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The mo6t interesting part of Sootish history is thftt which relates to the reformation 
of religion in the sixteenth century. From the period of the introdacti<m of Chris- 
tianity into Scothmd, our fathers, for many ages, were quite independent of the 
Church of Rome— holding a purer faith, and practising a more simple form of wor- 
ship. But during the dark ages, corruption in both doctrine and worship began to 
prevail ; and though the Scots maintained their religious independence much longer 
than most of the other nations of Europe, they yielded at last, and for about three 
centuries the Man of Sin reigned over them with absolute dominion. During this 
deplorable period, at least one-half of the property of the kingdom was possessed by 
a domineering and luxurious priesthood, who kept the people in the grossest ignorance, 
who studied above all things to prevent a ray of light from breaking in upon their 
votaries, lest it should discover their own corruptions ; and as they possessed all the 
learning of the times, such as it was, and were believed to have power over the world to 
come, they found it easy to bend the minds of men to implicit submission to their will. 

It must be interesting to know how our Others burst such fetters, and cast off 
such a yoke; and happily we are furnished with abundant information on the subject 
There are on record very ample details of the proceedings of the Reformers, after 
their cause became a national one, every step of their progress being distinctly mark- 
ed, until they obtained the grand object of their labours and sufferings : and respect- 
ing these we have the important advantage of possessing the testimony of one who 
was not only a witness of what he records, but who bore a prominent part in the 
great events which form the subject of his narrative. Such is Knox*s History of the 
Reformation of Religion in Scotland, of which a new edition is now offered to the 

There have been many editions of Knox's History, but most of them imperfect, 
and incorrectly printed. The most perfect of these is the Folio edition published in 
Edinburgh, in 1732, from the manuscript in the library of Glasgow College, of 
which an account is given in the Introduction. This edition has been consulted in 
preparing the present Dr M'Crie, speaking of it, says, — '* The appearance of this 
edition removed all the doubts which had been entertained as to Knox having wriU 
ten the History of the Reformation. It is the only one that deserves to be consulted, 
if we except the imperfect edition.*' This refers to one that was attempted in London 



IimoDUcnoH, eontainiog an historical sketch of the state of Religion in Scotland from the 

introduction of Christianity till the time when Knox*s History commences . i 

Life of John Knox xxxiii 

Ceremonial at laying the Foundation Stone of Knox*s Monument at Glasgow • . . xli 

Knox's General Preface ] 

History of the RBroaxATioN of RxuoioK in Scotland. 

Book I from 1^2 till 1558 3 

Book II from 1556 till 1559 108 

Book III from 1559 tiU 1561 175 

Book IV from 1561 till 1564 845 

Book V from 1565 till 1566 S21 

Letter delivered to the Lady Mary Regent of Scotland from John Knox . 861 
The Appellation of John Knox from the sentence pronounced against him by bishops and 

clergy S75 

Letter to the Commonalty of Scotland ... 401 

Admonition to the professors of the truth in England in 1551 409 

The First Blast against the regimen of Women 4S9 

Letter to the People of Edinburgh 463 

Sermon delivered in 1565 ^ . . . . 465 

Flrit Book of Discipline 486 

Oratioo against Reforming Preachers by Qaentin Kennedy, Cummendator of Crossra- 

gueU 627 

Reasoning concerning the mass between Quentin Kennedy and John Knox iu Maybole, . 539 

Proli^^ 541 

The Abbot's First Letter 544 

Knox*s answer to the Abbot's First l^etter 545 

llie Abbot's Second Letter 546 

Earl of CassiUs* Letter 548 

Knox's Answer to the earl of Cassilis' Letter ib. 

The Abbot's Third Letter 549 

The Abbot's Fourth Letter ib. 

Answer to the Abbot's Fourth Letter 650 

The Debate between them 651 

Knox's answer in writing to Kennedy's last argument 570 




We know nothiogr with oertainty of the 
period when the gospel wu first brought 
into ScoUancL Writers on the subject seem 
all to hare been desirous of assigning tlus 
erent to a very early period, eren to the 
first century of the Christian era. Dr 
Jamieson informs us, that the ancient Cnl- 
dees professed tohaye receired the Christian 
religion firom disciples of the apostle John ; 
but from any authentic record extant, it 
would appear that the sphere of John's la- 
bonn was in the east, and so we may sup- 
pose was that of his companions and disci- 
ples. We know that Paul trarelled west- 
ward as far as Italy, and that he purposed 
to go to Spain, but there is no authentic 
record of his eyer having effected his pur- 
pose, except a very general expression in 
an epistle of his fellow labourer in the 
gospel, Clemens, which is reputed genuine. 
He says, " That St Paul, in preaching the 
gospel^ went to the utmost bounds of the 
west*' This, if understood literally, may 
include the British isles, which were the 
western extremity of the Roman empire. 
But we can easily suppose that Clemens 
referred to Spain, which is right west firom 
Italy, and the extremity of the empire in 
that direction. The British isles are north- 
west ; and though they may be included in 
the expresuon, it does not appear that they 
are necessarily so. If the apostle of the 
Gentiles did visit our island, he would pro- 
bably take Spain and Gaul in his way ; and' 
it must hare been after he was set at liberty 
firom his first imprisonment in Rome, A. D. 
60 or 61. If not about that time, it can 
scarcely have been at all, consistently with 
what is recorded of his life and labours 

Many highly respectable authors of the 
English church, regard it as an authentic 
historical fiust, that this apostle did preach 
the gospel in Britain. The evidence does 
not command my entire belief, though I 
regard it as not incredible, so far as relates to 
the southern part of the island; but the words 
of Clemens in their most literal acceptation, 
do not necessarily include Scotland. The 
most ancient testimony relative to the in- 
troduction of Christianity into this part 
of the island, is that of TertuUian, in the 
second century, who says, that '' before his 
time, Christianity had extended itself to 
parts of Britain inaccessible to the Roman 
arms." We know that the Romans overran 
all England, and the south of Scotland : 
this author must therefore refer to the 
highlands, probably some of the western 
isles, which were afterwards so famous as 
seats of learning and religion. 

Tertullian wrote about the end of the 
second century; and all that we gather 
from his testimony, is, that Christianity had 
penetrated the remote parts of Britain ^- 
fore his time, Eusebius in the fourth cen- 
tury, informs us that the gospel was preached 
in Britain by some of the aposUes. He 
must have said this at least two centuries 
and a half after the apostolic age ; he could 
not therefore speak from his own know- 
ledge ; and from the scarcity of written re- 
cords, at that period, it must have been al- 
most impossible to know the certainty of 
such matters, relating to a country so re- 
mote. We know how difficult it is to as- 
certain the truth of many things in the his- 
tory of our own country, within less than 
three centuries, notwithstanding numerous 
written records ; it must have been much 



more difficult for an author of the fourth 
century to ascertain the truth of events 
said to have taken place in the first, and in 
a country so remote from his own. The 
ancient Scottish Christians are said to have 
kept Easter according to the rule of the 
Greek church, which is one of the reasons 
why Scotland is supposed to have received 
Christianity from the eastern, rather than 
from the western, or Roman church. But if it 
be admitted, that the Scots received Chris- 
tianity along with a rule about keeping 
Easter, it will fix the era of that event a 
considerable time after the age of the apos- 
tles ; it will at least prove that we did not 
receive Christianity from them, for they 
gave themselves no concern about keeping 
Easter, unless it be among the things which 
they condemned as will-worship and super- 

We know little or nothing of what was 
passing in our own country at a period so 
remote as the first two centuries, except 
what is noticed by certain Roman histo- 
rians, who either would not, or did not 
think it worth their while, to mention who 
first brought the gospel to our ancestors. 
But as Rome kept up a constant military 
intercourse with her remotest colonies ; and 
as we know from the New Testament, 
that there were Christians in the Roman 
armies, we may reasonably conclude, that by 
their means, the gospel was carried to the 
remotest parts of the empire ; and, perhaps, 
at first, so unobtrusively as not to attract 
the notice of historians or public function- 
aries at Rome. The kingdom of God 
cometh not with external show ; and by the 
instrumentality of ''devout soldiers,*' it 
may have come in many places ; and mul- 
titudes ia Scotland and elsewhere, may have 
embraced the gospel; and churches may 
liave been formed, of the existence of which 
there never was any written record. In 
short, it was not till churches had departed 
from primitive simplicity, and acquired 
some degree of secubirity and politiod im- 
portance, that historians began to take no- 
tice of them; which, I suppose, is the reason 
why so little is known of New Testament 
churches any where, except what we have 
recorded in the New Testament itself. 

I suspect there is not a little of what 
may be called ecclesiastical vanity at the 
bottom of this desire to trace the origin of 
certain churches up to the apostolic age. 
It is like the pride of ancestry which exists 
in many great families. Besides, it is taken 
for granted by some that if a church had an 
apostolic origin, it must still have an apos- 
tolic character which does not by any 
means follow. I doubt if there be a church 
in existence that had an apostolic origin, in 
the sense commonly understood by the 
terms. The church o/*Rome certainly had 
not ; but we find from the last chapter of 
Paul's epistle to the Romans, that there 
were several churches in that city, which 
were acknowledged by the apostle as vaski, 
which is as good as if they had originated 
with him. There was the church in the 
house of PriscilU and Aquilla, Tove 5. 
There was the household, or church in the 
house of Aristobulus, verse 10. There was 
another in the house of Narcissus, verse 11. 
In both these verses the word household 
is a supplement; and it might be read bre- 
thren, or church, as in the first instance. 
There are others mentioned in the 14th 
verse, and "the brethren," or chnrch. 
** which are with them.'* Also in the 16th 
verse, and '* the saints whicli are with them ; 
so that we find there were at least five 
churches in Rome at the time when the 
aposUe wrote his epistie ; but there was no 
such thing known at the time as the church 
of Rome. The apostie does not address 
them as one church, as he does that in Co- 
rinth; but individually, as all the saints 
which be in Rome. Some churches did 
originate with the personal labours of apos- 
tles; bat even these did not long retain 
their apostolic character. They became 
corrupt; and their candlestick has long 
been removed. Though it coold be proved 
therefore, that the apostle Paul did plant 
the church of England, as some allege, and 
John or his disciples tiiat of Scotiand, it 
would avail nothing, unless these churches 
have remained as the aposties planted then. 
On the other hand, churches whic'i are 
constituted like those of which we read in th>a 
New Testament, being built on the testi- 
mony of the aposties, have not only an apoa- 



tolic character* bat alao all apostolic origin, 
though they spmng up only yesterday. Bat 
it 18 time to attend to the facts of the case 
as these can be gleaned from the historians. 

Buchanan records an event that was cal- 
culated to bring Christianity into notice 
and make it the subject of history, viz. 
the coavenion of Donald I. king of the 
8cots^ about the beginning of the third cen- 
tury. It is not mentioned, however, as the 
introduction of Christianity into the coun- 
try, but the adoption by the king of a reli- 
gion already professed by many of the peo- 
ple. He says, " It was of advantage, too, 
for the preservation of peace, that Donald 
first of all the Scottish kings, was convert- 
ed to the Christian faith, although neither 
he nor several of the succeeding kings, to- 
gether with a great part of the nobility who 
suvoured them, were able to eradicate wholly 
the andent heathen rites. But the expedi- 
tion of the emperor Severus, which took 
place during his reign, overturned all his 
institutions, public and private." Book iv. 
chap. 36. If Christianity was among these 
mstitutions^ as the words seem to imply, it 
would appear that Donald had given it 
some sort of establishment, perhaps no 
more than simply building places of wor- 
ship, and giving the Christians his counte- 
nance and protection. These would be dis- 
persed by the Roman army, and their build- 
ings destroyed. 

It is not surprising that Donald could not 
eradicate whoUy the ancient heathen rites, 
for many of them are not entirely eradicat- 
ed yet The ancient religion of the people 
was Druidism, a species of heathen idolatry 
that prevailed over a great part of northern 
Europe. The priests of this idolatry prac- 
tised an imposing ritual, were supposed to 
be the favourites of heaven, and they had 
great influence over the minds of the peo- 
ple, not only in matters of religion, but also 
as judges in civil causes. Their supersti- 
tious rites had a firm hold of the public 
mind, from which the people could not be 
emancipated by any thing short of the con- 
version of their souls to God, which we can- 
not suppose to have been the case with all, 
or even with a majority who professed Chris- 

tianity, after the king became a Christian 
The observances of HaUoween, the kind- 
ling of lighte on the hills at certain times, 
and the rites of Belton (Baaltien, or Bell's 
fire, Dr Jamieson,) with many other prac- 
tices which still exist, may be traced to our 
heathen ancestors. Genuine Cliristianity 
eradicates these things : but that which is 
national, or merely nominal, is perfectiy con- 
sistent with what is called a hjurmless obser- 
vance of them. The Baal fire of theJDruids, 
was connected with bloody rites, and hu- 
man sacrifices, which Christianity happily 
put down, notwithstanding the merely nomi- 
nal profession of many who bore the name. 
After the invasion of Severus we read no 
more of Christianity for nearly a century. 
It is not to be supposed that it ceased to 
exist in Scotland ; but, not being in favour 
with Donald's immediate successors, it would 
be in too much obscurity to attract notice. 
David Buchanan, the author of a preface 
to an old edition of Knox's History, fixes its 
revival under the reign of Crathilintbus ; 
but his celebrated namesake, whom this 
writer generally follows, places it in the 
reign of Fincormachus the immediate sue 
cesser of the former. Both agree that the 
revival in Scotland was occasioned by what 
are called the ninth and tenth persecutions, 
under the emperors Aurelius and Diocle- 
sian, which extended to the south of onr 
island, and caused many Christian Britons 
to take refuge among the Scots. Thus 
Buchanan writes under the reign of Fincor- 
machus, ''Freed from external cares, the 
Scots, now, chiefly exerted themselves for 
the promotion of the Christian religion, to 
which they were incited by the following 
occurrence. Multitudes of Britons, fearing 
the cruelty of Dioclesian towards the Chris- 
tians, sought refuge among them, of whom 
many, illustrious for the piety of their doc- 
trines, and the uprightness of their lives, 
remained in Scotland, and led a solitary 
life, with such a reputation for sanctity 
among all ranks, that, upon their decease, 
the celts they had inhabited were changed 
into churches, and from that custom it stilt 
continues that the ancient Scots call church- 
es, cells. This species of religious they 



called Culdees, * and the name and the in- 
BtitutioD remained, until a more recent kind 
of monks, divided into a number of orders, 
expelled them, which latter were as much 
their inferiors in doctrine and in piety, as 
their superiors in riches, ceremonies, and 
other external rites, by which the eye is 
captivated and the mind deceived." 

The southern refugees are said above to 
have *' led a solitary life ;*' and it was very 
natural that those who had been driven, for 
the gospel's sake, from country and friends, 
and, perhaps reduced to a state of poverty, 
should cultivate retirement, at least separa- 
tion from the world. But that they did 
not altogether seclude themselves from so- 
ciety, like many in other places, who aban- 
doned the company of men to live in 
deserts, is, I think, evident from the state- 
ment of the historian. The word, cell, with 
a different pronunciation of the initial let- 
ter, furnishes the well known names of 
many of our towns and churches to this 
day. Thus, JTt/patrick, Aif/malcom, &c. 
The cells of the Culdees must have been 
places of public resort, else the word could 
scarcely have become synonymous with 
church. The Culdees were probably pas- 
tors of Christian congregations, who assem- 
bled at their cells, or places of residence, 
for divine worship. While the majority of 
the people were still heathen, and enemies 
to their religion, they would of course 
choose retired places for their meetings, 
where they could hear the word, and enjoy 
Christian fellowship without disturbance or 
hostile intrusion, just as our covenanters did 
in the time of persecution. These last were 
called mountain men, because they held 
their meetings for social worship in recesses 
of the mountains ; and some of their mini- 
sters were compelled to reside not only in 
cells, but caves of the earth. 

* It does not appear that the name originated 
with the exiles from the south, or belonged to 
them exclusively, I rather suppose that they at- 
tached themselves to a pre-existing order, or be- 
todc themselves to the ministry of the gospel, 
the ministry being the only sort of religious 
order that then existed. Dr Jamieson tells us 
that both the Soot* and Irish claimed the honour 
of giving origin to the Culdees ; but I do not 
recollect of any such claim being made by the 

The ancient Culdee paston would gene* 
rally be buried where they had lived. 
Hence the word, cell, came to signify bory- 
ing place as well as church; and henoe 
ako, the almost universal practice of burial 
places being attached to churches, the pro- 
priety of which will not be questioned: 
but as connected with the graves of emi- 
nent saints, or persons who were supposed 
to be such, it was the origin of much super- 
stition and even idolatry. It became the 
fashion to build churches over the graves 
of such persons ; to call the places by their 
names ; to build altars to their memory ; 
to regard the place which contained their 
bones holy ground ; and then to regard the 
bones themselves as objects of religious ve- 
neration. But such a horrible proetnitioii 
of intellect had not taken place at the period 
of our history to which these remarks 

That the Christians who came from 
England, on the persecution by Diodesian. 
were at least not all idly recluse, appears 
from their activity in propagating the got- 
pel and suppressing the heathen rites. The 
author of the preface above mentioiied, 
writes as follows, ''Among the fbgittfas 
who did then repair to Scotland for didter 
from the general massacre, were many wc* 
cellent men in piety and learning, whom 
the king Crathilinth not only kindly re- 
ceived, but also employed to aid him and 
his council in the farther settling of Christ's 
truth in his kingdom, and in the total extir- 
pation of idolatry out of it; which was so 
much the harder work, because of the 
Druids, the principal false prophets, and 
idolatrous priests in those days ; who not 
only by their subtile hjrpocrisy, and tense- 
pleasing divine service, but also by cunning 
forecast, having drawn into their hands the 
hearing and determining of dvil aflairs, and 
so gained upon the spirits of the poor and 
simple people, that they could not imagine 
how to be without them, and live. The 
resolute care and diligence of kmg Crathi- 
linth and his council, with the help of those 
pious and learned men, surpassed all diflBcul- 
ties ; and having put quite down the groves 
and altars under the oaks, and, in a word, 
all idol-service, established the pure wor- 


ship of th« true God in erery place of his 
doainions ; and filled np the rooms of 
those &]se prophets, with godly and learned 
teachers of the people, which was done 
erery where through the kingdom, hut 
particolaily in the islands, which those men 
chose for their principal abode, as being 
most fit for a retired life." There is a good 
deal of churchman-like colouring in the 
aboTC. The king and his council can hardly 
be supposed to hare effected such a change 
by means of mere instruction and persua- 
sion, eren with the help of the pious Cul- 
dees. It is not said that any kind of coer- 
cion was used, and we ought not without 
eyidence to conclude that there was. Chris- 
tianity was now the religion of the court ; 
and many would embrace it for the honour 
and adTantage of the thing, who were still 
heathens in heart But making erery 
reasonable allowance for this, it is evident 
that Christianity made great progress at 
this time, and the state of society would 
assume a new and an improved character. 

Christianity had now acquired a sort of 
dvil establishment It was the religion of 
the state ; but it had not yet obtained any 
legal endowment, or permanent provision for 
the support of minbters. They must have 
been dependent upon the contributions of 
their respective flocks, agreeably to the di- 
vine ordinance ; and this will always be 
found an adequate source of support when 
pastors and flocks are faithful to one an- 
other, and when both are disposed to obey 
the Christian precept, to be content with 
what Ood is pleased to bestow, believing 
his promise^ that he will not leave nor for- 
sake them. 

Crathilinth died about the beginning of 
the fourth century, having persevered to the 
end in the good work which he had begun : 
he was followed with xeal by Fincormachus, 
his inunediate successor, who reigned nearly 
half a century, during which, says David 
Buchanan, author of the pre&ce already 
mentioned, ** the gospel did flourish in pu- 
rity and peace.** 8uch a long, and such 
a peaceful reign, is a nure thing in the 
ancient history of Scotiand; and it was 
BO doubt owing partly at least, to the'inflo- 
tnce of the gospel so extensively professed. 

which not only subdues the ferocious pas- 
sions of those who embrace it, but tends 
also to promote the peace and civilization of 
society at huge. 

But a different scene soon presented it- 
self. On the death of Fincormachus, there 
were three competitors forthe crown, which 
occasioned a civil war among the Scots 
themselves ; and then they were attacked 
by the Picts, whom the Roman general in- 
cited to make war upon them. The Ro- 
mans and the Britons took part with the 
Picts ; and by such an overwhelming force 
the Scots were entirely subdued, and almost 
exterminated. Their country was then 
divided between the Picts and Britons. 

"The surviving Scots dispersed themselves 
wherever chance led them, through the 
iEbudie, (the Hebrides) Ireland, Scandina- 
via, the Cimbric Chersonesus (now Den- 
mark, Sweden and Norway) and were 
every where humanely received by the 
inhabitants. Their priests, likewise, and 
monks, who were then held in the high- 
est honour, were severely treated by the 
Picts, though they themselves professed 
the Christian religion, being chased into all 
the surrounding regions. In the course of 
their dispersions, several of them happened 
to land upon the island of lona, one of the 
^bud», and being there collected into a 
monastery, transmitted to posterity the great 
&me of their sanctity and erudition.*' (Bu- 
chanan, book iv. chap. 52.) Mr Aikman in 
a note, justly remarks, that the above " af- 
fords at least something like a reason for St 
Columba settling in lona, and making it the 
chief seat of the Culdees in after time.*'* 

It is impossible to say what was the state 
of religion in these circumstances. The 
Christians would suffer in common with 
the rest of their countrymen, and such as 
survived, would be dispersed along with 
them. The Picts soon found their error in 
expelling their neighbours the Scots; for 
the Romans brought them into bondage, 
which they could never do while they^and 
the Scots were united. This bondage they 
found so grievous and disgraceful, that they 
invited the Scots to return from their dis- 

* The edition of Bachanan which I uae is Mr 
Aikmau't trantlatioD. 1827. 



peraioD, promisiiig to assist them to recover 
their country from the Britons. They 
obeyed the invitation, and brought with 
them a great number of adventurers from 
Ireland, the Hebrides, from Denmark, and 
other northern nations, which mixed multi- 
tude became the ancestors of the present 
Scots. The Romans, from their necessities 
at home, could afford little aid to their allies 
the Britons, who after a furious bloody war 
were finally defeated, and driven back with- 
in their old boundary. The land thus re- 
covered was parcelled out among the Scots 
and their foreign auxiliaries. The Irish 
got a good portion of that which lay nearest 
their own country, which they called Gal- 
loway after one of the counties in Ireland. 
I have introduced a little of our civil 
history, in order to show the effect 
which the new state of things had on the 
church and its ministers. Many of the 
adventurers who came with the Scots from 
their dispersion, at least those from Scan- 
dinavia, must have been heathens. Fergus, 
the heir of the Scottish kings, who had 
taken refuge there, and who was invited 
back as king of the Scots, was killed in the 
war ; his heir was a child, and the child's 
maternal grandfather became viceroy. It 
was under him that the country was re- 
covered, and peace established. He was a 
noble Briton, but in consequence of the 
marriage of his daughter to Fergus, and 
some difference with his own government, 
he had attached himself to the fortunes of 
the Soots ; and perhaps his ideas of Chris- 
tianity were derived from what he had seen 
in south Britkin, where religion was always 
better endowed than in the north part of 
the island. Be this as it may, he was the 
first to give it a legal endowment in Scot- 
land. ** The viceroy, in order to check by 
proper institutions, that licentiousness which 
bad spread so widely by the long continu- 
ance of war, ordained that the monks and 
teachers of Christianity should be recalled ; 
and, lest they sliould be burdensome to the 
poorer classes, he appointed them annual 
stipends from the fruits of the earth, which, 
although small even then, yet to the mode- 
ration and temperance of these pious men, 
appeared sufficiently ample.*' Buchanan, 
Book V. chap. 10. 

Thus about the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury, Christianity, under that form which 
we may now call the church of Scotland, 
obtained a pecuniary endowment along with 
a legal establishment The motives of 
Gneme, for such was the name of the vice- 
roy, appear to have been laudable. AU the 
arguments that were ever used on behalf of 
a legal provision for public teachers will 
forcibly apply to this case. The Soots had 
been in exile, and on their return had been 
engaged in furious war&re for nearly 
twenty years. The spirit of Christianity 
must have been almost extinct among them, 
if so much as the profession of it remained; 
and there were now incorporated with them 
a number of heathens from other countries. 
The gospel was the last thing that auch a 
people would think of seeking for them- 
selves. It was the business of the Culdees 
and other ministers to have gone among 
them preaching the word; but they had 
been scattered through Ireland, (he He- 
brides, and other places, where perhaps they 
found themselves comfortable, and they 
had no inclination to leave their favourite 
retirements. Be this as it may, the viceroy 
found it necessary to recall them, which he 
could not do with a good grace, unless he 
gave them a promise of provision for theur 
support The country was in a state of 
the most wretched poverty, having been 
laid waste by fire and sword. The fields 
were uncultivated; and, in short, the peo- 
ple were reduced to the necessity of plun- 
dering their neighbours to save themselves 
from starvation. Supposing Gneme to 
have been a Christian himself, and really 
desirous of propagating the gospel, he could 
not have done less than provide for the 
support of the ministers whom he invited 
to come and teach his people, at least till 
the gospel had again got such a footing 
among them, as to produce the proper 
effect of teaching Christians to support 
their teachers as the Lord hath ordained. 

But perhaps the viceroy was only a 
Christian politically, and had no higher object 
in view, in recalling the monks and other 
teachers, than to keep the common people 
in order, whicli is the only use that states- 
men as such have been accustomed to make 
of religion. His object was to obeck by 



oept in relation to the apostles, or evan- 
gelists, such as Timothy and Titus, to 
whom the apostles gave a special commis- 
sion for particular purposes. It was an 
innoTation upon the divinely instituted or- 
der of eyangelical churches. Yet we can 
easily see how the Christians were led into 
it, and how, for the time, it would appear 
expedient, if not absolutely necessary. Knox 
and his colleagues had recourse to the very 
same expedient, at the beginning of the 
Reformation. From the incompetence of 
a large proportion of the parochial clergy, 
it was found necessary to appoint a certain 
number of persons properly qualified as su- 
perintendents. The incompetence of the 
olergy then, was the consequence of the 
great ignorance in which Popery had held 
both priests and people for ages ; and though 
that had not been the condition of the early 
Christians in Scotland, they suffered many 
disadvantages of another kind. Perhaps 
few even of the pastors possessed an entire 
copy of the scriptures, which existed only 
in manuscript, and the price of a copy 
would be equal perhaps to hundreds of 
pounds of our money; and many of the 
pastors would not be able to read them in 
the original, or in Jerome's Latin transla- 
tion which was then coming into use. It 
is possible that pious Christians might edify 
one another, and even preach the gospel, 
from the mere recollection of the word 
which they had heard and believed ; but the 
ministry of such persons must have been 
extremely deficient, at least there was great 
danger of its being so. It is as much as we 
could expect in these circumstances, that 
each superintendent possessed a copy of the 
scriptures, which he could carry round the 
country, for instructing and confirming the 
people, and refreshing the memories of the 
pastors. I make these remarks not to justify 
the innovation, but to account for it Many 
of the converts and churches in different 
parts of the world, in the first century, must 
have been as illiterate as the Scots were in 
tlie fourth, yet we do not find that they 
set one class of ministers over the rest 
Those indeed who enjoyed the ministry of 
apostles and evangelists had the advantage 
of their superintendence. When they were 

all become extinct, their writings were left 
to supply their place; and they are perfectly 
sufficient for the purpose, — able to make the 
man of God perfect, thoroughly fturoiahed 
for every good work, which implies being 
perfectly qualified for the ministry of the 
gospel. The apostles never contemplated 
such a state of things in any church, as 
would make it lawful to depart from the 
order and government which they app<nnt- 
ed, or to have recourse to human expedi- 
ento on any immergency whatever. The 
proper measures for supplying what was 
wanting, would have been to multiply copies 
of the scriptures, to have the people gene- 
rally taught to read; that at least every 
church should have a Bible, and some able 
to read it distinctly. By such means, with 
prayer and spiritual conference, our Chris- 
tian ancestors might have had all their 
wants supplied. But by this time all the 
churches near the seat of empire had gteatly 
fiedlen away both from purity of fiuth and 
holiness of life; and Scotiand was not 
exempt from the contagion of their example. 

But at the period to which these 
refer, Scotland was behind both the 
and western churches in the march of ambif- 
tion. The preachers were upon the whole 
faithful, men who laboured with modi dili- 
gence and success. Those whom the vice- 
roy recalled from exile, after the diaaaters 
above mentioned, were of the same cbarae- 
ter, and, no doubt, many of them, the same 
persons who bad preached to the Scots be- 
fore the breaking up of the kingdom. They 
entered on their labours anew with the 
same zeal and fidelity as before. The pro- 
vision made for them by the state had not 
yet operated to secularise their thoughts 
and pursuits. ** And such was the happi- 
ness of those days," says David Bndianan, 
''that a very small proportion did content 
the churchmen, setting wholly their minds 
on the conscionable discharge of their call- 
ing, which they did, preaching God's word 
carefully, truly, and simply, instructing the 
people in the fear of God, and so gaining 
their souls to their Maker and Redeemer." 

Such was the character of the first bishops 
in Scotland who had a legal provision for 
their support; but the piovision, small as it 



was,mtwt have been a tempUtion to worldly I ousy any things that came from the head of 
men who became their Buooetsors ; for we > the empire. There is no fact in the ancient 
are informed in the tame parag^ph, what history of Scotland better eetablished, than 

took phce in the comae of time. ^The 
virtaons dtil magiitrate was the secondary 

the absolute independence of its church of 
all foreign joriadiction, up to at least the 

cause of this good behaviour of churchmen, - middle of the fifth century. This is proTod 
who by his anthority kept them in order, ' eren by popish authors, who labour to show 
and by his example taught them to die- ' that about this period, the Pope sent a hi* 
charge their duty faithfully, and lire dis- i shop to the Scots, who established a new 
creeUy ; but as soon as the civil magistrate order in their church; and if he did not 
left them to themselves, then they neglect- subject it to Rome, brought it into some de» 
ing their calling, set their minds onambition < gree of conformity with what was after* 
and avarice, and consequently upon all evil, wards called the mother and mistress of all 
thinking of nothing less than of that they churches. 

were called to.*' This must have been a 

This missionary from Rome was Palla* 

new generation of men, who succeeded to dins, the reputed father of prelacy, or dio- 
the fidthful band formerly mentioned ; and ! cesan episcopacy, in Scotland, about whom, 
they must have been men who got tbem- ■ and whence he came directly into Scotland, 
selves into the priests* office, not that ' there has been much controversy, a summary 
they might win souls to God, but obtain a j of which may be seen in Dr Jamieson*s 
provinon for themselves. This was the History of the Culdees. By one account, 
unavoidable consequence of the second de> . he was sent by Pope Celestine into Britain, 
^-iation of the church of Scotland from New to oppose the Pelagian heresy; and having 
Testament order, that of accepting a pecu- been very successful, the king of Scots, 
iiiary state endowment for their ministers. | whose subjects either had, or were in dan- 
Tliis was letting the worid into the church, ger of falling into the same error, invited 
and the next step will be having the world him to come and put it down among them 
set over it. In fact, the king had already also. Another account says, he went first 
become virtually its chief pastor, when he into Ireland, and came from thence into 
was obliged to superintend the superin- Scotland, where he finally remained. In 

tendents, and keep them to their duty. 

All this time, and down till about the 
close of the fifth century, the church of 

the parish of Fordun in the Meams, there 
are said to be the remains of a chapel which 
bears his name, and a well, which by abbre- 

Scotland was quite independent of the Bi- , viation, they call Paldy's well. There is 
shop of Rome, and of every other diocesan ' also a fair held there annually, which they 
bishop. They had indeed no religious con- call Paldy's or Paddy's fair ; hence the 
nection with Rome whatever, any more than | familiar designation of Irishmen to this day, 
they had with Jerusalem or Antioch. They from which the popular belief must have 

professed to have received the gospel from 
disdples of the apostle John, which, could it 
be proved, would connect them with the 
eastern, rather than the western, church ; 
but they acknowledged no relation or sub- 
jection to the one or the other. They had 
indeed an order of monks, and some super- 
stitious observances, which became almost 
universally prevalent in both the east and 
the west; but these were most probably 
derived firom their heathen ancestors, and 
not from Romish Christians. Indeed they 
snfiTered such oppression firom the Roman 
soldiers^ that they would regard with jeal- 

been that he came from that island. 

Whencesoever he came, he settled him- 
self down, it seems, among the Scots, and so 
far ingratiated himself with them that they 
consented to his re^modelling their church, 
and to receive new governors in the shape 
of diocesan bishops or prelates. Hector 
Boece, as quoted by David Buchanan, thus 
writes ; — '^ Palladius was the first of all that 
did bear the holy magistrature among the 
Scots, being made bishop by the great pon- 
tiffor bishop ; for till then, by the suffrages 
of the people, the bishops were made of the 
monks or Culdees." There are a host of 



authorities to the same effed^ with which 
I need not enoomber this short sketch of 
our ancient ecclesiastical history. 

We are now come to that point of which 
I said, the church haring taken the world 
into it, would soon hare the world set over 
it This took place soon after Palladius 
had got what is above called, "The holy 
magistrature,*' that is, lordship over the 
ordinary bishops or pastors. This was not 
the state, or civil magistrate, set over the 
ehurch, for Palladius was a churchman ; 
but by this time, and much more after- 
wards, churchmen were worldly men 
in the worst sense. They were active 
agents of the god of this world, while 
they gave themselves out as servants of 
Christ. They did the devil's work in Ood's 
name, and thereby prevailed more effectu- 
ally and extensively in seducing the people, 
and keeping their souls in ignorance, and 
in bondage to the devil, than ' if they had 
openly appeared as his agents. The Man 
of sin had now got a footing in Scotland, 
and his power in it continued to increase for 
centuries; for it was at least five hundred 
years after this before he got the whole 
kingdom entirely under his feet. 

I do not mean the above reflections to 
apply to Palladius personally, but to the 
qrstem which he established, and the ma- 
chinery which he set agoing. I find nothing 
recorded to the prejudice of his personal 
character. Indeed the pope was too good a 
politician to send a notoriously wicked 
man on such a mission. His memory was 
held in great veneration, and, as Dr Jamie- 
son tells us, there is in the church-yard of 
Fordun, a house which is still called saint 
Palladius* chapel, where an inuige of the 
saint was kept, and to which pilgrimages 
were made from the most distant parts of 
Scotland. This, however, affords no evi- 
dence that he was really a holy man. It 
fell to churchmen almost exclusively to re- 
cord the lives of their great men ; and for 
the credit of their order, they made them 
models of sanctity. Some of them at this 
early period may have been so. Buchanan 
says, *<that under PaUadins' instructions, 
many persons sprung up illustrious alike 
for the purity of their doctrine, and the 

sanctity of their lives, in particular, saint 
Patrick, Servanus, Ninian,and Kentigem." 
Book V. chap. 16. With regard to these 
worthies, Mr Aikman, in a note, gives the 
iCbUowing information : — 

" St Patrick, the tutelary saint of Ireland, 
was bom at Nenothur, near Alduid, or 
Dumbarton, now thought to be Old Rilpa- 
trick, near Glasgow. When only thirteen 
years of age, he was taken prisoner by the 
Irish, and sold as a slave to Moluc, one of 
their kings. After four years* captivity, he 
was ransomed by his parents, and being 
educated at home, went first to France, and 
afterwards to Rome, whence he was sent 
by pope Celestioe to Ireland." — ** His first 
and greatest care was to teach the Irish the 
use of letters, as the prime means of making 
their conversion permanent'* '* St Ninian 
was descended of a noble family in Gallo- 
way, and received his education at Rome. 
He is said by Bede to have converted the 
southern Picts. He founded a monastery 
at M^ithom, and erected a church, which 
being the first that was built of stone, re- 
ceived the significant name of Candida casa. 
St Servanus, or St Serf, lived within the 
hermitage of Culross,* and was afterwards 

* Th« legendary history of this saint is some- 
what curious. I shall give a sketch of it, not as 
historical fact, but as a specimen of the idle tales 
with which the monks amused themselves and 
imposed on the world. It Is taken from the 
" Orygnale Cronykil" of Scotland, from Fergus 
son of Eric, down to his own time, by Andrew 
Winton, prior of the Inch of Lochleven. 

QiTRBN.thc thrid (Pope) John was dede» 

iwnct Serf nevyn yer neld that stede. 

He was of lif a huly man : 

The kyug's son of Canaan. 

His fader's landes, of heritage. 

Pel tU him be clere lynage. 

And lauchfnl leil, before al other. 

That gaf he til his yonger brotiier. 

All swylk combyr ne fiirsuyk. 

And til haly lif hym tuke. 

I shall translate what follows into English 
prose, which will be easier for myself, and I 
suppose more pleasant to the reader. When 
setting out on his travels, without any fixed 
destination, so far as appears, God sent an angel 
to be his companion and counsellor. They came 
first to Alexandria ; then to Constantinople ; 
then to Rome; when die papal chair having be- 
come vacant, St Serf was chosen to fill It, whioh 
he did for seven years ; when the angel told him 
it was time to go somewhere else. He called the 
peoole of Rome together, and preached a fare- 
well sermon (the first, I suppose, and the last of 
the kind, that ever pope preached.) Haviug 
taken leave, with the people's blessing, be ani 
the aogel came to France ; then to England ; 



sent by St Palkdius to Orkney. St Ken- 
tigern, or St Mango, u e. the kind, or coni^ 
teoiM^ or aooording to the Rev. T. Mao- 
oourtj, in the Statistical Account of Penny- 
caik, ToL x. p. 419. dear friend, was the 
disdple of St 8er?anas. He laboured 
chiefly among the inhabitants of Strath- 
clyde, and is considered the founder of the 
diocese of Olasgfow, to whom its cathedral 
k dedicated." Others deriye his name from 
the fiuniliar address of his master Servanus, 
who used to call him Mon ga, which in old 
French, signifies, my boy. These we must 
all take for saints, seeing the pope made 
them yuch ; and they were no doubt instru- 
ments of promoting such Christianity as 
they had received; that is, a creed tolerably 
orthodox, for they held the fundamental 
doctrines of Christianity, and were firmly 
opposed to Pelagianism, the great heresy of 
the day; and a system of worship and 
church goremment in which divine institu- 
tions were corrupted by the inventions of 
men, comparatively few and imperceptible 
at first, but which, in the course of ages, 
smothered the truth altogether. 

Though the Scots generally submitted to 
the new state of things, it was by no means 
universally so. The Culdees retained their 
old institutions, and observed their former 
practices, both in educating and setting 
apart men for the ministry of the gospel ; 
and they acquired a great degree of import- 
ance and influence by the arrival of St 
Columba, about the middle of the sixth cen- 

where he wu joined by a company of a hun- 
dred, who took ship with him and came to 
Scotland. He arrived on the Forth ; and after 
a yarictvof inddcnte which the poet relates with 
mat minateneM, he settled at Uulross, of which 
be received a rift from the king of the Picts, 
together with Uie Inch or island in Lochleven. 
As a specimen of his miracles, I give the fol- 
lowing, which, lest I should weaken it by a 
traodatkHi, I sliall give in the very words of the 

Tnis hahr msn had a ram. 
That he Ikad fed uS of a lam ; 
And ojait him til idow ay, 
Qoberevir he pmsit in Ida vray. 
A theyf this scheppe in Achren stal. 
And et hym np in peoea small 
Qohen 9t Serfhb ram had myst, 
Qoha that it stal was few that wist : 
On presnmpdoD nerirtheles. 
He that it itai aratyt wss. 
And till St Self syne wss he broncht. 
That sdieppe lie said that he stsl noucht; 
And thsrior for to swvr sne athe, 
He ssid that he walde nocht be laythe. 
Bat sone he wiwthit rede for srhame ; 
The scheppe tban blety t in his wpyme ! 

tury, and the establishment of a seminary 
in [ona, or IcolmkiU, whence, as Dr John- 
son says, ** savage clans and roving barbar- 
ians derived the benefits of knowledge, and 
the blessings of religion." Columba was a 
native of Ireland, and he came from that 
island with twelve companions, who estab- 
lished themselves in lona, where, as we 
have seen, a number of Culdees had taken 
refuge, on the dispersion of the Scots two 
centuries before. There was probably still 
a community of them there, who would 
gladly receive such an accession as the saint 
brought them. 

This small island now became, and it con- 
tinued for centuries, famous for learning and 
piety ; and it sent out many, in successive 
ages, to preach the gospel in Scotland, Ire- 
land, and the north of England. I shall 
here introduce from Dr Jamieson an account 
of the doctrines which they held and taught, 
by which it will appear that the religion of 
that portion of our ancestors who adhered 
to them, was substantially protestant, a 
thousand years before the protestant Refor- 
mation. ** The doctrine of the Culdees, as 
far as we may judge from that of Columba, 
was at least comparatively pure. As he 
was himself much given to the study of the 
Holy Scriptures, he taught his disciples to 
confirm their doctrines by testimonies 
brought from this unpolluted fountain ; and 
declared that only to be the divine counsel 
which he found there. His followers, as 
we learn from Bede, would receive those 

Sura was he taynctyt scliamfully. 
And at Sanct Serf askyt mercy. 

It seems very wonderful, that a sheep, after 
being eaten up in small pieces, should be able to 
bleat in a man's belly ; but there is nothing 
miraculous in the story, if we can believe that 
St Serf, in his travels, learned the art of ventri- 
loquism, which is a very ancient species of im- 
posture. He that could speak out of the ground 
and cause his speech to whisper out of the dust, 
Isa. xxix. 4. could easily cause a sound of bleat- 
ing to come as out of a man's 'stomach. A little 
knowledge of the arts and sciences gave the 
priests a vast advantage over the ignorant popu- 
lace ; and such advantage they are not ashamed 
to use at the present day. The Jesuits having 
learned that a great proportion of the south sea 
islanders have embraced Christianity, have 
lately sent missionaries to gain them to popery ; 
and they have taken with them a good supply 
of electrical machines and galvanic batteries, by 
which they will make it appear that they can 
work miracles. 



things only^ which are contained in Um 
writings of the prophets, evangeliistfl, and 
apostles ; diligently observing the works of 
piety and parity. Henoe, it has been said, 
that for several generations, with the errors 
which at that time prevailed in the church 
of Rome, they seem not to have been in the 
least tainted. 

** They observed a certain rule in their mo- 
nasteries, composed, as it is said, by Colum- 
ba himself, and sometimes denominated the 
Rule oflona. For a considerable time before 
this era, many truly pious men, knowing their 
obligation to separate from the world, had, 
from human weakness, interpreted the divine 
precept in a sense which it was never meant 
to bear ; and if they did not retire singly to 
solitudes and caves, yet viewed it as most 
subservient to the interests of religion to ibrm 
regular monastic societies. But their mode 
of life was very different from that of the 
generality of those who have been called 
monks in later ages. According to Bede, 
after the example of the venerable fathers, 
they lived by the labours of their hands.' 
When giving the account of Aidan, who 
was one of them, he says, ** He neither 
sought nor regarded any of the things of 
this world. All the gifts which were con- 
ferred on him by kings, or by the rich of 
this world, he immediately distributed, with 
the greatest cheerfulness, to the poor who 
came in his way. So far was his mode of 
living removed from the indolence of our 
time, that he required of all his associates, 
whether clei^y or laity, that they should 
g^ve themselves to meditation, either by 
reading the Scriptures or by being at pains 
to learn the psalmody." These are the 
words of Venerable Bede, who no doubt 
thought that meditation, and getting psalms 
by heart, was a sufficiently active life for 
monks ; and, indeed, if the Culdees did no 
worse, they were much better employed 
than the generality of monks in later times. 
But, I think, what they are above praised 
for, ought to be placed among their errors 
and corruptions* Monkery, in its best form, 
is a human invention, derived from heathen- 
ism ; and so far from being subservient to 
the cause of Christianity, has always tended 
to corrupt it. Dr Jamieson proceeds :-~ 

<< We know, that, although their suooes- 
sors, in later ages, lived together, and bad 
some tilings in oommon, their wives and 
children, or their nearest relations, after the 
death of any of them, divided their proper- 
ty, and even claimed the offerings which 
had been made at the altar. This is men- 
tioned with regret by a Romish writer. 
But it shows that they had not, like the 
monastic bodies of subsequent ages, formed 
any idea of aggrandizing their order, or en- 
riching the particular monasteries belonging 
to it" Their having altars in their churches, 
was another deviation from New Testament 
purity, probably also derived irom the 
Druids, though they would think themselves 
authorised by the law of Moses to erect 
altars. They ought then also to have bad 
sacrifices, for by the law of Moses, the altar 
was nothing without the sacrifice. 

** So far were they from reckoning the 
connubial relation inconsistent with their 
character, that it seems to have been held 
in honour. For, even in the later period of 
their existence as a society, they, in some 
places at least, like the priests under 
the law, succeeded by inheritance. From 
the work last quoted, we learn that, in the 
church of St Andrews, the Culdees came 
into office hereditarily. In Ireland, also, 
where this body had great influence, there 
was a hereditary succession in the bishop- 
ric of Armagh, for fifteen generations. The 
Culdees at St Andrews, however, were not 
permitted, after they had entered into this 
monastic establishment, to keep their wives 
in their houses. But, perhaps, this ordi- 
nance was not framed, till through the in- 
creasing influence of that system of super- 
stition which forbids to marry, they were 
forced to yield to the tide of popular preju- 
dice in favour of celibacy. This is the 
more probable, as Alexander Myln, preben- 
dary and official of Dunkeld, says, that the 
Culdees, who, ' after the usage of the eas- 
tern church, had wives, abstained from them 
when it came to their turn to minister.' 
This brings us down to a late period of their 
history, when they were far gone in confor- 
mity to Rome, and not far from their ex- 
tinction. We can scarcely imagine a greatei* 
deviation from the New Testament order 



an evidence of their dedining in their spiri- 
tual state, and departing from the faith. 
Long before this period of our history, we 
find our Christian ancestors stickling about 
the proper time of keeping Easter, when 
they ought to have rejected it altogether as 
an observance which God had not required. 
In the time of St Columba, the controversy 
was revived, and after a keen contest the 
eloquence of those who favoured the church 
of Rome prevailed. St Columba yielded, 
whether from conviction, or from some 
other cause, we are not told; " and the Pope 
found in the Abbot of lona himself, a sedu- 
lous and devoted convert to the new lunar 
cycle." JtusseTs Prelim, Diss, to Keith^s 
Scottish Bishops y p. Ixxv. 

About the same time the feast of Christ- 
mas was introduced to our ancestors. " The 
vulgar persuasion is," says Buchanan, " that 
these festivities celebrated the birth of 
Christ, when, in truth, they refer, as is suf- 
ficiently evident, to the lascivious rites of the 
Bacchanalia, and not to the memory of our 
Saviour's nativity." It is probable that this 
was originally the Gothic pagan feast of 
Yule, or Zul, so called in Scotland to this 
day; see Dr Jamiesoh's Scottish Dictionary \ 
on the wordy Yule. We know the Popes 
instructed their missionaries not to abolish, 
but rather adopt the heathen rites of the 
people among whom they introduced Chris- 
tianity, and adapt them to Christian wor- 
ship. This was the source of innumerable 
corruptions ; and with regard to this festival, 
it not only opened a door for all manner of 
licentiousness, but also bound the churches 
to the acknowledgment of a thing as true 
which never has been proved, — that Christ 
was bom on the 25th of December, which 
rests on no credible authority. Our neigh- 
bours in the south condemn our reformers 
for rejecting this holiday. With much 
more reason we wonder at their retaining it 

There was another subject, which, if not 
of equal importance, was far more harmless, 
and was very keenly controverted. This 
was nothing less than the manner in which 
the priests should have their heads shaven. 
St Austin, who was sent to England by the 
Pope, to convert the heathen Saxons, who 
had obtained a settlement there* was deter- | 

mined that every consecrated head in this 
island, should be clipped and shaven exactly 
according to the Roman fiishion. *^ 8ach 
was the rage for introducing this more fa- 
shionable tonsure into all parts of Britain 
and Ireland, that learned missionaries wera 
appointed to preach on its importance, and 
to illustrate by regular aigument, and ap- 
peals to scripture, its powerful efficacy in 
furthering the everlasting welfare, as well 
as the earthly happiness of the whole Chris- 
tian priesthood. But all the zeal and la- 
bours of Austin were in vain when opposed 
by the firm faith of our northern Presby- 
ters. These worthy sons of our ancient 
church expressed their utter abhorrence of 
so gross an innovation— declared boldly that 
they would continue to shave the crown of 
their heads agreeably to the exact pattern 
which they had all along followed, and 
which, they were satisfied, possessed the 
high authority of St John the apostle, and 
of St Polycarp the bishop ; and that how- 
ever compliant the Saxons might be under 
their Romish metropolitan, and however 
fickle the Britons might prove in regard to 
the pernicious novelty with which their 
steadfastness was thus menaced, the dis- 
ciples of Ninian, Palladius, and Columba, 
would be found ready to resist uiito death. 
But the power of fashion is of all things the 
most seducing and delusive. Even grave 
divines are not at all times proof against its 
fascinating advances. The demure monks 
of lona, accordingly, were at length pre- 
vailed upon to shave like other priests ; for 
we find they adopted the new tonsure 
much about the same time that they ad- 
mitted the new calendar as their future 
guide to the canonical Easter." JtusseTs 
Dissertation as above, p. Ixxvii. 

This writer presents the pleadings of 
both parties in a burlesque form; and, 
indeed, in the present state of public 
opinion, it is difficult to speak of such a 
controversy with gravity ; but, I have no 
doubt, it was to our fathers a very serious 
matter. They did right to resist foreign 
authority even in the trifling matter of cut- 
ting their hair; and when this was imposed 
upon them as a part of their religion, they 
would have done right had they resisted 



BTcn to deaih. Had they done thig, and 
had erery one cot his hair according to his 
own taste, showing the thing to be a matter 
of indifference, we wooid hare admired 
thmr intrepidity. But they sink to the 
standard of mere children, when they set 
up a fiwhion of their own as of indispensa- 
ble r^\i^ova obligation. It seems to us im- 
poasible that minds which could entertain 
inch a notion, could understand, or be un- 
der the influence of the sublime truths of 
the gospel ; just as children who can take 
pleasure in toys, proTe themselves unfit for 
the higher branches of education. 

These were the things which occupied 
the minds of Christian pastors as early as the 
Bxth century ; firom which it is evident 
that the state of genuine Christianity must 
nave been very low, notwithstanding the im- 
posing rites of worship which began to be 
practised. Indeed the spirit of the gospel al- 
ways declined in'proportion to the increase of 
such rites; and, as we shall see in the sequel, 
the church of Scotland, like every other 
oational church in Christendom, added one 
piece of mummery to another, till her rela- 
tion to the Christianity of the Bible could 
icarcely, if at all, be discerned. 

While the church of Rome was making 
mcroachments by one superstitious inven- 
tion after another, the Scots were so often 
engaged in war with their neighbours, that 
they could not give proper attention to 
ralgects of religion. They left these things 
to their priests, and quietly acquiesced in 
Hrhat they were pleased to impose. Yet 
they sometimes carried their zeal for Chris- 
tianity with them into the wars, of which 
there is an instance recorded by Buchanan, 
in the sixth century. The Saxons, who 
invaded England, and greatly annoyed the 
south of Scotland, were heathens. The 
Soots having obtained a signal victory over 
them, drove them to their ships. As many 
IS got on board escaped to Germany. '* Of 
those who were left, they who continued 
pertinaciously to adhere to their errors were 
pat to death; the rest saved their lives by 
I pretended profession of Christianity." 
Buch^ book V. chap, 25. The Scots who 
were guilty of this must have been Chris- 
tiaiit only in name. About the same time. 

a considerable addition was made to the in- 
come of the deigy, by donations from Xhtt 
pious king, Con^dlus, which Buchanan re- 
lates in the following concise, but very ex- 
pressive terms. "He enriched the priests 
with donations and other provisions, more 
with good intention than happy success." 
The Scots, however, did not tamely sub- 
mit to all 8t Austin's encroachments. His 
mission from the Pope was only to the 
heathen Saxons, now masters of England, 
having driven the Britons into Wales ; but 
he assumed authority over all the Christians 
in the island. Buchanan thus introduces 
him to his readers, in his usual concise and 
pointed style. " In this reign, (that of 
Aidanus) an ambitious monk named * Au- 
gustine came to Britain, sent by Ch'egory 
the Roman pontiff, who, while he taught a 
new religion, greatly deteriorated the old ; 
for he did not so much inculcate the pre- 
cepts of Christianity, as the Romish cere- 
monies. The Britons had at first heard the 
gospel from the disciples of John the evange- 
list, f and were now instructed by monks 
who were learned and pious. But the mis- 
sionary, intent only upon reducing all un* 
der the dominion of the bishop of Rome, 
proclaimed himself sole archbishop of Bri« 
tain — introduced a dispute, neither neces- 
sary nor useful, about the day of celebrating 
Easter, by which he mightily disturbed the 
church, and so loaded her ritual, already 
degenerating into superstition, with new 
ceremonies, and lying wonders, that scarcely 
a vestige of true piety remained.*' Booh v. 
chap, 36. 

* He is called AugustiDe, or Aiutin the monk, 
to distiDguiftb him from another saint of the 
same name, who belongs to a period two centu- 
ries earlier, who, as a divine, was distinguished 
above all the fathers of his age. Luther was 
a monk of his order ; and was happily directed 
to study his writings, which were partly the 
means of opening his eyes to the truth of the 
gospel and the errors of popery. Of Augustine 
the monk 1 have nothing so favourable to record. 
But there is a tradition, that he was ao amazing. 
W successful in converting the Saxons to such 
Christianity as he taught them, that they came 
in such crowds to baptism, that he could not pos- 
sibly baptize them individually, but consecrated 
a whole river at once, and took an instrument 
such as bleachers use, and sprinkled them en 
masse, I do not give this as a well authenti- 
cated fact; but as a tradition which I have read 

f He has only their own word for this. 



Referring to this period Mosheim ob- 
ferves, *' The ancient Britons and Scots per- 
tnted long in the maintenance of their reli- 
gions liberty, and neither the threats nor 
the promises of the legates of Rome, coold 
engage them to submit to the decrees and 
authority of the Roman pontifif, as appears 
manifestiy from the testimony of Bede." 
The aversion of the ancient Britons and 
Scots to the rites and doctrine of the Ro- 
mish church is strongly manifested in an 
extract of a letter from Laurence, who suc- 
ceeded Augustine as bishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 605, to the Scots who inhabited 
Ireland, preserved by Bede. In this epistle 
he says, " When the see apostolic sent us to 
Chese western parts, to preach to the pagan 
nations, and we happened to come into tliis 
island, which is called Britain, we held both 
the Britons and Scots in great esteem for 
sanctity, before we knew them, believing 
that they conducted themselves according 
to the custom of the universal church. But 
after we became acquainted with the Bri- 
tons, we still imagined that the Scots had 
been better. We have, however, learned 
from bishop Da^n, who came into this 
aforesaid island, and from the abbot Colum- 
ban in France, that the Scots no way differ 
from the Britons, in their behaviour. For 
bishop Dagan, coming to us, not only re- 
fused to eat with us, but even to take his 
repast in the same house in which we were 
entertained." Bede, lib. 1 1. cap, 4^ This 
Dagan came from the monastery of Ban- 
gor, in Ireland, to be bishop to the Scots, 
and evidently treated the votaries of Rome, 
not excepting the bbhop of Canterbury 
himself, as if they had been actually excom- 
monioated. He viewed them as men with 
whom he was not so much as to eat, nay, 
as even communicating pollution to the 
place where they did eat** JamiesofCs 
Hist, Culd. p. 22\. 

From the fact thus established, of the 
mutual dislike of one another, and the aver- 
sion of the Scots to receive any of the Ro- 
man rites, we have another proof of the in- 
dependence of the Scotish church down to 
the seventh century. Had they regarded 
the Pope as head of the universal church, 
and of course their own ecclesiastical supe- 

rior, they must have submitted to hia de» 
crees without calling them in questioD. 
But they acknowledged no such headship ^ 
they were as independent of Rome, as Rome 
was of them ; and they would not r^cog^- 
nise the jurisdiction of the bishops who 
came to England with the Pope's commis- 
sion. Unhappily, however, they had con- 
ceded the tonsure, and the time of keeping 
Easter, to the persuasion, or importunity 
of tlie Romanists. This encouraged far- 
ther encroachment, and prepared the way 
for complete submission to Roman aotho- 

While thus nuiintaining the fact of the 
independence of the church of Scotland, 
and her extreme aversion to receive any of 
the Romish rites, it is but fair to admit that 
the corruptions which by this time prevail- 
ed in the Scotish church, ought not to bt 
entirely charged upon the Romanists, bnt 
ascribed to the depravity of her own mem- 
bers, not excepting the clergy, who, as we 
shall see by and by, had become very pro- 
fligate. Yet, as is often the case, amidst all 
the corruptions of their church, they mani- 
fested great zeal for the truth. Thus Fer- 
chard, one of their kings, who began his 
reign in 622, proving himself unworthy of 
the crown, the nobles conspired, and took 
him by force, in order to bring him to trial 
for his crimes. " Many heavy charges were 
preferred against him, particularly, he was 
accused of the Pelagian heresy, contempt of 
baptism, and the other sacred ordinances, 
from which, when he could not clear him- 
self, he was thrown into prison, where, that 
he might not longer be exposed to contempt, 
he put himself to death, in the fourteenth 
year of his reign." Buch, book v. ch. 39. 
At this early period, it seems, heresy was 
regarded by our ancestors, as a crime pun- 
ishable by the state, even in the person of 
their king. 

Notwithstanding much prevailing corrup- 
tion, the Culdee seminaries continued to 
send out ministers to preach the gospel, or 
what they took for it, who were instrumen- 
tal in propagating Christianity, not only in 
ScotUnd, but also in the north of England. 
At the request of Oswald king of Northum- 
berland Donald IV. king of Scotland * sent 


JD luclui* dbdiignulMd for their pietjr 
id laanUDg, trbon he reoeiTcd with graat 
indaeM aiul fib«nlitf. Nor did he think j 

• meta office to a king, to interpret to hi« | 
tople, in their pnUic Mmnbliei, the wr- 
lou of the preaehen, which, being' deli- 
ered in the Sootith luigtutge, were not 
•ffidentl/ nndentood bj them. All thia 

dietinodf leeonied by Bede." In the 
<xt naga but one, "after the Scotish 
ook* h)td dineminatad the knowledge of 
le Chriatiaa religion widely throogh Bng- 
nd, and to inttructed the English youth 
I lettm, that they appeared Euffidently 
ipable <rf' preaohii^ the gospel to their 
mntrymen, a (pirit of enry towards their 
atractort arose, in proportion •« they im- 
•ined thenuelTei their eqnals in learning ; 
id their diaincUnation toward* the Scots 
(oceeded lO far, that they forced them to 
jtnm to their own conntry; which affront, 
aongbitdiitnibed the concord of the king- 
oma, yet,aachwaB the moderation of thoM 
rbo (oatMoed the wrong, that they re- 
Tained both oationa from decided hoatili- 
ea." Bueh. book \. eh. 41, ii. This shows 
ow much Chriitianity was r^arded as a 
ational affair, when they were ready to go 
> war to avenge an affront offered to their 

IS VII. who had a peaceful reign 
f lerenteen yean, paid great attention to 
le aSain of religion. He was the first 
lat ordered the records of the kingdom 
> be preserved in the monasteries. His 
iccessor followed his example, not only in 
reaernng peace, but in endowing monas- 
jriea. These measures tended much to '. 
icrease the importance and wealth of the ' 
lergy. Yet after all this the following 
Mtimooy is bom by Buchanan on behalf 
f the ancient or Cnldee bishops. After 
Ji^ Kenneth bad subdued the Hcts, and 
educed both nations to one, "the episcopal 
ee, which the Plots had established at 
Lbemetby, he transferred to the royal tkoe, 
rhich posterity have ratber chosen to call 
't Andrews.* But the ancient Scotish 

biahope, elected from the monasteries, where 
the olgect* of oonteation then were not 
iionour and nnlc, bat holineas and learning-, 
sxercised their functions every where as 
opportnnity offered, without envyand with- 
out strife, for there were as yet no rich be- 
nefices attached to the office." S. vi. eA<a>. 

'• All our hlttoriani do Dbiam, that aame of 
i« nllcki of Ibe apinlle 8t Andraw, wov 
rougtit Into Scall&nd, and that la proom of 

ctmt to bur ao great dtTotloa to St Andrtw, 
■rill ht known b; lookltig into the WlnDlng of 
tha Hconil book of Archblihop Spatlhwood, or 
iniD the account gUen of It bj Mr Martin, la 
hli Reliquiai Oiai Andrta, which, howenr like 
to a legend It maf appear to be, I •hall taka Uw 
liberly hers to tranacrllH, from ■ copy tbat Ilea 
In the Ad'Dcalis.' Ubrarf, Edinburgh. 

" ItrguluB, ■ Greek monk IWmg at Palitt, a 
dtr of Achain, {by nhom the rcirdu of St An- 
drew tbe apoatle were preierTed and kept,) 
about the y«r S70, wna warned by b Ttilon by 
Tiigbt, (Ibree nlgbta Iwfore Iha emperor Conalan- 
tine came to tbe elty, with piirp«e la tranalata 
Ihcae relicka to ConitintiaoplB} to go to tba 
ibrlaa Id which the relloki were kept, and to 
taka oDt thereof tbe arm bone, tbraa flngan of 
the right hand, ■ tooth, and one of the lida of 
the ipoiile'* kneea, which ba ebould carefbDv 
prewrre and carry with blm to a ngion towards 
the weit, iitasta In the utmoit parte of tha 
Reialui, at flnt troubled with tbe 

' the Tlalon. after ■ little time re- 

with blm, 
d Cabaeu. 
three dtfout 

trangenrai of the vlalon, after ■ little 
nlred to obey. So putting the relloka 
le went to aea. taking cnpartnera wl 

• Thii 

inral centuriea before ihia period. Tbe fol- 
nrlng ucouni of Its origin la giren by Kellb 
1 Us " IntroftKlion M tba So* itf St Andrew*.-' 

nbyter, Gelaali 
luBi two deacons, eight hermlta, 

" After long etorme, the ablp waa at liat 
driven Into tbe bay, near the pWa where Ibe 
cltv of St Andrew" now itaoda, and there iplit 
aiunder apon the rgcka. But Regnlui and hia 
company were all brought aafe to ahore, baring 
nothing left them bat Ibe relicka, which Ihey 
were careful above all things to prewrre. Her- 
gul(u^ king of the Picts, (in wboae domlnloa . 
tbe ghire of Fife, and all the low onuntry of 
Scotland Iben wai ;) cama lo visit them in 
tbe piaoe where they wero aettled, (now St 
Andrewai) it wai then a forest tor wild 
boars, and wb> caUed la tha conotry lan- 
guage MuckroM, I. e. a land of hoar*, from 

ItlHDd'. The king changed the nuaa iota Kil- 
rimoal .' ' "" ' 

Rule's or Regulus's 
here Ifairly two yean. 
I inawt the above i 
hiilory, but at ■ apeclmen ot the illly flctii 
which were impoaed on the wnrtd. Thia w» 
nn doubt meant to give the lee of St Andreirt 
the honour of a mlracutoua origin ; but I would 
rather call It a Ibeflooa one, If the thinga whicb 
Regaloa atolo from the church at Fatra weie 
of any value. 

daj St 
la lived 



5. This must relate to the elective Col- 
dee bishops only, who seem to have had bat 
a small, if any share of the endowments ; 
for in the reign of Constantine II. and only 
a few years after what is above related, we 
read, that " the king first tamed his atten- 
tion to the correction of the public disci- 
pline, and, by severe laws, brought back 
to their ancient frugality the order of the 
priests, who, corrupted by their .^ limngs, 
had left off preaching the gospel, and devot- 
ed themselves to hunting, hawking, and 
courtly pomp." B, vi. chcqt, 7. It is im- 
possible that the two passages I have quoted 
can refer to the same persons, or the same 
oUss or order of ministers. The last quo- 
tation must relate to the beneficed clergy 
and their dependents, and the first, as I have 
said, to the Culdees, or perhaps only a por- 
tion of them, who remained faithful amidst 
the corruption that surrounded them. 

This corruption was greatly increased by 
the almost constant intercourse, which, 
sometime before this period, had beg^ to 
be kept with Rome. The richly beneficed 
ecclesiastics possessed the means of travel- 
ing to that city. It became the fashion to 
do so ; and their carnal minds were fasci- 
nated by the wealth and splendour in which 
the church appeared there. Though the 
Scotish church was not yet subject to the 
Pope, he found means by his influence in 
Scotland, to effect the preferment of such 
of the clergy as were, or were expected to 
be, subservient to his views. Indeed, a 
journey to Rome became the direct road 
to ecclesiastical dignity in Scotland ; and 
those who were exalted by this means were 
of course bound to promote the interest of 
Rome among their own flocks. The Pope 
also had agents in Scotland, who laboured 
with much zeal to bring the Scots into en- 
tire conformity, which they would have ef- 
fected much sooner than they did but for 
the opposition of the Culdees, who accused 
them of withdrawing the people from obe- 
dience to Christ, and subjecting them to the 
bishop of Rome ; that they forbade the 
marriage of priests, extolling celibacy as a 
state of peculiar sanctity; that they taught 
prayers for the dead, and set up images in 
churches; and that they had introduced 

rites and ceremonies^ unknown to the purer 
times, and contrary to Christ's institutions. 
For such fiiithful contending, some of the 
Culdee divines were excommunicated at 
Rome as heretics, for which David Buchan- 
an refers to the third volume of the coun- 
cils. This was an impudent assumption of 
authoritative jurisdiction, to which the Pope 
had no title, any more than the Culdees had 
to exconununicate him. But he knew that 
having done the thing, it would be estab- 
lished as a precedent, and would afterwards 
be used as an argument to prove the right 
of the see of Rome to universal jurisdiction. 
I have said, that Constantine, king of 
Scotland, endeavoured to effect a reform of 
the abuses which now prevailed. For this 
purpose he called a convention of the states 
at Scoone, in which it was ordained, that 
churchmen should reside within their pro- 
per charge ; that they should forbear med- 
dling with secular affairs ; that they should 
diligently instruct the people, and set them 
a good example ; that they should not keep 
hawks, hounds, and horses for pleasure; 
that they should carry no weapons, nor be 
pleaders in civil causes, but content them- 
selves with their own proper emoluments. 
These enactments show how the clergy had 
been thrusting themselves^forward into all 
sorts of business, civil as well as religious. 
There were certain fines imposed on those 
who should transgress the above regula- 
tions; but all this went for nothing; for 
Gregory who ascended the throne a year or 
two after Constantiue's death, gave the 
clergy higher immunities than ever; he 
granted them exemption from all temporal 
jurisdiction, so that they might do what 
they pleased without fear of punishment 
He exempted them also from all taxes and 
imposts; and constituted them judges of all 
matrimonial causes, of all testimentary 
deeds, and, in short, of every thing that 
related to conscience and good faith between 
man and man. He confirmed to them also 
the right of tithes; gave them power to 
make laws, to try, at their own instance, 
without the concurrence of any temporal 
judge, heretics, blasphemers, and such like; 
and as they were the sole judges of what 
was heresy, and what blasphemy, they 



would easily affix one or other of these to 
any person who offended them, and thus 
they acquired almost absolute dominion 
orer the persons and the property of the 
people. In addition to all this, it was 
ordained, that future kings, at their corona- 
tion, should swear to maintain to the dergy 
all these priril^gpes. 

We now find ourselves in the middle of 
the tenth century, which, from the gross 
ignorance, and besotted superstition that 
prevailed during it over all Europe, has been 
called the age of lead. There was still, 
however, light enough in Scotland to enable 
some of the priests to maintain the lawful- 
ness of their having wives. There was in- 
deed a bishop of the name of fiamet who 
publicly pleaded for this in a national coun- 
cil. But ultimately they were all obliged, 
practically at least, to yield to the prevail- 
ing superstition in favour of celibacy. The 
clergy now engrossed all the honour and 
esteem of the people. No other class or 
rank in sodety was reckoned of any account, 
not even royalty itself, in comparison of the 
sacred order; insomuch that king Constan- 
tino III. voluntarily resigned his crown, 
and went to be a monk at St Andrews, 
where he lived five years. David Buchanan 
informs us, that notwithstanding the pre- 
vailing idolatry and superstition, there were 
still some godly men who preached that 
Christ was the only propitiation for sin, 
and that his blood only could cleanse from 
the guilt of it I am sorry this author does 
not refer to any authority by which tlie 
fact might be ascertained. I have looked 
through whole centuries of history, without 
finding a single note of a sermon, or any 
information as to the doctrine which the 
Culdees preached in these dark ages. I do 
not however doubt the assertion, that their 
preaching was evangelical as above stated ; 
for nothing but the vital influence of the 
truth in their Own hearts, could have kept 
them from the moral contagion of the cor- 
rupt atmosphere around them. Teachers 
of fatal error, or, which is much the same, 
who give but a heartless assent to the 
truth, possess no principle that will enable 
them to withstand the allurements of cor- 
ruption; so they will sooner or later fiill in 

with the current But it is admitted by all 
our historians, that in the worst times, there 
were a few faithful men, who kept them- 
selves apart from the corrupt mass, neither 
accepting nor seeking church preferment, 
who yet went preaching wherever they had 
an opportunity. This must have been the 
effect of the gospel believed by them ; and 
therefore I infer that it was the gospel 
which they preached. 

I shall now introduce an example of the 
working of the corrupt system which was 
now established, not only in Scotland, but 
in all western Europe. Kenneth IIL king 
of the Scots, who had been, upon the whole, 
one of the best and most prosperous of their 
kings, when advanced in life, had a son and 
heir who was too young to succeed to the 
crown. Hitherto, and for many ages, the 
crown had been elective, with this limita- 
tion, that none were eligible but princes 
descended from Fergus, the founder of their 
monarchy. On the death of a king, there- 
fore, his heir did not succeed as a thing of 
course. If the nobles thought him incapa- 
ble from infimcy or any other cause, they 
chose some other of the royal line, whom 
they thought better qualified to govern them. 
There was at this time an accomplished and 
popular prince of the name of Malcom, son 
of Duff, one of their former kings. Ken- 
neth knew that he was likely to be preferred 
before his son ; accordingly he got him taken 
out of the way privately by poison. The 
thing was done so secretly that the king 
was not suspected, and probably would never 
have been suspected, had he not overdone 
his affectation of sorrow for the loss of 
Malcom, and at the same time laboured 
with all his might to procure an alteration 
of the law, so that his son might succeed 
him, under guardians, if he were not come 
of age. He obtained this change in the 
constitution of the kingdom, but it occa- 
sioned much discontent, and many bad con- 
sequences followed. 

" The king having thus, by iniquity, se- 
cured, as he thought, the throne to his 
posterity, yet could not obtain for himself 
peace of mind; for although he behaved 
towards every person with the utmost cour- 
tesy and appearance of benevolence, per- 


femed towards a gnat many acts of peon- 
liar kindnois, and ao gOTomed the kingdoiii» 
that he appeared defioient in no daty of a 
good king» yet hia aonl, distorhed by a 
oonadoosneat of his orime^ permitted him 
to enjoy no solid or sinoere pleasure; in 
retirement the tfaooghts of this unholy deed 
rushing upon his recollection, tormented 
him; and in sleep, visions full of horror, 
droYe repose far from his pillow. At last, 
whether in truth an audible Toioe from 
heaTen addressed hhn, as is reported, or 
whether it was the suggestion of his own 
guilty miod, as often happens to the wicked 
in the silent watches of the night, he seemed 
thus to be admonished :— •' Dost thou think 
that the murder of the innocent Malcom, 
perpetrated secretly by thee with the most 
consummate yillany, is either unknown to 
me or can remain longer unpunbhed? Even 
now, snares are spread for thy life, which thou 
canst not escape. Nor shalt thou leaye, as 
thou imaginest, a stable and a secure throne 
for thy posterity. They shall inherit an 
agitated and tempestuous kingdom.' Terri- 
fied by this dreadful apparition, the king, 
eariy in the momiug, hastened to the bishops 
and monks, to whom he unfolded the agita- 
tion of his mind, and his repentance. But 
they, instead of directing him to the true 
ranedy in the gospel of Christ — for they 
had already much declined from ancient 
piety and learning— enjoined upon him the 
absurd and fallacious propitiations invented 
by designing HTetches for the sake of gain, 
and rashly complied with by the tdmple and 
uninstmcted — that he should enrich by 
magnificent gifts churches and monasteries ; 
that he should visit the sepulchres of the 
saints, kiss their relics, and expiate his sins 
by masses and alms ; and above all, that he 
should treat the priests and monks with 
greater reverence than ever he had hitherto 
done. Nor did the king omit to perform 
any of these pious fooleries, believing that 
he would derive from them relief to his 
wounded conscience.** Such, b, vL ch4j^, 40. 
It is in cases like the above that the 
malignant poison of popery appears. It 
teaches sinners to make atonement for the 
greatest crimes, by gifts to churches, by 
superstitious and idolatrous rites, such as 

worshipping dead men's bones, and by pay- 
ing respect to the dogy. Sin must ever 
appear a small matter to those who are 
taught to believe that it can be purged by 
auch meana ; and wicked men will not be 
restrained finom any crime they denre to 
commit^ when they know that they can 
purchase not only impunity, but pardon at 
so easy a rate. It turned out, however, 
that retribution overtook the wretched 
king in the course of his penances. '* In 
the course of his devotional exercises, hav- 
ing come to Meams, to worship the body 
of St Palladius, he turned aside to visit the 
neighbouring castle of Fettercaim, then, as 
we are informed, remarkable for its build- 
ings." Here, the lady of the castle, from 
an old grudge, had him assassinated. Ibid 
chap, 41. 

From this time wealth beyond measure 
began to pour into the church. The piety 
of kings and nobles came to be estimated in 
proportion to their gifts to the church dur- 
ing their lives, or their bequests at their 
death. In the eleventh century, king Mal- 
com Canmore, and his queen, Maipu*et, who 
has been canonized as the patroness of 
Scotland, distinguished themselves as friends 
of the church. Margaret was an Anglo- 
Saxon princess, but was educated on the 
contioent, and was accustomed to mo*^ 
splendour of ritual than Scotland could yet 
aflbrd. She was offended by what appeared 
to her '* certain erroneous practices," which 
she laboured to correct She had frequent 
conferences with the clergy for this purpose, 
in which the king was her interpreter. The 
arguments of kings and queens have usually 
great weight with such persons as the bulk 
of the Scotish clergy now were ; and we 
cannot be surprised that those of Margaret 
prevailed, especially as her object was to 
increase the importance of their order. Her 
confessor, who wrote an account of her life, 
says, ** In some parts of Scotland there were 
certain persons who were accustomed to 
celebrate masses, I know not by what bar* 
barous rite, contrary to the universal prac- 
tice of the church. The queen, with holy 
leal, was at the greatest pains to annihiUte 
this custom, that no one of the Scotish nsr 
tion might presume to observe it.*' The 



rites of the churdi were thus brought to 
more exact oonlbniiity with those of Rome ; 
and bishops who had hitherto had only a 
general OYersight of the chorch, without 
particolar tees, or any lordly title, were 
now raised to the d%iiity of lord bishops, 
each with a particakr diocese, of which at 
first there were only four, St Andrews, 
Glasgow, Whithorn, and Mortlach, or Aber- 

It appears firom Buchanan, that both 
Malcom and his queen were persons of ex- 
emplary character, notwithstanding their 
superstition. ** He," the king, ** liyed holily 
himsdf, and excited others to temperance 
and equity, by his example ; in which, it is 
beliered, he was much assisted by the ad- 
Tice and admonitions of his inimitable queen, 
a woman remarkable for her uncommon 
piety. She indeed omitted no office of 
kindness towards the poor, or the priests ; 
nor was her mother, Agatha, or her sister. 
Christian, at all behind her in any religious 
daty; and seclusion being then esteemed 
among the principal institutions of piety, 
both of these ladies, leaving the tormenting 
cares of the world, shut themselves up in a 
convent of nuns." Malcom created two 
additional bishopricks, Moray and Caith- 
ness, ** procuring for them bishops, who, 
as the times went, were pious and learned." 
He built, at great expense, a magnificent 
cathedral at Durham — for the north of Eng- 
land then belonged to Scodand — and another 
at Dunfermline, and transferred the abbot 
of the monks at Durham to the see of St 

It is pleasant to read of the piety of kings 
and queens, in such barbarous times as 
those to which this part of our history 
relates; but, I fear, however uncharitable 
it may seem, we ought to make a large 
abatement from that which is ascribed to 
Malcom Canmore and Margaret his queen. 
Buchanan indeed speaks in unqualified 
language of the queen's piety ; but her life 
was to him a story of four centuries old. 
He had no record on which he could de- 
pend, but what had been composed by some 
churchman or other; and we know that, 
in their esteem, almost all piety was made 
to consist in devotion to the diuroh, — in 

bestowing wealth on it, and being obedient 
to the priests. Mai^garet's seal for bringing 
the church to greater conformity with that 
of Rome, was quite enough to exalt her 
fame for piety. Her mother and sister are 
described as equally pious with herself, and 
the proof of it is, that they left the torment- 
ing cares of the world, and shut themselves 
up in a convent of nuns, which, if tried by 
the scripture standard, will be found no 
piety at all. Malcom, himself, though a 
brave and active prince, was utterly illiter- 
ate. ** Although he could not read, he used 
often to turn over the leaves, and kiss the 
prayer books, and books of devotion which 
he heard his wife say were dear to her.*' 
Fardun, lib, v. chap, 23, cis quoted by Aik- 
man, in a note to Buchanan, Malcom's 
devotion in kissing the books which he 
could not read, would be regarded, and 
celebrated by the monks, as the most ex- 
alted piety. 

Malcom was succeeded by his brother, 
Donald Bane, who reigned only a few 
months; then by his natural son Duncan, 
who reigned a year and a half; then by his 
three sons in succession, Edgar, Alexander 
I. and David. Edgar made only one addi- 
tion to the splendor of the church : to wit, 
the monastery of Coldingham, dedicated to 
St Ebb, the virgin, afterwards changed to 
St Cuthbert. Alexander rebuilt the church 
of St Michaels at Scoon, and changed the 
company of priests there into a monastery 
of monks. In crossing the firth of Forth, 
having been driven by a tempest on the 
island of Inchcolm, where he almost perish- 
ed for hunger, and for many days, had no 
food either for himself or companions, ex- 
cept what they received from a devout 
solitary hermit, he, likewise, founded a 
church there, in memory of St Columba, to 
which he added what they call canons, and 
endowed it with lands to maintain them. 
He, besides, bestowed large donatives and 
knds on St Andrews, which was rich enough 
before. He completed the abbey of Dun- 
fermline, which his father had begun, and 
greatly increased its revenues. 

But in munificence to the church, David, 
the last of Malcom's sons who reigned, ex- 
ceeded all who had gone before. ** He ex- 



oeeded the libenlitj of hit &ther and rela- 
tions, in increasing the re?enaes of the 
ecdesiasticB, a liberality to be pardoned 
rather than praised. He rebuilt the monas- 
teries that had gone to decay through age, 
or been destroyed by the ravages of war, 
besides founding a great number of new 
ones. To the six bishopricks that pre?i- 
onsly existed, he added (bur, Ross, Brechin, 
Dunkeld, and Dumblaine; and in order to 
provide for the annual support of these sees, 
he reduced the succeeding kings almost to 
poverty, by consecrating the greater part of 
the royal lands to the support of monks.* 
Joannes Major," continues Buchanan, " a 
man of great name in theology when I was 
a boy, after having praised this king for his 
other actions, in a grave, and I wish a less 
true oration, blamed his profuse donations 
to the monasteries ; and I, too, am the more 
astonished at such immoderate profusion of 
the public money, and patrimony, because 
8t Bernard, in these very times, inveighed 
in the keenest discourses, against the priests 
and monks, for the immoderate expense of 
their luxury, who notwithstanding, might 
have been termed moderate compared with 
those of our day. But the fruit which fol- 
lowed, showed what was the nature and 
influence of such donations ; for, as in bodies 
distended by corpulence, the activity of the 

• Spotswood controvert* this. ** The bestow- 
ing of six score thousand franks,** says he, (" that 
is the highest estimate of bis donations) cannot 
be called an Immoderate profusion. He was 
certainly a most wise king, and knew well his 
own work, and could proportion his gifts to his 
revenues.'* But Spots wood was archbishop of 
St Andrews, primate of all Scotland, a privy 
counsellor to kins Charles I. and chancellor of 
the kingdom. Large sums bestowed on the 
dinrch, would have little magnitude in his eyes. 
But a hundred and twenty thousand franks was 
a large sum in those days; and it must have 
been the sum spent in building and repairing 
churches and monasteries, excliuive of the lands 
aet apart for thf ir permanent endowment ; the 
value of which in coin could not then be properly 
estimated. The archbishop's statement is bow- 
ever corro1>orated by the (act, that David's suc- 
cessor did not find the crown so impoverished 
as to hinder him from following the pious exam- 

Ele; for he built three or four monasteries ; and 
is successor added to the number. It mav be 
alleged, indeed, that the passion for building 
oburcheo, in those days, waa like the desire of 
oertain stimulants to the human constitution, In 
the present day. Those who love them must 
aad will liave them, though they cannot afford 
to purchase any thing else. 

members is destroyed, so the sparics of go- 
nios, oppressed by loxury, languished in 
the monasteries, literature was extinguished* 
piety degenerated into superstition, and, as 
in an uncultivated field, tiie seeds of every 
kind of vice sprung up rankly." Book vii. 
cA/^y. 87,2a The above was written about 
the time of the reformation. The author 
must have been a witness of the wealth 
and luxury of the clergy in his time, which 
must have continued to increase till the 
reformation swept it away. 

David was succeeded by his grandson 
Malcom IV. who, in order, as he thought, 
to serve God more acceptably made a vow 
of perpetual celibacy. ** He applied him- 
self strenuously to the family practice of 
building churches and endowing monaste- 
ries, in which, had his life been spared, he 
would far have exceeded his predecessors. 
He died in the year 1 165, in the twenty- 
fifth year of his age, and the twelfth of his 

So flattered and so pampered, the clei^, 
as might have been expected, became intol- 
erable for their pride and insolence. Thus 
we read in the reign of Alexander III. the 
next but one to the last mentioned. The 
king '* had his internal tranquillity disturbed 
by the arrogance of the priests and monks, 
who, enriched by the former kings, began 
to grow licentious by long repose, and to 
exceed, or equal in magnificence the nobi- 
lity, whom they already surpassed in wealth. 
At which the young nobles feeling indigo 
nant, behaved to them harshly and with 
contempt, and they, in consequence, com- 
plained to the king of the aflfront. He, 
however, either believing the injuries not so 
serious as the priests wished them to appear, 
or probably, not thinking them unmerited, 
treated them lightly; on which they in- 
stantly, in great wrath, excommunicated the 
whole land, except the royal family, and 
threatened to retire to Rome ; but, the king 
recollecting what disturbances Thomas a 
Becket, the ringleader of eodesiastical am- 
bition, had lately occasioned in England, 
recalled them when about to set out on 
their journey, and ordered the nobility to 
satisfy, not their ambition only, but even 
their arrogance." Ibid, chap, 64. This 



wsa the fnat of the profuse liberality of the 
^cotiah kings to the clergy. It was to have 
the clergy set over themselves ; for here the 
king was compelled to yield to the humour 
of the priests. He might have suffered 
them to go to Home, and have thought him- 
self well quit of them ; but such was the 
hold they had of the superstitious minds of 
the people, that the king knew, that they 
would rise in a body, and take part with 
the priests, and destroy hioL It is neces- 
sary to keep this state of things in remem- 
brance, in order to understand what an 
arduous undertaking the reformation was. 
Idatters were now tending rapidly to an 
entire subjection of the church of Scotland 
to the pope of Rome. The Scotish kings 
possessed a good deal of land in England, 
for which, as English noblemen, they owed 
subjection, and did homage, to the English 
king. This, a long time afterwards, sug- 
gested the idea, that the kings of Scotland 
should do homage to the king of England, 
for Scotland itself, as well as for their 
English estates, which would have reduced 
Scotland to the rank of an English pro- 
vince, and her king to a mere viceroy. 
But an attempt was first made, to have the 
church of Scotland subjected to that of Eng- 
land. The thing was proposed at a meet- 
ing of the two kings, William of Scotland 
and Henry I. of England, when the latter 
urged the former, with the Scotish clergy 
who were with him, to acknowledge the 
archbishop of York as their metropolitan ; 
which, however, was not conceded. The 
next year the attempt was renewed ; and a 
cardinal of high rank was sent from Rome 
in order to promote the claims of the Eng- 
lish archbishop. He summoned all the 
Scotish bishops to appear before him in 
Northampton ; and their obedience to such 
a summons showed that they were already 
under some measure of subjection to Rome ; 
at least, willing to become so. '* The as- 
sembly being met, and all ranked in their 
places, the cardinal, who had a seat some- 
what higher than the rest, made a long 
speech in commendation of humility and 
obedience, showing what excellent virtues 
these were, and how much to be desired of 
men of spiritual profession ; whereof when 

he talked a while, he came in the end to 
persuade the clergy of Scotland to submit 
themselves to the primate of York: which 
he said was a thing very convenient for 
them, and would turn greatly to their ease 
and commodity, for having no superior 
amongst themselves, nor metropolitan to de- 
cide controversies that possibly might hap- 
pen, there could none be fitter than their 
neighbour the archbishop of York, a prekte 
of great respect, and one whose credit in 
the church of Rome might serve them to 
good use; therefore besought them to lay 
aside all grudges and emuktions, and dis- 
pose themselves to live in all times after, as 
membera of one and the same church." 
SpoUwoody page 38. 

There was not one of the Scotish bishops 
who had the spirit to reply to such a humi- 
liating proposal; because, it seems, they 
were afraid to offend the cardinal. But a 
young canon, or clerk, of the name of Gil- 
bert Murray, made a speech on the occasion. 
It is given by Petrie, from an old MS. 
register of Dunkeld, and quoted by Dr 
Jamieson, from whom I take it. It is wor- 
thy of being inserted, as showing how Scot- 
land took precedence of England in both 
religion and learning. Spots wood gives 
only an abstract of it, and omits entirely 
that part that refera to the English nobility 
coming to Scotland to learn to read. 

** It is true, English nation, thou mightest 
have been noble, and more noble than some 
other nations, if thou hadst not craftily 
turned the power of thy nobility, and the 
strength of thy fearful might, into the pre- 
sumption of tyranny, and thy knowledge of 
liberal science into tlie shifting glosses of 
sophistry ; but thou disposest not thy pur- 
poses as if thou wert led with reason, and 
being puft up with thy strong armies, and 
trusting in thy great wealth, thou attempt- 
est, in thy wretched ambition and lust of 
domineering, to bring under thy jurisdiction 
thy neighbour provinces and nations, more 
noble, I will not say, in multitude and 
power, but in lineage and antiquity ; unto 
whom, if thou wilt consider ancient records, 
thou shonldst rather have been humbly 
obedient, or at least laying aside thy ran- 
cour, have reigned together in perpetual 



loTe ; and now with all wiokediiMt of pride 
that thoa tbowett, without any raaaoa or 
law, bat in thj ambitioiii power, thoa aeek- 
est to oppren tkjf moiher Ae church ftfScat^ 
hmd, which Ironi the beginning hath been 
eatholio and free^ and which brought thee, 
when thou wast itraying in the wildemeia 
of heatheniam, into the safeguard of the 
true fJEuth, and way unto Hfe, eren unto 
Jesus Christ, the Author of eternal rest 
She did wash thy kings, and princes^ and 
people^ in the laver of holy baptism; she 
taught thee the commandments of God, and 
instructed thee in moral duties; she did 
accept many of thy nobles, and others of 
meaner rank, when they were desirous to 
learn to read, and gladly gave them daily 
entertainment without price, books also to 
read, and instruction freely; sho did also 
appoint^ ordain^ and consecrate thy bishops 
and priests ; by the space of thirty years 
and aboTe, she maintained the primacy and 
pontifical dignity within thee on the north 
side of the Thames, as Beda witnesseth. 

^ And now, I pray, what recompense 
renderest thou now unto her, that haUi be- 
stowed so many benefits on thee? Is it 
bondage ? or such as Judea rendered unto 
Christ, eyil for good ? It seemeth no other 
thing. Thou unkind vine, how art thou 
turned into bitterness? We looked for 
grapes, and thou briogest forth wild grapes ; 
for judgment, and behold iniquity and cry- 
ing. If thou couldst do as thou wouldst, 
thou wouldst draw thy mother the church 
of Scotland, whom thou shouldst honour 
with all reverence, into the basest and most 
wretched bondage. Fie for shame! what 
is more base, when thou wilt do no good, 
to continue in doing wrong? Even the 
serpents will not do harm to their own, 
albeit they cast forth to the hurt of others; 
the voice of ingratitude hath not so much 
moderation ; an ungrateful man doth wrack 
and massacre himself, and he despiseth and 
minceth the benefits for which he ought to 
be thankful, but multiplieth and enlai^peth 
injuries. It was a true saying of Seneca, ( I 
see) The more some do owe, they hate the 
more ; a small debt maketh a grievous en- 
emy. What sayest thou, David ? it is true, 
They rendered me evil for good, and hatred 

for my love. It u a wretched thing, (saitk 
Gregory) to senre a lord that cannot bo 
appeased by whatsoever obeyanoe. 

** Therefore^ thou ohurch of Engiand, 
doest as becomes thee not; thou thinkest 
to carry what thou cravest, and to take 
what is not granted. Seek what is jnat^ 
and thou shalt have pleasure in what thou 
seekest And to the end I do not weary 
others with my words, albeit I have no 
charge to speak for the liberty of the church 
of Scotland, and albeit all the clergy of 
Scotland would think otherwise, yet I dis- 
sent from subjecting her, and I do appeal 
unto the apostolical Lord, unto whom im^ 
mediately she is subject; and if it were 
needful for me to die in the cause, here I 
am ready to lay down my neck unto the 
sword. Nor do I think it expedient to 
advise any more with my lords the prelates; 
nor if they will do othemise, do I consent 
unto them ; for it is more honest to deny 
quickly what is demanded unjustly, than to 
drive off time by delays, seeing he is the less 
deceived, who is refused betimes.'* Thers 
are a few sentences in Spot8wood*s abstract 
which are omitted in the above ; the most 
important is the following, for it contains a 
direct reply to one of the cardinal's argu- 
ments : — ^ For the controversies which yoo, 
my lord cardinal, say may arise among our- 
selves, we have wise and learned prelates 
who can determine the same ; and if they 
should be deficient in their duties, we have 
a good and religious king, who is able to 
keep all things in frame and order, so that 
we have no necessity for any stranger to be 
set over us." 

" The appeal made by Murray, to the 
pope," says Dr Jamieson, <* may perhaps be 
viewed as a proof, that the church of Scot- 
Uiud acknowledged complete subjection to 
Rome. But this seems to have been the 
first instance of an appeal being formally 
made to the papal see. As it was the act 
of a single person, it is to be observed, that 
even he had the highest sense of the liberty 
and independence of his mother churcL 
He doubtless thought that they were shut 
up to it, and considered it as the least of two 
evils." In short, it was to escape the bond- 
age of England, their ancient enemy, that 



the Soots threw thanualyes into the aims 
of Rome. The pope toon settled the dis- 
pute, by Bendiflf a bull to king William, by 
which he took the Soota under his protec- 
tion, and declared them free frwa all foreign 
juriadiGtion, czee|t that of his own see. 
And the legate^ who had shown so much 
seal for the archbishop of York, was very 
well pleased to get the church of Scotland 
brought under snljection to his own mas- 
ter. Indeed, though the idea does not seem 
to haye occurred to any of the aathors 
whom I haye consulted, I cannot help 
thinking, that the cardinal legate and young 
Murray understood one another; that in 
order to ingratiate himself and his master 
with the church of England, the legate 
made his speech, recommending the subjec- 
tion of the Scotish church to the archbishop 
of York, while Murray, with great show of 
seal for the independence of his church, in- 
sinuated the necessity of subjecting it to 
Rome. In his appeal to the pope at the 
conclusion of his speech, he actually asserts 
its subjection to the Apostolic Lord ; which, 
so fitf as appears, was the first time such an 
assertion was made in an assembly of Scot- 
ish clergy ; and which he would not have 
yentured to make unless he had been sure 
of good support That the archbishop of 
York suspected collusion of some kind ap- 
pears from a sentence of obscure Latin, which 
he addressed to Murray, when he had fin- 
ished his speech, which Spotswood trans- 
lates : — ** He was set on to speak by some 
othera of greater note." At any rate Mur- 
ray was well rewarded for what he did. 
He was soon made dean of Murray, and 
great chamberlain of ScotUnd, and after- 
warda bishop of Caithness. He died anno 
1245, and has been canonized. Jamieson's 
Oddeu, p. 245. 

Thus at last, without a struggle, the 
church of Scotland submitted to the yoke 
of the tri|de tyrant ; she became an integral 
part of the great mystical Babybn ; and be- 
came so identified with the church of Rome, 
in respect of rites, ceremonies, and adminis- 
tration, that it is not necessary to relate the 
remainder of her history yery minutely, 
seeing it would be almost the same as that 
of any of the other kingdoms that gave their 

power to the beast The Scots would not 
haye surrendered their independence so 
tamely, had they not been gradually pre- 
pared for it» by the luxury aud ambition of 
the deigy, the natural consequence of the 
rich endowments of their churches and 
monasteries, which enabled them to liye in 
idleness, and deyolye the duties of the min- 
istry on poor and illiterate mercenaries, by 
whom the people were rather corrupted 
than instructed in useful knowledge. There 
were still witnesses for the truth among the 
Culdees ; but the faithful eyen among them 
by this time were few ; great efforts were 
made to haye them suppressed altogether; 
and this was effected not so much by force 
as by the allurement of rich benefices, which 
were pressed upon them, and which they at 
last consented to accept We know how 
Charles II. got Leighton, and one or two 
more godly men, to accept of bishopricks, in 
order to make episcopacy palatable to the 
Scots ; so in the twelfth century great pains 
were taken to persuade the leading Culdee 
pastors to accept of dignities in the church. 
Some new bishopricks were erected for the 
yery purpose; and many of the parochial 
ministers of the Culdee order were induced 
to resign their charges, on being allowed 
to retain their stipends for life ; and their 
places were filled by persons of true Roman 

''Various means," says Dr Jamieson, 
" were employed for suppressing the Cul- 
dees, who were yiewed with so jealous an 
eye by the yotaries of the papal chair, and 
who had all along presented so powerful a 
barrier to its influence. This was first at- 
tempted in an artful manner. ' It is obser- 
yable,* says Sir James Dalrymple, ' that the 
Romish church did adyance yery warily, 
and by slow steps, endeayouring to gain the 
Culdean abbots to their party, by promoting 
them to bishopricks to be erected, and by 
preserying to the Culdees (possessed of pa- 
rochial churches) their benefices for their 
lifetime, aud making the suppression of these 
churches in fayour of the new erected Ro- 
man abbacies, only to take place after the 
incumbent's death: and frequently these 
concessions bear the consent of the presby- 
ter or churchman incumbent, with the 



resenratioa of bis own right daring bis life- 
time.' " 

But the great plan deyiaed for the over- 
throw of the Cnldeesy was the introdao- 
tion of the oanoos regular. These had been 
erected into a permanent order in the 
eleventh century. Being patronised by the 
pope, they were devoted to the interests of 
the church of Rome, and sealons for the 
extension of the authority of their ghostly 
&ther. They acquired credit with the 
superstitious, as having more appearance of 
sanctity than the Culdee presbyters ; espe- 
cially as they lived in celibacy, while the 
honest Cnldees laid no claim to the gift of 
oontinence. They affected fiu* greater pomp 
in their worship. No sooner were these 
canons introduced at St Andrews, than 
matters assumed an appearance of what 
was deemed religion in those days, which 
had been quite unknown before. Their 
prior at St Andrews ' wore, in all public 
meetings, and in solemn services upon fes- 
tival days, the pontifical ornaments, viz, a 
mitre, gloves, ring, cross, crosier, and sandals 
or slippers, as the bishops; and in parlia- 
ment had the precedence of all abbots and 
priors.' The very design of their introduc- 
tion into those places, where the Culdees 
had formerly had the power, was the esta- 
blishment of this species of religion.*^ Jam. 

Up to the twelfth century, there was no 
such thing as a papal ambassador or legate 
received in Scotland. Many states of less 
note possessed this mark of subjection to the 
See of Rome, long before this period ; but 
so far as appears, the pope, sent none to 
Scotland till the year 1 1 25 ; and though the 
king (St David) and some of the nobles and 
clergy, paid him respect, and had no objec- 
tion to receive him in his legantine charac- 
ter, he found the great body of the people so 
decidedly against him, that he ventured no 
farther than Roxburgh, not far from the 
border of the kingdom, whence he thought 
it prudent to retrace his steps. But now, 
towards the end of the same century, having 
acknowledged the pope as head of the 
church, his legates were received and en- 
tertained as a thing of course. They called 
meetings of the clergy when and where they 

pleased, presided in them in the name of 
the pope, and directed their procedure as 
was agreeable to thessselves, or according 
to the will of their master. Thus in 1188 
we find a cardinal legate calling a convo- 
cation in Perth, at which aM priests who 
had taken orders on Sunday were deposed, 
which was virtually declaring ordination, 
or taking of orders, to be a prolane or 
worldly business; which was not a step 
they would have taken for its own sake. 
There is no reason given by the historian ; 
(Spotswood,) but the church of Rome has 
a reason for every thing it does ; and I have 
no doubt, their reason for this measure was 
to get quit of the more godly and unsub- 
missive of the priesthood, who having re- 
garded their ordination as a religions ser- 
vice, would prefer having it done on the 
Sabbath. The same convocation out of 
their great zeal for Sunday added twelve 
hours to it ''They decreed that every 
Saturday from 12 o'clock should be kept 
as a holy daj ; and that all people at the 
sound of the bell should address themselves 
to hear service, and abstain from all handy 
work until Monday morning." Hence the 
practice which continues to this day, of 
shutting schools and certain public offices, 
at 12 o'clock on Saturdays. There is no 
reason given for this enactment any mors 
than for that which made ordination un- 
lawful on Sundays ; but no doubt they had 
a reason for it In Popish countries, Sa- 
turday is specially devoted to the service 
of the Virgin Mary. The Scots were not 
yet trained to worship her with proper de- 
votion ; and a positive enactment was ne- 
cessary to make them pay at least external 
respect to Aer day as well as to the Sabbath. 
The following is a proof of the abject 
bondage to which the kingdom was now 
reduced. Alexander the Second had sent 
some supplies to assist his ally, Philip king 
of France, in a war against John king of 
England. It WHs a war which the pope 
himself had instigated, in order to humble 
King John, who had quarrelled with him, 
and whose kingdom was under an interdict ; 
but John having made his submission, and 
kdd his crown at the feet of the pope's legate, 
was received into £svour, and the other 



kin^ prokttHtMl finom invading England^ 
which now beltnged to the patrimony of 
8t Peter. WaMok the pope's legate in 
ScotlaDdl» aieotad to find the king guilty of 
making too free with chorch property in 
raising hia aa ppl isi for France, or not soffi- 
eiently proaupt in withdrawing them, laid 
the lungdom under an interdict, by which 
rehgiouM rites were suspended, and the 
whole nation reduced to mourning. After 
Che death of King John, and some political 
changes, the interdict was remoTed by two 
Efl^Uah bishops^ who bad the legate's com- 
mission to that effect. But Waldo pre- 
tended that the clergy were not included in 
the absolution thus granted ; wherefore he 
summoned them to appear before him in 
Alnwick. Thither, bishops, abbots, and 
other beneficed clergy, were obliged to 
appear and pay krge sums for absolution, 
or abide the conaequenceof being summon- 
ed to Rome to answer for their sins there. 
A few preferred the latter altemaUTe,4 
which must hsTe been a grievous tax upon 
them ; but the greater part chose rather to 
pay the money down. 

But this was not enough to satisfy the 
avarice of the legate. Profesdng great con- 
descension to the inferior clergy, and not 
wishii^ to put them to the expense of a 
long journey, he appointed two fit persons 
to go through the country, to meet them in 
the chief towns, or odier convenient places, 
to take their confessions, and grant absolu- 
tion. These inquisitors, for so. they may 
be called, made every priest swear that he 
would truly and honestly confess his sins 
to them. We may be sure that most of them 
had many sins to confess ; and these being 
carefully written down, were turned to evi- 
dence against them, that they deserved to 
be deprived of their livings, and othenrise 
puoiidiedl, unless they satisfied the legate 
by a pecomary fine. - By such means great 
smas were extorted ; besides pajring which, 
the poor priests were obliged to walk bare- 
footed to the i^ncipal church of the place, 
in the most abject manner to beg absolution. 

Such oppression was too much for Scot- 
land to bear tamely, degraded as she was. 
The bishops of Glasgow, Murray, and 
Cmthness, went to Rome, to eomphun of 

Waldo's oxtortion, for whidi the pope 
celled him to account ; and as he could not 
clear himself^ be was ordained to pay a 
heavy fine to his holiness, hy which he 
divided the spoil with him, but the Scots 
got no redress; and the three bbhops had 
to confess their sin in tw^iripy ^]ie complaint* 
before they got absolution for themselves 
S^e Spottnvoady pp, 42, 43. from whom I 
have abridged this narrative. The thing 
took place in 1218. What oppressions must 
not our fathers have suffered, during the 
three hundred years that elapsed from 
that time to the Reformation ! for in propor- 
tion as the priests were oppressed by their 
superiors, they would be obliged to oppress 
the common people. 

Another measure which tended to rivet 
the yoke of Rome more firmly about the 
neck of the Scots, and to efiace from their 
minds every thing like genuine Christianity, 
was the introduction of certain orders of 
monks, hitherto unknown in Scotland. 
These were Dominicans, Franciscans, and 
others, whom the bishop of St Andrews 
brought from France, and who settled down 
like locusts upon the country. They dif- 
fered in some doctrinal points from one an- 
other : but they were all agreed in upholding 
the interest of their common fiither the 
pope. They professed extraordinary auste- 
rity of manners and sanctity of life ; weaned 
the affections of the people from their for- 
mer pastors; and even gained so much 
upon the good graces of the king and 
nobles, as to get monasteries built and en- 
dowed for them in different parts of the 
kingdom. About the same time the pope 
found out, that no hands but his own could 
convey to a bishop the proper spirit of his 
office. It then became necessary that they 
should travel to Rome for consecration, 
which they wen obliged to do, at a vast 
expense to themselves, and greatly to the 
profit of the holy see. 

From this time we may date the total 
extinction of the light of the gospel in 
Scotland. It may have continued to shine 
in some sequestered spots, but there are no 
visibb traces of it. The wars between 
Bruce and Baliol soon folWwed. Edward I. 
I King of Enghmd, rerived the chum of sn- 



periority over Scotland, and on Baliol's 
conaenting to acknowledge thia, and do 
homage to the crown of England for Scot- 
land, he got himaelf appointed King of Scots. 
But finding that his subjects despised him 
for the concession he had made, he was 
obliged to rebel against Edward who had 
made him king. Edward invaded, and after 
immense bloodshed, subdued Scotland; 
and carried away all the records and monu- 
ments of her independence that he could 
lay his hands upon ; which is one reason 
why the materials of Scotish history prior 
to that period are so scanty. Sir William 
Wallace was almost the only man of note 
who did not submit to the English yoke ; 
but he was betrayed, carried to London, 
and executed. Robert Bruce, after an 
arduous struggle, effected deliverance, ex- 
pelled the English, and recovered the king- 
dom to himself and his posterity, who hold 
it to this day. But from the invasion of 
Edward to the dawn of the Reformation, 
Scotland was little better than a great 
human slaughter-house. Christianity seem- 
ed to have no more influence upon the char 
racter of the nobles and people generally, 
than it has upon savages who have never 
heard of it Bruce himself was guilty of 
the murder of his friend Cumin, who indeed 
had sought to injure him ; and he was after- 
wards very sorry for what he luid done ; 
but his compunction was not so much for 
the murder itself, as for its being perpetrat- 
ed in a church, for which he had to make 
confession to the pope; and then as an 
atonement for his sin he ordered that after 
his death, his heart should be taken from 
his body, and buried in Jerusalem ; which 
one of the Douglases undertook to do ; but 
on his journey, hearing that there was a 
war in Spain, he, a»^from a natural in- 
stinct, could not deny himself the pleasure 
of joining in the fray, where he lost his life ; 
and the king's heart found its way back to 
Scotland. If the M'isest and best prince of 
his age, as Robert was acknowledged to be, 
had such absurd views of religious and 
moral obligation, what must have been 
the condition of the great body of the peo- 
ple, who, instead of being instructed, were 
blinded and hardened in their sins by a vi- 

cious and laxarioas priesthood? Indeed 
we find nothing in Scotland, from this time, 
that deserves the name of religion, till we 
come to the period when Knox oomraenoes 
his history. Anno 1422. 

The following is a short sketch of the 
state of the church at that period, which 
was within a year or two of the commence- 
ment of the reign of James L * Having 
cleared the other parts of the kingdom oi 
the most obnoxious nuisances, James next 
endeavoured to reform the ecclesiastical 
order. But the priests would not be cor- 
rected by the magistrate; for seizing the 
time when the sovereigns were engaged in 
wars, the priesthood, throughout all Europe, 
had by degrees withdrawn themselves from 
their jurisdiction, professing obedience to 
the Roman pontiff alone, and he, in return, 
indulged their vices, and cherished their 
licentiousness, that by the power of their 
order, he might have the monarchs more 
subservient to his will. Wherefore, the 
king resolved, by the only method remain- 
ing, to oppose their tyranny. As he per- 
ceived he had not the power to amend what 
was past, or to expel unworthy men from 
the honours they already enjoyed, he 
thought it best to provide for the future, 
and bent his whole attention to establish 
schools, supporting them liberally, that they 
might be seminaries for all ranks, and 
thence, as from a fountain, might issue 
whatever was to be great or excellent in 
any department of the state." ** The 
monks, as they had degenerated from the 
simplicity and parsimony of their predeces- 
sors, so they had wholly withdrawn their 
attention from the culture of the mind to 
the care of the body. Nor was learning 
less despised among the other descriptions 
of priests, because their livings, in general, 
were either bestowed upon the most worth- 
less members of noble families, men who 
were unfit for any other employment in life, 
or were intercepted by the fraud of the 
Roman see; and almost all the benefices 
were considered as sinecures for services, 
and those frequently not the most honour- 

** To such evils was added another, per- 
haps the principal source of the corruption 



<rf ecdMiirtiail iJMC i p Kn e— the orden of 
mtvudieuA fitkn. They, at the firat» by 
their preteotMNit to aanctity of life, easily 
imposed npon the people, who heard them 
more willingly than their parish priests, or 
curates, whose minds and bodies were 
equally gross. The curates, as they grew 
rich, grew lasy, and turning negligent about 
their duty, baigained with the friars, L e. 
brethren^ as they diose to be styled, for an 
annual salary, to ddiyer a few harangues to 
the people during the year; while they 
themselyes resorted to cities, where they 
chanted idle songs, like magical incantap 
tions, of the meaning of which they were 
totally ignorant; nor did one of them ever 
look near his charge, except when the tithes 
were to be collected. By degrees they even 
withdrew from chanting at certain hours in 
the cathedral, which, although a light, was 
a daily labour, and hired some poor imder- 
lings to perform their functions of singing 
masses and reading prayers, only officiating 
in a certain task of psalms, ordered on par- 
ticular days, when they played together in 
a kind of lioUow murmuring, now contend- 
ing in alternate verses, and now with a 
chorus introduced between the acts, and 
exhibited a sort of tragedy, which closed 
with a representation of the death of Christ 
The hireling friars durst neither offend their 
employers, on whom their living depended, 
nor could they bear their insolence and 
their avarice. Wherefore, they fixed upon 
a middle course, in order to force them to 
pay their stipends; they inveighed often 
sharply against the luxury and licentious- 
ness of the priests, and, after raring suffi- 
ciently to terrify them, and conciliate the 
people, they — prudently recollecting that 
they also were in sacred orders— concluded 
by teaching, that whatever abuses there 
were in the conduct of the priests, the order 
of priesthood was sacred and inriolable ; nor 
iiad the civil magistrate any power of pun- 
ishing them, for they were responsible only 
to God, and to the pope, who had almost 
equal power with God. As the avarice of 
the friars, however, increased with their 
luxury, and they could not hope for any 
great revenue from their usual employments, 
.they prepared a new species of tjrranny for 

themselves^ by taming their dilooiiraes to 
the merit of works of snpererogatioiL 
Thence arose pmgatory, and the purifica- 
tion of the sonb whom the popes chose to 
detain there, by the sacrifice of the mass, 
the sprinkling of holy water, by alms, offer- 
ings,- indulgences, pilgrimages, and the wor- 
shipping of relics. By the exercise of these 
scandalous corruptions, the friars claimed 
to themselves the empire of both the living 
and the dead." Buchanan^ B, x. thaqp. 38. 

In order to correct such flagrant abuses, 
James established schools, and gave great 
encouragement to learning, with the riew 
of getting learned men promoted to benefi- 
ces. He was himself one of the most learned 
and accomplished men of his age ; and had 
he been suffered to live, would have greatly 
improved the state of his kingdom. But 
he was barbarously murdered in the prime 
of life; and his heir being an infant, all 
things fell again into confusion. By this 
time, however, the doctrines of Wickliffe 
had been extensively propagated in Eng- 
land, and had found their way into Scot- 
land, together with copies of his translation 
of the scriptures, by which were sown the 
seeds of that reformation, in which the 
author of the following history bore so pro- 
minent a part 

It was at one time a matter of doubt, and 
even of public controversy, whether Knox 
had really written a history of the re- 
formation in Scotland. At least it was 
doubtful whether that which bare his name 
was really of his writing ; for it contained 
certain anachronisms which threw discredit 
npon it If we find in the body of a work, 
without any note of distinction, a relation 
of events which are known to have hap- 
pened after the reputed author's death, we 
naturally conclude, that the book must be 
the composition of another person. This 
was the predicament in which ELnox's 
history stood before the publication of it 
from Uie manuscript in the library of Ghw» 
gow college. The publication of this edi- 
tion, says Dr M'Crie, removed all doubts 
as to Knox*s being the author. It was 
found to have none of the anachronisms 
which made the former editions suspected. 



Ckwwford, in his lifs of Knox, prefixed 
to the edition aboTe mentioned, says* ** The 
first mention I hare seen concerning this 
history, is in a letter from Sir Thomas Ban- 
dolph, ambassador from queen Elizabeth to 
Scothmd, to Sir William Cecil, dated at 
Edinburgh, 2dd September, 1560, which I 
copied from the original, in which letter 
are these words. ' I have tawlked at laige 
with Mr Knox concerning his historic. As 
mykle as ys wrytten thereof shall be sent 
to your honour, at the com3mge of the 
lords embassadors by Mr John Woode. He 
hath wrytten only one booke. K you lyke 
that, he shall contynue the same, or adde 
onie more. He sayethe, that he must have 
fiurther helpe, then is to be had in thys 
oountrie, for more assured knowledge of 
thyngs passed, then he bathe hymself, or 
can come bye here ; yt is a worke not to 
be neglected, and greatly to be wyshed that 
yt sholde be well handled." 

From this passage it is put beyond all 
doubt, that in 1560, Knox had written one 
book of his history; and this must ha?e 
been the second, containing an account of 
matters in which he himself had borne a 
conspicuous part. We can scarcely suppose 
that he required information from England 
with regard to these things. But he informs 
us in a note preceding his preface to the 
second book, Uiat he had been induced by 
the persuasion of friends, — " divers of the 
godlie," — who ''eamestlie requiret, that 
such personis as God raisit upe in the mid- 
dest of darkness to oppono themselfis to the 
same sould not be omitted, we obeyet their 
requiest, and have maid a schorte rehersall 
of all suche matteris as conceme religioun, 
frome the dejrth of that notable servand of 
God, Mr Patrik Haumiltoun unto the foir- 
said yeir," t. e. 1558. We can easily under- 
stand why he wished for infonnation from 
England with regard to many things that 
occurred during that period. And in the 
following sentence in the first book, we 
find that it was written at least six years 
after the second. He is speaking of his 
friend ** that notable man Mr George Buc- 
quhanan," who, " be the mercifull provi- 
dence of God escaipit, albeit with grit 
difficulties the rage of thaime that socht his 

bloode, and remaims aly ve to this day, ia 
the yeir of God 1566 yeirs^ to the glorio ef 
God, to the grit honour of this nalioiiii," km. 

