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3 3433 06737193 4 


BaniToft CoUrditm. 



O F T H E 

Lebellion and Civil Wars 

I N 


Begun in the Year 154^1. 

Volume I. Part i. 


1 . ■■. 

. ■ . f 

■ \ < 






Rebellion and Civil Wars 

liT'^- IN 


. , <■.. 

BegSStjn the Year 1^4.1. 

Ad..p«c«UntP,fl^«.«dAaio«, AatcontrU 
buted thereonto, and the happy End, and Conclafion 
thereof by the Kings bleUed Restoration, and 
Return, upon the 29"^ of 2kfoy, in the Year itftfo. 

Written by the Ri^ Honourable 

EDWARD.Earl of Clarendon^ 

Lite Lord High Chancellor ofEf^lanJ^ Privy Counfellor in 
the Reigns of KingCHARLSS the Firft and the Second. 

Ne quid FaJJi dicere audcaU nc quidFeri non audeat Cicero. 


Volume I. Part i. 

X F Ji D, 

Printed at the Th e a t E r, Ah» Dm, MDCCXVIL 




Vice-Can. Oxos. 

ij^, 89.1702. 


A N N E R. * 

ANNE, by the Grace oi GoAjQ^ttnoi EnghfuiySc^kiui^ 
France^ and Ireland^ Defender of the Faidi, ^. To all 
to whom thefe Prefents (hall come. Greeting. Whereas 
Our Trufly and Well-beloved ff^lliam 2)elauneyDoSiot 
in Divinity, and Vice-Chancellor of Our Univerfity of OxfcrJ^ 
has humbly reprefented unto Us, in the behalf of the faid Uni- 
verfltVy that They have at a Great Expence already Publilh'd 
one Volume of the late Earl oiCkrenJons Hiftory, and intend 
in a Ihort time to Publiih the Second and Third Volumes for 
Gompleating the Work; and the fole Right of the Copy of the 
iaid Work being Vetted in Our UniverGiy oiOxford^ and They 
having humbly befbught Us to Grant Them Our Royal Privi- 
lege and Licence for the fole Printing and Pdblifliing the fame 
for the Term of Fou(|gen Years ; We being Gracioufly enclined 
to encourage the frjfodertaking, are pleafed to condefcend to 
their Requeft; ank^iif therefore hereby Give and Grant, unto 
Our laid UniverGty of Oxfcerd^ Our Royal Licence and Privi- 
lege, for the fole Printing and Publi(bine the (aid Three Volumes 
ofthe late Earl oi Clarendon'^ Hiftory, tor and during the Term 
of Fourteen Years, to be computed from the Day of the Date 
hereof; ftriflly Charging, Pronibiting, and Forbidding all Our 
Subjedls to Reprint or Abridge the faid Hiftovy, or any Part of 
it, or to Import, Buy, Vend, Utter, or Diftribute any Copies of 
the fame, or any Part thereof. Reprinted beyond the Seas, within 
the faid Term, without the Confent and Approbation of Our 
faid Univerfity firft had and obtain'd, as They and every of 
them Offending herein will Anfwer the Contrary at their Peril, 
and fuch other Penalties as by the Laws and Statutes of this Our 
Realm may be infliikd ; Whereof the Matter, Wardens, and 
Company of Stationers of Our City oi London^ the Commif^ 
fioners and Officers of Our Cuftoms, and all other Our Officers 
and Minifters whom it may Concern, are to take Notice, that due 
Obedience be given to Our Pleafure herein fignified. Given at 
Our Court at Hampton-Court the 24'^ day 01 June 1703. In 
the Second Year of Our Reign. 

By Her Majefties Command. 


C Hedges. 




f-' ' ■ 

AT kngtb ernes into the fForlJ^ The Firft 
Volume of the Hillory of the Rebellion, and 
Civil Wars in England^ bqgun in the Year 
1 64 1, with the precedent Paflages and 
Anions, that Contributed thereunto, and the happy 
End and Conclufion thereof, by the King's blefled Re- 
(loration, and Return^ upon the ip^^ of May in the 
Year idtfo; Written by Edward iSidr/ 0/ Clarendon^ 
once Lard High Chancellor of England, and Chancellor 
of the Famouj Univerfity 0/ Oxford. The Firfl ofthefc 
great 7)ignities King Oiarles the Second had conferrd 
on Him 9 whilji he was yet in Banifhment with Him; 
which he heldf after the Rejioration^ above feven Tears, 
with the Univerfal Approbation of the whole Kingdom^ 
and the General Apptaufe of all good Men^ for his Ju- 
Jiice, Integrity 9 found Judgment^ and &ninent Suf 
ficiency in the difcharge of that Office ; a Traife^ which 
none of his Enemies ever denied Him^ in any Time : 
The Other He received from the choice of the Univerfity^ 
who, upon the Vacancy of that Tlace, by the death ^the 
Marquis of Hertford, then Duke ejjTSomerfet, jud^d 
They could not better manifejl their Jleddinejs in the 

a 4 ' Cuufe 


Caujefcr njobich They bad fuffWd^ and then Refohtms 
of adhering to their Old Principles ^ in fupport (f the 
CS6/^C/6 g^ England, and the Ancient Monarchical Qh 
vernment of this Kingdom^ than in choofing t^fhce fbe 
Trote&ion of their fntereft in bothy under the care of 
Oney who had Jo early dijiinguiftid Him f elf ^ even from 
the fir ft Approaches of the. Civil IVar^ in ajferting and 
maintaining the difttejfed Rights of the Cbwrco and 

This Hfjiory was fir ft begun by the exprefs Command 
of Kmg Charips the FtrB^ who, having a dcfire^ thai m 
account of the Calamities^ God was pleajed to infiiff m 
the Unhappy part of his Reign^ Jbould be reported t% 
Tofterity by jhme worthy ^ honejtj and knowing <JMan^ 
thought He could not appoint any One more adorn d with 
fuch Salifications^ than this Author. 

It is a difficult Trovince to write the Hiftory (f the 
GvilWars of a Great and TowerfiA Nation^ where the 
King was engaged with one Tart of his Suhje&s againfl 
the other ^ and both Sides were fuffvcientl) inflamed: 
And the Necefiity offpeaking the Truth of fever al Qreai 
Mcn^ that were engaged in the Sluarrel on either Side^ 
who may ft ill have very confiderabte Relations y defcended 
from Them^ now Alive, maizes the Task Invidious as 
well as Difficult. 

Pf^e are not ignorant thai there are Accounts , contained 
in thts following Hiliory, g^ fome Eminent Terfons in 
thofe TimeSy tEat do not agree with the relations we 
have met with of the fame Perfons, tubbfUd in pfber 
Authors, But^ beftdes that they who put forth this 
HifioT/y dare not take upon them to mal(e any Altera^ 
tions in a tVorh of this iind^ Jokmnly left with them to 
betubbjlidy whenever itjhouldbe publrjh'd^ as it was 
detiverd to Them\ they cannot but think the ff^orU 
will generally be of Opinion^ that others may as Uklfy 
have been miftaken in the grounds and informationt 
they have gone upon , as our Author ; who will be 
efteem'd to have bad opportunities^ equal at leaji with 
any others^ of knowing the Truth \ and^ by the Candat^ 
^ emd 


4ind TmpmttinUty rfwhmi He rektes^ m^ ie icBa/J 
fM to have made awy wilful trnftak^s. 

Htme^M^ all things rf tibis Nature muB he fubmit' 
ted^ as this is 9 with great deference to the 'judgment tf 
the equal Reader \ who will meetj in his progrefs thrtmgh 
this work with many Tajfages^ that^ he wiU judge ^ mof 
difibUge the Tojierity if even well meaning Men in thoje 
days ; much more then (fjuch as were crafty^ cunnings 
andwicied enough to defign the mif chiefs that enfuedi 
But hejballmeet with none of Malice y nor am butfuch 
as the Autbvfy upon his heft infer mation^ took to be Im- 
partially true. He couid mt be ignorant ^the Rules of a 
good Hiftorian ( which, Cicero fays, are fuch fbunda- 
fionsy that they are known to every body)That he Qiould 
Not dare to fpeak any Falfehood ; and (hould dare to 
(peak any Truth, ^d we doubt not, but through the 
whole prt^efs of tins Hiftory, he will be found to have 
given no occajwn ifjeifpeciing his writings guilty of par- 
tial favour, or inyuft enmity; and we hope that the 
refirefenting the Truth, without any mixtitre ^ private 
Tajfton or Animojity^ will befo far from giving offense 
to any Ingenuous Man of this time, that it will be re- 
ceivdrather as an InftruSlion to the prefent jigf, than 
a Reproach upon the laft. 

Moreover , the Tehdernefs that might feem due, oe§tof 
Charity, good Manners, and good Nature^ to our Come- 
try-Men, ottr Neighbours^ or our Relations, hath been 
indued a long fpace of time ; and might pofjibly be 
abujedy ifitjhouldnot give way, at laft, to the ufefulnejs 
^making this work pubUck, in an J^e, when Jo many 
Memoirs, Narratives, and pieces of Hifiory come out, as 
it were on purpofe to Jn/iify the taking up Armes 
agamft that King, and to blacksn, revile, and ridicule the 
ficredMajefly y'an Anointed head in diflrefs\ and when 
fo much of the Senje of Religion to God, and of ASle^ 
giauce and 2)uty to the Crown, is fo ekfaced, that it 
is already, within a littk more than fifty Tears Jince 
the Murder committed on that Pious Prince, fy Jome 
Men made a Myftery to judge ^ on whofe ^dc was 








O F T H E 

Iebellion and Civil Wars 

I N 


Begun in the Year id^i. 

Volume I. Part i. 



Lor J High Treafurer g^ England, mtb whom our Ath 
thar had always an entire and f aft Triendfhip^ and whom 
all Men , that knew himy honour d for his great Ahiti^ 
ties , and eminent Integrity. There was the 2)ukf of 
Albemarle, them Lord General^ who bad the honour y and 
good Fortune tf bringing moft things ^ and MeUj at that 
time to bear together^ for the Seftoration of that Ktng^ 
and the Royal Family to the Seat of tbe'tr Ancefiors. 
There was the then Mar qui fs of Ormond, foon rfter his 
tSMajeft/s Return made Lord Steward if the Houfe- 
boldy and Lord Lieutenant c/ Ireland; who had not (mly 
. follow' d^ but even graced hts Mafters Fortunes ^ in aU 
the time of his Ex tie ^ with the Attendance ^ Jo emu 
nenty and meritorious a SubjeH ; who had often ventured 
bis Terfon^ and loft aU bis Large E/iate in the fteady 
purfuit of Loyalty and^uty to the Crown, and Zeal for 
the true Religion. There was the Earl of Sandwich , 
who had, when Admiral^and General at Sea^ to l^sjhare 
the glorious part of bringing the Fleet of Enghnd, and 
the Body of the Englijh Sea-men^ to concur in the JSng's 
Reft or at ion ; and hady before that time , been very me* 
ritorious towards his Maje/ly, as is mention d at large 
in the enfuing parts of this Hijiory. Tbefe were the 
principal; and befides tbefe^ tbete. was one mcret who^ 
tljough in a different rank^ was admit tedy at that time^ 
into the moft intimate Truft and Confidence^ Old Secre- 
tary Nicholas ; who had ferv'd his two Mafters y King 
Charles the Ftrfl and Secondy with Jo much Faitbfm- 
nefs and Integrity y as to bejuftly entitled to a fart in 
the mofl important Admimftration. BtUy without the 
leaB defign of detraliing from the Credit or IntereH 
of thefe great , and honourable Terfonsy IVe may truh 
fay J our Author had. the preference of them aU in tie 
King's Favour and Efteem\ andbj his prudence y know- 
ledge ^ and experience y in which bejbar^d with the others^ 
and his Indefatigable Labour and "Pains , wbereiny it 
is moft certain , they did not fbare with Himy be had 
the Happinefsy without their Envy^ and with their Con* 




cwrrence^ to have the ffreatefl Jbare in difpofing the minds 
tfihe Te$pky and the King too, to agree then on fucb 
nieajures in Tariiamenty as laid the foundation of that 
Veace^ Tknt^^ andVrofpcrity this Nation hath enjojd 

He bad the Happinefs to have the greateft Jhare iff 
fre/erving the Conflitution of oar dvernment entire^ 
when the Then prejent Temper of the Teople, was but 
ioo ready to have gone into any undue comply ance with 
the Crown. 

He had the happinefs^ amongfl fever al other goodAEts 
of Parliaments to have the great eft Jhare in compajjing 
and per felling the ASi of Obbvton and Indemnity \ 
the AH fur confirming "judicial Proceedings \ and the 
ASt cf Uniformity ; by which the Teople of England 
nnere quieted in their Minds ^ and fettled in their Tof 
feJJions\ and the Church (/"England redeemed frorn the 
otprefjions it had lain under y and ejiabljf)d and fet up 
ij the Law of the Lmnd^ as it was alfo by our hie [fed 
Saviours promije to all thofe that ferve him in Holinefs 
and Truth, on that Jloci, againji which the Gates of 
Hell were not to prevaiL This is that Churchy which 
de fires to have her Zhffrine under flood, as well as obefd ; 
^nd which depends on the InfalRbility of Scripture 
for her Guide ^ but never could be drawn to allow it to 
^ny Mortal Men^ whether in afingle Terfon, or a greater 
Js[umber\ and which, of all the Churches in the World y 
does moji rationally inform her Members in the Tra-- 
Slice of pure Religion and undefikd towards God, with 
2)ecency in ff^orpipj without jlffeffation, Superjiitiony 
er Qftentation\ and Obedience to the King, with due 
Regard t& the Conjlitution^ and the Laws of the Land. 
By God's bleffing on thefe means^ our Author had the 
happinefs to leave la fling. Monuments of his Judgement ^ 
and his Tiety ; ^bts Loyalty to his Trincey ana his en'- 
tire Live to his Country. 

It wot during the ^SMiniftry oftUs Terfon^ andwhiljl 
be wa4 in his greatejl Credit^ that memorable Expref 

b 3 fion 


fim was ufeJ^ in one (fKin^ Charles the Seconds Speeches 
to both Houfes : That m all his 2>eliberations and 
^SHions^ bis principal Confiderattimjhouldbe^ WhatwiU 
a Parliament think of them ? 

Everf Body then knew, by whofe Afuice that King 
was inclmd to make that wife Tieclaration. jjnd cet'- 
tainly it had been happy four bim^ if be had always pra^ 
Bijed it \ and all England hath reafm to Wffb^ that aU 
t3iinifters had continued^ to (his dqy^ to give the Hkg 
V^holepme QounfeL 

Hae tibi erunt Artesi 

ffiid mr Author^ to a King g^ England: Keep always 
well with four Parliaments. Ijst no auiin whimjey of 
the Example of other Countries , but utterly impraSH* 
^abk in this, delude you. Keep idways m the true In- 
tereSi gT the Nation ; and a King of England is the 
greate^^ and baptieB Prince in the ff^txrld* 

How this Per/on came fir ft to leffen in bis Credit^ and 
afterwards^ • in the (pace ^ about five Tears^ to fall fuite 
put of that King's JuivouTy to be ^ifgraced^ as the Lah* 
gu^e at Court isy and JS^nifh'd^ muft h^ a Uttle tmcVd\ 
and fVe Jhall make an end. They who were then 
moB concern d in his Mis for tunes j and felt the mofi 
Jenjibk Jlroj^s of his Majeft/s dif^eaf<^re in their Fa- 
mdy^ have tt not in their Hearts to lay any thing hard 
at the 2)oor (f that K^ng^ onge a moB gracious^ and in^ 
dulgent Majier to our Author y and woo was certain^ 
not of a jD:/poJition to do harjfb things to any JSody ; and 
who , as IVe have Reafon to believe , out of the fenfe of 
unkind Ufage to the Father^ did afterwards ^ by bis own 
fingular Goodnefs and Favour , much againft the mind 
effme in Credit with him, draw bis two Sons, who yet 
Survwe , into a very great degree of Truji , atid Confi- 
dence near him ; and particularly bejlow'd on thefecond^ 
extraordinary marks ofHonmr ana Bounty^ that are to 
dejcend to his ^ofterity. 



We t^e them boih tut he Msn of Jo much Tidy to 
their Father^ (ind fo m(ch spirit in them/ehes , that 
the/ iJmlJ hjt no means he bribed to omit any thing 
upon th}s Occafion , that might be of Ufe or Adva^itage 
to the Honmr of one they owefo much T>uty to\ if they 
cotUfi cgnceive^ that there w^s neeJ^ at this time of Jay ^ 
to cmtribftte to the Jif/i^^on pfhis Tnnocency, The 
Wortd haf)>, tafied mg itmiigh ^ Jince the Misfortunes 
^ this f3(onoHrabIe Perf^ ^ to be throughly convinced^ 
that there w^.mth'ifig m all thofe Articles Exhibited 
ogainB him m Tarliament , thai did in the leaji touch 
or cqneern him. One (f bis Sons , then of the Houje 
of Qommons , offer' d in that Houfc , that if they who 
accufed him 9 vaould but take the Tains to prove to the 
Houfe any one of the /ttiides , and takg which they 
voould'^ifthey made out but any one of them all^ Himfef^ 
■and aU bis friends ^ ^»mH ackjfovokcfge liim guilty 
of all* . 

But there is no need no^ of the Findioation of fuch 
4 Ma/ii^ wpofi every BnijCy. in their ConJcienceSy do not 
oH^ acwi) of any Qrinte , bfU all 6ood Men fpeak of 
mih tionour ; and i^boJliU fives in the opinion of all 
fr^e ^^{ili^:Jkten^ in as high a Reputation as any Man 
to this day. 

. Tet^ a^iot^gh If^e intend to decline aU manner of Re^ 
flexion on the. Memory of that I^ingj We may be allowed 
to fay ^ That that excellently voeu naturdTrince^ who 
did very few ill natur'd toings in bis Reign ^ was pre* 
vaird upon , in this caje^ not only to put out of his Ser- 
vice one of the moff jFaithfuland Atcient Servants then 
alfve to bis Father j or Mtmfelf ( wliich is not to be fo 
much complaitid of\ for it would be a hard Tye indeed 
for a Trince to be^ as it were^ Married to his Servants 
for better 't for vcorfe) but to conjent to an AEl of Tar ha- 
merits that obliged this his poor Servant to end his days, 
in Banrjhment^ with Old Jke and Infirmities to attend 
him : This might be tbougbt a little hard-hearted to in- 

fliSi upon a M^ft^ V^^^ ^^^ l^ Honottr and Happinef^^ 

b 4 in 

xvui THE preface: 

in fie mere wgorous pari of its Ufe^ to have led tie 
Kmg htmfelf tbrottgb his lawn E^tk^ wth CreAt and 
dignity ^ and in mare Honour and Refutation^ than 
ufually attends Unfortunate TrinceSj tMt are deprived 
of their own "Dominions ; and at b^^ in tffefidnefs of 
Gods own Ttme^ had the Happmefs to have fp conjider^ 
abkajhare in the ConduR of has ReftHfttUiok^ Far it 
was by this Author principally that the confiuHaf cor* 
refpondence was kept up with the Loyal Tarty in Eng« 
land, in order to cultivate good thoagtlts of his Majefy 
in the minds of his Teopk^ and to ifi$^ themy in fome 
fort^ acquainted with his Temper and T>ifpoJition^ he* 
fore they could kno^ his Terfin. This /kuhor like-- 
yoije framed^ dijpofed^ anddre^ t bote Letters and 2)e* 
claratioms from htcday which bad Jo wonderful an Ef- 
fed aU over England, andiioere Jo generiuy approvd 
here J that they were ^ ahnoFfatt^ turrid into JlSstf 
parliament. \ 

Many perhaps may not unreaf^dbh believe^ that the 
Marriage of the then i>uke of YotKwith the 2)a$^6- 
ter cf this Author might have been one gr^at Qccajionj. 
if not the Foundation ofh\s Fall% andtSasgh it be mofr 
undoubtedly true^ that this very unequal jthance was 
hvQught to pafs entirely without the Igowle^e^ or Tri-» 
vi^y of this Author^ but fo much the contrary^ that 
"when the King af that time^ made him more tian or* 
dinarj^ exprefflons of his Grace to bim^ with jiffurances 
that this Accident JHould not kffen the J^eem^ and 
Favour his Majefty had for him ; j^et bis own good 
Judgment made him imhtedlately fenfiile^ and declare 
it too^ to tbofe he was intimate with, that this fnu/l cer* 
tainly be the occajion of the diminution of his Credit ' 

The continual dropping of Water does Hot more infaU 
libh^ make an hollow in a Stone^ than the perpetual 
Whijpers of ill Men mufl make impreffon in the heart 
of any Trtnce^ that will always be open to hear tbem\ 
Hot can any Maris mind be fufficientfy guarded from the 
influence of continued Calumny ^ and Backbiting. 
^ • irben 


When tie Duie of York bad nuule this MarrUge^ ii 
ijoas noi wmatural to thofe ill minded Men to fuggeft^ 
that J for the time to come^ that Mimfter would be con-* 
triving Advantages for the good of his own Tofterity^ to 
the prejudice of his Soveraign^ and Majier. tF'bat their 
nxiehednefsy foffihly^ would have idhw'd Them to pro- 
Bicey was ground enough to them for an Accufution of 
jF£s Innocency. 

It was truey that the 7)uhe of York was become the 
Chancellor^ s Son in Law\ and therefore they hoped to 
be belief dy when theyfaid^ that to fatisfy his Ambi^ 
tion^ he would fmfeit his Integrity \ which, God knows ^ 

Thiis what Tacitus obferves in the time tyT Tiberius, 
^Granius Marcellus, who was informed againjl to have 
fpoken HI wards of that Emperour^ was bere^ in fome 
jeri^ verified on our Author. 

loevitabilc' crimen, fays Tacitus concerning thofe 
wordsy nam, quia vera erant, etiam clx£la credebantur. 

The AUjance was undeniable ; there were Children 
born ^it\ and the JCtng was ffot hleffed with any from 
bh. Marriage : An inevitable Orime laid on our At^bor. 
for becaujie it was true^ that there were Children 
from one Afarrii^ey and not from the other ^ it was 
ftiggejiedy that both Marriages bad been fo contrived by 
tSe ChanceStar: though the JSng knew veryweBy tSai 
bis own tSUarriage had not beenfirji projeffedy or pnh 
pofed by this Author ; and that be bad often tola his 
dMajefiy^ what fujpicions there were in the IVorld^ that 
that Qreat and f^trtuous Princefs might prove- un- 
fruitful • . 

Another inevitdbk Misfortune^ which was then laid 
as a Crime too on our Author, was a £eport veryfalfely^ 
but jfiery induflrioujly fpread abroad^ that frft begat a 
Coldn^s, and by degrees y vefy much dijinclind a great 
many of the RoyatTarty to him \ a Report ^ that hefhould 
have injliiled into the Kind's mind a Tftnciple^ thi^t he 
fuajl frefer his Enernies% and advance Them, to gain 



ibem to he Us Friemis ; and for bis OUFriemb^ it WiS 
no matter bow he ufedTbem^ for Tbej vootdd be fo JliU* 
To wbkb very femdalom mfrefrelcntatim. We m^fl 
give this true Anpuoeri 

It fell out indeed^ thai every JUans ExpeSation^ that 
had labour d all the beat of the day in the Finc-yardy 
njoh bad received Wounds in their Terfons in the day of 
Battle , or fufferd in their Fortunes or liberties , for 
the prejexvation of a good Confcience during the U fur pa- 
tion of Tyranny and Anarchy^ was not% ana^ alafs ! couU 
not^ be recompenfed immediately aecfxrding to their JUe- 
rity or the Hopes they bad entertain' d\ Andbecaufe it 
was true that they were difappointed ^ it was believed 
by fame of them , that our Jbubar , beif^ Mmifier at 
that time 9 had injiiltdtbis damnable 2Jomrine and Tih 
Jition , that it was no matter bow the King nfed Ins 
Old Friends : and becaufe it was true (hat they were 
not confider'd as they deferv^d^ it muft be bebev'd^ as 
they wmld have it^ that He was the Ajatbor ^ that 

It was true that the King^ who was Jo wonderfully 
jReJidr'd with aU that &Qrf and Peace , more perhaps 
upon the cot^dence of bis Declarations andPromijes 
from Breda , than any other Human means ^ and wba 
hfld thought it necej/ary to recommend^ in his moft gra- 
qious Speech ta both Houfes , upon the paffing the AS 
of Indemnity , that all marks of diJiinSlion and divi* 
Jion amof^tl his Subjeffs^ Jbould be for ever buried and 
forgotten J did not tbink^itfor his Honour^ andprue In- 
terefty to Reign over a Party only (fbis SubjeBs\ and 
therefore J immediately after his Reftoration^ in order to 
the' Settlement cflns Courts and Family^ the then Earl 
of Manchcllcr , whofe part every body remembered to 
have been very Eminent , in the time ^ the Rebellion^ 
againjl King Charles the F&Ji, but who had induftrioujly 
applied bimfelf feveral years to the JSng^ to make re- 
paration for his former Errors , and had ben conji- 
derahly fervieeable to him in Jeveral occafions^ was Ho- 


isrwrV witb the Office of IjnrJ Chamber lain of the 
Houfe-boU\ to let the JSngJom fee^ how the King 
Himfelf began with praSi/ing what he exhorted his 
Subjeffs to J that admirable Art of Forge tfulnefs^ whem 
he put Such a T erf on into Jo Eminent a Stat ton in the 
Government » near his own Terfon. And it was cer- 
tainly of Advantage to the JGng , in the beginning of 
bis Settlement here , as well as a Mark of Jujtice in 
his N^ture^ to kt bis SuhjeSs know and feel ^ that every 
one of them might capacitate himfetf^ by bis futwe Af- 
iaviour^ for any Dignity and Treferment. 

But it could never be in the Heart of a fJMan% who ' 
had been all along on the Suffering fide , to do his own 
y^^p fo bafe an Office with the JQngy as this falfe Re- 
port did infinuate. He might be of opinion that the fat- 
ted Calf W0S to be kjUd^ for the Entertainment of the 
Prodigal Son^ whenever he return d; that there might 
be no difiinSlion of Tar ties keft up amongfi Us ; but be 
could, never forget the Ekrthrigbt of the Eldeji Son , 
V^h^ bad Jerv'd the King fo many Tears ^ and had not 
At any time tranfgreffed his Commandment^ andfo well 
liefervd that pratje, and that reward^ Son, thou art 
ever with me, and all that I have is thine. AnJt 
ytf this C^dumnyy falfe as it w^y was another inevi- 
table Crimti or at leaji Misforttme. For without th^t 
Qpiwouy which fome of the Roytd Tanty had fueled 
in J that the Cbancelbr had abandoned their Inter eft ^ 
it had been fmpoffible to iatfe engaged a Majority in 
that Tarliatnenty to have comfented to that AH of J^ 

Godfmgive the Inventors and Contrivers of that foul 
Calumny : Bit^ by his Am^bty TroyidetKe^ who from 
Heaven reveals Secrets , is was not long before that 
Tarty was difabufed. For , tbomh the Chancellor , for 
fome timey hire the blame, that they had not been more 
confider'dy it was qtnchly founds that it was not jrodH^ 
Him^ but from the miflaken Toliticks ffthe new States- 
men^ tk^t they were dejigni" to be negieffed. Nor did 



tbey at all find themfehes more taken notice of, after 
his Removal \ nor have the fever al other Tar ties in the 
Kingdom^ that have been cberijbedy and countenanced 
in oppofition to thisy much declined, as fFe conceive^ to 
this day. 

But after aU^ IFe are bumhly of Opinion y that it was 
neither ofthefe above mentioned unavoidabk Misfortunes^ 
nor both together, that gave the fatal, and laft ikcijive 
blow to the fortune of this good Man. The King bad too 
good a Judgment , and was too well natur'd, to have 
. been imposed upon barely byfuch Attacks as thefe ; which 
he knew very weH himfelf, as to our Author* s guilt in 
them, nere Frivolous andUnjuft. 

But there are always in Courts fecret Engines, that 
j&uaUy confummate the Mijchiefs , that others, in 4 
mm pub/ick way^ have been hng in brining to pafs : 
And in this Cafe there were two principal ones : 

The One J the Inter eft cf fome of the Zealots if the 
Topijh Varty, who knew this Mmifter had too much 
Credit in the Nation^ thou^ he Jhould lofe it with the 
J^iy ^^ fnff^ l^ VrojeSs , they perpetuaUy had , of 
propagating their Reli^on^ to take effeSly wbilft heJbouU 
be in the JCingJom. 

The Other, the FaSion of the Ladys, too prevalent 
Mt that time with the King , who were affratd offucb 
4 Man's being near him, as durft talk to htm, as he had 
fever al times taken the Liberty to do, of the Jcandal of 
their lives , and reprtrue both the Majier and the Mh 
ftrejfes, for their fwbSck unlawful Converfations. 

Thus thefe two Interefts^joyning their Forces^ werefo 
powerful, ibat there was no refifting them, h^ a Man^ 
who could not make Court to Eft her. And Jo be feU a 
Sacrifice to the Ambition , and Malice of all forts of 
Enemies^ who were defirous of getting new places to 
themfehes in the Court , and of trying new Inventions 
m the State* 

And yet it is to be obfervd, that That IGng, who W4J, 
tdmjiall bis Reign^ ever*labouri%^ with much pains, 



to get a Jittk Eafe^ which be Might perhaps have at* 
tain J with kfs trouble^ anJy no Joubty hopeJ^ by get^ 
ting rjJifthis oU importunate CounjeUor^ to terrify any 
Man from prejuming afterwards to tell him fucb bold 
Truihsy hadjcarce ever after any Serenity in his whole 
Reign : But thoje very Women j or others m their places^ 
and the Faff ions be bimfelfbad given countenance to^ 
grew too hard for him , and tore him almoji t-o pieces^ 
Jometimes in the favouring of one Tarty^ and fometimes 
of another^ without Jieadinefs if his own^ or confidence 
enough in any of his Servants , to guide him through 
thofe perplexities^ that cotdd not have been brought upon 
bim^ but by bis own confenL 

JVe dare [ay^ there were fome hours in his Dfe^ that 
be wijtid he had had his old Chancellor again ; wbo^ be 
kpew I was a more skilful Tilot than any of his new 
States-men : 

( Tempus erit , magno cum optaverit emptum 
InuiSum ) 

And that be badnoty by his too much eagernefs to get 
rid fone old Servant ^ given too great an handle to have 
new ^JMeafures , and new Counsels y fo often impofed 
upon him y throughout the whole remaining part of his 

Thus IVe have finijb'd our Treface^ which We thought 
incumbent on us to ma^e^ who bad In/d to be acfuaint- 
cd with this Author y and to have kpown his merits that 
it might attend the publijbing this Hiftory^ to give the 
prefent Age Jome information of^be Charaffer of him 
they are to read. And as we dejvrd toterfoirm it with 
rejpeff to his Memory^ fo^ We hope^ fre have not ex- 
ceeded the bounds of truth and modejiy^ which he htm^ 
feff would have taken unkindly from thofe that aje do- 
ing this Office to him. fFhatever Misfortunes he might 
have in bis bfe ; whatever Enemies he might have bad\ 
or whatever Errors he might have committed ( which 



fcvQ Men in his high StaUons cfcape quite ckar of) We 
prefume to think be Jeferves^ from m impartial Men^ 
the praife of an honeft^ jujiy and abk Servant to the 
Church and Oovon^ and to be rank*d amot^ the great 
and good KSMiniJiers of State. 

And now We voill conclude aJl^ voitb a thanksgiving t9 
God in Saint Luke, Glory be to God on high, and on 
Earth peace, good will, towards Men. 

For Gods JSlame ought ever to begloirrfied in all his 
dtfpenfations ; whether they be attended with the Trth 
Jjperitiesy or Aivefjities cfthis preftnt IVarld. We fpeak 
it knowingly J that our Nobk Author Sd fo throughout 
the Courje of his MsfortuneSj and that be didadore^and 
^^^fy God's holy Mame^ for all his Mercies fo plenti- 
fuUy bejiow'd upm lnm\ and particular^ for giving 
him the Courage^ and FtttuCy cmftantly to aS andfuffer 
honourably through all the confiderabk Emphfments of 
bis life \ andy more efpecially^ to endeavour to keep things 
even between the King and the Teopie ( the everlajiing 
labour of a faithful Servant) rather than advance his own 
favour y by unreajbnabfy aduancing the Prerogative on the 
one barney or hts credit y by courting the Tt^ular Interep^ 
on the other ; which We beartify wifb^ ail Men^ in the 
higbejl Authority under a Ktng of England, may ever 
remember to practice. 

. And whoever are acquainted with the Sons of this 
Nobk Author y muft do them this jufiice to own^ they 
have often declard^ that they have found themfehes as 
well the better CbrifiianSy as the better Men^ for the of 
fiiStedy as well as profperous parts of their Father^ s £jfe\ 
which hath taught ttmn to be the lefs furprifed with the 
various turns ^ they have met with in the Cour/e of their 
own, ff^ith Saint Paul, they have leamc to know how 
to be exalted, and how to be abafed. This as Cbri-^ 
flians: And with Horace, who attributes more to For^ 
tuncy they have learnt to have always in their minds ^ 



THE preface: XXV 

Laudo manentem, fi celeres quatit 
Pennas, Reiigno quae dedit. 

And having thus glorified God m b^bj tbat tbey may 
Jo aU in tbem bes towards promoting Peace on Earthy 
tbey do very beartify declare^ and prof efs good Will/o^ 
n»ai'ds all Men ; and hear no unkindhefs to any that were 
the Contrivers <f the undelerv'd Misfortunes of their 
Noble Father. 


[ tl 


Hiftory of the Rebellion ^ &c. 

BO K^l. 

Deut. IV. 7) 8) 9. 

For what Nation is there fo Qreat^ who hath Godfo 

nigh unto them ^ as the Lord our God is in all 

things that we call upon him for ? 
jfnd what Nation is there fo great that hath Sta^ 

tutesj and Judgments fo righteous as all this Law^ 

whi/h J Jk before you this day ? 
Only tahheed to thyfolf and keep thy foul diligently^ 
. lefi thou forget the things which thine eyes have 


HAT Pofterity may. not be Deceived , by the W« P«&ci 

profperous Wickednefe of thofe times of which ^'*'* *^*" 

B a general Combination, arid univer&l Apoftacy 
-^■^ in the whole Nation from their Religion, and 
Allegiance , could, in fo fliort a time, have produced uicha 
total and prodigious Alteration , and Connifion over the 
whole Kingdom ^ And ±at the Memory ofthofe, who, out 
of Duty and Confcience, have oppofed that Torrent, which 
did overwhelm them, miy not lofe the recompence due to 
their Virtue, but having undergone the injuries atod reproaches 
of This, may find a vindication in a better age : it will not 
be unufeful, for the information of the Judgement and Con- 
fcience of men, toprefcnt to theworld a full and clear Narra- 
tion of the Grounds , Circumftances , and Artifices of this 
Rebellion ^ not only from the time fince the flame hath' been 
viGblein a Civil war, but, looking farther back, from thofe 
former paflages and accidents, by which the Seed-plots were 
made and framed, from whence thofe milchiefs have fuccet 
(ively grown to the height they have fince arrived at. 

Vol.1. Parti. A And 

TheHiftorjy BookL 

A ND in this enluing Hiflorv, though the hand and judge- 
ment of God will be very vifible, in iiffitfuatinff a People ( as 
Ripe and Prepared for Deftruftion ) into dl the perverfe 
aftions of folly and madncfs , making the Weak to contri- 
bute to the defigns of the Wicked, ^ fiiflferingeven thofe, 
by degrees, out of a Confcience of dieir Guilt, to grow more 
Wicked than they intcaided to be j letting the Wile to beim- 
pofed upon by Men^'of finall underftanding ^ and permitting 
the Innocent to be poflefled with lazine^ and fleep in the 
moft viiible article of Danger ; uniting ±e 111, though of the 
moft different Opinions, oppoute Inter«fts, and diftSat Affe- 
dions, in a firm and conftant league of Mifchiefe ^ and divi- 
ding; thofe, whofe Opinions and intorefis are ±e fame, into 
Faction and Emulation, inore pernicious tp the PubUck than 
the Treafon of the others : whilft die poor People, under 
pretence of Zeal to Religion, LaWjUberty^ and Parliaments 
( words of pretious Qfteem in their juft fig^ificatioa } are fu- 
rioufly hurried into Adions introducing Atheifm , and dif^ 
folving all the Elerftcnts of Chriftian Religion ^* Cancelling all 
oblig^tons, and tdefh-oyiag all foundations of Law and Li- 
berty j and rcndring, liiot'pniy the Privileg^^ Uit Ac very 
Being of Parliaments delperate and toj)ra<%c^le : X fey,^ 
thou^ tlie immediate finger and wramoJFGod inufl bea<^- 
knoWledg'd in theTe perplexities and diftndtions:; yet he who 
fhall diligently obferve the diflempers and conjundiures of 
Time, the ambition, pride, and folly ofPerfons, andthefud- 
dain growth of Wickednefs, from want of care andcircum- 
fpeffion in the foft imprelEons, will find all thefe Mileries Jo 
have proceeded, and to have been brought upon us from difc 
lame natural caufes, and means, which have ufually attended 
Kingdoms fwoln with long Plenty, Pride, and Excefs, towards 
ifomefignal mortification, and cafugation: of Heaven. Audit 
may be, upon ±e confideration how impdfible it was to forefee 
nidny things that have happened, and of ±e necefEty of over- 
looking many other things, we may not yet find the Cure fo 
defperate, but that, by God's mercy, the Wounds may be again 
bound up i and then this profpecl may not make the fiiture 
Peace lefs pleafant and durable. 

I Have the more willingly induced my felf to this un- 
equal task, out of the hope of contributing fbmewhat to that 
blefled end : and though apiece of this Nature (wherein the 
infirmities of fome, and the malice of others, muft be boldly 
look'd upon and mention^) is not likely to be publifhedin 
the Age in which it is writ, yet it may ferve to inform my 
felf, and fome others, what we ought to do, as well as to 
comfort us in what wc have done. For which work, as I 
may not be thought altogether an incompetent Perfbn, having 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 5 

been prefent as a Meipbcr of Parliament in thofe Councils 
before^ and till the breaking out of the Rebellion and having 
fince had the Honour to be near two great Kjngs in fbme 
Trui^ (b I fhall perform the &me widi all iaithfiilnefs^ and 
ingenuity; with an equd obfenration of±e faults and infir^ 
mities of both fides^ with their defedls and overfig^ts in pur-* 
filing their own ends ; and fhall no otherwife mention mxall 
and light Occurrences, then as they have been Introdu&ions 
to matters of the greateft Moment, nor i^>eak of Perfbns 
OdicrwiTe, than as die mention of their Virmcs or Vices is 
cflential to die work in hand: In which I fhall,- with tru^ 
preferve my felf from the leafl fharpnefsL that may proceed 
fromprivatcprovocatioiu and in the whole, obfervemertdes 
that a Man fnould who deferves to be believed. 

I* SHALL not then lead any Man farther back inthisjour- 
cey for the difcovery of the ^trance into diofe dark ways, 
dian the beginning of diis King's Reign. For I am not fb 
(harp-fighteoas thofe, who have difcerned this Rebellion con- 
trivmg, from fif not before) the death of (^cen E^zaS>et6^ 
aiod fomented oy feveral Princes^ and great Miniilers of State 
in chriftendomy to the time that it brake out Neither dot 
look fb far back as Ido, becaufe I believe the defign to have 
beenfb long fince formed, but dsot by viewing the Temper^ 
I>ii|)ofidon, and Habit, at that time, of the Court and of the 
Country , we may difcem the minds of Men preparccL c^ 
fome to A<^ and of odiers to Suffer all that hath fince hap-^ 
pened^ the Pride of this Man, and the Popularity of that; 
riie Levity of one, and the Morofity of another j the Excefl 
of the Court in me greateft Want, and die Parfimony and 
Retention of die Country in the greateft Plenty ; the i^iric 
of Craft and Subdety in fome, and ±e UnpoUfhcd Integrity 
of others, too much defpiiing craft or art ^ all contributing 
joyndy to this mafs of Conflifion' now before us. 

KING Jamesmrht end oi March rfzj. died, Idving^^r/^-^/ 
his Majefty that now is, engs^d m a War wim^fee ktHm- 
Spain ^ but unprovided with money to manage it;»j!f •/ ^ 
tibough it was undertaken by the confent and advice c* Par-^^** 
liament : the People being naturally enough inclined to die 
War ( having furfeited widi the uninterrupted Pleafures and 
Plenty of 22 vears Peace ) and fiifficiendy inflamed agsdnft 
the Spaniard^ out quickly weary of the charge of it: And 
therefore, aftier an unprofperous' and chargeable attempt in a 
Voyage by Sea upon Cadi%^ and asunfuccefsfiil, and more un- 
fortunate one upon France at the Ifle of 1^ (for fome difib- 
rence had likewife about the fiune time begotten a War with 
that Prince ) a general Peace was fhortly concluded with both 

A 2 King- 

The Htflory Book I. 

Ku^domsj the Exchequer beinjg fo exhaufted with thedebtg 
ofKingjFjwe/, the bounty of his Majefty±at now is (who 
upon his firft accefe to ±e Crown, gave many coftly inftances 
of his favour to Perfons near him) and the charge of the 
War upon Sfoin^ and 'France^ that both the known, and ca* 
(iial Revenue being anticipated, the necef&ry (ubfiftence of 
the Houfehold was unprovided lor ^ and the King on the fiid- 
dain driven to thofe f&eights for his own Support, that many 
ways were reforted to, and inconveniencies lubmitted to for 
Supply ; as felling the Crown-Lands, creating Peers for mo-, 
ney, and many other particulars, whidino acceis of power, 
or plenty^ lince could repair. 

Fa R L I A M E NT s Were Summoned, and again Diflblvedin 
difpleafure : and that in the fourth year (after the D^lutipn 
of the two former) was determined with a ProfeflSon, and 
Declaration, that, ^^(incefor feveral ill ends the calling ag^ 
*^of a Parliament was divulged, however his Majelty had 
''Ihewed, by his frequent meeting with his People, his love 
^ to the ufe of Parliaments, yet the late abufe hiving, for the 
•^prefent, driven his Majefly unwillingly out ofthatcourfc^ 
^he ihdi account it prefumption for any to prefcribe any 
f^^tinfie to his Majefty for Parliaments. Which words were 
geiierally interpreted, as if no more AQemblies of that natufei 
were . to be expeded, and that all Men were prohibited upon 
the penalty of Cenfiire, fo much as to foeak of 4 Parljiamcnt, 
And here I cannot but let my felf loofe to (ay, that no Man 
ciafliew me a Source, from whence thofe waters of bitternelS, 
we. now tafte, have more probably flowed, than from ffiefe 
linreafonable, unskilfijl , and precipitate Diflblutions of Par- 
liaments 3 in which, by an unjuft lurvey of thePaffion, Info- 
lence^ and Ambition of particular Perfons, the Court meafiired 
t^e Temper and Afiedhon of the Country; and by the fame 
ftahdard the People confider'd the Honour* Juftice, and Piety 
of±e Court; and foufually parted, at thofe £id feafons, with 
no other Refpe<2:, and Charity one toward the other, t^an ac- 
companies Perfons who never meant to meet but in dieir own 
Defence. In which the King had always the difadvantage to 
> h^bour Perfons about him, .who widi ±eir utraoft Induftiy, 
•falfe Information, and Malice, improved .the faults, and infir- 
mities of the Court to the People; and again, as much as in 
them lay, rendered the People fufpeded, if not odious to the 

I AM not altogether a fbanger to the paflages of thofe Par- 
liaments (though 1 was not a Member of them ) having care- 
fully perufed the Journals of bothHoufes, and Familiarly con- 
verfed with many who had principal parts in them. And I 
cannot but wonder at diofe Counfels , which periwaded the 


Of the ReheUion^ Sec. 

courfcs then taken; the habit and temper of Mens minds, at 
that time, being, no queftion, very applicable to the Pubhck 
ends ; and thole ends being only difcredited by the Jealoufies 
the People entertained from the manner of the profecution, 
rfiat they were other, and worfe than in truth they were. It 
is ndt to be denied, that there were, in all thofe Parliaments, 
elpecially in that of the fourth year, feveral PafEiges, and di- 

. {tempered Speeches of particular Perfons, not fit for the 
Dignity, and Honour of thofe places, and unfuitable to the 
Reverence due to his Majefty and his Councils. But I do 
not know any formed Adt of either Houfe (for neither the 
Remonftrance, nor Votes of the laft day were fiich) that was 
not agreeable to the Wifdom, and Juitice of great Courts 
upon thofe extraordinary occafions. And whoever confiders 
the A(3:s of power, and mjuftice of fome of the Minifters, ia 
thofe intervals of Parliament, will not be much fcandalized 
at the warmth, and vivacity of thofe meetings. 

I N the Second Parliament there was a mention, and in- 
tention declared of granting five Subfidies, a proportion ( how 
contemptible fbever in refpedt of the preflurcs now ^very day 
impofed) fcarce ever before heard of in Parliament. And 
that Meeting being, upon very unpopular, and unplaufible 
Reafons, immediately Diflolvec^ thofe five SUbfidies were ex- 
aiSed, throughout the whole Kingdom, with the fame rigour, 
as if, in truth, an Adt had paffed to that purpofe : Divers Gen- 
tlemen of prime Quality, in feveral Counties of England^ 
vrerty for refufing to pay me fame, committed to Prifon, with 
great rigour and extraordinary circuprrftances. And could it 
be imagined, that thofe Men would meet again in a free Con- 
vention of Parliament, without a fharp, and fevere expoftu- 
lation, and inquifition into their own Kight, and the power^ 
that had impofed upon that Right? And yet all thefe Provo-" 
cations, and many other, almoft Of as lar^e an extent, prcK 
duced no other Refentmentthan thfe' Petition of Rig|ht (of' 
no prejudice to the Crowh) which was likewife purchafcd at 
the price of five Subfidies more, and, in a Very fhort time after 
that Supply granted, that Parliament was likewife, with ftrangjb 
circumftances of Paflion on all fides, Diflblved. 

The abrupt, and unkind breaking ofl'the two firft Par- 
liaments was wholely imputed to the I>uke of Buclingham\ 
and of the Third, principally to the Lord Weftony then Lord, 
Hig^ Treafilrer ot England -^ both in r^ett of the m-eat; 
Power, and Intereft they then had in the Afiedtions of his 
Majefty, and for that the time of the Diffolutions happened 
to be when fome Charges, rfnd Accufadons were prq)r'^'^ ' 
and ready to be preferred iigainft thofe two great Pcrfcjtls. 

' thcrcforejhc Envy, and Hatred, that attended them thrfcbpShi 
'^ A 3 wat 

(J ^ TheHiftory Book L 

was Infupportable* and was viiibly the caufe of the murther 
of the firft (flabbed to the Heart by the hand of a Villauuupoa 
the meer impious pretence of his being odious to the rarliar 
ment) and made* no doubt, fo great an impreffion upon the Un- 
derflanding, and Nature of the other, diat^ by degrees, he loft 
that temper and ferenity of Mind, he had been before mafter 
of, and which was moft fit to have accompanied him in his 
weighty Imployments : inlbmudip as, out of indignation to 
findThimfelf worfe ufed than he delenraL he cared Ids to de- 
ferve well, than he had done^ and infenfibly grew into that 
Publick hatred, diat rendered him lefe ufeful to the Service 
that he only intended. 

I WONDER le(s at the Errors of diis nature in the Duke 
oi Buckingham 'y who, having had a moft generous Education 
in Courts^ was utterly ignorant of the Ebbs, and Floods of 
Popular Councils, and of the Winds that mo\ce thofe Waters j 
and could not^ without the Q>irit of Indignation, find him* 
felf, in the (pace of a few weeks, without any vifible caufe 
intervening^ firom the greateft height of pOTiikr Eftimation 
that any perfon hath &ended to (infbmuai as S^ Edward 
C»ke blaiphemouily call'd him our Saviour) by the fame breath 
thrown down to the depth of Calumny, and Reproach. 1 
fay, it is no Marvail (betides that he was naturally to follow 
fuch Counfels as were given him) that he could think of no 
better way, to be freed of thefe inconveniences, and troubles, 
the Pailions of thofe Meetings gave him, than to Diflblve 
them, and prevent dieir coming together : and that when 
they feem'd to negleft the publick Peace, out of Animofity to 
him, he intended his own Eafe and Security in die firft place,and 
eafily believed, the PuWick might be otherwife provided for, 
by more Intent, and Di^affionate Councils. But that the 
other, the Lord Wefipn^ who had been very much, and very 
Popularly conver&nt in thoife Conventions, who.exadUy knew 
the Frame, and Confti^ution of the Kingdom, the Temper of 
the People, the Events of the Courts of Uiw, and the Ju- 
riididioo of Parliatnents. which at that time had feldom, or 
^^ never committed any Excels of jurifdiflionUModefty and 
^"^ Moderation in words never was, nor ever will oe obferved in 
^w/isi/iPopulat <^ouncils, whofe foundation is Liberty of Speech ) 
\ yOm He fhiould believe, that the Unioiu Peace, and Plenty 
*"^of the Kingdom could be preferved without Parliaments, or 
that the Pailion, and Diftemper gotten^ and itceiv'd into 
Parliaments, could he removed, ami reprmed by the more 
p,3ifionate Breaking and I^olvii:^ 0iem; or thai; That Courfe 
wpiAW Hot inevi^ly prove the moft- Pernicious to him- 
i^'is as p:^ch my Wonder, as aay.thiiig .tbut hath fince 

^ hs>pen(f4. ., •-. . . 

^. ... . There 

Of the Rehellion^ Sec. 

There is a Prote<5tion very gracious, and juft, which 
Princes owe to their Servants, when, in Obedience to their juit 
ConimandsL upon extraordinary and necefi&ry Occafions, in 
the Execution of their Trufts, they fwerve from the ftria 
Letter of the Law, which, without that Mercy, would be 
Penal to them. In any fiich Cafe, it is as Legal ( the Law 
prefiuning it will always be done upon great R^fon ) for the 
King to Pardon, as for the Party to Accufe, and the Judge to 
Condemn. But for the Soveraign Power to interpofe, and 
flielter an Accufed Servant from anfwering, do's not only feem 
an obftrudlion of Juftice, and lay an imputation upon the 
Prince of being privy to the Offence, but leaves fo great a 
Scandal upon the Party himfelf, that he is generally concluded 
Guilty of whatfoever he is chained with j which is commonly 
more than the Worft Man ever deferved. And it is worthy 
the Obfervation, that, as no Innocent Man who made his 
Defence, ever Suflfer'd in thofe times by Judgement of Parlia- - 
ment, fo many Guilty Perfons, and aginft whom the Spirit 
of the times went as High, by the wife managing tndr 
defence, have been freed from their Accufers, not only with- 
out Cenfiire, but without Reproach j as the Bifhopof JLi»- 
ealffy then Lord Keeper, Sr H. Marten^ and S' H. Sp'tUer ; 
Men, in their feveral degrees, as little beholden to the Cha- 
rity of that time, as any Men fince. Whereas fcarce a Man, 
who, with loduftry and Skill, laboured to keep himfelf from 
being Accufed, or by Power to flop or divert the Courfe of 
Proceeding, fcaped without fome Signal Mark of Infamy, or 
Prejudice. And the Reafon is clear, for befides that, after the 
firft Storm, diere is fome Compaffion naturally attends Men 
like to be in Mifery ; and, beudes the latitude of Judging in 
thofe places, whereby there is room for Kindnefs and Affe- 
dSon, and collateral Confiderations to interpofe; the truth is, 
thofe Accufations fto which this Man contributes his Malice, 
another his Wit, ail Men what they pleafe, and moft upon 
Hear-fay, with a kind of Uncharitable Delignt of making the 
Charge as Heavy as may be ) are commonly ihiffed with 
many odious Generals, that the Proofs feldom make gpod : 
and ±en a Man is no fooner found lefs Guilty than. he is ex- 
pelled, but he is concluded more Innocent than he is j and 
It is thought but a juft Reparation for the Reproach that he 
deferved not, to Free him from the Ccnliire.he deferved. So 
that, very probably, thofe two Noble Perfons had been happy, 
if they had ftoutly fubmitted to the Proceedings were dc- 
Cgned againft tiiem ^ and, without queftion, it had been of 
Soveraign Ufe to ±e King, if, in thofe Peaceable times. Par- 
liaments had been Taught to know thdr own Bounds, by 
being fiiffer^d to Proceed as far as thtfy could go j by which 

A 4 the 

8 The.Hiftory Book! 

the Extent of their Power would quickly have been mani- 
fefted : from whence no Inconvenience of moment could have 
Proceeded j the Houfe of Commons never then pretending 
to the leaft part of Judicature, or exceeding the known Verge 
of ±eir own Privil^es j die Houfe of Peers obferving the 
Rules of the Law and Equity in their Judgement^ and pro* 
ceeding deliberately upon clear Tefldmony and Evidence of 
matter of Fad, and the King retainii^ me fble power of 
Pardoning, and receiving the i^ole profit of all Penalties and 
Judgements^ and indeed having to great an influence upon 
the Body of Peerage, that it was Icarce known, diat any 
Perfbn of Honour was feverely Cenfiired in that Houfe ( be- 
fore this prefent Parliament) wno was not either immediately 
profecuted by die Court, or in evident Disfavour there j by 
which, it may be ( as it ufitally falls out ) (bme Doors were 
opened, at which inconveniencies to the Crown have got in, 
that were not then enough Weighed and Confidered. 

B UT the courfe of exempting Men from profecution, by 
diflblving of Parliaments, made the power of Parliaments 
much more Formidable, as conceived to be without limit ; 
fince the Soveraign Power feem'd to be compelled (as unable 
odierwifeto fet bounds to their proceedings j to that rough 
Cure, and to determine their, beings, becaufe it ccxild not 
determine their Jurisdiction. Whereas if they had been fre- 

auently Summoned, and feafonably Diflblved, after their Wif^ 
om in applying Medicines and Cures, as well as their in- 
duftry in difcovering Difeafes, had been difcemed, they would 
eajQly have been applied to the Ufes for which they were firft 
Jnftimted ^ and been of no lefs efleem with the Crown, than 
of Veneration with the People. And fo 1 fhjJl conclude this 
Digreffion, which, I conceived, was not unfeafbnable for 
this place, nor upon this occafion, and return to the Time, 
when that brisk, and improvident Refblution was taken of 
declining thofe Conventions ^ all Men being Inhibited ( as I 
faid before they generally took themfelves to be) by the Pro- 
clamation at the Diflblution of the Parliament in the fourth 
Year, fo much as to mention or ^eak as if a Parliament 
fhould be called. 
Tne StAtt of And here it will give much Light to that which follows, 
the Com if we take a View of the State or the Court, and of the 
nkout thst Council at that time, by which we may beft fee the face of that 
nme. ^ixne^ and the AfJ^dions and Temper of the People in general. 
no Rife of For the better taking this Profpeft, we will begm with 
the Diik^ o/afurvey of the Perfoii orthat great Man, the Duke of Buck^ 
|^^"5- tj^bam (who was fo b^barouffy Murdered about this time ) 
* whofe Influence had beep Unfortunate in the Publick AflFairs, 
gx)d .l^l^^e pea^ prpdi^ed ^ Change in all t^^ Counfels. 

of the Rehellion^ Sec. 9 

The Duke was indeed a very extraordinary Perfon, andne- 
vTer any Man, in any Age, nor, I believe, in any Country, or 
Nation^ rof^ in fo fhort a time, to (6 much greatnefs or Ho- 
nour, Fam^ and Fortune, upon no other Sivant^ or re- 
commendation, than of the Beauty and Gracefiilnefs of his 
Perfon. I have not the leaft purpofe of undervaluing his 

Sood Parts and Qualities ( of which there will be occafion 
iortlv to give fome teftlmony) when I &y, that his firlt 
introaudlion into Favour, was purely from the Handfome- 
nefs of his Perfon. 

H E was a younger Son of S^ George yiOsers^ of Brookestf 
in ±e County of Leicefier j a Family of an ancient extradtion, 
even from the time of the Conqueft^ and Tranfported then 
with the Conqueror out of Normandy^ where the Family 
hath frill remamed, and frill continues with Luftre. After 
Sr Georgia firft Marriage, in which he had two or three Sons, 
and fome Daughters, who fhared an ample Inheritance from 
him i by a fecond Marriage with a Lady of the Family of the 
Beaumont Sy he had this Gentleman, and two other Sons and a 
Dau^ter, who all came afterwards to be raifed to great Titles 
and Dignities. George^ the eldeft Son of this fecond bed, was, 
after the death of his l-'ather, by the fingular ^Sedlion and 
care of his Mother, who enjoyed a good Joynture, in the 
account of that Age, well brought up j and, ft)r the improve- 
ment of his Education, and giving an Ornament to his hope- 
fiil Perfon, he was by Her fent into France ^ where he (pent 
two or.tlircc Years in attaining the Language, and in Learning 
the exercifcs of Riding and Dancing , in the laft of which he 
excelled Moft Men, and returned into England by the time 
he was ai Years old. 

King James Reigned at that time, and thou^ he was a 
Prince of more Learning and Knowledge than any other ot 
that Age, and really delighted more in Books, and in the con- 
vedation of Learned Men, vet, of aU Wife Men living, he was 
the moft delighted and taken with Handfome Perfons, and 
Fine Cloaths. He begun to be weary of his Favourite, the 
Earl of Somerfetj who was the only Favourite that kept that 
Poft fo long, without any publick Reproach from the ]?eople. 
But, by the inftigation and wickednefs of his Wife, he be- 
came, at leaft, privy to a horrible Murder, that cxpofed him 
to the utmoft feverity of the Law ( the Poyfoning of Sr Tho^ 
mas OverBury) upon which both He, and his Wife were con- 
demned to dye, after a Tryal by their Peers, and many Per- 
fons of Quality were Executed tor the fame. 

Whilst tliis was in agitation, and before the utmoft 
(iifcovery, was made, Mr Filliers appeared in Court, and drew 
ihe King's eyes upon him. There were enough in the Court 


lo The Hiftoty Book I. 

fiifficiently angry, and incenfed againft S^merfity for being 
what tfaemfelves defired to be, and eQ)ecially for being a 
Seets-tiasiy and amending, in k> (horc a time, from being a 
P^ig^ to the Height he was then at, to contribute all they 
could to promote the One, that they might throw out the 
Other : wnidh beii^ eaiily brought to pal^ by the proceed- 
ing of the Law upon his aforeiaid Crime, the Other found 
very little diflBculty in rendring himfelf Gracious to the King, 
whofe Nature and DiQ>o(ition was very flowing in aflfeAion 
towards Perfons fo adorned. Infomuch that, in few days 
after his firft appearance in Court, he was made Cup-bearer 
to the King, by which he was, of courfe, to be much in his 
Prefence, and to admitted to that conver&tion and difcourfe, 
with which that Prince always abounded at his meals. 

His Indmations to his new Cup-bearer diQ)o{ed him to 
adminifter frequent occafions of diicourfine of &e Court of 
Fran€i^ and the TraniaiSions there^ with vmich he had been 
fo lately acquainted, diat he coula pertinently enlarge u|)on 
that Suojed^ to the King's great dehght, and to the gaining 
Ac cfteem and value of all the danders by to Himfelf : which 
was a thing the King was well pleafed with. He Afted very 
few weeks upon this Stage , when he mounted Higher ; 
and, being iCnig^ted, wimout any odier Qualification, he 
was at the fame time made Gentleman of the Bed-chamber, 
and Knight of the Order of the Garter, and in a fhort time 
(very fliort for fiich a prodigious Afcent) he was made a 
Baron, a Vifcount, an Earl, a Marquis, and became Lord 
hirii Admiral of Englandy Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 
Mafter of the Horfe, and entirely difpofed of all the Graces 
of the Kii]^ in conferring all the Honours, and all the Of- 
fices of the three Kingdoms without a Rival ^ in difpenfing 
whereof, he was guided more by the Rules of Appetite, than 
of Judgement, and fo, exalted almoft all of his own numerous 
Family, and Dependants^ whofe greateft Merit was their 
Alliance to Him; which equally extended the ancient No- 
lality, and the People of all conditions, who faw the Flowers 
of tne Crown every day fading, and withered ; whilft the 
Demeafnes, and Revenue thereof were Sacrificed to the en- 
riching a Private Family ( how well foever originally ex- 
trafled ) Icarce ever heard of before to the Nation, and the 
cxpences of the Court fo vaft and unlimited, that they had a 
fea profpedt ot that Poverty, and NecefEty, which afterwards 
befel the Crown, ahnoft to the Ruin of it. 

Many were of opinion, that King James before his 
death, grew weary oi this Favourite, ana that, if he had 
lived, he would have deprived him at leafl of his large, and 
unlimited Power. And this imagination fo prevailed with 


Of the RehellioH, &c. 1 1 

fome MetL ^ the Lord Keeper liMcob$^ the Earl of MidHt^ 
fexy Lord Hig^ Treafurer o£Emgi^mdy and other Gentlemea 
of Name, though not in fb hi^ Station^ thai: diey had the 
Courage to wididraw from their abfolute dependence upoa 
the Duke, and to make ibrne other £(&y$, which proved to 
the Ruin *of every one of diem ; there appearing no mark 
or evidence, that the King did really leflen hi$ amddon to 
Him, to the hour of his death. On the ^ntrary, as he 
Created him Duke of Buckingham in his Abfence^ whilft be 
was with the Prince in Spawy fo, after their Return, die 
Duke executed the &me Authoritjr in conferring all Favours 
and Graces, and in revenging himfelf upon thofe who had 
manifelled any unkindnefs towards him. And yet notwidw 
{landing all this, if that King's Nature had equsdly di^>o{ed 
him to pull dowii, as to build and \sre£t; and if his Courage 
and Severity in punifliing and reforming, had been as great, 
as his Generoiity and Inclination was to oblige, it is not to v 
be doubted, but that he would have withdrawn his af{e<5tion 
from the Duke entirely, before his death j which thole Per- 
fons who were admitted to any Privacy with him, and 
were not in the Confidence of the Other (for befiM-e Thofe 
he knew well how to diflemble ) had reafbn enougli to ex-- 
pea. *■ 

For it is certain, that the King was never well pleafed ^^^^^ 
with the Duke, after die Prince's going into Sfam j whidi ^arJJJv 
was infinitely againft his Will, and contrived wholcly by the joumej in-' 
Duke : Who, out of Envy, that the Earl of Brifiol (liould *• Spain, 
have the fole management of fb great an A£^ ( as hitherto 
that Treaty had been wholely Condu<^ed by him in Spaim^ 
where he was Extraordinary Embafladour, and all partiailars 
upon die matter agreed upon ) had one day infinuated to 
the Prince die common misfortune of Princes, that in fo Sub- 
ftantial a part of their Happinefs in this World, as depended 
upon their Marriage, Themfelves had never any pit, but 
mutt receive only an account from others of the Nature, and 
Humour, and Beauty of die Ladys they were to Marry: and 
thofe Reports feldom proceeded from Perfons totally Unin- 
terefted, by reafon of the parts they had aded towards fiich 
preparations. From hence he difcourfed, how gallant and how 
Brave a thing it would be, for his Highnefs to make a Journey 
into Spain^ and to fetch home his Mittrefs ; that it would 
put an end prefcntiy to all thofe Formalides, which (though all 
Subftandal matters were agreed upon already) according to 
the Style of that Court, and the flow progrefs in all things 
of Ceremony, might yet retard the Infanta's Voyage into 
EngloTtd many Months ^ all which would be in a moment 
removed by his HighneCTes own Prdenccj that it would be 


The Eiftory Book I. 

lixch an obligation to the Infanb her felf^ as {he could never 
enough value or requite^ and being a Re&oS; rarely paid by 
any other Prince, upon the like Addreffes , could proceed 
omy from the high Regard and Reverence he had for her 
Perlon j that in the great Afiair That only remained undeter- 
mined, and was ilot entirely yielded to, thou|;h unHer a very 
Friendly deliberation, which was the Reftoring the Valatl- 
natey it was very probable, that the King of Spain himfelf 
might choofe, in thdinftant, to gratify hisPerfonal Interpo- 
fition, which, in a Treaty with an £mba(Iadour, might be 
drawn out in length, or attended witbOvertures ofRecom- 
opice by fbme new Conceflions, which would create new 
Difficulties ^ However, that the Mediation could not but be 
fianklv undertaken by the In&nta her felf, who would am- 
hitioully make it her work to pay a part of her great Debt 
* to the Prince, and that he might, widi Her, and by Her, 
*• ' pefent to his Majefty the entire Peace, and Rcltitution of 
nis Family ; which by no other Human means could be 

These difcourfes made fo deep impreflion upon the 
Mind and Spirit of the Prince ( whofe Nature was mclined 
to Adventures) that He was tranlported with the diought 
of it, and molt impatiently follicitous to bring it to pais, 
Thegreateft difficulty in view was, how they might procure 
the King's confent, who was very C^ick-fig^ted in difcern- 
ing difficulties, and railing objedfaons, and very flow inma- 
ftmng them, and untying the knotts he haa made \ In a 
word, he knew not how to wreiUe with defperate Contin- 
gencies, and fo abhorr'd the being entangled m fiich. This 
was firft to be attempted by the Prince himfelf, by Commu- 
nicating it to the King, as his earneft defire and fiiit, with 
riiiscircumftance, that Since his doing, or Not doing what he 
mofl: defired, depended wholely and entirely upon his Ma- 
jefty's own Approbation and Command, he would vouchfafe 
to promife Not to Communicate the thing propofed, before 
he nad firft taken his Own Refolution j and that this Condi- 
tion fliould be firft humbly infifted on, before the Subftantial 
Point fliould be Communicated ; and fo this approach being 
firft made, the fuccefs and profecution was to Deleft to the 
Duke's credit and dexterity. All things being thus concerted 
between his Highnefs and the Duke ( and this the beginning 
of an entire Confidence between them* after a long time of 
declared Jealoufy and difpleafurc on tne Prince's part, and 
Occaiion enough adminilter'd on the Other ) they fliortly 
found fit opportunity ( and there were feafons when th^t 
King was to be approached more hopefiilly than in others ) 
to imke their Addrcis. together. His Majefty cheerfully con-» 


Of the ReheUiim^ d>cc. ig 

fented to the Condition j and being well pleafed that all 
fliould depend upon \)^^ Will, frankly promifed, that he 
would not, in any d^ee, Communicfate to any Perfon the 
matter, before he had paken, and Communicated to Them Us 
Own Refolutions. 

The Prince then, upon his knees, declared his Suit zx\Ane Prince 
very importunate Requeft^ the Duke ftanding a long time by^/"*/"/"*" 
without fiiying a word, while the King difcouried the whole Jf*^|]||^ 
matter to the Prince, with lefs Paffion than they expefied,'" 
and then looked upon the Duke, as inclined to hear what 
He would fay j who ^oke nothing to the point whether, in 
.prudence, Advifeable or Not 5 but enlarged upon the infinite 
.Obligation, his Majefty would confer upon the Prince, by 
his yielding to the violent Paflion hiis Hidinels was trani* 
^ported with , and, after many exalted expreSions to tiiat pur- 
.pofe, ironcluded, that he doubted, that nis Majefty, refiifirg 
to grant ±e Prince this his humble Requeft, would make a 
.deep impreffion upon his Spirits, and peace, of Mind j and 
that he would, he fear'd^ look upon it as tlie greateft Mis- 
fortune and AfRidion, that could befell him in this World. 
The. l?rince , then taking the opportunity, from the godd 
Tempo" he faw his .Fatiier in, to enlarge upon thofe two 
Poiht^" wliich he knew were moft Important in the King's 
own wifhes andjud|gemai^ That ±is expedient would put 
a quick end to tibis Treaty, vrhich could not be continued, 
after his Arnj^al-m; that Court, but that his Marriage muft 
prefently em&^ which, be knejv well enough, the King did ' 

moft impati^gny delirepf all JBlefllngs .in tms World: He 
iaid likewife, he would undertake (and he.<:puld not but be 
believed from the Reafonablenefs. of it ) tiiat his y Prefencc 
would, in a moment, determine the Reftimtion of the Fala- 
tinate to his Brother and Sifter; whicbwasthe fecond thing 
the King longed moft paflionately to fee, before he (hould 
leave this World. 

These difcourfes, urgedwithallthe Artifice and Addrefif^/^fji 
imaginable, fo far wrought upon . and prevailed with the';''"^''-^''^ 
King , that , with Icfs hefitation than his Namre was ac-*'* 
cuftomed to, and much lefs than was agreeable to his great 
Wifdom, he gave his approbation , and promifed that the 
Prince fliould make the Journey he was fo much inclined to. 
Whether he did not upon the fiiddain comprehend the con* 
fequcnces, which would namrally attend fuch a rafli Under- 
taking, or the lefs confider'd them, becaufe Provifions, whidi 
muft be made for fuch a Journey, both with reference to the 
Expence and Security of it, would take up much time, and 
could not be done in fuch a fecret way, but that the Counfd 
it felf might be refumed, when new mcafures fliould be- 

14. Tifie Htftarjf Book! 

taken. But this' imagination was too reafonable not to be 
Forefeen by them, and fo they had provided themfelves ac- 
cordingly. And therefore, as foon as they had the King's 
promi^ upon the maii^ they told him, die Securitjr of fuch 
a defign depended on the Expedition , without which therie 
could beno Secrecy oWerved or hoped for ^ That, if it were 
deferred till fuch a Fleet could be made ready, ami (iich an 
Equipage prepared as mij^t be fit for the Prince of Wiksy fo 
much time would beipent, as would Di&ppoint the princi- 
pal Ends of the Journey j if they fhould lend for a Pafe to 
BrancBy the Ceremony in asking and granting it, and that 
which would flow from it, in ms pafl^e through that King- 
dom, would be, at leaft, lyableto the lame objedtion of lie- 
lay : befides that, according to the myfteries and intrigu€|s of 
•State, fuch a Pals could not in point of fecurity be reaionably 
DepeiKied uponj and- therefore th6y had thought of an Ex- 
pecueni^ which would avoid all Inconveniencies aiad Hazards \ 
and that it fliould be Executed bdbre it fliould be Su^eflred'j 
-that it had never hitherto been, in the leaft degree, con- 
iiiltedbut between Themfelves ^ whicih was really truie*) and 
therefore, if they now undertook the Jourtiey only ^ith two 
Savants, vAiO fhould not know afay thihg till the inomejit 
they were to depart^ theV might e&fuy' pafe tirfougji iffance^ 
before they fhould be MifsM-at.^//^i!feZr- which wias ridt 
hard to be conceived^ aAd fo with the lefs difquifition was 
confented toby tfe& Kiiigj and the fiarther I>Epberationf of 
what was niore toT^e done Both in^matter,* aiixJ fnanner, and 
the Nomination of the Perfbfis who fhould aWfifl Them j and 
the Time^ for their departul»e v^as defw'dtb the'confultation 
of the next day. 

When the King, in his Retirement, and by himfelf, 
came to Revolve what had been fo loofely Confulted before, 
as he had a wonderfol Sagacity in fuch Refledions, a ±ou- 
landDiflBculties and Dangers occurred to him, and fo many 
Precipices, which could hardly be avoided in fuch alourney; 
befides diofe confiderations, which the violent Aflfedtion of 
a Father to his only Son, fu^efled to him. he thought how 
ill an influence it mig^t have on his People, too much dil^ 
pofed to murmur and complain of the leaii: Inadvertency j 
and that they looked upon the Prince as the Son of the King- 
dom, as well as his Own. He confider'd the Reputation he 
fhould lofe with all Forreign Princes ( efpecially if any ill 
Accident fhould happen ) by fo much dciarting^ from his 
Dignity in expofing the immediate Heir ot the Crown, his 
onljr Son, to all the Dangers, and all the Jealoufies, which 
particular Malice, orthatfathomlefsabyfsoflReafon of State, 
might prepare and contrive agaioft him \ and then, in how 


Cfthe Rebellion, &c. ts 

defp^rate a conditdcm Himfelf, and his Kingdonu Ihould r&« 
maiQ, if the Prince milcanied bv fiich an unp^mlel'd weakneft 
ofhis^ contrary to the light of his Undedfamding, as well as 
the current of nis Aflfeffions. 

These RefledJions were fo Terrible to him, that they 
Robbed^him of all Peace and Quiet of Mind ; infomuch as 
when tfie Prince, and Duke came to him about the Dtfpatchjhe 
fell into a great Paffion with Tears, and told them, that he was 
Undone, aod that it would break his hearty if mey purfiied 
their Rdblution ^ that upon a true and difpaffionate diiqui(H 
tion he had made with Himfelf.he was abuiKlandy convinced, 
that, befides the almoft inevitable Hazards of the Prince's Pcr- 
fbn, with whom his life was bound up, andbe&les theentire 
Lofi' of the afiedions of his People, which would unavoid- 
ablv attend this rafh addon, he fbreiaw it would ruin the whole 
deugn, and irrecoverably Break the Match. For whereas aU 
chofe. particulars, upon which he could polkively and of ri^c 
Infift, were ftdly Granited (for That, which concem'd 3v5 
Prince Elector , who had une^cufably and direiSly againft 
his Advice , incurred the Ban of the Empire in an Imperial 
Dyet, muit be wrought off*by Mediation and Treaty, could 
not bieinflQiedoninJuflice^ nor could Spain vaske any new 
Demahcis, all the Overtures they had made being Adjuftcd; 
the Prince fhould no fboner arrive at Madrid^ than all the 
Articles of ±e Treaty Ihould be laid afide, and New matter 
be propofed, which nad not been yet mentioned, and could 
never be comcnted to by him y That the Treaty of this Mar- 
riage, how well foever received, and how much (bever de- 
fired by the King, and his Chief Minifters , was, in no de- 
gree, acceptable to the Stanijh Nation in general, and lefs 
to the Court oiRome^ wnerc, though the new Pope feem'd 
more inclined to grant the Diipenlation than his Predeceflbur 
had been, it was plain enough, that it proceeded only from 
the apprehenfionhehad to difpleafe the King of Spain^ not 
that he was Icfs averfe from the Match , it having been al- 
ways believed both in Spainy and in IU>mey that this Mar- 
riage was to be attended with a ftUl Repeal w all the Penal 
Laws againft the Papifts, and a plenary Toleration of the Ex- 
ercife of that Religion vaEffglandy which they now faw con- 
cluded, without any fignal or real Benefit, or Advantage to 
them. And therefore they might expedt, and be confident^ 
that when they had the Ferfon of me Prince of Wales in 
their Hands, the King of Spain ( thoudi in his own nature 
and inclinations full of Honour andjiutice) would be even 
Compelled by his Clergy (who had alw^s a great influence 
upon the Counlelsof thit Kingdom ) and the Importunities ^ 
from Romey who would tell him, that God had put it now 


i6 The Hi/hry Book I. 

into his Handiio advance the Catholick Caufe, to make new 
Demands for thofe of that Religion here 5 which^ though he 
could never confent to, would, at beft, interpofe fuch de- 
lays in the Marriage , that he fliould never live to fee it 
brou^t to pafe, nor probably to fee his Return again from 
Spain. Then he put the Duke in mind ( whom he hitherto 
bleliev'd only to comply with the Prince, to oblige him, af-. 
ter a long alienation from his Favour) how inevitable his 
Ruin mult be, by the effedJ: of this Counfel, how Ungraci- 
ous he was already with the People, and how many Enendes 
he had, amongft the greateft Perfons of the Nobility, who 
would make fiich ufe of this occafion, that it would not be 
in his Majefty*s Power to Proted: him. And then he con- 
cluded with the diforder and Paffion, with which he begun, 
with Sighs and Tears, to conjure ±em, that they would no 
i^re prefs him to give his C>onfent to a Thing fo contrary 
to his Reafbik and Underftandingj and lAtereft^ the Execu- 
tion whereof would break his Heart, and that they would 
give over any farther purfiiit of it. 

The Prince, and the Duke took not the pains to anfwer 
toy of the Reafons his Majefty had infifted on , his Highnefe 
only putting him in mind of the Proinife he had.made'to 
him the day before, which was fo Sacrei ±at he hd^ed lie. 
would not Violate it ^ which if he fliould • it would make 
him never more tliink of Marriage. The Duke, who better 
knew, what kind of Arguments were of Prevalence with him. 
Treated him more Rudelv^ toldhim^ Nobody could believe 
any thing he faid, when ne retradtecl fp foon the proroife he 
fo folemnly made; that he plainly difcem'd, tliat it pro- 
ceeded from another Breach of his Word, in Communicat- 
ing with fome Rafcal, who had fiimiflied him with thofe 
Eitifal Reafons he had alledg'd, and he doubted not but 
e fliould hereafter know who his Counfellour had been; 
That if he receded from what he had promifcd, it would 
be fuch a Difobligation to the Prince, who had fet his Heart 
now upon the Journey, after his Majeity's approbation, that he 
could never Forget it, nor Forgive ?ny Man who had been 
the Caufe of it. 

The Prince, who had always exprcfs'd the higheft Duty 
and Reverence towards the King, by his humble and impor- 
tunate Entreaty, and the Duke, by his rougher Dialedt, in 
the end prevail ci fo far ( after his Maieflty had Paffionately, 
and with many Oaths renounced the having Communicated 
the matter with any Perfon living ) that the Debate was again 
refum'd upon the Journey, which they eamcftly defired might 
not be deferred, but that d*^y might take their leaves of the 
King within two days, in wnich they would have all things 


Of the Rebellion, &c. ^ 17 

ready that were neceflary, his Hirfinefs pretending to Hunt at 
ThtokaUsy and the Duke to take Phyfick at cbelj^. 

They told him, that being to have only Two more in 
their Company, as was before refolv'd, they had thought ( if 
he approved them ) upon S»- Francis Cottingtm^ and EndynMn 
Vorttr^ who, though they might fafely, fliould not be trutted 
with the Secret, tifl thev were even ready to be Embarkai. 
The Peribns were bom Grateftil to the King, the former 
having been long his Majeft/s Agent in the Court of Spawy 
and was now Secretary to the Prince ^ the odier, havingbeen 
bred in Madrid^ after manv years attendance upon the Duke, 
was now one ctf the Bed-Chamber to the Prince : Sothathis 
MajeHy cheerfully approved the Eledion they had made, and 
wiltd it mig^t be prefently imparted to them ^ feying, that 
many things would occur to them, as necefliry to the Journey, 
tiiar they two would never think of^ and took that occdion 
to fend for S^ Francis Cottingtan to come prefendy to him 
( whilft the other remained with him ) who being, of cuftom, 
waiting in ±e outward Room, was quickly brought in ^ whiUt 
the Duke whifper'd the Prince in the Ear, that Cottimttom 
would be againft the Journey, and his Highnefs anfwer'a he 
Durft not. 

The Kii^ told him, that he had always been an Honefl 
Man, and therefore he was now to Truft him in an Afiair of 
the Hjgheft Importance, which he was not, upon his Life, to 
Difclofe to any Man alive ^ then faid to him, cottingtonj here 
is Baby Charles and Stenvrf ( an appellation he always uf«d, of 
and towards the Duke ) who have a great mind to go by Polt 
into Spam^ to fetch Home the Infant a^ and will have but Two 
more in their Company, and have chofen You for one. What 
think You of the Tourney? (He often protefted fince. tha^ 
when he heard the King, he fell into fiich a trembling that h6 
could hatdly fpeak. but when the King Commanded him to 
aniwerhim, what He thought of the Journey) hercply'd that 
he could not think well of it, and that he oelicv^d, it would . 
render all that had been done towards the Match, Fruitlefs : 
for that Spain would no longer think themfelves Oblig'd by 
thofe Articles, but that, when they had the Prince in their 
Hands, they would make New Overtures, which they believ'd 
more Advantageous to them :among(l which they muft look 
for many that would concern Religion, and the Exercife x)f it 
in Enzland. Upon which the King threw himfelf upon his Bed, 
and fiid, I told you this before, and fell into new Paffion, 
and Lamentatiop, that he was Undone and fliould lofe Baby 

char its. 

■ There appeared Dlfpleafure and Anger enough in the 

Countenances both of the Prince and Duke j the latter feyix^ 

. Vol. I part I - B that, 

20 The Hiftory Book I. 

well knew the hearty refentment the King had of what had 
pafe'd, and the AfleChon he (till had for the Sfanijh Treaty : 
and therefore he had done, and refolv'dftill to do, all he could, 
to make himfelf grateful to the Parliament ^ and Popular a- 
monglt the People ; who, he knew, had always dete^ed the 
Match with Sfam^ or in truth any Alliance with that Nation. 
The Prince's S o when, at the Conference, the Prince had made a fliort 
Mi Duke's Introdu<aion to the buiinefs, and fiudibmevery kindthingjB 
tbejTrn^ oftheDufcc, of Ws wondcrful Care of him, whifthc was m 
JIunfT- SfMhj and the great Dexterity he ufcd in getting him away j 
fence be- hc referred the whole Relation to Him: Whofidd, '^That 
pmeen beth « the true Ground of the Prince's Journey into Spmny which, 
H9t^es. a ]jc well knew, had begot fuch a tenible panting in the Hearts 
^ofallgood£ag^-men, had been only to make adeardit 
^«covery of the Sincerity of the SPamsrdy and, if his inten- 
^ tions were real, to put a Q)eedy End to it by Marrying of the 
« Lady upon the place ^ if he found it otherwife, to put his 
^ Father, and Himielf at liberty to difpofe of Himfelf in fome 
^ other place. That the Embaf&dour in whofe hands that great 
^ Adair was folely managed, when, in one Diipatch, he writ 
^ that all was concludoi, in the next, ufed to give an ac- 
« count of new Difficulties, and new Demands ^ And, when 
<^ all things were Adjufted at Madrid^ fbme unexped:ed Scru- 
**ples difcover^d themfelves at Ramf^ with which the Coun- 
^ cils in Spam feem'd to be furpriz'd, and appear'd to be con- 
« founded, and not to know what to fay. Thefe Ebbs and 
" Floods made the Prince apprehend, that the purpofe was to 
^ amirfe Us, whilft They nad other Detoas in fecret Agita- 
*^ tion. And thereupon, that his Highneis had prevail'd with 
^ his Father ( how unwillirig foever ) to permit him to make 
**the Journey , that he m®it make that uiefiil Difcovery, 
^^ which could not other wife be made in any feafonable time. 

^That diey no (boner came to Madrid^ than they dif^ 
*^ covered (though the Prince was treated wim all the relpedl 
^ due to his Greatnefs, and the Obligation he had laid upon 
^xbsx Nation) that there had never been any real purpofe 
<< that the Lrfanta (hould be given to Him : That, during fo 
^< long an abode, as his Highneis made therc« they had never 
" procured the Difpenlation bom Rome ^ which they might 
<<ea(ily have done: And that at lafl^ upon the death of the 
<*Pope, Gregory the ly^h^ the whole Proceis was to begin 
"again, ap.d would be tran&dled with the Formalities, which 
*^thcy Ihouldfind neceffiuy to their other Affairs. That, in- 
*^ Itead of Proceeding upon the Articles, which had been pre- 
'^ tended to be concluded, they urged nothing but New L>e- 
<^ mands ; and, in matters of Keligion, fo Peremptorily, that 
^^ the principal Clergy-men, and the loott j^pvn^t of chat 

« King's 

Of the ReheUion^ &c. ii 

« King's Preachers, had frequent Conferences wiAthe Prince, 
^ to perfwade him to change his Religion, and become a Pa- 
-^piffi. And, in order to move him the more fuccelsflilly 
'^ thereunto, they procured the Pope to write a Letter himfelf 
^ to his Hi^eik putting him in mind of the Religion of his 
«Anccftour$,andPrqgenitours, and conjuring him to Return 
« to the feme Faitii j but that it had pleafed God not only to 
*'give the Prince a conftant, and unlnaken Heart in his Reli- 
"gion, but fuch wonderfiil abilities to Defend the fame in 
^^ his Difcourle, and Arguments, diat they flood amazed to 
^ Hear hini, and upon the matter confefe'd that they were not 
^ able to Anfwer him,- 

*^ T H A T they would not fuflfer die Prince to confer with, 
" or fb mudi asto foeak to, hardly, and very rarely to lee his 
^Milhefe, whom mcy pretended he (hould forthwith marry. 
*^ That they could never obtain any better anlwer in the bu- 
^^finefsof the Falatsnatey than that the Reftoring it was not 
"in the power of that King, thougjiithad been taken by the 
" fole power o^Sfah^ and ±e Spawjh Army, under ±c Comr 
" mand of the Marquis Spimlay who was then in the entire 
"PofleflSon of it^ but that his Catholick Majefty would ule 
"his Merpofition, with all the credit he had with the Em- 
"perour and Duke of Bavaria^ without whofe joynt con- 
"ient it could not be done, and whofe confent he hoped to 
" obtain j but that He was well affiired, that there was no 
"more real intention in that point of Reftitution, than in 
"the other of Marriage^ and that the FaUfmate could not 
• "be hoped to be recovered any other way than by force, 
" which would eafily bring it to pals. 

Throughout his whole difcourfe he made frequent 
Reflections upon the Earl of Brifioly as if he very well knew 
the Spaniards purpofes in the whole, and concuir'd with them 
in it. "That he was fbmuch troubled^ when he firft faw 
^' the Prince, who alighted at his Houfe, that he could not 
" containhimfelf, but wilh^ that his Hig^efs were at Home 
"again : That he had ^erwards^ when he found that his 
" Highnefs liked the Infanta^ perfwaded him in private that 
"he would become a Papift; and that, without changing 
"his Religion, it would not be poffible ever to compafs that 

He told them, " 1 J:at the King had fent for the Earl to 
" return Home, where he fliould be call'd to account for 
" all his Mifcarriages. Whereas in truth the King had re- 
call'd him rather to aflift him againft the Duke, than to ex- 
pofe him to his Malice , and Fury ^ his Majefty having a 
great efteem of that Earls Fidelity to him, and of his great 

B 3 The 

XX The Hiftory Book I. 

A w^r with *c T^^ fro°a entertaining any fiuthcr motitbos towards the 

Spain. Match, and frankly and r^lutely to enter into, a War with 

Spam-^ towards the carrying on of which they raifed great 

mountains of Promifes, and, prevailit^ in the Firft, never 

remember'd to make good the Latter j which too often fells 

out infiich Counfels. 

Kdnsi^mes W H E N King Jsmis was informed of what the Duke had 

Perplexities, [o confidently avow'd, for which he bad not audiority, or 

n!fe^'^!inii ^^ ^^^ diredion from Him j and a great part whereof him- 

thl^H^ felf knew to be untrue ^ and that he had advifed an utter 

upon That Breach of the Treaty, and to enter upon a War with Spainy 

oceApon, he was infinitely onended j (o that he wanted only a refo- 

4ute and brisk CounfeUor , to af&ft him in deftroying the 

Duke : and fiich a one he promifed him&lf in the arrival of 

the Earl of BriftoL whom he escpedted every day. 

TieEariof His Majeliv had another Exception againft the Duke , 

Middlefex«^hich touched him as near, and in which he enlarged him- 

huFtje.and^^ much morc. Uonei cnmfeUdy who ( thcwgh extrafted 

from a Gentlemans Family ) had been bred in the City, and, 

being a Man of great Wit and Underftanding in all the my- 

fteries of Trade, had found means to work himfelf into the 

good opinion and fevour of the Duke of Buckingham^ and, 

having Ihortly after Married a near Relation of the Duke's 

with wonderfiil expedition was made a Privy-Counfellor , 

Matter of ±e Wardrobe, Matter of the Wards, and, without 

parting with any of thele, was now become Lord High 

Treafurerof£»^/ir»^, and Earl oiMiddk/ex^ and had gain'd 

fb much Credit widi the King (being in tmth a Man of 

great parts and notable dexterity) that, during die Duke's 

abfence in Spain ^ he was not only ncdigent m the ifluing 

out fuch films of Money, as were necefury for the defraying 

tiiofe unlimited Expences, and to correQxMid with Him with 

that Deference he had ufed to do, but had the Courage to 

difpute His commands, and to Appeal to the King, whofe Ear 

was always inclined to him, and in Whom he begun to be- 

lieve himfelf fo far fattened, that he fhculd not ftand in need 

of the future Support of the Favourite. And of all this the 

Duke could not he without ample information, as well from 

his own Creatures, who were near enough to obfervej as 

from others, who, caring for Neither of oiem , were more 

fcandaliz'd at fb precipitate a Promotion of aPerfon of fuch 

an Education , and whom they had long known fo Much 

their Inferiour, though it could not be denied that he FiU'd 

^^^9 Places he held with great Abititic?. 

Of the ReheUion^ &c. a g 

The Duke no (boner found the Parliament diipofed to a 
good opinion of him, and being well aflured of the Prince's 
taft Idndnefs, than he projedted the Ruin of this bold Rival 
of his, of whom he faw clearly enough that the King had 
fo good an opinion, that it would not be in his fble Power to 
crumHim, as he had done others, in the fame, and as hi^ 
a Sution. And fo he eafily procured ibme Leading Men in 
the Houfe of Commons, to caufe an Impeachment for feve- 
ral Corruptions, and Mifdemeanours, to be fent up to the 
Houfe of Peers againft that great Minifter, whom mey had 
(b lately known their Equal in that Houfe ^ which ( betides 
their natural Inclination to that kind of CQrredlion)difpbfed 
Them with great alacrity to this Profecution. The wife 
King knew well enough the ill Confequence, that muft attend 
Such an a<3dvity ^ and that it would (hake his Own AutiK>rinf 
in the Choice of his Own Minifters. when they fhould findJ^ 
that their Security did not depend folely upon nis Own Pro- 
teffion : Which Breach upon his Kingly Power was (b much 
without a Precedent ( except one unhappy one made three 
Years before, to gratify likewife a private di^leafure ) that 
the like had not been pradlifed in very many Years. 

When this profecution was firft enter'd upon, and that 
the King clearly difcem'd it was contrived by the Duke, and 
that he had likewife prevail^ with the Prince to be well pleas'd 
with it ; his Majefty fent for them, and with much warmth 
and pafiion, di(Iwaded them from appearinjg Farther in it; 
and conjur'd diem « to ufe all their Interett and Authority 
^ to refteun it, as fuch a Wound to the Crown, that would 
^^not be eafily healed. And when he found the Duke un- 
mov'd by all the confiderations, and arguments, and com- 
mands, he had offered, he (aid, in great Choler, ** By God, 
'' Sternly you are a Fool, and will Ihortly repent this folly, 
" and will find, that, in this fit of Popularity, you are making 
" a Rod, with which you will be (courged your Self : And 
turning in fome anger to the Prince , told nim , " That he 
'^ would live to have his belly fiill of Parliament Impeach* 
"ments : and, when I (hall be dead, you will have too 
^^much caufe to remember, how much You have contributed 
^' to the Weakning of the Crown , by the two Precedents 
" you are Now fo Fond of ; intending as well the Engaang 
the Parliament in the War, as ±e profecution of the &rl of 

But the Duke's power (fupported by the Prince's coun- 
tenance j was grown fo great in ±e two Houfes, that it was 
in vain tor the King to mterpofe ; and fo ( notwithftanding 
fo good a Defence made by the Earl, that he was aWblv'd 
from any notorious Qime, hy the imp^fftial opinion of many 

B 4. «f 

14* The Hi/lorj^ Book I. 

of thofc who heard all the Evidence) he was at laft condemned 
in a great Fine, to along and ftria Imprifonment, and ne- 
ver to fit in Parliament during.his Life : a claufe of fUch a 
liiatilre as was never before found in any Judgment of Par- 
' liament, and, in truth, not to be inflifled upon any Peer but 
by Attainder. 

How much alienated foever the King's Aflfeftion was 
in truth from the Duke , upon thefe three Provocations j 

ii) The Princes Journey into Spain i (x) the Engaging the 
Parliament to break the Match, and Treaty with Spasm y and 
to make a War againft that Crown; and (3) The Sacrificing 
the Earl oi Middkfix in fiich amanner, upon his Own animo- 
fity ; yet he was fo far fi-om thinking fit to manifcft it ( ex- 
cq)t in whiipers to very few men ) that he was prevailed with 
to reftrain the Earl otBriffoi upon his firft arrival, without 
permitting him to come into his Prdence, which he hadjpo- 
utively promifed, and refolv'd to do , and in the end fiifier'd 
the Earl •f his Attomcv General to exhibit a charge of HighTreafbn, in 
Briftol AC- liisMajeft/s name, againft the fiid Earl, who was thereupon 
2^''^J,"/'*'"'committed to the Tower; but fo little dejeSed with it, that 
' he anfwer'd the Articles ^ddi great Iteddynefe and unconcern* 

^cftt/e/ tht cdnefs, and exhibited another charge of Hi^h Treafon againft 
^* the Duke, in many particulars. 

And in this Order and Method the War was haftily en- 

tred into againft 5/><ar«r, and a new Treaty fet on foot for the 

Prince of ^ales with the Daughter ot France ; which was 

quickly Concluded, though not mlly Compleated till after the 

death of King James ; who, in the Spring following, after a 

fliort indifpolition by the uout, fell into an Ague , which 

meeting many humours in a fat, unweildy body of 58 years 

K. James olid, in four or five Fits, carryed him out of the world. After 

^'^'' whofe death many fcandalous, and libellous Difcourfes were 

raifed, without the leaft colour, or ground : as appeared upon 

tlie itrideft^ and moft malicious Examination that could be 

made, long after, in a time of Licence, when no body was 

jafraidofofltendingMajefty, and when profecuting the liigheft 

P-eproaches, and Contumelies againft die Royal Family, was 

held very meritorious. 

Trinci " U p o N the death of King James ^ Charles Prince of Wales 

r ^^ v'l. focceeded tp die Crown, with as univerfal a Joy in the People, 

Sritiir'^ can be imagined, and in a Conjundhire, when aU the other 

W«f»«»!J«? Parts oi chriftendom^ being engaged in War, were very fol- 

inhAvour. Jicitous for his Friendfliip; and the more, becaufe he had 

already difcover'd an Aoivity , that was not like to fufter 

him to fit flill. The Duke continued in the fime degree of 

Favour ac die leaft, with the Son, which he enjoyed fo many 

jrearg u^der the Father. A rare fdicity ! feldom known, an^l 


Cfthe ReheUton^ &c. ay 

in which the expcdation of very many was exceedingly dip- 
appointed J who, knowing the great jealoufy and indignation, 
that the Prince had heretofore conceiv'd againlt tlie Duke^ 
for having been once very near Striking liim, cxpcdted that 
he would Now remember diat Infolence, of which he Then 
fo often complained ^ without conliderino; the opportunity the 
Duke had, by the converfation with the Prince, during Jiis 
Journey into Sfam ( which was fo gratefiil to him) and whilil 
he was there, to wipe out the memory of all former Over- 
fights, by making them appear to be or a leis magnitude than 
they had been underltood before, and to be excufable from 
other caufcs, llill being fevere enough to liimfelf for his Un- 
wary part, whatfoevcr excufes he might make for the Excefs : 
and by this means to make new Vows forhimfelf, and to tie 
new Knots to reftrain the Prince from future jealoufies. And 
it is very true, his hopes in this kind never tiiil'd him ^ the 
new King from the death of the old, even to the death of the 
DuJcc himfdf, difcovering the molt entire Confidence in, and 
even Friendfliip to Him, that ever King had fliew'd to any 
Subjedt : all Preterments in Church and State given by Him ^ 
all his Kindred, and Friends promoted to the degree m Ho- 
nour, or Riches, or Offices, tlut He thought fit, and all Ws 
Enemies and Envycrs difcountenanced, as He appointed. 

