(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Regality of Musselburgh : with numerous extracts from the town records"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



"^rC\ - 



HISTORY 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH, 



wrra NtJMEEOtrs 



EXTRACTS FROM THE TOWN REOOBDS. 



BI JAMES FAIEBSOK, 

▲UTBOS OP ** RAT'S SDINBITltOH POBTRAITB," " THS OOHTmFORARnai OF BVaSt," 
** HIITOBT AND PAMILIBS OP ATBflHIBX,** BTC. 



MUSSELBURGH: 

JAMES GORDON, 15, BKIDGE STREET. 

MDCCCLVII. 



FU-- 



.LC...a^n 



AcypR, l.'rNOX AND 

TILDE ^>i rcur:DATiONS. 
R . 1^^'-^ 



JOHN LIDTDSAY) PRINTER, 39 SOUTH BRIDGE, EDINBURGH. 



, * • • • ( 



• • • , 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE, . V 

•BTTMOLOOT, ..... 11 

ROMAN OCCUPATION, . . .12 

FIRST NOTICE OF INVEKBBK AND MUBSBLBURaH IN CHARTERS, 19 

TRANSMISSION OF THE PROPERTY, . .24 

RIOHT8 AND PRIVILBOES OF THE RBOALITY, ... 29 

REVENUE OF THE BUROH, . .37 

HOW THE TOWN'S INTEREST IN THE MILLS WAS ACQUIRED, 41 

THE HARBOUR AND CUSTOMS, . .48 

INCORPORATED TRADES, MANUFACTURES, FISHINGS, 'ETC., 56 

THE FISHERY, . .67 

SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION, . . . ,71 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BURGH, .78 

ST MICHAEL'S CHURCH, .89 

LORBTTO, . .94 

.MODERN PLACES OF WORSHIP, . .108 

HISTORICAL MEM0RL&L8, . .109 

CONDITION AND PROGRESS OF THE BURGH, .127 

THE POOR, . . . .132 

AMUSEMENTS, . .135 

PROPERTY AND INCOME OF THE BURGH, . .142 

RKVENUE OF THE BURGH, . . .144 

EARLY COMMERCE, .146 

aRAIM, AGRICULTURE, COLLIERIES, . .147 

INTENT AND APPEARANCE OF THE PARISH, .153 

LITERARY AND OTHER DISTINGUISHED PERSONS, . 167 



IV OONTSNTS. 

KAOCHI DIOSBOV> .103 

U0UBI8 ON THB BABT SISB OP TBI B8K :— 

OASBBRET roWBB, .196 

fOWBB OF FALSTDB, . lOT 

BHBBIFFHAIiIi, .... 160 

BMBTOUH, ! ib. 

OmUBSK, ..... 170 

WALLirOBD, .178 

DRUMMOBB, . ib. 

HALLU WALUS, . . ib. 

WHITBHILL, .174 

PINKIB HOVBB, . .176 

HOUSBB ON THB WEBfS OF THB B8K '. — 

HBWTOV, . .186 

MONITOM, . ib. 

MONKTONHALL, . . ib. 

8T0HTHILL, .187- 

VBW HAILBS, .... 198 

00U8LAND CASTLB, . ib. 

«n BATTLB OF PINKIB, .198 

GABBBBBT HHiL, . .809 

JCOVUMBNTAL INBGBIFTIONB IN THB OHURCHTA&D OF INVB&BBK, 811 



C^^ g gj^Q^'^ - 



PREFACE. 



Tmt idea of the present publication originated with the Pab- 
lifiher, who conceived that it might be interesting, not only to 
ihe inhabitants, but to strangers visiting the district. Most 
watering places have their Guides or Histories ; and, in point 
of historical a^ciation, there are few more entitled than 
Mnsselbnrgh to be so distinguished. It may be asked, at the 
flame time, in what respect can a history of the buigh be of 
importance apart from that of the country at large? Its 
antiquities and battle-fields are associated with national events, 
and as such ought to be familiar to the general reader. True, it 
is not to be expected that the annals of any particular district 
— boasting of nothing more than a purely provincial character — 
aie likely to add anything surprising or new to historical £bu^ ; 
but they, at the same time, may be. productive of illustrations 
aeaily of equal value, enabling the student of history to appre- 
ciate and understand what is recorded. National history — even 
the most difiEuse with which we are acquainted — ^is no more than 
A broad-handed sketch, and rarely dips into those niinuter details 
affecting communities. But it is from these details that the just 



VI PREFACE. 

bearing of public events is to be discovered, and the manners and 
circumstances of the people ascertidned. 

So much is this ackndwledged, that detached contributions 
like the present are encouraged everywhere — ^in England, per- 
haps, more than in Scotland— and it is gpnerally conceded that 
history — genuine history — ^is only to be written when the charter 
chests of long-existing communities, as well as of religious houses, 
and those ancient families, whose ancestors have been active par- 
ticipators in the great national dramas of the past, have been tho- 
roughly ransacked. Much light has already been thrown upon the 
last two great eras in this country — the Eeformation, including 
tte Cromwellian period, and the Eevolution — ^by the opening up 
of previously hidden sources of information. The once popular 
and still classic History of Scotland, by Robertson, for example, 
has been wholly cancelled by the greater researches of Tytler. 
That the work of excavation, however, Is not yet by any means 
complete, we have numerous recent proofe in the sketchy, well- 
written, but inaccurate History of Englimd by Macaulay. The 
laboured defence of King William, in reference to the massacre of 
Glencoe, by that ingenious author, for instance, has been wholly 
upset by the production of one or two documents, from the 
charter chest of Breadalbane ! It is thus extremely dangerous 
for any writer to undertake history without a thorough know- 
ledge of facts, which his own or the researches of others may 
have placed within his reach. • 

But apart from the importance of local, as contributing to a 
right understanding of national history, it must have its interest 



PREFACE. Vll 

and its use in a more limited sense. , It surely must be gratify- 
ing, if not useful, as it may also prove, to be made acquainted 
with the origin and progress — ^in as far as that is to be ascer- 
tained—of the community with .which we are identified. To 
know by whom it was cradled and privileged in its infancy — by 
whom and by what laws it was governed — what was its position 
in relation to other communities — what its earlyitrade, its sources 
of income, its pastimes, and amusements ; in short, everything 
which contemporaneous authority, and its own written records, 
can elucidate, add, in a pleasurable degree, to the information of 
those who may be called upon to administer its present affairs, 
or contribute to its prosperity by their talents or industry. 
To pass and repass daily those remains of ancient times — those 
venerable buildings which may have graced or strengthened the 
position of our ancestors — without knowing when, by whom, or 
for what purpose they were constructed, must be a punishment 
to the inquisitive and intelligent ; and to gaze upon those fields 
where national conflicts have been lost or won, without knowing 
when, by whom, or for what cause they were fought, is to live 
in a state of intellectual bHndness, not to be endured except by 
the most illiterate. 

The Author is sensible, at the same time, that many of his 
readers may be disappointed with the work. It deals too much 
in matters of fact to attract the light reader, and he confesses to 
having aimed more at the elu^dation of ancient than of modem 
affairs. The nature of the undertaking did not admit of a con- 
tinuous narrative, which is generally preferred. Still, he hopes 

a 2 



' Till PRIVACK. 

bis researches will not altogether fail in point of norelty and 
interest, even to the most superficial ; and he flatters himself 
that, besides collecting together almost all that former writers 
have advanced in reference to Musselburgh, he has succeeded in 
culling from the town records and other original sources, not a 
little altogether new. In progressing with his task, he felt 
astonished at tl|e mis-statements of the various printed works 
which he fouiid it necessary to consult, and not the least satis- 
factory portion of his labour has been the correction of these. 

It may perhaps be necessary briefly to explain what is meant 
by a " Regality y^^ although this might be clearly enough gleaned 
from the history itself. A regality is " a territorial jurisdiction 
granted by the king, with lands given in liberam regalitatem ; 
and conferring on the persons receiving it, although commoners, 
the title of Lordi of BegalityJ* The lands constituting the 
Regality of Musselburgh were conferred on the monks of Dun- 
fermline as early as the days of Malcolm Caenmore and David I. 
By the charter of the latter they had baronial jurisdiction over 
these lands, which jurisdiction they afterwards had enlarged to a 
regality. A regality thus conveyed greater privileges than a 
mere barony. There are in this country, burghs of barony, 
burghs of regality y and royal burghs. The first held of a baron, 
and the latter two of the king, the difference between regalities 
and royal burghs consisting in certain privileges, more limited 
in the one than the other. These privileges were considerably 
infringed upon ; first, by tKe Act of Union, secondly, by the 
abolition of feudal jurisdictions, and thirdly, by the Reform 



PRSVAGI. ix 

Bill. Theie were numerous regalities in Scotland, many of 
them altogether unconnected with burghs, certain lands being 
clubbed together under that denomination. Besides a consider- 
able revenue, it conferred additional power and influence on the 
feudal superior, and became an object of ambition. In 1590, 
after the Beformation, the lands and regality of Musselbuigh 
were conferred on Lord Thirlstane ; and in 1709, the superiority 
was sold by the Earl of Lauderdale to the Duchess of Bucdeuch. 
When feudal jurisdictions were abolished in 1747, the Duke of 
Buccleuch claimed £8000 for the Begality of Musselburgh ; but 
for that and other claims he only received £3400. 

We can hardly refrain from adverting to the prosperity of 
Musselburgh as a community. The census of 1851) compared 
with that of 1831, no doubt shows a decrease of 308 over the 
entire pari^ ; but this was the case generally, both in England 
and Scotland, in rural parishes. Emigration, and the enlarging 
of farms, had much to do with this state of matters. But, so £u: 
as Musselburgh as a town is concerned, there must have been a 
considerable increase of population since 1851, in which year it 
amounted to 7092. The various staple employments are in a 
healthy and vigorous state, and within the present year, the net 
manufactory of the Messrs Stuart alone must have added upwards 
of 300 to the number of inhabitants. Both the houses and shops 
are much better let, and a greater influx of sea-bathers was ob- 
served this season than formerly. Lideed, we are surprised that 
Musselburgh — ^from the salubrity t)f the air, its light soil, and 
excellent springs — ^should not be of much greater resort as a 



X PREFACE. , 

watering-place. It is within easy access of the sea, but not 
quite so close to it as to be disagreeable, and the walks all round, 
along the coast, and in the interior, are of the most exhilarating 
description. The town itself, on both sides of the water, consists 
of open and spacious streets, clean and well paved, and the houses 
and shops are of that mixed kind which blend in pleasing variety 
the character of the city with the rural demesne of ancient times. 
Whatever Fisherrow and the fishing community ijay have been 
when former writers referred to them, we can now say that the 
picture is reversed. There are many well-to-do and respect- 
able individuals amongst them ; and, as a body, they are inferior 
to none of the same class anywhere. 

We have only to return our thanks to Mr Lees, the Town- 
Clerk, for his kind permission to look over the records in his 
keeping ; and in the use we have made of them, we trust that 
offence will have been given to no one. Our object was to select 
only such passages as might be curious or useful. 

MussBLBUBOH, October 1857. 



HISTORY 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



The name of the parish, Inveresky in which the Regality of 
Musselburgh is situated, is of Celtic derivation, and signifies the 
mouth or confluence of the Esk. It was anciently written 
Infresky Inneresk, Enderask, and Undreske, According to the 
theory of Chalmers, in his Caledonia, of the Scoto-Irish Gaelic 
overspreading the topographical language of the ancient inhabi- 
tants, it would originally have been called -46cr-Esk; but there is 
no evidence that it ever was so styled. The Fergusian Scots from 
Ireland can hardly be said to have crossed the Scots water — ^the 
Frith of Forth — ^in the reign of Malcolm Caenmore, who held his 
court at Dunfermline — so that the name Invert which many places 
in Scotland bear, was, in all probability, imposed by the British 
tribes, before they were driven out of Lothian by the Northum- 
brians. This is countenanced by the fact that there are other 
names in the district, such as Carberry (Gaer^bairin), Cockpen, 
Dreghom, Dalkeith, Niddry (Nidref), Roslin, &c., of undoubted 
British origin. By the Saxons, according to Simeon of Durham, in 
the seventh century, it was called Fsk-muthe '; but their brief and 

B 



12 IIISTOEY OF THE 

fluctuating possession of Lothian made little change in its topo- 
graphical nomenclature. 

The Esk is formed of two considerable streams. ** The waters 
of South and North Esk," as described in the Macfarlane MSS., 
" at the/oot of the wood of Dalkeith, are joined together in one, 
and about two miles from thence, at Pinkie, fall into Forth. . . . 
North Esk takes its beginning upon the south of Pentland Hills, 
a little above the Hollis, and descending northward by the space 
of eight or ten miles, at the foot of Dalkeith wood is joyned to 
South Esk. . . . South Esk takes its beginning or soui-ce from 
Morpet Hills, and descending northward by the space of ten 
miles, is joyned with -North Esk at the foot of Dalkeith wood." 

BOMAN OCCUPATION. 

That the mouth of the Esk was the seat of population during 
the British period of our history, as well as that of the Northum- 
brian Saxon occupation of the Ottadinian district, seems at least 
probable. At all events, it is satisfactorily known that the Ro- 
mans fortified the hill of Inveresk, which flanks Musselburgh on 
the south ; and as they rarely constructed strengths save where 
the population was comparatively dense, so that . the natives 
might be kept in check, it is probable that Musselburgh was a 
place of resort even in the days of our British ancestors. 

The church of Inveresk now occupies the rising ground under- 
stood to have been the Roman praetorium. " History assures 
us," says Dr Carlisle in his account of the parish of Inveresk,* 
" that they had a station here, and repeated discoveries point out 
the spot where the praetorium was built. It was undoubtedly 
on the summit of the hill where the church now stands, and in- 
cluded that beautiful villa (Inveresk House) that lies to the east- 
ward of it. A hollow road, which, till about thirty five year* 

* Old Statistical Account. 



REaALlTY OF MUSSBLBUBOH. 13 

ago,* passed within three yards of that villa, having most likely 
been the fosse of the prsetorium. It is now included in the 
garden and pleasure-ground. The church, of which the antiquity 
is not known, and which is called St Michael's of Inveresk, has 
probably been built out of the mins of that ancient edifice.'* 

Randolph, ambassador at the Scottish court in the r^ign of 
Elizabeth, writes as follows, to the Earl of Bedford, in reference 
to certain Roman remains then discovered at Inveresk : — 

Edenburgh, 7th April 1565. 
" For certayne ther is founde a cave besyds Muskelbourge, 
stonding upon a number of pilleis, made of tyle stones curieuslye 
wroughte, signefyinge great antiquetie, and straynge monuments 
found in the same. Thys comyethe to my knowledge, besyds 
the comon reporte, by th' assurance of Alexander Gierke, who 
was ther to see yt, w^ I wyll do myself w*^in these three or 
four dayes, and wryte unto yor Ldship the more certayntie 
thereof, for I wyll leave nothynge of it unseen." 