If further evidence were wanting, it is to 
be found in the records of the general as- 
sembly; for at their first meeting after 
£j[iox*s death, his servant Richard Bamui. 
tyne, who was his amanuensis, gave in a 
supplication, in which he stated, that Bfr 
Knox had completed his History of the 
Reformation up to the year 1564^ as was 
known to their wisdoms. But " of things 
done sinsyne, nothing by him is put in that 
form and order that he has put the former. 
Yet not the less there are certain scrolls 
and papers, and minutes of things, left to 
me by him, to use at my pleasure; whereof 
a part were written and subscribed by his 
own hand, and another by mine at his com- 
mand, which, if they M'ere collected and 
gathered together, would make a sufficient 
declaration of the principal things that have 
occurred since the ending of his former 
history in the year aforesaid." He states 
that these papers would be lost, or rendered 
useless if put into the hands of persons not 
acquainted with them as he was ; that he 
could not afford to arrange them at his own 
expense, as it would require long time ; but 
that he would undertake the work if the 
Assembly would appoint him a suitaUe 
pension. They accepted his offer, and ap- 
pointed him forty pounds a year. But no- 
thing farther on the subject is on record. 
See Crawford's Life of Knox, as above. 

Knox's history was first printed in Lon- 
don, in 1586, as appears by the following, 
which Crawford quotes from Calderwood's 
MS. history. « February, 1586, Voultrol- 
lier, the printer, took with him a copy of 
Mr Knox*s History to England, and printed 
twelve hundred of them ; the stationers, at 
the archbishop's command, seized them, the 
18th of February; it was thought, that be 
would get leave to proceed again, because 
the council perceived, that it would bring 
the queen of Scots in detestation." At this 
period it was no doubt a most desirable 
thing to queen Elizabeth, to get Mary queen 
of Scots exposed in as odious a light as po^ 
sible ; but she and her council were willing 
to forego even tips, rather than to have the 



firee and iiide[p«ideiit wiitimeDts of Kbox 
pubtiahed m Biflaad. This edition was 
nerer fiakhad; but imperfect copies of it 
got abroad, one of which came into the 
handa of oar iadafctigable 'Wodrow, who 
compared it» ao ir aa it went, with the 
Glasgow flsannscript^ and found an entire 
agreement batwassi litem, as appears by his 
letter to bisbop Nioobon, dated Ghugow, 
Sept Ist^ 1701, in which he sajrs, ** I hare 
now procnrod the old copy of Kjiox*8 Hia- 
tofj, in a hufo I2mo ; it is marked at the 
beginning and the end, going no fiurther 
than the lovrth book ; it is probable it never 
hadthofillb. In all things it jomps (agrees) 
with oar mannaciipt, particularly in those 
phoea challenged by the author of the Fun- 
damental Charter, and disagrees with the 
ordinary editions in the passages excepted 


The first that professes to be an entire 
a£tion was poblished in London, in Folio, 
by DaTid Buchanan, A. D. 1644, from 
which a reprint was made in Edinburgh, in 
qoarto^ the same year. Who this David 
Boahanan was, i do not know ; but he ap- 
pcara to have been a man of respectable 
talenta and learning.* He has a very long 
IVefiioe, rather heavily written, as was the 
aufiner of his age. He is quoted, and re- 
spectlolly mentioned by Dr Jamieson in his 
History of the Culdees ; and I have availed 
myself of information derived from his pre- 
&oe, aa the reader will have seen in the 
preceding pages of this Introduction. In 
his edition there are a great many deviations 
firom the original, but whether he used an 
interpcdated copy, or made interpolations 
bimael^ cannot now be ascertained. Wod- 
row waa at the pains to compare his edition 
with the MS. in Glasgow college ; and in 
Ua latter to bishop Nicolson, above men- 
tionad, he points out the difference between 
them, in a great number of instances of both 

• In Wstrt Biblioiheca Britannica, under 
fth« artide David Buchanan, we read, **a native 
•f SeoUand." His works are, ** Historia Hu- 
■uuua Anims, Paris, 1696, 8iro. Histoire de 
la CoDKicnce, 1638, ISmo. A short view of 
the present condition of Scotland, Lond. 1645, 
41a. Relation to some passi^ee wherein the 
Seam are particularly concerned, Lond. 1646, 
ISmo." 1 have no doubt this it the tame peraoo. 

omission and addition: and rsmarks as 
follows : — " You see how hr the MS. and 
the old copy jump (?. e. the copy of 1586.) 
How Mr Buchanan has overlooked the old 
copy, which, no doubt, was to be had in 
his time, I cannot account for. Howbeit, 
the agreement of the MS. and the old copy 
seems to me another strong presumption of 
Knoz*s being the author of the History, 
especially if I add that the old copy was 
printed a little after Knox's death.*' 

Among Buchanan's omissions is the fol- 
lowing very striking passage in the Glasgow 
manuscript, which must have been also in 
the old copy, and it sufficientiy accounts 
for the suppression of the book by autho- 
rity, under such an arbitrary reign as that 
of Elizabeth. It is probable that Buchanan 
durst not venture to insert it in his edition, 
lest it should meet the fate of the former 
one, for Charies I. was as tenacious of the 
sacred and inviolable character of princes 
as Elizabeth was. Speaking of Mary, the 
queen,p.74,75,Knoz says, ** Lat men patient- 
lie abyid, and turn unto thair Ood, and then 
sal he eyther destroy that hure in hir 
whurdome, or els he sal put in the hairtis 
of a multitude to tak the same veangeance 
upoun hir that hes bein tane of Jesabell and 
Athalia, yea and of utheris of qnhome pro- 
phane histories mak mentioun, for gritter 
abhominatioun was novir in the nature of 
ony woman than is in hir, quhairof we have 
but sein onlie the buds, but we will efter 
taist of the ryip frute of her impietie, if God 
cutte not hir dayis schort." 

The present edition will be printed ver- 
batim from that which was taken from the 
Glasgow college manuscript, which Dr 
M'Crie recommends as the only complete 
one worthy of being consulted. The ortho- 
graphy will be modernized ; a translation of 
the words not now in common use will be 
given inclosed [] and such of David 
Buchanan's interpolations as contain use- 
ful information shall be inserted aa marginal 
notes. It was at first thought to hftve 
made David Buchanan's edition the ground 
of the present one, corrected according to 
the Glasgow MS. copy: but on a closer 
examination, the differences were found so 
numerous as to exclude all hope of making 



a correct edition otherwiie than by adopt* 
in^ the correct copy. 

The mannscriptao often mentioned, was 
as Crawford informs as, presented to Oks- 
gow college by Mr Robert Fleming, minis- 
ter,, first at Rotterdam, and then to the 
Scots congregation in London, who from 
his acquaintance with prophecy, was able 
to point out the era of the French rerolo- 
tion^ a hundred years before it happened. 
He derived the manuscript from his grand- 
father, Mr James Fleming, who was married 
to one of Knox's daughters, and was an 
intimate friend of Mr John Knox, minister 
of Melroes. ^ It is probable, that this ma- 
nuscript is written with the hand of this 
last named Mr John Knox, by a writing 
upon the beginning of the MS. signed by the 
said Mr John Knox, which writing cannot 
be distinguished from that of the history. 
This seems the oldest and most valuable 
copy of the history now extant; of it the 
above named Mr Fleming gives the follow- 
ing account, in the preface to his practical 
discourse occasioned by the death of king 
William, printed at London, 1702, page 14. 
That his grandfather, Mr James Fleming, 
having married a daughter of Mr John 
Knox the reformer, came to be possessed of 
some of his manuscripts ; and that especiaUy 
by the means of Mr John Knox the younger, 
minister of Melross in the Merse, a relation 
of the former, though I know not, says he, 
how near, who was my grandfather's inti- 
mate friend; that among other papers, I 
found a manuscript copy of Mr Knox's His- 
tory, which I sent to the library of Glas- 
gow, that it might not be lost ; that I sent 
along with it a loose leaf,* being the title 
page of an imperfect work, which seemed 
to be written with the same hand as the 
MS. History was, though I could not posl 

*Tb!8 loooe leaf is dated ]581. I have 
compared it with the MS. history ; and the 
diffei-euce is not greater than that of the same 
band at different times or with a different pen. 

tively assert this ; that if it was the same 
hand that wrote both, it was a plain evi- 
dence, that the author, at least the writer 
of the history, was not the reformer, bat the 
younger Mr Knox, seeing the former died 
in the year 1572, and the other was alive 
nine years after. Therefore to unriddle 
all that was dark in this matter, I told that 
I could help with something traditional 
that way, viz., that I understood from my 
father, that Mr Knox the reformer had be- 
gun a history of this kind, and left laq|;e 
materials behind him for completing it ; and 
that the latter Mr Knox had perfected the 
work, pursuant to the order of the General 
Assembly in the year 1573 or 1574, so far 
as it was to be found in this MS." This 
tradition is not perfectly satisfactory ; for 
Richard Bannatyne states plainly, that 
Knox had not only begun, but ** perfectly 
ended at the year of God, 1564." It is pro- 
bable that Mr Knox of Melross assisted 
Richard in arranging the papers that he 
spoke of for completing the history, and 
then took a copy of the whole with his own 
hand. The minute of the Assembly re» 
quires the appointment of " some learned 
men to support Richard Bannatyne, to put 
the said history, that is now in scrolls and 
papers, in good form, with the aid of the 
said Richard," which implies that he should 
have literary aid as well as pecuniary pro- 
vision. The author of Iconographia Scotica, 
gives a portrait and a short account of the 
life of this Mr Knox, who, he says, was no 
way related to the reformer ; but being of 
the same name and profession, and being 
contemporaries, writers have often mistaken 
the one for the other. 

I have only to inform the reader farther, 
that the fifth book is not in the Glasgow 
MS. It is probably the production of 
David Buchanan himself; at least it can- 
not be traced higher than his edition. 


March, 1830. 


I Muxx. oofrtent myself with a very short 
•keteh of the life of the Author of the 
ibUowinif history. His public life is em- 
bodied in his own work, from his first ap- 
pearaoce as the friend and companion of 
the martyr Wishart, till within a short pe- 
riod of his death. And for his birth, edu^ 
cation, priTate life, and correspondence, the 
reader is referred to Dr M*Crie*s excellcDt 
work, which furnishes the fullest informa- 
tion on the subject 

If those men whom ProTidence has des- 
tined to be instructors and benefactors to 
their fellovfvcreatnres, had some presage of 
future emioence in their infimt counte- 
nance, as Moses seems to have had, there 
woold be no subsequent controversy about 
the place of their birth, their parentage, or 
education, as every circumstance of their 
early life would be observed and carefully 
recorded. But in this, as in other respects, 
the future is wisely concealed from human 
eyes. Persons bom in the middle and 
lower daises of society, are known only 
within a small circle at first; and before 
tbej can distinguish themselves by any 
great enterprise, they are often placed in 
situations where no one knows who were 
their parents, or where they were bom. 
Every one, if he pleased, might leave on 
record some account of himself; but per- 
sons of distinguished merit are the last to 
think that the world would care for their 
early history; er, by the time that they 
have become distinguished, their hands are 
so ftiU of important business, that they 
have no time to think, much less to write 
about their childhood and yonth^ which 
they remember to have been vanity. 

Kttoz died in the year 1572, aged sixty- 
seven; so that he must have been bom in 
1506. The place of his birth is not cer- 
tainly known, but it is generally agreed to 
have been in or near Haddington. There 
is nothing known with certainty of his an- 

cestors, except what he relates in his his- 
tory as having said to the earl of Both- 
well : " My great-grandfiither and fiither," 
says he, ** have served your lordship's pre- 
decessors, and some of them, (meaning his 
ancestors) have died under their standards.*' 
"^ These words,** says Crawford, ''seem to 
import that Mr Knox's predecessors were in 
some honourable station under the earls of 
Bothwell, at that time the most powerful 
family in East- Lothian." But every man 
in Scotland must have had honourable an- 
cestors, if that is to be inferred from the 
simple fact of having died under the stan- 
dard of some powerful chieftain. David 
Buchanan, the first editor of Knox's en- 
tire history, affirms that his father was a 
brother's son of the house of Ranferly in 
Renfrewshire, and the fact of his connex- 
ion with that family is admitted by Dr 
M*Crie, who informs us that his mother's 
name was Sinclair, which name he some- 
times affixed to private letters instead of 
his own, in times of danger and persecution. 
He who has risen by his own merit to 
the first rank in society, and to a con- 
spicuous place in the history of his coun- 
try, may give himself little concern about 
the rank of his parents, provided they have 
honourably filled the place, however low, 
which Providence assigned to them. But 
that Knox's parents were not of the lowest 
rank, appears from their being able to give 
him a learned education, which must have 
incurred considerable expense. He was 
put to the granmiar school of Haddington, 
and afterwards sent to finish his education 
at the university of St Andrews. There is 
a fact not mentioned by any of his bio- 
graphers, except by tlie writer of this, in a 
note to the hUe edition of the Scots Wor- 
thies. " In the records of the university of 
Glasgow, anno 1620, John Knox appears 
in the list of matriculated students, when, 
if it was our Reformer, he must have been 




iiAeen years of age, a proper enough time 
for his appearing in that character; and 
this was probably an intermediate step be- 
tween his leaving the grammar school, and 
going to St Andrews, for there is no doubt 
of his having studied there.** It is pro- 
bable enough that he might spend a part of ; 
his youth with his friends in Renfrewshire, 
and that they would give him the advan- 
tage of attending a seminary so near at hand. 

At St Andrews, he was the fellow-stu- 
dent of the afterwards celebrated George 
Buchanan ; and it was well for both, that ^ 
they had for their preceptor John Mair, or 
Major, a man who was considerably in ad- 
vance of his neighbours, in useful know- 
ledge and liberal thinking. Knox, while 
very young, received the degree of Master 
of Arts, and before he left the university, 
he became a teacher of scholastic theology, 
which Melchior Adamus, as quoted by 
Crawford, says he did with great authority, 
and was in some things more happy than 
his master ; and David Buchanan adds, that 
he was advanced to church-orders before 
the time usually allowed by the canons. 
At this time he was a mere popish priest ; 
but he had acquired too much light to 
suffer him to remain in the darkness of 
the cloister. 

He has not recorded particularly the 
progress of his mind from darkness to 
light, or what were the means which Pro- 
vidence made use of for the purpose of 
leading him to embrace the truth. He 
must have been familiar with the vulgate 
scriptures, if not with Wickliff's transla- 
tion into English ; and we are informed by 
Adamus, already cited, that he carefully 
read over the writings of Augustine and 
Jerome, and found in them another kind of 
theology than that which had been long 
taught by the schoolmen. Both these 
great authors are still regarded as saints by 
the church of Rome, though she has long 
abandoned the doctrines which they taught. 
It was from Augustine that Luther, who 
was a monk of his order, learned a purer 
theology than was taught by the church ; 
and Knox seems to have derived benefit 
from the same source. But he most have 
been eariy and intimately acquainted with 

tue Holy Scriptures, as appears from the 
ready uxtemporaneous use which he made 
of them, in preaching and in argument; 
and he yielded the most profound sob- 
mission to their authority as supreme in 
all matters of faith and worship. The first 
sermon he preached, and for which he 
had little time to make preparation, wm 
from a difficult passage in the book of 
Daniel, which be handled and applied 
as any protestant would do at this day. 
He is said to have profited much from the 
preaching of some who had embraced the 
truth before him, such as Thomas Guilliam, 
John Rough, and George Wishart, whoso 
names and labours are recorded in the his- 
tory. The progress of his mind to a clear 
perception of the truth was gradual, and 
not very rapid. '* It was about the year 
1535," says Dr M*Crie, *< when this favour 
able change in his sentiments commenced , 
but, until 1542, it does not appear that he 
professed himself a Protestant." They 
must have been seven years of serious and 
deep reflection ; and, perhaps in proportion 
to the slowness with which his mind yield- 
ed to the truth, was the firmness with 
jvhich he afterwards held it. 

After leaving college, we find him em- 
ployed as tutor to the families of Ormis- 
ton andLangniddry, having his residence 
chiefly with the latter. His sentiments 
were known to be hostile^ to the established 
religion, and he was on that account in 
danger of suffering death at the stake, as 
many others had done, particulariy his 
friend and father in the gospel, George 
Wishart, on whose character and suffer- 
ings he dilates with much interest in the 
history. The rage of his enemies increased 
on the death of Cardinal Beaton, in whidi 
certainly Knox had no hand ; but to save 
his life, he took refuge with those who had 
effected it, in the castle of 8t Andrews ; 
from which circumstance a great hue and 
cry has been raised against him, at becom- 
ing the voluntary companion of murder- 
ers. That can scarcely be called volun- 
tary which a man is obliged to do to save 
himself from being burnt to death ; but in 
point of fact, Knox did not look on those 
men at morderersy hat as the executioners 




of ngb toom j n ^g i i win t apon a murderer, tnd 
tberefora he JMl ■• somples about making 
a oomm<m cane with tbem. Thej kept 
the cattle as knig as they could ; but were 
compelled at length to surrender to the 
French, who broke fiuth with them, and 
sent some to prison, and others to the gal- 
leys. It was Knox's lot to be confined to 
the falter, in which he suffered a rigorous 
captivity of nineteen months ; and it is un- 
certain by what means he obtained deliver- 

Knox never approved of Henry VIII.'s 
reformation of the church of Englsnd; for 
though that monarch threw off the autho- 
rity of the pope, he retained many popish 
errors in doctrine, worship, and government. 
Henry died about the time that Knox ob- 
tained freedom from the galleys. He then 
went to England, expecting a more tho- 
rough reformation in the reign of Edward 
VI. under the administration of Cranmer. 
He was not entirely disappointed; but 
there was not so much improvement there 
as he desired and expected. He was ap- 
pointed to preach in different places, and 
had a sort of stated residence in Berwick, 
where be diligently improved his time and 
talents ; and formed an attachment, which, 
afterwards, issued in a happy marriage. 
''He spared neither time nor bodily 
strength,** sajrs Dr M'Crie, ** in the instruc- 
tion of those to whom he was sent. Re- 
garding the worship of the popish church 
as grossly idolatrous, and its doctrine as 
damnable, he attacked both with the ut- 
most fervour, and exerted himself in draw- 
ing bis hearers from them, with as much 
eagerness as in saving their lives from a 
devouring flame or flood. Nor were his 
labours fruitless : during the two years that 
he continued in Berwick, numbers were, 
by his ministry, converted from error and 
ignorance, and a general reformation of 
manners became visible among the soldiers 
in the garrison, who had formerly been 
noted for turbulence and licentiousness." 

He was afterwards removed to Newcastle, 
and placed in a sphere of still greater useful- 
ness. He was appointed one of king Ed- 
ward's chaplains in ordinary. He was con- 
salted about a revisal of the Book of Com- 

mon prayer ; and he had influence to pro- 
core some improvement of it ** These al- 
terations," says Dr M'Crie, ''gave great 
offence to the papists. In a disputation 
with Latidier, after the accession of Queen 
Mary, the prolocutor, Dr Weston, com- 
plained of our countryman's influence in 
procuring them. ** A runagate Scot," said 
he, '* did take away the adoration or wor- 
shipping of Christ in the sacrament, by 
whose procurement that heresy was put 
into the last communion book ; so much 
prevailed that one man's authority at that 
time. In the following year he was em- 
ployed in revising the Articles of Religion, 
previous to their ratification by parlia- 

Knox had the honour of preaching before 
the king, and the much greater honour of 
refusing, first a city living, and then an 
English bishoprick, which, together with 
his reasons for doing so, gave high offence 
to his majesty's council, in which were 
several bishops, who, no doubt, regarded 
his conscientious scrupulousoess as a reflec- 
tion upon themselves. They told him they 
were sorry that his judgment was contrary 
to the common order ; and, >nth his usual 
honest bluntuess, he replied, he was sorry 
that the common order was contrary to 
Christ's institution. He appears to have 
perfectly understood the difference between 
a mere preacher of the gospel, and one who 
was pastor of a church. The sphere of th« 
former is the world of mankind as sinners ; 
the latter includes the oversight of a com- 
pany of Christians, professing separation 
from the world ; and one great object of the 
pastoral office is to watch over them, and 
take care that separation from the world be 
strictly maintained. Knox delighted to 
preach to Englishmen as sinners, whether 
papist or protestant; but he would not in- 
cur the responsibility of a pastoral charge 
over a congregation of them as Christians, 
because the law of the land would not 
suffer him to maintain their separation 
from the world. This is plainly expressed 
in his own words. He said, there were 
many things that needed reformation, with- 
out which, in his opinion, ministers could 
not diticliargc their office conscientiously in 


the tiglit o# Ood; for no miiuttor, aooordinf 
to the existing Iaws, had power to prevent 
the unworthy from participatiDg of the 
•aonunenti, which was a chief point of hie 
oflice. * 

He remained *in EogUnd, and even con- 
tinued to preach for several months after 
the accession of Mary to the throne. That 
lady whom, not without good reason, he 
usually called Jezebel, soon procured the 
repeal of all the statutes that had been 
made in favour of the ReformatioD. Po- 
pery was re-established, and all who re- 
fused to conform were liable to suffer death 
as heretics. Still Knox manifested no 
disposition to leave his j»ost It was not 
till after it was known that his enemies 
were actually in search of him, that he was 
persuaded to leave the kingdom, by the ur- 
gent entreaty of. his friends, and contrary to 
his own mind ; for never, said he, could he 
die In a more honest quarrel, than by suf- 
fering as a witness for that truth of which 
God had made him a messenger. This 
step, though reluctantly taken, was evi- 
dently his duty, though it has been ob. 
jected against him that he was too ready to 
take himself out of the way of danger. 
True courage consibts in confessing the 
truth at all hazards, and suffering for it 
when that cannot be avoided without com- 
mitting sin. But when it can be avoided 
by flight, Christ not only permits but com- 
mands it. " When they persecute you in 
one city, flee ye to another.** Had Knox 
at that time been brought to trial, he would 
certainly have been committed to the 
flames, as many others were. But he was 
preserved for nearly twenty years longer 
labour in the service of his Master. It 
was some time, however, before his own 
mind was reconciled to his flight He 
could scarcely acquit himself of what must 
have at least had the appearance of cowar- 
dice : and he was afraid that it might ope- 
rate as a discouragement to the faithful few 
whom he had left behind him. His feel- 
ings on this occasion are strongly expressed 
in some of the private letters which he 
wrote at the time, from which Dr M*Crie 
has given very interesting extracts. 

He arrived at Dieppe in France in Jan- 

uary, \&5^ from whenoa ha travelled to 
Switaeriand. "A oorreap<Nideiice»" aaya 
]>r M'Crie, ** had been kept op by some of 
the English reformers and the nost noted 
divines of the Helvetic church. The lat- 
ter had already heard, with the sinoerest 
grief, of the overthrow of the reformation 
in England, and the dispersion of its friends. 
Upon making himself known, Knox was 
cordially received by them,/ and treated 
with the most Christian hospitality. He 
spent some time in Switierland, visiting 
the particular churches, and conferring 
with the learned men.** He afterwarda 
went to Geneva, where ^he became acquain- 
ted with Calvin, a man of a.kindred spirit, 
whose friendship he enjoyed till the death 
of that eminent reformer and divine. Here 
he fixed his residence till Providence found 
employment for him elsewhere. 

During the heat of the persecution in 
England many protestants fled for their 
lives, and took refuge in different places on 
the continent where the reformation had 
been embraced. Frankfort, an imperial city 
in Germany, had done so. A number of 
the exiles had found an asylum there, 
where there was already a congregation of 
French protestants. By permission of the 
magistrates, the English got the joint use 
of the place of worship which had been 
allotted to the French, with liberty to con« 
duct the service in their own language; 
but on condition that their mode of wor- 
ship should differ as little as possible from 
that of the French congregation ; and that 
they should avoid the use of' certain cere- 
monies which were practised in England. 
Some of these ceremonies, and the dresses 
in which they were performed, were so 
much akin to popery, that the magistrates 
dreaded a breach of the peace, if they were 
again to be exhibited within the walls of 
their city. •* The offer,** says Dr M'Crie, 
** was gratefully accepted by the English, 
who came to an unanimous agreement, that 
in using the Englbh liturgy they would 
omit the litany, the audible responses, the 
surplice, with other ceremonies, which in 
those reformed churches, would seem more ^ 
than strange, or which were superfluous and 
supertititious.** Knox accepted an invito- 



tation 10 be oat of the putors of this 
chorcby to wludi 1m repured, and ** €om- 
menced his ministry with the universal 
consent and approbatioa of the oongrega- 

It might have been expected, that now 
he woold be suffered peaceably to pursue 
the work of his vocation as a Christian pas- 
tor. He could not conscientiously accept 
that office in the church of England ; but 
his objections did not apply to a congrega- 
tion of Englishmen, in a foreign country, 
untrammelled by anticbristian statutes. 
This congregation consisted only of men 
who were suffering exile for the sake of 
the truth. It most therefore have been a 
church as thoroughly Christian as perhaps 
sny since the days of the apostles. Knox 
must have had upon the whole much tatia- 
&ctioB in their fellowship, and in minister- 
ing to them, though at first he found con- 
sidsfaUe difference of opinion among them, 
and tome strife about the use of the litur^ 
ly, which has been England's great idol 
ew since the Reformation. Knox suc- 
ceeded in effecting a compromise, by which 
the moot objectionable parts of the liturgy 
were laid aside, and some things added 
suitable to their own circumstances. The 
whole church was thus brought to a hap- 
py sgreement, they gave public thsnks to 
God for it; and joined in Uie celebration of 
the Lord's Supper, as a pledge of union, 
and the burial of all past offences. By 
effecting a compromise, I do not mean that 
Knox made any sacrifice of principle. He 
was not inimicsl to the use of a liturgy, 
provided it were purged of error and super- 
stition. Nay, he and John Craig, by ap- 
pointment of the General Assembly, in 1565, 
composed s book of prayers, for the use of 
the church of Scothmd, as related by Cal- 
derwood. This was printed and prefixed 
to the metre version of the Ptolms ; and I 
suppose it was the original of what I df- 
icribed as Knox's liturgy, in a note to the 
history, p. 107 

But the English church in Frankfort 
was not suffered long to enjoy peace and the 
benefit of Knox's ministry. The persecu- 
tion still mged in Engbind, and other suf- 
ferers were driven to seek refuj^c abroad. 

Among those who oame to Frankfort was 
Dr Cox, a very high churchman, who had 
been preceptor to king Edward VI., and 
probably had a hand in revising the litur- 
gy as directed by that pious young prince. 
He could not endure tliat a word of the 
sacred composition should be omitted in 
public worship. Accordingly, the first 
sabbath that he and the other new comers 
were in church, they be^n, in the ortho- 
dox English fashion, to repeat the words of 
the prayer after the minister, to the dis- 
turbance of the congregation. No remon- 
strance would prevail on them to forbear. 
They were determined, they said, ** to do as 
they had done in England ; and they would 
have the face of an English chnrch." 
*' The Lord grant," said Knox afterwards, 
*'they may have the face of Chrisfs 
church." This was the consequence of the 
half-measures, or compromise, to which 
Knox had consented, or rather had recom- 
mended. He had done so, I believe, in 
perfect sincerity, and without any sacrifice 
of principle, as I have just observed ; but 
had he been enough enlightened to dis- 
card set forms of prayer altogether, as the 
church of Scotland did at a subsequent 
period ; and had he and his co-pastors been 
content to pray as the Holy Spirit gave 
them utterance, they would not have suf- 
fered the unreasonable, nay, the wanton in- 
trusion of such men as Dr Cox, who, see- 
ing so much of the form of " an English 
church," must of course have regarded it as 
a monster without having also ** the face" 
of one. Had they exhibited nothing but 
the divine simplicity of New Testament or- 
der and worship, they would have had no 
attractions at all for such sticklers for 
ceremonies, who would have formed a 
church for themselves, or have sought for 
one elsewhere. 

A breach was now made which it was 
impossible to heal The intruders found 
little difficulty in gaining a party to their 
side, among those who had still a lingering 
affection for the English forms; but the 
presence and the influence of Knox formed 
a mighty obstacle to their carrying all 
things as they desired. In order therefore 
' to get quit of him, a scheme was devised. 



which, for downnght diabolical treachery, ' 
has scarcelj a parallel in the history of any 
worldly king;dom, and only one in the his- 
tory of the church, of which oar Saviour 
himself was the Tictim. Soon after leaying^ 
England, Knox wrote a faitliful admoni- 
tion to the people of that king;dom, which 
will be found in the Appendix to this vol- 
ume. In this he wrote in very stroug 
terms of condemnation of Mary the English 
queen, and of her husband's Cither, the em- 
peror of Germany, calling them enemies of 
Christ and his church. Frankfort was in the 
emperor's dominions, and though Knox had 
committed the crime, such as it n'as, while 
not a subject of bis, some of his new breth- 
ren went to the magistrates of the city, 
with the book in their hands, pointed out 
the obnoxious words, and accused Kuox of 
high-treason against the emperor, his son 
Philip, and Mary queen of England. Hap- 
pily the Lutheran magistrates had more of 
the Christian spirit than these English suf- 
ferers for the truth. They saw the insi- 
dious treachery of the thing; but they 
could not protect the delinquent, should 
the emperor demand him, or require him 
to be delivered up to his enemy the queen 
of England. They therefore sent a private 
communication by a friend of his own, in- 
forming him of the charge laid against him, 
and advising him to leave the place ; which 
might have made them liable to a severe 
reckoning, had their connivance at his es- 
cape come to the knowledge of the em- 

He returned to his favourite retreat at 
Geneva ; and soon afterwards, ventured to 
take a journey to England. His first ob- 
ject was to visit his wife and friends in 
Berwick, from whom he had been absent 
two years ; and while with them, he heard 
such an account of the state of matters in 
Scotland, that he was encouraged to take a 
journey thither. He began to preach in 
Edinburgh in the house where he lodged, 
and he was heard with intense interest by 
all who could get access, including some of 
the nobility and gentry of rank. From 
this period he was constantly employed in 
different parts of the country, of which he 
has given an accoont in the history. The 

oleiig[ybeoa»e dreadfully autfmed when they' 
heard of his preaching, and at the rapid 
pro gr es s of the reformed doctrines. He 
was somraoned to appear before a coiiTeii- 
tion of them in Edinburgh ; and he deter- 
mined to obey the summons ; which, when 
his enemies understood, they durst not 
meet him, and the convention was not 
held. He, however, kept the appointment ; 
and on the very day on which he was to 
have been put on his trial, he began preach- 
ing again in Edinburgh to greater andiea- 
ces than he had had before. 

While thus busily employed at hoase^ 
he received an invitation from the English 
church in Geneva to be one of their pas- 
tors. This chnrch consisted of some of his 
former flock, who had left Frankfort ths 
year before, and come to settle in Geneva, 
where they had liberty to worship God 
without being subject to the yoke of the 
ceremonies. It must have been Yery grati- 
fying to him to receive this public testi- 
mony of his integrity from those who wers 
best acquainted with his conduct in Frank- 
fort, and the cause of his leaving it Per^ 
haps it was on this account that he so rea> 
dily accepted the invitation. To the friends 
who had pressed him to remain in Soot* 
land, he said, '*Once he must visit that 
little flock which the wickedness of men 
had compelled him to leave.*' At the same 
time he gave them to understand, that if 
his services were again required at bome^ 
he would not be backward to return. He 
proceeded to Geneva with his wife and her 
mother, then a widow, in July, 1^>56. 

He was no sooner gone than his enemiesi 
the clergy, renewed theur summons, and 
they had the courage to meet for his trial, 
when they knew he would not appear. 
They condemned his body to the flajncsi 
and his soul to damnation; but aa both 
were beyond their reach, they had to 
content themselves with burning his effigy 
at the cross of Edinburgh^ Thia gavs 
occasion to " The Appelbtion," one of his 
most spirited productions^ which is in the 

Knox remained two years in Geneva is 
great peace and comfort^ and' had two aoai 
bom to him there. Bsthis heart was aliH 



hi 8eolltii4. In a totter to some IneDds 
in Bdinbwgli, Mardi 16th, 1557, he sayS) 
(I qaote fiwn IPCrie), " Mjr own motion 
and daily prayer ie, not only that I may 
Tisit yoo, hat also timt with joy I may end 
my hattie amonf yon. And a»Bnre your- 
aeif of that, that whenever a |;reater namber 
amonf yon ihall eaU upon me than now 
bath boand me to lenre them, by his grace 
it shall not he ftar of punishment, neither 
yet of the death temporal, that shall im- 
pede n^ coming^ to yon." The same year 
he received an invitation to return, signed 
by tome of the Scotish nobility. His cor- 
jnetpondence on the occssion is recorded by 
himsslf in the history; and indeed from 
this period, the history of the Reformation, 
is so much the history of Knox himself, 
thai I need add little more here. In little 
more than a year after his arrival, the Re- 
ibmation was embraced by persons of all 
mla throughout the kingdom ; the protes- 
tant church was organized and established ; 
tad ministers were appointed to all the prin- 
cipal cities. Knox was appointed to Edin- 
biifgh, where, after great labour and many 
vieissitndes, he ended his days in peace, and 
gnat spiritual comfort, the 24th of No- 
vember, 1572. As he was laid in the grave, 
the Regent of the kingdom pronounced his 
enloginm in these memorable words, " Here 
lies he who never feared the face of roan." 

I cannot do better than conclude with 
the following summary of his laboura and 
sufferings, by his excellent biographer, 
Dr M'Crie. No man of the age has done 
more importtnt service to the cause of 
literature and historical truth than he has 
done, by presenting to the world the true 
character of one to whom, above every 
other, we are indebted for both the civil 
and religious privileges which we have so 
long enjoyed. 

''He died in the sixty-seventh year of 
hia age, not so much oppressed with yean, 
as worn out and exhausted by his extraor- 
dinary laboura of body and anxieties of 
mind. Few men ever were exposed to 
more dangers, or underwent such hard- 
ships. From the time that he embraced 
the reformed religion, till he breathed his 
last, seldom did he enjoy a respite from 

these, and he emerged from one scene of 
difficulties only to be involved in another, 
and a more distressing one. Obliged to 
flee from St Andrews to escape the fury of 
Cardinal Beaton, he found a retreat in 
East Lothian, from which he was hunted 
by Archbishop Hamilton. He lived for 
several yeara as an outlaw, in daily appre- 
hension of falling a prey to those whs 
eagerly sought his life. The few months 
during which he enjoyed protection in the 
castle of St Andrews were succeeded by a 
long and rigorous captivity. After enjoy- 
ing some repose in England, he was again 
driven into banishment, and for five yean 
wandered as an exile on the continent 
When he returned to his native country, it 
was to engage in a struggle of the most 
perilous and arduous kind. After the Re- 
formation was established, and he was 
settled in the capital, he was involved in a 
continual contest with the court. When 
he had retired (fom warfare, and thought 
only of ending his da3rs in peace, he was 
again called into the field, and, although 
scarcely able to walk, was obliged to re- 
move from his flock, and to avoid the 
hatred of his enemies by submitting to a 
new banishment. Often had his life been 
threatened ; a price was publicly set upon 
his head, and persons were not wanting 
who were disposed to attempt his destruc- 
tion. No wonder that he was weary of 
the world, and anxious to depart With 
great propriety it might be said, at his de- 
cease, that he rested from his labours,** 

The people of Scotland were very tardy 
in doing justice to the memory pf our Re- 
former. Indeed his character was not pro- 
perly appreciated till the appearance of 
Dr M'Crie's book. He had suffered so 
much from the false representations of po- 
pish and high church writera on the one 
hand, and from admirera of queen Mary 
on the other, that he was generally regard- 
ed as a sort of religious Mohawk, who was 
to be remembered only for the mischief he 
had done to our ancient cathedrals, the 
ruins of which were looked upon, and 
pointed out to travellers, as so many mon- 
uments of his ruthless fury. I well re- 
collect the astonishment that was express- 






«d by many penons, well iDformed on 
other pointi, when they read Dr M'Crie's 
narrative of his life, and the exhibition 
of his real character, to find that he 
was a ^entieman, a scholar, and a warm 
hearted benevolent Christian, distinguished 
above any man of his age for the anion of 
two things which are bat too rarely, in 
any age, united in the same mind, the love 
of his Saviour, and the love of his country, 
in relation to both her religious and civil 
interests. The current of public opinion 
was now turned in his favour ; and people 
began to talk of some public testimony of 
respect for his memory. But this would 
probably have terminated in mere talk, but 
for the well directed leal of the reverend 
Dr M'Gill, professor of divinity in GIm- 
gow university, to whom this city is 

indebted for the honoar it has aoqairtd by 
ELnox's monament He was the first U» 
bring the subject before the public ; and by 
most persevering activity, aided by the 
good offices of some of the most inflnen- 
tial citixens, and of many friends to the 
cause at a distance, a sufficient sum wss 
obtained for erecting the column and sta> 
tne, which surmount the fir park to the 
north of the city. The ceremonial d lay- 
ing the foundation, and circumstances ood- 
nected with it, were published at the time, 
in a fugitive form. I think it worth 
while to put them into a more pennaneot 
shape, by making them a supplement te 
this short sketch of the Reformer's Life. 

W. M'Qatin. 

Glasgow, Jan, 1831. 























It InriBf •oeorred to the lUr. Dr MmOUI, 
FkwiMMr of TiMolagj In tiM mdTcnItj of Gla»- 
that m monmn—t ■hoald fee ereded In 
pramlMiit port'of tho dtj, to the memory 
of John Knots, tto gnot Soottleh Reformer, 1m 
eommnnlcated the idea to n fcw friends, who 
falfhlj eii p iw e d of it. After tlie number of 
■nbooibers bad become eondderable, a general 
mectlnt waa 'hdd, retolntloBa were pamed tar 
c ar ry ing on tlie dedgn, and a committee of 
int waa apptdnted. And ae the un^ 
«■, even to the moot reiiMte degree, 
nneoaneetcd with party feeling, ice fMenda eon- 
akded of all partica, nliglotta and pelitfeal, who 
tftvorcd the great prindplee of the Relhrmation. 
Mr Thomae HamilCon, an eminent architect 
In Edinborgh, with that liberality fer which he 
ia dlatlngniihed, p re mnt e d a plMi Ibr the ae- 
eeptanee of the aobacriben. The deaign, a 
Doric ^hmrm, cnrmoonted by a coloeml ttatoe, 
ttfniring a prominent lite, the merehanta* 
hooae, in the handsomett manner, gave per- 
miailon to erect the monument in their park, 
which a4)oine and orerloolca the cathedraL 

That the erection of the ilrst monument in 
Scodand to the memory of its great Reformer, 
abonld be hdd in remembrance. It waa thought 
adTimble to lay the foundation etone with ap- 
propriate lolemnity, in presence of the sub- 
acribers, and that the Rev. Dr MacOill, the 
ploua, learned, and intrepid defender of the 
peinciplea of the Reformation, and tlie pro- 
jector of the monument, should be requested to 
lay the foundation stone ; and farther, that the 
celelirated Dr Chalmers, formerly of St John*8 
church, in this dty, should be requented to 
preach a sermon en the occasion, and the vene- 
rable Dr Bums, the highly respected minister 
of the Barony parish, to offer up prayers for 
the sucens of the undertaking. These gentle- 
men having poUtdy complied with the request 
of the committee ; the following may be con- 
sidered as an outline of the ceremonlaL 

MaRiiro or suaKaiaaaa. 

At half past twelve, on Thursday, the 8Sd of 
September, 1825, upwards of 900 of the sub- 
scrllwra met In the Trades* Hall, from whenoa 
they went In procession to St Oeorge^s church. 
Dr MacGiU, who headed the procession, was 
supported by Mr Monteith of Carstairs, M. P., 
and the Tenerable Professor Jardine.* These 
gentlemen were followed by a great number of 
town and country clergymen belonging to the 
established church, and to the secession and dis- 
senting churchea— then foUowed the architect, 
the committee, and the subscribers. 


Having arrived in the church, which was 
crowded to exceas, the Rev. Dr Chalmers 
preached from Jeremiah tL 16. ** Thus saith 
the Lord, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and 
ask for the old paths, where is the good way, 
and walk therein, and ye sliall find rest for 
your souls.** 

The sermon f vras brilliant, nervous, and 
powerful — Gleamed in historical research— ele- 
gant in style-^and delivered with all the im- 
pressiveness of the most impassioned eloquence. 
— The collection in aid of the subscription fund 
amounted to L.83 12s. lOd. 

When divine service was ended, the proces- 
sion moved along Geoi^e*s street, Duke street, 
and Ladywell street, to the merchants* paric. In 
the same order that it came from the Trades' 
HaU, preceded by three operatives, carrying an 
Inscription plate, bottles, &c. and by the office- 
bearers of St John's lodge. In their new clothing 
and jewels, prepared for the purpose. This 
ancient lodge, instituted in the year 1051, con- 
sisting of the freemen master masons In the 
city, very handsomely made offer of their ser- 
vices to do honoiur tu the occasion. 

The Interest shown at this ceremonial was 
of no ordinary nature — ^tbe streets through 

• Profeisor Jartf oe liss been naiformly sttsdicd to 
tJis principles of dis BefunaatloB. When that learasd, 
distingntohed, sad higkly ws p ee t ed dwFscter, had «o. 
tsrrd OD his fiftieth year ss Professor of Logic iu this 
anirerslty, a T«ry flattering compllnMnt was paid to 
hiss by a nunber of gentlemen who had been his stu- 
dsata. A joMlce timer wss given him la the Town 
HaD, en tho 6Ui ctf May, imk William Mare, Em|. 

of CaldweU, chslrman, and Vtooonnt Glenorchy, rrou- 
pier. The meeting consisted of 908 geatlemcB, many of 
whom esBM from a great dlsCaaee to du bsaoor on the 
occwion. The chairmsa was a student In the pro. 
fessor's first dasa. 

t The committee retpcctfully reqoettad Dr Chslmsra 
to print the tsrmon. 



which the procenlon pawed, were eo crowded, 
that it WM with difficulty the lahecribere could 
moTe along, erery window was filled with spec^ 
tator^ and the houiM tope were in full requisi- 
tlonub When the proceeaion had reached the 
merchants' park, and commenced Ita progren to 
the summit through the winding walks, skirted 
with young planting, the scene was truly mag- 
nificent. ^ In looking down to the church-yard, 
in front of the cathedral, the eye beheld proha^ 
Uy ten thousand persona^ whose continued 
shouts of approbation rent the air. To the 
most uninformed spectator, the sight must have 
been interesting ; but to him who could bring 
into reccdlection, the many Important transao • 
tl<His which had taken place In that venerable 
edifice, preylous to the Re/ormation, and since 
that erer memorable period, the scene was 
grand beyond description. 

On arrival at the site of the monument, the 
cmnmittee of management, the masons, Dr 
Chalmers, &c ascended a platform, and as soon 
as the subscribers had occupied the places as- 
signed them, silence vras proclaimed, when Dr 
Buma^ offered up a very suitable and Impres- 
Jive prayer as foUows : — 


We worship and adore thee, O Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, the One only the living and 
the true God. We come unto thee In the name 
of Jesus Christ our Lord, the only Mediator 
between God and man, and our advocate with 
the Father. We thank thee for thy distin- 
guished goodness to the human race, In sending 
thy well-beloved Son Into the world to seek and 
to save that which was lost. We thank tbee 
for his condescending to assume our nature, for 
the depth of his abasement, the perfection of 
his obedience, the merit of his death, his tri- 
umphant resurrection, and ascension into 
heaven, where he ever reigns at thy right hand, 
having all power in heaven and earth committed 
unto him. We thank thee that when he as- 
cended up on high, he received gifts for men, 
that the Lord God might agidn dwell amongst 
us. We thank thee that he commaoded his 
gospel to be preached In the world, and that It 
has been published in our land. We thank 
thee that when our forefathers were sunk in 
paganism and savage barbarity — and, after- 
wards, under the Christian name, were almost 
wholly overwhelmed with idolatry, supersti- 
tion, and tyranny, that thou, O Lord, faadst 
mercy upon us, and didst visit us with the pure 
light of evangelioal truth. We thank thee that 
the gospel has been long faithfully preached In 
our land, visibly accompanied with the Holy 
Ghost sent down from heaven. We thank thee 
that we have the Bible put into our hands. 

translated Into a language which we all undacu 
stand ; that we are permitted and encoumged, 
and by the means of education afforded na, are 
enabled to read it : and we thank thee that we 
are permitted to worship tbee according to 
the dictates of thy word and of our own ooo- 
sciences, none disturbing us or making us 
afraid. Truly the lines have fidlen to as ia 
pleasant plaoM, and we have received m gQuHf 
heritage of the Lord our God. 

We thank tbee for the hai^y constitution oi 
civil government under which we live^ hf 
which the rights of tbe crown and the liberty 
of the sul^ts are equally secured. We ]fnf 
that the choicest blessings of heaven may do- 
scend upon the head of our beloved sovoraiga 
fClng George, Long may he sway the acrptra 
over a free, a united, a religious, and a gratafiil 
people. Bless all the membws of the royal 
fandly : may they be endowed with every gim- 
clous and princely virtue ; and may one of thai 
Illustrious house never be wanting to suppact 
and to defend the Protestant constitution Sa 
church and state in these happy lands. Do thoa 
bless all Inferior rulers and magistrates under 
our king and over us; may they be a terror to 
evil. doers, but a praise and protection to them 
that do good. May the high court of parlia- 
ment, always when assembled, be under the 
guidance of thy good Spirit, in enacting wise 
and salutary laws for advancing thy glory, se- 
curing and perpetuating the blessings of pure 
and undefiled religion among us, and for main- 
taining the rights, the liberties, and the religion 
of our country. May we ever remember, tliat 
to whom much is given much will be required; 
and may we all be careful, lest by abusing our 
privileges, we provoke thee to throw us back 
under the dominion of ignorance, superstition, 
and tyranny. Bless the magistrates of thia 
city, and those who sit in council with them ; 
may they enjoy the respect, the support, and 
the gratitude of the whole community over 
which they are placed. Bless the church 
which thou hast established amongst us. Bless 
all the ministers of the different drnomioatiooa 
who falthfiilly preach Christ and him cruci- 
fied ; may it be their study to strengthen each 
other's hands, striving together for the faith of 
the gospel, — seeking only who shall love God 
most and serve him best ; and bless the whole 
of our fellow-subjects of every rank and in 
every situation. 

And now. Lord, we pray for a blessing on 
our present undertaking. In erecting an ho- 
nourable monument to the memory of our great 
Reformer, John Knox ; a man raised up by 
thee, and endowed with those qualities which 
peculiarly fitted him for being a distinguished 
instrument in the arduous work of deliveriog 



lldt mAIm tnm iplrinial thnJdom and tMl 
tynany. Ewj llBt that we and our pos- 
tcrlty look f tkii yiMrtDtlc moDimMiit, may our 
bcarta rise in gratttoda to thee for the bleniiiga 
wee^Joy. May we be duly senaible of oar 
IwMHwible ftMlegtm, both dril and ncred, 
and earelUly fanprore them. May oar liberty 
never dcfSMsnte into licentionmeti, nor our 
gntftnde ahale; but may we be as eminent for 
the heifnew of our Hvei, aa wearedietingaiahed 
by ear national Ueaeinga.^Hear these oar 
pncjwn, for the Hike of Jeans Christ our Lord, 
and to thy name be the praise now and for 

At the eonduslon of the prayer, Mr Rodger, 
amembfr ci the eommittee of management, 
dsposltcd in the firandation stone, a glass bottle, 
hii aw til ally scaled, eontaining specimens of the 
geld, aOTer, and eopper coins of the reign of 
Gssfge IV., and anoUier glass bottle, eontain- 
ing six Glasgow newspapers, Tiz. Journal, 
Herald, Courier, ChronidiB, Free Press, and 
Sesta Timee; a Sootlsh Almanack, and a Ghw- 
fow Directory. 

The IbUowing e atr a cls from Cldand*s An- 
nala of Gla^go^, and statistical tables, were also 
indoafd in glass bottles, riz. Population tsbles 
§tr Glasgow, progressive from the days of Knox 
ta the present time. Periodical division of 
the city into parishes, from tlie year 1698, 
when it waa formed into two parishes, till 
the year 1880, when it waa divided into ten 
paridies. A list of the names of all the pres- 
byterian parochial dei^g^men who bad been 
asttled in Glasgow, from the Reformation to 
^Um thnt, with the dates of induction. An out- 
line of the famoua General Assembly, held in the 
cathedral of Glasgow, on 81st November, 16S8. 
DecUnatnre and protestation by the dignitaries 
of the church of Scotland, against the sentence 
•f the assembly. Comparative state of society 
la Glasgow, at various periods from the Refor- 
mnriom to this time. Excerpta from M'Crie's 

Life of Knox, and a list of the suboeribera to 
the monument. 

Mr Cleland, a member of the committee of 
management, then read the inscription which 
was on a metal plate^ aa follows : — 

To tMtiry gndt«dt for IsMttaMbl* SottIcm 

la th« ea«M •£ RtUglra, BdMadoa, ud CItU UNrty, 

To nrakm AdalnriM 

Of tlMt lalcgrity, DIdiitamtodMM, aad Cowaft, 

Whleh ttood wiihak«B lo th* aiid4t of Trials, 

Aad ia tha Malataaaact of tha hlghaat oljaeii, 


Ta Charlih aaeaaciag Bareraaca Cor tha Priadplat aad 

BloMlaft of that Ortat RrferaMtlao, 

By tha iaflaaaca «f which oar Caaatry, threagh tha 


Hm rUaa ta Honoar, Protpnilx, aad Ha|ipiaa««, 

ThU Maaamaat is Ertctad hy Volaatary Coatribatioa, 

Ta the Mtaiarx af 


Tha Cblof lastnuaaat, andar Ga^ 

Of thff Rafbnaatiaa of Scatlaad. 

By tha Faromr af Abalchty Gad, 

Tha TaaadaCloa Stoaa wss laid hj 


ProCsssar af Thaologx in tha Uoirarsity of Glssfow, 

Oa tha S9d dsy of SeptMabar, MDCCCXXV, 

Aad Slath fear of the Reign of oar Mmi Oracioos 8oTerel(a« 


In Presaace ol tha Conailttee of Mansgeawat, via 

Henry Moataitb, Esq. M.r. 
Jsmas E«riag, bIm.* 
Bobcrt Dslglish, Esq. 
Janes Clelsad, Em.* 
William Rodaer. Ktq. 
Thomas Hnpkirk, Bkq. 
Aadreer Mitchell, Esq. 
John Mar, Esq. 
Willism ftfTyer. Esq. 
Robert Hood, E»q. 

Walter Pergasna, Eaq. 
William M'Gsria, Esq. Traasarar. 
Beajamlo Mathie, Esq. Siecrctary. 
Thomas Hamilton, Eiq. Arcliilect. 
William Warrco, Esq. Designer of 

the Statae. 
Robnt Fnnett, E<iq. .Sutnary. 
Joha Herberuon, Esq. Resideat 

Architect aad 8n|)rtintendcBt. 
Mr James Carmichsel, Contractor. 

Which aadertakiag may the Saprema God bless aad prosper. 


Riv. Da. MacGiu^ ConTeaer. 

James Bving, Esq. I William Rodaer. Esq. 

James Cleland, Eiq. | Thomas Hopkira, Esq. 

* The aniversityof Glasgow has confmed tha degrac of Doctor 
of Laws OB Mr Ewiag tad Mr Clelsad. 




To tettify Gratitude for inestimablo Senrioet 

Id the C«iiM of licligion, fUlucation, and Ciril Liberty, 

To awaken Admiration 

Of that Integrity, Disinterettedneat, and CooraKe, 

wbieh stood unshaJcen in tlie midst of Trials, 

And in the Maintenance of the highest Objects. 


To Cherish nnceastng Reyerence for the Principles and 

Blessiogs of that Great Keforaaation, 

By the inflaence of which our Coantry, through the 

Midst of Difficulties, 

Has risen to Honoar, Prosperity and Happiness, 

This Monument is erected by Voluntary Contribotton, 

To the Memory of 


The Cliief Instrument, under (iofi, 

of the Reformation of Scotland, 

On the zxii day of September, MDCCCXX V. 

He died, rfjolcing in the faith of the Gospel, 

At Edinburgh on the xxiv of November A.D. MDLXXll, in the sizty-serenth year of hte ^ 

(east side.) 

Patrick Hamiiton, a yonth of high rank and distinguished attainments, 
was the first Martyr in Scotland for the cause of the Reformation. 
He was condemned to the flames at St Andrews in IbUSt and the 
twenty-fourth year of his age. 

From 1530 to 1540, persecution nged in erery quarter ; many saffered 
the most cruel deaths; and many fled to England and the Continent. 
Among these early Martyrs were Jerome Russell and Alexander 
Kennedy, two young men of great piety and Tahnts, who suffered at 
Glasgow, in 1538. 

In 1544, George Wishart returned to Scotland, from which he had bren 
banished, and preached the gosftel in various quarters. In 1546, this 
heavenly-minded man, the friend and Instructor of Knox, was also 
committed to the flames at St Andrews. 

(south sidk. ) 

Among the early and distinguished friends of the Reformation should 

be especially remembered Sir James Sandilands of Calder, Alexander Earl 

of Glencairn, Archibald earl of Argyle, and Lord James Stewart, 

afterwards known by the name of '* the Good Regent.*' — 

John Erskine of Dun, and John Row, who were distinguished among 

the reformed Ministers, for their cultivation of ancient and mo<lern 


Christopher Goodman and John Willock, who came from England to 
preach the gospel in Scotland — 



AnA, Jolm Winnm, Jobn SpotUtwood, and J^bn Donglaa, who with 
Jchn lUw, And John Knox, oompikd the fint Coofe«ion of Foiib« 
which WM presented to the Parliament of Seetland t And alao the fint 
Boek of Discipline. 

(west side.) 


The Reformation produced a rerolation in the aentimenti of mankind, 
the greatest, at well aa the moat beneficial that haa happened since the 
publication of Christianity.** 

In 1547, and in the city where his friend George Wishart bad sofirrrd, 
John Knox, sarroonded with dang era, first preached the doctrines of the 
Roformation. In 1&59, on the S4th of Angnsty the Parliament of Scot- 
land mdopted the Confession of Faith presented by the Reformed 
Ministers, and declared Popery to be no longer the rdligion of this 

John Knox became then a Minister of Edlubnr^gh where ha eontlnoed 
to his death the incormptible guardian of our best Interests. " I can 
take God to witness,** he declared, " that I nerer preached In contempt 
of any man; and wise men will consider, that a true friend cannot 
flatter ; especially in a case that inyolves the salration of the bodice and 
sonls, not of a few persons, but of a whole realm.** When laid in the 
grare, the Regent said, " There lieth He who nerer feared the face of 
man ; who was often threatened with dag and dagger, yet hath ended his 
days in peace and honour. *> 

ho plate haying been deposited oTer the 
le% and the operative and master masons 
log completed their part of the ceremony, 
Ber. Dr Mac Gill laid the foundation stone 
I all the honours usual on such occarions, 
umndng the masonic benediction. ** May 
grand Architect of the uniyerse, enable us 
■jsfiilly to carry on and finish the work, of 
di we haye now laid the foundation stone, 
aifcry other undertaking which may tend 
ha adyantage of the city of Glasgow and its 
Utants^ and may this monument be long 
iflTod finom peril and decay.** 
Im foundation stone baying thus been laid, 
oohacribers and surrounding multitude gave 
!• cheers. Dr MacGill then advanced to a 
B In front of the platform, and addressed the 
leribers with grttX eloquence and energy, as 

[r £ wing, and Gentlemen Subscribers, — We 
9 now the happiness of witnessing the com- 
leement oi a monument, to the memory of 
grart man, who was the chief instrument 
nr God, of the Reformation in Scotland. 
m we united fur this purpose, we bad ob- 
in view of no small importance, as we 

total smoont subscribed for the monument, 
1^80 from Mr BCsy for the statue, was 
7 Ha. M. wklch bring Ull more than the expen- 
0, tbis amn was ooorigned to the magistrates for 
•arpoae of keeping the mnnomont in repair, aiid 

conceived, to the interests of our country. 
We proposed to pay honour to one of its greitt- 
est benefactors ; and, in paying to him this debt 
of justice, to cherish admiration of tbooe high 
qualities for which he was distinguished, and 
to keep alive the remembrance of those great 
events and principles, with which his name is 
associated. — Cheers. 

At the period of the Reformation, Scotland, 
like the other nations of Europe, was not only 
involved in all the evils of feudalism and general 
ignorance, but was borne down by a system of 
debasing superstition. Imposture, and spiritual 
tyranny. I shall not enlarge, gentlemen, on 
the absurd and degrading doctrines and prac- 
tices which were taught and enforced under 
the pretended authority of God— on the fhinds, 
exactions, and domination of a corrupt priest- 
hood — ^nor on the burdens and evils of sulijec- 
tion to a distant and foreign jurisdiction. I 
observe only that the great doctrines of the gos- 
pel were unknown or perverted — that wretched 
mummeries and observances, and the worahip 
of innumerable saints, came with deadening 
power betwixt the soul and its God and Sa- 
viour, corrupted the first principles of holiness. 

the following Amctlonarles are a u thorised to superin- 
tend the same, tiie professor of divinity of Glasgow 
college, the Dean of Ouild of the merdiants, and the 
Deacon Convener of the trades connected with the 
city.— ^rf. 



and aMiuned the place of the moat important 
datiee— that the dirgy were Ignorant, idle, and 
licentloaa— that the word of God was prohibited 
to the people— that religioiu services were 
performed in an unknown tongue— that the 
mind was wholly subjected to the dictations of 
men—that the arraues to troth were closed — 
and, while the people were perishing for lack of 
knowledge, every declaration of better prin- 
ciples was punished with imprisonment and 

And ought not deliverance from a state like 
this to be remembered with gratitude to God ? 
And should not he who was the chief Instru- 
ment in effecting it, receive the honours of a 
grateful country? (L.oud cheers.) And, gentle- 
men, how many blessings accompanied our de- 
liverance from this slate of spiritual debase- 
ment! Then were the treasures of heavenly 
wisdom laid open, and we became acquainted 
with those Holy Scriptures, which are able to 
make us wise unto salvation, through the faith 
which is in Jesus Christ. Then were we 
enabled with the understanding and the heart, 
to offer up a reasonable and acceptable service 
through the only Mediator. Then was the 
mind freed from the tyranny of interested men, 
enabled not only to search the scriptures, but to 
dwell in meditation over its precious truths, 
and to feel all their ennobling and renovating 
influence. Then were all his duties, and prin- 
ciples, and hopes, presented in fulness and 
purity to the simplest Christian, for the guid- 
ance of his purposes and his life. Then did the 
consolations of heavenly truth, come forward 
in all their native power, to heal the broken- 
hearted. The accepUble year of the Lord was 
again preached to mankind ; and the day of the 
Sun of Kighteousness, began again to illuminate 
and bless a benighted world! (Cheers.) Well 
might a celebrated historian say of the Reforma- 
tion, *' That it rescued one part of Europe from 
the papal yoke, mitigated its rigour in the other, 
and produced a Revolution in the sentiments of 
mankind, the greatest, as well as the most bene- 
ficial, that has happened since the publication 
of Christianity.** 

But if this may be said of the Reformation 
generaUy, much more may it be said of the 
Reformation in Scotland. The evils from 
which it delivered us were peculiarly great, 
and the change it effected more thorough, scrip- 
tural, and perfect, than in most other nations. 
(Cheers.) Far be it from me to detract from 
the character of the great men of other king- 
doms, from the views by which they were 
guided, or the general excellence of the work 
which they achieved. But if others are al- 
lowed their preferences, so we also may be al- 
lowed ours. And 1 would oonedve myself 

unworthy the place which I now oeenpyt if I 
did not openly and unequivocally dsdars mj 
conviction, that the Reformation in Scotland— 
which some men have attempted to disparig»— 
introduced a system superior to that of aMMt 
other nations ; fitted in a higher degree to pro- 
mote the interests of practical religion, and iha 
general welfiire of men ; and that the pocuUor- 
ities which distinguish it should be hallad as 
blessings of the first order, odebrated with 
gratitude, and sacredly pres er ve d. ( Vcrj gnM 
cheering. ) 

And while such were the inestimaUa aor- 
vices rendered by our great Reformer In iIm 
cause of religion, we find him . with the subo 
enlightened zeal supporting the intarasls 4if 
education and of learning. So far from bdaf 
fearful of the progress of knowledge, Iw can- 
sidered it as one of the most powerful ausill> 
aries in . the gr«it cause to which he 
voted. He was not the man who 
ignorance to be the mother of 
(Cheers.) And as he was the great mmm of 
rescuing the Bible from the power of an hrts- 
rested priesthood, of laying open its 
to men of every description, so, with his 
coadjutors, he united to carry into effect tbs 
same desire, which was expressed by our lals 
venerable sovereign, that every man in tUi 
kingdom should have a Bible, and should bs 
able to read it. (Cheers.)— Well direct«| 
learning, they also knew, would only serve Is 
establish the cause of the sacred scriptureo— 4i 
illustrate more fully the certainty of the fiMti 
which they record — the excellence of the tmths 
which they reveal — and the strength of At 
rock on which their authority is founded. 
While, therefore, the very nature of the Refel^ 
mation accelerated the progress of knowlsdgeb 
the Reformers in Scotland sought to encoimfs 
and confirm the spirit which it awakened; ts 
extend the blessing of education to men of evsiy 
order ; and to direct and insure its aid to the 
best interests of men. With these riews^ tkiy 
required that schools should be erected In every 
parish for instruction in reading, gramawr, 
Latin, and the principles of religion: tkiy 
laid down salutary regulations for the nnHciw 
sities: and they farther recommended, that 
institutions should be formed in every coimUs< 
rable city for instruction in the higher hiaiulMS 
of a learned and useful education. For ihm 
great objects they also pointed out the meom rf 
a suitable proviuon : and, with a noble dUi^ 
terestedness, they proposed, that from IhoM 
funds which the clergy of other natiooo hns 
considered as their own, a laige portion 
be taken for universities, colleges, and 
schools. (Great cheering.) In the noift if] 
selfish factions, their voice for a time wat Milj 



btivd i y«k Ib om yutteolary «l least, their eall 
at liBt mguti/tij and tlie ettaUiahmcnt of 
lahMfa kM added another claim to the 
gntituflt of their eonntry. — (Loud and oon- 
tinuod chiwiiy.) 

•« with the froeeention of theoe high ol^tt, 
featfcBMB* it la Im poe a ilde for me to omit stat- 
ing, that the diatlBgniehed man to whom this 
mePHBiint ia devoted, maintained ■trenuooely 
the prindplea, and endcaToured anxiooaly to 
obtain ler hlo country the bleeaings of civil li- 
hotj.— (Loud cheera.)^! am Mnsible that ex- 
pitarfoaa and a tnt imenta have oecaaionally beoi 
uttered by great and good men, in timee of vio- 
lence and oppreadon, which ought to be received 
with medidcation, and considered in connection 
with the dreumstanow to which they were ap- 
pUcd. There are points sJso^ connected with 
the general subjeciy on which enlightened men 
have diiRBred, and which ought to be approached 
at all timea with delicacy and caution. But 
with an these fcllowances, it Is never to be for- 
gattcB that the blessings of dvil liberty are of 
the first class in human life; and that the great 
men who contributed to obtain and secure 
them, are to be ngarded amongst tl»e first of 
oar nafionsl benefactors. — (Cheers.) — It is not 
for the free men of a firee country to speak with 
iadlircrcnce of the bleosiugs of a well regidatcd 
fivedom. And to shrink from the expression 
of our love of it, would be to act ui^ustly to 
enrselvea and our country, and, in my eetima- 
tlMHy moat injuriously to the cfmstitutioual 
monarchy, under which we have the happiness 
fa live i which is Mie of the greatest ssft^uards 
ef liberty, protecting us most effectually from 
the dominion of foreign foes, while it guards us 
the disorders of the ambitious, the ex- 
€i the violent, and tlie oppressi<ms of the 
powerfuL— (Loud cheering.) Maintaining the 
prindples which were afterwards proclaimed 
and established at the great revolution, Knox 
waa the enemy of despotism, both in the 
church and the state. (Hear, hear, hear.) — 
Ue enlbrccd stron^y the duties of obedience to 
lawful authority, and that mutual respect 
which men of every rank owe to one another. 
But he also maintained, when the occasion de- 
manded, in the presence of princes and nobles, 
of ministers and peofde, that rulers must rule 
in the fear of God, that tlie highest authority 
must rule according to the laws, (cheers>— 
and that the laws must respect equally the in- 
tereets of men of every condition. Nay, he 
maintained that there were occasions, extraor- 
dinary occasions, and which he defined — when 
oppr e s BOTi must be .resisted,, and sensibly 
taught that power was intended for good, and 
not for destruction. Imbued with these prin- 
ciples^ there aroee. In successive generations^ and 

in that church which he asslatad to form, those 
men of lofty bearings of firm contexture, and of 
stem Intrgrity, who withstood the sturms of 
persecution, and finally contributed to repair 
the walls, and build up those towers of strength 
and beauty, under the shade of which our 
country now reata in security and honour. 
(Loud cheers.) 

** And now, gentlemen, let me ask you to con- 
sider the circumstances in which these great 
services were done by our illustrious Kcfor- 
mers. It was when the highest powers of the 
state, as well as those of the church, had armed 
themsdves to op/jfout every approach to the 
principles of the Refonnation — it was after the 
amiable and youthful Hamilton, whoee ^>pear- 
ance and character would have softened the 
hearts of savagea, had finished his short but 
glorious course, by the hands of remorseless 
churchmen — It was only a few days after the 
meek and heavenly-minded Wisliart had been 
committed also to the flames— it waa then, and 
on the same spot, where his friend had suffered, 
that Knox first publicly denounced the errors 
and impostures of popery, and with a bddness 
of doquence which never before had sounded 
in Scotland, made the bulwarks of Antichrist 
to shake from their foundation. Nor was this 
noble and fearless seal the effect of temporary 
and high- wrought feeliiigs, or of rash and hasty 
determination. It was the deliberate prefer- 
ence of duty to worldly interest. It was the 
determination of a superior mind, devoting 
itself to God, and the highest interesU of his 
fellow-creatures, (l^oud and continued cheer- 
ing.) Founded on principle, his zeal waa con- 
stant and persevering. The high pitch of his 
soul vras siuitained throughout the whole of hie 
life ; and his resolution stood firm in the midst 
of the severest trials. Compare his conduct 
with that of the greatest men of other natioua, 
and say how few can be produced who have 
trodden the path of rectitude with a step ao 
firm, resolute, and undeviating. (Cheers.) 

** Hence his influence in the councils of the 
church and the state. And hence it was that 
his eloquence came with such resistless power 
on the minda of his countr^nmrn. It was not 
merely that his cause waa great, that the truths 
which be delivered were Infinitely imporUnt, 
and attended with convincing evidence; nor 
waa it only that his judgment was vigorous and 
discriminating, bis statements dear, and his 
conception lofty — it was more than all thi»— 
it was the open sincerity of his character, the 
integrity of his life, the didntercstedness as 
well as the wisdom which distinguished hJa 
ronduct. (Loud and continued cheering.) His 
sentiments were enforced, not only with aU the 
fathos of immediate feeling, but with die 




■fronger expraMkm of detormiiMd prineiple. 
Hit Trhemence wm •eoomfUiM with all the 
strength of fl^-eomnuuid, and power of a great 
and npright mind; nor was the eflRset of hia 
words ever lessened for a moment, hy the sns- 
piclon that unworthy feelings mingled with 
the nrgmcy of hb persaasion. Seldom, ao« 
cordlngly, has there appeared in any country, a 
man, who, unaided by adTentitious eireom- 
stanora, produced greater eflects on those whom 
he addressed. And hence it was said of him 
hy the English ambassador, when writing to 
the great minister of Elisabeth— * where your 
honour exhorteth us to stoutness, I assure yoa, 
the voice of one man is able to put more life in 
us in an hour, than 600 trumpets blustering in 
our ears.* ( Loud cheers. ) 

'* I am not unacquainted with the olijectioas 
which hare been made to some parts of the con- 
duct of our great Heformer— that be is accused 
of undue sererlty of speech— of impropriety in 
the topics which he sometimes introduced into 
the pulpit— of interference with concerns which 
belonged to statesmen more than to hlm-Hind 
that the beauty of the buildings devoted to 
popish superstition could not save them flnom 
the effects of bis indignation. On the last of 
these areusations, 1 obsenre, that he opposed 
the irruptions of popular violeneo, and called 
upon Protestants to avoid * all associations with 
the ambitious, the factious, and the turbulent.' 
That the destruction of popish buildings which 
he approved, was the decree of public authority 
—that this was not extended to churches, and 
was only applied to monasteries, which had 
been the seats of idleness, vice, and debauchery. 
It is true that he addressed Mary, his t^ueen, 
with plainness on subjects connected with the 
public weal and her own best interest*— but 
it is denied that in so doing he behaved towards 
her with rudeness or disrespect. His topics in 
the pulpit, and his interference with matters of 
public policy, are to be judged by times and by 
rircumstanee*. Ue did nothing in these res- 
pects which was not common in that age, not 
only in Scotland, but England, France, and 
other kingdoms of Europe. Yet thl« forms 
but a small part of his defence. What he did 
was the duty of necessity, dictated by foresight, 
weU-foimded Jealousy, and a just estimate of 
the public Interest. The public conduct which 
he reprobated, was connected with the very ex- 
istence of that religion which his coimtry had 
but latdy and with the hardest struggles ob- 
tained — ^It was the conduct of thoae who were 
conspiring to overturn by ndarfous means this 
religion so dear to him and to his coimtry— it 
was the conduct of those who even signed that 
Uoody deed which devoted Protestants to mas- 

sacre and extermiiiatlofi nay, dand to ezpfvss 
their triumphs in its commencing atr od ti ea ! 

Who will say tiiat such extraordinary timas 
and circumstances did net require and Justify 
extraordinary means? Or who will veirtiire to 
blame the man wlio, in sneh cirenmstancea^ 
sounded to his coimtry, lulled asleep by artifiee^ 
the note of warning and alarm ; and at the ha- 
zai^ of life and comfort, saved religion and itt 
friends from destruction, though it should haw 
been by a martial deviation from profta sl onai 
propriety ? Knox, too, it is to be rememheied, 
was no common character. Though not dla« 
tinguished by external rank, he possesaed • 
rank of a higher order— that which arlsea from 
worth and talents, and benefits rendered to Ua 
country. By his personal excellenee Im had 
risen to influence among men of every order. 
He was capable of forming a Judgment of 
events and of times, better tiian most men of 
his age. He had also been personally 
cemed in establishing that religion which 
now threatened to be overthrown ; and he had 
himself witnessed and passed through, thorn 
bloody seenes which were about to be renewed. 
— ( Cheem. ) If indignation at times burst forth 
in language too strong, let us not condemn witk 
severity the tincture of alloy which mixes with 
so much that is great and noble. Let us not 
defend every expression and sentiment, which 
either from misapprehension, or high excite- 
ment, he sometimes delivered — but let us look 
to the palliations which accompany the error ; 
and remember, that, with every exception, 
which the most scrupulous and prying jealousy 
can discover — a higher character, or greater 
benefiictor to his country, will hardly be 
fnimd, than that distinguished man to whom 
is erecting the monument before us.— The 
learned and eloquent professor concluded amid 
rapturous and long continued cheering.^I 
have now only to offer my thanks to you. Sir, 
and the other gentlemen to whom wns intrust- 
ed the duty of carrying forward our design, 
for your invaluable services— and to all the 
subscribers generally, for their uniform and 
friendly support: at the same time, I beg 
leave to ex p res s my warmest acknowledge 
ments for many kind attentions whidi I hmvo 
persMially received ; and humbly to aasora 
you, gentlemen, of my best wishes for your 
happiness. ** 

Mr Ewing, one of the members of the eom« 
mittee of management, delivered the fbllowinf 
re]dy with that eloquence and energy for which 
he is so very conqricuous.— 

" Dr M«Gill : On the part of the committes^ 
whom I have now the honour to represent, 1 
beg to express the pleasure 1 have received frqm 



HhamitlnMiiti cMtalaad in your ■ddrtw, mu- 
tlacBtB whidi haft froceedad with great pro- 
jma, kj whom the- doctrineB of the 
have hem eo long and ao fidth- 
iullj weiatainwi (Loud cheering. )^i^r, the 
Bind that can be inaeneible to the Ueksiugs 
which the eoaatry has derived from that mag- 
nificeot event in our history, must be either 
hi in de d kj Ignocanoe, or perverted by pr^u- 
diee. It was at the Kcformation that light 
dawned on the human intellect, and dispelled 
the shades of bigotry and superstition. It was 
the ttcftirmation, acecmpanied with tlie dis- 
covery mi printinff and the revival of letters, 
which nnlochfd tlie lioundless stores of science 
Md philooaphy. It is to the lieformation 
we ovro that system of popular education — 
which haa oontributod so much to the intelii- 
gBMc^ the industry, and tiie morals of Scot* 
land. Jt ia to the Reformatioa we are in- 
debted for the right of private judgment, and 
that free and liappy cunstitution, which is 
the bent birtluright— the noblest inheritance of 
Britona. It is the Keformation we have to 
thank for the wealth of the nation, which had 
ptevionaly been drained by the rapacity of a 
frieifn pricsUiood. It is to the Keformation 
we muat trace tlie eources of our commercial 
praspcrity, fur it was in Britain that the arts 
iMmd an asylum, whoi expelled from other 
Isads by the horron of persecution. — (Cheers.) 
In fdace of convents, we now behold manufac- 
tories ; in place 9i disst^ute and ignorant monks, 
we behold a virtuous snd enlightened clergy ; 
in place of idle mendicants, dependent on mo- 
nasteries, we behold industrious artisans, who 
vrould scorn snbeisteuoe but from their own 
labour. And shall we not hold dear the memo- 
ry of the man who was the instrument, under 
Providence, of achieving such a victory for 
Scotland? ( Cheers. }— Shall we wreath the 
laurel, and raise the trophy to the military 
hero, and thall we neglect him who fought 
■gainst the powers of darkness ? Shall we for- 
get him who despised every fear, braved every 
danger, stormed the stronghold of papal ty- 
ranny, and levelled its bulvrarks in the dust? 
ForUd it gratitude ! Forbid it justice !— <Loud 
and continued cheering. ) Sir, I am aware that 
the character of soch a man requires no memo- 
rial from na> It needs not the classic column 
to record its excellence : it needs not the grace- 
ful statue to recall the form In which it dwelt : 
it lives on the page of history : nay, it Is regis- 
tered in the hearU of posterity. Still, it is a 
debt which we justly, though tardily pay, it is 
a tribute due from the city where our fore- 
lathers were among the first to suffer in the 
causey— and the moral influence of such a mon- 
ument, in such a scene, and in such a commu- 

nity as this, may be felt by generations yet un* 
bom.— (Great cheering.) Yuu have alluded. 
Sir, to the charge which has been brought 
against the aothors of the Kefurmatitm, as to 
encouraging the dilapidation of religious edi- 
fices. Permit me to go a little farther than 
you have don —and, deprecating, as 1 must do, 
all such acU of vandalism — to say, that the 
original order in 1660, was simply to pull duwn 
the images and altars, but to be particular in 
doing no farther injury ; so that the mischief 
must be traced to the ebullitions of popular tu- 
mult. It has even been slleced, that the cathe- 
dral, which now stands before us in all the 
beauty of youth— amidst all tbe venerableness 
of nge — wms devoted to destruction by the 
preaching of Knox, and saved by the |tublie 
spirit of our craftsmen : but, it is sufficient to 
state, in refotation, that the event nlluded to 
did not occur till seven years after his death. — 
It now remains for me, Sir, to discharKC a very 
pleasing part of my duty. 1 o yourself, in the 
first place, I have to express the obligations we 
must all feel, as the original projector and the 
ardent promoter of this undertaking. Of the 
resistless eloquence which has this day been dis- 
played, as usual, by Dr Chalmers, in the cause, 
any thing which I could say would only en* 
feeble the force. To Mr Hamilton of Edin- 
burgh, who volunteered his professional skill, 
we are indebted, not only for the architectural 
design, but fur much valuable and gratuitous 
advice ; nor cnn we omit the less prominent, 
but not less useful co-operation of Mr Herbert- 
son, architect of this city. Another gentleman, 
Mr Warren, >\ hu holds a family claim ti> dis- 
tinction in the arts, has afforded us the benefit 
of his taste in drawings. The self-taught and 
retiring genius of Mr Forrest, who is executing 
the statue, only requires opportunity for de- 
velopement,— and the generosity of Mr May, 
who is to defrsy the expense, stands in no need 
of encomium. Of the committee, it would not 
become me to speak, but it is impossible not to 
particularize two gentlemen, Mr M*Gavin the 
treasurer, of whom it is sufficient to say, that 
he bcNrs the title of ** the Protestant,** and Mr 
Cleland, whose services have been invaluable, 
and whose name stands associated, not only 
with the history, but the improvements of the 
city. — (Loud cheering.) To the subsi'ribers, 
who all came forward with an alitcrity that 
conferred additional credit on their liberality, 1 
am sure I may add, that they will long feel a 
satisfaction in the good work which they have 
enabled us to accomplish." Mr Ewiug having 
concluded, the subscribers and the surrounding 
multitude gave three hearty cheers. 

The ceremonial having been fininhed, the 
subscribers left the ground. The procession 



guarded from ihe Tndm* Umll to the 
diureh, and thenoe to the ilte of the monmiMiit, 
bj a atroiif poaae of iNiUce otBoen, patnle and 
•nbitltatM, under the able directioa of Captain 
Graham, aoperintendent of poliee. The ar- 
rangementa of the police wore such, that not- 
withitanding the innumerable crowd of specta- 
tors assembled to witness the interesting spec- 
tacle, not the slightest accident occurred. The 
weather was very propitious, which added 
greatly to the interest of the scene. 


HBNET MONTBITB, Ktq. U. P. Chairmftn. 
JAMES KWIRU, Bmi. Croapi«r. 


Robert DalgUsh, E«o. 
JuBM DennUHiaii. K«q. 
Wniia • M'Tyr*, E>q. 
Jmbm M'Keailr, Biq. 

Jam** Clelai<d« Kaq. 
Williaw M'0«TiD» Baq. 

AlcMUMlcr IC*Or«gor, Btq. 
WiUiaB Daan, Em. 
R*tMrt Oraham*. Btq. 
Amittw Mitchell, Baq. 
Bobcrt HoAd, Boq. 
Hear/ Paol. Bm|. 
Oarid Tndtl, E«a. 
Juic« PUf (air, Baq. 

I John H«r. E«q. 
I Gftbri*! Walkvr, Baq. 
' Patrick Palconcr, Em|. 
• Joba Wilaen, Esq. 
1 Waltmr FrrvaMt, Esq. 
I William Liddrll, Evu. 
. Jamea HatcbMon, Baq. 
I WilliaiM Craig, E«q. 
' John Alklon, Baq. 
' William Kippm, Era. 
' Bcnjaaii Mathi«, Eiq. 
' ticotge Barna, Eaq. 
' Job I) SomnfrrviU*, Esq. 
I Allan BacbMiaa, Eaq. 
I David Stow, Esq. 

Tha chair wm ■•ppurtrd by tht R«v. Dr MaeOill, and the 
Rev. Dr Cbalwtra, and the rraupirr by John Majr and Willtan 
M^anin, Baqoire*. 

When tht cloth had boon rcoMvod, tho cbalnaaa introdncod 
tht followlnc teaata, with anKopriAt* ipocchta i— 

The King. 

The Royal Family. 

The Bridiih CmiatitBtioa. 

The Imperial Parliament. 

Ilia MiOeity'a Government. 

The Duke of York and the .^my. 

Lord Melville and the Navy. 

TheM toaiita irere drunk witli all tlie honeam,— the king with 

The chairman then said, were he more capable 
than he was, it would be presumption in him 
to attempt to draw the character of the dis- 
tinguished inHividual who formed the subject 
of his next toast, and, indeed, of the business 
during the whole day, (cheers) his talents, his 
intrepidity, bis very finults, if he might be 
allowed the expression, were all calculated for 
the times in which he lived, and the great work 
which he carried on to a successful conclusion. 
What could he say, nay, what needed he to 
say, to make every one in that house receive 
with pleasure as a toast, ** the great apostle of 
the Scottish Reformation, John Knox." This 
toa»t was received with the utmost enthusiasm. 
The chnirman said, in rising to propose the 
health of Dr Mac Gill, a gentleman to whom 
we lay under so many obligations, he should 
not find it necessary to say much. He was 
well known to the meeting, and highly regard- 
ed by the community as a man of piety, learn- 

ing, and public spirit, and ono wh* ddtghlaA 
«*to walk in the good old paths.** Tho diair- 
man said, we owe thb meeting to tha RovmaA 
gentleman, for without his vahiable an4 vb- 
ceabing exertions, we ahould bavo had nm 
monument at this time to the memory mi 
Knox. The toast was lecehrid with Kqptit- 
rous and long continued applause. 

Dr MacGill, after returning thaiika fiir the 
honour which had been paid him, ^oka In aab- 
stance as follows :— *' It was very little tint I 
could have done to promote the good oljae* 
which I had the fortune to suggest, had not th* 
public received it with approbation, and 
men of generous minds and public spirit* 
forvyard to give it their support. Ai 
theee, permit me to begin with mentlenlgy 
yourself, Mr Chairman, as the gentleman wk» 
commenced the subscription, and with that lU 
berality and good will by which your coniati 
has long been distinguished. ( Cheers. )— Nor li 
it only the direct advantage which the cHMi 
thus received which we have to acknowlodfi^ 
but the benefit of your example In remorlog 
any lurking prejudices or fears which aoiM 
good men might be in danger of entertaining-— 
presenting the object as one of general interest* 
in which men of all parties, who valued the 
principles of their religion, and their country, 
might unite, as men possessing common into> 
rests and a common cause, and sustaining the 
great common character of Protestants and 
Scotsmen, llie liberal conduct of the mer- 
chants' house, tended also greatly to promote 
our design, by granting us a site upon their 
grounds, so suitable and so striking, and cm-. 
nected with a scene so sacred and sfFecting. 
Nor can I help noticing, with feelings of 
gratitude, the warm and affectionate rrception 
given to our object, by the trades* house of this 
city, who, with tluit attachment to our great 
Reformers, for which they are distinguiabods 
were ready to have granted a much higher aid 
than that which was solicited. A similar 
spirit, I must add, pervaded the various incor- 
porations. But who were to take charge of 
subscription papers, and submit to the irksome 
task of application to their fellow-citizens? 
Money, it is said, is the sinews of war, and It 
WHS equally essential for our olgect : the same 
good spirit removed also this difficulty. We 
had only to furnish the subscription papers. 
The gentlemen asked to take charge of them, 
gave a cheerful assent; and with a zeal and 
activity, which 1 can never fnget, fulfilled 
their important but laborious undertaking. 
And 1 r^oice to think, tl>eir task was often 
lightened by voluntary proffers of service, in 
the course of their duty. Thiir names, though 
too numerous to be specified, will always lie 



lij tboM wbo take tn 
intcnat in the mMmacnt to Knox. Jn tbe 
eoaimlttce of iniiMyitint, appointed by tbe 
•■beslbon» Ao wme Interat and seal for tbe 
tmnm, HMMd to anfanato ererj member. Mr 
MatUe briiy fboawi aecretary, fnlfilled the 
dntlci of tbat oflee, with that attention and 
kf ndmai^ wblch, on many raeh oecaaions be dis- 
playv; wmA I nofd aearedy mention, tbat tbe 
dattei of tr— wwr, witb all tbdr labour and 

perlbrmcd fn a manner peculiarly 
to pmnoCe oor deoign, when I re- 
mlad yovp that they were undertaken by bim, 
who b 80 boDOonUy dlatlngniahed, as bas been 
■bewTid, hy tbo name of •* tbe Protestant.*' 
Of tto mam bora of the mperintendlnf com- 
mhleia I ean oeancely lay too much. Wben I 
■MBdoa the namea of Mr Ewing, Mr Cleland, 
Mr Rodger, and Mr Hopklrk, gentlemen no 

for their knowledge and food 
In maittcn of tbis nature, and for the 
and ability witb which they perform 
which they undertake ; I do enough 
to give eonildenco to the lubacribers. both in 
i^pvi to what hai Iwen done, and In regard 
ti what rcmaina to bo aooomplished. But 
1 mmj fkrthcr Tentnre to say, tliat their at- 
on thla oecarion, hai never been aur- 
addom equalled, eren by themselves. 
Never did men unite to the furtherance of any 
who acted with more zenl and 

I mean not unanimity always in 
iftnloB ; hat what was far bettpr, unanimity of 
iplril. We gave openly and candidly, our dif- 
i^fvnt aentimenta on every subject, and cheer- 
folly acq[aicaoed in the same measure, which, 
after ddlbcrmtioo, seemed to be tbe best. On 
the predae spot In tbe park, for tbe site of tbe 
BOBomcDt, there were three different opinions ; 
and we agreed to refer tbe decidon to Mr 
Hamlltaa, the architect. ♦ He, with that 
IHendllnBss which has marked all bis conduct, 
travelled fkvm EAinlmrgh for tbe purpose ; and 
decided for that noUe situation on which the 
monnneDt Is noir erecting— and I must ac- 
knowledge^ that though it requires some time 
to hrsak up the associations which our imagina- 
connect np'th a particular idea, I am now 
ivfaioed that he decided justly, and that be 
and a member of tbe committee was right, and 
I WM wrong.— (Hear, hear.) 

I woold act unjustly to Mr CleUnd, did I 
not add,, that besides discharging witb his ae- 
ceattoaed seal and attention, bis duties in com- 
msn with the other members of the sub-com- 
mittee, he rendered other most important ser- 
vleas of a peculiar kind ; and services which 

•Mr Hamilton mnflnnni Mr R«i«Ifrnr^ opinion. 

led to a degree of labour and tronUei which 
would have been counted singular in any per- 
son but himself to have undergone— and all this 
performed with such ungrudging readiness, 
as doubly enhanced the value of the favour. 
Indeed, it seems almost peculiar to tbat gentle- 
man, tbat the more you ask bim to do for the 
benefit, either of the public, or of individuals, 
the more pleasure you seem to give him. (Hear, 
hear. ) Witb tbe obligations which we owe to 
Mr Hamilton, the architect, who gratuitously 
presented to us the design of the monument, 
you are already acquainted — and I have only 
to add, that the same spirit has animated him 
to tbe present moment, and led bim not only to 
come to Glasgow formerly, as I have noticed, 
but also tbis day to favour us witb bis presence. 
(Hear, bear, hear.) The ability also, with 
which Mr Herbertson executed tbe working 
plana^ and his liberality in giving these gratui- 
toualy, with his valuable services in superin- 
tending the building, deserve our particular 
acknowledgments. I have still to call your at- 
tention to a very difficult part of our design, the 
designing and modelling the statue. And I 
am sure all this company will join witb me in 
thinking, that Mr Warren, some of whose 
works are now before you,* has done himself 
much honour in the manner in which he has 
copied the face, and conceived and executed the 
figure and expression of tbe great Reformer. 
Indeed, it is but justice to bim, to mention, 
tbat on every occasion he has displayed not 
only great talents as an artist, but the ardour 
and the earnestness of a friend deeply interested 
in tbe object, and zealous to promote its suc- 
cess. I have tbe pleasure to dd, that Mr 
Forrest has, on every occasion, displajred the 
same excellent feeling. He Is already well 
known to tbe public, as a statuary, in works of 
great merit, and we have the fullest confidence, 
that tbe work which he has now undertaken, 
and to which he bas liberally subscribed, will 
add to his growing reputation. Witb the con- 
tractor also, we have tbe highest reason to be 
satisfied, and every circumstance seems to com- 
bine In assuring us, tbat the work will meet 
witb the public approbation. 

Mr Chairman, let me not be thought tedious 
in tbis particularity of statements— this Is a day 
for pleasing recollections and expressions of 
satisfaction. In all undertakings of this nature, 
occurrences must be expected not agreeable to 
our feelings ; but as few of these on this occa- 
sion have taken place, so> many of the most 
pleaaing kind, have in every quarter appeared. 
Among these, I should be wanting in every 

• A |N»rtralt of Knox nnd do^i|pl of tbe monument 
uerft linnsf np iu tiic Il-U!. 



good feeling, if I omllted to mention, and with 
■eutiments of no ordinary ploMure, the gener- 
ous offer of my friend and townsman, Mr 
May, who aaked to he permitted to defray the 
whole rxpenee of modelling and erecting the 
stotue. (Loud cheering.) 

I proceed no farther in the enumeration of 
senricea. There are services which this day all 
must have felt, and which can never be effaced 
from our minds, but which belong not to me 
to particularize.f Yet, in alluding to the 
events of this day, 1 may be permitted just to 
notice the excellent spirit which everywhere 
seemed to pervade the vast multitudes who 
were assembled. Seldom has such a numerous 
assemblage been seen in this city : yet through- 
out the whole, such order and regularity pre- 
vailed, as seemed to declare that every heart 
•>mpathixed with our undertaking, and par- 
took of that pleasing, yet reverential feeling, 
which belonged to the occasion. The whole 
adene, with all its aoeompaniments and recol- 
lect ions, lead us to indulge the idea, that the 
dticens of Glasgow still retain much of the 
principtes and spirit of our pious forefathers— 
that attachment to them, deeply seated* lies 
near to the heart of the people of Scotland, and 
requires mily to be fostered and encouraged, to 
manifest itself in all the life and vigour of for- 
mer days. (Cheers.) Mr Chairman, it is to 
fester this spirit with all that piety and noble 
integrity of character which has distinguished 
our country, that the foundation stone of a 
monument to Knox has been laid. Past events, 
with all their associations, are by such means, 
indelibly impressed on the mind, kept present 
to the imagination, affect our hearts, and draw 
Imrth our feelings. They become the subject 
ci our thoughts, our discourses, and our associ- 
ations from the earliest years, awaken kindred 
emotiona, and powerfully tend to influence and 
form the character of every people. 

But, Mr Chairman, it has been said that 
Glasgow has no particular concern in this ob- 
ject, that it belonged more to other places, 
where the erection of a monument would have 
been more appropriate. It may be so: but a 
long time had elapsed, and in theae places no- 
thing had been proposed. Knox, too, It is to be 
remembered, is the common property of the 
people of Scotland: and what we are doing, 
need not interfere with the intentions of others 
who desire to show thoir respect and gi*atitude 
to our great Reformer. We shall be happy to 
see Perth and Edinburgh raising monumento 
to his honour^-and it would give us particular 
pleasure if my friend, Dr Chalmers, would also 

t Dr Chslmen* sermon, ice. 

get one erected in St Andrews. (Much Um§^ 
ter.) But in truth, Glasgow has alao ito 
liar claims as well as they. From th« 
lati<m books of the college of Glasgovr, tha 
name of John Knox is registered in tho jmr 
ItiSO, a year corresponding to the tima whta 
Knox would be commencing his uniranil^ 
education. His relati<His ulso bdouged io tha 
neighbourhood ; and in a parish not fiur dSataBt» 
is the property from which the family iuuim if 
Knox is taken. The west of Sootlaii< af 
which Glasgow is the capital, has km^ hmm 
distinguished for Its attachment to tha ptli^ 
ciples of the Rvformation. So early aa the 
reign of James the IV. thirty peraon% under 
the name of Lollards, belonging to Kyl^ m dl^ 
trict in Ayrshire, were accused of luridiny yrla- 
dplessimilar to those of Protestants. Audi 
Kyle was denominated by Knox, ** an old 
tacle of the servants of God.** When 
after his banishment, returned to Scotlandy tUi 
part of the country was a principal aoene af his 
labours. He dispensed the Lord's supper at 
several times in this part of the country, aqd 
amongst other places in Finlayston, the oeat if 
the celebrated Glencaim — and to this day. In 
the parish to which it belongs, tlie silver capf 
which he used on that sacred occasiwi, are stQ 
preserved, and are employed in the celebratia^ 
of that solemn ordinance. Nor is it neceaaaij 
to remind any person acquainted with the hisL 
tory of their country of the prominent part 
which was taken by the citizens of Glasgowi 
in those great events, on which depended tlia 
success of the Reformation. 

Mr Chairman, the names of our great Re- 
formers have been too long clouded by igiia-> 
ranee and calumny. Men who were honoured 
in their day, and reverenced by the greatest 
men in Europe^— the friends of Calvin and of 
the first reformers of England — have, from cb> 
cumstances connected with the history of tUt 
nation, been thrown into the shade ; and oftca 
from the base subserviency, ignorance, and ir> 
religion of authors who bad succeeded to tham 
of former days, been busely misrepreoentad. 
And is it not to be feared, that in every agt 
also there is some insensibility, some deficiency 
in the estimate even on worldly principlM^ af 
the high worth and importance of thoaa gmt 
benefactors, not only of their country, but of 
their race, who at the expense of life and com- 
fort, maintained the cause of religion, and havf 
wrought a moral and spiritual change on the 
principles and character of men ? 

" Pstriiitn have toiPd, and in their rmmtry^S 
Bled nuMy ; nnd their deeds, sb they dei<erre, 
Rwi-lve proud recompense. We give in charge 
Their names to the sweet lyre. l*h* historic moss 



■■rrlMM with it down 
I mlpture, in k^r Uun, 
! and erer-durinf bnus 
1 1* inunortalixe her tnut : 
m doe, though iMver paid, 
, ported at the shrine of truth, 

hfcatihtrAfc j i re. A pntfiofs blood 

!■■ fai Mrh a rtrifo may earn t n^oed, 

r altaw eoMire, to hi* loved land 
I of liberty and equal lawA ; 

for a brighter priie, 

ta k with mora pain. Their blood is shed 

hailian of the noblcet claim, 

!■ •• fccd npim immortal tnrth, 

k with God, to bo divinely free. 

, and tn aaticii»aie the akiet. 

' wembtr tliem. They Uv'd unknown 

Mcatkm 'druf^d them into flune, 

laed them up to Heaven. Their aihea flew 

■We Crib oa whiter. With their name* 

«mbalma and aaartiflee Ua Mag : 

lury, do warm on meaner themee. 

m thik She execrates indeed, 

amiy that doomed them to the Hre, 

n tke gloriona ealTrers little praise.** 

ettrr daya are beginning to ariae ; and 
d hiatorfaun begin to manifest a nobler 
And among theae, mnat It not delight 
member a native of our own bdored 
i the fHcnd of aome of ua in early life, 

bla Sabbath and Birds of Scotland,* 
traina of feeling, honourable to himself ! 
tby of bis subjert, celebrated the names ; 
great and sufTering forefathers. Nor 
lit mentioning with respect and regard, 
hor of the Poor Man's Sabbath, and 
nnt*s Death,f also a citizen of Glas- 
10 with sympathetic feelings, has affect- 
seribed those Tenerable customs which 
iracterised onr country, and amongst all 
iBgm still linger round the heart and 
r many a Scotsman. And among the 
■a of onr day, need I mention more than 
bHEolahcd naase— himself a host— with 
— dnde : nor can 1 leave on your minds 
A of thanght more pleasing or more ap~ 
te. Yan have already, I am persuaded, 
ated my inteBtlon>-and therefore, with- 
sqffng on the merits of a name which 
irith It its own enlogium,— 

lea;ve to give the health of Dr Thomas 
I the celebrated author of the IJfe of 

This toaat waa received with rapturous 

elialrman then said, that be was coiifi- 
t toaat lie waa about to give, would be 
I with the utmost pleature and satisfac- 

The late Jamnt Cirahame, EK%,-^Ed. 

Mr J«ihii Struther».~i:d. 
It with Kinrv're regret that the committee re- 
Virmation froml>r M'Crie, that ho wan prcvi^ut- 
en* lndK|MrHit|iiii from Htti'iuling tlio nMf>tinfr. 

tion by the company. Tbe gentlaman to whom 
he alladad, had, imfortunately for na, left this 
city as a reaidenee, but he eontlnued to pay ua 
a visit oeeaaionally, and thereby afford ua aik 
additional reason to love and respect him. He 
had that day given us a great additional ex- 
citement to admire his threat talenta. 

He begged to give the health of Dr Chalmers, 
and thanks for his excellent and doquent aer- 
m<m. This toaat was also rec e ived with raptii- 
rona applause. 

Dr Chalmers then rose amid the applause of 
the meeting. He waa inaudible for some time. 
He said when the spirit of commercial enter- 
prise is awakened, it takea the direction of 
either foreign or dtmieatic, aocording to clrcum- 
stancea. If the demand at home was exten- 
sive, the foreign trade waa less arduoualy pur- 
sued, and if the domestic markets were glutted, 
the produce sought rent in those quarters 
which were less abundantly supplied. It waa 
the same with regard to religioua matters. It 
had been objected to the Scottish Reformers, 
that they did less than others for the spread of 
religion abroad, but the reason appeared to him 
sufficiently obvious ; they had enough to do at 
home.' (Cheers.) These reflections were sug- 
gested by the toast which had been put into his 
hands; viz:^the prevalence of true religion 
over all the world. One peculiarity of our re- 
ligion was this, that It was equally fitted for 
the enlightened and free, and the dark and de- 
solate places of the globe. He had the greatest 
difficulty on his own mind to account for the 
repugnance to missions which existed In some 
intelUgent minds. (Loud cheering.) He that 
had an antipathy at missions, had an anti- 
pathy at motion ; for the establishment of mis- 
sionaries was only setting religion In motion. 
They spread abroad the word of God, and 
made the Bible the school-book in their semi- 
naries. This was the same apparatus which 
had been brought to bear upon the people of 
Scotland, by our early Reformers, and would 
produce the same salutary effiects in foreign 
lands. lie thought it peculiarly appropriate, 
while met in honour of a man who had done 
so much for the christian izntion of Scotland, to 
wish prosperity to those who were performing 
this necessary service In other parts of the 
world. Missionaries had caused the moral 
creation to flourish, and have spread reason and 
religion in many a heathen land. Christian 
villages were now to be seen springing up in 
pagan countries; and children, whose parents 
were uncultivated savages prowling In the 
desert, nre now taught all the education of 
christian countries, and are enjoying all the 
comforts and decencies of civilized life. ( Loud 
and continued cheering.) The warfare of mis- 



■ionaries wm perhaps not to severe m that in 
which Knox was enfaged ; hut they fought in 
the tame glorious cause. He was sorry he had 
a complaint to make against his dear and ex- 
cellent friend, Mr Cleland : he had saddled him 
with two toasts, and probably expected that he 
would make two speeches. (Loud laughter.) 
He nppealed from him to the good nature of the 
company, lie had certainly not made a rery 
long speech after dinner, but perhaps be had 
made rather a long one before it. The learned 
Professor then took occasion to pronounce a 
well merited eulogium on the character of Mr 
Cleland. He observed, that among the whole 
range of his acquaintances, he did not know an 
individual who contributed so much to the 
pleasure and happiness of those around him, 
or cme gentleman who was possessed of such 
varied and useful accomplishments. (Loud and 
continued cheering. ) After a few remarks, Dr 
Chalmen gave as a toast— 

'*The prevalence of true religion in every 
qiuuter of the world." This toast vrua received 
with tlie greatest approbation. The Rev. Dr 
■at down amid thundering applause* 

The chairman then gave the health of the 
venerable Dr Burns, who had been more than 
half a century minister of the parish in which 
he^— the chairman — was bom and brought up, 
and was now what is technically termed the 
fiither of the synod of Glasgow and Ayr. He 
need not tell this company, that ttie popularity 
of that excellent man has kept pace with his 
yean — that notwithstanding his great age, he 
has been enabled regularly and faithfully to 
do his duty. We have tiiis day witnessed the 
vigour of his body and mind, in the perfor- 
mance of the important duties assigned to 
him. This toast was received with great ap- 

Dr Bums rose and said — Mr Chairman, 1 
return my most grateful thanks to you and to 
this highly respectable company, for the honour 
you have done me in drinking my health. 
(Cheers.) Since 1 was first able to attend to 
the history of our country, and could estimate 
the value of civil and religious liberty, I have 
contemplated with admiration the character of 
John Knox, to whom this country is deeply 
indebted for a great part of our civil and reli- 
gious privileges. (Loud cheers. ) He was a man 
raised up by Divine Providence, and singularly 
qualified for the lot assigned him. Animated 
by sincere love to God, zeal for pure and unde- 
fiied religion, and generous concern for the pre- 
sent and eternal welfare of men, his strong and 
vigorous mind steadily and successfully pur- 
sued these great objects through life. While he 
lived, however, he had constantly to struggle 
with ignorance, irreligion, and tyranny-^and 

after his death his memory was partially 
whelmed for a time, with oUoquy and 
presentation, by the slaves of superstiUon ibA 
tyranny. It is now better known and 
justly appreciated. 1 rejoice that an 
able monument is now to be erected to tha aae- 
mory of that great and good man, and thatv fai 
the evening of my days, 1 have the happiaos 
to see this patriotic undertaking begun. I r^ 
joice that this city has the honour to be tha int 
to erect such a monument and» Sir, U la m 
small gratification to me, as, I dare any. It li 
also to you, that it is erected in the full Tfewaf 
our cathedral. (Loud cheering.) It U abo in a 
most conspicuous place of the Barony parlsb 
of Glasgow, in which you first drew yw 
breath, and with which I have been oOehDy 
connected for about fifty-five years. The Bev. 
Dr sat down amid loud cheers. 

The ufxt toast waa-><'Our venerabla i^ 
tablishment, the church of Scotland,*' 

The Rev. Patrick M'Farlane, minister af St 
John's church, rose and spoke as follows:^ 

I wish it had fallen into abler hands tmw^ 
turn thanks to you and to this meeting, for thi 
honour now done to the chureh of which I am 
a member, in proposing it as a toast, and far 
the cordial and enthusiastic reception wbleh 
that toast has obtained. I am sure it can b« na 
affectation of humility in me to say, that then 
are individuals present, who are far bettsr 
qualified to return thanks on such an 
slon, than 1 can profess to be ; but sure I 
that there is not one in this company, who 
tertains a more sincere and devoted attachment 
to the church of Scotland, and the institutions 
connected with it, than do 1, nor one who ap- 
preciates more highly the honour which you 
have now conferred upon them. (Cheers.) 

I have heard. Sir, that the gentlemen en- 
gaged in soliciting subscriptions for the monn- 
ment to Knox, received for answer, from aomt 
persons whose names 1 know not, that thay 
saw no necessity for erecting a monument ta 
our great Reformer, because he had already a 
sufficient memorial in the state of the ooontiyi 
and in the gratitude and affection of the peopls 
of Scotland. I do not intend to dintui^ the 
harmony and good humour of this meeting, by 
entering into controversy with the indlvldnali 
referred to — none of them, of course, are pie* 
sent, and though they were, it is not probable 
that they would be much influenced by any ai^ 
guments which 1 might be inclined to employ 
upon this subject. 1 cannot, however, ab^ain 
from remarking, that the feeling which kadi 
to the erection of such a mmiument aa that 
which has been this day so auqdeiondy eeni' 
menced, is the same in kind, with that which 
has led to the erection of statute^ obelisk% m 



to Pitt, and Moore, and Nd- 
Watt. It li because Knox hai 

In tht condition of tlie country, 
and In tho giathade and Teneration ci his eonn- 
irymm, tkat «• began this day to rear tlie 
atatcl J crioBB, wUch is to lend iU aid in per- 

tinorj— we widi to malce it 
to ilw world, tliat he yet liTes in the 
if Ala people, and to exprcas towards 
blm wbsn dead, that respect and affecti<m wlilch 
W so Jnatlj ncclTed when ali^e. Bnt I have 
the drcnmstance which has now 
to fiv expressing my hearty 
In the sentiment, that John Knox 
hag Ua b eat , and, I would fondly hope^ his most 
r » | i. r i»ft^^t monoment in the present con- 
dhkn of Scotland, and in the respect and gra- 
Chade of Its Inhabitants, abore aU, in the church 
if Scotland, that religious estaUishmeot to 
whUf without orerweening pride or extraTa- 
fBBt pretcnrions, 1 may say with truth, this 
caontry Is chiefly indebted, under providence, 
for Ita prosperity and distinguished prck-emi- 
nenee in erery reject. ( Cheers. ) It was found- 
ed by the great man whose name we are en- 
figcd in commemorating — it was fostered by his 
care; and, by the blessing of the Almighty, on 
the Tiplance and unremitting exertions of his 
jMCCiaaors in the ministerial office, it has grown 
tip anidst many storms and dangers, to be the 
goodly edifice which we now liebold, and to 
which we may justly express our attachment 
(Hear, hear, liear.) If the church of Scotland 
ahaO adhere to the principles of its founder— if 
she shall continue to hold the principle, that 
the sacred scriptures are the only infallible rule 
of fidth and manners— if her clergy in their 
poUic and private ministrations draw all their 
instmctions, whether relating to doctrine or 
monsl precepts, from that pure and iinoontami- 
nated sonroe— 4f our discipline and form of 
worship be pr e s er ved inviolate, and continue to 
experience the protection of our ecclesiastical 
jndieatories, and if the several office- bearers in 
the church devote themselves witli singleness 
nf heart to their respective duties, the church 
will deserve to receive those expressions of at- 
tachment which have this day been given, and 
will continue to receive them. ( Loud cheering. ) 
Snt if ever the period should arrive, when it 
ahall be deprived of its glory in these respects — 
if onr standards shall cease to be the pure scrip • 
taral standards, which they now are — if eccle- 
aiaatifal discipline shall be neglected, and our 
Ibrms of worship shall lose their ancient sim- 
plicity— if the ministers of the church of Scot- 
land cease to preach, and earnestly to enforce 
the doctrines of the Ueformation^ — if they cast 
away the sanctity of their character, and per- 
mit themselves to be secularized, and abstracted 

from their proper duties, by the oocupationa of 
other profession*— if they do not watch with 

. unwearied solicitude over the interests of r«- 
ligion, and especially, over the education of the 
I young — if their character and oondnct be such 
tliat they cannot look at the monument to 
Knox, without blushing or having cause to 
blush, then the church will fall, and will de- 
serve to fall, in tlie estimation of Scotland, and 
of the world. (Loud and continued clieeriDf.) 
I trust, however, that the period is very ftr 
distant, when this shall be the state of our re- 
ligious establishment, and that it may oontinna 
to exist for many generations^ one of heaven*a 
best blessings to our land.— (Loud and con- 
tinued cheering. ) 

I have to propose a toast intimately connected 
with the business of this day ; but 1 feel myadf 
incapable of doing justice to it, in ecmsequenco 
of bavingr been prevented by particular circum- 
stances, from reviving any historical recollec- 
tions of the individual to whom the toast refers. 
You are aware that the cause of the Reforma- 
tion in this country, ivas greatly promoted by 
the zealous and successful efforts of nrumy great 
and learned men on the continent, for the ac- 
complishment of the same interesting object. 
Ttie contemporaries and successors of Luther, 
whilst they fed the lamp of truth in their own 
lands, and made it bum there with a brighter 
flame, were unconsciously the means of en- 
couraging their protestant brethren, in countries 
far distant firom the sphere of their enlightened 
and ardent exertions. Calvin was surpassed 
by none as a useful and efficient labourer in 
this great cause. In the early part of his life 
be was engaged in the study of law ; but, hav. 
ing been brought to the knowledge and belief of 
divine truth, and entertaining an eager desire 
to promote the interests of the Relbmiation, he 
renounced the profession to which he at first 
intended to devote himself, and some time there- 
after, became minister and professor of theolo- 
gy in Geneva. II o studied so hard, and with 
so much success, that at the age of twenty-two, 
be was esteemed by some of his contemporaries 
as the most learned man in Europe. (Hear, 
hear.) His great aim in his writings, was to 
expose the absurd and pernicious fooleries of 
the popish religion, and to demonstrate from 
the scriptures what true Christianity i»— be 
made scripture to be the interpreter of scrip- 
ture, snd was one of those great men who res- 
cued the minds and consciences of their fellow- 
creatures from the fetters of papal tyranny and 
priestly domination, and, whilst they encour- 
aged them to judge for themseivca on all mat- 
ters connected with reli|pon, convinced them, 
by the force of argument and scripture auth(»- 

rity, of the truth and importance of the dor- 




trfaM widck it wu tMr cndcaToar to incul- 
CMto. (LMd cheerinf.) C«lYin*k liutitatm it a 
wortc widck alMW will raidfer him immortal ; 
It U dirtiiif«lihc4 ftr the purity of its Latin, 
•ad not lam aa ftr tba profoand and compre- 
kHMl^ ffawa wkich it giTea of the Christian 
■J si Mil, and lar tha distinctness and simplicity 
with which it ia written. Commentariea an 
aerlpt«rs» were a spades of conposition to 
which the Reiarmers attached much impor- 
tanca, aa tha means of expeUinf tlie errors of 
popery, and diffnsinf tha hnowiedfe of divine 
truth. GslTin^li laboors in this department are 
▼try nameroa% and do equal credit to hisacnte- 
nssa and penetratian, tha sonndness of his 
judgment, and his talent for a dear and lucid 
asposltkm of the writings of the sacred penmen. 
Tha penanal character of CalTin was irro- 
prsachahle; his piety was ardent and sincere ; 
and his dispodtious wcrs amiaUe and affec- 
tionate. His errors were the errors of the 
times in which he lired ; be had not come down 
to the antiquity of Protestantism ; and on the 
sul^Ject of toleration, he improperly applied the 
principles 9f the Jewish theocracy, as the other 
reformers did, to the times of the Christian dis- 
pensation. John Knox was driven by the per- 
secuting violence of bis countrymen to take re- 
fuge in Geneva. He had previoudy imbibed 
the sentiments of the reffHrmers, and from the 
study of the scriptures, and what we concdve 
to be a just apprehendon of the genius of Chris- 
tianity, had become attached to the presbyte- 
rian forms of worship and church government. 
We need not be surprised that Calvin, vHiose 
sentiments on these subjects so nearly coincided 
with his own, received him with open arms, 
and that these great and learned men contracted 
for one another a strong mutual attachment, 
and maintained a friendly correspondence which 
terminated only with their lives. Knox offi- 
ciated for about two years as pastor to a congre- 
gaUon of English protectants at Geneva, and 
after his return to Scotland, had frequent conw 
munications with Calvin on subjects connected 
with the cause of protestantism in general, and 
more especially with the prosperity of the 
church of Scotland; and, although Knox did 
not derive his plan of the constitutitm of that 
church from the Genevese reformer, as has been 
erroneoudy supposed, we can have no doubt 
that his co>opcration and advice were of no 
small advantage to him in the prosecution of 
the work in which he was engaged. When I 
have stated these focts, when i have reminded 
you of the piety, and zed, and tdent% and 
learning of Calvin, of his co-operation with 
Knox in the cause of the Reformation, and of 
their mutud and steady iricudahip, 1 have, I 

trust, made good my ddm on this company, to 
drink — 

To the memory of Cdvin the friend of Knox. 
Mr M'Farlane sat down amid loud and con- 
tinued cheering. 