But a Parliament was neceflary to be call'd, as attheen-j^,'„j^ 
trance of all Kings to the Crown, for the continuance of {bmc charles'r 
Supplies and Revenue to the King, which have been ftill ufed ^r^ ^'*'' 
to be granted in that feafon. And now he quickly found how '^J?J"^ 
Prophctick the lafl King's Predidtions hadjproved, and were ^ 
like to prove. The Parliament that had fo raflily advanced 
the War, and fo paflionately adhered to his Perfon, was now 
no more ^ and though the Houfe of Peers eoi^iited ftill of 
the fame men, and molt ofthe principal men of the Houfe of 
Commons were again ele^ed to ferve in this Parliament yet 
they were for from wedding the War, or taking themfelves 
to be concem'd to make good any Declaration made by the 
former : So that though the War was cntred in, all hope of 
obtaining money to carry it On was even defperate^ «nd the 
aflfedtion they had for the Duke, and confidence in him, was 
not Then fo manifeit, as the Prejudice they had Now, and 
animofity againft him, was vifible to all the world : All the 
/\dtioiisofhis liferipp'd up, and fiirvey'd, and all malicious 
GlofTes, made upon aU he had faid, and all he had done : 
Votes and Remonftrances pafs'd againit him as an Enemy to 
the Publick j and his ill Management made the ground of 
the Refliiid to give the King that Supply he had rcafon to 
expcdt, and was abfolutely necefl&rytothe Itate he was in. 
And tliis kind of^ treatment was fo ill fuited to the Duke's 


%6, The Hiftory Book I. 

great Spirit, which indeed might have eafily been Bowed, but 
could very hardly be Broken, that it wrought contrary effedls 
upon his high mind, and his Indignation, to &id himfeUTo 
ufed by the &me Men. For they who flattered him mc^ Be- 
fore , mentioned him now with the grcateft bittemefs and 
acrimony ; and the lame Men who had call'd him 9ur Savi- 
imr^ for brining the Prince fafe out of S^Mn^ calPdhim now 
the Corrupter of the King , and betrayer of the Libprties of 
the People, without imputmg the leaft crime to him, to have 
been committed fince the time of that exalted Adulation* or 
that was not then as much known to them, as it coula be 
now : (b fluduatins and unfteady a teltimony is the Applaufe 
of popular Councils. 
ThatPariu^ THIS indignation, I (ay, fo trani|)orted the Duke, diat he 
'"*"*'*J^.J?'thougiht necel&ry topublim and manifeft a greater contempt 
fX'denae^^^ ^^^> then hc fliould have done; cauiing this and the 
count of the H^xt Parliament to be quickly Diflblv'd, as foon as they feem'd 
Duke. to entertain Counfels not grateful to him, and before hc 
could well determine, and judge, what their Tempers was in 
tmdi like to prove : and, upon every Diflidution, iiich as 
had given any Offence, were Imprifon'd, orDifgraced; new 
Prqjedswere every day fet on foot for Monev, which ferv'd 
only to offend, and incenfe the People , ana brou^t little 
fiippUes to the king's occafions ; yet raifed a great ftock for ex- 
poltulation, murmur, and con4>laint ^ to be expofed when 
other Supplies fhould be required. And many Perfons, of 
thebeft quality and condition under the Peerage, were com- 
mitted to feveral Prifons, with circumlfances unufual and un- 
heard of, for refufing topay Money required by thofe extra- 
ordinary ways ; andmeDuKe himfelf would paffionately fey, 
and frequently do many things; which only griev'd ms 
Friends, and incenfed his Enemies, and gave them as well the 
ability, as the inclination to do him mu(± haim. 
^mtrde- In this fatal Conjundture, and after many feveral coftly 
ctar^d with Embaffies into FroTue^ in the lafl of which the Duke himfelf 
f J^cc. ^^^^ anj brought triumphantly home with him the Queen 
to the jdy of the Nation j in a time, when all endeavours 
fhould have been ufed to have extinguifh'd that War, in which 
die King was fo unhappily Engaged affainft Spain j a new War 
was as precipitately declared s^ainit France^ and the Fleer, 
that had been unwarily defign'd to have fiirprifed Cales^ un- 
der a General very unequal to that great work, was no fooner 
returned without fuccete, and with much damage, than it was 
repaired, and theArmy reinforced for the Invalion of Fr/jr»f^; 
in which the Duke yras General himfelf, and made that un- 
fortunate Defcent upon the Ifle of Ree^ which was quickly 
afterwards attended widi many unproQ)erous Attempts, and 


OftheRehelhon^Scc. v^ 

then with amiferaUe Retreat; in which thePlower of the 
Anny was loft. So that how ill foever Spain and France were 
inclined to each other, xh&y were both bitter Enemies to Eng- 
/and^ whilft£»^/4«w/ itfelf wasfo totally taken up with the 
thought of Revenge upon the Perfon who diey mought had 
been the caufe of their diftrefs , that they never comider'd, 
that the (adEficds of it (if not inftantly provided againft ) 
muft inevitably deftroy the Kingdom : and gave no truce to 
their Ra^e,till the Duke finifh'd ms courfe, by a wicked Aflaf- 
iinationm the fourth year of the King, and the thirty fixthof 
his Age. 

toe ofReey upon which he conceived that the Company of ham. 
ri^t oug^t to have been conferred upon Him, and it being 
reilifed to him by the Duke of Buckingham General of the 
Army, had gjven up his Commiflion of Lieutenant, and with- 
drawn himlelf from the Army. He was of a mclandiolick 
nature, and had little conver&tion with any body, yet of a 
Gentleman's family in Suffolky of good fortune and repi][car 
tion. From the time that he had quitted the Army, he refided 
mLondm-^ when the Houfe of Commons, tranfpoitcd witih 
Paf&on and Prejudice ^ainft the Duke of Buckingham^ had 
accufedhimtotne Houfe of Peers for feveralMifdemeanours, 
and Mifcarriages, and in fome Declaration had ftyled him 
" the caufe of dl die Evils the Kingdom fuffer'd, and an Ene- 
^ my to the Publick. 

Some Tranfcripts of fiich Expreflions (for the late Licence 
of Printing all mutinous and /editious Difcourfes was not yet 
in fefhion) and fome general Invedtivcs he met with amongft 
the People, to whom that great Man v/as not gratefiil, wrou^t 
fo far upon this melancholick Gentleman, that by degrees, 
and ( as he (aid upon fome of his Examinations ) by frequent- 
ly hearing fome popular Preachers in the City ( who yet 
were not arrived at the Prefiimntion and Impudence , they 
have been fince transported with ) he believ'd he Ihould dc* 
God good fervice, it he kill'd the Duke ; which he Oiorrly 
after refolv'd to do. He chofe no otiier inlboiment to do it 
with, than an ordinary Knife, which he boughc of a common 
Cutler for a Shilling : and tlius provided he repaired to FortJ^ 
mouthy where he arrived the Eve of Sr Bartholomtiu, The Duke 
was then there, in order to Prepare and make Ready the 
Fleet, and the Army, with which' he rcfolv'd in few days to 
tranfport himlelf to the Relief of Bochel , which . was then 
ftraitjy befiegcd by the Cardinal Richelieu ^ and for rhe Relief 
whereof the Duke was the more oblig'd, by rcafou that, at 


%S The Hiftory Book I. 

hisbeiog at the Ule ofJRff^ he had receiv'4 great Supplies of 
Vifluals, and fome Companys t>f their Carrifoa from that 
Town, the want of both which they were at this time very 
fenfible o^ and grieved at. 

This momm^oS S^ Barf holomem^c Duke had roceiv'd 
Letters, inwhichhewasadvertifed that Rechel had Relieved 
it felf ; upon which he direded that his Break-faft might 
foeedily be made ready, and he would make haft to acquaint 
the King with the good news, the Court beia^; then at South- 
yricky the Houfe of S^ Dante/ Norton^ five miles from Portf- 
mouth. The Chamber wherein he was drefling himfelf, was 
fiill of company, of Perfbns of Quality, and Officers of the 
Fleet and Army. 

There was Montieur de Souhize Rrothd- to the Duke of 
Rohauy and odicr French Gentlemen, who were very folli- 
dtous for the Embarcation of the Army, and for the depar- 
ture of the Fleet for the Relief of .l^w/fe/: and th^ were at 
that time in mudb trouble and perplexity, out of apprehen- 
ikm that the news the Duke had received that Morning mi^ 
flackeq the preparations for the Voyage, which their Impa- 
tience, and Inrerdt perfwaded them were not advanced with 
ezpedijdon^ and fb they had held mudi diicourfe with the 
Duke of the impodibility that his Intelligence could be true, 
and that it was contrived by the artifice and dexterity of their 
Enemies , in order to abate the warmth and zeal that was 
ufcd for their Relief, the arrival of which Relief thofe Ene- 
mies had fb much reafbn to apprehend; and a longer De- 
lay in fending it would eafe them of that terrible apprehen- 
Oon, their Forts and Works towards the Sea, and in me Har- 
bour, being aJmoft finifh'd. 

This cmcourfc, according to tlie natural cuftomof that 
Nation, and by the ufual Dialedl of that Language, was held 
with that Paffion, and Vehemence^ that die ftanders by, who 
underftood not Frenchy did believe that diey were ai^, and 
that thevufed the Duke rudely. He being readv, and informed 
that his break-fadt was ready, drew towards tne door, where 
rhehangii^s were held up ; and, in that very Pafl^e, turn- 
ing himfelTto fpeak with S^ Thomas Fryar^ a tolonel of the 
Anny , who was then Ipeaking near his ear, he was on the 
fuddain Struck over his (houlder upon the Breaft with a 
Knife ; upon which, without ufmg any other words, but. The 
ViUain hath kill d me j and in the fame moment pulling out 
the Knife himfclf, he fell down dead, the Knife having pierced 
his Heart. 

N o man had fcen the Blow, or the Man who gave it, but 
in the confufion they were in, every man made his own con- 
jcilure , and declared it as a thkig known j moft agreeing 



Of the Rehellion^ &c. ip 

that it was done by the French^ from the angry difcourfe they 
thought ±ey had heard from them. And it was a kind of a 
Miracle, that they were not all kill'd in that inltant ; the So- • 
ber fort, that oreferv'd them from it, having the fame Opi- 
nion of ±eir ouilt, and only referving them for a more Judi- 
cial Examination and Proceeding. 

In the Crowd, near the door, there was found upon the 
ground a Hat , in ±e inlide whereof there was fow d upon 
ihQ crown a Paper, in which were writ four or five lines of 
that Declaration made bytlie HoufeofCk)mmons, inwluch 
they had ftyrd the Duke an Enemy to the Kingdom ^ and 
under it a Inort Ejaculation or two towards a Prayer. It was 
eafily enough concluded that the Hat belonged ta the Perfon 
who had committed the Murther : but the mfficulty remainM 
fbll as great. Who that Perfon fliould be; for the writing 
difcover'd nothing of the Name, and whofoever it was, it 
was very natural to believe, that he was gone for enough, not 
to be found without a Hat. 

I N this Hurry, one running one way, another another way, 
a Man was feen walking before the door very compofedir 
without a Hat ; whereupon one crying out. Here it the FeU 
law that ktWd the Duke^ upon which others run thither^ 
€very body asking, fPhich is He ? mfkh is He? to which the 
Man without the Hat very compofedly anfwer'd, I am He. 
Thereupon fome of diofe who were moft Furious, fuddainly 
ran upon the Man with their drawn Swords to kill him^ 
but others, who were at leaft equally concerned in the Lois,. 
and in the Senfe of ity defended hun ; Himfelf with opea 
Arms very calmly and chearfuUy expofing Himfelf to the Fury 
and Swords of tne moft enraged, as being very willing to 
fall a Sacrifice to their fuddain Anger, rather than to be kepc 
for that deliberate Juftice, which he knew muft be executed 
upon him. 

He was now known enough, and eafily difcover'd to be 
that Feltetty whom we mentioned before , who had been a 
Lieutenant in the Army : He was quickly carry'd into a pri- 
vate Room by the Perlons of the belt Condition, fome where- 
of were in Autihority, who firft thought fit fo far to diflemble, 
as to mention the Duke only grievouQy Wounded, but not 
without hope of Recovery. Upon which Feltan fiiuled, and 
iaid, he knew well enough he had given him a Blow that had 
Determin'd all their Hopes. Being then ask'd ( which was 
the difcovery principally aim'd at) by whofe Iimigation he 
had performed that horrid and wicked AS j he anfwer'd them 
with a wonderfU aflurance , ^ That they Ihould not trouble 
*• themfelves in that Enquiry j that no Man living had credit 
^^ or power enough with mm to have engaged, or difpofed 


3x - The Hiflory Book L 

feady to expofe himfelf to the higheft dangers. His Kind- 
nefe, and Anedion |:x) his Friends was fb vehement, that they 
/ were as fo many marriages for better and worfe, and io many 
leaguies ofienliye and defenfive j as if he tlK)ught himfelf 
c^uged to love all his Friends^ and to make war upon all 
They were angry witii. Jet tiie caufe be what it would. And it 
cannot be denied, that he was an Enemy in the &me excels ; 
and profccuted thofe he looked upon as his Enemies, with the 
utmoit rigour and animoiity; and was not eaiily induced to 
feconciliation. And yet there were fome examples of his re- 
ceding in that pardcular. And when he was in the higheit 
paffion, he was fo far from (looping to any Diffimulation, 
whereby his difplealure might be concealed and covcr'd, till 
he had attaint his revenge ( the low method of Courts ) 
that he never endeavoured to do any man an ill office, before 
he firft told him what he was to expe<a from him, and re- 
proached him with the injuries he had done, with fo much 
generoiity, that the perfon found it in his power to receive 
nnther (atjsfedlion, in the -way he would choofe for himfelf. 

In this manner he proceeded with the Earl of Oxford^ a 
man of great Name in that time, and whom he had endea- 
voured by many civil offices to make his Friend, and who 
(eemM equally to incline to the Friendlliip : when he difco- 
vcr^d (or, as many thought, but fuipefted ) that the Earl was 
enterea into fome Cabal in Parliament againft him ^ he could 
not be diflwaded by any of his Friends, to whom he im- 
parted his refolution, but meeting the Earl the next day, he 
took him afide, and after many reproaches for fuch and fiich ■ 
ill offices, he had done him, and for breaking his Word to-, 
wards him, he told him, *'he would rely no longer on His 
**Friendfliip, nor fliould He expeft any further Friendfliip 
^ from him, but on the contrary, he would be for ever his 
"Enemy, and do him all the mifchief he could. The Earl, 
(who, as many thought, had not been Faulty towards him, 
was as Great-hearted as He, and thought the very Sufpefting 
him to be an injury Unpardonable^ without any reply to the 
particulars, declared "that he neitner cared for his Friend- 
"Ihip, nor feared his Hatred; andfh)m thence avowedly en- 
ter'd into the converlktioiip and confidence of Thofe who 
were always awake to Difcover, aiid follicitous to Purfue 
any thing that might prove to hiisDifid vantage; which was 
of Evil confequencc to the Duke j the Earl being of the molt 
Ancient of the Nobility, and a man of great Courage, and 
of a Family which had in no time fwerv d from its Fidelity 
to the Crown. 

Sr F R A N CI s CottlngtoUy who was Seaetary to the Prince, 
and not grown Courtier enough to diflemble his opinion, 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 3 5 

had given the Duke Q&nce, before his Journey Into Spshu 
as is before touched upon, and improved that prejudice af* 
ter his coming ^thither, by diipding the Prince all he could 
to the Marnage of the Infanta ^ and by his bdrnviour after 
his return, in juftifying to King James^ who had a very good 
Opinion of him, the Sincerity of the Spaniard in the Treaty 
ot ±e Marriage, ^'That they did in tnith defire it, and were 
^ ftilly refolv'd to gratify his Majefty in the Bufinefs of the 
*^ PalatinatSy and only defir'd, in the mannor of it^ to gratify 
^thc Emperour and the Duke of Bavariay all they could ^ 
*^ which would take up very little time. All which being 
fo contrary to the Dukd's purpofes and refolution^ his Ett£ 
pleafiire to Cottington was fiifficiently manifeft. And King 
James was no fooner dead, and the new Officers, and Orders 
made, but the Profits, and Privileges, which had ufed to be 
continued to him who had been Secretary, till fome other 
Promotion^ were all retrenched. And when he was one Morn- 
ing Attending in the Privy Lodgings, as he was acadtem'd 
to do, one of the Secretaries of State came to him^ and told 
him, ^' That it was the King's pleafure, he Ihpulci no more 
"prefiime to come into thofe Rooms (which was the firft 
inSance he had receiv'd of the King's Disfavour) and at 
the lame inflant the Duke enter'd into that Quarter : S"" Fran* 
as Cottington addrefs'd himielf towards him, and defir'd ^ he 
^ would give him leave to (peak to him ^ ujpon whidi die 
Duke incSning his ear, mov'd to a window irom the Com- 
pany : and the other told him, ^ that he receiv'd every day 
^ frem Marks of his Severity ; mentioned the Meflage, which 
had been then deliver'd to him, and defir'd only to know, 
^ Whether it could not be in bis power, by all dutUiil Ap- 
^ plication, and all poflBble Service, to be reftor'd to the 
^good Opinion his Grace had once vouchiafed to have of 
"him, and to be admitted, to Serve him? The Duke heard 
him widiout the leaft Commotion, and with a Countenance 
ferene enough, and then anfwer'd him, ^' That he would de^ 
^very clearly with him; that it was utterly impofiible to 
« bring that to pafs which he had proposed : That he was 
"not only firmly refolv'd never to truft him, or to have to 
" do with him, but tiiat he was, and would be always his de- 
"clar'd Enemy; and that he would do always whatfoever 
" ihould be in his power to Ruin and Deftroy him, and of 
" this he might be moft afliir'd : without mentioning any 
particular ground for his fo heightened Difplcafure. 

The Other very calinly reply'd to him ( as he was Mar- 
fter of an incomparable Temper) "That fince he was re- 
" folv'd Never to do him Good, he hoped from his Juftice, and 
" Generofity, that he would not fuflfer himfelf to Gain by his 

VoLl. Parti. C ^Lofs3 

34- The Hiftor/ BookL 

^Lofs; That he had laid out, by his Command, fb much 
^ Money for Jewels, and Pidhires, which he had received : 
^ and that, in hope of his future Favtour, he had once pre- 
« fented a Suit of Hangings to him, wWch coft him 8ooJ, 
" whidi he hoped he would caufe to be reftofd to him, and 
« that he would not let him be fo great a Lofer by him. 
The Duke anfwcr'd, *^ he was in the rig^t ; that he fliould 
^'die next Morning go to Oliver (who wis his Receiver) 
^ and give him a particular account of all the Money due to 
^* him, and he (hcxild prefently pay him ; which was done the 
next Morning accordingily, without the leaft abatement of any 
of his demands. 

An d he was fo bx Reconcil'd to him before his death^ 
that being refolv'd to make Peace with Sfahp to die end he 
might more vigproufly purfue the War with Frmue (to 
which his heart was moft paflionately fix'd ) he fent for or- 
tmgtm to come to him, and after Conference with him, told 
him, ^the King would fend him Embafladour thither, and 
«that he fhould attend him at Fortfmouth for his DiQ>atch. 

His fingle Misfortune was (wmch indeed was produdive 
of manv greater) that he never made a noble and a wordiy 
Friendfiiip with a Man fo near his £quai, that he would 
frankly advife him for his Honour, and tme InterefL againft 
the Current, or ra±er the Torrent of his Impetuous Faflions j 
which was pardy the Vice of the Time^ when the Court was 
not replenifli'd with great choice of Excellent Men j and 
partly the Vice of the Perfons, who were moft worthy to be 
apply'd to, and look'd upon his Youth, and his Obfcurity be- 
fore his Rife, as Obligations upon him to gain their Fnend- 
Qiips by extraordinary Application. Then his Aicent was fo 
quick, that it feem'd rather a Flight than a Growth, and he 
was fiich a Darling of Fortune, that he was at the Top, be- 
fore he was well {QQn at the Bottom ; and as if he had been 
bom a Favourite, he was Supreme the firft Month he came 
to Court ^ and it was want of Confidence, not of Credit, 
that he had not all at firft, which he obtained afterwards ^ 
never meeting with the leaft Obftrudion from his Setting 
out, till he was as great as he could be: So diat he wanted 
Dependants before he thought he could want Coadjutors. 
Nor was he very Fortunate in the E^eddon of thofe Depen- 
dants, very few of his Servants havins bo^n ever qualify'd 
enough to Aflift or Advife him^ and^ey were intent only 
upongrpwing Rich under him, not upon meir Maiter's grow- 
ing Good, as well as Great : Infomuch as he was through- 
out his Fortune a much Wifer Man , than any Servant or 
Friend he had. 

Let the Fault or Misfortune be what, or whence it will, 


Of the Rebellion, &c. 3 y 

it may reafonably be believed that if he had been bleffed wiA 
onetaiflitfUl Fnend, who had been qualified with Wifilom 
and Integrity, that Great Perfon would have committed as 
few gg^S y and done as tranfcendent \Korthy Addons, as any ^ 
MaiiMlPo ihinM in fudi a Sphere in that Age in Emrope, ^ 
For he was of an excellen^JQfifapfitio% and of a^Mind very^' 
capable^of^Advice and CoutuctT He was in his ^JsTi^ure juft 
and candid, liberal, generous, and bountiful; nor was it ever 
known, that the temptation of Money iwa/d him to do an 
uniuft, or unkind thing. And though he left a very great 
Eltate to his Heirs : confidering the vail Fortune hfe innerited 
by his Wife, the (ole Daughter, and Heir of Francis Earl of 
ButUmdy he owed no part of it to his Own Induftry, or Sol- 
lidtadon ; but to the inq)atient Humour of two Kings his 
Matter^ who would make his Fortune equal to his Titles, 
and the one as much above other Men ,, as the other was. 
And he confider'd it no otherwife than as Their's, and left it 
at his death engag'd for the Crown, ahnoft to the value of it^ 
as is touch'd upon before. 

I F he had an immoderate Ambition, with which he was 
diare;ed, and is a Weed ( if it be a Weed ) apt to ctow ia 
the beft Soils ; it doth not appear that it was in his Natur^ 
or that he brought it with him to the Court^ but rather fbuna 
it there, and was a Garment necef&ry for that Air. Nor wa^ 
it more in his power to be without Promotion, and Tides, 
and Wealth, than for a Healthy Man to fit in the Sun, io 
the brighteft Dog-days, and remain without any warmth. 
He needed no And)ition, who wasfbfeatedinthe Hearts of 
two fiich Mailers. 

Therb are two particulars, which lye heavieil upon his 
Memory, either of them aggravated by Circurailances very 
important, and which admuufter frequent occafions by their 
Efleas to be remembered. 

The Firil, his Engaging his old unwilling Mafter and 
the Kingdom in the War with Spam ( not to mention the 
bold Journey thither, or the Breach of that Match ) 'm% * 
time when the Crown was fb poor, and the People more 
inclined to a bold Enquiry, How it came to befo, than duty- 
fid to provide for its Supply : and this only upon Perfonal 
Animoiities between Him, and the Duke of olh/arezy the 
fble Favourite in that Court, and thofe Animoiities from 
very Trivial Provocations , wliich, flowed indeed from no 
other Fountain, than that the Nature and Education oispam 
r^rainM Men from that Gayety, and Frolique Humour, to 
which the Prince's Court was more inclin'd. And OlivareTi 
had been heard to Cenfure very feverely the Duke's Fami- 
liarity, and want of Refpedl towards the Prince ( a Crime 

C i monflrous 

3<J TheHillory Book I. 

monftrous to the Spamard) and had ^id, ( that ^ if the Jxr- 
^fiittta did not, as foon as (he was Married , Supprefs ±ac 
*^ Licence, flie would her Self quickly undergo the Mifchief 
" of it : Which gavje the firft Akrum to the Duke toappre- 


O N B Morning the King defir'd the Prince to take the Air, 
and to viGt a little Houfe of Pleafiire he had ( the Vrado ) 
four Miles frctfn Madrid ^ (landing in a Forrefl^ where he us'd 
fbmetimes to Hunt ; and the Duke not being ready, the King 
and the Prince , and the Infante Dam Carlos went into the 
Coach, the King likewife calling ±e Earl of BnHol into that 
Coach to a(n(t them in their Converfition, the Prince then not 
Speaking any Spanifh^^ and le(t Obvare^ to follow in the 
Coach with the Duke of Buckwgkam. When the Duke came, 
they went into the Coach, accompanied with others of both 
Nations, and proceeded very cheerfully towards the overtak- 
ing the King ^ but when upon the way he heard, that the 
£arl of Bri/ol was in the Coadi with the King, he broke out 
into a great pafTion, revU'd the omde Duke as the Contri* 
ver of me Affront, reproach'd the Earl of Brifiol for his pre- 
fumption, in taking me Place which in all rei^>edh belo^d 
to Him, who was joyn'd with him as Embadadour Extraor- 
dinary, and came lait from the preience of his Mafter, and 
refolv'd to go out of die Coach and to return to Madrid. 
Olharez eaiily difcpver^d by the difbrder, and the noife, and 
the tone, that the Duke was very Angry, without compre- 
hending the cau(e of it ^ Only found that the Earl of Brifiol 
was often nam'd with fuch atone, that he begpn t6(li(pe(% 
what in tmth might be the Caufe. And thereupon he com- 
manded a Gentleman, who was on Horfeback, with all (peed 
to oveitakethe King^ Coach, and defire that it might Itay ; 
intimating that the Duke had taken fome Difpleafure, the 
ground whereof was not enough underftood. Upon which 
the King's Coach itay'd, and when the other approach'd with- 
in diitance , the Coude Duke alighted , and acquainted the 
King with what he had obferv'd, and what he conceiv'd. The 
Kinghimfelf alighted^ made great Compliments to the Duke, 
the Earl of Briftol excufing himfelf upon the King's Com- 
mand, that he (hould ferve as Interpreter. In the end Don 
Carlos went into the Coach with the Favourite, and the Duke 
and the Earl of Briftol went with the King, and the Prince; 
and fo they profecuted their Journey, and after Dinner re- 
.turn'd in the wme manner to Madrid. 

This with aU the Circumflances of it adminifter'd won- 


Of the ReherUton^ &c. 3 7 

derful occafion of difcourfe in the Court and Countrjr, there 
never havingbeen fiich a Comet feen in that Hemi^here ; 
their fiibmifs Reverence to their Princes being a vital part oli 
their Rehgion. 

There were very few days pafs'd afterwards, in which, 
there was not fbme manifeftatiqii of the higheft Diipleafiire, 
and Hatred in die Duke ag^unft the Earl of BriftoL And 
when the Omde Duke had &me eclaircifinent with the Duke, * 
in which he made all the Proteftations of his fincere Aflfe- 
^on, and his defire to maintain a dear and faidiflil Friend- 
fhipwith him, which he conceived might be, in fome degree, 
ufefolto both their Matters 3 the Other received his Prote- 
iUtions with all Contempt, and dedar'd, with a very unnecef- 
iary franknefe, ''that he would have no Friendlhip with him. 

The next day after the King return'd from accompany- 
ing the Prince towards the Sea, where, at parting, there were 
all poflible demonltrations of mutual Affed:ion between them 9 
the Kingcaufed a fair Pillar to be ereded in the place where 
they Lait embrac'd each other , with Infcriptions of great 
Honour to the Prince j there being ±en in that Court not 
the leaft SuQ)icion, or Imagination, that the Marriage would 
not Succeed. Infomuch that afterwards, upon the news from 
Rome that the Di^n&tion was granted, the Prince having 
left the De^onforios in the hands of the Earl of Bri^o/y in 
which the Infante Don Carlos was conftituted the Prince's 
Proxy to Marry the Infanta on his behalf^ She was treated 
asPrincefsof ^*/(px, the Queen gave her place, and the £»£- 
/;/A Embafladour had frequent Audiences, as with his Mi- 
ftrifs , in which he would Not be cover'd : Yet, 1 fey, the 
very next day after the Prince's departure from the King, M' 
Clarky one of the Prince's Bed-cnamber, who had formerly 
ferv'd the Duke , was fcnt back to Madrid^ upon pretence 
that fomewhat was forgotten there, but in truth, with or- 
ders to the Earl of Brijlol not to deliver the DdTponforios 
( whichj by the Articles, he was oblig'd to do, within fifteen 
days after the arrival of the DifpeiSition ) until he fhould 
receive further orders from the Prmce, or King, after his Re- 
turn into England. 

Mf Clark was not to deliver this Letter to the Embaf- 
£ulour, till he was fiire the Difpenfadon was come ; of which 
he could not be advertised- in the inftant. But he lodging in 
the Embaffedour's houfe, and falling fick of a Calenture, which 
the Phyfidans thought would prove mortal, he fcnt for the 
Earl to come to his Bed fide^ and delivered him the Letter 
before the arrival of the Di^n&tion, thou^ long after it 
was known to be granted j upon which all thofe Ceremonies- 
were perfbraa'd to the Infanta, 

C ? By 

38 TheHiflory Book I. 

B y thefe means , and by this method « this great ASair, 
upon which the Eyes of Cbrifiendom had been fo longfoc'd, 
came to be Diflblv'd, without the leafl; mixture with, or con- 
tribution from thofe Amours, which were afterwards fo con- 
fidently difcours'd of. For though the Duke was naturally 
carried violendy to thofe PafSons, when there was any grace 
or beauty in the Obje<a,yettRe Duchefi oiOirvare%^ ot whom 
was the talk, was then a Womanfo old, paft Children, of 
fo abjed a prefence , ip a word, fo crooked and deform'd, 
•that ilie could neither tempt his Appetite, nor magnify his 
Revenge. And whatfbever he did merwards in EngUmd-w^iS 
but tueri ofus^ and to profecute the Defim he bid, upon the 
Reafbn and Provocation afbreiaid, fo long before contriv'd 
during his abode in Sfatn. 

The other particular^ by which he involved himfelf in fo 
many Fatal Intricacies, from which he could never extricate 
himielf, was, his running violently into the War in France^ 
without any kind of provocation, and upon a particular paf- 
fion very unwarrantable. In his Embafly in I^^r^rre, where 
bis Perfon and Prclence was wonderfully admired, and 
eltcem'd ( and in truth it was a Wonder in the eves of all 
Men) and in which he appear'd with all theLuftre the 
Wealth of England could adorn him with, and Outfliin'd all 
the bravery that Court could drels it felf in, andOvera&ed 
the whole Nation in ±eir own moft peculiar Vanities : He 
had the Ambition to fix his Eyes upon, and to dedicate his 
moft violent Aiie<3aonto aLady of avery fijUime Quality, 
and to purlue it with molt importunate Addrefles ; Infomuch 
as when the King had broi^t the Queen his Sifter as far as 
he meant to do, anddeUver'd her into the handsof the Duke 
to be by him conduced into England ; the Duke , in his 
Journey , after the departure of max Court, took a refolu- 
tion once more to make a Vifit to that great Lady, which 
he believ'd he might do with much privacy. But it was fo ea- 
lily difcover'd, that provifion was made for his Reception ; 
and if he had purfued his Attempt, he had been without doubt 
AflMinated^ of whichhehadciiy fo much notice, a»ferv*d 
him to decline the Danger. But he fwore, in the inftanr, 
^that he would See, aiKi Speak with that Lady, inSpi^t oF 
^ the Strength and Power of France. And from the time that 
the Queen arrived in England^ he took all ±e ways he could 
to Undervalue and Exafperacc that Court and Nation, by 
cauiing all ±ofe who fled mxo England from the juftice and 
dilpleafure of that King, to be received and entertain*d here, 
not only with ceremony and fecurity, but with bounty and 
magnificence j and the rnore extraordinary the Perfons were, 
ana the more notorious their King's diipleafure was towards 


Of the Rehel&on^ &c. 39 

(hem (as in that time there were very many Lords and La- 
dies in thofe drcumftances ) the more reipedniilly ±ey were 
receiv'd^ and efteem'd. He omitted no opportunity to In- 
cenfe the King againft France^ and to difpofe him to aflift the 
Hiig0nots y whom he likewife encourag'd to give their King 
Come txx>uble. 

And which was Worie than all this, he took 0-eat pains 
to Leflen the Kingf s A£fedtion towards his Young Queen, be- 
ing exceedingly jealous, left Her Intereft mi^ be of force 
enougjb to Crois his other Defims : And in this Stratagem^ 
he fo far iwerv'd from the Inftin^ of his Nature, and his pro- 
per Inclinations, that He who was compounded of all the ele- 
ments of A&bility, and Courteiy towards all kind of People, • 
had brought himfelf to a habit of N^ed^ and even of Rude- 
ne(s towards the Queen. 

One day , when he unjuftly apprehended that She had 
fhew'd fome difrefped): to his Mother, in not going to her 
Lodging at an hour Qiehad intended to go, andwashinder'd 
by ameer accident^ he came into her Chamber in much P^ 
iion, and, after fome Expoftulations rude enou^ , he told 
her, safe Jbould Befentit i her Majefty aniwering with fome 
quicknds, he reply'd Infolendy to her, that there had teem 
§lueensin England who had hfi their Heads. And it was uni- 
verfallv known, that, during His life, the Queen never had 
any Credit with the King, with r^rence to any puhlidc 
Afiairs, and fo could not Divert the Refblutionof makinga 
War with France. 

The War with Spain had foundthe Nation in a^urieit of 
a long Peace, and in a dilpoGtion Inclinable enough to War 
with tnat Nation, which might put an end to an ifiliance the 
molt ungrateful to them , and which they moft fear'd, and 
&om whence no other Damage had yet befallen them, thao 
a Chargeable and Uniiiccefsfiil Voyage by Sea, without the 
lofs of Ships or Men. But a War with France muft be car- 
ried on at another rate, and.expence. BeGdes, the Nation, 
was weary and furfeited with die Firft, before theSecond was 
enter'd upon ; and it was very vifible to Wife Men, that when 
the general Trade of the Kmgdom, tirom whence the Sup- 
port of the Crown principally refulted, Ihould be utterly ex- 
dnguiih'd with France^ -as it was with SfMy and interrupted 
or obfbiid:ed with all other Places ( as it muft be, in a great 
meafure, in a War, how proQ)eroudy fbever carried on ) the 
eflfe&s would be very fad, and involve the King in many 
pemlexities ; and it could not but fall oitt accordingly. 

Upon the retiurn from Caki widKMit iiiccefi, though all 
the Ships, and, upon the matter, all the Men wereieen ffbr 
thou^fome ludib furfeited in the Vineyards, and with the 
- C 4 Wines, 


40 The Hiftory Book I. 

Wines, diat they had been left behind, the Generofity of the 
SpanUrds fent mem all home again ) and though by that 
Fleet's putting in at Plymouth^ near two hundred miles from 
London^ there could be put very imperfeft relations, and the 
newsofYefterday was contracuftea by die Morrow j bdides 
that the Expedition had been undertaken by the Advice of 
the Parliament , and with an univerial Approbation of the 
PeoDle, £0 that no body could reaibnably foeak loudly s^inft 
it 5 Yet, notwithfbmding all this, Aeill Succefc was heavily * 
bcin, and imputed to ilTCondud p the princml CMBcers of 
the Fleet and Army divided amongft themfelves , and all 
united in their murmurs againft ±e Generri, the Lord Vifcount 
Wmhkd&H'^ who, thoujgh an old Officer in Hffttandy was ne- 
ver thought equal to the Enterprife. In a word, mere was 
Indilpofition enough quickly difcover'd againft the War it 
fel£ that it was eaflly difcern d, it would not be purfued with 
the vigour it was entered into, nor carried on by any dieerful 
oontnoution of Money from tihte Publick. 

B u T the running into this War widi France (from whence 
the Queen was fi> newly, and joyfully received ) without any 
colour ofReafbn, or (o much as the formality of a Dedara- 
tion from the King, c^^taining the ground, and provocation, 
and end of it, according to cuftom and oUigation in the like 
icafcs ^for it was obterv'd that the Manifefio which was 
publilh d was in the Duke's own Name, who went Admiral 
SMjd General of the Expedition ) opened the mouths of all 
Men, to Inveigh againft it with all Bittemels, and the fiid- 
dain ill Effedb of it, manifcfted in the Return of the Fleet 
to Fortjmouthy within Such a diftance of Lmdon^ that no« 
thing could be conceal'd of the Lofs fuftain'd ; in which, 
moft noble Families found a Son, or a Brother, or near Kinf- 
•man wanting, without fiich Circumftances of their deaths, 
as are ufiially the Confblations, and Recompences of fuch 
Cataftrophes. The Retreat had been a Rout without an Ene- 
my, .and the Frenchhsid Their revenge by the Diforder, and 
CortMon of the JS^^/j/i Themfelves; in which, great num- 
bers of Noble and Ignoble were crowded to death, or drown- 
ied without the help of an Enemy : and as fome thoufands of 
the Cc^mon Men were wanting, fo few of thofe Principal 
Officers, who attained to a Name in War, and by whofe 
Courage and Experience any War was to be conduced, could 
be found. 

The eflfefts of this overthrow did not at firftappear in 
whirrs / miirmuri, and invedlives , as the Retreat from 
Oihs had done j but produc'd fiich a general Conftemation 
hver the face of the whole Nation , as if all the Armies of 
Frgncf and ^^m were united together, and had coveted the 


Of the Rebellion, &c. 41 

Land. Mutinies in the Fleet and Array, under pretence of 
their want of Pay ( whereof no doubt there was much due 
to them ) but in truth, out of deteftation of the Service, and 
the Authority of the Duke. The Counties throughout the 
Kingdom were £o incenfed, and their affeStions poyfon'd, that 
they refus'd tofiifier the Soldiers to be biUetted upon them i 
by which, they often underwent greater inconveniences and 
mifchiefe, than they endeavoured to prevent. The endea- 
vour to raife new Men for the recruit of the Army by 
Preffing (the ufual method, that had cbmmcttily been praadfed 
u^n iiicn occafions ) found oppoiition in many places ^ and 
the Authority by which it was done not fubmitted to, as be- 
ing counted illegal. Tliis produced a refort to Martial Law, 
by which many were executed j which rais'd an alperity in 
the minds of more than of the Common People. And this 
diftemper was fo univerial , that the leaft foark ftill meeting 
with combuftible matter enough to make aftame,all wife Men 
looked upon it as the Prediction of the D^md^on, and Dif- 
folution, that would follow. Nor was there a Serenity in the 
Countenance of any Man, who had age and experience enou^ 
to confider things to come ; but pnly in thofe who wilh d 
the deftru<aion of the Duke , and thoi^t it could not be 
purchased at too dear a price, and looked upon this flux of hu- 
txx)urs as an inevitable way to bring it to pais. 

And it cannot be deny^d, that from thefe two Wars id 
wretchedly entered into* and the circumflances before men- 
tionM, and which flowed from thence, the Duke's ruin took 
it's date j and never left purfuing him, till that execrable adl 
upon hisPerfon : the malice whereof was com^^ed by that 
foleevil &)iritofthetime^ without any partner in the Con- 
ipiracy. And the Venomeof That feafon increas'd and got 
vigour J until, from one Licence to another, it proceeded till 
the Nation was corrupted to that monftrous degree, that it 
grew Sadated, and weary of the Government it lelf j under 
which it had enjoy'd a greater meafiire of Felicity, than any 
Nation was ever poffcfs'd of ^ and which could never be con- 
tinued to them, but under the fame Government. And as 
thefe calamities Originally fprungfrom the Inordinate appetite 
iand paflion of this young Man, under the too much Ealinefs 
of two indulgent Matters, and the concurrence of a thoufand 
other accidents ; fo, if he had liv^d longer, the obfervation and 
experience he had gained, which had very much improv'd his 
Underftanding, with theGreatnefsofhis Spirit, andjealoufy 
of his Matter's honour (to whom his Fidelity v^as Superior to 
any tempcarion ) might have repaired many of the UK'^vei. 
niences^ which he had introducxi, and would have pr^ 
the milchiefis which were the natural efieAsof thofe cai| 


4-^ The Hiftorj Book \. 

^AnMeeount There Were many Stories fcatter'd abroad at diat time, 
•/4 Fndi^ of feveral Prophecies, and Predidions of the Duke's untimely 
^Mwj/ffce and violent death. Amongft the reft there was one, whicn 
^^ ' was upon a better foundation of credit, than uiiially fiich dif- 
couries are founded upon. There was an Officer in the King's 
Wardrobe in Wtndfir Caftle^ of a good reputation for ho- 
nefty and difcretion, and then about the Age of fifty years or 
more : this Man Had, in his youth, been bred in aSchocJ^ 
in ±e Parifii where Sr George Vf titers the Father of the Duke 
liv'd j and had been much dieriQi'danddblig'd, in that feafon . 
of his Age, by the faid Sr George^ whom af&wards he nei^er 
iaw. About fix months before the mi&rable end of the Duke 
of Buckingham^ about midnight, this Man, being in his bed, 
at ff^ndfir where his Office was, and in a very good health, 
there appiear'd to him on the fide of his bed, a Man of a 
very venerable ai^eS: , who drew the curtains of his bed , 
fln(4 fixing his Eyes upon him , ask'dhim, if he knew him. 
The poor Man, half dead widi ^, and apprehenfion, being 
ffsk'd the fecond time. Whether he remember'd him? and 
havis^ in that time call'd to his memory the piefence of Sr 
G^rge Filliersy and the very Qoaths he ufed to wear , in 
which at tlut time he feem'd to be habited , he anfwer*d 
him. That he thou^,.him to be that Peribn. He reply'd, 
^he was in the ri^t ; that he was the fame, and that he 
•^expe<Sted a fervice fiom him; which was, that hefliould 
<^gp from Him to his Son the Duke dEBuckmtham^ and tell 
^him, if he did not fomewhat to ingratiate himielf to the 
^ People, or, at leaft, to abate the extreme Malice they had 
^ againft himl|he would be liiffer'd to live but a fliort time. 
After this ducourfe he difiippear'd ; and the poor Man, if he 
had been at^l waking, flept very well till morning, when he 
bcliev'd all this to be a dream, and confiderd it no o±erwite. 
The next night, or ihortly after, die fame Perfon ap- 
peared to him again in the fame place, and about the fime time 
of the nighty withanafpcft a littie more fevere than before; 
and ask'd him , Whetner he had done as he had required 
bim ? and perceiving he had not, gave him very fevere re- 
prehenfions; told him, "He expeftpd more compliance 
<^ from him ; and that if he did not perform his Commands, 
** he fhould enjoy no peace of mind , but fliould be al- 
" ways purfued by him : upon whidi he promised him to 
obey him. But the next morning waking out of a good fleep, 
though he was exceedingly perplexed with the lively reprc- 
fcntation of all particulars to nis memory , he was willing 
ftiU to perfwadc himfelf that he had only dream'd : and 
confidcr'd, that he was a Perfon at fiich a diffance firom the 
Duke, tliat he knew not bow to find any admiflion to his 

prefcnce ; 


Of the ReheUion^ Sec. 43 

Srefence ; nHich lefs had any hope to be believ'd in what he 
lould fay. So with great trouble and unquietneis. he fpent 
fome time in thinking what he (hould do ^ and intheendre- 
folv'd to do nothing in the matter. 

The fame Perlbn appeared to him the third time with a 
terrible Countenance , and bitterly reproaching him for not 
lerforming what he had promised to do. The poor Man had 
y this time recover'd the courage to tell him, "That in truth 
" he had deferred the execution of his Commands, upon con- 
^'fidering, how difficult a thing it would be for him to get 
*' any accefs to the Duke, having acquaintance with no Per- 
^fon about him; an^ if he could obtain admiffion to him, 
**he fliould never be able to periwade him, thathewasfent 
^in Such a manner: but he mould, at belt, be thought to 
"be Mad, or to be fct on and employed, by his own or the 
« malice of other Men, to abufe the Duke ; and fo he fhould 
" be fiire to be undone. The Perfon reply'd, as he had done 
before, ^' That he fhould never find rcit, till he fliould per- 
" form what He required; and therefore he were better t6 
" diQwtch it : That the uccefe to his Son was known to be 
« very eafy; and that.few Men waited long for Him ; and 
"for the gaining him Credit, he would teU him two or three 
^f .particulars; which he charg'd him never to mention to 
" any Perfon Jiving, but to the Duke himfelf ; and He Ihoold 
?no fooner hear them, but he would believe all the reft be 
^ fliould (ky : and fo repeating his Threats heleft him. 

In the morning, the poor Man, more confirmM by the 
laft Appearance, made his Journey to London^ where the 
Court men was. He was very well known to S^ Ralph Free- 
nuwy one of the Maflsrs of Kequefts , who had Married a 
Lady that was nearly aliyd to the Duke, and was himfelf 
well receivM by him. To him this Man went; and though 
he did not acquaint him with all particulars, he (aid enou^ 
to him to let him fee there was fomewhat extraordinary in 
it; and the knowledge he had of the Sobriety, and Difcretion 
of the Man, made the more impreflion in him. He defir'd, 
that, " by His means he might be brought to the Duke; to 
. "fuch a place, and in fiach a manner, as mould be thought fit : 
affirming, " Tha.t he had much ro fay to him, and of fuch a 
*' Nature, as would require much Privacy , and fome time 
"and patience in the hearing. Sr Ra/fh promifed, "He 
" would (peak iirft with the Duke of him, and then he fliould 
"underftand his pleafure: and accordingly, in the firft c^ 
portunity, he did inform him of the Reputation and Honelty 
of the Man, and then what he defir'd , and of aU he knew 
of the matter. The Duke, according ro his ufiial opennefe 
and condefcenfion , zcld him, " That he was the next day 


44 7"^^ Htftory Book I. 

^early to Hunt with the King; that his Hories Qiould attend 
^ him at I.iii»toi&->Bridgc, where he would Land by five of: 
\ ^tfae Clock in the morning; and if the Man attended him^ 
^ there at that hour, he would walk , and fpeak wida him, 
^as l(Hig as Qiould be neceOary. Sr ludfh carried die Man 
widi him the next morning, and prefented him to the Duke 
at his Landing, who receiv'd him Courteoufly ; and walk'd 
afide in Conference near an hour, none but his own Ser- 
vants being at that hour in that place ; and they and ^xRalfh 
' atfiich a diftance, that they ccxild not hear a word, though 
the Duke fometimes (poke, and wit)^ great Commotion; 
which S''ll<fi5pi& the more eafily obferv'd, and perceiv'djbe- 
cauTe he kept his £yes always fixed upon the Duke ; having 
procur'd the Conference, upon fomewhat he knew there was 
of £xtnu>rdinary. And the Man told him in his return over 
die water, ^That when he mentioned thofe particulars 
^ which were to ^n him Credit, the Subflance whereof he 
^ find he durit not impart to him, the Duke's Colour chang'd, 
^and he ^ore he could come to that knowledge only by 
^die Devil; for that thoie particulars were known onlyto 
^ himfel£ and to one Peribn more, who^ he was fure, would 
^ never fpeak of it. 

The Duke Durfiied his purpoie of Hunting; but wasob^ 
ferv'd to ride all the morning with great penuvene&, vaA in 
deep thoughts , wi±out any delight in me Exercife he was 
upon : and before the Morning wasi^nt, left the Field, and 
alighted at his Mother's Lodgings in I0)ite-fi£ll'^ with whom 
he was fhut up for the fpace of two or three hours; the 
noifc of their difcourfe frcquendy reaching the Ears of thofe 
who attended in the next Rooms ; and when the Duke left 
Her, his Countenance appear'd full of trouble, with a mixture 
of anger; a Countenance, that was never before obferv'd in 
him, in any Converfation with Her, towards whom he had 
a profound Reverence. And die Countefs her felf ( for though 
fhe was Married to a private Gendeman, S^ Thomas comftonj 
(he had been created Countefs of Bnckmgham^ fhordy after 
her Son had firft affum'd that Tide ) was, at the Duke's leav- 
i ing her, found o verwhelm'd in Tears, and in the higheft Ago- . 
ny imaginable. Whatever diere was of all this, it is a no- 
torious tmth, that when the news of the Duke's Murther 
( which happened within few Months after ) was brought to 
his Mother, (lie feem'd not in the leaft degree fiirprifed ; but 
receiv'd it as if (he had forefeen it ; nor did afterwards ex- 

Srefs fuch a degree of Sorrow, as was expeAed firom fiich a 
Mother, for the lofs of fiich a Son. 

This DigreflTion much longer than it was intended, may 
not be thoi^c altogether improper in diis Difcourfe. For 


Of the ReheUion, &c. 47 

ts the mention of his Death was very pertdnent, in the place, 
and upon the occafion, it happened to be made ; fo upon 
that occafion, it (eem'd the more reafonable to Digreis upon 
the Nature, and Charadei^ and Fortune of the Duke ^ as be- 
ing the beft Mirroir to difcem the Temper, and Spirit of that 
Age, and the wonderful concurrence of ma^.fatal Accidents, 
to disfigure the Government of two Excellent Kings ^ under 
whom their Kingdoms in general proQ>er'd exceedin^y, and 
enjo/d a longer Peace, a greater Plenty, and in fuller Se- 
curity, than h^ been in any former Age. 

And becaufe there was fo total a change of all Counfels,^ p»!i>«^ 
and in the whole face of the Court upon the Death of that oftheCwn 
michty Favourite; all thou^ts of War being prefently laid ^^J^J'^^J'^ 
afide f thou^ there was a f^t looking toward the J^eiief of th/vt^'s 
RccMhy me Fleet, that was ready under the Command of death. 
the Earl of Lindfey) and the proviuons for Peace and Plenty 
taken to Heart : it will not oe unufeftil, nor unplea&nt, to 
enlargp the Digreflion, before a return to the proper Subj^ 
of the Diicourfe, by a proiped of the Conftitution of the 
Court, after that bright Star was fhot out of the Horizon; 
Who were the ChidF Minifters, that had the principal Ma- 
nagement of Publick A^rs in Church and State ; and how 
?[ual their Faculties and QuaUfications were for thofe^hi^ 
ran£i£tions; in which, mention fhall be only made of 
Thofe who were then in the higheft Truft ; there being at 
that time no Ladies who had dilpos'd themfelves to inter- 
meddle in bufineis : and hereafter, whefi That Activity begun, 
. and made any Progrefs, it will be again neceflary to take a 
new fiirvey of the Court, upon that alteration. 

S I R Thomas Cavrntry was then Lord Keeper of the Great^ *^' ^^* 
Seal of England^ and newly made a Baron. . He was a Son J^^JI^ ^ 
of the Robe ; his Father having been a Judge in the Court ^' 
of the Common Pleas : who took great care to breed him, 
thoudi his firft born, in the ffaidy c^ the Common Law ; by 
which he himfelf had been promoted to that degree ; and in 
which, in the Society of the Inner Temple, his Son made a 
notable Progrefs, by an early Eminence in Pradtice, and 
Learning; imbmuch as he was Recorder of L&ndam^ Sollici- 
tor General, and King's Atturney, before he was forty years 
of ^e. A rare afcent 1 All which Offices he dilcharg'd with 
great Abilities, and fingular Reputation of Integrity. In the 
Srft year after the death of King James ^ he was advanced to 
be Keeper of the Great Seal of England ( the ufual advance- 
ment from the Office of Attumev General ) upon the removal 
of the Bifhop of Uncoln : wno, though a Man of great 
Wit, and good Scholaltick Learning, was generally thought fo 
very unequal to the Place, that his Remove was the only re- 



46 Tlje Hiflory Book I. 

compence and iatis&dtion, that coijd be made for his Pro- 
jnotion. And yet it was enough knowx^ that the Diigrace 
proceeded only from the private difpleaiure of the Duke of 
Buckingham. The Lord Coventry enjoy'd this Place with an 
univeml Rqnitation ( and fiire Juftice was never better ad- 
miniiter'd ) for the (pace of about fixteen years^ even to his 
death, fome Months before he was fixtv years of Age : which 
was anodier important droiiiiibuice of his Felicity^ that great 
Office being fo flippery, that no Man had died in it beS^re, 
for near the foace dtiokf years. Nor had his Succeflors, for 
ibme time aner him, mucn better Formne. And he himfejtf 
bad ufe of all his ftrength, and skill (as he was an excellent 
Wreftler in this kind ) to preferve himfelf from falling, in 
two Shocks : die one ^ven him by the Earl of Portland^ Lx)rd 
High Treafiirer of England ^ the other by the Marquis of Ha-- 
miScny who had the greateft Power over the Afredions of 
the King cdFany Man of that time. 

'He was a Man of wonderful Gravity, and Wifdom ; and 
underftood not only the whole Science, and Myitery of the 
Law, at leait equally with any Man who had ever &te in 
that Place ^ but had a clear conception of the whole Policy 
of the Government both of Churcn and State, which, by die 
unskilfiilnefs of (bme well-meaning Men, jufUed each the 
other too much. 

H E knew the Temper, Difpofition, and Genius of the King- 
dom moft exadlly j ww their Spirits grow every day more 
fhirdy, inquifitive, and impatient: and therefore naturally 
abhorr'd aU Innovations, which, he forefaw , would pro- 
duce Ruinous Eflfedts. Yet many, who itood at a diftance, 
thought he was not a(3ive, and ftout enough in oppofing 
thofe Innovations. For though, by his place, he prdided in 
all Publick Councils, and was molt fliarp-figjiited in the Con- 
iequence of things ^ yet he was feldom known to Speak in 
matters of State, whichj he well knew, were, for the moft 
part, concluded, before they were brought to that Publick 
Agitation : never, in Forreign Affairs ; which the vigour of 
his Judgement could well have comprehended : nor indeed 
freely in any thing, but what immediately, and plainly con- 
cern d the Tuftice of the Kingdom j and in that, as much as 
he could, he procured References to the Judges. Though, 
in his Namre, he had not only a firm Gravity, but a Severity, 
and even fbme Morofity ; yet it was fo Imppily temper'd, 
and his Courtefy, and Affability towards all Men fo tran- 
fcendent, and fo much without affedbition, that it marvel- 
loufly recommended him to all Men of all degrees, and he 
was look'd upon as an excellent Courtier, without receding 
from the native fimplicity of his own manners. 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 47 

He had, in the plain way of Q^ealdng and delivenr, with- 
out much ornament of Elocution, a ffarange power of maJdiu; 
himfelf believ'd ( the only juftifiable defign of Eloquence) io 
that though he ufed very fiankly to deny, and would ne- 
ver fiifEer any Man to depart nom him with an Opinion 
that he was incUn'd to Gratify, when in truth he was not ; 
holding that Diflimulation to be the word of Lyi^: yet the 
Manner of it was fb gently and obliging, and his Q)nde(cen- 
(ion iiich, to inform the Ferfbns whom he could not fatisfy, 
that few departed from him with ill will, and ill wilhes. 

But then, this happy Temper, and thefe good Faculties, 
rather preferv'd him from having many Enemies, and fup- 
ply'd him with fome Well-wifliers, than ftirniih'd him with 
any fait and unihaken Friends : who are always procur'd in 
Courts, by more ardour, and more vehement Frofeffions, and 
Applications, than he would fiifier himfelf to be entangled 
wim. So that he was a Man rather exceedingly Lufd^ 
than paffionately Lov'd : infomuch that it never appear'd, 
that he had any one Friend in the Court, of Quality enoudi 
to prevent, or divert any difadvantage he might be expo^d 
to. And therefore it is no wonder, nor to oe imputed to 
Him« that he retir'd wittun himfelf as much as he could ; 
and itood upon his Defence, without makii^ defperate Sallies 
againfl growing Mifchiefe ^ which, he knew well, he had 
no power to hmder, and which might probably begin in his 
own Ruin. To conclude ; his Security confifted very much 
in his having but little Credit with the King ; and he Died, 
in a fedbn moft opportune, in which a Wife Man would have 
pray'd to have finuh'd his Courfe, and which in tmth crown'd 
nis other (ignal Profperity in the World. 

S I R Bichard Wefion had been advanced to the White- of the Urd 
Stafl^ into die Office of Lord High Treafurer of England^ fome ^^^ 
Months before the Death of the Duke of Buckingham -^ zMj^fi ^ 
had^ in that fhort time, fo much difoblig'd him, at leaii dif-PortUiML 
appointed his ejcpedtation, that many, who were privy to 
the Duke's moft fecret purpofes, did believe, that ir he had 
out-liv'd that Voyage in which he was engag'd, he would 
have removed him, and made another Treafixrer. And it is 
very true, that great Office too had been very flippery, and 
not fafl to thofe who had trufted themfelves in it : Infomuch 
as there were at that time, five Noble Perfons alive, who 
had all Succeeded one anodier immediately in that unfteady 
Charge, without any other Perfon intervening : the Earl ot 
SufoTky the Lord Vifcount Mandevikj afterwards Earl of 
Idanchefier y the Earl of Middlefix-^ and the Earl of Afarl- 
hroutby wIk> was remov'd under, pretence of his Age, and 
difaMiity for the work ( which had been a better reafbn 


4.8 TbeHiftory Book I. 

againft'his Promotion, fo few years before, that his infirmities 
were very little increas'd ) to mak^ room for ±e prefent 
OflScerj who, thou^ Advanced by the Duke, may properly 
be faid to be EftabWd by his Death. 

H E was a Gentleman of a very ancient Extradition by Fa±er 
and Modier. His Education had been very good amongit 
Books and Men. After fome years ftudy of the Law, in tlic 
Middle Temple, he travelled into Forreign parts, and at an 
Age fit to make Obfervations, and Refledtions ; out of which, 
that, which is commonly call'd Experience, is conftituted. 
After this he betook himfelf to the Courtj^ and Uv'd there 
foroe years ^ at that diftance, and with that awe, as was a* 

ijreeable to the Modefty of the Age, when Men were feen 
ome time, before they were known j and well known before 
they were Preferr'd, or durft pretend to it. 

H E Ibent the belt part of his Fortune (a fair one, that he 
inherited from his Father ) in his Attendance at Court ^ and 
involved his Friends in Securities with him, who were will- 
ing ito run his hopeftil Fortune, before he received the leaft 
Fruit from it, but the Countenance of great Men^ and thofe 
in Authority, the moft natural, and moft ccrtam Stairs to 
aicend by. 

H E was then fent Embafladour to the Arch-Dukes, Alhert 
and Ifabella^ into Flanders'^ and to the Diet in Germany^ to 
treat about the Reftitution of the Falatinatey in which Ne- 

Sotiation he behav'd himfelf with great Prudence, and with 
le concurrent tellimony of his t)eing a Wife Man, from all 
thofe Princes and Embafladours with whom he treated. 

Upon his return he was made a Privy Counfellor, and 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the place of the Lord Brooke^ 
who was either perfwaded, or put out of tfie place ^ which, 
being an Office of Honour and Truft, is likewife an excel- 
lent Stage for Men of Parts to tread, and expoie themfelves 
upon • where they have occafions of all kinds to lay out, and 
foread all their Faculties and Qualifications, moft for their 
Advantage. He behav'd himfelf very well in this Funftion, 
and appeared Equal to it ; and carried himfelf fo luckily in 
Parliament, that he did his Matter much Service, and pre- 
ferv'd himfelf in the good opinion, and acceptation of the 
Houfe^ which is a blefling not indulg'd to many by thofe 
High Powers. He did Swim in thofe troubled and boifterous 
Waters, in which the Duke of Buckingham rode as Admiral, 
' with a good Grace j when very many who were about him, 
were drown'd, or forced on fhore with Ihrewd hurts, and 
bruifes : whicn fhew'd, he knew well how and when to 
ufe his Limbs, and Strength to the beft advantage j fomctimes 
only to avoid finking ^ and fometimes to advance and get 


Cfthe Rehellion^ &c. 4,9 

ground : and b]r this dexterity, he kept his Credit with tfaofe 
who could do mm good, and loft it not with others, who de« 
iir'd die deftrudtion of thofe upon>¥diom he moft depoided. 

He was niade Lord Treafiirer in the manner, and at the 
time mention'd before, upon the removal of the Earl of 
Marttar^ugby and few Months before the death of the Duke. 
The former circumftance, which is often attended by Com-' 
mffion towards the D^raded, and Prejudice towards die 
rromoted, brought him no dUadvantage : For befides the de* 
light That Seafonhad in Changes, there was little reverence 
towards the Peribn remov'd 5 and the extream vifible Po- 
verty of the Exchequer, flidter'd that Province from the 
Envy it had frequendy created j and open'd a door fbr mudi 
Applaufe to be tne portion of a Wife, and Provident Mini- 
fter. For the other, of the Duke's death, though fome, who 
knew the Duke's pafEons, and prejudice ( whidi often pro- 
^c'd nuher fuddam indifoofition, than obftinate refolution ) 
believ'd he would have been fhortly Cafliier'd, as fo many 
had latdy been ^ and fo that the death of his Founder was a 
greater Confirmation of him in the Office, than the delivery 
of die White-Staff' to him had been : yet many other wife 
Men, who knew the Treafurer's talent in removing prejudice, 
and reconciling himfelf to wavering and doubtful Afledtions, 
beUev'd that the Lofs of the Duke was very Unfeafonable : 
and that the awe, or apprehenfion of His Pdwer, and di^ 
pleafure, was a very neceflary alloy for the Impetuofity of 
the new Officer's Nature, which needed fome reflraint, and 
check, fen: fome time, to his immoderate Pretences, and ap- 
petite of Power. 

He did indeed appear on the fuddain wonderfully Elated, 
and fo far threw oof his old affediation to pleafe fome very 
much, and to difbleafe none, in which Art he had excell'd, 
that in few Months after the Duke's death, he found himfelt 
to fucceed him in the Publick diibleafure, and in the malice 
of his Enemies, without fucceeding him in his Credit at 
Court, or in the A£fedtion of any confiderable Dependents. 
And yet, diough he was not fuperiour to all other Men in 
the Aife<aion-j^ or rather Relimation of the King, fo that he 
might difpente Favours and Disfavours according to liis own 
Eledion, he had a fiill (hare in his Matter's eiteem, who 
look'd upon him as a wife, and able Servant, and worthy of 
the Trult he reposU in him j and received no other Advice 
in the large buiinefs of his Revenue : nor was any Man fo 
much his fuperiour, as to be able to lefTcn him in die King's 
Afiedlion by his power. So that he was in a Poll, in which 
he mi^t have Rnind much eafe^ and delight, if he could 
)iave concain'd hioifclf widiin the Verge of his own Pro- 

Voll. Parti. D vince. 

5-0 The Hiftory Book I. 

vincCy which was large enough, suid c^ fuch Extent^ that he 
might, at the fame time, have drawn a great dependence 
upon him of very coniiderable Men, and have appeared a 
very ufeful, and profitable Minifter to the King^ whofe Re- 
venue had been very loofely managed during the late years, 
and mig^t, by induftry, and order, have been eafily im- 
proved : and no Man better underftood what method was ne- 
ceflary towards that good Husbandry, than he.. 

But I know not by what frowardneft in his Stars, he took 
more pains in examining, and inquiring into other Mens 
Offices, than in the diicmuge of his Own j and not (b much 
jov in what he Had, as trouble and agony for what he had 
Not. The truth is, he had fo vehement a defire to be the 
fole Favourite, that he had no reliih of the Power he had : 
and in that coiuention he had many Rivals, who had Credit 
enough to do him ill Offices, though not enou^ to iatisfy 
their own Ambition ^ the King hiintelf being refoiv'd to hold 
the Reins in his own hands, and to put no further trufl in 
others, than was neceflary for the Capacity they (erv'd in. 
Which Reiblution in his Majefly was no fooncr beiiev'd, 
and the Treafurcr's Pretence taken notice of^ than he found 
the number of hitf Enemies exceedin^y increased, and odiers 
to be lefs eager in the purfuit of his Friendlhip ^ and every 
day diicovcrM fome Inhrmities in him, which being before 
known to few, and not tsdcen notice of, did now expofe him 
both to Publick Reproach, and to private Animofitics : and 
even his Vices admitted thofecontratdidions in them, that he 
could hardly enjoy the plea£mt fruit of any of them. That 
which firft expos'd him to the Publick Jcaioufy, which is al- 
ways attended with Publick Reproach, wis the concurrent 
fufpicion of his Religion. His Wife, and all his Daughters 
were declared of the Roman Religion, and though he Him- 
felf, and his Sons, fometimes went to Church, he was never 
thought to have Zeal for it ^ and his Domeflick converfation 
and. dependents, with whom only he ufed entire freedom, 
were all known Papilts j and were believ'd to be Agents for 
the reft. And yec with all this difiidvantage to himfelf, he 
never had reputation and credit with diat Party ^ who were 
the only people of the Kingdom who did not believe him 
to be of dieir Profeffion. tor the Penal Laws (thofe only 
excepted which were Sanguinary, and even thofe fometimes 
let loole) were never more rigidly Executed, nor had die 
Crown ever fo great a Revenue from them, as in his time j 
nor did they ever pay fo dear for the favours, and indul- 
gencies of his Office towards them. . 

No Man had greater ambition to make his Family great, 
or itronger defigas to leave a great Fortune to it. Vet his 


Of the Rehelhon^ &c. ji 

Expences were fo prodigious, efpecially in his Houfe, that all 
the ways he ufed for fiipply, which were all that ocxurPd, 
could not fervc his turn ; inlbmuch that he contraided b great 
Debts (the anxiety whereof, he pretended, broke his mind, 
and ref train'd that attention, and induftry, which was necef- 
&ry for the- due execution of his Office ) that the King was 

Elcas'd Twice to pay his Debts ^ at lealt, towards it, to dif. 
urfe fburty thodaud pounds in ready money out of hisEx^ 
chequer Belides, his Majefty gave him a whole Foixeft 
{chute Forreit in Hamffhire) and much other land belonging 
to the Crown ; which was the more taken notice of, and 
Murmur'd againfl:, becaufe, being the chief Minifter oS the 
Revenue^ he was particularly oblig'd, as mudi as in him lay, 
to prevent, and even oppoie fiich Dtfinherifim\ and becau^, 
under that obligation, he had avowedly, and fowerly cro&'d 
the pretences of other Men, and reflxam'd the King's Bounty 
from being exercis'd almoft to any. And he had mat advan- 
tage ( if he had made the right ufe of it) that his Credit was 
ample enough (feconded by the King's own experience, and 
oblervation, and inclination ) to Retrench very much of the 
late unlimited Expences, and efpecially thofe of Bounties ; 
which from the death of the Duke ran in narrower Channels, 
and never fb much overflowed as towards himfclf, who 
ftoppM the current to other Men. 

fi E was of an imperious nature, and nothing wary in dit 
obliging and provoking other Men, and had too much cou- 
rs^e in ofiendiog and incenfmg them ; but after having of- 
fended them, he was of fo unhappy a Feminine temper, that 
he was always in a terrible fright and apprehenfion of rhem. 

fi£ had not that application, and iubmiilion, and reve- 
rence for the Queen, as might have been cxpefted from 
his Wifdom and Breeding j and often crofs'd her pretences 
and defircs, with more rudenefe than was natural to him. 
Yet he was impertinently foUicitous to know what her Ma- 
jefty faid of him in private, and what Refentments (he had 
towards him. And when bv fome Confidents, who had their 
ends upon him from thofe Offices, he was informed of fome 
bitter expreifions fall'n from her Majefty, he was fo exceed- 
ingly afffidted, and tormented with the lenfe of it, that fome- 
times by pailionate conriplaints, and reprefentations to the 
King, fometimcs by more dutiful addrdles, and expoftula- 
tions with the Queen, m bewailing his misformne j he fre- 
quently expos'd himielf, and left his condition worfe than it 
was bdbre ; and the Eclaircifinent commonly ended in the 
difcovery of the perfons from whom he had received his molt 
fecret intelligence. 

He quickly lolt ciic charafter of a bold, ftout, and magna- 

D a nimou? 


yx The Hi/ioty Book I. 

nimous Man, which he had been long reputed to be in worfe 
times : ^, in his moft proipeious teafon, fell under the re* 
prooch of being aMan of big looks, and of a mean and ab- 

There was a ycxj ridiculous Story at that time in the 
mouAs of many, which, being a loiown trudi^ may not be 
unfidy mentioird in this place, as a kind of illuibration of 
the Humour, and Nature of the Man. S^Juim cafar was 
then Mafter (tf the Rolls, and had, inherent in his Office, 
the indubitable rkht and diQ>o{ition (^ the Six-Oarks places ^ 
all which he had ror many years, upon any vacancy^ bedow'd 
to fiich Perfons as he thought iit. One of thofe Flaces was 
become void, and defign'd ov the Old Man to his Son JRoknt 
Cffrr^ a Lawyer of a good rfame, and ezceedindv belov'd. 
Tne Lq^ Treafiirer (as he was vkilant in iiich Cafes) had 
notice of the Clark's expiration fb foon, that he procur'd the 
Kin^ to fend a Mef&^e to the Mafter of the Rolls, exprefsly 
forbidding him to diipofe of that Six-Churk's Place, till his 
A&jefty'sPleafiire ihould be further made known to him. It 
was the firft Command of that kind that had been heard o^ 
and was felt by the Old Man verv fenfibly. He was indeed 
very Old, and had out-liv'd molt of his Priends ^ fo diat his 
Age was an objedion ^^;ainft him ; many Perfons of Quality 
bemg deacL who had, tor recompence of Services, procured 
the Reveruon of his Office. The Treafurer found it no hard 
matter fo far to terrify him, that ( for the Kins^s Service, as 
was pretended ) he admitted for a Six-Clark a rerfon recom- 
mended by him (Mr Fer9 a dependant upon him ) who paid 
fix thoufand pound readyMoney; which. Poor Man! heliv'd 
to repent in a Jayl. This work beine done at the charge of 
the poor Old Man, who had been a Privy-Counicllor from 
the entrance of King Jsimts^ had been Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and ferv'd m other Offices ; the depriving him 
of his Ri^ made a great noife : and the Condition of his 
Son ( his Father being not likely to live to have the difpofal 
of another Office in his power | who, as was fiiid before, was 
generally belov'd, and efteem'd, was argument of great Com- 
paflion j and was lively, and fuccefsfiil^ reprefentcd to the 
King hunfelf ^ who was gracioudy pleas'd to promife, that, 
^If the Oid Man chanod to die before any odier of the 
^^Six-Clark5,'that Office, when it fliould fall, fhould be con- 
^ ferr'd on his Son, wholbever ihould fucceed him as Mafter 
" of the Rolls : which might well be provided for, and the 
Lord Treafurer obUg'd himfelf (tQ expiate die injury) to 
procure fome Declaration to tbuu purpofe, under his Majefty's 
Sign Manual ^ which, however eafy to be d(»ie, he long for- 
got^ or n^c^ted. 


Of the HeheUion^ &c. j-g 

One day the EacA oi mUarJhe^ who was nearly allied 
to Mr Cdf/aTy and much his Friend, being with the Treafurer* 
paffionateiy ask'd him. Whether he had done that bufinefi ? 
To whom be anfwer^d with a feemiM troubl^ **That he . 
"had foi^otten it, for which he was heartily iorryj and if 
"he would give mm a little Note in writing, for a Memo^ 
" rial, he would put it amon^ft thofe which he would diP> 
" jutch with the King that Afternoon. The Earl prefently 
writ in a little paper, Eememher Cafit \ and eave it to him ^ 
and he put it into that little Pocket, where, he fiud, he kept 
all his Memorials which were firft to be tranudled. 

Many davs pafi'd , and Cafar never thought of. At 
length, when tie chang'd his Cloaths, and be who waited on 
him in his Chamber, according to cuftom. brought him all the 
Notes and Papers which were left in thofe he had^kft o^ 
which he then commonly perus'd : when he found this little 
Billet, in which was only written iememher C^far^ and which 
he had never read before, he was exceedinmy confounded, 
and knew not what to make, or think of it. lie fent for his 
bofome f riends, with whom he moft confidendy coniiilted, 
and ftiew'd the Paper to them, the Contents whereof he 
could not conceive : but that it midit prdx^bly have been 
put into his hand (becaufe it was found in that incloiiire^ 
wherein he put all things of moment wtdch were given him ) 
when he was in motion, and in the Privy Lodgings in the 
Court. After a ferious and melancholick deliberation, it was 
agreed, that it wa3 the advertifement from fome Friend, who 
durft not own the difcovery : that it could fignify nothing but 
that diere was a Confoiracy s^nft his life, by his many and 
mighty Enemies : and they m knew Cdfof^s fete, by con- 
temning, or neglediiing Suchanimadverfions. And therefore 
they concluded, thathcfhould pretend to be indiQ)Os'd, that 
he might not itir abroad all diat day ; nor diat any mi^t bo 
admitted to him, but Perfons of undoubted Afieoions : that 
at Ni^t, the Gates fliouldbe (hut early, and the Porter en- 
joyn'd to open them to no body, nor to go himielfto bed 
till the Morning ; and that fome Servants mould watcb with 
him, left Violence might be us'd at the Gate ^ and that They 
themfelves, and fome other Gentlemen, woidd fit up all tHc 
Nigh^ and attend the Event. Such Houfes are always in the 
Mommg haunted by eariy Suitors ^ butit was very late be- 
•fore any could now get admittance into the Houfe^ the 
Porter having Quitted fome of that arrear of fleep, which he 
ow'd to himfeif for his ni^ts watching; which he excused 
to his Acquaintance by whiQ>erinjg to thdsL ^< That his Lord 
^fhould have been Kjll'd that night, which hadkept all the 
^ Houie from going to bed. And Ihortly after, the Earl of 

D 3 IfcMiir. 

5^4- ^^^ Hiftory Book f . 

Tullihardine asking him, Whether he had remembered Cafar ? 
the Trediirer quickly recoUcaedthe Ground of his perturba- 
tion, and could not forbear imparting it to his Friends, who 
likewiie afieded the communication, and fo the whole J eft 
came to be diicxjvcr'd. 

To conclude, all the Honours the Kingconferr'd upon 
him (as he made him a Baron, then an Karl, and Knight of 
the Garter ; and above this , gave a voung beautiful Lady 
nearly allied to his Majefty, andto the Crowh of Scotland^ in 
Marriage to his eldelt Son) could not make him think him- 
felf Great enough. Nor could all the King's Bounties, nor his 
own large Acceflions, raife a Fortune to his Heir y but after 
fix or eig;ht years ^nt in outward opulency , and inward 
murmur and trouble that it was not greater y iScex vaft fums 
of money and great wealth gotten, and rather confum d than 
enjoy'd; without any fenfe or delight info great Profperity, 
with the agony that it was no greater ^ He Died unlamentcd 
by Any : bitterly mention'd by Mott who never pretended 
to love him 3 and fevcrely cenfiir'd, and complained of by 
Thofe who expeded molt from him , and daerv*d belt of 
him^ and left a numerous Family, wliich was in a fhort time 
worn out, and yet outUv'd the Formne he left behind him. 
of the Earl The next grcat CounlcUor of State was the Lord Privy- 
•/Manche-Seal, who was Hkewife of a Noble extradtion, and ofaFa- 

PrJl ^ed '^y ^^ ^^^ ^"^^ ^^^ fbrmnatc. His Grandfather had been 
nvy- eu . j^^ Chief Juiticc, and left by King Harry the Eighdi one 
of the Executors of his laft Will. He was the younger Son 
of his Father, and brought up in the (tudy of the Law in the 
Middle Temple; andhadpafs'd, and, asitwcre, made apro- 
grefs through all the eminent Degrees of tlic Law, and in the 
State. At the death of Queen Elizaheth^ or thereabouts, he 
wasRecorderof LW«»; then the King's Serjeant at Law; 
afterwards QiiefJulHcc of the Kin^s Bench. Before the death 
of King Jamesy by the Favour of the Duke of Buckwghapjy 
he was rais'd to the Place of Lord High Treafurer of Englard \ 
and within lels than a year afterwards, by the withdrawing 
of that Favour , he was reduced to the admoit empty Title 
of Prdident of tiie Council ; and, to allay the fenle of the 
diflionpur, created Viicount Mandevik, He bore the Dimi- 
nution very well, as he was a wife man, and of an excellent 
temper; and quickly recovered fo much grace, that he was 
made Earl of Mancheftery and Lord Privy^cal , and enjoy'd 
that Office to Iiis Death ; whilf t he faw many Removes, and 
D^radations, in all the other Offices of wnicli he had been 

He was a man of grcat Induflry ; and Sagacity in Bufinefs, 
which he delighted in exceedingly; and preferv'd fo great a 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. yy 

vigour of Mind, even to his dea± (when he was very near 
eighty years of age,) that fome, who had known him in his 
younger years, did believe him to have much quicker Parts 
m liis age, than before. His Honours had grown fafter upon 
him than his Fortunes j which made him too follicitous to 
advance the latter, by all the ways which offer'd themfelves • 
whereby he expos'd himfclf to fome inconvenience , and 
many reproaches j and became lefi capable of ferving the 
Pubuck by his Counfels , and Authority ; which his known 
wifdom, long experieiKe, and confefs'd gravity, and ability, 
would have enabled him to have done j moft men conf idei- 
ing more the Peribn that fpeaks, than the Things he fays. 
And he was unhappily too much ufed as a Check upon the 
Lord Coventry j and when that Lord perplex'd their counfels, 
and dcfigns, with inconvenient objedions in Law, the Au- 
thority of the Lord Mamkefier^ who had trod the famepaths^ 
was itill caird uponj and he did too frequently gratify their 
unjultitiable defigns, and pretences : a guilt and mifcliief^ all 
men who are obnoxious , or who are thought to be fo, are 
liable to, and can hardly preferve themfelves from. But his 
Virtues fo far weigli'd down his Infirmities, that he main- 
tained a good general reputation, and credit with the whole 
Nation, and People ^ he being always look'd upon, as full 
<:)f Integrity, and Zeal to the Protcfhnt Religion, as it was 
eiiablilh'd by Law, and of unqueflionable Loyalty, Duty, and 
Fidelity to the King 5 which two Qualifications will ever 
gather popular Bjrc^ath enough to fill the Sails, if the Veffel 
be competently provided with Ballafl. He Died in a lucky 
time, in tlie beginning of the Rebellion , when neither Re- 
ligion, Loyalty, Law, nor Wifdom, could liave provided for 
any man's Security. 

The Earl di Arundel was the next Officer of State, who, o/wj^£4r 
in his own Ri^t, and Quality, preceded the reft of the Coun- 0/ Arunde 
cil. He was generally thought to be a proud man, who liv'd 
always within himfelf, and to himfelf, converfing litde with 
any who were in common conver&tion ^ fo that he feem'd 
to live as it were in another Nation^ his Houfe being a 
place to which all people refbrted who reforted to no other 
place j Strangers , or fiich who afic&ed to look like Stran- 
gers, and drefs'd themfelves accordingly. He refbrted fbme- 
times to the Court, becaufe There only was a greater man 
than himfelf^ and went thither the feldomer, becaufe there 5 
Was a greater man than himfelf. He liv'd towards all Fa- 
vourites, and great Officers, without any kind of condefcen- 
fion, and ratlier fuflfer^ hunfelf to be ill treated by their 
power and Authority ( for he was often in Difgrace, and once 
or twice Prifoner in ±e Tower ) than to defcend in making 
any application to them. And 

S6 TheHiftory Book I. 

And upon diefe Occafions he fpent a great interval ofhis 
time in feveral Journeys into forreigp Parts, and y with his 
Wife and Family, had liv'd (bme years in Italyy the humour, 
and manners or which Nation ne feem'd mcft to hke, and 
approve, and dSbBted to imitate. He had a good fortune by 
Defcent, and a much greater from his Wife . who was tiie 
(ble I>iiuzhter upon the matter ( for neither ot the two Sifters 
left any filiie ) of the great Hoiueof Shrews^ry ; but his Ex- 
pences were without any meafiire, and always exceeded very 
znudi his Revenue. He was willing to be thou^t a Scho- 
lar, and to underftand the moft myilerious parts of Antiqui- 
ty, becaufe he made a wondcrfiil andcoftly Purchafe of ex- 
cellent Statues, whilft he was in Jtafyy and in Rome ( fome 
whereof he ccnild never obtain permiflion to remove from 
Remey though he had paid for them ) and had a rare CoUe- 
Alon of the moft curious Medals. As to all parts of Learn- 
ing he was almoft illiterate, and thought no. other part of Hi- 
ftory fo confiderable, as what related to his own Family^ in 
which, no doubt, there had been fome very memorable Per- 
fons. It cannot be deny'd that he had inni^perfon, in his 
afpefl:, and countenance , the appearance of a great man . 
wnich he preferv'd in his gate, and motion. He wore and 
flfieAedaHabit very di£ferent from that dT the time, fuch as 
men had only beheld in the Pidhires dE the moft coniider- 
able Men ; all which drew the eyes of mcft, and the reve- 
rence of many towards him, as the Image, and Reprefentative 
of the Primitive Nobility, and Native Gravity of the No- 
bles, when they had been im>ft Ven^able : but this was only 
his out-fide; his nature and true humour being much difpos'd 
to levity, and delights, which indeed were very defoicable 
and childifh. He was rather diougjht not to be much con- 
cerned for Religion, than to incline to this, or diat Party of 
any : and had little other afieflion for the Nation or the 
Kmgdom , than as he had a great (hare in it, in which like 
the great Leviathim he nuj^t fbort himfelf ; from which he 
withdrew, as foon as he di&m d the repofe thereof was like 
to be difturb'd, and ^ed in Itafyj under the Fame doubtful 
charader of Religion in which he liv'd. 
>/wilii- Wtlbam Eaxlot PefntroJke was next, a man of another mould, 
m E^riof and maldng, and of another fame , and reputation with all 
embrokc. j^^j^^ bdng the moft univerMy beloved and efteem'd of any 
man of that age ; and, having a great Office in the Court, he 
made the Court it felf better efteem'd, and more reverenced 
in the Country. And as he had a gr^t number of Friends of 
tlie beft men, fo no man had ever the confidence to avow 
himfelf to be his Enemy. He was a man very well bred, and 
of excellent parciS} and a graceful Speaker upon any fubjed, 


Of the Reheltton^ &c. $-7 

having a good propordon of Learning, and a ready Wit to 
apply it, and emar^ upon it : of aplead&nt and facetious hu- 
mour, and a diipcmdon afiable, generous, and magniEcent. 
He was mafter of a great Fortune from hisAnceftours, and 
had a great addition by his Wife, another Daughter, and 
Heir of the Earl of Shrevjshuryy which he enjo/d during his 
life, fhe outliving him : but all fervid not his tjcpence, which 
was only limited by his great mind, and occafions to uie it 

He liv'd many years About ±e Court, before Init^ and 
never By it : bemg rather regarded and efteem'd by King 
JoTMs^ man lov'd and fevourd. After the Ibul Fall of the 
Earl dt Somerfit^ he was made Lord Chamberlain of the Kinsf s 
Houie , more for the Court's fake, ±an his Own ; and me 
Court appear'd witii the more Luf&e, becaufe He had the 
Government of that Province. As he fpent and liv'd upon 
his own Fortune, fo he ftood upon his own Feet, without 
any other iupport than of his proper Virme and Merit : and 
iiv^d towards the Favourites with that decency, as would not 
fuSer them to cenfiire or reproach his Mafter's judgement, 
and eledtion, but as with men of his own rank. He was eat- 
ceedingly belov'd in the Court , becaufe he never defir'd to 
get that for Himfelf which Others laboured for, but was ftill 
ready to promote the pretences of worthy men. And he was 
equally celebrated in the Country , for having receiv'd no 
obligations from the Court which might cormpt, or (way his 
affe&ons, and judgement : fo that ail who were difpleas'd, 
and unfatisfied In the Court, or With the Court, were always 
inclined to put themfclves under his Banner , if he would 
have admitted them : and yet he did not fo rejeft them, as to 
make them choofe another Shelter, but fo far fuffer'd them 
to depend on him, that he could rdlrain them from breaking 
out beyond private refentments, and murmurs. 

He was a great lover ofhis Country, and of the Religion, 
and JulHce, which he believ'd could only fupport it ; and his 
Friendfliips were only with men ofthofc Principles. And 
as his Converfation was moft with men of the moll pregnant 

!)arts, and underftanding, fo towards any liich, who needed 
iipport, or encouragement, though unKnown , if fairly re- 
commended to him, he was very liberal. Sure never man was 
planted in a Court, that was fitter for that Soil, or brou^t 
Setter qualities with him to purifv that Air- 

Yet his memory muft not be Flatter'd, that his Virtues, 
and good inclinations may be Bcliev'd ; he was not without 
fiMne allay of Vice, and without being clouded witii great In- 
firmities, which he had in too exorbitant a proportion. He 
indulg'd to himfelf the Pleafures of all kinds, almoil in all 


6o The Utftory Book I. 

graceful, and vigorous; his Wit pleafim^ fi)arklingy and fob- 
Ume; smd his ooier Parts of Learning, andLanguage, of that 
hiftre, that he could not mifcarry in the world. The Vices 
he had, were of the ^^ which ne was not ftubbom enough 
to contemn , or refift. He was a younger Brother, Grand- 
child to the great Treafiirer Buckkurfty created, at the King's 
firft Entrance, Earl of Dorfet^ who oudiv'd his Father, and 
took care« and delight in the Education of his Grand-child, 
and left nim a good Support for a younger Brother; befides 
a Wife, who was Heir to a fair Fortune. As his Perlon and 
Parts were fuch as are before mentioned, fb he gave them 
fiillfcopcL without reftraint ; and indulg'd to his appetite all 
the Pleamres, that feafon of his life ( the fiilleft of jollity, 
and riot of any that proceeded, orfiicceeded) could tempt, or 
fiiggeft to him. 

iiE entred into a fatal (parrel, upon a fiibjed very un- 
warrantable, with a young Nobleman of Scot land ^ the Lord 
Bruci'y upon which diey both tranfoorted themfelves into 
Flanders^ and attended only by two Chirurgions placed at a 
difhmce, and under an obligation not to ftir, but upon ±e 
fall of one of them, they Fought under the Walls of ^»f- 
vaerpy where the Lord Bruci fell dead upon the place; and 
Sr EdwMfJ Sackvile ( for fo he was dien calfd ) being like- 
wife hurt, retired into the next Monaftery. which was at 
hand. Nor did this miierable accident, which he always ex- 
ceedingly lamented, make that thorou^ impref&on upon him, 
but that ne indulg'd ftilltoo much to thofe importunate, and 
iniadate^petites, even of that individual Perfon, that hadfo 
lately emtok'd lum in that defperate enterprise ; being too 
mucn Tinder not to be inflam'd with thofe Sparks. 

H I s Elder brother did not enjoy his Grand&ther's Titles 
many years, before they defcendecL for want of Heirs male, 
to the Younger brother. But in thefe few years the Elder, by 
an excels of expence in all the ways to which money can be 
apply'd , fo entirely confum'd almoft the whole great For- 
tune that defccndecl to him, that, when he was forced to leave 
the Tkle to his younger Brother, he left upon the matter 
nothing to him to fiipport it ; which expos'd him to many 
difficulties, and inconveniendes. Yet his Known great Parts, 
and the very spod general Reputation he had acquir'd, not- 
withftanding his defeats ( for as he was eminent in the rioufe. 
of Commons, whilfl he (ate there; fo he fhin'dinthe Houfe 
of Peers, when he came to move in that {|)hcre ) inclin'd 
King James to call him to his Privy-Council before his death. 
And if he had not too much chcrifli'd his natural conftitu- 
tion, and propenfity ; and been too much griev'd, and wrung 
^ by an uneafy and fircig^Fartune; he would have been an 



Of the RehelUoHy &c. 61 

excellent Man of bufineis^ for he had a very (harp, decern- 
ing Spirit, and was a Man of an obliging Nature, much Honour, 
andgreat Generofity, and of moft entire Fidelity to the Crown. 
Th ere were two other Perfons of much Audiority in the 
Council, becaufe of great Name in the Court ^ as diey de- 
ferv'd to be, being without doubt two as accomplifh'd Cour- 
tiers, as were found in the Palaces of all the Princes in £»- 
ro^t^ and the greateft Tif not too great) improvers of that 
Breeding, and thofe Qmlifications, with which Courts us'd to 
be adom'd ; ±e Earl ^carlijlty and the £arl oi Holland : both 
{ though Men of pleafure ) by their long experience in Court 
well acquainted with the Affairs of the Kingdom, and better 
vers'd in thofc abroad, than any other who fat then at that 

The former, a Younger Brother of a Noble Family in Scot-- of the IM 
land^ came into the Kingdom with King Jamesy as a Gentle- •/Cirlille. 
man ; under no other Character, than a Perfon well qualified 
by his breeding in 'Brance^ and by itudy in human Learning; 
in which he bore a good part in the entertainment of mc 
King, who much delighted in that exerdfe; and by tliefe 
means, and notable gracefiilnefi in his behaviour, and a&- 
bility, in which he excelled, he hod wrought himfelf into a 
particular Intereft' with his Mailer, and into greater Affedtion 
and Eileem with the whole J^^ Nation, than any other 
of that Country ^ by choding Their FriendlluDs, and Conver- 
£ition, and really preferring it to any of his Own : Infbmuch 
as upon the King^s making him Gendeman of his Bed-Cham- 
ber, and Viicount Doncafter^ by his Royal mediation f in 
which Office he was a moft prevalent Prince ) he obtained 
the fole Daughter and Heir of th&Lord Denny to be dven 
him in Marriage j by which he had a fair Fortune in Land 
provided for any IQiie he fhould raife, and which his Son by 
that Lady UvM long to enjoy. 

He aurended afterwards, and with the expedidonhe de- 
fir'd, to die otiber conveniences of the Court, fie was Groom 
of the Stole, and an Earl, and Knigjit of the Garter ; and 
Married a beautiful young Lady, Daughter to die £arl of 
Northumherland^ witnout any odier approbation of her Fa- 
ther, or concernment in it, than fufiSing Him and Her to 
come into his prefence after they were Married. He liv'd 
rather in a fair Intelligence than any FriendQiip with the Far 
Tourites ^ having cr^t enough with his Mafler to provide 
for his own Intereft, and he troubled not himfelf for that of 
other Men ; and had no other oonfideration of Money, than 
for the Support of his Luitre ; and whilft he could do that^ 
he cai^d not for Money, having no bowels in the point of ^ 

running in debt^ or borrowing all he could. 


6% The Hiftory Book I. 

He was (urely a Man of the greateft expence in his own 
Perfon, of any in the A^e he livM j and introduced more of 
that expence in the excels of Cloachs and Diet, than any other 
Man ^ and was indeed the Original of sdl thofe inventions, 
from which others did but tranfcribe Copies. He had a great 
univerfal Underftanding, and could have taken as much de- 
light in any other way, if he had thought any other as plea- 
Suit and worth his care. But he found bufinel's was attended 
with more Rivals, and vexations j and, he thought, with much 
lefe pleafiire, and not more innocence. 

He left behind him the reputation of a very fine Gentle- 
man, and a molt accomplilh^d Courtier; and, after having 
Ipent, in a very Jovial Life, above four hundred thoufand 
pounds, which, upon a ftrid: computation, he received from 
the Crown, he left not a Houfe, nor Acre of Land to be re- 
member'd by. And when he had in his profped: (for he 
was very fharp-fighted, and faw as far before him as moft 
Men ) the gathering together of that Cloud in Scotland y 
which fliortly after covered both Kingdoms, he Died with as 
much Tranquility of Mind to all appearance, as ufed to at- 
tend a Man of more fevere exerciie of Virtue ; and with as 
Uttle apprehenfion of Death, which he expeded many days. 
of the Earl The Earl of HsUomd was a Younger Son of a Noble 
of Hollan</. Houfe , and a very fruitfiil Bed, which divided a numerous 
Iflue between two great Fathers : the Eldell, many Sons and 
Daughters to the Lord Rich ; the Younger, of both Sexes, to 
Mountioy Earl of Devonjbire. The reputation of his Family 
, give him no great advantage in the World, though his Eldelt 
Brother was JESrl of Jfarwick^ and owner of a great Fortune j 
and his Younger Earl of Newport^ of a very plentiful Re- 
venue likewife. He, after fome time fpent in France^ betook 
himfelf to the War in Holland^ which he intended to have 
made his Profeflion j where, after he had made two or three 
Campaigns, according to the culixMn of the E/fglifh Volun- 
tiers, he came in the Icifiure of the Winter to vifit his Friends 
in Englandj and the Court that fhin'd then in the Plenty 
and Bounty of King James y and about the time of the in- 
lancy of the Duke of Buckingham's Favours, to whom he grew 
in a fhort time very acceptable. But his Friendfliip was 
more entire to the Earl of CarbJUy who was more of his Na- 
ture, and Humour, and had a Generofity more applicable at 
that time to his formne and his ends. And it was thought by 
many who flood within view, that for fome years he fup- 
ported himfelf upon ±e Familiarity and Fricndfhip of the 
other ; which continued mutually between them very many 
. years, with little interruption to their death. 
* He was a very handlome Man, di a lovely, and winning 


Of the ReheUton, &c. 6 3 

prefencc, and gentile converlation j by which he got fo eafy 
an admillion into the Court, and grace of King James^ that 
he gave over the thought of fiirther intending the life of a 
Soldier. He took all the ways he could to endear himfelf 
to the Duke, and to his confidence, and wifely declined the 
receiving any grace or fevour, but as His donation ^ above all, 
avoided the mfpicion that the King had any kindneis for 
him, upon any account but of the Duke, whofe Creature he 
defir'd to be cfteem'd, though the Earl of CarUJIe's Friend. 
And he profper'd fo well in tliat Pretence, that the King 
icarce made more halt to advance the Duke, than the Duke 
did to promote the other. 

H E firit preferred him to a Wife, the Daughter and Heir 
of CopCy by whom he had a good Fortune ^ and amongft other 
things, the Mannor and Seat oiKenfington^ of which he was 
fliortly after made Baron. And he had quickly (o entire a 
confidence in him* that the Duke prevailed with the King to 
put him about his Son the Prince of Wales^ and to be a Gen- 
tleman of his Bed-cliamber, beibre the Dufee himfelf lud rca- 
fon to promife himielf any proportion of his Highnefs's grace, 
and proredtion. He was then made Earl of HoUajidj Captain 
of the Guard, Knight of the Garter, and of the Privy Coun- 
cil y fent the firft Embaf&dour into France to treat the ifluriage 
with the Queen, or rather privately to treat about the mar- 
riage before he was £mba(]&dour. And when the Duke went 
to the lile of Ree^ he trufted ±e Earl of Hottand with the 
command of that Army with wliich He was to be recruited, 
and adifted. 

