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33 07078408 1 

Li 0-lyt Bli/i^C'jJf^ 
J J 


H I S T O R Y 





• • • 

• <U < < J « 

»...«,- • • i , • • 



VOL. rn. PAirrn. 



'<^ <.■ 


• k k » 

• • • w 




This work, which is designed to finish 
the History of our Reformation, seems reserved to 
be laid at your Majesty's feet ; who, we trust, is 
designed by God to complete the reformation itself. 

To rectify what may be yet amiss, and to supply 
what is defective among us ; to oblige us to live and 
to labour more suitably U} our^j^ofessioc; .to unite 
us more firmly among ourselves ; .to bury, and for 
ever to extinguish, the fears:bf ^ti/iEe&psing again 
into popery ; and to establish ;4'C^fkte9ce/and cor- 


respondence with the protestant and reformed 
churches abroad. 

The eminent moderation of the most serene house 
from which your Majesty is descended, gives us 
auspicious hopes, that as God has now raised your 
Majesty, with signal characters of an amazing pro- 
vidence, to be the head and the chief strength of 
the reformation ; so your Majesty will, by a wise 
and noble conduct, form all these churches into one 
body ; so that though they cannot agree to the same 
opinions and rituals with us in all points, yet they 

VOL. III. a 


may join in one happy confederacy, for the support 
of the whole, and of every particular branch of that 
sacred union. 

May this be the peculiar glory of your Majesty's 
reign ; and may all the blessings of heaven and earth 
rest upon your most august person, and upon all 
your royal posterity. 

This is the daily prayer of him, who is with the 
profoundest respect, 


Your Majesty's 
• #• •••• .....^ 

'. : V : . ' ' -' nxosi Imra^ most obedient, and most 
:'.'.:: d^oted subject and servant, 


-•• : 

• • ' 

•• '•• 



I HAD in my Introduction to this volume, which I pub- 
lished a year ago, said all that then occurred to me in the 
way of preface : but some particulars coming to my know- 
ledge since that time, give me an occa^on to add a little to 
what was then copiously deduced. 

I begin with Mr. Le Grand, who I understand is now in 
a considerable post in the court of France. He, being 
lately at Geneva, explained himself to my friends in these 
terms ; ** that he was young when he wrote against me, and 
" that the heat of youth had carried him to some expres- 
^* sions, from which he would abstain, if he were to write 
*^ now : he was glad to hear that I was upon the reviewing 
" the History of the Reformation ;^ and named to them a 
Life that he had seen in Spain of Bartholomew Caranza, 
archbishop of Toledo, who was king Philip''s confessor, and 
went with him to England ; and was particularly employed 
in reforming (as they called it) the universities : and, as he 
said, he died when he was to be delivered out of the prison 
of tlic inquisition. He added, that he had also seen a col- 
lection of cardinal Pole'*s letters, with an account of what 
passed in England after the death of king Edward, which 
he believed I had not seen, and that could inform me of 
many particulars ; but that he himself had other employ- 
ments than to think of the affairs of England. If I had 
received this civil message from Mr. Le Grand before I had 
published my Introduction, I would have said nothing at 
all with relation to him ; but what is past cannot be recalled : 
so I hope he will accept of this for all the reparation I can 
now make him. 

As for Anthony Harmer, some have doubted if he could 



be capable of making three capital errors in one line : and 
since Mr. Strype has suggested to me that, in which I was 
under some reserve before, as having it from another hand, 
I am now free to set it down. For capitulum ecclesice ca- 
thedralis, he has printed, epistolam conventus eccles%<B ca^ 
Iholicre. If the abbreviations may seem to excuse the read- 
ing epistolam for capitulum^ and cat/udiccB for cathedraliSf 
nothing can excuse the adding the word conventusy which 
he thought wanting to make a complete title, having read 
the others as he did : so I hope I have reason to have no 
regard to any thing that comes from him upon his bare ai^ 
thority. The weak and ill-natured attempts that eome 
among ourselves have of late made upon me, give me no 
sort of concern, unless it is to pray for those who have de- 
spitefully used me. 

There was also a great poem lately prepared, and, I sup- 
pose, designed to be published, when that which our ene^ 
mies hoped was near accomplished should have been effected. 
It was written in imitation of HudibraJs, and so was a mock 
poem on the reformation, composed by one Thomas Ward, 
of whom I can give no other account, but that it is said he 
is a priest. In it, Sanders^s work was made the plot of the 
fable: it was full of impious abuse, put in a stnun apt 
enough to take with those who were disposed to divert 
themselves with a show of wit and humour, dressed up to 
make the reformation appear both odious and ridiculous; 
not doubting of equal success with Butler^s admired per* 
formancc. It was no wonder, if, upon such a design, my 
History was treated with all the characters of scorn an<} 
contempt. This was what I might justly expect from those 
of that side : but I was sorry to find so much censure from 
those from whom I had no reason to expect it, and which 
seemed to be the effect only of envy and ill-nature: God 
forgive them for it. 

I must say a little more, with relation to a learned and 
copious writer of our eccleua^tical history, who finds my 
History often in Ais way : he treats ipe decently as to his 
expressiont, but designs all through to set such remarks on 

- €€ 




my work, as, if they were well grounded, must destroy the 
credit that it has hitherto obtained. I will first give some 
instances to shew what the spirit, the principles, and the de- 
agn of that writer must be : I will name but four out of a 
great many. 

When he sets forth king Henry the Eigfath'^s proceedings?. 150. 
against the memory of Thomas Becket, he has these words; ^i\ | ' 

And though his conduct in this dispute was not altoge- 
** ther defensible, he was far, however, from being guilty of 
*^ that gross mismanagement with which he is charged.^ 
I will leave the judgment that must be passed upon this 
period to all who are in any sort acquwited with the history 
of that time. 

When he gives the character of king Edward the Sixth, P* ss*. 
immediately before he tells of his death, it is in these words: 
*' His oonsdence was not always under a serviceable direc- 
tion ;^ (the meaning of this dark expression I do not reach ;) 
he was tinctured with Erastian principles, and under 
wrong prepossessions as to church government ; he seems 

'• to have had no notion of sacrilege ; and, which is 

^< somewhat remarkable, most of the hardships were put upon 
*< ecclesiastics in the latter end of his reign, when his judg- 
** ment was in the'best condition :^ and without adding one 
word of his good qualities, or to correct those severe reflec- 
tions, he concludes with the account of his death. 

He gives a very different account of the death of Mary p. 601. 
queen of Scots, in these words; " Her fortitude and devo-^®'* "• 
** tion were very remarkable : she supported her character 
*^ with all imaginable decency : she died like a Christian, and 
" like a queen.*" 

And, to mention no more, when he comes to queen Eli- 
zabeth's death and character, he runs a parallel between the 
two sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, in these words ; ^^ The one P. 671. 
" made mart3rrs, the other made beggars : the one executed ^^'' "• 
" the men, and the other the estates : and therefore, reserv- 
" ing the honour of the reformation to queen Elizabeth, the 
" question will be, Whether the resuming the first-fruits 
*^ and tenths, putting many vicarages in a deplorable condi- 




tion, and settling a perpetuity of poverty on the church, 
was not much more prejudicial than fire and fagot? Wh^ 
'* ther destroying bishoprics was not a much greater hard- 
^* ship than the destroying bishops ? because this severity 
*' affects succession, and reaches down to future ages. And 
lastly, Whether, as the world goes, it is not more easy to 
recruit bishops, than the revenues to support them?^ 
These words give such an indication of the notion that the 
author has of the happiness or misery of a church, that they 
want no commentary. 
Hilt, of tiie I ^U ^d this one remark of a fact upon a passage that 
^fj»™' I had writ concerning the book of Ordination, published in 
p. S97.' the third year of king Edward, which was in these words : 
** Another difference between the ordination-book set out at 
'* that time, and that we now use, was, that the bishop was 
to lay his one hand on the priesf s head, and with his other 
to give him a Bible, with a chalice and bread in it, saying 
** the words that are now said at the delivery of the Bible. 
^* In the consecration of a bishop, there is nothing more 
^* than what is yet in use, save that a staff was put into his 
** hand with this bles«ng, Be to thejlock of Christ a shep^ 
P. 190. «* herdr" Upon this his remark is in these words : " But 
* ' '* here, as it happens, this learned person lias been led into a 
<* mistake ; for the two first editions of the Ordinal made in 
king Edward'^s reign have none of the different rites men- 
tioned by this gentleman.**^ I was indeed surprised when 
I read this, and went to look into the first edition of that 
Ordinal, which I knew was in the Lambeth libraiy : for, 
by archbishop Bancrofts order, I had the free use of every 
thing that lay there. There I went to examine it, and I 
found indeed a small variation from my History. The 
whole is in these words : In the ordination of a priest, after 
the imposition of hands, with the words still used, follows 
this rubric ; " Then the bishop shall deliver to every one 
'^ of them the Bible in the one hand, and the chalice, or 
^^ cup, with the bread, in the other hand, and say, Take 
^^ thou authoritt/f &c.^ In the consecration of a bishop, 
this rubric is ; ** The elected bishop, having upon him a 




** surplice and a cope, shall be presented by two bisliops, 
'* being also in surplices and copes, having iheir pastoral 
^< staves in their hands,^ And after the form of the conse- 
cration, this rubric follows ; ** Then shall the archbishop 
lay the Bible upon his neck, saying, Give heed to read^ 
wigJ* The next rubric is, ^^ Then shall the archbishop put 
into his hand the pastoral staff, saying. Be to the Jlock of 
^< Chriei a shepherd »*^ on to the end of the charge, now 
g^ven all together, but then divided in two. This book was 
printed by Richard Grafton, the king'*s printer, in March 
1549 ; or by the Roman account, 1560. I have given this 
full account of that matter in my own justification : I am 
sorry that I cannot return this learned person his compli- 
ment to myself, that he wcu led into a mistake. 

The next, and indeed the last particular, that out of many 
more I will mention, is, the setting down the explanation, 
that was made upon the order for kneeling at the sacrament 
in king Edward'^s time, wrong in a very material word : for 
in that the words were, '^ That there was not in the sacra- p. ^i^. 
** ment any real or essential presence of Christ'^s natural ^'- ''• 
^^ flesh and blood C but he instead of that puts, ^^ corpora]^ 
*^ presence.*** It seems in this he only looked at the rubric, 
as it is now at the end of the communion service, upon a 
conceit that it stands now as it was in king Edward^s book, 
though it was at that time changed : and we know who was d. p. o. 
the author of that change, and who pretended that a corpo- 
ral presence signified such a presence as a body naturally 
has, which the assertors of transubstantiation itself do not, 
and cannot pretend is in this case ; where they say the body 
is not present corporally, but spiritually, or as a spirit is 
present. And he who had the chief hand in procuring this 
alteration had a very extraordinary subtilty, by which he 
reconciled the opinion of a real presence in the sacrament 
with the last words of the rubric, ^^ That the natural body 
^^ and blood of Christ were in heaven, and not here ; it 
^' being against the truth of Christ'^s natural body to be at 
'^ one time in more places than one.^ It was thus : a body 
is in a place, if there is no intermediate body but a vacuum 

a 4 


between it and the place ; and he thought, that, by the vir- 
tue of the words of consecration, there was a cylinder of a 
vacuum made between the elements and Christ'*s body in 
heaven : so that, no body being between, it was both in 
heaven and in the elements. Such a solemn piece of folly 
as this can hardly be read without indignation. But if our 
author favours this conceit, yet, when he sets down that 
which was done in king Edwards's reign, he ought not to 
have changed the word, especially such an important one. 
I shall say no more of that work, but that there appeared 
to me, quite through the second volume, such a constant 
inclination to favour the popish doctrine, and to censure the 
reformers, that I should have had a better opinion of the 
author'^s integrity^ if he had professed himself not to be of 
our communion, nor of the communion of any other protest- 
ant church. 

But as I thought myself bound to give this warning to 
such as may have heard of that work, or that have seen it; 
so there is another History lately written in French, and 
which, I hope, is soon to appear in our own language, which 
I cannot recommend more than it deserves. It is Mr. L^En- 
fant^s History of the Council of Constance ; in which that 
excellent person has with great care, and a sincerity liable 
to no exception, given the world, in the history of that coun- 
cil, so true a view of the state of the church, and of religion, 
in the age before the reformation, that I know no book so 
proper to prepare a man for reading the History of the Re- 
formation, as the attentive reading of that noble work. He 
was indeed well fiimished with a collection of excellent ma- 
terials, gathered with great fidelity and industry by the 
learned doctor Vander Hordt, professor of divinity in the 
univeraty of Helmstadt ; and procured for him by the no- 
ble zeal and princely bounty of that most serene and pious 
prince Rodolph August, the late duke of Brunswick Wol- 
fenbuttle, who set himself with great care, and at a vast 
charge, to procure from all places the copies of all papers 
and manuscripts that could be found, to give light to the 
proceedings of that great assembly: that collection amounted 


to nx volumes in folio. From these authentic vouchers the 
history ci that council is now happily compiled. And if 
that learned author can find materials to give us as full and 
as clear a history of the council of Banl, as he has given of 
that <xf Constance, I know ho greater service can be done 
the world : for by it, popery will appear in its true and 
native colours, free from those palliating disguises which 
the progress of the reformation, and the light which by that 
has been given the world, has forced upon those of that 
communion. We have the celebrated History of the Coun- 
dl of Trent, first published here at London, written with a 
true sublimity of judgment, and an unbiassed sincerity : 
which has received a great confirmation, even from cardinal 
Palavidni*s attempt to destroy its credit, and a much greater 
of late txam that curious discovery of Vargas's Letters. 
But how well and how justly soever the history that P. 
Paulo gave the world of that council is esteemed, I am not 
afnud to compare the late History of the Council of Con- 
stance even to that admired work ; so far at least, as that 
if it will not be allowed to be quite equal to it, yet it may 
be wdl reckoned among the best of all that have written 
after that noble pattern, which the famous Venetian friar 
has given to all the writers of ecclesiastical history. 

Since I published my Introduction, I fell on many papers 
concerning the reformation in Scotland, which had escaped 
the diligence of that grave and judicious writer archbishop 
Spotswood ; of which I have given a full account, and have 
used the best endeavours I could to be furnished with all 
the other materials that I could hear of. It is true, I 
never searched into a lately gathered famous library in this 
place ; but yet I had from some, on whose good judgment 
and great care I might well depend, who had carefully 
looked through it, every thing that they found material to 
my purpose. 

No curiosity pleased me more than that noble record of 
the legatees proceedings in the matter of king Henry'^s di- 
vorce ; of which I had the free use, as of every thing else 
that was in the library of my learned and dear brother, the 


late bishop of Ely ; in whose death the church and all his 
friends, and none more than myself, have had an invaluable 
loss. I read that record very carefully twice or thrice over, 
and gave a full abstract of it,^ but did not then reflect on 
what has occurred to me since ; for though, upon the credit 
of so noble a record, I have said that the king and queen 
were never together in court, yet I find the contrary is af- 
firmed by that king himself, in a letter bearing date the S3d 
of June, to his ambassadors at Rome, in these words; *^ Both 
** we and the queen appeared in person :^ and he sets forth 
the assurances the cardinals gave of their proceeding without 
favour or partiality; ^^ yet she departed out of court, though 
^^ thrice called to appear, and was denounced contumadous.*" 
The only reconciling of this apparent contradiction seems 
to be this ; that they were indeed together in tlie hall where 
the court sat, but that it was before the cardinals sat down, 
and had formed the court : for as it is not to be imagined 
that in the record so material a step could have been omit- 
ted, so highly to the honour of the court ; so it is not likely 
that the queen, after her appeal, would have owned the 
court, or have appeared before those judges: therefore the 
most probable account of that particular is this, that the 
king intending to appear in the court, the queen went thi- 
ther after him, and made that speech to him in the open 
hall, that I mentioned in my former work : but all this was 
over, and they were both gone, before the court was opened, 
or that the cardinals had taken their places; so that 
their appearance could be no part of the record of the 

I am now to give an account of some papers that I add 
as an Appendix, for they relate to the former volumes. The 
first of these was sent me by one Mr. Thomas Granger, of 
whom I can give no other account, but that I understood 
he was a clergyman. He dated his letter from Lammerton, 
near Tavistoke, in Devon, the seventh of February 168J. 
I wrote him such a civil answer, as so kind a censure de» 
served : and I promised that I would make my acknow- 
ledgments more publicly to him whensoever I reviewed that 


W0rk. Upon my settling at Salisbury, I inquired after hino, 
but I was told he was dead : so I lost the occasion of re- 
turning my thanks to him in a more particular manner, 
^dudi I now express thus publicly. 

I had another letter, writ in another strain, full of expos- 
tulatioo, from Anthony (who affected to write himself) k 
Wood* He thought it incumbent on him to justify him- 
sdf, nnce I had reflected on him : so he gave this vent to 
it. I wrote short remarks on it ; one of these I find is in 
the bishop of Worcester's hand : they were sent to bishop 
Fdl, to be communicated to him ; but whether they were, 
or not, I cannot tell. The thing has escaped my memory, 
but the paper still remains with me ; and therefore I have 
thought it a justice to Mr. Wood's memory, and to his writ- 
ii^s, to insert it here. 

The third paper was drawn by me at Paris, in the year 
1685. My History being then translated into Frendi, was 
much read ; and as to the miun conduct of our reformation, 
it was approved by some men of great name. At that time 
there was an embroilment between the court of Rome and 
that of Versailles ; and the propositions that passed in the 
year 1682 seemed to threaten a greater rupture to follow. 
Upon that, the scheme of the English reformation was a 
subject of common discourse ; and that was so much mag- 
nified by those who were called the Converters^ that the 
hope of a reformation in France was one of the artifices that 
prevailed on some, who knew not the depths ofSatan, and 
were easily wrought on to make their court by changing 
their religion, in hope that a great reformation of abuses 
among them was then projected. But one of the learnedest 
men that ever 1 knew of that communion said then to my- 
self, that all that was only done to fright pope Innocent the 
Eleventh, who was then in the interests of the house of 
Austria ; but that whensoever they should have a pope in 
the interests of France, their court would not only declare 
him infallible in points of doctrine, but even in matters of 
fact : and he added, that it was an abuse that people put 
upon themselves, to imagine, that with what pomp or zeal 


soever the court seemed to support those articles passed in 
the assembly of the clergy, that this could have any other 
effect but to bring the court of Rome into their interests. 
He smd, this had been cardinal Mazarine^s practice during 
his whole ministry : when he could not carry matters to his 
mind at Rome, he showed such favour to the Jansenists, as 
let many of them into great dignities ; but when he had 
brought that court to what he designed, he presently changed 
his conduct towards them. 

A person of distinction at Paris, finding my History so 
much liked, wrote a censure upon it. This run through 
many hands^ but was never printed : it fell into Mr,. Au- 
zout'*s hands, and from him I had it. I wrote an answer to 
it, mid got it to be translated into French : it was favour- 
ably received by many in Paris. I do not find the copy of 
that censure among my papers ; but I have still the copy of 
my remarks on it, from which the substance of that censure 
may be gathered : so I have thought fit to add this to my 

The fourth paper is a large collection of many mistakes 
(descending even to literal ones) in both the volumes of my 
History, and in the Records published in them, which a 
learned and worthy person has read with more exactness 
than either my amanuensis or myself had done. I publish 
these sheets, as that unknown person sent them to me; 
whom I never saw, as far as I remember, and who will not 
suffer me to ^ve any other account of him, but that he lives 
in one of the universities. His copy of my work being of 
the second edition, only some very few of the errors marked 
that had crept into the second, but that were not in the first 
edition, are struck out. In several particulars I do not per- 
fectly agree with these corrections : but I set them down as 
they were sent me, without any remarks on them ; and t 
give my hearty thanks in the fullest manner I can, to him 
who was first at the pains to make this collection, and then 
had the goodness to communicate it to me in so obliging a 
manner : for he gave me a much greater power over these 
papers than I have thought fit to assume. 



THE PllEFACE. xiii 

The next paper is a much shorter one : it is indeed the 
abstract of a larger paper, but I have taken out of it only 
that which relates to my History, and have not meddled 
with some remarks made on Harmer'^s Specimen, and many 
mare made on the Rights of an English Convocation. These 
did not belong to my subject ; so I have not copied them 
out. The writer has not let me know his name ; he sent 
the sheets to me in an unsubscribed letter, to which I wrote 
an answer by the conveyance that he marked out to me : 
but I have heard no more of him. 

The flixth and last paper was sent me by the nncere and 
diligent Mr. Strype, who has descended to such a full and 
minute correction, both of my History, and of my cojnet of 
the Records, that I confess it gave me great satisfiEiction. 
Many of his corrections may seem so inconsiderable, that it 
may be suggested that they were not worth the while : but 
my whcAe concern in writing being to deliver the transac- 
tions at a former age £uthfully down to posterity, nothing 
could please me moire than to have every error I had fisllai 
into discovered ; and it was no small satisfaction to me, to 
find that a writer, who has been now above thirty years ez^ 
anuning all that passed in that age, and has made great dis- 
coveries of many secrets hitherto not known ; and who was 
so kind as to pass over nothing, how small and inconrider- 
able soever it may appear to be, that was liable to correction; 
yet did not touch upon any one thing that is of any moment 
in my whole work. This I look on as a very authentic con- 
firmation of it all, except in the places thus censured, by one 
who has searched into all the transactions of that time with 
80 much application and success. 

This work was composed above a year ago, and after it 
was read and corrected by some proper judges, it was put 
in the press, and was printed off* to the end of king Ed- 
ward'*s reign, before the first of August last : nor has any 
thing bieen added to it since that time, except some very few 
particulars in the last book relating to ScoUand. 

I cannot conclude this Preface, and so dismiss this work 
out of my hands, without some reflections on what has ap- 



peared among us of late, but too evidently, in a course of 
some years. Many who profess great zeal for the legal 
establishment, yet seem to be set on forming a new scheme 
both of religion and government ; and are taking the very 
same methods^ only a little diversified, that have been pur- 
sued in popery, to bring the world into a blind dependanoe 
upon the clergy, and to draw the wealth and strength of the 
nation into their hands. 

The opinion of the sacrament^s being an exjnatory sacri- 
fice, and of the necessity of secret confession and absolution, 
and of the church'^s authority acting in an independence' on 
the civil powers^ were the foundations of popery, and the 
seminal principles out of which that mass of corruptions was 
formed. They have no colour for them in the New Testap- 
ment, nor in tlie first ages of Christianity ; and are directly 
contrary to all the principles on which the reformation was 
carried on, and to every step that was made in the whole 
progress of that work : and yet these of late have been no- 
tions much favoured, and written for with much zeal, not 
to say indecency ; besides a vast number of little supersti- 
tious practices, that in some places have grown to a great 
height, so that we were insensibly going off from the refor- 
mation, and framing a new model of a church totally differ- 
ent from all our former principles, as well as from our pre- 
sent establishment : to all which they have added that sin- 
gular and extravagant conceit of the invalidity of baptism, 
unless ministered by one episcopally ordained ; though this 
not only cuts off all communion with the foreign protestant 
churches ; of which, perhaps, they make no great account ; 
but makes doublings to arise with relation to great num- 
bers, both among ourselves, and in the Roman commu- 

This I lament ; not that I think that there is such a 
sacredness in any human constitution, that it is never to be 
called in question, or altered : for if we had the same rea- 
sons to alter any thing established at the reformation, that 
our fathers had to alter the former establishment in the 
times of popery, I should acknowledge we had now as good 


grounds to change the present, as our ancestors had then to 
change the former constitution. The scriptures are the only 
sure foundation of our faith that is unalterable ; all other 
constitutions being always to be governed by that perfect 
declaration of God^s holy will with relation to mankind. 
But it ^ves a just indignation, to see the same men make 
wide steps to great alterations on the one hand, and yet 
make heavy complaints where there is no just occasion given, 
and that about points of mere speculation; whereas the 
other relate to matters of practice, which had been in for- 
mer ages so managed, that the whole complex of the Christ- 
ian religion was totally depraved by them. 

We have also rules and rubrics for worship that are our 
standards, fixed by law : and yet we see a humour of inno- 
vation making a great progress in these, without the least 
complaint, by the same persons who are apt to make tragi- 
cal outcries on the smallest transgressions on the other 

Both are very culpable: but of the two, we find the 
growth of superstition has been so spreading, as well as so 
specious, that the extremes of that hand may be justly 
reckoned the more dangerous; one of the worst effects of 
superstition being that with which our Saviour charged the 
pharisees of his time, that while they were exact in tithing 
mini, anise, and cummin, they omitted the weightier matters 
of the Lawjjtidgment, mercy, and faith: in opposition to 
which, he gives a standing rule, applicable to all such cases; 
These things ye ought to have done, and not to leave the 
other undone. This relates to practices of a lower order, 
but such as are commanded; whereas voluntary and as- 
sumed ones, like the washings among the Jews in our Sa- 
viour^s time, eat out the sense of the great duties of religion: 
instead of which, some trifling performances are set up and 
are highly magnified, while the others are spoken of more 
coldly. Nor does any thing feed a censorious and uncharit^ 
able temper more than these voluntary and distinguishing 
prsctices, which as they are the badges of difierent parties^ 
80 they are engines to keep up that wrath, emulation, and 


hatred, that has made such havock among us of the great 
and indispensable duties of peace^ brotherhf-kindnesSf and 

These have been but too visibly the arts of Satan to divide 
and distract us, and have oftener than once brought us near 
the brink of ruin. God has often rescued us, while the con- 
tinuance and progress of these evil dispontions have as often 
made us relapse into a broken and disjointed state. Oh that 
we may at last see the things that belong to owr peace^ and 
JbUow after those things thai make Jbr peace^ and the things 
tvherewUh we may edkfy one another. In this prayer I will 
continue as long as I live, and I hope to end my days with 
it. We must ask it of God, and of him only : it is in vain 
to ask it of some men, who, when we speak to them qfpeace^ 
make them ready to battle: we must look for it only to him 
who said, Peace I leave withyou^ my peace I give unto you; 
not as the world givethj give I unto you. The world will 
only give it to those of their own knot and party : but the 
ttnsdom that is from above is first pure^ then peaceable^ gen- 
iky and easy to be entreated ;JvU qfmjercy and good Jiruiis^ 
withotU partiality f and without hypocrisy: and thejruits 
of righteousness are sawn in peace of them thai makepeace* 



I COME, aftar a long interval of three and thirty yean, 
to ffwe all the finiwhing to the History of our Rxfoema* 
runs J that I have been aUe to collect, dther from new dit- 
to f ei i ea that have come in my own way, or the kind ad- 
vatisementa of friends, and the severe animadversaons of 
critiea; of which I have endeavoured to make the best use 
ttat I €ou]d. It has been objected to me, that I wrote ill 
haste, and did not reflect enough on the matters I wrote 
dxNit. That may be very true; and I will give an aCi. 
count how it happened to be so. When Sanders^s History 
waa published in France, it had so ill an effieot there, that 
•oDne of our best divines were often called on to hasten such 
sn answer to it, as might stop the course of so virulent a 
book. Those to whom these advices were sent thought me 
a proper person to be engaged in it. 

The ancient, the learned, and the pious bishop of Wor- 
cester is the only person now alive that was concerned in 
the choice : and he having read all the printed books that 
be could hear of relating to those times, had taken the dates 
of every remarkable thing that passed out of them ; which 
be caused to be copied out for me : they are about eight 
sbeets of paper. Upon this stock I set out, and searched 
all the public offices about the town with a labour and dili- 
gence, that was then looked on as no contemptible perform- 
ance. I marked every thing as exactly as I could. I might 
ID such a variety make some mistakes, for which men of 
candour will make just allowances. But when I had gone 
throu^ all that lay thus open to me, I knew what treasures 
were still in the Cotton library. 

VOL. III. b 



The present bishop of Worcester carried me to air John 
Cotton, to ask admittance : but a great prelate had been be- 
forehand with us, and had possessed him with such preju- 
dices against me, as bdng no friend to the prerogative of 
the crown, nor to the constitution of our church, that he said, 
(as he was prepared,) that unless the archbishop of Can- 
terbury and a secretary of state would recommend me, as a 
person fit to have access to his library, he desired to be ex- 
cused : and though that worthy prelate said, he would be 
answerable for the use that I should make of it, yet h^ 
could not^be prevailed on to depart from the answer that 
he had made us. Nor could that reverend person prevail 
with archbishop Bancroft to interpose. And though I 
offered to deliver up aU the collections I had made to any 
parson that would undertake the work, yet no r^ard was 
had to that : so I saw it was resolved on, either not to let 
that work go on ; or, at least, that I should not have the 
honour to be employed in it 

With this we were at a full stop, when, accidentally meetp 
ing with sir John Marsham the younger, I told him how I 
was denied access to the Cotton library : but he told me 
he was by marriage a nephew to the family, and that for, 
many years he had free access to it, and he might cany 
with him whom he pleased. So I, with a copier, went thi- 
ther under his protection ; and we were hard at work from 
morning to night for ten days : but then the owner, with 
his family, coming to town, I could go no further. In that 
time, and in the haste we were in, I did make such a pro- 
gress, that the good bishop, together with the late archbi- 
shop of Canterbury, Tillotson, and the late bishop of Wor* 
cester, Stillingfleet, thought I was sufficiently furnished 
with materials fur composing the first volume. Every part 
of it, as I wrote it, passed through their hands, and under 
their censure ; and I subnfitted to their judgment in every 

I have been told, one that was much practised in that li- 
bmry, who is now dead, has censured me for not comparing 
what my copier wrote carefully with the originals. To this 


ail I can say is, that^ as my copier by much practice was 
become pretty exact, so I made him read all over to me^ 
having the originals in my hands. I camiot say, in such 
dully though necessary work as the collating those things, I 
carried along with me all the attention that was requisite; 
but I did it as well as I could : and when I was lately in 
the Cotton library, I read over several of the ori^nals,. but 
found no material differences from the copies I had printed. 
One indeed runs through aU those in the English language, 
which might perhaps offend a severe critic, that the old 
spelling is not every where exactly copied. I did recom- 
mend it to my copier, and he observed it often ; but he 
said, when he wrote quick, it was impossible for him to 
carry an antiquated speUing along with his pen. 

The first volume lay a year after I wrote it before it was 
put in the press, and was offered to be read and corrected 
by all who were willing to give themselves that trouble. 
When i^Vas brought to secretary Coventry for his license, 
he was pleased to say, that he dipped into it out of curiosity; 
but added, that he found such an entertainment in it, that 
he could not part with it till he had read it quite through. 
The earl of Nottingham, lord chancellor, took time to read 
and examine it, and to add many refnarks in several parts 
of it; in all which I submitted to his censure: and some 
smaller matters coming in my way, they were added. So 
when those, under whose direction I made every step in it,, 
advised me to put it in the press, I went on with it. 

It happened to come out a few months after the discovery 
of the popsh plot ; and the ferment of that working power- 
fully over all the nation, the work was favourably received : 
and as I had the thanks of both houses of parliament for it, 
with a de«re to finish what I had begun; so those who 
were the most zealous against popery pressed me to make 
all possible haste with the second volume, when they under- 
stood that I had made considerable discoveries with relation 
to queen Mary^s reign. By that time sir John Cotton, seeing 
the good use I had made of his library, was pleased to ac- 
knowledge the injustice of the suggestions that had been 



made to my prgudice, and allowed me free liberty to ex^ 
amine everything in it: in which I ought to have been 
more exact than I was, in searching into the matters s^ 
forth in my first volume ; but the repeated importunities foi 
my fitiands for my publishing the second volume so tar pv&> 
vailed, that I only examined what belonged to that period* 
I took indeed some papers relating to the fanner reign, thai 
accidentally fell in my way, and inserted them. I had also 
other materials brought me from several hands, upon the 
public notice that I gave of my design in the first volume. 

That primitive bishc^. Fell, ci Oxford, engaged an ac- 
quaintance of his, Mr. Fullman, to make remarks on it; 
which he did with a particular acrimony of style : for which 
the bishop had prepared me. I bore it, and drew out of it 
all that was matarial ; and sent it to him, to see if he did 
not find in it the substance of all his remarks on the first ol 
the end of the second vdume. It has been published over 
and over again, that he complained that I d^d not jNint a 
full account of his censure. The fact was thus : I sent it 
to hipi by the carrier, and begged of him, that, if he had 
any etception to the abstract I had made of his remarks, he ' 
would return it back to me as aoon as was possible ; for the ^ 
press was to be stopped till it came* I stayed for it till the ' 
second return of the carrier ; and when no answer came, I ^ 
reckoned he acquiesced in my abstract: so I put it in the ^ 
press. But brfore it was printed ofi^, his answer came ^ 
by the third return of the carrier; and I, finding that he ^ 
excepted to some few parts of my paper, was at the charge ^ 
of refHinting it exactly to his mind : and he afterwards re* '''> 
eeived the present that I made him, without any inanua* '^ 
tion of any complaint. ^^, 

Thus this work was sent abroad into the world: nor do ^ 
I yet see, what more I could have done to procure me be^> ^ 
ter information, nor what other steps I could have made^ ^ 
It took quiet possession of the belief of the nation at home^ ^ 
and of a great part of Europe abroad, being translated i&to ^ 
four languages : and for some years I heard of neither cen* ^ 
«ure nor answer. fi 


When I went to Paris in the year 1685, 1 found there 
waa a censure going about, written, but not printed. It 
came into my hands, and I presently wrote an answer to it, 
which I got to be put into Fraach ; and aU who read both 
papers seemed fully satisfied with my answer : which will 
be found at the end of this volume. I was told, that it was 
writ by Mr. Le Grand; who Had given out in many com* 
panies, that he had great objecticHis ready to be made to my 
History. Upon that^ two learned and watthj men, Mr* 
Auzont and Mr. Thevenot, designed to bring us togetherj 
and to hear what Mr. Le Grand had to object We dined 
at Mr. Thevenof s ; and after dinner, for the space of three 
hours, Mr. Le Grand pnqposed his objections, and I an^ 
twered them on the sudden, far from charming them with 
my eloquence ; which Mr. Le Grand must certainly mean 
as a jest, for I pretend to no xoore French, than to be un- 
derstood when I speak it. What he said was mean and 
trifling; and yet it was so fully answered by me, that we 
parted civilly, and (as I thought) good friends : and when 
be was gone, both Thevenot and Auzont said, they were 
ashamed to hear such poor things objected, (pauvreiis was 
their word,) after the noise that Mr. Le Grand had made. 
But two days after, Mr. Auzont came to me, both in his 
own name and in Mr. Thevenot^s, and desired me not to 
9peak of that matter to any person. The court was then 
so set on extirpating heresy, that they apprehended any thing 
said by me might bring me into trouble : they would do me 
justice, so I needed not be concerned to do it to myself. 

I must also add, that Mr. Le Grand said, after he had 
offered his objections, that, as to the main of my History, 
be could furnish me with many materials to support it : and 
be made me a present of a very valuable book, published 
by Camusat at Troyes, 1618, with the title of MOanges 
Hisioriques; of which I have made good use in the follow, 
ing work. The matter rested thus till the year 1688, that 
Mr. Le Grand published the History of King Henry the 
Eighth^sIXvorce: and soon after that, two other volumes of 
bis appeared : one was a severe invective against me and my 




History ; the other was a oollectioii of letters, by whidi his 
History was justified. In this last there are some very va^ 
luable ones, to which I have had occaaon oftener than onoe 
to refer my reader. In the two first ci these tomes, Mr. Le 
Grand thought fit to lay aside all sort of good manners, and 
to treat me more in the style of an angry monk, than of one 
that had lived long in the company of well-bred men. I 
imputed this to a management he was under by some of the 
court of that unfortunate prince, who soon after fdt the 
tragical efiects of such unhappy counsellors as had thai the 
ascendant. To these I did believe Mr. Le Grand had de- 
dicated his pen : and that drew from me a severe postscript 
to a censure that I published upon the Inshcqp of Meaux'^s 
Book of Variations; for which I am heartily sorry, and 
ask his pardon. 

The truth is, the first paper in his third tome seemed to 
justify any thing that could have been said, to expose a man 
that could ofier such an abstract as he gave of it in his ICs- 
tory, and them that judged so ill as to think fit to print that 
letter, that does plainly contradict the sense he gave of it. 
The letter is writ by Pace, dean of St. PauPs, to king Henry, 
(said by him to be written in the year 1626 ; but in that he 
is mistaken, as will appear afterwards,) on the subject of the 
divorce. He owns diat he writ the book, which had been 
brought to the king the day before, by the advice and as- 
sistance of Dr. Wakefield ; who was ready to defend it all^ 
either in writing, or in a public disputation. <^ ^ And since 

• £t quoDiam majestM tot mihi sig- 
nificavit, nescio qoos e suis literatis 
coiuuliariis BcripsisBeDenteroiioiniiiiii 
abrogare Leviticam, diligenter per- 
qnisi?i quid id ribi vdlet ; et tandem 
inveni id indabitato Ulsam esse : est 
compeodimn, ac repetition aea, at ita 
dicam, recapitulatio Legia Mosaicae. 
Et illad Gnecnm Domen Deuierotuh' 
mmm, quantum ad aenaom rei at- 
tinet illody idem aignificat quod ha- 
betar in Hebneo ; id est, liber, in 
quo oontinetur secanda Lex, Tel re- 

petitio prime Legis. Poat meum a 
majestate tua disoesaum, D. R. Walce- 
fddus unioe me rogayit, nt dbi sig« 
nificarem, an pUoeret tiM reritatem 
hac in re intelligere, utrum ataret a 
te an contra te? Ei ita respondi, Te 
nihil Telle quod esset alienum a no- 
bili principe, et singularibus Tirtnti- 
boa prsdito; ilium mijcatati tnm 
rem gratisaimam factumm at laboln* 
ret ut puram Teritatem tibi dedaret. 
Tum ille neacio quo ductus timora 
negaTit se hoc posse facisrey nisi 


^ he heard from the king, that aome of hia learned ooun-' 
'^ sellors wrote, that Deuteronomy abrogated Leyiticus, he 
^ shows him how false that was. It was only a recapitula- 
^ tion of the Mosaic Law. It seemtf they thought this was 
^ the importance of the Greek word Deuteronomy^ (or A 
** second Law ;) but he shows, that it imported only a re- 
'^ petition of the finrmer Law, and the book had another 
^< title in the Hebrew. Then he says, that Wakefidd de- 
^ ared him to let him know, whether the king had a mind 
^ to know the truth in that matter, whether it stood for him, 
^ Oft agttmst him. To this Pace answered, that the king 
<^ deared nothing but what became a noble and a virtuous 
*< prince} and that he would do a most acceptable thing to 
^ him, if he would take pains to let him know what was the 
<< pure Terity. Thai he, being under some fear, said he 
^ could not set about it, unless his majesty would enjoin 
« and command it ; but when he received his commands, he 
^ would set forth such things both against him, and for him, 
« as no other person within his kingdom could do.^ There 
is nothing here but what is honourable both for the king, 
for Pace, and for Wakefield. 

Mr. Le Ghrand has made a very particular abstract of this. 
He says : ^' ^ Pace, designing to flatter his princess passion, 
^ thought they should not stand either on the Vulgar, or 

najettu tos id sibi iojoogeret et 
mancUret; et si mandaret se pro- 
dactonim in medium tarn contra te 
qnam pro te ilia qns nemo aUns In 
hoe too regno prodocere posset. 

^ Nous afons la lettre de ce der* 
nier, (Pace^) qui cbercbant \ flatter 
la passion de son prince, vouloit qoe 
sans s'arreter ni 2k la Vulgate ni 1^ la 
Traduction des Septante> on eiit re- 
conn an teste Hebreo ; qu'il soute- 
noit hij estre plus favorable. II en 
ecriTit I, Robert Wakcfie]d> et loj 
deoourrit Tembarras ob le roy se 
troQToit, le priant de \uy rouldr 
edaircir cette matiere. Wakefield^ 
Tvrj de trandller poor le roy, repon- 

dit d'tixirdy qn'il appnieroit oe qo^ 
Pace avoit dit ^ Henry. Puis faisant 
reflexion que Pace pouToit le trom- 
per ou se tromper Iny meme, on qoe 
le roy changeroit pent estre, U alls 
trouTer Pace, et luy temoignoit, qn'il 
soohaitroit que sa majesty luy ecriylt 
elle meme, ce qn*eUe Fonloit qu*il 
flt^etsi il devoit defendre le pour 
on le contre, et qu'alors selon les or- 
dres qu*il receyroit, il donneroit des 
eclaircissemens on ponr on contre, 
qui passeroient la capacite de tons 
les Anglois. C'est ainsi que Wake* 
field, qui aToit pins de vanity que de 
religion, trafiquoit de sea senti* 



^^ the XjXX. tKimUt9r% but have reooune only to ibe 
<< HebreWf if hkh be mainUttPed was more fiivoiurable to tbe 
<< king. He bad written to Wake6ddy and showed him tbe 
<^ trouble the king was in^ and desired be would dear up 
<^ the matter. Wakefield, ravished to be thus employed, 
<< said he would justify all that Pace had said to the king? 
<' but tb^n, apprehending that Face might decrive him, or 
f< be deceived himsell^ or perhaps that the king might change 
<< his mind, he dewed that tbe kii^ himself would let him 
<^ know what he would have him to do ; whether be should 
^< defend the one side or the other : and he would do ac- 
^< cording to the orders he should reodiv^ and make sudi 
« discoveries for or against it as sbould.pess the ciqiacity of 
<^ all Englishmen. Thus (ends he) Wak^ld, who bad 
^< more vanity than religion, was driving a traffick with bis 
<( sentiments.^ 

I have put in the margin the liatin of Faoe^s lett^nrs, and 
the account that Mr. Le Grand gives of it in Frc^v^, that 
the reader may judge what can be thou^t of a man that 
represents things so Mnfairly, and mak^ suck infiH^encea 
from them. I confess this raised in me top much indign»> 
tion to be governed as it ought to,have been:. I thesrefbre 
thought such a writer deserved not tp be ft^owed. in ev^!;y 
step. I likewise ei^ployed a4 several times some who w^il 
to Paris, to try in what esteem that performance was ; and 
if I was not much deceived in the accounts sent me from 
thence, the book had lost the esteem of all persons there, so 
that it was no more talked of, nor read. I cannot therefore 
bring myself to examine it minutely ; yet where any matter 
of weight requires it, I shall either justify or retract what I 
had delivered in my History. I shall say no more of that 
work in this place, save only that the original judgment of 
tbe Sorbonne, about which Mr. Le Grand seemed to be 
chiefly concerned, both in the conference I had with him» 
and in his book, is now found by Mr. Rymer, among the. 
other judgments of the universities, in the secret treasury, 
out of which that laborious searcher into our original treaties 
has already published fifteen great volumes in folio. Of 


this I AaH ^ve a more particidar aoooimt in its prqper 

The next attack that was made aa my work was in the 
year 1603» under the title of, A Specimen qfeome Errors 
^Emgkmd; bjf Anihot^ Harmer. It is well known that 
was a disgiused name, and that the author was Mr. Henry 
Wharton, who had published two volumes with the title ii 
Anglia Sacra. He had examined the dark ages before the 
reformation with much diligence, and so knew many things 
rdating to those times beyond any man of the age. He 
pretended that he had many more errcnrs in reserve, and 
that this specimen was only a hasty collection of a few oul 
of many other discoveries he could make. This consisted 
of some trifling and minute differences in some dates of 
transactions of no importance, upon which nothing depend- 
ed : so I cannot tell whether I took these too ea^y fixun 
printed books, or if I committed any errors in my notes 
taken in the several offices. He likewise follows me through 
the several recapitulations I had made of the state of things 
before the reformation, and finds errors and omissions in 
most of these : he adds some things out of papers I had 
never seen. The whole was writ with so much malice and 
such contempt, that I must give some account of the man, 
and of his motives. He had expressed great zeal against 
^ofery in the end of king Jameses reign, being then chaplain 
to archbishop Sancroft, who, as he said, had promised him 
the first of those prebends of Canterbury that diould fall in 
bis gift. So when he saw that the archbishop was resolved 
not to take the oaths, but to forsake his post, he made an 
earnest application to me, to secure that for him at archbi- 
ship Tillotson^s hands. I pressed him in it as much as was 
decent for me to do ; but he said he would not encourage 
these aspiring men, by promimng any thing before it should 
fidl; as indeed none of them fell during his time. Wharton 
upon this answer thought I had neglected him, looking on 
it as a civil denial, and said he would be revenged ; and so 
he published that specimen. Upon which I, in a letter 


that I printed, addressed to the present bishop of Woiees* 
ter, charged him again and again to bring forth all that he 
pretended to have reserved at that time ; for, till that was 
done, I would not enter upon the examination of that spe* 
cimen. It was received with contempt ; and Tillotson jus> 
Ufied my pressing him to take Wharton under his particular 
protection so fiilly, that he sent and asked me pardon : he 
said he was set on to it, and that, if I would procure any 
thing for him, he would discover every thing to me* I 
despised that offer ; but said, that I woidd at any price buy 
of him those discoveries that he pretended to have in re- 
serve : but Mr. Chiswel (at whose house he then lay, being 
Nck) said, he could draw nothing of that from him^ and he 
believed he had nothing. He died about a year after: so 
I will say no more of him, only this, that where I see a 
voucher for any thing that he objects, I will submit and 
own my error ; but I have no reason to take any thing on 
his word. I have a work lying on my table, which shows 
bow litde regard b due to his collections. It was sent me 
by a worthy person in one of the universities, and is a ooU 
lating of ten pages of his Anglia Sacra with the manuscript 
that he vouches: it swells indeed to a book. Wfaarton 
omits the most material passage of an instrument that ble* 
mished one of his heroes. In some places there are errcMrs 
in every line ; and there are three aqpital errors in one line, 
and about fifty in that small compass. I have showed the 
book to a great many persons, and will show it to any who 
desire to see it ; but do not descend here to further partU 
culars, for that perhaps might discover the author, and ex* 
pose him to the malice of an ill-natured cabal. Since that 
time, a writer of a greater name has with abundance of ilk 
natured scorn pretended to undervalue my work. I name 
him not, for I love not to transmit the remembrance of sudi 
things to posterity. Where he gives such vouchers as can 
be come at, I will be ready to retract ; but when he appeals * 
to some nameless manuscript in his own possession, I will ' 
have no regard to this : for a writer that has been found toQ *^ 
&ulty in dting such vouchers as can be examined, ought ^ 



nol to expect belief when he has recourse to such as are 
kept by him as secrets, not to be communicated but to a 
few confidants ; nor entirely to these, as I have been in- 
fanned. All that has been hitherto objected to me, though 
with airs ct great assurance and scorn, has been so trifling, 
that some good judges have thought I showed them too 
much respect to take any notice of them : they thought it 
was enough to mark down such small mistakes as I saw had 
been made by me, without so much as mendoning those who 
made such reflections. I would have complied with their 
advice, if I had not a just zeal to maintain the credit of 
that work : which I cannot do better than by acknowledg- 
ing the discoveries that had been made, even in the mi- 
nutest matters, though with all the indeoeny and contempt 

A very worthy person in one of the universities has sent 
me a copious collection of remarks on both my former 
volumes, but upon condition not to nsuhe him ; which I 
will observe religiously, because I promised it, though it is 
Dot easy to myself, since I may not own to whom I owe so 
great an obligation : but I suppress none of them, and give 
them entirely as he ofiered them to me. I have had ascdst- 
ance Arom some other hands, which I will gratefully own as 
I come to mention them in their proper places. 

I have chosen rather to publish all that is of new offered 
to me in a volume apart, than to reprint my former volumes 
with these corrections, as some have advised me to do. There 
are some thousands of the former impressions abroad in the 
nation, that would be of little value, if any such new edi- 
tion should appear. I have ever looked on such new en- 
larged editions as little less than a robbing the public : be- 
ndes that in so doing I should only drop those errors of my 
former work, without that formal disowning and retracting 
of them, which I think I owe the public. I have ever 
looked on falsehoods in history, when fallen into delibe* 
rately, as the worst sort of lying ; both the most public, and 
the most lasting. But if they are more innocently com- 
mitted, and are yet pernsted in after a discovery, they are 


as bad ad when done on design. I writ before aa well and 
m carrfuUy as I could : and if , in so great a variety of ma* 
terials, some are spurious, and others appear doubtful; and 
if, in the haste in which the circumstances of that time 
ahnost forced me to publish that work, without looking out 
for moce aid, and without waiting for further discoveries, 
there are some inconsiderable errors and defects in the less 
important parts of my work, that rdate not to the main of 
tlungs ; I hope the w(»rld will be so just and so favouraUe^ 
as to make £Eur allowances for them, and to accept all the 
reparation I can make for past errors, when I own my fail* 
ing, and set my readers right. 

I come next to give an account of the reasons that moved 
me to set about this work at this time. The reasons o£ my 
engaging in it at first seemed now to return upon me, and 
have determined me to delay the doing <tf it no longer. The 
danger ci a popish successor then in view, and the dreadful 
apprehensions we had of the power of France, and of the 
seal with which the extirpating that which some called the 
pestikni heresy y thai had so long infested those northern 
kingdoms, was then driven on, made it seem a prop^ timei 
to awaken the nation, by showing both what popery, and 
what the reformation was; by showing the cruelty mmI 
falsehood of the former, and what the patience and courage 
of our reformers was : and the work had generally so good 
an effect then, that, if the like dangers seem to revert, it may 
not be an improper attempt to try once more to awaken a 
nation that has perhaps forgot past dangers, and yet may be 
nearer them than ever. 

If there is any difierence between the present state of 
things, and that we were in above thirty years ago, it is, 
that we are now more naked and defenceless, more insensiUe 
and stupid, and much more depraved in all respects than 
we were then. . We are sunk in our learning, vitiated in 
principle; tainted, some with atheism, others with super* 
stition ; both which, though by different ways, prepare us 
foe popery. Our old breadhes are not healed; and new 
ones^ not known in former times,. are raised and fomented 

THE introduction: txiiL 

irith much industry and great art, as well as much heat : 
many are barefacedly going back to that misery, £rom which 
God with such a mighty hand rescued us, and has hitherto 
preserved us ¥rith an amazing chun of happy providences ; 
but the deaf adder stops her eoTy let the charmer charm 
never so teisdy. 

All books relating to those controversies lie dead in shc^is^ 
few calling for them ; many of them (as men of the trade 
have t(dd me) being looked on as waste paper, and turned 
to pasteboard. There are, after all, some real and sensible 
ailments, that may perhaps have some effect on those, who 
let not themselves be moved with matters of diy specula* 
tioD, . or with cold reasoning. I have made many dis- 
coveries, that may awaken some, on whom the clearest de^ 
monstration^ will perhaps make no impression. 

In queen Mary^s time, beade all that scene which I had 
formerly opened, of a perfidious breach of solemn promises, 
of the corrupting and packing of parliaments, and of that 
unrelenting cruelty, which was pursued to the end of that 
r«gn without intermission; I have had occasion to see much 
further into the spirit which then prevailed. I have had 
the perusal of the original Council-Book, that went from the 
banning of her reign to the last day of the year 1557 ; in 
which such a spirit of cruelty and bigotry appears through 
the whole course of that reign, that I was indeed amazed to 
find a poor harmless woman, weak though learned, guilty of 
nothing but what her religion infused in her, so carried to. 
an indecence of barbarity, that it appears that Bonner him- 
self was not cruel enough for her, or at least for her con- 
fessor. She believed herself with child, and when the time 
came in which she expected to be delivered, she continued 
looking for it every day above a month : then a conceit was 
put in her head, that she could not bear her child as long 
as there was a heretic left in the kingdom. 

It was a great part of the business of the council, to quick- 
en the persecution every where. Letters were writ to the 
men of quality in the several counties, to asnst at the execu- 
tion of those who suflered for heresy, and to call on all their 


friends to attend on than. Letters of thanks were writ to 
such officious persons as expressed their zeal, ordering them 
to commit all to prison who came not to the service, and to 
keep them in prison till the comfort of th^r amendment ap- 
peared. Directions were g^ven to put such as would not 
discover others to the torture. Thanks were in a particular 
style sent to some gentlemen, who (as it is expressed) came 
so honestl^j and qfthemselveSf to assist the sheriffs at those 
exectUions. Pretences of conspirades were every where 
under examination: many were committed, and tried for 
words. Letters were writ to oorporadons, about the elec- 
tions of mayors; and the lords had many letters, to look 
casrefully to the elections of parliament-men, and to engage 
the electors to reserve their voices for such as they should 
name. Sheriffs began to grow backward, and to delay ex- 
ecutions, in hopes of reclaiming persons so condemned : but 
they were ordered to do so no more. 

Letters were on one day wrote to the sheriffs of Kent, 
Essex, Suffolk, and Staffordshire, and to several mayors, to 
signify what had moved them to stay the executions of such 
pers(ms as had been delivered to them by the ordinaries, 
being condemned for heresy. One letter, of a more singular 
strain, was wrote to the lord maycnr and the sheriffs of Lon- 
don, to give substantial orders, (I give the words in the 
Council-Book,) *^ that when any obstinate man, condemned 

< by order of the law, shall be delivered to be punished for 

< hecesy, there be a good niunber of officers and other men 
^ appointed to be at the execution ; who may be charged 
^ to see such as shall misuse themselves, either by comfort- 
^ ing, aiding, or praising the offenders, or otherwise use 
^ themselves to the ill example of others, to be apprehended 
^ and committed to ward : and, besides, to g^ve command- 
* ment that no householder suffer any of his apprentices or 
^ other servants to be abroad, other than sudi as their mas- 
^ ters will answer for : and that this order be always ob- 
' served in like cases hereafter.^ Such pains were taken to 

extinguish ail the impressions of humanity, or at least to 
punish every expresaon of it And this was so constantly 


punued, that three men and two women were bmmt at 
Canterbury on the tenth of NovCTuber^ a week before her 
death; for she died on the 17th. 

Nor were they satisfied with all these arts of cruelty in cox's His- 
England ; but hearing that there were some of that sort in ^^^ 
Irdand, one Cole was sent over with a commisaon to set a 
persecution on foot there. When he was at Chester, the 
corporation waited on him, in respect to his being sent by 
the queen : he showed them his powers and letters to the 
gOFemment of Ireland ; but leaving his papers on the table, 
when he went, in respect to this body, to conduct them 
down stairs, the mistress of the houses being secretly a zeal- 
ous woman, did with a particular address make up a packet 
like his, in which she put a pack of cards, the knaye of clubs 
being turned uppermost : and so she took away his papers, 
putdng this instead of them. He suqpecting nothing, nor 
looking into them, wait over to Dublin, and delivered his 
message and packet to the council there; which was cer- 
tainly reodved with scorn and indignation* He came back 
to London, and got new powers, a few days before the 
queen^'s death ; for the news of it overtook him before he 
had his passage. The levity of this story made me at first 
suspect it, till I found it in several books, in which it is said 
that the woman had for this service a pension from queen 

I have in my former History showed what steps were 
made in that reign towards the setting up an inquisition in 
England; which was very probably suggested by king 
Philip and some of his Spaniards as the only sure method 
to extirpate heresy : but I have since seen some further 
steps made towards it. Ratcliffe, earl of Sussex, was in - 
high favour ; and he, who saw what was the method to se- 
cure and advance it, moved, that, instead of the dilatory 
proceedings in the ordinary courts, such offenders should be 
proceeded against by martial law. To this the council 
wrote answer; They commended his zeal, and acknowledged 
that such persons deserved to be so used : yet it was not 
thought the best way ; but they were to be punished as the 


lawB did order. But wheo they had had their puiiiBhiiieiity be 
was ordered to keep them in prison and m irons, till they 
came to know themselves and their' duty. I have aho 
found what he did towards the setting up an inquisition. I 
did fbrmeiiy print the instructions that were sent to the 
HUt.of the county of Norfidk : of these the sixth did run thus ; ^< They 
^^ 5^ ** shall procure to have in every parish, or part of the 

part ii. u ^ j^^^g^ ^g qqhj ^e, scxne one or more honest men, secretly 
Collect '^ instructed to give informaticm of the inhaUtants amongst 
Numb. 19. M Qf about them.^ I find in a register of the earl of Sussex, 
that to the sixth article it is agreed, '^ That the justices of 
<* the peace, in every of their limits, shall call secretly be- 
^ fore them one or two honest and secret persons, or more, 
*^ by their discretions, and such as they shall think good ; 
^ and command them by oath, or otherways, as the same 
^< justices shall think good, that they shall secretly learn 
^^ and search out such person or persons, as shall evil behave 
^ themselves idly at church ; or despise openly by w<»xis 
^* the king and queen's proceedings; or go about to make 
** or move any stir, commotion, or unlawful gathering to* 
** gether of the people; or that shall tell any seditious or 
^^ lewd tales, rumours, or news, to move or stir any person 
*^ or persons to rise, stir, or make any commotion or insur- 
rection, or to consent to any such intent or purpose. And 
also, that the same persons, so to be appointed, shall de> 
« clare to the same justices of the peace, the ill behaviour 
^< of lewd, disordered persons, whether it shall be for using 
^* unlawful games, idleness, and such other light behaviour 
** of such suspected persons, as shall be within the same 
^< town, or near thereabouts. And that the same informa- 
^< tion shall be given secretly to the justices: and the same 
^^ justices shall call such accused persons before them, and 
^^ examine them, without declaring by whom they be ac-> 
<< cused. And that the same justices shall upon their ex- 
aminations punish the oflPenders, according as th^ oflPences 
shall appear to them upon the aocusement and examina- 
tion, by their discretion, either by open punishment, or 
^ good aberring.^ Here are sworn spies appointed, like the 


familiars of the inquisition : secret depositions not to be dis- 
coTered; and upon these further proceedings are ordered. 
If this had been well settled, what remained to complete a 
court of inquisition would have been more easily carried. 

Here is that, which those who look towards a popish suc- 
cessor must look for, when that evil day comes. All this 
will make little impression on those, who have no fixed 
belief of any thing in religion themselves, and so may 
reckon it a small matter to be of any religion that comes to 
have die law and the government on its side ; and resolve 
to change with every wind and tide, rather than put any 
thing to hazard by struggling against it. Yet some com- 
passion to those who have a more firm belief of those great 
truths might be expected from men of the same country, 
kindred, and who have hitherto professed to be of the same 
religion. The reviving the fires in Smithfield, and from 
thence over the whole nation, has no amiable view, to make 
any haste to it ; and least of all to those, who, if they have 
any principles at all, must look for nothing less than the 
being turned out of their livings, or forced to abandon their 
families, and upon every surmise or suspicion to be hunted 
from place to place, glad if they can get out of the paw of 
the lion into parts beyond the seas : and then they may ex- 
pect to meet with some of that haughty contempt, with 
which too many have treated foreigners who took sanctuary 
among us. 

But when this fatal revolution comes upon us, if God for 
our sons abandons us into the hands of treacherous and 
bloody men, whither can we hope to fly ? For, with us, the 
whole reformation must fall under such an universal ruin, 
that, humanly speaking, there is no view left beyond that. 

Yet siiioe that set of men is so impiously corrupted in the 
point of religion, that no scene of cruelty can fright them 
from leaping into it, and perhaps from acting such a part in 
it, as may be assigned them ; there are other considerations 
of another sort, arising from some papers, (put in my hands 
since I wrote the History,) that may perhaps affect them 
deeper, because they touch in a more sensible part. 

VOL. in. c 


It is well known, how great and how valuable a part of 
the whde soil of England the abbey-lands, the estates of the 
bishops, of the cathedrals, and the tithes are. I will not 
enter into any strict computation of what the whole may 
amount to. The resumption of these would be no easy 
matter to many families: and yet all these must be thrown 
up ; for sacrilege in the church of Rome is a mortal m* 
And therefore cardinal Pole, even in that pretended oon* 
firmation of the grants that were then made, laid a heavy 
charge on those who had the goods of the church ia their 
hands, to remember the judgments of God that fell on BeU 
shazzar for profaning the holy vessels, though they had not 
been taken by himself, but by his £&ther. It is true, this 
may be supposed to relate only to church-plate; though 
there is no reason to restrain such a solemn charge to so in- 
considanble a part of what had been taken from the church : 
no doubt, he had the whole in his view. And this showed, 
that, though he seemed to secure them from any claim that 
the church might have, or any suit or proceeding upon that 
account, yet he left the weight of the sin on their ooa« 
sciences ; which a dexterous confessor might manage so aa 
to make the possessors yield up their rights, espectally 
when they themselves could hold them no longer : the thing 
was still a an, and the possession was unjust. And to 
make it easy to restore in the last minutes, the statute of 
Mortmain was repealed for twenty years; in which tiinc^ 
no doubt, they reckoned they would recover the best part 
of what they had lost Besides that, the engaging the dergj 
to renew no leases was a thing entirely in their pwn power; 
and that in forty years time would raise their revenues to 
be about ten times their present value. 

But setting all thb aside, it has appeared evid^tly to me, 
from some papers sent me some years after I wrote my His- 
tory, that ail that transaction was fraudulent, and had so 
many nullities in it, that it may be broke through, when^ 
soever there is a power strong enough to set about it. In 
the first powers that are in that odleetion, all the grace and: 
favour that the pope intended to the possessors of those 


kndb was, to iBdenmify them far the mean profits they had 

fmred, and for the goods that had been consuiDed : TiUy 

ndorinffjlrst (^thoi skaU s^m expedient) ike lands ^lem- 

Mbsf Aai are unjmsthf detained hy them. This was only 

the forgivuig what was past; but the right of the churdi 

was uuisted on for the restitution of those lands. The re- 

SOTatkm in these words, ijf Aai shaB seem expedient to 

jfouj) can be understood in no other sense, but that it was 

referred to bis diseretion, whether he should insist to have 

die lestitntion first made before he granted the indemnity 

lor die mean profits, or not. 

It is true, the council in England, who were in that sup- 
ported by the emperer, thought these powers were too nar- 
row, and insisted to have them enlarged. That was done; 
but in so artifidal a manner, that the whole settlement made 
by Pole signified nothing, but to lay the naUon once asleep, 
onder a fidse apprehension eft their being secured in those 
posse MJons, when no such thing was intended ; nor was it 
at all granted, even by the latest powers that Fere sent to 
cardinal F6le. For in these, after the pope had re f erre d 
die eettHng that matter to him, that he might transact it 
with such possessors for whom the queen should intercede, 
and dispense with their enjo}ring them for the future with-' 
out any scruple, a salvo is added, by which the whole matter 
is still reserved to the pope for his final confirmation, in 
these words ; Salvo iamen in his quilnis propter rerum mag* 
nU^idmem et gravitatem fuec sancta sedes merito tibi vide* 
retur constUenda, nostro et prctfatce sedis beneplacito et con* 
firmaiiane : ♦* Saving always in such things, in which for 
** their greatness and importance it shall appear to you that 
'* this holy see ought in reason to be consulted, our and the 
*^ said see^s good pleasure and confirmation.^ By these 
words it is very plain, that as in the powers granted they 
seemed to be limited to a few, to such for whom the Quben 
should intercede, «nce it is not expressed that the pope 
thought that she should intercede for all that possessed 
them ; so they were only provisional : and therefore, since 
no bull ot confirmation was ever obtained^ all these provi- 




sional powers were null and void when the confirmation was 
asked and denied ; as all the historians of that time agree it 
was : and this was so suitable to pope Paul the Fourth^s 
temper and principles, that no doubt is to be made ot his 
persisting steadfastly in that resolution. 

I know there was a mercenary writer found in king 
Jameses reign, who studied to lay all people asleep, in a se- 
<;ure persuasion of their titles to those lands. He pretends 
there was a confirmation of all that Pole did send over to 
England. He brings indeed some proof that it was given 
out and believed ; which might be a part of the fraud to be 
used in that matter: but as no such thing appears in the 
BuUary, so he does not tell us who saw it, or where it was 
laid up. He indeed supports this by an argument that 
destroys it quite : for he tells us, that two years after this, 
secretary Petre had a particular bull, confirming him in his 
possession of some church-lands. This shows, that either 
that person, who was secretary of state, knew that no con* 
firmation was sent over, so that it was necessary for him to 
procure a particular bull for securing his own estate ; or, 
whatever might be in Pole^s powers, he might think such a 
general transaction, which the necessity of that time made 
reasonable, would be no longer stood to, than while that 
necessity continued. 

Greneral treaties and transactions have had such a fate, 
that few will trust to them : the spirit of the churchy as well 
as the spirit of a treaty, will be preferred to the words of all 
transactions. Have not we seen, in our own days, an edict 
that was passed with all solemnity possible, and declared 
perpetual and irrevocable ; yet recalled with this very pre* 
amble, that it was made in compliance to the necessity of 
that time, and on design to bring those that were promised 
to be for ever tolerated by it into the bosom of the church ? 
There is so much in the canon law against all sacrilege, and 
all alienations of what i^ once dedicated to Grod, that though 
some canonists niay have carried the plenitude of the papal 
power so far as to reach even to this, which this hired writer 
builds on ; yet there is so much affirmed to the contrary by 


rtJiCTS, that it is certain, whensoever ihe papacy has xtrunf^ 
enough to set aside all the settlement then made, they will 
find suflicienl grounds in law to proceed to the overtumimg 
all that waa then done. The pri nces of Germany, wliosc »ot- 
tlements he appeals to, do not trust to any treaty with either 
OBpeTor or popish princes, with relation to the church-landl, 
of which tliey possessed themselves; bnt to the treaties and 
giiarantees into which they entered witli one another: and 
Ml they arc engaged by their failh and by their mutual in- 
terests to maintain one another and themselves in their po»T 
•eiBXHis. Nor does it appear that a papal bull was ever ob- 
tained to confirm them : on the contrary, the pope's legatea 
protested against them ; and, as will appear afterwards, 
Charles the Fifth's confessor refused to give him absolution 
for his consenting to edicts of that sort. If the necesNty of 
ihe time makes it necessary to maintain that settlement, so 
long it will be maintained, and no longer. 

But to put this matter out of all doubt, that same pope 
did, s€x>n after our ambassadors were sent to him, hy a hull 
dated the twelfth of July 1555, within three weeks after 
the English ambassadors had their audience, condemn all 
the aHenaUoni'of church-lands, and even all leases for one 
or more lives, or for a term longer than three years. This 
be extends to all cathedrals, monasteries, and hoapitaJs; aitd 
annuls all leases, grants, exchanges, mortgages, and obliga- 
tiotis of lands, castles, towns, and cities, even though made 
1^ popes themselves, or by their authority and order, and 
hj the prendents, prelates, or rectors of churches, monas- 
teries, or hospitals, of what rank and dignity soever, cardi- 
nals by name being expressed, that were done to the preju- 
dice of the church, the solemnity by law required not being 
obaerved : and that which waa null in the first making, but 
supplied by subsequent contracts, in what form soever 
made, thou^ by proofs upon oath, and by what length of 
time soever it may claim prescription, is all rescinded, and 
made void and null : and the detainers of goods upon those 
titles are required to quit possession, and to make full satis- 


fifectton for what they have reoeiTed ; and to be thereto com- 
pelled, if they obey not, both by eccleiiagtical oensurea and 
pecuniary punishments. 

It is true, in all this England is not expressly named ; 
and perhaps the pope had the recoveiing from the £unily of 
the Famese, that whidi Paul the Third had alienated to it, 
chiefly in his eye : but the words of this bull do plainly take 
in the late settlement in England; for though the English 
ambassadors were then newly oome to Rome, demanding 
the confirmation of what Pole had done, yet no exceptions 
are made for England : so, it seems, it was intended by these 
general words, put in on design, to overthrow it Now be- 
cause this matter is of such great concern, and every one 
has not a BuUary to examine into thk bull, I will b^gin my 
Collection of Records with it, as no small piece of instruc- 
tion to all who are possessed of any estate so alienated from 
churches, monasteries, or hospitals. 

Upon the conclusion of this head, I cannot but take no- 
tice of one insinuation, thnt I hear some are not ashamed to 
make ; that such a resumption may be indeed a prejudice 
to the laity, but that the clergy will be enriched by it* If 
this had been brought me by an ordinary hand, I should 
not have thought it worth mentioning; but since some have 
the impudence to set it on foot, I must add, that these are 
vain h^)es, as well as they are suggested on black dengns: 
for though the chiut;h, take it in the bulk, has immense 
riches in the Roman communion; yet in no church that 
ever I saw are the parcx;hial clergy kept poorer, and made 
more despicable; they are as the hewers of wood and 
drawers of water, kept at hard labour on a very poor sub- 
astence. ' The several orders among them, the governing 
dergy, and the outward magnificence of their chmt^es and 
sendees, devours all that treasure : so that the poor clergy, 
even in that state of celibate, have scarce necessary suste- 
nance, unless it be in some capital cities, and in very vast 
parishes in them ; they are starved, to maintain the luxury 
and vanity of others. This was the true Qeea a i on of all the 


pnsly <d the parochial clergy among ui> ; to which Butne 
■^Hfin have been Mught for, and to some degrrc found, 
cWMnee the rcfonnHtion was tirst settled among us. 

But none of these things will move an insenable and de- 
generate race, who are thinking of nothing but present nd- 
v&ntages; and so they may now support a luxurious and 
bnital course of irregular and voluptuous practices, they arc 
»aly hired to betray their religion, to sell their country, 
and togire up that liberty and iJioso properties, which aiv 
the present felicities and glories of this nation. The gmng 
tbem up will be a lusting infamy on those wlio are guilty of 
it, and vili draw after it the heaviest curses of posterity on 
cuch perfidious betrayers of their inist: by this they will 
bring stftTery on themselves, (which tliey well deserve, 
being indeed the worst sort of slaves,) and entail it on the 
aicceeding generation. 

I idum to prosecute the account of my design in tJiis 
worlc 1 went tlirough those volumes in the Cotton li- 
brary, of which I had only a transient view formerly, and 
laid together all that I thought necessary to complete it. I 
Mw a great and a fair prospect of such a change ready to be 
made in France, a& king Henry had made in England. Mr, 
La VsMor has, out of an invaluable collection of original 
papera that are in nr William Trumball^s hands, published 
«tructiotu sent by the duke of Orleans to the princes vS 
G^noumy; by vhidi, as he declared himself a protestaot, 
io be gave ingeneral words good hopes of his father Fran- 
OS. I found also, both in papers and printed books, that 
king Henry often reproached Francis for not keeping his 
word to him ; and in a long despatch of a negotiation that 
Paget was employed In with the admiral of France, I taw 
further evidence of this. I was by these iixlicalions set on 
to sec how Ear I could penetrate into that secret. 

I was by the favour of the eari of Dartmouth admitted 
to a free search of the Paper-Office, which it now in much 
better coder and method ^n it was above thirty years ago, 
when I saw it last: and there, among other very valuable 
papers, I found the copy of that solemn protnise that Fran- 



CIS made to Henry, minuted on the back by Cromwell'^s 
hand as a true copy, in these words ; An inHrument de^ 
vised Jrom the French hing^Jbt' his JustificaHon and (fe* 
fence qf Ike invalidOy of the king's highness'' s first mar- 
riagCj and the validity of the second. *^ By this, he in ex- 
press words condemns the pope's buU dispensing with the 
marriage with queen Katharine, which he, by the unani- 
*^ mous consent of those learned men whom he had ap- 
*^ pointed to examine it, condemns as incestuous and un- 
'^ lawful; and reputes the daughter bom in it spurious and 
illegitimate: and that the second marriage with Anne, 
then queen, was lawful and just; and that queen Eliza- 
beth^ bom of it, was lawfully bom : and he prcHnises to 
as^ and maintain the king in this against all the world. 
In this instrument he owns king Henry to be, under Grod, 
^' the supreme head of the church of England : and he af- 
*' firms, that many of the cardinals, in particular the late 
^* cardinal <^ Ancona, and even pope Clement the Seventh 
<^ himself, did, both to his ambassador, and to himself at 
*' Marseilles, plainly confess, that the pope's bull, and the 
^^ marriage made upon it, were null and void ; and that he 
^^ would have given a definitive sentence, if some private 
*^ affections and human regards had not hindered it'' This 
makes me conclude, that he gave other instruments of a 
further extent to king Henry ; for failing in which, I find 
he was often reproached, though this single instrument is 
all that I could find out: but the lord Herbert reckons 
among the chief causes of king Henry's last rupture with 
Francis^ that he had not deserted the bishop of Rome, and 
consented to a reformation, as he once promised. 

I saw^ when I passed through Zurick, a volume of letters 
that passed between Bullii^r and those English divines 
that had been -eo kindly entertained by him in that noble 
canton : and by the. interposition of my learned, judicious, 
and pious fiiend, Mr. Turretin of Greneva, Mr. Otto, a worthy 
professor there, has taken such care, that copies of them are 
procured for me ; in which we may see the sense, of those 
who revived our reformation in queen Elizabeth's time. 


Men who had been abroad, and had seen all things about 
them in a true light, that saw in what the strength of popery 
lay, and what fortified or weakened the body of die re- 
formed, were liker to have truer views thmi can be expected 
from retired or sullen men, who have lived in a comer, and 
have but a small horizon. 

It has been objected to me, that I have said little of pro* 
oeedings in convocation, and of the struggle that the clergy 
made before they were brought to make the submission, 
whkh brought those bodies under restraints, that seem now 
uneasy to the advocates for church power. I must confess 
I have been very defective here: I understood that the 
books of convocation were burnt : none oi those great men, 
under whose direction that work went on, knew any thing 
of those discoveries that have been <^ late made; so no 
wonder if I passed over what was then so little known. 
Yet now I have examined all that I could find of those 
matters, I confess I am not inclined to expect much from 
the assemblies of clergymen. I have seen nothing in church 
history to incline me to depart from Gregory Nazianzen^s 
opinion of those assemblies ; what has happened among our- 
selves of late has not made me of another mind : and I will 
not deny, but that my copiousness on these matters is, in 
my own ojMuion, one of the meanest parts of my work. 
The wisest and worthiest man in that convocation, archbi- 
shop Warham, was the person that promoted the submis- 
sion the most : it was no wonder if a corrupt clergy, that 
made such ill use of their power, had no mind to part with 
any branch of it. Yet since these things have been of late 
such a subject of debate among us, I have taken what pains 
I could to gather all that is left of those times in such 
copies, or rather abstracts, as have been of late found in 
private hands : only I will set down the opinion of sir Tho- 
mas More, the best man of the popish side in that age, of 
those meetings. " It is true,"" he says, " the clergy's as-More's 
" sembling at the convocation was called by the name of ^P**^- 
<< confederacies. But,^ he adds, ^* if they did assemble foi. 341. 
^* often, and there did such things, for which such assem- 


** blies of the clergy in every province through all Christeii- ^ 
^* dom from the beginning were instituted and devised^ ^ 
^ much more good might have grown thereof than the long n 
^ disuse can suffer us now to perceive. But all my dayt, 
** as far as I have heard, nor (I suppose) a good part of 
** my father*8 neither, they came never together to oonvoc»« 
^ tion, but at the request of the king ; and at such their as- 
<< semblies, concerning spiritual things have veiy little done. 
^^ Whefefore that they have been in that necessary part of 
^ their duty so negligent, whether Grod suffer to grow to 
^ an unperceived cause of divirion and grudge against 
*' them, God, whom their such n^ligence hath, I fear me, 
** dore offended, knoweth.*^ 
1532. The affinity of the matter has led me to reflect on a great 
transaction, with relation to the church of France, which 
was carried on, and finally settled, in the very time that 
king Henry was breaking with the court of Rome. It was 
the ooncordate, that Frauds the First made with pope Leo 
the Tenth : the king and the pope came to a bargain, by 
which they divided the liberties c^ the Gallican churdi be* 
tween them, and indeed quite enslaved it. There are ao 
many curious passages in the progress of that matter, that 
I hope the opening these will be a very acceptable enter* 
tainment to the nation : and the rather, because in it this 
nation will see, what it is to deliver up the essential liber- 
ties of a free constitution to a court, and to trust to the in- 
tegrity and firmness of courts of justice, when an assembly 
of the states is no more necessary to the raising of money, 
and the support of the government. I know nothing writ 
in our language with relation to this matter, bemdes that 
account I gave of it in a book concerning the regale. It 
was taken from a very exact history of that transaction, that 
was written by Mr. Pinsons, printed anno 1666; and that 
seemed to some very proper judges to relate so much to 
our affairs, that, as tbey thought, it very probably disposed 
the nation more easily to throw off the papal authority : 
they saw what a filthy merchandise the court pf Rome had 
made of the liberties a! the neighbouring churchy taking 



care only to secure their own profits, and deliTering up the 
rest to the cronm. The best writers of that diurch have^ on 
manj occasions, lamented the loss of their liberties by that 
detestable bargain, into which Francises necessities, wrought 
on by the practices of the court of Rome, drew him. *^ By 
^^ this the diurdi of France, from being a queen, became^ 
(as bishop Godeau expresses it) ^^ a slave i" and he adds, 
*^ Our £uhers have groaned, and all that love the order of 
^^ the house of God will still groan, as long as elections con* 
*< tinue to be put down ; so that we must needs enter into 
^ the sanctuary by the way of the court '^ In another 
place, <^ These promotions have been always fatal to the 
diurch; and the bishops that thje court has made have 
been ordinarily the chief advancers of schisms, heresies, 
^^ and of the oppression of the church.^ And he concludes, 
*^ One cannot read Nazianzen^s verses a£ the prelates of his 
^ time, without bring struck with horror, and forced to ac- 
*^ knowledge, that a secular temper is entirely contrary to the 
** episcopal spirit.^ Of this a Greek writer makes a severe 
remark, in the history of Andronicus^s reign, which may per- 
haps be as justly applied to other reigns, telling what sort 
of bishops were then made : ^^ Princes choose such men to 
^^ that charge, who may be their slaves, and in all things 
** obsequious to what they prescribe ; and may lie at their 
^* feet, and have not so much as a thought contrary to their 
^^ commands.^ This change in their constitution has put an 
end, not only to national, but even to provincial synods in 
that kingdom. Some were indeed held, upon the progress 
that Luther^s doctrine was beginning to make in France ; 
and others, during the civil wars, in order to the getting 
the council of Trent received in France : but now in the 
space of ninety years last past, these are no more brought 
together. The assemblies of the clergy meet only to give 
subsidies and to present their grievances ; but do not pre- 
tend to the authority of a regular synod : and though in the 
year 16852 they drew up some articles, yet these had their 
authority only from the severity of the king'^s edict, till by a 
tranaaction with the court of Rome that was let fall. 



I have now gone over all the matters that do properly 
fisdl within this Introduction : it remains, that I leave the 
sense of the subject of this, and of my two former volumes, 
upon the consciences of my readers. Can it be posdble, 
that 'any are so depraved, as to wish we had no religion at 
aU; or to be enemies to the Christian religion? Would 
these men reduce us to be a sort of Hottentots ? And yet 
this must grow to be the effect of our being without all re- 
ligion. Mankind is a creature, by his make and frame dis- 
posed to religion ; and if this is not managed by true prin- 
ciples, all the jugglings of heathenism would again take pos- 
sesion of the world. If the principles of truth, justice, 
temperance, and of universal love, do not govern men, they 
will soon grow curses and plagues to one another ; and a 
crew of priests will grow up, who will teach them to com- 
pound for all crimes, and to expiate the blackest practices by 
some rituals. 

Helicon has so much to struggle with, that if it is not 
believed to be revealed by God, it will not have strength 
enough to re^st those ill inclinations, those appetites and 
pasfflons, that are apt to rise up in our minds against its 
dictates. What is there in the true and unsophisticated 
Christian religion that can give a colour to prejudices against 
it ? The whole complex of that rule of life which it pre- 
scribes is so plainly suited to our composition, both in our 
souls and their faculties, and in our bodies, with relation to 
good health, to industry and long life; and to all the in-^ 
terests of human society, to the order and peace of the 
world, and to the truth and love that are the cements juid 
securities of the body politic ; that, without any laboured 
proof of its divine original, these are such characters, that 
they may serve to prove, it is sent into the world by a 
lover of mankind, who knew our nature, and what was 
proper both to perfect it, and to render it not only safe, but 

But when to all this we add the evidence that was g^ven 
at its appearing in the world ; that he who was the first 
Author of it, and those whom he employed first to propagate 


it, did upon many occasions, in full daylight, and in the 
agfat of great multitudes, do things so far above the powers 
of nature, in such uncontested miracles, that by these it evi- 
dently appeared they were assisted by somewhat superior to 
nature, that could command it at pleasure ; here is the fullest 
ground of conviction possible. These things were written, 
published, and rec^ved in the age in which they were trans- 
acted : and those writings have been preserved with great 
care, and are transmitted down to us, at the distance of 
above sixteen ages, pure and uncomipted. In these we 
have the fixed standard of our religion ; and by them we 
can satisfy ourselves concerning all such practices as have 
been made upon it, or such inferences as are drawn from it. 
I wish those, who take to themselves the name of free- 
thinkers, would consider weU, if they think it is possible to 
bring a nation to be without any religion at all; and what 
the consequences of that may prove ; and then see, if there 
is any religion so little liable to be corrupted, and that tends 
so much to the good of mankind, as the true Christian re- 
ligion reformed among us. 

As for those that do truly believe this religion, and have 
an ingenuous sense and taste of liberty, can they admit a 
comparison to be made between a religion restrained to a 
fixed standard, (into which every one is admitted to examine 
the sense of it in the best method he can,) and that which 
sets up another uncertain standard, of which they pretend 
to be the depositaries ; I mean, traditions : and pretend 
further, they are the infallible expounders of it ; and that 
the. true standard itself is not to be exposed to common 
view ? that Grod is to be worshipped in a language not un- 
derstood ; that, instead of a competent provision to those 
who labour in this work, the head of them is to become a 
great prince, and may pretend to a power to dispose of 
kingdoms and states, to pardon sins, and to redeem sinners 
but of the miseries of a future state ; and that the character 
derived from him is so sacred, that, in defiance to sense and 
reason, a priest by a few words can work a miracle, in com- 
parison to which the greatest of miracles is nothing ; and 


who by these means have possessed themselves of an immense 
wealth and a vast authority ? 

These are all things of so strange a nature, and so oon* 
trary to the genius and design of the Christian religion, that 
it is not easy to imagine how they could ever gain credit and 
success in the world. But when men^s eyes have been once 
opened; when they have shaken off the yoke, and got out 
c^ the noose ; when the simplicity of true religion has been 
seen into, and the sweets of liberty have been tasted ; it 
looks like charm and witchcraft, to see so many looking 
back 80 tamely on that servitude, under which this nation 
groaned so heavily for so many ages. They may soon see 
and know what our happy condition is, in the freedom we 
enjoy from these impositions ; and what their misery is that 
are condemned to them. It is not enough for such as un- 
derstand this matter to be contented in their own thoughts 
with this, that they resolve not to turn papists themselves ; 
they ought to awaken all about them, even the most ignorant 
and the most stupid, to apprdiend their danger, and to 
exert themselves with their utmost industry to guard against 
it, and to resist it : they ought to use all tbmr efforts to pre- 
vent it, and earnestly to pray to God for his blesnng upon 
them. If, after all men^s endeavours to prevent it, the cor- 
ruption of the age, and the art and power of our enemies, 
prove too hard for us, then, and not till th^i, we must sub- 
mit to the will of God, be mlent, and prepare ourselves for 
all the extremities of suffering and of misery ; and if we fall 
under a persecution, and cannot fly from it, we must resolve 
to ^orify God by bearing our cross patiently. Illqpal suf* 
ferings are no more to be borne than the violences of a 
robber: but if the law comes once to be in the hands of 
those wicked men, who will not only revive the repealed 
laws against heretics, but, if they can, carry their crudty up 
to the height of an inquisition, then we must try by ike 
Jmtk and patience qf the stmnie to go tikrough firt and 
ihrofigh water, and in all things to be more Aon am* 

I kno# some, who are either apt to deceive themselves, 


or hope to deceive others, have this in their mouths, that 
popery is not what it was before the reformation ; things are 
much mended, many abuses are detected, and things are not 
so gross as they were then : and they tell us, that further 
corrections might be expected, if we would enter into a 
treaty with them; in particular, they fancy they see the 
error of proceeding severely with heretics ; so that there is 
no reason to apprehend the return of such cruelties as were 
practised an age and a half ago. 

In answer to this, and to lay open the falsehood of it, we 
are to look back to the first beginning of Luther^s breach. 
It was occasioned by the scandalous sale of pardons and in« 
dulgences, which all the writers of the popish nde give up, 
and acknowledge it was a great abuse ; so in the countries 
where the reformaticm has got an entrance, or in the neigh* 
bourhood of them, this is no more heard of: and it baa 
been taken for granted, that such an in£unous tralBck was 
now no more practised. But of late, that we have had 
armies in Spain and Portugal, we are well assured that it is 
still carried on there in the most barefaced manner possible. 
It is true, the proclaiming a sale is forbid by a bull ; but 
there is a commissary in every place, who manages the sale 
with the moat infamous circumstances imaginable. In Spun, 
by an agreement with the pope, the king has the profits of 
this bull ; and it is no small branch of his revenue. In 
Portugal, the king and the pope go shares. Dr. Colbatch 
has given a very particular account of the managing the bull 
tbare: for as there is nothing so impudent, that those men 
are ashamed to venture on; ao they may safely do what 
they please, where the terror of the inquintion is so severe 
a restraint, that men dare not whiq)er agamst any thing 
that is under that protection. 

A notable instance of this has appeared lately, when, in 
the year 1709, the privateers of Bristol took the Galleon, in 
which they found 500 bales of these bulls, and 16 reams 
were in a bale ; so that they reckoned the whole came to 
8,840,000. These bulls are imposed on the people, and 
sold, the lowest at three rials, a little more than 90d, but to 


some at fifty pieces of eight, about 11/. of our money ; and 
this to be valued according to the ability of the purchaser, 
once in two years : all are obliged to buy them against Lent. 
Beffldes the account given of this in the cruising voyage, I 
have a particular attestation of it by captain Dampier ; and 
one of the bulls was brought me printed, but so that it 
cannot be read. He was not concerned in casting up 
the number of them ; but he says, that there was such a 
vast quantity of them, that they careened their ship with 

As for any changes that may be made in popery,' it is 
certain, infallibility is their ba»s ; so nothing can be altered 
where a decision is once made. And as for the treatment 
of heretics, there has been such a scene of cruelty of late 
opened in France, and continued there now almost thirty 
years without intermission, that even in the kingdom where 
popery has affected to put the best face on things possible, 
we have seen a cruel course of severity, beyond any thing 
in history. I saw it in its first and sharpest fury, and can 
never forget the impression that made on me. 

A discovery lately made, shows what the spirit of those at 
Rome, who manage the concerns of that religion, is, even in 
a mild reign, such as Odischalci^s was ; and we may well 
suppose, that, because it was too mild, this was ordered to 
be laid before him, to animate him with a spirit of persecu- 
tion. When the abbey of St. Gall was taken in the late war 
in Switzerland, a manuscript was found, that the court of 
Propaganda ordered their secretary to prepare for Innocent 
the Eleventh'^s own use ; which after his death came into 
the hands of cardinal Sfondrato, who was abbot of St. Gall, 
and so at his death left this book there. It gives a particular 
account of all the missions they have in all the parts of the 
world, and of the rules and instructions given them ; with 
which I hope those worthy persons, in whose hands this 
valuable book is now fallen, will quickly acquaint the world. 
The conclusion of it is an address to the pope, in which they 
lay his duty before him, from two of the words in the New 
Testament, directed to St. Peter. The first was. Feed my 


Aeep ; which obliged him not only to feed the flock that 
was gathered at that time, but to prosecute the constant in- 
crease of it, and to bring those sheep into it that were not 
of that fold. But the other word was addressed to him by 
a voice from heaven, when the sheet was let down to him 
fiill of all sorts of beasts, of which some were unclean, Rise^ 
Peter y kill and eai ; to let all see that it is the duty of the 
great pontiff to rise up with apostolical vigilance, to Idll and 
to extinguish in the infidels their present life, and then to 
eat them, to consubstantiate their false and brutal doctrine 
into the verity of our faith. There is an affectation in these 
last words suitable to the genius of the Italians. This ap- 
plication of these two passages, as containing the duties of a 
pope, was formerly made by Baronius, in a flattering speech 
to encourage pope Paul the Fifth in the war he was design- 
ing, agmnst the Venetians. 

By this we see, that how much soever we may let the 
fears of popery wear out of our thoughts, they are never 
asleep, but go on steadily prosecuting their designs against 
us. Popery is popery still, acted by a cruel and persecut- 
ing spirit : and with what caution soever they may hide or 
disown some scandalous practices, where heretics dare look 
into their proceedings, and lay them open ; yet even these 
are still practised by them, when they know they may safely 
do ity and where none dare open their mouth against them ; 
and therefore we see what reason we have to be ever watch- 
ing, and on our guard against them. 

This is the duty of every single Christian among us ; but 
certainly those peers and commoners, whom our constitution 
has made the trustees and depositaries of our laws and liber- 
ties, and of the legal security of our religion, are under a 
more particular obligation of watching carefully over this 
sacred trust, for which they must give a severe account in 
the last day, if they do not guard it against all danger, at 
what distance soever it may appear. If they do not main- 
tain all the fences and outworks of it, or suffer breaches to 
be made on any of them ; if they suffer any part of our legal 
establishment to be craftily undermined ; if they are either 



do not invert it to a pditioal piece of craft, by winch men^s 
secrets are to be discovered , and all are subdued by a tyranny 
that reaches to men^s souls^ as well as to their worldly con- 
cerns. In a word, they ccmsider religion in the soul as a 
secret sense of divine matters, which purifies all men^s 
thoughts, and governs all tb^r words and actions : and in 
this light they propose it to their people, warning them 
against all dangers, and against all deceivers of all sorts ; 
watching over them as those that must ^ve an account to 
the great Bishcp qf wuls^ feeding ike flock <yoer which the 
Hcly Ghoet has made them overeeersj ready to lay down 
their lives for them, looking for their crown from the chi^ 
Shepherd^ when he shall appear. 

May the number of these good and faithful servants in- 
crease daily more and more ; may their labours be so blessed, 
that they may see the travail of th^ soul, and be satisfied : 
and may many by their means and by their examjde be so 
awakened, that they may resist even to blood, striving 
against sin, and against the man of sin : and may I be of 
that number, labouring while it is day ; and ready, when 
the night comes, either to lie down and rest in the grave ; 
or, if God calls me to it, to seal that doctrine, which I have 
been preaching now above fifty years, with my blood ! May 
his holy will be done, so I may but glorify him in my soul 
and body, which are his I 










(QT fnaiters thai happened in the time comprehended in tihe 
First Book of the Hietory of the Reformation. 


The progress of the papal u- 
surpations p. a 

The schbm in the papacy ib. 
The council of Basil 3 

The pope and council quarrel 4 


The pragmatic sanction made 

in France 5 

The efiects it had 6 

The pope condemns it ib. 


Id a council at Mantua 7 

Lewis the Eleventh abrogates 

it 8 

To the pope's great Joy 9 

The parliament of Pans oppose 

it ib. 

The honest courage of the at* 

tomev-general 10 

For which he was turned out 


The pragmatic sanction reesta- 
blished 1 1 


But it was still complained of 
by the popes 1% 

Condemned by the council in 
the Lateran 13 


The concordate put instead of 
it 14 

King Francis carried it to the 
parliament of Paris 15 

It was there opposed by the ec- 
clesiastics of that court ib. 

Opposition made to it by the 
king's learned council 16 

They resolve not to publish it 1 7 
The king was highly offended 

at this 18 

The king's learned council op* 

pose it no longer 19 






The parliament publishes it, but 
with a protestation 20 

The university and clergy op- 
pose it a I 

The exceptions to the concor- 
date by the parliament 2 a 

These were answered by the 
chancellor 24 

The matter finally settled 25 

The parliament still judged by 
the pragmatic sanction 26 

Upon the king*s being a pri- 
soner, the concordate was 
more condemned 27 

These matters removed firom 
the parliament to the great 
council. 28 

Remonstrances made by the 

clergy against this ib. 

An apology, with the reasons 

for this digression 31 

Queen Katharine's letter 


king Henry, upon the death 

of Uie king of Scotland 3 1 

The progress of Wolsey's rise 



King Henry's book of the Seven 
Sacraments 33 

Wolsey sent to Charles tibe 
Fifth ; gained by him 34 

Wolsey's practices to be^chosen 
pope * 36 

Wolsey's designs when chosen 
pope 37 

The king of France taken pri- 
soner 40 

Lord Burghleigh*s character of 
Wolsey ib. 

Wolsey's proceedings as legate 

His insolence to Warham ib. 
A legatine synod 45 

He called the convocation of 
Canterbury to sit with him 


Colet's sermon before a convo- 
cation 48 

Colet's character 5 x 

Sir Thomas More*s thoughts of 
religion in his Utopia 55 


happened during the time comprehended in 
Book of the History of the Reformation. ^ 

Many ambassadors in Spain 


Wolsey's letter to them 65 

The sack of Rome 66 

The cardinals write to the pope 9 

for a full deputation ib. ) 

Knight sent to Rome 68 i 

Pace wrote to the king of his ^ 

divorce > ib. ^ 


A b«a teat lo Woke]- to Judge 
the marriage 70 

It was twt nmde use of 71 

Tlu! bishops tbink the king's 
Mmiples reaRODsble 73 

Tbe emperor's answer to the 
king try Cla/encieux 74 

A ]>ropoBitiDn to depose tbe em- 
peror 75 

Kii^ Henry's letters to Aone 
Boleyn 79 

Ihe kJDg and queen seemed to 
live well together 8 1 

The legates go to the king and 
qoeeo 82 

The queen treats Wolsey very 
severely ib. 

He bUhop of Bayonne'a opin- 
ion of the pope's dispensation 

s of disorders c 


the queen's account 84 

'ttdlsev'a credit shaken ib. 

TU dukea of Norfolk and Suf- 
folk hia enemies 86 
Hie proceedings of the legates 
Hie cardinal's diagrace 94 
All his gooda seised on 95 
Wolsey'a good conduct in his 
diocese 96 
The king consults the unirer- 

I^ooeedings in convocation 98 
Translatioa of the scriptures 

Tbe steps made in the carry- 
ing' tbe king's being declared 
h^d of the church 99 

Tbe Itmttatiou added to it loi 
And sooeptad by the king 101 
Tbe proceedings of the clei^ 

against heretics toa 

Complaints of Ttacy's Testa- 
ment toj 
The king's proceedings at Rome 

Applications made to divines 

and lawyers 105 

An opinion given by some in 

Bishop of Bayoone sent to Paris 


Cardinal Cajetan's opinion a- 

gaiust the king ib. 

The pope's first breve against 

the divorce 109 

The proceedings of the Sor- 

boune no 

Great heat in their debates lit 
The jealousy of the court of 

France 1 i a 

Upon the changing the divines* 


Tbe decision of the Sorbonne 

Liizet, the president, seemed to 
work against it 1 15 

His letter of that whole matter 

A design to make a contrary 
decree 117 

Anglers divided ; the univenity 
for tbe divorce, and tbe di- 
vines against it 1 19 

Proceedings at Cambri^e 1 30 

The king's lett«rs to the uni- 
versity of Oribrd ib. 

The decision made at Bologna 

And at Padua ib. 

The king writes fully to the 
pope I a? 

The pope's second brere a- 
gainst the king's marrying 
another wife 130 

Pleadings by an exauator ib. 

Hie French king obtains many 
delays 133 

An interview between tbe two 
kings 134 




The king marries Aune Boleyn 


King Henry opposes the inter- 
view with the pope in vain 138 

The duke of Norfolk sent to 
France 1 39 

But soon recalled ib. 

The king of France was to have 
been godfather, if queen Anne 
had brought a son 140 

The interview at Marseilles 141 

Great promises made by the 
pope 14a 

Practices upon cardinals 143 

The convocation meets 145 

They treat concerning residence 


An answer to the complaints of 
the commons 147 

Proceedings against heretics ib. 

The petition to the king 148 

The submission made to the 
king, one bishop only dis- 
senting 149 

The pro^edings at York 151 

Proceedings during the vacancy 
of Canterbury 153 

The convocation judges i^nst 
the king's marriage 1 54 

Archbishop Cranmer gives sen- 
tence against it 155 

With that the court of Rome 
was highly offended 156 

Bonner intimates the king's ap- 
peal to the pope 1 57 

It was rejected by the pope 

Bellay sent over to the king by 

king Francis 161 

A representation made to the 

emperor 164 

Bellay prevailed much on the 

king to submit 165 

A letter of the king's to his am- 
bassadors at Rome 165 

Duke of Norfolk's letter to 
Montmorancy 168 

The pope was in great anxiety 


Bellay was to go to Rome» in 
hopes to make up the breach 


The final sentence given in 
great haste 171 

The courier came two days too 
late ib. 

Further proofs of th'is matter 17a 

Reflections on this breach 175 

All in England concur to re- 
nounce the pope's authority 


An order for the bidding of 
prayers and preaching 178 

Instructions given to Paget, 
sent to some northern courts 


Negotiations in Germany 1 86 
Advices ofifered the king 187 
A letter of the king's to the* 
justices, to observe the be- 
haviour of the clergy 188 


The archbishop of York is sus- 
pected to favour the pope 


He justifies himself ib. 

Of the sufierings of Fisher and 
More 19a 

An expostulation with the court 
of France 193 

The king of France engages 
himself to adhere to, and de- 
fend the king in his second 
marriage. 194 




Of whai happened during the Hme comprehended m the 
T'hird Book of the HiHory of the Refbmuxtionyjrom the 
year 15S5 to king Henrjfs de€Uh, anno 154y. 


The king was much pleased 
,with the title of supreme 

head 199 

The archbishop of Canterbury's 

title changed ib. 

Crmomer and Gardiner oppose 

one another a 00 

Crtnmer vindicates himself ib. 
Bishops proceed against those 

who aesired a reformation 

The archbishop of York much 

suspected 203 


Complaints of the monks and 

friars 206 

The archbishop of York clears 

himself 207 

All preaching is for some time 

prohibited 208 

A treaty with the Lutheran 

princes 209 

Barnes sent to them 211 

Melancthon's going to France 

prevented 2 1 2 

The French king fluctuates ib. 
Fox sent to Germany 213 

A treaty with the princes of 

Germany 214 

C<:nsured by some, but justified 

bv others 215 

The Smalcaldic league 2 1 6 
The demands of the German 

princes ib. 

The king's answer to them 2 1 8 
Thev write to the king ib. 

And send ambassadors to him 


Queen Katharine's death 226 

Queen Anne fioleyn*s tragical 
end 23 1 

Her behaviour at her trial, and 
at her death ib. 

The emperor desired to be re- 
conciled to the king 233 

The king answered that coldly 

He refuses any treaty with the 
pope ib. 

Proceedings in convocation 236 
Pole made a cardinal 237 

He wrote first against the di- 
vorce 238 
Sends one to the king with in- 
structions 239 
Tonstal writes copiously to him 

Cardinal Pole's vindication of 

himself 247 

The king was reconciled to the 
emperor 252 

Dr. London's violent proceed- 
ings in suppressing the mo- 
nasteries 253 

Cheats in images discovered 254 

Tonstal wrote a consolatorv let- 
ter to the king, when queen 
Jane died 255 

Orders about holydays ib. 

Injunctions given by the arch- 
bishop of York 256 

Injunctions by the bishop of 
Coventry and Litchfield 258 

And by the bishop of Salisbury 





Gresham^s letter to the kinff, 
for putting the great hospitals 
in the hands of the city 261 

The king grows severe against 
the reformers 363 

He sets out a long proclamation 


An account set forth by the 

king of Thomas Becket 265 

A circular letter to the jusUces 

of peace 266 

New significations put on the 
old rites 268 

Many execution., in England 


The project of endowing the 

church of Canterbury ib. 

Disapproved by Cranmer 270 

The design of the six articles 

The king marries Anne of Cleve 

Commission to Cromwell, to 
constitute some under him 


The king in love with Katharine 
Howard 275 

Cromwell's fidl 276 

A new treaty with the German 
princes 277 

Some of Cromwell's memoran- 
dums ib. 

The matters at first charged on 
him, from which he clears him- 
self 279 

Reflections on the state of af- 
fiurs at that time 282 

Of the king's divorce with Anne 
of Clevc 283 

What passed in convocation ib. 

Exceptions in the act of grace 


A design against Crome 285 

Prosecutions upon the six arti- 
cles 289 

A conspiracy against Cranmer 


His great mildness 292 

Some steps made in setting out 

true religion 293, 294 

Katharine Howard's disgrace 

A negotiation with the German 

princes ib. 


Paget*s negotiation with the 
court of France 297 

The duke of Orleans promised 
to declare himself a protestant 


Practices on him end with his 

life 305 

Proceedings in convocation ib. 
A new translation of the Bible 

designed 306 

A reformation of the ecclesias- 
tical laws was hr advanced 

Bell, bishop of Worcester, re- 
signed his bishopric 309 
Audley, lord chancellor, died ib. 
Practices on some lords of Scot- 
land 310 
Mount sent to Germany 311 
A war with France 31a 
Bulloign taken 313 
The king is forsaken by the 
emperor ib. 
A Litany set out in English, 
with other devotions 3 1 5 

The king neglects the German 
princes 317 


The elector of Saxony's ill opin- 
ion of the king. 318 

Ferdinand discontented with 
the emperor 319 



Tlie duke of Norfolk'simprison- 
ment 320 

Hb letter to the Idng 331 

A recapitulation of Idng Henry's 
reign 326 

HiBmiDd corrupted by a course 
of flattery ib. 

The course of all courts 337 

Wolsev began it, but was a wise 
minister 338 

A great occasion of flattery g^ven 
by his book 339 

The character of More 330 

Cromwell's ministry ib. 

The king's inconstancy in mat- 
ters of religion 331 


Of what happened during the reign qf king Edward the 
Sixth, Jrxmi the year 1547 to the year 1568. 

A TRUE account of a paper 

of Luther's wrong published 

in my History ^ 335 

Vargas's Letters concerning ^e 

Council of Trent 336 

Translated into Englbh by Dr. 

Geddes 337 

And into French by Mr. Le 

Vassor 338 

The fraud and insolence of the 

l^ate 339 

The promise that the emperor 

made the pope ib. 

The bishops knew not what 

they did 340 

The pride and impudence of 

the legate 341 

No good to be expected from a 

council 343 

He complains of the exemption 

of chapters 343 

A decree secretly amended after 

it was passed 344 

It had been happy that the coun- 
cil had never met 345 
The decree concerning the 

pope's authority proposed, 

but not passed 346 

He expresses the same opinion 

of the former session under 

pope Paul 347 

No shadow of liberty in the 

council 348 

The legates' way in correcting 

manifest abuses 349 

Malvenda and others made the 

same complaints 351 

Reflections upon those procfsed- 

'.ng8 353 

Thirlby writes of the Interim 

Hobby sent ambassador to the 

emperor 355 

The emperor's confessor refused 
him absolution for not perse- 
cuting heretics ib. 
The pe^dy of the French king 

The progress of the reformation 

Gardiner at the head of the op- 
position to it 358 
Proceedings in convocation 360 
They affirm that it was free for 
the clergy to marry ib. 
Cranmer s labours and zeal 361 
St. Chrysostom's letter to Cse- 
sarius brought to England 

The lady Mary denies that ahe 



or her tervants were Goncem- 
ed in the risings 363 

The entertaining foreign troops 
in England 364 

Tlie popish party deceived in 
their hopes on the protector's 
M 367 

Proceedings against Gardiner 

All preaching is forbidden, ex- 
cept by persons especially li- 
censed 374 
Heath refuses to subscribe the 
book of Ordinations ib. 
Day, bishop of Chichester, in 
trouble for not removing al- 
tars 376 
Scandals eiven by many 377 
Crardiner is deprived 379 
An account of bishop Hooper 


The duke of Somerset's last fidl 

Hooper's impartial zeal 40 1 

The Articles of Religion pre- 
pared 403 
Not passed in convocation ib. 


But published by the king's au- 
thority 406 

And sent to the archbishop of 
Canterbury ib. 

And the bishop of Norwich 408 

And to the university of Cam- 
bridge 409 

Cranmer designed to set up the 
provincial synods ib. 

King Edward's sclieme of the 
succession 410 

Much altered 412 

Opposed long by Cranmer ib. 

The primate of Ireland poisoned 

A character of the court in king 

Edward's time 414 

The bad lives of those who pro- 
fessed the gospel 416 
Much lamented by the reformers 

The providence of God towards 
the reformed 420 


Of what happened during queen Marjfs retgn^Jrom the 

year 1553 to the year 1558. 


The queen's words were soft 

But her proceedings severe 424 

Against Cranmer, Hooper, and 
others 425 

The duke of Northumberland 
begs his life, but in vain 427 

Others suffered with him 428 

A convocation summoned 429 

A treaty of marriage with the 

prince of Spain 429 

Wyat's rising and principles 430 

Lady Jane Gray executed 43 a 
Severities against the married 

clergy ib. 

Aggravated by some 434 

The queen writes the first letter 

to king Philip ib. 



iVoceedinga agaiDtt hereliot 435 

A coDTocatioD 436 

Cranmer's tieMOo pardooai 
that he might be burat ib. 

The council orders setere pro- 
ceedings 438 

The reconciliation with Rome 
designed 439 

Pole sent legate for that end 


He wrote to the queen 441 

The queen*s answer ib. 

His first powers 442 

Cardinal Pole stopped in Flan- 
ders by the emperor 444 

New and fuller powers sent to 
Pole 44S 

With relation to church-lands 


All was laid before the emperor 

Yet he was still put off by de- 
lays 449 
The reason of those delays 450 
Canfinal Pole much esteemed 
by the English ambassador 

He writes to king Philip ib. 
The queen sent to bring him 

over to England 455 

The queen believed herself to 

be with child 456 

Cardinal Pole carries his powers 

beyond the limits set him 457 
Some preach for restoring the 

abbey- lands 458 

The archbishop of York set at 

liberty 459 

The reformers, when tried by 

Gardiner, were firm 46 1 

Hooper, the first bishop that 

sudSered, barbarously used 463 
Persons appointed to carry the 

news of the queen's being 

delivered 466 

Orders for torture at discretion 


The queen still looked to be 
delivered of a child 468 

A practice that gives suspidoa 
of ill designs ib. 

Plots pretended 469 

Cardinal Pole's letter to Cran- 
mer 470 

Ambassadors sent to the pope, 
came back with a bull, erect- 
ing Ireland into a kingdom 

The pope's bull for restoring all 

church-lands ib. 

Reflections made on it 473 

Cranmer proceeded against 477 


Proceedings in convocation 480 

Motions in the diet of the em- 
pire 48s 

Compassion expressed to those 
who suffered, punished 485 

Charles the Fifth's resignation 
of Spain 484 

Reasons to think he died a pro- 
testant 486 

The method in which the queen 
put her afikirs 488 

Proceedings against heretics 49 1 


The pope sets on a new war 
after a truce was sworn to, 
and dispensed with the 
French king's oath 493 

Pole's national synod 494 

A great scarcity of all things 


Prosecution of heretics ib. 

Calais in danger of falling into 
the hands of the French 497 

An account of lord Sturton's ex- 
ecution 499 

Alarms oft given of plots 501 

A severe prosecution 502 

Cardinal Pole saved two persons 


The nation abhorred this cruelty 




A great coldness in those mat- 
ters at Bristol 505 

Bonner called on by the council 
to be more severe 506 

The papal provisions in this 
reign 508 

Proceedings in convocation 509 

A general treaty of peace was 
opened 510 

Small hope of having Calais re- 
stored ib. 

A particular relation of the oc- 
casion of the queen*s death 

A parallel of queen Mary and 
queen Elizabeth's reign 516 


Of the beginnings of queen Elizabeths reign. 


Her inclinations in religion 
cautiously managed 519 

Mount sent to Germany 520 

A match with Charles of Aus- 
tria advised ib. 

The reformers return to Eng- 
land 531 

They were well received by the 
queen 533 


Those of Zurick advise a tho- 
rough reformation 524 

The earl of Bedford had stayed 
some time at Zurick, and 
wrote to them 525 

Proceedings in convocation ib. 

The bishops oppose the reforma- 
tion in the house of lords 

Jewel complains of want of zeal, 

and an excess of caution 530 

Peter Martyr's advices to Grin- 

dal 533 

The beginnings of the reforma- 
tion in the parliament of 
Scotland 534 

The iMie of the scriptures in the 
vulgar tongue much opposed 


But granted 537 

A perfidious proceeding of the 
court of France 538 

The great progress of supersti- 
tion in queen Mary*s reign 

The revenues of bishops lessen- 

^ . . . .554 

Jewel's opinion of the disputes 

concerning ■ the vestments 

The queen kept a crucifix in her 

chapel 556 

Bishops consecrated - ib. 

The emperor proposes to the 

queen a match with his son 

Charles ib. 

She excuses herself ib. 


A conference concerning the 

queen*s crucifix 557 

The zeal in singing psalms 558 

Sands, bishop of Worcester, 

much offended at the image 

in the queen's chapel ib. 

Sampson*s exceptions at his 

b^ng made a bishop 559 

He refused a bi.^hopric 562 

A peace made in Scotland 563 

Parker's care of the northern 




Hie popish tMsbqps made great 
alienatioDa 564 

Jewel's Apology published 565 

The French grew weary of car- 

ryine od the war in Scotland 

^ S68 

it was brought to a good end 

A message to the queen of Eng- 
land ib. 
S^ed by the three estates 570 
The queen of £ngland*s answer 
to it 571 
The death of Francis the Second 

The queen of Scotland did not 
ratify the peace 573 


She is jealous of lord James 575 
The duke of Guise studied to 
divert the queen from assist- 
ing the prince of Cond^ 576 
Proceedings in convocation 577 


Some alterations made in the 
Articles of Religion 578 

Great debates concerning some 
alterations in the Book of 
Common-Prayer 580 

A practice common among pa- 
pists of knocking on their 
breast, saying Culpa mea, at 
the elevation ib. 

But by one proxy it was carried, 
that none should be made 581 

A book of discipline offered by 
the lower house 582 

Other things prepared for the 
convocation 584 

A further continuation of the 
History, beyond my former 
work 585 

A controversy about the use of 
things indifferent 586 

Great diversity in practice 587 

The queen wrote to the ardibi- 
shop of Canterbury to bring 
all to an uniformity 5 87 

Orders set out by the bishops 


Horn, bishop of \^ncbester, 
writes to Zurick upon these 
diversities in practice 590 

Answers from thence, justifying 
those who obeyed the laws 

Bullinffer writes to those who 
woiud not obey them 593 

That letter was printed in Eng- 
land 595 

Bullinger*s answer to Sampson 

They wrote to the earl of Bed- 
ford 600 


Grindal and Horn's letter, show- 
ing their uneasiness in many 
things 60 a 

JewePs sense of those matters 

Reflections on this matter 606 
Other letters written to Zurick 
by some bishops ib. 

Of the affairs of Scotland 609 
The queen of Scots marries the 
lord Darn ley 6n 

She shows more zeal in her re- 
ligion 612 
The demands of the reformed 

The queen's answer to them 61 5 
Their reply to it 616 

The queen of Scots' practices 6 1 7 
Another more pressing petition 
made to her 618 

Letters concerning the murder 
of signior David 6 1 9 

Letters concerning the murder 
of the lord Damlev 622 



A relation of that matter by the 
pope*8 Duncio 625 

Thiat queen left the crown of 
England to king Philip of 
Spain by her last will 628 

An association of the Scottish 
nobility, to defend the right of 
their young king 630 

In this papists joined with pro- 
testants 63 1 

The reasons that moved queen 
Elizabeth to be jealous of the 
king of Scotland 632 

The effects that this had 633 

The conclusion 634 















Number 1. 

The huU of pope Paul the IVth, annuUing all the aliena- BOOK 

Hons of church lands, ' 

Rescisfflo alienationum et locationum quorumcunqiie bo- Baiiir. 
noruin ecclesiasticorum, in damnum ecclesiarum, vd £'"!?'**■*• 
non servatis juris solemnitatibus aut alias nulliter fac- candB Pfeott 
tarum. qowti. 

oIMILEM resdssionem fecit, Leo X. et postea Jul. III. 
quas prsetermisi tanquam minus necessarias, et eas inseruit 
Rodoan. in suo Tract, de Reb. Eccles. non alienan. et eandem 
edidit etiam Pius IV, quo ad bona sedis, et camerse apo- 
stolicac in const. 104. apostolica. Quamvis prius ipse banc 
bullam generaliter reduxisset ad terminos juris communis in 
const. 11. provida. Sed Pius V. ejusmodi bonorum om- 
nium ecclesiasticorum alienationis rescissionem commisit col- 
legio fabricae Basilicas S. Petri de Urbe, ut in sua const. 98, 
et si de singulis. 
De alienationibus istis, babes supra const. 1. Leonis I. 
fol. 1. et Pauli II. in const. 5. Ambitiosae. fol. 329. 
£t de alienationibus ac infeudationibus civitatum et 
terrarum sedis apostolicse, ac bonorum quae subditi 
papae habent in ejus statu ecclesiastico, plene dicam in 
constitut. 1. Innocent. IX. quae ab hac. 
Paiilus episcopuSy servus servorum Dei. Adjutura/m rei 

MMM Jtjtn^ ^■\j»»X mtn^ JfiOltS A» 1^. 


I c cc. 

1. Injunctum nobis desuper, meritis licet imparibus, apo- Symma- 

3 2 «»>»• P»P* 


PART stolicae servitutis oflicium, men tern nostram continua pulsat 

^^^* instantia, ut bona ecclesiastica, quae caeca hominum cupidi- 

boiweccie- tate occupata detinentur, nostrae operationis ministerio, ad 

emlri^prohi"- j"s, et proprietatem eorum quorum antea erant, omnino re- 

biiit.ioc.6.(}Qeantur. Cum itaque (sicut nobis innotuit) licet alias fel. 

de Reb. Ec- ^ , i j- i • 

del. nona. re. Symmachus papa praedecessor noster praedium ecciesiae 
Uenao. p^,^ aliqua necessitate quovis modo alienari, aut jura eccle- 
siae in usum fructum dari prohibuerit, et lege hujusmodi 
omnes custodes astringi, ac donatorem, ac censuatorem, 
et venditorem honorem perdere, et qui praemissis subscri- 
beret^ anathema esse, cum eo qui daret, sive reciperct, nisi 
restituerentur, et quas libet ecclesiasticas personas contra- 
dicere, et cum fructibus alienata reposcere posse, hocque 
non solum in ecclesia Romana conservari, verum etiam in 
universis per provincias ecclesiis convenire voluerit. 
Paulas s. g. Et piae mem. Paulus papa 2. etiam praedecessor noster 
bonorun omnium rerum, et bonorum eoclesiasticorum alienaticmem, 
''*^*'*"**|" omneque pactum, per quod ipsorum dominium transfer- 
uitrmtrien- retur, ac concessionem, hypothecam, locationem, et conduc- 
UoDM ^ tionem ultra triennium, necnon infeudationem, vel contract 
iaterdizit in turn emphyteuticum, praeterquam in casibus a jure permis-. 
in nibr. ^^ ^ ^^ rebus et bonis in empUyteusim ab antiquo concedi 
solitis, fieri prohibuerit. Et si quis contra hujus posterioris 
prohibitionis seriem, de bonis et rebus eisdem quicquam 
alienare presumeret, alienatio, hypotheca, concessio, locatio^ 
conductio, infeudatio hujusmodi nullius omnino essent hk 
boris, vel momenti, et tam qui alienaret, quam qui alienatas 
res, et bona reciperet, sententiam excommunicationis incur- 
reret, et nihilominus res et bona alienata hujusmodi, ad ec- 
clesias, monasteria, et loca pia, ad quae antea pertinebant, 
libere reverterentur. 
Aiienatio- 3. Nihilominus a nonnullis annis citra diversse personae, 
muitefac- ^^"^ seculares quam ecclesiastical, complura castra, terras, 
tae fuerant oppida, civitates, et loca, tam Romanae praedictae, quam di- 
eccittU^"" versarum cathedralium ; etiam metropolitanum et aliarum 
rum, vel ecclesiarum, nee non monasteriorum, domorum, et aliorum 
tUsoiemni- regularium locorum, ac hospitalium, et aliorum piorum lo- 
utibns. corum, praetextu diversarum alienationum, eis de castris. 


terris^ opfiidis, civitatibus, et locis prsedictis in evidens dam- BOOK 
num ecclesiarum, monasteriorum, domorum, hospitalium> 

et alionim regularium, et piorum locoruniy seu alias non 
servatis solemnitatibus a jure requisitis factarum oocupa- 
▼erint, et occupata detinuerint, detineant de prsesenti, ac ex 
inde factum sit, ut non solum ecdesiarum, monasteriorum, 
et domorum praslati, ac hospitalium, et aliorum regularium, 
et piorum locorum hujusmodi rectores, qui ex fructibus, 
redditibus et proventibus castrorum, terrarum, oppidorum, 
dvitatura, et locorum hujusmodi, ecclesias, monasteria, et 
domus, hospitalia, et alia loca prsedicta gubemabant, et il- 
lustrabant, ac eorum ministris alimoniam prebebant, not^ 
biliter sint damnificati, verum etiam Rom. pont qui antea 
egenis, et miserabilibus personis, praesertim nobilibus ad banc 
almam urbem pro tempore confugientibus alimenta aliunde 
subministrare oonsueverat, vix se et £EimiIiam suam susten- 
tare, ne dum aliis alimenta subministrare possit, in divinse 
majestatis offensam, et ordinis clericalis opprobrium, ac plu- 
rimorum Christi fidelium scandalum. 

4. Nos praemissa conniventibus oculis pertransire neque-'*'*®''**: 
untes, quinimmo cupientes eis, quantum cum Deo possumus, resdndit, 
opportunum remedium adhibere, motu proprio, et ex certa ** '"°'*^***' 
nostra scientia, ac de apostolicse potestatis plenitudine, 
omnes et ungulas alienationes, et in emphyteusim, seu cen* 
sum perpetuum, mit tertiam, vcl aliam generationem, seu 
hominis vitam, aut aliud tempus ultra triennium locationes 
vel concessiones, seu permutationes, hypothecas, et obliga- 
tiones, de quibusvis castris, terris, oppidis, civitatibus, et 
locis, aut aliis bonis immobilibus, seu rebus, et juribus, tam 
spiritualibus quam tempcM'alibus ejusdem Romanae, et qua- 
rumcunque cathedralium, etiam metropolitan, et aliarum 
eccle^arum, necnon monasteriorum, domorum, et aliorum 
regularium locorum, et quorumvis beneficiorum ecclesiasti- 
oorum, cum cura et sine cura, secularium, et quorumvis or- 
dinum regularium, necnon hospitalium, et aliorum piorum 
locorum quorumlibet, per quoscunque etiam Rom. pont. 
prsedecessores nostros, seu eorum auctoritate, vel mandato, 



PART cameraiios suos, et clericos camene apostolicse praeadcntes, 
"'• ac quosvis ecclesiarum, monasteriorum, ct domorum p«e- 

latos> et beneficiatos, necnon hospitalium, et aliorum regu- 
larium, et piorum locorum rectores, cujuscunque dignitatis, 
status gradus, ordinis, et conditionis existentes, etiam si 
cardinalatus honore pollerent, in damnum ecclesisE^, seu 
non servatis solemnitatibus a jure requisitis, aut alias iiuU 
liter hactenus factas, et contractus superinde sub quibusvis 
formis, et verborum expressionibus habitos, et celebrates, 
etiam si juramento vallati existant, et quantumvis longa 
temporis prsescriptione robur sumpsisse dici pos^nt, ac ip- 
fflus Romanse eccleate favorum, aut commodum concemant, 
eorum omnium tenores, ac si de yerbo ad verbum insere- 
renter, presentibus pro expressis habentes, apostolica auc 
toritate, tenore praesentium rescindimus, irritamus, cassa- 
mus, et annuUamus, ac viribus omnino evacuamus, ac pro 
resdssis, irritis, cassis, et nullis, ac penitus infectis haberi vo- 
Detentoret 5. Ipsosque detentores ad castra, terras, oppida, civitates^ 
^]^i^^ et loca oocupata, ac bona, res, et jura prsedicta Romans et 
boDftoccn^ cathedralibus, etiam metropolitan, ac aliis ecclesiis, necnon 
hatluM re- monasteriis, domibus, hosptalibus, et beneficiis, ac regula* 
de^mo. ^^^^y ^^ P"s locis relaxandum, et de fructibus, tarn hac- 
tenus perceptis quam in posterum percipiendis, realiter sa- 
tisfaciendum teneri, et ad id edam sententiis, censuris, et 
poenis ecclesiasticis, ac etiam pecuniariis, omnibusq; aliis op- 
portunis, juris et facti, remediis cogi, et compelli posse. 
Decretum 6. Sicque in prsemissis omnibus et singulis per quoscun- 
imtMit. q^^ judices, et commissarios, quavis auctoritate fungentes, 
etiam causarum palatii apostolici auditores, et ipsius Roma- 
nse eccleaie cardinales, ac eorum collegium in quavis causa, 
et instantia, sublata eis, et eorum cuilibet quavis aliter judi- 
candi, et interpretandi auctoritate, et facultate, judicari, et 
diffiniri debere ac n secus super his a quoquam quavis auc- 
toritate, scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attentari, irritum 
et inane decemimus. 
derogtto- 7. Non obstantibus constitutionibus, et ordinationibus apo- 



ilolicis, caeterisq; ooDtrariis quibuscunque. Nulli ergo &c. BOOi 

Si quis &C. 1_ 

Dat. Roms apud Sanctum Marcum, anno incarnationis i>. p. an. 
Dominica?, 1555. pridie idus Julii, pont. nostri anno primo. janl.^ '^ 

Number 2. 