The chdrman then gave as a toast— ''The 
secesdon and dissenting churches of Scotland.'* 

Dr Dick— professor of theology In Glaagow, 
for the secesdon church, — returned thanks la 
the chdrman, and the gentlemen preaent, for 
the honour which they had done to tiie cfanrdi 
of which he is a member, and to the oAor 
bodies of dissenters in Scotland ; and remarloed 
that the toast vhm a proof of the liberality of 
the present times, when men look upon aaa 
anoUier with a friendly eye, dthongh they An 
not assemble in the same places of wonhlp. 
The people of this country entertain dUhrott 
sentiments respecting some points of rdlgioBt 
and this is the consequence of a dilFereftca hi 
the constitution of their minds, their madasal 
education, and their early associations, and if 
other causes which insendUy influence our In* 
tellectud operations; so that it ia as vain fa 
expect that there diall be a perfect uniformity 
of opinion, aboot matters which do not admit 
of strict demonstration, as that all faces dial! 
exhibit the same form and disposition of the 
features. ( Loud cheers. ) — But if we agree In tha 
great articles of the Christian Faith, we ought 
to bear with one another, not ceasing to avovr 
wbnt we conceive to be true, but maintaining 
it in the spirit of charity, without any feeling 
of contempt or hatred towards those who dis- 
sent from us: for why should I despise the 
man who has not, as it appears to me, been 
equally successful as myself in the investigation 
of truth !^-or why should I become his enemy, 
because he claims the right which 1 dso claim, to 
obey the dictates of conscience! (Cheers.) — 
With regard even to those who have adopted 
the grossest errors, and may be pronounced to 
be corrupters of the truth, Uie strong disappro- 
bation which their conduct justifies, should bo 
mingled with pity ; and pity, we all know, Is 
allied to love, and is a modification of benevo- 
lence. (Great cheering.) — But dthongh we 
differ in some points, there are others of greater 
importance in which we are agreed ; and, on this 
occasion, we have met, without the usud di»- 
tinction of churchmen and dissenters, to pro- 
fess our common attachment to the principlea 
of the Refonnation, and our veneration for the 
illnstrious man, who acted so conspicuous a part 
in the great religious revolution of our country. 
We r^;ard him aa the enlightened, zedoua, and 
intrepid champion of the truth: we lode up to 
him as one of the best benefactors of his coun- 
try, who has not only left an imperishable 



bvC b now ta^aylng the re- 
r4 vf Ub Uonn, In that Uened legion, 
'wWtc tht iliffaii of perwcntion nerer blow, 
and the vntoof alnmnjr it nerer heard. ( Loud 
chcen.)— Bat wo ahall not honour him as we 
o«gh^ and at he^ if he were permitted to look 

saMmblj, ehould wish to he 
we G(»dder him mereljr aa the 
of Pkvridence, in deliTering uh from 
than that of Egypt ; for our 
do not, lilu thooe of the Roman calendar, 
i na and the moet high God to inter- 
Cipl onr hoaaage, bnt mj with one voice, like the 
in tho Rcrelation, when John had fallen 
at hia feet to worsliip him, — '< See ye do 
tt not; givo glory to God.'* (Great cheering.)— 
And Uet aaa add, that in ynln do we celebrate 
tho amnory of Knox, if we do not duly appre- 
daftly and ftrmly maintain the religious prin- 
dpln^ which, through the divine blessing, he 
catablbhed in our country ; not' because they 
wer« taught by him, but because they are con- 
tiiuant to the scriptures of truth, and exhibit 
the only foundation of human hope, the only 
aaoree of consolation, and the only rule to regu- 
late our conduct towards God and towards 
■an. — 'llie religion of IVotestants is the reli- 
glsQ of the Bible. ( Loud and continued cheers. ) 
—The transactions of this day, Sir, will, 1 
trust, have the effect to revive our zeal, to mnlie 
«is more deeply sensible of the blessings of the 
lieformation, and to excite us to watch over 
them with Jealous rare, aa a sacred trust, to be 
handed down to succeeding generations, it is 
to be feared, that not a few lYotestants do not 
liBol that cordial affection for their religion, 
and give it that decided preference to which it 
is eotitled. What can we think when we hrar 
■ome of them telling us, that all religions are 
finally good,— that popery is merely a modifi- 
ration at our common religion,— that papints 
dilTer flrom us only in some idle ceremonies, 
which might well be dispensed with — and that 
pop er y is gradually losing its worst features, 
and Is approximating nearer to the truth ? Is 
this the language of sincere and enlightened 
Protestants? Popery Is nn infallible religion, 
and cannot be improved ; the moment it should 
admit of improvement, it would become fefo de 
jc, (laughter and cheers) — it would drop its 
lofty daims to implicit submisiinn ; Its decrees 
would no longer be oracles; and every man 
mrould be at liberty to appeal from its derisions 
to the standard of &cripture. Hut this, we 
are all aware, would be a death-blow to popery. 
Let Protestants plead, if they will, for the tule- 
ratlon of papists ; let them plead for the con- 
cession of political power to them, if they deem 
it consistent with the public Nufi-ty; but let 
them not, with a view to utrengthen their ur{;u- 

ment, proceed to palliata the evils of their re- 
ligion, and to conceal its hideous deformities 
with the varnish of a spurious liberality. (I^ud 
cheering.) 'Ilie church of Home Is, at this mo • 
ment, the same in principle and spirit that she 
always was, and if any man should doubt this 
assertion, I would refer him to the disgusting 
scenes of bigotry and violence lately exhibited 
in Ireland, to say nothing of Catholic countries 
abroad ; and what the church of Home now b, 
she will continue to be, till the awful hour, 
when the voice slioll be heard, ** Babylon the 
great is fallen, is fallen, and shall arise no 
more." Let us pity the blinded followers of 
Antichrist, and pray that their eyes may be 
opened ; but let us not furget, that the scrip- 
tures make use of every term of detestation and 
abhorrence in describing their religion ; let us 
be alive to the evils of a system, which, at onc<', 
dishonours God and ruins the best interests of 
man; and let us, whether churchmen or dis- 
senters, unite in the defence of our own reli- 
gion, for which our fathers nobly contended. — 
(Cheers.) When they came forward to vindi- 
cate our Christian liberty, they had to encoun- 
ter a domineering and Intolerant priesthood, 
and a government which was too ready to lend 
its aid to uphold the reiguing superstition, 
lliey suffered in the cause, and some of them 
sealed their testimony with their blootl. Their 
relics have not been i>reiH>rved : when persecu- 
tion chasi'd their si»irlts up to heaven, their 
ashes were scattered by the wind. But wo 
feel how deeply we are indebted to them, and 
their names awaken in our bosoms sentiments 
of admiration and gratitude. May the memory 
of their Christian heroism excite us to tread in 
their steps. The learned doctor conduded, 
amid great cheering, by proposing — 

The memory of Hamilton and Wishart, the 
early martyrs of Scotland. 

I'he chairman gave — 

The duke of Hamilton, lord lieutenant of tho 

The lord provost and nwgistrates of the 

BaiUie Hood, iu absence of the lord provost, 
said, I beg leave to return thanks to this very 
respectable meeting, for the honour they have 
done the magistrates in drinking thdr health. 
For myself 1 feel proud in having my name as- 
sociated with the contributors to the monu- 
ment of the great Scottish lleformer, John 
Knox, and shall have great pleasure in giving 
every assistance in my power, to forward such 
a praiseworthy undertaking, (i^ud cheering.) 
Surrounded as I am by so many learned friends, 
I shall not waste the time of the meeting in a 
formal speech, (hear, hear,) and tlierefore beg 
leave to propose uh a toast — 


The mha cril w w to the monmnent of John 

The chairman gATe— 

Lord Archibald Hamilton, member for the 

Blr CMnpbell of Blythswood, member for the 

Mr Robinson, sherUT of the county. 

The Rererend the clergy of Gla^goir. 

The Rer. Dr Dewar, minister of St Mary's, 
returned thanks, and said, — It does not become 
me to say any thing oonoemlng the present 
ministers of this city ; but I may be allowed to 
remark, that the clergy of Glasgow have gene- 
rally been, in point of talents, piety, and learn- 
ing, worthy of ministering in that church of 
which the great Scottish Reformer is the 

The toast which I am about to propose, re- 
lates to the interests of the northern part of Che 
Island, to which the influence of that great 
man, whose name erery Scotsman must ever 
pronounce with feelings of gratitude and admi- 
ration, extended, soon after it was &1t in the 
southern districts. That influence, it is true, 
was not sufficiently powerful to prevent the 
Highland host descending from the hiUs to the 
support of a despotic and profligate govern- 
ment ; but it gradually, though somewhat cir- 
cuitously, reached, impressed, and improved the 
olans. (Cheers.) 

Yet, it cannot be denied, that the Reforma- 
tion in the Highlands of Scotland was accom- 
panied with circumstances unfavourable to tlie 
religious improvement of the inhabitants. In 
consequence of the nobles appropriating to their 
own use, the lands and revenues of the church, 
the ministers of the Reformation were left in 
great poverty ; and in order to procure even a 
slender maintenance, it was found necesssry to 
unite several parishes into one. Thus, in many 
cases, was committed to the pastoral care of one 
individual, a population which had formerly 
enjoyed the services of five or six clergymen ; 
and an evil of great magnitude, which had its 
origin in circumstances of peculiar difficulty, 
has been continued till the present time. (Hear, 
hear.) In numerous districts in the High- 
lands have the people for ages been almost en- 
tirely secluded from the means of grace and of 
religious improvement ; and are still allowed to 
remain in circumstances, the existence of which 
every real Christian must deplore, and which 
is highly discreditable to this great, wealthy, 
and Protestant empire. I trust the day is at 
hand when this evil shall be removed ; when 
in those regions in which there has not been 
seen for centuries an edifice for the worship of 
Almighty God, the inhabitants will be amply 
supplied with the means of religious instruc- 

tion and eonaolatlon ; and when the light of thtf 
glorious gospel wiU shine with all lis warath 
and brightness, not on the aommfts of ths 
moontains merely, but into the deepeat gkaa of 
the north. (Loud and oontlnoed cheering.) 

Notwithstanding these adverse dromnstuMei^ 
the Reformation llrom popery oonferred, at «b 
early period, the greatest blessings oo the Hig^ 
lands. To be satisfied of this, we have only to 
compare the decency, order, and morality of ita 
inhabitants, with the circumstances and eharoo- 
ter of the Irish. There is within the view ok 
some of our mountains, and within a few 
miles of our dwelling places, a conntry ■*»! 
finer than our own, whose people are prohoUy 
our kinsmen, and certainly our neighbooi% 
richly gifted with every mental endowmoBt, 
and yet have been left in the grossest ignoranos^ 
subjugated by papal and antichristian impoa- 
ture, and in the great majority of cases, witlu 
out even the power of reading the word of God. 
( Hear, hear, hear. ) That unfortunate country 
is, at the preient day, nearly in the same ccm- 
dition in which our own Reformers, Hamilton, 
Knox, and Melville, found Scotland. The 
same superstition which had spread iU igno- 
rance and delusion over our land,— which had 
so inveterate a hold on the affections of the 
people, as to render the task of making them 
free, so apparently hopeless,— and which re. 
quired, to root it out, the labour and the blood of 
multitudes of whom the world was not worthy ; 
— this superstition is luxuriating over the fair 
fields of our sister isle, and laying prostrate Its 
generous and warm hearted inhabitonta. 

Of the instruments that have conveyed the 
blessings of the Reformation to the Highlanda 
of Scotland, the society for propagating Chris- 
tian knowledge is the chief, llie field of their 
labour is naturally and deeply interesting to the 
poet, the philosopher, and the Christian philan- 
thropist. The people whom it has been their 
unwearied endeavour to benefit, peculiar in their 
language, in their habiU, In their mountain 
scenery, and in the liveliness of their feelings, 
present much to the eye of contemplati<m, cal* 
culated to interest a mind of sensibility and 
benevolence in their favour. To lead this 
people to the knowledge and ei^oyment of their 
highert good, by diflTusing the light of heavenly 
truth, is the great object which this society, 
during nearly a hundred and twenty years, has 
laboured to promote. (Loud cheering.) 

Since the first promulgation of Christianity, 
there has not been an instituti<« in any land, 
founded upon purer principles, embracing oh- 
Jecta of deeper interest, both in regard to thio 
world and the next, and conducted vrith greater 
wisdom, or, in proportion to ita means, with 
greater actual usefulness, than the sodety iu 



far propafAtinff Chrlttian knowledfe 
«h» 1f^^^l^-f■ and Islands. If we giTe our 
ki aAabatioii to the Bible wciety, we 
— Ml wlAMd h from an inttitntion wbich 
WM tiM Aral BiUe aocletjr in our natire land. 
If wia na daUjfhted with the Missionary socie- 
ties tknt arc fnhting each other in the work 
•f efTOintHmlf the heathen, we cannot bat eon 
t— npiatM with fedingsof the purest satislkction, 
Aa Mbaianarf aodcty which was formed first, 
which Ihr auny jeara continued alone in this 
part of the Uand, and whose laborious and 
AlthfU miaaiooariefl^ were pubUahing sairation 
to oar 0WB eoontrymen, and In foreign lands. 
The vaot diatinguiahed for their piety and 
warth la the metn^iolis of our country, ranged 
X nnder its banners, and cherished the 
•f mlaaionary enterprise, and gave scope 
to thla spirit. In their unwearied efforts to ex- 
tcad the kingdom of Christ at home and abroad. 
Thair miaalsnary Brainerd, eminently possessed 
it; and the memorial of his dcTotedness and 
labaws infuaed it into others, till it rested on 
Houy Martyn, whom it animated to endure 
adfcriBgs and death in the same glorious cause. 

This society, by its numerous and meritorious 
•OMhcrs, haa instructed suocessiye generations 
af the young and the old in the Highlands and 
UsBda. Its schofdnMStars hsTe generally add- 
ed, to thdr ordinary duties, those of catecbists 
aad iDSlroctors, on the evening of the Lord's 
day. They annually educate, in the principles 
of pare and undefilfd religion, nearly twenty 
thousand children. Many are the individuals, 
aaaae of whom are far away from the glens of 
t htir youth, wlio now occupy honourable and 
aseful stations in society, and who, but for the 
lastroetioDS tliey received from these faithful 
men, would have been lost to the community, 
aad have probably remained in ignorance of all 
that man Aould be most deeply ooncemed to 
know. (Loud and eontlnued cheering. ) I now 
beg kave to pr opas t as a toast — 

" llie ssdety lor propngating Christian 
knowledge." Ihis toast was received with the 
greatest approbation. 

The chairman gave the health of the Rev. 
Sir Henry Moncrieff, Bart., one of the most 
distlngnished and venerable names of the church 
of Scotland. This toast was received with 
gnat applause. 

Mr James Moncrieff, advocate, said, 1 ooo- 
fcss that. In tlie course of this day, I have en^ 
joyed BO much, and such unmixed, pleasure as 
a liatancr, a pleasure which does not very often 
Ikll ta my lot, except in those happy places 
where one gentleman alone speaks, that 1 was 
In hopes I would have got through it In a state 
of agreeable dumbness. However, the toast 

ealls on me for an acknowledgment. (Loud 
cheers.) — I consider it a very high honour in- 
deed, in a company such as this, met tar such a 
purpose, to propose the name of a person to 
whom I am so closely allied. I am proud of 
this honour, and justly proud of the venerable 
name he holds in the church of Scotland : I am 
also deeply sensible of the manner in which 
your feeling towards him has been expressed 
on the present occasion. (Loud cheering.) — 
Since I must speak, 1 trust you will foi^ive me 
for venturing to propose a toast, which I hope 
will not derange the order of your intended 
toasts. It was observed by my friend Dr 
M*Gil1, that some might object to the monu- 
ment of which the foundation stone was this 
day laid, that there was no peculiar call on the 
citizens of Glangow to make that expression of 
their sentiments. I am not one of those. My 
feeling is altogether different. I feel in the 
strongest manner that the citizens of Gla^ow, 
have, in this measure, distinguished themselves 
in a very high degree, as persons who know 
how to reverence a name to which the country 
are so much indebted, lliey have done that, 
which has been too long omitted to be done. 
And none were better qualified to appreciate 
his merits, or better entitled to have the name 
of Knox associated with their city. It is a 
blot on the nation that so very long a period 
should have been suffered to elapse without 
something being done to the honour of so great 
a man. (Hear, hear.) A delusion had for a 
long time prevailed respecting his character. 
The effect of the malignant spirit of party, had 
extended, in a great degree, even to Scotland. 
Although the people generally revered the 
nnme of Knox, and from the older books in 
their hands, better understood his character: 
yet the prejudice against him seemed to becume 
more general and strong ; and it was beginning 
to be considered as allowed, that he was a 
coarse, illiterate, and barbarous kind of man. 
Indeed it was astonii»hing to see the Ignorance 
that prevailed among per ons otherwise well 
informed; and the vulgar stories which they 
retailed. Dr M*Crie has, with all who will 
read and think, removed these gross delusions. 
He has shown Knox to be what he was : a man 
of an enlarged and cultivated mind, skilled In 
all the philosophy and learning of his time, not 
only deeply acquainted with the great truths 
which it was his chief business and delight to 
teach and make known, but extensively ac- 
quainted with mankind, reverenced and con- 
sulted by the first men of his country and age, 
and possessing all the high feelings of a great 
and virtuous mind. We are much indebted to 
Dr M*Crie ; and his book will be a Usting 
monument which will do honour to his own 



tuaat, M well w to the great man of whom he 
frritei. (Loud and ooatinued cheering.) Bat 
•till there wms wanting a public extension 
of reverenoe and gratitude, and one which 
should sensibly interest the public mind. The 
honour of doing this, — and i consider it to be 
a high honour,— belongs to the citizens of 
Glasgow and its neighbourhood, and there- 
fore I hope you will permit me to give as a 

The city and the citizens of Glasgow, with 
all the honours. Mr Moncrieff sat down amid 
the cheering of the company. 

The Dean of Guild and tiie merchants' house, 
and thanks for their handsome site for the 

Dean of Guild Dalglish rose and said, — 1 
thank you, Sir, for the honour you have just 
done to the merchants' house, and assure you 
that I feel much pleasure, that so splendid a 
monument has this doy been commenced in the 
merchants' park, in commemoration of an eyenc 
so important in the history of our country. 
When the pillar is completed, t)ie merchants of 
Glasgow will be its natural guardians. ( Cheers. ) 
I hope they will also ever continue to be the 
zealous supporters of the principles established 
at the Reformation. (Hear, hear.) 

I beg to propose the health of a gentleman to 
whom we are under great obligations on this, as 
we have been on many former occasions. That 
individual has gone the round of civic duties in 
our city, and at a period of much anxiety to all 
good men, discharged the office of chief magis- 
trate, with a firmness that gave protection, and 
a mildness that disarmed the disaffected.— 
(Loud che^rring. ) If in proTemonts in our city, 
or aid to our benevolent institutions is required, 
or distress to be relieved, it is not with him 
matter of calculation how little he should give, 
but how much do you require ; indeed he ap- 
pears to consider his fortune as held by him in 
trust for the public good. (Cheers.) Arrived 
at a period of life when most men would take 
their ease, he chooses to leave his splendid resi- 
dence, and attend to the interests of .h:s country 
in parliament ; where, in addition to the busi- 
ness of his constituents, the public and private 
interests of the citizens of Glasgow have his 
unwearied attention. Without further com- 
ment, I beg leave to propose as a toast, — 

The health of the chairman, Mr Mouteith of 
Carstairs. This toast was received with thim* 
dering applause. 

Mr Monteith said, that if ever he had it in 
his power to express his feelings, most certainly 
he was at that moment deprived of that power. 
But he felt what could not be expressed. 'l*he 
partiadity of his excellent and good friend had 

led him to my 4 great daal more in hia 
than he deserved. Mr Monttith sat d^wn i 
great cheering. 

The oonveoer and the tradesT 
thanks for their very liberal subscrlptioii. 
ConTener M*Tyer, Mid— Pcraait ma. 
Chairman, to express my gratitude to y&a aai 
to this company, for the honour you hava 4Mt 
the trades' house. 1 do most oordiaUy Jofa li 
all that has been said regarding the beneflCl 
conferred on this country by the Refamwtkay 
and do sincerely belier^, that our trade aai 
commerce would not have attained thidr pi^ 
sent height but for that erent But^ Sbv Irt 
us recoUi^t, that a work so great, could not he 
achieved by the single arm of the greatciC pi^ 
triot, and whUe we are about to do jnstlea tb 
the great leader, let us not forget the atant waA 
manly hearts who performed their part in tht 
arduous struggle. ( Loud cheering. ) 

1 trust 1 shall not be considered sfiiil^ la 
turning your attention to that part of Aj^ 
shire in which I have a patrimonial ii 
In that district are to be found the fittt 
of Feuwick Moor ; and Carrick still presenta t§ 
the casual traveller, the haunts, the coverts^ and 
the caves, that sheltered the Reformers of Ayr- 
shire in the day of trial. (Hear, hear.) I aat 
proud to say, that these events are not far^ 
gotten by the present generation. In the tovm 
of Maybole, a John Knox club has lately been 
instituted, consisting of a number of the moat 
respectable gentlemen in the town and neigh- 
bourhood. The club dines together on the aa« 
niversary of the first disputation between John 
Knox and Quentin K«'iineily, abbot of Croia- 
raguell, in the identical room where the dispa* 
tation took place. (Great cheering. ) I now take 
the liberty of proposing as a to&st, — 

Mr William Niven of Kirkbride, and pros- 
perity to the John Knox club of Maybole. This 
toast was drunk with great approbation, 

Mr John May, and thanks for his munificent 
gift ot the statue. 

Mr May said, — Permit me, Mr Chairman, 
to return you and the other gentlemen of this 
highly respectable meeting, my most grateful 
thanks far the very Idnd and flattering manner 
in which you have been pleased to notice my 
offering towards the monument of that lllua- 
trious and dbinterested patriot, John Knox. 
However much I respect his memory, and 
deeply feel the great and invaluable beneflta ha 
conferred on his country — ^yet 1 might not hava 
exceeded the general subscription of contribu- 
tors, had I not, in some degree, felt myself par- 
ticularly called upon to assist in promoting that 
objtM't to the utmost ; my s*ster being married 
to Mr Robert Welsh, soUcitor, Edinborgh, 



«to lia dinel dmotmdtokt «f that gnat man. 

(LMd dhaotef) 

liBi «M foBily Wpe, Sir, that our gratitude 

will not Tert Htliiad with a monument to only 
one bendhctar af enr country, hut extend iteelf 
to tlMaa JMaiirtil haroce Walhice, and Bruce, 
(kmiV hmr, hut,) and in doing ao, we would 
onlj he fogring a feeble tribute to their high 
Mver-dying fame. Such monu- 
in ageo yet to come, tend to warm 
nenre the arm of succeeding gems- 
If over afaln aaeailed l»y tyranny or op- 
( Lamd and continued dieering. ) AU 
lawi^ Sir, to glTC as a toastr— 
Hm nMOiory of Walhuie and Bruce. 
n* chaiman then guve Mr Trotter of Bal- 
« lineal deioendant of Knox, and 
to Um lor his libend subscription. 
Mr CWiand addressed the chair, and said,— 
On Hit port of Mr Trotter I beg leare to re- 
tain tlmnka for tlie distinguished manner in 
whidi this highly respectable company hare 
hsHi flensed to drink his health, and I am sure 
it win offbvd 1dm great pleasure when informed 
af the kononr which has this day been done 
la tho memory of his great ancestor. 1 am 
■ow to mention a dreumstance which will, no 
doohC, insure the approbation of the toast I am 
to propose. Mrs Trotter, whose maiden 
la KnoK, is also, in her own person, a 
Bosal descendant of the greiit Scottish Kefor- 
■aCi Without farther preface, 1 therefore pro- 
pose aa a toast,— - 

Mrs Trotter, and may the family connexlcm 
with the great Reformer never be broken. 
TUa toaat was received with the utmost en- 

Tbo Ch^rman then gave, — May gratitude 
ler tho himiings we enjoy, increase our vniera- 
tion for oar great forefathers. 
The Rev. Mr WiUis, minister of Renfield 
BSBBBiafe congregation, said, — It has, it 
devolved on me, surely not l>ecause 1 am 
entitled than many around me, to follow 
up n toast* very nearly connected indeed with 
the ol^ect of our meeting. But if you have 
oomndtted it to my charge, as belonging to a 
part of the aeeession generally allowed— 1 say 
this with all deference to the other branches of 
the aeeession body— to entertain a high venera- 
tion fbr our Reforming ancestors, I feel myself 
called on to ur,;e, in a few words, the sentiment 
which the toast involves. While we are doing 
hanonr to Knooc, it is fair that we should call 

• Mr Tlrotter was elected lord provost of Edinborii^, 
oo 4th Ortobcr, 1825l Hla lordiihip in in pora«i>sion uf a 
portrsit of the Reformer, which ha» been in his family 
ever linre the last intenriow which Knox Iiod with 
Mary Queen of Seots. 

to our grateful reoolleetion the men who were 
associated with him. He raissd the banner, 
but we owe much to the men who rallied round 
him. ( Cheers*. ) It is doing Knox no injustice 
to say, that his efforts would have been una- 
vailing if not seconded by others of kindred 
minds and kindred principle. Many of theoe 
men, worthy of being remembered, are now 
forgotten. Some are fkmillar to us by nanie^ 
but at least the achievements of all are em- 
balmed In the gratitude of their country. I 
can say, for that part of the church with which 
1 am more acquainted, that the remembrance 
of thoee champions of the truth— the wholo 
band of the Reformers — ^is hallowed by them, 
i hope they do not worship them. (Cheers.) 
I agree in the sentiment expressed in the elo- 
quent sermon we have heard to day, that omr 
veneration for our forefathers should not be ac- 
companied with an Implicit subjection of our 
minds and consciences to their authority. The 
people of this country would, Indeed, pay a 
sorry compliment in such worship, to num 
whose very distinction and glory It had been to 
search the scriptures fur themselves, and dis- 
owning the power of time to sanction error or 
to proscribe truth ; to follow truth when tliey 
found it, because It was truth ; and to Rnounoa 
error in whatever circumstances, and sur- 
rounded by whatever charms, because It xnm 
error. (Long and loud cheering.) Many might 
think that these men were too frequently 
spoken of, and with too much reneration. 
Much has already been said to-day about the 
Refirmers ; and some might be inclined to usk, 
— :<fter all, do they deserve so much? Yes, I 
would reply, our error lies not in speaking of 
them too frequently, but too seldom. (Cheers.) 
At this distance from the period of contest, wn 
are apt to feel slightly our obligations to their 
noble efforts, because we know not by experi- 
ence the evils from which they rescued us. It 
is a happy feature of the times, that there is a 
greater disposition to do them justice ; and the 
present honourable tribute 1 conceive to bo 
not only due, but rendered in an appropriate 
place, a town which contains the graves of some 
of those upright and intrepid men who counted 
nut their lives dear to them, that they might 
secure to themselves, and transmit to their chil- 
dren, the blessings of a pure faith, and liberty 
to profess it. (I^oud cheering.) Some of these 
bi'longed to a later period than the early Refor- 
mation, but still the cause was one. The strug- 
gles of the people of this country, at different 
periods of Its religious history. Involved tho 
same great question. The question was whether 
God or man should dictate to the conscience. 
They had decided the question for themselves^ 
and they had decided it for us. lliey lived in 



dark times, but they miw the light— they eoiight 
their way to it— they found, they forced their 
way to it ! Popery ia a monater which lores the 
darioiess, because there only it can reign, and in 
its foul haunts it rerels in the spoils of what- 
erer is noble in man, and raluable to him. It 
not only hcldB in chains the thinking principle, 
but it does violence to aU the best affSections of 
our nature. We know not whether political 
society, or religious, or domestic society, owes 
most to our deliverance from it. We know not 
whether man or woman has derlred the great- 
est benefit. If popery had its dens and its pri- 
tens for the man who dared to be upright — it 
had its monasteries too, where female beauty 
might wither and decay. (Great cheering.) 
Knox had been accused of standing unmored 
by the tears of royal beauty. The Reformers 
in general had been called rude, stem, uncour- 
tcous men. Yes, they were stem in defence of 
truth, eren in despite of ceremony; but we 
ought not to forget, that in that very courtesy 
and refinement which now imparts such charms 
to domestic intercourse, we see the influence of 
the Reformation — ^the fruits of the stem un- 
bending integrity of these men. In truth, the 
beauty of our country owes almost as much to 
Knox and his associates, as its literature and its 
piety. How is it, Mr Chairman— how is it, 
gentlemen, that while you have sat here, your 
wives and your daughters may have been ele- 
gantly or usefully occupied in rational conver- 
sation, in reading, in the quiet and cheerful dis- 
charge of domestic duties, instead of dragging 
out a melsncholy existence — some of them^ — in 
convents and nunneries ? Why, it is these men 
that have done it — these rude men, as they have 
been called. In chasing away the demon of 
superstition, they have allowed your daughters 
to learn, that in keeping at home — in enjoying 
life— in actively discharging domestic duties- 
even while preparing for another world — they 
are serving God better than by assuming the 
veil and going into seclusion. We feel the 
happy change in all circumstances. We feel it 
at this moment. We feel it in the power of 
thus meeting together frankly to utter our sen- 
timents— differing, yet agreeing, and agreeing 
to differ. We durst not have done this during 
the days of intolerance, at least we should have 
spoken every word as if spies were among us, 
and as in the sight of the fires of the inquisi- 
tion. (Loud cheers.) Living in a Protestant 
land, the very air we breathe seems changed. 
We are in the atmosphere of liberty. The toast 
committed to me, and which I shall conclude 
with giving, leads us to reflect, not only on the 
seal of the Reformers and their worth, but 
their sufferings for the truth; and at this 
distance of time, it seems not indelicate to 

propose, that It ahall be with all Um 
we drink- 
To the memory of oar forefathers, who 
and suffered in the cause of religion. (LoudflaA 
continued cheering.) 

The chairman then gave the Gadie 
and success to education in tha Hlghlaoda tmA 

The Uev. Mr M<Leod, minister of th« ptatkh 
of Campsie, formerly of Campbelton, repUedt I 
hope, Mr Chairman, you will give 
credit when I say, that not all my food 
ment to the land of the mountain and of th« 
flood, nor the very peculiar satisfactioQ with 
which I received your last toast, could ladoM 
me to obtrude myself upon your notici^ fa pi^a- 
sence of the most numerous companj wltk 
whom ever I had the honour to sit, la 
you in name of my countrymen, for your 
rous and kind wishes towards them ; If I 
not been called upon, an honour very 
pected on my part, to propose one of tha 
of the day— a toast, nearly connected wltk iIm 
last, and highly appropriate on the pnmatt 
occasion. This, Sir, is an occasion saend fa 
the memory of a man, whose name no IKcAd af 
truth, no well-wisher to the freedom or happt 
ness of bis country can ever mention but with 
respect ; for his. Sir, is a name, which In tha 
short catalogue of the real benefactors of tha 
human race must, by us at least, l>e placed ia 
the foremost lines. His first and great prin- 
ciple in the work of Reformation, was to teach 
and instruct the people through the medium of 
their own language, and to put into their hands 
the sacred volume in the vermicular tongue. 
In nothing, as you know. Sir, was the Protes- 
tant Reformation more strikingly distinguished 
than by the zeal with which its leaders dis- 
seminated the scriptures in tl^e vernacular lan- 
guages of Europe— it is impossible fiiily to cal- 
culate the moral effects produced on the minds 
of men, by the operation of that simple and ad- 
mirable principle. The torch of truth soon 
dispelled snd put to flight the cloud of super- 
stition and ignorance, under which Christian- 
ity was hid — and how rapid was the alteratloo ? 
Who can think of it without gratitude? (Loud 
cheering.) And is it possible to join in tiie oc- 
casion of this day*s meeting, or to witness the 
expression of respect paid to the memory of that 
great man whom God raised up for such a weric, 
and to whom he gave boldness and fortitude for 
undertaking it, without feelings of no MtUaary 
emotion, without high satisfaction and delight. 
Fortunate, Sir, had it not been for the High- 
lands and isles of Scotland, if human policy in 
respect to them, had not interfered to coao- 
teract the first great principle of the eariy Ue- 
formers, — viz. that of giving the scriptiirea to 




in their own language, and teacblnf 
tmk them. But to it was, tliat tbe 
«C tha Gaelic language wae deemed 
lathe prooeM of what was called, 
of the Highland!. Jt was 
to have that Iwngnage dea- 
tt m g wL Aadwhat were the meanauiied? The 
be inatrncied in an unknown 
Ei^Uib achoob, Uke tbe English gar- 
■latloned at about fifty miles dl»- 
othcr. No Bible was given to 
tka HigjUtandcr to nad— but such a Bible as he 
wmim^tamA iiot.^Acts of Pivliament were pass- 
ed fa dvilbe them— experience has shown the 
lity of auch measuns we have lived to 
I a wlaer and h^Q»ier policy adopted. ( tiear, 
r. ) The leading principle of the Pro- 
Rdonnatloo has at length been resorted 
ts^ IIm BOiptares have been translated into the 
of tha country, the people are taught 
tfacoiy and the progress of educaiion 
tUa simple principle, has effected more 
iaiing the last few years, in improving the 
and Intellectual condition of the people, 
wioiidly ptdicy had acoompUshed for ceu- 
bcfon them. Sir, tbe Reformation only 
upon tbe summit of our mountains in 
Asdaya of oar t'athcra. It was in our own days 
aaly that it baa burst forth upon our glens, and 
soihadea, and lonely isles in its full effulgence. 
We have seen whole dittricts of country in the 
iattfialing attltiMle of ruceiviiig for the first 
tinw the word of God, in their own language. 
We have seen tbe minds of the people, if I may 
se speak, awakened out of the slumber of agps ; 
a spirit of religious inquiry has been excited, 
tbe darkneM of ignorance is flying before the 
light of heaven, the Highlander has now better 
saartM ef inCormation during tbe nights of 
his long and boisterous winter, than the roman- 
tir tales of years that are gone; tbe songs of 
Son resound in his cottage ; the doctrines of 
the Bible are dectually raiting bis mind above 
tbo weakness and insanity of his wild, though 
snUime^ onpentitlon. His enthusiasm is not 
desfrsjed, who would wish that it were? but 
It is now raeciving a new and mwre noble di- 
rection. (Lend and continued cheering.) As 
a person Intimately acquainted with tbe sute of 
tbe Highlands, and whose affections shall ever 
cling to that land of bis eariy days, 1 rejoice in 
baring thb opportunity of bearing my bumble 
teatiniony to tbe advantage of the Gaelic school 
sjrstem, before so many of ite most generous 
supporters. I now request the honour of pro- 
posing a toast, with which 1 am intrusted. 1 
obeerved that the first principle of the lirfor- 
mation has at length been acted upon in the 
Highlands: the scrip t ures have been translated, 
and are in circulation; that translation has 

been executed in a manner which reflects 
honour on the literature, fidelity, and zeal, of 
the first translators, lliese were Mr Stewart 
of Killin ; Dr Stewart of Luss ; Dr Stew«rt of 
the Canongate, and Dr Smith of Campbeltown ; 
these beams of light have passed away, their 
memories are blcesed. I am charged to call 
tliem to your remembrance. I now beg to give 
you as a toast,— 

The memoriee of the CMriginal tnuulators of 
the Gaelifl scriptures. This toast was received 
with the highest mark of approbation. 

Mr Kwing, the croupier, having requested 
permission to give a toast, spoke nearly as f«^- 

Before 1 proceed to propose the toast which 
has been assigned to my charge, permit me to 
congratulate you, Sir, on the highly respectable 
appearance of this numerous and interesting 
meeting. I see sround me clergy and laity— 
tbe establbhed and the dissenting interests- 
men of all ranks, politics, and persuasions, as- 
sembled to do honour to a common cause the 
great cause of the Ueformation. it is refresli- 
ing. Sir, amidst the little turmoils and collisions 
of life, thus to join in harmony— animated by 
the same spirit, maintaining the same prin- 
ciples, and pursuing the same object. 1 may 
surely be allowed to add, that there nevrr was 
a standard round which we may unite and 
rally, with more safety, honour, loyalty, and 
patriotism. (Loud rheers.) The characters of 
two great mrn, Sir, have this day been depicted 
in colours which any touch from my pencil, i 
fear, can only tend to injure. One of them is 
tbe apostle of the Si'ottish Reformation, in 
celebration of whose deeds we are now assem- 
bled, and to whose memory honour has already 
been done from the chair. It becomes my duty 
to draw your attention to the other — a name 
still more distinguished in the records of his- 
tory — a star which rose at on earlier period, 
which moved in a wider orbit, and which spt 
with a still more extended and brilliant efful- 
gence. Need I say that I allude to Martin 
Luther — a man who vnw raised from the hum- 
blest origin, to be the instrument of the might- 
iest revolution ; who had the acuteness to detect 
the errors, and the boldness to attack the autho- 
rity of papal assumption, in all the plenitude of 
its power; who tore the veil whieb covered the 
established prejudices of the time, and exposed 
them to public gaze in all their native naked 
deformity? (Loud and continued cheering.) 
in the character of these two eminent Refor- 
mers there were many striking points of re- 
semblance. Tliey both received an academical 
education, and soon entered into priest's orders ; 
both discovered a great precocity of intellect ; 
they were lioth endowed with an ardent, pene- 



Urmtiiif , and independent mind ; both eoon per- 
oeiTed tlie tabtktiei of toiioltstiG theology, and 
left the polluted atream for the pure fountain of 
truth ; both were pow ewc d of a popular, im- 
preaaire, and powerful eloquence; both were 
animated by seal approaching to enthuaiaam, 
and by Tehemence allied with acrimony; and 
both were distinguished by a courage which no 
fear could appal, and no danger could daunt. 
(Great cheering. )^ Who does not recollect the 
boldness with which Luther inveighed against 
the prerailing rioea of the clergy in the great 
church of Wurtembnrg ?— Who does not re- 
collect the scorn with which Lulher njected 
the demand for recantation by the legate, the 
fearless appeal which he made from the Pope's 
bull in fiiTour of indulgences, to a general coun- 
cil; the sererity with which he attaclced the 
treatise by Henry VIII., thence styled defen- 
der of the £iiith, and whom it was so much his 
interest to conciliate; and the heroism with 
which he publicly burnt the bull that excom- 
municated him as an obstinate heretic, and de- 
livered him ortx to the stake?— Above all— 
who does not recollect the fortitude with which 
Luther resisted the dissuasions of his friends 
from attending the diet at Wormsy reminding 
him of the fate of Hues, and the reply which 
he made, that he was called to appear in the 
name of the Lord, and thither he would go, 
though there were as many devils combined 
against him as there were tiles on the houses ? 
(Loud cheering.) In this feature of character 
Luther was no doubt exceeded by Knox, for 
whose personal courage there was more call, 
and at whose grave it was said by Morton, 
« Tliere lies He, who never feared the face of 
man.** I am fully aware, Sir, that long prior 
to the era of both these great men, the doctrines 
of the reformed faith were promulgated. In 
the 12th century, Waldus; in the 14th Wick- 
liffe ; end in the Idth Huss and Jerome, all de- 
nied the papal supremacy, and inveighed against 
the existing heresies — but the proselytes of 
these excellent men were few, and their success 
was fleeting — their light was feeble and eva^ 
nescent, and it was soon quenched in blood. 
A mightier than they arose in the person of 
Luther, and under happier auspices : preceded 
by the revival of learning and the discovery of 
printing : accompanied with popular propane 
tion, and aided by political support. The sale 
of indulgences was the original ol)|eot of attack, 
but the doctrines of popery, aa my worthy 
friend «the Protestant** can much better ex- 
plain, ara so firmly and closely united; every 
error is so completely amalgamated with and 
dovetailed into another, that, if one stone he 
removed, the edifice is shaken to the baae. 
(Loud cheers.) It was thus that Luther pnn 

Geede4, from one step to another, till he BRiv«i 
at an eminence from which he himaslf _ 
have tremhled to look down, and till ha mat 
the proud pontificate humbled at his feet« Jt 
was thus, that by bis single, and at fint iiwwi 
sisted amii it pleased Providence to aehleve 0^ 
conquest, and, by a stone from the sHag of n 
simple priest, to lay the great Goliah of Banp* 
rolling in the dust. It waa thua that tba aainda 
of men, which had been so long apeil-boiiiid hf 
the charm of a potent superstition, wcra ohhus* 
cipated from their fetters, and that the touch of 
truth from the mighty wand of Lmtkar dia* 
solved the enchantment and set the people Aw^ 
(Loud and continued cheering.) 

Mr Ewing then gave aa a toast, ««The 
mory of Martin Luther, the great Gi 
former.** This toast was drunk with 
ed applausp. 

Mr Thomas Hamilton, architect, and 
for his valuable and gratuitous services. 

This toast was received with great apprshai 
tion. Mr Hamilton had left the hall before Ua 
health was given. 

Professor M*Gill said they had already drunk 
the heaUb of that venerable minister Sir Henry 
Moncrieff, and a reply had been made by his 
son, a gmtleman of the highest attalnmenta ia 
the profession to which he belongi^ He ob« 
served other gentlemen present who were con- 
nected with the bar : he begged to propose — 

Mr Monteith, and the rising bar of Scotland. 

Mr Alexander £. Monteith, advocate, ex- 
pressed his thanks for the honour which had 
been done him, an honour which was greatly 
enhanced by having his name coupled with hie 
friend Mr Moncrieff, whose example he ahould 
always endeavour to imitate. Although It 
might be interfering with the chairman's toasts^ 
he should take the liberty of proposing — 

The university of Glasgow. 

Professor M*GiIl said, it would be extremely 
ill'timed in him were he to detain them long. 
He would merdy observe, that he trusted the 
university of Glasgow would never forget that 
learning was only the means to the attainment 
of a higher end, namely, merala and religion ; 
and he hoped they would never forget the 
advantage they had derived from the Befor- 

The chairman then gave— Mr M'GavIn the 
treasurer, and may the principles of the Refor- 
mation alwsysbe dear to the hearts of Seotamen. 

Mr M* Gavin rose, amid loud cheers, and said 
—Mr Chairman, I thank you and the company 
for the honour yon have done me. 1 esteem it 
no small matter to have my name aasoclated 
with that of ear great Reformer, and to b^ 
tnasurer of a fund tubaaribed by so many Plro- 
testants for erecting a monument to his memory • 

KNOX'S monument: 


(Gk«n.) Bat in prooeedinf fiurther to addf«» 
At wit^ba^ 1 tml somewhat like the modem 

fUined that the ancients had 
an Us §m thouf bts. I have been anti- 
dpnlfld la many things by gentlemen who have 
ami I dudi not detain the meeting by 
•ffvr gnmnd already occupied. But 
^id the Reformation being the text of 
the 4mff the sal||ect is ample enough for a few 
Standing at the distance of nearly 
Irom the events which we cele- 
alloying the privileges which Knox 
I «■« aaain Instrument, under Providence, in 
for us, we are able iu some measure 
the value of hit labours ; but his 
lea were much better judges of the 
themaelves. They were witnesses of 
he did and suffered for the salce of true 
Rligisn, and for civil liberty; and both his la- 
bsuii and sufferings were greater than any 
thiqg which the present age has witnessed. A 
caatcmp«nury who survived him, called him 

** John Knox, that siightjr roDqiitf>mr, 
Who stood in many m •talwsrt ittour.** 

\m, he stood in many a stalwart stour In- 
dssd i and the words make us think of a Wal- 
lam and a Bruce, who fought for their coun- 
try, and ultimately achieved its deliverance; 
tod thrir merits have been acknowledged by all 
nifn at all times. But Knox suffered more and 
srhieved more than they, though thiti wbm not 
for agee adequately acknowledged. The wounds 
received in their warfore were only wounds of 
the flesh. They entered not into the soul as 
di4 those which Knox endured, whi^n he suf- 
Irred the mental anguish of being oblige<l, an he 
often was, to contend with his dearest friends — 
men wiio agreed with him in principle, who 
asHsted him in many steps of Ileformation ; 
bat who, being aeduced by the blandishments of 
a eoart, abandoned the caufle, and even took 
part against it. The defection of some of his 
early friends wss matter of painful reflection to 
him during life, and even in his last moments. 
Tbeae were the wounds which he suffered in 
the conflict, and he felt the pain of them most 
acutely ; for though we have been accustomed to 
consider him as a rude, strung, immovable sort 
•fa man, it is evident from his rorrrspondence 
that he was a man of very tender feelings. 
(Load cheering.) 

The leading feature in Knox*s character, was 
a preference of the truth to every thing else. 
He never suffered his own paltry interests to 
interfere with this, or with thone of the church, 
or of his country ; and he could not endure those 
who did, but opposrd them with all his might. 
Not long after his death there were certain pro- 

oeedings In the church, not of a very disinter- 
ested character. The author I have already 
quoted, alludes to these, and to what Knox 
would have done had he been alive, in the fol- 
lowing terms :-» 

Hsd gade John Knox not yit been dei<^ 
It had not come vnto this held : 
Hsd they myiitit till sic sne steir,* 
He had made heuin and earth to heir. 

Happily for the ages which followed, particu- 
larly for us of the present day, Knox*s princi- 
ples carried the Reformation farther than he 
himself was disposed to go. He did not under- 
stand the subject of liberty of conscience ; and 
no man of his day understood it. He thought 
the precept of the Mosaic law respecting the 
punishment of idolatry still binding, but I never 
read or heard of his having been accessory or 
consenting to the death of any on that account. 
He maintained the principle that every man 
has a right to possess and to read the Holy 
Scriptures, to examine and judge of their con- 
tents for himself. (Hear, hear, hear.) lliis is 
the fundamental principle of the Ileformation, 
which I hope will be ever dear to the heart of 
every Scotsman. This principle is iiicoiisiN- 
tent with intolerance, or persecution for con- 
science* sake ; and though it did not appear so 
to Knox and the first Reformers, it made itself 
manifest by degrees to their successors. Main- 
taining the priiiriplct though not aware of lUl 
its extent and bearing, Knox gave an impulse 
to the cause of Reformation that did not termi- 
nate with his life, but continued through suc- 
cessive ages, and issued in the firm establish- 
ment of civil and religious liberty at the Revo- 
lution of l(j86. (Cheers. ) He was followe<l by a 
host of worthies, who took up the cause of 
truth and liberty, and were honoured also to 
stifTer for it. Among the most eminent of these 
was Andrew Melville, whom Glasgow had the 
honour to enjoy as head of the coUeiee, a man of 
equal firmness, and more varied learning than 
Knox, who long and successfully resistrd the 
encroachments of arbitrary power upon the li- 
berties of the church, for which he suffered 
many years* imprisonment, and then banish- 
ment to a foreign land, where he died. He, 
too, is worthy of being held in grateful remem- 
brance by every Scotsman. I beg leave, there- 
fore, to i»ropoHe for a toast, — 

The memory of Andrew ^Vlelville. Mr 
M'Gavin sat down amid continued cheering. 

The chairman then gave the health of Mr 
Cleland, and tliankH to him for his eminent ser- 
vices in promoting the present undertaking, as 
well as the general interests of the city. 

« i. o. Iliid they st tempted mirh s moTemeiit. 



Mr ddnid nM,— I ba^ to return tbuikB for 
tlu Terj kind and flstlerinf manner in whidi 
ytm. haTC iMen pleased to drinic my licaltb. I 
•lionM indeed be defttitnte of good feeling, if I 
did not acknoirledge bow bfglily I am gratified 
by tbis marii of yoor regard. At the same 
time I am well aware that the partiality of 
prirate fHendihlp has gone far to orerrate my 
aenrioee. (Cheers, and cries of no, no.) — In 
proposing a toast to the memory of the great 
improTer of the steam engine, I shall not at- 
tempt any description of the great powers which 
have rendered his name immortal. — This has 
lately been done in London and Glasgow, by 
men of science and high consideration in the 
country. I may, however, be allowed to men- 
tion, that I hare liad great pleasure in collecting 
these hononrable memorials, and circulating 
them among a ralnable class of society, more 
extcnsirely than might otherwise have been 
done; and having liad the honour of being 
known to that great man, I have been enabled 
to publish, along with these memorials, an ac- 
count of the first experiments he made on the 
•team engine In this city; and now, without 
farther preface, 1 beg to propose — 

The memory of James Watt. — This toast 
was received with the greatest approbation. 

l*he chairman then gave the committee of 

Mr Andrew Mitchell said, — For my col- 
leagues and myself, I have to express our grati- 
tude to tbis highly respectable meeting for the 
honour done us. To have the high satisfac- 
tion of seeing the deep interest which such a 
meeting takes iu the good cause in which they 
have been engaged— to be assured by the trans- 
actions of this day, that now at length, al- 
though tardily, and after the lapse of SOO years, 
a national disgrace will in some measure be 
wiped off, and a monument erected to the me- 
mory of the foundt r of our parochial sj'stem of 
education, and the reviver of primitive Chris- 
tianity among us, are of themselves far more 
than a compensation for any labours they have 
undergone, and even — for what is worse to 
bear— the refusals of the indifferent, Hud the 
scowl of those averse to contribute to the mea- 
sure. And indeed, although they had no other 
reward than to have this day been permitted to 
hear another specimen of the heart-stirring elo- 
quence of one upon whom, perhaps more than 
any other now alive, the mantle of Knox had 
fallen. This alone had been a sufllcient recom- 
pense. (Great cheering.) 

To a reflecting mind, Sir, there is something 
in the circumstances in which we are this day 
placed, and in the general aspects of society, 
which are scdemnly interesting. Every where 
throughout the Uoman Catliolic kingdoms on 

the continent, there is at this momoit, 
we are employed in rearing a momimeBt to 
Reformer, a combined effnt making to 
the altars of the Romish wwniilp, and to 
store the influence of the Romish priflliiiij.- 
(Hear, hear, hear.) We look baok tkraofh iBkm 
vista of three hundred yean to the groondi uf. 
our faith, as then restored Aram the loiiinuhiw 
of the middle ages by the light of the BiUa, aai 
the promulgation of the gospel— they, that itmf 
may restore the empire and the conHtd over tiM 
minds of men in all the rigour with whidi it 
was then exercised. 

It has always appeared to me as a«lrfldii|p 
part of the providence of God, that the tewB- 
tion of printing— which is the sentimeal irihidt 
I shall conclude by calling your partleakir at- 
tention—should have been exactly coevid wftH 
the beginning of the Reformation. Of tUa, tm 
a powerful weapon in the cause of tmth, L«. 
ther and Knox, and the great men who 
ed the restoration of rrligion which then 
place, knew weU how to avail themselvea. In 
the first age of the church, God commnnieataA 
by a miracle the gift of tongues. When tht 
church required to be restored from the super* 
stitions and errors of popery, the art of printing 
was discovered, which Is an instrument of the 
same character, and in some respects more effi- 
cacious, because more permanent in its effects. 
And in their hands this Instrument was wield-* 
ed with power and success. (Cheers.) If the 
doctrines they taught could only have been 
heard by those to whom their living voice 
reached, or even by the men of their own gene- 
ration, and if all the fruit of their labours had 
been buried in the same grave with themselves, 
their labours would have been comparatively 
unimportant. It Is to the pennanency and 
wide circulation which, through the medium 
of the press, hss been given to the scriptures 
they translated, and to their admirable com- 
mentaries on these scriptures, that the princi- 
ples of the Reformation have obtained so deep a 
root in protestant Europe; that all the storms 
of persecution with which the Reformation has 
been assailed in many a form since that period, 
have not been able to shake, much less to over- 
turn it. (Loud and continued cheering.) 

In our day, through the same medium of the 
press, knowledge is making strides unprec^ 
dently rapid. In the wide dissemination of the 
scriptures, in the vast variety of books, many of 
them calculated to give the benefits of scientifio 
tuition itself, even to the mechanic, and in the 
various institutions every where springing up, 
contrived and calculated to give him the benefit 
of an education, which a few years ago was eot- 
clusively confined to men of wealth and rank^ 
— we see a new and interesting featiure of the 



we Ihre. Muiy a poMunt has 
Taluable than thow "Mmtt- 
rhich wera omtunicd at tke 
ition, while his mind ia in- 
with knowledge^ than the 
of the oellt. Wealth and nnk 
to their poeeeeeon the per- 
which wae formerly implicitly 
In order to eecore this, tiie 
'^id the great must thenwelvee riee in 
•f ialelleetiial improrementy and every 
the hif heet to tJie lowest now f«els, 
■I ha 4aee not act, and cannot act in a comer 
Iha shelter of concealment, but upon an 
where hit condoct is seen by all, and 
•falL (Loud cheering.) 
I wmid enJarge, Sir, at mnch greater length 
ithaa^l^ty infioenoe which the invention of' 
produced, and is likely to pro- 
But at this late hour of the 
{, it WDold be equally unseasonable and 
I shall therefore conclude with one 
The cause of truth can nerer 
discussion. It is error and eril 
■a tint shuns the light, and refuses to come 
h, lael its deeds should be made manifest and 
With this observation 1 beg to re- 
to the particular notice of yourself 
id this meetinf, the important sentiment 
hidi I have been requested to propoee, — 
Tka Invention of printing. 
T^ croupier begged leave to propose the 
■kh of Mr Warren, that celebrated artist, to 
ham we were so much indebted. 
Mr Warren, in returning thanks, regretted 
a Inability to exp res s wliat he felt, being so 
mpeetodly called up to address the chair. In 
knowledginf the handsome numner his name 
id been introduced by the croupier, end the 
itterinf reception it had met with from so 
nuad and respectable an sssemblnge, at the 
la hoar he then addressed them, it would be 
iption in him to occupy much of their 
time. He could not, however, sit 
pwn- without taking advantage of the oppor- 
inlCy their kindness had afforded him, of ac- 
Bowledf ing the obligations he felt to the gentle- 
en nndsr whose superintendence he had acted, 
idp in particular, to the Rev. Doctor M*Gill, 
• whose suggestion he was mudi indebted for 
m estteeption on which he had founded the 
■ign of the statue ; and he owed much to the 
de and Jodicious observations of those itentle- 
en aasociated with the Rev. Doctor. ( Cheers. ) 
hcrefore, should public approval reward his 
icrtSons, in justice he must share with them 
a honour, although it became him to acknow- 
Jga himself chargeable with any errors, as in 
cry thing which he conceived calculated to 
tain his object, or benefit the general desigUi 

they, with the kindest feeUng, Indulged him 
with their eonildeneai (Cheers.) — He hoped,, 
however, the monument would be as creditable 
to the artbu employed, and to the gentlemen 
who superintended its erection, as it must be 
gratifying to the Reverend gentleman who first 
suggested, and to this city which hss carried into 
eflRect the raising a memorial to that msn wliooe 
efforts laid the foundation of our present pros- 
perity, and secured inestimable blessings, such 
as our forefiithers did not enjoy. At this very 
late hour he would not take up more of their 
time, and would therefore propoee as a toast, — 

The revivsl of learning in the dark ages. 
( Loud cheering. ) 

Mr M<Gavin gave the health of Mr Alexan- 
der Buchanan, and thanks to him for his vslu- 
able and gratuitous services in realizing the sub- 
scriptions.~Thi8 toast was drank with great 

At public dinner parties, something frequent- 
ly happens which causes regret, and in this 
there has been no exception frwaa. the general 
rule. Although the stewards did every thing 
in their power to provide accommodation, such 
was the demsnd for tickets on the day of the 
dinner, that the Highland society hall, with 
the assistance of an additional room, could not 
accommodate the applicants. As there was no 
time to remove to the Assembly Rooms, a 
number of gentlemen were consequently disap- 

From the time the cloth was removed to a 
late hour in the evening, tlie company enjoyed 
an intellectual banquet of no ordinary nature. 
The charms of music, which are often resorted 
to to enliven public dinner parties, were here 
unnecessary. The enjoyment was of a difTer- 
ent nature. When the midnight hour had 
passed away, it vhm found that a number of 
speeches had not been delivered, and several of 
the toasts had not been given. This, under or- 
dinary circumstances, woidd have caused regret, 
but that regret was greatly heightened, when it 
was known that the company vhm thereby 
deprived of the speeches of several highly gilYed 
gentlemen, remarkable for their attachment to 
the principles of the Reformation, who had 
come to do honour to the occasion. Among 
these may be ranked the Rev. Mr Muir of St 
JameiT; the Rev. Dr Hodgson of Biantyre; 
the Rev. Dr Stewart of Enkine ; the Rev. Mr 
Dempster of Denny ; the Rev. Mr French of 
East Kilbride; the Rev. Mr Beith of Hope 
street Gaelic chapel; the Rev. Mr TumbuU 
of the Aflsociate congregation, Campbell street ; 
the Rev. Mr Struthers, of the Relief congrega- 
tion, Anderston ; the Uev. Mr Stewart of the 
Associate congr^ation, Stirling ; and Denjamin 
Mathie, Henry Paul, William Rodger, Walur 



FcffUMNi, Patrkk Faktfncr, and WilllMn 
Cndf, Eaquiret. The party eootbted of one 
handred and fifty-three fentlemen. The din- 
ner and wlnee did great credit to Mr Fledi. 


Although it would he improper to glre de- 
tached portions of tlie eloquent aermon which 
Dr Chalmers delirered on this occasion, the 
congregation will never forget the manner in 
which he recommended M*Crie*8 Life of Knox. 
Having read several portions of it to his au- 
dience, he said with great emphasfai, that it was 
a boolc which should he in every private library 
in the country, as he had no doubt it was in 
every public one. 

During divine service, the appearance of the 
eongregation was uncommonly interesting. Dr 
Chalmers in the pulpit, — Dr fiums in the 
desk, — and Dr Mac Gill in the front gallery 
opposite to them, surrounded by a greater num- 
ber of learned and respectable men of every de- 
nomination than is often to he met with. In 
this assembly the churchman, — the seceder,— 
the dissenter,— and the Whig and Tory met 
together, to do honour to the memory of the 
man, who, in the providence of God, had been 
raised up to rescue their country from papal 
superstition and all its attendant evils. 



The following is the order issued by the Protes- 
tant lords Argyle, Rutliven,and Steuart, to pro- 
vost Lindsay and the other magistrates of Glas- 
gow, in the year 1560, respecting the destruction 
of images and monasteries.—" We pray you will 
fail not to pass to your kirlcs in Glasgow, and take 
down the whole images thereof, and bring them 
forth to the kirk yards and burn them openly. 
And likewise cast down the altars and purify 
the kirks of all kinds of monuments of idola- 
try ; but take great care that neither the desks, 
windows, nor doors be hurt or broken, and that 
the gloss and iron work be not iiijured. And 
this fail not to do as you value our displeasure, 
and so we commit you to the protection of 

When Dr M'Crie was preparing materials 
for his Life of Melville, he became anxious to 
know if there were any thing in the college or 
town oouncil records, corroboratory of what bish- 
op S|H)tti8WOod says respecting the demolition 
of the cathedral of Glasgow. Proffssor M^Turk, 

* Dr Clvland adds upwards of twenty pages of notes 
nnd illustratlunii, rhipfly taken from Knox's history, 
and M*Crie*8 IJfe of Knox ; aliw some statifttloal tables 
relatiye to Glasgow, its churches and ministers. They 
are all very interebtng ; but it would extend thb vo. 

having anmined the college iMhri^ and llf 
CMand thoae of the town oonndl, noUiiiif fv« 
found respecting tho eathedral durfaig tbe Um» 
of Mdvflle*s resldeiiee hers ; cxeeptlng a mhiata 
of oouncil, 80th Angust, 1674, the yaar fat wMeh 
he became principal of this nnlvenitf, tw 
years after the death of Knox. Tbe M]owh|g 
is the substance of the minute :— *< The wkkk 
day, the provost, baiUies, and council, with the 
deacons of the crafts, and divers othor herieir 
men of the town, convened in thecomieillMHii^ 
and having respect nnd oonalderatlfm to the 
great decay and ruin the hie kirk of Ghngow hai 
come to, through taking away the lead, alatei^ 
and other materials thereof in the tron hlea e uie 
time by gone, so that such a great mo nnm ent 
will utterly lall down and decay, smleBs it he 
remedied. Although we are not indebted te 
uphold and repair it by law, yet of <rar own 
will uncompelled, and for the zeal we have for 
the kirk, we all in one voice, concent to tax 
ourselves two hundred pounds money, to he 
paid by the township and freemen thereof, fsr 
helping to repair the said kirk, and holding it 
waterfast, and appoints the following persons 
to see this put in execution, viz.— The dea- 
cons of every craf^ Matthew Watson, flesher, 
Patrick Howie, litster, Robert Muir, merchant. 
Master Adam Wallace, and John Lindsay, 
&c. &c." 

The following is taken from ]M*Crie*s Life of 

Melville, vol. i. p. 84 " We must not omit 

to notice a charge brought against Melville. 
It is said that he was accessory to a little dis- 
turbance which took place in Glasgow." *' By 
the earnest dealing of Mr Andrew Melville 
and other ministers, the magistrates agreed to 
demolish the cathedral, as a monument of idol- 
atry, and to build a number of small churches 
with the materials. But the trades of the city 
resenting this, rose in a tumult and forcibly 
prevented the workmen from proceeding. The 
ringleaders of the riot were summoned befers 
the privy council, when the king, not then 
thirteen years of age, took their part, and told 
the ministers engaged in the prosecution, 'that 
too many churches had already been destroyed, 
and that he would not tolerate more abuses in 
that kind.' " This statement rests solely upon 
the euthority of bishop Spottiswood. I never 
met with any thing in the public w private 
writings of Melville, or of any minist«r con- 
temporary with him, that gives the smallest 
ground for the conclusion, that they looked 
upon cathedral churches as monuments of id<d- 

lame too far to insert the whole. The following is, 
however, too Important to be omitted, as It relates to 
a subject on which the memory of Knox has suilered 
much reproach.— fit 






ll»t ^ej would hare wdwlmd their 
t» l3bi ground, llie records of the 
frtnint** m leCaUy dlent as to tlie aUrged 
fio^ A drcumBtance which it ie ex- 
^MU^w ft account for, on the cuppo- 
the Viihop bat giren a correct report 
aAlr. It appears from the most satis- 
ecomcDts, that the magistrates and 
«f Glasgow, so far from wishing to 
the cathedral, were anxious to uphold 
ity that they made repeated repre- 
to the king and priry council on this 

Iiead, end that, though the burden of the work 
did not legally fall on them, they voluntarily 
and zealously contributed for carrying it into 
execution. 1 think it highly probable, that 
any disturbance which may hare fUmished 
the ground-work of the statement under ex- 
amination, wss occasioned by an order not ibr 
demolishing, but for repairing the cathedral; 
and that the craftsmen were aggrieved at some 
encroachment on their rights, real or supposed, 
in the mode of reparation." 



To the gentle reader, 

Grace and peace from God the Father of 
our Lord Jesoa Christ, with the perpe- 
tual increase of the Holy Spirit 

It is not unknown, christian reader, 
that the same dond of ignorance, that long 
has darkened many realms nnder this ao- 
cuied kingdom of that Roman antichrist, 
had also so orercovered this poor realm, 
that idolatry had heen maintained, the blood 
of innocents hath been shed, and Christ 
Jesoa his eternal truth hath been abhorred, 
detested, and blasphemed. But that same 
God that canseth light to shine out of dark- 
aces, in the multitude of his mercies, hath 
of long time opened the eyes of some even 
within this realm, to see the Tanity of that 
which then was nnirersally embraced for 
tme religion, and has given unto them 
strength to oppone themselves unto the 
same: and now, into these our last and 
moat corrupt days, has made his truth so 
to triumph amongst us, that in despite of 
Satan, hypocrisy is disclosed, and the true 
worshipping of God is manifested to all the 
inbabitantg of this realm, whose eyes Satan 
blinds not, either by their filthy lusts, or else 
by ambition and insatiable covetousness, 
which make them repugn to [oppose stiffly] 
the power of God working by his word. 
And because we are not ignorant what di- 
verse bruits [reports] were dbpersed of us 
the professors of Jesus Christ within this 
realm in the beginning of our enterprise : 

• This is wantlag to Derid Buchanan's edi- 
tion.— £tf. 

order was taken, that all our proceedings 
should be committed to register, as that 
they were by such as then painfully trar 
vailed both by tongue and pen; and so 
was collected a just volume (as after will 
appear) containing things done from the 
58th [t. e, 1558] year of God till the arrival 
of the queen's majesty forth of France, with 
the which the collector and writer for that 
time was content, and never minded [in- 
tended] farther to have travailed in that 
kind of writing. But after invocation of 
the name of God, and after consultation 
with some faithful what by them was 
thought expedient to advance God's glory, 
and to edify this present generation, and 
the posterity to come, it was concluded, 
that faithful rehearsal should be made of 
such personages as God had made instru- 
ments of his glory, by opponing of them- 
selves to manifest abuses, superstition, and 
idolatry. And albeit there be no great num- 
ber, yet are they more than the collector 
would have looked for at the beginning, 
and therefore is the volume somewhat en- 
larged above his expectation : and yet in 
the beginning must we crave of all the 
gentle readers, not to look of us for such 
a history as shall express all things that 
have occurred within this realm, during the 
time of this terrible conflict that has been 
betwixt the saints of God and these bloody 
wolves who claim to themselves the title 
of clergy, and to have authority over the 
souls of men : for with the [civil] policy 
mind we to meddle no farther than it has 
religion mixed with it And therefore al- 
beit that many things which were done be 



omitted, yet if we invent no lies, we think 
ourselves blameless in that behalf. Of one 
other [thing] * we must forewarn the dis- 
creet readers, which is, that they be not 
offended that the simple truth be spoken 
without partiality, for seeing that of men 
we neither hunt for reward, nor yet for 
vain glory, we little pass by the approba- 
tion of such as seldom judge well of God 
and of his works. Let not therefore the 
reader wonder albeit that our style vary 

* The supplement here is neoessary to the 
sense. Wherever the like freedom is used, it 
will be marked in the same way.— £</. 

and speak diversely of men, according as 
they have declared themselves sometimes 
enemies and sometimes friends, sometimes 
fervent, sometimes cold, sometimes con- 
stant, sometimes changeable in the cause of 
Ood and of his holy religion, for in this our 
simplicity we suppose that the godly shall 
espy our purpose, which is, that God may 
be praised for his mercy shewn, thb pre- 
sent age may be admonished to be thankful 
for God's benefits offered, and the posterity 
to come may be instructed how wondronsly 
hath the light of Christ Jesus prevailed 
against darkness in this last and moat cor- 
rupt age. 










In the scrolls of Glasgow, is found men- 
tioa of one whose name is not expressed, 
that in the year of God 1422, was homed 
for heresy; but what were his opinions, or 
by what order he was condemned, it ap- 
pears not evidently ; * bat our chronicles 
make mention, that in the days of king 
James the First, about the year of God 
1431, was deprehended [taken up]f in the 
university of Saint Andrews, one named 
Pkul Craw, a Bohemian, who was accused 
of heresy, before such as then were called 
doctors of theology. His accusation con- 
sisted principally, that he followed John 
Haas and Wickliffe, in the opinion of the 


* David B[idiuiaD*8 edition commences that : 
In the records of Glasgow is found mention 
of one whose name was James Resby, an Eng- 
Usbman bj birth, schohu' of Wickliffe, be was 
aoeosed as a ho^ie bj one Lawrence Lindors, 
and burnt for having said, that the pope was 
not the vicar of Christ ; and that a man of a 
wicked life was not to be acknowledged for 
pope." Spotswood gives the name of the per- 
son, which perhaps both he and Buchanan bad 
derived, together with the particalars of his 
beresj, from some other source. But Spotswood 
makes the date of his martjrdom 1407, the jear 
following the death of Robert III, so that this 
most have happened during the regencv, while 
lames I, Robert's successor, was a prisoner in 
Knghuid, from which he was not restored to his 
kingdom till 1423. Resbf, so far as appears, 
was the first in Scotland who suffered death on 
lorount of religion ; at least, I find nothing of 

sacrament, who deny that the substance 
of bread and wine was changed by virtue 
of any words, or that confession should be 
made to priests, or yet prayers to saints de- 
parted. While that God gave him grace to 
resist them, and not to consent to their im- 
piety, he was committed to the secular 
judge, (for our bishops follow Pilate, who 
both did condemn, and also wash his hands) 
who condemned him to the fire, in the 
which he was consumed in the said city of 
Saint Andrews, about the time before writ- 
ten. And to declare themselves to be the 
generation of Satan, who, from the begin- 
ning, had been enemy to the truth, and he 

the kind in the previous twelve hundred years 
of her church historv. The Culdees and other 
faithful pastors, if there were any other, must 
have been a great eje-sore to the luxurious dig- 
nified clerry, but thejdid not venture to murder 
them on that account. This was a custom im- 
ported from Italy, where it had been practised 
for more than two centuries, In a ferocious per- 
secution of the Waldennes. It was, it seeroa, 
twenty-four years before the Scotish prelates 
found another victim ; and he was a Bohemian, 
who had learned the truth from John Huas, 
who, like Resby, had learned it from Wickliffe, 
with whom he corresponded. Our first two 
martyrs, therefore, were foreigners. There was 
not at that period so much religion among the 
Scots themselves as to furnish a subject for the 
stake.— £r/. 

t Deprehended is rather an English word 
than a Seotish, but is seldom used now.— >£<^ 


[A. D. 1404 

that desired the same to be hid from the 
knowledge of men, they put a ball of 
brass in his mouth, to the end that he 
should not give confession of his faith to 
the people, neither yet that they should 
understand the defence which he had 
against their unjust accusation and con- 
demnation. But that their sires' practice 
did not greatly advance their kingdom of 
darkness, neither yet was it able utterly to 
extinguish the truth: For albeit, that in 
the days of king James the Second and 
Third, we find small question of religion 
moved within this realm, yet in the time of 
king James the Fourth, in the sixth year 
of his reign, and in the 22d year of his 
age, which was the year of 1494, were 
summoned before the king and his great 
council, by Robert Blackader, called arch- 
bishop of Glasgow; the number of thirty 
persons remaining, some in Kyle-stewart, 
some in KingVKyle, and some in Cun- 
inghame : among whom were George 
Campbell of Cesoock, Adam Reid of Bar- 
skimming, John Campbell of Newroills, 
Andrew Shaw of Polkemat, Helen Chal- 
mer lady Pokely, [Isobel] Chalmerlady 
Stairs. These were called the Lollards of 
Kyle. * They were accused of the articles 
fbllowing, as we have received them forth 
of the register of Glasgow. 

• A more ample aoootint of the Lollards will 
be found in the Histories of England ; where 
probably they had their origin from persons who 
fled from persecution on the Continent in the 
twelfth century. ** In the year 1160, some fo- 
reign Christians sought in Britain an asylum 
from the mrsecutions of Germany ; but, alas ! 
they founa only a premature grave.** ** A coun- 
cil was called by the king, to meet at Oxford, to 
try these heretics, whose number, it seems, 
amounted to no more than thirty. They were 
not likely to meet with either mercy or justice 
from an assembly of haughty prelates, lliey 
were condemned, branded on the forehead, pub- 
licly whipt out of the town, and being turned 
into the fields in the depth of winter, when all 
were forbidden to relieve them, they perished. 
Kyen th<'ir enemies allow that they behayed 
with great calmness and moderation ; and when 
the inhuman sentence was executed upon 
them, they sang. Blessed are ye when men 
shall hate you and persecute you. Waenxa 
Juktly obserrrs, that their conduct was wor- 
thy of the best and most righteous cause, 
and would incline one to think favourably of 
their docuine.'* See more to the same pur- 
pose In The Protestant, mlume i. pafts 107 
— 109.— -Er/. 

L nrtt, That images are not to be had, 
nor yet to be worshipped, 

IL That the relics of sainta are not to be 

IIL That laws and ordinances of men 
vary from time to time, and that by the 

IV. That it is not lawful to fight, or to 
defend the faith. We translate acoordii^ 
to the barbaronsneas of their Latin and 

V. That Christ gave power to Peter 
otdy, and not to his successors, to bind and 
loose within the kirk, 

VL That Christ ordaxned no priests to 

VIL That after the consecration in the 
mass, there remains bread, and that there is 
not there the natural body of Christ, 

VIIL That tithes ought not to be given 
to ecclesiastical men, (as they were thea 

DC That Christ at his coming has taken 
away power from kings to Judge, t This 
article we doubt not to bo the venemous 
accusation of the enemies, whose practice 
has ever been to make the doctrine of 
Jesus Christ suspect to kings and rulers ; 
as that God thereby would depose them of 
their royal seats, whereby, the contrary, 
nothing confirms the power of magistrates 

t ** lliat Christ, at his coming, hath taken away 
power from kings to judge,"— 4>t matters qfdimne 
worsh^}, must have been their meaning, for it was 
for this they were called to account. They 
meant, that Christ had abolished the state of 
thinn in which kings were required to task* 
cognizance of, and punish deriations from di- 
▼inely instituted worship. The words which 
follow, are in a different character in all the 
editions I have seen : and they are no part of 
the article, but only Knox's comment upon it ; 
and, I think, it must be admitted, that tne pooc 
Lollards understood the sulject better than tbeii 
commentator ; but as their doctrines were writ- 
ten down by their enemies, whose record of them 
onlv is extant, we might expect to find them 
garbled, so as to make them appear hostile to 
ciril goyemment. The other puts of sentences 
in the Roman character, are also comments or 
explanations. Spotswood siTes twenty of the 
articles without any of these additions; but 
Wodrow, who is usually so correct, has fallen 
into a mistake here. He says, the words in 
iulies only are in the Glasgow M& But on 
inspection of the manuscript itself, I find, that 
the addition on which 1 am remarking, is in it 
Tsrbatim, and also those in No. 4*8,19^ Sl» thoof h 
aome that Buchanan has made are not.— ^£rf. 



■lore thin docs God*» word. But to the 

X. That evefyfintkful mam or tooman is 
a priest, 

XL That Uu mselim ^ kings ceased aJt 
the coming of ChritL 

XIL That the pope is not the succeseor 
of Peter y but fdktre he eaidj Gro behind me» 

XIIL That the pope deceives the peopte 
by his bulls and his indiUgemces, 

XIV. That the mmsspn^ not the souls 
that are in p mr gato rff, 

XV. That the pope and the bishops de- 
eeine the people by their pardons. 

XVI. That indulgences ought not to be 
granted to fight against the Saracens, 

XVIL That dke pope exalts himself 
against Oodandabove God 

XVIII. That thepope cannot remit the 
pains (^p ur ga t ory. 

XIX That the blessings of the bishops 
^domb doge they should have been styled) 
are of no value, 

XX. 2%at the excommunication tf the 
hirh is not to be feared, 

XXL That into [m] no case it is lawful 
to swear, 

XXIL That priests might have wtves, 
mccording to the constitution of the law, 

XXUL That true Christians receive the 
body of Jesus Christ every day, 

XXIV. That after matrimony contracted^ 
the hirh may make no divorcement, 

XXV. That excommunication binds not, 

XXVI. That the pope forgives not sin, 
but onfy God, 

XXVIL That faith should not be given 
io miracles, 

XXVIIL That we should not pray to the 
glorious Virgin Mary, but to God only, 

XXIX. That we are no more bound to 
pray m Ae kirk, than in other places. 

XXX. 7%at we are not boimd to believe 
aU that the doctors of the hirk have written, 

XIXXL That such as worship the sacro' 
ments of the hirh (we suppoee they meant 
tiie ncrament of the altar) commit idolatry, 

XXXIL That thepope is the head qfthe 
hirh qfthe antichrist, 

XXXIIL That the pope and his minis' 
tors are nmrdertrs. 

XXXIV. That they which ore caUcd 
principals m ihc hirh, are thieves and rob' 

Bj these articles, which God of his mer* 
ciful providence, caused the enemies of his 
truth to keep in their registers, may appear 
how mercifidly God hath looked upon this 
realm, retaining within it some spunk 
[spark, or gentle flame] of his light, eren in 
the time of greatest darkness. Neither 
ought any man to wonder, albeit some 
things be obscurely, and some things doubt- 
fully spoken. But rather ought all faithful 
to magnify God*s mercy, who, without 
public doctrine, gave so great light And 
farther, we ought to consider, that seeing 
that the enemies of Jesus Christ gathered 
the foresaid articles, thereupon to accuse 
the persons foresaid, that they would de- 
prave the meaning of God's servants so iut 
as they could ; as we doubt not but they 
have done in the heads of excommunica- 
tion, swearing, and of matrimony : in the 
which, it is no doubt but the servants of 
God did damn the abuse only, and not the 
right ordinance of God - for who knon-s 
not, that excommunication in these days 
was altogether abused ? That swearing 
abounded without punishment, or remorse 
of conscience : and that divorcements were 
made for such causes, as worldly men had 
invented. But to our history. Albeit that 
the accusation of the bishop and of his ac- 
complices was very grievous, yet Qod so 
assisted his servants, partly by inclining 
the king's heart to gentleness (for diverse 
of them were his great £uniliars), and part- 
ly by giving bold and godly answers to 
their aocusators, that the enemies in the 
end were frustrated of their purpose : for 
while the bishop in mockage said to Adam 
Reid of Bankimming ; ** Reid, believe ye 
that God is in heaven ?*' He answered, *' Not 
as I do the sacraments seven :** whereat, the 
bishop thinking to have triumphed, said, 
** Sir, lo, he denies that God is in heaven,*' 
whereat the king wondering, said, ** Adam 
Reid ! what say you ?" The other answer- 
ed, ** Please your grace to hear the end 
betviixt the churl and me." And there- 
with he turned to the bishop and said, ** I 
neither think nor beUeye, as thou thinkest 


that God 18 in heaven, but lam most assured, malm, the said BeatOD, with the rest of 
that he is not only in the heaven, but also in the prelates, had the whole regimen [go- 
the earth : but thou and thy Auction declare vernment] of the realm, and by reason 
by your worksj that either ye think there thereof, held and travailed to hold the 
is no God at all, or else that he is so set up truth of Ood in thraldom and bondage, till 
in heaven, that he regards not what is done that it pleased God of his great mercy in 
into the earth ; for if thou firmly belie vedst the year of God 1527, to raise up his ser- 
that God were in the heaven, thou shouldst vant, Mr Patrick Hamilton, at whom onr 
not make thyself cheek-mate to the king, history does begin : of whose progeny, life, 
and altogether forget the charge that Jesus and erudition, because men of fiune and re- 
Christ the Son of God gave to his apostles, nown have in divers works written, we omit 
which was, to preach the evangel, and not all curious repetition, sending such as would 
to play the proud prelates, as all the rabble know fieuther than we write, to Fhuicts 
of you do this day. And now. Sir,*' said Lambert, John Firth, and to that notable 
he to the king, " judge ye, whether the work lately sent forth by John Fox, Eng- 
bishop or I believe best that God is in lishman, * of the lives and deeds of martyrs 
heaven/* While the bishop and his band within this isle, in this our age. 
could not well revenge themselves, and 'This servant of God, the said Mr Futrick, 
while many taunts were given them in being in his youth provided to reasonable 
their teeth, the king, willing to put an end honours, and living (he was entitled abbot 
to farther reasoning, said to the said Adam of Feam) as one hating the world and the 
Reid, ** Wilt thou burn thy bill ?" He an- vanity thereof, left Scotland, and passed to 
swered, " Sir, and [if] the bishop and ye will." the schoob in Germany ; for then the fame 
With these and the like scoffs, the bishop of the university of Wirtembeig was greatly 
and his band were so dashed out of coun- divulgate [celebrated] in all countries, where 
tenance, that the greatest part of [the] accu- by God*8 providence he became familiar 
sation was turned to laughter. After that with those lights and notable servants of 
diet, we find almost no question for matters Christ Jesus of that time, Martin Luther, 
of religion, the space of nigh thirty years ; Philip Melancthon, and the said Francis 
for not long after, to wit, in the year of Lambert; and did so grow and advance in 
God 1500, the said bishop Blackader de- godly knowledge, joined with fervency and 
parted this life, going in his superstitious integrity of life, that he was in admiration 
devotion to Jerusalem : unto whom succeed- with many. The zeal of God's glory did 
ed Mr James Beaton, son to the laird of so eat him up, that he could of no long 
Balfour in Fife, who was more careful for tlie continuance remain there, but returned to 
world nor [than] he was to preach Christ, his country, where the bright beams of the 
or yet to advance our religion, but for the true light, which by God's grace was plant- 
fashion only ; and as he sought the world, ed in his heart, began most abundantly to 
it fled him not, for it was well known, that burst forth as well in public as in secret ; 
at once he was archbishop of Saint An- for he was (besides his godly knowledge) 
drews, Abbot of Dunfermline, Arbroath, well learned in philosophy, be abhorred so- 
Rilwinning, and Chancellor of Scotland : phistry, and would that the text of Aris- 
for after the unhappy field of Flodden, in totle should have been better understood 
the which perished king James the Fourth, and more used in the schools than then it 
with the most part of the nobility of the was ; for sophistry had corrupted all, as 

Dtion of Fox's Book of Martyrs, one of the strongest arffuments be had seen 
one of the anachronisms that dis- against Knox's authorship, «* tiU of laU^^' sap 
to be the author, because it was he, " I have fallen on the edition of Fox in 

* This mention 
was esteemed 

K roved Knox , . - »» 

elieved that Fox's boolc was not published In Latin, Basil, 1569, fourteen years before Mr 
Knox's lifetime. Spotswood, and the author of Knox's death, where, at p. 121, at considerable 
the Fundamental Charter, argue from this length, is inserted the account of Patriaut 
n^rainst the genuineness of the history. But Hamiltonius, Scotus, which Knox might see, and 
the words are in the Glasgow MS., and this no doubt refers to. "-—JBrf. 
seems at iirst to have staggered Wodrow as 



well in diFinity M in hmnaiiity. In uhoft 
procMB of time, the fiuae of hit reasons and 
doctrine troobled the deify, and came to 
the ears of Uahop Jamea Beaton, of whom 
before we have made SMlion, who being a 
conjured enemy to Jaans Christ, and one 
that long had the whole regimen of the 
realm, bare impadentiy that any trouble 
should be made to that kingdom of dark- 
ness, whereof within this realm, he was 
the head; aod^ therefore, he so trayailed 
with the said Mr Patrick, that he got him 
to Saint Andrews ; where^ after the confer- 
ence of diTerae days, he had his freedom 
and liberty ; the said bishop and his bloody 
bntcber% called doctors, seemed to approve 
his doctrine, and to grant that many things 
craved reformation in the ecclesiastical re- 
gimen ; and, amongst the rest, there was one 
that secretly contented with him in almost all 
things^ named friar Alexander Campbell, a 
man of good wit and learning, but yet cor- 
rupt by the worid, as after we will hear. 
When the bishops and clergy had fully un- 
derstood the mind and judgment of the said 
Mr PMrick, and fearing that by him their 
kingdom should be indamaged, they tra- 
vailed with the king, who then was young 
aad altogether addict to their oommand- 
aent, that he should pass in pilgrimage to 
8ft Dothes of Ross, to the end that no in- 
tercessioa should be made for the life of the 
innocent servant of God, who suspecting no 
sndi cmelty, as in their hearts was conclud- 
ed, remained still (a lamb among the wolves) 
tin that upon a night, he was intercepted 
in hia chamber, and by the bishop's band 
Gained to the castle, where that night he 
was kept^ and upon the morning produced 
in judgment ; he was condemned to die by 
fire for the testimony of God*s truth. The 
aitides for the which he suffered, were but 
of pilgrimage, puigatory, prayer to saints, 
and lor the dead, and such trifles. Albeit 
that nuitteiB of greater importance had been 
in question, as his treatise, which in the 
end we have added, may witness. Now 
that the condemnation of the said Bfr Pa- 
trick should have greater authority, they 
caused the same to be subscribed by all 
those of any estimation that with them 
were present ; and to make their number 

I great, they took the subscription of child- 
ren, if they were of the nobility ; for the 
earl of Cassilis, which last deceased in 
France, then being but twelve or thirteen 
years of age, was compelled to subscribe his 
death, as himself did confess. Immediately 
after dinner, the fire was prepared before 
the Old College, and he led to the place of 
execution ; and yet men supposed, that all 
was done but to give unto him a terror, and 
to have caused him to have recanted, and 
have become recreant to those bloody 
beasts ; but God, for his own glory, for the 
comfort of his servant, and for manifesta- 
tion of their beastly tyranny, had otherwise 
decreed : for he so strengthened his faithful 
witness, that neither the love of life, nor 
yet the fear of that cruel death, could move 
him a jot to swerve from the truth once 
professed. At the place of execution, he 
gave to his servant, who had been chamber- 
cheild [servant] to him of a long time, his 
gown, his coat, bonnet, and such like gar^ 
ments, saying, ** These will not profit in 
the fire, they will profit thee; after this, 
of me thou canst receive no commodity, ex- 
cept the example of my death, which I pray 
thee bear in mind : for albeit it be bitter to 
the flesh, and fearful before men, yet it is 
the entrance unto eternal life, which none 
shall possess that deny Christ Jesus before 
this wicked generation.'* The innocent ser- 
vant of God, being bound to the stake in the 
midst of some coals, some timber, and other 
matter appointed for the fire, a train of pow- 
der was made and set on fire, which gave to 
the blessed martyr of God a glais, * skrump- 
led [wrinkled or shrivelled] his left hand, and 
that side of his hce, but neither kindled the 
wood nor yet the coals ; and so remained, 
the appointed to death, in torment, till 
that men ran to the castle again for more 
powder, and fir wood more able to take fire, 
which at last being kindled, with loud voice 
he cried, ** Lord Jesus receive my spirit : 
how long shall darkness overwhelm this 
realm ? and how long wilt thou suffer this 
tyranny of men ?" The fire was slow, there- 
fore was his torment the more ; but most of 
all was he grieved by certain wicked men, 

A slight iiijurioiu preuore io patting. 



[▲. B. im 

waaong whom Campbell the bUck friar (of 
whom we spake before) was principal, who 
oontinually cried, ** Convert, heretio, call 
npon our Lady, say, Sahe, retina," &a To 
whom he answered, ** Depart and tronble 
me not, ye messengers of Satan," Bat while 
that the foresaid friar still roared one thing, 
in great yehemeacy, he said onto him, 
" Wicked man, thoa koowest the contrary^ 
to me thou hast confessed, I appeal thee 
before the tribunal seat of Christ Jesus." 
After which, and other words, which well 
could not be understood nor marked, both 
for the tumult and vehemence of the hre, 
the witness of Christ Jesus got victory, 
after long sufferance, the last of February, 
in the year of God 1527 years. The said 
friar departed this life within few days 
after, in what estate we refer to the mani- 
festation of the general day. But it was 
plainly known, that he died in Glasgow in 
a frenzy, and as one despaired. Now, that 
all men may understand what was the sin- 
gular erudition and godly knowledge of the 
said Mr Patrick, we have inserted this his 
little pithy work, containing his assertions 
and determinations concerning the law, the 
office of the same, concerning faith, and the 
true fruits thereof; first by the said Mr Psp 
trick collected in Latin, and after translated 
in English. 


The law is a doctrine that biddeth good, 
and forbiddeth evil, as the oommandmenta 
here contained do specify. 


L Thou shalt worship but one God. IL 
Thou shalt make thee no image to worship 
it in. Thou shalt not swear by his name 
in vain. IV. Hold the Sabbath day holy. 
V. Honour thy &ther and thy mother. 
VL Thou shalt not kill VH. Thou shalt 
not commit adultery. VIU. Thou shalt 
not steal. IX. Thou shalt bear no false 
witness. X. Thou shalt not desire ought 
that belongcth to thy neighbour. 

He that loveth God and his neighbour, 
keepeth all the commandments of God. 
Love the Lord thy God with all thine 
heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy 

mind. This is the first and great command- 
ment The second is like onto this. Love 
thy naighboiir as thyself. In these two 
oonunandmants hang all the law and th« 
prophets. He that loveth God loreth his 
neighbour. If any man say, ha loveth God, 
and yet hateth his neighbour, he is a liar : 
He that loveth not his brother whom he 
hath seen, how can he love God whom he 
hath not seen. He that loveth his neigh- 
bour as himself, keepeth the whola oosn- 
mandments of God. Whatsoever that je 
would that men should do unto yoo, sven 
so do ye unto them; for this is the law 
and the prophets. He that loved his neigh* 
hour, fulfilled the law ; thou shalt not eoni- 
mit adultery, thou shalt not kill, thoa shalt 
not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness 
against thy neighbour, thou shalt not da- 
sire, and so forth, if there be any other 
commandment, all are comf^reliended under 
this saying. Love thy neighbour aa thy- 
self. He that loveth his neighbour keepeth 
all the commandments of God, Rom. xiiL 
Gal. V. He that loveth God, loveth his 
neighbour, 1 Jo. iv. JErgo, He that loveth 
God keepeth his oommandments. He that 
hath the £uth, loveth God: My Father 
loved you, because ye loved me, and be- 
lieved that I came of God. He that hath 
the feith, keepeth all the oommandments of 
God : He that hath the faith, loveth God ; 
and he that loveth God, keepeth all the com- 
mandments of God: Erffo, He that hath 
faith, keepeth all the commandments of 
God. He that keepeth one commandment, 
keepeth them all, for without iaith it is in^ 
possible to keep any of the commandments 
of God ; and he that has £iiith, keeps all the 
oommandments of God: Erffo, He that 
keeps one commandment, keepeth them all. 
He that keepeth not all the commandments 
of God, he keepeth none of them ; he that 
keepeth one of the commandments of God, 
keeps all : Ergo, He that keeps not all the 
oommandments, he keeps none of them. It 
is not in our power, without grace, to keep 
any of God's commandments, and grace is 
not in our power : Ergo, It is not in onr 
power to keep any of the commandments 
of God. Even so. may you reason oonoem- 
iog the Holy Ghost wd fidth. The lew 




gWcK to dhw M our rins. By the 
cooMS tiM koowkdg* of tin ; I knew 
not what an ■eiiit, bnt throogh the law ; 
I knew not what Init meant, except the 
Uw had nid, Thoa shalt not luat With- 
out Uw fin waa dead, that ia, moved me 
not ; neither wist I that it waa tin, which 
notwithstandiBip waa ain, and forbidden by 
the kw. The Uw biddeth na do that 
which ia impoaiUa for as, for it bids us 
keep all the coamandmenti of God ; and 
yet it is not in onr power to keep any of 
them : JErga^ It bids na do that which is 
imposejbia lor na. Thou wilt say. Where- 
fore doth God ooBunand ns that which is 
impoasiMe for ns ? I answer. To make thee 
know that thou art bnt eyil, and that there 
ia no r e m edy to mre thee in thine own 
hand, and that thou must seek remedy at 
soma other : for the law doth nothing but 
coonnand thee. 


The goapel is aa mnch to say in our 
tongue, aa good tidings, like as erery one 
of these sentences be. 

Christ ia the Sariour of the world. Christ 
ia onr Savioar. Christ died for us. Christ 
died for onr sins. Christ offered himself 
for OS. Christ bare our sins upon his back. 
Christ bought ns with his blood. Christ 
washed na with his blood. Christ came in 
the worid to save sinners. Christ came io 
this world to take away our sins. Christ 
was the price that was giyen for us, and for 
our una. Chriat waa made debtor for our 
aina. Christ hath paid our debt: for he 
died for na. Christ hath made satisfaction 
for ns^ and for onr sins. Christ is our 
righteoMBcaa. Christ is our wisdom. Christ 
is oar aaoetification. Christ is onr redemp- 
tioB. Chriat ia onr satis&ction. Christ is 
onr goodness. Christ has pacified the Fa- 
ther of hearen. Christ is ours, and all his. 
Christ haa delivered ns from tbe law, from 
the devil, and from hell. The Father of 
hearen has foigiven ns for Christ's sake. 
<)r, any such other, aa declare nnto us the 
roen'ies of iHkL 


The law shows ns our sin, our condem- 

nation, is the word of ire [wrath], is tbe 
word of despair, is the word of displeasnre. 
The gospel shows us a remedy for it, oui 
redemption, is the word of grace, is the word 
of comfort, is the word of peace. 



The law saith. Pay thy debt, thou art a 
sinner desperate, thou shall die. 

The gospel saith, Christ hath paid it, thy 
sins are forgiven thee, be of good comfort, 
thou shalt be saved. 

The law saith. Make amends for thy sin, 
the Father of heaven is wroth with thee, 
where is thy righteousness, goodness, and 
satisfactiou ? Thou art bound and obligate 
unto me, the devil and hell. 

The gospel saith, Christ hath made it for 
thee, Christ has pacified him with his 
blood; Christ is thy righteousness, good- 
ness, and satisfaction, Christ has delivered 
thee from them alL 


Faith is to believe God, like as Abraham 
believed God, and it was counted to him 
for righteousness. He that believeth God. 
believeth his word. To believe in him is 
to believe his word, and account it true that 
he speaks ; he that believeth not God*s 
word, believes not himself, he countcth him 
false and a liar, and believeth not that he 
may and will fulfil his word : and so he 
denieth both the might of God and him- 

Faith is the gift of God ; any [every] good 
thing is the gift of God; faith is good: 
Ergo, Faith is the gift of God. The gift of 
God is not in our power ; faith is the gift 
of God : Ergo, Faith is not in our power. 
Without faith it is impossible to please 
God, all that cometh not of faith is sin ; for 
without faith can no man please God. Be- 
sides that he that lacketh faith, he trusts 
not God ; he that trusteth not God, tnisteth 
not in his word ; he that trusteth not in his 
word, holdeth him false and a liar ; he that 
holdeth him false and a liar, he believeth 
not that he may do that he promiseth, and 
so denieth he that he is God. And how ran 
a man, being of this fiuhion, please God ? 




[a. h. IBtl 

No manner of ways, yet, mippose he did all 
the work of men and angek. All that is 
done io fidth pleaseth God; right is the 
word of God, and all his works in frith. 
Lord, thine eyes look to frith ; that is as 
much to say as. Lord, thoa delightest in 
frith. God loveth him that belieyedi in 
him: How can they then dinplease him; 
he that hath the frith is jnst and good, and 
a good tree bringeth forth good fruit : 
Ergoy All that is in frith done pleaseth 
God. MoreoTer, he that hath the faith be- 
lieveth God ; he that believeth God, be- 
lieveth his word; he that belieyeth his 
words, woteth well that he is true and 
frithful, and may not lie: but knoweth 
well that he may, and will both, fulfil his 
word. How can he then displease him ? 
For thou canst not do any greater honour 
unto God, than to count him true. Thou 
wilt then say, that theft, murder, adultery, 
and till vices please God ? None, verily, fbr 
they cannot be done in frith; for a good 
tree beareth good fruit He that hath the 
faith, woteth well that he pleaseth God; 
for all that is done in frith pleaseth God. 
Faith is a sureness, frith is a sure confi- 
dence of things that are hoped for, and a 
certainty of things which ars not seen. 
The same spirit certifieth our spirit that 
we are the children of God. MorsoTsr, 
he that had the faith, woteth well that God 
will ftilfil his word : Ergo, Faith is a snre- 


Abraham belicTed God, and it was im- 
puted to him for righteousness. We sup- 
pone, therefore, that a man is justified, 
suth the apostle, without the works of 
the law ; he that worketh not, but believeth 
in him that justifiaCli the ungodly, his frith 
is counted unto him for righteousness. The 
just man liveth by frith, Habak. ii. Rom. i. 
We wot that a man that is justified, is not 
justified by the works of the law, but by 
the frith of Jesus Christ, and not by the 
deeds of the law. 


The faith of Christ is to beliere in him, 
that is, to belisTe his word, and to believe;, 

that he will help tfaee in all thy need, §mk 
deliver thee from eviL Thou wilt atk at 
what word? I anawer^ the QocpaL Ha 
that balisTeth in Christ shall bo Mivtii ho 
that believeth the Son hath otflnal lifc. 
Verily, verily I say onto yo«» ho that h^ 
lieveth in me hath eternal lifr* Tlw I 
write unto you, that beliaviag ia tbe iwa 
of the Son of €U>d, ye nay know that fo 
have eternal life. Thomas^ becaiiao tkMi 
hast seen me thoa bdievest^ but happy ara 
they that have not seen, and yet belieiw in 
me. All the prophets to hhn bear yitnens, 
that whosoever believeth In him ahiU have 
remission of their sins. What most I do 
that I may be saved ? The apoi^ anawer- 
eth. Believe in the Lord Jeans GUst» and 
thou shalt be saved. If thou aoknowladge 
witli the mouth that Jeaoa is the Lord* iad 
believe in thine heart that God jraised him 
up from the death, thou sbalt be saved. Ha 
that believes not in Christ shall be con- 
demned; he that believes not in the Son, 
shall never see life^ but the ire [wrath] of 
God abideth upon him. The Holy Ghoal 
shall reprove the world of sin, because thoy 
believe not in me; they that believe in 
Jesus Christ are the sons of God. Ye are 
all the sons of God, because ye believe in 
Jeans Christ He that believes Christ the 
Son of God is saved. Peter said. Thorn 
art Christy the Son of the living God. Jesoa 
answered and said onto him, Happy art 
thou, Simon, the son of Jonas, for flesh and 
blood hath not opened nnto thee that, but 
my Father which is in heaven. We hava 
believed and known, that thou art Chriat 
the Son of the living God, whieh ih»aU 
oome in the world. I believe, that thou act 
Christ the Son of the living God, whidi 
should come into the world. These thinga 
are written that ye might believe tiiat Jasoa 
is the Son of God, and that in bdiering ye 
might have life. I believe that Jesus is tha 
Son of the living God. He that believeth 
God believeth the gospel. He that ba- 
lieveth God believeth his word, and tha 
goepel is his word ; therefore, he that ha- 
lieveth God believeth his gospeL 

As Christ is the Saviour of the world, 
Christ is our Savioar. Christ bought us 
with his Wood. Christ washed as with his 




JuBMdffornt. Gbrkt 
Ui bMk. He that be- 
lMvwBolUif«pd,Mi«v«thiiotGod. He 
that beliefelh Bol God's woffd, beKefeth not 
hinMolf; and the goapel is Ood's word: 
.&90» He that bsliefoth not the gospel, be- 
lievcth not God himsBlf, snd oonseqaently, 
they that bslisfia not sa is above written, 
and aash other, believe not God. He thst 
bdiovea the gospsi thaU be IS ved. Go ye 
into aU the werid, and preaeh the gospel 
witoevetyemtm^ He that beKeveth snd 
is baptiMdi shall be nved; bat be thst be- 
lievod noli shall be oondemned. 

A COKPAaUOH JUrrWlXT faith and INCRB- 

Faith ii tiie root of sll good; msketh 
God snd BMUi friends; bringeth God and 
■Mn tefsthsr. 

IncrsdnKty isthe rootof sll evil; msketh 
thesi deadly Ibes; bringeth them sundry. 

AH that pfoeeedeth from fidth plesseth 
God. All that pfoeeedeth from inovdnlity 
diiflsassth God. Fsith only msketh a msn 
good and tightoons. Incredulity msketh 
Inas nninst and eviL Faith only msketh s 
nan the wwmbgr of Christ, the inheritor of 
hcaiven, Oe sirvant of God. Faith showeth 
God to be a sweet Fbther. Fsith holdeth 
fttiiT [isit] by the word of God, coonteth 
God to be true. Fsith knoweth God, 
loveth God snd hb neighbour. Fsith only 
■sveth, eztoDeth God snd his worics. 

Incrsdnlity msketh him the member of 
the devil, the hiheritor of hell, the servant 
of the devil Incredulity msketh God a 
terrible judge. It esuseth msn wander 
here and flwre, maketh him false snd a liar. 
Incredulity knoweth him not Incredulity 
loveth neither God nor neighbour, only 
condemnethy eztolleth flesh snd her own 


Hope is a tmsty looking-for of things 
that are pioaissd to come nnto u, ss we 
hope the everissting joy which Christ hss 
promised onto all that believe in him. We 
shonld pot onr hope and trust in God only, 
sad in no other thing. It is good to trust in 
God, snd not in nam : He thst trusteth in 

his own hsart he Is a fboL It is good to 
tmst in God, snd not in prinoss : They 
•hsll be like nnto imsges that mske them, 
snd sll thst trust in them : He that trust- 
eth in his own thoughts, does ungodly: 
Cursed be he thst trusteth in msn : Bid the 
rich men of this world, that they trust not 
in their unstable riches, but that they trust 
in the living God: It is hard forthem thai 
trust in money to enter into the kingdom 
of God. Moreover, we should trust in him 
only, that he may help us ; ergo, we should 
trust in him only. Well is him that trusts 
in God, and woe to him that trusts him not 
Well is the man that trusts in God, for God 
shall be his trust : He that trusteth in him 
shall understsnd the truth, « They shall sU 
rejoice thst trust in thee, they shsU sll ever 
be glsd, snd thou wilt defend them. 


Chsrity is the love of thy neighbour: 
The rule of charity is, to do as thou 
wouldst were done unto thee ; for charity 
esteemeth sll slike, the rich snd the poor, 
the friend snd the foe, the thsnkful and 
unthankful, the kinsman and stranger. 



Faith oometh of the word of God ; hope 
cometh of fiuth ; and charity springeth of 
them both. Faith believeih the word; 
hope trusts after that which is promised by 
the word; and charity doth good to her 
neighbour, through the love that she has to 
God ; and gladness that is within herself > 
and faith looketh to God and his word, 
hope looketh to his gift and reward, cliarity 
looketh nnto her neighbour's profit ; faith 
receiveth God, hope receiveth his reward, 
charity looketh unto her n6ighbour with a 
glad heart, and that without any respect of 
raward ; fidth pertaineth to God only, hope 
to his reward, and charity to her neigh- 


No manner of works makes us righteous: 
we l>elieve that a man shall be justified 
without works. No man is justified by tlio 
deeds of the law, but by the fisith of Jesus 



[A. D. litt 

Christ ; and we believe in Jesoa Christ that 
we may. be justified by the faith of Christ, 
and not by the deeds of the kw. If right- 
eousness came by the hiw, then Christ died 
in yain ; that no man is justified by the law 
it is manifest, for a righteous man liveth by 
his fkith; -but the law is not of £uth. 
Moreover, since Christ the maker of heaven 
and earth, and all that therein is, behoved 
to die for us, we are compelled to grant that 
we were so far drowned in sin, that neither 
our deeds, nor all the creatures that ever 
God made or might make, might have help- 
ed us out of them : Ergo^ No deeds nor 
works may make us righteous : No works 
make us unrighteous, for if any works 
made us unrighteous, then the contrary 
works would make us righteous. But it is 
proven that no works can make us right- 
eons: ErgOf No works make us unright. 
eons. • 


It is proven that works neither make us 
righteous nor unrighteous : Ergo, No works 
neither make us good nor evil, for righteous 
and good are both one thing, and unright- 
eous and evil, one. Good works make not 
a good man, nor evil works an evil man ; 
but a good man maketh good works, and an 
evil man evil works. Good fruit maketh 
not the tree good, nor evil fruit the tree 
evil, but a good tree beareth good fruit, and 
an evil tree evil fruit : a good man cannot 
do evil works, nor an evil man good works 
for an evil tree cannot bear good fruit, nor 
a good tree evil fruit A man is good be- 
fore he do good works, and an evil man is 
evil before he do evil works, for the tree is 
good before it bear good fruit, and evil be- 
I ore it bear evil fruit : Every man is either 
good or evil ; either make the tree good and 
the fruit good also, or else make the tree 
evil, and the fruit likewise evil also. Every 

* This conclusioD taken bv itself, is somewhat 
startling ; and it is true only of men as sinners 
by nature, or before ^ey do any works either 
good or eyil. The first evil work, or rather act, 
certninlv made men unrighteous. ** By one 
man's disobedience many were made sinners." 
Hamilton's expression, <* No works make us 
unrighteous,'* instead of opposinc, is a strong 
manner of ezprttslDg hi* eooTictien of this 

man's work is either good or evil, for all 
fruits are either good or evil, either aiakt 
the tree good and the fruit alao^ or ebe 
make the tree evil and the fruit of it like- 
wise evil also. A good man is known Ivy 
his works, for a good man doth good wiirk% 
and an evil man evil works, ** Ye dhall 
know them by their frnits, for a good tree 
bringeth forth good fhiit, and an. evil tree 
evil fruit A man is likened to the trae^ 
and his works to the fruit of the tree. Be- 
ware of the £alse prophets which oosm unto 
you in sheep's clothing, bat inwardly thej 
are ravening wolves, ye shall knoir them 
bv their fruits. 


l] SAVE 

It is proven that no works make va either 
righteous or unrighteous, good nor evil ; but 
first we are good before that we do good 
works, and evil before we do evil worka: 
ErgOf No work neither condemn us nor 
save us. Thou wilt say, then maketh it bo 
matter what we do? I answer thee^ Yea. 
For if you do evil, it is a sure argument 
that thou art evil and want faith ; if you 
do good, it is an argument that thou art 
good and hast faith ; for a good tree beareth 
good fruit, and an evil tree evil fruit ; yet 
good fruit maketh not the tree good, nor 
evil fruit the tree evil, so that man is good 
before he do good works, and evil before 
he do evil works. The man is the tree, the 
works are the fruit, faith maketh the good 
tree, incredulity the evil tree : such a tree^ 
such a fruit, such man, such works : for all 
that is done in faith pleaseth God, and are 
good works, and all that is done without 
faith displeaseth God, and are evil works. 
MThosoever thinketh to be saved by hia 
works, denieth that Christ is our Saviour, and 
that Christ died for him ; and finally, all [deni- 
eth every] thing that belongeth to Christ For 

truth, as appears by his own explanation in the 
article immediately following. These artielea, 
though expressed in the technical language of the 
schools, are remarkably clear and Intelligible. 
They show what sort of tbeologioal teaching La- 
ther and his colleagues instituted at Wittemberg, 
and what a firm hold the mind of Hamilton had 
got of the fundamental article of the ftefomuu 
tioo— Justification by fidth without worin.^£c{. 




how ia 1m tby flmiMir, if thoa mighttt MTe 
iSkfw^ irith iSbj woikt ? Or to what end 
■bonld ho havo died for thee, if any works 
of thinoBUglit hoTO nTed thee? What is 
thb to say, Christ died for thee ? Is it not 
that thoa ahonidat haye died perpetually, 
and that Christ, to deUyer thee from death, 
died fcr thes^ and diaoged thy perpetual 
death in his own death : For thou madest 
the fiudt, and ha snfiered the pain, and that 
for the lore he bore to thee before ever 
thou wast bora^ when thou hadst done nei- 
ther good nor aril. Now since he has paid 
thy debt, thoa dicst not; no, thou canst 
not, but shonldat haye been damned, if his 
death were not But sure he was punished 
for thee, thoa shalt not be punished. Fi- 
nally, he haa deUyered thee from the con- 
demnation, and deaireth nou^it of thee, but 
that thoa ahonldst acknowled^ what he 
haa done for thee, and bear it in mind, 
and that thoa wonldst help others for his 
soke both in word and deed, eyen as he had 
helped thee for nought, and without re- 
ward. O how ready would we be to help 
oChera, if we knew his goodness and gen- 
tieneas towards ns ! He is a good and a gen- 
tle Lord, and he does all things for nought 
Let us, I beseech you, follow his footsteps, 
when all the world ought to praise and 
worship. Amen. 


For he oalleth himself a Sayiour, which 
apfcftaincth to Christ only. What is a 
Sariov, Vat he that sayetii ? And thou 
aayeat, I saye myself which is as much as 
to say, I am Christ ; for Christ is only [only 
is] the Sayiour of the world. We should do 
no good woriu for that intent to get the in- 
heritance of heayen or remission of sins 
throogh then, for whoeoeyer believeth to 
get the inheritance of heaven or remisrion 
of sins throogh worics, he believes not to 
get that for Christ's sake. And they that 
believe that their sins are not forgiven 
them, and that they shall not be saved for 
Christ's sake, they believe not the gospel ; 
for the gospel saith. Thou shalt be saved 
for Christ's sake ; sins are forgiven you for 
Christ's sake. He that believeth not the 

gospel, believeth not God ; and consequent- 
ly, they that believe to be saved by their 
works, or to get remiiision of sins by their 
own deeds, believe not God, but account 
him a liar, and so utteriy deny him to be 
God. Thou wilt say. Shall we then do no 
good works ? I say not so : but I say, we 
should do no good works, for that intent to 
get the kingdom of heaven, or renussion 
of sins ; for if we believe to g^t the inheri- 
tance of heaven through good works, then 
we believe not to get it through the pro- 
mise of God. Or if we think to get remis- 
sion of our sins, as said is, we believe not 
that they are forgiven us by Christ, and 
so we count God a liar; for God sailb. 
Thou shalt have the inheritance of heaven 
for my Son's sake. You say. It is not so, 
but I win [gain] it through my own works 
So I condemn not good works, but I con- 
demn the false trust in any works, for all 
the works a man putteth confidence in, are 
therewith intoxicate, or impoisoned, and 
become evil. 

Wherefore do good works, but beware 
thou do them to get any good through 
them, for if thou do, thou receivest the 
good, not as the gift of God, but as debt 
unto thee, and makest thyself fellow [equal] 
with God, because thou wilt take nothing 
from him for nought What needeth he 
any thing of thine, who giveth all thing, 
and is not the poorer? Therefore do no- 
thing to him, but take of him, for he is a 
gentle Lord, and with a gladder heart will 
give 1.8 all things that we need, than we 
take it of him. So that if we want any 
thing, let us wyto [blame] ourselves. Press 
not then to the inheritance of heaven, 
through presumption of thy good works ; 
for if thou do, thou countest thyself holy 
and equal unto him, because thou wilt 
take nothing of him for nought; and so 
shalt thou fall as Lucifer fell from the 
heaven for his pride. * This ends the 

* The reader will have observed, that Hamil- 
ton*s quoUtions from Scriptura are not accord- 
inf to our authorized version, which was nut 
made for three-fourths of a centurj after his 
time. The sense is, indeed, the same, and the 
▼erbal difference is not great I suppose the 
only version in the vulgar toiifiie to which 11 a- 
milton had access, was WIckliffe's ; but 1 find 



[about a. h. Itai 

taid Mr Patrick's articles. And to we re- 
tom to oar history. 

When those cruel woWes had, as they 
supposed, clean devoured the prey, they 
found themselres in worse case than they 
were before ; for then within St Andrews, 
yea, almost within the whole realm, who 
heard of that iiMt, there was none found 
who begUk not to inquire, wherefore was 
Mr Patrick Hamilton burnt? And when 
bis articles were rehearsed, question was 
bolden, if such articles were necessary to 
be belieyed under the pain of damnation. 
And so within short space many began to 
call in donbt that which before they held 
ibr a certain verity, in so mnch that the 
university of St Andrews, and St Leo- 
nard's college principally, by the labours 
of Mr Gavin Logie, and the noviciates of 
the abbey by the sub-prior, began to smell 
somewhat of the verity, and to espy the 
vanity of the received superstition; yea, 
within few years after began both black and 
grey firiars publicly to preach against the 
pride and idle life of bishops, and against 
the abuse of the whole ecclesiastical estate, 
amongst whom was one called friar Wil- 
liam Airth, wbo^ in a sermon preached in 
Dundee, spake somewhat more liberally 
against the licentious life of the bishops nor 
[than] they could well bear. He spake farther 
against the abuse of cursing [excommunica- 
tion] and of miracles. The bishop of Brechin, 
having his plaoeboes and jackmen [followers 
and armed men] in the town, buffeted the 
friar, and called him heretic. The friar, im* 
jiatient of the iiyury received, passed to St 
Andrews, and did communicate the heads 
of his sermon with Mr John Mair, whose 
word then was holden as an oracle in mat- 
ters of religion ; and being assured of him 
that such doctrine might well be defended, 
and that he would defend it, for it contain- 
ed no heresy, there was a day appointed 
to the said friar to make repetition of the 

on oompMrlmn, tbst hit quotatioiM differ from 
It alio. As he wrote his l^aot oricinally in 
Latin, it is probable he used the VulfatG, and 
then translated the language of it along with his 
own Latin, into the va&ar language of hisooun- 
try. Long before his time Wtokirfre*s was read 
1b Scotland. •* Before the year 1600, Mardoeb 

same sermon: and advertisement was gives 
to all such as were offended at fbe fww 
to be present And to in the pariah kiik 
of 6t Andrews, upon the day appouitei^ 
appeared the said friar, and had aBOOgil 
his auditors, Bfr John Mair, filr QtotgB 
Lockhart, t^e abbot of CSambuakeaiMtty 
Mr Patrick Hepburn, prior then of 8t A»* 
drews, with all the doctors and maalen af 
the universities. The theme of hb Mr* 
mon was, " Verity is the strongsat of mU 
things.*' His discourse of omng wb% 
That if it were righUy used, it WM tiM 
most fearful thing upon the tee of fSbm 
earth ; for it was the very taprntioa of 
man from God; but that it s hs wi d not 
be used rashly, and for every Hghft obom^ 
but only against open and iaeorrigifale 
sinners : but now, said he^ the avarioe of 
priests, and the ignorance of their ofioe^ 
has caused it altogether to be viKpended 
[despised, or evil spcricen of]. For the 
priest, said he, whose duty and office it is 
to pray for the people, stands up on Soi^ 
day,andcries^ ^'Onehastintflostjaspurtle; 
there is a flail stolen beyond the burn ; tha 
gudewile of the other side of the gate has 
tint a horn spoon; God's malison [curse] and 
mine I give to them that know of this gear 
and restore it not" How the people mocked 
their cursing, he farther told a merry tale, 
how after a sermon that he had at Dun- 
fermline, he came to a house where gossips 
were drinking their Sunday's penny; and he 
being dry, asked drink ; " Yes, father," said 
one of the gossips, ** ye shall have drink, 
but ye man [must] first resolve a doubt 
which is risen amongst us, to wit. What 
servant will serve a man best on least ex- 
penses ?" <* The good angel," said I, *< who 
is man's keeper, who makes great service 
without expense." *< Tush," said the gossip, 
** we mean no so high matters; we mean. 
What honest man will do greatest service 
for least expense ?" ** And while I vras 
musing," said the friar, ** what that should 

Niabet, being drlten from his native eoontrj, 
procured a copy of the New Testament in ma* 
nuscript, (of Wickliffe*s translation no doubt) 
whieh, on his return, he eoneealed in a Tault, 
and reJMl to his fiimily and aoQitaintanoa during 
the nigbt." M*Crie't U^ ^MviUc, vol. I. p. 




« I ie«^ fiUhflr, thai the 
«• ■•€ Um wisest OMD. 
Kaow jii BOC bovr the bishops and their 
efiobk •WW M hiNbendmen ? WiU they 
not give MA letter of eatmg for a plack, 
to leet for a year, to eune all that look 
OTsr oar iSkt^ and that keeps oar com bet- 
tar Bor [thaa] the sleepinf boy that irill hare 
three sUlliaga of Ae» a sark, and a pair of 
ahoQBintheyeor; and, therefore, if their 
coniag doir lean idbot] any thing , we hdd 
the bishofs bsst eheap aenraotsin that behalf, 
that are within the realm." As oonoeming 
lairarlee^ he declared what diligence the an- 
eients took to try true mirades from false. 
Bat now, aaid he^ greedincas of -priests not 
ootf looehre folse aairscles, but also they cbe- 
rish and foe koaves for that purpose, that 
their ehapsia may he the better renowned, 
and their offerings Hay he angmented. And 
t hers op oa are aaany chapels founded, as 
that oar lady were sightier, and that she 
took BUMre pisasnre in one place than in 
another; as of late dajfs onr lady of Kers- 
graage haa hopped frooi one green hillock 
to another: Bat honeet men of St An- 
drewBy said he^ if ye love yoor wives and 
danghters^ KM them at home, or eke send 
them in honest company ; for if ye knew 
what miraclea were Idthed [exhibited] there, 
ye woold [neither] thank God nor our Udy. 
And thus he merrily taunted their trysts of 
whoredcoa and adultery used at such devo- 
tion. Another article was judged more 
hard, for he alleged the common law, that 
the dvil magistrate mi^t correct the kirk- 
men, and deprive them of their benefices 
for open rioss. Another day, the same 
friar made another sermon of the abbot 
Unreason,* unto whom, and whose laws 
he eompared prelates of that age ; for they 
were suhdned to no laws, no more than 
was the abbot Unreason. And among 
other tinngs, he told such a merry bourde 
[jest] : «■ There was," said he, ** a prekte, 
or et least a prslate's peer, a true servant 
to the kiqgof love, who, upon a night after 
supper, asked at his gentlemen, by the faith 

• This was ■ Mit ttf fares of tfat lowMt kind, 
aoc np for tha amusnnent of the poopio; and it 
was attmdod by amsh grooi UoratiootBMi, that 
it was put down by act of Parliament, in the 

that they owed to the king of love, that they 
should truly declare how many snndiy w»> 
men any one of them had had, and how 
many i^ them were men's wives ? One 
answered, * he had lain with live, and two 
of them were married.' The other an- 
swered, < I have had seven, and three of 
them are married.' It came at last to my 
lord himself, who making very nice for a 
little space, gave in the end a plain confea- 
sion, and said, ' I am the youngest man, 
and yet have I had the round dozen, and 
seven of them are men's wives.' Now," said 
the fnar, ** this god and king of love to whom 
our preUtes make homage, is the master 
devil of hell, from whom such fruits do pro- 
ceed." This prebite was known by his pro- 
per tokens to have been prior Patrick Hep- 
burn, now bishop of Murray, who to this 
day has continued in the profession that he 
once made to his god the king of love. 

