ruary, 1861, and passed the Ordinance of Secession. 
He was defeated, however, in the contest by Hons. 
A. F. Haymond and E. B. Hall. He was a pronounced 
Union man, and ardently opposed to secession. In 
the Spring of 1S61, lie was elected to the Legislature 
of Virginia, but refused to take his seat in that body, 
the convention having passed the ordinance of seces- 
sion. However, when the State Government was re- 
organized at Wheeling, he co-operated with the 
authors of that movement. In the organization of 
the I^egislature under the restored government, he 
was made Chairman of the House Committee on 

158 History of Marion County. 

Courts of Justice. In the year 1S68, ^Ir. Smith, at the 
Grafton democratic convention, was tendered the 
nomination for Congress from his district, but de- 
clined it. He was, in 1872, with Messrs. A. F. Hay- 
mond and U. N. Arnott, elected a delegate to the con- 
stitutional convention of West Virginia, and for a 
short time in this year was engaged with his son in 
the editorial management of the Liberalist. Since 
1872, Mr. Smith has been living a comparatively 
quiet life in Fairmont, and has taken no very active 
part in politics. He is one of the leading members of 
the Marion county bar, and controls a large practice 
in this and surrounding counties. He is a gentleman 
of considerable literary and legal attainment ; is 
fluent and forcibh^ in an argument, and a popular 
and eloquent speaker. He is one of the most promi- 
nent men of his county, and is the father of Clarence 
L. Smith, the present clerk of the circuit court, who 
is a young lawyer of acknowledged ability. 


Albert S. Hayden, Esq., was born in Fayette county, 
Pa., in the year 1825, and lived there until he arrived 
at the age of twenty-two years. He removed to Fair- 
mont in June, 1847, where he has since resided, en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession, which is that 
of a lawyer. He received an excellent education in 
the schools of his native county, and studied law in 
the office of Hon. Robert P. Flenniken, afterwards 
United States Minister to Denmark, during the ad- 
ministration of President Polk. Mr. Hayden, being 
of a very modest disposition, and having no political 
aspirations or desire for office, has never held any im- 

History of Marion County. 159 

portant public offices, except that of district court 
olerk, which position lie held from 1852 until 1861, a 
period of nine years. In his political beliefs he is 
democratic. He is one of the most popular lawyers at 
the Marion county bar, and is respected throughout 
the county as a man and a citizen. Mr. Hayden's 
genial disposition has made him many personal 
friends, and his acknowledged superior legal and 
literary attainments, have distinguished him among 
his fellow citizens as one of the most prominent men 
of the county. 


Mr. Charles M. Davison, Superintendent of the West 
Fairmont Mines, is a prominent business man of the 
county, to whom is due, in a great measure, the suc- 
cess of these mines, and the fact that they are now in 
operation, employing a large number of hands. He 
was born on the 2od of February, 1840, in the city of 
Bogota, United States of Colombia, South America; 
his parents, who wore citizens of this country, resided 
there at that time. His father and mother returning 
to the United States of America, when he was between 
three and four years of age, he accompanied them, 
and was raised in the city of New York. Mr. Davison 
is a gentleman of culture, having received in his 
youth a good education at the public schools of New 
York, and at the Irving Institute, at Tarrytown on 
the Hudson, close to Washington Irving's residence. 
At the age of twenty-one he was married to a BrooK- 
lyn lady, and after spending some years in traveling, 
during wliich time he made several trips to different 
portions of the Globe in search of fortune, he finally 

160 History of Mariox County. 

came to Fairmont, in 1870, to take the business man- 
agement of the West Fairmont gas coal and coke 
mines, which position he has since held. During his 
residence in Marion county, he has gained a reputa- 
tion as a man who is foremost in the advocacy of any 
business enterprise which tends to the development 
of the resources of the county, and is very popular as 
a citizen. Socially, he is one of the most popular men 
of the county. He is a member of very high standing 
in the Masonic fraternity, and one of the few men in 
the state who have attained to the thirty-second de- 
gree. He is also a member of high standing in the 
I. 0. 0. F. lodges of Fairmont, the Patrons of Husband- 
ry of the county, and Knights of Honor of Fairmont. 