A letter of queen Katherine^s to king Henry ^ upon the de- 
fiat of James the IV thy king of Scotland. An original. 

Mt lord Howard hath sent me a letter open to your Vespasian 
gnuse within oon of myn, by the whiche ye shall see at^'^' 
length the grete victorye that our Lord hath sent your sub- 
jects in your absence: and for this cause it is noo nede 
herin to trouble your grace with long writing ; but to my 
thinking this batell hath been to your grace and al your 
realme the grettest honor that coude bee, and more than ye 
diuld wyn al t^e crown of Fraunce : thankend bee God of 
it, and I am suer your grace forgeteth not to doe this, 
which shal be cause to sende you many more suche grete 
victorjes, as trust he shal doe. My husband, for hasty- 
nesse with Rogecrosse, I coude not send your grace the 
peese of the king of Scotts cote, which John Clyn now 
bringeth, in this your grace shall see, how I can kepe my 
promys : sending you for your baners a kings cote. I 
thought to send himself unto you, but our Englishe mens 
harts wold not suffer it : it shuld have been better for hym 
to have been in peas than to have this rewarde, al that God 
sendeth is for the best. My lord of Surroy, my Henry, 
wold fayne knowe your pleasure in the buryeing of the king 
of Scotts body, for he hath written to me soo, with the 
next messanger your grace pleasure may bee herin knowen; 
and with this I make an ende, prayng God to sende you 
home shortly : for without this no joye here can be accom- 
plished: and for the same I pray and now go to our lady at 
Walsingham, that I promised soe longe agoe to see, at 
Woborne the xvj day of September. 

I send your grace herin a bill founde in a Scottyshe 

B 4 


PART mans purse, of suche things as the Frenshe king sent to the 
^^^' said king of Scotts to make warre against you : beseeching 
you to send Mathewe Heder assone this messanger cometh 
to bringe me tydings from your grace. 

Your humble wife and true 



Number 3, 

A letter of cardinal WoLseifa to king Henry ^ with a copy of 

his book Jbr the pope. An original. 


These shall be onely to advertise your grace that at this 
presant tyme I do send Mr. Tate vnto your highnes with 
the booke boundeii and dressed, which ye purpose to send 
to the popes holynes, with a memorial! of such other, as be 
allso to be sent by him with his autentiquc bulles to all other 
princes and universities. And albeit sr this booke is right 
honorable, pleasant and fair, yet I assure your grace, that 
which Hall hath written (which within 4 days wolbe par- 
fited) is ferre more excellent and princely : and shall long 
contynue for your perpetuall memory whereof your grace 
shall be more plenarlye informed by the said Mr. Tate. I 
do send also unto your highnes the choyse of certync 
versis to be written in the booke to be sent to the pope of 
your owne hande : with the subscription of your name to 
remain in archivis ecclie adperpetuam et immortalem vestre 
magestatis gioriam laudem et memoriam^ by your 

most humble chapltun 

T. Cari«. Ebor. 

Number 4. 

A letter of cardinal Wdsey'^s to king Henry ^ aboutjbreign 
tiews ; and concerning Luther's answer to the king's 
book. An original. 

After my most humble and lowly recommendations, 


these shall be to advertise your highness that as yet our BOOK 
Lord be thanked there is not commen any confirmarion 
either from Rome Venice Italy France or Flanders of the 
late newes, which was sent from the archeduke to the lady 
Margaret : whereof by many other letters I advertised your 
grace. So that nowe the said news be generally reputed 
and taken but as frasks : and the braging avaunts of the 
Spaniards be so accalmed that they not only account sucF 
money as they have hitherto layde upon the said news to be 
thereby lost, but also they dare not nowe aventre fy ve foiur 
or thre for a hundred. Howbeit s»r I do not a lytel mar- 
vyle that sinnes the seventh day of the last month in the 
which it was wrytten that the feate against the Venetians 
should be doon, there be more letters commen either from 
France Rome Venyse or Italy. It is bruted in Flanders 
that Pavy by dediti(m should be delivered to the said Vene- 
tians hands, which if it be true your grace shall shortly here 
of the Spaniards total extermination out of Italy. 

I forbere sir to dispech your letters to the cardinal of 
Magunce and the duke George of Saxe: because I have 
not as yet neyther Luthers original letters, which were very 
necessary to be sent to the popes holiness, nor also any copy 
thereof, which must nede be sent with your answer to the 
said cardinal and duke. It may be your pleasure to take 
orders that the said original letter or copy thereof may be 
sent unto me with diligence. Other news I have none to 
signify unto your highness at this present tyme but as other 
shall occurr I shall not fail to advertise your grace of the 
same accordingly. At your grace mannor of Hampton court 
the fourth day of August by your 

most humble chapleyn 

T. Car»is. Ebon 

To the king's most twble grace^ defender of the faith. 


PART Number 5. 

A Utter of cardinal W6lsey*s to king Henry j sent with leU 


ters that the king was to write to the emperor. 

An original. 


Vvptt' And forasmuch as at my commyng to your town of Ca- 

lais, I suppose I shall be greatly pressed to repair to the 
%mperors presence, which to do without your letters, written 
with your owne hand I cannot conveniently do, therfor I 
have divised two short letters, the one to the said emperor, 
and the other to my lady, beseechyng your grace to take the 
payne to write and sende the same unto me by this berer ; 
whom I perposely sende at this tyme to your grace, surely 
to bring the same unto me with diligence. And albeit I 
shall have your said letters in redyness, yet I shall never 
the rather advance my jomey towards hym till such tyme 
as I shall see opertunite : so that I have takyn some conve- 
nient order, with the ambassadors of France for voidyng of 
all jelou»e and suspition: and as I shall proceed with the 
ambassadors on both parties, and fynde them disposed, so 
«hall I advertise your grace with all diligence from tyme to 
tyme. And thus Heauen preserue your most noble and 
roiall astate. At Dover the first day of August by your 

most humble chapleyn 

T. Car«s. Ebor. 
To the king's grace. 


Number 6. 

A letter of cardinal WoUejfa to the king^ concerning the em- 
peror'^sjirmness to him. An original. 
Paper- Th£S wrytten with my owne hand shall be onely to ad- 

vertise your grace, what I do percey ve and be in the empe- 
rors owne parson, wich I assure your* grace for his age is 
very wyse and wel understanding hys afFerys : rygth colde 
and temperat in spech, with assury^d maner towchyng hys 
words, rygth wel and to good purpose when he doth speke : 


and undowgttydly by all appearance he shall prove a very BOOK 
wyse man, gretly inclyned to trewgth and observance of hb 
promyse ; detennynyd not onely fastly holly and entirly for 
ever, from hens forth to be joyned with your grace, leving 
all other practyse and intellygens apart : but also in all his 
afferys to take and folowe your counsell and advise : and 
nothing to do without the same, and lyke as your grace 
hath your singuler afiyance in me, puttyng the burdeyn of 
your officys on my shulders, though I knowleg my self farr 
unmeet for the same ; so he ys determyned to do for his 
part. And hereunto he hath not onely bowndyn him sylf 
to me apart, twys or thrys by hys feyth and trowth givyn 
in my bande ; but also he hath to every one of your privy 
counaell in most constant wyse declary^d the same, in suche 
maner and fashion as we all may perceyve that the same 
procedyth of his harte, without coloure, dissymulation or 
&sh]on. Wherfor, syr, ye have cause to give thanks to 
Almighty Grod, wich hath given you grace so to ordjrr 
and oommen your afferys, that ye be not only the ruler of 
thys your realme, wich ys in an angle of the worlde ; but 
also by your wisdome and counsel Spayne, Itally, Almayne, 
and thes Lowe Cowntyes, wich ys the gretest parte of Cryst- 
endome, shall be ruled and governed. And as for France, 
thys knot nowe beyng assurydly knit, shall not fayle to do 
as your grace shall commande. What honour thys is to' 
your highnes I dought not but that your grace of your high 
wysdom can ryght well consyder : giveying most harty 
thanks to Almighty God for the same accordingly, beseech- 
yng your grace most humbly so to do, whereby thys thyng 
thus honorably commensyd shall not fayle to your great ex- 
ultation, to come to the desyryd ende: to the atteynyng 
whereof I shal empley my poore parson wyt expensyons, 
substance and blood. From Grevelyng the S8th day of 
August, with the rude hand of your 

most humble chapleyn 

T. Cari«. Ebor. 
To the kings grace ys owne hands Ofiely. 


PART Number 7. 


The first letter of cardinai WdUey to king Henry ^ aboui 
his election to the popedom upon Adrian's death. From 
the originals lent me by sir William Cook. 

It may like your highnesse to understand I have this 
houre remved letters from your orator'^s resident in the 
court of Rome, mentioning how the xivth day of this instant 
moneth it pleased Almighty God to call the popes holy- 
nesse to his mercy, whose soul our Lord pardon. And in 
what trayn the matters there were at that time for election 
of the future pope, your highnesse shall perceive by the let- 
ters of your said orator^s, which I send unto the same at 
this time, whereby ]q)peareth that mine absence from thence 
shall be the onely obstacle (if any be) in the election of me 
to that dignity ; albeit there is no great semblance that the 
coUege of cardinals shall consent upon any being there pre- 
sent, because of the sundry factions that be among th^n- 
selves, for which cause, tho afore God, I repute my self 
right unmeet and unable to so high and great dignity, de- 
siring much rather to demure, continue and end my life with 
your grace, for doing of such service as may be to your 
honour and wealth of this your realm, than to be X popes ; 
yet neverthelesse, remembring what mind and opinion your 
grace was of, at the last vacation, to have me preferred 
thereunto, thinking that it should be to the honour bene6t, 
and advancement of your affaires in time coming : and sup- 
posing verily that your highnesse persisteth in the same 
mind and intent, I shall devise such instructions commis- 
sions and other writings, as the last time was delivered to 
Mr. Pace for that purpose : and the same I shall send to 
your grace by the next post, whom it may Uke to do farther 
therein as shall stand with your gracious pleasure, where- 
unto I shall always conform my self accordingly. And to 
the intent it may appear farther to your grace what mind 
and determination they be of, towards mine advancement, 
which as your orators wrote, have now at this present time 
the principal authority and chief stroke in the election of 


the pope, making in manner triumviraium^ I send unto BOOK 
your highnesse their several letters to me addressed in that 
behalf, beseedbing our Lord that such one may be chosen 
as may be to the honour of God, the weal of Christ^s 
church, and the benefit of all Christendom. And thus Jesu 
preserve your most noble and royal estate : at the More the 
last day of September, by 

Your most humble chaplajm 

T. Carl". Ebor. 

Number 8. 

Tlte second Utter 6f cardinal Wclsey to the Jdngj about the 

succession to the popedom. 
It may like your grace to understand that ensuing the 
tenor of my letter sent unto your highnesse yesterday, I 
have devised such commissions and letters to be sent unto 
your counsellors the bishop of Bath, Mr. Richard Pace, and 
Mr. Thomas Hanibal, jointly and severally, as at the last 
time of vacation of the papall dignity were delivered unto 
the said Mr. Richard Pace ; for the preferment either of 
me, or that fiuling of the cardinal de Medici unto the same, 
which letters and commissions if it stand with your gracious 
pleasure to have that matter set forth, it may like your high- 
nesae of your benign grace and goodness to signe, so to be 
sent to the court of Rome in such diligence as the imports 
anoe of the same, with the brevity of the time doth neces- 
sarily require. And to th** intent also that the emperor may 
the more effectually and speedily concurre with your high- 
nesse for the furtherance hereof, albeit I suppose verily that 
ensuing the conference and communications which he hath 
had with your grace in that behalf, he hath not prseter- 
mitted before this time to advance the same, yet neverthe- 
lesse for the more acceleration of this furtherance to be given 
thereunto, I have also devised a famiUar letter in the name r 
of your grace to be directed unto his majesty, which if it 
may pleas6 your highnesse to take the payne for to write 


PART with your own hand, putting thereunto your secret ^gn and 
• mark, bdng between your grace and the said emperor, shall 
luidoubtedly do singular benefit and furtherance to your 
gracious intent, and vertuous purpose in that behalf. Be- 
seeching Almighty God that such effect may ensue thererf, 
as may be to his pleasure, the contentation of your high- 
nesse, the weal and exaltation of your most royal estate^, 
realm and affaires, and howsoever the matter shall chance, 
I shall no lesse knowledge my self obliged and bounden farr 
above any my deserts unto your highnesse, then if I had at- 
tained the same, whereunto I would never in thought as- 
pire, but to do honor good and service unto your noble 
person and this your realm. And thus Jesu preserve your 
most noble and royal estate. At the More the first day of 
October, by 

Your most humble chaplayn 

T. Cari«. Ebor. 

Number 9- 

The third letter of cardinal Wcisey ; giving an account of. 
the election of cardinal Medici to be pope. 
After my most humble and lowly recommendations, this 
shall be onely to advertise your highnesse that after great 
and long altercations and contrariety which hath depended 
between the cardinall^s in the conclave, they at the last fully 
resolved and determined (the faction of France abandoned) 
to elect and choose either my lord cardinal de Medici or me, 
which deliberation coming to the knowledge of the nobles 
and citizens of Rome, they alledging that the^affairs of Italy 
being in the trayn, as they then were, It should be to the 
extreme danger thereof to choose a person absent, which 
could not ne might in time come to put remedy unto the 
same, made sundry great exclamations at the conclave-win- 
dow, whereby the cardinalFs being in fear not only of the 
inconvenience like to ensue unto Italy, but also of their own 
person'^s, albeit they were in manner principally bent upon 


me^ yet for eschewing of the said danger and murmur, by BO OK 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost, without further difficulty or 

the xixth day of the last moneth in the morning 
elected and chose the said cardinal de Medici, who imme- 
diately was published pope, and hath taken the name of 
Clement VII. Of which good and fortunate new^s, mr, 
your highness hath much cause to thank Almighty God : for- 
asmudi as not onely he is a perfect and faithful friend to the 
same, but that also much the rather by your means he hath 
attained to this dignity. And for my part, as I take Grod 
to record, I am more joyous thereof, than if it had fortuned 
upcm my person, knowing his excellent qualitys, most meet 
for the same ; and how great and sure a friend your grace 
and the emperor be like to have of him, and I so good a 
father, by whose assumption unto that dignity, not only 
your and the said emperors affaires, but also of all Chris- 
tendom shall undoubtedly come to much better and more 
prosperous perfection: like as upon the first knowledge 
thereof the Frenchmen be clearly departed from Milan, and 
passed a river towards France called Ticino, trusting that 
the next new^s which shall come from thence shall be of 
their arrival at home, wherin as I shall have further know- 
ledge, so I shall advertise your highnesse thereof accord- 
ingly. And thus Jesu preserve your most noble and royal 
estate. At my poor house besides Westminster the vith 
day of December, by 

Your most humble chapleyn 

T. Car«s. Ebor. 

Number 10. 

A remarkable passage in sir T. Mare's Utopia, left out in 

the laUer editions. 

CiiTERUM theologus quidam frater hoc dicto in sacer- 
dotes ac monachos adeo est exhilaratus, ut jam ipse quoque 
casperit ludere, homo alioqui prope ad torvitatem gravis. At 
ne sic quidem, inquit, extricaberis k mendicis, nisi nobis quo- 
que prospexeris fratribus. Atqui, inquit, parasitus, hoc jam 


P A RT curatum est. Nam cardinalis egregie prospexit vobis, quum 
^^^' statueret de cohercendis, atque opere exercendis erronibus. 
Nam vos estis errones maicimi. Hex; quoque dictum, quuni 
conjectis in cardinalem ocuHs, eum viderent non abnuere^ 
casperunt omnes non illibenter arripere, excepto fratie. 
Nam is (neque equidem miror) tali perfusus aceto, sic in- 
dignatus est, atque incanduit, ut nee a conviciis quidera po- 
tuerit temperare : hominem vocavit nebulonem^ detractorem, ^ 
susurronem, et filium perditionis, minas interim terribiles 
citans 6 scriptura sacra. Jam scurra serio scurrari csepit. 
Et erat plane in sua palaestra. Noli^ inquit, irasci bone 
frater, scriptum est, in patientia vestra possidebitis animas 
vestras. Rursum.frater (referam enim ipsius verba) non 
irascor, inquit, furcifer, vel saltem non pecco. Nam Psal- 
mista dicit, Irascimini et nolite peccare. Admonitus deinde 
frater acardinale suaviter, ut suos afFectus c6mpesceret. Non 
domine, inquit, ego loquor nisi ex bono zela, unde didtur, 
zelus domus tuas comedit me. Et canitur in ecclesiis, Irri- 
sores Helizei, dum conscendit domum Dei, zelum calui 
sentiunt, sicut fortasse sentiet iste derisor, scurra, ribaldus^ 
Facis inquit cardinalis, bono fortassis aflfectu, sed mihi vide- 
ris facturus, nescio an sanctius, certe sapientius, si te ita com- 
pares, ne cum homine stulto et ridiculo, ridiculum tibi cer- 
tamen instituas. Non domine inquit, non facerem sapientius 
nam Solomon ipse sapientissimus dicit : responde stulto se- 
cundum stultitiam ejus, sicut ego nunc facio, et demonstro 
ei foveam in quam cadet, nisi bene praecaveat. Nam si 
multi irrisores Helizei, qui erat tantum unus caluus, sen- 
serunt zelum calui, quanto magis sentiet unus derisor mul- 
torum fratrum, in quibus sunt multi calui ? et etiam habe- 
mus bullam papalem, per quam omnes qui derident nos, 
sunt excommunicati. 

Number 11. 

A letter qftlie pope'^s upon his captivity^ to cardinal Wdsey. 

An original. 

brary, vi- DiLECTB fili noster calamitas nostra cum k nobis digne 

tellius, 6. 9. 


explicari ne queat tuae circumspectioni per dilectum filium BOOK 
equitem Castalium referretur qui interfuit ipse omnibus, et ' 
filium nobis amantem exhibens quam essent grata ejus in 
no6 oflida ad extremum ostendat. Nos in tanto constituti 
dolore et luctu unicum solamen. ac spem in tuas circum- 
spectionis apud ilium serenissimum regem auctoritate et 
ipsius regis erga nos et S. eoclesiam pietate reponimus ; ut 
pro vestra consuetudine et bonitate S. eoclesiam tam indigne 
afflictam commendatam suscipiatis: fiicut ex eodem equite 
atque ex nuntio nostro omni alio presidio quam tuas benig- 
nitatis spoliato intdiliget Datum in arce S. Angeli sexta 
Junii 1587. j 

Number IS. 

A pari ^cardinal WoUejfs letter to the king concerning his 
marriage. Takenjrom the original. 

We dayly and howerly musing and thinking on your gracs BOOK 
gret and secrete afiayre, and howe the same may cume to 

good effecte and desired ende, aswel for the deliverance of ^t*o«» **- 
your grace out of the thrauld pensif and dolorous lif that teiiiiu,6. 9. 
the same is in, as for the continuance of your helth and the P* ^^' 
suertie of your realme and succession, considering also that 
the popes consent, or his holines deteyned in captivite, the 
auctorite of the cardinalls nowe to be convoked into France 
equivalent thereunto^ must concurre for iq)probation of such 
processe as I shal make in that behaulf ; and that if the 
queue shal fortune, which it is to be supposed she will doe, 
eyther appele or utterly decline from my jurisdiction (one of 
the said auctorites is also necessaryly requisite) I have noon 
other thought ne studye but howe in avaylable maner the 
same may be attayned. And after long discussion and de- 
bating with my self, I finally am reduced and resolved to 
two points : the oon is that the poopes consent cannot be ob- 
teyned and had in this case, oonles his dely veraunce out of 
captivite be first procured : the other is that the cardinalls 
canne nothing doe in this behalfe, oonless there be by them 
VOL. III. p. 3. c 


PART consultatioii and order taken, what shall be doon m admnis- 
^^^' troHone rerum ecdesiasticarum durante dicta captivitate 
summi pontificis. 

As touching the restitution of the pope to libertie the state 
of the present affaires considred the most prompte sure and 
redy waye is, by conclusion of the peace betwixt the em- 
peror and the French king : for the avancement and setting 
forward whereof I shall put my self in extreme devour, and 
by al possible meanes induce and persuade the said French 
king to strajme himself and condescende to asmuch of the 
emperouTs demands as may stande with reason and suertie of 
his and your gracs afiayres ; moving him further, that for* 
asmuch as the emperour taketh your highnes as a mediator 
making fayre demonstration in words, that he wil at your 
contemplation and arbitre, not oonly declare the botom of 
his mynde concaming his demaund, but also remitte and re- 
lent in the same, he wil be contented that your grace for- 
bering the intimacion of hostilite maye in the managing of 
the said peace -and inducyng the emperour to reasonable 
conditions, be so taken and reputed of him, without any 
outward declaration to the contrary untyl such tyme as the 
conducying of the said peace shalbe clerely desperate: where- 
by if the said French king canne be induced thereuntOi 
maye in the meane season use the benefit of their enteroourse 
in the emperours Lowe- Countries : not omitting nevertheles 
for the tyme of solliciting the said peace, the diligent zeal and 
effectual execution of the sworde by monseur de Lautrek 
in the parties of Italy : wherby your gracs said mediation 
shal be the more set by and regarded. 

And in case the said peace cannot be by these means 
brought to effecte, wherupon might ensue the popes dely- 
verance, by whose auctorite and consent your gracs affajnre 
shuld take most sure honourable effectual and substandal 
ende, and who I doubte not considering your gracs grad* 
tude, wold facilly be induced to doe all Uiings therin that 
might be to your graces good satisfiu^tion and purpose, 
thenne and in diat case there is noooe other remedy but the 
convocation of the said cardinalls; who as I am enfarmed 


will not nar canoe conveniently convene in any oth^ j^ace boo it 
but at AvinioOp where the administration of the ecclesias- ''* 
deal juiisdiction hath been in semblable cases heretofore 
exercised. To the which place if the said cardinalls canne 
be induced to cume, your highnes being soo contentedj I 
purpose also to repare, not sparing any labour travayl or 
payne in my body chargs or expense, to doe service unto 
your grace in that behalfe ; according to my most bounden 
duftie and har^ desjnre, there to consulte and devise with 
them iat the governance and administration of the auctorite 
of the church during the said captivity : which shall be a 
good grounde and fundament for the effectual execution of 
your gracs seorete a£hyre. 

And for asmuch as thus reparing to Avinion I shall be 
Here to the emperours confines, and within an hundred 
myles of Perpinian which is a commodious and convenient 
[dace to commen and treate with the emperors personne, 
[ think in my poor opinion that the conducing of peace by 
four graces mediation not being desperate, nor intimation 
of hostilite made on your behalfe, it should much conferfe 
iswell for the delyverance of the poope, as for concluding 
of the peace between the French king and the emperor, if 
bis majestic canne be soe contented that a meating might be 
betwen him, my lady the French kinges modre, and me at 
the said Perpinian ; to the which 

7%if is aUm the copy written in cardinal WoUcffs hand. 

Number 13. 

A letter written by king Henry VIII, to cardinal Wolsey^ 

recalling him home. 

Mt lord this shall be to thank you of your great paines Among S. 
md travaile which you have sustained since your departure ]|^1^*''* 
lieooe, for our busynesse and causes : wherin you have done 
to us no little honour, pleasure and profitt, and to our realm 
10 infinite goodnesse ; which service cannot be by a kind 
■aster forgotten, of which fault I trust I shall never be ac* 
rased, specially to youward which so laboriously do serve me. 

c 2 


PART Furthermore because as yet since the popes captivity we 

! never sent to salute him; nor have no man readent there to 

advertize us of the affaires there ; and also lest the queene 
should prevent us by the emperour^s means in our ^great 
matter; we think it meet to send this bearer thither, of 
whose truth and sincerity we have had long proof, praying 
you to give him such instructions and commissions as shall 
be for our affaires there requesite: and that with convenient 
diligence, to the intent our affaires there may have some 
stay. No more at this time, but that greatly I desire your 
return home, for here we have great lack of you, and that 
you give full credence to my secretary this bearer ; written 
with the hand of your loving sovereign lord and friend 


Number 14. 

A letter Jrom Rome by Gardiner to kmg Henry y setting 
Jbrth the pope'^s artifices. An original. 

Paper. Pleasetu it your majestic to be advertised that ende- 

Office. voring our selfs to the best of our powers al joyntely and I 
my self aparte applying al my poore wit and,lemyng to at- 
teyne at the popes hande sum parte of the accomplyshement 
of your highnes desires, finally have nothing prevayled : 
but now see it called in question whether the auctorite geven 
to the legats there shulde be revoked or noe. The cir- 
cumstaunce wherof and what hath been doon and said ther- 
in, your highnes shall understande by our commen letters 
which we have writen to my lorde legats grace, but to saye 
as I conjecture I think that matier was moved but for a 
stop of our other suts, and that it is not emestely ment : and 
albeit there is mencion of the queen in that matier as thowe 
she should have a procter for the same, yet the pope two 
dayes before, in an other comunication said that the empe- 
rour had advertised him, how the queen wolde do nothing 
in this matier, in saying nor speaking to any man for the let 
delaye or hindrance of this matier, but as your highnes shal 
wil and command her to doe :. and that the emperour said, 

OF llECORDS. ^1 

he would therfore more earnestly looke unto the cause him- BOOK 
self, I marveled much when the pope said this, and me ' 

thought he spoke it as though he wolde we shuld signifie 
the same unto your highnes, and I noted it the more, for 
because your highness had commanded me to enquire out 
who shuld be here the queens proctor : and it semed spoken 
for the nones, as to put me out of doubt therof. But whi- 
ther the pope hath this writen out of Spayne or out of Eng- 
lande, I wot not what to saye. But it seemed strange to 
us to rede in cardinal Campegnis'^s letters, that neyther he 
DOT Campanus, made on the pope^s behalf, any promyse to 
your highnes, but only in general terms, considering that 
upon these special terms de plenitudine potestatisy and trust 
that the pope wolde use that in your highnes cause, I was 
sent hither, like as in my instructions is contey ned : which fail- 
ing, your highness I doubt not right well remembreth how 
master Wolman, Mr. Bell, and I showed your highnes such 
things as wer to be required, not to be impetrable: my 
trust is that your highnes wil accept in good part my true 
harte and good will, which according to my most bounden 
duty shall never want, but be holly applyed where your 
highnes shall command without respeck or regard of any 
other lyving creature, being very sory to see your highnes 
cause handled in this sorte. But your highnes hath so much 
vertue in you, wherof God is to be thanked, as may suffice 
to converte other mens faults into goodness, to your high- 
nes gret glory, renowne, and immortal fame : which is all 
that canne be said after my poor witt herin, considering 
that your highnes hath been not well handled, nor accord, 
bg to your merits by the pope, or sum other : it becometh 
not me to arrecte the blame certaynly to any man. And 
the pope shewith cardinal Campegnis letters for his dis- 
duurge, which thing your highnes shall much better judge 
and consider by your high wisdom thenne I canne write, 
most humbly desiring your highnes that being in these 
termes with the popes holyness, we may know of your high- 
ness what to say further. 
As touching the buUes to be here impetracte for your 



PART highness, I have spoken with the popes holynes, and he is 
* content in all points to grant as I required him, saving la 

that matier de anifnadversione in clericoSy to the which he 
wolde not absolutely assent, but said he wold with the car- 
dinal Sanctorum Quahior divise that shuld be to your Ugh- 
nes satisfaction : wishing then that he might grante as eaady 
our other peticions, which he knoweth your highnes to hove 
more to harte, as he may these, adding by and by that he 
would for the welth of Christendom, the queen wer in her 
grave : and as he thought the emperour wolde be thereof 
most glad of al : saying allso that he thought like as the 
emperour hath destroyed the temperaltis of the church, 
soe shall she be the cause of the destruction of the spiritu^- 
altics. Making exclamation of his misfortune in whose 
personne these two adversites shuld chaunce, and upon the 
occasion of that famylie. Whenne we speak with him we 
think we shuld have all things, and in the ende his counaail 
denyeth all: by reason the cardinall Sanctorum QmUuct 
hath been sick, and is every other day sikely, and for the 
roost parte when the cardinall is hoi the pope is sike, we 
have yet no expedition of the said bulles, trusting that your 
highnes will have consideration of these letts, accordingly 
praying Almighty God to preserve your most noble and 
royall estate. From Rome the 4th daye of Maye, 

Your highnes most humble 

subject servant and dayly orator, 

Steven Gardynen 

Number 16. 

The pope's promise in the king's affair* 

Cotton li- ^^^ ^^ Clemens domina providentia illius nominis papa 
brary, Vi- scptimus modemus justitiam ejus causae perpendentes quam 
B. 12/ charissimus in Christo filius noster Henricus Octavus An- 
glise rex illustris fidei defensor et dominus Hibemiae, de 
ejus matrimonii nullitate tanquam notorium pubUcum et 
famosum, apud nos exposuit, quod cum charissima in 
Christo filia nostra Catharina clar« memoriae Ferdinandi 


Hispeiiuurum reps catholici filia nuUiter et de facto contrax- BOOK 
isse et oonsumasse affirmati leges tarn dominas quam per 
humanas in ea parte notorie transgrediendo, prout revera 
flic tnmsgrediebat Ad dilectos nobis in Christo filios Tho- 
nuun et Laurentium miseratione divina sancta Ceciliae et 
gancte MariiB transtiberim respective titulorum nostri et 
sedis aplicse in regno Anglise predicto l^atos de latere 
OQmmissionem sub certa tunc expressa forma, quam pro hie 
inserta et expressa haberi volumus et habemus; emiserimus, 
ac eofldem nostros in ea parte vicegerentes ac competentes 
judioes deputaverimus, prout sic etiam tenore presentium 
eflectualiter et plenisame conjunctim et divisim committi- 
mua et deputamus, quo animi nostri eidem Henrico regi in 
juslicia ilia quam celerime administranda propensionem cer- 
tiua et darius attestemur securioremque reddamus de ju- 
didorum labjrrintho longo varioque ambitu in causis (ut 
nunc sunt mores) justissimis non una forte aetate explicabili, 
demque ut processus per eosdem deputatofr nostros nuper 
et secundum tenorem dictae commissionis habitus et factus 
fiendusve aut habendus validus et firmus ac inconcussus 
maneat, promittimus et in verbo Romani pontificis pollioe- 
mur, quod ad nuUius preces requisitionem instantiam me- 
rove motu aut aliter, ullas unquam literas, brevia, bullas; 
aut rescripta aliave quecunque per modum vel justitiae vel 
gratiffi aut aliter, quae materiam emissarum ante hac in 
causa predicta commissionum commissionisve predictae pro- 
cessusve per hujusmodum deputatos nostros nuper et se- 
cundum tenorem dictarum commissionum commissionisve 
predictae habitus et factus habendive aut fiendi, inhibitoria, 
revocatoria, aut quovismodo prejudicialia quacunque racione 
contineant atque ut dictarum commissionum vel commis- 
sionis processus vero hujusmodi plenam perfectam finalem et 
eSectualem executionem remorentur, impediant, aut in ali- 
quo contrarientur, illave aut eorum aliqua revocentur, aut 
eiisdem vel eorum aliquibus in toto vel in aliqua parte 
eorundem prejudicent, concedemus : sed datas a nobis eiis- 
dem deputatis nostris commissiones et commissionum hujus- 
modi processum quae per hujusmodum deputatos nostros 



PART juxta et secundum tenorem dictarum commissionum com- 
missionisve predicts habitum et factum, habendum qua et 
fiendum sua plenissima vi auctoritatum robore et efficada 
realiter et cum effectu confirmabimus^ ratihabemus, tenebi- 
mus et defendemus. Denique omnes tales literas brevia, 
bullas, aut rescripta aliave quae dictarum commissionum 
oommis^onisve hujusmodi prooessusve antedicti executionem 
aut ejusdem virtute decreta, deffinita, et pronundatum per 
eosdem deputatos nostros, oonfirmare possint aut yalent 
absque mora recusatione, difScultate, quacumque de tempore 
in tempus realiter et cum^effectu valida et efficada, dabimus 
et concedemus. Et insuper promittimus et in verbo Ro» 
mani pontifids pollicemur quod prsemissa vel eorum aliqua 
nullatenus infnngemus nee aliquid contra ea vel eorum aliqua 
directe vel indirecte tadte vel expresse, prindpaliter vel in- 
ddenter, quovis quesito colore vel ingenio, nisi vi vel metu 
ooacti, vel dolo aut fraude ad hoc inducti, attemptabimus 
aut fademus : sed ea omnia et singula firma valida incon- 
cussa et inviolabilia patiemur et permittemus. Ac insuper 
d (quod absit) aliquid contra premissa vel eorum aliqua 
^ quovismodo fademus aut attemptemus, illud pro casso irrito 
inani et vacuo omnino haberi volumus et habemus : ac nunc 
prout ex tunc, et extunc pro nunc, cassamus, annulliunus et 
reprobamus, nullius quas roboris aut efficadas fore vel esse 
debere pronunciamus decrevimus et dedaramus. Datum 
Viterbie die xxiii July millesdmo quingentissimo vigessimo 
ix;tavo pontificatus nostri anno quinto. 

Ita est Clemens papa sepAmus antedictus. 

Number 16. 

Some account of the proceedings of the universiiy, in the 
case of the divorce^ Jroin Dr. Buckmaster'*s book MS. 

Quod hodie studia vestra interpellaverim, doctissimi se- 
natores, ac viri gravissimi, voluntas r^^ in causa est, cui 
pro indgni bonitate sua, ac summo quem erga nos et studia 








nostra gerit amore, turn etiam pro aliis forsitan negoliis, in BOO 

quibus vestras prudentias consulere decrevit sua majestas, '_ 

visam est placuitque Uteris suis vos omnes salutare, quas si 
diligenter auscultare velitis, k me statim perlegente audietis. 

To our trusty and well-beloved the vicechancellour, doctors^ 
and other r^nts and non-regents of our universitie of 

By the kyng. * 

Trusty and well-beloved, we grete you well. And 
wheras in the matter of matrimony between us and the 
queue, uppon consultation had with the gretest clerks of 
Christendom, as well withoute this our realme, as within' 
the same, th^ have in a grete nombre afiermed unto us in 
writing, and therunto subscribed their names, that, Ducere 
uxarem Jratris mortui sine Uteris sit prohibitum Jure <2i- 
vtfio et naiurali, which is the chefe and principall pcnnt in 
our cause. We therefore desirouse to knowe and under- 
stand your myndes and opynyons in that behalf, and no- 
thinge dowttnge, but like as ye have always founde us to 
you and that our universitie, favourable, benevolent, and 
glad to extend our auctoritie for your wealth and bene- 
fite, whan ye have required the same, ye will now likewise 
not omytt to doo any thyng wherby ye shulde mynistre 
unto us gratuite and pleasour, and specially in declaration 
of the truth, in a cause so near touching us your prince and 
soveraine lorde, our soule, the wealth also and benefite of 
this our realm, have sent hither purely for that our pur- 
pose, our trusty and right well-beloved clerks and counsail- 
Icnrs, mayster doctor Gardyner our secretary, and mayster 
Fox, who shall on our behaulf further open and declare 
unto you the circumstances of the premiss : wherfore we 
will and requite you, not oonly to gyve ferme credence unto 
them, but also to advertise us by the same under the oomen 
scale of that oU^ universitie of such oppynion in the pro- 
position afore sflyd^ as shall be ther concluded, and by the 
consent of lemed men shall be agreed upon. In doing 
wherof, ye shall deserve our especiall thanks, and gyve us 


PART oanae to encrease our favour towards you, as we shall not 
.. fidle to do accordyngly . Yeven under our signet at York's 

place the 16th daye of February. 

Accepistis modo quod postulat k vobis regia majestas, in- 
telh^tis quae sit ejusdem voluntas, nimirum nihil aliud, nisi 
ut Veritas cujusdam conclusionis agnoscatur atque inter nos 
determinetur, quam ut sua refert plurimum scire, ita et nos 
*pro studio illo ac amore quern omnes gerere debemus in 
prindpem nostrum aUoque clementissimum, benignissimum 
et de nobis omnibus ac achademia nostra optime meritum, 
omne studium ac diligentiam adhibere debemus, ut quod 
tam rationabiliter postulaverit, id impetreta nobis. Si de 
veritate qusestio aliquando emergat, ubi potius aut melius 
investigaretur, quam inter ipsos veritatis professores, si Veri- 
tas perquiri debeat, ubi melius quam in ipsa achademia, uln 
et bona semper vigent studia, solida judicia, ac mentes ab 
omni ambitione sunt aliena. Verum ego prudentias vestras 
prolixiori oratione non detinebo, vobis ac vestro judicio ista 
relinquam. Est cuique suus animus liber ac ingenuus. Dic- 
tet cuique in hac causa conscientia sua, quod melius expe- 
dire viderit. Ego quod ad ofBcium meum spectat, perficiam 
sedulo, nempe ut primi consulantur seniores, quid melius in 
hoc negotio putent faciendum^ deinde et vestras scrutabitur 
sententias atque su£fragia postulabimus. 


Thejbrme of the grace thai zvas axed and graunted in the 
accompli&ment of the Icyn^s requeste. 

Placet vobis ut vicecancellarius, doctores, Salcot, Wat- 
son, Reps, Thomson de collegio Michaelis, Venetus, Ed- 
monds, Downes, Wygan, Crome, Boston, et ma^tri. My- 
delton, Heynes, Mylsente, Shaxton, Latymer, Symon, 
Mathew, Longforthe, Thyxtell, Nycols, Hutton^ Skyp, 
Ooodrick, Hethe, Hadway, Deye, et Bayne, una cum pro- 
curatoribus, habeant plenam facultatem et authoritatem 
nomine totius universitatis, respondendi literis re^se majes- 
tatis in hac congregatione lecUs^ ac nomine totius universi- 


iidB ddBineBdi ei detcnninnidi qiiKsd^^ BOOK 

prapoHttoii: ita quod quioquid diue purtes eomm laeBa^ ^' 
tmnn inter ae decrererint rMppndgnduin dictis literU) et 
delRi u qt i Pt ac detemmuiverhit super quaettioiie pioposita in 
adm, lubentur ct repntetur pro refiponsione^ deAmdoDe 
et d e tenniii n t i nnp todm umvcnitatiB. Et quod liceat vbe- 
maedhno^ procunttoribuiy ecniUtoribusi literie super dio- 
tanmi dnarum psrtiuni reqpoiUKme» deflimtioiie, et detei^ 
■iMtkmej csoodpioidiiy ngillum commune umyernuitis ap- 
ponoe : ne quod publioe disputetur, et antes leguitnr co» 
flm mnv ete tti te absque ulteriori gratia, desuper obdnenda 
aot petenda. 

Hnndquaquam iros fuj^t (opinor) dariss. viri ac senatores 
gammaxaif ut nuper ezceUentiBsimi principis nostii literss 
aeofperitisy qilibus cum super quadam qusstione inter ilium 
ae ittoatrissbnam re^^nam controrersft, nostram saitoatiam 
dssderareiy flagitaret impense^ nos (ut nos decuit) tanti 
ptimip is petitioni haudquaquam inique morem gerere vo- 
kntta^ tandem in iDam (Omnium (presertim seniorum) snf- 
fiigiis oomrenimus sententiam, tit selecds quibusdam sacrflfe 
theologiae turn professoribus turn bacchalauriis ac aliis ma- 
gittris, tantam querationem examinandi, determinandi, ac 
deffiniendi, nomine totius universitatis provincia delegaretur. 
Illi (inter quos et ego minimus k vobis selectus) tantse rei 
curam demandatam agentes, omni consultatione, delibera- 
tione, diligentii, ac sacrse scripturae locorum conferentift, 
turn etiam interpretum, denique publicH disputatione prae- 
misflis^ tandem ad illius qusestionis determinationem ac dif- 
finitionem devenerunt. Super qu& ut nullus est vestrum 
(quibus ea provincia commissa est) qui aut ambigere aut 
refiragari possit : ita et vobis omnibus (quod et gratia k volns 
eoDcessa postulat) eandem compertam esse volumus. Ac- 
cipite igitur ac amplectimini, quod vestra causa, vestrisque 
nominibus, k fratribus vestris, per ingentes labores, ac sum- 
mam industriam exantlatum est. Determinatio in hiis scri* 
ptis comprehensa sac habet. 



PART No6 univermtas studendum academiae Cantabrigiensis, om- 
__!_ nibus infra scripta lecturis auditurisve salutem. Cum occa- 
sione causae matrimonialis, inter invictissimum et potentissi- 
mum principem et dominum nostrum Henricum octavum 
Dei gratia Anglise Franciseque regem, fidei defensorem, ac 
dominum Hibemiie, et iUustrissimam dominam Catharinam 
reginam controversae, de ilia quaestione nostra rogaretur sen- 
tentia : viddicet^ An at jure divino et naturali prohibitum, 
ne frater ducat in uxorem relictam fratris morlui sine liberis? 
Nos de ea re deliberaturi more solito oonvenientes ; atque 
commAinicatis consiliis, matura consultatione tractantes quo- 
modo, quo ordine ad invesdgationem veritatis certius proce- 
deretur, ac omnium tandem sufiragiis, selectis quibusdam ex 
doctisamis sacrae theologiae professoribus, bachalauriis, ac 
aliis ma^tris ea cura demandata, ut scrutatis diligentissime 
sacrae scripturse lods, illisque coUatis referrent ac renuncia- 
rent, quid ipsi dictae quaestioni respondendum putarenU 
Quoniam auditis, perpensis, ac post publicam super dicta 
quaestione disputationem matura deliberatione discussis hiis, 
quae in quaestione praedicta alterutram partem statuere et 
convellere possint; ilia nobis probabiliora, validiora, ve- 
riora, etiam et certiora, ac genuinum et syncerum sacrae 
scripturae intellectum prae se ferentia, interpretum etiam sen- 
tentiis ma^ consona visa sunt, quae confirmant et probant, 
jure divino et naturali prohibitum esse, ne frater uxorem 
fratris mortui sine liberis accipiat in conjugem : illis igitur 
persuaffl, et in unam opinionem convenientes, ad quaestionem 
praedictam ita respondendum decrevimus, et in hiis scriptis, 
nomine totius universitatis respondemus, ac pro conclusione 
nobis solidissimis rationibus et validissimis argumentis com- 
probata affirmamus, quod ducere uxorem fratris mortui sine 
liberis, cognitam k priori viro per camalem copulam, nobis 
Christianis hodie est prohibitum jure divino ac naturali. 
Atque in fidem et testimonium hujusmodi nostrae respon- 
sionis et afSrmationis, hiis Uteris sigillum nostrum commune 
curavimus apponi. Dat. congregatione nostra Cantabrigiae, 
die npno Martii anno Domini millesimo quingentedmo vi- 


or RECORDS. 29 

nono. Dominica 2. Quadragesimie anno Domini BOOK 
15S9. in Wyndesor. "• 

Ddivered by me W. B. vicechancellour in ihe chambre 
of presence, post vespcras. 

Your univerMlie of Cambridge have them most humbly 
commended unlo your grace, and here thei liave sent unto 
your highness their letters. Than kisse them and so deliver 

Furthermore as touching your request expressed in your 
letters dyrected unto them by Mr. Secretary and Mr. Fox 
your most wyse counsaJllers in th' accomplishing of the same, 
they have don their dehors, and here in writing under their 
comon seale, thei have sent unto your grace ther sentence, 
desj-ring the same to accept, and to take it in parte and 
good worthe. And if thei had any thing eliys to gratify 
your grafe wythall, their leltres and their studies, your 
highness shuld be suer therof to the uttermost of their 

MS. C. C. C. Given to the college by Dr. Jegon master. ii 

To tlu right worahigfiiU matter doctor Edmonds, vicar ^ 
Jldome in WiUt/nre, 
Mr duty remembred, I hartily commend roe UBto you, 
and I let you understand, that Dommtai Secuftda at after- 
nooD, I came to Wyndsor, and also to part of Mr. Latymer''B 
■ermoo, u>d after the end of the same, I spake with Mr. 
Secretary, and also with Mr. Provost, and so after even-son^ 
I delivered our letters in the chamber of [x^sence, all the 
eoutt behol^ng. The king with Mr. Secretary did there 
read them, but not the letters of determination, notwitli- 
Ttmy<ing that I did there also deliver them, with a propoa- 
tioo. His highness gave me there great thanks, and t&lked 
with me a good while. He much lauded our wisedomes 
and good conveyance in the matter, with the great quietness 
in the same. He shewed me also what he bad in bis hands 
for our umveraty> according unto that, that Mr. Secretary 


PAET did express unto U8, &c. So he departed. But by and by, 
he greatly praised Mr. Latimer^s sermon, and in bo prainog 
sayd on this wise, This displeaseth greatly Mr. Vicechanoel- 
lour yonder. Yon same, sayd he unto the duke of Norfolk, 
is Mr. Vicechancellour of Cambridge, and so pointed unto 
me* Then he spake secretly unto the said duke, which 
aft^ the lunge's departure came unto roe, and wellcomed me, 
saying amongst other things, that the king would speak 
with me on the next day ; and here is the first act. On the 
next day, I waited untill it was dinner time ; and so at the 
last Dr. Butt came unto me, and brought a reward, twenty 
nobles for me, and five marks for the younger procter, which 
was with me; saying that I should take that for a resolute 
answere, and that I might depart from the court, when I 
would. Then came Mr. Provost, and when I had shewed 
him of the answere, he sayd, I diould speak with the king 
at after dinner for all that, and so brought me into a privy 
j^iace, where as he would have me to wait at after dinn^, 
I came thither and he both, and by one of the clock, the 
king entred in. It was in a ^lery. There were Mr. Se- 
cretary, Mr. Provost, Mr. Latimer, Mr. Proctor, and I, and 
no more : the king there talked with us, untill six of the 
clock. I assure you, he was scarce contented with Mr. Se- 
cretary and Mr. Provost, that this was not also determined, 
An papa possit dispensarCj &c. I made the best, and con- 
firmed the same that they had shewed his grace before, and 
how it would never have been so obtained. He opened his 
minde, sajring, that he would have it determined at after 
Ester, and of the same was oounsailed a while. 

I pray you therefore study for us, for our business is not 
yet at an end, Jn papa potest dispensare cum Jure divinoy 
&c Much other communication we had, which were too 
long here to recite. Thus his highness departed, casting a 
little holy water of the court : and I shortly after toke my 
leave o! Mr. Secretary and Mr. Provost, with whom I did 
not drink, ne yet was bidden, and on the morrow departed 
from thence, thinking more than I did say, and being glad 
that I was out of the court, where many men, as I did both 


hear and peiceive, did wcmder at me. And here shall be an BOOK 

end for this time of this faUe. ^' 

All the world almost crieth out of Cambridge for this act, 

and qiecially on me, but I must bear it as well as I may. I 

have lost a benefice by it, which I should have had within 

these ten dayes. For there hath one hine in Mr. Throckmor^ 

ton^^s gift, which he hath faithfiiUy promised unto me many a 

time, but now his mind is turned and alienate fixxn me. If 

ye go to the court at aflter Ester, I pray you have me in re- 

memhrance there, as ye shall think best. But of this no 

more ^Afr. La^^er preacheth still, Quod 4semuU ejusgf^ 

viierJeruiU, I am infcMrmed, that Oxford hath now elected 

certain persons to determine the king^s question. I hear say 

also, that Mr. Provost was there in great jeopardy. Oth^ 

tidings I have none at this time, but that all the company 

be in good health, and heardly saluteth you. And thus fare 

you heartily well. At Cambridge, in croLstino Dominic^ 


Your own to his power, 

William Buckmaster. 
The king willed me to send unto you, 
and to ^ve you word of his plea- 
sure in the said question. 

MS. C. C. C. MisceUan. P. 

Number 17. 

Three letters written by K. Henry to the university qfOx- 
Jbfrdyjhr their opinion in the cause of his marriage. 

Letter I. By the Icing, 

Trusty and well beloved subjects we greet you well, ex MS. D. 
And whereas we have for an high and weighty cause of ^•""•^ 
ours, not only consulted many and substantial well leam'd 
men within our realm and without, for certaine considera- 
tions our conscience moving, we think it also very conve- 
nient to feel the minds of you amongst you in our imiversity 


PART of Oxenford, which be erudite in the faculty of divinity, to 
' the intent we may perceive of what conformity ye be with 

the others, which marvelously both wisely and substantially 
have declared to us their intent and mind : not doubting * 
but that ye for the allegiance and fidelity that ye are bound 
unto us in, will as sincerely and truly without any abuse de- 
clare your minds and conscience in this behalf, as any of the 
€)th^ have done. Wherefore we will and command you, 
that ye not leaning to wilfuU and sinister opinions of your 
own several minds, not giving credence to misreports and 
nnister opinions or perswasions, con^dering we be your so- 
veraigne leige lord, totally ^ving your true mind and affec- 
tion to the true overture of divine learning in this behalf, do 
shew and declare your true and just learning in the said 
cause, like as ye will abide by ; wherin ye shall not only 
please Almighty God, but also us your leige lord. And we 
for your so doing shall be to you and our university there 
so good and gracious a soveraigne lord for the same, as ye 
shall perceive it well imploiM to your well fortune to come; 
in case you do not uprightly according to divine learning ' 
hand your selves herein, ye may be assured, that we not ' 
without great cause, shall so quickly and sharply look to } 
your unnaturall misdemeanour herein, that it shall not be to ' 
your quietness and ease hereafter. Wherefore we heartily ^ 
pray you, that according both to duty to Grod and your ^' 
prince, you sett apart all untrue and sinister informations, ^ 
and accommodate your selves to the meer truth as it becom- ^ 
meth true subjects to do; assuring you that those that do, ^ 
shall be esteemed and set forth, and the contrary neglected ^ 
and little set by : trusting that now you know our mind and ^ 
pleasure, we shall see such conformitie among you, that we ^' 
shall hereof take great consolation and comfort, to the great ^i 
allegement of our conscience ; willing and commanding you ^ 
among you to give perfect credence to my lord of Linoolne 'i 
our confessour in this behalfe and matter : and in all things 1i 
which he shall declare unto you or cause to be declared in '' 
our behalfe, to make unto us either by him or the authen- i 


tick letters full answere and resolution, which your duty^s BOOK 
wdl remembred, we doubt not but that it shall be our high ^^' 
oontentation and pleasure. Given under^ &c. 

Letter II. By the king. 

Tbustt and well-beloved, we greet you well. And of 
late being informed, to our no little marvell and disconten- 
tatkm, that a great part of the youth of that our university 
with contentious factions and manner, daily combineing to- 
gether, neither regarding their duty to us their soveraigne 
iord> nor yet conforming themselves to the opinions and or- 
ders of the vertuous, wise, sage, and profound learned men 
of that university, wilfully to stick upon the opinion to have 
a great number of regents and non-regents to be associate 
unto the doctors, proctors, and batchelors oi divinity, for the 
determination of our question ; which we believe hath not 
been often seen, that such a number of right small learning 
in regard to the other, should be joined with so famous a 
sort, or in a manner stay their seniors in so weighty a cause : 
whidi as we think should be no small dishonour to our uni- 
veraty there, but most especially to you the seniors and 
rulers of the same, assureing you that this their unnatural 
and unkind demeanour is not only right much to our dis- 
pleasure, but much to be marvelled of, upon what ground 
and occafflon they being our meere subjects, should shewe 
themselves more unkind and wilfuU in this matter, than 
all other universities, both in this and all other regions 
do. Finally, we trusting in the dexterity and wisdome 
of you and other the said discreet and substantial learned 
men of that university, be in perfect hope, that ye will 
conduce and frame the said young persons unto good order 
and conformity, as it becommeth you to do. Wherefore 
we be desirous to hear with incontinent diligence, and 
doubt you not we shall regard the demeanour of every one 
of the university, according to their merits and deserts. 
And if the youth of the university will play masteries, as 
they begin to do, we doubt not but that they shall well 

VOL. III. p. 8. D 


PART perceive, that non est bonum irriiare crabrones. Given 
' under, &c. 

Letter III. 

To our trusty and weU-ieloved^ the commissary-regents^ and 
non-regents of our university qfOxon. 

Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. And 
whereas by sundry our letters, sent and delivered at sundry 
times by the hands of our counsellors unto you, with cre- 
dence declared unto you by the same, we have only re- 
quired and made instance unto you, for the obtaining of 
that, which at the least desire of any Christian man ye be 
bound and obligM to do ; that is to say, to declare and shew 
your opinions and sentence in such a doubt, as upon the 
dissolution and determination whereof, dependeth the tran- 
quility, repose, and quiet of our conscience, we cannot a 
litle marvell that you neither having respect to our estate, 
being your prince and soveraigne lord ; nor yet remem- 
bring such gratuites and benefits as we have always shewed 
unto you, as well to the particular wealth of diverse as 
to the common body of that our university, without any 
correspondency shewM on their behalfe againe, have hi- 
therto delayed and deferrM not only to send us your deter- 
mination and resolution to our demand and question, but 
also refused to take order, or enter into any way or meane, 
whereby you might declare or shew unto us, that ye be of 
mind and determination to endeavour your selfe for an ac- 
complishment of our desire in that behalfe. And so much 
the more marvell we at this your manner of delayes, that 
our university of Cambridge hath within far shorter time 
not only agreed upon the fashion and manner to make an- 
swere unto us effectually, and with diligence following the 
same; but hath also 8 days since sent unto us their an- 
swere under common seale, plainly determining. Prohibition 
nem esse divini et naturalisjuris^ nijrater uxorem Jratris 
etiam mortui sine liberis ducat uxor em. For the searching 
of the truth in which matter, if ye had before this time con- 


upon the manner and fashion ooDvenirat in that BQ 

hehali^ we could then have taken any deky afterward, upon \ 

any other cold pretence made, but in good part : whereas 
now the ref uaeing to agree upon any such order, and deny- 
ing to do that wUeh should be but the entrie into the mat- 
ter for dfclaratiop of your fbrwardness, good will and dili- 
gence : we can't otherwise think of you, but that you nei- 
ther bdunre your selves towards us, as our merits towardrf 
you fanve doerved, as good subjects to a kind prince and 
sovcreigne lord; as by the learning ye professe, ye be 
ofaEged and bound. Wherefore revolnng this in our mind, 
md yet neverdieless considering you to be there by our au- 
diority and grant, as a body politique, in the ruleing 
whereof in things to be done in the name of the whole, the 
Bomber of the private suffirages doth prevaile, and being 
lodito ahewe our diqJeasure, whereof we have so great cause 
■Mueti e d unto us, unto the whole in general; whereas the 
Indt perchance oonsisteth and remaineth but in lig^t and 
wiDfbll heads; tat the tender consideration we bear to 
karned men, and the great denre we have to nourish, main- 
tnne, and fsvour those that are good ; have thought con- 
venient to send unto you these letters by our trusty and 
right well-beloved clarke and counseUer, Mr. Edwarde Foxj 
trusting verily that ye which be heads and rulers there, well 
considering and weighing your dutyes in the accomplish- 
ment of our request, for the searching the truth in such a 
cause^ as touching your prince and soveraigne lord, our 
souU and the wealth of this our realme: and your great 
lack and blame iirith just cause of high displeasure to be 
worthily conceived by us in the denyall and slack dcnng 
thereof, will so order and accomodate the fashion, and 
passing such things as should proceed from that university 
in this case, as the number of the private suffrages given 
without reason, prevaile not against the heads, rulers, said 
sage fathers, to the detriment, hindrance, and inconvenience 
of the whde. But so to examine, try, and weigh the opin- 
ioo8 and minds of the multitude, as the importiance of the 
matter doth require : wherein we doubt not but your body 


PART is established in such wise, that there be left waies and 
^^^' means to the heads and rulers how to eschew and avoid 
such inconveniences, when they shall chance: as we trust 
ye that be heads and rulers for the comprobation and de- 
claration of particular good minds, ye will not faile to do 
accordingly, and so by your diligence to be shew'd here- 
after, to redeem the errors and delaies past. The favour we 
beare to the maintenance of learning, we would be very 
glad, as our said well-beloved councellour can shew unto 
you on our behalfe; unto whom we will you ^ve firme 
credence : given under our ^gnet at our castle of Windsor. 

Number 18. 
Copie of the king's letters to the bishop of Rome. 
ExMSS. Etsi videamus vel temporum vel hominum iniquitate 
ymeri, ^^^^ ^^ postulata nostra, quantumvis equa ac naturali ra- 
done subnixa, pai'um expediantur, nihil etiam proficere, in 
causa nostra justissima, charissimi fratris et consanguinei ac 
perpetui confederati nostri, Christianissimi regis amidssimas 
preces ; nobilium autem nostrorum intercessionem non modo 
oontemni, sed etiam derideri, quod eos equo animo non la- 
turos existimamus. Denique re ipsa nihil prsestari quod 
nos afflictos atque vexatos sublevet ; hsec omnia, licet aper- 
tius cemamus quam velimus, tum autem ex oratoribus 
nostris quos apud vos habemus, tum k vestro isthic oratore 
cognoscamus; est tamen spei opinionisque nostras tam di- 
versus exitus ut subinde co^tantibus nobis ac memoria re- 
petentibus omnes causae nostras circumstantias, porro autem 
singula conferentibus que precesserunt queque secuta sunt, 
fidem factorum, dictorum atque responsorum vestrae sanctit. 
in hac causa nostra quam alioqui certam et firmam, fide 
dignorum oratorum et vestrorum et nostrorum relatio con- 
stituit, ipsa ratio communis labefactet atque convellat; at- 
que in re certissima tam dubium reddit ut certo interdum 
non credamus sanct. vest, fecisse que fecisse oognosdmus 
quum ea facere non debuisse intelligamus. Nam ut omit- 
tamus ea quae lon^us precesserunt, quod nuperime efflagi- 


Urimus de dandis in Angliit judicibm, qmi iiiliiliiliiwir Mne- ^^ff^ 

DUtem vesLram oegare voliuBsci IcOge aliter f— *nnittm^_^^ 
DOS. Aliter certe credtdit Christianisijiinii lex qui iwhiimim 
uiu id petiit: alilcr credidcruDt stD wrilwMi quoniM 
niuu id fecit : secus crediderunt noHW noMi OOHIM^ «t 
aames omniuiu ordiiium primi viri. Qui ad noitni poibi* 
ku suas Uteras adjunxerunl, ct quan dod ad id aHjgiiil 
noo lit crvderct saoctitalem vt;strain faotutam Dei n^MoM 
vpiod dcbuissei, el in principum gratMBi quod mcti^pate po> 
tuissct : dcbuisset certe pcnnittcre aaBmaoctif oHm "^m^t 
id dcfimentibus, lit controvcrnu illic Hrannetar obi primum 
BBta est. Illic enim judices et propiBi Tldaat at fH"lliiiil 
ttTtius: ut gloriosissiniQ martj'ri Cfjpaano plaomt. Bt 
Dims Baroardus ad Eugenium scribit bena fi»a tu qaoi 
appetlationum negato Buffragio reoiittia IMigotit ad oqgiW' 
smites et qui noscere citius possunt : aU cnim offtiar at &• 
olior notio, ibi decisio tutior et expeditior ane poteM: par* 
bHxeet auteiu sonctitas vcstra nam olilB 
cum judices ad nos in Angliam iiiitteKt qWM p 
tit. Quod si debuissct quidim quod negari Doa potarit* at 
pMuisset etiani ut quidem factis antes suis de oonnlio suo- 
rum declaravit, quis dubitaret de voluotate siquidem ut de- 
beret ipsam libcram rectom ct ccrtam teneat Banctitas vestra, 
Hon ad aliena arbitria accomcxiataiti ac humanis respecti- 
bus iDservientem qucMJ res ita se habet ut habet fuemut ali- 
quando vices iiostri, nunc ut videmus aliorum aunt : non in 
Iqe Domini, sed in rerum vidssitudine meditandum est, ut 
de vestne sanctitatis manu aliquod auxilii expectemus, aed 
auxilium nostrum 4 Domino certum est, et in Domino BperBD- 
Ics non infirmabimur. Nam in conspectu omnium, acta pro- 
bant voluntatem sanctitads vestne totam Cssari addictam 
ase : illius nutu flecd, ad ilUus arbitrium attemperari. Si 
quid petimus, si quid rc^amus, quod officii vestri asset, 
pcima ratio est, ut ne quid Ceesari displiceat. Quern etiamai 
■micuin babeamus, tamen dominantem in illo natune af- 
fectum ut improbare omoino non possumus, ita in hac causa 
nostra iniquiorem nobis non sine causa refugere debemus et 
Rcte gravisnmam nolns injuriam factam et vestro t^do in* 


PART dignissimum dedecus admissum videmus, ut cum Caesar se 
in hac causa interposuerit, etiam cura se opposuerit de- 
finitioni appellatione interposita, cum se partem publice 
professus sit, vestra sanctitas tamen eundem semper consul- 
torem adhibeat: ad illius imperium figat, ac refigat, differat, 
proroget, mutet et statuat qucxlcunque temporis rationi 
oportunum videatur. Et si quid ab adverso dicatur statim 
creditur : si quid nos proposuerimus omnino rejicitur, scili- 
cet creditur nunc reginse regnum nostrum Angliae non esse 
tutum locum in quo causa judicetur: et creditur unic» al- 
legationi sine testibus contra tam preclara et aperta docu- 
menta quse nos in diversum edidimus, non verbis et assertio- 
nibus que fingi possunt, sed rebus ipsis et factis quae non 
mentiuntur. Nos enim quanta cum libertate atque impuni- 
tate audivimus omnes in nos, uberius etiam quam oportuit, 
quod videbatur proferentes, nemini unquam aliam opinio- 
nem extorsimus, quam que animo videretur suo : diversum 
k nobis sentientes etiam in caeteris, favore et prosequimur 
et prosecuti sumus. Et tamen, post tot argumenta securi- 
tatis, et cum nullum signum adhuc apparuerit cur timere 
quisquam k nobis merito deberet, credit vestra sanctitas 
nudam reginae allegationem in diversum. Quo tempore du- 
bitari potuit qualiter essemus laturi quod ageretur et quanta 
cum equanimitate passuri quod fieret, si quid contra nos 
fieret. Missi sunt ad nos judices in Angliam, k sanctitate 
vestra, nunc vero cum id amplius factitari non potest, non 
modo dubitatur sed creditur diversum ejus, quod nos pro- 
bavimus. Probavimus autem nos regnum nostrum locum 
esse tutum in quo causa nostra judicetur viz. cum hactenus 
summam omnibus dicendi libertatem permiserimus. Regina 
vero tantum allegat diversum, et si quas probationes attu- 
lerit, vanae sint oportet et falsae nee verisimiles. Quae quum 
ita sint, aliud tamen cur judices non dederit, non respondit 
sanctitas vestra, nisi quod regina allegavit locum suspectum. 
Et quis crederet sanctitatem vestram ista nobis respondisse, 
nee aliud dixisse ne judices daret in pardbus : certe refe- 
rentium credulitatem exigit res vero ipsa negat. Si sequa- 
mur quod antea diximus earn persuasionem ut credamus 


ya ar i m Talinitateni slum ita Caenri "AliTia^ BOOl 
at Bon ex animi Teatii nimma fHrudoitia pnediti aenteitia 
wbA cx (HwemnB affisctu respondere ooDtendat. Que res fimt 
oi itannn atque itenim repeCitis Uteris sanctitatem vestnun 
expKssuri nimimm si quid aliud moveiit sancti- 
eur Dostris ultimis desideriM noo annuerit 
ci|adi etiam fiteris Testris intelligere cui caussB potismnum, 
donpoido inmxa sit. Sic eilim expresnus et oertius mentes 
■rieem ei animi nostri sententias oommuiiicabimus: Si in 


csnsb Imoe gnmoribus et postulata et responsa scriptis 
— mlinniiHin Itaque pedmus daiuo Uis Uteris a sancti- 
trie irestra nt causam nostram in Anglia datis judicibus» 
ib quoa inter oratores tanquam indiffierentes et equissimos 
■niinalTMPUSy deddi patiatur, atque pennittat. De judidp 
has autem nuUam ut aedpimus fadt difficultatem sanctitas 
Tsstn, tantum de looo questio fuit, quum sacra consilia jam 
deSnierant et Sanctus etiam Cyprianus et IXvus Bemardus 
at pnediaamus, utique oonvenientisnmum affirmant, ut in 
aolooo causa terminetur ubt primum nata est Durum certe 
SHCt pvbbare nudam regavB all^;ationem de looo suspecto^ 
antra ea argumenta quas nos ostendimus. Et footle videt 
prudentia vestra non levem nobis notam inuri, ut ea in- 
famia aspergamur, quasi in causa tanti sacramenti suspecti 
haberemur, ne eam ex equo et bono divinarum legum prae- 
scripto intra regni nostri limitem terminari pateremur: 
suspitio talis crimen esset etiam in infimo homuncione famo- 
sum^ in principe viro tanto magis augetur facinoris atrocitas, 
quanto sublimius consurgit fastigium dignitatis: nee pos- 
sumus certe pati, nedum equanimiter ferre, ut de suspitione 
tam gravi immerito accusemur, ac sine teste etiam k vestra 
sanctitate inique condemnemur. Quae si communis patris 
et boni pastoris officio fungeretur, in eo potius laboraret ne 
quid temere cuiquam fiat, et ne sine omni sua culpa ledatur 
nee immerito notetur. Atque hoc nimirum est Christi vices 
in terns gerere, conservanda; charitatis exempla prebere, 
ita suum vindicare ne quid alteri detrahatur, ex equo et 
bono omnia disceptare, plane, simpliciter, et aperte agere, 
promissa prestare non obliquo ductu, aUo tendere quam quo 

D 4 


PART cursum aperte institueras. Hsec omnia non ascribimus sane- 
III ^ ^ * 

' titati vestrae, nee de oecultis saerae literal permittunt judi- 
care, et nos semper temeraria judicia fugimus, nee in alium 
libenter admittimus, quod in nos ipsos fieri equanimiter non 
ferremus. Sed si vestras sanctit. oratores^ si vestri nundi, 
vestri magistratus auctore sanctitate vestra faciunt quod 
faciunt, cujus rei cerium judicium conscientiae vestrae sit, 
clara certe verisimilitudo interim elucet: sed si auctor est 
vestra sanctitas, si conscia est, si facta probat, immo si non 
improbat aperte, non corrigit : graviora sunt his que supra 
memoravimus quae in sanctitatem vestram did possunt, 
nam quum sanctitas vestra omnibus modis primum conata 
est impedire ne quis in causa nostra suam sententiam libera 
proferret, ac deinde post multas longas et varias preces, jus- 
titiae administrandae necessitate adacta, ut suum cuique li- 
berum judidum permitteret, scribendi et dicendi quod suae 
oonsdentiae videretur, Uteris tandem in publicum mis^s per- 
miserit, omnibus liberam in causa nostra scribendi faculta- 
tem : magistratus interea vestri, vestro etiam nomine, mul- 
lis gravissime minati sunt, si quid scripserint in potestat^n 
vestram. Hoc Bononiae et aliis in lods permultis factum 
sdmus. Caesaris vero oratores ubique in Italia, ac vestris 
presertim ditionibus, contempto vestrae sanctitatis edicto, 
indies non cessant terrores, minas, et caetera quaeque territa- 
menta inculcare; sciente et volente, vel saltem non impe- 
diente sed connivente sanctitate vestra, his qui in causa 
nostra scripserunt ac scriberent, ni revocent atque recantent. 
Et, qua conspiratione nesdmus, effectum est, ut literarum 
nostrarum nee liber idt commeatus nee tutus. Christianissi- 
mus ver6 rex nobis significavit, quomodo orator vester qui 
apud ilium est, de causa nostra etiam nomine sanctitatis 
vestrae, ut quidem asseruit, in verba pronuntiavit ; nee 
veritus est tanto principi audacter et impudenter mentiri ; 
ut diceret causam nostram contra omne jus et fas intendi, 
nullo jure aut ratione niti. Quae verba, si ex animi vestri 
sententia protulit, non semper ex animi sui sententia, et 
scripsit et locuta est sanctitas vestra, quae causam nostram 
aliquando justissimam appellavit. Quod si temmtas illius 


hominis k sanctitatis vestrae sinceritate remota est, quod li- BOOK 
bentius velleinus, tamen quum eo munere fungatur, in quo ' 
ad mandatorum prasscripta agere videatur, saltern aliqua 
ratione diluenda suspitio est: sicque illis agendum, quos 
splendor dignitatis reddit conspicuos ; ne ullam scandali oo- 
casionem praestent, his quos in obsequio et amicitia conti- 
nere cupiant Nobiscum autem ita agat sanctitas vestra, ut 
natune pnecepta non transiliat ; si suum sibi integrum ser- 
vari cupiat, ne nostrum attingat, ne recipiat appellationes ad 
se in causa nostra : et si quas receperit, ne contra justitiam 
eas tueri studeat ; sed secundum justitiam, eas in regnum 
remittat; ne exercere conetur inhibitiones suas, in hac 
causa contra nos^ aut subditos nostros, quos illis modis non 
oonvenit deterreri. Sinat leges et prerogativas nostras reg- 
nique nostri Angliae, nee tempore nee auctoritate vestris ce- 
dentes, sua vi procedere : inhibitiones istas, si quas fecerit, 
quod non credimus, maturiori oonsilio revocet quae factas 
sunt, et cum alieni juris praejudicio, ne deinceps emittat. 
Summatim autem quod petitur; hoc est, ut ne ad se, neve 
ad curiam Romanam, causae illius cognitionem deferri pa- 
tiatur, quas intra regni nostri limites debet terminari. Nee 
credat sanctitas vestra, ut cum lege^ certas et fixas habeat 
hoc regnum nostrum Angliae, ne causae quaecunq; regiam 
personam, aut rempublicam quoquomodo tangentes, extra 
regni limites judiciis tractentur; vel permissuros nos eas 
nobis regnantibus infringi et violari; vel passuros regni 
nostri nobiles, tarn grave praejudicium huic regno inferri. 
Breviter site nil moveat persona rogantis, moveat saltern 
causa rogandi. Rogamus enim nos, quia naturae et rationi 
consonum est, ut quod nostrum est nobis illibatum conser- 
vare studeamus. Rogamus autem auctoribus sacrosanctis 
consiliis, hoc est, vestris legibus; viz. ut in sua cujusque • 
provincia causa terminetur. Rogamus ex sententia Divorum 
Cjpriani et Bemardi, quibus hoc, ut supradiximus, equum 
visum est. Denique rogamus, quod leges nostrae diversum 
non patiantur, et nos k contentionibus abhorremus. His 
certb non annuere non potest sanctitas vestra, si ilium cha- 
ritatis fervorem habeat, quem et titulus dignitatis prae se 


PART fert, et nos etiam habemus. Veruntamen, si hse causas ro- 
gandi sanctitatem vestram moverint, ut concedat quod jus- 
turn est, eatenus tamen apud nos valebunt, ne de sanctitads 
vestrse manu patiamur quod injustum est : nee quisque facile 
patitur auferri, quod suum est. £t nos etiara in aliena illi- 
benter imiimus, sed a contentione non abest detrimentum : 
et nuUius fer^ compendio semel natse controversial transi- 
guntur: quid animi habeat sanctitas vestra, quid autem 
nobis respondere decreverit, rogamus ut per literas velit sig- 

Number 19. 

A letter ofGr, Cassalijrom Compiegne, An original. 

Cotton li- Sbrenissime et invictissime Domine mi supreme, salutem. 
tduS, B." Compendium regem Christianissimum, quemadmodum sibi 
i3« placere ipse mihi dixerat, sum subsequutus. Cum ejus ma- 

jestaU duo adbuc agenda supererant : primum, quia meorum 
Uteris certior factus sum, brevi pontificem cum Csesare con- 
venturum, literae ad duos cardinales, qui Parisiis sunt, ab 
hoc rege Christianissimo conscribendse videbantur ; quibus 
illis mandaret, quo celerius poterint magnis itineribus in 
Italiam festinent. Itaque veluti k rege postulavi, ut huju»- 
modi literse exarentur. Deinde valde existimabam necessar- 
rium, cum hoc principe agere, ut duobus cardinalibus daret 
in mandatis, ut ante omnes cardinalis de Monte meminissent. 
Eique pensionem annuam, saltem trium millium aureorura, 
ex quadraginta millibus, quse mihi dixerat velle in cardinales 
distribuere assignarent. Et rex quidem hoc etiam scribi ad 
duos cardinales jussit secretario Vitandri : quicum ego post- 
modo super iis pensionibus sermonem habui, cognovique sic 
in animo regem habere, ut duo cardinales quum Romae fu- 
erint, videant, qui potissimum digni hac regia sint liberali- 
tate, in eosque, quum quid in regno Galliae ecclesiasticum 
vacare contigerit, ex mentis unius cuj usque pensiones con- 
ferantur. Tunc autem nihil in promptu haberi, quod car- 
dinali de Monte dari possit : verum regis nomine illi de fu- 
turo esse promittendum, ^od mihi certe summopere displi- 


cult; et secretario Yitandii non reticui, ostendens poUicita- BOOK 
tiones hujusmodi centies, jam cardinali de Monte factas 
fuisse ; et modo si iterum fiant nihil aliud effecturas, nisi ut 
illius viri quasi ulcera pertractent id quod Vitandri verum 
esse fatebatur, pollicitusq; est se, quum rex k Venatu redi- 
isset, velle a suadere, ut cardinalem de Monte aliqua prse- 
senti pensione prosequatur ; qua quidem te nihil conducibi- 
lius aut oportunius fieri posset. 

lUud autem novi, quod meorum Uteris ex urbe significa- 
tur, ad Guronum perscribk £t D. Benettum ad dominum 
ducem Norfolciae scribere arbitror his literis, quae hie mihi 
reddits sunt, et cum praesentibus mitto. Quod autem et 
rege Christianissimo cognovi illud est. Constituisse Cae- 
sarem, superioribus diebus, relinquere Ferdinando fratri vi- 
ginti millia peditum, equitum decem millia ; ita ut ipse soU 
▼eret de suo stipendia sex millibus Boemorum, et duobus 
millibus militum navalium : quatuor vero millibus Germa- 
norum darentur stipendia k liberis Germanise civitatibus. 
At reliquis qui Italorum erant octo millia, nihil certi sti- 
pendii decemebat; credens illos, quemadmodum in Italia 
plsrumque evenire consuevit, aut exigua re, aut ad summum 
dimidio stipendio acquieturos. Ex decem equitum millibus, 
duo millia ex Flammingis, ordinibus relinquebant. In ca^- 
teros stipendium k pontifice, ut in illam diem factum fuerat, 
statuebat. Sed enim Itali milites, male se tractari exisU- 
mantes, tumultu facto Italiam versus abierunt ; quod quum 
reliqui cognovissent, alii alio domos suas omnes discesserunt. 
Hujus autem seditionis crimen in Petrum Mariam Rubeum 
conutem Sancti Secundi collatum fuit : idque quoniam disce- 
dentes milites ipsius comitis nomen clamantes ingeminabant: 
ilium igitur Caesar comprehendi jussit: et cardinalem Me- 
dices quoque legatum ut ejusdem affinem culpae detineri, ac 
paulo post dimitti imperavit: qui primo quoque tempore 
per equos dispositos abiens Venetias se contulit : atque banc 
quidem rem pontifex, ut debuit, iniquoanimo tulisse dicitur; 
et de adeo insigni contumelia cum Caesarianis omnibus est 
conquestus. Verum, illi quibus modis potuerunt, Caesarem 
excusarunt, rogaruntq; ut placato sit an'uno donee Caesarem 


PA RT ipsum audiat, qui ostendet quicquid fecit in ipsius pontificisy 
' beneficium fecisse. De conventu pontificis Caesarisq; pro 
certo ferme habetur Bononise futurum : et ut ex litteris cfA- 
ligi potest, jam nunc Caesar Italiam cum duodecim milibus 
peditum ingressus est : et pontifex ab urbe Bononiam versus 
discedet, Romam enim venerat Petrus Cona Csesaris legatus 
ad pontificem deducendum : qua de re quum hie certior fac- 
tus esscm, ad Franciscum fratrem meum, qui Romse est, 
scripsiy ut cardinalem de Monte, et alterum amicum nostrum 
adiret, rogaretque velint cum pontifice agere, ut quoniam ita 
festinanter Bononiam contendit, neque ipsos secum ducere 
potest, promittat se nihil antequam Romam redierit in causa 
majestatis vestrae facturum, quum praesertim absque ipsis 
nihil recte in tanto ncgotio confici possit. Prseterea fratri 
meo ut idem nonnullis aliis cardinalibus diceret mandavi : 
quod si viderit non posse id a pontifice impetrari, ab ipsis 
contendet ut pontificem omnino sequuntur, neque aetas de- 
crepita illos moretur, sed quoquo modo sese deferri fadant : 
neque velit cardinalis de Monte, quemadmodum alias fecit, 
absente pontifice legatus in urbe remanere, praesertim «, 
quod firme ab omnibus creditur, pontifex Bononiam usque in 
mensem Martium aut Aprilem est commoraturus. Sed 
nunc quod scribam omittendum non est. Quum Caletio dis- 
cedens equum consedissem, secretarius qui illic erat nuntii 
pontificii, se litteras habere a nuntio mihi dixit, quibus re- 
spondebat ad quandam partem suarum litterarum, quae illi 
meis verbis significarat, velle se omnino ad pontificem sen- 
bere, ne quicquam in causa majestatis vestrae ante reditum 
meum ageret, ea enim me allaturum, quae sibi rationabiliter 
placere possent, dummodo nihil super causa factum fuisset, 
Responsum autem nuntii illud erat, se in eam sententiam ad 
pontificem scripsisse, et de ea ita scripsisse, ut mihi pollice- 
retur, nihil ante quam ego redierim in majestatis vestrae 
causa innovatum fore : enimvero me rogavit ut aliquid boni, 
et quod nostris placere posset aiferrem, ne ipse mentitus esse 

3ed de pensione in cardinalem de Monte conferenda, quo- 
niam postmodo rex Christianissimus quemadmodum mihi 


promiserat scribere recusavit, et me rogavit ut adventum BOOK 
magni magistri expectarem, quid sequutum sit majestas ' 
vestra ex domino Wintoniensi cognoscet, ad quem de hac 
re abunde scripsi. Felix sit et optime valeat majestas vestra. 
Compendii die xvi. Novemb. M.D. xxxii. , 

Regia majestatis. 

Number 20. 
A representation made by the convocation to the king before 

the submission. 

First, as concemiDg such constitutions and ordinances cotton li- 
provincial as be to be made hereafter by us your most^^' p^ ^ 
humble subjects, we having our especial trust and con- 
fidence in your most excellent wisdom, and your princely 
goodness and fervent zeal to the promotion of Gods honour 
and Christen religion, and specially in your incomparable 
learning farr exceeding in our judgments the learning of all 
other kings and princes that we have redde of, and doubting 
nothing but that the same shall still continue and daily en- 
crease in your majestic, do offer and promise hereunto the 
same that from henceforth during your highness natural 
life which we most hertily beseech Almighty God long to 
preserve, we shall forbear to enact promulge or put in exe- 
cution, any such constitution or ordinance so by us to be 
made in Ume coming, unless your highness by your royal 
assent shall license us to make promulge and execute such 
constitutions, and the same so made shall approve by your 
highness authorite. 

Secounde, Whereas your highness honorable commons 
do pretend that diverse of the constitutions provincial, which 
have ben heretofore enacted, be not only much prejudicial 
to your highness prerogative royal, but also overmuch one- 
rous to your said commons, we your most humble subjects 
for the considerations aforesaid, be contented to referr and 
commit all and angular the said constitutions to the exami- 
nation and judgment of your grace only : and which soever 
of the same shall finally be found thought and judged by 


PART your graces most high wisdom prejudicial! and overmuch 
' onerous as is pretended, we offer and promise your highness 

to moderate or utterly to abrogate and annuU the same, ac« 
cording to the judgment of your grace. Saving to us allwaie 
all such immunities and liberties of this church of England, 
as hath been granted unto the same by the goodness and be- 
nignite of your highness, and of others your most noble pro- 
genitors, with all such constitutions provincial as do stand 
with the laws of Almighty God and holt/ churchy and of 
your realm heretofore made, which we most humbly beseech 
your grace to raufie and approve by your royal assent, for 
the better execution of the same in times to come, amongst 
your graces people. Providing also that until your high- 
ness pleasure herein shall be further declared unto iis, all 
manner of ordinaries may execute their jurisdictions in like 
manner and form as they have used the same in times past* 

Number SI. 

A letter by Magnus to Cromwettj concerning the convocation 
qf York. Takenjrom the original. 

cieop. B. 6. After full due recommendation unto your good master- 
P* '5^* ship, Hke it the same to wete, that yesterdaie was here with 
me Mr. Doctor Lee, and shewed unto me the kings most gra- 
cious pleasure and your advertisements for my going north- 
wards to the convocation at York. So it is, as I doubt not 
the said Mr. Doctor Lee knoweth and conceiveth, that I have 
not a little been sik and diseased, but greatly grieved with 
a rewme in myn hed, and a catarr fallen into my stomake, 
by reason whereof, I have had, and yet have a contynuall 
great cough, I am in truste that my diseas and sicknes is in 
declination, supposing thereby the sooner to have recovery, 
and this daye have sent for my horses into Nottingham shir, 
and truste with the helpe of Grod to be at York soone after 
the begynning of the said convocation. Many yeres afore- 
passed, I have ever been redy to go when I have been com- 
manded, and yet I have as good a will as ever I had, but 
myn olde body is nowe soe ofte doggod with infirmitie and 


unweildenes, that it woU not aunswer to the effect of my de- BOO It 
sire and good my nde» yet nevertheles with the good helpe and * 

counsell also of Mr. Bartlot, I shall doe asmuch as I may to 
make me soe strong as it woll be, and have had communy- 
cation at large with the said Mr. Doctor Lee, touching our 
intended business. I am very glad that he shall be at York 
at this season, for at the laste convocation where as was 
graunted unto the kings highness the great some of mony to 
be paide in five yeres, with the recognising his grace to be 
supremum capvty Sfc. I had very title helpe, but my self, 
albeit the kings highness said that he wolde have sent other 
bookes after me, which came not : soe that therefore the 
kinges causes were the longer in treating and reasonyng or 
they came to good effect and conclusion ; the prelates and 
dergie there woU not in any wise give firme credence to re- 
porte of any acts that be paste here, onles the same be 
shewed unto them authentically, either under scale, or 
otherwise, or the kings most honourable letters addressed 
accordingly, these two things in myn oppynnyon, must both 
be done, for without the same, the prelats and clergie of the 
north parties being farre from knowledge of the kings most 
high pleasure, woll not for any credence, be hastie to proceed 
to any strainge acts, but woll esteem their reasons and lern- 
yng, to be as effectuall as others be. I write the more at large 
unto you herryne, bycause, as it shall please you, and as ye 
shall seem good, the matters that now be intended, may be 
put in order. Glad I would have been to have commen 
nowe unto you my self, but I assure you, I dare not as yet 
come into the open ayer, soe soone as I may, it shall be my 
firste pilgrimage by the grace of God, who ever preserve you 
myn one good master. At Maribone this Monday the xxth 
daye of Aprill. 

Your own preiste 

and bedeman, 

T. Magnus. 


PART Number 22. 

A protesicUion nuide by Warham^ archbishop of Canterbury ^ 

P. lao. 

agcAnst all the acts passed in the parliament to the pre- 
Judice of the church. 

Protestatio archiepiscopi Cantuar, 
1531* In Dei nomine. Amen. Per prsesens publicum instru- 
mentum cunctis appareat evidenter et sit notum, qu5d anno 
Domini secundum cursum et computationem ecclesiseAn^ 
glicanse millesimo quingentesimo xxxi<>. indictione quintA, 
pontificatus reverendissimi in Christo patris et domini nos- 
tri, domini Clementis divinfi providendft illius nominis pape 
eeptimi, anno nono, mensis ver6 Februarii die vigesimo 
quarto : in quodam superiori cubiculo sive camerS infra ma- 
nerium reverendissimi in Christo patris et domini, domini 
Wilhelmi permissione divinll CanV archiepiscopi, totius An- 
glise primatis, et apostolicae sedis legati, de Lambithe Win- 
ton^ dioc. situatum in nostrorum notariorum publiconim 
subscriptorum, ac testium inferius nominatorum, praesentift 
constitutus personaliter idem reverendissimus in Christo 
pater, quandam protestationem, in scriptis redactani, fecit, 
et interpofiuit, ac palim et public^ protestatus est, cseteraque 
fecit et exercuit prout, et quemadmodum quadam papiri 
schedule, quam manibus suis tunc tenens public^ legebat, 
plenius continebatur ; cujus quidem schedulse tenor sequi- 
tur, et est talis. 

In Dei nomine. Amen. Nos Wilhelmus permissione di- 
ving Cant. arch, totius Anglise primas, et apostolicse sedis le- 
gatus, protestamur public^ et expresse, pro nobis, et sanctA 
ecclesi^ nostr^ metropoIiticS Cantuariensi, quod nolumus, 
nee intendimus, sicuti neque sand conscientill possumus, aH- 
cut status in praesenti parliamento apud fratres prsedicatores 
London tertio die mensis Novembris anno Dom^ 1529. et 
anno regni regis Henrici Octavi xxi. inchoat\ et abinde usq; 
ad Westm"* prorogate & ibidem hue usque continuat\ edito, 
seu deinceps edendo^ quatenus statuta hujusmodi, seu eorum 
aliquod, in derogationem Romani pontificisy aut sedis apo- 
stoliciB ; vel damnum prasjudicium, sive restrictionem ecclesi- 
asticcB potestatis ; aut in subversionem, enervationem, seu 


lliiijjjiirwiimj Td diinhiutioiiany ^fNTNiffiy emuueiudmumi BOOJ 

itfi ftiiii eesfasMr iioflrw ffwlrqpolilk^ C%rwtf Cufif > pn»- 
diet* tendare dBgnoaetutur, jfMomodoI^ aedad 

omiiem juris effbctum qui ezinde aequi potent aut de- 
bebity ciadem iKcfaitifir, redamartf cotUradicere ; «c di#- 
jgwlMWirt^ nd a mmmmi ^ ct cowl rfl Jic iwi if f in hb acripUs, Su- 
ps quobas oiiiiiibu% et Mnguliii prnniwi^ idem reverendis- 
wmm pater noa noCariot puUiooa subacriptos aabi unum, vd 
plnra, pobBcum aeu publica, inatnmientum ave inatni^^ 
CDBide cunfic fflpe deUti et inatanter lequinvit et ragavit 

Aeyiannt bnc omnia et ongula prout aupra acribuntur et 
watant ur aub anno Domini^ indictione, pontificatu, menae, 
dk^ et loeo pnedictia ; prsaendbua tunc ibidem Tenerafaili- 
boBy et probb Tiriai magiatria Johanne Cocka, legum doc- 
tore: BogeiDHannam theologiebaocalaureo: Ingelnunno 
BedQly derioo: et Wilbelmo Waren liteiato» teatibua ad 
pnemiaaa Tocatia ^wcialilcr et rogatia. 
Istud inatnunentum aindliter eiat aubacrqitum manibua . 
pnaffictonun trium notariorum, wiih ikejbr^fok^in* 
Hrumeni; «UcA was thai qfAe iubmiiskm rf Ae 
liergy. They were 

William Potkyn, John Hering, and Thomas Argal. 

TIAs W€L8 copied out of a MS. in my lord LongvilTs library. 

Number S3. 

To the king. From Edmund Bonner cU Marseilles. 

A letter of Bonner's upon his receding the king's appeal to 

the pope. An original. 

Pleaseth it your highnes to be advertised, that sythen Cotton n. 
my last letters sent unto the same of the ivth of this present tenkw 
by Thadens the curror wherein I declared in what termes^* H* 
were the proceedings here, I was commaunded by my lord 
<if Winchester and other your highnes ambassadoures here, 
to intimate unto the popes person, if the same were possible 
to do, all suche provocations and appelles which your high-( 

VOL. III. p. 3. B J 



PART nes heretofore had made unto the generall oounoeU^ and sent 
^^^' hither to be intimated accordinglie. Whereupon denring 
Mr. Penyston to take the pains with me unto the popes pa- 
lace for the expeditions of an acte concemyng your highnes, 
and he right glad and very well content to do the same : I 
repayred with hym thither the viith of this present, in the 
momyng, and alb^t that at the begynnyng some resistence 
and contradiction was made that we shold not come unto the 
pope, which as then was in manner full readye to come unto 
the consistorie; and therefore not accustomed with other 
bu^ness to be interrupted, yet in conclusion we came to that 
chamber where the pope stode bytwene two cardinalles, de 
Medices, and Lorayne, redie apparalled with his stole towards 
the consistorie. And incontinently upon my comyng thither, 
the pope, whos sight is incredulous quick, eyed me, and that 
divers tymes, making a good pawse in one place, in which 
tyme I desired the datary to advertise his holines that I de- 
sired to speke with him. And albeit the datarie made no 
litle difficultie therein thinking the tyme and place not most 
convenient, yet perceyvyng that upon refusal I wool have 
goon furthwith to the pope, he advertised the pope of my 
said desire. And his holynes dismyssing as then the said 
cardinals, and letting his vesture fall went to a wyndowe in 
the said chamber calling me unto him, at what tyme (doyng 
reverence accustomed) I shewed unto his holynes how that 
your highness had given me expresse and strayte command- 
ment to intimate unto hym, how that your grace had first 
solomly provoked and allso after that appealled unto the ge- 
neral! councell, submitting your self to the tuition and de- 
fence thereof, which provocation and appelles I said I had 
under authentike writinges then with me to shewe for that 
purpose. Declaring that your highnes was moved thus to 
doo upon reasonable causes and grounds expressed in the 
said provocation and appelles, and yet nevertheless soo tem- 
pering your doynges that beynge a good and catlu^ke 
prince, and proceeding thereafter, your grace mynded not 
any thing to say, doo, or goo about agaynst the holie catho- 
lique and apostolique churche, or tiie authority of the see. 


•oo to doo indeed intended in ijmt and place ae- "' 
rowKn^ cadhofiqudy to lefeme and await the same. And 
he te w iliM Jl I drew oat die eaid writing shewing hia said ho- 
Ijn eathatlhroii^t the aame for proof of the premises a^ 
dbat Ua iMtpea might wee and pefoave all the aame^ adding 
hwBimio that jour highnet used these remediea not in any 
uail—pt either of the diurcfae, the see, or of hia holynes, 
hit ooljr upon eanaea expreaied in the said writings. Desii^ 
i^gdbn Us holynes that althoughe in tymes passed it liked 
hjBi to sbewe unto me much benevolence and kyndnes 
vhcffliie I must and did acoompte my self greatly bounden 
nto the same, yet considering theoUigatioos a subject must 
asd dodi of right beare chiefly unto his sovereyne lordyhe 
woed take ti my doyngs in good parte, and not to ascribe 
sny mikyndnes unto me in this behaUe» but only to oonader 
dst a anfafcct and servant must do his masters commande- 
iMtt. The pope havyng this for a brdcefast, only pulled 
downe bis haul to lus shoulders after the Italion fSuhioQ, 
and aaid that because he was as then fully ready to goe to the 
CBBsistorie he would not tarye to hear or see the said vrit- 
ings ; but willed me to come at after noone and he would 
gladly gifTme audience to all the same, and other things that 
I would propose or do, whereupon his holynes departing 
Btreyght to the consistorie, I returned to your said ambas- 
sadors, telling them what I had doon, and what answer I 
had. That after noone I and Mr. Penyston (whom I en- 
tended aswel in the popes answeres, as also in other my 
doinge, to use as a wittnes if the cause should soe require,) 
icpayred to the palace, and bycause that audience was as- 
flgned unto many, and among others unto the ambassador 
of Millan, I tarried there the space of an howre and halfe, 
and finally was called into the pope^s secret chamber, 
where (taking with me Mr. Penyston) I founde his ho- 
fines having only with hym Godsadyn of Bononie ; the pope 
perceyving that I had brought one with me, looked much 
upon lijrm, and a great deale the more, in my opinion, by- 
cause that in the morning I did speak with his holines alone. 


PART Mr. Penyston albeit beyng in the sud chambre, and seying 
' what I did, yet not resorting nye unto his said holines. And 
to put the pope out of this fantasie, and somewhat to colour 
my entent, I tolde his holynes that the said Mr. Penyston was 
the gentilman that had brought unto me commission and let- 
ters from your highnes, to intimate unto his holynes the pro- 
vocation and appeal forsaid ; the pope percase not fully here- 
with satisfied, and supposing that I would (as I indede en- 
tended) have recorde upon my doyngs, said, that it were good 
for him to have his datarie, and also other of his coimsell, to 
hear and see what were done in that behalfe,and thereupon 
called for his datarie, Sjrmonetta, and Capisuchi. In the 
mean whyle, they beyng absent, and sent for, his holynes 
leaning in his wyndow towardes the west syde, after a little 
pawse turned unto me, and asked me of my lord of Winches- 
ter how he did, and likewise afterward of Mr. Brian ; but after 
that sort that we thought he would make me believe that he 
knew not of his being here, saying thos words ; how doth Mr. 
Brian, b he here now : and after that I had answered here- 
unto, his holynes not a little seeming to lament the death of 
Mr. Doctor Bennet, whom he said was a faithfull and good 
true servant unto your highnes, enquired of me whether I 
was present at the time of his death, and falling out of that, 
and marvelling, as he said, that your highness would use 
his holyness after such sorte, as it appears ye did : I said that 
your highnes no less did marveyU that his holynes havyng 
found so much benevolence and kyndnes at your handes in 
all tymes passed, would for aoquitall shewe such unkyndnes 
as of late he did, as well in not admitting your excusator 
Mrith your lawfull defences, as alsoe pronouncing against your 
highnes : and here we entered in comunication upon two 
poyntes, oon was that his holynes having comitted in tymes 
passed, and in moost ample forme, the cause into the realms 
promising not to revoke the said commission, and over that 
to confirm the processe and sentence of the commisaries, 
beyng two cardinalles and legates of his see, should not 
especially at the poynt of sentence, have advoked the cause 
from their hands, reteyning it at Rome, but at the lest, he 


should have committed the same to some other indifferent BOOK 
judges within your realme, making herein that it could not 
be retayned at Rome : this argument was either his holynes 
would have the matter examyned and ended, or he would 
not : if he would, then either he would have it examined 
and ended in a place whither your highness might personally 
come, and ellse bende to send your proctor, or else in that 
place whither your highnes nother couud or ought person- 
ally to come unto ; ne yet bounde to sende a proctor ; if he 
intended in a place whither your hi^nes might personally 
come^ and elles bound to send a proctor he intended well 
and ought to have provided accordingly. If he entended 
that the matter shuid be examyned and ended in that place 
wher your highnes neither could nor ought personally to 
come, nor yet bounde to send a proctor then his holynes did 
not well and justly. Seying that ether your highness shuld 
therbie be compelled to make a proctor in matter of such 
importance against your will ; or enforced to a thing unto 
you impossible, or elles to be left without defence, having 
just cause of absence. And for as much as Rome was a 
place whither your highnes could not ne yet ought person- 
ally come unto, and alsoe was not bound to send thither 
your proctor : I said therefore that his holynes justly shuld 
not have retayned the matter at Rome. The second point 
was that your highnes cause beyng in the opinion of the 
best learned men in Christendome approved good and just, 
and so many wayes known unto his holynes ; the same shuld 
not soe long have retayned it in his hands without judg- 
ment : his holynes answering to the same, as touching the 
first poynt, said that if the queue (meanyng the late wife of 
prince Arthure, calling her alway in his conversation, the 
queen) had not ^ven an oath perhorrcBscentice el quod non 
sperabai consequijustiticBComplementum impartibuSy refus- 
ing the judges as suspect, he would not have advoked the 
matter at all, but been content it shuld have been examyned 
and ended in your realm ; but seyng she gave that othe and 
refused the judges as suspect, appealling also to his courte, 
he said he might and ought to hear her, his promise made 



PART to your highnes, which was qualified, notwithstanding. And 
as touching the seconde poynt, his holynes said that your 
highnes only was the defaut thereof, bycause ye woulde not 
send a proxie unto the cause, without which he said the 
same coude not be determyned, and albeit I replied aswell 
against his answere to the first poynt, saying that his holy- 
nes couM ne yet thereupon retaine the matter at Rome, and 
proceed against your highnes there, and likewise against the 
seconde poynt, saying that your highnes was not bounde to 
sende any proxie, yet his holynes seeing that the datarie was 
come in upon this last conclusion, said only that al these 
matters had been oft, and many tymes fully talked upon at 
Rome, and therefore willed me to omitte ferther communi- 
cation thereupon, and to proceede to the declaration, and 
doing of such things, that I was specially sent for : where- 
upon making protestation of your highnes mynde and intent 
towardes the church, and see apostolique, not intending any 
thing to doe in contempt of the same, I exhibited unto his 
bolynes the commission which your highnes had sent unto 
me under your private scale (the other sent by Frances the 
curror not beyng then come) desiring and asking according 
to the tenour thereof, and his holynes delivering it to the 
datarie commanded hym to rede it, and hereing in the same 
thes wordes, gravaminibus et infuHis nobis ab eodem sane-- 
tissimo poire iUatts et comminatisy began to loke up after a 
new sorte and said, O quesio et muUo vero, this is much 
true, meanyng that it was not true indeede. And verily 
sate not (Hily in this but also in many partes of the said com- 
misaon as they were red he shewed hymself grevouslie 
offended : insomuch that when those words, ad sacra^anc- 
turn conciUum ffenerctle proaimejamjuturum legiHmum et 
in loco congruenti celebrandum, were red, he fell in a mar- 
velous great cholere and rage, not only declaring the same 
by his gesture and manner, but also by wordes : speaking 
with great vehemence, and saying. Why did not the king 
(meanyng your majestic) when I wrote to my nuncio this 
you passed to speke, unto hym for this generall councell, 
giff no answer unto my said nuncio, but referred hym for 


mswere theran to the French king; at what tyme he might BOOK 

peroetTe by my doyng (he said) that I was very well di»- ^ 

posed and much spake for it : the thing so standi ng, now to 
speke €i a general oouncel, O good Lord. But well ! his 
oommksion, and all other his writings cannot be but wel- 
come unto me, he said, whiche last wordes we thought he 
spake willing to hide his choler, and make me byleve that 
he was nothing angrie with this doyngs, where in very dede 
I peroeiTed by many arguments that it was otherwise : and 
ooe among another was taken here for unfallible with them 
that knoweth the popes conditions, that he was contynually 
folding up and imwynding of his handkerchefe, which he 
nerer doth but when he is tykled to the very hert with 
great choler. And albeit he was lothe to leave conversation 
of this generall councel to ease his stomack, yet at the last 
he commanded the datarie to rede further : which he did. 
And by and by, upon the reding of thoos clauses, gi oporiet 
rever. pairibusy Sfc. and past and his 

hcrfynes eftsones chafed greatly ; finally saying, Quesio e 
boonjiatio^ this is but well doon. And what tyme that 
clause Prciestandoy 4rc. and also that oother, Nos ad ea juris 
etjhdi remedia^ was red by the datarie, he caused hym to 
rede theym again ; which doon, his holynes not a litle chaf- 
yng with hymself asked what I had moore. And then I re- 
peting my protestation, did exhibit unto him your highnes 
provocation, which incontenently he delivered to the datarie 
to rede, and in this also he founde hym self much greived, 
notyng in the begynnyng not oonly those wordes archiepi. 
scope Eboracensi^ but also thus, cHra turn renocat, quorum 
cumque procuratorum : at which he made good pawse, con- 
jectering therebie as I toke it, that ther were proctors made 
which might excercise and appear in your name if your high- 
nes had ther with be contented. The datarie reding ferther 
and comyng to those woords quod non est nostrce inten- 
tivniSj Sfc. his holynes with great vehemence says, that 
thoughe your highnes in your protestation had respect to 
the church and authorite of the see apostolique, yet you had 
noon to hym at al ; whereunto I answered and said it was 

E 4 


PART not 8oe, as his holynes should perceyve in the other writings. 
But of truth say what I say wooled ther was in manor never 
a clause in the said provocation that soe pleased him, but he 
woold wrynge and whrist it to the worst sense ; as in anno- 
tations upon the margynes aswell of provocation as alsoe ap« 
pellations, I shall fully declare unto your highness; which 
yet nevertheles at this time bycause it cannot be perfect at 
the departure of this byrer I doo not send it to your high- 
nes. As the detarie was reding this provocation, came in 
Symoneta, and even at those woords, Sed deinde publico 
eantur judicio. Wherin the pope snarling and sayeing 
that publicum^ Symoneta said no such was never had. 
Symoneta said, now syne they spake of that archbishop, I 
suppose, that made that good processe, the cause depending 
afore your holynes in the consistorie. A said the pope a 
worshipful processe and judgment. And as he was chafing 
hereupon, ther came oon of his chamber to tell hym that the 
French lung did comme to speke with his holynes : and incon- 
tenently hereapon the pope made great hast to mete hym ; 
and even at the very door they mette together, the French 
king makyng very lowe curtisie, putting of his bonet, and 
keping it of, till he came to a table in the popes chamber. 
And albeit I much dout not that the French king knew 
right well what doyngs was in hand, advertised thereof by 
oon Nicolas his secretarie and also of the popes pryvey 
chamber, yet his grace asked of the pope what his holynes 
did. And the same gave answer and said, QuesH signori In- 
gkst sono staH qua per intimare certi provocatiani ei appetta- 
tioni e di/are aUre cose^ Theis gentlemen of England be here 
to intimate certeyn provocations and appelles and to do other 
things. Whereupon they two secretly did fall in conversar- 
tion ; but what it was I cannot tell : the French kinge his 
back was against me, and I understood not what he said. 
Trouth it is, when the French king had spoke a long tyme 
and made ende of his tale, the pope said those wordes, 
Q^esta e per la bonta vostm, This is of your goodnes. 
Proceding ferther in conversation and laughing meryly to- 
gether they so talked Uie space of three quarters of an 


bower, it bejiig then after m of the dock in die nyghty aid BOOK 

in condoMOP the Ffench lun^ making freat revcnmce uJte 

hia le a ni, but the pdipe went with him to the chamber donre, 

and albeit the French king woold not have s u flered hjrm 

f intfaer to have goon, yet his holynes following hjrm out of 

the doove toke hym by the hande and brought hiiki to the 

doon of the aeoonde chamber, where making great cere* 

moniea the oon to the other, they departed, the pope letum- 

yng to boa diamber, and aeyng me stande at doore, willed 

me to enter with hym. And ao I did bavyng with me Mr. 

Peaysfeon. And then and ther the datarie red out the rest 

of die provocadon : interrupted yet many tymes by the 

pope, wUdi oike fiir the easement of his mynde made his in* 

terpraladons and notes, 'especially if it touched the manage 

wbicb of late your Ughnes made with the quene diat now 

is, or the piooesse made by the archbishoppe of Cantur- 


The p rov o cations red, with muche a doo, I under {HDOtes- 
tatioiiB fixrsaid did intimate unto him the two appelles, made 
abo by your highnes to the generall eouncell afor my lord 
of Windiester, whidb his holynes dely vered to his datarie 
commanding hym to rede theym. Notyng and marking well 
all manner and contentes thereof : and noo lesse offended 
therbie then he was with the oother. In the reding whereof 
came in the cardinal de Medices, whiche stoode bare headed 
cootynually during the reding thereof, casting down his hede 
to the grounde, and not a litle marvelling, as it appered 
unto me, that the pope was so troubled and mourned. 
When this was doon, his holynes said that forasmuch as 
this was a matter of great weyght, and importance, towching 
alsoe the cardinalls, he woold consulte and deliberate with 
them hereupon in the consistorie, and afterwardes gif me 
answer therein. I contented therewith, desired ferther his 
holynes that forasmuch as he had hard all the provocations 
and apelles, seying also the original writings thereupon, that 
I might have thyro again ; bycause I said I roust aswell to 
the oudinales as alsoe to other judges and persons havyng 
interest, make intimation accordingly. His holynes in the 



PART begynnyng was precise that I should in noe wise have thym ; 
^ but they to remain with hym. Nevertheles afterward per- 
ceyvyng that I much stode upon it, he answered and said 
that like wise as concemyng the provocations and appelles 
with my petition concernying the same, he entended to giff 
me answer after that he had consulted with the cardinalles 
in the consistorie, so alsoe he entended to doo aocordyng 
redelyvering of the said writings. And hereupon departed 
from him about eight of the clocke in the nyght, havyng 
remayned afar mor than three bowers, I repayred to my 
lord of Winchester and other your highnes ambassadcnrs 
here, telling them what I had doon, and what answer alsoe 
was giffen unto me. 

On the morowe following which was Satterday, albeit 
ther was consistorie yet the same was extraordinaiie, chiefly 
• for the declaration of the newe cardinalles, the bishop of 
Beziers, the bishop of Langres, the great maysters nevew, 
and the duke of Albanie his brother. And in the said con- 
sistorie as far as I could learn ther was nothing specially 
spoken or determyned concernyng the said provocations and 
appelles, or answer to be given unto the same. Upon Son- 
day the ixth of this present at after noone havyng the said 
Mr. Penyston with me I repayred to the palace, and spake 
ther with the datarie to knowe when I should have answer 
of the pope, and he told me that the day following shuld be 
the consistorie, and that the pope after the same would giff 
me answer, and albeit that the said datarie thus said unto 
me, yet willing to be sure, I induced on Carol de Blanchis 
my great acquaintance and one of the chieff cameraries 
with the pope, to enquire of his holynes when I should re- 
ceive and have answer to the provocations and appelles, 
with other things purposed afor by me unto his holynes. 
And his holynes gave unto hym to be declared unto me the 
self same answer that the datarie afor had gy ven unto me, 
whereupon I departed for that day. 

Apon Monday the xth of this was ordinary consistorie, 
and thider I, having with me the said Mr. Penyston, re- 
payred. Tarieng ther alsoo unto th^ tyme that all were 

OF BE00BD6. B» 

ftvthy ssvyogthecndiiiab: andundcntaiid BOOl 
iag dMft tfttawBt hy die datarie that I miMt come aganie "' 
it flfkemoone for answer, I cBd fbr that tjrine departe, re- 
inrling at aftflmooii unto the pahoe, and after that I had 
tailed dier n howerB^ in the chamber next onto the pope^ 
vUch all that tyme ocmtinuany was occupied in Ueenng of 
bedeiy gT^g 1^ hleanng, and suftring the kdies and no- 
Uea of the court to kiai hb fool : I was called in unto hym, 
ter bcjag ther only n the chamber cardinal SalTiati and 
the dauiiie. At my comyng he said unto me^ Domme doe* 
far fmd wJiii t And I told his hdynes that I loked tat 
avwer aoording aa lus holynes had promiaed me afiir. And 
then he nid that his mynde towards your h^hnes alwayes 
halh been to mynister jusdoe^ and do pleasure unto you^ 
albeit it hath not been so taken. And he nerer injustelj 
griefed your grace that he knoweth^ nor entendeth hereafter 
todoo. And as concemyngtheiqipeUations made fay your 
Vfg>M«— ^ unto the general counsel, be said that forasmuche 
ss ther was a constitution of pope Pius Ins predecessor, that 
fid oondcnuie and rqnove all such iqppelles, he thedbr did 
nject your grace appeales as fiivolous, forbidden, and un- 
lawful. And as touching the generall councel, he woold 
doo bis best diligence therin that it should take effect ; re- 
peting agayn bow in tymes passed he had used alwayes dili- 
gence for that purpose, writing therein to all Christen princes, 
your highnes yet not answering thereunto, but remitting 
his nuncio to the French king. Which notwithstanding he 
nith he wool yet do his duty, and procure the best he can 
dutt it shall succeede, nevertheles adding that he thought 
when it were well considered, that the king of England 
oi]^t not, nor had autoritie to call any general councel, 
but that the convoking thereof apperteyned unto his holy- 
nes. Finally concluding, that for his part he woold alwayes 
do his dutie as apperteyned. And as concemynge the 
restitution of the publique writings made upon the provo- 
cation and appelles forsoid, he said he woold not restore 
theym, but woold kepe theym, and that safely. Saying 
therwithal, that I might have when I wo(M, ab episccpo 


PART Vintoniensi^ and other afor whom they were made, as many 
^"' as I woold. And albeit that I shewed hym his own lawe 
to be, that he coued not detayne them, yet he saying that 
it was but de Icma caprina, and refusing to make redeliverie 
therof, commanded the datarie only to gife me the answere 
in writinge, and soo bade me fare well. 

Goyng with the datarie to his chamber for that purpose, 
I perceyved ther that the answer was alredy writ, howbeit 
that it was not touching so many thinges as the pope had 
by mouth afor declared unto me, ne yet subscribed with 
the dataries hande, acording to the accustomed maner. 
And requyring the datarie to make it perfect, and dely ver 
it unto me subscribed with his hande ; he willed me to come 
the day folowyng early in the momjmg, and I shuld have 
it. Whereapon I deperted, and came iti the momyng to 
the dataries chamber in the palace, but he was goon afor 
to the pope. Wherefor r^payring to the popes chamber and 
fynding him ther, I requyerd the said answer in wriung. 
And he goyng with me to his chamber, del3ryered me for 
answer the self-same that was written the day befor, adding 
only in the ende these words, Et hcBc ad prcBsens^ saivo 
jure^ latius et partictdarius si videbimus respondendi ; 
subscribing the same with his own hande, keping one other 
copie with hymself. Which had, without hope of any other 
as then, I repaired to my lord of Winchester, and other 
your highe ambassadours, to shew theym al the same. 

And by this your highnes may now perceyve, whether 
that the pope will staye process apon any your provocations 
or appelles, howsomever they be made, or after what sorte 
they be intymated unto hym, and allso whether that unto 
such tyme he receive inhibition from the general councel, 
his process shall be taken in lawe as nought. I feare that 
at his retume to Rome, he will doo much displeasure, if by 
some good policy he be not stayM. The original answer 
delivered unto me by the datary, forsaid I doe at this tyme 
send unto your highnes, only retaynyng with me the copie 

And syne albeit your graces commandement, declared by 


yam ktten dated at Chatham the xth of August lait BOOK 
pinedt loii onto me seemed to be^ that deryang aome bu« ^ 
fjmeaa of my own, I diuld foiawe alwayes and be pesent 
where the pope resorteth, still reading and demouiing, 
noting^ marking and ensercfaing what is dooo, and gyving 
your higfanes diligent advwtisement thereof, as the case 
and importanoeofthe mater shuld require; yetforasmudi 
as in tUa kte c o n g r e ss, ther was nothing in maner doon 
by the pope at the oontemidation of any in your h^;hnes 
ft^four^ and that the qipellations and provocations of your 
highiifa being intimated, it is not like any thing of great 
moment to be kked for, especially all things standing as 
diej do ; I not knowyng your highnes ferther determinat 
pleaaon^ and thi ik i"g that by reason of the premisses, 
ymar highnes woold not that I shuld ferther interprise in 
that bdialf, have therfor (the pope beyng goon towardes 
Rome from hence the tweUUi of this present) taken my 
jmej towards Lyons the thirteenth dT the same, your 
highnea smhanHsdnrs by reason of the departure of the 
French kinges soe alsoe doyng: and from thence I intend ' 
towards your graces reahne, unless I receive your com^ 
mands to the contrarie. 

To declare unto your highnes, in what perplexitie and 
anxietie of mynde I was in until that this intimation was 
made^ what zele and affection I have borne therein, how 
glad I woold have been such things might have commen to 
pass, which your higfanes so much hath desired, and gene- 
rally of all my dojoigs here, without fear or displeasure of 
any man, it shall not be needful. Partely bycause I trust 
jour highnes dowteth not thereof, and partely bycause the 
bearer hereof, untill Mr. Brian, to whom I moost accompte 
my self much bounden unto, will I suppose at large declare 
all the same, with other things here doing ; of whom your 
highnes I doute not shall percejrve that although the 
Frenchmen were made prjrvey of our doyngs concemjmg 
the intimation, and in maner willing the same, two or three 
dayes afor the popes departure, yet now for excuse they 
saye that all their matters and yours also be destroyed 


PART therbj. And thus most humblie I recommeDd me unto 
' your highnes beseeching Almighty Grod to conserve the 
same in felicity many yeares. 
From M arselles, 

the xiiith of Novembre, 1533. 

your highnes moost bounde subject, 

and poore servant, 

Edraond Boner. 

Number 24. 

Cranmer^s letter yjbr an appeal to be made in his name. 

An original. 

Cottoo li- In my right harty maner I commend me to you. So it 
cieop E. 6. ^^ (^ y^ know right well) I stande in drede, lest our hcJy 
P* 334* father the pope, do entende to make some maner of preju- 
dicial processe against me and my church, and therfore having 
probable conjectures therof, I have provoked from his holy- 
ness to the general counsell, accordingly as the king^s high- 
ness and his counsell have advised me to do; which my 
provocation and a procuracie under my scale, I do send 
unto you herwith, desiering you right hartely to have me 
commended to my lord of Winchester, and with his adxnse 
and counsell to intimate the said provocation, after the best 
maner that his lordship and you shall think most expedient 
for me. I am the bolder thus to write unto you, because 
the king^s highnes commanded me thus to do, as ye shall (I 
trust) further perceve by his graces letters, nothing doubt- 
ing in your goodness, but at this myne own desier ye woU 
be contented to take this peynes, tho^ his highness shall per- 
case forget to write unto you therin : which your peynes 
and kindness (if it shall lye in me in tyme to come to re- 
compense) I woU not forget it with Grod^s grace, who pre- 
searve you as my self. From Lambeth, the xxiid day of 

Thomas Cantuar. 