Jt was supposed, notwithstanding this 
kind of preaching, that this fnar remained 
papist in his heart, for the rest of the friars 
fearing to lose the benedictions of the bi- 
shops, to wit, their malt and their meal, 
and their other appointed pensions, caused 
the friar to flee to England, where, for de- 
fence of the pope and papistry, he was im- 
prisoned at King Henry's command ; but 
so it pleased God to open the mouth of Ba- 
laam's own ass, to cry out against the vi- 
cious lives of the clergy of that age. Short 
after this, new consultation was taken that 
some should be burnt, for men began very 
liberally to speak. A merry gentleman, 
named John Lindsay, familiar to bishop 
James Beaton, standing by when consulta- 
tion was had, said, " My lord, if ye bum any 
man, except ye follow my counsel, ye will 
utteriy deetroy yourselves; if ye will bum 
them, let them be burnt in howe [low] cd- 
lars, for the reek of Mr Patrick Hamilton 
has infected as many as it did blow upon." 
Thus it pleased Ood, that they should be 
taunted in their own faces. But here fol- 
lows the most merry of all. Alexander 
Ferrier, who had been imprisoned seven 

not oyer* virtuoas reifn of Queen Mary. See a 
long amoting article on the eaMect in Ja- 
miceon's Dictionary of the Scotieh language.— - 




[about a. s. U8D 

yean in the tower of London, Sir John 
Dingwell, according' to the charity of kirk- 
men, entertained his wife, and wasted the 
poor nian*8 aubetance ; for the which canae, 
at his returning^, he spake more liberally of 
priests than they could bear, and so was he 
delated to be accused of lieresy, and call- 
ed to his answer at St Andrews. He leapt 
np merrily upon the scaffold, and casting a 
gamound, [gambol] said, " Where are the 
rest of the players?" Mr Andrew Oli- 
phant offended therewith, said, " It shall 
be no play to you. Sir, before ye depart ;" 
and so began to read his accusation. The 
first article whereof was, ** That he despit- 
ed the mass.** His answer was, ** I hear 
more masses in eight days than three bi- 
shops there sitting say in a year." Ac- 
cused, secondly, ** For contemption of the 
sacraments.*' ** The priests,** said he, *' were 
the most common contemners of sacrar 
ments, and especially of matrimony;*' and 
that he witnessed by many there present 
of the 'priests, and named the men*s wives 
with whom they had meddled, especially 
Sir John Dingwell, who had seven years 
together abused his own wife, and con- 
sumed his substance. And says, ** Because 
I complain of such injuries, I am here sum- 
moned and accused, as one that is worthy 
to be burnt: For God's cause,** said he, 
" will ye take wives of your own, that land 
others whose wives ye have abused, may 
be revenged upon you.** Then bishop Ga- 
vin Dunbar, named the old bishop of Aber- 
deen, thinking to justify himself before the 
people, said, '* Carle, thou shalt not know 
my wife.*' The said Alexander answered, 
** My lord, ye are too old, but with the 
grace of God, I shall drink with your daugh- 
ter before I depart** And thereat was smil- 
ing of the best, and loud laughter of some ; 
for the bishop had a daughter married with 
Andrew Balfour in that same town. Then 
the bishops bade, ** Away with the carle.** 
But he answered, " Nay, I will not depart 
this hour, for I have more to speak against 
the vices of priests, than I can express this 
whole day." And so after diverse purposes, 
they commanded him to bum his bill ; and 
he demanding the cause, they said, " Be- 
cause ye have spoken thoae artiolea where- 

of yon are accused.'* His answer wAi, 
** The mnckle devil bear them away that 
first and last spake them." And so he took 
the bill, and chewing it, he afterwards spit 
it in Mr Andrew Oliphant's face, saying, 
** Now, bum it or drown it, whether ye 
will, ye shall hear no more of me ; but I 
must have somewhat of every one of you, 
to begin my padc again, which a priest and 
my wife, a prie8t*8 whore, have spent** 
And so every prelate and rich priest, glad 
to be quit of his evil [tongue], gave him 
somewhat, and so departed he ; for he un- 
derstood nothing of religion. * But so fear- 
ful it was to speak any thing against priests, 
that the least word spoken against them, yea 
albeit it were spoken in a man*8 sleep, was 
judged heresy ; and tluit was practised upon 
Richard Carmichael, yet alive in Fife, who 
being young and a singer in the chapel royal 
of Stirling, happened in his sleep to say, " The 
devil take away the priests, for they are a 
greedy pack.*' He was therefore accused 
by Sir John Clapperton, dean of the said 
chapel, was compelled therefore to bum hia 
bill [t. e. recant]. But God short after rais- 
ed up against them stronger champions. 
For Alexander Seyton, a black friar of 
good learning and estimation, began to tax 
the corrupt doctrine of the papistry. For 
the space of a whole lent, he taught the 
commandments of Gk>d only, ever beating 
in the ears of his auditors, ** that the law 
of God had of many years not been truly 
taught ; for men*s traditions had obscured 
the purity of it** These were his accos- 
tomed propositions : ** First, Christ Jesus 
is the end and perfection of the law. 2d. « 
There is no sin where God*8 law is not 
violated. Sd. To satisfy for sins, lies not 
in man's power, but the remission thereof 
Cometh by unfeigned repentance, and the 
faith apprehending God the Father merci- 
ful in Christ Jesus his Son.** While often- 
times he puts auditors in mind of these and 
the like heads; he makes no mention of 
purgatory, pardons, pilgrimages, prayers to 

* It wu this that saved him. The clergy ^ 
eoald suffer great freedom of tpcech from wicked 
men ; but the leaai appearance of godliness wds 
enough to roi^d«Bm auy one*— £tf. 




nfaitti ndther of tiieh tritM : The dumb 
doatofiy and tbB rat of that fonworn nb- 
ble, begiA to niipoot him; and jet they 
said nolhiiif pvhticlytill lent was ended, 
and ho pawed to Dudot; and then in his 
abeence, hired fiwr that pvrpose, openly con- 
demned the holy doebine^ which before he 
had taught^ which osmiog to his ears, the 
said friar AJezandor then being in Dondee, 
without deky he returned to St Andrews, 
caused immediately to jow [ring] the bell, 
and to giTO signification that he would 
preachy as that he did indeed, in the which 
senaoa he affirmed, and that more plainly 
than at any other tune, whatsoever he had 
tanght in all hb sermons before the whole 
lent tide preceding. Adding, ** That with- 
in Scotland there were no true bishops, if 
that biahopa should be known by such 
notes and Tirtnes, as saint Pkul requires in 
bishops." This delation flew with wings 
to the bishops' ears, who, but [without] far- 
ther delay, send for the said friar Alexander, 
who began grievously to complain, and 
sharply to accuse that he had so slander- 
ously spoken of the dignity of bishops, as 
to say, ** That it behoved a bishop to be a 
preadier, or else he was but a dumb dog, 
and fed not die flock, but fed his own 
belly.*' The man being witty, and minded 
of that which was a most assured defence, 
said, ** My lord, the reporters of such 
thingi art manifest liars." Whereat the 
bishop rqoioed, and said, <* Your answer 
pi west me well; I never could think of 
yol^ that ye would have been so foolish as 
to affirm soch things : Where are these 
knaves that have brought me this tale ?" 
Who compearing, and affirming the same 
that they did before ; he still replied, *< that 
they were liars." But while the witnesses 
were multiplied, and men were brought to 
attention, ho turned him to the bishop, and 
said, ** My Lord, ye may hear, and consi- 
der what ears these asses have, who can- 
not deeem betwixt Paul, Isaiah, Zecha- 
riah, and Malachi, and friar Alexander Sey- 
ton. In Toy deed, my lord, I said, that 
Paul says^ It behoves a bishop to be a 
teacher. Isaiah said. That they that fed 
not the flock are dumb dogs ; and Zecha- 
riah says, They are. idle pastors. I, of 

my own head, affirmed nothing, but de- 
dared what the Spirit of God before had 
pronounced. At whom, my lord, if ye be 
not offended, justly ye cannot be offended 
at me ; and so yet again, my lord, I say, that 
they are manifest liars, that reported unto 
you that I said, that ye and others that 
preach not are no bishops but belly gods." 
Albeit after that, the bishop was highly of- 
fended, as well at the scoff and bitter mock 
as at the bold liberty of that learned man ; 
yet durst he not hazard at that present to 
execute his malice conceived ; for not 
only feared he the learning and bold spirit 
of the man, but also the favour that he 
had, as well of the people as the prince. 
King James the Fifth, of whom he had 
good credit ; for -he was at that time his 
confessor, and had exhorted him to the fear 
of God, to the meditation of God's law, 
and unto purity of life : but the bishop, 
with his complices, foreseeing what dan- 
ger might come to their estate, if such &- 
miliarity should continue betwixt the prince 
and a man so learned, and so repugning to 
their effections, laboured by all means, to 
make the said friar Alexander odious unto 
the king's grace, and easily found the 
means by the grey friars, who by their hy- 
pocrisy deceive many, to traduce the in- 
nocent as a heretic. This accusatiou 
was easily received of the carnal prince, 
who altogether was given unto the filthy 
lusts of the flesh, and abhorred all counsel 
that repugned thereto. And because he 
did remember what a terror the ftdmoni- 
tions of the said Alexander was unto hia 
corrupted conscience, without resistance he 
subscribed to their accusation, affirming, 
that he knew more than they did in that 
matter; for he understood well enough 
that he smelled of the new doctrine, by 
such things as he had shown to him under 
confession ; and therefore he promised, that 
he should follow the counsel of the bbbops 
in punishing of him, and of all others of 
that sect These things understood by the 
said Alexander, as well by informations of 
his friends and familiars, as by the strange 
countenance of the king unto him, provid- 
ed the next way to avoid the fury of a 
blinded prince. And so in his habit he de- 




[about a, Ik 1580 

carted the realm; and oomog to Benrioki 
be wrote back to the kiii|r>8 {praoe hSs oom- 
plaint and admouitionr The Teiy tenor and 
oopj whereof follows, and is this. 

" Bfost gracious and soyereigfn lord, un- 
der the Lord and King of all, of whom only 
thy highness and majesty has power and 
authority to exercise justice within this 
thy realm under God, who is King and 
Lord OTer all realms ; and thy grace, and all 
mortal kings, are but only servants unto 
that only immortal prince Christ Jesus, &c 
It is not, I wot, unknown to thy grace*s 
highness, how that thy grace's umquhille 
smnrant and orator — and ever shall be to my 
life's end — ^is departed out of the realm uuto 
the next adjacent of England; not-the- 
lees, I believe the cause of my departing is 
unknown to your grace's majesty : which 
only is, because the bishops and kirkmen 
of thy realm have had heretofore such au- 
thority upon thy subjects, that apparently 
they were rather king and you the subject ; 
which injust regimen is of the self false, 
and contrary to holy scripture and law of 
God : then [seeing] thou art their king and 
master, and they the subjects, which is very 
true and testified expressly by the word of 
Ood. And also, because they will give no 
man of any degree or state — whom they oft 
falsely call heretics — audience, time, nor 
place to speak nor have defence, which is 
against all law, both the old law, called the 
law of Moses, and the new law of the 
evangel. So that if I might have had au- 
dience and place to speak, and have shown 
my just defenc-e, conform to the law of 
God, I should never have fled to any other 
realm, suppose it should have cost me my 
life. But because I believed that I should 
have had no audience nor place — they are 
so great with thy grace, — I departed, not 
doubting, but moved of God, unto a better 
time, that God illuminate thy grace's eyes, 
to give every man audience, — as thou 
shouldst and mayst, and art bound of the 
law of God, — who is accused to the death. 
And to certify thy highness that these are 
no vain words, but of deed and effect, 
here 1 offer me to thy grace to come in 
thy realm again, so that thy grace will give 

me audience, and hear what I have for me 
of the law of God : and oause any bishop 
or abbot, friar or secular, who is nuMt 
cunning, — some of them cannot read their 
matins that are made judges of heresy, — ^to 
impugn me by the law of God ; and if my 
part be found wrong, thy grace being pre- 
sent and judge, I refuse no pain worthy or 
condign for my fitult. And if that I con- 
vict them by the law of God, and they 
have nothing to lay to my charge but the 
law of man and their own inventions, to 
uphold their vain glory and prideful life, 
and daily scourging of thy poor lieges ; I 
report me to thy grace, as judge, whether 
he has the victory who holds him at the 
law of God, which cannot fail nor be false, 
or they who hold them at the law of 
man, which is right oft plain contrary and 
against the law of God, and therefore of 
necessity false, and full of leasings : for all 
things which are contrary to the verity — 
which is Christ and his law — ^is of necessity 
a leasing. And to witness that this comes 
of all ray heart, I shall remain in Berwick 
while I get thy grace's answer, and shall 
without fiul return, having thy hand write, 
that I may have audience and place to 
speak. No more I desire of thee ; whereof, 
if [ had been sure, I should never have de- 
parted. That you may know the truth 
thereof, if fear of the justness of my cause, 
or dread of persecution for the same, had 
moved me to depart, I would not so plea- 
santly revert : only distrust was the cause 
of my departing. Pardon me to say that 
which lies to thy grace's charge : thou art 
bound by the law of God — suppose they 
fiilsely lie, saying it pertains not to thy 
grace to intromit with sjach matters — to 
cause every man, in any case accused of 
his life, to have his just defence, and his 
accusers produced conform to their own 
law. They blind thy grace's eyes, that 
know nothing of this law : but if I prove 
not this out of their own law, I offer me 
unto the death. Thy grace, therefore, by 
experience may daily learn, — seeing they 
neither fear the king of heaven, as their 
lives testify, neither their natund prince, 
as their usurped power in their actions 
show, — ^why thy highnesa should lie no 




Ifgir Uinded. Thou mayeit oonnder that 
th^ ptctMiA Mfdnng dse^ but only the 
■MintWMTino md vphold of their biirded 
■nilc% * ayfiii a nrif of their inntiable avft- 
rieei, and c o nt i iiM l down thriDgruig [over- 
Hurowinf] and iwallowiDi^ up thy poor 
licfei^ neither preaching' nor teaching out 
of the law of God — as they should — to the 
rode %nofmnt people, but aye contending 
who HMy be most high, most rich, and 
nearest thy grace, to put the temporal 
lords and lieges out oi thy conceit and fa- 
Toor, who should be and are most tender 
ssnrants to thy grsce in all time of need, to 
the defence of theeand thy crown : and where 
they desire thy grace to putt at [push at] thy 
taoiponl lordb and lieges, because they de- 
qiise their Ticious life, what else intend 
they bat only thy death, as thou mayest ea- 
sily perceive, suppose they colour their 
fides intent and mind, with the pursuit of 
heresy ; for when thy barons are put down, 
what art thou but the king of bane, f and 
then of necessity man [must] be guided by 
them, and then no doubt, where a blind 
man is guide, man [must] be a fiedl in the 
mire. Therefore let thy grace take hardi- 
ment and authority, which thou hast of 
God, and suffer not their cruel persecution 
to proceed, without audience given to him 
that is accDsed, and just place of defence : 
And then, no doubt, you shall have thy 
lieges* hearts, and all that they can or may 
do in time 'of need, — tranquillity, justice, 
and policy in thy realm, and finally, the 
kingdom oi the heavens. Please to gar 
[canae] have this or the copy to the clergy 
or kiikmen, and keep the principal, and thy 
grace shall have experience, if I do against 
one word that I have hecht [promised]. 
I shall daily make my hearty devotion 

• Dsvkl Baehanau makes this « barded males,'* 
bat he dsM net mj what barded means. It re- 
lates to the famitore, or rich trappings of a 
The meet oooeise English Is, their ca- 
* ss fc . E d. 
f D. B. asakss this *• king of land bat not of 
men/' which Dr Jamieson thinks erroneous. It 
means, Tboo art only soch a king as children 
and others osake in their plays.— £a. 

I Besides the crime of possessing a New Tes- 
tament^ Forrest was reported to have spoken fa- 
vooraUy of Fatriek Hamilton ; bat even this 
they eoud not prove against him, till they cot his 
to saood him on the sal^ect. He was 

for thy grace, and the prosperity and wel- 
fiune of thy body and souL I doubt not but 
thy gracious highness will give answer of 
these presents unto the presenter of tliis 
unto thy highness. Of Berwick, by thy 
highness' servant and orator. 

Sic subscribituTt Alexandbr Setton. 

This letter was delivered to the king's 
own hands, and of many read ; but what 
could ghostly admonitions avail, where the 
pride and corruption of prelacy commanded 
what they pleased, and the flattery of cour- 
tiers fostered the insolent prince to all im- 

From the death of that constant witness 
of Jesus Christ, Mr Patrick Hamilton, God 
disclosing the wickedness of the wicked, as 
before we have heard ; there was one For- 
rest of Linlithgow taken, who, after long 
imprisonment in the said tower of St An- 
drews, was adjudged to the fire by the said 
bishop James Beaton and his doctors, for 
none other crime, but because he had a New 
Testament in English ;;): farther of that 
history we have not, except that he died 
constantly, and with great patience at St 
Andrews. After whose death, the flame of 
persecution ceased, till the death of Mr 
Norman Gourlay, the space of ten years or 
thereby; not that these bloody beasts ceased 
by all means to suppress the light of God, 
and to trouble such as in any sort were 
suspected to abhor their corruption, but be- 
cause the realm was troubled with intestine 
and ciril wars, in the which much blood 
was shed; first at Melrose, betwixt the 
Douglas and Buccleuch in the year of God 
1526, the 24th of July. Next at Linlith- 
gow, betwixt the Hamiltons and the earl 
of Lennox, where the said earl with many 

so partially enlightened as to sabmit to confes- 
sion ; and he ^uikly opened his mind to one 
whom he regarded as nis spiritual comforter, 
declaring that he thoaght Hamilton's doctrines 
were not heretical. This being treaclierously 
communicated to his Judges, procured his con- 
demnation. He complained bitterly of the vil. 
Umy that had been practised against him. His 
knowledge of the truth must have been compa- 
ratively small* seeing he wished to conceal it, 
but his faith mast have been real, seeing he 
chose death rather than to deny the truth when 
he could no longer conceal hb knowledge of it, 
— JEd. 



\k. &. ISM 

others lost his life, the thirteenth day of 
September. And last^ betwixt the king 
himself and the sud Douglas, whom he ba- 
nished the rsafan, and held them in exile 
during his whole dajs. By reason of these, 
we say, and of other troubles, the bishops 
and their bloody bands could not find the 
time so favourable unto them as they re- 
quired, to execute their tyranny. 

In this mid time, so did the wisdom of 
Ood provide, that Henry the Eighth, king 
of England, did abolish from hb realm the 
name and authority of the pope of Rome, 
suppress the abbeys, and other places of 
idolatry, which gaye some esperauce [hope] 
to diverse realms, that some godly reforma- 
tion should have thereof ensued. And, 
therefore, from this our country did diverse 
learned men, and others that lived in fear 
of persecution, repair to that realm, where, 
albeit, they found not such purity as they 
wished, — and therefore diverse of them 
sought other countries, — yet they escaped 
the tyranny of merciless men, and were re- 
served to better times, that they might 
fructify within this church in diverse 
places and parts, and in diverse vocations. 
Alexander Seyton remained in England, 
and publicly, with great praise and com- 
fort of many, taught the evangel in all sin- 
cerity certain years. And albeit the craf- 
tiness of Winchester and others, drcum- 
vened tlie said Alexander, that they caused 
him, at Paul's Cross, to affirm certain things 
that repugned to his former true doctrine ; 
yet it is no doubt but that as God had po- 
tently reigned with him [assisted him] in all 
his life, that also in his death, which 
shortly after followed, he found the mer- 
cy of his God, whereupon he exhorted all 
men ever to depend. Alexander Alasins, 
Mr John Fife, and that famous man 
Dr Machabseus, departed unto Dutchland, 
where by God's providence they were dis- 
tributed to several places. Macdoual, for 
his singular providence, besides his learn- 
ing and godliness, was elected burrow- 
master in one of their steids ; Alasins was 
appointed to the university of Leipstc, and 
so was Mr John Fife, where, for their ho- 
nest behaviour and great erudition, they 
were holden in adminition with dl the 

godly. And in what honour, credit, and 
estimation Dr Machabseus was with Chria- 
tianus king of Denmark, Capmanhoven, 
and fiunous men of diverse nations, can tes- 
tify. Thus did God provide for his aer- 
vants, and did frustrate the expectation of 
those bloody beasts, who by the death of 
one in whom the light of God did clearly 
shine, intended to have suppressed Christ's 
truth for ever within this realm : but the 
contrary had God decreed. For his death 
was the cause, as said is, that many did 
awake from the deadly sleep of ignorance ; 
and so did Jesus Christ, who is the only 
true light, shine into many, for the way- 
taking of one. And albeit that these nota- 
ble men did never after — Mr John Fife only 
excepted — comfort this country with their 
bodily presence ; yet made he them fructify 
in his church, and raised them up lights 
out of darkness, to the praise of his own 
mercy, and to the just condemnation of 
them that then ruled, io wit, of the king, 
council, and nobility, yea of the whole people, 
who suffered such notable personages, with- 
out crimes committed, to be unjustly perse- 
cuted, and so exiled; others after were 
even so entreated: but of them we shall 
speak in their own place. No sooner got 
the bishops opportunity — which always 
they sought — but so soon renewed they 
the battle against Jesus Christ; for the 
foresaid leprous bishop, in the year of God 
1534 years, caused to be summoned Sir 
William Kirk, Adam Dais, Henry Cairns, 
John Stewart, indwellers of Leith, with di- 
verse others, such as Mr William John- 
ston advocate, Mr Henry Henderson school- 
master of Edinburgh, of whom some com- 
peared in the Abbey Kirk of Holjrrood- 
house, and so abjured and publicly burnt 
their bills, others compeared not, and there- 
fore were exiled; but in judgment produced 
two, to witf David Straiton, a gentleman, 
and Mr Norman Gourlay, * a man of rea- 
sonable erudition, of whom we man shortly 

• There is little known of these two martjrrs 
fiuther than what is above recorded, except that 
Goariay added to his heresy the crime of talc- 
ing a wife. There is a short account of both 
in the Soots Worthies, edit. 1887, which la 
partly aft least taken from Kooz.— £d. 




■ptuV. In Mr Nomuui appeared know- 
Mge, aUMU jmed with weakness ; but in 
DaTid Stnutoo could only be espied, for 
the first* liatrad gainst .the pride and ava- 
riciovNMSS of p r iests ; for the oaose of his 
delation wnS| he had made to himself a 
fiab4MMit to go to the sea; the bishop of 
Morrajr then being prior of St Andrews, 
and his fiustors urged him for the teind 
tlicreof ; his answer was, ** If they would 
have teind thereof which his servants won 
in the sea» it were but reason they should 
come and reoeiTe it, where he got the 
stock;** and so^ as was constantly affirmed, 
he caused his serrants cast the tenth fish 
in the aea again. P^rooess of cursing was 
led against him, for not payment of such 
commands^ which when he contemned, he 
was delated to answer for heresy. It trou- 
bled him Tehemently ; and therefore he be- 
gan to frequent the company of such as 
were godly ; for before he had been a man 
Tcry stubborn, and one that despised all 
reading,— chiefly of those things that were 
godly, — but miraculously as it were, he ap- 
peared to be changed, for he delighted in 
nothing but in reading — albeit himself could 
not read — and was a vehement exhorter to 
all men to concord, to quietness, and to the 
contempt of the world : he frequented 
much the company of the laird of Dun, 
whom God, in these days, had marvellously 
illuminated. Upon a day, as the laird of 
Lauriston, who yet lives, then being a 
young man, was reading unto him upon 
the New Testament, in a certain quiet place 
in the fields, as God had appointed, he 
chanced to read these sentences of our 
fiflaster Christ Jesus : " He that denies me 
before men, or is ashamed of me in the 
nidst of this wicked generation, I will deny 
him in the presence of my Father, and be- 
fore his angels.*' At which words, he sud- 
denly being as one ravished, cast himself 
upon his knees^ and extending both hands 
and visige constantly to the heaven a reap 
sonable time^ at length he burst forth in 
these wordi^ * O Lord, I have been wicked, 
and justly mayest thou abstract thy grace 
from me : but» Lord, for thy mercy's sake, 
let me never deny thee, nOr thy truths, for 
fear of death or oorporal pains." The issue 

declared that his prayer was not vain, for 
when he, with the foresaid Mr Norman, 
was produced in judgment in the abbey of 
Holyroodhouse, the king himself-^— all cUd 
in red — being present, great labours were 
made, that the said David Straiton should 
have recanted, and should have burnt his 
bill : but he ever standing at his defence, 
alleging that he had not offended, in the 
end was adjudged to the fire, and then, 
when he perceived the danger, asked grace 
at the king, which he would willingly 
have granted unto him ; the bishops proud- 
ly answered, ** That the king's hands were 
bound in that case, and that he had no 
grace to give to such as by their law were 
condemned." And so was he, with the 
said Mr Norman, after dinner, upon the 
27th day of August, the year of God 1534 
foresaid, led to a place beside the rood of 
Greenside ; and there these two were both 
hanged and burnt, according to the mercy 
of the papistical church. To that same diet 
were summoned, as before we have said, 
others of whom some escaped in England, 
and so for that present escaped the death. 
This their tyranny notwithstanding, the 
knowledge of God did wondrously increase 
within this realm, parlly by reading, partly 
by brotherly conference, which in these 
dangerous days was used to the comfort of 
many ; but chiefly by merchants and mari- 
ners, who frequenting other countries, heard 
the true doctrine affirmed, and the vanity 
of the papistical religion openly rebuked : 
among whom were Dundee and Leith prin- 
cipals, against whom was made a very 
strait inquisition by David Beaton, cruel 
cardinal And diverse were compelled to 
abjure and bum their bills, some in St An^ 
drews, and some in Edinburgh. About the 
same time Captain John Borthwick was 
burnt in figive, but by God's providence 
escaped their fury. And this was done for 
a spectacle, and triumph to Mary of Lor- 
raine, lately arrived from France, as wife 
to king James the Fifth, king of Scots : 
what plagues she brought with her, and 
how they yet continue, such as are not 
blind, may manifestly see. The rage of 
these bloody beasts proceeded so for, that 
the king's court escaped not the danger; 


[A. D. urn 

te ia h diTWM w«t wmp ^d M, and Mne 
ateDMd. And fee •?« itai ^ MMBe Ught 
tent forth in A« nddil cTdufaMn; te 
fhe truth of Ouriit Jetnt ontovd evMi in 
the doittan at wall of friara aa of monka 
and oaaoBB. John Lin, a grey friar» loll Ua 
hypoeritiGal habits and Aa don of thoaa 
n i nid o r o r a, the grey ftiara. A Uaok friar, 
oalM friar Keillor, aet teih the hiatory of 
Cfariat^a paanon in form of aplaj, which he 
both preaehed and praotiaed in Stirling 
openlj, the king himaelf being preoent npon 
a good FHdaj in the nMnning, in the which 
■U things were ao livdy ezpreiaed, that the 
ynsrj simple people understood and oonfeased, 
that [as] the priests and obstinate Pharisees 
persuaded the people to refuse Jesus Christ, 
and caused Pilate to condemn.him ; so did 
the biahops and men called religious, blind 
the people, and persuaded the princes and 
judges to persecute such as profess Christ 
Jesus bb blessed eyangel This pUin speak- 
ing so inflamed the hearts of all that bore 
the beast's mark, that they ceased not, till 
that the friar Keiller, and with him friar 
Beveridge, Sir Duncan Simpson, Robert 
Forrester, a gentleman, and dean Thomaa 
Forrest, canon regular and ricar of Dollar,* 
a man of upright life, [were condemned,] 
who altogether were cruelly murdered in 
a Are, upon the Castlehill, the last of 
February, the year of Gk>d 1538. This 
cruelty was used by the said cardinal, 
the chancellor, the bishop of GUsgow, 
and the incestuous bishop of Dumblane. 
After that this cruelty was used in Edin- 
burgh upon the Castlehill, to the effect 
that the reat of the bishops might show 
themselves no less fervent to suppress the 
light of Gk>d than he of St An^wa was, 
were apprehended two of the diooeae of 
GUsgow, the one named Hieronymus Rna- 
sell, a cordelier friar, a young num of a 
meek nature, quick spirit^ and of good let- 

* Of the other four thert is little or noChhiff 
on record ; bat then is ao intereetinf aoooont of 
the Tiear of Dollar In the Sooto Worthiee, edit. 
1887, taken from Spotewood. He noC only 
made an open oonfeeaion of the truth, bat 
preached it faithfully and frequently, and fsr- 
Dore ezactinc eome of ble does frosn his pa- 
risbionerB, wnieh the other aiecgy cieinplainea of 
M a repiMob to them. He was aewevw In SMh 

ten; and one Kamady, who pawsd not 
18 yaaia of age^ and of axoallant ingino 
in Sootiiii poeay. To aaaiat tiie bishop of 
Glaagow in that omal jodgnMUt, or at least 
to canae him dip hia handa in the blood of 
the-aaints of God, were aent Mr John Laiu 
der, Ifr Andrew Oliphant, and friar BIalt> 
man, a ert anta of Satan, apt for that pnr- 
poae; the day appointed to their ornelty 
approached, the poor saints of God preaent- 
ed before theae bloody bntdbers, grieyoua 
were the crimes that were laid to their 
chaige: Kennedy was fidnt at the first, 
and would frin have reoanted, .but while 
that place of repentanoe waa denied unto 
him, the spirit of God, whioh ia the spirit 
of all comfort, began to work into him, yea 
the inward comfort began to burst forth, aa 
well in visage, as in tongue and word, for 
his countenance began to be cheerful, and 
with a joyfrd voice upon his knees, he said, 
** O eternal God, how wondrous is that 
love and mercy that thou bearest unto man- 
kind, and unto me the most caitiff and mi- 
serable wretch above all others ; for, even 
now, when I would have denied thee, and 
thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, my only 
Saviour, and so have casten myself in ever- 
lasting damnation ; thou, by thine own 
band, hast pulled me from the very bottom 
of hell, and makest me to feel that heavenly 
comfort which takes from me that ungodly 
fear, wherewith before I was oppressed. 
Now I defy death, do what ye please ; 1 praise 
God I am ready." The godly and learned 
Hieronymus, railed upon by these godless 
tyrants, answered, ** This is your hour and 
power of darkness; now sit ye as judges, we 
stand wrongously accuaed, and more wrong- 
onaly to be ocmdmnned ; but the day shall 
cone, vrhen our innocency shall appear, 
and that ye shall aee your own blindness, 
to your everlaating confusion. Qo forward, 
and ftdfil the measure of your iniquity." 

fiivoor, that his bishop, before prooeedinf to 
tremitiea, arfued and ezpeetniated wim him, 
and warned him of hia danfer, if he persisted in 
snch nncanonioal practices ; bat being found ir- 
Tsolaimable, be was given np to the flames, llie 
two next, HnsseU and Kennedy, beloofed to 
Glasgow, of whom there is little more luiown 
than what Kmk has rsosrdod.— JZ& 




WMItt tlMA ihmm servanti of God thot be- 
hftfttd llm— iiWti^wMeth m Tarianoe betwixt 
tiM bkliopa and ih» beasts that come from 
ibe caHioal; lor the bishop said, "* I think 
it better to spare these men, nor to put 
ebon to dead :" Whereat idiot doctors of- 
ftnded, said, « What wiU ye do, my lord ? 
Will ye ooodeom all that my lord cardinal 
and the other bishops and we haye done ? 
If so ye do^ ye show yourself enemy to 
the kirk and ns, and so will we repute yon, 
be ye assored.'* At which words, the (aith- 
less man afraid, adjudged the innocents to 
die, according to the desire of the wicked. 
The meek and gentle Hieronymus Rnssel 
comforted the other with many comfortable 
sentences, oft saying unto him, " Brother, 
Hear not, more potent is he that is in us, 
than is be that is in the world ; the pain 
that we shall suffer is short, and shall be 
bght, but our joy and our consolation shall 

* The foUowiog extract from Lindaav of Pit- 
teotie, will thovr hovr this Infataated prince, 
Jamn V. was wrought upon by the clergy to 
lend his antbority to tlie extirpation of heresy. 
He had made an enptfement with his uiicfe, 
Henry VII L to meet with him at Yoric, to con* 
cut measures for the permanent peace of the two 
kiiwdoms. Henry, by this time, had cast off the 
antnorify of the pope, and had made a partial re- 
tematioii in £nf lajid. The Scotish clergy dread- 
ed, above all things, the meeting of their king 
with hia so deemed heretical nncle, lest he also 
should be infected with heresv ; and to prevent 
the intcrriew, they interfered m the manner fol- 
lowing : ** Bot the Tngodlie papisticall bischopes, 
with Tther Icirkmen, talk sick fear, beleirand 
that if the king of Scotland and the king of 
Inghmd had mett, thur papisticall impyre sould 
bavebeineaboliaclied, becaas the king ot Inaland 
laitlia befbir had abolisched all idolatrie, and cas- 
do dmn the abbayes, and maid the word of God 
to be praaebcd, and have frie passage through all 
Ingiaad. llie bischopis taking sick feare of 
thb, that if those kingis mett, it sould become 
aoof thame, thair abbayes and rentall, quhairfoir 
tlMT kcftt all the meanis they might to stay the 
said meitinc, sometyme by craft and ingyne, and 
other qahylles by persoasiounes, saying to the 
king that be soald not want als lang as thair 
war ana kirk beoeilce in Scotland, and gare the 
king In the neantyme, and assigned to him 
tbrcttie Ihaosand pundU of yeirlie rent out of 
thair benefiess. to defend the libertie of their 

kirk, and PTM s n t professioan, eUu Yitt for all 
this the king was well mynded to have keipit 

bis promeiae to the king of Ingland, and that be 
the adwyae of the lorais, whom the bischopis 
prrsared eoirasalled the king in this manner, 
tiiat thMT eonld not be oontent thairwith, and 
would nine have lieine revengit on the lordis 
and gentlmen, imliom they beleived was ooun- 
salloiuria of the idng to meit with his vncle the 

neyer hare end : and, therefore, let us con- 
tend to enter in, unto our Master and Sa- 
Tiour, by the same strait way which he 
has trode before us ; death cannot destroy 
us, for it is ahready destroyed by him for 
whose sake we suffer." With these and 
the like comfortable sentences, they passed 
to the place of execution ; and constantly 
triumphed over death and Satan, even in 
the midst of the flaming fire. And thus 
did these cruel beasts intend nothing but 
murder in all the quarters of the realm; 
for so far had that blinded and most vicious 
man, this prince — most vicious we call him, 
for he neither spared man's wife nor maid- 
en, no more after his marriage nor he did 
before, — so far, I say, had he given himself 
to obey the tyranny of these cruel beasts, 
that he had made a solemn vow, That none 
should be spared that was suspect of here- 
sy* 7^ although it were hb own son. * To 

king of Ingland, quhilk they desired on no wayes 
sould be done, becaus they also beleirit thair 
would be no lyff for thame, and tharefoir devys- 
ed to put an discord and variance betwixt the 
lordis and gentlmen with thair prince ; for they 
delaited, and gave up to the king in writt, to 
the number of threttie scoir of earlis, lordis, and 
barrones, gentlmen and craftismen, that is, as 
they alledgit, were all heretickis, and leived not 
after the pope's la wis, and ordinance of the hoUie 
kirk ; quhilk his grace sould esteme as ane capi- 
tall cryme to ony man that did the same.*' I 
shall, according to my best ability, translate 
what remains into English. 

" Farther, they said to the king, What occa- 
sion have you to go to England for any advan- 
tsge that the king of England will give you ? 
We shall make your grace to possess abundance 
at home if you will execute justice, as we ad- 
vise, upon the heretics, of whom we have given 
you a list, who are all great readers of the Old 
and New Testament in English, and other 
abuses which we shall prove to you ; and we 
engage upon our consciences, that all their lands, 
rents, and goods, shall be your own, for their 
contempt of our holy father the pope and his 
laws, and of your grace's authority. Therefore, 
if you will do ua justice in this matter, we shall 
give you a hundred thousand pounds a-year to 
augment the patrimony of your crown, and a 
supply for any war you may have with Eng- 
land, or any other enemy ; and we desire but 
that you will give us a temporal judge to our 
mind, to do justice on these wicked heretics, 
which will be to your great honour and profit, 
and advantage of the church, and maintenance 
of the laws of our holy father the pope. Where- 
fore we have no doubt, but the pope will re- 
ward your grace for thus maintaining his au- 

« The king yielded to theae wicked soma- 
tions of the clergy against his own sabjeot% 



[a. d. 168i 

prvM and push him forward in pdl that his 
fiiryy he wanted not flatterers enough ; for 
many of his minions were pensioners to 
priests ; among whom, Oliver Sinclair, yet 
remaining enemy to God, was the prindpaL 
And yet did not God cease to give that 
blinded prince some documents that some 
sudden plague was to fall upon him, in 
case he did not repent his wicked life ; and 
that his own mouth did confess : for after 
that Sir James Hamilton was beheaded — 
justly or unjustly we dispute not — this vi- 
sion came unto him, as to his familiars him- 
self did declare ; the said Sir James appear- 
ed unto him, having in his hand a drawn 
sword, by the which from the king he 
struck both the arms, saying to him these 
words, ** Take that, while thou receive a final 
payment for all thine impiety." This vi* 
sion, with sorrowful countenance, he show- 
ed on the mom, and shortly thereafter died 
his two sons, both within the space of 24 
hours; yea, some say, within the space 
of six hours. In his own presence, George 
Steele, his greatest flatterer, and greatest 
enemy to God that was in his court, drop- 
ped off his horse, and died without word, 
that same day that in open audience of 
many, the said George had refused his por- 
tion of Christ's kingdom, if the prayers of 
the Virgin Mary should not bring him 
thereto. How terrible a vision the said 
prince saw, lying in Linlithgow, that night 
Thomas Scott, justice-clerk, died in Edin- 
buigh, men of good credit can yet report : 
for afraid at midnight, or after, he cried for 
torches, and raised all that lay beside him 
in the palace, and told that Thomas Scott 

unmoTed by the doty which he owed to God 
and to them, but entering heartily into the co- 
Yetons views of the bishops. ' I desire/ raid 
he, * that you had justice ; that the holy Icirlc 
and the liberty thereof be defended. Choose 
therefore a fit person, who will execute justice 
roost sharply and rigorously, for punishment of 
these heretics ; and I shall give him my autho- 
rity, wherever he finds a heretic, to burn him 
and put him to death at your pleasure.* ** They 
found a fit instrument in Sir James Hamilton, 
who, after showing his good will to the work of 
burning heretit^s, was himself executed for trea^ 
son ; and then, as related in the text, terrified the 
king by an apparition. — Ed. 

• On this D. B. bns the following note :— 
« George Buchanan, by the king's command, 
angry with the frian, did write hit satyr then 

was dead ; for he had been at him with • 
company of derils, and had said onto him 
this word, " O woe to the day that ever I 
knew thee or thy service ; for, for serving 
of thee against God, against his servants, 
and against justice, I am adjudged to end- 
less torment*'. How terrible voices the 
said Thomas Soott pronounced before his 
death, men of all estate heard ; and some that 
live can witness, his voice was ever " Jutto 
DeijucHeio condenmahu swrn:** that is, I 
am condemned by God's just judgment 
He was most oppressed for delatetion and 
false accusation of such as professed Christ's 
evangel, as Mr Thomas Marjoribanks, and 
Mr Hugh Rigg, then advocates, did confess 
to Mr Henry Balnaves, who, from the said 
Thomas Scott» came to him, as he and Mr 
Thomas Ballantine were sitting in St Giles' 
kirk, and asked him forgiveness in the name 
of the said Thomas. None of these terrible 
forewamings could either change or mol- 
lify the heart of the indurate, lecherous, 
and avaricious tyrant, but still he does pro- 
ceed from impiety till impiety. For in the 
midst of these admonitions, he caused put 
hands in that notable man, Mr George Bu- 
chauan, to whom, for his singular erudition 
and honest behaviour, was committed the 
charge to instruct some of his bastard chil- 
dren : but by the merciful providence of 
God he escaped, albeit with great difficul- 
ty, the rage of them that sought his blood, 
and remains alive to this day, in the year 
of God 1566 years, to the glory of God, to 
the great honour of this nation, and to the 
comfort of them that delight in letters and 
virtue.* That singular work of David's 

against them, who thereafter having made their 
peace with the king, would not be appeased 
with George Buchanan, whom die king gave 
over to their importunity, and so he was put in 
prison." lliis alludes to that exquisite piece of 
satire, " The Franciscan," which Buchanan 
wrote reluctantly, at the urgent desire of the 
king, when he had a quarrel with the clergy. It 
was therefore the more pitiful of the king to give 
him up to their power. He did not publish the 
poem at the time, but confided it to the king 
only, who must have taunted the friars with it, 
and so it would come to their knowledge; but 
being written in Latin, it could not when pub- 
lished, injure them in the esteem of the people ge- 
nerally. As a specimen of it, 1 insert the follow- 
Ing from a late translation by the Reverend Jolin 
Graham, a correspondent of ** Hm ProtesUnt.** 




Pnlms in l^kiii metra and pocty, bendet 
niaj otbwy ctm witneM Um nre graoes of 
God givoD to that nan, which that tyrant^ 
faj instixatioo cf the grej friany and of hi« 
othtr ilattcni% vroald altogether have de- 
Toored, if God had not provided remedy, by 
eacapiny, to hk acrraDt. This onielty and 
penociirion, notwithstanding the monsten 
and hypocritat the grey friars, day by day 
eamo farther into oontempt; for not only 
did the learned espy and deteet their abo- 
minable hypoorisy* but also men, in whom 
uo soch graoca nor gifts were thought to 
hare bee% began plainly to paint the same 
forth to the people ; as this rhyme, which 
here we have inserted for the same pur- 
pose, made by Alexander earl of Glencaim, 
yet alivOp can witnees, entitled, « Ane epis- 
till direct fra the halie hermeit of Alareit, 
to his brethren the gray freirs.*' 

1 'nioMAg Im BMir lo Larelt, 

auMt Frmncis ordonr do MrttlU greit, 

BtMikaBd yoa with g«d Intent, 

To W wakrylf • ani dUUgcBt. 

TUr Lathmaia riiMn ofnew. 

Oar OTdoor dalUe date penew. 

TWf t^dlib k dato Ml th^ haUl Itttnt, 

T* raii thy IimliMh* N«w TntMnent, 

Aai Myit wm hmn thnme clein decerit ', 

Thairfora la habC thny mon be alopplt. 

Oar Miit hyfeerfde they frfwrn. 

And as Ueapheoili one thla wyae, 

Sajead, Tint we ar hrretycktt, 

Aad Ihlit loal tylaf maatia tyket, [and eppreaaors 

CoBatan and faellMaf jof Cbiiatia kirk, • cnmberera 

Sweir awogy ow * that will not wirk, 4 lasy diaaem- 

Bet idille oar levinff wynia, [blera 

Dateirtav ^"^OtM late acheipia akynia. 


•r af 4aim h* bon, 
bt«h iMHMd and 
iflipcrfRtlan fllM. 
or cow t, 
( at MM« • feot poll 

• wttehfol 


• heilairiy 

Asen«< M TLAf, m 

Hoirkland* with huidia into oar neck, rroudiinit 

With Judaa myod to jouk and berk. ' ' hto«>p and 

Seikand Chrlatia pepiU to devnir, [curtsey 

The doun thringm a ef Chrittis ffloir, * throwera 

Profeaaon of bjrpocriale, 

And doctours In idolatrle. 

Stout (iM'heirii with the Feindk net. 

The upcloabcra of lierina yett, 

Cankcart corrupton of the creM* 

Humlork sawers among gudaeid, p* throw > bramblea 

Tf» trow k in trators. < that do mm tyiat * \y twtat 

Tlie hie way kennand thame fra Chii»t, 

Monstera with the beistia marlc, 

Dofres that nerir stintia to bark, 

Kirkmen that ar to Chriat unkead, 

A sect that Satania self hea arnd, 

Lourkand in boils, lyik trator toddis, 

Manteiners of idollis and fids goddis, 

Fantaatik fuillla and fenzeit ileicbeors, > [ > feigned 

To turne fra treuth the verray teichers, [flatterera 

For to declare thair halll sentence. 

Wad mekill camber yoor cMi«ciene»; 

To say your fayth it is sa stark. 

Your rord and lousie cote and eark. 

Ye Uppln may bring yon to satTatkmn, 

And qayte excludia Clvistia panioon. 

I dreid this doctrine, and it laKt, 

Sail outlier gar us wirk or fant ; 

Thairfuir with apeld we meae proryde. 

And not our proflte oTeralyde> 

I schaip myself, within schnrt quhill. 

To cars our ladfe in Argyle ; 

And thair one eraftle wayh to wirk. 

Till that we biggit hare ane kirk. 

Syne miracles mak be your advyce ; 

lliey ketterella ■• thoehb thai had hot lyee, ■ herelica 

The twa parte to us they will bring, 

Bot ordourlie to dress this thing : 

A gaist I porpois to gar gang. 

Be eonaaiU of frelr Walter I juig. 

Quhilk sail mak certane demonatratiuonis. 

To help us in our procuratiounLs 

Your halie efrdonr to deooir : 

That pracUck he provit ania bofoir, 

Betwix Kirkaldie and Klnghorne, 

Bot lymmaris maid thereat sick scome. 

And with Micli wonb ■• np man andenuuidi, 
II* bl<lt Kood mom, or thakM ;on by U>« hands. 
He knova vhat chamia. what miitk nolt or Hitch, 
Can boyt or icirb, or widow*' heart bewitch. 
And w«a dfwtraa Iho way la Riva advlor. 
By which» whik chidinc ha inflamai to rlca : 
In qantlont nuM Ih* Ibt of vlcca o'er. 
And daodi mmIMU not iheoght «yan bcAm. 
Wall tkiUcd is he la flatter human pride. 
And conrt tha rich man on his deathbed sld*. 
Thow ar* th* objscts whloh en|mi" *>>• adnd, 
or thoae who reftiff* in a convent find. 
Vm thete a man his coontry tball ibrmo* 
No l«inj(er brother, friend, or neiichUmr know 
For this a man Uiall take the pllcrim's way. 
And cold and naked altr the roontiy snay I 
Lie like a beast uncoverad en the jpvnnd. 
And aaavl, and bark, and gtawl en aD arand : 
Now look fcrocions as an anfiy bear. 
Then mikl and frarfU as a hunted hart : 
A firtemi to thoM who gratify his paid*- 
A deadly foe lo aU the world beside. 

The veraea by the Earl of Glencairn, which 
Knox gWea In the text, atcm a doae imiution. 
if not a tranalation of a frafmeot of the Fran- 
ciscan.— £(/• 



[a. d. 1641 

And t» kb AuM maU tMi At g rmdovn, 

BeDsyne he hard nottha knigto eonfantoan, 

Tbolcht at that tyme h« come no 8p«U ; 

T pray yon tak glide win as detd ; 

Aod som anoofcstyoar aelf recrare, 

An ane worth many of the tare. 

Qahat I obtein may, throw his nlrt, 

ReeBone wald ye had yoar parte. 

Yourordoor handilHt no money, 

Bot for other catualtie, 

As bcf f, raeill, butter, and ehelas. 

Or qnhat we have, that ye pleft. 

Send your brethren, «t hahete. 

As now nodit eUis, bot vatete. 

Be Thomas yoor brother at comand, 

A culmn "* kytfait throw mony a land. ■ a rascal. 

When God bad given nnto that indurate 
prince sufficient documents, that his rebel- 
lion against his blessed evangel should not 
prosperously succeed, he raised up against 
him war, as that he did against obstinate 
Saul, in the which he miserably perished, 
as we shall after hear. 

The occasion of the war was this, Henry 
the Eighth, king of England, had a great 
desire to have spoken with our king, and 
in that point travailed so long, till that he 
got a full promise made to his ambassador. 
Lord William Howard ; the place of meet- 
ing was appointed at York, which the king 
of England kept with such solemnity and 
preparations, as never for such a purpose 
was seen in England before. Great bniit 
[noise] of that journey, and some prepara- 
tion for the same, was made in Scotland ; 
but in the end, by persuasion of the cardinal 
David Beaton, and by others of his faction, 
that journey was staid, and the king's pro- 
mise falsi Bed. Whereupon were sharp let- 
ters of reproach sent unto the king, and 
also unto his council. King Henry frus- 
trated, returned unto London, and after his 
indignation declared, began to fortify with 
men hU frontiers foment [opposite] Scot* 
land. There were sent to the borders, Sir 
Robert Bowes, the earl of Angus, and his 
brother. Sir Geoi^re Douglas. Upon what 
otlier trifling questions — as for the debata- 
ble land and such like — the war broke up, 
we omit to write. The principal occasion 
was the falsifying of the promise before 
made; our king perceiving that the war 
would rise, asked the prelates and kirkmen 
what support they would make to the sus- 
taining of the same ; for rather would he 

yet satisfy the desire of his unele, than he 
would haiard war, where he saw his torct 
not able to resist They promised moun- 
tains of gold, — as Satan their fiither did to 
Christ Jesus, if he would worship him, — 
for rather would they have gone to hell, or 
he should have met with king Henry : for 
then, thought they, ftreweU our kingdom, 
and farewell, thought the cardinal, his cre- 
dit and glory in France. In the end, they 
promised fifty thousand crowns by year, * 
to be well paid, so long as the war lasted ; 
and farther, that their servants, and others 
that appertained to them, and were ex- 
empted from common service, should not- 
thelees serve in time of necessity. These 
vain promises lifted up in pride the heart 
of the unhappy king, and so begins the 
war. The realm was quartered, and men 
were laid in Jedburgh and Kelso. All men 
— fools we mean — bragged of victory. And 
in very deed the beginning gave us a fair 
show : for at the first warden raid, which 
was made at the St Bartholomew's day, in 
the year of God 1542, was the warden. Sir 
Robert Bowes, his brother Richard Bowee, 
captain of Norham, Sir William Malberry, 
knight) a bastard son of the earl of Angus, 
and James Douglas of Parkhead, then re- 
bels, with a great number of borderers, sol- 
diers, and gentlemen taken. 

The raid was termed Halden Rigg. The 
earl of Angus, and Sir George his brother, 
did narrowly escape. Our papists and 
priests, proud of this victory, encouraged 
the king, so that there was nothing heard, 
but, ** All is ours; they are but heretics: 
if we be a thousand, and they ten thousand, 
they dare not fight France shall enter the 
one part, and we the other, and so shsH 
England be conquered within a year." If 
any man was seen to smile at such vanity, 
he was no more but a traitor and heretic. 
And yet by these means, men had greater 
liberty than they had before, as concerning 
their consciences ; for then ceased the per- 
secution. The war continued till mid Sep- 
tember ; and then was sent down the old 

* Pitscotie. as we have aeeo, ealla It L. 1 00,000. 
The difference may be aoeoantcd fer by the oem- 
parative value of the two denominationa of m^ 
ney.— JS(/. 




duke of KorfoUc, with snch an anny as an 
hondnd yeaia biiMre had not oomo in Scot- 
land. Thej vara in amastin^ their forcat, 
and scttinf Ibnrard their preparations and 
mnnitioiis^ which were exceeding greats till 
mid October and after. And then they 
■nrchcd froai Berwick, and tended to the 
waat, CTsr holding Tweed upon their own 
aide, and nefer camped from tliat river the 
space of a mile dnring the whole time they 
oontinned in Scotland, which was ten ot 
twelTc dMj9. Forays were nm upon the 
day to Smailholm, Stichil, and such places 
near abont^ but many snapers [often got 
into difficohies and scrapes] they got, some 
com they bomt^ besides that which the 
great boat consumed, but small booty they 
carried away. The king assembled his 
force at Fala, — for he was advertised, that 
they had proasiaed to come to Edinburgh,— 
and taking the musters all at one hour, two 
days before Halloween, there were found 
with him 18^000 able men. Upon the bor- 
ders that waited upon the English army, 
were 10,000 men, with earl of Huntly, 
lords Efskine, Seaton, and Home. These 
were judged men enough to haaard battle, 
albeit the other were esteemed 40,000. 
While the king lies at Fala, abiding upon 
the guns^ and upon advertisement from the 
army, the Uvds begin to remember how 
the king had been long abused by his 
flatterers, and principally by the pensioners 
of the priests : it was once concluded, that 
they would make some new remembrance 
of Lander bridge, to see if that would, for 
a season, somewhat help the estate of their 
country; but because the lords could not 
agree among themselves, upon the persons 
that dcaerved punishment, — ^for every man 
fisvoorod his firiend, — the whole escaped: 
and the purpose was opened unto the king, 
and by him to the courtiers, who after that, 
tiU they csme to Ediobuigh, stood in no 
little fear; but that was suddenly forgot, 
as we shaQ after hear. While' time is thus 
protracted, the English army, for scarcity 
ci victuab-HMi was bruited— retreats them 
OYer Tweed upon the night, and so begins 
to skaill [dispone], whereof the king adver- 
tised, desires the lords and barons to assist 
him, to follow them in England. Whose 

answer was, with one consent, '' That to 
defend his person and realm, they would 
hasard life and whatsoever they had ; but 
to invade England, neither had theyso juMt 
title as they desired ; neither yet could 
they be then able to do any thing to the 
hurt of England, considering that they had 
long before been absent from their houses, 
their provision was spent, their horses wea- 
ried, and that which was greatest of all, 
the time of the year did utterly reclaim.** 
This their answer seemed to satisfy the 
king, for he in words praised their prudent 
foresight and wise counsel. But the mint 
[proposal] made to his courtiers, and that 
bold repulse of his desires given to him in 
his own face, so wounded his proud heart,— 
for long had he reigned as himself list, — ^that 
he decreed a notable revenge, which, no 
doubt, he had not fidled to have executed, if 
God by his own hand had not cut the cords of 
his impiety. He returns to Edinburgh, the 
nobility, barons, gentlemen, and commons 
to their own habitations. And this was the 
second and third days of November. With- 
out longer delay, at the palace of Holyrood- 
house, was a new council convened, a coun- 
cil, we mean, of bis abusers, wherein were 
accusations laid against the roost part of 
the nobility ; some were heretics, some fi»- 
vourers of England, some friends to the 
Douglas, and so could there be none faith- 
ful to the king, in their opinion. The car- 
dinal and the priests cast fgigots in the 
fire with all their force; and finding the 
king wholly addicted to their devotion, deli- 
vered to him a scroll, containing the names 
of such as they, in their inquisition, had 
convict for heretics ; for this was the order 
of justice, which those holy fathers kept in 
damning of innocent men. Whosoever would 
delate any of heresy, he was heard : no re- 
spect nor consideration had what mind the 
delators bore to the person delated ; whoso- 
ever were produced for witnesses were ad- 
mitted, how suspicious and infamous that 
ever they were ; if two or three had proven 
any point, that by their law was holden he- 
resy, that was a heretic : rested [there re- 
mained] no more but a day to be affixed to 
his condemnation, and to the execution of 
their corrupt sentence. 



[a. n. \km 

Wbsft man oouU be innooeiit where each 
judges were pMtjr, the world may thU day 
, eoDsider. True U ia» by fiUse judgment and 
fidee witness, bare innocents been oppressed 
from the begiiviing. But this freedom to 
shed innooent blood got never the devil but 
in the kingdom of antichrist, ** that the 
innooent should die, and neither know 
aocusator, nor yet the witness that testified 
against him." But how shall the antichrist 
be known, if he shall not be oontrarious to 
God the Father, and his Son Christ Jesus, 
in law, life, and doctrine? But this we 
omit The same soroU had the cardinal 
and prelates once presented to the king, be- 
fore that time be returned from the naviga- 
tion about the isles. But then it was 
lelttsed by the prudent and stout counsel of 
the laird of Grange, who opened clearly to 
the king the practice of the prelates, and 
the danger thereof might ensue, which 
considered by the king — ^for being out of 
his psssion be was tractable — gave this 
answer, in the palace of Holyrood House, 
to the cardinal and prelates, after that they 
had uttered their malice, and shown what 
profit might arise to the crown, if be would 
follow their counsel : " Pack, you josrellis, 
[jugglers], get ye to your charges, and re- 
form your own lives, and be not instruments 
of discord betwixt my nobility and me ; or 
else I vow to God I shall reform you, not 
as the king of Denmark by imprisonment 
does, neither yet as the king of England 
both by hanging and heading; but I shall 
reform you by sharp whingers, if ever 1 hear 
such motion of you again." The prelates, 
dashed and astonished with this answer, 
ceased for a season to attempt any farther 
by rigour against the nobility ; but now, 
being informed of all proceedings by their 
pensioners, Oliver Sinclair, Ross laird of 
Craigie, and others, who were to them faith- 
ful in all things; they conclude to hazard 
once again their former suit, which was no 
sooner proponed, but as soon it was accept- 
ed, with no small regret made by the king's 
own mouth, that he had so long despised 
their Gounitel : ** For/* said he, ** now I plainly 
see your words to be true: the nobility 
neither desire my honour nor continuance;*^ 

* in the suppressed copy it is oountensnos. 

for they would not ride a mile for ray plan, 
sure to follow my enemies. Will ye there- 
fore find me the means, how that I may 
have raid made in England without their 
knowledge and consent, that may be known 
to be my own raid ; and I shall bind me to 
your counsel for ever.*' There concurred 
together Ahab and his false prophets, there 
were gratnlations and clapping of hand% 
there was promise of diligence, closeness, of 
fidelity ; finally, condosion was taken, that 
the west border of England, which was 
most empty of men and garinsching (garri* 
sons], should be invaded ; the king's own 
banner should be there. Oliver the great 
minion should be great lieutenant But no 
man should be privy-— except the council 
that was there then present— of the enter- 
prise, till the very day and execution thereof. 
The bishops gladly took the charge of that 
raid; letters were sent to such as they 
would charge, to meet the king, day and 
place appointed. The cardinal, with the 
earl of Arrau, was directed to go to Had- 
dington, to make a show against the east 
border, when the other was in readiness to 
invade the west : and thus neither lacked 
counsel, practice, closeness, nor diligence to 
set forward that enterprise ; and so among 
those consulters there was no doubt of a 
good success, and so was the scroll thank- 
fully received by the king himself, and put 
in his own pocket, where it remained to the 
day of his death, and then was found ; iu 
it was contained more than one hundred 
landed men, besides others of meaner degree, 
— amongst whom was the lord Hamilton, 
then second person of the realm — delated. 
It was bruited that this raid was devised by 
the lord Maxwell, but the certainty thereof 
we have not The night before the day 
appointed to the enterprise, the king was 
found at Lochmaben. To him come com- 
panies from all quarters, as they were ap- 
pointed; no man knowing of another — 
for no general proclamation past, but privy 
letters — neither yet did the multitude know 
any thing of the purpose till after midnight^ 
while that the trumpets blew, and com- 
manded all men to march forward, and to 
follow the king— who was eonstantly sup- 
posed to be in the host — guides were ap- 




poiotoi to eoBJpol tb«m toward Engkod, 
M both futbloUy and doMly tbey did. 
Upoa tlftB pomfeof day, they approached to 
the eoMiy'a gnnud, and ao paasad the 
water witiioot aoy great redftance made 
unto them. The foray goes forth, fire 
rj^ea ; hendi^ mif bt baTe been seen on 
ereryaido. The nnproTided people were 
altofether amaaed ; for bright day appear- 
ing, they aaw an army of ten thooeand men, 
their com and hoaaee on erery side tend 
flames ai&n onto the heavens. To them 
it was nM>rs than a wonder that snob a 
mnltitnde ooohl have been assembled and 
convoyed, no knowledge thereof coming to 
any of their wardens : for support tbey look- 
ed not» and so at the first they were utterly 
despaired. And yet began tbey to assemble 
iogsther, ten in one company, twenty in 
another; and so aa the firay proceeded, their 
troops increased; bnt to no number — for 
Caiiisle fearing to have been assaulted, 
saifcred no man to issue out of their gates 
—and so the greatest number, that ever 
appeared or approached before the discom- 
fiture, past not three or four hundred men ; 
and yet they made hot skirmishing, as iu 
their own ground, in such feats they are 
most expert About ten hours, when fires 
were kindled, and almost sleekened [quench- 
ed] on ewtry side, thought Oliver time to 
show his glory, and so incontinent was dis- 
played the king's banner, Oliver upon 
spears lift up upon men's shoulders, and 
there, with sound of trnmpet, was he pro- 
claimed general lieutenant, and all men 

• Slwbome— Slofsn, war cry, or gathering 
Jamiaun, D. Buchanan not being' able 
to find the OManiDg of this word, natitfied him- 
•dt with ooe Mnefrbat like it in aound. *< Every 
man,** eaya he, ** called hie own sluggard" So 
it is alee in an octavo edition, poblished in 
Fkialej in 1791, and in an elegant quarto one in 
fidinhufb la 1705 ; only the last has it in the 
ploraL Bat what surprised me most, was to 
find tbc same rendering, without any notice of 
the eri^inal <• Skvbome," in the euppreeeed 
cditieo by Veulmliier, printed in London in 
1666, with whieb I have been furnished by the 
ktndncH of a fifmd in Edinburgh, since my 
editorial Isboars eommenoed. Wodrow, as 
quoted io my Intndaction, p. SI, mentions the 
exat-t oorrespoodeaoe between this edition, ao 
iar as it goes with the Glasgow MS., and ex- 
presses bis anrprise that D. B. should have 
overlooked it. I think this proves that D. B. 

I commanded to obey him, as the king's own 
person, pnder all highest pains. There was 
present the lord Maxwell, warden, to \rhom 
the regimen (government] of things in 
absence of the king properly appertained; 
he heard and saw all, but thought more nor 
he spoke. There were also present the earls 
of Glencairn and Cassilis, with the lord 
Fleming, and many other lords, barons, and 
gentlemen of Lothian, Fife, Angus and 
Meams. In this meantime did the skirmish- 
ing grow greater than it was before ; shouts 
were heard on every side, some Scotish 
men were stricken down, some not knowing 
the ground layred [mired], and tint [lost] 
their horse. 8ome English horse of pur^ 
pose were let loose, to provoke greedy and 
imprudent men to proik [to gallop after 
them. See Pryk. Jam, Did,] at them, as 
many did, but found no advantsge. While 
such disorder rose more and more in the 
army, men cried in every ear, ** My lord 
lieutenant, what will ye do ?" Charge was 
given, that all men should light, and go to 
array; for they would fight it Others 
oied, ** Against whom will ye fight ? yon 
men will fight no other ways than ye see 
them do, if ye will stand here quhill [until] 
the morn." New purpose was taken, that 
the footmen — they had with them certain 
bands of footmen soldiers — should softly 
retire towards Scotland, and the horsemen 
should take their horse again, and so follow 
in order. Great was the noise and con- 
fusion that was heard, while every man 
called his own sloghome.* The day M'as 

had it before him, and that he followed it ; for 
it is at least very improbable that he should 
have fallen into the same ridiculous mistake in 
the translation of a word. * He roust have neeu 
that the word ** sluggard,** in this connection, 
has no meaning at all ; and would probubiy 
have sought for one with a meaning, if he had 
not implicitly followed his predecessor. Voul- 
trollier evidently followed the Glasgow MS., 
or an exact duplittate of it ; but he reduces the 
orthography to the finglish of his time; he 
translates some of the Scotish words, in which 
he makeo more mistakes than the one above men- 
tioned ; and many he does not translate at all, 
which, though obsolete to us, may have been 
then current in England. Upon the supuoeitioa 
that D. B. had this genuine text before nim, his 
omissions and interpolationa appear more Inex- 
cusable. Wodrow calN the supprcHscd edition 
a duodecimo, but both bishop Nicholsoo and 



[A/o. IMS 

mmr tpeiit» and that was the cause of the 
greatest fear. The lord Maxwell peroeiying 
what would he the end of such beg^nings, 
stood upon his foot with his friends, who 
being admonished to take his horse, and 
provide for himself; answered, ** Nay, I 
will rather abide here the chance that it 
shall please Ood to send me, than to go home, 
and then be hanged." And so he remained 
upon his foot, and was taken, while the 
multitude fled, and took the greater shame. 
The enemies perceiying the disorder, in- 
creased in courage. Before they shouted, 
but then they struck. They shot spears, 
and daggit [showered] arrows where the 
oompames were thickest Some rencounters 
were made, but nothing availed. The sol- 
diers cast from them their pikes, culverins, 
and other weapons fensible ; the horsemen 
left their spears; and so without judgment 
all men fled. The sea was filling, and so the 
water made great stop ; but the fear was 
such, so that happy was he might get a 
taker. Such as passed the water, and 
escaped the danger, not well acquainted 
with the ground, fell into the SoUen [Sol* 
way] moss ; the entry thereof was pleasant 
enough, but as they proceeded, all that took 
that way either tint [lost] their horse, or else 
themselves and horse both. To be short, a 
greater fear and discomfiture without cause 
has seldom been seen ; for it is said, ** That 
where the men were not sufficient to take the 
hands [bands, «tfppr. copy] of prisoners, some 
ran to houses, and rendered themselves to 
women." Stout Oliver was taken without 
stroke, flying full manfully, and so was his 
glory — stinking and foolish proudness we 
should call it — suddenly turned to confusion 
and shame. In that discomfiture were taken 
the two earls foresaid, the lords Fleming, 
Somervile, and many other barons and 
gentlemen, besides the great multitude of 

Mr Crawford calls it octavo, which would seem 
to refer to different editions ; but from external 
appearance no man could with certainty assign 
it to either. The number of leaves under each 
letter in the foot margin, ascertains it to be 
octaro, though not larger than a crown duo- 
decimo. Let not the reader allege that by such 
minute details I am trifling with him. They 
are connected with the authenticity of the work ;' 
and great authors, such as those above-mention- 
ed, have written a great deal more on the same 
subject. Spotswood makes good use of this 

servants. Worldly men say, that all this 
came but by misorder and fortune, as 
they term it But whosoeTer has the least 
spunk of the knowledge of God, may as eii- 
dently see the work of his hand in this dis- i 
oomfiture, as ever was seen in any of the 
battles left to us in register by the Holy 
Ghost. For what more evident declani^ 
tion have we that Qod fought against Ben- 
hadad, king of Harem, when he was dis- 
comfited at Samaria, than that we have that 
God fought with his own arm against Scot- 
land. In this former discomfiture there 
did two hundred and thirty persons in the 
skirmish, with seven thousand following 
them in that great battle, put to flight the 
said Benhadad with thirty kings in his com- 
pany. But here there are, in this shameful 
discomfiture of Scotland, very few more 
than three hundred men, without any know- 
ledge of any back or battle to follow, put to 
fiight ten thousand men, without any re- 
sistance. There did every man rencounter 
his marrow [fellow], till that the two hun- 
dred and thirty slew such as matched them ; 
but here without slaughter the multitude 
fled. There had they of Samaria the pro- 
phet of God to comfort, to instruct, and to 
promise victory unto them ; but England, 
in that pursuit, had nothing but as God se- 
cretly wrought by his providence in these 
men that knew nothing of his working, 
neither yet of the cause thereof, more than 
the wall that fell upon the rest of Benha- 
dad*8 army knew what it did. And, there- 
fore, yet again we say, that such as in that 
sudden dejection behold not the band of 
God fighting against pride, for freedom of 
his own little flock unjustly persecuted, 
do willingly and maliciously obscure the 
glory of God. But the end thereof is yet 
more notable. The certain knowledge of 
the discomfiture coming to the king's ears 

edition under its general title, " The History of 
the Church of Scotland," without, I suppoae, 
knowing it to be Knox's ; for he disputed the 
fact that he wrote such a history. Of this edition 
bishop Nicholson observes: ** I have aeen only 
four or five copies of the octavo edition of Knox a 
History, all of them fragments, beginning at p. 
17, and ending abruptly with 560.'* This is an 
exact description of the copy in my possession. 
Probably on its suppi'esaion the first sheet was 
destroyed or carried away, and the printing in- 
terrupted, so that It wu never finished.— JSa. 




I news ftt Lochmabeo — ^he 
itiidmi with a sudden fear and asto- 
Biabmeoty to that tcaroel j could he speak, or 
hold parpose with any man ; the eight con- 
straiBed hiM to remain where he was, and 
■o went to bed ; bat rose without rest or 
quiet sleep. His continoal complaint was, 
«OhI fled Oyrer? ia OUTer taken? Oh! 
fled OliTer ?^ And these words in his mehin- 
ciioly» and as it were carried away in a 
timnce, repeated he from time to time to the 
hour of his death. Upon the morrow, which 
was St Catherine's day, retomed he to 
Edinboiyh, and so did the cardinal from 
Haddington. Bat the one being ashamed 
of the other, the brait [report] of their com- 
BonicatioD came not to pnblic audience. 
The king made inTentories of his pois 
[trsasore], of all his jewels, and other sub- 
stance ; and th^eaflter, ashamed to look any 
nun in the ftoe, secretly departed to Fife, 
and coming to the Hallyards, was humanely 
rtosiTed of the lady of Grange, an ancient 
and godly matron — the laird at his coming 
was absent In his company was only with 
him William Kirkaldy, now laird of Grange, 
and soose others that waited upon his 
chamber. The lady at supper, perceiving him 
pensiTO, began to comfort him, and willed 
him to take the work of God in good part. 
** My portion of this world,** said he, *< is 
short, for I will not be with you lifteen 
days." His servant repaired unto him, ask- 
ing, * Where he would have provision made 
tor his Yule [Christmas], which then ap- 
proached ?** He answered, with a disdain- 
ful nnirk [smile], ** I cannot tell, choose ye 
the phiee; bat this I can tell you, or Yule 
day ye will he masterless, and the realm 
withoot a king.** Because <^ his displea- 
sure no man durst make contradiction unto 
him. 80 after he had visited the castle of 
Csrney, pertaining to the earl of Crawfurd, 

* He ■Msat* that the family of Stuart came 
to tiM erowB 1^ marriage, and would now de- 
part by hh daachter marrying a perMn of an- 
•th<T DMiM^ln wafch, however, he was miataken. 

t ** Hia part wm in tbe pot,** i. e. He had an 
undue abare In the queeu*a farour. D. B. 
adda in a ooCc, *• Others sticic not to say 
that tba kiog waa hastened away by a po- 
tion." I have seen no aatlaiaetory evidence of 

where the said earl's danghter was, one of 
his whores, he retomed to Falkland, and 
took bed. And albeit there appeared unto 
him no signs of death, yet he constantly af- 
firmed, "Before such a day I shall be 
dead." In this meantime, was the queen 
upon the point of her delivery in Linlith- 
gow, who was delivered the 8th day of De- 
cember, in the year of God 1542 years, of 
Mary, that then was bom, and now does 
reign for a plague to this realm, as the pro> 
gress of her whole life had to this day de- 
clares. The certainty that a daughter was 
born unto him, coming to his ears, he turn- 
ed from such as spake with him, and said, 
** The devil go with it, it will end as it began; 
it came from a woman, and it will end in 
a woman.'* • After that he spake not many 
words that were sensible, but ever he harp- 
ed upon this old song, ^ Fie 1 fled Oliver ? 
Is Oliver taken ? All is lost'* In this mean- 
time, in his greatest extremity, comes the 
cardinal, an apt comforter for a desperate 
man. He cries in his ear, " Take order. 
Sir, with the realm. Who shall rule. Sir, 
during the minority of your daughter ? Ye 
have known my service, what will ye have 
done ? Shall there not be four regents cho> 
sen ; and shall not I be principal of them r^' 
Whatsoever the king answered, docu- 
ments were taken, that so should be as my 
lord cardinal thought expedient. As many 
affirm, a dead man's hand was made to sub- 
scribe a blank, that they might write above 
it what pleased them best This finished, 
the cardinal posted to the queen, lately de- 
livered, as said is ; at the first sight of the 
cardinal, she said, ** Welcome, niy lord, is 
not the king dead ?" Wbat moved her to 
conjecture, diverse men are of diverse judg- 
ments ; many whisper, that of old his part 
was in the pot,f and that the suspicion 
thereof caused him to be inhibited the 

this ; and I do not recollect of its being men- 
tioned by any other historian. Considering his 
gallantries, there could not be much cordiality 
between him and bis queen ; but that she should 
have been accessory to bis death, is not proba- 
blf ; and perhaps would never have been nup- 
posedy if her conduct bad not afterward:* made 
people believe that she was capable of any thing. 



[a. b. Mt 

cfiiMn^s eomfianj: howioeTer it was be- 
fore, it is plain, that after the king's death, 
and dariai^ the cardinal's life, whosoerer 
guided the oonrt, he got his secret business 
sped of that gracious lady, either hj day or 
by night. Howsoerer the tidings liked 
her, she mended [recoTered] with as great 
expedition of that danghter as erer she did 
before of any son that erer she bore; the 
time of her purificatioD was sooner than 
the Levitical law appoints.* The noise 
of the death of king James divulgate, 
who departed this life the 18th day of De- 
cember, the year of God 1542 foresaid, the 
hearts of all men began to be disclosed. 
All men lamented that the realm was left 
without a male to succeed ; yet some re- 
joiced that such an enemy to God's truth 
was taken away. He was called of some a 
good poor man*8 king: of others he W9s 
termed a murderer of the nobility, and one 
that had decreed their whole destruction. 
Some praised him for the repressing of theft 
and oppression ; others dispraised him for 
the defiling of men's wires and virgins. 
And thus men spake even as men's affec- 
tions led them, and yet none spake altoge- 
ther beside the truth ; for a part of all the 
foresaids were so manifest, that as the vir- 
tues could not be denied, so could not the 
vices by any craft be cloaked. The ques- 
tion of government was through this realm 
universally moved. The cardinal proclaim- 
ed the king's last will, and therein were ex- 
pressed four protectors, or regents, of 
whom himself was the first and principal, 
and with him were joined the earls of 
Huntly, Argyle, and Murray; this was 
done the Monday at the market-cross of 
Edinburgh : but the Monday following, 
took the whole regents remission for their 
usurpation; for by the stout and wise 
counsel of the laird of Grange, did the earl 
Arran, then second person to the crown, 
cause assemble the nobility of the realm, 
and required the equity of their judgments 
in that his just suit to the government of 
the realm, during the minority of her to 
whom he was to succeed, failing of her and 

* But she was no Jewess, and therefore In 
that offended not 

of her lawful successors. His friends coiv- 
vened — the nobility assembled — ^the day of 
decision was appointed. The cardinal and 
his &ction opposed them to the govern- 
ment of one man, and especially to the re- 
gimen of any called Hamilton : ** For who 
knows not," said the cardinal, <* that the 
Hamiltons are cruel murderers, oppresson 
of innocents,, proud, avaricious, double, and 
false ; and, finally, the pestilence in this 
conunonwealth." Whereunto the said eari 
answered, ** Defraud me not of my right, 
and call me what ye please. Whatsoever 
my friends have been, yet unto this day has 
no man cause to complain upon me, neither 
yet am I minded to flatter any of my friends 
in their evil doing, but by God's grace 
shall be as forward to correct their enor- 
mities, as any within the realm can reason- 
ably require of me: and, therefore, yet 
again, my lord, in God's mune I crave, that 
ye do me no wrong, nor defraud me of my 
just title, before ye have experience of my 
government" At these words, were all that 
feared God and loved honesty, so moved, 
that with one voice, they cried, ** That pe- 
tition is most just, and unless we do against 
God, justice, and equity, it cannot be de- 
nied." And so, in despite of the cardinal 
and his suborned faction, was he declared 
governor, and with public proclamation so 
denounced to the people ; the king's palace, 
treasure, jewels, garments, horse, and plate, 
were delivered unto him by the ofHcers 
that had the former charge, and he honour- 
ed, feared, and obeyed more heartily, nor 
ever any king was before him, so long as 
he abode at God. The cause of the great 
finvour that was home, was, that it was 
bruited that he ikroured God's word ; and 
because it was well known, that he was 
one appointed to have been persecuted, as 
the scroll found in the king's pocket, after 
his death, did witness; these two things, 
together with an opinion that men had of 
his simplicity, bowed the hearts of many 
unto him at the beginning, who after, with 
dolour of hearts, were compelled to change 
their opinions: but hereof will after b« 
spoken. The variety of matters that oc- 
enrred we omit» snob as the order laken 

Book I.] 



for keeping of Uie young qaeen, <^ the pro- 
tUiod for the mother, the home celliDg of 
the Dooglai, ead aocih m appertain to a 
muTerul historjr of the time ; for, as before 
we hare nid. we mind only to follow the 
progren of the religion, and <^ the matters 
that cannot he dimeTered from the same. 

The goTemor eetahlished in government, 
godly men repaired unto him, exhorted him 
to call to mind for what end God had exalt- 
ed him, oat of what danger he had deliver- 
ed him, and what expectation all men of 
honesty had of him. At their instant suit- 
ing, more than of his own motion, was 
Thomas Williams, a black friar, called to 
be preacher; the man was of solid judg- 
ment, reasonable letters as for that age, and 
of a prompt and good utterance ; his doc- 
trine was wholesome, without a great ve- 
hemency against superstition. Preached 
also sometimes John Rough, who after, for 
the verity of Christ Jesus, suffered in Eng- 
land, albeit not so learned, yet more simple 
and more vehement against all impiety. * 
The doctrine of these two provoked ag;ain8t 
them, and against the governor also, the 
hatred of all such as rather £ivourcd dark- 
ness than light, and their own bellies more 
than God, the gray friars, and amongst the 
rest friar Scot, who before had given him- 
self forth for the greatest professor of Christ 
Jesns within Scotland, and under that 
colour had disclosed, and so endangered 
many. These shives of Satan, we say, 
roupit [croaked] as they had been ravens, 
yea, rather they yelled and roared as devils in 
hell, ^ Heresy, heresy, Williams and Rough 

will carry the governor unto the devil.*' 
The town of Edinburgh, for the most part, 
was drowned in superstition ; Edward Hope, 
young William Adamson, Sibilla Lindsay, 
Patrick Lindsay, Francis Aikman ; and in 
the Canongate, John M<Kaw, and Ninian 
Brown, with few others had the bruit [reputa- 
tion] of knowledge in those days. One Wil- 
son, servant to the bishop of Dunkeld, who 
neither knew the New Testament nor the 
Old, made a despiteful railing balUd against 
the preachers, and against the governor, for 
the which he narrowly escaped hanging. 
The cardinal moved both heaven and hell to 
trouble the governor, and to stay the preach- 
ing; but yet was the battle stoutly fought 
for a season ; for he was taken and put first 
in Dalkeith, after in Seaton, but at length 
by budis [bribes] given to the said lord Sea- 
ton, and to the old laird of Lethington, he 
was restored to St Andrews, from whence 
he wrought all mischief, as we shall after 

The parliament approached, which was 
before the pasche [Easter]; their bygone 
question of the abolishing of certain tyran- 
uical acts, made before at devotion of the 
prelates, for maintaining of the kingdom of 
darkness, to wit, " That under pain of 
heresy, no man should read any part of the 
scriptures in the English tongue, neither 
yet any tractate or exposition of any place 
of scripture," such articles began to come 
in question we say, and men began to in- 
'. quire, if it was not lawful to men that under- 
! stood no Latin, to use this word of their 
salvation in the tongue they understood, as 

* *• ThflOBM Guillaame, or Williams/* says 
l>r M^Cricb ** was very useful to Knox, in 
leading him to a more perfect acquaintance with 
tbe truth. H« was a friar of eminence, and, 
alonf with Jolm Rough, acted as chaplain to 
tho tarl of Arran, during the short time that 
he favoured the Reformation, at the beginning 
of his ng en cy , by whom be was employed in 
preaehing In different parU of the kingdom." 
Kough WM bam about anno 1510; and, having 
been dcpffivid ef aome property to which he 
considered hlaedf entitled, be in disgust left 
bis reJatiooa, and entared into a monastery in 
Stirlinr, when enir about seventeen years of 
age. He viaJced Rome twice, and was very 
much shocked with what he witnessed in that 
city, which he had been taught to regard as the 
fountain of sanctity. Fox, p. 1840, as cited by 
M*Crie. This wm the person who publicly 

called Knox to tbe ministry in the church of St 
Andrews, as related in the sequel. He after- 
wards went to England, where he continued to 
preach till the death of Edward VI. when he 
retired to the Netherlands. There he was ob- 
liged to support himself and his wife (whom be 
had married in England) by knitting caps, 
stockings, &o. Having come over to I^ndon in 
the course of business, he heard of a congrega- 
tion of protestanta who met secretly in the city, 
to whom be joined himself, and was elected their 
pastor. A few weeks thereafter, the conventi- 
cle was discovered by the treachery of one of 
their own number, and Rough wa.t carried be- 
fore bishop Bonner, by whose orders he was 
committed to the flamel^ on the SSd of l>ecember, 
1557. i^ee Fox, p. 1840—1848, as referred Co 
by MCrw,—£d, 




[a. d. ift4e 

it was for Latin men to hmTe it in Latin, 
OrMiam and Hebrews, to haTe it in their 
toni^es. It was answered, that the kirk 
first had foHbidden all kind of tong;ues bnt 
these three. But men demanded when that 
inhibition was g^Ten ; and what counsel had 
ordained that, considering^, that in the days 
ef Chrysostom he complained, that the 
people need not the psalms and other holy 
books in their own tong^aes ? And if ye 
will say these were Greeks, and understood 
the Greek tongue, we answer, that Christ, 
he has oommanded his word to be preached 
to all nations. Now, if it ought to be 
preached to all nations, it must be preached 
in the tongue they understand. Now, if it 
be lawful to preach it in all tongues, why 
shall it not be lawful to read it, and to hear 
it read in all tongues ? to the end that the 
people may try the spirits, according to the 
commandment of the apostle. Beaten with 
these and other reasons, they denied not 
but it may be read in the vulgar tongue, pro- 
Tiding that the translation were true. It was 
demanded what could be reprehended in it ? 
And when much searching was made, no- 
thing could be found, bnt that love, say 
they, was put in the place of charity. 
When the question was asked, what differ- 
ence was betwixt the one and the other ; 
and if they ui^derstood the Greek term 
ayuxyi, they were dumb. Reasoned for the 
party of the seculars, the lord Ruthyen, 
father to him that prudently gave counsel 
to take just punishment upon that knave 
Davie [David Rizzio], for that he had 
abused king Henry in more cases than 
one, a stout and discreet roan in the cause 
of God, and Mr Henry Balnaves, an old 
professor ; for the part of the clergy. Hay, 
dean of Restalrig, and certain old bosses 
[paupers or persons of no respectability*] 
with him. 

The conclusion was, the commissioners 
of burghs, and a part of the nobility, re- 
quired of the parliament, that it might be 
enacted, " That it should be lesoun [lawful] 

• D. B. very absurdly trantlates thii *« old 
bishopa.'* It U so tilno in the Paisley edition, aiKi 
ill the Edinburgh one, above mentioned. Voul- 
troUier gives only the original word.— £d. 

to every man to use the benefit of the trans- 
lation which then they had of the Bible and 
New Testament, together with the l»enefit of 
other treatises containing wholesome doe- 
trine, unto such time as the prelates and 
kirkmen should give and set forth unto 
them a translation more correct*' The 
clergy thereto long repugned ; bnt in the 
end, conricted by reasons and by multitude 
of votes in their contrary,- they also con- 
descended ; and so by act of parliament, it 
was made free to all men and womefi to 
read the scriptures in their own tongue, or 
in the English tongue ; and so were all acts 
made in the contrary abolished. 

This was no small victory of Christ Jesus, 
fighting against the conjured enemies of his 
verity ; not small comfort to such as before 
were holden in such bondage, that they 
durst not have read the Lord's Prayer, the 
Ten Commandments, nor articles of their 
faith in the English tongue, but they should 
have been accused of heresy. Then might 
have been seen the Bible lying almost upon 
every gentleman's table. The New Testa- 
ment was borne about in many men's hands. 
We grant, that some, alas ! profaned that 
blessed word : for some, perchance, that 
never had read ten sentences in it, had it 
most common in their hands ; they would 
chop their ^miliars in the cheek with it^ 
and say, ** This has lain hid under my bed 
feet these ten years." Others would glory, 
** D ! how often have I been in danger for 
this book ! how secretly have I stolen 
away from my wife at midnight to read 
upon it" And this was done we say of 
many to make court thereby : for all men 
esteemed the governor to be the most fer- 
vent protestant that was in Enrope. Albeit 
we say that many abused that liberty grant- 
ed of God miraculously, yet thereby did the 
knowledge of God wondronsly increase, 
and [God, gup, copy] gave his holy spirit to 
simple men in great abundance. Then 
were set forth works in our own tongue, 
besides them that came from England, that 
did disclose the pride, the craft, the tyranny, 
and the abuse of the Roman antichrist 

The fame of our governor was spread in 
divers countries, and many praised God for 
him. King Henry sent wrta him his am- 

•Book I.] 



bagsador, Bir Sttdler, who lay in Edinburgh 
a great pari of anmiiier ; hia commission and 
negotiation was to contract a perpetual 
amity betwixt Rnyland and Scotland. The 
occasion whereof God had so offered, that 
to many men it appeared that from heaven 
he had declared his good pleasure in that 
behal£ For to king Henry, of Jane Somer, 
after the death of queen Catharine, and of 
all others that might have made his mar- 
riage suspected, was given a son, Edward 
the sixth of blessed memory, elder some 
yean than our mistress, and unto us left a 
queen, as before we have heard. This 
wonderfnl providence of God caused men of 
greatest judgment to enter into disputation 
with themselves, whether that with good 
eonscienoe any man might repugn to the 
desires of the king of England, considering 
that thereby all occasion of war might be 
cut off, and great conmiodity might ensue to 
this realm. The offers of king Henry were 
so laige, and his demands so reasonable, that 
all that loved quietness were content there- 
with. There were sent from the parliament 
to king Henry in oommission. Sir James 
Learmonth, and Mr Henry Balnaves, who 
long remaining in England, so travailed 
that all* things concerning the marriage be- 
twixt Edward the sixth and Mary queen of 
Scots was agreed upon, except the time of 
her deliverance to the custody of English- 
men; upon the final conclusion of the 
which head, were added to the former com- 
missioners William earl of Glencairn, and 
Sir George Douglas, to whom were given 
ample commission and good instructions. 
In Scotland remained Mr Sadler. Adver- 
tisements past so frequently betwixt, yea, the 
hands of our lords were so liberally anoint- 
edy besides other commodities promised^ 
and of some received i for divers prisoners 
taken st Solane [Solway] moss were sent 
home ransom firee, upon promise of their 
fidelity, which, as it was kept, the issue will 
witness. But in the end so well were all 
ones ooBteat-— the cardinal, the queen, and 
the faction of France ever excepted — that 
solemnly in the abbey of Holyroodhouse, 
was the contract of marriage made betwixt 
the persons foresaid, together with all the 
daases and conditions requisite, for the 

faithful observation thereof, read in publio 
audience, subscribed, sealed, approved and 
allowed of the governor for his part, no- 
bility and lords for their parts ; and that 
nothing should want that might fortify the 
matter, was Christ's body sacred, as papists 
term it, broken betwixt the said governor 
and Mr Sadler, ambassador, and received of 
them both as a sign and token of the unity 
of their minds, inviolably to keep that con- 
tract in all points, as they looked of Christ 
Jesus to be saved, and after to be reputed 
men worthy of credit before the world. 
The papists raged against the governor 
apd against the lords that consented, and 
abode sure at the contract foresaid: and 
they made a brag to depose the governor, 
and to confound all, as after followed. But 
upon the returning of the said ambassadors 
from Englaud, pacification was made for 
that time, for by the judgments of eight 
persons for either party, to judge whether 
any thing was done for the said ambassa- 
dors in the contracting of that marriage, 
which to do, they had not sufficient power 
from the council and parliament, it was 
found, that all things were done according 
to their commission, and that so they 
should stand. And so were the seals of 
England and Scotland interchanged. Mr 
James Fowlis, then clerk of register, re- 
ceived the great seal of England ; and Mr 
Sadler received the great seal of Scothind. 
The heads of contract we pass by. These 
things newly ratified, the merchants make 
frack [preparation] to sail, and to their traf- 
fic, which, by the trouble of wars, had some 
years been hindered. From Edinburgh 
were freighted twelve ships richly laden, 
according to the wares of Scotland : from 
other towns and ports departed others, 
which all arrived upon the coast of Eng- 
land, towards the south, to wit, of Yar- 
mouth; and without any great necessity, 
entered not only within roads, but also 
within ports and places of commandment, 
and where that ships might be arrested. 
And because of the late contract of amity, 
and gentle entertainment that they found 
at the first, they made no great expedition ; 
but being, as they supposed, in security, in 
merriness they spent the time, abiding 



[a. d. 1548 

upon the wind. In this OMUitinie, arriTed 
ftom Fruioe to Sootland the abhot oi Ptufr* 
lejr, called bastu^ brother to the governor, 
whom yet manj esteemed son to the old 
bishop of Dnnkeld, called Crichton, and 
with him Bfr Dayid Psinter, who after was 
made bishop of Ross. The bmit [report] 
of the learning of these two, and their ho- 
nest life, and of th«r ferrency and upright- 
ness in religion, was snch, that great espe- 
rance [hope] there was that their presence 
should haye been oomfbrtsble to the kirk 
of God. For it was constantlj affirmed of 
some, that without delay, the one or the 
other would occupy the pulpit, and truly 
preach Jesus Christ : but few days disclos- 
ed their hypocrisy ; for what terrors, what 
promises, or what enchanting boxes they 
brought from France, the common people 
knew not. But short after, it was seen, 
that friar Williams was inhibited to preach, 
and so departed to England ; John Rough 
to Kyle, a receptacle of God's servants of 
old. The men of judgment, counsel, and 
godliness, that had travailed to promote the 
governor, and that gave him fkithful coun- 
sel in all doubtful matters, were either craf- 
tily conveyed from him, or else by threa- 
tening to be hanged, were compelled to 
leave him. Of the one number, were the 
laird of Orange foresaid, Mr Henry Bal- 
naves, Mr Thomas Ballantine, and Sir Da- 
vid Lindsay of the Mount ; men, by whose 
labours he was promoted to honour, and 
by whose counsel he so used himself at the 
beginning, that the obedience given unto 
him was nothing inferior to that obedience 
that any king of Scotland of many years 
had before him; yea, in this it did sur- 
mount the common obedience, that it pro- 
ceeded of love of those virtues that were 
supposed to have been in him. Of the 
number of them that were threatened, were 
Mr Mitchell Durham, Mr David Borth- 
wick, David Forrest, and David Both well ; 
who counselled him to have in his com- 
pany men fearing God, and not to foster 
wicked men in their iniquity, albeit they 
were called his friends, and were of his 
surname : this counsel understood by the 
foresaid abbot, and by the Hamiltons, who 
then repaired to the court as ravens to 

the carrion. In plain words, it was said, 
** My lord governor nor his IHeiida will 
nerer he at ease nor quietness till that 
a dosen of these knaves that abuse his 
grmoe be hanged." These words were 
spoken in his own prssenoe, and in the 
presence of them that had better deserved 
than to have been so entreated: the 
speaker was allowed for his bold and 
plain ^Making. And so the wicked coun- 
sel deprehended, honest and godly men left 
the court and him in the hands of such, 
as by their wicked oounsel, led him so fiur 
from God, that he fiUsified his promise, 
dipped his hands in the blood of the saints 
of God, and brought this commonwealth 
to the utter point of ruin ; and these were 
the first frnits of the abbot of P^ley his 
godliness and learning; but hereafter we 
will hear more. All honest and godly men 
banished from the court, the abbot and the 
council begin to lay before the inconstant 
governor, the dangers that might ensue 
the alteration and change of religion ; the 
power of the king of France, the conuno- 
dity that might come to his honse and to 
him by retaining the ancient league with 
France, and the great danger that he brought 
upon himself, if in any jot he suffered the 
authority of the pope to lie violated, or 
called in doubt within this realm: consi- 
dering that thereupon only stood the secu- 
rity of his right to the succession of the 
crown of this realm : for by God*s word 
would not the divorcement of hid father 
from Elizabeth Home, his first wife, be 
found lawful, and so would his second mar- 
riage be judged null, and he declared bas- 
tard. Caiaphas spake prophecy and yet 
wist not what he spake ; for at that time 
there was no man that truly feared God 
that minded any such thing, but with their 
whole force would have fortified that title 
that God had given unto him, and would 
never have called in question things done 
in time of darkness. But this head we pass 
by till God declare his word thereuntil. 
Another practice was used ; for the cardinal 
being set at liberty, as before we havehearj^ 
ceased not to traffic with such of the mul- 
titude as he might draw to his faction, or 
corrupt by any means, to raise a party 

Boos L] 



agiaiDit the nid foremor, and against saoh 
aa stood fiwt at the oontiuct of marriage and 
peaoe with Eaglaiid. And so assembled at 
Linlithgow, the said cardinal, the eark Ar- 
gyle, Hontly, and Bothwell, the bishops 
and their bands. And thereafter they pass- 
ed to Stiriing, and took with them both the 
queen mother and the daoghter, and threa- 
tened the deposition of the said governor, 
as ** inobedient to their holy mother the 
kirk," so term they that harlot of Babylon, 
Rome ; the inconstant man, not thoroughly 
grounded upon Gfrod, left in his own default, 
destitute of all good counsel, and having 
the widced ever blowing in his ear, " What 
will ye do ? Ye will destroy yourself and 
your house for ever." The unhappy man, 
we say, beaten with these temptations, ren- 
dered himself to the appetites of the wick- 
ed; for he quietly stole away from the 
lords that were wiUi him then in the palace 
of Holyroodhoose, passed to Stirling, sub- 
jected himself to the cardinal and to his 
counsel, received absolution, renounced the 
profession of Christ Jesus his holy evangel, 
and violated his oath that before he had 
made, for observation of the contract and 
league made with England. At that time 
was our queen crowned, and new promise 
made to France. The certainty hereof com- 
ing to king Henry, our Scotish ships were 
stayed, the sails taken from the rayes [rig- 
ging], and the merchants and mariners were 
commanded to sure custody. New commis- 
sion was sent to Mr Sadler, who then still 
remained in Scotland, to demand the cause 
of that sudden alteration, and to travail by 
all means possible, that the governor might 
be called back to his former godly purpose, 
and that he would not do so foolishly and 
unhonesUy, yea, so cruelly and unmerciful- 
ly to the realm of Scotland, that he would 
not only lose the commodities offered, and 
that were partly to be received, but that 
also he would expose it to the hazard of 
fire and sword, and other inconveniences 
that might ensoe the war that was to fol- 
low upon the vkilation of his faith ; but no- 
thing* could avail The devil kept fast the 
gripe that he got^ yea, all the days of his 
government ; for the cardinal got his eldest 
son in pledge, whom he kept in the castle 
of St Andrews, until tlie day that (lod^s 

hand punished his pride. King Henry per- 
ceiving that all hope of the governor's re- 
pentance was lost, called back his ambassa- 
dor, and that with fearful threatenings, as 
after Edinburgh felt ; denounced war, made 
our ships prizes, merchants and mariners 
Uwful prisoners, which, to the burghs of 
Scotland, was no small hership. But 
thereat did the cardinal and papists laugh, 
and jestingly said, ** When we shall con- 
quer England, the merchants shall be re- 
compensed." The summer and the harvest 
passed over without any notable thing, foi 
the cardinal and the abbot of Paisley part- 
ed the prey amongst them ; the abused go- 
vernor bore the name only. In the begin- 
ning of winter came the earl of Lennox to 
Scotland, sent from France in hatred of 
the governor, whom the king, by the car- 
dinal's advice, promised to pronounce bas- 
tard, and so to make the said earl governor ; 
the cardinal farther did put the said earl in 
vain hope that the queen dowager should 
marry him. He brought with him some 
money, and more he after received at the 
hands of Labroth. 

But at length, perceiving himself frus- 
trated of all expectation that he had, either 
by France, or yet by the promise of the 
cardinal, he concluded to leave France, and 
to seek the favours of England, and so be- 
gan to draw a faction against the governor ; 
and in hatred of the other's inconstancy, 
many favoured him in the beginning ; for 
there assembled at the Yule, in the town of 
Ayr, the earls of Angus, Glencaim, Cas- 
sillis, the lords Maxwell, * the 

laird of Drumlanrig, the sheriff of Ajrr, 
with all the force that they, and the lords 
that remained constant at the opinion of 
England, might make ; and after the Yule 
they came to Leith. The governor and 
cardinal, with their forces, kept Edinburgh, 
for they were slackly pursued. Men excuse 
the earl of Lennox in that behalf, and laid 
the blame upon some that had no will of 
Stewart's regimen. Howsoever it was 
such an appointment was made, that the 
said earl of Lennox was disappointed of his 
purpose, and narrowly escaped ; and first got 

• There is no blank in the suppressed copy. 



[a. d. 

to QlaigoWy and afUr to DnmlNurtoBy 
Qtorgt Dooglat was dUHTtrad to be 
kept at pladfe. The earl his brother was 
[ta the lent» jifp. copjf] after taken in the 
Lenten^ at the siege of GhMgow* It was 
bruited, that both the brethren, and others 
with them, had lost their heads, if by the 
proTidenoe of God the English arm/ had not 
ani?ed the sooner. After that the oardi- 
nal had gotten the goremor wholl j addicted 
to hia deTotion, and had obtained his intent 
aboTO his enemies, he began to practise how 
that such as he feared, and therefore deadlj 
hated, should be set bj the ears one against 
another. For in that, thought, the carnal 
man, stood his greatest securi^. The lord 
RnthTen he hated, by reason of his know- 
ledge of God's word. The lord Gray he 
feared, because at that time he used the 
company of such as professed godliness, and 
bore small favour to the cardinaL Now, 
thus reasoned the worldly wise man, ** If I 
can put enmity betwixt these two, I shall 
be rid of a great number of unfriends; for 
the most of the country will either assist 
the one or the other; and so will they 
otherwise be occupied, than to watch for 
my displeasure." He iiods the means with- 
out long process; for he laboured with 
John Charteris, a man of stout oourage and 
many friends, to accept the provostry of St 
Johnstone, which he purchased unto him 
by donation of the goTernor, with charge 
to the said town to obey him as their law- 
ful provost Whereat, not only the said 
lord Ruth VCD, but also the town, being of- 
fended, gave a negative answer, alleging, 
that such intruding of men in office was 
hurtful to their privilege and freedom; 
which granted unto them free election of 
their provost from year to year, at a certain 
time appointed, which they could not, or 
would not prevent Hereat the said John 
offended said, ** That he would occupy that 
office by force, if that they would not grant 
it unto him by benevolence ;** and so de- 
parted, and communicated the matter with 
the lord Gray, with Norman Leslie, and 
others his friends, whom easily he per- 
suaded in that pursuit, because he appeared 
to have the governor's right, and had not 
only a charge nnto the town, as said is, but 
also he purchased letters to besiege it, and 

to take it by strong hand, if any rssistanca 
were made onto bias. 8ndi Isttora, wo 
say, made many to fiivonr his action. 
The other made delenee, and ao took tho 
■aster of Rothvett— the Wrd that after do- 
parted in England- 'the maintenanoe of 
the town, having in his company the laird 
of Biomarief, and other firiMids ai^aoeBl. 
The said John made fra«k [prepared] te 
the pnffBttit; and upon the Magdalene day, 
in the morning anno IMS^ approached with 
hia forces. The lord Gray took npon hioa 
the principal charge. U was appointed, 
that Norman Leslie with his friends shonUI 
have come by ship^ with munition . and 
ordnance, as they were in readhMss. But 
because the tide served not so soon as they 
would, the other thidking hiaudf of suffi- 
cient force, for all that were in the town, 
entered in by the bridge, where they found 
no resistance, till that the foremost part 
was ei^tered a pretty space from the Fish 
Gate ; and then the said master of Ruthven 
with his company, stoutly rencountered 
them, and so readily repulsed the foremost, 
that such as were behind gave back. The 
place of the retire was so strait, that men 
that durst not fight, could not fly at their 
pleasure; for the most part of my lord 
Gray*s friends were upon the bridge ; and so 
the slaughter was great ; for there fell in 
the edge of the sword threescore men. The 
cardinal had rather that the unhap had 
£idlen on the other part ; but howsoever it 
was, lie thought that such trouble was to 
his comfort and advantage. The knowledge 
whereof came to the ears of the party that 
had received the discomfiture, and was unto 
them no small grief f for as many entered 
oi them in that action for his pleasure, so 
thought they to have had his fortification 
and assistance, whereof finding themselves 
frustrated, they began to look more nar- 
rowly to themselves, and did not so much 
attend upon the cardinal's devotion, as they 
had wont to do before ; and so was a new 
jealousy eugendered amongst them; for 
whosoever would not play to him the good 
valet, was reputed Mnongst his enemies. 
The cardinal drew the governor to Dundee ; 
for he understood that the eaii of Rothes 
and Mr Henry Bahytves were with the 
lord Gray in the castle of Hontly. The 




formMT Milt Mid oottnuuMMtlM nidearl 
•bA kfriy with tW foreaud Mr Hmiry, to 
•OBM uaCo hui to Dandee, and appointed 
ihm next dnj, at ten lionn before noon, 
which hoar they decreed to keep; and for 
that parpoae — embled their fblke at BaU 
fowj, or t he r eh y. The oardinal, adTertieed 
of their aonber — thej were more than 
three hundred taen — thought it not good, 
that 4m7 iboold join with the town, for he 
tered hit own eatate; and lo he persuaded 
the g o f wi iar to paaa forth of Dundee before 
nine boni^ and to take the atraight way to 
8t Johnatone [Perth] ; which perceived by 
forenud kirda, they began to fear that they 
woaid come to puraue them, and to put 
theauelrea in order and array, and marched 
forward of pnrpoae to haye bidden the 
uttanaoat [atood the worst]. But the 
crafty fox foreaeeing, that in fighting atood 
not hia aacnrity, ran to his last refuge, that 
ia, to manifNt tnaaon ; and ao conaultation 
waa taken, how that the force of theothera 
might be broken. And at the first were sent 
the Jaifd of Orange, and the provoat of St 
AndrtwB, knowing nothing of treason, to 
ask why they molested my lord governor in 
hia jonmey? Whereto they answered, 
* That they meant nothing less, for they 
came at his grace'a commandment, to have 
kept the hour in Dundee i^pointed by him, 
which becanaa they saw prevented, and 
knowing the cardinal to be their unfriend, 
they could not but suspect their unprovided 
ooming forth of the town ; and, therefore, 
they pot themaelvea in order, not to invade, 
but to deiend iu case they were invaded." 
This aaawar reported, was sent to them the 
bishop of 8t Andrews, the abbot of Paisley, 
Mr David Painter, the lairds of Bucclengh 
and ColdinknowB, to deaire certain of the 
other eompany to talk with them, which 
they eaaly obtained, for they anspected no 
traaaan. After Jong communication, it waa 
demanded, if that the earl, and lord, and Mr 
Henry ianaaid, would not be content to talk 
with tha govmor, providing that the car- 
dinal and hia campany were of [on, «. c] the 
ground ? TBey aoawered, ** That the govei^ 
normightoonunand them in all things lawful; 
but they had no will to be in the cardinal's 
mercy.*' Fair promisee enew were made 

for their security ; then waa the cardinal 
and his band commanded to depart ; as that 
he did according to the purpose taken. The 
governor remained, and a certain [number] 
with him ; to whom came without company 
the said earl, lord, and Mr Henry. After 
many fair words given unto them all, to 
wit, ^ That he would have them agreed with 
the cardinal ; and that he would have Mr 
Henry Balnaves the worker and instru- 
ment thereof.*' He drew forwards with 


him towards St Johnstone, whereto the 
cardinal waa ridden. They began to sua> 
pect, albeit it was too lato ; and, therefore, 
they desired to have returned to their folks, 
for putting order to them. But it was an- 
swered, " They should send back from the 
town ; but they must needs go forward with 
my lord governor." And so, partly by 
flattery, and partly by force, they were 
compelled to obey ; and how soon that ever 
they were within the town they were appre- 
hended, and upon the mom sent all three to 
the Blackness, where they remained so 
l<mg as it pleased the cardinal's graceleaa 
grace, and that was till that the band of 
man-rent and of service, set some of them 
at liberty. And thus the cardinal with hia 
craft prevailed on every side ; so that the 
Scotish proverb was true of him, ** So long 
runs the fox as he foot has." 

Whether it was at this his journey, or at 
another, that that bloody butcher executed 
his cruelty upon the innocent persons in 
St Johnstone, we cannot affirm; neither 
yet study we to be curious, but rather we 
travail to express the verity, whensoever it 
was done, than scrupulously and exactly to 
appoint the times, which yet we omit not, 
when the certainty occurs. The verity of 
that cruel fitust is thia : at St Panra day, be- 
fore the first burning of Edinburgh, come to 
St Johnstone the governor and cardinal, 
and there, upon envioua delation, were a 
great number of honest men and women, 
called before the cardinal, accused of he- 
resy ; and albeit they could be convicted of 
nothing, but only of suspicion that they had 
eaten a gooae upon Friday, four men were 
adjudged to be hanged, and a woman to be 
drowned ; which cruel and most unjust sen- 
tence was without mercy put in execution. 



Th» hutlNuid WW hanged, and tbe wif«^ hw 
isf a mokiflf babe upon berbnaat» was 
difowiied. *■ O Lord, the land ig not jal 
pnrged finoai audi beaatlj enuHty, naitbar 
baa tby jurt vangeanoa yet atrioken all tbat 
were orioBinal of their blood; but the day 
a^^proacbes when that tbe pimishment of 
that cruelty and othen, will evidently ap- 
pear." The names of the men tbat were 
hanged, were James Honter, William Lamb, 
William Anderson, James Rannalt, bnrgesses 
of St Johnstone. At that time were ba- 
nished Sir Henry Elder, John Elder, 
Walter Piper, Laurence Piillar, with diyers 
othen^ whose names came not to our know- 
ledge. That sworn enemy of Christ Jesus, 
and unto all in whom any spunk of know- 
ledge i^peared, had about that same time 
in prison divers ; amongst whom was John 
Roger, a black friar, godly, learned, and 
one tbat fruitfully preached Christ Jesus, to 
the comfort of many in Angus and Meams, 
whom that bloody man had caused murder 
in the ground of the Sea Tower of St An- 
drews, and then caused to cast him over tbe 
eraig [rock], sparsing [spreading] a false 
bruit [report], ** Tbat the said John, seeking 
to fly, had broken his own craig [neck]." 
Thus ceased not Satan by all means to main- 
tain his kingdom of darkness, and to sup- 
press the light of Christ's evangel But 
potent is he against whom they fought ; for 
when the wicked were in greatest security, 
then began Ood to show his anger ; for the 
third day of May, in the year of God 1544 
years, without knowledge of any man in 
Scotland, we mean of such as should have 
had the care of the realm, was seen a great 
navy of ships arriving towards the firth. 
The posts come to the governor and car- 
dinal, who both were in Edinbui^b, what 
multitude of ships were seen, and what 
course they took. This waa upon the 
Saturday before noon. Question was had, 
what should they mean? Some said, it 
is no doubt but they are Englishmen, and 
we fear that they shall land. The cardinal 
akrippit [laughed or derided), and said, ** It 
is but the island fleet, they are come to 
make us a show, and to put us in fear. I 
ahall lodge the men-of-war in my ejre, that 
ahall knd in Scotland." Stili ata the car- 

[a. i». 1644 

dinal at his dinner, showing aa that there 
had been no danger appearing. Men con- 
vene to gaie upon the ahipa, aome to the 
Gaatle-hill, aome tocrsigs, and other plaoea 
eminent Bat there was no question with 
what force shall we resist^ if that we be in- 
vaded. Some^ after six hours at. night, 
were arrived, and had casten anchor in the 
road of Leith, more than two hundred 
sail. Shortly thereafter, the admiral shot 
[Uunched] a float boat, which from Gran- 
toun craigs, till by east Leith, sounded the 
deep, and so returned to her ship. Hereof 
were divers opinions; men of judgment 
foresaw what it meant, but no credit waa 
given to any that would aay they mind 
[intend] to land, and so paased all men to his 
rest, as if those ships had been a guard for 
their defence. Upon the point of day, upon 
Sunday the fourth day of May, addressed 
they for landing, and ordered then their 
ships, so that a galley or two laid their 
snouts [heads] to tbe craigs. The small 
ships, called pinnaces, and heiche [light] 
horsemen, approached as near as they 
could. The great ships discharged their 
soldiers in the smaller vessels, and then by 
boats, set upon dry land before ten hours, 
ten thousand men, as were judged, and 
more. The governor and cardinal seeing 
then the thing they could not, or at least 
would not believe afore, after that they 
had made a brag to fight, fled as fast as 
horse would carry them ; so that after, tfaey 
approached not within twenty miles of the 
danger. The earl of Angus, and Sir George 
Douglas were that night freed of ward — 
they were in Blackness — ^the said Sir 
George in merriness said, ** I thank king 
Henry and my gentle maaters of England.*' 
The En^ish army betwixt twelve and 
one hour* entered in Leith, found the 
tables covered, and the dinners pre- 
pared ; such abundance of wine and vic- 
tuals, besides the other substance, that the 
like riches within the like bounds were 
not to be found, neither in Scotland nor 
England. Upon the Monday the fifth 
of May, came to them frcmi Berwick and 

« The ■up p ren ed edition makes It between 
one and two o'clock. 





Um bwiir, two tbouHund lionemeii, who 
b«iaf ■wmif¥>t vqpoted, tbe army uiMm 
WedoM^iiy ■afrhwiJ towirdt the town of 
Edinbargh, ipoilad and burned the same, 
and to did tbej the palaee of Holfrood- 
honae; tke bortamea took the hooee of 
Craigwlbtf; and got great spoil therein; 
for it bciag the atrongett house near the 
town, atber than the oastle of Cdinburgh, 
all men songbt to saTe their moveablee 
therein^ bat the stoutnees oi the hurd gave 
it orer witboot shot of hackbut, and for 
bis reward was oaased to march upon his 
ieet to London. He is now captain of 
Doabar, and proroet of Ediubui^h. The 
En^iabmen aeeiBg no resietanoe, hurled hj 
force of men cannons up the causeway to 
the Bnttar-trone, and abore, and hazarded 
a dhot at the fod»-entry of the castle ; but 
that waa to their own pains; for they 
lying wilboat trench or gabion, were ex- 
poeed to the fNce of the whole ordnance of 
the said csstl^ which shot, and that not all 
iu Tain, lor the wheel and axletree of one of 
the Ex^tsh cannons were broken, and some 
of their men sJain, and so they left with 
small honour that enterprise, taken rather 
of rashnem than of any advised counsel. 
When the most part of the day they had 
spoiled and burnt, towards the night they 
returned to Leith, and upon the mom re- 
tnmed to Edinborgfa, and executed the rest 
of God's judgments for that time ; and so 
when they had consumed both the towns, 
they loaded the ebips with the spoil there- 
of and they by land returned to Berwick, 
using the country lor the most part at their 
own pleasure. This was a part of the 
poniahmeiit which God took upon the 
realm for infidelity of the goyernor, and 
for the violation of his solemn oath. But 
tUs was not the end ; for the realm was 
divided into two foetions, the one fiivoured 
France, and the other the league lately con- 
tracted with Eag^d ; the one did in no 
things t h ow ag hiy credit the other ; so that 
the country was in extreme calamity ; for 
to the Englishmen were delivered certain 
strengths, such as Carlaverock, Lochraaben, 
and Langholm. The most part of the bor- 
derers were confederate with England. 
And albeit at tirst, at Ancram-miiir, in Fe- 

bruary, in the year of God 1544^ was Sir 
Ralph Ewars, with many other Eiij^lish* 
men slain, and the year after were some of 
the said strengths recovered ; yet was it not 
without great loss and detriment of the 
commonwealth ; for in the month of June, 
in the year of God 1 545, Mondeur de Lourg, 
with bands of men of war, came from 
France for a further destruction to Scot- 
land; for upon their brag was an army 
raised. Forwards go they towards Wark; 
even in the midst of the harvest The 
cardinal's banner was that day displayed, 
and all his fials {retainers] were 4^arged 
to be under it Many before had promised, 
but at the point it ni-as left so bare, that 
with shame it was shut up in the poke 
again, and they after a show returned 
with more shame to the realm, nor scathe 
to the enemies. The black book of 
Hamilton makes mention <^ great vassalage 
done at that time by the governor, and the 
French captain ; but such as with their eyes 
saw the whole progress, knew that to be a 
lie, '^and do repute it among the venial 
sins of that race, which is to speak the best 
of themselves they can.*' 

That winter following so nurtured the 
Frenchmen, that they learned to eat, yea, 
to beg cakes, which at their entry they 
scorned. Without jesting, they were so 
miserably entreated, that few returned to 
France again with their lives. The cardinal 
then had almost fortified the castle of St 
Andrews, which he made so strong, in his 
opinion, that he regarded neither Eng^land 
nor France. The earl of Lennox, as said 
is, disappointed of all things in Scotland, 
passed to England, where he was received 
of king Henry in protection, who gave him 
to wife lady Margaret I>ouglas, of whom 
was bom Henry, umquhilie [deceased] hus- 
band to our Jezebel and mistress. 