Again, on the 18th April, Randolph writes to Sir William 
Cecil :— 

" The cave found besyds Muskelbourge semeth to be some 
monument of the Romaynes, by a stone that was found, w**^ 
these words greven upon bym, Ajppoloni Ghranno Q. S. Sahinia- 
nus Proc. Aug. Dyvers shorte pillers sette upright upon the 
grounde, covered w**^ tyle stones, large and thyucke, toming into 
dyvers angles and certayne places lyke unto chynesf to awoid 
smoke. Thys is all I cane gather therof." 

The inscription, as more accurately given by Napier of Mer- 
chiston, the celebrated inventor of the Logarithms, in his " Com- 
mentary on the Apocalypse," and copied by Camden in his 
Britannia, is as follows : — 

* This was printed in 1793. 
t Supposed to be a contraction for chimneys. 



14 HISTOBir OF THB 

AJ.O.L.L.LN.I. 
G.K.A.N.N.O. 
Q.L.V.S.I.V.S. 
S.A.B.I.N.LA. 

N.V.S. 

P.R.O.C. 

A.V.G. 
V.S.S.L.V.M. 

Which, when amplified, would read thus: " ApoUini Granico, 
Quintus Lucius Sabinianus, Proconsul Aagusti, votum susceptum 
solvit, lubens merito.*' 

With Camden and others it became a question who " Apollo 
Granus" was ; but, as he suggested, Granno seems to have been 
an appellative derived from the Greek. Isidore designates the 
long locks of the Goths granni, and Homer describes the flowing 
locks of Apollo in a similar manner. 

Dr Carlisle, continuing his account of the praetorium, says : — 

" But if there had remained any doubt concerning the situa- 
tion of this Roman fort, it was fully cleared up a few years ago 
(1783), when the proprietor of the villa had occasion to take two 
or three feet off the surface of his parterre, when there were dis- 
covered the floors and foundations of various buildings. The 
owner being absent, attending his duty in Parliament, the work- 
men were prevailed upon by the author of this account (Dr 
Carlisle) to clear the earth carefully away from one of them, and 
to leave the ruins standing for some time for the inspection of 
the curious. It was found to be a Roman bath of two rooms. 
The superstructure had been thrown down and removed, but the 
floor remained entire, and about six inches high of the wall of the 
smallest room, which was nine feet long and four and a half \vide. 
There was a communication through the partition wall for water, 
by an earthen pipe. The other room was fifteen feet by nine. 
The floors of these, and of the other rooms, were covered with 
tarras uniformly laid on, about two inches thick. Below this 
coat there was a coarser soi>t of lime and gravel five inches deep, 



RBGALITT OF M088SLBI7R6H. 15 

laid npon unshapely and disjointed flags. This floor stood on 
piUars two feet high, some of stone, and some of circular hricks. 
The earth had been removed to come to a solid foundation, on 
which to erect the pillars. Under the tarras of the smallest room 
there was a coarser tarras, fully ten inches thick, which seemed 
intended to sustain or bear a more considerable fire under it 
than the hypocaustv/m of the largest room. There appeared to 
have been large fires under it, as the pillars were injured by 
them, and there was found a quantity of charcoal in perfect pre- 
servation. • 

" The hypocaustwn of the larger room, or space under the tar- 
rassed floor, was filled with earth, and with flues made of clay, 
which were laid everywhere between the rows of pillars, and were 
a little discoloured with smoke ; a smaller degree of heat having 
been conveyed through them than through those under the other 
room. But these contrivances under the floors seem only to have 
been intended to preserve heat in the water, which had been 
carried warm from a kettle, built up or hung on brick work, on 
one side of the largest room. This brick-work was much in- 
jured by strong fires, and was four feet square. 

*' This seems to have been a kind of building used by the Ro- 
mans only for temporary use. The cement, or tarras, sufficiently 
proves by whom it was made, as the Roman composition of that 
kind is superior to any of later ages. It is remarkable that the 
tarras of the g^and sewers under the city of Rome is of the same 
kind ; and it is related by travellers, that in the very ancient 
buildings in the kingdom of Bengal, the very same sort has been 
used. Two medals were ibund among the ruins, now in the 
possession of Robert Colt, Esq., owner of the villa— one of gold, 
much defaced, which is supposed to be of Trajan ; another of 
copper, on which the inscription is clear. Diva Faustina* There 
are traditional accounts, that in digging foundations of houses 
in Fisherrow, there have been found similar ruins of hypocausta^ 
which afford a proof that this station was not merely military, 
but was a colonia Romana or municipium ; that they had many 

* In the second volume of the *' Transactibns of the Antiquarian Society 
of Edinburgh,*" there is a circumstantial account of the remains thus de- 
scribed, by Mr Adam Cardonell, accompanied by an engraving. It is not, 
however, so intelligible to the general reader. 



16 HISTORY OF THE 

houses and buildings near the sea, as well as their prsstoriuin at 
Inveresk ; and that one of their harbours on this side of the 
Frith was at Fisherrow. From that harbour, situated where 
there is one at present, there was a Roman causeway, (the traces 
of which remained within the memory of some still living), which 
led to their camp at Sheriff-hall, three miles S.W., and onwards 
to Borthwick/'* 

James Wedderburti, Esq., of Inveresk, writing in April 1783, 
to Mr Adam Cardonell, says : — 

" A bowling-green westward (from Inveresk) was made some 
years ago, and floors of the same kind found on levelling the 
ground. A tree being dug up just now, still farther westward, 
by the summer-house, discovered large fragments of earthen- 
ware. 

*' In the road up the hill to the church I have found bricks, 
being lately dug up to make new steps ; and in the church itself, 
some of the Roman bricks are built in with the stone. The 
vaults found in making the road were like subterraneous pas- 
sages only. There has evidently been a space of 100 yards long, 
reaching from the wall of the court to the end of the bowling- 
green, and 23 feet wide, covered with their baths, as appears by 
their water-tight floors, (fee, and very probably their buildings, 
300 yards at least, as appears by their bricks, earthen- ware, <fec., 
found from the road to the church. 

" I am informed by the ploughmen, that there are pavements 
all along the whole ridge to Pinkie-bum, which resist the plough, 
and corn will not grow on it in dry seasons. From all circum- 
stances, Inveresk hill appears to have been a great station." 

Numerous clay-pipes and fragments of earthenware have been 
dug up from tin^e to time. In the New Statistical Account, the 
late Dr Moir states that, " about ten years ago, when the prac- 
tice of interring at the depth of twelve or fourteen feet became 
common at Inveresk church-yard, the grave-diggers came upon 
a Roman urn, which they unluckily broke to pieces. It was of 
terra cotta, strongly burnt, and glazed without and within, with 

* Old Statistical Account. 



BEGALITT 0? MUSSBLBUROH. 17 

a snnnounting wreath, representing alternately flowera and 
figures. Part of the fragments are yet in the possession of Mr 
Ritchie, the sculptor, here."* 

Dr Moir, who had paid considerahle attention to the antiqui- 
ties of his native district, was of opinion that " the whole 
northern slope of the hill (of Inveresk), hounded hy Pinkie-hum 
on the one side, and hy the river Esk on the other," had been 
covered with buildings. All along the hill Roman coins have 
been from time to time dug up. " The Shirehaugh," he adds, 
" lying immediately below the village of Inveresk, and extend- 
ing south-west to the base of the hill on which the village of 
Monktonhall stands, bore, until of late years, many strong traces 
of a Eoman encampment, which seems to have extended west- 
ward to the spot still called Camp-end, in the parish of Newton, 
on the turnpike road from Edinburgh to Dalkeith. From the 
Shirehaugh to the harbour of Fisherrow, there was a Roman 
way, partly remaining in the memory of several people not long 
dead. No vestiges, however, now remain." 

The old bridge of Musselburgh, still preserved for foot-pas- 
sengers, is believed to have been originally constructed by the 
conquerors of Valentia, to connect their municipium and the 
harbour. Stretching from either side of it were the remains of 
the causeway alluded to. " Traces of a Roman causeway," Dr 
Moir further informs us, " which extended from the harbour of 
Fisherrow to the camp at Sheriff-hall, and thence to Borthwick,' 
were in many places visible in the memory of man ; while 
another branch, extending westward to the south of Portobello, 
and thence into the parish of Currie, is still, at several points, in 
remarkable preservation. The fragment in the palish of Dud- 
dingston is well known locally, under the vulgarised name of 
* the Fishwives' Causeway.' " 

When it is recollected that the Romans held possession of 
* Now of Edinburgh. 



IS HI8T0BT Of THS 

Valentia — sntject, of course, to numerous interruptions from the 
Caledonians — for upwards of three hundred years, it is hj no 
means surprising that their colony at Inveresk — ^possessing as it 
did uncontrolled access to the sea — should have grown into im- 
portance. It seems to he a mistake, however, on the part of Dr 
Moir, to suppose that they drove out the British trihes. This 
Avas no part of the policy of the Romans, though no doubt many 
retreated before the conquerors. Had the colony been wholly 
Roman, it is strange that no trace of their presence remains in 
the topography of the district. It is also a mistake to say that 
" when the Romans abdicated, they were succeeded by the Anglo- 
Saxons from Northumberland." It was not till a full century 
afterwards that, at the battle of Catraeth, in 547, they defeated 
the Gadeni and Ottadini, and occupied Lothian, until they were 
in turn defeated by the Picts at the battle of Dunichen in 685.* 

* Dr Moir, quotiog ChalmeiB, thinks it a curious fact that scarcely a 
Druidical monument remains within the limits of Lothian, and agrees with 
him that " this circumstance plainly intimates the occurrence of some de- 
cidedly religious events during the ohscure ages, immediately succeeding 
the abdication of the Eoman power. In aJl probability, he is right in con- 
jecturing that the intrusion of a pagan people among the Bom^nizecl Otta- 
dini, along the southern shore of the Forth during the fifth century, was 
the cause of the destruction to the Druidical monuments in those districts." 
Chahners, of course, alludes to the inroad of the Anglo-Saxons from North- 
umberland. But the truth is, Druidical monuments are rare over all the 
more accessible portions of Bomanized Scotland, and in place of attributing 
their destruction to the Saxons, it is extremely probable that this was the 
work of the Bomans themselves, who are known to have been extremely 
hostile to the Druids. Lothian, and the southern shores of the Frith, of 
Forth, were the principal seats of the Koman power — Whence the greater 
rarity of Druidical remains there than in other portions of Scotland. 
''Nevertheless," as stated by Dr Moir, "in the grounds of Sir David 
Milne's beautiful villa at Inveresk, a monument was dug up two or three 
years ago, which seems to bear strong marks of a Druidical origin. It is a 
circular table of stone, covered with a composition of lime and gravel, sup- 



BEQALITV or MITSSELBUROH. 19 

FIRST NOTICE OF INVEBESK ADD MUSSELBUBGH IN 
CHABTEBS. 

At what Chalmers calls the " epoch of record," the parish of 
Inveresk appears to have heen divided into two baronies or hold- 
ings, called Great and JAttU Inveresk. The latter was granted 
by Malcolm Caenmore, and Margaret his queen, to the monks of 
Dunfermline. This charter was confirmed by David I., who 
added a donation of Great TnveVesk (Musselburgh), with the mill, 
the fishing, and the church of Inveresk, its tithes, and the port 
at Esk-muthe : ^' Omnes rectitudines de omnibus navibus, que 
in portu de Inveresc applicuerint, et ibi super terrarum suam re- 
tinacula sua fixuerint, excepto theloneo meo si ibi mercatores 
navim merces suas vendiderint ut alias ad deferendum secum in 
terra mea mercati fuerint."* These grants, of 1124 and 1152, 
were confirmed by David's successors, and by a bull of Pope 
Lucius in., in 1182, and another of Pope Gregory IX. in 1234. 
The abbey had also a charter of the patronage and customs of 
Musselburgh, along with other places, from Robert I., which 
charter was confirmed by Robert III. By the grant of David I. 
the monks of Dunfermline had baronial jurisdiction over the 
whole of the lands of Great and Little Inveresk, which jurisdic- 
tion they afterwards got enlarged into a regality. The church, 
dedicated to St Michael, was, in early times, from the populous- 
ness of the parish, of great value. By the name of Muscilburg, 
it appears in the ancient Taxatio at 70 merks. It was served by 
a xica^) while the monks enjoyed the parsonage. The high 
standing of the vicar of Muscilburg is evinced by the fact that 

ported on freestone pUIars. The interior was filled with the teeth of ani- 
mals^ and around it were majestic antlers of the deer. The whole have 
fortunately been preserved." 

* Dunfermline Cartulary. 



20 HiaTOBY OV THE 

he frequently appears among names of note as witnessing charters 
of the crown. " Early in the thirteenth century, ' ' says Chalmers, 
" a dispute arose between the monks and the vicar, which was 
settled by the diocesan bishop, who directed that the vicar should 
enjoy the small tithes and the offerings at the altars of Muscil- 
burg, excepting the fish of every sort, and the tithes of the mills 
belonging to the monks, for which the vicar was directed to pay 
yearly ten merks." The vicarage, in Bagimont's Roll, in the 
reign of James V., was taxed at £5, 6s. 8d. There were several 
altars in the church of Inveresk, the chaplains of which were en- 
dowed by private bequests. In 1475, for example, Sir Simon 
Preston of Craigmillar gave an annualrent of ten merks out of 
the lands of Cameron to one of them for the performance of cer- 
tain appropriate services. 

That Great Liveresk, or Musselburgh, is a place of remote 
antiquity, there can be no doubt. As the old rhyme has it : — 

" MuBselbuigh was a burgh, 
When Edinbuigh -was nane ; 
And MuBselbtirgli '11 be a burgh, 
When Edinburgh is gane.'' 

Robert Chambers, in the first edition of his " Popular Rhymes," 
explains that this is " a pun, or quibble," as brogh (or hrugh) 
signifies a mussel-bed.* Plausible though the explanation may 
be, it is not satisfactory. Edinburgh, as a burgh, cannot be 
traced beyond the time of David L, to whose reign the grant 
of Musselburgh, with its port and fishings, also dates back. 
It thus follows that the rhyme, after all, may be an honest 
boast of greater antiquity. The name is derived from an exten- 
sive bed of mussels, which still exists at the confluence of the 
river with the sea. 