Number 25. BOOK 

J mmiderf a JetUr sent by the king to his ambassador at "' 

Trusty and right-welbiloved, we grete youe wel. And Ex MSS, 
for asmuch as not only by the reladon and reaporte of our 
trusty cha]dam maister doctor Boner, but also by certayne 
letters wiittyn by sir Gregory, afore the dispeche of doctor 
Boner, uppon the lyvely communications had by the pope 
to the emperor, in justification and favour of our cause; by 
wydi it appereth unto us, that his holyness favering the 
justice of our great cause, maketh countnance and demon- 
stracioD now to shew himself more pn^nse and redy to the 
administration of justice to our contentation therin, thenne 
he hathe been aocustumed in tymes past: disoending for 
demonstrauon hentf as you take it to those particularities 
fc^wyng, whyche sir Gregory hath also sent by way of in- 
stnietions to Bonner; that is to say, that in cace we woU 
be content to sende a mandate requiring the remission of 
our cause into an indifferent place, he wold be content to 
appoint locum indifferentemy and a legate and two auditors 
from thense, adJbrmaruTprocessum, reserving always the 
jugement therof to himself; or else if we woU consent 
and be agreable, inducing also our good brother and perpe- 
tual allye the French king, to be also content to con- 
clude and establish for iii or iiii yeres, a general truix ; that 
then the popes holiness is pleased, if we and our said good 
bix>ther wol agree therunto, to indicte with al celeritie a 
general counsail, wherunto his holynes would remyt our 
cause to be finished and determyned. Which overtures 
being also proponed and declared unto us by the popes 
nuncio here, be set forth by him, and also in a letter to 
hjm, as thoughe they had been by the said sir Gregory in 
our name desired of the popes holyness, and by him as- 
sented to, for our contentacion and satisfaction, in that 
behaulf : wherof we doo not a litle mervayl, considering 
that we of late never gave unto the said sir Gregory or any 
other, any suche commission or instructions for that pur- 
pose, but fully to the contrary. Nevertheless forasmoch as 


PART bothe by the relation of our said chaplun and by the pur- 
porte and effecte of the fore said letters, instructions, and 
also by the behaviour of the popes ambassadour here, and 
by such overtures as he on the popes behalfe hathe made 
unto us, we nowe considering the benevolent and towarde 
mynde of his said holines expressed and declared in the 
same, have moche cause to conceyve in our mynd, as we 
doo indede, good hope, that he depely pondering the just- 
nes of our said cause, wil now take more respecte to put us 
in more quietnes therein, thenne we had any expectation 
heretofore : and therfor our pleasure is that you discretly 
relating to his holyncs in what good parte we doo accepte 
and take his overtures and persuasions, doo gyve unto him 
our right harty thanks for the same, adding thereunto that 
we veraylie trust and be now of that opinion that his holynes 
calling to his remembrance the manifold commodities, pro- 
fitts, and gratuities heretofor shewed by us, to him, and the 
see apostolique, demanding nothing for reciprocation of 
friendship and mutual amytie to be shewed at his hand, 
but only justice in our great matior, according to the lawes 
of Grod, and the ordenances of the holy counsailes, for the 
encrease of vertue, extirpation of vice, and quiet of al 
Christendom, established by our forfathers, wil now in dis- 
charge of his duetie towards God, shewing unto us cor- 
respondence of frendship according to our deserts, putting 
aparte all shadowes of delayes, more benivolently extende 
his good wil and gratuitie towards us in the acceleration 
and speedye finishing of our said cause, thenne those over- 
tures doo purporte, whyche if it come so to pass, hys holi- 
nes may be wel assured to have us and our realme as bene- 
volent and loving towards him and the see apostolique as 
hath at any tyme hertofor been accustumed. And as con- 
cemyng the general truix for three or four yeres, albeit we 
do inwardly con»dre the greate good therof, and be of our 
oune nature asmoche inclyned therunto as any prince 
christened, and on thother side asmoche desirous to avoyde 
contencion, wherupon many tymes ensueth extremitie, to 
the hurte of many ; yet nevertheless two things at this tyme 


absleyne and forbere aodcDly to consent i 
is, that we being afflictc-d, tmiiliplpd^ 
our oune conscience, and our realme 
tbcrby greatly perplexed, cannot sodenly resolve our self to 
■Mwrate or renewe any perfite establishment of peax with 
ocher, tvi we may be satisfied and have pure and ayncere 
pCTR in our owne harte ; and cause scying tliat it is wonly 
wyll and unVynd stubbemes with oblivion of former kynd- 
ws, whychc twcasions the lettc of the spcde finishyng of our 
tause* whyche ye may say that liys holynes yf it please hyin 
nmy soon redres, haiyng so good gronds for our pan as he 
hn-etb, yf he wyl hartely tlierto applye hyni, and tlien 
summc good effecte myghi Iiappen to come tlierof. An 
other cause tliere is also tliaL ive being moost perfitely by an 
indissoluble amyte and leagc unite and knyt unto our good 
farottter and perpetual allye the French king, maye not in 
any wise, nor wil put our consent to any such request with- 
out the knowledge and assent of our said good brother, and 
other our and hys confederates : and not with standyng yf 
hys holynes thynketh that myne endeavour and labour herin 
may do hym any gratuyte and pleasure, or confer to hys 
purpose ill any thyng, he advertesyng us therof, shall well 
persayve that there shall lack no goode diligens in us, to set 
forthe suche thyngs aa may stonde with our honour, and be 
also pleaMinl to hym, he shewyng to us sunie corespondnes 
rf kyndnes in thys our just and wnyghte cause. And as 
touching our consent to the indiction of a general counsail, 
thoughe sundry respects and considerations at the tyme 
Dowe present, move us to thinke it not necessary, and that 
we nothing doubte but our cause being remytted to the same, 
we shuld withal convenient celerilie, that begonne have our 
denred end therein ; yet we being nowe in veraygood hope 
that the popes holynes at the last digesting thoroughly the 
justness of our cause, wil so use us in the same that accord- 
ing to tTOUth and equitie good and speedye successe therof 
dial folowe in other admyttyng the excusatory, or else in re- 
tnyttvng 1»the tlie knowlege of the fact and finall discition 
of the cause into thys realme where it was begon, accordyng 


PAKT to the olde sanctions of generall concilles and divers of his 
predecessours assent, and as he hymselfe confesseth in hys 
oommys^on gifiy n unto the cardinall for thys pourpose ; we 
have now also suspended therfor our assent and consent ther« 
unto uppon two respects, wherof the first requireth a neces- 
sary suspencion of our said consent, forasmoch as the same 
dependeth uppon the assent of our said good brother and 
other our confederates^ and that the oon of us without the 
other canne ne will in any wise consent to any acte a! such 
highe importance as this is, which toucheth the holebodye of 
Christendome. The seconde is, that in our opinion which 
our pleasure is ye with good dexteritie declare unto hys ho* 
lynes the good respecte had of the state of the worlde, and of 
the time present ; it were not expedient for the pope himself 
to consent therunto, considering that themperour is in maner 
compelled by the importunytie of the Germaynes and the 
Lutheran secte to cause the pope to indicte the said council. 
And howe the said Grermaynes be mynded towards him and 
the see apostdique, we doubte not but his holynes dothe 
depely pondre and considre. But ye shal saye unto the 
popes holynes on our behaulf, that finding him towards us 
good and kinde, brefely expedyteyng our cause as afiTore is 
rdiersy'^d, wherof we now perceyve some lightly wood, and 
perceyving him to contynue and persever emestly mynding 
the spedy ende and determynation therof, for our satisr 
£K:tion, we canne do no lesse for reacquital therof, thenne 
to procure and practise by al wayes and meanes, aswell with 
our said good brother as with al other our allyes, confede- 
rates and friends, to do all things that maye be moost for the 
surety of his holynes and the commodities of the see aposto- 
Uque, whyche we shall not faylle to do, yf he wyll dysclose 
to us the menys how far. As touching the sending of a 
mandate to require that the cause might be harde in an in- 
different place, with reservation of the sentence to himself, 
ye shall signifie unto hys holynes that albeit we well con- 
sidering hys towarde mynde for the spedy finishing of our 
said cause if we were a private person wold nothing mis* 
trust to consent to his said overtures, ne the good effect! 


that HHght eosae ot the same ; yet nevertheles this pei^ dOOH 
mumm aoo touchetfa contraryele to general! concilles, to the ^^' 
fiberde, regalitie, and jurisdiction of all prynces, and most 
eqieeially to our prerogatyffe recall, privileages c^ our 
radme, wfaerof we be bed and aoveraign ; within the whiehe, 
by the ancient kiwes of the same, al causes of matrjrmonye 
Aer bygon and solemnized, cummyng after in question, 
oi^t to have their original commencement, and fynall dis- 
euaae and discition by the English churche. Whyche 
diyi^ well eottsidetyd, he havyng also regarde to bys othe, 
IB the resayte of bys dyngnitie, whycb be ther actually 
gjffeth for observenceboth of the general! conselles, and the 
antique lauys of the faders of the ch3nrcb ; consideryng also 
inth hirasdf, liow we at the tyme of our coronation, be like^ 
wyae obbgyd by othe, to support and naintayne, the immu^ 
wAts and pryneefy liberties ot our realme and croone, wbyeh 
to contrary, I make my self sure bys bolynes well informyd 
will never requyre, syns it is probybite bothe by Gods pre^ 
eept, and lawe of nature, by these words. Quod dbi nan vis 
fiiriy aHeri neJbciiM. Wherfore we fermely trust, that bys 
Mynes, ponderyng and wayi^ in the balance of hys just 
hart toad equal jugement, these most urgent both resons 
and causes, with the respect of hys duty to Grod, in min- 
ystry u g justice and equitie ; and consideryng also the olv 
ligation, wbych we as king thowgbf not wordy, but by his 
election, be boude to our realme, scilicet defendere privUe^ 
gias ammee et regni^ wyll not at thys tyme thynk any un- 
kindnesin us, thowght that thys bys request, seiUcet^ to smd 
a mandate, or to have it in any other place than in thys 
realne determynyd by us, at thys tyme be not aeceptyd. 
For surly it so hyghtly touchyt the prerogatyffe rial! of thys 
realme, tliat thowght I wer m3mdyd to do it, yett must alv 
stayne wythout the assent of onr court of parliament, wbyche 
I tbynke verdy wyll never condescent to it. Neyerthelew 
j9 mmy shew unto hys holines, that |E>r thys ofierre^ we 
atailbe non imkjmdnes to hym, but ratify take it in good 
pact; consideryng that by hys ambassodour wee doo par- 
mjve, that hys mjrnde was to gratify and do pleasure berin 



PART to US, thys overture procedyng oppon Gregory^s motion, 
' werin to speke of that sort, I ensure you of us he had non 
commission, but rather to the contrary. And so we wyll ye 
shew the pope ; assuryng forther hys holynes, that we be 
ryght sory that thys overture was no more resonable, or 
consonant to our honour. For surly in all resonable thyngs, 
we wold gladly shew our selfe benivolent to hym, as long as 
we persay ve any maner of gratuitie in hym. More ye may 
say, that we thynke that we nor our realme have hytherto 
gyven any occasion to his holynes, wherby he shuld be 
moved at the contemplacion of any privie person, to attempte 
the violation of the immunities and liberties of thys our 
realme, or to bring the same in any publique contention, 
wherby he may compell us in the mayntenance of them, to 
shew and declare meny thyngs peraventure it unknowne pre- 
judiciall and hurtfuU to the papall dyngnitie, as it is now 
usydf whych not compellyd we intende not to do. Yet an 
other gret reson as we thynk you may shew hys holines, ge- 
deryd owght of his own law, whych is thys : I beyng a com- 
mune parson, am not bondyn in re ardudy as thys is to ap- 
pere in hys court, and I beyng not bonden to appere, am not 
bonde to sende a proxtour. Wherforehis owne law shewyth 
evydently, that this mater owght not to be determynyd by 
hys court, but per Anglicanam ecclesiam : for yf hys court 
were juge, I shuld be obligyd to appere there. And ye shal 
further understand, that we have concey ved by certain let- 
tres lately sent unto us by the said sir Gregory de Cassalis, 
that the popes holynes, amongs other persuasions, in the 
furtheraunce of our cause shewed unto hym, that the laweis 
being of the contrary parte of our cause, doo agree, that the 
pope in our cause may not dispence, without an urgent 
cause. Which opinion hys holynes thinketh moche more 
dothe avaunce the goodnes of our matier, thenne the ge- 
neral opinion of the devynes and lawyers on our parte, 
which doo affirm, that the pope in noo wise maye dispense. 
Whiche matier being also persuaded by his holynes to them- 
perour, who declared, that at the tyme of the dispensation, 
there was extreme warres betwene our derest father of noble 


memorj, whoee aoule God pardon, and king Ferdinando, BOOK 
father to the quene. And for pacifieng therof the said di»- 
pensation was obtejoied ; wherupon the manage ensued : 
which bereth a visage of an urgent cause, if it were tru6, as 
it is not. And therfore, as wel for the satisfaction of the 
pope^s holjoiesin that behaulf, as for a clere resolution of the 
doubte by his holynes proponed, whether the quene were 
cofffuta by our brother prince Arthure, or noo; our plea- 
sure is, that ye shal signifie to his holynes, that in the league 
betwene oiur said derest father, and the said Ferdinando, re- 
noTeled and concluded, sealed and signed with the said king 
Ferdinando, and the quene his wief hands, wherupon the 
dispoisation for the roariage betwene us and the quene was 
obteyned, appereth no maner of cause. But plajmly declar- 
ing the said twoo princes to be thenne and afor more per- 
fitely established, unyted, and confederate in frendship and 
amytie, thenne eny other prince of Christendom, setteth 
forthe the cause of the dispensation and agrement for the 
said manage, to be only for contynuaunce and augmen- 
tation of their said amytie, and for the vertuouse modestie 
and other qualities of the quene. In which league is also 
playidy mencyoned and expressed in two places therof, that 
the manage betwene our said brother and her was solemn- 
ized and perfitely consummate ; wherby, and by the deposi- 
tions of a great nomber of noble and honorable personages, 
which hertofor by their othes have been examyned uppon 
the same, manifestly and playnly appereth to al indifferent 
herers, without doubt therof, that the quene was carnally 
knowen by our said brother prince Arthur ; and the same 
dispensation soo proceeding, without urgent cause to be re* 
puted invalida. The transumpte of which league auten- 
tiquely transumed, we sende unto youe herwith, to thintent ye 
may the better percey ve theffecte of the same. And finally, 
ye shall firther signifie to his holynes, that of the good suc- 
cesse of this our cause, dependeth the suretie of our succes- 
sion, and therupon ensueth the rest, peax, and tranquillitie of 
al our realme, and by the protracting thereof many perilous 
daungers maye and is like to ensue to the same, which above 



PART all things, we and our realme ought to have retpeet unto. 
Whcrfor it is more convenient, and consonant to reason and 
equitie, that this our said cause shuld be deterroyned by 
them, to whose dammage or commoditie the suocesse of the 
cause may ensue, and not by bis holynes, which canne have 
no certain knowleage of the state of the same. And yet 
nevertheles, if his holynes remy tting the final discusse of the 
principal cause to our English churche, as appertdineth, will 
after that, of his gratuitie ratifie and oonfirme suche sentence 
as they shal determyn in the same, shal therby not only ad- 
quire Christen obedience of us axid our people, modie to his 
commoditie and contentacion, and also profitable to the see 
apostolique, but also pacific the contradiction, to the rest 
and quietnes of al Christendom. Willing you by thise and 
other discrete persuasions, as ye can with al diligence and 
dexteritie to allure his holynes, being now sumwhat attem- 
pered and disposed to do us good, to condiscend to more b&. 
nivolent gratuities, than as yet is set forth by the said over- 
tures ; and to ascertain us with all diligence and celeritie, 
what towardnes ye shall percey ve in him in this behaulf, not 
mynding that ye shal declare this as our resolute answer. 
But uppon other and further overtures, and after more deli- 
beration and consultation uppon these weighty causes, we 
wil study and enserche, by al honourable wayes and meanes 
that we canne, to concurre with the towardly minde of his 
holynes, if he ernestly wil applie himself, and persever in 
f uche opinion, as may be for the acceleration of thende of 
our said cause : willing you, vrith all diligence and dextentie, 
to put your good endevour to the same ; and likewise to 
procure the said sir Gregory, according to our expectation 
in that behaulfe. 

Number JW. 

T%e Judgment of the convocation of the province qf York, 

refecting the pope's authority. 

Illustbissimo et excellentissimo principi et domino Hen- 
rico VIII. Dei gratiA, Angliae et Franciie regi, fidei defen^ 


son, et domino Hiberniaa. Edwardus, pennissione divini, fiDoK 
Eboracensis archiepiscopus, Angliae primas et nietropo- ^^* 
litauus, salutem in eo, per quern reges regnant, et prin- 
cipes dominantur. Vestrse regife celsitudini, tenore prae- 
sentium, innotesdmus et significanius, quod, cum juxta 
YeBtrae regis majestatis mandatum, coram praelatis et dero 
Eboracensi, provinde in sacra synodo provinciali, sive 
oonvocatione praJatorum et deri ejusdem provindae Ebo- 
racensis, in domo capitulari ecclesiae metropoliticae Ebo- 
rum, quinto die mensis Maii, anno Domini m.d.xxxiv. jam 
instant!, celebrata, et de diebus indies continuata congre- 
gatis proposita fuit sequens conclusion Quod episcopus Ro- 
manus, in sacris scripturis, non habet aliquam majorem ju- 
risdictionem in r^no Angliae, quam quivis alius extraneus 
episcopus. Ac insuper, ex parte praeudentium in eadem 
synodo, per nos deputatorum memorati praelati et derus, 
rogati et requiiuti ut illam condusionem suo consensu con- 
firmarent et corroborarent, si illam veritati consonam, et 
sacris «cripturis non repugnantem, existimarent aut judica- 
rent. Tandem dicti praelati, et clerus Eboracensis provin- 
ciae antedictae, post diligentem tractatum in ea parte habi- 
tum, ac maturam deliberationem, unanimiter et concorditer, 
nemine eorum discrepante, praedictam condusionem fuisse 
et esse veram affirmarunt, et eidem concorditer consense- 

Quae omnia et singula vestrae regiae cdsitudini, tenore 
prcaentium, intimamus et significamus. 

In quorum omnium et singulorum fidem et testimonium, 
sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus. Dat in manerio nostro 
de Cawodd, primo die mensis Junii, anno Domini, h.d jlxxiv. 
et noetrae consecrationis anno tertio. 



''ART Number 27. 

" TTie judgment of the university of Oxfiyrdy rejecting the 

pope'^s authority. 

In a booky stiledy Registrum, sive Epistolae Regum et Mag- 
natum ad Academiam Oxod. una cum Responsis. MS. 
Jrchiv. J. 117. ad an. 1684. P. 127. 

Part of the king's letter to the university. 

OuB pleasure and commandement is, that ye, as shall be- 
seem men of vertue and profound literature, diligently in- 
treating, examining, and discussing a eertaine question sent 
from us to you, concerning the power and primacie of the 
bishop of Rome ; send again to us in writing under your 
common scale, with convenient speed and celeritie, your 
mind, sentence, and assertion of the question, according to 
the meere and sincere truth of the same: willing you to 
give credence to our trusty and well-beloved, this bringer, 
your commissarie, as well touching our further pleeasure in 
the premisses, as for other matters, &c. Yeven under our 
agnett, at bur mannor of Greeoewich, the eighteenth day 
of May, 

The university'* s answer to the king. 

Univgbsis sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis, ad quos pr»- 
sentes literse pervenerint, Johannes, permissione divina, 
Lincolniensis episcopus, almae universitatis Oxon. cancella- 
rius: nee non universus doctorum ac magistrorum, regen- 
tium et non regentium in eadem coetus, salutem in Auctore 
salutis. Quum illustrissimus simul ac potentissimus prin- 
ceps et dominus noster Henricus Octavus, Dei gratia, An- 
gliae et Franciss rex, fidei defensor, et dominus Hibemiae, as- 
siduis petitionibus et querelis subditorum suorum in summo 
suo parliamento, super intolerabilibus exterarum potestatum, 
exactionibus nuper proposids, controversiisque quibusdam 
habitis, super potestate ac jurisdictione Romani episcopi, va- 
riisque et urgentibus causis, contra eundem episcopum tunc 
ibidem expositis et declaratis, aditus atque rogatus fuerit, ut 


v»iiiii:» MK 

suorum subditorum in hac parte consuleret, et BOOK 
querelis sadsfaceret : ipse tanquam prudentissimus Solomon, 
aollidt^ curans quae suorum sunt subditorum, quibus in hoc 
regno, divina disponente dementia, prseest, altiusque secum 
ocmfflderans, quo pacto commodissimas regno suo sanciret 
leges; denique ante omnia prsecavens, ne contra sacram 
flcripturam aliquid statuat, (quam vel ad sanguinem usq; 
defendere semper fuit, eritque paratissimus) solerti suo in- 
genio, sagaciq; industria, quandam qusestionem ad banc 
gus academiam Oxon. public^ et solenniter, per doctores et 
magifltros ejusdem disputandam transmisit: viz. An Ro^ 
manus episcopus habeat mcyorem aUqtiam JurisdicHonem, 
iibi i Deo coUatam in sacra scripturay in hoc regno An^ 
^luBj quim aUus quivis extemtts episcopus f Mandavitque, 
ut habita super hac questione matura deliberatione, et ex- 
aminatione diligent], quid sacrse literse in hac parte nostro 
judicio statuunt, eundem certiorem facere suo instrumento, 
sigillo communi universitatis, communito et firmato curare- 
mus. Nos igitur cancellarius, doctores ac magistri prsedicti, 
ssepe reminiscentes, ac penitius apud nos pensitantes, quanta 
at virtus, sanctitas, ac nostrse professioni quam consona res, 
et debita submissioni, obedienUae, reverentiae, ac charitati 
congrua, prsemonstrare viam justitiae ac veritatis cupienti- 
bus, sacrarum literarum vestigiis *inserrere, securiorique et •Leg. ii^i. 
tranquilliori conscienda, in lege Dei sacram, ut uunt, suam '^'^' 
aochoram reponere; non potuimus non invigilare, sedulo 
quin in petitione tam justa ac honesta, tanto principi (cui 
velut auspicatissimo nostro supremo moderatori obtemperare 
tenemur) modis omnibus satisfaceremus. Post susoeptam 
itaque per nos questionem antedictam, cum omni humilitate, 
devotione, ac debita reverentia, convocatis undique dictse 
nostrae academiae theologis, habitoque complurium dierum 
spatio^ ac deliberandi tempore satis amplo, quo interim cum 
omni qua potuimus diligentia, justiuae zelo, religione et 
consdentia incorrupta, perscrutaremur tam sacrae scripturae 
libros, quam super dsdem approbatissimos interpretes, et 
eo6 quidem saepe ac saepius k nchis evolutos, et exactissim6 
odlatos, repetitos et examinatos; ddnde et disputationibus 


PART 6oleDiiibu8, palam et public^ habitis et celebnOas, tandem ii 
banc sentendam unanimiter omnes canvenimus, ac oc» 

cordes fuimus ; viz. Romaoum episcopum majorera afiqnaii] 
jurisdicdonem non habere, ahi. k Deo oollatam in ncra 
scriptura, in hoc regno Anglias, qu^ alium quemvis exter- 
num epiflcopum. Quam uostram assertionem, aententiam 
sive determinationem, sic ex deliberatione disciiaaaniy m 
juxta exigentiam Btatutorum et ordinationum, hujus nostra 
universitatis per nos conclusam, puUic^ totius academia 
nomine, tanquam veram, certam, sacrseq; scripture oonao 
nam, affirmamus (et) testificamur per prseaentes. In qu<»im 
•NotTery omnium et * fidem et testimonium has literas fieri, ei 

botitwemssigiUo nostrse univerntatis communi, roborari fecimus. Dat 
it wu tin- ju domo oonirreffationis nostras, 27. die mensis Junii, anm 
a Chnsto nato m.d.xxxiv. 

Number 28. 

7%^ judgment of the prior and chapter of Worcester^ can 

ceming the pope's authority, 

Ordo quidam observandus erga dominum regem Henricun 
Octavmn, &c. et in quali aestimatione habebimus epi 
scopum Romanum. 

Copied out of the register qf Worcester, 

QuuM ea rat non solum Christianae religionis et pietati 
ratio, sed nostras etiam obedientiae r^ula, domino r^ 
noatro Henrico Octavo, (cui uni et soli, post Christun 
Jesum Servatorem nostrum, debemus universa,) non modi 
omnimodam in Christo, et eandem sinceram, integram, per 
petuamque animi derotionem, fidem et observantiam, ho 
norem, cultum, reverentiam, prasstemus ; sed etiam de eaden 
fide et observantia nostra rationcm quotiescunque postn^ 
bitur, reddamus, et palam omnibus, si res poscat libentisnmi 
testemur. Noverint uniyersi ad quos scriptum presens per 
venerit, quod nos Wilfielmus, pricnr ecclesias cathedralifi 
are mcmaBterii Beatae Marias Wigom' ordinia Saincti Bene 
et ejuadem kxuomyei^iiB sire oapitulum Wigorn** 



iBio CK% et raedf atquc mumimi omniuni comenm et ■wcmuj BOOK 
boe acripto nottro sub ingUlo noBtro oommuni, in domo "* 
oastnt capitulari dato, pro nobis et sucoenoribus nottria, 
omnibus et nngulis in perpetuum profitemur, testamur, ae 
fidditcr promittimus et spondemus, nos dictos priorem et 
eoQventum, nve capitulum, et successores nostros onmes 
et singtilos, integram, inviolatam, sbceram, perpetuamque 
fidenny observantiam et obedientiam, semper prsestaturos, 
ergtk dominum regem nostrum Henricum Octavump et 
ergtk Annam reginam, uxorem ejusdem, et eiga sobolem 
gus ex eadem Anna l^tim^ tarn progenitam, quam proge- 
noandam. Et quod haec eadem populo notificabimus, prss- 
dicaUmuSy et suadebimus, uUcunque daUtur locus et oo- 
casio. Item, quod confirmatum ratumque habemus, sem- 
perque et perpetuo babituri sumus, quod praedictus rex 
noster Henricus, est caput ecclenae Anglicanas. Item, quod 
cpiaoopus Romanus, qui in suis bullis papa? nomen, usurpat, 
et aummi ponuficis principatum ribi arrogat, non babet ma> 
jorero aliquam jurisdictionem k Deo ribi coUatam, in hoc 
legno Angliae, quam quivis alius extemus episoopus. Item, 
qiKid nullus nostrum, in ulla sacra condone, privatim vel 
public^ habenda, eundem episcopum Romanum appellabit 
nomine papae, aut summi pontificis, sed nomine episcopi 
Bomani, vel ecclesiae Romanse : et quod nullus nostrum 
orabit pro eo tanquam papa, sed tanquam episcopo Ro- 
mano. Item, quod soli dicto domino re^ et successoribus 
suis adhaerebimus et ejus leges ac decrcta manutenebimus* 
Episcopi Romani legibus, decretis et canonibus, qui contra 
l^em divinam, et sacram scripturam, aut contra jura hujus 
Rgni esse invenientur, in perpetuum renunciantes. Item, 
qood nullus nostrum omnium, in ulla, vel privata vel pub- 
fiea ooncione, quicquam ex sacris scripturis desumptum ad 
sfienum sensum detorquere prttsumat : sed quisque Chris- 
tmn, ejusque verba et facta, ampliciter, apert^, sincere, et 
ad normam seu regulam sacrarum scripturarum, et ver^ 
eatholicorum et orthodoxorum doctorum, prsedicabit catho^ 
Eei et orthodoxe. Item, quod unusquisque nostrum, in 
mia orationibus et comprecationibus, de nxire faciendis, pri- 


PART mum omnium regem, tanquam supremum caput ecclenae 
___ Anglicana, Deo et populi predbus commendabit ; deinde 
reginam Annam, cum sua sobole; turn demum archiepi- 
scopos Cantuariensem et Eboracensemy cum caeteris deri 
ordinibus prout videbitur. Item, quod omnes et singuli 
predict! prior et conventus, sive capitulum, et successores 
nostri, conscientia et jurisjurandi sacramento, nosmet fir- 
miter obligamus, quod omnia et singula praedicta, fidditer^ 
in perpetuum observabimus. In cujus jd testimonium, 
huic scripto nostro, commune sigillum nostrum appendimus, 
et nostra nomina propria quisque manu scripsimus. Dat. 
in domo nostra capitulari, xvii die mensis August, anno 
regni r^s nostri Henrid Octavi, vicessimo sexto. 

The^ijaOows an oaih made to king Henry the Vlllthj agree^ 
ing exactly wiili that pag. ^6. of the first vci. of the 
History of the Refbrmation ; except, that the words 
alonely in the second line, and damage in the kist line 
but Jive of that oaih, are wanting. 

Illustbissimo et potendssimo in Christo principi et do- 
mino nostro, Henrico Octavo, Dei gratia Angliae et Frauds^ 
regi, defensori fidei, domino Hibemise, in terris supremo 
ecclesiae Anglicanae, sub Christo, capiti; vestri bumiles 
subditi, et devotissimi oratores, Henricus Holbecke, prior 
ecclesiae cathedralis Wigorn^ et ejusdem lod conventus, or- 
dinis Sancti Benedicti Wigomiensis dioceseos, reverentiam 
et obedientiam, tam excellenti et prsepotenti prindpi debitas 
et condignas, cum omni subjectionis honore. Noverit ma- 
jestas vestra regia, quod nos prior et conventus memorati, 
non vi aut metu coacti, dolore, aut aliqua alia sinistra 
machinatione ad hoc inducti, sive seducti, sed ex nostris 
certis scientiis, animis deliberatis, merisque et spontaneis 
voluntatibus, pure, sponte et absolute, profitemur, sponde- 
mus, ac ad sancta Dei evangelia, per nos corporaliter tacta, 
juramus, illustrissimas verae regise majestati, singulari et 
summo domino nostro et patrono, Henrico Octavo, Dei 
gratia, Angliae et Francias regi, fidei defensori, domino Hi- 
bemi^e, ac in terris ecdesiae Anglicanse supremo immediate 


sab Chrkto cqpiti; quod poethac nuUo eztemo imperatori BOOK 
ng^ princijn sut pmkto oec Romano pontifid (quern papam ^ 
Tocant) fideUtatem aut obedientiain, veribo vel acripto nm- 
plidter, vel sub juramento, promittemus aut dalmnus^ yd 
daii curalninus, sed oumi tempore casu et conditioDe partes 
Testrse n^ise majestatis ac suocesaorum Testronim sequemur 
et obaervabimus, et pro viribus defeudemus, contra omnem 
hominem quern vestrae majestati aut successoribus vestris 
adveraarium oognoacemus vel suspicabimur. Solique vestrv 
Tepm nugestati velut supremo nostro piincipi quern edam 
supremum in terris eodesiae Anglicame sub Christo caput 
agnoacimus et aoceptamus, et successoribus vestris fidelita* 
ton et obedientiam sincere et ex animo prsestabimus. Pa- . 
patum Romanum non esse a Deo in sacris Uteris ordinatum 
profitemur. Sed humanitus traditum oonstanter afBrmamuSy 
et palam dedaramus et dedaralnmus, et ut alii sic publioent 
diGgenter curabimus. Nee tractatum cum quocunque mor- 
talium privatim aut public^ inibimus, quod qpisoopus Re 
manus aliquam auctoritatem vel jurisdictiooem amplius bic 
habeat aut exeroeat, vel ad ullam posthac restituatur, ip. 
sumque Romanum e^nsoopum modemum aut ejus in iUo 
episoopatu successorum quemcunque non papam, non sum- 
mum pontificem, non universalem episcopum, nee sanctissi- 
mum dominum, sed solum Romanum episcopum vel pon- 
tificem (ut priscis mos erat) scienter publice asseremus. 
Juraque ct statuta hujus regni pro extirpatione et subla- 
tione papatus * ac auctoritatis et jurisdictionis ejusdem 
Romani episcopi quandocunque edita sive sandta pro 
viribus scientia et ingeniolis nostris ipsi firmiter obser- 
vabimus ac pro ab aliis quantum in nobis fuerit sic obser- 
vari curabimus atque efficiemus: nee posthac ad dictum 
Romanum episcopum appellabimus aut appellari consentie- 
mus: nee in ejus curia pro jure aut justitia agemus aut 
agenti responde^imus, nee ibidem accusatoris aut rei perso- 
nam sustinebimus^ Et si quid dictus episcopus per nun- 
dum vel per literas significaverit, qualecunque id fuerit, 
iUud quam citissime commode poterimus, aut vestrae regise 
majestati et vestris k secretis consiliariis, vestrisve succes- 



PAKT 9onhuB aut eorum k secretis consiliarns significabimiu out 
^^^* significari faciemus. Nosque lit^'as aut nuncium ad eon- 
dem .Romanum episcopum, vel ejus curiam nee mittttDus^ 
nee mitti faciemus, nisi vestra 'majestate conscia et oonseii- 
tiente aut vestro successore quod dictse litene vel nundua 
ad ilium deferentur ; bullas, brevia, aut rescripta quascun- 
que pro nobis vel aliis, ab episcopo Romano vel ejus curia 
non impetrafaimus, vel ut talia k quovis impetrentur Don 
consulemus. Et si talia pro nobis insciis aut ignorantibua 
generaliter, vel specialiter impetrabuntur vel alio quomodo* 
libet concedentur, eis renunciabimus et non oonsentiemus: 
nee utemur iisdem ullo pacto seu moda At eas vestne 
majestati et successoribus vestris tradi curabimus, omnibus- 
que dicti Roroani episcopi concessionibus, privilegiis, lar- 
gitionibus et indultis cujuscunque naturae seu qualitatis ex- 
istant, ac sub quocunque verborum tenore concessae fuerint, 
k dicta sede Romana directe vel indirecte, mediate vel im- 
mediate aut alias qualitercunque 3icti Romani episcopi auc-> 
toritate lai^^tis sive consensis quibuscunque public^ et ex-* 
presse in bis scriptis renunciavimus, easque irritas et inanes 
esse volumus. Et soli vestrae regiae majestati velut supremo 
nostro prindpi et ecclesiae Anglicanae capiti et successoribus 
vestris nos subditos et subjectos fore profitemur et nos ac 
successores nostros subjicimus : et solummodo subditos fore 
spondemus. Nos eidem Romano episcopo vel ejus nunciis 
oratoribus, collectoribus aut legatis uUam procurationem, 
pensionem, portionem censum aut quamcunque aliam pecu- 
niarum summam quocunque nomine appelletur, per nos aut 
interpositam personam vel personas solvemus nee solvi fa- 
ciemus. Statutumque de successibne vestra regia in parli- 
mento vestro tento apud Westmon^ anno regni vestri 28 ac 
omnia et singula in eodem contenta juxta vim formam et 
efiectum ejusdem (ideliter observabimus. Prasterea in vim 
pacti profitemur et spondemus ac sub fidelitate vestrae ma- 
jestati debita, et nostra coram Deo conscientia, promittemuft 
quod contra banc nostram profesmnem et sponsionem, nulla 
dt^pensatione^ nulla exceptione, nulla appellatione aut pro* 
vocatione ; nuUoque juris aut facti remedio, nos tuebimur : 


9k n qiunn pta tei t at iDPem m prMJndirimn fanjiu DOitnB BOOK 

puiftiMJunii htaemuMy earn in pneatni et in omne tempos fo^ 

turum veTOCBflini et cidera renuneiamus per prseMntca lite* 

ras; quibiu propriis manibiis nomina nostra subflcripnmua, 

ac cas aigilli aostri camninniB appennone et notarn pablid 

ndHcripd flgao at aubieriptione oommuniri fecimaaet cum* 

irnuia. Dat. et act* in domo noatim capitulari xx¥i die 

mamM Aiigorti, anno Doanim millcssimo quingentianmo tii* 

etmno aezto^ anno legoi ▼catrae rcgiaB majeatatia Tioeanno 

edavo. PrKaeniibus tune ibidem diacretiB viria Jobanne 

TjaoDy OUvero Llojde, et Rpgero Hugbea, in Icgibua et 

deoeda reapeetire Baocalaureia, et Bicardo Bedle notario 

poUicD tcatibiia ad prKmiaaa apecialiter Tocatia et reqmntia* 

Number S9. 

Jn order Jbr preachifigf and bidding qf the- bcades in att 
sermoM to be made within this realm* 15S5. 

FimaTt whcnoevar shall preache in the presence of the Cotton Kb. 
kingV highnesy and the queen's grace, shall in the bidding p,^|||^ ^' 
of the beades^ pray for the hole catholike church of Crist, 
aswell quick as ded, and specyallie for the catholique church 
of this realme ; and first as we be most bounden for our so> 
veringe lord king Henry the Vlllth, being ymediately next 
unto God, the onelie and supreme hed of this catholike 
churche of England, and for the most gracious lady queen 
Anne his wife ; and for the lady Elizabeth, daughter and 
beire to them both, our pryncesse, and no ferther. 

Item^ The preacher in all other placs of this realme then 
in the presence of the king^s saide highnes, and the queen^s 
grace, shall in the bidding of the beads, pray first in manner 
and form, and worde for worde as is above ordeyned and 
lymyted ; adding thereunto in the seconde pafte, for all 
archebishopes and bishopes, and for all the hole Uergie of 
this realme: and speciallie for suche as shall pltese the 
preacher to name of his devotion ; and thirdly for all dukes, 
earis, marques, and for all the hole temporaltee of this 



PART realme ; and spedallie for suche as the preacher shall name 
' of devocyon : and fygnallie for the soules of all them that 
be ded, and speciallie of such as it shall please the preacher 
to name. 

Itenij It is ordeyned that every preacher shall preach ones 
in the presence of the greatist audience against the usurped 
power of the bishop of Rome, and so after at his lybertee : 
and that no man shal be suffered to defend, or mayntene 
the foresaid usurped power: ferthermore to keep unyte 
and quyetnes in this realme, it is ordeyned that no preachers 
diall contende openly in pulpet one against another, nor un- 
charytablie deprave one another in open audience ; but if 
any of them be greved one with another, let them complayne 
to the king^s highnes ; or to the archbishope, or bishope of 
the diocs where such chaunce shall happen, and there to be 
remedied if there be cause why ; and if the complaynt be 
not trew, the complajnfier to be punished. 

Itemf Also to forfende that no preachers for a year shall 
preach neyther with, nor against purgatory, honouring of 
saynts, that priests may have wives ; that faith onelie juste^ 
fieth ; to go on pilgrimages ; to forge miracles ; considering 
these things have caused discension amongst the subjects of 
this realme alredy, which thanked be God is now well pacy- 

Item^ That from hensfourth all preachers shall purelie, 
syncerelie, and justlie preache the scripture, and worde of 
• Christe, and not myxe them with man'^s institutions, nor 
make men believe that the force of Goddes law and man'^s 
law is like ; nor that any man is able, or hathe power to 
dispence with Grodes law. 

Item, It is also ordened that the declaration of the sen- 
tence which hathe ben used in the church four tymes in the 
year, shall not from henceforth, neyther be published, nor 
esteemed in any pomt contrary to the praemynce and juris- 
diction royall of our king and his realme, or laws and liber- 
ties of the same ; and any so doing to be competently pu- 
nyshed by the bishop of that diocs where it shaU fortune 
him to be, or inhabite : and this thoroughout the realme 


aad dom ji^foni of our sovenugne, sbortlie the buhopes to BOOK 

/M m, It 18 abo <»deiied that the Ccdeeta for the preserva- 
tioa of the king and queen by name, be from heneeforth 
oomusdy and umiallie used and aajred in every catfaedrall 
diurdie^ vdigpaus house, and peroohe church, in all thor 
high matiipn thoroi;^ out all the realme add domynyons of 
oar king and aovereigne. 

Item, It ia ferther ordeyned that wherefloever the kbg^s 
jiiit cause of matrimony hath eyther ben detracted, and the 
JDcertioua and injutte set fourth, of in placa where as it 
hotbe net been dilated, that in all those placs till the people 
be fully satisfied and jusdie instructe, all manner of preach- 
ers whatsoever they be, happenning to come into any such 
parte of the realme, shall bom henceforth open and declare 
the mere veryte and justnes of this later matrymony, as nigh 
ai thor learning can serve them, and according to the tiew 
deCermjrnaeions of a greate number of the most fiunous and 
esteemed umversities of Christendom ; aeccnrding also to the 
joat lesolutioD and diffini^on of both the convocationes of 
tlna leahne, concurring also in the same opynyoo, by the 
hole assent o( parliament, our prynoe, the lords spiritual and 
temporal, and commones of this realme ; wherefore now they 
must declare this matier, neyther doubtful nor disputable, 
but to be a thing of mere veryte, and so to be allowed in all 
raen^s opynyons. 

Item, It is ferther ordeyned that the foresaid preachers 
shall also declare the false and injuste handelinge of the bi* 
shop of Rome, pretending to have jurisdiction to judge this 
cause at Rome ; which in the first hcring thereof did both 
declare and confesse in word and writing the justnes thereof 
to be uppon our soveraignes side, insomuch as by a de- 
cretall delyvered to the legate here then sitting for the same 
cause, he did clearly determyn that if prince Arthur was 
our princes brother, and then of competent age allowed in 
the law when he maried the lady Katharine, she being so 
likewise, and that as far as presumptions can prove carnaU- 
copulation ensued between them ; that these proved, before 

VOL. III. P. 8. G 


PART the said cardinales and legates (which in dede were accord- 
ingly to the lawes justlie proved) that then the unjust copu- 
lacion between our sovereigne and the said lady Katheryn^ 
was neyther lawfully nor ought to be suffered, and so, eo 
Jhcto^ pronounced in the foresaid decretall, the nullite^ in* 
valdite, and unlawfulnes of their pretensed matrimony, 
which was by his law sufficient judgement of the cause; 
which decretall by his commandment, after and because he 
would not have the effect thereof to ensue, was, after the 
sight thereof, imbesiled by the foresaid cardinalls ; and one 
which then was here his cubicular, contrary to all justnes 
and equytee, wherein he hath done our sovereigne most ex- 
treme wrong. 

Secondly, Contrary to all equite and determination of 
generall counsailes, he hath called the cause (which ought 
to be determyned here) to Rome, where our sovereigne is 
neyther bounde to appere, nor send proctor : and yet hath 
he deteyned wrongfully the cause there these three or four 
years at the instance of the other partie, which sued to have 
it there, because they knowe he durst not displease the em- 
peror, who maketh himself a partie in it, as by the sequele 
it doth evydentlie appere, and so could our prince gett no 
justice at his hande, but was wrongfully delayed to no small 
hinderance, both to his succession, and this his realme, emy- 
nente daunger. 

Thirdlie, Where it is a naturall defence that the subject 
t)ught, and may defende his naturall sovereigne, or master, 
both in word and deed, and ought thereto to be admytted, 
this forsfud bishop of Rome, contrary to this equite in na- 
ture, hath rejected our sovereigns excusator, contrary both 
to his own lawes (which he most setteth by) and also Grods 
law, which he ought to prefer. Upon which cause, and 
other great injuries, our sovereigne did appeale to the 
gen^eral counsaile ; notwithstanding the which, he hath con- 
trary to all justice proceded, ad tdteriora^ wherein by a 
general counsaile he is dampned as an lieretick ; yet thus in- 
juriouslie from the begynnyng hitherto, he hathe handled 
our princes cause and matier there. 


Fourtheiy, The said bishope of Rome syns our princes BOO 
appeal^ bering of the laws, and acts of parliament which we ^^' 
then went about, and that our king having just ground 
(the premisses ooundered) would provide according to his 
bounden duetie, both for the suretie of his succesnon and 
lealme, gave out a sentence in maner of excommunycation 
and interdicticNi of him and his realme, in which when he 
was qxdcen to for the iniquitie and unjustnes thereof by our 
princes agents, he and his counsaile could nor did otherwise 
excuse them (the fiBCte being so contrary to all lawes and 
light) but that the faulte was in a new oflSoer late come to 
the court, which for his lew^d doing should grevouslie be 
punyshed, and the processe to cesse. This they promised 
oar princes agente, which notwithstanding was set up in 
Flanders to the great injurie of our prynce, and for parcy- 
alite to the other parte, as it may well appear by the forsaide 

Fy vethlie. The said bishope of Rome sought all the ways 
possible with fair words and promises both by his ambassa- 
dors and our sovereigns owne, which by any meanes could 
be invented, to have abused our prynce and sovereigne ; 
which when he saw that by none of his crafts our prince 
would be no longer abused with them, then sewed he to the 
French king, to be a mediator between our sovereigne and 
him : declaring to him and his counsaile that he would gladly 
do for our sovereigne, allowing the justnes of his cause ; so 
that they would fynd the means that our sovereigne would 
not proceed in his acts and lawes till that were proved. And 
that he would meet with him at Marcelles for the fynishing 
thereof, for at Rome he durst not do it for fear of the em- 
peror. The good French king admonyshed our prince 
hereof, offering to him to do all pleasure and kyndnes that 
lay in him in this cause, trusting that if the bishop of Rome 
came ones to Marcelles, he should give sentence for our so- 
vereigne in his just cause, and therefore prayed our prince 
to be content with that meting, in which he would labor 
for it effect uouslie, and so he did: to the which our prince 
answered, that touching the meting he was content, but 



PART touching the forbering of making lawes, he prayed his good 
*^^* brother to hold him excused, for he knew well ynough both 

the crafte and delayes of the bishop of Rome ; by which 
from thencforth he would never be abused : and that like- 
wise he fered that he would abuse his good brother, which 
so indede after followed ; for after he had gotten the mary- 
age of the duke of Orleance, he then promised the French 
king to give judgment for our maister, so he would send a 
proxie, which the said bishop of Rome knew well before, 
that he ney ther would, nor was bound to do ; yet notwith- 
standing his subtill ymagynadons, his promise was to the 
French king, that our prynce sending a proctor, should 
there before his departure have judgment for him in the 
principall cause ; for he openly confessed ferther, that our 
maister had the right : but because our prince and maister 
would not prejudicate for his jurisdictione, and uphold his 
usurped power by sending a proctor, ye may evydentlie here 
see that this was onelie the cause why the judgment of the 
bishop of Rome was not given in his favour ; whereby it 
may appere that there lacked not any justnes in our princes 
cause, but that ambition, vaine-glory, and to much muD- 
danytee, weare the letts thereof: wherefore, good people, 
I exhorte you to sticke to the trueth, and our prince accord- 
ing to our bounden dueties, and dispise thes noughtie doings 
of this bishop of Rome ; and charytable pray that he and 
all others, abusers of Christs worde and workes, may have 
grace to amend. 

Number 80. 

Instructions given by the kvnges highneSy to his trusty and 
weU'beloved servant William Pagett^ one of the clearkes 
of his signet, whom his highnes sendeth at this tyme unto 
the hinge of Pole, the dukes of Pomeray and of Pruce ; 
and to the duties ofDanttske, Stetin, and Connynburgh, 
Jbr the purposes ensueinge. An original. 


ViteiUus,B. First the said Pagett takeinge with him the kinges high- 
14. fol. 66. 


n» letters of credence to the princes aforesaide, with the book 
nippies of cerleine otber bookes and writeings prepared for 
hi« dispatch, shall with all diligence, takeing hisjomey from 
hence, repaire unto the said princes, as to his wisdomc shall 
]» thought best for the expedicion of his jomcy most conve- 
nient. After his arrival there, takeing the best opportunity 
he can for his audience, and deliverie of the kings highnes 
Bud letters, with his highnes most harty recommendacions : 
the said Pagett shall say that the kinges highnes consider- 
inge not only the o!de love, and perfect friendship, which 
bath now of long tyme been contracted, and by nnitual of- 
fices of amity, established between his highnes and the said 
princes; but also the singular affection, and entire zeal, 
which his highnes by aondry and manifold arginnents, hath 
anddotli daily perceive to be in them, to the search inge, fur- 
iheringe, defence, and mainteininge of the sincere truth, and 
right understandingc of Gods word, and the justice of htg 
iawes, and the extirpadon of such inveterate, old, and corrupt 
errors, customes, and abusiones, whereby Christes {tcople 
have bin nowe of longe tyme seduced, and kept nioi-e Iwund, 
thraird, and captive under the yoke of the bishops of Rome, 
then ever the Jewish people were under the ceremonies of 
Moyaea lawe; his highnes hath sent nowe presently the 
nid Pagett unto the said princes, and to every <Kie of them 
■everally, as aforesaid, to open and declare on his bighoes 
behalf the great desire which his highnes hath, to do alt 
things for his part ; whereby not only the fiiendship may he 
nourished and etxreased, but alsoe the common cause of all 
Christend men may be reduced to such ende as shall be agree- 
able to the due order of Christs faith and his precepts, and 
lawes given unto us by his worde and Spirit, and expressed 
in hu gospell. And for as much as the ch«fe pointe, and 
the greatest demonstradon of true friendship, is freindes to 
communicate and breake friendly each lo other, Et deponere 
in nnuffi amict, the whoal estate of their causes, and what 
things be pleasaunt and acceptable unto them, or contrary, 
wherein they find themselves grieved, wronged, or injuried ; 
the nid Pagett diall further say that tfae kings highnes hath A 

gS M 


PART given him in commaundment to oppen and declare unto the 
game severally the whoall progresse of his great and weighty 
cause of matrimony, with the intollerable wronges and in* 
juries donn unto his highnes in the same by the bishop of 
Rome, called the pope : and in what termes the same nowe 
conasteth. And finally by what waies and means his high- 
nes purposeth and'intendeth nowe to defende his said most 
just and right wise cause and to resist the malicious at- 
temptats of the said bishop of Rome. 

And for his entry into the matter, the sud Pagett shall 
note and regarde two principall and speciall pointes ; that is 
to say, the justice of the king^s cause, and the order and pro- 
cesse which hath binn used therein. And as concerninge 
the first pointe, the said Pagett shall shewe howe the king^s 
highnes hath so used himself, as no man may lawefully com- 
plaine of the same. For as touchinge the justice of his high- 
nes cause, that is to say, the declaration of his marriadge 
with the princesse dowager to be nought, of noe moment nor 
efFecte ; but against the lawe of God'^s nature and man, and 
therefore indispensable by the pope, and in no wise availe- 
able ; the said Paget shall hewe, howe the king^s highnes 
hath don therein as much as becommeth a Cristian prince to 
doe for discharge of his conscience : and hath founde soe cer- 
taine, soe evident, soe manifest, soe oppen and soe approved 
troicth therein, as whereunto he ought of necessity to give 
place, and to allowe and receive the same ; not as a matter 
doubtfuU and disputable, but as a plaine and discussed ve- 
rity, of the true understandinge of God^s wordc and lawe, 
which all Cristian men must follow and obey, and to all 
worldly respecte preferre and execute. In attaininge the 
knowledge whereof, if his highnes had used his owne parti- 
cular judgment and sentence, or the mind only and opinion 
of his own natural! subjecte, altho^ the same might in his 
owne conscience have sufficed ; yet his highnes would not 
have much repugned, if some other had made difficulty to as- 
sent in the same, untill further discussion had bin made there- 
uppon. But now, for as much as beside the king'^s owne 
certeine understandinge, and the agreement of the whoU 


de^e of both provinces of his reolme, unlo the same; his BOOK 
highnes hath alsoe for him the determinations of the most 
famous univeraitieB of Christi?ndom, whith be indifferent to 
pronounce and give sentence in this his cause, and therewithe 
alsoe the evident wordes of Gixl's lawe ; his highnes hath 
thought himself, in honour and duty to tlie obligation of 
God's command em ents, obhged necessarily in imbrace and 
receive the same ; and there, by the consent of his nobles 
spirituall and temporall, and with the singuler contentation, 
rejoice and comforte, of all bis commons and subjecte. And 
finally, by liie judgement and decree of the archbishoppe of 
Canterbury, most solempty and niitentic{ne1y passed in that 
behalf, hath now, for tlie discharge of his owne conscience, 
which was before merveileously greived and offended with 
the opinion of incest matrimony, and for the avoideinge of 
extreame dangers of his succession, and the rujne of his 
realms, which was by reason thereof imynent and manifestly 
apparant to insue, divorced and seperated himself from the 
yoake and bande of that unlawfull marriadge, which was of 
longe lime ustirped and continue*! betwene his highnes and 
the said princesse dowager, and hfith espoused and maricd to 
hi)) lawfull wife, tlie noble lady, dame Ann marqaes of Pem- 
broke, whose approved and excellent vertues, that ia to say, 
the purity of her life, her constant verg^nity, her maidenly 
and womanly pudidty, her sobemes, her chastenes, her 
meekenes, her wisdome, her discent of ancient right noble 
and highe parentage, her educaUon in alt good and lawefuU 
Metres and manners, her aptnes to procreation of children, 
with her other infinite good qualilyes, more to be regarded 
and esteemed then the only progeny, be of such approved 
excellency, as cannot be but most acceptable unto Almighty 
God, and deserve his bighe grace and favour to the ungular 
weale and benefitte of the king's realme and subjects. Al- 
beit in caise any objection shal be made hereunto by the said 
princes, or any of their concill, de ratione scandalt, by rea- 
son that the king's highnes hath not observM in all pointes 
the common order and manner of the pope's lawes, the 
said Paget shall, thereunto replying and answeiing, founde ji 

a* M 


PART themselves first uppon the most steeUiMit grounds of scrip- 
^*^' ture> vis. Quiajugto lex non est parita; sed fdnSpkihu 

Deif ibi Hbertas est: et si Spiriiu Dei ducUnini^ non estis 
sub lege. Hoc estj Spirim^ Sancti et consdentiiB moium 
seqttenteSf sub lege primiiq^e privait<B cedere debet, nequa- 
quam sumus constitttH. In prohibiHs autetn lege divind, 
parerfdum est conscienti^B^ m aliis vero ecdesuB: et qui lege 
privaid duciiurf nulla ratio exigit ut lege pubUca constrin^ 
gaiur. And th^^uppon the said Paget shall inferre, that 
althoughe in the lawe, every man^s private oonscienoe be but 
a private court, yet it is the highest and supreame courte 
for judgement or justioe, condempninge or approvinge of 
mens actes and deedes in the sight of Gk)d ; aooordinge to 
the saying of St. Paule to the Romanes, Gentes qu4B legem 
non habefUj sibi ipsis sunt lex ; qui ostendunt opus kgis 
scriptum in cordibus suis; simul attestants ipsorum con- 
scientia, ex cogitationibus eorum, inter se out accusasUu 
bus out excusantibus^ in eodie quo Judicabii Deus occulta 
hominum. And therefore the said Paget shall say, that 
beinge the king^s highnes said cause fully examined, dis- 
cussed, and resolved in his owne conscience ; and being also 
the same court of his conscience inlightened and instruct- 
ed, first by the Spirite of God, who possesseth and direct- 
eth the hartes of princes, and aflerward established and 
confirmed by such wayes as is before expressed; pro- 
nounced and declared, to be discharged before (rod from 
the contracte of his said first matrimony, and be at liberty 
to exercize and injoy the benefitte of God, for procrea- 
tion of children, and the lawefull use of matrimony, neces- 
sary ibr the releif of man^s infirmity. No man ought to in- 
veigh at this his doinge, but rather to interpretate the same 
into the best parte, in that that the king*s highnes had more 
regarde unto the weale of his soul, than to any ceremonies 
of mens laws, which themselves decree and ordeine : that noe 
man is bounde to obey them, or any other man^s precept, of 
what dignity or preheminence soever he be, if the same do 
militare, contra Deum et conscientiam qffendcU: Primum 
etenim qiAmrendum est regnum Dei, ^c. Et quid prodest 


h^tumodi, H univertutn rmmdum lucrefur, anhruB vera sviB BOOK 
detrimenfum patiatur,Src.? He may also further aay, that 
the king's highnt-s knowelh well, that resjiect is to he hod 
unto the world, nnd doubleth not but that it ie alsoe sufB- 
ciently declared and showed by his actes and proceedinges, 
howe much he hath laboured and travailed therein ; but n- 
ihence that these thingea, althoughe in their outward visage 
be worldly, yet inwardly they touch and concerne tlie peritl 
of soulc, noe man beinge ginceri et candidi pectoris-, caitik ar- 
nsle any blanie unin the king''s highnes, in that he liath after 
soe loDg travaile, labour and sludye, with intollerable coste 
tnd charges, without any fruite susteiited in that behalf, be 
iofuroed and constreyned rather to foUowe and acconipliahe 
the deiemiination of his own conscience, and the law of the 
ame, consonant and agreeable in this case to the law of 
God, and therefore superior and excellinge all lawes of man, 
then to indure in perpetual) sute, and continuall trouble of 
body and mynde, dodng injurie to nature, and incompar- 
able daiamage to his realme ; not doeing soe much as in 
him is, to provide for the same. And to the intente the 
said Paget may with the more efficacy declare unto the said 
pnnoes, the ungodly and unlawful demeauoiin <tf the pope, 
in the whoall progrene tS the king's higfanet stud cause, 
bandldng his highnes by the space of vii years, and more, 
in delayes and dalliance ; and hovfor fiiendsbipand justice, 
he hath alwayes ministred unto faim unkindneSB and notable 
injutie: by reason whereof, the king's higbnee hsth binn 
thus construed to doe as he hatb Aaa : the said Paget shall 
uoderstande, how that first in the befj^nninge of bis highnes 
greate cause, his grace b^nge diuly inquieted and molested 
witli the scruple of incest and unUwefull matrimony, did send 
unto the said bishop, as unto him which [n^sumed uppon 
bim the titleaadname^^Christ's vicarin earth; and whidi 
had the keyes of knowlec^ and power, to disceme the very 
wcrde of God frmn the worde of man ; to die intent that 
be, acotvding to his office and duty, should have yme- 
cUatly dissolved that doubt and scruple, which his high- 
aes in ootucience had before oono^vcd, and should have re- 



P ART Stored him incontinently to the quietnes and rest of the same. 
' Upon which insynuation, the saide bishop of Rome refuseing 
to take any knowledge of the kings said cause of matri- 
mony, but would the king should take a commission, and 
commissioners to be sent into this his grace realme, to 
whom the said bishop would give sufficient authority, to de- 
cerne, knowe, judge and dctermyne the said cause; then 
pretendinge^ that it might in noe wise by the order of the 
]awes be intreated at Rome, but only within the king'^s owne 
real me. And so he delegated his whoU power to the car- 
dinal Campegius, and the cardinall of York. Giveinge alsoe 
unto them, one other speciall commission, in forme of a de- 
cretall : wherein the said bishop of Rome pronounced and 
gave sentence, that the king s highnes matrimony was utterly 
nought and unlawfull ; and that therefore his highnes might 
convolare ad secundaa nupiias ; and the children procreated 
in the seconde marriadge were lawfull. And in this oppen 
commission, he gave alsoe unto the sidd legate full author- 
ity to determyne this matter, and to give sentence for the 
king'^s highnes ; and yet secretly he gave them instructions, 
to bring the said commission decretall, and not to proceede 
by vertue thereof, or of any other commission, unto any 
finall end or sentence, but to suspend and put over the same. 
And at the time of sendinge of the said commission, he sent 
alsoe down unto the king's highnes, a briefe written with 
his owne hande ; wherein he did alsoe approve the justice of 
the king'^s cause, in like maner as he did in his commission 
decretall; and promised unto the king'^s highnes, quam 
sanctissimi stib verbo pontifidsy that he would never after- 
warde advocate the saide cause out of the realme of £ng- 
lande, but would suffer it to have the due course and order 
of intreateinge of the same, within the king'^s highnes realme ; 
which bis sentence and promise notwithstanding, yet the 
said bishop of Rome, contrary to his own conscience and 
knowledge, what was the very trueth and justice in the 
king^s highnes cause ; and to the intente he might molest and 
trouble the same, decreed out sundry citations, whereby he 
would needes inforce the king's highnes to appeare at Rome 


in his own person, to the subversion of him, ?i is dignity, and BOOK 
the privileges of his realme ; or else to ometreine him in the "" 
exhibition of a proxie there: the iniquity of Iwlh which 
things is so evident and notable, itl nulla rerumjhcie defendi 
queal. For it is a common principle of the lawe, Qttoties 
auiem citatus ex pririkg'io, vel aligua alia materia, in voce 
ixpressa, venire non teneatur, in eo casu nee tenetur aliqtiam 
sui copiam facers, veqtie 3e, neque procuraiorem siaiere. 
It is also notorius, that the liberties and perogatives of tlie 
king's realme, to the observation whereof he \a bonnde by 
his oath at his coronation ; and that alsoe the priviledges of 
princes, beinge publique persons, besides other great and ur- 
gent caitses, doe necessarily let the king's person to appeare 
at Rome, and lawefiilly defcndech and excusetli his absence 
from tbence. And besides all this, that his highnes ought 
not to be cited to Rome ; it is enacted by the holy councilles 
of Nice, of Afi'rique, and of Meleviian ; and it is agreeable 
alsoe to all lawes, reason and equity, that kings should not be 
compelled to repair to Rome at the pope's calUnge, nc be 
boundcn in a matter of so highe weight and consequence as 
ihis is, to sende out of their ri;almes and dominions, their 
vriteinges, instrumentes, and tnunimentes, conteyneinge the 
secretyea of their affaires, or to make and trust a proctor in 
soe farr distant parts, and in a matter of such gravity and 
importance, to abide and fullfill that which the said proctor 
shall agree unto there. And hereunto the said Paget may 
adde, howe this matter toucheth the dignity of all ChriB- 
tian princes very highly, to suEfer themselves to be bo yoaked 
with the said bishop's authority. And that it is tyme for 
princes, nowe that the same bishop maketh this enterprise 
uppon them, to inserche and knowe the grounde and bot- 
tome of his and their authorities. For what and the pope 
would cite and call all Christian princes to appeare before 
him at Rome ; that is to say, to cause them to abandon and 
forsake their owne realmes, and neglect the cure and office 
committed unto them by God, and to answere there upon 
such matters, as the pope should for his pleasure object 
against them P Eaaet quidem illud durum ; aed tamen tivel- 



PART let poniifeXf Iubc posset Jhcere^ qua etenim ratione unum 
constrin^rere ; omnes eiiam reges cogere posset : and go it 
should be always in the pope^s authority and liberty, to re- 
move and depose what kings it pleased him from his crowne, 
and to rule and govern all kingdomes after his own arbitre 
and pleasure : one other notable iniquity, is also in that the 
pope by his citation would needs enforce the kinges high- 
nes to appear at Rome ; forasmuch as Rome is by all laws a 
place unlawful, yea, and thereto most suspect and unsure, 
not only for the kings highnes owne person, being the prin- 
dpale parte, but alsoe for the person of his proctor, if he 
should send any such thither ; and especially for the self 
cause to be intreated there : now it is a principle in the lawe, 
quod ciiando ad locum non futum et precedendo index Jacit 
inique quia legibus id prohibentibus necnon antiquissimis 
consiliis et ponf Romanorum definitionibus repugnantibus 
idjacit non solum inique sed etiam nuUiter Jacit : and yet 
further, the pope not satisfied with these injuries and wronges 
don unto his highnes, yea, and to justice it self, in manner 
as is above rehearsed ; but being then, and at such tyme as 
the said dtations were published, resident at Rome, one doc- 
tor Kerne, the kinges subject, understandinge how his high- 
nes was called there to appeare to one Cappisuochi dean of 
the rota, to make answer unto the princes dowagers com- 
pkinte, and exhibiting reasonable causes, and lawful matters 
excusatory why his grace should not be bound either to ap- 
peare at Rome, or to sende a proctor thither ; which things 
he did as the kinges subject, and as one who by law of na- 
ture is bounden to defende his kinge and sovereigne lord ; 
and by all laws admitted to alledge that in defence of him 
that is absent, which in equity ought to preserve him from 
condemnacion ; yet this notwithstandinge, the said Cappi- 
succhi, idque approbante ponti/ice^ not regardinge nor con- 
nderinge the matters soe by the said doctor Eeme alleadged, 
but demaunding whether he had any proxie from the kinges 
highnes for such purpose or noe ; the said Cappisucchi, for 
default of such proxie, (which was not necessary in this 
case) rejected the said doctor Eeme from the office of an ex- 


and proceeded in the principall cause : by reft- BOO K 
son whereof the said doctor Kcrnc appcUed to the pope al- 
ieadgiDge injurie to be don not only to the kings liighnes, 
but alsoc UQto himself, for that such matter as he (havinge 
intereBte in) did alleadge was not considered nor regarded, 
but processe made notwithstanding, to which appellation 
ihesmd Cappiauccbi gave an ainbiguoua and doubtful an- 
swer, promiscinge afterward to open his said answere and 
sentence iiiore plainely, and to give determinate rcsoluciona 
iberein, which nevertheless he would not doc, albeit he wa« 
diverse tymes required and pressed thereunto, but soe pa.ssed 
be the lyuae and suddenly returned to processe; whereupon 
the said doctor oftentimes appealed and put upp again a 
suppUcacion to the pope for t!>e admission of the said ap- 
p^ by reason whereof the said matter was reasoned in the 
agnature ; where olthoughe by noe lawe it woud be shewed 
why the said doctor Kerne ought not to be admitted to al- 
leage the said matters excusatory in the defence of the 
kinges highnee ; yet they gave their voices there as the pcjpe 
saide, that doctor Kenie should not be heard without the 
kingea proxie ; whereunto when Dr. Kerne replied, sayinge 
that whatsoever they decreed or saidc, yet there was no lawe 
to maintayne and bear it: it was answered again by the 
said bisbope, called pope, that he might judge all diings 
after his own conscience. And upon this resolucion, with- 
out any other decree given, or at least notified and declared, 
tbey proceeded in the prindpal cause, intendinge by this io- 
jiiiie and wronge, to enforce the kinges highnes to the exhi- 
iMtion of a proxie there, to his high prejudice, and the dero- 
gation of the libertyes, aikl prerogadves of his realme, and 
t».the pernicious example of the like to be done unto other 
princes in tyme comeing. And althoughe at the same time, 
the kingcs ambassadors there resident, did shewe unto the 
pope the determinacion of the universities of Paris and Or- 
leance, with the opinions and sentences of the best and most 
famous learned men of Italy and Fraunce, determyning all 
with one ccmsent, that these the popes doeinges were meere 
injuries and wnwges, and contrary to his own lawes, wherein 


PART it is conteined. Quod ponitfex Romanus fwn poUH cogere 
jdJj^iAm principem ChrisHanum ut Romam veniaty ui in 
causa fnatrimonii ibidem respondeat, Aut in eorum gra^ 
Ham procuraiorem constituat et quod subditus cujuscunque 
principis poterU sine mandato et sine soHsdatione ejusdem 
absencicB sine non comparentiof aUagere et quod debecU ad 
id admitti : quodque propositis per eundem Justis causis 
absencicB non poterit contra absentem principem uUerius 
procedi. Sed quod omnis talis processus si quis contra eun^ 
demjbciusjueratf sit Jure ipso facto nuUus, Yet he con- 
tinuynge still in the discusunge and disputacion of the same 
pointes: and perceiveinge well the kinges highnes adversaries 
to be in the wronge parte, did still nevertheless rejecte the 
said Mr. Kerne from the lavffull defence of the kinges high- 
nes, and ceased not to make processe against his grace in 
the principall cause to the expresse wronge and injurie of 
his highnes, and soe continuynge still in accumulateinge 
from tyme to time, new griefes and injuries against the jus- 
tice of the kinges cause ; and sending out very slaunderous 
griefes against the kings highnes, with diverse other un- 
seemeinge and ungodly demeanors used by him and his min- 
bters in the discousse and doinge of the said injuries. Fi- 
nally to accomplishe his longe and indurate malice, he de- 
creed and determined to publishe out against the kings 
highnes, the sentence of excommunication, and soe the 
kings highnes, being advertised of the said determinacion 
and purpose, and mynding to use his lawefuU and naturall 
defence of provocation and appellation against the same. 
After that his highnes had soe made authentiquely his said 
provocacion and appellation from the pope to the generall 
councell, which shall be nowe next indicted, and lawefully 
congregated ; and alsoe caused the same to be intimated 
unto the pope by one of his subjects, the said pope would 
in no wise admitte the same, et deferre hujusmodum appeU 
lacionij but pretendinge for his defence a certeine bull 
made by pope Pius, and that he was superior to all generall 
counsailes, did most arrogantly and contempteously reject 
the kinges highnes said appellacions, alleadging the same to 


be noaght; and they were heredques and trayton to his BOOK 
penoOy which would appeal from him to any general coun* 
adlj or would attempt to doe any thinge whereby his author* 
ity should be seene to be inferior unto the authority of 
genemU oiunsells. 

The iniquity of all which thinges beinge thus c^ned 
UDto the said princes, and sett forth by the said Pagett, 
with the best perswasions he can devise for that purpose, he 
ihall further shewe unto the same, that thence it is now 
evidently seene that the said bishop of Rome for the de- 
fence of his own corrupt affections of glorie and amtntion, 
regardeth not what injurie he doth to Christian princes, 
yea, and to abuse and subject so much as in him is, not 
Only contrary to the trueth, but alsoe to the due cider both 
of Giod and mans lawes, sheweinge himself therein rather to 
be the diild of wrath and disoorde, then the imitator and 
fioOower of Christ ; it shall nowe apperteine unto the oflBce 
of every good Christian prince on tother side, to have more 
qpirituall regaide to the preservation of their one estate and 
£gnity, and* the maintenance of Gods lawes, then they 
have had in times past. And to study nowe by all means 
rather to confounde and destroy these presumptions of men, 
which forge themselves such a throne and power as sound- 
eth greatly to the blasphemy of Christ and his very spouse 
the church, then to suffer the same any further to encrease. 

And forasmuch as the kinges highnes not only for want 
of justice in his said cause at the popes hande, but also 
for the defence of those extreme injuries, which the said 
pope hath enforced unto him and the justice of his cause, 
and for the maintenance of his estate royal, with the lawes 
and privileges of his realme, conforme and agreeable to the 
lawe of God, is nowe utterly determined, havinge God and 
his word upon his party, to resist and withstand the said 
bishops malicious attempts and reduce the said popes 
power, cul jvMos et legiHmos mediocritatis suce modosy so 
as within this his highnes realme, he shall not be suffered 
to exercise any other power and jurisdiction, then is granted 
unto him by expresse scripture. The said Paget shall 



PART ahewe unto.the said princes; that the kinges highttes trusts 
^* inge not a little to their greate vertue, wisdome, and ould 
amity hath cx>mmaunded him not only to open and declare 
unto the sud princes the wholl circumstances ot all the pre- 
misses, and of what mynd and disposicion the kings highnes 
is nowe towarde the said pope, and the court of Rome : but 
alsoe to exhorte and instantly to require the same on the 
kings highnes behalf, that it shall please them to adhere 
and sticke with the kings h^nes in his said righteous cause 
to the repaire of the said injuries at such tyme as the same 
shall be intreated in the general counselL And in the mean 
season to give unto his hi^nes their assistance and best ad^ 
vioe how he shall prooeede to the accomplishment of his de- 
ared purposes, according to such articles, as be written in a 
certaine scedule and be d^vered unto the said Paget, and 
signed with the kings highnes hand, which he shall also 
exhibite and shewe unto the said princes ; and to every of 
them, as by his wisdome he shall perceive may be most be- 
nefidall unto the kinges highnes affidres: and to require 
also the said princes and potentates) that in case there be 
any articles^ causes, or matters in those parties touchinge 
any abuses, evil customes, or opinions, whidi for the com- 
mon*wealth of Christendom, and the maintenance of Gods 
worde the said prince and potentate, or any of them, shall 
tUnk necessary and requirite to be reformed and redressed, 
the said Paget shall say that the kinges mynde and full de- 
terminacion is, his highnes beidge advertised of the spe- 
cialties of the same, ^ther by the letters of the said Paget, 
or otherwise by letters of the same princes ; or by the mes- 
sengers, servants, or orators of them, or any of them, will 
not faile, but like as the same his highnes at this time de- 
clareth his griefes, and desireth their assistance in this his 
suit and righteous causes and quarrels, even so likewise his 
highnes will not only right thankfully and kindly admitte 
the same causes to his most favourable audience ; but alsoe 
will with all effecte and sincerity to him possible, indeavour 
himsdf both to the exturpacion and puttinge away of the 
said abuses and evil customes soundinge.i^Cainst Gods worde 



, and also further doe ihat thing that may lye in 'BOOK 
him for rcfomiacion thereof, and establishingif the good iii- 
tentes and purposes of thf said prinees, as most sjjecially 
may be for the maintenance of Gods word, the faith of 
Christ, and wealth of Christendomc, Uke as unto the office I 

of a very Christian prince, and the perfeotnes of amity and f 

fiieDdship coDiracted hetwcene his highnes and the said J 

princes shall apperteine. Finallie, for as much as it ia I 

doubtJull of what minde, intention, and purpose, the said 1 

princes be or at least some of them, that is to witte, whither 
they be soe dedicated to the popes dcvocion, that there is 
tto likelihood of any good success touchinge the kings pur- 
p»cs lo be don or gotten at their hande, the said Paget 
thai] finit and before the dcliveringe of the kings said letters 
to any of the said princes, and decloracion of this his charge I 

hj all dexterity, wayes and meaaes to him possible insearcb, 
inquire, and knowe the disposicion and inclinacion of the 
sud prince, and of every of them scvcraJly, and soc there- 
■fter acconlinge to their wisdoines and discretions to deliver 
or retaine the kings said letters, with dectaraeions or witli- 
OUt declaracions of their said charge, as to their wisdonies 
shall be thought most necessary and requisite for atchievc- 
inge of tlie kings highnes purposes in this behalf. 


Propotitiont to the king's counseii; marked in some places 

on the margin in king Henrjfs cmn Aand. 1533. 


Fybite to sende for all the bishops of this realme, and Coitao ub. 
qiecyallie for suche as be nerest unto the courte ; and to ex- p.'Tia. ' 
•myne them aparte, whether they, by the law of God, can 
prove and justeGe, that he that now ia called the pope of 
Rome is above the generall counseii, or the generaJI coun- 
mU above him P Or whether he hathe gyven nnto him by 
tbe l«w of Grod, any more auctoryte within the realme, than 
any other foreign bishop P 

VOL. in- P. 2. H J 


PART 2. Item, To desire, with all the bishops of this realm, to 
^^^' set forth, preach, and cause to be preached to the king^s 
people, that the s^d bishop of Rome, called the pope, is 
not in auctoryte above the generall counselle, but the gene- 
rall counsell is above him, and all bishops. And that he 
bath not, by God^s lawe, any more juiisdiction within this 
realme, than any other foreign bishop (being of any other 
realm) bathe. And that such auctoryte as he before this 
bathe usurped within this realme, is both against Grodes law, 
and also against the generall counsells. Which usurpations 
of auctorite, onelie hath grown to him, by the sufierauce of 
princes of this realme, and by none auctoryte from God. 

3. Item^ Therefore that order be taken, for suche as shall 
preach at PauPs Cross from henceforthe, shall contynually 
from Sunday to Sunday preach there, and also teache and 
declare to the people, that he that now calleth himself pope, 
nor any of his predecessours, is, and were but only the bi- 
shops of Rome ; and hath no more auctorite and jurisdiction, 
by Godes lawe, within this realme, than any other foreign 
bishop hath ; which is nothing at all. And that such auc- 
toryte as he bathe claymed heretofore, hath been onlie by 
usurpation and sufferaunce of prynces of this realme. And 
that the bishop of London may be bounde to suffer none 
other to preach at PauPs Cross, as he will answer, but such 
as will preach, and set forth the same. 

4. Item, That all the bishops within this realme be bound 
and ordered in the same wise, and to cause the same to be 
preached thorough out all their dioces. 

5. Itemy That a specyall practise be made, and a streight 
commandcraent gyven to all provyncyalls, ministers, and 
rulers of all the foure orders of friers within this realme ; 
commanding them to cause the same to be preched by all 
the preachers of their religions, in and thorough the hole 

6. Item, To practise with all the friers Observants of this 
realme, and to commande them to preach in lyke wise ; or 
elles that they may be stayed, and not sufiered to preach in 
no place of the realme. 


?• liemj That emry abbote^ pi7or» and other heddes of BOOK 
iriigioiis houses within this refdme, shall in like manner 
teebe theire ooDTents and bfethren, to teach and declare the 

& /lam, Thai every bishop shall make specyall com* 
nandements to every person, vicare and curate, within his 
dyocesy to preadi and declare to theyr parochians in lyke 

9i /leiMy Prodamations to be made thorough out the 
nakae, conteyning the hole acte of appeles: and that the 
ssme acte may be impressed, transumed, and set up on 
every diurch dore in England ; to the intent, that no par- 
iQD, vyear, curate, nor any oth» of the king^s subjects, 
Aail makethemselfB ignorant thereof. 

IOl /Asms, The king'*s provocation and ajqpellations, made 
bam the bishop of Rome unto the geneiall counsdl, may 
also be transumed, impressed, published and set up on 
eveiy churdi dore in England ; to the intent, that if any 
censures should be fulmynat^ against the king or his realm, 
that then it may appear to all the world, that the censures 
be of none effecte ; considering that the king bathe already, 
and also before any censures proraulged, bothe provoked 
and appeled. 

11. lUfn, Like transurapts to be made, and sent into all 
other realmes and domynyons, and specyally into Flanders, 
concerning the king^s saide provocations and appellations ; 
to the intente the falshode, iniquite, malice and injustice of 
the bishop of Rome, may thereby appere to all the world : 
and also to the intent that all the world may know, that 
the king^s highnes standing under those appeles, no censures 
can prevayle, nor take any effecte against him and his 

1^ Iterjiy A letter to be conceyved from all the nobles. Not yet 
as well spirituall as temporall, of this realme, unto the bi-^^*^^ 
diop of Rome, declaring the wrongs, injuries and usurpa- *>« **<*°* 

. 1 ' ii--»i_-i_ jii- t before the 

tions, used against the kmg s mgnnes and this realme. parliament. 

13. Item, To sende exploratours and espies into Scotland; For to mm 
and to see and perceyve their practises, and what they in-J^^^I^ 



PART tend there; and whether they will confeder themselfs with 
any other outwarde prynce. 

Dacres,my 14. Iteniy Certen discrete and grave persons, to be ap- 
foik, Mid iir pointed to repair into the partes of Germany, to practise and 
T. Clifford, conclude some lege or amyte with the prince and potentats 
la the of Germany ; that is to say, the king of Pole, king John of 
biTrement Hungary, the duke of Saxony, the duke of Bavyere, duke 
Frederyke, the landegrave Van Hesse, the bishop of Ma- 
gons, the bishop of Treucrs, the bishop of Coleyn, and other 
the potentats of Grermany ; and also to enserch, of what in- 
clination the said prynces and potentats be of, towards the 
king and his realme. 
To know 15. Item^ Like practise to be made and practised with 
Liii^!' * * the cyties of Lubeke, Danske, Hamburgh, Brunswyke, and 
all other the stedes of the Hannse Tutonick ; and to en- 
serche of what inclination they be towards the king, and this 

16. Itenij Lyke practise to be made and practised, with 
the cities of Norimbergh and Aughsbrough. 
This is ai- 17. Item^ To remember the marchiants adventurers 
ready done, haunting the domynyons of Braband, and to speke with 

The order 18. Item^ To Set Order and establishment of the princes 
dowager^s house with all celerity, and also of my lady Mary^s 
The orders 19. Item^ A full Conclusion and determination, to be taken 
for my lady princes house. 

U taken. 


Number 32. 

By the king. 

A letter against the papers authority ^ and hisjbltowersj set- 
ting Jbrth their treasons. An original. 


Cotton lib. Trusty and right welbeloved, we grete you well. And 

p. 214. ' wher as heretofore, as ye know, both upon most just and 

vertuouse fundations, grownded upon the lawes of Almighty 


Ged sod holly acriptur^, and also by the deliberate advice, BOdK 
ooosultatioD, content and agreement, as well of the biahopB "' 
and derfpe^ as by the nobles and oomons tempcNraU of this 
our raalme, asaembled in our high court of parliament, and 
by auctoritie of the same, the abuses at the Inshop of RcHne 
his auctoritie and jurisdiction, of longe time usurped against 
us, have been not only utterly extirped, abolished and se- 
cluded; but also the same our nobles and oomons, both of the 
dergie and temporaltie, by another severall acte and upon 
likft fiindation for the publique weale of this our realfne, have 
united, knjrt and annexed to us and the corone imperiall of 
this our realme, the title, dignitie and stile of supreme bed in 
sarthe, immediatly under Grod, cS the church cS En^and, 
as undoubtedly evermore we have been. Which things also 
the said Usbops and dergie, particularly in thdr convoca- 
tioofl, have holly and entierly consented, recognised, ratified, 
oonfenned and approved autentiquely in writing, both by 
their wpedaSl othes, profession and wryting, under their 
agnes and scales. So utterly renouncyng all other othes, 
obedience and jurisdiction, either al the said Inshop of 
Rome, or of any other potentate, we late you witt, that per- 
pendyng and consideryng the charge and commission in this 
behalf geven unto us by Almighty God, together with the 
great quietnes, rest and tranquillite, that hereby may ensue 
to our fiuthful subjects, both in their consciences, and other 
wise to the pleasure of Almighty Grod, in case the said bi- 
shops and clergie of this our realme, should sincerely, truly 
and faithfully sett forth, declare and preach unto our said 
subjects, the very true word of God, and without all maner 
or culor of dissimulation, hipocrisie, manifest, publishe and 
declare, the great and innumerable enormities and abuses, 
which the said bishop of Rome, as well in title and stile, as 
also in auctoritie and jurisdiction, of long tyme unlawfully 
and injustly hath usurped upon us, our progenitors, and all 
other Christen princes ; have not only addressed our letters 
generall to all and every the same bishops, straitly chargyng 
and commanding them, not only in their proper persons, to 
declare, teach and preach unto the people, the true, mere 

h3 j 


PART and sdnoere word of Gtxl : and how the said title, stile^ and 
jurisdiction of supreme hed, apperteyneth unto us, our co- 
rone and dignitie royail. And to gyve like wamyng, mo- 
nition and charge, to all abbots, priors, deanes, arche dea- 
cons, provosts, parsons, vicars, curats, scole masters, and 
all other ecclesiastical persons within their dioces, to do the 
semblable, in tfa^r churches, every Sunday and solem feast, 
and also in their scoles ; and to cause all maner of prayers, 
orisons, rubrics and canons in masse books, and all other 
books nsed in churches^ wherin the said bishop is named, 
utterly to be abolished, eradicat, and rased out in such wise, 
as the said bishop of Rome, his name and memorie for ever- 
more, (except to his oontumelly and reproche) may be ex- 
tinct, suppressed and obscured : but also to the justices of 
our peas, that they, in every place within the precint of 
their commissions, do make and cause to be made diligent 
serche wayse and especially, whether the said bishops and 
dergie do truly and ancerly, without any maner doke or 
dissimulation, execute and accomplish their said charge to 
them commytted in this behalf; and to satisfie us and our 
councill, of such of them that should omy tt or leave undone 
any parte of the premisses, or elles in the execution therof, 
should coldely, fainedly use any maner of synister addition, 
interpretation or cloke, as more plainly is expressed in our 
said letters. We considering the great good and furder- 
aunce, that ye may do in these matters in the parts about 
you, and specially at your being at sises and sessions ; in 
the declaration of the premisses, have thought it good, ne- 
cessary and expedient, to write these our letters unto you ; 
whom we esteem to be of such singuler zeale and affection 
towards the glory of Almighty God, and of so faithfull and 
loving harte towards us, as ye woll not only, with all your 
wisdome, diligences and labours, accomplish all such things, 
as might be to the preferment and setting forward of Godes 
worde, and the amplification, defence and maintenance of 
our said interests, right, title, stile, jurisdiction and aucto- 
ritie, appertejming unto us^ our dignitie, prerogative, and 
corone imperiall oi this our realme, woll and desire you, and 


oetecdidei ftnitdy ciiaige sod cnmmand you, that laying BOOK 
qMite all Taia aSaeAofOB^ respects, and carnal considefrations ; ^^' 
and asttiiig bdim your eyes the minor of truth, the glorie 
of Ciody tbeiig^t and dignitie of your sovenogne lord; thus 
tmding Id the inesrimaMe unitie and oommoditer both of 
your aeU^ and all other our knring and iaithfull subjects, ye 
do not only make diligent seardi within the precinct of your 
oaoumssioii and auctoritie, whether the said tnihops and 
dagie doe truly, nnoerely as befixe, preach and teach, and 
dedaie to the people the premisses, according to their du- 
0e% but also at your said setting in sises and sessions ye do 
persuaJe, diewe, and declare unto the same people the 
toMvv affect, and purpose of the premisses in sudi wise, as 
die said bidbops, and derg^ may the better, not only do 
dierbjr, and execute their said dueties, but that also the 
parents, and rulers of fiunilies, may declare, teach, and in« 
fame their diildren and servants in the specialties of the 
■tme, to the utter eztirpacioD of the said bishops usurped 
mthority, name, and jurisdiction; for ever shewyng and de* 
darying alao to the people at your sud sesnons the treasons 
trayteroudy commytted against us and our lawes, by the 
late bishop of Rochestre, and sir Thomas Moore, knight, 
who thereby, and by diverse secrete practises of their mali- 
ciouse mynds against us intended, to semynate, engender, 
and brede amongs our people and subjects, most mis- 
chievous and sediciouse opynyon, not only to their own 
confusion, but also of divers others who lately have con- 
dignely suffered execucion according to their demerites, and 
in such wise dilating the same with persuacions to the same 
our people, as they may be the better fixed, established, and 
satisfied in the truth, and consequently, that all our fayth- 
fuU and true subjects may therby detest and abhore in their 
harts and deeds, the most recreant and traiterouse abuses, 
and behaveours of the said maliciouse malefactors as they 
be most worthy, and fynding any defaulte, negligence, or dis- 
amulacion in any manner of person, or persons, not doyng his 
duetie in this partie, ye immediately doe advertise us and 
our counsel of the defaulte, manner, and facion of the same^ 



P A RT laUng you witt, that conadering the greate moment, weighty 
and importance of this matter, as wherupon dependeth the 
unity, rest, and quietnes of this our realme, yf ye should 
contrary to your dueties, and our expectations, and trust, 
neglect, be slake, or oraytte to doe diligently your dueties 
in the true performance and execucion of our mynde, plea- 
sure, and commandment as before, or wold halte or stumble 
at any person, or specialtie of the same, be ye assured that 
we, like a prince of justice, well so punish and correct your 
defaulte and negligence thereyn, as it shall be an example to 
all others, how contrary to their allegeance, othes and due- 
ties, they do frustrate and deceive, and disobey the just and 
lawfuU commandment of their soveraign lord, in such 
things as by the true hartie and faithfuU execucion whereof, 
they shall not only prefer the honour and glory of God, and 
sett forth the majesty and imperial dignitie of their soveraign 
lord, but allso importe and bring an inesUmable unitie, Con- 
corde, and tranquillitie of the publique, and common state 
of this realme : whereunto both by the lawes of God and 
nature and man, they be utterly obliged and bounden, and 
therefore fail ye not most effectually, ernestly, and entierly 
to see the premisses done and executed upon paine of your 
allegeance; and as ye woll advoyde our high indignacion 
and displeasure, at your uttermost perills ; given under our 
signet at our manor besids Westminster, the xxvth day of 

Number 83. 

By the king. 

A proclamation against seditious preachers. 

HENRY Vlllth. 

iJotton lib. Right trusty and well-beloved cousyn, we greteyou well, 
leop. E. 6. and where it is commen to our knowledge that sundry per- 
sons aswell religious, as secular priests and curats in their 
parishes, and divers places within this our realme, do dailly 
asrauch as in them is, sett'forthe and extolle the jurisdiction 
and auctoritie of the bishop of Rome, otherwise called pope. 


■wyiig their tedwicNMe, pestylent, and £dK BOO 

iag far him in the pulpyt, and makyng him a god, to the ^ 

great deeejte, iliudyng «id aeducyng of our mifajecUy btyng-. 
jng them into error% ledicsoo, and evil qpynyona, more 
{Ncfcnyng the powers^ lawes, and jurifldicdon of the laid 
faidiop of Rome, then the most holly lawea and precepts of 
Ahmghty God. We dierefore myndyng not only to pro- 
^de far an umde and quietDes, to be had and contynued 
amonga^Mur mid suljectBy but also oovetyng and deayryng 
diem to be brought to a prafesaim and knowledge of the 
mere Terity and truth, and no longer to be seduced, nor 
hlynded with any such supersticiouse and fidse doctrjrne of 
sny earthly usurper of Gods lawes, woU therefore and com- 
flumd you, that wher and whensoever ye diall fynde, per- 
oiive, know, or here tell of any such sedidous personnes, 
that in auch wise do spreade, teach, or preach, or otherwise 
•ett forth any such opynions and pemiciouse doctryne, 
to the ezaltacion of the power of the bishop of Rome; 
biynging therby our subjects into error, grudge, and mur- 
murracion, inddaydly do apprehend and take them, at 
csnae them to be apprehended and taken, and so committed 
to warde, there to remayne without bayl or maynprize, un- 
tyll upon your advertisement thereof unto us, or our coun- 
dl, ye shall know our further pleasure in that behalfe: 
given under our agnet, at our manor of Gkenewich the xii 
day of April. 

Number 34. 

A letter of the archbishop of YorVs, setting Jbrth his zeal 
in the king's service, and against the pope's authority. 

Please it youre highnes to understande, that the viiith Cotton 
daye of June, I received by the hands of sir Francise By- ^^^\ ^ 
gott, your moste honorable letters; by tenor whereof I per- 
ceive, that your highnes is enformed, and so doth take it, 
that wher as the same your highnes, as well by convocations 
of your cler^es of both provinces, as by your highe courte 
of parliament is declared the suppreme hed in ycrthe of the 


PART church of England, and also by the clergie of the said con- 
vocations, it is avowed, that the bishop of Rome by Grods 
lawe hathe no more jurisdiction within this realme than any 
other foreign bishope ; and therefore ordre taken by your 
highe courte of parliament, by the consent of the lords spi* 
ritual and temporal, and the commens in the same assem* 
bled, as well for the unitjmge and knittenge of your sayde 
style and title of suppreme hed to your imperiall crowne, as 
tor the abolishement of the saide bishope of Rome's autor^ 
itie and jurisdiction, yet I nevertheless, nodre remembring 
my consent given to the same, by my subscription and pro- 
fession, signed with my hande, and sealed with my seal, 
have not done my dewe endevorment to teache the same, 
nor cause to be taught within my diocese and province ; so 
that the foresaid truths myght be imprinted and rooted in 
the harts of the ignorant people your highnes subjects, 
wherefore your highnes commandeth me, not onlie to 
preache the forsaide things in my person, and also to com* 
mande others to preache the same, but also to give com- 
mandment in your highnes name, to all maner of prelates 
and ecclesiastical persons within my diocese and province, 
to declare and cause to be declared everie Sunday; and 
therwith to open to the people your highnes just and ray- 
sonable cause, moveing the same to refuse and to exclude 
out of your realm all the jurisdiction and autoritie of the 
said bishop of Rome ; and ferthermore your highnes com- 
mandeth me to cause all Collects and places of the masse- 
booke, wher anie mention is made of the saide bishope of 
Rome to be rased out, and nodre the sayd Collects, nor 
any other thing, wherbie the said bishops autoritie is mag- 
nified, to be had anie more in use, but to be Utterlie sup- 
pressed with silence ; and besides this, your highnes in the 
same your most honorable letters, giveth order for scole- 
tnasters, how they shall instill and inculke the forsaid trueths 
into the harts of theyre disciples, to the intent, that so bee- 
ing enplanted and rooted in tender aige, they may so all- 
waise continue. In moste humble maner prostrate, I beseech 
your highnes to take in good parte my answer. I trust 


jonr MgfrniMi is not mmmembred, that about tlua tyme BOOK 
the kit jetar^ anouoe after my retum from your biglmes, "' 
my lard of Canteiburie by your commandment sent to me 
a hookey w h c mn was an order for preacbinge, and in the 
fixne devised, as weQ Cnr preachers as curats, for the 
; in whidi ferme, your bi^nes style and title otsup- 
iedde is mentianed, and fertber in the same bocdce, 
yoor faigbnes bath gpven oommandment, that eveiy preacher 
■halde afiire Easter last past ones in solempne audience de- 
dare die usurped jurisdiction within this realme of the bi- 
ihope of Bome, and your bighnes just causes to decline 
fiom the same; and also to open and declare such things, . 
ss myght avowe and justifie your bighnes refusall of ma- 
lisge with die princes dosger, and lawfiill contract of now 
with your most dear wife queen Ann, and in the same an 
oeder aiao given for the suppressicm of the generall sen- 
leoee ; after the recepCe of which booke, the Sunday next 
fiilkywing, which was then the second Sunday after Trinide 
Sunday, I went from Cawood to York, and ther in my own 
penoo, dedared as well your highnes cause touchinge the 
natiimoiue, as also your refusall of the popes jurisdiction, 
fnmisbinge both so at leangth, that I trust that Dothing 
that needed to be opened and spoken, was left unspoken : 
and to the intent, that I woldc have the thing the more 
spred abrode, I forthwith upon the recepte of the forsaide 
booke, sent to York to publishe ther, that I wolde be ther 
Sundaye followinge, and cawsed the churches to make an 
order of theyre service, in suche tyme, as everie man myght 
have oportunities to be at the sermon, and speciallie re- 
quired the mayer and his bretherne, and your faithful! 
chaplaine and servants, Mr. Magnus, and sir Greorge Law- 
son to be ther, and ther and than afore a great multitude, 
and as it is to be supposed in that multitude werr a great 
number c^ sundry parts of the contree, which never lack in 
that citie, it may be thought ther was the greater number, 
because it was noysed that I sholde preache, takenge occa- 
aon of thecs words in the Gospell of that daye, Uxorem 
duxi ideo non possum venire^ so I uttered, explained, de- 


PART clared, and opened both the forsaide matters, and the inju- 
ries doon to your highnes by the bishope of Rome Clement, 
that your saide chapleyne and servants, Mr. Magnus and sir 
George Lawson, thought that the audience was satisfied. 
These ii bee my witnesse hearin, with a very great multi- 
tude besides them, that I nothinge fayne heerin. As for 
your highnes title of supreme hedy I touched not than, for 
somutche, as no order was given than, but onlie to meke 
mention therof in the prayors ; and it is well known to all 
that have herde me preache ever sins my first commynge 
into my diocese, that for more speed of tyme, and more ut«- 
teraince of mater, I never have made prayours in any ser- 
<mond, but proceded forward without stope, nor have anie 
thinge, or not muche, rehersed in Latin, but English it in 
course, for the same purpose. Also opon the recept of the 
same booke, furthwith I commanded my officers and others 
that coulde write, to make out a great number of the saide 
books, and cause to be delivered to everie preacher within 
my dyocese a hole booke, chargenge them, to doe according 
to the instruction therof, and generallie everie curate a 
booke comprisenge as muche as touched they re charge, and 
if he were a preacher, he had the hole. And I assured your 
highnes, I have not yet herde, but that every one of the 
said curats foloweth theyre books in everie poynte ; and 
speciallie praye for your highnes as chief hedde of the 
church, and all other things observe in the same ; and yet 
I have done my diligence to herken and know if it were 
otherwise. And I doe not know but all the preachers have 
done theyre duetie ; and to the great number of them I 
spake my selfe, and delivered them books, and charged 
them. And ferther, I charged all curatts and others, that 
they sholde sufier no man to preache in theyr churches ; to 
the intent, that all that would preache, should be con- 
strained to come to me, that I might deliver them the for- 
said instructions. And never yet anie had licence of me to 
preache, but he had suche a book delivered hym. To 
every house of fryars, and other reli^ouse houses, wher 
anie preachers werr, I gave books ; and Ukewies to all that 


I knewe, or coulde leame to be within my dyocese, with BOOK 
charge that they sholde folow the booke. Whan anie reli- 
giouse men came to me for counsel!, I told them what I 
had done, and gave them counsell to doe the same. Of 
divers sorts have come to me, both Observants and Cartu-^ 
sians and others. Opon Good Frydaye last past, I charged 
the treasurer of Yorke, that he sholde leave out the Collect 
pro Papa. Lykewies I charged the deacon that songe the 
hyme Exultet Angelica^ in the halowinge of the paschall, 
that he sholde leave out mention therin made cle Papa* 
The trueth of all these things may be examined and 
known, if it shall so please your highnes : by wiche it shall 
appear^ I trust, that I ame not in suche blasme as your 
highnes imputethe to me ; enformed by them, peradventure, 
that be not my friends. Your highnes somewhat knoweth 
me. I have been allwayes open and plain, and hidreto I 
dare avowe I never deceived you, nor herafter shall in any 
thing that I take upon me, as my lemynge and conscience 
woll serve. And now, after the receipte of your most 
honorable letters by sir Francis Bygott, I forth vrith caused 
letters to be made to my lord of Duresme and Carlisle, and 
to all archedeacons, gevinge to them (on your highnes be- 
half) streight commandement, to follow truelie and syncerlie 
theffecte of suche commandements, as your highnes hath 
^ven nie in your most honourable letters ; and have charged 
all archedeacons to see, that all things, according to the 
tenor of your saide most honorable commandment, bee 
done without delaye ; and have charged them to deliver 
books to all curats and others, of the olde instructions, put- 
ting to them all.that is nowe encreased in these your high- 
nes last most honorable letters : so that I trust, all things 
shall bee done according to your highnes commandment, 
with all speed, efiicacie and diligence, wherunto I shall 
hearken. And for my parte, I have (on Sunday last past, 
which next followed the receipte of your highnes most ho- 
norable letters) declared all things comprised in the same ; 
so that, I trust, the audience was satisfied. I caused the 
ciUe to be warned afore, and diverse of the contree were 


PART present. .And yonr faythfull cfaapleigne and servants^ Magw 
BUS and sir George Lawson, I specially required to be ther; 
as in deed they werr, and can reaport what they think 
therof. Ther werr also present the abbot of Saincte Maries 
of Yorke, the treasorer of Yorke, sir Francis Bygott ; these 
werr there^ your servants and chapleignes, and many others. 
I trust your highnes shall never fjmde in me, but that I 
promise, I shall fulfill, and all things doe with good hast^ 
that I may doe, at your highnes commandement, Grod not 
offended. And most humblie prostrate, I beseche your 
highnes to be so graciouse, good lord, not to beleive any 
complaynts of me, afore you have herde my answer. The 
tyme is now suche, that some men think they doo highe 
sacrifice, whan they may bring into your highnes displea- 
sure such a poor priest as I am : but I trust in our Lorde, 
that your highnes dothe not soe take it, and that our Lorde 
woll continewe your highnes graciouse mynde towards your 
poore preests and chapleignes ; and that he shall sendc to 
them, that cawsleslie provoke the grevouse displeasure of 
your highnes against our siude preests, better grace here- 
after. For which, and for the continuall keeping of your 
highnes in his govemaunce, I shall, as I am most bounde, 
continuallie praye. From Bishops-Thorpe, the xivth of 
June 1535. 

Your highnes most humble 

Freest and headman, 

Edwarde Ebor\ 

Number 35. 

A letter ofCromweWs to the king's amJlxismdor in France y 

JuU of expoattdoAons. 
Sib, August the 9&d. 

After my most hertie recommendations, these shall be 
to advertise you, that the 17th day of this moneth I re- 
ceyved from you a packet of letters, which indelayedlie I 
delyvred unto the king'*s highnes, and conferred with his 
grace. Theffecte both of your letters, and all others within 


db nde pwilDety bring diiwctdl ttwdl to luB hight^ BOOK 

■& And after hig highiHW had with me perused the hole 
thoffoughlie at your Mude lettersy peroeyving not 
the lykelybood of the not repairee into Fraunoe of 
Mlip Mrianchthon, but also your communications had with 
Aa KrefMh king, upon your demaunde made of the kinjf a 
Vgfc*— peacioius with also your ^acrete answers and rejdi. 
Mdooa made in that bdlalf ; for the which his majescee 
gptA anto you his hertie and oondigne thanks. Ye shall 

that his highnes comaunded me to make you 
in this wise Iblowing. First, as touching the king^'s 
r^his highnes doubdth not, but seeing both the Frendi 
Ung^ and also the grete mayster, have promised you it 
dttll be depeched ; ye will, as the case shall requyre^ not 
to call uppon them till it be depeched. And ferther 
that the said Frendi king, upon youre saide 
dcnoauBde of the saide pensions, so soday nelye fdl into com- 
with you, aswell of his frendeship and humany te 
to the ki^s highnes ; alledging, that he at all tymes 
hathe answered Ibr the king'*s highnes, specially being last 
aft Manella with pope Clement, with other thyngs, as in 
your saide letters appereth. As also concemyng the exe- 
cutions lately done here within this realme, the king^s high- 
nes not a little mervaileth thereat, and thinketh it good, that 
as of your self ye take some occasion at convenyent tyme 
and opertunyte to renovate the said communication, both 
with the French king, or at the leest with the grete maister ; 
saying unto them, that where the saide French king alledg- 
eth, that he hathe at all tymes answered for the kyng^s 
highnes in his cause ; and specially to the saide pope Cle- 
ment at Marcells ; afHrmyng his procedyngs to be just and 
upright concemyng the matrymony, as ye do wry te in that. 
Albeit the king^s highnes procedings, in all his affaires 
widiin this realme, being of such equy te and j ustnes of them- 
sdf as they be, nedeth not any defence or assistence ayenst 
pope Clement, or any other foreyn power, having Goddes 
worde and lawes only sufficient to defende him ; yet in that 
that the saide French kyng hathe, as he sayeth, answered 


PART at all tymes on the king^s parte^ he hathe don nothing bi|t 
' the parte of a brother, in justefieng and verefyeng the 
truedi; and so continuyng, shall do as apperteyneth to a 
prynce of honour, which the king'*s highnes doubtith not be 
bath, and will doe only in respecte to the veryte and trewth^ 
besid the amytc betwixt them both justlye requyryng the 
same. And concerning thexecutions don within this realme^ 
ye shall sey to the saide French kyng, that the same were not 
so marvelous extreme, as he alledgeth. For, touhmg Mr. 
More, and the bishop of Rochester, with suche others as 
were executed here, their treasons, conspiracies and practises 
secretely practisyd, aswell within the realme as without^ to 
move and styrre discension, and to sowe sedicyon within thc^ 
realme, intending thereby not onelye the distruction of the 
kyng, but also the whole subversion of his highnes realme, 
being explained and declared, and so manifestly proved afore 
them, that they could not avoyde nor denye it : and they 
thereof openly detected, and lawfully convicted, adjudged and 
condempned of high treason, by the due order of the lawes of 
this realme, it shall and may well appere to all the worlde, 
that they having such malice roted in their herts agenst their 
prynce and sovereigne, and the totall distruction of the comen 
weale of this realme, were well woerthie, if they had had a 
thousand ly ves, to have suffered ten tymes a more terrible 
deth and execution then any of them did suffer. And touch- 
inge suche wordes as the saide French king spake unto you, 
concerning how Mr. More dyed, and what he saide to his 
daughter going to his judgement, and also what exhortations 
he should gyve unto the kyng^s subjects, to be trew and 
obedient to his grace ; assuring you that there was no such 
thing J whereof the grete master promysed you a double at 
length : in that the king^s pleasure is, that ye shall not onelie 
procure the said double, and sende it hither, but alsoe sey 
unto the siude French king, that the king^s highnes cannot 
otherwise take it but verye unkyndly, that the saide French 
king, or any of his counsaile, at whose hands he hathe so 
moche roery ted, and to whom he hathe mynystered so many 
grete benefits, pleasures and commodytees, shoulde so UghOy 


ffn «ne^ fioth and credenoe to any such vayne brutes and BOC 
tales; not havjng tint knowlege or advertigement "' 
die Idngf a highnea here* and hia oounsaile, of the ve- 
^nd tiewth ; afflrming it to be the dike of a frebde, 
anj aiiche tales di so noUe a prynce^ rather to have 
the bmters thereof to sylence, or at the leest not 
to haive dyvulged the same, untill such tyme as 
is Uai^a nMyertee being so dere a frende had ben adver- 
taed thereof, and the trewth knowen, before he shoulde so 
^jbdy beleve or alledge any suche reporte. Which ingrate 
mi mkynde demcanure of the saide French king, used in 
lUi fadhalft aigneth playnly not to remayn in his brest 
mtk imegiy t e of herte^ and synoere amy te towards the 
la^s k^g*»~^ and his proeeedingSy as his highnes alwayes 
k i el iuftae hathe expected and loked for : which thing ye 
■Bj lamw oe and alledge unto the said Frendi long, and 
Ae grele master, dr to one of them, with sudie modestie 
aad a u i U ene a» as ye thinke they maye peroey ve that the 
lim^a Ug^mes hathe good and just cause in this parte, 
hat to take their light credenoe unkyndly. And 
the saide French kmg sayeth, that touching such 
lawes as the king*8 holynes hathe made, he will not medle 
withall; alledging it not to be mete, that one prynce 
ihoulde deare another to chaunge his lawes ; sayeing, that 
Us be too olde to be chaunged. To that ye shall say, That 
Hich lawes as the king^s highnes hath made here, be not 
made without substauncyall grounds, by grete and mature 
advise, counsaile and deliberation, of the hole polyde of 
this reakne, and are in dede no new lawes, but of grete an- 
tiquyte, and many yeres passed, were made and executed 
nitUn this realme, as now they be renovate and renewed 
oalie in respecte to the comen weale of the same. And it is 
not a little to his highnes mervule, that the saide French 
king ever would counsaile or advise him, if in case here- * 
dtac any such like offenders should happen to be in this 
realme, that he should rather banysh them, than in such 
wise execute them. And specyallie con«dering, that the 
sude French king himself, in commonyng with you at the 
VOL. III. p. 8. I 


PART tyme, not only confessed the extreme execucyons and grete, 
^^^' bruyllie, of late don in Ins realme^ but also that he now i 

tendeth to withdraw the same, and to revoke and call h< 
agayn suche as be out of his realme : the king^s high] 
therefore, the more straungely taketh his saide advise 
counsaile, supposing it to be neither thoffice of a frend, 
of a brother, that he wold determyn himself to call hoaii^: 
into his realme agayn his subjects being out of the sanM^ 
for speking agenst the bishop of Rome^s usurped auctoritc^ 
and counsaile the kings highnes to banyshe his traytoum 
into straunge parts, where they myght have good occasiaiiyi 
tyme, place, and oportunyte to wourke their feats of treason; -^ 
and conspiracie the better agaynst the kings highnes aQdkf 
this his realme : in whiche parte ye shall somewhat eugrew ^ 
the matier after suche sorte as it may well appere to that -* 
saide French king, that not only the kings highnes might J 
take those his counsailes and communications, both straungdy ' 
and unkyndely, thinking the same not to procede of mem . 
amyte and friendship, but also using such polycie and 
austeryte in proponyng the same with the said French king^ ; 
and the grete maister, taking such tyme and oportunyte as . 
may best serve for the same, as they may well percejnre the 
kings highnes proceedings here within the realme, both con* 
ceming the saide execucyons, and all other things to be 
onely grounded uppon justice and the equyte of his lawes, 
which be no new lawes, but auncyet lawes made and esta- 
blished of many yeres, passed within this realme, and now re- 
noyate and renewed as it is aforsaide, for the better order, 
weale, and suretie of the same. And ye may ferther say, 
that if the French king and his counsaile well consyder, as 
they ought to do, that it were moch better to advaunce the 
punyshment of tray tours and rebells, for their offences, then 
to ponyshe such as do speke agenst the usurped auctoryteof 
the bishop of Rome, who daylie goeth about to suppresse 
and subdue kyngs and princes, and their auctoritee gyven 
to them by Groddes worde ; all which matiers the kinges 
pleasure is, that ye shall take tyme and occasion, as ye talk- 
^J^ Agayi^ ^^ the French king, (nt the grete maister may 


fafare jour mjnd, as before Is prescribed unto you : add- BOOK 
kg thereunto such matier, with such reasons, after your ^^' 
dexteryte and discression, as ye shall thinke 
expedient, and to serve best for the kings purpose, 
of his proceedings, and the profe of the French 
fajp ingratitude, shewed in this behalf ; not doubting in 
Jiiir irisdom, good Industrie, and discrete circumspection, 
kthordering and well-handelling of the same accordinglie. 
And touching Melanchton, considering there is no likele- 
kod of his repayree into Fraunce, as I have well perceved 
hj your letters ; the kings highnes therfore hathe appointed 
Gntofer Mount, indelaiedlie to take his journey where 
Mdanchtoa is : and if he can, to prevente mounsieur de 
Lo^gie in suche wise, as the said Melanchton his repayree 
itto FrauBoe, may be stayed and dy verted into England, 
Bot doubting but the same shall take cffecte accordinglie. 

And as to Mr. Heynes, the king^s pleasure is, that he 
lUI go to Parys, there to leme and dissiphre the oppyn- 
yoDs of the lemed men, and their inclinations and affections 
ipreQ towards the kyngs highnes procedings, as to the bi- 
ihop of Rome his usurped power and auctoryte, after such 
sorte as the kings saide highnes hathe now wrytten to hym, 
by his gracious letters addressed both to him, and the saide 
Cristofer Mount ; dyrecting them what they shall do in all 
things comytted to their charge at this tyme, as I doubt 
not, they will put there unto their dcvoires for the accom- 
plishment of the kings pleasure as apperteyneth. And thus 
makvng an ende, prayeng you to use your discression in 
the proponing of the premisses to the French king, and 
the grete master, or the one or both of them, using the 
same as a medecyn, and after such sorte, that as nere as ye 
can, it be not moch displeasantly taken, advertesing the 
kings highnes from tyme to tyme of the successes therof ; 
and of all other occurraunts as the case shall require. I 
shall for this tyme bid you most hertelie farewell, &c. 

Thornebery the 23d day of August. 






PART Number 36. 

^^^' The engagement sent aoer by the French kingj to 

Henry y promising that he would adhere to him^ in am 
demning his first, and in Justifying his second marriage, 
f^ Frakciscus Dei gratia Francomm rex Christianisamus, 

omnibus et angulis presentes lecturis et audituris salutem. 
Non honoris solum nostri, verum etiam offidi et pietaUs 
ratio illud k nobis effla^tat, ut non modo fortunas, sed 
etiam fidem, autoritatem, gratiam, et studium omne nofitnim 
adhibeamus, ne cum amici longe charissimi, et de nobis <^ 
tim^ merit], injuria justitia etiam et Veritas n^ligantqr. 
Hinc est quod cum serenissimus et invictiss. princeps Hen- 
licus Dei grada Angliae rex, fidei defensor, domimis Hi- 
bemise, et secundum Deum, supremum in terris eodesis 
Anglicanse caput, charissimus frater ac consanguineus et 
perpetuus confederatus noster, vigore cujusdam dispensft* 
cionis a bonse memorise Julio papa, illius nominis secundo^ 
cum nobili muliere Catherina, preclarse memoriae Ferdinaodi 
et Elisabeth Hispaniarum regum, filia, ac predaras memo- 
rise illustris principis Arthuri, dicti sereniss. regis Henrid 
fratris naturalis et legitimi, relicta, matrimonium olim de 
facto contraxerit, et ex eadem in eodem pretenso matri- 
monio, filiam adhuc superstitem Mariam nomine susceperit, 
cumque idem serenissimus rex dicti incesti matrimonii oon- 
scientia motus, k prefata domina Catherina diverterit, ac 
justissimis gravissimis que de causis, nobis etiam satis oog- 
nitis et perspectis, ad id inductus, matrimonium cum daris- 
sima et nobilissima domina Anna nunc Anglise regina, rite, 
legitime et realiter inierit, contraxerit, et in facie ecclesiae 
solemnizaverit, et preclarissimam dominam Elizabeth An- 
gliae prindpem ex eadem et in eodem matrimonio procre- 
averit, et susceperit, cumq; preterea super illius dispensatio- 
nis et matrimonii viribus ac justicia, necnon super diets 
dominae Mariae legitimitate et natalium defectu, multae gra- 
vesque questiones subortae fuerint, in quibus tractandis ac 
in judicio et veritate discutiendis, nos bene multis argumen- 
tis perspeximus, non eam (quam oportuit) equitatis ratio- 
nem ab ipso pontifioe Romano habitam fuisse; et multa 


sive temporum iniquitate sive hominum vitio contra omne BOOK 
jus phasque in premissis et drca ea definita. Voluimus in ' 
hac causa tam gravi integerimos quosq; regni nostri viros, 
ac non modo in sacra theologia peritissimos^ yerum etiam 
juris ecclesiastici callentissimos consulere: quibus etiam 
mandavmius ut quid in tota hac causa secimdum Deum et 
oonscnentiam sentirent, fideliter nobis referrent atque re- 
npooAerent. Quoniam his autem habitis prius inter dictos 
crudidssimos Tiros matura deliberatione, diligent! examina- 
tione, ac longo tractatu, nos ex eorum omnium et nngulo- 
nim unanimi sententia et conformi relatione, liquido com- 
perimus, iuTenimus, et plene intelleximus, non solum quod 
dicta dispensatio fuit et est omnino nulla, inefficax et invalida 
tam pvopter surreptionis et obreptionis vicia, quam propter 
alias causas, maxime vero propter potestatis in dispensante 
defectum, ex eo viz. Quod matrimonia cum relictis fratrum 
deoedenUum sine liberis contracta, ant de jure naturali et 
Arino prohibita, nee Romanus pontifex nee uUa alia hu* 
maoa potestas posnt dispensare, ut ilia aliquo modo legitima 
fiant aut consistant ; Terum etiam quod prefatum matrimo- 
mum inter dictum charissimum fratrem nostrum ac prefa- 
tam notnlem mulierem dominam Catherinam de facto ut 
prefertur contractum, fuit et est incestum, ac prorsus nul- 
lum, ac eUam contra sacrosancta Dei percepta, atque adeo 
contra omnia jura tam divina quam humana usurpatum, 
quodque proinde dicta domina Maria in eodem pretenso 
matrimonio ut prefertur, suscepta et procreata, ad omnem 
juris effectum spuria et illegitima proles, ac ex illicito et in- 
eesto cmtu genita fuit et est, sicque ab omnibus reputari, 
censeri, et haberi debuit, ac debeat omnino: ac etiam 
quod dictum matrimonium quod idem charissimus frater 
noster cum dicta clarissima domina Anna Angliae regina 
ooDtraxit, fuit et est modis omnibus sacrosanctum, legitimum 
et validum : quodque dicta illustris domina Elisabeth An- 
glise princeps ex eodem matrimonio, suscepta necnou alia 
quflecnimque proles ex eodem matrimonio, divina bonitate in 
posterum suscipienda, legitima fuit et est, eritq; et esse 
debet. Ac deniq; cum non solum multi ex reverendisnmis 



FART Bonuma? sedia cardioalibus inter quos imprimis fidt car- 

' dinaks ille quondam Aucomtanus, yennn eciam nuper boos 

memorise Clemens papa Septimus, ex oerta et deUbenU 

animi sui sententia, cum nolns ipos llarsilise tunc exiiten- 

tibus, tum alias saepe oratoribus nostris tunc Romse agenti- 

bus, palam ac Tivae Yods sue oraculo confessus at, ei ex- 

presse declaravit se sentire, dictam diqpenaatioiiem et ma> 

trimonium cum dicta domina Catherina oootractuniy fuisK 

et esse nulla prorsus, et de jure invalida, quodque eadem. 

sic fuisse et esse per suam sententiam definitiyam seu finaje 

decretum, declarasset, pronunciasset, et definivisset si pri- 

vati quidam affectus et respectus humani ncm obstitisseiiti 

Nob i^tur Franciscus Francorum rex antedictus, ut justum 

veritati sufiragium ferentes, simul et justisMmag g ^ TFf w mi 

fratris nostri causae patrocinemur, notum fadmus et in pub- 

licam testationem deduci volumus, per presentes, quod ngs 

primam quidem dictam dispensationem qu» a dicto Julio 

Secundo ut predicitur emanavit, nullam pnnrsus ac nuQU9 

validam^ et ex dictis causis inefficacem irritam et inaoeni 

fuisse semper^ et esse, deinde ipsum matrimonium quod qus: 

dem dispensationis virtute cum dicta domina Catherina olim 

de facto contractum fuit, incestuosum, nullum ac omnino 

illegitimum, ac naturali juri et divinse contrarium fuisse et 

esse, ac pro incestuoso, nullo minusque legitimo haberi. de- 

bere : denique dictam dominam Maiiam ex eo matrimonio 

ut premittitur susceptam, prorsus illegitimam et ad sucoe- 

dendum in patema hereditate prorsus inhabilem fuisse et 

esse, et pro tali haberi censerique debere, reputamus, accepta- 

mus, judicamus, asserimus^censemus et affirmamus. Similiter 

reputamus, acccptamus, judicamus, asserimus, censemus et 

affirmamus quod matrimonium illud quod idem serenissi- 

mus rex et charissimus frater noster, cum prefata illustris- 

sima domina Anna contraxit, fiiit et est modis omnibus sa- 

crosanctum, legitimum et validum, et quod proles ex eodem 

matrimonio suscepta seu susdpienda, maxime autem dicta 

clarissiipa domina Elisabeth nunc Angliae princeps ex eis- 

(lem ut prefertur procreata, ad omnem juris effectum l^i- 

tima fuit et est, critque et esse debet. Quodque non solum 


omnia et singula quae dictus serenissimns rex et charissimus BOOK 
fister noster, pro oonfirmando et stabiliendo hujusinodi ma- ^^' 
trimonio suo quod cum praefata illustrissima domina Anna 
Anglise regina contraxit, necnon predictae dominae Elisa- 
beth filiae sua;, ac aliorum liberorum qui ex hoc matrimonio 
procreabuntur, legitima et hereditaria in regnuni suum suc- 
teoKme, statuit, ordinavit, aut promulgavit, justissimis fun- 
damentis innitantur et subsistant, verum etiam quod omnia 
eC angola sententiae, censurae, decreta, alii quicumque pro- 
cessus et judicia contra praemissa, ac eorum occasione per 
booae memoriae Clementem nuper pontificem Romanum, 
aut alium quemcunque judicem, sive aliam autoritatem 
qiuuncunque facta, edita aut proroulgata, aut imposterum 
edenda, ferenda, facienda sive promulganda, sint ipso jure 
nulla, irrita, injusta et iniqua, ac pro talibus haberi, repu- 
tari, adjudicari, et censeri debere certo credimus, constanter 
attestamur, censemus, asserimus, et affirmamus per pre- 
sentes. Promittimus insuper in fide ac verbo regio^ ac sub 
faypotheca omnium bonorum nostrorum patrimonialium et 
fiacalium, necnon bonorum subditorum nostrorum, etiam in 
forma contractus Garenticii paratam executionem habentis^ 
obligamus nos, heredes et successores nostros, dicto serenis- 
simo Henrico charissimo fratri nostro, heredibus et succes- 
soribus suis, quod nos banc animi nostri sententiam, et ju- 
dicium, quod super prannissis nos habere vere et ex animo 
declaravimus, semper et ubique locorum, maxime autem in 
omnibus et singulis futuris synodis, aut conciliis generalibus, 
et coram quibuscunque judicibus, necnon apud et contra 
omnes homines; quicunquc eidem sentential nostrae qua- 
cunque ratione adversabuntur, cujuscunque autoritatis, pre- 
eminenciae aut dignitatis, etiam si supreraae fuerint, per nos 
ac nostros subditos quoscumque, tam in judicio quae extra, 
manutenebimus propugnabimus, ac si opus fuerit, etiam 
manu forti defendemus, ac pro viribus justificabimus : nee 
ullo unquam modo aut tempore imposterum publicc aut 
occulte, directe aut indirecte, eidem sententiae nostrae con- 
traveniemus: nee quicquam unquam attemptabimus, moli- 
emur, aut faciemus, nee ab aliis imposterum cujuscunque 

I 4 i 


PART autoritatis fuerint, fieri aut attemptari quantum in nolns- 

est, permittemus, quod in irritationem, enervationem, pre- 

judicium^ aut in contrarium huic nostrae sententis cedat, 

aut cedere possit quovismodo. In cujus rei testimonium, 


Marked on the back, thus : 

Instrtiment ofFrancya the Firsts king of France j whereby 
hejustifieth the mariage of king Henry the Vlllth wiA 
queen Anne^ and dedareth the invalidity qfthejbrmer wiik 
Q. Catheriny notwithstanding thepope*s dispensation. 

In another place, on the back, and with another ancienter 
hand, (I believe, CromwelPs :) 

An instrument devised from the French king, for his Jus- 
tification and defence of t/ie invalidity of the king's high- 
nesjyrst mariage ^ and the vaUdyte of the seconde. 

Number 37. 

Cranmer*s letter to Cromwell ; Justijying himself, upon 
some complaints made by Gardiner, An original. 

Right worshipful, in my moste hartie wise I commend 
me unto you, most hartely thankyng you, for that you have 
signified unto me by my chapleyn master Champion, the 
complaynte of the bishope of Wynchester unto the king^s 
highnes, in two thyngs concemyng my visitation. The one 
is, that in my stile I am written, Totius AngiicB primas, to 
the derogaUon and prejudice of the king'^s highe power and 
authoritie, beyng supreme hedde of the church. The other 
is, that his dioces (not paste five yeres agon) was visited by 
my predecessor, and muste from hensfurthe paye the tenth 
parte of the spiritualties, accordyng to the acte granted in 
the last session of this parliament ; wherfore he thinketh, 
that his dioces shuld not be charged with my visitation at 
this tyme. Fyrste, as concemyng my stile, wherin I am 
named Totius Angliee primas. I suppose, that to make his 
cause good, (which els in dede were nawgfate) he doth myxe 


ttidthlliekyiig'scftUfle^Catyekiiowetheiiianlackethiie^^ BOOK 
Imyng in die lawe, neither witty imrention, necrafte to lett 
taxdk Ins malierB to the best) that he mygfat appere not to 
mqfntqme his own cause, but the kyng^s ; agi^nst whose 
lu(^nes, he knoweth right wet], that I may maynteyne no 
erase; bat gyre place, and ky both my cause and self at my 
pmoe^s feet. But to be playne, what I think of the Ushope 
afWiiidiester, I cannot persuade with my self, that he so 
mnch tendereth the kuig'*s cause, as he dothe his own, that I 
diuld not yuits him : and that appereth by the very ^me. 
For if he cast no farther, but the defence of the king*sgraoe*s 
anthoiitie, or if he entendcd that at all, why moved he not 
die matier, before he recey ved my mony tion for my Tisita- 
tion ; whiche was within four myles of Winchester ddy- 
feted unto hym the 24th day of April last, as he came up 
to the court? Moreover^ I do not a litle marvaile why he 
sbuld now fynde Suite, rather than he did before, whan he 
took the Inshop of Rome as cheff hedd : for though the bi- 
shope of Rome was taken for suprane hedd, notmthstand^ 
ing that, he had a great nombre of primate under hym; 
and by having his primates under hym, his supreme au- 
thoritie was not less esteemed, but much the more. Why 
then may not the kyng^s highnes, beyng supreme hedde, 
have primates under hym, without any dymjrnyshing, but 
with the augmentyng of his said supreme authoritie. And 
of this I doubt not at all, but that the bishope of Winches- 
ter knoweth as well as any man lyving, that in case this 
said stile, or tytle, had byn in any poynt impedment or 
hinderance to the bishop of Rome^s usurped authority, it 
would not have so long ben unreformed as it hath byn. 
For I doubt not, but all the bishopes of England, would ever 
gladly have hadd the archbishop^s both authoritie, and the 
title taken away, that they myght have byn equall together ; 
which well appereth by the many contentions agaynst the 
archbishops, for jurisdiction, in the courte of Rome ; which 
had ben easily brought to pass, if the bishops of Rome had 
thought the archbishopes titles and stiles to be any derroga- 
tion to their supreme authority. All this notwithstandyng. 



PART y( the bishops of thb realme passe no more of their names, 
^^ stiles and titles, than I do of myn ; the k3mg's higfanes shall 
sone order the matter between us all. And if I saw that 
my stile were agaynst the kyng^s author) tie (wherunto I am 
specially swome) I would se^ my self unto his grace, that 
I myghte leave it ; and so wolde have don before this tyme. 
For, I pray God never be mercyfuU unto me at the generall 
judgement, if I perceyve in my hert, that I sett more by 
any title, name, or stile that I write, than I do by the 
paryng of an apple, farther than it shall be to the settyng 
furthe of Grod'^s worde and will. Yet I will not utterly ex- 
cuse me herin, for Grod must be judge, who knoweth the 
botome of my harte, and so do not I my self: but I speake 
forsomuch as I do fele in my harte, for many evill affections 
lye lurkyng ther, and will not lightly be espied. But yet I 
would not gladly leave any juste thyng, at the pleasure and 
sute of the bishop of Winchester, he beyng none otherwise 
affectionate unto me, than he is. .Even at the begynyng 
furst of Christ^s profession, Diotrephes desyred gerere pri- 
maium in eccUaia^ as saith St. John in his last Epistell. 
And syns, he hath had more successours than all the apostles 
hadd, of whom have come all theis glorious titles, stiles, and 
pompes into the churche. But 1 would, that I, and aU my 
brethren the bishopes, wold leave all our stiles, and write 
the stile of our offices, callyng our selves apostohs Jesu 
ChrigH : so that we toke not upon us the name vaynly, but 
were so even in dede ; so that we myghte ordre our dioces 
m suche sort, that neither paper, parchemente, leade nor 
wexe, but the verie Christian conversation of the people, 
myght be the letters and seales of our offices, as the Corinth- 
ians were unto Faule, to whome he said, Literce nostrce, et 
signa apostoUMs nostri vos estis. 