While the inconstant governor was some- 
times dejected, and sometimes raised up 
again by the abbot of Paisley, who before 
was called " chaster nor any maiden," be- 
gan to show himself; for, after he had 
taken by craft the castles of Edinburgh and 
Dunbar, he also took possession of his 
enemy's wife, the lady Stenhouse. The 
woman is, and has been famous, and is 



lA. o. 1546 

oalled ladj Oilton ; her ladyship was holden 
always iu property;* but how many wives 
and virgins he has had since that in 
common the world knows, albeit not all, 
and his bastard birds bear some witness. 
Snch is the example of holiness that the 
flock may receive of these papistical bishops. 
In the midst of all the calamities that 
came upon this realm after the defection of 
the governor from Christ Jesus, comes in 
ScotUnd that blessed martyr of Ood, Mr 
George Wishartyf in company of the com- 
missioners before-mentioned, in the year of 
God 1544 ; a man of such graces as before 
him were never heard in this realm, yea, 
and rare to be found yet in any man not- 
withstanding this great light of God that 
since his days has shined unto us. He was 
not only singularly learned, as well in godly 
knowledge as in all human science, but also 
he was so clearly illuminated with the spirit 
of the prophecy, that he saw not only things 

• This is evidently a misprint. Poverty is 
the word in the other editions, including the 
■uppressed one,— JEd, 

f ** The person to whom our Reformer (Knox) 
WHS most indebted/' says Dr M*Crie,." was 
George Wishart, a gentleman of the house of 
Pittarow, in Mearns. Being driven into ba- 
nishment by Cardinal Beaton, for teaching the 
Greek New Testament iu Montrose, he bMd re- 
sided for some years in the University of Cam- 
bridge. In the year 1544, he returned to his 
native country, in the company of the commis- 
iioners, who had been sent to negotiate a treaty 
with Henry Vlll. of England. Seldom do we 
meet in ecclesiastical history, with a character 
■o amiable and interesting as that of George 
Wishart." See the account at length in M'Crie's 
Life of Knox, especially a most striking graphi- 
cal view of his character and person, by one of 
his Cambridge pupils.— E</. 

I Knox no doubt believed that his friend 
possessed the spirit of prophecy ; and Wishart 
aeems to have thought so himself, as appears by 
his address to the people of Dundee, particularly 
these words, ** If it be long prosperous with 
you, I am not led by the Spirit of God." He 
was sure, that the word of God spoken by him 
would be fulfilled ; which as an abstract propo- 
sition, I suppose, no one will deny. God will 
fulfil his word, speak it who may. But the 
question is. Did God speak by him any thing 
but what is contained in the holy scriptures? 
To maintain the affirmative, would be to admit 
a new revelation ; and if we admit such a thing 
in the sixteenth century, there Is no reason why 
we may not expect the same in the nineteenth, or 
any future century ; then it will follow, that the 
canon of divine revelation is not yet finished, at 
least we cannot know that it is. It is probable, 
however, that Wishart meant no more than 

pertaining to himself, but also snch things 
as some towns, and the whole realm after- 
wards found, which he forespake, not in se- 
cret, but in audience of many, as in their 
own places shall be declared. ;( The bo- 
ginning of his doctrine was into Montrose; 
therefrom he departed to Dundee, where, 
with great admiration of all that heard him, 
he taught the Epistle to the Romans, till 
that by procurement of the cardinal, Ro- 
bert Mill, then one of the principal men in 
Dundee, and a man who of old had pro- 
fessed knowledge, and for the same had suf- 
fered trouble, gaye, in the queen and go- 
vernor's name, inhibition to the said George, 
that he should trouble their town no more, 
for they would not suffer it And this was 
said to him, being in the public place, which 
heard, he mused a little space, with his 
eyes bent unto heaven, and thereafter look- 
ed sorrowfully at the speaker, and to the 
people, he said, *' God is witness that I 

being led by the Spirit of God to make applica- 
tion of the word contained in scripture, particu- 
larly the judgments threatened against gospel 
despisers ; and in the fervency of his spirit, he 
might feel assured, that Dundee would suffer 
some severe visitation of divine wrath for the 
treatment which they gave to the gospel message. 
This explanation may tend to exculpate Wishart 
and Knox and others, from the presumption of 
professing to be inspired to deliver original pre- 
dictions. But still there was a mistake in tneir 
view of the matter ; for God does not usually 
punish the reiection of the gospel by temporal 
judgments. He that belie vpth not shall not see 
life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him. He 
may, notwithstanding, enioy the greatest degree 
of temporal prosperity. When Jesus Christ up- 
braided the cities in which most of his mighty 
works were done, because they believed not, he 
did not threaten any temporal calamity, but 
said, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and 
Sidon in the day ofjudgrttcnt than for you. It 
■o happened that Dundee was visite«l by the 
plague soon after Wishart left it, which was ta- 
ken as a fulfilment of his prophecy. But the 
plague was no uncommon thing in those days, 
perhaps occasioned by the uncomfortable habita- 
tions of the people, and their manner of living. 
There are other instances of bis apparently su- 
pernatural knowledge of things, that I du not 
pretend to explain, particularly how he knew of 
a secret (X>nspiracy to assassinate himself. Knox 
does not profess to have been a witness of this. 
He roust have had it from others ; and from 
the state of bis own mind, he was predis- 
posed to believe it. Yet were it possible to crosa. 
examine the witnesses, it might turn out, that 
what they took for supernatural knowledge, was 
no more than shrewd suspicion.— £c/. 





■•▼er vdaied (intended] your trouble, bat 
your oomfort; jm, your trouble is more 
dolorous unto me than it is unto youi^ 
selves; but I am assured, that to refuse 
God's word, and to chase from you his mes- 
senger, shall not preserve you firom trouble, 
but it shall bring you into it ; for Ood shall 
send unto you messengers, who will not be 
afiraid of horning, nor yet for banishment 
I have offered unto you the word of salva- 
tion, and with the haaard of my life I have 
remained among you. Now ye yourselves 
refuse me, and therefore man [must] I leave 
my innocence to be declared by my Ood ; if 
it long prospers with you, I am not led 
with the spirit of truth ; but and [if] trouble 
unlocked for apprehend you, acknowledge 
the cause, and turn to God, for he is merci- 
ful ; but if ye turn not at the first, he will 
visit you with fire and sword.'* These 
words pnmounoed, he came down from 
the preaching pkoe. In the kirk present 
were the lord Marshall, and divers noble- 
men, who would have had the said Mr 
Geoige to have remained, or else to have 
gone with them in the country, but for 
no request would he either tarry in the 
town, or on that side of Tay any longer, 
but with possible expedition passed to the 
west land, where he began to offer God's 
word, which was of many gladly received, 
till that the bishop of Glasgow, Dunbar, by 
instigation of the cardinal, come with his 
gatherings to the town of Ayr, to make re- 
sistance to the said Mr George, and did 
first occupy the kirk ; the earl of Glencaim 
being thereof advertised, rq>aired with his 
friends to the town with diligence, and so 
did divers gentlemen of Kyle, — among 
whom was the laird of Lochnoris, a man 
far different from him that now liveth, anno 
I06G, in manners and religion,— of whom, 
to this day, yet many live, and have declar- 
ed themselves always zealous and bold in 
the cause of God, as after will be heard. 
When all were assembled, conclusion was 

* D. B. most have Men that he could not 
translate thia '* oM bishop*,** and so he does not 
translate it at all. lliej must have been the 
poor of the town, who dependin|( on the church 
for their liTing, durst not offend the clergy by 
going to hear Wishart.— £</. 

taken, that they have the kirk; whereto 
the said Mr George utterly repugned, say- 
ing, ** Let him alone, his sermon will not 
much hurt ; let us go to the market-cross." 
And so they did, where he made so notable 
a sermon, that the very enemies themselves 
were confounded. The bishop preached to 
his jackmen, and to some old bosses * of 
the town ; the sum of all his sermon was, 
** They say we should preach, why not ? 
Better late thrive, nor never thrive : Hold 
us still for your bbhop, and we shall provide 
better the next time." This was the begin- 
ning and end of the bishop's sermon, who 
wiUi haste departed the town, but returned 
not to fulfil his promise. The said Mr 
George remained with the gentlemen in 
Kyle, till that he got sure knowledge of 
the estate of Dundee. He preached com- 
monly at the kirk of Galston, and used much 
in the Bar.f He was required to come 
to the kirk of Mauchlin, as that he did; 
but the sheriff of Ayr caused man the kirk, 
for the preservation of a tabernacle that 
was very beautiful to the eye. The per- 
sons that held the kirk, were George Camp- 
bell of Mingarswood, that yet liveth, anno 
1566, Mungo Campbell of Brownside, 
George Reid in Dawdilling, the laird of 
Templeland. Some zealous of the parish- 
ioners, amongst whom was Hugh Campbell 
of Kingyeancleuch, offended they should 
be debarred their parish kirk, concluded 
by force to enter. But the said Mr George 
withdrew the said Hugh, and said unto 
him, ** Brother, Christ Jesus is as potent 
upon the fields as in the kirk ; and I find 
that himself oftener preached in the desert, 
at the seaside, and other places judged pro- 
fane, than that he did in the temple of 
Jerusalem. It is the word of peace, which 
God sends by me : the blood of no man 
shall be shed this day for the preaching of 
it." And so withdrawing the whole peo- 
ple, he came to a dike in a muir edge, upon 
the south-west side of Mauchlin, upon the 

t t. e* He preached much at this place. In 
the sequel we find this was one of Knox's 
preaching stations; and the laird of Unr was 
one of those who brought him to Ayrshire 




which he aae«nded. The whole multitadc 
•food Mid tat aboat him, God gaye the day 
pleaaant and hot, he oontimied in preach- 
ing more nor three hours. In that lermon, 
Ood wrought so wonderfully with him, 
that one of the most wicked men that was 
in that country, named Lawrence Kanken, 
laird of Sheil, was converted. The tears 
ran from his eyes in such abundance, that 
ail men wondered ; his conyersion was with- 
out hypocrisy, for his life and conyersation 
witnessed it in all times to come. While 
this faithful senrant of God was thus occu- 
pied in Kyle, word rose, that the plague of 
pestilence rose in Dundee, which began 
four days after the said Mr George was in- 
hibited preaching, and was so vehement, 
that it passed almost credibility, to hear 
what number departed every four and 
twenty hours. The certainty understood, 
the said Mr George took his leave of Kyle, 
and that with the regret of many: but no 
request could make him to remain; his 
reason was, ** They were now in trouble, and 
they need comfort ; perchance this hand of 
God will make them now to magnify and 
reverence that word, which before, for the 
fear of men, they set at light part" Com- 
ing unto Dundee, the joy of tlie faithful 
was exceeding great He delayed no time, 
but even upon the mom gave signification 
that he would preach. And because the 
most part were either sick, or else were in 
company with them that were sick, he 
chose the head of the east port of the 
town for hb preaching place, and so the 
whole stood or sat within, the sick and 
suspected without the port The text upon 
the which his first sermon was made, he 
took from the hundred and seventh psalm ; 
the sentence thereof, " He sent his word 
and healed them ;'* and therewith joined 
these words, ** It is neither herb nor plas- 
ter, O Lord, but thy word heals all." In 
the which sermon, he most comfortably did 
entreat the dignity and utility of God*s 
word, the punishment that comes for the 
contempt of the same ; the promptitude of 
God*s mercy to such as truly turn unto him; 
yea, the great happiness of them whom God 
takes from this misery, even in his own gen- 
tle visitation, which the malice of men can 

neither eik nor pair [add or diminish]. By 
the which sermon he raised up the hearts of 
all that heard him, that they regarded not 
death, hut judged them more happy that 
should depart, than such as should remain 
behind. Considering that they knew not if 
they should have such a comforter with 
them at all times, he spared not to Tisit 
them that lay in the rery extremity. He 
comforted them as that he might in such a 
multitude; he caused minister all things 
necessary to them that might nse meat and 
drink, and in that point was [to] the town 
wondrous beneficial, for the poor were no 
more neglected than were the rich. While 
he was spending his life to comfort the af- 
flicted, the devil ceased not to stir up his 
own son the cardinal again, who corrupted 
by money a desperate priest, named Sir 
John Wighton, to slay the said Mr George, 
who looked not in sll things so circum- 
spectly as worldly men would have wished. 
And upon a day, the sermon ended, and 
the people departing, no man suspecting 
danger, and therefore not heeding the said 
Mr George, the priest that was corrupted 
stood waiting at the foot of the steps, his 
gown loose, and his whinger drawn into 
his hand under his gown, the said Mr 
George, as that he was most sharp of eye 
and judgment, marked him, and as he came 
near, he said, " My friend, what would yo 
do ?" And therewith he clapped his hand 
upon the priest's hand wherein the whinger 
was, which he took from him. The priest 
abashed, fell down at his feet, and openly 
confessed the verity as it was. The noise 
rising, and coming to the ears of the sick, 
they cried, *' Deliver the traitor to us, or 
else we will take him by force;** and so 
they thrust in at the gate ; but Mr George 
took him in his arms, and said, " Whosoever 
troubles him shall trouble me, for he has 
hurt me in nothing, but he has done great 
comfort both to you and me, to wit, he has 
led us to understand, what we may fear, in 
times to come we will watch btitter ;** and 
so he appeased both the one part and the 
other, and saved the life of him that sought 


When the plague was so ceased, that al- 
I most there was none sick, he took his leave 




of Omoi, ttA «Md» ^'That God had almort 
pot end to t^ba* battle, he foiud himself 
oaUed to another;" the geDtlemen of the 
weit had written onto him, ** That he 
ihoold meet tbean at Edinburgh, for thejr 
would reqnire dispotation of the bishops, 
and that he should be publicly heard;*' 
whereto he willingly agreed : but first he 
passed to Montrose to salute the kirk there, 
where he remained, occupied sometimes in 
prsaehing^ but most part in secret medita- 
tion, in die which he was so earnest, that 
night and day he would continue in it 
While he was so occupied with his God, 
the cardinal drew a secret draught for his 
slaughter; he caused write unto him a let- 
ter, as it had been from his most familiar 
friend the laird of Kinnier, ^ Desiring him 
with all possible diligence to come unto 
him, for he was stricken with a sudden 
sidmesa.** In the meantime, had the trai- 
tor pronded threescore men, with jacks 
and spean^ to lie in wait within a mile and 
a half to the town of Montrose, for his des- 
patch. The letter coming to his hand, he 
made haste at the first, for the boy had 
brought a horse; and so witl^some honest 
men he passed forth of the town. But sud- 
denly he stayed, and musing a space, re- 
turned back ; whereat they wondering, he 
said, " I will not go, 1 am forbidden of 
God ; I am assured there is treason. Let 
some of yon," said he, " go to yon place, 
and tell me what they find.'* Diligence 
made, they found the treason as it was; 
which being shown with expedition to Mr 
George, he answered, ** I know that I shall 
end. my life in that blood-thirsty man's 
haads^ but it will not be of this manner." 
The time approaching that he had appoint- 
ed to meet the gentlemen at Edinburgh, he 
took his leare at Montrose, and sore against 
the judgment of the laird of Dun, he enter- 
ed on lus journey, and so returned to Dun- 
dee ; but remained not, but passed to the 
bouse of a fidthfiil brother, named James 
Watson, who dwelt in Inneigowrie, distant 
from the said town two miles; and that 
night, as information was given us by Wil- 
liam Spslding and John Watson, both men 
of good credit, before day he passed forth 
into a yard; the said William and John 

followed pririly, and took heed what he 
did. When he had gone up and down into 
an alley a reasonable space, with many 
sighs and deep groans, he plat [fell] down 
upon his knees, and sitting thereon, his 
groans increased, and from his knees he 
fell upon his &ce, and then the persons 
foreoamed, heard weeping, and as it were 
an indigested sound, as it were of prayers, 
in the which he continued near an hour, 
and after began to be quiet, and so rose and 
came to his bed. They that awaited pi«. 
vented him, as they had been ignorant, till 
that he came in ; and then began they to de- 
mand where he had been ? But that night 
he would answer nothing. Upon the mom 
they urged him again ; and while that he 
dissimuled [evaded, or declined answering], 
they said, ** Mr Geoige, be pUun with us, 
for we heard your groans; yea, we heard 
your mourning, and saw you both upon 
your knees, and upon your face." With 
dejected visage, he said, ** 1 had rather ye 
had been in your beds, and it had been 
more profitable for you ; for I was scarce 
well occupied.'* When they instantly urged 
him to let them know some comfort; he 
said, ** 1 will tell you that I am assured, 
that my travail is near an end ; and there- 
fore call to God with me, that now I shrink 
not when the battle waxes most hot." 
And while that they wept, and said, ^ That 
was small comfort unto them ;" he answer- 
ed, ** God shall send you comfort after me; 
this realm shall be illuminated with the 
light of Chri8t*s evangel, as clearly as ever 
was any realm since the days of the apos- 
tles; the house of God shall be built into 
it, yea, it shall not want — ^whatsoever the 
enemy imagine in the contrary — the very 
cape-stone;" meaning, that it should be 
brought to full perfection. ^ Neither,** 
said he, ** shall this be long to ; there shall 
not many suffer after me, till that the glory 
of God shall evidently appear, and shall 
once triumph in despite of Satan. But alas t 
if the people shall be after unthankful, 
then fearful and terrible shall the plagues 
be that after shall follow." And with these 
words he marched forward in his journey 
towards St Johnston ; and so to Fife, and 
then to Leith, where arrived, and hearing 



[a. A Ma 

DO word of tbem that appointed to meet 
Un, to tpt^ the eeri of CaMilis, and the 
gentlemen of Kyle and Coningham, kept 
himielf aeoret a day or two. But begin- 
ning to wax aorrowful in apirit^ and being 
demanded of the oauae, of aneh aa were not 
in hb oompany before, he aaid, ** What 
differ I from a dead man, except that 
I cat and drink ? To thia time, God haa 
naed my laboura to the inatmotion of 
othera, and to the diaoloaing of darkncea; 
and now I lurk as a man that was asham- 
ed, and dorat not show himaelf before 
men.** By these and like words, they that 
heard him undentood that his desire was to 
preach ; and therefore said, * moat com- 
tetable it were for us to hear you, but be- 
oanae we know the danger wherein ye 
aland, we dare not desire yon.*' " But dare 
ye and others hear,** said he, ** and then let 
my God proYide for me, aa best pleases 
him.** Finally, it was concluded, that the 
next Sunday he should preach in Leith, as 
that he did, and took the text, <* The 
parable of the sower that went out to aow 
aeed,*' Matth. xiiL, and this the fifteenth 
day before Yule. The sermon ended, the 
gentlemen of Lothian, who then were ear^ 
nest professors of Christ Jesus, thought 
not expedient that he should abide in Leith, 
because that the goTemor and cardinal were 
shortly to come to Edinburgh : and there- 
fore they took him with them, and kept 
him sometimes in Brownston, sometimes in 
Long Niddry, and sometimes in Ormi- 
ston; for these three diligently waited on 
him. The Sunday following, he preached 
in the kirk of luTcresk, beside Musselbui^b, 
both before and at afternoon, where there 
was a great confluence of people, amongst 
whom was Sir George Douglas, who after 
the sermon, said publicly, " I know that my 
lord governor, and my lord cardinal shall 
hear that I have been at this preaching — 
for they were then in Edinburgh. — Say 
unto them that I will avow it, and will not 
only maintain the doctrine that I have 
heard, but also the person of the teacher to 
the uttermost of my power ;*' which words 
greatly rejoiced the people and gentlemen 
then present 
One thing notable in that sermon we 

cannot pa« by; amongst btlMn oaoM tlieiw 
two gray friarSk and standing in the entry 
of the Idrk door, they made aome whiaper- 
ing to such aa came in, which peroeiTed, 
the preacher said to the people that stood 
near them, ** I heprtily pray yon to make 
room to these two men, it may be that they 
be oome to learn;** and unto them he said, 
" Come near, — for they stood in the very 
entry of the door^— for I assure yon ye shnll 
hear the word of verity, which shall either 
seal unto you this same day your salvation 
or condemnation ;** and ao proceeded he in 
doctrine, supposing that they would have 
been quiet; but when he perceived them 
still to trouble the people that stood near 
them,-— for vehement was he against the 
fidse worshipping of God— he turned unto 
them the second time, and with an awful 
countenance sidd, " O Serjeants of Satan, 
and deceivers of the souls of men, will ye 
neither hear God*s truth, nor suffer others 
to hear it ? Depart, and take this for your 
portion, God shall shortly confound and 
disclose your hypocrisy within this realm ; 
ye shall be abominable unto men, and your 
places and habitations shall be desolate." 
This sentence he pronounced with great 
vehemency in the midst of the sermon ; and 
turning to the people, he said, " Yon 
wicked men have provoked the spirit of 
God to anger;*' and so he returned to his 
matter, and proceeded to the end. That 
day*8 travail ended, he came to Long Nid- 
dry, and the two next Sundays preached in 
Tranent with the like grace, and like con- 
fluence of people. In all his sermons, after 
his departure from Angus, he forespoke the 
shortness of the time that he had to travail, 
and of his death, the day whereof, he said, 
approached nearer than any would believe. 
In the hinder end of those days that are 
called the holidays of Yule, passed he — by 
the consent of the gentlemen — to Hadding- 
ton, where it was supposed the greatest con- 
fluence of people should be, both by reason of 
the town and of the country adjacent The 
first day before noon the audience were 
reasonable, and yet nothing in comparison 
of that which used to be in that kirk ; but 
the afternoon, and the next day following 
before noon, the auditors were so slender 




tliftt miiiy wo&dered. The cause was 
judged to bare been, that the earl Both- 
well^who in these bounds used to have 
great credit and obedience — by procurement 
of the cardinal, had given inhibitioo, as well 
to the town as to the country, that they 
shonldnothear hun under the pain of his dis- 
pleasure. The first night he lay within the 
town with DaTid Forest, now called gene- 
ral, a man that long has professed the truth, 
and upon whom many in that time depend- 
ed. The second night he lay in Lething- 
too, the laird whereof was ever dyil, albeit 
not persuaded in religion. The day follow- 
ing, before the.said Mr George passed to the 
sermon, there came to him a boy with a 
letter from the west land, which received 
and read, he called for John Knox,* who 
bad awsited upon him carefully from the 
time be came to Lothian ; with whom he 
began to enter in purpose, " That he weari- 
ed of the woridi^f The cause of his com- 
plaint was^ the gentlemen of the west had 
written unto him, that they could not 
keep diet at Edinburgh. The said John 
Knox wondered that he desired to keep 
any purpose before sermon, for that was 
never his accustomed use before, said, 
** Sir, the time of sermon approaches, I will 
leave you for the present to your medita- 
tion,*' and so took he the bill containing the 
purpose foresaid, and left him. The said 
Mr George spaced [paced] up and down be- 
hind the high altar more than half an hour, 
his very countenance and visage declared 
the grief and alteration of his mind. At 
last he passed to the pulpit, but the auditory 
was snudL He should have begun to have 
entered the second table of the law, but 
thereof in that sermon he spoke very little. 
He began on this manner ; " O Lord, how 
long shall it be, that thy holy word shall be 
despised, and men shall not regard their 
own salvation ? I have heard of thee, Had- 
dington, that in thee would have been at a 
vain derk-play two or three thousand 
people, and now to hear the messenger of 

* Tbit it Knoz*s first introdactlon of himself. 
— £</. 

f Here the London suppressed edition of 
1566 adds, •* For be peroelTea that men began to 
be weary of God.'*— £(/. 

the eternal God, of all the town or parish 
cannot be numbered one hundred persons. 
Sore and fearfiil shall the pUgues be that 
shall ensue this thy contempt, with fire and 
sword shalt thou be plagued, yea, thou 
Haddington in special, strangers shall pos- 
sess thee, and ye, the present inhabitants, 
shall either in bondage serve the enemies, 
or else ye shall be chaced from your habi- 
tations; and that because ye have not 
known, nor will not know the time of God's 
merciful visitation." In such rehemency 
and threatening continued that servant of 
God near an hour and a half, in the which 
he declared all the plagues that ensued, as 
plainly as after our eyes saw them perform- 
ed. In the end he said, '' I have forgot my- 
self, and the matter tluit I should have en- 
treated of; but let these my last words, as 
concerning public preaching, remain in your 
minds, till that God send you new comfort." 
Thereafter he made a short paraphrase upon 
the second table, with an exhortation to pa- 
tience, to the fear of God, and to the works 
of mercy ; and so put an end, as it were, 
making his last testament, as the issue de- 
clared, that the spirit of truth and true 
judgment were both in his heart and moutli ; 
for that same night was he apprehended 
before midnight, in the house of Ormiston, 
by the earl of Both well, nmde for money 
butcher to the cardinal. 

The manner of his taking was this : de- 
parting from the town of Haddington, he 
took his goodnight, as it were, for ever of 
all his acquaintance, especially from Hugh 
Douglas of Long Niddry. John Knox 
pressing to have gone with the said Mr 
George, he said, " Nay, return to your 
bairns [his pupils], and God bless you, one 
is sufficient for a sacrifice." And he caused 
a two-handed sword, which commonly was 
carried with the said Mr George, be taken 
from the said Knox, who— albeit unwill- 
ingly^-obeyed, and returned with Hugh 
Douglas of Long Niddry; Mr George 
having to accompany him, the laird of Or- 
miston, John Sandilands of Calder, younger, 
the laird of Brownston, and others, with 
their servants, passed upon their foot — for it 
was a vehement frost — to Ormiston. After 
supper he held a comfortable purpose of the 



[a. d. 16)05 

daath of God*t chosen children, and mer- 
rily said, ** Methinks that I detire earnestly 
to sleep :*' and therewith he said, <" We'll 
sin^ a psalm ;" and so he appointed the 
fifty-first psalm, which was put in Scotish 
metre, and began thus, ^ Have moroy on me 
now, good Lord, after thy great mercy ;" 
which being ended, he passed to chamber, 
and sooner noi* his common diet, was 
passed to bed, with these words, ** God 
grant quiet rest." Before midnight the 
pUoe was beset about, that none could 
escape to make adrertisement The earl 
Bothwell came and cried for the laird, and 
declared the purpose, and said, " It was but 
vain to make him to hold his house ; for 
the goyemor and the cardinal, with all their 
power, were coming ;" and, indeed, the car- 
dinal was at Elphinston, not a mile distant 
Urom Ormiston ; ** But, and if he would de- 
liTer the man unto him, he would promise 
upon his honour, that he should be safe, 
aud that it should pass the power of the 
cardinal to do him any harm or scathe.*' 
Allured with these words, and taking coun- 
sel with the said Mr George — who at the 
first word said, ** Open the gates ; the 
blessed will of my God be done," — ^they re^ 
ceivedin the said earl Bothwell himself^ with 
some gentlemen with him, to whom Mr 
George said, *' 1 praise my God, that so 
honourable a man as you, my lord, receives 
me this night in the presence of these 
noblemen ; for now I am assured, that, for 
your honour's sake, ye will suffer nothing 
to be done unto me besides the order of 
law ; I am not ignorant that their law is 
nothing but corruption, and a cloak to shed 
the blood of the saints; but yet I less fear 
to die openly, than secretly to be murder- 
ed." The said earl Bothwell answered, *< I 
shall not only preserve your %ody from all 
violence, that shall be purposed against you 
without order of law, but also 1 promise, 
here in the presence of these gentlemen, 
that neither shall the governor nor cardinal 
have their will over you ; but I shall re- 
tain you in my own hands, and in my own 
pkce, till that either I shall make yon free, 
' ^r else restore you in the same place where 
I receive you." The lairds foresaid said, 
« My lord, if ye will do as ye have spoken, 

and as we think your lordship will do, then 
do we here promise unto your lordship, that 
not only we ourselTes shall serve yoa all 
the days of our life, but also we shall pro- 
cure the whole professors within Lothiui to 
do the same. And upon either the per* 
suasion* of this our brother, or upon his 
delivery unto our hands again, we being 
reasonably advertised to receive him, that 
we, in the name and behalf of our friend^ 
shall deliver to your lordship, or any suffi- 
cient man, that shall deliver again to us this 
servant of Gknl, our band of man-rent, in 
manner foresaid." And this promise made 
in the presence of God, and hands straikit 
Istruck] upon both the parties for observov 
tion of the promise ; the said Mr George 
was delivered in the hands of the said 
earl Bothwell, who immediately departing 
with him, came to Elphinston where the 
cardinal was, who knowing that Calder, 
younger, and Brownston were with the 
laird of Ormiston, sent back with expedi- 
tion to apprehend them also. The noise 
of horsemen being heard, the servants gave 
advertisement, that more than were de- 
parted, or that were there before were re- 
turned ; and while that they dispute, what 
should be the motive, the cardinal's garrison 
had seised both the outward and inward 
cloHs ; they called for the laird, and for the 
laird of Calder, who, presenting themselves, 
demanded what their commission was? 
" To bring you two, and the bird of 
Brownston, to my lord governor," say they. 
They were nothing content, as they had no 
cause ; yet they made fair countenance, and 
'* entreated the gentlemen to take a drink, 
and to bait their horses, till that tliey might 
put themselves in readiness to ride with 
them." In this meantime, Brownston con- 
veyed himself first secretly, and then by 
speed of foot to Ormiston wood, and from 
that to Drundallan, end so escaped that 
danger. The other two were put in the 
castle of Edinburgh, where the one, to wit, 
Calder younger, remained, while his band 
of man-rent till the cardinal was the means 
of his deliverance; and the other, to wit 
Ormiston, freed himself, by leaping the 

* 8vo. PreMrvation. 




CMtle-witt betwixt ten hoora and eleTen 
before noon; end to breaking^ ward, he 
eecaped prison, which he anjustly suffered. 
The tenrmnt of Ood, Mr Geoi^ Wish- 
art, wae earned first to Edinburf^h, there- 
after broaght back, for the fashion's sake, to 
the hoQie of Hailee again, which was the 
principal pboe that then the earl of Both- 
well had in Lothian ; but as gold and wo- 
men have eormpted all worldly and fleshly 
men firom the beginning, so did they him ; 
for the cardinal gaTO gold, and that largely; 
and the queen, with whom the said earl was 
then in the glonden [i. e. there was a cool- 
ness between them], promised favours in all 
his lawful suits to women, if he would de- 
lirer the said Mr George to be kept in the 
castle of Edinburgh. He made some re- 
■iatance at the first, by reason of his pro- 
mise ; but an effeminate man cannot long 
withstand the assaults of a gracious queen ; 
and so was the serrant of God transported 
to Edinburgh castle, where he remained not 
many days ; for that bloody wolf the cardi- 
nal, erer thirsting the blood of the ser- 
vant of God, so travailed with the abused 
governor, that he was content that God's 
servant should be delivered to the power of 
that tyrant And so small inversion being 
made, Pilate obeyed the petition of Caia- 
phas, and of his fellows, and adjudged Christ 
to be crucified. The servant of God de- 
livered to the hand of that proud and merci- 
less tyrant, triumph was made by the 
priests. The godly lamented, and accused 
the foolishness of the governor; for, by the 
retwning of the said Mr George, he might 
have caused proteetants and papists — ^rather 
proud romanists — to have served ; the one 
to the end that the life of their preacher 
might have been saved ; the other for fear 
that he should have set him at liberty again, 
to the confusion of the bishops ; but where 
God is left— as he had renounced him 
plainly be for e w hat can counsel or judg- 
ment aviul? How the servant of God was 
entreated, and what he did from the day 
that he entered within the sea tower of St 

• Keith sajTS, « This blabop Is thsmefolly mit- 
reprnented by Mr Knox.*'— Ed. 1824, p. 8o8. 
Bui according to this aathor, all the Scotish 

Andrews, which was in the end of Janoary, 
in the year of God 1546, unto the first of 
March the same year, when he suffered, we 
cannot tell, except we understand he wrote 
somewhat being in prison; but that was 
suppressed by the enemies. The cardinal 
delayed no time, but caused all bishops, 
yea, all the clergy that had any preemi- 
nence, to be convocated to St Andrews 
against the penult of February, that con- 
sultation might be . had in that question, 
which in his mind was no less resolved 
than Christ's death was in the mind of 
Caii^has; but that the rest should bear 
the like burden with him, he would that 
they should before the world subscribe 
whatsoever he did. In that day was 
^Tought no less a wonder, than was at the 
accusation and death of Christ, when that 
Pilate and Herod, who before were enemies 
were made friends, by consenting of them 
both to Christ's condemnation, differs no- 
thing, except that Pilate and Herod were 
brethren under their father the devil, in the 
estate called temporal, and these two, of 
whom we are going to speak, were breth- 
ren — sons to the same father the devil — in 
the estate ecclesiastical If we interlace 
merriness with earnest matters, pardon us, 
good reader, for the fact is so notable that 
it deserves long memory. 

The cardinal was known proud; and 
Dunbar, archbishop of Glasgow, was known 
a glorious fool ; * and yet, because some- 
times he was called the king*s master, he 
was chancellor of Scotland. The cardinal 
comes even the same year, in the end of 
harvest before to Glasgow, upon what 
purpose we omit ; but while they remained 
together, the one in the town, the other in 
the castle, question rises for bearing of 
their cross. The cardinal alleged, by rea- 
son of his cardinalship, and that he was 
legatus natus, and primate within Scotland, 
in the kingdom of antichrist, that he should 
have the preeminence, and that his cross 
should not only go before, but that also it 
should only be borne, wheresoever he was. 

bishops, with few exceptions, were excellent and 
lenrnrd men, both befoi*e and after the rvfonnii- 
tion, not excepting cardinal Beaton. — Ed, 




[A, D. lA4d 

Good gowksion g^laik8toii,t the foresaid 
Archbishop lacked do reasons, as he thought, 
for maintenance of his glory. " He was 
an archbishop in his own diocese, and in his 
own cathednd see and kirk; and, there- 
fore, ought to give place to no man : the 
power of the cardinal was but begged 
from Rome, and appertained but to his own 
person, and not to his bishoprick; for it 
might be that his successor should not 
be cardinal; but his dignity was annex- 
ed with his office, and appertained to 
all that erer should be bishops of Glasgow. 
Howsoeyer these doubts were resolved by 
the doctors of divinity of both the prelates ; 
yet the decision was as ye shall hear. 
Coming forth or going in — ail is one — at 
the choir door of Glasgow kirk, began 
striving for state betwixt the two cross- 
bearera ; so that from glooming they came 
to shouldering, from shouldering they went 
to buffets, and from dry blows by neives 
and neivelling ; and then for charity's sake, 
they cried, " Dispersit, dedit pauperibus^^ 
and assayed which of the crosses were 
finest metal, which staff was strongest, and 
which bearer could best defend his master's 
preeminence ; and that there should be no 
superiority in that behalf, to the ground 
went both the crosses. And then began 
no little fray, but yet a merry game, 
for rockets were rent, tippets were torn. 

* " Good gowkston glaikston." It ia the same 
in theftuppreased London edition, and all thereat ; 
bat no explanation la given in any of them. It ia 
difficult, if not impoaaible to find a meaning for 
theae worda as they atand, without connection 
with what goea either before or after ; and the 
■ense of the paaaage la complete without them. 
Gowk ia^he Tulgnr Scotiah appellation for a fool, 
and glaikery for merriment, or llght-heartedneai. 
I suppoae, therefore, that the wonia were ori^- 
nally written in the margin, to indicate that ue 
paragraph contained ** a good piece of merry or 
wanton folly ;** and from the margin they have 
been inadrertently taken into the text. There 
are many auch marginal indices in the old copy; 
fbr inatanoe, the worda ** a merry fact ;'* are in 
the margin of th« paragraph that relatea the 
caating of the Virgin Mary'a image into the 
water, by one of toe priaonera in the galleya. 
*< A merry fact," I belieTe to have aa good a 
right to a place in the text aa " good gowkaton 
glaikaton." The Glasgow MS. copy has none 
of thwe notra ; but David Buchanan^a ia full of 
them, by which a reader may know the contenta 
of a page by caating his eye over the aide margin. 
Moat or all of them, however, are of David's own 

crowns were knypsit [knapped], and side 
[long] gowns might have been seen v^an* 
tonly wag firom the one wall to the other : 
many of them lacked beards, and that was 
the more pity; and therefore oonld Dot 
buckle other by the byrss [take one another 
by the beard], as some bold men would 
have done. Bnt fie on the jackmen, they 
did not their duty ; for had the one part of 
them rencountered the other, then had aU 
gone right ; but the sanctuary, we suppose, 
saved the lives of many. How merrily that 
ever this be writteh, it was bitter bourding 
[t. e. bitter mirth, edition 1566} to the carw 
dinal and his oonrt It was more than ir- 
regularity, yea, it might well have been 
judged lese majesty to the son of perdition, 
the pope's own person ; and yet the other 
in his folly, as proud as a peacock, would 
let the cardinal know that he was a bishop, 
when the other was but Beaton, before he 
got Arbroath. This enmity was judged 
mortal, and without all hope of reconcilia*- 
tion. But the blood of the innocent ser*- 
vant of God buried in oblivion all that 
bragging and boast For the archbishop of 
Gl^gow was the first unto whom the car^ 
dinal wrote, signifying unto him what was 
done, and earnestly craving of him, that be 
would assist with his presence and counsel, 
how that such an enemy unto their estate 
might be suppressed. And thereto was not 

making ; and those in the auppreaaed copy are 
probably the work of Voultrollier. The wtkrda 
in question are in the text of the Glasgow MS., 
ao that the error, if it be onej ia not his, but pro- 
bably that of John Knox of Melroae, or aome 
atill earlier transcriber. If they have the mean- 
ing which I have affixed to them, and I cannot 
imagine any other, they indicate the contenta of 
the paragraph very oorraetiy, and alao the good 
humoured state of the author's mind. Knox 
had a lively perception of the ludicrous ; and 
grave and repulaivef as most people suppose him 
to have been, there ia a vein of good humour that 
runa through hia whole book, except when he 
had to reprove the enemies of the truth, and of 
hIa country. He aometimea minglea a little 
raillery with hia relation of very grave matters. 
Here, for instance, he introducea the trial and 
martyrdom of his friend Wiahart, with a bnr- 
leaqae aoooont of a battle royal between two 
bishops and their followers and cross-bearers, 
in the High Church-yard of Glasgow ; which 
he presents in lM\ld contrast with the subsequent 
friendship between the same bishops, when the]^ 
bad to compaas the death of an innocent man.— 




Um oUmt dow. bat kept time appointed, 
■dft next to tlM cardinal, voted and eab- 
•cribed fint in tiM nnk^ and lay oyer the 
eaat blockhonaa with the taid cardinal, till 
the maitjr of Ood waa conaumed with fire. 
For thii we aunt note, that ai all theee 
beaata oooeented in heart to the slaughter 
of that iqpooent^ ao did they approve it 
with their preaenoe, having the whole ord- 
nance of the caatle of St Andrews bent to> 
wards the pboe of execntion — which was 
near to the aaid castle— ready to have shot 
if any woold have made defence, or rescae 
to God's servant. The manner of his accu- 
sation, prooeaa, and answers following, as 
we have received the same from the book 
of the martyrs, which, word by word, we 
have here inserted, and that because the 
lud book, te the great price thereof, is 
rare to be had. 

Upon the last of Febroary, was sent to the 
prison, where the servant of God lay, the 
dean of the town, by the commandment of 
the cardinal and his wicked council, and 
there summoned the said Mr George, that 
he should upon the mom following appear 
before the judge, then and there to give an 
account of his seditious and heretical doc- 
trine. To whom the said Mr Geoi^e an- 
swered, " What needed," said he, " my 
lord cardinal to summon me to answer for 
my doctrine openly before him, under 
whose power and dominion I am thus 
straitly bound in irons ? May not my lord 
compel me to answer to his extorted power ? 
Or, believed he, that I am unprovided to 
render an account of my doctrine ? To nut- 
nifeat yourselves what men ye are, it is 
well donc^ that ye keep your old ceremo- 
nies and constitution made by men." Upon 
the next mom, my lord cardinal caused his 
servants to dress themselves in their most 
warlike array, with jack, knapstall, splent, 
spear and axe, more seeming to the war 
than §ar the preaching of the true word of 
God. And when these armed champions, 
marching in warlike order, had convoyed 
the bisbope into the abbey church, in- 
continently they send for Mr George, who 
was conveyed unto the said church by 
the captain of the castle, and the num- 
ber of an hundred men, dressed in man- 

ner foresaid, like a lamb led they him 
to sacrifice. As he entered in the abbey 
church door, there was a poor man lying 
vexed with great infirmities, asking of his 
alms, to whom he flung his purse; and 
when he came before the cardinal, by and 
by the sub-prior of the abbey, called dean 
John Wirnam, stood up in the pulpit, and 
made a sermon to all the congregation there 
then assembled, taking his matter out of 
the xiii. chapter of Matth., whose sermon 
was divided in four principal parts. In the 
first was a short and brief declaration of 
the evangelist The second, of the inter- 
pretation of the good seed ; and because he 
called the word of God the good seed, and 
heresy the evil seed, he declared what he- 
resy was, and how it should be known ; he 
defined it on this manner : ** Heresy is 
a false opinion defended with pertinacity, 
clearly repugning to the word of God." The 
third part of his sermon was the cause of 
heresy within that realm, and all other 
realms. " The cause of heresy," said he, " is 
the ignorance of them which have the cure 
of men's souls, to whom it belongeth ne- 
cessarily to have the trae understanding of 
the word of God, that they may be able to 
win again the false doctors of heresies, 
' with the sword of the Spirit, which is 
the word of God :* And not only to win 
again, but also to overcome, as says the 
apostle Paul, A bishop must be faultness, 
as it becometh the minister of God, not 
stubborn, not angry, no drunkard, no fight- 
er, not given to filthy lucre, but harberous 
[hospitable], one that loveth goodness, sober 
minded, righteous, holy, temperate, and 
such as deaveth unto the true word of 
doctrine, that he may be able to exhort 
with wholesome learning, and to improve 
that which they say against him." The 
fourth part of his sermon was, how heresy 
should be known. '* Heresy," said he, 
" may be known in this manner, as the 
goldsmith knoweth the fine gold from the 
imperfect, by the touchstone ; so likewise 
we may know heresy by the undoubted 
touchstone, that is, the trae, sincere, and 
undefiled word of God." At the last, he 
added, '' That heretics should be put down 
in this present life ; to the which propoei- 



[a. n. 1546 

tioD the gonpeX appeareth to repugn, which 
he entreated of, * Let them both gprovr 
unto the hanrett' The hanrest is the end 
of the world, nevertheless, he affirmed, 
that they should be pat down by the ciyil 
magistrate and law.** And when he ended 
his sermon, incontinent they caused Mr 
Oeor^ to ascend in the pulpit, there to 
hear his accusation and artides, for right 
against him stood up one of the fed flock, a 
monster, John Lauder, laden full of curs- 
ings, threatenings, maledictions, and words 
of devilish spite and malice, saying to the 
innocent Mr George, so many cruel and abo- 
minable words, and hit him so spitefully 
with the pope*s thunder, that the ignorant 
people dreaded lest the earth then would 
have swallowed him up quick. Notwith- 
standing he stood still with great patience, 
hearing their sayings, not once moving or 
changing his countenance. When that this 
fed sow had read through all his lying me- 
nacings, his face running down with sweat, 
and frothing at the mouth like a bear, he 
spat at Mr Geoi^e's face, saying, ** What 
answerest thou to these sayings, thou rene- 
gade, traitor, and thief, which we have duly 
proved by sufficient witness against thee." 
Mr George hearing this, sat down upon his 
knees in the pulpit, making his prayers 
unto God. When he had ended his prayer, 
sweetly and christianly he answered unto 
th era all in this manner. 

MR George's oration. 

" Many and horrible sayings unto me a 
christian man, many words abominable for 
to hear, ye have spoken here tliis day, 
which not only to teach, but also to think, 
I thought it ever great abomination. Where- 
fore, I pray your discretions quietly to hear 
me, that ye may know what were my say- 
ings, and the manner of my doctrine. This 
my petition, my lords, I desire to be heard 
for three causes : The first is, through 
preaching of the word of God, his glory is 
made manifest ; it is reasonable, therefore, 
for the advancing of the glory of God, that 
ye hear me truly teaching the pure and sin- 
cere word of God, without any dissimula- 
tion. The second reason is, because that 
your health springs of the word of God, for 

he worketh aD things by his word ; it wera 
therefore an mnrighteoiis thing if ye shoaU 
stop yoor ears from me teaching truly the 
word of God« The third reason is, becuifle 
your doctrine speaketh forth many peatilen- 
ttous, blasphemous, and abominable words, 
not coming by the inspiration of God, but 
of the devil, on no less peril than my life. 
It is just, therefore, and reasonable for yoar 
discretions to know what my words and 
doctrine are, and what I have ever taoght 
in my time in this realm, that I perish not 
unjustly, to the great peril of your souls ; 
wherefore, both for the honour and glory 
of God, your own health, and safeguard of 
my life, I beseech your discretions to hear 
me ; and, in the meantime, I shall recite my 
doctrine without any colour. 

" First, and chiefly, since the time that I 
came in this realm, I taught nothing but 
the ten commandments of God, the twelve 
articles of the faith, and the prayer of the 
Lord in the mother tongue. Moreover, in 
Dundee, I taught the epistle of St Panl to 
the Romans ; and I shall show your discre- 
tions faithfully what fashion and manner I 
used, when I taoght without any human 
dread, so that your discretions give me 
your ears, benevolence, and attention." 
Suddenly then, with a high voice, cried 
the accuser, the fed sow, " Thou heretic, 
renegade, traitor, and thief, it was not law- 
ful for thee to preach, thou hast taken the 
power at thine own hand, without any au- 
thority from the church ; we forethink that 
thou hast been a preacher so [too] long." Then 
said the whole congregation of the prelates, 
with their complices, these words, ** If we 
give him licence to preach, he is so crafty, 
and in holy scriptures so exercised, that 
he will persuade the people to his own 
opinion, and raise them against us." Mr 
George, seeing their malicious and wicked 
intent, appealed to an indifferent and equal 
judge. To whom the accuser, John Lau- 
der foresaid, with hoggish voice, answered, 
** Is not my lord cardinal the second person 
within this realm, chancellor of Scotland, 
archbishop of St Andrews, bishop of Meri- 
pois, commendator of Arbroath, legatus nattts, 
legatus a latere ;" and so reciting as many 
titles of his unworthy honours as would 



kftTC ladia a thim much sooner an bub; 
" is nol bit,** niA John Lander, <* an equal 
judge apparuillf to thee? Whom other 
detireet thou to be thy judge?*' To whom 
this hnnMiMi man answered, sajring, ** I re- 
fuse not ay lord osrdinal, but I desire the 
word of God to be my judge, and the tem- 
poral estate^ with some of your lordships 
mine auditory; because I am here my lord 
goyemor's prisoner.'* Hereupon the pride- 
ful and soomfttl people that stood by, mock- 
ed htm, ssyingy ** Such man, such judge," 
^Making seditions and reproachful words 
against the governor, and others the nobles, 
meaning them also to be heretics. And in- 
continent, without all delay, they would 
hare given sentence upon Mr George, and 
that without farther process, had not cer- 
tain men there counselled my lord cardinal 
to read again the articles, and to hear his 
answers thereupon, that the people might 
not complain of his wrongful condemnation. 
And shortly for to declare, these were the 
articles following, with his answers, as far 
as they would give him leave to speak ; for 
when he intended to mitigate their leasings 
[falsehoods], and show the manner of his 
doctrine, by and by they stopped his mouth 
with anodier article. 

The FiBST ARTicLB. — ** Thou false here- 
tic, renegade, traitor, and thief, deceiver of 
the people, despisest the holy church's, and 
in like case contemnest my lord governor's 
authority. And this we know of surety, that 
when thou preachedst in Dundee, and wert 
chsiged by my lord governor's authority to 
desist, nevertheless thou wouldst not obey, 
but perMveredst in the same; and there- 
fore the bishop of Brechin cursed thee, and 
delivered thee into the hands of the devil, 
and gave thee in commandment, that thou 
shooldst preadi no more; yet notwithstand- 
ing thou didst continue obstinately." 

The axswDL — ** My lords, I have read 
in the acts of the apostles, that it is not 
lawful, for the threatenings and menadogs 
oi men, to desist from the preaching of the 
evangel ; therefore, it is written, * We shall 
rather obey God nor [than] man.' I have also 
read the prophet Malachi, < I shall curse your 
falesiings, and bless your cursings, saith the 

Lord ;' believing firmly, that he would turn 
your cursings into blessings." 

The second article. — ** Thou £dse he- 
retic didst say, that a priest standing at the 
altar saying mass, was like a fox wagging 
his tail in July." 

The answer. — ^ My lords, I said not so. 
These were my sayings ; the moving of the 
body outward, without the inward moving 
of the heart, is nought else, but the playing 
of an ape, and not the true serying of God ; 
for God is a secret searcher of men's hearts ; 
therefore, who will truly adorn and honour 
God, he must in spirit and truth honour 
him." Then the accuser stopped his mouth 
with another article. 

The third article. — ** Thou false here- 
tic preachest against the sacraments, say- 
ing, that there are not seven sacraments." 

The answer. — ^ My lords, it is by your 
pleasures, I taught never of the number of 
the sacraments, whether they were seven 
or an eleven : so many as are instituted by 
Christ, and are shown to us by the evan- 
gel, I profess openly ; except it be the word 
of God, I dare affirm nothing." 

The fourth article. — ** Thou false 
heretic hast openly taught, that auricular 
confession is not a blessed sacrament; and 
thou sayest we should only confess us to 
God, and to no priest ?" 

The answer — " My lords, I say, that 
auricular confession, seeing that it had no 
promise of the evangel, therefore it cannot 
be a sacrament. Of the confession to be 
made to God, there are many testimonies in 
the scripture, as when David sayeth, * 1 
thought that I would acknowledge my ini- 
quity against myself unto the Lord, and he 
forgave the trespass of my sins.' Here con- 
fession signifieth the secret knowledge of 
our sins before God ; when I exhorted the 
people on this manner, I reproved no man- 
ner of confession. And further, St James 
sayeth, ' Acknowledge your sins one to an- 
other, and so let you have peace amongst 
yourselves.' Here the apostle means no- 
thing of auricular confession, but that we 
should acknowledge and confess ourselves 
to be sinners before our brethren, and be- 
fore the world, and not to esteem ourselves 
I as the gray friars do, thinking themselves 



[a. d. IMC 

already purged.". When that he had aaid 
these words, the homed bishops and tiieir 
eomplices cried, and grinned irith their 
teeth, saying, " See ye not what colours he 
bad in his speech, that he might beguile 
us, and seduce us to his opinion." 

The fifth article. — " Thou heretic 
didst say openly, that it was necessary for 
eYery man to know and understand his 
baptism, and that it was contrary to general 
councils, and the estate of the holy church.'* 

The answer.^** My lords, I belieye 
there be none so unwise here, that will 
make merchandize with a Frenchman, or 
any other unknown stranger, except he 
know and understand the condition, or 
promise made by the Frenchman or stran- 
ger; so likewise I wonld that we under- 
stood what thing we promise in the name of 
the in&nt unto Ood in baptism : for this 
cause, I believe, ye have confirmation." 
Then said Mr Blecter, chaplain, ** That he 
had the devil within him, and the spirit of 
error." Then answered him a child, saying, 
" The devil cannot speak such words, as 
yonder man does speak." 

The sixth article. — " Thou false here- 
tic, traitor, and thief, thou saidst, that the 
sacrament of the altar was but a piece of 
bread, baken upon the ashes, and no other 
thing else ; and all that is there done is but 
a superstitious rite against the command- 
ment of God." 

The answer. — " O Lord God ! so mani- 
fest lies and blasphemies the scripture doth 
not so teach you. As concerning the sa- 
crament of the altar, my lords, I never 
taught any thing against the scripture, the 
which I shall by God's grace make mani^ 
fest this day, I being therefore ready to 
suffer death. The lawful use of the sacra- 
ment is most acceptable unto Qod; but the 
great abuse of it is very detestable unto 
him ; but what occasion they have to say 
such words of me, I shall shortly show your 
lordships : I once chanced to meet with a 
Jew, when I was sailing upon the water 
of Rhine ; I did inquire of him, what was 
the cause of his pertinacity, that he did 
not believe that the true Messiah was 
oome, considering that they had seen all 
the prophecies which were spoken of him 

to be fulfilled: moreover, the prophema 
taken away, and the toeptre of Judah. By 
many other testimonies of the Bcriptare» I 
vanquished him, and approved that the Me9* 
siah waa come, the which they called Jem 
of Naaareth. The Jew answered again imto 
rae, * When the Messiah oometh- he ahall 
restore all things, and he shall not abrogate 
the kw, which was given unto our fiithen^ 
as ye do; for why? We see the poor ak 
most perish through hunger among yoi^ 
yet yon are not moved with pity towards 
them: but amongst us Jews, thoogh we 
be poor, there are no bs^^gm found. Se- 
condly, It is forbidden by the law to feigo 
any kind of imagiry of thinga in heaven 
above, or in the earth beoeath, or in the 
sea under the earth ; but one God only to 
honour; but your sanotnariea and ohurchea 
are fiill of idols. Thirdly, A piece of bread 
baken upon the ashes, ye adore and wor- 
ship, and say, that is your God.' I have 
rehearsed here but the sayings of the Jew, 
which I never affirmed to be true." Then 
the bishops shook their heads, and spat 
unto the earth, and what he meant in thia 
matter further, they would not hear. 

The seventh article. — ** Thou false 
heretic didst say, that extreme unction waa 
no sacrament." 

The answer. — ** My lords, I never 
taught of extreme unction in my doctrine, 
whether it were a sacrament or not" 

The eighth article. — *• Thou false 
heretic sayest, that holy water was not so 
good as wash, and such like; thou con- 
temnest conjuring, and sayest, that holy 
church's cursing availeth not" 

The answer. — '* My lords, as for holy 
water, what strength it is of, I taught 
never in my doctrine. Ck>njurings and 
exorcisms, if they were oonformable to the 
word of God, I would conunend them ; 
but in 80 far as they are not conformable 
to the commandment and word of God, I 
reprove them." 

The ninth article. — ** Thou false he* 
retic and renegade hast said, that every 
lajrman is a priest; and such like, thou 
sayest, that the pope hath no more power 
than another man." 

The answer* — ** My lords, I taught ii«- 




tinof tal the word of God. I remember, 
that 1 bsft rMdin some places of St John 
and St P«tar»of te wiiich ODe sayeth, * He 
bath made ns kiii|s and priests,' the other 
sayeth, * Ha ha^ made as the kingly priest- 
hood:* wheivlbrs I hare affirmed, any man, 
being eunung and perfect in the word of 
God, and the tme fiiith of Jesns Christ, to 
hare bis power given him of God, and not 
by the power or yioience of man, hat by the 
yirtiie of the word of God, the which word 
is csUed Che power of God, as witnesseth 
'Si Pni eyidently enough. And again I 
ujf any wdeamed man, and not exercised 
in the word of God, nor yet constant in his 
fiuth, wbalsoeTer estate or order he be of ; 
f say, ho hath no power to bind nor to loose, 
seeingf ho wants the instrument by the 
wUob he bindetb or looseth, that is to 
say, the word of God.*' After that he had 
s^ thesa wor4s» all the bishops laughed, 
and mocked bha. When that he beheld 
their bughter, " Laugh ye," said he, '* my 
lords ? thoogh that these my sajrings ap- 
pear soomful, and worthy of derision to your 
lordships, nevertheless they are very weighty 
unto me, and of a great value ; because they 
stand not only upon my life, but also the 
honour and glory of God." In the meantime 
many godly men beholding the wodness 
[fbry] and great cruelty of the bishops, and 
the invincible patience of the said Mr 
Geoige, did greatly mourn and lament. 

Thb TKirrn article. — ** Thou false he- 
retic sudst, that a man had no free will, but 
is like to the stoics, which say, ' That it is 
not in man's will to do any thing, but that 
all ooncnpisoenoe and desire cometh of God, 
of whatsoever kind it be of.' " 

Thb AMSwsn. — *< My lords, I said not so 
tmly; I say, that as many as believe in 
Christ firmly, mnto them is given liberty, 
conformable to the sajring of St John, 
' If the Son make yon free, then shall ye 
verQy be free.' Of the contrary, as many 
as believe not in Christ Jesus, they are 
bound servants of sin : * He that sinneth is 
bound to sin.' ** 

The eleventh article. — ** Thou ftJse 
heretic sayest, it is as lawful to eat flesh 
upon Friday as on Sunday." 

The answer. — ^ Please your lordships, I 

have read in the epistles of St Psul, * That 
who is olesn, unto them all things are dean.' 
Of the contrary, * to the filthy man, all 
things are undean.' A faithful man, clean 
and holy, sanctified by the word the crea- 
ture of God, but the creature maketh no 
man acceptable unto God ; so that a crea- 
ture may not sanctify any impure and un- 
fiuthful man. But to the fidthful man all 
things are sanctified, by the prayer of the 
word of God." After these sayings of Mr 
George, then said all the bishops with 
their complices, ^ What needed us any 
witnesses against him, hath he not here 
c^nly spoken bbspbemy." 

The twelfth article. — ** Thou false 
heretic didst say, that we should not pniy 
to saints, but to God only; say whether 
thou hast said this or not, say shortly." 

The answer. — ** For the weakness and 
infirmity of the hearers," he said, *' without 
doubt plainly, that saints should not be ho- 
noured nor incalled upon. My lords," said 
he, " there are two things worthy of note ; 
the one is certain, the other uncertain. It 
is found plainly and certain in Scripturesi 
that we should worship and honour one 
God, according to the saying of the first 
commandment, ' Thou shalt worship and 
honour the Lord thy God with all thine 
heart ;' but as to praying to and honouring 
of saints, there is great doubt among many, 
whether they hear or not invocation made 
unto them; therefore, I exhorted all men 
equally in my doctrine, that they should 
leave the unsure way, and follow the way 
which was taught us by our master Christ 
' He is only our mediator, and maketh in- 
tercession for us to God his Father. He the 
door by the which we must enter in : He 
that enters not in by this door, but climb- 
eth an other way, is a thief and a mur- 
derer ; he is the verity and life.' He that 
goeth out of this way, there is no doubt 
but he shall fall into the mire, yea, verily 
he is fiidlen in it already. This is the 
fashion of my doctrine, the which I have 
ever followed. Verily that which I have 
heard and read in the word of God, I 
taught openly and in no comers, and now 
ye shall witness the same if your lordships 
will hear me : except it stand by the word 



[a. ». IMS 

of (lod, I dare not be bo bold as to aSurm any 
thing." These sayings he rehearsed divers 

The thirteenth article. — " Thou fidsa 
heretic hast preached plainly, saying, that 
there is no purgatory, and that it is a feign- 
ed thing, for any man, after this life, to be 
punished in purgatory." 

t'HE ANSWER. — '* My lords, as I have 
oftentimes said heretofore, without express 
witness and testimony of scripture, I dare 
affirm nothing. I have oft and divers times 
read over the bible, and yet snch a term 
found I never, nor any place of scripture 
applicable thereto ; therefore I was asham- 
ed ever to teach of that thing which I could 
not find in scripture." Then said he to 
Mr John Lauder, his accuser, *' If you 
have any testimony of the scripture, by the 
which ye may prove any such place, show 
it now before this auditory." But that 
dolt had not a word to sav for himself, but 
was as dumb as a beetle in that matter. 

The fourteenth article. — " Thou false 
heretic hast taught plainly against the vows 
of monks, friars, nuns, and priests, saying, 
that whosoever was bound to such like 
vows, they vowed themselves to estate of 
the damnation. Moreover, that it was lawful 
for priests to marry wives, and not to live 

The answer. — " Of such, my lords, I 
have read in tlie evangel, that there are 
three kind of chaste men, some are gelded 
from their mother^s womb, some are geld- 
ed by men, and some have gelded them- 
selves for the kingdom of heaven^s sake ; 
verily, I say, these men are blessed by the 
scripture of God ; but as many as have not 
the gift of chastity, nor yet for the evangel 
have overc4)me the concupiscence of flesh, 
and have vowed chastity, ye have appear- 
ance, although I should hold my tongue, 
to what inconveniences they have vowed 
themselves." When he had said these 
words they were all dumb, thinking it bet- 
ter to have ten concubines nor one wife. 

The fifteenth article. — " Thou false 
renegade and heretic sayest, that thou wilt 
not obey our general or provincial councils." 

The answer. — " My lords, what your 
general councils are, I know not; I was 

never exercised in them ; but to the pure 
word of God I gave my laboors. Read 
here your general councils, or else give me 
a book,' wherein they are contained, that I 
may read them, if that they agree with the 
word of God,I will not disagree." Then the 
ravening wolves turned unto madness, and 
said, ** Whereunto let we him speak any 
farther ? read forth the rest of the articles, 
and stay not upon them." Amongst these 
cruel tigers there was a false hypocrite, 
a seducer of the people, called John Scott, 
standing behind John Lander's back, has- 
tening him to read the rest of the artides, 
and not to tarry upon his witty and godly 
answers ; « For we may not. abide them," 
said he, '' no more nor the devil may abide 
the sign of the cross, when it is named." 

The sixteenth article. — ** Thou here- 
tic sayest, that it is vain to build to the 
honour of God costly churches, seeing that 
God remaineth not in churches made by 
men's hands, nor yet can God be in so little 
space, as betwixt the priest's hands." 

The answer. — ** My lords, Solomon 
says, ' If that the heaven of heavens cannot 
comprehend thee, how much less this house 
which I have built' And Job consenteth to 
the same sentence, saying, ' Seeing that he is 
higher than the heavens, therefore, what 
canst thou build unto him ? He is deeper 
than the hell, then how shalt thou know 
him? He is longer than the earth, and 
broader than the sea ;' so that God cannot 
be comprehended in one place, because that 
he is iutiuite. These sayings, notwithstand- 
ing, I said never that churches should be 
destroyed ; but of the contrary, I affirmed 
ever that churches should be maintained 
and upholden, that the people should be 
congregated in them to hear the word of 
God preached. Moreover, wheresoever is 
the true preaching of the word of God, and 
the lawfiil use of the sacraments, undoubt- 
edly there is God himself: so that both 
these sayings are true together ; God can- 
not be comprehended into any one place ; 
* And wheresoever are two or three gather- 
ed in his name, there is he present in the 
midst of them.' " Then said he to his ac- 
cuser, ** If thou thiokest any otherwise than 
I say, show forth thy reasons before this 

DORK 1«] 



anditorj.' ** Tben h« without all reason 
was diUBb^ and coold not ansirer one won}. 

Tni fg y iw r m rrH abticul — ** Thoa 
£ilaa htntie oootemaaat fiuting^ and sayeat, 
thoa ahooldflit not Cut" 

Thb AifswBB^— * My lords, I find that 
fiisting ia oommended in the scriptore ; 
therdbra I ware m slanderer of the gospel, 
if I eontcaaod teting. And not so only, 
but I hava learned by experience, that Cut- 
in^ it good iat the health and conservation 
of the body; but Ood knoweth only who 
lasteth the tme ftst*' 

Thb kxohtbbnth article. — <* Thou false 
heretic hast preaohed openly, sajing, that the 
sods of- men shall sleep to the latter day 
of jiid|piieat» and shall not obtain life im- 
nortal until that day." 

Tub assweb. — '* God full of mercy and 
goodncaa forgi?e them that say such 
thinjps of me. I wot and know surely by 
the word of Ood, that he which hath be- 
gun to have the faith of Jesus Christ, and 
believeth firmly in him; I know surely, 
that the soul of that man shall never sleep, 
but ever shall live an immortal life, the 
which life, from day to day, b renewed in 
grace ajod augmented, nor yet shall ever 
perish, or have an end, but shall ever live 
immortal with Christ their head, to the 
which life all that believe in him, shall 
come, and rest in eternal glory." Amen, 

When that the bishops with their com- 
plices had accused this innocent num, in 
manner and form aforesaid, incontinently 
they condesuied him to be burnt as a here- 
tic, not having respect unto his godly an- 
swers and tme reasons which he alleged, 
nor yet their own consciences, thinking 
verily, that they should do to Ood good 
sacrifice, oonlbrmable to the sayings of 
Jeans Christ in the gospel of St John, the 
xvi. dttpter; * They shall excommunicate 
yoo, yea, and the time shall come, that he 
that kiUeih yo« shall think that he has done 
to God good service.'* 

* D. R bjw s IdOf intvrpoUtion here, from 
which I extnet the follovrinr :—«< The capUin 
of the cMtk with some fricDdii came to him, and 
2Mkad, If ha wmiM braakfint with theni. He an- 
awared, moat williiif ly, for I kiiow you to be 
hooart aod godly bbcd. So all bdng ready, he 


" O immortal Ood, how long shalt thon 
suffer the wodness [madness] and great 
cruelty of the ungodly to exercise their 
fury upon thy servants, which do further 
thy word in this world, seeing they desire 
to do the contrary, that is, to choke and de- 
stroy thy true doctrine and verity, by the 
which thou hast shown thyself unto the 
world, which was all drowned in blind- 
ness and misknowledge of thy name. O 
Lord, we know surely, that thy true ser- 
vants must needs suffer persecution for thy 
name's sake, affliction and troubles in this 
present life, which is but a shadow, as 
thou hast shown unto us by thy prophets 
and apostles ; but yet we desire thee, merci- 
ful Father, that thou conserve, defend, and 
help thy congregation, which thou hast cho- 
sen before the beginning of the world, and 
give them thy grace to hear thy word, and 
to be thy true servants in this present 

Then, by and by, they caused the com- 
mon people to remove, whose desire was 
always to have heard that innocent man 
speak. And the sons of darkness pro- 
nounced their sentence definitive, not hav- 
ing respect to the judgments of God. 
When all this was done and said, my lord 
cardinal caused his tormentors to pass again 
with the meek lamb unto the castle, until 
such time as the &re was made ready. 
When he was come into the castle, then 
there came unto him two gray fiends, friars 
Scott and his mate, saying, ^ Sir, ye must 
make your confession unto us." He an- 
swered and said, ** I will make no confes- 
sion unto you. Go fetch me yonder man 
that preached this day, and I will make my 
confession unto him." Then they sent for 
the subprior of the abbey, who came to him 
with all diligence : but what he said in thi< 
confession, I cannot show.* When the fire 
was made ready, and the gallows at the 
west part of the castle, near to the priory, 
my lord cardinal dreading that Mr George 

desired them Co tit down, and hear him a while 
with patifncr. Then he ditcooreed to them 
about haJf an liour conoeniinc the Lord's supper, 
his sufferinfs, and death for us. He exhorted 
them to lore one another, layiof aside all ran- 
cour, envy, and vengeance, as penVct membamof 




Ta. d. 1546 

should have been taken away by his friends, 
therefore, he commanded to bend all the 
ordnance of the castle right against the 
place of execution, and commanded all his 
gunners to be ready, and stand beside 
their guns, unto such time as he were burnt. 
All this being done, they bound Mr Oeorge*s 
hands behind his back, and led him forth 
with their soldiers, from the castle to the 
place of their cruel and wicked execution. 
As he came forth of the castle gate, their 
met him certain beggars asking of him alms 
for God*s sake. To whom he answered, 
** 1 want my hands, wherewith I had wont 
to give you alms, but the merciful Lord, of 
his benignity and abundant grace, that feed- 
eth all men, youchsafe to give you neces- 
saries both unto your bodies and souls." 
Then afterwards met him two false fiends, 
I should say friars, saying, Mr George, 
** pray to our lady, that she may be a me- 
diatrix for you to her Son." To whom he 
answered meekly, *< Cease, tempt me not, 
my brethren." 

After this he was led to the fire, with a 
rope about his neck, and a chain of iron 
about his middle. When that he came to 
the tire he sat down upon his knees, and 
rose up again; and thrice he said these 
words, " O thou Saviour of the world, have 
mercy upon me : Father of heaven, I com- 
mend my spirit into thy holy hands.** 
When he had made this prayer, he turned 
him to the people, and said these words, 
" I beseech you, christian brethren and 
sisters, that ye be not offended at the word 
of God, for the affliction and torments 
which you see already prepared for me. 
But I exhort you, that you love the word 

Christ, who intercedes oontlnaally tor us with 
God the father. After this he gave thanks, aud 
blessing the bread and wine ; he took the bread, 
and brake it, aud gave to every one of It, bidding 
each of them remember that Christ died for 
them, and feed on it spiritually; so taking the 
cup, he hade them remember that Christ's blood 
was shed tor them, &c. And after he gave 
thanks and prayed for them. When he had done, 
he told them that he would eat nor drink more 
in this life ; and so retired to his chamber. Im- 
mediately after, c^me to him, sent from the car- 
dinal, two executioners. One brought him a 
coat of linen dyed black, and put it upon him ; 
another brought some bags full of (gun) powder, 
which they tied to several parts of his body. 
Thus having drcaaed him, they brought him to 
an outer room near the gate of the castle. Then 

of God, yoiur salvation, and suffer patiently, 
and with a comfortable heart, for the word'* 
sake, which is your undoubted salvation, 
and everUsting comfort Moreover, I pray 
you, show my brethren and sisters, which 
have heard me oft before, that they cease 
not, nor leave off to learn the word of God 
which I taught unto them, after the grace 
given unto me, for no persecutions nor 
troubles in this world which lasteth not: 
and show unto them that my doctrine waa 
no wives' fable, after the constitutions made 
by men ; and if I had taught men's doc- 
trine, I had gotten greater thanks by men ; 
but for the word's sake and true evangel, 
which was given unto me by the grace of 
God, I suffer this day by men, not sorrow- 
fully, but with a glad heart and mind. For 
this cause I was sent, that I should suffer 
this fire for Christ's sake. Consider and 
behold my visage, ye shall not see me 
change my colour; this grim fire I fear 
not, and so I pray you for to do, if that 
any persecution come unto you for the 
word's sake ; and not to fear them that slay 
the body, and afterwards have no power to 
slay the soul. Some have said of me, that 
I taught the soul of man shall sleep until 
the last day ; but I know surely, and my 
faith is such, that my soul shall sup this 
night with my Saviour— or it be six hours 
— for whom I suffer this." Then he pray- 
ed for them which accused him, saying, * I 
beseech the Father of heaven to forgive 
them that have of any ignorance, or else of 
any evil mind, forged lies upon me; I forgive 
them with all my heart : I beseech Christ 
to forgive them that have condemned me to 
death this day ignorantly." And last of all. 

the fire was made ready, and the sUke at thn 
west port of the castle, near to the priory. Over 
against the place of execution, the castle windows 
w«fl*e hung with rich hangings and velvet 
cushions, laid for the cardinal and the prelates, 
who from thence did feed their eyes with the 
torments of this innocent man.*'* This, the 
reader will bear in mind, is not in Knox's nar* 
rative, aud the circumstance of the bags of gun* 
powder tied round his body, is not consistent 
with what follows ; for had that been the case, 
the bags would have exploded, and he would 
have been made insensible the moment the 
fire reached them ; whereas, we find him tenai- 
ble, and able to speak of the torment which hit 
body suffered after the Are had become ao vfolent 
as not only to torment hit own body, but hiture 
one who came near him. — Ed. 




be Mid to Um people on thif manner ; <* I 
b e e e e c b jou, lir«tbren and sisten, to exhort 
yoor prolatte to tlM learnings of the word of 
God, that they at the least may be ashamed 
to do evil, and learn to do good ; and if 
they will not convert themselves from 
their wicked errors, there shall hastily 
come upon them the wrath of God, which 
they shall not eachew." Many faithful 
words said he in the meantime, taking no 
heed or care of the cruel torments which 
were then prepared for him. Then, last of 
all, the hangman that was his tormentor, 
sat down upon his knees, and said, ** Sir, I 
pray yon lor]give me, for I am not guilty of 
your death.** To whom he answered, 
'*■ Come hither to me." When he was come 
lo lum, he kisMd his cheek, and said, *' Lo 
here is a token that £ forgive tbee; my 
heart, do thy office ;*' and then by and by, 
he was pnt i^oa the gibbet, and hanged, 
and there burnt to powder.* When that 
the people beheld the great tormenting of 
that innocent, they might not withhold 
from piteous mourning, and complaining of 
tliat innocent lamb*s slaughter. After the 
death of this blessed martyr of God, began 
the people in plain speaking to damn 
and detest the cruelty that was used ; yea. 

* Here D. B. has an interpolation of half a 
fulio pttge, of which the fdlowing is the most 
importaot : — '* The captain of the castle, for the 
lore be bore to Mr Wishart, drew so near to the 
fins, that the flame thereof did him harm. He 
wiabed Mr Wiahart to be of good courage, and 
bcf from God the forgiveness vf his sins, to 
wImmd Mr Wishart answered thus : ** This fire 
tannents my body, but no ways abates my 
apirit.*' Then Mr Wishart, looking towards 
tlia cardiaal said, ** He who in tuch state, Jrom 
thai ki^ ptace, feeddh his eyes with my torments, 
talhin few days shaU be hanged out at the same 
wirtduw, to be seen with as much ignominy as he 
now leanetk there in pride,** This is the famous 
p v phccy whieh Iwt long been ascribed to Wish- 
art. 1 held it almost an axiom in theology, that 
the gift «f prapbeey ceased with that of inspira- 
tion, and the power of working miracles ; and 
when writlog an thto subject in my notes on the 
Seou Werthies, 1 found Wishart*s case one of 
the hardest ta get orer. It was understood to 
rest on the aatharity of Knox, the intimate 
friend of Wishait, who, if not a witness of his 
martyrdom, must, while in St Andrews after- 
ward*, have eouvcraed with many who were. It 
was diflicuJt to rcaist the authority of such a 
eompcient and credible witness. But now it 
luma out Chat Knox bears witness to no such 
thing. It was put into his history seventy years 
after hia death, and a huudred years after Wish- 

men of great birth, estimation, and honour, 
at open tables avowed, ** That the blood of 
the said Mr Geoi^e should be revenged, or 
else they should lose life for life." 
Amongst whom John Leslie, brother to the 
earl of Rothes, was the chief, for he in all 
companies spared not to say, ** That same 
whinger, showing forth his dagger, and 
that same hand should be priests f to 
the cardinal." These bruits came to 
the cardinal's ears ; but he thought him- 
self stout enough for all Scotland: for 
in Babylon, that is, in his new blQck house, 
he was sure, as he thought ; and upon the 
field he was able to match all his enemies : 
and, to write the truth, the most part of 
the nobility of Scotland had either given 
unto him their bands of man-rent [bond of 
engagement], or else were in confederacy, 
and promised amity with him.:( He only 
feared them in whose hands God delivered 
him, and for them he had laid his nets so 
secretly, as that he made a full count, that 
their feet could not escape, as we shall 
after hear ; and something of his former 
practice we must recount After the Pasche 
[Easter] he came to Edinburgh, to hold 
the synod, as the papists term their unhappy 
assembly of BaaPs shaven sort It was 

art's. This not only reduces the prediction to a 
story without proof— it decidedly disproves it ; 
for had it been true Knox must have known it ; 
and, for tlie honour of his martyred friend, 
would have recorded it. He spent months of 
the same year in the castle of St Andrews, with 
the very men who slew the cardinal, including 
Melvin, who declared that he did it for the 
very purpose, of punishing him for the murder of 
Wishart. Ilad the report of such a remarkable 
prophecy then existed, all these men would have 
known it, and would often have been talking 
about it. From what Knox has said of Wish- 
art, as having foreknowledge of things future, he 
was sufficiently predisposed to believe this, had 
there been any evidence in its favour. Spots- 
wood relates, and, I suppose, believed in it ; but 
he is not an original authority, having written 
a hundred years after the mvenU—Ed, 

f 1 will be his priest, meaning that he would 
prepare, or send him to the other world.— lid. 

^ D. B. inserts here,— "and so he gave his 
bastard eldest daughter in marriage to the earl 
of Crawford's eldest son and heir, and raused 
the wedding to be celebrated with as much state, 
as if she had been a prince's lawful daughter." 
This, though omitted by Knox, is confirmed by 
other historians, who add, that he gave his 
daughter four thousand marks as her mawlagu 
portlou.— lu^ 



[A, i>. 1546 

bniitad that semething; was purposed 
i^inst him at that time by the earl of 
Angus and his friends, whom he mortallj 
hated, and whose destruction he sought; 
hot it failed, and so returned he to his 
strength ; yea, to his Ood tod only comfort, 
as well in heaven as in earth ; and there he 
remained without all fear of death, pro- 
mising unto himself no less pleasure nor did 
the rich man of whom mention is made by 
our Master in the evangel ; for he did not 
only rejoice and say, ** Eat and be glad, my 
soul, for thou hast great riches laid up in 
store for many days;" but also he said, 
** Tush, a 6g for the feud, and a button for 
the braggfing of all the heretics and their 
assistance in Scotland. Is not my lord go- 
vernor mine ? Witness his eldest son their 
pledge at my table. Have I not the queen 
at my own devotion ? — He meant of the 
mother of Mary that now mischievously 
reigns — Is not France my friend, and I 
friend to France ? What danger should 1 
fear?" And thus in vanity the cardinal 
delighted himself a little before his death. 
But yet he had devised to have cut off such 
as he tbonght might cumber him ; for he 
had appointed the whole gentlemen of Fife 
to have met him at Falkland the Monday 
after that he was slain upon the Saturday. 
His treasonable purpose was not under- 
stood but by his secret council ; and it was 
this, that Norman Leslie, sheriff of Fife, 
and apparent heir to his father the earl of 
Rothes; the said John Leslie, father 
brother to Norman ; the lairds of Grange, 
elder and younger ; Sir James Learmonth 
of Darsie, and provost of St Andrews ; and 
the faithful Lurd of Raith, should either 
have been slain, or else taken, and after to 
have been used at his pleasure. This en- 
terprise was disclosed after his slaughter, 
partly by letters and memorials found in 
his chamber, but plainly affirmed by such 
as were of the counciL Many purposes 
were devised, how that wicked man might 
have been taken away ; but all failed, till 
Friday the 28th of May, anno 154-6, when 

* " Wicked gate** the suppressed London edi- 
tion calls it, which shows that Mons. Voultrol- 
tier was not well acquainted with the original 
language of the author. What must the English 

the foresaid Norman came at night to St 
Andrews, William Kirkaidy of Grange, 
younger, was in the town before, awaiting 
upon the purpose. Last came John Leslie 
foresaid, who was most suspected: what 
conclusion they took that night it was not 
known but by the issue that foUowed. 
But early upon the Saturday in the morn- 
ing, the 29th of May, were they in sundry 
companies in the abbey kirk-yard, not for 
distant from the castle. Firsts the gates 
being open, and the drawbridge let down 
for receiving of lime and stones, and other 
things necessary for building, for Babylon 
was ahnost finished : first, we say, assayed 
William Kirkaidy of Grange, younger, and 
with him six persons, and getting entrance, 
held purpose with the porter, ** If my lord 
cardinal was waking?" who answered, 
'* No :" and so it was, indeed, for he had 
been busy at his accounts with mistress 
Marion Ogiivy that night, who was espied 
to depart from him by the private pos- 
tern that morning; and therefore quiet- 
ness, after the rules of physic, and a morn- 
ing sleep, were requisite for my lord. While 
the said William and the porter talked, and 
his servants made them to look [to] the 
work and the workmen, approached Nor- 
man Leslie with his company; and be- 
cause they were no great number, they 
easily got entrance. They address them to 
the midst of the closs, and immediately 
came John Leslie, somewhat rudely, and 
four persons with him. The porter fearing, 
would have drawn the bridge, but the said 
John being entered thereon, stayed, and 
leapt in : and while the porter made him 
for defence, his head was broken, the keys 
were taken from him, and he cast into the 
fosse, and so the place was seised. The 
workmen, to the number of more than one 
hundred, ran off the Walls, and were with- 
out hurt put forth at the wicket gate.* 
The first thing that ever was done, William 
Kirkaidy took the guard of the private 
postern, fearing that the fox should have 
escaped. Then go the rest to the gentle* 

have thought of our Scotish bishops, when tliey 
read they nad an entrance to their places called 
«* the wicked gate ?**— i^ 




Bwnli ebtmbcn, and without violenca 
done to aay nan, they pot more than 
fifty pcnobi to the gate: the nnmber 
that entefprieed and did this, were bat 
sixtaen peramu. The cardinal wakened 
with tbe hoots, aiked from hie window, 
^ What meant that noise ?" It was an- 
aweredy ^lliat Norman Leslie had taken 
his cattle;" which understood, he ran to 
the poatsra ; hot perceiving the passage to 
be kept withoot, he retomed qoickly to his 
chamber, and took his two-handed sword, 
and made chamberchild [made his servant] 
cast chests, and other impediments to the 
door. In this meantime came John Leslie 
onto ity and bids open. The cardinal 
askings • Wlio calls ?" He answered, " My 
name ia LesUe.'* He re-demands, " Is thst 
Norman?* The other says, « Nay, my 
name is John." « I will have Norman," 
says the cardinal, ** for he is my friend.'* 
" Content yoorHlf with such as are here, 
for other shall ye get none." There were 
with the said John, James Melvin, a man 
familiarly acquainted with the said Mr 
George Wishart, and Peter Carmicbael, a 
stout gentlenmn. In this meantime, while 
they force at the door, the cardinal bides a 
box of gold under coals that were laid in a 
secret comer. At length he asketb, <" Will 

• The London edition of lfi66 hai In the 
mai^n here, ** The godly fact and words of 
Jamea Melvin/' for which Knox has been so 
modi repraacbod ; but there is no eridence that 
Ikej era Knox*a wiirda. Hiev ara not in the 
G l ay w MS., and wttt probably added by the 

It hm barn allefed that this marginal note 
was mnittad in aubaequent editions on account 
of the adiom agaiuat K.u'kl which it excited. 
Bnt tbk eanld bava no influence on the wriur 
of the GkHfMT M&, which ia at least fire years 
older than tha printed edition which contains 
tbo obnaodona aaotanaa. But after ail, I have 
litlla ayasyathy witk tboae who condemn Knox 
on thia aeeonnt, aran if ha had written it ; be- 
canae aodi persona are shamefully imrtial in 
their jndgoMaL Whan the cardinal had orown- 
od bb otter eriasaa by the murder of Wishart, 
bia condoet waa applauded by his brethren, as 
abowlof a bwiatihi| seal for the holy oatholie 
eborcb. Tba onhbisbop of Glasgow, and all 
the rest whogava Cbeir concurrence, must ba?a 
eonsidared tha burning of Wishart a very godly 
action. Sacb writers as Keith, quoted in a for- 
mer notc^ if they do not poaitively call it godly, 
yet regard it as a trifle not worth mentioning in 
their history of the cardinal's life. Thus Keith, 
though a protaatant, doca not make tha ^mi 

ye save my life ?" The said John ans\ier. 
ed, « It may be that we will." « Nay," 
says the cardinal, • swear unto me by God's 
wounds, and I shall open unto you." Then 
answered the said John, «• It that was said, 
b unsaid ;" and so he cried, « Fire, fire," for 
the door was very strong, and so was brought 
a chimley [grate] full of burning coals, 
which perceired, the cardinal or his cham- 
ber-child—it is uncertain— opened the door, 
and the cardinal sat down in a chair, and 
cried, " I am a priest, I am a priest, ye will 
not slay me." The said John Leslie, ac- 
cording to his former vows, struck him 
once or twice, and so did the said Peter; 
but James Melvin, a man of nature most 
gentle and most modest, perceiving them 
both in oholer, withdrew them, and said 
•* This work andjudgment of God, although 
it be secret, yet ought to be done with 
greater gravity." And presenting unto 
him the point of the sword, said, « Repent 
thee of thine former wicked life, but espi*- 
cially of the shedding of the blood of that 
notable instrument of God, Mr Georgo 
Wishart, which albeit the flame of fire 
consumed before men, yet cries it, a ven- 
geance upon thee, and we from God arc 
sent to revenge it;* for here before my 
God, I protest, that neither the hatred of 

distant allusion to it; but he concludes his nar- 
rative with these words, ** He was murdereii in 
hiM own palace at St Andrews, on Saturday 
the 2Uth May 1646." If thU author was really 
a protestant, be must have regarded thc,cardinal 
himself as a murderer. It ia certain that Knox 
did so. 'i'hrn he muHt have regarded his death 
as the execution of justice according to the will 
of God, which ia much the same as to call it a 
godly fact ; like that of Samuel, who hewed 
Agag in pieces before the Lord. According to 
the law of Moaea, private persons punished the 
crime of murder by the death of the criminal. 
The reformers were in some instaneea mistaken 
with re^^rd to the application of that law under 
the christian dispensation ; and, admitting that 
they were mistaken in this instance, neither 
Melvin who committed the fact, nor Knox who 
recorded it apparently with approbation, are to 
be condemned as murderers from principle. 
I'hoiigh in an organized state of society, where 
there Is law and government, it is unlawful for 

firivate persons to take the punishment of crimes 
nto their ovm bauds ; yet, in the case of car- 
dinal Beaton, though his punishment had not 
the sanction of proper authority, the thing itself 
(the death of a murderer) was just and righu 
eons, a(!Cording to the lawa of God and man. It 
is for expressing something like approbation of 



[A. s. 1546 

thy person, the love of thjr riches, or the 
fear of any trouble thou couldst ha?e done to 
me in particular, moved, or moveth me to' 
strike thee; but ouly because thou hast 
been, and remainest an obstinate enemy to 
Christ Jesus and his holy evangel" And 
so he struck him twice or thrice throng[h 
with a stoge [thrusting, or long small] 
sword : and so he fell, never word heard out 
of his mouth, but <* I am a priest, 1 am a 
priest, fie, fie, all is gone !"* 

While they were thus occupied with the 
cardinal, the fray rises in the town; the 
provost assembles the commonalty, and 
comes to the fosse*s side, crjring, " What 
have ye done with my lord cardinal ? Where 
is my lord cardinal ? Have ye slain my lord 
cardinal? Let us see my lord cardinal.** 
They that were within answered gently, 
" The best it were to you to return to your 
own houses ; for the man you call the car- 
dinal has received his reward, and in his 
own person will trouble the world no 
more." But then more enragedly, they 
cried, ** We shall never depart till that we 
see him." And so was he brought to the 
east Blockhouse-head, and shown dead over 
the wall to the faithless multitude, which 
would not believe before that it saw. And 
so they departed, without requiem eeteniam, 
et requiescat in pacCy suug for his souL 
Now, because the weather was hot, for it 

thit that Knox ban been branded by certain 
writers, irho have no censure to sffare for the 
cardinal, who was confessedly guilty of the mur- 
der of an innocent man. Yes, but the cardinal 
was a minister of$tatey and an archbishop, and the 
innocent man was only a christian minister. This 
aocounu for the difference. The only thing that 
can be pleaded in extenuation of the cardinal's 
conduct is, that the archbishop of Glasgow and 
a few more, were as guilty as himself, and there- 
fore deserved the same reward, though most of 
them were suffered to die in their beds. 1 con- 
elude this long note with stating the fact, that 
Knox was remarkably scrupulous with regard 
to what might affect human life. ' When his 
friends were, contrary to treaty, detained in a 
French prison, they wrote for his advice, whe- 
ther they might lawfully effect their escape if 
they could? to which he replied, that he thought 
they might, if it could be done without blood- 
shed ; but that they ought not, for the sake of 
their own liberty, to take the life of a fellow 
creature.— £W. 

* Cardinal David Beaton was nephew of 
James Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, and af- 

was in fifay, as ye have heard, and his fi^ 
nerals could not suddenly be prepared, it 
was thought best— to keep him from stink- 
ing — ^to give him great salt enough, a cope 
of lead, and a mnk in the bottom of the 
sea tower, a place where many of God*8 
children had been imprisoned before, to 
await what exequies his brethren the 
bishops would prepare for him. These 
things we write merrily, but we would that 
the reader should observe God*s just judg- 
ments, and how that he can deprehend the 
worldly wise in their own wisdom, make 
their table to be a snare to trap their 
own feet, and their own presupposed 
strength to be their own destruction. 
These are the works of our God, whereby 
he would admonish the tyrants of this 
earth, that in the end he will be revenged 
of their cruelty, what strength soever they 
make in Iphe contrary. But such is thr 
blindness of man, as David speaks, " That 
the posterity does ever follow the footsteps 
of their wicked fathers, and principally in 
their impiety;" for how little differs the 
cruelty of that bastard, that yet is called 
bishop of St Andrews, from the cruelty of 
the former, we will after hear. 

The death of this foresaid tyrant was do- 
lorous to the priests, dolorous to the gover- 
nor, and most dolorous to the queen dowa- 
ger; for in him perished faithfulness 40 

terwards of St Andrews. At an early period 
of life he was sent to France for perfecting his 
education ; and there he was initiated into the 
mysteries of both church and state politics. His 
first preferment at home was no greater than 
the rectory of Campoie ; but when his nnde wAs 
promoted to St Andrews, he resigned in his fa- 
vour the abbacy of Arbroath, which gave him a 
seat in parliament. From this he rose to the 
highest oflSces in church and state. The cause 
and manner of his death are sufficiently related 
in the text ; but as affording information with 
regard to the manners of the times, it is right 
to add, that gentlemen, even of noble birth, 
were not ashamed to treat his dead body with 
disgusting contumely, such as persons of the 
lowest degree would not now be guilty of to the 
carcass of a dog. See his life in Iconographia 
Scotica. Knox was a gentleman both by birth 
and education ; but, considering the character of 
the times, as appears by the above fact, it waa 
not to be expected that he should possess all the 
refinement of a more polished state of society.--. 




Vtamotf tad the comfort to all gentlewo- 
aMB» and esyeciBlly to wanton widows; his 
death Bnist ha nvenged. 

To the eout again repairs the earl of 
Anfos^ and hia brother Sir Oeorge. La- 
bour ia BMde for the abbacy of Arbroath, 
and a grant was once made of the same, in 
menovy whereof George Douglas, bastard 
son to the said earl, is yet called Postulate. 
But it was more proper — ^think the Hamil- 
tona— for the goTenior*s kitchen [for one 
of hfs serrants], nor for reward to the 
Do^gfaases; and yet in esperance [hope] 
thereof the said earl and George his bro- 
ther ware the first that Toted, that the cas- 
tle of St Andrews should be besieged. The 
bishop, to declare the seal that he had 
to rerenge the death of him that was his 
predeesasor^— -and yet for his wish he would 
not have had him living again, — still blew 
the coals. And first, he caused summon, 
then denoonce accursed, then hist rebels, 
not only the first enterprisers, but all such 
also as after did accompany them ; and last 
of all, siege waa condnded, which began in 
the end of August For the 23d day there- 
of departed the soldiers from Edinburgh 
and continued near to the end of January ; 
at what time, hecause they had no other 
hope of winning it but by hunger, and 
therecfef also they were despaired, for they 
within had broken through the east wall, 
and made a plain passage by an iron gate 
to the sea, which greatly relieved the besieg- 
ed, and abased the besiegers ; for then they 
saw that they could not stop them of vic- 
tuals, naless that they should be masters of 
the sea, and that they clearly understood 
they oonld not be ; for the English ships bad 
mce been there, and had brought William 
Kirkaldy frofli London, and with much 
diificnlty— because the said gate was not 
:hen prepared— «nd some loss of men, had 
rendered him to the castle again, and had 
taken with them to the court of Enghmd, 
John Lealie and Mr Henry Balnaves, for 
perfecting of all. contracU betwixt them 
and king Henry, who promised to take 
them in his protection, upon condition 
only, that they ahonld keep the governor's 
Jon, my lord of Arran, and stand friends to 
the contract of marriare, whereof before 

we have made mention. These things clear- 
ly understood, we say, by the governor and 
hia council, the priests and shaven sort, 
they conclude to make an appointment, to 
the end that under truth they might either 
get the castle betrayed, or else some prin- 
cipal men of the company taken at una- 
wares. In the which head was the abbot 
of Dunfermline principal, and for that pur- 
pose had the laird of Monwherry, which 
was most familiar with them of the castle, 
laboured at foot and hand, and proceeded 
so in his traffic, that from entries upon day- 
light at his pleasure, he got licence to come 
in upon the night whensoever it pleased 
him. But God had not appointed so many 
to be betrayed, albeit that he would that 
they should be punished, and that justly, as 
hereafter we will hear. 



I. That they should keep the castle of 
St Andrews, aye and until that the governor 
and authority of Scotland should get unto 
them a sufficient absolution from the pope, 
antichrist of Rome, for the sbughter of the 
cardinal foresaid. 

XL That they should deliver pledges for 
delivery of that house, how soon the abso- 
lution foresaid was delivered unto them. 

IlL That their friends, familiars, and 
servants, and others to them pertaining, 
should never be pursued in the law, by the 
authority, for the slaughter foresaid. But 
that they should brook commodities spi- 
ritual and temporal, whatsoever they pos- 
sessed before the said slaughter, even as 
if it never had been committed. 

IV. That they of the castle should keep 
the earl of Arran, so long as their pledges 
were kept. 

And such like articles liberal enough, for 
they never minded to keep [one] word of 
them, as the issue did declare. 

The appointment made, all the godly were 
glad ; for some esperance [hope] they had, 
that thereby God's word should somewliat 
bud, as indeed so it did. For John Rough 
— who soon after the cardinal's slaughter 
entered within the castle, and had conti- 
nued with them the whole siege — began to 



[a. d. 1647 

preach in St Andrewi ; and albeit he was 
not the moftt learned, yet was his doctrine 
without corruption, and therefore well liked 
of the people. At the Pasch after, anno 
1547, came to the castle of St Andrews 
John Knox, who wearied of remoTin^ from 
place to place, hj reason of the persecution 
that came upon him by this bishop of St 
Andrews, was determined to have left Scot- 
land, and to have visited the schools of Ger- 
nany— of England then he had no pleasure, 
by reason that the pope's name being sup- 
pressed, his laws and corruptions remained 
in full vigonr,^but because he had the care 
of some gentlemen's children, whom certain 
years he had nourished in godliness, their 
ftithers solicited him to go to St Andrews 
that himself might have the benefit of the 
castle, and their children the benefit of his 
doctrine ; and so, we say, came he the time 
foresaid to the said place, and having in his 
company Francis Douglas of Longniddry, 
Cieorge his brother, and Alexander Cock- 
bum, then eldest son to the laird of Ormis- 
ton, began to exercise them after his accus- 
tomed manner. Besides their grammar, and 
other humane authors, he read unto them a 
catechism, account whereof he caused them 
give publicly in the parish kirk of St An- 
drews. He read moreover unto them the 
evangel of John, proceeding where he left 
at his departing from Longniddry, where 
before his residence was ; and that lecture 
he read in the chapel within the castle, at 
a certain hour. They of the place, but es- 
pecially Mr Henry Balnaves, and John 
Rough, preacher, perceiving the manner of 
his doctrine, began earnestly to travail 
with him, that he would take the preaching 
place upon him. But he utterly refused, 
alleging, " That he would not run where 
God had not called him ;" meaning, that he 
would do nothing without a lawful voca- 
tion. Whereupon they privily amongst 
themselves advising, having with them in 
company Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, 
they concluded, that they would give a 
charge to the said John, and that publicly 
by the mouth of their preacher. And so 
upon a certain day, a sermon had of the 
election of ministers, ** what power the con- 
gregation, how small that ever it was, pass- 

ing the number of two or three, had ubore 
any man, in whom they supposed and espied 
the gifts of God to be, and how dangerous 
it was to ref use, and not to hear the voice 
of such as desire to be instructed :" these 
and other heads, we say, declared ; the said 
John Rough, preacher, directed his words 
to the said John Knox, saying, ^ Brother, 
ye shall not be offended, albeit that I speak 
unto you that which I have in charge, 
even from all these that are here preseut^ 
which is this : In the name of Ck>d, and of 
his son Jesus Christ, and in the name of 
these that presently call you by my moutb, 
I charge you, that ye refuse not this holy 
vocation, but as ye tender the glory of God, 
the increase of Christ's kingdom, the edifi- 
cation of your brethren, and the comfort of 
me, whom ye understand well enough to 
be oppressed by the multitude of labours, 
that ye take upon you the public office and 
charge of preaching, even as ye look to 
avoid God*8 heavy displeasure, and desire 
that ye shall multiply his graces with you." 
And in the end he said to those that were 
present, -* Was not this your charge unto 
me ? And do ye not approve this vocation ?*' 
They answered, " It was, and we approve 
it." Whereat the said John abashed, burst 
forth in most abundant tears, and withdrew 
himself to his chamber; his countenance 
and behaviour, from that day till the day 
that he was compelled to present himself to 
the public place cf preaching, did sufficient- 
ly declare the grief and trouble of his heart; 
for no man saw any sign of mirth of him, 
neither yet had he pleasure to accompany 
any man, many days together. 

The necessity that caused him to enter 
in the public place, besides the vocation 
foresaid, was dean John Annan, a rotten 
papist, [who] had long troubled John Rough 
in his preaching. The said John Knox had 
fortified the doctrine of the preacher by his 
pen, and had beaten the said dean John 
from all defences, that he was compeUed to 
fly to his last refuge, that is, to the authority 
of the church, " Which authority," said he, 
" damneth all Lutherans and heretics ; and, 
therefore, he needed no further disputation.** 
John Knox answered, <* Before that we hold 
ourselves, or that ye can prove m sufficient- 




hf ooonclt we must define the charch, by 
tiia right BOtoi given to at in God's scrip- 
tures of the trae ehurvh. We most decern 
the immeciilate epoiise of Jesus Christ from 
the mother of confusion, spiritual Babylon, 
leet that impmdently we embrace a harlot 
inatead of the chaste spouse. Yea, to speak 
it in plain words ; lest that we submit our- 
selTCS to Satan, thinking that we submit 
ODiselTes to Jesus Christ ; for, as for your 
RoBMB kirk, as it is now corrupted, and 
the anthority thereof, whereon stands the 
hope of your victory, I no more doubt but 
that it is the synagogue of Satan, and the 
head thereof, called the pope, to be that 
man of sin, of whom the apostle speaks, 
than that I donbt that Jesus Christ suffered 
by the pi oc ur e m ent of the visible church of 
Jemsalea. Yea, I offer myself, by word or 
write, to prove the Roman church this day 
further d ege a er a ted from the purity which 
vraa in the days of the apostles, than was 
the ehorch of the Jews from the orcUnance 
given by Bfbeesi when they consented to 
the innocent death of Jesus Christ'* These 
words were spoken in open audience in the 
parish dinrch of St Andrews, after that the 
add dean John Annan had spoken what it 
pleased hin, uid had refused to dispute. 
The people hearing the offer, cried with one 
consent, " We cannot all read your writ- 
ings^ but we may all hear your preachings ; 
therefore, we require you in the name of 
CTod, that ye will let us hear the probation 
of that which ye have affirmed ; for if it be 
true, we have been miserably deceived." 
And so the next Sunday was appointed to 
the said John to express his mind in the 
public preaching place, which day approach- 
ing; the said John took the text written in 
Banid the viL chapter, beginning thus: 
" And another Idng shall rise after them, 
and shall be unlike to the first, and he shall 
subdue three kings, and shall speak words 
agunst the Bfost High, and shall consume 
the saints of the Most High, and think that 
he may change times and laws, and they 
ahall be given unto his hands, until a time, 
and times, and dividing of times.*' In the 
banning of the sermon, he showed the 
great love d Ood towards his church, 
whom it pleased to forewarn of dangers to 

come so many years before they came to 
pass. He briefly entreated [treated of] the 
estate of the Israelites, who then were in 
bondage in Babylon, for the most part; and 
made a short discourse of the four empires, 
the Babylonian, the Persian, that of the 
Greeks, and the fourth of the Romans, in the 
destruction whereof rose up that last beast, 
which he affirmed to be the Ronuin church; 
for to none other power that ever has yet 
been, do all the notes that Ood has shoH^n 
to the prophet appertain, except to it alone, 
and unto it they do so properly appertain, 
that such as are not more than blind, may 
clearly see them. But before he began to 
open up the corruption of the papistry, he 
defined the true kirk, showed the true 
notes of it, whereupon it was built, why it 
was the pillar of verity, and why it could 
not err, to wii, ** Because it heard the voice 
of its own pastor, Jesus Christ, would not 
hear a stranger, neither yet would be car- 
ried about with every kind of doctrine.'* 

Every one of these heads sufficiently de- 
clared, he entered upon the contrary ; and 
upon the notes given in his text, he showed 
that the Spirit of God in the New Testa- 
ment gave to this king other names, to wit^ 
** The man of sin, the antichrist, the whore 
of Babylon." He showed, that this man 
of sin, or antichrist, was not to be restrain- 
ed to the person of any one man only, no 
more than by the fourth beast was to be 
understood the person of any one emperor. 
But by such names the Spirit of God would 
forewarn his chosen of a body and a multi- 
tude, having a wicked head, who should 
not only be sinful himself, but that also 
should be occasion of sin to all that should 
be subject unto him, as Christ Jesus is the 
cause of justice to all the members of his 
body ; and is called the antichrist, that is 
to say, one contrary to Christ, because that 
he is contrary unto him in life, doctrine, 
laws, and subjects. And there began he to 
decipher the lives of divers popes, and the 
lives of the shavelings [clergy] for the most 
part; their doctrine and laws he plainly 
proved to repugn directly to the laws and 
doctrine of Ood the Father, and of Christ 
Jesus his Son. This he proved by confer- 
ring the doctrine of justification expressed 



[a. d. 1547 

io the Bcriptares, which teach that roan is 
<* justified by faith only ; that the blood of 
Jesm Christ pui^^ as from all our sins :" 
and the doctrine of the papists, which at- 
tributed justification to the works of the 
lair, yea, to the works of men's invention, 
as pilgrimages, pardons, and other such 
baggage. That the papistical laws repugn- 
ed to the laws of the evangel, he proved by 
the laws made of observation of days, ab- 
staining from meats, and from marriage, 
which Jesus Christ made free ; and the for- 
bidding whereof, St Paul calls " the doc- 
trine of devils." In handling the notes of 
that beast given in the text, he willed men 
to consider if these notes — there shall one 
arise, unlike unto the other, having a mouth 
speaking great things and blasphemous — 
oould be applied to any other but to the 
pope and his kingdom : " For if these,*' said 
he, '* be not great words and blasphemous, 
the successor of Peter, the vicar of Christ, 
the heAd of the kirk, most holy, most bless- 
ed, that cannot err ; that may make right 
a wrong, and wrong of right ; that of no- 
thing may make somewhat ; and that had 
all verity in the shrine of his breast ; yea, 
that has power of all, and none power of him; 
nay, not [even] to say, that he does wrong, 
although he draw ten thousand million souls 
with himself to hell. If these," said he, ''and 
many other able to be shown in his own 
canon law, be not great and blasphemous 
words, and such as never mortal man spake 
before, let the world judge. And yet," said 
be, " is there one most evident of all, to 
witf John, in his Revelation, says, ' That the 
BMrohandise of that Babylonian harlot, 
aaongst other things, shall be the bodies 
and souk of men.' Now, let very papists 
themselves judge, if ever any before them 
took upon them power to relax the pains 
of them that were in purgatory, as they af- 
firm to the people that daily they do, by 
the merits of their mass, and of their other 
trifles." In the end, he said, ** If any here 
— 4uid there were present Mr John Mair, 
the university, the sub-prior, and many 
canons, with some friars of both the orders 
— that will say, that I have alleged scrip- 
tures, doctor, or history, otherwise than it 
is written, let them come unto me with suf- 

ficient witnesses, and by conference I shall 
let them see^ not only the original where 
my testimonies are written, but I shall 
prove, that the writers meant as I have 
spoken." Of this sermon, which was the 
first that ever John Knox made in public, 
were there divers bruits : Some said, others 
hewed the branches of papistry, but he 
striketh at the root, to destroy the whole. 
Others said, if the doctors, and magistri 
nostri, defend not now the pope and his au- 
thority, which in their own presence is so 
manifestiy impugned, " The devil have my 
part of him, and his kws both." Others 
said, " Mr George Wishart spake never so 
plainly, and yet he was burnt, even so will 
he be." In the end, others sud, " The 
tyranny of the cardinal made not his cause 
the better, neither yet the suffering of God's 
servant made his cause the worse. And 
therefore we would counsel you and them, 
to provide better defences than fire and 
sword, for it may be that else ye shall be 
disappointed; men now have other eyes 
than they had then." This answer gave 
the laird of Niddry, a man fervent and up- 
right in religion. The bastard bishop, who 
was not yet execrated, consecrated they call 
it, wrote to the snbprior of St Andrews, 
who, sede vacante^ was vicar-general, " That 
he wondered that he suffered such hereti- 
cal and schismatical doctrine to be taught, 
and not to oppose himself to the same." 
Upon this rebuke, was a convention of grey 
friars and black fiends appointed, with the 
said subprior dean John Winram, in St Lei>- 
nard's Yards, whereunto was first called 
John Rough, and certain articles read unto 
him ; and thereafter was John Knox call- 
ed for. The cause of their convention, and 
why that they were called, is exponed; 
and the articles were read, which were 

I. No mortal can be the head of the church. 

II. The pope is an antichrist, and so is 
no member of Christ's mystical body. 

III. Man may neither make nor devise a 
religion that is acceptable to God, but man 
is bound to observe and keep the religion 
that from God is received, without chopping 
or changing thereof. 

IV. The Sacramento of the New Tester 




fmmXt ought to be ministered at tbey were 
iiHtltiiteA by Qurist Jeeus, and practised by 
his apostles ; aothing ought to be added 
noto then, nothing ought to be diminished 

V. The aass is abominable idoktry, bUts- 
phemoos to the death of Christ, and a pro- 
fanation of the Lord's Supper. 

VL Thsra is no purgatory, in the which 
the sonh of omii can neither be pained or 
pniged after this life ; but heaven rests to 
the fiuthAil» and hell to the reprobate and 

Vn. PnjvBig tor the dead is Tain, and to 
the dead is idolatry. 

VIIL There are no bishops, except they 
preach OTon by themselTes, without any 

IX. The teinds by God's Uw do not ap- 
pertain of nsesssity to the kirkmen. 

" The stnugeMSs,** said the subprior, « of 
these artidss which are gathered forth of 
your doctrine have mo?ed us to call for 
jon, to hear your own answers." John 
Knox said, ** I for my part praise my God, 
that I see so honourable, and apparently so 
modest and qniet an auditory ; but because 
it is long sinoe that I have heard, that ye 
are one that is not ignorant of the truth, I 
most cimve of yon, in the name of God, yea, 
and I sppsal your conscience before that 
sopreoM Judge, that if ye think any article 
there expressed, contrary unto the truth of 
God, that ye oppone yourself plainly unto 
it^ and suffer not the people therewith to 
bedeceiTed ; hot, and if in 3rour conscience 
ye know the doctrine to be true, then will 
I craye your patrocinie [adherence] there- 
to ; that by your authority the people may 
be HBOTcd the rather to believe the truth, 
whereof manjr doubt by reason of our 
youth." The snbprior answered, " I came 
not here as a judge, but only fiuniliarly to 
talk, and, therefore, I will neither allow nor 
yeteoodsan; but if ye list, I will reason. 
Why amy not the kirk," said he, « for 
good caasss devise ceremonies to deoore 
the sacraments^ and other God's service ?" 
John Kmox.^'* Because the kirk ought 

to do nothing, but in faith, and ought not (o 
go before, but is bound to folk>w the voice 
of the true pastor." 

The sunPiaoB.— « It is in faith that the 
ceremonies are commanded, and they have 
proper signification to help our faith, as the 

signify Ihe roughness 

* it it bands in the sapprcMed edition, perhape 
Aht tilt gentis etrokct which are given to the 

hards* in 

of the Uw, and the oil the softness of God's 
mercy ; and likewise every one of the cere- 
monies has a godly signification; and there- 
'^fore they both prooeed from fiiith, and are 
done to faith." 

John Knox. — <* It is not enough that 
a man invent a ceremony, and then give a 
signification according to his pleasure. For 
so might the ceremonies of the gentiles, and 
this day the ceremonies of Mahomet be 
maintained. But if any thing proceed 
from faith, it must have the word of God 
for the assurance ; for ye are not ignorant, 

* That fiiith comes by hearing, and hearing 
by the word of God.' Now, if ye will prove 
that your ceremonies prooeed firom fiuth, 
and do please God, ye must prove that God 
in express words has commanded them ; or 
else shall ye never prove that they proceed 
from faith, nor yet that they please God ; 
but that they are sin, and so displease him, 
according to the words of the apostle, 

* Whatsoever is not of faith is sin.' " 

The subprior. — ** Will ye bind us so 
strait, that we may do nothing without the 
express word of God ? What, and I ask a 
drink ? think ye that 1 sin ? and yet have 
I not God's word for me ?" This answer 
gave he, as might appear, to shift over the 
argument upon the friar, as that he did. 

John Knox. — " I would we [ye, tup. ed,] 
should not jest in so grave a matter, neither 
would I that ye should begin to elude the 
truth with sophistry ; and if ye do, I will 
defend me the best that I can. And, first, 
to your drinking, I say, that if ye either eat 
or drink without assurance of God's word, 
that in so doing ye displease God, and ye 
sin in your very eating and drinking; 
for says not the apostle, speaking even of 
meat and drink, * That the creatures are 
sanctified unto man, even by the word and 

child, to lignify the hardthipe he may meet with 
in the course of hit Wft^^Ed, 



[a. d. 1647 

by prayer.' The word is tbii, ' All things 
are clean to the dean.' Now, let me hear 
this much of your ceremonies, and I shall 
give you the ai^piment ; but I wonder that 
je compare things profane and holy things 
so indiscreetly together ; the question was 
not, nor is not of meat or drink, whereinto 
the kingdom of heayen consists not ; but 
the question b of God's true worshipping, 
without the which we can haye no society 
with God. And, here it is doubted, if we 
may take the same freedom in the using of 
Christ's sacraments, that we may do in eat- 
ing and drinking. One meat I may eat^ 
another I may reliise, and that without 
scruple of conscience. I may change one 
with another, eyen as oft as I please. 
Whether may we do the same in matters 
of religion ? May we cast away what we 
please, and retain what we please ? If I be 
well remembered, Moses, in the name of 
God, says to the people of Israel, ' All that 
the Lord thy God commands thee to do, 
that do thou to the Lord thy God, add no- 
thing to it, diminish nothing from it' By 
this rule, think I, that the kirk of Christ 
will measure God*8 religion, and not by that 
which seemeth good in their own eyes." 

The subprior. — ** Forgiye me, I speak 
it but in mowes [jest], and I was dry. And 
now, father," said he to the friar, ** follow 
the argument, ye haye heard what I said, 
and what is answered to me again." 

Arbucklb grayfriar.— " I shall prove 
plainly that ceremonies are ordained by 

John Ksox, — '* Such as God has ordain- 
ed we allow, and with reverence we use 
them ; but the question is of those that God 
has not ordained, such as in baptism, are spit- 
tle, salt, candle, cuid^— except it be to keep 
the bairn from cold — hards, oil, and the rest 
of the papistical inventions." 

Arbuckle. — '' I will even prove these 
that ye damn to be ordained of God." 

John Knox.—" The proof thereof I 
would gladly hear." 

Arbuckle.—** Says not St Paul, * that, 
any other foundation than Jesus Christ, 
may no man lay.' But upon this founds- 

• CudCt a cloth to cover the child's face. See 
Jam. Did, 

tion some build gold, silver, and preciooa 
stones, some, hay, stubble, and wood. Tho 
gold, silver, and precious stones are the ce- 
remonies of the churoh, which do abide the 
fire, and consume not away," &c This 
pUce of scripture is moet plain, says the 
foolish fiend. 

John Knox. — ** I praise my God, through 
Jesus Christ, for I find his promise sore, 
true, and stable. Christ Jeens bids us * Not 
fear, when we shall be called before men, to 
give confession of his truth ;* for he pro- 
mises * That it shall be given unto us in 
that hour what we shall apeak.' If I had 
sought the whole scriptursa, I oould not 
have produced a place more proper for 
my purpose, nor more potent to oonibund 
you. Now to your argument: the cere- 
monies of the kirk, say ye, 'are gold, silver, 
and precious stones, because they are able 
to abide the fire ; but I would learn of yon, 
what fire it is which your ceremonies does 
abide ? And in the meantime, till that ye 
be advised to answer, I will show my mind, 
and make an argument against your's upon 
the same text And, first, I say, that I 
have heard this text adducisd for a proof of 
purgatory; but for defence of ceremonies 
I never heard, nor yet read it. But omit- 
ting whether ye understand the mind of the 
apostle or not, I make my ai^gument, and 
say, that which may abide the fire, may 
abide the word of God ; but your ceremonies 
may not abide the word of God. Ergo, 
they may not abide the fire ; and if they 
may not abide the fire, then are they not 
gold, silver, nor precious stones. Now, if 
ye find any ambiguity in this terra, fire, 
which I interpret to be the word, find 
ye me another fire, by the which things 
built upon Christ Jesus should be tried 
than God and his word, which both in the 
scriptures are called fire, and I shall cor- 
rect my argument" 

Arbuckle. — ^ I stand not thereupon ; 
but I deny your minor, to wit, that our 
ceremonies may not abide the trial of 
God's word." 