In addition to the foregoing citizens, there are in 
Marion county many others who are also deserving of 
special mention in this connection. The space at our 
disposal, however, will not permit us to give even a 
short life sketch of each one separately. Those whose 
biographies appear in the foregoing papers are Marion 
county men who have been most conspicuous in 
politics, or Avhose intellectual attainments and valua- 
ble services, rendered from time to time, entitle them 
to be called the leading men of the county. There are 
others whose names are closely identified with the 
political and business interests of the county, who 
may be classed among the prominent citizens of Ma- 
rion. Among the latter is Mr. James 0. Watson, pro- 
prietor of the Gaston coal mines. ■=' Mr. Watson luis 

"•■■Mr. James Boyci-, of UaUiiiiorc, and JiH]i;e A. H. Fleiuinp, of Fairmont, are 
associated with Mr. Watiou iu tlie owuLTaliip of ttic Ciaslua mines. 

History of Marion County. 161 

been engaged in developing the mineral and agricul- 
tural resources of the county for a number of years, 
and is one of the leading land holders. He is a man 
of great enterprise, and is probably the best known 
business man in this community. Shortly after the 
organization of the county, he was clerk of the circuit 
court, and took some part in politics, and was, at the 
same time, engaged in the mercantile trade at the' 
county seat. For some years, however, he has taken 
no active interest in political affairs, but has diligent- 
ly applied himself to his mining and agricultural pur- 
suits, and has contributed largely to the opening up 
of the county. His present mines, which are situated 
on West Fork, are connected witli the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad, at the forks of the river, by a railroad 
about one mile in length. Mr. Watson's handsome 
residence is near his mines, and situated about a mile 
from Fairmont. He communicates with his office in 
town by means of a Bell telephone, the first and only 
telephone line used in Marion county. Mr. A. J. 
Stone is the superintendent of the Gaston mines, and 
is one of the leading business men of the community. 
Mr. Morgan D. Orr, of the O'Donnell mines, is another 
prominent man who is very popular for having con- 
tributed largely to the business interests of the county. 
Mr. Oliver Jackson, proprietor of the Central mines, 
is and has been for years one of the leading business 
men of the county. Previous to the opening of his 
own, he was for some time superintendent of the West 
Fairmont mines, and was for some time engaged in 
the dry goods business in Fairmont. Among other 
prominent business men may be named ^Ir. Joseph 
E. Sands, cashier of the First National Bank of Fair- 

162 History of Marion County, 

mont ; Jacob N. Gould, cashier of the Farmer's Bank ; 
Captain N. I). Helmick, superintendent of the Marion 
Machine Works, Pahitine : William Ridgely, presi- 
dent of the Farmer's Bank ; Peter Amos, of the firm 
of Peter Amos it Son ; Daniel Tennant, of the firm of 
Tennant & Co., of Fairview, proprietors of the two 
largest steam flouring mills in the county; F. H. 
Burt, of the firm of F. H. Burt tt Sons, Mannington, 
proprietors of the jMannington Tannery; George W. 
L. Mayers, of the Mountain City Planing Mills ; John 
Wiggiuton, proprietor of the Iron Foundry, Fairmont; 
Joseph and Elias Nuzum, of the Fairmont Furniture 
Company ; James Barnes, superintendent of the 
Barnesville Woolen Factory, and many others. 

Among the men who have held office, or figured most 
prominently in the political affairs of the county in 
the past, (in addition to those whose biographies are 
given,) and those who are at present conspicuous in 
politics, and may consequently be classed among the 
men of prominence and influence, we may name 
Messrs. Thomas L. Boggess, Thomas G. Watson, Wil- 
liam J. Willey, James Neeson, John S. Barnes, David 
Cunningham, Richard Thomas, William B. Ice, Ben- 
jamin Fleming, Ephraim B. Hall, P^llery R. Hall, 
John J. Moore, Frank Conaway, William C. Brice, 
W. M. Dunnington, Jesse Sturm, John C. Clayton, 
Alfred Prichard, James H. F'urbee, Alfred Hood, A. 
W. Knotts, C. E. Wells, William C. Haymond, Amos 
Prichard, Robert Lowe, S. W. Hall, Elias Blackshere, 
John B. Crane, Lindsey B. Haymond, C. L. Smith, U. 
N. Arnott, jr., Thomas IT. B. Staggers, Jacob Hayden, 
and others. 


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