I N this Confidence, and in this Pofture he was left by the 
Duke when he was lali^dj and having the advantage of the 
Queen's good opinion, and favour ( whidi the Duke neither 
lia3, nor cared ror ) he made all pofliblc approaches towards 
the obtaining His trult, and liicceeding him in His power ^ 
or rather that the Queen might have folely that Power, and 
he only be Subfcrvient to her^ and upon this account, he 
made a continual War upon the Earl of Portland the Trea- 
furcr, and all others who were not gracious to the Queen, or 
defir'd not the increafe of her Authority. And inthisScite, 
and under this Protection, he receiv'd every day new Obliga- 
tionj from the King, and great Bounties, anci continued to 
Flourifh above any man in die Court, whilft the Weather 
was fair : but the Storm did no fooner arife, but he changed 
ib much, and declined io fall fix)m the Honour he was thought 
to be mailer of, tliat he fell into that Condition, which there 
will be hereafter too much caufe to mention, and to enkrge 


66 The Htftwy Book I. 

condle to him : iK^ch was an irnddlfuL meafiire in alicen- 
tious Age^ and may deceive a gcxxl Man in tbe beft of times 
that fhall iiicceecL which esrofcd him to fiich a torrent of 
Advcriity and Milenr^ as weQiallhayetoonatuialanoccafioa 
to Lament in the following Difcourfe, in which it will be 
more fealbnable to enlarge iqpon his fin£^ilarAtalia andim- 
menfe Virtue. 

There were more (too many more) Honourable Peribns 
in that time of die Priyy-Coundly whofe Faculties were not 
notorious enough to give them any great part in the Afi&irs, 
nor had their A^ice much influence upon o^m. Other very 
notable Men were Qiortly after added to ti^ Council, who 
will hereafter be remember'd in their jmper Places axulSea- 
fons. What hadi been £ud before contains InforxnatioJii enough 
of the Perfons in Employment, and the State of the Court 
and Kingdom, when me IXike oiBuckiwgbam was taken from 
it ; by which, and the lively RefleAions upon die Qualities, 
and Qualifications of the feveral Perfima in Authority in 
Court, and Council, no Man could expedl that the vigorous 
Defigns and Enterprises* undertaken by die Duke, would be 
purfued with equal Refblution and Courage : but that much 
the greater part of them woidd be wholdLy intent upon their 
own accommodations m their Fortunes (in which they abound- 
ed notj or in their Eafe, and Pleafiir^ whidi they molt paP> 
(ionately afieded ; having, as hath been fiud, no other con- 
(ideration of the Publick, than diat no difiurbance therein 
misht interrupt their quiet in their own days : And that die 
re(^ who had larger Hearts, and more pubhck Spirits, would 
extend dieir Lab«ir, Activity, and Advice, only to Secure the 
Empire at Home by all Peaceable arts, said advancement of 
Trade, whidi mig^t gratify the People, and fiiU die empty 
Coflers of the impoverilh'd Crown. To which end the moit 

E roper Expedients were bed underftood by diem, not to en* 
irge it, by continuing and propagating the War; the way^ 
and means whereof they knew not how to comprdiend ; and 
had all the defperate imaginations, and j^oufies of the end 
and necel&ry confequences of it. And fo diey all concurred 
rtboudi in nothing elfe) in dieir unanimous Advice to the 
King^to put the quickeft Period, he could poflibly, to the 
ji ftu9 ^ expenfive War agiinft the two Crowns : ancL his Majefty 
»»>fcffc*r»o following their Advice, a Peace was made witn both, upon 
^''••«'» better Terms, and Conditions, and in lefi tim^ than firom 
the known Impatience of the War could reafbnably have been 
expeAed, or hoped for. And after fome unquietnefi of the 
People, and uiuiappy af&ults upon die lYerqgative by the 
Vn third Parliament, which produced its Diflblution, and dieretq>oa 
2^?' ^^^^ fix)ward and obftinatc dilturi»nccs m Trade^ diere 
^^^ •• quickly 

Of the Rehellion, ^c. 67 

quiddy followed fb excdlent a Compofiire throughout ti;e 
whole Kingdom^ that the like Peace, and Plenty, anduniver- 
fid Tranquility kit ten years was never enjoy'd by any Na< 
tion ; and was the more vifible and manifeft in Ei%lamd^ by 
the Iharpand bloody War fiiddainly entered into between the 
two Neig^ibour Crowns, and the umverTal Conflagration tha^ 
firom the Invafion of tM Swedes^ covered the wtole Empire 
of Gtrmawj. And fi> we fluU return to die DKcourfe, to 
which this very long D^ndEcm hadx given a greater inter- 
ruption dian was intended. 

That Proclamation, mention'd before, at the breakixig 7i^^ m £/- 
up of die laft Parliament, and ¥rtiich was commonly under-/^^ rf ^^ 
ffixKi ** to inhibit aU Men to fceak of another Parliament, pro- 
duced two very iU Eflefls rf difieient Natures. It^SWxA^i^ 
many <jood Men (whootherwife were enouc^ icandaliz'd»x«^^^« 
at tbofe diftempers, which had incen(ed the King) to tbatyS[<»»<<p«r- 
degrees diae it made them capable of receiving fome Impret ^^''"'^- 
fions ^om Thofe who were diligent in ixdii^ering ana in* 
fiifing an opinicm into Meiu ^ that there was really an Inten- 
^ tion to Alter the form of Government bodi in Qnirch, and 
^Scate^ of which, fitid diey, a greater Inftance cannot be 
^^dven, than this publick declaring (as it was interpreted) 
^diat we fhall have no more Parliaments. Then, this free- 
dom from die danger of fiidi an Liquifition did not only eo- 
courage ill Men to all boldnefi and licence but wrou^ b 
far upon Men lefs indin'd to ill (though not built for hxmy- 
pies } diat th^ kept not diofe mid guards upon themfdves 
diey ufed to dK>; efpecially if they found themfelves above 
the reach of ordinary Juitice, and fi^ur'd not extraordinary, 
they by degrees thoupit That no Fault which was like to find 
no PuniQiment. Siq^lemoxtal AAs of State were made tofrtji^t •/ 
fiipply defieds of Laws^ and fo Tonnage, and Pounchge, and^ ^^^- 
omer duties upon Merchandizes, were colleded by C^er of 
the Board, which had been poQtively refixfed to be fetded by 
A£b of Pariiamemi and new, and greater Iropofitions laidiqKn 
Trade: Obfoletc Laws were reviv*d^ and rigoroufly cxeaitedj 
Mdiercin the Subjjed might be tai^ how undirifiy a thing 
it vras, by too ftriO; a detaining of whs^ was His, to put the 
King as f&i&lv to enquire what was his Own. 

By this ill Husbandry the King received a vaft fiim of?|?.*' 
Money from all Perfbns of Quality, or indeed of any reafbo-J^J: 
aUe condition throughout the Kingdom^ upon the Law of 
Knigjhthood; which, diou^ it had a foundation in Ri^ta^ 
yet, in the circumftances ci Proceeding, vras very jgrievpus. 
And no le& unjuft ProieAs of all kinds. Many ndiailous. 
Many fcandalous. All vcrv grievous, were fet on foot; the 
Envy and Reproach of wnich came to die King> the Profit 

£2 to 

68 , The Hiftorjf Book I. 

to Other Men : inibmuch that^ of two hundred thoufiuid 

S)ound drawn from the Subjed^ by diefe ways, in a year, 
carce fifteen hundred /came to the King's ufe« or account. To 
Thdtofr^ recompence the damage the Crown, uiflaind by the Sale of 
vivin^ F»r^ the old Lands, and by the Grant of new Penfions, the old 
njiuwj. Laws of the Forreft were reviv*<^ by which not only great 
Fines were impos'd, but great Annual Roits intended, and 
like to be fettled by way of Contrad^ which Burthen lighted 
mod upon PerTons of^ Quality and Honour, who thought 
themfelves above ordinary opprdfions, and were therefore 
jhdt •/ like to remember it with more {harpnds. Laftly,fbr a Spring 
Ski^mwfj. and Magazine that (hould have no oottom, and for an ever- 
lafKng Supply of all occafions, a Writ was fiam*d in a Form 
of Law, and diredled to the Sherift' of every County of 
Ei^iandy *^ To provide a Ship of War for the King's Ser- 
^vice, and to fend it amply provided and fittecL by fuch a 
. . ,^\ day, to fuch a place ^ and with that Writ were font to each 
SSSeriff Inflrudtions , that, "inftead of a Ship, he fliould 
"levy upon his County fuch a fum of Money, and return 
^the &me to the Trealurer of die Navy for his Majefly'5 
^ufcjj with dire<3don , m what manner ne (hould proceed 
" againft fiich as refuted : and from hence that Tax had the 
denomination oishif money -^ a word of a lafting found in the 
memory of this Kingdom^ by which for fbme years really 
accrew d tlic yearly Sum of two hundred thouland pounds 
to the King's Coffers : -and it was in truth the only rrojedt 
that was accounted to his Own Service. And, after the con- 
tinued receipt of it for about four years together, it was at 
laft Tupon me refufal of a private Gentleman to pay twenty 
or tnirty fliillings as his mare ) with great folemnity pul>- 
licHy Argued before all the Judges of England in the Ex- 
chequer Chamber, and by much the major part of them, the 
King's Right to Impofe aflertec^ and the Tax adjudg'd Law- 
ful j.whichjudgement prov'd of more advantage, and cre- 
<£t to the Gentleman condemn'd {MrHdmiden) than to the 
Koj^'s Service. 
The Fevers ' ^ »► *c better Suppoft of thcfe extraordinary wavs, and 
0ftheCoiM'tX) Protcd the Agents, and Infbuments, who muft oe em- 
cif-T^ie ploy'd in them, and to Difcountenance, and Supprefs all bold 
Jl^jJJ'l^'^^ enquiries, and oppofers, the Council-Table, and Star-Cham- 
ut7d!^ ^""ber enlarge their Juriffliaions to a vaft extent, *« holding ( as 
*Ihucjdide's faid of the Athenians) ^ iox Honourable, that 
*^ wlSch Pleafed, and for Tuft, that which Profited \ and be- 
ing the Same Perfops in feveral Rooms, grew both Courts of 
Law to determine Right, and Courts of Revenue to bring 


Money ^ into the Treafuryj the Council-Table by Proclama- 
tions, enjoyning to die People what..wai> not enjoyn'd by the 

.:'''* ■; ■■ ' Law, 

Of the ReheUion^ &c. 69 

Law. and prohibiting that which was not prohibited ^ and 
the Star-Chamber cenfuring the breach^ and difobedience to 
thofe Proclamations by very great Fines, and Imprifonifaent ; 
fo that any difrefpeft to any Adte of State, or to the Perfons 
of States-men, was in no time more penal^ and thofe Foimr 
dations of Ri^t, by which Men vakied their Security, to the 
apprehenfion and underiUndingofWifemen, never moreio 
<nnger to bedeftro/d. 

And here I cannot but again take the liberty to &y, thaf 
the Circumitances , and Proceeding in thofe new exopaor- 
dinary cafes, ftratagems, and impofitions, were very Unpoli- 
tick, and even Deltruftive to the Services intended. And if 
thebufinefiof Ship-money, being anImpoQtion by the State, 
wider the notion of necefficy, upon a proipeQ: of danger , 
which private Perfons could not modeilly think themfclves 
qualify'd to difcem, had been manag'd in the fame extraor* 
dinary way as the Royal Loan ( which was the impoling the 
Five Subfidies after the fecond rarliaraent Ipoken of before) 
was; Men would much eaiiier have fiibmitted to it ; as it is 
notorioufly known. That Prefliire was bom with miuch more 
chearfuhiefs before the Judgement for the King, than ever it 
was after i Men before pleSfingthemfelves with domg fome- 
what for the King's fervice, as a teftimony of their Afie^on^ 
which they were not bound to do; many really believing the 
neceffity, and therefore thinking the Burthen reafonaole; 
others obfervin^ that the advantage to the King was ctf im- 
portance, when the damage to them was not confiderable ; 
and all aUuring themielves, that when they (hould be w^ary, 
or unwilling to continue the Payment , they might refort to 
the Law for relief, and find it. But when they heard this 
demanded in a Court of Law, as a Right, and found it, bV 
fworn Judges of the Law, adjudged fp , upon fuch grounas 
and reafons as every Stander-by was able to ft^rear was not 
Law, and fo had loft thepleafure and delight of being Kinc^ 
and Dutiful to the King; and inftead of Giving, were re* 
quir'd to Pay, and by aLogick that IdtjK) Man any thin^ 
which he might call nis Own, they no irore look'd upon it 
as the Cafe of One man, but the Cafe of the Kingdom, nor 
as an Impofition laid upon ±em by the King, but by thef 
Judges ; which they thought themfelves bound in Corifcience 
to me Publick Jufticc not to Submit to. It was an obfervatioa 
long ago by niiiflUex^ ^That Men are much morepaiIio<* 
^ nate tor Injuflic^roan for Violence; becaufe, fiys he, the 
^< one coming as from an equal, feems Rapine ; when the 
^< other proceeding from one fbbngcr, is Ixit ti»s tSe& of 
<^ neceffity. So, when S[iip-money war tran&aed at the 
Council-Board, they look'd uponit as^ vrott -<£ isas. ^ w*« 

E 3 "^^^ 

70 The Hiftory Bookl. 

they were all oblig'd to tnifl: , and ftn f&Bt of that Foie« 
fig^t thgr were naturalljrto rdy upon. Imminent Neccflity, 
and pubuck Safety, were convincing perTwafions; and it 
mi^ not feem or apparent ill confeauence to diem, that up- 
on an eme^^ent occffion tiie Re^ Power flx)ukl fill up an 
biMniy or i^ly an ImpotengrmtheLaw. But when they 
(awinaCourt of Law (that Law. that R^ve them Title to, 
and Polleffim of aU diat they had ) Reafon of State mg'd as 
Qements of Law, Judges as Shaip-fig|iced as Secretaries of 
State , and in the myteies of State; ludgemcnt of Law 
grounded upon matter of Fafl^ of whki t&re was neither 
enquiry, norproof| and no reubn given for die payment 6t 
die thirty Shillings mquefticm, but what included the Mates 
of all die Standm-by, they liad no reafon to hq)ethat Do- 
^bine, or the Promoters of it, would be contain'd widiin 
any bounds; and it is no wc»uier that They who had fo lit- 
tle region to be pleased widi d}eir own coodition^ were no 
Ids ibUicitousfor,orapprehenfive o^ the inconveniendes that 
mi^ attend any alteration. 

And here the damage and milchief cannot be exprefs'd, 
diat the Crown and State fiiftain'd by the deferv'd reproach 
and infamy that attended the Judges , b^ beuig made ufe ot 
in diis, aod like Ads of power; &re b|»ng no pc^bility to 
preferve the dignity, reverence, and eftimation of the Laws 
themfelveSy but by me integrity and innocency of the Judges. 
And no queftion, as the exorbitancy of the Houfe ot Com- 
mons, in die next Pailiament, [nrocceded prin(^)aUy from 
didr contrmpt of the Laws , and that contempt from the 
fcandal of diat Ju^^^ent : fo the ccmcurrence of dieHoufe 
of Peers in that fiuy, can be imputed to no onethit^ more, 
than to the irreverence and fcom die Judges were ji&y in; 
who had been always before look'd upon There as die Ora« 
des of die Law, and the beft Guides to affift that Houfe in 
their opinions and a&ions : And the Lends now diougjht 
diemielves ezcus'd for fwerving from die rules and cuftoms 
of their Predeceflqrs ( who in altering^ and making of Laws, 
in ju^png of Tfaiigs and Perfons, had always obferv'd the 
id\ace am judgement crf^thofe Sages) in not asking quefti^ 
ons of Thofe whom they knew no body would believe ; 
diinking it a juft reproach imon them ( who out of their 
Courtflup had fubmitted the (ufBculdes^ and myfteries of the 
Law, to be meafiir'd by die ftandard.of JM ^y call'd Ge- 
neral Realbn, and explained by the Wirom or State ) that 
They diemfelves ihould make ufe of the Licence which the 
Others had tau^t them , and determine dut to be Lnw , 
which they thw^t to be reafonable, or found to be con« 
vcnicnt. If thefc men had prcfery'd die fimplidty of their 
1^ Anccftors, 

Of the ReheUiott^ &c. 71 

Anceftors, in ieverety and ftriffly defending die Laws^Odier 
men had obreiVd me modefty of Theirs, in humbly and 
dudfiilly obeying them. 

Upon this ConiGderaticm it is very oUervable^ that itf 
the wifilom of former times, ^en the Prerogadve .went 
higheft ( as very often it hadibeoifwoln above any pitch we 
have fe^ it at in our times ) never any Court of liiw, very 
feldom any Judg^ or Lawyer ofremrtation, was call'd upcm 
to af&ft in an Ad: of Power: the Urown well knowing die 
moment of keepmg Thofe the objeOs of reverence, and ve- 
neration widi the People : and that though it mi^t fbme- 
times make Mies upon them by the Prerogative, yet the 
Law would keep the People ftom any Invafion qS it, and that 
die King could never (iiflby whilft me Law, and the Judges 
were look'd imon by the Subjed, as die !^km for ±eir 
Liberties, andSecurity. And therefore you Imllfind the Po- 
licy of many Princes hath endur^l as iharp animadv^ons^ 
and reprehenfions fix)m the Judges of die Law, as their Piety 
hathfix>m die Bifliops of tlx! Church ^ as having no left in- 
fluence upon the People, under the reputation of Jufticc, by 
the one, than under the tyes of Confaence and Religion, by 
the other. 

To extend dns confideration of the form , and drcump 
fiance of jMtxreeding in Cafes of an unufiial namre a litde 
farther ; As it may be moft bdiovefiil for Princes in matters of ^ 
Grace, and Honour, and in conferring of Favours upon dieir 
People^ to tranfia die fiune as Publickfy as may be, and by 
Them(eives, or dieir Minifters to dilate upon i^ and im- 
prove dieir luflre by any addition, or doouence <^ Speech 
(where , it may be, every kind word, eipedally from the 
Prince mmfelf, is look'd upon as anew bounty ) fo it is as n> 
quiiite in matters of judgement punifhment, axxd cenfiire up- 
on Thin^ or Perfons ( e^ieciaUy when the Qde^ in die na- 
ture of it^ is unufiial, and the rules injudging as extraoidi- 
xiary ) that the £ime be tran&ded as Privately, and widi as 
litde noife , snd pomp of words, as may be. For ( as Da- 
mage is much eafier bom, and fiibmitted to by generous 
minids , than Di%race } in the bufinefi of S3iip-money and 
many odier Cafes in the Star-Chamber, and at Coundl- 
Board, there were many impertinencies, inconeruides, and 
infolencies, in the Speeches, and Orations m the Judlges, 
much more ofienfive , and much more fcandalous man the 
Judgements, and Sentences themfdves. Befides that Mens 
minds and underftandings were more inlbufled to difcem 
the confequence of things, which before they coofider'd not. 
And undoubtedly my Lord Fmclfs Speech in die.fjcchequer- 
Chamber , made Ship-money much more abh^d , andfor** 

£ 4 ^ midable. 

n% TJbe Hiftory Book I. 

midabl^ than all the .G)mmitments by the CoundUTablc, 
and all the Diftrefles j^ifoi by the Sheriffi in S;»gUmd\ th^ 
major part of Men ( b^des the common imconcemednefi in 
other Mens fufierings ) looking upon thofe Proce^ng? with 
a land of applaufe to themfdves, to fee other ^kn Put 
nifli'd, for not doing as thev had done ^\(diich delight was 
Quickly d^rmin'd, when they found their ownintereft, by 
me unneceC&iy Logick of that Aigument, no left concluded 

He hath been but an ill obferver of thePallagespf thofi; 
times wefpeakof, who hath not feen many loberMen, who 
luve been dearly fitdsfied with the coaveniency, neceffity, 
and juftice of many Sentences, depart notwithitanding ex- 
treacnly oSendecL and fcandaliz'd with the grounds, reafbns, 
and expreffions ot lliofe who inflided thofe cenfiires ; when 
they fpund Themfelves , thinking to be only ^)edbtors of 
other Mens fiifferiiog^ by ibme unneceB^ Inference or De- 
ClEaraticta^ in probable daii^er to become &e nact Delinquents. 

Th e y who look back upod! the Counictl,-Books of Queen 
Elizabeth^ and the Ads ot the Star^Chaxnbo: then, fhaJlfind 
as high instances of Power , and Soveraigoty .upon the Li- 
berty^ and Property of the Subjeft , as can te fince given. 
. But the art, order, and gravity oi thofe Proceedings ( where 
nioit, levere,' conflaiit rules were fet, and Inertly purfued, 
and me jparty fdt only the weight of the Judgement, not the 
paflion of his Judges ; made them lels ta!ken notice of, and 
lo lefs grievous to the Publick, though as intolerable to the 
Peribn : whereas, fince thofe excelleni; rules of the Council- 
Board were leis obferv'dj and Debates (which ought to be 
in private, and in the abfence of the party concem'd« and 
theteupdn the Judgem^ the Table to be pronouncrd by 
oiie^ witjiput the interpofition of others ^ or reply of the 
jparty ) fiifier*d Xo be publicjc, queftions to be i^sk^ paffions 
difcov'er'd, and opinions ' to be prbmUcuoufly ddiverd j aU 
advice, direflions, repreherifions, and cenfiires piF thofe Places 
grew to be in lefs rev^erice, a^ dteem : fo that, befides 
die delay, and interruption in diipatch, the juftice, and pru^ 
dence of the Counfels did not many times \yeigh down the 
infirmity, and paflibn of the CbunfeUoK j «id both Suitors 
»and Ofenders returned into their Country, with fiich ex* 
ccptibns, and arguments againft PerfonaL as brought, and pre- 
pared' miich prejudice to whitfoever mould proceed from 
thence • and whatever Excufes fliall be inade, or Arguments 
given, tli^fupon fuch extraordinary occafions there was a 
nccefltty of fome pains, and care to convince Men's under* 
ftandings of the reaions and ground? pf their Proceeding 
( whidi , if what was done had been only ^d informandam 

Of the ReleUion^ &c. 7g 

Cmifciintiam without reproach, orpeDalty, mi^t htvebeen 
realonahle ) it is certain the inconvenience and prejudice^ 
that grew thereby, was greater than the benefit : anatherea>- 
Ibns of the judges being many times not the reafbns of the 
Judgement, thole might more &tisfa£tonly, and more fliortly 
^ve been put in the. Sentence it felf , ^lan ipread in the 
Difcourfes ot the Cenfiirers. 

These Errors (for Errors they were in View, and Er- 
rors they are proved by the Succds ) are not to be imputed 
to ±e Courts but to the Spirit , and Over-aflivity of the 
Lawyers theinielves^ who mould more carefully have pr&- 
ferv'd their Profeffion, and its Profeflbrs , from being pro- 
fan'd by thofe Sarices. which have rendred both lo ob* 
noxious to reproach. There were two Perfons of that Pro- 
feflion, and of that time, by whofe feveral, and diftindl.con- 
flitutions ( the one knowing nothing of, nor caring for the 
Court ; the other knowing, or caring for nothing elle ) thofe 
Mifchicfs were introduc'^ M^ Noy^ the Attumey General, 
and Sr John Finchy firlt. Lord ChieHuftice of the. Common 
Pleas, and then Lord Keeper of the ureat Seal of England. 

The Firft upon the greatfemeof his Ability, and Learn- ^jl^^^j^ 
ing ( and he was very Able and Learned) was, by great in- J^*]"''^ 
duftry and importumty from Court, perfwaded to accmt ^' 
that Place, for which all other Men labour'd (being thebeft, 
for Profit, that ProfefBon is capable of) and fo he fuflfei^d 
himfelf to be made the King's Attumey General. The Court 
made no impredion upon his Maimers j upon his Mind it 
did : and though he wore dbout him an afrbS:ed Morofity, 
which made hmi unapt to flatter other Men, yeft even that 
Morofity and Pride rendred him the mofllyable to be grofly 
flatter'd himfel£ diatcanbe imagined. And by this means 
the great Perfons, who fleer'd me Publick Af&irs, by admi- 
ring nis Parts , and extolling his Judgement as well to his 
face, as behind his back, wrought upon him by degrees, for 
the eminency of the Service, to be an Inflmment in all their 
Deiign^ J thmking that he could not give a clearer teiiimony, 
that his knowledge v^ the Law was greater than all other 
Mens, than by making that Law which all other Men be- 
lieved Not to be fo. So he moulded, framed, and purfued 
the odious and crying Projcdt of Soap; and with his own 
hand drew, and prepar'd die Writ for Ship-money; bodi 
which will be the lafling monuments of his Fame. In a word, 
he was an unanfwcrable inftance, how neceflary a good Edu- 
cation and knowledge of men is to make a wife man, at leaft 
a man fit for biiiinefs. 

^^ John Finch had much that the other wanted, but no-o/5rjohn 
thing that the other had. Having led a tree life in a reflrain'd Finch. 


74. TheHtfiory Bookt 

fintun^ttid hsTiagfet up iqmi tUfiock of t goodWit^ 
and natural Partly widxxit the fiiperOruflure of miK^ know* 
ledge in the PMieffion Iw wbicnhe was to erow; he was 
vimi^ CO ufe diofe Weapons in ¥4uch he md moft 
Skill, and fi> (being not luiieen in the aflfe£tions of the 
Cour^ but not having reputation enough to guidc^ or refiurm 
chem ) he took up Ship-money where M'Ni^ left it : and, 
fceine ajuctee, carried it up to tfaatpinode^ from wnence 
he aunoft biioke his ownneckj haviii^'inms Journey thi- 
Aer, hadtoomudi influence on hid Bremreh toinducethem 
to concur in a Juc^;ement they had all caufe to repent. To 
which, his Dedaiaidkm, after he was Keq>er of die Great 
Seal of JBsgiMU^ mtA beadded, upon a E^cnnirrer put In to 
m Bill before him, iduch hvi no ouer Equity in i^ than an 
Order of dse Lords of die Council; ^mat whiUt he was 
^Keeper, no manihoukl be fo fiiwcy as todifpute thofeOr* 
^dersy but that die Wiiilom of that Board (hould be always 
Aground enoi^ for Him to make a Decree in Chancery; 
w&h was fe great an aggfayation q/l the Excefi of tmt 
TaUe, dnt it reeeiv'd more wejudice from diat AA of un* 
' leaibnable Cbuntenancc and kcQ)e9^ dian from aU die Con* 
. tempt could poffibly have been ofic»:'d to it. But of diis 
np more. 
Thertiicity Now after allthis (and I hope I cannot be accus'dof 
rftheTimtt mixch Flattery in this Inquifition ) I muftbe fojuft as to fay, 
^^^*V that, during the whole time d»t thefe Prefliires were cxer- 
nwfff'rr ^'^ and thofe ncw and extraordinary Ways were run, that 
mhkjUmA' ^ ftom the Diflblution of die Parliament in die Fourth year, 
ti^/MM to the be^bining of diis Parliament^ which was above twelve 
Jj^ftj^ years, this Kii^om , and all his Majefty's Dominions (of 
tb€ oiajea. ^ Interruption in ScattanJ fomewhatlhallbe fidd in its due 
timeand place) ^joy'd the geateft Calm, and die foiled 
mea£ire of Felicity, that any People in any Age, for fo long 
time together, have been blefi'd with} tothe wonder and en- 
vy of all the other parts of Cbriffendam. 
cwmfAT^d I N this Comparifon I am neitlier unmindful of, nor un- 
•ith the mtefol for the Happy times of Queen E^ateth^ and King 
s*" ai. J^^^^* ^^ ^^ *^ former, the doubts, haaards, and per- 
■ SS. plexities, upon a total change and alteration of RefiaocLand 
ibme confident Attempts upon a fiurther alteration oy Thofe 
who though d^ Rdbrmadon not carty'd far enough ^ the 
charge, trouble, and anxiety of a long continued War ( how 
profpcrous and fuccefsftil foever) even during dut Queen's 
whole Reign ; and ( be&ies fome domeftick ruptures into 
Rebellion, frequently into Treafon j and befides me blemiili 
of an unparallel'd Act of Blood t^xm die Life of a Crown'd 
nei^bour Queen and Ally ) die fear, and apprdien&on of 


of the ReheUtofiy &c. 7y 

what was to come ( which is one of the mdl impleafint kinds 
of Melancholy ) from an unknown, at leaf): an unacfaaow* 
ledg'd SucceUbr to the Crown, clouded much of that Pro- 
{jperity then, which now fhines with lb much ^lendor befiote 
our eyes in Chronicle. 

And for the other under King Jmms (which indeed ^niiMVi^ 
were excellent times, bom^pfaa norm$ ) the mingling widi af<v. tima 
Stranger Nation, formerly not very gracious with Thisjj^ 
which was like to have more intereft of Favour : the fiib- ' 
jedion to a Stranger Prince , whofe nature and difpofition 
they knew not : the diicovery of aTreafon, die moft pro* 
digious that had ever been att^npted, upon ms firft entrance 
into the Kingdom: the Wants cn^ the Crown not inferior to 
what it hath fince felt (I mean whilft it fite ri^t on the 
head of the King ) and the Preffiires upon the Subjedl of the 
fame nature, and no lefs complained of : the AUence of the 
Prince in Sfaitf^ and thefbllicitude that his Highnefi {hould 
not be difpos'd in Marriage to the Dai^ter of that King- 
dom , rendrcd the Calm and Tranquillity of diat time lea 
equal, and pleafant. To which may be added die ProQ)eiity 
and Happinefs of the Neighbour Kingdoms not much inferior 
to that ot this, which, according to the pulfe of States, is a 
great diminution of their healthy atleaft their Ftofperity is 
much improv'd, and more vifible, by the Mifery, and Mis- 
fortunes of their Neighbours. 

The Happinefe of the times I now mention, was invi- 
dioufly fet on by this diltin&ion, that every otiber Kii^Kdonu 
every other State were entangled, and fome almoft deftro/d 
by thence, and fiiry of Arms; thofe who were ei^gag'd in 
an ambitious Contention withdieir Neighbours, having the 
view and apprehenfions of the Miferies , and Defdation « 
which they f aw other States fuSer by a Civil War j whilft 
the Kingdoms we now lament, were alone looked upon as 
the Garden of the World : Scot /and ( which was but the Wil- 
demefi of that Garden ) in a fiill , entire, and undifhiib'd 
Peace, which thcjr had never feen ; the rage and barbarifin 
of their Private Feuds being compos'd to the reverence, or 
to the awe of publickjuftice; in a competency, if not in an 
excels of Plenty, which they had never hop^s to fee, and in 
a temper ( which was the utmolt that in thofe days was de- 
fir'd or hop*d for ) free from Rebellion. InUmd , nWch 
had been a Spunge to draw, and a Gulph to fwallow all that 
could be fpafd, and all that could be got from EMgl^ndy 
meerlytokeep the reputation of a Kingdom, reduc'd to diat 
good degree of Husbandry , and Government, that it not 
only Sul^iftcd of it felf, and gave this Kingdom all that it 
mi^ have cxpedted from it j but really inaeas'd the Re- 

76 ' Tllfe Hifiory Book I. 

venue oF the Crown forty or 66j tlioii&nd pounds a year, 
bclytes a conliderable advantage to the People by the Tra& 
fiql^ and Trade 6om thence : Aits, and ddences fhiithiliy 
planted there ; and the whole Nation beginnin£; to be (b Civi* 
lizVLthatit was a Jewel of great Luftrein the Royal Diadem. 
Whqn thefe Outworks, were dius fortified, and adom'd, 
it was. no wonder if JSm^/m^ was genoidly thcK^ 
widi the advantages of its own Climate ^ die Court in great 
I^fffity, or rather /which is the diforedit df plenty ) excefs, 
Wd huoiry ^ the Country rich, and, which is mor^ folly en- 
theplesfore of its own wealth, and (o the eafier cor- 
witfatheprid^ and wantonneuofit; the Churdi flou- 
^' with learned, and extraordinary Mem and ( which other 
gcxxi times had in fome degree wanted ) (uppli^ with Oyl 
tp feed thpfe Lamps ; and me Proteftant Rdi^n more ad- 
vanced againft the Church of Rfme by Writme ( without 
^ ' ^ce to odier Ufefol, and Godly labours ) emecially by 
two Books of the late Lord Arch-Bifhop otOurferiuiy 
fib, Grace^ andqf Mr ChilSmgwortlb^ than it had been from the 
Ki&nfmm\ Trade inaeas'd to that d^ree, that we were 
tfteKyhapgc of oM^AM^Mi (the Revenue from thence to the 
l^wnbei^ ahnoft double to what it had been in thebeit 
taix^y and the Bullion of neig^ibour Kingdoms brought to 
sjpceive a Stamp from the Mint of EngUna; Forrelgn Mer- 
chants looking upon nothing fo much their own . as what 
they had laid up in the Warehoules of diis Kingcfom ; the 
Royal Navy, in number and equipage much above former 
times , very formidable at Sea y and the reputation of the 
Gre^tneis, and Power of the King, much more with Forreign 
Princes than any of his Progenitors : for thofe rough Courfes, 
which made him perhaps 1^ Lov'd at home, made him more 
Feaifd abroad: by how much the Power of Kingdoms is 
inorereverencdtlun their Juftioe by their Neighbours: and 
It may be this Confideradon might not be the leaft Motive, 
and may not be the worft Excufe for thofe Counfels. Laltly 
fbr a complement of all thefe* Bleffings, they were cnjo/d by^ 
and under the Pro^edion of a King , of the moft Harmle(s 
difpofition, the moft exemplary Piety, the greateft Sobriety, 
Ghaftity, and Mercy, that any Prince ham been endow'd 
with (God forgive thofe that luve not been Sentible of, and 
Thankfiil for tSofe endowments ) and who might have faid, 
that which Tericies was proud of, upon his death-bed, con- 
cerning his Citizens, " that no Engiyh-Tmn had ever worn a 
*^ Mourning Gown throudi His Occafion. In a word, many 
Wife men thought it a Time, wherein thofe two Adjundte, 
which Nsrva was Deified for uniting, Imferiam ^ Uhertasy 
were as well reconcU'd as is poflible. 


OftheReheUion^^c. 77 

But all thefe Bleffings could but enable, not Q»zq)d iis 
to be Happy, we wanted that fenie^'acknowkclgment, and 
value of our own Happinefi, which All but We had: and 
took pains to make^ when we could not find, our (elves Mt- 
ferable. There was in truth aftrange abfence of underftand* 
inginmoft, and a fbange perverTends of tinderftanding in the 
reit : the Court full of Excds, Idlenefs, and Luxury ^ the Coun- 
try full of Pride, Mutiny, and Difcontent j every Mm more 
troubl'd and perplex'd at that they call'd die Violmon of one 
Law, than delighted or pleafed with the OhTervadon of all 
the reft of the Charter; never imputing the increafe of dieir 
receipts, revenue, and plenty, to me wildonk virme, ^md me- 
rit ot the Crown, but objedting eveiy finall ImpoGtion to the 
Exorbitancy, and Tyranny of the Government; the growth rf 
Knowledge and Learning being difrelifh'd, for the fafinrnWcf 
of fome Learned Men, and the increafe of Grace and Favour 
.upon die Church more repin'd and murmured a^ tlun dus 
increafe of Piety and Devotion in it, which was as vifiU^ 
acknowledg'd, or taken nodce of; wlulfl: the Indiicredon and 
Folly of one Sermon at White^Hall was more bruited abroad, 
and commented upon, than ±e Wifdom, Sobriety, and De-^ 
vodon of a hundred. 

It cannot be denied but there was fomedmes Preach'd 
There Matter very unfit for the Place, and very fcandalous 
for the Perfbn^ wno prefum'd often to determine things out 
of the Verge of their own Profeflion, and^ in ordine ad Spirit 
tualia^ gave unto Cdfar^ what Cajar refiis'd to receive, as not 
belonging to him. but it is as true ( as was once faid by a 
Man fitter to be believ'd in that point than J, and one not 
fufpeded for flattering of the Clergy) *'that if the Ser- 
^^ mons of thofe times Preactf d in Court, were collefted to- 
^gether, and publifh'd, the World would receive the bdl 
" bulk cf Orthodox Divinity, profound Learning, convincing 
" Reafon, natural powcrflil Eloquence, and admirable Devo- 
" don, that hath been Communicated in any Age fince die 
^' Apoftles time. And 1 cannot but fay, for the honour of the 
King, and of Thofe who were tmfted by him in his Eccle- 
fiaftical collations ( who have received but fad rewards for 
their uprighmefs) in thde reproach'd, condemned times, 
there was not one Church-man, in any degree or favour, or 
acceptance (and this the Inquiiition, that hath been fince 
made upon them, a fhidler never was in any Age, muft con- 
ffels) of^a fcandalous Infufficiency in Learning, or of a more 
fcandalous condition of Life ; but on the contrary, mo(t of 
them erf confefs'd eminent Parts in Knowlectee, and of vir- 
tuous and unblemifhM Lives. And therefore Wife Men knew, 
dm That, which look'd like Pride in fome, and like Petu- 

-yS TbeHi/iory ' Book I. 

knee in odia»> would, by EaqyerioKc in A£^^ 
vtrftdon aai6qg|{ft Men, bodi of which moft of them waiued, 
te in time Wrougjht of^ or, in a new Succeflion, ref orm'd^ 
tad ib thouj^ the Vaft advantage fixxn dieir Learning, and 
Intt^^, an s^xiple recompence for any inconvenience from 
cfaeur PamOnj^ a&d yet by the prodigious Impiety of thofe 
tidies^ Ae latter waa only look'd on with MaUce axKi R^ 
Without any Revcraic^ or Gratitude for the former. 
w Kf^* When the King found himfelf poOefs^d of all that Tran*- 
rfij4Mm^ qpSiipf nienti(XiM before, that he had no reafixi to apprehend 
Ml Scot- any Enaniea fixxn abroad, and leis any Infiirredtions at home, 
^ j,f| ** iSait^ whichno Kin^m in Ch^etukmy in the conftitution 
ktr,, or its Government, m the foliditv of the Law% and in the 
nature and di^oGdon (^ the People, was more Secure d)an 
EfigUmli thtt He midit take a nearer view of dx)fe great 
PHW^gy wiiich God Sad poured upon him, He refolvvi to 
inakeaProgre&intodieNordiernpartsofhisIUngckM^ and 
to bo fidemnly Qown'd in his Kingdom of Sc9$&fd^ which 
|ms Ittd never ieen fixxn the time he had firft left it^ when he 
was abou( two years old. In order to this JoumejL which was 
nade with great Splendour, and proportionable fiaqpence, he 
addbd to die Train of his Court many g< the ^greareft Nobi- 
lity^ who increas'd the Pomp of the Court at dieir own Chaise 
fior fo they were required to do ) and fee'm'd with alacrity 
to fbbmit to the King's pleafiire, asfoonas they knew his de- 
fire^ and io his Atcradance in all re^^edte was proportionable 
to the Glory of the greateftKing. 

This wnole Progreis was made from the firft fetting out, 
CD the end of it, wim the ffl-eateii: Magnificence imaginable ; 
and the hig^eft excels of Feafting was then introduced, or, 
at lealL Feafting was then carried to a height it never had 
attain'df before, from whence it hardly declin'd afterwards, to 
the ^eat damage and mifirhief of the Nation in their Eiktes, 
and Manners. All Perfons of Qualitv and Condition, who 
liv'd within diftauice of the Northern Road, received the great 
Peribns of the Nobili^ with that Hofpitality wluch became 
ttittn-y in which all coft was emplo/d to make their Enter- 
tahiments ^lendicL and their Houfes capable of thofe Enter- 
tainments. The King himfelf met with manv Entertainments 
of that nature, at the charge of particular Men, who defii^d 
the Honour erf his Prefence, which had been rarely pradifed 
till then by the Perfons of the beft Condition, though it hath 
iince grown into a very inconvenient cuffom. But when he 
jKds'd through N^tth/gtam-Jhtreyborh King and Court were 
received, and entertain^ by the Earl oiNnp-Caftley and at his 
own proper Expence^ in fiich a wonderfiil manner, and in 
fiich an exceis otFeafting, as had foarce ever before been known 


of the RehelUon^ &c. 7^ 

in BfgLmdi and would be ftttl tboi]|^ yery prodi^ou^ if 
the fi^ Noble P^ribn hadnoc^ witfama year or two wa* 
wards, made die King and Queen axnore Itiq^endious Enter- 
tainmenc^ which (God be thanked) though poffiUy it mi^ 
too mudi whet the sqppedte of others to F.»ceft| no Man erer 
after in thofe da^ imitated. 

The great OSlces of die Court, and principal Places of 
Attendance upon the King^s Perfon, were Oien upon the mat^ 
cer equally divided between die JSMglUb and die Se^s^ the 
Marquis of H^mbw Mafter of die Horie^ and die Earl of 
Carlyk firil Gentleman of die Bed-Chamber, and almoft all the 
fecond rank of Servants in diat place, beingof diatKingdomj 
fo that diere was as it were an Emulation between die two 
Nations, whidi ihould appear in die greateft Luftre, m 
Qoath% Hories, and Attendance : and as they were (as \m 
(aid before ) many of the principal Nobility <^ jBiyi^ai^ ^i^ 
attended upon the King^ and who were not of die Court; fi> 
the Court was never without many Scti^ Vduntiers, and 
their number was well increas'd upon this occaGon inNofair 
lity and Gentry, who were relblird to confiite all dsofe who 
bad believ'd dieir Country to be very poor. 

The Kingno iboner entePd SeotlJHUl^hijX.^\aAEMj0krh9Ki^9 
Servants and Officers yielded up their Attendance to diofe ofiH^ 
the Scoiifh Nation, who were admitted into the fiune Offioea'^^^^!** 
in Sc§tkndy or had ibme Titles xo thofe Employments bythe 
. conffitution of diat Kingdom ; as moft of the gr^ Offices 
are h^d by Inheritance i as the Duke oiBicbmond and Lmmus 
was dien High Steward and Hi^ Admiral of ScotUmd by 
Defceni^ as Odiers had the like polfeflion of other Places ; io 
that all ue Tables of the Houfe, which had been kept by dio 
Btgiifi* Officers, were laid down, and taken up agam by the 
Sc0ts^ who kept diem up with the &me order, and equal iplen- 
d<xir, and treated die Engli/b with all the freedom and oour* 
teQr imaginable ; as all me NobUicy oE that Nation did, at 
their own Expence;, where dieir Offices did not entitle tbem 
to Tables at the charjge of the Crown, keep very noble 
Houfes to entertain dieir new Guefts; who had fo often, ani| 
fo weU entertained them : and it cannot be doiied, die whole 
bdiaviour of that Nation towards the BBglifh was as generousL 
and c^liging as could be expeded ^ and the King appear'd 
with no ids Luftre at Bdenlfwugbj than at ffhtt-HM'y and 
in this Pomp his Coronation p2s'd widi all the Solemnity, 
and evidence of publick Joy that could be expeSted^ or diat 
can be imagin'd; and the Parliament, dien bekL wimnoleft 
demonOraDon ot Duty, pafi'd and prefented tix& Ads winch 
wereprepar'd for them to the Royal Scqpterj in which were 
fome Laws relbaining the extravagant Power of the Nobiliev^ 


■ / 

So ' TheHiflory Book I. 

iriadk in mnqr CSb&s, tbey had Vm^ttttdH^L aiidthe di- 
mtnution vfaermdiey took very heavily, dioo^ at that tiine 
diey took Utde nodce of it : oie King being ahlblutely ad* 
vira in all die Affidrs of that Kingdom oien^ and long before, 
and after, by the ible Counfel dftlie Marquis of Hamiltofu 
who was, or at leafL was dien believ'd to be of ±e greateft 
^ fnttreft.of aw Subjea in diat Kingdom, of whom mo^^ 

be fiid hereaner. 

' The King was v^ wdl pleas'd widi his Reception, and 
with'ftU tiie Tianfidions there; nor inde^ was there anv 
dung to be bbOnfd, but the Luxury and vaft Expence, which 
tboiuided iii all jASj^cSa of Feafhng, and Cloaths with too 
imteh licence ? which being inqmted to the commendable 
tiiial<>f thp Fc»id^cf aU Osnmtion^ to fee their Kingamongft 
diiekn,\rtiom they were not like to iee there again, and fb their 
cspenoe was to oe but once made^ no Man had cauie to fii- 
fteA any nriichief from it : and yet the Debts contrad^d ac 
&t time by the Nobility, and Gentry, and the Wants and 
Teniptations diey fbimd themielves expos'd to, from th^t im- 
nffftt&d^KfeniMl ExpeoSc^ did very much contribute to the kindling 
ff^l^ dmt Fire, MmichilKvdy after broke out info terrible a Combu- 
Jjjjjjj^ftioa: nor were the Sparks of Murmur and Sedition then fb 
^iff^ wdl cover'cL but that many difcenm:^ Men difcover'd very 
~i!nikioQS Defigns to lurk in Their Breafis, who feem'd to 
kve dtt moft oiearful Countenances, and who 3&ed great 
parts in the Pomp, and Triumph. And it evidently appear'd, 
that They of diat Nation, who Shin'd moft in the Court of 
BKfglam/^ had the leaft Influence in their own Country, ex- 
cq>t only the Marquis of Hamilton^ whofe ASkQion to his 
Mafter was even ±en fu^edied by the Wifcft Men in both 
Kingdoms; and that the immenfe Bounties the King, and his 
Father had icattefd amonsft thofe of that Nation, out of the 
Wealth of Englandy h^'&s that he had £icrificed the whole 
Revenue of tlut Kingdom to Themfelves, were not looked 
upon as any benefit to that Nation, but as Obligations cafl: 
away uponpardcular Men ; many of whom had with it wafted 
dieir own Patrimony in their Country. 

The King himlelf obferv'd many of the Nobility to en- 
deavour to make themfdves Popular by fpeaking in Parlia- 
ment againft thde things which were moft gratefiil to his Ma- 
jefty, and which itill pafs'd notwithftanding their contradi- 
^on ; and he thought a little Difcountenance upon thofe Per- 
fons would either fupprels that Spirit within themfelves^ or 
make the Poyfon of it leis operative upon o±ers. But as thofe 
siAs of Difcountenance were too often believed to proceed 
fiom the difpleafure of the Marquis of Hamibonj and by that 
means rather advanc'd, than deprefi'd diem^ ib they liad an 


Of the Rebellion^ &c. g • 

admirable dexterity in flieltering themfelves horn an v ^ 

2Sc& of Difcountenance, which the/ had no mind 
when it hath been vilible, and was uien notorious, t <^ 
of the Perfons ±en, as the Earl of Rathesj and o CO 
whom the King had the worft opinion, and from v 
Durpofely with-held any grace by never {peaking t 
31 taking notice of Aem in the Court, yet when tl ^ 

was abroad in the Fields, or pailing through Villages, when 
the ereateft crouds of People flodrd to fee him, Siofe Men 
would ftill be next him, and entertain him with (bme diP 
courfe, and plea&nt relations, which the King's gentle difpo-^ 
fition could not avoid, and which made thofe Perfons to be 
generally believed to be moft acceptable to his Majdfy ^ up- 
on which the Lord Falkland was wont to fay, <^that keep- 
<* ing of State was like committing Adultery, there muit go 
^ Two to it : for let the proudeft or moft formal Man re- 
folve to keep what diftance he will towards others, a bold 
and confident man inftantly demolifhes that whole Machine, 
and gets within him, and even obliges him to his own Laws 
of converfation. 

The King was always the moft pundhial obferver of all 
Decency in his Devotion, and ±e ltrid:eft promoter of the 
.Ceremonies of the Church, as believing in his Soul ±e 
Church of Englamdxo be inftituted the neareft to tlie Praftice 
of the Apoftles, and the beft for the propagation and ad- 
vancement of Chriftian Religion, of any Church in the 
World : wad on the other fide, though no man was more 
averfe from the 'Romijb Church than He was, nor better un- 
derftood the motives of their Separation from us, and Ani- 
mofity againft us, he had the higheft diflike, and prejudice 
to that part of his own Subjedls, who were againft the Go- 
vernment eftabliOi'd, and did always look upon them as a 
very dangerous, and feditious People; who would under 
pretence of Confcience, which kept them from fubmitting 
to the. Spiritual Jurifdidtion, take the firit oppormnity, they 
could find, or make, to withdraw ±emfelves from their Tem- 
poral Subjedion; and therefore he had, with the utmoft vi- 
gilance, caufed that Temper and Difpofition to be watch'd 
and provided againft in England., and if it were then in 
truth there, it lurk'd with wonderful fecrecy. In Scotland 
indeed it cover'd the whole Nation, fo tliat, though there 
were Bifliops in Name, the whole Jurifdidtion, and they 
Themfelves were, upon the matter, fubjed; to an Aflembly, 
which was purely Presbyterian 9 no Form of Religion in 
practice, no Liturg)^ nor the leaft appearance of any Beauty 
of Holmefs : The Clergy, for the moft part, corrupted in 
their Principles 3 at leaft, none countenanced by the great 

Vol. L Part I . F Men, 

So y TheHiflory Book I. 

Men, or fa.vour'd by the People^ but Such ; though it rouit 
be own'd their Univerfities, efpedally Aherdetn^ flourifli'd 
under many excellent Scholars, and very Learned men. Yet, 
though -all the Cathedral Churches were totally negleded 
with reference to thofe Adminiftrations, over the whole 
iCinsdom, die King's own Chapel at HolyrooMoufe h^ 
ftill Deen maintain'd with the comelinefi of the Cathednl 
Service, and all other Decencies ufed in the Royal Chapel ; 
and the whole Nation feem'd, in the time of King Jamesy 
wdl inclined to receive the Liturgy of the Churdi of £»g^ 
tand^ which that King exceedingly defir'd, and was (b con- 
fident of, that they wno were Rivy to his Counfels, in that 
time, did believe, the bringuac that Work to pals was the 
principal end of his Progrds mither fome years before his 
death; though he was not fo well fatisfy^d at his being there, 
two or three of the principal Perfons trulted by him in the 
Government of that Kingdom, dying inj or about that very 
time; but though he retum'd without making any vifible 
attempt in that AjBfair, yet he retained ftill the purpofe and 
refolution to his death to bring it to pafs. However, his 
two or three laft years having been lefs plea&nt to him, by 
the Prince's voyage into Sfain^ the Jealoufiej? which, about 
that time, begun in Engiaiuiy and the high Proceedings in 
Parliament there, he thought it necdlary to fufpend any pro^ 
fecution of that Defign, until a more favourable conjuncture, 
which he liv'd not to fee. 
Tranft!fions The King his Sou, who with his Father's other Virtues, 
a^ut intr9- inherited that Zeal for Religion, propos'd nothing more to 
ducing A Li- hxm^Ql^y than to Unite his three Kingdoms in one Form of 
trtrpr into God's Worfliip, and publick Devotions : and there being: 
now lo great a Serenity in all his Domimons as is mention d 
before, there is great reafon to believe, that in this Journey 
into Scotland to be Crown'd, he carried with him the refolu- 
tion to Finilh that important bufinefs in the Church at the 
fame time. To that end, the then Bifhop of Londo?i^ D' 
Laud^ attended on his Majefty throughout that whole jour-r 
ncy, which, as he was Dean of the Chapel, he was not 
oblig'd to do, and no doubt would have been excused from, 
if that Defign had not been in view; to accomplifh which he 
was no lefs follicitous than the King himfelf, nor the King 
the lefs follicitous for his advice. He Preach'd in the Royal 
Chapel at Edenhorough ( which fcarce any Englifh-msxi had 
ever done before in the King's prefence ) and principally up- 
on the benefit of Conformity, and the reverend Ceremonies 
of the Church, with all the marks of approbation and ap- 
plaufe imaginable ; the great civility of that People being fo 
notorious, and univerlal, that they would not appear uncon- 

Of the EeheUionj &c. 8 3 

fbrmahle to hi? Majcfly's wifli in any particular. And inany 
Wife Men were then, and flail are of Opinion, that, if the 
King had Then proposed the Liturgy of the Church of 
EngUmd to have been received and pnu3;ifed by that Nation, 
it would have been fubmitted to widiout oppolition : but, 
upon mature confideration, the Kii^ concluded that it was 
not a good Seafon to promote that Bdinefs. 

H E had pafe'd Vjgo or three Afls of Parliament, which 
had much leuen'd the Authority and Dependence of the No- 
bilit]^, and great Men, and incenjs'd, and di^os'd them pro-' 
portionably to aofs, and oppofe any Propofidon, which 
would be moft grateflil ; and that overthwart humour was 
enough diicoyefd to rule in the breads of many, who made 
the greateft profefBons. Yet this was not the Ob^dtion 
whi(£ diverted the King : the Party that was averfe from 
the thing, and abhorr'd any thought of Conformity, could 
not have been oowerfiil enough to have ftopp'd the progreft 
of it j die milchief was, that They who molt defir*d it, and 
were moft concem'd to promote it^ were the Men who ufed 
all their credit to divert the Prefent attempdng it ^ and the 
Bifhops diemfelves, whofe Intereft was to be moft advanced 
thereby, apply'd all |heir Counfels fecretly to have the matter 
more Maturelv conGder'd ^ and the whole defign was never 
confiilted but Privately, and only fbme few of the great Men 
of that Nadon, and iome of the Biihops advis'd with by the 
King, and the.Bi{bop of Jjmdon : it being maniieit enough, 
that as the Finifhing that great kSbix mull be very grateful 
to Englaitdy fo the Engl$lh muft not appear to have a hand in 
the Ck>ntnving, and Promoting it. 

The feme Men, who did not only pretend, but really 
and heartily wifh, that they might have a Limrgy to order, 
and regulate the Worlhip of God in ±eir Churches, and did 
very well approve the Ceremomcs eftablifh'd in the Church 
of England^ and defir'd to fubmit to, and praddce ±e fame 
there, had no mind that die Very Liturgy of the Church of 
England fliould be proposed to, or accepted by them j for 
whoch they oflfer'd two prudential Reafons, as their Obferva- 
dons upon the nature, and humour of the Nation, and upon 
die Conferences they had often had with the Beft Men up* 
on that Subje<a, which was often ^tated in difcourfe, upon 
what had been formerly projedled by King 7««i^x, and upon 
what frequendy occurr'd to Wife men in Difcourfes upon the 
thing it felf, and the defireablenefs of it. 

The Firit was, that the Engli{h Liturgy, how piouily and 
wifely foever fram'd, and inltituted, had found ^cat Oppo- 
fition : and though die matter of the Ceremonies had wrought 
for the moft pare only upon Light-headed, Weak Mcn^ 

F 2. whole 

84. The Hiftory Book I. 

whofe fatisfadtion was hot to be laboured for ; yet there were 
many Grave, and Learned Men, who excepted againft fome 
Particulars, which would not be fo eafily anlwer'd j ^^That 
" the reading PMns being of die old Tranllation were in 
^many particulars (b dimrent from the new and better 
^^ Tranllation, that many inftances might be given of in^ 
^^ portance to the Sence, and Trudi of Scripture. They faid 
fomewhat of the fame namre concemigg the Tranflation of 
the EpiiUes, and Golbels, and fbme other Exceptions a^unfi: 
reading the Afocrffhay and fome other Particulars of leis 
moment J and defrd ^^that in forming a Liturgy for Their 
^ Church, they might, by reforming thofe fevem Inftances, 
^ give fatisiadtion to Good Men, who would thereupon be 
^ eafily induced to fiibmit to it. 

The odier Reafon, which no doubt was the principal, 
and took this in the way to give it the bett» introduc^on, 
was, ^ that due Kingdom of Scotlsmd generally had been long 
^^ Jealous, that by the King's continued abfence from them, 
** they Ihould by degrees be reduced to be but as a Province 
'^ to Englandy and fubjeA to their Laws, and Government^ 
^ which diey would never fiibmit to j nor would any Man 
^ of Honour, who lov'd the King bdl, and reipedled E^- 
^ Und moft, ever confent to bring that Difhonour upon tus 
** Country. If the very Liturgy, in the terms it is confti- 
^ tuted, and praftifcd in England^ fhould be offered to diem, 
** it would kindle, and inflame that Jealouly. as the Prologue, 
^ and Introdutftion to diat Defign, and as the firft Range of 
^^ that Ladder, which fhould ferve to mount over all their 
^^Cuftoms, and Privileges, and be oppofed, and detefted 
*^ accordingly : whereas, if his Majefty would give order for 
**the prepanng of a Uturgy, with tnofe few defirable Al- 
literations, it would eafily be donej and in the mean time 
"They would fo difpofe the minds of the. People for the. re- 
'' ception of it, that they fliould even defire it. This Expe- 
dient was fo paflionately, and vehemendy urg'd even by 
the Bifliops, that however they defer'd to the minds, and 
humours of other Men, it was manifeft enough, that the 
Exception, and Advice proceeded from the pride of their 
own hearts. 

The Bilhop of Tjmdm^ who was always prefent with the 
King at thefe Debates, was exceedingly troubled at this 
Delay, and to find thofe Men the Inftmments in it, who 
feem d to him as Sollicitous for the expedition, as Zealous 
for the thing it fclf, and who could not but Suffer by the 
deferring it. He knew well how far any Enemies to Con- 
formity would be from being fiitisfy'd with thofe fmall Al- 
terations, which being confented to, they would with more 


Of the 'Rebellion^ &c. 8 s 

confidence, thou^ lefireafon. frame other Exceptions, and 
infift upon them with more obftinacy. He fbretew die Dif- 
ficulties which would arife in reje<3ing, or altering, or adding 
to the Liturgy, which had fo great Authority, and had, by 
the praOice of near fourfcore years, obtain'd great Venera- 
tion fix)m all fober Proteflants ^ and how much eafier it would 
be to make Objections againft any thing that (hould be New, 
than againft the Old ^ and would theS^efore have been very 
glad that the former Refolution mig^t be purfiied ^ there 
having never been any thoughts in the time of King Jmm§Sy 
or the prefent King, out ofthe £j»^/^ Liturgy ^ bdidcs that 
any Variation fi'om it^ in how fmall matters foever , would 
make the Uniformity dielefe, theManiieftation whereof was 
that which was moftaim'dat, anddefir'd. 

The King had exceedingly fethis Heart upon the matter, 
and was as much fcandaliz'd as any Man at the Diforder, 
and Indecency in the exercife of Religion in the Church : 
yet he was affe<aed with what was ofler'd for a little Delay 
in the execution , and knew more of the ill humour, and 

{>raaices amongft the Greaceft Men ofthe Kingdom at that 
feafon, than the Bifliop did , and believed he could better 
compofe^ and reduce them in a little time, and at a diftance, 
than at tne prefenr, and whilft he was amongd them. Be- 
fides he was in his nature much inclin'd to the Scotijb Na- 
tion, having been bom amongftthem, and as Jealous, as any 
one of Them could be , of their Liberties and Privileges, 
and as Careful they might not be Invaded by the Engtijb^ 
who, he knew, had no great reverence for them : and there- 
fore the Objeaion, "tlut it would look like an Impofition 
"from Efi^ndy if a Form, fettled in Parliament at Wefi^ 
" mififttTy Tliould without any Alteration be tendered ( though 
« by Himfelf ) to be fubmitted to, and obferv'd in ScotUnJ^ 
made a deep Impreffion in his Majefty. 

In a word, ne committed the Framing, and Compofing 
fuch a Liturgy, as would moft probably be acceptable to that 
People, to a idea number of the Bifhops there, who were 
very able and willing to undertake it : and fo his Maiefty 
retum'd into EftgUnd^ at the time he had defign'd, witnout 
having ever proposed, or made the leaitapproadiin Publick, 
towards any alteration in the Church. 

I T had oeen very happy, if there had been then nothing 
done indeed, that had any re^rrence totlutAffiur, and that, 
fince it was not ready, nothing had been tran&dled to pro- 
mote it, which accidentally alienated the hSSsSbom of the 
People from it ; and what was done, was imputec) to the Bi- 
ihop of LondoMy ^o was like enpughto be ^jSLV] of it 3 fince 
he did really believe, that ' nothing more contnLuted to the 

F 3 ■ benefit, 

85 The Hiflorjy Book I. 

benefit, and advancement of the Church, than the promotion 
of Church-men to places of the gjeateft Honour^ and Offices 
of the hi^eft Truft : This opinion, and the Profecution of 
it ( thou^ his Integrity was unqueftibnablfe, and his Zeal as 
great for the good and honour of the State, as for the ad- 
vancement and fecurity of the Church) was the unhappy 
Foundation of his own Rum, and of the Prejudice towards 
the Church, the Malice againfl it, and almoft the Deftrufti- 
on of it. 
Tnt King During the King's (tar in Scotland^ when he found the 
J*"«£ fc?' conjunflure not yet ripe for perfedling that gpod Order , 
\^ithe which he intended in the CJiurch, he refolv'd to leave a Mo- 
Bijhlpriek^ nument behind him of his own Aflfeftion and Efteem of it. 
•/Eden- E^»^^rtf»gA though the Metropolis of the Kingdom, and the 
boroujh. chi6f Seat of the King's own Refidence, and the Place where 
the Council of State and the Courts ofTuftice IHll remained, 
was but a Burroug^ Town within the Diocefi of the Arch- 
Bifliop of Sana Amirtwsy and govem'd in all Church Affairs 
by the Preachers of the Town j who , being dioferi by the 
CitiKns from ±e time of Mr Knox (who iMbd a principal hand 
in the Suppreffion of Popery, with circumihnces not very 
commenclablc to this day ) had been the moft Turbulent, and 
Seditious Minifters of Confiifion, that could be found in the 
Kingdom j of which King James hsA {o fad experience, after 
he came to Age, as well as in his Minority, that he would ofteh 
fey, " that his accefs to the Crowd of England was the more 
« valuable to him, as it redeemed him from the lubjeaionto 
^^ the ill manners, and infolent m^dliccs of thofe Preachers, 
« which he could never Ihake off before. The King before 
his return from thence, with thefiill conrent,and approbation 
of the Arch-Bifliop of Saint Andre*u:s^ creoed Eaenhorough 
into a Bifhoprick^ aflign'dit a good and convenient Jurifdi- 
aion out of the nearelt limits of the Diocefs of Sa'mt An- 
//r^-u;/, appointed the feireft Church in the Town to be the 
Cathedral, fettled a competent Revenue upon the Biftiop out 
of the liuids purchafed by his Majefty hirnfelf from the Duke 
of Ijsnoxy who fold it much the cheaper, that it migjit be 
Confecrated to fo Pious an end j and plac'd a very eminent 
Scholar of a good Family in the Kingdom, who had been 
Educated in the Univerfity of Camhridgt^ to be the firft Bifliop 
in that his new Cityj and made anotner Perfon. of good 
Fame, and Learning, the firfr Dean of his new Cathedral, 
upon whom likewife he fettled a proper Maintenance ; hoping 
by tjiis means the better to prepare the People of the Place, 
who wcrie the moft numerous, and richeft of the Kingdom, 
to have, a due reverence to Order, and Government, and, at 
Teaft, to difcountenance, if Hot fupprcfs the Factious Spirit 


Of the Rehellion, &c. 87 

of presbytery, which had fo long ruled diere. But this Ap^ 
plication little contributed thereunto : the People generally 
thought, that they had too many Bilhops befbr^ and fo the 
incr^ng the number was not like to be very grateful to 

T HE Billiops had indeed very little Intereft in the Aflfedi- 
ons of that Nation, and lefs Authority over it : they had not 
power to Reform, or Regulate their own Cathedrals, and 
very rarely fhew'd themlelves in the Habit , and Robes of 
fiiinops ; and durft not conteft with the General Aflembly in 
matters of Jurifdidtion : fo that ±ere was little more than the 
Name of jEpiicopacy preferv'd in that Church. To redeem «»^ ^i'f 
them from me Contempt, and to (hew that theyfhould be^'^^'^?" 
Confiderahle in the State, how little Authority foever they sS^i^L 
were permitted to have in the Church, the King made the SnuUrOf 
Arcb-Bifhop of Saist Aftdrtwsy a Learned, Wife, and Pious /^e/ »»»^4 
Man, and of long Experience, Chancellour of the Kingdom /•'^'J'- 
( the greateft 0£fice, and which had never beemin tlie hands 
of a Church-man fince the Reformation of Religion, andSup^ 
preflEng the Pope's Authority ) and four or five other Bifliops 
of the Privy-Council, or Lords <rf the Seffionj which his Mi- 
jetty prefiim'd, by their Power in the Civil Government, and 
in the fudicatories of the Kingdom, would render them fo 
much the more Reverencec^ and the better enable them to 
fettle th^ Aflfeirs of the Church : which fell out otherwifc too j 
and it had been better that invidious Promotion had beeniii- 
fpended, till by their grave and pi(xis Deportment they had 
wrought upon their Clergy to be better dilpos'd to obey them, 
and upon the People to like order, and difcipline ^ and till 
by thcfe means the Liturgy had been fettled, and received 
amongft them ; and then the advancing fome of them to 
greater Honour, might have done well. 

But this unieafouable accunnilation of fb many Honours 
upon them, to which their Fun&ions did not intitle them 
( no Bifliop having been fo much as a Privy-Counfellor in 
very many years ) exposed them to die univer61 Envy of the 
whole Nobilitv, many whereof wifii'd them well, as to their 
Ecclefiafti^al (Salifications, but could not endure to fee them 
poflefs'd of thde Offices, and Employments, which they look'd 
upon as naturally belonging to Tnemfelves ; and men the 
number of them was thought too great, fo that they Ovcr- 
ballandd many Debates ^ and fome ofthem by want of tem- 

BT, or want of breeding, did not beliave thenuclves with tibat 
ecency in their Debates, towards the greateft Men of the 
Kingdom, as in diforetion they oug^t to have done, and as 
the others reafonably expeSbcd from them : fo that infteadof 
bringing any Advantage to the Church , or ftdlitating the 

F 4 good 

88 TheUtfiory Book I. 

good Intentions of the King in fettling Order, and Govern^ 
ment, it produc'd a more general Prejudice to it ^ though 
ibr the prefent there appeard no fign of Difeontent, or ill 
Will to them : and ±e King left Scotland^ as he believ'd, fiill 
of Afiedion, and Duty to him, and well inclin'd to receive 
a Liturgy, when he ihould think it feafonable to commend it 
to then;. 
Hj^KsV' It was about the end oi Augufi in the Year K^jj, when 
return, and^^Q King returtfd from Scotland to Greermkt^ where the 
^^rfh'mop^^^ kept her Court ; and the firft Accident of moment^ that 
Abbot , happen'd after his coming thithw, was the Death of AUat 
1693 : his ArchrBiihop of Cantir^ry ; who had £it too many years in that 
chdra^cr. gcc, and had too great a jimfdi<aionover the Church, though 
he was without any Credit in the Court from the Death of 
King James J and had not much in many years before. He 
had been Hedd or Mafter of one of the pooreft Colleges in 
Oxford^ and had Le^uning fufficient for that Province. He was 
flManofveryiMorofe manners, anda very four zSptdi^ which, 
in that time, was odl'd Gravity; and under the opinion of 
that Virtue, and by the recommendation of the Ean of Pmt- 
har^ the King's firft Scotch Favourite, he was preferred by King 
James to the Bifhoprick of Coventry and Lkhfieldy and pre- 
sently after to London^ before he had been Parfon, Vicar, or 
Curate of any Paridi Church in England^ or Dean, or Pre- 
bend of any Cathedral Church ; and was in truth totally igno- 
rant of the true Conftitution of the Church of Englandy and 
the State and Intereft of the Clergy; as iSifficicntly appeared 
throughout the whole courfeof his Life afterward. 

H E had fcarce perform'dany part of the Office of a Bifhop 
in the Diocefs of London^ when he was fnatch'd from thence, 
and promoted to canterbury ^ upon the never enou^ lament- 
ed cicath of Dr Bancroft^ that Metropolitan, who undcrftood 
the Church excellently, and had almoft relibued it out of the 
hands of the Cahmian Party, and very much fubdued the un- 
xtily Spirit of the Non-Conformifts, by, and after the Confe- 
rence at Hampton'<:ourt ; countenanced Men of the greateft 
parts in Learning, and difpos'd the Qergy to a more folid 
courfe of Study, than they tiad been accuftom'd to; and, if 
he had liv'd, would quickly have extinguilh'd all that Fire 
in "Smglandy which had been kindled at Geneva -^ or if he had 
been fiicceedcd by Bifliop Andrewsy Bifliop OveraL or any 
Man, who underftood, and lov'd the Church, that tiieftion 
would eafily have been kept out, which could not afterwards 
be fo eafily expell'd. 

But ^Sifot brought none of this Antidote with him, and 
comider'd Chriftkn Religion no otherwife, than asit abhorr'd, 
and reviled Popery , and valued thofe Men molt, who did 


Cfthe ReheUion^ Sec. 89^ 

That the moft fiirioufly . For the ftridt obfervation of the Di- 
fcipline of the Church, or the Conformity to the Articles, or 
Canons eilabliih'd, he made little enquiry, and took lefs care ; 
and having himfelf made a very little progrefs intheAntient 
»id&}lid Study of Divininr, he adher^ only to the Dodrine 
of CahMy and, for his &Ke, did not think fo ill of the Di- 
fcipline as heoudit to have done. But if Men prudently for- 
bore a publick Reviling, and Railing at the Hierarchy, and 
Ecclefiamcal Government , let their opinions , and private 
pradice be what it would, they were not only feciirc from 
any inquifition of his , but acceptable to him, and at leaft, 
equdly pref^r'd bv him. And though many other Bifliops 

flainly diicem'd the Mifchie% which daily oroke in to the 
Prejudice of Religion , by his defeds and remifsnefi , and 
prevented it in their own Diocefles as much as they could, 
and gave all their Countenance to Men of other Parts, and 
other Principles ; and though the Bifhop of London Dr Laudy 
from the time of his Authority and Credit with the King, 
had applied all the Remedies he could to thofe Defe£tions. 
and, from the time of his being Chancellour ofOxFoniy had 
much diicountenanced, and almoft fuppre&'d that Spirit^ by 
encouraging another kind of Learning, and Pradice in that 
Univerfity, which was indeed according to the Doiftrine of 
the Church of England -^ yet that temper in the Arch-Bifhop, 
whofe Houfe was a Sanouary to the moft eminent of tlmt 
Fadious Party, and who Licensed their moft Pernicious Writ- 
ings, left his Succeflbr a very difficult work to do, to Re- 
form, and Reduce a Church into Order, diat had been fo long 
neglcded, and that was fo ill fill'd by many weak, and more 
wififiil Church-men. 

1 T was within one week after the King's return from Scot-B'jhop Land 
landy that ^^^/ died at his Houfe at Lamhetb. The *^g^*f'^^" 
took very little time to confider whoihould be his Succeflbr, ^;J^^" 
but the very next time the Bilhop of London ( who was longer 
on his way home than the King had been ) came to him, his 
Majefty entertained him very chearftilly with this Compel- 
lation. My Lord^s Grace of Canterbury, y^w are very nuekomey 
and gave order the fame day for the diq^atch of all the nc- 
ceflary forms for the Tranflation : fo that within a Month or 
thereabouts after the death of the other Arch-Bifliop, he was 
compleatiy inverted in that high Dignity, and fettled in 1^8 
Palace at Lambeth. This great Prelate had been before m 
great favour with the Duke of Bw/t/wg^^iw, whofe chief Con- 
fident he was, and by him recommended to the King, as hc- 
teft to be truftal in the conferring all Ecciefiaftical Prefer- 
ments, when he was but Biiliop of Saint Davids^ or newly 
preferred to B4f/A ^JidfPillsy and from that time he entirely 


90 The Hiftory Book I. 

^ovem'd that Province, without a Rival : fo that his Promo- 
tion to Om^fr^iriywa^ long fbrefeen, and expeded; nor was 
it attended with any increafe of envy^ or diflilce. 

He was a Man of great Parts, and very exemplary Vir- 
tues, alla/d and difcredited by fome unpopular natural Infir- 
mities^ thegreateft ofwhich was i befides a hafly, ibarp way 
of expreffing himfelf ) that he believ'd Iimocence of neart, 
and Integrity of Manners, was a guard ftrong enough to fe- 
cure any Man in his Vovage through this World, in what 
Company foever he travell'd, and through what Ways foever 
he was to jpais : andfiire never any Man was better fupplied 
with that Provifion. He was bom of honeft Parents, who 
.were well able to provide for his Education in the Schools ot 
Learning, from whence they fent him to Sc Jokms College 
in Oxfardy the worft Endowed at that time of any in thatFa- 
mous Univcrfity. From a Scholar he became a Fellow^ and 
then the Prefident of the College, after he had received all 
the graces, and degrees (the Prodiorihip, and the Do&orihip ) 
could be obtained there. He was always maligned, and per- 
(ecuted by thofe who were of the Cahimaȴ2i8dony which 
was then very powerfiil, and who, according to their ufuaL 
maxim,andpraaice, call every Man they do not love, Papift; 
and, under this femelefs appellation, they created him many 
troubles, and vexations ; and fo far fiipprefs'd him, that though 
he was the King's Chaplain, and taken notice of for an ex- 
cellent Preacher, and a Scholar of the moft Sublime Parts, he 
had not any Preferment to invite him to leave his poor Col- 
lege, which only gave him bread, till the vigour of his Age 
was paft : and wnen he was promoted by King James^ it was 
but to a poor Bifhoprick in Wales ^ which was not fo good a 
Support tor a Bifhop, as his College was for a private Scholar, 
though aDo(^or. 

Parliaments va that time were frequent , and grew 
very bufy, and the Party, under which he had (ufter'd a con- 
tinual Perfecution, appeared very powerfiih and fiill of de- 
fign, and They who had the Courage to Oppofe them, be- 
gun to be taken notice of with approbation , and counte- 
nance : under this Style he came to be firft cheriih'd by the 
Duke of Buckingham , who had made fome experiments of 
the Temper, and Spirit of the Other people , nothing to his 
fatisfadiion. From this time he profper'd at the rate of his own 
wifhcs, and being Tranfplanted out of his cold barren Dio- 
cefs of Saint Davids^ into a warmer Qimate, he was left, as 
was faid before, by tliat great Favourite in that great Truit 
with tlie King j who was fufficiently indifpos'd towards the 
Perfons, or the Principles oi Calvin's Difcipies. 
When he came into great Authority,. it may be, he rc- 
fc tain'd 

Of the kehellion^ Sec. 91 

tairfd too keen a memory of Thofe who had fo unjuftly, 
and uncharitably Perfecuted him before; and I doubt, was 
fo far tranfootted with die fame Paflions he had reafon to 
tomplain ot in his Advcr&ries, that^ as thev accused Him 
of Popery, becaufe he had fome dofliinal Opinions which 
they liked not, though they were nothing all)rd to Popery j 
fo ne entertain'd too much prejudice to fome Perfons, as if 
They were Enemies to the Difcipline of the Church, hfecaufe 
they concurr'd with Cahm in fome dodxinal Points ; when 
they abhorr'd his Difcipline, and reverenced the Government 
of the Church, and pray'd for the peace of it with as much 
Zeal, and Fervency as any in the Kingdom ; as they made 
manfieft in their Lives, and in their Sufferings with it, and 
for it. He had, from his firft entrance into ±c World, with- 
out any difguife, or diffimulation, dedar'd his own opinion 
of that c/tf^ofMen, and, as foon as it was in his power, 
he did all he could to hinder the growth, and increafe of that 
FadHon. and to reiirain Thofe who wereinchnM to it^ from 
doing the mifchief they defir'd to do. But his Power at 
Court could not enough qualify him to go through with that 
difficult Reformation, whilft he had a Superior in the Church, 
who, having the Reins in his Hand, could Sacken them ac- 
cording to his own humour , and indifcretion ; and was 
thou^t to be the more remifs, to irritate his cholcrick difpo- 
fition. But when he had now the Primacy in his own hand, 
the King being infpir'd wirh the fame Zeal , he thoup;ht he 
fliould be to blamq, and have much to anfwer for, if he did 
not make haft to apply Remedies to thofe Difeafes, which 
he faw would grow apace. 

In the endof5<yf«w^^^r of the Year 1(^33, he wasinvefled 
in the Title, Power, and Jurifdidtion of Arch-Bifhop of Can-- 
terhury^ and entirely in poflefSon of the Revenue thereof, 
without a Rival in Church or State ; that is, no Man Pn> 
fefs*d to oppofe his Greatnefs ; and he had never interpos'd 
or appear'd in Matters of State to this time. His firit Care.iJr Jjaon 
was, that the Place he was remov'd fh)m , migjiit be flip- '^^^V^ 
plied with a Man who would be vigilant to pull up thofe*'' ^^"^ 
Weeds, which the London Soil was too apt to nounfli, and 
fo drew his old Friend and Companion Df Juxon as near to 
him as he could. They had been Fellows together in one 
College in Oxford^ and, when he was firft made Bifhop of 
Saint D/rvfdsy he made him Prefident of that College : when 
he could no longer keep the Deanry of the Chapel-Royal, 
he made him his Succeflbr in that near Attendance upon the 
King : and now he was rais'd to be Arch-Bifhop, he cafily 
prevailed with the King to make the Other, Biihop of Lon^ 
Jony before, or very toan after he had been Comecrated Bi- 

9x The Hiftory Book L 

(hop Qilbnforiy if he were more than Eled c^ that Church. 
XT was now a time of great Eafe and Tianauillity ^ tho 
Kin£ ( as hath been £ud bdfore ) had made himlelf Superior 
to aU thofe Difficulties and Streights he had to contend with 
thefbur firft years became totheCrownat Home; and was 
now Reverenced by all his Neig^ibours , who needed his 
Friendfhip) and defird to have it; the Wealth of the King- 
dom notorious to all the World , and the general Temper, 
and HunxMir of it^ little inclin'd to the Papifl, and lefs to 
the Puritan. There were fome late Taxes and Impofi- 
dons intro(hic'd, which rather angred than ^ev'd the Peo- 
ple, who were more than rejpair'd by the Quiet^ Peace, and 
Profperity they enjoy'd ; and the Murmur and Difcontent 
that was, appear'd to be ^ainft the £xcefs of Power exer- 
died by the Crown, and {upported by the Judges in Wefi^ 
mmBer-Hall. The Church was not repin'd at, nor Ae leaft 
inclination to alter the Government, and Difcipline thereof, 
or to change the Do<3rine. Nor was there at mat time any 
confiderable number of Peribns of any valuable Condition 
throughout the Kingdom , whg 4id with ei±er^ and die 
caufe of fb prodigous a Change in fo few years after was too 
vifible from the effedb. The Arch-Bifnop's heart was fet 
upon the advancement of the Church , in whidi he well 
knew he had the King's fijll Concurrence, which he diought 
would be too powerful for any oppoficion j and that he fhould 
need no other ajdiflance. 

Though the Nation generally, as was fidd before, was 

without any ill Talent to the Churdi, either in the point of 

the Dodtrine, or the Difcipline, yet they were not without 

ajealoufy that Popery was not enough mfcountenanced. and 

were very averfe from admitting any tWng they hacf not 

been ufed to, which they call'd Innovation, and were eafily 

periwaded, that any ±ing of that kind was but to pleafe the 

trm Hn* Papifts. Some dooxinal Points in Controveriy had been, in 

»'{•«"»- the kte years, agitated in the Pulpits with more warmth and 

JJ^U^^^-^'fcflcdlions, than had us'd to be^ and thence the heat, and 

rminitn aiiimofity increased in Books Fro ^ni. Con upon the fame Ar« 

»«//. ^;uments : moft of the popular Preachers, who had not looked 

mto the Ancient Learning , took Calvin s word for it, and 

did all they could to propagate his Opinions in thofe Points : 

They who had Ihidied more, and were better vers'd in the 

Antiquities of the Church, the Fathers, the Coimcils, and the 

Eccleiiaftical Hiftories , with the fame heat and pfaffion in 

Preaching and Writing, defended the contrary. 

But becaufe in the late Difpute in the Dutch Churches, 
thofe Opinions were fupported by Jacohus Armnius^ the Di- 
vinity ProfeflEbr in the uniuerfity of Lfyien in HollanJ^ the 


OftheRehellion^Scc. 93 

latter M^n we mentionM, were call'd ArmnianSy though 
many of them had never read a word written by jirminm. 
Either fide defended, and maintained the different Opinions 
as the Do&ine of the Church of England^ as the two great 
Orders in the Church of Kotm^ the Dof^inieaus and Fran-^ 
cifiansy did at the fame time^ and had many hundred years 
before, with more vehemence and uncharicablenefs, main* 
tain'd the fame Opinions one againft the other ^ either Party 
profeffing to adhere to the Dodbine of the Catholick Church, 
which had been ever wifer than to determine the Contro- 
vcrfy. And yet that Party here, which could leaft fupport 
themfelves with Reafon, were very Ibllicitous, according to 
the Ingenuity they always pra&ice to advance any of their 
Pretences, to have the People believe, that they who held 
with Armmius did intend to introduce Popery j and truly 
the other Side was no lefs willing to have it thought, that 
all who adher'd to Cahin in thofe Controverfies, did in their 
Hearts likewife adhere to him with reference to the Difci- 
pline, and defir'd to change the Government of the Churdi^ 
defh-oy the Biihops, and .to fet up the Difcipline that he had 
eftablifh'd at Geneva ^ and fo both Sides found fuch reception 

J generally widi die People, as they were inclined to the Per- 
ons ; whereas, in trutn, none ofthe one Side were at all in- 
dih'd to Poperv, and very many of the Other were moft af- 
feSdomte to tne Peace and Prolperity of the Church, and 
very Hous, and Learned Men. 

The AichrBiihop had« all his life, eminently oppofed y^rdb-Bfii 
CMlvh^s Dodhiile in thole Controverfies, before the name taad's ck 
of Armmm was taken notice of, or his Opinions heard of ^ ^J*^ ""*' 
and thereupon for want of another Name, they had call'd 
him a Papifl, which no body believed him to be, and he had 
more manifelted the contrary in his DiQmtations, and Writ- 
ings, than moft Men had done ; and it may be the Other 
found the more fcvere, and rigorous Ufage from him, for 
their propagating that Calumny againfl him. He was a Man • 
of great Courage and Refolution, and being moft aflur'd 
wimin himfelf, that he proDOs'd no end in all his adtions 
anddefigns, but what was Pious and Juft (as fure no man 
had ever a heart more entire to ±e King, the Churchy or his 
Country) he never ftudied the eafieft ways to thofe ends; 
he thou^t, it may be, that any art or induftry that way 
would difcredit, at lealt make the Integrity of the end {vh 
^fted, let the caufc be what it will. He did court Perions 
too little; nor cared to make his defigns, and purpofes, ap- 
pear as candid as they were, by fhewing them in any other 
drefs than their own natural beauty, though perhaps in too 
rough a manner; and did not confider enough what men 


94 ^^^ ti\ftory Book I. 

fidd, or were like to fay of him. If the Faults, and Vices 
were fit to be looked into, and difcover'd, let the Peribns be 
who they would that were guilty of them, they were fine 
ID find no connivance of Favour from him. He intended 
the Difcipline of the Church fhould be felt^ as well as fpoken 
cL and that it fhould be applied to the greateit and molt: 
foleadid Tranfgreflors, as well as to the punilhment of imaller 
Qfiences. and meaner Ofieoder» j and thereupon call'd fbr^ 
or cherifli'd the Dif covery of Thofe who were not careful 
to cover their own Iniquities, thinking they were above the 
teach of other Men, or their Power, or Will to chaflife. 
'Perfons of Honour, and great Quality, of the Court, and of 
the Country, were every day cited into the High-Commit 
fion Court, upon the £une of their Incontinence, or other 
Scandal in their lives, and were tjjere profecuted to their 
Shame, and Punifliment: and as the Shame (which they 
call'd an Infblent Triumph upon their Degree and Quality, 
and levelling Them with the common People ) was never 
.for^ten, but watch'd for revenge^ fo the Fines impos*d 
diere were the more queflion'd, and repined againft, becaufe 
they were aflign'd to the rebuilding^ and repairing & ^auH 
-Chutch ^ and mought therefore to be tlae more Severely im- 
posed, and the lefs Compafllonately reduc'd and excus'd: 
• which likewife m^e the jurifdiftion and r^ur of the Star- 
Chamber more felt, and murmur'd againlt , and fharpen'd 
many mens humours againft the Bilbops, before they had any 
ill Intention towards the Church. 
ryn,.Bur- T H E R E Were three Perfons mofl notorious for their de- 
an, *^*»rf dar'd Malice ajgainft the Govenunent.of the Church by Bi- 
aftwick. fhops, in their i'everal Books, and Writings, which they had 
publiih'd to Corrapt the People, with circumflance^ very 
hcandalous, and in langua£;e very Scurrilous, and Impudent ; 
which all Men thought defcrv'd very exemplary Punilhment : 
They were of the three feveral rrofeflions which had the 
moft influence upon the People, a Divine, a Common Law- 
yer, and a Doi^or of PhyficK j none of them of interefl, or 
any efteem with the worthy part of their feveral Profeflions, 
having been formerly all look'd upon under Charadlers of 
Reproach : yet when they were aU Sentenced, and for the 
execution of that Sentence brought out to be Punifli'd as 
common, and fignal Rogues, exposed upon Scaffolds to have 
their Ears cut offj and their Faces and Foreheads branded 
with hot Irons (as the pooreft, and moft mechanick Male- 
fadtors ufed to be, when they were not able to redeem them- 
felves by any Fine for their Trefps^s, or to fatisfy any da- 
mages for the Scandals they had rais'd againit the good 
zume, and reputation of others ) Men begun no more to 


Of the ReheUioti^ &c. 95- 

confider their Manners;^ but the Men ; and each Profeflioii, 
with anger and indignation enough, thou^t their Education, 
and Decrees, and Quality, would have fecur'd them fiom 
fuch In&nous Judgements, and treadu'd up Wrath for the 
time to come. 

The remifsnefs dEAbhot and of other Bifhops by his ex- 
ample, had introduced, or at leaft conniv'd at a Neglkence^ 
that gave great fcandal to the Church, and no doubt oSnded 
very many Pious men. Hie People took fo httlo care of 
the Churches, and the Parlbns as little of the Chancels, that, 
inftead of Beautifying, or Adorning them in any d^;ree, they 
rarely provided againit the falling of many of their Churches i 
and (imer'd them at leaft to be kept fo indecently, and 
flovenly, that they would not have endur'd it in the ordi- 
nary of&ces of their own Houfes ; the Rain and the Wind to 
infeft them^ and the Sacraments themfelves to be Admiai- 
fter'd where the People had mofl mind to receive them. 
This Prophane liberty and uncleanlincfs, the Arch-Bifliop 
refolv*d to, reform with all expedition, requiring the other 
Sifhops to Concur with him in fb Pious a Work ; and the 
work fure was very grateful to all Men of Devotion : ycL I 
know not how, the Profocudon of it with too much aaea»- 
tion of Expence, it may be, or with too much Paffion be- 
tween the Miniflers and the Parifhioncrs, rais'd an evil Spirit 
towards the Church, which the Enemies of it took much ad« 
vantage of, as fbon as they had an opportunity to make die 
worftufe of it. 

*T H E removing the Communion Tible out of the bodjr 
of the Church, where it had usM to (land, and to be applied 
to all ufes, and fixing it to one place in the upper end of the 
Chancel, which frequently made the buying a new Table to 
be nccef&ry, the inclofing it with a Rail of Joyners work^ 
and thereby fencing it from ±e approach of Dogs, and all 
Servile ufes ^ ±e obliging all Perions to come up to thofe 
Rails to receive the Sacrament, how acceptable foever to 
grave and intell^ent Perfons, who lov'd Order and Decency 
f^ for acceptable itwastpfiichj yet introduc'd firft Murmur- 
ings amongft the People (upon the very Charge and Ex- 
pence of it J and if the Minifter were not a man of difcretion 
and reputation to Compofe, and Reconcile thofe IndiQx){i- 
tions ( as too frequently ne was not, and rather inflam'd, and 
increased the Diftemper ) it begot Suits, and Appeals at Law. 
The opinion that there was no Necefhry of doing any thix^ 
and the complaint that there was too Much done, brou^ 
the Power and Jurifdiilion that imposed the doing of it, to 
be callM in queltion, contradifted, and opposed. Then the 
manner, and gcilurc, and po&ure, in the Celebration of it, 


96 The Hiftorj Book L 

brou^t in new DiQmtes, and adminifter'd new fubjedb of 
Qfience. accoMing to the cuik)m of the Place, and humour 
of ±e People : and diofe Difputes brought in new words 
and terms (Altar, Adoration, and Genuflexion, and other 
exprdlions j for the more perQ)icuous carrying on thofe Di- 
Qnitations. New Books were written for, and againft this 
new Pradice, with the fame eameftncis, and contention for 
Wdxxjy as if the Life of Chriitianity bad been at ftake. 
Befides; there was not an equal Concurrence, in the profe- 
cution of this matter, amongft the Bifhops themfelves j fome 
of them proceeding more remifsly in it, and fome not only 
negle<%ing to direa any thing to be done towards i^ but re- 
ftraining thofe who had a mind to it^ from meddling in it. 
And this again produced as inconvenient Difputes, when 
the Subordinate Clergy would take upon them, not only 
without the diredion of their Dioceians, but exprefsly againlt 
their lajunddons, to make thofe Alterations and Refomia- 
tions themfelves, and by their own Authority. ,• 

The Arch-Bilhop guided purely by his Zeal, and Reve- 
rence for the Place of God s Service, and by the Canons, 
and Injundions of the Church, with die cuftom obferv'd in 
the King's Chapel, and in moft Cathedral Churches, with- 
out conndering the long intermilEon, and difcontinuance, in 
many other Places, prpfecuted this Afiair more Pafl&onately 
than was fit for the Seafon j and had Prejudice againft Thofe, 
who out of fear, or fordkht, or not undemanding the 
Thing, had not the fame \\^rmth to promote it. The Bi- 
fhops who had been*preferr'd by his Favour, or hoped to^be 
fo, were at lead as Sollicitous to bring it to pais in their 
feveral Diocefles ^ and fome of ±em with more Paflion , 
and lefs Circumfoecftion, than they had his Example for, or 
than he Approvd j profecuting thofe who oppos'd them, 
very Fiercely, and fometimes Unwarrantably, which was 
kept in Remembrance. Whilft other Bifhops, not fo many 
in number, or fo valuable in weight, who had not been be- 
holding to him, nor had hope of being fo, were enough con- 
tented to give Perfimdtory orders for the doing it, and to 
fee the Execution of thofe Orders not minded j and not the 
lefs pleas'd to find, that the Prejudice of that whole Tranf- 
aftion reflefted folely upon the Arch-Bifiiop. 

The Bi(hop of Lincoln ( U^tUiams ) who had heretofore 
been Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England^ and gene- 
rally unacceptable whilil he held that Office, was, fince his 
difgrace at Court, and profecution firom thence, become very 
Popular j and having feveral Faults objedied to him, the 
PuniQiment whereof threaten'd him every day, he was very 
willing to change the Scene, and to be brought upon the 


of the RehelUon, &c. 97 

Stage for oppofing thefe Innovations ( as he call'd them ) in 
Religion. It was an unlucky word, and couzen'd very many 
honell Men into apprehenuons very Prejudicial to the King, 
and to the Church. He publilh^d a Difcourfe and Treatifc 
againft the matter, and manner of the Profecution of that 
Bufinefs j a Book fp full of good learning, and that Learning 
fo clofe, and folidly applied ( though it abounded with too- 
many light expreffions ) that it gain d him reputation enough 
to be able to do Hurt j and fliew'd that, in his retirement, 
he had fpent his time with his Books very profitably. He 
us'd all the Wit, and all the Malice he could, to aw^epi the 
People to a jealoufy of thefe Agitation?, and JjinQvations in 
the exercife of Rehgion j not without Jnfinuations that it aim'd 
at greater Alterations, for which he knew the People would 
quickly find a X^x^f^ ; and he was ambitious to have it be- 
lieved, that tbc^Arch-Bifhop was his greateft Enemy, for hi5 
having conftaiK^ oppos'd his fifing to any Government in 
the Qiurch, as a man, whofe hot and hafty Spirit he had Ipng 

Though there were other Books written with good learn- 
ing, and which fufficiently anfwer'd the Bifliop's book, and 
to men of equal, and dilpaffionate Inchnations, fully vin- , 
dicated the Proceedings which had been, and were ftill 
very fervently carried on; yet it was done by Men whofe 
names were not much reverenced, and who were taken nor 
tice of, with great infolence and afperity to undertake the 
Defence of all things which the People generally were Dit 
pleas'd with, and who did not affed: to be much Cared for, 
py thofe of their own Order, So that from this unhappy 
Subjed, not in it felf 4)f :fhat important value to be eitlier en- 
f^fa upon with that Refolution, or to be carried on with that 
Paffion, proceeded upon the matter a Schifm amongft the 
Bifhops themfelves, and a great deal of Uncharitablenefs in 
the Learned, apd moderate Clergy, towards one another; 
which, though it could not increale the malice, added very 
much to the abihty and power of the Enemies of the Church 
to do it hurt, and alfo to the number of them. For without 
doubt, many who lov^d the eitablifli'd Government of the 
Church, and the Exercife of Religion as it was us'd, and de- 
fir'd not a change in either, nor did diflike the order and de- 
cency, which they faw mended, yet they lik'd not any No- 
velties, and Ip were liable to entertain Jealouiies that piore 
was intended than was hitherto proposed j efpecially when 
thofe Infiifioas proceeded from Men unfufpedted to have any 
inclinations po Change, arid known Aflcrtors of the Govern- . 
ment both in Church and State. They did obfcrve the hi-^ 
/erior Clergy tpolf more upon them tnan they were wont, 

Vol.1. Part I. ^ G '" aad 

98 The Hiftory Book I. 

and did not live towards their Neighbours of Quality^ cm* 
their Patrons themfelves, with that Civflityand Condefcention, 
they had ufed to do^ which di^s'd Them likewife to a 
wimdrawing their good Countenance, and good Neighbour- 
hood from them. 