John Knox — " T prove that abides not 
the trial of God's word, which God's 
word condemneth; but God's word con- 
demns your ceremonies: therefore, they 




do ttoi Mib the trial thereof; bat as a 
thief dbidetb Dm trial of the inqneet, and 
thereby is condeMned to be han^ ; eyen 
so may your oenMonies abide the trial of 
God's woH^ bvt not else. And now, in 
few words to make plain that wherein ye 
wDKj seem to doubt, to wU, that God's word 
damneCh yoor oeremOnies, it is eyident, for 
the plain and strait commandment of God 
is, ** Not thai thing which appeareth good 
In thy eyes, shalt thou do to the Lord thy 
God, b«t what the Lord thy God has com- 
manded thca, that do yon ; add nothing to 
it, diminish nothing from it.' Now, unless 
ye be able to proye, that God has command- 
ed yoor osremonies, thb his former com- 
■andmoni will damn both you and them." 
The friar, somewhat alMshed what first 
to answer, while he wanders about in the 
mist ha filla in a iotad mire ; for, alleging 
that we may not be so bound to the word, 
he a fl fa ae^ * That the apostles had not 
reoeiTed the floly Ghost when they did 
writo their epistles ; but after they received 
hiniy and then they did ordain the cere- 
monies." Few would have thought, that 
so learned a man would haye giyen so fool- 
ish an answer ; and yet it is eyen as true 
as he bora a grey eowl. John Knox hear- 
ing the answer, stsrtedand said, ** If that be 
tme, I hayo long been in an error, and I 
think I shall die thereintill." The subprior 
said to hin^ « Father, what say ye ? God 
Ibrbid that ye affirm that, for then farewell 
the ground of our frith." The friar, asto- 
nished, made the best shift that he could to 
oorrset his fruit, but it would not be : John 
Knox brought him ofr again to the ground 
of the aignment, but he would never an- 
swer directly, but ever fled to the authority 
ai the church ; whereto the said John an- 
swered, oftener than once, ** That the spouse 
of Christ had neither power nor authority 
against the word of God." Then said the 
friar, * If so be^ ye will leave us no kirk." 
« Indeed," said the other, ** in Darid I read, 
that there is a church of the malignants, 
for he says^ * Odi eccletiam malignaiUium ;' 
that church ye may have without the 
word, and doing many things directly fight- 
ing against the word of God ; of that church 
if ye will be, I cannot impede you ; but as 

for me, I will be of none other church, ex- 
cept of that which hath Christ Jesus to be 
their pastor, which hears his voice, and will 
not hear a stranger." 

In this disputation many other things 
were merrily scoffed over; for the friar 
after his frU could speak nothing to any pur- 
pose. For purgatory he had no better proof 
but the authority of Virgil, in the sixth of 
his iBneid ; and the pains thereof to him 
was an eril wife. How John Knox an- 
swered that and many other things, himself 
did witness, in a treatise that he did write 
in the galleys, containing the sum of his 
doctrine, and the confession of his frith, 
and sent it to his familiars in Scot- 
land, with his exhortation, that they should 
continue in the truth which they had pro- 
fessed, notwithstanding any worldly adver- 
sity that might ensue thereof. This much 
of that disputation have we inserted here, 
to the intent that men may see how that 
Satan ever travails to obscure the light; 
and yet how that God, by his power, work- 
ing in his weak vessels, confounds his cnift, 
and discloses his darkness. 

After this the papists nor friars had no 
great heart of further disputation or reason- 
ing, but invented another shift, which ap- 
peared to proceed from godliness ; and it 
was this : every learned man, in the abbey 
and in the umversity, should preach in the 
parish kirk his Sunday about The sub- 
prior began — followed the official, called 
Spittal — sermons penned — to offend no 
man — followed all the rest in their ranks ; 
and so John Knox smelled out the craft, 
and in his sermons, which he made upon 
the week days, he prayed to God that they 
should be as busy in preaching where 
there should be more mister [need] of it 
than there was there then. ** Always, [how- 
ever]," said he, '* I praise God, that Christ 
Jesus is preached, and nothing is said pub- 
licly against the doctrine that ye have 
heard ; if in my absence they shall speak 
any thing, which in my presence they do 
not, I protest that ye suspend your judg- 
ment, till that it please God ye hear me 

God so assisted his weak soldier, and so 
blessed his labours, that not only all those 



[A. D. I54T 

of the castle, but alio a great Damber of 
the town, openlj profeesed, by participation 
of the Lord's table, in the same parity that 
now it is ministered in the kirks of Soot- 
land, with that same doctrine that he had 
taught unto them ; amongst whom was he 
that now either rules or else misrules Soot- 
land, to unt. Sir James Balfour, sometimes 
called master James, the chief and principal 
protestant that then was to be found in 
this realm. This we write, because that 
we have heard that the same Mr James al- 
leges that he was never of this our religion ; 
but that he was brought up in Martin's 
[Luther's] opinion of the sacrament, and, 
therefore, he cannot communicate with us : 
but his own conscience, and two hundred 
witnesses besides know, that he lies ; and 
that he was one of the chief— if he had not 
been after cups — that would have gi?en his 
life, if men might credit his words, for de- 
fence of the doctrine that the said John 
Knox taught But albeit, ** That those that 
never were of us — as none of Mone* 
qubaime's* sons have showed themselves to 
be— depart from us," it is no great wonder; 
for it is proper and natural, that the chil- 
dren follow the fitkther; and let the godly 
beware of that race and progeny; for if in 
them be either fear of God, or love of 
virtue, farther than the present commodity 
persuades them, men of judgment are de- 
ceived. But to return to our history. 

The priests and bishops enraged at all 
these proceedings that were in St Andrews, 
ran now upon the governor, now upon the 
queen, now upon the whole council; and 
there might have been heard complaints and 
cries, " What are we doing? Shall we 
suffer this whole realm to be infected with 
pernicious doctrine ? Fie upon you, and 
fie upon us." The queen and Monsieur 
d'Oysel, who then was a secretis muUerum 
in the court, comforted them, and willed 
them to be quiet, for they should see remedy 
ere it were long ; and so was proven, indeed ; 
for upon the penult of June, appeared in 
the sight of the castle of St Andrews 

• I can find do cartain clue to the meaninir of 
» ''!i P*''^P* *^ ^•s tbe name of the familvestaU. 
Balfour became a atateimao, and made aome 

twenty-one French gallejrs, with a great 
army, the like whereof was never seen is 
that firth before. This treasonable mean had 
the governor, the biahom the queen, and 
Monsieur d'Oysel, under the appointment 
drawn. But to excuse thdr treason, eight 
days before, they had presented unto theas 
an absolution, as sent firom Rome, oontaiAo 
ing, after the aggravation of the crime, this 
clause, remiuimm vrretnutibUe^ that is^ we 
remit tlie crime that cannot be remitted ; 
which considered by the most of the company 
that was in the oastle, answer was given, 
** That the governor and oouncil of the 
realm, had promised unto them a sufficient 
and assured absolution, which that appeared 
not to he ; and, therefore, oould they not 
deliver the house, neither thought they tluit 
any reaaonable man would require them ao 
to do, considering that promise was not 
kept unto them." The next day after that 
the galleys arrived, they summoned the 
house, which being denied, because they 
knew them no magistrates in Scotland; 
they prepared for siege. And, first, they 
began to assault by sea, and shot two days ; 
but thereof they neither got advantage nor 
honour ; for they knocked down the slates 
of houses, but neither slew nuin, nor did 
harm to any wall; but the castle handled 
them so, that Sancta Barbara— the gunndr's 
goddess — helped them nothing; for they lost 
many of their rowers, men chained in the 
galleys, and some soldiers both by sea and 
land ; and farther, one galley that approached 
nearer nor the rest, was so struck with can- 
non, and other ordnance, that she was stopped 
[stricken, s, c] under water, and so ahnost 
drowned, and so had been, were not that the 
rest gave her succour in time, and drew her 
first to the west sands, without the shot of 
the castle, and thereafter to Dundee, where 
they remained, till that the governor, who 
was then at the siege of Longhope, came 
unto them, with the rest of the French 
faction. The siege by land was confirmed 
about the castle of St Andrews, the 2Stfa 
day of July. The trenches were cast, ord- 

figure in these troubletome times ; but I do not 
find that ever he retorued to the faith from which 
he had departed.— jKii. 




iflntod upon the abbejr kirk, and 
«pott 8t Mmoi't college^ and yet was the 
•iMple tiMMof barnt* which io annoyed the 
iMtInt tkat oiitiier could they keep their 
blook-hMM^ the eea-tower head, nor the 
west wall; Ibr ia all theee placet men were 
riaio bj gnat ofdnanoe ; yea, they momit- 
ed the oidnHMe eo high npon Uie abbey 
kiric, tbflt tbaj Might diiooTer the groond 
of the «lo« in diTen placet. MoreoTcr, 
within the «Mtlo waa the pett [plagae], and 
difitn thevtn died, which more afrayed 
tet that WW therein, than did the external 
fbree withoat; bat John Knox was of an- 
other jadgment; for he erer said *<That 
their eoRiipl lifooonld noteecape ponith* 
meat of Ood ;** and that waa his oontinual 
advertiaeaMBtt froai the time that he was 
faHsd to pfftaeh When they triumphed of 
their^ietorf the finttwenty daysthey had 
BMay proaperaatdiaaces — ^he lamented, and 
oTer eaid, * They taw not what he law.^ 
Whea they bn^yed of the force and thick- 
neat of thev wallt, he said, " They should 
be bal egg^ahelb." When they Taunted, 
Kng^H wiU retone os, be said, ** Ye shall 
not tee them i bat ye shall be delivered in 
yoar eat iai t t ' haadt^ and thall be carried 
aato a rtiaa|a conntry." 

Upon the ptault of July, at night, was the 
halted for the battery ; fourteen 
whtraof four were cannons royal, 
called doable oanaoiis, besides other pieces. 
The battery began at four hours in the 
oHraiBg, aiidt before ten hours of the day, 
the whale toath quarter, betwixt the fore 
tower aad the east Uock-house, was made 
taltabill [anaikUe]. The bwer trench 
was oeadtBMed, diyert tlain in it, and the 
eaat blaehhtate waa thot off from the rest 
of the plate betwixt ten hours and eleyen. 
Thapt foil a thower of rain, that continued 
near aa hoar, the like whereof had seldom 
boea ttea i it wat to vehement that no man 
might ahUa without a house [sothal] ; the 
camioaa wom left akme. Some within the 
oattle wwt if jadgment, that men should 
have iitned, nd pat all in the hands of God ; 
but because that William Kirkaldy was 
coining with the prior of Capua, who had 
the commistiop of that journey from the 
king of Fiance, nothing was enterprised; and 
so was appointment made, and the castle 

rendered upon Saturday the last of July. 
The heads of the appointment were, ** That 
the liyes of all within the castle should be 
sayed, as well English as Scotish ; that they 
should be safely transported to France ; 
and in esse that, upon conditions that by 
the king of France should be offered unto 
them, they could not be content to remain 
in service and freedom there, they should, 
upon the king of France his expense, be 
safely conveyed to what country they would 
require, other than Scotland." With the 
governor they would have nothing ado, 
neither yet with any Scotsman ; for they 
had all traitorously betrayed them. ** Which,*' 
said the laird of Grange elder — a man 
simple, and of most stout courage — " 1 am 
assured God will revenge, ere it be long.*' 
The galleys, well furnished with the spoil 
of the cartle foresaid, after certain days re- 
turned to France; and escaping a great 
danger — for, upon the back of the sands 
they all chopped — ^they arrived first at 
Fecamp, and thereafter passed up the water 
of Seine, and lay before Rouen ; where the 
principal gentlemen, who looked for free- 
dom, were dispersed, and put in sundry 
prisons ; the rest were left in the galleys, 
and there miserably entreated, amongst 
whom the foresaid Mr James Balfour was, 
with his two brethren, David and Gilbert, 
men without God ; which we write, bo- 
cause we hear that the said Mr James, 
principal misguider now of Scotland, denies 
that he had any thing to do with the castle 
of St Andrews, or yet that ever he was in 
the galleys. Then was the joy of the 
papists, both in Scotland and France, even 
in full perfection, for this was their song of 
triumph : 

Frieita content fou now, priests content yon now ; 
For Noraun and his oonpuiy hars fllled the galleys foo. 

The pope wrote his letters to the king of 
France, and so did he to the governor of 
Scotland, thanking them heartily for taking 
pains to revenge the death of his kind creep 
ture the cardinal of Scotland ; desiring them 
to continue in their begun severity, that 
such things after should not be attempted ; 
and so were all those that were depre- 
hended in the castle, damned to perpetual 
prison : and, so judged the ungodly, that after 
that in Scotland should Christ Jesus never 



[▲.D. t647 

haye triumphed. One thing we cannot 
piss by, from Scotland was sent a famous 
clerk — ]axLgh not reader — Mr John Hamil- 
ton of MUlbum, with credit to the long of 
France, and unto the cardinal of Lorraine, 
and yet had neither French nor Latin, and 
tome say his Scotish tongue was not very 
good. The sum of all his negotiation was, 
that those of the castle should be sharply 
handled ; in which suit he was heard with 
favours, and was despatched from the court 
of France with letters, and great credit, 
which that famous clerk foigot by the way ; 
for he passing up to the craig of Dumbarton, 
before his letters were deliyered, he broke 
his neck ; and so Ood took away a proud 
ignorant enemy. But now to our history. 
These things against promise — but princes 
have no fidelity farther than for their own 
advantage— done at Rouen, the galleys de- 
parted to Nantes, in Brittany, where upon 
the water of Loire they lay the whole 

In Scotland that summer was nothing but 
mirth ; for all went with the priests at their 
own pleasure. The castle of St Andrews 
was rased to the ground, the block-house 
thereof cast down, and the walls round 
about demolished. Whether this was to 
fulfil their law, which commands places 
where cardinals are slain so to be used ; or 
else for fear that England should have taken 
it, as after they did Broughty craig, we re- 
mit it to the judgment of such as were of 

The same year, in the beginning of Sep- 
tember, entered into Scotland an army of 
ten thousand men from England, by land, 
and some ships with ordnance came by 
sea. The governor and the bishop, hereof 
advertised, gathered together the forces of 
Scotland, and assembled at Edinburgh. The 
orotector of England, with the earl of War- 
wick, and their army, remained at Preston, 
and about Prestonpans : for they had cer- 
tiin offers to be proponed unto the nobility 
of Scotland, concerning the promise before 
made by them, unto the which king Henry 
fefore his death gently required them to 
stand fast ; and if they so would do, of him 
nor of his realm they should have no 
trouble, but the help and the comfort that 

he could make them in all things Uwfiil- 
And hereupon was there a letter direol 
onto the governor and oonncil, wfaidi 
coming to the hands of the bishop of 8t 
Andrews, he thought it could not be for bis 
advantage that it should be divulged ; and, 
therefore, by his craft it was suppressed. 

Upon the Friday the seventh of Septem- 
ber, the English army marched towards 
Leith, and the Scotish army marched from 
Edinburgh to Inveresk. The whole Scotish 
army was not assembled, and yet the skir- 
mishing began, for nothing was concluded 
but victory without stroke. The protector, 
the earl of Warwick, the lord Grey, and all 
the English captains, were plajring at dice : 
no men were stouter nor [than] the priests 
and canons, with their shaven crowns and 
black jacks. The earl of Warwick and the 
lord Grey, who had the chief charge of the 
horsemen, perceiving the host to be molest- 
ed with the Scotish preachers, and knowing 
that the multitude were neither under or- 
der nor obedience, — for they were divided 
from the great army, — sent forth certain 
troops of horsemen, and some of their bor- 
derers, either to fight them, or else to put 
them out of their sight, so that they might 
not annoy the host. The skirmish grew 
hot, and at length the Scotsmen gave 
way, and fled without gane-tum [rally- 
ing]. The chase continued far, both to- 
wards the east and towards the west ; in 
the which many were slain, and he that 
now is lord Home was taken, which was 
the occasion that the castle of Home was 
after rendered to the Englishmen. The loss 
of these men neither moved the governor 
nor yet the bishop, his bastard brother ; they 
should revenge the matter well enough upon 
the mom, for they were hands anew ; no 
word of God; the English heretics they 
had no fiices, * they would not abide. 

Upon the Saturday, the armies of both 
sides passed to array. The English army 
takes the middle part of Faside hill, having 
their ordnance planted before them, and 
having their ships and two galleys brought 
as near the land as water would serve. 
The Scotish army stood first in a reasonable 

* Durtt not show their facet. 




and good order, haTiDg betwixt 
iJU&m aad tlbe English army the water of 
Eak» odMnriM called MoflMlbacgh water. 
But at ItDgth a ehai^^ was giyen in the go- 
TerBor*s bdial( with sound of trumpet, that 
all BMD should march forward, and go over 
tho water. Some sajr, that this was pro- 
cniud bj tiie abbot of Dunfermline, and Mr 
Hugh Biggf for preservation of Carberry. 
Man of judgment liked not the journey; 
for they thought it no wisdom to leave 
their strungth. But oommandmeot upon 
oonmandmentfe and charge upon charge was 
givan, which urged them so, that unwil- 
lingly they obeyed. The earl of Angus be- 
ing in the vanguard, had in his company 
the gentlemen of Fife, Angus, Meams, and 
the west land* with many others that of 
love r ea o fted unto him, and especially those 
that were professors of the evangel; for 
they supposed that England would not 
have made great pursuit of him. He passed 
first thnra^ the water, and arrayed his 
host direct before the enemies. Follow- 
ed the earl of Huntly, with his north- 
land men. Last came the duke, having 
in his company the earl of Argyle, witli 
his own friends, and the body of the 
realm. The En^^hmen perceiving the 
danger, and how that the Scotsmen in« 
tended to have taken the top of the hill, 
made haste to prevent the periL The lord 
Grey was commanded to give the charge 
with hia men of arms, which he did, albeit 
the army [hasard, m^. ccpif] was very un- 
likely ; for the earl of Angus's host stood 
even as a wall, and received the first assault- 
ers upon the points of their spears — which 
were longer than those of the Englishmen 
— eo rudely, that fifty horse and men of the 
fint lank lay dead at once, without any 
hurt done to the Sootish army, except that 
the spears of the former two ranks were 
broken; which discomfiture received, the 
rest of the horsemen fled; yea, some pass- 
ed beyend Faade hill. The lord Grey him- 
self was hurt In the mouth, and plainly de- 
nied to ehafge again; for he said, ** It is 
alike to run apamt a wall." The galleys 
and the ships — and so did the ordnance 
planted nponthe middle hill — shot terribly; 
but the ordnance of the galleys shooting 

alongst the Scotish army frayed them gret- 
tumlie [dreadf ally] ; and while that every 
num labours to draw from the north, from 
whence the danger appeared, they begin to 
reel, and with that were the English foot- 
men marching forward, albeit some of their 
horsemen were upon the flight The earl 
of Angus's army stood stiU, looking that 
either the earl of Huntly, or the duke, 
should have rencountered the next battle ; 
but they had decreed, that the fiivourers of 
England, and the heretics — as the priests 
called them — and the Englishmen should 
part it betwixt them for that day. 

The fear rises, and at an instant they 
which before were victors, and were not 
yet assaulted with any force, except with 
ordnance, as said is, cast from them their 
spears and fled ; so that God's power was 
so evidently seen, that in one moment, yea, 
at an instant time, both the armies were 
flying. The shoot came from the hill, from 
those that hoped no victory upon the English 
part; the shout rises* we say, ** They fly, 
they fly ;" but at the first it could not be 
believed, till at the last it was clearly seen, 
that all had given back, and then began the 
cruel slaughter, which wss greater by rea- 
son of the late displeasure of the men of 
arms. The chase and slaughter lasted till 
near Edinburgh upon the one part, and by 
west Dalkeith upon the other. 

The number of slain upon the Scotish 
side, was near ten thousaud men judged. 
The earl of Huntly was taken and carried 
to London ; but he relieved himself, being 
surety for many ransoms, honestly or un- 
honestly we know not, but as the bruit 
was, he used policy with England. In that 
same battle was slain the master of Erskine, 
dearly beloved of the queen, for whom she 
made great lamentation, and bore his death 
many days in mind. When tlie certainty 
of the discomfiture came, she was in Edin- 
burgh, abiding upon tidings ; but with ex- 
pedition she posted that same night to Stir- 
ling, with Monsieur d'Oysel, who was as 
fleyed [frightened] as " a fox when his hole 
is smoked." And thus did God take the 
second revenge upon the peijured govemor, 
with such as assisted him to defend an un- 
just quarrel ; albeit many innocents fell 




fk. D. ItM 

■BMW the uidit of th* wicked. Tbe Eng- 
iNh tnaj Mou to Leitli, anA then taking 
order with tliav priioaen and ipoU, dMj 
ntan*A with tfaii vietoiy, which thaj look- 
ed imI for, to Bnf land. That winter foUow^ 
iMg were great benhips wade apon all tke 
beiden of Scotland, Bronghtf craig waa ta- 
ken by the EDglishmoa, bedded by the go- 
rernor, but itill kept ; end at it waa ahia 
Oatia, Uie beet of the Hamilton!, and the 
(vdnanoe hit. Wberenpon the Eogliihmen 
eDcooraged, began to fortify npon the hill 
abore Brougfaty houaa, which wa* called 
the fort of iirooghty, and wai rery noii 
to Doudee, which it hnrot and laid wi 
and eo did it the moat part of Angua that 
waa not aMured, and onder friendthip with 

That lantran [lent] foUowing h-m Had- 
dingtOD fortified by the Engtiihrnen ; 
noet part of I.othiaii, from Edinburgh ea«l^ 
waa either aaaured or laid waate, 1 
did Ood plague io every qoarter ; but 
were blind, and would not, nor could 

the c 

The L 
■e baniihed, and alter for- 
Wted, and lo were all those of the cattle 
of St Audrewi. The aure knowledge of 
the trouble* of Scotland coming to France, 
there ware prepared a oary and araj. The 
naTy waa ancb as never \n» teen to come 
irom France fi>r the aupport of Scotland ; 
for betidet the galleyi, being theu twenty- 
two in nnmbo', they bad threeaoore great 
itiipt, beeidei Tictuallen. How toon aoever 
they took the plain aeat, the red lion of 
Sootland wa* di^layed, and they holden aa 
rsbeli unto France, — inch policy U no falae- 
hood ID prince*, — for good peace itood be- 
twixt Franoe and England— and the king 
•f Franec approred nothing that they did. 
The chwf men to whom the oondncting of 
that amy wat committed, were Mootieur 
Jlandelota, Honueur de TenH*,and fHerre 
deStroia. In their journey they made some 
havhipt npon the coait of England, but it 
wu not great They aniTed in Scotland 
inldayannolAM.' The galley* did 
the fort of Brougbty, but did no more at 
tine. Preparationa were made for the B*ge 

of Haddington, but it wa* another tUng 
that they meant, a* the iMoe decland. 
The whole body of Uie realm awtinlileil, 
Ae form of a pariiament waa aet to be 
heldon there, fo wit, in the abbey of Had- 
diagton. The principBl head waa the maf^ 
riage of the prinoeai — by them before con- 
tncted to king Edw d t o the king of 
France, and of her pretent delirery, by rea- 
•on of the danger that the ttood into, by 
the innuion of our old enemiet of England. 
Some were corrupted with bndi [bribee], 
Bome deceired by flattering promiam, and 
■ome for fear were compelled to oonaeot ; 
fur the French eoldien were the officer* of 
in that parliament The laird of Buo- 
cleugh, a bloody nun, with many God'* 
inda, Hwore, " They t<i*t would not con- 
*ent ehould do war [worse.]" The governor 
got the dukedom of Chatelheiault, with the 
order of the Cockle, with a full diicharge of 
liimme with king James the Fifth, 
hii treaanre and tubetance whataoever, with 
1 of the caitle of Dumbarton, tSSl 
) tboold be seen of the queen's 
body. Vfith those and otber oonditiont 
stood be oonleot to sell his ooTcrn^ forth 
of his own hand*, which in the end will be 
hia daatmctjon ; Ood thereliy puaiahing bit 
iokednesa, if speedy repentance 
prevent not God'i judgments, which we 
heartily with. Huntly, Ar^le, and An^i, 
likewise made knights of the Cockle ; 
and fur that and other good de^da received, 
they told alio their pari. Shortly, none 
was found to resist that unjust demand. 
And ao was she sold to go to France, to the 
end that io her youth tbc should drink of 
that liquor that should remain «-ith her dl 
her lifetime, for a plague to this realin, and 
for her final destruction. And thervfure, 
albeit that now a fini comes out from her 
that consumes many, let n 
she is Ood's hand, in his displea 

ihiug our fbnner ingratitude. Let n 
patiently abide, and turn unio their C 
and then shall he rither do^lroy t) 

her whoredom, or eU« he shall pi 
the hearts of a mnhitode to take tl 
vengeance upon her that has b< 
Jesebel and Atbalia, yea, and t. 
whom probM UMofiM niik^' 



nj woman ibui is in lier, wlmreof 
B but seen only the budi, but we 
r taaU of the ripe fruit of her im- 
God cut not her days abort ■ But 
I to our historj. 

MDcluiiod takea, that onr qaeeo, 
boatj farther delay, should be deli- 
I FrsDce, the sief^e contiouei : great 
•, but no Buaulting;, and jet tbey 
' occation offered unto them ; for 
liibmen approaching to tbe town, 
tramfortiog of tbe besieged, vitb 
victuals, and men, Imt an army of 
isand men. Sir Ilobert Boives wtM 
tnd the most part of the borderers 
tfaer taken or sUin. And so might 
B justly hare despaired of any Gu- 
iccours to hare been looked for: 

but yet it held good, fur tbe ntout oounma 
and pnulent government of Sir James Wil- 
genenl ; who m encoun)^ the whole 
captains and toldian, that tbey detenunad 
to die upon the walls. But, from tho time 
that the Frenchmen had got the bone for 
tbe whinh tbe dog barlted, tbe purmtit ef 
tbe town was slow. The siege wu nbed, 
and she wu convoyed by the west mw to 
France, with foar galleys and some ships. 
Aod 10 tbe cardinal of Lorraiae get her in 
bis keeping i a morsel, 1 aseore you, meet 
for bis own moutb. 

D omit many things that occnrred in 
Ihii time, as the sitting down of the tbip 
called tbe Cardinal, the fuireat ihip in 
France, betwixt St Cotme's Inch utd Cr^ 
mond, without any occasion, except negli- 
gence, for the day was fair, and the weather 

I menlionril In the mlriolurllon, tbii 
Is omittfcl by Uavlil Unib-nui, Rnd b<F 
lu pUer by •oate reflKiioiH "f hi" own 
olTMiiivc Ki; 1r. I daulit it' ii he Uvrful, 

e ; tiut Knni, and all llie rerurniiuE n 
cUiocd iheprliilrgEDraddronlNg; tK 
■a thr ln«pircd nmpbela did ihe wick 
' lir«l Biid Jiiiliili ; unJ u th>^y d]rl 
anl haiird of thrir liim, we cannot doubt 
ncfrily, however much Ihry w 
1 Ihe priTiKiple. H wm not long i 
cd the ilcliTrrani-e for which h> 
rnprrsKd blx deiire. In the n 
hIod lUpprened ropy, oppnslW 1 
■ant-raph, wr "-— •'- ■' " ■ 

rude or ruilli: itn.nnfr," ai uime of lib rr4«nib 
biTa called him. ■• O whit n mvuft b« nait 
hiTB been, thus to nuilt oTcr tha nilii of a baa- 

rortnnaUly for hrneir tnd the couriirv, ibii 
woman wh a queen ; who bad rulaad bmeMla 
(he eiieem of all Iba TJriuoua pari ofifctUw- 
rtom ; who, in apile of the reinonKraniM aftr 
belt friendi, married a married nan Ihe av- 
ilcrer i\( ht^r hutbaiiil, affoniinii • unim an. 
>iiiii)>lian at leiiit, Ihut the had been *«ewr H 
Ih<-»lme: who was driTinR mouurea Im^ 
m Ihe ruin of tlie i^ammonwalllh ; aa4 m^l 

tltrM that [h« aulbnr of Ihrlr mlierf w» ^^ 
ful. Knox had eatimUM thtWar^Mi. 

olc: roenl5 I ncu I rated by rardinal VmlKj. m IK 
Hm« relanofHenry Vin.,,henfc,J72,d,i_ 
bait ur Lanfloo, " It wen be«v tte m^ tf ^ 




calm ; but, God would show, that t 
try of Scotland can bear no cardie 
this time also was there a combat 
the galleys and the English ships. T*. 
frankly awhile. An English ship t€ 
or else the galleys had come short 
and, as it was, they fled without mi 
that thev were above St Colme's Inc 
captains left the galleys, and took a foi 
upon the Inch for their defence ; I . 
English ships made no pursuit, exce 
they burnt the Cardinal where that s 
and so the galleys and the galley n 
both escape. 

Order was taken that, next Sept 
some galleys should remain in Scotlai 
that the rest should return to Frai 
that they did all, except one, that v 
ken by an English ship — by an E 
ship only, we say — as that they were 
iug betwixt Dover and Calais. 

That winter remained Monsieu 
Termes in Scotland, with th^ ban 
Frenchmen : they fortified Inveresk, t( 
that the Englishmen should not ii 
Edinburgh and Leith. Some skirm 
there were betwixt the one and the o 
but no notable tiling done, except tha 
Frenchmen had almost taken Hadding 
the occasion whereof was this. 

The Frenchmen thinking themselves 
more than masters in all parts of Scotland, 
and in Edinburgh principally, thought they 
could do no wrong to a Scotsman ; for a 
certain Frenchman delivered a culverin to 
George Tod, Scotsman, to be stocked, who 
bringing it through the street, another 
Frenchman claimed it, and would have reft 
it from the said George, but he resisted, al- 
leging, that the Frenchman did wrong ; and 
so began parties to assemble, as well to the 
Scotsman as to the French ; so that two of 
the Frenchmen were struck down, and the 
rest chased, from the Cross to the Niddry 
Wynd head. The provost being upon the 
street, apprehended two of the Frenchmen, 
and was carrying them to the tolbooth ; 
but from Monsieur d' Essies' lodging and 
close issued forth Frenchmen, to the num- 
ber of threescore persons, with drawn 
swords, and resisted the said provost. But 
yet the town assembling repulsed them, till 

w «>^v«, J^A X»I^m\ 

justice should be executed upon them to 
the rigour." These fair words pleased our 
fools, and so were the French bands the 
next night directed to Haddington, to the 
which they approached a little after mid- 
night, so secretly, that they were never 
espied, till that the former were within 
the bass court, and the whole company io 
the church-yard, not two pair of butt's 
[ridges, or bowshots] length distant from 
the town. The English soldiers were all 
asleep, except the watch, which was slender, 
and yet the shout rises, *' Bows and bills ! 
BoH-s and bills!" which is a signification 
of extreme defence, to avoid the present 
danger, in all towns of war. The afraid 
arise, weapons that first came to hand 
serve for the need. One amongst many 
came to the east port, where lay two great 
pieces of ordnance, and where the enemies 
were known to be, and cries to his fellows 
that were at the gate making defence. 




*B0wir» before ;*' and so fires a great piece, 
ani theraafter another, which Ood so con- 
dwtodl, tiial after them was no farther por- 
smt Bada; for the bullets rebounded from 
tlia wall cf the FHar Jdrk, to the wall of St 
GatfMima*t ehqpd, which stood direct fbr- 
neot it, and from the wall of the said cha- 
pel to the waH of the said kirk again, so 
oft that there fell more than one hundred 
of the F^nsBchmen at these two shots only. 
They shot often, but the Frenchmen retired 
with diKgenee, and returned to Edinbui|rh, 
witbout harm done, except the destruction 
of some drinking beer, which lay in the 
Slid chapel and kirk ; and this was satisfoo- 
tion more than enough for the slaughter of 
the said captain and prorost, and for the 
daughter of such as were slain with him. 
This was the beginning of the French 

This winter, in the time of Christmas, 
was the castle of Home recorered from the 
Englishmen, by the negligence of the 
captain, named Dudley. This winter also 
did the laird of Raith most innocently 
suffer, and after was forfeited, because that 
he wrote a bill to his son, John Melvin, 
who then was in England, which was al- 
leged to hare been found in the house of 
Ormiston ; but many suspected the panks 
[artifice] and craft' of Ninian Cockbum, 
now called captain Riogan, to whom 
the said letter was delivered; but how- 
soever it was, these cruel beasts, the 
bishop of St Andrews and abbot of Dun- 
fermline, ceased not, till that the head 
of the said nobleman was stricken from 
him ; especially because that he was known 
to be one that unfeignedly fovoured the 
truth of God's word, and was a great friend 
to those that were in the castle of St An- 
drews ; of whose deliverance, and of God's 
wondrous working with them during the 
time of their bondage, we must now speak, 
lest ihat in suppressing so notable a work 
of God, we mght justly be accused of in- 

And, first, the principals being put in 
sundry houses, as before we have said, great 
labours were made to nudce them have a 
good opinion of the mass, but chiefly travail 
was taken upon Norman Leslie, the biirdof 
Grange, and the Udrd of Pitmilly, who were 
In the castle of Sherburgh, that they 
would come to the mass with the captain 
who answered, " That the captain had com- 
mandment to keep their bodies, but he had 
no power to conmumd their consciences." 
The captain replied, ** That he had power 
to command and to compel them to go 
where he went" They answered, ** That 
to go to any lawful place with him, they 
would not refose; but to do any thing, 
which was against their conscience, they 
would not, neither for him, nor yet for the 
king." The captain said, " Will ye not go 
to the mass ?" They answered, '* No ; and 
if ye would compel us, yet will we displease 
you farther ; for we shall so use ourselves 
there, that all those that are present shall 
know that we despise it" These same 
answers, and somewhat sharper, William 
Rirkaldy, Peter Carmichael, and such as 
were with them in Mont St Michael, gave 
to their captain ; for they said, ** They 
would not only hear mass every day, but 
they would help to say it, providing that 
they might stick the priests, or else they 
would not." Mr Henry Balnaves, who 
was in the castle of Rouen, was most* 
sharply assaulted of all; for because he 
was judged learned — as he was, and is, in- 
deed, — ^therefore, learned men were ap' 
pointed to travail with him, with whom 
he had many conflicts ; hut God ever so 
assisted him, that they departed confound- 
ed, and he, by the power of God's spirit, re- 
mained constant in the truth and profession 
' of the same, without any wavering or de- 
clining to idolatry. In the prison he wrote 
a most profitable treatise of justification, 
and of the works and conversation of a 
justified man ; but how it was suppressed 
we know not* These that were in the 

• On thia flobjeet OrM'CriefamisbM the fol- 
lowiiig Joformaclen. •• Henry Balnarei of Hal- 
bill, eompoMd in priaon a Treatise on JiiaUflca- 
tioffi, and the works and eoDTenation of a Justified 
man. Ihis being cvuveyed to Knox, probably 

after his second return in the galleys from Soot- 
land to France, he was so maoh pleased with it, 
that be divided it into chapters, added some 
marginal notes, and a concise epitome of its con- 
tents : to the wh<rfe be preHxed a recommenda- 



[a. d. 1548 

gaUeyi were threstened with tonnents, if 
t^ey would iiot give reTerence to the mass; 
for at certain times the mass was said in 
the galleys, or else heard apon the shore 
io presence of the forsaris [the exiles], but 
they could never make the poorest of that 
company to give reverence to that idol; 
yea, when upon the Saturday they sang 
their stUve regincL, the whole Scotsmen put 
on their caps, their hoods, or such things as 
they had to cover their heads; and when 
that others were compelled to kiss a paint- 
ed board, which they called ndire dame 
[our kdy], they were not pressed after 
once ; for this was the chanoe. Soon after 
their arrival at Nantes, their great saloe 
was sung, and a glorious painted lady was 
brought in to be kissed, and, amongst others, 
was presented to one of the Scotsmen then 
chained.* He gently said, ** Trouble me 
not; such an idol is accursed; and, there- 
fore, I will not touch it" The patron, and 
the argousin [lieutenant], with two officers, 
having the chief charge of all such matters^ 
said, ** Thou shalt handle it'* And so they 
violently thrust it to his face, and put it 
betwixt his hands, who seeing the extre- 
mity, took the idol, and advisedly looking 
about, he cast it in the river, and said, " Let 
our lady now save herself; she is light 
enough, let her learn to swim." After that 
was no Scotsman urged with that idolatry. 
. These are things that appear to be of no 
great importance, and yet if we do rightly 
consider, they express the same obedience 
that God required of his people Israel, when 
that they should be carried to Babylon ; for 
he gave charge unto them, that when they 
should see the Babylonians worship their 
gods of gold, silver, metal, and wood, that 
they should say, '* The gods that have not 

tory dedicatian, intending tbnt it should be pab- 
li«bed for the um of their brethren in Scotland, 
aa soon as an opportunity offered." He adds in 
a note : " The manuscript, there is reason to 
think, was conTeyed to Scotland about this time, 
but it fell aside, and ivas long considered as lost. 
After Knox's death, it was discovered by his 
servant, Richard Bannatyne, in the house of Or- 
miston, and was printed anno 1584, by Thomas 
Voultrollier, fn I2mo, with the title of Confea- 
sion of Faith, &c by Henry Balnaves of Hal- 
bill, one of the Lords of Coanoll and Session in 
Scotland. David BachanaB, ia Ma cdHien ef 

made the heavens and earth shall perbh 
from the heaveo, and out of the eardi.*' 
That eottfcsaion gav* that whole niunb«r, 
during the time of their bondage: in tlM 
which, would God they had continued in 
their freedom ; for then had not Mr Jamas 
BaUbnr been ofl&cial, neidier yet borne a cap, 
for pleasure of the bishop. But, to preceed, 
the said Mr James and John Knox beinff 
into one gallej, and being wondrous finni- 
liar Mrith him, would oft times aak his judg- 
ment, <* If hethoi^ht that ever they shoidd 
be delivered?*' whoae answer was ever, 
from the day that they entered into the 
gaUeys, <* That God wmdd deliver them 
firom that bondage, to his glory, even in this 
life.*' And lying betwixt Dundee and 8t 
Andrews, the second time that the galleys 
arrived to Scotland, the said John Knox 
being so extremely sick, that few hoped 
his life ; the said master James willed him, 
to look to the land, and asked him, if he 
knew it ? Who answered, •* Yes, I know 
it well ; for I see the steeple of that phtce, 
where God first opened my mouth in public 
to his glory, and i am fully persuaded, how 
weak that ever I now iqipear, that I shall 
not depart this life, till that my tongue shall 
glorify his godly name in the same place." 
This reported the said Mr James, in pre* 
sence of many famous witnesses, many 
years before tiiat ever the said John set 
I his foot in Scotland, this last time, to 

William Kirkaldy, then of Grange, 
younger, Peter Carmichael, Robert and 
William Leslie, who were altogether in 
Mont St Michael, wrote to the said John, 
asking his counsel, " If they might ^Hth safe 
conscience break their prison ?" whose an- 
swer was, '* That if without the blood of 

Knox's History, anno 1644, among his other al- 
terations and interpolations, makes Knox to say 
that this work was published at the time he 
wrote the history; which may be numbered 
among the anachronisms of that edition » which, 
for some time, discredited the authenticity of the 
history, and led many to deny that Knox was 
its author. But in the genuine edition Knox 
expresses the very reverse. See as above In the 
text.— £c^. 

* lliis is generally believed to have been Koox 




uj alMd, or tpilt by Umb for their delmr* 
■Hi, ihmj might set th^muArm at freedom, 
thiA «biy might mfely take it ; but to shed 
My mnTalilood for their freedom, thereto 
ho WMliiwvercoiiaeDt." Adding farther, 
** Thafthe WBI amnred that God would de- 
liTer ttam aai the rest of that company, 
•fcn in (he qrm of the world, but not by 
godi amtiie M wo had looked for, that was 
by dia Ibroa of friends, or by their other 
lalMmra.** By such means he affirmed they 
ahoald not be deliTered, but that Ood woold 
wm^ so in the deliveraoce of them, that 
the praise thereof should redound to his 
gkiry only ;. he willed, therefore, that every 
one to tsiko the oocation that God hss offer- 
ad milo them, proTiding that they did no- 
tlnnf against God's ezprem commandment 
lor the deliTcranoe of themselres. He was 
the more earnest in giving his counsel, bo- 
oanse that the old laird of Grange, and 
othors, repugned to their purpose, fearing 
lest that the escaping of the others should 
bo an occesion of their worse entreatment ; 
whoronnto the said John answered, " That 
■och lear proceeded not horn God's spirit, 
bat from a blind lore of the self; and, 
therefore, that no good purpose was to be 
stayed for things that were in the hands and 
power of God." And added, << That in one 
instant God had delivered all that company 
into the hands of unfaithful men, but so 
would he not relieve them, but some would 
he deliver by one means, and at one time, 
and others must abide for a season upon his 
food pleasure/' This counsel in the end 
was cmbrsoed upon the king's even, when 
Franahmaa oommonly used to drink libe- 
rally. The fbremid four persons having 
the help and oondncting of a boy of the 
house, bond all those that were in the cas- 
tle, put them in sundry houses, locked the 
doors npon thom, took the keys from the 
caplBia^and departed without harm done to 
the person of any, or without touching of 
any thing that appertained to the king, the 
captain, or the Imnmo. 

Great scardi wiamade through the whole 
country for them; but it was God's good 
pleasure so to conduct them, that they es- 
caped the hands of the faithless, albeit it 
was with long travel, and great pain, and 

poverty sustained ; for the French boy left 
them, and took with [him] the small pose 
[privy purse, or aocret hoard] that they had ; 
and so neither having money, nor the 
knowledge of the oonntry, and Author fear- 
ing lest the boy should describe them, as 
that in very deed he did, they took purpose 
to divide themselves, to chango their gar- 
ments, and to go in sundry parts ; the two 
brethren, Kobert and William Leslie — who 
now are become, the said Robert especiaUy, 
enemies to Jesus Christ and to all virtue — 
came to Rouen. William Kirkaldy and 
Peter CSarmichael, in beggiars* garments, came 
to Conquet, and by the space of twelve or 
thirteen weeks they travelled as poor ma- 
riners from port to port, till at length they 
got a French ship, and landed in the west, 
and from thence came to England, where 
they met before them the said John Knox, 
who that same winter was delirered, and 
Alexander Clerk in his company. 

The said John was first appointed preach- 
er to Berwick, then to Newcastle, last he 
was called to London, and to the south 
parts of England, where he remained to the 
death of king Edward the Sixth. When 
he left Enghmd, then passed he to Geneva, 
and there remained at his privy study, till 
that he was called by the English congre- 
gation that then were assembled at Frank- 
fort, to be preacher to them ; which voca^ 
tion he obeyed, albeit unwillingly, at the 
commandment of that notable servant of 
God, John Calvin. At Frankfort he re- 
mained, till that some of the learned, whose 
names we suppress, more given to unprofit- 
able ceremonies than to sincerity of reli- 
gion, began to quarrel with the said John ; 
and because they despaired to prevail before 
the magistrate there, for the establishing of 
their corruptions, they accused him of trea^ 
son committed against the emperor, and 
against their sovereign queen Mary, that in 
his admonition to England, he called the 
one little inferior to Nero, and the other 
more cruel than JesabeL The magistrata 
perceiving their malice, and fearing that 
the said John should fall in the hands of 
his accusators, by one mean or other (rave 
advertisement secretly to him to depart 
their city ; for they ooold not save him if 



Ta. d. 16fi0 

he were required by the emperor, or hj the 
qaeen of Eng^land in the emperor's name ; 
and 80 the said John returned to Geneva, 
from thence to Dieppe, and thereafter to 
Scotland, as we shall after hear. 

The time, and [also] that winter, that the 
gallejTS remained in Scotland, were deliver- 
ed Mr James Balfour, his two brethren 
DaTid and Gilbert, John Auchinleck, John 
Sibbald, John Gray, William Guthrie, and 
Stephen Bell. The gentlemen that remain- 
ed in prisons were, by the procurement of 
the queen dowager to the cardinal of Lor- 
raine and to the king of France, set at liberty 
in the month of July, anno 1550, who short- 
ly thereafter were called home to Scotland, 
their peace proclaimed, and they themselves 
restored to their lands, in despite of their 
enemies ; and that was done in hatred of 
the duke, because that then France had be- 
gun to thirst to have the regimen of Scot- 
land in their own hands. Howsoever it 
was, God made the hearts of their enemies 
to set them at liberty and freedom. There 
rested [remained] a number of common ser- 
vants yet in the galleys, who were all de- 
livered upon the contract of peace that was 
made betwixt France and England, after the 
taking of Boulogne ; and so was the whole 
company set at liberty, none perishing, no 
not before the world, except James Mel- 
vin, who departed from the misery of this 
life in the castle of Brest in Brittany. This 
we write to let the posterity to come un- 
derstand how potently God wrought, in 
preserving and delivering of those that had 
but a small knowledge of his truth, and for 
the love of the same hazarded all ; that if 
either we now in our days, haying greater 
light, or our posterity that shall follow us, 
shall see a fearful dispersion of such as op- 
pone themselves to impiety, or take upon 
them to punish the same otherwise than 
laws of men will permit : if we, I say, or 
they, shall see such left of men, yea, as it 
were, despised and punished of God, yet 
let us not condemn the persons that punish 
▼ice, and that for just cause ; nor yet de- 

spair but that the same God that dejects for 
causes unknown to us, will raise up agaiQ 
the persons dejected, to his glory and their 
conufort. And to let the worid understand 
in plain terms what we mean, that great 
abuser of this commonwealth, that poltroon 
and Yile knave Davie [David Rizzio], was 
justly punished the ninth of March in the 
year of God 1565, for abusing of the oom>- 
monwealth, and for his other viUany* 
which we list not to express, by the coun- 
sel and hands of James Douglas earl of 
Morton, Patrick lord Lindsay, and the lord 
Ruthven, with other assisters in their com- 
pany, who all, for their just met, and most 
worthy of all praise, are now on worthily left 
of their brethren, and soifer the bitterness 
of banishment and exile. But this is our 
hope in the mercies of our God, that this 
same blind generation, whether it will or 
not, shall be compelled to see that he will 
have respect to them that are unjustly pur- 
sued ; that he will pardon their former of- 
fences ; that he will restore them to the li- 
berty of their country and commonwealth 
again, and that he will punish, in despite of 
men, the head and the tail that now trouble 
the just, and maintain impieties. The head 
is known ; the tail has two branches : the 
temporal lords that maintain her abomina- 
tions, and her flattering counsellors, blas- 
phemous Balfour, now called clerk of re- 
gister, Sinclair dean of Restalrig and bisliop 
of Brechin, blind of one eye in the body, 
but of both in the soul, upon whom God 
after shortly took vengeance, [John] Les- 
lie, priest's get [bastard] abbot of Lin- 
dores and bishop of Ross, Simon Preston 
of Craigmillar, a right epicurean, whose end 
will be, ere it be long, according to their 
works. But now to return to our his- 

Haddington being kept, and much her- 
ship done about in the country — for what 
the Englishmen destroyed not, that was 
consumed by the Frenchmen — CU>d begins 
to fight for Scotland ; for in the town he 
sent a pest so contagious, that with great 

In the supprened copy this word is ren- It evidently the work of the printer, wbe mis- 

drred WiUiams and in the margin we have, 
•< The tUof bter of that Wmiam Davie." This 

took the word vUlahie for WiUiam.— JEtf. 




fiftcnhy oould they have their dead buried. 
IWjr were oft refreshed with new men, but 
all was in Tain. Hongfer and pett within, 
Aa fonuit of the enemy, with a camp 
hj about them, and intercepted all 
aioept when they were brought 
by m oonray finom Berwick, so constrained 
them tliat die council of England was com- 
peUad in spring time to call their forces 
fiwns that place ; and so spoiling and bum- 
i^ aoBW part of the town, they left it to be 
oecnpiad to inch as first should take pos- 
MMiOtty and those were the Frenchmen, 
widi a mean number of the ancient inhabi- 
tants : and so did Ood perform the words 
and threatening of Mr George Wisbart, 
who said, * That for their contempt of 
Ood's messenger, they should be yisited with 
sword and fire, with pestilence, strangers, 
and famine ; which all tbey found in such 
perfection, that to this day yet, tbat town 
has neither recorered the former beauty, 
nor yet men of such wisdom and ability, as 
then did inhabit it 

Hereafter was peace contracted betwixt 
Frnnoe, England, and Scotland ; yea, a seve- 
ral [separate] peace was contracted betwixt 
Seodand and Flanders^ together with all the 
eaaterlings, so that Scotland bad peace with 
the world. But yet would their bishops make 
war against God : for how soon that ever 
they got any quietness, they apprehended 
Adam Wallace— o/uzs Fean — a simple man, 
without any great learning, but one that 
was lealous in godliness, and of an upright 
tife. He, with his wife Beatrix Livingston, 
frecpiented the company of the lady Ormi- 
ston, for instruction of her children, during 
the tnmble of her husband, who then was 
banisbed. This bastard, called bishop of 
St Andrews, took the said Adam forth of 
the plaoe of Winton, men supposed that 
they thooght to have apprehended the laird, 
and carried him to Edinburgh ; where after 
certain days he was presented to judgment 
in the kbk of the BUck thieves, alitu 
Friars, before the duke, the earl of Huntly, 
and divers othen besides. The bishops and 
their rabble they began to accuse him — Mr 
John Lauder wis accusator— ** That he 
took upon him to preach." He answered, 
** Tbat he never judged himself worthy of 

so excellent a vocation, and, therefore, he 
never took upon him to preach; but he 
would not deny, but sometimes at the 
table, and sometimes in some other private 
places, he would read and had retA the 
scriptures, and had given such exhortation 
as God bad pleased to give him, to such as 
pleased to hear him.'* ** Knave," said one, 
'* what have ye to do to meddle with the 
scriptures ?" *" I think,'* said he, <* it is the 
duty of every christian, to seek the will of 
his God, and the assurance of his salvation 
where it is to be found, and tbat is within 
his Old and New Testament.*' « What 
then,*' said another, ** shall we leave to the 
bishops and kirkmen to do, if every man 
shall be a babbler upon the Bible ?*' " It 
bindeth [becometh, «. c] you," said he, ** to 
speak more reverently of God, and of his 
blessed word : if the judge were incorrupt, 
he would punish you for your blasphemy. 
But to your question, I answer, that albeit 
that ye and I, and other five thousand 
within this realm, should read the Biblcj 
and speak of it what Grod should give us to 
speak, yet left we more to the bishops to 
do nor either they will or yet can well 
do; for we leave to them publicly to 
preach the evangel of Jesus Christ, and to 
feed the flock which he hath redeemed by 
his own blood, and has commanded the 
same to the care of all true pastors : and 
when we leave this unto them, methinks, 
we leave to them a heavy burden; and 
that we do unto them no wrong, although 
wc search our own salvation where it is 
to be found, considering that they are but 
dumb dogs, and unsavoury salt that has al- 
together lost the season [savour].** The 
bishops hcreat offended, said,*' What prating 
is this ? let his accusation be read." And 
then was begun, ** False traitor, heretic; 
thou baptizedst thy own bairn ; thou saidst, 
there is no purgatory ; thou saidst, that to 
pray to saints, and for the dead is idola- 
try, and a vain superstition, &c. What 
sayest thou to these things?" He an- 
swered, " If I should be bound to answer, I 
would require an upright and indifferent 
judge." The earl of Iluntly disdainfully 
said, '* Foolish man, wilt thou desire any 
other judge nor my lord duke's grace, great 



\a. m, I6iO 

g^renunr of SooUandi and my lords the 
Usbopt, the clergy here present" Where- 
to he answered, ** The bishops can be no 
judges to me, for they are open enemies to 
me, and to the doctrine that I profess } and 
as for my lord dnke, I cannot tell if he has 
the knowledge that should be in him that 
should judge and decern betwixt lies and 
the truih, the invention of men and the true 
worshipping of God. I desire God's word 
—and with that he produced the fiible — ^to 
be judge betwixt the bishops and me, and 
I am content that ye all hear : and if by 
this book I shall be conyicted to have 
taught, spoken, or done, in matters of reli- 
gion, any thing that repugns to God's will, 
I refuse not to die; but if I cannot be 
convicted — as I am assured by God's word 
I shall not — then I, in God's name, desire 
your assistance, tliat malicious men execute 
not upon me unjust tyranny." The earl of 
Huntly said, ** What a baivling fool is this ? 
Thou shalt get none other judges than those 
that sit here." Whereunto the said Adam 
answered, " The good will of God be done : 
but be ye assured, my lord, with such mea- 
sure as ye mete to others, with the same 
measure it shall be measured to you again. 
I know that 1 shall die, but be ye assured, 
that my blood shall be required of your 

Alexander, earl of Glencaini, yet alive, 
said to the bishop of Orkney, and others 
that sat near him, *^ Take you yon, my lords 
of the clergy, for here 1 protest, for my 
part, that I consent not to his death :" and 
80^ without fear, prepared the said Adam to 
answer. And first to the baptizing of his 
own child, he said, " It was and is as 
lawful for me, for lack of a true minister, 
to baptize my own child, as that it was to 
Abraham to drcumcise his son Ismael and 
his family ; and as for purgatory, praying 
to saints, and for the dead, I have oh read," 
said he, ** both the Old and New Testa- 
ment, but I neither could find mention, nor 
assurance of them ; and, therefore, I believe 
they are but mere inventions of men, de- 
vised for covetousness' sake." ** WeU, 
said the bishop, " ye hear this, my lords. 
<* What sayest thou of the mass ?" asks the 
•arl of Huntly. He answered, * I say— 



my lord— as my Blaster Jesus Christ nf, 
* That which is in greatest estimation bofora 
men, is abomination before Ood.' '* Then 
all cried out, ** Heresy, heresy f* and so was 
tlie simple servant of Ood adjudged to the 
fire, which he patiently sustained that same 
day at afternoon upon the castle-hilL And 
so began they again to pollute the land which 
God had lately plagued, for yet tiieir 
iniquity was not oome to so full ripeness, 
as that God would that they should be mani- 
fested to this whole realm, as this day they 
are, to be fiiggots prepared for the efcrlast- 
ing fire, and to be men whom neitker plagues 
may correct, nor the light of God's word 
convert from their darkness and impiety. 

The peace, as said is, oontraefesd, the 
queen dowager passed by sea to France, with 
galleys, that for that purpose were prepared, 
and took with her dUvers of the nobility of 
Scotland, to wit, the earls Huntly, Glen* 
cairn, Marshall, Cassillis, the lords Maxwell* 
Fleming, Sir George Douglas^ together 
with all the king's sons, and divers barons, 
and gentlemen- of ecdesiastioal estate^ the 
bishop of Galloway, and many others, with 
promise that they should be richly re- 
warded for their good service. What they 
received we cannot tell, but few made rus 
[boast] at their returning. The dowager 
had to practise somewhat with her brethren, 
the duke of Guise, and the cardinal of Lor- 
raine, the weight whereof the governor 
afterward felt: for shortly after her return- 
ing, was the governor deposed of the go- 
vernment, justly by God, but most unjustly 
by men, and she made regent in the year 
of God 1554 ; and a crown put upon her 
head, as seemly a sight, if men had eyes, aa 
to put a saddle upon the back of an unruly 
cow; and so began she to practise practices 
upon practices how France might be ad- 
vanced, her friends made rich, and she 
brought to immortal glory : for that was her 
common talk, " So that I may procure the 
wealth and honour of my friends, and a 
good fame unto myself, I regard not what 
God do after with me." And in very deed, 
in deep dissimulation, to bring her own 
purpose to effect, she passed the common 
sort of women, ss we will after hear; but 
yet God to whoso evangel she declared her- 




y, in Um «nd frnstnted her of all 

TkM iid ligbt and darkoev strire with- 
in dw raalm of 8ooUand; tha darimeaa 
•var baian tiia world aappraMing the %hty 
franlbaiMali of that notable aerfant of 
God. MrPiteiek Hamilton, ontil the death 
of Edward tte Sixth, that moat godly and 
Tirtnona kiag, that had been known to 
hnvo nigmtd in England, or elsewhere, 
thaae aianjr yeara bypaat, who depart- 
ed the miaeriea of this life, the sizUi of 
Jnlj,anno 1663. The death of the prince 
waa lamented of all the godlj within 
Enrope, for the graoee g^ren unto him of 
God, aa well of nature, as of erudition and 
godlineas, paasing the measure that accus- 
toanbij need to be gtYmt to other princes 
in their greateat perfection, and jet ex- 
ceeded he not sixteen years of age. What 
gravity aboTe age, what wisdom passing all 
nndcratanding or expectation of men, and 
what dexterity in answering, in all things 
proponed, were into that excellent prince, 
the ■mbasiadori of all countries, yea, some 
that were mortal enemies unto him, and to 
hia realm, amongst whom the queen dowa- 
ger of Scotland was not the least, could and 
did testify ; for the said queen dowager, re- 
turning from France, through England, 
oommnned with him at length, and gave 
racord when she came to this realm, " That 
she found more wisdom and solid judgment 
in young king Edward, than she would 
hare looked for in any three princes that 
were then in Europe." His liberality to- 
wards the godly and learned, that were in 
other realms persecuted, was such, as 
Ckrmaa% Frenchmen, Italians, Scots, 
Spaniards, Poles, Orecians, and Hebrews 
bom, can yet giro aufficient document ; for 
how honoorably were Martin Luther, Peter 
Martyr, John Alaaco, Emmanuel Gual- 
terus, and numy others, upon his public 

* Of WUliam Hallow, Dr M<Crie uyt, bU 
" seal and kiMwMm of the doctrines of the 
gospel oooBjMMMed fir the defecU of his educa- 
tion.'* <* Ho had Irifewed the trade of a tailor 
Id the Caoongato of Edinburgh. Episcopal 
writen hare aoBMClmai upbraided the Scotlsh 
church, at refonned by tradeamen and mecha- 
iiice. 'lliey hare bawerer no reason to talk in 
this strain ; for a aeoaible religious tradesman is 
surely more qualiAed lor communicating reli- 

atipenda, entertained, their patenta can 
witness ; and they themselves during their 
lives would nerer hare denied. 

After the death of thia most virtuoaa 
prince, of whom the godless people of Engw 
land, for the most part* was not worthy^ 
Satan intended nothing less than the light 
of Jesus Christ utteriy to have been extin* 
guished within the whole isle of Britain. 
For after him was raised up, in God's hot 
displeasure that idolatrous Jesebel, mischie* 
Tons Mary of the Spaniard's blood ; a cruel 
persecutrix of God's people, as the acts of 
her unhappy reign can sufficiently witness* 
And into Scotland, that same time, aa we 
have heard, reigned that crafty practiser, 
Mary of Lorraine, then named regent of 
Scotbind ; who, bound to the devotion of 
her two brethren, the duke of Guise, and 
cardinal of Lorraine, did only abide the op- 
portunity to cut the throats of all those in 
whom she suspected any knowledge of God 
to be, within the realm of Scotland; and 
so thought Satan, that his kingdom of 
darkness was in quietness and res^ as well 
in the one realm as in the other : but that 
provident eye of the eternal God, who 
continually watches for preservation of hia 
church, did so dispose all things, that Satan 
short after found himself far disappointed of 
his conclusion taken : for in that cruel per- 
secution, used by that monster, Mary of 
England, were godly men dispersed in di- 
vers nations, of whom it pleased the good- 
ness of God to send some unto us, for 
our comfort and instruction. And, first^ 
came a simple man, William Harlow,* 
whose erudition, although it excelled not» 
yet for his zeal, and diligent plainness in 
doctrine, is he to this day worthy of praise, 
and remains a fruitful member within the 
church of Scotland. After hUn came that 
notable man, John Willovk,f as one that 
had some commission to the queen regent* 

gious instruction than an ignorant superstitious 
priest. Nay, the church of England herself, 
after trying those of the latter class, was glad to 
betake herself to the former. Strype's Annals, 
i, 176, 177. William Harlow received dcocon'a 
orders from the English church, and so vras no 
layman. Cald. MU i, 256.'* Life of Knox, 
1st ed. p. 1S7.— £(/. 

t John Willock " was a natire of Ayrshire, 
and had worn the monastic habit ; but, at an 



>• D. 1695 

from the duchess of Embden; bat his 
principal purpose was to assay what God 
would work by him in his native country. 
Those two did sometimes, in several com- 
panies, assemble the brethren, who by their 
exhortations be^n greatly to be encouraged, 
and did show, that they had an earnest 
thirst of godliness. And last, came John 
Knox, in the end of harvest, in the year of 
God 1555, who first being lodged in the 
house of that notable man of God, James 
Sym, began to exhort secretly in that 
same house, whereunto repaired the laird 
of Dun, David Forrest, and some certain 
personages of the town, amongst whom was 
Elizabeth Adamson, then spouse to James 
Barron, burgess of Edinburgh, who, by rea- 
son that she had a troubled conscience, 
delighted much in the company of the said 
John, because that he, according to the grace 
given unto bim, opened more fully the foun- 
tains of God's mercies than did [the] com- 
mon sort of teachers that she had heard before 
— for she had heard none except friars — and 
did with such greediness drink thereof, that 
at her death she did express the fruit of her 
hearing, to the great comfort of all those that 
repaired to her; for albeit that she suffered 
most grievous torment in her body, yet out 
of her mouth was heard nothing but prais- 
ing of God, except that sometimes she 
would lament the troubles of those that 
were troubled by her. Being sometimes de- 
manded by her sisters, " What she thought 
of that pain, which she then suffered in 
body, in respect of that wherewith she was 
sometimes troubled in spirit ?" she answer- 
ed, *< A thousand years of this torment, and 
ten times more joined unto it, is not to be 
compared to the quarter of an hour that I 
suffered in my spirit I thank my God, 
through JesuS Christ, that has delivered me 
from that most fearful pain; and welcome be 

early period, he embraced the reformed opinions, 
and fled into England. During the severe per- 
secution for the six articles, he was, in 1541, 
thrown Into the prison of the Fleet. He was 
afterwards chaplain to the duke of Suffolk, the 
father of lady Jane Grey ; and upon the acces. 
sion of queen Mary, he retired to East Fries- 
land.'* •< Willock became afterwards the chief 
coadjutor of Knox, who entertained the highest 
affection and esteem for him. The union of 

this, even so long as it pleases his godly 
majesty to exercise roe therewith." A lit- 
tle before her departure, she desired her 
sisters, and some others that were beside 
her, to sing a psalm, and among others she ap- 
pointed the ciiL psalm, beginning, ** My aoul, 
praise thou the Lord always,*' which ended, 
she said, ** At the teaching of this psalm, 
began my troubled soul first effectually to 
taste of the mercy of my God, which now 
to me is more sweet and precious than [If J 
all the kingdoms of the earth were given 
unto me, to possess them a thousand years." 
The priests urged her with their ceremo- 
nies and superstitions; to whom she an- 
swered, *' Depart from me, ye servants of 
Satan; for I have refused, and in your 
own presence do refuse, all your abominai- 
tions ; that which ye call your sacrament^ 
and Christ's body, as ye have deceived ua 
to believe in times past, is nothing but an 
idol, and has nothing to do with the right 
institution of Jesus Christ ; and therefore, 
in God's name, I command you not to 
trouble me." They departed, alleging, « That 
she raved, and wist not what she said." And 
she shortly thereafter slept in the Lord 
Jesus, to no small comfort of those that 
saw her blessed departing. This we could 
not omit of this worthy woman, who gave 
so notable a confession, before that the 
great light of God's word did universally 
shine through this realm. 

At the first coming of the said John 
Knox, he perceiving divers who had a zeal 
to godliness make small scruple to go to 
the mass, or to communicate with the abus- 
ed sacraments in the papistical manner, be- 
gan as well in privy conference as in doc- 
trine, to show the impiety of the mass, and 
how dangerous a thing it was to communi- 
cate in any sort with idolatry ; wherewith 
the consciences of some being afraid, the 

their talents and peculiar qualities was of great 
advantage to the reformation. Willock was not 
inferior to Knox in learning ; and althoiifrh hr 
did not equal him in intrepidity and eloquence, 
he surpassed him in affability, prudence, and ad- 
dress ; by which means he was sometimes able 
to maintain his station, and accomplish his pur- 
poses when his colleague could not act with 
safety or success," I^ife of Knox, p. \27-^£tl. 




■tttar began to be agitated from man to 
so was the said John called to 
by the laird of Dan for that same 
purpQWy where were conrened DaTid For- 
real^ Mr Bobert Lockhart^ John Willook, 
and WIDImi Maitland of Lethington, yonng- 
er, a man of leaning, and of sharp wit and 
reasoniiif. The question was proponed, 
and it was answered by the said John, 
*■ That nowise it was Uiwful to a Christian 
to p r ss en t himself to that idol.** Nothing 
was omitted that might make for the tem- 
poriso*, and yet was every head so fnlly 
sBSwered, and especially one wherennto 
they thought their great defence stood, to 
wU, ^ That Paul, at the commandment of 
Jamea, and of the elders of Jerusalem, pass- 
ed to the temple, and feigned himself to 
pay his tow with others.'* This, we say, 
aodothen were so folly answered, that 
William Bfaitbnd concluded, saying, ** I see 
perfectly that our shifts will serve nothing 
before Gk>d, seeing they stand us in so small 
stead before men.'* The answer of John 
Knox to the hd of Paul, and to the com- 
mandment of James, was, " That Paul's 
feet had nothing to do with their going to 
the mass ; for to pay tows was sometimes 
God*s commandment, and was never idola- 
try; but their mass, from the original, was 
and remained odious idolatry; therefore 
the feet was most unlike." Secondly, said 
he^ *' 1 greatly doubt whether either James' 
commandment or Paul's obedience pro- 
ceeded from the Holy Ghost We know 
their oonnsel tended to this, that Paul 
should show himself one that observed 
[the] very small points of the law, to the end 
that he migfat purchase to him the fevours 
of the Jews, who were offended at him by 
reason of the bruits that were sparsed [cir- 
colated], that he taught defection from 
Moeea. Now, while he obeyed their coun- 
sel» he Ml into the most desperate danger 
that ever ha iostained before, whereof it 
%raa evident, that God approved not that 
mean of reeonaUation, but rather that he 
plainly decbrad, that evil should not be 
done timt good migfat come of it Evil it 
was to Paul to confirm those obstinate Jews 
ill their superetition by his example ; worse 
it was to . him to expone himself, and the 

doctrine which before he had taught to 
slander and mockage ; and therefore," con- 
cluded the said John, *< that the feet of 
Paul, and the sequel that thereof followed, 
appeared rather to fight against them that 
would go to the mass, than to give unto 
them any assurance to follow his example, 
unless that they would that the like treuble 
should instantly apprehend them that ap- 
prehended him, for obeying worldly wise 
counsel." After these and like reasonings, 
the mass began to be abhorred of such as 
before used it for the fashion, and avoiding 
of slander, as then they termed it 

John Knox, at the request of the laird of 
Dun, followed him to his place of Dun, 
where he remained a month, daily exercised 
in doctrine, whereunto resorted the princi- 
pal men of that country. After his return- 
ing, his residence was most in Calder,' 
where repaired unto him the lord Erskine, 
that no^ is, the earl of Argyle, then lord of 
Lorn, anX lord James, then prior of St An- 
drews, and^ow earl of Murray, where they 
heard, and so approved his doctrine, that 
they wished it to have been public. That 
same winter he taught commonly in Edin- 
burgh ; and after the Yule, by the conduct 
of the laird of Bar, and Robert Campbell 
of Kingeancleuch, he came to Kyle, and 
taught in the Bar, in the house of the Car- 
nell in the Kingeancleuch, in the town of 
Ayr, and in the house of Ochiltree and 
Gbu^rth ; and in some of them ministered 
the Lord's table. Before the Pasch the 
earl of Glencaim sent for him to his place 
of Finlayston, where, after doctrine, he also 
ministered the Lord's table; whereof, besides 
himself, were partakers his lady, two of his 
sons, and certain of his friends : and so re- 
turned he to Calder, where divers from 
Edinburgh, and from the country about, 
convened, as well for the doctrine as for 
the right use of the Lord's table, which be- 
fore they had never practised. From thence 
he departed the second time to the laird of 
Dun ; and teaching then in greater liberty, 
the gentlemen required that he should mi- 
nister the tabfe of the Lord Jesus likewise 
unto them, whereof were partakers the 
most part of the gentlemen of the Mearns, 
who — God be praised — to this day do con- 



■tently remain in the same doctrine which 
then they professed, to wit, that they re- 
fused all society with idolatry, and bound 
themselves to the uttermost of their power 
to maintain the true preaching of the eyaop 
gel of Jesus Christ, as Gk>d should offer 
unto them preachers and opportunity. 

The bruit hereof sparsed [spread], — for 
the friars from all quarters flocked to the 
bishops, — the said John Knox was sum- 
moned to compear in the kirk of the Black- 
friars in Edioburgfh, the 15th day of May, 
which day the said John decreed to keep, 
and for that purpose John Erskine of Dun, 
with dirers other gentlemen convened to 
the town of Edinbui^h. But that diet held 
not For whether that the bishops per- 
oeived informality in their own proceed- 
ings, or if they feared danger to ensue upon 
their extremity, it is unknown unto us: 
but the Saturday before the day appointed, 
they cast their own sununons ; and the said 
John, the same day of the summons, taught 
in Edinburgh, in a greater audience than 
ever before he had done in that town ; the 
place was the bishop of Dunkeld his great 
lodging, where he continued in doctrine ten 
days, both before and afternoon. The earl 
of Glencaim allured the earl of Marshall, 
who with Henry Drummond his counsel- 
lor for that time, heard an exhortation, but 
it was upon the night, who were so well 
contented with it, that they both willed the 
said John to write unto the queen regent 
somewhat that might move her to hear the 
word of God. He obeyed their desire, and 
wrote that which after was imprinted, and 
is called, ** The letter to the queen dowa- 
ger,*' which was delivered unto her own 
hands by the said Alexander earl of Glen- 
caim: which letter, when she had read, 
within a day or two, she delivered it to that 
proud prelate Beaton, bishop of Glasgow, 
and said in mockage, " Please you my lord 
to read a pasquil;** which words coming 
to the ears of the said John, were the oc- 
casion that to his letter he made his addi- 
tions, as yet may be seen. As concerning 
the threateniugs pronounced against her 

• The latter part of this wntenee h wanting 
in Mr B.*t editloo, but the VakiUj one has it 

own person, and the moat principal of hm 
friends, let their very flatterers •«• wkitl 
had fiuled of all that h^ hat written ; aai 
therefore it were expedient that her daiqili* 
ter, now nischievonsly reigniBg, ahovli 
look to that which hath paaaed before, lart 
that in following the connaek of the widced, 
she end more miaerably than her cnifty 
mother did. * 

While John Knox was thus occupied in 
Scodand, letters came nnto him from the 
English kirk that was wenbled at Gene- 
va, which was separated from that snper- 
stitious and oontentioiia oom | M U i y that were 
at Frankfort, oonmuuidtilg him in God's 
name, as he that was their ehoaen pastor, 
to repair onto them for their eomfort. 
Upon the which the said John took his 
leave from us, almoet in every congregation 
where before he had preached, and exhort- 
ed us to prayers, to reading of the scrip- 
tures, and mutual conference, until such 
time as God should give unto us greater li- 
berty. And hereupon he sent before him 
to Dieppe, his mother-in-law, Elisabeth 
Bowes, and his wife Marjory, with no 
small dolor to their hearts, and to many of 
us. He himself, by procurement and la- 
bours of Robert Campbell of Kingean- 
clench, remained behind in Scotland, and 
passed to the old earl of Argy\e, who then 
was in the castle of Campbell, where he 
taught certiun days. The Udrd of Glenor- 
chy, which yet liveth, being one of his au- 
ditors, willed the said earl of Argyle to re- 
tain him still ; but he, purposed upon his 
journey, would not at that time stay for no 
request, adding, ** That if God so blesMd 
these small beginnings, that they continued 
in godliness, whensoever they pleased to 
command him, they should find him obe- 
dient ; but," he said, ** that once he must 
needs visit that little flock which the wick- 
edness of men had compelled him to leave:*' 
and so in the month of July he left this 
realm, and passed to France, and so to G^ 
neva. Immediately after, the bishops sum- 
moned him, and for non-compearance, burnt 
him in effigy at the cross of Edinburgh, in 

entire. It it also in the sapprenaed copy, and 
the Edinbnrgh editkin of 1796, ^Bd, 




of God 1565 ; from the whioh on- 
the uid John made his q>pe]- 
aad caneed to print the mme, and 
it to the nobility and commons 
witUi BaatJanHj as yet may be read. 

In dw vinlsr that the said John abode 
in SooUand, appeared a comet, the course 
whereof was bam the south and south west, 
to the north and north east It was seen 
tko Mentha of November, December, 


and Janoarj; it was called, ** the fiery 
bcMMB." Soon after died Christian, king^ 
of Denmark, and war arose betwixt Scot- 
Isnd and England ; for the commissioners 
of both realma, who almost the space of 
nx months entreated upon the conditions 
ef ptaoe^ and were upon a near point of 
eandoaion, were disappointed. The queen 
regenti with her council of the French fao- 
tiottp decreed war at Newbattle, without 
giving any advertisemeat to the commis- 
sianars for the part of Scotland. Such is 
the idelity of princes, guided by priests, 
wfaenaoerer they seek their own affections 
to bo served. 

In (he end of that next harvest was seen 
upon the borders of England and Scotland 
a strange fire, which descended from the 
heaven, and burned divers corns in both 
the realms, but most in England. There 
waa presented to the queen regent, by Ro- 
bert Ormiston, a calf having two heads, 
whereat ahe soorped [derided], and said, " It 
waa hot a common thing.'* The war began 
in the end of harvest, as said is, and 
eondnaion was taken that Wark should 
bo sasisgsd : the army and ordnance 
poaaed forward to Bfaxwell Hengh. The 
qoeen ngent remained in the castle of 
Home^ and thinking that all things were 
in sasiiiamni^ Monsienr d'Oysel, then lieu- 
tenant for Franoe^ gave charge that the can- 
nooa ahonld he tnnsported over the water 
of Tweed, which was done with expedition, 
for the Frenchmen in such facts are expert ; 
but the nobai^ of Soothmd nothing con- 
tent with sneh proeeedings, after consultap 
tion amongat fhsmaalias, passed to the pa- 
vilion of Monsiear d'Oyael, and in his own 
fiuM declared, " That in no ways would 
they invade Eaflaad : and therefore com- 

manded the <Hdnance to be retired : And 
that it was bnt [without] farther delay. 

This pat an affray in Monsieur d Oysers 
breeches, and kindled such a fire in the 
queen regent's stomach, as was not well 
sleekened [quenched] till her breath fiuled : 
and thus was that enterprise frustrate. But 
yet war continued, during the which the 
evangel of Jesus Christ began wondrously 
to flourish; for in Edinburgh began pub- 
licly to exhort William Harlow : John 
Douglas, who had been with the earl of 
Argyle, preached in Leith, and sometimes 
exhorted in Edinburgh : Paul Meffan began 
to preach publicly in Dundee ; and so did 
divers others in Angus and the Meams. 
And last, at Gk>d*s good pleasure, arrived 
John WiUock, the second time, from Em- 
den; whose return was so joyful to the 
brethren, that their seal and godly courage 
daily increased. And albeit he contracted 
a dangerous sickness, yet he ceased not 
from labours, but taught and exhorted from 
his bed : some of the nobility,— of whom 
some are follen back, amongst whom the 
lord Seyton is chief, — with many barona 
and gentlemen, were his auditors, and by 
him were [the] godly instructed, and woup 
drously comforted. They kept their conven- 
tions, and held councils with such gravity 
and closeness, that the enemies trembled. 
The images were stolen away in all parts 
of the country ; and in Edinburgh waa that 
great idol, called St Oile, first drowned in the 
North Loch, and after burnt, which raised 
no small trouble in the town ; for the friars 
rouping [croaking] like ravens upon the 
bishops, the bishops ran upon the queen, who 
to them was favourable enough, but that 
she thought it could not stand with her ad- 
vantage to offend such a multitude as then 
took upon them the defence of the evangel, 
and the name of protestants* And yet con- 
sented she to summon the preachers : where- 
at the protestants neither offended, neither 
yet thereof afraid, determined to keep the 
day of summons, as that they did. Which 
perceived by the prelates and priests, they 
procured a proclamation to be publicly 
made, ** That all men that were come to 
the town without the commandment of the 



[a. d. 1680 

aathority, should with all diligence repair 
to the l>order8, and there remain fifteen 
days :*' for the bishop of Galloway, in this 
manner of rhyme, said to the queen, 

Madam, becaute they are come withont order, 
I red you send them to the border. 

Now SO had God proTided, that the quar- 
ter of the west land, in the which were 
many faithful men, was that same day re- 
' turned from the borders ; who understand- 

should ye not love yoor neighbourt m your- 
seWes ?" With thete and the like fiar wordb 
she kept the bishops from bofiets at that 

And so the day of summons being dia> 
chaiged, began the brethren uniTersally to 
be farther encouraged ; but yet could tlie 
bishops in no sort be quiet; for St Gik't 
day approaching, they gare charge to the 
proTost, bailies, and council of Edinbuigh, 

ing the matter to proceed from the mah'ce i either to get again the old St Gile, or elae 
of the priests, assembled themselves toge- ! upon their expense to make a new imaga. 

ther, and made passage to themselves, till 
that they came to the very privy chamber, 
where the queen regent and the bishops 
were. The gentlemen began to complain 
upon their strange entertainment, consider- 
ing that her grace had found in them so 
faithful obedience in all things lawful. 
While that the queen began to craft, a zea^ 
lous and a bold man, James Chalmers of 
Gathgirth, said, ** Madam, we know that 
this is the malice and device of these jef- 
wellis,* and of that bastard," meaning the 
bishop of St Andrews, ** that stands by you. 
We avow to God we shall make a day of it 

The council answered, ** That to them the 
charge q>peared rery nnjast» lor they under- 
stood that God in some places had com- 
manded idols and images to be destroyed ; 
but where he had commanded images to be 
set up they had not read ;" and de»red the 
bishop to find a warrant for his command- 
ment Whereat the bishop offended, ad- 
monished under pain of cursing, which they 
prevented by a formal appelhition, appeal- 
ing from him, as from a partial and corrupt 
judge, unto the pope's holiness: and so 
greater things shortly following, that passed 
in oblivion. Yet would not the priests and 

They oppress us and our tenants for feeding I friars cease to have that great solemnity and 

of their idle bellies : they trouble our 
preachers^ and would murder them and us : 
Shall we suffer this any longer ? Nay, Ma- 
dam, it shall not be :" and therewith every 
man put on his steel bonnet There was 
heard nothing of the queen's part, but, ** My 
joys, my hearts, what aileth you ? Me 
means no evil to you, nor to your preachers : 
the bishops shall do you no wrong, ye are 
all my loving subjects ; me knows nothing 
of this proclamation; the day of your 
preachers shall be discharged, and me will 
hear the controTersy that is betwixt the 
bishops and you; they shall do you no 
wrong. My lords,'* said she to the bish- 
ops, " I forbid you either to trouble them 
or their preachers." And unto the gentle- 
men, who were wondrously commoved, she 

manifest abomination, which they accusto- 
mably had upon St Gile's day, to wit, they 
would have that idol borne ; and, therefore, 
was all preparation duly made. A mar- 
morset idol was borrowed from the gray 
friars, — a silver piece of James Carmichael 
was laid in pledge^ — it was fast fixed with 
iron nails upon a barrow called their fertor 
[bier]. There assembled priests, friars, 
canons, and rotten papists, wiUi tabours 
and trumpets, banners and bagpipes: and 
who was there to lead the ring, but the 
queen regent herself, with all her shavelings, 
for honour of that feast West about goes 
it, and comes down the High Street, and 
down to the common cross. The queen 
regent dined that day in Alexander Car- 
penter's house betwixt the Bows, and so 

turned again and said, << O my hearts, | when the idol returned back again, she left 
should ye not love the Lord your God with j it, and passed in to her dinner. The hearts 

all your heart with all your mind? and 

of the brethren were wondrously inflamed. 

A nontemptuous expression, of which, wyn JrveU,** Johnson renders it "a wandering or 

r «i r._ ^_ 1^^ i_A ji-A_ r.11 »» c:vu»i,j — :.u .-^....u __-..> ^ 

Dr J., the proper meaning seems to be lost. 
It is one of the hard names used by Dunbar in 
his complaint:—'* Fowl jow-Jourdane-headed 

dirty fellow.** Sibbald, with much appearanev 
of probability, derives it from the Frtnob Jotrto- 
Uur, " a prating or chattering fellow.**— TcC 




tMing tnch abomiiiation so maniftntly 
ly were decreed Idetermined] to 
be w fWfe d . They were diTidedin several 
iiMtinisi, whereof not one knew of an- 
oHmt. Th«re were some temporisers that 
dmy, — l yt whom David Forrest, called 
the fBMfil, was one, who, fearing the 
chance to be done as it fell, laboured to stay 
the bralhmi ; bat that could not be ; for 
iminf disteiy after that the queen was en- 
tered ia the lodging, some of those that 
were of the enterprise drew near to the 
idol, as willing to help to bear him, and 
gettiag the fertor [bier] upon their shonl- 
doi, began to shoulder [shove and drive 
one another], thinking that thereby the 
idol ahoold have fallen; but that was 
provided and prevented by the iron nails, 
as we have said ; and so began one to cry, 
* Down with the idol, down with it ;*' and 
so^ without delay it was pulled down. 
Soose bngs [threatening reproofs] made the 
priests' patrons at the first ; but when they 
saw the feebleness of their god, for one 
took him by the heels, and dadding [strik- 
iag] hia head to the causeway, left Dagon 
without head or hands, and said, ** Fie upon 
thee, thou young St Oile, thy father would 
have tarried [endured] four such." This 
conridered, we say, the priests and friars fled 
faster than they did at Pinkie Cleuch. 
Thare might have been seen so sudden a 
ftay as seldom has been seen amongst that 
sort of men within this realm ; for down 
go the cr oes ei , off go the siurplices, round 
eapa, ooroneti, with the crowns. The gray 
friars gaped, the Mack friars blew, and the 
priests paatod and fled, and happy was he 
that first got the house ; for such a sudden 
finaj caflM never amongst the generation of 
antidurist within this realm before. By 
dmnoe there lay upon a stair a merry Eng- 
Tidimaw; and seeing the discomfiture to be 
withoat blood, thought he would add some 

may bare had a 
mcaniiif fai thtir ds|y, thengh it does not aeeni to 
have btcn wenh pnsirTfnf . The wit and learn- 
ing of our fllw|T, la theie dayt, teem to have 
bwo OD a per wiA the annnen of our gentry, 
aco note p. IK. Dorla h one of the very few 
bitbops for whom Keith has no epitbet of com- 
■MOdatJoB. Hii whole hfttory is oompriaed in 
tbalbllowl^gr ** Andrew Dnrie, a mmi of the 
huoie of Darit la Flfip, was made abbot of McU 

merriness to the matter: and so cried he 
over the stair, and said, " Fie upon you, 
whores' sons, why have ye broken order ; 
down the street ye passed in array, and 
with great mirth : why fly ye, rillains, now 
without order ? Turn and strike every one 
a stroke for the honour of his god ; fie, 
cowards, fie, ye shall never be judged 
worthy of your wages again." But exhorta- 
tions were then unprofitable; for after that 
Bel had broken his neck, there was no 
comfort to his confused army. The queen 
regent laid up this amongst her other me- 
menias, till that she might have seen the 
time proper to have revenged it Search 
was made for the doers, but none could be 
deprehended; for the brethren assembled 
themselves in such sort, in companies, 
singing psalms, and praising God, that the 
proudest of the enemies were astonished. 

This tragedy of St Gile was so terrible 
to some papists, that Durie, sometimes 
called for his filihiness, abbot Stottikin, 
and then entitled, bishop of Galloway, left 
his rhyming, wherewith he was accustom- 
ed, and departed this life even as that he 
lived. For the articles of his belief were, 
** I refer, decarte you. Ha, ha, the four 
kings and all made. The devil go with it: 
it is but a varlet. From France we thought 
to have gotten a ruby ; and yet it was no- 
thing but a cohubie."* And with such 
faith, and such prayers, departed out of 
this life that enemy of God, who had vow- 
ed and plainly said, ** That in despite of God, 
so long as they that then were prelates 
lived, should that word, called the evan- 
gel, never be preached within this realm." 
After him followed that belly-god, Mr 
David Painter, called bishop of Ross, even 
with the like documents, except that he 
departed eating and drinking, which, to- 
gether with the rest that thereupon depend- 
ed, was the pastime of his life.f The 

roM, at least as early as September 24, 1527. He 
came to b« bithop of Galloway in 1541. He was 
bishop here, anno 1646. He is bishop and abbot 
of Melrose 1556. He died in the month of Sep- 
tember, 1558." Knoz*s account of bim is no 
doubt true, for had there been tbe shadow of a 
gno4l quality about bim, Keith would bare 
praised him.— Erf. 

t lliis prelate, aoeordiof to Keith, was ** a 
person of most polito cduoation, and excellent 




[a. d. 1519 

noft pwi of the lords Uiat were in Fiwioe 
at the qoeen't marriafe, althoogfa that tiiey 
got their ooiif^-'[leaTe] from the ooort yet 
they ioigot to retvm to Soothmd; for tdio- 
ther it vae bj an Italian poeoet^ or by 
Frendi %i, or by the potta^ ol their pot* 
tinger— he was a Frenchman— there deport 
ed from this life, the earl of Gissillis, the 
earl of Rothes, lord Fleming, and the bishop 
of Orkney, whose end was e?en aooording 
to his life; Itor aUter that he was driTsn 
back by a contrarioos wind, and foreed to 
land again aft Dieppe^ peroeiYinf his side* 
nees to inerease, he caused make hn bed 
betwixt his two ooffiNTS ;— -some said upon 
them — snob was his god, the gold that 
therein was enoloeed, that he oonld not de- 
part therefirom, so long as memory wonld 
senre him. The lord James, than prior of 
St Andrews, had, by all appearance, licked 
of the same bobt [broth, or bnust, t. e, brew- 
ing] that despatched the rest, for thereof to 
this day his stomach does testify ; bnt God 
preserred him for a better purpose. This 
same lord James, now earl of Mnrray, and 
the said bishop were commonly at debate 
for matters of religion ; and, therefore, the 
said lord, hearing of the bishop's disease, 
came to risit bim ; and finding him not so 
well at a point as he thought he should have 
been, and as the honour of the country re- 
quired, said unto him, ** Fie, my lord, how 
lie you so ? Will ye not go to your chamber, 
and not lie here in this common house." 
His answer was, ** lam well where I am, 
my lord, so long as I can tarry, for I am 
near unto my friends — ^meaning his coffers, 
and the gold therein ; — but, my lord," said 
he, " long haTo yon and I been in plea for 
pni^tory. I think that I shall know ere it 

parts.** HU life was occupied chieay by politi- 
cal matten, at home and abroad ; bat there !• not 
the least hint of his poeseeeing the qaalifications 
requisite in a christian bishop. Aocordiof to 
Knoic, he was a good Hrer in toe sensual mean- 
Ing of tbe terms, which is quite ooiioistent with 
the panegyric of his biofprapbar. — £tL 

• (( Bishop Reld," for such was his name, 
saya Keith, ** was a man of great learning, and 
a meet accomplished politician. This, no doobt, 
has been the reason of sending him one of tbe 
commissioners from Scotland into France, to 
witncM the marriage of our yoong queen Mary 
with the dauphin, anno 1666 ; bntp on hiarstom, 
he died at Dfeppe^ the 14ch day ef fieptambar that 

be long whether there be sooh a place or 
not" While the other did ezhoit him to 
call to mudltha ptoauae of God, and the 
▼irtne of Chrisfa death: he answerad, 
* Nay, my lord, let me alone, for you aad I 
Berer agreed in our liii, and I think we 
shall not agree now at my death; and, 
tiurefora^ let me ak>ae." The said kird 
James departed to his lodging, and the 
other short after departed this life ; whither, 
the great day of the Lord will decktre.* 
When the word of the departing' of so many 
patrons of papistry, and of the manner of 
their departing, oame vnto the queen regent, 
after astonishment and mnsing, she said, 
" What shall I say of such men? they lived 
as beasts, and as beasts they die : God is 
not with them, neither with that which 
they enterprise." 

While these things were in doing in 8cot- 
hmd and France, that perfect hypocrite, 
Mr John Sindair, then dean of Bestah*ig, 
and now lord president and Insbop of 
Brechin, began to preach in his kirk of Res- 
talrig, and at tbe beginning held himself so 
indifferent, that many had opinion of him, 
that he was not far from the kingdom of 
God. But his hypocrisy could not long be 
cloaked ; for when he understood, that such 
as feared God began to have a good opinion of 
him, and that the friars and others of that sect, 
began to whisper, " That if he took not heed 
in time to himself, and unto his doctrine, he 
would be the destruction of the whole estate 
of the kirk ;" this by him understood, he ap- 
pointed a sermon, in the which he promised 
''to give his judgment in all such heads as 
then were in controversy in the mattersof re- 
ligion." The bruit hereof made his audience 
great at the first; bnt that day he so hand- 

year. He beoneathed by his testament the sum 
of 8000 merki Scotlsh money, towards founding a 
ooUage in £dinb«rgh for the education of youth." 
" So that this being the first sum mortified for 
that purpose, he may Justly be reckoned tbe first 
founder of that university." « lliis sum," it' Ss 
added, ** the earl of Morton oenverted to hiaewn 
use and jprofit, by banishing the ezeoutora of bi- 
shop Reld for supposed crimes." Knox*e ataSn- 
ment, that gold was his idol, k thna far corrabo- 
rated by the faot, that he had amassed a mat 
deal of it. The posssssion of wealth, indsej^ 
does not neeessarily imply tbe inardinalB leva mt 
it ; bnt thay are eomaaonly onited In the mtnda 
of ambitlona worldly aaen.— iHrf. 




M kimalf, that, after that» no godly man 
iU Cfodh hun ; for not only gaiuaid he the 
of j vatifiGation and of prayer which 
ho had tanght» but abo he eet np 
Mid wmmtmattA papistry to the nttermoet 
priidc [thoanUeet iota]; yea, holy water, 
palgriiMff, pagatory, and pardons were of 
anch firtot Ia his .oonoeit, that without 
them he looked not' to be sayed.* In this 
■ssaatiae the clergy made a brag, that 
they would dispate ; but Mr David Pkinter, 
which then lived and lay at Restalrig, dis- 
suaded then therefrom, affirming, " That if 
ever they disputed, but where theroselTes 
wefo both judge and party, and where that 
ire and sword should obey their decree, 
that then their cause was wrecked for ever; 
tor their victory stood neither in God nor 
his words, but in their own wills, and in the 
thinga oonduded by their own councils, to- 
gether with fire and sword, whereto," said 
ka, ** these new start-up fellows will give 
BO place; but will call you to your count- 
book, and that is to the Bible ; and by it ye 
will no more be found the men that ye are 
called, than the devil will be approven to be 
God : and, there£Dre, if ye love yourselves, 
enter never in disputation ; neither yet call 
yo matters in question ; but defend your 
possessioa, or all is lost" Caiaphas could 
■ot give a better counsel to bis companions ; 
but yet Okkl disappointed both them and him, 
an after we shaD hear. At this same time 
aoMO of the nobility directed their letters to 
call John Knox from Geneva, for their 
eoHrfbfft, and for the comfort of their breth- 
rem the preachers, and others that then 
ooongioudy fought against the enemies of 
God's trutL The tenor of their letter is 

" GiBce^ mercy, and peace for salvatiou. 

« Deariy beWved in the Lord, the fiiitblul 

that are of your acquaintance in these parts 

— thanka bo unto God — are steadfast in the 

belief w k srs anto ye left them, and have a 

• Keith's 

nith«r seaatytbuwas 

ID of thU turncoat ii 
miial, there is no fault 

_^ .a in hit Mcntch«on. The 

IbUewiog k hit entire history : •< John Sinclair, 
aoooof the beast ef RmIid, four miles S.S.E. 
fruB JSdinbnigli, a man well learned in both 
laws, WB* deao of Restalrig (tmlgo LetUrrick), 
beside Edinborgik, and put into this see by queen 

godly thirst and desire, day by dayj of your 
presence again, which, if the spirit of God 
so move and permit time unto you, we will 
heartily desire you, in the name of the 
Lord, that yo will return again into these 
parts, where ye shall find all fiuthfiil that 
ye left behind you, not only glad to hear 
your doctrine^ but will be ready to jeopard 
lives and goods for the forward setting of 
ths glory of God, as he will permit times. 
And albeit the magistrates in this country 
be as yet but in the state ye left them, 
yet at the making hereof, we have no expe- 
rience of any more cruelty to be need nor 
was before; but rather we have belief, 
that God will augment his flock, because 
we see the friars, enemiee to Christ's evan- 
gel, daily in less estimation, both with the 
queen's grace and the rest of the nobility 
of our realm. This in few words is the 
mind of the faithful, being present, and 
others absent The rest of our minds this 
faithful bearer will show you at length. 
Thus fare ye well in the Lord/* 

Off Stirling, the tenth of > 
March, anno 1556. 5 

This is the true copy of the bill, being 
subscribed by the names underwritten : 
Sic subscribitur, 

•* Glencairn. 
Lorn, now Argylb. 
James Stewart." 

These letters were dehvered to the said 
John in Geneva, by the hands of James 
Sym, who now resteth with Christ, and 
of James Barron that yet liveth, in the 
month of May immediately thereafter; 
which received, and advised upon, be took 
consultation, as well with his own church, 
as with that notable servant of God, John 
Calvin, and with other godly ministers, 
who all with one consent, said, " That he 
could not refuse that vocation, unless ho 
would declare himself rebellious unto his 

Mary, after the death of abbot Campbell. He 
was likewise, for bis sinfular knowledge of the 
law, first an ordinary lord of s essi on, and then 
lord president. He bad the honour to ioin the 

?ueen in holy mairinony to the lord l5amlry. 
le died next year, in the month of April, 1566." 



[a. d. lAliS 

God, and anmerctful unto his country ; and 
80 he returned answer, with promise to visit 
them with reasonable expedition, and so 
soon as he mi^bt put order to that dear flock 
that was committed to his charg^e ; and so, 
in the end of the next September after, he 
departed from Genera, and came to Dieppe, 
where there met him contrary letters, as 
by his answer thereto we may understand.* 
''The spirit of wisdom, constancy, and 
strength be multiplied with you, by the 
favour of God our Father, and by the 
gnce of our Lord Jesus Christ" 
** According to my promise, right honour- 
able, I came to Dieppe the 24th of October, 
of full mind, by the good will of God, with 
the first ships to have visited you ; but be- 
cause two letters, not very pleasing unto 
tlie flesh, were there presented unto me, I 
was compelled to stay for a time ; the one 
was directed to myself, from a faithful 
brother, which made mention, that new 
consultation was appointed for final conclu- 
sion of the matter before purposed, and 
willed me, therefore, to abide in these parts, 
till tlie determination of the same. The other 
letter was directed from a gentleman to a 
friend, with charge to advertise me, that he 
had communed with all those that seemed 
most fnmk and fervent in the matter, and 
that in none did he find such boldness and 
constancy, as was requisite for such an en- 
terprise ; but that some did — as he writeth 
— repent, that ever any such thing was 
moved : some were partly ashamed, and 
others were able to deny, that ever they 
did consent to any such purpose, if any 
trial or question should be taken thereof. 
Which letters, when I had considered, I 

« Knox has not preserved the letters which 
he reoeiTed countermand itig^ hii journey home- 
ward. Perhaps he destroyed them, that they 
might not be a standing memorial of the mis- 
giTing, or momentary cowardice of his friends, 
who afterwards acted so bravely and faithfully. 
He shows in his answer great delicacy to them 
hy concealing the names of those who had so 
grieved him by looking back after they had put 
their hands to the plough. We cannot be sur- 
prised that they stood appalled for a moment, 
when they thought of the msfnitude, and the 
hazard of their undertaking. This may be call- 
ed the turning point of the reformation. Had 
Knox been infected by their' misgivings, so as to 
have returned to his flock in Geneva, the caute 

partly was confounded, and partly was 
pierced with anguish and sorrow. Con- 
founded I was, that I had so fiur traveled 
in the matter, moving the same to the most 
godly and most learned that this day w% 
know to live in Europe, to the efiect that 
I might have their judgments and gmv 
counsels, for assuranoe as well of your oon- 
scienoes as of mine, in all enterprises. And 
then that nothing ahonld succeed of so long 
consultations, cannot but redound either to 
your shame or mine : for either it ahall ap- 
pear that I was manrellous vain, being so 
solicit [eager], where no neoesaityipequired ; 
or else, that sueh as were my movers 
thereto lacked the ripeneas of judgment in 
their first vocation. To some it may ap- 
pear a small and light matter, that I have 
cast off, and as it were abandoned, as weU 
my particular care, as my public office and 
charge, leaving my house and poor fiunily 
destitute of aU head, — save God only, — and 
committing that small — ^bnt Christ his dear- 
ly beloved — ^flock, over the which I was 
appointed one of the ministers, to the 
charge of another. This, I say, to worldly 
men may appear a soudl matter, but to me 
it was, and yet is such, that more worldly 
substance than I will express, could not 
have caused me willingly behold the eyes 
of so many grave men weep at once for my 
cause, as that I did, in taking of my last 
good night from them, to whom, if it please 
God, that I return, and question be demand- 
ed. What was the impediment of my pur- 
posed journey ? judge you what I shall an- 
swer. The cause of my dolor and sorrow 
— God is witness — is for nothing pertaining 
either to my corporal contentment or world- 

had perished for that time ; and the reign of 
idolatry and darkness might have been protract- 
ed for M^es. But along with ardent zeal for the 
glory or God, and the good of his country, he 
was inspired with more than human courage 
and fortitude, and enabled to write to his frieuda 
in such a strain as to inspire their breasts with 
the same feelings, so that they engaged heartily 
in the work, and In two years efKcted the deli- 
verance of their countrv from the spiritual bon- 
dage of Rome, and the military tjrranny of 
France. It is therefore to Knox individually, 
as the Instrument in the hand of proTidenoe, 
that we are indebted for both the civil and re- 
ligious privileges we enjny.^iut 




If iiiplflMiire ; bat it is for the grieyoiis 
and punishmeiitt of Ood, which as- 
dnll apprehend not only yon, but 
cfTtrj nhabibuit of that miserable realm 
aad Ua^ axespt that the power of God, by 
tha libvty of his evangel, deliver you from 
boiiiiiyi. I mean not only that perpetual 
fire and torment, prepared for the devil, 
aad tor such as, denying Christ Jesus and 
Ilia known verity, do follow the sons of 
wickedness to perdition, which most is to 
be feared ; but also that thraldom and mi- 
sery that shall apprehend your own bodies, 
yoor ehildren, subjects, and posterity, whom 
ye have betrayed. In conscience, I can ex- 
cept none that bear the name of nobility, 
and presently do fight to betray them and 
yonr realm to the slavery of strangers. 
The war begun — although I acknowledge 
it to be the work of Ood — shall be your de- 
stroction, unless that, by time, remedy be 
provided. God open your eyes that ye 
may espy, and consider your own miserable 
estate. My words shall appear to some 
sharp and indiscreetly spoken ; but as cha- 
rity ought to interpret all things to the 
best, so ought wise men to understand, that 
a true fnend cannot be a flatterer, especially 
when the questions of salvation, both of 
body and soul, are moved ; and that not of 
one or two, but as it were of a whole realm 
and nation. What are the sobs, and what 
is the affliction of my troubled heart, God 
shall one day declare ! But this will I add 
to my former rigour and severity, to wit, if 
any persuade you, for fear or dangers that 
may follow, to Aunt in your former pur- 
poee, be he never esteemed so wise and 
friendly, IK him be judged of you both 
foolish and yonr mortal enemy: foolish, 
for liecanse he understandeth nothing of 
God*s approved wisdom ; and enemy unto 
yon, baonse be labonreth to separate you 
froas God*s favour; provoking his ven- 
geance aad gfierovs plagues against you, 
becanae be wodd that ye should prefer 
your worldly rest to God's praise and glory; 
and the friendship of the wicked to the sal- 
vation of your brethren. I am not ig- 
norant, that fearful troubles shall ensue 
your enterprise, as in my former letters I 
did signify unto you; but O joyful and 

comfortable are those troubles and adversi- 
ties, which man sustaineth for accomplish- 
ment of God's will, revealed by his word I 
For how terrible that ever they appear to 
the judgments of the natural men, yet are 
they never able to devour nor utterly to 
consume the sufferers ; for the invisible and 
invincible power of God sustaineth and 
preserveth, according to the promise, all 
such as with simplicity do obey him. The 
subtle craflt of Pharaoh, many years joined 
with his bloody cruelty, was not able to 
destroy the male children of Israel, neither 
were the waters of the Red Sea, much less 
the rage of Pharaoh, able to confound 
Moses and the company which he conduct- 
ed; and that because the one had God's 
promise that they should multiply, and the 
other his commandment to enter into such 
dangers. I would your wisdoms should 
consider, that our God remaineth one, and 
is inunutable ; and that the church of Christ 
Jesus hath the same promise of protection 
and defence, that Israel had of multiplica- 
tion. And farther, that no less cause have 
ye to enter in your former enterprise, than 
Moses had to go to the presence of Pha- 
raoh ; for your subjects, yea, your brethren, 
are oppressed, their bodies and souls holden 
in bondage : and God speaketh to your con- 
sciences — unless ye be dead with the blind 
world — that you ought to hazard your own 
lives, be it against kings or emperors, for 
their deliverance ; for only for that cause 
are ye called princes of the people, and ye 
receive of your brethren honour, tribute, 
and homage, at God's commandment, not 
by reason of your birth and progeny, as the 
most part of men falsely do suppose, but by 
reason of your office and duty, which is to 
vindicate and deliver your subjects and bre- 
thren from all violence and oppression, to 
the uttermost of your power. Advise dili- 
gently, I beseech you, with the points of 
that letter, which 1 directed to the whole 
nobility, and let every roan apply the mat- 
ter and esse to himself; for your consciences 
shall one day be compelled to acknowledge, 
that the reformation of religion, and of 
public enormities, doth appertain to more 
than to the cleigy, or chief rulers, called 
kings. The mighty spirit of the Lord Jesus 



[a. b. 

rule and guide your couneels to his glorj, 
your eternal comfort, and to the consola- 
tion of your brethren. Amen.** 

From Diq/pe^ 27th day ) 
of October, 1557. J 

These letters received and read, together 
with others directed to the whole nobility, 
and some to |»articular gentlemen, as to the 
lairds of Dun and Pitterrow,new consultation 
was had, what was best to be done : and in 
the end it was concluded, that they would 
follow forward their purpose once intended, 
and would commit themselves, and who- 
soever Ood had given unto them, into his 
hands, rather than they would suffer idola- 
try so manifestly to reign, and the subjects 
of that realm so to be defrauded, as long as 
they had been, of the only food of their 
souls, the true preaching of Christ's evan- 
gel, and that every one should be the more 
assured of other, a common bond was made, 
and by some subscribed, the tenor whereof 
follows : 

" We, perceiving how Satan in his mem- 
bers, the antichrists of our time, cruelly 
doth rage, seeking to downthring [overturn] 
and to destroy the evangel of Christ, and 
his congregation, ought, according to our 
bounden duty, to strive in our Master's 
cause, even unto the death, being certain of 
the victory in him. The which our duty 
being well considered, we do promise be- 
fore the majesty of God, and his congrega> 
tion, that we, by his grace, shall, with all 
diligence, continually apply our whole 
power, substance, and our very lives, to 
maintain, set forward, and establish the 
most blessed word of Ood, and his congre- 
gation : and shall labour at our possibility 
to have fidthful ministers, purely and truly 
to minister Christ's evangel and sacraments 
to his people. We shall maintain them, 
nourish them, and defend them, the wliole 
congregation of Christ, and every member 
thereof, at our whole powers and wairing 
[spending] of our lives, against Satan, and 
all wicked power that does intend tyranny 

* This is th«> first covenant of the Sootish re- 
formers fur mntnsl defence, and mainteoanoe of, 
the truth ; which embraces more than mere self- ' 
defence, which may be pleaded for as a cItII 
right. They engage to maintain, set forward, 

or trouble against the foresaid oongregm- 
tion. Unto the which holy word, and eii» 
gregalion, we do join at; and alio do va* 
ttounce and fonaks the oongregatioii o£ 8^ 
tan, with all the anperstitioM, aboonimh 
tions, and idolatry thereof. And nsoveover, 
shaD decUre ourselves manifestly anenist 
thereto, by this onr fidthfni proniae befiiMns 
God, testified to his oongregatioii* hj our 
subscription at these presents. At Edin- 
burgh, the 3d day of Deoember 1557 yean. 
God called to witness.*** 
Sk subscribituT, 

*< A^ earl of Aifyle. 

** GusNCAUur. 


** Archibald, lord of Lorn. 

<* John Emkdib of Don,*' &c. 
Before a little that this bond was aub- 
scribed by the forewritten, and many others, 
letters were directed again to John Knox 
from the said lords, together with their let> 
ters to Mr Calvin, craving' of him, that by 
his authority he would command the said 
John onoe again to visit them. These let- 
ters were delivered by the hands of Mr 
John Gray, in the month of November, the 
year of God 1558, who, at that same time, 
passed to Rome, for expedition of the bows 
[business] of Ross to Mr Henry Sinclair. 
Immediately after the subscription of this 
foresaid bond, the lords and barons profess- 
ing Christ Jesus, convened frequentiy in 
council; in the which these heads were 
concluded : First, ^ It is thought expedient, 
devised, and ordained, that in all parishes 
of this realm, the common prayers be read 
weekly on Sunday and other festival days, 
publldy in the parish kirka^ with the les- 
sons of the New and Old Testament, con- 
form to the order of the book of Common 
Prayers. And if the curates of the parishes 
be qualified, to cause them to read the same, 
and if they be not, or if they refuse, that 
tlie most qualified in the parish use and 
read the same." Secondly, ** It is thought 
necessary, that doctrine, preaching, and in- 

and establish the word of God, by force of amu, 
at seems to be hnplied. lliis was one of their 
mistakes, which providence eventually overruled 
for good. — Ed, 




tiiyi^litiiin of toriptnrw be had and used 
frfvtty iB^[B0t hmiMt, witboat great con- 
tmlk wn of the people thereto, till after- 
ward liMt Qad move the prince to grant 
psUio fnmking by faithful and true mi- 

Thawtwo heads concerning the religioo, 
OBM others concerning ike policy, 
eandaded, the old earl of Argyle 
tank the nudoteaance of John Douglas, 
ceased Ubs preach publicly in his house, 
aad reformed many things according to his 
eovnaeL The same boldness took divers 
others, as well within towns, as to land- 
ward; which did not a little trouble the 
Ushope and queen regent, as by this letter 
and credit committed to Sir David Hamilton 
froBs tiie bishop of St Andrews to the said 
eari of Argyle, may be clearly understood. 
The biahop*s letter to the old earl of Ar- 

" My lord, after most hearty commenda- 
tions, this is to advertise your lordship, we 
hare directed this bearer, our cousin, to- 
wards your lordship, in such business and 
aisirs as coooems your lordship's honour, 
profit, and great weal; like as the said 
bearer will declare [to] your lordship at more 
length. Praying your lordship effectnous- 
ly to advert thereto, and give attendance 
to OS, your lordship's friends, that aye have 
willed the honour, profit, and other wealth 
of your lordship's house, as of our own : 
aad credit to the bearer. And Jesus have 
yoor lordship in everlasting keeping. Off 
Bdinbmrgh, the 25th of March, anno 1558." 

Sic MibscridUur, 
Your lordship's, at all power, 
** St Andrews." 
FoUowa the Credit : 
Mamanm du m To Sir David Hamilton, to 

my lord earl of Argyle, in my behalf, and 

let him aee and hear every article. 

impnmii^ * To repeat the ancient blood 
of hia howe, bow long it has stood, how 
notable it hes heen^ and so many noble men 
have been earis^kMrds, knights thereof: how 
k>ng they hun reigned in these parts, 
ever troe and o hsdi s at both to God and the 
prince, withoot any mote [Uot or stain] in 
their days im any inanner of sort: and to 

remember how many notable men are come 
of his house. 

Seconcfy, ^ To show him the great affeo- 
tion I bear towards him, his blood, house, 
and firiends, and of the tfdent desire I have 
of the perpetoal stuiding of it in honour 
and fiune, with all them that are oome of 
it : which is my part, for many aad divers 
caiwes, as ye shall show. 

ThirtUy, " To show my lord, how heavy 
and displeasing a thing it is unto me now 
to hear, that he, who is and has been so 
noble a man, should be seduced and abused 
by the flattery of such an infamed person 
of the law, and mauswom apostate [as the 
foresaid John Douglas], who under the pre- 
tence that he gives himself forth as a 
preacher of the evangel and verity, under 
that colour sets forth schisms and divisions 
in the holy kirk of God, with heretical pro- 
positions, thinking that under his mainten- 
ance and defence, to infect this country 
with heresy, persuading my said lord, and 
others his bairns and friends, that all that 
he speaks is scripture, and conform thereto, 
albeit that many of his propositions are 
many years past condemned by the general 
councils, and the whole estate of christian 

Fourthly^ ** To show to my lord how pe- 
rilous this is to his lordship and his house, 
and decay thereof, in case the authority 
would be sharp, and would use both, con- 
form to civil and canon, and also your own 
municipal law of this realm. 

FiftMy, " To show his lordship how wae 
[sorry] I would be, either to hear, sec, or 
know any displeasure that might come to 
him, his son, or any of his house or friends; 
and especially in his own time and days. 
And also how great displeasure I have else 
[also] to hear great and evil bruit of him, 
that [he] should, now in his age, in a man- 
ner waver horn his £uth ; and, to be altered 
therein, when the time is that he should be 
most sure and firm therein. 

Sixthfy, •< To riiow his k>rdship that there 
is delation of that nun, called DougUw or 
Grant, of sundry articles of heresy, which 
lies to my charge and conscience to put re- 
medy to, or else all the pestilentions doo- 



[a. d. 1558 

trine he tows, and nicb like all that are oor- 
rapted by his doctrine, and all that he 
draws from oar fiuth and diristian religion, 
will lie to my charge before God ; and I to 
be accused before Ood for OTerseemg of 
him, if I pat not remedy thereto, and cor- 
rect him for soch things [as] he is delated 
of. And therefore that my lord consider, 
and weigh it well, how highly it lies both 
to my honoar and conscience : for if I thole 
[suffer] him, I will be accused for all them 
that he corrupts and infects in heresy. 

" Herefore, I pray my lord, in my most 
hearty manner, to take this matter in the 
best part, for his own conscience, honoar, 
and weal of himself, house, friends, and 
senrants ; and such like for my part, and for 
my conscience and honour, that considering 
that there are divers articles of heresy to 
be laid to him [Douglas], that he is delated 
of, and that he is presently in my lord's 
company: that my lord would by some 
honest way depart with this man, and put 
him from him, and from his son's company .* 
for I would be right sorry that any being in 
any of their companies should be called for 
such causes, or that any of them should be 
bruited to hold any such men. And this I 
would adyertise my lord, and have his lord- 
ship's answer and resolution, or any sum- 
mons passed on him, together with my 
lord's answer." 

Item, — '*lf my lord would have a man to 
instruct him truly in the faith, and preach 
to him, I would provide a cunning man to 
him, wherefore I shall answer for his true 
doctrine, and shall put [pledge] my soul there 
fore that he shall teach nothing but truly 
according to our catholic faith. Off Edin- 
burgh, this bst of March, 1558." 

Sic subscriintur, 

" St Andrews." 

Itcm^-^^ Attour [besides], your lordship 
shall draw to good remembrance, and weigh 
the great and heavy murmur against me, 
both by the queen's grace, the kirkmen, 
spirituid and temporal estates, and well 
given [disposed] people, moaning, crying 
and murmuring me greitomlie [greatly], 
that I do not my office, to thole [endure] 
such infamous persons, with such perversed 
doctrine, within my diocese, and this realm, 

by reason of my legateship and primacy ; 
which 1 have rather tostained and long aof- 
fered, for the great love I had to your lord- 
ship and posterity, and your friends, and yoor 
house : also believing surely yoor lordship's 
wisdom should not have maintained nod 
mailed [meddled] with sach thinga that 
might do me dishonour or displeasare, con- 
sidering I being ready to put good order 
thereto always; but has allenarly [only] 
abstained, for the love of yonr lordship and 
house foresaid, that I bear truly, knowing 
and seeing the great skaith [hurt] and 
dishonour and lack apparently that mif^ht 
come therethrough, in case your lord- 
ship remede not the same hastily, whereby 
we might both be quit of all danger, which 
doubtless will come upon us both, if I use 
not my office, or that he be called, in the 
time that he is now with your lordship, 
and under your lordship's protection." 