Dr Moir says, " The Anglo-Saxon word hrugh probably fixes 

* The meaning of brogh is surety j.catUion. 



RSGALITT OF MUSSBLBUBGH. 21 

its origin upon that people," yet we see that it was csLlledEskmuthe 
by the same people in the seventh century. We rather incline 
to think that the name Musselburgh is of later times, when it 
really became possessed of something approaching to the privi- 
leges of a burgh or town. Burgh is no more indicative of Anglo- 
Saxon origin than the affix toum or ton. The latter seems to have 
been applied chiefly to the names of places derived from persons 
— such as Symington (Simon's town)^ and added because it was 
necessary to the sense and euphony of the term. In this way, 
Musselburgh might as well have been called MusseKon, but that 
it was a hargli in the sense approaching to what is now under- 
stood by the word. There are only a few places in Scotland 
so distinguished — as, for example, Edinburgh, Roxburgh, Jed- 
burgh, (fee. Musselburgh in all likelihood existed as a commu- 
nity in the seventh century, yet Simeon of Durham calls it Esk- 
mouth. Describing the boundary of Tyningham monastery, he 
says : — " Et tota terra quae pertinet ad monasterium Sancti Bal- 
theri quod vocatur Tyningham, a Lambermore, usque ad Esce- 
muthe." In the seventh century it was thus called Eshmmdh, 
When the Lothians were formally ceded to the Scottish King in 
1020, the Ecclesia de MiLskilbu^gh came under the jurisdiction of 
St Andrews. In the eleventh century it was thus called JHft^sseZ- 
hurgh. One of two things is thereforet^ar, either that the town 
did not exist when Simeon of Durham wrote, or that it had be- 
come a burgh prior to 1020. It must have been a place of con- 
siderable importance before the close of the twelfth century, the 
barons of Scotland having assembled there on the 12th October 
1201, to swear fealty to the infant son of William the Lion. 

The arms of Musselburgh are three mussel-shells and three 
anchors, with the motto *^ Honesty," — the " honest toun o' 
Musselburgh" being proverbial. 

In the grant by David I. to the Abbey of Dunfermline the 



22 HI6T0BY OF THB 

lands are styled Great Inveresk or Muasettmrgh'shire,* " The 
mill," says Dr Carlisle, " to which this regality was astricted and 
thirled, is called the shire-mill, and the wood along the hanks of 
the river, of which little remains, is called shire-wood ; and She- 
riff-hall, at the extremity of the regality, has acquired its name 
in the same manner. The sheriff miln and hangh are repeatedly 
mentioned in the town books. 

" 29 Nov. 1708. — The Counsell condescend to sell the timber 
in the Sheriff-millne haugh, except what is fitt for the Croune use, 
and recommend to the two present magistratts and sighters to be 
present at the cutting and selling thereof, any day they think 
most proper for doing thereof, and that in regard of the timber 
being very old and greatly decayed." 

In 1239 Alexander 11. granted a charter of " libera forestas," 
or free forestry over the lands of the district, to the abbots. 

The oldest of the burgh charters are — a transumpt of a charter 
by David II., in favour of the burgh of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldie, 
Musselburgh, and Queensferry, confirming all their ancient rights 
and privileges as burghs of regality, holding of the Abbey of 
Dunfermline, dated 24th October 1364; and a charter by 
Robert, Ooinmendator of Dunfermline, with consent of the whole 
members of the convent thereto subscribing, dated 11th Decem- 
ber 1662. The latter narrates, "Quia per authentica documenta, 
&c., et quod cartas et infeofmentaprivilegiorum et facultatum dicti 
nostri burgi de Musselburgh, balivis et incolis ejusdem, per nos- 
tros predecessores temporibus praeteritis, concess. et confect. per 
veteres nostros Angliee hostes temporibus belli et guerri praete- 
ritis, combustae et omnino destructae fuerunt noveritis igitur. Nos, 
&c., dare concedere, haereditarie demittere et hac praesenti carta 
nostra confirmare dilectis nostri balivus communitatae et incolis 
dicti nostri burgi de Musselburgh, praBsentibus et eorum succes- 
soribus qui pro tempore fuerint, totum et integrum dictu in nos- 

* The district had thus the benefit of a sheriff at that early period. 



RKGALTBY OF HVSaXLBURGH. 23 

tram birrgnm de Mnsselbargli," <fec. In the Old Statistical Ac- 
count, this destrdction of the papers belonging to the burgh by 
the English is said to have occurred after the battle of Pinkie, 
but the charter does not say so, and from the silence of Patten, 
the English historian of Somerset's expedition, on the subject, it 
is more likely that the loss occurred in 1544, when the Tolbooth 
and Council- House were destroyed by fire. The convent re- 
served the mills, and prohibited the burgh from building either 
com or waulk milns without the license of the monastery. This 
charter was confirmed by Queen Anne, with consent of the King, 
19th May 1612, and subsequent Acts of Parliament. 

The lands and regality of Musselburgh continued in the hands 
of the monks till the Reformation. From the Mental of the 
Abbey in 1561, we quote the following, as illustrative of the 
localities, and their respective value : — 

" The Penny Meall and Annuell within Mussilburghe-schyre, 



Inveresk 


Ixxji*^ xvjd- 


Monktounhall 


xliij**^ vj8 viijd- 


LittiU Monktoune . 


. xviij"^ 


Natoun (Newton) 


xxix^*^ iijs- 


Smetoune 


xxx^i^ xiijs iiijd. 


Caldcottis . 


VJlil> 


Wonat bank 


vj*»^ xiijs iiijd. 


Garberrie 


xlMb 


Coetertoune 


■^Uh 


Pynkin (Pinkie) and Cars 


xxiijii*> 


The fisching 


viij»i> 


Womett 


xliiij^*^ xyjs- 


Stanyhill 


vj"^ xiij8 iiij*^- 


The mylnes 


Ixvj"^ xiij* iiij<*- 


The borrow meallis of Mussilbroc toune. Payt be ye 


bailHes 


liij« iiij<*- 


The annuell hill. Pait be 


ye laird hill . xx^- 


The annuell of edmistoune. 


Be ye laird thereof xiij^ iiij^- 


The annuell of ed^ Be the thr. thereof . . v^b 



24 HISTORY Of THE 

The annuell of Hadingtouii. Be ye baillie . xl*- 

The annuell of quhytsyd. Be ye lard Fawsyde. Nou be 

Mr Da4 and his spouse . . xx»- 

The annuell of the pannis. Be ye laird Craigmillar xx»- 

The annuell of Newbottle. The abbot of Newbottle xx^- 

The terrors's croft. Be bessy froge . xxvj^ viij^- 

Summa of ye penny meallis and annuellis within 

Mussilburghe . iiij^xixii^ xiij^ iiij<*- 

The ferm quheit amounted to . xv^**- vj^- 

The teynd quhyte to . i*- v^<>" (set for monej.) 

Tlie teynd beir . . iiij^^- j^- ij'- (not set.) 

The teynd aittis . . v*'*^- viji>«- 

TRANSMISSION OF THE PBOPERTL 

After the Reformation, says Chalmers, the lordship and Re- 
gality of Musselburgh, with the patronage of the church, and the 
various chaplainries subordinate to it, were conferred by James 
VI. upon his chancellor, Lord Thirlstane, the progenitor of the 
Earls of Lauderdale. In 1586, the office of hereditary bailie 
of the lordship of Musselburgh was held by the same nobleman : 
" Carta Domini Joannis Maitland de Thirlstane de officio 
balliautus de Mussilbrughshyre," About the same time he ap- 
pears to have obtained a gift of the Regality from his royal 
master, a "Procuratorie of resignatioun of ye lordschip of 
Mussilbrugh" being recorded in the cartulary of Dunfermline. 
Meanwhile the lordship of Dunfermline, which had been excepted 
out of the General Annexation Act of 1587, was conferred by 
James VI., as a marriage dowry, upon Queen Anne of Denmark. 
This occurred at Upsal, in Norway, on the morning after 
marriage, 23d November 1589, according to ancient custom. 
This grant was confirmed by two Acts of Parliament. On the 
20th February 1596, Alexander Seton, Lord Urquhart, Pre- 
sident of the Court of Session, (having previously had a charter 
from Queen Anne as keeper of the Abbey of Dunfermline,) was ap 



REOALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 25 

pointed hereditary bailie of the lordship of Musselburgh : " Carta 
Alexandrij Domini Urquhart officij hereditarj Balliautus de 
Mussilbrugh." 

Lord Urquhart, afterwards Earl of Dunfermline, continued to 
exercise the office of hereditary bailie. In 1630, there was a 
contract between his successor, the second Earl, and the magis- 
trates of Musselburgh, by which the latter were empowered to 
hold courts in all criminal causes, &c. This contract, with an 
additional grant, was confirmed by Charles I., 30th November, 
1682. The Earl of Lauderdale, at the same time, did not cease 
to assert his claim to the lordship of Musselburgh, who contended 
that it had, ab ante, been gifted to him, which plea was at length 
sustained. Accordingly we find him entering into a contract 
with the magistrates, empowering them to hold courts for the 
administration of justice, <fec., dated September 1642. 

In September 1649, John Earl of Lauderdale was served heir 
to his father in the lordship and regality of Musselburgh. " This 
record," says Chalmers, "evinces that James VI. granted to 
Lord Thirlstane the above lands, manors, regalities, jurisdictions, 
advowson of churches and chapels, with every species of property 
and right which the monks of Dunfermline had amassed on this 
pleasant site, during so many centuries. Lord Thirlstane, we 
see from the retour, transmitted the whole to his heirs, notwith- 
standing some unpleasant contests with Queen Anne, who had 
right of dower over the estates which had belonged to the mon- 
astery of Dunfermline." 

From John Earl of Lauderdale the burgh had a charter in 
which all its ancient rights and privileges are confirmed. This 
charter proceeded upon a contract entered into between the Earl 
and the town, the gist of which was that he should ratify the 
charters of David II. and the Commeudator of Dunfermline. Also 
their right to the third part of the four corn milns of Mussel- 
burgh, flowing from Thomas Smith and James Robertson, with 



26 HI8T0R7 OF THE 

the office of hereditary miller of the Sea Miln, with a novadamus 
of the nether miln of Brunstain, to be holden of the Earl. The 
magistrates were to pay 2400 merks as the feu-duty of these 
milns, the Earl and his successors being liable in payment of a 
third part of all taxation and public burdens to be imposed upon 
them; and of the sum of three hundred merks for the '^ burgh 
and lands thereof, with their privileges, and their third and sixth 
parts of the said milns and heritable office of miller and supe- 
riority of the said knaveship, and others therein mentioned, with 
this provision, that the said feu -duty of three hundred merks 
was to be in full satisfaction of all that was due by the redendo of 
their former charters." For the Earl's security he was to have 
" an heritable right of an annual rent of 2400 merks upliftable 
fui-th of the said toun, their third and sixth parts of the said 
four milns, astricted multures, and heritable office of miller, and 
also forth of the said nether miln of Brunstain, and of the said 
Earl his third part of the said milns." This contract was dated 
at Holyroodhouse and Musselburgh, 12th January and February 
1670. The charter which followed upon it was confirmed by 
Charles II., 21st July 1671.* 

"Most of this valuable property," says Chalmers, "remained 
in the Lauderdale family, notwithstanding the well-known pro- 
fusion of the Duke of Lauderdale, down till the beginning of 
last century." The Council Books contain many evidences of 
the kindly footing upon which the burgh stood with the superior, 
as, for example, the following : — 

"9th July 1688. — The counsel condescends 'to allow my Lord 

* The magistrates had the right of holding courts, punishing male&Mtors, 
and, if needful, of putting them to trial and torture. It further gave the 
power of granting infeftments — "of cognoscing, entering, and seizing the 
heirs of the foresaid free tenants, in the foresaid lands, tenements and 
others, respectively above specified, when their certain right is clearly 
manifested, according to the old usage and custom of the said burgh." 



REOALITt Of BIDSSSLBURGH. 27 

Lauderdale all the carts can be had in the place for canning BOOie 
timber from Eisberaw to Thirlstane Castle for bis use, conforme 
to ane leet to be made tbereof by tbe baillies, under the penaltie 
of 6 lib. wbo refuses, against Thursday next." 

"23d October 1700. — ^This day the Councill condescends to 
send the tounes carts. to Cranstone to Mr William Maitland, to 
carry in hay from that to the abbey of Holyrood House, and 
under the penaltie of ten merks for Uie absent cart/' 

"24th November 1702. — The which day the Counsell having 
considered the Lord Maitland's desyre by his letter desyring the 
loan of eight carts for carrying his plenishing to Thirlestane 
Oastle, and they considering the badness of the way, that carts 
eaxmot pass that way, therefor condescend to give him thirty 
horses for cariagc for transporting thereof." 

Dr Moir says that "before the commencement of the seventeenth 
[eighteenth] century, the lordship of Liveresk, which had be- 
longed to the Dicksons of Carberry, was sold by the then proprie- 
tor, Sir Robert, to Anne, Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleuch." 
This, however, could not be ; Sir Robert Dickson of Carberry 
Btill held the superiority in 1705, in which year we find the 
following minute in the Council Books : 

" 13th February, 1705. — The Counsell appoynts the two pre- 
sent baillies to goe to Edinburgh to-morrow to speak with Sir 
Robert Dicksone and the assessor anent John Duncan's holding 
courts in the tolbooth under pretence of Sir Robert Dicksone, 
and in the time holds Sir James Baird's, and the other heritors, 
who bought their superiorities, and thereupon has not only 
fined but also imprisoned some persones within the tolbooth, 
whereby the toune may be prejudged, and whereupon to take 
their advice whether the toune is obleiged or noe to famish the 
tolbooth to the other heritors except Sir Robert Dicksone, and 
with power to them to doe therein as they shall be advysed, and 
to report to the counsell against the next meeting." 