The Arch-Bifhop had not been long in that Poft, when 
there was ianother great alteration in the Court by the Death 
of the Earl of V art land^ High Treafurer oi Endandy a man 
. fo jealous of the Arch-Bilhop's credit with the King, that he 
always endeavoured to leflen it by all the arts and ways he 
could y whidi he was (b far from ededin^, that^ as it ufiial- 
ly falls out, when palfion and malice msic Accu&tion, by 
fuggefHng many particulars which the King knew to be Un- 
true, or behev^d to be no Faults, he ramer confirmed his 
Majefty's judgement of him, and prejudiced his own reputa- 
upon the tion. His death caufed no grief in the A^|||i-Bilhop ^ who 
Earl of ^ was upon it, made one of the Commiflioners of the Trea- 
Portbnd*/ ^jy^ ^^ Revenue, which he had reaibn to be fbrry for, 
JJ^^_B,j^^becaufe it engaged him in Civil bufinels, and matters of 
made one o/State, whcrciu hc had little experience, and which he had hi- 
the Commif-thcrto avoidcd. But being oblig'd to it now by his Truft, he 
^ners fftfj* cntcfd upon it with his natural eamefbiefs and warmth, mak- 
re^jurjf, ^^^ -^ j^-^ principal care to advance, and improve ±e King's 
Revenue, by all the ways which were offered, and fb hearkened 
to all Informations and Propofitions of that kind ^ and hav- 
ing not had experience of that Tribe of people, who deal in 
that Traffick ( a confident, fenfelefs, and for the moft part a 
naughty people ) he was fometimes milled by them, to think 
better of Ibme Proje<5ts than they deferv'd : but then he was 
fb entirely devoted to what would be Beneficial to the King, 
that all Propofitions and Defigns, which were for the Profit 
(only or principally) of particular Perfbns how Great fo- 
ever, were opposed, and crofs'd, and very often totally fiip- 
prefs'd, and flified in their birth, by his Power, and Autho- 
rity • wliich created him Enemies enough in the Court, and 
many of Ability to do Mifchief, who knew well how ro re- 
compenfe Difcourtefics, which they always called Injuries. 

The Revenue of too Many ot the Court confiiled prin^ 
cipally in Enclofures, and Improvements of that nature, 
which He flill opposed paflionately, except they were found- 
ed upon Law j and then, if it would bring Profit to the 
King, how old and obfelete fbever the Law was, hc thoudit 
he might juftiy advife the Profecution. And fb he did a Ht- 
tle too much countenance the CommifHon concerning Depo- 
pulation, which brought much charge and trouble upon the 
People, and was likewife call upon His account. 
H E had obferv'd, and knew it mult be fo, that the Prin- 

Of the Rehellion^ &c. 99 

cipal Officers of the Revenue, who govem'd the affairs of 
Mone)r, had always accels to the King, and ipent more time 
with him in Private than any of his Servants, or Coimfel- 
lors, and had thereby frequent opportunities to do Good, or 
ill offices to many men^ of which He had Had Eiqperience^ 
when the Earl of . Fort land was TreaCirer, and the Lord cot^ 
//«|f 09 Chancellor of the Exchequer ^ neither of them being 
his Friends j and the latter ftill enjoying his Place^ jmd hav- 
ing his former Acceis, and fo continuing a joint Commiffio- 
ner of the Treafury with him, and underltanding that Pro- 
vince much better, ftill Oppos'd, and commonly Carried 
every thir^ againft him : fo diat he was Weary of the toil, 
and vexation of that Buiineis ; as all odier men were, and 
iiill are, of the Delays which are in all difpatches in thsu: Of- 
fice^ whilft it is executed by CommMfion. 

The X^eafurer's is the greaceft Office of Benefit in the ^'M J"^^- 
Kingdom, and the Chief in Precedence next the Arch-^" '^'^^ 
Bifliop's, and die Great Seal : fo that the eyes of all men wereyjJJ.^^ ^^^ 
at gaze who fliould have this great Office ; and the greateft 
of the Nobility, who were in the chiefeft Employments, 
looked upon it as the Prize of one of them ^ fuch Offices com- 
monly making way for more Removes, and Preferments •- 
when on aluddain the. Staff was ^put into the hands of the 
Bifhop of Lj^dofiy 2l man fo unknown, that his Name was 
fcarce heard of in the Kingdom, who had been, within two 
years before, but a private Chaplain to the King, and the 
Prefident of a poor College in Oxford. Tliis Inflam'd more 
men than were Angry before,and no doubt did not only Iharpen 
the edge of Envy and Malice againft the Arch-Biftiop ( who 
was the known Archite(a of this newFabrick^ but moftun- 
juftly IndiQ)os'd many towards the Church it felf j which they 
look'd upon as the Gulplj ready tofwallow all the great Or-. 
fices, there being Others in view, of that Robe, who were 
ambitious enough to expedt the reft. 

I N the mean time the Arch-Bilhop himfelf was infinitely 
pleased with what was done, and unhappily believ'd he had 
provided aftronger Support for the Church ^ and never abated 
any thing of his Severit}', and Rigour towards men of all 
conditions ^ or in the Sharpnefs of his language, and expref- 
fions, which was fo namral to him, that he could not debate 
any thing without fome Commotion, when the Argument 
was not of moment, nor bear Contradidion in debate, even 
in the Council, where all men are equally fi^e, with that Pa- 
tience, and Temper that was neceflarv j of which. They 
who willi'd him not well, took many Advantages, and would 
therefore Contradidt him, that he nfight be tranfoorted with 
fome Incident Paffion ^ which, upon a lliort recolledlion, he 

G % was 

The Hiftory Book I. 

was always Sorry for, and moll readily, and heartily would 
make Acknowledgement. No man fo willingly made unkind 
ufe of all diofe Occafions, as the Lord Cott'mgtim^ who, beii^ 
a matter of Temper, and of the moft pixrfound Diflimulation, 
knew too well how to lead him into a Miflake, and ±en 
drive him into Choler, and then £xpofe him upon the mat- 
ter, and the manner, to the judgement of the Company; and 
he chofe to do this mofl^ when the King was prefent ; and 
then he would Dine with him the next day. 

The King, who was exceffivelyaflfedled to Hunting, and 
the Sports of the Field, had a great ddSre to make a great 
Park tor Red, as well as Fallow Deer, between 'Richmond 
and Hoff^ton-Courty where, he had large Wafts of his own, 
and great parcels ctf Wood, whidi made it very fit for the 
ufe he deiign'd it to : but as (bme Parifhes had Commons in 
thofe Wafts, fo, many Gentlemen,, and Farmers, had good 
Houfes, and good Farms intermingjled with thofe Waits of 
tiieir own Inheritance, or for ±eir Lives, or Years;, and with- 
out taking of Them into the Park, it would not be of the 
largenejfe, or for the ufe proposed. His Majefty delir'd to 
purchafe thofe Lands, and was very willing to buy them upon 
higher terms than the People could fell them at to any body 
clle, if they hadoccafion to part with them; and thought it 
no unrealbnable thing, upon mofe terms, to exped: this from 
his Subjedts; and fo he employ'd his own Surveyor, and 
other of his Officers, to treat witn the Owners, many where- 
of were his own Tenants, whofe Farms would at laft expire. 

The major part of the People were in a fhort time pre- 
vailed witli, but many very obftinately refiis'd ; and a Gentle- 
man, who had the bcft Eltate, with a convenient Houfe, and 
Gardens, would by no means part with it; and the-King 
being as earneft to compafe it, it made a great noife, as if the 
King would take away mens Eftates at his own pleamre. The 
Billiop of London^ wno was Treafiirer, and ±e Lord Cotting- 
toTty Chancellor of the Exchequen, were, from the firft entring 
upon ity very averfe from the Defign, not only for the mur- 
mur of the People, but becaufe the purchafe of the Land, and 
the making a Brick-wall about fo large a parcel of Ground 
( for it is near ten Miles about ) would coft a greater Sum oi 
money, than they could eafily provide, or than they thought . 
ought to be facrificcd to Such an occafion : and the Lord 
Cettington (who was more follicited by the Country people, 
and heard moft of their murmurs) took the bufinete moft to 
heart, arid endeavour'd by all the ways he could, and by fre- 
quent importunities, to divert his Majefty from purfuing it, 
and put all delays, he could well do, in tne bargains which 
were to be made ; till the King grew very angry with him, 


Of the RebelFton^ 8cc. loi 

and told him ^ he was refolv'd to go througji with it, and 
^ had already caufed Brick to be bum'd, and much of the 
^ Wall to be built upon his own Land : upon which Cottiffg-^ 
ton thought fit to acquiefce. 

The building the Wall before People coniented to jpart 
with their Lanc^ or their Common, looked to them as if by 
degrees they fliould be ihut out from both, and increas'd the 
murmur andnoife of the People, who were not concerned, 
as well as of them who were : and it was too near London 
not to be the common difcourfe. The Arch-Bifliop ( who 
deGr'd exceedingly that ±e King (hould be poflefs'd as much 
ofthe Hearts of tne People as was poflBble, at leaftthat they 
fhould have no juft Caufe to complain ) meeting with it, re- 
folv'd to fpeak with the Kiogofit^ whichhe did^ and re- 
ceived fiich an Anfwer from him , that he thought his Ma- 
jefty rather not informed enough ofthe Inconveniencies, and 
Mifchiefs of the thing, than pofitively refolv'd not to defift 
from it. Whereupon one day he took the Lord cottington 
afide (being infbrm'd that he diflik'd it, and , according to 
. his natural cuftom , ^ake with great warmth againft it) and 
told him, ^ he fhc»ild do very well to give the King good 
^^ Couofel, and to withdraw him from a Refolution, in which 
^ his Honour, and Juftice was fo much caUM in queftion. Cot- 
tington anfwer'd him very gravely, " that the thii^ defign'd 
*^ was y^vf Lawful , and he thought the King refolv'd very 
^^ well, fince the olace lay fo conveniently for ms Winter Ex- 
f^ercife, and that ne fliould by it not be compellM to make fo 
^ long Journeys, as he us'd to do, in that Seafon of the year, 
^' for his Sport , and that no body ought to difTwade him 
^ frpjji it. 

The Arch-Bifhop inflead of finding a Concurrence from 
him, as he expedled, feeing himfelf ReproachM upon the mat- 
ter for his Opinion, grew into much PafBon , teUing him, 
" Such Men as he would Ruin the King, and make him 
".lofe the Affedbipns of hisSubjedts; diat for his ownpart^ 
^^as he had begun, fo he would go on to diCRvade the King 
^ from proceeding in fo iU a Counfel, and that he hop'd it 
'^-would appear who had been his Counfellor. Cottington 
glad to fee him fo foon hot, and refolv'd to inflame him 
• more, very calmly reply'd to him, " that he thought a Man 
^^ could not, with agoodConfcience, hindier the King from 
*^ purfuing his Refolutions, and that it could not but proved 
^^from want of Affedtion to his Perfon, and he was not fiire 
^ that it might not be High Treafon. The other, upon the 
wildnefs of his difcourfe, in great anger ask'd him, ''Why? 
^ from whence he had receiv^ that doftrine ? he laid, with 
the fame Temper, '« They who did not wi(h the King's healthy 

G ? "could 

lox The Hiftory Book I. 

*^ could not love him ; and they who went about to hinder 
^ his taking Recreation, which prefcr/d his health, mi^t be 
^thought, for ought he knew, guilty of the higheft Crimes. 
Upon wmch the Arch-BifliOp in great Rage, and with many 
Reproaches left him, and either prefently, or upon the next 
opportunity, told the King, ^ that he now knew who was his 
^^ great Counfcllor for m&ig his Park, and that he did not 
^* wonder that Men durft not reprefent any Arguments to the 
^^ contrary, or let his Majefty know how much he Suffered 
^^ in it^ when fiich Principles in Divinity, and Law, were laid 
^' down to Terrify ±em ; and fo recounted to him the Con- 
ference he had with the Lord Cotthgton^ bitterly inveigh- 
ing againft him, and his Dodtrinc^ mentioning him with all 
the {harp Reproaches imaginable, and befi^hing his Majefty 
^' that riis Counfel might not prevail with hiniL, taking Ibme 

Eains to make his Condufions appear very falfe, andKidicu- 

The King 6id no more, but, " My Lord, you are deceived, 
^^ Cottmgton is too hard for you ; upon my word he hath not 
^^only diflwaded me more, and given morfe Reafons againft. 
^^thisBufinefe, than all the Men in England have done, but 
f^ hath really obftm<aed the Work by not doing his Duty, as 
^^ I commanded him, for which I have been very much dif- 
^^pleafed with him : you fee how Unjuftly your Paflion hath 
^' tranfported you. By which Reprehenfion he found how 
much he had been Abus'd, and Relented it accordingly. 

Whatsoever wastheCaufe of it, this excellent Man, 
who ftood not upon the advantage ground before , from the 
time of his Promotion to die Arch-Bi(hoprick , or rather 
from that of his being CommiiTioner of the Treafury, exceed- 
ingly provoked, or underwent the Envy, and Reproach, and 
Malice of Men of all Qialities, and^ Conditions j who agreed 
in nothing elfe : all which, though well enough known to 
him, were not enough Confider'd by him , who believed, as 
molt Men did, the Government to be fo fimily Settled, that 
it could nei±er be Shaken from within, nor without, and that 
lefs than a general ConfufionofLaw andGofpel, could not 
hurt him ; which was true too ^ but he did not Forefee how 
eafily that Confufion might be brought to pafs, as it prov'd 
fhortly to be. And with this generS Obfervation of the out- 
ward vifible Profperity, and the inward refcrv'd difpofition of 
the People to Murmur, and Unquictnefs, we Conclude this 
Firft Book. 

The End of the First Book. 

[ log ] 


Hiftpry of the Rebellion , ^c 

B I^lh 

FfaL LIT, 2j 4. 

Tby Tonffie devifeth Mifcbiefsy like ajharp l^fouKy 

rvorkjng deceitfully 1 
Thou lovefi all devouring words , thou deceitful 


Pfal. Lv. 21. 

The words of his Mouth werefmoother than Butter ^ 
but War was in his Heart : his words werefofter 
than Oyl^ yet were they draiwn Swords. 

IT was towards the end of the Year 1633, when the^-.^^^.^ 
King return'd from Scotland , having left it to the sc^Xnd 
Care offome of the Biihops there to provide fuch Rafter the 
Liturgy , and fuch a Book of Canons , as might befl ^^* re- 
fuit the Nature and Humour of the Better fort of that J^^J**"" 
People j to which the reft would eafily fubmit : and that, Hl^^, ^/ 
as fail as they made them ready, they fliould tranfmit thcmeompejingi 
to the Arcb-Bifhop of Canterbury y to whofe afEftance the i-iturgj <« 
King joyn'd the Biiliop of London^ and Dodlor Wren^ who, f*'*'"* 
by mat time, was become Bilhop of Norwich -^ a Man of a 
fevere , four Nature , but very Learned , and particularly 
verfed in the old Lfturaes of the Greek^ and Latin Churches. 
And after his Majefh' fliould be this way certified of what 
was ib fentj he would recommend, and enjoyn the Pradlice 
and Ufe of both to that his Native Kingdom. The Bifliops 
there had fomewhat to do, before they went about the pre- 
paring the Canons, and the Liturgy j what had pafs'd at the 
King^ being there in Parliament, nad left bitter Inclinations, 
and unruly Spirits in many of the moft Popular Nobility ^ 
who watched only for an oppormnity to inflame the People* 

G 4 and 

104- ^^^ ^\ftory Book 11. 

aild were WeU enough contented to fee Combuftible matter 
every day gathjer'd together, to contribute to that Fire. 

The promoting fo many Biibops to be of die Privy- 
Council, and to (it in the Courts of Juftice, feem'd at fim 
vi^onderiully to facilitate all that was in defign, and to create 
an Affedlion and Reverence towards the Church, at leaft aa 
application to and dependence upon die grcateft Church- 
men. So that there feem'd to be not only a good prepara- 
tion made with the People, but a general expedlation, and 
even adefire that they might have a Liturgy, and more De- 
cency obferv'd in the Church. And this Temper was be- 
lieved to be the more univerial, becaufe neidier from any of 
the Nobility , nor of th^ Clergy , who were thought moft 
jiverfe from itj there appear'd any lign of Contradiction, nor 
• that licence of Language agairift it, as was natural to that 
Nation j but an entire Acquiefcence in all thfe Bifhops thought 
fit to do j which was interpreted to proceed from a Con- 
verfion in their Judgement, at lealt to aSubmUIion to Au- 
thority : whereas in truth, it appear'd afterwards to be from 
the obfervation they made of die Temper, and Indifcretion 
of thofe Biihops in the greateft Authority , ±at they were 
like to have more Advantages adminifter'd to them by Their 
ill Managery, than they could raife by any Contrivance of 
their own. 
r^uchin^the I T was now two Ycars, or very near fb much, before the 
jcotiih Co- BiQiops in Scot /and had prepar'd any thing to offer to the 
King towards their intendecl Reformation ; and then they 
Inverted the proper method , and firft prelented a Body of 
Canons to precede the Liturgy, which Was not yet ready, 
they choofing to finifli die Ihorter work firft. The King 
referr'd the conTideration of the Canons, as he had before re- 
folv'd to do, to the Arch-Bilhop, and the other two Biihops 
formerly nam'd , the Bilhop of London , and the Bifhop of 
Norwich j who, after their perufal of them, andfome Alte* 
rations made, widi the conient of thofe Bifhops who brought 
them from Scot /and ^ retum'd them to the King; and his 
Majefty, impatient to fee the good work entred upon, with- 
out any other Ceremony (after having j^ven his Royal ap- 
probation ) iflued out his Proclamation for the due Ooferva- 
tion of them within his Kingdom of Scot /and. 

It was a fatal Inadvertency that thefe Canons, neither be- 
fore, nor after they were fent to the King, had been ever 
iSeen by the Aflembly, or any Convocation of the Clergy, 
whicli was fo itridUy oblig'd to the Obfervation of them; 
nor fo much as Communicated to the Lords of the Council 
of that Kingdom ; it being almofb impoflSble that any new 
Pifcipline could beintroduc'd into the CSiurch, which would 



of the Rehellion^ &c. 10 j* 

not much concern the Government of the State, and even 
trench upon, or refer to The Municipal Laws of the King* 
dom. And, in this confideration, the Arch*^Bilhcq> of Oi»- 
terburj had always declar'd to the Bilhops of Seotlandi 
^ that it was Their part to be liire, that nothing they fliould 
"propofe to the King in the Birfinefs of the Church, fliould 
<« be contrary to the LawsoftheL^nd, which He could not 
^^be thought to underltandj and that they fhould never 
^put any thing in execution, without the confent and ap- 
^ probation of the Privy-Council. But it was the unhappy 
Craft of thofe Bifhops to get it believ'dby the King, that the 
work would be Grateftd to the moft conliderable of the No- 
bility, the Clergy, and the People ( which they could hardly 
believe) in order to the obtaining hisMajefty's Approbation^ 
and Authority for the execution of that j which they did 
really believe would not find Oppofition from the Nooility^ 
Clergy, or People, againft his Majefty^s cxprefs Power, and 
Will, which without doubt was then in great Veneration in 
that Kingdom ; and fo they did not , in truth, dare to fiib- 
mit thole Canons to any other Examination, ±an what the 
King fhould diredt in England, 

It was, in the next place, asftrange, that Canons (hould 
be publifti'd before the Liturgy was prepared ( which was 
not ready in a year after, or thereabouts) when three or 
four of the Canons were principally for the Obfervation of^ 
and punctual Comphance with the Liturgy ; which all the ^ 
Oergy were to be fworn to fubmit to, ^ to pay all Obe- 
dience to what was enjoyn'd by it, before they knew what 
it contained. Whereas if the Liturgy had been firft publifti'd 
with all due Circumltances, it is poflible that it might have 
ft)und a better Reception, and tne Canons have been left 

The Scot^ Nation, how capable foever it was of being 
led by fome Great Men, and mif led by the Clergy, would 
have been corrupted by neither into a barefaced Kebellion 
againft their King, whofe Perfon diey lov^d, and reverenced - 
his Government ; nor could they have been wrought upon 
towards the leflening the one , or the other, by any other 
Suggeftions , or Infiitions , thm fuch as ftiould make them 
jealous, or apprehenfive of a defign to introduce Popery ^ a 
great part of their Religion confilting in an entire detelution 
of Popery, in believing the Pope to be Antichrilt, and hating 
perfectly the Perfons of all Papilts. 

The Canons now publilh'd, befides (as hath been touched 
before) that diey had pafs'd no Approbation of the Clergy, 
or been Communicated to the Council, appear'd to be lb 
many new Laws impos'd upon the whole Kingdom b^ the 

lo^ The Hiftory Book II. 

King's fole Authority, and contrived by a few Private Men, 
of whom they had no good opinion, and who were Strang- 
ers to the Nation , fo that it was thought no other than a 
Subje<3ion to England^ by receiving Laws from thence, of 
which they were moft j«dous, and which they moft pailio- 
nately abhorred. Then they were fo far from being confin'd 
to the Church, and the matters of Religion , that they be- 
lieved there was no part of their Civil Government unin- 
vaded by Aem, and no Perfons of what Quahty foever un- 
concerned, and, as they thought, unhurt in them. And there 
were fome things in lome particular Canons, how rational 
foever in themlelves, and now diftant foever in the words 
and expreflions from inclining to Popery, which yet gave too 
much advantage to Thofe who malicioufly watch'd the oc- 
caOon, to perfwade Weak Men that it was an Approach, 
and Introdudion to that ReUgion , the very Imagination 
whereof Intoxicated all Men, and deprived them of all facul- 
ties to Examine, and Judge. 

Some of the faid Canons defin'd, and determined fuch an 
unlimited '^ Power, and Prerogative to be in the King, ac- 
^ cording to the Pattern ( ui exprefs terms ) of the Kings of 
^ IJraeiy and fuch a full Supremacy in all Cafes Ecclefialtical, 
^as hath never been pretended to by their former Kings, or 
"fiibmitted to by the Clergy, and Laity of that Nation; 
which made impreilion upon Men of all tempers, humours, 
and inclinations ; « And that no Ecclefiaftical Perfon ihould 
^ become Surety, or Bound for any Man ; that National, or 
<' General Aflfemblics Ihould be called only by the King's Au- 
*^ thority ; that all Bilhops, and other Eccleliaftical Perfons, who 
^ dye without Cliildren , fliould be oblig'd to give a good 
^^ part of their Eftates to the Church, and, though they fliould 
"have Children, yet to leave fomewhatto the Church, and 
" for advancement of Learning j which fecm'd rather to be 
matter of State, and Policy, than of Religion; thwarted their 
Laws and Cultoms, wliich had been obferv^d by them; 
leflen'd, if not took away, ±c Credit of Church-men; and 
prohibited them from that liberty of Commerce in Civil Af- 
fairs, which the Laws permitted to them; and reflected upon 
the intereft of Thofe who had, or might have aright to In- 
herit from Clergy-men. "That none fliould receive theSa- 
^' crament but upon their Knees ; that the Clergy fhould 
^' have no private meetings for expounding Scripture, or for 
" coiifulting upon Matters Eccldialtical ; that no Man fliould 
"cover his head in the time of Divine Service; and that no 
" Clergy-man ihould conceive Prayers ex tempore , but be 
" bound to pray only by the Form prefcrib'd in the Liturgy 
( which by the way was not feen nor fram'd) "and that no 

'^ man 

Of the ReleUioHy &c. 107 

^manfliould teach a publick School, or in a private Houfe^ 
<* without a Licence frft obtained from the Arch-Bifliop of 
^ ±e Province, or the Bifliop of the Diocefs. 

All thefe were new, and things with which they had 
not b^n acquainted ^ and though they misht be fit to be 
commended to a regular, and orderly People piously difpo- 
fed, yet it was too ifa-ong meat for Infants in Difcipline, and ^ 
too much nourifhment to be adminifter'd at Once to weak, 
and qucafy Stomachs, and too much inclined to naufeat 
what was moft wholefome. But then to apply the old 
terms of the Church, to mention ^^the ^iuatuor temforay 
*^and reffa^n all Ordinations to thofe four Seafons of the 
^* Yearj to enjoyn a Font to be prepared in every Church 
^^fbr Baptifin, and a decent Table for the Communion^ and 
^^ to dired: , and appoint the places where both Font and 
" Table ihould ftand , and decent Ornaments for either j to 
^^reftrain any Excommunication from being pronounced, or 
•^Abfblution from being given, without the approbation of 
^ the Bifliop ; to mention any practice of ContiBffion ( which 
they look'd upon as the ftrongeft, and moft infepand)le Limb 
of Antichrift ) and to enjoyn « that no Presbyter fhould re- 
^ veal any thing he fhould receive in Confeflion , except in 
"fiich cjues , where, by the Law of the L^uid, lis own Life 
^^ fliould be Forfeited j were all fuch matters of Innovation, 
and in their nature fo fu^icious, that they thought they had 
reafon to be Jealous of the worft that could follow j and the 
lalt Canon of all provided "that no Perfon fhould be re- 
^^ ceiv^d into Holy Orders, or fuffer'd to Preach, or Adminifter 
^^ the Sacraments, without firft Subfcribing to thofe Canons. 

It was now eafy for Them who had thofe Indinationf, 
to fuggeft to Men of all conditions that here was an entire 
new Model of Government in Church and States the King 
might do what he would upon them all , and the Church 
was nothing but what the Bifhops would have it be : which 
they every day infiifed into the minds of the People, with 
all the Artifices which adminifter Jealoulies of all kinds to 
thofe who were lyable to be difquieted with them ^ yet they 
would not fiifier ( which fliew'd wonderful power, and won- 
derfiil dexterity ) any diforder to break out upon all thi$ oc- 
cafion, but all was quiet, except Ipreading c» Libels againft 
the Biftiops, and propagating that Spirit as much as they 
could , by their CJorrefpondence in England-^ where they 
found too many every day tranfported by the fame Infiifions, 
in expedbition that tnefc Seeds of Jealouly from the Canons 
would grow apace, and produce luch a Reception for the Li- 
turgy as. they wifli'd for. 


io8 The HiPory Book II. 

'mchingthe It was about thc month of Juiyy in the Year 1637, that 
cotiih u- the Liturgy ( after it had been fent out of Scotlandy and per- 
•^* iifed by me three Bifliops in Engiand^ and then approved and 
confinny by the King ) was Puhlifh'dj and appointed to be 
Read in all the Churches. And in this particular there was 
the fame aSeded and premeditated Omimon, as had been in 
the preparation and publication of die Canons; the Clergy 
not at all confiiltedin it, and, which was more ftrange, not 
all the Bifhops acquainted with it; which was left cemur'd 
afterwards , when fome of them renounced their Fundlion^ 
and became ordinaryPresbyters, as foon as ±ey faw the cur- 
rent of the time. The Privy-toundl had no other notice 
of it, than all the Kingdom had: the Sunday before, when it 
was declar'd, ^ ±at me next Sunday the Litur^ fliould be 
^Read; by which th^ were the lefe concerned to fbrefee, 
or prevent any Obftruftions which migjit happen. 

The Proclamation had appointed it to be Read the Eafier 
before, but the £arl ofTV^^itwHigh Treafurer of Scotland 
(who was the only Councellor or Layman relyed upon by 
the Arch-Bifhop of 028/^^77 inthatbufineis ) perfwaded the 
King to defer it till Jufy^ that fome good preparation might 
be made for the more chearfiil Reception of it. And as tnis 
paufe ^ve the difcontented Party more heart, and more time 
for their Seditious ^Negotiations, fotheillConfequence of it, 
or the Adtions which were fubfequent to it, made him fii- 
£ped;ed to be Privy to all the Con^iracy, and to be an Ene- 
my to the Church ; though in tmth there neither appeared 
then, nor in all the very unformnate part of his life afterwards, 
any juft ground for that accuGition, and fufpicion ^ but as he 
was exceedingly oblig'd to the Arch-Bifhop, fo he was a man 
of great Parts, and well affedted to the Work in hand in his 
own judgement j and if he had been as much depended upon, to 
have advis'd the Bilhops in the Profecution, and for the Con- 
duct of it, as he was to afliit them in the carrying on what- 
Ibever They proposed , it is very probable , that either fo 
Much would not have been undertaken together, or that it 
would have fucceeded better j for he was without doubt not 
inferior to any of that Nation in Wifdom , and Dexterity. 
An^ though ne was often provok'd , by the Infolence of 
fome of the Bifhops, to a Diuike of their overmuch Fervour, 
and too little Diicretion, his Integrity to the King was with- 
out blemifh, and his Affection to the Church fo notorious, 
that he never def^tcd it, till both It and He were over-mn, 
and trod under foot j and they who were the molt notorious 
Perfecutors of It, never left Perfecuting Him to the Death. 

Nor was any thing done which he had proposed, for thp 

better Adjuiting things in- the time of th^ Sulpenfion , but 

^ every 

Of the ReheUion^ &c. 109 

every thing left in the fime ftate of Unconcemednefi as it was 
before , not fo much as the Council's being better Informed 
of it ^ as if they had been fure that all men would have Sub- 
mitted to it for Confcience fake. 

O N the &inday morning appointed for the work, the Tht tmumer 
Chancellor of Scotland^ and others of the Council, being pre- ^'^ '*^ ^^ 
fent in the Cathedral Church, the Dean begun to read the ^^"^.J^ 
Liturgy, which he had no fooner enter'd upon, but a noife Edenbo- 
and a clamour was rais'd throughout the Church, that no rough, 
words could be heard diftindly, and then a fhower of Stones, 
and Sticks, and Cudgels were thrown at the Dean's head. 
The Biihop went up into the Pulpit, and from thence put 
them in mmd of the Sacrednefs of the Place, of their E)uty to 
God and the King; but he found no more Reverence, no» 
was the clamour and diforder Ids than before. The Qian- 
cellor, from his Seat, commanded the Provoft and Magiftrates 
of the City to defcend from the Gallery in whidi they fitter 
and by their Au±ority to Supprefs the Riot ; which at laft 
widi g^eat Difficulty they did, oy driving the Rudeft of thofe 
who made the diftufbance out of the Church, and fliutting 
the Doors, which gave the Dean opportunity to proceed in 
the reading of the Liturgy, that was not at all attended or 
hearken'd to by thofe who remained within the Church ; and 
if it hadj they who were tum'd out continued their barba- 
rous Noife, oroke the Windows, and endeavoured to break 
down the Doors ; fo that it was not pofBble for any to follow 
their Devotions. 

Wh E N all was done that at that time could be done there, 
and the Council and Magiftrates went out of the Church to 
their Houfes, the Rabble followed the Bifhops with all ±e 
opprpbrious language they could invent, of bringing in Su- 

Fcrftition aqd Popery into the Kingdom, and making the 
eople Slaves; and were not content to ufe their I'ot^.^^ues, 
but employed their Hands too in throwing Dirt and Siones 
at them ; and tr^ted the Biihop di Edenborough^ whom, tiiey 
looked upon as moft A(9ivethat way, fo Rudely, that with 
difficulty he got into a Houfe, after tney had torn his Habit, 
and was from thence remov'd to his own, with great ha- 
zard of his Life. As this was the Reception it had in the 
Cathedral, fo it for^d not better in the other Churches of the 
City, but was entertained with the fame Hollowing and Out- 
cries y and thrcatning the Men whofe office it was to read it, 
with the fame bitter Execrations againft Bifhops and Popery. 

Hitherto no perfon of Condition or Naime appeared, 
or fecm'd to countenance this feditious ConfuQon \ it was the 
Rabble, of which no body was named, and which is more 
ftfange, .not one apprehended : and it feems the Bilbops 



I IX The Hiftory Book II. 

kindle the feme Fire there, but, with their Letters, fent 
them to all the Reformed Churches, by which they rais'd fo 
great a Prejudice to the King, that too many of them believ'd, 
mat die Kang had a real deugn to change Religion, and in- 
troduce Popery. 

It is very true, there were very many of the Nobility,, 
and Peribns of principal Quality of that Nation, and in Eden- 
hrouzh at that time, who did not appear yet, and concur in 
this &ditious behaviour, or own their being yet, of their Par- 
ty^ but on the contrary feem'd very much to diflikc tiieir 
proceedings : but it is as tme, that very few had the courage 
to do any thing in Oppofition to them, or to concur in the 
Profecution of any Regal Ad: againft them ; which did in 
ibme refpecfb more advance their Defigns, than if they had 
manifeftly join'd with diem. For thefe Men, many of whom 
were of the Council, by all their Letters into England^ ex^r 
ceedingly undervalued the Diforder, as being "very eaiy to 
" be Suppref^d in a fhort time, when the Peoples eyes fhould 
^ be open'd ; and that the removing the Courts to lome other 
*^ place, and a gracious condefcenGon in the King in oflering 
^Pardon for what was paft^ would iuddainly Subdue them, 
^* and every body would return to his Duty : and the City of 
Edenhorougb it felf writ an humble Letter to the Arch- 
Bifhop of Canter Imry^ excufing the Diforders which had 
been raised by the Ignorance and Rudenefs of the meaneft of 
the People, and befeeching him '^to intercede with his Ma^ 
^'jefty for the fiilpenfion of his Prejudice to them, till they 
*^ Ihould manifeft their Duty to him, by inflidling exemplary 
^ Punifliment upon the chief Offenders, and earning the Li^ 
*^ turgy to be received, and fiibmitted to in all their Churches j 
which they profefs'd they would in a fliort time bring to pafe. 
So that by this means, and the Interpofition of all tho{e of 
that Nation who attended upon his Majefty in his Bed-Cham-p 
ber, and in feveral Offices at Court, who all undertook to 
know by their Intelligences that all was quiet, or would 
Ipeedily be fo ; his Majefty ^\yho well knew thi they who 
appeared molt adive in this Confederacy were much inferior 
to Thofe who did not appear, and who profefs'd great Zeal 
for his Service ) hardly prevailed with himfelf to believe that 
he would receive any Dilturbance from thence, till he found 
all his Condefcenfions had rais'd their Infolence, all his Of- 
fers rejedted, and his Proclamation of Pardon flighted and 
contemned j and that they were Lifting men towards the 
raifing an Army, under the obligation of their Covenant, and 
had already chofen Colonel Ijejly^ a Soldier of that Nation of 
long Experience and eminent Conunand under the King of 
Siaeden in Germany^ to be their General ; who being lately 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. iig 

DiToblig'd (as they call'd it) by the King, that is^ denied 
fomewhat he hod a mind to nav^ had accepted of the Com- 
mand. Then at laft ±e King diought it time to refbrt to 
o±er Counfels, and to provide Force to chafHie them who 
had (o much de^ifed all his gentler Remedies. 

H E could now no longer defer the acquainting the Coun-* 
dl-Board, and the whole Xingdom oi Entiamd^ with the In- 
dignities he had fuilain'd in Scotland'^ which he did by Pro- 
clamations, and Declarations at large, iettiog out the whole 
Proceeding which had been^ and in the end of the Year 1638; 
declar'd his Refolution to raife an Aimy to Supprefs their 
Rebellion ; for which he gave prefent order. 

And tMs was the firft Alarm Enzland received towatds 
any Trouble, aifter it had enjoyed for fo many Years the moft 
unintermpted ProQ)erity, in a full and pilendiiil Peac^ that 
any Nation could be bldls'd with : and a8*±ere was no am>re- 
henfion of trouble from Within, fo it was fecur'd from With- 
out, by a fbronger Fleet at Sea than the Nation had ever been 
acquainted wit£ which drew reverence from all the neigh- 
bour Princes. The Revenue had been fo well improved, and 
fo -warily managed, that diere was Money in the Exchequer 
proportionable for the undertaking any noole Enterprife : nor 
did this firii: noife of War, and approach towards Action, 
ftem to make any imprefSon upon the Minds of men, the 
Scots being in no d^ree either I^v'd or Feared by the People ^ 
and moft men hoped, that this would free the Court from be- 
ing henceforth troubled with Thofe men ^ and fo they feem'd 
to embrace the Occafion with ncrtiable alacrity : and ±ere is 
no doubt, but if all of dmt Nation who were united in the 
Rebellion (feme of which Md yet in the Court) had 
march'd in their Army, and pubUckly Own'd the Covenant^ 
which in their Hearts they ador'd, neither the King, nor 
the Kingdom, could have fuftain'd any great Damage by 
them; but the monument of their Prefumption and their 
Shame would have been raifcd tc^edier, and no other me- 
mory prderv'd of their Rebellion but m their noemorable 

God Allmig^ty would not fuf&r this difcerning ^rit 
of Wifdom to govern at this time : the King diougM it un- 
juft to condemn a Nation for die tran%reflion of a part dF it^ 
and flill hoped to redeem it from the in&my of a General 
Defedlion, by the exemplary Jb iddity of a Superior Party, 
and therefore withdrew not his Confidence from any ot 
Thole who attended his Perfon, who, in tmth, lay Leiger 
for the Covenant^ and kept up the fpirits of their Country- 
men by Their inteUigence. 

Vol.1. Parti H The 

1 14. The Hiftory Book II. 

TheKing Th e Kiiig hafteii'd the Raifinean Army, which was not 

raifes tuHir-loTig in doine. He chofe tx> maxe tiie £arl of jfrtmdei )us 

mj ^ainfi General, a Man who was dioudit to be made choice of for 

tue scots; ^^ Negative Quiditics : He did Not love the Scott ^ he did 

Not love the Puritans ; which Qualifications were aUay'd by 

another Native, he did Not much love Any body elfe : 

but he was m to keep the State of it ^ and his Rank was fuch, 

that no man would decline the Serving under him. 

The Earl of EjBix was made lieutenant-General of the 
Army, the moft Popular man of the Kingdom, and the 
Darhng of the Sword-men^ who, between a hatred and a 
contempt of the Sca$Sy had nothing like an afiedtion for any 
man of that Nation; and therefore was fb well pleased with 
his Promotion, that he beg^n to love the King the better 
for cpnferring it upon him, and enter'd upon the province 
with great Fidelity and Alacrity, and was capable n-om that 
hour of any Impreffion the Ki^ would have fix'd upon him. 
The Earl ot HoUoMd was General of theHorfe, who, be- 
(ides the Obligations he had to the Queen (who vouch&fed 
to own a pardcular trufi: in him ) was not then lyable to 
theleaft Sufpicion of want of afiedion, and TiCal for the King's 

I N the beginning of the ^rii^ which was in the Year 
1639, on Army was drawn to^paxer of near fix thoufand 
Horfe, and about that number m Foot, all very well difci- 
plin'd Men, under as good and experienced Officers, as were 
to be found at that time in cbrtjhndom. With this Army 
abundantly fupplied with a Train of Artillery, and all other 
Proviiions necedary, the King advanced in me beginning of 
the Summer towards the Borders of Scotland. 
and a Fleet. Thi s was not all the Strength that was provided for the 
Supprelfing that Rebellion, but the King had likewife pro- 
vided a good Fleet, and had caufed a body of three thouiand 
Foot to be embark'd on thofe Ships ^ all which were put 
under the Commuid of the Marquis of Hamilton^ who was 
to infcft the Ckxmtry by Sea to hinder their Trade, and to 
make a defcent upon the Land, and join with (iich Forces as 
the Loyal Party of that Nation fhould draw together to aflift 
the King's, which his Own intereft (as was believed ) would 
give great Life to, his Family beins numerous in the Nobi- 
fity, and united in an entire Dependence upon him. 
Thr Earl •f u p o N the firlt March of the Army Northwards, the Earl 
f *^^* ^#/" of JS;^* was fent with a party of Horfe and Foot, toufe all 
/f^Bcrwicjc. ppfljble expedition to poflefs himfelf of Borwkk^ which the 
King had been advertis'd the Scots would foeedUy be Ma- 
flers of. The Earl loft no time, but miarch'd ' day and night 
with great order and diligence j and every day met feveral 


Of the ReheUion^ &c. 1 1 j 

Scots-mtn of Quality well known to him, and font cxprefsly 
to the Kins, who" all feverally made him very particular re- 
lations of me ftrerigth of the Scots Army, the excellent Difci- 
pline that was obier/d in it, and the ^xxlneis of the Men,' 
and that they were by that time pofleis'd of Berwick j and 
when he was within one day's March of it, a Perlbn of prin- 
cipal Condition, of very near relation to die King's Service 
( who pretended to be i(ent upon matter of high Importance 
to his Majefty firom Thofe who moft intended his Service 
there) met him, and advis'd him very eameflJy ^^not to 
^ advance farther with his Party, which, he fidd, ^ was fo 
« much Inferior in number to uiofe of die Enemy, that it 
«^ would infallibly be cut off: that himfelf overtook die day 
** before a ftrong Party of the Army, confifHng of three thou- 
" fend Horfe am Foot with a Train of ArdUery, all which 
« he left at (uch a Place ^ which he named ) ^ within three 
« hours' March of Berwick^ where they refblv*d to be the 
** Nig^t before, fb that his proceeding farther m&ft be Fruit- 
" left, and expofe him to inevitable Ruin. Thefe Advertife- 
ments wrought no otherwifc upon the Earl, than to hailen 
his Marches, infbmuch that he came to Berwick fooner dian 
he proposed to have done, enter'd the Place without the leaft 
Oppofition, and by all the Enquiry he could makt by fend- 
ing out Parties, and other Adverdfements, he could not dif^ 
cover that any of the Enemies Forces had been drawn diat 
way, nor indeed that they had any confiderable Forces toge^ 
ther nearer than Eden^orowgh, 

The Earl being dius pollefs'd of his Poft, loft no dme in 
advertifing the King of it, and fent him a very particular -^ac- 
count of me Informations he had received fix>m fo many Ear 
and Eye witnefles, who were all at that dme in the Court, and 
very fit to be [\xvpe&cd after the publilhing of fo many 
Falmoods ; and thefe very Men had been conftant in the 
feme Reports, and as confident in reporting the Defeat of the 
Earl of Effex and cutting ofi'his Par^, as they had been to 
Himfelf of the Scots March, and their being Mafters of Ber- 
wick. The Joy was not conceal'd with which his Majefty 
receiv'd the News of the Earl's being in Berwick^ the Con- 
trary whereof thofe Men made him' apprehend with much 
Perplexity ; but they underwent no other reproach for their 
Intelligence, than that their Fears had tnuldplied their Sight, 
and that they had been Fnghted with other mens Relations y 
which Remifsncfs, to call it no worfe, was an ill Omen ot 
the Difcipline that was like to be obferv'd. 

I p the War had been now vigoroully purfued , it had 
I>een as fbon ended as begim; for at this tmic they had not 
drawn three thoufind Men together in the whole kingdom 

f 1 r of 

11 6 . TheHiliory Book II. 

of Scot/and^ nor had in truth Anns compleat for iiich a num- 
ber, though They had the pofleflion ot' all the King's Forts 
and Magazines there, nor had they Ammunition to fupply 
their few Fire-Arms^ Horfes they had, and Officers they 
had, which made all their Shew. But it was the &tal Mis- 
fortune of the King, which proceeded from the &ccellency 
of his Nature, and nis Tendemefi of Blood, that he Drferr'd 
ib long his Refoludon of ufing his Arms : and after he hid 
Uken that Refoludon, that it was not Frotecuted with more 

He more intended the Pomp of his Preparations than the 
Strength of ±cm, and did ftilt believe that the one would 
fave the labour of the other. At the fame time that he re- 
fblv'd to raifc an Army, he caufed enquiry to be made, what 
Obligations lay upon his Subjedis to affilt him, both as he 
went himfelf m Perfon, and as it was an Expedition againft 
the Scots j which, in the ancient Enmity between the two 
Nadons, had been provided for by fome Laws^ and in the 
Tenure which many Men held their Eftates by, he found 
that the Kings had mually, when they went to make War in 
their own Perfons, call'd as many of the No4?ility to attend 
upon them as they thought fit. 
ate KJnr Thereupon hcSimmon'dmoftoftheNobilityof the 
hmmoni ^ Kiiigdom, without any confideradon of their Affedions how 
he Englirht}^^.y j[|.QQ^ difpofed to that Service, to Attend upon him by 
"^nlnThim ^ ^^V appointed, and throughout that Expedition j prefum- 
' ing that the glory of fuch a vifiblc appearance of the whole 
Nobility, would look like fuch an Union in the Quarrel, as 
would at once Terrify and Reduce the Scots j not confider- 
ing that fiich kinds of Uniting do often produce the greateft 
Confiiiions, when more and greater Men are call'd together 
than can be united in ASedions and Interefis ^ and in the 
neceOary Differences wliich arife from thence, they quickly 
come to know each other fo well, as thev rather break into 
leveral DivWions, than Join in any one Puolick intercity and 
from hence have always rifen the moft dangerous Fadtions, 
which have threatened and min'd the Peace of Nations : and 
it fell out no better here, if there had been none in the 
March but Soldiers, it is molt probable that a noble Peace 
would have quickly enfiied, even widioutFig^dng^ but the 
Progreis was more illuitrious than the March, and the Soldiers 
were the leaft part 6f the Army, and leaft confulted with. 

In ±is Pomp the King continued his Journey to TorJ^^ 

. where he had a fiill Court, thofe Noblemen of the Northern 

Parts, and many others who overtook not the King till then^ 

joining all in that City ^ where his MdJQ&y found it necef- 

iary to iby fome days 3 and there the I'ruit^ that was to be 


Of the Rebellion^ &c. 1 17 

gathcr'd from fuch a Conflux , quickly budded out. Some 
Rules were to be fet down for the Government of the Army ; 
the Court was too Numerous to be wholely left to its own 
Licence^ and the Multitude of the Scots in it^ adminiilred 
matter of Offence and Jealouly to People of all Conditions, 
who had too much caufe to fear that the King was every. day 
betray'd ^ die common diicourfe by all the Scots being either 
to magnify the good Intentions of their Country-men, and 
that they had all Duty for the King , or to undervalue the 
Power and Intereft of Thofc who difcover'd themfelves a* 
gainft the Church. 

I T ^'as therefore thought fit by the whole body of the 
Council, that a fhort Proteftation mould be drawn, in which 
all Menlhould "profefe their Loyalty and Obedience to his 
^^Majefty, and duclaim and renounce the having any Intel* 
^ ligcnce , or holding any Correlpondence with the Rebels. 
No Man imaging it poiiible that any of die Englijh would 
refufe to make that Protcltationj and they who thought 
woril of the Scots , did not think they would make any 
Scruple of doing the toie, and confequendy that there would 
be no Fruity or Difcovery from that Tdt ^ but ±ey were 
deceived : the Scots indeed took it to a Man, without griev- 
ing their Confcience , or reforming their Manners. But a- 
mongit the E^gliJh Nobility the Lord Say^ and the Lord Brook 
(two Popular Men, and molt Undevoted to the Church, 
and, in truth, to the whole Government ) pofirively refus'd 
in the King^s own Prefence to make any uich Proteltation. 
They laid, " If the King fufpedted their Loyalty He might 
*' proceed againft them as he diought fit : W that it was 
*' ajgaintt the Law to impofe any Oaths or Proteftations upon 
" them which were not Enjoyn'd by the Law j and, in that 
" rcipe<3:, that they might not betray the common Liberty, 
^'they would not Submit to it. This adminiftred matter of 
new Difpute in a very unfeafbnable time ; and ±ou^ there 
did not then appear more of the &me Mind, and tney two 
were Committed, atleaftReflrain*dof their uberty,yet this 
difcover'd too much of the Humour and Spirit of the Court 
in their daily difcourfes upon that Subjedt ^ fo that the King 
thought it bed todifmifs diofe two Lords, and require them 
to return to their Houies: and if all therelt who were not 
Officers of the Army* or of abiblute NccelBSty about the King's 
Peribn, had been likewifedifmifi'd andfent Home, theBim- 
nefs had been better Profecuted. 

Indeed if the King himielf had ftay'd at London^ or, 
whidi had been the next bdt, kept his Court and rdGded at 
Tork^ and fent the Army on their proper Errand , and left 
the matter ofthe War wholely to Them, in all human rea- 

H 3 fon. 

ii8 TheHiftory Book IF. 

'Ibn, liis Enemies had been foeedUy Subdu'd j and that King- 
dom Rcduc d to their Obedience. 

Before the King left Tork^ Letters and Addrcfles were 

fimt from the Scots^ ^ Lamentiii^ their ill Fortune, that their 

^Enemies had fo great Credit with the King, as to perlwadc 

"him to believe that they were or could be Difobedient to 

" him, fl thing that could never enter into their Loyal Hearts^ 

^ that they defend nothing but to be admitted into die Pre- 

*^ fence of their Gracious Soveraign, to lay their Grievances 

« at his Royal Feet, and leave the Detennination of them 

" entirely to hi3 own Wiftiom and Pleafure. And though the 

Humility of the Style gain'd them many Friends, who thouriit 

it great pity, that any Blood fhould be foUt in a Contention 

which ms Majefty mig^t put an end to oy his own Word as 

foon as he would hear their Complaints , yet hitherto the 

^'* ^^"j^ King preferv'd himfelf from beii^ wrougjit upon, and marched 

w 'r/ ^of with convenient Expedition to the very Borders of Scot Ian J^ 

Scotland and Encamp'd with his Army in an open Field call'd the 

mtij his BerkeSy on the further fide of Bertmck^ and lodg'd in his Tent 

sArmj. ^ifji |.}^e Army; though every day's March wrought very 

much upon the Conftitution if^not me Course of the Court, 

and too many wiih'd aloud, ^that the BufineS were brought 

^* to a fair Treaty. 

Sfndsthe UroN advertifcmcnt that a Party of the Scots Army was 

> of upon the March, the Earl of Holland was fent with a Body 

^uU^t ^*^^^^^ thoufand Horfe, and two thoufand Foot , with a fit 

uuncer' Train of Artillery, to meet it, and Engage with it; who 

March'd accordingly into Scotland early in a Morning as far as 

a Place call'd Dunce^ tenor twelve Mies into that Kingdom. 

It was in the beginning of Augufi^ when the Nights are very 

fhort, and, as fpon as the Sun rifes, the Days *br the molt 

part hotter than is reafonably expedted from the Climate ; and 

by the teftimony of all Men that day was the hotteft that had 

been known. When the Earl came with bis Horfe to Dteffce, 

he found the Scots drawn up on the fide of a Hill, where the 

Front could only be in view, and where, he was informed, 

the General Lefiy and the whole Army was ; and it was very 

true, they were all there indeed ; but it was as true, that all 

did not exceed the number of three thoufand Men, very ill 

Arm*d, and mofl Country Fellows, who were on the fuddain 

got together to maJce that Shew; and Le/fy bad plac'd them 

by the advantage of that Hill fo ibecioufly, that they had the 

appearance of a good Body of Men, there being allthefem- 

blance of great Bodies behind on the other fide of the HiJl ; 

thefalfehood of which would have been manifefted as foon as 

they iliould move from the place where they were, and from 

^ whence they were therefore not to f tir. 

% The 

Of the Rehellion, &c. 119 

The Horfe had out-march'd the Foot, which, by reafon 
of the excefiive Heat, was not able to ufe great Expedition ^ 
befides there was fbme error in the Order&^ and fome acci- 
dents of the Ni^t that had retarded them ; fo that when the 
Enemy appear'dfirft in view, the Foot and the Artillery was 
three or four Miles behind. 

Nothing can be fiid in the Excufe of the Counfel of ^« ^^ri's 
that day , which might have made the King a glorious King ^^^1-^'' 
indeed. The Earl of HMamd was a Man or Courage, and at 
that time not at all iiilpedted to be corrupted in his Afiedi- 
ons^ and thou^ he hunfelf had not fecn more of War than 
two or three Campaigns in HoUaud before his coming to the 
Court, he had wim him many as good Officers as me War 
of that Age, which was very aftivc, had made, and Men of 
unqueftionable Courage and Military knowledge. As he might 
very fifely have made a Hak at Dunce till his Foot and Artil- 
lery came up to him, fo he migjbt fccurdy enough have En- 
gaged his Body of riorfe againft their Whole inconfiderable 
Army, there being neidier Tree nor Bufli to interrupt Ins 
Charge^ but it was thought otherwife^ and no queifaon it 
was generally believ'd, by the placing and drawing out their 
Front in fo conQ)icuous a place, by me appearance of other 
Troops behind them , and by the Ihewing great herds of 
Cattle at a diltance upon the Hills on either fide, that Their 
Army was very mudi Siperior in number. And therefore as 
fbon as the Earl came in view^ he diipatchM Meflengcrs one 
after another to the King, with an account of what He heard 
and faw, or believ'd he fiWy and yet thought not fit to itay for 
an Anfwer^ but with ±e joint Confent ot all his chief Officers 
(for it was never after pretended that anyone Officer of Name 
diflwaded it, thougji they were ftill alham'd of it ) Retir'd 
towards his Foot, to whom he had Ukewife fent Orders not 
to Advance j and fo. Wearied and Tired by the length of the 
March, and more by the heat of the Weather, which was in- 
tolerable^ they retum'd to the Camp, where the King was ^ 
and the Scots drew a little back, to a more convenient Poit 

The Covenanters, who very well underftood the Weak- 
ncScs of the Court, as well as their own want of Strength, 
were very reafonably exalted widi this Succeft, and fcattcr'd 
their Letters abroaa amongft the Noblemen at Court , ac- 
cording to the Humours of me Men to whom they writ^ there 
being upon the matter an unrefliain'd Intercourfe between 
the King's Camp and Edentorough. 

They writ three feveral Letters to the three Generals, the TUe ave 
Earl of Arufuiel, the Earl of Efex^ and the Earl of HoUanJ. »-"^'" 
That to die Earl of iS^x was in a dialed more Submife than J^;*; J, 

H 4, tOratOffi.t 

110 The Htftory Book II. 

to the others^ they {idd much to him of ^^his own Fame 
^ and RepuciatioB, which added to their Afflidlion that He 
^ fliould be in Arms againft them ; That they had not the 
^leaft imagination of ceding into War againft En^andy 
^ their only thought and hope was to defend their own Rights 
^and Liberties, which were due to them by the Law of the 
"Land, until they might have Acceft to his Majefty to ex- 
*^pofe their Complslints to him, from which they were hin- 
"dred by the Power and Greatnefi of Ibme of their own 
"Country-men^ being defirous the Earl ilK)ukl underftand 
that their principal Grievance was the Interelt of the Marquis 
of Hamilton , who , they knew , was not in any degree ac- 
ceptable to the JEirlj and therefore defir'd him "to be ready 
" to do them good Offices to the King, that diey might be 
" admitted to his Prefence. The Earl of E^exy who was a 
pundual Man in point of Honouc, received this Addrefe fuper- 
ciliouily enough, fent it to the King without returning any 
Anfwer, or holding any Conference, or performing the Icait 
Ceremony, with or towards the Mmengers. 

The £iarls of j4rundel zxMi, Holland gave another kind of 
Reception to the Letters they received. To the former, after 
many profeffionsof highEtteemofhis Perfon, they enlarg'd 
upon " their great AffocHon to the Englifh Nation, and how 
" they abhorrd the thought of a War between the two Na- 
" tions ; they befought him " to prefent their Supphcation 
(which they indos'd) "to the King, and to procure their 
^^ Deputies admiffion to his Majefty. The Earl us'd them 
with more Refped: ttan was fuitable to the Office of a Gene- 
ral, and made many profeffions of " his defire to Interpofe, 
" and Mediate a good Peace between the Nations : and it was 
confidently reported, and believ'd, that he had frequently 
made tho{e profeffions by feveral Mef&ges he had fent tbefore 
into Scotland^ and he had given Paflcs to many obfcure Per- 
fons, to go into and return out of that Kingdom. 

Their Letter to the Earl of HeUand was in a more Con- 
fident Style, as to a Man from whom ±ey expedted all good 
offices. They fent him Ukewife a Copy of their Supplication 
to the King, and defir'd him " to ufe his credit that a Treaty 
" might be entred into, and that his Majefty would appoint 
" Men of Religion and of publick Hearts to manage the 
^' Treaty. From this time that Earl was found at leaft enough 
inclin'd to that Intereft^ and the King's readincfs to hear 
diicourfes of a Pacification , and that Meflengers would be 
fliortly fent to him with Propolitions worthy of his Accepta- 
tion, abated tliofe Animofiaes, and appetite to War, which 
had made all tlie noife in the March. 

Indeed tlxc Marquis of Hamilton s Neighbourly refidencc 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. iii 

with his Fleet and Foot Soldiers before L^tth^ without any 
fliew of Hottility, or any care taken to draw his Friends and 
Followers together for ±e King's Service ^ on the other fid^ 
the Vifits his Mother made him on Board his Ship, whowas 
a Lady of great Authority amongft the Covenanters, and molli 
addi&ed to Them and their Covenant , her Daughters beii^ 
likewife married to thofe Noblemen who moft furiouily 
Perfccuted the Church, and Prefided in thofe Councils j the 
King's rcfiifing to give leave to fome Officers of Horfe, who 
had ofier'd to make Inroads into the Country, and defb-oy the 
Stock thereof, whereby they would be prefently oblig'd to 
make Submiffion, and to ask Pardon \ and laiUy tne reception 
of the Earl of Holland after his ihameful Retreat, with fo much 
SatisfaSion and Joy as his Majeily bad manifoiled upon his 
return ( having after the firft Meflengers arrival from Duncey 
when the Enemy was in view, fcnt him Orders not to Engage) 
made it then liifpefted, as it was afterwards believed by Thofe 
who ftood neareft , that his Majefty had in truth never any 
purpofe to make the War in Blood, but behev'd that by (hew- 
mg an Army to them which was able to force them to any 
Conditions, they would have begg'd Pardon for the Conteft 
they had made, and fo he fliould have fettled theChurcl^ and 
all things elfe according to his Pleafure : and Aire he might 
have done fo, if he had but ^te ftill, and been conftant to 
his own Interdi:, and politive in Denying their infolent De- 
mands. But the Scots in the Court had made Impreflion 
upon fo many of the Englijb Lords, that though at that time 
there were very few of them who had entred into an unlaw- 
ful Combination againft the King, yet there was almoft a 
general diflike of the War, both by the Lords of the Court 
and of the Country ^ and they took this Opportunity to Com- 
municate their Murmurs to each other; none (tf the Perfons 
who were moft maligned for tiieir Power and Intereft with 
the King being upon the place; and all Men believing that • 
nothir^ could be ask'd of me King but what muft be &Q8fied 
at their Charce, whofe damage they confider'd* though it was 
to be procured at the Expence of the King's Honour. When 
tJft Covenanters underftood by their hitelligence, that the 
Seafon was ripe, they fent their Supplication (of which they 
had fcattcr'd io many Copies) to the King, and found them- 
felves fo welcome to all Perfons, that their modefty was not 
like to fuftcr any violence in ofiering the conditions. 

The fr^x nad from the beginning, practiced a newftur-itr^r^i- 
dy Style of Addrefs, in which, under the Licence of accufing ^fi '• '^« 
the counfel and carriage ofOthei^ whom yet they never '^"•S'- 
nam'd, they bitterly and infolcntly ReprcMchM the moft im- 
mediate Actions and Directions of his Majeity himfelf ; and 


114- ^^^ tiiftory Book 1 1. 

to remove Him from the Court j which was a defign will- 
ingly heard, and univerfitlly grateful. But whatever date of 
grace he ftood in when he came thither, he did himfelf fb 
good offices before he parted, that he was no more in their 
disfavour. The King's Army was prefently Disbanded, and 
the Scots returned to EdeTiborough with all they defend; 
having rotten many more Friends in England than' they had 
before; kept all their Officers, and as many of their Men as 
they thougjnt fit, in Pay; and Profecuted all thofe, who had 
not fhewy the fame Zeal in their Covenant as themfelvcs, 
with great rigour, as Men whofe AiBfeaions they doubted; 
and inilead of Remitting any diing of their rage a^nft 
their Biiliops , they entred a publick Proteitation , «^ That 
^ they did not intend, by any thing contain'd in the Treaty, 
^'to Vacate any of the Proceedings which had been in the 
^late General Aflembly at Glafivw ( by which all the Bifhops 
ftood Excommunicatea ) and renewd all their Menaces a- 
gainfl them by Proclamation ; and impos'd grievous penal- 
ties upon all wno ihould prefiime to harbour any of them in 
their Houfes : fo that, by the time the King came to LondoTty 
it appear d plainly , that the Army was Disbanded without 
any Peace made, and die Scots in equal Inclination, and in 
more Reputation, to Affront his Maielty than ever. Upon 
which a Paper publiih'dby Them, and avow'd to contain the 
matter of the Treaty, was Bum'd by the Common Hang- 
man; every body disavowing the Contents of it, but no- body 
taking upon him to publifh a Copy that they own*d to be 
TheiUcon^ The Mifchief that befel the King from this wonderful 
^tjiiences of Atonemcnt cannot be exprefsM , nor was it ever difcover'd 
"* what jprevail'd over his Maiefty to bring it fb wofiilly to pafs : 

all Men were afham'd who had Contributed to it , nor had 
he difinifs'd his Army with fo obliging Circumftances as was 
like to incline them to come willingly together again, if there 
were occafion to ufe their Service. The Earl of Effex^ who 
had merited very well throughout the whole Afiair, and bad 
never made a fhlfe ftep in Adlion or Counfel, was difcharg'd 
in die Croud, without ordinary Ceremony ; and an accident 
happening at the fame time, or veryfoon after, by the death 
of the Lord j4fiony whereby the Command of the Forreft of 
NtedivoodMl into the King's diQ)ofal, which lay at the very 
door of that Earl's Eftate, and would infinitely have gratified 
him, was denied to him, %nd beftow'd upon Another: all 
which wrought very much upon his high Nature, and made 
himfufceptibleoffomelmprellions afterwards, which other- 
wife would not have found fiich eafy admiffion. 
The Fadtions and Aiiimofities at Court were cither greater. 

Of the RehellioHy Sec. ixf 

er more vifible, than they had been before. The Earl of 
Newcafi/e (who was Governour to the Prince, and one of the 
moii valuable men in the Kingdom, in his Fortune, in his 
Dependence, and in his Qualifications) had, at his Own 
Charge, drawn together a goodly Troop of Horfe of two 
hundred ; which for the moft part confiftod of the beft Gen- 
tlemen of the North, who were either Allied to the Earl, or 
of immediate Dependence upon him, and came together pure* 
ly upon His account j and call'd this Troop tht Prime of 
Wales'j Troop y whereof the Earl himfclf was Captain. When 
the Earl of Holland march'd with that Party into Scotlaudj 
the Earl of NewcafiU accompanied liim widi that Troop, and 
upon occaiion of fome Orders, defir'd that Troop, (mce ic 
belonged to the Prince of ^ilpf, might have fome Precedence ; 
which the General of the Hone refii5*d to grant him, but re- 
quired him to march in the rank he had prefcrib'd y and the 
other obey*d it accordingly, but with relentment j imputing 
it to the little kindneis that was between them. But as toon 
as the Army was Disbanded, he fent a Challenge to the Earl 
of HoUandy by a Gentleman very punifhial, and well acquaint- 
ed with thofe Errands ^ who took a proper ieafbn to men- 
tion it to him, without a podibility of fii^idon. The Earl of 
HoIUnd was never fufjpedted to want Courage, yet in This oc- 
caiion he {hew'd not that alacrity, but that me delay exposM 
it to notice ^ and ib, by the King's Authority, the matter was 
Compos'd ; though diicours'd of with liberty enough to give 
the wnole Court occaiion to expreis their AxKSdom to either 

The King himfelf was very Melancholick, and quiddy 
diicem'd that he had loft Reputation at home and abroad y 
and thoie CounfcUors who had been moil Faulty, either 
through want of Courage or Wiidom (for at that time few 
of them wanted Fidelity) never afterwards recovered Spirit 
enough to do their Duty, but gave themfelves up to Thofe 
who had fo much Over-witted'tnem; every man mifting the 
Fault from himlelf, and finding fome Friend to excufe him : 
and it being yet neceilary that fo Infamous a matter fhould 
not be coverd with abfolute Oblivion, it fell to Secretary 
Cokey's turn ( for whom no body cared ) who was then near 
fburfcore years of agp, to be made the Sacrifice ; and, upon 

Eetence that he had Omitted the writing what he oug^ to 
ve done, and Infened fomewhat he ought Not to have 
done^ he was put out of his Office ; and within a fhort time 
aftcr> Sf Harry Vane ( who was Treafurer of the Houfe ) by 
the Dark Contrivance of the Marquis of Hfmiboi^ and by 
the open and viiible Power of the Queen, made Secretary of 
Scate 'y whidi was the only diing that could make the Re- 

1x8 TheH'tftory Book 11. 

TbeEtfr/ of As the Earl of Argyle: who had been preferv'd by the 
Argylejtfw King's immediate Kindnefi and full Power, and refcued 
with the a- £pQin xht Angcr and Fury of his incenfed Father j who, being 
JIJ^^'' provok'd by ±e Difobedience and Infolence of his Son, re- 
^mdinx bk folv^d fo to have di^ofed of his Fortune, that litde fliould 
frMT otU' have accompanied the Honour after his death. But by the 
f4*»iw tt King's interpofition, and indeed impofition, the Earl, in Itridl- 
tbe Km^. jjgg Qf jjj^ L^^ ^ Scotland^ having need of the King's grace 
and prote<33on, in regard of his being become Roman Ca- 
tholick, and ms Majefty granting all to the Son which be 
could ex3& bom the Father, the old Man was in the end 
compelled to make over all his Eibite to his Son ^ refervii^ 
only fiich a ,provifion for Himfelf, as fupported him accord- 
ing to his Quality during his Life, which he fpent in the parts 
beyond the Seas. The King had too much occafion mer- 
wards to remember, that in the clofe, after his Majeity had 
determined what ihould be done on eidier part, the old 
Mm declared **He would fubmit to ±e King's Pleafurc^ 
,** though he believ'd he was hardly dealt withj and then 
"Wlth'&me Bittemefs put his Sonm mind of his Undutifiil 
carriage towards him^ and charg'dhim ^^ to carry in his niind 
^how Bountiful ±e King had been to him, which yet, be 
told him, <^he was £ire he would forget : and thereupon fidd 
to his Majclly ^^Sir, I muft know this young Man better 
^^ than you can do ^ you have brought Me low, that you 
^^may raife Him j wnich I doubt you will live to repent ^^ 
^for he is a Man of craft, fubtihty, and fidfliood, and can* 
" love no Man j and ii ever he finds it in his power to do 
*^ You mifchief, he will be fure to do it. The King con- 
fider'd it only as the eflfedt of his Faflion, and took no other 
care to prevent it, but by heaping every day new obligations 
upon him j making him a Privy-Counlcllor, and giving him 
other Offices and Power to do Hurt, thereby to reftrain 
him fi-om doing it ; which would have wrought upon any 
Generous Nature the Effedt it ought to have done. The Earl 
(for his Fadier was now dead) came not to Edenhoroufh 
during the firit Troubles ; and though he did not diflemWe 
his Difpleafure againd the BiOiops, becaufe one of them had 
Aflronted him, m truth, very Rudely, yet he renew'd all 
imaginable profeQions of Duty to the King and a readinefs 
to engage in his Service, if thofe Difbrders fliould continue : 
buc after the Pacification, and Disbanding of the King's Army, 
and tlie Covenanters declaring that they would adhere to the 
Adts of the Aflembly at Giafgow^ he made haft to Eden- 
torough yrith a great train of Jus Family and Followers; and 
immediately lign'd the Covenant, engag'd for the provifion 
of Arms, and raifing Forces; and in ill things behav'd hinv- 


of the ReheUion, &c. up 

felf like a Man that might very fafely be confided in by that 

There wanted not perfons (till who periwaded the King 
*^ that all might yet be ended without Blood 3 that there were 
^ great Divihons amongft the (iief Leaders, through cmu- 
^lations and ambition of Command; and that the acceft of 
^ the Earl oSAr^k to that Party, would drive others as con- 
^fiderable from it, who never did, nor ever would unite 
**with him in any defign; and therefore advisM *^that his 
^Majefty would require them to fend fome Perfons intruded 
** by their Body to attend him, and give an account of the 
^ Reafons of their Proceedings. They demanded a fafe Con- 
duft for the fecurity of the Perfons they (hbuld employ j 
which was fent accordingly : and thereupon fome perfons of 
the Nobility, and Others, were Commiffion'd to wait on the 
King; amonj^ which the Lord Lomuien was principally re- 
ly'd on for ms Parts and Abilities ;■ a Man who was better 
tonown afterwards, and whom there will hereafter be fo ofren 
occafion to mention, as it will not be neceflary in this place 
fiuther to enlarge upon him. They behav'd memfelves, in 
all reibeds, with the Confidence of men employed by a For- 
reim State ; refused to give any account but to me King him- 
felf J and even to Himfelf gave no other Reafon for what 
was done, but the Authority of the doers, and the Neceflity . 
that required it : that is, that They thought it neceflary ; but 
then they Polim'd their fturdy behaviour with all the pro- 
feflSons of SubmilEon and Duty, which their Language could 

A T this time the Kins happen'd to intercept a Letter ^ tetttr 
which had been fign'd by the chief of the Covenanters, zciAjntercefud 
particularly by the Lord Lo*wden^ written to the French King;^^^^*^^^^-^ 
m which they complain'd'^of the Hardnefs and Injuftice ofj^/^,^",^ 
^ the Government that was exercifed over them ; put Him the French 
" in mind of the Dependence this Kingdom formerly had King* - 
" upon that Crown ; and defir'd him now to take them into 
^^his Prote<±ion, and give them Affiftance; and that his - 
" Majefty wouJd give entire credit to one coivil^ who was the 
"Bearer of that Letter, and well inftmded in all Particu- 
" lars ; and the Letter it felf was feal'd, and diredled Au 
Rovj a flyle only ufed from Subjedts to their natural King, 
This Letter being feih and perufed by the Lords of the • 
Council, and the Lord Zi(M;;^«? being examined, and refiifing 
to give any other anfwer, than ^'^ftat it was writ before 
"the Agreement, and thereupon referv'd and never fent; 
" thajt if he had committed any Offence , he ought to be 
"gueftion*d for it in Scotland^ and not in Effglandy and iil- 
" (ifting upon his fife Conduft, demanded Ub^ty to return : 

Vol.1. Part I. I All 

139 *^^ Hiftory Book II. 

All Men were of opinion that (b foul a Confpiracy and 
Tretfon ought not to be fo flighdy excufed , and that both 
die Lord Lffmdm. and ColvU ( who was likewife found in 
Zjrtuhm^ and apprehended) {hould be committed to the Tower ; 
wfaidb was done acrordmgly : all Men expecting that they 
Ihould be brought to a Q>eedy Tryal. 

This Difcovery made a very deep Lnpreflion upon the 
King 'y and perfwaaed him that liich a foul Application could 
never luve beexx dioug^t q^ if there had not been more 
Poyfon in the heart than could be expell'd by eafy Antidotes; 
and diat the ftrongeft Remedies miul be provided to root 
out this Mifchief : thereupon he firft advifed widi that Com- 
mittee of the CounciL wnidi ufed to be confulted in Seaet 
affiurs. What was to be done. That Summers aAion had 
wafted all the Money that had been cardKilly laid upj and 
to carry on that vafl: E^roence, the Revenue of the Crown 
had been Anticipated i to that^ though the raifing an Army 

r^ there appeaPd no means how to raiie 

was vifiUy q< 

,tfaat Army. No Ejcpedient occurr'd to them fo proper as a 
Parliament, which had been now intermitted near twelve 
Years. And though thofe Meetings had c^ late been attended 
by fome Diforders, the ef&ds of Mutinous Spirits; and 
the laft had been DiOolv^d (as hath been iidd before ) with 
fome circumihmces of Pamon and Undutifulnefs , whidi 
fo far Incenfed the King that he was lefs inclined to thofe 
Aflemblies ; yet this long Intermiflion, and the general Com* 
pofure of Mens minds in a happy Peace, and univerM Plenty 
over the whole Nation ( fuperior fure to what any odier 
Nation ever enjoyed) maae it reafonably believ'd, notwidi- 
fianding the murmurs of the People againft fome exorbi<* 
tancies of the Court, that Sober men, and fuch as lov'd die 
Peace and Plenty they were poffefs^d of, would be made 
choice of to ferve in the Houfe of Commons ; and then the 
temper of the Houfe of Peers was not to be apprehended : 
but elpecially the opinion of the Prejudice and general Aver- 
fion over the whole Kingdom to the Scots^ and dielndigna- 
- tion they had at Their prefiimption in their defign or In- 
vading England^ made it believed that a Parliament would 
exprefs a very fliarp fenfe of their Infolence and Gurriage to- 
wards the King, and provide Remedies proportionable. 
^4 Pdriid' Upon thefe Afotives and Reafons, with the unanimous 
rnent cdWd Confent and Advice of the whole Committee, the King re- 
in England foiv'd to cdl a Parliament ^ which he communicated tihe 
Xt\i6o'^^^ day, or rather took the refolution that day, in his full 
^ ^^' Council of State, which expre6*d great Joy upon it; and di- 
red:ed the Lord Keeper to ifliie out Writs for the meeting 
of a Parliament upon the Third day oi Afril then next en- 

fuing ; 

Of the ReheUion^ &c. 1 3 1 

fuingi it being now in the Month of December 'y and all 
expedition was accordingly tifed in fending out the fidd 
' WritsL the notice of it being mpft Welcome to the whole 

That it might appear that the Court was not at all ap* 
prehenfive of what the Parliament would, or could do ^ and 
that it was Conven'd by his Majdty's grace and inclination, 
not by any motive of neceffity ^ it proceeded in all refpedbs 
in the fiime Unpopular ways it had done y Ship-money was 
levy'd with the fame feverity ; and the fame ngour uied in 
£cclefiaflical Coiuts, without die leaf): compliance witib the 
humour of any Man ^ which look'd like Std&dinefs ^ and, 
if it were Then well purfiied, d^enerated too foon after* 

In this intervaL between the fealing of the Writs and 
die Convention of a Parliament, the Lord Keeper O^venftyiht urd 
died y to the King's great detrimenlL rather than to his own. Kseper co 
So much hath been md already of this great Man. that there ^"^^^'''*' 
ihatl be no further enlargement in this place, than to &y, 
ttat he was a very Wife and Excellent perion, and had a 
rare Felicity, in being look'd upon generally throughout 
the Kingdom with great Afiedion, suod fingular Efteem. 
when very few other men in any High Truft were fb ; and 
it is very> probable, if He had hv'd to the fitting or that 
Parliament^ when, whatever lurked in the Hearts of any, 
there was not the leaft outward appearance of anv irreve* 
rence to the Crown^ that he might have had great Authority 
in the forming thofe Counfels, which might have preferv'd 
it from fo un^py a Diflblution. His Lofs was the more 
manifeft and viume in his Succeflbr ^ the Seal being within 
a day or two given to Sr Jehn Tinchy Chief Juftice of the ^^f Jo^a 
Court of Common Pleas ^ a Man exceedingly obnoxious ^o][J^'^ 
the People upon the bufin©6 of Ship-Money j and not of Re- ^^ ' 
putation ana Audxority enough, to countenance and advance 
the King's Service. 

These DigrefSons have taken up too much time, and^^ ^^^^ 
may feem Forreign to the proper fubjeft of this Difcourfej ^'^j'^^ 
yet they may have given fome Light to the obfcure and dark i^lrdjs^o 
pailages of that Time^ which were underftood by very few* 

T he Parliament met according to Summons upon the 
Third of ^fril in the Year 1640, with the ufual Ceremony 
and Formality : and after the King had (hortly mennon'd 
^his defire to be again acquainted with Parliaments, after 
^^fo long an intenniffionj and to receive the advice and 
" aflBftance of his Subjeds there ; he referr'd the Caufe of 
the prefent Convention to be enlarg'd upon by the Lord 
Keeper : who related die whole Proceedings of Scot /and j 

I a "his 

igx The Htftory BookIL 

^his Majcfty's condeicenlions die Year before, in disbanding 

^his Army upon their promifes and profcffions^ their Info- 

^lencies liricej and their Addrefs to ±e King of France^ 

^ by the Letter mention'd before y which the King had 

touched upon, and having forgot to make the Obfervation 

upon the Superfcription himfelf, he required the Keeper to 

do it; who told them after the whole Relation, "Tnat his 

^Majefty did not expedl Advice from them, much lefi that 

"They ftiould interpofe in any office of Mediation, whidi 

" would not be Gratefiil to him ; but that they Ihould, as 

"foon as mijght be, give his Majefly fiich a Supply, as he 

"might provide for the Vindication of his Honour, by raif^ 

"ing an Army, which the Seafon of the Yean and the Pro- 

"grefs the Rebels had abeady made, call'd for without de- 

"lay; and his Majefty afliir'a them, if they would gratify 

" him with the difpatch of This matter, that he would give 

*^ them time enough afterwards to reprefent any Grievances 

"to him, and a&vourable Anfwerto them : and fo difmifs'cl 

the Commons to choofe their Speaker;; to which Serjeant 

Serjeant GUnvUe was defigu'd, and chofen the fame day : a man very 

Sl/?» * equal to the work, very well acquainted with the proceed- 

5>«Sfer. "^s i^ Parliament; of a quick conception, and of a ready 

and voluble expreffion, dextrous in difpofing the Houfe, and 

Very acceptable to them. The Earl of Arundel^ Earl Marfhal 

of En^Undy was made Lord Steward of the King^s Houfe ■ 

an Office neceflary in the beginning of a Parliament ; being 

to fwear all the Members of the Houfe of Commons before 

they could Sit there. Two days after, the Convnons pre- 

fenced their Speaker to the King, who, in the accuftom'^d 

manner, approved their choice; upon which they rctum'd 

to their Houfe, being now formM and qualify'd to enter upon 

any Debates. 

The Houfe met always at eight of the Clock, and rofe 
at twelve; which were the old Parliament hours; that the. 
Committees, upon whom the greateft burden of the buGnefs 
lay, might have the afternoons for Tlieir preparation and 
diipatch. It was not the Cuftom to enter upon any Impor- 
tant bufinefs, in the firfl Fortnight; both becaufe many Mem- 
bers ufcd to be abfent fo long ; and that time was ufually 
thought neceflary for the appointment and nomination of 
Committees, and for other Ceremonies and Preparations that 
were ufiial : but there was no regard Now to mat Cuftom ^ 
and the appearance of the Members was very great, there 
having been a large time between the ifluing out of the 
Writs and the meeting of the Parliament, fo that all Elections 
were made, and returned, and every body was willing to fall 
to the Work, 


Of the ReheUtQity &c. ' 1 3 j 

Whilst Men gaz'd upon each other, looking who 
fliould begin ( much the greateft part having never before 
fate in Parliament) Mr Fym^ a Man of good Reputation, but Mr PyftiV 
much better known afterwards, who had been as long 'm'^nd others 
rhofe Aflemblies as any Man then hViqg, brake the Ice, and ^^^^^^f^ 
inafet Difcourfe of aoove two hours, mer mention of thee^^^'fj. 
King with the moft profound reverence, and commendatioa 
of his Wifdom and Tuftice, he obferv'd, " That by the long 
^Intermiffion of Parliaments many Unwarrantable things 
^ had been pradic'd, notwithftanding the great Virtue of ms 
*^ Majefty : and then enumerated all the Projedts which had 
been fet on foot j and the illegal Proclamations which had 
been publilh'd, and tlie Proceedings which had been upon 
thofe Proclamations^ the Judgement upon Ship-money 9 and 
many Grievances which related to tne Ecclefiaftical Jurifi. 
diddon 5 fiimming up fhortly, and fharply , all that moft re- 
fled:ed upon the Pmdence, and the Juftice of the Govern- 
ment j concluding, "That he had only kid that Scheme bc^ 
^^ fore them, that they might fee how much work they had 
^^ to do to Satisfy their Country j the method and manner 
^^ of the doing whereof he left to their Wifiioms. M^Grim* 
fton infifted only on the bufmefs of Ship-mpney j the irre- 
gular and prepofterous engaging the Ju(fees to deliver their 
Opinion to the King, and their being arterwards divided in 
their Judgements ^ and faid, '' He was perlwaded, that 
" who gave their Opinions for the Legality of it, did it : ^ 
^ the £&am9n of their own Conicience. Peard^ a bold 
yer , of little Note , inveigh'd more Paflionately againft it, 
calling it an Ahomination \ upon which, Herhertj the King's 
SoUiator, with all imaginable addrefs, in which he then ex- 
ccird, put them in mind "with what Candour his Majefty 
" had proceeded in That, and all Other things , whicn re- 
" lated to the adminiftration of Juftice to all his People ; tha^ 
"howperfwaded ifoeverHc was within himfelf of the fufticc 
« as well as Neceflity of levying Ship-money, he would not 
fend out a Writ for the doir ? thereof till he received ±e 
^' affirmative Advice of all the udges of England ^ and when 
*^the payment was Oppos'd L/ a Gentleman ( and then he 
took occafion to ftroke and commend Mr Hambden^ who fate 
under him, for his great temper and modefty in the profis 
cution of that Suit) " the King was very well contented that 
^^all the Judges o^England fliould determine the Right ^ that 
"never any Caufe had been debated and argued more So- 
" lemnly before the Judges j who , after long Deliberation 
^ between themfglves, and being attended wim the Records 
^ which had been cited on both Sides, delivered each Man his 
« Opinion and Judgement publickly in the Court , and fp 

1 3 « largely, 

134' TheHiftory Book II. 

^ki^7, that but two Judees argu'd inadayj and after all 
^tfais, and a Judgement wim diat Solemnity pronbunc'd for 
^tbe King, by which the King was as legally pcrflefi'd of 
*«that Rigbt , as of any thing dfe he had: that any particu- 
^lar Man (hould prefizme to. foeak againii it with that bit- 
^temeis, and to call it an Ubcmnstfim^ was very Ofifen* 
• f«five, and Unwarrantable ; and defired that That Gentle- 
^ man, who had us'd that Expreffion , might Explain him- 
^felf , and then withdiaw. Very many call'd mm to the 
Bar; and the SoUidtctf's Difcoiine was thought to have 
fo much Weight in it , that M' teard very hardly efcapVI 
a fevere Reprehenfion: which is mentioned only that me 
Temper and Sobriety of that Houfe may be taken notice of, 
and their Diflblution, which ftiortly after fell out, the more 

Th ouG H the Parliament had not fite above fix or feven 
&ys , and \aA managed all their Debates , and their whole 
Behaviour, with wonderfiil order and fobriety, the Court was 
Impatient that no advance was yet made towards a Supply j 
which was forefeen would take up much time,, whenfoever 
The Houfi tf/thcy went about it ^ thoudi never to cordially : and therefore 
Pm/ ^t/iyj they prevailed with the Houfe of Peers, which was more 
u'b%7nZ7th^^^Y a^ *ci King's difooCd, that they would demand a 
4 Supply ; Conference with the Houfe of Commons, and then propofe 
tb*thcm, by way of advice, **that they would begin with 
* ^ giving the King a Supply , in regard of the urgency and 
^^ even neceflity of his Aflairs, and afterwards proceed upon 
^ the Grievances, or any thine elfc as they thought fit j and 
the Houfe of Peers accordii^y did give their advice to this 
'purpofe at a Conference. Tnis Conference was no fooner 
reported in the Houfe of Commons, than their whole Tem- 
per fecm'd to be fhaken. It was the undoubted Fundamental 
privilege of the Commons in Parliament, that all Supplies 
mould have their rife and beginning fi-om Them ; this had 
never been infringed, or violated, or fo much as quelHon'd 
in the worft times j and that now after fo long intermiffion 
of Parliaments, that all Privileges might be forgotten , the 
Houfe of Pe^rs (hould begin with an adtion their Anceftors 
never attempted, adminifter d too much caufe of Jealoufy of 
fomewhat elfe mat was intended j and fo with an unanimous 
This Voted confent they declar'd it to be " fo high a breach of Privi- 
* ^'''v'"^ "f *^ ^^g^ 5 that they could not proceed upon any other matter 
ihecJZ "^^^^ ^^ey fi«* received Satisiafiion and Reparation fi-om 
maris, ^ the Houfe of Pccfs ; and which the next day they de- 
manded at a Conference. The Lords wentfenfible of their 
Error; which had been forefeen, anddiflwaded by many of 
them y they ^^ acknowledged the Privilege erf the Commons as 


Of the ReieUiofiy &c. 1 3 y 

^ My as diey demanded i^ and hopM that they had not broken 
« it by offering their advice to them without mentionii^the 
^ nature of the Supply, the proportion, or manner of raSing 
^ it, which they confefe'd belonged entirely to Them : in 
fine, they defir'd them, « thatthis might be no occafion of 
^wafting their time, but that thev would proceed their 
^ Own way, and in their own metnod, upon the afiairs of 
^tfae Kingdom. This gave no fiitisfadion^ was no repara- 
tion^ and ferv'd Their turn who had no mind to give any 
Supply without difcbvering any fiich dif&tisiadion. which 
would have got them no credit, the Houfe generally^ being 
exceedingly difeosM to pleafe tne King , and to do him fer- 
vice. But this Breach of Privil^e, Mmich was craftily en* 
lare'd upon as if it Avallow'dup all dieir other Privileges, 
ana made them wholdy fubfervient to the Peers, was uni- 
verfidly refented. A C.ommittee was appointed to examine 
Preceaents oS. former times, in cafe of violation of dieir Pri- 
vileges by the Lords, though not of that magnimde, and 
thereupon to prepare a Protefkation to be fent up to the 
Houfe of Peers, and to be entred into their own Journal ^ 
andin the mean time no proceedings td be in the Houfe upon 
any publick bufinefi, except upon fome report from a Com- 
mittee. * 

After fbmedays had pafi'din this manner, and it notTbf KiV^ 
being in view when this Debate would be at an end, the King '"^^Iw 
thought of another expedient, and fent ameC&ge in writing jJ^JJ^^JJ 
to the Commons by Sr Uewry Vane^ who was now both Se- 
cretary of State and Treafurer of the Houfhold, and at that 
dmeof good creditthere; wherein hisMajefty took notic^ 
^tbat there was fome difference between the two Houies, 
^ which retarded the Tranfadion of the. great afiairs of the 
^Kingdom, at a time when a Forreign Army was ready to 
** invade it: That he heard the payment of Ship-money, 
^ notwithfiandin^ that it was adjudged his ri^t , was noc 
^ willingly (iibmitted to by the Pec^Te; to mamfeft dierefore 
^ his good afiedion to his Subje<^ in general, he made this 
^' Propofition-^ That if the Parliament would grant him 
^twelve Subudies to be paid in three Years , in the manner 
^propos'd (tbtttwas, five &ibfidies to be paid the firft Year, 
^^ibur the teccHod* and three to be paid die laft Year) his 
^ Majefty would men releafe dl his title of pretence to Siip^ 
^ monev for the future, in fuch a manner as his Parliament 

Though Exceptions mi^t have been taken again ii^ , 

point of Privilege, becaufe ms Majefty took notice of the 

difierence between the two Houies; yet Aat Spirit hadnoc 

Then taken fo deep root : fo that they refolv'dto enter, the 

• I 4 next 

1^6 TheHiftory Book II. 

Siext day after the delivery of it, upon a fiill Debate of his 
Majefly 8 meflage ; they who defird to ob^d ±e giving 
any Supply j believing they ihould eafilv prevail to rejed 
this Proportion 9 upon the great;neis of tne fiun demanded , 
without appearing not to favour the Caufe in which it was 
to be empio/d , which they could not have done with any 
advantage to themfeives, the number of that Claflis of men 
this dtbM' l>cing then not confiderable in the Houite. It was about the 
u^. firft day of May that the Md&ge was deliyer'd, and the nest 

day it was refum'd a)x>ut nine of the Clock in the Morning, 
^d the Debate continued tiU four of the Qo(^ in the After* 
noon^ which had been feldom us'd before, but afterwards 
grew into cuftom. Many obferv'd ^ that they were to pur- 
f5. chafe a rcleafe of an Impoiition very uj^ijuiUy laid upon the 
** Kingdom 5 and by purdiafing it, ±ey Ihould upon the 
^ matter confeft it had been Jult ^ which no man in his heart 
acknowiedg'd; and therefore wifli'd '^that the Judgement 
^xnight be firft'examin'd , and being once declared Void, 
^ wmt they fliould prefent the King with, would appear it 
^fiift, aind not a Recpmpence : but this was rather moddMy 
jnGnuat^d than infifle^ upon ^ and the greater number re- 
fle(3:ed more on the Proportion demanded^ wludilbmeof 
* thofe who were thought very well to underftand deflate of 
the JKingdom, confidently afHrmM to be more than the 
whole flock in Money of the Kingdom amounted to, which 
gppear'd fliortly after to be a very grofs Mifcomputation. 
There were very few, except thofe of the Court ( who were 
ready to give all that the King would ask, and indeed had 
little to give of their own ) who did not believe the Sum 
demanded to be too great ; and wifh'd that a lels might be 
aqcepted, and therefore were willing, when the day was fo 
fer fpent, that the Debate might b^ adjourn'd till the next 
iVJorning ; which was willingly confented to by all , and fo 
die Houfe rofc. All this agitation had been in a Committee 
of the whole Houfe , the Speaker having left the Chair, to 
which M"^ Lenthall^ a Lawyer of no eminent account, was 
caird. But there was not, in the whple day, in all the va- 
riety of contradictions , an ofienfive or angry word fboken : 
except only that one private Country Gentleman little known, 
faid, ^^ He obfervM that the Supply was to be employ'd in 
^f the fupporting Bellum Efifcepate^ which he thought the Bi- 
f^lhops were fitteft to do themfejves : but as there was no 
reply, or notice taken of it, fo there was no body who fe- 
• condcd that envious reflexion, nor any other expreflion of 
that kind. 

. T H K next day as fbon as the Houfe met , and Prayers 

^ere ifeq^j it rcjblv'd again into a Committee of the whole 

I . ' • Houfe, 

of the Rehelliotty &c. 137 

Houfe, the fame Perfon being again caliy to the Chair : it 
was expedted and hop'd, that there would have been ibme- 
new mefSge from the King, that might have facilitated the 
debate; but nothing appearing of that kind, the Propofition 
was again read, and men of all fides diicbursM much of wImC- 
had been faid before , and many fpoke with more reflexion 
upon the Judgement of Ship-money than they had done the- 
day paft, and fecm'd to wiflij "that whadbever they Qiould 
/*give the King fhould be a. free teftimony of their afiedtion 
^ and duty, without any releafe of Ship4noney , which de-- 
^'fcrv'd no confideration, but in a fhort; time would appear 
^' void and null. And this feemM to agree with, the fenie <rf 
fo great a part of the Houfe, that M^ HamUen -tie moft Po- 
pular man in the Houfe ( the fame who had defended the 
Suit againft the King in his own name, upon theillegsality 
of Ship-money ) thought the matter ripe for the Queftion, 
and defir'd the Queftion might beput, ''Whether the Houfe 
^ would confent to the Propofition made by the King, as it 
^ was contain^ in the meflage ? which would have been 
(lire to have found a Negative from all who thought die 
Sum too great, or were not pleas'd that it Ihould be given 
in recompence of Ship-money. 

W HEN many call'd toJiavethis Queftion, Serjeant Glan" 
vi/e the Speaker ( who fate by amongft the odier Members 
whilfl the Houfe was in a Committee, and had rarely us'd 
to fpeak in fuch feafons ) rofe up , and in a moft pathetical 
Speech, in which he excell'd, endeavoured to perfwade the 
Houfe ^ to comply with the King's defire , for the good, of 
"the Nation, and to reconcile him to Parliaments for ever, 
"which this feafonable teftimony of their affeflions would 
"infallibly do. He made it maoifeftto them how very in- 
confiderable a Sum twelve Subiidies, amounted to, by telling 
them, "that he had computed what he was to pay tor tbo& 
" twelve Subfidies j and when he nam'd the Sum, he being 
known to be pofled'd of a great Eflate, it feem'd not worth 
any fardier Deliberation. And in the warmth of his IMP- 
courfe, which he plainly difcem'd made a wonderful impref^ 
fion upon the Houfe , ne let fell fome fharp expreffions ar 
gainft the Impofition of Ship-money, and the Judgement in 
the point, which he 6i4 plainly "was againft the Law, if 
" he underftood what Law was (who was known to be very 
Learn'd ) which exprefEon, how nccefl&ry and artificial fo- 
ever to reconcile the affedJions of the Houfe to the matter in 
queftion, very much irreconciFd him at Court, and to Thcrfe 
upon whom he had the greateft dependence* 

There was fcarce ever a Speech that more gathered up 
and united the Inclinations of a popular Council to the 


igB ' TheHiftwy Book 11. 

S^peaker^ atid if die QudHon had been pfdently put, it 
beUev'd the number of the Piflenters would not have ap^' 
pear'd great. But after a Qiort filence, feme mcn« who wiflrd 
wdl to die Main, exprefs'd a diilike of the Way , lo that 
ocber men recover'd new Courage, and call'd again with 
ibme eameftnefs, ^That the C^eftion formerly proposed by 
^ Mr ILnMem Qiould be put ^ iiriiich feem'd to meet with a 
concurrence. Mr Hyde then flood up , and defir'd ^ that 
^Queftion midit not be put : (aid, it was a Qiptious que- 
^ftion , to wmch only one fort of men would clearly give 
^theirVote^ which were they who were for a rejedhonof 
^the King's Propofition, and no more refiiming the Debate 
^upon tlKLt Sub]edl : but. that They who defir^d to give the 
^KingaSui^ly, as he beUev'd molt dicL though not in fuch 
^aProportioi^ nor it may be, inthatMmner, could receive 
^no Satisfadion by that qudlion; aiid therefore He pro- 
^pos'd, to the end that every man might frankly give his 
^Yea, or his Kcl that the queftion might be put omy upon 
^ die giving the King « Supply, which being carried in the 
^Affirmative, another quetbon might be upon the Propor- 
^ tion, and tte Manner; and if the firfl were carr/d in the 
^ Negative , it would produce the fame efifefi^ as the odier 
^ ^emon propos'd by Mr HamUem would do. 