Now for the seconde ; where the bishope of Winchester 
allegeth the visitation of my predecessour, and the tenth 
parte now to be paid to the kyng. Truth it is, that my pre- 
dicessour visited the dioces of Wynchester, after the de- 
cease of my lord cardynall, as he did all other dioces {sede 
xmca/nie) ; but els I thynke it was not visited by none of my 


predeoessoun this forty yeres. And notwithstandyiig that, BOOK 
he hymself not considering thair charges, at that tyme 
diarged them with an newe visitation, within lesse than half 
a yerc after ; and that agaynst all righte, as doctour Incent 
hath repcHTted to my chancellour, the dergie at that tyme 
paying to the kyng half of th&r benefices in five yeres, 
whiche is the tenth parte every yere, as they paid before, 
and have paid syns, and shall pay still for ever by the lasle 
scte. But I am verie gladde, that he hatb now some com- 
passion of his dioces, although at that tyme he had verie 
smale, whan he did visite them the same ye« U»t my p». 
decessour did viinte. And also other bishops, whos course 
is to visite this yere, kepe thair visitation, (where I did visite 
die laste yere) notwithstanding the tenth parte to be piud to 
the kyng'*s grace. Howbeit I do not so in Wynchester 
dioces, for it is now the third yere syns that dioces was vi- 
nted by any man, so that he hath the leste cause to com- 
playne of any bishop, for it is longer sjrns his dioces was vi- 
nted than the other. Therefore where he layeth to aggn^ 
vate the matter, the charge of the late acte graunted, it is no 
more agayuste me, than agaynst all other bisbops that do 
visit this yere, nor makyth no more agaynst me this yere, 
than it made agaynst me the laste yere, and shall do every 
yere hereafter. For if ther were true men, in accomptyng 
and paying the kyng's subsidie, they are no more charged 
by this newe acte, than they were for the space of ten yeres 
past, and shall be charged ever hereafter. And thus to con- 
clude, Yf my saide lorde of Wynchester's objections shuld 
be allowed this yere, he myght (by such arguments) both 
disallowe al maner of visitations that hath be down thes 
ten yeres past, and that ever shall be don hereafter. Now 
I pray you, good maister secretary, of your advice, whither 
I shall nede to writte unto the kyng's highnes herin. And 
thus our Lorde have you ever in his preservation. At Otte- 
forde, the xiith daye of Maye. 

Your own ever assured 

Thomas Cantuar\ 


m^ Number 38. 

A letter ofBarlow^s to Cromwell^ complaining of the bishop 

and clergy of St. DavitTs. 

ton lib. Pleaseth your good mastership, with compassion to 
J^^^*' advertise the compla3mt and unfayned peticions of your 
humble oratour, disquietly vexed without cause or any pre- 
tenced occa^on, motioned of your said oratour^s parte: 
whereas the queen, of her graciouse bounte, advouched me 
not unworthy the priorship of Haverford West, under her 
grace's foundation, syns the tyme of my ther continuall re- 
sidence ; consideryng the hungi^ famyne of heryng the word 
of Grod, and desolate scarcete of true preachers, I have en- 
deveryd my self, with no small bodily dainger against An- 
tichrist, and all his confederal adherents, sincerely to preach 
the gospell of Christ ; whose verite, as it is invincible, so it 
is incessantly assailted of faithles false perverters ; by reason 
wherof, they which of dutie ought to fortifie me in mayn- 
tenjrng the truth, maliciously have concdvM a malevolent 
mjrnde, causles lo maligne figainst me in such wise, that I 
was forced (from their tyranny) to appele unto the kyng 
his honourable councills ; as plmnly apperith by the untrue, 
surmised articles, falsely contrived by the Black Freer of Ha- 
verford West ; which thoughe I presented to your master- 
ship, as the act of his onely doing, yet was it the mayn- 
tenans of the bishop, and his ungostly spirituall officers ; 
which is evident by the reward of the bishop to the freer, at 
his departyng allso by his letters directed to Mr. Dean of 
the arches, and to doctor Huys, diligently to sollicite that 
I myght be suppressed in my just matter :^ and where they 
sithe perceive that (praise be to God) under the favour of 
your righteouse equite, they cannot prevaile against me as 
they willfully would, yet cease they not wrongfully to vex 
such as pertayne to me, trobljrng them with tyranny for my 
sake, no such tyranny deserving. As, where of late I sent 
a servant home about certain busines ; immediatly after his 
comyng, the bishop^s officers ascited hym to apperance, 
ransacking his house, forced him to deliver such books as 


he had ; that u to say, an En^iriie Testament, the Exposi- BOOK 
tson of the vth and vith chapters of Matthew, the Tenn ^"' 
Commandments, and the Ejnflde of Saynte Jc^ ; yioloitly 
irith holding them with "vehement reproches, and damor- 
ouse exclamations against heretikes : as if to have the Tes- 
tament in English were horrible heresie, to no litle dismay- 
ing and ferefull discomfort of the sincere fiiYorers of GkxTs 
word. Moreover, they charged in the kyng'^s name^ the 
maire of Tynby, in payne of fy ve hundreth markes, to put 
in warde the said poore man, his wiff, and a cartain honest 
widdowe of inculpable fame, with whom they were at host, 
laying certen articles to their charge which they never 
thought nor spake, and after most shamefull rumors raysed 
upp to their dyffiunatidn, with slanderouse wonderment of 
the towne, all crajrfty means assayded to bryng in fidse wit- 
ness when no accuser would appear openly ; as a true oor- 
tificat under the towns seal, largely doth testify ; the above 
mencyoned officers without any charitable satisfaction to the 
said parties wrongfully imprisoned, badd the maire do with 
them as be listed ; and so th&ia d^Murtyng^made their ad* 
vaunt in places where they came of their valyant actes 
against hereticks, meaning thereby the favourers of Christs 
gospell : in consideration wherof, it may please your sin- 
gular goodnes to provide a redress, that from the terrour of 
such tyrannes, the kings faythfuU subjects, your porre ora- 
toures maye peaceably live according to (rods lawes, with- 
out any suche imchristen empeschment, and combrose vex- 

Furthermore unfayndly to assertain your maistership in 
what perilous case greaUy lamentable the kings faitbfuU 
subjects, the poore resians in the dioces of Saynt David, 
your suppliant oratours are miserably ordered under the 
clergy, requireth a farre larger processe then here maye con- 
veniently be comprised : for though we have semblably to 
other dioceses, in outwarde auctorite and exterior ceremonies 
a bishope, a sufFrigan, archdeacons, deanes, commissaries, 
and other bishoplike officers, intitled with spirituall names ; 
also a multitude of mounks, cannons, freers, and secular , 



l:RT pristeB, yet among diem all, do many in number, and in so 
^ hofge a dioces, is there not one that sincerely preacheth Grods 
word, nor scarce any that hartdy favorith hit, but all utter 
enemys ther against^ whose stubbome resistence cannot last 
without frowmd rebellion against the kings graciouse actes 
estdiriished upon the verite of (rods word. And concerning 
the enormous vices, the fradulent exactions, the mysordered 
l3rving, and heathyn idolatry, shamefully supported under 
Ae dergies jurisdiction ; which by sequele of theyr blynd 
willfbd ignorance, do consequently follow, no dioces, I sup- 
pose, more comipted, nor so far out of frame, without hope 
of reformacion, except your lordship shall see a redresse, in 
IB whom under the kyngs grace, the trust of all those thkt 
tteane well onely oonsistyth. Fynally theyr abused fashiones 
at length to discover at your commandment; I shtil be 
rasij with such certente of truth, that no advirsary shall be 
Me to make contrary den3rall ; which so performed, it may 
then please your good mastershipe to licence me to departe, 
under the lawfull favour of your protection ; without the 
which, neither catt I without perell repair home, nor there 
in safte contjrniie, among so odiouse adversaries of Christs 
doctrine, by whose tyranny, that I may riot be unjustly op- 
prest, I most humbly beseeche your assistant aide, howbeit 
no farder then the write of scripture will justifie my cause ; 
nether for no camall commodite of any worldly preferment, 
but all onely for the advancement of Christs gospell, to the 
honour of God, who evermore graciously presearve your 
mastershipe in honourable felicite. 
^Your humble oratour 

William Barlo, prior of Haverford-West. 

Number 39. 

A letter ofD. Legh\ concerning their visitation at York. 

To Mr. Cromwellj chitf secretary. 

on lib. Rtoht worshipful sir, my dewty pre-supposed, this is to 
4. '^'advertise you, that master doctor Lay ton and I, the xith 


i^ti Jnony, w«r with the aidibUiap of Yotke, whom BOO« 
we aooDidiiig to your pleasure and precepts have vuyted : * 
iBJoyiiiiig bim to preach and teach the word of God (acoord- 
mg to hk bownd dewty,) to his cure committed unto him, 
md aOso in the knowledge concerning the prerogatiTe power 
the longs grace have, and to see others here in his jurisdic- 
tion being induyd with good qualities, having any respect 
eidier to Gods goodnes, vertue, or godHnes, to perfSmne 
the same, injoyning nxveover to him to bring up unto you 
Ik fint, second, and third foundations, whemppon he en- 
jojedi hb office, and prerogative poote, with the graunts, 
privdiqi^ and ocmcesnons given to him, and to his see i^ 
pertejning; the which whan that you have red them, and 
knowe in all points the hole effect of them, I doe not doubt,' 
bat that ye diall see and rede many things woithy refbnna* 
tion. By the knowledge whereof, I suppose the kings high- 
net and you will be glad, and do think it mete that eveiy 
Uiope war in likewise orderyd : then shuld they, them 
under the governances edifye much in Christ in his doctrine' 
snd teachings : and then the poor ignorante persons now by 
blindnes and ignorance sedusid, might therby be brought 
to light and knowledge, wherby they should profit muche, 
the welthe of their own soules, and the commynaltye : and it 
should be greatly expedient to the conservation of their 
fidelite toward their prince, and to his graces succession now 
b^otten, or hereafter to be begotten. Now that I have en- 
formed your mastership of our acts and deeds, done to a 
good ende, as our opinion serve us, that shall lie in your 
drcumspecte prudencye and wisdom to order all t^ngs, as 
ye shall think to your approved discretion most mete, and 
to the farderans of the glory of God, and preservation of the 
common wealthe, most expedient and necessary. For in the 
same jurisdictions given heretofore either augmented or di^ 
minished, to be ministred to their bishops as wall be thought 
to your wisdom most convenient ; I do not dowght but it 
shall be much profitable, and commodious both to the kings 
highnes, and to your mastership, as knoweth God, who ever 



PART preserve your mastership. From Yorke the xiiith day of 


Yours ever assured, 

Thomas Legh. 

Number 40. 

A letter of TonstaJTs upon the king's ordering the bishops 
to send up their bulls. An original. 

Cotton lib. Right honorable, in my humble maner I recommend me 
P.S46. '^"^o your good mastership. Advertising the same, that I 
have of late receivd a letter from master doctor Layton, 
declaring unto me that ye willyd him to write unto me, that 
albeit the kings highnes hath directed his letters missives to 
all and singular his bishops in this his realme, to appere be- 
fore his grace immediately after the feast of the Purificacyon 
next cominge, to the intent that they shall deliver up i;nto 
his graces handes all their bullys of confirmation, or such 
other like, as they have had from Rome at any time here^ 
tofore; yet his grace consideringe my late departure thens, 
for my more ease and quietnes, is well content that I make 
mine abode here, so that I write unto his grace a letter, therin 
dedaringe that I will be content to doe as other bishops 
do in this behalf, and to gifc up into his handes all suche 
bullys as his graces pleasure is to have of me. Advertising 
me further, that your mastership, as my great frende hath 
promised to the king, that I will accomplishe the kings de- 
sire and pleasure herin : for whiche your most great kindnes 
not only shewed unto me many times hertofor, but allso 
nowe renewid at this time, with making of such assurance 
for me to the kings highnes I most humbly thanke your 
mastership. Advertising the same, that forasmuch as I could 
not perceive by any part of master Layton 's letter to what 
intent the kinges highnes wold have the said bulles deli- 
vered into his handes ; and if in mv letter to be written unto 
his grace I shuld mistake his entent, I shuld not only therby 
offende his grace, which I would be as lothe to doe as any 


sobject within his realme^ but also make him to be dipleased ROOK 
with my kinsman, that so blindly had written unto me, and 
paradveDture with your mastership for usinge him for your 
secretary in this behalf: considering with my self the hole 
eflect of the same, better to be to have my bulles into his 
hands, thought that most best to send up the said bulles 
there to be ready to be delivered at his graces will and 
pleasure : humbly beseechinge your mastership to move the 
lungs highnes to be good and graciouse soveraigne lord unto 
me, and to consider if I shuld nowe in my age leif my bi- 
ahoprich, which I trust his grace of his goodnes meanith 
not to make me to doe, by demandinge of my bulles to be 
ddivered into his handes, that shuld not only disapoint 
me of my liffinge, but many other my servants his subjects, 
that have their liffinge only by me, who if I shuld leve my 
promotion shuld be thereby destitute of succour; which 
beii^ my spedall trust that his grace of his inestimable 
goodnes will have respect unto, and that my mind herein, 
not to lefe my promotion, is neither ambiciouse nor unrea- 
sonable, nor contrary to his graces entent, I have sent up 
the said bulles there to be redye, whiche thinge sens that is 
more then I was willed to doe by master Layton's letter. I 
have forborne to wryte unto his grace that I wold do that, 
seinge I do indeed accomplishe his graces pleasure. Prayngc 
humbly your mastership upen advertisement gefFen to the 
kiogs highnes, hereof to know his will and pleasure what he 
will have to be done, and the same so knowne to declare 
unto this bearer William Redmayn, who therupon shall de- 
liver the said bullys into your hands, or to whom the kings 
grace will appoynt to receyve them, yf the kings will and 
pleasure be to have them. Which I doe undoubtedly trust- 
inge that the kinges highnes will be as good to me, as he is 
to other bishops of his realme beinge in like case, seinge I 
had them by him, and did renounce all things conteynd in 
them contrary to his prerogative royall, at suche time as I 
presented to his grace his bull unto him, as that will appere 
by the othe of my homage remayninge with the said bull in 
the kings records now beynge in your keeping, as all bishops 
VOL. III. p. 3. K 


PART ever have been aecustumyd to doe by the laws of this realm 
heretofore used. The bulls that I do send remayning in 
my handes concerning my bishopryche be v. in number, the 
other were dely vered to whom they were directed : one to 
the kings highnes, an other to my lord cardinally then being 
my metropolitan, whose soul God pardone, an other to my 
late lord of Rochester to take my othe to the bishop of 
Rome, which I think was sent up to Rome with the othe as 
hathe been accustomyd to be done. And so those that I 
nowe send did remayne still in my handes. And other 
bulles then these have I noon, humblye beseeching your 
mastership in all mine afiayrs to be good master unto me, 
and to be meane unto the kings highnes to be good and 
graciouse soveraigne lorde unto me, and I shall according 
to my most bounden dewty, daily pray for the preservation 
of his royall estate longe to endure ; and likewise I shaU con« 
tynewe daily beedman to your mastership, whom Almighty 
Jhesu preserve in long life and good healthe to his pleasure 
and yours. From Aukelande the xxixdi day of January; 

Your mastershipes humble beedman 

Cuthbert Duresme. 

Number 41. 

A letter of the archbishop of YorVs^ concerning the sup- 
pression of the monasteries. 

otton lib. Right honourable, after my hertiest commendation. Ac- 
^o. ^cording to your request made to me in your letters, I have 
furthwith upon the receipte of the same, sent commander 
ment to certayne monasteries for beeing witi) me to Yorke, 
where I was than ; and now I have given commandement 
to all archdeacons, to wame all monasteries, of less yearly 
▼alue than two hundred pound, being within their arch- 
deaconries, that they shall nothing imbecille, ne alien : and 
if they have, that they shall agayne call such things aliened, 
or imbedlled, to their hands. Some that were noted to 
have received some goods of suche monasteries, I called and 
warned, that they shold in no wiese meddle with any such 


goods; and that if they bad any such, that they shold re- BOOK 
«ore them : and ferthermore, if any such goods shall be ^^^' 
offred to them, that they shold give me warning. And for- 
bicauae most resorte for such propose is to the citie of 
Yorke, I have warned the majour of Yorke, and other of 
his brodren thereof, and speciallie the maister of the mynt, 
open their peril and daunger, that they receive no goods of 
my such monastries. And ferther herin I cntend to do 
'rom time to time, as I shall see nede, and daily do warn 
4ich as do resort to me, that they meddle not with any such 
^Dods, that by them this commandment may be the more 
)uUished, as I trust it shall be now by the archdeacons 
officials, which be nowe all abrode, and have speciall com- 
Duuidment to sett furthe this propose. 

Sir, I entierlie pray you to be good to me, for two places 
of the patronaige of the archbishopps of Yorke, that if you 
ihall thinke opon such considerations as I shall alledge, that 
I have reason to sue for them, as you woll help me with 
your good word, that they be not suppressed. The one of 
them named Saincte Oswaldes, is not of foundation a mo- 
oasterie of religious men, but is libera capella archiepiscopi. 
No man hathe title in it but the archbishop : the prior therof 
is removable at my pleasure, and accomptable to me ; and 
the archbishoppe may put ther, if he woll, seculer prestes, 
and so would I have done at my entre, if I had not ther 
found one of myne acquayntance, whom I judged meete to 
)e there under me. And moreover, the archbishops of Yorke 
iiad it given to them by William Rufus, in exchange for 
recompense, as well of lands as jurisdiction, taken from them 
at the coming in of William Conqueror, as appereth in my 
registres, and other old books. And in the same it apper- 
eth, that the said chapell enjoyeth all privileges, like as all 
other the kinges free chapells ; for it was some tymc Uhera 
capella regia: and for the defence of the said privilaiges, and 
jurisdiction ther, my predecessours have alwaies had writts 
from the king, agaynst all disturbers ; because it is no other 
out libera capella, and some tyme was the kinges. 


PART The other is called Hexham, upon the borders of Scot- 
_I_land, and was some tyme sedes episcopaUs; and many holie 
men, some time bishops, ther be buried in that church, 
saincts of name. And wise men, that knowe the borders, 
think, that the lands therof, although they were ten tymes 
asmuch, cannot contrevule the damaige, that is like to en- 
sue, if it be suppressed. And some waye, there is nevar a 
house between Scotland and the lordshipp of Hexham ; and 
men feare, if the monasterie go down, that in processe all 
shall be waste muche within the land. And what comfort 
that monasterie is daylie to the contre ther, and spedallie 
in tyme of warre, not onlie the contre men do knowe, but 
also many of the noble men of this realme, that hath done 
the king'^s highnes service in Scotland. I dout not, but 
that the land of that monasterie is better than two hundred 
pound by year; as Hkewise the archbishop^s lands war 
much better if they laye in a quiet place. Some of my 
predicessours have had ther 1300 marcs by year, and now 
it is {communibus cmnis) undre 250. I entierlie pray you, 
if you think that I have reason, send for these two, that 
you woll help me to save them. And as for Hexham, I 
think it is necessarie to be considred, as (I think) they that 
knowe the borders woll saie. 

Sir, According to the king^s commandment, I have gene- 
rally given commandment, that no prechers shall be suffired, 
that withoute discretion preche novelties, and (as you right 
wiselie consider^) do rather sowe seeds of dissendon, than 
do any good : and some such as I have heard to use such 
preaching, I have discharged ; and yet they preach : but I 
make processe agaynst them ; and some of them say, they 
will get licence of the kyng to preach. If they obteine any 
such licence, I then am discharged for them that have such 
licence. But I trust, that you woll suffer no such licence to 
pass, but that I shall knowe therof : and what your pleasure 
is than, if they preach such novelties, I pray you I may 
know by this bearer. Some say, they have licence of my 
lord of Canterbury ; but, I trust, they have no such : and 


if tbej ha^ none thall be obqr^ hcr^ but onlk the kyng^^ BOOK 
and joim. And this in my beitieet maner. Fare yoa ^'^* 
wdL From Cawed, the xxiiid of April 1586. 

Your own ever assured 

Edward Ebor'. 

Number 42. 

Itutruc^onsjbr sendkiff Barnei^ and aik0'$ to Germa$iff. 

An original. 

Mastxr seeretaiy, after our most hartie oommendations, Cotton lib. 
je shall understand, that having received the letters sentP^!^^^ 
imtD jou from sir John Wallops and shewed the same unto 
the Ung*8 raajesde; his pleasure thereupon was, that we 
diuld dispatdi these our letters incontinently unto you, 
eoBoemyng the acoompliriiment and doing of these things 
ensuing, first, his gIBoe'^l pleasure, that you shall im- 
mediatly (upon the reoapt herof) despech Barnes in post, 
with Deiyk in his company, into Grermany ; commanding 
Um to use such dihgence in his jomaye, that he may and 
it be posmble, meet with Melancton before his aryvall in 
France : and in case he shall so meet with him, not only to 
dissuade his going thither; declaring how extremely the 
French king doth persecute those that will not grante unto 
the bishop of Rome^s usurped power and jurisdiction ; using 
in this parte all persuasions, reasons and means, that he can 
devise, to empech and let his said jomay thither; laying 
unto him, how much it shuld be to his shame and reproch, 
to vary and go nowe from that true opinion wherin he hath 
so long contynued ; but allso, on the other ^de, to persuade 
him all that he may, to convert his said jomay hither, 
shewing as well the conformitie of his opinion and doctrine 
here, as the nobilitie and vertues of the king^s majestie, with 
the good entertayneroent which undoubtedly he shall have 
here at his grace^s hands. And if percase the said Barnes 
shall not meet with him before his arryvall in France, then 
the said Barnes proceeding himself forth in his jomay to- 
wards the princes of Germany, shall (with all diligence) 



PA^T retume in post to king^s highnes the said Deryk, with ad- 
^^^' vcrtisement of the certaintie of the said Melanct cummjmg 
into France, and such other occurrants as he shall then 
know. And if the said Deryk be not now redy to go with 
him, the king^s pleasure is, that ye shall in his stede, ap* 
point and sende such one other with the said Barnes, as you 
shall think meet for that purpose. 

And when the said Barnes shall arrive with the said 
princes of Germany, the king^s pleasure is, he shall (on his 
grace^s behalf) aswell perswade them to persist and con- 
tinue in their former good opinion, concerning the deniall 
of the bishop of Rome^s usurped autoritie, declaring their 
own honour, reputation and suretie, to depende therupon ; 
and that they now may better mayntain their said just 
opinion therin then ever they might, having the king^s 
majestic (one of the most noble and puissant princes of the 
world) of like opinion and judgment with them ; who hav- 
ing proceeded therin by great advise, deliberation, consulta^ 
tion, and judgments (of the most part) of the great and 
famous clerks in Christendome, will in no wise relent, vary, 
or alter in that behalf. Like as the said Barnes may de- 
clare and shew unto them, by a book made by the dean of 
the chaple, and asmany of the bishops sermons as you have. 
Whiche booke you shall receive herwith : the copie wherof, 
and of the said sermons, you roust deliver unto the said 
Barnes, at his departure, for his better remembrance, and 
just occasion. To whom also his grace^s pleasure is, you 
shall shew as muche of roaster AVallop'^s letter, (which we 
send you also again) as you shall see drawen and market 
with a penne in the margent of the same. As also exhortq 
and move them, in any wise to beware, how they commit 
any of their afiaiers to the order, direction, or determination 
of the French king, considering he and his counsell be 
altogether papist, and addict and bent to the maintenance 
and conservation of the bishop of Rome'^s pretended aucto- 
ritie. Furthermore, the king*s pleasure is, ye shall uppon 
the receipt herof, immediatly cause Mr. Haynes, and Chris- 
topher Mount, in post to repair into France, to sir John 


Wallop, in as secrete maner as they canne; as oommyng BOOK 
like his friend to visit him, and not as sent by the king. "^' 
And m case they shall (by him, or otherwise) leme and 
know that Melanchthon is there arryved; then his grace 
woll, that the said Haynes and Mount shall (in such sort as 
they be not much noted) reasorte unto him : and for the 
desuading of the contynuance there, or the alteration of his 
opinion, and the alluring of him hither, to use suche rea- 
sons and persuasions as be before written, with suche other 
as they canne further devise for that purpose. To the 
which Haynes and Mount, the king'*s pleasure is, ye shall 
ddyver like copies of the said dean^s book, and bishop^s 
sermons, to be shewed unto the said Melanchthon, or other- 
wise used, as may be most expedient for the atchievement 
of the king^s purpose in that behalfe. 

Ye shall allso understande, that the king'*s pleasure is, ye 
diall write to nr John Wallop, and send unto him thenvith 
like copies; wiUing him, in case he shall have certain know- 
ledge diat the articles be true, (written in these his letters) 
oonoemjrng the French king^s sending into Germany, for 
the contjmuance of the bishop of Rome^s pretended su- 
premacy; to repair with the said copies to the French 
king; and not only to set the same forth, with such reasons 
as be canne devise in that parte, shewing, how much it shall 
be ag^nst his honour, both to give himself subject to the 
said bishop, and to move other to do the semblable ; but 
allso to declare unto him, that the king^s highnes (remem- 
bring his old frendly promises, concemyng the majmtenance 
of his cause, and of his proceedings touching the same) can- 
not but think it a little strange, that the said French king 
(seeing his majestie hath, in his doings touching the said 
bishop of Rome, moved neither his, nor any princess sub- 
jects) will move and styr the Germaynes, to condesend 
uppon a contrary opinion, both to themselfs, and to his 
grace in this behalfe: and that his majestie must nedes 
think his amytie muche touched in that he shulde move 
any state or contrey, to do that thing which is so much 
against the king^s highnes and his own promise, using all 



FART the wayes he canne to disuade him from the dishonorable 
^' obedience of the said bishops, soe moving him to indyne to 
the kings just ojunion touching the same. 

Finally, the kings pleasure is, ye shall write an other 
letter to the bishop of Aberden, signifieng that the kings 
majestie taketh it very unkindly that the king his nephew 
wold now embrace without his advice or counsail, being his 
derest freinde and uncle, and now in leage and amytee with 
him, the marriage of M. de Vandoms daughter, wherunto 
be would ^ve non eare at his graces overture hertofor made 
of the same ; in your said letter, imputing a greate negli- 
gence therin to the said bishop, and other of his masters 
counsail, seeing their master sbeweth not, in the dwig 
therof, suche amy tie towards the lungs highnes as the friends 
ship between them doth require : and to make an ende, bis 
grace woU in no wise that Barnes, or Haynes, shall tary 
for any further instructions of the bishope of Cantorbury, 
or any other, having his grace determyned to sende the 
same after, by Mr. Almoner and Hethe ; but that be, Mr. 
Haynes, and Mount, shall withal! :possibie diligence departe 
immediately in post, without longer tarieng^^ tl)^nne for this 
their dispatche shall be nece^parjlt, spei'aS;j4ie||><k}x)de em-i- 
peche not the kings purpo^ ^cjiipgtth^ said Melancton : 
and thus fare youe most hial3y well, from Langley in much 
haste, this Monday at iii of the clock, at after noone. 

Your lovyng friend 

T. Norfolk. 

Geoige Rocheford. 

Number 43. 

T/ie Smalcaldick league. 

jetton lib. By the grace of God, we John Frederich duke of Saxony, 

303. " * high mareshall of the empire of Rome, and prince elector, 

lantgrave of Truringie, and marquis of Misne, aswell in 

our own name, as in the name of the noble prince John 

Ernest, likewise duke of Saxonve, our most beloved bro- 

ther, ?hilippe» Ernest, Francis, brethren dukes of Bruns- 


wick and Luoenbuig; Ulrich duke of Woartenbog, and in BOOK 
Dedcy erie in Mootbelyard; Philipp lantgrave of Heiien,. ^^ 
erle of Catta in Dieti, Zigenham and Nyer; Berminus and 
PUlilH dukes of Stetin, Pomern, CavMbuni, Wenden, 
prineea of Rug^ erlea in Gutkan ; Wolfgang John, Geotge, 
and Joarhim, brethren princes in Anhalt» erles of Ascanibn, 
and krda in Bernburg; Gebhard and Albert, brethren, 
fldaa and lords in MansfeU; the consule% decurions, tri- 
famiai^ senate, and people of the within named dties of the 
Hjg^i-Gennany, Saxcm, and Hanse, or on the see, that is 
to say, Argentina, Augusta, Frankford, Constantia, Ulme, 
Esfing, Bentling, Menun^, Linde, Bibrac, Isua, Magde> 
bnriB^ Breme, Brunswick, Goslaria, Hamibria, Gottingia, 
^^lionlcj Hambuigha, Lubeck, and Myndia, do profess by 
ihese our letters, in the name of us, our heyres and suooea- 
aors, and do sigmfie to all men that seoi the state of this 
lesson, is every where very perillouse, and appereth so^ that 
many men are about and practise to disturbe, such as do 
csnse^ and suffiar the synoere doctrine of the gospell to be 
pwMflhed and taught in their dukedcxns, provinces, cities 
sod territories, (by the grace of God) and which (aboUslw 
bg all abuses) doe studie to bring in ceremonies consenting 
to the word of God : and efibrce them selfs to divert them 
from Christs doctrine ; yea, by force and violence : and seen 
also that the office of every Christian magestrate, is not only 
to suffer that the syncere worde of God be preached to his 
subjects ; but also with all his studye, care, and sollitude to 
provide (to his power) that the holeaome doctrine of the 
gospell and the truth, onse known and professed, be not 
violently extorted, and they deprived of the same : for this 
cause, we doe knowledg that it is our most duetie and ne- 
cessitie, of the offices of our magestrate, in case nowe or 
hereafter it shuld happen, that any man wold attempt and 
assay to diverte us, or our subjects, by ibrce or dede, from 
the worde of God, and the truth known ; and to bring in 
again, and restore the ungodlie ceremonies and abuses al- 
ready abolished (which God by his good clcmencc woU 
forbyd, as we trust that no man woU attempt such thing) 


PART for to represse such violence and perill from the bodys and 
' souls of us and our subjects, by the grace of God, and for 
to excuse and avoid the same to the praise of God, to the 
augmentation of the syncere doctrine of the gospell, and to 
the conservation of the uniform estate, tranquillite, and 
honestie publick, in the empire, for the love of the nation 
of Alemayne ; and also for the commendation, honour, and 
good of our dukedoms, provinces, lordships, and dties, 
onely to provide for the cause of our defence, and tuidon ; 
the which is permitted to every man, not onely by the lawe 
of nature and of men, but also by the law written. There- 
fore we have assembled and concluded, to give and be 
bound eche to other of a Christian, lawfuU and friendly 
leage and confederation, and by the vertue, fource, and 
reason of this our letters, we agree, conclude, and bynde 
our selfs eche to other upon a confederation, with the con- 
ditions that foUoweth, that is to say, that all and every of 
us shall be bound to favour eche other hartely and truely, 
and to warn eche other of all imminent danger, and to avoid 
it : and that noon of us, openly, or secretly, shall willingly 
give passage to the enemy, or adversaries of the other, nor 
to warn, or support them. 

And because this confederation is onely made for cause 
of our tuicion and defense, and not to the entent that any 
of us shall move warr, if ther shall happen any of us what- 
soever he be, to be violently assawted for the word of God, 
the doctrine of the gospel! and our faith, or for such other 
causes as do depend of the word of God, the doctrine of 
the gospell, or our faith, or be annexed thereunto ; or if 
under any other pretext or colour, there shuld be any vio- 
lence attempted against any of us, and that we the rest, 
which shuld not then be invaded myght thinke and judge 
that such werr, or violence, shuld be moved for the cause of 
the word of God, or of the religion ; and that he to whom 
the werr, or violence is imminent, wold permitt it to our 
knowledge, arbitracion, and deciseon ; that then we all the 
rest of this confederacion, and every of us, that be compre- 
hended in this Christen confederacion shall be bound to 


take no lesse to herte, and take in hand as deligentely to BOOK 
provide for the same, incontinently as such persons that be ' 

invaded, shall require our help, or that we shall knowe it, 
(with all our power) as though we shuld be assawted our 
selfs, and for our own proper cause : and therefore without 
any delaye, and without any decepte or gyle, without tary- 
eng for any other, with all our might and power, we shall 
be bound to succour, defend, and helpe him that shall be 
assawted, after such form and manner, as for the qualitie 
and circumstances of the thing, and the tyme it shall be 
adjudged most util and most commodiouse to the rest of 
us; and like as the fidelite and charite to be given and 
shewed to the neighbors upon his conscience and salut shall 
teach him, and that we shall truely administer and deale 
oon with another. And that in such case never oon of us 
shall agree, compound, or make any transaction, or trewes 
without the assent and will of the rest. 

Also that this our Christen confederation shal be taken 
and understanden to be in no wise prejudicial or hurtfuU to 
the emperors majestie, our clementissime lord ; nor to any 
state of the empire, or any other : but onely for the con- 
servation of the doctrine and truth of the gospell, and of 
the peace and tranquillite in the empyre and Alemayns 
nation, and to withstand wrongfull violence from us and our 
subjects and allyes ; and onely in case of defence, and in 
such case as every of us may bear and suffer the just know- 
lege and decision of his own cause as is aforesaid, and none 
other wise ; and if any man wol be joyned to this our con- 
federacion, which is not comprehended in it already, so that 
he be dedicate to the worde of God, and shall perraitte the 
syncere doctrine of the gospell, conformable to our confes- 
sion, exhibited to the emperors majestie, and to all the orders 
of the empire in the assemble at Augsburg, freely to be 
preached, tough t, and kept in his lands, province, and do^ 
minions, and woll constantely styck to the same doctrine, 
he or they ought to be ascribed and receyved in this con- 
federacion, by the assent and will of us all. 

And by cause that Christen confederacion, which shall be 


FART finished the Sunday invocavUy the year of our Lord 1587, 
m^,..,^!^^ hath lasted the other 6 years last past, between us, excepted 
us Ulrich, duke of Wertemberg, &c. and us Bemim and 
Fhilipp, dukes of Pomeren ; us John, Greorge, and Joachim, 
princes of Anhalt ; and the cities of Augsburgh, Frankford, 
Kempt, Hamibra, and Mynda ; we, at their friendly and 
diligent peticion, have receyved them into this our confe- 
deration, and we do bynde our selfs eche to other agyn, 
that this Christen leage shall be proroged and extended, be- 
gynning from the said Sunday invocavit^ 1537, by the space 
of ten yeres next ensuyng, as this Christen leage by the ten 
yeres next ensuyng, ought to be kept and proroged oon- 
Btantely, syncerely, and bona JidCy by us and every of us, 
without any frawde, or malign. 

And if it ^all happen us to entre werre with any man 
for the doctrine of the religion, or any other cause depend- 
ing of the same, that shuld not be finished within the space 
of the smd ten yeres, yet nevertheles, although the said time 
of ten yeres be utterly expired, yet the said expedicion shall 
be contynued and prosecuted, and the werre brought to 
an ende ; and that then it shall not be lawfull for any of the 
confederates to exempte him of the same, nor hope upon 
exemption, and from that tyme it shall be lawfull for the 
confederats to protract and ^prolong this confederation, if 
they shall so think good. 

We the foresaid electors and princes, erles and ma^strats 
of cities by interposition of our feith insteed of an other, do 
promise and take upon us, for us, and for our heires con- 
stantly and perpetually to observe and performe all and 
singular the premisses truely and syncerely as it behoveth 
princes, and good men. And that we shall nor doe, nor 
procure any thing in any wise to be done against this leage 
and confederation : but in all points shall deale and procede 
truely and syncerely without any frawde or malen^n. And 
for more credence and confiraiacion of all and every those 
things, every of us the said electors, princes, erles, and cities, 
in the name of us our highnes and successors, have caused 
our scales wittingly and willingly to be sett to these presents. 


wluch luiTebeeng^entheyereoftheNativiteafourSavyor BOOK 
Jeiut Caurifll, 158& ^ 

Number 44. 

J^rcpariiUms made to the kkigy bjf the Gtrman frtifU!e8. 

T%€ petition and request tf the right nMe princes, duke 
John Frederikey elector tfSaxe,andPKlip the hntgrave 
tfBeeeCj to the most noble kyng ofEn^and; exhibited 
ammakaldiOf to the most reverende bishop ofHer^brd, 
and other the ambassadors of the kyng^s most rojfoU ma- 
JeHie, upon the present day qf the Natyvite qfour Lord, 
asmo Dom. 1BS6. 

1. liemj That the said most noUe king wdde set fourth Fivn^ 
the evaogelie of Christe, and the syooere doctrine of the^^' 
fiuthj afker such aort, as the jNrinces and states confederates 
hare confessed in the dyet of Augusta, and the same de^ • 
fendedy according to thor appologie and purgation made : 
exoqit parcase some things theriu shaU seme, by the common 
assent of the said most noble kyng, and the said princes, 
necessarie to be changed or reformed by the word of Grod. 

2. Itenij That the saide most noble king, joyning with 
the said princes and stats confederals, wold maynteyne and 
defende the saide doctrine of the evangelie, and the ceremonys 
conforme to the same, at the future generall counsaill, if it 
shaU be pious, catholique, free and mere Christien. 

8. Itemy That neither the saide most noble king, without 
the express consent of the said princes and stats confederats, 
nor the same princes and stats confederats, without the ex- 
press consent of the saide most noble king, shall assent nor 
sgre to any indiction or appoyntement of a generall councill, 
which the bishop of Rome, that now is, or hereafter shall be, 
or any other, by whatsoever pretended auctorite, doth, or 
shall make and appoynt : nor yet shall consent to any place, 
where the futiure generall counsaill shall be had, nor to the 
counsaill it self ; but that all those thyngs may be ordered 
and done, by the mutuall assent and counsaill of the said 



PART most noble king and princes confederal. Provided never- 
^^^' theless, that if it shall appere certeynly, by just arguments 
and reasons, such a Christien, free, generall counsaill, to be 
indicted and appoynted, as the confederals, in their answer 
to the bishop of Rome^s ambassador, named Peter Paule 
Verger, do desire, that such a councill be not to be refused. 

4. Itemy If it shall happen that (the saide most noble 
king, and princes, and stats confederals, not agreeing upon 
the place, nor the indiction of the counsiuU) the bishop of 
Rome, and other princes conjoyned with hym in that cause, 
will nevertheless procede to the celebration of a coqnsaill, 
or rather of the appoyntment of the place wherunto the 
saide most noble king, and princes, and stats confederal shall 
not agree ; that then, and in that case, aswell the saide king, 
as the said princes and stats confederal, shall chieflie (to 
their power) endevor and compass, that the same indiction 
may be utterly avoyded, and lake noon efiecte. 

5. And furthermore, that they shall make, and semblably 
procure to be made, by their clargy, their publick and so- 
lempne protestacions, wherby they shall testefie and declare, 
both the synceryte of their faith, and also that they do ut- 
terly dissente from such maner of communication and in- 
diction ; and that they will not be bounde to the decrees or 
constitutions of the same counsaill, (if any such counsaill do 
folowe in dede) nor in any maner of wise obey the same 

6. And also, that they shall not at any lyme obey, nor 
suffer to be obeyed by any of theirs, any decrees, mandals 
or sentences, bulles, letters, or brieffs, which shall procede, 
or be fulmynale from such a counsaill, so indicted and cele- 
brate eyther in the name of the bishop of Rome himself, or 
of any other potentate whatsoever ; but shall have and re- 
pute all such maner of rescriptes, decrees, bulles and breves, 
as voyde, inane and frustrate; and shall declare, that so 
they ought to be reputed and taken. And allso for the re- 
motion of all slaunder, shall procure their bishopes and 
preachers, to declare the same to the people really, and 
with effect. 

OF RECORDS. _ 143 


7. Iteniy That the said most noble king, like as by the BOOK 
grace of Grod he is associated to the said princes and stats ' 
confederat in the doctrine of Christ, and the defence of the 

same; so also he woU vouchesauf, upon honourable con- 
ditions, to be associate unto the leage of the same princes 
aod stats, so as his most noble majestie may obteine the 
place and name of defensor and protector of the said leage. 

8. Item^ The neyther the said most noble king, nor the 
saide princes and stats confederat, shall knowledge, main- 
tain nor defend, at any tyme herafter, that the primacie, or 
that the monarchic of the bishop of Rome, may at this day 
take place, or ever shall, by 6od''s lawe ; nor shall consent 
nor graunt, that it is either utile or expedient to the comen 
welth of Christendom, that the bishop of Rome shuld have 
preemjmence afore all other bishops, or in any maner of 
wise have any jurisdiction at all, in the realmes, kyngdoms, 
or domynions of the saide king and princes. 

9. lieniy If it shall happen, that war^ or any other con- 
tendon, either for the cause of religion, or for any other 
cause beades this cause, shall be inferred or moved against 
the said most noble king, his realmes, domynions or sub« 
jects, by whatsoever prince, state or people, or also against 
the said right noble princes or stats confederat : that in that 
case, neither of the said parties shall give ayde, lielpe, nor 
socours against the other partie, nor shall assist the prince, 
nor the people so invadyng, or movyng warre, neither with 
counsaill, helpe nor favour, dyrectly nor indirectly, prively 
Dor apertely. 

10. Item^ That the said most noble king would vouch- 
saufe, for the defense of the said leage and most honest and 
holie cause, to conferre to and with the said princes, give- 
ing suretie (as within is added) to lay fourth and contribute 
one hundreth thousande crownes. Which money, it shall 
be lawful to the confederals to use and employ wher nede 
shall be, in cause of defense, for the moytee or halfe parte 
therof. The other moytee they shall take of the same 
money, which they have leyd fourth, and contributed to 
the same sum. 


PART 11. And if need shall be of contynuall and dayly defence, 
for the contynuance of the warre, or invasion of adversaries; 
in that case, forasmuch as the princes and confederates be 
not only bound unto ferther coUacion and contribucion of 
money, but also to the mutual! defence with their bodies 
and goods ; it may please the saide most noble king, not to 
be greved in so urgent a cause of necessity, also to contri- 
bute more, that is to say, two hundreth thousande crownes: 
which money, nevertheles, for the halfe parte, the confede- 
rates may employe together with their own money. And if 
it happen the warre to be soner ended, then that that shall 
remain, shall be justly reserved, and (the tyme of the con- 
federation fynyshed) shall be restored to the saide most no- 
ble kinge. 

12. Which if the said most noble king woU do, the princes 
do promyse themselfs, with their sufficient sureties, to assure 
not onlie that they shall not convert this money to any other 
use, than to the defence of the leage and cause of religion, 
together with their owne money which they in such a con- 
federation do contribute, but also that entirely and faith- 
fully, they shall paye and restore unto the said most noble 
king the same summ, which either when ther shall be no 
need of defence, or (after the defence) shall remain and be 
left, in case it shall not be employed to that use. 

13. Item^ That for as much as the ambassadors of the 
siud most noble king shall now for a tyme remayne in Ger- 
manye, and with the lemed men in holy letters, dispute and 
commun of certcyn articles ; the princes do desire, that they 
woll shortly inquire, and knowe their most noble king'^s 
mind and resolution, in the conditions of the said leage ; 
and when they shall be certefied, to signifie the same unto 
us the elector of Saxe, and lantsgrave of Hesse. 

14. Which when they have done, the princes will send in 
their (and the stats confedcrats names) ambassadors to the 
said most noble king, and amongst them one excellently 
learned, not onely to conferre with his royall majestic upon 
the articles of Christ^s doctrine, and to deliberate upon the 
ceremonies, and other things in the church, to be changed. 


ordered and reformed, but also to comment and conclude BOOK 
upon all the articles^ of the which we have spoken with the 
king's most royall majesty, in the name of the confederats. 

Number 45. 
7%^ answer of the Icings most noble nuyestie qfEngiande^ 
to the peticiofis and articles lately addressed to his high' 
nesy Jrom the noble prynces^ John Frederike duke of 
Saxey elector^ 4*c. and Philip lantsgrave van Hesse^ in 
the names qfthem^ and aU their confederates. 

1. The said most noble king answereth, That his ma-l^<^ 
jestie will, and hathe of long tyme mynded to set fourth the 
evangelic of Christe, and the trew syncere doctrine of the 
same^ out of which springeth and floweth our trew faith, 
whiche to defende he is most redy both with life and goods; 
but to say, that he being a king reckened somwhat lemed, 
(though unworthy,) having also so many excellent well 
lemed men within this realme, thinketh it mete to accept at 
any creature's hands, the observing of his and his realmes 
faith, thonlye grounde wherof remayneth in scripture, 
surely he doth not ; and requiereth his entier fronds here- 
with not to be greved : but his highnes is right well con- 
tented, and much desireth, that for unyte in faith and arti- 
cles, to be made uppon the same, it wolde please his saide 
confederats and frends, to sende hither some of their best 
lemed men, to conferre and conclude, with him and his 
lemed men, to the intente to have a parfaite concorde and 
unyon in faith amongst us. In which his highnes doubteth 
not, but at such tyme as when their deputs shall come, 
they shall fynde the most towardnes in the king, and in 
his realme. 

To the seconde, his highnes answereth, That he is con- 
tent to employ himself, joyntly with the said confederats, 
in all generall counsailes, they being catholici et liberty in 
loco etiam omni parte tuto^ for the defence of their mere 
and trew doctryns of the gospell, according to their desires. 
But as touching the ceremonies, there may be different 

VOL. III. p. 3. L 


PART rites, and such dyvemte used in dyvers domynyon8,,^r^ 
per totum mundum^ that it will be harde to conclude anye 
certentie in them. Wherfore his highnes thinketh it mete, 
that the order and limitacion of them, shoulde be left to the 
arbitrees of the govemours of everye domynyon, suppoang 
that every of them can tell what is most comodious for his 
owne domynyons. 

To the thirde, his majestic answereth. That he is con- 
tented, that neyther his highnes, (without the express con- 
sent of the said princes and stats confederate) nor the same 
princes and stats confederate, (without the express consent 
of his highnes) shall assent nor agree to any indiction of a 
generall counsaile, or to any ^nerall counsaile, which the 
bishop of Rome that now is, or that hereafter shall be, or 
any other by whatsoever pretended auctorytee, doth, or 
shall make, enter, presume, or begynne, or cause to be 
made, entered, presumed, or begon, but that they neyther 
shall consent to any place of the future counsaile, nor to the 
counsaile selfe, except it be by their mutual consents, as- 
sented and agreed unto; provyded nevertheless, that if it 
shall appear certenly by just arguments and reasons both 
to his majestic, and the said confederats, that a Christien 
free counsaile may be indicted, in loco etiam omni parte 
tutOy that then that counsaile shall not be by him, or them, 

The 4th, 5th, and 6th articles, his highnes is content to 
accept in every point, according to their own devises. 

To the 7th, his grace answereth. That he doth mostc 
fully accepte their good overture therein, by the which they 
declare their good inclynacion and hertie good will towarde 
his highnes ; ncvertheles, his majestic desireth them to take 
in good parte, that he doth not accepte the saide name and 
place, till he be throughlie agreed with them uppon the 
articles before rehearsed ; which ones agreed on, his highnes 
entendeth most thankfully to accep the same. 

The 8th article, his majestic is content to accepte accord- 
ing to their own desire, 

9th, Also his highnes agreeth, so that they woll adde 


theninto, that in that case of warre, neyther partis shall BOOK 
sufier or pennytte any of their subjects, or servants, to ^^^' 
serve them, that in such wise shall by any warre molest any 
of thero*^ 

To the 10th, his majestie answereth. That for the warres 
already by past, he being in no confederacion with them, 
tbinketh it very strange, and somwhat unreasonable, that 
diey should of his highnes require any ayde or as^tence ; 
but in case that this confederacion now spoken of do take 
eflecte, and that the contynuance of warres seme to be 
necessary, by their mutual consents, for the supporting of 
th&r faith against their adversaries ; and therefore the con^ • 
federats being allso bound to contrybute for their parts, 
every man for his porcyon as shall be thought necessary 
amongst us ; his highnes will be content for his parte, in 
dedaracyon of his loving harte to them, to contribute 
100000 crowns, the tyme, and place, and facion, for the 
employment of the same, ones bytwen his grace and them 
agreed on : provyded that in case that ey ther there shall be 
DO warre made to any of the parts for the same ; or that it 
diall be sooner ended then shall be looked for, that then 
the hole, or that part left and remayning, shall be fully 
and trewly bonajide restored imto his highnes, whensoever 
he shall demaunde or require the same. 

The 11th, his majestie doth accepte according to their 
owne offer. 

The 12th, his highnes also agreeth unto. 

To the ISth, {Two lines torn out) agreed unto the most 
part of the articles, they will now according to their own 
offer, with all speed and diligence, send hither their ambas- 
sadors plenaryly instructed to comon, agree, and conclude 
with his majestie in all things that shall be comoned of, and 
treated betwixt his highnes and them. 

L 2 


P A RT Number 46. 

The answer of the king's ambass(tdorSy made to the duke 

Sajcon^ and the landgrave ofHessie . 
Cotton lib. FiRST> that his highnes, aswell by his ambassadors, as 
p. 104. *^ their letters from Smalkald, doth perceive two things ; the 
one is their gratitude and benevolence towards his^ majestie, 
and that they desire the continuance between their pro- 
genitors inviolably observed to be increased : the other is 
not only thair great Constance in the setting forth of the 
trueth of the gospell that was darkened afore, but allso that 
they exhorte his grace to the defence of the same, which 
be most acceptable to his highnes, and thaiiketh them aswell 
for his bchalfe, as allso for the behalfe of all Christendom, 
knowleging the greate benefite of Grod^ in giving the sayd 
princes such stedfastness and strength ; and that his ma- 
jestic willed to be shewed unto them that their wondrouse 
vertues have so ravished and drawn his mind to thair love, 
that his highnes feled a greate encrease to thair unitie, in 
such wise, that he is determined fully never to passe the occa^ 
sion, without correspondence of love, nor any occasion that 
he shall think may conduce in any wise to their good 
myndes, and godly proceedings, and for to declare his 
minde to the articles of your peticion. 

The 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 11th, 12th, and 18th ar- 
tides do please his majestic well ynough; and although 
there be some things in them, that his grace would grante 
easely to no manner princes, were they never so greate; 
yet nevertheles his highnes for his affection towards them, 
thinking that they meane nothing ells but the reformation 
of the church, which his majestic for his parte desireth 
much, and desireth to joyne with them in the same ; in 
these articles his majestic desireth that only the dd and 4th 
article be more ampley declared, that is to say. 

The 3d article by these wordes, Item^ that nether the 
kings highnes without the assent of the princes and stats 
confederate, nor they without his graces assent shall agree 
to the indiction of any counsaile, that the bishop of Rome, 
that now is, or any other whatsoever auctoryte may pre- 


tende: and that also nether of the said parties shall agree BOOK 
uppon the place of a coundle to be had, without the agree- * 

ment of the other expressely to be given^ but that the same 
be done by the mutuell assent of his grace, the said princes 
and estats. Trovided nevertheles, that if all they shall per- 
cave a lawfuU and Christien free concile to be indicted in 
some sure and indifierant place, that then nether of them 
both parties shall refuse the saide concile. 

To the 9th article his highnes wold have added, that 
Dether of both parties shall permitt any of their servants, or 
subjects, to be in solde against the other part, nor to helpe 
directly, or indirectly, such as wolde invade, or entreprise 
against them. 

As to the 1st, ^, 7th, and 10th articles, his grace an- 
swered, to the 10th his majesty sayeth, that he doubteth not 
but the said confederats do well think and know, that his 
grace is moved in his mind by no more private necessitie, 
that he or his realm have, nor any private profite to joyne 
with the said confederats in leage and defense, for he and 
his realme is in good peace : and knoweth not that the bi- 
shop of Rome, the emperor, or any other prince pyketh any 
quarrel with him, and that much lesse warre ; and all though 
his grace feared some hostilitie of them, nevertheles by the 
death of a woman, all calumnies be extincted ; and to the en- 
tent the confederats might know his graces good affection 
towards them, and to the reformacion of the church, and 
abolicion of abuses, his grace signifieth unto them, that 
he woU in no wise refuse thair peticion, but willingly con- 
tribute for his parte 100000 crownes for the defence of 
die leage, in case that the confederation between the said 
confederats and his grace to be made, shall be brought to 
any effect. And for other appendaunces of this article, as 
touche sufficient suertie, Item^ that the half of the monaye 
by them contributed shuld be spent, or ever they touched 
his graces monaye : Item concerning the forme and maner 
to deposite and spend the same. Item to make his highnes 
prevey of the same, that on thair behalfe shall be contri- 
buted, and of the necessitie where abouts it shold be spent ; 



PART and that all things may be done by common advise and as- 
'^^' sent, because the same do require long treatie ; therefore 
his grace referreth the same to his orators, and to such of 
thairs, as by the 13th article they desire to send, his grace 
denreth the said princes to send them fully instructed, and 
with sufficient power and auctorite to treate with his high- 
nes, not doubting but they shall have reasonable and 
friendly answer. 

To the 1st, ^, and 7th articles, his majeslie hath veray 
acceptable and agreeable, the honour they have thought to 
deferre unto him, as above all princes, to call him to be pro- 
tector and defendor of their religion, wich is a declaration of 
the certain benevolence and trust that they have in his ma- 
jestic ; and although liis majestic knoweth what envy and 
danger foloweth such title, yet nevertheles his highnes is so 
desirous to do them pleasure, and to the glory of the gospell, 
his grace is content to accept the same honour, after that 
between his and thair orators agrement, shal be had upon 
the 1st and 2d articles, for it shuld not be sure nor honour- 
able for his majestic, before they shall be with his grace 
agreed upon certain Concorde of doctrines, to take such a 
province upon his highnes ; and forasmuch as his majestie 
desireth much that his bishops and learned men might agree 
with theirs, but seen that it cannot be, oneles certain thinges 
in their confession and apologie, shuld by their familiar con- 
ferencies be mitigate, his grace therefore would the orators 
and some excellent learned men with them shuld be sent hi- 
ther, to conferre, talke, treate and common upon the same ac- 
cording to the 13th article. 

Now that his highnes by the same answers sheweth unto 
them his good harte, trusting that they woll be of corre- 
spondence, therunto his majestie desireth three things of 
them of no great coste nor difficultie. 

First, That in case any king, prince, or other, would in- 
vade his majestie or dominions for the same, or for the cause 
of the religion, that then they woll fumishe him at thair ex- 
pences, 500 horsemen armed of all peces, or 10 ships well 
arrayed for the warre, to serve his majestie by the space of 

OF B£CORDS. 161 

four hole monethes by land or by sea ; and that it shall be BOOK 
at his graces choyse to have horsemen, or shipps, and that 
such as his grace shall chuse shall be sent to him within a 
month after the requisition thereof. 

Second, That besides the same, that they shall reteyn at 
his majesties costs and chardges, such number of horsemen 
and footmen, as his highnes shall require ; so that the horse- 
men passe not the number of two thousand, and the foot- 
men the number of five thousand ; or for the said footmen, 
12 ships in good order furnished with men, hameys, ordy- 
nances, victuells, and other things necessarie ; and that the 
kings majestic maye hyre them, reteyne at his wages as long 
'as it shall please his grace ; and it shall be as his majesties 
choyse to have the said 12 ships, or the said number of 
horsemen and footmen, and that such as hb majestic shall 
dioyse, maye be redye within two moneths after his requisi- 

Thirde, That the sayd confederats woll take upon them 
in all conciles herafter, and every where ells to promote and 
defend the opinion of the reverend fathers, Dr. Martin, 
Justus Jonas, Cruciger, Pomeran, and Melanchton, in the 
cause of his graces marriage. 

Number 47. 
A letter writ to the king by tlie princes of the Smakaldick 

league. An original. 

Sebenissime rex, postquam Romanus pontifex, Paulus Cotton lib. 
Tertius, generalem synodum Mantuae celebrandam, et in-p ^g^'^ 
choandam die viccssimo tertio Maii, inJixit, misit ad nos 
invictissimus imperator Carolus Quintus clementissimus do- 
minus noster, oratorem suum, ut ad indictionem illam con- 
cilii ipsi veniamus, vel procuratores nostros mittamus. 

Etsi autem nos ex animo semper optavimus, ut synodus, 
rebus deliberatis, emendationem abusuum atque errorura, 
qui diu jam in ecclesia haerent, institueret, ctiam adversus 
iilos ipsos pontifices et prselatos, quorum partim negligentia, 
partim cupiditatibus, vitia ilia in ecclesiam irrepserunt: tamen j 



PART bulla, in qua Paulus pontifex concilium indicit, non obscurt 
testatum pontificem (cum suis conjunctis) nequaquam paft- 
surum esse ; ut in synodo, de restituenda vera doctrina, et 
corrigendis abusibus atq; erroribus, agatur. Sed quemad- 
modum ab ipso, et quibusdam suis antecessoribus doctiina, 
quam oonfessi sumus, sine uUa cognitione, aut examinatione 
generalis, libera, et Christianas synodi, temere, et cum con- 
tumelia evangelii, damnata est ; ita ostendit se Paulus pon- 
tifex, base prejudicia, prsetextu synodi confirmaturum esse : 
et conatur sibi ipsa receptione bullae, obUgare omnes reges 
et potentatos, ut ipsi quoque assentiantur illis prejudiciis, et 
omissa cognitione, se ad piam et catholicam doctrinam, et 
in evangelio clar6 traditam, quam profitemur extirpandam, 
et armis delendam conjungant. In banc indictionem si 
consensissemus, visi essemus haec prejudida confirmare et 
doctrinam ecclesiae Romans et doctriinam nostrorum testi- 
monio nostra condemnare. Itaque oratori Caesarie majes- 
tatis, ver^, et bona fide commemoravimus, quare nobis ilia 
indictio concilii, iniqua, et pemiciosa ecclesiae videatur ; ac 
petivimus, ut Caesariae majestati, excusationem nostram 
justam, et consentaneam, juri scripto et naturali, quare in 
illam indictionem non consenserimus, exponat. 

Non dubitabamus, aut quin Romanus pontifex, et hi quos 
habet conjunctos, se excusaturi essent apud regiam dign. V. 
tanquam pontifex fecerit suum ofiicium, ac ostenderit se 
voluisse recte consulere ecclesiae ; nos vero oneraturi invidia, 
quasi communi utilitati deesse velimus. Quare necessarium 
nobis visum est, causas, propter quas indictionem illam ini- 
quissimam, et insidiarum ac periculi plenam recusavimus, 
.regiae dignitati vestrae, et caeteris regibus et principibus sig- 
nificare, ut adversariorum calumniis, et aliorum suspicioni- 
bus occurreremus. 

Itaque, ut regia dignitas vestra causas illas vere et inte- 
gr6 intelligere possit, rogamus, propter gloriam Christi, ut 
regia dignitas V. nostram excusationem, quam publicatam 
his Uteris adjecimus, perlegat qua in re non solum periculo 
moveatur multorum in G^rmania populorum, quib. regiam 
dignitatem V. optim^ vclle speramus^ sed etiam cogitet. 


hanc nostram causam ad communem salutem ecclesiae perti- BOOK 
D»e, in qua cum disciplinam multis in rebus collapsam esse _____ 
ooDstet, et paulatim receptos esse abusus non dissimulandos, 
diu multi, magni, et praestantcs viri, emendationem opta- 
Terunt et flagitarunt. Non dubitamus, aut quin regia dig- 
nitas V. etiam ex alio cupiat ecclesise Christi quemadmodum 
Deus hoc officium, prsecipue k summis principibus requirit, 
omni ope, et omnibus viribus consulere. Proinde et com- 
munem ecclesiae causam, et nos ipsos diligenter commenda- 
mus repBQ dignitati V. et nostra oflicia, cum summa obser- 
vantia, reg. dignitati vestrse deferimus. Bene et feliciter 
Taleat regia dignitas vestra. Dat8e vii. cdend. April, anno 
Domini M.D.XXXVII. 

Dei beneficio, Joannes Fredericus dux 
Saxonise, sacri Romani imperii archima- 
reschallus ac princeps elector, lantgra- 
vius Turingise, et marchio Mysise. 

£t Philippus lantgravius Hassiae, comes 
Cattorum Diek, Zygenhaim, et Nidde, 
suo et aliorum, principum statuum, et 
civitatum imperii Germanicae nationis, 
nomine, puram evangelii doctrinam pro- 
fitentium . 

Serenissimo principi, domino Henrico ejus 
nominis Octavo, Britanniae et Franciae 
regi, domino Hibemiae, domino cog- 
nato, et amico nostro carissimo. 

Number 48. 

Cranmer's letter to Cromwell^ complaining of the ill treats 
ment of the ambassadors Jrom Germany. 

My very singuler good lorde, in my most hertie wise 1 Cotton lib. 
recommend me unto your lordeship. And where that the p, jTi, ^ 
oratours of Germany, when thei granted to tary one moneth, 


PART required that we should go furth in their booke, and en- 
treate of the abuses, so that the same myght be set furth in 
wryting as the other articles arr : I have syns effectuously 
moved the bishops therto, but they have made me this an- 
swer; that thei knowe, that the king's grace hath taken 
apon hymself to answer the said oratours in that behalf, and 
therof a book is alredie divised by the king'^s majestic ; and 
therfore they will not meddell with the abuses, leste thei 
should write therin contrarye to that the king shall write. 
Wherfore thei have required me to entreate now of the sa- 
craments of matrimony, orders, confirmation, and extreme 
unction; wherin thei knowe certeynly that the Grermanes 
will not agree with us, excepte it be in matrymoney onlye. 
So that I perceyve, that the bishops seek only an occasion 
to breke the concorde ; assuring your lordship, that nothing 
shall be done, unles the king^s grace speciall commandmente 
be unto us therin directed. For they manifestly see, that 
they cannot defend the abuses, and yet they wold in no 
wise grant unto them. Farther, as concemyng the oratours 
of Grarmanye, I am advertised, that thei are very evill 
lodged where thei be : for beades the multitude of ratts, 
daily and nyghtly runnyng in thidr chambers, which is no 
small disquietnes; the kechyn standeth directly against 
their parlar, where they dayly dine and supp ; and by rea- 
son therof, the house savereth so yll, that it ofiendeth all 
men that come into it. Therefore, if your lordship do but 
offer them a more commochous house to demore in, I doubt 
not, but that they will accept that offer most thankefully, 
albeit I am suer that they will not remove for this tyme. 
And wheras of late I did put your lordship in remem- 
brance, for the suppression of the abbey of Tudberye; now 
I beseech your lordship, not only that commissionours may 
be sent unto that house, but also in likewise unto the abbey 
of Rocester, or Crockesdon ; beseeching your lordship to be 
good lorde unto this berer Frances Basset, my servant, for 
his preferment unto a leace of one of the said houses ; not 
doubting but you shall prefer a right honest man, who at 
all tymes shall be able to do the king^s grace right good 


service in thofle partes, and also be at your lordship^s com- BOOK 
mandment during his life. Thus Ahnightie Grod have your ^^^' 
good lordship in his blessed tuition. At Lambeth, the 
xxiiid daye of Auguste. 

Your own ever assured 

T. Cantuarien\ 

Number 49* 

The earl of Northumberland's letter to Cromwell^ denying 
any contract, or promise of marriagey between queen 
Anne and himself An original. 

Mk. Secretary, This shall be to signifie unto you, that I Cotton lib. 
perceyve by sir Raynold Camaby, that there is supposed a^*"***^*'®" 
precontract between the queen and me ; wherupon I was 
not only heretofore examined upon my oath before the arch- 
Inshopps of Canterbury and York, but also received the 
blessed sacrament upon the same before the duke of Nor- 
folk, and other the king^s highnes council learned in the 
qjurituall law ; assuring you, Mr. Secretary, by the said 
oath, and blessed body which afibre I received, and here- 
after intend to receive, that the same may be to my damna- 
tion, if ever there were any contracte, or promise of mar- 
riage between her and me. At Newyngton-Green, the 
xiiith day of Maye, in the S8th year of the reigne of our 
soveraigne lord king Henry the Vlllth. 

Your assured, 


Number 50. 

A letter y giving Pace an account of propositions made to 

king Henry by Charles the Vth. 

TausTY and right wel-beloved, we grete you well, lating Paper- 
you wit, that on Tuesday last passed, repaired to our maner ^' 
of Green wiche unto us, the emperors ambassador here resi- 
dent, and on his masters behalf, pretending a desire to 
renew the old amytie that hath been between us, testified 
nevertheles by letters of credence sent from the sud cm- 


PART peror to our trusty and right wel-beloved counsuler, Tho- 
^^^' mas Cromwell, our principal secretary, which of long season 
hath been interrupted, made unto us for the advancement 
of suche a renovation certain overtures : the first was, that 
he wold be a means to have a reconciliation between us and 
the bishop of Rome : an other, that we would ayd him with 
some contributions in his entended voyage against the Turk: 
the third, that forasmuch as by a certain leage passed be^ 
tween us, it is covenanted and agreed, that in case either of 
us shuld be invaded in any of our realmes, dominions, or 
seigniories, which we have in possession, the other shuld 
ayd him in such form, as in the siud leage is expressed, at 
the costs and expences of the prince requiring the same, 
and that there is a greate appearance that the French king 
wil now invade him in the duchie of Millain, we wold 
grant him such ayde for his defence against the said French 
king, as in the s^d leage is limited. To the said masse 
and substance of his credence, tending to a renovation of 
amytie, ye shall understande our answer was, that albeit 
the interruption and disturbance therof hath proceded 
holly on the emperors behalf, who for our friendeship in 
suche wise hertofore shewed unto him, in making him king 
of Spayn, in making him emperor, whenne the empire was 
at our disposicion, in lending him our money, that he may 
only thank us for the honour he is now advanced unto, hath 
nevertheless for his reciproque shewed unto us, all the in- 
gratitude he could devise, both in contempnying, as it were, 
a friendship, when we have done more for his satisfaction in 
our proceedings then needed, and in procuring what dis- 
pleasure and injury he could against us, at the bishop of 
Romes hande, as by credible reports we have knowen and 
lerned ; yet such is our zeal to unytie, concord, and quiet 
amongs Christian princes, and such is our princely nature, 
that as we canne continue our displeasure to no man, if he 
do ones remove the cause therof : so if he which is a prince 
of honor, and a personage whom we ones chose, and thought 
worthie for his vertue and qualities, to be advanced, will 
by his express writing, eyther desire us to put his doings 


tovards us in oblivion, or by the same purge himself, and BOOK 
declare that such things as we have noted unkindnes in at 
his hande, hath been unjustly, and without his desert, im- 
puted unto him, we shall gladly embrace his overture touch- 
ing this renovation ; but we plainly said and offered, that 
seiDg we had susteyned the injury, we could not be a suiter 
for the reconciliation, nor treat with his master of such 
appendents for aydes, as be before expressed, or any such 
like, unless our amyties shuld be first symple, and without 
all manner of conditions renoveled ; which parte, if he will 
first accomplish, he shuld not need to doubt, but to all his 
reasonable desires to be made after, he shall have as friendly 
HDd reasonable answer, as between friends in the highest 
d^;ree of friendship can be required. Touching the bishope 
of Rome, we declared unto him, that as we have not pro- 
ceeded uppon so sleight and slender grounds, as we wold 
revoke, alter, or change any peece of our doings ; having in 
all causes made our foundacions uppon the laws of God, 
nature, and honestie, and established all our works made 
uppon the same, by the consent of all the states of our 
realme, in open and high court of parliament, so consider- 
ing there hath been some means made unto us by the 
bishop himself for such a reconciliation, which we have not 
yet embraced, it shuld not be expedient to have it com- 
passed by any other means ; nor we could take as in good 
parte, or think that the emperor shuld emestly mind a 
reconciliation, and a renovation of our amyties, if for the 
satisfaction of the bishop of Rome our enemy e, he shuld 
move us to allter any one thing that we have here deter- 
myned contrary to his purpose, and pretended autoritie. 
To his request for aid against the Turk, was answered, that 
we could give no certain resolution, because the affaires of 
Christendom be not quiet, but in case their may ensue be- 
tween Christen princes an universall reconciliation, concord, 
and agreement, we shall not fayle in that matter to doe for 
our parts, that to the office of a Christien prince appertain- 
eth : finally to his desire for ayde against the French king, 
we said it shuld be convenient that our amytie shuld be 


PART first renewed, and certainly established, before we ahuld 
^^^' treat of any suche appendants; and thenne being an in- 
different friend to both, we might frankly travail to con- 
serve peas and unitie; or ells friendly to staye him that 
wold do wrong ; but tyl such time as that foundation were 
made, we could neyther in this appendant, nor any suche 
like make any direct answer. « And forasmuch as not only 
for your instruction, but allso for that we be much desirous 
to know in what parte they take our answer there, we 
thought convenient to advertise you of the premysses, our 
pleasure is, that ye shall aswell in your conferences with 
the emperor, pretending only a generall knowledge of cer- 
tain of the overtures made by his orators here, both main- 
tain our answers to the same, with such reasons as ye canne 
devise for that purpose, and of your selfe exhorte him not 
to pretermyt this goodly occasion, so graciously beganne, 
commenced, and entred, extolling our princely harte, na- 
ture, and courage, with our most gentle inclynation, to the 
satisfaction of our friends desires, in all reasonable things, 
wherunto they shall not press us ; which kind of constraint 
doth for most parte more hurte in the stay of good pur- 
poses, then cane be, after with repentance when the tyme is 
past eftsoons redoubled. As in semblable maner move 
monsieur Grande vile of your self, as a personage whom ye 
repute, addicte to the advancement of our honor, to desire 
the emperor to consider what good may ensue to him, and 
to the hole state of Christendom, if we may joyne again in 
perfite amytie; and that it were great pitie, and purcase 
greater losse then might be after recovered, to suffer this 
goodly meane and entree to passe without certmn fruit and 
effect, by the putting to it of such appendants and con- 
ditions, as ye knowe, what soever we will after do, at the 
contemplation of friendship, yet our nature and courage 
will not bear to be newe loden and charged withall; specially 
considering that we have suffered the injury; and with 
these and suche like words, as we woU that ye shall ende- 
vor your self of your self to pryk them forwarde to the 
renovation of our amytie, without adding therunto any 


conditioos. Soe ye shall repayr to the court and to Grand- BOOK 
ev3 as ye may conveniently, to ^ve them occasion by your 
being in their eyes, to enter communication with you of 
these matters; wherby you shall the better also perceyve 
wherunto they will bend, which our pleasure is, you shall 
from tjrme to tyme mgnify unto us, as ye may have any cer- 
tain matter worthie our knowleage. 

Number 61. 

Insiructions by cardinal Pole to one he sent to king Henry. 

An original. 

Imprimis, to declare to his grace myn hole entent and Cotton lib 
purpose yn wrytyng thebooke, wherein takyn my testimony p ^2). * 
off Grod, that only seyth the hart of man, was only the ma- 
nifestation off the treuth in that mattier, that by master se- 
cretaryes letters I tooke as a commandment to shew my 
sentence herein, which wrote the same to me by his gracys 
pleasure, that I shuld by writing declare myn opinion ; and 
this is the very cause I dyd wryght ; for otherwise, I thynk 
I had never sett penne to booke in so lyttyl hope of per- 
suaaon, and in such a matter as the tyme was so lykely nott 
to be all the best acceptyd. 

Further to declare after I was onys entred into the mat- 
tier, haveng sent to me the books of them that have wry tten 
yn the contrary part, wherin I saw the trueth mervyolouslyc 
suppressyd and cloked, with all colours tliat could be in- 
vented sett upon the untrew opinion, seyng besyde what 
acts folowed of the same so sore and greviouse, both in the 
sight of God, and judgment of the rest of Christendom, out 
of that realme, that except those colours were takyn away, 
and treuthe purely sett forthe, wythe declaration of the in- 
convenient acts, yt myght soon tome to the utter danger of 
his graces bothe honour afore God and man, and utter de- 
struction, as yet semy th, of the quyettnes of the realme ; 
this made me wyth all both wytt and lemyng that God had 
gyven me, to cndevour to expresse so the trouthe, and dc- 


PART clare the qualytyes off those acts that folowed of the nnister 
opinion, that I doubt not whosoever reade the booke that 
wole knowe the trouthe, shuld never after need to fall into 
daungier, for ignorance of the trew sentence. 

And this I did with this hope, haveing this ever fixid in 
my harte that howsoever hys grace was by perverse occasion 
brought from those opinions which was for his honore, most 
to maynteyne, that he was brought therto as God suffereth 
those that be in his favour, and whom he hath electe to 
etemall felycytie, notwythstandyng to fauU some tyme into 
ofiensys dampnable, to the entent they myght better know 
where they have their trew lyght and savefgarde which 
comythe of God, and nothyng off them self : as ytt is not 
imknowne that scripture mentionethe both of Davyd and 
Solomons faulles, which bothe in conclusion were recoveryd 
by the mercye of G<xl againe, and Solomon notwithstanding 
the gift of wysedome that God had gy ven him, fell so sore 
that he was utterly tomyd from God, and gyven to idol- 
atrye. This I consydreng in those elect personys off Grod, 
and judgeng verely thoughe his grace was by God per- 
myttyd to fauU from the trew doctrine of Christ, yett as 
God saved David by those meanes, to send a prophete unto 
him to show hym the trewth, which as soone as he had hard 
told hym, forthwyth fell to repentance, and so was taken to 
the grace off God again, and recoveryd to his greatter ho- 
nour, then he was yn afore his fauU ; the same trust I had 
in his grace, whiche made me put my uttermost studye and 
labour, callyng for help of God, to manyfest the trueth, 
where I doubt not but God hath hard my prayer, that for 
knowledge of the trewe sentence, there can be no doubt; 
and I cannot but greatly trust, that his grace herynge and 
assenting, as king David did to the same after his errour, 
shall be recoveryd by God to higher honour and grace, 
than ever he was afore God suffered him to faull. 

In this declaration of this treuthc, because not only afore 
God were great peryll, but also in this world present afore 
man, many soore daungers myght happen, in case his grace 
did remayne and continew yn his sentence so dyversfrom 


th^ rest of the Christen princes ; this causyd mey callyng to BOOR 
my mynd what daunger might follow botbe of his' people at ^*^' 
borne) whose mynds experience showethe cannot be quiettyd 
wythe diis innovations touching opinions in relygion ; and 
also of outward power of those prynoes to whose honour yt 
ys judged to apperteyne to defend the lawes of the church, 
against all other princes or nations that doyth impugne them, 
for these 'con«derations to the entent the daunger hereoff 
now not unknown, I have in the same booke, sometyme in 
my own person, brought all such reasons wherebye justely 
either the people, or oughtward pr]mce might be instigate 
against his grace, foloweng the dyvers trade from other 
Chrystian princes that he hath begone. Which reasons and 
diseouTses oonteynyd in the booke vehemently sett forthe, 
yf they shukl be redd apart without consyderacyon of my 
fynall purpose, which by all means entendyd to sett affore 
hys graces jnen, not only the treuthe off that was to be 
folowed, butt the daungers that were moste lykelye to ensue, 
both at home and abrode, yt they were not followed, he 
shall think by what vehemencye and sore reprehenaon he 
seyth in the wrytyng, that I am the greatyst adversaraye of 
his graces honour that ever any hitherto hath bene: but 
Grod knoweth my entent, and he that redytli the hoole 
booke togyther shall knowe the same, how my very pur- 
pose and ende was to save him from great dyshonour and 
peryll both in this world and that to come, which were no- 
thing possyble to examine, not knowcng what they were, 
and what were lykely to happen to be sayd or done against 
his grace : which foloweng all probabyly tie the book doth 
expresse, and for the better understanding of both my opin- 
ion and sentence that I follow in the book, touching the de- 
claration of the truthe, and of my utter fynall purpose in 
the hole matter, thys chifly I wole desyer his grace, bycause 
of the prolyxitie thereof, which shuld be to muche for his 
grace to rede hymselfe, that that wole please hym to apoynt 
some lernyd and said man to rede over the book, and that 
done to declare his judgment, bound first wyth an othe off 
hys fydelytie, first to God, and afterwards to his grace to 

VOL. III. P. 8. M 


PART show hy 8 judgment without affection of any part : and yf hift- 
grace wold gyve this charge to the bishop of Dyrrhum, 
whome I judge to be the saldyst and most grounded in 
lemyngy with faythful hart to his grace, above any other 
that I knowe, puttyng the same charge unto him by an- 
other ; I think his grace shuld thereby best and most truely 
be enformed; and so when he hath made his relation, after* 
ward his grace may prove other menes judgments as it shall 
please him. 

Furthermore to declare unto his grace how my fuU pur- 
pose and mynd was, touching the hole booke that never no 
put thereoff shuld a come abrode in any manes band%. 
afore his grace had seen y tt : and to folow in this booke the 
same maner off secretnes that I did in the other which I 
detiveryd to his grace concerning his matrymonye, but by 
what meanes in one part of this book I have been frustrate 
of my entent; this you may declare by mouth, knowing 
the hole mattier. 

Fynally, With all humbylnes to desyre his grace, in the 
name of his most faythfull servant, and most tender of his 
honoure and welthe, that wh^e as by the judgement of all 
wise men, Grod of hys mercye and love toward his grace, 
and for a greate warnyng to retourne to hym, hathe de* 
tectyd the iniquitie of her, which hath bene the oryginal 
cause and occasion of althyse bothe errours and dangers his 
grace hath cost hymself in, that now his grace will correct 
himself to take the same, as yt ys a favorable admonition 
of Grod, and to follow theyr sentencyes and counsell, which 
(next unto theyr conscyence toward God) hath had none 
other cause, butt only pure love and fydelytie to his honour 
and welth : which causyd them, agmnst their owne private 
welthe, wyth greate daunger besyde, ever to dyssent from 
that matrymonye; judgeng ever, as ytt was most lykely, 
both great dishonour, great daungiers and perylls, both spi- 
ritually and outwardly, to foUowe thereoff. 

And now, yf God hathe manifested the same to the re- 
covery of hys grace welth, allwayes that his grace wyll ac- 
cept thys warnyng to retoum to the unytie of his church, in 


that sentence and mynd, that the rest of Christiane prynces BOOK 
do; whermn I dare be bolde to saye, yf God showe this 
great benignitie and mercy unto him, for to make him re- 
tunie ; for suerly Grod^s hand that must be ; and whenso- 
e?er that shall be herd, that shall be taken for one of the 
greatyst myracles that hathe been showed this many agys, 
vith the most certyn sygne of speciall favour that ever was 
tkowed from God to any prynce : then furst of all this shall 
&Bow, that when as now all Christendome callyng for a 
generall oouncell, yf that follow, ether his grace must wyth 
dyshonour and damage flee to obey thereunto, or wyth more 
daunger answer there to such causes as wold be layde unto 
him. Yf he do retume, thys furst shall foUowe, by that 
meanys that shuld be founde, that no prynce Chrysten, 
whosoever he were, shold appere there with more honour 
tben shuld his grace. And wheras it was for the innovation 
that he hath made in the churche, to be the occasyon of 
niyne of one of the feyrest membre of the churche, if God 
make him tome ; the conclusion wyll be brought to this, 
that hys fauU shall be the happyest fauU that was unto 
the churche many yeres ; which may be brought to be a 
ledye and highe way to the reformation of the hole, to the 
more manyfestation of the honour of God : so that fynally, 
the ende shall be in every man'*s opinion, that marketh the 
bole processe, that God sufiVed his grace to faulle, to make 
bym ryse wyth more honour, to the greater welih not only 
of his own realme, but of the hole church besyde. 

Your faithfull servant, 

R. Pole. 

Number 52. 

A letter to Polejrom the bishop of Durham^ in his own hand. 

An original, 

Ryght honorable, in my humble maner I recommend mecotton lib. 
unto your mastership, advertising the same that I have res- cieop. E. 6. 
ceived your letter, datyd at Venice on Corpus Christi evyn 
last ; by which I do percey ve, that where of late you sent a 



PART boke with a letter unto the kyng's highnes, ooncernyng yodt 
^^' opinion of the king^s title, and the power of the bishop of 
Rome ; and your desire was in your letter, as ye write, that 
I myght see the boke, to enforme his grace what I thought 
theroff. And now ye send to me your said letter, to iii« 
forme me of your meanynge and purpose in your said longe 
boke, wherin I do perceyve, ye fere lest your vehemency 
have offended. I do signifie unto you, that I have both [ 
well perused your said letter, to comprise well the eflfed v 
theroff in every point ; and also have perused, with odyr 1 
your said longe boke, unto the ende theroff. Which made * 
me hevy in my harte, both whylse I was in redinge c^ it, ' 
and allso mych more when I had redde it thorow, seinge the 
vehemency and egemess of it in all partes, dyd sore byte ; 
and yet the hole thinge ran wyde off the truthe. For in all 
your boke, your purpose is to bring the king^s grace, by 
pennance, home unto the churche again, as a man clerly se- 
perate from the same alredy. And his recesse from the 
church, ye proffe not otherwise, than by the fkme and 
oomon opinion of those parts ; who be farr from the know- 
lege of the truth of our affairs here, and do oonjectiae 
every man as they lyst, (blyndly) of thinges unknowen unto 
them. And in cause of his retome, ye promisse to illus- 
trate the king^s name, so to bend your lemyng therunto, that 
all displeasure that may be takjn of your said boke, shuld be 
clerly therby abolysed and takyn away ; and all shold re- 
dund unto his glory and honour. And to comprise in few 
wordes the effecte that is worn off your said boke that 
makes vehemently many playes, and doth conteyn lyttle or 
no salve to hole them. And as it semyth to me, ye wer 
st3rrred to sore in your spirite in all your writings therof, 
and wer not quiet in your mynde, whyle ye were in doynge 
of it. Wold to God ye had rather written to his grace yoiu* 
opinion, brevely comprisyd secretly in a letter, that he ^old 
not have nedyd to have shewed it to other lemyd men of his 
counsell, than in so longe a boke to have dilatyd all thynges 
as ye have done, that he must of necessitie be constranyd to 
commytte that to such trusty persons, as shold please his 


to know by them the effecte theroiT. What stupidity BOOK 
wiB it, to send so longe a boke so longe a way, conteyoyng 
lodiaplesauiit mater, by one man, who myght have myscaryed 
orperyshed in the way, and therby the boke have comen (as 
was likely) to the handes of such as wold have published it to 
the king's slaunder, and the realmes, and most of all to your 
cywne, that shuld be the author of such a boke, made against 
your prince and countre : wherin all the world shuld repute 
you to be unkynd unto your prince and countre, who ever- 
more 80 had lovyd you, and brogt yow up in lemygne, and 
ye to ^pend the same to his reproche. So that surely, who so 
ever not fiEnrouryng the king, shold have lykyd the matter, 
yet must be nedys have mysdyked the author thereof, 
luinge his lemyng agunst hym, in whose defence he ought 
to have spent both lyff and lemyng. But laude be to God 
that the boke came saffe unto the king^s handys, wherby 
diat yeperdy ys past One thinge made me cold at the 
karte, when I red it in your letter that ye writt of two 
quares; which be not in your hands to repress. The re- 
odtie, ye say, ye can make sure not to come abrode ; which, 
yf ye folow myn advyse^ ye shall do furthwith ; bumyng 
them, for your owne honour, and the noble house that ve be 
come of : that it never came abrode, that ye exercysed your 
style or lemyng against him, whom ye ougth in all points 
(by your wit and conning) to defcnde : and yf any faults 
wer founde by odyrs, to excuse them by all means, and not 
to animate them by your penne. And would to God lyke- 
wise, that ye wold endevour your self (by all means to you 
possible) to gett again those two quarys, and lykwise to burn 
them. For, in all your boke, ther is not one qucyre with- 
out by ttemess, mych more then I wold it were. But to re- 
toume to that thinge that I said before, that methought your 
hole book ran wyde of the truth. I shall, by your patience, 
yf ye be contente to here me as your frende, opyn unto you 
what I mean therby. Ye presuppose for a ground, the 
king^s grace to be swarvyd from the unite of Chrisf s churc^h, 
and that in takinge upon him the tytle of supreme hede of 
the church of £nglande,he intendyth to scperate his church 

M 3 


t> ART of Englande from the unitie of the whole bodie of Christen--^ 
'^'' dome; takyng upon hym the office belonging to spiritual 

men, grounded in the scripture, of immediat cure of souli 
and attribute to hymself that belon^th to presthode, as 
prech and teach the word of God, and to mynyster the 
craments. And that he dotli not know what longeth to 
Christen king's office, and what unto presthode; wherin -^ 
surely both you and al odyr so thinkinge of him, do erre too '* 
farre. For there is no prince in Christendome, that more 
regardith, or better knowith the office and the honor of a 
Christen prince, nor that more doth esteem spiritual men 
that be gyffen to lernyng and vertue, than he doth : and 
that ye may boldly (without reproch) avouch to all men af- 
firming the contrary^ whatsoever sinistrously conceived opn- ^ 
ion any person shall have of hym, in those partes, or any 
oder. For, his full purpose and intente is, to see the laws 
of Almyghty God purly and sincerely prechyd and taught^ 
and Christy's fayth without blot kepte and observed in bis 
realme; and not to seperate hymself, or his realme, any 
wyse from the unitie of Christy's catholyke church, but in* 
violably, at all tymes, to kepe and observe the same ; and to 
reduce his church of Englande out of all captivitie of foreyn 
powers, hcrtofore usurped therin, into the Christen estate^ 
that all churches of all realmes wer in at the begynyng; and 
to abolyshe, and clerly to put away such usurpations, as 
hertoforc in thys realme the bishops of Rome have, by 
many undue meanes, incresyd to their grete avantage, and 
impoveryshinge of thys realm, and the kyng'^s subjects of the 
same. So that no man therin can justly find any fawte at 
the king'^s so doinge, seinge he reducyth all thynges to that 
estate, that is conformable to those auncient decres of the 
churche, which the bishop of Rome (at his creation) solemly 
doth profess to observe hymself, which be the eygth uni- 
versal counsells. Which yf ye do rede advysedly, and stu- 
diously do consyder how the church of Christ was stablyshed 
by those, and how far of late yers the byshops of Rome 
have broght this realme and odyr from those ; ye shall ma- 
nyfestly perceyve the abuse and diversitie betuyx the ooa 


afld die other. I am sure, at Venice ye may have the sayd BOOR 

oouDflels in Greke, lyke as now they be comon ahrode in 

Itt^, translatyd even from the begyning. Which if they 

had been oomenly knowen and redde hertofore, the bishop 

cf Rome^s power hertofore usurpyd in many realmes, had 

never so farre been avancyd, as of late it bathe. Wold to 

Cod ye had been exercised in readinge of them, before the 

aendinge of your saide boke, that ye might have knowen 

irom the begynning, from age to age, the continuaunce and 

pogresse of the catholike churche. By which ye shuld 

bave perceived, that the church of Rome had never of olde 

such a monarchic, as of late it bathe usurped. And if ye 

will say, that those places of the gospell, that ye do allege 

m your boke, do prove it, then must ye graunt also, that 

the counsel of Nice and others did erre, which ordeined the 

eontrary. And the apostels also, in their canons, did or- 

dane, that al ordring of prests, consecratynge of bishops^ 

aod all matirs spirituall, shuld be fynished within the dio- 

oesse, or at uttermost within the province wher the parties 

dwelte. Which canons of the apostels, Damascen doth 

commemorate for holy scriptures. Now it is not lyke, 

that the apostels who were prechers of the gospell, wold 

make canons contrary to the gospell; nor that the four 

first cheflTe counsels general wold have ordenyd so as 

they did, if the gospell, or the scripture, had bene to 

the contrary. And wher ye in your boke much do stikke 

to common custome of the church, suerly after Christe, 

above a thousand yere, the custome was to the con- 

trarv, that now is used by the bishop of Rome. At that 

tyme, in the primitive church of Christe, when the blood of 

Christe and martyers was yet freshc, the scriptures wer 

best understande, faith most firme, and vertue most preg- 

nant; the customes then used in the church must nedes 

be better than any contrary use sens, eyther by ambition 

or covetousnes, any waies cropen in. And to assure you 

of my mind what I do thinke ; suerly who soever shall go 

about, by the primatie of Peter, which was in prechinge the 

word of God, to establyshe the worldly autorite of the 

M 4 i 


ART bishop of Borne, which he now claymeth in dyvefae railikiay- 
*"• in worldly thyngs soe perfecte temporal!, shall no more 
couple them to gedyr then lygth and d^knes; but ahal 
improve the thinge that he goeth about to prove. Iff ye 
wold rede Nicolas Cusa de Concordia CcUhdica in his 
second boke thorowly, he shold gretly open this matter 
unto you. Wherefore sens the )ui|g^s grace goeth about to 
reforme his realme, and reduce the' church of England 
unto that state that both thys realme and all other wer in 
at the begynnynge off the faith, and many hundredth yere 
aftyr; yff any prince or realme wyl not folow hym, lat 
them do as they lyste ; he doth no thinge but stablyshy th 
such laws as wer in the begynnynge, and such as the bi- 
shop of Rome professeth to observe, Wherfore nidyr 
the bishop off Rome hymself, nor odyr prince, ought off 
reason to be miscontent her with. Yff I wer with you but 
oon day, I wold trust to shew you such grounds in thys 
matter, that ye myght chaunge your mynde, oonlesse yQ 
wer totally addite to the contrary opynion, as I pray God 
ye be not, both for your own and for your friends sake, 
who shuld take grete discomfortb theroff. Oon thinge yet 
restith that I thougth convenient to advertise you ^ off 
wherin I do percey ve ye be ignorant. Which is thys. Ye 
write in one parte off your boke, that ye think the herts off 
the subjects of thys realme greatly offendyd with abolysh- 
inge off the byshop of Homers usurped autorite in this 
realme, as yff all the people or moste part off them toke 
the matter as ye do. Wherin I do assure you ye be de- 
ceivyd. For the people perceyve ryght wel what profite 
Cometh to the realme therby ; and that al such money as 
before issuy'd that way, now is kept within the realme ; 
wheras before al that went that way, which was no small 
share, but grete and excessive, and dayly the sayd yssue 
encresyd more and more, never retomyd again hedyr any 
parte theroff. Which was to the great impoveryshinge off 
thys realme. So that yff at thys day the king^s grace wold 
go about to renew in his realme the sayd abolyshM au- 
torite off the byshop of Rome, grantyng hym lyke profites 


as lie had before thorow thys his reahne, I thinke he sh<dd BOOK 

fynd mych more diffyculte to brynge it aboute in his parlia» 

menty and to induce his people to agree therunto, then any 

thinge that ever he purposed in his parlement, sens his first 

Kgne. Wherfore I wyshed that, as many odyr things 

more to have ben out of the your boke. Which myg^t 

peradventure have eng^idiyM sum parte off suspicion in 

the king^s gracs mynd tbwaid his subjects, as I trust ve- 

layly that dyd not. And wher ye do fynde a faute with 

me, that I faynted in my hearte, and wold not dye for the 

Uflhop of Rome^s authorite ; when thys matter was first 

proposyd unto me, surly it was no faynting that made me 

i^preeable therunto ; fc»r I never saw the day sens I know 

the progresse and contynuance off Christ^s church from the 

begjmning, and redde such historyes ecclefflasticall and or. 

dinaunces from age to age as do manyfestly declare the 

same, that ever I thought to shede oon droppe off my 

Uoode therfore : for sure I am noon off them that hertofore 

have had avantage by that authorite, wold have lost oooe 

peny theroff to have savyd my lyffe, nor wyl not do to save 

yours, yff ye shold be in such necessite. Which God for 

his mercy forbydde, and kepe you from trust off such 


Finally, accordinge to your desire sens your boke ys 
comon unto the king'^s hands, and he perceivyth the effecte 
off it, I shall help as mych as may lye in my lityl power, 
that your plain facyon off writinge, as off a sharpe gostly 
fifdyr, may be takyn in best parte according to your letter 
and desire in that behalf; but at the reverence off Al- 
mygthy God hynder not your selfe in addictynge you to 
the opinion off your boke, towching the bishop off Rome^s 
autorite ; thinking, that as ye se it now in Italy and di- 
verse countreys, so it was from the beginning, and ought 
to be by God''s law. For the forsaid counsayls do shew 
pl^nly ther is in the church of Christ no such monarchic 
ordaynyd by Christe. And the preemmenence of sitting, that 
was gyffen to the bishop off Rome in the forsaid counsels 
general, which were callyd al by the emperors off that tyme. 


ART was gytkn to hym by cause he was bidiop of Rome, the 
^^^ chefle cite off the empire, and not for Peter and Pauley's 
sake, which wer apostyles, and bernyd in Rome, nor for 
the gospell-sake ; and the secund place was gyffen to the 
patriarch off Constantinople, by cause that cite was called 
Nova Roma^ and so was preferryd both before Andochiay 
wher Sainte Petyr was first bishop, and wher the name o€ 
Cristendom first began ; and also before Alexandria, where 
Sainte Marke, the disciple off Petyr did preche. And also 
before Hierusalem, wher Crist himselfe preched, and the 
hole colledge off the apostles aiHyr him ; and Jacobus Jraier 
Domini was first bishop, which was in the beginning untill 
it was destroyed, callyd maiercurwtarufneccUsiarum^ which 
three ware sees apostolyke. Befor al which three sees, and 
also before Ephesus, where Sainte John Evangelest did 
vrrite his gospell, and ther dyed, Constantinople was pre- 
ferry^d, because it was the second grete congregation off 
Cristen men in the empire, and was callyd Naoa Roma. 
Wherunto those holy counsels wold never have consentyd, 
and namely Calcedonense, wherin wer vi C. and xzx bi- 
sheps of the best lemyd off al Christendome, yff they had 
seen the gospell to the contrary. Moreover, yff ye rede, as 
I am sure ye have, Basilium, Nazianzenum, Chrissosto- 
mum, Damasscnum, ye shal fynd in them no such mo- 
narche off the bishope off Rome, as he clamyth spoken off 
nor never mentioned. Al which I touch to put you in re- 
membrance off, to the intent that ye serchinge forther in 
this matter, may perceive the old fadyrs and counsels, not 
to have knowen any such thing as now off late is preten- 
tyd and usurped. 

Wherfore I beseech you, not trustinge your own self to 
mych herin, to have recourse to those autors that may in. 
forme you off the begynning off the church. Consydering 
tberwithall of what blood ye be, and off what contre. The 
king^s highnes hath in his realme men as wel lemyd in di- 
▼inite as be in odyr countreys, and they have sougth in this 
mater, evyn to the bothome ; which think themselfs wel de- 
lyvercd form the bondage off Rome. And yff you shuld 


now be against your contre to kepe them still in captivite, BOO it 
what they wyll thynke oflF you, I reporte me unto you. ^^' 
What also the king^s grace, who hath brogth you up, and 
hath bene good and gracyous unto you, shal thynke, but 
that ye be unkynd, to be againat him and hys realme, who 
hath been always for you and yours. What discomford 
shold it be to my lady your modyr, in hir age to see you 
swarve from your prince and contre in opinion. What dis- 
comford shold it be to my lord your brother, to see you off 
whom he shold have comford, use your learning to his 
discomford ? What discomford shold it be to all your other 
fiendys to see you off obstinate opinion against al your 
countrey, you may by your wisdom consider. Whom all 
ye may comfort and chiefly your self, in conformyng you 
to the truthe grounded opon the stablishment off the holly 
church of Christendome sens the begynnyng. And be- 
jrnge the supporting of this monarchic inventyd off late 
days by ambiuon, wheroff the old fadyrs never hard tell. 
St.Gregorie wryteth sore against the bishop off Con- 
itantinople off his time who went about a lyke monarchic, 
affirmyng noone such to be in the church of Christ. Saint 
Cyprian wryteth, qui omnes apostoli erant Paris fwnoris et 
potestaiis. Consilium Ephesinum affirmyth the same, which 
cannot agree with thys late found monarchie. At the re- 
verence of God truste not your self to much herein, but 
suffer your self to be persuaded to seke fordyr then ye 
yet have doon. I dobt not but God willing yc shall fynd 
the truth in searchynge fordyr, yff yc persuade not your 
selfe that ye have found it already. I beseche you, have in 
your remembrance, that I wrote before to bum the ori- 
ginally off your to sharp bokes, and I shall move the king]s 
hyghness that your boke sent to hym may be kept secret. 
And in conformyng your self to the opinion off your contre 
and off the truth, I doubt not but ye shall be acceptyd of 
the king^s highness as well as ever ye wer, and mych bettyr 
bycausc ye shew in your boke the intier hert that ye here 
hym, as his grace by his wisdome can mych better consider 
than I can write unto you. And that ye may so do I pray 



|kRT the Holy Ghost to illuminat you. And if ther be pleasure 

that I may do for you or yours, ye shall be assured to fynd 

me redy evermore therunto: as knoweth Almighty God 
who have you in his blessed tuition. 
From London the xiii day 
of July, 15S6. 

Number 53. 
An original letter ofPoWa to CromweUyjustifying himself. 

May the 9d, 1587. 
on rib. My lorde, yff afore tyme itt could nott be suerlye and 
fs ' 'clerelye percrived what affbctyon I have ever borne to the 
kyng^s honour and wealthe, which in my hole lyfe never 
gave the least occasyon, whye any man shoulde think, but 
wyth them that tenderyM the same moste, I myght chieflye 
be nomberyM : yf my deeds were trulye and indyfferentlye 
examined : but howe soever ytt be^ yff any dede afore per- 
verslye interpretate myght ryse any scrupell to surmise the 
contrary, surely these letters that I wryght now, as the time 
and case requirithe, bearyng that tenour as in readyng you 
shall knowe, be suffycyent not onely to abolyshe all former 
doubts, shewing those to be perversly surmysed, but to 
make clere, that a more constant and stable mynde in ob- 
servance off a prince, hathe not bene founde nother yn sub- 
ject nor other personnes besyde. And the cause hereoff ys, 
that there never happened lyke occasyon as thys ys, that 
causy the me nowe to wryght, wherebye my mynd myght be 
so well knowen, while occasion ys gyven off the kyng^s part 
under this maner, that he procureing against me, by such 
meanes to my undoynge, as was never hard off the lyke in 
Chrystendome against anye, that bare that personne that I 
do att this tyme. Yff my minde, after all this remain stable, 
to procure all things that may be to his honour and wealthe, 
as ever I have professyM afore-tyme, what can be more 
suerer tokyn off a depe and a profound grounded love and 
affection : whither I do so I shall afterward showe you. If 
I declare first to hym that knoweth it beste, the kyng'^s act 
ageynst me, to the entent you maye knowe, yff I after that 


remayiie yn my old estate off obsenranoe, ytt m not for ig- BOOK 
Donmce that I knowe not what is madiinate ageinst me. ™* 
And sueiiy, thoughe I knewe afore bothe by your letters 
and other in what displeasure the king had me, without the 
least cause shewed off my part ; I take God and my con- 
science to judge, which thynge, iff I had borne but a meane 
affectiyon myght a hem suflycyent to alyenate also my 
mynde from thence, where I sawe what soever I dyd for the 
best, to be ever accepted in the worste parte. But this I 
wyll not have yowe take for any pn^e off my mynde, but 
to prooede off the kyng^s dyspleasure toward me ; the lesse 
I knowe the cause to be, the further I was from all imagy- 
nacyon to suspect that hys grace should be so inoensyM 
against my personne ; that for to have me in his hands, he 
wold be content to breke and vyolate both Godd^s law and 
mann^ to dystuourbe all commencement betwene oontrye 
and contrye, between man and man, and thys I wold never a 
thought : but fyndyng the same to be so in dede, I could 
not but fynde wythall, howe hys grace was bent with all to 
my utter undoynge ; agaynst the which yff I remayne in 
my old purpose to procure hys wealthe and honour, he that 
wyll seke other proffs after thys, or wyll not be content with 
thys declaracyon off a mannas mynde, he declareth with all 
that wythe no proffe he wyll be content, but wyll have him 
one off hys enemies whither he wyll or no. And off this 
mynde off the kynge toward me I had furst knowledge at 
myne arry venge in France, off the whiche to showe youe the 
first motion of my mind herein, I was more ashamyd to 
hear for the compassion I had to the king^s honour, then 
raovyd by any indygnacyon, that I comjmg not only as im- 
bassadour, but as legate, yn the hyghest sort of embassage 
that ys used amongst the Chrysten princes, a prynce off 
honour shold desyer off another prince off like honour, be- 
traye thyne embassadour, betray the legate, and give him 
into my embassadour^s hands to be brought unto me. This 
was the dishonourable request, as I understand of the king; 
which (as I said afore) to me suerly, regarding my own 
part, I promes'd you was no great displeasure, but rather 



jPART (if I shall say truth) I toke pleasure herein ; and said furth* 
^^^ with to my company, that I never felt my self in full pos* 
session to be a cardinal!, as when I herd those ty dings; 
wherby it pleased God to send lyke fortune to me, as it did 
to those hedds of the church, whose persones the cardynalls 
do represent, which was to be persecutyd moste of them^ 
whose wealth they labouryd for most busyly. In this case 
ly ved the apostells : and the same nowe beyng happenyd to 
me, afore Grod I promise I felt no displeasure, but rather 
was glad thereof, specially consedyryng herebye I hadd the 
better occasyon to declare and justyfie my minde more than 
ever I had afore, which was ever my minde : but touchyng 
the thynge, iff we had no other religion, but lyved as 
paganes and infidells, yet jtis gaitium should ever teache us 
what demande this was, the lawe of nature alone myght de- 
clare how abhomynable y tt were to grante to such a request* 
and no less to desyer ytt« This I rehearse now to this in- 
tent, that you might the sooner perceve^ that if there had 
been but one spurke of a mynde alienate from the kyng, 
thys were able to set the same in such a fyer, that furst conr 
sideringe how all regarde off honour was sett aparte, and 
the law that muntaineth the commercement between man 
purposyd to be violate, so ytt myght tome to my undoing. 
Furst of all of my part, I shuld abstaine from all commerce- 
ment with that part, other by word, writing, or dede ; se* 
condorylye, procure by all honest wayes, if I wolde not by 
dishonest, to repaye this malignytie, to the uttermoste 
damage I could devyse toward them, of whose malygne 
minde towarde me I had so greate experyence : and yett 
after all this, furst of all, youe may see forth wy the by wryt- 
yng att this tyme, I doe nott abstayne from the furst acte 
to practyse and entreate, wyth them that hath bene authors 
hereof, and to practyse yett to hys honour and wealthe 
whiche wold utterlie extinguyshe both in me. And if I be 
herd herein, to put the same also in execution ; which thing 
thoughe I do suerlie of ray owne purpose and mynd, yet 
some occasion hereof, howe it cometh otherwise I will not 
denye, nor kepe close, which is this ; that whereas the bi- 


diope of Verona, that was sent of me to the Frenche court, BOOK 
to intnnate those affisures, that for the wealthe of Chrysten- *"' 
dome, the pope had committed unto me, to entreate with 
bis majestie, in his retoume passynge by Abbevylle, where 
were lodged my lorde of Wynchester, and Mr. Bryan ; 
whereas he could not but gretlie marrayle of this acte of thtf 
kyng toward me, my hole legation purposing no other but 
lus honour and weltche : and desiereng therefore to oonferre 
the same with the embassadours, for better declaracyon of 
the truthe of the mattiers, to be known as they were : my 
lord of Wynchester, and Mr. Bryan, both abstaynenge for 
respect from all communycation, yet sending unto him 
theyre secretarye, after the bishope had in parte declared the 
eiibct of my legacie, that touched then any part the kyng, 
jet semed to be open to bothe parties, that all the king had 
done agaynst me, was of the sinistre and false reports of 
odier, that by false conjecture of things they knewe not, had 
ID enfourmed the king of my purpose in comyng into these 
partes, which the secretarys thought onys clered and de- 
daryd other by letters or messingers, the kyng wold tume 
his mynde, as his grace sawe the deds to justyfie themselfs. 
Tliis the bishope of Verona (at his retoume) showed me ; 
which I accepted in that parte to be trewe also, that all 
came of evill enformacion. And that his grace being asser- 
tayned of my mynd, as it is and ever hath bene, it were not 
unpossyble then some part to knowledge rather my grati- 
tude, than to machynate anye thing contrary. And that it 
might be so knowen, for all parts yet cannot be but well ; 
but as I shewed the bishope, by letters I had attempted 
often the same, but all could not prevail : my messengers I 
had sent often for that purpose, could never be admitted to 
have audience of the kyng. And without one of these wayes 
were founde, there could no conclusion be had in theyse 
mattyers, wherein reasonyng with him, I asked, if for the 
love and service that ever he hath bom to the kinge, and 
showed indede when he was in that place where his service 
might be in steade to the kynge, and love also he hath ever 
to me, having assured knowledge of all my affayres and pur- 


PART poses, not only these laste, but all synyth my departii^ firom 
"'' the realme, whether he could be content (the king^s pleasure 
first knowen) to acquiet the king^s mynde in this bebalfe, 
by going to his grace, and enforming him of the hole ; 
wherein, afore God, he shuld do a dede most charitable. 
Wherin also I did allege unto him, for to bind him withall ; 
bycause after such demonstracyon of the kyng'^s mynde made 
unto me, few men wold be content to practyse wyth his 
grace, in any thing belonging unto me. For this cause, I 
did rehearse the more thyngs to enduce him hereunto: and 
amongst other, this chieflye, the purpose of his comyng 
with me, which (afore God) was this : that the pope, en- 
tending by all meanes of benignitie to practise with the kii^, 
haveng the Frenche kyng so joined in amytie with the 
kyng, and with his sanctitie also ; devyseng for a mete in- 
strument betwene bothe. Yf any personne, for this degree 
newlye taken, were not accepted, the Inshop of Verona was 
thought moste meetest, being for his old deserts to both 
princes, as long as he was in that place where he might do 
them serviceable pleasure, as it was to be thought grateful 
to them both, and counted (for his goodness) the best bishop 
of Italye. So that all thynges consydered, in matters of 
the church to entreate with these princes, none was thought 
like : wherupon the pope bounde him to take thys jomaye 
with me, for this purpose. And this bond, amongst other 
I reheased unto him, when I moved him to go unto the 
kinge. To the which he made answer ; yf there were none 
other bond nor respect in this mattier but of God, knowing 
my mattiers as he doth, and s^ng what inconvenients might 
followe, if they were not at laste well accepted, besyde tlie 
servyce he hath ever owed to the kinge, and love toward 
me, knowing what comfort that might be to all partys, if my 
trewe and faythfuU dealings were well intimate to the king, 
he wold be content at all tymes the waye onys founde afore, 
howe with commodytie he might come to the king^s presence, 
to take this charge upon hym. Thys, my lorde, you may 
"^owe percave, that if I had any part that mynde, that the 
kyng^s procurenge against me doth showe to be persuaded 


I htve, ]rt could not be possible I could have any confidence BOOK 
to attempt any medlyng wythe his grace under suche maner: * 

but because nor my confydence, nor affecyonate mynde, y t 
is not taken awaye, therefore this I do declare unto you by 
these letters, to the intente you maye intimate the same to 
hys grace. And now you see by a great profie what my 
mynde is, you may also see how all suspytion may not 
alonlye be clearyd, many things apeacyd that perad venture 
might tome to greater trouble^ but also many things be 
Ivought to light, to the kyng^s more assuryd honour and 
wealthe, than any thing is I thinke thought of hitherto 
make for the same. For all this I dare promisse to follow, 
if the bishop be herd with that mynde, as he is sent,, and 
content for to go. Other declaration of my mynde by let- 
ters I entende not to make, than my letters agreyng with 
my acts sent afore do make testimonye ; and that the bi- 
diope, which is prevye to all, may better declare presentlye. 
But this I will saye, if I bare in any parte that mynde, the 
kyng^s acte agaynst me doth show, his grace is persuaded I 
diold have, suerlye I wold never adone as I have done, in 
all my acts and processes by letters, made the kyng and you 
prevye unto them. Thys I dyd at my furst commyng to 
Rome, and the cause of my legacy nowe, and the cause of 
my corny ng to these parts. Such advises rebels be not wont 
to give unto those, from whome they rebel, but specially at 
Rome, being there when the tyme was troubleous for the 
kyng in his realme ; lettyng them the sending furthe of the 
censures, which myght a caused more trouble ; and sending 
at that tyme my servant purposelye, to offer my service, to 
procure by all meanes his honour, welth, quietness ; ani- 
mating besyde, those that were cheffe of my nerest kynne, 
to be constaunt in his servyce. Thys rebells be not wont to 
do. And I know, at Rome, if any man had been premyate 
to do hym servyce, none could have done more ; insomuch 
that men judged me half a rebell to God and my contrye, 
because I wold not assent to divers thyngs, that had made 
little to the kyng's quietness : but specially, having in my 
hand those wrytings, that put forthe peradventure, might a 

VOL. III. P. 3. N 


PART caused most trouble of all. These instauntly b^ng deain 
of those, which had in a manner authorytie to command 

and yet ever finding meanes that they never came into the 
sight nor hands, and to this hower suppresang the san 
lykewise. If one that had mynd of rebellion wold do tl 
same, be thinke you well : but, as I say, my purpose is n 
to justifie my mynde, by these letters, at this time, in mo 
acts than one, which is of this present time. Nor if it 1 
not justified of such a one as the bishops, that knoweth the 
• assuredly, I do nother entend hereafter to labour any mo 
her^ : aforeGrod, and all men, that will be indifferent judg 
of the truthe, I will not doubt, at all times to justifie my m 
toward the king, I wold to God I could so well justifie n 
self afore Gtxl and the catholick church, for negligent servi* 
in this behalf, because I would not offend the kinge. Ng 
I will say no more, but pray unto Almighty God, to p 
that in the kyng^s mynde that may be most to hb honoi 
and wealthe, with grace to follow the same ; and to tal 
from all other such occasyon, why they shuld thynk, if tb 
serve the kyng according to their conscience, they shuL 
be constrayned to offend the kyng, and so herebye to sep 
rate the one from the other ; which suerlye to no man shu 
be more greffe than to me. But Goddes pleasure be fi 
fylled above all, to whome nowe I commit you. Writti 
at Cambray, the second day of Maye. 

Your lovyng friend 
R. Card. legat. 

Number 54. 
A letter of the abbess ofGodstow, complaining qfDr. Lando 

Cotton lib. Pleasith hit your honor, with my moste humble do^ 
p.* m8.^ ^ ^y®» ^ "^ advertised, that where it hath pleasyd your lor 
ship to be the verie meane to the king^s majestic, for my pr 
ferment, most unworthie to be abbes of this the king^s mons 
terie of Godystowe ; in the which offyce, I truste I ha^ 
done the best in my power to the mayntenance of Groc 
trewe honour, with all treuth and obedience to the kinj 
majesde ; and was never moved nor de^red by any creatu: 


10 tbe kiog^s behalfe, or in your lordship^s name, to surren- BOOK 
der and give upe the house ; nor was never mynded nor in- ^^^' 
tended so to do, otherwise than at the king^s gracious com- 
mandement, or yours. To the which I do, and have ever 
done, and will submit my self most humblie and obedientlie. 
And I truste to Grod, that I have never offendyd God^s laws, 
neidier the kingX wherebie that this poore monasterie ought 
to be suppressed. And this notwithstanding, my good 
lorde, so it is, that doctor London, whiche (as your lorde- 
sbip doth well know) was agaynst my promotion, and hathe 
ever sence borne me great malys and grudge, like my mor- 
tal enemye, is sodenlie cummyd unto me^ with a great rowte 
with him ; and here dothe threten me and my Asters, sayeng, 
that he bath the king^'s commission to suppress the house, 
sjpyte of my tethe. And when he sawe that I was contente 
that he shulde do all things according to his commission ; 
and shewyd him playne, that I wolde never surrender to his 
hande, being my awncyent enemye ; now he begins to in- 
treat me, and to invegle my sisters, one by one, otherwise 
than ever I harde tell that any of the kyng^s subjects hathe 
been handelyd : and here tarieth and contynueth, to my 
great coste and charges; and will not take ray answere, 
that I will not surrender, till I know the king''s gracious 
commandement, or your good lordeship'^s. Therefore I do 
moste humblie beseche you, to contynewe my good lorde, 
as you ever have bene ; and to directe your honorable let- 
ters to remove him hens. And whensoever the kyng'^s gra- 
dous commandement, or yours, shall come unto me, you 
shall find me most reddie and obedyant to folloe the same. 
And notwithstand that doctor London, like an untrew man, 
hath informed your lordship, that I am a spoiler and a 
waster, your good lordship shall knowe that the contrary is 
trewe. For I have not alienatyd one halporthe of goods of 
his monasterie, movable, or unmovable, but have rather in- 
creasyd the same. Nor never made lease of any farrae, or 
peece of grownde belongyng to this house; or then hath 
bene in tymes paste allwaies set under covent seal for the 
wealthe of the house. And therefore my verie truste is, 



P A RT that I shall fynd the kynge as gracious lorde unto me, as he 

"^' is to all other his subjects. Seyng I have not oflendyd. 'And 

am and will be moste obedyent to his most gracious com- 

' mandment at all tymes. With the grace of Allmighty Jesus, 

who ever preserve you in honour longe to indure to his 

pleasure. Amen. Grodiston the vth daie of November. 

Your moste bownden beds woman 

Katharine Bulkeley, abbes there. 

Number 66. 

A letter to BtMinger Jiom one of Maidstone^ gimng an 
account of an imager which seems to be the rood ofBoa;^ 
ley in Kent. 

Johannes ffokerus Maydstanenses. 

At Zurich. Ruit hie passim Azzotinus Dagon, Bel ille Babylonicus 
jam dudum contractus est. Repertus est nuper Cantia- 
norum deus ligneus, pensilis Christus, qui cum ipso Pro- 
theo concertare potuisset. Nam et capite nutare, innuere 
oculis, barbam convertere, incurvare corpus, adeundum 
aversari et recipere preces scitissim^ noverat. Hie cum mo- 
nachi sua causa caderent, repertus est in eorum templo, plu- 

rimo cinctus anathemate, linteis, cereis agricis exterisquc 

ditatus muneribus. Subodoratus est fucum cordatus vir, 
Nicolai Patrigii nostri frater, affix um contra parietem ^ vcs- 
ti^o solvit, apparent artes, apparent imposturse, mirus ac 
Polypeus praestigiator deprehenditur. Erant foraminoso cor- 
pori ocultae passim fistulae, in quibus ductile per rimulas, fer- 
rum k mystagogo trahebatur, laminis nihilominus artifidose 
celantibus. Hinc factum est ut populum Cantianum, imo 
Angliam totam jam seculis aliquot magno cum qusestu de- 
mentarit. Patefactus Meydstanuensibus meis spectaculum 
primitus dedit, ex sumrao se culmine confertissimo se osten- 
tans populo, aliis ex animo, aliis Ajacem risu simulantibus. 
Delatus hinc circulator Londinum est Invisit aulam re- 
gis, regem ipsum, novus hospes : nemo salutat vere. Con- 
glomerant ipsum risu aulico, barones, duces, marchiones, 
comites. Adsuiit h longinquo, circumstand\ intuend^ et vi- 


dend^ penitus. Agit ille minatur oculis, aversatur ore, dis- BOOK 
torquet nares, mittit deorsum caput, incurvat dorsum, an- "'• 
nuit et renuit. Vident, rident, mirantur, strepit vocibus 
theatrum, volitat super «thera clamor. Rex ipse incertum 
gavisus ne magis sit ob patefactam imposturam, an magis do« 
luerit ex animo tot seculis miserse plebi fuisse impositnm. 
Quid multis opus? res delata est ad conciliarios. Hinc 
post dies aliquot habita est Londini condo, prsedicabat 6 sa- 
cra cathedra episcopus Roffensis, stat ex adverso Danieli 
Bel Cantianus, summo erectus pulpito. Hie denu6 sese 
aperit, hie denu6 coram fabulam scit^ a^t. Mirantur, in* 
dignantur, stupent. Pudet ab idolo tarn turpiter fuisse de- 
lusos. Cumque jam incalesceret concionator, et verbum 
Dei occult^ operaretur in cordibus auditorum, praecipitio de« 
volvunt istum lignum truncum in confertissimos auditores. 
Hie varius auditur diversorum clamor, rapitur, laceratur, 
fiustillatim comminuitur, scinditurque in mille confractus 
partes, tandem in IGNEM mittitur. Et hie tulit exitum 

Number 56. 

A amsclatory letter to Henry Vlllthj from the bishop of 
Dur/iaTHj after the death of queen Jane. 