The superiority of the Regality had thus been broken up 
amosg sundry proprietors, of whom Sir Robert Dicksone was 



28 HISTORT Of THl 

one of the principal, being patron of the chnrch. He was de- 
scended from Dr David Dickson, at one time minister of Irvine, 
and afterwards professor in the University of Edinburgh. The 
relationship between Sir Robert and the burgh was at one time 
not of the most amicable description. From a minute of Council, 
dated 16th July 1705, we Team that a law plea was entered into, 
the summons of reduction by the superior having been met by a 
counter sunmions on the part of the Council, which was directed 
^^ against the Earl of Lauderdale as well for his interest in the 
contract past betwixt the Earl and the toune in 167 0,'^ the date 
of the charter granted by his lordship to the town. The nature 
of the plea is not defined in the minute, but that the burgh con- 
sidered it important appears from the following more than 
usually specific entry : 

"19th October, 1705. 

Sbdebunt. 

Richard Douglas, baillie. Robert Vemor. 

Patrick Heriot, old thesr. Robert Smart. 

James Ramage. Thomas Tod. 

Alexander Edgelie. Thomas Mitchell. 

Thomas Wilkie. James Brown. 

Robert Douglas, yr. baillie. George Watsone. 

The whilk day the members of Counsell above named, considering 
that the toune is involved in a plea with Sir Robert Dicksone, 
anent the toun's rights and priviledges, therefore they think fitt, 
for defraying the charge of l^e said plea, to acquaint the masters 
of the incorporations to intimate to their several trades that there 
must be a voluntar contributione by all the burgesses for the 
toun's defence, and to that effect the Counsell appoynts Baillie 
Vemor, Baillie Smart, Baillie Tod and Thomas Mitchell, to 
meet with the saids masters, with the Baillies and thesaurers 
concurrance, and after intimatione to the trades and burgesses, 
with power to them to fall upon such measures for gathering in 
the said contributione as they shall think fitt, and declares any 
four of them to be a quorum, and recommends to Baillie Richard 



BEaALITT or MXTSSBLBUBOH. 29 

Douglass, BailUe Tod, the present thesr., and the clerk, to attend 
the said kisiness/' 

How the law plea ended is not mentioned. It seems to have 
continued for some time, the council paying the rent of the mills 
to Sir Eobert Dicksone under protest. In 1707 (7th April) 
the Council " borrow two hundred pounds Scots from Thomas 
Wilkie to make up the mill rents, amounting to 900 lib. Scots, 
due at Whitsunday last." Sir Robert died in 1712, leaving his 
son a minor. Perhaps the following minute has reference to the 
sale of the superiority on the part of the Dicksons : 

"9th November, 1713. — The Councill condescends that Baylie 
Wilkie, Baylie Smart, Eichard Douglas, and Maister Ross, shall 
go to Edinburg hand inform themselves off the nature and tearms 
oflf the rowping the superiority; and also that they inform them- 
selves and see if they can gett money to borrow att the Bank to 
buy up their share ofif the superiority in caise the same should be 
rouped betwixt and Saturday next/ 

It would appear that the town was not successful in raising 
the money, and that the superiority was then, in 1713, and not 
" before the commencement of the eighteenth century," purchased 
by the Duchess of Monmouth. Dr Carlisle states, that the 
lordship of Musselburgh was purchased from the Earl of Lauder- 
dale by the Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleuch in 1709. The 
lordship and patronage of the church still remain with the 
Buccleuch family. Certain portions of the Regality and parish 
have been disjoined and added to the parishes of Cranston, New- 
ton, and Dalkeith. • 



BiaHTS AND PfilVILEGES OF THE EEGAUTT. 

Before the ReformationMusselburghwas an ecclesiastical burgh 
of regality, belonging, as has been shown, to the Abbey of Dun- 



30 HISTORY OF THB 

fermline. Since then it holds of the Lord Superior, at present 
the Duke of Buccleudi, on payment of certain sums annually as 
quit-rent or feu-duty. The territories of the burgh extend along 
the sea-coast, the whole length of the pfuish, and are about three 
miles in length, and two in breadth. In 1682 Musselburgh was 
erected into a royal burgh, by a charter under the Great Seal ; 
but the magistrates of Edinburgh obtained a decreet of reduction 
of the charter before the Privy Council, dated 30th November 
of that year, in consequence of a compromise with the magis- 
trates of Musselburgh. As it is, the town possesses all the power 
and privileges of a royal burgh, with the exception of returning 
a delegate to the Convention of Eoyal Burghs. Although in 
reality constituting one community, Musselburgh and Fisherrow 
were in some measure distinct, the latter being perhaps of more 
recent growth, and without the ancient ports. Before the Reform 
of the Burghs in 1833, the Regality of Musselburgh was governed 
by eighteen councillors, two of whom were bailies. In a minute 
of 24th September, 1703, the sett is described as consisting of 
the above number, "10 always living within the ports of Mussel- 
burgh, and 8 within the liberties and privileges thereof; 6 in 
Fisherrow, Bridgend, end Mercat-gate, and two living in New- 
bigging, Milnehill, and Saut-pans ; every year, 8 days l^ore 
Michaehnas, two old councillors retire, and two new elected." 

At the election, 29th September, 1702, Bailie Douglas pro- 
tested that no person living without the ports had a right to be 
elected. This had the effect of throwing out the representatives 
from Fisherrow, <fec., and a complete schism, took place for some 
time. Overtures were given in on both sides to Sheriff Calder- 
wood, Edinburgh, with a view to an amicable settlement ; and, 
in consequence of his advice, apparently, they were admitted as 
formerly to the Council Board on the 24th September, 1703. 
Amongst other bye-laws the Council enacted that parties elected, 



BBGALITT OT MUSfflLBUBOH. 81 

and refusing to accept of office, should be fined. In 1698, 
Kobert Graham of Slipperfield was elected a councillor and 
treasurer, but failing to appear, after divers warnings, he was 
ordered to pay forty shillings Scots. 

The magistrates, as already stated, had the power, by their 
title-deeds, to hold a court of record, and issue precepts both on 
their deciees and registrations. They were entitled to grant in- 
feftment by hasp and staple, more hu/rgi; but, Dr Carlisle ob- 
serves, their clerk was not entitled to a protocol record of infeft- 
ments, as used to be the case in burghs royal. This is a mistake : 

" 22d June, 1713. — The Councill appoynts the present Baylies 
and thesaurer, Baylie Ainslie, Baylie Mitchell, John Douglas, and 
John Sampson, to meett against Saturday att eight of the mor- 
ning and sitt till eleven, and to meett att one, and sitt till four 
afternoon, and then to take inspection into the prothogalh, and 
other books or papers belonging to the town and inhabitants, as 
they are now in the hands of Widow Edgar, so that they may 
be inventored and delivered to Thomas Tod, present clerk, and 
condescend thatt James Edgar be sent for to witness the same." 

Here then we see that the burgh had a protocol record. In 
the inventory of documents belonging to the burgh, six volumes 
of sasines are mentioned, commencing in 1613. These, however, 
with the exception of some loose sheets, have not been preserved. 
On the 23d March 1603*4, a cause was moved in Parliament 
against " William Froge and George Hill, the Bailies of Mussel- 
burgh, for their misconduct in serving certain writs of inquest, 
which had issued from the chapel [chancery] of the abbot of 
Dunfermline, on a tenement in that town. The Lords found 
that the inquest had erred in serving the writs, and set aside the 
retour." All sasines are now, and have been for many years 
back, recorded in the county register ; but being an incorporated 
buigh the town was excepted out of the Jurisdiction Act.* The 

* The Begality of old paid £2 yearly into the Exchequer. 



32 HISTORY OF THE 

Bailies held Courts of Justice, criminal as well civil, and exer- 
cised all the powers of feudal barons, with the exception of in- 
flicting capital punishment. Like most other burghs they 
maintained an assize for regulating the price of bread. 

"8th February, 1682. — The Counsell finds the pryce of good 
and sufficient wheat for the present to be seven pund Scottes, and 
therefor ordaines the baxters and bread sellers within the burgh 
and liberties to make ther bread sufficient, conforme to the book 
of rates, of weight, fynes and pryce, under the paine of ther being 
punished att the will of the magistrates. '^ 

It is a great mistake upon the part of those who imagine that 
the culture of wheat in Scotland is only of recent introduction. 

The Council records famish not a few examples of how they 
managed the police affairs of the burgh : 

"16th June, 1682. — The baillies and Counsell grants warrand 
to and commands ther officers to eject Thomas Dunlop, weaver, 
ane Quaker, for being guiltie of the said heresie, and comeing to 
reside in ther burgh without ane certificate, he having gotten 
tymeous advertisement of befor to that effect, and having pro- 
mised to bring a dertificate." 

Dunlop, the Quaker, does not seem to have been so easily 
ejected : — 

" 31 Julii 1682. — The Counsell condescends that the baillies 
shall proceed against Thomas Dunlop, Quaker, according to law, 
conform to the advyce of ther lawyers, and lykways against 
other Quakers, keepers of conventicles, within their liberties, as 
they shall be advysed by the assessor, conforme to the Act of 
Parliament." 

Musselburgh had also its jougs^ or stocks, as a punishment. 
It must have been affixed to the pedestal of the cross : — 

" 3 Julii 1688.— The Counsell ordames Robert Scott and 
Alexander Porteous to ly in closs prisone till Saturday next, at 
which day they are appointed to be taken to the mercat cross, 



BEOALITT Of HUSSELBUBGH. 33 

and sitt a considerable tyme in the stocks with a parcell of stoUen 
malt besyd them, and tiierefber to be banished the place, nnless, 
betwixt and that tyme, they make a full discoverie of ther 
mghboures accession to the lyke stealths of malt and come for- 
merly." 

The burgh had also its officers, anned with halberts : — 

"15 Julii 1689. — The baillies having formerly depryved 
Kobert Porteous, officer, for invading William Porteous "vnth 
ane halbert, without provocation, to the hazard of his lyfe, the 
Counsell approves of what the baillies hes done, and allowes the 
eaid Robert only to officiat as officer till Michaelmas next, and 
declares his place thereafter vacant." 

The magistrates were somewhat sensitive on the score of their 
official character : — 

" 3 Julii 1690.— The Counsell fynes Walter Ramsay, shoe- 
make, in 40^^^ Scottes, for certaine injurious expressions uttered 
be him against the baillies, and declares him to have tint and 
omitted his burgeship in tyme coming." 

"2 Oct. 1699."— Charles Wilson, late treasurer, fined in 40s. 
and imprisoned, for saying, at the last election, that the baillies 
and council were unjust. He was also to beg their pardon. 

There being no police force in these days, the inhabitants were 
compelled to turn out as a guard upon particular occasions : — 

"26 Jan. 1702. — ^The Counsell, in regard that the toune is 
dayly invaded by^thieves and breaking of houses, therefor they 
appoynt a watch of twelve men on each side of the water, to 
watch the toune, and recommends it to the present baillies, or 
any other of Counsell they please to call for, to assist them in 
taking up rolls of the persons names that ar to watch nightly, 
with a commander each night to command them." 

In small communities, where the authorities are daily in the 
habit of mixing with their fellow-townsmen, it is not easy to 
command that respect which is due to the judicial office. The 



34 HI8T0&T or THX 

folbwing cases are illnstratiTe of this, as well as of ihe maiuieis 

and customs of the times : — 

"17 May 1708. — The baillies having represented to the Conn- 
sell that they, having quartered two of the horse granadeers upo& 
Charles Wright, haxter in Newbigging, as they did upon other 
burghers, he thereupon exclaimed against them, and .turned out 
his horse upon Baillie Bich^* Douglas his wheat, and carried 
Along with him ane charged gun, and told Baillie Yemor to his 
face, that if anybody opposed him, be whom they pleased, he 
would put a pair of balls through ther head. Thereupon he was 
convened before the baillies, and failzied to appear. Being per- 
sonallie apprehended, for which the baillies fyned him in 10^ 
for his contumacie, and ordained him to be brought down by 
force ; and accordingly he was brought, and in presence of both 
the baillies and others, when he, in a most rude manner, appealed 
with his bonnet on his head, and would not discover upon noe 
account, and acknowledged that if any persone had hindered him 
when he was upon the wheat with his horse he would h^ve shott 
them upon the spott, and disowned the magistrats to be bis 
baillies, and cared not a ^ « « -x- for them ; ffor which the baillies 
ordered him to prisone till he payed the said 10^^ for contumacie, 
and to find caution to answer the counseU under the penaltie of 
100^^^, which the said Charles refused to doe, and said somebody 
should ly on the ground or he would doe it ; and last, when be 
was commanded, he went to prisone, and said he should be' out 
of it that night, being Saturday's night last, &t ten of clock, 
whether the baillies would or not. This was done in Wm. Pur- 
sell's house, upon Saturday the 15th instant, betwixt 8 and 
4 hours afternoon, before George Hamilton, Pat. Heriot, eldar, 
Wm. Tod, and the said Wm. Pursell." 

When next brought before the Council, Wright acknowledged 
that he had acted in a passion rashly. The Council fined him 
in 100^^ Scots, with loss of his freedom and imprisonment until 
he should find caution in 500 merks not to molest the bailies 
in future. Upon a petition, however, he was afterwards restored 
to his status as a burgess« 



KBGAiaTT OV MUBSBLBUBGH. 85 

^' 18 Dec. 1710. — The which daj the Oonnsell being ecm- 
yened, and it haying been represented to them by the present 
magistratts, Thomas Tod and Alexander Ainslie, that there 
h&yeing the hat week been two oak trees cast out at Fisherrow, 
and the saids Magistratts being informed that Patrick Taite, 
younger, in Fisherrow, had at his own hand taken away the 
granes'^ of the saids trees, and discharged him to dispose thereon 
iiatill pnblick intimation were made at the church doors of Mus- 
selburgh at the dissolving of the congregations convened for the 
tyme, to any persone or persones who had or would pretend 
light to and niake it appear that the saids trees were theres. 
And the said Patrick Taite haveing answered that he cared not 
for any areistment or order of the saids magistratts, and that he 
would noe ways regard it. The saids magistratts haveing or- 
dered the said Patrick Taite to cause carry down the gndnes of 
the saids trees to David Douglas, wright in Fisherrow, under 
the pain of ten pound Scotts money, and he haveing answered 
that he would obey no such orders if it should cost him one 
hundred pound, and the saids magistratts being informed thereof, 
and haveing ordered the said Patrick Taite to be brought and 
heard befor them, and he haveing appeared and being desyred to 
attend for a small tyme till he was called for, he, in a most 
audacious and contemptible manner, told the saids magistratts 
that he knew nothing they had to say to him, and that he would 
not stop on them, and having accordingly gone home to his own 
house, and haveing been thereafter again ordered to compeir befor 
the saids magistratts, he compeired in Baillie Robert Smart's 
house in Fisherrow, and being civilly reproved for his saids con- 
tempt and disobedience, and being told that he was fyned there* 
for, and that he must goe to prisone till he payed his contumacie, 
he told the saids magistratts in the face most audaciously that 
befor he went to prison he should know what for — and haveing 
been ordered to goe to prison by the two officers, he, far contrar 
to his bulges oatii, disobeyed, run away from the said officers and 
made his escape — and haveing been thereafter apprehended with 
great difficulty in his own house by the toun's officers, and being 
desyred to open the door, and haveing refused so to doe for a 
long tyme^ Uie officers told him that they would break open the 
* Branobei. 