This memod was received by fome with great approba- 
tion, but oppos'd by odiers with more than ordinary Paflion, 
md diverted by other Propofitions , which being feconded 
tock much time, without pointing toany Conckdion. In 
the end Serjeant Glanvile (aid, ^ That there had been a Que- 
^ftion propos'd by his Country-man, that agreed very well 
•^with His {&Dky and mov'd that die Gentkman mkht be 
^call'd upon to propofe it again. 'MsHyde ftated the cafe 
a^ain as he had done , anfwer'd fomewhat that had been 
&id againft it, and mov'd ''that Queftion might be put. 
Whereupon for a long time there was nothing faid, but a 
confiis'd clamour^ and calljMr Hambden's fluefiion^ Mr Hyde's 
§luefium*j the call appearing much ftronger for the laft, than 
the former : and it was generally beUev'd that the Queftion 
had been put, and carried in the Affirmative, though it was 
poGtively oppos'dby Wer^^r^ the Sollicitor General, for what 
reafbn no man could imagine, if Sr Henry Vane the Secretary 
had not ftood Up, and faid, ^ That, as it had been always 
^ his cuftom to deal plainly and clearly with that Houfe in 
^ all things , fo he could not but now aflure them, that the 
<* putting, and carrying that Queftion, could be ofnoufe j 
^'for that he was moft fare, and had Authority to tell them 
"fo, that if they fhould pafs a Vote for the giving the King 
f' a Supply, if it were not in the Proportion and manner 
■ f' propos'd 

of the Rebellion^ &c. 139 

^prqjos'd inhisMajcft/s meflage, it would not be accepted 
^byhim; andthercrare de&i^d that Ooeftion znig^tbe laid 
«afide ; which being again nrgfdby me Sollidtor General 
upon the Authority of wnat the other had declared, and the 
other Privv CourffiUors faying nothir^, though diey were 
much dilpieas'd widi the Secretary's averment ^ the oufineft 
was no more prefi*d : but it being near five of the Clock in 
the afternoon, and every body weary, it was willingly conr 
fented to that the Houie (liould be Adjoun^d till me next 

Both S' Htwrj Vam^ and the Sollicitor General ( whofc 
opinion was ofmore weight with the Kir^ than the odiers) 
had made a worfe reprefentation of the humour andaffedtioQ 
of the Houfe thanit deferv^d, and undertook to know, tiiat 
if they came together again, they would j»6 fiich a Vote 
agaidt Ship-money, as would blaitthat Revenue and other 
brMiches ot the Receipt ; ^irtiich O&ers believ'd they would 
not have had the comidence to have Attempted; and very 
Few , that they would have had the credit to rave Gom- 
pafe'd. What followed in the next Parliament , within lefe 
than a Year, made it believ'c^ that S^Hnrry Vane aifted thait 
part Maliciouily, and to bring all into Gonfiifion j he being 
Known to have an implacable hatred againft the Earl of Stn^ 
^r</ Lieutenant oflreUmij whofedeftruffion was then upon 
the Anvil. But what tranfported die Sollicitor^ who had 
noneoftheends of the other, could not be imagm'd, except 
it was his pride , and peevimnefs , when he found that he 
was like to be of left Authority there, than he looked tobe ; 
and yet he was heard with great attention, diough his Parts 
were moft prevalent in puT-zling and perplexing that difcourfe 
'he meant to crols. Let their Motives oe what they Would, 
they Two^ and they only, wrou^t fo far with the King, • 
that without fb much Deliberation as the af&ir was worthy 
o^ his Majefty the next morning , which was on the Fifth * 
of Maj^ near a Month after their firft meeting, fent for the 
Speaker to attend him, and took care that he IhcuM go di- 
redUy to the Houfe of Peers, upon fome apprchenfion diac 
if he had gone to the Houle of Commons , that Houfe 
would have entred upon fome ingrateftil difcourfe j which 
they were not indin*d to do : and then fendiM for thatn^fP^r/Mi. 
Houfe to attend him, the Keeper, by his Majefty's Oimmand, f»mt Dif- 
Diflblv'dtheParliamenL fi^^'^- 

There could not a greater damp have (eiz'd upon die 
Spirits of the whole Nation , than tnis Diflolution caus'd ; 
and Men had much • rf the Mifery in view, which fhortly 
after fell out. It could never be hop'd that more fbber and 
diipaffionate Men would ever meet tc^ether in that place, or 


i+o TheHiftory BookIL 

fewer who broiffijtit ill purpofes with them ^ nor could any 
man imagine what 0£fence they had given « which put the 
King upon that refoliition. But it was obferv'd, that in the 
countenances of Thofe who had moft oppos'd all that was 
ddir'dby hisMajcfty. there was a marvellous Serenity: nor 
could they conceal tne Joy of their hearts ; for they knew 
enough or what was to come , to conclude that the King 
would be ihordy compellM to call another Parliament^ and 
they were as (ure, that lb many, fo unbiafs'd men, would ne- 
ver be eledled again. 

Within an hour after the Diflblving, Mf Hyde met 
Mr Saht-JohMy who had naturally a great doud in his Face, 
and very feldom was known to unile, but then had a moft 
chearfyl ^SpcGL and feeing the other melanchohck, as in truth 
he .was from nis heart , ask'd him, " What troubled him ? 
who. anfwer'd, ^ That the &me that troubled Him, he be- 
. "liev'd, troubled/moft Good men j that in fuch a time of 
" Con&fion, fo wife a Parliament, which alone could have 
** found Remedy for it, was fo unfeafonably difinifs'd : the 
btfier anfwery with a little warmth , ^ That all was well ; 
^' and that it muft be Worfe, before it could be Better ^ and 
^* that this Parliament could never have done what was ne- 
^.cefl&ry to be done : as indeed it would not, wliat He and 
liis friends thought i>ece{&ry. 
The KJnfs T HE King, , whcn he had better refle<aed upon what was 
trouble for ijfce tQ fall out, and was better inform'd of the temper and 
wi^ds^' duty . of the Houfe of Commons, and that they had voted a 
.Supply, if S^ Henry. VanehsA not hiddred it by fo pofitive a 
declaration that his Majefby would refiife it, was heartily 
Sony for what he had done; declared with great anger, 
^ That he had never given him fuch Authority ; and that He 
/^knew well that the giving him any Supply would have 
**been welcome to him, becaufe ±e reputation of his Sub- 
* ** jcfts affifldng him in tiat conjundbure, was all that he look'd 

*' for, and confidcr'd. He conlulted the fame day, or the next, 
.whether he might by his Proclamation recall them to meet 
• together again : but finding that impoflible, he fell roundly 
to find out all expedients for the railing of Money, in whicn 
he had fo wonderful fuccefs, that, in lefs than three weeks, 
by the voluntary Loan of the particular Lx)rds of the Coun- 
cil, and of other Private Gentlemen about the Citv, fome re- » 
lating to the Court, and others ftrangcrs to it, there was no 
lefs dian three hundred thoufand pounds paid into the Ex- 
chequer to be iflued out as his Majefty fhould dircdt : a Sum 
that fufficiently manifeflcd the plenty of that time, and 
greater than moft Princes in Europe could have commanded 
in fo fhort a time j and was an unanfwexablc evidence, that 

of the ReheUton^ &c. i4j 

the hearts of his Subjedts were not then alien'd firom their 
duty to the King, or a juft jealoufy for His honour. 

All diligence was ufed in making Levies, in which few'^» -^rmy 
of the General Officers which had been employed the Yeaif^';/^^' 
before were made ufe of^ though it Was great pitV that the 
£arl of Efffx was not again taken in; which haa infallibly- 
prefervy him from fwerving from his Duty, and he would 
nave difcharged his truft with Courage and Fidelity,' and 
tiierefore probably with Saccefe : but he was of a hmightjr 
Spirit, and did not think his lalt Summers Service fo Well 
requited, that he was eameftly to follicit for another OflSce j 
though there is no doubt but he would have accepted it, if it 
had been ofier'd. 

A General was appointed, the Earl of Nortbumber^ The Eart tf 
land., and the Lord Cormny General of the Horfe: which ^^f*"™- 
made the great Officers of the former Year, ±e Earl oiArufi- J^q^ 
del^ the Earl of Effex^ and the Earl o^HoUand ( who' thought ;,«.4/. 
themfelves free from any Overiights that had been com- 
mitted] more capable of Inftifions by thofe who were ready 
to work according to the Occurrences upon their feveral con- 
ftimtions. But me reputation of the Earl of NerthumberlMul^ 
who had indeed arrived at a wonderful general eftimadon* 
was believed to be moft infhtimental in it : and the Lora 
CofTway was thou^t an able Soldier , and of great Parts, 
Befides, the Earls of Ejfex and Holland were thought lefs go^ 
vemable by thofe Councils to which the main was then to 
be intrufled, the Earl of Strafford bearing a part in them j 
to whom the firft was very averfe, and me latter irrecon- 

Dispatches were fent into Ireland to quicken the 
Preparations there, which the Earl had left in a great for- 
wardnefs, under the care of the Earl ofOrmond his Lieute- 
nant General : Moneys iflii'd out for the levies of Horfe and 
Foot there, and for tne making a Train : all which were as 
well advanced, as, confidering the general Difcompofiire, 
could be reafonably expedted. 

The King, the Earl of Northumberland^ and the Earl of Tne Urd 
Straff ordy thougjit they had well provided for the wprft in ^^^"^ r 
making of the Lord Conway to be General of the Horfe : a ,it,7»,/e! 
man very dear to the two Earls ; and indeed, by a very ex- 
.traordinary fate, he had got a very particular intereft and 
eftieem in manv Worthy mtn of very different qualifications. 
He had been oom a Soldier in his Father's Garrifon of the 
BrdL when he was Go vernour there; and bred up, in fcve-. 
ral Commands, under the particular care of the Lord Fere-^ 
whofe Nephew he was 3 and though he was Married younfo 
when his Father was Secretary of State, there was no Adion 


144 ' -^^ Hiftory Book II. 

derftood ; and was then varioufly fpoken of : many believing 

he had undertaken great matters for the King in Scotland^ and 

•to quiet that Diftemper : others, that it was an adt entirely 

■compafs'dby theMarquisofifo/w/Vf^5 who was liketoftand 

in need of great Supporters, by that extraordinary obligation 

to endear himfelf with that Nation j or to Communicate 

fbmewhat to that Nation, if his condition before were fo 

good that it needed no endearment. They who publiOi'd 

■ their thoughts leaft, made no fcruple of faying, " that if the 

'** policy were good and neceflary of his hrft Commitment, 

^^ It fewn'd as juft and prudent to have continued him in tiiat 


• The progrefs in the King's advance for Scotland^ was 

* exceedingly hinderM bv the great and dangerous ficknefi of 
the Earl ot>K?r/i>««f^tfr^»^ the General, whofe recovery was 
either totally defpair'd of by the Phyfician, or pronounced 

' to be expefted very flowly; fo that there would be no pof* 
-fibility for him to perform die Service of the North : where- 
upon he fent to the King, to defirc that he would make 
« cnoice of another General. And thoi^h the Lord Cmwaj in 
all his Letters fent advertifement, ^ that the Scots had not ad- 
^vanced their Preparations to that degree that they would 
*^be able to march that Year,, yet the King had much better 
Intelligence that they were in readinefs to move ^ and fo 
concluded that it was neceflary to fend another General j and 
defign'd the Earl of Strafford for that Command, and to 
leave the Forces in Ireland^ which were raifed to make a 
diverfion in Scotland^ to be govemM by the Earl of Ormond. 
The Earl oi Strafford^ was fcarce recovered from agreatfick- 
nefs, yet was willing to undertake the charge, out of pure 
indignation to fee how few men were forward to ferve the 
King with that vigour of mind they ought to do; but know- 
ing well the malicious defigns which were contrived againfb 
himfelf, he would rather ferve as Lieutenant-General under 
the Earl of Northumberland^ than that He fliould refign his 
Commiffion : and fo, with and under that qualification, he 
made all poflible haft towards the North, before he had 
ftrength enough for the journey. 
77jff UtA But before he could arrive with the Army, that infa- 
conway mous irreparable Rout 2XNe*wburn was fall'n out; where the 
roHted at £ncmy march'd at a time and place, when and where they 
ewburn. ^^^^ expedted, through a River deep thAigh Fordable, and' 
up a Hill, where our Army was ranged to receive them : 
througli thofe difficulties and difadvantages, without giving 
or taking any Blows ( for the five or i\x men of ours who 
were kiird, fell by their Canon, before the pafling of the 
River ) they put our whole Army to the molt fliameful and 


OftheReheUton^dcc. I4y 

tonfounding Flight tlut was ever heard of; our Foot making 
tio leis haft from Ne^w-Cafiky ±aii our Horfe from Ne*ui?urni 
both leaving the Honour, and a g'eat deal of the Wealth of 
the Kingdom, arifing from the Coal-mines, to Thofe who 
had not confidence enough ( notwithftanding the evidence 
they had feen of our fear ) to poffefs that Town iA two days 
after; not believing itpofliblc that fuch a place, \^hich was 
able to have maintain'cf ±e War alone (bme rime, could be 
fo kindly quitted to them : The Lord Conway never after 
turning his Facet towards the Enemy, oir doing any thing like 
a Commander, though his Troops were quickly Drought to- 
gether again, without the lofs or a dozen men, and were fo 
alham'd of their Flight, that they were very Willing as weU 
as able to have tal^n what Revenge they would upon the 
Enemy, who were poflefs'd with all the fears imaginable, and 
would hardly believe their own fiiccefs, till they were auiir'd 
that the Lord Conway with all his Axmy refted quietly in 
Durham^ and then they prefumM to enter into New-Caftle. 

But it feemM afterwards to be a fiiU vindication of theTT^f Scdtt 
Honour of the Nation, that, from this infamous Defeat 2Lt-^rmyenttr 
Newhurny to the laft entire Conqueft of Scotland by CronmeUy ^g^^*' 
the Scots Army fcarce' performed orid figiul adtion againft the 
Bnglifhy but were always beaten by great inequality of num- 
bers as oft as they cncounter'd, ir they were not fupported 
by Englijh Troops. 

In this pofture ihe Earl of Strafford found the Army 
about DurhaWy brin^g with him a body much broken with 
his late ficknds, which was not clearly fliaken oflf^ and a 
mind and temper confefling the dregs of it, which being mar- 
velloully provok'd and infkm'd with indign^on at the late 
Dilhonour, render'd him lefs gracious, that is, lefs inclined 
to make himfelf fo, to the Oflfcers, upon his firft entrance 
into his Charge; it may be, in that mafs of diforder, not 

auickly difceming to whom kindnefs and refpedt was jufily 
ue. But thofe who by this time no doubt were retain'd for 
that purpjofe, took that opportunity to incenfe the Army 
againft him; far prevailed in it, that in a Ihort time 
it was more inflam'd againft Him than againft the Enemy j 
and was williM to have their want of Courage imputed to 
excels of Conlcience, and that their being not fatisfjrd in the 
grounds of the Quarrel was die only caufe that they Foueht 
no better. ' In this Indifpdition in au parts, the Earl found it 
necefl&ry to retire with the Army to the skiits of Tork^/birey 
and himfelf to r<7ri (whither the King was come) le^y'mgNor^The K}ng\ 
thumherland atid the Bifhoprick of Durham to be poffeird by ^^J ^^ 
the Vidtors^WhO being abundantly fatisfy'd with What they never ^^"^York 
hoped topofl^mi^ ho haft to advance th^ir new Conquefts. 
Vol,LTarti. K It 

1^6 The Hiliory Book 11. 

I T was very much wonder'd at, that the Earl of Strafford^ 
upon his firft arrival at the Annv, call'd no perfbns to a 
Council of War for that fhamefiu bufinefi of Newhtrn^ or 
the more fliamefiil quitting of Nivj-Caftle (where were not ten 
barrels of Mu(quet-Bullets, nor Moulds to make any ^ the 
Enemy having been long expe^ed there, and our Army not 
left ±an a Month in that Town j time enough, if nothing 
had been done before, to have made that place tenable for a 
longer time than it could have been dilorefs'd. ) Whether 
the Earl &w that it would not have been in His power to 
have proceeded finally and exemplarily upon that inquifition, 
and therefore diofe rather not to enter upon it ; or whether 
he found the Guilt to be fo involv'd, ±at though feme were 
more Obnoxious, few were uniaulty ^ or whe±er he plainly 
difcem'd to what the Whole tended, and fo would not trouble 
himfelf further in difoovering of ±at, which, inftead of a 
Reproach, might prove a Benefit to ±e perfons concerned j 
I know not : but publick Examination it never had. 

The Scots needed not now advance their Pro^efs; their 
Game was in the hands ( no prejudice to their skill ) of bet- 
ter Gamefters. Befides, ±ey were not to make the leaft in- 
road, or to do the leaft treQ)ais to their Neighbours of Xork- 
Jhire ; who were as follicitous, that by any acceis or concur- 
rence of the Ihrength of that large County, they fliould not 
be driven farther bSck j and ther^re inftead of drawing their 
Train'd Bands together (which of themfelves would have 
been a greater or better Army than was to contend with 
them ) to defend their County, or the Perfon of the King 
then with them, they prepared retitions of advice and good 
counfel to him to call a Parliament, and to remove all other 
Grievances but the Scots, At the fame time feme Lords from 
LoTfdon { of known, and fince publifh'd affedtions to that In- 
vafion ) attended his Majefty at Tork with a Petition, fign'd 
by others, eight or ten in the whole, who were crafuly per- 
fwaded by the Leigers there, M^ Pynty M' Hambdeuy and Mr 
Saint-Johv^ to concur in it, being ftill of duty and modefty 
enough j without confidering that nothii^ elfe at that time 
could have done mifchief ^ and fo fiifier<d themfelves to be 
made .Inlhuments towards, ±ofe Ends which in tmth they 

I N thcfe diftradions and difcompofiires, between an Ene- 
my proud and infolent in Succefs, an Army cormpted, or at 
leaft difhearten'dj a County mutinous and inclined to the 
Rebels, at leaft not inclin'd to reduce them, and a Court 
infcdtcd with all three, the King could not but find himfelf 
in great ftraits ; befides that his Treafure, which had hitherto 
kept that which was beft from being woqe, was quite ibent. 


Of the ReheUion^ &c. 14-7 

The raifing and disbaiidijqg the firft Army fo unfortunately 
and wretchedly, had coft full three hundred thou&nd pounds^ 
which the good husbandry of the Minifters of the Revenue 
had treafiu^d up for an emergent occafion : and the borrow^ 
ing fo much money for ±e raifing and fupplying this latter 
Anny, had drawn affignments and anticipations upon the Re-^ 
venue to that degree, • that there was not left: wherewithal to 
defi:ay the ncce(&jy expence of ±e King's Houfhold. A Par- 
liament would not be eafily ±ought of, on this confideration^ 
that it could not come together foeedil)^ enough to prevent 
that miichief to which it fliould oe chiefly applied j for if 
we were not then in a condition to defend our felves, in 
forty days (the fooneft a Parliament could meet) an Army 
elate wim Viflory, when no Town was fortiiyd, or Pafs fe-» 
cur'd, might run over the Kingdom^ efbecially the People 
being every where fo like to bid them welcome. 

A NEW Invention (not before heard of, that is, foold^»>^^^^ . 
that it had not been praftifed in fome hundreds of Years) was ^**"jf' ^ 
thougjit of, to call a great Council of all the Peers of E»^-^^^^^ 
ImuI to meet and attend his Majefty at Tork^ that by theiri« Yorki 
advice ±at great A£&ir mig^t be ±e more profperoufiy ma<^ 
naged. Whether it was then conceived, that the Honour of 
the King and Kingdom being fo vifibly upon the Stage, thofe 
Branches of Honour, which could not out-live the Root, 
would undoubtedly relcue and preferve it j or whether it was 
believ'^ that upon fo extraordinary an occafion ±e Peerd 
would (uffice to raife money ; as it was in that meeting pro- 
posed by one of them, ^ that They might give Subhcfies % 
Whether the advice was given by ±ofe who had not the 
confidence in plain terms to propofe a Parliament, but were 
confident that would produce one ; or Whether a Parhament 
was ±en rdblv'd on, and They called to be obliged by it^ 
and fb to be obl^d to fome ibber undertaking in it ; or 
what other ground or intention there was of that Council^ 
was never known : or whether indeed it was refolv^d out of 
trouble and agony of affliAed thoughts, becaufe no other way 
occurred : But iKidi a Refolution was taken, and Writs im-> 
mc^ately idued under the Great Seal of England to all the 
Peers to attend his Majefty at Tork within twenty days ^ and 
preparations were made in all places accordingly. 

Whilst the Lords are on their way thither, it Will not Ti>*A'^ */ 
be amift to confider the general ftate ot afiairs in that time^^'*'" ^^ 
and ±e Perfons to whom the managing the Publick Bufi^efs^^J^'ii^/. 
was principally then, and for fome time had been, intitafted ^ 
tlmt fo upon view of the materials, we may be the better 
enabled to gue& how thofe dextrous work-men were like to 
employ tb^mfdves. It hath been iaid already, that upon the 

K X Diffo* 

bout thdf 

14.8 The Hi/iory Book II. 

Diflblution of the Parliament but four months before, the 
Lords of the Council beltirr'd themfelves in levying die Slip- 
money, and lending great fiims of Money for the War. 
ntC0nv9- The Convocation-Houfe fthe regtdar and legal aflem- 
cdtion c»K- bling of the Qergy) cultomarily beginning and ending with 
tinued after Parliaments, was, after the determination of the laft, bv a new 
the Part$a^ y^j^^ Continued, and &te for the fpace of above amontn under 

ment'. inMitet , '^iz-o j j ^^ t • « 1 « 


did many things which in the befl of times mi^ht have beat 
queftion d, and therefore were fare to be condemn'd in the 
worit ( what fcwel it was to the fire that enfaed, fliall be 
mention'd in its place) and drew the fame Prejudice upon 
the whole body of the Clergy, to which before only fomc 
few Clergy-mea were exposed. 
nePdfifis The Papifts had for manv Years enjoy'd a great calm, 
sSfivitj and being upon the matter abfolv d from the Severeft parts of the 
i*!i^*[Lf ^^j ^d difpenfed With for the Gcntleft j and were grown 
''^ ' "* only a part of the Revenue, without any probable danger of 
being made a facrifice to the Law. They were look'd upon 
as good Subjeas at Court, and as good Neigjibours in the 
Country ^ all the reftraints and reproaches of former times 
being toi^otten. But they were not pmdent managers of 
this rrofperity, being too elate and transported with the Pro- 
tedtion and Connivance they received : though I am per- 
fwaded their Numbers encreasM not, their Pomp and Boldnefs 
did, to that degree, that, as if they affefted to be thought 
dangerous to the State, they appear'd more publickly, enter- 
tained and urg'd Conferences more avowedly, than had been 
before known : they reforted at common hours to Mafs to 
Somerfit Houfe, ana retum'd thence in great multitudes, with 
the lame barefacednefs as others came from the Savoy or 
other neighbour Churches : they attempted, and fometimes 
obtained Profelytes of weak uninformed Ladies, with fuch 
circumftances as provoked the Rage, and deftroy'd the Cha- 
rity of great and powerful Families, which longed for their 
Supprdlion : they grew not only fccrct Contrivers, but pub- 
lick profefs'd Promoters of, and Minifters in, the moft 
odious, and the mofl grievous Projc<9:s : as in that of Soap, 
form'd, framed, and executed, by almofl: a Corporation of 
that Religion j which under tliat licence and notion, might 
be, and were fufoedled to be, qualify^d for other agitations. 
The Pricfts, and fach as were in Orders (Orders that in 
themfelves were punifliable by Death ) were departed from 
tlieir former mooefty and fear, and were as willing to be 
known as to be hearken'd to j infomuch as a Jefuit at FarU 


Of the Rehellton^ &c. 14-9 

who was coming for England^ had the boldnefs to vifit the 
Embafladour there, who knew him to be fiich, and offering 
his fervice acquainted him with his Journey, as if there had 
been no Laws There for his reception. And for the moft 
invidious Proteftion and Countenance of that whole Party, a 
Publick Aeent from Rome (firft Mr con a Scottfh-rmn , and 
after him me Caaat of Rozetti an Italian) reiided at London 
in great Port ^ j^ublickly vifited the Court ; and was avow- 
edly reforted to by the Catholicks of all conditions , over 
whom he afliim'd a particular jurifdidlion ; and was carefs'd, 
and prefented magnificently by the Ladies of Honour who 
inclin'd to that Profeffion. They had likewife, with more 
noife and vanity than pmdence would have admitted, made 
Publick Colle<aions of Money to a confiderable fiim, upon 
fome recommendations from the Qjeen, and to be by her 
Majefty prefented as a free-will-offiiring from his Roman*- 
CadioUck Subjeftstothe King, for the carrying on the War 
againft the Scots ^ which drew upon Them the rage of that 
Nation, with little devotion and reverence to the Queen her 
fclf ; as if She defir'd to fupprefe the Proteftant Religion in 
one Kingdom as weU as the other, by the Arms of the Ro- 
man-Ca±olicks. To conclude , they carried themfelves fo, 
as if they had been fuborn'd by the Scots to root out their Own 

The bulk and burthen of the State afl&irs, whereby the The perftm 
Envy attended them likewife , lay principally upon the '*2* '"tl 
fliouldcrs of the Lord Arch-Bilhop of Canter bury ^ the Earlg^l^Jj!^ 
of Strafford^ and the Lord Cottington'y fome others being 0/ 5r4r# : 
joytfd to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, 
the Lord Bifhop of London for his place, being Lord hi^ 
TtcsSuicv of Englandj the two Secretaries, Sr Henry Faneznd 
Sr Francis Wmdebank^ for fervice and communication of In^ 
teUigence ; only the Marquis of Hamilton indeed, by his skiU 
and interelt, bore as great a part as he had a mind to dq^, 
and had the skill to meddle no farther than he had a mind. 
Thefe Perfons made up the Committee of State (which was 
reproachfully after calrd the JunBo , and envioully then in 
the Court the Cabinet Council) who were upon all occafions, 
when the Secretaries received any extraordinary InteUigence, 
or were to make any extraordinary Difpatch , or as oftdi 
otherwife as was thought fit, to meet : whereas the Body of 
the Council obferv^d fet days and hours for Their mectmg, 
and came not elfe together except fpecially fummon^d. 

B u T, as 1 feid before, the Weight and the Envy of all The ^ch- 
great matters refted upon the three firft. The Arch-Bilhop, ^^^'Z 
befidesthe fole difpofal of whatfoever concerned the Churdi,?'"^"*^* 
wliicb was an invidious province, having been from the 

K 3 ^ death 

ISO TbeHifiory BooklL 

•death of the Earl of Portland ( at which time he was made 
Commiffioner of the Treafury ) more engag'd in ±e Civil 
buiinefs, thanlam periwaded hedefir'd tote: and through- 
out ±e whole bufinels paffionately concem'd ror the Church 
of Scot iandy andfb, converiantin thofe traniadions : by all 
which means, bdkies that he had ufiially about him an un« 
courtly quidaiefs, if not fharpnefi, and did not fiifficiendy 
value what menfaid or thought of him ^ a more than ordi* 
nary Prejudice and Uncharitablenefs was contra&ed againft 
him : tg whidi the new Canons, and the circumftances in 
making them, made no fmaU addition. 
7h9 Edrifif The Earl of Strafford had for the fpace ofahnoftfix Years 
Strafford, entirely govem'd Ireland^ where he had been compelled, upon 
reafon of State, to exercife many Ads of Power ^ and nad 
indulg'd fbme to his own appetite and pafQon, as in the cafes 
of the Lord Chancellor, and the Lord Mownt-Norris ; the fiift 
pf which vf^&fatisfro imferioy but the latter , if it had not 
concerned a perfon notoriouDiy unbelov'd , and fo ±e naore 
unpitied , would have been thought the moft extravagant 
piece ofSoveraignty, that in a time of Peace had been ever 
executed by any Subjefti When and why he was odl'd out 
of Ireland to amft in Council here, I have touch'd before. 
He was a man of too high and fevere a deportment, and 
too great a contemner of Ceremony to have many Friends 
at Court, and therefore could not but have Enemies enough : 
he had Two that profefe'd it , the Earl of HoUand^ and Sr 
Henry Vane ; the hrft could never forget or forgive a (harp 
iiiddain Saying of his (for I carmot call it Counfel or Advice) 
when there had been fomediflference a few years before be- 
tween his Lordfhip and the Lord Wefion^ in ±e managing 
whereof the Earl of Holland was confined to his Houfe, 
^ That the King fliould do well to cut oflF his head : which 
bad been aggravated ( if fuch an injury were capable of ag- 
gravation) by a fiicceffion of Difcountenances mutually per- 
form'd between them to that time. $r Henry Vane had not 
far to look back to the time that the Earl had with great 
eameftnefs opposed his being made Secretary, and prevail'd 
for above a months delay; which, though it was done with 

freat reafon and juflice by the Earl, on the behalf of an old 
ellow-fervant, and his very good Friend S^ John Coke ( who 
was to be, and afterwards was, removed to let Him in ) yet 
the julHce to the One, leflcnM not the fenfe of unkindneis to 
the Other : after which , or about the feme time ( which it 
may be made the other to be the more virulently remem- 
bred) being to be made E^\ of Straffordy he would needs in 
that Patent have a new creation of a Barony, and was made 
|k Baron of Ri9^, a Houfe belonging to Sr Henry Vane^ and an 
V Honour 

OftheReheUion^dicc. lyi 

Honbur he made account fliould belong to himfelf ; which 
was an ad: of the moft unnecefl&rv provocation ( though he 
contemn'd die Man with marveUous fcorn ) that I have 
known, and I believe was ±e chief occaiion of the lots of 
his Head. To tibefe a Third adverfiuy i like to be more per- 
nicious than the other Two ) was added, ±e Earl of Effexy 
naturally enough disinclined to his Perfon, his Power, and Ms 
Parts, upon ionie rough Carriage of the Earl of Strafford's 
towards the late Earl of Saint .Mans^ to whom he nad a 
Fricndlhip. and therefore openly prorcfi'd to be reveng'd. 
Laitiy, he nad an Enemy more terrible than all the other, 
and like to be more fatal, the whole Scotijh Nation, provoked 
by the Declaration he had procured of Ireland^ and fome 
high Carriage and Expreflions of his againit them in that 
Kingdom. So that He had reafon to expcdl as Imrd meafiire 
from fiich Popular Councils as he law were like to be in re- 
quef^ as all mofe Difadvantages could create towards Him. 
And yet no doiit his Confidence was great in Himfelf, and 
in the form ofjuftice (which he could not fiifpeS: would be 
ib totally confounded ) that he never apprehended a greater 
cenfiire than a Seque(faation fi-om all Publick Employments^ 
in which it is probable he had abundant iatiety : and this 
Confidence could not have proceeded ( confidering the full 
knowledge he had of his Judges ) but from a proportionable 
(lock o^ and fiitisfadion in, ms own Innocence. 

The Lord Cottmgtony though he was a very Wife MmyUeUifd 
yet hiviiig Ipent the greateft part of his Life m Spa$»y anjcotting- 
ib having been always fubjedl to the unpopular imputation*®'** 
of being of the Spa»i/h Ft&iony indeed was better skills to 
make his Mailer great abroad, than gracious at home ^ and 
being Chancellor of the Exchequer from the time of the 
Diffolution of the Parliament in the fourth Year , had his 
Hand in many hard fhifts for Moneys and had the diiadvan- 
tage of being fiifpedied at lead a Favourer of the Papifts 
( mough tlmt Rehgion thought it felf nothing beholding to 
Him ) by which he was in great umbrage with the People : 
and then though he were much lefs hated dun either of the 
other Two, and the lefs, becaufe there was nothing of kind- 
nefs between the Arch-Bifhop and him ^ and indeed very 
few particulars of moment could be prov'd againfl him: 
yet there were two obj^ons againfl him, which rendered 
nim as odious as any to die great Reformers 5 the one, that 
he was not to be reconciled to or madeufeofin any of their 
defigns ; ±e other, that he had two good Offices , without 
the having of which .their Reformation could not be perfedl : 
for befides being; Chancellor of the Exchequer, he was like- 
wife Mafter of me Wards, and had rais'd the Revenue of 

K 4 that 

JS% The Hiftory Book 11. 

that Court to the King to be much greater than it had ever 
been before his Adminifb^tion ; by which Husbandry all the 
Rich Families of Esiglandy of Noblemen and Gentlemen, 
were exceedingly incens'd, and even indevoted to die Crown, 
looking upon what the liw had intended for tiieir Preferva- 
tion. to be now applied to their Deftruftion ^ and therefore 
refoiv'd to take the firft opportunity to ravifli that Jewel out 
of tiie Royal Diadem, though it were falten'd There by the 
known Law^ upon as unqueitionable a Right, as the Subjed: 
enjo/d any tning that was mofthis Own. 
rhtHUrauM The Majquis oi Hamilton^ if he had been then weigh'd 
•/Hamil- in the Scales of the People's hatred, was at that time thought 
**^ to be in greater danger than any one of the other ^ for he 

had more Enemies, and fewer l*riends,inCourtorCoimtry, 
than any of the other. His intereft in the King's Affedtion 
was at leaft equal, .and thought to be fuperior, to any Man's; 
and he h^d (eceiv'd as invidious inftanccs, and marks of 
thole' Aflfedtions. He had^ioore out-faced flie Law in bold 
Proje£ts and Prefliires upon the People, than any other Man 
durlt have prefum'd to do, as elp^cially in the projeflis oiF 
Wine and Iron ; about the laft of which, and the moll grofe, 
he had a (harp conteft with the Lord Coventry ( who was a. 
good Wreftlertoo) and at laft compell'd him. to letitpafs 
the Seal; the entire profit of which dways revfcrted to Hinv 
fclf, and to fiich as were his Pcnfioners. He had been the fole 
manager of the bufinefs of Scotland till the Pacification; the 
readieft Man, though Then abfent, to advife that Pacification, 
and the mod vifible Author of the breach of it. Laftly, the dif- 
covcries between the Lord Mackey and David Ramfayjoiy whicli 
the Marquis was accus'd of dengning to make himfelf King 
of Scotland^ were frefli in many Mens memories, and the latq 

Eflages in that Kingdom had reviv'd it in others ; fo that 
e might reafonably have expedted as ill a prelage for him- 
felf from thofe Fortune-tellers, as the moft Melancholick of 
the other : but as he had been always moft carefiol and fol- 
Iicitou3for Himfelf, fohewas moft likely to be apprehenfive 
pn his Own behalf, and to provide accordingly. 

And here \ cannot omit a Story which I receiv'd from 
a very good hand, by which his ^eat fubtilty and indulby 
for himfidf may appear, and was indeed as great a piece of 
Art ( it it wer^ Art ) as I bejieve will be found amongft the 
modernTohticians. After the calling the Council of the 
^'ccrs at" Tork was refoiv'd upon, and a little before the time 
oF their appearance-, ^he Marquis came to the King, and 
with fome cloudinefs (which was not unnatural ) and trouble 
in his C^puntenance, he defir'd his Majeity to give him leave 
to Travel i the King furpriz'd was equally troubled at i^ 

Cf the Relellion^ Sac. isi 

and demanded his reafon: he told him, ^' He well fbre&w a 
"Storm, in which his fhipwrack was moft probable amongft 
^^ others ; and that he. never having any thing before his 
" Eyes but his Majefty s Service, or in his Vows, but an en- 
" tire fimple Obedience to His Commands, might happily by 
^' his Own unskilfiilncfs in what was fit by any other rule, 
*^ be more obnoxious than other Men; and therefore, that 
"with his Majefty's leave, he would withdraw himfelf firom 
"the hazard at leaft of ±at Tempeft. The King, moft gra- 
cioufly inclined to him, bid him "be moft confident, that 
^^ though he might ( which he was refolv^d to do ) gratify 
*'his People with any reafonable Indulgence, hewoiudne- 
"ver fail his good Servants in that Protedion which they 
" had equal reafon to expedt fi-om him. The Marquis with 
fome quicknefs reply'd, "that the knowledge of that gracious 
"difpofition in his Majcfly, was the principal caufe that he 
"belought leave to be abfent; and that otherwife he would 
"not fo far defert his own Innocence, which he was fiire 
" could be only fully'd and difcredited with Infirmities, and 
*^ indifcretions, not tainted oy defaced with Defign and Ma- 
•' lice. But ( faid he ) "I know your Majefty's goodnefs will 
*^ interpofe for me .to your Own prejudice : and I will rather 
" run any Fortune, from whence I may again return to fcrve 
"you, than be (as Ifbrefee I fhould be) fo immediate a 
" caufe of Damage and Mifchief to fb Royal a Matter. He 
told him , " that he knew there were no Icfs fatal Arrows 
" aim'd at the Arch-Bifhop of Canterbury and the Earl of 
^^ Strafford than at himfelf; and that he had advertised the 
"firft, and advis'd the laft, to take the fame courfe of with- 
" drawing whereby he meant to fecure himfelf : but ( he faid ) 
^* the Earl wastoo great-hearted to Fear, and he doubted the 
" other was too bold to Fly. 

The King was much difturb'd with the probability and 
reafon of what was faid ; which the other as fbon obferving, 
'^ There is ( faid he ) one way by which I might fecure my 
"felf without leaving the Kingdom, and by which youi»Ma- 
" jefly, as thefe times are Wke to go, might receive fbme ad- 
** vantage ; but it is fo contrary to my Nature, and will be fb 
*^ fcandaJous to my Honour in the opinion of Men, that, for 
^^ my own part, I had rather run my Fortune. His Majefty, 
glad that fuch an expedient might be found ( as being un- 
willing to hazard his Safety againft fo much reafon as had 
been fpoken , by compellmg him to ftay ^ and as unwilling, 
by fufiering him to go, to confefs an apprehenfion that he 
migjit be imposed upon ) Impatiently asJrd " What that way 
"wjjs? The Marquis reply'cf, "That he mirfit endear him- 

^ felf to the other Party by promifing his Service to thenu 
• / - "and 

JS4' TheHiftory Book 11. 

^atid feemins to concur with ttemin Opinions and Defigns ; 
*^the which he had reafon to believe me principal Perfons 
^ would not be averfe to, in hope that his fiippord intereft 
^ ia his Maiefty's opinion might be looked upon as of mo- 
^ ment to mem for ±eir pardailar Recommendations. But^ 
^ he £d(L this he knew would be look'd upon with fo much 
*^Jealouqr by other men, and Ihordy with that Reproach, 
^ that, he might by degres be leflen'd even in his Majefty's 
^ own truft J and ±erefore it wasaProvince he had no mind 
'^ to undertake : and fo renew'd his Suit again very earncft^ 
for leave to Travel. 

The King, for the reafons afore&id, much delighted with 
Ais Expedient, and believing likewifej that in trath he might 
by this means frequently receive Informations of great m^ 
and having a Angular efteem of ±e Fidelity and Affedtion 
of the Marquis, told him pofitively, "That he fliould not 
" leave him ; tlmt he was not only contented, but command- 
^ed him to Ingratiate Mmfelf by any means widi the odier 
* People; andafliir'd him «*±atit fhould notbe in any bo* 
^dv's power to iniflife theleaft jealouft of him into his Koyal 
**Breaft. The which Refolutionhis Sdajefty obferv'd focon- 
ftantlv, that the other enjoj^d the Ubeny of doing whatfo- 
ever ne found. neceffiry forms own behoof; and with won- 
derful craft and low condefcenlions to the ends and the ap- 
petites of very inferior People, and by feafonable infinuations 
to fevcral leading perfons ( of how different inclinations fo- 
ever ) of fjch particulars as were grateful to them, and feem^ 
to advance their diilinft and even contrary Interefts and 
Pretences, he grew to have no lefs Credit in the Parliament 
than with the Scotijh Commiffioners ; and was with great vi- 
alance, induftry, and dexterity, preferv'd from any Pubflck 
Reproach in thofe Charges wnich ferv'dtoruin other Men, 
anct which with more reafon and juftice might have been 
apply'd to Him than any other ; and yet for a long time he 
did not incur the jealoufy of the King; to "whom he like- 
wife» gave many advertifements , which if there had been 
Perfons enough who would have concurred in prevention, 
might havejprov'd of great ufe. 
V>e Kin? In this ffcate and condition were Things and Perfons when 
d^iitrts to the Lords came to Tork to the great Council in September ; 
aIS*4/ and the firft day of their meeting ( that the Counfel might 
"^kbh ^ot feem to ariie from them who were refolv'd to give ity 
uftUutons and that the Queen might receive the Honour of it ; who, the 
f«tf4tf4j»4r-King faid , had by a Letter advis'd him to it; as his Ma- 
Ummt. ^g{^y exceedingly defir^d to endear Her to the People ) the 
iCing declar'd to them, ^^ that he was refolv'd to call a Parlia- 
^^menc toaflcafclc at Wefimnfier the third day of November 

^^ following 

dftheRehellion^^c. isf 

^following; which was as foon as was poflSble. Sothe firft 
work was done to their hands,' and they had now nothing to 
do but to di4>ofe matters in order againft that time, which 
could not well be done without a more overt converlation 
widi the Scots. For though there was an intercourfe made^ 
yet it pafs'd for the nibft part througji hands whom the chief 
nadno mind to truft: as the Lord Savik ^ whom his bitter 
hatred to the Earl of Strafford^ and as pafGonate hope of the 
Prefidentfliip of the North, which the Earl had, made appli- 
cable to any end 5 but otherwife a peribn of fo ill a fame^ 
that many defir'd not to mingle in counfels with him. For, 
beiides his no reputation, they begun now to know that he 
had long held correipondence with the Scots before their 
coming in, and invited them to enter the Kingdom with an 
Army ^ in order to which, and to raife his own credit^ he 
had counterfeited the hands of fome other Lords, and puc 
their names to fome undertakings Of \omingynthtbe Scots y 
and therefore they were refolv'd to take that negotiation out 
of his hands ( without drawing any prejudice upon him for 
his prefumption ) which they had quickly an opportunity to 
do. For the firft day of the Lords meeting, a Petition ispre- The Scots 
fented to his Majelty fiill of dutiful and humble expreffions^'f >»»'*• 
from the Scots y who well knew their time, and had ^waysj^jj^^]^ 
(howrou^ and undutifiil foever their A(9dons were) given lJ*„Vif«*L 
the King as good and as fubmiflive Words as can be imagin'd. Rippon. 
This Petition, fidl of as much Submiffionasa Vidlory it felF 
could produce (as was urg'dby fome Lords) Could not but 
beget a Treaty, and a Treaty was refolv'd on fpeedily to be 
at Riff any a place in the King's Quarters : but then, Ipecial 
care was taken, by caution given tofiis Majefly, that no fudi 
ungracious perlons might be intrufted by him in this Treaty 
as might b^ctjealouliesinthe ScotSy iand fo render it fhiit- 
Icfe, and therefore the Earls of Hertford^ BedfordyFemhokey 
Salisbury^ Bffex^ Holland^ Brifioly and Berk/hirOy The Lords 
Atandev'thi Wharton , Dunfinore^ Brook^ Savik^ Paulety flb- 
luardof Eferick ( the Lord Say being lick; and fo not prefenc 
at Tork) werecnofcn by the King; all Popular men, and not 
one of them of much intereft in uie Court, but only the Earl 
of Holland , who was known to be fit for any counfel that 
fhould be taken againft the Earl of Strafford y who had 
among them fcarce a Friend or perfon civilly inclm'd towards 

When thefc Commiffioners from the King arrivy atneCm- 
Ripfon^ there came others fi"om ±e Scots Army of a quality ^HF^^ers 
muchmf^ior, there being not above two Noblemen, whcre-^^^^^ • 
ofthe Lord Z<0m/M was the chief, two or three Gentlemen ^* 
and Qtizens , aixi Alexander Bander fm their Metropolitan, 


1S6 TheH'tftory Book II. 

and two or three o'dier Clergy men. The Scots applied them* 
lelves moft particularly to the Earls of Biiford^ Ejjex^ Holland, 
and the Lord Mandevilcy though in publidc they feemM equal- 
ly to carefi them all; and beudes the duty they profefs'd to 
the King in ±e moft fiibmifs expreflions of reverence that 
could be us'd. they made great and voluminous exprelRons 
^ of their afieoiod to the Kingdom and V&y^lQoi England y 
^andremembred the infinite obligations they had from time 
"to time received from this Nation; efpedaUy the afEftance 
*^they had from it in their reformation of Religion, and 
^ their attaining the light of the Gofpel ; ^nd dierefore as it 
" could never fall into Their hearts to be ungrateful to it, fo 
^' they hop'd that the good People of E»j:/^»^ would not en- 
^ tertain any ill opinion of their coming into this Kingdom 
" at this time in a Hoftile manner, as if they had die leaft 
'^purpofe of doing wrong to any particular perfon, much Ids 
" to alter any thing in the Government of the Kingdom ; 
"protefting that they had the fametendemefs of Their Laws, 
"and Liberties, and Privileges, as of their Own; and that 
" they did hope, as the Oppreflions upon their native Coun- 
*^ try, both in their Civil and Spirimal Ri^ts, had obliged 
"them to This manner of Addrefs to the King, to whom 
" all accefs had been denied them by the power of their Ene- 
^ "mies; fo, that this very manner of their coming in might 

" be for the good of this Kingdom , and the benefit of the 
"Subjcfts thereof, in the giving them opportunities to vin- 
^^ dicate their own Liberties and Laws ; which, though not 
" Yet fo much invaded as thofe of Scotland had been, were 
" enough infring'd by Thofe very men who had brought fb 
" great Mifcry and Conflifionupon that Kingdom ; and who 
" intended, when they had finifli'd their work There, and in 
' " Ireland^ to eflablifli the fame fl^very in England as they 
«' had brought ujxjn the other two iCingdoms. All which 
" would be prevented by the Removal of three or fo&r Per- 
" fons from about the King ; whofe Own gracious difpofition 
" and inclination would bountifiilly provide for the Happi- 
" nefs of all his Dominions, if Thofe ill men had no influ- 
" encc upon his Counfels. 

There was not a man of all the EngUfb CommifTioners 
to whom this kind ofdifcourfe was not grateful enough, and 
who did not promife to Himfclf fome convenience that the 
Alterations which were like to happen might produce. And 
with tliofe Lords with whom they defir'd to enter into a 
greater confidence, they conferr^'d more openly and particu- 
larly, of die three Perfons towards whom their greateft pre- 
Sdice was, the Arch-Bifliop, the Earl of Strafford^ and the 
[arquis of Hamilton ( for in their whole difcourfes they 



Of the Rehellton, Sec. i j-7 

fcemM equally at leaft incenfed againft Him, as againft either 
of the other two ) whom they refoly'd fliould be removed 
from the King. They Ipake in confidence ^^of the exccfs of 
*^ the Qieen's Power, which in re^dt of her Religion, and 
^^ of AePerfons who had moft Intereft in Her, ought not to 
« prevail fo nijich upon the King as it did in all AflSdrs. ThaC 
« the King could never be happy^ nor his Kingdom flourifh, 
*^ till he hSd fiich Perfons about lum in all Places of TrufL as 
^^ were of Honour and Experience in A&irs, and of good For- 
« tunes and Intcrefls in the Aflcdlions of the People j who 
^ would always inform his Majefty that his own greatnels 
« and happinds confifted in the execution of Juftice, and the 
^ happineis of his Subjcdls j and who are known to be zea- 
*^ lous for the prefervation and advancement of the Prote- 
^ftant Religion, which every Honeft Man thou^t at pre- 
^ font to be m great danger, by the exorbitant Power of the 
<' Ardi-Biihop of Canterhury^ and Ibme other Bilhops who 
^' were govem'd by him. It was no hard matter to infinuate 
into the Perfons with whom they held this difcourfe, thac 
They were the very Men who they wilh'd fhould be in moft 
Credit about the King ^ and they concluded '^ that their Affe- 
^^ iikions were fo great to this Kingdom, and they fodefir^d that 
**all Grievances might be redrefe'd here, that though they 
<* fhould receive prefent SatisfetSion in all that concem'd 
^Themfelves, they would not yet return, till provffion 
^ might likewife be made for the juft Interefl oi England^ and 
^ the reformation of what was amifs There in reference to 
*' Church and State. 

This appear'd fo hopefiil a Model to mofl of the King^s 
Commiflioners (who having no me±od prefcrib'd to them 
to treat in, were indeed fent only to hear what the Scots would 

!)ropofe, the King himfelf then intending to determine what 
hould be granted to them ) they never confider'd the Truth 
of any of Sieir Allegations, nor defir'd to be informed of the 
Ground of their proceedings^ but patiently hearken'd to all 
they faid in Publick, of which they intended to give an ac- 
count to the King ; and willingly heard all they Sid in Pri- 
vate, and made fuch ufe of it as they thought moft conduced 
to their Own ends. The Scotijh Commiflioners propofed, 
*^ That for the avoiding the eflRifion of Chriflian blood, there 
^ might be fome way famd to prevent all adls of Hofhlity on 
** either fide ^ which could not poflibly be done, except fome 
" order was given for the payment of Their Army, which 
<< was yet refrrain'd to clofe and narrow Quarters. And che 
truth is, they were in daily fear that tho?e Quarters would 
have been beaten up, and fo the ill Courage of their Men too , 
eafUy difcover'd, who were more taught to fing Pfaims, and 

I j-8 The Hiflory Book II. 

to Pray, than to ufe their Armes ; their hopes erf" prevailing 
being, from the b^;inning, founded upon an afiiirance diac 
they (hoidd not be put to r i^t. 

There had been in that infamous Rout at NevjhimV970 
or three Officers of Quality taken Prifoners, who endeavour- 
ing to Charge the Enemy with the Courage ±ey oudit to 
do, being deferted by their Troops could nof avoid Idling 
into the Scots hands ^ two of which were Wilmot^ who was 
Commiffiuy-General of the Horfe, and ONeal who was Ma- 
jor of a Regiment ^ both Oflfic^ers of Name and Reputation, 
and of good efteem in the Court with all Thofe who were 
incenfed againft the Earl of Strafford^ towards whom they 
were both very indevoted. Thefe (Sentlemen were well known 
to feveral of the principal Commanders in the Scotijb Army 
(who had ferv'd together with them in Holland under die 
Prince of Orange) and were treated with great civility in 
their Camp^ and when the CommifHoners came to Bsppony 
diey brought ±em with them, and prefehted them to the 
King by his CommifEoners, to whom they were very ac- 
ceptable ; and did thofe who delivered them more Service by 
the Reports they made of them in the Army when they n> 
tum'd to their Charjges, and in the Court^ than they could 
have done by remaining Prifbners with them^ and contri- 
buted very much to ±e irreconciling the Army to the Ewl of 
Strafford^ who was to Command it. 

After few days the Commiflioners returned to the King 
at Xorky and gave him an account of what had pafs'd, and of 
the extraordinary Affeflion of the Scots to his Majelty' s Ser- 
vice 'y and Wilmot and ONeal magnifyd the good diicipline 
and order obferv'd in the Army, and made their numbers to 
be believ'd much fuperior to what in truth they were. 
\}e Counfei- T H R E E of the CommifEoners, and no more, were of the 
>rs about King^s Council, the Earls of Femhrcke^ Salisbury ^ and HoUandy 
'ork^"'^ **' who were all infpir'd by the Scots, and lik'd weU all that they 
pretended to defire. Befides thofe, the King had no body to 
confult with but the Lord Keeper Ffnch, the Duke of Rich- 
mondy the Marquis of Hamiltony the Earl of Straffordy and 
Sr Harry Vane principal Secretary of State. The firft of which, 
the Lord Keeper, was obnoxious to fb many Reproaches, that 
though his Affedtion and Fidelity was very entire to the King, 
all his care was to provoke no more Enemies, and to ingra- 
tiate himfelf to as many of thofe as he perceived were like to 
be able to protedt him, which he knew the King would not 
be able to clo ; and towards this he labour'd with all induftry 
and dexterity. The. Duke oi Richmond was young, and ufed 
to difcourfe with his Majefty in his Bed-Chamber rather than 
at the Council-Board, and aManof Honour and Fidelity in 



OftheRehelUon.^c. ij-j 

iiil places ; and in no degree of confidence with his Country- 
men, becauTe he would not admit himfelf into any of their 
Iiitrigues. The Marquis had leave to be wary, and .would 
give his Enemies no new advantages. 

Nor indeed was there any man's advice of niuch credit 
with±e King, but that of the Earl of 5^^e^</^ who had no 
reaibn to declare his opinion, upon fo nice a vahy&Qt in ^ 
prefence of ihR^EaxloiHfiOand and Sr Harry Fane^zad thou^ 
there was only one way to be purfu'd ( which was not to be 
Communicated at the Council ) and that was tp drive the 
Scots out of the Kingdom by the Army : and without con- 
fidering what was done at ±e Treaty ( which had not yet 
agreed upon any Ceffidon ) he fent a good Party of Horfi^ 
Commanded by Major Smiti^ to fall upon a Sfotj/b Quarter 
in the Biflioprick of Durhamy who defeated two or three of 
their Troops, and took all ±eir OflBcers Prilbners, and made 
it manifeft enough that the Kingdom might be qd of the reil^ 
if it were vigoroufly purfu'd j which the Earl of Stn^ord 
hesutily intended. But Le^, the ^c^/i/J General, complain'd 
^^ that He himfelf had forbomto make any fuch attempt out 
^^ of refpea to the Treaty : and the EngU/b CommHfioner* 
thought Themfelves negleaed, and affionted by it. And when 
it was found that his Officer who conduced that Enterprise 
was a Roman Catholick, it made more noife : and they pre* 
vaiFd with the King to reftrainhis General u-om giving out ' 
anymore fuch Orders. 

The King begun fo far to diflike ±e temper of the Com-^ 
midioners, that he thought ±e Parliament would be more 
jealous of^ his Honour, and more fenfible of the Indignities 
he fufier'd by ±e Scots^ than the Commiflioners append to 
be ; and therefore he &nt them back to Rsfpom again to re^ 
new the Treaty, and to conclude a CeCBition of Armes upon 
as good terms as they could^ fb that±e Scotj/b Army im^t 
not advance intQ Torkjbsre^ nor enlarge ±eir Quarters any 
way beyond what they were already poflefs'd of: and this 
Concd&on being agreed to, they Oiould not enter upon any 
other particulars, biK adjourn the Treaty to London ; whicn 
was ±e only thmg the ^^^^xdefir'd, ana without This they 
could never have brought their defigns to pa(s. When the 
other Lords recum'd to lUfpon^ th^ Earl of Femhoko ^as a 
Man of a great Fortune, aiid at that time very Popular ) was 
fent with two or three other Lords to London^ with a Letter 
from the King, and a fubfcription from ±e Lords Commii^ 
fioners of the Treaty ( which was then more powerful ) to 
borrow two himdred thoufand pounds from the Qty, for the 

Sayment of both Armies whilft the CeC&tion and Treaty 
lould continue i <^ which they hop'd would quickly be atan 


l^o TheHiftory Book 11. 

^ end, and the Scots return into their own Country. The 
City was eafily perfwaded to fiimilh the Money, to be paid 
out ofdiefirftthatfhould be raised by the Parliament ^ which 
was very fhprtly to meet. 
^CeffatUn The Commiflioners at Rippon quickly agreed upon the 
^2*^*^ Ce(&tion; and were not unwilling to have allowed fifty 
thoitfand pounds a Month for the fiipport of the Scotijfb Army, 
when they did aflign but thirty thouiand pounds a Month for 
the payment of me King's ^ and to have taken the Scotsfh 
Commiflioners words for their Mufters , which made their 
numbers fo much fuperior to the other : but that fum of fif^ 
diou&nd pounds a Month was afterwards reduc'd to about five 
and twenty thoufand ; and the whole amounting to above 
fifty thouiand pounds a Month, was a fum too great for the 
Kingdom to pay long , as was then generally believ'd. It 
was pretended that two Months would put an end to the 
Treaty ; fo that the two hundred thou&nd pounds , which 
the City had fiippl/d, would difchai^e all the Disbanding : 
Tfcf Tnaty and in this hope the King confirmed the CeC&tion, and fent a 
sdj^itm'd u j^ Condudt for fuch Commiffioners as the Scots fhould think 
^M^^the ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ London for the carrying on the Treaty. 
King re- A L L which being done, the Kmg and the Lords left Tork^ 
tumf. that diey might be at London before the beginning of the 
, Parliament j the Earl of Strafford flaying ftUl in the North 
' to put the Army into as good a pofture as he could, and to 
fiipprefsthe Mutinous Spirit it was inclined to ; and if it were 
poffible, to di^ofe that great County ( of which he had the 
entire Command ) to a better temper towards the King's Ser- 
vice, and to a greater indignation towards the Scots j of whom 
they did not ule to have too Charitable an opinion. But in 
botn thefe applications he underwent great mortifications j 
the Officers of the Army every day aslang his leave to re- 
pair to London , being chofen to ferve in Parliament j and 
when he denied to give diem Pafles, they went away without 
them : and the Gentlemen of the Country who had moft 
depended upon him* and been oblig'd by him, wi±drawing 
their application and attendance, and entring into Combina- 
tion witn his greateft Enemies againft him. 

It is not to be denied, the Ring was in very great Straits, 
and had it not in his power abfolutely to choofe which way 
he would go; and well forefaw, that a Pai*liament in that 
conjundhire of Af&irs would not apply natural and proper Re- 
medies to the Difeafe : for though it was not imaginable it 
would run the courfcs it afterwards did, yet it was vifible 
enough hemuft refign very much to dieirafleSions and ap- 
petite (which were not like to be contained within any mo- 
deft bounds ) and therefore no queftion his Majefty did not 


• — 

Of the Rebellion , &a i6i 

think of calliils a Parliament at firl^ but was wrought to it 
by degrees : Yet die great Council could not but produce 
the omer: where die unskilfulneis and paf&on of feme for 
Want of (uiceming Coniequences , and a general fliarpnefs 
and animofit^ againft Perions^ did more mifchief than the 
power or malice of Thofe who had a fbrm'd defign of Con* 
ftifion : for without doi^ that Fire at thit time ( which did 
Ihordy after bum ±e whole Kingdom ) might have been co- 
vered under a bulhel. So as in truth there was no Cotmfel 
fbneceflary then, as for the King to have continued in his 
Army, ana to have drawn none thither but fiich as Were more 
afraia of difhonour than danger; and to have trufted the 
Juftice and Power of the Law with fiipprefling of Tumults^ 
and quiedng Difbrders in his Rear. 

It is ftiange, and had fbmewhat of a Judgement from 
Heaven in % XaA ail the Indufhy and Learning of the kte 
years had been beftow'd in finding out and evincing, that in 
cafe of Neceffity any extraordinary way for fupply was Law- 
fiil; aiid upon that ground had proceeded when there was 
no Neceffity ; and now when the Neceffity was apparent^ 
Money muit be levied in the ordinary courfe of Parliament; 
viiich was then more extraordin^ than the other had been; 
9sTarkm\j& be defended from an Enemy within twenty five 
mile^ofi^ by Money to be given at London fix Weeks af- 
ter, and to be gatherd withm fix Months. It had been only 
the feafon and evidence of Neceffity that had been quefh- 
on'd; and the view of it in a Peripeftive of State at a di- 
ftance that no eyes could reach, denied to be ground enough 
for an Impofition : as no man could puU down his Neigh- 
bours home beoiufe it flood next Furfe, or Thatch, or feme 
combuftible matter which might take fire ; though he might 
do it when that combuftible matter was really a fire. But it 
was never denied i^t flagrante helloy when an Enemy had 
aftually invaded the Kii^dom, and fo the Neceffity both 
feen and felt, ail mens oxxls are the goods of the rublick, 
to be apply'd to the PubUck fafety, and as carefiiUy to be re^ 
pair'd by the Pubhck ftock. And it is very probable ( fince 
the Fadions within, and die Correibondence abroad was fo 
apparent^ that a Parliament then calTd woidd do the bufinefs 
<rf the ScotSj and of Thofe who invited them hither ) ±at 
if tBe King had pofitively declared , that he wotild have no 
Parliament as long as that Army ftaid in England y but as 
foon as they were redr'd into their own Country He would 
Summon one, and refer aU matters to Their advice, and even 
be advis'd by Them in the compofing the diftraftions of 
Scotland : I fay, it is probable , that they Would eidier -^irill- 
inglyha^ left the Kiobgdom, or foeedily havC'been com- 

VoLLParti. ^^ ^ £ ^ peiiy^ 

i6t * TheHiftory Book II. 

Eell'd ; there being at that time an Army in Ireland ( as was 
lid before) ready to have vilited Siotland. 
Neither would the Indiipdition of the fCingfs Army 
(which was begot only by thofe infiiiions, that there muft of 
peceflity be a Parliament, whijh would prevcent iarther 
Fighting ) have lafted , when they found thofe Authors con- 
futed 'y tor the Army was conftituted of good Officers, whidi 
were more capable of being deceiv'd by dieir Friends, than 
impos'd upon oy their £nemies ^ and they had their Soldiers 
in good devotion, and the bufinefi oiNevjtum would rather 
have fpurr'd them on than reftrain'd diem. And it had been 
much the beft courfe that could have been taken, iL afiior 
die fright at Kewhum^ the King as well as the Earl ot Straf- 
ford &d made haft to Durhamj and kept that Poil^ widiouc 
flaying at Tork ^ and, after fome exemplaiy Juftice and Dif> 
grace upon the chief Officers who were Kuilty, till the Ar* 
my hacl recovered their Spirits (whidiin a yqt^ fliort time 
it did with (hame and indignation enough ) haa march'd di- 
redUy againft the Scots ; by^hich they would have fbeedily 
diQ)o(Ie(?d them of their new Conqueft, and forc'd mem to 
have run diffaraded into their own Country; as may be rea- 
Ibnably concluded from their behaviour whenever mcy were 
affiiulted afterwards by the Eagttjb. 

A ND it is as ftrange that the experience of the laft Sum- 
mer, when the attendance of fo great a number of the No- 
bility ( who had no mind to the War, and as little devotion 
to tne Court ) was the tme ground and caufe of that ridi- 
culous Pacification, did not prevail with the King never to 
Convene the &me company to him again ; which could do 
him very little good if they had dehr'd it; and could not 
but do him more harm than even ±e worft of them at that 
time intended to do : For it might very eaQly have been 
fbrefeen, tiiat the calling fo many difcontented, or diibblig'd, 
or difafiEedied men togemer, with a liberty to confiilt and ad- 
vife, very few whereof had that inclination and reverence 
of the Perfon of the King they ought to have had, though 
fcarce any of them had at that time that mifbhief in their 
hearts which they afterwards difcover'd againft him, or in- 
deed had the leaft purpofe to Rebel : I fay the caUing fiich 
men together, could not but make men mudi w6i& than 
they came, and put worfe thoughts into their heads dian #iey 
brought with them, when the Mifcarriageas well as the Mis- 
fortune of the Court would be the common argument and 
difcourfej and when they would quickly difcern, that it was 
like to be in every one of Their powers to contribute to 
the Deftmaion, at leait to the Diiferace of Men they had no 
kia^efs for, and moft of them great animofity againflk 


Of the ReheUiofty &c. i6g 

B u T the King was without the prefence and attendance of 
any Man in whofe Judgement and Wifdom he had a fiill 
confidence ; for the Earl of Strafford was at the Army ; and 
tfiey who firft proposed the calling the Peers ,^ knew well 
enough that the King knew Parliaments too well to be in- 
clined to call one if they fliould propofe it j and therefore 
They proposed another cacpedient, which he knew not^ and 
fo was furpris'd with the advice (which he thought could 
do no harm ) and gave diredlion for the ifliiing out of the 
Writs, before he enough confider^d whether it might not 
in truth produce fome mifchief he had not well thought of j 
as he quickly found. Nor did the Scots themfelves refolve 
to give him more difquiet in the enfiiing Parliament, than the 
major part of his great Council that he brought together re- 
iblv^d to concur with them in : and with mat difpolitiofl^ 
which they could never have contracted if they had remained 
by themfelves, they all haften'd to the place where they might 
do the Mifchief they intended. 

The next Error to this was, that at the meeting of the 
great Council at Tork^ and before any confent to the Treaty 
at Eipfony there was not a ftate made, and information given 
©f the whole Proceedings in ScotlaniL and thereupon fome 
debate and judgement by the whole Council before the Six- 
teen departed, for their information and inftrudtion ; and 
this had been ftrangely omitted before at the Pacification, in-* 
fomuch as many who had been employed in that firlt at the 
Berkety and in the laft at Rippojty 'confefyd that none of them * 
( and they were of the Prime Quality ) then did, or ever af- 
ter, know any thing of the Laws and Cuftoms^ of that King- 
dom ( by which they might have judg'd whether die King 
had exceeded his jult power, or any thing of the matter of 
Fadt in the. feveral tranfadbions ) but what they had received 
at thofe meetings from the Perfons who were naturdly to 
make their own defence, and fo by accufing others to make 
their own cife the more plaufible ; in which it could not be 
expefted they would mention any thing to their own dif 

By Them they were told *^of a Liturgy imposed upon. 
" them by their Biftiops, contrary to, or without A<3: of Par- 
^ liament, widi ftrange circumftances of Severity and Rigour : 
^ of fome daufes in that Liturgy, different from that of the 
"Church of Englajtd; with pretty fmart Comments of ad- 
vice, and Animadverfions upon thofe Alterations : "*^of a 
" Book of Canons, in whidh an extraoiidinary and extrava- 
" gant power was aflerted to the Bifhop : or a Higjh Com- 
^'miiOaon Court, which' exceeded all\lirriits, and cenfiit'd all 
"degrees «f inen : of the infolfefet Speeches of this Bifhop to 

La " that 

1 64 The Htjiory Book 11. 

^^ that Nobleman, and of the ill Life of another : of their 
^ Own great Humilily and Duty to their fiicred Soveraign, 
" without whofe Favour and Protedion they would not live: 
and laftly, *^ of their fcveral moft fiibmifs Addrefles, by Pe- 
« tition and dl other ways to his Majefty, bein^ delirous, 
" when their Grievances were but heard, to lay 1 hemfelves 
^ and dieir Complaints at his Royal Fee^ and to be moft en- 
. ^ tirely difpos'd by him in fuch manner, as to His wifdom 
^ alone (houVl be thoc^tfit: but that by the power and in- 
^ terpofidon of dieir Adverfaries, all their Supplications had 
** been reje^ed, and They never yet admittecf to be heard. 

With diefe and the like Artifices the good Lords were . 
fo wrou^t upon, and tranfported, that they eafily Coi^ented 
to whatfoever was propos'd j nor was there any Propofition 
made and infifted on by them at the firft or fecond Treaty, 
which was not for the matter fully Confented to : whereas, ' 
if th^r Lordfhips had been fully advertised of the whole 
truth { though there had been fome Inadvertencies and Inco- 

ficancv in the drcumftances of die tranfadtion) his Majefty 
ad fiiil power, by the Laws of SMUmd then in force, to make 
that Rctormation he intended. All their Petitions and Ad« 
drc/Ies had found moft gracious acceptance, and received 
moft gracious Anfwers. But on the contrary. They had 
invaded all the Rights of die Crown, altered the Government, 
• aftronred the Magiltrates and Minifters of Juftice;, and his 
Majcfty's own Regal Authority, with unheard of Infblencies 
and Contempts ; rejedled all hiis ofiers of Grace and Pardon, 

made as evident to them as liirely it miair have been made, 
it is not poilible but thofe Noble pcrfons would have pre- 

fcrv'd themlelves from being deluded by them ^ at leaft many 
of the Inconvenicncics which after enlued W(xild have been 
prevented, if the tonn and method of their Proceedings bad 
uccn prckrrih'd, or better looked into. 

B IT T ir muft be confels'd, that in that conjundfaire fuch 
nccoiVary Evidence and informancMi could very hardly be 
given : 'for though it muft>aot be doubted that there were 
many particular f'crlbns of Honour of that Nation who ib- 
horr d the Outiages which were committed, and retained with- 
in iheir own brcalts very Loyal wiflies for his Majcfty's fto- 
fcerity j yet it canuo: be denied that thofe Perfbns, who by 
the Places they held r of King** Advocate, and other Offices) 
ought to ha^'e made tnat Information of matter of Law, and 
marrer of Fact, were Themfelvcs the molt adive Promoters 
of the Rebellion ^ and die Defe&ion was fo gqieial, and fe 


Of the ReheUion^ 8cc. i6s 

few declar'd, or were adtive on Ids Majefty's behalf, that they 
who were not corrupted, in their inward Fidelity, were fo 
Terrified, that they durft not appear in any Office that might 
provoke Thofc wno folely had the power and will to de* 

The laft and moft confounding Error was the remoyiijg 
the Treaty to London^ and upon any terms confenting that 
the Scotifh Commiffionersfhould reude there before areaee 
concluded. By which means, they had not only opportunity 
to publifli all their Counfels and DireOions in tneir ' Sermons 
to the People ( who reforted thither in incredible numbers ) 
and to give their Advice, from time to time, to Thofe of the 
Efigltfb who knew not fo well yet to compafs their OWh ends, 
but were ready ( when any bufinefe was too big and unweildy 
to be manag'd by the few who were yet throughly engaged ; 
to interpofe in the name of Their Nation, and with reference 
to Things or Perlbns to make fuch demands from and on the 
behalf of the Kingdom of Scotland^ as imder no other Ityle 
would have receivd any Countenance^ and this brought tnat 
univerial Terror with it ( as will appear to the life in the pro- 
cefs of this Hiftory ) upon Thofe of neareft relation to die- 
King's Service, as well as Thcrfe at a greater diftance, who 
clearly difcem'd and detefled the Villany and Wickednefs of 
thofe Tranj&dtions, that their warinefs and wifdom could not 
be great enough to preferve them, if they did not Itupidly 
look on without feeming to underitand what ±ey could in no 
degree controul or prevent. 

In all Coi^fpiracies there muft be great fccrecy, confent, 
and union; yet if can hardly be conceived, with what entire 
Confidence m each other, the numerous and not very rich No- 
bility of ,5r(?//if«/ (for of the Common People, who are na- 
turally very dependent on the other, there can be no wonder ) 
concurred in the carrying on this Rebellion : their Ibrange 
Condefcenfion andSubmiffion to their ignorant and infblent 
Qcrgy, who were to have great Authority becaufe they were 
to iiSame all forts of Men upon the obligations ok (Jonfci- 
ence; and in order thereunto, and to revenge a little Indif^ 
cretion and ill Manners of fome of the Bifhops, had liberty 
to eredl a Tribunal the moft Tyrannical oVer all forts of Men, 
and in all the Families of the Kingdom : io that the Preacher 
reprehended the Husband, governed the Wife, chaftis'd thai 
Children, and infiilted over the Servants, in the Houfis of 
the Greateft Men. They referred the management and condud; 
of the whole Afl&ir to a Committee of a few, who had never 
b^reexercis'd any Office or Authority in thePublick, with 
that perfed reiignation and obedience, that no body prefum'd 
to enquire what was to be done, or to muftnur at, or cenfuie 

L 3 ^ 

i66 TheBiftory Book II. 

any thi% that was done ^ aflflthe General himfel£ and die 
Martial Amirs, were fubje^to thisJ^^^iMrfji and Difcipline as 
well as the Civil : vet They who were intrufted with this 
Superiority , paid all the outward refped and reverence to 
the peribn of the General, as if all the power and difpofal had 
been in Him alone. 

The few EngUfh (for there were yet but very few who 
were intrufted from the b^inning of the Enterprise, and with 
all that was then projected ) were Men of referv^d and dark 
natures, of great mduftry and-addrefe, and of much reputation 
for pix^ity and integrity of Life, and who trufted none but 
thote who were contented to be trufted to that degree as they 
were willing to truft them without being inquifitive into more 
than they were ready .to Communicate, and for the refl: de- 
pended upon dieir difoetion and judgement ; and fo prepared 
and diipc^d^ by fecoQd ^3aA third hands, many to concur and 
contribute to feveral preparatory AiSions, wno would never 
have confented to die conclufions whidi naturally refiilted 
from thofe premifcs. 

This united ftrengdi^^nd humble and a£iive temper, was 
nor encountered by an equal providence and circumfbe<^on 
in the King's Councils, or an equal temper and dutifol difi>o- 
fition inthe Court; nor did they who rdblv^d honeftly and 
ftoutly to difchargc the Oflfices of good Servants and good Sub- 
jects to the utmoft oppofition of all unlawful attempts, com- 
ihunicate their purpofes to Men of the feme Integrity, that 
fo they might unite their Counfels as well in the manner and 
way, as their refolutions in the end. But every one thought 
it enough to preferve his own Iimocencc, and to leave the 
Reft to thofe whofhould have Authority to direft. The King 
was perplexed and irrefolute^ and accorcfingto his natural con- 
ftitution (which never diiposed him to jealoufy of any Man 
of whom he had once thought well ) was full of. hope, that 
his condition was not fo bad as it feem'd to be. The Queen 
wiflfd much better to the Earl of Holland^ than to the Arch- 
Bifhop or the Earl oiStrsfford^ neither of Them being in any 
degree acceptable to Her ; fo that (he was little concern'd for 
the danger that threajtned diem : but whenlhe faw the King's 
Honour and Dignity invaded in the profecution , flie wi3i- 
drew her favour from the Earl of HoBanJ : but then Ihe was 
perfwaded, by thofe who had moft credit with her, to be- 
lieve, that by the removal of the great Minifters, Her Power 
and Authority would be encreas'd, and that the prevailing 
Party would be willing to depend upon Her ; and that by 
gratify ingtbc priucipal Perfons of them With: fuch Preferments 
^ as they dfedted, fhe fl>ould quickly reconcile all ill humours : 
^ and fo fhe hearlq;ied to any Overtures of that kind ^ which were 
WL always 

Of the Rehellion^ Sec. 167 

always carried on without tho confent or Drivity of thofc 
who were concem'cL who in "buth mote diuiked Her abJb- 
lute Power with the King, than any other £xcefs of the Coun^ 
and look'd upon it as the greateft Grievance. Every Man 
There confider'd only what application would be moft like 
to raifehisOwn Fortune, ortodoThofe harm with whom . 
he was angry, and gave himfelf wholely up to thofc Artifices 
which mi^t promote either. To prefervethemfelves firom 
the di^lediire and cenfure of the Parliament, and to render 
themiclves gracious to Thofe who were like to be powerful 
in it, was an Men's bufinefs and fbllicitude. And in this very 
unequal and di^ropordon'd condition and temper, was the 
King's and the Scotj/b Army, the Court and the Country, 
when the Parliament met. 

The End of the SgcoND Book. 


170 TheHiftory Book III. 

Londony which had very rarely rcjedled their Recorder upon 
that occafion ^ and left that {houlcl £iiL diligence was us'd in 
one or two other places that he might be eleacd. The oppo- 
fition was {b great, and the Fa&ion fb ftrong, to hinder .^lis 
being JEleflied in the City, that four others werechofen for 
that Service, without hardly mentioning his name: nor was 
th^e lefi indufby us'd to prevent his being chofen in other 
places ; Qerks were corrupted not to make out the Writ for 
one place, and ways were found put to lunder the Writ from 
. being executed in another, time enough for the Return before 
the meeting : fo great a tear there was,- that a Man of entire 
AScdtions to the Kong, and of prudence enou^ to manage 
thofe Afiedions, and to r^;ulate the contrary, (hould be put 
into the Chair. So that the very morning the Parliamei^ was 
to meet, and when the King mtend^ to.'go thither, he was 
informed that S' Thomas Gardiner was not retum'd to ferve 
as a Member in the Houfe of Commons, and fo was npt ca- 
pable of being chofen to be Speake¥^ fo that his Majefty de- 
ferr'd his going to the Hbufe till tho^eiAooA,* by which time 
he was to think of another Speaker. 

Upon tjieperufal ofallthe Retiims into the Crown Of- 
fice, there were not four^d many Lawyei^ of . eminent Name, 
( though many of them prov'd very En^eqf Men afterwards) 
or who had ferv'd l6ng iii former Parliaments, the experi- 
ence whereof was to bewilh'd j and Men of thatPrpfefTion 
had been moft commonly thou^t the moft proper for that 
. Service , and the putting it out of that Channel at that time 
was thought too hazardous : lo that, after all the deliberation 
the (hortnefs of that time would admit, Mr LenthaU^ a Bencher 
of Uncolns Inn ( a Lawyer of competent practice, and no ill 
reputation for his Afiedion to the Government both of Church 
and State ) was pitch'd upon by the King, and widi very great 
difficulty rather prevail'd with than perfwaded to accept the 
Charge. . And no doubt I worfe could not have been deputed 
of all that Profeffion who were then returned; for he was a 
Man of a very narrow, timorous nature, and of no experience 
or converfation in the Af&irs of the lungdom, beyond what 
the very drudgery in his Profeffion i in which all his deGga 
was to make himfelf Rich ) engag'd nim in. In a word, he 
was in all refpecSts very unequal to the Work, and not know- 
inghow to preferve his Own dignity, or to reftrainthe Lir 
cence and Exorbitance of Others, his Weaknefs contributed 
as much to the growing Mifchiefs, as the MaUcc of the prin- 
cipal contrivers. However, ^er the King had that afternoon 
recommended the diilraded Condition of the Kingdom (with 
too little Majefty ) to the \Vifdom of the two Houfes of Par- 
liament, to have iuch reformation and remedies applied as 

OftheRehellion.^c. 171 

They (liould think fit, propofingto them, as the bcft rule for 
their Counfels, « That all things fliould be reduced to the 
*' praflice of me time of Queen ^izahtb ^ the Houfe of 
Commons no fooner retum'd to their Houfe, then they chofe 
Mr Lenthall to be their Speaker ^ and two days after, with 
the uiiial ceremonies and circumiknces, prefented him to the MrLnn 
King, who declared his acceptation; aad lb both Houfes were t^" ^^^^ 
ready for the Work. *'<'^- 

There was obfcrv'd a marvellous elated- Countenance in 
many of the Menibers of Parliament before they met toge- 
ther in the Houfe; the fame Men who fix months before were 
obferv'd to be of very moderate Tempers, and to with that 
gentle remedies mi^ be apphcxl, without opening the wound 
too wide and expoiing it to the air, and rather to cure what 
was amifs than too ftrialy to make inquifition into the caufes 
and original of ±e Malady, talked now in another dialeft 
both of Things andPerfons; and fidd ^ that they muft now 
« be of another temper than they were the laft Parliament-; 
^ chat they muft not only fweepthe Houfe clean below, but 
^^ muft pull down all the Cobwebs which hung in the top 
*^ and comers, that they might not breed duft, and fo make a 
*^foul Houfe hereafcer; That they had now an opportunity 
« to make their Country happy, by removing all Grievances, 
^and pulling up the Caufes of thembythe RobtSj if all M^h 
^^ would do meu: Duties; andus'd much other (harp difcourfe 
to the fame purpofe : by which it was difcenfd, that thte 
warmeft and boldeft Counfels and Overtures, would find ft 
much better reception than thofe of a m6re temperate allay j 
which fell out accordingly : and the very firll day they met 
together, in which they could enter upon bufmeis, MrPpr,»^Pyin 
in a long, form'd difcourfe^ lamented the.roiferable ftateand^'-?"*''*^ 
condition of the Kingdom, aggravated all the particulars J^,^J'^,^ 
which had been done amifs in the Government, as ^^ done 
^ and contriv'd maliciouily, and upon deliberation, to change 
^^ the whole Frame^ and to deprive the Nation of all the D- 
<« berty and Property which was their Birthright by the Laws 
^^ of the Land, whioi were now no more coniiderd, but iyb- 
^'jedtedto the Arbitrary Power of the Privy-Council, which 
^^ govem'd the Kingdom according to Their will and plea- 
se iiire ; thcfe Calamities falling upon us in ±e Reign of a Pf* 
^ ous and Virtuous King, who lov'd his People, and waiff a 
"great lover of Juftice. And thereupon enlarging in fomfe 
fpecious commendation of the nature and goodneis of the King^ 
that he might wound him with lefs fufpidon, he iaid^ ^We 
" muft enquire from what Fountain thefe Waters of^ bitter- 
" nefs ftow'd ; what Perfbns They were who had fofar infi- 
" nuated thcmfdves into his Ro/aI Aflbftioiif, as to beabte 


I7X The Hijiory Book III. 

a to pervert his excellent Judgement^ to abufe his Name, and 
cc wickedly apply His Aumotitv to countenance and fupport 
a their Own corrupt deGgns. Though he doubted there would 
cc be Many found of this clajfis , who had contritmted their 
cc joint endeavours to bring this mifery upon the Nation ; 
cc I et he believ'd there was One more (ignal in t^ Admini- 
aflration than thereft, being a Man of great parts and con- 
es trivance, and of great indultry to bring what he defign'd 
tfto pais; aMan^who, in thememory of manyprefent,had 
cc fate in that Hcnife an eamefl vindicator of the Laws, ai^d a 
u mofl Zealous Aflertor and Champioafor die Liberties of die 
« People; but that itwaslongfincehe turned Apoftate from 
« thoie good Afiedions, and according to the cullom and na- 
€c ture pf Apoftates, was become the greatefl: Enemy to the 
« Liberties of his CcMmtry, and the greateft promoter of Ty- 
tf j^imy that any Age had produced. And then he nanrd 
% the£arl of Str^^rd^ Lord Lieutenant oilreland^ and Lord 
« Prefident of the Council eftablilh'd in Torkiox the Northern 
« Parts of the Kingdom j who, he fiid, had. in both Places^ 
«and in all other Provinces wherein his fervice had been 
<f? us'd by the King, rais'd ample monuments of his Tyranni- 
<fcal nature; ano-thathe believ'd, if-theytookaihortfurvey 
c^of his adtiotis atitd behaviour, thev would find him the 
^ principal Authbt and Promoter of all thofe Counfels which 
« bad expos'd the Kingdom to fo much Ruin : and fb in* 
flancM in ferae high ami imperious aflions done by him in 
England BXid in Irelandy fome proud and over confident ex- 
preflionsin difeourfe, and fome paffionate advices he had 

fiven in the moft fecret Councils and Debates of the affairs of 
tate ; adding fome lighter paC&ges of his vanity and amours ; 
that thev who were not inflam'd with anger and deteftatioir 
againft nim for the former, might have lets efteem and reve- 
rence for his prudence and cmcretion : and fo concluded , 
<« That they would well confider how to provide a Remedy 
<« proportionable to the Difeafe, and to prevent the farther 
f^Mifchiefs they were to expedt from the continuance of this 
^^ great Man's power and credit widi the King, and his influ- 
^ ence upon His Counfels. 

From the time that the Earl of Strafford was nam'd, 
rifoflMen believed that there would be fome Committee ap- 
pointed to receive information of all his mifcarriages, and 
diat, lipon report thereof, they would farther conlider what 
courfe to take in the examination and profecution thereof; 
but they ;had already prepar'd and digefted their bufinefs to a 
riper period. 

M'^Pym had nofboner finifh'd his difcourfc, than Sr y^bn 
Chtvwrtty ( a Gentleman of Ireland , and utterly unknown 


Of the Rehelliou^ &c. 1^5 

ia &^Umdy who was, by the contrivance and recommettdatioa 
of fome powerful perfons, reoirtf d to ferve for a Burrough in 
J>evom:/Birey that fo he might be enaUed to aA This pare 
againft the Lord Lieutenant ) made a long and confiis'd rela« 
tion ^oi his Tyrannical carria^ in that Kingdom ; of the 
<^ Army he had rais'd diere to invade Scotland^ how he had 
^ threaten'd the Parliament^ if they granted not fuch SuppU^ 
^^ as he requir'd ; of an Oath he had fram'd to be adminiiter'd 
^to aU the ^«///^i& Nation which ixihabited that Kingdom, aqfd 
^ his, fevere proceedings againft Ibme Perfons of Quality who 
^ refus'd to take that Oath; and that he had with great pride 
^^ and pafTion publickly dedar'd at his leaving that Kingdom, 
<^ If ever he fnould return to that SworcL he would not leave 
^a&^/a/&-mantoinhabitin Jrei^nM/: with a multitude of Veiy 
exalted e3q)reffion% and fbme very high a(3ions in his admi- 
xiiffaadon of that Government, in wmch the Lives as well^as 
the Fortunes of men had been difpos'd of out of the common 
load of Juftice : all which, made him to be look'd upon as a 
xxian very terhble^ and under whofe audaority men would not 
choofe to put themfclves. 

Several other Perfons appearing ready to continue the 
difcourfe, and the morning being Q)ent, fb mat, acccKding to 
the obfervati(Hi of Parliament hours, the time of rifing was 
come, an Order was fuddainly made ^^diat the door mould 
^^bemu^ andnobodyfiifier'dtogooutoftheHoufe; which 
had rarely been praois'd : care having been firft taken, to 
give filch advertifement to fbme of the Lords that tlmt Houfe 
might likewife be kept from rifing ; which would otherwife 
very much have broken their meafiires. 

Then S^Johm Hotbamy 9Xid fbme. other Tork^ire men, 
who had received fbme dUobligation from the Earl in the 
Country, continued the Invedive, mentioning many particu- 
lars of nis imperious carriage, and that he had, in the face of 
. the Country, up<Hi the execution of fbme illegal Commidion, 
dedar'd, ^ diat they fhould find the little finger of the King's 
^ Prerogative heavier upon them than the loyns of the Law ; 
which expreffion, diougn upon after-examination it was found 
to have a quite contrary fenfe, marvelloufly increased the 
Paflion and Prejudice towards him. 

I N condufion, after many hours of bitter inveighing* and 
ripping up the courfe of his life before his coming to Courts 
and his Addons after, it was mov'd, according to the fe- 
cret Refbludon taken before, ^ that he might be forthwidi 
^' Impeached of High Treafon ^ which was no fooner mentioned, 
than it found an univerfal approbation and confent from the 
whole Houfe : nor was there, in all die debate, one perfon 
who offer'd to (top the Torrent by any favourable tefhmony 
' ' concerning 

174. TheHiftory . Book III. 

coacenung the Earl's carriage^ five only that the Lord Fatt^ 

Und ( who was very well known to be £»> from having any 

kindnefi for him V when the Propofition was made for the 

Prefent accudng him of High Treafon, modeftly defir'd the 

Houfe to confi&r, " Whether it would not fuit better wi± 

<^the gravity of tfieir Proceedings^ firft to digeft many of 

^^.thofe particulars which had been mentioned, by a Com- 

^ mictee, before they fent up to accufe him ? declaring him- 

^ (etf to be abundandy fedsfyd that there was enough to 

^charge him: which was very ing^uoufly, and franUy 

aniwerd by M' Pyw, ^That fudi a delay might probably 

<( blaft all their hopes^ and put it out of their power topro- 

<^.ceed fardier than they had done already ^ that the E^l's 

^ power and credit with the King, and witih all thofe vAiO 

^ had moft credit with King or Queen, was fo grdt, that 

^ when he fhould come to know that fo much of his Wlcked- 

* ^ nefs was difcover'd, his own Conidence would tell him 

*^ What he was to expefl:, and therefore he would und(nd>t- 

* edly procure the Parliament to be Diflblv'd, rather than un- 

'^ dergo die Juftice of it, or take fome odier dc^erate courfe 

*'to prefcrve Himfclf, though with the hazard of the King- 

^ dom's ruin : Whereas, Jf they prefendy fent up to im- 

^' peach him of High Treifon before the Houie of Peers, in 

*' the Name and on the behalf of all the Commons of Eng" 

*' UnJ^ who were reprefented by them, the Lords would be 

** oblig'd in J^uftice to commit him into fafe Cuftody, and fo 

*" fcqueftcr him from reforting to Council, or having accds 

** to his Majefty ; and then they fliould proceed agunft him 

^^ in the ufual form with all neceflary expedition. 

To thofe who were known to live no kindnefe for him, 
and feem'd to doubt whether all the particulars allec^d, bc- 
ing^prov'd, would amount to High Treafon, it was alledg'd, 
" That the Houfe of Commons were not Judges^ but only 
^^ Accufers, and that the Lords were the proper Judges whe- 
^ther fuch a complication of Enormous Crimes in one Per- 
^'fon, did not amount to the higheft Offence the Law took 
^^ notice of, and therefore that it was fit to prefent it to Them. 
Thefc reafons of the haft they made, fo clearly delj.ver^d, 
gave that univerfal fatisfii(93on, that without farther confider- 
mg the Injufticc and Unreafonablenefs of it, they Voned una- 
nimoufly (for ought appeared to the contrary by any avow'd 
ne Com- contradidion) "That they would forthwith fend up to the 
m9ns im- '« Lofds and accufe the Earl of Strafford of High Treafon, and 
£*frf of " feveral other Crimes and Mifdemeanours, and ddire that 
strWofdo/"^^ might be prcfentJy fequeller'd from the Council, and 
Hij;;hTr€.%- ^^ Committed to iafeCuflodyj andMrp^jrr was made choice 
fin. of for the Mcflenger to perform that office. TJais being de- 



Cf the ReheUioHy &c. 177 

termin'd, the doors were open'd, and moft of the Hbufe ac- 
companied him on the Errand. 

It was about three of the Qock in the afternoon, when 
the £arl of S$r afford ( being infirm, and not well difpos^d in 
his health, and fo not having ftirr'd out of his houfe that 
morning) hearing that bodi Houfes (till &te, thought fit t6 
go diimer. It was believed by fome i upon what ground 
was never dear enough) that he made mat haft dicn to ac- 
cufe the Lord St^y and fome others, of teiving induced the 
Scots to invade the Kingdom : but he was fcarce entef'd into 
the Houfe of Peers, when the Mefl&ge fipm the Houfe of 
Commons was call'd in, and when Mr Pym at the Bar, and in 
the Name of all the Commons diEngUndj impeadi'd Jhoma9 
Earl of Strafford ( with the addition of all his other Titles S 
of High Trc^n, and feveral other heinous Crimes and Mii^ 
demeanours, of which he &id the Commons would in due 
time make proof in form ; and in the mean time defii^d in 
Their name, that he might be fequefter'd firom all CounfelSj 
and be put into fidFe CiSkody : and fo withdrawing, the Earl 
was, with more Qimour ±an was fuitable to the gravity of 
that Supreme Court, call'd upon to Withdraw, hardly obtain- 
ing leave to be firft heard in his place, which could not be 
denied him. 

He then lamented ^'his great Misfortune to lie under fb 
^^ heavy a charge; profefe'd his Innocence and Integrity, 
*' which he made no doubt he Ihould make appear to them j 
^^defir'd that he might have his Liberty, until fome Guilt 
*^ ihould be prov'd \ and defir'd them to confider, what mif- 
^ chief they mould bring upon Themfelves, if upon fuch a ge* 
^^ neral Qiarge, without the mention of any one Crime, a Peer 
^^ of the Realm fhould be committed to Prifon, and fo de- 
*^ priv'd of his Place in that Houfe, where he was fiimnaon^d 
*^ oy the King's Writ to aflift in their Counfels ; and of what 
^confequence fuch a Precedent might be to their Own Pri- 
^^vilege and Birthright: and then withdrew. The Peers77j<r£4r/ A 
with very little debate refolv'd "he fliould be committed locomnnttu 
«the Cuftody of die Gentleman UHier of the Black-rod, '^*^'^^*^'^- 
«« there to remain until the Houfe of Commons (hould bring '^* * 
*^ in a particular Chsu^ againft him : which determination 
of the Houfe was pronounced to him at the Bar upon his 
Knees, by the Lord Keeper of the great Seal, upon the 
Wool-(acK : and fo being taken away \fh Maxivell^ Gentle* 
man Ufher, Mr Fym was call'd in, anci infofmM what the 
Houfe had done ; after which ( it being then about four of 
the Qock ) bo± Houfes adjourned till the next day. 

Whkn this work v/as fo proiperoiifly over, they begun 
to coniider, diac notwithftanding ail the Induftry that had 

• been 

176 TheHiftory Book III: 

been uied to procure fiich Members to be choTen, or retum'd 
though not chofen, who had been moft refratJlory to the Go^ 
vemment of die Church and State ; yet that the Houfe was 
(o conftituted, that when the firft heat (which ahnoft all men 
brought with them ) ihould be a little alla/d, violent coun- 
jels would not be long hearken'd to : and therefore. As they 
cook great care by the Committee of Eledions to remove as 
many of thofe Members as they fufpefted not to be inclinable 
to their Paffions, upon pretence *« that they were not regu- 
*«kriy chofen, that fo they might bring in others more jdy- 
able in Their places; in which no rule of Jdftice was (b much 
as pretended to be obferv^d by them ; mfomuch as it was 
often fiiid by leading men amon^ them, "That they ought 
^ in thofe cafes of jfeledtions to be guided by tho» litoefi and 
" wordunefs of the Perfon, whatfoever the defire of thofe 
^ was in whom the Right of Eledion remained ; and there- 
fore one man hath been admitted upon the fame rule by 
which another hath been rejedted: So they dedar^dj "That 
" no Perfon how Lawfully siid Regularly foever chofen and 
^retum'd, fhould be and fit as a Memoer with them, who 
^ had beeia a party or favourer of any Proje<9^ or wlx) had 
5 been employed in any illQgal Commiflion. 

By this means (contrary to the Cuftoms and Rights of 
Parliament^ many uendemen of good Quality were remov'd, 
in whofe plsices commonly others were diofen of more agree- 
able difpofitions : but in this likewife there was no rule ob- 
fcrv'd j for no perfon was hereby remov'd, of whom there 
was any hope that he mirfit be apply'd to the violent courfes 
which were intended. Upon which occafion the King charg'd 
them in one of his Declarations, ^* that when, under that no- 
^tion of Projedors, ±ey expell'd many, they yet never 
^ quefHon'd §r Henry Mldmay , or Mr Laurence Whitaker j 
who had been moft fcandaloufly enmfd in thofe Prefliires, 
though fince more fcandaloufly in all enterprizes againfl his 
Majefty ; to which never any anfwer or reply was made. 

The next Art, was to make the Seventy and Rigour of 
the Houfe as formidable as was pofEble, and to make as many 
men apprehend themfelves obnoxious to the Houfe, as had 
been in any Tmft or employment in the Kingdom. Thus 
they pafs^d many general Votes concerning Ship-money, in 
which, all who had been High Sheriffs, and fo collected it, 
•were highly concerned. The like ftiarp Conclufions were 
made upon all Lords Lieutenants and their Deputies, which 
were the prime Gentlemen of Quality in all the Counties of 
England, Then upon fome difquifition of the Proceeding? 
in the Star-Chamber, and at the Council-Table, all who con- 
curred in fuch a Sentence, and confented to fuch an Order, 

* were 

Of the EeheUion^ &c- 177 

were declar'd Criminal , and to be proceeded agaiUft. So 
that^ in amomen^ All die Lords or the Council AU tKrho 
had been Deputy-Lieutenants, or High Sherids, during the 
iace years, found themfelves within the mercy of diefe grand 
Inqui&ors : and hquing new terms of Art, that a complica^ 
tion of feveral Mifdemeanours might grow up to Treafon, and 
thelike^ it was no wonder if men defir'd by all means to get 
Their favour and protedion. 