Plese your highnes to understande that wher now of late Cotton lib 
it hath pleasyd Almighty God to take unto his mercy out^^^^^^J^* ^ 
off this present lyffe, the most blessed and vertuouse lady, 
your graces most dearest wyffe the queens grace, whose 
soule God pardone, and newes thereof sorrowfuU to all men, 
came into these partes, surely it cannot well be expressed, 
how all men of all degrees dyd greatly lament and moume 
the death of that noble lady and princesse, taken out of this 
world by bringing forth of that noble fruit that is spronge of 
your majesty, and her, to the great joy and inestimable 
comforte of all your subjects, consideringe withall that this 
noble fruit, my lord prince, in his tender age interyng into 
this world, is by her death lefft a dear orphant, commencinge 
thereby thys miserable and mortall lyffe, not only by weep- 




lRT inge and waylinge, as the myscry of menkynde requireth, 
' . but also refte in the begynnynge of his lyffe from the oom- 
forte of his most dear mother. And albeyt to hym by ten- 
derness of his age, it is not known what he hath lost| yet we 
that do know and feel it, have much more cause to mome, 
seinge such a vertuose princesse who hath shewed so great 
hopes of much frute to come of her body, is so sudenly 
taken from us. But thys notwithstandinge your majesty 
whom thys chauncly most towcheth, must by your high 
wisdome consyder the misery of the mortal lyffe of man- 
kynde, which no man bom in this world, prince nor porre 
man, can exchue ; seing it is the sentence of Almighty Grod, 
sayinge in the begynning aswel to the woman. In dolore pa- 
ries Jilias tuos ; as to the man, and by him to all his poste- 
rite, Pulvis es et in pulverem revertcris. In which mortal 
lyffe who soever ii most vexyd and troubled, yf he take it 
patiently ys more accepte to God, and called in the scrip- 
ture therby blessed ; as it is written in the Book of Job, 
Beatus homo qui corripitur d Deo; in crepationem ergo 
Domini ne reprobeSy quia ipse vuhierat et medetuvj per- 
cutit et manus ejus sanabit. And it is written in the Epistle 
of James lykewise, Beatus vir qui siiffert tentatioiiem^ quum 
autem iUe probatus Jueritj accipiet coronam vitce. And as 
Saint Paul saies to the Hebrews, It is a sure tok3ni that 
Gk)d favoureth them as his children to whom he sendeth ad- 
versite, sajringe. Quern enim diligit DominuSj castigat ; Jla^ 
geUat autem omnemjilit^m quern recipit. In discipllna per- 
severate^ tanquam Jilits vobis se offert Deus : quis enim 
Jtlius quern non corripit pater? quod si extra discipli- 
nam esHs^ cufus partidpes Jacti sunt omnes, ergo aduUe- 
rini et non JiUi estis. And albeyt the disciplin of adver- 
mtie be full of hevinesse for the tyme, yet it endeth al- 
wayes in joy ; as there foUoeth, Omnis autem discipKna in 
presenH quidem non videtur esse gaudii sed meroris, postea 
mUemJrucium paratissimum exercitatis per eadem reddet 
jmiMmb, And like as al men more do favour those their 
serranta, that in a longe voiagc do sustein more adversite, 
9o Almighty God in thys lyffe (which all is but a voiage, for 


mUaleFmakmiaih^NmlMewmikiemmwiUemciv^^ BOOK 
mijkkmm ImjuMmm,) most aooepteth those faitaerTMit% "* 
iht m matuuk taott idvernte pitiently. And Sunt Pauley 
vufAenagB the instdnlite of this worlds exhorteth all men 
to ttM al things therin as transitory, and not pomanent both 
m pnmpmtj and in adTersite; for neither of both doth 
t«y, but brirely orerpaseth ; sainge, Tifigms breve €9i s f^ 
XfMNn fii^ftiqid habeni uxareettmquamnonkabenieeriiU^ 
Mq^Jbmi ten^Miii fumJbiUei^ei qtd gmsdetU tanquam 
nm gmtdemte$j ei qui ewmni ianquam nan poieidentes^ et 
fm mtvninr hoc mundo, ianquam non uianiur, preterit 
etim figyera mundi hnyue. Then senoe proqperite is ftt- 
^tite, and taryeth not, let us not trust to jrt, and nnoe 
sdvenile soon overpasseth and alndeth not^ let us not e^ 
teem it^ fbr after it sustenyd patiently sure we be that joy 
disll fueoeed. Consyder yf it like your majestie hoar 
A tymes sence your most noble regne began, Grod hath 
•sot you diverse and many tymes great flowings of pros* 
psiite, and therfor yf Ood sum tymes do sende a drojqie 
of adverrite, sustain it by your high wisdome, with pa- 
dent suiFering, as I trust assuredly, and doubt not but 
your highnes wyl ; assured you may be that Grod for your 
10 doinge shal hyghly requite that far beyond your high- 
nes expectations. Grete cities, towns, and r^ons, al peo- 
ple in them, and princes of the same, oft do sustein ad- 
tersite bycause the hole world is alvray subject to muta- 
bilite, and lyke as after lygth succeedeth darknes, and after 
KHuer Cometh winter, so darknes taryeth not, but light doth 
fi>low, and winter gifieth place to the somer again ; so that 
I doubt not but Grod wiUing this storme of sorowful season, 
fhal by your majesties wysdome after a tyme overpass, and 
the somer of joyful gladnes shal succeed, not only to your 
grace comforte, but to the comforte of all your subjects, 
much momyng at this tyme in their harts with your 
lughnes. And when Almighty Ood hath taken fit>m your 
grace, to your greate disoomf3rte a most blessed and vertu- 
ouse lady, consyder what he hath given your highnes again to 
your comdforte, and to the rcgoyce of all us your subjects, our 

K 4 


PART mo6t noble prince, to whom God hath ordeined your majestie 
^^^ not only to be father, but also as the tyme now requireth, to 
supply the roome of a mother also. So that therby he shal 
hereafter have double cause to honour your highnes. As it is 
not to be doubted, but God grantyng him lyfe herafter he 
wyl do. In whom in the mean tyme, Almighty God of in- 
finite mercy grant, that your grace putting away all sorow- 
ful pensiyenesse, may to the comfort of your noble barte, 
long rejoyce, which shal be also to die high comforte of al 
the subjects of your graces realme. And sense momyng 
can in no wise amend the matter, and thanks g^ven to God 
may sooner over-blow this storm. Best shall be to conclude 
with Job, DonUnus dedit^ Dominus obHulii^ ricut Domino 
placuit Ua factum eat. Sit nomine Domini benedictum. 
God gave your grace that noble lady, and Grod hath takyn 
her away as it plesed hym. So it is done, laude by gyven 
to hym : and for to consyder also, how Job exhortedi by 
his example, al men being in like case, to paUence, sainge, 
iS'f bona euscepimus de manu Domini^ mala autem quare 
non sustineamtts : which your highnes for your great wis- 
dome and leaminge can much better consider, then I can 
advertise the same, unlesse sorrowfulnes for the tyme put it 
out of remembrance. Almyghty God of his infinite mercy 
grant your grace spiritual comfort, and putting away al 
worldly hevynesse, ever to rejoyce in him, who have your 
liiajesde alway in his blessed protection to your harts de- 
sire, with encrease of much honore. From your dtie of 
Yorke the xiii day of November. 

By your most humble subject, 

servant and chaplein, 

Cuthbert Diu-esme. 

Number 57. 
Injunctions geven by Edwarde archbushope of Yorke^ to be 
observed within thedioces of Yorker by all the dergie of the 
same, and oder, tchome thesayde Injunctions do conceme* 

You shall fyrste diligentlie observe all maner of injunc- 
tions^ given unto you by the king's hyghnes commaundi- 

W^m JLm^ ^^^^^S^^^iJ^kJ om^^^^mIk.^*^^^^ .^^L^H^^k^^^^I 1^^ tt^b^ Ib^^^^^^^^b^^ 
<■ IDC pwiffiijf o jHi iMM mw cnHMi^gni ny uk njHMipc, 

cfBonewidifai dns mdbw; «idl ako conooraw die 

frnrtioo Midi cHafafahaKBt cf the kjngs -Ui^iiiBi tide cf 
wpniHi* heide over tlnle cttdioEqiie chuidie cff £iiglHide^ 
fliwdl tjpinliMll as tenponuL 

JfaMy Evcfie cunlie wdA. pRjite wuliui tbii dKncee dnD 
litve an New T rrtMimut , in TSngBJip or Latten, widnn 
finrtie dajt nezse afker die pohBration hereof; «idl ihaU 
imfbt reade two diaprtntei of the ame afiire nowne^ «idl 
two at aftie Downe, nl that treatablie «idl fistiiKdie; «idl 
AiD do hu beat indevoiire to ondentande the tame. 

Jteai, Everie curate diaD provjde to have die booke 
eompjled fay the ldi^'*s Ughnes onmmanndunent, naniyde 
T l i ajiilali oit g^g eftriafea Ifaw, with all eonvcmentipefde^ 
aiaoon as the aaide book Jian come forth ly his coimnaiinA- 
flwiit: and in the same shaU daylie read two chaptoresy so 
diat he may be able to declare the ssme to Us paraduans. 

Jteai, AU curates and heades of congr^adoosy rdigioiise 
■id not v^g^ouse, privileged and not privileged, shall, ac- 
eonfinge to the kjmg'^s higbnes oommaundinient and in- 
JQDCtions, everie belie day, at mattens time, and betwene 
mattens and laudes, read the Pater Nosier, and the Ave 
Maria in Englishe, treateabli and distincelie, and cause all 
theire parochians, whiche cannot all redy say it in Englyshe, 
jonge and olde, to reherse everie petedon by it selfe, to 
thend therof, after them ; and in lykewise everi holy day, 
at masse, and immediatlie after the Crede, shall rehers 
eyerie article of the Crede by it selfe, and so shall cause the 
parochians to rehers after them, everie one by it selfe, to 
thende, and likewise every holy day, at even-songe, betwene 
even-songe and completorie, shall rehers the Tenne Com- 
maundements, every one by it selfe, and so cause his paro- 
diians to rehers after him, everie one by it selfe, to thende, to 
tbentente that they may leme perfectelie all three. And for 
this purpose, the saide curates, and oder heades of the congre- 
gadon, must ^ve waminge to thaire parochians, that none of 
them be absent at such times as any of the saide three 


IP ART ehall be rehersed. And shall furthermore declare unto 
them, that they shall not be admytted to resave the blessed 
sacrament of the alter at £a8ter, tyll they can perfectlie 
reherse them all three by rote : and therfore everie gostdie 
father, accordinge to the king^s Injunctions, muste everie 
Lent examen ther parochians, in time of confession, to 
knowe whcder they have learned the premisses perfytly, or 

liefHy All curates muste condnuallye call upon thaire pa^ 
rochians, to provide a booke of the hole Byble in Englydie, 
of the largieste forme, within fourtie dayes nexte after the 
puplication hereof, that may be chayned in some open place 
in the churche, that all men may resorte to reade in it for 
theare instruction, under the payne of suspencion of ther 
churches. And the same to be boughte at the charges of 
the vicare or parsonne, and parochians, accordinge to the 
king^s Injunctions. 

Itemj All curates muste cause one booke, compriange 
the Pater Noster and Ave Maria in Englishe, the Crede 
and the Tenne Commaundements in Englishe, to be set 
upon a table in the churche openlie, that all men may 
reasorte to leame them, at all such tymes as they woll. And 
this to be done, within twentie days after the puplication 

Itemj No curates, nor oder preistes of what sorte soever 
they be, shall haunte taverns or alehowses, or open hoistres, 
oder wayes than for necessarie meales and reflections ; if 
they canne have none in oder places, accordinge to the 
king^s highnes Injunctions; but shall occupie themselves, 
' ether in the churche, or in th^re chambers, with reading 
of holy scripture, or teachinge of children. 

Itemy All curates and preistes, beinge in one churche to* 
geddre, shall (if they can so provide) live togedder at one 
commons ; and not one to be in one place, and ane oder in 
an oder place. And shall, in all theire behaviors, shew 
good example, in worde, dcde, countenaunce and habyte, to 
the better edifienge of the laye-people. 

liemy They shall' not be common hunters ne hawkers, ne 


pbje at gammes prohibytede^ as dyoese and cartesy and BOOK 
audieoder. ^^ 

liemj That thej shall (aocardinge to the king's bighnes 
Injunctions) in no wise disoorage any man to reade in the 
Eng^iish Byble, which is the booke of lyefe ; but shall oom^ 
fort them therin t never the lesse exhorting them to entxe 
in to the leadinge thereof^ withe the sperite of mekenes, and 
purpose to be gostelie edified. And not to be brablors ne 
prators, arguers ne disputers thereof; ne to presume that 
thqr know therin that they know not; but^ for ther in* 
struction, to resorte to such as be better lemed than they 
be, when they finde any dyfScultie therin. 

liem^ All curates and heades of congregations, religiouse 
and oder, privileged and oder, shall everie holy day reade 
the Grospell, and the Epistle of that day out of the Inglishe 
Byble, planely and distinctlie: and they that have such 
grace, shall make some declaradon odre^ of the one, or of 
bothe^ (if the time may serve) every holy day. 

liemy Every curate, rendent and haUe, shall make 4 so* 
lempne sermons in the yeare, one everie quarter : not re- 
scoent, havinnge 5/. or 6Jt. 1S«. 4d. de darOf ti^l finde one 
solempne sermon for the instruction of the people, in the 
begyninge of Lent : havyng 102. de claro, 2 solempne ser- 
mons ; one in the begyning of Lent, an othur at sume othur 
time of the yere. Having 15/. 8 sermons ; one in the be- 
gynninge of Lent, thoder at two convenient tymes. Havinge 
9XU. 4 sermons ; one at Lent, thoder three, at three conv^ 
nient times. Havinge SOL de claroy B sermons; one at 
Lent, and the oder four at convenient times. Having 4(M. 
6 sermons ; one in the be^nninge of Lent, and the oder 
five at convenient times. And as the cleare valew dothe en- 
crease, so mo sermons. 

And yet nevertheles we now monishe, under, the payne of 
the lawe, all parsons and vicares to be resident upon theire 
curis, b^nge within this dioces, afore the feaste of Christen- 
mas next ; oneles they can and do shew, afore that day, a 
lawfuU cause, why they may not, or shoulde not do so. 

Itemj That none be admytted to kepe cure, ne to say 


PART masse in any churche of this dioces ; oneles he be admitted 

III •' 

by me, or my officer, havinge commission fro me for the 
same ; and allso do shewe the lettes of his orders. 

Iteniy That no man be admitted to preache within this 
dioces, onelesse he have auctorite under the king*8 seale, or 
myne, accordinge to the king^s highnes Injunctions. 

Itemy All curates and oder, havinge charge of any congre- 
gacion, must diligentlie informe theire flocke, accordinge to 
the king^s highnes Injunctions, that they may in no wise 
yelde worshippe to any images, lowtinge or bowinge downe, 
or knelinge to the saide images, ne offering to them any 
money, or wax lighte or unlighte, or any oder thing : for 
so muche, as offeringe is to be made to God onlie, and to 
no creature under God. Neverthelessc they may still use 
lightes in the roode lofete, and afore the sacrament, and at 
the sepulture at Easter; accordinge to the king'*s Injunc- 
tions : so that they none use to the honer or worshippe of 
any image, ne by the way of offeringe made, odre to any 
image, or to any sainct represented by the same. 

Item^ They must teache theire flocke, that images be suf- 
fred onelie as bokes, by which our hertes may be kindeled 
to folow the holy steppes and examples of the saintes repre- 
sented by the same ; even as sainctes lives be written, and 
muste be redde in written bookes for the same purpose : and 
that, as we do not worshipe our booke when we have rede 
the sainfs liefe; so likewise, we shall not worshipe the 
images, which is as the booke to them that cannot read in 
odre bokes. 

Item^ They muste declare to thaire flocke, that althoughe 
they see the image of the Fadre represented as an olde man, 
yet they maye in no wise beleve, that the hevenlie Father is 
any man, or that he haithe any bodie or age ; but that he is 
a nature and substaunce, above all mesure passingc the ca- 
pacite and undrestandinge, oder of mans witt or aungelles. 

Item^ Alle suche ymagies, to whiche any maner of resorte 
is usede, by waye of peregrenage or offeringe, they must 
depose and sequestre frome all sighte of men, and sufire 
them no more to be sett upp. 


Item, They must charge all the faders and moders, and BOOK 
heades of howse-holdes, and gode-fatheres, and gode-mo- 
theres, and scoole-maystresy accordinge to the king^s high- 
Des Injunctions, to see theire children, servantes and sco- 
leres, well instructe in the Pater-Noster, Ave Maria, Crede, 
and Tenne Commandiments in Englishe, and all oder 
thinges compprised in theis Injunctions. And for that pur- 
pose, all curates and heades of congregacions, must ons in a 
quarter rede theis Injunctions, in the churche, in thaudience 
of all the people; aswell for tlie remembrance of theire 
owne dewtie, as for ther citinge the people to knowe theire 
dewtie. And we charge and commaunde all curates, and all 
oder of this dioces to whom it shall apperteigne, to have a 
copy of theis Injunctions, within fourtie days next foUow- 
ioge the puplication hereof. And when the same shall be 
imprinted, we charge them to have them so imprinted within 
sex days aftre the same shall come to thire knowledge, 
under payne of excommunication. 

Iteniy They muste instructe their parochians, that they 
nothinge please Grod, but displease him ; doeng workes 
onlie in thaire owne will and devocion, by roan^s tradicion, 
and leaving the workes by God commanded, undone. 

Item^ They muste instruct their flocke, that their confi- 
dence for thatteyning of everlasting lief, must be only in 
God, and in his grace and marcy, and in the merits and re- 
demption of our Saviour Jesu Christe: and that none of 
our workes, as ours, have any efficacie or vertue to save us, 
but only have their vertue and efficacie by the grace of 
God, and merits of Christ's passion. 

Itemy All curates must openly, in the church, teach and 
instruct the raydwiefes, of the very wordes and fourme of 
baptisme ; to thentente that they may use them perfietly, and 
none oder : in time of nede, that is to say ; that they, nam- 
ing the child, must say these wordes; John^ or Tfiomas^ 
or Agnes ^ I baptize thee in the name of the Fader ^ the Sonne j 
and the Holie Gost: and that saying thies wordes, they 
must cast water upon the child. For which purpose, they 
must have ready at hand a vessel of cleane water. 


PART Item, They must often upon the holidays, and spedaOy 
at times of manages, warn their parochians, that they in no 
wise make any privie contract of manage, but afore two or 
three sufficient witnes required to be present for that pur- 1 
pose : and that afore they make any contract, they do thor 
best endevour, to know wheder there be betwene them any 
lawful! impediment, oder by Godds lawe, or any oder ecde- 
aastical yet used, afore they entre to make any contract. 

Item, That the fadres, and oder freyndes, constrayne not 
them that be under their correccion and govemanoe, to 
marry agenst their willes, ne afore they have discretion to 
oonnder what the bounde of manage meaneth. 

Iteniy All curates and oder heddes of congregacyons must 
never ceasse to imprinte in the hertes of their flocke the two 
commaundiments which our Saviour calleth the fulnes of 
the lawe ; that is, the love of Grod above all thing, and iha 
love of thye neighbore as thy self: and likewise the sayd 
curates must continuallie engrave in the hertes of their 
flocke the two preceptes of the lawe of nature ; that is, do 
as thou wolde be done unto, and do not that thou wolldest 
not to be done unto the. 

Iteniy They mustc alway emploic them self to mainteyn 
charitie and peace in our Lorde Jesu amonges their paroch- 
ians, and to avoide all rancor and dissention amongs them. 

Item^ That they in no ivise kepe thoes dayes for holy 
whiche by our soveraigne lord the kynge opon juste consi- 
deracion be abrogat: ne asmoche as in them is suffer of 
their parochians to kepe them as holie, but that they in 
theme be occupied everie man in his busines, as in oder days 
according to the kinges highnes Injunctions. 

Itenif They muste instructe their flocke, that in those 
dayes whiche be observed and kept for holiedayes, they 
must utterlie withdrawe themselfes from all worldlie and 
fleshelie busines and occupacions, and houses of gammes 
and playes; speciallie frome all synne; and entierlie, and 
hollie emploie themselfes to goostelie works, behoveable for 
manis soule: and that therefore taverns, vitailing-houses, 
may not thyes dayes be used and exercised, and speciallie 


in tbe tyme of dime Morvicie^ ookt necetaitie odcrwiga n* BOOK 
quire for them that trmvaile in journejr* 

/fem, AU hoiues of leUgioOp ccdlqieiy hotpitalliy and all 
oder havyng any beneficies a p prq p riated unto theme, shall 
according to the value of their beneficiefl, have in their 
churdies appiopried cerUun semions every year ; aa in like 
ordinance for curates as afore is comprised. 

Itemj All curates and oder havyng benefices appropriated 
by them adf yf they can, or by oder preachers ons every 
quarter, must teache and instruct the people of thw dewtie 
€i fiuhefiill and loyall obediosoe to our soverand lord the 
king, dedaring that they be bounden to. yield entier and 
perfect obedience to his highnes by Goddes hiwe, ezpresse 
under the payn of dampnation everlasting: and that to 
make any styrryng, gathering of people, or oommocaoD, 
withoute his expresse commandment, is to bndke, not only 
Goddes commandment and law^ but also all natural and • 
politique order, in which the heed govemethe the membrss^ 
and not the membres the heed, and in whidi also all the 
members, as well by nature as by good policie, employe 
them selfie and indaunger them adf for the prescrvatioa 
and mayntenance of the heed. 

All which Injunctions by thauctorite which we have un- 
der Grod, and our soveraigne lord the kynge, we charge all 
to whom it apertenythe to observe and kepe under the 
pajmes lymyted in the same, and under the paynes of sus- 
pendon and sequestracyon of the frutes of theyre beneficies 
and promocyons ecclesiasticall, and oder paynes arbytrary, 
aa we shall thynke convenient and reasonable. 

Number 58. 

Infttndions given by the biahoppe qf CaoefUre and Lyche^ 

Jelde throughe mi his diocesse. 

To all and singular of the dergie within the diocess of 
Coventree and Lichefelde, I Rolande, by the grace of God 
byshop of the sayd diocesse, beynge oommaunded therunto 
by the kinges majestic, gyve these Injunctions following, for 


P A R T the honour of God, thencrease of vertue, and abolyShmente 
' of ignorance, vice, and viciouse ly vinge. 

FyrstCy That ye and every one of you shall, with all your 
diligence and faythful obedience, observe and cause to be 
observed, all and syngular the contentes of the kynges 
highnes Injunctions, by his graces commissarys gyven, iB i 
such places as they in tymes paste have vysited, and also 
sent unto you at this tyme. And that ye and every of you> 
shal provyde for copies of the same, to be had before ^ 
feast of Lammasse nexte ensuynge. 

lUmy That ye and every of you do instructe and te^^ 
your parishoners, the kinges majestic to be only the supr^^ 
heed under Chryst in erthe of this his churche of England ' 
unto whom all potentates and powers of the same oweiP 
obey, being therto obliged and bounde by Groddes wor ^^. 
And that tlie bishop of Rome, and his predecessours, ^^ 
ever heretofore usurp upon the kynges of this realme, 
the using any maner of jurisdiction or auctorite within H^ 
same. And that ye shal exhorte every Sonday al your p^ 
rishoners to the due obedience of our prince and soveraigu^ 
lorde, his heires, and successours kynges of Englande. 

Item^ That every person or proprietary of any parish^ 
churche within my diocesse, shal on thisside the feast o^ 
Pentecoste nexte commynge, provide a boke of the holeByble^ 
bothe in Latin and also in Englishe, and laye the same \sm 
the quiere, for every man that will, to loke and reade ther^ 
on : and shal not discorage, but ernestly comforte, exhorte, 
and admonishe every man to reade the Bible in Latin or 
Englishe, as the very worde of God, and the spiritual foode 
of man'^s sowle, wherby they maye the better knowe their 
deutyes to God, to their soveraigne lord the kinge, and 
their neighboure : alwaye gentely and charitably exhorting 
them to use a sober and a modeste haviour in the readynge 
and inquisition of the true sence, and that in no wise they 
stifFely or egerly contende, or strive with one another about 
the same, but referre the declaration of those places that be 
in controversie to the judgement of them that be better 


Item^ I decree and ordeyne that all monasteries, collegiate BOOK 
churches, and al persons to whom any benefyces be impro- ' 

pried within my diocese, shal from henceforth four times in 
the year at the leaste, that is, one tyme every quarter, cause 
one sermon to be preached, purely, sincerely, and according 
to the true scripture of God, in al such churches where they, 
or any of them, receive any profytes or commodities, upon 
peyne of sequestration of theyr fruites. 

Itemy I require and exhorte you, in our soveraigne lordes 
name, and as his gracis mynister, I straitly charge and com- 
maunde you, to declare and publishe every Sondaye in the 
pulpet at high masse tymes, the Pater Noster, Ave, and 
Crede in Englishe, distinctely, and in suche wyse as the 
people maye leme the same. And that four tymes in the 
quarter ye declare to your paryshoners, the Seven deedly 
Sinns, and the Ten Commaundments, so as the people therby 
may not only lenie how to honour God, their prince, and 
parentes; but also how they shall avoide sinne and vice, 
and to lyve vertuousely, folowinge Goddes lawes and his 

Item^ That ye bothe in your preachinges, secret confes- 
nons, and al other workes and doings, shall excite and move 
your parishioners unto such works as are commaunded ex- 
pressely of God : for the whiche God shall demaunde of 
them a stray te reckeninge ; as the Articles of the Fayth, and 
the Ten Commandments, and all other workes which men 
do of their own will or devotion, to teache and instruct your 
parishioners, that they are not to be estemed, in comparison 
of the other. And that for the not doinge of any wilful! 
workes, God wyll not aske any accompte. 

Item^ That ye, nor any of you, sufre no fryer or other 
religious man, to have any cure or servyce within your 
churches or cures, excepte they be lawfully dispensed with- 
al, or licensed by the ordinary. 

Item^ That ye, and every one of you, doo your dyligence, 
and endevour your selfes to your best industries and labour, 
to instructe and teache aswell chyldren as all other your 
people, both men and women, of that your parishe, the 

VOL. III. p. 3. o ^ 


PART Pater Nosier, Ave, and Crede, and the Tesa Commaimd- 
^^' ments in Englifihe, and that ye or any of you do admyt no 
man nor woman to reoeyve the sacrament of the aultarei 
untyl that ye have harde them recite and declare at the 
least, the same Pater Noster, Ave, and Crede in Englishes 
without boke. 

Item, That ye, and every of you, shal two tymes in ^^ 
quarter declare to your parishoners the bande <^ matri—^ 
mony, and what great daunger it is to al men^ that use^ 
theyr bodies, but with suche personnes jbl& they lawfully may^ 
by the lawe of God ; and to exhorte in the said tymes your 
parishoners, that they make no privye cobtractes <^ matri- 
monie, but that they call two honest menne at the leaste to 
reoorde the same, as they wyll avoide the extreme payne of 
the lawes used within the kinges realme by his gracis auc- 

Item, Where some frowarde persons, partly for malice 
and disdaine, neglecte thejrr curates, and such as have the 
cure and charge of their soules, and partly to doke and 
hyde their lewde and naughtie livinge, as they have used 
all the yere before, use at Lent to go to be cmifessed to the 
fryers, and such other religious houses. Therefore I wyl 
you to declare, and shew to your parishoners that no testi- 
moniall, brought from any of them, shall stande in any ef- 
fect : nor any such persones shall be admitted to Goddis 
bourde, unto they submit themselves to be confessed to their 
owne curates, onlesse for certayne arduate and urgent oon- 
nderations of conscyence, they be, or shall be otherwise 
laufullye dispensed or lycensed withall, either by me or my 

Item, Whereas unyversally reigneth this abhominable, 
detestable, and dyvelishe use and custome, that upon the 
holy dayes, in the tyme of divine servyce and preachyng, 
that youthe and other unthriftes, resorteth to ale-houses, 
and there use unlawfull games, blasphemie, dronkenness, 
with other enormities ; so that good people therat be of- 
fended, and no punyshment hadde as yet ; therefore I wil 
and commaunde you to declare to suche that kepe alehouses 


or taverns within your parishes, that at suche they suffre ROOK 
no more such unlawful! and ungodly assemblies ; nor to re- ^^^' 
ceive suche persons to boUynge and drynkinge at such sea- 
sons in their houses, under peine of the kinges high dis- 
pleasure, and to be punished for so doinge. 

Item, Ye shall teache and instructe your paryshoners, at 
the least 12 tymes in the yere, the essential maner and 
forme of Christeninges in Englishe, and that the mydwife 
may use it in tyme of necessitie : commaundinge the women, 
when the tyme of birthe draweth nere, to have at aU seasons 
a vessell of cleane water for the same purpose. 

Itemj Where I am credibly informed, that certain priestes 
in my diocesse, go in habite dissimuled more liker of the 
temporaltie than of the clergie, whiche may and dothe min- 
ister occasion to suche light persons whan they come in 
places, and to persons not knowen, to be more licentious, 
bothe of their comunication and actes, to the great sclaun- 
der of the clergie : therfore from hensforthe I charge and 
oommande, that in cities, towns, and villages, and in al 
other places, they weare mete, convenient, and decent ap- 
parrell, wherby they may be knowen of the clergie ; as they 
and every one of them will avoide the penaltie of the lawes. 

Item, I desire, require, and exhorte you and every of 
you, in the name of God, that he firmely do observe and 
kepe these all and singular mine Injunctions. And that ye 
and every one of you that are priestes, having cure or not 
cure, as well benefyced, as not benefyced within my dio- 
cesse, do gette a copie of these Injunctions, to the intente ye 
maye observe, and cause to be observed the contentes of the 


Londini in cedibits TJiomcB Bertheleti regit impressoris ex^ 
cus. Anno M.D.XXXVIII* cum privilegio. 



PART Number 59. 

' Injunctions given by the by shop of ScHysburyy ihroughou^ 

his dioces. 
Injunctions made by me Nycolas Shaxton> bishop of 
Sarum, at mine ordinarie visitacion done in tharchdeaconry 
of Dorset, in the yere of our Lord Grod 1538, and in the 
SOth yere of the reign of our soveraigne lord king Henry 
the Eighth, by the grace of Grod, king of Englande and of 
France, defender of the faythe, lord of Yreland, and su- 
preme hede here in erth, next under Grod, of the church of 
England^ All which and singuler Injunctions, by thauctor- 
ite given to me of God and the kinge, I exhorte, and also 
commaunde all parsons, vicares, curates, chauntry prestes, 
and other of the clergy whatsoever they be, to observe, kepe 
and perform, as concemeth every one of them, upon pain 
of inobedience, and also of all such laws and statutes as 
may be laid against them, for breaking or violating of the 
same at any time hereafter. 

Fyrst, Whereas beneficed men, having and taking cure 
of souls at the byshop^s hands, do absent themselfs from 
their said cures without licence or counsell of the said by- 
shop, not leavinge there able curates to discharge the said 
cures: I monyshe all such peremptorily, either to be person- 
ally upon their said cures, by Myghelmas nexte cumminge, 
or els to present unto me, or my deputies, such curates, as 
upon uiyne examinacion^ shall be abled and admitted to 
serve and discharge the said cures, in thabsence of the said 
beneficed men. And that neither any French or Irish 
preest, which cannot perfitly speke the Englysh tonge, serve 
no cure in this dyocesse, after the terme before specified. 

Itenty That all such having cures, do every Sonday and 
holidaye continually, recite, and sincerely declare in the pul- 
pet, at the highe masse tyme, in the Englishe tonge, both 
the Epystle and Gospell of the same daye, (if ther be time 
therto) or elles the one of them at the leest ; and also to set 
forthe the king's regall power to be supreme heade, and 
highest power, under God, in erthe, of the churche and 
' realme of Englande: and to abolyshe the byshope of Rome^s 


usurped power. And furthermore, to declare openly and BOOK 
distinctly the Ten Commaundements, the Articles of our Be- 
leve, the Pater-Noster ; and finally, bydde the beades, ac- 
cording to the king^s ordinaunce, and none otherwyse. 

Iteniy That everie prebendary, or proprietary of any pa- 
ryshe-churche, whose annuall fruytes extendeth to 90i, 
shall make, or cause for to be made foure times in the yere, 
(that is to saye, every quarter) one sermon there. And if 
the fruites be 15/. three sermons ; if but 10/. two sermons ; 
and if it be under that, he shall make one sermon at the leest, 
over and besydes the gyving of distribucions, almes, or 
other comfortable and bodily, or charitable socour amonge 
the poore parochians there, accordinge to theire appropria- 
cions, or rate of their prebends. 

Item^ That ye suffre no man to preache, excepte he be 
especially licenced by his ordinary, or els the king^s high- 
nes auctorite: nor that ye permit any friere, or other 
wearing a religiouse habyte, to have any service in your 
churches, neither to serve chauntry, 'nor trentall, neither 
any brothered service ; and that no preeste saye two masses 
upon one daye, excepte Chrystmas daye only. 

Item^ That everie benefyced man, whose benefice is taxed 
at ten pounde, or above, have (before Whytsontide next) 
the Holie Bible; and all other preestes, beneficed or not 
beneficed, at the leest have the New Testament, both in 
Laten and in Englishe ; and that everie one of them rede 
over and studye everie daye one chapiter at the leest, by 
order as they stande in the boke unto the ende, conferringe 
the Englishe and Latyn together. And if, by occasion of a 
lawfuU let, it be undone one daye, be it supplied with two 
chapiters the nexte day, &c. So that one daye with an- 
other, he faile not to study one chapiter. 

Item^ That everie one of you procure diligentlie before 
Myghelmas nexte, to have copies of the king's Injunctions 
made in his last visitation ; and then to kepe and observe 
them effectually, upon paine therin mencioned. 

Itern^ That every one having cure of souls, parson, vicar, 
or curate, admitted, do perfitly con without boke the two 

o3 i 


*ART whole Grospells of Matheu and Johun, and the Epistles o£ 
' Paule to the Romayns, Corinthians, Galathians, and othe^^ 
as they stande, with the Actes of the Apostles, and th^^ 
canonical Pbtles, after the rate; to con every foumygfal 
one chapiter without the boke, and the same to kepe still ii 
memory; over and besides, to rede and studie even day — 
one chapiter within the boke, as is above expressed. And 
that the* 28th chapiter of Deuteronomie be openly red in 
the church every quarter, in stede of the general sentence. 

Item^ That everie curat, the first Sonday of every moneth 
in the yere, do openly (in the pulpet) exhorte and charge 
his parochians, in no wise to make any prevye or secrete 
contract of matrimony; but that they utterlie deferre it, 
until! such time as they may have two or three honest men, 
to hear and record the words and maner of their contract^ 
as they will avoide thextreme paine of the lawe, if they do 
the contrarye. 

Iteniy That none of you discorage any person from reding 
of holy scripture, but rather animate and encorage tbem 
therto ; so that it be done of them without braging or ano- 
gancy, but onelie to leme therby to live vertuously, folow- 
ing the lawes of Grod, and ^ving good examples and bol- 
some counsell to other that be ignorant. 

Item^ That not only such as have cure of soules, but also 
chauntry preestes, do hensforth theire true diligence to in- 
struct and teach children, until they can reade Englyshe ; 
taking moderatly, for ther labours, of their frendes that be 
able to paye, which shall so put them to lerning. 

Itemy That yonge people be taught theire Pater Noster, 
Crede, and Tenne Commandments in Englyshe; so that 
none of them be admitted to receive the sacrament of the 
aulter, untill he or she can, and do perfictly say and reherse 
in Englyshe unto the curate, the Pater Noster, Crede, and 
Tenne Commaundementes, distinctly, wheresoever they be 
shryven, either at their parishe-churche, or els where. And 
in case any of them be obstinate to do, as is aforesaide, let 
them be detect immediatly after Ester, unto theire ordi- 


/ilM^ Thai praadiing be not lefte off for any other maner BOOK 
of obaenraunoes in the churche, as procesaons, or exequiea 
of the deade. 

Itemj That at your prechinge time, ye diligentlie see 
that youre parochians be present, and take hede therunto; 
and that none presume to be at alehouse, tavern, or els 
where, at the preachinge-time, but onelie at the churche 
attentyfly hearing, as becometh good Christen people. And 
if any be disobedi^it, let them be first warned to amend ; 
and afterward, if they amende not, detect them to their 
ordinary e. 

Iteniy That ye suffre no night-watches in your churches 
or chapells, neither decking of }rmages with gold, silver, 
dothes, lights, or herbs ; nor the people knele to them, nor 
worship them, nor offre candles, otes, cake-breed, chese, 
wolle, or any such other thinges to them : but he shall in* 
struct and teach them, how they ought and may use them ; 
that is to say, only to beholde, or loke upon them, as one 
loketh upon a boke; wherby mens mindes be stirred and 
kenled some times to vertue and constancy, in faithe and 
love towardes God, and somtimes to lament for their sinnes 
or offences. For otherwise there might be peril of ydola- 
trie, especially of ignorant lay-people, if they either in hert 
or outward gesture worship them, or give honour to them, 
which ought onlie to be given to God, the Lorde of all 

Itenty Ye shall instruct your parochians, not to be envious 
aboute workes invented by their own folishe devocion ; as 
to go about in idle pylgrimage, and say with vain confi- 
dence this prayer and that prayer, with other supersticious 
observacions, in fastings, prayeng, and kepinge of olde 
folysh customs, which be not found commaunded or coun- 
seled in any parte of holy scripture. But ye shall instruct 
them, and exhorte them, to know and do all such thinges, 
as be commaunded or commended in the holy scripture to 
be done ; that is to say, to know and believe aU the articles 
of our faithe, conteined in the Crede, to kepe inviolably the 
Tenne Commaundementes, to perforrae the workes of mercy, 

o 4 


IRT after every mannes power and habilite, to be in love a0^ 
^^^' charite eche with other, and one to beare with an other i^ 
his weaknes or infirmite, and not to be vengeable for an 

Item^ That every curate do at all times his best dill 
gence, to reduce such as be at discord, to peace, love an< 
charite, and one to forgive an other, how often so ever thej^" 
be offended. 

Iteniy That every curate, not only in his preaching, but 
also at all other times necessary, do perswade, exhorte, and 
warn the people, whatsoever they be, to beware of swering, 
and blasphemy of the holy name of God, or any part of 
Christ's precious body or blode. And also to beware and 
abstaine from cursing or banning, chidinge, skoldinge, bak- 
biting, slaundering, lyinge ; and from adultry, fomicacion, 
glotony, dronkenship, sorcere, witchcrafte: and if they be 
notoriously fauty in any of these, then to detect them, that 
they may be corrected in example of other. 

Iteth^ That every curat instruct his parochians, and espe- 
cially the midwives, the essencial maner and forme how to 
christen a child in time of nede; commaunding the women, 
when the time of b3nrthe draweth nere, to have a vessel of 
dene water redy for the same purpose : charging also the 
said midwives, to beware that they cause not the woman, 
being in travaile, to make any folishe vowe, to go in pil- 
grimage to this ymage or that ymage, after her deliver- 
aunce, but only to call on God for helpe. Nor to use any 
girdels, purses, mesures of our Lady, or such other super- 
stitious things, to be occupied about the woman while she 
laboureth, to make her beleve to have the better spede 
by it. 

lienij That none of you do magnifie and extol, praise, 
maintaine, or otherwise set forth, the superfluous holidayes 
abrogated by the kinge, with the advise of his ecclesiastical 

And finally, Forasmoch as all Christen men ought em- 
estly to coveit and desiere their soules helthe, and the very 
meane therof is to obtein the true knowledge of God's 


wonde, which is the fedyng of the soul: I exhort, desier, BOOK 

and, asmoche as I may I require, that in every honest 

(sryshe-churche within my diocesse of Sarum, either of 

theire church-boxe, or of stockes given for mainteining of 

%htes before ymages, (with the which I dispence for this 

letter use) or els by waye of collection among themselfes, 

there be ordeined and bought an Englishe Bible before 

IVhitsondaye nexte, to be chained to a deske in the body 

of the church; where he that is letteryd may rede, and 

other unlemed may hear, holsome doctrine and comfort to 

their soules, and avoid idelnes and other inconveniences, 

"irhereunto the fraile disposicion of man is sone inclined. 

Forasmoche as intollerable supersticion, and also abho- 
minable ydolatrie, have no small tim^ ben used in this my 
diocesse, by the occasion of such thinges as be set forth and 
commended unto the ignorant people, under the name of 
holy reliques, being in veray dede vaine thinges, as I my 
self of certaine, which be alredie comen to myne handes, 
have perfite knowledge : namely, of stinking bootes, mucky 
combes, ragged rochettes, rotten girdles, pyM purses, great 
bullocks horns, lockes of heere, and filthy ragges, gobbetts 
of wodde, under the name of parcells of the holy cross, and 
such pelfrie, beyond estlmacion ; over and besides the sham- 
full abuse of such as peradventure be true reliques in dede, 
whereof nevertheles certain profe is none, but only that so 
they have bene taken, judged and estemed, ye and so called 
without monumentes had of them in any autentyke forme 
of writing. Therefore in remedy herof, I hertely praie you 
all and singular my said brethren of the clergie in my said 
diocese ; and nevertheless by thauctorite that I have under 
God and the kynges highnes, and in their names I com- 
maunde j'ou, and everyche of you, that you send al suche 
your relyques (as they be called) one and other unto me at 
myne house at Ramesbury, or other where, togyther with 
such wrytings as ye have of the same, to thintent that I 
and my counsel may explore and try them what they be, 
and those that be estemed and judged to be undoubtedly 


PAET againe with certayne instruction how they ought to be 
* used ; that is to say, as memorials of them whose reliques 

they be, in whom and by whom Almighty Grod did worke 
all that ever they vertuously wrought ; and therefore ondy 
he ought in them all to be glorifyed, lauded^ and praysed; 
so that he which rejoyceth may in the Lorde rejoyse ; to 
whom be all honour and glorye, for ever and ever. 

Itenif That the bell called the Pardon, or Ave Bell, 
whiche of longe tyme hathe been used to be toUed three 
tymes after or before divine service, be not hereafter iiii^uiy 
parte of my diocesse any more tollyd. 

I exhorte, desire, require, and also (as ferre as I maye) 
commaunde you all and every of you to provide you copies 
of these Injunctions, and firmely to observe and performe 
them, and every of them, as ferre as they conceme you, and 
that for your welthe and my discharge to Grod and the 
kynge, of whom I have min auctorite in this behalf. 


Imprinted at London in Flettstrete, at the sygne tftke 
SonnCy by John ByddeU, and are to sell at the Close Yate 
in Salisbury* 

Number 60. 

The omission in the IryunctionSj of which mention is 
made vol. iii. p. 261, has been inserted in its proper place, 
and consequently is not reprinted here. 

Number 61. 

The petition of Gresham^ lord-mayor of London^ to the 

Icings Jot the city hospitals. 

Cotton lib. Most redowted, puysant, and noble prince. My most 

cicop. E.4.dradd, beloved, and naturall soveraigne lorde, I your poore 

humble, and most obedient servaint, dailly considering, and 

ever more and more perceivyng by your vertuous begyn* 



ninge, and charitable proceedings in all your causes, your BOOK 
persone, and majestie royall, to be the elected and chosen ^^'' 
TeflKl of God, by whom not only the very and true worde of 
God is and shall be sett forth, and according to the trewgh 
and very tie of the same ; but also to be he whom Grod hath 
oynstituted and ordeyned, both to redresse and reforme all 
crimes, offences, and enormities, beyng repugnant to his 
doctrine, or to the detryment of {he common welth, and 
hurt of the poor people beyng your natural subjects ; and 
fiurther to forsee, and vigilantly to provide for the charit- 
ableofeformation of the same. Which thynk hath, and yet 
doth encourage me, and also my bounden dewUe obligeth 
me, in espedall beyng most unworthy your levetenant, and 
mayer of your cy tie royall of London, to enforme and ad- 
vertiae your most gracious highnes of one thing in especial!, 
for the ayde and comfort of the poor, syke, blynde, aged, 
and impotent persones beyng not able to help themselflB, 
nor having no place certen where theyonay be refreshed^ or 
lodged at, tyll they be holpen and cured of their diseases 
and sicknes. So it is most gracious lorde, that nere, and 
withyn the cytie of liondofi, be iii hospitalls, or spytells, 
commonly called Seynt Georges Spy tell, Seynt Barthilmewes 
Spytell, and Seynt Thomas Spytell, and the New Abbey of 
'Tower-Hill, founded of good devotion by auncient fathers, 
and endowed with great possessions and rents, only for the 
releffe, comforte, and helping of the poor, and impotent 
people, not beyng able to help themselffes, and not to the 
mayntcnance of chanons, priests, and monks, to live in plea- 
sure, nothing regarding the miserable people liyng in every 
street, offendyng every clene persone passyng by the way, 
with theyre fylthy and nasty savours. Wherefore may -it 
please your merciful goodness enclyned to py tie and compas- 
sion, for the reliffe of Christs very images, created to his own 
similitude, to order by your high authorite, as supreme head 
of this church of England, or otherwise by your sage dis- 
crecion, that your mayor of your cytie of London, and his 
brethren the aldermen for the tyme being, shall and may 
from henceforth have the order, disposicion, rule, and go- 


PART vernaunce* both of all the lands, tenements, and revenewes 
apperteynyng, and belongyn to the said hosptalls, go- 

vernours of theym, and of the ministers which be, or 
be withyn any of them : and then your grace shall facilie 
perceyve,that where now a small number of chanons, preests, 
and monkes, be founde for theyr own profitt only, and not 
for the common utilitie of the realme, a great number of 
poore, needy, syke, and indugent persones shall be refreshed, 
maynteyned, and comforted, and also healed and cured of 
their infirmities, frankly and freely by physicions, surgeons, 
and potycaries, which shall have stipende and salarie only 
for that purpose ; so that all impotent persons not able to 
labour shall be releved, and all sturdy beggars not willing to 
labour shall be punished : for the which doyng, your grace 
shall not alonely merit highly towards God, but shewe your 
selfie to be more charitable to the poor, then your noble pro- 
genitor kyng Edgar, foundour of so many monasteries. Or 
kyng Henry the Thyrde, renewer of Westmynster : or 
kyng Edwarde the Thirde, foundor of the New Abbey : or 
kyng Henry the Fifte, foundor of Syon and Shene ; but also 
shall have the name of conservator, protectour, and defend- 
our of the poor people, with their contynuall prayer for 
your health, welthe, and prosperitie long to endure. 

Your humble, and most 
obedient servant, 

Rychard Gresham. 

Number 62. 

A part of a proclamatiofiy chiefly concerning Becket. 

jotton lib. ^^^ whereas his most royall majestie, heretofore most pru- 
ritus B. I. dently considering, as well the great and manifold supersti* 
cions and abuses which have crept in the harte and stomake 
of many his true simple and unlemed subjects, for lack of 
the sincere and true application, and the declaring of the true 
meaning and understanding of holy scriptures, sacraments, 
rites, and ceremonies ; as also the sondry strifes and conten- 
tions, which have and may growe amonges many of his saide 


subjects, for lacke of the very perfect knowledge of the BOOK 
tent and meaning of the same ; hath divers times most 

commanded all and singuler his archbishops, bishops, 
lier ministers of the clergie of this his noble realme, in 
Tmons and preaching, plainly, purely, sincerely, and 
1 their possible diligence, to set forth first to the glorie 
, and trouthe of his most blessed word ; and after, the 
eaning and end of the said sacramentalls and ceremo- 
to the intent that all supersticious abuses and idola* 
eing avoided, the same sacramentalls, rites and cere- 
, might be quietly used, for such only intent and 
oration, as they were first instituted and meant. His 
e having knowledge, that this his most godly and 
'ertuouse commandment hath not ben executed ac- 
r to his trust and expectation ; therefore straitly eft- 
hargeth and commandeth all his said archbishops and 
I of this his realme, not only in their own persons, 
ore diligence to preach, teach, open and set forth, to 
Dple and loving subjects within their cures, com- 

to them by his highnes for that purpose, as often 
y conveniently maie, the word of Grod sincerely 
rely ; declaring such difference between thinges com- 
i by God, and the rites and ceremonies aforesaid, 
e use of them, in such wise, as his people, being 
heir cures by his highnes to them committed, maie be 
t to the true knowledge of their lively faith to God, 
)edience to his highnes, with their love and cha- 
o to their neighbours : but also his highnes straitly 
th and commandeth all archdeacons, deans, provosts, 
>, vicars, curates, and other ministers, and every of 
:n their own persons, within their cures, truly and dili- 
to do the same. And further, in all their said ser- 
md collations, to stirre and exhort the people to 
J, love and obedience; and also to rede and heare 
niplicite, and without any arrogancie, the very gos- 
i holie scripture, and to conforme, by earnest deeds, 
lindes and willes unto the same ; avoiding all manner 
encion, strife and occasions, upon pain not only to 


PART incurrc his majesties indignacioii, but also for dieir slack* 
nesse and negligence in the executing of their cures and 
charges committed unto them by his highnes, to be im- 
prisoned and punished at his majesty'^s pleasure. 

Item^ Forasmuch as it appeareth clearly, that Thomas 
Becket, sometime archbishope of Canterbury, stubboniely 
to withstand the holsome lawes established against the enor- 
mities of the clergy, by the king^s higfanes most noble pro- 
genitor, king Henry the Second, for the common wdth, 
rest, and tranquillity of this realme ; of his froward mind, 
fled the realme into France, and to the bishop of Rome, 
maintenour of those enormities, to procure the abrogation 
of the said lawes, whereby arose much trouble in this said 
realm. And that his death, which they vntruly called 
martirdome, happen^ upon a reskewe by him made : and 
that, as it is written, he gave opprobrious wordes to the 
gentlemen which then oounsailed him to leave his stub- 
bornes, and to avoide the commotion of the people, risen 
up for that reskewe. And he not only called the one of 
them bawde, but also toke Tracy by the bosome, and vio- 
lently shoke and plucked him in such manner, as he had 
almost overthrone him to the pavement of the church. So 
that uppon this fray, one of their company perceiving the 
same, struck him, and so in the throng Becket was slain. 
And further, that his canonization was made only by the 
bishop of Rome, because he had been a champion to nuun* 
teine his usurped authority, and a bearer of the iniquitie df 
the clergie. For these, and for other great and urgent 
causes long to recite, the king^s majestie, by the advice of 
his counsell, hath thought expedient to declare to his lov- 
ing subjects, that notwithstanding the said canonization, 
there appeareth nothing in this life and exteriour conversa- 
tion, whereby he should be called a saint, but rather 
esteemed to have been a rebel and traitor to his prince. 
Therefor his grace straightly chargeth and commandeth, 
that from henceforth the said Thomas Becket shall not be 
esteemed, named, reputed, nor called a saint; but bishop 
Becket : and that his images and pictures, through the hole 


redine, shall be put down and avoided, out of ail churches, BOOK 
chappelles, and other places. And that from henceforth, 
the days used to be festivall in his name, shall not be ob- 
served; nor the service, office, antiphones, coUettes, and 
praiers in his name redde, but rased and put out of all the 
bookes. And that all other festivall daies already abrogate, 
shall be in no wise solemnised, but his grace^s ordenance 
and injunctions thereupon, observed; to the intent his 
graoe^s loving subjects shall be no longer blindly led^ and 
abused, to committ idolatrie, as they have done in times 
passed ; upon paine of his majesties indignacion, and im- 
priaonemente at his grace^s pleasure. 

KnaUie, His majestic willeth, and chargeth all his said 
tme, loving, and obedient subjects, that they, and every of 
them for his parte, shall keepe and observe all and singuler 
the Injunctions made by his majestic, upon the pmne therein 
ooDteined) and further to be punished at his gracis pleasure. 


WestnC am. NovembriSy anno regni regis Hemici 

Octavi XXX. 

Number 63. 

An original letter of the king^Sy much to the same purpose. 

By the king, 
Teusty and welbeloved, we grete you well. And where- Cotton lib, 
as we, chiefly and principally regarding and tendring the p.*^,^.^ ^' 
quiet, rest, prosperite and tranquillite of our nobles and 
commons, and ther conservacion no less than our own, di- 
rected lately our letters unto you, and other justices of our 
peace throughout this our realme, conteining our admoni- 
tion and gentil warening, to have such speciall regard to 
the dewties of your office, according to the trust we have 
reposed in you, that not only for thimportance it is both 
unto us and our commonwelthe, ye shuld see our dignitie 
of supremacie of our church (wherwith it hath pleased Al- 
mighty God, by his most certain and undoubted word, to 


PART endowe and adorn our auctorite and crown imperiall o( this 
^^^' our realme) to be set forth, and impressed in all our sub- 
jects hcrts and mindes ; and forsee, that the mayntenors of 
the bishop of Rome'*s usurped and fayned auctorite, ^th 
all his papistical supersticions and abuses, with which he 
hath in times past abused the multitude of our subjects; of 
whose yoke, tyranny and skornfuU illusion, we have, by 
Grod'^s providance, deliver^ this our realm, and other his 
satellyts, which secretly did uphold his faction, shuld be by 
you diligently serched, enquired and tried out, and so 
brought to our justice, to receive condign punishment, 
according to their demerits ; but also that tale-tellers about 
the cuntries, and spreders of rumors, and false inventors of 
news, to put our people in fears, and to styrre them to sedi- 
cion, should be apprehended and punished, to the terrible 
example of others. Also, that vagabonds, and valyant 
beggers, shall be avoided, and have worthy correction : and 
for the same purpos, to keep watches, and to see commun 
justice with indifFerencie, and without corruption, to be 
observed and ministred unto all our subjects; like as by 
the purport and contents of our said letters ye may more 
amply perceive. We have been credibly informed, that 
sundrie'of you have for a time so well done your dewties, 
and endevored your selfs fulfilling our said admonicions, 
and causing the evil-doers to be punished according to ther 
demerits, that our loving subjects have not been disquieted 
of a long season, untill now of late, that some ungracious, 
cankred, and maliciouse persons, have taken boldnes tat- 
tempt with sundry divelish persuasions, to move and seduce 
our true subjects; using false lyes, and most untrewe 
rumors. And amongst them, we understand, sundry par- 
tons, vicars and curates of this our realme, to be cheef ; 
which (to bring our people to darkness) of their own per- 
verse minde, not only to blind e our commons, do rede so 
confusely, hemmyng and hacking the word of God, and 
such our Injunctions as we have lately set forth, that almost 
no man can understande the trewe meanyng of the scud In- 
junctions, and also secretly have suborned certain spreders 


if rumoin and false tales in oomen, which do inteqsretat BOOK 
lod Mrrast our trewe meanyng and intencion of our said ' 

bjunctions, to an untrewe sense: for wheras we hove 
ordajned by our said Injunctions, for the av^ding of sun- 
irj strives, processis and contentions, rising upon aege, 
ijneall descents, title of inheritance, legitimation, or bas- 
tardy, and for knowledge whether any person is our sub- 
ject bom or no: also for sundry other causes, that the 
lames of all children christenM from henceforth, with their 
jirth, their fathers and mothers names; and likewise all 
narryages and burials, with the time and date therof, should 
ye rc^tred from tyme to tyme in a booke, in every parish'- 
^urch, safely and surely to be kept. They have brutid 
md blowen abrode, most falsely and untreuly, that we do 
ntend to make sum new examinations, at all christnyngs, 
reddings and buryalls; the which in no wise we never 
neanyd, or thought upon. Alledging, for to fortefy and 
»lour their false and manyfest lyes, that therrin we go 
ibout to take away the liberties of our realm ; for conservar- 
joo whereof, they fayne, that bishop Becket of Canterbury, 
vhich they have . tofore called Saint Thomas, dyed for : 
Inhere in deede ther was never such thyng don nor ment in 
;hat tyme, nor since: for the said Becket never swarved 
lor contended with our progenitor, king Henry the Second ; 
3Ut only to let, that those of the clergie shuld not be 
3unished for their offences, nor justefied by the courts and 
awes of this realm ; but only at the bishop'*s pleasure, and 
ifter the decrees of Rome. And the causes why he dyed 
were upon a wyllfull reskew and fraye, by him made and 
begon at Canterbury; which was nevertheles afterward 
illedged to be for such liberties of the church, which he 
contended for, during his life, with the archbishop of 
Yorke ; yea, and in case he should be absent, or furtive 
out of the realme, the king shuld not be crowned by any 
other, but constrayned tabyde his retorne. These, and 
such other detestable and unlawful! liberties, nothing con* 
cerning the commun welc, but only the partie of the cler^e, 
the said Thomas Becket most arrogantly desired, and tray- 
VOL. III. p. 3. p 


PART torously sewed, to have contrary to the lawes of this our 
^^^' realme. To the whidi most false interpretations, and 
wrasting of our trewe meanyng, they have joyned sud 
myschevouse lyes, and false tales, for marking of catalls, 
and others lyke sedyciouse devises, whereupon our people 
were lately styrred to sedicion and insurrection, to their 
utter niyne and destruction, onles Allmighty God, who by 
his divine providence gave unto us habundance of force, 
(as he allwayes doth unto lightfuU prynces) had so with 
demencie illumyned us, that whereas we, with the edge cf 
the sword, and by our lawes might have overthrowen and 
destroyed them, thdr wives, children, and posterite for 
ever ; we nevertheles, as ye can right well remember, ex- 
tended upon them at that time our benygn and meicifull 
pardon. Those miserable, and papisdcal, superstitiouse 
wretches, nothing regarding the same, nor caryng what 
daunger and myscheef our people shuld incurre, have both 
raysed the said old rumors, and forged newe sediciouse 
tales, intending (as much as in them lyeth) a new'e commo- 
don, and all to satisfye their cankered hertsr Wherfore^ 
and for the immjment daunger to you, and to all our good 
subjects, and trouble that might enfews, onles good and 
emest provision to repress them be taken thereupon: we 
desire and pray you, and nevertheless straitly charge and 
command you, that within the precynct and lymy t of your 
charge, ye shall not only endevour your selfs, and imploy 
your most diligence, to inquire and fynde out such cankerM 
parsons, vicars and curats, which do not truely and sub- 
stantially declare our said Injunctions, and the very word 
of God, but momble confusely, saying that they be com^ 
pelled to rede them, and byd their parishioners neverthdes 
to do as they did in tymes past, to live as their fathers, and 
that the old fashion is the best, and other carftie sedidouse 
parables ; but also with your most effectual vigillande do 
inserche and try out such sediciouse tale-tellers, and spredars 
abroade of such bruts, tydings, and rumours, touching us 
in honour, or suretie, the state of our realm, or any muta- 
tion of the lawes, or customes thereof, or any other thing 


irhich might cause any sedition, and the same with their BOOK 
lettersforth, mayntenors, counsajlers, fautors, and adherers *^'' 
prith all diligence to apprehend and commytte to ward, or 
prison, without bayl or mynprise till evidence to be ^ven 
igainst them, at the arrival of our justice in that country, 
or otherwise upon your advertisement to us, or to our coun- 
Bell, to be ^ven, to our further pleasure known, they may 
be pumshed for their sediciouse demerits according to the 
lawe, to the fearful example of all others : imploying and 
indevoring your self therunto, so emestly, and with such 
iexteritie as we may have cause to think that ye be the 
men which above all thing desire the punishment of evil 
ioers and offenders, and that will let for no travail to set 
?otih all things for the common peas, quiet, and tranquility 
of this our realme : and like as the daunger is immynent 
do les to your self and your neighbours then to other, so ye 
sf your own mind shuld procure and see with oeleritie our 
injunctions, laws and proclamations, as well touching the 
iacramentaries and anabaptists, as others, to be set forth to 
the good instruction, and conservation of our people, and 
to the confusion of those which would so craftely undermind 
)ur common wealth, and at the last destroy both you, and 
ill other our loving subjects, although we should give unto 
^ou no such admonishion : therefore fayle ye not to follow 
lie effect, admonishion and commandment both in our said 
etters, and in these presents, and to communicate the whole 
ainour of these, to and with such justices of our peas, your 
leighbours, and other in that district, and to give unto 
hem the trew copie therof, exhorting them likeas by these 
we desire and pray, and nevertheles straitly charge and 
x>mmand you, and every of you, that you will shew' your 
iiligence, towardnes, and good inclination to see every thing 
!br his parte, put in execution accordingly, as ye and they 
lender our pleasure, and will deserve our condigne thanks, 
{iven under our signet at our manner of Hampton-Court, 
the day of December, in the 30th year of our reign. 



ART Number 64. 

. T^ design Jbr the endowmmt ^ ChriiUChurtA in 

Canterbury. I* s» d, 

kton lib. First a provoet 100 

^i. Item, 12 prebendaryes, each of them at 4W. ) ^^o^ n 
by the year i 

Itenij 6 preachers, every of them 90Z. a year 190 

Item, a reader of humanitie in Greke, by the \ ^^ ^ a 
year J 

Item, a reader in divinitie in Hebrew, by the \ Qr\ a n 
year J 

Item, a reader both in divinitie and humani- ) ^^ ^ a 
tie, in Latin, by the year t j 

Item, a reader of civil 90 

Item, a reader of physike 90 

Item, 90 students in divinitie, to be found 1 

10 at Oxford, and 10 at Cambridge, every 1-900 
of them lOZ, by the year ^ 

Item, 40 scolers to be tought both grammar "l 

and logik in Hebrew, Grek, and Laten, >'900 marks 
every of them 6 markes by the year J 

Item, a schole-master 902. and an husher 102. 
by the year 

Item, 8 pety-canons to sing in the quer, every ) ^ ^ /v 
of them 10/. by the year | ^ " " 

Item, 19 layemen to sing also, and searve in-| 

the quer, every of them K. 18*. 4d. by v 80 
the year ) 

Item, 10 choristers, every of them 6 marks ) 
by the year j 

Item, a master of the children 

Item, a gospeler 

Item, a episler 

Item, 9 sacristens 

Item, 1 chief butler, his wages and diett 

Item, 1 under butler, his wages and diett 

Itemy a cater to buye their diett, for his wages, ) 
diett, and making of his books J 

} 30 

38 6 8 

















6 13 4 


Z. s. d. BOOK 
lieiUj 1 chief cook, his wages and diett 4 IS 4 * 

Itemj 1 under cook, his wages and diett 3 6 8 

Item^ 9, porters 10 

Item^ 1 9, poor men being old, and serving men, ^ 

decayed by the warres, or in the king^s serv- f 80 

ing, every of them at 6Z. 13*. 4d. by the year J 
liemy to be distributed yearly in alms 130 

Itemy for yearly reparations 100 

Itemj 6 be employed yearly, for making and "l 

mending of high wayes j 

Iteniy a stuard of the lands 6 13 4 

liem^ an auditor 10 

Itenij for the provost's expences, and receyv- 

ing the rents, and surveying the lands, by ^ 6 13 4 

the year 

Number 65. 

A letter of Thomas lord archbishop of Canterburyj to Crom- 
weUj upon the newjbundation at Canterbury. 

An oriffinal. 
My very singular good lord, after my most hartie com- Cotton lib. 
mendations, these shall be to advertise your lordshippe, that 
I have received your letters, dated the 27th day of No- 
vember : and therewith a bill concerning the divise for the 
new establishment to be made in the metropolitan church 
of Canterbury; by which your lordshippe requireth my 
advice thereupon by writing, for our mutual consents. 
Surely my lord, as touching the books drawn, and the 
order of the same, I think that it will be a very substantial 
and godly foundation; nevertheless, in my opinion, the 
prebendaries, which will be allowed 40?. a peece yearly, 
might be altrcd to a more expedient use : and this is my 
consideration, for having experience, both in tymes past, 
and also in our daics, how the said secte of prebandaries 
have not only spent their time in much idleness, and their 



PART substaince in superfluous belly chere, I think it not to be a 
"^' convenient state, or d^ree, to be munteyned and estaUish- 
ed: considering firste, that commonly aprebendarieisnather 
a learner, nor teacher, but a good viander. Then by the 
same name they look to be chief, and to here all the hole rule 
and preheminence, in the college where they be rettdent: 
by means whereof, the younger of thdr own nature, given 
more to pleasure, good chere, and pastime, then to abs^ 
anoe, studye, and leming, shall easily be brought from their 
books to follow the appetite and example of the said pre- 
bandaries being their hedds and rulers. And the state of 
prebandaries hath been so excesavely abused, that when 
learned men hath been admitted unto such room, many 
times they have desisted from their good and godlie studies, 
and all other vertuous exerdse of preaching and teaching: 
wherefore if it may so stand with the king'^s gracious {Mea- 
sure, I would wish that not only the name of a prebendarie 
were exiled his graces foundations, but also the superfluous 
conditiones of such persons. I cannot deny but that the 
beginning of prebendaries was no lesse purposed for the 
maintenance of good learning and good conversation of 
living, than reli^ous men were: but for as much as both 
he gone from their first estate and order, and the one is 
found like ofiendour with the other, it maketh no great 
matter if they perish both together : for to say the truth, it 
is an estate which St. Paule, reckoning up the degrees and 
estates alowed in his time, could not find in the church of 
Christ. And I assure you, my lord, that it will better stand 
with the maintenance of Christian religion, that in the stede 
of the said prebendaries, were 20 divines at lOZ. a peeoe, 
like as it is appointed to be at Oxford and Cambridge ; and 
20 students in the tongues and French, to have 10 marks 
a peece; for if such a number be not there resident, to 
what intent should so many reders be there. And surely 
it were great petie that so many good lectures should be 
there redde in vain : for as for your prebandaries, they can- 
not attend to applie lectures for making of good chere. 


And as for your 20 children in grammar, their master and BOOK 
their hussher be daily otherwise occupied in the rudiments 
o( g^rammer, then that they have space and time to hear 
the lectures. So that to these good lectures is prepared no 
oonvenient auditorie. And therefore, my lord, I pray you 
let it be considered what a great losse it will be, to have so 
many good lectures redde without profitte to any, saving to 
the 6 preachers ; farther, as concerning the reader of di- 
nnitie and humanitie, it will not agree well, that one man 
should be reader of both lectures. For he that studieth in 
divinitie must leave the reading of profane authors, and 
shall have as much to doe as he can to prepare his lecture 
to be substantially redde. And in like manner he that 
redeth in humanitie, hath not need to alter his studie, if he 
should make an erudite lecture. And therefore, in mine 
ojnnion, it would be office for ii sundry learned men. Now 
Donoeming the dean, and others, to be elected into the col- 
lege, I shall make a bill of all them that I can here of in 
Cambridge, Oxford, or elsewhere, mete to be put into the 
Baid college, after my judgment : and then of the hole num- 
ber, the king^s highness may choose the most excellente, 
assuring you, my lord, that I know no man more mete for 
the dean's room in England, then doctor Crome, who by 
his sincere learning, godly conversation, and good example 
of living, with his great soberness, hath done unto the king's 
majestic as good service, I dare say, as any priest in Eng- 
land. And yet his grace daily remembreth all others that 
doth him service, this man only except, who never had yet, 
besides his gracious favour, any promotion at his highness 
hands. Wherefore if it will please his majestic to put him 
in the dean's room, I do not doubt but that he should shew 
light to all the deans, and ministers of colleges in this realm. 
For I know that when he was but president of a college in 
Cambridge, his house was better ordered than all the houses 
in Cambridge besides. And thus my lord you have my 
finale advice concerning the premisses, which I referr unto 
the kinges graces judgment, to be allowed or disallowed at 

p 4 



PART his highness pleasure. Sending unto your lordshipp herer^— 
* withall the Irill again, according to your request. Thus^ 
my lord, most hartely fare you well. 
At Croyden, the xxixth 
day of November. 

Your own ever assured 

T. Cantuarien'. 

Number 66. 

A part of a letter concerning the debates of the sue artides 

in the house of lords. 

ittoDiib. And also newes here; I assure you^ never prince shewM 
•^' ^' 5* himself so wise a man, so well lemed and so catholick, as 
the kinge hath done in this parlyment. With my penne 
I cannot expresse his marvelous goodnes ; which is come to 
such efiectc, that we shall have an acte of parliament, 
so spiritual], that I think none shall dare saye, in the 
blessed sacrament of the aulter, doth remayne eyther bred 
or wyne after the consecration ; nor that a prist may have 
a wife ; nor that it is necessarie to receive our Maker sub 
ntraque specie ; nor that private masses should not be used as 
they have be ; nor that it is not nece$3arie to have auriculer 
confession. And notwithstanding my lord of Canterbury^ 
my lord of Ely, my lord of Salisburie, my lord of Wor- 
cester, Rocester, and Saint Davyds defended the contrary 
longe tyme, yet finally his highnes confounded them all 
with Goddes leming. Yorke, Duram, Winchester, Lon- 
don, Chichester, Norwiche, and Carlile, have shewed them- 
selfs honest and well learned men. We of the temporaltie 
have been all of one opynyon, and my lord chancellor and 
my lord privye scale, as good as we can devise. My lord 
of Cant' and all theis bishopes have pven ther opinion, and 
came into us, save Salisburie, who yet contynueth a lewed 
fole. Fynally, all England have cause to thank God, and 
most hertelie to rejoyse of the king^^s most godlie proceed- 


Number 67. ®U?* 

-4 letter of the visitors sent to examine the abbot of GlaS' ' 


Please hy t your lordship to be advolised, that we came Ex MSS. 
to Glastenbury on Fryday last past, about tenn of the^'''^'*'*^* 
clock in the forenoone : and for that the abbot was then at 
Sharpham, a place of hys, a myle and somewhat more firom 
tbabbey, we, without any delay, went unto the same place ; 
and there, after certain communication, declaring unto him 
theffect of our coming, examined him upon certain articles. 
And for that his answer was not then to our purpose, we 
idvised him to call to his remembrance that which he had 
IS then forgotten, and so declare the truth. And then 
ame with him the same day to the abbey ; and there of 
lew proceeded that night to search his study for lett^^ and 
xx>ks : and found in his study secretly laid, aswell a written 
xx)k of arguments, against the divorce of his king'^s majestic, 
ind the lady dowager : which we take to be a great matter. 
\s also divers pardons, copies of bulls, and the counterfit 
yfe of Thomas Bequet in print. But we could not find 
my letter that was materiall. And so we proceeded again 
o his examination, concerning the articles we received from 
^our lordship, in the answers whereof, as we take it, shall 
ippear his cankerM and traiterous heart and mind against 
he king'^s majestic and his succession ; as by the same an- 
swers, syned with his hand, and sent to your lordship by 
:his bearer, more plainly shall appear. And so, with as 
Pair words as we could, we have conveyed him from hence 
nto the Tower, being but a very weak man, and sickly. And 
IS yet we have neither discharged servant nor monk; but 
low the abbot being gone, we will, with as much celerity as 
we may, proceed to the dispatching of them. We have in 
money, 300/. and above ; but the certainty of plate, and 
Dther stufFc there, as yet wc know not, for we have not had 
3pportunity for the same, but shortly we intend (God will- 
ing) to proceed to the same; whereof we shall ascertain 
vour lordship, so shortly as we may. This is also to ad- 



PART vertise your lordship, that we have found a fair chalke of 
gold^ and divers other parcels of plate, which the abbot had 
hid secretly from all such commisnoners^ as have Inne there 
in times past ; and as yet he knoweth not that we have 
found the same : whereby we think, that he tlioug^t to 
make his hand, by his untruth to his king*s majesty. It 
may please your lordship, to advertise us of the king's plea- 
sure, by this bearer, to whom we shall deliver the cuikoij 
and keeping of the house, with such stuff as we intoid to 
leave there, convenient to the king^s use. We assure your 
lordship, it is the goodliest house of that sort that ever we 
have seen. We wold that your lordship did know it, as we 
do ; then we doubt not, but your lordship would judge it a 
house mete for the king's majesty, and for no man dse: 
which is to our great comfort; and we trust verily, that there 
shall never come any double hood within that house agaiii. 
Also this is to advertise your lordship, that there is nevor a 
one doctor within that house ; but there be three batchelors 
of divinity, which be but meanly learned, as we can per- 
ceive. And thus our Lord preserve your good lordship. 
From Glastenbury, the 22d 
day of September. 

Yours to command, 

Richard Pollard. 
Thomas Moyle. 
Richard Layton. 
To the ryght honorable, and their 
syngular good lord, my lord 
pryvye seal, thys be dd. 

This agrees with the original, 
in the possession of 

Thom. Tanner. 

Number 68. 

CromwdPs Utter to the Jcingy when he was committed to the 

^^"b ''' Most gracyous king, and most mercyfull soverayng, your 


most humble, most obbeysand, and most bounden subject, BOOK 
and most lamentable servant and prysoner, prostrate at the ........... 

feet of your most excellent majestye, have herd your plea* . 
sure by the mouth of your comptroller ; which was, that 
I should wry tte to your most excellent highnes suche things 
as 1 thought mete tobe wryttyn, consideryng my most my- 
lerable state and condicyon. For the which your most ha- 
boundant goodnes, benignite and lycens, the immortall 
God, three and one, rewarde your majestye. And now, 
most gracyous prynce, to the matter. Fyrst, Wher I have 
been accused to your majestye of treason, to that I saye, I 
never in all my lyfe thought willinglye to do that thing that 
might or should displease your majestye, and much less to 
doe or saye that thing, which of it self is so highe and abo- 
minable offence, as God knoweth, who, I doubt not, shall 
reveale the trewthe to your highnes. Myne accusers your 
grace knoweth : God for^ve them. For as I ever have had 
love to your honour'^s person, lyfe, prosperite, health, 
wealth, joye and comfort, and also your most dear and most 
en^erly beloved son, the prynce his grace, and your pro- 
ceedings. God so helpe me in this myne adversyte, and 
confound me, yf ever I thought the contrarye. What la- 
bours, paynes, and travmles I have taken, according to my 
most bounden deutie, God also knoweth. For if it were in 
my power, as it is God'^s, to make your majestye to live ever 
yong and prosperous, God knoweth, I would, yf it had been, 
or were in my power, to make you so riche as ye myght en- 
riche all men, God helpe me, as I would do it yf it had been, 
or were in my power, to make your majesty so puissidnt, as 
all the worlde should be compellyd to obbey you, Christ he 
knowyth I woulde ; for so am I of all other most bounde ; 
for your majesty hath been the most bountiful prince to me, 
that ever was king to his subjects : ye, and more like a dear 
father, your majesty not offended, then a master. Such 
bathe been your most grave and godly councyles towards me 
at sundrye tymes : in that I have offended I ask your mercy. 
Should I now for suche exceeding goodnes, benignite, liber- 
alite and bountye, be your traytor, nay then the greatest 


ART paynes were too lityll for me. Should any faction, or any 
affection to any poynt, make me a trayter to your majestye, 
then all the devylls in hell confounde me, and th^ venge- 
ance of Gtxl light appon me, yf I should ons have thought 
it. Most gracyous, soverayng lord, to my remembrance, I 
never spake with the chancellor of the augmentations and 
Throgmorton together, at one tyme. But yf I did, I am 
sure, I spake never of any such matyer; and your grace 
knoweth, what maner of man Throgmorton hath ever been 
towards your grace proceedings : and what master cbann- 
celer hath been towards me, God and he best knoweth. I 
will ne can accuse hym. What I have been towards hym, 
your majesty e right well knoweth. I would to Christ I 
hadd obeyed your often most gracious, grave oounsayles and 
advertisments, then it had not been with me as now it is : 
yet our Lorde, if it be his will, can do with me, as he did 
with Susan, who was falsly accused. Unto the which Grod, 
I have onlye commytted my soule, and bodye and goods at 
your majesties pleasure, in whose mercye and pyete I do 
hollye repose me : for other hope than in God and your ma- 
jestye, I have not. Syr,* as to your common welth, I have, 
after my wytt, power and knowledge, travayled therin, hav- 
ing had no respect to persons, (your majestic onlye except, 
and my duty to the same) but that I have done any injustice 
or wrong willfully, I trust God shall be my witness, and the 
world not able justly e to accuse me : and yet I have not 
done my duty in all things, as I was bounde. Wherefore 
I aske mercy. That I have herde of any combinations, 
conventicles, or such as were offenders of your laws, I have 
(though not as I should have done) for the most parte re- 
vealed them, and also caused them to be punished ; not of 
malise, as God shall judge me. Nevertheless, sir, I have 
medelled in so many matiers under your highnes, that I am 
not able to answer them all. But one thing I am well as- 
sured of, that wittingly and willingly, I have not had will to 
offend your highnes. But harde it is for me, or any other 
medling as I have done, to live under your grace, and your 
lawes, but we must dailye offende : and wher I have offend- 


ed, I mort humUy a»ke mercy and pardone at your giidow BOOK 
wiU and pleasure. Amanigt other things moat gracioua ao^ ™^ 
Teraigne, master oomptroler shewed me, that your grace 
shewed hym that within these 14 days ye committed a mat- 
ter of great secrecye, wUch I did reveal contrary to your 
eacpectacyon : sjrr, I do remember well the matter, miikh I 
nerer revelid to any creature : but this I did, rir, after your 
grace bade opened the matter,fyrst to inein your chamber, 
and declared your lamentable fatc^ declaring die things widi 
your hig^mesmyslyked in the queen; at which time I shewed 
your grace that she often denred to speak with me, but I 
durst' not ; and ye said why should I not, alleging that I 
might do much good in goeing to her, and to be plain with 
her in dedaiing my mind : I theruppon taking opertunyte, 
not bring little grejrved, spake prevdy with her lord duon- 
berlayn, for which I aske your grace mercie, desiryng him, 
not naming your grace to him, to finde some means that the 
queen might be indudd to order your grace plesantlie in her 
bdiaveour towards you, thinking therbie for to have hade 
some £Eiult8 amended to your majesties comfort ; and after 
that by general words, the said lord duunberlain, and other 
of the queens oounsayle being with me in my chamber at 
Westminster, for lycens for the departure of the strange 
maydens, I then required them to counsayle thair mistresse 
to use all plesauntnes to your highnes : the whidi things un- 
doutedly were bothe spoken before your majesty commited 
the secret matter unto me, onlie of purpose that she might 
have been induced to such pleasant and honorable fassyons, 
as might have been to your graces comfort, which above all 
things, as God knoweth, I did most oovit and desire : but 
that I opened my mouth to any creature after your majestic 
committed the secresie thereof to me, other than onlye to 
my lord admyrall, which I did by your graces command- 
ment, which was uppon Sunday last in the morning, whom 
I then founde as willing and glad to seek remedye ffor your 
comfort and resolution, and saw by him that he did as much 
lament your highnes fate as ever did man, and was wonder- 
fullye grieved to see your highnes so troubled, wishing 


PART greatly your comfort, for the attaining whereof, he said your 
honour salvyd, he would spend the best blood in his bodjj 
and if I would not do the like, ye, and willingly die, for 
your comfort, I would I were in hell, and I would I should 
receyve a thousand deths. Sir, this is all that I have done 
in that matter, and if I have offended your majestie therm, 
prostrate at your majesty^s feet, I most lowlye aske mercy 
and pardon of your highnes. Sir, ther was also laide unto 
my charge at mine examinacion, that I had retained con- 
trarye to your lawes ; and what exposydon may be made 
uppon retaynours, I know not, but this will I saye, if ever 
I retayned any man, but such onlye as were my howshold 
servants, but against my will, God confound me. Most 
gracious soveraign I have been so called on and sewyd to 
by them that said they were my fri^ids, that constrained 
therunto I retayned thayr chyldren and friends, not as re- 
tayners, for their fathers and parents did promise me to 
finde them, and so toke I them, not as retayners, to my 
great charge, and for none evil, as Grod best knoweth, in- 
terpret to the contery who will. Most humbley beseeching 
your majestie of pardon, if I have offended therin ; and I 
do knowledge my self to have been a most miserable and 
wretched siner ; and that I have not towards Gkxl and your 
highnes behaved my self as I ought and should have done ; 
for the which mine offence to Grod, whiles I live I shall con- 
tynually call for his mercy, and for mine offences to your 
grace, which Grod knoweth wer never malicious, nor will- 
full : and that I never thought treson to your highnes, your 
realme, or posterite : so God helpe me, either in word, or 
dede ; nevertheles, prostrate at your majesty^s feet in what 
thing soever I have offended ; I appell to your highnes for 
mercy, grace, pardon, in such wise as shall be your plea- 
sure ; beseeching the AUmightie Maker, and Redeemer of 
this world, to send your majesty continual! and long helth, 
welthe, and prosperitie, with Nestor'^s yeres to reigne, and 
your most dear son, the princes grace, to prosper alwayes, 
and contenew after you : and they that would contrarye, 
short life, shame, and confusion : writin with the quaking 


band, and most stnrowfiill harte, of your most sorrowful BOOK 

subject, and most humble servant, and prisoner, this Satyrday 

at the Tour of London. 

Thomas Crumwell. 

Number 69. 
Questions concerning the sacraments. 

The first question. 
What a sacrament is by the scripture ? 

The second question. 
What a sacrament is by the antient authors? 

The third question. 
How many sacraments there be by the scriptures ? 

The fourth question. 
How many sacraments there be by the antient auth^s? 

The fifth question. 
Whether this word sacrament be^ and ought to be, attri- 
buted to the seven only ? And whether the seven sacra- 
ments be found in any of the old authors ? 

The sixth question. 
Whether the determinate number of seven sacraments be a 
doctrine, either of the scripture, or of the old authors, and 
so to be taught ? 

The seventh question. 
What is found in scripture of the matter, nature, effect, 
and vertue of such as we call the seven sacraments ; so 
as although the name be not there, yet whether the thing 
be in scripture or no, and in what wise spoken of? 

The eighth question. 
Whether confirmation, cum chrismatCj of them that be 
baptized, be found in scripture ? 

The ninth question. 
Whether the apostles lacking a higher power, as in not 
having a Christian king among them, made bishops by 
that necessity, or by authority given by God ? 

The tenth question. 
Whether bishops or priests were first ? And if the priests 
were first, than the priest made the bishop. 


PART The eleventh questioo. 

*^ Whether a bishop hath authority to make a priest by the 
scripture, or no ? And whether any other, but only abi* 
shop, may make a priest ? 

The twelfth question. 
Whether in the New Testament be required any consecra- 
tion of a bishop and priest, or only appointing to the office 
be sufficient ? 

The thirteenth question. 
Whether (if it fortuned a Christian prince learned, to con- 
quer certain dominions of infidels, having none but teo^* 
pond learned men with him) if it be defended by Go^i*^ 
law, that he, and they, should preach and teach the w(^ 
of God there, or no? And also make and constitute 
priests, or no ? 

The fourteenth question. 
Whether it be forefended by Grod's law, that ^ it so fc^* 
tune that all the bishops and priests of a region we^ 
dead, and that the word of Grod should remain there ui^" 
preached, and the sacrament of baptism, and others um^ 
ministred,) that the king of that region should noake In^^ 
shops and priests to supply the same, or no ? 

The fifteenth question. 
Whether a man be bound by authority of this scripture, 
(Quonrni remiseritis) and such like, to confess his secret 
deadly sins to a priest, if he may have him, or no ? 

The sixteenth question. 
Whether a bishop or a priest may excommunicate, and for 
what crimes ? And whether they only may excommuni- 
cate by God^s law ? 

The seventeenth question. 
Whether uncUon of the sick with oil, to remit venial sins, 
as it is now used, be spoken of in the scripture, or in any 
antient authors P 


Number 70. *?l^/^ 

I answer to thejbrmer queries ; with some remarks on co^^n^ 
Aemy in the Icing's hand written on the margin : together ^^^?< ^ 5* 
with some persons names ; but these are not written by 
the king. 

1. ScRiPTU&E useth the worde ; but it defin- Why then should we 

I '^ ^ call them 10? 

1 It DOt. 

2. In them is founde no proper definition, but 
j;eneral declaration of the worde, as a token of 

holly thinge. ^ 

3. So named only matrimony ; in effects moo ; 
1 at the lest 7, as we finde in the scripture ex- 

k Auctors use the word sacrament^ to sig- Why these aerenio have 

ie any mysterye in the Old and New Testa- J^^ °'^*' "*"* *'*~ ^ 

nt; but spiritually denote baptisme, eucka- 

\,f matrimonie, chrisme, impositio manuumy 


5. The worde, bycause it is general, is attri-Arch-bp. Cants. David's. 

te to other thenne the seven ; but whether it ^bS so^'^roBg 'Sl^ 

ght specially to be applied to the one only, take upon them so to name 

td knoweth, and hath not fully revealed it soe 

it hath been received. 

3. The thing of al is found, but not named al 

raments, as afore. 

7. The doctrine of scripture is to teach the 

nge, without numbring or namyng the name 

ramenty saving only the matrimony. 

Did auctors number not precisely. Arch-bp. Cant. 

3. Scripture speaketh, eJ^".rwT.»e':». 

(1.) Of baptisme manifestly. solution of pennance. I 

/n \ r\i* ^1 I- 1 T 4.1 J^cad that without it we 

(2.) Of the holy communion manifestly. ^^^^^^ ^c saved after re- 
(3.) Of matrimony manifestly. Jftp«e, but not so of ab«>- 

; ^ 1 1 • " •/• 1 lution: and pcnnauce to 

(4.) Of absolution manifestly. sinnersis commanded, but 

(5.) Of bishops, priests and deacons, ordred r*'^)"^^ ^^^l,^^^ 
*• imposittonem inanuum. cum oratione, ex- 


VOL. III. p. 3. Q 


Layliig on of hands 6. Laying of the hands of the tnahop attet 

being tn old ceremony, is . . !_• i • _a r -..l ^ • j 

Sta small proof of con- baptisme, which IS a parte of that is done in con- 

finnation. firmation, is grounded in scripture. 

Arcb.Caut. s.David's.Cox. 7. Unction of the sick, with prayer, is grounded 

Then shew where. J^ scripture. 

Arch. bp.Cant.s David's. The thing of confirmation is found in scrip- 
'fheanswer is not direct, ^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ confirmation IS not there. 

and yet it proveth nitlier ' ^ ^ *^ 

of the two parts to be Of chrisma scripture speaketh not expressly; 
grounded in scripture. ^^^ j^ j^^^j^ j^^ ^^ j^ j^j^j^ veneration, and ob- 
served synnes the beginning. 
ynten is this distinc- 9. The calling, naming, appointment, and 

S.°'ti!i?'rrp:.'S:.~^dP~fe>™e°t of one before an other, to be KAop 
occupate the one part, or priest, had a necessite to be don in that sort, 
bl!kieth to princes tow a prince wanting. The ordering appereth tai^t 
can you prore that order- by ^hg Holy Gost in the Scripture, per manuum 

lug 18 only committed to ... "^ * "* 

yoa bishops ? tmpostttonem cum orahone, 

^SiKcant. 10. Bishops, or not after. 

S. David's, Cox. 11. Scripture warranteth a bishop (obeying 

B. Darid's. ^^S^ powers as his prince Christianed) to cffdtf 

a priest, per manuum impoaitionem cum orc^ 
tione : and so it hath been from the b^inning. 
IS. Of pther, scriptures speaketh not. 
Manuum impositio cum oraHone is required, 
which is a consecration ; so as only appcnnting is 
not sufficient 

13. It is to be thought, that Grod in such care 
assisting the perfection of such an enterprize^ 
would further teach and inspire the conscience of 
such a prince, what he should and might doe, 
more then is yet openly taught by the scripture : 
which, in that case, were a good warrent to folow. 
For a secret vocation supplieth, where an open 

14. Sinnes the beginning of Christes churche, 
wherin Christ himself made distinction of min- 
isters, the order hath had a derivation from one 
to another, per numuum impositionem cum ora* 
tione. How it should begin again of an other 


face, where it faileth by a case, scripture telleth BOOK 

not ; no doctor writte of it, that I have rede. ^^' 

16. Bound ordinarely. Arch. Cant. 

16. They may, being before of their prince Ardi. Cant 
auctorised to minister for open, publike, dedly 


Of excommunication by others, we rede not in 
the New Testament. 

17. The thing is in scripture, and in auncient Arch.Caut. 
authors, according wherunto the use should be : * •*^*^ •• 
how it is in dede used, is a matter of fact, and 

not of leniyng. 

Agunst the 15th article, these names are set 


Yorke. Curwen. Edgworth. 

Duresme. Simon. Day. 

Carlisle. Oglethorp. Redman. 

Windiester. RoUnson* 

And a little below. 

Canterbury. Laton. % 

Hereford. Tresham. 

Rochester. Cox. 

Westminster. Crayford. 
S. David's. 
But these lists are not in the king's hand. 

Number 71. 
Answers to these queries. 

1. Scripture sheweth not what it is : but useth the Cotton lib. 
worde sctcrament in Latyn for the worde mtstermm in ****** ** 

2. Sacrament^ by the authours is called, sacri rei sifffiumy 
or visibile signaculum^ sacrosanctum signacutufn^ visibile 
verbunij visibilis forma inviAVilxs grati(B ; and perfytt 
diffinition we fynde noone. 



S. In scripture, we fynde no determynate number of mi 

4. There be very many in the most general ngnificatxm; 
and there is no precise, or determinate number of sacn- 
ments in the ancyent authours. 

5. Not only to the seven ; but to many more. We fynde 
in the olde auctours, matrymony, the holly communyoD, 
baptisme, confirmation, ordre, pennance, and extran unc- 
tion. In pennance, it is doubted of the name of sacramenL 

6. As touching the determinate numbre of seven only, we 
fynd neyther in the scripture, nor auncient auctours, any 
such doctrine that ther shulde be seven onely. 

7. Of bapHsmey scripture speaketh, that by it synnes be 

Of eucharisHa ; that we be united by it to Christe, and 
receive thereby spirituall nurrishment, to the comforte of 
our soulles, and remission of our synnes. 

Of matrymony ; that the acte of it is made lawfull, and 
without synne; and grace given, wherby to directe ordi* 
nately of the lustes and appetites of the fleshe. 

Of pennance ; that by it we be restored again to the 
favour of God ; from which we did fail by synne. 

Of ordre; that by it, grace is given to mynistre ef- 
fectually in preachinge the worde of God, and ministration 
of the sacramentes. 

Of confirmation^ (which is conteyned in scripture, speak- 
ing de imposiHone manuum post baptisma) it appeareth by 
scripture, how thereby encrease of grace is given. 

Of inunction of the sick, scripture speaketh, that by 
unction of the sick, and prayer of the priestes, comforte is 
given to the sicke, and synnes be forgeven him. 

8. Impositionem mcmuum poet baptisma^ which we call 
confirmation, we reade in the scripture: but that it was 
don chrismatej we fynde not in the scripture expressed. 
But in the old auctours, we fynde, that chriema hath been 
used in the sayd confirmation. 

9* Making of bishops hath two partes ; appointment 
and ordering. Appointment ; whiche the apostles, by ne- 


cessity, made by common election, and sometyme by their BOOK 
own severall assignement, could not then be don by Christen 
princes; because at that tyme they were not: and now, at 
these dayes, apperteineth to Christian princes and rulers. 
But, in the ordering, wherein grace is conferred, as afore 
the apostells did folowe the rule taught by the Holly Ghoste, 
per manuum impcmtionem, cum oratione etjpunio^ 

10. Christe made his apostles first, which were of his 
making bothe prestes and bishops; but whether at one 
time, some doubt. 

After that, the apostells made bothe bishops and prestes : 
the names wherof in the scripture be confounded. 

11. A bishop having auctorite of his Christian prince to 
^ve orders, maye, by his ministerye geven to him of God 
in scripture, ordeyne a preste. And we rede not, that any 
other, not being a bishope, hathe, sence the beginning of 
Chrises churche, ordered a preste. 

12. Onely appointment is not sufficient, but consecration, 
that is to saye, imposition of handes, with fasting and 
prayour, is also required. For so the apostles used to order 
them that were appointed; and so have been used conti- 
nually : and we have not rede the contrary. 

IS. In that necessite, the prince and his lemed men 
shulde preache and teache the worde of God, and baptize. 
But as for making and constituting prestes, the prince shall 
and may thenne do as God shall thenne by inspiration 
teache him : which God hath promised to do allwayes to 
his church, in reuling and teaching every necessary know- 
ledge, where any doubt requiring discussion dothe arryse. 

14. The aunswer to the other question next before dis- 
solveth this. 

15. He that knoweth himself gylty of any secrete deadly 
synhs, must, if he will obteine the benefite of absolucion 
ministred by the preste, confesse the same secrete synnes 
unto him. 

Absolution to be ministred by a preste, if a convenient 
preste may be had, is necessarie. 



AisoluHon by a preste is the surest waye, if he may be 
.conveniently had. 

16. Bisliopes and prestes auctorised by the prince, Wf 
excommunicate, by Codes lawe, for publique and open 
crimes : but that other thenne bishopes or prestes may &* 
communicate, we have not rede in scripture. Some seoienMQ 
saye, that other thenne prestes, or bishopes deputed therunto 
by the churche, maye excommunicate ; because it is an acte 
JurisdictionUy and not ordinis. 

17. We fynde it spoken of in scripture, and in dide au- 

Number 72. 
7^ examitmiion of Q. Katherine Howard, 

Bbing again examined by my lord of Canterbury of cob* 
tracts and communications of marriage between Deerbam 
and me : I shall here answer faithfully and truely, as I 
shall make answer at the last day of judgment ; and by the 
promise that I made in baptism, and the sacrament that I 
received upon Allhallowes-day last past. First, I do say> 
that Deram hath many times moved unto me the question 
of matrimony ; wherunto, as far as I remember, I never 
granted him more than before I have confessed: and as 
for these words, / promise you^ I do Jove you with all fmf 
heartj I do not remember that ever I spake them. But as 
concerning the other words, that I should promise him by 
my faith and troth, that I would never other husband but 
him, I am sure I never spake them. 

Examined what tokens and ^ts I gave to Deram, and 
he to me : I gave him a band and sleeves for a shirt. 
And he gave me a heart's-ease of silk for a new-years-gift, 
and an old shirt of fine Holland or Cambricke, that was my 
lord Thomas shirt, and my lady did give it him. And 
more than this, to my remembrance, I never gave him, nor 
he to me, saving this sommer ten pounds about the beg^- 
ning of the progresse. 


Ezamiiied whether I did give him a small ring of gold fiOOK 
upon this condition, that he should never give it away. To 
niy knowledge I never gave him no such ring, but I am as- 
sured upon no such condition. 

Examined whether the shirt, band^ and sleeves were of 
my own work. They were not of my work ; but, as I re- 
member, Clifton^s wife of Lambeth wrought them. 

And as for the bracelet of silkwork, I never gave him 
none ; and if he have any of mine, he took it from me. 

As for any ruby, I never gave him none to set in ring^ 
nor for other purpose. As for the French fenel, Deram 
did not give it me, but he said there was a little woman in 
London with a crooked back, who was very cinming in 
making all manner of flowers. And I de«red him to cause 
her to make a French fenel for me, and I would pay him 
again when 1 had money. And when I was first come into 
eourt, I paid him as well for that, as for diverse other 
things, to the value of five or six pound. And truth it is, 
that I durst noC wear the said Frendb fenel, until I had de- 
sired my lady Breerton to say that she gave it me. 

As for a small ring with a stone, I never lost none of his, 
ncyr he never gave me none. 

As for velvet and satten for billyments, a cap of velvet 
with a feather, a quilted capp of sarcenet and money, he did 
not give me, but at my desire he laid out money for them 
to be paid again. For all which things I paid him, when I 
came into the court. And yet he bought not for me the 
quilted cap, but only the sarcenet to make it of. And I 
delivered the same to a little fellow in my Iady'*s house, as 
I remember, his name was Rose, an embroiderer, to make 
it what work he thought best, and not appointing him to 
make it with Freer^s knots, as he can testify, if he be a true 
man. Neverthelesse, when it was made, Deram said, What 
wife here be Freer's knots for Fraunce. 

As for the indenture and obligation of an hundred pound, 
he left them in my custody, saying, that if he never came 
again, he gave them clearly unto me. And when I asked 

Q 4 


kRT him whether he went, he said he would not tell me untill 

"'• his return. 

Examined whether I called him husband, and be me 
wife. I do answer, that there was communication in the 
house that we two should marry together ; and some of his 
enemies had envy thereat, wherefore, he desired me to give 
him leave to call me wife, and that I would call him hus- 
band. And I said I was content. And so after that, 
commonly he called me wife, and many times I called him 
husband. And he used many times to kiss me, and so he 
did to many other commonly in the house. And, I sup- 
pose, that this be true, that at one time when he kissed me 
very often, some said that were present, they trowed thai he 
would never have kissed me enough. Whereto he answered. 
Who should lett him to kiss his own wife f Then said one 
of them, / trowe this matter will come to passe as the com- 
mon saying is. What is that f quoth he. Marry ^ said the 
other. That Mr. Deram shall have Mrs. Katherine Howard. 
By St. Johny said Deram, you may guesse twice, and guesse 
worse. But that I should wink upon him, and say secretly, 
Wha4 and this should come to my ladffs ear f I suppose 
verily there was no such thing. 

As for camall knowledge, I confess as I did before, that 
diverse times he hath lyen with me, sometime in his doublet 
and hose, and two or thre times naked : but not so naked 
that he had nothing upon him, for he had alwayes at the 
least his doublet, and as I do think, his hose also, but I 
mean naked when his hose were putt down. And diverse 
times he would bring wine, strawberryes, apples, and other 
things to make good chear, after my lady was gone to bed. 
But that he made any special banquet, that by appointment 
between him and me, he should tarry after the keyes were 
delivered to my lady, that is utterly untrue. Nor I never 
did steale the keyes my self, nor desired any person to steal 
them, to that intent and purpose to lett in Deram, but for 
many other causes the doores have been opened, sometime 
over night, and sometime early in the morning, as well at 


the request of me, as of other. And sometime Deram hath BOOK 
come in early in the morning, and ordered him very lewdly, 
but never at my request, nor consent. 

And that Wilks and Baskervile should say, what shifts 
should we make, if my lady should come in suddenly. And 
I should answer, that he should go into the little gallery. 
I never said that if my lady came he should go into the 
^Uery, but he hath said so himself, and so he hath done 

As for the communication of my going to the court, I 
remember that he said to me, that if I were gone, he would 
Dot tarry long in the house. And I said again, that he 
might do as he list. And further communication of that 
matter, I remember not. But that I should say, it grieved 
me as much as it did him, or that he should never Uve to 
Bay thou hast swerved, or that the teares should trickle 
down by my cheeks, none of them be true. For all that 
knew me, and kept my company, knew how glad and de- 
sirous I was to come to the court. 

As for the communication after his coming out of Ire- 
land, is untrue. But as far as I remember, he then asked 
me, if I should be married to Mr. Culpepper, for so he said 
he heard reported. Then I made answer. What? should 
jrou trouble me therewith, for you know I will not have 
you ; and if you heard such report, you heard more than I 

do know. 

Katherine Howard. 

Number 73. 
A letter of sir W. Paget 8^ of his treating with the admiral 

of France. An original. 
Please it your most excellent majestic to be advertised Paper- 
ihat the 1 6th of this present, I received letters from my ^^*** 
lordes, and others of your majesties privey counsail, con- 
teyning such several conferences as your majestie, and cer- 
tain of your said counsail, have had with the French ambas- 
sader there sithens my last dispeche. And yesterday having 
the furst opertunitie to speke with the admiral, I said unto 


PART him, that albeit it was likelyhode that the king, his mutaA 
^^^' ambassader then in England, did from time to time adfcr* 
tise them of the processe of the matier now in treatie; jet 
your majestie reputing him to be a man of honor andiiD- 
gular vertue, and such a one, as with right judgment doA 
consyder the hole state of his master^s causes, with the ci^ 
cumstances; and therefore conceiving no little afiectioi 
towards him, had commanded me to »gnifie unto him,t9 
the intent he might knowe certainly the plainnes of every 
thing, what communication had now last been had with 
their ambassodor there. For the which, rising from kii 
seate, and making a gret and humble reverence ; after that 
he had ^ven thanks unto your majestie, and with two cr 
three great othes declared his a£Pectkm towards you; I 
cmtred the accomplishment of your majesties commandment 
And when I had declared unto him from pcnnt to pcnnt at 
length, and word by word (for it was a lesson meet to be 
learned without book) as is conteyned in the said letter, 
aswel the communicacion had with your counsail at the 
furst congresse, and such kingly and philosophicall con- 
ference as your majestie had with him your self; as also 
the seven points uttered by your majesties counsail at their 
last assemblies ; and finally, the epiloge of all together pro- 
nounced of your said counsail as of themselfs; which he 
herd all together, not without twenty sighes, and casting up 
his eyes, for I marked him when he was not ware of it; 
accrossing himself, and gyving a gret sigh, he saide. As for 
the amytie which ought to be between our masters, how 
much I have travailed, and do travaile for the confirmation 
of it, God is my judge ; and almost all the world knoweth 
that I am an English-French man, and that next after my 
master, I esteem the king your master's finger, more than I 
do any prince's body in all the world, and would be glad to 
give all the goods I have in the world, that this matter went 
through between them ; for I perceive by my master that 
he will not lyve alone, and yet I am sure he will seek no 
new friendship, nor accept none ofired, until the king your 
master have refused this. As touching this matter, I knowe 


dbejr he two princes of such honour, and of wise conduct in BOOK 
«D their things ; that though this marriage had never been 
spoken of, they would have continued friends according to 
their treaties, and this overture was never opened, neither 
for confirmation, nor for encrease of amitie between them ; 
ibr greater cannot be, but marriage and commiction of blood 
with blood, doth unite and knit generation to generation, 
and posteritie; the benefit whereof how great it will be; 
how many inconveniencies may therby be avoided by pro- 
oease of time ; the wisest man may soner think then be able 
to express. But, alas, said he, what is two hundred thou* 
aand crowns to give in marriage with so great a king'^s 
daughter to monsieur Dorleans. Four hundred, five hun- 
dred thousand is nothing to him ; monsieur Dorleans is a 
prince of great courage ; monaeur Dorleans doth aspire to 
great things, and such is his fortune, or els I am wonder- 
fully deceyved. It will grieve my master much when he 
ihall here of this basse offer, as we have not herd yet from 
our ambassador ; I marvsul therof not a little ; nay to tell 
you pliunly, as one friend shuld tell another, there is farre 
gretter offers, if we would herken unto them, we might 
have in redy money with the daughter of Fortugall, foure 
hundred thousand ducates, with the increase that hath 
grown of it sithens her father^s departure, which will amount 
to asmuch and more. At the furst breaking of this matter, 
it was said the man must desyre the woman ; now that we 
have desired her, you will give nothing with her, for what 
b two hundred thousand crowns, and herewithall giving a 
great sigh, stayed. And I because I perceived his tale, 
such as was meet to be answered, said unto him, Monsieur 
Tadmiral I have no more to say unto you on my master'^s 
behalf, then I have said unto you allready. But for be- 
cause you have made a long discourse as it were sumewhat 
replying to that that I have reaported ; if it shall like you 
to g^ve me leave to say myn own fantasye, as a man that 
would this thing shuld take efiect, if it may be equally done, 
I woU saye it. Yes, quoth he, with all my hart: why 
shuld not we talke together friendly, as two that be servants 


ART to two great frieDds; and I ndther to take your words to 
be spoken as of an ambassader, nor you to take my words 
to be spoken of him that holdetb the place about his master 
that I do ? Sir, quoth I, as touching the benevolence yoa 
bear unto my master, you may think it well employed ; tf 
well for tliat my master (I think) conceimeth like c^inioo 
of you in that parte, as also for that you have proved mj 
master alwayes to be a perfaict friend unto your master. 
And to saye to you frankcUy myn opinion : albeit 1 am no 
man at home, neither of great place, nor of great counsaile, 
yet have I beene of court : and men, you knowe, of like 
sorte, whcnne they mete together, will be oftentymes talk* 
ing of matiers that they have litle to do in, and bable cl 
heresayes. And I being one of that sorte, have many tymes 
herd, that my master hath been allwayes much affected 
unto your master^ and hath shewed towards him great 
kindnes, when that if he would have taken offers for the 
contrary, he might have had inestimable benefites. Yea, 
and that he hath been so well mynded unto your master, 
that neither the maner of your truce taken with the empe- 
ror, nor your strangen^s at the emperor^s being here, nor 
Pole's passage, nor the conveying of Brancester, nor the 
reteyning of the hosyer that called himself Blancherose, nor 
Cowbridge, nor nothing els could alienate him from you, 
such hath been his friendship towardes you. And therfore, 
(I said) if you love him, vous aves ratson. And if you 
have set furth this manage for love, let it appere. Is not 
two hundred thousand crowns a faire offer ? I graunt you 
well, that monsieur D'^orleanns aspireth to gret things, and 
is of great courage : and reason it is, for he is a great king'^s 
Sonne ; and such a king, as both may and must, if he will 
have his courage mainteyned, give him wherwithalL It is 
not reason, that my master shuld mainteyn his courage. 
My master hath a sonne of his owne, whom I trust he shall 
live to see a man of courage, and will, I doubt not, provide 
him therafter. And as for his daughter, he doth consyder 
her as reason requyreth. Had king Lowys any more with 
one of my master^s systers^ than three hundred thousand 


erownes; and the king of Scotts, with another, any more BOOK 
than one hundred thousand ? If our friendship be advisable , 

unto you, (for that was his terme,) as you say it is, seke it 
by reasonable meane, I doubt not but you shall obteine it ; 
md ask reasonably with her, and it shall be granted you to. 
By my truth, quoth he, and so we doe. Doe you so? 
]uoth I. I have all way es noted you a man of reasone, and 
K> reaported you : tume the case, quoth I. Would you 
remitt eight hundred thousand crownes, discharge an hun- 
Ired thousand a year, for the manage of your daughter ? 
ITea, by my trouth, would I; quoth he. For the eight 
hundred thousand crowns I compte nothing: and as for 
the pension, she shuld have redubled here in France ; and 
we would be amys to amys, and enemies to enemies: I 
meane, pour la defence de nostre estatSy quoth he. Par 
nostre Dame^ quoth I, you shall not be myn auditour. 
Here is all the matier, quoth I. You take a wrong pathe: 
you compte these eight hundred thousand crownes nothing; 
and we, if it were wayed in an indifferent ballance, think 
they should waye down tenne hundred thousand. We 
have a saying in England, A permy at a Hme is xcorth a 
pound. He that should lend me three or four hundred 
crowns at my nede, shuld do me even more pleasure, then 
to offer me tenne hundred when I neded not: so much 
esteme I money lent at such a tyme. Consyder our parte, 
quoth he, and we must knowledge it great : consyder your 
parte, quoth he, it is nothing. The payn is past, and not 
to be reckened upon. You say not much amiss, quoth I, 
if we had an evil debter; but our debter is riche ynough, 
and a good debter. And though he have been bold of a 
long respite with his friend, yet he will pay it, quoth I. I 
doubt not, quoth he, but the princes will observe their 
treaties. My master hath, and will, I am sure, quoth I ; 
and so I think will yours. I wot not what to say, quoth 
he. Marrye, quoth I, do that that I have said heretofore: 
aske reasonably for the dote, and make a recyproque for the 
rest, if you would be eased of it. Marke this, for it is to be 
embraced, and a great manage to monsieur D^orleanns. By 


PART my trouth, quoth he, the dote you have oflered is nothing: 
' and if I wer as king Lewys and the king of Sootta wer, I 
would rather take your daughter in her kyrtel, and more 
honour were it for me, then, being monsieur D^orleuins, to 
take her with eight hundred thousand crowns. But I ivote 
not what you meane by that reciproque. Mary, quoth I, 
it is to do somthing again of like goodnes to the thing thit 
you desire to have done unto you. As, quoth I, you desR 
to have our daughter, and for her you will give your some: 
there is one for an other. Your sonne is the recipit)que of 
our daughter. You would have two hundred thousand 
crownes with her; the reciproque of that must be a like 
jointer. Here is sonne for daughter, dowery for dote. Now, 
if you will be discharged of 600000 crowns; what other 
thing, that is as good, shall we have for that, and also for 
our pcncion? Devise a reciproque. O mcMisieur Tamhas* 
sedeur, quoth he, I understand your reciproque well. The 
king your master is a gentle prince, and a great prince; 
and what grive shuld it be to him, to lett pasae eight hun- 
dred thousand crowns, and ywys we be not able to pay 
them. In faith, quoth I, seing he hath borne so long with 
you for all, he will be contented to bear with you sum what 
longer for sum : and if you will give some in hand, I think 
he will give you terms for the rest. Ah monsieur Tam- 
bassadeur, quoth he ! and shoke his head. As for the pen- 
sion, quoth he, you shall have a reciproque here, a dowery 
mete for it. Nay, quoth I, your relative agreeth with a 
wrong antecedent. My master is the antecedent, and the 
reciproque must be to him, and not to monsieur DWleans, 
for he should have the benefite by it. Nay, quoth he, it is 
your master^s daughter, and it is no more but for your 
master to give from himself to his daughter. Ywys, the 
queen of Navarre^s daughter is a greatter manage. And as 
for the eight hundred thousand, if I were a right man, and 
able to ^ve, I would paye a great pece of it my self, er it 
shuld stick. What the queen of Navarre'^s daughter is, I 
know not, quoth I : but if you might have my master^s 
daughter upon these conditions, you might say, you had 


such a manage as was never herd of. And here we stayM BOOK 

both. At the last, quoth he, sudenly, When it was told me 

yesternight, that you sent to speke with me, I thought it 
was for these matiers : and all this night I have turned and 
toased, and thought upon them. I would God it had never 
been spoken of, if it take not effect. And evyn now cum- 
myth into my head the overture that the king your master 
made ones unto me. What overture was that? quoth I. 
Mary, quoth he, the overture of the manage of the lady 
Elizabeth, his daughter ; you to have had recompence for 
the perpetuel pencion upon monsieur de Vandome^s lands : 
and for the pencion vyager, to have bene converted to 
a estate. Without any other recompence P quoth I. Yes, 
quoth he. We shuld have bene enemys to enemy s, and 
left the bishop of Rome. That was sumwhat, quoth I ; 
and yet not a reciproque; because you shuld not have 
given as good as you tooke. But then, was none arrerage ? 
quoth I. And here he paused again. I will tell you 
my fantasy, quoth he ; but you shall promise me by 
your faith, that I shall never heare of it again. I woll 
speke it unto you, as a friende to a friende ; and perad- 
venture neither of both parties will like it. Sir, quoth I, 
you shall never take dishonour by things you shall say to 
me- What, quoth he, if the overture shuld take effect in 
one parte ? As how ? quoth I. Mary, quoth he, the arrer- 
age to be remitted, for the manage of your daughter. And 
because you think it great, we to becum friends to friends, 
and enemys to enemys, and so to enter warre together : and 
of that, that shuld be conquered by commyn expenses, to 
lay out first a recompence for your pension viager, and the 
perpetuel pencion to be supplied, as the king your master 
devised. How like you this devise ? quoth he. Mary, said 
I, if you will heare a fooPs answer, I like it not : for what 
need we to fight for that we have allready? Mary, quoth 
he, then you shuld have it in perpetuum. What if you 
desyred this for a reciproque? Mary, quoth I, perad ven- 
ture my master might * purchase more land another waye 
than that might cost him. Why shuld we desire warre? 


PART quoth I; we have no quarrell. It is true, quotb be; but 
' we would be the authors. And if you covenanted to 
be enemye to enemye, would you not joyne warre with 
us? By my trouth, ur, quoth I, you be entred now into 
a deep matier, which passeth my capacitie. It is a gmt 
matier indeed, quoth he : but I talk with you inivemeiity 
neither because I would have you to declare this to your 
master, nor for that I will declare it to myne: and yet 
both you and I may use meanes to the same ende. Wd), 
quoth I, I see you make cursey at the matier, and would 
h^ve a great commodity, and yet are loth to offer for it 
But I say unto you as a friend, aske, and offer reasonably, 
and go roundly to worke, and make an ende of it. For, I 
fear, I may say to you, if you will not, others will. Yea, 
quoth he, we knowe the emperor practiseth with you, as he 
doth with us ; and that the bishop of London hath brought 
him three fayre palfreys from the king your master, for a 
present. I name no man, quoth I : but whether the em- 
peror practiseth with you, I reaport me to his offers and his 
demands. I think, he practiseth with us both, quoth he, 
onely to dissever us: for with your master he will not 
joyne, onles he will retume again unto the pope. For so 
his nuntio told the chancelor, and the chancelour told the 
queen of Navarre ; who fell out with him upon the occa- 
sion of that conference, and told him, he was ill ynough be- 
fore, but now sithens he hath gotten the marke of the beast, 
(for so she called it, because he was lately made priest,) he 
was worse and worse. But to my purpose, quoth he: I 
think the emperor practiseth with us both ; he seeketh no- 
thing els, but to dissever us. You speake of his offers and 
his demaunds, quoth he ; knowe you what they be ? No, 
quoth I. And yet, indeed, I did cume by the knowledge 
of them within S4 howres before. Mary, quoth he, he 
would make the duke of Orleains king of Naples, and give 
us the seigneurye of Flanders. They be faire offers, quoth 
I : but what be his demands ? Wherat he smiled. By my 
trouth, quoth he, I will tell you. He desireth a renunda* 
tion of the title of Milan and Navarre, and the restitution 



of Piedmount and Savoy. What say you to it? quoth L BOOK 
The king, my master, will none of it, quoth he ; for he ^^^ 
thinketh, that the next war that shuld fall, being so great 
distance between the father and the sonne, the empennr 
would send the duke of Orleans to his father, une baton 
blanche. I have herd saye, quoth I, the duke of Cleves 
ako laboureth now sore to have his wife home, and smyled 
tliorwith. Why, quoth he, heare you any thing? Yea, 
Boafy, quoth I ; I hear saye, the emperor is in great jnac- 
tkie with the duke of Cleves ; and that he hath made him 
half a promise, that tar to have Grelders quietly, he and his 
wife will renounce the title of Navarre. Which indeed I 
had never herd. But musing upon the word before, it came 
into my head at that time, and chauncyng then to speake it, 
I strucke the admirall into a great dumpe. Wherin, when 
he had pawsed a great while, I said. Sir, I desease you. 
No, no, monsieur Tambassadeur, quoth he: she is too 
young and sickly, to go out of this country. When moo* 
aeur de Cleves, quoth he, hath done the king sume good 
service, and declared himself to all the world to be p&ur U 
rogff then shall he have his wife. You know what you 
have to do, sir, quoth I : but seeing you see the world so 
full of practises, it is good dealing with them that meane 
plainly. Yo say trouth, quoth he ; and so it is. We knowe, 
the emperor doth nothing but practise with us, as he doth 
with your master: and we knowe, how he ofiereth your 
master, to accord hym with the pope, without breache of 
lus honour; and that it shall be at the pope^s suite. I 
am privye, quoth I, of no suche mattiers ; but if the em- 
poror desyre my master^s friendship, I cannot greately 
blame him, consyderinge he knoweth partdy by his own 
experience, and partely by evident tokens towards other 
men, my master is a friendly friend. And as for the iHshop 
of Rome, quoth I, if he sue to be restored to my master^s 
iavour again ; I think it will be herd for him to obteyn it, 
tv vertue and vice cannot stand together in one predica- 
ment. Call you him vice, quoth he, he is the very DiveL 
I trust once to see his confu»on. I have begune to jMck 
VOL. III. p. 3. a 


PART him a little, I trust to pick him better. Every thing must 
- * have a tyme and a beginning. But when b^;in you, qooth 
I ; I think, quoth he, er it be ought long. The king, my 
master, will converte all the abbeis of his realme, into the 
possession of his laye gentlemen, and so go furth by little 
and little, (if you will join with us) to overthrow him allto- 
getKer; why may not we have a patriark here in France? 
Which purpose, I think, he doth percdve, and his legate 
therfore, now in Almayn, ofiVed that for a reformatioQ 
there should be a council called, and appointed the place 
either Mantua, Verona, or Cambray: he had as lief be 
hanged, quoth he, as have a general council; and even 
then will that be his sentence. I would fayne see you ones 
begyne somewhat, quoth I. A monsieur le ambassadeur, 
quoth he, I am sherewdely matched. Why so, quoth I, is 
not your master a king, and if he mynde that you speak of, 
who can match you ? He savoreth woundrous well, quoth 
he, but every thing I saye must have a tyme : who was a 
greater champyon for the pope then was your master, now 
who is more contrary ? If they might ones, quoth he, spdce 
together, I think it will be one of the grettest benifites that 
ever came to Chrisendome, but that cannot well be, undll 
these matiers cum to some nerer point. The faulte is not 
in us, quoth I, that it is not at a nerer point. Nor it shall 
not be long of us, quoth he ; but paradventure sum of your 
master^s counsail moveth him more to the emperor's friend- 
ship. And what is that friendship in comparison of thb 
friendship. England is a kingdome perpetuel, and so b 
France. Our masters, their children, their succession, maye 
joyne for ever. We be under one clyme, and of one com- 
plexion : we be at hande one to another. The emperor is 
but one, and when he is dead, sum Almayn may be emperor, 
I wot not who. Truth it is, Spayne is a kingdome, but 
what is that alone : as for Flanders, it shall be our friend if 
we joyne together. And as for Italy, when the emperor is 
dead, who shall be master trowe you. And if the emperw 
might live allways, what is his friendship ? He careth not 
if fiiend, father, and all together shuld sinke, so as his in- 


idable desyre to reign might be satisfied : did he not suf- BOOK 
»r two of his brethren-inJawe to perishe for lack of fifty 
lousand crowns; furst the king of Hungarye, and after 
le king of Denmark, whom he might have restored with 
in thousand crowns. He is a covetous man, saving the 
(ynour of a prince, and yet he is now base ynough, and 
lerefore let us take him while he is lowe, before he take 
Is breth. Sir, quoth I, you are a man of a great trade, and 
aowe to discourse of things better then I am able to con- 
iyVe. If you esteem the efiect of this matier so necessary 
»r you, and the emperor^s friendship such as you speke of; 
ike then a direct waye for the compasnng of it. And if 
cm have any thing in your stomachs, that you would have 
ttered, but not to many, let your ambassadour utter it to 
im one, and lett him utter it not coldly, but frankly ; and 
liat is the next waye to make an ende. Would Grod mon- 
ieur le ambassadeur, quoth he, it lay in my hande, it 
huld then be sone at an ende. Put to your good will, quoth 
, in an honest cause^ God will help you : I marvaile much, 
[lioth he, we here not from our ambassader there ; so do I, 
luoth I, by lykelyhod he is ill at ease, or his man is sike by 
he way, or some other like matier. When send you into 
Sngland ? quoth he : I have no great matiers to write of, 
[uoth I ; and yet I am determined within a day or two to 
end into England ; for I have appointed my bank to be 
nade at Paris, but now I must sende to have it changed to 
!jyons ; because I here saye the king goeth thither. I pray 
ou, quoth he, conveye a lettre to our ambassadeur in Eng- 
and, which 1 will send to you to morrow, which I promised 
dm. And brake our communication, and so ready to de- 
tart, and standing, I asked him whither the ambassadeur 
7as come to the king out of Almayn, or no ? He asked me 
rhich ambassadeur P I told him for aid against the Turk. 
<fo, no, quoth he ; thinketh men my master is so unwise to 
id the emperor and king Ferdinand for the defence of 
lungarye, their private dominion ? Should my master 
nainteyn their state at his dispens, which keep his state 
rom him ? Not but if it wer to defend Almayn, my master 



*ART would help the best he could. What doth the lung jdm 
^^* marter? Gyveth he any ayde? I know not, quoCh I, dill 
any hath been yet asked. If any be, I think his nugestjr 
will make a reasonable answer ; and thus we departed. 

Sir, your majestie hath heard truely reported, the ^rene 
communication and varietie of matier that hath passed be- 
tween the admirall and me : wherin when I consjrder lajfo 
accustomed protestations me thinketh, he shuld take none 
advantage of me ; and on the other side, when I remember 
the simplenes of my wit with the scardtie of myn eiqpen- 
ence, joynyng therewithal! their proceeding with othtt your 
majesties ambassadeurs heretofore, whose saing th^ res* 
porte at will for their purposes ; I cannot but tremUe^ fieir- 
ing that sumthing may have passed me to hotely, sum wlial 
to coldly, sumthing spoken more then neded, or faimthing 
left out that shuld have been spoken. But sure you ar my 
sayntuary, and my^trust is only in your equanimitie; wfam 
I beseech most humbly of your gradous and favourable 
interpretation, and of your benignitie, to oonsyder that thii 
is the furst time that ever I came in arenam; and he witb 
whom I am matched is an old player; nevertheless, if I 
had experience, or wit to judge a man, I would think him 
by his words and countenance to be none imperiall, and an 
utter enemye to Rome ; and yet I must note a practise in 
him, for that he hath promised roe twise one shuld be sent 
over, and none is yet sent. And besides that, whereas he 
hath told me heretofore, that no man knewe of this last 
treatye, but he and madame Destampes, adding yesterday 
the queen of Navarre. I know of the demands the ambas- 
sadeur hath made there, by other meanes then by your ma- 
jesties signification : but your majestie knoweth him fane 
better I am sure, than my foolishe wit can comprehend 
And therefore I leave to your most excellent wisdom the 
judgment of his proceedings, the circumstance whereof your 
majestie knoweth without addition or diminucion of any 
thing, as nere as I could carye it away. 

As touchinge the occurrents of this court, it may pleaae 
your majestie to be advertised, that the emperor'*s grand 


acuyer passed by Paris eight days agcxie into Flanders, BOOK 
ind came not att the court "^' 

It is said here that the emperor is in great practise with 
rour majestic, for the marriage of the Uidy Mary, your 
DHJesties daughter, which they think here the rather to be 
rue, for that you have sent the bishop of London to be 
imbassador there, whom they note here to be an imperial, 
aing commonly that the marriage between France and 
Sngland is dashed. 

Certain merchants of Lyons, and mon»eur Langey, a 
Murtener with them, have sentence for them of threescore 
nd tenne thousand crowns against the state of Florence, 
md reprisalls out for execution. 

Salmaiti and Antenori, two Florentjrnes, having their 
KMiaes in Lyons, who "w&t Jidejtuisores de salvendo indicator 
)e fled into the emperor*s dominion into Bresse. 

The Florentynes take the matier greviously, and think 
liere is no justice in France, for they had moved theyr case 
sefore in ail the universities and courts of Italy, and think- 
ng it out of doubt, ofired to put it to the judgement of 
Prance, wherof now they repent them, and will in no wise 
itand to it And to advertise your majesty of the case 
:>riefly ; the state of Florence bought of certain marchants 
>f Lyons a quantitie of wheat to such a sume, to be deli- 
vered at Florence before such a day. The wheat arryved 
not before eight daies after the tyme appointed. The Flo- 
rentines, constreyned by necessity, provided themselves 
>ther ways, and say the bargain is voyde. The Lyonnois 
illedge tempestatem for the lett, and say that emptio is con- 
Iracius bofKBjideif and that therefore the Florentynes must 
TullfiU their bargayn; and so leaving their wheate there, 
went there wayes. 

Error is founde in the admiralPs processe, and the sentence 
revoked ; wherby the application of his lands to the crown, 
and the amende pecuniaire that he shuld have made to di- 
verse townes here in Bourgoyn is adnichilated, and he re- 
sHtutus in integrum. 

I thinke your majestic heareth from your agent at Venice 



PART that James Bey, sumtyme a Chrbtian man, is cuming from 
the Turcque in ambassade to Venice ; and, as I think, by 
this time arry ved there, if the empereur have not inteivepted 
him, who hath layed waye for him in Ragusa : his cunnog 
is nothing pleasant to the Venycians ; the cause theittf being 
as the Venycians conjecture, the same that I have written to 
your majestic before ; that is to saye, passage through tbdr 
cuntrey, or to be enemyes to enemyes, or to redeem the same 
with sum great sumes of money, if nothing els be asked. 