<5b mSIOBT OV THE 

door in the Queen's name, whereupon he haveing opened the 
said door, and with much difficulty being brought to prison, 
where he yet lay. All this done in presence of Robert Smart, 
David Douglas, the clerk and others, and which complaint above 
written the Councill haveing heard and considered, and the said 
Patrick Taite being called befor them, and compeiring personallie, 
he most contemptuously walked up and down the tolbuith where 
the Council was sitting, and would iiot stand still, but in a most 
audacious and contemptible manner craved the double of the 
complaint made against him, and he having not denied the same 
• — In respect of all which the Councill not only deprived him of 
his fredome as a burges, and ordained his burges ticket to be de- 
stroyed, but lykewayes ordained the said Patrick Taite to pay 
the sum of forty pounds Scotts money, and continue in prisone 
till payment thereof, and of the ten pounds Scotts money forsaid 
of contumacie wherein he is fyned by the saids magistratts, by 
contemning and disobeying ther authority in manner forsaid." 

It would thus appear that the magistrates were in the habit 
of holding courts in a very informal manner — ^in public or private 
houses. 

" 25 Feb. 1717. — The which day the Councill having consi- 
dered that Anna Crawford, daughter to James Craufurd, work- 
man in Musselburgh, had on Saturday last perpetrate the horrid 
crime of murder on a child she had bom on Saturday last, twixt 
four or five of the morning, to Alexander Bruce, flesher in Mus- 
selburgh, and also considering that her Grace the Duchess of 
Buccleugh has power to determine in such capital crimes, they 
recommend it to the BaiUies to write to BaiUie Innes, her Grace's 
Baillie thereanent; and to recommend him to see how it must be 
disposed of, and that he would come down here to take or^er 
thereanent ; and in case Baillie Lmes declines, they recommend 
to BailHe Smart and the Clerk to go to-morrow to Ed'» and 
there to take Mr Coult the assessor along with them to the King's 
advocate, and ordain them to take her confession with them, and 
to advise with the advocate what must be farther done with her." 

There is no subsequent minute on the subject, but it is likely 
the prisoner was conveyed to Edinburgh. 



REQALITT OF HTrSSKLBUBGH. 37 

In 1761, after a process of nearly ten years' standing, the 
magistrates were amerced by the Court of Session in £70 da- 
mages, at the instance of John Duncan, travelling chapman, 
'^ said to be sustained by the said Duncan in a riot committed in 
the streets of Musselburgh some time in August 1762/' when 
Bobert Primrose was a magistrate. 

By the Keform Bill— drawn up, it is said, by Mr Thomas 
Drummond, then secretary to Lord Althorpe, who received his 
education at Musselburgh — ^the sett of the bttrgh was altered. It 
is now governed by a Provost, with a Town-Council of twelve, 
out of which two bailies and a treasurer are chosen. The first 
Provost under the new system was William Aitchison of Drum- 
more, who was succeeded by Sir John Hope of Craighall, <fec. 

There are no police in the town save those connected with the 
county, of which Musselburgh is a station. The fukie of the 
buigh is let annually, and carts perambulate the streets every 
morning for the removal of nuisances. 

REVENUE OF THE BDBGH. 

The revenue of the burgh is derived from feu-duties, lands, 
multures of the mills, shore or harbour dues, and the customs. 
The mills seem to have been the more important source of in- 
come. It would appear that there were at one time no fewer 
than four com mills within the liberties, and that the office of 
miller of the Shvre mill was held hereditarily. " In June 1636, 
Thomas Smith was served heir to his father, a burgess of Mussel- 
burgh, in two oxgates of the lands of Inveresk, 2^ acres in the 
moor of Inveresk, and a tenement in Inveresk, together with the 
office of hereditary miller of the mill called the Shire mill, within 
the limits of Inveresk, with the mill acre : also to the sixth part 
of the/ot^ com mills of Musselburghschyre, and to the sixth part 



88 BIBIOAT or THX 

of the haughj near the said Shiie mill.'''*' The hereditary miller 
htui acquired a sixth part of these properties by purchase. The 
four mills were the Shire mill, the two West mills, and the Sea 
mill — ^the latter so called because of its proximity to the shore, 
the sea having then flowed nearer the town than it does now. 
The miller of the town mills also held his office hereditarily. 
The mills are repeatedly mentioned in the Council books : — 

" 18 Nov. 1679. — The Counsell condescends that the milnes 
shall not be set for the ensuing year under three thousand merks-f- 
of tack dutie." 

This was a goodly sum in those days — amounting to £166, 
IBs. 4d. sterling. The null duties were usually let to the highest 
bidder, or retained in the hands of the town : — 

" 5 Nov. 1683. — The Counsell appoynts Monday next, being 
the 12th instant, at 2 of the clock in ihe afternoon, for rouping 
ther milnes, and ordaines intimation to be made theirof the or- 
dinarie way." 

The Council seem to have had much trouble in enforcing the 
privileges of the mills. 29 September 1686, they '' discharge all 
meill not grand at the toun's milnes from being brought within 
their liberties," great damage to the income of the burgh having 
been sustained by the " import of meal grand at other milnes." 
Numerous other minutes, of a similar nature, occur down to a 
late period, and various prosecutions were entered into against 
those who evaded the multures. There are several entries re- 
garding the mills which may be curious : — 

" 17 Oct. 1692. — The Counsell appoynts ane outter wheale to 
be bought and provydit for the Sea milne, and discharges the 
millers to keep swine or exact drink from the girsters as they 
have of late unwarrantablie done, under the paine of deprivation, 
and not take the soupings of the houpes or milne for iJieir oune 

* Gfaalmera's Caledonia, 
t A meik Soots is equal to thirteen pence and one third of a penny stor. 



BBOALITT Of MU88BLBUB0H. 39 

use, to the prejudice of the said girsters, under the forsaid poine, 
and being ^rther punished at the baillie's pleasure/' 

" 17 Sept. 1702.— The whilk day the Oounsell ordains that 
in tym coming the multurer shall draw the multures at the milnes 
in manor underwritten, viz., for each two bolls of malt ane peck 
of multure, and ane peck of multure for each six firlots of all other 
grains to be grunded thereat, aiid that noe pocks shall be carried 
to the milns and inunediately grunded, but that the same shall be 
secked up in seeks, to the effect that the multurer may know what 
quantitie is thereof, and ordains all methods maginable to be 
taken for truly drawing the saids multures, and ingathering the 
abstracted multure, and discharges any ease to be given to any 
persone whatsoever, under the paine of deprivation of the multures, 
and otherways to be punished as the baillies shall think fitt." 
. " 16 April 1705. — This day the Baillies and Oounsell having 
declared Adam Stenhouse his office as nackett in the Sea-milne for 
his miscarriages to be vacant, therefore they have elected and 
admitted, and hereby admits and installs Eobert Wood, servitor to 
Patrick Herriot, younger, to be the tonne's servant and nackett 
in the said milne, in place of the said Adam Stenhouse," &c. 

The word nacket, in Scotch, signifies diminutive — as the old 
song has it, 

'* lliere waa a wee cooper who lived in Fife, 
Nickity, nackity, noo, noo, noo. 
And he has gotten a gentle wife, 
Hey Willy Wallacky, how John Dongall, 
Alane, quo' rushety, roue, roue, roue." 

The nackett of the Sea milne, therefore, may have been a servant 
in an inferior position. We are not aware of having seen it used 
in this sense before, and no explanation of the term is given in 
Jamieson's Scottish Di-ctuma/ry. 

In 1713 the mills were not to be rouped under a rental of 
2000 merks Scots money. On the 9th June 1716 the Ooundl 
instructs William Berry to collect the town's third part of the 
hnaveship of the i^ree milnes of Musselburgh, and to oversee the 



40 mSTOBT OF THE 

reparations that will fall to the town's share. The Sheriff mill 
had been destroyed by fire in 1729. 

" 29 Sept. 1730. — The Council having considered a petition 
given in to them by Robert Smith, shewing that the Shirref miln 
and kiln was burnt the 13 Dec. last, which had cost him near six 
hundred pound of reparation, the Councill theirfor at his request 
allow George Smart to pay him two hundred pound with all de- 
spatch, in order to alleviate the expenses he has been at." 

Robert Smith was the hereditary miller,* consequently the 
town had little authority over the Sheriff mill. On the. 18th 
May 1741, we find a mmute to the effect that the knaveship of 
the Shire miln had " lyen in nonentry since the death of Robert 
Smith, merchant, and that Archibald Shiells, merchant, Ed'* , to 
whom it belongs, shall enter immediately with the toun." A 
new charter was to be made out, and he to pay an entry of ten 
guineas. By a minute of the 13th Jan. 1758, the Council 
agreed to purchase Mr Shiell's share of the Shire mill for 
£603, 6s. 8d., being at the rate of twenty years* purchase — 
provided, as offered, he got a good tenant for twenty years. It 
was ultimately arranged to give £600, Mr Shiells agreeing as 
tenant, along with Mr Douglas, brewer, Newbigging, for nine 
years, for mill and houses, at the annual rent of £26, 38. 4d. 
This mill, as described by D'r Moir, " stood at the top of the 
Shire-haugh. It was burned down in 1827 ; and its site, with 
the banks of the Esk upward on the eastern side, was sold in the 
following year by the magistrates of Musselburgh to the pre- 
sent Duke of Buccleuch. The mill itself lay on the slope of 
the bank by the road-side, and an ancient bridge of one arch 
spanned the mill lead. To the north of it was the miller's house, 

* Between 1555 and 1583 the Abbey of Dnnfennline gave a charter of 
confinnation to " Wm. Scot et Joannis Scot ejus filii de offidis molitorum 
antiqni et novi molendini de Musselbuigh.'* 



BEGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 41 

a pleasant mansion of two storeys, and at either side of it were 
minor domiciles for his assistants; a parapet of stone enclosed the 
whole, together with the gardens ; and some venerahle ashes and 
ehns spoke of hygone centuries. The boundary walls of Dal- 
keith Park now encircle the spot, and no vestiges of the build- 
ings remain." 

In 1747 the Council disposed of their part of the Bumston or 
Brunston Mills to the Lord Justice Clerk (Sir Gilbert Elliot of 
Minto), to be held by him in fee — and agreed to purchase James 
Crookshanks' share for 4400 merks. 

20th Jan. 1749. — The Council agreed to mount the Westmiln 
with limestone stones, for grinding wheat, from the Marquis of 
Lothian's limestone quarries at Newbottle ; but as they could not 
be had there they commissioned as much burrstone from London 
as would suffice. 

17th Nov. 1749. — The Council agreed to purchase from Oliver 
Conlt, writer in Edinburgh, his share of the multures of the 
mills of Musselbrugh for £250 sterling, the sum he paid for it. 
His share was a twelfth. 



HOW THE TOM'S INTEREST IN THE MILLS WAS ACQUIEED. 

The mills of Musselburgh, as we have seen from the charter of 
1562, were reserved by the monks of Dunfermline. The town*s 
interest in them was gradually acquired from parties to whom 
they had been gifted by the convent. From the title deeds in 
possession of the burgh, it appegirs that an act by the court held 
at Musselburgh was passed in 1555, in favour of Janet Beaton^ 
Lady Buccleuch, against the proprietors and tenants of Caldcoat, 
Newtone, &c., for abstracting their multures from the milns of 
Musselburgh (as far as vested in the person of Kichardson of 
Smeton.) The year before (April 19, 1554), " Peter Dune, for- 



42 HT8T0BT OF THX 

merly living in Saltonne/' had a remissipn, amongst other crimes, 
" for the treasonable fire-raising and burning of the milneft of 
Mussilbnrghe, belonging in lease to Dame Janet Betoune, and 
destroying and laying waste the same, committed in company 
with oar ancient enemies the English and the traitors of Scot- 
land by the space of three years, viz., 1547, 1648, and 1549," 
&c. Notwithstanding Dun's remission, not having been able to 
find security for his future good conduct, he was condemned to 
be executed.* 

Janet Beton was rather a &mous person of her time, and is 
celebrated in the " Lay of the Last Minstrel" : — 

. " In sorrow o*er Lord Walter's bier, 

The warlike foresters had bent. 
And many a flower and many a tear 

Old Teviot's maids and matrons lent ; 
But o'er her warrior's bloody bier. 
The ladye dropt nor flower nor tear. 
Vengeance, deep-brooding o'er the slain. 

Had locked the source of softer woe, 
And burning piide and high disdain 

Forbade the rising tear to flow. 
Until, amid his sorrowing clan. 

Her son lisped from the nurse's knee, 
* And if I live to be a man, 

My &ther'8 death revenged shall be !' 
Then fast the mother's tears did seek 
To dew the infant's kindling chedc." 

Lady Buccleuch was the daughter of John Beton of Cleish, 
and second wife to Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm and Buccleuch. 
She had been married twice, it is said, before ; first, to the Laiid 
of Cranston, and secondly, to the Laird of Craigmillar (Preston), 
the latter of whom she left and married Buccleuch. Sir Walter 
is known in history for his gallant attempt, at the head of one 

* Fitcairn'8 Criminal Trials. 



REGALITT Of MUSSELBXmGH. 43 

thotisand of his retainers, to rescue James Y. from the thraldom 
of the Douglasses, when the king and his guardians were on 
a progress to the Border in 1626. Scott was prompted to this 
by his sovereign, who wrote privately, urging him to come to his 
rescue. Buccleuch was unsuccessful. After several hours* hard 
fighting he was forced to retire. Many were slain in the en- 
counter. Amongst others, Andrew Ker of Cessford, a person 
much esteemed and regretted by all parties. A long and violent 
fend between the Kers and Scotts resulted from this foray, and 
at last Sir Walter was killed, at Edinburgh, in a nocturnal en- 
counter with Sir Walter Ker of Cessford, in 1562. After his 
death Lady Buccleuch managed the estate in the most masculine 
spirit. She possessed the hereditary abilities of the family to 
such a degree that popular belief attributed her conduct to super- 
natural agency. She used to ride at the head of the clan at all 
the feudal gatherings. She was in her widowhood in 1666, when 
the act respecting the multure of the mills of Musselburgh was 



The mills had been gifted away, it would appear, at an early 
period by the Abbots of Dunfermline, to their clerical friends or 
relations. In 1566, Mr Kobert Kichardson, Commendator of 
the Island of St Mary, Treasurer of Scotland, resigned the two 
com mills of Musselburgh to Robert, Ajch-Dean of St Andrews, 
Principal and Commendator of Dunfermline. Immediately (2d 
April 1666) afterwards they were granted in a charter, by the 
Abbot, to Henry Dune. 