Subscribed again^ 

** St Andrews " 
Bythese former instructions, thou mayst 
perceive, gentle reader, what was the care 
that this pastor, with his complices, took to 
feed the flock committed to their charge, as 
they allege, and to gainstand false teachers. 
Here is oft mention of conscience, of he- 
resy, and such other terms, that may fray 
the ignorant, and [the] simple deceive. But 
we hear no crime in particular laid to the 
charge of the accused ; and yet is he damn- 
ed [condemned] as a manswom apostate. 
This was my lord's conscience, which he 
learned of his fathers, the pharisees, old 
enemies to Christ Jesus, who damned him 
before they heard him. But who ruled my 
lord's conscience, when he took his kins- 
man's wife, lady Oilton ? Consider you 
the rest of his persuasion, and you shall 
clearly see, that honour, estimation, love to 
house and inends, is the best ground that 
my lord bishop has, why he should perse- 
cute Jesus Christ in his members. We 
thought good to insert the answers of the 
said earl, which follow : 
Memorandum, — " This present writ is to 
make answer particularly to every arti- 
cle, directed by my lord of St Andrews, 
to me, with Sir David Hamilton, which 
articles are in number nine, and here 




^ftitod aod answered, at I tnut, to his 

loHslttp's ooDtentment" 

* The Jiref article puts me in remem- 
bnusee of tke antiquity of the blood of my 
hoMO ; bow many earls, lords, and knights 
luiTobeen thereof; how many^ noblemen de- 
iosnded finom the same house ; how long it 
fff^iinw^ true to God and the prince, 
without smote [blot] in their days, in any 
of sort" 
\ — ** True it is, my lord, that there 

well [good] long continuance of my 
by God's proyidence and beneyolence 
ef oiir princes, whom we have served, and 
shall aenre truly next to God. And the 
like obedience towards God and our princes 
ramains with us yet, or rather better — 
praised be the Lord's name— neither know 
we any spot towards our princess and her 
due obedience ; and if there be offence to- 
wards God, he is merciful to remit our of- 
fenoes ; for ' he willeth not the death of a 
sinner:' in like manner it stands in his 
osanipotent power to make up houses, or 
continue the same, to alter them, to make 
tiiem small or great, or to extinguish them, 
according to his own inscrutable wisdom ; 
for in exalting, depressing and changing of 
houses, the laud and praise must be given 
to that one eternal God, in whose hands the 
same stand." 

" The second article bears the great af- 
fection and love your lordship bears to- 
wards me and my house, and of the ardent 
desire ye have of the perpetual standing 
thereof in honour and fame, with all them 
that are oome of it" 

jlmiper^—-*' Forsooth, it is your duty to 
wiah good unto my house, and unto them 
that are come of the same, not allenarly 
for the fiuthfnlnesa, amity, and society that 
has been betwixt our forebears, but also for 
the late conjunction of blood that is betwixt 
onr said hoiises» if it be God's pleasure that 
it have sacosss; which should give suffi- 
cient ocfwcii to your lordship to wish 
good unto my house, and perpetuity with 
God's glory, wtthoat which nothing is per- 
petual, unto whsM be praise and worship 
for ever and ever." Amen, 

TAirdly, ** Your lordship dedares, how 
dispIeasiiJig it is to you, that I should be 

seduced by an infiuned person of the law, 
and by the flattery of a manswom apos- 
tate, that, under pretence of his fbrthgiving, 
makes us understand that he is a preacher 
of the evangel, and therewith raises schisms 
and divisions m the whole kirk of God; 
and by our maintenance and defence, would 
infect this country with heresy; alleging 
that to be scripture, which these many 
years bygone has been condemned as he- 
resy, by the general councils and whole 
estate of christian people." 

Answer, — ** The God that created heaven 
and earth, and all that therein is, preserve 
me from seduction; and I dread many 
others under the colour of godliness are 
seduced, and think that they do God a plea- 
sure, when they persecute any of tliem that 
profess his name. What that man is of the 
law we know not, we hear none of his flat- 
tery, his mansworn oath of apostasy is igno- 
rant [unknown] to us ; but if he had made 
an unlawful oath contrary God's command, 
it were better to violate it, than to ob- 
serve it ; he preaches nothing to us but 
the evangel ; if he would otherwise do, we 
would not believe him ; nor yet an angel 
of heaven. We hear him sow no schisms 
nor divisions, but such as may stand with 
God's word, which we shall cause him 
confess in presence of your lordship and 
the clergy, when ye require us thereto. 
And as to it that has been condemned by 
general councils, we trust ye know well 
that all the general councils have been 
at diversity among themselves, and never 
two of them universally agreeing in all 
points, in so much as they are of men; 
but the spirit of verity that bears testi- 
mony of our Lord Jesus has not, neither 
can err ; * For heaven and earth shall 
perish, ere one jot of it perish.' By this, 
my lord, neither teaches he, neither will 
we accept of him, but that which agrees 
with God's sincere word, set forth by pa- 
triarchs, prophets, apostles, and evangelists, 
left to our salvation in his express word ; 
and so, my lord, to condemn the doctrine 
not examined is not required; for when 
your lordship pleases to hear the confession 
of that man's faith, the manner of his doc- 
trine, which agrees with the evangel of 



[a. i>. 1MB 

Cbikty I will €MBe him to ainit to 
jttdgm«Di» and diiH be praent thereat with 
God'i pleatim^ theft he nay render reckon- 
iiy of hit behrf and our doctrine, to the •«- 
perior powen^ according^ to the presoription 
of that blood of the eternal Testament sealed 
by the immaculate Lamb, to whom, with 
the Father, and Holy Spirit, be all honour 
and iflory, for ever and eyer." Amen. 

** The Jwarth artide puts me in remem- 
brance how dangferous it is, if Uie authority 
would putt at [attack] me and my house* 
according to the civil and canon laws, and 
our own municipal laws of this realm, and 
how it appeareth to the decay of our 

Answer, — ^ All laws are— or at least 
should be — subject to God's laws, which 
laws should be first placed and planted in 
every man's heart ; it should have no im- 
pediment : men should not abrogate it, for 
the defence and upsetting of their own ad- 
vantage. U it would please authorities to 
putt at [attack] our house, for confessing of 
God's word, or for maintenance of his law, 
God is mighty enough in his own cause ; he 
should be rather obeyed nor [than] man. 
I will serve my princess with body, heart, 
goods, strength, and all that is in my power, 
except that which is God's duty [due], 
which I will rsserve to God alone, that is 
to worship him in truth and verity, and, as 
near as I can, conform to his prescribed 
word, to his own honour, and obedience of 
my princess." 

^ The Jifih article puts roe in remem- 
brance, how wae [sorry] your lordship 
would be to hear, see, or know any dis- 
pleasure that might come to me, my son, or 
any of my house, and specially in my time 
and days ; and also to hear die great and 
evil bruit of me, that I should now in my 
age, in a manner begin to waver from my 
flailh, and to be altered therein, when the 
time is that I should be most sure and firm 

Answer, — ** Your lordship's good will, is 
ever made manifest to me in all your arti- 
cles, that would not see, hear, or know of 
my displeasure ; for the which I am bound 
to render your lordship thanks, and shall do 
the same assuredly. But as for wavering 

in my &ith, God forbid that Ishoiddsodo. 
for * I believe in God the Father ahsightyl 
maker of heaven and earth, and in Jetaa 
Christ his only Sob oar Savk>nr.' Myktfd, 
Ivmynot in myfidth; bmi I praise God, 
that of hia goodness, now in my latter daya, 
hae of his infinite meroy opened his boeom 
of grace unto me^ to acknowledge hmi, tho 
eternal wisdom, his Son Jesus Christ a suf- 
ficient satisfaction, to refuse all manner of 
idolatry, superstitioai and ignorance, where- 
with I have been blinded in times bygone^ 
and now believe, that God will be merciful 
tome; for now he has declared his Messed 
will clearly to me^ before my departing this 
transitory lifo." 

" The sixth article declares, that there are 
delations of sundry points of heresy upon 
that man called Douglas or Grant, which 
lie to your charge and conscience to put 
remedy to, or else that all the pestilentious 
doctrine he sows, and all whom he corrupts 
with his seed, will be required at your 
hands, and all whom he draws from your 
christian faith; and if ye should thole 
[suffer] him, that ye will be accused for all 
them whom he infects with heresy; and, 
therefore, to regard your lordship's honour 
and conscience hereunto." 

^n^trer. — ** What is his surname I know 
not, but he calls himself Douglas; for I 
know neither his &ther nor his mother. I 
have heard him teach no articles of heresy ; 
but that which agrees with God's word; 
for I would maintain no man in heresy nor 
error. Your lordship regards your con- 
science in the punishment thereof. I pray 
God, that ye so do; and examine your 
conscience welL He preaches against ido- 
latry ; I remit to your lordship's conscience, 
if it be heresy or not. He preaches against 
adultery and fornication; I refor that to 
your lordship's conscience. He preaches 
against hypocrisy ; I refer that to your lord- 
ship's conscience. He preaches against all 
manner of abuses and corruption of Christ's 
sincere religion ; 1 refer that to your lord- 
ship's conscience. My lord, I exhort you, 
in Christ's name, to weigh all these sfiairs 
in your conscience, and consider, if it be 
your duty also, not only to thole this, but 
in like manner to do the same. This is all. 




■f toi,llMt lytryinmyag^AiidBootiier 
tak tkall knew BOt befora IheM of- 
ti V»«lK>iBiiiaUb to God, and now 
Ui will, by iiMUuf(Btt«tioD of his 

* TIm mMMih artiob dMiret om to 
wm^ lliiM vattera in HMMt hMity min- 
DMV ani lo tiUce them in bast part^ lor 
the ipaal of both our eonicieaoea, my 
haoatb ftitiidi^ aad aorvanta, and to pat 
wmh a aaan ont of my company, for fear 
of tha eyanbar and bruit that ahould fol- 
lovr thereon, by reason ha is delated 
of aaadry heveaiea: and that yoor lord- 
ship would ha sorry to hear any of onr 
samMDis dabted or bmited for sndi causes, 
or ior heUinf of any such man; and 
that your lordship would understand my 
awwor harsynto, or any summons passed 

wdn aMwr ^— " I thank your lordship great- 
ly, thai ya an ao solicitous for the weal of 
me and of my house, and are so humane, as 
to maka ma the advartiseBBent before ye 
have anmaMwad, of yoor own good will and 
henavolenoa; and I haye weighed tiiese 
aattai% as highly as my judgment can 
aarva sbm^ both for your lordship's honour 
aad mine. And when I haye reasoned all 
that I can do with myself in it, I think it 
aye bast to aenra God, and obey his manifost 
ward, and not ha obstinate in the contrary : 
sy»a (nazt] to giTe their due obedience to 
the princM^ mlars, and magistrates, and to 
hav tha Toioe of God's piophets, declaring 
hia goad prosaises to them that repent, and 
to obatinate wicked doers, eyer- 
Your lordship knows 
waO Iha man; ha has spoken with your 
lordsluf : I thovg^t you content with him : 
I hoard ao oaeadUm of oflfence in him; I 
caaaoi waU want him, or some preacher. 
I aanMi p«(t nway audi a man, without I 
kaaw him an offBader, as 1 know not; 
for I haar nathing of him, but such aa 
yow laBiittp^aadif heard of him, and auoh 
aa Iw yii will pro f aas in your preaenee, 
whanofar jomr lardahip requirea. Such a 
nun that 'm faady to sbt himself to judg- 
ment, should not be expelled without cog- 
oitioo of tha aanaa ; for, like aa I answer- 
ed before in aaatkar article, when your 

fordship pleaaea that all tha spiritual and 
tampond man'of eatala of Scotland be con- 
vened, I shall caaae him rsnd^ an account 
of his belief and doctrine in your presences ; 
then^ if he deaarrea pimisbment and cor- 
rection, let him so suffer ; if he be found 
foitbfiil, Ut him live in hia foith." 

**The eighA article propones unto me, 
that your lordship would take the labour to 
get me a man to instruct me in your catho- 
lic fidth, and to be my preacher, for whoae 
doctrine ye would lay your soul, that he 
would teach nothing but truly conform to 
your foith." 

Answer, '^^ God Almighty send ns many 
of that sort, that will preach truly, and no- 
thing but a catholic universal diristian 
foith ; and we Highland rude people have 
mister [need] of them. And if jrour 
lordship would get and provide me such a 
man, I should provide him a corporal liv- 
ing, as to myself with great thanks to your 
lordship; for truly, I and many nHMre 
have great mister [need] of such men. And 
because I am able to sustain more nor [than] 
one of them, I will request your lordship 
earnestly to provide me such a man as ye 
wrote, ' for the harvest is great, and there 
are fow labourers.' " 

** The lasi and ninth artide puta me in 
remembrance to consider what murmur 
your lordship tholes, and great bruit, at 
many men's hands, both spiritual and tem- 
poral, and at the queen's grace's hand, and 
other well given people, for not putting of 
order to their afiairs ; and that your lord- 
ship has abstained from execution hereof, 
for love of my house and posterity, to the 
effect that myself should remedy it, for 
fear of the diahonour might come upon us 
both for tha same ; whidi being remedied, 
might bring ua ont of all danger." 

Answer, — " My lord, I know well what 
Buirmnr and indignation your lordship 
tholes at enemiea' handa of all estatea, 
for non-pursuing of poor simple Christiana ; 
and I know, that if yoor lordahip would use 
their counaal, that would be Uood-shed- 
ding and burning of poor aimple men, to 
make yoor lordahip serve their wicked ap- 
petitea ; yet your lordahip knows your own 
duty, and should not foar the danger of 



[a. b. 16flB 

as of him whon ye profew. And 
Tcrily, my lord, ikvn is noUiiiig that may 
be to your lordahip's relief in this behalf, 
bat I will use your lordship's ooonsel heie- 
nntil, and further the same, God's honour 
bein^ first provided, and the truth of his 
eternal word haying liberty; and to ab- 
stain for my love from pursuit, as your 
lordship has signified, I am addebted to 
your lordship, as 1 have written divers 
times before; but there is one above, for 
whose fear ye must abstain from blood- 
shedding, or else, my lord, knock on 
[wound] your conscience. Last of all, please 
your lordship to consider how desirous 
some are to sow sedition amongst friends ; 
how mighty the devil is to sow discord ; 
how that many would desire no better 
game but to hunt us at [each] other. I pray 
your lordship beguile them ; we^ will agree 
upon all purposes with Ood's pleasure, 
standing to his honour. There are divers 
houses in Scotland by [beside] us, that pro- 
fess the same God secretly ; they desire but 
that ye begin the baigain [fight] at us ; and 
when it begins at us, God knows the end 
thereof, and who shall abide the next putt 
[attack]. My lord, consider this, make no 
preparative of us : let not the vain exhorta- 
tion of them that regard little the strength 
and weal of both of our houses, stir up 
your lordship, as they would, to do against 
God, your own conscience, and the weal of 
your posterity for ever; and, therefore, now 
in the end, I pray your lordship, weigh 
these things wisely ; and if ye do otherwise, 
God is God, was, and shall be God, when 
all is wrought that man can work.** 

This answer received, the bishop and his 
complices found themselves somewhat dis- 
appointed ; for the bishops looked for no- 
thing less than for such answer from the 
earl of Argyle ; and, therefore, they made 
them for their extreme defence, that is, to 
corrupt, and by buds [bribes] to stir up the 
queen regent in our contrary ; as in the se- 
cond book we shall more clearly hear. 
Short after this, the Lord called to his 
mercy the said earl of Argyle from the 
miseries of this life ; whereof the bishops 
were glad ; for they thought that their great 
enemy was taken out of their way, but God 

disappointed them: lor as the said eul do- 
parted most oonstant in the true halh «£ 
Jesus Christ, with a plain renunciatMm of 
all impiety, superstition, and idolatry; to 
left he it in his testament to his son, that 
he should study to set forward the public 
and true preaching of the evangel of Jesus 
Christ, and to suppress all snperrtition and 
idolatry to the uttermost of his power. In 
which point small fault can be found with 
him to this day, the 10th of May, anno 
1568.* God be merciful to his other of- 
fences. JtMeH. 

The bUnd, crooked, bedrali^ widows^ or- 
phans, and all other poor, so visited by the 
hand of God as may not [cannot] work. 
To the flocks of all friars within this realm 
we wish restitution of wrongs bypast, 
and reformation in times coming for sal- 

<* Ye yourselves are not ignorant, and 
though ye would be, it is now — ^thanks to 
God — well known to the whole world, by 
his most infallible word, that the benignity 
or alms of all christian people pertains to 
us allenarly [only] ; which ye, being whole 
of body, stark, sturdy, and able to work, 
what under pretence of poverty, and never- 
theless possessing most easily all abundance, 
what through cloaked and hooded simpli- 
city, though your proudness is known, and 
what feigned holiness, which now is declared 
superstition and idolatry, have these many 
years, express against God's word and the 
practice of his holy apostles, to our great 
torment, alas ! most falsely stolen from us. 
And as ye have by your false doctrine and 
wresting of God's word — Gleamed of your 
father Satan — ^induced the whole people, 
high and low, in sure hope of belief, that 
to clothe, feed, and nourish you, is the only 
most acceptable alms allowed before God ; 
and to give a penny or a piece of bread 
once in the week, is enough for us. Even 
so ye have persuaded them to big to you 
great hospitals, and maintain you therein 
by their purse, which only pertains now to 
us by all law, as bigged and doted [devoted} 

* From this it woald appear that Knox was 
employed two yean in writing this bit first 
book, lee pH« 8^ which is dated 1666. 




to tiM poor, of whose nnrober je are not, 
•er CHI be repute, neither by die law of 
CM, Bor jtt by no other law proceeding 
of Mitiirfl^ mson, or civil policy. Where- 
fore Bftmg our number is so great, so indi- 
geoi; aad so heavily oppressed by your fidse 
that none takes care of our misery : 
that it is better for us to provide these 
impotent members, which God has 
given 11% to oppone to you in plain contro- 
Teray, than to see you hereafter, as ye have 
done before, steal from us our livings, and 
oaraehres, in the meantime, to perish and 
die for want of the same. We have 
tbooght good, therefore, ere we enter with 
yoa in oonflict, to warn you, in the name 
of the great God, by this public writing, 
affixed on your gates where ye now dwell, 
that ye remove forth of our said hospitals, 
betwixt this and the feast of Whitsunday 
next ; ao that we, the only lawful proprie- 
ten thereof, may enter thereto, and alFter- 
wards ^oy the commodities of the kirk, 
whidi ye have hereunto wrongously holden 
firom OS. Certifying you, and [if] ye fail, 
we wiU at the said term, in whole number, 
with the help of God, and the assistance of 
his saints on earth,— -of whose ready sup- 
port we doubt not,— enter and take posses- 
sion of oar said patrimony, and eject you 
utterly forth of the same." 
Let him therefore that before has stolen, 
steal no more, but rather let him work 
with his hands, that he may be helpful 
to the poor. 

From the whole cities, toums, 

and tillages of Scotland, the 

Jirst dt^ ofJmmary 1558. 

The bishops continued in their provin- 
' cial coonsei even unto that day that John 
Knox arrived in Scotland ; and that they 
migfat give some show to the people that 
they innded pntended] reformation, they 
spaned abrond a rumour thereof, and set 
fotth aiHMwbat in print, which, of the peo- 
ple, waa edlad, « The Twopenny Faith." 
Among tbsir wHm^ there was much ado for 
caps, shaven croiwBs, tippets, long gowns, 
and such other triias. 

I. litem. That none should enjoy office 
or benefice eodeoaatical, except a priest 

II. hem^ That no kirkman should nou- 
rish his own bairn in his own company, but 
that every one should hold the children of 

IIL That none should put his own son 
in his own benefice. 

IV. That if any were found in open 
adultery, for the first fault he should lose 
the third of his benefice ; for the second 
crime, the half; and for the third, the whole 

But herefrom appealed the bishop of 
Murray, and other prelates, saying, '* That 
they would abide at the canon law." And 
so they might well enough do, so long 
as they remained interpreters, dispensators, 
makers and disannullers of that law. But 
let the same law have the true interpreta- 
tion and just execution, and the devil shall 
as soon be proven a true and obedient ser- 
vant to God, as any of that sort shall be 
proven a bishop, or yet to have any just 
authority within the church of Christ Jesus. 
But we return to our history. 

The persecution was decreed, as well by 
the queen regent as by the prelates ; but 
there rested [remained] a point, which the 
queen regent and France had not at that 
time obtained, to wit. That the crown ma- 
trimonial should be granted to Francis, hus- 
band to our sovereign, and so should France 
and Scotland be but one kingdom, the sub- 
jects of both realms to have equal liberties, 
Scotsmen in France, and Frenchmen in 
Scotland. The glister of the profit that 
was judged hereof to have ensued to Scots- 
men, at the first sight, blinded many men's 
eyes; but a small wind caused that mist 
suddenly to evanish away ; for the greatest 
offices and benefices within the realm were 
appointed for Frenchmen. Monsieur Ruby 
kept the great seal, Vielmort was controll- 
er; Melross and Kelso should have been a 
commend [commendators] to the poor car- 
dinal of Lorraine ; the fl^sedoms of Scotish 
merchants were restrained in Rouen, and 
they compelled to pay toll and taxations, 
other than their ancient liberties did bear. 
To bring this head to pass, to wit, to get 
the matrimonial crown, the queen regent 
left no point of the oompaas unassailed. 




With Qki$ biihopt and j^rittl* sIm prmctued 
on this jBaBDir. 

^ Te maj dMrly tea, that I cannot 4o 
what I would within this realm ; for thrni 
haratica and oonfederatea of England are ao 
bonded together, that they stop all good 
order; but will ye be &TOfirable nnto me 
in thia aoit^ of the matrimonial orown to 
be granted to m j danghter^a hnaband, then 
ahall ye aee how I ihall handle theie here* 
tics and traitors ere it be long.'* And in 
Tery deed, in these her promiaes, die meant 
no deceit in that behal£ 

Unto the protestants, ahe aaid, ** I am 
not nnmindfal how oft ye haye sued me 
for reformation in religion, and gladly would 
I consent thereunto; but ye see the power 
and craft of the bishop of St Andrews, to- 
gether with the power of the duke^ and of 
the kirkmen, ever to he bent against me in 
all my proceedings; so that I may do no- 
thing unless the full authority of this realm 
be devolved to the king of France, which 
cannot be but by donation of the crown 
matrimonial which thix^ ii ye will bring 

to pass^ then darae ye what yoo ploaae in 

matters of religion, and thay ahall be grant- 
ed." With thia oonmiamm and cndit 
lord Jiames^ than prior of St Andrews^ 
jrect to the carl of Aigyla^ with many 
other promiaea than we list to rthearaa. 
By each dwaimnlaHon to thoaa that were 
simple and troa of hearty inflamed she them 
to be more forvent in her petitJoiy than 
herself appeared to be: and ao at the par- 
liament, holdan at £dinbnigh in the month 
of October, the year of CM 1558, it was 
deariy voted, no man reclaiming; except 
the duke for his interest ; and yet for it 
there waa no better law prodnced, except 
that there waa a solemn mass ^pointed for 
that purpose in the pontifical. This head 
obtained, whereat France and she princi^ 
pally aho^ what foith she kept unto the 
protestants, in this our second book shall 
be declared; in the beginning whereof we 
must more amply rehesne some thing% 
that in this our first are aommarily touch- 








YEAR OF ODD 1558. 

OuB porpoM was to baye mad« the be- 
flf oar history from the things that 
doM horn the year of Ood 1558, tiU 
tiM rafomation of religion, which of God's 
mercj we onee possessed ; and jet, in doo- 
tria« aad in the right use of administration 
«f snorameBts, do possess. 

Bot because divers of the godly, as before 
is said, earnestly required, that such persons 
as Ood raised up in the midst of darkness, 
to oppotie themselves to the same, should 
not be omitted, we obeyed their request. 

and have made a short rehearsal of all such 
matters as concern religion, from the death 
of that notable servant of God, Mr Patrick 
Hamilton, unto the foresaid year, when 
that it pleased Ood to look upon us more 
meroifidly than we deserved, and to give 
unto us greater boldness — albeit not without 
haaard and trouble— and better success in 
all our enterprises than we looked for, as 
the true narration of this second book shall 
witnees. The preikce whereof follows : 


Lor ikai fiattti by our long silence 
skaQ tnko oeoMioa to blaspheme, and to 
llsaisr na tlM protestants of the realm of 
flnotlaad, as tkal our foot tended rather to 
sedilkm sad gsbsilioB, than to reformation 
of nuumaa sad abases in religion ; we have 
thought S¥|iiiiaBt, m truly and briefly as 
we oan, to ooaMit to writing the causes 
moving as — oi^ we say, a great part of the 
nohUitf and boioos of the realm-^^to take 
the sword of jaat defence, against thoee 

that most ui\ju8tly seek our destruction. 
And in this our confession we shall faith- 
fully declare what moved us to put our 
hands to the reformation of religion ; how 
we have proceeded in the same ; what we 
have asked, and what presently we require 
of the sacred authority ; to the end that 
our cause being known, as well our enemies 
as our brethren in all realms, may undei^ 
stand how falsely we are accused of tumult 
and rebellion, and how unjustly we are per- 




Mooted bjFnuMQ»indbj their frotioii: m 
alio that our brethren, luitiinl SootaMn, 
of whetweter religion they be, mgr hwre o©- 
flMion to enminate thenidTeiy if thef n^r 

with safe oonseittioe oppone themaelfei to 
ns, who eeek nothing but ** Chriit Jeeni his 
glorious oTangel to be preaohed, his holy 
sacraments to be truly ministered, supersti- 
tion, tyranny, and idolatry to be suppressed 
in this reaUn ;" and, finally, • The Uberty 
of this our native oountry to remain free 
lirom the bondage and tyranny of strangers." 
While that the queen regent practised 
with the prelates, how that Christ Jesus 
his blessed eyangel might utterly be sup- 
pressed within Scotland, Ood so blessed the 
labours of his weak serrants, that no small 
part of the barons of this realm began to 
abhor the tyranny of the bishops : Ood did 
so open their eyes by the light of his word, 
that they could clearly discern betwixt ido- 
latry and the true honouring of Ood : yea, 
men almost universally began to doubt 
whether they might— Ood not offended — 
give their bodily presence to the mass, or 
yet offer their children to the papistical 
baptism. To the which doubts, when the 
most godly and most learned in Europe had 
answered, both by word and writ, affirming, 
** That neither of both we might do, with- 
out the extreme perils of our souls,'* we be- 
gan to be more troubled ; for then also be- 
gan men of estimation, and that bore rule 
amongst us, to examinate themselves con- 
cerning their duties, as well towards refor- 
mation of religion, as toward the just de- 
fonoe of their brethren most cruelly perse- 
cuted. And so began divers questions to 
be moved, to wit, ** If that with safe con- 
science such as were judges, lords, and 
rulers of the people, might serve the upper 
powers in maintaining of idolatry, in perse- 
cuting their brethren, and in suppressing 
Christ's truth ?" Or, « Whetiier they to 
whom Ood in some case had committed the 
sword of justice, might suffer the blood of 
their brethren to be shed in their presence, 
without any declaration that such tjnranny 
displeased them ?" By the phdn scriptures 
it was found, *< That a lively futh required 
a plain confession when Christ's truth is 

oppogned, tint not only are they guilty that 
do evil, but also they tliat Msent to erit*' 
And plain it is, that they aMnt to evD, wiio 
seeing iniquity openly committed, by their 
tilenoe seem to justify and allow wfaatsoover 
is done. 

These things bdag reaolved, and anfli- 
dently proven by evident scriptorea of 
God, we began every man to look more di- 
ligentiy to his sslvation : lor the idolatry 
and tyrsnny of the dergy, called the church- 
men, were and are so manifest, that whoso- 
ever doth deny it, dedareth himself igno- 
rant of Ood, and enemy to Christ Jesus. 
We therefore, with humble confession of 
our former oflEences, with fasting and sup- 
plication to Ood, began to seek some re- 
medy in so present a danger. And first, it 
was conduded, ** That the brethren in 
every town at certain times should assem- 
ble together, to common prayers, to exer- 
cise, and reading of the scriptures, till it 
should please Ood to give the sermon [word] 
of exhortation to some for comfort and in- 
struction of the rest" 

And this our weak beginning did Ood 
so bless, that within a few months the 
hearts of many were so strengthened, that 
we sought to have the hoe of a church 
amongst us, and open crimes to be punish- 
ed without respect of person : and for that 
purpose, by common election, were elders 
appointed, to whom the whole brethren 
promised obedience: for at that time we 
had no public ministers of the word ; only 
did certain zeslous men, amongst whom 
were the laird of Dun, David Forrest, Mr 
Robert Lockhart, Mr Robert Hamilton, 
William Hariow, and others, exhort their 
brethren, according to the gifts and graces 
granted unto them. But short alter did God 
stir up his servant, Paul Mefian, — his Ut- 
ter fall ought not to deface the work of 
Ood in him, • — ^who in boldness of spirit be- 
gan openly to preach Christ Jesus in Dun- 
dee, in divers parts of Angus, and in Fife ; 
and so did Ood work with him, that many 
began openly to renounce their old idolatry, 

The mesniDf of this will appesr io tiM lile* 




and to submit themtelTfls to Christ Jesus, 
sad unto his blessed ordinances ; insomuch 
tliat the town of Dundee began to erect the 
fooe of a yuUic church reformed, in the 
which the word was openly preached, and 
Christ's sacraments truly ministered. 

In this meantime did God send to us our 
dear brother^ John WiUock, a man godly, 
leanitd, and gnre, who, after his short 
abode at Dundee, repaired to Edinbui^h, 
and there^ notwithstanding his long and 
dai^gerons sickness, did so encourage the 
brethren by godly exhortations, that we 
began to deliberato upon some public refor- 
matioo ; for the corruption in religion was 
such, that with safe conscience we could 
no longer sustain it Yet because we would 
attempt nothing without the knowledge of 
the aacred authority, with one consent. 

after the deliberation of many days^ it was 
condttded, that by our publio and common 
supplication, we should attempt the fiiTour, 
support, and assistance of the queen, then 
regent, to a godly reformation : and for that 
purpose, after that we had drawn our oration 
and petition as followeth, we appointed 
from amongst us a man whose age and 
years deserved reverence, whose honesty 
and worship might have craved audience of 
any nuigistrato in earth, and whose faithful 
service to the authority in all times had 
been such, that in him could &11 no suspi> 
don of unlawful disobedience. This orator 
was that andent and honourable father, 8ir 
James Sandilands of Calder, knight, to 
whom we gave commission and power in 
all our names then present, before the 
queen regent thus to speak. 





Albeit we have of long time contained 
ourselves in that modesty — most noble 
priocesa — that neither the exile of body, 
tinafll [loes] of goods, nor perishing of this 
mortal life was able to convene us to ask at 
yoor grace reformation and redress of those 
wrongs^ and of that sore grief, patiently 
borne ef us in bodies and minds of so long 
time; yet are we now, of very consdence, 
and by the lear of our Ood, compelled to 
crave at your grace's feet, remedy against 
the iMMt nnjost tyranny used against your 
graesTa mmX obedient subjects, by those that 
be ealM the estate ecclesiastical Your 
grace cmioi be ignorant what controversy 
hath been, and yet is, concerning the true 
religion, and rijght worshipping of God ; and 
how the cleigy—aa they will be termed — 
usurp to themselves such empire above the 
conscienoe o£ men, that whatsoever they 

command must be obeyed, and M'hatsoever 
they forbid must be avoided, without farther 
respect had to God's pleasure, command- 
ment, or will revealed to us in his most holy 
word, or else there abideth nothing for us 
but fiiggot, fire and sword; by the which 
many of our brethren, most cruelly and 
most unjustly, have been stricken of late 
years within this realm, which now we find 
to trouble and wound our consdences. For 
we acknowledge it to have been our bounden 
duties before Ood, either to have defended 
our brethren from those cruel murdererSf 
seeing we are a part of that power which 
God had established in this realm,* or else 

* The reformers here distinotly state the 
ground, and the only ground, on which they 
could lawfully resist the dvll power. They felt 
it their duty to take up arms, not in oppoeitlsii 




[a. d. 1U8 

to hare given open teetificatioD of our (kith 
with them, which now we offer ouneWes 
to do, lest that by onr continual silence we 
shall seem to justify their cruel tyranny; 
which doth not only displease us, but your 
grace's wisdom most prudently doth foresee, 
that for the quieting of this intestine dissen- 
tion, a public reformation, as well in the re- 
ligion, as in the temporal government, were 
most necessary; and to the performance 
thereof, most gravely and most godly, as we 
are informed, ye have exhorted as well the 
clergy as the nobility, to employ their study, 
diligence, and care. We, therefore, of con- 
science, dare no longer dissemble in so 
weighty a matter, which concerneth the 
glory of God and oar salvation: neither 
now dare we withdraw our presence, nor 
conceal our petitions; lest that the adver- 
saries hereafter shall object to us, that place 
was granted to reformation, and yet no 
man solicited for the same, and so shall 
our silence be prejudicial to us in time to 
come. And, therefore, we knowing no 
other order placed in this realm but your 
grace, and your grave counsel, set to amend 
as well the disorder ecclesiastical, as the 
defaults in the temporal regimen, most 
humbly prostrate ourselves before your feet, 
asking your justice, and your gracious help, 
against them that falsely traduce and accuse 
us, as that we were heretics and schismatics, 
under that colour seeking our destruction, 
for that we seek the amendment of their 
corrupt liyes, and Christ's religion to be re- 
stored to the original purity. Farther, we 
crave of your grace, with open and patient 
ears, to hear tiiose our subsequent requests ; 
and, to the joy and satisfaction of our 
troubled consciences, mercifully to grant 
the same, unless by God's plain word any 
be able to prove that justly they ought to 
be denied. 

to the law, but to lawless riolenoe and murder. 
Neither was it, at least at this period, in defence 
of the gospel, but of their rights and privileges 
as subjects and citizens. They saw many of their 
fellow subjects put to death at the mere will of 
the clergy, without being legally conricted of 
any crime, but because they exercised the right 
of Judging for tbemselres of the meaning of 
Ood's word, and of worshipping acoording as 
they understood him tooommand. This was a 
civil right which they po w wed by the law of 


" First, Humbly we ask, that as we have, 
of the laws of this realm, after long debate, 
obtained to read the holy books of the Old 
and New Testaments, in our common 
tongue, as spiritual food to our souls, so 
from henceforth it may be lawful that we 
may convene, publicly or privately, to our 
common prayers, in our vulgar tongue ; to 
the end that we may increase and grow in 
knowledge, and be induced, in fervent and 
oft prayers, to commend to God the holy 
church universal, the queen our sovereign, 
her honourable and gracions husband, the 
stability of their succession, your grace re- 
gent, the nobility, and whole estate of this 

" Secondly, If it shall happen in our 
said conventions any hard place of scrip- 
ture to be read, of the which no profit 
ariseth to the conveners, that it shall be 
lawful to any qualified person in know- 
ledge, being present, to interpret and open 
up the said hard places, to God's glory and 
to the profit of the auditory. And if any 
think that this liberty should be occasion Oa 
confusion, debate, or heresy; we are con- 
tent that it be provided, that the said inter- 
pretation shall underlie the judgment of 
the most godly and most learned within 
the realm at this time. 

*< Thirdly, That the holy sacrament of 
baptism may be used in the vulgar tongue ; 
that the godfathers and witnesses may not 
only understand the points of the league 
and contract made betwixt God and the in- 
fimt, but also that the church then assem- 
bled, more gravely may be informed and in- 
structed of their duties, which at all times 
they owe to God, according to that pro- 
mise made unto him, when they were re- 
ceived into his household by the laver of 
spiritual regeneration. * 

the land as it stood even then. It was only tha 
usurped authority of the church that made it 
unlavrful to believe and worship according to 
the word of God ; and our reformers did right 
to resist such usurped authority by force, when 
they saw that milder measures had no effSsct ; 
and when they found themselves strong eooog li 
to protect their brethren who were no more 
guilty of any crime than themselves.— £tf. 

* Tbehoiffaageofthisarticde shows that tb«y 
were not folly aware of the nature of christian 




* Fbttr^t We denn, that the sacra- 
■CBl of the Lord's rapper, or of his most 
bhwed body and blood, may likewise be 
ouniaterad to na in the Tiilgar tongue, and 
in both kinds, according to the plain insti- 
tntioo of ottr Saviour Christ Jesus. 

** And Idff^ We most humbly require, 
that the wicked, slanderous, and detestable 
fife of prelates, and of the state ecclesiasti- 
cal, nay be so reformed, that the people by 

baptimi, which U not lo be wondered at, seeing 
they had to mneh to unlearn as well as to learn. 
It waa not loof till they understood the subject 
better, as appears by the foUowinf extract from 
Knoz'a Utnivy (so titled on the bock), under 
•* The order of Baptism.'* ** Furthermore it is evi- 
dent, that baptism was ordained to be ministered 
Ib Um element of water, to ti*ach us, that like as 
water doth wash away the filth of the body, so 
iawardiy doth the virtue of Christ's blood purge 
•or aeau from that corruption and deadly poison 
wkevewith by nature we were infected, whose 
venomoos drsn, although the^ continue in this 
our flesh, yet by the merits ot his death are not 
hnp uf d onto oa, because the Justice (righteous- 
boss} of Jesus Christ is made ours by Iwptism ; 
oat that we think any such virtue or power to 
ho Included in the risible water or outward 
actjan, lor many hare been baptized, and yet 
iMvsr inwardly purged, but that our SaTiour 
Christ, who Commanded baptism to be minister- 
ed, wOJ, l>y the power of his Holy Spirit, effiect- 
naJly work in the hearts of his elect in time 
eonveoient, all that is meant and signified by 
theaame. And this the scripture oilleth our 
rsvencration, which standeth chiefly in these two 
pmnfe. In mortification, that is to say, a resiat- 
mg of the rebellious lusts of the fiesh, and in 
the nowDess of life, whereby we continually 
striTc to walk in that pureness and perfection 
wherewith we are clad in baptism. * This, 
thocu^ much better than the article in the above 
petluoo, ia somewhat confused, especially at the 
, which seems to admit some sort of 
rtftneration. It is uncertain what 
Kdool had in this composition. The copv 
in wj paSMasioo has his name only on the back 
of 11^ and it must be a reprint, as It bears date, 
Bdioborgh, 16SS, and contains a praver for the 
theoia^^dng king Charlee I. and his queen, 
which auMt be an interpolation. The volume Is 
as Jarya aa the Engibh prayer book ; but the 
bulk of it cooslata of a metre version of the 
paalaaB in largo print, many of them set to music, 
with the Bce ae version in a small type in the 
aaargjhb xhe prarers are few and short, and 
aaeaa tahafo haan intended rather as directoriee 
for prayw, than preacribed forms. Thus, under 
the •* ainrtalaliatlgn of the Lord's supper,** we 
liaTO aa W h m ; ** Then he taketh bread, and 
l^reth thanks kilhase words following, or Hke 
tn effecU** Oa fnaenting a child for baptism. 
It ia raaafaned, tint** the lather, or in bis absence, 
the god-ihtlMr, shall rehearse the articles of his 
laith, which dona» the minister ezpoundeth 
the aamo, as after fUloweth." There are then 
five pagaa of an axpoaition of the apostles* creed, 
Ibor haada, Isf, concerning God the 

them have not occasion, as of many days 
they have had, to contemn their ministry, 
and the preaching [gospel] whereof they 
should be messengers. And if they suspect, 
that we, rather enyying their honours, or 
coveting their riches and possessions, than 
zealously desiring their amendment and sal- 
▼ation, do travail and labour for this refor- 
mation ; we are content that not only the 
rules and precepts of the New Testament^ 

Father; %d^ Jesus Christ our Lord; Sc/, our 
faith in the Holy Ghost; Uh, what is our fldth 
concerning the church. A short prayer pre- 
cedee the baptism; no ceremony whatever is 
enjoined ; but simply after the words, I baptize, 
&C., "and as he speaketh theao words, he taketh 
water In his hand, and layeth it upon the child's 
forehead, which done, he giveth thanks as fol- 
loweth;" concluding with a very short prayer. 
I have often wondered that our reformers did 
not see in the ordinance of baptism thus simply 
administered, something quite different from 
what the church of Home calls *< the sacrament 
that regenerates us." They knew that the Lord's 
supper was vitiated by having the most siimlfi. 
cant of the two sjrmbols taken away. But a 
divine ordinance may l>e as much vitiated by cor- 
rupt and idolatrous additions as by mutilation. 
This is the case with popish baptism. To the sim- 
ple application of water, and that only as a sign, 
which is all that Christ requires, they add salt, 
oil or grease, saliva, and such nastinees, with 
the idoUtrous sign of the cross, &c., to all which 
combined, they ascribe the power of the Holy 
Ghost In effecting the regeneration of every per* 
son who is subject to such a procees. lais is 
not the ordinance that Christ instituted ; and 
thoee who had received no k)etter, ought to have 
been baptized with their households, when they 
professed the faith of the gospel, just as the 
apostles did to those who were converted from 
Judaism or heathenism. Had the reformers 
been enlightened to have acted in this manner, 
it would have saved the protestant churches 
from the intrusion of thousands of worldly and 
wicked men, who had no title to christian it v 
but what arose from their chrutenittg, which 
they regarded with such superstitious reverence, 
that few would have renounced it but thoee 
who had really embraced the truth. The church 
of Home treats protestants as nnbaptized ; and 
such of them as are silly enough to become 
papists, must submit to popish baptism. Per- 
haps we would do weU, in this at least, to 
take an example firom an enemy. From cer- 
tain irreguUritiee in the obeervance of a divine 
ordinance in the Corinthian church, the apostle 
Paul told them, ** This is not to eat the Lord's 
Supper ;" and had such fooleries been practised 
with regard to the other christian institution, I 
think he would have said, this is not baptism. I 
recollect of only one of the reformers woo view- 
ed the subject in this light. Henry Forrest, 
who was burnt in St Andrews, as already rela- 
ted, p. 19, when they were djMrading him from 
his '* holy orders," said, ** Take from me not 
only your own orders, but also vour own bap- 
tism.^'— £d. 



La. 9. IM6 

but alio the writings of the ancient fathers, 
and the godly approved laws of Justinian, 
decide the controTcrsy that is betwixt as 
and them : and if it shall be found, that 
Mther malevolently or ignorantly, we ask 
more than these three forenamed have re- 
quired, and continually do require of able 
and true ministers of Chrisfs church, we 
refuse, not correction, as your grace, with 
right judgment, shall think meet. But and 
if all the forenamed shall damn that which 
we damn, and approve that which we re- 
quire, then we most earnestly beseech your 
grace^ that notwithstanding the long con- 
suetude which they have had to live 
as they list, they be compelled to desist 
from ecclesiastical administration, or to dis- 
charge their duties as becometh true minis- 
ters; so that the grave and godly face of 
the primitive church reduced [being thus 
restored], ignorance may be expelled, true 
doctrine and good manners may once again 
appear in the church of this realm. These 
things we, as most obedient subjects, re- 
quire of your grace, in the name of the 
eternal God, and of his son Jesus Christ ; 
in presence of whose throne judicial, ye 
and all other that here on earth bear au- 
thority, shall give accounts of your tem- 
poral regimen. The spirit of the Lord 

* The reader muat be struck with the great 
moderation of this petition, and the very small 
demand that was at first made by the rerormiog 
nobles. It would appear that they had not yet 
entertained the thoagnt of overtaming the esta- 
blished religion, bat merely of reforming abuses 
In It. Had the clergy consented to reform their 
own lires, and to permit the preaching of the 
gospel, with the aaministration of ordinances, 
their order might, so fisr as appears, hare been 
soffiBred to continue in all its jspradations, and 
with all their endowments. But by refusing 
to concede what was reasonable, and compara- 
tively small, they provoked the reformers to 
take higher ground, and ultimately to overthrow 
the Romish religion, and get that of the refor- 
mation established in its stead. But though 
their demand was moderate, it embraced too 
many particulars. They should have content- 
ed themselves with claiming their civil right to 
worship God as they pleased, without being sub- 
ject to the interference of either church or state, 
prince or prelate. When they condescended on 
particulars, such as preaching the word, and the 
administration of sacraments, they concede to 
the civil power a right to judge of these things ; 
a right to grant liberty of conscience in certain 
matters purely religious, which implies a right 

Jesus noTe your gnoe s heart to jostios 
and equity. Ameii«" * 

These our petitions beiai^'propoiiedy ^ 
estate ecdesiastioal began to atom, aiid to 
devise all manner of lies to defiMM tlM 
equity of our cause. They braggod as 
though they would have public dispute- 
tion, which also we most earnestly requir- 
ed, two things being provided; the former^ 
that the plain and written scriptures of 
God should decide all controversy: Se- 
condly, That our brethren, of whom some 
were then exiled, and by them unjustly 
damned, should have free access to the said 
disputation, and safe conduct to return to 
their dwelling places, notwithstanding^ any 
process which before had been laid against 
them in matters concerning religton. But 
these being by them utteriy denied, — for 
no judge would they admit but themselves 
their counsels, and canon law, — ^they and 
their Action began to draw certain articles 
of reconciliation, promising to us, if we 
would admit the mass, to stand in her for- 
mer reverence and estimation, grant pmqgm- 
tory after this life, confess prayer to saints 
and for the dead, and suffer them to enjoy 
their accustomed rents, possession, and ho- 
nour, that then they would grant to us to 
pray and baptize in the vulgar tongue, so 

to withhold such liberty, with r^ard to the 
same things ; or at least with regvd to other 
things, equally of a religious nature, not em- 
braced by their petition. JHad they obtained for 
instance, all that they claimed on this occasion, 
it would only have been the preaching of the 
word, and the administration of sacraments, 
according to the then half enlightened state of 
their own minds ; and they would have had a 
new battle to fight with the civil power, when- 
ever they saw the necessity of farther reforma- 
tion. But had they taken the ground of right 
to worship Ood as they pleased, and had they 
carried this point, they would have had no more 
to do with the civil power, nor it with them, 
except in the mutual relation of govemors and 
subjects, in regard to the affairs of this life, for 
which only civil government is instituted. By 
worshipping God as they pleased, I mean, of 
course, as they learned from his own word, 
their proper understanding of which was a mat- 
ter to be settled among themselves, but of which 
the civil power had nothing to do. This is, 
however, a subject which our reformers did not 
understand, which is not surprising. It requir- 
ed the increasing light of more than two oento- 
ries to moke it generally understood, and there 
are many who do not understand it yet.— £tf. 




it ware done McrtUyy and not in the 
tMonbly. Bat the grottnaM of those 
such that with one voice we 
i; and constantly craved Justice 
of the qoaen re^j^nt, and a reasonable an- 
awar of our former petitions. The qaeen, 
tlMB regent, a woman crafty, dissimulate, 
and fidbe, tiiinking to make her profit of 
both parties, gave to us permission to use 
oiiraiifea godly according to our desires, 
pfOTided we dbould not make public as- 
in Edinbuigh or Leith; and did 
her assistance to our preachers, 
uniform order might be estab- 
fidMd by a parliament To them — we 
■Moa the dttrgy— -she quietly gave signifi- 
catioo of her mind; promising that how 
aoon any opportunity should serve, she 
ahoold 00 put order in their matters, that 
after they should not be troubled : for some 
any they gave her a long purse, 40,000 
pounds, says the chronicle, gathered by the 
lahrd of Earlshall. We, nothing suspect- 
ing her douhleness nor falsehood, departed, 
folly contented with her answer ; and did 
mm onndves so qnietly, that for her pleap 
aura wo put sileace to John Douglas, who 
poMiely would have preached in the town 
of LeiUi : for in all things we sought the 
eonientment of her mind, so far fortli as 

This bbb^ whom Knox genenilly detif- 
■ the fovtnior't baitard brother, showed 
MsMlf, hf the murder of thie old man, a wor- 
thy ■uec— nr ot Cnrdinel Beaton. His name 
was Jalrn Hamilton. He was ** natural son of 
JaoMa, the flrat earl of Arran, bv Mrs Boyd, a 
fsntlawamao of a rerj good family in the shire 
eff Ayr; he was abbot of Paislev In the year 
IflMw As be had a fine genlns for letters, he 
WWII mm tm France in parsuit of his studies, 
when ha noMined Ull his brother, the earl of 
M, WBB pteferrrd to the receney upon the 
k ef himg James V.** « We find him a 
ihsr ef qaaen Mary's priry ooancil in the 
1699 ; and he performed the ceremony of 
_ bar asB, the prince." " He acted very 
eardieOy te the queen ; and be is greatly to be 
apelMisd, aad she to be condemned, for her not 
MWwIog the asmd adrios which he gare her 
af^ the — fc rU i nat e battle of I^ngside, not to 
tmsS her fs w s n la Engbuid. After this he 

by the earl of Morton, then 
_ BSt whisrenpon, after larking some- 
time amoog his Mods and reUtions, he fled for 
mearity to the itieog castle of Dambartoo ; at 
tbesmpiiot e/whieh fortress, he fell into the 
eoamjea' kMada, and was hanged pablidy on a 
gibbet in the town of Stirling, the first day of 
April 1670." iC€iik*$ SooU BSAo^m, p. », Thb 
aathar would oel treat the memory of a bishop 

God shoidd not bo offindod with us for 
obeying her in things nnkwfuL 

Shortly after these things, that crnel 
tyrant and unmerciful hypocrite, falsely 
called bishop of St Andrews,* apprehended 
that blessed martyr of Christ Jesus, Walter 
Myhie;t » «nan of decrepit age, whom 
most cruelly and most unjustly he put to 
death by fire in St Andrews, the twentyw 
eighth day of April, the year of God 1558 
years: which thing did so highly oflTend 
the hearts of all godly, that immediately 
after his death began a new fervency 
amongst the whole people; yea, even in 
the town of St Andrews began the people 
plainly to damn such unjust cruelty: and 
in testification that they would that his 
death should abide in recent memory, there 
was casten together a great heap of stones 
in the place where he was burnt The 
bishop and priests thereat offended, caused 
once or twice to remove the same, with 
denunciation of cursing, if any man there 
should lay any stone : but in vain was that 
wind blown; for still was the heap made, 
till that the priests and papists did steal 
away the stones by night to build their 
walls, and to other their private uses. We, 
suspecting nothing that the queen regent 
was consenting to the forenamed murder, 

so disrespectfully as to suppose he had given any 
cause for his execution. It is true, notwith- 
standing, that besides his opposition to the au- 
thority of the young Icing, be was accessory to 
the assassination of the regent Murray, one of 
the most calamitous erents that ever befell Scot- 
land, which he oonfeesed in the following terms: 
" That he not only knew thairof, and wald not 
stopp it, but rather fiirtherit the deed thairof, 

God merde for the 

p. 3^5 Ed, 

qunilk he repentit, and askit G 

same." 3i<Crtr*« JTnar, Ut ed. ^ 

f There is an interesting aocmint of this aged 
martvr in the Soots Worthies. He had been a 
parish prieet in the days of popery ; but having 
embraced the reformed doctrine, he vras con- 
demned by cardinal Beaton in 16S8. He es- 
caped to the continent, where he married, and 
acquired mum perfect knowledge of christian 
doctrine. He returned to Scotland, and lived 
many vears in retirement, teaching and preach- 
ing as he liad opportunity, till he was discovered 
and committed to the flames in his eighty-second 
year. When led to the stake, he expressed a 
hope that he would be the last in Scotland that 
would suffer for the truth in that manner ; and 
so it happened. He no doubt saw, from the 
current of public opinion, tliat such tyranny 
would not be much longer endured ; and the in- 
dignation excited by his death, tended vary much 
to forward the reformation.— AV. 



[A. D. 1M0 

OMMt humbly did oompUin of such ui^just 
cnieltj; requiriaf that juitioey in such 
OMti, should be ministered with greater in- 
difference. She^ as a woman bom to dis- 
semble and deceive, began, with us, to la- 
ment the cruelty of the buhop ; excusing 
herself as innocent in that cause ; for that 
the sentence was given without her know- 
ledge, because the man sometime had been 
a priest; therefore, the bishop's officials did 
proceed upon him without any commission 
of the civil authority, ex officio^ as they 
term it 

We yet nothing suspecting her falsehood^ 
required some order to be taken against 
such enormities, which she promised as be- 
fore; but because short after there was a 
parliament to be holden, for certain affairs 
pertaining rather to the queen's profit parti- 
cular, nor [than] to the commodity of the com- 
monwealth, we thought good to expone our 
matter unto the whole parliament, and by 
them to seek some redress. We, therefore, 
with one consent, did offer unto the queen 
and pariiament a letter in this tenor. 



" Unto your grace, and unto you, right 
honourable lords of this present parliament, 
humbly mean and show your graces' 
faithful and obedient subjects ; that where 
we are daily molested, slandered, and in- 
jured by wicked and ignorant persons, 
placeholders of the ministers of the church, 
who most untruly cease not to iDfkme [re- 
vile] us as heretics, and under that name 
they have most cruelly persecuted divers 
of our brethren, and farther intend to exe- 
cute their malice against us, unless by some 
godly order their fury and rage be bridled 
and stayed ; and yet in us they are able to 
prove no crime worthy of puDishment, un- 
less that to read the holy scriptures in our 
assemblies, to invocate the name of God in 
public prayers, with all sobriety to inter- 

* The calling of a ffeneral council, to decide 
all oontroTenies in reTi|fion, was a hopeless ex- 
pedient, though the reiormers on the continent 
called lung und eagerly for it. The pope claim- 
ed to have the sole right to call such a body to- 
gether, and Indeed there was no other power 
recognized in the Romish or Western Church. 
Kings might call councils in their own domin- 
ions; but none of them oould ttll a general 

pret and open the places of scripture that 
be read, to the farther edification iA the 
brethren assembled, and truly according to 
Christ Jesus his holy institution to minister 
the sacraments, be crimes worthy of punish- 
ment Other crimes we say in us they are 
not able to convict And to the premises 
are we compelled; for that the said place- 
holders discharge no part of their duties 
rightly to us, neither yet to the people sub- 
ject to us ; and, therefore, unless we should 
declare ourselves altogether unmindful of 
our own salvation, we are compelled, of 
very conscience, to seek how that we and 
our brethren may be delivered from the 
thraldom of Satan. For now it hath pleased 
God to open our eyes, that manifestly we 
see, that without extreme danger of our 
souls, we may in no ways communicate 
with the damnable idolatry, and intolerable 
abuses of the papistical church ; and, there- 
fore, most humbly require we of your grace, 
and of your right honourable lords, barons, 
and bui^gesses assembled in thb present par- 
liament, prudently to weigh, and as it be- 
comes just judges, to grant these our most 
just and reasonable petitions.'* 

*' Finty Seeing that the controversy in 
religion, which long had continued betwixt 
the protestants of Almanie [Germany], Hel- 
vetia [Switzerland], and other provinces, 
and the papistical church, is not yet de- 
cided by a lawful and general council ; and 
seeing that our consciences are likewise 
touched with the fear of God, as were theirs 
in the beginning of their controversy, we 
most humbly desire, that all such acts of 
parliament, as in the time of darkness gave 
power to the churchmen to execute their 
tyranny against us, by reason that we to 
them were delated as heretics, may be sus- 
pended and abrogated, till a general council, 
lawfully assembled, have decided all con- 
troversies in religion.* And lest that this 
mutation should seem to set all men at 

one. The pope did call one, not long after this 
period, which, after sitting eighteen years, left 
matters worse than it found them ; for it can- 
firmed and established many errors and abuses 
which were previously matters of indiffereiifle, 
at least not essential narts of Roman Catbolie 
faith and worship, llils was the council of 
Trent, the last of its kind ; and it is not proba- 
ble that there shall erer be another.— £f/. 




Wmtf to liTe M Ui«y Ust» we, s^condfy^ re- 
fdt% Ikfll it be enacted by this present par- 
i;^m^^ that the prelates and their officers 
be TCflMTsd from phuse of jadgment, only 
grantinf nato them, not the less, the place 
of aoeosatOfs in the presence of a temporal 
judge, before whom the chnrchmen accusa- 
ton shall be boonden to call any by them 
aeoused of heresy, to whom also they shall 
be bonnden to deliver an authentic copy of 
all depesitions, accusations, and process led 
afainst the person accused, the judg^e like- 
wise defiyering the same to the party ao- 
cased, asaigning unto him a competent term 
to anawer the same, after he had taken suf- 
fcieat Gantion,/tMitcid sisti. 

* Thirdfy, we require, that all lawful de- 
feaees be granted to the persons accused ; 
as if he be able to prore, that the witnesses 
be pertODS unable by law to testify against 
them, that then their accusations and depo- 
sitioiis be null according to justice. 

^Item, That place be granted to the party 
aoeosed to explain and interpret his own 
mind and meaning; which confession we 
requre to be inserted in public acts, and 
be preferred to the depositions of any wit- 
seeing that none ought to suffer for 
that is not found obstinate in his 
daBBaable opinion. 

*' Last, We require, that our brethren be 
not damned for heretics, unless by the mani- 
fest word of God they be convicted to have 
erred firon that fiuth which the Holy Spirit 
witnfssnth to be necessary to salvation, and 
if 80 they be, we refuse not but that they be 

bat rofret to flod these excellent, 

•nllghteoed men, admitting, and 

for the very principle on which 

the ehueli of Homo condemned them. They 

aials that Wesy it a crime to be tried by the 

Hosiar Jadgi^ and of course to be punished on 

eaavlslM. If porions have erred from the 

laltlit thmr ** fdTuae not but that they be punish. 

oA aeaarinig to jualiee, unleee by wholesome ad- 

flMBlllea Ikif «an bo reduced to a better mind.** 

The dUBvh m Esmo demands no more ; only 

they dalm Is bs themselves the judges, while the 

reformers wesM appeal to the word of God , 

whieht with pMHai of common sense, would no 

doubt f Ivo ofBlSBss hi their favour against the 

chureh of Roo% apon the main points at issue 

betwoso rhiM Bat wo cannot put persons of 

coauDoo ssfMS gsDorally on the judicial bench, or 

pat into thdr fisnds the oword of justice. Bo- 

aidos, thsre avs aaany things lu religion that re- 

qairo a hlglMr Amuty than common sense to 

punished aooording to Juatios^ onless by 
wholesome admonition they can be reduced 
to a better mind.* 

** These things require we to be consider- 
ed of you, who occupy the place of the 
eternal God, who is God of ordier and truth, 
even in such sort as ye will answer in the 
presence of his throne judicial ; requiring 
further, that favourably ye will hare respect 
to the tenderness of our consciences, and to 
the trouble which appeareth to follow in 
this commonwealth, if the tyranny of the 
prelates, and of their adherents, be not 
bridled by God and just laws. God move 
your hearts deeply to consider your own 
duties, and our present troubles.*' 

These our petitions did we first present 
to the queen regent, because that we were 
determined to enterprise nothing without 
her knowledge, most humbly requiring her 
favourably to assist us in our just action. 
She spared not amiable looks, and good 
words in abundance ; but always [neverthe- 
less] she kept our bill close in her pocket 
When we required secretly of her grace, 
that our petitions should be proponed to 
the whole assembly, she answered, " That 
she thought not that expedient ; for then 
would the whole ecclesiastical estate be 
contrary to her proceedings, which at that 
time were great;" for the matrimonial 
crown was asked, and in that parliament 
granted : *^ but,*' said she, " how soon order 
can be taken with these things, which now 
may be hindered by the kirkmen, ye shall 
know my good mind ; and, in the mean- 

understand ; not another intellectual faculty, but 
a divine influence upon those which we have. 
This is a qualification which secular judges do 
not necessarily possess. Thev are generally men 
of the world, set up to attend to the judicial part 
of the world's business, and know no more of 
religion than other worldly men. Heresy must 
be in the opinion of every man, that in religion 
which is contrary to his own convictions, 
llierefore, upon the principle which our reform- 
ers pleaded for, a conscientious papist could not 
help regarding them as heretics, and, of course, 
he had a right io punish them as such. Pro- 
tesunts could not but regard papists as Idolaters, 
and on that account worthy of death, which, 1 
believe, was generally held by them as an opin- 
ion ; but happily when thev came into power, 
their humanity, and other better feelings, pre- 
vailed over their spocolative principle, which 
would have made them persecutors to the deaths 
as well as the papists were.^ Ed. 




[a. D. 1U0 

time^ whattoever 1 may gnunt onto yon* 
thftU be gladly gn&ted.'* We yet nothiiig 
tnspectinc^ her fiJeehood, were content to 
give plaee for a time to her pleaiore» and 
ivetended reason ; and yet thoogfat we ex- 
pedient iomewhat to protest before the di»- 
sofaition of the parliament; for oar petip 
tions were manifestly known to the whole 
assembly, and also how for the qoeen's plea- 
sure we ceased to porsne to the uttermost 
Oar protestation was formed in the msnner 



" It is not nnknown to this hononrable 
parliament, what oontroTersy is now lately 
risen betwixt these that will be called the 
prelatee and rulers of the church; and a 
great number of us the nobility and com- 
monalty of this realm, for the true worship- 
ping of God, for the duty of ministers, for 
the right administration of Christ Jesus* 
holy sacrament: how that we haTe com- 
]dained by our public supplications to the 
queen regent, that our consciences are bur- 
dened with unprofitable ceremonies, and 
are compelled to adhere to idolatry; that 
such as take upon them the office ecdesias- 
tical, discharge no part thereof as becometh 
true ministers to do; and, finally, that we 
and our brethren are most unjustly oppress- 
ed by their usurped authority. And also, 
we suppose it is a thing sufficiently known, 
that we were of mind at this present par- 
liament to seek redress of such enormities; 
but, considering that the troubles of the 
time do not suffer such reformation as we, 
by God*s plain word, do require, we are en- 
forced to delay that which most earnestly 
we desire: and yet, lest that our silence 
should give occasion to our adyersaries to 
think, that we repent our former enter- 
prise, we cannot cease to protest for remedy 
against that most unjust tyranny, which we 
heretofore most patiently have sustained. 

** And,Jirst^ we protest, that seeing we 
,cannot obtain a jast reformation, according 
to God*s. word, that it be lawful to us to 
use ourselyes in matters of religion and 
conscience, as we must answer untoGrod, 
onto such time as our adversaries be able to 
prove themseWes the trae ministsrs of 

Ghristfs chordi, and to paife themselTea of 
such erimss as we hsfo already laid to their 
charge, olforiqg onrselfcs to prove the tame 
whensoever the sacred anthoiity plsaaes to 
give us audience. 

** Second^, we protest^ that ndther we^ 
nor yet any other that godly list to join 
with us in the trae fidth, which is grounded 
upon the invincible word of God, shall in- 
cur any danger in Ufo or landsg or other 
politioal pains, for not observing such acta 
as heretofore have passed in favour of our 
adversaries, neither yet for violating of 
such ritee as man without God's command- 
ment or word has commanded. 

<< We, thirdly, protest, that if any tumult 
or uproar shall arise among the members of 
thb realm for the diversity of religion, and 
if it shall chance that abuses be violently 
reformed, that the crime thereof be not im- 
puted to us, who most humbly do now seek 
all things to be reformed by an order : but 
rather whatsoever inconvenience shall 
happen to follow for lack of order taking, 
that may be imputed to thoee that do refuse 
the same.*' 

" And, kutly, we protest, that these our re- 
quests, proceeding from conscience, do tend 
to no other end, but to the reformation of 
abuses in religion only ; most humbly be- 
seeching the sacred authority to take us, 
faithful and obedient subjects, in protection 
against our adversaries ; and to show unto 
us such indifference [impartiality] in our 
most just petitions, as it becometh God's 
lieutenants to do to those that in his name 
do call for defence against cruel oppressors 
and blood-thirsty tyrants.** 

These our protestations publicly read, we 
desired them to have been inserted in the 
common register; but that, by labonrs of 
our enemies, was denied unto us. Not the 
less the queen regent said, ^ Me will re- 
member what is protested, and me shall put 
good order after this to all things that now 
be in controversy :" And thus, after that 
she by craft had obtained her purpose, we 
departed in good esperance [hope] of her fii* 
vours, praising God in our hearts, that ahe 
was so well inclined towards godliness. The 
good opinion that we had of hor rincerity, 
caused us not only to spend oor goods, and 

Book II.] 



iMSBrd our bodies at her pleasure, but also, 
hf our public letters written to that ex- 
oellent seryant of God John Calrin, we 
HA praise and commend her for excellent 
knowUfe of God's word, and gwyd will 
towards the adTanoement of his glory; re- 
ftmag of him, that by his grave counsel, 
and godly exhortation, he would animate 
Wr grace constantly to follow that which 
godlj she had begun. We did further 
sharpl/ rebuke, both by word and writing, 
all soch as ^>peared to suspect in her any 
TCBom of hypocrisy, or that were contrary 
to that opinion which we had conceived of 
her godly mind. But how far we were de- 
eeivedin our opinion, and abused by her 
oraft^ did suddenly appear : for how soon 
that all things pertaining to the commodity 
of France were granted by us, and that 
peace was contracted betwixt king Philip 
and Frfoice, and England and us, she began 
to spew forth, and disclose the latent venom 
of her double heart. Then began she to 
frown, and to look frowardly to all such 
aa she knew did favour the evangel of Jesus 
Christ. She commanded her household to 
USA all abomination at Pasch ; and she her- 
sdf, to give example to others, did commu- 
nicate with that idol, in open audience: 
she controlled her household, and would 
know where every one received their sa- 
crament And it is supposed, that after 
tbat day the devil took more violent and 
strong possession in her heart than he had 
bdbre ; for, from that day forward, she ap- 
altdgether altered, insomuch tbat 
eoontenance and facts [actions] did de- 
the venom of her heart. For incon- 
tinent she caused our preachers to be 
aomnioned ; for whom, when we made 
i nte rce ss ion, beseeching her grace not to 
them in their ministry, unless any 
were able to convict them of false doc- 
ahe could not bridle her tongue from 
Uasphemy, but proudly she said, ** In 
of you and your ministers both, 
thef shall be banished out of Scotland, al- 
hmt they preached as truly as ever did St 
FsnI.*' Which proud and blasphemous an- 
swer did greatly astonish us ; and yet ceas- 
ed we not most humbly to seek her favoiur, 
and by great diligence at Isst obtained, that 

the summons at that time were delayed. 
For to her were sent Alexander earl of 
Glencairn, and Sir Hugh Campbell of Lou- 
don, knight and sheriff of Ayr, to reason 
with her, and to crave some performance 
of her manifold promises; to whom she 
answered, ** It became not subjects to bur- 
den their princes with promises, further than 
it pleased them to keep the same.** Both 
these noblemen faithfully and boldly dis- 
charged their duty, and plainly forewarned 
her of the inconveniences that were to fol- 
low ; wherewith she, somewhat astonished, 
said, *' she would advise." 

In this meantime did the town of Perth, 
called St Johnstone, embrace the truth, 
which did provoke her to a new fury ; in 
which she willed the lord Ruthven, pro- 
vost of that town, to suppress all such 
religion there. To the which, when he 
answered, " That he could make their 
bodies to come to her grace, and to pros- 
trate themselves before her, till that she 
were fully satiate of their blood, but to 
cause them do against their conscience, he 
could not promise." She in fury did an- 
swer, " That he was too malapert to give 
her such answers ;" affirming, '* that both 
he and they should repent it" She soli* 
cited Mr James Haliburton, provost of Dun- 
dee, to apprehend Paul Meffan, who, fear- 
ing God, gave secret advertisement to the 
man to avoid the town for a time. She 
sent forth such as she thought most able to 
persuade at Pasch, to cause Montrose, Dun- 
dee, St Johnstone, and other such places as 
had received the evangel, to communicate 
with the idol of the mass ; but they could 
profit nothing, the hearts of many were bent 
to follow the truth revealed, and did ab- 
hor superstition and idolatry. Whereat she 
more highly commoved, did summon again 
all the preachers to compear at Stirling, the 
tenth day of May, the year of God 1559. 
Which understood by us, we, with all hum- 
ble obedience, sought the means how she 
might be appeased, and our preachers not 
molested : but when we could nothing pre- 
vail, it was concluded by the whole bre- 
thren, that the gentlemen of every country 
should accompany their preachers to the 
day and place appointed ; whereto all meu 



[▲. D. 1850 

w«re most willing. And for that purpose 
tiie town of Dnndee, the genUemen of An- 
gnt and Meams, paaaed forward with their 
preaohen to 8tJohnatone, without armonr, 
aa peaceable men, minding only to giTe 
oonfenion with their preachers. And lest 
that such a multitude should have given 
fisar to the queen regent, the laird of Dun, 
a lealous, prudent, and godly man, passed 
before to the queen, then being in Stirling, 
to declare to her, that the cause of their 
couYocation was only to give confession 
with their preachers, and to assist them in 
their just defence. She understanding the 
fenrency of the people, began to craft with 
him, soliating him to stay the multitude, 
and the preachers ahMi, with promise that 
she would take some better order. He, a 
man most gentle of nature, and most ad- 
dict to please her in all things not repugnant 
to God, wrote to those that then were assem- 
Ued at St Johnstone, to stay, and not to come 
forward ; showing what promise and espe- 
rance [hope] he had of the queen's grace's fsp 
TOUTS. At the reading of his letters, some did 
smell the craft and deceit, and persuaded to 
pass forward, unto the time a discbaige of 
the former summons should be had, alleging, 
that otherwise their process of homing, or 
rebellion, should be execute against the 
preachers; and so should not only they, 
but also all such as did accompany them, be 
invoWed in a like crime. Others did rea- 
son, that the queen's promise was not to be 
suspected, neither yet the laird of Dun's 
request to be contemned, and so did the 
whole multitude with their preachers stay. 
In this meantime that the preachers were 
summoned, to vnty the second of May 1559, 
arriTed John Knox from France, who lodg- 
ing two nights only in Edinburgh, hearing 
the day appointed to his brethren, repaired 
to Diuidee, where he earnestly required 
them, ^ That he might be permitted to as- 
sist his brethren, and to give confession of 
his faith with them :" which granted unto 
bim, he departed unto St Johnstone with 
them ; where he began to exhort, accord- 
ing to the grace of God granted unto him. 
The queen, perceiving that the preachers 
did not compear, b^gan to utter her malice; 
and, notwithstanding any request made in 

the contrary, gave oommandment to put 
them to the horn, inhibiting all mm, under 
pain of rebellion, to assist, omaSait, receive, 
or maintain them in any sort; which ex- 
tremity perceived by the said laird of Dun, 
he prudently withdrew himself, for other- 
wise, by all appearance, he had not escaped 
imprisonment ; for the master of MaxweU, 
a man zealous and stout in God's cause, as 
then appeared, under the cloak of another 
small crime, was that same day committed 
to ward, because he did boldly affirm, ** That 
to the uttermost of his power, he would as- 
sist the preachers, and the congregation; 
notwithstanding any sentence which was, 
unjosUy, or should be, pronounced against 
them." The laird of Dun, coming to St 
Johnstone, exponed the case even as it was, 
and did conceal nothing of the queen's craft 
and Adsehood. * Which understood, the 
multitude was so inflamed, that neither 
could the exhortation of the preachers, nor 
the commandment of the magistrate, stay 
them from 'destroying the places of idola- 
try; the manner whereof was this: the 
preachers had declared before, how odious 
was idolatry in God's presence ; what com- 
mandment he had given for the destraction 
of the monuments thereof; what idolatry 
and what abomination was in the mass. 
It chanced, that the next day, which was 
the nth of May, after that the preachers 
were exiled, that after the sermon, which 
was vehement against idolatry, tliat a priest 
in contempt would go to the mass ; and to 
declare his malapert presumption, he would 
open up a glorious tabemade, which stood 
upon the high altar. There stood beside 
certain godly men, and amongst others a 
young boy, who cried with a loud voice, 
** This is intolerable, that when God by his 
word hath plainly damned idolatry, we shall 
stand and see it used in despite." The 
priest hereat offended, gave the child a 
great blow ; who in anger took up a stone, 
and casting at the priest, did hit the taber- 
nacle, and brake down an image ; and im- 
mediately the whole multitude that were 

* There la In this place. In the other copy, in* 
aertad the aummona againat tha friara, wnleh la 
in the end of the firat hook. 




•boot cast stones, uid pot hands to tbs 
and tabamaole^ and to all othar moanments 
af idolatrjy irhich they despatched, before 
Um tsnth nan in the town were advertised, 
te Urn QMat part were gone to dinner. 
WUflb noised abroad, the whole moltitnde 
ooBvnaad, not of the gentlemen, neither of 
than that were earnest professors, but of 
tha iMoal mnltitade^ who finding nothing 
to do ns that ehnroh, did run without deli* 
hftntion to the grey and blade friars ; and 
■aftwithatanding that they had within them 
f«ry atark [strong] guards kept for their 
dttfimoe^ yet were their gates incontinent 
bvBl np. The first inrasion was upon 
the idolatry; and thereafter the common 
people began to seek some spoiL And in 
wy deed the Oreyfriars was a place 
[so] well profided, that unless honest men 
had aaen the same, we would have feared 
to Mport what provision they had ; their 
sh ae t s^ blankets, beds, and coverlets were 
BOflh* that no earl in SeotUnd had the bet- 
tar ; their napery was fine ; they were but 
aight persons in convent, and yet had eight 
pmdiaons of salt bee^— consider the time 
of tho year, the 11th of May, — wine, beer, 
and ale, besides store of victuals effeiring 
[oomaponding] thereto. The like abnn- 
danee was not in the blackfriars ; and yet 
ther e was more than became men profess- 
ing poverty. The spoil was permitted to 
the poor; for so had the preachers before 
threatened all men, that for covetousness' 
aako none fthould put their hand to such a 
t a iwuia tion, that no honest man was en- 

thereby the value of a groat. Their 
so moved them, that they suf- 
thase hypocrites to take away what 
thay oonld, of that which was in their 
The prior of Charterhouse was per- 

to take with him even so much gold 
silvar as he was well able to carry. So 
I's consciences before beaten with 
that they had no respect to their 
own pHticnlar profit, but only to abolish 
iddbCiy, the places and monuments there- 
of; hi whieh they were so busy and so la- 
horioa% that within two days these three 
grant plnoes, monuments of idolatry, to 
ufitp the black and grey friars, and the 
Charterfaoose monks, a building of a 

wondrous cost and greatness^ was so da- 
•troyed, that the walls only did remain 
of aU theae graat edifications. Whkh, 
reported to the queen, she was eo emng^ 
ed that she did vow •utterly to destroy 
St Johnstone^ man, woman, and child, and 
to consume the same byfire^ and tiiero- 
after to salt it, in sign of a perpetual de- 
solation," We suspecting nothing such 
cruelty, but thinking that such words 
might escape her in choler, without purpoae 
determined, because she was a woman set 
on fire by the complaints of those hypocrites 
who flocked unto her, as ravens to a car- 
rion ; we, we say, suspecting nothing such 
beastly cruelty, return^ toopr own hooses; 
leaving in St Johnstone John Knox to in* 
struct, because they were yonng and rude 
[raw, untaught] in Christ But she, set on 
fire, partly by her own malice, partly by her 
friends in France, and not a little by bribea, 
which she and Monsieur d'Oysel received 
from the bbhops and priests here at home, 
did continue in her rage. And, first, she 
sent for all the nobility, to whom she 
compUined, « That we meant nothing but 
rebellion." She did grievously sggresge* 
the destructioii of the Charterhouse, be- 
cause it was a king's foundation ; and there 
was the tomb of king James the first ; and 
by such other persuasions, she made the 
most part grant to pursue us. And then 
incontinent sent she for her Frenchmen; 
for that was, and ever has been her joy 
to see Scotsmen dip one with another's 
blood. No man was at that time more 
frank against us than was the duke, led by 
the cruel beast, the bishop of St Andrews, 
and by those that yet abuse him, the 
abbot c^ Kilwinning, and Matthew Hamilton 
of Milbum, two chief enemies to Christ 
Jesus ; yea, and enemies to the duke, and 
to his whple house, but in so &r as thereby 
they procure their particular profit Theae 
and such other pestilent papists ceased not 
to cast frggots in the fire, continually cry- 
ing, " Forward upon these heretics; we 
shall onoe rid this reabn of them." The 
certainty hereof coming to our knowledge. 

f AggrMge, acfrsvalc^** laiiMBt** is the 
word lucd in the wipp c eiied editioa.*-£i(. 



[a. B. 1660 

ioni« of ni repftired to the town agiiin, 
about the 22d day of? May, and there did 
abide, for the oonfort of our brethren: 
where, after inyocatton of the name of 
God, we began to pot the town and onr- 
■eWes in suoh strength, as we thought might 
best stand for our defence. And, because 
we were not utterly despaired of the 
queen's £iTOur, we caused form a letter to 
her grace as follows : 

'* To the queen's grace, regent, all humble 
obedience and duty premised. 

" As heretofore, with jeopard of our lives, 
and yet willing hearts, we have served the 
authority of Scotland, and your grace, now 
regent in this realm, in senrice to our bodies 
dangerous and painful; so now, with most 
dolorous minds, we are constrained, by un- 
just tyranny purposed against us, to de- 
clare unto your g^race, that except this 
cruelty be stayed by your wisdom, we will 
be compelled to take the sword of just de- 
fence, against all that shall pursue us for 
the matter of religion, and for our con- 
science' sake, which ought not, nor may 
not be subject to mortal creatures,' farther 
than by God's word man is able to prove 
that he hath power to command us. We 
signify more unto your grace, that if by 
rigour we be compelled to seek the ex- 
treme defence, that we will not only no- 
tify our innocence and petitions to the king 
of France, to our mistress, and to her hus- 
band, but also to the princes and council of 
every christian realm, declaring unto them, 
that this cruel, unjust, and most tyrannical 
murder, intended against us, against towns 
and multitudes, was, and is the only cause 
of our revolt from our accustomed obedi- 
ence, which, in God's presence, we fedth- 
fully promise to our sovereign mistress, to 
her husband, and unto your grace regent ; 
providing, that our consciences may live in 
that peace and liberty which Christ Jesus 
has purchased unto us by his blood ; and 
that we may have his word truly preached, 
and holy sacraments rightly ministrate 
unto us ; without the which we firmly pur- 
pose never to be subject to mortal man ; 
for better, we think, to expose our bodies 
to a thousand deaths, than to hazard our 
souls to perpetual condemnation, by deny- 

ing Christ Jetua, and his manifeal Ytntj, 
which tluDg not only do they tiiat eoainit 
open idolatry, bat also all foeh as aeeiiig their 
brethren mjostly punsoed for the canse at 
religion, and baTing soiBflient means to 
comfort and assist them, do, neverthdMi^ 
withdraw from them their datifril sapport. 
We would not your grace should be de- 
ceived by the fislae penuanons of these 
cruel beasts, the kirkmeiiy who affirm, that 
your grace needeth not greatly to regard 
the loss of us that profosi Christ Jesus in 
this realm. If— as God forbid — ye give 
ear to their pestilent ooiwse], and so use 
against us this extremity pretended ; it is 
to^be feared, that neither ye, nor your pos- 
terity, shall at any time after this, find 
that obedience and faithful service within 
this realm, which at all times ye have found 
in us. We declare our judgment freely, 
as true and faithful subjects. God move 
your grace's heart favourably to interpret 
our faithful meaning. Farther, advertising 
your grace, that the self same thing, to- 
gether with all things we have done, or 
yet intend to do, we will notify by our 
letters to the king of France ; asking of 
you, in the name of the eternal God, and as 
your grace tenders the peace and quietness 
of this realm, that ye invade us not with 
violence, till we receive answer from our 
mistress, her husband, and from their ad- 
vised council there. And thus we commit 
your grace to the protection of the Omui- 
potenL From St Johnstone, the 22d of 
May, 1559." 

Sic subsaibitur^ 
** Your grace's obedient subjects in all 
things, not repugning to God, 
** The faithful congregation of Jesus 

Christ in Scotknd." 
In the same tenor we wrote to Monsieur 
d'Oysel in French, requiring of him, that 
by his wisdom he would mitigate the 
queen's rage, and the rage of the priests ; 
otherwise that flame, which then began to 
bum, would so kindle, that when some men 
would, it could not be slockened[ quenched}. 
Adding farther, that he declared himself no 
faithful servant to his master, the king of 
France, if for the pleasure of the priests, he 
would persecute us and so compel us t«i 

Boos il.j 



Idtotlie tword of jntt defonoe. Id like 
■nstf w« wrote to oaptain Serra la 
Bovne, and to all the other oaptaim, and 
¥^«iicli soldierB in general, admonishing 
ttti their vocation was not to fight 
u natural Scotnnen ; neither yet 
that tbtj had any anch commandment of 
tktimaiter. We beseeched them, therefore, 
not to proToke ns to enmity against them, 
eowidaring, that they had found us favour- 
able in their most extreme necessities. We 
dsdared farther imto them, that if they 
totered in hostility and bloody war 
sfiSBst ns, that the same should remain 
kmgvr than their and our liyes, to wit, even 
in all posterities to come, so long as na- 
tnnd Sootsmen should have power to re- 
▼engo such cruelty, and most horrible in- 

These letters were caused be spread 
abroad iA great abundance^ to the end that 
sonse nugfat come to the knowledge of men. 
The queen regent's letter was laid upon 
her coahion in the chapel royal of Stirling, 
where she accustomed to sit at mass. She 
looked upon it, and put it in the pocket of 
her gown. Monsieur d'Oysel and the 
captains reoeired theirs delivered even by 
their own soldiers — for some amongst them 
were favourers of the truth — who after the 
reading of them, began to rive their own 
beards ; for that was the modest behaviour 
of Monsieur d^Oysel, when the truth was 
told onto him, so that it repugned to his 
tuktanj. These our letters were suppressed 
to the uttermost of their power, and yet 
they came to the knowledge of many. But 
the rage of the queen and priests could not 
bo sliced, but forward they move against 
M^ who then were but a very few and 
mean number of gentlemen in St Johnstone. 
We perceiving the extremity to approach, 
HA write to all brethren, to repair towards 
■i iw onr relief, to the which we found all 
nady bent, that the work of Ood 
•viiintly to be espied ; and because we 
woM omit no diligence to declare our in- 
Dooencj to all men, we formed a letter to 
those of the nobility-— who then persecuted 
na — as after follows : 
** To the nobility of Scotland, the con- 
gregation of Christ Jesus within the 

same, desnrs the spirit of righteous 
** Because we are not ignorant, that the 
nobility of this realm who now persecute 
us, employing their whole study and force 
to maintain the kingdom of Satan, of su- 
perstition and idolatry, are yet not the less 
divided in opinion; we, the congregation 
of Christ Jesus, by you unjustly persecuted, 
have thought good, in one letter, to write 
unto you seveially. We say, ye are divid- 
ed in opinion : for some of you think that 
we who have taken upon us this enter- 
prise, to remove idolatry, and the monu- 
ments of the same, to erect the true preach- 
ing of Christ Jesus in the bounds commit- 
ted to our charges, are heretics, seditious 
men, and troublers of this commonwealth ; 
and, therefore, that no punishment is suffi- 
cient for us : and so, blinded with this rage, 
and under pretence to serve the authority, 
ye proclaim war, and threaten destruction, 
without all order of law against us. To 
you, we say, that neither your blind zeal, 
neither yet the colour of authority, shall ex- 
cuse you in God's presence, who commands 
' none to suffer death till that he be openly 
convicted in judgment, to have offended 
against God, and against his law written ;* 
which no mortal creature is able to prove 
against us. For whatsoever we have done, 
the same we have done at God's command- 
ment, who plainly commands idolatry, and 
all monuments of the same, to be destroyed 
and abolished. Our earnest and long re- 
quest has been, and yet is, that in open as- 
sembly it may be disputed, in presence of 
indifferent auditors, ' Whether that these 
abominations, named by the pestilent pa- 
pists, religion, which they by fire and 
sword defend, be the true religion of Jesus 
Christ or not ?' Now, this our humble 
request denied unto us, our lives are sought 
in a most cruel manner ; and ye, the nobi- 
lity, whose duty is to defend innocents 
and to bridle the fury and rage of wicked 
men — were it of princes or emperors — do, 
notwithstanding, follow their appetites, and 
arm yourselves against us, your brethren 
and natural countrymen; yea, sgainst us 
that be innocent and just, as concerning all 
such crimes as be laid to our charges. If 



[a. d. 1610 

ye think that we be crimioal beoaiiee we 
distent from your opinions, consider, we be- 
seech yoo, that the prophets under the Uw, 
the apostles of Christ Jesus after his asoen- 
sion, his primitive kirk, and holy martyrs, 
did dissent from the whole world in their 
days; and will ye deny but that their 
action was just, and that all those that per- 
secuted them were murderers before God ? 
May not the like be true this day ? What 
assurance have ye this day of your religion, 
which the world had not that day of theirs? 
Ye have a multitude that agree with you, 
and so had they ; ye have antiquity of time, 
and that they lacked not; ye have coun- 
cils, laws, and men of reputation that have 
established all things, as ye suppose ; but 
none of all these can make any religion ac- 
ceptable before God, which only depends 
upon his own will, revealed to man in his 
most sacred word. Is it not then a wonder 
that ye sleep in so deadly a security, in the 
matter of your own salvation, considering 
that God gives unto you so manifest tokens, 
that ye and your leaders are both declined 
from God ? For if < the tree shall be 
judged by the fruit' — as Christ Jesus af- 
firmed, * that it must be' — then, of neces- 
sity it is, that your prelates, and the whole 
rabble of your clergy, be evil trees. For, 
if adultery, pride, ambition, drunkenness, 
covetousness, incest, unthankfulness, op- 
pression, murder, idolatry, and blasphemy 
be evil fruits, there can none of tlmt gene- 
ration, which claim to themselves the title 
of kirkmen, be judged good trees; for all 
these pestilent and wicked fruits do they 
bring forth in great abundance. And if 
they be evil trees — as ye yourselves must 
be compelled to confess tiiey are— advise 
prudently with what oonsdenoes ye can 
maintain them, to occupy the room and 
place in the Lord's vineyard. Do ye not 
consider, that in so doing, ye labour to main- 
tain the servants of sin in their filthy cor- 
ruptions ; and so consequently ye labour, 
that the devil may reign, and still abuse 
this realm, by all iniquity and tyranny, and 
that Christ Jesus and his blessed evangel 
be suppressed and extinguished. 

** The name and the cloak of the authority 
—which ye pretend— will nothing excuse 

you in God's presence, but rather shall ye 
bear doable condemnation; for that ye 
burden God, m that his good ordinancei 
were the cause of yonr iniqmty. * AH 
authority which God has eetiMithed, k 
good and perfect, and is to be obeyed o/all 
men, yea, under the pain of damnation : 
but do ye not consider, that then is a great 
difference betwixt the authority which is 
God's ordinance, and the pereont of those 
who are placed in anthori^. The autho- 
rity and God's ordinance can never do 
wrong; for it commands^ *That vice and 
wicked men be punished, and Turtue and 
virtuous and jost men be maintained; but 
the corrupt persons placed in this authority 
may offend, and moat oommonly do, con- 
trary to his authority. Are then corruptions 
of persons to be followed, by reason he is 
dad with the name of authority? Or, 
shall those that obey the wicked command- 
ment of those that are pUoed in authority, 
be excused before God ? Kot so; not so; 
but the plagues and vengeance of God taken 
upon kings, their servants, and subjects, do 
witness to us the phun contrary. Pharaoh 
was a king, and had his authority of God, 
who commanded his subjects to murder and 
torment the Israelites, and at last most 
cruelly to persecute their lives : but was 
their obedience — blind rage it should be 
called-— excusable before God ? The uni- 
versal plague did plainly declare, that the 
wicked commander, and those that obeyed, 
were alike guilty before God. And if the 
example of Pharaoh shall be rejected, be- 
cause he was an ethnic [heathen], then let 
us consider the fact of Saul: he was a 
king anointed of God, appointed to reign 
over his people, he commanded to persecute 
David, because, as he alleged, D^vid waa 
a traitor, an usurper of the crown, and like- 
wise commanded Abimelech the high priest 
and his fellows to be slain ; but did God ap- 
prove any part of this obedience? Evi- 
dent it is that he did not And think ye^ 
that God will approve in you that which he 
did damn in others ? Be not deceived, with 
God there is no such particularity ; if ye 
obey the unjust oonunandment of wicked 
rulers, ye shall suffer God's vengeance and 
just punishment with them ; and, therefore. 




«je tender yoaroiTD salfatioii, we most 
meetly require of yea moderatioo, and 
tiMl y etey yoarMlYei» and the fury of 
firom pertecnting of os, till oar 
I ta tried in open and lawful judgment 
* Aad BOW, to yon that are persuaded of 
the jm(6ot of our causey that sometimes 
have professed Christ Jesus with us, and 
thiftnlao have exhorted us to this enter- 
yet haye left us in our extreme 
ry or at least look through your 
in this our trouble, as that the mat- 
'tar appertmned not to you ; we say, that 
fear and worldly respects set 
rejoin with us yourselves, that as 
ef Gad. ye are reputed traitors, so shall ye 
be cxoommunicate firom our society, and 
frooi all participation with us in the admi- 
aiilnitioii of the sacraments. The glory of 
this Tietory, which God shall giye to his 
Smelly yea, even in the eyes of men, shall 
not appertain to you; but the fearful judg^ 
■MBtSy that apprehended Ananias and his 
wiii Sapphira, shall apprehend you and your 
foatarity. Ye may perchance contemn, and 
the excommunication of the kirk — 
by Ood's mighty power erected among 
a thing of no force ; but yet doubt 
we nothing, but that our kirk, and the true 
miniaterB of the same, have the same power 
wUeh oar Master, Christ Jesus, granted to 
hia apoatlee in these words, ' Whose sins ye 
shall Ibtgive^ shall be forgiven ; and whose 
ye retain, shall be retained ;* and that, 
they preach, and we believe the 
doctrine which is contained in his 
blaaaed word. And, therefore, except 
that ya will contemn Christ Jesus, neither 
CBB j% despise our threatening, neither yet 
VM cnUing for your just defence. By 
fidnting, and by abstracting of your 
^the enemies are encouraged, think- 
they shall find no resistance ; in 
point— -God willing — they shall be 
for if they were ten thousand, 
aad wa hat one thousand, they shall not 
morte the least of our brethren, but we — 
Q^i aaistinfl; us — shall first commit our 
fifes in the hands of God for tlieir de- 
teoe. But this shall aggravate your dam- 
Bation* for ye declare yourselves both trai- 
tora to the truth once professed, and mur- 

derers of us, and of your brethren, from 
whom ye draw yoor dutiful and promised 
support whom— to man's judgment— your 
only presence might preserve firom this 
danger; for our enemies look not to the 
power of God, but to the force and strength 
of man. When the number is mean to re- 
sist them, then rage they as bloody wolves ; 
but a party eqoal or able to resist them in 
appearance, doth bridle their fury. Exap 
mine your own consciences, and weigh that 
sentence of our Master, Jesus Christ, say- 
ing, < Whosoever denies me, or is ashamed 
of me before men, 1 shall deny him before 
my Father.' Now is the day of his battles 
in this realm ; if ye deny us your brethren, 
suffering for his name's sake, ye do also 
deny him, as himself doth witness in these 
words, ' Whatsoever ye did unto any of 
those little ones, that ye did unto me; and 
what ye did not to one of these little ones, 
that ye did not unto me.' If these sentences 
be true, as concerning meat, drink, cloth- 
ing, and such things as appertain to the 
body, shall they not be likewise true in 
those things that appertain to the preserva- 
tion of the lives of thousands, whose blood 
is now sought, for professing of Christ 
Jesus? And thus shortly leave we you, 
who sometimes have professed Christ Jesus 
with us, to the examination of your own 
consciences. And yet once again, of you, 
who blinded by superstition persecute us, 
we require moderation, till our cause may 
be tried, which if ye will not grant unto us 
for God's cause, yet we desire you to have 
respect to the preservation of our common 
country, which we cannot sooner betray in 
the hands of strangers, than that one of as 
destroy and murder another. Consider 
our petitions, and call for the spirit of right- 
eous judgment." 

These our letters being divulged, some 
men began to reason whether of conscience 
they might invade us or not, considering 
that we offered due obedience to the autho- 
rity; requiring nothing but the liberty of 
conscience, and our religion and fact 
[actions] to be tried by the word of God. 
Our letters came with convenient expedi- 
tion to the hands of the brethren in Cun- 
I ningham and Kyle, who convened at the 



[a. h. IMO 

kirk of Craigie, where, after some contra- 
rioiis reafona, Alexander, earl of Glencaim, 
in zeal, burst forth in tboee words« ** Let 
every man serve his conscience. I will, by 
Ood*8 grace, see my brethren in St John- 
stone : yea, albeit never a man shall accom- 
pany me, I will go, and if it were but with 
a pick upon my shoulder; for I had rather 
die with that company than live after 
them." These words so encouraged the 
rest, that all decreed to go forward, as that 
they did so stoutly, that when the lion 
herald in coat armour, conunanded all men 
under the pain of treason to return to their 
houses by public sound of trumpet in Glas- 
gow, never man obeyed that charge, but all 
went forward, as we will after hear. When 
it was clearly understood that the prelates 
and their adherents, suppressing our peti- 
tions as far as in them lay, did kindle the 
fury of all men against us, it was thought 
expedient to write unto them some declara- 
tion of our minds, which we did in this 
form following : 

" To the generation of antichrist, the 
pestilent prelates, and their shave- 
lings within Scotland, the congregation 
of Christ Jesus within the same sayeth, 

<* To the end that ye shall not be abused, 
thinking to escape just punishment, after 
that ye in your blind fury have caused the 
blood of many [to] be shed, this we notify and 
dechure unto you, that if ye proceed in this 
your malicious cruelty, ye shall be entreat- 
ed — wheresoever ye shall be apprehended— 
as murderers and open enemies to God and 
mankind : and, therefore, betimes cease 
from this your bloody rage. Remove first 
from yourselves your bands of bloody men 
of war, and reform yourselves to a more 
quiet Ufe, and thereafter mitigate ye the 
authority, which, without crime conunitted 
upon our part, ye have inflamed against us ; 
or else be ye assured, that with the same 
measure that ye have measured against us ; 
and yet intend to measure to others, it 
shall be measured unto you ; that is, as ye 
by tyranny intend not only to destroy our 
bodies, but also by the same to hold our 
souls in bondage of the devil, subject to 
idolatry, so shall we with all our force and 
power, which God shall gr^nt unto us, ex- 

ecute just vengeance, and punishment opoD 
you; yea, we shall begin that same war 
that God oomnuuided the Israelites to exe- 
cute against the Canaaiiitea, that is* ooDtnct 
of peace shall never be made, till ye desitt 
from your open idolatry and cruel peraeeu- 
tion of God's children.* And this we aig* 
nify unto you in the name of the eternal 
God, and of his Son, Jesus Christy whose 
verity we profess, and evangel we will have 
preached, and holy sacraments rightly mioi- 
strate, so long as God will assist us to 
gainstand your idolatry. Take this for ad- 
vertisement, and be not deceiTed." 

These our requests and advertisements 
notwithstanding, Bfonsienr d'Oyad and his 
Frenchmen, with the priests and their 
bands, marched forward against us to St 
Johnstone, and approached within ten miles 
to the town. Then repaired the brethren 
from all quarters for our relief: the gentle- 
men of Fife, Angus, and Meams, with the 
town of Dundee, were they that first 
hazarded to resist the enemy; and for that 
purpose was chosen a piece of ground, a 
mile or more distant from the town. In 
this meantime the lord Ruthven, provost 
of the town of St Johnstone, and a man 
whom many judged stout and godly in that 
action — as in very deed he was even to his 
last breath — ^left the town, and first depart- 
ed to his own place, and after to the queen ; 
whose defection and revolt was a great dis- 
couragement to the hearts of many: and 
yet did God so comfort his [own], that 
within the space of twelve hours after, the 
hearts of all men were erected again. For 
these that were then assembled did not ao 
much hope victory by^their own strength, 
as by the power of him whose verity they 
professed, and began one to comfort an- 
other till the whole multitude were erected 
in a reasonable esperance [hope of success]. 
The day after that the lord Ruthven de- 
parted, which was the 24th of May, came 
the earl of Argyle, lord James, prior of St 
Andrews, and the lord Semple, directed 
from the queen regent to inquire the canae 
of that convocation of lieges there. To 

* This was a threat which they did nOt necute 
when they had it in their power, aa we ahsll see 
by and by. Ed, 

Book 11. J 


whom, when it wat antwered, tliat it was 
calj to retbt that cmal tyranny deTiaed 
ifaintt that poor town, and the inhabhanta 
of the tame, they aikad, <* if we minded 
Mt to hold that town againat the authority, 
and afainat the queen regfent" To the 
i^idi qaeation answered the lairds of Dun 
and Pitarrow, with the cong^regation of 
AngOB and Meams, the master of Lindsay, 
tho lairds of Lundie, Balwaird, and other 
hmmia of Fife, <" That if the queen's graoe 
would suffer the religion there begun to 
and not trouble their brethren and 

that had professed Christ Jesus with 
ttcBB, that the town, they themselves, and 
whalBoerer to them pertained, should be at 
tka quoen's commandment" Which an- 
swer mderstood, the earl of Ai^le and the 
pffiop— who both were then protestants— 

to muse, and said plainly, that they 
fiur otherwise informed by the queen, 
i9 wrii^ " That we meant no religion, but a 
fiafai rebellion." To the which when we 
had answered simply, and as the truth was, 
io witf * That we convened for no other 
^orpoae, but only to assist our brethren, 
trlio tiien were most unjustly persecuted; 
aad, therefore, we desired [them] faithfully 
Co report our answer, and to be intercessors 
to tiM queen regent, that such cruelty 
should not be used against us, considering 
thai we had offered in our former letters, 
at well to the queen's grace, as to the no- 
UKty, oar matter to be tried in lawful judg- 
mm/L They promised fidelity in that be- 
half wluch also they kept The day after, 
whidi was the 25th day of May, before that 
tha Mid lords departed, in the morning John 
KaoK desired to speak with the same lords, 
wUch granted unto him, he was convoyed 
ta Ihair lodging by the laird of Balwaird ; 
tiiiis he began : 


* TIm present troubles, honourable lords, 
to move the hearts, not only of the 
Mrraots of God, but also of all such 
fls bear any fiivour to their country, and 
■atiml countrymen, to descend within 
th e ma eWes and deeply to consider what 
ahall bo the end of this pretended tyranny. 
The rage of Satan seeketh the destruction 
of all those that within this realm profess 


Christ Jam; and they that inflame the 
qneen'a graoe, and you the noblea against 
us, regard not who prevail, provided that 
they Buy abuse the world, and live at their 
pleasure, as heretofore they have done. 
Yea, I fear that some seek nothing more 
than the effusion of 8cotish blood, to the 
end that your possessions may be the more 
patent to others. But, because that this 
is not the principal [matter to] which I 
have to speak, omitting the same to bo 
considered by the wisdom of those to whom 
the care of the commonwealth appertaineth. 
1st, I most humbly require of you, my 
lords, in my name, to say to the queen's 
grace regent, that we, whom she in her 
blind rage doth persecute, are God's ser- 
vants, faithful and obedient subjects to 
the authority of this realm ; that that reli- 
gion, which she pretendeth to maintain by 
fire and sword, is not the true religion of 
Christ Jesus, but is express contrary to 
the same; a superstition devised by the 
brain of man ; which I offer myself to 
prove against all that M'ithin Scotland will 
maintain the contrary, liberty of tongue 
being granted unto me, and God's written 
word being admitted for judge. 2d, T 
farther require your honoura, in my name, 
to say to her grace, that as of before I have 
written, so now I say, that this her entei^ 
prise shall not prosperously succeed in the 
end, albeit for a time she trouble the saints 
of God. For she fights not against man 
only, but against the eternal God and his 
invincible verity ; and, therefore, the end 
shall be her confusion, unless betimes she 
repent and desist These things require T 
of jrou, in the name of the eternal God, as 
from my mouth, to say unto her grace : 
adding, that I have been, and I am a more 
assured friend to her grace, than they that 
either flattering her grace, are servants of 
her corrupt affections or appetites, or else 
inflame her against us, who seek nothing 
but God's glory to be advanced, vice to be 
suppressed, and verity to be maintained in 
this poor realm." 

They all three did promise to report his 
words, so far as they could, which after- 
wards we understood they did; yea, the 
lord Semple himself, a man sold under sin, 




[a. d. liM 

enemy to God, and to all godlinesB, did 
OMke such report, that the queen was aomo- 
irhat offended, that any man thoold use 
•noh liberty in her presence. She still 
proceeded in her malice ; for immediately 
thereafter, she sent her lion herald, with 
letters, straitly charjpng all men to aroid 
the town, under the pain of treason : which 
letters, after he had declared to the chief 
men of the congregation, he publicly pro- 
claimed the same, upon Sunday, the 27th 
of May. In this meantime, came sure 
knowledge to the queen, to the duke, and 
to Monsieur d'Oysel, that the earl of Glen- 
cairn, the lords Ochiltree and Boyd, the 
young sheriff of Ayr, the lairds of Craigie- 
wallace, Cesnock, Camell, Bar, Garthgirth, 
and the whole congregation of Kyle and 
Cunningham, iLpproacbed for our relief; and 
in rery deed they came in such diligence, and 
such a number, that as the enemy had just 
cause to fear, so have all they that professed 
Christ Jesus matter to praise Gk>d, for their 
fidelity and stout courage in that need ; for 
by their presence, was the tyranny of the 
enemy bridled. Their diligence was such, 
that albeit the passages by Stirling, and 
six miles above, were stopped, — for there 
lay the queen with her bands, and caused 
cut the bridges upon the waters of Forth, 
Gudie,^and Teith, above Stirling,— yet made 
they such expedition through desert and 
mountain, that they prevented the enemy, 
and approached within six miles of our 
camp, which then lay without the town, 
awaiting upon the enemy, before that any 
assured knowledge came to us of their com- 
ing. Their number was of good count, 
five and twenty hundred men, whereof 
there were twelve hundred horsemen. The 
queen understanding how the said earl and 
lords, with their company approached, caus- 
ed to beset all ways, that no advertisement 
should come to us, to the end, that we, 
despairing of support, might condescend to 
such appointment as she required ; and sent 
first to require, that some discreet men of 
our number would come and speak the 

* Gadle water flows from the lake of Men- 
teith, and entert the Forth a little below Leckie. 

duke and Monsieur d'Oysel,-— who then 
with their army lay at Anchterarder, ten 
miles from St Johnstone, — to the end that 
some reasonable appointment might be had. 
She had persuaded the earl of Afg]^e^ and 
all others, that we meant nothing but i»> 
hellion ; and therefore had he promised 
unto her, that, in case we shonld not stand 
content with a reasonable appointment^ he 
should declare himself plain enemy to ns, 
notwithstanding that he professed the same 
religion with ns. From na wers sent the 
laird of Dun, the laird Innerwharity, Tho- 
mas Scott of Abbotshall, to bear what ap« 
pointment the qoeen wmild offer. The 
duke and Monsienr d*Oyari reqoired that 
the town should be made patent^ and that 
all things should be referred to the queen's 
pleasure. To the which they answered, 
*' That neither had they oonunission so to 
promise, neither dnrst they of consdenoe 
so persuade their brethren. But if that 
the queen's grace would promise, that no 
inhabitant of the town should be troubled 
for any such crimes as might be alleged 
against them for the late mutation of reli- 
gion, and abolishment of idolatry, and for 
downcasting of the places of the same; 
and if she would suffer the religion begun 
to go forward, and leave the town at her 
departing free from the garrisons of French 
soldiers, that they would kbour at the 
hands of their brethren that the queen 
should be obeyed in all things." Monsienr 
d'Oysel perceiving the danger to be great 
if that a sudden appointment should not 
be made ; and that they were not able to 
execute their tyranny against us, after that 
the congregation of Kyle— of whose coming 
we had no advertisement — should be join- 
ed with us; with good words dismissed 
the said lairds to persuade the brethren to 
quiet concord ; to the which all men were 
so well minded, that with one voice they 
cried, " Cursed be they that seek effusion 
of blood, war, or dissension. Let us pos- 
sess Christ Jesus, and the benefit of his 
evangel, and none within Scotland shall be 
more obedient subjects than we shall be.*' 
With all expedition were sent from Stir- 
ling again, — after that the coming of the 
earl of Glenoaim was known, for the ene- 

Book II.] 



vy for four quaked, — the earl of Argyle 
aad lord James foreeaid ; and in their oom- 
pany a crafty man, Mr Gavin Hamilton ab- 
bot oi Kilwinningf, who were tent by the 
^aaen to finish the appointment foresaid ; 
Wl before that they came, was the earl of 
Oleooaim and his honourable company ar- 
med in the town ; and then began all men 
te piaise God, for that he had so mercifally 
heard them in their most extreme necessity, 
■■d had sent unto them such relief, as was 
aUe^ without effusion of blood, to stay the 
lagtt of the enemy. The earl of Aj^le 
and lord James did earnestly persuade the 
agreement, to the which all men were will- 
ing; but some did smell the craft of the 
adTenaries, to wit, that they were minded 
to keep no point of the promise longer 
tiyui they had obtained their intent. With 
the earl of Glencaim came our loring bro- 
ther John Willock ; John Knox was in the 
town bdbre ; these two went to the earl 
of Aigyle and prior, accusing them of infi- 
delity, in so far as they had defrauded their 
brethren <rf their dutiful support and com- 
fort in their greatest necessities. They an- 
swered both, " That their heart was con- 
stant with their brethren, and that they 
would defend that cause to the uttermost 
of their power. But because they had 
promised to labour for concord, and assist 
the queen in case we refused reasonable 
offers ; of conscience and honour they could 
do DO less than to be faithful in their pro- 
aiee : and therefore they required that the 
brethren might be persuaded to consent to 
that reasonable appointment ; promising, in 
God*s presence, that if the queen did break 
in any jot thereof, that they, with their 
whole powers, would assist and concur 
with their brethren in all times to come.^* 
This promise made, the preachers appeas- 
ed the multitude, and obtained the end 
all men did consent to the appoint- 
foresaid, which they obtained not 
withaet great labours. And no wonder, 
for JMoy foresaw the danger to follow ; yea 
the preachers themselfes, in open sermons, 
did affirm plainly, ** That they were as- 
snredly persuaded that the queen meant no 
truth : bnt to stop the mouth of the ad?er- 
aary» who did uiyustly burden us with re- 

bellion, they most earnestly required all 
men to i^pprore the appointment^ and so to 
suffer hypocrisy to disclose itself.*' This 
appointment was concluded the 28th of 
May, and the day following, at two after- 
noon, departed the congregation from St 
Johnstone, after that John Knox had in 
his sermon, exhorted all men to constancy, 
and unfeignedly to thank God, for that it 
had pleased his mercy to stay the rage of 
the enemy, without effusion of blood, and 
that no brother should weary nor foint to 
support such as should afterwards be like- 
wise persecuted : <* For,** said he, ** I am 
assured, that no part of this promise made 
shall be longer kept than the queen and 
her Frenchmen hare the upper hand.*' 
Many or the enemies were at the same ser- 
mon ; for after that the appointment was 
made they had free entries into the town 
to provide lodgings. Before the lords d^ 
parted was this bond made, whose tenor 
follows, as it was written and subscribed. 

'* At Perth, the last day of May, the year 
of God 1559, the congregation of the west 
country, with the congregation of Fife, 
Perth, Dundee, Angus, Meams, and Mon- 
trose, being convened in the town of Perth, 
in the name of Jesus Christ, for forthsetting 
of his glory — understanding nothing more 
necessary for the same than to keep a 
constant amity, unity, and fellowship to- 
gether, according as they are commanded 
by God, are confederate, and become bound 
and obliged, in the presence of God, to 
concur and assist together in doing all 
things required of God in his Scripture, 
that may be to his glory; and at their 
whole powers to destroy, and away-put, 
all things that do dishonour to his name ; 
so that God may be purely and truly wor- 
shipped. And in case that any trouble be 
intended against the said congregations, or 
any part or member thereof, the whole 
congregation shall concur, assist, and con- 
vene together, to the defence of the same 
congregation, or person troubled ; and shall 
not spare labours, goods, substances, bodies, 
and lives in maintaining the liberties of the 
whole congregation, and every member 
thereof against whatsoever power that 
shall intend the said trouble, for cause of 



[▲.». UM 

religion, or any other cause dependiiig 
theteupoD, or lidd to their charge under 
pretence thereof, although it happen to be 
coloured with auy other outward came. 
In witnessing and testimony of which, the 
whole congregations foresaid have ordained 
and appointed the noblemen and persons 
underwritten to subscribe these presents.*' 
Sic subicribitur, 

" Arch. Aroylb. Glsncairn. 

RoBBRT lord Boyd« Ochiltree. 

James Stewart. 

Matthew Campbell of Teringland.*' 
The 29th day of May, entered the queen, 
the duke. Monsieur d'Oysel, and the French- 
men, who, in discharging their volley of 
hackbuts, did well mark the house of Patrick 
Murray, a man ferrent in religion, and that 
boldly had sustained all dangers in that 
trouble ; against whose stair they directed 
six or seven shot, even against the faces of 
those that were there lying. All men 
escaped except the son of the said Patrick, 
a boy of ten or twelve yean of age, who 
being slain, was had to the queen's pre- 
sence: but she understanding whose son 
he was, said in mockage, '* It is a futy it 
chanced on the son, and not on the father ; 
but seeing that so it chanced, me cannot be 
against fortune.** This was her happy 
entry into St Johnstone, and the great aeal 
she bore to justice. The swarm of papists 
that entered with her began straight to 
make provision for their mass ; and because 
the altars were not so easily to be repaired 
again, they provided tables, whereof some 
before used to serve for drunkards, dicers, 
and carders, but they were holy enough 
lor the priest and his pageant. The queen 
b^gan to rage against all godly and honest 
men, their houses were oppressed by the 
Frenchmen, the lawful magistrates, as well 
provost as bailies, were unjustly, and with- 
out all order, deposed from their authority. 
A wicked man, void of God*8 fear and desti- 
tute of all virtue, [John Charteris], the laird 
of K^infauns, was intruded by her provost of 
the town, whereat all honest men were of- 
fended ; they left their own houses, and with 
their wives and children sought amongst 
their brethren some resting place for a 
time She took order that four ensigns of 

the soldiers should remaiB in the town to 
maintain idolatry, and to resist the oongre- 
gation. Honest and indifferent men aeked 
why she did so manitetly violate her pro- 
mise? She answered, ^ That she wm 
bound to no heretios to keep promise: and 
moreover, that she promised only to leave 
the town void of French soldien, wbioh 
she said she did, beoanse that these that 
were left within were Sootsmea. But 
when it was reasoned in her eontnrf, that 
all those that took wages of Fnnce were 
counted French soldien: she aonrered, 
*< Princes must not atraitly be boond to keep 
their promisee. Myself" said shi^ ** would 
make little oooicienoe to take fiwn all that 
sort their lives and heritages, if I might do 
it with as honest an eicose :** and then she 
left the town in extreme bondage, after that 
her ungodly Frenchmen had most cruelly 
entreated the meet part of these that re- 
mained in the same. The earl of Aigyls^ 
and lord James foresaid, perceiving in the 
queen nothing but mere tjnranny and fiJs»> 
hood, mindful of their former promise made 
to their brethren, did secretly convoy thesb- 
selves and their companies off the town ; 
and with them departed the lord Ruthven 
—of whom before mention is nuide-<-the 
earl of Menteith, and the laird of Tullybar- 
dine, who, in God's presence did confede- 
rate, and bind themselves together, faith- 
fully promising one to assist another against 
all persons that would pursue them for re- 
ligion's sake; and also that they, with 
their whole force and power, would defend 
the brethren persecuted for the same cause. 
The queen, highly offended at the sudden 
departure of the persons foresaid, sent 
chai|fes to them to return under the highest 
pain of her displeasure. But they answer- 
ed, ** That with safe oonsdenoe they could 
not be partakers of so manifest tyranny as 
by her was committed, and of so great ini- 
quity as they perceived devised, by her and 
her ungodly council the prelates.*' 

This answer was given to her the first 
day of June, and immediately the earl of 
Argyle and lord James repaired towards 8t 
Andrews, and in their journey gave adver- 
tisement, by writing, to the laird of Dan, to 
the laird of Pitarrow, to the provoet of 

Bpok 11.] 