When they nad fufficiendyftarded men bydiefe Vro^ThtsAreb* 
ceedings, and upon half an hoiirs debate, fentup anAccu&r?^^^ 
tion againft the Lord Arch-Bifhop of Canterhury of Hi^ Wa^/dof 
Treafon , and ^ remov'd Him likewife froiri the King's High twa- 
Cpuncil, they refted &tisfied with their general Rules, Votes,/**, 
and Orders, without maidng haft to proceed either a^inft 
Things or Perfons; being willing, rather to keep men in 
Sufpence, and to have the advantage of their Fears, dian, by 
lettmg them fee the Worft that could befall them, lofe the 
benefit of their Application. For this reafon they us'd their 
utmoft skill to keep off any Debate of Ship-money, that that 
whole bufinefs might hang like a Meteor over the heads of 
thofe that were in any degree faulty in it ^ and it was obferv- 
able, when, notwithltandmg all their endeavours to divert it, 
that buiineis was brou£ht into debate, and upon that ( which 
could not be avoided ) the Lord Finch nam'd as an avow'd 
Fadwr and Procurer of that odious Judgement ^ who, if Theit 
nile were true. **that an endeavour to alter the Government 
"by Law, and to introduce an Arbitrary Power, wereTrea- 
^'fbn, was the moft notorioufly and unexcufably guilty of 
that Crime of any man that could be nam'd; Before mey 
would endure ±e mention of an accu&tion of High Treafon, 
they appointed a Committee, with great deliberation and fo- 
lemnity, to bring in a charge Formally prepared ( which had 
not been done in the cafe of ±e Lord Arch-Bifhop, or the 
Earl of Strafford) and then gave him a day to be heard for 
himfelf at die Houfe of Commons Bar, whereby, againft all 
Order, he was to take notice of what was handled in the 
Houfe concerning himfelf j and then finding that, by their 
own Rules, He would be likewife accused of High Treafon, 
they continued the Debate fo long, that the Lords Houfe 
was rifen, fb that the Accufation was not carried up till the 
next morning j and before that time, the Lord Keeper ( being |*' t»r4 
well inform^ of all ±at had pafsM ) had wididrawn himfelf j ^^gJI" 
andfhortly after went into flfe&iw^: the Lord Littleton^ then^/^ii,^^ 
Chief Juftice of the Court of Common Pleas , being vdani&bejondSeA j 
Keeper of the great Seal oi England mhis place. 

About the fame time, Sr Francis Windehank^ one of the 
Principal Sed-etaries of State , and then a Member of the 

Vol- L Part I M Houfe 

178 The Hlftory Book III. 

Houfe of Commons, wjisaccus'd of many traniadlions on the 
betudf ofthePapifts, of feveral natures (whofe extraordinary 
Patron indeed ne was ) and he being then prcfent in the 
Houfe, feveral Warrants under his own hand were product 
for the difcharge of Profecutionsagainft Priefts, and for the 
ifeleaJe of Prietts out of Prifon : whereupon, whillt the mat- 
ter Ihould be debated, according to cuftom he was order'd to 
Withdraw, and fo went into the ufiial place, the G^mmittee- 
Chmiber ^ immediately whereupon, the Houfe of Commons 
went to a Conference with the Lords upon fome other occa- 
fion, and returning from that Conference, no more refiim'd 
the Debate of the &cretary, but having confider'd fome other 
bufinefs, rofeat their ufual hour ^ and fo the Secretary had li^^ 
berty to go to his own houfe ; from whence, obferving the 
difpofition of the Houfe, and well knowing what they were 
able to fay againft him. he had no more mind to truft him* 
felf in that company, out the lame night withdrew himfelf 
Mtiidiike-* from any place where enquiry might be made for him, and 
mile tSVert- y^as no morc heard of till tne news came of his being landed 

de^'*"' in Frame. 

So that within lels than fix weeks, for no more was yet 
elapfcd, thcfe terrible Reformers hadfcaus'd the two greatcft 
CounfcUors of the Kingdom, and whom they moft fear^cL and 
fo hated, to be remov d from the King , and imprifon'd, 
under an acculation of High Treafon j and frighted away 
the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of Eftgland^ and One of 
the Principal bccrctaries of State, into Forreign Kingdoms, for 
fear of the like j bcfides the preparing all the Lords of the 
Council, and very many of the principal Gentlemen through- 
out England ^ who (as was laid before ) had been High 
Slicrirts, and Deputy Lieutenants, to expeft fuch meafure of 
Punilhmcat from 'rhcir eeneral Votes and Refolutions. as 
ilicir future Demeanour ihould draw upon them, for their 
pilt Ortenccs : by which means, they were like to find no vi- 
perous Rclilbncc or Oppofitioain their farther defigns. 

I i:ouLD never ycc learn the mie rea{bn, why they fiif- nu)rc pregnant tefhmony of Offences within the 
verge of the Law, then againlt any perfon they have accus'd 

rcrcdiion in liis Own name, and fignification of his Majefly's 
ricaliire, on the behalf of Papilts and Priefts. to the Judges, 
end to other Miniiters of Jufticc j and Protedtions granted by 


Of the Rebellion^ &c. 179 

Himfclf to Pridb, that no body (hould moleft them \ He 
harbour'd fome Priefts in his own Houfe, knowing them to 
be fuch 5 ^hich, by the Statute made in the Twenty ninth 
year of Qilben ^k^hethy is made Felony : and there were 
fome Warrants under his Own hand for the releafe of Priefts 
ontdl Ntwgate^ who were adJually attainted of Treafon, and 
condemn'd tobe hang'd, drawn, andquarter'd ; which by the 
&A& Letter of the Statute , the Lawyers faid , would have 
been very penal to him. 

I. REMEMBER one Story brou^t into the Houfe con- 
cerning him, that adminiftred fome mirth , A Meflenger ( I 
think his name was Newton ) who principally attended me fer- 
vice of apprehending Priefts , came one day to him in Ins 
Garden, and told him , ^^that he had broupit with him a 
*' Priclt , a flirring and aftive perfon, whom he had appre- 
^ hended that morning ; and defir'd to know, to what Pri- 
" fon he (hould carry mm. The Secretary (harply ask^d him, 
^^ Wliether he would never give over this Blood-thirfty hu- 
^' mour ? and in great anger calling him Knave, and taking 
the Warrant from himby which he had apprehended him, 
departed without giving any other direction. The Meflen- 
ger appall'd, diought the Prielt was fome perfon in fevour, 
and therefore tooK no more care of him , but fufter'd him 
to depart. The Prieft, freed from this fright, went fecurely 
to his Lodgings, and within two or three days was arretted 
for Debt, and carried in execution to Prifon. Shortly after. 
Secretary JVmdebank fent for the Meflenger, and aslcd him, 
« What was become of the Prieft he had at fuch a time 
<*brougJhit before him ? he told him, "that he conceived his 
^ Honour had been offended with the apprehenfion of him, 
*^ and therefore he had look'd no farther after him. The Se- 
cretary in much Paffion told him, " the difcharging a Prieft 
*^ was no ligjht matter, and that if he fpeedily found him not, 
«^he ftioula anfwer the default with his life; that the Prieft 
*^ was a dangerous Fellow, and muft not efcape in that feflii- 
^ on. The Meflenger, belides his natural inclination to that 
cxercife, terrified with thofe threats, left no means untried for 
the dilcovery, and at laft heard where the man was in exe- 
cution in Prifon : thither he went and demanded the Prieft 
( who was not there known to be fiich ) as his Prifoner for- 
merly, and efcap'd from him ; and by virtue of his firft War- 
rant took him again into his cuttody, and immediately carried 
him to the Secretary ; and within few days after, the Prieft 
was difclwrg'd, and at liberty. Thejaylor, in whofe cufto- 
dy he had been put for debt. Was arretted by the Parties 
grieved, and he again (iied the Meflenger, who appeal'd for 
Jultice to the Houfe of Cooimons againft the Secretary, 

"- " M% ■ ^ This 

i8o The fit/lory Book III. 

This Cafe hod been prefentcd to the Committee, and wa^ 
ready to be reported, with all thofe Warrants under his own 
Iwuid before mentioned, at the time when Sccretary^^V^^^^nw^ 
was in ±e Houfe. Beiides that, he was charged by the Lords 
by MeflE^e or at a Conference, for breach of rrivilege at 
the DiOblution of ±e laft Parliament, and figning Warrants 
for the fearching the Studies and Papers of fome Members ; 
for which, according to the Do<3:rine then received, he mi^t 
have been put into the cuftody of ±e Serjeant of the Houfe, 
But, as the laft occalion was liot laid hold of, becauie it wcHild ■ 
have inevitably involved his brother Secretary S»" Harry Vane^ * 
who was under the fame charge, and againit whom indeed 
That charge was aim'd : So, it feems, mey were contented 
^ he fliouldmake an efcape from any Trial for the refti either, 
^ becaufe they thought his Place would be fooner void by his 
Flight than by his Trial, which would have taken up fome 
time, and r^quir'd fome formality, they having defign*d that 
Place toM' Holiisy or, that they thought he would, upon any 
examination, draw in fomewhat to the Prejudice of 5>r Hnny 
yanej whom they were to protect : and fo they were well coa- 
tent with his Efcape. 

Having made ±eir firft entrance upon bufinefs with this 
vigour, they proceeded every day with the feme fervour j and 
he who expreft moft Warmth againft the Court and the Go- 
vernment, was heard with the moft Favour j every day pro- 
ducing many form'd elaborate Orations, againft all the Adb 
of State which had been done for many years preceding. 
That they might haften the Profecution of the Earl of Straf- 
fordy which was their Firft great defign, they made a clofe 
Committee of fuch Members, as they knew to be moft for 
their purpofe, who ftiould, under an obligation of Secrecy, 
prepare the heads of a charge againft himj which had been 
feldom or never heard of before in Parliament : and that they 
might be fiire to do their bufinefs effedtually, they font a 
meflage to the Houfe of Peers, to defire them '^to nominate 
*^ a feledt Committee hkewife of a few , to examine upon 
^^oath fuch Witneffes, as the Committee of the Houfe of 
^^ Commons for preparing the Charge againft the Earl of Sfraf- 
^^yj^r^ ftiould produce before them, and in their Prefence, and 
" upon fuch Interrogatories as they Ihould offer ; which , 
though it was without Precedent, or example, the Lords pre- 
fently confented to, and nam'd fuch men as knew well What 
they had to do. Then they caus'd Petitions to be every day 
prefented, by fome who had been Griev'd by any fevere Sen- 
tences in thcStar-Chamber, or Committed by the Lords of 
the Council, againft Lords Lieutenanrs of Counties, and their 
Deputy Lieutenants , for having levyed Money upon the 


OftheReheUion^Scc. i8i 

Country, for condudting and clothing of Soldiers, and other 
adtions of a Martial nature ( which had been done by thofe 
Officers fo qualify'd, from the time of Oueen E/izaieth^ and 
was praflifed throughout her,Reign ) and againft Sheriffs, for 
having levyed Ship-money. Upon all which Petitions ( die 
matter being prefs d and aggravated ftill upon every particu*- 
lar by fome Member of note and authority, upon which J alj 
the A&s how formal and judicial foever, without fo much is 
hearing the Sentences or Judgements read, were voted "to^ 
^' be iflegal^ and againft the Liberty and Property pf the Sub-' 
^'jedtj and that all who were guilty of mch Proceedings, 
*^ fliould be Profecuted for their prefumption, and ihould like- 
^^ wife pay Damages to the perfons injur d. 

B y wnich general V^otes ( all pafs'd within a fhort time - 
after the fitting of the Parliament t they had made themfelves 
fo terrible, that all Privy-Counfellors, as well for what ±ey 
had done at the Board, as in the Star-Chamber (where indeed 
many notable Sentences had pafsM, with fome excefs in the 
Punilhment ) all Lords Lieutenants, who for the moft part 
were likewife Counfellors, whereof all were of the Houfe 
of Peers j and then all who were Deputy-Lieutenants, or had 
been Sheriffs fince the firft ifliiing out of Writs for the col- 
ledlion of Ship-mohey, whereof very many were then of the 
Houfe of Commons^ found themfelves involved under fome 
of thofe Votes, and liable to be proceeded againft upon the 
firft Provocation ^ whereby ±ey were kent in fiich awe, both 
in the one Houfe. and the other, as if they were upon their 
good behaviour, tnat they durft not appear to diflike, much 
lels to oppofe, whatfoever was proposed. 

All perfons imprifotf d for Sedition by the Star-Cham- 
ber upon the moft lolemn examination and the moft grave 
deliberation, were fet at liberty, that they might protecute 
their appeals in Parliament. In the mean time, though there 
'Were two Armies in the Bowels of the Kingdom, at fo vaft 
an expence, care was taken only to provide money to Pay 
them, without the leaft mention that the one fhould return 
into Scotlandy and the other be disbanded, that fo that vaft 
expence might be determined : but on the contrary, frequent 
inunuations were given, " that many great things were firft 
*^ to be done before the Armies could be disbanded j only 
they defir^d the King, "that all Papifts might be forthwitn 
*^ca(hier^d out of his Army, which his A^jefty could not^ ^ 
" deny ^ and fo fome Officers of good account were imme-^y*^^^^"" 
diately difinifs'd. • Houfes m 

It will impertinent nor unnatural to this prefent^**^ ^'»»*> 
Difcourfe, to fet down in this place the prcfcnt. temper ^d^^^'i^" 
conftitutio?i of both Houfes of Parliament that it may be ^^n^ulit^ 

M 3 lefs men in hth. 

i8t TheHiftory BookllL 

Ids wondePd at^ that fb prodigious an alteration (hould be 
imde in fo (hort a time, and die Crown Men fb low, that 
it could neither fiipport it Self and its Own Majefly, nor 
Them who would appear faithftd to it. 
utheHoufe Qf the Houfe of Peers, the great contrivers and deGgnerg 
0ffurs the^^Q^ firit the Earl of Bedford a wife man, and of too great 
^5fo*j^ and plentifiil a fortune to wim a fiibverfion of the Govern- 
ment : and it quickly appear'd^ that he only intended to make 
Hiimfelf and ms Friends great at Court, not at all co leflen 
±e Court it feE 
The urd Th e Lord Vifcount 5*47, a man of a dofe and referv'd na- 
s^y.- ture, of a mean and a narrow fortune, of great parts, and of the 

higheil Ambition ^ but whofe Ambi^on would not be (ads- 
fied with O&ces and Prefiatnent^ without fome condefceo- 
fions and alterations in EcdefiaiHcal matters. He had for 
many years been the Orade of diofe who were calPd Puri- 
tans in the worft fenfe, and fteer'd all Their counfels and 
defigns. He was a notorious Enemy to the Church, and to 
moft of the eminent CImrch-meik with Ibme of whom be 
bad particular contefts. He had always oppos'd and contra- 
dided all QjSts of State, and all Taxes and Impofitions, which 
were not exadily Le^d, and fo had as eiQinently and as ob- 
ftinately refiis'd the payment of Ship-money as Mr H^tm^^ 
had done j though the latten by the choice of the King's Coun- 
cil, had brought his Cauie to be firft heard and argued, 
Arith which Judgment, it was intended the whole rigbit of 
That matter fliomd be concluded, and all other Caufes over- 
ruled. The Lord Say would not acquiefce, but prefs'd to 
have his Own cafe argued, and was fo foUicitous in Perfon 
with all the Judges, both privately at their Chambers, and 
publickly in the Court at Wefinnnfierj that he was very 
grievous to them. His Commitment at Tarky the year befor^ 
becaufe he refiis'd to take an Oath, or rather fubfcribe a Pro- 
teftation, againft holding Intelligence with the Scvts^ when 
the King fim march'd againft them, had given him much cre- 
dit. In a word, he had very great authority with all the Dit 
contented party throughout die Kii^dom, and a good repu-r 
tation wi± many who were not difcontented, who believed 
him to be a wife man and of a very ufeftil temper, in an age 
of Licence, and one who would ftill adhere to me Law. 
Tht lAfd The Lord Mandeviky eldeft Son to the Lord Privy-Seal. 
M^idcvile. was a Perfon of great civility, and very well bred, and had 
been early in the Court under the favour of ±e Duke of 
Buckingham^ 2. Lady of whofe Fanijly hi had married j he had 
attended upon the Prince when he was in Spain^ and had been 
callM to the Houle of Peers in the life time of his Father, 
by the* name of the Lord Kimbolton^ which was a very extra* 


Of the Rehellion^ 8iCQ. 183 

drdinaiy farbur. Upon the death of the Duke of Buckmghafih 
his Wife being likewife dead, he married the Daughter of the 
Earl of Warwick'^ a man in no grace at Court, and look'd 
upon as the greateft Patron of the Puritans, becaufe of much 
the greateft Eftate of all who favoured tncm, and fo was 
cfteem'd by them with great application and veneration : 
though he was of a life very licentious, and uncomfbrmable 
to Their profefs'd Rigour, which they rather difpenfed with, 
than they would withdraw from a Houfe where they received 
fo eminent a Proteftion, and fuch notable Bounty. Upon 
this latter Marriage the Lord Mandevile totally eftranged 
himfelf from the Court, and upon all occaiions appear'd 
enough to diflike what was* done there, and eng^d mmfelf 
wholely in the converlation of thofe who were moft noto- 
rioufly of that Party, whereof there was a kind of Fraternity 
of many perfons of good condition, who chofe to live toge- 
ther in one Family, at. a Gentleman's Houfe of a fair formne, 
near the place wnere the Lord MandevUe liv'd, whi±er 
others of that claf^s likewife reforted, and maintained a joint 
and mutual correQ)ondence and converlation together widi 
much familiarity and friendfliip : That Lord, to fupfprt, and 
the better to improve that Popularity, living at a rnuch 
higher rate than the narrow exhibition allowed to him by 
his waiy Father could juftify, making up the reft by contrad- 
ing a ^eat debt, which long lay heavy upon him^ by which 
generous way of living, and by his natural civility, good 
manners, and good nature, which flow'd towards all men, he 
was univerfally acceptable and belov'd ; and no man more in 
the confidence of me Difcontcnted and Fadlious party than 
He, and none to whom the whole mafi of Their defigns, as 
well what remained in Chaos as what was Formed, was more 
entirely communicated, and no man more conuilted with. 
And therefore thefe three Lords are nominated as the Princi^- 
pal Agents in the Houfe of Peers ( thougjh thei:e were many 
there of Quality and Intcreft much luperiour to any of Them) 
becaufe Tliey were principally and abfolutdy trufted by thofe 
wfip were to manage all m tne Houfe of (Jommons, and to 
raife that Spirit which was upon all occafions to inflame the 
Lords. Yet it being enougji known and underftood, that how 
indiipos^d and aiogry foever many of them at Prefent appealed 
to be, there woula be ftUl a major part There, who would, 
if they were not over-reach'd,. adhere to the King and the 
cftablifh'd Government : and dierefore, thefe three perfons 
were trufted without referve, and relied upon fo to fteer, as 
might inaeafe their Party by all the arts imaginable^ and 
they had dexterity enough to appear to depend upon thofe 
three LordSj who were looked upon ^ Greater^ and-a» Po- 

M 4 pular 

j84. :Ti^M/hry Book III. ' 

pularoieii; and to be fiiUement to Their purpofes, Whom 
|Q tnieh they ijovemfd sad di^^ .' ' 

UEmirf And.^ thele Aitifices, and ap^lu^fltioh to hi#. Vanity, 
Axy faa4 toaffmjfing die General reputation and credit he had 
With die People, and fliaipning die fenie he had pf Ixislate iU 
treatment at Cour^ diey fiilly prevailed upon, and poOcfi^di 
diemfdves o^ die Ea|I of Bj^xyvrho^ oioii^he was ho 
flood Speaker in Puhlick, ycty by haying fite long in Pig:-* 
jtamcnr^ was fi> well aoqfuainted widi the order ofitin very 
/ jftivetimes, that be was a better foeaker There than any 

.where elie^ and beine alwa/s heard widi attention and re* ' 
^fcBty hadmndi Aumority in diedebates. Nor didhe need 
imy incitement ( wUch made aU approaches to him die nK^ 
ca^) todoanydiing a^ainft tfaePerfbnsof the Lord Arcfa- 
Bifnop ciOmferhay ana die Lord Lieutenant of Ireland^ to- 
wards whom he profefi'd afixlldiilike j who were the only 
Peribns againff whom there was any dedar'd defign, and. 
]aeainft whom tbedS^x had in their Mani£e&o demanded Jo- 
/EBq^ as^the caufe of the War between the Nadons. Andin 
|dii$Fip(ecution there was too great ^C(»^ Warwkk^ 

. . Si^i,tf^art0mj Paget, Hpwsra^as^ 

xbllow'd and pUerv^ die didates of die Lotds mendon'd b&- 
ibre, and darted or feconded what they werediredied. 
ithttkuTt ^' I N the Houfe pf Commpns were niany peribns of Wif- 
fOmmmf, dom ax}d Gravity, who being poflefs'd of great and plentiful 
Fortunes, thougn they were undevoted enough to the Court, 
had all imaginable duty for the King, and afiedion to the 
Government (Bfltablifli'd by J^w or ancient Cuftom j and 
without doubt, the major part of that Body confifted of men 
who had no mind to break the Pjsace of the Kingdom, or to 
mke any confiderable altjcration in the Government of 
iphurch or State ^ and therefore all Inventions were fct on 
.fcot from the beginningto work on them, and cormpt them, 
ty fiiggeftions ** of the Dangers which thr earned All that was 
^precious to the Subjeft in their Liberty and their Property, 
^oy overthrowing, or over-maftcringtheLaw, and fuojedt- 
.f^ ing it to an Arbitrary power, and by countenancing Popery 
<*^ to the fubverfion or the Proteftant Religion ; and then, by 
^^tlfofing terrible Apprehenfions into fbme, and io working 
upon meir Fears ^ of being caird in Queftion ifor fomewhat 
iF* xhey ia4 done, by whidithey would Ibnd in need of Their 
^ prpt^on j and railing the Hopes of others, « that by con- 
;r^ f^^rring with Them, tKey fliould be fiu-e tp obtain Offices, 
,^ and Honours, and any JaiJii of Preferment. Thpu^ there 
■j^ere topmanyconijptodandmifledby thefe feveral Tempta- 
.]^oi:^,\ and others who^ ne^ed no other temptations man 
^nj^^ fiefqenefi of t^Ow;iii^ th^ malice dicy 

'l-.;>r " '"*" '" *v :.;' had 

Ofthe ReheUion^Scc. i^y 

had contraded againft the Church and againft the Q>qit ; 
Yet the i^umber was not great of thofc in whom theGorem- 
ment of the reft was vefted, nor wer€ there many who had 
the abfolute Authority to Lead, though there was a multitude 
dilbos'd to Follow. 

mrP y M was look'd upon as the man of greateft Expe-Mr Pym, 
rience in Parliament, where he had fervid very long, and was 
always a manof bufinefs, being an Officer in the ificchequer, 
and of a good reputation generally, though known to be inr- 
clin'd to the Puritan fadtion j yet not of thofe furious refo- 
lutions againft the Church as the other Leading men were, 
and wholly devoted to the Earl oli Bedford^ who had nothing 
of that Spirit. 

M'Hambden was a man of much greater Cunning, andp Mr Hamb- 
itmay be, of the moft difceming Spirit, and of the greateft <len, 
Addreft and Infinuation to bring any thing to pais which he 
defir'd, of any man of that time, and who laid the defign 
deepeft. He was a Gentleman of a good Extradlion, and 
a fair Fortune , who , from a life of great pleafure and li- 
cence, had on a fuddain retired to extraordinary fobriety and 
ftridtnefs, and yet retained his ufual chearftihiefs and affabi- 
lity : which, together witli the opinion of his wifdom and 
jullice, and the courage he had mew'din oppofing the Ship- 
money, rais'd his Reputation to a very great height, not 
only in Buckingham-Jhire^y/hQit heliv'd, but generally mrough- 
out the Kingdom. He was not a man of many words, and 
rarely begun the difcourfe, or made the firft entrance upon 
any bufinefe that was aflum'd j but a very Wei^ty ^eaker, 
and af^er he had heard a fiill debate, and obferv'd how the 
Houfe was like to be inclin'd, took up the Argument, and 
fhortly , and clearly, and craftily, fo ftated iti that he com- 
monly conduftcd it to the conclufion he defir^; and if he 
founcl he could not do that, he was never without the dexte- 
rity to divert the debate to another time, and to prevent the 
determining any tljing in the Negative , which might prove 
Inconvenient in the foture. He made (o great a fliew of Q- 
vility, and.Modefty^ and Humility, and always of Mifbruftv 
inghisOwn judgement, and efteemine; His with whom h« 
conferr'd for the prefent, that he feenrd to have no opinions 
or refolutions, but iiich as he contradted from the -Informa- 
tion and inftrudtion he received upon the dilcourfes of others j 
whom he had a wonderful Art of governing, and leading in- 
to His principles and inclinations, whilft They believed that 
he wholely depended upon their counfel and advice. No man 
had ever a greater power over himfelf, or was lefs the man 
thathefeem'd to be ^ which fliortly after appear'd to every 
body, when he carM l.§fe to keep on the ftlafaue. 

' * ^ : r T Mr Saint- ' 

in otiher fisnn&of GoverDnoeQt , tbqr:litve enlaiged their 
nantatioii^ wOxoi new limits t^yaocni: to the o£er. He 
was no Siooet lemm'd into JS»f mm^ than he feem'd to be 
aiuch lefornf d innn bn esti«ya|8n^ 

t^prdbitkm and direakm, mamed tLadjr ot agood Family^ 
sad tqf his Fathet^sr credit with die Eail of NmlmmkrUauu 
iriio was Hig^ Admiral of BifAnM^ was joitfd prefiaidy and 
jointly with Sr lysfiSuw J^^/ in the Q&e <^ 
tbeNavy (a Place ofgreattruft and profit) which he equally 
(har'd with dbe odier, and feem'd a manwdl fidsfied and 
compos'd to ti^ Qovermnent. When his FatheriVceiv'd the 
I)ilobligation ftcMn the Lord Sfraffirdy by his bemg created 
Baron of Jbs^, theHoufe and Land cfVame (which Title 
he had promis'd Himiel^ but it was unluckily caft upon die 
£ir], purely out of contem^ off^mt ) they md^din all the 
thou^ts ix Revenge ims^imablei am ftobi thence the Son 
teook himfelf to ^Friendfliip oiMtFym^ and all other 
DUbonteoted orSoditious perfons^ and ccmtnbuted all that 
]htdl^get|ce ^ which will hereafter be mendou'd^ as he him- 
. iislf wfil often be) that deiign'd the Ruin of the £arl^ and 
which grafted him in the entire confidence of Thofe who 
j^xxnoced the done ;fo that nothing was <;onceal'dfirom Him, 
Iboog^ it's bdiev'd that he coxiununk:ated his (>i7n though 
to very few. 
ilrz>eiiull Denzill HoUh^ the younger Son and younger Brother 
Hdlk of the Earls d:ciarey.V2S as much valued and clteem'd by 
the whole Party, as any man^ as he deferv^d to be, being of 
more accomplifhM Parts than any of them, and of great re-- 
putation by the i)art he adted agamft the Court and the Duke 
<^ Bnckhgtum, in the Parliament of the Fourth year of th^ 
Kin^ ( the laft Parliament that had been before the Short 
one in!<^/) and his long Impriibnment, and (harp Profe- 
ciition a&rwards^ ui>on tmt account ; of which he retained 
the memory with acrimony enough. But he would in no de« 
gree intermeddle in the Counfel orProfecutionof theEarlof 
8iraff§rd ( which he could not prevent ) who had Married 
hU Sifter, by whom he had all his Children, which made 
him a Stranger to all Thofe confiiltations, though it didnof: 
otherwife interrupt the Fricndlhip he had with the moft vio-r 
lent of thofe Profecutors. In all' other contrivances he was 
in die moft Secret Counfels with Thofe who moft govem'd, 
suidwas redded by diem with very fiibmiis applications as 
a man of AuUiority. S^ Gilbert Gerard , the Lord Digby^ 
asrode, lUjierigg ; and the Northern Gentlemen, who were 
IQoft- wgry with the Earl, or apprehenfive of Their own 
being -joi the mercy of the Houfe, as Hcthsm^ cffolvtefyj ^md 
§taifkt0n J with foiw Popular wwycrs g(^ Hpufe, whQ 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 1 89 

did not (ulpeAdny Wickednefi in de&n, andlb became in«* 
volv'd by d^irees in the worft , obierv'd and purfii'd the 
didates and diredions of the ocher, acccx'ding to die parts 
which were aflign'd to them upon emergent occaiions : whilft 
the whole Houfe look'd on with wcmder and amazement, 
without any man's interpoGng to allay the Paffion and the 
Fiury with which fo many were tranfported. 

This was dieprefent Temper aiul Conftitution of boA 
Houfes of Parliament imondieir firft coming tosedier, wfaeii 
( as Tacitus fays of the Jews, " that they exercis(d the hiriTeft. 
^^ CMEBces of Kindnels and Friendlhip towards each other^^^uaF- 
^' yerfis omnes alios bofiile odium ) they watch'd all thofe who' 
they knewwerenotof Their opinions, nor like to be, with 
all poffible Jealoui^ ^ and if any of their EleSions could be 
brought into Qucftion , they were fiire to be Voted out of 
the Houfe, and then all the artifices were us'd to bring in 
more Sanaified Members ; fo ±at every week encreas'd the 
number of their Party, both by new Eleflions, and the Pro- 
felytos±ey gain'd upon the old. Nor was it to be wonder'd 
at, for they pretended all Publick thoughts, and only the re- 
formation ofdi&pprov'd and odious Enormities, and difiem« 
bled all purpofes of removing Foundations, which , though 
it was in the hearts of fome, they had not the courage and 
confidence to communicate it. 

The Englijh and the Scotijb Armies remained quiet. in 
their feveral Quarters in the North, without any Atfts of Ho- 
ilility, under the obligation oixht Cefi&tion, which was {till 
Pronged firom Monm to Mon±, thatthe People migjht be- 
lieve that a fiill Peace would be quickly concluded. And the 7);^ scocifli 
Treaty, which during the King's being at Yc^ri^ had been held r^iMij^ 
at Ripfon^ being now adjournal to London^ the Scotifh Com-"«'' «»* '• 
miflioners (whereof the Earl ofRotkes^ and the Lord ^^.^^J^j^i^J/ 
^^», who had been mention^ before, were the chief) came Xc/iS[*"^ 
thither in great State, and were received by the King with 
that countenance which he could not choofe butlhew to diem ; 
and were then lodged in the heart of the City, near London^ 
Stone, in a houfe which ufed to be inhabited by the Lord 
Mayor or one of the Sheriffs, and was Situate fo near to the 
Church of Sc Antholins ( a place in late times made famous 
by fome Seditious Leflurer J that there was a way out of it 
into a Gallery of the Churcn. This benefit was wellforefeen 
on all fides in the accommodation, and this Church aflign'd 
to Them for their own Devotions, where one of their own 
Chaplains ffiU Prcach'd, amonglt which Alexander Hender- 
fon was ±e chief, who was likewife joyn'd with them in the 
Treaty in all matters which had reference to Religion : and 
to hear thofe Sermons there was fo great a coufiux and re- 

^ - - ' - ' fort. 

I90 The Hiftory Book III. 

fyttj by the Qtizens out of Hunxnir and Fa&ion; by others 
^ dl Qi^ties out of Cuiiofity^ and by fixne that they 
ini^t the better juftify die Contempt they had of them, that 
fiom the firft appearance of day in the Morning on every 
Sunday, to the ihuttine; in of the hght. the Church was ne- 
ver empty. They (emecially the Women) who Imd the 
happinefs to get into the Church in the Morning (they who 
could not^ hung upon or about the Windows without to* be 
Auditors or Speoators ) keepii^ their places till the After- 
noons Exerdfe was finiffa'd j which both Morning and After- 
noon, except to Palates and Appetites ridiculouily corrupted, 
was the molt Ihiipid andFlat Voax. could be delivor'd upon 

The Earl of J^^i&^xhad been the chief Archited: of that 

whole Machine from the bqzinning, and was a man veiy well 

bred , and of very good Parts , and great addrefs ; in his 

Perfon very acceptable, plea&nt in Conver&tion, very 

free and amorous , and unreftrain'd in his difcouiie by any 

fcruples of Religion^ which he only put on when the part he 

was toad requir'd ic and then no man could appear more 

Confiientiouily tranfported. There will be fometimes oc- 

cafion to mention himhereafter, as aheady as much hadi been 

fiid of the other, the Lord Lowdew^ as is yet necefl^. 

\A cmmit' They were no fboner come to the Town,but a new Com- 

ue of both mittee of the Members of both lioufes, fiich as were very 

Houfes /tp- acceptable to them, was appointed to renew and continue 

^'^^^^ith ^^^ Treaty with them that had been begun at Rsfpon : and 

9bfscati(h then they Publifli'd and Printed their Dedaration againft the 

cmmijpQ* ArcfahBimop of Canterbury and ±e Lieutenant of Irtland^ in 

"CA which they faid, ^^ That as ±ev did referve thofe of their 

** Own Country who had been Incendiaries between the two 

^ Kingdoms, to be proceeded againft in their Own ParUa- 

** ment, fo they defir'd no other Juftice to be done againft 

*^tfiefeTwo criminal Pcrfons but what fliould fcem good to 

"the Wifilom of the Parliament.. 

I T was eafily dilccmM ( by thofe who &w at any diftance, 
and who had been long jealous of that tricky from that ex- 
predion concerning Their Own Country men^ tnat they meant 
no harm to the Marquis of JH>w/7/^», againft Whom, in the 
beginning of the Rebellion, all their Bittemefs feem'd to be 
directed, and Who was thought to have the leaft portion of 
kindnefs or good will fi*om the three Nations, of any man 
who related to the King's Service. But he had , oy ±e 
Friendlhip he had (hew'd to the Lord Lowden^ and procuring 
his Liberty, when he was in the Tower for fo notorious a 
Trcafon, and was to be in the head of another aflbon as he 
fhould be at Liberty^ and by his application and dexterity at 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 191 

York in the meeting of the great CouncU, and with die Sc9ti(b 
Commiffioners employed mither before the Treaty ^ and by 
his promife of future Offices and Services , whicn he made 
good abundantly ^ procur'd as well from the Englifh as the 
Scats^ all aflurance of Indemnity : which they fo diligently 
made good, dut they were not more fbUicitous to contrive 
and find out Evidence or Information againft the other Two 
great Men, than thev were to prevent all Information or 
Complaint, and to itifle all Evidence, which was ofier^d, or 
could be produc'd againft the Marquis. 

And they were exceedingly vimlant to prevent the $c9ti[b 
Commiffioners entring into anv Familiarity , or Converia- 
tion with anv who were not fait to Their Party : Infomuch 
as one day tne Earl of Rothes walking in Wepmmfier-ihM 
with Mr itydey towards whom he had a kindnefs by r^on 
of their mumal Friendfhip with fome Perfons of Honour, and 
they "^Two walking towards the Gate to tskt Coach to make 
a Vjfit together^ the Earl on a fuddain defir'd the other " to 
<^ walk towaiids die- Coach, and he wduld overtake him by 
^^ the time he came thidicr ; but ftaying very long. He ima- 
gined he mig^t be .diverted from his purpofe , and fo walk'd 
back into the Hall, where prefendy meeting him, diey Both 

grfu'd their former/intention; and being in the Coach, die 
rl told him, SS that he muft excufe his having made him 
^ftay fo lon^ becau&hehad been detained only concerning 
^^Him; that when he. was walking[ with him. a Gendeman 
^ pading by touchM his. Cloak, wmch made him defire the 
^odier to m before; and turning to the other Perfon, 
^* He faid , That feeti^ him walk in fome familiarity with 
" Mr Hyde ,. he diou^t himfelf oblig'd to tell him, that he 
'^walked with the greateft Enemy thiOrStotiOj Nation had in 
^^the Parliament, and that he oug^t to take heed how he 
<^ communicated any thing of Importance to him ; and rfiat 
^^ after he was parted with that Gendeman, before he could 
*^ pafi through the Hall, four or five other Eminent Men, feve- 
^^ rally, gave him the fame advertifcment and caution ; and 
then fpoKe as unconcernedly and as merrily of the Perfons and 
Their Jealoufy as the Other could do. Men who were foSaga- 
cious m purfuing their Point, were not like to mifcany . 

The firlt Compliment They put upon the ScetsJhComr 
miffioners was, that They were carefs'd by Both Houfes with 
all poffible expreilions of"^ Kindnefs at leafr, if not of SubmifP' 
fion; and an Order was careftilly entred, ^ diat upon all oc- 
^^ cations the Appellation fliouldoeus'd of [0»r Brethren ef 
^^ Scodand ] and upop That, wonderful land Compliments 
pafs'd, of a fincere refolution of Amity and Union between 
I he Two Nations. 




X^ook III. 


Things bcj^jg tfaiRawiffittjrfA 

bpsL ^ in fvccdf. Ptoceediogi igupft .dK>& Two great 
BoKHOs. For me ■ h^ttpr preparing whercql^- and feciliraring 
Whttever. cSfe Qiocdd b^ 9^ole^fitiy:;i&r that eoteipria&e . the 

(a$0£ud befi;H^)rtwo difl^ ifaeJEte« 

lona of me^Ard^^^^ fluffbd Jwidi 

aj^much Bkcem^ aod .Viiu^ 

Thbn ^ die odious inoen^iaiies of die )3i£fereiice8 betWMO 
,^.thfr Two Natic^ and the Qrisbd Ciuitb of alUfao^ 
.^lacajdeain that Kingcloni which EgtotAofePiflfetenGra^and 
^^OK^ft M^ preQinff for JufSoe aeaiiiftrdiea^ Bodii'^ 

Tfefe Difcourfes (foreada oftfen conffled irfmaoy Sboett 
d^J^er ) were pupUcJdy lead iabodi Houfes; ThaC4^gai&ft 
ti]^ Arcb-BiQiop ofCm^^^My^waadfordieiiffefeitlaidafi^ 
iand t am pafwaded, at. d»t timo^ widw^iUiinr thoo^d 
Stfiimias It, ho^ngjdi^his AgP atod Jmnri^iOTenr wmU 

f i rnmH t ip W^qmddy £re«d»iein/fixtfn fiutbertrolilN^ ^-But a 6Mdy 

2^ * fKK^^ aguiri^jhe ,Qtbcr:^vas.«hda^^ prefiM,. «bdr 

|£^^llok# i!nporttpce;it^ ^ 

iMit dcmajsyooc wk^04t^£)li$^ intimatintt^ . ff/d^. Acre could 4)e 

ff.d)igir Qxu^^j^; aijid coQfib(^]eiidy:;tl»itthe'Kiii^S'^^ 
'^ could t^ Disbanded^^ before escempkrvjdftice wsji Reiner 
f^up^^jtbat Earl to Tneirr/ads&Oioa.' . When they had in- 
ggm'd menwidi, diis ccmfideradon'fufBdecdy; They^'widi^ 
' out any geat diffioili^ (in order to.:d^nidcd£ury eitpeditioh 

of mofi: fatal 
to -die Safety a[nd&a^ 

Ifbr diat Tryal ) pre^^'d in two Pj 

c;QQfequence to me jECing's fervice^ 

tcgrity of all Honett men. - ! - 

T HE Firft, " for a Committee to befetried of both Houfes 
^tt^ the taking Preparatory Examinations. Thus the Alle- 
gatipn was, «^That the Charge againft the Earl of Strafford 
^ was of an extraordinary nature , being to make a Treafon 
^evident out of a complication of feveral ill A&s-y That he 
^'mliiftbe traced through many dark paths, and This Preco-: 

' ^dent fedidous Difcourfe compar'd with That Subfequent 
^outragious A^on, the.Circumltances of bodi which, mi^ 
^ be equally confiderable with the Mattar it felf ; and there- 
f^fore mat before this Charge could be fo diredtiy made 

■ ^ and prcjpar'd as was necefl&j^ (for he was hitherto only ac- 
cus'd generally of TreafiMi ) ^Mt was requifite, that a Com- ' 
^ mittee iliould be made of both Houfes to examine fome 
^ Wimefles upon Oath, upon whofe Depofidons, his Impeacb- 
^^mentwoula wfily be framed This was nofooner pro- 
pos'd in the Houfeof Common^ than confentedto^ and upon 



Of the Rehetiion^ &c. 19 j 

as little debate yielded to by the Lords; and the Committee 
fettled accordingly: without con£kiering that fuch an iniqui- 
(ition (befidesthat the fame was contrary to the PraOice of 
former times ) would eaiily prepare a Charge againft the mdl 
Innocent man alive ; where that liberty ihouid be taken to 
examine a man's whole life ; and all the light, a)Qd all die pri-* 
vate diicourfes had pad from him, might be tortured, per-* 
verted, and applied, according to the ccnifcience and the craft 
of a Diligent and Malicious Profecution. 

The Second was, << For the Examining upon Oath Privy-* 
^ Counfellors, upon fuch matters as had paird at the Goun-i 
« cil-Table. The Allegation for this was, « That the prin* 
^ cipal Ingredient into the Treafon with which the Earl waf 
<< to be cbarg'd, was, a purpofe to Change the Form of Go- 
^' vemment^ and, infteadof That fettled by Law, to intro-» 
^^ duce a Power meerly Arbitrary. Now this defign muft be 
^^rnade Evident, as well bv the Advices which he gave, and 
^ the Expreffions he utterd upon Emergent Occa&ons, as by 
^^his Publick A^ons; and Thofe could not be difcover'd^ 
^ at leaft not prov'd, but by Thofe who were Ptefent at fuch 
^^ Confultations, and They were only Privy-Counfellors. As 
it was alledg'd, ^ That at his coming from Ireland the Earl 
^ had faid in Council there ; That tf.ever he retum'd to that 
^ Sword again, he would not leave a Ar^^-man in that King- 
^ dom : and at his arrival in this Kingdom, the Lord Mayor 
^ and fome Aldermea of Lmuhm attending the Board, about 
^the Loan of Moneys, and not giving that SatisfaOion was 
<< expeded, that He Ihould pull a Letter out of his pockety 
^'and (hew what courfe the King of Frami then took for tho 
<^ raifing of Money ; and that He ihduki tell the King, ThaC 
<<it would never be well till he hane'd up a Lord Mayor of 
^< London in the City to terrify the xctt. 

There was no greater difficulty to fiitisfy the Houfe of 
Commons with the KeafonaUeneis of this, than of the for- 
mer ^ but the Compaffing it, was not like to be eafy : for it 
was vifible , that though the Lords (hould join with them 
I which was not tobe dcfpair'd ) the Privy-Counfellors would 
infift upon the Oath they had taken^ and pretend ^ That with- 
(^ out the Kine's confent they might not difcover any thing 
<< that had pafrd at that Board ^ fo that the greateft difficulty 
(< would be. The procuring the Kin^s confent for the be- 
<^ traying Himielf : but This muft be inlifted on, for God for^ 
« bid that it might be fafe for any dtfperate wicked Coun- 
<^ fellor to propofe and advife at that Board ( which in the 
intervals of Parliaments wholely difpos'd the alBFairs of State) 
<^ courfes delb-uftive to the health and being of the Kingdom ) 
c^and that the Soveraign Phyficiaa, theraliament (which 

Vol I Part I. N «had 

194- TheHiftory Book III. 

^ had the otily skill to cure thofe conuglous and epidemical 
« difeaTes ) ihould be hindred from preferving the Fid>lick, be- 
<<caufeno Evidence muft be givea of fiich corrupt aod wodc- 
^cd Couniels. And fo provided with tbia fpecious Onto- 
xjy they ddBre dhe Lords << To concur with thenoi for this ne- 
^ cei&ry Examination of Frivy-CouofeUors ; Wbo^ wichont 
much debate (for tbePerlbns concem'd knew well their Aifib 
were vifible and publick enough, and therefore con&der'd not 
much what Words had pafi'd ) confimted i and appointed fbrae 
to attend the King for Hisconfent : Who, not well weir- 
ing the Coofequence ^ and bemg in Fublick Council unani- 
mou/ly advised ^ To confent to it ; and that the notdoingit 
^ would lay fome taint upoa his Council, and be atacic con- 
^feflioo, that there had been citations at that place which 
^ would not endure the light ; Yielded that they Ihould be 
examin'd : which was fpeedily done accordingly, by the Com* 
mittee of both Houfes appointed far that purpofe. 

T H E Damage wasnot to be expre&'d^ and the Ruin that 
laft aA brought to the King was irrepanible ; fojr , befides 
that ir lenrVi Their turn (which no queftion they had dii^ 
covered before) to prove thofe words againft the Earl of 
Sttaffkmd, whidi Sr Hmtty Vmm fo nunOuall^ remember'd ( as 
you ihall find at the Earl's Tri$i ) and betides , that it was 
matter of horror to theCounfidlors, to find that They might 
be arraign'd for every rafli, every inconfideratc, every impe- 
rious expreffion or word they had us'd There ; and fp made 
them more engag'd to ferviie applications : it baniQi'd for 
ever all future freedom firom that Board, and thofe Perfons, 
from whom his Majdly was to expedt advice in his greateit 
ftreighcs ; all men (atis^ng ihemfelvcs, " That they were no 
•'more obliged to deliver their opinions There freely, when 
** they might be Impeactfd in another place for fo doing; and 
the evincing this fo ufefol Dodrine, was without doubt more 
thedefign of thofe grand Managers, than any hope they had, 
of receiving forrher Information thereby, than they had before. 

A K D for my part I muft ask leave of thofe Noble Lords, 
Who after the King's confent gave themfelves liberty to be 
Examin'd, to&y; thatif they had well confider'd the Oarh 
they had taken when they were admitted to that Sociery, 
which was inhffp Secret aU matters committed mndrevemt'd 
t9them^ §r that Jhmild ke treated of Jeer etly in Council'] they 
would not have believ'd, that the King Himfelf could have 
difpenfed with that Part of their Oath. It is true, there is 
another claufe in their Oath, that allows them with the King's 
confent to reveal a matter of Council : but that is , Only 
what fhall touch another Counfellor ; which they are not co 
uo without the leave of the King, or the Council. 



Of the Reheliion^ &c. ipy 

It was now time to mind ThemfelTeSy as well as the 
Publick, and to Repair, as well as Pull Down; and there^ 
fore^ as theprindpai reafon (as was laid beibre) for the aocu* 
fing tfaofe Two great Ferfbns of High Treafon (that is^ of 
the general Conlent to it before any Evidence was required) 
was, that they might be remov'd from die King's Prdenoe 
and his Counfels, without which they oonoeiv'd Theirs 
would have no power with him; fo That being compaft'd, 
care was taken to infufe into the King by Marquis Hamibw 
(Who you heard before was licenfed to take care of Hinv 
lUf ; add was now of great intimacy with the Governing 
and Undertaking Party) <^ That his Majefty having declared 
^ to his Peqd^ that He really intended a Reformation of all 
^ tfaofe Extravagancies which former neceflities^ or occafions, 
^or miitakes, bud brought into the Government of Church 
^<or State: He could not give a more lively and demonitra^ 
^ Ue Evidence, and a more gracious Infhmce of fuch his in* 
^ tention, than by callii^ fuch Perfcos to his Council^ Whom 
^ the People generally thoin;^ moft inclined tc^ and intent 
^ upon^ fuch Reformation : Befides, that this would be a good 
^means to preferve thecfignityand juft power of that Board, 
^ which TfA^i otberwife , on the account of the late excefs 
^and violation, be more fubjeft co inconvenient attempts for 
*thc Fumre. 

Hereupon in one day wereiwom Privy Counrellors,x>/v^/ii^ 
much to the publick joy, the Earl of Btrtfori (whom xbt^"^c»im^ 
Kii^ afterwards made Nbrquisj the Earl <)f B^ 
oTj^ir, the Earl of Briftoty the LcMrd Sajy the Lord Savihy ^ p^^ 
and the Lord KimMf^u'^ and within two or three days after^ 
the Earl of Jfkrmcki being All perfons at that time very 
gracious to the People, or to the 5^«fx, by whofe eteOion and 
difcretion the People chofe; and had been Ail in fome urn* 
brage at Court, and Moft in vifible dis&vour there. This 
ad die Kii^ did very cbearfiilly^ heartily ixxiined to Some 
c^them, as He had reafon ; and not apprenending any Incon- 
venience by diat a£t from the Others, whom he tbbb^ this 
light of his grace would Reform, or at leaft Reftrain. 

But the ctdling and admitting men to that Board is not t 
work that can be indifierent ; theRqMiCation. if not the Go- 
vernment of the State depending on it. And though, it may 
be, there hath been too much CurioGty heretofore ufed to 
difcover men's humours in particular points, before they have 
receiv'd that Honour^ whereas poCfibly fuch differences were 
rather to have been deGr'd than avoided : yet there are cer- 
tain Opinions, certain PropoGtions, and gieneral Princi- 
ples, that Whofoever does not hold, and does not believe, i$ 
no% without great danger, to be accepted for a Privy-Coun« 

N a fellor. 

1^6 The Hifiory Book III. 

(ellor. As, whoibever is not ftfd to Monarchical grounds, 
the prefervation and upholding whereof is the chief £nd of 
(iich a Council : Whofoever doch not believe chat in. aider 
to that great End, there is t Dignicy, a Freedoo), a JuriCih 
^on maft effiuidal to be preferird in j and To that place; 
tnd calces not the Prefervation thereof to heart ; ought never 
to be received there. What in pmdence is to be done to^ 
wards that £ndy admits a latitude that hcMieft and wife men 
may fifely tnd profitably difier in ^ and thofe Dtflferences 
(which I iaik bdbre there was too mudi unskilful xrare to 
prevent) ufually produce great advantages in knowledge and 
wiidom: but the End it ftlf, that which the Logicians call 
the Termim^d fnem^ oug^ always to be a pofiulMium^ which 
Whofoever doubts^ deftroys: and Princes cannot be tqo 
ftridi:, too tender, m this confidcration, in the coofticuting 
the body of their Priyy-Coundl , upon the Prudoit dcung 
whereof, much of their Safety} more of their Honour and 
Reputiation^which is the Life it felf of Princes) both at home 
and abroad neceOarily depends : and the Inadvertencies in 
this Point, have been, mediately or immediately, the Root 
. and the Spring of moft of she Gaiiunities that iiave enfiied. 

Two keaions have been frequently given by Princes for 
Overfights, or for WiUiU Breaches, in this important diipen- 
fation of their Favours. The firft, ^T'hat fiich a man can do 
^^no harm; when God knows, few men have done more 
harm than Thofe who have been thought to be able to do 
leaft; and there cannot be a greater error than to believe a 
man whom we fee qualified with too mean parts to do good, 
to be therefore incapable of doing hurt : there is a fupply of 
Malice, of Pnde, of Induftry, and even of Folly, in the 
Weakeft, when He fets his heart upon it, that makes a ftrange 
prc^refs in Mifchief. The Second, « When Perfons of ordi- 
^ nary funilties, either upon importunity, or other collateral 
^ refpedis, have been introduced There, that it is but a place 
^^ of Honour , and a general teftimony of the King's afie- 
*^dlion J and fo it hath been, as it were, referv^d as a prefer- 
ment for Thofe, who were fit for no other preferment. As 
amongtt the Jdiiits they have a Rule, That they, who are 
unapt for greater Studies, (liall (ludy cafes of Confcience. By 
this means the Number hath been increas'd, which in it feLT 
breeds great Inconveniencies; fince a Lefs number are fitter 
both for Counfel and Difpatch, in matters of the greateft mo- 
ment, chat depend upon a quick execution^ than a Greater 
number of men equally honeft and wife : and for That, and 
orher realbns of LTnaptn^ and Incompetency, Committees 
j ot dextrous men have been appointed out of the Table to do 
' the bulinefs of ir; and lb men have been no fooncr exalted 


Of the ReheUim^ &c. 197 

with the Honourable title, and pleafed with the obligation 
of being made Privy-Counfellora, than they have check'd 
that delight with difccring that they were not folly trufted ; 
and fb have been more incenfed with the Reproachfol diftio- 
^on Aty than obliged with the Honourable admiffion To 
that Board, where they do not find all perfons equally Mem«f 
bers. And by thi^ kincl of Refentment, many (ad Inconveni- 
ences have befallen the King ;^ and Thofe men Who have had 
the honour and misfortune of thofe fecrec trufts. 

The truth is, the finking and near defperate condition of 
Monarchy in this Kingdom can never be buo/d up, but by 
a prudeht and fteady Council attending upon the virtue ana 
vivacity of the King; nor be preferv'd and improved when ic 
is up, but by cherifning and preferving the wildom, integrity, 
dignity, and reputation, of tnat Council : the luftrc whereof 
always refleds upon the King himfelf : who is not thought a ' 
Great Monarch when he follows only his own Reafon and 
Appetite; but when, for the informing his Reafon, and guid- 
ing his Adtions, he ufes the fervice, induitry, and Acuities of 
the Wifeft men. And though it bath been, and will be, al- 
was nec^flary to admit to thofe Counfels fome men of great 
Power , who will not take the pains to improve their great 
parts ; yet the Number of the whole fliould not be too great; 
and the Qmadties and Qualities of the moft fliould be fit for 
bufinefs; mac is either for Judgment, and Difpatch; pr for 
One of them at lealt : and for integrity above all. 

This Digredion ( much longer tnan was intended) will 
not appear very impertinent, when the great diflervice ihall 
appear, which befel the King by the fwearing thofe Lords 
formerly mention'd (Ifpeak but of fomeof themj Privy-Counf 
fellors. For inftead of exercifingthemfelvcsin their new Pro* 
vince, and endeavouring to preferve and vindicate that Jurif* 
diction; they look'd upon themfelves as preferred thither, by 
their reputation in Parliament, not by the kindnefi and elteem 
of the King; and fo refolv'd to keep up prindpaliy the great- 
nefs of tbu: Place, to which they thought they ow'd their 
Own greatnefi. And therefore when the King required the 
Advice of bis Privy-Coundl, in thofe matters of the hl^eft 
importance which were then every day incumbent on Him, 
the new Privy-Counfellors pofitively declared, "That They 
<^ might not ( that was, that no body might ) give his Majefty 
"any advice in matters depending in the two fioufes, 
^ which was not agreeable to the fenfe of the two Houies ; « 
" which They call'd his Great Council, by Whofe wiidbm 
"he was entirely to guide himfelf. As this dodbrine was in- 
fipidlv and pemiciouily urg'd by fame ; fo it was fupinely 
and uupidly fubmicted to by others ; infomuch as the King, 

N 3 in 

xco The Hiftoiy Book III. 

kener, and fo attended at Canonical hours widi the Books 
of Devotion upon his Majefty when he was Prince of WaUs^ 
and a little before the death of King j4nMis took Orders : and 
to his Hig^mefi coming Ihortly to be King j the vapours of 
Ambiidon fuming into nts head that he was ftill to keep bis 
Place, he would not think of left than bein^ Clerk of the 
Qofit to the new King, which Place his Majefty conferr'd 
upon^ or rather continued in^ the Bi{hop of Durham^ Dodix>r 
Ktylj who had long ferv'd Kine Javus there. Mr Bttrtom- 
thus diiappointed, and, as He calrd it, defpoil'd of his Righ^ 
would not, in the greatnefs of his heart, lit down by the af-r 
front; but committed two or diree fiich weak, fawcy in- 
difcretions, as caufed an Inhibition to be fent him, <^ That he 
^ (hould not prefume to come any more to Court: and from 
that time he refolv'd to revenge himfelf of the Bilhop of 
Durb^tm^ upon die whole Order ; and (b tum'd Ledurer, and 
Preach'dagainftThem; being endued with Malice and Bold* 
pels, inftead of Learning and any tolerable Parts. 

These Three perfons havins been for feveral follies and 
libelling humours, firft gently Reprehended 9 and after, for 
their Incorrigiblenefs, more feverdy Cenfured and Imprifon'd ; 
found fome means in Prifbn of Q>rre(pondeace, which was 
not before known to be between them ; and to combine them- 
felves in a more Peftilent and Seditious Libel than they had 
ever before vented ^ in which the Honour of the King, Queen, 
Couniellors, and Bifhops, was with equal licence biafteS and 
traduc'd ; which was faithfully difperi'd by their Profely tes 
in the City. The Authors were quickly and eafiiy known, 
and had indeed too much ingenuity to deny it ;and were there- 
upon brought together to the Star-Chamber ore teuus ; where 
they behaved themfelves with marvellous Infblence; with 
fiill confidence demanding <^ That the Biihops who (at in the 
«« Court ( being only the Arch-Bifhop of Canterkiryy and the 
BUhop of Lond&n ) ^ might not be preTent, becaufe diey were 
^< their Enemies, and fo Parties : which, how fcandalous and 
ridiculous foever it feem'd then There, was good Logick and 
good Law two years after in Scotland^ and ferv'd to banifh 
the Biihops of that Kingdom both from the Council Table 
and the Aflembly. Upon a very patient and folemn Hear- 
ing, in as fuU a Court as ever I faw in that place, without any 
difierence in opinion or diflenting voice, they were all Three 
cenfured as Scandalous, Seditious, and Infamous perfons, <^ To 
^* loie their Ears in the Pillory, and to be imprifotf d in fe- 
^ veral Jayls during the King s pleafure : all which was ezcr 
cuted with Rigour and Severity enough. But yet their itch 
of Libelling ftUl broke out, and their Friends of the City 
found a line of Communication with them. Hereupon the 


of the ReheHion, Sec. lor 

Wifdom of the State thought fir, that thofe InfeOious Sores 
fhould breath out their Corruption in (bme Air more remote 
from that catching City, and lefi liable to the contagion: 
and ib, by an Order of the Lords of the Council, Mr Prp^ 
was fent to a Caltle in the lOand of Jerfiy; Or Baftvick to 
Sflfy; and Mr Burton to Guemfiy^ where they remain'd, un< 
cbnfider'd and truly I think unpitied (for they were men of 
no vertue or meritj for the fpace of Two years, till the begin- 
ning of this prefent Parliament. 

Shqrtly upon that, Petitions. were prefented by their 
Wives or Friends, to the Houfe of Commons, expreffing 
<< Their heavy Cenfures and long Sufiering^; anddeuring by 
way of Appeal, '^ That the juftice and rigour of that Sentence 
^^ might be review'dand conQder'd^ ai^d that their Perfons 
^' might be brought from thofe remote and defolate places to 
^ London^ that fo they might be able to fiicilitate or attend 
<^ their own bufineis. The (ending for them out of Prifbn 
( which was the main ) cook up much confideration : for 
though very Many who had no kindneis, hac^yec compaflioa 
for the men^ thinking they had fufier'd enough; and that . 
thou^ they were fcurvy Fellows, they bad oeoi icurvily ' 
ufed : and Other?, had not only afieOion to their Perfons as 
having fuflfer'd for a Common cauie; but were concerned to 
revive and improve their ufeftil Acuities of Libelling and Re- 
viling Authority ; and to make thofe ebullitions of their ma- 
lice not thougnt noiibm to the State : Yet a Sentence of a 
fupreme Court, the Star-Chfldxiber T of which they had not 
Yet fpoke with Irreverence) was not lightly to be blown off: 
but, when they were inform'd, and h^ confider'd, that 1^ 
that Sentence tne Petitioners were condenufd to fome Prifons 
in L/mdm; and were afterward remov'd thence by an Order 
of the Lords of the Council; they lopk'd upon that Order 
as a violation of the Sentience ; and fp made oo (cruple to 
Order ^ That the Prifoners fhould be remov'd from thofe 
^^ fbrreign Prifons, to the Places to which they were regularly 
^ firijt committed. And to that purpofe. Warrants were fkn'd 
by the Speaker, to the Govemours and Captains of the ieve* 
ral CafUes, ^ To bri^ them in fafe cuftody to Lnubm : which 
were fent with all po(S>le expedition. 

Pryn and Burton being Neighbours (though in difiiQft 
lOands ) landed at the fame time at Souttamptom^ Where thqf 
were received and entertain'd with extraordinary demonfln- 
tions of Afiedion and Efteem ; attended by a marvellous con- 
flux of Company; and their Charges not only bom with 
great magnificence, but liberal Prefents given to thera^ And 
this meuod and ceremony kept them Company all their 
jpurney, great herds of People meeting them a( their en- 

loz TheHiflory Book III. 

trance into all Towns, and waidna; upon them out with won- 
derful acciamations of joy. wSen they came near JLm- 
d9m^ multitudes of People of feveral conditions^ ibme on 
HorfetMck, others on Eooc, met them ibme miles from the 
Town ; voy many having being a days journey ; and diey 
were brought, about two of the Clock in the iucernoon, in 
' at Ciarh^trppj and carried into the City by above ten thott- 
fiind perfons, with Bot^s and Flowers m their haocte ; the 
Common People ftrewing Flowers and Herbs in the ways as 
they pafs'd, making great noife, and ezprefliions of joy for 
their Deliverance and Return ^ and in thofe acclamations , 
mingling loud and virulent exclamations againft the Bilhops, 
^ Who had fb cruelly profecutcd fiicb Godly men. In m 
fyxnc manner, widiin five or fix days after, and in like Tri- 
umph, Dr Baflwkk retum'd from Siih^ landing at B^wr ; 
and from thence bringing the fame temmonies of the Aflfe- 
Aions and Zjeal of ICapf, as the others had done from Ibw^ 
Jbire and Siwrrvr, was met before he came to Southwsnrk by me 
good People of aZ^vim^ and fo conduced to his Lodging iike- 
. wife in the City. 

I SHOULD not have wafted thus much time in a di(courfe 
of this nature, but that it Is, and was Then evident, that 
this InfiirreAion ( for it was no better ) and Frenzy 6l[ tiie 
People, was an tSkOi of great Induftry and Policy, to try 
and publifli the Temper of the People^ and to fatisfy Them- 
felvcs, in the aftivity and intereft of their Tribunes, to whom 
that province of Shewing them was committed. And from 
this time, the Licence of Preaching and Printing increa(edj 
to that degree, that all Pulpits were freely delivered to the 
Schifmatical and Silenced Preachers, who till then had lurk'd 
in corners, or liv'd in Nn^EngUnd*^ and the Prefles at li- 
berty for the publifhing the moft Invedtive^ Seditious, and 
Scurrilous Pamphlets, that their Wit and Msdice could in- 
vent. Whilft the Minifters of the State, and Judges of the 
Law, like men in an Extafy, furprizfd and amaz'd with fe- 
veral Apparitions, had no &>eech or Motion ; as if, having 
committed (iid) an Excefs of JurifdidHon ( as men upon great 
Surfeits are enjoin'd for a time to eat nothing ) rhey had been 
prefcrib'd to exercife no f uriHiaion at all. Whereas, with- 
out doubt, if either the Privy- Council, or the Judges and 
the King's leam'd Council, had afliim'd the courage to have 
Queftion'd the Preaching, or the Printing, or the Sditious 
Riots upon the Triumph of thofe three Scandalous men, be- 
fore the uninterruption and fccurity had confirm'd the Peo- 
ple in all three ; it had been no hard matter to have deftroy'd 
thofe Seeds, and pull'd up thofe Plants, which being negle^S- 
cd, grew up and profper^dto a full H^eft of Rebellkm and 
^ Treafon. 

Of the Rehellton^ &c. log 

Treafon. Bat this was yet but a nidends and ranknefi Abroad, 
without anv vi&ble countenaace or approbation from the Par- 
liament : all feem'd Chaft within thoie Walls. 

Th E firft Malignity that was apparent There ( for the Ac- 
cu&tion of die Aidi-BiOiop and the Vsxloi^rsford^ were 
look'd upon as adis of PadioP) directed againft particular Per« 
fonS) who were thought to have deierv'd fome extraordinary 
meafiires and proceeding ) was againft the Church : Firft, in 
their Committee for Religion; which had been afliimed ever 
fince the latter times of King James^ though leldom or never 
any fiich thing had Before been heard of in Parliament; 
where, under pretence of receiving Petidona againft Clerg]r- 
mcn, they often debated Points beyond the verge of Their 
underftanding : Then, by their cfaearful reception of a De--^ DeeUrA- 
claration of many Sheets of Paper againft the whole Govern- ^ fff'^' 
ment of the Church ; prefented by ten or a dozen Minifters, ^i*?^-^ 

at the Bar; and pretended to be fign'd bjr feveral Hundreds tUn •ffi 
of the Minifters of Urndn and the Countries adjacent : and a cMz/nuj «- 
Petition, prefented by Alderman Ptfonngtim^ and alledg'd toff '"^ '*• 
be fubfcrib'd by Twenty Thou6nd men, Inhabitants widiin,y,^;2 
the City of Lmulmt'^ who required in plain terms, ^The/^^s^px. 
^ total ^ztirpadon of £pifGopacy» Yet the Houfe'was Then 
fb far from being pofleis'd with diat Spirit, diat the utmoft 
that could be obcain'd, upon a long Debate upon that Po- 
tion, was, ^That it (hould not be rejeded; againft which 
the Number of the Peddoners, was ui^d as a powerfiil Ar- 
gument; only it was fuffer'd to remain in the hands of the 
Clerk of the Houfe, with diredion, ^That no Copy of it 
^{hould be given* And for the Minifters Declaration, one 
Part only or it was infifted on by them, and Raul in the 
Houfe; which concem'd tbeexercife of EccleGaftical Jurii^ 
didtion, and the £xcefi of their Courts: the other parts 
were Declined by many of them, and eipedally Ordei'd, 
^ To be Seal'd up by the Qerk, that they mi^t be perufed 
^^by no Man. 5o diat all that Envy and Animo&y ag^uoft 
the Churdi feem'd to be refolv'd into a defire, << That a BiU 
^< might be fram'd to Remove the Bifliops from their Votes 
^ in the Lxirds Houfe, and from any Office in Secular Affiuis; 
which was the utmoft Men pretended to wi(h: and to fiich 
a purpofe, a Bill was itu)rtly after prepar'd, and brought 
into toe lioufe; of which, more fiiall be bad in its proper 

It was a ftrange Difingenuity, that was pradifed in th^crut Dif- 
procuring thofe Peddons^ wfaidi oondnued ever after, in the"^,^'^J 
like Addrefles. The courfc was, Firft to pmare a Peddon %^'%^ii 
very modeft and dutiful, for the Form; and for the Matter, ^/g;,,; 
poc very unreidbnabk; and tp commuQicaCe it at fome Pub- 

tQ^ -ITheHifiky- Booklll^ 


UckMeexkm^'iMmfidM m$ tsfau ft flioQld tie i0ocif«l 
wiA ApprOMtiM ^ the ftAfcripitan df mciy Few bttids fiMI 
die Paper ic lUf^ 'Ulitere die Fiecftoi iMi'iMcseii, ind thJMK 
Ibie ibsftjf'ttiioieahectt wevetmex^i) ibir tbc feceptioii of oie. 
NvNBber I vhkbi-'Clfe tH ' die oedit* tfid ^prefiired idl tibi' 
ecMteettittee 'to* me Uadcreddiy t nMttude of 

fjndt was pfM»ed,die PedtiM ic^f wi8earoflF;tuid 
#Maw OMfitftioML wtriiie^t^ bind, ifUliii- 

i«xV« dter Idofsf lift of Mmie»iAkii were Siiblcr9>edto 
taK&¥^mm. :'%^>^ meaa^ Manjr tnen focmd Thesfr Jmii 
SuMzfibtd to nddiBiif i^of wliiclu They bUore had iKMr 
hetfd. ' Ai flweg aM tofters, wtou^Huids were to die Ftf- 
doa tiid DediitdM of die £m^ Mmifters before mes- 
^ dixfd, htvejmfdii'd to maqr Forfbas, ^That They nevtr 
^&w That Pettdoa or SJedmflOQ iKfoie it was prefotei 
^co die Hode; fm ted BgafA Another, the Subttmoe of 
^wbkh waiy Mbit cii» be Goimeird eo^dee die Oadi enjcfo'd 
«br the New 'CSkiMi : and wbeft dwy fbuiid, iofteed of 
^33iaf^ didrltenef ibrto ft dete dfto A 
^vmimemofdieUhurdi, They wtdi nuich tioohle went to 

^afid (heir MBidij who gvre dMi Jio odier AnTwer , bite 

^<dwc]k Wtti'thoiiBJhrfit' by Tbofe who tmderftood Bufiiveft 

^Hbetter than They; that the Latter Petition fiioald rather be 

^preferr'd than the Former. Aiid when He found, diey iiw 

tended by fome Pubiicfc A& to Vindicate themfelves from 

that Calunmy; Soch perfons , opon Whom they had dieir 

greateft dependences, were euagfd, by direats and promHef 

to prevail with them, to St llm, and to pafs by that Indirefi 


m^dims For the betcer-ficilicadng and making way for diofe vi< 

unjtfimt mlent attempts upon the Church, Peddons and Complaints 

r*^^ were adiihited egaiirfk the Exorbitant Ads of fome Bifliops; 

*^** eTpecially againft die Bifhops of B^fi and mSsy and Efy} 

who^ they allec^jecL ^ Had with great Pride and Inlblence, 

^povok d ail me Gentry, and M«t of the Inhabitants with* 

i ' «^/ ^ m their Diotieflfes. And the New Canons were infilled on, 

r Nwo-Mgs a niofl: pdpaUe Invafion by die Whole Body of die 

"^ ^ Qergy, upon the IJiws and Ubeity of the People. 

I s A\D before, chat after die Enffidution or the ibrmer 
Short i^ament^ the Convocadpn was continued by Qieciai 
Warrant from the King; and by his Majefty, in a (olemn 
meflBige ient to-diem by S"^ VMjFmu then Principal Secre- 
tary, « Keqoir'd to moceed in die making of Canons, for die 
<<better 9e$ct «nd Quiet of die Church. Notwidiftanding 
V this .Coaunand, die Qiief of the Clergy, well knowing the 
Spirit of StttoneiB that was cootradpd againft them; and 
^ many 

of the ReheUiotty Sec. 107 

inany obfolete Pamphlets againft their Junfdidion and Power» 
being, fince the Commotions in SMUmd^ revived and pub* 
liih'd with more freedom; defired his Majefty, ^That the 
^< Opinions of the Judges might be known and declared, Whe- 
<< ther They might then lawfully Sit , the Parliament being 
^ Diflolv'd, and proceed to the making of Canons ; as like* 
^^wife upon other Particulars in Their Jurifdidion, which 
<<had been moft invdgh'd againft? 

All the Judges of E»gland^ upon a mature Debate, in the 
prefence of the King's Council, under t;heir Hands aflerted, 
*< The Power of the Convocation in making Canons, and 
^< thofe other parts of Turifdidtion, which had been fo En- 
^' vioufly queition'd. Hereupon, They proceeded ; and hav- 
ing Compofed a Body of Canons, prefented the fame to 
his Majefty, for his Royal Appro^on. They were then 
again Debated at the Council-Doard ; not without notable 
Oppofition : for upon fi>me leflening the Power and Autho- 
ri^ of their Chancellors, and their Commifl&ries , by thofe 
Canons , the Profeflbrs of that Law took themfelves to be 
Difobliged; and S*^ Henry Martin (who was not likely to 
overiee any advantages ) upon feveral days of Hearing at the 
Council-Table, with his ucmoft skiU Objeded againit them ; 
but in the end, by the entire and unanimous Advice of the 
Privy Council, the Canons were conhrm'd .by the King, un- 
der the Great Seal of Eifglandy and thereby enjoyn'd to be 
obferv'd. So that whatfoever they were, the Judges were 
at lealt as Guilty of the Firft Prefumption in Framing 
them; and the Lords of the Council, in Publiihing and 
Executing them^ as the Bifhops, or the reft of the Clergy, ia 

Ye T the Storm fell wholly on the Church : and the Mat* 
ter of thofe Canons, and the Manner of making them, waa 
infifted on , as a pregnant teftimony of a Malignant Spihc 
in the very Fundlion of the Bifhops. The truth is, the feafon 
in which that Synod continued to Sit (as was obferv'd be- 
fore) was in fo ilia Conjundureof time (ujDon the Diflb- ' 
lucion of a Parliament, and almofl: in an Invaiion from Scof^ 
land) that nothing could have been Tranla<^ed there, of a 
Popular and Prevailing influence. And then, fome iharp Ca- 
nons againil: Sedbaries^ and fome Additionals in point of 
Ceremonies, countenancing, though not enjoining what had 
not been long pradtifed, infinitely infiam'd oome, and trou- 
bled Others : who jointly took advantage of what ftri(^y 
was amiis ^ as the making an Oath, the Matter of which was 
conceiv'd Incongruous ; and enjoyning it to many of the 
Laity, as. well as the Clergy; and likewife the granting ot 


%o6 TbeHifiorjt Book III. 

whiA M So that the Houfe of Commons (diat is die major part) 
C9ndemn*4 mtde IK) fcrupl^ io tfaftt Hcat, to dcdarc, ^ Thst die C^ 
Sjfthe '''<<« cadon-Houfe had no Power at all of making Canons : noci. 
'-^ ^'"""^'widiOanding tbac it was apparent by the Law, and the im- 
contradidted practice of the Church, that Canons had never 
been otherwife made : ^ And diat thofe Canons contained ia 
^ diem, matter of Sedidon and Keproadi to the Refl;al Power; 
^prejudicial to the Liberty and Property of the Subje&; and 
^(o the Privileges of tWliament. By die extent of which 
noodde Vote and Dedaratira, they taul involv'd almoft the 
whole Clergy under the Gcult of Arbitrary Proceedinp j as 
mudi as die^ had done the Nobility and Gentry before^ un- 
der their Votes againft Lords Lieutenants, D^nity Lieute- 
mnts, Privy Coantellors, and SheriA; and of which diey made 
the fame ufe : as fhali be remembred in its proper place. 
i/itney for- In the mean dme, the two Armies were nece(fiuily to be 
rnf'd •/r&«m>vided for, left the Countries where their -Quarters wer& 
^'^''^ '^'ihould come to be qypreb'd bjr free Quarter; which would 

fi^fipMnr <^^ o^y ^^^ ^ ^^ inconvenient noife , but introduce a 
the nM«,,tfrwiieceffity of Disbandmg the Armies, which they were in no 
mitt. degree ready for : and Money not being to be taifed loon 
emSugh in the regular way, w Aft of Parliament , which 
^fiFould require fome rime in the paffing; befides, that the 
Manner and Way of raifing it haa not been enough oonfi- 
der'd; and the Collefdngic would require much time, even 
after an Ad: of Parliament (hould be pafs'd : Therefore for 
the prefent Supply, it was thought fit to make ufe of Their 
Credit with the Clity : to whom a formal Emba^ of Lords 
and Cbmmons was fent; which were carefoUy chofon of 
Such Peribns as carried the bufinefs of the Houfe oefore them, 
that the performmg the Service, might be as well imputed 
to Their particular Reputation and Intereft, as to the A£fe- 
Aion of the City: and thefe Men in their Orations to the 
Otizens , undertook <' That their Money (hould be repaid 
••with Intereft by the Care of the Parliament. And this wat 
' the Firft Introduftion of the Publick Faith j which grew af- 
terwards to be applied to all Monilrous purpofes. 

This expedient fucceeded twice or thrice for fuch Sums 
as they thought fit to require; which were only enough to 
carry on their Affairs, and keep them in monon ; not propor- 
tionable to difcharge the Debt due to the Armies , but to 
enable them to pay their Quarters : it being fit to keep a con- 
liderable Debt itili owing, left they ihould appear too ready 
to be Disbanded. 
»>fiMwr«f»- They had likewife another Defign in this Commerce 
won-CtuneU with the City ; Which, al wavs upon the Loan of Money, ufed 
r{#/i» ^'^ ^^ recommend fome fuch thing to the Parliament, as mig^t 


Of the ReheHion, Sec. Icy; 

advance theDefigns of the Parcv ; <<As the Froceedix^ againft 
<< Delinquents^ or <^Some Reformation in the Church: 
which uie Managers knew well what ufe to make of upon 
any Emergency. When They had fet this Traifick on foot 
in the City, and fo hroiu^t their Friends There into more 
reputation and adtivity ^ Then, at Their £ledion for Qnxw 
moo-Council Men ( which is every Year before chrijhm/v ^ 
and in which, new Men had rarely ufed to be chofen, except 
in cafe of Dea^ but the old (till continued ) all the grave 
and fuhftantial Citizens were left out ^ and iiich diofen, as 
were molt Eminent for oppoGngthe Government, and moft 
di&fie&ed to the Churchy tbou^ of nevec fo mean Effaites 2 
which made a prefen^ viGUe aiteratioo, in the Tender of 
the City ( the Common-Council having fo great a ihare in 
the management of afiairs There) and even in the Govern* 
ment VL felf. 

Other Ways were now to be thoughtof for getting of 
Mone^, which was, once at leaft every Month, call'd for 
very importunately by the Scti^h Commiffioners; which 
caufed the bxD& proviiion to be made for the Et^ti^ Forces. 
The next Expedient ¥ras, ^ That in fo great an Exigence, 
^' and for the Fublick Peace, that the Armies might not eiv 
<^ ter into Blood, bv the determination of the Ce^tion, which 
^ want of Fay would inevitably produce ; The feveral Mem- 
^ bers of the Houfe would lend Money, according to their 
^^ ieveral Abilities ^ or that Such as had no Money, would be- 
^< come Bound for it : and upcm thefe terms enough could 
^^ be borrowed. This was no fooner Propofed , biu^' Con- 
fented to, by all the eminent Leaders; and by many 
Others, in order to make themfelves the more acceptable 
to Thofe; and fome did it for Their Own convenience, 
there being little hazard of their Money , and full Interelt 
to be receiv'c^ and believing it would facilitate the EHsbrnd- 
ingofthe Armies ; to which, all Sober Men's hearts were 

And now to fupport their ftock of Credit^ it was time to 
raife Money upon the People by A£t of Parliament ; which 
they had an Excufe for not doiiig in die ufiial way, ^Of 
^^ giving it immediately to the King, to be paid into die 
^^ Exchequer; becaufe the Fublick Faith was k> deeply en- 
^^gag'd to the City for a great Debt; and fo many parti- 
<^ cular Members in the Loan of Moneys, and in being Bound 
<^for the Payment of great Sums , for which their Eftates 
^^were lyable: and therefore it was but reafon, that for 
'^ Their Indemnity, the Money that was to be rais'd , ihould 
'^ be paid into the Hands of particular Members of the Houfe, 
^ named by Them ; who Ihould take care to Difcharge all 

« Fublick 

ao8 The Hiftory Book III. 

^BiUfMf/i ^ Publick Enjsagements. The firft Bill they pafi'd being but 
fir rdtfii^ for two Subfflies, which was not fufficienc to difcharge any 
2^ f "^ ccmfiderable part of the Money bonow'd, They infeited id 
jj^^fi tf the Bill the Uommiffioners Names , who were to receive 
C9mm0Hs and Difpofe the Money. And the King made no panic in 
nM^ittg the Faffing it: Himfelf not coniidering the Confequence of 
^TJ^ it 5 and >fone about him having the Courage to Reprefent it 
c«ve tbi to him. 

Unuy- From that time, there wasno Bill pais'd for the raifing 

Tiw fdme of Money , but it was difpofed of in the fame, or the like 

J****^*^ manner; that none of it could be applied to the Kingfs uk, 

^JD^>^ or by his diredion. And they likewife took notice^ ^ That 

^ from the time of his Majeity's coming to the Crown, He 

, ^ had taken the Cuftoms and impofitions upon Merchandize 

^ as his Own Right, widioutany Aft of Parliament; whidi, 

^They faid, no King had ever before done; infinuating 

withal, ^ That They meant to make a further Enquiry into 

^ Thofe , who had been the Chief Minifters in £hat pre- 

^ iumption. They fiiid, ^ No body could imagine, but that 

^they intended to grant the Same to his Majefty , in die 

^ (ame manner, for ms Life, as -had been done to his Proge- 

^nitors by former Parliaments: But, that they found fuch afl 

^ Aft could not be prefently made ready : becaufe the Book 

^ oi Rates now in praftice ( befides that it had not been made 

^ by Lawful Authority ) contain'd many £xcefles, and mult 

* be Reformed in feveral particulars; m preparing which, 

^ they would ufe all poffible diligence, and hoped to efieft ic 

** in a fliort time : however, that the continuance of the Col- 

^'leftton in the manner it was in, without any Lawful Title, 

"and during the very fitting of the Parliament, would be a 

*^ Precedent of a very ill Confequence, and make the Right of 

*^ giving it the more Queftion'd ; at leaft the lefs Valued. 

" And therefore it would be fit , that cither all the prefcnt 

"Colledtion fliould be difcontinued * and ceafe abfolutely; 

*^ which was in the power of the Merchants themfelves to 

^'do, by refufingto pay any Duties which there was no Law 

" to compel them to : or. That a (hort Aft ihould be prefently 

"pafe^'d, for the continuance of thofe Payments for afliorc 

^ time ; againft the Expiration whereof, the Aft for granting 

** them for Life, with the Book of Rates, would be prepared, 

"and ready. There were many inconveniencies difcover'd 

in the Firlt, in difcontinuing the CoUeftion and Payment of 

Duties, ^* Which would not be fo eafily revived again, and 

** reduced into order: and that the Laft would without pre- 

« judice to Either, both vindicate the Right of the Subjeft, 

^ and fecure the King's Profit : and fo they prepared ( with 

all the expreffions of Duty and Aflfeftion to the King that 



of. the Rehettiou^ Sec. 109 

Cftn be imagin'd ) and prefented a Grant of thofe Duties for 
ibme few Months. In which there was a preamble, << Di&p^ 
^ provin2 and condemning AU that had been done in That 
<' particular, from his Majeity's firft coming to the Crown, to 
^^ that time; and aflerting His whole Right to thofe ray-^' 
<< ments, to depend upon the Gift of his Subjeds : and coq« 
duded with ^Moft fevere Penalties to be infii<3ed upoii Thofe^ 
*^ who (hould prefiime hereafter to Collect or Receive them 
*^ otherwife, than as they were, or (hould be, granted by A& 
^< of Parliament: which had never been in any other Ad: of 
Parliament declared : which the King likewife pafs'd. So all 
the Revenue He had to live upon, and to provide him meat, 
and which he had reafon to expedt (hould have been more 
certainly continued to him, was taken into Their Hands ; in 
order to take it from Him too^ whenever they (hould think 
it convenient to their other deOgns : of which, he (hortly after 
found the mifchief. 

T H o u G H, as bath been obferv'd, there was not hitherto ^ BiUfir m 
one Peny of mone/ given to the King, or received by His Triennial 
Minifters; yet, becaufe Subfidies were rais'd upon the peo*^*j('^*"* 
pie, according to the Formality of Parliaments ; and as if all ^'^'^ 
that great Supply had been to the King's own Ccters ; It was 
thought neceUary, that the People mould be refreih'd with 
fome behoovefiil Law, at the fame time that they found them* 
felves charged with the payment of fo many Sub(idies. And 
under that confideration; together with the Bill ft)r Subfidies, 
Another was fent iip to the Lords, for a Triennial Parlia- 
ment : Both which, quickly pa(8'd that Houfe, and were tran(« 
mitted to the King. 

In that for the Triennial Parliament ( though the fame 
was grounded upon Two former Stamtes in the time of liUng 
Edward the Third, " That there (hould be Once every Year 
<^ a Parliament ) there were (bme claufes very derogatory to 
Monarchical Principles ; as << Giving the People Authority to 
<< aflemble together, if the King fail'd to call them j and the 
like : Yet his Majefty, really intending to make thofe Con- 
ventions frequent, without any great hefitation, enaAed thofe 
two Bills together; fo much to the feeming Joy and Satisfii^ 
dlion of both Houfes, that they pretended "To have fuffi- 
<^ciently provided for the Security of the Common-wealth j 
^ and that there reroain'd nothing to be done, but fuch a re- 
<^ turn of Duty and Gratitude to the King, as might Teftifir 
" their Devotions ; and that their only End was to make Him 
" glorious: But thofe Fits of 2^ and Loyalty,never lafted long. 

The Lord Pincl^a flight, made not only the Place of Keeper Sr fidw^nf, 
vacant, but begot feveral other Vacancies. The . Seal was ^^^^ 
given to iJttletou^ who was then Chief Jufticc of the Common- ^Jr^^J^ 

Vol. L Part I. O Picas j^'^' 

iio The Bftorjf Book III. 

Picas J for which Place he was esoeUently fitted : but being 
A man of a grave and comely Prefence, his other Pares were 
over-^vftlued ^ his Learning in the Law being his Mafter-piece. 
And he was diofento be keeper, upon the opmioa and re- 
commendation of the Two great Minyiers under the cloud : 
who had before brou^t him tx> be a Privy^jouniellor, whilft 
Chief Juftice, to the no little jealouTy of the Lord Fmcb. 

BikNKs, the Attumey General, was weary enough of the 
Inquifition that was made into the King's Grants, and fi^ 
CO be promoted to she Common Pleas. Hsrh^rty liic SdBd- 
tor General, whohad&te all this time in the Houfe of Com- 
mons, aw'd and terrify'd with their Temper, applying ium- 
felf to Mr ISioMim^ and two or three of tne Omer, without 
jnterpo&ng or eroding them in any things long'd infimtdy 
to be outofdiat Fire: and (btheOffice of Attnmey Gene- 
ral, which at any other time had been to be wifh'd, vnuk now 
the more gratehil, as it reroov'd him from the other atten- 
dance : it not being ufual in thofe times for the Atturtiey Ge- 
neral to be a Member of the Honfe of Commons : and he 
was call'd by Writ to attend the Houfe of Peers, where Ya 
Sits upon the Wool-Sack at the back of the Judges. 

F R o M the time that there was no more Fear of the Aicfa- 
BiQiop of Camterhryy nor the Lord Lieutenant of Irelamly 
nor of any particular men who were like to fucceed Them in 
Favour ; Ail who had been adive in the Court, or in any 
Service for the King, being totally di(pirited, and Moft of 
them to be ^fpofed to anv ill Offices againft him ; the great 
Patriots thought they might be able to do their Country bet- 
ter Service, if they got the Places and Preferments of the 
Court for Themfelves , and fo prevent the Evil Counfels 
which had ufed to fpruig from thence. For which putpofe. 
They had thena faitl'riemi there, the Marquis oi Hamutnty 
Who could moftdextroufly put fuch an a£^r into agitation, 
with the leaft noife, and prepare both King and Queen to 
hearken to it very willingly : and in a fhort time all particu- 
lars were well adjuiled for every man's accommodation. 
CrtAt o$ces The Earl of Bedford was to be Treafurer ; in order to 
tmfitldl which, the Bifhop of London had already defired the King 
cfthePmj. " To receive the Staffinto His hand, and give him leave to 
" retire to the fole care of his Bifhoprick ^ by which he wife- 
ly withdrew from the Storm, and enjo/d the greateft Tran- 
77;rfi//z«;</quillity of any man ofthe Three Kingdoms, throughout the 
London re- wholc Boittcrous and Deftroying Time that followed ; and 
%aff^tt' liv'd to fee a Happy and Blefled End of them, and died in 
Tre%.^j %i g»*^t Honour. And fo the Treafury was for the prcfent put into 
\>Ht iitto Commidion. Mr Pym was to be Chancellor ofthe Exchequer: 
#p». which 0£Eice the Lord cott'mgtou was likewife ready to fur- 


Of the Rehelliotty See. lit 

ttnder, upon afliirance of Indemnity for the future. Thefe 
Two were engag'd to procure the King's Revenue to be.libe- 
rdlly provided for, anci honourably increased and fettled. 

And chat this might be the better done, the Earl of Bed* 
ford prevailed with the King, upon the Removes mention'd 
oefbrc, to make OUvn SainUjebn ( who hath been often, and ^^^f'l^}.^ 
wiU be oftncr mentioned in this Difcourfe ) his SoUicicor Ge- ^.trol"^ 
neral; which his Majefty readily confented to: hoping, thatw/. 
being a Gentleman of an Honourable Extradlion (if he had 
been Legitimate) he would have been very ufeful in the pre- 
sent exigence to fiipport His Service in the Houfe of Com-^ 
mons, where his Audiority was then great; at leaft, that he 
would be aftiam'd ever to appear in any thing that mi^c 
prove prejudicial to the Crown. And he became immediately 
poflefsM of that OfSce of great truft; and was fo well quali- 
ned for it, at that time, by his faft and rooted malignity 
againft the Government, that he lofl no credit with his J^rty, 
out of any apprehenfion or jealoufy that he would change 
his Side : and he made good their confidence^ not in the lealt 
degree abating his malignant Sphit, or diflembllng it; but 
with the fame obflinacy, oppofed every thing which might 
advance the King's Service, when he was his Sollicitor, as ever 
he had done before. 

Td E Lord S^ was to be Mafter of the Wards; which 
Place the Lord cottmgt9n was likewife to furrender for his 
own quiet and fecurity. And De»zil Mollis was to be Secre- 
tary of State, in the place of Secretary J^A^^. 

Thus fiwr the Intrigue for Preferments were entirely (Com- 
plied with, and it is great pitv that it was not fiilly executed^ 
that the King might have haa Some able men to have advifed 
or afSfted him; which probably Thefe very men would have 
done, i^er they had been (b througjily eng^iged : whereas the 
King had None left about him in any Immediate Truft in 
buHnefs ( for I fpeak not of the Duke of ^chmond^ and fome 
very Few men more about his Perfbn, who always behaved 
themfelves Honoiuably ) who either did not Betray, or Sink 
under the Weight or Reproach of it. 

B u T the Earl of Bedford was refolv'd, that he Would flot 
enter into die Trcafury, till the Revenue was in fome degree 
fettied ; at lead, the Bill for Tonnage and Poundage pafs'd, 
with all decent circumftances, and tor LifSe ; which both He 
and M.^ Pjm did very heartily labour to effifea; and had in 
Their thoughts, Many good Expedients, by which they in- 
tended to raife the Revenue of the Crown. And none of them 
were very folli^itous to take their Promotions, before fome 
other Accommodaaons were provided for fome of the reft of 
thckt chief Companions : who would be neidier well pleased 

O 1 ivith 

xi% The Hijiory Book III. 

with Their To liafty advancement before thero^ nor fo fiib- 
ffiiffive in the future to follow their dictates. 

H A MBDEN was a man they cQuid not leave unprovided 
for i and therdfore there were feveral Defigna, and very far. 
driven, for the SatisfaOion and Promotion of Him, and j^ 
fix^ and KmhlfPMy and Others^ thou^ not fofiilly Gooclud- 
cd, as Thoie before mention'd. For die King's great £nd 
was, by thefe Compliances, to (ave the Life <» the Earl o^ 
Strajforij and to preferve the Church from Ruin ^ for no body 
thought tlie Arch-Biihop in danger of His life. And there 
were Few of the Ferfons mention'd before, who thoudic 
their Prefermenu would do them much gpod^ if the uri 
were (iifier'd to live ; but in (hat of the Qiurcb, the Major 
Fart even of thofe Ferfons would have been willing to hsrre 
Satisfied the King : the rather, becaufe they had no reafon to 
think the Two Houfes, or indeed Either of them, could have 
been induced to have purfued the contrary. And fo the con- 
tinued and renewed violence in the Profecution of the 
Earl of Straffordy made the King well contented ( as the other 
Reafons prevailUwith the other Ferfons) that the putting 
of thofe Promotions in praftice^ fhould be for a time lii- 
,A ffp«fti' When there was a new occafion, upon the Importunity 
tnmaiUfor of the Siotf/b CommUEouers, to procure more Moneys and 
»»II!^'w *^ Leading Men, who us'd to be forward in finding out Ex- 
tht City, pediments Tor Supply, feem'd to deipair of being able to bor- 
row more y becaule the City was much troubled and diflieart- 
ned, to fee the Work of Reformation proceed fo Qowly, and 
no Delinquents Yet brought to Juftice: and that till feme ad- 
vance was made towards thofe longed for Ends, there muft 
be no expedtation of Borrowing more Money From, or In the 
City : At that time, Mr Hyde faid in die Houle, ^« That He did 
^ not believe the thing to be fo difficult as was pretended ^ That 
^< no Man Lent his Money, who did not Gam by it ^ and that 
^*it was evident enough, that there was Plenty of Money; 
^ and therefore he was confident, if a fmall Committee of the 
^^Houfe were nominated, who, upon confultation between 
^^ themfelves, might ufe the Name of the Houfe to fuch men 
<' as were reputed to have Money, they might prevail with 
^< them to lend as Much as might ferve for the prefent Exi- 
^^getu:e. Whereupon the Houfe willingly approved the mo- 
tion; and nam'd Him, MrCapel^ S^Jobn Stravgewaysj and 
Five or Six more, whom They defired might be join d with 
them ; Who, the fame or the next day, repaired into the City; 
refolving to apply themfelves to no men out fuch who were 
of clear reputaaon in point of Wifdom, and^Sobriety of Un- 
derltanding, as well as of Weakh and Ability to lend. And 


OftheReheUion^ &c. iig 

after they had (poken Together with four or five eminent Men, 
they agreed to divide themfelves, and to confer Severally with 
their particular Acquaintances, upon the fiime Subjed: Many 
men choofing rather to^Lend their Money, than to be known 
to have it j and being very Wary in their expreffions, except 
in private. 

Wh e n they bad again cotnmunicated together, they found 
that the Borrowing the Money would be very Eafy ; Every 
man with whom they had conferred, being ready and forward 
to Lend the Money, or to find a Friend who {hould, upon 
Their Security who propofed it. Mofl of them in their Pri- 
vate Diicodrle faid, <<lhat there was Money enough to be 
^^ Lent, if men faw there would be like to be an End of Bor- 
*^ rowing : but that it was an univerfal Difcomfort and Dif^ 
<<couragement, to all men of Eftates and Difcretion, to fee 
*'Two great Armies Hill kept on foot in the Kinedom, at fo 
** vaft a Charge, when there remain'd no fear of War j and 
^ that if a time were once appointed for the Disbanding them, 
^^ there (hould not want Money for die doing all that fhould 
** be neceffary in order to it. This An(wer fiitisfied Them in 
all refpedh : and the next day, M>^ Hyde reported the Succefs 
of their Employment j "That they had conferred with inoft 
^^ of the Subftantial . and Beft Reputed men of the City ^ 
^* Who, by Thcmfelves and their Friends, had promised to 
^^ fiipply the Money which was defir'd. And then He enlarged 
upon ^ The Temper they underftood the City to be in, by 
" the reports of Thofe who migjit be reafonably foppos'd to 
**know it beft; That it was indeed very much troubled and 
^'difheartned* to fee two Armies kept on foot at fo vaft a 
*? Charge witnin the bowels of the Kmgdom , when God be 
^^thank'd all the danger of a War was removed; and that 
**They who were very able to make good what they pro- 
^^mifed, had frankly undertaken, That if a preremptory day 
« was appointed, for being rid of thofe Armies, there mould 
"not be want of Money to difcharge them. 

The Report was received with great ApplaufeJjy the Ma- 
jor part of the Houfe; as was reuonably colledted by their 
Countenance: but it was as apparent, that the Governing 
Party was exceedingly perplex'd with it, and knew not on a 
fuddain What to &y to it : If they embraced the opportunity, 
to procure a fupply of Money which was really wanted, it 
would be too great a Countenance to the Ferfons who had 
procured"it ; whofe Reputation they were willing to Depreft : 
Bdides, it would imply Thieir Approbation of what hacl been 
faid of the Disbanding : at leaft, would be a ground of often 
mentioning and preffing it; and which, how grateful fo- 
ever to moft other men, was the thing they moft abhorr'd. 

O 3 After 

ii4 The Eiflory Book III. 