In 1567 (12th April) Mr Robert Richardson resigned to the 
Cotnmendator the Tiew miln of Musselburgh, at the foot of the 
vennel called Kerse (or Ker's Wynd. This new mill is still 
known as the Sea mill ; but at what time it was built does not 
appear. It must have been some years previously, as we find 



44 HISTORY OF THE 

Henry Durie, in 1560, granting a charter of the knaveship of 
the new miln to William Scott. 

In 1579 (10th June) Henry Durie had a charter of confirma- 
tion from James VI. of the two com milns of Musselburgh, he 
and his successors paying yearly therefor ^93, 6s. 8d. Scots, with 
forty -eight capons and two swine, payable at Whitsunday and 
Martinmas. 

Twelve years previously, (7th Nov. 1567) Henry Durie had 
granted a charter of the two com milns to James Richardson of 
Smeton, and Elizabeth Douglas, spouses, and James Richardson, 
their son, in fee ; whom failing, to other heirs. In the charter 
the mills are described as those formerly possessed by Lady Janet 
Beatoun, and now, the one of them called the Shire mill, by 
John Smith, and the other by WiUiam Scott, the new mill, 
lately built, lying contigue on the north side of William Scott's, 
and possessed by him ; and also another new mill, built at the 
end or foot of the vennel called Kerse Wynd. Thus, in 1567, 
there were four com mills in Musselburgh, possessed by Richard- 
son of Smeton from Henry Durie, who held them from the 
Abbot of Dunfermline, and who paid yearly for them the sum 
already mentioned. This charter was confirmed by Robert, 
Commendator of Dunfermline, 17th Dec. 1579. 

James Richardson of Smeton had a renunciation of the liferent 
of the new com miln, built at the north end of the old miln, at 
the west end of the town, by Margaret Macbeth, spouse to Henry 
Durie, dated 31st May 1583. The West mills thus consisted 
of two under the same roof, which, with the Sea and Shire mills, 
made up the four belonging to Musselburgh. 

Amongst the mill papers there are numerous processes, de- 
creets, and homings, against parties for abstracted multures, in 
the name of James Richardson, and of his son, Sir James, from 
1589 to 1618. Even Musselburgh itself seems to have offended 



BEGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 45 

in this respect. In 1623 there are letters of homing, at the in- 
stance of Sir James Richardson of Smeton, against the haill in- 
habitants of Musselburgh. At the same time the hurgh seems 
to have possessed the knaveship"^ of the mill in 1594, in which 
year the magistrates had a decree against certain individuals who 
had avoided payment of the dues. 

In October 1627, Sir James Richardson of Smeton sells and 
dispones to Thomas Smith, William Scot, and James Robertson, 
merchants in Musselburgh, the four milns, the two old and two 
new, " together with the piece of haugh beside the miln called 
the Shyre miln, as the same lyes in length and breadth betwixt 
the miln dam and water of Esk ;t and also the office of heritable 
miller of the new or Sea miln, which miller office pertained heri* 
tably to William Scot, younger, as heir to William Scot, elder, 
his father. Also to the said Thomas Smith, the superiority, feu 
mails and duties of the miller office of the Shire miln and the 
milrig adjacent, which heritable office pertained to said Thomas 
Smith. To William Scott, elder, heritable miller office of the 
two milns under one roof, old and new of West miln, and milrig 
adjacent, which pertained heritably to the said William Scott." 
Sir James Richardson to have his own com ground, and be free 
of all services whatever. The contract farther contains an obli- 
gation to infeft for payment of £100 Scots of feu-farm, with 
forty-eight capons and two gaits (goats), with a clause of abso- 
lute warrandice, with and under the exception of 500 merks. 

This disposition was ratified (25th Oct. 1627) by Dame Agnes 
Kerr, Lady Smeton, before the bailie of the Regality of Mussel- 

* The knaveship is a small allowance of meal, established by v^page, in 
payment of the under miller. 

t From this it would appear that the river at this time still flowed in 
its old course, from the railway bridge, above Inveresk, towards the dam 
in a more westerly direction, leaving the Shire haugh, or bohn, almost 
wholly on the eastern side. 



46 HISTORY OF THS 

burgh, and a charter followed thereon by Sir James, with con- 
sent of his lady, which was oonfinoed by a charter nnder the 
Great Seal in 1628. 

On the 12th April 1628, Thomas Smith and James Robert- 
son, for the sum of 21,666 merks, nine shillings Scots, sell to the 
magistrates the half -of their two-third parts of the four com 
milns ; also the third part of the haugh, beside the Shyre miln ; 
also third part of the miller office of the new miln, reserving to 
Thomas Smith the heritable office of miller of the Shyre miln. 

Subsequently (date mutilated) James Robertson dispones to 
the magistrates, for 1200 merks, his remaining portion of the 
four milns, extending to a sixth part ; also his sixth part of the 
piece of haugh, and sixth part of the office of miller of the Sea 
miln. This is followed by a precept under the Great Seal from 
Charles I., dated at Edinburgh 4th April and 25th July 1637, 
for infefting the burgh in the said half of the two third-parts of 
the four com milns, ^' extending to a just third part of the said 
haill milns, and of the astricted multures of the lordships thereof, 
and third part of the haugh beside the Shyre miln; as also of the 
third part of the superiority, feu maills, and duties of the herit- 
able miller office of the new mihis," &c. This was guaranteed 
by a charter of 4th April 1637. 

On the 6th March, 1644, William Scott, living at the West 
miln of Musselburgh, was served heir to William Scott, in 
Samelston, of the heritable miller office of the new miln at the 
foot of Ker's Wynd. This retour is from the Chancery of the 
Regality of Musselburgh. 

Amongst other papers, there is a summons of double poinding, 
at the "instance of the girsters of the milns of Musselbuigh, 
against Swinton of that Bk, who had a gift of Lauderdale's for- 
faulture during Cromwell's usurpation, and against Adam Scott, 
<&c., concluding to be found liable in once and single payment 



RIOAUTT Of MUSSBLBimGH. . 47 

of the knavesbip, bannock,* &c., dated 7tb, and signed 26tb 
September, 1654. 

In a contract entered into subsequently to tbis time, between 
the heritors of the mills of Musselburgh and Adam Scott, heri- 
table miller of the two West milns, and the nether miln (Sea- 
mill), whereby it was agreed that be should possess the knaveship 
and the ninth peck of multure, on 'condition of maintaining the 
milns in good working order, it is provided that " the nacket^s 
and miln boys* dues" should continue " to be as use and wont." 

In 1677 (12th Feb.), Adam Scott alienated the heritabJe office 
of miUer to Messrs James, Patrick, and Francis Scott, writers in 
Edinburgh. 

1715 (7th June), Gideon Scott, of Falnash, grants a disposi- 
tion to, and in favour of, the Magistrates and Town Council of 
Mosselburgh, of his third part of the heritable office of miller of 
the three milns: In 1739 (27th and 30th March), they had a 
disposition by Andrew Bell, of Craigfoadie, with consent of his 
mother, of their two-third parts of the three milns. Also, 
another, 5th September, 1747, from James Crookshank, shoe- 
maker in Musselburgh, of his third part of the four com milns, 
extending to one full twelfth part of the said milns. Again, 10th 
Feb., 1750, from Oliver Coult, writer in Edmburgh, as commis- 
sioner for Dr Oliver Coult, his uncle, of one-twelfth of the four 
com mills, <fec. ; and latterly (10th Feb., 1759), a disposition of 
the office of miller of the Shyre miln, and of the milnrig, by 
Archibald Shiels, to which disposition was annexed an inventory 
of title-deeds, showing that the same flowed from Thomas Smitb, 
portioner of Inveresk, and were disponed by Robert Smith, his 
grandson, to the said Archibald Shiels.f 

* One of the thirlage dntiefl exacted at a mill. 
t As shown by the Council minutes, the town paid Mr Shiels £500 for 
his rights. 



48 HI8T0R7 OF THE 

The labst document, in connection with the mills of Mussel- 
burgh, is a charter of confirmation by the commissioner of Walter 
Francis, Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, to the burgh, of 
2-12ths of the mills, dated 6th May 1829. 

The mill of Brunstain, though not in the parish, also became 
the property of the town. The magistrates had a disposition 
and charter of the Over-miln of Brunstain from John, Earl of 
Lauderdale, 26th August 1670. The mill was then in rains, 
and the magistrates bound themselves to rebuild it. 

In 1776 (Ist Feb.), the magistrates had a decreet of declarator 
against the Earl of Abercom, whereby it was found that the 
miln of Brunstain, belonging to the said Earl,* was not one of 
the milns of Musselburgh, to which the lordship and regality 
were astricted and thirled, nor did it lie within the lordship and 
regality. The magistrates seem to have disponed, by charter, 
of the Brunstain mill in 1696. 

THE HARBOUR AND CUSTOMS. 

The Harbour dues were not, apparently, of much importance 
in later times, though it was probably one of the principal ports 
on the Frith of Forth, before Leith acquired the supremacy. The 
harbour itself seems to have been situated, except for a limited 
period, where it now is — perhaps the old Eoman site. The 
dues on the west side of the Esk were called the customs of the 
Magdalens, Harberrie, and Petty Customs'of Fisherrow. As such 
they were rouped on the 6th October 1697. The first minute 
respecting the harbour, in the Council Books which have been 
preserved entire, is as follows : — 

* This woiild probably be the Nether mill of Bnmstaiii^ as the town 
possessed the Overy or upper mill. The Nether mill of Brunstain stands a 
little west of the Magdalen Bridge. 



SSGAUT7 OF HUSSELBUBOH. 49 

" 27 Apryle 1682. — The Counsell upon representance given 
in to them of the insnfficiencie of the harberie, and of Adam 
Stevenson, shoarmaster, his neglect of dntie to the same, and of 
the prejudice theirby sustained be the maister and owners of 
ships comeand within the same, they condescend to a visitance 
of the said harberie, and appoynts the same to be repaired with 
balks of timber where the same ar wanting, and to be filled up 
with stones to the balkes, according to use and wont, and also 
discharges the said shoarmaster of his office in that pairt, and 
ordains another persone to be provydit for doing thereof." 

'* 11 July 1687. — The Counsell appoynts the inhabitants to 
be waimed by tumes to assist at the redding of the harberie, 
according as they shall be wairned for that efifect, ilke persone 
under the paine of ten shillings for each day's ofiFence." 

In 1700, when the Act of the Privy Council was passed, offering 
freedom of foreign trade to the burghs on payment of a certain 
tax annually, the town was unwilling to accept of it, because 
they had " nae forraign trade." 

22 Aprile 1700. — The Counsell appoynts the thesaurer and 
Richard Douglas to goe to Edinburgh, to waitt upon the Com- 
missioner anent the communication of trade, and to take advice 
of the sheriff what they shall offer, or if the offer already made 
may be recalled, in regard the towne hes noe forraign trade, and 
to prevent the burdening of the towne therewith in tyme coming." 

It was ultimately agreed that the town should accept the offer 
of foreign trade at " two shillings in the taxt roll." But this 
does not seem to have been fully gone into at the time. Thirty 
years afterwards the following minute occurs : — 

"6 July 1730. — Day and date forsaid, the Baillies hayng 
represented to the Counsell that they had received a letter from 
the Committee of the Royall Burrows, requiring them, or some 
for them, to attend on the 9th instant, at the annuall Convention, 
in order to pay for their unfree trade, and they knowing that 
their is none trades in this place but Thomas Curry, who pays a 
proportion of the Tax Roll, in the toun of Dalkeith, they have 
theirfor taken out of the charter chest this day ane transcript of 



50 HISTO&T OV THB 

King David's charter, with a charter from the Commendator of 
Dunfermline, and two Acts of Parliament ratifying the tonn's 
privileges, which they ordain to he sent to Archibald Tod, to the 
effect he and the assessor may draw a memoriall to the Conven- 
tion for the toun, and see to get the tonn free of paying any 
share of the Tacks Roll, and to cans return the writts after they 
have done with them, and to report what they do in that afi^Edr, 
and recommend it to the clerk to desyre the assessor or Mr Tod 
to write out what the Convention designs or purposes, as they 
happen to commune on the said subject/' 

It was ultimately agreed — 13th April 1731 — ^to accept the 
communication of trade for nine years, at the rate of relieving the 
Royal Burghs of a penny in the pound. 

In May 1703, the Council resolve to apply to Parliament for 
power to levy " two pennies on the pint of ale and beer," for the 
purpose of building a harbour, the old having become almost 
useless. The same resolution was adopted in 1704. They did 
not succeed, however, neither at that period nor still later, 1712, 
when a more energetic attempt was made. 

"5 June 1713. — The which day the Councill condescends 
that the present magistrates shall cans waim carts from the in- 
habitants of this burgh from tyme to tyme, as they shall find it 
necessary, for cleaning the harbour ; and lykeways recommend to 
them to cans waim the persons in FisheiTOw that have boatts, to 
cary and bring the stones from the old harbour td the new har- 
bour ; and furder, the Councill recommends to them to appoynt 
such of the Councill as they think fitt to collect from the inha- 
bitants what money they will voluntarily give, in order to make 
the said4iarbour sufficient." 

Tne new harbour was built at the mouth of the river ; but the 
numerous freshes, meeting with the tide, had soon the effect of 
filling it up : — 

22 June 1713. — The which day the Baylies and Councill 
being fully convened, they condescend to beett and repair what is 
grown deficient off the harbour At the water mouth, and appoynts 



BEGALTTT OF HUS8XLBURGH. 51 

thoee that had the charge of the contributions last year to give 
in an account of their depnrsements * against the next Council! 
meeting ; and farther condescends to cause desyre John Mathie, 
John Hoge, and William Waddell, to meet with Bailie Tod and 
Eobert Brown, and some others of the Councill, and to take their 
advice about the harbour and lead to it, betwixt this instant and 
the first of July next to come." 