Seignior Horacio being heretofore accustomed to be lodged 
at the court, or near as the place required, is lodged now 
four leaggs of, and yet the king lyeth in a great town; wber- 
of the nuntio^s secretarye complayning to the admirall, tbe 
admirall answered him in coler, he had one gyven him, and 
he refused it. We cannot ^ve him here a palais as though 
he were at Paris, and turned his back, and would talk no 
longer with the secretary. 

I sende unto your majestic herewith an other cfaarteof 
Algiere, set furth after a sorte, with the emperor^s aasiegt 
before it ; the plate wherof varieth from the other I sent 
your majcstie before: and yett I trust your majestic will 
take the same in good parte ; for as they came to my hands, 
being sent to such personages as they wer; thone to the 
French king, and this to the duke of Ferrare ; I thought 
it my duety to sende both unto your majestic, leaving unto 
your excellent wisedome the judgment^ whither this, or the 
other be true, or neither of them bothe. 

I sende also unto your majestic a little book, both printed 
here in Paris, conteyning the conclusion of their dyet in 
Almayn against the Turk ; whither the same be true, or no, 
I doubt not but your majestic knoweth by such advertise- 
ments as you have out of those partes. And thus having 
nothing els to writte unto your majestic at this time, I be- 
sechc God to send you most prosperously and long to 
reigne. From Chabliz in Bourgoyn, the 19th of April. 
Your majesties most humble, faithful, and 

obedient subject, servant, and daily oratour, 

William Pagett. 



After I had written to your majestie this letter redy to 

send the same furthwith ; and defferring the dispeche onely 
uppon attendance of the admirairs letter^ to be conveyed 
into England ; because the same came not, I sent the same 
night one to the courte, which is four long leaggs hens to 
the admirall to know his minde therin ; which messenger he 
returned to me with this letter herincloced, written and de- 
fiiced as your majestie seith the same ; upon motion wherof, 
I was at his lodging the next day, by eight in the morning, 
but I found him not there. At my cumming a letter was 
delivered me from certain of your majesties privy counsail, 
the tenor wherof, both before and sithens I have observed 
as far as my wit can extend, like as your majestie rather by 
your great judgement, and gracious interpretation of my 
discourses, then by my simple writtings may gather. Anone 
cummeth monsieur admirall, accompaigned with monsieur 
Longeville, govemour to the duke of Orleans, and with 
more solemnitie than was wont to be, took me with them to 
the church, to passe the tyme (they said) untill the king 
wer up. Monsieur Longevile left the admirall and me 
walking, and entring communication after this sorte. Mon- 
sieur le ambassadeur, I have been bold to put you to this 
great payne this morning ; but this matier troubleth me so 
sore, that I am at my wittes ende: by I could not An oath, 

deep for it all this night. We have received letters from 
our ambassadeur in England, conteyning the same dis- 
courses that you have declared, which my master is sorye to 
heare ; mervailing that the king, his good brother, would 
offer that summe to his sonne with his daughter, that some 
of his gentlemen would not accept. The pope ofeed to 
monsieur de Guyses sonne, with his nepce, two hundred 
diousand crownes, and he refused it. To see us so farre 
asunder, after so long a traitye, by ■ it greveth me. An oatb. 

For you must understand, that all which be of counsaile 
about my master, be not of one opinion. And upon the re- 
ceipte of our last lettres, it was said to me. We told you 
wherto the enterprise of this. matier would cum at length: 

R 4 


RT but surely I have never repented me, noft myn atfectkm cm 

III; never diminishe, for the friendship that halh been shaved 

on your parte, aswell in oommyn, as to my particiiler* And 
as for the pope^s and the emperor's lyes and £daetes^«e 
know well ynough. Wherfore, for the love of God, fct m 
growe to some friendly points After I had declared unto 
him for some reoompence of his affection, what good affse- 
tion I beare to France ; I said unto him, monsieur TaGl- 
mirall, you knowe, we commun now privately, and diORS- 
fore you shall hear my private opuuon. Sdng that yos 
knowe oth» men^s proceedings with you to have been so in- 
direct as you speake of, and (as your self hath con fcs wd 
unto me oftentymes) that the king's majestic, my raasttf) 
hath been so pcrfiuct and sincere a friende unto yon at all 
tymes ; embrace this friendship ; consyder this friend ; and 
think that he is to be desyred rather with one hundred, tfan 
any other with tenne hundred. You said, your matter wiD 
not live alone. Ywys, my master may have oompaay 
enough, if he would slippe out c^ the couple fixMn you. 
Yea, quoth he, I know ; but so will not every man of this 
counsaile knowe, their faulseties. True it is, quoth he, your 
fri^idship hath been much, and we do recognise it, and think 
our selfs in obligation to requite it. But we can do no more 
than we can do. But to come to a paint ; the matier ooo- 
nsteth in these termes. Within these two yeres, we shall 
owe you a million ; after the which tyme, we must pay you 
during the king your master'^s life (God grant it to be long) 
a hundred thousand crownes yearly, and afterward fyfty 
thousande perpetually, you saye. As for the pencions, 
quoth he, there may be sumwhat sayde for things that shuld 
be done by treaties : for our defence, things dbuld have been 
done ; shipps and men, and I wot not what. And here he 
began to hack and to hume. Monsieur le admirall, quoth 
I, speke out plainly : for if you have any thing to say in 
that parte, I can answer. Well, well, quoth he, let those 
things passe : you can dajrme no pencion yet these two yeres. 
And herewithall the king sent for him. With whom, after 
masse, he went to the standing, in a forest hereby; promising 


me to return ymedyately after dyaer, and prayiBg me hartely BOOK 
to tary his return. Monneur le admindl, quoth I, in his 
eare, if you talk with the king your mast^ of this matier, 
deduce him to some conformitie. I speake fiir the affection 
I heare unto you : for I may say to you, there be others 
that woee harder thenne you, and yet hitherto we have not 
^▼en Uke eare. But jrou know, a man may droppe water 
so long upon a stone, that it may sooke in. And herewith, 
monsieur Longevile tooke me at his hand by and by, and 
had me to monsieur DWleans lod^ng, where I had an 
exceeding gret feast and chere. About two of the dock 
the admirall sent for me ; and after our meting, every man 
avoided out of the chamber. Monsieur le ambassadeur, 
quoth he, let us devise some good meane, to joyne these 
two princes together. Then must you, quoth I, go an- 
other way to work. Devide your treatye into two partes z 
treate a manage, and treate the redemption of the rest you 
deajre. Well, be it, quoth he : but I understand not yet 
very well your reciproque ; (and here he began to be plai- 
sant in his countenance, and to set his wordes merily:) 
and yet, quoth he, our ambassador writteth of the same 
torme, but I wot not what. You will not, quoth I, under« 
stande it : but you must leame it ; for els I feare (wherof 
I would be wondrous sorye) that this matier will not go for- 
warde. Let me hear again, quoth he. I told him even the 
same lesson, that is declared in the former parte of this 
letter. It is not, quoth he, a hundred thousand crownes, 
or two hundred thousand^ that can enriche my master, or 
impoverishe yours: and therfore, for the love of God, 
quoth he, let us go roundly together. We aske your 
daughter, quoth he: for her, .you shall have our sonne, a 
gentye prince, quoth he, and set him out to sale. We 
aske you a dote with her; and for that after the som 
you will give, she shall have an assignment after the cus- 
tome of the country here. And as for the rest, quoth 
he, what reciproque demande you ? What will you, that we 
do for you ? As for the rest of the money, quoth I, take 
order for the payment of it ; and for the pencions, devise 


PART a reciproque. Devise you, quoth be, what you will hare 
'''• us to do for it. Nay, quoth I, offer you furst, for it 
passeth my capacitye : and reason is so ; for the first oom- 
modity shall be yours. It is no mattier, quoth he ; we will 
offer furst, and you shall aske next ; or you shall cBes 
furst, and we shall aske nexte : all is one. But I will nowi 
as I did laste daye, speke unto you after myn own pasaon, 
after myn own affection ; for I would all the world knew I 
am not imperial. And here, with many qualifications and 
termes, he set forth his pasaon and affections. You will 
give us your daughter, and a summe with her, (it n|aketb 
no matier what ;) howbeit, I trust, your gentle prince will 
aske no money of us : and as for the reciproque of the rest, 
and therewith stayed. Well, quoth he, to speake frankly to 
you myn affection ; will you enter the warre with us against 
the emperor? and be enemye to enemye, for the defence d 
all such states as we have at this present, and of such as we 
shall conquere together ; or of such as shall be comprised in 
treaty ; the king your master to sett upon land in Flanders 
tenne thousand Englishmen, and we tenne thousand French^ 
men ; pay the wages of five thousand Almayns, and we of 
asmany ; finde two thousand horsemen, and we three thou- 
sand ; finde a certain number of shipps, and we as many. 
And yett shall the king my master chaffe the emperor in 
other places, he was never so chaffed : and spende a hun- 
dred, yea two hundred thousand crowns a month other 
wayes. And of such lands as shall be conquered, the pen- 
cion furst to be redoubled, and the rest to be devided equally. 
What a thing will it be to your master, to have Graveling, 
Dunkirk, Burburg, and all those quarters joining to his Ca- 
lais ? Mary, quoth I, all the craft is in the catching. And 
here I put hibi a foolish question ; What if you spent your 
money, and conquered nothing? Mary, quoth he, then 
should the pencion stand still as it standeth. Monsieur le 
admirall, quoth I, these matiers you talk of be of too great 
importance for my witt ; and I have also no commission to 
medle in them. But to saye my fantasye, I knowe of no 

a oaUi. quarrel that my master hath against the emperor. n 


juoth he, why say you so? Doth he not owe your master BOOK 
noney? Hath he not broken his leages with him in 600 
joints? Did he not provoke us, and the pope also, to joine 
!br the taking of your realme from you, in preye for diso- 
3edience? And hath he not caused even now the pope, 
to offer a council at Mantua, Verona, Cambray or Metz ; 
[which place he added now last) the chief cause wherof is. to 
pick you ? A pestilence take him, fause dissembler, quoth 
le: saving my dutie to the majestie of a king. If he had 
you at such an advantage, as you maye now have him, you 
»huld well knowc it at his hande. And here he went furth 
It large against the bishop of Rome and the emperor ; dis- 
bursing what commoditie shuld ensue of this warre ; and 
Jiat he would have it in any wise beginne this yere, now 
hat the emperor wer so lowe ; and had, as he saithe, for all 
lis millions, never a sols. And that he would the mader 
ibould take effect shortely ; for the yere goith awaye : reck- 
*mng how many moneths were now lost mete for the 
irarre : and how the conquests should be fortified in the win- 
ter ; and the warre recommenced in the sommer. And that 
their chiefe points resolved, his master shuld (if your ma- 
jestic would) turne into Picardy, to entervieu. And a great 
discourse, sir, passing min experience, shewing themsclfs by 
his wordes and countenance wonderfully gredy of presant 
warre : which when he had ended ; what say you, monsieur 
le ambassadeur ? quoth he. Will you saye nothing to me 
in this matier ? Sir, quoth I, and told him trueth, I wote 
not what to saye. Why do you not ? quoth he. Open the 
bottom of your stomack to the king my master, quoth I, 
by your ambassadour there, by whom you have begun and 
treated this matier. And also I noted in our other confe- 
rence, that you would not have these discourses reaported 
agun of your mouth. Monsieur, quoth he, this is indeed 
but my devise. Howbeit, to speake frankly to youe, I have 
qpoken nothing therin, but I think to perswade my mas- 
ter to it : and write so to the king your master, quoth he, 
and also the hole devise. That shall be as you will, quoth 
I. Nay, quoth he, I pray you to write, so as you write as 


ART devised of me ; and repeted the overture hole together, as 
^' is before expressed. Sir, quoth I, seing you require me, I 
will write it, so that you will promise me to ooafirme my 
tale by your ambassador there. Yes, quoth he ; and clapt 
his hande in mine. But I pray you, quoth he, send one 
in diligence, that no tyme be lost. Will you not write? 
quoth I. Yes, quoth he : but your post will be there be- 
fore ours. And so deperted. 

Sir, I beseeche your majestie most humblie on my knees, 
graciously to accept my good will, albeit my witt be not 
able to serve you in so great an affaire; and to pardon me, 
of your most gracious goodnes, if any thing have been said, 
more or less thenne was meet to have been spoken for the 
advancement of your purposes : of my faulte wherin, if it 
should please your majestie to advise me of, I should have 
the more witt another time, and take the better hede in a 
semblable case : for surely, »r, I have an exceeding good 
will to serve you ; and if my witt wer as good, I am afr> 
sured I should swerve well, and that knoweth Grod : to whom 
I pray daily for your prosperous and long continuance. 
From Chabliz, the 22d of April. 

Your majesties 

most humble, faithful, and 
obedient subject, servant, 

and daily oratour, 

William PageU. 
To the king's most excellent nuyestie. 

Number 74. 

Bishop ThirUbjfs letter concerning the daJce of NorfoOc 

and his son. An original. 

I WOULD write unto you my harte (if I coulde) against 
those two ungracious, ingrate, and inhumane nan homines^ 
the duke of Norfolk and his sonne. The elder of whom, I 
confess that I did love, ior that I ever supposed hym a true 
servant to his master ; like as both his all^iance and the 


inaiiif(Jd benefits of the king's majestie boimde bim to harre BOOK 
been ; but nowe when I sholde begjrn to wrigfat to you ^^^^ 
berin, before Grod I am so amased at the matter, that I 
know not what to say ; therefore I diall leave them to re- 
cey ve for their deads^ as they have worthily deservyd ; and 
thank God of his grace that hath openyd this in tyme, so 
that the king^s majestie may see that reDormed : and in this 
point, wher Almighty Grod hath not nowe alone, but often 
and sondry tymes hertofore, not only letted the malice of 
such as bathe imagenyd any treason against the king's 
majestie, the chiefe comforte, wealth, and prosperite of all 
good Englishmen next unto God ; but hath so wonderfully 
manifest, that in suche tyme that his majesties high wisdom 
myght let that malice to take his efiecte, all good Englisfae 
cannot therfore thanke God enough. And for our parts, I 
pray God, that we may thorouj^ his grace, so contjrnue 
his servants, that herafter we be not founde unworthy to 
leoeyve suche a benefyte at his hands. On Christmas even, 
about 10 of the clocke after noon here aiyved Somerset 
with the letters of the king'^s majesties most honourable 
counsell, dated the 15th of December at Westminster, 
wherby I percey ved the malicious purpose of the said two 
ungracious men: and for the execution of the king^s 
majesties commandment declared in the same letters, I 
suyd immediately for audience to the emperor,- who entred 
this town within halfe an houer after Somerset was come. 
The emperor praied me of pacience, and to declare to the 
secretarie Joyse, that I wolde saie to him. For he said he 
had determyned to repose him selfe for 8 or 4 days ; and 
had therfore for that tyme refused audience to the nuntio, 
the ambassador of France, and the ambassador of Venice,- 
which had sued for audience. On Christmas-day on the 
morning, at nine of the clocke, Joyse came to my lodg- 
inge, to whom I declared as well as I ooulde the great 
benefits theis ungracious men had receyved at the king's 
majesties hands, and how unkindly and traytorously they 
went abought to searve him, with the rest as mjrn instruc- 


PART tions led me. The king^s majestie, my master (taking th^ 
* same afiection to be in the emperor, his good brother. 

wards him, that his highnes hathe to the emperor, {ui 
corum omnia sint communia^ gaudere cum gaudentibus. 
jUre cumJUniibus^) hath commanded me to open this 
ter to the emperor : that as naturally all men, and mudi.^ 
more princes, ought to abhore traytors, and specially suche*^ 
as had rccey ved so great benyfites as theis men had : so his ^ 
majestic might rejoyse that the king^s highnes his good 
brother had founde forthe this matter, or the malice coulde 
be brought to execution. Secretary Joyse said that he 
would advertise the emperor herof accordingly, and after a 
little talke of the haughtiness of the earle of Surrey, and a 
few salutations, he bad me fare well. When I asked him 
for monsieur de Grandevela, to whom I said that I woMe 
tell this tale, for that I doubted not but that he and all 
honest men wolde abhorre such traytors : he said that he 
was not yet come, but he wolde this day advertise him hentf 
by his letters; for I wright (quoth he) daily to him. Albeit 
that this be the hole, and the efiecte of that I have done in 
the execution of the king^s majesties commandment, de- 
clared in my siud lord^s letters, yet I will as my dutie is, 
answer a^part their said letters to the king'^s majestic : herin 
I dare not wright. For, to enter the matter, and not to 
detest that as the cause requireth, I think it not convenient 
And again on the other side, to renew the memorie of these 
mens ingratitude, (wher with all noble and princely harts 
above all others be sore wounded) I thinke it not wisdome. 
Therefore I beseeche you hartely, amongst other my good 
lords, there to make my most humble excuse to his majestic 
for the same. This ungracious matter that hath happened 
otherwise then ever I could have thought, hath caused you 
to have a longer letter then ever I have bene accustomed to 
wright. Ye shall herwith receyve a scedule of courte newis, 
whiche havyng lemyd while I wrote this; secretary Joyse 
hathe prayed me to sende the letter herwith enclosed to the 
emperor^s ambassador in England, which I pray you to 


to be deKvered, and hartely fare you well. From BOOK 
)ourDe the Christmas-day at night, 1646. ^^^' 

Your assured loving friend, 

Tho. We8tm\ 
«rith ye shall allso receyve 
copie of my letters of the 
h of this mongth, sent by 
pperus, &c. 

Number 76. 

er of the duke ofNorfoOc^Sj (ffter he had been examined 

in the Tower. 

' very good lords, whereas at the being here with meTitns, B. i. 
r lord great chamberlayne, and Mr. Secretary, they^*^ 
|rnd me of divers thyngs, which as near as I can call 
f remembrance were the effects as here after doth 

Bt, whether ther was any cipher betwene me and any 

man: for answer wherunto, this is the truth, there 

ever cipher between me and any man, save only such 

lave had for the king^s majestic, when I was in his 

e. And as God be my judge, I do not remember 

;ver I wrote in cipher, but at such time as I was in 

;e. My lord great master that now is and my lord 

)chford being in commission with me, and whether I 

any then, or not, as God help me, I do not remem- 

but and I wrote any thing, I am sure both their 

were at it : and the master of the horse privy to the 

I do remember that after the death of the bishop of 

brd, Fox, it was shewM me that the said bishop had 

letter, which I had sent him, amongst his writings, 

being found by a servant of his, that is now with 

r Deny, who shewd the same to the bishop of Dur- 

hat now is, he caused him to throw the same in fier ; 

o remember, it was my said lord bishop of Dureham 

idvised him to bum it : and as I also do remember, 

latter that was conteyned therin concerned lewde 


9ART speaking of tbe northern men afier the time of the oono* 
tion against the said Cromwell : if there had been anj 
thyng concerning the king'^s majestys affairs, neyther the 
bishope, nor he, were he now alyve, would not have con- 
cealed the same; and whether any part of that was in 
cypher, or not, as I shall answer to Grod, I do not remem- 

Thefiect of another question there asked me, was, as near 
as I can call to my remembrance. Whether anie man had 
talked with me, that and ther were a good peace made be- 
twene the king^s majestic, the emperor and the French 
king, the bishope of Borne would brek the same againe by 

' his dispensation ? and whether I enclined that waies, or 

not, to that purpose ? As Grod help me now, at my most 
nede, I cannot call to my remembrance, that ever I heard 
any man living speak like words. And as (or mine indyms- 
tions, that the bishope of Rome should ever have aucthori^ 
to do such thing; if I had twentie lives, I would rather 
have spent them all against lum, then ever he should have 
any power in this realme : for no man knoweth that better 
then I, by reding of stones, how his usurped pow^ hath 
increased from time to time. Nor such time as the king's 
majestie hath found him his enemy, no living man hath, 
both in his harte and with his tounge, in this realme, in 
France, and also to many Scotish jantlemen, qx>ken more 
sore against his said usurped powre, then I have done, as I 
can prove by good witnes. 

Also my said lord and Mr. Secretary asked me, whether I 
was ever made privy to a letter, sent from my lord of Wyn- 
diester and sir Henry Enevet, of any overture made by 
Grandville to them, for a way to be taken between his ma- 
jestie and the bishope of Rome ; and that the said lett^v 
should have come to his majestie to Dover, I being thei:e 
with him. Wherunto this is my true answer : I was never 
at Dover with his highnes since my lord of Richmond died, 
but at that time, of whose death word came to Syttyng** 
borne : and as Grod be my helpe, I never heard of no sudi 
overture, save that I do well r^nember, at such time as sir 


Francis Biryan was sore sike, and like to have died, it was BOOK 

• • Iff 

spoken in the council!, that my lord of Winchester should have 
said, he couM devise a way, how the king^s majestie might 
have all things upright with the said bishope of Rome, and 
his highnes honour saved. Suche were the words, or much 
like. Wherupon, as I had often said in the councill, one was 
sent to the said sir Francis^ to know, if ever he heard the 
said bishope speake like words ; which he denied : and as I 
do remember, it was sir Rauf Sadeler, that was sent to the 
said sir Francis. And to say that ever I heard of any such 
overture made by Grandville, or that ever I commoned with 
any man conserning any such mater, other then this.of the 
bishope of Winchester, as God be my help, I never dyd ; 
nor unto more thenne this, I was never prevye. 

Now, my good lords, having made answer according to 
the truth of such questions as hath been asked me, most 
humblie I beseeche you all to be mediators for me to his 
most excellent majestie, to cause such as. have accused me 
(if it might be with his high pleasure) to come before his 
majestie, to lay to my charge afore me, face to face, what 
they can say against me : and I am in no dout, so to declare 
my selfe, that it shall appere I am falsly accused. And if 
his pleasure shall not be, to take the paine in his royall per- 
son, then to give you commandment to do the same. My 
lords, I trust ye think Cromweirs service and mine hath 
not be like ; and yet my desire is, to have no more favour 
shewMe to me, than was shew'^de to him, I being present. 
He was a fals man ; and sewerly I am a trewe poore jantle- 

My lords, I think surelie there is some fals man, that 
have laid some great cause to my charge, er else I had not 
be sent hither. And therefore, eftsonyts most humblie I 
beseeche to findc tho names, if they and I may not be 
brought face to face, yet let me be made privy what the 
causes are ; and if I do not answer truely to every point, 
let me not live one howre after : for sewerlie I would hide 
nothing of any questions that I shall know, that doth con- 
cern my self, nor any other creature. 

VOL. III. p. 3. s 


PART My lords, there was never gold tried better by fier and 
^^*' watter than I have been, nor hath had greater enemys about 
my soveraign lord, than I have had, and yet (Grod be 
thanked) my trouth hath ever tried me, as I dout not it 
shall do in theis causes. Suerly, if I knew any thought I 
had offended his majestie in, I would suerly have declared 
it to his person. 

Upon the Tuysdayc in Whitsonweek last past, I broke 
unto his majestie, moste humbley beseeching him to helpe, 
that a manage might be had between my daughter and sir 
Thomas Semour : and wheras my son of Surey hath a sod 
and divers daughters ; that, with his favour, a croase ma- 
nage might have been made between my lord great cham- 
berline and them. And also wher my son Thomas hath a 
son, that shall (be his mother) spend a thousand marks t 
yere, that he might be in like wise maried to one of my said 
lord^s daughters. I report me to your lordships, whether 
myn intent was honest in this motion, or not And whereas 
I have written, that my truth hath been severely tried, and 
that I have had great enemies. First, the cardinall did con- 
fes to me at Asser, that he had gone about fourteen years to 
have destroyed me ; saying, he did the same by the setung 
upon of my lord of Suffolk, the marquis of Exeter, and my 
lord Sands ; who said often to him, that if he found not the 
means to put me out of the way, at length I should seuerly 
undo him. 

Cromwell, at such tyme as the marquis of Exeter sufired, 
examined his wife more streitly of me, then of all other men 
in the realme, as she sent me word by her brother, the lord 
Montjoy. He hath said to me himself many times. My 
lord, ye are an happy man, that your wife knoweth no 
hurt by you ; for if she did, she would undo you. 

The duke of Buckingham confessed openly at the bar, 
(my father sitting as his judge) that of all men living he 
hated me most, thinking I was the man that had hurt him 
most to the king'^s majestie : which now, quoth he, I perceive 
the contrary. 

Rice, who had maried my sister, confessed, that (of all 


men living) he hated me most; and wished many times^ BQOK 
how he might find the meanes to thrust his dagger in me. ___1^ 

What malice both my neecys, that it pleased the king^s 
highnes to maarie, did here unto me, is not unknown to 
such ladies as kept them in this sute ; as my lady Herberd, 
my lady Tirwit, my lady Eynston, and others, which heard 
what they said of me. Who tried out the falshod of the 
lord Darcy, sir Robert Constable^ sir John Bulmer, Aske, 
and many others, for which they sufier'd for ? But only I. 
Who shewed his majestic of the words of my mother-in-law, 
for which she was attainted of misprision ? But only I. In 
all times past unto this time, I have shewed my self a most 
trewe man to my soveraign lord. And since these things 
done in tymes past, I have received more proflSght of his 
highnes, than. ever I did afore. Alas ! who can think, that 
I, having been so long a trew man, should now be false to 
his majestic? I have received more proffight then I have 
deserved : and a poore man ; as I am, yet I am his own 
near kinsman. For whose sake should I be an untrewe 
man to them ? Alas, alas, my lords, that ever it should be 
thought any ontruthe to be in me. 

Fynally my good lords eftsonys most humble I beseech 
you to shew this scrible letter to his majestic, and all joyntle 
to beseech his highnes to grante me the peticions that are 
conteyned in the same, and most especyall to remyt out of 
his most noble gentle hart such displeasure as he hath con- 
ceyved against me : and I shall dewryng my lyff pray for 
the continuence of his most royall estate long to endure. 

By his highnes poor prisoner, 

T. Norfolk. 




III. Collection of Records belonging to Book IV, V, 

and VI. 


Number 1. 

Instructions given by LtUher to Melanchthon 1534; ^ 
which, one article was erroneously published by me in 
fny lid vol. and that being complained of, the whole is 
now published. 

Cogitationes meae sunt : (t^. Lutheri.) 

Primo ut nuUo modo concedamus de nobis dici, quod 
neutri neutros an tea intellexerint. Nam isto pharmaoo noo 
medebimur tanta vulncri, cum nee ipsi crcdamus utrumque 
verum hoc esse, et alii putabunt k nobis hoc fingi, et ita 
magis suspectam reddemus causam, vel potius per totum 
dubiam faciemus, cum sit communis omnium, Et in tands 
animorum turbis, et scrupulis non expedit hoc nomine td- 
dere oifendiculum. 
Fdnan no- Secundo, Cum hactenus dissenserimus, quod illi signuio, 
nos corpus Christi asseruerimus, plane contrarii in Sacra- 
mento. Nihil minus mihi videtur utile, quam ut mediam 
et novam sententiam statuamus : qua et illi concedant corpus 
Christi adesse ver^, et nos concedamus panem solum man- 
ducari. Ut enim conscientiam taceam, considerandum est 
certe; quantam hie fenestram aperiemus in re omnibus 
communi cogitandi : et orientur hie fontes quaestionum et 
opinionum : ut tutius multo sit illos simpliciter manere in 
suo signo: cum nee ipsi suam nee nos nostrara partem, 
multo minus utrique totum orbem pertrahemus in earn sen- 
tentiam : sed potius irritabimus ad varias cogitationes. Ideo 
vellem potius ut sopitum maneret dissidium in duabus istis 
sententiis, quam ut occasio daretur infinitis qusestionibus ad 
epicurism um profuturis. 

Tertio, Cum stent hie pro nostra sententia, primum textus 
ipse apertissimus evangelii, qui non sine causa mo vet omnes 
homines, non solum pios : secundo, patrum dicta quam plu- 
rima, quae non tam facile possunt solvi ; nee, tuta consci- 
entia, aliter quam sonant, intelligi, cum bona grammatica 


fortiter consentiat. Tertio, quia periculosum est sta- BOOK 
ecclesiam tot annis per totum orbem caruisse vero 
sacramenti ; cum nos fateamur omnes, mansisse sar- 
ita et verbum, etsi obruta multis abominationibus. 
rto^ Dicta Sancti Augustini de signo, quae contraria 
sententise videntur, non sunt firma satis contra ista 
ia dicta. Maxima, cum ex Augustini scriptis clar& 
ostendi, et convinci, eum loqui de signo praesentis 
is, ut illud, contra Adamanium^ non dubitavit Do- 
appellare corpus suum, cum daret signum corporis 
el de signo corporis mystici, in quo vaide multus est, . 
tim in Joanne : ubi copiose docet, manducare camem 
1, esse in corpore mystico ; seu, ut ipse dicit, in soci- 
iinitate, cbaritate ecclesise : istis enim verbis utitur. 
nto. Omnium est fortissimus Augustinus, quod dicit, 
IOC corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi estis, &c. £t 
conscientia memor apertorum verborum Christi, (Hoc 
rpus meum) hoc dictum S. Augustini facile sic ex- 
quod de visibili corpore loquatur Augustinus, sicut 
verba (quod videtis) ita nihil pugnat Augustinus 
Jaris verbis Christi : et Augustinus infirmior est, 
ut hoc uno dicto tarn inccrto, imo satis consono, nos 
t in contrarium sensum. 

to, Ego S. Augustinum non intelligo aliter (sic et ipse 
ante se forte intellexit) quam quod contra Judseos et 
s docenduni fuit, apud Christianos non comedi corpus 
i visibiUter, ct more corporali. Hac ratione fidem sa- 
iti defenderunt. Rursus contra hypocritas Christiano- 
ocendum fuit, quod sacramentum non esset salutare 
^ntibus, nisi spiritualiter manducarent, id est, ecclesise 
uniti et incorporati. Et hac ratione charitatem in 
lento exegerunt. Ut ex Augustino clare accipi potest; 
)sque dubio, ex prioribus patribus, et sui s^uli usu, 

timo, Istis sal vis, nihil est quod k me peti possit Nam 

hoc dissidium vellem (testis est mihi Christus mens) 

ptum non uno corpore et sanguine meo: sed quid 

I? Ipsi forte conscientia bona capti sunt in alteram 



PART sententiam. Feramus igitur eos. Si nnceri sunt, li 


eos Christus Dominus. Ego contra captus sum bona oerC^ 
conscientia (nisi ipse mihi sim ignotus) in meam sententiam. 
Ferant et me, si non possunt mihi aocedere. 

Si vero illi sententiam suam, scilicet de pnesentia cor- 
poris Christi cum pane, tenere velint, et petierint noa in- 
vicem tamen tolerari; ego plan^ libenter tolerabo, in spe 
fiiturae communionis. Nam interim oommunieare ilfis m 
fide et sensu non possum, 

Deinde, Si politica concordia quseritur, ea non impeditiir 
diversitate religionis: sicut novimus posse oonjugia, com- 
merda, aliaque politica constare, inter diverse rdigioiiis 
homines : primo Corinth. 7. Christus fadat, ut perfect^ con- 
teratur Satan sub nostris pedibus. Amen. 

Nostra autem sententia est, corpus ita cum pane, sen in 
pane esse, ut reverb cum pane manducetur : et qusecanque 
motum vel actionem panis habet, eandem et corpus Christi. 
Ut corpus Christi ver^ dicatur ferri, dari, aodpi, mandueari, 
quando panis fertur, datur, accipitur, manducatur ; id est, 
Hoc est corpus meum. 

Coll. Corp. Christi, 
Febr. 4. 95-6. 

We have collated this with the original paper of Luther, 
and find it to agree exactly. Witness our hands, 

John Jaggard. 
Rob. Moss. 
Will. Lunn. 

Number 2. 

The lady Mary's letter to the lord protectory and to the rest 
of the king's nuyesty'*s councily upon their suspecting some 
of her houshcld had encouraged the Devonshire rdkUion, 

My Lord, 
Ex MS. I HAVE received letters from you, and others of the king'^s 

^^' majesty's council, dated the 17th of this present, and deli- 
vered unto me the 20th of the same, whereby I perceive ye 


ye informed, that certayn of my servants should be the chief BOOK 
tirrers, procurers, and doers in these commotions; which ^^' 
ommotions (I assure you) no less offend me, than they do 
rou and the rest of the council. And you write also, that 
L priest and chapleyn of mine, at Sampford Courtney in 
Devonshire, should be a doer there. Of which report I do 
lot a little marvel ; for, to my knowledge, I have not one 
liaplayn in those parts. And concerning Pooly, my servant, 
irhich was sometime a receiver, I am able to answer, that 
le remayneth continually in my house, and was never doer 
imongst the commons, nor came in their company. It is 
rue, that I have another servant of that name dwelling in 
Suffolk ; and whether the commons have taken him or no, 
] know not, for he resorteth seldom to my house. But by 
eport, they have taken by force many gentlemen in these 
[uarters, and used them very cruelly. And as touching 
ionell my servant, I cannot but marvell of that bruit, 
pecially because he dwelleth within two miles of London, 
ind is not acquainted within the shire of Suffolk, or Nor- 
blk ; nor at any time cometh into these parts, but when he 
iraiteth upon me in my house, and is now at London about 
ay businesse, being no man apt or meet for such purposes, 
mt given to as much quietness as any within my house. 

My lord, it troubleth me to hear such reports of any of 
nine, and specially where no cause is given, trusting that 
ay houshold shall try themselves true subjects to the king^s * 
oajesty, and honest quiet persons ; or else I would be loath 
o keep them. And where you charge me that my pro- 
eedings in matters of religion should give no small cou- 
age to many of those men to require and do as they do : 
hat thing appeareth most evidently to be untrue, for all the 
ising about these parts is touching no point of religion; 
>ut even as ye ungently, and without desert charge me, so 
[, omitting so fully to answer it, as the case doth require, 
b and will pray God, that your new alterations, and un- 
awful liberties, be not rather the occasion of these assem- 
Jies, than my doings, who am (God I take to witnesse) in- 
juieted therewith. And as for Devonshire, no indifferent 

s 4 


ART person can lay their doings to my charge ; for I have neither 
^^^' land nor acquaintance in that country, as knoweth Almighty 
God, whom I humbly beseech to send you all as mudi 
plenty of his grace, as I would wish to my self. So with 
my hearty commendations, I bid you farewel. From my 
house at Kennynghall the xxth of July. 

Your friend to my power, 


Number S. 
A letter of Christopher Mont concerning the Interim. 

Christophorus Montius S. D. 
Wolph. Musculo. 

Cum harum lator mihi indicasset se dominum nosse, ndui 
eum sine meis ad te reverti Uteris. Ci^m ego Augusta 
discederem : disccssi autem, hujus nihil dum ibi innovatum 
fuit per ecclesias, sed optimi quique vehementer verebantur 
superstitiones inducendas propediem concionator ad 

S. Greorgium mihi significavit, senatum k concionatoribus 
effla^tare, ut modo in his calamitatibus civitatem non dese- 
rerent, scd porro in ea permanerent, se eos mature et in 
tempore certiores facturos, modo viderint superstitionem 
imminere, quasi modo non in media urbe dominetur. Ro- 
gavit quoque senatus, ut concionatores populo Interim 
quam compositissimis et coloratissimis verbis possent, pro- 
ponerent, quod major pars recus&runt, dicentes se hoc scrip- 
tum laudare nulla ratione neque constantia posse, quod 
communi suffragib damnassent, duo tamen se id facturos 
receperunt, quod et factum audivi ad S. Crucem et Mauri- 
cium. Non dubito te audiisse, de eo scripto, quod hue 
nuper allatum fuit ex Saxonia. Utinam Germana virtus 
et constantia alicubi permanens emineat, ut si non fortiter 
agendo, saltem fortiter adversa propter Domini gloriam 
ferendo, professionem et ofiicium nostrum testentur. Dux 
Gemini pontis August^ discessisse dicitur, ut qui Interim 
indictionem et promulgationem diocesano prsestandam et 
committendam dixerit, neque se neque suos huic execution! 


idoneos ministros esse. Tamen qua conditione dimissus at, BOOK 
certo nondum didici. Bremenses discessisse audio nondum ___ . 
recondliatos, nam tain graves eis conditiones prsescribi au- 
dio, ut quas omnino etiam si eas acceperint, praestare non 
possint. Multi putant consult^ tarn gravia prsscribi^ ut 
sub specie contumacise et obstinationis, obsidione presn et 
expugnati Frisise jungantur. Civitas quoque ea plurimis 
rebus agendis aptissima est, ut quae supra Visurgim et Al- 
bim posita accessum aperiat ad Chersonesum totam occu- 
pandum. Qua lege Constantienses redierint domum ex 
domino nosse cupio. Rogo quoque ut mihi agnificare velis 
quae concordiae et communicationis spes ipsis inter se Hel- 
vetis sit. Literas quas ad me perlatas voles, cura ad D. Bu- 
cerum adferri. Bene vale. Argentinae 18. Jul. 1548. Lite- 
ras tectas exuras. 

Number 4. 

J part of a letter of Hooper'' s to BuUingerj giving an account 
of the cruelty of the Spaniards in the Netherlands. 

Nos 14. Aprilis relicta Colonia, iter versus Antwerpiam, Ez MS. 
per Campiniam Brabantinam, sterilem ac arenosam, insti- ^^^' 
tuimus. 18. ejusdem, venimus omnes, Dei gratia, salvi et 
incolumes Antwcq^iam. 20. die, precibus oratoris regis nos- 
tri, qui apud Caesarem nunc agit, compulsus, Bruxellam 
me contuli, un^ cum Job. Stumphio, ut videret molliuem 
ac miserias aulae, praeterea servitutem civium Bruxellen- 
saum, qui jam Hispanorum imperium, latrocinium ac fur- 
turn, violationem filiarum, uxorum impudicitiam, minas de- 
nique ac plagas perditissimae gentis ferre coguntur; ut 
statum ac conditionem suae patriae altius considerarct, ar- 
dentius pro illo oraret, ac diligentius suos admoneret, ut 
alienis malis edoctos cautiores redderet. Caesarem non vidi- ' 
mus, quod raro cubiculum suum egreditur, nee filium, qui 
pascha suum egit extra civitatem, in monasterio quodam. 
Ducem Saxoniae Jo. Stumphius vidit per fenestram. Ego 
bis fui in aedibus illius valde humaniter acceptus k suis Ger- 
manis, qui ei adhuc inserviunt, ad numerum 80. Voluit 


ART dux, bis Tel ter, me admittere ad coUoquium ; aed impediTit 
semper primi capitanei Hi^MUiorum pneaentia. Virit oon- 
stanter in sua fide. Non valet, quantum ad valetudinem 
oorporis spectat, de liberatione illius nulla penitus affulget 
spesy nisi quod absit, religionem suam mutet: non mal^ 
sperat de verbo Dei. Catus landgravius captivus dettnetur 
Auldenardi, septem milliaribus k GandaTo: homo omnibus 
numeris miser et inconstans: nunc omnem obediendam 
Csesari, ac fidem pollicetur ; miasam, ac ca&tera impia sacra, 
obviis ulnis amplectitur, nunc Ca?sarero, cum suo interdicto, 
execratur ac detestatur. Dominus misereatur illius ; miaere 
affligitur, ac meritas poenas perfidiae susb jam luit. Et vidi- 
mus, praeterea Lazarum Scuendi proditorem ilium, quern 
nostis. De Brandeburgensi, ac aliis Germanis, Hispanorum 
mancipiis, nihil opus est quod scriberem. Legatus papae, 
per totam Quadragesimam, in sua aula est concionatus, 
qukm impi^ non scribam. Hoc taraen pro certo scio, non 
bene convenire inter papam et Csesarem, nee inter Galium 
ac Csesarem. Uterque vald^ sibi timet k Caesare : Caesar 
vicissim k fulmine papae maxima timet. Jam agitur seri6 
inter illos, an concilium generale Tridenti, an Bologni» sit 
celebrandum. Papa urget, mandat, rogat ac jubet, ut Caesar 
consentiat de Bolognia : is renuit, negat ac pemegat, omni- 
bus modis: et potius dicit se omnes amicitias cum papa 
desinere, quam iUum locum, Bologniam scil. admittere: 
quid monstri in hoc, ex parte papae, lateat, facile divinare 
licet. Difiidit regno suo valde ; nam hoc didici ab oratore 
nostro, qu5d si Caesaris confessor esset mediocriter pius, 
esset maxima spes, quod brevi in cognitioncm Christ! in- 
ducerctur. Nam apert^ mihi retulit, et Csesarem, et oon- 
siliarios suos omnes regi, impelli, duci ac trahi, per oonfes- 
sorem, qui omnia papae suasu et consilio agit. Et facile 
credo : nam ante septem menses, cum Caesar adhuc erat in 
superiore Germania, fuit derelictus k suo confessore, quod 
crudelius voluit saevire in pios viros, et in integrum pap»- 
tum restituere. Caesar obtulit ei episcopatum in Hispania, 
ad 20. millia coronatorum per annum : ne^exit Caesaiis 
liberalitatem, et Cassarem ipsum hisce verbis, Eocksiae 


Christi me solum debeo, sed non tibi, non dono tuo, nisi BOOK 
ecclesise mavis majori studio inservire. Jam de Csesaris 
animo ergo Helvetiam. Omncs in hoc consentiunt ilium 
vestrse libertati bostiliter invidere, propterea nullum Don 
movere lapidem, ut rumpat inter vos concordiam: si hac 
via res non succedat, omnia aget poUicitationibus. Cavete 
igitur, ne lactet vos inani spe. Denique absque dubio vos 
aggredietur bostili manu, non ut sic vincat, vel multos ex 
suis exponat periculo, sed ut vobis incutiat timorem. Rogo 
itaque ut unanimiter ac mutu6 vos diligatis, Deum timete, 
sancte vivite, strenu^ pugnate, ac expectate victoriam k 
Deo, qui procul dubio vobis aderit ac defendet. Adhuc 
putem vobis non imminere periculum, sed sitis semper pa- 
rati : et absit procul omnis securitas, ne obruat inopinantes. 
Adhuc Csesar bene scit^ se non posse pro voto uti rebus 
Germanise. Doluit illi ssepius, (ut accepi k viris fide dig<* 
nis) aliquid tentHsse in religione : quidem si Grermanis per- 
misisset liberam maxima fuisse in re illius. Aiunt Caesarem 
brevi profecturum, Gandavum et k Gandavo iterum petitu- 
rum Bruxellam, vel ascensurum versus Spiram. Copias 
militum habet prope Bremam ac civitates maritimas, sed 
otiosas : nihil proficiunt res, k civibus multum timetur, in- 
dies magis ac magis civitates suas muniunt et comeatum 
habent ad quinque annos, non multum Csesaris gratiam 
amplius ambiunt. Quam graves exactiones k suis Csesar 
jam exigit credo se non ignorare. Dicam tamen tristem ac 
deplorandam orationem, quam efFudit pia mulier, hospita 
nostra in Campinia : Si inquit ferre potuerim in sinu meo 
magnam ac jam nunc molestam turbam liberorum meorum, 
fugerem ac per stipem victum qusererem, nam Caesare ac 
reginae exactores labores sudores nostri exantlant. Hac ex 
parte Angli etiam jam valde laborant, concessa est regi 
quinta pars omnium bonorum. Sed adhuc de Helvetia 
unum. Heri ^. Aprilis invitatus ad prandium k quodam - 
dve Antverpensi, qui optima novit Helvetiam, ac ssepe in 
omnibus civitatibus Helvetiorum exposuit merces suas, is 
mihi retulit, se frequenter vidisse in aula Csesaris ex eo 
quod Csesar superiorem partem Grermanise reliquerit, pub- 


ART lico6 ministros civitatis Lucernansey nam bene novit illoe ex 
^'^* colore vestium, metuendum est, ne arcana patriae per hujus- 
modi patefiant, vel aliquid majus malum lateat. 

The rest of the letter relates to private concerns. 

Number 5. 

The oath of supremacy , as it was made when the bishops did 
homage in king Henry the VIlIMs time. The last zcords 
were struck out by king Edward the VIA. 

Ye shall say and swere as foloweth, I shall be faithful 
and true, and faith and trowth I shall here unto your ma- 
jestie, and to your heires kings of this realme ; and with liff 
and lymme, and erththelie honour for to live and dye as 
your faithful subject, agayne all persons of what degre, 
state, or condition soever they bee: and I shall preferr, 
sustayne, and majmtayne the honour, surtie, right, prehe- 
minencc, and prerogatif of your majestic, and your h^res 
kings of this realm, and jurisdiction of your imperiall 
crownc of the same, afore and agaynst all maner of persones, 
)X)wers, and auctorities whatsoever they bee : and I shall not 
witlynglie do, or attempt, nor to my power suffer to be done 
or attempted any thing, or things, prively, or apartly, that 
may be to the dymunytion or derogation of your crowne 
of this realme ; or of the lawes, liberties, rights, and preroga- 
tiffes belonging to the same, but put myne effectual ende- 
vour from tyme to tyme, as the case shall requier to advance 
and increas the same to my wit and uttermost of my power : 
and in nowise hcrafter I shall accept any othe, or make any 
promise, pact, or covenant, secretly or apertlye by any 
maner of means, or by any colour of pretence to the con- 
trary of this my othe, or any part therof. And I shall be 
diligentlye attendant uppon your majestic, and to your 
heires kings of this realme, in all your commaundements, 
causes, and busynesses. And also I knowledge and recog- 
nize your majestic ymmediately under Almightie God to be 
the chief and supreme hede of the church of England, and 


clayme to have the bishepriche of Chester j holye and allonlye BOO K 
of your gift : and to have and to hold the proffites temporal 
and spiritual of the same allonlye of your majestie, and of 
your heires kings of this realme, and of none other : and in 
that sorte and none other, I shall take my restitution owt 
of your handes accordinglye, utterly renownring any other 
suit to be had herefore to any other creature liff^ng, or here- 
after to be, except your heires. And I shall to my wit and 
uttermost of my power observe, keep, mayntayn, and de- 
fende all the statutes of this realme made agaynst the reser- 
vations and provisions of the bishop of Rome, called the pope, 
of any of the archiebusshopriches or busshopriches in this 
realme, or of other your domynions. And also I shall ob- 
serve, fullfiU, defende, mayntayn, and kepe to the uttermost 
of my power all the hole effects and content of the statute 
made for the surtie of your succession of your crowne of this 
realme, and all the causes and articles mentioned and con* 
teagned in the saide statute : and also all other statutes made 
in confirmation, or for the due execution of the same. And 
aU theis things I shall do without colour, fraude, or any 
other undue mean agaynst all persons, powers^ and auc- 
toil ties of the world, whatsoever they be. And in one 
wise for any maner of cause, colour, or pretence, prively or 
apertlye I shall move, do, or attempt ; nor to any power 
suffer to be done or attempted any thing or things to the 
contrary herof, so help me God, all sayntes, and the holye 

Per me Roland** Co^ et Lich" electum. 

Number 6. 

A letter of Peter Martyr* s to BuUinger^ of the state of the 
university qfOxJbrd^ in the year 1550, June 1. 

S. D. Uteris tuis vir eximie mihique in Christo plurimum^^?* 
observande, long^ antea respondisse debueram, ad quod 
£Euriendum, non solum institutum oiBcium inter amicos, 
verum etiam quod suavissimae fuerunt et bene comitatae 
alus symmistarum epistolis jucundissimis : vehementer ex- 


RT timulabar sed quando redditse sunt adveraa valetudine 

J nihil afflictabar: et statim ut convalui, ea mole iiegotii>- 

rum pen^ sum oppressus, ut quod maxim^ cupiefaam faoere 
non licuerit, cujusmodi autem fuerint hae occupationes pau- 
cis expediam. Praeter quotidianas interpretationes Pauli, 
quod totum ferme hominem ^bi veudicat, si velit in eis pro 
-dignitate venari, aocessit ex legibus mod5 latis k repa, ma- 
jeftate, huic academi^e novum onus. Quippe decretum est, 
ut frequenter publics disputationes de rebus theologicb ha- 
•beantur, hocest altemis hebdomadis, quibus mihi prscipi- 
tur, ut et intersim et praesim. Deinde in hoc regio ocdiegio 
ubi dego, angrula quaque septimana, theologicfle disputatioiies 
agitantur, qu« cum ad illas audiendas aditus omnibus patet, 
identidem publicee dici possunt, bisque sum oonstitutus pari- 
ter, atque aliis censor. Est itaque cum adversariis perpetuft 
luctandum, et quidem pertinacissimis, quo fit, ut velim nolim 
£unl^ cogar, alias non rar6 seponere literas, et vocationi eui 
sum obstrictus, totum tempus mihi concessum tranamitlere. 
Verum certi scio boni consules, nee in malam partem capias 
(quae tua est humanitas) quod k contemptione profectum 
non esse animadvertes. Gaudeo quas scripseram UteraSt abs 
te hilari laetoque animo fuisse susceptas : neque vulgares ago 
gratias, quod tuum praesidium, si quid me posdis cojuTaie, 
tam promts atque alacriter ofiers. Becompenset Deus 
istum animum, ut ego ilium sincera charitate complector! 
Hie ver6 scit6 negotium religionis procedere non quidemeo 
successu, eoque ardore quo velim, sed tamen plus quAm 
nostra peccata mereantur, et aliquanti^ felicius, atque mihi 
ante quatuor menses polliceri ausus essem. Permulta cert^ 
sunt quae nobis obstant, cumprimis adversariorum cojAOf 
concionatorum inopia, et eorum qui profitentur evangelium 
crassa vitia, et quorundam praeterea humana prudentia, qdi 
judicant religionem quidem repurgandam, sed ita vellent de- 
mutari quam minimi fieri possit, quod cum animo sint etjM- 
dido civUes, existimant maximos motus republicas fore per- 
niciosos. Verum tu ipse cemis, cum innumerae corruptionoSy 
infiniti abusus, et immensae superstitiones in ecdeaia Chriiti 
passim inoleverint, fieri non posse ut justa babeatur instau- 


Tado niffl quae deflexerunt in vitium, ad suos genuinos ortus BOG'S 
puriflBimos fontes et inadulterata princi[Na revocentur. Satan 
astute sanctos conatus aggreditur, vellet enim hoc prsetextu 
q. numerosissimas papains relinquere reliquias. Partim ne 
homines ejus facile obliviscerentur, partim yer6 ut reditus 
ad ilium facilior maneret. At vicissim inde consolationis 
haufflmus, quod regem habemus ver^ sanctum, qui tanto 
studio pietatis flagrat, ea est, hac aetate, praedictus erudi- 
tione, eaque prudentia jam nunc et gravitate loquitur, ut 
omnes in admirationem stuporemque se audientesjconvertat. 
Quamobrem, orandus est Deus contentissimis votis, ut eum 
regno et ecclesiae mult& diutissim^ conservet. Sunt et com- 
plures heroes, regnique proceres, bene admodum sentientea ; 
et aliquos episcopos habemus, non pessimos, inter quos est 
uti signifer Cantuariensis. Deinde in eorum album cooptar- 
tus est Hooperus, magna porr5 bonorum omnium letitia; 
utque audio, contigit ei populus non malus; me ilium 
spero visurum, quando ad suum episcopatum iter faciet. 
Nam si Glooestnam se conferee, quae est ejus ecclesia, per 
no6 hac transibit. Quo autem pacto duci potuerit, ut fieret 
episcopus, referrem pluribus, nisi compertissimum haberem, 
iiiiim ipsum (quae est ejus inte observantia) omnia fusissim^ 
sciipturum. Est alius prseterea vir bonus, Michael Cover- 
dalius, qui superioribus annis agebat in Germania paro- 
chum : is multum in Devonia, et praedicando, et interpre- 
tando scripturas, laborat ; eum te prob6 n6sse arbitror, qui 
Excestrensis episcopus fiet. Nilque potest com modi, ut et 
utilius fieri ad religionis repurgationem, quam si homines 
hujus farinae ad ecclesise administrationem impellantur. Con- 
tulit etiam se hue dominus Alasco, quum ejusPhrysiaimpe- 
ratorium Interim admisit, utque olfado, Londini Oermano- 
rum ecclesiae praeerit ; quod mihi vehementer placet. Degit 
nunc apud D. Cantuariensem. Accepisti jam quo loco nos- 
trae res in Anglia sint, quae adhuc nonnihil melioris spei effi- 
cit ; pax ista, cum rege Gallorum facta, quae videtur indies 
magis corroborari. Solum nonnuUi verentur, ne in bonorum 
pemiciem, quod jactitare incipiunt papistae celebretur con- 
cilium : verum si sapuerimus et hoc genus cogitationum, in 


Part Deum rejiciamus. Sermones quos edidisti, fuerunt hoc 
' tempore utiles monilares, qui ut ex mediis scripturis Sanctis 
recitati sunt, ita et grati fuerunt; et spero, non absque 
fructu legentur. Johannem ab Ulmis, et Stumphium, quos 
mihi commendasti, e^ qu^ possum charitate compiector; 
atque ipsi vicissim me colunt, et observant : ad me venti- 
tant saepius ; et si quid vel scribendum, vel aliud agendum, 
mea causa sit, prsestare non detrectant, sed lubenti voleo- 
tique animo faciunt ; qua de causa, illis non parum debeo. 
Sed audio, Stumphium ad vos delatum esse, quod contra 
qu^m vestiis legibus liceat, nescio quod ab Anglis stipen- 
dium accipiat ; id vero cerib scias, falsum esse. Vixit hie 
aliquandiu in nostro coUegio, sed sua pecunia ; quod post- 
hac non illi fraudi sit, utque ulla specie mali abstineat: hie 
discessit, et in oppido, apud civem bibliopolam, divertit 
Mod6 qu6d superest, tuos, tuorumque preces, quanta pos- 
sum cum instantia imploro ; quo progrediatur in hoc r^o 
Domini opus, atque tandem corda patrum in filios, et corda 
filiorum in patres suos, nostro ministerio revocentur. 
Oxonii, prim^ Junii 1550. Valeas in Domino; et me, ut 
flEU^ias, ama. 

Tuus, ex animo, 

Petrus Martyr. 

Salutes, quaeso, isthic meo nomine, omnes bonos in 

fratres; ac nominatim, D. Bibliandrum, et doctorem 


Clarissimo; pietate et doctrina, viro, 
D. Henrico Bullingero, ecclesiae 
Tigurinse pastori fidefissimo, do- 
mino suo ac fr. colendissimo^ 



Number 7. *OpK 

A mandate J in K, Edwards name^ to the officers of the arch- — ^— — 
bishop of Canterbury; requiring them to see thai the ar^ 
tides of religion should be subscribed. 

Mandatum pro publicatione nonnullorum articulorum^ 
veram proponi fidem concernentium. 

Edwakdus Scxtus, Dei gratia, Anglise, et Francis, etReg.Crmo- 
Hibemise rex, fidei defensor, et in terra ecclesiae Anglicanae "*'^' ^^^* 
et Hibemise supremum caput Dilectis sibi, ofliciali curiae 
Cantuar'* et decano decanatus de arcubus Londin^ ac eorum 
surrogatis, deputatis, aut locum tenentibus, uni vel pluribus, 
salutem. Quoniam nuper, per literas nostras r^gias, ogneto 
nostro obsignatas, reverendissimo in Christo patri, consilia- 
no nostro iidelissimo, Thomae Cantuariensi arehiepiscopo, 
totius Angliae primati et metropolitano, dederimus in man- 
datis. Quatenus ipse, ad Dei optimi maximi gloriam illus- 
trandam, nostraraque, et ecclesise nostras Anglicanae (cujus 
caput supremum, post Christum, esse dignoscimur) ho- 
norem, et ad tollendam opinionis dissensionem, et consensum 
verae religionis firmandum, nonnullos articulos, et alia rectam 
Christ! fidem spirantia, clero et populo nostris, ubi libet 
infra suam jurisdictionem degentibus, pro parte nostra ex- 
poneret, publicaret, denunciaret et significaret; prout in 
Uteris nostris (quarum tenores, pro hie insertis habere vo- 
lumus) latius continetur, et describitur. Vobis igitur, et 
eorum cuilibet, tenore praesentium, district^ praecipiendo 
nostra sublimi regia auctoritate, mandamus ; quatenus mo- 
neatis, monerive faciatis, peremptori^, omnes et singulos 
rectores, vicarios, presbyteros, stipendiarios, curatos, pleba^ 
nos, roinistros, ludimagistros cujuslibet scholae grammatices, 
aut aliter vel alias grammaticam, apert^ vel privatim pro- 
fitentes, aut pubem instituentes, verbi Dei praedicatores, vel 
praelectores, necnon quoscunque alios, quamcunque aliam 
functionem ecclesiasticam, (quocunquc nomine, aut appel- 
latione, censetur, habetur, aut nuncupetur) obtinentes et 
habentes. Oeconimos quoque cujuslibet parochiae, infra 
decanatum de arcubus praedictum, existentes ant degentes, 

VOL, III. p. 3. T 


PART quod ipsi omnes, et eorum quilibet, per se cx>mpareat9 et 
compareat personaliter, coram dicto reverendissimo patre 
Cantuar^ archicpiscopo, in aula sediuin suarum apud Lam- 
behithe, die Veneris vicesimo tertio die praesentis mensis 
Junii, inter horas septimani et nonam, ante meridiem 
ejusdem diei. Hisque tunc iis ex parte nostra fuerint sig- 
nificanda, humiliter obtemperaturos, facturosque ulterius et 
recepturos, quod consonans fuerit rationi, ac suo convenerit 
erga nostram regiam dignitatem officio. Mandantes qua- 
tenus, dictis die, loco et horis, eundem reverendissimum, de 
executione hujus regii nostri mandati, un^ cum nominibus 
et cognominibus, omnium et singulorum, per vos monitorum, 
rit^, rect^, et auctentic^ reddatis, certiorem, un^ cum prsD^ 
sentibus uti decet. Teste Thorn^ Cant^ archiepiscopo, pras^ 
dicto, decimo nono die Junii, anno regni nostri septimo. 

Certificatorium Jhctuin super executione mandaii prced^cA, 

Reverendissimo in Christo patri et domino domino 
Thomas, permissione divina, Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, 
totius Angliae primati et metropolitano ; auctoritate illus- 
trissimi in Christo principis, et domini nostri domini £d- 
wardi Sexti, Dei gratia, Angliae, Francise, et Hibernife regis, 
fidei defensoris, ac in terri ecclesiae Anglicanse et Hibemicie, 
supremi capitis; sufficienti auctoritate fulcito Johannes Gib- 
bon civilium legum professor, vestrae celcitudinis observan- 
tissimus, pariter eidem addictissimus decanatus vestr" beats 
Marise Virginis, de archibus London, commissarius omnem 
que decet reverentiam, et obedientiam, tan to reverendissimo 
pgtri debitam cum honore. M andatum illustrissimi et po- 
tentissimi domini nostri regis, presentibus annexum, nuper 
accepimus, cujus vigore pariter et auctoritate omnes et sin- 
gulos rectores, presbiteros, &c. Dat. vicessimo secundo die 
mensis Junii, anno Domini millessimo quingentessimo quin- 
quagessimo tertio. 


Number 8, »^K 

By the king. 

The king's mandate to the bishop ofNorvAch^ sent XfAQ^ the 
articles to be subscribed by the clergy^ 

Right reverende father in Grod^ right trustie and well- 
beloved, we grete you well: and bicause it hath pleased 
Almightie God in this latter Ume of the world, after long 
darkenes of knowleadge to reveale to this his churche of 
Englande ; whereof we have under Christ the chief charge 
in earth ; a nncere knowlege of the gospell, to the inestim- 
able benefit of us and our people, redeemed by our Saviour 
Christ. We have thought it mete, and our dutie for the 
pure ccmservacion of the same gospell in our church, with 
one uniforme profession, doctryne, and preachinge, and for 
the avoyding of many perilous and vain opinions, and er- 
rors, to sende unto you certayne articles, devised and ga- 
thered with great study, and by council, and good advice of 
the greatest learned parte of our byshoppes of this realm, 
and sundry others of our clergie ; which articles we wyll 
and exhort your self to subscribe, and in your preadiinga, 
redings, and teachings, to observe and cause to be sub* 
scribed and observed, of all other which do, or hereafter 
shall preache, or reade, within your dioces. And if any 
person or persons, having benefice within your dioces, shall 
from henceforth, not only refuse wylfully to set their hands 
to these articles, but also obstinatly exhort their parrochians 
to withstande the same, and teache the people in a contrary 
way ; our pleasure is, that beinge duly proved, ye shall ad- 
vertise us, or our cownsaile of the hoole mattier, fully to 
thintent suche furter ordre may by direction from us, or 
our Bud cownsail, to be taken as the case shall require, and 
shall stande with justice, and thWdre of our lawes. And 
further, that when and as often as ye shall have any man- 
ner of person presented unto you to be admitted by yowe 
ag the ordinary to any ecclesiastical ordre, ministry, oflSce, 
or cure, within your dioces, that^ye shall before you admit 
Km conferre with him in every theis articles. And finding 

— c% 


PART him therto consen tinge, to cawse him subscribe the same in 
one legier book to be fourmed for that purpose, which maye 
remayne as a registre for a concorde, and to let him have a 
copye of the same articles. And if any men in that case 
shall refuse to consent to any of the said articles, and to 
subscribe the same, then we will and command you, that 
neither ye, nor any for you, or by your procurement in any 
wise shall admit t him, or allowe him as sufficient and mete 
to take any ordre, ministery, or eccle^astical cure. For 
whiche yower so doinge we shall discharge yowe from all 
maner of penalties, or daungers of actions, suits, or plees 
of premonirees, quare impeditj or such lyke. And yet our 
meaning is, that if any partie refuse to subscribe any of 
these articles for lack of learning and knowledge of the 
trewth, ye shall in that case by teachinge, conference, and 
prouf of the same by the scriptures, reasonably and discretely 
move and perswade him therto before yow shall perempto- 
rilye judge him as unhable and a recusant. And for the 
tryall of his conformitie, ye shall according to your discredon 
prefix a time and space convenient to deliberate and give 
his consent, so that be betwixt three weks and lUx weks 
from the time of the first accesse unto yowe. And if after 
six weks he wyll not consent and agree wyllinglie to sub- 
scribe, then ye may lawfullye, and shall in any wyse refuse 
to admytt or enhable him. And where there is of late sett 
fourthe by our authoritie a Cathechisme for the instruction of 
younge scolers in the feare of God, and the trewe knowleage 
of his holy religion, with expresse oommaundyment from 
us to all schole maisters to teache and instruct their scholars 
the saide Cathechisme, making it the beginning and first 
foundacion of ther teaching in their scholes : our pleasure is, 
that for the better exequution of our said commaundyment, 
ye shall yearely, at the least once visit, or cause to be vi- 
sited, every schole within your saide dioces, in which vi- 
sitacion yt shall be enquired both howgh the scole maister 
of every such schole hath used himself in the teaching of 
the said Cathecisme ; and also howgh the scholars do receyve 
and followe the same, making playne and full certificate of 


the offenders, contrary to this our ordre, and of their seve- BOOK 
rail offences, to the archbishop of that province, within the ' 

monethes from tyme to tyme after every such offence. 
Yeoven lindre our signet at the manor of Grenewich the 
ixth daye of June, the viith yeare of our reign. 

This is faithfully transcribed from the beginning of a 
folio MS. book in the principal registry of the lord 

bisliop of Norwich After which immediately follow 

Articuli de quibus in synodo Londinensi^ anno Domini 
1552. ad tollendam dissensionem et consensu verce re- 
ligioniSy Jirmandum inter episcopos et alios eruditos 
viros^ convenerat regid authoritate in lucem ediH. 
4& Articles as in the Appendix of £d volume of the His- 
tory of the Reformation, N. 55. subscribed by about 
50 ori^nal hands, thus : 

Per me Milonem Spenser. 
Per m£ Johannem Barrett. 
Feb. 12, 1718. Per me Petrum WatU, &c. 

Examined by 

Thom. Tanner. 

Number 9. 

OmaHss. viris daminis Sands, ac regentibtis et non-regen" 

tibus academics Cantabr, 

i£auuM est, ut qui se literarum studiis dediderunt, et in 
veri inquisitione versantur, illius disciplinae veritatem pro- 
fiteantur, quae ad vivendum est utilissima, et ad judican- 
dum cum verbo Dei convenientissima. Ciim autem in red- 
intigranda religione, multum diuque regiae majestatis 
authoritate, et bonorum atque eruditorum virorum judiciis 
sit elaboratum, et de articulis quibusdam in synodo Londi- 
nensi anno Domini 1552. ad tollendam opinionum dispen- 
tionem, conclusum : aequissimum judicavimus, eosdem regik 
authoritate promulgatos, et omnibus episcopis ad meliorem 
dioceseos suae administrationem traditos, vobis etiam com- 
mendare, et visitationis nostra; authoritate praecipere ac 
statuere de his, ad hunc modum. 



PART SiDguli doctores et bachalloreB theologise, et siiiguli pr»- 
^^*' terea artium doctores, solennker et publioe, ante creatkiDem 
Buam, hoc jurejurando sequent! se astringant, et in ^tm- 
mentaiios academia;, ad id designatos, suk ipaorUm manu 
referant. Quod ni fecerint gradus sui capiendi repolnm 

Ego N. N. Deo teste promitto ac spondee, prime me 
Veram Chrisd religionem, omni animo complexuruni, scrip- 
turse authoritatem hominum judicio prsepositurum, regu- 
liun vitae et summam fidei, ex verbe Dei petiturum, cetera 
quae ex verbe Dei non probantur, pro humanis et non ne- 
cessariis habi^urum. Authoritatem regiam in hominibus 
summam, et extemerum episcoperum jurisdictioni minime 
subjectam sestimaturum ; et contrarias verbe Dei opinienes, 
omni voluntate ac mente refutaturum. Vera oonsuetis, 
scripta non scriptis, in religionis caus& antehabiturum. De- 
inde me articulos, de quibus in sinodo Londinenri anno 
Domini 1558. ad tollendam opinionum dissensionem et con- 
sensum verae religionis firmandum inter episcopes et alios 
erudites viros convenerat, et regi& authoritate in lucem edi- 
tos, pro veris et certis habiturum, et omni in loco tanquam 
consentientes cum verbo Dei defensurum, et contraries arti- 
culos in scholis et pulpitis vel respondendo vel concionando 
oppugnaturum. Haec omnia in me recipio, Deoque teste, 
me sedulo facturum promitto ac spondee. 

An. 1563, 1 Jun. ex MS. 
coll. Corp. Chr. Cant. 

The. Ely Cane. Joannes Cheeke. 
Gul.Meye. The. Wendy. 

Number 10. 
King Edward's devise Jbr the svccessiony written with his 

own hand. 

ix MSS. For lack of issue male of my body, to the issue male 

***y^** coming of the issue female y as I have ctfier declared. To 

the said Frances heirs males, if she have any ; for lack of 

such issue before my death, to the said Jane and heirs 


males; to the said Katherine's heirs males; to the lady BOOK 
Mary^s heirs males : to the heirs males of the daughters, ' 

which she shall have hereafter. Then to the lady Marget^s 
heirs males. For lack of such issue, to the heirs males of 
the lady Janets daughters ; to the heirs males of the lady 
Katherine^s daughters, and so forth, till you come to the 
lady Marget^s heirs males. 

2. If after my death the heir male be entred into eighteen 
year old, then he to have the whole rule and governance 

3. But if he be under eighteen, then his mother to be 
govemes, till he enters eighteen year old : but to do nothing 
without the advice and aggreement of six parcell of a coun- 
dll^ to be pointed by my last will, to the number of 20. 

4. If the mother die before the heir enter into eighteen, 
the realm to be governed by the councill : provided that 
after he be fourteen year, all great matters of importance 
be opened to him. 

5. If I died xoWumt issue^ and there were none heir 
male; then the lady Frances to be gouvemes regent. For 
lack of her y her eldest daughters ; andjbr lack of them, the 
lady Marget to be govemes after ^ as is aforesaid^ tiU some 
heir male be bom ; and then the mother of that child to be 

6. And if^ during ike rule of the gouvemes^ there die Jour 
of the councill; then shall sliCy by her letters^ call an assem^ 
bly of the councill, within one month JbUowing, and chuse 
fbur more : wherein she shall have th'ee voices. But after 
her deaths the sixteen shall chuse among themselves, till the 
heir come to fourteen year old; and then he, by their advice, 
shall chuse them. 

The paragraphs in Italicks are dashed out, yet so as to 
be le^ble. 

T 4 


Number 11. 
. The councils original subscripHony to Edward the VltKi 
limitcUion of the crown; in these words: 

We whose hands are underwritten^ having heretofore 
many times heard the king^s majesty, our most gracious 
sovereign lord^s earnest desire^ and express commandmeDt, 
touching the limitation of the succession in the imperial 
crown of this realm, and others his majesty^s realms and 
dominions; and having seen his majesty'^s own device, 
touching the said succes^on, first wholly written with his 
most gracious hand, and after copied out in his majesties 
presence, by his most high commandment, and confirmed 
with the subscription of his majesUes own hand ; and by 
his highness deliver^ to certain judges, and other learned 
men, to be written in full order : do, by his majesdes spe- 
ciall and absolute commandment, eftsoones given us, aggree, 
and by these presents signed with our hands, and sealed 
with our seals, promise by our oaths and honours, to ob- 
serve fully, perform and keep, all and every article, clause, 
branch and matter, contained in the said writing delivered 
to the judges and others, and superscribed with his ma- 
jesties hand in six several places : and all such other matter, 
as his majesty, by his last will, shall appoint, declare or 
command, touching or concerning the limitation of the suc- 
cession of the said imperiall crown. And we do further 
promise, by his majesty'^s said commandment, never to vary 
or swerve, during our lives, from the said limitation of the 
succession; but the same shall, to the uttermost of our 
powers, defend and maintain. And if any of us, or any 
other, shall at any time hereafter (which God forbid) vary 
from this agreement, or any part thereof; we, and every of 
us, do assent to take, use and repute him, for a breaker of 
the common concord, peace and unity of this realme ; and 
to do our uttermost to see him or them so varying or 
swerving, punished with most sharp punishments, accord- 
ing to their deserts, 

T. Cant. T. Ely, Cane. Winchester. Northumberland. 


J.Bedford. H.Suffolk. W.Northampton. F. Shrews- BOOK 
bury. F. Huntington. Pembroke. E. Clinton. T. ' 

Darcy. 6. Cobham. R. Ryche. T. Cheyne. 

John Gate. William Petre. John Cheek. W. Cecill. 
Edward Mountague. John Baker. 

Edward GryflSn. John Lucas. 
John Gosnald. 

Number 12. 

Articles and instructions ^ annexed to the commission^ Jbr 
taking the surrender of the cathedral ^Norwich. 

Fi&sT, the said commissioners shall repair to the cathe- 
dral-church of Norwich, declaring to the dean and chapter 
of the same, that the king^s majesty^s pleasure is, for diverse 
good and reasonable causes and considerations, to have the 
said college to be surrendred and given up into his majesty^s 
bands; to the intent that the same shall be altered in such 
good and godly wise, as the king that dead is, (whose soul 
God pardon) amongst other his godly purposes and intents, 
and the king'^s majesty that now is, by the advice of his ho- 
nourable council, hath determined. And that they shall 
practise and conclude with them, for and in his highnesses 
name, for the same surrender, to be had^ done and per- 
formed, in such manner and form as by their discretions 
shall be thought most reasonable and convenient. 

2. And after the said surrender, and gift made of the said 
college, and of all lands, tenements, hereditaments and pos- 
sessions of the same, by the dean and chapter thereof, to the 
use of the king's highness, according to a deed and writing, 
devised and delivered to the said commissioners for that 
purpose; the said commissioners to take order, with the 
dean and prebendaries, canons, and all other officers and 
ministers of the said cathedral-church, that they shall be, 
remain, continue and minister there, in such sort as they do, 
xintil the alteration of the said church shall be made perfect. 
Declaring further to the same dean, prebendaries and ca- 
tions, that they, and every of them, shewing themselves 


^RT willing and conformable^ according to the king**8 majesty^s 
--" — , shall, from the time of the said surr«ider,haTe 


as much in profit and commodity, for and towards thmr liv- 
ing, as they had before the same surrender, in such wise, as 
they shall have good cause to be well satisfied and contented. 

3. Also the said commissioners shall make an inventory of 
all the plate and jewels, ornaments, goods and chattds of 
the said cathedral-church, and deliver the same to the detn 
and prebendaries, by bills indented : and the said commis- 
sioners are to take order with them that the same may coo- 
tinue, remain, and be used there, until the new erection of 
the said church, to the intents and purposes that they were 
ordained for : and declaring further, that the same shall be 
as^gned and given to them, upon the new erection and 
foundation of the said cathedral-church. 

4. Also the said commissioners, calling to them the offi- 
cers and ministers of the said cathedral-church, shall cause a 
perfect book, rental or value, to be made, of all the posses- 
sions, as well spiritual as temporal, of the same church, with 
the rents, resolute, and deduction of the same : and also to 
note and certify the decays thereof, if any be : and to cause 
the same rentals, book or value, to be certified and delivered 
into the court of augmentations and revenues of the king's 
majesty'^s crown, with as convenient speed as it may be done. 

6. Item^ The said commissioners are to do and execute all 
such other things as they shall think convenient and neces- 
sary, to the full accomplishment of this commission ; and to 
certify the truth and circumstance of the same, together with 
this commission. 

Vera Copia, 
H. Prideaux. 

Number 18. 

An original letter of queen Marjfa to king Philip^ before 

he xorote to her. 

Monsieur, mon bon et perpetuel allie: entendant que 
Tambassadeur de Tempereur, monseigneur et bon pere, resi- 


dant ches moy depeschoyt le porteur de cestes devers vostre BOOK 
haultetsse. Encores que ne niayes particulierement escript 
dois, que nostre alliance ^ este traictee. Si est ce me sentant 
tant obligee, de la sincere et vray affection que me portee, 
que ves confirmee, tant par les effectz que par les lettres 
escriptes, audict ambassadeur, et par la negociation que le 
deur d^Egmont et aultres, et Tambassadeur de mon diet 
adgneur ont traicte. Je ne peu delaisser vous tesmoigner le 
youloyr et debuoyr, que jay de vous correspondre a jamais: 
et Yous mercie treshumblement tant de bons offices^ et joync- 
tement vous advertis, que le parlement^ qui represente les 
estats du mon royaulme, k approuve les articles de nostre 
maiyage sans contradiction, comme trouvant les condicions 
dioelluy honorables, advantmgeuses, et plusque raisonnables; 
que me meet en entiere confidence, que vostre venue par 
deca sera seure et agreable. Et esperant de brief suplier le 
surplus verbalement, je feray fin aux presentes ; priant le . 
Createur qui vous donnat, monseigneur, mon bon et per- 
petuel allie, faire vostre voyage par deca en prosperite et . 

lante, me recommendant tresaffectueusement et humblement 

k vostre haultesse. 
A Londres, le xx. 

d"* April. Vostre entierement, 

Et plus obligee alliee, 


Number 14. 

Qfteen Mary* a letter to the earl of Sussex, to take care of 

elections to the parliament. 

Mary the Queen. 
Right trusty and welbeloved cosen, we greet you well. Ex MSS. 
And where for diverse causes, tending principally to the ad-^^^ 
"ivnoement of Grod''s glory, and the commonwealth of this 
our realme, wee have thought convenient to call our high 
court of parliament to the 12th of the next mooeth, as by 
our writ of summonds, sent unto you for that purpose^ ye 


lR T may at better length perceive; likeas for your own part, wee 

J^ doubt not but ye wil be ready to assist us with your best 

advice and counsail for the furtheranceof our good purpose, 
in such matters as are to be treated of in our said parlia- 
ment ; so to the end the same may be more gravely debated, 
and circumspectly handled, to the honour of Almighty God, 
and general comodity of our loving subjects, wee have 
thought convenient specially to require and pray you to ad- 
monish on our behalfe such our good and loving subjects as, 
by order of our writs, have the elections of knights, citisens, 
or burgeses, within our rule, to choose of their inhalntants, 
as being ehgible, by order of our lawes, may be of the wise, 
grave, and catholick sort. Such as indeed mean the true 
honour of Grod, with the prosperity of the common-wealth. 
The advancement whereof wee, and our dear husband the 
king, doe chiefly professe and intend, without alteration of 
any particular man^s possesion, as amongst other falae ru- 
mours, the hinderers of our good purposes, and favorers of 
heresies, doe utterly report. And to the end wee may the 
better confer with you about these matters that are to be 
treated of in our said parliament, our pleasure is, you do 
put your self in a readiness to make your repair hither, so 
as ye may be with us against the feast of All-Saints at the 
furthest. Given under our signet at our palace of West- 
minster the 6th of October, the lid year of our reigne. 

Number 16. 
Cardinal Pole's Jirst Utter to queen. Mary. 

Benedicta maiius omnipotentis Dei, quae non solum 
majcstatem tuam in alto throne, et possessione regni collo- 
cavit ; (quod multos annos ad earn spectabat, et ab omnibus 
bonis optabatur, atq; inter sacras preces petebatur a divina 
dementia :) sed etiam eo res deduxit, ut non modo res ipsa, 
verum etiam ratio ipsius rei conficiendfe omnes amicos incre- 
dibili laetitia perfundat, et precipue pium animum tuum, 
quia sine sanguine res peracta est, prope cum magna clades 
esset timenda propter fraudes adversariorum, quae non par- 


vis viribus erant suffultae ad earn justissiiiia successione pri- BOOK 
vandam ; atque cum propter longum spacium sibi divinitus 
concessum ad suas insidias subtexendas, putarant se ad finem 
optatum cum scelere suscepti consilii pervenisse, sine novis 
auxiliis, sed solis viribus quas Spiritus Dei excitavit in ani- 
mis mortalium, efFectum est diving providentift, ut brevi m<v 
men to temporis irriti ac delusi sint omnes mortalium appa- 
ratus : ita conversi sunt, qui humane malitiae militabant ad 
protegendum honorcm Dei, majestatis tuae incolumitatem, 
ac totius regni salutem. 

Si quis itaque miratur cur tua majestas nullis extemis vi- 
ribus, pauds etiam subditis audentibus ejus partes amplecti, 
potuerit regnum ita usurpatum adversus tantam hominum 
malitiam et potentiam recuperare ; aut siquis rogaret, quo 
modo factum est istud ? Res ipsa respondere poterit ; Spi- 
ritus Sanctus supervenit in corda hominum, qui ea ratione 
tibi regnum restituere voluit ; atque hoc uno exempio non 
solum vestris populis, sed universis Christianis, et barbaris 
nationibus manifestum fit, quia nullum fit consilium, nee 
prudentia, nee fortitudo contra Dominum Deum, et quod 
excelsus dominetur, in regno hominum, et cui voluerit, et 
quando voluerit dabit illud. Ejus divinae providentiae in 
rebus humanis credulitas (prsecipuum nostrae religionis fun- 
damentum) si unquam in istud regnum introduci, et confir- 
mari debuit, per ullam manifestam experientiam ; hoc max- 
ime tempore introduci necesse est, quo propter impiorum 
tarn diuturnam authoritatem, ita erat in animis hominum 
debilitata et in eorum animis prsesertim, qui prudentiores, 
sapientioresque putabantur, ut penitus videretur extincta. 
Cum divinae itaque bonitati placuerit, ita eviedntibus signis 
suam potentiam in tua majestate extollenda, tunc cum k suis 
inimicis, et a multis aliis prorsus oppressa putabatur, decla- 
rare ; hoc est cur maxima omnes boni, et pii glorientur, et 
quod tibi magis gratum esse cert5 scio, quam regiam digni- 
tatem. Atque, si ulla faemina debuit Deum laudare iis ver- 
bis suae sanctissimae matris, cujus nomen refers, quibus ea 
usa est ad exprimendam laetitiam propter divinam providen- 
tiam ad sui, humanique generis salutem, cum Spiritu Sancto 


>AET repleta inquit, MagDificat anima niea Dominuniy cum ibqiw 
^"' sequuntur; tua majestas justisaima de causa eum Pnlmum 
canere potest ; cum in se ipsa sentiat, quod omnes yidenty 
ut divina bonitas respexit humilitatem andUlse suae : et fecit 
potentiam in brachio suo, statim deposuit potentes de aede 
et exaltavit humiles. Hoc dictum de divina provideotit 
erga majestatem tuam semper manifestius in adminuitratioDe 
cognoscetur tua, cum incremento iUo Isetitis, quod detide- 
ratur ad honorem et laudem divinie majestatis. Enimvero 
mea erga Deum, et suam ecclesiam pietas, et erga majes- 
tatem tuam me cogit ut unum tibi in memoriam revocem 
initio regnandi ; quod est cum ita singulare beneficium a 
Deo aoceperis, diligenter consideres 6 quibus radidbus per- 
turbationes puUularint, rerum ad justitiam pertinentium et 
ad vene religionis cultum ; quippe cum illse indies cum tanta 
ruina succreverint, in isto regno privata et publica, quants 
non ignorantur : atque si hoc ita feceris ; perdpies profecti 
principium et causam omnium malorum tunc pullulasse, cum 
perpetuus humani generis adversaiius patri tuo persuant 
impurum concilium ; ut divortium fieret matiis tuse optinue 
re^se, atque illi magnae in Deum, in ipsam, in te in seipsum 
injurise, majus additum est scelus, quod k matre Spiritus di- 
vortium fecit omnium Christianorum ; k sancta catholics 
obedientia et ab apostolica reverentia. Ex hoc iniquo et 
impio semine tot pestifcri fructus nati sunt, ut ita regnum 
corruperint, ut nullum neque justitise neque reli^onis vesti- 
gium apparuerit : tanquam relegatae sint amba&, quando re- 
verentia, et obedientia ecclesiae ejecta fuit ; neque prius suot 
reditu rae, quam divina obedientia in animum recepta at 
eorum, qui rebus prsefuerint. Hoc facile tua majestas illi 
servo suo potest credere, qui omnium viventium plura, et 
istA, majestatis vestrae causa passus est : neque uUam defen- 
dendffi causae tua? rationem praetermisi, ubi aliquod extaret 
remedium, quo toties molestiis sublevarem. Quod nia mei 
labores eum finem consecuti sint, quem semper desideravi ; 
saepius vel vitam ipsam periculis exponens; tamen nunc 
multo magis laetor, quam si ipse adjutor fuissem ; cum aper- 
tissimfe cognoverim, divinae providentiae in majestatem tuam 


propenfeam voluntatem : nam profecto noluit Deus ulla hu- BOOK 
manft manu te adjuvari^ neque Csesaris, neque uUius prin- ^* 
cipis: quamvis nunquam cessavit pontifex Csesarem ad opem 
ferendam adhortari : neque mea defuit diligentia, utrisque 
ad hoc pium opus sollicitantibus, sed divinitus res protracta 
est donee statutum tempus k Deo adyentarit, quo divinft 
manu sublevareris. Interim usus est Deus eadem ratione, 
qua erga carissimos et dilectissimos uti consuevit, quas nu- 
trit, et educat in omni calamitatum, serumnarumque genere: 
ut gratise suae semen altiores radices in corde ipsorum poo- 
set extendere, meliusque floreat, ac nobiliores fructus pro<- 
ducat, cum visum fuerit in pristinam fselidtatem revocare. 
Istud nunc omnes boni expectant, atque ego in primis, ciii 
major occasio concessa est dotes animi tui, quae divinitus tibi 
concessqs sunt, k teneris cognoscendi. Ea res me mult6 
etiam magis iropellit, ut majestati tuae id significem de re 
tanta, quanta est ecclesiae obedientia, me magis etiam sollici- 
tum esse, qukm antea, qua mente sis erga religionem, et quo 
pacto affecta : nam cum circiter trecenta millia passu um dis- 
tam ab urbe Roma, nuper ad me de rebus Britannicis est 
delatum ; per literas summi pontiiicis cerUor factus sum, te 
ad summum imperium esse. pro vectam, et quod ego sim de- 
lectus legatus a sancta sede apostolica ad majestatem tuam 
et ad Caesarem, atque ad Galliarum regem, ut tibi gratularer 
pro victoria Dei in hac causa ipsius Dei : sed quia quanti 
res sit intelligo, censui non inutile fore, si majestatis tuae 
mentem quo pacto Deus moverit, prius percunctatus fuero : 
cujus causa praesentem nuncium cum meis literis mitto : ne- 
que istud quidem, quia de optima voluntate tua subdubitem, 
quoniam te semper gratam, erga Deum fuisse cognovi, et ac- 
ceptorum non immemorem, leguraque divinarum observatis- 
simam, inter quas obcdientia apostolicae sedis continetur, cui 
maxima omnium favere debes. Nam cert6 quidem majesta- 
tis tuae pater null^ alia de causa apostolicam obedientiam re- 
liquit, nisi quia nollet pontifex Romanus causae suae favere 
turpi et iniquo ejus desiderio assentiri. Sed quoniam tot 
annos tanta facta est mutatio, tantaque malitia conata est 
evellere ex animis hominum penitusque restinguere banc 


PART ipeam obedientiam et obserrantiain, mihi visum eat nan ab- 
surdum fore, si ex te ipsa percunctarer, quod tempus, aut 
quae ratio aptior, commodiorque videretur futura ad ipoiu 
vicarii Christi legatione perfungendum, idque ad isdus regni 
beneficium et consolationem, cujus fselicitas et quies aempa 
magis oppressa fuit, ex qua sancta obedientia expugnari 
coepta est, coactaque solum vertere. Decrevi igitur prius 
responsum expectare, quod ut expectationi nieae optinue re- 
spondeat, ab omnipotente Deo suppliciter peto, omniumque 
jnorum spei, quam habent de majestate tua conceptam, idque 
ad confirmationem, et incrementum faelicitatis tuse, et isdus 
regni. Quod si mihi benignam audientiam conoesaeris, speto 
futurum Dei optimi maximi beneficio, ut intelligas in hac 
ipsa obedientia ecclesiae consistere, et collocatum esse funda- 
mentum et stabilimentum omnium bonorum ipuus regni. 
Sic igitur rogans omnipotentem Deum, ut pro sua infinita 
misericordia majestatem tuam fortunet in ipso imperio, in 
quo collocavit, fincm faciam dicendi. Csnobio M^jaaeni 
Benaci. Eidus Sextilis. 1553. 

Reginaldus Polus. 

Number 16. 
The queerCs answer to it, 

Optime sobrine Pole, in Christo observandissime ; accepi 
literas tuas, quas tuus familiaris mihi reddidit, ex quibus 
intellexi perpetuam tuam optimam voluntatem erga hoc 
regnum, patriam tuam nimirum, et erga l^itimos haeredes, 
cum summa laetitiae significatione ob ea, quae placuerunt 
divinae dementias omnipotentis Dei in ostendenda sua erga 
me vera, justissima, infinitaq; misericordia; propter quam 
me tibi etiam non parum debere sentio, cum monitus aman- 
tissimos praeterea in literis addideris: quod si nullum nature 
vinculum inter nos intercederet, quod certe maximum inter- 
cedit ; tamen vel hac una de causa maximas tibi debeiem 
gratias, quod me tam amenter monueris ; atque ego dabo 
operam pro viribus, ut monitis tuis satisfaciam, quippe cum 
neq; unquam fuerim, nee sim, neq; ut divinae misericordia 


oonfido unquam futura aim catholicse adhortationiB in tuis BOOK 

literis contentse adversaria. Quod attinet ad meam obedi* ^' 

entiam, et delntam observantiam erga sponsam Christi, et 

matrem divinam, suam catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam, 

hanim literarum lator poterit te commode docere : is non 

potent explanare quanta sit animi mei molestia, propterea 

quod non possim animi mei sententiam in hac re prorsus 

potefacere ; sed cum primum data erit fSncultas sinceritads 

animi mei erga divinum cultum explicandse, obedientiaeq; 

quid sentiam exequendae, faciam te pel* literas certiorem. 

Quod spectat ad coronationem, idem nuncius omnia plant 

explicare potent, multaq; alia quibus ilium adesse volui; 

earn miiifict omnipotentis Dei misericordia confidam, fu« 

turum ut hflec comitia omnia statuta abrogent, unde omnium 

eahmitatum hujusce regni semina pullularunt. Spero autan 

futunun ut delictorum veniam k summi pontificis dementia 

obdneam, cui te rogo, ut meo nomine humillim^ gratias 

agas pro sua multiplici in me bonitate, ut in eadem jiersistat 

dementia, omnemq; prseteritorum commissorum oblivionem 

conoedat; hunc igitur remitto spe postulationis non irritae 

futursB operi tui ; quando tantum benevolentise, et fra^ 

temse charitatis, mihi pignus obtulisti : me itaque plurimum 

sancto patri, ac tibi commendans, finem facio scribendi. 

Westmonasterii, sexto 

idus Octobris. 

Maria regina. 

Number 17. 

Cardinal Pole's general powers^ for reconcUinff England 

to the church of Rome. 

Julius papa III. 

DiLSCTE fili noster, salutem et apostolicam benediction Ex MS. 
nem. Dudum, cum charissima in Christo filia nostra, Maria ^°^ ™ * 
Angliae tunc princeps, regina declarata fuisset, et speraretur 
n^num Angliae, quod, saeva regum tyrannide, ab unione 
sanctas ecclesise catholicae separatum fuerat ; ad ovile gregis 
Domini, et ejusdem eoclenae unionem, ipsa Maria primum 

VOL. III. p. 8. u 


flRT regnante, redire posse. Nos te, prsestanti Tirtute, ai^ulari 
pietate, ac multa doctrina insigDem, ad eandem Mariam re- 
ginam, et universutn Anglise r^num, de fratrum nostrorum 
oonsilio, et unanimi consensu, nostrum et apostolics sedis, 
I^atum de latere destinavimus. Tibique, inter cetera, 
omnes et singulas utriusque sexus, tarn laicas quam ecde- 
siasticas, seculares, et quorumvis ordinum r^ulareg, per- 
sonas, in quibusvis ctiam sacris ordinibus constitutas, cujus- 
cunque states, gradiis, conditionis et qualitatis existerent, ac 
quacunque ecclesiastic^, etiam episcopali, archiepisccqwli, et 
patriarohali ; aut mundano, etiam marchionali^ ducali, aiit 
regia dignitate prsefulgerent : etiamn capitulum, coUegium, 
univerdltas, seu communitas forent: quarumcunque htat* 
sium, aut novarum sectarum, professores, aut in eis culpa* 
biles, vel suspectos, ac credentes, receptatores, et fautores 
eorum, etiamsi relapsae fuissent, eorum errorem oognoaoeii- 
tes, ct de illis dolentes, ac ad orthodoxam fidem recipi bo- 
militer postulantes, cognita in eis, vera et non ficta, aut 
simulata pcenitentia, ab omnibus et singulis per eos perpe- 
tratis, (hsereses, et ab eadem fide apostasias, blasphemiasy et 
alios quoscunque errores, etiam sub generali sennone noQ 
venientes, sapientibus) peccatis, criminibus, excessibus et 
delictis ; nee non excommunicationum, suspensionum, in- 
terdictorum, et aliis ecclesiasticis, ac temporalibus etiam 
corporis afflictivis, et capitalibus sententiis, censuris et poenis, 
in eos prsemissorum occasione, k jure vel ab homine ktis, 
vel promulgatis; etiam si in iis viginti, et plus annis insor- 
duissent; et eorum absolutio, nobis et divinae sedi, et per 
literas, in die ccenas domini legi consuetas, reservata exis- 
teret, in utroque, conscientiae videlicet, et contentioso fore, 
plenari^ absolvendi, et liberandi, ac aliorum Christi fidelium 
consortio aggregandi : nee non cum eis super irregularitate, 
per eos, praemissorum occasione, etiam quia sic ligati, missas 
et alia divina officia, etiam contra ritus et ceremonias ab ec- 
clesia eatenus probatas et usitatas, celebrassent, aut illis alias 
semiscuissent. Contracta nee non bigamia per eosdem ec- 
clesiasticos, seculares, vel regulares, ver^ aut fict6, seu alias 
qualitercunque incursa ; (etiamsi ex eo quod derici in sacris 


uti, cum viduis vel aliis corruptis^ matrimonium con- BOOK 
2nt, pretenderetur) rejcctis et expulas tamen prius 
us, ac de facto copulatis. Quodque bigamia, et ir- 
[itate ac aliis prsemissis non obstantibus, in eorum or- 
3 dummodo ante eorum lapsum in haeresin hujusmodi, 

legitime promoti vel ordinati fuissent, etiam in al- 
linisterio ministrare, ac qusecunque et qualitercunque 
;urata beneficia, secularia vel regularia, ut prius, dum- 
}uper eis alteri jus quaesitum non existeret, retinere : 
I promoti, ad omnes etiam sacros et presbyteratus 
s, ab eorum ordinariis, si digni et idonei reperti fu- 
promoveri^ beneficia ecclesiastica, si iis alias canonic^ 
mtur, recipere et retinere valerent, dispensandi et tn- 
di : ac omnem infamise, et inhabilitatis maculam give 
, ex prsemissis quomodolibet insurgentem, penitus et 
> abolendi ; nee non ad pristinos honores, dignitates, 

et patriam, et bona etiam confiscata ; in pristinum- 
t eum, in quo ante prsemissa quomodolibet erant, 

resdtuendi, reponendi, et reintegrandi : ac eis, dum. 
;x)rde contriti eorum errata et excessus, alicui per eos 
lo cathoiico confessori, sacramentaliter confiterentur, 
litentiam salutarem, eis per ipsum confessorem prop- 
njungendam omnino adimplerent, omnem publicam 
iionem, abjurationero, renunciationem, et poenitentiam 
ebitam, arbitrio suo moderandi, vel in totum remit- 

Nee non communitates et universitates, ac singulares 
as quascunque, k quibusvis illicitis pactionibus et con- 
libus, per eos cum dominis aberrantibus, seu in eo- 
ivorem, quomodo libet initis, et iis praestitis juramen- 

homagiis, illorumque omnium observatione ; et si 
eaten us occasione eorum incurrissent perjurii reatum, 
absolvendi, et juramenta ipsa relaxandi. Ac quos- 
3 regularcs et religiosos, etiam in haeresin hujusmodi 
Fertur lapsos, extra eorum regularia loca absque dictae 
iccntia vagantes, ab apostasiae reatu, et excommuni- 
s, aliisque censuris ac poenis ecclesiasticis, per eos 
rea etiam juxta suorum ordinum instituta incursis, 

absolvendi. Ac cum eis ut alicui bcneficio ecclesi* 

u 2 


AET atdoo curato, de illud obdnentis oonsentu ; etiam in habitu 
'"* derid secularis, habitum suum rqfulareni, sub boiieala toga 
presbyteri secularis deferendo, deaenrire, et extra eadon 
r^;ularia loca remanere, liber^ et Hdt^ poaant, diqpeoaaodi. 
Nee non quibusvis peraonis, etiam ecdedastida^ ut quadxa- 
gedmalibus, et aliis anni temporibus et diebua, quibus usus 
ovorum et camium est de jure prohibitus, butiro et caseo^ 
et aliis lactidniis ; ac dictis ovis et camibus, de utriusque 
aeu alterius, spiritualis, qui catholicus existeret^ medid oqb* 
silio, aut a locorum et personarum qualitate inqpecta* ei 
defectu pisdum aut old, vd indispodtioiie persooanim 
earundem, seu alia causa legitima id tibi fadendum iride- 
retur, ut tuo arbitrio uti et vesd possint, indulgent et oon- 
cedendL Nee non per te in prseteritis duntaxat caaibus, 
aliquos dericos seculares, tantum presbyteroa, diaoQiioa» aut 
subdiaconos, qui matrimonium cum aliquibus yiiginibusy 
vel corruptis secularibus, etiam mulieribus, de &cto eatenus 
contraxissent, considerata aliqua ipsorum singulari qualitate^ 
et cognita eorum vera ad Christi fidem conversioiie, ac aliis 
drcumstantiis, ac modificationibus tuo tantum arlntrio ad* 
hibendis ; ex quibus aliis prsesertim derids in sacria ordinw 
bus hujusmodi constitutes, quibus non licet uxcares habere, 
scandalum omnino non generetur; citra tamen altaris, ac 
alia sacerdotum ministeria, et titulos beneficiorum eodeaas* 
ticorum, ac omni ipsorum ordinum exercitio sublato, ab ac* 
comrounicationis sententia, et aliis reatibus propterea in* 
cursis ; injuncta inde eis etiam tuo arbitrio pcenitentia sa- 
lutari, absolvendi ac cum eis dummodo alter eorum su- 
perstes rcmaneret, de caetero sine spe conjugii, quod inter 
se matrimonium legitime contrahere, et in eo postquam 
contractum foret, Iidt6 remanere possent, prolem exinde 
legitimam decemendo, misericorditer dispensandi. Ac qua^ 
cunque beneficia ecclesiastica, tam secularia quam r^;u- 
laria, et quae per rectcNres catholicos possidebantur, de 
ipsorum tamen rectorum catholicorum consensu, seu abs- 
que eorum prsejudicio, cuicunque alteri benefido ecde* 
siastico, ob ejus fructfis tenuitatem, aut hosptali jam 
erecto vd erigendo, seu studio universali, vd sdiolis fite* 


rariis; uniendi, annectendi, et incorporandi, aut fiructus, BOOR 
reditus, et proventus, seu bonorum eorundem beneficionim ^' 
dividendiy separandi, et disinembrandi ; ac eonim sic diviso- 
rum, separatorum et dismembratorum partem aliis beneficiis, 
seu faospitalibus, vel studiis aut scholis, seu piis usibus, si- 
militer arbitrio tuo perpetuo applicandi et appropriandi. Atff. B. 
cum possessoribtu bonorum ecclesiasHcorumj {restiiuHs^ 
priu8 &i tibi expedire videretuTj immMlibuspef eos indebiid 
dettfMs) super JructXbus meUi perceptis^ ac bonis mobilibus, 
consumptisy concorda/ndt^ et transigendij ac eos desuper li- 
berandi et quietamU* Ac quicquid concordiis et transaction 
nibus hujusmodi proveniret, in ecclesia cujus essent bona, 
vel in studiorum universalium, aut scholarum hujusmodi, 
seu alios pios usus convertendi ; omniaque et singula alia, in 
que in prsemisffls, et circa ea quomodolibet necessaria et op- 
portuna esse cognosceres, faciendi, dicendi, gerendi, et exer- 
cendi. Nee non catholicos locorum ordinarios, aut alias per- 
sonas Deum timentes, fide insignes, et literarum scientia prse- 
ditas, ac gravitate morum conspicuas, et aetate veneranda; 
de quarum probitate et circumspectione, ac charitatis zelo 
plena fiducia conspici posset, ad prsemissa omnia, cum simili 
vel limitata potestate, (absolutione et dispensatione clerico- 
rum, circa connubia, ac unione beneficiorum, seu eorum fruc- 
tuum et bonorum separatione, et applicatione, ac concordia 
cum possessoribus bonorum ecclesiasticorum, et eorum liber- 
atione duntaxat exceptis) substituendi et subdelegandi : ac 
diversas alias facultates, per diversas alias nostras tam sub 
pi umbo quam in forma brevis confectas literas, concessimus, 
prout in illis plenius continetur. Verum cum tu ad partes 
Flandriae, ex quibus brevissima ad regnum transfreatio ex* 
istit, te contuleris, ac ex certis rationalibus nobis notis causis 
inibi aliquandiu subsistere habeas, ac k nonnullis, nimium 
forsan scrupulosis, hsesitetur ; an tu, in partibus hujusmodi 
subsistens, praedictis ac aliis tibi concessis facultatibus, uti 
ac in eodem regno locorum ordinarios, aut alias personas (ut 
praemittitur) qualificatas ; quae facultatibus per te, juxta dic- 
tarum literarum continentiam pro tempore concessis utan- 
tur, alias juxta earundem literarum tenorem substituere et 

.. o 


A RT delegare possis. Nos causam tuae subastentiae in eisdem poF- 
' tibus approbantes, ct singularum literanim pnedictanim te- 
nores, pra^sentibus pro sufficienter expressis, ac de verbo ad 
verbum insertis, habentes, circumspectioni tuas, quod quam- 
diu in eisdem partibus de licenUa nostra moram traxms, le- 
gatione tua praedicta durante, etiam extra ipsum regnum ex- 
istens ; omnibus et angulis prsedictis, et quibusvis aliis tibi 
ooncessis, et quae per praesentes tibi conceduntur ; facultati- 
bus etiam erga quoscunque, archiepiscopos, e[M80opo6, ac ab- 
bates, aliosque, ecclesiarum tarn secularium, quam quorum- 
vis ordinum regularium, nee non monastcriorum, et aliorum 
regularium locorum prelatos, non secus ac erga alios inferi- 
ores clericos, uti posas ; nee non erga alias personaa^ in dn- 
gulis literis praedictis quovismodo nominatas, ad te pro tem- 
pore recurrcntes, vel mittentes ; etiam circa ordines, quos 
nunquam aut maid susceperunt, et munus consecrationis, 
quod iis^ ab aliis episcopis vel archiepisoopis, etiam haereti- 
cis et schismaticis, aut alias minus litd et non servata forma 
eccleaac consueta impensum fuit : etiam si ordines et munus 
Inijusmodi, etiam circa altaris ministerium temerfe execuU 
sint, per te ipsum, vel alios, ad id k te pro tempore deputa- 
tos, libcrd uti ; ac in eodem regno, tot quot ubi videbuntur 
locorum ordinarios alias personas (ut praemittitur) qualifica- 
tas, quae facultatibus per te, eis pro tempore concessis (citra 
tamen eas quae solum tibi ut pncfertur concessae existunt) 
etiam te in partibus Flandriae hujusmodi subsistente^ libere 
'utantur; et eas exerceant et exequantur: alias, juxta ipsa- 
rum litcrarum continentiam ac tenorem substituere et sub- 
delegarc. Ncc non de personis quorumcunque episcoporum 
vel archiepiscoporum, qui metropolitanam aut alias cathe- 
drales ecclesias de manu laicorum etiam schismaticorum, et 
presertim qui de Henrici regis et Edvardi ejus nati recepe- 
runt, et eorum regimini et administratione se ingresserunt, 
et eorum fructus reditus et proventus etiam longissimo tem- 
pore, tanquam veri archiepiscopi aut episcopi tcmere et d^ 
facto usurpando, etiamsi in haeresin aut prefertur, incide- 
rint, sen ante haeretici fuerint, postquam per te unitati sanct^ 
matris ecclesiae restituti exstiterint, tuque eos rehabilitandos 


esse censueris, si tibi alias digni et idonei videbuntur, eisdem BOOK 
metropolitanis et aliis cathedralibus ecclesiis denuo, nee non ' 
quibusvis aliis cathedralibus etiam metropolitanis ecclesiis 
per obitum vel privationem illorum praraulum, seu alias quo- 
vis modo pro tempore vacantibus, de personis idoneis pro 
quibus ipsa Maria regina juxta consuetudinis ipsius regni, 
tibi supplicaverit authoritate nostra providere ipsasque per- 
sonas eisdem ecclesiis in episcopos aut archiepiscopos praefi- 
cere : ac cum iis qui ecclesias catbedrales et metropolitanas, 
de manu Imcorum etiam schismaticorum ut prefertur^ rece- 
perunt, quod eisdem seu aliis ad quas eas alias rite transferri 
contigerit, cathedralibus etiam metropolitanis ecclesiis, in 
episcopos vel archiepiscopos praeesse ipsasq; ecclesias in spi- 
litualibus et temporalibus regere et gubernare ac munere 
consecrationis eis hactenus impenso uti, vel si illud eis non» 
dum impensum extiterit, ab episcopis vel archiepiscopis ca- 
tholicis per te nominandis suscipere libere et licite possint. 
Nee non cum quibusvis per te ut praemitdtur pro tempore 
absolutis et rehabilitatis, ut eorum erroribus et excessibus 
preteritis non obstantibus, quibusvis cathedralibus, etiam 
metropolitanis ecclesiis in episcopos et archiepiscopos prefici 
et preeesse, illasq; in eisdem spiritualibus et temporalibus re- 
gere et gubernare : ac ad quoscunq; etiam sacros et presby- 
teratos ordines promovere, et in illis aut per eos jam licet 
minus rite susceptis ordinibus etiam in altaris ministerio mi- 
nistrare nee non munus consecrationis suscipere, ct illo uti 
libere et licite valeant ; dispensare etiam libere et licite pos- 
sis, plenam et liberam aposto]icam authoritatem per presen- 
tes concedimus facultatem et potestatem: non obstantibus 
constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, ac omnibus 
illis quae in singulis Uteris praeteritis voluimus non obstare, 
caeterisq; contrariis quibuscunque. 
Datum Romae apud Sanctum Petrum, sub Annulo Piscato- 
ris, die 8. Martis 1554. Pontificatus nostri anno quinto. 

u 4 


Number 18. 

J letter Jrom cardinal Pole to the bishop qf Jrroi^ mpen 
king Philippe arrival in England^ and his marriage to 
the queen. 

A Mods', d^ Arras. 

H AVENDO k quesf bora ricevuto particolari avisi dopo V ar- 
rivo del serenissiino principe del regno d^ Inghilterra^del fe- 
lice successo del matrimonio mi e parso convenure al deUto 
mio rall^prarmene con S. majesti Cesarea sicome fo ooo 
r alligata la quale indirizso k V. S. per la oon6denn die ho 
nella solita sua cortesia, pregandola sia oontenta preaeDtarli 
a sua majesU col baciarle riverentemente le mani de part^ 
inia. L^abbate Sagante suo Y altr* hieri me communico unt 
lettera di V. S. che dava partioolar aviso della ritirata de 
Franzesi il cbe mi fu di molta consolatiime. Ben si e visto 
di quant^ importanza sia la presenza di S. majestiL Anoor 
non e arrivato ill messo mio da Roma, ma spero non possa 
tardar molto: subbito che sar^ gionto, non mancar6 di dame 
aviso a V. S. alia quale di cuore mi racommando e prego N. 
Sig' Iddio la conservire favorisca a suo servitio. Di Brux- 
elles alii 29 di Luglio 1554. 

Reginaldo card. Pole. 

Number 19. 

A letter Jrom cardinal Pole to the cardinal de Montejacknow- 
ledging the popis favour in sending him JuU powers* 

Al card, di Monte. 

Rev*"®, et ill*"®, sig'. mio oss™®. 

ScRissi a V. S. reverendissima per V ultime mie, V avisa 
deir arrivo in Inghilterra del serenissimo principe, il qual^ e 
poi stato con la serenissima regina a Vincestre, ove hanno 
celebrato il sponsalitio il di San Giacomo con gran soUennita 
come V. S. reverendissima piacendole potra intendere dair 
essibitor di questa, al quale mi rimetto in quel di piu, che in 
tal proposito io le potessi dire e bacio humilmente la mano 


verendissima et illustrissima in suo buona gratia BOOK 

dandomi. di Bruxelles alli 99 di Luglio 1554. * 

.'' hora e giuDto Y Ormaneto con T espeditione che 

darle alia santitk di nostro agnore, tutto secondo 

si potesse desiderare dalla pieik e benigniti sua 

di Dio, e della sua chiesa in questa causa cossi 

del che prego V. S. reverendissima sia contenta 

umilmente a nome mio i piedi a sua beatify alia 

la prima occasione non mac caro di dar pieno 

lanto sark bisogno. In vero T arrivar dell^ Or- 

a poteva esser piii a tempo, e spero che N. signor* 

ra gratia, che le cose s^ indirizzeranno in mode 

ititk col servitio di sua divina maest& ne resterk 

II tempo non patisce che per hora io possa esaere 

e di nuovo bacio humilmente le mani di V. S. 

ama et illustrissima. 

Reginaldo card. Polo. 
di Luglio 1554 il signore Ormaneto arrivo 
ixelles con Y infratta speditione. 

Number 20. 

npowering cardinal Pole to execute hisJacuUies 
ution to England^ while he yet remained beyond 
I out of England. 

rd. Polo. 

Julius papa III. 

£ fili noster salutem et apostolicam benedictio- 

perioribus mensibus ex diversis tunc expressis 

id charissimam in Christo filiam nostram Mariam 

^ginam illustrem, et universum Anglise regnum 

deinde pro conciliando inter eos pace ad charisn* 

iristo filios nostros Carol um Romanum imperato- 

er Augustum, et Henricum Francorum regem 

)simum, nostrum et apostolicae sedis legatum de 

ratrum nostrorum concilio destinavimus. £t licet 

et quidem amplissimis facultatibus, quibus etiam 

is Flandriae existens, quoad personaa et negfXM 


IRT regni AngHs hujusmodi uti posses per diveraas noBtras tarn 
^^^' sub plumbo, quam in forma brevis oonfectas litteras muni- 
verimus, prout in illis pleuius continetur. Quia tamoi ob 
schismata, et alios errores, quibus dictum regnum diutius 
inflectum fuit, multi casus potuerunt conting^re, qui pro- 
visione per dictam sedem facienda indigebunt et sub dicds 
facultatibus veluti in€niti, et inexoogitabiles compreheodi 
nequiverunt, et insuper k nonnullis hsesitatur an tu facultft- 
tibus hujusmodi in insulis et dominiis ddem Mariae r^;iii« 
subjectis uti possis, quibus item facultatibus apud Candum 
imperatorem et quibus apud Henricum r^em pnefatos 
existens utaris : nos de tuis fide, pietate, religione, doctrins, 
et prudentia, in Domino ben^ confidentes, et volentes omnem 
in praemissis haesitandi materiam amputare, circumspecUom 
tuse, ut ubicumq; fueris etiam extra partes Flandriae lega- 
tione tua hujusmodi durante, omnibus et singulis tibi oon- 
cessis hactenus, et in posterum concedendis facultatibus, 
quo ad personas et negotia regni ac insularum et dominio- 
rum hujusmodi per te vel alium vel alios juxta ipsarum 
facultatum continentiam, et tenorem uti, ac omnia et m- 
gula quse tibi pro oronipotentis Dei, et nostro ac ejusdem 
sedis honore, nee non regni, insularum et dominorum prs' 
dictorum ad sanctae, catholicae, ecclesias, communionem, re- 
ductione ac personarum in illis existentium animarum salute 
expedire judicaveris, et si ea in gcnerali mandato et faculta- 
tibus tibi alias concessis non veniant, sed specialem expres- 
sionem et mandatum magis speciale requirant, dicere, facere, 
exerccre, et exequi, nee non quandiu pro pace hujusmodi 
tractanda, vel aliis negociis nostrum, et sedis prsedictse ho- 
norem concernentibus, apud dictum Carol um imperatorem 
fueris, omnibus et singulis facultatibus olim dilecto filio 
Hieronimo tituli S. Matthaei presbitero cardinali tunc apud 
ipsum Carolum imperatorem nostro et praefatae sedis legato 
de latere concessis, et in omnibus provinciis, regnis, do- 
miniis, terris, et locis, sub illis comprehensis. Si vero apud 
dictum Henricum regem extiteris eis omnibus, que dudum 
dilecto filio Hieronimo Sancti Georgii ad velum aureum 
diacono cardinali tunc apud Henricum regem eundem, nos- 


tro et dictae sedis legato concessse fuerunt, facultatibus, et BOOK 
m omnibus provinciis regnis, dominiis, terns, et locis sub ^' 
illis comprehensis uti liber6 et Iicit<^ valeas, in omnibus et 
per omnia perinde ac si illse dbi specialiter et expresse con- 
cessse fuissent, apostolica autem tenore presentium concedi- 
mus, et indulgemus, ac facultates tibi concessas prsedictas 
ad base omnia extendimus. Non obstantibus constitutionip- 
bus, et ordinationibus apostolicis^ ac omnibus illis, quae in 
singulb facultatibus t^m tibi, quam Hieronimo presbitero, 
et Hieronimo diacono cardinalibus prsefatis concessis, volui- 
mus non obstare cseterisq; contrariis quibusq; dat Rom» 
apud S. Petrum, sub Annulo Piscatoris die xxvi Juniil554s 
pontiiicatus nostri anno quinto. 

Jo. Larinen\ 

Number 21. 

A second breve containing more special powers^ relating to 

the abbey-lands. 

Julius papa III. 

DiLECTE fili noster salutem et apostolicam benedictio- 

nem. Superioribus mensibus oblata nobis spe per Dei mise- 

ricordiam et charissimae in Christo filise nostras Mariae An- 

gliae regina?, summam religionem, et pietatem, nobilissimi 

illius Angliae regni, quod jamdiu quorundam impietate, k 

reliquo catholicae ecclesiae corpore avulsum fuit, ad ejusdem 

catholicae et universalis ecclesiae unionem, extra quam ne- 

mini salus esse potest, reducendi ; te ad pr^fatam Mariam 

reginam, atque universum illud regnum, nostrum et apo- 

stolicae sedis legatum de latere, tanquam pacis et concordiae 

angelum, de venerabilium fratrum nostrorum, sanctae Ro- 

manae ecclesiae cardinal] um consilio atque unanimi assensu, 

destinavimus, illisque facultatibus omnibus munivimus, quas 

ad tanti negotii confect'onem necessarias putavimus esse, 

seu quomodolibet opportunas. Atque inter alia circum- 

spectione tua, ut cum bonorum ecclcsiasticorum possessori- 

bus, super fructibus mal^ perceptis, et bonis mobilibus con- 

8umptis, concordare et transigere, ac eos desuper liberare et 


IT quietaie, uln expedire ponet, authoriuteiii oonoeMunaB et 

[^ fiBumltatem, prout in nostris desuper ccmfecdB literis plenius 

oontinetur : cum autem ex iis princiinis, quae ejusdem Maris 
sedulitate et diligenda, rectaque et oonstante in Deum mente^ 
tuo et in ea re cooperante studio atque oonsilio, pnefatum 
reductionis opus in praedicto regno usque ad hanc dkm 
habetur, ejusdemque prsedari operis perfecdo indies magis 
speretur ; eoque faciliores progressus habitura res esse dig- 
noscatur, quo nos majorem in bonorum eoclesiastioomm 
possessionibusy in ilia superiorUm temporum confusione, per 
illius provinciae homines occupatis, apostolicse benignitatis 
et indulgentise spem ostenderimus. Nos nolentes tantam 
dilectissimse nobis in Christo nationis recuperationem, et tot 
animarum pretioso Jesu Christi Domini nostri sanguine re- 
demptarum, salutem, ullis terrenarum rerum respectibus 
impediri ; more pii patris, in nostrorum et sanctae catholicse 
filiorum, post longum periculosae peregrinationis tempus, ad 
nos respectanUum et redeuntium, peroptatum oomplexum 
occurrentes; tibi, de cujus praestanti virtute, angulari pie- 
tate, doctrina, sapientia, ac in rebus gerendis prudentia et 
dexteritate, plenam in Domino fiduciam habemus, cum qui- 
buscunque honorum ecclesiasticorum, tam mobilium quam 
immobilium, in praefato regno possessoribus, seu detentori- 
bus, pro quibus ipsa serenissima regina Maria intercesserit, 
de bonis per eos indebit^ detentis, arbitrio tuo, authoritate 
nostra, tractandi, concordandi, transigendi, componcndi, et 
cum eis ut praefaia bona sine uUo scrupulo in posterum re- 
tinere possint, dispensandi, omniaque et singula alia, quae in 
his, et circa ea quomodolibet necessaria et opportuna fue- 
rint, concludendi et faciendi. Salvo tamen in his, in quibus, 
propter rerum magnitudinem et gravitatem, hasc sancta 
sedes merito tibi videretur consulenda, nostro et praefate 
sedis, beneplacito et confirmatione, plenam et liberam apo- 
stolicam authoritatem, tenore praesentium, et ex certa scien- 
tia, concedimus facultatem. Non obstantibus literis, faelids 
recordationis Pauli papas 11. praedecessoris nostri, de non 
alienandis bonis ecclesiasticis, nisi certa forma servata, et 
aliis quibusvis apost«dicis, ac in provincialibus et synodalibus 


edictb generalibus, vd spedalibus oonstitutioiubusy BOOK 
et ordiiMtioiiibus. Nee non quarumvis eoclesianim et mo- 
Daaterioruin, ac aliorum regularium et piorum locorum, 
jununento, eonfirmatione apostolica, vel quavis alia firmitate 
roboratis, fiiDdationibus, statutis et consuetudinibus, illorum 
temires pro suffidenter expressis habentes contrariis quibus- 

Datum Romse apud S. Petrum, sub Amiulo Piscatoris, die 
S8. Jumi 1554, pontificatiis nostri anno quinto. 

Number 9St. 

A letter to cardinal PoUjJrom cardinal de MonU^JvJlqf 

high civilities. 
Al card. Polo. 

Rev™°. et ill"®, sig'. mio col™®. 

RiTORNAKDo k V. S. reverendissima et illustrisdma P au- 
ditor 8UO con r espeditioni, che ella vedHi, k me non occorre 
dirle altro se non gupplicarla, che si degni mantenermi nella 
sua bona gratia, h di non si scordare d^ haver qui un ser- 
vitore che in amarla, et osserverla non cede k qualsivoglia 
altra persona, k che il maggior favore, che io sia per aspettare 
sempre da V. S. reverendissima et illustrissima sar^ che le 
piaccia di comandarmi in tutto questo, che mi conoscedL 
buono per servirla ; il che s6 d^ haverle scritto piii volte, e 
non mi e grave di replicarlo. Sua sancdta sta cossi bene 
della persona come sia stata di dieci anni in qu^ ringratiato 
Iddio : e saluta e benedice V. S. reverendissima et illustris- 
nma e li desidera, e prega ogni prosperity nelle sue nego- 
ciationi importantissime, a tutta la Christianita, et io le bacio 
humilmente le mani. Di Roma alii xv. di Luglio 1554. 

H. card, di Monte. 


PART Number 23. 

— -^i — A letter Jrom cardinal Morone to cardinal PoU^ ieOinghm 
haw uneasy the pope wa$y to see his going to JEnghmd so 
long delayed ; but that Hie pope was resolved not to re- 
call him. 

Al card. Polo. 

Rev™®, et ill™o. sig'. mio oss™®. 

AvANTi la partita mia di Roma hebbi la letteia di V. S. 
reverendissima delli 25 di Maggio in risposta delle mie, die 
gli haveuo scritto pur alii 6 di Maggio, quando vennero li 
primi avi« del nuncio, doppo che V. S. reverendisama fu ri- 
tomata alia corte dal viaggio di Francia, hebbi aocorar 
altra di 28 del Medesmo, con la querela Christiana, cfaedk 
fa contro di me, anzi per dir meglio con la dottrina che V. 
S. reverendissima con sanctacharitiquerelandofii m^'inaqjiia, 
sopra la quale non m^ occorre dir altro, se non che elk ha 
gran raggione, et che io T ho fatto tcnrto a scriverle in qud 
modo, di che in una parte mi pento, e spero che ella mi hfdbbi 
perdonato ; neir altra mi allegro, havendo havuto occasiooe 
di Guadagnar questa sua altra lettera, e dato a lei occanooe 
di esplicarsi in questo modo in lettre come ha fatto, e ne 
ringratio Dio prima, e poi lei ancora, che si sia degnata 
mandarmi lettera cossi grata, la qual potrk servire a jin 
d^ un proposito. 

La prima di 21, Fu in summa communicata da me a nosiro 
signiore parendomi necessario chiarir bene sua sanctity, si 
per ^usUficatione delle attioni passate di V. S. reverendis^ma 
come per non lasciar, che sua sanctity stesse nella dispera* 
tione dimostrata gia delle cose d"* Inghilterra, e della bonta 
del mezzo della persona sua : e benche S. sanctity non hav- 
essc patienza secondo Y ordinario suo di leggere, o di udir la 
lettera, nondimeno le dissi talmente la summa, che mostr5 
restore satisfattissima, e disse esser pid che certa, che quclla 
non haveua dato causa ne air imperatore, ne ad altri d** usar 
con lei termini cosi estravaganti. E quanto alia revocatione 
di V. S. reverendissima sempre persisteva che non si potesse 
fare senza grand indignity sua, e dishonor della sede apo- 


stolica, e carico delP imperatore iste^so, e di V. S. reverendis- BOOK 
fflina, e gran pregiudicio del regno d** Ingliterra : et benche ' 
dicesse di scrivere alia Csesarea Majestli, nondimeno Don si 
risolveua in tutto, com anco non si risolveua nella materia 
delli beni ecclesiastici, sopra la qual sua sanctiti ha parlato 
molte volte variamente ; e nel rescrivere alia re^na d** Ingh- 
Uterra, et al prencipe di Spagna, come V. S. reverendissima 
ha vera inteso da M.Francisco Stella, et intenderk bora dair 
Ormaneto, il qual sark portator di questa, e tandem vien^ 
espedito in tutti li punti quasi conformi al bisogno, et al 
danderio suo. 