After a loog Silence, Mr UamU^n fidd, ^ That the worthy 
^ Gentlemen were to be much Commended for the lUns they 

m difcou'lyQ denied. The next day. Alderman Pennhgton (a man in 
ffMted^h ^Sf^^^ confidence with the Party ; and one, who infinuated 
ke^artj, ^^ things to the Common-Council which he was diredcd 
fhould be ftarted There} begun the difcourfe ; arid ftid, " That 
^ the Gentleman wh« had been laft in the City to borrow 
*^ Money, had made a fair report, but that in the End of it, 
^' thei'e was CpHo^fuinfiJa: that He could not find with tiiiat 
^ Perfons They had conferred about the Tenbpcr of the City j 
^* nor that any confiderable People troubled themfelvcs with 
"Defigning or WiChing what the Parliament thould do* 
" which they knew to be Wife enough, to know What and 
^ When they were to do that which was Beft for the King- 
*^dom; and they acquiefccd in Their grave Judgment: ami 
concluded, ^ That the Money that the Houfe ftood in need 
^' of, or a greater Sum, was ready to be paid to whomfoever 
** They fhould appoint to receive it. The Houfe made it 
felf very Merry with the Alderman's CoUomtmtiJaj and call'd 
lipon him << To explain it; and fo the Debate ended ; all So» 
ber men being well pleas'd to fee the Difbrder they were in, 
and the Pains they had taken to Free Themfelves from it; 
which every day was renew'd upon them, as the SubjeQ: mat- 
ter afforded pccafion ; and they vifibly loft much of the Reve- 
rence, which had been formerly paid them. 
4 Commit' A BOUT the beginning of March ^ they begun to make 
reii^T in ^''^P^rations for the Trial of the Earl of Strafford -^ who had 
7tUr^to' the^^^^ been about three Months in Prifon, under the accufa- 
rofecution tioti of High Trcafon : and by this time, for the better fiip- 
f the Earl ply in this Wofk, a Committee was come from the Parlia- 
r Strafford. jjj^Qj. jj^ Ireland^ to follicite Matters concerning that King- 
dom. This Committee (moft of them being Papifts, and the 
Principal Adlors fmce in the Rebellion ) was received with 
great kindnefs; and, upon the matter, added to the Com- 
mittee for the Profecution of the Earl of Strafford. So that 
now, Ireland feem'd no lefs intent upon the Ruin of that un- 
fortunate Lord, than England and Stotland ; there being fuch 
a Correfpondencc fettled, between Wefimmfier and Dub^ 
lin^ that whatfoeyer was pradlifed in the Houfe of Commons 
Here^ was (bon after done likewife There : and as "S*" George 
Eatcffffw2LS accusM Here of HighTreafon, upon pretence of 
being a Confederate with the Earl in his Treafons; but in 
truth that he might not be capable of giving any Evidence 
L pQ the Behalf of him, and thereupon fenc for into this King- 

Of the Rehii^fi, &c. iijr 

dom: So All. or Mod: of the other Perfotis^ who were in 
any Truft witn the Earl y and So privy to the Grounds and 
Reaions of the Counfels There, and only able to make Thofe 

S parent^ were accufed by the Houfe of Commons in that 
ngdom of High Treafon ^ under the general Impeachment, 
of ^ Endeavouring to fiibvert the Fundamental Laws of that 
^^ Kingdom, and to introduce an Arbitrary Power: which 
fcrv'dthe turn There, to Secure their Perfons, and to Re- 
move them from Councils, as it had done Here. 

What Seeds were Chen ipwn for the Rebellion, which 
within a Year after broke out in Irelandy by the great Liberty 
and Favour that Committee found ^ who, for the good Ser- 
vice againfl that Lord, were hearkned to in all dungs that 
concern'd that Kingdom, ihall be obferv'd, and (poken of at 
large, hereafter. 

Much time was (pent in confideration of the Manner of ^•W^^"--*'/- 
the Trial j for they could find no Precedent would fit their *"' ^•j^'"'"^ 
cafe: « Whether it fhould be in die Houfe of Peers? which ^y^^^^r^r 
^ Room was thought too little, for the Accufers, WitneCTes, 
*' Judges, and Speaators : Who fliould Profecute? Whether 
^^ Members chofen of the Commons, or the King's Council ? 
*' Whether the Bifhops ("which were twenty four in num- 
ber, and like to be too tender-hearted in matter of Blood , 
and fb either to Convert many, or increafe a Difienting Party 
too much ) « fliould have Voices in die Trial ? Whether 
^^ thofe who had been created Peers fince the Accu&tion 
^* was carried up , ihould be admitted to be Judges ? And 
laftly, <* Whether the Commoners who were to be prefent 
"at the Trial, fliould fit Uncover'd? and. Whether any 
" Members of the Houfe of Commons (hould be Examin'd 
" at the Trial on the behalf of the Earl? who had fent a Lift 
of Names, and defir'd an Order to that purpofe. 

After much debate it was agreed, "That the Trial 
" (hould be in JVefiminfiew-hiaW^ where Seats (hould be built 
" for the reception of the whole Houfe of Commons, which 
*' together with the Speaker (hould be prefent : for they 
Then forefaw, that they might be put to another kind of 
Proceediofi; than That they pretended ^ and ( though with 
much ado) theyconfented to fit Uncover'd, left fiicha litde 
circumftance might dilhirb the whole defiga 

For the Pro(ecudon, they had no mind to truft the 
King^s Council; who neither knew their Secret Evidence, 
nor, being inform'd, were like to apply and prefs it fo vi- i 
goroufly as the budnefs would require : and therefore, they 
appointed " That Committee which had prepared the Charge, 
" to give in the Evidence, and in the Name of all the Com- 
^< moni of M^ugUmd^ to profecute the Impeachment. 

O 4 For 

%i6 Tbe.Hiftory Book III. 

For the Bifliops: afcer many bitter Invedives; and re- 
inembring the Faults of particular Perfons^ and the Canons 
who feena'd to involve the Whole Body; with Sharpneft 
and Threats: they took the cafe to be fo clear upon an old 
Canon (the Only one they acknowledged for Orthodox) 
that Clericm non debet mterejfe Sangnmi^ that they were con» 
tent ^To refer That to the Houfe of Peers, as proper only 
^ for their determination. And this xhtj did, not upon any 
Confidence they had in the Matter it feltj whatever Law, of 
Reaibn, or Canon they pretended^ or in the Lords, the ma- 
jor pare of whom, when any diSerence of opinion was, al- 
ways diflented from Their deligns : but that they had a trick 
of doing their bufinefs by Inrimacion; and had a fure Friend 
amongft the Bifliops, who had promifed them feafonably to 
free them of that trouble. 

They would not trult their LordQiips own Inclinations 
with the other point, of the new Barons, which they knew 
would be controverted \ but in plain terms demanded, ^ That 
^no Peer, created fince the day upon which the Earl of 
** Strafford was Impeached of high Treafon , becaufe they 
'^ were involved as Commoners m the making that Accufa- 
<< tion, fliould fit as Judges at his Trial. 

t** OR the Earl's demand, ^^Of an Order to Examine fome 
" Members on his behalf, upon matters of Fadt, at his Trial; 
after a long Debate , they left it only in the Power of the 
Perfons Themfdves who were nominated, *< To be Examined 
*' if they would ( not without fome fmart AnimadverGons , 
** that they fhould take heed What they did ) and refufed to 
Enjoin them; though the fame had been done at Their de- 
fire, for the Lords of the Council : but that was Againft^the 
Earl, and fo the Lefs to be confider'd. 

The Lords, in theabfenceofthe Lord Keeper, who was 
very Sick, made choice of the Earl oi Arundel to Prefide and 
Govern the Court; being a Perfon notorioufly difafifedtcd to 
the Earl of Strafford, 

A ND for the great bufinefs of the Bifliops, they were faved 
the labour of giving any Rule (which it may be would have 
troubled them) by the Bifliopof Lincoln sikzndxng up, and 
moving, on the behalf of Hirofelf and his Brethren, " That 
"They might be Excufed from being prefent at the Trial, 
*' being Ecclefiaftical Perfons, and fo not to have Their hands 
"in Blood; and fuch other Reafbns, as, when they are exa- 
min'd, will not be found of very great weight. 

This Bifliop had been, by feveral Cenfures in the Star- 
Chamber, Imprifon'd in the Tower, where he remained till 
after the beginning of this Parliament, and was then fet at Li- 
berty upon the de&re of the U>rd65 who knew him to be a 
jk- mortal 

Of the ReheUtofty Sec. ii7 

mortal and irreconcilable Enemy to the Arch-Bilhop Of ^ 
CanterMiry : and indeed, he had always been a Puritan fo far, 
as to love None of the Bifhops , and to have ufed Many 
learned Church- men with great Contempt and Infolence : and 
yet he left no way unpraaifed to afliire the King, ^ That he 
^ would do great matters in Parliament for his Service^ if he 
** might be at liberty. The next day after He came to the 
Houi'e of Peers, the Lord Say made that Speech Which be 
fince Printed ^ taking notice ^ Of fome Impurations laid oa 
« him by the Arch-Bilhop of Canturhury^ That he fliould be 
^a SefUiry^ which no body can doubt, that reads that 
Speech: Yet he had no (boner done, than that Bilhop rofe, 
and made a large Paneeyrick in his Praife , and profiefi'd, 
^< that he always believed his Lordlhip to bie as ftir from a 
^Sedary, as liimfelf. And when he found the great defire 
of the Houfe of Commons, to be freed ftom the Bifhops 
Votes in that Trial; he never left Terrifying them with the 
Cenfure that hung over Their heads for inaking the Canons, 
till he perfwaded them to Ingratiate themfelves, by defiring 
to be Excufed in that matter, before an Order (hould be made 
for their Abfence. 

This Example of the Bifhops, prevailed with fbme Lords, 
who had been created fince the Accufation, to quit Their 
Right of fudging; and amongfl them, the Lord.Utt/iton 
(who had been made a Baron upon the defire of the Earl of 
Strafford , for that only reafon , that he profefs'd , ^* If He 
^ were a Peer, he would (and indeed he could) do Him nota- 
^ ble Service) was the Firft who quitted his right to Judge , 
becaufe he had been a Commoner when the Accufation was 
firft brought up: but they who Infifted upon theif Right (as 
the Lord Seymour ^ and others) and demanded the Judge^ 
ment of the Houfe, were no more difhirb'd, but exercued 
the fame Power to the end, as any of the other Lords did; 
and fb, no doubt, might the Bifhops too, if they would: For 
though there might be fome reafon for Their abfence, when- 
the Trial was according to Law, before and by his Peers 
only ; Yet, when chat Judgment was waved , and a Bill of 
Attainder brought up againlt him,Their Votes in that Bill were 
as Neceflary and EfTential , as of any Other of the Lordsi 
And it may be, their Unfeafonable, voluntary, Unjufl quit- 
ting it Then, made many men lefs ibllicitous for the Defence ' 
of Their Right afterwards. But of that in its place. 

All things being thus prepared, and fettled ; On Mmday^ TheTriai »#. 
the Twenty fecond of Msreh^ the Earl of Strafford was brougnt gM March 
to the Bar in Wefiminfter Hall ; the Lords fitting in the Middle '** ^'^' 
of the Hall in their Robes; and the Commoners, and fome "^♦®' 
gtranfgen of Quality, with the St9t0) Cbmmiffioners, ^d the 



xio TheHi/iory Book TIL 

^ttkA that the Proceedings There upon Plantations^ had 
^ been with the Advice of the Judges, upon a clear Title of 
^ the Crown, and upon great Kealon of State : and that the 
'< Nature and DiTpoution of that People, required a Severe 
^ Hand and Stridl Reins to be held upon them , which being 
^ loofed, the Crown would ouickly feel the Mifchief. 

For the feveral Difcouries, and Words, wherewith he 
was charged^ h^ Denied many, and Explained and put a Glofi 
upon others, by the reafons and circumftances of tne Debate. 
• One particular, on which They much infifted. though it was 
fpoken twelve years before, " That He fliould fay in the Pub- 
^lidc Hall in T$rky that the little Finger of the Prerogative 
^ (hould ly heavier upon them than the Loins of the Law, he 
direftly inverted ; and proved , by two or three Perfons of 
Credit, " That he faid (and the occafion made it probable, be- 
ing upon the bufinefs of Knighthood, which was underitood 
to be a Legal Tax) ** The Little Finger of the Law was hea- 
** vier than the Loids of the Prerogative; that Impofition for 
Knighthood, amounting to a much higher rate, than any A£k 
of the Prerogative which had been exercifed. <'Howevei^ he 
fiid, ^he hop'd no Indifcretion, or Unskilfiilnels, or Pamon, 
<*or Pride of Words, would amount to Treafon; and for 
^ Mifdemeanours, he was ready to Submit to their Juftice. 

He made the leaft, that is, the worftExcufe, for thofe 
Two Ads againft the Lord Mauntnorris^ and the Lord Chan- 
cellor ; which indeed were Powerful Ads, and manifefted a 
nature excedively Imperious; and no doubt, caus'd a greater 
Diflike and Terror, in Sober and Difpaffionate Perfons, than 
All that was alledg'd againft him. A Servant of the Earl's, 
one jinnefley (Kinfman to Mountnorris) attending on his 
Lord during fome Fit of the Gout (of which he often laboured) 
had by accident, or negligence, fuflcr'd a Stool to fall upon 
the Earl's Foot; enrag'd with the Pain whereof, his Lordlhip 
with a fmall Cane ftruck Anneflej : this being merrily fpoken 
of at Diner , at a Table where the Lord Atountnorrts was 
rl think, the Lord Chancellor's) He faid, "The Gentleman 
«had a Brother that would not have taken fuch a Blow. This 
coming fome months after to the Deputies hearing, he caus'd 
a Council of War to be call'd ; the Lord Mountnorris being 
tn Officer of the Army ; where, upon the Article of " Mov- 
" ing Sedition, and ftirring up the Soldiers againft the Gene- 
*^ral. He was chargi'd with thofe words formerly fpoken at 
the Lord Chancellor's Table. What Defence he made , I 
know not : for he was fo furpriz'd, that he knew not what 
the matter was, when he was Summon'd to that Council : but 
Ihe Words being prov'd, he was depriv'd of his Office { be- 
ing then Vice Treafurer ) and his Foot-Company; commit- 

Of the Rebellion^ &c. axi 

ted to FriTon; Sentenced, ^ To bfe his Head. The Office, 
and Company, were immediately diipot'd of; and he impri- 
fon'd till the Kin^ fenc him over a Pardon, by which he wai 
dilcharg'd with his Life , all the other parts of the Sentence 
being mlly executed. 

This feem'd to all Men a mod Prodigious courfe of Pro- 
ceeding ; that in a time of full Peace, a Peer of the Kingdom^ ' 
and a Privy CounfeUor^ for an Unadviied, Paflionate, My* 
(terious Word (for the £xpreffion was capable of many Inter- 
pretations ) Ihould be cdled before a Council of War, which 
could not reafonablv be underftood to have Then a Jurit* 
di&ion over Such rerfons, and in Such Cafes; and without 
any Procefs, or Formality of Defence, in two hours Ihould 
be Depriv'd of his L^fe and Fortune : the Injuflice whereol^ 
(eem'd the more formidable, for that the Lord M$untnorris 
wasknowi;, for fometime before, to ftand in great Jealoufy 
and Disfavour with the Earl : which made it look'd on as a 
pure adi: of Revenge; and gave all Men warning, how they 
trufted themfelves in the Territories where. He commanded. 

The Earl difchargcd Himfelf of the rigour and feverity 
of the Sentence, and laid it upon ^ The Council of War ; 
^ where he Himfelf not only forbore to be Prefent, but would 
^ not fuffer his Brother, who was an Officer of the Army, to 
^ flay there : he faid, *' He had conjured the Court, to pro- 
^ cced without any refpeft of favour or kindnefs to Himfelf; 
^ and that, aflbon as He underftood the Judgtnent of the 
^^ Council , which was Unanimous , he declared publiddy 
^^ ( as he had Ukewife done before ) That a hair of his Head 
^< ihould not perifh; and immediately wrote an eamefi: Let* 
<< ter to his Majelty, for the procuring his Pardon ; whidi 
^ was by his Majeliy, upon his Lordfhips recommendation 
^^and mediation, granted accordingly; and thereupon, die 
^' Lord MouHtnarris was fet at liberty : though, it is true, He 
^^ was, after his enlargement, not fu£(er'd to come to Ettgiand* 
He conclude^ <^ That the Lord Motmtnorris was an Infolenc 
^^ Perfon; and that he took this courfe to humble him : and 
^ that he would be very well content, that the fame courfe 
^^ might be taken to reform Him ; if the fame Care mij^c 
<^ likewife be, that it might prove no more to His prejudice, 
^^ than the other had been to that Lord. 

But the Standers by, made mother excufe for him : ^^ Tbb 
^^Lord Mowrtmrris was a Man of great Indultry, Adivity^ 
^and Experience, in the Af&irs ot Ire/and ^ having raifed 
" himfelf from a very private, mean Condition f having been 
an inferiour Servant to the Lord chtchefier) "To tne Degree of 
*^ a Vifcounr, and a Privy-Counfellor, and to a very ample Re- 
<< venue in Lands and Offices; and bad always, by Servile 

^ Flattery 


%%% The Biftory Book III. 

^ Fitttery and Sordid Applicatioii, wrougjbt bimielFinto Truft 
^ and Nearnefi wich all DeputieSy at th^firft entrance upon 
^ their Charge, informing them of the Defedts and Over-^ 
^ fights of their Fredeceflbrs ; aod» after the determination of 
^ their Commands, and return into EngUmd^ informing the 
<< State here^ and thofe Enemies they dually contra&od in 
^ that time, of wbatfoever diey bad done, or fufier'd -to be 
^ done amifs ^ whereby, they either fufiefd DiTgrace, or Da- 
^ mage, aflbon as they were recaU'd from thofe Honours. In 
^ this manner. He begun with his own Matter, the Lord dh 
^cbefter^ and continued the fiime arts, upon the Lord GrdmA- 
^y^ and the Lord FslkUmdjWho (iicceeded; and upon that 
^ (core, procured Admiffion and Truft wich the Earl oEstr^f- 
^^forjy upon His firft admilTion to that Government : So ditt 
^ this Diiemms feem'd unqueftionable, That either tb« De- 
^ Duty o^lrelamd muft deltroy my Lord Moimtnsrris^ whilft 
^ he continued in his Office, or my Lord Mountmrris n)utt 
^^ deftroy the Deputy, afS>on as his CoromiCTion was deter- 
^min'd. And upon this Confideration^ befides, that his no 
Virtue made him unpitied y many look'd with left concemed- 
nefi upon that AfL than the matter it Self deferv'd. 

The Cafe of the Lord Chancellor, feem'd, to common 
Underftandings, an ad of left Violence, becaufe itconcera'd 
not life 3 and had fome Qiew of Formality at leaft, if not Re- 
gularity in the Proceeding^ and that which was Amift in ir, 
took its growth from a Nobler Root than the other. The en- 
deavour was, to compel the Lord Chancellor to fettle more 
of his Land, and in another manner, upon his Eldeft Son, than 
he had a mind to, and than he coiud legally be compell'd 
to : This the Earl, upon a Paper Petition preferred to him 
by the Wife of that Son ( a Lady, for whom the Earl had fo 
. great a value and edeem, that ic made his Jullice the more 
fiifpe(3:ed) prefs'd, and in the end order'd him to do. The 
Chancellor refused , was committed to Prifon ; and (hortly after, 
the Great Seal taken from him, which he had kept with great 
Reputation of Ability for the fpace of above Twenty years. 
In the prefling this Charge, many things of Levity, ascertain 
Letters of great Afie£tion and Familiarity from the Earl to 
that Lady, which were found in her Cabinet after her death ; 
others of Paflion, were expos'd to the publick view, to pro- 
cure Prejudice ratlier to his gravity and Difcretion, than that 
they were in any degree material to thebufineft. 

The Earl faid little more to it, than " That he hoped, what 
*^ Paffion foever, or what Injuftice foever, might be found in 
<* that Proceeding, and Sentence, there would be no Trea- 
<^fon: and that, for his part, be had yet reafon to believe, 
^ what he had done was very Juft ; fince ic had been reviewed 


Of the ReheUion, &c. %%t 

*< by his Majefty, and his Privy-Council here, upon an Ap- 
^peal from tne Lord Vifcounc Eiy (the degraded Lord 
^^ Cliancellor ) and upon a foletnn hearing There, whidi cook 
^^ up many days, it had receivM a Confirtnation. 

B UT the truth is. That rather accus'd the Earl of an Ez« 
ctis of Power than abfolv'd him of InjuIHce ; for moft men 
that weigh'd the whole matter, behev'd it to be a high ad of 
OpprefTion, and not to be without a mixture of that Policy, 
which was fpoken of before in the Cafe of the Lord Matmt^ 
mrrh : For the Chancellor, being a perfon of ^eat Experience, 
Subtilty, and Prudence, had beoi always very Severe to de- 
parted Deputies j and not over agreeable, nor in any degree 
Submifs, to Their fiili Power ^ and taking himfelf to be the 
Second peribn in the Kingdom, during the holding of his 
Place, thought himfelf tittle lefs than Equal to the Firft, who 
could naturally hope but for a term of Years in that Supe- 
riority : neither had he ever before met with the leait Check, 
that might make him fufped; a Diminution of his Authority, 
or Intereft. 

That which was with moft Solemnity and expedation al- 
ledged againft the Earl, as the Hinge upon which the Trea- 
fon was principally to hang, was a Uifcourfe of the Earl's in 
the Committee or State (which They caUd the Cmbmet Omv- 
f/7) upon the Diflblution of the former Parliament, Sr Umrry 
Vane^ the Secretary of State, gave in Evidence, *' That the 
^^King at that time calling that Committee to him, ask^ 
^'them. Since he fail'd of the sdiliftance and fupply expeded 
^by Subddies, what Courie he fbcxild now cake? that the 
Earl of Strafford anfwcr'd, **Sir, You have now done your 
**Duty, and your SubjeSs have feilM in Theirs j and there- 
<< fore you are abfolv'd from the Rules of Government, and 
**may fupply your felf by Extraordinary Ways^ You muft 
*^ profecute the War vigoroufty j You have an Army in Irt^ 
^iand^ with which you may reduce this Kingdom. 

The Earl of NorthumherUnd being examined, for the con- 
firmation of this Proof, remembered only, " That the Earl had 
** faid. You have done your Duty, and are now abfolv'd from 
^^ the Rules of Government j butnot aword of the Army in . 
Ireland^ or reducing this Kingdom. The Lord Marquis flit- . 
mihon^ the Lord Bilhop of Jjmdon^ and the Lord Cott'mQ^n^ 
being likwife examined, anfwer'd upon their Oaths, ^ That 
" they heard none of thofe words fpoken by the Earl. And 
Thefe were the only Perfons prefent at that Debate, fave only 
the Arch-Bifliop of c^wffr^^r};, and Secretary Wi»^^if»i^, nei- 
ther of which could be Exaimin'd, or would be Believ'd. 

The Earl pofitvely denied the Word^ alledged much 
Animofity " To be in S' Hi^rry Vant towards him^ and obferv*d, 



M4 The Hiftory Book IIL 

' f^diatnotooeofdieotherWitiidfo, who were likewiTe pre- 
<f fegt^and tf like ta Remember what, was Ipdkcn, as theSe* 
ff cretiry, heard pne woid of the JCrif^ Army, or reducing this 
^ Kingdom: chat if Jbe had ^xdoea tfaofe words, it could hoc 
, f^ be uoderftood to be fpoJ^eii of Butffmnd^ but dEStotlaitdj of 
^ which the Difcourfe was, aad w wluch that Arpay was 
<< known to be rais'd. He concluded* ^That if the words were 
^ fp^^oen by him, which he ezprefily denied, they were not 
^ Tr^dbn^ and u they were ifreafon, that by a Statute coade 
"in JE^faMrri/ the Sixth s time, one Wicneft was not fiffident 
"to prove it, apd that here was but one. 
if&vT/ Sbvent&en days being fpent in the whole pr€^;refi of 
>Mfa/?M»/diis Trial ^ the Earl having defended himfdf with wonder- 
isDifciice.^ dexterity and ability, concluded, "That if the whole 
" Charge (in which he hoped he had ^iven their Lordfhips * 
" fatisfadioQ of his Loyalty and Integrity, how great focirer 
" his Infirmities were ) was prov'd,.that the whole made him 
"not guiltv of, High Tret^; and to that purpofe defiled, 
" that his Learned Council might be heard^ and moft padie- 
ticaUy coqjured their LcMrdfliips, " That for their Own £dK8, 
" they would not, out of Di^lwiire or Disfavour towards his 
" Peilon, create a Precedent to the Prejudice of ±e Peerage 
"of Et^lmtd^ and Wound Tbemfelve$ through his Sides; 
which was good Counfel ^ and hacfa been fince (thodg^ coo 
late ) acknowledged to be fo. 
SrCMMnV The next day, his Council was heard in the fame pUce 
iMTi^, dst9 to the matter of Law. And here I caiwot pafs by an Inftance 
»-»««••/ of as great AnimoGty, and indireft Profecution, in that dr- 
cumftance of adigning him Council as can be given. After 
the Houfe of Peers had affign'd him fuch Council as he de- 
fired, to aflift him in matter of Law (wfadch never was, or can 
juftly be denied to the moft Scandalous Felon, the moft in- 
human Murderer, or the moft infamous Traitor ) the Houfe 
of Commons, upon fome occafion, took 'notice of it widi 
Paffion and Diflike, fomewhat unskilfully, ^ That fuch a thing 
"(hould be done without Their conlent^ which was no 
more, than that the Judge fliould be direfted by the Profe- 
cutor, in what manner to proceed and determme : Others, 
with much Bicterneis, inveighing againlt " The Prefumption 
** of thofe Lawyers, that durft be of Counfcl with a Perfon 
"accufed by them of High Treafonj and moving, "That 
" They might be fent for, and Proceeded againlt for that 
^' Contempt j Whereas, They were not only obliged to it, 
by the honour and duty of their ProfeEon ; but had been 
Punifliable for refufing to fobmit to the Lords Orders. The 
matter was too Grofe to receive any Publick Order, and fo 
the Debate ended ^ but ferv'd ( and no doubt that was the 


of the R(fhelUo^,6cc. ixj 

Intention ) to let tbofe Gentlemen know, how Warily they 
were to demean themfelves , left the Ai^r of tlutt terrible 
Congregation (hould be kindled againft them. 

But truly 1 have not heard that it made any Imbreffidn Mr. LaneV 
Vipon thofe Peribns j it did not, I am fare, upon Mr Lgney*^rs*^^ 
who argued the matter of Law for the Earl. The Matters /•^ *"•• 
which were by Him principally Infifted on , and Averr'd . 
withfiich Confidence as a man ufes whobelieres himfelf^ were 

I. **That by the Wiidom and Tendemefe of Parlia- 
^< ments, which knew that there could not be agreater Snare 
^ for the Subjed, than to leave the nature of Treafon unde- 
^ fined and unlimited. All Treafons were particularly men-* 
*< tion'd and fet down in the Statute of the 15 Edw. 111. de 
^ Froditiomhi. That nothing is Treafon, but what is com* 
^prehended within that Statute; all Treaibns before that 
^ Statute , as killing the King's Uncle , his Nurfe, Piracy^ 
^^ and divers others, being reftrain'd and taken away by the 
^^ Declaration of that AA. And that no Words or Adtions. 
<< if any of the Articles of the Earl of Straff wri^ Qiarge^ did 
^^ amount to Treafon within that Statute. 

a. ^ That by reafonofthe Clauftinthat Statute^ofdcf- 
^ daring Tredbn in Parliament, divers addons were declared* 
<^ to be Treafons in Parliament, in the time of King Richard 
^ the Second, to the great Prejudice of the Subjed: : It was 
<< therefore fpecially Irovided, and Enaded, by a Statute lit 
*« the Firft year of the Rei^ of King Henry the Fourth^ 
<< Chapter the Tenth, which is ftill in force. That nothings 
^< Ihould be declared and adjudged Treafon, but what was 
<< ordain'd in that Statute of the ^^ Bdtu. III. by which 
^< Statute, all Power of declaring New Treafons in Pdrlia* 
^' ment, was taken away ; and that no Precedent of any Such 
<^ Declaration in Parliament can be fhew'd fmce that time t AH 
^ New Treafons , made by any AGt of Parliament in the 
^ Reign of King Hmy the Ei^th, being by the Stanite of 
<« the Firft year of Queen Mary , Chapter the Firft , taken 
<< away, and reftrainiclto thea; Biho.Ul. and that likewife 
*« by another Statute of the Firft vear of Queen Marjy Ch^>ter 
<^ the Tenth, All Trials of Treafons ought to be according to 
<^ the Rules of the Conunon Law, and not otherwife. 

3. '^That the Foundation upon which the Impeachment 
<^ was framed , was Erroneous ; for that ( beiides that it was 
<< confefs'd on all hands the Laws of the Kingdom were Not 
<< Subverted ) an Endeavour to Subvert the Fuixiamental 
^^ Laws and Statutes of the Realm , by Force attempted, is 
<< not Treafon, being only made Felony by the Statute of tha 
'^ Firft year of Queen /dary , Chapter the Twelfth ; which 
Vol.i Partx> P **it 

zz6 TheHiftory Book III. 

<< i6 likevife expired. Thtt Cardintl mifey^ in the Thirty 
^ third year of King H^nry the Eighth, was iodidied only cJF 
<< a Premunire , for an Endeavour to bring in the ImperU 
^'Laws into this Kingdom. And that an Endeavour, or loh 
^^tention, to levy War, was made Trea6m,only by a Statute 
<<of the ijth Elhisiitb ( a time very Inquifitive for Treafon) 
« which expired with Her life. 

4. ^Lastly, That if anv thing was alledged againfttfae 
^ Earl which mi^t be Penal to him, it was not Sufficiently 
^ and L^lly prov'd ; for that by the Statute of the Firft year 
^ of King Edward the %eth. Chapter the Twelfth, No man 
bought to be Arraign'd, Indited, or Condetnn'd, of any 
^ Treaibn^ unlefi it be upon the l^ftimony of Two lawfiil 
<< and Suflbcient Witnefles, fH'oduced in the Pretence of the 
^ Party accu(ed ^ unlefi the Party Confefs the fame : and if 
<<it be for Words , within Three Months after the fiune 
^ iboken , if die Party be within the Kii^dom : Whoteis 
^ there was in this Cale only One Witne^ Sr Hemy f^nf, 
^ and the words fpoken Gx Months before. 

The Cafe bemg thus itated on the Earl's behalf^ die 
Judgement of the Lords, in Whom the Sole Power or Judi- 
cature was conceived to be, was by all men expe^ied j the 
Houfe of Commons having declared, <^ That They inteodol 
^ not to make any Reply to the Araiiient of Law made bj 
^Mr l>»e, it being below their Dignity to contend with a 
^ Private Lawyer. Indeed They had a more convincing way 
to proceed by ^ for the next day after that Argument, Sr^- 
tiur Hafitrig ( Brother in Law to the Lord Brook ) an abflud, 
bold man, brought up by Mr Pym^ and fo employed by that 
^ Bill of Party to make any attempt, preferr'd a Bill in the Houfe of 
ho"'tt'1nto Commons, « For the Attainder of the Earl of Strsffard of 
th^HoUce ^ ** ^|g^ Treafon : it being obferv'd, that by wlwt the Earl 
dgsinjt the had raid for himfelf in the matter of fa£t and in matter of pm- 
ikart, dence, of the Confequence of fuch an extraordinary Proceed- 
ing; and by what had been faid for him in the point of 
Law ; moft Sober men , who had been, and ftill were, foil 
enough of Diflike and Paflion againit the Earl, were not at 
all fatisficdin the Jufticc of the Impeachment, or in the Man- 
ner of the Profecution : and therefore , that the Houfe of 
Peers, which conGfted of near one Hundred and Twenty, be- 
(idcsthe Bithops^and of whom Fourfcore had been conltantly 
artending the Trial, were not like to take upon Them the 
Burden of fuch a Judgement as wasexpedted. 

'I' HE Bill was received with wonderful alacrity, and im- 
me(iiately read the firlt and the fecond time, and fo Commit- 
ted : which was not ufual in Parliaments, except in matters 
of great concernment and conveniency in the particular ^ or 




Of the Reheliioft^ &c. 117 

of little importance or moment in the general. ThofeWho 
at Firft confented, upon flight information, to his Impeach- 
mcnty UTOn no odier reafon, but (as hath been iaid before) 
becaiue Thev were only to Accufe, and the Lords to Judge, 
and fo thought to be troubled no more with it, being Now 
as ready to Judge, as they had been to Accufe, finding fome 
new reaibns to latisfy themlelves, of which one was, ^^ They 
^^ had gone coo far to Sit ftiU, or Retire. 

A DAY or two before the Bill of Attainder was brought 
into the Houfe of Commons, there was a very remarkable 
Paflage, of which the Pretence was, ^ To make One Witnefi^ 
*<witn divers Circumftances, as good as Two ^ though I be^ 
lieve it was direOed in truth to an End very forreign to that 
which was propofed. The words of the Earl of Strafford, 
by which, << His endeavour tp alter the frame of Government^ 
^' and his intention to levy War, fliould principally appear^ 
were proved Sii:^ly by S^ Hfnrf Fane ^ which had been often 
averr'd, and prpmiied, ihoi)14 be proved by Several Wicnef* 
ics y and the Law was clear, ^ That le{s than Two WitneOes 
^ ought not to be received in caje of Treafon. 

To make this Sin^e Te£timooy jippear as Sufficient as if 
it had been confirmed by more, M^ Fym informed the Hou& 
of Commons, << Of the Grounds upon which he firft advifed 
<<that Chaiige, and was (atisfied that he ihouk) fufficiently 
^ prove ic. That {btms Mootbs before the beginning of this 
^^ ParUamenc^ He had vifited young S^ Henry Vdne^ eldefi: 
<^ Son to the Secretary, who was then newly recover'd from 
<' an Ague ; that They being tx)gethei« and Condoling the 
<^ fad condition of the Kingdcmi, by realon of the many ille- 
^gal Taxes and Preffiires, S' H^rry told him, if he would 
^< call upon Him the next day. He would ihew him fbmewhac 
<< that would give him much trouble, and inform him, What 
^^ Counfels were like to be foUow'd to the Ruin of the King- 
^^dom; for that He had, in peryfal of fome of his Father's 
^' Papers, accidentally met with the RcWt of the Cabinet 
^ Council upon the Diflbhidon of the laii Parliament, which 
^ comprehended the Refolutions than taken. 

"The next dajr He ihew'd him a little Paper of the Se- 
" cretary's own writing; in which was contained the day of 
" the Month, and the Refiilts of feveral Difcourfes made by 
wfeveral Counfellorsj with feveral Hierogjyphicks, which 
« fufficiently exprefcM the Perfons bywhom thofe Difcourfes 
'^ were made. The matter was of ft) Tranfcendent a Nature, 
^* and the Counfel fo Prodigious, with reference to the Com- 
*« mon- wealth, that he delir'd he might take a Copjf of it^ 
^^ which the young Gentleman would bv Xko means Confcnt 
^^ to, fearing it might prove Prejudicial to his Father. Bur. 

p % «whcn 

ai8 The Hiftory Book TIL 

« when Mr Pym infbrm'd him, That it was of extreme Con- 
• <<fequence to the Kin&lom, and that a time might prc)bd)i]r 

<<come, when the Difcoverv of This, might be a Soveraiga 
^ means to preferve both Church and States he was contented 
^ that Mr Ff w flioald take a Copy of it ; which he did, intfae 
^ prdTence of Sr Benry Vanei and having examine it toge- 
<^ Cher with him, deliver^ the Original again to & Hnnj. 
<<That he had carefully kept this Copy by him, without 
<< communicating the fame to any body, till the banning of 
^ this Parliament, which was the time he conceiv'd fit to 
<<make ufe of it; and that then, meeting with oiany other 
^ Inltances of the Earl's ill Difpofition to the Kingdom, it 
^ fatisfied him to move whatibever he had moved, agauift 
*^that great Perfon. 

Having faidthusmuch, he read the Paper in his band; 
in which the day of the Month was fet down, and his Ma* 
jefty to be prefent, and ftating the Qieftion to t^ ^ What 
^< was now to be done? fince the Parliament had Kefufed to 
^give Subfidies for the fupply of the War againft S€9tUmi, 
There were then written, two Lli% and a t over, and an I 
and an r, which was urged, ^ Could fignify nothing but Ltni 
^Ueutenant of Ireland'^ and the Woras written and applied 
"to that Name, wer^ *«Abfolv*d from Rules of Govem- 
^* ment ; — Profecute the War vigoroufly ; — An Army in 
'^ Ireland to fudue this Kingdom— ; which was urged, « To 
*' comprehend the matter of die Earl's Speech and Advice : 
that Paper, byFraSions of Words (without mentioning any 
Form'd Speech) containing only the Refults of the feveral 
Counfellors Advice. Before thofe Letters which were or- 
der'd to fignify the Lieutenant of JreAnvi/, were an A. B. C. (r. 
which might be underftood to fignify, the ArekhBifhof rfOnh 
terburj his Grace ^ and at thofe Letters, fome Ihort, iharp ex- 
preHlons againft Parliaments, and thereupon, fierce advice 
to the King. Next in the Paper, was an Jkt with an r over, 
and an Ho. which were to be underftood for Marquis Ha- 
miUoffy who was Mafier of the Horfe-^ and the words annex'd 
thereunto feem'd to be rough, but without a fupplemcnt 
fignified nothing. Then there was an £, an H, and an Aj 
which muft be interpreted Lord High Admiral^ which was 
the Earl of Northumberland; and from that Hierc^yphick 
proceeded only a few words, which implied advice to the 
king, *^To be Advifed by his Parliament. Then there was 
L^ Cott (which would eafily be believ'd to fignify the Lord 
Cottington) with fome Expreflions as iharp, as thofe appUed 
to the Lieutenant of Ireland. 

When he had read this Paper, he added; That though 
" There was but One Witnefe direaly in the point, Sr Henry 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. 119 

^Vamiixt Secretary, whofe Hand-writing that Paper was, 
^whereof this was a Copyj Yet he conceived, tnofe cir- 
^ cumAances of His, and young Sr Henry Vatfe's having feen 
<^ tbofe Original Refults, and being ready to Swear, that the 
<< Paper reaid by Him was a true Copy of the other, might 
^^reafbnabiy amount to the validity of another Wittiefs: 
^^and that it was no wonder, that tine Other Perfons men- 
'^ tion'd in that Writing, who had given as bad Counfel, 
^ would not remember, for their Own iakes, what had pafs'd 
^^in that Conference^ and that the Earl of Nortkumhrland 
^( who was the only good Counfellor in the pack) had re- 
^^member'd fome of the words, qf a high nature, though he 
*<had forgotten the other. 

When M' Fjm had ended, young Sr Harry Vane rofe, in 
fbme feeming Diforder^ confefs'd all that the Other had 
fiud ; and added, << That his Father being in the North with 
^ the King the Summer before, had fent up his Keys to his 
« Secretary, then at Wbhe-Haili and had Written to Him 
^ (his Son) that He (hould take from him thofe Keys, which 
^< open'd bis Boxes where his Writing? and Evidences of his 
^^ Land were, to the end that he might caufe an Afliirance 
^ to be perfeded which concerned his Wife ; and that He 
^ having perufed thofe Evidences, and difpatch'd what de- 
^ pended thereupon, had the curiofity to fee what was in a 
**Red Velvet Cabinet which ftood with Che other Boxes } 
** and thereupon required the Key of that Cabinet from the 
^< Secretary, as if he itill wanted fomewhat towards the bufinefi 
^ his Father had direfiied ^ and fo having gotten that Key, 
" he found, amongft other PaperSjThat mentioned by Mf Tym^ 
^ which made that Impreffion in him, that he thought him- 
^ felf bound in Confaence to communicate it to fome Perfoa 
^^ of better Judginent than himfelf, who might be more able 
"to prevent the Mifchi^ that were threatened therein; and 
*^ fo Ihew'd it to M' Pym ; and bein^ confirmed by him, that 
^* the feafonable Difcovery thereof might do no lefi than Pre* 
« ferve the Kingdom, had confented that he fliould take a 
^'Copy thereof; which to his knowledge he had feithfuUy 
" done ; and thereupon, had laid the Original in its proper 
^ place again, in the Red Velvet Cabinet. He faid. He knew 
^* this Difcovery wouldprove little lefi than his Ruin in the 
" good opinion of his Father ; but having been indwced, by 
" the tendernefs of his Confdence towarcS his Cpmmon P^- 
«' rent his Country, toTrefpafsagainfthis naturirf Father, He 
"hoped he fliould find Compaffion from that Hpufe, tjiough 
" be had little hopes of Pardon elfewhere. 

The Son no fooner fiit down, th^in the Father (who, 
without any coMnterfeiting, had a natural appearance pf Stern- 

p 3 ncfs) 


igo The Hiftory Book III. 

ners) rofe, with a pretty Confiifion} and bid) ^^Thatche 
^ ground of his Misfortune was no^ difco^rerd to Htm ; 
^that he had been much amazed^ when he found hintfelf 
^ prefs'd by Such Interrogatories, as made him fiii^eA fome 
^ Difcovery to be made, bv fome Perfons as converunt in the 
^Counfelsas Himfelf: Hut he was now fiitisfied to whom 
« he ow'd his Misfortunes ^ in which. He was fare, the 
^ Guilty Perfon fliould bear his Ihare. That it was tnic^ bc^ 
^ ing in the North with the King; and that Unfortunate Son 
^^ of his having Married a Virtuous Gentlewoman ( Daugh- 
<^ter to a worthy Member then prefcnt) to whom there 
« was fomewhat in Juitice and Honour due, whidi was not 
^'fufficiendy fettled; Hehadfent his Keys to hisSecrctay; 
<* not well Icnowing in what Box the material Writings lay ; 
^ and direded him, to (iiBfer his Son ifo look after thofo Evi- 
^dences whidi were neceflary: that by this occafion, it 
^ fecm'd, thofe Papers had been examined and pemfed, whidi 
^had begot much of this trouble. That for His {)arr, idStr 
^tfae Summons of this Parliament, and the Kingfs return to 
^ London^ he had acquainted his Majefty, that he had many 
^ Papers remaining in his hands, of nich tranladions as were 
*'not like to be of further ufe; and tfierefore, if his Majefty 
^'pleafec^ he would bum them, left by any accident ihey 
^^ might come into hands that might make an tM ufe of them: 
^^ to which his Majefty confenting, he had bum'd manyi 
^^ and amongft them, the Original Rcfults of thofe Debates, 
"of which, that which was read was pretended to be a Copy : 
«* that to the particulars. He could fay nothing more, rhaq 
^ what he had upon his Examination exprefi'd, which was ex- 
" acaiy true, and he would not deny j though by what he 
**had heard that afternoon [with which he was furprized and 
^^ amazed ) he found himfelt in an ill Condition upon that Te- 

This Scene was fo well adfced, with fuch Paffion and Ge- 
ftures, between the Father and the Son, that many Speeches 
were made in commendation of the Confcience, Integrity, 
and Merit, of the Young Man, and a motion made, " That the 
*' Father might be enjoyn'd by the Houfe to be Friends with 
^^his Son : but for fome time there was, in Publick, a great 
diftance obferv'd between them. 

Many Men wonder'd very much at the unneceflary rela- 
tion of this Story ^ which would vifibly appear very Ridicu- 
lous to the World, and could not but inevitably produce much 
Scandal aqd Inconvenience to the Father, and tne Son ; who 
were too Wife to believe, that thofe circumftances would ad4 
any thing to the Credit of the former fmgle Teftimony: 
uclther was there ever after any mention of itin Pifblick, to 

k I3Q0VC 

Of the Rehellim^ &c. 131 

move the Judgment of Thofe^ who were concerned to be la* 
tisfied in wlttt they were to do : and therefore feme who 
obferv'd the Stratagems ufed by that Party to conapafe their 
own Drivate Ends, believed, that this occafion was taken to 
publim thofe Remits, only to give the Lord C^ifiitgr^ no- 
tice in what Danger he was, that fo he might wifely quit his 
MaQerfhip of the Wards to the' Lord Say^ who expedted 
it, and might be able, by that obligation, to ProteSihim . 
from farther Profecution.** and (b that they meant to Sacri- 
fice the Reputation of the Secretary to the Ambition of the 
Lord Say. But without doubt ( though this laft confideration 
was very powerful with them) the true reafon of the commu* 
nication of this Pa{&ge, was, that they found it would be im- 
poflihle to Conceal their having received the principal In- 
formation from the Secretary, tor their whole Profecution ; 
by leafon of fome of the Committee, who were intruded to 
prepare the Charge againft the Earl oi Strafford^ and confe- 
quently were privy to that Secret, were fallen from them; at 
leaflr from their ends ; and therefore they thought fit to Pub- 
lifh this Hiftory of the Intelligence , that it might be rather 
imputed to the Confcience and CurioGty of the Son, than to 
the Malice of the Father. 

Thk Bill of Attainder in few days pals'd the Houfe oivte siU 
Commons^ though fome Lawyers, of great and known Learn- of^^Ainder 
ing, declar'<^ " That there was no ground or colour in Law,^j% '^^ 
^^ to judge him Guilty of High Treafon: and the Lord Dig^ commmi in 
(who had been , from the beginning of that Committee forfm lUys. 
the Profecution, and had much more Prejudice^ than Kind- 
neis to the £arl) in a very pathetical Speedi dedar'd, ^ Tfaac 
<< He could not give his Confent to the Bill ; not only, for 
<^ that he was unfatished in the matter of Law, but, for that 
<^he was more unlatisfied in the matter of Faa; thofe 
"Words, upon which the Impeachment was pxindpaUy 
*< grounded , being fo far from being prov'd by Two Wit- 
"nefles. that He could not acknowledge it to be by One^ 
^ fince he could not admit Sr Hariy Vane to be a comgetenc 
« Witnefs, who being firft Examitf d , denied that the Karl 
<< ipoke thofe Words ; and at his fecond Examinaticxi > re- 
<< member'd Some ; and at his third, the Rett of the Words: 
and thereupon, related many Circumttances, and made many 
(harp Obfervations upon what had pafs'd; which none but 
one of the Committee could have done : for which he was 
prefendy after Qucttioo'd in the Houfe, but made his Defence 
fo well, and fo much to the Difad vantage of Thofe who were 
concem'd, that fi-om that time, they Profecuted him with an 
implacable Rage, ai(id Uncharitableneft upon all occaGons. 
The BiUPaii'd with only Fifty nine DiCTenting Voices, there 

P 4 being 

^3^ TJfe Hiflory Book III. 

beiBg near two hundred in the Houfe; and was immediatetjr 
fern up to the Lords, with this addition, ^'That the Oun* 
^ mons would be ready the next day in Wifimufier-HsB^ to 
^ give their LordQiips Satisfisiaioa in the matter of Law» ^poa 
^ what had pafi'd at the Trial. 
Mr Saint- Th £ £arl was then again brought tp the Bar; the Lordi 
feS it'in '^^"g ^ before, in their Robes ; and the Conunoos as thcjr 
/iL If Urn had ctone ; aroo^d Them, Mr Sollicitor Saint-Johty ftom his 
k^9rt tk€ place, ar^^ for the (pace of near an hour the matter of Law, 
Urii. Of the Argument it idLf I (hall lay little, it being in Print, 
and in many Hands ; 1 fliall only remember Two notable Fh>- 
pofirions, which are fu£5cient Charaders of die Perfon and 
the Time. Left what had been faid on the Earl's behalf, in 
point of Law, and upon the Want of Proof, ihould hive 
made any Impreffion in their Lordfliips ; He averr'd, ^ That^ 
^< in dmt way of Bill, Private Satisfadnon to each Man's Con- 
'^fcience was fufficient, although no Evidence had been 
^^ given in at all : and as to the prefling the Law, he laid, ^It 
^^ was true, we giv^ l^ttr to Hares, wd Deer, becauA diey 
'^are Beafts of Chafe; but it was never accounted either 
^ Cruelty, or Foul Play, to knock Foxes and Wolves on the 
^^ head as they can be tound, becaufe they are Beafts of Prey. 
In a word, the Law and the Humanity were alike; the Onp 
being more Fallacious, and the Other more Barbarous, than 
in any Age had been vented in fuch an Auditory. 
The ngmet Th E Ume day, as a better Argument to the Lords fpecdilv 
pfthe ^•j^to pals the Bill, the nine and fifty Members of the Houle 
7imhgfnm^^ Commons, who (as is £dd before) had Diffcntcd from 
the Biiit ex' that Adt, had their Names written in pieces of Parchment or 
P9s*d ipiier Paper, under this Superfcription, Straffordians, or 
s" £''' '^Ewmies to thisr Country ., and thote Papers fix'd upon Pofts, 
dian«!*'" and Other the moft vifible places about the City; which was 
as great and deftru(3ive a Violation of the Privileges and 
Freedom of Parliament, as can be imagined: yet, being 
Complain'd of in the Houfe, not the leaft Countenance was 
given to the Complaint ; or the leaft Care taken for the Dis- 

The Perfons who had ftill the ConduA oftheDeHgns, 
began to find, that their Friends abroad (of whofe help mey 
had ftill great need, for the getting Petitions to be bronght to 
the Houfe; and for all Tumulmous appearances in the City; 
and Negotiations with the Common Council) were not at 
all fati^d with them , for their want of Zeal in the mat- 
ter of Religion : and though they had Branded as many of 
the Bifhops, and Others of the Prelatical Parry, as had come 
in their way; and received all Petitions againit the Church 
with encouragement : Yet, that there was Nodiing done, or 


of the ReheUion^ &c. xg 5 

vifibly in Projcdlion to be done , towards leflcning their Ju- 
riidiaion; or indulging any of that Liberty to their Weak 
Brethren, which they had from the beginnii^ expeOed from 
them. Befides, the difcourfe of their Ambition, and hopes 
of Preferment at Court, was grown publick, and raifed much 

But the truth is, They who had made in their hearts the 
moft DeftniSive Vows ag^inft the Church, never durft Com- 
municate their Bloody Wifhes to their belt Friends, whofe 
Authority gave Them their greateft Credit. For bcfides 
that their Own Clergy, whofe hands they produced in greaf 
numbers^ to complain againft the Innovations, which had (as 
They faid) been Introcmced; and againft the Ceremonies , 
which had been in conilant practice (ince the Reformation, 
as well as before 3 were far from being of one Mind in the 
Matter or Manner of what they wiQi'd (hould be alter'd; as 
appeared, when ever they came before the Houfe, or a Com- 
inittee, when any of them were ask'd Queltions they did not 
exped : There was lefs Confent amonglT their Lay Friends^ 
in £cclefiaftical Affairs, than amongft tne other. 

The Earl of Bedford had no deGre that there (hould be 
any Alteration in the Government of the Church; and had 
always liv'd, towards my Lord of Catfterhaj himfelf, with 
all Re(pe<^ and Reverence, and frequently vifited and dined 
with hmi ; Subfcribed libmlly to me Repair of St Taufs 
Church, and Seconded all Pious Undertakii^ : though, it is 
true, he did not difcountenance notoriouuy thofe or the 
Clergy who were Unconfbn^able. 

The Earl of Ejjex^ was rather difoleafed with the Perfon 
of the Arch-Bifhop, and fome other Bifiiops, than indevoted 
to the Fuqflion : and towards fome of them, he had great 
Reverence and Kindnefi^ as Bifliop ATffre/ffJsr, Bidiop H^Z^anc) 
fome other of the lefs Formal, and more Fopular Prelates: 
and He was as much Devoted as any Man to the Book of 
Common-Prayer, and oblig'd all his Servants to be conftant- 
ly prefent with him at it ; his Houihold Chaplain being al- 
ways a moft Conformable Man, smd a good Scholar. 

iU truth, in the Houfe of Peers, there were only %l tha( 
time taken notice of, the Lords sh and Braoki.^ ^ pofitive 
Enemies to the Whole Fabrick of me Churchy and to deGre 
a Diflblution of that Government; d^e Earl ox Warwick him- 
felf having neyer difeover'd any Avei£on to Epifeopacy, and 
much profefs'd the contrary. 

. I N the Houfe of Commons, though of d^e chief Leaders, 
Nsii0»$i/ Piemtefy and young Sr Hfrr^ f^ane^ and (hortly after 
Mr ij^mUen ( who had not before own'd it ) were believed 
to be for Root and Braoch j whidi grew fhordy after a com- 

%l6 The Hiftory Book III. 

the more, bccaufe they faw Mr Hjd§ vfA much furprized 
with the Contradi&on^ as in truth he was^ having never 
difcover'd the leaft inclination in the other towards fiich a 
Compliance : and therefore thev entertain'd an Imagination, 
and Hope that they might work the Lord Falkland to a far- 
ther Concurrence with them. But they quickly found them- 
felves diiappointed; and that, as there was not the leaft In- 
terruption of clofe FriencUhip between the other two. So 
when the fame Argument dune again into Debate, about fix 
Months after, the Lord PalkUna dmigd his Opinion, and 
^ve them all the Oppofidon he could: nor was he referv'd 
m acknowledging, ^^That he had been Deceived, and by 
Whom 'y and confefs'd to his Friends, with whom he would 
deal freely. ^ That Mr HamUen had afliir'd him, that if that 
^ Bill mignt pafi, there would be nothing more attempted 
** to the PrejiKlice of the Church : which He thought, as the 
World dien went, would be no ill Compofition. 

This Bill, for taking away the Biihops Votes out of die 
Houfe of Peers, produced another Difcovery, which caft the 
Condudlors farther behind, than they were Advanced by 
their Conqueftamongft the Commons j and difquieted them 
much more, than the other had Exalted them. How cur* 
rendy foever it had pafs'd in the Lower Houfe ^ when it waa 
brought to the Upper, the Lords gave it not fo gracious a rfri 
ception as was expe<3:ed : Many of the greateft Men of that 
Houfe, grew weary of the Empire wnich the others had 
exercifed over them j and feme, who had gone with them, 
upon their obfervation that they had worfe Defigns than they 
own'd, fell from them, and took the opportunity to difcover 
themfelves upon the Debate of this Bill; againft which, they 
inveigh'd with great fliarpnefs; and blamed the Houfe of 
Commons, «^ For prcfumingto meddle with an Affair, that fo 
^ immediately concerned Themfelves : That if they might 
^^fend up a Bill this day, at Once to take out one whole 
** Bench from the Houfe, as this would do the Bifhops, they 
^ might to Morrow fend Another, to take away the Barrons, 
^' or feme other degree of the Nobility : with many more 
Arguments, as the nature of the thing would eafily admini- 
fter ; with fuch Warmth and Vigour, as They had not be- 
fore exprefs'd : Infomuch as, though the other Party, which 
had not hitherto been withuood, fet up their Reft upon the 
carrying it; fupplying their other Arguments with that, 
^ How much the Houfe of Commons, which beft knew the 
<* temper and expeftation of the Nation, would Refent their 
^ not concurring with them , in a Remedy they judged fo 
**neceflary; and what the Confcquence mi^t be of fuch a 
^< Breach between the Two Houfes, they trembled to think ; 
} ^^lincc 

Of the ReheUion^ Sec. 237 

<< fihce the Kingdom had no hope of being Preferv'd but by 
' *« Their Union, and the l££e&s of their Wifdom, in Remov>* 
<^ ing all Things, and all Perfons, out of the way, which were 
<^ like to Ohftmd fiich a throudi Reformation, as the King- 
<< dom needs and expe£ls ^ All which , had fo little efiedt ^ The H»ufe 
that the Houfe could not be prevailed with, fo much as ^o"/^^^^' 
Commit the Bill (a countenance, they frequently give to^ 
Bills they never intend to pais) but at the Second reading it, 
they utterly caft it out. 

This unexpeded, and unima^n'd zSt^ caft fuch a Damp 
upon the Spirits of the Governing; Party, in both fiouie^ 
that they knew not what to do : the Mifchiefs which were 
in view, by this dilcovery of the temper of the. Houfe of Peers^ 
had no bottom; they were not nowfure, that they (hould 
be able to carrjr any thing; for the major parr, which threw 
out this BilL nugjht crofs them in any thing they went about : 
befides the Influence it would have in the Houfe of Common^ 
and every where elfe; for they knew very well, how many 
of their followers therefore foUow'd Them, becaufe they be- 
lie vd They would carry all before them. 

How£VER, that their Spirits might not be thought to 
fail, they made haft to proceed in all the angry, and chole*- 
rick things before them : to the Trial of the Earl ofStrafforJ^ 
Impeaching ieveral Biihops for Innovations, and the like; 
the Houfe of Commons, being very diligent, to kindle thofe 
Fires which might warm the Peers : and that the Biihops 
might fee how little ±ey had gotten, by obftrudting the other 
Bai, They prepar'd a very fhort Bill, "For the utter Eradi--* «'« . 
"cation of Biihops, Deans, and Chapters; with aU Chancel- f-^*'^';;'^ 
" lors, Officials, and all Officers, and other perfons, belong- commons hj 
^^ ing to Either of them : which they prevail'd with S^ Ed- Sr Edward 
nvard Dtaring^ a man very oppofite to all their defigns(but^^fJng/»»' 
a man of levity and vanity ; eafily flatter'd, by being ^^om-^'l^f*'^ 
mended) to Prefent it to the Houfe; which he did from the DeJislsMd 
Gallery, with die two Verfes in Qvid^ the application where- cbMftm , 
of, was his greateft motive; &^* 

CunSa prius ttntaTtday fid immedicaiile vubm 

Emfi Tictdendum efi^ mefarsfincera trahatur. 
He took notice of " The great Moderation and Candour of 
<^ the Houfe, in applying to gentle i Remedy, by the late 
'^ Bill, to Retrench the Exorbitancies of the Clergy : hoping, 
'^ that by the pruning and taking ofi*a few unnece(&ry Branches 
"from the Trunk, the Tree mi^t profper the better^ that 
" This Mortification might have mended their Conftitution, 
"and that they would have the more carefully intended their 
" health : but that this foft Remedy had proved fo inefieAual, 
" that they were grown more obftinate and Incorrigible ; So 

" that 

xjS The Hiflory Book III. 

* that it Wit now neceOaiy to put the Ax to the Root oF the 
^ Tree : and thereupon deured, ^' That the Bill might be read. 
A s foon as the Title of it was read ( whidi was almoft as 
long as the Bill it felf) ic was moved with great warmth , 
^luMX. the Bill might Not be read : That ic was againft.the 
^ Cu&>m and Rule of the Houfe of Commons, that any Ph- 
^ vate perfon fhould take upon him ( without luving firlt ob- 
^cain.'d the leave and direoion of the HouTe) to bring in 
^a New Ad, fo much as to abrogate and abolifh any Old 
^fing^e Law^ and therefore, that it was a wonderful Prefiim- 
^ ption in that Gentleman , wid>out any communication of 
^nis purpofe, or fo much as a motion that he mig^t do \x^ 
^to bring in a Bill, that overthrew and repealed fo Many 
^ Adte of f^liament, and changed and confoimded the whole 
^Frame of the Government of the Kingdom: and therefore 
defired, ^'That it might be Rejeded. 'Ihc Gentleman who 
brou^t it in, made many Excufes ^For his Ignorance in the 
*^ Ci^ms of Parliament, having never before ferv'd in any; 
and acknowled^d, ^*That he hsui never read more than the 
^ Title of the Bill; and was prevailed with by his Neigjhbour 
^ who fite next to him (who was S^ Arthur Hajlerig) to de- 
^ liver it; which he faw would have been done by fome 
body elfe. Though the Rejedting it, was earneftly urged by 
very Many ; and ought, by the Rules of the Houie, to have 
been done ; yet all the Otncr people, as violently preft'd the 
Reading it ; and none fo Importunately, as Saint-Johny who 
was at this time the King's Sollicitor (who in truth had 
drawn it) He faid, "No body could judge of a Bill by the 
^ Title, which might be falfe; and this Bill, for ought any 
** one knew to the contrary, at leaft, for ought He and many 
^others knew, might contain, the Eftablilhing the Biihops, 
^ and granting other Immunities to the Church ; inftead of 
** purfuing the matter of the Title ; and Others , as Inge- 
nioufly declaring, " That our Orders are in our Own power, 
** and to be Altered , or Difpcnfed with, as We fee caufe : 
Many out of Curiolity dciiring to hear it read; and More to 
ihew the Lords that they would not abate their mettal ; upon 
their declaring their plcafure, the Bill was at lafl: Read; and 
hitt uu bj no Queftion being put, upon the Firft reading, it was laid by, 
for that 2x\^ ^ot call'd upon in a long time after : many men being 
'"^* really perfwaded, that there was no intention to purfue it ; 
and that it was only brought in, to manifeft a negledt towards 

poTsuZthe^^^ Lords. 

HoHfe of The Northern Gentlemen, at Icaft They who were moft 
Commons adlive, and had molt credit ( as Hothantj and ckolmely^ and 
AgAin^tht stapleton) were marvelloufly follicitous to difpatch the Com- 
Ynrk. mitment of the Bill '<For taking away the Court of Xork-y 



Of the Rebellion^ &c. ij^ 

and having after great Debate, and hearing Mrhat all Parties 
interefted could cSer, gotten the Committee to Vote. ^ That 
<< it was an lilqgal CommiiSion, and very Prejudicial to the 
^ Libertv and the Property of his Majefty's Subjeds of thofe 
^ Four Northern Counties, where that Juriidioion was ex- 
^ercifed; They call'd upon Mr Hyde (the Chairmain) to 
make the Report : and the Houfe naving concurr'd in^ and 
confirmed the £ime Vote ^ they appointed Him ^ To prepare 
^ himfelf to deliver the Opinion of theHoufe at a Conference 
^ with the Houfe of Peers, and to defire Their Concurrence 
<' in it ^ and that They would thereupon be Suitors to the 
^ King, that there might be no more Commiffions of thac . 
^ kind granted : for they had a great apprehenfion, that either 
upon die Earl of Str^or^s Rebgnatioi^ or his Death (which 
they relbl v'd ihould be very (horay ) they ihould have a new 
Prefident put over them. 

Mr H Y D E, at the Conference in the Painted Chamber *^/**^ 
( being appointed by the Houfe to manage it ) told the Lord% 'tZlZdr 
^ That the Four f^orthem Counties were Suitors to their abtut it. 
^ Lordihips, that They might not be diitinguilhed from the 
^ reft of his Majefty's Subjefts, in the admmiftration of his 
^Juftice, and receiving the Fruits of it^ that they only were 
** left to die Arbitrary Power of a Prefident and Council, 
« which every day procured new Authority and Power to 
" opprefs them : He told them, ** That till the thirnr firft 
^ year of King HMrry the Eig^th^ the admmiftration of Juftice 
^ was the &me in the North, as m the Weft, or other parts 
^oftheRe^m^ that about that time, there was (bme Infur- 
<^ redtion in that Country, which produced great Diforders 
^and Bloodfhed, which fpread it ielf to the very Borders of 
<' Scotland : whereupon, that King iffiied out a Commilfion to 
^ the Arch-Bi(hop of York^ and the principal Gentlemen of 
^^ thofe Counties, and fome learned Lawyers, to Examine the 
<' Grounds of all thofe Diforders, and to proceed againft the 
^^ MalefaAors with all (evericy, according to the Laws of the 
*« Land. He read the firft Comnpiflion to them; which ap- 
peared to be no other, than a bore Commiflion of Oyer and 
Terminer. f< It was found that this Commiflion did much 
<< good, and therefore it was kept on foot for fome time longer 
<< than fuch Commiffions ufe to be ^ and it was often renewed 
^^ afrei\ but ftiU in the fame Form, or very little Alteration, 
^^till Queen Elizabetk^s time, and then there was an Alte<- 
<^ ration in the Commiflion it felf ; befides that, it had refe« 
^ rence to Inftrudions, which contained matters of State upon 
** fome emergent occafions : There were more, and greater 
<^ Alterations, both in the Commiflion and Inftrudlions, in the 
^ time of ¥i\ngjames^ when the Lord Scrocf was Prefident; 



l4jO The Hiflory Book III. 

^ and that, when the Lord Sfrsffitrdwzs firft tioade Ptefiden^ 
^ they were more enlarged^ and yet He had procured new 
^Additions to be made Twice after. The Xnftru&ioofi of 
the Several times were read , and the Alterations cbferv'd, 
and fome Precedents verv pertinently urged ^ in which it 
appear'd, that Great men nad been very (everely Sentenced, 
in no lels Penalty than of a Premunire, for Procuring uid 
Executing fuch Commifiions ; and He concluded, with ^< De*. 
^ firing the Lords to concur in the fame Senfe, the Houfe of 
^ Commons had exprefs'd themfelves to be of, with referaice 
^ to the Commiflion and Inftrudlions. 
I urdt The Speech, and ArgMment, met with good Approbation 
^^'^ in both Houfes; where He got great Credit by it : and the 
' ' Earl of Batby who was to Report it, and had no excellent or 
gracefiil Pronunciation, cameHimfelf to M' Hfde^ uid <'De- 
^ fired a Copy of it, that he might not do nim wrong in 
<^ the Houfe, by the Report; and having receiv'd iL,^ it was 
Read in the Houfe , and by order Entred, and the Paper it 
ielf affix'd to their Journal ; where it (till remains; and the 
Houfe of Peers iulTy concurr'd with the Commons in Their 
Vote : So that there was not, in many years aften^ any At- 
tempt, or (b much as Mention of anoUier CommifEon. 

The Northern men were lb well pleafed, that they re- 
folv'd to move the Houfe, « To give M' Hyde Publick Thanks 
^^ for the Service he had done the Houfe; but the Principal 
Leaders diverted them from it, by faying, ^^ That he had too 
^^ much Credit already, and needed not (iich an Addition, a$ 
"He behaved himtelf. However, thofe Northern men 
Themfelves continued marvellouQy kind; and on His be- 
half, on all occafions, oppofed any Combination of the moft 
Powerful of them againll him : of which fomewhat will be 
(aid hereafter. 

The Oppofition in the Lords Houfe, and the frequent 
Contradidhon in the Houfe of Commons, had allay'd much 
of the Fury which had fb much prevailed ; and all men im- 
patiently defired that the Armies might be DifchargM ; when 
all men believed, better quarter would be kept : but no pro- 
grefe would be made towards that, till the Earl of Strafford's 
bufinefs could bedifpatch'd; the Scots, being bound to gra- 
tify their Englijb Friends in that particular, as if it were their 
Own work. They who treated for the Promotions at Court, 
were foUicitous to finifli that; as \yhat would do all the 
reft : and the King was as politive, not to do any thing to- 
wards it, till he might fecure the Life of the Earl of Strafford', 
which being done, He would do any thing. And the Earl of 
Bedford, who had in truth more Authority with the Violent 
Men than any body elfe, laboured heartily to bring it to pafs. 



Of the ReheUton, &c. 14 1 

i N the Afternoon of the fame day ( when the Conference 
had been in the Painted Chamber upon the Court of Tork) 
M' Hyde going to a Place cali'd FickadiUj (which ^as a fair 
Houie for Entertainment, and Gsuning, with handfome Gra- 
vel-walks with Shade, and where were an upper and lower 
BowJing-Green, whither very many of the Mobility , and 
Gentry of the bell Quality, reforted, both for exercife and 
Conver&tion) Aflbon as ever He came into the ground, the 
Earl of Bedford came to him : and after fome fhort Compli- 
ments upon what had pais'd in the Morning, told him, 
*' He was glad he was come thither, for there was a Friend 
^ of his in the lower ground, who needed his counfel. He 
then lamented << The Mifery the Kingdom was like to fall 
^' into, by their Own Violence, and tvant of Temper, in the 
^^ Profecution of their Own Happinefs. He faid, " This bu- 
^'finefs concerning the Earl oi Straff or d^ was a Rock upon 
« which we (hould all Split, and that the Paffion of the Par- 
** liament would Deftroy the Kingdom. That the King was 
** ready to do all They could deOre, if the Life of the Earl of 
^ Strafford might be fpared : That his Majefty was fatistiec^ 
^ that He had proceeded with more Padion in many things^ 
'^ than he ougnt to have done , by which he had renderd 
** himfelf Ufelels to His Service for the future; and therefore 
^ He was well content, diat he might be made incapable of 
^ any Employment for the time to come : and that he fliould 
*^be BanilVd, or Imprifon'd for his Lire, as They fhould 
^ choofe : That if they would take his Death upon Them, by. 
^^ their Own Judicatory, He would not Interpofe any A(3; of 
^ his Own Confcience : But (ince they had declined that 
•* way, and meant to proceed by an kOi of Parliament, to 
^ which He himfelf muft be a Party, that it could not con- 
*' fift with His Confcience, ever to give his Royal Aflent to 
**that A(ft; becaufe, having been prefent at the whole TrijJ 
( as he had been, in a Box provided on purpofe. Incognito 
though Confpicuous enough) "And heard all the Teltimony, 
*« they had given againft him. He had heard nothing prov'd, 
*^ bv which he could believe that he was a Traitor, either in 
** Fadl, or in Intention ; and therefore his Majefty did moft 
" earneftly defire, that the two Houfes would not bring him 
^^ a Bill to Pafs, which in Confcience he could not, and would 
" not Confent to. 

The Earl continued j «^That though He yet was fatisfied 
*« fo well in his Own Confcience, that he believed he fhould 
" have no Scruple in giving his own Vote for the Pafling it 
(for it yet depended in the Lords Houfe) ''He knew not 
*' how tne King could be prefs'd to do an A(5t fo contrary to 
"his own Confcience^ aad that for His part. He took all 

Vol. L Part I. Q^ «th« 

144 TheHiftory Book in. 1 

the High Proceedings of the Parliament ; and of fome Ex|^- 1 
dients, that might reduce them to a Better temper ^ which I 
were no fixsner Intimated to (bme of the great fAamBpay 
than the whole was form'd and Qiaped into ^ A Formi£ible^ 
^ and Bloody Defign againft the Parliament. The Second , I 
the fuddain Death of the Earl of Bedford. Of both whidi^ ' 
it will be neceflary to fay fomewhat : diat ic may be obferv'd, 
from how little Accident^ and finali Circumfhmces, by the 
Arc and Indufbry of Thofe men , the Greateft Matters have 
flow'd, towards the Confiifion we have Gnce labour'd under. 
e Firif « S o M c Principal Officers of the Army, who were Members 
^rr»v*o •/ o{ tht Houk of Commons, and had been Carefs'd, both be- 

»e Corn- 



ndences ^^^^ ^^ *^^^^ ^^ beguining of the Parliament, by the moft 

the popular Agents of both Houfes j and had in truth Contributed 

» rr Md more to Their Defigns , than was agreeable to their Duty, 

"^^"''^'-and the Truft repofed in them by the King; found them- 

' rfctf En- Selves now not fo particularly coniider'd as they exped:ed, by 

i^sArmj, that Party; and their Credit in other places, and particuhrly 

in the Army, to be leflen'd : for that there was vifibly much 

more care taken for the Supply of the Scotijh Army, than 

of the King's j infomuch, that fbmetimes Money that was at 

fign'd and paid for the ufe of the King's Army, was again 

taken away, and difpofed to the Other : and yet , that the 

Parliament much prefumed, and depended, upon their Interdt 

in, and Power to difpofe, the AflFeaions of that Army. 

Therefore to redeem what had been done ami/s, and 
to ingratiate themfelvcs in his Majefty's favour, they be- 
thought themfclves how to difpofe, or at leaft to pretend 
that they would difpofe, the Army, to fome fuch expreffions 
of Duty and Loyalty towards the King, as might t^e away 
all hope from other men, that it might be applied to Hvs 
difTervice : and to that purpofe, they had Conference^ and 
Communication, with fome Servants of a more immediate 
truft and relation to both their Majefties^ through whom 
they might convey their Intentions , and Devotions to the 
King , and again receive his Royal Pleadire, and Dire£tion. 
how they fliould demean themfelves. For ought I could 
ever obferve, by what was afterwards reported in the Houic 
of Commons j or could learn, from Thofe who were mofl 
Converfant with all the Secrets of That defign; there was 
never the leaft intention of working farther upon the Aflfe- 
ttions of the Army, than to preferve them from being Cor- 
rupted, or made ufe of, for the Impofine Unjuft and Unrea- 
fonablc things upon the King : and all that the King ever fo 
much as Confented fhould be done by Them, was, that as 
moft Counties in England^ or rather, the Faftious and Se- 
dirious perlbns in moft Counties, had been induced to 


OftheRelkllion^ &c. 14^ 

Frame and SubTcribe Petitions to the Parliament, againft the 
Eftablifh'd Government of the Churchy with other Oaufes, 
Scandalous to the Government of the State too j So the Of- 
ficers of the Army too, fliould Subfcribe this following Pe- 
tition^ which was brought Ingrofs'd to his Majefty for his 
Approbation, before they would prefume to recommend it to 
any for their Subfcription. 

To the King's mofi excellent Majefly ^ the Lords Spiritual,'^' ^^''^''^n 
and Temporal j the Knight Sy Citizens^ and Barge fes^ now ll^g^r^'^*^ 
ajjembled in the High Court of Fdrliament, ^ fhe ofr 


^ The huirible Petition of the Officers and Soldiers of the 
^^ Army, 

"Humbly (heweth. That although our Wants have been 
^ very Preffing, and the Burden we are become unto thefe 
"Parts (by redbn of thofe Wants) very Grievous unto us ; 
"yet fo have we demean'd our felves, that your Majefty's 
*' great and weighty Affairs, in this prefent Parliament, have 
*• hitherto receive no interruption, by any Complaint, either 
" from us, or againit us j a Temper not ufual in Armies ; 
" efpecially in one Deftitute not only of Pay, but alfo of 
^* Martial Difcipline, and many of its Principal Officers^ that 
** we cannot but attribute it to a particluar Bleffing of Al- 
** mighty God, on our moft Hearty affedtions and Zeal to 
" the Common Good, in the happy Succeft of this Parlia- 
*'mentj to which, as we (hould nave been ready hourly to 
^' contribute our deareft Blood, fo now that it hath pleafed 
"God to manifeft his Bleffing fo evidently therein, we can- 
** not but acknowledge it with Thankfulnefs ; as likewife his 
^^ great Mercy, in that he hath inclin'd your Majefty's Royal 
^' Heart fo to cooperate with the Wifdom of the Parliament, 
^^ as to effedl: fo great and happy a Reformation upon the 
*' former Diftempers of this Church and Common-wealth : ' 
" as Firft, in your Majefty's gracious condefcending to the 
*' many important demands of our Neighbours of the Scotiflj 
** Nation i Secondly, in granting fo free a courfe ofjultice 
" againft all Delinquents of what Quality foever ; Thirdly, 
'* in the removal of all thofe Grievances, wherewith the Sub- 
"jedls did conceive either their Liberty of Perfons, Property, 
" or Eftate, or freedom of Confcience, prejudiced ; And laftly, 
" in the greateft pledge of Security that ever the Subjedts or 
^^ England receiv d from their Soveraign, the Bill of Trien- 
" nial^ Parliament. 

'^Thkse things fo gracioufly accorded unto by your 
** Majefty, without bargain or compenfation, as they are more 

Q^ 3 <« thaa 

746 TbeHiftory Book III. 

^^ than expedation or hope could extend unto, fb now cer* 
^ tainly th^y are fiich, as all Loyal Hearts ought to acquieice 
^ in with Thankfulnefs^ which we do with ail humility, and 
'^ do at this time, with as much earndtneis as any, praj^ and 
^ wifli, that the Kingdom may be fettled in Peace and Quiet-* 
^ nefs, and that all Men may, at their own Homes, enjoy the 
^ blpfled Fruits of Your Wiidom and Jultice. 

^* B u T it may pleafe your Excellent Majefty, and this High 
^* Court of Parliament, to give us leave, with grief and an- 
" guifti of Heart, to reprefent unto you, that we hear that 
** there are certain Perfons Stirring and Pragmatical, Who,in- 
^ ftead of rendring- Glory to God, Thanks to your Majefty, 
^and Acknowledgement to the Parliament, remain yet as Un- 
^fatisficd and Mutinous as ever^ Who, whilft all the reft of 
•^the Kingdom are arriv'd even beyond their wiflies, are 
^ daily forging new and unreafonable Uemands ; Who, whilft 
^^all Men of Reafon, Loyalty, and Moderation, are thinking 
*'how they may provide for your Majefty's Honour and 
*' Plenty, in return of fo many Graces to the Subjedl, arc 
*^ftiU attempting new Diminutions of your Majefty's juft Re- 
^'galities, which muft ever be no lefe dear to all honeft Men, 
^ than our own Freedoms^ In fine. Men of foch Turbulent 
*' Spirits, as are ready to Sacrifice the honour and Welfare of 
^tne whole Kingdom to their private fancies, whom no- 
^' thing elfe than a Subverfion of the whole frame of Govera- 
'• menc will fatisfy : far be it from our thoughts to believe, 
^' that the Violence and Unreafonablcnefs of fuch kind of 
^^ Perfons, can have any Influence upon the Prudence and Ju- 
'^ ftice of the Parliament. But that which begets the Trou- 
'^ ble and Difquiet of our Loyal Hearts, at this prcfent, is, 
^ that we hear thofe ill afiedted Perfons, are baclcd in their 
*' violence, by the Multitude and the Power of raifing Tu- 
"mults; that Thoufands flock at their call, and befet the 
" Parliament, and H^ite Hall it felf ; not only to the Preju^ 
" dice of that Freedom which is neccflary to great Councils 
" and Judicatories, but poffibly to fome Perfonal Danger of 
^^ your Sacred Majefty, and the Peers. 

*^ T H E vaft Confequence of thefe Perfons Mafignity, and 
" of the Licentioufnefs of thofe Multitudes that follow them, 
^^ confider'd in raoft deep care and zealous AflfedHon for the 
" Safety of your Sacred Majefty, and the Parliament j Our 
^^ humble Petition is, That in your Wifdom, you would be 
^* pleafed to remove fuch Dangers, by Punifhing the Ring- 
"leaders of thefe Tumults, that your Majefty and the Par- 
" liament may be fecur'd from fuch Infolencies hereafter. For 
"the Suppreding of which, in all Humility We oflfer our 
"felvcsto wait upon you (if you pleafe j hoping We ftiall 

" appear 


Of the ReheUion^ &c. 14-7 

^^ appear as conGderable ia the way of Defence^ to our Gra* 
^c clous Soveraign , the Parliament , our Religion , and the 
<^ EftaUiQi'd Laws of the Kingdom, a$ what Number foever 
^< ihali audaciouQy prefume to Violate them : So (hall We, 
^*by the Wifdom of your Majefty and the Parliament, not 
« onlv be Vindicated from Precedent Innovations, but be fe- 
^ cur d from the Fumre , that are threaten'd, and likely to 
^ produce more dangerous efieds than the former. 

" And we (hall pray, ^c. 

His Majefty having read this Petition, and conceiving t^^ '»«* 
that the Authority of the Army might feem of as great Im-^'*'^*''^ 
portance for the good reception of To much Reafon and Ju- ^^''^^;^^7ui 
ilice, as the Sub(cription of a Rabble had been alleg'd often fetititn, 
to be, for the Countenance of what in truth was Mutinous 
and Seditious, faid, "That He approved well enough of it, 
"and was content that it might be Subfcribed by the Of- 
" ficers of the Army, if they deSr'd it. The Officer who prc- 
fcnted the Draught to his Majefty, told him " That very few 
<^ of the Army had yet (een it : and that it would be a great 
^^ Countenance to it, if, when it was carried to the Principal 
" Officers who were firft to Sign it, any evidence might oe 
<^ given to them, that it had pait his Majefty's Approbation; 
"otherwife they might poffibly make fcruplc for fear of of- 
" fending Him. Thereupon, His Majefty took a Pen, and 
Writ at the bottom of the Petition C. jR. as a token that He . 
had perufed and allow'd it : and fo the Petition was carried 
down into the Country where.the Acmy lay. and wasSign'd 
by fome Officers ; but was fuddainly qua(n d, and no more 
heard of, till in the Difcovery of the pretended Plot : of which 
more in its Place. 

The Meetings continuing, between thofe Officers of the 
Army and fome Servants of his Majefty's, to the Ends afore- 
iaid y Others of the Army, who had exprefs'd very brisk Re- 
folutions towards the Service , and were of eminent Com- 
mand and Authority with the Soldiers, were by fpecial di- 
region introduced into thofe Councils ( all Perfons obliging 
themfelves by an Oath of Secrecy, not to Communicate any 
thing that (hould pafs amongft them ) for the better executing 
what (hould be agreed. 

At the firft meeting, one of the Perfons that was fo in- 
troduced, after he had heard the calm Propofitions of the 
reft, and that " Their defign was, only to obfervc and de- 
'* fend the Laws, that neither the Ar^ments of the Scots^ 
*^ nor the Reputation of their Army, might compel the King 
^ to Cqnfent to the Alteration of the Government of the 

0^4 "Church, 

^48 TheHiftwy Book III. 

"Church, nor tx> remove the Biihops out of the Houfe of 
^ Peers, which would, in a great degree, produce an Altera- 
^ tion ^ or the Power of any Difcontented Perfons by their 
"Tumultuary Petitions, impofe upon, ordiminifh, the juft 
"Legal Power of the King, told them, " Thofe Refolutions 
*'• woufd produce very little efieds for his Majefty's Service ; 
"That there was but oneway to do his Nlajefty notable 
"Service, which was by bringing up the Army prefently to 
^ London^ which would fo Awe the Parliament, chat they 
^^ would do any thing the King Commanded. There was not 
( as I have been credibly inform'd ) a Man in the company 
that did not perfedly abhor ( or feem fo to do ) that odious 
Propofition ; but contented themfelves with making fuch Ob- 
jedlions againft it, as render'd it Ridiculous and UnpraAica- 
ble : and fo the Meeting, for that time diflblv'd. 

Whether the Perfon that propofed this defperate ad- 
cvice, did it only as a Bait to draw an opinion from other Men 
(for he had a perfed: diflike and malice to fome of the com- 
pany ) or whether the Difdain to fee his Counfel rejefted, and 
the Fear that it might be difcover'd to his difadvantage 9 
wrought upon him, I know not ; But the fame, or the next 
dav, He difcover'd all, and more than had pafs'd, to fome of 
Tnofe who feem'd to take moft care for the Publick^ inti- 
mated to them, '* How He was ftartled with the horrour of the 
" defign, and how faithfully He refolv'd to ferve the Cora- 
** mon-wealth, or to lofe his Life in the attempt : Yet, at the 
fame time, adted his part at Court, with all poffible demon- 
ftration of Abhorring the Proceedings of the Parliament, to 
that degree, that he offer'd, " To undertake with a Crew of 
*^ Officers and good Fellows ( who, he faid, were at his diA 
*^ pofal ) to Refcue the Earl of Strafford from the Lieutenant 
" of the Tower, as he fliould bring him to his Trial, and fo to 
" enable him to make an efcape into Forreign parts. 

The Difcovery being thus made, to the Earl of Bedford^ 
the Lord Say , and the Lord Kimholton^ and no doubt by 
Them communicated to their chief Aflbciates j as dangerous 
as rhe Defign was afterwards alledg'd to be, it was not Pub- 
lifh'd in three Months after to the Houfes, againft whom the 
Defign was intended; nor till long after the death of the Earl 
of Bedford : who, no doubt, rather defir'd to bind up thofe 
Wounds which were made, than to make them wider, by 
entertaining new Jealoufies between King and People ; and 
would not confent to the extending and extorting Conclu- 
fions, which did not naturally flow from the Premises ; with- 
out which, this fo ufcful a Treafon to them, could not have 
J>een made up. 

But as They thought not fit ( as I faid before ) to publifli 


Of the Rebellion^ &c. 149 

this whole Difcovery till near three Months after, (b they 
made extraordinary Ufe of it by Farts, from the inftant that 
they received the Secret ^ it being always their cuitom, when 
they ifbund the heat and diftemper of the Houfe ( which 
they endeavoured to keep up, by the lliarp mention and re- 
membrance of former Grievances and Prefliires ) in any de- 
gree allay'd, by fome gracious A^, or gracious Profeilion 
of the King's, to warm and inflame them again with a Difco- 
very, or promife of a Difcovery, of fome. notable Plot, and 
Conipiracy againft Themfelves, « To Diflblve the Parliament 
^' by the Papitts : or fome other way, in which they would 
be lure that fomewhat always ihould refiied upon the Court. 
Thus they were fometime informing, " Of great multitudes 
*^ of Papilts gathering together in Lancajhire ^ then of fecrec 
^^ Meetings in Caves ^ and under ground in Surry y Letters 
*^from beyond Sea, of great provifions of Arms making 
^' There for the Catholicks of E^gland^ and the like; which 
upon Examination always Vaniih'd : but for the time (and they 
were always applied in ufeful articles of Time ) ferv'd to 
tranfport Common minds with Fears and Appreheniions, and 
fo induced them to comply in fenfe with Thofe, who were 
like fooneft to find Remedies for thofe Difeafes which none 
but themfelves could difcover. And in this Progrefs, there 
fometimes happened ftrange Accidents for the con&mation of 
their credit. * 

Whilst they were full of Clamour againft the Papifts, 
upon the inftances of fome Infolences and Indifcretions com- 
mitted by them, during the late intervals of Parliament (and 
mention d before ) efpecially upon a great Alacrity exprefs'd, 
and Contribution railing, the year before, for advancing the 
War with Scotland^ an Order was made^ "That the Jultices 
^* of Peace of }Veflminfier fhould carefully examine, what 
"Strangers were Lodg'd within their Jurildidion ; and that 
^'they mould adminifter the Oaths of Allegiance and Suprc- 
*^ macy to all fufpeSed for Reculancy, and proceed according 
<^ to thofe Statutes. An Afternoon being appointed for that 
Service, in JVefimMfter-HalL' znd many Perfons warn'd to ap- 
pear there, amongit the reft one James, a Papift, ap- 
peared, and being prefs'd by M"^ Haytvardj a Juilice or Peace, 
to take the Oaths, fuddenly drew out his Knife, and Stabb'd 
him ; with fome Reproachfiil words, " For Pcrfecuting poor 
^^ Catholicks. This ftrange, unheard of Outrage, upon the 
Perfon of a Minifter of Juftice executing his Ofhce by an Or- 
der of Parliament, Startled all Men; die old Man Sinking 
with the hurt, though he died not of it. And though, for 
ought 1 could ever hear, it proceeded only from the rage of 
a fuUea Varlet ( formerly fufpeded to be Crazed in his un- 


tyo The Hijlory Book III. 

derftanding ) wicbouc the leaft Coofisderacy or Combination 
with any other ^ Yet it was a great Countenance to Thofe, 
who were before thought over Appreheniive and Inquifitivc 
into Dangers ^ and made many believe it rather a Defign cf 
ail the Papifts of England^ than a Defperate Aft of one Mai^ 
who could never have been induced to it^ if be bad not beea 
promifed Adiltance by the reft. 
ill ufe The Difcovery of the Plot concerning the Army, being 
t w'V ^^^ about the middle of >^/»r;/, which was the end of the 
tmmZs, ^^^ ^^ Straffords Trial, they for the prefcnt made no fcr- 
' ther ufe of it than might contribute to their Ends in that 
bufinefs ^ referving the red ( as was (aid before ) to be applied 
in more necefTary Seafons : Therefore, about the time that 
the Bill of Attainder was preferPd, that no interpoGtion from 
the Court might difcouncenance or hinder that great work, 
Mr Pym one Day inform'd the Houfe of Commons, ** That 
*' He had great caufe to fear, there was at that time as defpe- 
^ rate a Defign and Confpiracy againft the Parliament, as had 
^ been in any Age ; and he was in doubt, Perfons of great 
• ^Quality and Credit at Court, had their hands in it: That 
^ feveral Officers had been treated with in London to raife 
« Men, under pretence that they fliould go to Portugal^ but 
^ that the Portugal Embafladour, being conferred with about 
" it, profefs'd, that He knew nothing of it ^ and that no Per- 
^ Ton had any Authority or Promife from Him to that purpofe 
( And it is true, there had been fome idle Difcourfes in a Ta- 
vern between fome Officers, about raifing Men for Portugal^ 
which was immediately carried to Mr Pym ^ as all Tavern 
and Ordinary difcourfes were ) '* That for the prefent. He 
** might not acquant them with all Particulars, which might 
" hinder their further Difcovery ^ only defir'd, that a Mef- 
*^ (age might be fent to the Lords, to defire them to appoint 
" a Committee to Examine fuch Witnefles as Ihould be pro- 
"duced, for the Difcovery of a Plot againflthe Parliament j 
^^and that in the mean time. They would joyn in a Meflage 
*^ to the King, to defire his Majetty that he would not, for 
" fome few days, grant any Pafs to any of his Servants to go 
'^ beyond the Seas j faying, that He believ'd, ibme Men's Con- 
** fciences would tempt them to make an Efcape, when they 
^ heard of this Examination. 

S u c H a Committee was appointed to Examine, and fuch 
a Meflage fent to his Majetty, as was defir'd. But in the 
mean time, fome Perfons who had been at the Tavern, and 
talked of raifmg Men for Portugal ^ and others who had been 
at the Conference before mention'd, where the Propofition 
was for bringing up the Army ; finding that what had pafs'd 
fo privately, and amongtt Themfelves, had been difcover'd ; 


Of the Rebellion^ &c. lyi 

and was like to pafe a very Severe Inquificion, from Them 
who made Glofles and Comments as they pleafed, upon what 
other Men fpoke or did , and net t^nowing how much more 
than the Truth had been inform'dj or what Interpretation 
ihould be made of that which was the Truth; refolv'd not to 
truit themfelves with fuchjudges ( whofe foriTiality was firft 
tolmprifon, and after, at their leiiiire, to Examine) and fo 
fled into Vrance.\ 

This was no fooner known and publifti'd, than it gave 
great Credit and Reputation to M' Pyw's Vigilancy and Adti- 
vity ; for it now appeared, there was fome notable Mifchief 
intended, upon the Difcovery whereof, fuch Eminent Men 
were fled. And in this Difbrder and Trouble of mind, Men 
fearing according as they were diredled, the Bill of Attainder 
found the eafier pafl&ge in the Houfe of Commons. 

Having gotten thus much ground; and the Bill then 
depending (and like long to depend ) with the Lords ; Mr Vym 
told them in the Houfe of Commons, " That it appeared by 
" the flight of fuch Confiderable Perfons, that what he had 
^ before imparted to them was of moment, and that his Fears 
** were not groundleis ; that it concerned Their Service, that 
"he fhould not yet impart the whole matter to them, fince 
"the Danger was prevented, which they fhould fliortly un- 
" derftand at large : in the mean time, he did afllire them, 
" That God had miraculoufly Preferv'd them from a moft 
"Prodigious Confpiracy, in which all their Privileges and 
*' Liberties fliould nave been fwallow'd up : That though this 
'* Attempt was Difappointcd, yet he fear'd there might be 
"fortlt new device; and therefore He propofed, for the bet- 
"tcr evidenceof their Union and Unanimity (which would 
"be the greatdl Difcouragement to all wno wilh'd ill to 
" them ) that fome Proteftation might be enter'd into by the 
" Members of both Houfes, for the Defence of their Privi- 
" leges, and the Performance of thofe Ehities to God and the 
" King, which they were obliged to, as good Chriftians and 
" good Subjedls j and that a Committee might be appointed 
" feeedily to withdraw, and prepare fuch a Proteftation. 

The Motion was entertain'd with geneVal Approbation; 
infbmuch as they who were apprehenlive enough of the ill 
Defigns of thbfe who advanced This, and of the ill Confe- 
quenceoffuch Voluntary Proteftations, thought fit rather to 
watch the Matter and Words, than to oppoie the Thing it 
felf ; which, it was evident, it was to no purpofe to do : and 
therefore they were well contented with tne naming fuch 
Perfons for the Committee, as were not like to ftibmit to any 
unlawful or inconvenient Obligation. This was urged as of - 
fgch ConfiKjucttce, that the Doors were lock'd^ and no Per- 


%Sz The Hiftorjf Book III. 

fons fiiffcr'd to go out of tbc Houfe, till this (hould be con- 
cluded. After z long Debate, thefe words were agreed upon, 
and ofier*d to the Houfe for the Proteftation. 

up»nthis9ccii ^. B. dQy iti the prefence of Almighty God, Promife, 
uilthnh' " V^^w, and Proteft, to Maintain and Defend, as far as law- 
taken ty "fiiUy I may, with my Life, Power, and Eftate, the true 
ktthHtufes. <« Reformed Proteftant Religion, exprefs'd in the Do<3;rine 
"of the Church o^ England, againft all Popery and Popifh 
« Innovations within this Realm, contrary to the fame 
*' Doctrine ; and, according to the Duty of my Allegiance, 
" his Majefty's Royal Perfon, Honour, and Eftate y as alfo, 
"the Power and Priviledges of Parliament j the lawful 
" Rights and liberties of the Subjedl , and every Perfon 
^ that maketh this Proteftation^ in whatfoever he (hall do 
*^ in the lawful purfuance of the fame : And to my power, 
"and as far as lawfull I may, I will Oppofe, and, by sdl 
" good ways and means, endeavour to bring to condign 
" PuniOiment, all fuch, as ihall either by Force, Pradkice, 
" Counfels, Plots, Confpiracies, or otherwife, do any thing 
*'to the Contrary of any thing in this prefent Proteftation 
'^ contained : And farther, that I Ihall, in all juft and ho- 
"nourable ways, endeavour to Preferve the Union and 
'^ Peace between the three Kingdoms oiEngland^ Scotland, 
"and Ireland'^ and neither for hope, fear, nor other Re- 
^'fpedt, (hall Relinquilh this Promife, Vow, and Proie- 
" ftation. 

This was immediately taken by the Speaker of the Houfe 
of Commons, and by all the Members then prefent ; and fent 
up to the Lords, who all likewife took the fame, except the 
Earl of Southampton, and the Lord Roberts, who pofitively 
refufed it, alledging, " There was no Law that enjoin'd it, 
"and the Confequence of fuch Voluntary Engagements, 
'^ might produce Effedts that were not then intended : Which 
without doubt was very wifely confider'd ; and had not been 
prcfs'd in the Houfe of Commons, for two Reafons : It be- 
ing vilibly impoflible to Diffwade the thing, the Houfe be- 
ing awaken'd by the difcourfc, mentioned before, of a Plot 
againft the Parliament, the Poyfon of which, this Sovereign 
Antidote was to expel and difcover • But cfpecially, for that 
well aftedled Perfons, who were jealous of no other DeGgn 
than the Alteration of the Government of the Church, thought 
they, had oblig'd thofe rigid Reformers from any fuch At- 
tempt, when they had once bound themfelves " To Main- 
• "tain and Defend the Proteftant Religion exprefs'd in the 
"Dodtrine of the Church of England', there being no other 


Of the RehellioHy &c. xyg 

Scheme of the Do&ine of the Church of England^ than the 
Thirty nine Articles, of which one is^ " To preferve the Go- 
*« vemment of the Church by Bifhops. 