The lead which supplies the West and Sea mills had emptied 
itself into the harbour at the mouth of the river. It still flows 
in the same direction. At length it was found necessary to 
abandon the new harbour : — 

" 14 June 1740. — The which day the Baillies and Council 
having mett upon the affairs of the toun, and anent a petition 
presented them by Sir Eobert Dickson of Carberry, setting forth 
the many advantages that would accrue to the toun by having a 
harbour for accommodating ships and barks, and craving they 
would be pleased to build one for that purpose, and they having 
considered the same, unanimously agree that fifteen acre of the 
common myre at Parkend, or more, shall be forthwith ffeued, by 
way of public roup, to the burghers of this burgh, providing the 
Councill have ground to believe the same will turn out near to 
the sum Sir James Dalrymple has offered, and in case it will not, 
that Implication shall be made to Sir James upon his former 
offer, and the sum arising therefrom to be applied for building a 
harbour where it shall be found most proper." 

Sir James iDalrymple had, on the 28th March, 1738, offered 
to take twelve or fourteen acres of the myre of Fisherrow, at a 
guinea the acre, which was rejected at the time. Sir James 
agreed — 26th February 1743 — ^to feu eleven acres fipon the 
former terms, and George Chambers took five, on the west 'side 
of the Esk, at the same rate. Upon these two annual rents, 
money was borrowed to the full of the principal, and applied to 
building a new harbour. 

f This is the Scottish word for di^niraetinenta, and it seems lather a 
good one. 



52 HI8T0AY or THB 

The work was accordingly commenced 22d Sept. 1743, " upon 
the sea-coast of Fisherrow," and the Council, continues the 
minute, "have founded the same upon the foundation of the old 
harbour* and purpose to carry on the same in the same manner 
as the same old harhotir was huilt.'' 

Besides the sum obtained by borrowing upon the two feus 
referred to, voluntary contributions were upUfted for the harbour, 
and several lots of land in the vicinity feued as timber-yards, 
salt-pans, &c. In a few years afterwards the harbout again 
began to get out of order. 

" 22 Sept. 1752. — The Council agree to apply to the Provost 
and Magistrates of Ed^ for the loan of a lighter to clean the 
harbour — if not, to build one." 

The customs of Musselburgh arose from the market dues — 
grain, meal, and flesh — as well as the two annual fairs. One of 
the earliest of the minutes is directed against the fleshers : — 

" 1 Oct. 1691. — The Counsell considering the great abuses 
committed by the fleshers of this burgh, in bringing in and 
keeping considerable numbers and herds of nolt and sheep upon 
the tonnes commone groundf and stuble, from the tyme of har- 
vest till the end of the seasone, to the tonne's great prejudice and 
contrar former acts of burgh made anent letting of the ground, 
as also that both the said inhabitants, fleshers and strangers, 
brings their flesh to the publick mercat without the skinne and 
hyde, contrant to the publick laws of the kingdom and constant 
custome of all uther burghes, and that they do not present the 
said flesh in ane tyme and all at ance in lie mercat-place, but 

* The old Boman harbour, we presume, 
f Muflselbuigh had an official called the ** Toun Herd." His duty was 
to take charge of all the cattle belonging to the community put out to 
graze on the common. We notice, from the town books, that a town 
herd was appointed in 1756 ; but the late Dr Moir mentions that he re- 
members the herd blowing his horn in the morning, to coUect the cattle 
intended to be put under his charge. 



REGAUTT OF M1TSS1SLBURGH. 53 

parcells the same therto out oflF the boulkes and slaughter-house 
in smalls, as they find opportunitie to dispose upon the same, 
thereby deceiving the leidges, and occasioning ane dearth of flesh 
in [the] place without necessitie, and that the said flesh sua pre- 
sented is ather for the most pairt altogidder insufficient of itself or 
spoyled by blowing, to the great grievance of the inhabitants and 
leidges, ffor preventing and remeading of which abuses coming, 
the saids baillies and Counsell statutes and enacts that Uae fleshers 
heirefter within the burgh or liberties keep more nolt or sheep 
upon the commone ground or stuble at any tyme of the year 
then the ordinarie stent as ane barges, under the paines formerly 
enacted theranent, and the contraveeners the said tyme of harvest 
and therefter to pay for the nolt thretteen shilling 4d, and three 
shilling 4d Scottes money for the sheep unforgiven, and that both 
they and the fleshers who are strangers bring the skinnes with 
the boulk in tyme coming to the publick mercat under the 
paines inflicted by other burghs for the same, and that they pre- 
sent their meat sufficient and unblown, and all at once in the 
mercat place about elleven of the cloack on the mercat day, 
under the paine of confiscatione, and ordaines thir particulars to 
be published in common form." 

There were what was called flesh booths for the accommoda- 
tion of the fleshers. One of them — (7th Oct. 1700) — was given 
to " Arch^ Duncan to keep the Scottish schooU in." 

'* 10 Nov. 1701. — The Counsell condescends that the custome 
house of the Magdalens and flesh-stocks of Musselburgh be re- 
paired at the sight of the baillies and tl^esaurer the first con- 
venience.'* 

**22 Sept. 1707. — The whilk day the Counsell condefecends to 
cleid the gavall of the guard-house with daills, in order to putt 
flesh-stocks therat for accommodation of the fleshers." 

The markets were held at the cross. A new market-place, 
proposed to be built in 1753, behind the Council-House, was 
finished in July 1755. 

Two fairs were held annually, St Loretto's apparently the 
more important : — 



54 HIST0B7 OF THE 

"9 Oct. 1682.— The Coiinsell appoynts the fair called 8t Lanrett 
to hold upon Tuesday next, and ordain eg intimatione thereof to 
be made through Dalkeith, and condescends that the same be 
ridden through the tonne's marches by the Connsell and haill 
burgesses, who are ordained to attend the baillies, the said day, 
being the 16 instant at 8 of the clock in the morning, in the best 
order they can, and appoynts ilk burges to be waimed for that 
effect, under the paine of 5 lib. Scottes ilk persone unforgiyen." 

Eod, die, 

" The Oounsell condescends to have ane horse race the second 
day of the fair, and appoynts ane sadle to be provydit of 9 or 10 
libs, pryce, to be run for the said day, and condescends that the 
horses to run shall not exceed 60 libs, pryce of value.** 

Minutes in reference to these fairs occur almost annually, the 
Council frequently altering the days in consequence of their 
falling upon a Saturday or Monday. 

" 18 Aug. 1711. — The which day the Council having taken 
to their consideration the great loss St Laurett's fair of this burgh 
is at by its not being ridden these many years by past, doe con- 
descend that it shall be ridden this year with all the usuall marks 
of antiquity and respect and grandor, by all the inhabitants and 
burgesses of this burgh, and condescend that there shall be a 
horse race for ane saidle, the second day of the fair," dbc. 

There is now only one fiair, held in August, at which the 
burgh races or gymnastic games occur. As in most other places, 
on like occasions, but little business is transacted. 

" 8 Oct. 1725. — ^In consequence of the decay of the weekly 
com market, and of St Loretta^s fair, no custom to be charged 
on merchandise for seven years to come. This to be intimated 
in the Gazette." 

" 7 Aug. 1753." — The summer fair ordered to be held on the 
second Tuesday and Wednesday of August in all time coming. 

'The town also derived a revenue from the entry of buigesses 
or unfree traders. The Council books contain many entries in 



RSOALITT Of MTSSKLBUBGH. 55 

reference to it. The sum varied according to circumstances 
and the pleasure of the Council — ranging from £6 to £24 
Scots*:— 

*' 23 Sept. 1689. — The Counsell considering the abuse com- 
mitted by unfree traders, ordain all those who hes traded in 
bu3ring and selling, or setting up as masters of merchanite trades 
within the liberties, to be marked as stallangers for byganes, and 
to discharge them in tyme cuming till they enter burgess." 

" 12 June 1752." — A petition having been presented to the 
Magistrates and Council against travelling chapmen and strangers 
vending goods in the place, they discharge the said strangers, 
and grant warrant to seize their goods, &c. 

Of course all this has been put an end to by the recent act 
annulling incorporations. 

The fishings do not seem to have been at all productive for a 
length of time back. They were, at the same time, carefully 
preserved : — 

" 25 March 1680. — The fishings in the water and damnes to 
be sett, and all parties prohibited from fishing." 

The fishings, in 1706, were let at thirty-seven pounds Scots, or 
three shillings and one penny sterling. In 1709, the tacksman 
of the fishings not having got any fish for the two last years, the 
Council agree to "give him ease of seventeen pounds" of his 
rent. Nor have the fishings been more profitable of late years. 

There were other sources of trifling incomes, such as the use 
of the town's mortcloths and dead bell. The charge for the use 
of the cloths, in 1706, was as follows r — 

" 19 Feb. — This day the Council continues their Act, dated 
the 23 Sept. 1695, anent keeping ther mortcloaths in favours of 
Janet Colvill during the Councill's pleasure, she keeping a sufii- 

* A register of burgesses has been kept since 1742, down till the recent 
Abolition of incorporations. 



56 HI8T0BT Of THE 

cient persone for waiting on the cloaths, for whom she is to be 
answerable, she exacting only 12s. for the best mortcloath, six 
shillings for the second mortcloath and the best bairns death, 
and four shillings for the worst bairns cloath." 

The trades incorporations were in the habitj of hiring out 
their mortcloths, to the injury of the town ; but they were pro- 
hibited from doing so in 1712. 

To warn the burgesses to attend funerals by intimation through 
the medium of the bellman appointed for that purpose, was a 
common practice in former times. Musselburgh had also its 
dead hell : — 

" 20 Nov. 1699. — Appoynts the thesaurerto agree with John 
Muckell ffor the new dead bell, and pay therfor, and if the same 
shall be broken by any succeeding belman that the same shall be 
repaired on his own expenses, and the bell to pertain to the 
toune." 

Uod, die, 

" This day the Counsell appoynts Andrew Ker to be bellman 
in place of George Ramage deceast, upon this condition that he 
keep ane exact register of the dead, and shall give the third part 
of the profits to the defuncts' relict untill the terme of Candlemes 
next." 

"18 Jan. 1739. — The bellman to have five shillings for every 
funeral,,private or not, and two shillings for every child." 



INCORPORATED TRADES, MANUFACTURES, FISHINGS, 4c. 

The incorporated trades of Musselburgh were — wrights and 
smiths, incorporated by the Town-Council in 1674 ; tailors, 
1693; shoemakers, 1666; shoemakers, tanners, and curriers, 
1687 ; bakers, 1692 ;* gardeners, 1744 ; weavers, 1702 ; flesh- 

* Among the town papers there is an " agreement among the baken 
within Musselburgh, Fisherrow, Newbigging, and Inveresk, with respect 



REGALITY Of MUSSBLBUBGH. 57 

era, ; all of which embraced the objects of benefit societies, 

as well as the regulation of their trading interests. There was 
also an incorporation of " seamen and mariners/' whose charters 
date from 1668. It consisted of persons of various professions, 
traffickers, with a separate box and funds of their own. The 
masons, carters, and 'others, had societies for the support of their 
poor, Oi these incorporations few notices occur in the Council 
minutes. 

" 2 July 1705. — This day the Counsell condescends and agrees 
that the shoemakers in Musselburgh shall continue the article in 
the band of imitie wherein it is declared that none of the incor- 
poratione shall take a prentice but one in fyve years, and farder 
thay ordain the said incorporatione that they shall not lend out 
their mortcloaths to any persone whatsomever, except only to 
there own trade, ther wives and bairns, and appoynts the clause 
in relatione to the mortcloaths to be altered at the baillies' 
sight." 

" 4 Feb. 1706. — The Counsell condescends to borrow fyve or 
six hundred merks, which, with 200 merks formerly due to the 
incorporatione of seamen in Fisherrow, they agree to grant bond 
to them for the haill, bearing annual-rent from Candlemas last." 

** In the end of last century," says Dr Carlisle,* " a broadcloth 
manufactory was begun here, and was carried on in great perfec- 
tion, though not to great extent. Some excellent cloth, both 
coarse and fine, continues still to be made here by Messrs Cathie, 
Stewart, Nichols, and Dickson." This manufacture, however, 
has long ago been given up, it having been found impossible to 
compete with the English manufacturers. " In the early part of 
this century," continues the same writer, " they manufactured 
large quantities of coarse wool into a kind of checks, called Mus- 

to their mortcloath belonging to the trade, and obliging themselves not to 
dispose of their several parts thereof without consent of their haill brethren 
or major part of them,'' dated anno, 1638. 

* Writing in 1793. 



58 HISTORY OT THX 

selbutgh stuflfe, at the price of from 2Jd. to 5d. per yard, whidi 
were mostly exported to America for gowna to female servants." 
There are one or two minutes of Coimcil in reference to this 
branch of trade. On the 8th Nov.' 1721, the Council record 
their having erected a standard for worsted, in conformity with 
the instructions of the General Convention of Burghs, and inti- 
mate that all shall be prosecuted who import worsted not ac- 
cording to the standard : — 

" 18 July 1726. — The Councill, considering that severall 
maisters weavers, who were in use to be^punished by the magis- 
trates for working Musselburgh stuffs and camlets, &c., contrair 
to the established standard, and very slight, have of late deserted 
the place, thinking theirby to be free from any prosecution for 
their very insufficient work, and also considering that the com- 
modities of these persons who have left the place may, when not 
wrought according to the established standard, tend in foreign 
mercats to ruin the consumpt of the stuffs, (fee, that are wrought 
agreeably thereto by the weavers in this place, for remeid thereof 
the Councill does hereby exact and ordain that if these persons 
who have left the place shall work any stuffs that shall not agree 
and correspond to the rules made for working the same, that they 
shall in all time coming omitt and lose their priveledge and free- 
dom as burgesses of this place, and also the benefit of being 
members incorporate with the weavers, unless such person or 
persons return to the burgh against Whitsunday next, to the 
effect their work may be tried by the proper searchers as usuall, 
to see that it agree with the standards for length, breadth, and 
thickness of caulming, and ordains this to be intimate through, 
the toon with took of drum, that none may pretend ignorance, 
and the maisters to intimate this at the next meeting of their 
trade." 

The want of a fulling mill was much felt by the manufacturers 
of certain kinds of worsted goods. Proposals for erecting one 
were entertained many years before it was accomplished. 