Id son venuto a star qui a sutrio sin le prime acque d* 
AgottOy che poi piacendo a Dio ritomero a Roma. E le 
cause della partita mia V. S. reverendissima bora V intender^ 
dal prefato Ormaneto, non essendo stato opportuno scriverle 
prima; non ho havuto altro scrupulo se nonpartirmi, re- 
stando il negocio, e V espeditioni delP Ormaneto cosu in 
pendente. Ma conoscendo la sufficienza, e la diligenza, e 
la buon^ introduttione, che hanno quelli ministri di V. S. 
iwerendis^raa giudicando, non poterui far di piil di quel 
che gi^ piii volte haveua fatto, pensiu che essi haveriano 
potuto supplire meglip di me, come hanno di poi fatto. 

Non occorre al presente che io le scriva piil a lungo ve- 
nendo il detto M. Nicol5 informato, che non e bisogno afFa- 
ticarla in leggere mie Icttere. Resta sole che Iddio conduca 
esse, e M. Antonio a salvamento essendo il viaggio in ogni 
parte da qui inFiandra tanto pericoloso, doppo che io preghi, 
che sua Majestk divina prosperi e feliciti V. S. reverendis- 
sima, ad honor e gloria sua in quell' AtUoni, che ha per le 
mani, come son certo fara, e che quella mi ami, e mi comandi 
al solito, perche comme ho detto, faccio conto, s' altro non 
mi interviene, avanti che di quella possi haver risposta da 
lei, poter' esser di ritorno a Roma, e con questo faccio fine, 
e baciandole humilmente la mano in buona gratia di V. S. 
reverendissima mi raccomando. Di Sutrio, alii 13 di 

Luglio 1554. 

II card. Morone. 

Al card. Polo. 


RT Number 24. 

d letierjrom Ormanet to Pritdi^ gi'omg am aecouniqfwhai 
passed in an audience the bishop of Arras gave Mm. 

A monsieur Priuli. 

Claris™®, e m^. rev*>. rig', mia 

QuESTA mattina aasu per tempo io gionri al campo^ et 
anoor cbe io poco sperasri d"* haver commoda audienza da 
monrieur d^ Arras, stando si sul Marchiar^ nondimoio P 
hebbi oon la gratia di nostro signiore Iddio, assai oommoda 
e grata, e fui gratiosamente visto da S. rignoria aOa quale 
feci intendere tutto quello, cbe mi era state commesao da 
monsieur iUustrissimo. La risposta fii che Y impentove 
haveua molto a cuore queste cose della reUgione, e che nan 
haverebbe nuii mancaco d"* aiutare questa sant^ impvea^ 
come ba sempre fatto in rimili occarioni oon periooli fin ddh 
vita, ma che quanto all** opportunitil del tempoi, la quale en 
fltata il principio e fundamento dd mio ra^;ionainentiO^ a 
lui pareva, che ri fosse caminato alquanto proaperamente, 
non si sapendo altro doppo la venuta del r^ d^ Ingfailtem, 
che la celebration^ e solenniti del matrimonio, e che par 
Sarebbe stato a proporito, innanzi che s^ andasse piii oltre, 
veder che camino pigliavano le cose del regno, e che doveo- 
dori dar conto a sua majesti di quello, perche io ero stato 
mandato, esso giudicava necessario che si fosse venuto fiSi 
al particolare circa due cose, la forma delle faculta d^ intoroo 
questi beni (che gran differenza Sarebbe se fosse stata com* 
messa la cosa o al S. cardinale, o alii serenisami prindjn) e 
poi il modo che voleua tener sua sig. reverendissima circa 
questo assetto, e qui esso tocco che fosse stato bene vedere 
la copia delle faculta. A la cosa del tempo io rispori che 
per questa opera era sempre maturo, imm6 che non se ne 
doveua perdere momento per il pericolo delP anime, oltte 
che dovendosi dar principio a quesf impresa col far capaoe 
ogn^ uno di quello, che veramente fosse il ben suo, e per- 
suaderlo ad abbracciarlo, il qual^ officio spetta prindpalmente 
al rignior Legato, non si vede che a far questo il tempo non 
ria sempre maturo, sog^ongendo che S. majesta non dove- 


rebbe mai lasciar passer T occasione di questa venuta del BOOK 
principe suo figlivolo in dar com pimento a questa ridut- 
.tione, percio che facendosi hora, Y honor di questa impresa 
sarebbe stato attribuito a lui. Quanto al particolar delle 
faculty, dissi che havendo detto a S. signoria che questo as- 
setto era stato commessa air arbitrio di S. signoria illustris- 
siina mi pareva d^ haver satisfatto assai, e che del modo del 
procedere elia non era ancora risoluto, non si potendo pigli- 
are in una cosa tale alcuna risolutione se non sul fatto, e 
do|q)o che ella fosse stata presente, per la necessaria infor- 
matione di molte cose che corrono in questa materia, circa 
la quale toccai alcuni altri punti, che S. signoria reverendis* 
oma intendera piik lungamente alia mia venuta. La con- 
dhmone th che esso non mancarebbe d** informar sua majest^ 
del tutto, e per far ogni buon officio in questo^ e qui mi 
diflse dell animo che haveva sempre havuto d^ aiutaf queste 
cote della religione, e del desiderio che teneva di servir 
•empre S. S. illustrissima ringratiandola che V adoperasse io. 
Circa V aspetter la risposta di S. majesty mi disse che non 
potendo esso far^ all"* hora questo officio per la partita del 
eampo, io me ne venissi a Valentiana, dove havuta la reso- 
lutione da S. majesta mi farebbe chiamar^ : e che non mi 
fngliassi altro afFanno di questo^ e cossi me ne son venuto qu^ 
con questo disegno, di dar tempo tutto dimane a S. signoria 
di far quest** officio, e posdimane non essendo chiamato ritor. 
narmene a solicitare Y espeditione. Io ho voluto dar questo 
conto di quello che Gu* hora e passato acci6 che non ritor- 
nando io, a quel tempo che fossi stato aspettato, non si stesse 
in qualche sospension d"* animo. Sua majestk sta gagliarda, 
e cavalca, e va personalmente vedendo Y essercito, e le cose 
come passano, il quaP essercito hoggi innanzi mezzo giomo 
e partito da dolci quattro leghe lontano di qu^, et e andato 
ad un altro viaggio chiamato lieu S. Amando lontano da 
quello una legha, e pid vicino al campo Francese, il quale 
questa mattina e partito da Crevacore e venuto una legha 
jnu in qua. Bascio la mano a mons^ illustrissimo e mi rac- 
comando a V. S. da Valentiano. L** ultimo di Luglio 1554. 

Ser' Nicol6 Ormaneta. 

VOL. III. p. 3. X 


^A»T Number 26. 

The letter that the biehcp qf Arras wrote to cardinal Pck 

upon that audience. 

Al card. Polo. 

Ill"o. e rev™®, rig', mio osb"***. 

Teovomi con due lettere di V. S. illustrisrima nella pri- 
ma delle quail elle ri rall^ra della felice arrivata del prin- 
cipe N. S. adesso rh d^ iDghilterra in quel regno, e del con- 
sumato matrimonio, la lettera del mederimo per S. nugestit 
Cesarea ho data io mederimo, alia quale e {naoduto aomma- 
mente P officio tanto amorevolmente da V. S. illustrisrima: 
dipoi arriy6 assai presto il suo auditore portator di quests, 
venuto da Roma, dal quale ho inteso quanto V. S. rererend- 
isrima li haveva commesso di rifeiirmi sopra le lettere ere. 
dentiali, che ^li mi ha portato, di che tutto ho &tto rda- 
tione a S. majestk Cesarea, la quale mi ha comandata lis- 
ponderle quello che esso suo auditore le potril rifoire, noD 
giudicando S. majestii conveniente, che V. S. reverendisrima 
pigli il camino d"" Inghil terra fin tanto, che consultatoil tutto 
con quelli serenissimi re, come fa ocm un corriero expresao 
partito hoggi, s^ intenda da loro il stato presente delle cose 
di la e quello che conformc a questo quel regno potria al 
presente comportare, accio che inteso il tutto S. majesti 
possa m^lio risdiversi ulla risposta che ella haverii a dare 
a V. S. reverendisrima su quella che di sua parte ha pro- 
posto il detto suo auditore : non dubitando punto che come 
sua maesst^ e V. S. illustrissima hanno il zelo, che esse et 
ambidoi i r^ hanno alle cose delle religione, che terranno per 
certo, che non lascieranno preterir punto di quello che oon- 
venghi al rimedio d^ esse nei punto regno : caminandovi con- 
tal moderatione, che in luogo di {aurvi del bene^ non ri tron- 
casse per sempre il camino al remedio. £ senza piu a V. S* 
illustrisrima bacio humilmente la mano. Dall^ exercito Ce- 
sarea appresso Buchain li iii d*" Agosto 1554. 

Di V. S. reverendissima 

humil ser^ il Vescovo d^ Arras. 


Number 26. BOOK 

Cardinal Pcle^s answer to the bishop of Arras his letter. ^' 
A mons'. d' Arras. 

Molto illfc. rev<lo. agf. 
Dalla lettera di V. S. e dalla relatione del mio auditore 
ho inteso quanto e piaciuto a sua maestit farmi per bora 
6iq>ere della mente sua, intomo il negocio della mia l^a- 
tioDc in Ingbilterra, riservandosi a darmene maggior risolu* 
tioDe^ quando baver^ inteso da quelli serenissimi prencipi il 
presente stato delle cose di la, perilche baveva spedito sub- 
liito un corriero ; io mio sono molto rallegrato, vedendo cbe 
in mezo di tanti, et si urgend negodi della guerra S. majesta 
habbia bavuto tanta cura, e sollicitudine di questa causa di 
Dio, la quale quando sia ben conclusa, non dubito le porter^ 
aeco ogni buon successoin tutto il resto ; 8tar6 a spettando 
quello cbe piacer^ a S. majesti di farmi sapere, poicbe baverit 
havuto risposta d^ Ingbilterra, ne altramente pensai prima mi 
ocmvenisee fare. £t in questo mezo pregar6 la honXk d* 
Iddio, cbe cossi faccia ben intendere a tutto il corpo di quel 
r^no questo tempo, nel quale sua divina maesti lo visita 
am la gratia sua, come son certo intendino benissimo i 
capi loro, accio cbe non si habbita a dir contra di essi, mil- 
vus cognovit tempus suum, populus autem hie non cog- 
novit tempus visitationis suae, ma havendo Iddio data gratia 
e quei catholici principi, a i quali tocca far^ intendere et 
easequir^ a gli altri, quello cbe in questa causa con P ho- 
nor di S. majestjt sar^ di salute, et universal beneficio di 
tutti, spero cfae le maest^ loro non siano per mancare di 
far^ in ci6 quello, ch** ogn** uno aspetta dalla pieti loro, es- 
aeode massimamente eccitati, et aiutati, et in ci6 dalP au- 
thoritiL e prudentia di sua majestit Cesarea : havendo inteso 
cfae a V. S. saria stato di satisfattione veder copia del breve 
della faculty concessami da N. S^ circa la dispositione di i 
brai ecclesiastici, io glie la mando con questa, pr^gandola sia 
eontenta farmi intendere dalla ricevuta, e molto la ringratio 
dell^ amorevolezza sua verso di me, e della cortesia usata al 
detto mio auditore. Dal monasterio di Dilig^m. alii 6 d' 
Agosto 1654. Reginaldo card. Polo. 



PART Number 87. 

' Cardinal PoU^s leUer to king Philip* 

Al re d^ Inghilterra. 

Ser""« rex. 

Cum maxima antea laetatus essem, cognito ex fam&ipsaf 
et litteris meorum optatissimo miyestis tine in AngUam ad- 
ventUy et fcelicissimis nuptiis, quae cum aerenisnma reguia 
nostra summo omnium gaudio et gratulatione odebntc 
sunt : tamen hanc meam Icetitiam magnopericumulanmtse- 
renitatis tuae litterss a domino comite de Home, cum is in 
castns apud majestatem Caesaream remansisaet, heii misw 
ad me per nobilem virum D. de S^ MarUno majestis Uue 
domestic m, eutndem cui ^o has ad illam perferendas dedl 
Etenim expressam in illis imaginem vidi ejus humanitatis «c 
benignitatisj qua majestatem tuam prseter reliquas eximiai 
virtutes excellere omnes prsedicant, quie quidem yirtus ab 
animi ver^ regii altitudine proficiscitur. Itaq; ego nugeaUd 
tuae ob hoc benevolentiae signum mihi impertitum maximas 
ut debeo gradas, ac tametsi per alia litteras ubmua hoc ipso 
officio functus sum, tamen iterum illi de hoc faelici matzi- 
monio divina providentia, ut plan^ persuasum habeo, ad 
istius regni quietem conciliato, gratulor. Idq; eo magis 
quod confido brevi futurum, ut ad coram sibi pontificis nua- 
imi nomine gratulandum, quemadmodum in mandatis iiabeo, 
majestatis tuae pietas aditum mihi patefaciat cum summo 
totius ecclesiae gaudio, et istius regni salute. Reliquum 
est ut majestati tuae omnia obsequa, quae illi vel pro legati- 
onis munere publice praestare possum, vel jam ut meo prin- 
cipi ac domino privatim debeo, deferam, atque pollicear. 
Quae quidem in rebus omnibus, quae ad ejus amplitudinem, 
laudem, honoremque pertinebunt studiosissime semper pne- 
stabo. Deus Opt. Max. majestatem tuam una cum sere- 
nissima reverendissima regina custodiat, ac diutissim^ fb- 
Ucem conservat. Mon<»«>, £)i]ig|^ prope Bruxellas vu idus 
Augusti 1554. 

Reginaldo card. Polus. 


Number 28. BOOK 

A letter of cardinal Pc/Ws to the pope^ gtvtf^ an account q f ^' 

a conference that he had with Charles the Vthy concerning 

the church lands. 
Beatissime pater, 

£ MOJLTo tempo che Don havendo cosa d"* importanza, 
Don ho scritto a V. santita per non molestarle: facendole 
ool mezo del mio agente intendere tutto quello che occur- 
reva ; e benche hora jo non habbia da dirle quanto decade- 
rarei, nondimeno mi e parso conveniente scriverle, e darle 
conto del raggiamento prima havuta con monsieur d"^ Arrass 
et poi di quel che ho negotiato con sua majestit. Mons. 
d** Arras alii ex che fu il giomo istesso che sua majestji 
tomo, essendomi venuto a visitare, trovandoa all hora meoo 
monsieur il nuncio, mi disse, che sua majestji havea veduta 
la lettera che io mandai ultimamente per P auditor mio, e 
che ella era benissimo disposta verso questo negotio della 
religione in Inghilterra come si conveniva, e n poteva credere 
per la sua pietat, et anche per V interesse, che ne sequeria 
de quel regno et de questi paiesi per la congiuntione che e 
tra loro. Si che quanto a questa parte di disponer sua ma- 
jestit non accader far altro. Ma che era ben necessario, che 
io venissi a particolari, et atrattar de gli impedimenti, e 
della via di rimoverli : sopra che sua maesta mi udiva molto 
volentieri, jo risposi che veramente non era da dubitare del 
buono e pronto animo di sua maesta, e che io ni era stato 
sempre persuasissimo. Na che quanto pertineva all officio 
mio per esser io stato mandato da V. santita per far inten* 
der r ottima sua mente verso la salute di quello regno, e la 
prontezza di porgere tutti quei remedii che dall** autorita 
sua potesser venire ; a me non toccava sar altro, che pro- 
curar d** haver V adito : e che ad esse principi, quali sono ful 
fatto, et hanno il govemo in mano, le apparteneva, far in- 
tendere gli impedimenti, che fussero in contrario : e tor- 
nando pur esso monsieur d** Arras che bisognava che io de- 
scendessi alii particulari, io replicai che in questa causa 
non conveniva in modo alcuno che si procedesse come si 
era fatto inquella della pace; nella quale dascuna delle 



PART parti staTa sopra di se non vokndon sooprhre, ma aolo oer- 
^*^' cando di scoprirne, V altra, per rispetto de gli intereaae parti- 
culari ; percioche questa e una causa commune e ndla quale 
V. santita e sua maesta Cesarea, et quei prindpi hamio il 
medesimo fine, et noi ancora come ministri. Confermo do 
esser vero quanto al tratar della pace, con dire in efietto in 
tratar del negodo della pace io mi armo tutto. Ma pur 
tuttavia tomava a dire, die io dovesd pensare e raggionar 
in particolare, con sua maesta di quest impediments £ 
monsieur il nundo al hora voltatosi a me desae, che in 
efletto era bisogno venire a questi partioolari : e cod al sine 
restammo che ogniuno d pensasse sopra. 

Alii xi poi nell andar da S. majesta, monaeur d* Anas 
toma a replicarmi il medesimo ; nell audientia di S. maesta, 
nella quale d trovo presente mondeur il nuncio, e monsieur 
d^ Arras, poiche mi fui ral^rato con sua maesta, die ha- 
vendo liberato questi suoi paed della molestie ddla guerre, 
doppo tanti travagli, e d^ animo e di oorpo fusae tomato pin 
gagliarda e meglio dispodta che quando d parti ; in die fl 
videva che il dgnior Iddio haveva preservata et preaervava, 
a maggior cose in honor di S. divina maesta a bmefido 
commune. Sua maesta confermo senterd asaai bene, e 
disse dde indispodtione che haveva havuta in Arras e altre 
cose in simil propodto : entrai poi a dire della lettera, che 
]0 haveva scritta a S. maesta della resposta che mondeur 
d^ Arras mi haveva fatta, che era stata di rimeterd al breve* 
Retomo di sua maesta qui, e disd che se havesd a tratter 
questo negodo con altro prindpe, della pieta del quale non 
fusd tanto persuaso, quanto io sono certo di quella di sua 
maesta, dimostrata da lei con tanti segni, e nella vita sua 
privata, e nell attioni publiche, cercarei de essortarlo per 
tante vie quante si potria ad abbracciar, e favorir questa cod 
santa causa. Ma che non essendo bisogno fare questo coo 
S. maesta, e tanto piu per esser in questa causa con honore 
dMddio, congionto anco il benefido di S. maesta et dd 
serenisdmo re suo figlivolo, solo aspettava da lei ogni ajuto 
per remover gli impedimenti, che fussero in questo n^;odo: 
i quali per quanto io poteva condderere sono di duo aorti : 


uno pertinente alia doctrina catollica, nella quale uon poteva BOOK 
esser in alcun modo indulgente, per esser cosa pertinente ^' 
alia fide ne poteva sanar altrimente questo male, che con 
introdure de nuovo la biiona doctrina. U altro impedimento 
essendo de i beni, gli usurpatori di quale, sapendo la se- 
verita delle leggi ecclesiastiche, temevano per questa causa 
di ritomar al obedienza della Chiesa, desse dissi che in 
questa parte V. santita poteva, et era disposta ad usar la 
sua benignita et indulgenza : e primo quanto alle censure e 
pene incorse, et alle restitutione de frutti percetti, che era 
di grand^ importanza, V. santita haveva animo nell una nell 
altra di questo due cose d"* usar ogni indulgenza, rimittendo 
liberamento il tutto : ne pensava d' applicar parte alcuna de 
detti beni a se, ne alia sede apostolica, come multi teme- 
vano : benche di raggione lo potesse fare, per le ingiurie 
et damni recevuti ; ma che voleva convertir il tutto in se- 
vitio d"* Iddio, et a beneficio del regno, senza haver pur una 
minima conaderatione del suo privato interesse: et confi* 
dando^ nclla pieta di quei prindpi, voleva far loro quest* 
honore di far per mezo del suo legato, quelle gratie che 
paressero convenienti secondo la proposta et intercessione 
delle loro maesta, a quelle persone che esse giudicassero 
degne d'^essere gratificate, et atte ad ajutar la causa della 
religione. Sua maesta respondendo ringratio prima molto 
V. santita mostrando di conoscere la sua bona mente, et con 
dire, che ella in vero haveva fatto assai : poi disse che per 
gli impediment! et occupationi della guerra, non haveva po- 
tuto attendere a questo negocio, come faria stato ii suo desi* 
derio : ma che hora gli attenderia ; et che haveva gia scritto 
e mandato in Inghilterra, per intender meglio in questa 
parte il stato delle cosa, et aspettava in breve risposta : et 
che bisognava ben considerare fin dove si potesse andare nel 
rimover questo impedimento d** beni ; il quali esso per les- 
perienza che haveva havuto in Germania, conosceva esser il 
principale. Perchioche quanto alia doctrina, disse, che poco 
8e ne curavano questo tali, non credendo ne alF una ne alP 
altra via : disse anche che essendo stati questi beni dedicati 
a Dio, non era da concedere cosi ogni cosa, a quelli che li 

X 4 


ART tenevano: e che se bene a lei io dioesse fin dawe s'esten- 
^^^' desse la mia faculta, non pero si haveva da far intendere il 
tutto ad altri : e che sara bisogni veder il breve della fii- 
culta, per ampliarle dove fusse neoessario : alche io rispoa 
haverlio gia fatto vedere a mon^eur d^ Arras, il quale non 
disse altra: e dubitando io che questa non fusse via di 
maggior dilatione dissi a S. maesta, che devendoa come io 
intendeva e come S. maesta doveva saper meglio, fare in 
breve il parlamento, era d** avertire grandimente, che non si 
facesse senza conclusione nella causa dell obediensa della 
chiesa; che quando altiimente si facesse, sarebbe d'^un 
grandissimo scandalo a tutto il mondo, e danno alia detta 
causa : e che se bene la regina a fare un cosi grande atto, 
haveva giudicato haver bisogno della congiuntione del re 
suo marito, come che non esse bonum mulierem esse 
solam, se hora che Iddio ha prosperito e condotto al fine 
questa santa congiuntione, si differisse piu T essecutione di 
questo efietto, che dove essar il principio et il fundamento di 
tutte le loro regie attioni, non restarebbe via di satisiar a 
Dio, ne a ficli huomini : e dicendo S. maesta che bisosnava 
anco haver grand respetto alia mala dispositione de gli in- 
teressati, e quanto universalmente sia abborito questo nome 
d** obedienza della chiesa, e questo cappel rosso, e V habito 
ancora de i religiosi, voltatosi all hora a monsieur nuncio e 
in tel proposito parlando de frad condotti di Spagnia dal re 
suo figlivolo, che fu consegliato far loro mutar Y habito, se 
bene do non si feci, ne si conveniva fare : con dire anco di 
quanto importanza fusse il tumulto del popolo, et in tal 
proposito toccando anche de i mali officii, che non cessavano 
di fare per ogni via i nemici esterni. Io risposi che volendo 
aspettare che tutti da se si disponessero, e che cessasse ogni 
impedimento^ saria un non venir mai a fine, perchioche, gli 
interessali massimamente, altro non vorriano se non che si 
continuasse nel presente stato, con tenere et godcre esse, tutto 
quello che hanno. In fine fu concluso che si aspettasse la li- 
posta d** Inghilterra, col ritorno del secretario Eras, che saria 
fra pochi di, e che in questo mezzo io pensassi, e conferisa di 
quelle cose con monsieur d^ Arras. V. beatitudine puocon la 


siia prudenza vedere in che stato si trovi questa causa ; e come B O O K 
sara necessario, che qui si trattino le diflSculta sopra questa ^* 
beni ; e per non tediaria con maggior lunghezza, quel di piu 
che mi occurreria dirle V. santita si degnira intendere dall 
agente mio, alia quale conla debita reverenza bacio i santissimi 
piedi pregnando il sig. Iddio, che la conservi longamente a 
servitio della sua Chiesa. DiBruxelles alii 13 d** October 1554. 

Reginaldus card. Polus. 

Number 99. 
A part of Mason's letter to queen Mary^ concerning cardi- 
nal Pole. 
Cardinal Poole having been sent to these quarters for 
two purposes, th''one for the meanning of a cy vill peas be- 
tween the French king and the emperor ; and the other for 
the helping to conclude a spirituall peas, as he termeth yt, 
in the realme of England ; percey ving neither of them both 
to come to such a pass as his good mynde doth desyre, 
dothe begynne, as me semeth, to be owte of comfort : and 
being in manner clerely in dispayre of throne, yf he receyve 
not shortlye some likeliadde of the other, being wery of so 
much tyme spent wythout frute, begynneth in that case to 
talk of his return to Italy. If he return without the seing 
of his countrey, lyke as he shall retoume a sorrowful man, 
so shall the realme have lost the fruition of such a one, as 
for his wysdome, joyned with learning, vertue and godlynes, 
all the world seeketh and adoureth. In whome it is to bee 
thought, that God hath chosen a speciall place of habitation. 
Such is his conversation, adorned with infinite godly qualir 
ties above the ordinary sorte of men. And who soever 
within the realme lyketh him worst, I wold he might have 
with him the talke of one half howre : it were a right stony 
harte, that in a small tyme he could not soften. If it be his 
fortune to depart, without shewing the experience herof in 
the realme, his going away shall be, in myne opinion, like 
the storye of the gospell, of such as dwelt in regione Gerge- 
senoruniy who uppon a fond feare, desyred Christe, offring 
himself unto them, ut discederet afnibus iUorurn. 


PART Thus, most humbly desyring your gnoe to pardone my 
bolde and presumptiouse medling in matters passii^ my cs- 
padtye. I commit the same to the tuidon <^ Abnigfaty 

From Bruxells, the vth 
of Octobre 1554. 

Your grace^s 

most humble, faithful, 
and obedient subject, 

John Masone. 
To the queefCs moat exceHeni nuffestie. 

Number SO. 

A letter of cardinal Pole's to Phiiip the Ild^ complaining 0/ 
the delays that had been made^ and desiring a speedy ad- 
mittance into England. 

Serenissime Rex, 
Jam annus est, cum istius regiie domus fores pulsare ccpi, 
nedum quisquam eas mihi apperuit. Tu vero, rex, si qu»- 
ras, ut solent qui suas fores pulsare audiunt, quisnam pul- 
set P Atque ego hoc tan turn respondeam, me esse qui, ne 
meo assensu regia ista domus ei clauderetur, quae tecum si- 
mul eam nunc tenet, passus sum me domo et patria expelli, 
et exilium vigind annorum hac de causa pertuli. An si hoc 
dicam, non vel uno hoc nomine dignus videar, cui et in pa- 
triam reditus, et ad vos aditus detur ? At ego, nee meo no- 
mine, nee privatam personam gerens pulso, aut quidquam 
postulo, sed ejus nomine ej usque personam referens, qui 
summi Regis et Pastoris hominum in terris vicem gerit. Hie 
est Petri successor ; atque adeo ut non minus ver^ dicam, 
ipse Petrus, cujus authoritas et potestas, cum antea in isto 
regno maxima vigeret ac floreret, postquam non passa est 
jus regiae domus ei adimi, quae nunc eam possidet,ex eo per 
summam injuriam est ejecta. Is regias per me fores jam- 
pridem pulsat, et tamen quae reliquis omnibus patent ei uni 
nondum aperiuntur. Quid ita ejus ne pulsantis sonum an 
vocands vooem non audierunt, qui intus sunt ? Audierunt 


sane, et quidem non minore cum adroiradone divinae poten- book 
tiae et benignitads erga ecclesiain, quam olim Maria ilia af- ^* 
fecta fuerit, cum ut est in Actis Apostolorum, Rhode ancilla 
ei nunciasset Petrum quern rex in vincula conjecerat, ut mox 
necarct, et pro quo ecclesia assidue precabatur ^ carcere li- 
beratum ante ostium pulsantem stare. Ut enim hoc ei caete- 
risque qui cum ilia erant magnam attulit admirationem, ita 
nunc qui norunt eos qui Petri authoritatem potestatemq; in 
isto regno retinendam esse contendebant, in vincula Hero- 
diano imperio conjectos, et crudelissime interfectos fuisse, 
quin etiam successorum Petri noroina 6 libris omnibus sub- 
lata in quibus precationes ecclesis pro eorum incolumitate 
ac salute continebantur, qui inquam haec norunt, facta ad 
omnem memoriam Petri autoritatis k Christo traditse peni« 
tus ex animis hominum delendam, qui fieri potest ut non 
maxima admirentur hoc divins benignitatis et potentise pig- 
nus ac testimonium : Petrum nunc quasi iterum & carcere 
Herodi^ liberatum, ad regis domus fores unde haec omnia 
iniquissima in eum edicta emanarunt, pulsantem stare, et 
cum hoc maxime mirandum est, tum illud non minus mi- 
rum, k Maria regina domum banc teneri : sed cur ilia tamdiu 
foras aperire distulit. De andlla quidem illud Marise scrip, 
tum est, earn Petri voce audita prse nimio gaudio suae quad 
oblitam, de aperiendo non cogitasse: rem prius, ut Maris 
aliisq; qui cum ea erant nunciaret, accurrisse, qui cum primo 
an ita esset dubitassent, mox cum Petrus pulsare pergeret 
aperierunt, neq; ilium domo recipere sunt veriti, etsi maxi* 
mam timendi causam habebant, Herode ipso vivo et reg- 
nante. Hie vero quid dicam de Maria regina, gaudeo ne 
earn an timore esse prohibitam quominus aperuerit ; preser- 
Um cum ipsa Petri vocem audierit, cum certo sciat eum ad 
domus suae januam jamdiu pulsantem stare : cum admirabi- 
lem Dei in hac re poten tiam agnoscat, qui non per angel um, 
ut tunc Petrum e carcere Herodis, sed sua manu eduxit, de- 
jecta porta ferrea quae viam ad regiam ejus domum inter- 
dudebat : scio equidem iilam gaudere, scio etiam vero ti- 
mere ; neq; enim nisi timeret tarn diu distulisset. Verum si 
Petri liberatione gaudet, si rei miraculum agnoscit, quid im* 


A RT pedimento fuit quo minus ei ad jaauam ketabunda oocurre- 
^^^* rit, eumque meritas Deo gratias agens, introduxerit, Herode 
presertim mortuo, omniq; ejus imperio ad earn delato? An 
fbrtassis divina providenUa quae te dilectum Petri filium et 
& virum destinarat, illam timore aliquo tantisper affid per- 
misit, dum venisses^ ut utriusq; ad rem tarn praedaram ei aa- 
latarem ageodam, opera atque officium oonjungeietur: equi- 
dem sic antea hunc Maris regins conjug^ tuiB timofem, 
quod etiam ad earn scripsi sum interpretatus : ac pcopteiea 
ad te nunc, virum ejus, prindpem religiosisamum, scribo, 
et abs te ipsius Petri Christi vicarii nomine postulo, ut illi 
omnes timoris causas prorsus excutias : habes vero expedi- 
tissimam excutiendi rationem, si oonaderes eique proponas, 
quam indignum sit si dum te ilia corporis siu sponsum ac- 
oerserit, cum non deessent quae timenda viderentur, tamcn 
omnem timorem sola vicerit, nunc te tanto princifn illi om- 
juncto timore prohiberi quominus aditum ad se aperiat 
sponsae animae suae, mecum una et cum Petro tamdiu ad fo- 
res expectanti ; qui praesertim tot et tam miris modia custo- 
dem ejus se, defensoremq; esse dedaravit. Noli enim^ reX| 
putare, me aut solum ad vestram regiam domum, aut uno 
tantum Petro comitatum venisse ; cujus rd hoc quidem tibi 
certum argumentum esse potest, quod tamdiu persevero pul- 
sans : nam sive ego solus venissem, solus jampridem abiia- 
sem, querens et expostulans quae aliis omnibus pateant, milu 
uni occlusas esse fores ; ^e una mecum solus Petrus, jam- 
pridem is quoque discessisset, meque secum abduxisset, pul- 
vere pedum excusso, quod ei preceptum fuit a Domino ut 
£Etceret quotiescunque ejus nomine aliquo aocedens non ad- 
mitteretur. Cum vero nihil ego, quod ad me quidem atti- 
net conquerens, perse verem, cum Petrus pulsare non desis- 
tat, utrumque scito ab ipso Christo retincri, ut sibi sponso 
animae utriusque vestrum aditus ad vos patefiat. Neque 
enim unquam verebor dicere, Christum in hac legatione, qua 
pro ejus vicario fungor, mecum adesse : quamdiu quidem 
mihi conscius ero me nihil meum, me non vestra, sed vos 
ipsos toto animo omnique studio quaerere. Tu vero, prin- 
ceps catholicae, cui nunc divina providentia et benignitate 


additum est alterum hoc praeclarum fidei defensoris cogno- BOOK 
men, quo reges Angliae apostolica Petri autoritate sunt aucti 
atque omati, tecum nunc considera quam id tuee pietati con* 
veniat, cum omnibus omnium principum ad te legatis aditus 
patuerity ut tibi de hoc ipso cognomine adepto gratularen- 
tur, solum successoris Petri qui hoc dedit, legatum, qui pn^ 
terea missus est ut te in soiio r^ni divina summi omnium 
Regis quam aflert pace et gratia, confirmet, non admitti? An 
si quidquam hie ad timorem proponitur, quominus eum ad« 
mittis non multo ma^s Christi hac in re metuenda esset of* 
fensio, quod ejus legatus qui omnium primus audiri debuit, 
tamdiu fores expectet, cum caeteri homines qui multo post 
venerunt, nulla interposita mora, introducti auditiq; sint et 
honorifice dimissi. At hie conqueri inci{No ; conqueror qui- 
dem, sed idcirco conqueror, nejustam tuae majestati causam 
de me conquerendi prsebeam, quam sane prseberem, si cum 
periculi, quod ex hac cunctatione admittendi legati k Christi 
vicario missi, nobis vestroq; regno impendet, reginam saepe 
admonuerim, nihil de ea re ad majestatem tuam scriberem ; 
quod oiBcium cum tibi k me pro eo quo fungor munere nuu 
xim6 debeatur, id me satis persoluturum esse arbitror, si 
his Uteris ostendero quantum periculi ei immineat, cui illud 
vere dici potest, distulisti Christum tuum. Is autem Chris- 
tum difiert, qui legatum missum, ab ejus vicar io, ad requi- 
rendam obedientiam ecclesise, ipsi Christo debitam, ex quo 
nostra omnium pendet salus, non statim admittit. Difiers 
vero, tu princeps, si cum accercitus fueris, ut pro munere 
regio viam ad hanc divinam obedientiam in tuo isto regno 
restituendam munias, ipse alia agas. 

Number 31. 

The lord Pagefs and the lord Hastings's letter concerning 

cardinal Pole. An originaL 

It maie please your most excellent majesty to be adver- Paper* 
tised, that arriving here upon Sunday last in the forenoone, ^®*** 
we had audience of the emperor''s majestic in the afternoone, 
notwithstanding that the same had that daie received the 


RT blessed sacrament, wherby we noted a great care in him, for 
the expedicion of us hence again : after dew oommendaUon 
made unto him by us, on your majesties behalfe, and the 
causes of our comyng declared unto him with suche drcum- 
stances, as by the tenure of our instructions, we have in 
charge to open unto him, he rejoyced verey much to here 
the same ; and first giving unto you both most harty thanks 
for your commendations, and then inquiering very diligently 
of your good prosperities and wellfares, and specially 
(madame) of the state of yoiur majesties persone, he roused 
himself with a merry chere, and said, that among many 
great benefits, for the which he thou^t himself most 
bounden unto God, this was one of the greatest, that it had 
pleased him to hold his blessed hand over that realme ; and 
so taking occasion to reherse in what good estate and great 
reputation he knew the realme of England had bene in the 
banning ; and afterward into what calamities the same feU 
into, much (he said) to his regret ; he gave God thanks, not 
only for the great miracles, which he had shewed upon your 
majestic to make you his apt minister for the restoring of 
that kingdome to the auncient dignite, welth, and renowne, 
but also for that it hath pleased him to give you so sone, so 
certaine a hope of succession ; wherof like as he hathe cause 
for his parte (he said) to rejoyce and take great oomforte, 
so hath all England greater cause to think themselfs most 
bounden unto God, to please him, and to serve him for the 
same : these tydings, he said, of the state of your majesties 
persone (madame) with the reaport that we had made unto 
him of the great conformite, and hole consent of the noble 
men, and others in their proceedings before your majesties, 
touching the receiving of my lord cardinal into England, 
and their earnest submissions to the obedience and union of 
the catholique church, were so pleasant unto him, as if he 
had been half deade, yet they shuld have been ynoughe to 
have revived him again. These and many other suche like 
wordes he used to declare the joy and contentment of his 
minde, for the good successe of this matter. In the mayn* 
ing whereof there, if any thing (said he) shuld fortune^ 


lerin his advise might be thou^t requiate, your majesties BOOK 
uld not onley find the same ready, but also in any other ^' 
ing that laie in him, which might serve to your honors, 
d the benefite of the realme: to this when we for oiur 
rts had joined such talk as to this purpose semed to oiur 
or witts convenient, declaring your godly dispositiones in 
is mater, how much you reposed your selfs upon his great 
sdome and experience, what confidence you had in his 
iierly love and friendly affections towards yoiur majesties, 
d the benefite of your realms ; we toke our leaves of his 
ijestie, and repaired furthwith unto my lord cardinal, 
lose gladnes of our comyng we shall not need with many 
>rds to declare unto your majestic ; nor yet what speech 
used to set furth, how much he was bounden unto your 
ijesUes for your gracious dispositions towards him, and 
m much both you and he were bounden to Almighty God, 
r the bending of your harts this waies, for your majesties 
all and maie perceive the same more plainly by himself at 
s comyng unto your presence. This under your majesties 
rrections we maie be bold to write unto you, that we be- 
!ve verely that whensoever he shall be in England, the 
me shall fare the better for him, for he is the man of God, 
11 of all godlines and vertue, ready to humble himself to 
[ fsicions that may do good; and therefore he is contented, 
»t only to come into England in such sort as your majesties 
Lve appointed, not as a legate, but as a cardinal, and am- 
issador to your majesties, but in any other sort whatsoever 
be, that your majesties will apoint ; he assuring your ma- 
sties, that touching the matter of possessions, all things 
all come to passe, on the pope^s behalfe, in such sort as 
ery man there shall have cause to be contented. Yester- 
y night he toke his leave of the emperor, and so did we 
JO. This daie he repaireth onwards his journey, to an ab- 
ye two miles hence, whither he hath used much to resorte 
e tyme of his abode here. To morrow at night to Den- 
rmount ; Thursday to Gawnte ; Friday to Bruges ; Sa- 
rday to Newport ; Sunday to Dunkirke ; Monday to Ca- 
je; (for his weake body can make no great joumies) and 


PART his estate also is to be oonsdered. In this journej ve tUll 
^^^ not faile to do him all the honour and service we can, aswdl 
for that we take it to be our special charge, as for that also 
his great vertues have wonne us, and bind us to the same: 
we have written now, besides our speaking at our passing 
by, to the lord depute of Calice, for all things to be in a r&- 
dines for his transportation ; so as we trust we shall not have 
occasion to tarry long there. And thus we beaeedie Al- 
mighty God to preserve both your migesties long, and ki^ 
to live together to your own good contentments, and to the 
great comfort and benefit of us your poor subjects* From 
firuxells the ISth of November in the morning, 1554. 

Your majesties 
most humble, faithful, 
and obedient servants, 

William Paget 
Edw. Hastings. 
To the king and quetfCs mctfesties. 

Number S2. 

An original letter ofMasorCs^ of a preacher thai pressed the 

restitution of church-lands* 

Aftek most harUe commendations, I have sent to my 
lords at this present the emperor'^s commissaries answere 
made at the diett, to a letter lately sent from the French 
king to the said diett, of the circulls of Grermanye assemUed 
at Francfort. And forasmuche as yt chanced me at the 
closing up of my lettre, to have the sight of an other answer 
made to the saied lettre, by some bearing good will to the em- 
peror^s affaires, I thought good to coppye it, and to send it 
unto you ; albeit by the reading therof, yt may appere yt 
was made by some man, rather to assaye his witte, and to de- 
clare his affection, then of intent to answere perticuleriy the 
matier. It was this morning told me, by one of the empe* 
ror^s counsell, who misliked muche the matier, that a preacher 
of ours, whose name he rehersed, betithe the pulpet jolyly 
in England, for the restitution of abbaye lands. If it be so 


neant by the prince, aod be thought oonvenieDt so to be, BOOK 
hen doth he his duetie ; but yf contrarely, yt be neither 
neant nor thought convenient, it is a strange thing in a well 
irdered commonwelth, that a subject shall be so bardie to 
irye unto the people openly such learning, as wherby your 
winter works maye in the somer be attempted with some 
torme. And wer the thing fitt to be talked of, yet were 
he princes and the counsel], who might remedy it, meter to 
>e spoken with therin, then the multitude, who therby may 
eceyve an yll impression, and an occasion of lewd thinking, 
md lewde talking, and lewd doing also, if it may lye in their 
x>wers ; and that is all, that of sowing thies maters amongs 
hem can ensue. These unbridled preachings were so much 
o be misliked in the yll governed tyme, as good men trusted, 
n this good governance, it should have been amended. And 
o maye it be, when it shall please my lords of the counsell 
IS diligently to consyder it, as it is more then necessarie to 
)e loked unto. The partye, me thinketh, might well be 
>ut to silence, if he were asked, How, being a monk, and 
laving professed and vowed solemply wilfull poverty, he 
\an with conscience keep a deanery, and three or four bene- 
ices.'* I heare, by the report of other ambassadors here, of the 
eturn of the real me to the unitie of Christen church, wherof 
Jl good men have much cause to rejoyse. I would have been 
^lad to have been able, at the least, to have confyrmed the 
lews by some certaine knowledge : but being the ordenarye 
if ambassadors of England, to knowe least of all others of 
he matiers of the realm, I must content my self; trusting 
hat, as I am enformed, the ambassador ther hath lost his 
lame : for that it is not thought necessarie the father to 
lave an ambassador to the sonne, so shall with tyme, this 
rffice on this side being no more needfuU then it is, be dis- 
harged also. Or if myne abode shall be longer, then wold 
'. att lesure be a suter to you, to be a mean for besure to 
ome over for three weeks, or a month, to see the king^s 
lighnes, and to doe his majesty my duty, and so to re- 
urn. I mean no haste, but as matter and occasion may 
ierve hereafter. Thus I committ you to the keeping of 

VOL. III. p. 3. Y 


iRT Almighty God. At Brussels, the 12th day of December 


Your most assuredly 

John Masone. 

To the right honourable sir Wm, 
Petevy kt. king and queerCa 
principal secretarye. 

Number 33. 

Cardinal PoWs commission to the bishops^ to reconcile all in 
their dioceses to the church qfRome. 

RB6INALDUS9 miseratione divina, Sanctse Maris m Cos- 
medim sanctae Romana; ecclesis, cardinalis Polus, nuncupa- 
tus sanctissimi domini nostri papse, et sedis apostc^ese, ad 
serenissimos Philippum et M ariam, Angliae reges, et uniTer- 
sum Anglise regnum, de latere legatus. Venerabili, ac nobis 
in Christo dilecto, episcopo Norwicensi, seu ejus in spiritual 
libus [vicario] generali, salutem in Domino sempitemam. 
Cum sancUssimus in Christo pater dominus noster, dombus 
Julius, divina providentia papa tertius, inter alias facilitates, 
pro hujus regni, omniumque personarum in eo existentium^ 
sanctae ecclesiae catholicae reconciliationem faciendam neces- 
sarias, nobis in nostra hac legationc concessas, banc speciali- 
ter indulgent, ut quoscunque in haeresium et schismatis er- 
rorcs lapsos, ab iis, et k quibuscunque censuris et pcenis 
propterea incursis, absolvere, et cum eis super irregularitate 
prsemissorum occa^ione contracta dispensare^ et alia mulu 
ad hsec necessaria, seu quomodolibet oppbrtuna facere. Et 
hoc idem munus catholicis locorum ordinariis^ et aliis perso- 
nis Deum timentibus, fide insignibus, et literarum sdentia 
,pr8editis, demandare possumus; prout in ejus Uteris^ tam 
sub plum bo, quam in forma brevis expeditis plenius conti- 
netur. Cumque Dei benignitate, et serenissimorum regum 
pietate, regnum hoc universaliter, et omnes domini, spiritua- 
les et temporales, alia^ue personse communitatum, in eo 
quod proximo celebratum est, parliamento congregato sin- 
gulariter primo : et deinde universum corpus cleri provin- 


cise Cantuariens^ ct omnes fer^ persons singular dictum BOOK 
corpus representantes, coram nobis existetf , alia^ue plerae- 

que fuerint sanctae ecclesiae catholicse, per nos ipsos reconci- 
liatse. Speramusque fore, ut omnes alise quse reconciliatse 
adhuc non sunt, reconciliari debeant ; difficileque, et potius 
impossibile sit, ut tam numerosa multitude per nos ipsos re- 
concilietur. Ideo vices nostras, in hoc, locorum ordinariis, 
et aliis personis ut supra qualificatis, delegandas duximus : 
circumspect] oni igitur vestrae, de cujus probitate, et charita- 
tis zelo, plenam in Domino fiduciam obtinemus, auctoritate 
apostolica, nobis, per literas ejusdem sanctissimi domini nos- 
tri papae concessa, et per nos vobis nunc impensa, omnes et 
singulas utriusque sexus, tam laicas quam ecclesiasticas^ se- 
culares, et quorum ve ordinum regulares vestrae civitatis et 
dioces^ personas, in quibusvis etiam sacris ordinibus consti- 
tutas, cujuscunque status et qualitatis existant, etiam si ca- 
pitulum, collegium, universitas, seu communitas fuerit, qua- 
rumvis haeresum aut novarum sectarum professores, aut in 
eis culpabiles vel suspectas, ac credentes^ receptatores, aut 
fautores eorum, suos errores agnoscentes, ac de illis dolen- 
tes; et ad orthodoxam fidem recepi humiliter postulan^ cog- 
nita in ipsis, vera, ct non ficta, aut simulata * potentia, ab * L. poeoi- 
omnibus et singulis haeresum, schisraatis, et ab orthodoxa ^*° **' 
fide, apostasiarum et blasphemiarum, et aliorum quorumcun- 
que similium errorum ; etiam sub generali sermone non ve- 
nientium peccatis, criminibus, excessibus et delictis; de qui- 
bus tamen jam inquisiti, vel accusati, seu condemnati non 
fuerint, et quibusvis excommunicationis, suspensionis, et in- 
terdictorum, et aliis ecclesiasticis et temporaiibus, censuris 
et poenis, in eas praemissorum et infrascriptorum occasione, 
i jure vel ab homine latis vel promulgatis ; etiam si in eis 
pluribus annis insorduerint, et earum absolutio, dictae sedi 
edam per literas in coena Domini legi consuetas, reservata 
existat in utroque conscientise, scilicet et contentioso foro, 
eos vero qui jam inquisiti, vel accusati, aut condemnati fue- 
rint, ut praefertur, ad cor revertentes in foro conscientiae, 
tantum plenari^ absolventur et liberentur. Necnon cum eis 
super irregularitatc, per eos praemissorum occasione con- 



RT tracta, etiam quia uc ligau, missas et alia divina offiduiy etiam 
'* contra ritus ct ccremonias hactenus probataa et usitataaode- 
braverint, aut illis alias se immiscuerint, oontracta quoque 
irr^^laritate, et aliis prsemissis non obstantibus, in suis or- 
dinibus, etiam ab haereUcis et schismatids epiaoo|H8) eciiiil 
minus rite, dummodo in eorum oollatione, ecclense forma et 
intenUo sit servata, per cos susceptis, et in eorum suaoep- 
done ; etiamsi juramentum contra papatum Romanum pn&- 
stiterint ; etiam in altaris ministerio ministrare, ac quccun- 
que, quotcunque, et qualiacunque ; etiam curata invioem ta- 
men se compatientia, beneficia secularia vel regularia* digni- 
tatibus in collegiatis, ecclesiis piincipalibus, et in cathedrali- 
bus, eUam metropolitonis post pontificalem, majoribus ex- 
ceptis ; etiam k schismaticis epscopis, seu aliis oollatoribut; 
etiam laicalis pietaus praetextu habita, auctoritate apostolict 
retinere, dummodo alteri jus quaesitum non sit, et non furo- 
motos ad omnes etiam sacros, et presbiteratus ordines, k 
suis ordinariis, si digni et idonei reperti fuerint, litk et leg^ 
time promoveri, ac benefida ecclesiastica etiam curata, si eis 
alias canonic^ conferantur, recipere et retinere valeant, qua- 
litate temporis, ministrorum defectu, et ecdesise neoessitati* 
bus, utilitatibusque ita poscen** dispensand^ et indulgend^ ac 
omnem inhabilitatis et infamia^ maculam, sive notam, ex 
pra?miss'' quomodolibet insurgen' penitus et omnino abo- 
lend\ Necnon in pristinum, ct eum in quo ante prsemiflsa 
quomodolibet erant, statum ita ut omnibus et singulis gra* 
tiis, privilegiis, favoribus et indultis, quibus ca^teri Chrisd 
fidcles gaudent, et gaudere quomodolibet possunt, uti et 
gaudere valeant, in omnibus, et per omnia ; perinde ac si i 
fide catholica in aliquo nunquam defecissent, restituend^ et 
rcponend' et redintegrand", et eis, dummodo corde contriti, 
sua errata et excessus, circumspectioni vestra?, alicui alteri 
per COS eligend', catholico confessori sacramcntaliter confite- 
antur ; et pcniten^ salutare eis praemiss^ injungend^ omnino 
adimpleatur : omnem publicam confessionem, abjurationem, 
renunciationem et poenitentiam, jure debit' arbitrio vestro 
motleran', vel in tot' remitted. Necnon quoscunque regu- 
lares et religiosos, extra eorum regularia loca, absque sedis 


licae licentia, errantes ab apostasis reatu et excom- BOOK 
itionis, aliisque censuris et poenis ecclesiasticis, per eos * 
rea, etiam juxta suorum ordinum instituta incurs^ in- 

eis pro modocula, poenitentia salutari pariter absol- 

et super quacunq; irregularitate propterea, per eos 
3ta, ac cum cis ut alicui curato benefic^ de illud obtinen^ 
suy etiam in habitu clerici secularis, habitur^ suum re- 
m sub honesta toga presbiteri secularis deferent deser- 
t extra eadem loca regularia reroanere ad beneplacitum 
m, libera et licite possunt^ eadem auctoritate aposto* 
) defectum ministrorum, et alias praedictas causas, dis- 
idi. Ac quoscunque quum in sacris ordinibus consti- 
latrimonia etiam cum viduis et corruptis mulieribus 
I* contraxerint, postquam mulieres ^c copulat^ rejece- 
lisque abjuraverint, ab hujusmodi excessibus, et ex- 
inicationis sententia imposit\ eis pro modo culpse, 
intia salutari, in forma ecclesise consueta absolvend^ : 
1 eis^ postquam poenitentiam peregerint, et continen- 

laudabiliter vivere cogniti fuerint, super bigamia 
rea per eos contract ; ita ut ea non obstai)% in qui- 

susceptis et suscipiendis ordinibus ; etiam in altaris 
srio ministrare, ac alicui beneficio ecclesiastico, de 
btinentis consensu, deservire ; et extra tamen diocesin, 

fuit copulatus eisdem de caus^ dispensand'. Necnon 
lialium ecclcsiarum tuae dioces** rectores sive curatos, 
)rum fide, probitate, circumspection'* ac charitatis zelo, 
fiducia conspici possit, ad quarumcunque utriusque 
suae parochiae personarum laicarum, tantum abso- 
jm, et ecclesiae catholicae reconciliationem, ut prae- 

auctoritate apostolica, faciendam. Et si qui ex 
1 praedictis ad id idonei non fuerint, in eorum de- 
I alias idoneas et sufHcientes personas, qui eorum vices 
ant nominand'' et deputand** quas sic per eas nominal 
utat** in locum nostrum in remissionibus, absolutioni* 
: reconciliationibus substituimus eiisque vices nostras 
egamus : plenam et liberam auctoritate apostolica no- 
praemittitur concessa, tenore presentium concedimus 
Item : vosque in praemissis omnibusque in nostrum 



PART locum substituimus pnemissis ac regula de inaordeaen^ et 
^^^' (MrdinatJonibus apostolicis, et omnibus illis, quae in Uteris 
praedictis sanctitas sua voluit, non obstare, contrariis non 
obstantibus quibuseunque presentibus in prseteiitis casibus 
locum haben** et ad beneplacitum nostrum duraturis. Daf 
Lambeth^ prope Londin^ Winton^ dioc^ anno k nativitate 
Domini millesimo quingenteumo quinqu^eamo quinto 
quarto calen*" Februarii pontificatus sanctissimi in Christo 
patris et domini nostri domini Julii divina providentia papa 
tertii anno quinto regni. 

Car^**. Polus, 1^. 

M. Antonius Faita, seer. 

Number 34. 
ArHcks of such things as be to be put in execution. 

Eiibio !• The divorce of married priests according to the 

r^~- canons. 


temp. Tho. 2. The restitution of them by penitence, thereupon to 

Hopton' et recommende them to other diocesses as penitents. 

Jo. Park- 3, To certifie the exhilitie of benefices, which for want of 

biint, ep. ,. . , 

Norvic. in livings have noo curats. 

R^p^^d °* 4. To certifie the counsaill of as maney as they know to 
ep. Norvic. have taken into their hands the goods of the church. 
• L be to ^' ^^ certifie what chauncells of benefices impropered* 
in. by some decay e, as they need present reparacion ; and to 

signifie therwith in whome the fault is. 

6. Not to confirme aney lease of aneye benefice, to the 
prejudice of the successor. 

7. To cause the churches decayed with vacant fruits and 
goods, ministred with what remaineth in the executors 

8. To interrupt them that eat flesh by pretence of dis- 
pensacion granted by the princes. 

9. To appoint suche as dwell in scites of monasteries, to 
repaire to some churche for to hear the servyce. 

10. To keep the registre for buryeinge, christininge, and 


11. A fourme of sute for layemen to receyve th&r tythe BOOH 
in spiritual courts. L. 

Instmctians given by the cardinal to the bishopSy and their 


SiNGULi domini episcopi, necnon ofSciales ecclesiarura P- 55* ^« 
quae nunc vacant pro exequutione eorum quae k reverendis- 
»nio domino legato sunt eis demandata ordinem quam in- 
frascripf est, poterint observare. 

Primum vocatum ad se totum singularum civitatum, 
quibus singuli prcsunt clerum, de.hiis quae sequuntur, in- 
struere procurabunt. 

De patcmo amore et charitate quam sanctissimus domi- 
nus noster Julius papa tertius erga nationem Anglicam de- 
claravit, qui ut primum cognovit serenissimam Mariam fuisse 
reginam declaratam reverendissimum dominum Re^naldum 
cardinalem Polum de suo latere ad has partes legatum misit 
ut regnum hoc tot jam annos ab ecclesia catholica separa- 
tum^ ad ejus unionem reducere, et in errorem lapsos conso- 
lari atque in Dei gratiam restituere studeret. 

De ejusdem domini legati adventu, quanta laetitia et ho* 
nore is cxceptus fuerit tum k serenissimis regibus, tum ab 
aliis omnibus. 

De hiis quae in proximo parliamento acta et conclusa sunt. 
Scilicet de omnibus dominis de parliamento et universo regno 
a schismate et censuris incursis absolutis et ecclesiae catho- 
licae, reconciliatis : de omnibus legibus quae contra authori- 
tatem scdis apostolicae et Romani pontificis fuerant per 
Henricum Octavum et Edvardum Sextum latae et promul- 
gatae, revocatis et abolitis. De restituta sanctissimo domino 
nostro papae et ecclesiae Romanae eadem obedientia quae 
ante hoc pemiciosissimum schisma prestabatur. 

De auctoritate cpiscopis restituta et maxime ut possint**- S7« »• 
contra hereticos et schismaticos procedere, et eos juxta cano- 
nicas sanctiones coercere et punire : hiis ita expositis veniant 
ad facultates sibi ab eodem reverendissimo D. legato con- 
cessas, quae recitentur, et hie omnes qui in schismata vel 

Y 4 


ART alios errores liqpsi sunt invitentur ad absolutioDeiii et reoon- 
^"' ciliationem humiliter et ex toto corde petendam. Necnon 
dispcnsationes tarn super ordinibus quam super benefidb 
necessarias et opportunas postulandas; deinde prsefigatur 
dies infra quern dicti de clero humiles et penitentes oom- 
pareant ad petendum supplidter absolutionem, reoondilift- 
Uonem et dispensationes prsedictas: secundum vero do- 
minium episcopi postquam illi omnibus erroribus suis re- 
nunciaverint et promiserit sacramentaliter ipais, aut alteri 
saccrdoti catholico confessuros esse errores suos penitentiam 
sibi injungendam adimpleturos eos absolvent^ et eodesis 
reconciliabuDt, et cum ipsis juxta formam facultatum per- 
petendum necessitatibus prout sibi visum fuerit, diqiensa- 
bunt: adhibendo semper convenientem distinctionem inter 
eos^ qui solum in schisma et hereses inciderunt, et eos qui 
ea etiam public^ docuerunt et alios ad peccandum induxe- 

EoDBM DIE constituetur dies festus et solemnis in quo 
astante in ecclesia populi mulutudine domini ejnscopi onmes 
curati eccle^s suis, omnia eadem quae dero jam exposit^ 
fuerunt populo quoq; insinuabunt et omnes invitabunt pa- 
temc et cum omni a£Pectu, ut agnitis erroribus suis ad ecde- 
sifie catholicse grcmium revertantur: promittendo fore, ut 
omnibus pretcrita crimina omnia condonentur et remittantur 
modo eos ex animo illorum peniteat, et illis renundent. 
Prefigatur autcm terminus, ut pote tota paschatis octava, 
infra tcrminum omnes ccclesiae reconcilientur alioquin eo 
lapso contra ipsos et eos qui post reconciliationem ad vomi- 
tum aversi fuerint sevcrissime procedetur, dicatur etiam de 
facultate concessa [1 reverend) ssimo domino legato episco[HS, 
et aliis ut absolvere possint, omnes quicunq; ad vos reversi 

Idem domini episcopi et ofSciales nominabunt et deputa- 
bunt, ecclcsiarum parochialium rectores seu alias personas 
idoneas, quae laicos ab heresi, schismate, et quibuscunq; 
censuris absolvant juxta facultatum formam et tcnorem. 
Data per cpiscopos formula qua in absolutione et recon- 
ciliatione uU debeant. 


Eadem poterint cum clero totius dioces^ observari prout BOOK 
commodius visum fuerit. Domini episcopi et officiales pra&- ^' 
fatly necnon omnes curati seu alii ad id deputati, habeant 
librum in quo nomen et cognomen parochianorum recon* 
ciliatorum inscribantur : et postea sciatur qui fuerint re- 
conciliati et qui non. 

Idem domini episcopi et ofBciales octava paschatis elapsa 
poterint facere visitationem cavitads primo, deinde dioc^ et 
se qui non fuerint reconciliati, poterint eos ad se vocare, et 
cognoscere propter quas ab erroribus suis nolint recedere, 
et a in eis obstinate perseverarint, turn con^ eos procedent. 

In hac secunda visitatione attendant diligenter qu» in 
hoc brevi compendio sunt notata, et maximfe faciant ut om- 
nes ecclesiasticae personse ostendant titulos suorum ordinum 
et beneficiorum, et si in eis aliquis alius defectus in^t illis, 
provideant et omni studio procurent ut errores quibus dio- 
ceses eorum sint infectse extirpentur, ut Veritas fidei turn in 
ooDcionibus turn in confesssaonibus doceatur: deputando 
personas idoneas ad conciones faciendas, et confessiones au- 
diendas. Id et curent, ut sacrorum canonum instituta in 
omnibus observentur et nomen Divi Thomce martyris nec- 
non sanctissimi domini nostri papa ex libris dispunctum in 
iUis restituatur et pro eo secundum morem ecclesise ut 
ante schisma fiebat oretur. 

In publicationibus hujusmodi erit ante omnia facienda 
commemoratio miseriarum et infelicitatis preteritorum tem- 
porum et magnae gratiae, quam nunc Deus pro sua miseri- 
cordia populo huic exhibuit, hortando omnes ad haec grato 
animo cognoscendum, et infinitas gratias divinae ipsius boni- 
tate assidu^ agendum. 

Hortandi et sunt omnes ut devote orent Deum pro sa- 
lute et felici statu horum serenissimorum et de hoc regno 
optim^e meritorum et merentium regum et specialiter pro 
felici statu serenissimse et piissimas reginae. 

Faithfully transcribed from the old book aforementioned, 
with which collated by 

Thom. Tanner. 


Number 35. 

. The process and condemnation of bishop Hooper ^ and ike 

order given Jbr his execution. 

Conderanatio Johannis Hooper super articulos haereticam 

pravitatem concementes. 

ACTA die Lunce xxviii die Januarii anno Domini in if- 
quendo computationem ecclesicB Anglicandt mcccccliiii 
in ecclesia parochiali Sancti Salvatoris in burgo de 
Souihwarke WintofC dtoc" coram reverendo poire domino 
StepJiano permissione divina JVinton^ episcopOj Sfc, Ave- 
toritate sua ordinaria iUic judicialiier sedetC assisien* 
sibi reverend' in Chrisii patribtis episcopis^ Sfc. Inpre- 
sentia nostra Antotiii Husey^ Roberti Johnson^ et WTd- 
lielmi Day^ Notortorum^ S^c, 

QuiBus die et loco productus fuit in judicium Joannes 
itn'jo- Hooper clericus de et super hseretica pravitate, public^ et 
notorie infamatus : cui dictus reverendus pater palam pro* 
posuit, quod cum ipse superiori die coram eodem reverendo 
patre et nonnullis aliis k privato consilio dominorum regis 
et reginse ad hoc spccialiter destinatis evocabatur et exhor- 
tatus fucrat, ut agnoscens transacta; vita; suse et perverse 
doctrinee errorcs et hereses, rediret cum cseteris ad unitatem 
ecclesise : oblataque fiierat ei sic volenti preteritorum erra- 
torum et facinorum suorum condonacio. Ipseq; Johannes 
tunc indurato animo sic redire renuerit. Propterea in pre- 
sentiarum in publicum justitise forum ad respondendum 
articulis heretica pravitate conccrnen** coram codem reve- 
rendo patre auctoritatc sua ordinaria sedente evocatus fuit 
OfFerens preterea publico tunc et ibidem quod si adhuc se 
reconsiliare vellct, libcnter in grcmium sanctie matris eccle- 
aa; reciperetur. Et ipse Johannes Hooper non solum facere 
renuit, verum ctiam in nonuullas blasphemias impudenter 
perrupit. Et deinde doniinus episcopus, &c. inter caeteros 
complures articulos, et capita, lios sequcntes eidem Johanni 
Hooper specialiter objecit. 

In primis, Quod tu Johannes Hooper, cxistens presbyter 
et religiosus, regula k jure approbata express^ professus, 


quandam mulierem de facto, cum de jure non debuisU, in BOOK 
uxorem, sive conjugem accepisti ; et cum ilia, tanquam uxore 
et conjuge tua, cohabit^sti in nephariis et illicitis cum ea 
amplexibus cohabitando, matrimoniaq; pretensa hujusmodi 
licita, et de jure divino valida fuisse, et esse, tam infra dioc^ 
Winton\ quam alias quamplures dioc^ hujus regni Anglian, 
asseruisti, prsedidisti, docuisti, librisq; editis public&sti et 
defendisti, et sic asseris et credis in prsesenti. Et ministra* 
mus conjunctim, et de quolibet. 

Ad quem quidem articulum respondet et fatetur, se pres- 
biterum et religiosum professum, quandam mulierem in ux- 
orem legitime accepisse, et cum eadem tanquam cum uxore 
le^tima cohabitasse : et quod hujusmodi matrimonia, in 
locis prsedictis, licita, et de jure divino valida fuisse, et esse, 
asseruit, prsedicavit, docuit, et libris editis publicavit et de- 
fendit ; sicq; asserit, credit, et def^dere paratus est in prs^ 
senti, ut dicit. 

Secundo, Quod tu Johannes Hooper, in locis prsedictis, 
asseruisti, prcedic^sti, docuisti, et libris editis publicasti et 
defendisti ; sicq; credis, tenes, asseris et defendis, quod 
propter culpam fornicationis, sive adulterii commissam, per- 
sonse legitime conjungatae, possunt ex verbo Dei, ejusq; auc- 
thoritate ac ministerio ab invicem pro adulterio k 

vinculo matrimonii seperari et divorciari : sicq; licebit viro 
aliam accipere in uxorem ; et mulieri similiter, alium ac- 
cipere in maritum. 

Ad quem quidem articulum respondit affirmative^, quod- 
que paratus est defendere contenta in eodem, contra omnes 
adversarios, esse vera, de jure divino et humano. 

Tertio, Quod tu, locis pra?dictis asseruisti, tenuisti, publi- 
cist!, libris edictis docuisti et defendisti ; sicque credis, as- 
seris, tenes, et defendis in praesenti, quod in Eucharistia, 
sive Sacramento altaris, verum et naturale Christi corpus, 
et verus et naturalis Christi sanguis, sub speciebus panis et 
vini ver^ non est : et quod ibi est materialis panis, et ma- 
teriale vinum tantum, absque veritate et prsesentia corporis 
et sanguinis Christi. 

Ad quem quidem articulum, sub hoc contemptu verbo- 


T rum, respondit ; viz. T^ii the very natural bodhf qfCkriH 

is noi really and substanHaUy in the eacramenicfihe aUar: 

eaying aleo^ That the mass is the imquiiy qf the DevU; 
and ^ai the mass is an idol. 

Praemissis expeditis, dominus assignavit ridem Johanni 
Hooper, ad comperendum in hoc looo crastina die, inter hons 
gm et 9"^ ante meridiem, ad vidend^ ulteriorem processum, 
&C. Quibus die et loco, inter horas assignatas, coram dido 
reverendo patre, Winton"* epscopo, &c. asnstentibus abi 
reverendis patribus, &c. in nostra notariorum prsedictMiim 
prsesentia, rursus compeniit dictus Johannes Hooper, quem 
dominus episoopus Wintoniensis, multis rationibus, ad aese 
recondliandum, suasit et exhortavit : dictus tamen Johan- 
nes Hooper, in pertinacia et malida sua perseverans, per- 
rupit in blasphemias, dicendo etiam public^, 7%ai mairi' 
many is none of the seven sacnnnents: and thai if it be a 
sacrament^ he can prove seven-^core sacraments. Ddnde 
dominus episcopus, perspecta ejus pertinaci duritia, tandem 
tulit contra eum sententiam definitivam^ in scriptis oon- 
dempnando eum pro hseretico et excommunicato : et oonse- 
quenter eum tunc ibidem tradidit curise seculari, atq; in 
manus Davidis Woodroff, et Willielmi Chester, vicecomit' 
civitatis Londini ; qui eundem Johannem Hooper tunc 
secum abduxerunt. Super cujus sentcntise prolatione et 
lectura, idem reverendus pater requisivit nos notarios, &c. 
ad conficiendura instrumentum, testesq; subscript' ad perhi- 
bendum testimonium, &c. Prffisentibus tunc ibidem no- 
bilibus et egregiis viris, &c. et aliis quampluribus, in miilti- 
tudine copiosa tunc ibidem congregatis, &c. 

Faithfully transcribed from a folio book of proceedings 
in ecclesiastical courts, collected in queen Mary's, or 
the beginning of queen Elizabeth's time, by Anthony 
Style, notary publick ; now in the hands of 

Thom. Tanner. 

Number S6« 
The queen*sletterjOrderingthe manner of Hooper'' sexecvJtion. 
^^' Right trusty and well-beloved, &c. Whereas John Hoo- 

la* 5 


per, who of late was called bushop of Worcester and Glou- BOOK 
cester, is, by due order of the lawes ecclesiastique, condemp- 
ned and judged for a moste obstinate, false, detestable here- 
tique, and committed to our secular power, to be burned 
according to the holsome and good lawes of our realme in 
that case provided. Forasmuclie as in those dtyes, and the 
diocesse therof, he hath in tymes paste preached and taught 
most pestilent heresyes and doctrjme to our subjects there : 
we have therefore geven order, that the said Hooper, who 
yet persisteth obstinate, and hath refused mercy when it 
was gracyously offred, shall be put to execution in the sayd 
cytie of Gloucester, for the example and terror of suche as 
he hath there seduced and mistaught, and bycause he hath 
doone moste harme there. And woU that you, calling unto 
you some of reputation dwelling in the shire, such as ye 
thinke best, shall repayre unto our said cytye, and be at the 
said execution, assisting our mayor and shriefs of the same 
cytie in this behalf. And forasmuche also as the said 
Hooper is, as heretiques be, a vain-glorious person, and de- 
lyteth in his tongue, and having liberty, may use his sayd 
tongue to perswade such as he hath seduced, to persist in 
the myserable opinion that he hath sowen among them : our 
pleasure is therefore, and we require you to take order, 
that the said Hooper be neither, at the tyme of his execution, 
nor in goyng to the place therof, suffred to speak at large; 
but thither to be ledde quietly, and in sylence, for eschuyng 
of further infection, and such inconvenyence, as may other- 
wise ensue in this parte. Whereof fayle not, as ye tender 
our pleasure. 

A true copy of an old paper in my custody, which seems 
to be the first draught of a letter from the queen to 
the lord Chandois, &c. who went to see execution done 
on bishop Hooper. Thom. Tanner. 

Number 37. 
A letter of bishop Hooper's toBvUinger^ written out of prison. 

Hopenis BuUingero. 
Gbatiam et pacem k Domino. Literas tuas, compater Paper- 



PART charissime, datas Tigur^ 10 Octobris, 11 Decembris aooqx. 
Fuere mihi perjucunda?, quia plence consolatioiiis. Ex 
quibus, animuin, amoreniy et pietatem tuam erga me prb- 
dnam, facile intellexi. Habeo tibi gratias immcHtales, quod 
hisce temporibus difficillirais, nostri non te capit obliTio: 
semper te, ob eximias tuas virtutes, et praeclara Da in te 
dona, prse cseteris amavi. Et quod k me, uti scribis, hac- 
tenus per annum integrum nullas acceperis literas; hoc 
accedit, non quia non scripserim, sed quas scripsenan 
parum candidis reddendas commit. Nee omnes quas ad 
me miseras accepi, sed vel in curia tabellarii periere, yd in- 
vidia malorum fuerunt interceptse. Idem accidit et literis 
et libello domini Theodori. Nam de concione Domini m 
monte, quam mihi destinavit, nihil intellexi, usque ad aliquot 
dies post mortem sanctissimi regis nostri Edwardi. Et id 
quidem in confinibus Valliae, in bibliotheca pii cujusdam viri, 
quem ecclcsiis quibusdam decanum constitui. Sed quas 
nunc scripsisti omnibus concaptivis meis fratribus, legendas 
curabo mitti. Incolumitatem et constantiam vestrse eccledae, 
vobis omnibus gratulor: et Deum precor, propter Filium 
suum Jesum Christum, illam, contra tyrannidem Antichristi 
semper muniat, ac defcndat. Apud nos, in integrum, vulnus 
quod accepit, sanatum est; et pro capite ecclesiae denuo habe- 
tur, qui membrum ecclesia? Christi non est. Ab aliis, res nos- 
tras, et statum reipublicae intelliges. Versamur in raaximis 
periculis, quemadmodum hactenus, jam per sesquiannium 
fcrm6. Indies hostes cvangclii magis ac magis negotium fa- 
ccssunt. In carcerc seorsim servamur, et omni ignominiarum 
fastidio afficimur: mortem quotidieminitantur; quam nihili 
facimus. Ferrum et flammas, in Christo Jesu, fortiter con- 
temnimus. Scimus cui credimus; et certi sumus, quod 
animas nostras deposituri sumus bene faciendo. Interim 
adjuvate nos vestris precibus, ut qui in nobis bonum opus 
inccpit, perficiat usque in finem. Domini sumus ; faciat 
quod videatur bonum in oculis suis. Rogo, ut subinde 
digneris literis tuis uxorem meam, modestissimam et piam 
mulierem consolari ; et exhortari, ut studios^ liberos nos- 
tros Rachelem filiolam tuam, optimse indolis adolesoen- 


tulam, ac filium Danielem pi^ educat, in cognitione et ti- BOOK 
more Dei. Praeterea, tuae pietati jam mitto duos libellos le- 
gendos, judicandos, ac corrigendos, si quae occurrant, verbo 
Dei parum convenientia : cui titulum feci, Hf/peraspismtts 
de vera Doctrina et Usu Ccen(B Domini ; quern senatui An- 
glian dedicavi hoc nomine, ut public^, in curia parliament, 
adversariis nostris respondeamus. Alteri titulum feci, Syn- 
toffTna, dejalsa Religione dignoscenda etjvgienda. £t 
rogo, ut quam citissim^ fieri possit, imprimantur. Hie, 
apud omnes pios et doctos, uterque liber est approbatus. 
Scripsi praeterea multas literas alias ad episcopos, ut libros 
in parliamento promovcrent, et illos imprimi etiam cupio, 
ut omnes intelligant, quam iniqu6 et injust^ nobiscum agitur. 
Non opus est, ut multa hac de re scribas : ex ipsis libellis 
et literis, facile intelliges quid volo. Et si Froscoverus 
Tester aliis gravioribus libris impediatur imprimendis; rogo, 
ut Basileam mittat, ad D. Operinum, qui vald^ castd. im- 
primit, et omnia nitid^ in lucem emittit. Hoc faciet, scio, 
modo libelli tuis literis ad se veniunt commendati : quod ut 
facias, vehementer oro. Nihil est quod mihi metuatis, 
quasi propter libellos atrocius et severius hostes evangelii 
saevient: habeo salutis meae fidelissimum custodem, et pro- 
pugnatoreni, Patrem nostrum caelestem, per Christum 
Jesum, cui meipsum totum commendavi : illius fidei ac tu- 
telae meipsum commendo ; si dies meos elongaverit, faxit, 
ut sint ad gloriam nominis sui ; sin huic brevi et flagitiosae 
vitae finem voluit, aeque duco, Fiat voluntas illius. Quia 
furtim scribo, breviores et perturbatiores literas tuae prae- 
stantiae facio, quas boni consule quaeso. Raptim ex car- 
cere XI Decembris 1554!. Saluta officios^ castam tuam con- 
jugem, cum tota tua familia, domi et foris, ac alios omnes 

ut nostri 

Tuae praestantise ut debco studiosissimus 

J. Hooperus. 
Pr(BStantissimo viro, domino Henrico 
BuUingero^ compatri suo long^ cha- 
rissimo Tiguri. 


Number 88. 
A letter qfMcaofCs concerning a treaty began wUk Frmue^ 

and of the affaire qfihe empire. 

After my hearty commendations. Your last was of the 
xxiiid of the last month, and my last to you wer oi the Tilth 
of this present. By these you shall understand that the 
emperor hath appointed monsieur de V Allain, governor of 
Hennalt ; mondeur de Boningcourt, governor of Arthoys; 
the bishop of Arras ; the preddaat of the oounsel here^ 
named Viglius; and the pre^dent of the counsel of Mal^ 
ly ncs ; to resort to Gravelynghe, for the tretynge of a peaxe 
with soch others may lyke the Frenche kynge to said to 
Ardres ; wherof the connestable, and the cardinal of Lor* 
rayne, he hath alredye appointed. But by reason of die 
death of the pope, I thinke the cardinal of Lorrayne goeth 
an other way. In whose place ys to be thought some other 
shall be appointed, with the others, to answer to the num- 
bre assigned by the emperor. The cardynal, and my kxd 
chavmoclor came out of hand to Callais to be mediator on 
the queen^s behalf, to bring these princes, yf their mil be, 
to some composition. O Lorde assist them so with his 
grace, as Christendome may have a treattyng tyme. The 
ivth of this nioDth the king and queen went to Hampton- 
Court to keep their Easter; whcather Easter done they 
retorne to London, or goo to Wyndesor, tlie certentye ys 
not yet knowen. Bolls of Cambridgeshire, and sir Peter 
Mewtas, rcmayne still in prison. The first in the Tower, 
and thother in the Flete, and lytle words made of them ; so 
yt is thoght the suspition was more vehement then founde 
to be of any grete ground. The dean and prebendaries of 
Westminster have laid sore lawe to defend th^ alteration of 
the church into an abbay ; in which matter, Dr. Cole sheweth 
hymself very stowte, alleging that monks have no institution 
of Christ, wherein prestis liave the advantage of them, &c 
What thende will be, yt is not known; but yt is feared they 
shall be put to chose, whether they will depart with their 
wills or against their wills. 

The emperor hath by reason of his long unseasonable cold, 


ben very ill handled of his gowte, whereof he is now indif- BOOK 
ferendy well amended. 

The princes of Almayne do moche myslyke the arryving 
of cardinal Moron at Augusta ; for the satisfaction of whom, 
die emperor hath given full auctoryte to the kynge his bro- 
ther, as so ys the cardinal lyke to retayne, con la picca in 
sacco. The duke of Alva ys not yet departed owt of 
England ; neither yet in the way, so far as I can yet here, 
albeit his baggage, and a good number of his company are 
arrived at Callais. On Tuesday last, the ambassadors, or 
i^nts, name them as you will, of Cremona, Novaria, and 
Lodi, passing between Dover and Callais hitherward, wer 
taken by a French shallop ; but it is thought they shall 
shortly be set at libertye, as well for that they were publycke 
persons, and not subjects to the emperor, as for that they 
were taken out of an English vessel. Their money and 
baggage is saved, whatsoever is become of their persons. 
Thus for lack of other matter, I bid you most hartely well 
to fare. From Bruxells the xivth day of April, 1565. 

Your o¥nDL most assuredly, 

John Masone. 

To the ^fionourable Mr, Petre Vannes^ 

the queen's majesties ambassador 

at Vennis. 

This letter is faithfully transcribed from the original 

in the hands of 

Thom. Tanner. 

Number 39. 

A translation of Charles the VtVs letters^ resigning the 

crown of Spain to king Philip. 

To our counselours, justyces, the nobilyte, curats, knights, Paper- 
and squiers ; all kinde of ministers and oiFycers ; and all ^' 
other our leam'd men within that our town of Tolledo, 
greeting. By such letters as I have from time to tjrme 
taken order to be wrytten unto you, since my departing 

VOL. III. p. 3. z 


PART out of the ktngdome of Spain, you have fully bene adver- 
tised of the successes of myne affayres ; and namely how 
that for religion'*s sake, I enterprised the warre of Almayne, 
uppon the great desire I had, as reasone was ; and accord- 
ing to my boundcn dewty to reduce, and to retume agayne 
those countreys into the unitye of the church, procunDg 
and seeking by all the means I could, to sett peas and qui- 
etnes in all the estates of Christendome, and do what might 
be done for the assembling, and as^sting of a general couo- 
sale, bothe for the necessarye reformation of many things; 
and so draw home also therby, with lesse difficultye, sudi as 
had separated themselves, and were swerved fircnn the ca- 
tholike faith of Christ. Which my great desyre having 
brought, by God's goodnes, to a very good pointe; the 
French kinge suddenely, without all reasone or any good 
foundation, alluring to his ayde the Allmaynes, and making 
a league with them, agaynst theire othes and fydelityes, 
brake vdth me, and openned the warre agajmst me, bothe 
by sea and the land. And not satisfy ed herewith, he pro- 
cured the coming of the Turcques armye, to the notable 
domage of Christendome ; and namely of our estates, and 
seigneueryes ; wherby I was forced and dryven to bring an 
annye to my no little trouble, as well by my great payns 
taken in myne own persone in the felde, as by my traveil 
otherwise ; which thereuppon I was constrayned to endure, 
in the treating and maynayng of sundry urgent and great 
matters daylie and contynually falling out upon the same ; 
which were the greate, and in effect the only occasions of 
the greate and paunefuU infirmity and indisposition of my 
body ; which I have since had these yeres passed, and yet 
have, wherby I find my self so encumbred, and so destitute 
of healthe, that not onely have I been, or ame able by myne 
own persone to discharge such a traveil, and to use such a 
dihgence in resolutions, as was requisyte; but have also, 
which I do confesse, been a lett and an hindrance to sundry 
things wherof I have had, and now have a greate conscynce. 
And I wold to God I had sooner taken therin such an 
order as I now am determyned to take : which nevertheles 


for many considerations I could not well doe^ in the ab- BOOK 
sence of the high and mighty prince, the king of England * 

and Naples, and my right dear and right well-beloved 
Sonne : for that it was necessary many things to be first 
communicated unto him, and to be treated with him. And 
for this purpose, after the marriage put in dew execution 
with the high and excellent princesse, the queen of England, 
I lastly took order for his coming hither: and within a 
short tyme after, I took order to resigne and to renounce 
unto him, lyke as I have done all those my estates, king- 
domes, and seigneueryes, of the crown of Castella and Leon, 
with all their membres and appertennes, in such sorte as 
more fully and more amplye is conteyned in such instru- 
ments as I have signed and agreed unto of the date of these 
presents ; trusting that with his greate wysedome and ex- 
perience, wherof I have hitherto had a right greate proofe 
in all such things as have been passed and handled by him « 
for me, and in my name, he will now for himself, and in his 
own name, govern, order, defend, and mainteyne the same 
with peas and justice. And not doubting but that accord- 
ing unto your olde and comendable loyaltye, fayth, love, 
and obedyence, which you have borne and do beare, both 
to him and to me ; wherof for my parte, I have had always 
large experycnce by your deeds, you will serve him and 
obey him as apperteyneth to my trust and your duties; for 
the good-will borne to you so many yeres. Commanding 
you nevertheles, and straigluly charging you that displaying 
and setting upp banners, and doing all other ceremonies 
and solemnities requisyte, and which have been accustomed 
to have been done in like cases, for the dew execution of 
the purpose alx)ve sayed, in the same manner and sorte as 
yf God had taken me unto his mercy, you doe obey, serve, 
and honour, from henceforth the saide king, accomplishing 
his will and pleasure in all such things as he shall by word 
and writing command you, as you ought to doe to your 
true and natural lord and king : even as you have and 
ought to have, during my reigne passed to you from me: 
wherin besydes that you shall doe your duetyes, and doe that 



PART as you are bound to doe, you shall doe unto me aooeptaUe 
• pleasure. Given at Brussells the 17th of Januarie, 1556. 

Copye of the lettre sent by the emperor to sundry estates 
in Spaine, upon the resigning of the same unto the 
king^s majestie ; turned out of Spanish into English. 

Number 40. 
A remembrance of those things that your highnes'^s plea- 
sure was I shoUd put in writings as most conveniaU in 
my pore judgment^ to be commoned and spoken cf hf 
your mofestie, with your counsett^ called to your presence 
thys qflemoone. 

Written in the hand of cardinal Pole. 

itiM,B.s. FuRST of al, that your majestie shold put them.yn re- 
''^* membrance of the charge the k}mg^s highnes gave them at 
his departure ; which beyng reduced to certen articles, and 
put in writing, it seemeth wel if some of the lords for tb^ 
sudden departure after ther charge had not the same in 
writing, that it were rehersed and given unto them with ex- 
hortation to employ al ther diligence for the due execution 

And whereas amongst other charges, thys was one, that 
those that be named in the first parte counsellours, were al 
to be present in the courte, thys first your highnes may 
require them that they do observe : specially beside, for the 
weight of the matters that be now in hand ; the tyme besyde 
being so shorte, after the parliament to examyn them. And 
that the kyng''s plesurc ys, as the matters be proposed in 
the counsell, afore the further execution of them, to be yn- 
formed therof, to knoe his pleasure theryn. And amongst 
other, hys majestie beyng in expectation to know the uttre 
resolution of the councell, twichyng those matters that be to 
be intreatyd in thys parliament. Thys ys that your ma- 
jestie looketh of them thys day, to send with all spede to 
the kyng's highnes. 

And wheras for the dylation of the kyng^s comyng, your 


majestie thought it well to put in consulte, whether it were BOOK 
better therfor to make a dilation and prorogation of the par* 
liament to Candelmas, beyng thought bey ther opinion, that 
for necessite of money that is to be demanded in the par- 
liament, and otherwyse can not be provided, the prorogation 
of that should be much dispendiose. Your majestie not dis- 
alowing ther deliberation; but consydering wytli all the 
great need of money for to be had, for the discharge of the 
present necessite, which requyreth present provision of mo- 
ney, as is for the settyng forth of the ships, as wel for the 
emperoFs passage to Spain, as for the king'^s return. 
And besyde thys, for the payment of that is dew at Calise, 
as for your credyte wyth the merchants approchyng the 
day of payment ; and for the dett of Ireland also, of al 
these it may please your majestie to know thys day of your 
counsell what is don. 

And by cause the most ordynarie and just way, touching 
the provision of money to pay your highnes detts, is to call 
in your own detts ; which charge hath been specially com* 
mitted afore, and is principally considered and renewed in 
the writing the kyng^s highnes left tuchyng such affayres, 
that his counsell shold presently attend into, wher be ther 
names also that same : the charges speciaJl therfore, your 
majestie shall do wel this day to charge them with the same; 
that with all diligence they attend to the prossecution ther- 
of, givyng them all autory te that shal be necessary for them, 
to make the most spedy expedition theryn. Wylling them 
withall, that they never let pass one week, but in the end of 
the same, at the least, your majestie may know specially of 
that is coming yn, and that order is taken for the rest. 

Also yf it pleasyd your majestie in ^nerall, for all mat- 
ters whych be intreated in the counsell, which requyre com- 
mission and execution, to give thys order, that those that 
have had commission to execute any matter, let never passe 
the weke, but they ynforme the counsell what execution is 
made of ther commyssions : and that the counsell themselfs 
should never bcgyn entretance of new matters the second 
week ; but that they have information first, what is done in 



ART those which wer commytted to be executyd the week afore; 
"'• I think it should help much to the spedy expedition of all 

causes. Thys ys my poore advyse, remitted al to the godly 

and prudent judgment of your majestic. 

Number 41 . 

Some directionsjbr the queen's council; left by king Philip. 

ton lib. Imprimis, pro meliori et magis expedita deliberaUone, in 
' ' ' iis quae in consilio nostro agenda sunt ex reliquis conaliariis 
nostris ; cos, quorum nomina sequuntur, seligendos putari- 
mus; quibus spccialem curam omnium causarum status, 
finanUarum, et aliarum causarum graviorum regni, commit- 
tendam duximus et committimus. 

Legatus cardinalis Polus, in causis magnis, ubi voluerit, 

et commode potent* 

D. Cancellarius. D. Thesaurarius. Comes de Arundell. 

Comes de Pembroke. Episcopus Elien^s. D. Paget. 

M'. Rochester comptroller". M^ Petre secretaiius. 

Consiliarii praedicti omiies et singuli erunt prsesentes in 
aula, et intelligent, et considerabunt omnes causas status, 
omnes causas financiarum, statum possessionum, debitorum, 
et quomodo debita cum honore solvi possint; et generaliter, 
omnes alias causas inajoris momenti, tangentes honorem, 
dignitatem, et statum corona?. 

Et quo melius consilium nobis dare possint, hortamur eos 
in Domino, quod oninem discordiam, si quae inter eos sit, 
mutuo remittentes, concorditer, amice, et in timore Dei, ea 
in consiliis proponant et dicant, quae Dei gloriam, nostrum 
et regni nostri honorem et utilitatem, promovere possint. 

Volumus, quod quoties aliqua erit occasio, nos adeant, vel 
aliquos ex se mittant, per quos intelligere possimus delibera- 
tiones suas, in omnibus causis quae coram eis proponentur, 
et ad minus ter qualibet septimana, referant nobis quae fue- 
rint per eos acta et dcliberata. 

Dicti consiliarii deliberabunt de parliamento, quo tempore 
habendum fit, et quss in eodem agi et proponi debeant : et 


quae agenda et proponcnda videbuntur in pariiamento, in BOOK 
scriptis redigi volumus, ante parliament! initium. ' 

Quod singulis diebus Dominicis, communicent reliquis 
consiliariis praesentibus, ea quae videbuntur eis communis 

Quod habeant speciaJem curam pro debitoruin solutione, 
diminutione sumptuum, et provida gubernatione et coUec- 
tione reddituum, terrarum, possessionum et vectigalium, et 
pro administratione justitiae. 

Number 42. 

A letter to the ambassadors^ concerning the restitution of 


Aftee our right harty commendations to your good lord- Paper- 
sbips, by our last letters of the 4th of this mounth, we sig-^^**' 
nifyed unto you our well lyking of your opinions, to have 
the matter touching Galleys moved in the parliament : and 
that we being also of the same mynde our selfs, ment to pro- 
pose the case there with all the expedition we might, and to 
make you answer of that sholde be farther resolved therein, 
as shortly as we could. Sence which tyme, uppon consulta- 
tion had amongst our selfs, how the matter shold best be 
opened and used there : and being of opinion, as we have 
byn from the begyning, that it were not convenient to have 
the same broken to the hole house, but only to the nobilite, 
and some other of the best and gravest sort ; we thought it 
allso necessaric, before we proceeded any farther, both to 
declare our opinions unto the qucen''s majestic, and to un- 
derstande her highnesses good pleasure and resolution there- 
in. Whose majestic, uppon the opening thereof unto her, 
thought mete for good respects, we sholde fyrst write unto 
the king's highncs to such effect, as by the coppie of our 
letters presently addressed to his majestic for that purpose, 
(which you shall receyve herewith) you may at better length 
perceyve; and then understanding his highnes answer, 
sholde either goe forwarde with our former deliberacion, or 
otherwyse use the matter as we sholde see cause. Where- 


^ RT fore, lyke as we have thought good to give your lordships 

^^ knowledge by these, so when we shall have reoeyved the 

king^s majesties answer herein, we will not fayle to signify 
unto you with diligence what shall be fimher vescdved 
touching this matter. And in the mean tyme, we byd your 
good lordships right hartely well to &re. 

The queen'^s majestic remayneth yet still both sicke and 
very weake; and although we hope of her highnesses amend- 
ment, for the which we daylye pray; yet are we diyvea 
bodi to feare and mistrust the worst; which we beseche Al- 
mighty God to remedye, when it shall lyke hym. 

After that we had written the letters inclosed to the king's 
majestic, we receyved yours of the 4th of this instant ; by 
the which we do understande, that the French commissioD- 
ers contynue still of the same mind that they were at your 
meeting with them, not to leave the possesaon of Callais. 
By your sayd letters appereth allso, that the lunge's majestie 
tolde you, that his commissioners were agreed with the 
French well nere upon all matters; and that his higfanei 
nevertheless wolde not agree to any conclusion, but that the 
queen'^s majestie sholde be fyrst satisfied for the matters of 
this realme. 

After that we had considered the effect of these your let- 
ters, considering of what importance the leaving of Callicc 
is for this realm ; howe much it wolde touche the honour of 
their majesties and of this crowne, that so many restitutions 
being made on bothe sydes, this sholde be suffred to passe 
unrestored; and fynally, howe yll the subjects of this realme 
will digest this matter, if there sholde any suche thing be 
agreed unto; we neither can of our selfs well consyder what 
to answer, nor think mete to propose it to the parliament, 
untill we may yet once agayne heare from you. And where 
policy fayleth, we are compelled to use playnes. You knowe 
these warres, wherein Calice is lost, began at the king's ma- 
jesties request; and for his sake. We doe consider, that 
other his majesties fireends and confederals be restored to 
things taken many yeres past. And what may be judged 
in this realme, if this peas be concluded, and Calice left in 


the French king'^s bands, so many other restitutions being BOOK 
made, it may be easely considered. On the other syde, his ^' 
majesties commissioners being so nere an agreement for all 
other matters, muche were to be indured for the welthe of 

And it hath byn consideiyd here, howe much this realme 
it travayled and spent allready with these warres. 

These things being amongst us considery^d, knowing his 
majesties gracious disposition and favour towards thb realme^ 
we think good your lordships doe plainly open these consi- 
derations to hym, in such good sorte as you may think good. 
And fyrst to desyre to understande his majesties disposition 
playnely, if you may for Calice : the remayning whereof in 
the French king^s hands doth as much importe for his Lowe 
Countries as for this realme. 

And secondly, that it may please his majesty to gyve us 
his good advise for our further doings, and manner of pro- 
ceeding in this matter ; wherein albeit our meaning is to use 
the advise of the rest of our nobilitie and parliament, yet do 
we stay that to do untiil we have answer again from you, 
and understande his majesties playne and determinate an- 
swer therein. And we doe hartely pray your lordshipes to 
use your accustomed good wisdomes in the good opening 
of the premisses, and to send us answer as soon as you 

November the 8th, 1558. 

Minute from the counsell unto the earle of ArrundelU 
and the rest of the commissioners beyonde the sees. 

Number 43. 

A letter of the ambassador* 8 concerning Calais. 

An original. 

Aftee our right heartie commendacions to your goodpaper- 
lordships, by Francisco Thomas the post, we have receyvid ^^**' 
two letters from your lordshippes. The first of the 29th of 
the last month : and the later, of the first of this present. 
With other letters directed to the king^s majestic ; upon the 


ART receipt wherof, wc having mette together, and consulted 
**^' upon the contentes of the same, datermyned to open to the 
kinge^s majestie by our letters the matters wherof your 
lordships wrote unto us; for his majestie is not in these 
parties heere, but is at Bruxelles, or beyond. The copy of 
our letter to his majestie in that behalfe we send your lord- 
shipes hecrwith. And where your lordshipes wryte unto 
his majestie, that by our letters doth appeare that the Fr«idi 
king by no means will leave the possession of Callais : and 
that he would rather hazard his crown then to consente to 
the restitution of it : true it is, that we wrote to your lord- 
shipes, that the French commissioners, yn their conference 
with us and with the king^s commissioners, have ever re- 
fused to consent to the restitution of Callais. And that the 
French have declared to one of the king^s commissioners, 
that the French king for to hazard his crowne will not 
forgo Callais. And albeit that for because of the good face 
sett upon that matter by the French commissioners, we 
somewhat mistrusted, that that which they spoke was the 
king their maisters determynacion ; yet indeed did we not 
affirm it to be so. No, nor did not then utterlye despayre, 
but that the French, yf they wer kept somwhat shorte, would 
at the length relente ; for elles to what purpose had it been 
agreed and appointed, that both the king^s and the French 
king**s commissioners shuld retoume to their maisters, to 
declare what hath been done allready, and to know what 
their nimsters further pleasure was theruppon. And foras- 
much as we have ever been of opynion, that yf the king^s 
majestie refuse to conclude any thing with them, without 
the restitution of Callais ; that may the sooner induce the 
French to agree to it. And likewise yf they perceyve the 
king'*s majestie, or his mynisters, not so earnest therin, but 
that by a bragge of the French ; they will the sooner gyve 
over, and stande the more fayntely for the restitution of it ; 
that will make the French the bolder, and to stand the more 
earnestly e in their refusal. Therefore we have not thought 
it meet to use anye kynde of wordes to the king, wherby his 
majestie might by anye meanes thinke that the queen^'s high- 


Hesse, and the realme of England, coude be con ten te to con- BOOK 
elude a peace without the restitution of Callais. Aswell for ^* 
because our instructions importe that, as allso trustinge that 
that wold move his majestic and his commissioners to be the 
more careful for the restitution of it. And seeinge that his 
majestic and his commissioners have ever sayde, that they 
will conclude nothing without the queen'^s highnes be first 
satisfy ed : yt seemed to us, that if her highness and your 
lordshipes did stande eamestlye in the repetition of Callais : 
that the French at this time must either forsake Callais or 
elles the peace. And in case this occasion to redemaunde 
Callais be now forsloune, God knoweth when ever England 
shall have the lyke again. And where your lordshipes wryte, 
that the 'king'^s commissioners beeinge so neere to agree with 
the French upon the hole, much wer to be endured for the 
wealth of Christendom : it is even so indeede as your lord- 
shipes. wryte. Mary that all other shuld have restitution of 
their owne, and poor England that beganne not the fraye, 
bear the burthen and the losse for the rest ; and specially of 
such a jewel as Callais is, we feare will sceme verye harde 
and strange to all the realme. And yet yf the losse of Cal- 
lous might purchase a sure peace to Christendom, that wer 
yet some colour why somwhat the rather to agree to it. But 
yf we may be so bold to saye playnely our myndes unto your 
lordshipes ; we not onely thinke not that, that the leaveing 
Callais to the French shall purchase Christendom a sure 
peace ; but rather ar persuaded that nothing can more evi- 
dentlye- shew, that the French entend no peace to contynue, 
speciallye with England, then the retention of Callais, yf 
they earnestlye and finallye persist theron. Your lordships 
do right well understande what advantage the French have 
to annoy us by Scotland, which now is much ruled Ly 
France. And in case any peace be made, then shall the 
French have good tyme and leasure to establish and order 
their matters so yn Scotland, specially considdering the 
manage of the dolfyn, and the queen of Scotts, is now done; 
that Scotland shall be every whitte as much at their com- 
mandment as any part of France is. And what the French 


» ART pretend unto by that manage, b not unknowne to your lord- 
"^' shipes. 

If now Callab shall remayn yn thor hands too^ wherby 
neither England shall have the commoditie to offende their 
enemyes, nor to succour their friends, nor lykewyse to re- 
ceyve succour from their friends at th^ need, but by yetj 
uneasy means : yea, and wherby England shall in a manner 
be excluded from knowledge of all things, done both by their 
enemys and by their freends ; or at the least, the knowledge 
therof shall not come, but so late, that it will searve to littk 
purpose. And that Callays lyeth so commodyouadye to be 
a scourge for England, as it was before king Edward the 
Third took it : which caused him to adventure himself, and 
his son the prince, to come but with a meane armye from 
Normandye into France, and thence through all Picaidye, 
to go to beseege Callais : he beinge contynuallye poursewed 
by his ennemyes with greate armyes, with the which he was 
enclosed and compassed about, and fynalljre constrained 
more then once to fight it out, and specially at Crecy, whete 
his enemy^s armye was thryse as greate as his, and to lye so 
longe at the seege before Callais as he did. This soouige 
of England, so well knowne by experyence then, and there^ 
fore so dearly bought by king Edward the Illd, and now 
not yet known for lacke of experyence ; yf the French shall 
retayne yn their hands, they having likewyse Scotland on 
the other side, how dangerous this shall be to E^land, is 
easy to be consydered. .These, and other oonsyderations, 
make us to be of opynion, that leaving Callais to the French) 
they will be content to dely ver you a peece of parchemjrn 
sealed with a little wax ; but that they meane anye conty- 
nuance of peax, we cannot be perswaded, no more then king 
Francis did by a nombre of pceces of parchment sealed, 
which he sent to king Henry the Vlllth : nor the French 
king that now is, did, by the parchemyne sealed, which he 
sent to king Edward the Vlth. And whereas now the king's 
majesties contreys ar in warre with France as well as Eng- 
land : if the peace be ones made, the French will soon seek 
occasion to fall out with England againe ; and then may it 


perhaps chaunce so, that Spaine will not think it neoessarye BOOK 
for them to venture yn warre againe with France. Whereas 
now the kings majestie cannot honorablye, nor entendith not 
(as he himself hath declared and said) to make any peace 
without us. So that the premisses consydered, we cannpt 
for our parts thinke that Christendom shall be restored to 
a good peace, though we forsake Callais, but that then we 
shall be more oppressed with war than before. And in case 
we must needs have war, as good it seemeth to contjnaue in 
it yet for a while, being conjoyned to the king^s majestic^ 
who beareth the chief burthen and charges of it; then 
shortelye after to begynne a new, and to stand in danger to 
have all the burthen lye on our neckes. And then should 
we know what a jewell we had forsaken, when we did agree 
to forgo Callais ; and that by the retencion of Callais, the 
French meant nothing less then the quietnes of Christ- 

We have thought it our dutie to declare to your lord- 
shipes what our opynion is heerin. Which neverthelesse 
we pray your lordshipes to accepte yn good parte. 

I the bishop of Ely retoumed to Cercamp, according to the 
king^s majesties appointment ; where I have contynued till 
now that I came hither to consult upon these matters with 
my colleagues. And all this while hath there nothing ben done 
yn our matters for England ; but the other commissioners 
have ben busye contynuallye. And as far as I can learn, 
they are not yett all agreed uppon the matters of Piedmount, 
nor of Corsica, nor Siena. Yea, and as I heere, the French 
begyne now to call the matters of Navarre in question ; and 
to ask restitution thereof; yn so much, that some begyne to 
thinke contrary to that hath ben commonlye thought hither- 
to ; that the ende of this matter will be, that all shall de- 
parte, re infecta. 

After we had written thus farre, I the earle of Arundall, 
receyved a letter from the bishope of Arras, of the 17th of 
this present ; wherin amonge other things he writeth thus. 
Monsieur Levesque de Ely votts aura dit en qu^els termes 
nous estions a son partement en ce purgatoire. Et hier les 


PART Francois nous declarerent qtCen ioutes choses condescendroni 

^^^' ib plustot que de venir a cede Calais: ne qu*il leur eskappe: 

et nous leur declarasmes derechef au coniraire que sans 

satisfaire a royaume dCAngleterre nous ne trcnterons en 

Jacan quelconque avec eux et Jut nostre depart sur ce til 

qu'il y a plus (Tappare^ice de rompre que de conclusion. 

So that by this lykewise it may seme, that they agree not 
best : but whether that be for Callais onelye, we doubt 
much. And thus we bid your good lordshipes most haitdy 
well to fare. From Arras the 18th of November, 1658. 
Your good lordshipes most assuredly, 

Arundell. ' 
Thomas Elye. 
_ N. Wotton. 

Number 44. 

A letter ofJeweTs to Peter Martyr yjrom Strcuhurg, i^ike 

state of affairs in England. 

Scripta (ut videtur) 1558. 

Judlus ad Martyrem. 
De prima ilia nostra profectione, et de novis omnibus, 
quae turn ferebantur Basilea?, scripsi ad te per D. Simlerum 
nostrum. Quinto postridie vix pervenimus Argentinam; 
tantoper miseri coacti suraus hfierere in luto. Hie omnes 
nostros invenimus incolumes, et cupidissimos tui. Quid 
Sandus, Homus, aliiquc nostri fecerint in Anglia, nihil 
adhue audivimus. Neque id san^ mirum. Profecti enim 
Argentina ad viccsimum primum Decembris, vix viccfflmo 
post die potuerunt pervenire Antverpiam, quod Rhenus 
constrietus glacie, illorum. navigationem impediret. Hoc 
tantum audimus, reditum illoruni reginse esse gratissimum; 
idque illam non obscure pra^ se ferrc. Si episcopi pergant 
porro ut caepcrunt, erit brevi magna vilitas episcopatuum. 
Certum enim est, Christophersonum, rabulam ilium Ci- 
cestrcnsem, esse mortuum; quod idem de Vatsono quoq; 
Lincolniensi nunciatur : quod si ita est, vacant hoc tempore 


episoopatus quatuordecim. Whitus tuus, in funere Marise, BOOK 
quemadmoduin ad te scripsi cum esscm Basileae, habuit ad ^^* 
populum insanam, et turbulentissimam concionem; omnia 
potius tentanda esse, qukm ut quicquam de religione imrnu* 
taretur. Bonum factum, si quis exules reduces interfecerit, 
Accusatus est seditionis k marchione Vintoniensi thesaura- 
rio, et Hetho archiepiscopo Eboracensi. Londinenas jussus 
est, reddere haeredibus D. Ridlsei, quaecunque illis per vim 
et injuriam eripuerat. Vocabitur brevi ad causae dictio- 
nem ; interim jubetur, se domi continere, tanquam in car- 
cere. Re^na edixit, ne quis habeat concionem ad popu- 
lum, neve papista, neve minister evangelii. Id alii factum 
putant, qu5d cum unus tantum esset minister verbi turn 
temporis Londini, Benthamus, tantus esset numerus pa- 
pistarum. Alii, qu5d audita una tantum Benthami publica 
concione, populus inter se caeperit litigare de ceremoniis : 
et alii Genevenses esse vellent, alii Francofordiani. Quic- 
quid est, utinam ne nostri homines nimium prudenter et 
politice versari velint in causa Dei. Multi putant D. co^ 
quum fore magnum cancellarium; hominem bonum qui- 
dem, et pium, uti n6sti ; sed illi muneri, meo judicio, non 
aptissimum. Eliensis hseret adhuc apud Philippum, dum 
aliquid de ista praeclara pace, si Deo placet, transfigatur ; 
quae qualis, aut quam firma, et diutuma futura sit, ieoov ev 
yovvoia-t xsirai, D. Isabella, spero, vocabitur in Angliam. 
Video enim alios quoque nostros homines, de ea re seri6 
cogitare. D. Zanchius etiam scribet ad reginam: erat 
scripturus ad totum parliamentum, nisi ego dissuasissem ; 
id enim mihi videbatur alienum. Cranmerus puer relictus 
est Argentinae apud Abelum, ut meae fidei committeretur : 
ego ab Abelo mutuo sumpsi coronatos pueri nomine. Oro 
Julium, ut sarcinam ct pecuniam, quam reliquimus nume- 
ratam apud te, ad ilium mittat Argcntinam. Ille tibi cura^ 
bit cautionem, eamq; vol deponet apud D. Zanchium, vel, 
si mavis, ad te mittct. Bene vale, mi dulcissime pater, et 
plus quam animi dimidium mei. Nolo ad te omnia ; opor- 
tuit enim me etiam ad D. Bullingerum aliquae scribere : 
cui ego viro, pro summa ejus erga me humanitate, debeo 


PART omnia. Sed ca, quaecunque sunt, non dabito, t3ii cam iUo 
'^' fore communia. 

D. Hetonus, D. Abelus, D. Springhamas, D. Parkhunl- 
U8, te plurimdm salutant, et cum tilri cupiant onmia, nihil 
tamen magis cupiunt hoc tempore quiun Angliam. Saluta 
D. Muraltum, Hermannum, Julium, Juliam, et omnes tuo« 
meoflque, meo nomine. 

D. Fr. Bed, et D. Acontius, sunt nunc Argentinse : uto*- 
que te pluiimiim salutant. Ego D. Beti reddidi litem 
D. Isabellse : id obsecro, ut illi signifioes. 
Argentinae, S6. 

Januar. Johannes Juellus 

ex animo, et semper, tuns. 
OmaHssimo viroj D. Petro MarH/rij 
in ecclesid Tigurind prqfessori S. 
theologies^ domino sua cdendis^ 

Number 46. 

J letter qfGualter*s to Dr. Masters^ advising a thorough 


Domino Bichardo Mastero, medico regio, amico veteri, et 

fratri suo dilecto. 

Ex MSS. Gratul ABAR mihi Hon pariim, annis superioribus, quando 
Tigar. regnantc Edvardo Sexto sanctae memorise, tu prior scri- 
bendi ofBcium, quod multis annis intermissum fuerat, re- 
petere caepisti. At nunc mult6 ma^s et tibi et mihi gratu- 
lor, vir doctissime, ct frater in Christo observande, qudd 
ea tempora Angliae vestrae, per Dei clementiam, reducta 
esse audimus; quando sub regino^ piissimae tutela, jnis 
hominibus, Deum vere colendi libcrtas restituetur, et ami- 
corum literae tut6 hinc inde ferri et referri poterunt. Agnos- 
cimus in his admirabilem Dei sapientiam et bonitatem, qui 
ecclesia^ suae aerumnas laetis vicibus temperare solet, ne ten- 
tationum fluctibus toti obruamur. Faxit idem ille, ut spei 
fidelium, quam de Angliae regno jam omnes conceperunt, 


satisfiat. Quod e6 magis futurum puto, si quotquot illic in BOOK 
aliquo dignitatis gradu coUocati estis, ecdesise et religionis 
curam ad vos cum primis pertinere memineritis, nee illorum 
admiseritis consilia, qui cum papatum nee honeste defendi, 
nee totum retineri posse vident, ad artes convertuntur, qui- 
bus reli^onis forma mixtam, incertam et dubiam fingunt, 
et eandem, sub evangelicse reformationis prsetextu, ecclesiae 
obtrudunt; ex qua deinde facillimus est ad papisticam 
superstitionem et idolomaniam transitus. Quod non e6 
scribo, qu5d tales apud vos esse seiam, sed quod ne tales 
sint metuo. Jam enim annis aliquot in Grermania, magno 
ecclesiarum malo experti sumus, quantum ejusmodi homi- 
nes valeant. E6 quod illorum consilia, camis judicio, mo- 
dcstiae plena, et ad alendam concordiam, cumprimis idonea 
esse videantur, et credibile est, publicum ilium humanse 
salutis hostem, apud vos quoque sua flabella inventurum, 
quorum opera papatus semina retinere studeat. Quibus 
scripturce sanctse, et verbi divini armis^ constanter resisten- 
dum fuerit, ne dum circa prima initia, aliquam mediocrem 
animorum ofFensionem declinare studemus ; multa ad tem- 
pus duntaxat duratura admittantur, quae postea vix uUo 
studio, et non absque gravissimis tentationibus omnino tolli 
possint. Exerapla hujus mali Germanicse ecclesiae multa 
viderimt, quorum consideratione edocti, suspecta habemus 
quaecunque cum syncera verbi doctrina, aliqua ex parte 
pugnant. Nee me alia ratione, ut hcec moneam, adduci 
credas, quani quod Angliae vestrae, ob veterem consuetu- 
dinem, cujus vel sera recordatio mihi etiam hodie jucundis- 
sima est, mirific^ faveo. De rebus nostris certiorem te red- 
det Parkhurstus, noster frater, et hospes mens dilectissimus, 
qucm tibi commendatissimum esse velim. Sustinuit ille jam 
toto quinquennio, graves exilii molestias ; inter quas tamen, 
admirabilem fidei constantiam, et patientiam incredibilem 
conjunxit. Nunc spe laeta plenus, in patriam contendit, ut 
ecclesiae renascentis causam pro suo talento adjuvet. Nee 
dubitx), quin bonam operam praestiturus sit, cum scriptura- 
rum cognitionem habeat praeclaram, et veritatis studiosissi- 
mus sit, ct a contentionibus abhorreat, quarum studiosi vix 
VOL. iif. p. 3. A a 


liRT aliquem in eccle^ fructum fadunt. Opdmft ergo feoefisi 
^^'' si tua authoritate ilium juves, et pro virili provdias. Mihi 
vero nihil jucundius fuerit, qukm n ex tuis Uteris intdligam, 
nostne amicitiae memoriam penes te adhuc salvam esse, qiis 
cert^ in animo meo nunquam intermori potent* Vale, vir 
praestantissime. Tiguri, 16. Januarii 1559- 

Number 4f6. 
A letter of the earl of BedfbrcTs to BuUingerjJrom Venice. 


Doctisaimo viro domino Bullingero, sacrse theologiae prafes- 

sori eximio Hguri. 

Cum meus in te amor singularis, et perpetua observantia, 
qui te semper religionis causa sum prosecutus, turn tua 
erga me incredibilis humanitas, multis modis k me perspecta, 
cum Tiguri fuerim, (Bullingere doctissime) fecerunt, ut 
hasce literas animi erga te, mei pignus certisamum, et velud 
tabulas obsignatas mei in te perpetui amoris quas extare 
volui, huic adolescenti ad te darem. In quibus ita tiU 
gratias ago, propter tuam humanitatem, ut etiam me tibi 
relaturum pollicear^ si qu^ in re tibi unquam gratificari 
queam. Atque haec ita a me dicta velim accipias, non acut 
homines qui hodie verborum quandam speciem inducunt, et 
officiosam formam^ magis id adco ut videantur, qu^m quod 
esse velint id quod prae se ferant : sed potius, ut ab animo 
sincero, et prorsus tibi devinctissimo profecta, certissimum 
tibi persuadeas. Itaque, si quid ink caxisk unquam facere 
possim, (quod qukm exiguum sit non ignoro) illud tamen, 
quantulumcunquc erit tuum erit totum. Sed de hoc satis, 
et fortasse superque, praesertim etiam cum adhuc mihi sta- 
tutum sit, (si alia non intervenerint, quae inceptum iter alid 
evadere possint) ut vos obiter invisam in Angliam rever- 
suro. Ubi id viv4 voce confirmare, quod hie nudis verbis 
so1ummod5 declarare possum. Juvenis, qui has literas 
perfert mihi, nunciavit de obitu Conradi Pellicani, (quern 
honoris caxxsk nomino) quod ut audivi, san^ quam pro eo ac 


debuiy graviter molest^que tuli, non tarn sufi, quam ecclesise BOOK, 
universse caus&. Is enim hujus vitae curriculum, in curis^ 
vigiliis, assiduis studiis, literatis hominibus promovendis, 
gloriosisume confecit, ac denique moriendo quetnadniodum 
Yivebat ad meliorem vitam in coelum translatus est. At ilia 
multum desiderabit plurimis nominibus, virum absolutissi- 
mum: itaque, ut illius causa Isetor, ita hujus vicem non 
possum non magnopere dolere. At hujus msestititt causam 
tui (ut spero et opto) praesentia facile mitigabit, quem ec- 
clesiae, bonisque omnibus, diu incolumem Deus Opt. Max. 
per suam misericordiam esse velit. Venet. 6. calend. Mcuas. 

Tui nominis studiosissimus, 

F. Bedford. 
Domino Gesnero, et domino Gualthero, meis amicissimis 
diligenter k me, quseso, salutem dicito. 

Number 47. 

ji letter of JewelTs to Peter Martyr^ of the state hejbund 
matters in when he came to England, 

S. P. 

Tandem tamen aliquando, quinquagesimo, videlicet, Ex mss. 
septimo post die, quam solvissemus Tiguro, pervenimusque ^*^""' 
in Angliam. Quid enim necesse est multa T^ooijxia^fiv, apud 
te praesertim, qui rem potius ipsam quaeras, et longos istos 
logos non magni facias ? Interca ver6, Deum immortalem, 
quae ilia vita fuit, cum et aqua, et terra, et caslum ipsum 
nobis indignaretur, et omnibusque modis reditum nostrum 
impediret? Quid quaeris? Omnia nobis toto illo tempore 
odiosissima, ct adversissima acciderunt. Verum haec antea 
ad te, et ad D. BuUingerum fusius, cum adhuc haererem 
Antwerpiae. Nunc accipe caetera. Quanquam hie, ut vere 
dicam, arte opus est et myrothecio: non tam quidem, quod 
mihi nunc ornanda, et polienda sint nova, quae nescio an 
ulla sint hoc tempore. Scio tamen k te plurima expectari, 
qukm quod recantanda sint vetera. Ilia enim -fer^ omnia, 
quap ego ad te jam antea scripsi ex itinere, mult6 tum erant 



PART alia, et long^ audita jucundiora, qu^m qii« postea re ipsa 
^''' inveni domi. Nondum enim ejectus erat Romanus pontifex: 
nondum pars ulla religionis restituta: eadem erat ubique 
roissarum proluvies: eadem pompa, atq; insolentia epsoo- 
porum. Ista tamen omnia nunc tandem mutare indipiunt, 
et pene ruere. Magno nobis impedimento sunt ejMsoqfn: 
qui, cum sint, ut scis, in superiori condavi inter primores, 
et proceres, et nemo ibi sit nostrorum bominum, qui illonim 
fucos, et mendacia possit, coram dioendo refutare, inter 
homines literarum, et rerum imperitos soli regnant^ et pa- 
terculos nostros facile vel numero, vel opinione doctrine 
drcumscribunt. Regina interea, etsi apert6 faveat nostrs 
causae, tamen partim k suis, quorum consilio omnia genm- 
tur, partim k legato Pbilippi comite Terio h(Hnine Hiqpano, 
ne quid patiatur innovari mirific^ deterretur. lUa tamen 
quamvis lentiils aliquantd, qu^m nos velimus, tamen et pru- 
dentcr, et fortiter, et pic persequitur institutum. £t quam- 
vis hactenus principia, paulo visa sunt duriora, tamen spes, 
est aliquando rect6 fore. Interea, ne episcopi nostri queri 
possint se potenUa tantum, et lege esse victos, res revocata 
est ad disputationem, ut novem ex nostris, Scorseus, Coxus, 
Withcdus, Sandus, Grindallus, Homus, Elmer, Gbestus 
quidam Cantabrigiensis, et ego, cum quinque episcopis, ab- 
bate Westmonasteriensi, Colo, Cheadsaeo, Harpesfeldo, de 
his rebus coram senatu coUoquamur. Prima nostra assertio 
est: in publicis precibusq; et administratione Sacramento- 
rum alia uti lingua, qixkm quse k populo intelligatur, alie- 
num esse k verbo Dei, et k consuetudine primitiva ecclesis. 
Altera est ; quamvis ecclesiam provincialem, etiam injussu 
generalis concilii, posse vel instituere, vel mutare, vel ab- 
rogare ceremonias, et ritus ecclesiasticos, sic ubi id videatur 
facere ad aedificationem. Tertia sacrificium illud propitia- 
torium, quod papistae fingunt esse in missa, non posse pro- 
bari ex sacris literis. Pridie calendarum Aprilis instituitur 
prima oonflictado. Episcopi interim, quasi parti victoria, 
jamdudum magnified triumphant. Ubi Froschoverus ad nos 
venit, scribam de his rebus omnia disertius. Regina te 
gerit in oculis. Literas tuas tanti fecit, ut eas iterum, ter- 


tioq; cupidisam^ relegerit. Librum tuum, ubi advenerit, BOOK 
non dubito, fore mult5 gratiorem. Oxonii k tuo discessu , ^^' 
duae pracclara; virtutes incredibiliter auctse sunt, inscitia, et 
contumacia : religio, et spes omnis literarum, atq; ingenio- 
rum funditus periit. Brochas episcopus Glocestriensis bestia 
impurissimse vitae, et mult6 impurioris conscientise, paul6 
antequam moreretur, miserabilem in modum exclamavit, 
sese jam se ipso judice esse damnatum. Faber tuus prae- 
clarus, scilicet, patronus castitatis deprehensus est in aduL 
terio : ex ea causa, quod alioqui vix solet fieri, cum Maria 
adhuc Tiveret, novo more, nullo exemplo jussus est cedere 
lectione theologica. Bruemus simili, aut longe flagitiosiori 
de scelere coactus est relinquere professionem linguae He- 
braicae. De Martiali nihil scribo, ne chartas contaminem. 
De Westono audisti antea. Sed quid istos, inquies, com* 
memores? Ut intelligas, quibus judicibus oportuerit B. 
Cranmerum, P. Ridlaeum, P. Latimerum condemnari. De 
Scotis, de pace, de bello nihil. Temas ad te dedi literas ex 
itinere: quae utrumq; ad te pervenerint, nescio. Sed quo-, 
niam long^ absumus, longiiis, 6 Deum immortalem, et diu- 
tius multo, qukm vellem, literae nostrae interdum ventis et 
fortunae committeudae sunt. Vale, mi pater, et domine in 
Christo colendissime. Saluta D. Bullingerum, D. Gual- 
terum, D. Simlerum, D. Gesnerum, D. Lavaterum, Julium, 
Juliam, Martyrillum, D. Hermannum, et convictores tuos 
Trevicenses. Omnes nostri te salutant. Londini 20 Martii, 


Jo. Juellus. 

Istae sunt primae, quas ad te scribo, ex 

quo redii in Angliam. Ita posthac 

subscribam omnes, ut scire possis, si 

quae forte interciderint. 


Doctissimo viro D. Petro Mariyri vermUioy 
prqfessori sacrcB theologicB in ecdesia Ti- 
gurina domino suo colendissimo. 


ART Number 4<8. 

V J letter qfJiuWs to Buttingerj concerning the state ofMmgi 

in the beginning of this reign. 