Whereas the other Party was abundantly gratified, with 
having an Oath of their Own making, to entangle the People 
( fo Uke a Covenant , by which fuch admirable things had 
been compafs'd by their Neighbours ) and upon which they 
could make what Glois they pleafcd, when they had occa- 
Con J as they did within two days after : For the Proteftation 
being taken on Monday the Third of May^ the WeJnefday fol« 
lowing, fome of their own Party tooK occafion to inform 
the Houfe, " That it was apprehended by many well a£fe<aed 
*' Perfons abroad, who were of notable and exemplary de- 
" votions to the Parliament , That if they fhould take thaC 
** Proteftation , they (hould thereby engage themfelves for 
** the Defence of Bifhops, which in theu- Cohfcience they 
" could not do; and which, they hoped, the Houfe did not 
** intend to oblige them to; Wnercupon, without any great 
oppofition (the Houfe being thin; and they who were of 
another opinion, believing this Artifice would, to all fbber 
men, appear very Ridiculous ) this enfuing Order was made. 

"Whereas fome Doubts have been rais'd, by feveral nejExpu- 
** Perfons out of this Houfe, concerning the meaning of thcfej"^'**'^.'** 
*< words conrain'd in the Proteftation lately made by the Mem* i^^^ordU* 
"bers of this Houfe [ viz. 1 The true Reformed Proteftant tftbeHMfi 
^ Religion, expreis'd m the Dodtrine of the Church of £jt^i- ofCQmm§Ht. 
^^ land , againft all Popery and PopiQi Innovations within 
^' this Realm , contrary to the fame Doftrine ] This Houfe 
^* doth declare, I'hat by thofe words was and is meant, only 
^^ the Publick Dbdirine profefs'd in the faid Church, fo far as 
** it is oppofite to Popery and Popifh Innovations ; and that 
<^ the faid words are not to be extended to the maintaining 
^^ofanyFormofWorfliip, Difcipline, or Government, nor 
^^ of any Rites;, or Ceremonies, of the laid Church of England. 

This Explanation being thus procured in the Houfe of 
Commons, without ever advifing with the Houfe of Peers 
(who had likewife taken the fame Proteftation ) and, in truth, 
lo contrary to the intentions of moft that took it ; They or- 
dered, ** That the Proteftation, together with this Explanation, . 
"fliould be Printed and Publifh'd; and that the Knights 
<^ and Bur^efles Ihould fend Copies thereof to the Counties 
"and Burroughs for which they ferv'd; and that they (hould 
" intimate unto the People , with what Willingnefs all the 
" Members of that Houfe made that Proteftation ; and that 
" they (hould furtjber fignify , that as They did Juftify the 

« taking 


%S^ The Hi/iory Book III. 

*^ taking it Themfelvcs, fo they could not but Approve it 
^' in Ail fucb as fliould take it. Upon which DeciaracioDi 
the EmiHaries of their Clergy caufed the fame to be taken in 
London^ and the Parts adjacent, within very few days after 
the Publifhing. And for Their better Encouragement ( though 
^ f^iU their Zeal would not attend fuch Formalities) a Bill was pre- 
fdfs*d tbirty pared, pafs'd the Houfe of Commons, and was fent up to 
to compel u the Lords, to Compel all the Subjedts to take that Protc^ 
fj^suuk^^'^^^^' What the Succefsof that Bill was; and what Ufc 
^. was afterwards made of this Proteftation ( which was Then 

thought fo harmlets a thing) and particularly , what Influ- 
ence it had upon the bufinefi of the Earl of Strafford^ ihail 
be remembreid in its proper place. 
77;0 other T H E Other Accidcnt that fell put during the time that the 
Occident bufiuefs of the Earl of Strafford was agitated, and by which 
thMeontri- He rcceiv'd much Prejudice, was the Death of the Earl of 
Wx fH ^dford. This Lord was the greateft Perfon of Intereft in all 
BiUof^t' the popular Party, being of the beft Eftate, and beftUnder- 
tainder, was ftaudiug, of the whole Number ; and therefore moft like to 
**«D«-rfc«/QQyern the Reft. He was befides, of great Civility, and of 
Bedford ^^^ naore good Nature than any of the Other. And there- 
fore the KiM refolving to do his bufinefs with that Party by 
Him, refolv(d to make him Lord High Treafurer of EmgioMd^ 
in the place of the Biihop of Lou£n ; who was as willing 
to lay down the OfHce, as any body was to take it up. And 
to gratify him the more, at His defire , intended to make 
Mf Fym Chancellor of the Exchequer, as he had done Mf 
Saint-John his SoUicitor General (all which hath been touch'd 
before ) as alfo, tliat Mr UoUii was to be Secretary of State, 
the Lord Say Mafter of the Wards, and the Lord KimhoHtm 
to be Lord Privy-Seal after the death of his Father, who then 
held that place. Otl)ers were to be placed about the Prince, 
and to have Offices when they fell. 

The Earl of Bedford fecretly undertook to his Majefty, 
that the Earl of Strafford^s Lifefhould bepreferv'dj and to 
procure His Revenue to be fettled, as amply as any of his 
Progenitors J the which he intended fo really, that, to My 
knowledge, he had it in deli^n to endeavour to obtain an 
Ad for me fetcing up the Excife in ^nglandy as the only na- 
tural means to advance the King's profit. He fell Sick, within 
a week after the Bill of Attainder was fent up to the Lords 
Houfe; and Died ftiortly after, much afflidted with thePaf- 
fion and Fury which he perceiv'd his Party inclined : to in- 
fomuch as he declared, to feme of near tmlt to him, "That 
"hefear'd, the Rage and Madnefs of this Parliament, would 
*' bring more Prejudice and Mifchief to the Kingdom than it 
" had ever fuflain'd by the long Intermiffion of Parliaments. 


of the ReheUion^ Sec. ^ff 

He was a wife man, and woul4 have propoled and advifed - 
Moderate courfes: but Was not incapable, tor want of Refb- 
lution, of being carried into Violent ones, if His advice were 
not fubmitted to : and therefore many, who knew him well, 
thought his Death not unfeafonable, as well to his Fame, as 
his Fortune^ and that it reicued him as well from fome po& 
fible Guilt, as from chofe vi&ble Misfortunes, which men of 
all Condition? have Since undergone. ^ 

As ibon as the Earl of Bedford was dead, the Lord Say 
( hoping to receive the reward of the Treafurer-lhip ) fuc- 
ceeded him in his undertaking , and faithfully promifed the 
King, "That he ihould not be prefs'd in the matter of the 
"Earl of Strafford's Lifej and under that proraife got credit 
enough, to perfwade his Majefty to whatfoever He faid 
was nece(&ry to that bufmefs. And thereupon , when the 
Bill was depending with the Lords, and when there was little 
fufpicion that it would Pafs, though the Houfe of Commons 
every day by Meffiges endeavoured to quicken them , He 
perfwaded the King " To go to the Houfe of Peers, and ac- 
" cording to cuftom to fend for the Houfe of Commons, and 
" then to declare himfelf, That he could not, with the fafcty 
^of a good Confcience, ever give his Confent to the BiU 
" that was there depending before them concerning the Earl 
^ of Strafford, if it fiiould be brought to him, becaufe he was 
" not fatisfied in the point of Treafon : But He was fo fully 
"fatisfied that the Earl was unfit ever to ferve him more, 
"in any condition of Employment, that he would joyn with 
*^ them in any Aft , to make him utterly incapable of ever 
" bearing Office, or having any other employment in any of 
«*his Majefty *s Dominions: which he hoped would fatispjf 
" them. 

This Advice, upon die Confidence of the giver, the 
King refolv*d to follow : But when his Refolution was im- 

Krted to the Earl, He immediately fent his Brother to him, 
feeching his Majefty " By no means to take that way, for 
" that he was molt fuTured it would prove very pernicious 
"to him J and therefore defired, he might depend upon the 
" Honour and Confcience of the Peers, without his Majefty'g 
" interpofition. The King told his Brother, "That he had 
" taken that Refolution by the advice of his beft Friends ; 
" but (ince he liked it not, he would decline it. The next 
Morning the Lord Say came again to him, and finding his 
Majefty altered in his intention, told him, " If he took that 
"courfe he advifed him, he was furc it would prevail; but 
" if he declined it. He could not promife his Majefty what 
" would be the ifliie, and fhould hold himfelf abfolutely dif- 
" engaged from any un ierraking. The King obferving his 



PofiHvenefiL tnd oooorifiiigliis kitcatioDi to bt Tefjr &ioiB|R^ 

Ihfe^ii Wm^ tn ha pAiq^ hy him « ayil w^r imwii. 1)1^11 1 ^ 

. IDtbeHoufe, uid fiud ai die ocbef bad advifcd * Whciritt 
tlittt Lord did in tnidi bdieve the diCcOTeqF ctkU Miytffk 
Confiaence in that manneii wouldj]^^ 
^ tpld^ or whether he adviied it TieafAaravC^^ ta Ik^ig m 
dyjfe incoaveniendes which afterwards baroeq'df Ijoiav 
^ not : But many who believ'd hia Will to q« mucta imtb 
than his Undeiflandifigy had the Uncharitablenefi io tfaoalL 
dutthe intended to betray lus Mafier^ and to put the xian <jt 
the £atl out of queftion. 

Thb cireat proved very fatal: for the King no fomieitt^ 

|(iim'd6om the Houfi^ dmn dbe Houfe of Goninoiw,tQ great 

^paffioQ and fory, declared thiaJaft ad ofhisMfyefty's^. to be 

«The moft nnparaUd'd Breach <^ Privilege, that had ever 

. ^ ^bappen'd^ That if his Majefly mig^ take notice what fiiUi 

.i. 5^ were pamiu^ in either Hoiucv^uid declare his Own opinio% 

^it was 40 ^rejuc^ Their /Counfels, and they ibould not 

; ^ be able to fiipply the Gonunon-wealth with whoIelbBjIa 

VIaw\ liiitahle to die Difeafo it laboured under ^ Tfaacdiis ' 

^ was fitegreateft Obftrodoon of juftice , that could beiatt" 

^gin'd; That they and whoToever had taken the late Bio* 

^teftation, were bound to mainttiin the privil^es of F^dja- 

^roent, whioh were now too grofily invaded and violated: 

with many (harp dilcourfes to chat^purpofe. I 

nittd- The next day, great multitudes of People came down to 

i^f Wfif^infier^ and crowded about the Houfp of Peers, ez- 

' '^ claiming with great Outcries, « THiat they would have Juftice; 

and pubiicklv readine the Names of thofe who had diflented j 

from that Biu in^tte Houfe of Commons, as Enemies to tbnr ] 

Country ; and as any Lord pafe'd by, calfd, Jufiice^ J^J^h 

and with great v rudenels and iniblence, preuing upon^ and 

thruiting, thofe JLords whom they fufpeaed not to favour 

that Bill; profemng aloud, ^^That they would be govern'd 

^^ and difpofed by the Honourable Houfe of Commons, and 

^' would defend their Privil^s according to their late Pro- 

^^ teftation. Thefe unheard of adb of Infolence and Sedition 

continued fb many days, till many Lords grew fo really ap- 

!)rehenfive of having their Brains beaten out , that they ab- 
ented tbemfelves from the Houfe ; and Others, finding wittt 
Seconds the Houfe of Commons was like to have to coropais 
whatever they defired, changed their minds; and fb inan 
Afternoon, when of the Fourfeore who hadbeeja prefentat 
tm •f the Trial, there were only fix and forty Lords in the Houfe 
^nder (the good Pcoplc flill crying at the doors for Juftice) they put 
\ ^^f the Bill to the queftion, and eleven Lords only diffenting^-it 
r. ' pafs'd that Houfe, and was ready for the King's aOtnt. 


Of the ReheUtotty &a 

TkE King continued as Refolv'd as ever. Not to o 
his confent. The fiime Oratory then attended him at Uai 
HaOy which had prevail'd at Wefiminftevy and a Rabbli 
many thoufimd people beiieged that place, crying out,: 
fticeyjufikey that t%€y'»ouM have Jufiice ^ not without gi 
and imolent Threats and Expreffions, what they would do^ 
if it were not fpeedily granted. The P^riyy-Council waa 
call'd together, to advife what courfe was to be taken to Sup- 

Srefi thefe Traiterous Riots. Inftead of confidefing how to 
leicue their Matter's Honour and his ConfcienCe from the 
Infamous Violence and Conilraint, they prefi the King to 
pais the Bill of Attainder, faying, << There was ho other way the Pritfjh 
''to pfi-eferve Himfelf and nis Pofterity than by fo doing ;^mcx/«mI 
" and therefore that he ought to be more tender of the fafety ^^ •/ '^ 
^'of the Kingdom, than of any One Perfon how Innocent ^^^ 
'' fbever : not one Cduncellor interpofing his opinipn to fup- j^^ r^ fafi 
port his Mafter'd Magnanimity and Innocence : They who ttf m, 
were of that mind, cither fuppreffing their thoughts through 
fear, upon the neW DoOrine eftablifh'd than by the new 
Counfellors, ''That no man ought to prefume to advife any 
"thing in that place contrary to the ienfe of both Houfes^ 
others fadlv believinjg, tht Force and Violence dSer'd to the 
King, would be, before God ^d Man, a juft excufe for what- 
foever he Ihould do. 

H I s Majefty told them, ^ lliat whdi h^ been ^ropofedl 
'<to him to do, was direOly contrary to his Confcience, and 
" that being fo, he was fure they would not perfwade him to 
'*it, though themfelves were never fo well (atisfied. To that 
pointj they delired him *' To confer with his Bilhops, who^ 
" they made no queftion, would better inform his Confcience.. 
The Arch-Bi(hop of Tork was at hand^ who, td his Argu- 
ment of Confcience, told him, " That there Was a Private 
"and aPublick Confcience; thathisi publick Confcience as 
"a King, might not only difpenfe With, but oblige him to 
" do that which was againlt his private Conlbience as a Man : 
" and that the Queftion was not. Whether he fliould Save 
" the Earl of Stn^ordy bur, whether he (hould perilh with 
"him : That the Confcience of a King to preferve his King^ 
"dom, the Confcience of a Husband to preferve his Wife^ 
"the Confcience of a Father to preferve his Children (all 
"which were now in danger) weight down abundantly alt 
" the confiderations the Confcience of a Mafter or a Friend 
" could fuggeft to him, for the prefervation of a Friend, or 
"Servant. And by fuch tJnprelatical, Ignominious Argu- 
ments, in plaiiJ terms advifed hirti, "Even for Confcience 
" fake, to pafs that ad. 
Though this Bifliop afted Hi^ part with more prcdf- 
VoL I. Part i. R gious 

^^^ The Utiiory Book III. 

gious Boldnefe and Impiety, Others of the fame Fundtion (for 
whofe Learning and Sincerity the King and the World had 
greater reverence) did not what might have been expe£ted 
from their Calling or their Truft \ but at lealt forbore to for- 
tify and confirm a Confcicnce, upon the courage and piety 
ot which, the fecurity of their Pcrfons and their Order, did 
abfolutely, under God, depend. 

During thcfe perplexities, the Earl of Straffordy taking 
notice of the ftraits the King was in, the Rage of the People 
Itill increafing (from whence he might exoca a certain Out- 
rage and Ruin, how conilant (bevcr the iCing continued to 
him ; and it may be, knowing of an UndertsJang ( for fiich 
an Undertaking there was) by a great Ferfon, who had then 
a Command in the Tower, " That if the King refiifed to pafi 
** the BilL to free the Kingdom from the hazard it (eezn'd to 
** be in. He would caufe his Head to be ftricken ofF in the 
Vi E.iri »/« Tower) writ a moft pathetical Letter to the King, fiJlof 
i.trafford acknowledgment of his Favours; but lively reprefenting 
»r7/^/r» hit " The Dangers, which threatned Himfclf and his Polterity, 
Ud]c(iyt9 "by the King's perfevering in thofe Favours; and therefore 
^.tft it, by many Arguments conjuring him " No longer to defer his 
" Aflent to the Bill, that fo his Death might free the King- 
*^dom from the many troubles it apprehended. 

The delivery of this Letter being quickly known , new 

Arguments were applied ; " That this free conient of his own, 

" clearly abfolv'd the King from any fcruplc that could re- 

*' main with him j and fo in tlic end they extorted from him, 

i.f A.'>A to fign a Commiflion to fomc Lords to pafs the Bill : whicii 

(ij^ns A cotn- ^^5 as Valid as if he had pafs'd it himfclt ^ though they com- 

T .!fr^'. forted him even with that circumftancc* " That His own hand 

,t, " was not in it. 

I T may eafily be faid, that the Freedom of tlie Parliament, 
and his own Negative voice, being thus barbaroully invaded, 
if his Majefty had, inltead of pafling that Adt, come to the 
Houfe and Uiflblv'd the Parliament j or if he had withdrawn 
himfelf ft-om that Seditious City , and put himfelf in the 
head of his own Army; much of tlie raifchief, which hath 
(incc happened, would have been prevented. But whoever 
truly conliders the ftate of Afiairs at that time; the Preva- 
Icncy of that Fadtion in both Houfes ; the Rage and Fury of 
the People; the Ufc that was made by the Schifmatical 
Preachers (by whom the Orthodox were generally filencedj 
of the late Proteltation , in the Pulpits ; tne Fears and Jea- 
louHcs they had infufed ii:to ihc minds of many fbber men, 
upon the difcourfe of the hre Plot; the Conllirution of the 
Council-Table, that there uas fcarlc an honeit man durlt 
fDcak his Confcience to the Ki'ig, for fear of his Ruin : and 


Of the ReheUioriy &a 15-9 

tliat Tliofe whom he thought moft True to him, Bctray'd 
him every hour, infomuch as his whifpers in his Bed Cham- 
ber were inltantly conveyed to Thofe againlt Whom thofe 
Whifpers were , fo that he had very few men to whom he 
could breath his Confcience and Complaints, that were not 
Suborn'd a^inft him, or Averfe to his Opinions : That on 
the other hde, if fome Expedient were not fpeedily found 
out , to Allay that Francick Rage and Combination in the 
People, there was reafbn enough to believe, their Impious 
hands would be lifted up ^inft his own Perfon, and (which 
he much more apprehended ) againO: the Perfon of his Royal 
Confort: and laluy, that (beiides the difficulty of getting 
thither } he had no ground to be very confident of his Own 
Army: I iay. Whoever fadly Contemplates this, will find 
caufe to confefs, the Part which the king had to ad:^ was 
not only harder than any Prince, but than any private Gentle^ 
man had been expofed to^ and that it is much eafier, upon 
the Accidents and Occurrences. which have Since happen'd, 
to determine what was not to .have been done, thui at that 
time to have forefeen, by what means to have fr«ed himfelf 
from the Labyrinth in which he was involved. 

All things being thus tran&fied, to conclude the t^itihttdrii* 
of this great Perfon , He was on the Twelfth day of Msy ^«^^^' ^^k 
brought from the Tower of London ( where he had been f^^*'* 
a Prilbner near fix Months) to the Scafibld on Tower-»Hill^ ' 
where, with a compofed, undaunted Courage, he told the 
People, <' He was come thither to iatisfy them with his Head ; 
<^ but that he much fear'd, the Reformation which was be- 
<<gun in Blood, would not prove fo formnate to the King- 
dom, as Thcv eiqpe^d, and he wiih'^d: and after great 
exprdlions ^ Of his Devotions to the Church of England^ and 
^tne Proteftant Religion dtabliih'd by Law, and profeft'd 
^ in that Church j of his Loyalty to the King, tind AffedioD: 
"to the peace and welfare of the Kingdom^ with marvel- 
lous tranquillity of mind, he delivered his Head to the Blocky 
where it was fever'd from his Body at a Blow. Many of the 
Scanders by, who had not been over charitable to him in his 
Life, being much aSeded With the Courage and Chrtftianity 
of his Death. 

Thus Fell the greateft Sabjedt in power ^ and little in- 
ferior to any in Fortune, that was at that time in any of thcf 
three Kingdoms ; Who could weU remember the time, whcnf 
he led thofe People, who then purfued him to his Grave. 
He was a man of great Parts, and extraordinary Endowments 
of Nature^ not unadorn'd with fome addition of Arc and 
Learning , though that again was more improved and xllu- 
krated by the other; for he had a rcadinefs of Conccption^- 

R i* ' and 

i6o The Hiftory Book III. 

asid (harpnefi of £xi>reflion, which made his Learning thought 
more than in truth it was. His firft inclinations and addret 
fes to the Court, were only to eftabliih his Greatnefs in the 
Country ^ where he apprehended fome adls of Power from 
the Lord Ssvile^ who had been his Rival always there, and 
of late had ifa-engchen'd himfelf by being made a Privy-Coun- 
fellor, and Officer at Court : but his brft attempts were to 
profperous. that he contented not himfelf with being fecure 
from that Lord's Power in the Country^ but refted not, till 
he had bereav'd his adverfary of all power and place in Court; 
and io fent him down, a molt Abjed);, Dilconfplate old man, 
to his Country, where he was to have the Superintendency 
over him too , by getting himfelf at that time made Lord 
Prefident of the North. Thefe Succefles, applied to a na^ 
ture too Elate and Haughty of it feif, and a quicker progrefi 
into the greateft Employments and Truft, made him more 
tranfported with DiCiain of other men, and more Contemn- 
ing the Forms of bufine(s,.than haply he would have beo, 
if he had met with fome Interruptions in the beginning, and 
had pafs'd in a more leifurely gradation to the Office of a 

He was, no doubt, of great obfervatiom'and a piei 

judgment, both in Things, and Perfons; but his too ] 

skill in Perfons, made him judge the worfe of Things : for it 

was his Misfortune, to be in a time wherein very few wife 

men were equally employM with him j and fcarce any ( but 

the Lord Coventry ^ whofe Truft was more confined) wnofe 

Faculties and Abilities were equal to his : So that upon the 

matter he rely'd wholely upon himfelf; and difcerning many 

Defedts in moft men, he too much negleded what they faid 

or did. Of all his Pallions, his Pride was moft predominant : 

which a moderate cxercife of ill Fortune might have corred- 

ed and reformed ; and which was by the hand of Heaven 

ftrangely Punifh'd, by bringing his Deftrudtion upon him by 

Two things that he moft dcfpifed, the People and S"" Harry 

Varie. In a word , the Epitaph which Plutarch records that 

SyUa wrote for himfelf, may not be unfitly applied to him, 

'• That no man did ever exceed him, either in doing good to 

"his Friends, or in doing Mifchief to his Enemies; for his 

afts of both kinds were moft notorious. 

At the fame TOGETHER with that of Attainder of the Earl of Straf- 

'tk^BJit!f ^'^^^^ another Bill was pafs^d by the King , of almoft as Fatal 

[JttJindIr, ^ Confequence both to the King and Kingdom, as that was 

fs paff'd the to the Earl, "The Adt for the perpetual Parliament; as it is 

^iffor the (incc call'd. 

7ht*7lrfia^ 1' H E vaft Charge of the two Armies, was no other way 
T^lnt, '*' ''*' fupplied ( for I Jiave told you before the reafon why they 


Cf the Rehellion^ &c. i5i 

were fo flow in granting of Subfidies ) than by borrowing V)e ^ns h 
great Sums of Money from the City or Citizens of Londany ^^*'^ '*'•» 
upon the Credit of particular Perfons. The Emiffaries in that ^^ TJ' 
Negotiation, about the rime the Adl of Attainder pafs'd the * '*'" 
Commons, recum'd, " That there was no more hope of bor- 
** rowing in the City^ that Men had before cheerfully lent 
^ their Eftates, upon their confidence in the Honour and 
**Juftice of. the twoHoufcsj but they had now confider'd 
** how defperate that Security muft prove, if the two Houfes 
^ fhould be Diffolv'd. Which condderation, b^n to have 
an univerfid Influence upon all Thofc who were Perfonally 
Bound for Moneys already borrow'd ; " For that their Per- 
^*fons and Fortunes muft anfwer thofe Sums which had been 
^ paid for the Publick benefit, if the Parliament ihould be £)ff- 
" lolv'd before any A<a pafs for their Security. That their 
''Fears and Apprehehfions that this might happen, were 
^ much advanced by the late Difcovery of the Plot againft 
**the Parliament;. tor though the particulars thereof were 
^ not yet publifli'd, they difcern'd there was not that good 
'' meaning to the Parliament, as it deferv'd. This was no fooner 
ofier'd,.than the Reafonablenels of the Obje(^on was en- 
forced; and the Neceflity of finding fome Expedient ** To 
'^ fatisfy the People of the gracious intention and Refolution 
'^ of the King ; which were moft unqueftionable ( for in all 
thofe Articles of time, when they were to demand fome un- 
reafonable thing from him, they fpared no dutifiil mention 
of the Piety and Goodne(s of his own Princely Nature; or 
large Promifes what dcmonftrations of Daty they would 
(horty make to him ) No way could be thought of fo fure, as 
an A<5t of Parliament, ''That this Parliament fliould not be 
"Adjourn'd, Prorogu'd, or Diflblv'd but by Afl of Parlia^- 
^ roent; which, upon this occafion, his Majefty would never 
*' deny to Pafs. 

It is not credible, what an univerfal reception and con- 
currence this Motion met with (which was to remove the 
Landmarks, and to deftroy the Foundation of the Kingdom ) 
infomuch, as a Committee was immediately appointed to 
withdraw, and to prepare a ihort Bill to that {Hirpofe ; which 
was within a (hort time (Ids than an liour) brought into 
the Houfe, and immediately twice Read, and Committed ; 
an expedition foarce ever heard of before in Parliament ; and 
the next day, with as little agitation, and the contradidion 
of very few Voices, Ingrofs'd and carried up to the Lords : 
with tnem it had fome Debate, and Amendments, which 
were deliver'd at a Conference, the principal whereof was, 
" That the time fhould be limited and not left indefinite, and 
** that it fliould not be Diflolv'd within two Years, except by 

R 2 "confent 

The Hifiory Book III. 

^^conrent of both Houfes; that time being fiifficientto pro- 
vide againit any Accidents that were then apprehended. 

These Alterations were highly refented in the Houfe of 
Commons, as argument of Jealoufy- between the King and 
the Parliament, ^ That it (hould be imaginable the Members 
"of both Houi'es, who relided from their Houfes and ccmve- 
^^ niences at great charge for the Service of the Publicly would 
^'defireto continue longer together than the neceflity of that 
"Service fluould require; without coniidering, that it was 
more unlikely that the King (who had condefcended b 
far to them, and had yet in truth received no fruit from 
their meeting) would Diflblve them, as long as they in- 
tended that for which they were Summon'd together, and 
cotttain'd thcmfelves within the bounds of Duty and Mo- 

B u T the Commons floutlv infixed on their own Bill ; and 
the Lords, in that hurry of Noife and Cpnfufion, when the 
meetings of the People were fo frequent, kindly Confented 
likewife to it : and io^ by the importunity, and upon the 
undertaking of Perfons he then moil: truited, in the agony 
of the other difpatch, the King was induced to include that 
Bill in the Commifiion with the Ad: of Attainder, and they 
were both Pafs'd together. 

After the Paffing thefe two Bills, the temper and (pint 
of the People, both within and without the walls of the two 
Houfes, grew marvellous calm and compofed; there being 
likewife about that time Pafs'd by the King, the two Bills 
for the taking away the Star-Chamber Court, and the High 
jCommiffion : So that there was not a Grievance or Inconve- 
nience, Real or Imaginary, to which there was not a thorough 
Remedy applied ; and therefore all Men expedted, that both 
Armies would be fpeedily Disbanded, and fuch returns of 
Duty and Acknowledgement be made to the King, as might 
be agreeable to their Profeflions, and to the Royal Favours he 
had vouchfafed to his People. 

^151: what provifions foever were made for the Publick, 
particular Perfons had received no fatisfadtion. The Death 
of the Earl of Bedford^ and the High Proceedings in all rhofe 
Cafes in which the King was moil concerned, left all Thofe 
who expeded offices and Preferments, defperate in their 
hopes : And yet an Accident happened, that might have been 
look'd upon as an earneft or inftance of fome encouragement 
that way. 

B E s r D E s the Lord Sayh being invefted in the Mafterfhip 
of the Wards, in the place of the Lord Cottingfon ( who was 
every day threaten'd upon the Secretary's Paper of Refults, 
to be accufed of High Treafon, till, like a Wife Man, he 



Of the ReheUm, &c. 1 6 1 

ttr'd from the Offices which begot his Trouble ; and for a 
Qg time after, till he again Embark'd himfeU in Publick 
nplovments, enjoy'd himfclf without the leaft difturbance) 
: a Committee in the Houfe of Lords, in the Afternoon, in 
Kime Debate, Paflion arofe between the Earl of Femhr^e^ 
who was then Lx)rd Chamberlain of the Houlhold, and die 
Lord Mowh^y eldeft Son of the ^Eaxl of Arundel-^ and ftt>m 
tngry and diidainftil Words, an ofter or attempt of Blows 
was made; for which Mifdcmeanour, they were the next day 
both fent to the Tower by the Houfe of Lords. The King ihi KJng 
taking advantage of this mifcarriagc; and having been long c'*^^'?,* 
inccnled, by the Paflionate, Indifcreer, and Infolent Carriage clawLu 
of the Earl, fent to him, by a Gentleman Uflier, for his Staff"; from the 
and within two or three days after, beftow*d it upon the Earl ^ari of 
ofEffex : who, without any hefitation, took it. Pcmbrok 

It was thought this extraordinary grace to the moft Popu- ^^' ,if/t" 
lar Perfon of the Kingdom, would have a notable influence of Eiltx. 
upon the whole Party, which made Him believe it depended 
very much on him : But it was fo far from having tnat ef- 
fedt, as they look'd upon that favour, rather as a mark of 
Punishment and Revenge upon the Earl of PlMreh^ for his 
affedtion to them , and for giving his Suffrage againii the 
Earl of Strafford f which he had often profefs'd to the King 
he could never in Conicience do ) than of efteem and kind- 
neis to the Earl of Effex ; and fo they were in truth more of- 
fended and incehied with the Difgrace and difobligation to 
the One, than they were plcafed with the Preferment of the 
Other: therefore whatever concern'dthe King in Right; or 
what he might naturally cxpeft from the Compliance and Af- 
fedlion of the Houfe ; or what was any way recommended by 
his Majelly to them, found little or no Relped:. ^^^ ^^^^^ 

H I s Revenue was fo far from being advanced ( as had thllai^of 
been glorioufly promifed) that it was borh in Dignity znd Tonnage m 
Value, much lellen'd from what it was. For ihortly after the Fawndagc. 
beginning of the Parliament^ great Complaint had been made, 
** That Tonnage and Poundage ( which is the Duty and Sub- 
fidy paid by the Merchant upon Trade ) " had been taken by 
**tne King without confentof Parliament; the cafe whereof 
in truth is this : This Duty had been conftanrly given to 
the Succeeding King, ever (ince the Reign of King Edward 
the Fourth, for his Life, in the Firit Parliament they held 
after their coming to the Crown : Before that time, it had 
been granted for years; and was originally intended for the 
fupport o( the Navy, whereby the Merchant might be freed 
from danger of Pirates ; and upon the death of every King 
fince that time, his SuccefTor commonly recciv'd it, without 
the leaft interruption, till the next Parliament; in the be- 

R 4. ginning 

?.^4- TheHiftory Book III 

ginniiig whereof it was always without icruple granted : So 
that, though it was, aad mqft always be acknowledged^ as the 
free gift of the People ( as all other SubGdies are ) yet it wfs 
\6oKa upon as fo Eflential a part of the Revenue of the 
Crown, that it could not be without it ; and as the King is 
not left tUng before his Coronation than he is after, to this 
Duty had been dill enjo/d as freely before, as it was after 
an A4 of Parliament to that purpofe^ neither had thjere been 
ever any Exception taken in Parliament (which fometipies 
was not in' a Year after the Death of the former King ) tl^it 
the Crown had continued the Receipt of it ^ which it did, dli 
Itfae time of a new Grant. 

Thus, after the death of King^amesy his Majel^receiv'd 
^t, till the Firft Parliament was Summoned ^ and, That aod 
Two more being unfortunately Diflolv'd (as was faid before) 
in which his Minifters were not felicitous enough for the 

gaffing that Aft for Tonnage and Poundage, continued the 
.eceipt of it tiU thi$ prefcnt Parliament : Then (that is, many 
weeks, after the beginning pf it) it was diredted, ^^ That a 
^ Bill fliould be fpeedily prepar'd for the granting it, as had 
^< been ufual, 4efl: the Cro^n might, by fo long enjoying, in 
^ a manner prefcribe to it*qf Right, without the dohatioa 
*^ of the People ^ whiich the King always ditclaim'd to do. 
Shortly after ( no Man prefuming to intimat^ that it Qiould 
be granted in any other manner than of courfe it had been) 
it was alledg'd " That the Bill could not be fo fpeedily prepar'd 
*^as were to be wiQi'd, by reafon that there were many jqft 
*^ Exceptions made by the Merchants to the Book of Rates, 
"which had been lately made by the Farmers of the Oi- 
5* ftpms, in the time and by the dirtdtion of the Earl of 
f* Portland ( Circumftances that carried prejudice enough to 
whatfoever they were applied ) and therefore it was propofed, 
for the prefent, as the bd^ expedient to continue his Ma- 
iefty's oupply, and to preferve the Right of giving Jn the 
People, " That a Temporary Bill fliould pafs, for the granting 
*^ the fame to his Majetty for two Months only, in which 
" time a new Book of Rates fliould be made, more advan- 
** tageous to his Majeity in point of profit T which was always 
profelsM ) " and then a Compleat Adt mignt pals. 

To this purpofe a Bill was accordingly brought in, the 
Preamble whereof " Renounced and declar'd againlt not only 
*•* any power in the Crown of Levying the Duty of Tonnage 
" and Poundage, without the Exprcfs confent of Parliament, 
" but alfb any power of Impofition upon any Merchandizes 
"whatfoever, and in any cafe whatfoever; which had been 
conltantly pradtifed in the befl times by the Crown j had the 
countenance of a folemn Judgment in the Exchequer Cham- 


OftheRehellion, Sec. ±6s 

ber J and though often agitated in Parliament^ had never been 
yet dedar'd agaiqft: Tec this quietly jpafs'd both Houfes, 
as a thing not worth conGdering. And fo in expedlation and 
confidence, that they would xnake glorious Additions to the 
State and Revenue of the Qown, ms Majedy fufier'd himfelf 
to be Stripped oJF all that he had left ^ and of the ible ilodc 
of Credit ne had to borrow Moneys upon : for though in truth 
Men knew that Revenue was not L^Uy veiled in the 
King till an A& of Parliament, yet all Men look'd upon it 
as unqueftionable to Pa& ^ and fo it was not only a compe- 
tent propcMTtion for the preient iiipport of his Houfe, but was 
junderflood a good Security for any ordinary Sum of Money 
upon advance, as forty or fifty thouiand pound, upon any 
emergent occaiion. 

All good Men diicem'd this grofs u&ge, and the difad- ^'»«rA" 
vantage impofed upon his Majetty by this mutation j ^^Pilttam^ 
therefore expe&ed a fiill Reparation, by fuch an Ad for Life theCtwrtMi 
as had been ufiial ; and fuch an improvement of the Book of the ..^ 
Rates as had been promiicd, as loon as the bufinefe of the rniv'dm 
Earl of Strafford was over : which had been always obje&ed, ^^J^ *' 
as necefi&ry to precede all other confultations. But this was 
no (boner mov'd, <<AsSea(bnable in order to Their own 
^^ Prpfeflions, and in a d'q^ee due to the King, after fo many 
<^ reiterated exprd&ons or Favour and AlSedion to his People, 
^^ by fo many excellent Laws^ and other Condefcenfions ; than 
theyobjeded^ ^TheOdio^fneis of the late Plota^nlt the 
** Parliament, which was not yet fiiUy difcover'd : That not- 
<< withftanding thofe gracious demonftrations of Favour from . 
^the King, in the Laws and other A£ts mention'd. They 
<^ had great caufe tp apprehend^ fbme ill afieded Perlbnshad 
<< ftill an influence upon his Nl ajefty, to the Diflervice of the 
<< Parliament, and to beget Jealosies in Him towards them ; 
'^for that they had plaimy difcover'd (which they fhould in 
<<ihort time be able to prefent fully to the Houfe) that 
<< there had been a Defign, not only to Poyfon the AfieCtions 
^ of the Army towards the Parliament, by making them be- 
^ believe that They were negleded, and the Scots preferr'd 
<^much before them; but to bring up that Army to Londojty 
<^ with a purpofe to Awe the Parliament : That there was a 
^ refolution to Seixe the Tower, and to make it a Curb upon 
*^ the Qty ; That there had been an attempt to prevail with 
^ the Officers of the Scott$(b Army, at leaft to fit Itill as Neu- 
<' ters, whilft the Others a<2ed this Tragedy : That the Con- 
^ federates in this Defign had taken an Oath, to Oppofe any 
<< courfe that (hould be advifed for the Removing the Bifhops 
** out of the Houfe of Peers ; to Preferve and Defend the 
^ King's Pjrerogacive, to the utmoft extent that any of his 

' "Proge- 

z66 The Hi/iory Book III. 

^ Prcfgenitors had enjoy'd ; and to fettle his Majdty's Rcve- 
«« nue : That they had reafon to fear his Majefty*s own Con- 
^ currcnce, at Jeaft his Approbation in this defign (which, 
^if not prevented, muft have prov'd Co pernicious and &tal 
«« to the Kingdom ) for that, beudes that the Perfons princi- 
* pally engag'd in if, were of the neareft Truft about the 
<^King and Queen, They had clear proof, that a Paper had 
«pafs'd his Majefty's perufal, in which were contain'd, many 
<<iharp Invcdives againft the Parliament; a deRrc that they 
«mignt have the exercife of Martial Law (the niention 
« whereof, was the moft Unpopular and Odious thing that 
"could be imagined) and an offer of Service to Ded^nd his 
« Majefty's Pcrfon, which was an implication as if it had been 
<« in Danger : and that this Paper fliould have been Sign'd by 
<« all the Officers of the Army ; for the better encouragement 
« wherein, the King himfelf had written a C. and an J?, as a 
« teftimony that He approved of it. 

This Difcourfc, fo Methodically and Confidently averr'd, 
made a ftrange ImpreHion (without referving themfelves till 
the evidence f hould be produced ) in the minds of moft Men ; 
who bcliev'd, that fuch particulars could nevet have been 
with that Solemnity inform'd, if the proofs were not very 
clear ; and fcrv'd, not only to blaft whatfoever was mov'd 
on his Majefty's behalf, but to difcountenance, what, till 
then, had been the moft Popular motion that could be made, 
which was the Disbanding both Armies, and the Scots re- 
turn into their own Country. For the better accompliflimcnt 
;ooooo 1. whereof, and as a Teftimony of their Brotherly Af6(9dons,the 
I'l. .i t9 the two Houfes had frankly and bountifully undertaken, « To 
^for.sfora «give them a Gratuity of three hundred thoufand pounds, 
b^^dT^heir^^^^^^ ^"^ above the twenty five thoufand pounds the 
hCitlij'Ii' " Month, during the time that their ftay here ihould be ne- 
UtffMJcc, " ceflary. 

After that AS, the King might have been reafonably 
awaked from any extraordinary Confidence in the Loyalty, 
Honour, or Jufticc, of both Hotifes. And without doubt, 
when Pofteriry Ihall recover the Courage, and Confcience, 
and the old Honour, of the Englijb Nation, it will not with 
more Indignation and Blulhes contemplate any adbion of this 
Seditious and Rebellious Age, than that the Nobility and 
Gentry of England^ who were not guilty of the Trcafon, 
fhould recompenfe an Invafion from a r orreign Nation, with 
whatever Eftabliftiments They propofed in their own King- 
dom, and with a Donative of three hundred thoufand 
pounds, over and above all Charges, out of the bowels ot 
England j which will yet appear the more prodigious, when 
it fliall be confider'd that not a Fifth pare of thofe who were 



Of the Rebellion^ &c. 167 

Acceffaries to that Infamous Prodigality, were either fevourcfs 
of" their Ends, or great Well-wifhers to their Nation. 

But very many Mve themfelves leave, unfaithfully, to 
be abfent from thofe Debates, when the Wealth and Honour 
of their Country was to be tranfplanted into a Itrange Land; 
Others look'd upon it as a good purchafe , to be freed of 
the payment or Fourfcore Thouiand pounds the Month 
( which was the Cha^e of both Armies ) by an entire Sum 
of Three fiundred Thoufand pounds; and fome pleafed 
themfelves with an aflurance, that the Scandal, and Unrea- 
ibnablenefs of the Sum, would provoke the People to a Ha- 
tred and Revenge, and fo that the Brother-hood would not 
be Supported , but Deftroy^d , by that extravagant Bounty : 
Yet thefe were only (hort Ejaculations to pleafe themfelves 
for the time; for many of thofe, who had no other reafon 
to confent to that vait Sum , but that they might be rid of 
them, were fb inflam'd and tranfported with the Tale of the 
Plot, that they had then no mind to let them go ; and had 
fo far fwallow'd and digefted an aflurance that it was true, 
that they referv'd no Diltinguifhing or Judging faculties, for 
the time when the Evidence and Proof (hould be prefented 
to them. 

After they had play'd with this Plot, and given the 
Houfe heats and colds, by applying parts of it to them upon 
emergent occafions, for the fpace of near three Months^ and 
finding, tlmt though it did them many notable Services, in ad^ 
vancing their own Reputations, and Calumniating the King's 
Honour, yet, that it had not a through efiedt at Court tov 
their Preferment; they refblv'd to Ihew all their Ware, and 
to produce their whole Evidence : for the perfecting whereof^ 
they had ^ A late mark of God's great favour towards them, 
" in his furnilhing them with Evidence for the compleat Dif- 
^^xrovery of the whole Mifchicf, from one that was a principal 
^ Contriver of it. 

We faid before,- that upon the firft Motion in the Houfe 
of Commons, by M' Pyw, "For a Committee of Examination, 
"and for an Addrefs to the King, that he would grant no 
^' PafTcs to any of his Servants to go beyond Seas, fome Per- 
fons , of near relation to his Truft , immediately abfented 
themfelves ; which were M^ Pe/Vf^, and MFJermyn : now the 
latter of thefe, without interruption, tranfporredf himfeJf into 
France'^ but M*" Feircy^ delaying his Journey upon fome occa- 
fions of his own, and concealing himfelf in fome obfcure places 
in Suffkx^ near to his Brother's Houfe, was at laft difcover'd ; 
and when he endeavoured to have efcaped, was fet upon by 
the Country people, and with great difficulty, and not without 
fome hurt, got from them, and was not in fome Months again 
heard of. 1 t 

d8 The Hiftory Book III. 

• It wflf generally believ'd afterwards, that finding the Sea- 
Porcs (hut, and Watches fe: for his apprehenfion in all thofe 
places, whereby the Tranfporting hi.iifelf into Forreign Parts 
was verv di£Eculr, he found means to return to Lowd^n^ and 
to put nimfelf into his Brother's Protection; where it is 
thought he was harbour'd, till his hurt was cured ; the ftrid- 
nefs of the enquiry, over; and, till he had prepared that Letter 
to his Brother/ the Earl of NorthumherUndj which ferv'd, as 
far as in Him lay , to deftroy all his Companions , and iiir- 
nifli'd the Committee with that which they call'd, ^^ A double 
"Evidence: for they had no .fooner received that Letter 
from the Earl of NorthumhrlMndy than they told the Houfe, 
"They were now ready for a Compleat Difcovery^ and 
thereupon, produced the Evidence of Colonel Gormg , and 
the Letter from M^ Feircy ; both which agreed upon the re- 
lation, "Of a meeting at M"^ Peircfs Chamber; and of a dif- 
"courfe of the Parliament's Negleft of the King's , and Fa- 
" vouring the Scot^ Army; the taking an Oath of Secrecy; 
^' and fome other particulars : all which had been pofitivelj 
denied, by thofe of them that were Members of the Houie 
of Commons, M*" Wdmot, M^ y§jkhurnhai/f^ and M*^ VoUard^ 
upon their Examinations upon Oath. 

I T will hardly be believ'd hereafter ( but that the Ededs 
of fuch Impoftures have left fuch deep Marks ) that the Evi- 
dence Then given, could , in fo Grave and Judging an Af- 
fcmbly, as a High Court of Parliament, till then, had always 
been, have brought the leait prejudice upon the King ; or in- 
deed, damage to any Perfon accufed : there being in all the 
Teftimonies produced, fo little (hew of Proof, of a real 
Defign, or Plot, to bring up the Army (which was the chief 
matter alledg'd) to Awe the Parliament, that in truth it was 
very evident , there was no Plot at all ; only a free Com- 
munication between Perfons ( the major part whereof were 
of the Houfc) "Of the ill Arts that were generally ufedto 
*^ Corrupt the AfFedtions of the People; and of fome Expe- 
dient, whereby, in that fo publick infedlion, the Army (in 
which they had all confiderable Command, two of them being 
General Officers) ^^ Might be prefcrv'd from being wrought 
^^upon and corrupted; in which difcourfc Colonel Goring 
himfclf, as appear^ by his own Examination, only propofed 
wild and extravagant Overtures, "Of bringing up the Army, 
^^ and fumriling the Tower; which was, by all the reft, with 
" manifeft diQike , rejected ; That all this had pafs'd at one 
"meeting, in which. They who met were fo ill fatisfied in 
^* one another , that they never would come together again. 
" That when the bringing up the Army to Umdon was once 
^^ talked of before the King, his Majcfty would not hear of it, 

« but 

Of the Rehellion^ &c. ^6^ 

<< but only defired^ that their Afiedtions might be kept en« 
<< tire for his Service, as ikr as was coofiftent with the Laws 
^^ of the Land, which were in danger to be invaded. 

Yet, notwithitanding that aU this appeared ^ and that 
this was all that did appear ( beiides a Diicourfe of a Petition ; . 
for the Petition it felt they would not produce, fign'd with 
C R* which is before fet down in terms) the Specious, Po- 
fitivc Narration of the whole, by M' Py», before the Evi- 
dence was read^ the Denying wnat was Now proved, and 
confefi'd by themfelves, by Mr Wilmoty Ajhhumbam^ and 
T^Uardy upon the Former Examination ^ the Flight of Mr 
Jermjny and' Mr Feircy^ and (bme others; the mention of 
tome daufes in the Petition fign'd with c. R'-, and fome en- 
vious, dark glances, both in Mr Garm^s Examination, and 
Mr Pe/rry's Letter, at the King and Queen, as if They knew 
more than was exprefs'd, fo tranfported the Hearers (who 
made themfelves Judges too J that taking all that was £ud, 
to be proved, they quickly voted, " That there was a defipi 
**to bring up the Army to force the Parliament; refolv'd to 
accufe Mr Jermn and M' Peircy of High Treafon ; commit- 
ted the three Members of the Houfe of Commons to feveral 
Prifons, and put them from being Members, that in their 
rooms thev might bring in three more fit for their fervice, as 
they (hortly did ; gave Colonel Goring publick thanks, «* For 
^^preferving the Kingdom, and the Liberties of Parliament^ 
and fiird the People with Jealoufy for their Security , and 
with univer&l Acclamations of their great wifdom and vi- 
gilancy. So that this Plot ferv'd to produce their firit Pro- 
teftation ; to inflame the People againft the Earl of Strafford^ 
and in a degree to compafs their ends upon that great Per- 
fon, as hath been before obferv'd; to procure the Bill for 
the continuance of this Parliament, the Foundation , or the 
Fountain, of all the publick Calamities; to hinder and crois 
all overtures made for the Revenue of the King, iand to lef* 
fen the general Reverence and Duty to both their Majeftics; 
to continue the Scotijh Army within the Kingdom, and con- 
fequentlv, to hinder the King's from being Disbanded ; to 
incenfe ooth Houfes againft the Bifliops, as if the delign had 
been principally for Their protedion (tiiere being one Wit- 
nefs who faid, '^ fie had been told, that the Clergy would 
*«raife and pay one thoufand Horfe, to be employ'd againft 
^<the Parliament) to blaft the reputation of the Earl of 
Kena CaftU^ whofe zeal to his Majefty's Service was moft re- 
markable, as if he had been to have Commanded the Army ; 
and laftly, to advance their own credit and estimation with 
the People, as if they were the only Patriots, that intended 
the Prelervation of Religion, Law, and Liberty. 


70 The Utfiory Book III. 

And having made this ufe of it ("which is a iufficient ar« 
gument what opinion they had of Their own Evidence) 
They never Proceeded againfl: any of the Perfons who were 
in their power, though they patiently attended and impor- 
tuned a Trial above a year after their Accu&tion : for thq 
well knew, there mult be then a more exadt and ftri£t wei^ 
ing of tfie Proofs ^ and that the Perfons accufed, would not 
only vindicate Themfelves from the afperfions which were 
laid upon them, but could Recriminate upon the principal 
Frofecutors with fuch charges, as they would not fb eahly 
be freed from^ and this was the reafon, tliat, even during 
the heat and noiie of their Accuiation, they received very ci- 
vil ofHces, vifits, and addrefles, from the coief of thoie who 
were trufted with the Profccution. 

The fending that Letter of Mr Veircfs to the Houfeof 
Commons ^ or rather , the procuring that Letter to be writ 
(in which, fuch infinuations were made, to the prejudice rf 
the King and Queen ) was the firit vifible inltance of the 
dcfe&ion of theHarl of Northumherland from his Majefl/s 
Service^ which wrought feveral ill efieds in the minds of 
xpany : tor as the £ari then had the mofl: efleem'd and ud^ 
blemiQi'd Reputation in Court and Country, of any Perfbn of 
his Rank throughout xht Kingdom; fo They who knew 
him well, difcern'd, that the Greatnefs of that Reputation, 
was but an eflfcdt of the fingular Grace and Favour fliew'd 
to him by his Majcfty j who, immediately upon the death of 
his Father, had talvcn this liarl ( being then lefe than Thirty 
years of age ) into his immediate and eminent Care ; firit 
made him a Privy-Counlellor j then Knight of the Order of 
the Garter; then fthat he might fit him by degrees for the 
grcateft Trufl: ana Employments) fcnt him Admiral into the 
Narrow Seas, of a Royal Navy; and after a Summer fpent 
in that* excrcife, made him Lord High Admiral o^ England ,, 
•and to the very minute of which we (beak, profecuted him 
with all manner and dcmonftration of Refped: and Kindneli; 
and ( as 1 heard his Majefty himfelf fay) " Courted liim as 
*' his Miftrcfs, and Convcrfcd with him as his Friend, with- 
*' out the lealt interruption or intermiflion of any poiTibie 
*' favour and kindncls. And therefore many, who obferv'd 
this great Earl purchafe this oppormnity of Diflcrving the 
King, at the price of his Brother's honour, and of his Own 
gratitude, concluded, that he had fomc notable temptation 
in Conlcicncc, and that the Court was much v/orfc than i: 
was behev'd to be. 

The truth is, that after his Brother's being accufed oi 

High Trcafon ; and then , upon his hurt in Stiffex , coming 

dircdtly to N^rtkuwhr/ajM-louk to Ihclter him'idf ; the Ear! 

i beins 

Of the Rebellion, &c. 171 

bq^ng in great trouble how to fend him awav beyond the 
Seas after his wound was cured , advifed with a confident 
Friend then in Power , whofe afiedbion to him he doubted 
not^ and who, innocently enough, brought Mr Fym into the 
Council, who over-witted them both, by frankly confenting, 
** That Mr Feircy fliould efcape into France^ which was all the 
care the Earl had ; but then obliged him , " Firft to draw 
<^fuch a Letter from him, as might by the Party be applied 
^* as an Evidence of the reality of the Plot , after he was 
'^ efcaped ^ and in this maimer the Letter was procured, which 
made a kiting Quarrel between the two Brothers, 'and made 
the Earl more at the difpofal of thofe perCons whom he had 
trufted fb &r, than he had been before. 

After the Adl for the Continuance of the Parliament, 
the Houfe of Commons took much more upon them , in 
point of their Privileges, than they had done ^ and more un* 
dervalued the Concurrence of the Peers ^ though that Ad, 
neither added any thing to, nor extended their Jurifdidion: 
which |urifdidlion, the wifilom of former times kept from 
being Limited or Defined ^ there being Then no danger of 
excels ; and it being much more agreeable to the nature of 
the Supreme Court to have an unhmited Jurifdidion. But 
now that they could not be Diflolv'd without Their Own 
confent (the Apprehenfion and Fear whereof, had always 
before kept them within fome bounds of Modeity ) they 
caird any Power they pleafed toaffume toThemfelv^ "A 

rr tt . ^1 ^r.i _• i^ • -i i ^-v n _„ A^ fLz 


"and They were the Only proper Judges of Their Own Pri- 
" vileges. 

Hereupon, They call'd whom they pleased, Delinquents ; 
received Complaintsof all kinds j and committed to Prifon 
whom they pleas'd : which had been never done, nor attempt- 
ed, before This Parliament : except in fome fuch 
Breach, as the Arrefting a Priviledg'd perlbn , or the like : 
And, as if Theirs had fwallow'd up all other Privileges, of 
Peers, and the Kinghimfclf, upon the Lords rcjeding a Bill 
fent up to them, "To compel all perfons (without diffandtion 
of Quality j and without diltindlion of Puniihment or Pro- 
ceeding, upon their refufal ) " To take the late Proteftation ; 
and two Lords of great Credit ( the Earl oi Southampton^ and 
the Lord Ro^rts ) having refufed to take the fame ; the 
Houfe of Commons in great Fury, and with many eamreffi- 
ons of Contempt, by a Vote declared, " That the Proteftation 
^^made by Them, was fit to be taken by every perlbn, that 
*^ was well aflcdted in Religion, and to tne good of the Com- 

" mon- 

174 TheHiftory Book III. 

to the Scots of Three Hundred Thoufind pounds, for Ae 
Service They had performed ; and an Ad: was already pre- 
pared for the raifing the Sum : but They had yet no nund td 
part with their beloved Brethren. 

The Commiflioners who treated with the Scots^ hid t- 
greed, << That the King (hould be prefent in his Parliament in 
*^ Edenhoroughybj fuch a day in Jnfy^ to Pats the AGi for I^ 
<* cification between the two Kingdoms, and fuch odier Adi 
^ as his Parliament there fliould propofe to him ; and hit 
Majdty prepared to begin his Progrds, foon enough to be 
in Scotiand by the time ^ and they rciolv'd on all (ides, << That 
^ the one Army (hould be drawn out of the Kingdom, aod 
^ the other totally Disbanded, before the King (hould arrive 
^ in the Northern parts, for many reafons. As They hid 
loft all confidence in the aSedtions of the EMgli/b Army, fo 
there were many Jealoufies arifen among the Scots ^ both in 
their Army, and amon|(t their greateft Counfellors: not- 
withftandine all which, inftead of making hafte to the DiC^ 
banding. They publith'd much Jealoufy and Diffiitisfiidioa 
to remain with them, of the Court j "There were foroeevil 
<' Counfellors (till about the King, who obftruded many 
^gracious zQs^ which would othcrwife flow from his good- 
^ nefs and bounty towards his People ^ and made ill impicP 
^^ (ions in him, of the Parliament it felf, and its proceedings. 

Their defign was to remove the Duke of Richmond from 

the King; both becaufe they had a mind to have his OflBce 

of Warden of the Cinque-Ports from him, that it might be 

conferred on the Earl of Warwick^ and as he was almo(i the 

Only man of great Quality andConfideration about the Kix^ 

who did not in the lealt degree (loop, or make court to 

them, but crofs'd them boldly in the Houfe ; and all other 

Ways purfued his Mailer's Service, with his utmoft vigour 

and intentnefs of mind : They could not charge him with 

any thing like a Crime, and therefore only intended by fomc 

Vote to Brand him, and make him Odious; by which they 

prefum'd, they (hould at lalt make him willing to ran(bme 

himfelf by quitting that Office : For which, there was (bme 

underhand treaty, by perfons who were follicitous to prevent 

farther inconvcniencies; and as they found any thin^ like to 

fucceed in that, they ilacken'd or advanced their dilcourfe of 

Evil Counfellors. 

One day they were very warm upon the Argument, and 
had a purpoi'e to have named Him dircdely, which they had 
hitherto forborn to do, wiien Mr Hyde ftood up, and (aid. 
« He did really believe that there yet remained fome Evil 
'< Counfellors, who did much harm about the King ; and 
^'rhar it would be much better to Name themi dian to 
i « Amufe 

Of the Relellion^ Sec. a7y 

^ Amufe the Hoafe fo often wid) the general mention of 
^ them, as if we were a&aid to name them : He propofed, 
^ that there might be a day appointed, on which, upon due 
^ refledions upon Thofe who had been moft notorious in 
^^ doing Mifchief to the Publick, we might molt probably 
•* find. Who they were who trod ftill in the fame paths, and 
<^ might Name them accordingly: and that for His part, if a 
? day were appointed for that difcovery, He would be ready 
<<to name One, who by all the marks we could judge by> 
^ and by his former courfe of Life might very reafonably be 
5^ believed to be an Evil Counfellor. 

They were excedingly apprehenfive that he meant the 
^darquis of lUmittim (who, for the reafons aforefaid, waf 
very dear to them ) and thenceforward, though they de^ 
fiftra not from profecuting the Duke, till at laft they had 
compell'd him to quit the Qnque^Ports to the Earl of War- 
mcty They no more urged the difcovery of Evil Counfellor^. 
And all the Familiar Friends of Mr Hyde^ were importuned 
to move him, ^ Not to endeavour to do any Prejudice to the 
<< Marquis of Hamilton y and even the King himielf, was pre- 
vail'd with to fend to him to that purpofe ; So induftnous 
was that People to preferve Thofe whom for private ends 
they defir'd to Preferve, as well as to Deftroy Thofe who they 
deur'd fliould be deftroy'd. • c j j 

Wh EN every body expefled that nothingfhould be men- ^f^lf 
tion'd in the Houfe but the difpatch of the Treaty of the Pa- mfoftjt^ 
ctfication, by the Commiflioners of both ildes; which waSf;r/>4/iii;£^ 
Ae only obftruSion to the difcharee of the Armies, mdP'f^P^'J^' 
which could be done in two days, if they purfued it : They '^V^ 
call'd in a Morning, ^ For the Bill ( that had fo long before c^m/nsi 
been brought in byS^EJipard D(fermg) ^For theExtirpa««ff^rem# 
*<tion of Epifcopacy; and gave it a Second readings and mittH, 
Refolv'd, ^ That it mould be committed to a Committee of 
^ the whole Houfcu and that it ihould be proceeded upon the 
^ next Morning. It was a very long Debate the next Morn<^ 
kig, siter the Speaker had left the Chair, Who (hould be in 
the Chair for the Committee ; They who wifh'd well to the 
Bill, having refolv'd " To put Mr Hyde into the Chair, that he 
^ might not give them trouble by frequent Speaking, and fo 
^ too much obflrud the expediting the Bill ; They who were 
ag^nft the Bill, prefsid and call'd loud to Mr Cre» to be in 
the Chair : but in conduiion, Mr Hyde was commanded to 
tiie Chair ^ They who were enemies to the Bill being divided 
in opinion, many believing, that he would obftrudt the Bill 
more in that place, than if he remained at liberty j and they 
found it to be true. 

The Firft day the Committee fat full fevea hours, and 

S % ^etcr-; 

a76 The Hiftory Book HI. 

detentiin'd, ^< That every day, aflbon as the Houfe was r6> 
^ filmed, the CfaainDao thould report the feveral Votes of 
^thot day to the Houfe, which fliould determine them be- 
<<fore it rofe; which was without any Precedent, and very 
Prejudicial to the grave tran&£tion of the bulinefs : For, be- 
lides that it was a Prejudg^g the Houfe in its judgemeoi^ 
who, upon Report of the Committee, ihould have regard to 
the whole Bill in the Amendments made by them, which 
They were precluded from, by having confirmed the fevenl 
days Votes ; It was fo late every day before the Houfe was 
relumed (the Speaker commonly leaving die Chair about 
nine of the Clock, and never refuming it till Four in the 
Afternoon) that it was very thin^ They only, who profe- 
cuted the Bill with impatience, remainii^ inthe Houie,aDd 
the Others, who abhorr'd it, growing weary of fo tirefome 
an attendance, left the Houfe at Dinner time, and afterwards 
followed their Pieafures : So that the Lord FalkUmd was wont 
to fey, ^^ That They who hated Bifliops, hated them work 
^ timn the Devil, and that They who lov'd them^did not love 
^ them fo well as their Dinner. 

However, the Chairman gave (bme flop to their hade ; 
fbr, befides xhat at the end of his Report every day to the 
Houfe, before the Houfe put the Queftion for the concur- 
rence in the Votes, He always enlarged himfelf againfl every 
one of them, and fo fpent them much time^ V7hen They 
'Were in the heat and paQion of the Debate, they oftentimes 
were entangled in their queilions ^ fo that when He Report* 
ed to the Houfe the work of the day, he did frequently Re- 
port two or three Votes diredUy contrary to each other, 
which in the heat of their Debate, they had unawares run 
into. And after near Twenty days fpent in that manner, 
they found themfelves very little advanced towards a Con- 
duiion, and vhat they muft Review all that they had done: 
and the King being refolv'd to begin his Journey for ScQtUni^ 
They were forced to difoontinue their beloved Bill, and let 
Thtt Bill it reft ; Sr j^rthur Hajlerig declaring in the Houfe, ^' That he 
taidaftde. ^^qqI^;! nevct hereafter put an Enemy into the Chair: nor 
had they ever after the courage to refume the conQderation of 
the Bill, till after the War was entred into. 

The tinre being come, within two or three days (accord- 
ing to his former Declaration ) for the King's Journey into 
Scotlandy the Houfe of Commons thought it time to lay afide 
their Disputes upon the Church, which every day grew more 
involv'd, and to intend the perfedting the Adt of Pacifica- 
tion, and the Order for Disbanding; both which were thought 
neceflfary to be difpatch'd, before his Majefty Ihould begin 
his Progrefs^ and might have been long lince done. Qn a j 


Of the Relellion^ &c. 177 

fuddain, the Houfe of Commons grew into a perplex'd De- 
bate, concerning the Kmg's Journey into Scotland (which liad 
been long before known, and folemnly promifed by his Ma- 
jefty to the Commiflioners of Scotland-^ .where preparation 
was made for his Reception , and the Parliament Summon'd 
there accordingly) and exprefled many dark and doubtiiil ap^ 
prehenGons of his Safety , not without fome glances, " That 
** if his Majefty were once with his Army, he might poilibly 
** enter upon new Counfels , before he comented to iJisband 
*^ it; and in the end concluded, " To defire the Lords to join 
*^with them, in a requeft to the King, to defer his Journey 
^^ into Scotiamdj till the A& of Pacification was pafs'd , the 
'^ Aripies Disbanded, and till fudi other Ads were prepared, 
*^a5 Qiould be thought neceflary for the good of the King- 
*^dom; without mentioning any time, againft which thoie 
things fhould be ready : which , thoug;h it was an unreaibn- 
able requeit, yer, moft Men having no mind the King fhould 
go into Scotland^ it was confented to by both Houies ; and 
thereupon, an Addrefs was made to his Majeily to that pur- 
pofe; who retum'd his Anfwer, <^ That He was forry, the' 
^^ Houfes having had fo long notice of his inteiitions for that 
** Journey (which could not but appear very reafonable to 
*^ them ) had negledled to prepare all fuch things, as were f^e- 
** ceffiiry to be difpatchM by him before he went j That ^ 
<< though his prefence in ScotUnd was depended upon, by 
^ fuch a day, and the Difappointment might b^g^t fome Brc- 
**judice to him. yet he was content to fatipfy Their defircs 
*^ ib far , as to cieter his Journey for Fourteen days ; within 
'^ which time they might make all things ready that were of 
^ Importance ai^d beyoi>d which time it would not be pdfible 
•* for him to make any ftay. 

This time being gotten. They proceeded but flowly in 
the DireOions for Disbandii^ ( though the Earl of HMland 
was gone down to the Army ) or in the A<3: of the Pacifica- 
tion; b(it conunued their mention ^' Of Fears andjealoufies, 
** of the Peace of the Kingdom ; of an Invafion fiiom Forreigri 
^^ Parts; and an Infurre^on of the Papiits in EMgland: a- 
^^gainft all which, they faid, there was not vec Sufficient 
<< rrovifion, by the Laws and Conffitution of me Kingdom. 
And therefore one day, S^. Artimr Haflerig (who, as was^rAnlior 
faid before, was Ufed by that Party, like the Dove out of Hafl^^'g . 
the Ark, to try what footing there was) preferred a Bill^''^!r'f.*'' 
« For the Settlii^ the Militia of the Kingdom, both by SeafJ^^rtZ 
'^ and Land, innich Perfons as they fhould nominate ; with 
all thofe Powers and Jurifdi&ions , which have been fince 
granted to the Earl of EJpx^ or S' Tl9$m4i$ Bairfaxy by Land. 
cS- tQ the Earl o^' W^rmk. by Sea. Tb^re were iQ the BiM 

5 1 ^. 


8 The Rtftory Book III. 

no Names , but Blanks to receive them , when die matter 
fhould be pafs'd: though Meii were aflured^ that the Eari of 
EJfix was their Confident by Land, and the £arl of Nvrthmh 
her land by Sea : and yet the inclination to the Earl of Wn^ 
vick would have begot fome difturbance, if the matter had 
come then to beprefe'd. 
UcU Wh £ M the Tide of this Bill was read, it gave fo generd 
"^- aij Offence to the Houfe , that it feem'd inclined to throw it 
r out, without fufFering it to be read 5 not without fome Re- 
proach to the Perfon that brought it in, " As a matter of Se- 
^^ dition s till W Saimi-Jobn , me King's Sollicitor, rofe np, 
and fpoke to it , and (having, in truth, Himfelf drawn the 
Bill ) faid , " He thought ttat PafEon and DiUike very iin» 
*' feafonable, before the Bill was read j That it was the higfxft 
" Privilege of every Member , that he might propofe any 
^^ Law, or make any Motion, which, in his Confcience^ he 
'' thought advantageous for the Kingdom , or the Place for 
f ^ which he ferv'd. As for the matter , which by the Title 
"that Bill feem'd to comprehend. He wasof opioion, riiat 
** fomewhat was nece(&ry to be done in it i for ne was fure; 
*^ that fuch Power, as Height be neceflary for the Security w 
*' the Kingdom, over the Militia, was not yet by Law voecj 
*'in any Perfon j or in the Crown it felf; That they hid 
** lately by their Votes Blaftcd and Condemned the Power 
*^of Lords Lieutenants, and their Deputies, which had been 
*^ long cxerciied, and fubmitted to by the People ; That, Gncc 
<^ that was determined , it was neceflary to fubftimtc Such in 
*' their room , as might be able to Supprefs any Infurreftion, 
^^or Refill any Invafion: And therefore, that it was fit to 
*' hear the Bill read ; and if any fitting Expedient was pro- 
"pofed in it to that purpofe, to embrace itj otherwifc, to 
"think of a better. For the Nomination of Perfons, it 
'^ would not be feafonable to fpeak of it, till the Power and 
''Jurildi<5tion were firft fettled and confticuted; and then, if 
^' it feem'd too great for any Subjedt , it might be devolved 
"upon the Crown j which yet was not fufficiently poflefs'd 
^^ of a Legal Power to the purpofes aibrefaid. 
irf/id Upon this Difcourfe, by a Perfon of the King's fwom 
;d no Council , thc Bill was read ,• but with fo univerfal a Diflikc, 
that it was never call'd upon the Second time, but flepr, till 
lon» after thc matter of it was digelled in Ordinances. 

THii peremptory day again drawing very near, for the 
King's Jou'ney into Scotland^ and very little done towards 
the Fublick, fince the time they had prcvail'd with his Ma- 
jcity to fufpend it. On a Saturday ^ in rhe Afternoon (the 
Progrefs being to begin on Monday) They again fell into vio- 
Icnt't^aflion againit the King's going into Scotland'^ thc which 


Of the Rehellion, &c. X79 

they thought of fo great importance to be hinder'd^ that they 
udolv'd j( a^d prevailed with the Lords to do the like ) to Sic 
the next day, being Stmday^ which h^d fcarce ever before 
been known, (ince the firit inititqtion of Parliaments^ and 
which they thought fit to excufe by a fliort Declaration , .that 
die People might not be thereby encouraged to prophane the 

When they found the King conftant to his former Rcfo- 
lution, and that All They could allege could prevail no far- 
ther with him, than, whereas he intended to go on Mond^ 
jffter Diqer, to (tay till Tuejday Morning, They very earneftly 
propofed, ^^ That He would leave a Commimoo with fome 
^^Perfons to pafs fuch fa&s as fhould be prepared and pafs 
'* both Houf^s in his abfence; aqd to make a Cufios Regni^ to 
** lupply the place of Government till his return : with many 
other flxcravagancies, which themfdves underftood not. But 
when they found that no fuch Commiflion could be Legally 

f ranted, to Confenc to any Adb that were not confented to 
y both Houfes at the date of the Commidion^ and that 
both the Perfon and the Power of a Cuftos Reffti^ would be 
duly weigh'd, and would take up much confiderttion, if the 
King were willing to fatisiy them ^ They were conrentefl 
with a Commiflion to the karl of Effixj of Lieutenant Gcr 
xieral on chat fide Trent: which his Majefty having granted^ 7i^e ^ 
and confirmed the hGt of Pacification between the two King- i'^ficairu 
doms ( which in great haft was tranfafted in both Houfes, as ^'i"SP:^fi'' 
if it had been only matter of Form) he took his Journey from Lj^w'Ii 
Lmdon towards Scotland toward the middle oUAugvfi^ leaving jpumeyto 
both Houfes fitting at Wefimmfier. »^^' sco 

The unexpedted PaCuon and Importunity to hinder his^*^* 
Majefty '8 Journey into ScotUnd^ was not well underftood; 
and the leis, for that the Governing Party was divided upon 
it : Some of them , with trouble equal to what they had at 
any time exprefs'd, infifting upon his not going; C}thers al- 
lodging, <^ That his Majefty was fo far engaged in it^ that he 
'^ could not in Honour recede from it : Whilft the Scotifb 
Commiflioners, who were often appeal'd and referr'd to ia 
the Debate, anfwer'dfo myfterioufiy, as argued rather a con- 
veniency , and expedlation of the Journey it felf , than any 
neceflity in point of time. Neither was the ground of his 
Majefty s Ho pc^tive and unalterable Refolution of going thi- 
ther, iufficiendy clear to StanderM>y \ who thou^t he mi^t ' 
liavc tranfaded the bufinefs of that Kingdom (where he could 
not reafonabiy exped any great reverence to his Perfon) bet- 
ter at a diftance; and that his Prefence might be mor^ necef- 
fary in This. 
|| u T, fks his i^ajefty's impatiency to fee both Armiei dif- 

§4 fc?nded^ 



The Hiftory Book III. 

banded. «nd this Kingdom freed from the Invafion (boch 
which he heartily defired ) and his defire to refrelh hifmelf, 
from the vexation which the two Houfes, or one of rheOi 
or fome in one of them , daily gave him ; hurried^ him to 
that Expedition, without well weighing, and preparing how 
to comport himfelf through it: So no doubt, uiac oppafidoa 
and inltance againft it ( befides the continued defire uiey had 
to remove the King from any fix'd Refolution) was deugn'd 

Partly, to procure an excufe for the hafry paftog the Biu dt 
deification^ which they had purpofely retarded ffbrefeeing 
there were many particulars in it, that, if wei^'cL would 
never have been confented to) till they might be £b ftraitned 
in time, that whofoever objected againft what was oflfei^d, 
might feem to hinder the Disbanding, and to neceflitate the 
King's longer ftay: but principally they hoped, that his Ma- 
je(ty , rather than defer his Journey, on which he was refolv'd, 
would confont co any unreafonable qualifying fucb Perfons 
whom they ftiould name , with Power in his abfence : and 
moreover probably there was fome rcaljealoufy of the Scott 
at that time, and 'between the 5*^^/^ Commiffioners them- 
felves (as was conceiv'd by fome) by reafon of great Ad- 
dreflcs made to the King by the Earl of Rothes^ the principal 
and governing Perfon of that Nation, and fome iniinuauon 
of favour from his Majefty to himj fo that they did in 
carneft defire to put off' that Journey, for fear of difturbance 

The truth is, the King was well fatisfied with the Pro- 
mifcs made to him by that Earl; who defir'd to liv6 in this 
Court, and was to have been Ihortly made Gentlemen of the 
Bed-Chamber, and was in hope to Marry a great and wealthy 
Lady; and it is certain, the King expedted, by His help 
and intercft, to have found fuch a Party in Scotland^ as would 
have been more tender of his Honour than they after ex- 
prefs'd themfelves ; and did always impute the failing thereof 
to the abfence of that Earl, who being fick at the King's go- 
ing from London , within fix weeks after died. But others 
beiiev'd. He had been fo far guilty of what had been done 
amifs, that he would neither have been able, nor willing to 
prefcivc the foundation of that Power, which might hardly 
have forgotten by what means it had been opprefs'd. 

I MUST not omit here, the Disbanding another Army, 
about the fame time; the Circumftances whereof were very 
remarkable, and the caufe of much Trouble that enfued. 
The King perceiving that he was not now like to have any 
ufe of the new Army in Irelandy at leaft not that ufe for 
which it was raifed (which was, to have vifited Scotland) 
and finding often mention, err/ioufly and malicioufly, made 


Of the ReheUion^ Sec. 18 r 

of that Army, in the Houfe of Commons; and having from 
thence (by tne advice of the Committee for IrtUnd) receiv'd • 
fi>me Addrefles for that purpofe; refolv'd to Disband them; 
and to that end , fignified his Pleafure to the Lord Juftices 
of Inland^ and to the £arl of Ormand his Lieutenant-Gene- 
ral of that Army; diredling withal (according to the laft 
advice he had receiv'd from the £arl of Strafford) ^^Thac 
•'any Officers of the Army, flipuld have free leave to tranf- 
** port what men they could get of that Army, for the fer- 
•*vice of any Prince in amity with this Crown; and ihortly 
aftor, upon the eameft defire of Dim jil&nxo de Cardenas^ Em- 
bafladour fix)m the King of ^«/xr, his Majefty confented, that 
four thouiand Souldiers olF that Army (hould be tranfporced 
for the fervice of that King into FAiMPrj; at the fame time 
permitting as many as defired the fame, to be tran^orted for 
the fervice of the French King. This was no fooner known, 
but the Houfe of Commons interpos'd, with their accuftom'd 
confidence and diftemper, " To befeech his Majefty to revoke 
^^ that Licence; and, by impertinent and flight realbns, boldly 
urged and infilled on, as they did in every thing elfe, pre« 
vail'd with the King, '-'- To inhibit the tranfporting any of thofe 
•* Souldiers out of Siat Kingdom, for the fervice of any Prince 
** whatfoever. 

Many were of opinion that this aftivity in a bufmcfs of 
which They had not the leaft connufance, proceeded from the 
inftigation of the EmbaflSidour of the French King ; who was 
venr converfant with the principal perfons of that FaAion , 
and no doubt fomented thofe humours out of which the Pub- 
lick Calamities were bred; and feme faid boldly, and one or 
two haVtf fince affirmed it, as upon their knowledge, " That 
*' M' Ppn receiv'd fiwe thoufand pounds from that French 
*^ Minifter to hinder that Supply to Spain. Others believ'd , 
that it proceeded only from that ^roud and petulant fpiric 
which poflefs'd them , to leflen the reputation of the Kmg ; 
and to let the King of Spam and all other Princes fee the 
Power They had, to oppofe and croft His refolutions in the 
moft pure adb of Soveraignty. But I believe, though there 
might be a mixture of Both the other reafons, the principal 
motive that induced them to that Interpofition, was the ad* 
vice and deiire of the Committee from the Parliament of 
Ireland^ whofe counfel was entirely followed in Whatfoever 
concern'd that Kingdom ; and who no doubt might have 
fome Profpedt of the R^Uion that fhortly after broke out, 
which could hardly have taken e0ed^ if that Body of men had 
been remov'd out of the Kingdom, according to the King's 
direftion. But of that more in its place. 

A s s 60 K as the King begun hu Journey for Scotland^ all 


i8* The Hiftory Book III 

Orders, and what elie was neceffiry, were difbatch'd for tfat 
Disbanding ^ and a Refolution taken, ^ To fend a Conunittee 
^ of Lords and Commons to attend his Majefl^ (that is. to 
'^ be a Spy upon him ) in Scotland^ and to be prdent whoi 
^ the Adt of Pacification (hould be tranikdixd in that Parlii* 
^ menr, and to preferve the good Intercourfe and Correlpoo- 
^ dence which was begun between the two Nations : but io 
truth, to lay the Scene how the next Year (hould be Jbent} 
and to befpeak new Laws for this Kingdom, by die Q)piei 
of what fliould be confented to for that. 

In this Errand, two Lord^ and four of the Common^ 

were appointed to go ^ but for the two Lords, the Lord Hh 

nvard ot Efirsck ferv'd the turn; who was reuiy to be |o- 

vern'd by M' Fienmesy and M'' Wimbden^ who, tc^ther widi 

Sr William Armyn^ made up the Committee, wnidi being 

difpatch'd, They thought it time to Breathe a litde, and to 

vifit their Countries, for whom they had done (iich notable 

Service: and fo, cowards the latter end ci Aug^fi (having 

firft confticuted a Committee to Sit during the recefi,. for die 

difpatch of any important occurrences, and qualifying tfaein 

with Power They could not depute ; Sudi a Committee^ ud 

Such a Qualification, having never Before been heard of in 

Farliamenrs ) Both Houfes Adjourn'd themfdves till the mid* 

die of oeioher following j by which time they prefiimed the 

King would be returned fi-om Scotland-^ having, from the dme 

tiiat they were firft convened, which was about niiie mondu 

i^Si longer time than ever Parliaments had before continued toge- 

Vdfintf ^gj. jjj Qj^g Seflion) befides all the extraordinary Afts of Blood, 

-r ^f'thm *"^ Power , procured the King's aflent to Thefe fbilowing 

^liMmtnt, important Laws; by Tome of which, the Kingdom might 

have received ample benefit and advantj^ge. 
t^Sf» A Bill for Triennial Parliaments: which took up a 
enniai jQ^g Debate ; there being many Claufcs, in Cafe the Crown 
^^^ fhould omit the fending out of Writs, derogatory to Majefty, 
and letting the Reins too loofe to the People : Yet, fincc it 
was evident, that great Inconveniencies had befidlen the King- 
dom by the long Intcrmidion of thofe Conventions ; and 
that that IntermiQion could not have happen'd, if there had 
not been fome negledl of what had been fettled by former 
Laws^ Therefore there was fome colour of Reafon tor thofe 
Claufes, by Which the Crown could in no cafe fufier, but 
by its own Default. At lali: it found an eafy pafla^ through 
Both Houfcs y and by his Majefty ( who was £itisfied with 
fuch a frequency of meeting with his People, as once in three 
years, might be more convenient than prejudicial to his Ser- 
vice j and believed, that by His confenting to this Adl, the 
L proceedings in the Parliament would be more moderate ] it 


Of the Rehellion^ &c. a8 3 

had a favourable reception, and*was Enacted by him the next 
day after it had pafs'd both Houfes. 

A N A<a for the taking away the High Commidion Court : ^'*, ^^ f'"' 
which comprehended much more, than was generally intend- '^"^^7^^ 
ed. Thatjurifdidtion was ercdted by a Statute in the Firft ^^^^w^^^,, 

tear of Queen Efizatetb^ inftead of a larger Power which ourf. 
ad been exercifed under the Popes Authority, then abolifli'd j 
and, whiKt it was exercifed widi moderation, was an excel- 
lent means to vindicate and preferve the dignity and peace 
of the Church : though , fi-om the beginning, it was mur- 
mur'd againft by the Non-conformable Party of the King- 

But of late, it cannot be denied, that by the great Power 
of fome Bilhops at Court, it had much overflowed the Banks 
which (hould have contain'd it ^ not only in meddling with 
things that in truth were not properly within Their connu- 
fance^ but extending their Sentences and Judgements in mat- 
ters trj^able before them, beyond that degree that was Julti- 
fiable; and grew to have (b great a Contempt of the Com- 
mon Law , and the Proieflbrs of it f which was a Fatal Un- , 
5kilfulne(s in the Bilhops , who could never have Suffered 
whiKt the Common Law had been Preferv'd ) that Prohibi- 
tions frpm the Supreme Courts of Law , which have, and 
mufthave, the Superintendency over all Inferior Courts, were 
not only Negledled, but the Judges Reprehended for grant- 
ing tliem ( which without Perjury They could not deny ) and 
the Lawyers Difcountenanced for moving for them ( which 
They were obliged in Duty to do ) So that thereby , the 
Clergy madealmolt a Whole ProfeflSon, if not their Enemies, 
yet very Unde voted to them. 

Then, it was grown from an Ecclefiaftical Court, for tho 
reformation of Manners, to a Court of Revenue ; and impofed 
great Fines upon thofe who were culpable before them ; 
fometimes above the degree of the Offence, had the Jurifdi- 
ftion of Fining been unqueftionable : which it was nor. 
Which courfe of Fining was much more frequent, and the 
Fines heavier, after the King had granted all that Revenue 
(whatfoever it (hould prove to be ) to be imploy'd for the Re- 
paration of SCTauPs Church ^ which, though it were a glori- 
ous work, and worthy the Piety of Thofe who advanced it, 
and the Greatnefs of His mind who principally intended it, 
made the Grievance the heavier. 

B y thefe means fbeGdes the Conflux and Influence of That 
part of the Clergy then in Town, which had formerly been 
Obnoxious, and Supprcfs'd by the Bifbops : Which Ido not 
mention as any piece of Their Fxorbitancy ; for I do not 
JgiQW that ever any Jnnpccnt Clergy-man Suffar'd by any 


184. The mjiory Book III. 

Ecclenaflicai Ccnfiire ; thoug|h, ic may be, the Guilty wer^ 
More Severely proceeded againft, and withLefs PoliiickcirT 
cuin(tances, than the nature of that time recjuir'd ) that Court 
had very Few Friends ; and having many Enemies^ the Pro- 
pofition for Aboiifliing it was eafily hearkned to ; ofwhich the 
Violent Party readily taking notice, they who prepared the 
Bill inferted Claufes, thu not only took away the High Com- 
mifTion Court, which was intended, but, upon the matter, 
the whole Ecclefiafticalf uri(di£tion ^ and, under pretence of 
Reforming the great Abufes by the Oath ex Offuwy and Ex- 
communication, Defhoy^d and Canceird all Coercive Power 
whatfocver in thofc Courts, which was never intended : Ycl 
in that hurry, it made a progrefs through both Houfes, and 
attended the Royal aflent. But, when ms Majefty underftood 
the £}^tent thereof, and how far the Body of the Bill exceed* 
ed the Title; and that, inftead of Reformation, it was open- 
ing a door to the moft Scandalous Ofiences, and leaving 
Adultery and Incefi: as Unpunifhable , as any other aOs (x 
good Fellowfhip ; He made a paufe in the Confenting to i^ 
till Both Houfes might review whether the Remedy were pn>- 
' portionable to the Difeafe. 

I M M E D I A T E L Y the Fire was kindled againft the BifliopL 
as the Only Obltacles to any Reformation ; with fome JhL 
fionateinfinuations, ** That, (ince They oppos'd a due Regu» 
^ iation of their Power, there would be no way but to cut 
" them oflf' Root and Branch. And thereupon, fome Bifliops 
thcmfelves were again made inftruments ; and Others, who 
pretended to take care of the Church, perfwaded the King, 
•^ For the Bilhops fake, to confirm that Bill : whilft the De- 
(igjiers were much pleafed to find that Lxjgick prevail ; lit- 
tle doubting, but when they had taken away their JurifdidH- 
on in the Church, by that Bill, and their Dignity in the 
State, by removing them out of the Houfe of Peers, Th^y 
fliould find it no hard matter to abolifli Their Names, and 
'I'itles out of the Kingdom ; and to enjoy the goodly Land 
and Revenues, which could Only make the Reformation per- 
fect and compleat. And in this manner that Law was en- 
^AnMtUr A B I L L for taking away the Star-Charaber Court. The 
takj.ngsm»j Progrcfs of which Bill was this. The Exorbitancies of this 
^chJ^ Court had been fuch ( as hath been before touch'd ) that there 
Our?. w^'*c ^cj'y f*^w Perfons of Quality, who had not fuffer'd or 
been pcrplcx'd, by the weight or Fear of thofe Cenfures and 
Judgements. For, having extended Their Jurifdidtion, from 
Riots, Perjury, and the moft notorious Mifdemeanours, to an 
Affcrring ail Proclamations, and Orders of State j to the 
Vindicating Illegal CommiffionSj and Grants of Monopplics 

* * (all 

Of the Rebellion^ &c. iSy 

{ail wluch were the chief Ground- works of their late fto- . 
ceedings) no man could hope to be longer free from the 
InquiGtion of that Court, than he refolv'd ro fubmit to rhoie 
and the like extraordinary courfes. And therefore, there was 
an entire inclination, to Limit and Regulate che Proceedings 
of that Court : to which i)urpofe, a Bill was brought in, and 
Twice read, and, according to cuftom. Committed. It be- 
ing retum'd after, by the Committee, and the Amendments 
raiid ^ it was fuddainly fiiggeft'd ( bv a Peribn not at all in-r 
clin*d to Confdion, or to the violent Party that intended 
that ConfuGon ) << That the Remedies provided by that Hill, 
^were not proportionable to the Difeafes; That the Ufur- 
^ nations pi that Court, were not lets in the Forms of their 
^Proceedings, than in the Matter upon which they proceed- 
" cd i infomuch that the Courfe of the Court (which is the 
•* Rule of their Judging^ was fo much Corrupted, that the 
^ Grievance was as mudn thereby, in thofe Cafes of which ' 
^^ they had a proper Connu&nce, as it was by their Excefi in 
** holding Pleas of that, in which, in truth. They had no Ju- 
^rifdidion; and therefore He conceived, the proper and 
*«mofl natural Cure for that Mifchic^ would be, utterly to 
^ Aboliih That Court, which it was very difficult, if*^ not 
^^impodiblcL to Regulate^ and in place thereof, to ExtQ, an4 
^^ efhbliih luch a Jurifdidtion as might be thought neceflary. 
Hereupon, the fame Bill was Re-committed, with dire^ion, 
^ fo far to alter the Frame of it, as might ferve utterly to take 
^ away, and abolifh that Court : which was accordingly done; 
and again brought to the Houfe, and Ingrofs'd, and fent up 
to the Lords. So that important Bill was never Read buc 
Once in the Houfe of Commons, and was never Committed ; 
which, I believe, was never before heatd of in Parlia- 

It could not meet with any OppoGtion in the Houfe of 
Peers. All who had been Judges There, having their feveral 
Judgements hanging like Meteors over dieir heads ^ and tho 
Kelt, being either Grieved, or Frighted, by it: and fo, being 
brou^t to nis Majefly, received his Royal aflent. 

Thus fell that High Court, a great Branch of the Prero- 

fitive; having rather been Extended and Confirmed, than 
ounded, bv the Statute of the Tenth year of King Henry the 
Seventh; for, no doubt, it had both a Being, and a Jurif^ 
didion. Before that time, though vulgarly it received date from 
thence^ and, whilft it was Gravely and Moderately go-^ 
vem'd, was an excellent Expedient, to Preferve the Dignity 
of the King, the Honour of his Council, and die Peace and 
Security of the Kingdom. But the taking it away, was an tSt 
very Popular j which, it may be, was not Then more Poli- 

a8(S The Htftory Book HL 

tick, than the Reviving it may be thought hereafter, wheo 
the prclent Diiicmpers ihall be expired. 

%9WiAs and "^"'^i't *»'" *^*^ t" "'^ PcOfU 

LiMirx, #/ rately vcx'd by the Juilice m Eyre's Seat ( ezerciled with 
Ttrrtjts. great Rigour by the Earl of HoilanJy and reviv'd by M^N^ 
when he was Attorney General) that few Men could aiSue 
themfeives their Eltatcs and Houfcs might not be brou^ 
within the Jurirdidtion of fome Forreft'^ the which if dxj 
were, it coit them great Fines : and therefore, co eafe Thai 
of their future Fears, the King departed with his Own un- 
queflionable Right ( which would, a year before, have been 
purchafed at the price of at leaft two hundred thouuind pounds) 
without any murmur. 
ut .Aff li' «« A N Aa, that no Clerk of the Market of his Majcflyli 
^^icTff^ cc Houfe, (hould execute his Office in any part of the fcng» 
^kjfthe " ^o"') ^"t o'^^y within the verge of the Court : and the cxe- 
hUrkgtof '^cution of that Office, granted to Mayors, and Bayiifi 
W/Miy>/?;'i" of Towns Corporate; and to the Lords c^ Liberties and 
ikufe. cc Franchifes, and to their Deputies. By which, the People 
through England^ were freed from many petty vexations, axid 
extortions, which the Deputies and Agents for that Office 
( who commonly Farm'd ihe Fcrquifites of it, within fevcrtd 
limits ) cxcrcifed over them. And let no Man fay, that this 
was but an Ad: of Juftice, for the Redrefs of vifible MiHe- 
meanours which his own Officers were guilty of; and that his 
Majelty parted with nothing of Profit to HimfeU,by that Aft: 
for the Mifdemeanours of any Office may be Prevented, and 
Punilh'd, and Redrefs'd, witiiout the Taking away, or Sup- 
prcfling, the Office it felf; which is an inltance of Power, and 
Prerogative. And the other was ufed as an argument here- 
tofore ( which few Men have fmce approved ) for the paffing 
away moft of the Old Rents of the Crown, *^ That they yield- 
*' ed little Profit to the Crown, being always fwallow d by 
^^ the many Officers incumbent upon that Service ; without 
confidcring, that even thofc many Officers, are of the Et 
fential Honour, and Grearnefs of Princes. But, as that Com- 
putation was very Erroneous in point of Thrift, fo it is much 
more Scandalous in point of Power; and he, that thinks the 
King gives away nothing that is worth the keeping, when 
he iuftcrs an Ollice, which keeps and maintains many Of- 
•ficers, to be aboliih'd, and taken away, does not confider,that 
io much of liis Train is abated, and that he is lefs fpoken of, 
and confequemly lefs cileem'd, in thofe Places where that 
Power formerly extended; nor obferves, how Private Men 
value themfeives upon thoie IcQcr Franchifes, and Royalties, 


Of the Rehelliotty &c. 187 

which eipecially keep up the Power, DiflindUon^and Degrees 
cf men. 

« A N Ad for the Prevention of Vexatious Proceedings ^n ^ttfor 
^ Touching die Order of Knighthood : by which, to Expiate /^^'»'*»^ 
the Trefpafles which had been lately committed, by the Ri- p^^^?^ 
fiorous circumftances of Proceeding, upon that claim, the rJ^J^/Jf^ 
Kng parted with, and releas'd to his People, a Right, ^nd order 0/ 
Duty, as unqueftionably Due to him by the Law, as any Ser* Ksfight- 
vice He can lay claim to ^ and fuch, as the Subjeft received *^" 
Che difcharge or it, as a (ingular benefit and advantage. 

« A N Ad: for the free making Salt-petre and Gun-powder •>*» ^Sffir 
•* within the Kingdom : which was a Part of the Prerogative : '*^■("• 
and not only confiderable, as it reftrain'd that precious and s^^Srt 
dangerous commodity from vulgar hands ; but, as in truth it iniGiw- 
brought a confiderable Revenue to the Crown ^ and more to /«»*»• 
Thole, whom the Crown gratified and obliged by that Li- J??^'*' 
cence. The Pretence for this Exemption was, " The Unjulti- ^*^*'*** 
^'fiable Proceedings of Thofe (or of Inferiour Perfons quali- 
**fied by them J who had been trufted in that employment; 
by whom, it cannot be denied, many men fufier'd : But the 
True Reafon was, that thereby They roi^ be fure to have in 
readinefs a good Stock in that Commodity, againft the ^ime 
their occafions Qiould call upon them. 

^* A N Aft againft divers Encroachments and Oppreflions in *^ -^^ ^ 
^ theStannery Courts : the Logick of which Aft, extended it^**"^^ 
fclf to all inferior Courts, and manner of proceedings through- ^Icbments 
out the Kingdom ; though the foil meafure of that benefit, and opfrtp- 
feem'd to be poured out upon the two Counties of Cormpaifio'^ » '*« 
and Deven/htre ; the People whereof, had been fo much op- ^'-»^ 
prefi'd by the jurifdiftion of that Court ( fupported and ex- '*^ 
tended with great Paflion and Fury by the Earl of Femhroke^ 
the Lord Warden of thofe Stanneries) that both Prohibitions, 
and Haheas Corpus's from the King's Bench, had been dif- 
obey'd and neglcfted ; not without fome Perfonal Afti-ont^ 
and Reproach, to all the Judges of that Court : and therefore, 
it could not but be great Eafe of heart to thofe Parts, to be 
freed firom the exorbitancy of that oppreflion. 

"An Adt, whereby all the Proceedings in the bufinefs ol^^M f 
« Ship-money were adjudged void, and difanuU'd; and the^^^ ^'^ 
^Judgements, Enrollments, and Entries thereupon, vacated, '"*^' 
^' and canceled ; which ( how.juft and neceflary foever) was 
a fi-ank departure fi-om a Right, vindicated by a Judgement 
in the Exchequer Chamber, before all the Judges in England^ ' 
gnd therefore deferv'd a juft acknowledgement^ befides tha^ 
fome Qaufcs in that Statute, aOert the Subjecb Liberty and 
Property, beyond what v;as done by the Petition of Right : 
which needed an additional eitablifliment. 


aS8 The Hiftor^.&cc. . Book III 

These Afb of Ptflittnent^ finiih'dy snd enaaed indie 
time we (beak of; beOdes the quieting the long ufed Ridic 
of laying Impofitions upon Foreign Trade, in the Preaiiible 
of the Bill for Tonnage and Poundage; and beGdes that Faol 
Bill for the Continuance of this Parliament ; will be acknow- 
ledged by an Incorrupced Pdfterity. to be everlafting Monu- 
ilicnts of the King's Prinoely and Fatherly Afl^dion to his 
-People; and fiicb an Otdi»cion of Repoie and Tnift bom 
hii Majefhr in the Hearts of his SubjeOs, dut no expreffions 
of Piety, Duty, and G>nfidence^ frcnn Them, could have been 
sx>re tnah a Sufficient Return on their Parts : which^ how 
They perform'd> is to follow in the next place. 

The End of the Third Book.