B— d#e, and ofth«n,prof6non in Angus, to 
fUt them in St Andrewi the fooith of 
Jme, for refonnation to be made there. 
WUoh dajr they kept, and brought in their 
John Knox, irho, the first day, 
hii coming to Fife, did preach in Crail, 
At B«zt day in Anstmther, minding the 
Snaiay, which was the third, to preach in 
8l Andrews. The bishop, hearing of refor- 
matipn to be made in his cathedral church, 
thoag ht time to stir, or else nerer ; and, 
thsrelbre, assembled his colleagues, and 
omfaderate fellows, besides his other friends, 
aad Gune to the town upon the Saturday, 
at nighty accompanied with a hundred 
iprars^ of mind to have stopped John Knox 
to haYO preached. The lords and gentle- 
WMm forrasid, were only accompanied with 
their quiet households, and, therefore, the 
sodden coming of the bishop was more 
iauhd ; for then were the queen and her 
Fwchmcm departed from 8t Johnstone, 
and were lying in Falkland, within tweWe 
Bsilet of 8t Andrews ; and the town at that 
time had not given profession of Christ, 
tmi, therefore, could not the lords be as- 
tmd of their friendship. Consultation 
beiof had, many were of mind that the 
prtaofring should be delayed for that day, 
aad cspedaily that John Knox should 
not fmoh, for that did the bishop affirm 
that ba would not suffer, considering that 
bjhiaconmiandment the picture of the said 
John waa before burnt Ho willed, there- 
fora^ an honest gentleman, Robert ColTill 
elClMh, to say to the lords, «* That in case 
the aaid John Knox presented himself to 
the preaching place, in his town and princi- 
inl kirky he should gar him be nluted 
with a dozen of culverins, whereof the 
part should light on his nose.'* After 
daliberation had, the said John was 
sriMythat his own judgment might be had. 
¥FkM many persuasions were made that 
ha ihiriil deky for that time, and great ter- 
rars gifin in case he should enterprise 
iOiA a thing, as it were in contempt of 
the hishopa, he answered, " God is witness 
that I nerer preached Christ Jesus in con- 
tempt of any man, neither mind I to present 
myaelf to that place, having either rsapect 
to my own private commodity, either yet 

to the worldly hart of any creature ; but 
to deky to praaoh to-morrow— nnless the 
body be violently withholden — I cannot of 
conscience : for in this town and kirk began 
God first to call me to the dignity of a 
preacher, from the which I was reft by the 
tyranny of France, by procurement of the 
bishops, as ye all well enough know. How 
long I continued prisoner, what torment I 
sustained in the gidleys, and what were the 
sobs of my heart, is now no time to recite. 
This only I cannot conceal, which more 
than one have heard me say, when the 
body was far absent from Scotland, that my 
assured hope was, in open audience, to 
preach in 8t Andrews, before I departed 
this life. And therefore," said he, " my 
lords, seeing that God, above the expecta- 
tion of many, has brought the body to the 
same place where first I was called to the 
office of a preacher, and from the which 
most unjustly I was removed, I beseech 
your honours not to stop me to present my- 
self unto my brethren. And as for the 
fear of danger that may come to roe, let no 
man be solicitous, for my life is in the cus- 
tody of Him whose glory I seek ; and, there- 
fore, I caimot so fear their boast nor ty- 
ranny, that I will cease from doing my 
duty, when God of his mercy offereth the 
occasion. I desire the hand nor weapon 
of no man to defend me ; only I crave 
audience ; which, if it be denied here unto 
me at this time, I must seek farther where 
I may have it" At these words, which he 
spoke, were the lords fully content that he 
should occupy the place, which he did 
upon Sunday the tenth of June, and did en- 
treat [commented on] ** the ejection of the 
buyers and the sellers forth of the temple of 
Jerusalem," as it is written in the evange- 
lists Matthew and John ; and so applied the 
corruption that was then to the corruption 
that is in the papistry : and Christ's fact, 
to the duty of those to whom God giveth 
power and leal thereto, that as well the 
magistrates, the provost and bailies, as* the 
commonalty, did agree to remove all monu- 
ments of idolatry, which also they did with 
expedition. The bishop advertised hereof^ 
departed that same day to the queen, who 
lay with her Frenchmen, as said is, in Falk- 



[a. D. um 

land. The hot fary of the bishops did so 
kindle her choler — and yet the Ioto was 
Tery cold hetwizt them— that without 
&rUier delay, conclusion was taken to in- 
vade St Andrews, and the two young lords, 
who then were very slenderly accompanied. 
Posts were sent from the queen with all 
diligence to Coujiar, distant only six miles 
from St Andrews, to prepare lodgings and 
victuals for the queen and her Frenchmen. 
Couriers were sent before, and lodgings 
were assigned. Which thing understood, 
counsel was given to the lords to march 
forward, and to prevent them before they 
came to Coupar: which they did, giving 
advertisement to all brethren with possible 
expedition to repair towards them ; which 
they also did, with such diligence, that in 
their assembly the wondrous work of God 
might be espied : for when at night the 
lords came to Coupar, they were not a 
hundred horse, and a certain footmen whom 
lord James brought from the coast side; 
and yet, before the next day at twelve 
hours — which was Tuesday the 13th of 
June — the number passed three thousand 
men, which by God's providence came unto 
the lords ; from Lothian, the lairds of Or- 
miston, Calder, Halton, Restalrig, and 
Colston, who, albeit they understood at 
their departing from their own house no 
such trouble, yet were they by their good 
counsel very comfortable that day. The 
lord Kuthven came from St Johnstone, with 
some horsemen with him: the earl of 
Hothes, sheriff of Fife, came with an honest 
company. The towns of Dundee and St 
Andrews declared themselves both stout 
and faithfuL Coupar, because it stood in 
greatest danger, assisted with their whole 
force. Finally, God did so multiply our 
number, that it appeared as men had rained 
from the clouds. The enemy understand- 
ing nothing of our force, assured themselves 
of victory. Who had been in Falkland 
the night before, might have seen em- 
bracing and kissing betwixt the queen, 
the duke, and the bishop. But Mr Gavin 
Hamilton, gaper for the bishopric of St 
Andrews, above all others was lovingly 
embraced of the queen; for he made his 
solenm vow, that he would fight, and that 

he should never return till he had bnioght 
these traitors to her grace, either quick or 
dead. And thus before midnight did tiiey 
send forward their ordoanoe, thenaelTea did 
follow by three hoars in the momiag. The 
lords hereof advertiaed, asaembM their 
company early in the morning upon Coii|Mr 
muir ; where hf the advice of James Haly- 
burton provost of Dondee, was ohoaen a 
place of ground convenient for our defience; 
for it was so chosen, that upon all sides oor 
ordnance might have beat the enemy, and 
yet we to have stood in salety, if we had 
been pursued, till we had oome to hand 
strokes. The lord Bnthvea took the 
charge of the h o rsem e n, and ordered them 
so, that the enemy was never permitted to 
espy our number ; the day was dsiric, which 
helped thereto. The enemy— 4tt before is 
said— thinking to have found no renataaoe, 
after that they had twice or thrice practised 
with us, as that they would retire, mardied 
forward with great expedition, and ap- 
proached within a mile before that ever 
their horsemen stayed, and yet they kept 
betwixt us and them a great water for their 
strength. It appeared to us that either 
they marched for Coupar or St Andrews ; 
and, therefore, our horsemen in their troop, 
and a part of the footmen marched some- 
what always before them for safety of the 
town. The lords, with the gentlemen of 
Fife, and so many of Angus and Meams as 
were present, kept themselves close in a 
knot, near to the number of a thousand 

The towns of Dundee and St Andrews 
were arrayed in another battle [battalion], 
who came not to the sight of the enemy, 
till that after twelve hours [12 o'clock 
noon], that the mist began to vanish, and 
then passed some of their horsemen to a 
mountain, from the height whereof they 
might discern our number, which perceived 
by them, their horsemen and footmen 
stayed [baited] incontinent Posts ran to 
the duke and Monsieur d*Oysel, to deohura 
our number, and what order we kept ; and 
then were mediators sent to make i^point- 
ment; but they were not suffered to ap- 
proach near the lords, neither yet to the 
view of our camp, which put them to 




gVHiter fear. Answer wm given unto 
Iktm, ** That as we had ofiended no man, 
m would we seek appointment of no man ; 
if any would seek our liVes — as we 
informed they did— they should find 
■i^they pleased to make di%ence." This 
receiyed, were sent again the lord 
% and laird of Wanghton, who ear- 
requested us to concord, and that we 
vmiU not he the occasion that innocent 
U0od should be shed.* We answered, 
* Thnt neither had we quarrel against any 
neither yet sought we any man's 
; only we were convened for defence 
•four own lifes, unjustly sought by others." 
W« ftdded &rther, « That if they could find 
the ■Miant that we and our brethren might 
to firee from the tyranny devised against 
WMf timt tiiey should reasonably desire no* 
which should be denied for our part" 
answer received, the duke and Mon- 
^Oysel, having commission of the 
reg«nt, required, that assurance 
■igfat be taken for eight days, to the end 
that indifferent men in the meantime might 
lime npon some final agreement of 
things which then were in contro- 
Hereto did we fully consent, albeit 
that in number and force we were far su- 
p«ior;t and for testification hereof, we 
wmX nnto them our hand-writes, and we 
Bktwise received theirs, with promise that 
within two or three days some discreet men 
bo sent unto us to St Andrews, with 
knowledge of the queen's mind. 
tenor of the assurance was this : 

pertont are wonder Mly tender and 
I aboat shedding blood, when it hap- 
'te be thtir own that is in danger ; but it is 
evident from the rest of the story, that 
would have been no sach delicacy had the 
on the other side. — Ed, 
H on this occasion that the oongrega- 
It in their power to take ample ven- 
•a their persecutors. The queen and 
in entire ignorance of their number 
HaiMh, had placed themselves at their 
7f aai they miglit have attacked them with 
Aope of eattingthem off, and overtum- 
isjg the govoromant. £ut they declared them- 
Mivw to be only on the defensive, and would 
Bst dbmw a aword unless the attadc was made 
en tliMD, which their enemies were too wise to 
do. Tbis shows lliat they were perfectly aware 
of UmIt rshHien as suldsets, and were determin- 


** We, James, duke of Chatelherault, earl of 
Arran, lord Hamilton, &c and my lord 
d'Oysel, lieutenant for the king in these' 
parts, for ourselves, assisters, and partakers, 
being presently with us in cmnpany, by the 
tenor hereof promise faithfnUy of honour to 
my lords Archibald, earl of Argyle, and 
James, commendator of the priory of St 
Andrews, to their assisters, and partakers, 
being presently with them in company, 
that we, and our company foresaid, shall re- 
tire incontinent to Falkluid ; and shall, with 
diligence, transport the Frenchmen and our 
other folks now present with us ; and that no 
Frenchmen, or other soldiers of ours, shall 
remain within the bounds of Fife, but so 
many as before the raising of the last army 
ky in Dysart, Kirkaldy, and JCinghom, 
and the same to lie in the same places only, 
if we shall think good. And this to have 
effect for the s[>ace of eight days following 
the date hereof exclusive ; that in the mean- 
time certain noblemen, by the advice of the 
queen's grace, and the rest of the council, 
may convene to talk of such things as may 
make good order and quietness amongst the 
queen's lieges. And farther, we nor none 
of our assisters, being present with us, shall 
invade, trouble, or unquiet the said lords, 
nor their assisters, during the said space. 
And this we bind and oblige us, upon our 
loyalty, fidelity, and honour, to observe and 
keep in every point above written, but 
without fraud or guile. In witness whereof 
we have subscribed these presents with our 

ed not to rebel against their sovereign or her 
representative, but merely stand to the defenco 
of their own lives, for which, I think, no rea- 
sonable man can blame them. They might, 
however, have made better terms for themselves 
by negotiation ; but perbapa they had found by 
ezperienceb that there were no terms which the 
queen woiud keep. They were outwitted when 
tlwy consented to the truce of eight days. The 
queen and her councillors no doubt knew, that 
their entire body would not remain so long to- 
gether, having nothing to do, and perhapa little 
to eat. And so it happsned, for they dispersed ; 
and they never again occupied such a favourable 
position till they got the aid of England. Their 
enemies made a moat ungenerous use of their 
forbearance, for they continued to peracoute 
them as much as ever.— £</. 



[a. d. 

hands, at Gartabanks, the 13th of June, 

'^James, Duke. 

"L. L.ENNEN, J."» 
And thb receifed, we departed fint, b^ 
oanse we were thereto requested by the 
duke, and so returned to Coupar, lauding 
and praising God for hit mercy showed ; 
and thereafter erery man departed to his 
dwelling place. The lords, and a great 
part of the gentlemen passed to St Andrews, 
who there abode certain days, still looking 
for those that were promised to come from 
the queen, for appointment to be made. 
But we perceiving her craft and deceit — 
for under that assurance she meant nothing 
else, but to convoy herself, her ordnance, 
her Frenchmen over the water of Forth — 
took consultation for deliverance of 8t 
Johnstone from these ungodly soldiers, and 
how our brethren, exiled from their own 
houses, might be restored again. It was 
concluded, that the brethren of Fife, Angus, 
Mearns, and Stratheam, should convene at 
St Johnstone the 24th day of June for that 
purpose ; and, in the meantime, were these 
letters written by the earl of Aigyle and 
lord James, to the queen then regent 

** Madam, 

« After the hearty commendations of ser- 
vice, this diall be to show your grace, that 
upon the ISth day of June, we were in- 
formed by them that were communers be- 
twixt my knrd duke, Monsieur d'Oysel, and 
0% that we should have spoken irreverently 
of your grace, which we beseech your 
grace, for the true service we have made, 
and are ready to make at all times to your 
grace ; that of your goodness you will let 
us know the sayers thereof, and we shall 
do the duty of true subjects, to defend our 
own innocency, as we take God to witness, 
of the good zeal and love we bear towards 
you, to serve you with true hearts, and all 
that we have, as well lands as goods, de- 
siring no other thing for our service but the 
liberty of our conscience, to serve the Lord 
our God, as we will answer to him, which 

* The editor of the old copy says he could not 
read this subscription, but, says he, the simile 
Is Meneita, which perhapa was d^Oysel's chris- 
tian name.— £(/. 

your graoe ought and thoiild give to na 
freely unrequired. Moreorer, pleaae your 
grace, that my lord duke, and iSkm no- 
blemen being in Stirling for the time, 
by your grace's advice, solicited ns to pav 
to the congregation oonvened at the town 
of Perth, to commune of ooncord, where 
we did our exact diligence, and brought it 
to pass, as yonr graoe knowa; and there ia 
one point that we plaint [complain] is not 
observed to us, whidi is, that no soldier 
should remain in the town afto- yoor grace's 
departing; and suppose it may be inferred, 
it was spoken of French mMen allenarly 
[only] yet we took it otkerwiM, like as we 
do yet, that Scotsmen, or any other nation 
taking the king of Fnmoe'e wages, are re- 
pute and holden French aoldiers: there- 
fore, since we of good will and mind 
brought that matter to yonr gnoe's content- 
ment, it will please your grace, of your 
goodness, to remove the soldiers and their 
ca p tains, with others that have gotten 
chaige of the town, that the same may be 
guided and ruled freely, as it was before by 
the bailies and coundl, conform to their in- 
feftments given to them by the ancient and 
most excellent kings of this realm, to elect 
and choose their officers at Michaelmas, and 
they to endure for the space of one year, con- 
form to the old right and consuetude of this 
realm; which being done by your grace, 
we trust the better success shall follow 
thereupon to your grace's contentment, as 
the bearer will declare at more length to 
your grace ; whom God preserve." 

To St Johnstone, with the gentlemen 
before expressed, did convene the earl of 
Monteitb, the laird of Glenorchy, and di- 
vers others who before had not presented 
themselves for defence of their brethren. 
When the whole multitude was convened, 
a trumpet was sent by the lords, command- 
ing the captains and their bands to avoid 
the town, and to leave it to the ancient li- 
berty and just inhabitants of the same; 
also commanding the laird of Kinfanns^ 
inset provost by the queen, with the cap- 
tains foresaid, to cast up the ports of the 
town, and make the same patent to all our 
sovereign's lieges, to the effect, thataa well 
true religion now once begun therein may 

Book 11.] 



be DuuatainMl, and idoUtrj utterly tap- 
pnmed ; as alio that the said toum might 
jojae and bruiok [enjoy and pos sess] their 
aaeioit laws and liberties unoppreesed by 
am of war, according to their old privi- 
Wfst granted to them by the andent princes 
ef the realm, and according to the provision 
oontained in the contract of marriage made 
by the nobility and parliament of this realm 
with the king of France, bearing, that none 
«f oar old laws nor liberties should be alter- 
ed : adding thereto, if they foolishly resist- 
ed, and therein happened to commit murder, 
that they should be entreated as murderers. 
To the which they answered proudly, 
* That they would keep and defend that 
town, according to their promise made to 
the queen regent** 

This answer received, preparation was 
asadA for the siege and assault ; for amongst 
all it was concluded, that the town should 
be net at liberty, to what danger soeTer 
thflir bodies should be exponed. While 
prep ar a ti on was in making, came the earl 
of Hmitiy, the lord Erskine, and Mr John 
Bannatyne^ justice-derk, requiring that the 
pufwut of tiie town should be delayed. To 
■peak them were appointed the earl of Ar- 
gflBp lord James, and lord Ruthven, who 
peneifing nothing in them but a drift of 
without any assurance that the for- 
wrongs shoidd be redressed, gave unto 
short and plain answers, ** That they 
would not deUy their purpose an hour; 
aod thersfore willed them to certify the 
captains in the town, that if by pride and 
foolishness they would keep the town, and 
hs ao doing slay any of their brethren, that 
Aey erery one should die as murderers.** 
earl of Huntly, displeased at this an- 
r, departed, as highly offended, that he 
loot dress [effect] such an appointment, 
M.aboold have contented the queen and 
tba priests. After their departing, the 
towa was again summoned. But the cap- 
tatoi^ supposing that no sudden pursuit 
•bonld be made, and looking for relief to 
bare been sent from the queen, abode in 
tboir former opinion. And so upon Satur- 
day, the 85th of June, at ten hours at night, 
ooaamaaded the lord Ruthyen, who besieg- 
ed the west quarter, to shoot the first vol- 

ley, which being done, the town of Dundee 
did the like^ whose ordnance lay upon the 
east side of the bridge. The captains and 
soldiers within the town, perceiving that 
they were unable long to resist, required 
assurance till twelve hours [noon] upon the 
mom, promising, " That if ere that hour 
there came no relief unto them from the 
queen regent, that they would render the 
town, providing, that they should be suf- 
fered to depart the town with ensigns dis- 
played." We, thirsting the blood of no 
man, and seeking only the liberty of our 
brethren, condescended to their desires, al- 
beit we might have executed against them 
judgment without mercy, for that they had 
refused our former fiivours, and had slain 
one of our brethren, and had hurt two in 
their assistance ; and yet we suffered them 
freely to depart without any forther molee- 

The town being delivered from their 
thraldom, upon Sunday the 26th of June, 
thanks were given to God for his great be- 
nefits received, and consultation was taken 
what was further to be done. In this 
meantime, four sealous men, considering 
how obstinate, proud, and despiteful, the 
bishop of Murray had been before ; how 
he had threatened the town by his soldiers 
and friends, who by in the abbey of Scone, 
thought good that some order should be 
taken with him and with that place, which 
lay near to the town end. The lords wrote 
unto him, — ^for he lay in the said abbey, 
which was within two miles to St John- 
stone,—'* That unless he would come and 
assist them, they neither would spare nor 
save his place." He answered by his writ- 
ing, ** That he would come and do as they 
thought expedient; that he would assist 
them with his force, and would vote with 
them against the rest of the clergy in par- 
liament" But because his answer was 
slow in coming, the town of Dundee, partly 
offended for tiie slaughter of their man, 
and specially bearing tiO good favour to the 
said bishop, for that he was and is chief 
enemy to Christ Jesus, and that by his 
counsel alone was Walter Milne our brother 
put to death, they marched forward. To 
stay them was first sent the provost of 




[A. ft. IBM 

Diiiid«e» and his brother Alexander Haii- 
Inirton, oaptain, who little preTailing, was 
•ent unto tiiem John Knox ; but before his 
eoming^ they were entered to the polling 
down of the idols and dortour.* And al- 
beit the said Mr James Halibnrton. Alex- 
ander hb brother, and the said John» did 
what in them lay to haye stayed the fury 
of the multitude ; yet were they not able 
to put order universally; and therefore 
they sent for the lords, earl of Argyle, and 
lord James, who comin|^ with all diligence, 
laboured to have saved the place and the 
kirk. But because the multitude had found, 
buried in the kirk, a great number of idols 
hid, of purpose to have preserved them to 
a better day, — as the papists 8pake,^-the 
towns of Dundee and St Johnstone could 
not be satisfied, till that the whole repa- 
ration and ornaments of the kirk— «s they 
termed it — were destroyed. And yet did 
the lords so travail, that they saved the 
bishop's palace, with the church and place, 
for that night : for the two lords did not 
depart till they brought with them the 
whole number of those that most sought 
the bishop^s displeasure. The bishop, great- 
ly offended that any thing should have 
been enterprised in the reformation of his 
place, asked of the lords his bond and 
handwriting, which not two hours before 
he had sent unto them, which delivered to 
his messenger, Adam Brown, advertisement 
was given, that if any farther displeasure 
chanced unto him, that he should not 
blame them. 

The bishop's servants that same night 
began to fortify the place again, and began 
to do violence to some that were carrying 
away such baggage as they could oome by. 
The bishop's gimel [granary] was kept the 
first night by the labours of John Knox, 
who by exhortation removed such as would 
violently have made eruption.f That same 
night departed from St Johnstone the eari 
of Aigyle, and lord James, as after shall be 
declared. The morrow following, some of 
the poor, in hope of spoil, and some of 

• Dortour— dormUorf, bed-ofaambor, apart- 
ment ooDtaining a nomberof beds— Fr. dorteir, 
dormitorium. — Bd, 

Dnndee, to ooosider what was dooe^ pass- 
ed up to Ae said abbey of Soone; w l w r st H 
the bishop's servants o ffead ed, b^gaa to 
threaten and speak proudly : and, as it 
constantly affirmed, one of tho bUiop*s i 
stoggit [stabbed] through with » rs|^ 
of Dundee, for becasao he was looking us 
at the gimel door. The bmit hereof noised 
abroad, the town of Dundee was wn&n en- 
raged than before^ wbo^ putkinf thiwselvee 
in armour, sent word to the inhabitants of 
St Johnstone, ** That unless th^ should 
support them to avenge that ii^wyy that 
they should never after that dty ooneur 
with them in any action.** Tho multitude 
easily inflamed, gave the aknn, and so was 
that abbey and place appointed to saokage ; 
in doing whereof they took no long deli- 
beration, but committed the whole to the 
merciment of fire, whereat no small nonn 
her of us were [so] offended, that patiently 
we could not speak to any that wem of 
Dundee or St Johnstone. A poor aged 
matron, seeing the fUme of fire pass np so 
mightily, and perceiving that many wem 
thereat offended, in plain and sober manner 
of speaking, said, * Now I see and underw 
stand that God's judgments are just, and 
that no man is able to save where he will 
punish. Since my remembrance^ this place 
has been nothing else but a den of whore- 
mongers. It is incredible to believe how 
many wives have been adulterated, and vir- 
gins deflowered by the filthy beasts which 
have been fostered in this den ; but espe- 
cially by that wicked man, who is called 
the bishop. If all men knew as much as I, 
they would praise God ; and no man would 
be offended." This woman dwelt in the 
town, near unto the abbey, at whose words 
were many padfied; affirming with her, 
that it was God's just judgments. And as- 
suredly, if the labours or travails of any 
man could have saved that place, it had 
not been at that time destroyed ; for men 
of great estimation laboured with all dili- 
gence for the safety of it 

While these things were done at St 

t Thus it appears, that ao far from being •»- 
tive in deetroving the property of the eharBb» 
Knox exerted nlmaclf to protect it.— j&/. 




Johnrtop^, the qaeeii, feariBg what ahoold 
Ulk^w^ determined to tend certaui bandi 
oi French soldiers to Stirling, of purpose to 
•top At pMsege to os that then were upon 
Am north side of Forth ; which understood, 
the earl of Ai^le and lord James dq[»arted 
Mcratly upon the night, and with great ex- 
pedition^ preyenting the French soldiers, 
the/ took the town, — ^before whose coming 
the rascal moltatnde put hands in the thieyes* 
J ahovld say, friars' places, and utterly de- 
stroyed them, — ^whereat the queen and her 
Action not a little afraid, with all diligence 
departed from Edinbuigh to Dunbar. And 
to we with reasonable diligence marched 
isrward to Edinbuigh, for reformation to 
ho nuMle there, where we arriyed the 29th 
of June. The proyost for that time, the 
lord Seyton, — a man without Ood, without 
iMmesty, and oftentimes without reason, — 
had before greatly troubled and molested 
tike bfothran ; for he had taken upon him 
Hm protection and defence of the black and 
grsjfHiis; for that purpose did [he] not 
mdj lie himself in the one eyery night, but 
also oomtndned the most honest in the 
town to watch these monsters, to their 
great grief and trouble. But he hearing of 
our sudden coming, abandoned his charge, 
and left the spoil to the poor, who had 
Bsade hayoc of aU such things as were 
nu>yeahle in these places before our coming, 
•ad had left nothing but bare walls^ yea 
aot 00 much as door or window, whereto 
we were the less troubled in putting order 
iaauoh places. 

After that certain days we had deliberat- 
•d what was to be done, and that order was 
takes for suppressing of all monuments of 
idoktry within that town, and the places 
BSKt •cyacent, determination was taken, to 
•and some messengers to the queen, then 
i^gaat, for she had bruited— as her accus- 
tmmi manner was, and yet her daughter's 
Mt 9fm to forge lies— that we sought no- 
thing Wt her life, and a phdn reyoltment 
from the lawful obedience due to our so- 
yere^n, her authority, as by the tenor of 
these letters may be seen. 

** Frauds a^ Biary, by the grace of God, 
king aad queen of Soots, dauphin and dan- 
phineaa of Viennoia, to our loyites, lyon 

king of anas, &o. our sherifb in that part^ 
coqiunotly and eeyerally, specially eoasti^ 
tute^ greeting. For as much as our deareat 
Biother Mary, queen dowager, regent of 
our realm, and lorda of our aecret council, 
peroeiying the aeditioas tumult raised by 
a part of our lieges, naming themseiyea, 
' The Congregation,' who^ under pretence 
of religion, haye put themsriyes in armour; 
and that her grace, for satisfying eyery 
man*s conscience, and pacifying the said 
troubles, had offered unto them to affix a 
parliament to be holden in January next to 
come, — this was a manifest lie, for this was 
neither offered, nor by her was once thought 
upon till we required it,— or sooner, if they 
had pleased it, for establishing of an unir 
yersal order in matters of rdigion, by our 
adyioe and estates of our realm; and, in 
the meantime, to sufier eyery man to liye 
at liberty of conscience, without trouUe, 
unto the time the said order was taken, by 
adyice of our foresaid states. And at last^ 
because it appeared much to stand upon 
[much desired by] our buigh of Edinburgh* 
offered in like manner to let the inhabitants 
thereof choose what manner of religion 
they would set up and use for that time; 
so that no man might allege that he was 
forced to do against his conscience : which 
offer the queen's grace, our said dearest 
mother, was at that time, and yet is ready 
to fulfil : not the less» the said congregatioa 
being to receiye no reasonable offers, has 
sinsyne^ by open deed, declared, that it is 
not religion nor any thing thereto belong- 
ing that they seek, but only the subyeraion 
of our authority, and nsurpatioa of our 
crown; in manifest witnessing whereof, 
they daily receive Englishmen with aiee- 
sages unto them, and send such like into 
England. And last of all, some yiolently 
intromitted, withtaken, and yet uphold 
the irons of our cunyehous [coining-house 
or mint], which is one of the chief points 
that concerns our crown ; and such like has 
intromitted with our palace of Holyrood- 
house. Our will is herefore, that ye pass 
to the said market-cross of our said buigh of 
Edinbuigh, or any other public place with- 
in the same^ and there, by open prochuaa- 
tion in our names and anUiority, conunand 



[A.B. uie 

olitf]gfe aU and fondrj p«non8 of the 
■aid coBgregatioD, or yet being preieat 
within oar said burgh, other than the in- 
habitanti thereof, that they within nx 
bom next after onr said charge, depart 
forth of the fane nnder the pain of trea- 
•on ; and alio, that ye command and charge 
all and snodry penont to leaye their com- 
pany, and adhere to our authority; with 
certification to snch as do the contrary, 
•hall be repute and holden as manifest trai- 
tors to onr crown," kc. 

These letters did not a little griere us, 
who most unjustly were accused ; for there 
is nerer a sentence of the narratiTe true, 
except that we stayed the irons * [coining 
instruments], and 'that for most just cause, 
to wit, because that daily there were such 
numbers of lions— o/um called Hardheads 
—printed, that the baseness thereof made 
all things exceeding dear; and therefore 
we were counselled by the wisest to stay 
the irons, while farther order might be 
tftken. She with all possible diligence post- 
ed for her faction. Mr James Balfour was 
not idle in the meantime. The lords, to 
purge them of those odious crimes, wrote 
to her a letter in form as after follows. 

** Please your grace be advertised, it is 
come to our knowledge, that your grace 
has set forth, by your letters openly pro- 
claimed, that we, called by name, the con- 
gregation, under pretence and colour of re- 
ligion, convene together to no other pur- 
pose but to usurp our sovereign's authority, 
and to invade your person representing 
theirs at this present ; which things appear 
to have proceeded of sinister information 
made by our enemies to your grace, con- 
sidering that we never minded [intended] 
such thing, but only our purpose and mind 
was and is to promote and set forth the 
glory of God, maintain and defend the true 
preachers of his word ; and according to 
the same, abolish and put away idolatry 
and false abuses, which may not stand with 

* This was a strong measure, and it would 
DO doubt have oonvictea them of rebellion, had 
the government been able to bring them to trial ; 
but It was adopted, not on their own aoooont, 
but for the beoeilt of the ooontry. llie queen 
would have paid her French soldiers with the 

the said word of God, beaeeekfasg yov 
grace to bear patiently there with, and hitar- 
pone yonr aotboiity to the faith es M ia of 
the same, as is the duty of every ehriatiBn 
prince and good magistnite; For as to thn 
obedience of our sovereign authority in all 
dvil and politio matters, we are and shall 
be as obedient as any other your gimoe^a 
snhjeeta within the realm, and that onr 
convention it for no other purpoee but to 
save onr preachers and their auditors from 
the violence and injury of onr enemies, 
winch should be more amply dedared by 
tome of us in your grace's presence, if ye 
were not accompanied with such as have 
pursued our livee and sought our blood. 
Thus, we pray Almighty God to have your 
highness in hb eternal tuition. At Edin- 
bnrgh, the 2i of July 1559.** 

And for fortfaer purgation hereof, it was 
thought necessary that we should simply 
expone, as wdl to her grace as to the 
whole people, what were our requests and 
just petitions ; and for that purpose, after 
that safe conduct was purchased and grant- 
ed, we directed unto her two grave men of 
our council, to wii^ the hdrds of Pitarrow 
and Cunninghamhead, to whom we gave 
commission and power, first to expone our 
whole purpose and intent, which was none 
other than before at all times we have re- 
quired, to wit, that we might enjoy liberty 
of conscience. Secondly, That Jesus Christ 
might be truly preached, and his holy sa- 
craments rightly ministered unto us. That 
unable ministers might be removed from 
ecclesiastical administration; and that our 
preachers might be relaxed from the horn, 
and permitted to execute their chai]ges with- 
out molestation, until such time as either 
by a general council, lawfully convened, or 
by a parliament within the realm, the con- 
troversies in religion were decided. And, 
for declaration that her grace was hereto 
willing, that the bands of Frenchmen, who 
then were a burden intolerable to the ooun- 

base money she would have struck off, had she 
got the use of the instruments ; and the soldiers 
would have compelled the people to take it at Its 
nominal value, by which the nation would hava 
been impoverished and ruined. — Ed, 




tiy, and to us lo fevfa], that we dnrat not 
hi penoaablo and quiet manner haunt the 
placea where they did lie, should be sent 
to Fmnoe their natire country. Whioh 
llunft giaatedy her gnce should haye ez- 
perienoe of our aoeustonied obedience. 

To these heads she did answer at the 
fint to pleasantly, that she put both our 
oommissionerB in full esperanoe that all 
slioiild be gpranted ; and for that purpose she 
desired to speak with some of greater au- 
thority, promising, that if they would assure 
her cKf their dutiful obedience, that she 
would deny nothing of that which was 
req[aired. For satisfiiction of her mind we 
sent again the earl of Glencaim, the lord 
RnthTen, the lord Ochiltree, and the said 
faubrd of Pitarrow, with the same commis- 
sion as of before. But then she began to 
handle the matter more craftily, complain- 
ing, that she was not sought in a gentle 
nmmer ; and that they in whom she had 
pot most singular confidence had left her in 
her greatest need ; and such other things, 
pertaining nothing to their commission, pro- 
poned she^ to spend and drive the time. 
They answered, ** That, by unjust tyranny 
deriaed against them and their brethren — as 
her grace did well know — ^they were com- 
pelled to seek the extreme remedy ; and, 
therefore, that her grace ought not to 
wonder, though godly men left the company 
where they neither found fidelity nor truth.*' 
In the end of this communing, whioh was 
the 12th of July, 1559, she desired to have 
talked pri?ily with tlie earl of Argyle, 
lord James, prior of St Andrews ; for 
she alleged— she could not but 
that they pretended to some other 
higher purpose Uian religion. She and her 
crafty council had abused the duke, pei^ 
sanding unto him, and unto his friends, 
tel the said earl and prior had conspired, 
fink to deprive our sovereign her daughter 
of her antiiority, and thereafter the duke 
and Us succession of their title to the 
crown of Scotland. By these invented 
lias she inflamed the hearts of many against 
us, insomuch that some of our own number 
began to murmur; which perceired, as 
well the preaehers, in their public sermons, 
aa we ourseWes, by our public procUuna- 

tions,gaTe puigation and satisfaction to the 
people, plainly and simply declaring what 
was our purpose, taking God to witness, 
that DO such crimes ever entered in our hearts 
as most unjustly was laid to our charge. 
The council, after consultation, thought 
not expedient that the said earl and prior 
should talk with the queen in any sort; 
for her former practices put aU men in 
suspicion, that some deceit lurked under 
such coloured communing. She had be- 
fore said, that if she could by any means 
sunder those two from the rest, she was as- 
sured shortly to come by her whole purpose ; 
and one of her chief council in these days 
—and we fear but over inward [familiar] 
with her yet said — ** That ere Michaelmas 
day they two should leave their heads ;'* 
and, therefore, all men feared to commit 
two such young plants to her mercy and 
fidelity. It was, therefore, finally denied 
that they should talk with the queen, or 
any to her appertaining, but in places void 
of all suspicion, where they should be equal 
in number with those that should talk with 

The queen perceiving that her craft 
could not prevail, was content that the 
duke's grace, and the earl of Huntly, with 
others by her appointed, should convene at 
Preston to commune with the said earl and 
prior, and such others as the lords of the 
congregation would appoint, to the number 
of one hundred on the side, of the which 
number eight persons only should meet for 
conference. The principals for their party 
were the duke, the earl Huntly, the lords 
Erskine and Somervile, Mr Gavin Hamil- 
ton, and the justice-clerk. From us were 
directed the earls of Argyle and Glencaim, 
the lords Ruthven, lord James, Boyd and 
Ochiltree, the lairds Dun and Pitarrow, 
who, convened at Preston, spoke the whole 
day without any certain conclusion; for 
this was the practice of the queen, and 
of her Auction, by drift of time to weary our 
company, who, for the most part, had been 
upon the fields from the tenth day of May, 
that we being dispersed, she might come 
to her purpose, in which she was not alto- 
gether deceived; for our commons were 
compelled to skaill [disperse] for lack of 





La. |>. 

«a:peiuef, and our gentlemen, partly oon- 
streined by lack of Inniiahing, and partly 
Jioping some final appointment, after ao 
many oommnnings, returned for the moat 
part to their dwelling-plaoei^ for repoting 
of themi^ves. The queen in all these 
conyentions seemed that she woold giTe 
liberty to religion, provided that whereso- 
ever she was, our preachers should cease 
and the mass should be maintained. We 
perceiving her malioioua craft, answered, 
** That as we would compel her grace to 
no religion, so could we not of conscience, 
for the pleasure of any earthly creature, 
put silence to God's true messengers; 
neither could we suffer that the right ad- 
ministration of Christ's true sacraments 
should give place to manifest idolatry ; for 
in so doing, we should dedare ourselves 
enemies to God, to Jesus Christ, his 
eternal verity, and to the liberty and esta- 
blishment of his kirk within this realm; 
for your request being granted, there can 
no kirk within the same be so established 
but at your pleasure, and by your resi- 
dence and remaining there ye might over- 
throw the same." This our last answer 
we sent to her with the lord Ruthven and 
laird of Pitarrow ; requiring of her grace, 
in plain words, to signify unto us what 
hope we might have of her favours toward 
the outsetting of religion. We also re- 
quired that she would remove her French- 
men, who were a fear to us, and a burden 
most grievous to the country. And that 
she would promise to us, in the word of 
a princess, that she would procure no more 
to be sent in, and then should we not only 
support, to the uttermost of our powers, to 
furnish ships and victuals for their trans- 
porting, but also, upon our honours, should 
we take her body in our protection ; and 
should promise, in the presence of God and 
the whole realm, to serve our sovereign, 
her daughter, and her grace's regent, also 
^thfully and as obediently, as ever we 
did kings within Scotland. That, more- 
over, we should cause our preachers give 
reason of their doctrine in her audience^ 
to any that pleased to impugn any thing 
that they did or taught. Finally, that we 
should submit ourselves to a lawful parlia- 

ment, provided that the faialiopa^ as the 

party aoonsed, and o«r pkiB enemiei^ ahonld 
be removed from jndgmeBt 

To no point would she answer directiy, 
but in all things she waa so genflrai and so 
ambiguous, that her craft appeared to all 
men. She had gotten sure knowledge 
that our company was skaiUad [dispersed] 
— ^for her Frenchmen were daily amoi^st 
us without any molestation or hurt done 
unto them— and, therefore^ she began to 
disclose her mind, and said» ^ The oongre- 
gation had reigned these two montfas by- 
past, me myself would imgn now other 
two." The malice of her. heart being 
plainly perceived, delibentioa was had 
what was to be doae. It was concluded 
that the lords, barons^ and gentlemen, with 
their substantions hooseholds, should re- 
main in Edinboigh that whole winter, for 
the establishing of the kirk there. And 
because it was found, that by the oormp- 
tion [debasing] of our money the qneen 
made to herself immoderate gains for 
maintaining of her soldiers, to the destroo- 
tion of the whole commonwealth, it was 
thought expedient and necessary, that the 
printing irons [implements for stamping 
coin], and all things to them pertaining 
should be stayed, for fear she should 
privily cause transport them to Dunbar. 
In this meantime came the assured word, 
first, that Henry king of France was hurt, 
and after that he was dead. Which, al- 
beit that it ought to have put her in mind 
of her own estate and wicked enterprise : 
for he that same time in the fulness of 
his glory, as she herself used to speak, had 
determined most cruel persecution against 
the saints of God in France, even as she 
herself was here persecuting in Scotland : 
and yet he so perished in his pride, that 
all men might see that God's just ven- 
geance did strike him, even when his ini- 
quity was coming to full ripeness. Albeit, 
we say, that this wondrous work of God 
in his sudden death, ought to have dan- 
toned [subdued] her fury, and given unto 
her admonition, that the same God could 
not suffer her obstinate malice against his 
truth, long to be unpunished. Yet could 
her indurate heart nothing be moved to 




rapentmoe; for hearing the ttajring of the 
fgkktMMig irons, she raged more outnigeoiisly 
nor oft before, and aendinf for all such 
M were of her faction, exponed her gfie¥- 
oiH oosBflamt, aggreging [aggmTitingl the 
same with many lies, to wU^ that we had 
deolared that which before she had sus- 
pected : for what oonld we mean else, bat 
oaorpetion <^ the crown, when we durst 
put hand to the cunye house, [mint] which 
was a portion of the patrimony of the 
crown. She farther alleged, ** That we 
had spoiled the cnnye house of great sums 
of money." To the which we answered, 
botii by our letters sent to her, and to her 
comBcil, and by public proclamation to the 
people, that we, without usurpation of any 
Afiiig jnatly appertaining to tiie Jorown of 
Sootilaad, did stay the printing irons, in 
conanderation that the commonwealth was 
greaAly hurt, by corrupting of our money. 
And because that we were bom counoil- 
lora ef this realm, and sworn to procure 
the proAt of the same, we could do no 
less of dnty and of conscience than to stay 
thai for a time, which we saw so abused, 
thad unless remedy were found, should 
torn to the detriment of the whole body 
of this reahn. And as to her false accu- 
aatioii of spulie, we did remit us to the 
conscience of Mr Robert Richardson, 
master of the coin bouse, who from our 
hands reeeired gold, silver, and metal, as 
wdl ooined as uncoined ; so that with us 
tiwre ^ not remain the value of a 

Thia oar purgation and declaration not- 
withstanfing, she partiy by her craft and 
policy, and ptrtiy by the labours of the 
hisihopa of St Andrews and Glasgow, pro- 

* BawUe, It it generally understood that 
this werd bad its origin from the head of the 
babf • m lafant, king Jaaies VI. on the eoln ; 
bat nan Kass oaes it several years l>efore James 
was barn ; Mid Dr Jamteson, whose opinion on 
aoeh asaltailfm will dispute, thinks this origin 
•f the word b a mcrs fancy. ** Aooording to 
Sir Jaases Ballbur,'* says he, " habeee were in- 
trodneed fn tba reign of James V.*'— «< At the 
tlast referred to it waa worth three pennies ; fn 
the reign of James VI. it was valued at six ; 
and this oootinoed its standard valuation in tho 
oneaaoding raigna, while it was customary to 
count by Senia aaoD^." A hawbaa bears aaaetly 
the same relation to a pound Soots, that sIep 

cured the whole number that were with 
her, to consent to pursue us with all cruelty 
and expedition, before that we could have 
oor company — ^whioh then was dispersed 
for new furnishing*— assembled again. The 
certainty hereof coming to our knowledge 
the Saturday at night, the 25th July, we 
did what in us lay to give advertisement 
to our brethren ; but impossible it was that 
those of the west, Angus, Meams, Strath- 
earn or Fife, in any number could come to 
us. For the enemy marched from Dunbar 
upon the Sunday, and approached within 
two miles of us before the sun-rising upon 
the Monday. For they verily supposed to 
have found no resistance, being assured 
that the lords only with certain gentlemen 
remained with their private households. 
Calling upon God for counsel in that straity 
we sought what was the next defence. 
We might have left the town, and might 
have retired ourselves without any danger, 
but then we should have abandoned our 
brethren of Edinburgh, and suffered the 
ministry thereof to have decayed, which t6 
our hearts was so dolorous, that we thought 
better to hazard the extremity than so to 
do. For then the most part of the town 
appeared rather to favour us rather than 
the queen's faction, and did offer unto us 
the uttermost of their support, which for 
the most part they faithfolly did keep. The 
same did the town of Leith, but they kept 
not the like fidelity. For when we were 
upon the field, marching forward for their 
support — for the Frenchmen marched near 
to tiiem — they rendered themselves without 
farther resistance. And this they did, as is 
supposed, by the treason of some within 
themselves, and by persuasion of the hdrd of 

pence does to a pound sterling. The thing is 
scarcely ever heard of now ; but within my own 
recollection, twal (twelve) pennies was the word 
for a penny. Hence Churchhill, hi a satyr on 
the Scots, says : 


How can the rognet pretend to wnse, 
WhoM pooiid Is only twenty pence ?** 

The ScoU continued lo count by their own 
money for a good while after the Revolution ; for 
the bank of ScoUand, which was establishsd 
seven years after that event, made their shares a 
thousand pounds Scots. After tha union of tho 
two kingdoms, the Scots money was gradually 
superseded by the sterling.— Erf. 



[a. b. 

Restalrig, who of before declared himself to 
hare been one of us, and yet, notwithstand- 
ing, that same daj rendered himself unde- 
sired to Monsieur d'Oysel. Their unpro- 
Tided and sudden defection astonished many, 
and yet we retired quietly to the side of 
Graigingate,* which place we took for re- 
sisting of the enemy. 

In the meantime, divers mediators past 
betwixt, among whom my lord Ruthren 
for our part was principal. Alexander 
Erskine did much travail to stay us and our 
soldiers, that we should not join with them 
of Leith».till that they, as said is, had ren- 
dered themselves to the Frenchmen. The 
said Alexander did promise that the French- 
men would stay, providing that we would 
not join with those of Leith. But after 
that they were rendered, we heard nothing 
of him but threatening and discomfortable 
words. Before eight hours in the morning, 
God had given unto us both courage, and a 
reasonable number to withstand their fury. 
The town of Edinburgh, so many as had 
subjected themselves to discipline, and 
divers others besides them, did behave 
themselves both faithfully and stoutly. The 
gentlemen of Lothian, especially Calder, 
Ormiston, and Hatton, were very comfort- 
able, as well for their counsels as for their 
whole assistance. Some gentlemen of Fife 
prevented the Frenchmen; others were 
stopped, by reason that the Frenchmen had 
possessed Leith. Always [however] the 
enemy took such a fear, that they deter- 
mined not to invade us where we stood, but 
took purpose to have passed to Edinburgh, 
by the other side of the water of Leith, and 
that because they had the castle to their 
friend, which was to us unknown ; for which 
we supposed the lord Erskine, captain of the 
same, either to have been our friend, or at 
least to have been indifferent But when 
we had determined to fight, he sent word 
to the earl of Argyle, to lord James, his 
sister's son, and to the other noblemen that 
were with us, that he would declare him- 
self both enemy to them and to the town. 

* Craiglngmte — a gate (road) eastward from 
Edinburgh, near the Caltoo or Saltsbory Crags. 

and woold shoot at both, if they ayndt aDy 
retistaiioe to the Frenokman to ostor ia the 
towB« Thb his treaaoaablo dwBwmwi seat 
onto OS by the laird of RicMrton, did ahate 
the courage of many, for we ooold nolifbt 
nor stop the enemy, but undor the merey 
of the castle, and whole ordnaooe th«t«o£ 
Hereupon was oonsnltatioa taken, and la 
conclusion, it was found less damage to take 
an appointment, albrnt the oonditiona were 
not such as we deairedy tfaaa to haiard 
battle betwixt two such eneBies. After 
long talking, certain heada wor« dimwa by 
us, which we desired to bo.graated. 

L *' That no member of the oongrq^ation 
should be troubled, ia Ufe^ lands, goods or 
possessions by the queen her authority, or 
any other justice within the realm, for any 
thing done in the late innovation, till a par- 
liament — which should begin the tenth of 
January next — ^had decided things in oon- 

I J. ** That idolatry should not be erected, 
where it was at that day suppressed. 

III. ** That the preachers and ministers 
should not be troubled in their ministry, 
where they are already established, neither 
yet stopped to preach, wheresoever they 
should chance to come. 

iV. ** That no bands of men of war 
should be laid in garrison within Edin- 

V. *' That the Frenchmen should be sent 
away at a reasonable day, and that none 
other should be brought in the country 
without the consent of the whole nobility 
and parliament." 

But these oiur articles were altered, and 
in another form disposed as after follows : 

<< At the Links of Leith, the 24th July, 
1559, it b appointed in manner fol- 
lowing : 

^ Li the first, the congregation and their 
company, others than the inhabitants of 
the said town, shall remove themselves 
forth of the said town, the mom at ten 
hours before noon, the 25th of July, and 
leave the same void and rid of them and 
the said company, conform to the queen's 
grace's pleasure and desire. 

Item, <* The said congregation shall cause 
the irons of the coin-house, taken away by 




Umdi, be rendered and delireMd to Mr 
Robert Htobardeon; luid in likewise the 
I'e gnuee't* her pftleoe of HdynNML. 
to he left, and readenid again to Mr 
Jukm Balfonr, or anj other haying her 
gnm*» Mifficient power, in the same manner 
aa it waa reoeiTed, and that betwixt the 
auddng ef thcee artinUa and tho mom at 
tM hopia. For obeerring and keeping of 
theae two articles above written, the lord 
RothTon, and the Uird of Pitarrow hare 
estered themseWea pledges. 

Hem, ** The said lords of the congrega- 
tion, and all the members thereof, shall re* 
SMun obedifflit snbjeots to onr soTereign 
lord and lady's aathority, and to the queen's 
gnee regent in their pkce j and shall obej 
all laws, and loveable oonsnetndes of this 
If hn, as they were used of before the using 
of this tomnlt and oontrorersy, excepting 
tiM cause of religion, which shall be here- 
after specified. 

Hon, " The said congregation, nor none 
of thsB^ shall trouble nor molest a kirk- 
Bsan by way of deed, nor yet shall make 
them any impediment in the peaceable 
braildng, joysing [enjoying] and uptaking 
nf their rents, profits, and duties of their 
beneficee, but that they may freely use and 
diapeoe upon the same, according to the 
laws and consuetudes of this realm, to the 
tenth day of January next to come. 

Asm, ** The said congregation, nor none 
of tiMm, shall in nowise from thenceforth 
ve any force or yiolence, in casting down 
of kifffcs, religious places, or reparralling * 
thcteof, but the same shall stand skaithless 
of Ihem, unto the said tenth of January. 

Aem, « The town of Edinburgh shall, 
withaoi compulsion, use and choose what 
rel^ioB and manner thereof they please to 
the said day ; so that every man may have 
frssidas to use his own conscience to the 
nay ffwsBaiil. 

Bmm, " The queen's grace shall not in- 
terpona hsr authority, to molest or trouble 
the prsaitai of the congregation, nor their 
ministrj— 4o them that please to use the 
no other of the said congrega- 

* BeparnUifif— Repalra. In ihe supprMMd 
c««py. Apparel is Um word iised.*£cf. 

tinn in their bodies, land% goods, or poa- 
aaasiMa,fanaioM, or whatnwvar otfcor kind 
of goodathaj posseai^ nor yet thole (jinffer] 
the dergy, or any other having temporal 
or spiritual jurisdiction, to trouble thtm, in 
any manner of sort, privily or openly, ler 
the cause of religioa, or any othar notion 
depending thereupon, to the said tenth day 
of January within written, and that every 
man in particular lire in the meantime ao- 
cording to his own conscience. 

item, " That no man of war, Frsoeh nor 
Scotish, be laid in daily garrisons within the 
town of Edinburgh, but repair thereto, to 
do their lesnm [lawftil] business, and there* 
after to retire them to their garrisons." 

This alteration in words and order was 
made without knowledge and consent of 
thoee whoee counsel we had used in all 
such cases before ; for some of them per- 
ceiving we began to fiunt, and that we 
would appoint with unequal conditions, 
said, ^ God haa wonderfully assisted us in 
our greatest dangers : he has stricken fear 
in the hearts of our enemies, when they 
supposed themselves most assured of vic- 
tory : our case is not yet so desperate that 
we need to grant to things unreasonable 
and ungodly ; which, if we do, it is to be 
feared that things shall not so prosperously 
succeed as they have done heretofore.*' 

When all things were communed and 
sgreed upon by mid persons, the duke and 
the earl of Uuntly, who that day were 
against us, desired to speak the earls Ar- 
gyle and Glencaim, the lord James, and 
others of our party, who obeying their re- 
quest, met them at the Quarry Holes be- 
twixt Leith and Edinburgh, who in con- 
clusion promised to our lords, ** That if the 
queen broke to us any one jot of the ap- 
pointment then made, that they should de- 
clare themselves plain enemies to her, and 
friends to us." As much promised the 
duke to do, in case that she would not re- 
/nove her Frenchmen at a reasonable day ; 
for the opprenion which they did was ma- 
nifest to ail men. This appointment made, 
and subscribed by the duke, Monsieur d'- 
Oysel, and the earl of Huntly, the S5th 
day of July, we returned to the town of 
Edinburgh, where we renmined till the 




atzt daj at nooo ; when after Mrmon, din- 
oer, and prodamatioii made at the market- 
croii in form as fdloirt, we departed. 


<* Foraamnch as it hath pleased Ood, 
that appointment is made betwixt the queen 
regent and ns, the lords and whole protes- 
tants of this realm, we hare thought good 
to signify unto you the chief heads of the 
same, which be these : 

Finty <" That no member of the congre- 
gation shall be troubled in life, lands, goods, 
or possessions by the queen, or by her au- 
thority, nor by any other justice within 
this realm, for any thing done in this late 
innoration, till that a parliament hath de- 
cided things that be in controTersy. 

Secondly, *< That idolatry shall not be 
erected, where it is now at this day sup- 

Thirdly, " That the preachers and mi- 
nisters shall not be troubled in the minis- 
tration, where they are already established, 
neither yet stopped to preach wheresoever 
they shall happen to travel within this 

Fourthly, " That no bands of men of 
war shall be laid in garrlsous within the 
town of Edinburgh. 

" These chief heads of appointment, con- 
cerning the liberty of religion, and conser- 
vation of our brethren, we thought good to 
notify unto you, by this our proclamation, 
that in case wrong or injury be done, by 
any of the contrary faction, to any member 
of our body, complaint may be made to us, 
to whom we promise, as we will answer to 
God, our faithful support to the uttermost 
of our powers.'* 

At this proclamation made with sound 
of trumpet, were offended all the papists : 
V or, fint. They alleged it was done in con- 
tempt of the authority. Secondly, That 
we had proclaimed more than was contain- 
ed in the appointment. And, last. That 
we, in our proclamation, had made no men- 
tion of any thing promised unto theuL To 
such murmurs we answered. That no just 
authority could think itself contemned, be- 
cause that the truth was by us made mani- 
fest unto all, who otherwise might have 
pretended ignorance. Secondly, That we 

had prodiimed nothinf » wlu^ was not 
finally ag r ee d opoo in word sod ptOBiiaca 
betwixt OS sod tlioae with whoai tl^n^ 
pointment was made, whalaoefver tMr 
scribes had after written, who in veiy dead 
had altered, both in words and aenteooas^ 
our articles as they were first conceived. 
And yet, if their own writinga were dili- 
gently examined, the aelf saoM thing shall 
be found in substance. And kut^ To pro- 
claim any thing in their fiivoon^ we thought 
it not necessary, knowing that in that be- 
half they themselves would be diligent 
enough : and in this we were not deceived ; 
for, within fifteen days after, there was not 
a shaveling in ScotlHsd, to whom teind, or 
any other rent pertained, bnt he had that 
article of the appointasent by heart, " That 
the kirkmen should be answered of [be duly 
paid] teinds, rents, and all other duties, and 
that no man should trouble nor molest 

We departed from Edinburgh, the 26th 
of July, came first to Linlithgow, and after 
to Stirling, where after consultation, the 
bond of defence and nuuntenance of reli- 
gion, and for mutual defence every one of 
other, was subscribed by all that were there 
present The tenor of the bond was this : 

** We foreseeing the craft and slight of 
our adversaries, tending all manner of ways 
to circumvent us, and by privy means in- 
tend to assail every one of us particularly 
by fair hechts [offers] and promises, there- 
through to separate one of us from another, 
to our utter ruin and destruction : for re- 
medy thereof, we faithfully and truly bind 
us, in the presence of God, and as we ten* 
der the maintenance of true religion, that 
none of us shall in times coming pass to 
the queen's grace dowager, to talk or com- 
mune with her, for any letter or message 
sent by her unto us, or yet to be sent, with- 
out consent of the rest, and common con- 
sultation thereupon. And how soon that 
either message or writ shall come from her 
to us, with utter diligence we shall notify 
the same one unto another, so that nothing 
shall proceed herein without common con- 
sent of us all At Stirling, the first day of 
August, 1559." 

This bond subscribed, and we forcaeeing 

Book U.] 



that the queen and bishops meant nothing 
bat deceit, thought good to seek aid and sup- 
port of all christian princes against her and 
her tyranny, in case we should be more 
siharplj pursued; and because that Eng- 
land was of the same religion, and laj next 
imto us, it was judged expedient first to 
prove them, which we did by one or two 
messengers, as hereafter, in the own place, 
more amply shall be dedared. 
' After we had abidden certain days in 
Stirling, the earl of Argyle departed to 
Glasgow ; and because he was to depart to 
kis own country, — with whom also passed 
lofd James,— to pacify some trouble which, 
hy the craft of the queen, was raised in his 
abaenoe, he required the earl of Glencaim, 
lofd Boyd, lord Ochiltree, and others of 
Kyle^ to meet there, for some order to be 
taken that the brethren should not be op- 
pressed, which with one consent they did, 
and isppointed the tenth of September for 
the next convention at Stirling. 

While these things were in doing at 
Glaigow, letters and a servant came from 
the earl of Arran to the duke his father, 
signifying unto him, that, by the providence 
of God, he had escaped the French king's 
bands, who most treasonably and most 
cruelly had sought his life, or at least to 
have committed him to perpetual prison : 
for the same time, the said French king, 
seeing that he could not have the earl him- 
Mlfy K<urt [caused] put his younger brother — 
a bairn of such age as could not offend — 
IB strait prison, where he yet remains, to 
wiif in the month of October, the year of 
God 1559 ; which things were done by the 
cnft and policy of the queen dowager, what 
tiHM Uie duke and his friends were most 
frack [active] to set forward lier cause. 
These letten received, and the estate of his 
known, of whom the one was 
and the other cast in vile prison, 
the iake desired communing with the eari 
of Afgyle, who, partly against the will of 
some lliil loved him, rode to the duke from 
QlMtgow to Hamilton, where, abiding all 
night, be declared his judgment to the 
duke and to his friends, especially to Mr 
Gavin Hamilton. The duke required him 
and the lord James to write their firiendly 

and comfortable letters to his son, which 
they both most willingly did, and after ad- 
dressed them to their journey ; but the 
very day of their departing, came one Bu- 
tonecourt, from the queen regent, with let- 
ters, as was alleged, from the king and 
queen of France to lord James, which he 
delivered with a bragging countenance and 
many threatening words. The tenor of his 
letters was this : 

** LE ROI. 

" My cousin, I have been greatly as- 
tonished, having understood the troubles 
that are happened in these parts ; and yet 
do more marvel that ye, of whom I had an 
whole [entire] confidence, and also have this 
honour to be so near the queen's grace, my 
wife, and had received of umquhiUe the 
king's grace my fother, her grace and me, 
such graces and favours, that ye should be 
so forgetful as to make yourself the head, 
and one of the principal beginners and 
nourishers of the tumults and seditions that 
are seen there, the which because it is so 
strange as it is, and so against the profes- 
sion that ye at all times have made, I can- 
not goodly [really] believe it And [if] it 
be so, I cannot think but ye have been en- 
ticed and led thereto by some persons that 
have seduced and caused you commit such 
a fault, as I am assured ye repent of al- 
ready, which will be a great pleasure to 
me, to the effect that I might lose a part of 
the occasion I have to be miscontent with 
you, as I will you to understand I am, 
seeing you have so far deceived the espe- 
rance [hope] I had of you, and your affec- 
tion towards God, and the weal of our ser- 
vice, unto the which ye know ye are as 
much and more obliged than any other of 
the lords there. For this cause, desiring 
that the matters may be dutifully amended, 
and [for] knowing what ye may [say] 
thereuntil ; I thought good on this manner 
to write unto you, and pray you to take 
heed to return to the good way, from which 
ye have declined, and cause me know the 
same by effects that ye have another inten- 
tion than this which the follies bypast 
make me now to believe; doing all that 
ever ye can to reduce all things to their 
first estate, and put the same to the right 




and good obedience that ye know to be due 
unto God and unto me. Otherwise, ye 
may be well awured, I will put to my 
haad, and that in good earnest, that you 
and aU they that have done, and do as 
ye do^ shall feel, through their own fimlt, 
that which they hare deeeryed and merit* 
ed, erea as I have given charge to this 
gentleman, present bearer, to make you 
know more largely of my part ; for which 
cause, I pray you credit him as ye would 
do myself. Praying God, my eousin, to 
have you in his holy and worthy proteo* 
** Written at Paris, the 17th July, 1559." 
The same messenger brought also letters 
from the queen our sovereign, more sharp 
and threatening than the former ; for her 
conclusion was, *^ Vout en senterat la pome* 
ture a Jamais" This credit was, that the 
king would spend the crown of France, 
ere that he were not revenged upon such 
seditious persons; that he would never 
have suspected such inobedience and such 
defection from his own sister in him. To 
the which the said lord James answered, 
first by word and syne [afterwards] by 
writing, as follows : 
« Sir, 
'* My duty remembered. Your majesty's 
letter from Paris, the 17th of July Ust, I 
received, proporting in effect, that your 
majesty should marvel that I, being forget- 
ful of the gnuteB and favours shown me by 
the king, of bleraed memory, your mi^esty's 
father, and the queen's grace, my sovereign, 
should declare myself head, and one of the 
principal beginners of the alleged tumults 
and seditions in these parts, deceiving there* 
by your majesty's expectation at all times 
had of me ; with assurance, that if I did 
not declare by contrary effects my repent- 
ance, I, with the rest that had put, or yet 
put hand to that work, should receive the 
reward that we had deserved and merited. 
Sir, it grieves me heavily that the crime of 
ingratitude should be laid to my charge by 
your highness, and the rather that I per- 
ceive the same to have proceeded of sinis- 
ter information, of them whose part it was 
not so to have reported, if true service by- 
gone had been regarded. And as touching 

the repentaBoe, and daclamliaa oC th* 
by oSrtaiB efliMtB»that yotfr ijeity dinwi 
I show, my ooMoianca psriaadw mm ia 
these prooeediaga to hava doaa ■athiaf 
against God» nar the' dntifbl ohediMas t#» 
warda your highnsas and tha ^naem'a gimoi 
my soverwgn, otharwiae it ahouid hava 
been to repe&t> and also am<mdad» aioeonU 
iog to your mijeeiy'a axpeotatioB of ma. 
But your highnaas heiiqg truly infomad, 
and persuaded that the thiiif whieh wa 
have done makea for the adraiicamaat of 
God's glories^-*aa it doas iadaad^— withoal 
any derogation to /aw a^past^a due obe- 
dience, we doubt Bo^ h«t your mijsetjr shall 
be well contanted with onr proeeadiBga» 
which being groundad vpoo the command- 
ment of the eternal (}od» wa dsre not leavei 
the same nnaooompMshe^ only wishing and 
desiring your nu^ieaty did know the same, 
and truth thereof, as it is persaided to onr 
consciences, and all them Uiat sre truly in- 
structed in the eternal word of our God, 
upon whom we oast our care for all dan- 
gers that may follow the aeoompliahmaat 
of his eternal will, and to whom we com- 
■send your highness, beaeeohii^ him to il- 
luminate your heart with the evangel of 
his eternal truth, to know your majesty's 
duty towards us your poor subjects, God's 
chosen people, and what ye ought to crave 
justly of them again ; for then we should 
have no occasion to fear your majesty's 
wrath and indignation, nor your highness' 
suspicion in our inobedience. The same 
God have your migesty in his eternal safe- 
guard. At Dumbarton, the 12th of August, 

This answer, directed to the queen oar 
sovereign, and to Francis her husband, the 
queen dowager received it, and was bold 
upon it, as she might well enough ; for it 
was supposed that the former letters were 
fdged here at home in Scotland. The an- 
swer read by her, she said, ** That so proud 
an answer was never given to king, prince, 
or princess:" and yet indifferent men 
thought that he might have answered more 
sharply, and not have transgressed modesty 
nor truth. For where they burden him 
with the great benefits which of them he 
had received, if in plain words he had 




p«y«d himt^, jMrm\ng, that tli# grMtMt 
WMfit tluit ever he raoeiTtd of them, wm 
lo ipoid in their serrioey that which God 
bjr oihen had prorided tor hlany bo honeet 
«u would hare acedsed him, and no man 
wvold hare been aUe to have conrioted 
1dm of ft lie I ^ Bat princes matt be paP' 
dosed to speak what tbej please." 

For the comfort of the brethreoy and 
eostinaance of the kirk in Bdinbnrgh, was 
left there oar dear brother John Wlllodci 
who^ fot his fkithfol laboors and bold con* 
tofo in that battle, desenred immortal 
pfidse. For when it was foond dangeroos 
tllal John Knox, who before was elected 
nsiiieier to that chorch, shoald oontinoe 
tlHve, the brethren requested the said John 
WIDock to remain with them, lest that, for 
hA of ministers, idolatry shoald be erected 
up again. To the which he so gbdJy con- 
sented, that it might eyidently appear, that 
he p usfcrps d the comfort of his brethren, 
and the eontinaance of the charch there, 
to bis own life. One part of the French- 
men was appointed to lie in garrison at 
Leith^-that was the first benefit they got 
ibrtheir conMeracy with them ; — ^the other 
part was appointed to lie in the Canon* 
gate, tiie qaeen and her train abiding in the 
Abbey. Oar brother John Willock, the 
day after oar departare, preached in St 
Gfles* kirk, and ferrently exhorted the 
b te lh re n to stand constant in the trnth 
which they had professed. At this and some 
other sermons were the duke and dirers 
olhess of the queen's faction. This liberty 
of fveaoking, with resorting of all people 
tiMfoCo^ did highly offend the qaeen and 
tlM otiMr papists. And first they began to 
fifn tSfrers to the duke ; affirming, that he 
wonid be lepnte as one of the congregation, 
if 1m gaite his presence at the sermons. 
Tkirsallsr they began to require that mass 
be set up again in St Giles* kirk, 
the people shoald be set at liberty 
to dman what rriigioo they would; for 
t h a t' srt i they — ^was contained in the iqp- 
poinflmenf^ that the town of Edinburgh 
s hs nh i ehooae what religion they list. For 
•btaininf hereof were sent to the tolbooth 
the dsdM, the eari of Hontly, and the kurd 
8oytOB, to solioit all men to condescend to 

the queen's mind; wherein the two kst 
did labonrthat they could, the duke not so^ 
bat as a beholder, of whom the brethren 
had good eeperanoo: and after many per* 
soasions and threatsninga made by the 
said eari and lord, the bretlven, stoutly 
and Taliantly in the Lord Jsaos, gainsaid 
their asost unjust petitiona, reasoning, that 
as of conscience they aught not suffsr 
idolatry to be erected where Christ Jesos 
was truly preached, so ooold not the queeo 
nor they require any such thing, unless she 
and they would pbinly riolate their faith 
and chief articles of the appointment ; for 
it is plainly appointed, that no member of 
the congregation shall be molested in any 
thing that— [st] the day of the appointment 
— he peaceably possessed ; bat so it was that 
we, the brethren and protestants of the 
town of Edinburgh, with our ministers^ 
the day of the appointment, did peaceably 
possess St Giles* kn^, appointed for us foe 
preaching of Christ's true eyangel, and 
right administration of his holy sacra- 
ments; therefore, without manifest viola- 
tion of the appointment, ye cannot remove 
us therefirom, until a parliament have de- 
cided this controversy. This answer given, 
the whole brethren departed and left the 
foresaid earl, and lord Seyton, then pro- 
vost of Edinburgh, still in the tolbooth ; 
who perceiving that they could not prevail 
in that matter, began to entreat that they 
would be quiet, and that they would so fiur 
condescend to the queen's pleasurs, as that 
they would choose them another kirk with- 
in the town, or at the leaat be contented 
that mass should be said either before or 
after their sermons. To the which answer 
was given, that to give place to the devil, 
who was the chief inventor of the mass, 
for the pleasure of any creatore, they could 
not. They were in possession of that kiric, 
which they conld not abandon; neither 
could they suffer idolatry to be erected in 
the same, unless by violenoe they shoald 
be constrained so to do, and then they 
were determined to seek the next remedy. 
Which answer received, the earl of Hontly 
did lovingly entreat them to quietness; 
foithfully promising that in no sort they 
should be molested, so that they would be 



[A. s. 15i» 

^et and make no fiurther uproar : to the 
which they were most willing; for they 
sought only to serre God, as he had ooia- 
manded, and to keep their poeseesion, ac- 
oording to the appointment, which by God'e 
grace they did, till the month of NoTember, 
notwithstanding the great boasting of the 
enemy. For they did not only oonyene to 
the preaching, daily supplications, and ad- 
ministration of baptism, but also the Lord's 
table was ministered, e^en in the eyes of 
the very enemy, to the great comfort of 
many afflicted consciences. And as God 
did potently work with his true minister, 
and with his troubled kirk, so did not the 
devil cease to inflame the malice of the 
queen, and of the papists with her; for 
short after her coming to the abbey of Ho- 
lyroodhouse, she caused mass to be said 
first in her own chapel, and after in the 
abbey, where the altars before were casten 
down. She discharged the common pray- 
ers, and forbade to give any portion to 
such as were the principal young men who 
read them. Her malice extended in like 
manner to Carabuskenneth, for there she 
discharged the portions of as many of the 
canons as had forsaken papistry. She gave 
command and inhibition, that the abbot of 
Lindores should not be answered of any 
part of his liviug in the north, because he 
had submitted himself to the congregation, 
and had put some reformation to his place. 
By her consent and procurement was the 
preaching stool broken in the kirk of Leith, 
and idolatry was erected in the same, where 
it was before suppressed. Her French cap- 
tains, with their soldiers in great com- 
panies, in time of preaching and prayers, 
resorted to St Giles' Kirk in Edinburgh, 
and made their conunon deambulatours 
[promenades] therein, with such loud talk- 
ing, as no perfect audience could be had. 
And although the minister was oftentimes 
therethrough compelled to cry out on them, 
praying God to rid them of such locusts ; 
they nevertheless continued still in their 
wicked purpose devised and ordained by 
the queen, to have drawn our brethren 
of Edinburgh, and them in cumber [trou- 
ble], so that she might have had any colonic 
ed occasion to have broken the league with 

them. Yet by God's gnuse tliay bduiTad 
themialTee io^ that she eoald find no ftnil 
with them ; albeit in all theaa thinga before 
named, and in erery one of them, she it 
worthily oonnted to haTe oootnnreiMd the 
said appointment We peas over tho f^ 
pressing of our brethren in paitioalar, whidi 
had been sufficient to have proren the ap- 
pointment to have been Tiolated plainly; 
for the lord Seyton, withoat any oooaauMi 
offered unto him, broke a ohaae [oane or 
whip handle] upon Alexander Whitdaw, as 
they came from RrestMi, aonoaipanied with 
William Knox, towards Bdinhnigh, and 
ceased not to pnme him, till he oame to 
the town of Ormisloa : and thia he did, 
supposing that the laid Alexander White- 
law had been John Knox. In all this mean- 
time, and until that more Frenchmen ar- 
rived, they are not aUe to prove that we 
broke the appointment in one jot» except 
that a homed cap was taken off a proud 
priest's head, and cut in four pieces^ be- 
cause he said he would wear it in despite 
of the congregation. In this meantime the 
queen, then regent, knowing assuredly what 
force was shortly to come unto her, ceased 
not, by all means possible, to doak the in- 
coming of the Frenchmen, and to inflame 
the hearts of our countrymen against us. 
And for that purpose she wrote first unto 
my lord duke, in form as follows : 


** My lord and cousin, 
'' After hearty commendation, we are in- 
formed that the lords of the westland con- 
gregation intend to make a convention 
and assembly of their kin and friends upon 
Govan Muir, beside Glasgow, on Monday 
come eight dajrs, the 28th August instant, 
for some high purpose against us, which 
we can scarcely believe, considering they 
have no occasion upon our part so to do. 
And albeit ye know that the appointment 
was made against, or without our advice, 
yet we accepted the same at your desire, 
and have sinsyne made no cause whereby 
they might be moved to come in the con- 
trary thereof. Likeas we are minded yet 
to keep firm and stable all things promised 
by you in our behalf; we think, on the 

Hook IL] 



other part, it is your duty to require them, 
that they oontrarene not their part thereof 
m BO case. And in case they mean any 
tril towards ns, and so will break their 
promiae, we belieye that ye will, to the ut- 
termost of your power conrene with us, 
and compel them to do that thing which 
tiiey ottg^ht, if they will not; praying^ you 
to have yourself, your kin and fHends, in 
readiness to come to us, as ye shall be ad- 
Ttftiscd by proclamation, in case the con- 
giregation assemble themselves for any pur- 
pose against us, or against the tenor of the 
said appointment: assuring you, without 
they gather, and make first occasion, we 
shall not put you to any pains in that be- 
htM, And that yon will advertise us in 
Wffit» what we may lippen to [depend on\ 
hcraiB with this b^urer, who will show you 
the fervent mind we bear to have concord 
with tiie said congregation, what offers we 
hsTe made to them, and how desirous we 
are to draw them to the obedience of our 
aorereign authority, to whom ye shall give 
credit : and (}od keep you. At Edinburgh, 
tha tenth day of August, 1559." 

Tlie like letter she wrote to every lord, 
baron, and gentleman, of this tenor : 


* TVusty Friends, 
^ Alter hearty commendation, we doubt 
not but ye have heard of the appointment 
■ttde bMide Leith, betwixt my lord duke, 
tftw eail of Huntly, and Monsieur d'Oysel, 
•■ the one part, and the lords of the 
CMgregation on the other side, which ap- 
paintinaDt we have approved in all points, 
aftcH it was taken without our advice, and 
ia Minded to observe and keep all the con- 
tiwreof, for our part Nottheless, as 
informed, the saids lords of the con- 
gngntion intend shortly to convene all 
tneh panons as will assist to thAn, for en- 
Vw fi k i ag of such high purpose against ns, 
onr astlMrity and tenor of the said appoint- 
ment, whUh we cannot believe, seeing they 
neitber bare, nor shall have any occasion 
given thereto on our part, and yet think 
not reasonable, in case they think any such 
thing : and therefore have thought it good 
to giTO warning unto onr special firiends of 
tho adrartiaenient we have gotten, and 

amongst the rest to you, whom we esteem 
of that number, praying you to have your- 
selves, your kin and folks, in readiness to 
come to us." And so forth, as in the other 
letter above sent to the duke, word after 

After that by these letters, and by the de- 
ceitful surmising of her solicitors [agents], 
she had somewhat stirred up the hearts of 
the people against us, then she began open- 
ly to complain, that we were of miud to 
invade her person ; that we would keep no 
part of the appointment ; and therefore she 
was compelled to crave the assistance of all 
men against our unjust pursuit And this 
practice she used, as before is said, to abuse 
the simplicity of the people, that they 
should not suddenly espy for what purpose 
she brought in her new bands of men of 
war, who did arrive about the midst of 
August, to the number of a thousand men : 
the rest were appointed to come after, with 
Monsieur de la Broche, and with the bishop 
of Amiens, who arrived the nineteenth of 
September following, as if they had been 
ambassadors : but what was their negotia- 
tion the effect did declare, and they them- 
selves could not long conceal ; for, both by 
pen and tongue they uttered, that they were 
sent for the utter extermination of all these 
that would not profess the papistical reli* 
gion in all points. The queen's practice 
nor craft could not blind the eyes of all 
men ; neither yet could her subtlety hide 
her own shame, but that many did espy her 
deceit : and some spared not to speak their 
judgments liberally, who foreseeing the dan- 
ger gave advertisement, requiring that pro- 
vision might be found, before that the evil 
should exceed our wisdom and strength to 
put remedy to the same ; for prudent men 
foresaw, that she pretended a plain con- 
quest But to the end, that the people 
should not suddenly stir, she would not 
bring in her full force at once, as before is 
said, but by continual traffic purposed to 
augment her army, so that in the end we 
should not be able to resist But the great- 
est part of the nobility, and many of the 
people, were so enchanted by her treason- 
able solicitors [agents], that they could not 
hear, nor credit the truth plainly spoken. 



[a. s. IBM 

The FMDch then, after the arriTing of these 
new men, befj^an to brag : then began they 
to dinde the lands and lordships aeoording 
to their own fanciea ; for one was styled 
Monsieur d'Argyle, another Monsieur le 
Prior, the third. Monsieur de Rathveni 
yea, they were assured, in their own (pi- 
nion, to possess whatsoerer they list; so 
that some asked the rentals and rerenues 
of divers men's lands, to the end that they 
might choose the best. And yet in this 
meantime, she ashamed not [was not a- 
shamed] to set forth a proclamation on this 


** For SO much as we understand that cer- 
tain seditious persons have of malice, invent- 
ed and blown abroad divers rumours, and 
evil bruits, tending thereby to stir up the 
hearts of the people, and so to stop all 
reconciliations betwixt us and our subjects, 
being of the number of the congregation, 
and consequently to kindle and nourish a 
continual strife and division in this realm, 
to the manifest subversion of the whole 
estates thereof; and among other purposes, 
have maliciously devised for that effect, and 
have persuaded too many, that we have vio- 
lated the appointment lately taken, in so 
hr as any more Frenchmen are since come 
ID, and that we are minded to draw in 
great forces of men of war forth of France, 
to suppress the liberty of this realm, op- 
press the inhabitants thereof, and make up 
strangers with their lands and goods ; which 
reports — Ood knows — are most vain, feign- 
ed, and untrue. For it is of truth, that no- 
thing has been done on our part since the 
said appointment, whereby it may be al- 
leged, that any point thereof has been con- 
travened: neither yet was at that time 
any thing communed or concluded to stop 
the sending in of Frenchmen ; as may dear- 
ly appear by inspection of the said appoint- 
ment, which the bearer hereof has present 
to show. Whatever number of men of war 
be arrived, we have such regard to our ho- 
nour, and quietness of this realm, that in 
case in the room of every one Frenchman 
that is in Scotland there were an hundred 
at our command, yet should not for that 

any jot of what is promised bt broken, or 
any alteration be made by our prwooation; 
but the said appointment [be] traly nd 
surely observed in every pointy if tlM nid 
eongregatioo will, in like minner, fiUthfolly 
keep theur part thereof. Nor yet mean we 
to trouble any man in the peaoeaUa pos- 
session of their goods sod roopM [plaoes], 
nor yet to enrich the crown, and hr less 
any stranger, with yoor aobstanoes; for 
our dearest son and daogfater, tii9 king and 
queen, are by God*8 provisioa placsd in the 
room, where all men of judgment may wdl 
consider they have no need of any man's 
goods: and for ourself, we seek nothing 
bat dutiful obedienoe unto tiiem, such as 
good subjects ought to give to their sove- 
reigns, without diminution of our liberties 
and privileges, or aheralioa of our laws. 
Therefore, we have thought good to notify 
unto you our good mind foresaid, and de- 
sire you not to give ear nor credit to snch 
vain imaginations, whereof— before God 
no part ever entered in our ooooeit; nor 
suffer not yourselves to be thereby led 
from your due obedience; assoruig yon, jm 
shall ever find with us truth in promise, 
and a motherly love towards all yon be- 
having yourselves as obedient suSJMtk But 
of one thing we give you warning, that 
whereas some preachers of the congrega- 
tion, in their public sermons, speak irre- 
verently and slanderously, as well of princes 
in general as of ourselves in particular, and 
of the obedience to the higher powers ; in- 
ducing the people, by that part of the doc- 
trine, to defection from their duty, which 
pertains nothing to religion, b|it rather to 
sedition and tumult, things direotly con- 
trary to religion : therefore we desire you 
to take order in your towns and bounds, 
that when the preachers repair there, they 
use themselves more modestly in these be- 
halfs, and in their preaching not to meil 
[meddle] so much with civil policy and 
public government, nor yet name us, nor 
other princes, but with honour and reve- 
rence, otherwise it will not be suffered* 
And seeing ye have presently the declara- 
tion of our intention, we desire likewise 
to know what shall be your part to n% that 
we may understand what to lippen for fdt- 

Book II.J 



p«nd on] Rt your hands ; whereof we 
a phdn dechuratioii in writ» with thb bearer, 
without excuse or ddaj. At Edinburgh, 
the 28th of August, 1559." 

This prochunation she sent by her mes- 
sengers through all the country, and had 
her solicitors in all parts, who painful- 
\f traYailed to bring men to her opinion ; 
amongst whom those were the principals, 
6ir John Ballantine, justioe^deric, Mr James 
BaUonr, oflGunal of Lothian, Mr Thossas and 
Mr William Scotts, sons to the laird of 
Balwerie, Sir Kobert Carnegie, and Mr 
GaTin Hamilton, who for fiunting of the 
brethren's hearts, and drawing them to the 
queen's fiiction, against their natire coun- 
try, have dechu^ themseWes enemies to 
Gody and traitors to their commonwealth. 
But abore all others Mr James Balfour, 
official for the time, ought to be abhorred ; 
for he of an old professor, is become a new 
denier of Christ Jesus, and manifest blas- 
pheme of his eternal Terity, against his 
knowledge and conscience : seeking to be- 
tray his brethren and native country into 
the hands of an nnfiuthful nation. 

The answer to this former prodamation, 
was made in form as follows : 
To the nobility, burgesses, and commonalty 
of this realm of Scotland, the lords, ba- 
nns^ and others, brethren of the christian 
eoogregation, wish increase of all wisdom, 
aad the advancement of the glory of God, 
aad of the commonwealth. 
" The love of our native country craveth, 
the deftnee of your honours requires, and 
the aiaoerity of our consciences oorapeUeth 
ns^ dearest brethren, to answer some part 
to tfM last writings and proclamations set 
fsftfi by the queen's grace's regent, no less 
to wmkm vm and our cause odious, than to 
ab«ao yovr simplicities to your final destmo- 
tioB, ooBspired of old, and now' already put 
to wwrk. And first, where she alleges that 
castM astftious persons have, of maKce in- 
TODled Md blown abroad divers rumours, 
teodiBg thereby, as she alleges, to stir up 
the hearts of the people to sedition, by rea- 
son that the Frenchmen are crept in of 
late in our country ; true it is, dear bre- 
thren, that all such as bear natural love to 
their oonntry, to yon, their brethren inha- 

bitants thereof, to our houses, wives, bairns, 
th^ esperanee of yoor posterity, and shortly 
to your commonwealth, and the ancient 
laws and liberties thereof, cannot but in 
heart lament, and with month and tears 
complain, the most crafty assaults devised 
and practised, to the utter ruin of all those 
things forenamed ; and that so manifestly 
is gone to work, that even in ojor eyes 
[sight], our dearest brethren, tme members 
of our commonwealth, are most cruelly 
oppressed by strangers ; in so far as some 
are banished their own houses ; some roln 
bed and spoiled of their substances, con- 
quest [acquired! by their just labours in the 
sweat of their brows ; some cruelly mur- 
dered at the pleasare of these inhuman sol- 
diers; and idtogether have their lives in 
such fear and dread« as if the enemies 
were in the midst of them, so that nothing 
can seem pleasant unto them which they 
possess in the bowels of their native coun- 
try, so near judges every man, and not but 
just cause, the practice used upon their 
brethren to approach next unto themselves, 
wives, bairns, houses, and substances, which 
altogether are cast at the feet of stran- 
gers, men of war, to be by them thus 
abused at their unbridled lusf s desire. Now 
if it be sedition, dear brethren, to complain, 
lament, and pour forth before God the sor- 
rows and sobs of our dolorous hearts, cry- 
ing to him for redress of these enormities, 
which elsewhere are not to be fbund, and 
they altogether do proceed of the unlawful 
holding of strange soldiers over the heads 
of our brethren ; if thus to complain be 
sedition, then, indeed, dear brethren, can 
none of us be purged of that crime ; for as 
in very heart we condemn such inhuman 
cruelty, with the wicked and crafty pre- 
tence thereof, so can we, nor dare we not, 
neither by mouth speaking, nor yet by 
keeping of silence, justify the same. Nei- 
ther do we here aggrege [aggravate] the 
breaking of the appointment made at Leith, 
which always has manifestly been done; 
but when we remember what oath we have 
made to our commonwealth, and how the 
duty we owed to the same compels us to 
cry out, that her grace, by wicked and un- 
godly counsel, goeth most craftily abotft 




[a.d. 1AM 

atteriy to sappren the same and the an- 
eient lawa and liberties thereof, as well 
against the king of France*s promise, or her 
own duty, in respect of the high promotions 
that she has received thereby, which jos- 
tice should have caused her to have been 
indeed that which she would be called, and 
is nothing less in verity, to wit, a careful 
mother over this commonwealth ; but what 
motherly care she has used towards you, 
ye cannot .be ignorant. Have ye not been, 
even from the first entry of her reign, erer 
suited and oppressed with unaccustomed 
and exorbitant taxations, more than ever 
were used within this realm? Yea, and 
how far was it sought here to have been 
brought in upon you and your posterity, 
under colour to have been laid up in store 
for the wars. The inquisition taken of all 
your goods, moveable and unmoveable, by 
way of testament ; the seeking of the whole 
ooal and salt of this realm, to have been 
laid up in store and girnel [granary], and 
she alone to have been merchant thereof, 
doth teach you by experience some of her 
motherly care. Again, what care over your 
commonwealth doth her grace instantly 
[constantly] bear, when even now presently, 
and of a long time bygone, by the ministry 
of some, who better deserved the gallows 
than ever did Cochran, * she doth so cor- 
rupt the layit money [lawful coin], and hath 
brought it to such baseness, and to such 
quantity of scrufe [base porous metal, mere 
rust], that all men that have their eyes open 
may perceive an extreme beggary to be 
brought therethrough upon the whole 
realm, so that the whole exchange and 
traffic to be had with foreign nations, a 
thing most necessary in all commonwealths, 
shall thereby be utterly extinguished ; and 
all the gains received thereby is, that she 
therewith entertains strangers upon our 
heads; for, brethren, ye know, that her 
money has served for no other purpose in 
our commonwealth this long time bygone. 
And the impunity of the wicked ministers, 
whom lately we spoke of, has brought the 

• The favourite of Jamee III, who was 
JiaDgcd by the Sootieh noblet at Lauder.— £(/• . 

matter to such licentioas enonnity, and 
plain oontampt of the oommonwealth, that 
now they spare not plainly to break down 
and convert good and stark [solid] money, 
coined in our ooinhouse, in onr aovereign's 
lessage [nonage], into this their corrupted 
scrufe and baggages of hardheada and non- 
sounts [base hard metal pieces], most like 
as if she and they had oonspirsd to destroy 
all the whole good coin of this realm, and 
consequently that part of the common- 
wealth. Besidee all this, their dipped and 
rouged soUis [rounded aofe], which had no 
passages [cunrency] these three years by- 
gone in the realm of Fimnoe^ aro oommand- 
ed to have course [pass or be canrent] in this 
reaUn, to gratify thereby her new-oome-in 
soldiers: and all thoee things are done 
without the advice or conaent of the noln- 
lity and council of this realm, and manifiaat- 
ly therethrough, against our ancient laws 
and liberties. 

" Thirdly, Her last and most weighty pro- 
ceeding, moro fuUy declares her motheriy 
caro her grace bears to our commonwealth 
and us, when in time of peace, but [with- 
out] any occasion of foreign wars, thousands 
of strangers aro laid here and there upon 
the necks of our poor members of this 
commonwealth ; their idle bellies fed upon 
the poor substance of the commonalty, con- 
quest [acquired] by their just labours in the 
painful sweat of their brows, which to be 
true, Dunbar, North Berwick, Tranent, 
Prestonpans, Musselburgh, Leith, Canon- 
gate, Kinghorn, Kirkaldy, Dysart, with the 
depaupered souls that this day dwell there- 
in can testify, whose oppression, as doubt- 
less it has entered in beforo the justice 
seat of God, so ought it justly to move 
our hearts to have pity and compassion 
upon these our poor brethron, and at our 
powers to provide romedy for the same. 
And albeit her strangers had been garnish- 
ed with money, — as ye know well they are 
not, — ^yet can their here lying be nowise but 
most hurtful to our commonwealth, seeing 
that the fertility of this realm has never 
been so plenteous, that it was able of any 
continuance to sustain itself, and the inha- 
bitants thereof, without support of foreign 
countries ; &r leas able, besides the same. 

Book II.] 



to sustain thonnnds of strmngen where- 
with it is burdened, to the denrtheningf of 
•U victuals, as the mnnnur and complaint 
of Edinburgh this daj doth testify. But 
to what effect the commonwealth is this 
way burdened, the end doth declare; for 
•hortlj after were these brought to the 
field against our soTereign's true lieges, 
even us your brethren, who, God knows, 
sought nought else but peace of con- 
•ctence, under protection of our sovereign, 
and for reformation of these enormities, 
— ^for no other cause but that we would 
not renounce the evangel of Jesus Christ, 
and subdue our necks under the tyranny 
of that man of sin, the Roman antichrist, 
and his forsworn shavelings, who at all 
times most tyrannously oppressed our 
souls with hunger of Ood's true word, and 
reft our goods and substances, to waste the 
same upon their foul lusts and stinking 
harlots. But, O dear brethren, this was 
not the chief pretence and final scope of 
her proceediogs, as these days do well de> 
dare ; for had not God given in our hearts 
to withstand that oppression with weapons 
of most just defence, you, O St Johnstone 
and Dundee, had been in no better estate 
Bor your sister of Leith is this day. For 
though in very deed — God is witness — we 
meaned them nothing but in the simplicity 
of our hearto the maintenance of true reli- 
gioB, and safety of our brethren professors 
of the same, yet lay there another serpent 
lurking in the breast of our adversaries, as 
this day — upraise to God — is plainly opened 
to all that list to behold, to wit, to bring 
yoa and us both under the perpetual servi- 
tude of strangers ; for we being appointed, 
m y% know, touching religion, to be reap 
aoBsd with in the council at the day ap- 
yoin t od, and no occasion made to break the 
on our side, as is well known, yet 
there forth writings and complaints, 
thai tUs day and that day we were pre- 
pufoi to invade her grace's person, when 
in very truth there were never such thing 
thought, as the very deed did declare : but 
booauae she was before deliberate to bring 
in Frenchmen to both our destructions, 
that ye should not stir therewith, she made 
yon to onderstaod, that these bands came 

only for safety of her own person. O craft ! 
brsthreo, O subtlety I But behold the end ! 
They are oome, yet not so many, no, not 
the sixth part that she desired and looked 
for, and how are they come ? Not only 
with weapons to defend her grace's person, 
but with wives and bairns to plant in your 
native towns, as they have already begun 
in the town of Leith, the principal port and 
staple of all this realm, tiie gimel and fur- 
niture of the council and seat of justice ; 
and here will they dwell till they may 
reinforce them with greater numbers of 
their fellow soldiers, to subdue then the 
rest, if God withstand not : and yet her 
grace feared nor ashamed not to write, that 
if there were an hundred Frenchmen for 
every one that is in Scotland, yet they 
should harm no man. Tell thou now, O 
Leith ! if that be true : if this be not a 
crafty entry to a manifest conquest fore- 
thought of old, judge ye, dear brethren, 
thus to fortify our towns, and even the 
principal part of our realm, and to lay so 
strong garrisons of strangers therein, with- 
out any consent of the nobility and council 
of this realm, but expressly against their 
mind, as our writings sent to her grace 
bear record : if this be not to oppose the 
ancient laws and liberties of our realm, let 
all wise men see to it And further, to 
take the bam yards new gathered, the gir- 
nels replenished, the houses garnished, and 
to sit down therein, and by force to put 
the just possessors and ancient inhabitanto 
therefrom, with their wives, children, and 
servants, to shift for themselves in begging, 
if they have no other means, they being* 
true Scotsmen, members of our common- 
wealth, and our dear brethren and sisters, 
bom, fostered, and brought up in the 
bowek of our native country : if this be 
not the manifest declaration of their old 
pretence and mind to our whjole Scotish 
nation, let your own consciences, brethren, 
be judge herein. Was all Leith of the con- 
gregation ? No, I think not ; yet were all 
alike served. Let this motherly care then 
be tried by the fruito thereof: First, By 
the great and exorbitant taxations used 
upon you, and yet ten times greater press- 
ed at, as ye know. Secondly, The utter 



U. B. U69 

dapravatioQ of our coio, to oonqaest [ob- 
tain] thtrebj noii«y to entertain strange 
French soldiers upon you, and to make 
them strongholds, lest ye should soflaetime 
czpel them out of your natire realm. 
2^(Bjf, By the daily reinforcing of the 
aaid French soldiers in strength and num- 
ber, with wives and bairns, planting in your 
brethren's houses and possessions. Indeed, 
her grace is, and has been at all times care- 
ful to procure by her craft of fair words, 
fair promises, and sometimes buddis [bribes], 
to allure your simplicity to that point, to 
join yourselves with her soldiers, to dan- 
tone [overcome] and oppress us, that you 
the remnant — we being cut off— may be an 
easy prey to her sleights, which God, of 
his infinite goodness, has now discovered 
to the eyes of all that list to behold. But 
credit the works, dear brethren, if ye will 
not credit us ; and lay tbe example of fo- 
reign nations, yea, even of your own bre- 
thren before your eyes: and procure not 
your own ruin willingly. If ye tender 
true religion, ye see how her grace beareth 
herself plain enemy thereto, and maintains 
the tyranny of those idle bellies, the bi- 
shops, against God's kirk. If religion be 
not persuaded unto you, yet cast not away 
the care ye ought to have over the com- 
monwealth, which ye see manifestly and 
violently ruined before your eyes. If this 
will not move you, remember your dear 
wives, children, and posterity, your ancient 
heritages and houses : and think well these 
strangers will regard no more your right 
thereto, more than they have done your 
brethren of Leith, whenever occasion shall 
serve. But if ye purpose — as we doubt 
not but that all those that either have wit 
or manhood will declare and prove indeed 
— to hruik [retain] your ancient roumes 
[places] and heritages, conquered most va^ 
liantly, and defended by your most noble 
progenitors against all strangers, invaders 
of the same, as the French pretend this 
day plainly ; if ye will not be slaves unto 
them, and have your lives, your wives, 
your bairns, your substance, and whatso- 
ever is dear unto you, cast at their feet, 
to be used and abused at the pleasure of 
strange soldiers, as you see your brethren 

at this day before your eyes. If jrou if ould 
not have experience bob^ day hereof in 
your own persons^ as we suppoee the leta^ 
of you all would not gladly have^ bat f». 
ther woufd choose with honour to die ia 
defence of his own native nnuBy thaa live 
and serve so shameful a servitude; then, 
brethren, let us join tmr forces, and both 
with wit and manhood resist those begin- 
nings, or else our libertiea hereafter shall 
be dearer bought Let us farther be per- 
suaded, when our neighboar^s houos is on 
fire, that we dwell not without danger. 
Let no man withdraw hiaiself btrefinom : 
and if any will be so onhappy and mis- 
chievous, — as we sappoi* none to be^ — let 
us altogether repute, hold^ and use him— 
as he is indeed— for an eneaiy onto us, to 
himself, and to his oonmonwaaL ' Tho 
eternal and omnipotent God, the true and 
only revenger of the oppressed, be oar 
comfort and protector against the rage and 
fury of the Qrnmts of this worid ; and e»- 
pecially from the insatiable covetousness of 
the Guisians' generation. Amen,* " 

Besides this^ our publio letter, some men 
answered certain heads of her said procla- 
mation in this manner : 

" If it be sedition to speak the truth in 
all sobriety, and to complain when they are 
wounded, or to call for help against unjust 
tyranny before that their throats be cut, 
then can we not deny, but we are criminal 
and guilty of tumult and sedition. For we 
have said that our commonwealth is op- 
pressed, that we and our brethren are hurt 
by the tyranny of strangers, and that we 
fear bondage and slavery, seeing that mul- 
titudes of cruel murderers are daily brought 
to our country without our council, or 
knowledge and consent. We dispute not 
so much whether the bringing in of more 
Frenchmen be violating of the appointment, 
— which the queen nor her faction cannot 
deny to be manifestly broken by them in 
more cases than one,— as that we would 
know, if that the heaping of strangers upon 
strangers, above us, without our consent or 
counsel, be a thing that may stand with the 
liberty of our realm, and with the profit of 
our commonwealth. It is not unknown to 
all men of judgment, that the fhiits of our 

Book IL] 



coontrj, in the most comnum yean, are no 
more than anfficient reasonaUj to nouriah 
die born inhabitanta within the aame. Bat 
now aeeing that we hare been yexed with 
wara^ taken npon ns at the pleaanre of 
Fraaoe, by the which the moit froitful por- 
tion of our oonntry in com has been wast- 
•d ; what man is so blind bat that he may 
see^ that such bands of ungodly and idle 
soldiers can be nothing eke bat an occasion 
to fiunish our poor brethren ? And in this 
p<nnt we refuse not— which is the chief-— 
the judgment of all natural Scotsmen. 

The queen regent alleged^ that although 
there were a hundred Frenchmen for one 
in Scotland, yet she is not minded to trou- 
Ue any in his just possession. Mliereunto 
we answer, that we dispute not what she 
intends, which not-the-less by probable con- 
jeetores b to be suspected ; but always we 
affirm, that such a multitude of Frenchmen 
is a harden, not only unprofitable, but also 
intolerable to this poor realm, especially 
being intreat^ as they are by her and 
Monsieur d'Oysel; for if their wages be 
paid oat of France, then are they both— 
the qneen regent, we say, and Monsieur 
d'Oysel— traitors to the queen and council ; 
lor the poor commons of this realm haye 
■attained them with the sweat of their 
Wows, since the contraction of the peace, 
and somewhat before. 

What motherly afiection she has declar- 
ed to this realm, and to the inhabitants of 
the same, her works have eyidently de- 
dared, eren since the first hour that she 
has borne authority. And albeit men this 
day will not see what danger hangs orer 
tlmnr heads, yet fear we that ere it be long, 
ozpflrienee shall teach some, that we fear 
not without cause. The cruel murder and 
opprsaaion used by them whom she now 
faaten^ is to us a sufficient argument, what 
la to bo looked for, when her number is so 
nnltf|lied, that our force shall not be able 
to fabitand their t3rranny. 

Where she complains of our preachers, 
affirming that unrsTerently they speak of 
princes in general, and of her in particular, 
indacing die people thereby to defection 
from thmr duty, &c. and therefore that 
such things cannot be suflTered : becaoae 

this aoeusation is laid against God's true 
ministers, we cannot but witness what 
trede [course] and order of doctrine they 
have kept, and yejt keep in tha^ point 

In public prayers they commend to God 
all princes in general, and the magistrates 
of thb our native realm in particular. In 
open audience they declare the authority of 
princes and magistrates to be of God ; and, 
therefore, they affirm that they ought to 
be honoured, feared, and obeyed, eyen for 
conscience' sake ; providing that they com- 
mand or require nothing expressly repugn- 
ing to God's commandment and plain will, 
revealed in his holy word. Moreover, they 
affirm, that if wicked persons, abusing the 
authority established by God, command 
things manifestly wicked, that such as may 
and do bridle these inordinate appetites of 
princes, cannot be accused as resisters of 
the authority, which is God's good ordi- 
nance. To bridle the fury and rage of 
princes in free kingdoms and realms, they 
affirm it appertaineth to the nobility, bom 
and sworn councillors of the same, and also 
to the barons and people, whose votes and 
consents are to be required in all great and 
weighty matters of the conunonwealth ; 
which, if they do not» they declare them- 
selves criminal with their princes, and so 
subject to the same vengeance of C^od, 
which they deserve, for that they pollute 
the seat of justice, and do, as it were, make 
God the author of iniquity. They proclaim 
and cry, that the same God who plagued 
Pharaoh, repulsed Sennacherib, struck He- 
rod with worms, and made the bellies of 
dogs the graves and sepultures of despiteful 
Jesebel, will not spare the cruel princes, 
murderers of Christ Jesus' members in this 
our time. On this manner they spake of 
prbces in general, and of your grace in 
particular. This only we have heard one 
of our preachers say, rebuking the vain 
excuse of such as flatter themselves by 
reason of the authority ; many now a-days, 
said he, will have no other religion nor 
fiuth than the queen and authority hold; 
but is it not possible that the queen is so 
far blinded, that she will have no other 
religion, and no other faith, than may con- 
tent the cardinal of Lorraine. And may it 



[ii.D. 1M9 

not likewise be abil [be true] that the car- 
dinal be so coimpt, that he will admit no 
religion which does not establish the pope 
in his kin^om : bat plain it is, that the 
pope is lieutenant of Satan, and enemy to 
Christ Jesus, and to his perfect religion. 
Let men therefore consider what danger 
they stand in, if their salvation shall de- 
pend upon the queen's faith and religion. 
Farther we never heard any of our preach- 
ers speak of the queen regent, neither pub- 
licly nor privately. Where her grace de- 
clared, it will not be suffered that our 
preachers mell [meddle] with policy, and 
speak of her or of other princes but with 
reverence : we answer, that as we will jus- 
tify and defend nothing in our preachers 
which we find not God to have justified 
and allowed in his messengers before them ; 
so dare we not forbid them openly to re- 
prehend that which the Spirit of God, 
speaking in the prophets and apostles, has 
reproved before them. Elijah did person- 
ally reprove Ahab and Jezebel of idolatry, 
of avarice, of murder, and such like. Isaiah 
the prophet called the magistrates of Jeru- 
salem, in his time, companions to thieves, 
princes of Sodom, bribe-takers, and mur- 
derers ; he complained that their silver was 
turned into dross, that their wine was min- 
gled with water, and that justice was 
bought and sold. Jeremiah said, that the 
bones of king Jehoiakim should wither 
with the sun. Christ Jesus called Herod a 
fox, and Paul called the high priest a 
painted wall, and prayed unto God that he 
should strike him, because against justice 
he caused him to be smitten. Now, if the 
like or greater corruptions be in the world 
this day, who dare enterprise to put silence 
to the Spirit of God, which will not be sub- 
ject to the appetites of wicked princes ? 

We have before said, that the tenth day 
of September was appointed for a conven- 
tion to be holden at Stirling, to the which 
repaired the most part of the lords of the 
congregation. At that same time arrived 
the earl of Arran, who, after that he had 
saluted his father, came with the earl of 
Argyle and lord James to Stiriing to the 
said convention, in the which divers godly 
men complained upon the tyranny used 

against their brethren, and etpeoially that 
more Frenchmen were brought in to op- 
press their oonntry. After the conanlt*- 
tion of certain days, the principal lords, 
with my lord of Anan, and the earl of Ar- 
gyle, passed to Hamilton, for ooosultalioD 
to be taken with my lord doke's grace: 
and in this meantime came the sure word, 
that the Frenchmen were b^gnn to fortiff 
Leith, which thing, as it did more evidently 
discover the queen*s craft, ao did it deeply 
grieve the hearts of the whole nobiHty 
there, who, with one content, agreed to 
write to the queen, in form as fbllows : 

At Hamilton, the 19th day of Septem- 
ber, 1559. 
** Please your grace, 

" We are credibly informed, that your 
army of Frenchmen should instantly befpn 
to plant in Leith, to fortify the same, of 
mind to expel the ancient inhabitants 
thereof, our brethren of the congregation ; 
whereof we marvel not a little, that your 
grace should so manifestly break the iqp- 
pointment made at Leith, but [without] 
any provocation made by us and our bre- 
thren. And seeing the same is done with- 
out any manner of consent of the nobility 
and council of this realm, we esteem the 
same not only oppression of our poor bre- 
thren, indwellers of the said town, but also 
very prejudicial to the conwion wealth, and 
plain contrary to our ancient laws and 
liberties: herefore desire your grace to 
cause the same work enterprised to be 
stayed ; and not to attempt so rashly and 
manifestly against your grace*s promise, 
against the commonwealth, the ancient laws 
and liberties thereof, which things, besides 
the glory of God, are most dear and tender 
unto us, and only our pretence [oiject or 
design], otherwise, assuring your grace we 
will complain to the whole nobility and 
commonalty of this realm, and most ear- 
nestly seek for redress thereof. And thus 
recommending our humble service unto 
your highness, your answer most earneatly 
we desire, whom we commit to the eternal 
protection of God. At Hamilton, day and 
year foresaid, by your grace*s humble and 
obedient servitors," &c 

This letter was subscribed with the hands 




of mj lord duke, the earls of Arran, Axjg^le, 
Gkncaim, and Monteith, by the lords 
RothyeOy Ochiltree, Boyd, aod by diyera 
othera, barons and gentlemen. To this re- 
quest she would not answer by writ, but 
lirith « letter of credit, she sent Sir Robert 
Carnegie and Mr David Borthwick, two 
whom* amongst many others, she abused, 
and by whom she corrupted the hearts of 
the simple : they travailed with the duke, 
to bring him again to the queen's fiustion. 
Lft Broche and the bishop of Amiens were 
shortly before arrived ; and, as it was bruits 
ed, were directed as ambassadors ; but they 
kept cloae their whole commission: they 
only made large promises to them that 
would be theirs, and leave the congrega- 
tion. The queen did grievously compUun, 
that we had intelligence with England. 
The conclusion of their commission was to 
■olidt my lord duke to put all in the 
queen's will, and then would she be gra- 
doos enough. It was answered, ** That no 
lioncai men durst commit themselves to 
file mercy of such cut-throats as she had 
about her, whom, if she would remove, and 
join to her a council of natural Scotsmen, 
permitting the religion to have free passage, 
then should nooe in Scotland be more will- 
ing to serve her grace than should the 
lords and brethren of the congregation be.** 
At the same time, the duke*s grace and 
Ibe lords wrote to my lord Erskine, cap- 
fain of the castle of Edinbui^h, in form as 


* My lord and cousin, 
* Alter our hearty commendation, this 
preeent is to advertise you, that we are cre- 
dihly informed, the army of Frenchmen 
eonitantly in this realm, but [without] any 
adrioe of the council or nobility, are forti- 
fpmg, or else shortly intend to fortify 
the town of Leith, and expel the ancient 
iahilitants thereof; whereby they proclaim 
to afl tiiat will open their ears to hear, or 
eyes to see, what is their pretence [design]. 
And seeing the faithfulness of our ances- 
%im, and specially of your father, of ho- 
nourable memory, was so recommended 
and experimented to the estates and coun- 
of this realm, through affection they 

perceived in him towards the common- 
wealth thereof, that they doubted not to 
give in his keeping the key — as it were— 
of the council, the justice, and policy of 
this realm, the castles of Edinburgh and 
Stirling; we cannot but believe ye will 
rather augment the honourable favour of 
your house by stead£ut favour and lautie 
[loyalty] to your commonwealth, than, 
through the subtle persuasion of some, 
which caring not what aftor shall come of 
you and your house, at the present would 
abuse you, to the performance of their 
wicked enterprise and pretences against 
our conunonwealth, utterly destroy the 
same. And herefore, seeing we have writ- 
ten to the queen's grace, to d^sist from, 
that enterprise, otherwise that we will 
complain to the nobility and commonalty 
of the realm, and seek redress thereof; we 
likewise beseech you, as our tender friend, 
brother, and a member of the same com- 
monwealth with us, that ye in nowise mell 
[meddle] nor assent to that ungodly enter- 
prise against the commonwealth ; and like- 
wise, that ye would save your body, and 
the jewels of this country, committed to 
you and your predecessors' lautie [loyalty] 
and fidelity towards your native country 
and commonwealth, if ye think to be re- 
pute hereafter one of the same, and would 
rather be brother to us than to strangers ; 
for we gather by the effects the secrets ol 
men's hearts, otherwise unsearchable unto 
us. This we write, not that we are in 
doubt of you, but rather to warn you of 
the danger, in case ye thole [suffer] your- 
self to be enchanted with fair promises and 
crafty councillors. For let no man flatter 
himself; we desire all may know, that 
though ye were our father, — since GN>d has 
opened our eyes to see his will, — be he ene- 
my to the commonwealth, which now is 
assailed, and we with it, and all true mem- 
bers thereof, he shall be known— and as 
he is indeed— enemy to us, to our lives, 
our houses, babes, heritages, and whatso- 
ever is contained within the same. For as 
the ship perishing, what can be safe that is 
within it ? So the commonwealth being be- 
trayed, what particular member can live in 
quietness ? And, therefore, in so fiur as the 



[a. d. IU0 

said castles are oommitted to your iredit, 
we desire you to show your faithfulness 
and stoutness, as ye tender us, and whatso- 
orer appertains to us. And seeing we are 
assured ye will be assailed both with 
craft and force; as now by warning we 
help you against the first, so against the 
last ye shall not miss in all possible haste 
to have our assistance ; only show yourself 
the man. I^ave your person by wisdom, 
strengthen yourself against force, and the 
almighty God assist you in both the one 
and the other, and open your eyes, under- 
standing, to see and perceive the craft of 
Satan and his suppoistis [supporters of his 
cause]. At Hamilton, the 19th of Septem- 
ber, 1559. 

•• By your brethren, the duke," &c. 

The duke and lords understanding that 
the fortification of Leith proceedeth, ap- 
pointed their whole forces to convene at 
Stirling the 15th day of October, and that 
from thence they might march forward to 
Edinburgh, for redress of the great enormi- 
ties which the Frenchmen did to the whole 
country, which by them was [so] oppressed 
that the life of all honest men was bitter 
unto them. 

In this meantime, the lords direct their 
letters to divers parts of the country, mak- 
ing mention what danger did hang over 
all men, if the Frenchmen should be suf- 
fered to plant in this country at their plea- 
sure. They made mention farther, how 
humbly they had sought the queen regent 
tiiat she would send away to France her 
Frenchmen, who were a burden unprofita- 
ble and grievous to their conmionwealth : 
and how that she notwithstanding did daily 
augment her number, bringing wives and 
bairns ; a declaration of a plain conquest, 

The queen, then regent, perceiving that 
her craft began to be espied, by all means 
possible travailed to blind the people. And 
first, she sent forth her pestilent posts fore- 
named, in all parts of the country, to per- 
suade all men that she offered all things 
reasonable to the congregation; and that 
they refusing all reason, pretended no reli- 
gion, but a plain revolt from the autliority. 
She tempted every man in particular, as 

well those that were of the congregation, 
as those that were neutrals. She aaaaulted 
every man, as she thought most easily he 
might have been overcome. To the knrd 
Ruthven, she sent the justioe-derk and his 
wife, who was daughter to the wife of th^ 
said lord. What was their eommission and 
credit is no fivther known than the said 
lord has confessed, which i% laige pro- 
mises of profit were ofiered, if that he would 
leave the congregation and be the qiieen*s. 
To lord James, prior of St Andrewi^ was 
sent Mr John Spence of GoBdjy with a let- 
ter and credit as follows : 

The memorial of Mr John Spence of 
Ck>ndy, the 30th diqr of September. 

'* Ye shall say, that the qneen's grace's 
favour which is towards yoo, moves her to 
this, &c 

** That she well knows, that the occasion 
of your departure from her was the &vour 
of the word and of the religion, with the 
which, albeit that she was offended, yet 
knowing your heart, and the hearts of the 
other lonls fimdy fixed thereupon, she will 
bear with you in that behalf, and at jour 
own sights she will set forward that cause 
at her power, as may stand with God's 
word, the common policy of this realm, 
and the prince's honour." Note— Good 
reader, what venom lurked here ! for plain 
it is, that the policy which she pretendeth, 
and the prince's honour, will never suffer 
Christ Jesus to reign in this realm. 

" To say, that the occasion of the assem- 
bling of these men of war, and fortifying 
of Leith, is, that it was given her to un- 
derstand by some about her, that it is not 
the advancement of the word and religion 
which is sought at this tame, but rather a 
pretence to overthrow, or alter the autho- 
rity of your sister, of the which she be- 
lieves still that ye are not participant; and 
considering the tenderness that is betwixt 
you and your sister, she trusts more in yoa 
in that behalf than in any living." But 
before the earl of Arran arrived, and that 
the duke departed from her faction, she 
ceased not continually to cry, that the pri<Mr 
sought to make himself king, and so not 
only to deprive his sister to make himself 
king, but also to defraud the lord ddke^a 

Book II.] 



Iprmoo acndliu house ; but fbreseeing a ttorm, 
dhe' began to seek a new wind. 
' * She farther willed to offer the away- 
•nding of the men of war, if the fcmner 
saapfeion could be remored. She lamented 
the trouble that appeared to follow if the 
matter should long stand in debate. She 
promised her faithful labours for reooncilia- 
tioo, and required the same of him, require 
ing fiurther fidth, favour and kindness^ to- 
wards his sister, and to advertise for his 
part what he desired, with promise that he 
might obtain what he pleases to desire," 

To this letter and credit, the said lord 
Jalnes answered as follows : 
** Please your grace, ' 

** I have received your highness' writing, 
and have heard the credit of the bearer; 
and finding the business of such import- 
ance, that dangerous it were to give hastily 
answer, and also your petitions are such, 
that witii my honour I cannot answer them 
piivstoly by myself. I have thought good 
to ddby the same till that f may have the 
judgment of the whole council : for this 
point I will not conceal from your grace, 
tiiat amongst us there is a solemn oath, 
timt none of us shall traffic with your grace 
secretly; neither yet that any of us shall 
make an address for himself particularly; 
which oath, for my part, I purpose to keep 
iaviolated unto the end : but when the rest 
of the noblemen shall convene, I shall leave 
Bofliing that lies in my power undone that 
wmj make for the quietness of this poor 
resdai, providing that the glory of Christ 
Jeans be not hindered by our concord. 
Alii if your grace shall be found so tracta- 
Ua as now ye offer, I doubt not to obtain 
of the rest of my brethren such favours to- 
wards your service as your grace shall have 
Jut occasion to stand content : for Ood I 
IiIbs to record, that in this action I have 
MiAsr sought, nor yet seek any thing else 
than God's glory to increase, and the liber- 
ty of this poor realm to be m ai n ta in ed. 
Farther, I have shown to your messenger 
what things have misliked me in your pn>- 
ceedings, even from such a heart as I would 
wbh to Ood you and all men should know. 
And this with hearty commendation of 

service to your grace, I heartily commit 
your highness to the eternal protection of 
the omnipotent At St Androws, the first 
of October." 

' Sit mbsaribitur^ 
** Your grace's most humble and 
obedient servitor, 

** James Stewart." , 

This answer received, she raged as hy-