S. P. 

GEATissiMiE erant mihi Parkurstoque meo litene tuie, or- 
natissime vir, vel qu6d k te sint, cui quantum debeamus, 
nunquam possum us oblivisci, vel quod suavitatis, et huma- 
nitatis erga nos tuae, quam toto nos tempore exilii nostri 
e:{[perti sumus maximam, altissima vesti^a retinerent At- 
que utinam possimus aliquando pietatis tuas partem ali- 
quam compensare. Quicquid erit, animus certe nobis nun- 
quam deerit ; quod nos hortaris, ut strenu^ ac fortiter nos 
geramus, erat ille aculeus non tantum non ingratus nobb 
scd etiam pehe necessarius. Nobis enim in hoc tempore non 
tantum cum adversariis, sed etiam cum amicis nostris^ qui 
proximis istis annis k nobis defecerunt et cum hostibus ccm- 
jurarunt^^^jMnque acrius mult6, et contumacius resistuDt, 
qukm uUi hostes, quodque molestissimum est, cum reliquiis 
Hispanorum, hoc est cum tetcrrimis vitiis, superbia, luxu, 
libidine luctandum est. Facimus quidem nos, fecimusque 
quod potuiraus. Deus bene fortunet, et det incrementum. 
Sed ita hactenus vivimus, ut vix videamur restituti ab exilia 
Ne dicam aliud : no suum quidem adhuc restitutum est cui- 
quam nostrum. Quanquam, et si molesta nobis est ista tarn 
diutuma expectatio, tamen non dubitamus, brevi recte fore. 
Habemus enim reginam et prudentem, et piam, et nobis 
faventem et propitiam. Religio restituta est in eum locum, 
quo sub Edwardo rege fuerat, ad earn rem non dubito, tuas, 
reipublicaequc vestrae literas et exhortationes multum ponde- 
ris attulisse. Regina non vnlt appellari aut scribi caput cc- 
clesiae Anglicanae: graviter enim respondit, illam dignitatem 
soli esse attributam Christo : nemini autem mortalium con- 
venire. Deinde illos titulos tam foed^ contaminatos esse ab 
anti-christo ut jam non possint ampli us satis pi^ k quoquam 
usurpari. Acadcmise nostrse ita afflictas sunt, et perditae, ut 
Oxonii vix duo sint, qui nobiscum sentiant, et illi ipsi ita ab- 
jecti et fracti, ut nihil possint. Ita Soto fraterculus, et alius, 
nescio quis, Hispanus monachus, omnia ea, quae D. Petrus 


Martyr pulcherrim6 plantaverat, everterunt k radicibus, et BOOK 
vineam Domini redegerunt in solitudinem. Vix credas tan- ^^' 
tarn vastitatem afferri potuisse tam parvo tempore. Quare 
et si magnam alioqui voluptatem capturus sim, si vel canem 
Tigurinum videre possem in Anglia, tamen non possum 
esse author hoc tempore, ut juve;nes vestros aut literarum 
aut religionis causd ad nos mittatis, nisi eosdem remitti ve- 
litis ad V0S9 impios et barbaros. Rogavit me nuper D. Rus- 
selius qua maxima re tibi, aliisque tuis fratribus, et symmis- 
tis gratum facere. Hoc videlicet, sensit, velle se humanita- 
tis vestrae, quam semper praedicat et hospitii causa aliquid 
ad vos dono mittere. Ego ver6 nihil tibi tuisque fore gra- 
tius, qukm si religionem Christi studiose ac fortiter propa- ' 
garet et papistarum insolentiam imminueret. Quod ille et 
recepit se facturum, et certe facit, quantum potest. Vene- 
runt hodie Londinum legati re^s Gallia^, qui gratulantur 
de pace; princeps legationis est juvenis Momorancius. De 
nuptiis reginse adhuc nihil. Ambit quidem filius Johannis 
Frederici, et frater secundus natu Maximiliani. Vulgi ta- 
men suspicio inclinat in Pikerimum hominem Anglum, vi- 
rum et prudentem et pium, et regia corporis dignitate prae- 
ditum. Deus bene vertat, quicquid erit. Istae primes sunt, 
quas ad te seorsim scripsi, ex quo redii in Angliam : sed 
quoniam, quae scripsi ad D. Martyrem, scio ilium propter 
summam inter vos conjunctionem tecum habuisse communia 
non dubito, quaecunque ad ilium scripsi, eadem ad te quo- 
que scripta dicere. Bene vale mi pater, et domine in 
Christo colendissime. Saluta optimam illam mulierem uxo- 
rem tuani : D. Gualterum, D. Simlerum, D. Zuinglium, D. 
Lavaterum. Si quid unquam erit, in quo possim, aut tibi 
aut tuis esse voluptati, aut usui, polliceor tibi non tantilm 
operam, studium, diligentiam, sed etiam animum et corpus 
meum. 22. Maii Londini, 1559- 

Tui studiosus, 
INSCRIPTIO. Jo. Juellus. 

Viro hngb doctissimo D. Henricho BiU- 
linffero pasiori ecclesi(B TigurintB dig- 
nissimo et domino suo cciendissimo. Tiguri. 

A a 4 


PART Number 49. 

"'- J letter qfJewelTs to Peter Martyr, concerning the dupu^ 

tation with the papists at Westminster. 
Idem ad P. Martyrem. 
S. P. 
Ex MSS. De illis disputaUonibus inter nos, et episcopos, quas proxi- 

*^^' mis literis scripsi indictas fuisse in ante calendas Aprilis quid 
factum sit, paucis accipe. Sic enim visum est continuare 
oraUonem sine procemio. Primum ergo, utomnis causa jur- 
porum et oUosae contentionis toUeretur, senatus decrevit, ut 
omnia utrinque de scripto Ic^rentur, et ita describerentur 
tempora, ut piimo die assertiones tantum utrinque nudie 
proponerentur : proxim6 autem conventu, ut nos illis re* 
sponderemus, et illi vicissim nobis. Pridi6 erg6 kal. April, 
cum magna expectationc, majori credo frequentia convoiis- 
semus Westmonasterii, episcopi, pro sua fide, nee script!, 
nee picti quicquam attulerunt, quod dicerent, se non satis 
temporis habuisse ad res tantas cogitandas : cum tamen ha- 
buissent plOis minus decern dies, et interea copias auxiliares 
Oxonio et Cantabrigia, et undiq; ex omnibus angulis con- 
traxissent. Tamen ne tot viri viderentur frustra conve- 
nisse, D. Colus subornatus ab aliis venit in medium, qui 
de prima qua^stione, hoc est, de peregrina lingua, unus 
omnium nomine peroraret. I lie ver6 cum omnibus nos con- 
tumcliis et convitiis indignissim^ excepisset, et omnium sedi- 
tionum authorcs et faces appell^sset, et supplosione pedum, 
projectione brachiorura, inflexione laterum, crepitu digito- 
rum, mod6 dejectione modo sublatione superciliorum, (nosti 
enim hominis vultum et modestiam) sese omnes in partes et 
formas convertisset, hue postrem6 evasit, ut diceret, An- 
gliam ante raille trecentos annos recepisse evangelium. Et 
quibus, inquit, literis, quibus annalibus, quibus monumen- 
tis constare potest, preces turn publicas in Anglia habitas, 
fuisse Anglic^. Postea cum in ilio circulo sese satis jamdiu 
jactavisset, adjecit seri6, et vero vuitu, atq; etiam admonuit, 
ut omnes hoc tanquam quiddam de dictis melioribus diligen- 
ter attenderent, atque annotarent, apostolos ab initio ita in- 
ter sese distribuisse operas, ut alii orientis ecclesias institue- 
rent, alii occidentis. Itaque Petrum et Paulum, in Romana 


ecclesia, quae totam prope Europam con tineret, omnia Ro- BOOK 
mano sermone, hoc est, latin^ docuisse. Reliquos apostolos ^^' 
in oriente, nullo unquam alio sermone usus fuisse, nisi 
Grseco. Tu fortasse ista rides : atqui ego neminem audivi 
unquam, qui solenniiis et magistratius insaniret. Si adfu- 
isset Julius noster, centies exclam&sset, Poh ! horson knave. 
Verum ille, inter alia, nihil veritus est, mysteria ipsa et pe- 
netralia, atq; adyta prodere religionis suae. Non enim du- 
bitavit graviter et seri6 monere, etiamsi alia omnia maximfe 
conveniunt, tamen non expedire, ut populus, quid in sacris 
ageretur, intelligat. Ignorantia enim, inquit, mater est 
verse pietatis, quam ille appellavit devotionem. O mystica 
sacra, atque opertanea bonae deae ! Quid tu me putas inte- 
rim de Cotta pontifice cogit^sse ? Hoc videlicet illud est, in 
spiritu et veritate adorare. Mitto alia. Cum ille jam ca^ 
lumniando, convitiando, mentiendo magnam partem illius 
temporis, quod nobis ad disputandum datum erat, exemis- 
set ; nos postremo nostra pronunciavimus de scripto, ita mo- 
deste, ut rem tantum ipsam diceremus, nihil autem laedere- 
mus adversarium, postremo ita dimissa est disputatio, ut vix 
quisquam esset in toto illo conventu, ne comes quidem Sa- 
lopiensis, quin victoriam illius diei adjudicaret nobis. Postea 
inita est ratio, ut proximo die lunae, de secunda quaestione 
eodem modo diceremus; utque die Mercurii, nos illorum 
primi diei argumentis responderemus, et illi vicissim nostris. 
Die lunae, cum frequens multitudo, ex orani nobilitate 
cupidissima, audiendi convenisset, cpiscopi, nescio pudo- 
reve superioris diei, an desperatione victorise, primum ter- 
giversari, habere se quod dicerent de prima qua»stione, nee 
oportere rem sic abire. Responsum est k senatu, Si quid 
haberent, id tertio post die, prout ab initio convenerat, au- 
diri posse : nunc hoc potius agerent, neve turbarent ordi- 
nem. Dejecti de hoc gradu tamen hue evaserunt, si di- 
cendum omnino sit, nolle se priores dicere ; se enim in pos- 
sessione constitisse : nos, si quid velleraus, priori loco expe- 
riremur. Magnam enim se facturos injuriam causae suae, si 
paterentur, nos posteriores discedere cum applausu populi, et 
aculeos orationis nostrae recentes in auditorum animis relin- 
quere. Senatus contr^, Hanc ab initio institutam fuisse ratio- 


ART nem, ut illi^ qu6d dignitate priores essent, priori edam looc 
^^^' dicerent ; nee earn nunc mutari posse. Mirari vero se, quid 
hoc sit mysterii, ciim omnino necesse sit, alterutros priores 
dicere; alioqui enim nihil posse did: et praesertiiD, cum 
col us in primis disputationibus etiam injussus, ultr6 prior 
ad dicendura prosiluerit. Postrem6, cum altercationibus 
magna pars tcmporis extracta esset, nee epiacopi ullo pacto 
concedere vellent de secundo loco, ad extremum rine dis- 
putatione discessum est. Ea ver6 res increditnle dictu est, 
quantum imminuerit opinionem populi de episcopis : omnes 
enim caeperunt jam suspicari, quod nihil dicere voluissent, 
ne potuisse quidem illos quicquam dicere. Postero die, 
Vitus Vintoniensis, amicus tuus, et Vatsonus LinocdnieDsis, 
de tam aperto contemptu et contumacia, damnati sunt ad 
turrim : ibi nunc castrametantur, et ex infirmis praemissis 
concludunt fortiter. Reliqui jubentur quotidi^, praestd esse 
in aula, et expectare quid de illis senatus velit deoemere. 
Habes lyrcu^iv anXri et pen^ aveurtvxrof ; quam tamen, quo 
melius rem omnem intelligeres, descripsi pluribus, fortasse, 
quam oportuit. Bene vale, mi pater, decus meum, atque 
etiam animi dimidium mei. Si quid est apud vos novarum 
rcrum, hoc tempore, id malo esse proximarum literarum 
argumentum. Saluta plurimum, meo nomine, venerandum 
ilium virum, et mihi in Christo dominum colendissimum, 
D. Bullingerura, D. Gualterum, D. Simlerum, D. Lavate- 
rum, D. Wolphium, D. Gesnerum, D. Hallerum, D. Fri- 
«um, D. Hermannum, et Julium tuum meumque. Nostri 
omnes tc salutant, et tibi omnia cupiunt. Londini, 6. April. 
1559. Jo. Juellus tuus. 

Istae sunt secundae, quas ad te scri- 
bo, ex quo redii in Angliam. 

Z>. Petro Martyri^ prqfessori sacrce theo- 
logicB in ecclesia Tifftirina^ viro doctis- 
simoj et domifio suo in Christo ccien- 
dissimo. Tiguri. 


Number 60. BOOK 

A letter of JeweJTa to Peter Martyr y of the debates in the ^^' 
hoiLse of lords; and of the state of the tmiversities ; and 
concerning the inclinations to the SmalcalcUck League. 

S. P. 
Accept temas k te literas, omnes eodem ferm^ tempore : Ex MSS. 
quae cum muhis de causis mihi essent^ ut certe debebant, '^'^''' 
jucundissimae, vel quod essent k te, vel quod rerum tuarum 
statum significarent, et amorem erga me tuum : tamen nullft 
alid caus& mihi visas sunt jucundiores, qakm qu6d ofiicium 
meum requirerent, meq; vel oblivionis vel tarditatis, bland^ 
ac tacit^ accusarent; quorum alterum magnitudo tuorum 
erga me meritorum, alterum negotia mea non sinunt. Scrips! 
quidem ego ad te temas literas, ex quo redii in Angliam ; 
quas tamen video, cOim tu illas tuas scriberes, nondum ad te 
pervenisse. Et fieri potest, ut ssepe sit, ut aut haereant 
uspiam, ct ignavae atq; otiosae imitentur reli^onem nostram, 
aut etiam perierint in itinere. Sed quicquid est, nulla potest 
in ea re magna jactura fieri. Elrant enim pen^ inanes^ qu6d 
non multum adhuc esset, quod aut tu audire libenter velles, 
aut ego scribere. Nunc agitur causa pontificis, et agitur 
utrinque fortiter. Episcopi enim sudant, ne quid errllsse 
videantur: atq; ea causa moratur, et impedit religionem. 
Difficile est enim cursum incitare. Fecnamus, abbas West- 
monasteriensis, opinor, ut authoritatem addent profession! 
suae, cum peroraret in senatu, Nazaraeos, prophetas, Chris- 
tum ipsum, et apostolos conjecit in numerum monachorum. 
Nemo causam nostram acriiis oppugnat, quam Eliensis. Is 
et locum suura in senatu, et ingenium retinet. Episcopo- 
rum praedia redacta sunt in fiscum : illis ex permutatione 
dabuntur sacerdotia, quae antea attributa erant monasteriis. 
Interim de scholis, et cura literarum magnum ubique silen- 
tium. Regina de te honorifice et loquitur, et seijitit. Dixit 
nupcr D. Russelio, se velle te accersere in Angliam ; id 
enim ille, aliique urgent, quantum possunt. Sed nisi et 
seri6, et cupide, et honorifice petaris, nunquam ero author, 
ut venias. Nihil equidem ma^s, aut miserius cupio, quam 
te videre, et dulcissimis illis sermonibus tuis frui, sive (quod 


FAET 6 otjnann a K g naTwio umiingai ) in AngBi, are cdan TignrL 
V'eram qnmfinn Tideo obscabit deadsio oortia, iiMHwpicato 
iOa ex Suds ae Saxonibus danmsta vcpv^js. Nostra emm 
Dime eogitat foedus Smalnldimin, Scribit antem ad iDam 
quidain c Gennania, illud fcedus noo posse uDo pacto ooire, 
s ta ad DOS venias. Illani aotem qoendam, s addo sK- 
quando fiusse epboopom, a dudc esse cxukm, a hominem 
slalnm, a ▼eCeratorem, a anlkaim, a PeCnnn, a Paalani, 
magb earn fortasse Ddris, qoam ego. Sed quioqind est, dos 
artkulos omDcs reCgioDis, et docttuus oostne exhibtihnus 
regauej et De oiiniroo quidem apce discesamos k ooofessiooe 
Tigurioa. Quaoquam anucus tuus ioveotum illud, Descio 
quod, suum tuetur mordicus, et Dobis oomibus mirific^ 
suooeoset. Adhuc aenuDi Dostmm De de obdo quidem 
prospectum est. Itaque ego Doodum abjicio ioagoia ills, 
quae mihi fiaxi Tiguri, librum et crucem. Groodmannum 
audio esse apud nos ; sed ita, ut non auat venire io publi- 
cum. Sed quanto satius fuisset sapuisse in tempore? Si 
▼elit agnoscere errorem, nihil erit penculi. Venkm, ut booio 
est satis acer, et in eo, quod semel suscepit, nimium per- 
tinax, non nihil vercor, ne nolit cedere. Libri tui nondum 
venerunt: id ego tanto magis miror, qubd tot Angli jam 
pridem redierint Francofordia. Munus tuum ubi adve- 
nerit, non dubito reginae fore gratissiroum. Illud ego, quo- 
niam tu ita jubes, quamvis alioquin sit per se omatissimum, 
tamen si dabitur facultas, verbis omabo meis. De illo autem 
libro, quem tu seorsim ad me misisd, equidem non invenio, 
quibus verbis tibi agam gratias. Itaque malo, et huic hu- 
manitati tuae, et superiorum tuorum erga me meritorum 
magnitudini ultr5 succumbere. Cert^ etsi te nunquam ex 
animo eram dimissurus, tamen h&c commonefactione, et 
mnemosyno excitatus, tanto acrids et reverentids colam, 
quoad vixero, nomen tuum. Alii tui libri jampridem allati 
sunt k Bibliopolis, et emuntur cupidissim^. Omnes enim 
libenter videre cupiunt, quibus venabulis ilia bestia con- 
fossa sit. 

Ben6 vale mi pater, et domine in Christo colendissime. 
Saluta D. Bullingerum, D. Bemardinum, D. Gualterum, 


D. Simlerum : dicerem et Frenchamum, nisi ilium putarem BOOK 
jamdudum aut in balneo esse, aut in via. Hoc enim anni ^' 
tempore, cum auditur cuculus^ vix solet esse apud se. 
Londini, 28. Apr. 1559. 

Tui cupidissimus, 

tuoq; nomini deditissimus, 
Istse sunt quarts. Johannes Juellus. 


Doctissimo viro^ Z>. Petro Martyri^ 

in ecclesid Tigurind prqfessori 

S. theolofficBy domino suo cclen- 



Number 51. 
A letter ofJewelTs to Peter Maxiyr^ of the state of affairs 

both in England and Scotland. 
EjiLsdem ad eundem, 
Hactenus minils frequenter ad te scripsi, mi pater, quod Ex MSS. 
raiilta me negotia publica, privataq; impedirent. Nunc ^^'' 
scriho, non quod plus nunc otii sit, quim antea, sed quod 
minus posthac futuruni sit mult6, quam nunc est. Alterum 
enim jam pedem in terra habeo, alterum pen^ sublatum in 
equuni. Mox enim ingredior longinquam et difficilem le- 
gationem constituendae reli^onis erg6 per Redingum, Abin- 
donam, Glocestriam, Bristollium, Thermas, Welliam, Exo- 
nium, Cornubiam, Dorcestriam, Sarisburiam. Ambitus 
itineris nostri erit plus minus septingentorum milliarium: 
vix ut quarto demi!im mense putem nos esse redituros. 
Quare ne me interca pu tares esse mortuum, etsi ante duo- 
decim dies, nescio quid, ad te scripserim de rebus communi- 
bus, tamen non alienum fore duxi, si nunc quoquc paucis 
te quasi in degressu salutarem. Res nostrae satis nunc sunt 
in proclivi : regina optim^ animata : populus ubique sitiens 
religionis. Episcopi, potiiis, quam ut relinquant papam, 
quem toties jam antea abjurarunt, malunt cedere rebus 
omnibus. Nee tamen id religionis causa faciunt, quam 


PART nullain habent, sed oonstandfle, quam wiam ndNilones vo- 
can jam volunt conscienUam. Sacrifici jam tandem mutata 
religione passim abstinent a cetu sacro, quaa piaculum 
summum at, cum populo Dei quicquam habere commune. 
Est autem tanta illorum nebulonum rabies, ut nihil supri. 
Omnino sperant, et prsedicant, est enim, ut sds, genus 
hominum prsedictioaosum, et vald^ deditum futuriticmibut 
bta non fore diutuma. Sed, quicquid futurum est, nos agi- 
mus Deo Optimo Maximo gratias, qu6d res nostras eb jam 
tandem loco sint, quo sunt. In Scotia fervent omnia. 
Knoxus ductus mille satellibus agit conventus per totum 
regnum. Regina vetula coacta est sese includere in prsesi- 
dium. Nobilitas conjunctis animis et viribus restituit ubique 
religionem invitis omnibus. Monasteria passim omnia a^quan- 
tur solo, vestes scenicae, calices sacrilegi, idola, altaria com- 
buruntur : ne vestigia quidem priscae superstitionis et idolo- 
latriae relinquuntur. Quid quseris? audisti saep^, o-xviior) 
fcnlv : hoc ver6 est o'xvdia'Tfi iKxXr^ciil^eiv, Rex Galliae, qui 
nunc est, scribit se regem Scotiae, et haeredem Angliae, si 
quid reginae nostrae, quod Deus avertat, contingat humani- 
tills. Sed mirari non debes, si nostri homines moleste ferant: 
et quo res eruptura tandem sit, 06oO Iv yovvaai xiirai. For- 
tass^, ut sit, communis hostis conciliabit nobis vicinum 
Scotum. Quod si sit, etsi accedant etiam nuptiae, sed desino 
divinare. D. Hetonus te salutat, idque non minus amice, 
qu^m si illi pater esses. Aliquot nostrum dcsignamur epi- 
scopi. Coxus Eliensis, Scoraeus Erfodiensis, Alanus Roffen- 
sis, Grindalus Londinensis, Barlovus Chichestrensis, et ^o 
minimus apostolorum Sarisburiensis. Quod ego onus pror- 
sus decrevi excutere. Interea in academiis mere est ubique 
solitudo. Juvenes difFugiunt potiOis, qu^m ut velint in reli- 
gionem consentire. Sed comites jamdudum exspectant, et 
clamant, ut veniam. Vale ergo, vale, mi pater, et dulcissi- 
mum decus meum ; saluta venerandum virum, et mihi mille 
nominibus in Christo colendissimum, D. Bullingerum, ad 
quem etiam seorsim scriberem, si esset otium. Saluta 
D. Gualterum, D. Simlerum, D. Lavaterum, D. Hallerum, 
D. Gcsnerum, D. Trisiura, D. Hermannum. Habeo quin- 


que pistolettos aureos k D. Barth. Compagno ad venerandum BOOK 
senem D. Bernardinum, et ab eodem ad eum Uteras. Sen- ' 

berem ad eum de rebus omnibus, nisi excluderer angusti^ 
temporis. Quanquam hoc, quaeso te, ut illi significes, prse- 
ter istos aureos, nihil adhuc confectum esse. Res aulicae, 
quantum video, ita sunt difliciles, ut nesciam, an quicquam 
possit exprimi. Regina jam abest procul gentium in Cantio, 
uta^ nihil possit. Vale, mi pater, vale. Quantum ego tibi 
optare possum, tantum vale. Et Julium tuum, Annamque et 
Martyrillum meo nomine. Londini calendis Augusti, 1559. 

Jo. Juellus tuus, 
Tibi omnibus modis dediussimus. 


Viro longi doctissimo D. Petro 

Martyri VermUio profitenti aor- 

cram theologiam in ecclesia Ti- 



Number 52. 

A letter qfJeweWs to Peter Martyr j before he went his pro- 
gress into the western parts of England, 

EJusdem ad eundem, 
S. P. 

Et quid tandem ego ad te scribam ? nos enim adhuc Ex MSS. 
omnes peregrini sumus domi nostrae. Redi ergo, inquies, * 
Tigurum. Utinam, utinam, mi pater, id mihi aliquando 
liceat. Te enim, quantum video, nulla spes est venturum 
unquam in Angliam. 6 Tigurum, Tigurum, quanto ego 
nunc ssepius de tc cogito, qukm unquam de Anglia, cum 
essem Tiguri. Quamvis autem, ut dixi, in patria nostra 
simus hospites, cxcipimus tamen interdum quaedam ayara 
xou ahy^ara, Verum iroWaxi to xolxov xoLTaxeifji^evov IvSov of/xei- 
W¥, De religione transactum est, utinam bonis auspiciis, ut 
esset eo loco, quo fuit ultimis tuis temporibus sub Edouardo. 
Sed, quantum quidem ego adhuc videre possum, non est 
ea alacritas in nostris hominibus, quae nuper in papistis fuit. 


P A RT Ita miser^ comparatum est, ut meDdacium annatuiii at, le- 
^^^' ritas autem non tantum inennis, veriim etiam taspe odkxa. 
A^tur nunc de sacro et scenico apparatu, quaeque ego tecum 
aliquando ridens, ea nunc, k nescio quibus, nos enim non ad- 
vocamur in consiliuni, seri5, et graviter cogitantur, quasi le- 
ligio ChrisUana constare non possit sine pannis. Nos qui- 
dem non ita otiosi sutnus ab animo, ut tanti possimus faoefe 
istas ineptias. Alii sectantur auream quandam, quae mifai 
plumbea potius videtur, m^iocritatem : et clamant, dimi- 
dium plus toto. Quidam ex nostris designati sunt episcc^ 
Parkerus Cantuariensis, Coxus Norvicensis, Barlovus Cice^- 
* trensis, Scoraeus Herfordensis, Grindallus Londinensis. Nam 
Bonerus jussus est cedere : qui quando adituri sint possessio- 
nem, nescio. Ego ex isto flore, quod tu de vino soles, facile 
divino, quae sit futura vindemia. Adversarii interim nostri xa- 
paloKouiTiy et poUicentur sibi, ista non fore perpetua. In Scotia, 
nescio quid, audimus tumultuatum de religione: nobiles ejec- 
tis mona(:his occupasse monasteria: et aliquot milites praeadi- 
arios Gallos in tumultu occidisse : reginam iratam edixisse, ut 
Knoxus concionator inflato cornu, est enim illc in Scotia 
mos solennis, si quem velint extorrem facere, ex omnibus 
finibus ejiccrctur. Quid de illo factum sit, nescio. Nunc 
instituitur legatio in totam Angliam de formanda religione. 
Sand us ibit in Lancastriam : ego in Devoniam : alii alio, 
licgina non vult appelJari caput ecclesiae, quod mihi certi 
non displicet. Interim, quid il cavetso de la Chiesa cogitet, 
aut murmuret, aut quas turbas daturus sit, tu quoniam pro- 
pius abes, facilius audire potes. Papistse nostri odioassinid 
pugnant, nequc alii uUi contumacius, quam qui a nobis dis- 
cesserunt. Tanti est scmel gustasse de missa. Qui bibit 
indc, furit : procul hinc discedite, queis est mentis cura bons: 
qui bibit inde, furit : vident excepto illo palladio omnia Ven- 
tura in periculum. Pax inter nos et Galium ita convenit, ut 
Caletum octo post annos redeat in polestatem Anglorum. 
Quod ut Julius noster credat, opus est incredibili, et robusti 
fide. Quicquid erit tamen nos eo nomine exspectamus 
pignora h Gallia. De nuptiis reginfe adhuc nihil. Tamen 
ambit hoc tempore Suecus, Saxo, Carolus Ferdinandi. 


Mitto Pikerinum hominem Anglum. Tamen, quid inalim, BOOK 
scio. Et ista sunt ut scio /xuarixore^a : et apud nos proverbii 
loco dici solet matrimonia esse fatalia. Bene vale, mi pater, 
et domine in Christo colendissime. Saluta quseso optimum 
senem D. Bernardinum, D. Muraltum, D. Wolphium meo 
nomine. Liber tuus, quern reginse misisti dono redditus 
est ^ D. Csecilio : ad meas manus, nescio quo casu, non per- 
▼enit. Ego tamen, quoties sum in aula, diligenter exquiro, 
liumquid ilia velit: et adhuc nihil audio. Sed quioquid 
erit, laciam ut intelligas. Londini. 

Istoe sunt quintae, tu vide an aliquse perierint. 


Doctisaimo viro D. Petro Martyri^ 

prqfessori sacrcB theohgice in 

ecclesia Ttgurinaj domiiio suo 



Number 63. 

A dedaraiiaii made by the confederate lords of Scotland to 
the queen of England ; of their talcing arms against the 
queen dowager of Scotland^ and the French, 

It may be, that on the French parte it wyll be saide, Cotton Ub. 
that it behoveth them to subdue the rebellion in Scotland ; ^ ^^' * * 
and to that end only bringe all this power thither : first it 
vmy be, and that truly saide, the bcgynning and ground, 
yea, and the proceding hitherto being truly considered, is 
no rebellion. For true it is, that when the French kyng 
had long sought to compasse the yonge queene of Scotland, 
and to have her caryed owt of Scotland into Fraunce, there 
was great diiBcultie made yn it by the Scots, and att length 
brought to passe only by the continuall travayle of the 
mother, being dowager queene ; partly by corruption with 
money, partly by authoritie, partly by fayre proipiises ; and 
yet was the matter thus ended, that before her person coulde 
be transported thence, assurance was made by treaty, by 

VOL. III. p. 3. B b 


'ART othe, by parlement, by the great seal of Fraunce, by the 
*^^' seal of the dolphyn, that Scotland should not be otherwyse 
governed but by the lawes, by the nobiliUe, by the pec^ 
of the land ; that the oflBces of the land shuld remayne m 
the nation of Scotland ; that no garrisons shuld be kepte 
by the French. After that tyme much labour and practise 
was made by the queene dowager to procure the favour of 
the nobilitie of Scotland, to accorde to the mariadge of the 
queene with the dolphyn ; and fynally that obtaygned in a 
parleroent in Scodand, and was the crowne asagned to the 
queen, and the heirs of her body ; and for default therof, 
to the duke of Chastellerault, and his hires, and so he de- 
clared the seconde person. Then allso was on the parte 
of Fraunce othes taken, chartres dely vered under the greate 
scale of Fraunce, and confirmed by the yong queene under 
her seal, and by the dolphin under his seale, that Scotland 
shuld be governed by the counsayle of the land ; that no li- 
berties shuld be violated ; that Edinburg castell shuld be 
dely vered to the lord Arskin to be kept, for the preservation 
of the rights of the realme ; and Dunbritton castell shuld 
be delyvered to the duke for his interest as heyre apparent. 
These things were done, and duplicats made of the grants 
of Fraunce. One parte delyvered to be kept in Edenburg 
castell in the treasury; the other delyvered to the duke: 
hereupon an ambassade was sent in anno 1558, of 8 persons, 
S bishops, 2 carles, 4 lords of Scotland, and the mariadge 
then concluded in Fraunce ; which done, thur was attempted 
that the ambassade shuld return home, and in parlement 
obtayne, at the yong queenes request, that the crown of 
Scotland might be given to the dolphin her husband ; which 
matter, the ambassade so much misliked, and utterly re- 
fused ; alledging that it could never be obtayned ; that in 
the end they were thus abused, yt was devised they should 
retoume, and procure that a matrimoniall crowne shuld be 
granted to the kjmg : by which words they weare made be- 
lieve there was a great diflerence ; and yet they could not 
lyke the matter, but required leave to retoume home, and 
they would doo that they might. In their departure at 


Deepe^ theyr nombre was made in one night sodenly lesse BOOK 
by one bishop, 2 erles, and 2 barons, and so departed home 
the other three, much amased att the matter. At theyr 
return, the dowager queene practised all the ways she could 
in parlement, to obtayne this purpose ; which she sought 
by two ways, one by rewarding those who had not received 
favour of the duke in the time of his govemaunce, partly 
for the favour they bare at that dme to England, parte for 
other respects ; and so sett an enmitie betwixt the duke and 
them. One other way she offered to certayne of the lords 
a permission to ly ve freely accordyng to their conscience in 
reli^on ; and at leAgth she became very stronge, and in 
parliament obtained this matrimoniall crowne, with these 
conditions, that the duke^s right shuld not be empayred 
therby. Thus proceded she towards her purpose, and daily 
usurped against the liberties and promises made. She spared 
not to be^n with the greatest. She committed to prison 
the chancellor of the realme, the erle Huntley ; being one 
of the principal frends to the duke. She took a great fyne 
of him, and took the scale from hym; committed that. to 
one Rubay, a Frenchman, an advocate of Paris. Not con- 
tent therwith, she committed the sayd erle to prison, untill 
she had put hym to a great raunsorae ; which she took of 
hym : and to flatter hym, gave hym the name of chancelor, 
and put the oflice in Rubaye^s handes. Nexte to this, she 
hath taken the office of the comptroller of the hole realme, to 
whom belonged the charge of the whole revenues of the 
crowne ; and hath allso committed it to another Frenchman, 
a servant of her owne, named Vulemore. She hath also se- 
questred all matters of counsaill of the govemaunce of the 
land, from the Scottish men borne, and retayned all the se- 
creties to French men. But these weare but small thinges 
yff greater had not followed. Having peace with England, 
she kepte all the garrisons of French men still in the coun- 
trey, who lyved upon discretion ; which was a new offense 
to Scotland. Wages they had none out of France at all : 
the revenue of the crowne, which was not greate, was sent 
into Fraunce ; and to paye the French band, a new devise 



p A RT was made. She procured out of Fnuinoe a certayne nomfaR 
^"' of franks, being altogether in a eertayoe coyne of aowoeii 
which had bene, for theyr emtinesB, decried and barred in 
Fraunce two yeres before, and were but bullion : theae die 
made currant in Scotland, to paye the soldiors* She albo 
erected a mynte, and therin abassed a grete quantite of the 
Scottish money, and therwith allso payed her soldiors. In 
that mynte allso she permitted certayne of the prindpalk 
of the French to coyne theyr owne plate, to theyr owne 
most advantage : which matter both did notable great hurt 
in all Scotland, and much oflRsnded the realme. 

Now follows the practises of the queene with diverse no- 
blemen, to becom parties agaynst the duke: meanet wai 
made, fyrst to have wonne the lord Arskin, to deliver die 
caitell of Edenburgh ; next, to have stolen it: but this pre- 
vailed not. In this season, and before allso, which had mndk 
exasperated the people of the land, the queene gave away 
abbeys, that fell voyd, to French men : som to her brother, 
the cardinal Guyse, som to other. And generally, she hath 
kept in her hands these three hole yeres, allmoet all the ec- 
clesiastical dignities that have fallen voyde ; saving audi as 
wer of any value, which she gave to French men. Grenerally 
she governed all things so, as she never would in any matter 
followe the counsel 1 of the lordes and nobilite, which, at her 
first coming to the regiment, were appoynted to be of coun- 
sell. Agaynst these her doynges, many intercesaons were 
made by the nobilitie, both joyntly together in good oom- 
panyes, and advices allso gyven aparte, by such as weie 
sory to see that this governance wold be so dangerous, as it 
could not be borne : but nothing avayled. And then fol- 
lowed a practise, of all other most dangerous and strange, 
and, for a perscmage of honor, a great indignity. The prio- 
cipall matter that was coveted by the queene, was to have 
cutt away the duke, and his house, and to make a party 
agaynst hym : by persuasion this was devised. The lord 
James, being a bastard, son of the last kynge, a man of 
greate courage and wysdom ; and certayne eries and barons 
of the realme ; in whom were considered these two thynges, 


no great love towards the duke, nor certayne ceremonies of BOOK 
the churche; and yet being men of courage, were borne in 
hand by the queene, that she her selfe wold beare with theyr 
devotion in religion, and upon condition that they would 
joyne with her govemaunce agaynst the duke, for the fa- 
vour of Fraunce, they shuld lyve freely according to theyr 
conscience in religion, without any inipedyment. Herupon 
they were somwhat boldned, and therby incurred the cen<» 
sures of the churche, and were also, by a private lawe of the 
land, ignorantly in danger of treason : wherupon prooesse 
was made, they endangered. And then was it tyme for the 
queene to tempt them to forget theyr country, and become 
French. But when no inUcement could prevayle, then be- 
gan she to threaten them with the lawe, and would neds 
declare them traytors. This matter the queene pursued ; 
taking it for a great advantage. But, for their defence, the 
nobilitie of the realme made much labour. Nothyng would 
Btaye the queene ; but forthwith she produced her garnaons 
to the feld, proclaymed them traytors, gave away th«r 
lands, entred with men of war into a principal towne, 
called St. John's Towne, changing the provost of the towne, 
agajmst the wyll of the burgesses ; and left there four bands 
of men of warre, to fortefie her new provost. And she 
fynding the whole realme much offended herwith, and 
charging her dayly with misgovemance, and violating the 
liberties of the realm, and her power there not sufficient to 
procede, as she ment, to conquer the land ; she sent for the 
duke and the erle Huntley, and pretended in this necessitie 
a new good will to them ; who travayled for her, and stayed 
all the adverse part in quietness : and then she promised 
all matters to be stayed and redressed at parlement the 
next spring: and promised also diverse other thyngs for 
the benefite of the land. And then the duke and the erle 
Huntley tooke upon them to make a quiet with the adverse 
part. And whiles this was in doyng, the duke's sonne and 
heyre was sought and sent for to the courte in Fraunce : from 
whence he was certainly advertised by diverse of most se- 
cret knowledge, that his mine shuld folbw, and that he 



ART should be accused and executed for matten of reUgion. At 
^'^' the length he abode^ untill certayne of good authoritie wee 
depeched from the court, to bryng hym eyther quick or deMi. 
Before their comming, he escaped, without daunger : and 
they tokc his yonger brother, a child^ abowt fifteen yeies of 
age, and commytted him to prison. In this tyme, thyngs 
being well appeased in Scotland, and every noble man re- 
turned to theyre countrees, by the duke^s meanes prin- 
cipally, who shewed most favour to the quene, and bad 
gaged his fayth to the nobilitie of Scotland for keping of 
all thynges in quiet untill the parlement; there arrived 
certayne bands of souldiours out of Fraunce into I^eethe; 
whose comming made such a chaunge in the queene, as she 
newly caused the towne of Leeth to be fortified, b^ng the 
principall porte of the realme, and placed twenty two en- 
seignes of souldiors, with one band of horsemen, therin. 
Herupon the nobilitie challenged the duke : who had no- 
thing to saye ; but entreated the queen, by his most humble 
letters, to forbeare these mannor of doinges; wherin he 
could not prevayle. The force of the French was then en- 
creased, Leeth fortified, all ammuniuon carried into the 
towne, nothyng left to the Scotts, whereby either well to de- 
fend themselfes, or to annoye the towne. Beside this, out 
of Fraunce there came dayly French powre by sea; yea 
ther went allso, not denyed by the queen^s majestic of 
England, captayns by land through England. Well, at 
the length the duke and all the nobilitie made new inter- 
cession by theyr letters, that she would forbeare this forti- 
ficacion : for otherwyse her purpose of conquest would ap- 
peare to the whole realm ; wherupon would grow great dis- 
quiet. But her comforth grew so greate owt of France, 
that she despised all requestes. And thus came the matter 
to the termes which the French courted : for now thought 
they it would be but 3 or 4 dayes work to subdue Scotland : 
wherunto nevertheless bcsydes theyre owne powre, she en- 
tretayned two or three meane lords, such as lay betwyxt 
Leeth and Barwick, which was the erle Bothwell and lord 
Setan, who be the only two, of all the nobilitie of Scotland, 


that keepeth company with the queen ; and yet, as they do BOOK 
notify themselfes by their doyngs, have their harts with 
their countreymen. And nowe the duke and the rest of 
the nobilitie, with the barons and burgeses of the realme, 
fynding no hope of remedy at her hands, but perceyving an 
eminent danger to the realme, which could not be avoyded 
by any entreaty, assembled themselves, as regrating the af- 
flicted realme. They began depely to consyder, on the one 
part, the right of their soveraign lady, being married to a 
strange prince, and out of her realme, in the hands of 
Frenchmen only, without counsell of her own natural people; 
and therwith the mortalitie of her husband, or of her self, 
before she cold have issue : and on the other side, what the 
dowager, being a French woman, systar to the house which 
ruleth all in France, had done, attemped, and dayly per- 
sisted in ruinating unnaturally the liberties of her daughter, 
the queen^s subjects, for ambition, to knitte that realme per- 
petually to France, whatsoever becam of her daughter ; and 
so to execute ther old malace upon England, the stile and 
title wherof they had alredy usurped ; were in the end con- 
strayned to constitute a counsayle, for the govemaunce of 
the realme, to the use of theyr soverayn lady : and therwith 
humbly to signifie to her the reasonable suspension of the 
dowager's authoritie ; which to mayntayn, they have of 
themselves, as naturall subjects, convenient strength, being 
sore oppressed with the French powre ; which untill this 
presant day they do, as theyr powers can endure; being 
very mean and unable that to do, compared to the meanest 
force of France : so as although they have been of long 
tyme occasioned thus to doe ; and now for safety, as well of 
theyr soverjugn's right, as of the ancient right of the crown, 
have been forced to spend all ther substance, to hazard theyr 
lifes, theyr wifes, and children, and country : yet can they 
not longer preserve themselves and the realm from conquest, 
by this power that is now arrived in Scotland, and is in rea- 
diness to be sent thither before next spring. And therfore 
they have communicated their hole cause to certayn of the 
queen^s majesties ministers upon the borders, and seek all 

B b 4 


MRT the ways they can, how they might, without oAfanoe of lur 
' majesty, oommitt theyr just and honorable came to the 
protection of hir majesty, onely, requiring this, that thejr 
realroe may be saved from the conquest by France, 
and the right of theyr soveraign kdy presenred, with all 
other rights of their nation of Scotland depending theie* 

August J 1559- 

Thepetitioi^ of the lords of Scotland signed wiA their atm 


Wb de^re yat he hall nommeris of Frenchmen of 
being presentlie within yis realme, may be removed with 
speed ; that we may in tymes coming laf quyetlie without 
feir of thair troubill. 

Itemy That we may haif place to sute of the king uid 
queen our soveraignis sik articlis as ar necessarie far us, for 
pacification and perfect government of the realm without 
alteration of our anteant liberties. 

• The earl of Aran always ligns thus, for the ti- * James HamiltOO* 
tie of Aran was in his father at that time. Ard. Argyll. 


• This seems to be the lord James, afterwards b James Stewart 
made earl of Murray. . , ^ . 

e l-he earl of HuaUey's son. ' ^^^- G^«J«°- 

^ Cannot be read. ** John. 

R. Boyd. 

John Maxwell. 

• Probably the earl of Athol's son. e James Stewart* 

Number 64. 

A short discussion qftlie weighty matters of Scotland, Aug. 

tton lib. In sir W. CecylPs hand. 


lo. Question, Whether it be mete that England should 


helpe the nobilitie, and protestants of Scotland, to expell BOOK 
the French : or no ? ^ ^^' 

That No, 

I. It 18 against God's law to ayd any subjects against 
their naturall prince, or their ministers. 

II. It is dangerouse to doo it ; for if the ayd shal be no 
other than maye be kept in secretie, it cannot be great; 
and so consequently it shall not suffice. If it shall be opeQ» 
it will procure warres, and the end therof is uncertain. 

III. It maye be dowted that when money spent is, and 
aide shall be given, the French maye compownd with the 
Scottes, and pardon that error, to jojn^e both in frarce 
ageynst England; which is more easy to be beleved, be- 
cause they had rather make a shamefull compontion with 
Scotland, than suffer it to be rejoyped and united to the 
crown of England. 

IV. It may be dowbted, that to staye the progress of re- 
ligion, ageynst the see of Rome, the emperor^ the king cs^ 
thoUcke, the pope, and the potentates in Italy, the duke of- 
Savoye, will rather conspyre with the French king, than to 
suffer th^s two monarchies to be joyned in one manner of 
religion. And in this part may be doubted that many, as^ 
well Scottes as English, that can lyke very well to have 
these two kingdomes perfectly knitt in amytye^ will not 
allowe them to be knitt in a lyke religion. 

That Yea. 

I. First, It is agreeable, both to the law of God and na- 
ture, that every prynce and publyck state shuld defend 
it self; not only from perrills presently sene, but from dan- 
gers that be probably sene to come shortly after. 

II. Secondly, Nature and reason teacheth every person^ 
politick or other, to use the same manner of defence that 
the adversary useth in offence. 

Uppon theis two prynciplees agreed will evidently follow, 
that England both maye and ought to ayde Scotland 
to kepe owt the Frenche. 

1. First, The crowne of England hath a good title to the 


PART superiorety of Scotland ; and owght to defend the Ubertyes 
^^^' thereof, as tbemperor is bound to defend the state of Mil- 
lane, or of Boheme, being held of the empyre. And to 
prove this superiorety, remayne undowted prooffes under 
seale, of sondry homagees done to this crowne by the kings 
of Scotland successy vely, of their accesses to the parlements 
of England, of the episcopall jurisdiction of the see of York 
over Scotland: in consideration wherof, if it may appere 
that the French meane to subdue Scotland, and so to exempt 
that realme from the amytye of England, it semeth that 
England b of duety, and in honour bound to preserve the 
realme of Scotland from such an absolute dominion of the 

2. Item J Beside this interest that England hath in the 

crowne of Scotland, for the quiet possession, wheras France 

• A word hath onely by there warres kept the realme of England*. 

iT"^ rohi-^^ is most manifest that France cannot any wise so redely, 

Mj, m d!0i. so puissantly, so easely o£Pend^ yea, invade and put the 

^^' crown of England in daunger, as if they may recover an 

absolute authorite over Scotland : and before that be proved, 

it semeth not out of order, though not very nedefull to make 

manifest that the French ar to be taken as enemyes in wiU, 

though not in manifest words. 

How long time they have bene enemyes to England, how 
brickie, how false, how double ther pacts of peace have 
bene, the storyes be witnesses theis seven hondred yeres. 
Was there ever king of England, with whom they have not 
made warres ? And now of late, uppon what occasion they 
made peace with England is too manifest. It was by rea- 
son of wearyness and poverty e, which was such, as the late 
French king forboare not to expresse in his letters to the 
queen of England, mentioning the invasions made in Bryt- 
taine by sea. And indede this is to be received as a principle, 
that France cannot be poor above one or two yeres, nether 
can so long be out of wars. The revenues of the French 
crown are thyngs unknown : the insolency of the French na- 
tion, being in hope of victory, is not unknown. The long 

^, which now occupyeth tbe BOOK 
England hath been often well 

the matter ; it is manifest many 

kit that house hath made to bereave 

rhir crowne. In queen Mary's tyme, 

^t to divulge ther opinions agayiut this 

' queen's majesty ; and as it was well 

Umighty God favored the queen's majesty 

twne witli such univeraall joy of hirpeople, 

[ proclaimed thcr title both in France and 

the treaty of the peace at Chasteau in 
t appeared what they would have compassed, 
J'presaed the Rurgundians to conclude with them, 
Kpass the treaty with England ; alledg^g, that 
pd not tell how to treat with England, but to (he 
e of ther right ; the daiiphiness, his daughter, then 
j right to the crown of England. How bold they 
have been, if at that tyme she had been queen of 
«, and her husband king, as be now is ! For then the 
m of the consuble governed the rashness of the 

ice the peace concluded, whilest the French king lived, 
means they made at Rome to have made the queen's 
ty to be declared illegitimate, is manifest ; and so as it 
own that the same sentence is brought into France 
' the pope's bulls. Likewise, at the confirmation of die 
betwixt Spain and France, at the solemnities even 
the French king was slayne, it appereth what mani- 
ijurye and dishonour they did to the queen's majesty, 
ngn the arms of England and Ireland to the French 
I, and that in all their pageants ; and being admoni^ed 
}f by the ambassador, wold nether make cotlorable ex- 
nor leave it ; hut both continued therin, and also to 
ie the queen's majesty's ambassador, and ratification of 
eace with the stile. M. Meulas serv'd them with nlver 
I stamped with the same usurped armes. How lightly 


Part they have esteemed the queen^s majesty, in all this tyme ap- 
^^^' pereth : for here they be bound by treaty to deliver 4 host- 
ages, notwithstanding that they have been pressed therto, 
they have sent but three ; wherof one or two be such, as if 
they had not been here ; but whether the queen^s majestie 
had not su£Pered the dishonour, to have one of her subjects 
murdered, and no redress therof, but as it appered when 
they had committed the murder, they disdained, and quar- 
relled against such as did but seke. to understand the 

Now the very cause why they stay the prosecution hereof 
is this, their interruption and parboylls unlooked for in Soot- 
land, which doth so occupy them as they nether can ne dare 
to utter ther former maliciose purpose undll that be ended. 

But surely besid there old cankered malyce to this realm, 
this matter so inflameth the house of Guise, that they will 
not forbear one day longer than of mere necesttty they dhall 
be constreyned, to bord this realm urith that fayned tytle, 
and to avance the same. It is knowen that they have Beat 
a great scale into Scotland with the armes, and very stile and 
title of England and Ireland, and what more manefest argu- 
ments can be to shew what they mean and intend then these. 
In princes practices it is mere childeshness to tarry until the 
practices be set abrode, for then were it as good to tarry 
till the trumpet sound wars. All things have there causes 
precedeing before, but nothing hath his causes precedeing 
more secretly than the practices of princess ; and of all other 
none is so conning as the French. 

It foUoweth to be considered, that now the French have 
no convenient way to invade England but by Scotland ; by 
Carlisle they were accustomed, by sea is not so convenient 
for them, the same being too chargeable for them to assayle: 
wherefore if it be sene that they will persue their purpose 
and that by Scotland, then reason must force England to 
confess that to avoyde this danger so apparent, can no way 
be devised, but to help that the French have not such rule 
and overhand in Scotland as that they may by that realm 
invade England. 


Lastly, It is to be considered how dangerouse it it for BOOR 
England to be invaded by the way of Scotland. ^' 

First, If the French shall present to England a battle, 
either they will do it with strangers, or French and strangers : 
if they win, which God forbid, they put in hazard this 
crown. And though they lese, yet do they not put there 
own kingdom of France in danger. And therefore it is 
double the danger for England to ventar battle upon the 
fironUers of Englan(^ to a battle upon the marches of Calais 
or Bulloyness. 

A conclusion. 

It seemeth the weightiest matter to be oonflidered, that 
either hath or can chance to England, What is presently to 
be done for the aid of Scotland : for if it shuld be nedefull 
the delay will adventure the whole : and if loss come, it is 
unrecoverable. Wherefore it were good that the cause were 
well and secretly weighted : first, by discreet and wise men, 
that have experience, a£Pected to the English nation, special 
love to the queens majesties person ; and that done, to send 
by some colour for the nobilitie, and to consult with them, 
or ells to send some trusty persons with credit to understand 
their minds. 

Number 55. 

The Bond of Association^ with this title^ Ane Contract of 
the Lords and Barons, to defend the Liberty of the Evan- 
gell of Christ. 

C<ypiedjr(ym the original at Ha/miUon. 

At Edinburgh, the twintie seventh of Apryll, the year of 
God ane thousand fyve hundred threescore years: we 
whaes names are underwritten, haif promittit and obliedged 
our selves faithfully, in the presence of our God, and be thir 
presents promitts, that we altogether in general, and every 
one of us in special, be himself, with our bodies, goods, 
friends, and all that we may do, sail setforwart the reforma- 
tion of religion, according to Groddes worde ; and procure, 
be. all means possible, that the true preaching of Gkxldes 


PART word may haif free passage within this realme, with dew 
fldministratiop of the sacraments, and all thinges depend- 
ing upon the said worde. And sicklyke ddply weighing 
with our selves the misbehaviour of the Franche ministers 
heir, the intolerable oppressions committed be the Franch- 
men of weir, upon the puir subjects of this realme, be 
meyntenance of the queen dowriare, under coUour and 
pretence of authority; the tyranny of their captains and 
leaders, and manifest danger of conquest, in whilk this 
countrie presently stands; be reason of diverse fortifica- 
tions on the sea- coast, and other novelties of late attemptat 
be them; promitts that we sail als weell every one with 
others, as altogether with the queen of £ngland'*s armie, 
presently come in for our deliverance, effectually concurr 
and joyn together, taking one fold and plain part of the 
expulsion of the said strayngars, oppressors of our liberty, 
furth of this realme, and recovery of our ancient tree- 
domes and liberties ; to the end in tyme coming, we may, 
under the obedience of our king and queen our soverains, 
be only reulyt be the laws and customes of the coun- 
trie, and by the men of the land : and that never any 
of us all haiff pryvy intelligence, be writing, or mes- 
sage, or communication, with any of our said enemys or 
adversars in this cause, l>ot be the advyce of the rest, at 
leist of fy ve of our numbers : attour, that we sail tender 
this present cause, as if it were the cause of every one of 
us in particular ; and that the cause of every one of us now 
joyned together, being leiful and honest, shall be all our 
causes in general. And he that is enemy to the cause for- 
said, sail be enemy to us all : in so far, that whatsomever 
person will plsunly resist thir our godly interprysis, and ¥rill 
not concurr as ane guid member of this common weill ; we 
sail fortify the authority of the counsell, to reduce them to 
their deuty : lyke as we sail fortify the said authority of the 
counsale, in all things tending to the furtherance of the said 
cause. And ^ff any particular debate, quarrell or contra- 
versee saU aryse, for whatsomever cause, bygain, present or 
to come, betwixt any of us; (as God forbid) in that case. 


we sail submit our selves and our said questions to the BOOK 
decision of the counsale, or to arbitrators, to be named be 
them. Provyding all way es that this be not prejudicial to 
the ordinar jurisdiction of judges : but that men may persue 
their actions by ordour of law, civilly or criminally, befor 
the judges ordinars, gif they please. 

Number 56. 

A letter qfJewelTs to Peter Martyr, setting Jbrth the pro^ 
gress that superstition had made in queen Marjfs reign. 

JueUus ad Martyrem. 
S. P. 

Tandem tamen aliquando Londinum redii, confecto mo* Ex MSS. 
lestissimo itinere, confecto corpore. Tu fortasse me, qu6d ''^'' 
nihil scriberem, putabas esse mortuum. Ego ver6 interea 
tres totos menses lon^nqua, et perdifficili legatione distine- 
bar. Cum essem Bristolii, redditse mihi sunt literae tuae, 
quas secum Randolphus noster adduxerat : ita amic^ scriptae, 
itaq; suaves, ut mihi omnem illam molestiam itinerum, at- 
que occupationum prorsus exciperent ex animo. Tanquam 
enim si prsesens adfuisses, ita turn mihi videbar tecum col- 
loqui. Randolphus, antequam ego rcdirem, abierat in Gal* 
lias : itaque ego miser, privatus sum bona parte suavitatis 
tuse, quam tu illi praesens prsesenti verbis commendaveras. 
literas meas in itinere intercidisse, video : quas enim ego 
octavas dederam, cas video ad te vix quintas pervcnisse. 
Sed de legatione, inquies, ilia vestra quid tandem factum 
est ? Accipe ergo uno verbo, quod mihi exploratu perlon- 
gum fuit. Invenimus ubique animos multitudinis satis pro- 
pensos ad religionem ; ibi etiam, ubi omnia putabantur fore 
diflicillima. Incredibile tamen dictu est, in illis tenebris 
Mariani temporis, quanta ubique proruperit seges, et sylva 
superstitionum. Invenimus passim votivas reliquias super- 
stitiosas divorum, clavos, quibus fatui Christum confixum 
fuisse somniabant; et, nescio quas, portiunculas sacrae crucis. 
Magarum et veneficarum numerus ubique in immensum 


PAKT excreverat. Ecdedse cathedrales nihil aliud enmt, quam 


gpeluncg Utronum, aut si quid nequiut, aut fcBdius did 
potest Si quid erat obstinatie maliUae, id totum erat in 
presbyteris, illis prsesertim, qui aliquando stetissent k nostn 
sententia. Illi nunc, credo, ne panim considerate Tideantur 
mut&sse voluntatem, turbant omnia: sed turbent, quantum 
velint. Nos tamen interim, illos de gradu, et de sacerdotiis 
exturbavimus. Hardingus, homo constans, locum mutare 
maluit, qukm sententiam. Sidallus subscripsit quidem, sed 
constanter; hoc est, perinvitus. Smithaeus autem tuus; 
quid ille ? inquies. An potest k Nazareth quicquam pro- 
ficisci boni ? Mihi crede, ut veterem illam suam constantiam 
retineret, nunc tandem etiam quinto recantavit. Fatuus, 
cum videret religionem esse immutatam, mutata veste, sta- 
tim fugam omaverat in Scotiam. Sed cum haereret in fini- 
bus, captus est, et retractus ex itinere. Ibi statim homo 
gravis, et columen atque antistes reli^onis, aocessit ad nos, 
reliquit omnes suos, et repente factus est adTersarius in* 
festissimus papistarum. I nunc, et nega transubstantiatio- 
nem. Pajnstarum acies pen6 sua sponte cecidennit. 0, 
nisi nobis deesset operas, non mal^ de religione sperari pos- 
set. Difficile enim est currum agere sine jumento, pneser- 
tim adverso monte. Heri, ubi primum Londinum redii, 
audivi ex episcopo Cantuariensi, te invitari ad nos, et tibi 
lectionem illam tuam veterem asservari. Quid sit, nesdo : 
hoc tantum possum affirmare, neminem adhuc delectum 
esse, qui Oxonii doceat sacras literas. Equidem te, mi 
pater, videre percupio, et prsesertim in Anglia. Quid enim 
ni cupiam, quem toties cupio etiam nunc videre Tiguri ? Sed 
novi tuam prudentiam : ndsti genium, et ingenium insula- 
rum. Ea, qua? nunc videmus, esse inchoata, utinam sint 
boni principia. Nihil est hodie illft schola desperatius. 
Putabis te, cum ibi esses, pen6 lusisse operam : ita in laetis- 
sima aliquando scgite, nunc infaelix lollium, et steriles domi- 
nantur avenae. Liber tuus de votis, ut alia tua omnia, avi- 
dissime distrahitur. Omnes nunc expectamus, qu^m mox 
editurus sis alias commentationes in librum Judicum, et in 
duos libros Samuelis. Omnes enim nunc nostri sciunt, te 


illos libros habere prse manibus, et velle edere. Suecus, et BOOK 
Carolus Ferdinand! F. mirificissim^ ambiunt. Sed Suecus 
impense : ille enim, modo impetret^ montes argenteos poUi- 
cetur. Sed ilia fortasse thalamos propiores cogitat. Alanus 
noster obiit diem suum, postquam designatus esset episcopus 
RoflPenais. Ex Scotift hoc tempore nihil audimus, quod tibi 
possit yidere novum. Docetur evangelium^ eoclesiae assidu^ 
coUiguntur, et omnia priscae superstitionis monumenta con- 
velluntur. Galli tamen sperant, se posse et regnum, et reli- 
gionem retinere. Quicquid futurum est^ scribam ad te ali^ 
[Juribus. Instat nunc annus sexagesimus, de quo mihi tu 
golebas aliquando ex Torquato quodam Stato, nescio quae^ 
mirifica praedicare. Faxit Deus, ut verum et solidum gau* 
dium gaudeamus, ut aliquando orbi terrarum patefiat 6 mu 
6pMwo$ T^ airoXelaSf et in omnium oculos incurrat evangelii 
Jesu Christ! Veritas. Vale^ mi pater, et uxorem tuam m&s 
Verbis resaluta, mulierem mihi quidem ignotam, sed nunc 
ex tuis Uteris^ et Abeli nostri prsedicatione, notissimam. 
Gratulor et te illi, et illam tibi. 

Saluta D. Bullingerum, D. Gualterum, D. Bemardinum, 
D. Hermannum, Julium, Juliam, Martyrillum. Frensha^ 
mum meum longum valere jubeo. Puto enim ilium jam 
solvisse k vobis, et esse cum Christo. Omnes nostri te salu* 
tant, tibique omnia precantur. Londini, 2 Novembr. 1559- 

TuuB ex animo, 

Jo. Juellus. 

D. Etonus instantissim^ rogavit, ut te suo nomine saluta- 
rem. Si posset ipse Latin^ scribere, non uteretur manu 
mea. Crede mihi, nemo de te aut saepius aut honori- 
ficentius loquitur. Uxor etiam ejus salutem, et tibi 
dicit, et uxori tuae. 


DocHssimo atque omatisrimo viroj 
D. Petro Mcirit/rif prqfitenii set- 
eras scripturas in ecclesta Tigu- 

VOL. III. p. 8. c c 


'ART Number 67. 

'A letter of JeweW 8 to Peter Martyr^ concerning the eameMt" 
nees of gome about vestments and rituals. 

Idem ad eundem. 

BiDUo, postquam ex longo et perdifBdli itinere rediissem, 
et lassus de via, atq; anhelans, nesdo quid, ad te scripsiB- 
aem, redditse mihi sunt k te litene terne eodem tempore: 
quarum suavissimft lectione ita sum exhilaratus, ut omnem 
illam superiorum dierum molestiam prorsus abjecenm ex 
animo. Etsi enim quoties de te oogito, quod ceitd asodu^ 
et in singulas boras facio, et nisi facerem, ingratus eaaem, 
ipsa cogitatione, et memorift tui nominis perfundcn: gaudio^ 
tamen cum literas tuas ad me scriptas lego videor mihi ease 
Tiguri, et te videre coram, et tecum amsenissimd colloqui: 
quod equidero, mihi crede, pluris sestimo, quam omnes opes 
episcoporum. De religione quod scribis, et veste scenica, 
6 utinam id impetrari potuisset. Nos quidem tarn bons 
causae non defuimus. Sed iUi, quibus ista tantoper^ jda- 
cuerunt, credo, sequuti sunt insdtiam presbyterorum : quos, 
quoniam nihil aliud videbant esse, quam stijntes, sine in- 
genio, sine doctrina, sine moribus, veste saltem comica vo- 
lebant populo commendari. Nam ut aJantur bona? liters, 
et surrogetur segcs aliqua doctorum hominum, nulla, 6 
Deus bone, nulla hoc tempore cura suscipitur. Itaque quo* 
niam vera via non possunt, istis ludicris ineptiis teneri 
volunt oculos multitudinis. Sunt quidem istse, ut tu optime 
scribis reliquiae Amorehseorum. Qui senim id neget? Atque 
utinam aliquando ab imis radicibus auferri et extirpari pos- 
sint, nostras quidam nee vices ad eam rem, nee voces de- 
erunt. Quod scribis esse quosdam, qui nullam adhuc sig- 
nificationem dederint suae erga te voluntatis, subolfado 
equidem quos dicas. Sed, mihi crede, non sunt eo numero, 
aut loco, quo tu fortasse putas, quoque omnis Israel illos 
sperabat fore. Nam si essent. Non scripserunt hactenus 
ad te, non quod noluerint, aut tui obliti fuerint, sed qu6d 
puduerit scribere, nunc uterque laborat gravissim^ ^ quar- 
tana, sed apx^iMLyeiposj quoniam est natui*& tristiori, multd 


Eiviut. IngemuisU, pro tua erga oommunem causam pie- BOOK 
;e, cum audires nihil prospectum esse cuiquam nostrum. . 
jnc ergo rursus ingeme. Nam ne adhuc quidem quic- 
am. Tantum circumferimus inanes titulos episcoporum, 
k Scoto, et Thoma defecimus ad Occamistas et Nominates, 
d, ut scis, magna sunt momenta regnorum. Regina ipsa 
causae favet, et nobis cupit. Quamobrem^ etsi saUs dura 
at ista initia, tamen non abjicimus animos, nee desinimus 
srare Isetiora. Facile intereunt, quas fadl^ maturitatem 
lequuntur. De libro tuo, memini me^ antequam disce- 
rem Londino, ad te scripsisse pluribus. Sed ills literse, 
tasse, ut fit, periere in itinere. Hoc etiam adscripsi, re- 
lam ultr6 et cupid^ legisse, epistolam, et apud ipsam, 
]ue in universum doctrinam, atque ingenium tuum miri- 
h prsedicasse : librumque ilium tuum ab omnibus bonis 
iti fieri, quanti baud scioan aliud quicquam in hoc genere. 
bil autem tibi hactenus donatum esse^ hd mihi, quod ego 
aun? pudet me, nee scio, quid respondeam. Tamen regina 
luld sciscitata est nuntium, quid ageres, ubi viyeres, qui 
letudine, quft conditione esses, an posses per astatem iter 
sere. Omnind velle se omnibus modis te in vitari in Angliam, 
» qui tua voce coluisses academiam, eandem nunc dissipa- 
n, et miser^ habitam eadem voce irrigares. Postea tamen^ 
scio quo pacto, deliberationes Saxonicae, et legationes 
gulianas ista consilia peremerunt. Tamen quidquid est, 
lil est hoc tempore celebrius, quam Petrum Martyrem 
atari, et propediem venturum esse in Angliam. 6 utinam 
( nostras aliquando stabilitatem aliquam, et robur asse- 
antur. Cupio enim, mi pater, te videre, et suavissimis 
monibus, et amicissimis consiliis tuis frui. Quem ego 
^m si videro, vel potius, uti spero, ubi videro quas Sama- 
3rinas, aut Sarisburias non contemnam ? Vale dulce decus 
!um, atque animi plusquam dimidium mei. Saluta uxo- 
n tuam optimam mulierem meo nomine. Deus fEucit, ut 
liciter pariat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem. Sa- 
£L D. Bullingerum, D. Gualterum, D. Lavaterum, D. 
nlerum, D. Gesnerum, D. Frisium, Julium, Juliam, et 



ART Martyrillum, D. Hermanum tuum, meumque. Nostriooinei 
^^^' te salutant Londini 6 Novemb. 1559. 

Tuus ex animo quantus quantus, 

Jo. Judliii. 
Doctissimo atque ortuitissifnoviroy 
D. Petro Marh/rifprqfitenti sa- 
eras liieras in schola Tigurind 
domino sue coUndissimo. 


Number 58. 
A letter of JewtWs to Peter Martyr^JuU of apprehenriom. 

Ejtisdem adeundem. 
S. P. 

Etsi ante non ita multos dies ad te scripeerim, et hoc 
tempore nihil hie sit, quod tu magnopere scire velisj tameiii 
quoniam te ita velle non dubito, illud ipsum, nihil malo 
scribere, quam istum nuntium, quern fort^ audieram velle 
Coloniam proticisci, inanem a mc dimittere. Religio apud 
nos eo loco est, quo jam antea ad te scripsi saepius. Omnia 
docentur ubique purissim^. In ceremoniis et larvis passim 
plusculum ineptitur. Crucula ilia argenteola mal^ nata, 
mal^ auspicata, adhuc stat in larario prindpis. Me mise- 
rum : res ea facile trahetur in exemplum. Spes erat ali- 
quando tandem ereptum iri. Idque ut fieret, nos omnes 
dedimus diligenter, et adhuc damus operam. Sed jam 
quantum video conclamatum est. Ita prorsus ob6rmtti 
sunt animi. Nimis prudenter ista mihi videntur geri, ni- 
misq; mystic^. Et quo tandem res nostrse casurae sint, 
Deus viderit Twroi fipa^irohi morantur cumim. Csecilius 
causse nostrse impense favit. Episcofu adhuc deaignati tan- 
tiim sunt: interim prsedia pulchr^ augent fiscum. Aca- 
demia utraque, et ca praesertim, quam tu non ita pridem 
doctissim^ atq; optime coluisti, miserrim^ nunc disjecta 


jacet, sine pietate, sine religione, sine doctore, sine spe ulla BOOK 
literarum. Multi de te oogitant primarii, et tibi non ignoti ^^' 
▼in, et te primo quoque tempore, vel invitis omnibus Segu- 
leiis, accersitum cupiunt. Ego yero, qui tibi, si quis alius 
mortalium, et animo, atq; unic^ cupio, author sum, ut si 
▼oceris, quod tamen inter ista anna futurum vix puto^ 
tamen ne quid prsecipites. Novi ego prudentiam tuam : et 
tu vicissim, spero, observantiam erga te meam. Equidem 
hoc possum ver^ affirmare, neminem esse hominem, cui 
conspectus tuus jucundior futurus sit, quam mihi. Tamen, 
ut sunt res nostrse fluxae, incertae, instabiles, utque uno 
▼erbo dicam, insulares, magis te salvum audire absentem 
cupio, qu^ prsesentem videre cum periculo. Sed ista 
pariim opportune. Litems enim silere sequum est inter arma. 
Nos terra mariq; juvamus vicinum Scotum. N6sti enim. 
Turn tua res a^tur paries cum proximus ardet. Galium 
adventurum munt cum omnibus copiis. Et fortass^ non 
minoribus excipietur. Londini 16 Novemb. 1559. 

Jo. Juellus, 
Istae sunt nonsd. Totus tuus. 


Omaiissimo et longi doctissimo viro^ 
2>. Petro Martyriy prqfitenti sa- 
cras scripturas in schola Tigurma, 
domino siu) cokndissimo. 


Number 59* 
The queen^s letter to the emperor ^ concerning her aversion 

to marriage. An original. 

Nos, in ipsius animi nostii sensus diligenter inquirendo^ Paper- 
non invenimus in nobis voluntatem ullam deserendi banc ^' 
solitariam vitam, sed potius, juvante Deo, libentem animi 
inductionem in eadem diutius porro vita perseverandi : nos 
cert^ necessario ad eam ipsam causam eo in his literis ute- 
mur sermone, qui cum corde nostro omnino consentiat, 
quem ut amanter acdjnet, et benevole interpretetur vestra 

c c3 


PART majestas, admodum rogamus. In quo oostio senncnie, n 
novum aliquid inesse videatur, quod facile potest aocideie, 
81 etas nostra cum reliquis oonditionis nostras ratkmibus oon- 
sideretur. Nullum tamen nos novum hoc tempore, aut sub- 
itum consilium suscipere, sed vetus p>tius retinere videri 
jure debemus ; cum tempus quidem fuit, quo tempore ooq- 
sensisse ad pra^lara sane et honorata connubia eripere nos 
potuisset, 6 certis quibusdam magnis maeroribus et periculis: 
de quibus rebus non amplius dicemus ; nos tamen nee dis- 
criminis mala, nee libertatis cupiditate moveri potuimus, ut 
animi nostri voluntatem uUo modo ad eam rem adduoere- 
mus. Itaque baud voluimus, vel aperte recusando videri, 
vestram majestatem ofiendere, vel contra, occaaonem dando 
id verbis concedere, quod mente et voluntate non institui- 

5 Januarii, 1559* 

Vestne majestatis bcma soror 
et consanguinea, 

R. Ascamus. 

Number 60. 

A letter of bishop JeweWs to Peter Martyr^ concerning the 

cross in the queerCs chapel. 

Ejtisdem ad eundem. 

S. P. 

O MI pater, quid ego adscribam P rei non multikm est, 

temporis ver6 multo minus; sed quoniam te scio delectari 

brevitate, te authore scribam brevius. Nunc ardet lis ilia 

crucularia. Vix credas in re fatua quantum homines, qui 

sapere aliquid videbantur, insaniunt. Ex illis, quos quidem 

tu noris, praeter Coxum, nullus est. Crastino die instituetur 

de ea re disputatio. Arbitri erunt ^ senatu selecti quidam 

viri. Actores inde Cantuariensis et Coxus : hinc Grindallus 

Londinensis episcopus, et ego. Eventus l» xpnaov youvaai 

xplrm. Rideo tamen, cum cogito, quibus illi, et quam gra- 

vibus, ac solidis rationibus defensuri sint suam cniculam. 

Sed quicquid erit, scribam posthac pluribus. Nunc enim 


sub judice lis est; tamen quantum auguror, non scribam BOOK 
posthac ad te episcopus. E6 enim jam res pervenit, ut aut ' 

cruces argentese et stannese, quas nos ubique oonfregimus, 
restituendae sint, aut episcopatus relinquendL 

Sed quid ago ? destituor tempore, et obruor negotiis, et> 
invitus cogor finem facere. Tamen hoc scire debes, Vitum, 
amicum tuum summum, et popularem episcopum Vinto- 
niensem, et Oglethorpum Carliolensem, et Bainum Litchfil- 
densem, et Tonstallum Satumum Dunelmensem, ante ali- 
quot dies esse mortuos. Samsonus run agit long^ gentium ; 
Parkurstus in regno suo. Itaque minim videri non debet, 
si ad vos scribant infrequentius. 

Saluta, quaeso, reverendissimum patrem D. Bullingerum, 
D. Bemardinum, D.Wolphium, D. Hermannum, et Julium : 
ad quos ego omnes libenter scriberem hoc tempore, A esset 
otium. Saluta optimam illam mulierem, uxorem tuam, et 
Annam, et Martyrillum tuum. Etonus, Etona, Abelus, 
Abela, Grindallus, Sandus, Scoraeus, Falconerus, Elmenus, 
te salutant, et cilm tibi omnia cupiunt, nihil magis cupiunt, 
quam Angliam. Quanquam, ut adhuc sunt res nostrse crede 
mihi, pulchrum est esse Tiguri. Ben^ vale^ mi pater, ben^ 
vale. Londini, 4 Februarii 1560. 

Tibi deditissimus, 

Jo. Juellus tuus. 
Doctissimo viro D. Petro Martyrt^ 
Vermilio^ prqfitenti sacras literas 
in schola Tigurina^ domino suo 


Number 61. 

A letter of bishop Sands y expressing the uneasiness he was 

in by reason of the idol in thequeerCs chapel, 

Edwinus Wigornensis ad Martyr enu 

Salutem in Christo. 
Quod nullas tarn diu, vir reverende, literas ad te dederim, Ex MSS. 

c c 4 '^^«"- 


ART BOQ officii quidem erga te md obHuia, aut quid tua de ne 

^^^ mereatur humanitas leviter perpendens, id feci, sed nego* 

tiorum muldtudine obrutus, scrib^idi muniu pro tempore 

invitus intermit, quod cum tabellarii jam sese offiert cqppor* 

tunitas, diutius differendum non oenaeo* Sub Augusti im- 

tium, cum literas ad te dedissem, in partes Angliae boraakii 

ad abusus ecde^ tollaidas, et ritUB pietati et vene religioDi 

consonantes, eidem restituendoB, tanquam iufpector et ▼!»- 

tator, ut vocant, cum prindpis mandaito dimissus ; et illic 

ad Novembris usque initium, asadu^ in obeundo quod mihi 

creditum erat munere, non sine maximis cum ooqpons turn 

animi laboribus versatus, Londinum tandem rediL Ubi 

novae rursus curse adveoientem acceperunt, majorque nq^o- 

tiorum moles humeros premebat : opera enim mea in epiaoo- 

paMi Wigorniensi administrando k prindpe requirdiatur, tan- 

demque reluctanti, episoopi munus imponitur. Volui qui* 

dem ut antea Carliolensem, ad quern nominatus eram, hunc 

etiam episcopatum omnino recusare ; at id non licuit, nid et 

principis indignationem mihi procurare, et Christi eockaiam 

quodammodo deserere voluissem. Sub hac, literas tuas, 

omni humanitate plenissimas, Burcherus mihi tradidit ; qui- 

busy per eundem, quum hinc discederet, respondere distuli; 

partim, quod res Anglicic turn temporis non ita mutatse, sed 

in eodem quasi gradu consistentes^ exiguam scribendi mate- 

riam suppeditabant ; partim vero, quod novum illud onus 

(sic enim verius quam honos dici potest) novis curis et nego- 

tiis me mirum in modum distrahebat. En diutumi silentii 

mei causam habes, vir plurimiim observande. Eucharistis 

doctrina hactenus Dei beneficio non impugnata, nobis salva 

et incolumis manet, mansuramq; speramus. Pro viribus 

enim et ipse, et alii fratres coepiscopi, illam quoad vixerimus, 

Deo juvante tuebimur. De imaginibus, jampridem nonniliil 

erat controversiae. R. majestas, non alienum esse k verbo 

Dei, imm6 in commodum ecclesias fore putabat, si imago 

Christi crucifixi, un& cum Maria et Joanne, ut tales, in cele- 

briori ecclesiae loco poneretur, ubi ab omni populo facillim^ 

conspiceretur. Quidem ex nobis long^ aliter judicabant ; 

praeiertim cum omnes omnia generis imagines, in pfoxima 


D06tra visitatuHie, idque publica authoritate, non solum sub- BOOR 
lata?, verumetiam combuste erant: cumque huk idolo, pna 
csBterifl, ab ignara et superstitiosa plebe adoratio soleC adhi- 
beii. Ego, quia vehementior eram in ista re, nee ullo modo 
consentire poteram, ut lapsus occasio ecclesise Christi dare- 
tur; non multum aberat, quin et ab offido amoverer, et 
principis indignationem incurrerem. At Deus, in cujus 
manu corda sunt regum, pro tempestate tranquillitatem de- 
dit, et eccleuam Anglicanam ab hujusmodi offendiculis libe- 
ravit : tantum manent in ecclesia nostra vestimenta ilia pa- 
pistica, capas intellige, quas diu non duraturas speramus. 
Quantum, ex eo quod te tuaque prsesentia jam destituitur, 
Anglia detrimenti capiat, hie ecclesise et religionis negotium, 
diligenter et saepissime apud eos, quibus reipublicse cura im- 
minet, commemorare soleo. Nescio tamen quomodo animis 
eorum^ in alias res gravissimas intentis, nihil hactenus de te 
accersendo statutum video. Semel sat scio recuse in animo 
fuit, ut te vocaret : quid verd impedivit, puto te facile ex te 
colligere posse. Causa Christi multos semper habet adver- 
sarios; et qui optimi sunt, pessim^ semper audiunt. Sa- 
cramentum illud unitatis, magnas facit hodie divisiones. 
Novum tibi conjugium gratulor : precor ut fa^lix faustumque 
sit; queroadmodum et mihi ipsi opto, qui eam conjugii 
legem nuper subii. Mirus hie belli apparatus est, partim 
ad propulsandam Gallorum vim, si fort^ dum Scotiam sibi 
subjugare oonentur, nostras fines invaserint, partim ad auxi* 
lium Scotis contra Gallos ferendum, sicubi pacis foedus no* 
biscum initum violaverint Galli. Det Deus, ut omnia in 
nominis sui gloriam, et evangelii propagationem cedant. 
Hxc priusquam me Wigorniam recipiam, quo brevi profec- 
turum me spero, literis tibi significanda duxi. Fusius ver5 
scripsissem, nisi quod sciam fratrem nostrum Juellum, epi- 
scopum Sarisburiensem, saepe et diligenter de rebus nostris 
omnibus te certiorem facturum. Si qua in re tibi gratificari 
queam^ crede mihi, mi honorande Petre, me semper uteris 
quoad vixero ; imm6 etiam post vitam, si fieri potest, pro 
wbitratu tuo. 
Saluta quseso plurimum meo nomine^ clari s simum virum 


'ART D. BulUngerum. Debeo ipsi literas, 11116 omnia ipn debeo; 

^*^' et tantum solvam quantum posum, si quando offerat sese 
oocasio. Saluta uxorem tuam, Juliiim cum Julia, D. Her- 
mannum, Paulum et Martyrillum meum ; quibus omnibus 
omnia fselicia precor. Vale, humanis»me, doctissime, ac 00- 
lendissime D. Petre. Londini, festinanter, Aprilis primo 

Tuus ex animo, 

Edwinus Wigomenaa 
Clarissimo ac docHssimo mro^ 
D. doctori Petro Martyriy 
domino suo plurimim co^ 
lendo. Tiguri. 

Number 6S* 

A letter of Dr. Sampson^s to Peter Martyr^ settingjbrik his 
recuons of not accepting a bishoprick. 

Idem ad eundem. 

Argent. Dec. 17. 

Ego te per Christum rogo, mi pater optime, ne graveris 

mihi qu^m citissim^ respondere ad hsec pauca. Quomodo 

nobis agendum sit in titulo illo, vel concedendo, vel dene- 

gando. Supremum caput post Christum ecclesiae Angli- 

canae, &c. universa scriptura videtur hoc soli Christo tri- 

buere, ut caput ecclesise vocetur. Secund6, si regina me 

ad aliquod munus ecclesiasticum, dico, ad ecclesiam aliquam 

regendam vocaret; an salva conscientia recipere possum, 

quum hsec mihi videantur sufficere excusationis loco, ne in 

id consentirem. 1. Quod propter disciplines ecclesiastics 

defectum, episcopus, vel pastor, non possit suo fungi officio. 

2. Quod tot sint civilia gravamina, episcopatui, vel pastori 

imposita, ut puta, primorum (ut dicimus) frugum, i. e. redi- 

tuum primi anni, tum decimarum, ad hsec in episcopatibus 

tot et tanta, insumenda sunt in equis alendis, in armis, in au- 

licis, quae semper prsesto debent esse ; et ut tu nosti, ut quam 

minima pars episcopatuum relinquitur, ad necessaria epi- 


scopo munia obeunda, nempe ad doctos alendos, ad pau- BOOK 
peres pascendos, aliaque fadenda quae illius roimsterium ' 

reddant gratum. 8. Ut hoc ad episcopos pnedpui referatur, 
quod nunc scribo, tanta est in eorum electione degenerado 
k prim^ institutione, neque cleri enini, neque popuii con- 
sensus habetur^ tanta superstitiosi omatus episcopaHs vo- 
nitas, ne dicam indignitas, quanta vix puto bene ferri posmt, 
si modo omnia nobis facienda ad id quod expedit. Quod 
ad me attinet, non h«c scribo qua« talia sperarem j imm6 
Deum precor ex animo, ne unquam talia mihi contingant ^ 
onera ; sed k te fidissimo meo parente concdlium peto, quo 
possim instructior esse, si talia mihi obtingant. Ego sic 
responderem, Me quidem paratum esse in aliquo quocunque 
velit ilia, inservire concionandi munere, cseterum ecdesiam 
regendam me non posse suscipere, nin ipsa prius justa re- 
formatione ecclesiasticorum munerum, facta, ministris jus 
concedat omnia secundum verbum D&. administrandi, et 
quantum ad doctrinam, et quantum ad disciplinam, et 
quantum ad bona ecclenastica. Si autem quae sit ilia re- 
formatio, quam peto, interrogetur ; ex prioribus tribus arti- 
culis, poteris tu conjicere, quae ego petenda putem. Simpli- 
citer, mi pater, apud te solum depono cordis mei secreta ; 
teque per Christum rogo, ut mea secret6 apud te solum 
teneas, et mihi quam citissime rescribas, quid mihi hie fad- 
endum putes : adde etiam quae addenda putas, ut urgeatur 
ilia reformatio, et aliquid de ipsa reformatione. Literas tuas 
ad Hetonum mitte : ille curabit ad me transferri. Caeterum, 
te per Christum rogo, ut quanta poteris festinantia scribas. 
Ego brevi iturus sum versus Angliam. Habemus papistas, 
anabaptistas, et plurimos evangelicos adversarios, et doc- 
trinae et piae reformationi : contra hos, ut tueatur, gloriam 
Christi, promoveatque vexillum Christi, quis idoneus ? O mi 
pater, pro me roga Deum incessanter. 

Tuus totus, 

Th. Sampson* 

Clarissimo viro^ D. D, 

Petro Martyri. Tiguri. 


PART Number 68. 


"^ A second letter of SampsorCi^ expressing greai uneasimesi 
that matters were not carried on as he wished. 

Idem ad eundem. 

EzMSS. QuAs scripsisti literas quarto Novembris, aooepi teiio 
Januarii. Jam unum annum egi in Anglia, Don ita qm- 
etum ; vereor autem, ne. sequens annus plus molesdanim 
mihi pariat. Non tamen solus timeo mihi, sed omnes nobis 
timemus. Nee tamen audeo scriptis mandare, quas immi- 
nere nobis videntur mala. Vos ergo sanctissimi patres, te- 
que imprimis, D. Petre, pater et prseceptor charissime, per 
Jesum Christum obtestor, ut strenu6 Deum deprecari yelitis: 
hoc^ hoc, inquam, contendite, ne Veritas evangelii vel obfus- 
cetur, vel evertatur apud Anglos. Gratias tibi ago, suavis- 
sime pater, quod tarn sis diligens in scribendo. Satisfedsti 
tu, satisfecit et D. Bullingerus mihi, in qusestionibus; 
utrisque immortalis Deus noster rependat. Consecratio 
episcoporum aliquorum jam habita est : D. Parkerus Can- 
tuariensis, D. Cox Eliensis, D. Grindall Londinensis, D. 
Sands Vigorniensis, notos tibi nomino : unus alius, WaDus, 
etiam est episcopus, sed tibi ignotus. Sequentur brevi, D. 
Pylkyntonus Vintoniensis, D. Benthamus Coventrenns, et 
tuus Juellus Sarisburiensis, brevi, inquam, ut audio, sunt 
isti consecrandi, (ut nostro utar vocabulo.) Ego in limine faae«- 
reo,neque enim vel egressus, vel ingressus datur. O quam vel- 
lem egredi. Deus ipse novit, quam hoc aveam. Episoopi sint 
alii ; ego veUem aut concionatoris solius, aut nullius munus 
subire : Domini fiat voluntas. O mi pater, quid ego sperem, 
cum exulet ex aula verbi ministerium ; admittatur autem 
crucifixi imago, cum accensis luminaribus. Altaria quidem 
sunt diruta, et imagines per totum regnum. In sola auk, 
crucifixi imago cum candelis retinetur. Et miser popellus 
id non solum libenter audit, sed et sponte imitabitur. Quid 
ego sperem, ubi tres ex novitiis nostris episcopis, unus 
veluti saccr minister, secundus loco diaooni, tertius subdia^ 
coni loco, mensse Domini astabunt coram imagine crucifixi, 
vel cert^ non procul sito idolo, cum candelis, omati aureis 


vestibus papisticis, ncque sacram Domini ooenam porrige- BOOK 
bant, sine uUa concione P Quae spes boni, cum k multis istis ' 
idololatriae reliquiis religionem nostri petere volunt, et non 
k viva Dei voce sonante ? Quid sperem ego, cum conciona- 
turis injungi debeat, ne vitia asper^ tangantur ; cum oon- 
donatores, si quid dicant quod displiceat, non ferendi. pu- 
tantur. Sed quo me capit aestus iste ammi, nlendum est : 
▼ix capita nostra imminentis miserise teti^. Deus aeteme, 
nostri miserere, per Christum Deum et Salvatorem nostrum. 
Unicam banc k vobis qusestionem proponam solvendam: 
mi pater, te volo uti mediatore apud D. Bullingerum, et D. 
Bemardinum. Hfcc est: Num imago crucifixi, cum ac- 
censis candelis, in mensa Domini posita, num, inquam, sit 
inter adiaphora ponenda. Si non sit, sed pro re illidta et 
ne£Euria ducenda, tum hoc qusero, si princeps ita injungat 
omnibus episcopis et pastoribus, utvel admittant in suas ec- 
desias imaginem cum candelis, vel ministerio verbi cedant^ 
quid hie fadendum sit P Annon potius deferendum ministe- 
rium verbi et sacramentorum sit, quam ut hae reliquiae 
amorararum admittantur P Cert^ vident nonnulli ex nostris 
aliquo modo hue inclinare, ut haec pro adiaphoris accipi 
vellent. Ego omnino puto,' potius abdicandum ministeri- 
um, si modo id injungatur. Jam te rogo, mi pater, tuas hie 
partes unica vice age ; hoc est, ut qukm diligentissim^ et 
citissime me certiorem facias, quid vestra pietas hie censet, 
quseque sit omnium vestrum sententia tui inquam D. Bul- 
lingerum, et D. Bemardin. hujus authoritas, ut audio, max- 
ima est apud reginam. Quod vellet aliquando scribere, hor- 
tatum illam, ut strenu6 agat in Christi negotio : testor ex 
animo, quod cert^ scianK (fidenter dico) quod vere filia Dei 
sit. Opus tamen habet ejusmodi consiliariis qualis iile est : 
nam quod Augustinus Bonifacio dixit, id fer^ in omnibus 
principibus verum est; nempe, quod plures habeant qui 
corpori, paucos qui animae consulent. Quod autem ab illo 
contendo veliem, et k vobis petere si auderem. Ego tamen 
hac in re vestrae me subjicio prudentiae. Callet ut nosti lin- 
guam Italicam, Latin^ et Graced etiam ben^ docta est. In 
his linguis si aliud scribatur k vobis, vel k domino Bernardino, 


lRT ommno puto rem gratisfflmam vos facturos repte majestad, 
et operam navaturos eccleris Angticanae utilisaimam. Deus 
vos spiritu suo ducat in perpetuum. Ben& vale; et reacribe 
unica hac vice qukm poteris festinanter. Saluta meo nomine 
offidofiissim^ D. Bullingerum, tuamq; uxorem. Saluta Ju- 
lium. Quae jam scripsi, tantum apud D. BuUingerum et 
D. Bernardinum promas. Nollem enim ^o rumores spargi 
meo nomine. Im6 nee hoc vobis scriberem, nisi spenurem 
aliquid inde boni eventurum. Forsan vel scribetis (ut dizi) 
vel saltem bonum mihi dabitis consilium in proposita qus- 
stione. Agite vos pro vestra pia prudentia. Iterum valet 
Raptim, 6. Januar. 

Tuus ex animo. 

The SampeoD. 

Si quid scribatur regi majestati, vel ft te vel k domino 
Bernardino, vel D. Bullingero, non quasi vos ab alio indtati 
fuerids scribendum, ut vos melius nostris, be. Salutat te 
ex animo noster Chamberus. Mea uxor quartana vexatur. 
Giana bene valet. Puto etiam Hetonum cum sua bene va- 
lere. Rure ago inter rusticos, Christum pro meo modulo 
tractans. Tu pro me Deum roga. Literas tuas Sprengia- 
mus, vel Abelus ad me perferri curabit. 


Clarissimo tJieologo D. Petro Marty- 

ri, sacrarum literarum profess(yri 



Number 64. 

Archbishop ParJcer'*s letter to secretary Cecily pressing the 
fUing the sees of York and Dt^resme then vacant. 

An originai. 

r- ArxEE salutations in Christ to your honore, this shal be 

*• instantly to deare you to make request to the queen'^s ma- 
jestic, that some bishops myght be appoynted in the north : 
you wold not beleve me to tell howe often it is requyred at 


djTverse men'^s hands, an howe the peple there is offended BOOK 
that thei be nothing caryd for : alasse ther be peple rude of 
ther owne nature, and the more sad nede to be loked to, for 
reteyning those in quyet and cyvilitie. I feare that whatso- 
ever is nowe to husbondly saved, wil be an occasion of furder 
expence in keeping them down, yf (as God forfend) ther 
shuld be to much Iryshe and savage. Peradventure, Te- 
rence councelleth not a mysse, pecuniam in loco negSgere 
summum inter dum lucrum. I know the queen^s highnes 
disposition to be graciously bent to have her peple to know 
and fear God ; why shuld other hynder her good zeale for 
mony sake as yt is most commonly judged. If such as have 
ben named to Yorke and Duresme, be not acceptable, or of 
theroselfes not inclyned to be bestowed ther, I wold wishe 
that some such as be placed already, wer translated thither. 
And in myn opynion, yf you wold have a lau^er at Yorke, 
the bishop of St. David^s, Dr. Yonge, is both wytty, pru- 
dent, and temperate, and man like. 

The bishop of Rochester were well bestowed at Durisme 
nye to his own contrye, wher tho ther ii bishopryks might 
be more easily provided for, and lesse inconvenience, though 
they for a tyme stood voyde : and if to the deanry of Du- 
risme, to joyne with him wer Mr. Skynner apoynted, whom 
I esteem learned, wise, and expert. I think you cowd not 
better place them ; nowe yf eyther of them, or any of us all 
shall be feared to hurt the state of our churches, by exercis- 
ing any extraordinarye practising, for packing and purchas- 
ing; this feare myght sure be prevented. We have olde 
presidents in lawe practised in tymes past, for such parties 
suspected to be bownd at their entrye to leave ther churches 
in no worse case by ther defauts then thei fownd them, and 
then what wold you have more of us. I have a fortyme 
weryed you in this sute, and yet I see these strange delayes 
determyned. I shal not cease to trouble you therin : if ye 
here me not for justyce sake, for the Zeale ye must beare to 
Christes deare soulys, importunyte shall wynne one day I 
dout not : for I see y t hath obtained even a Judicibus ini- 
quia quarto magis a misericordibus :. thus concluding, I 


PART shaU offer m J prayer to God that ye may fynd grace in yoor 
soUicitations to the queen'^s majestie for the comfort of her 
peple, and discharge of her own soule. At Lambeth this 
16th of October. 

Your to my utteimost power, 

Mathew Cantuar. 

Number 65. 

A letter of bishop JeweWs to Peter Martyr j concerning the 
council ofTrent^ the lord Darhfs gwng to Scotland^ with 
an account of his mother. 

Idem adeundem. 

Salutbm plur. in Christo. Gratiaaimie mihi fuerunt li- 
teral tuae, mi pater, non aolum quod essent k te, cujus omnia 
mihi debent ease, ut sunt gratissima, verumetiam quod 
omnem atatum renascentia in Gallia religionia luculentiasiiiii 
describerent : qu6dq; ego me, cum eas l^erem, et te ita 
prop^ abeaae acirem, propiua etiam aUquant6 te audire^ et 
propius tecum coUoqui arbitrarer. Nam quamvia res GraL 
licae ad noa rumoribus, ut fit, et nuntiia adferebantur, tamen 
et certiores, et mult6 etiam jucundiores visas aunt, quod k te 
acriberentur, ab illo praesertim, quem ego scirem parton il- 
larum fuisse maximara. Quod scribis, illos, qui rerum po- 
tiuntur, omnino velle mutationem in reli^one aliquam fieri, 
non tam studio et amore pietatis, qu^m qu6d papistarum 
ineptias videant nimis esse ridiculas, quodq; non putent po- 
pulum aliter posse in officio contineri ; quicquid est, qua- 
cunq; causa ista fiant, modo praedicatur Christus, tin wgofa- 
<ru, ein aXijts/a, xo) Iv tovtco ^atptOj aXXa xa) ^ap^cof/Lcu, Ta- 
men fieri non potest, quin disputatio ilia vestra multum et 
evangelium promoverit, et adversarios adflixerit. Quod au- 
tem scribis, interim quoddam k quibusdam, et farra^nem 
religionis quseri, Deus id avertat: scio omnes in republ. 
magnas mutationes odiosas et graves esse : et multa saep^ k 
principibus, teroporis caus&, tollerari. Atq; illud fortasse 
ab initio non fuit incommodum. Nunc vero, postquam em- 
pit lux omnis evangelii, quantum quidem fieri potest, vesti- 


gia ipsa erroris una cum ruderibus, utq; aiunt, cum pulvi»- BOOK 
culo auferenda sunt. Quod utinam nos in ista AiyoaroXiae, 
obtinere potuissemus : nam in dogmatis prorsus omnia ad 
yivum resecavimus, et ne unguem quidem latum absumus k 
doctrina vestra. De ubiquitate enim nihil est periculi. Iln 
tantum audiri ista possunt, ubi saxa sapiunt. 

Apud nos, de religione omnia sunt pacata. Episcopi Ma- 
liani servant Turrim, et antiquum obtinent. Quod si leges 
aeque nunc vigerent, atq; olim, sub Henrico, facile succum-* 
berent. Est genus hominum contumax et indomitum : ferro 
tamen et metu'vincitur. Edidimus nuper apologiam de mu- 
tata religione, et discessione ab ecclesia Romana. Eum ego 
librum, etsi dignus non est qui mittatur tam procul, tamen 
ad te mitto. Est multis in locis vitiosus, qualia sunt ea fer^ 
omnia, quae apud nos excuduntur ; tanta est typographorum 
nostrorum negligentia. Regina nostra prorsus decrevit, 
nolle mittere ad consilium : quod, an uilum, aut uspiam sit, 
nos nescimus. Cert^ si uspiam, aut ullum est, perarcanum, 
et vald^ obscurum est. Nos nunc cogitamus publicare cau- 
ses, quibus inducti ad concilium non veniamus. Ego qui- 
dem sic statuo et sentio, istis congressionibus et coUoquiis, 
nihil posse promoveri hoc tempore, uec Deum velle uti istis 
mcdiis, ad propagandum evangelium. Regina nostra, magno 
nostro cum dolore, innupta manet ; neq; adhuc quid velit 
sciri potest. Tametsi, qu6 suspiciones nostrse inclinent, sa- 
tis te jamdudum scire arbitror. Suecus diutumus procus, et 
valde assiduus, nuper admodum dimissus est. Ille, accept^ 
repulsll, minatur, quantum audio, in Scotiam : ut, cum apud 
nos hserere non possit, saltern possit in vicinia. Est muUer 
qusedam nobilis, domina Margareta, neptis Henrici Octavi, 
raulier supra modum infensa religion!, supra etiam rabiem 
Marianam. Ad ejus filium, juvenem, pliis miniis octodecim 
annos natum, summa rerum judicatur spectare, si quid Eli- 
sabetha;, quod nolimus, quodque Deus avertat, accidat. 
Ejus mulieris maritus, Leonesius Scotus, proximis istis di- 
ebus conjectus est in turrim. Filium, aiunt, vel ablegatum 
esse k matre, vel profugisse in Scotiam. De eo, ut solet fieri, 
sermo est multiplex. Regina Scotiae, ut scis, innupta est: 

VOL. 111. p. 8. D d 


PART potest inter illos convenire aliquid de nuptiis. Quicquid 
est, credibile est, papistas aliquid moliri: sperant enim ad- 
hue, nescio quid, non miniis qu^m Judsei Messiam suum. 
Nuntius pontificis hseret adhiic in Flandria : nondum enim 
impetrare potest fidem publicam, ut tut6 veniat in Angliam. 
Episcopus Aquitanus, legatus Philippi, astutus, et callidus 
veterator, et factus ad insidias, satagit quantum potest, ejus 
causa; saltern, ut audiatur; ne tarn procul frustri venerit. 
Sperat enim uno colloquio aliquid, nescio quid, posse fieri. 
Est puella qusedam nobilis, domina Catherina, duds Suffbl- 
chiensis filia, ex sanguine regio, eoq; nominatim scripta ab 
Henrico Octavo in testamento, ut si quid aoddisset, quarto 
loco succederet. Ex eo, comes Herfordienas, juvenis, duds 
Somersetensis filius, suscepit filium, et multi putant ex stu* 
pro, sed ut ipsi dicunt, ex legitimis nuptiis. Se enim dim 
inter se contraxisse, et advocato sacrificatore, et pauds qui- 
busdam arbitris, junxisse nuptias. Ea res turbavit animos 
multorum. Nam si sunt veras nuptiae, puer, qui suaceptus 
est, alitur ad spem regni. O nos miseros, qui non possumus 
sdre, sub quo domino victuri simus. Deus nobis Eliza- 
betham, spero, diii vivam et incolumem conservabit. Id 
nobis erit satis. Tu, mi pater, ora Deum, ut rempublicam 
nostram, et ecclesiam conservet. Vale, mi pater, vale. Vale, 
dulce decus meura. 

Saluta meo nomine uxorem tuam, D. Bullingerum, D. 
Gualterura, D. Lavaterum, D. Zwinglium, D. Hallenum, 
D. Wikium, D. Gesnerum, D. Frisium, D. Wolphium, Ju- 
lium, Juliam, et Martyrillum. 

SalisberiflB, 7. Febr. 1562, 

Ex Anglia. Tui nominis studiosissimus, 

Jo. Juellus, Anglos. 

Viro long^ doctissimo^ D. Petro 

Martyriy Vermilioy prqfessori 

sacrcetheologics in scholaTigti- 

rina, domino suo coiendissimo. 


P.S. Re^na Elisabetha, omnem nostram monetam 


auream, argenteamque ad pristinam probitatem resti- BOOK 
tuit, et puram, putamq; reddidit: opus plan^ re- 
gium, quodq; tu mireris tarn brevi tempore potuisse 

Number 66* 


The first is, The promise under the great seal tf Francis 
the lid, to maintain the succession to the crown of Scot' 
land in the Jhmily of Hamilton^ in case queen Mary 
should die without children. An original. 

Fbamcots fils ain^ du roy et dauphin de Viennois, a tous 
ceux qui ces presentes lettres verront, salut. Nous ayant de 
la part de notre tres cher et tres honnor6 seigneur et pere le 
roy de France, entendu que des le dixsepteme jour de Juin, 
il fit expedier ses lettres patentes, a notre tres cher et tres 
am^ cousin, Jaques due de Chateleraut, comte de Aran, et 
seigneur D^ammilton, chevalier de son ordre cy devant, gou- 
vemeur du royaume d^Ecosse; par les quelles lettres lui 
auroit accords que en cas que notre tres chere et tres am6e 
cousine, Marie reine d^Ecosse, decedat sans hoirs de son 
corps, que Dieu ne veuille, il succede k la couronne d^Ecosse, 
et pour y parvenir lui aider et subvenir, desirant notre dit 
seigneur et pere, que nous veuillons ratifier et approver 
ladite promesse par luy faite a notre dit cousin, scavoir, 
faisons que nous voulans singulierement entretenir et ob- 
server la foy et parole de nostre dit seigneur et pere, et lui 
obeir en tout ce que lui est afiect^ et recommande, et aussi 
pour Tamour particuliere, que avons port^ et portons a icelui 
notre dit cousin, et a sa maison pour Tafiection quil a tou- 
jours demon tr^e en vers notre dit seigneur et pere, et la bien 
de la couronne de France. Nous a ces causes, et autres a ce 
nous mouvant, avons entant que besoin seroit tant pour 
nous, que pour nos successeurs confirme et ratifi^, confir- 
mons et ratifions par ces presentes, le contenu es dites lettres 
de notre dit seigneur et pere, du dix septieme Juin, mille 
cinq cent quarante neuf : promettant en bonne foi,'avenant 



PART que noti« dite oousine, la reine JE coooc^ dcoedat mds 
' hoin de son corps, le laisser jouir dudit foyaume, et pour 
cet effet le seoourir et aider selon le oontenu des dites lettres. 
En temoin de ce nous avons sign6 les presentea de noCre 
propre main, et a icelles fait mettre^ et appoeer notre tod. 
Donn^ a Paris le dixneuvieme jour d^Avril, Pan de gnwe 
niille cinq cent cinquante huit. 


Par monsagneur le dauphin, 


The second is. 

The promise made to the same effect, bjf Henry Ae lid. 
king qfFrancej before queeti Mary f»as sent out ^Scot- 
land. An original. 

Henry, par la grace de Dieu^ roy de France, a tom 
ceuxqui ces presentes lettres verront, salut. ScavcHr feiaoas, 
que ayant egard aux bons, grands, vertueux, agreables, et 
tres recommand^les services, fait par notre tres cher et trei 
ami cousin, le comte de Aran, chevalier de noatre ofdre, 
govemeur du royaume d^Ecosse, a feu notre tres honnor6 
seigneur et pere, que Dieu absolve ; depuis le trepas du feu 
roy d'Ecosse, dernier decede, a nous et a la couronne de 
France consecutivement, et specialement pour avoir moyen- 
n6, Paccord du manage de ma tres cher et tres am^ fille et 
cousine la reine d^Ecosse, avcc notre tres cher et tres am^ 
fils le dauphin de Viennois. Pour de nostre part donna* a 
connoitre a icelui notre dit cousin, Tafiection que lui por- 
tons, et le grand desir que nous avons de le favoriser ea 
toutes raisonnables choses qui le pourront toucher: lui 
avons par ces jTresentes en parole de roy, promis et promet- 
tons, advenant qu'il plus a Dieu appeller a sa part la dite 
reine d'^Ecosse, sans hoirs issus de son corps, et que par voje 
de fait avenu que ses ennemis voulussent entreprendre 
Pempecher, lui ou les siens dcscendans, de lui par droite 
ligne, quHls ne vinssent a la *paisible jouissance de la cou- 
ronne du royaume d^Ecosse; comme plus proche d^celle 
apres le trepas de la dite reine, que nous lui tendrons la 


main a lui, et aux siens a Pencontre de leurs ennemis quel« BOOK 
conque; et les aiderons et suporterons ea toutes sortes^ ^' 
selon que requierent les andennes alliances et confedera- 
tions, qui ont de tout terns et^ et sont encore entre noii8» 
notre royaume et pais, et celui d^Ecosse. Et quant a Parti- 
cle du traits, que nous avons fiut avecques le dit gouvemeufi 
par lequel sommes tenus de le faire, tenir quite et decharger 
de Tadministration, qu^il a eu^ et aura dudit royaume durant 
la minorite d^icelle notre dite fille et cousine, sans qu^'il en 
spit autrement comptable, et du tout lui en faire bailler, et 
delivrer lettres de decharges ^e la dite dame, par le con- 
sentement de notre dit fils son mary, quand elle sera d^age. 
Nous derechef ratifions et approuvons le dit article par ces 
presentes, et nous obligeons ainsi le faire ensemble de Ten 
decharger envers la dite dame et son futur mary. En temoin 
de ce nous avons sign6 ces presentes, et a notre main, 
ioelle fait mettre, et apposer notre seel. Donn^ a Paris, 
le dixseptieme jour de Juin, Tan de grace mille cinq cent 
quarante neuf, et de nostre r^ne le troisieme. 


Par le roy, 

De L^Aubespine. 

Number 67. 

Instructions to the queen^s commissioners trectHnff in Scot- 

land. Jn original. 

After our right harty commendations, we have recey ved Puper- 
your letters of the 11th of this mounth, and by the same do^^**' 
understande at good length your proceedings with the French 
commissioners hitherto, and in the ende of the death of the 
dowager of Scotland : for your advertisements whereof, we 
give unto you, on the queen^s majesties behalf, most harty 
thanks: and like as her^highnes doth well allowe your 
opinion for the signifying unto king Phillippes ambassadors, 
that we be entred into treaty with the French, and are in 
very good way towards accorde, and finde not things all- 
together so hflode to be brought to composition as was sup- 



PART poeed ; so bath her majestie taken order, that one shall be 
out of hande sent to declare the same unto them, with sig- 
nification allso what her bighnes hath harde of the dow- 
agers death. As touching the other points of your letter 
wherin you require her bighnes resolution; we have con- 
sidered the same, and uppon reporte of our opinions to 
the queen^s majestie, her bighnes bath resolved as follow- 
eth ; fyrst, in caise the Frenche commissioners uppon 
the understanding of the dowagers death, will nedes presse 
to retume back againe without following th&r commis- 
sion ; her bighnes in that cfise is pleased, that after you 
shall have provoked them by such good meanes as you can 
best devise, to contynue; if in the ende they will nedes 
breake of and retume, you shall agree they may so do, 
and thereuppon consulting with our very good lorde, the 
duke of Norffolke, and imparting the state of the case unto 
the lords of Scotland, to take order by their good advice 
howe the purpose intendyd for expelling of the French, and 
assuring of that realme, according to that hath byn hereto- 
fore determined, may best and most spedely be brought to 
passe, which in case the French breake of from treatte, her 
majestie wolde sholde be gon thorough withall without any 
longer delay or loss of time ; the rather for that it appear- 
eth by all advertisements, that the French seeke nothing so 
much as to wyn tyme, and draw forth matters in length to 
serve theyr purpose wythall ; which must not be endured : 
and where your deare to know what you shall doe, if 
the French commissioners that be with you will require 
the presence of sume of theyr coUeages in the town ; her 
bighnes thinketh as you doe, that the same is in no wise to 
be grauntyd, nor the said commissioners that be in Lyth to 
be sufiered to issue or treate of this matter otherwise then 
is prescribed by your instructions. As touching the last 
point, where ye desire to know what shall be done in case 
the said French commissioners shall require assistance of 
such Scottyshemen as were of the French faction : her bigh- 
nes thinks fyt, yf the same shall be demaunded, that the 
lords of Scotland be made privie thereunto ; and in case 


they and you shall not see sume reasonable cause of the BOOK 
contrary, her majestic thinketh, and so do we allso, that it ^^' 
may without daunger be grantyd, wherin nevertheless you 
may use your good discretions as you shall see may best 
stand with the advancement of his highnes service. And for- 
asmuche as one Parrys, an Iresheman, who hath (as we think 
you doe well enough remember) byn a fugitive out of this 
realme nowe a long time together, is as we understande 
come from the French, and hathe now yelded himself into 
the lorde Greye^s hands : we hartely pray you, in case you 
may conveniently, to talk with the said Parrys, and under- 
stand of him what he can say touching the pracUses that 
hath byn attemptyd in Ireland, or any other thing concern- 
ing the state of the queen^s majestic or her realme ; and to 
lett us know what he is able to say therin, to the intent if 
his meaning and doing shall appere unto you to deserve the 
same, we may be sutors unto her highnes for his pardonne, 
and for suche farther consideracion of hym as his doing 
shall deserve. And thus we wish you most hartely well to 
fare. From Grenewich the 15th of June, 1560. 

Your assured loving friends, 
^ Winchester. W. North, &c. 

E. Clynton. Willm. Petre se. 
Tho. Parrys. 

Number 68. 

7^ commission of the estates to move queen Elixabeth to 
take the earl ofArran to her husband. 

Taken Jrom the original now (U Hamilton, 

The lords of parliament, and others under-written, 
havand consideration how the kingdome of England is joynt 
with this. Be an Dray March, how puissent it is ; what in- 
commodity we and our forefathers have felt, be the con- 
tinual weirs betwixt the tuo nations ; and be the contrar, 
how profitable there amytie may be to us, what welth and 
commodity we may obtain therthrow ; hes thought good 

D d 4 


PART divyaed and (nrdained, that the occasion presently opened 
^^^' up to us shal be followed, that is, sute made to the queen 
of England in the best manner, That it may please her ma- 
jesty, for establishing of one perpetual friendship, to jckne 
in marriage with the earll of Arran ; being of the lawfull 
blood of this realme, and failzieing of suocesskm of the 
queen our soverain ladies body, next his father, the dukes 
grace of Chastellerault declared be act of parliament, se* 
eond person of the realme, air apparant to the crown ; and 
far that purpose that honourable persons be sent in ambas- 
sate, fra them yn behalf of the estates. And to the eflect 
the sute may be made in the most honourable manner, and 
to her majesty''s best contentation, they have devised that 
presently in plane parliament it shal be devised, that cer- 
tain ambassadours be sent to her majesty tte the estates, 
to give her hieness thanks for the guid will she has ever 
bom to this realme, sen she came to her crown, and desire 
she hes that it may continue an free kingdom in thantiant 
liberty, sufficiently of late declared, be her support liberally 
granted for the relief therof ; and for the guid quietnes we 
presently enjoy, purchast to us be her majestys means and 
labours ; and they are withall to desire of her heeness to 
give strait commandments to her wardains and officers 
upon the borders, to continue with ours, for suppressing of 
broken men, and stanching of thift, with sic other things as 
are necessar for the common weel of this realme : and that 
the states give power to the lords of articles, and others un- 
derwritten, to devise sic commision and instructions as are 
necessar for that purpose, to be sealed and subscribed be 
six of the principals of every estate, whilk sal be as suffi- 
cient, as giff it were subscribed and scaled be the haill 
estates ; and theraflter the lords of articles, and ours under 
speciBed, to devise the instructione and commission tuching 
the heid of the marriage. 


Number 69. BOOK 

The qtteenes majesties answere declared to her couneeU con' ^' 
ceminge the requests of the lords qfScoUande. 
In sir W. CeciTs hand. 
Her majestie reduced the answere into three points. 

1. The first was, That where the three estats had sent Th« 8th of 
the lords of Scotland to present their harty thanks to her jt6o. 
majestie for the benefits receaved this last yere by her ma- fo^*.i33* 
jesties ayde given to theni. Her majestie is very glad tOBTioT 
perceave her good will and chardgs so well bestowed as to 

see the same thankfuUye accepted and acknowledged ; and 
findeth the same to have been seasonablie planted that pro- 
duceth so plentifull fruct, with the which her majestie 
doeth so satisfie herself, as if at any time the like cause 
shall happen wherin her friendship or ayde shall or may 
profit them for their just defence, the same shall not be 
wantinge. And although in former times it appeared that 
sondry beneficts bestowed upon divers of the nobilitye here 
by her majesties most noble father, had not such sucoes, nor 
was answered with like thankfullnes : yet her majestye doth 
nowe evidently se the cause thereof to be for that the meanen- 
inge of her father^s beneficts were interpreted^ and supposed 
to be to the discomoditye of the land, and these her majesties 
be evidentlye sene to bend directlye to the safetye of that 
realme. And so the diversitye of the bestowinge hath made 
the diversitye in the operacion and acceptation of them. 

2, The second point is, where the same estates have by 
their parlyament accorded, that suyte should be made for the 
manage with her majesty of the earl of Arrayne ; her ma- 
jestye cannot interprete that motion to come but both of a 
good meaneinge of the same estaits, pretendinge thereby to 
knit both theis kingdomes presently in amytye, and here- 
after to remaine in a perpetuall amytye; and of a great 
good will of the same estates towards her majestye, ofieringe 
to her the best and choicest person that they have, and that 
not without some daunger of the displeasure of the French 
kinge in so doinge: for answere hereunto, her majesty 
findeing herself not disposed presently to marry, (although 


PART it may be that the necesnde and respect of her realme shall 
^^^' hereto hereafter oonstrayne her) wished that the earle of Ar- 
rayne should not forbeare to accept such manage as may be 
made to him for his own weill and surety; and that all other 
means be used to the oontinewance of amytie firmly betwixt 
these kingdomes; whereunto her majesty thinketh many 
good reasons ought to induce the people of both realmes, 
and in a manner to^x>ntinewe as good amytye therby, as by 
manage : for it appeareth, that if every nobleman of Soot- 
lande will well consider how necessarye the friendship of 
this realme is to that, for the preservation of their liberties; 
they shall chiefly for saf^^uard of themselves joyne together 
in concord with this realme, and so every one particularly 
minding his own suretye, of consequence the love and amyte 
shall be universall ; by which means her majesty thinketh 
the amitye may be well assured, though no marriage be ob- 
teyned. And as to the person of the earle of Arrayn, her 
majesty surely hath heard a verie good report of him, and 
thinketh him to be a noble gentleman of great woordinesse, 
and so thinketh surely that he shall prove hereafter. 

8. Thirdly and lastly, her majestye thancketh the said 
lords for their paines and travell ; and although she doubt- 
eth nether of their wisdonie nor of the providence of the 
estates at home in Scotland, yet for demonstracion of her 
hearty good will, her majesty cannot forbeare to require 
them not to forget the practises that be past, by such as be- 
fore tyme sought the subverson of them ; and nowe much 
more will doe it, if there maye be left any entry for cor- 
ruption, be reward, or other scope of practise. And there- 
fore her majesty wisheth that they all do persist, first in a 
good Concorde, makinge their causes come amongst them- 
selves ; and not to dissever themselves in any factions, but 
to foresee well thinges before they chaunce : for that her 
majestic thinketh this prove verie true, that darts foreseen 
hurt verie little, or not at all. And for her majesties parte, 
there shall no reasonable thinge be neglected that may fur- 
der this comun action of defence of both the realmes against 
any common enemye. 


Number 70. BOOK 

A leUer of the English ambassador to queen Mary of Scot- ^^' 
Icmdyjbr her rattfying the treaty ofLeith. 

Pleaseth it your majestie. The same may remember. Paper- 
that at my lord of Bedford's being in this court, he and I ^^*** 
demanded of you, on the behalfe of the queen's majestie, 
our mistress, your good sister and cousyne, your ratification 
of thaccord latelye made at £dingb8h>ugh in Scotland. 
Wherunto you made answer, amonge other things, that 
your counsell being not about youe; namely your uncle, my 
lord cardinall of Lorraine, by whom you are advised in your 
affaires, and also for that your majestie had not heard from 
your counsell in Scotland, from whom you looked to hear 
then verie shortlye ; you could make us no direct answer 
therin. But that heering from them, and having consulted 
with your counsell heere ; you would satisfie her majestie in 
the same. Sins whiche tyme, her majestie having know- 
ledge of the coming to you of the lord James, your brother, 
who passed lately through England hitherwards, by whom 
(her majestie judgeth) you will be advised, bothe in respect 
of his ranke and estimacion in your realme of Scotland, and 
allso for that he hathe the honour to be your majesties bro- 
ther, and of good credite with you : and nothing doubting 
of your consultation with my said lord cardinall, and others 
of your counsell hecre sins that tyme ; her majestie hathe 
presentlie commanded and authorized me to put your ma- 
jestie in remembrance therof againe; and to renew the 
demande of your confirmation of the said late accord. 
Therefore I have presently depechid to you this gentleman, 
bearer heerof, her majesties servant : by whom I beseeche 
you to let me understand your resolute answer in that be- 
halfe. And uppon knowledge of your pleasure, to delyver 
me the said ratification ; and of the tyme and place, I will « 

not faile (God willing) to resort, whither your majestie will 
appoint me to come for that purpose. 

By demanding of this ratification, as the queen's majestie, 
my mistress, your good sister, dothe shewe the great desyre • 
she hathe to lyve from hence forth in all assured good 


ART lore, peas and amytie with you and your realme ; 80^ in 
^' her opynion, there is nothing that can argue your redproke 
good will, to answer to the lyke for your parte agayne, so 
much as the stablishing the same by this knot of finendship 
whidi Grod hath appointed, and hath been dieif woiker 
therin, for both your quyetnesses and ocHuforts; being now 
the onlie refuge of you both. And so I pray Almigbty 
God long to preserve your majestie in perfieuct healthe, 
honour and filicitie. From Paris, the 18th of Aprill 1561. 

Number 71. 
A letter qfMary queen of Scotland^ delaying to ratify ike 

treaty ofLeiih, An originaL 

Monsieur Ambassadeur, 
tTAT leu la lettre, que vous m'^aves escrite par le gentil- 
homme present porteur, et pour ce j'*6tant sur man parte- 
ment de ce lieu, je ne pms vous faire reponce plustot qjik 
Reims, oil j!espere d^'estre au sacre de roy : je ne feray cette 
plus long que pour vous dire, quant k lord James, qui est 
devers moy, il y est venue pour son devoir, comme devers 
sa souveraine dame, que je suis, sans charge ou commission, 
qui concerne autre chose que son droit. Je prie Dieu, mon- 
sieur ambassadeur, vous avoir en sa garde. Escrit k Nana, 
ce 22 d'Avril 1562. 

Vostre bien bon amy, 

Number 72. 
An original letter of the ambassador's to the gtuen, upon 

that affair. 
It maye please your majestie to be advertised, that have- 
ing written this other lettre, and being ready to have de- 
peched it to your majestie ; Mr. Somer, your highnesses 
servant, arryved heere from Nanci in liorraine, from the 
queene of Scotland, with answer to my lettre, which (by 
your majesties commandment) I wrote to her, in such sorte, 
as I have advertised by my former, and therwith sent to 


your majestie the coppies of my lettres to the saide queen BOOK 
and cardinail of Lorraine. Which her answer being by ^' 
lettre^ (having allso said as much by mouth to Mr. Scmier) 
together with the said cardinalPs answer ; I send your ma- 
jestie herewith. And though your majesties said servant 
used the best speech as he ooude to get some direct answer 
of her, accordinge to her late promesses, putting her in re> 
membrance of her words to my lord of Bedford, and to me 
at Fontainebleau : yet other answer nor direction, then is 
Gonteined in her letter, coude he not gette of her. And 
seinge she hath defferrid to make me further answer till 
my next meetinge with her, which she reckenith shall be at 
Reims, at the French king^s sacre, as appearith by her said 
lettre ; where she and the cardinal told Mr. Somer she 
mjrnded to be the 8th of Maye ; for that it is said the sacre 
shall be the 15th; and for that your majestie hath com- 
manded me, for some respects, not to be at it ; I know not 
when I shall have the opertunitie and meanes to speake 
with the said queen for her answer. Therefore seing I 
cannot be at Reims, (as indeede, besyeds your majesties 
commandment, myne indisposition of my bodye will not 
suffer me to come there) and allso for that (as I heere) the 
said queen myndeth not to come into these partes this good 
while ; if it wold please your majestie to send hither your 
lettres of credit directed unto her, therby to authorize 
Mr. Somer, your majesties said servant, to demande and 
receyve her answer therin, in myne absence, by reason of 
my sicknesse ; I take it your majestie shall the sooner have 
her direct answer. If your majestie finde this good, it may 
please the same to send such your lettres hither with good 
speed, that the answer may be had before she departe . < 
agayne from Reims. 

And though I thinke verily that her answer will be such 
as I have allready advertised your majes