" 17 April 1704. — This day the Counsel! having considered a 



BXGALITY OF MUSSBLBUBGH. 59 

license, be the heritors of Monktonhall, for building a vxitk-miln 
npon these lands, to the Laird of Smeton, quhereunto the tonne 
hes right by progress, therefore they condescend the present 
heritors should be spoken to thairanent, and he recommends to 
Baillie Smart and Patrick Heriot, elder, to speak to them and to 
report." 

Again : — 

" 1 Feb. 1714. — The Council considering the great loss the 
manufactories and dyers of this place sustain by the want of 
ane fulling or walk miln, and also considering that Mr Sarracott 
is at present in this country, who understands that kind of affairs, 
they condescend that the Baylies, with such of the Councill they 
shidl think fitt to call, meet with Mr James Smith and him, and 
if it appears probable that ther may be a miln gotten, that they 
procure a liberty from Mr Bell and Falnesk to gett it erected, 
and to report next meeting." 

After various meetings with Mr Coult, Mr Sarracott, Mr Bell, 
and Falnask, the Council (11th April 1715) agree to purchase 
the third part of the knaveship of the mill from Falnesk for 2000 
marks, yet in 1720 the mill was still a desideratum. 

" 9 May 1720. — The which day the Councill resolve to pro- 
ceed with all diligence in order to the erecting their walk miln, 
in the terms of their act made thereanent, the 12th of October 
last by past, and before procedure they condescend Baillie Berry 
and Baillie Smart, and the clerk, go in, Wednesday the eleventh 
instant, to James Mariott, the Cannie milns, in order to see the 
walk miln he has erected on the Water of Leith, and to tryst 
him out on Thursday next, in order to visit the ground where 
.the walk miln is to be built, to see if it will answer for that 
purpose. 

Eod. die. 

" The Btullies and Councill condescend to sett the toun's part 
of the knaveship to John Sampson and Alexander Penman, con- 
junctlie, for a year ensuing Whytsunday next, for ane hundred 
pounds Scotts money, they being obliged to beet, repair, and 



60 mSTOBT Of THE 

uphold a&d pay everything that was usuall for Fahiesk^* who 
was the toun's author." 

One thousand merks were borrowed at this time to build the 
mill, and by the 10th of December 1722 it was in operation. 
After all, the waulk miln never seems to have been productive, 
the worsted manufacture having been gradually pushed out. 
The miln is now occupied as a dying and scouring establish- 
ment. 

The manufacture of cotton fabrics was introduced about 1770. 
This, however, was given up before the end of last century. It 
employed about 200 looms. Before 1790 the manufactare of 
Manchester goods, thicksets, waistcoats, handkerchiefs, &c,y was 
attempted on a small scale, and for a time it promised to do well, 
but was ultimately given up. 

There was also a lint mill, but at what time it was erected we 
have not discovered. On the 22d Nov. 1754, Lord Drummore 
and Archibald Tod, tacksmen of the mill, applied to the Council 
to have more ground, so as to convert the lint mill into a barley 
mill. This was agreed to, at the rate of six pounds Scots yearly 
for each acre, and the multure of the miln. It is now occupied 
as a washing and scouring establishment. The clothes from 
Jock's Lodge, the Castle, and hospitals in Edinburgh are chiefly 
washed here. It is done by miachinery. 

According to Dr Carlisle, a china manufacture existed at West 
Pans, a few years before he wrote, " which received some encou- 
ragement from the nobility and gentry, as the artist succeeded 
well^in fabricating ornamental china ; but as he never could make 
tea-table china cheap enough for common sale, and had no stock, 
it was soon given up." This was a distinct establislynent from 
the pottery for stone and brown ware which has existed at West 
Pans since the middle of last century. On the 10th Jan. 1754, 
* Gideon Scott of Falnadk. 



BBGALITT Off MT7B3SLBUBGH. 61 

the Town Council enacted that " Samuel Lambaa, potter at West 
Pans, should ** pay one pound sterling for clay, from Martinmas 
last to Martinmas next." The pottery is described by Dr Car- 
lisle as ^^ situated in a garden, where, three-score years ago (about 
1730), stood the mansion-house of West Pans, then possessed by 
a family of the name of Joice, or Joicy, now extinct, whose estate / 
was what is now called Drummore, in the parish of Prestonpans." / 

Dr Carhsle mentions that several soap-boilers and starch-mak-/ 
ers existed in the parish at the time he wrote. One of these, oi 
the latter sort, was carried on upon a very extensive scale at 
Monkton,* by the Messrs " Atchison, Brown and Co., the proprie- 
tors of the great distillery at St Clement's Wells, locally in the 
parish of Tranent, but on the boundaiy of this parish, in which 
they have their rectifying-house, and their malting, where most of 
the workmen reside. This is a distillery of great extent. The 
barley made into malt in one year, firom July 6, 1791, to July 
6, 1792, amounted to 13,131 boUs. They feed oflf 600 cattle 
twice a year, besides many hundreds of hogs at the starch work 
and here." This extensive concern has long ago been aban- 
doned, and scarcely a vestige of the premises remains. 

The brewing of ale was at one time a thriving business in 
Musselburgh. In 1697, according to a list in one of the Court 
books of the burgh, there were in all twenty-six brewers, malt- 
makers, and sellers of malt, within the liberties. It is probable, 
however, that there was no ptiblic brewery till somewhat later. 

** 3 March 1704. — The Counsell considering that Sir James 
Kichardson of Smeatoune, taking up a publick Irewery, and 
hitherto hes grund his malt multure free, therfor they ordain 
the multurer tp draw the ordinar multure of his malt in tym 
coming, during the tym of the said Sir James his publick 
brewery." 

* In 1792 this starch woik paid no less than J$4064» 138. id. of ezciM 
duty. 



62 HISTOEy 0? THB 

Sir James was in all likelihood the first to establish a public 
brewery. Dr Carlisle says — " The brewing of beer and ale has 
much decreased of late, there having been only 1460 bolls of 
barley made into malt liquor here " during the year ending 6th 
July 1792. For a number of years past there was only one 
brewery, belonging to Bailie William Whitelaw, in Fisher's 
Wynd, Fisherrow ; but within these last three years another has 
been commenced in High Street, by Mr Lyall, which promises 
to do well. 

The tanning and currying of leather has been long and suc- 
cessfully carried on in Musselburgh. There are at present three 
tanning and currying establishments, belonging to the Messrs 
Moffat, High Street ; Messrs T. & D. Legat, Mill Hill ; Messrs 
Miller, New Street, Fisherrow, who also manufacture bone 
manure. There are, besides, two currying works, belonging to 
the Messrs Wilkie, High Street ; and Mr John Legat, Mill Hill. 
The Messrs Easton, skinners, at the Eailway Station, manufac> 
ture door-mats. The raw hides are procured chiefly from Edin- 
burgh, Russia, and Hamburgh, besides the skins supplied by the 
local fleshers, which must now be very considerable. The bark 
is procured from England, Germany, and Holland, and a parti- 
cular kind from Smyrna. 

There were two saltworks in the parish, one at Westpans — so 
called because situated west of Prestonpans — and the other near 
to the Magdalen Bridge, now called Pinkie Saltworks. The 
latter only exists, and is rented by Mr Grieve, who has also the 
Joppa Pans. 

" 29 July 1689. — The Counsell condescends to few some 
rockes and ground upon the west syde of the West Pannes, for 
building salt pannes, with office-houses, to Sir John Ramsay of 
Whythill, as the ground is already sighted and designed therfor, 
the said Sir John paying therfor, conforme to his offer, 300 
merkes of compositione at his entrie, with 13s. 4d. yeirly of few 



BEGALITT OF MUSSBLBUBOH. 63 

datie, confonne to ane chartour to be granted by the tonne to 
him theranent, exclnding the said Sir John allways from use of 
pan-hearthings without payment therfor as uthers does, and that 
he apply the said ground to the forsaid allanerly, and noe uther." 

The charter following this' resolution was not made out till 
1695. Whether this was the first saltpans erected at West- 
pans, does not appear. It would seem, from the name, West- 
pans, that something of the kind had existed there before. Mr 
Robert Jossie then possessed the property called Westpans, and 
it had been some time in the family. John Wauchope of Ed- 
monstone had a charter of certain lands east of Magdalen Bridge, 
value four merks, in 1701. 

Gardening, for the supply chiefly of the Edinburgh market, 
was extensively pursued in former years, and is still a con- 
siderable branch of business. John Gibson, gardener, Newbottle, 
had a charter from the burgh of three acres of land in the north 
community, dated 12th Nov. 1711 ; and the Society of Gardeners, 
as already stated, was instituted in 1744. " The nature of the 
soil," says Dr Carlisle, " is well calculated for early crops, and 
perhaps the skill they had derived from the example of the 
Koman colony may have led them to this branch of business, 
which they still preserve ; though they are far from possessing 
the monopoly of greens and garden stuffs, which they had in 
more ancient times." So many ages of barbarism, feuds and 
wars, succeeded the advent of the Eomans, that scarcely a vestige 
of its influence on the character, manners, or arts of the people 
can be traced. The superiority of Musselburgh for its garden 
produce may be attributed to the Monks of Newbottle, and the 
vicars and chaplains of its own religious houses, rather than to 
the Eomans. The Glen Nursery, near Magdalen Bridge, be- 
longing to Mr Handasyde, has long been famous for its dahlias. 
The Musselburgh onion, for seed, is also much prized. 



64 HISTOBT or THE 

The rev. statistician farther renuu^s — " The whole produce of 
the gardens, together with salt and sand for washing floors, and 
other articles, till of late that carts have been introduced^ were 
carried in baskets or creels on the backs of women, to be sold in 
Edinburgh, where, after they had made their market, it was uaual 
for them to return loaded with goods, or parcels of various sorts, 
for the inhabitants here, or with dirty linens to be washed in the 
pure water of the Esk." We know not the exact meaning 
attachable to Dr Carlisle's words in this instance ; but it is the 
opinion of not a few writers that carts are only of recent use. 
Now this is not the fact. Carts or wains are as old as the reign 
of David I., and the town books of Musselburgh, modem as they 
are, show that such vehicles were common in the burgh nearly 
two hundred years ago. 

" 20 Nov. 1679.— The Counsell condescends to grant the 
owners of the glasse worke at Leith, eight cartfull of stones out 
of the tonnes quarrie, for the use of the said glasse worke." 

"^22 Sept. 1684." — Sir George Lockhart obtains the loan of 
a number of carts from the burgh to carry timber. 

" 26 Oct. 1686. — The Counsell condescend to stent themselves 
and other inhabitants for leading stones to bigg the ClaypooUe 
dyke, and allows 6/8 for ilk cartful!, leading horn the tonnes 
quarrie at Westpannes,'' &c. 

These and numerous other minutes show that the use of carts 
was by no means rare. The bad state of the roads, however, may 
have had something to do with the employment of pack-horses, 
in place of carts, for long journeys. 

The fleshers of Musselburgh still carry on a large trade, most 
of them being engaged in supplying the London market with 
mutton, besides meeting the local demand. 

There are several other branches of industry, of more modem 
introduction, worthy of special notice. 



REGALITT OV MUSSB]&BnBGH. 65 

At Newbigging, there is » small pottery, belonging to Mr 
Foster, who manufactures dishes of all kinds. 

A manu&ctory of sail-cloth was established on a small scale in 
1811. It has since gone on increasing, and latterly been 
greatly enlarged, the machinery being driven by steam-power. 
The sail-cloth is of superior quality, and chiefly made use of in 
th« British navy. It belongs to Messrs Gavin & Co., Leith, and 
is situated at the north end of Mill Hill, near the Links. 

Beyond this establishment is Messrs Reddock and Wakelin's 
oil mill. 

The manufacture of hair-cloth was introduced in 1820, by Mr 
Porteous. It has been vastly extended of late. Satin and fiEuicy 
figured hair-cloth, curled hair, hair kiln-cloth, hair-lines, and all 
kinds of fishing hair, girth-web, ropes, twines, &c., are the prin- 
cipal articles manufactured. Horse-hair carpeting, used in the 
House of Commons, on the recommendation of Dr D. B. Reid, is 
also produced here. 

Other two manufactories of the same kind have recently sprung 
up, one at Dam Brae, belonging to Mr Primrose, and the other 
at Mm Hill, belonging to Mr Tumbull. 

Fishing-nets were formerly knitted with the hand. About forty 
years ago, the art of weaving them in a loom was discovered by 
the late James Paterson, Esq., a native of the parish.* He had 
been in the commissariat during the last war — in Egypt, the Pen- 
insula, and at Waterloo, in which engagement, notwithstanding his 
civil capacity, he had mixed in the fray, and with others was swept 
over by a charge of cavalry. He was, however, picked up after- 
wards among the wounded. Returning to Musselburgh at the 
end of the war, and being of an active turn of mind, he set him- 
self to the invention of a machine for making nets. After numer- 
ous experiments and trials, he succeeded so much to his satisfac- 

* See inscription on headstone in Inyereek Chuxchyfird. 



66 mSTOBY OF THB 

tion, that he took out a patent, and established a manufactory in 
1820. Li' 1889, he had eighteen looms at work, with a spinning 
nuu^hine, employing in all about fifty-two hands. At his death, 
in 1860, the patent, premises, and machinery, were purchased by 
Messrs J. & W. Stewart, of Edinburgh, who have so pushed the 
business that, in their old premises, they employ about 800 per- 
sons, and when their extensive new building on the Esk, above 
the railway terminus, is completed, they will have in their em- 
ployment more than double that number. 

About 1834, Mr N. Or. Robinson, an English gentleman who 
had been resident for some time in the parish, succeeded in a 
similar invention, without having any communication with Mr 
Paterson. It differed in' the mode of forming the knot, and 
thereby escaped the patent. Mr Robinson continued the manu- 
facture of nets for some time here, and we believe net-making, 
under his patent, is at present in operation somewhere about 
Grreenock. 

An edge-tool and hammer manufactory has been carried on 
in New Street, near the Fisherrow Links, for the last eighteen 
years, by Messrs F. and A. Carrick. They came from Athel- 
staneford, near Haddington, where the same branch of business 
had been long and successfully pursued by their father and them- 
selves. The implements made by the Carricks — a;ces, adzes, 
hammers, hoes, &c., — are much celebrated throughout Scotland. 
They are of excellent make and quality. The best material only 
is used in their construction, and the name is a guarantee that 
the purchaser will not be disappointed. A steam-engine is used 
to drive the series of stones upon which the implements are 
ground. 

There is only one distillery in Musselburgh. It belongs to 
William Aitchison, Esq., of Drummore. 

An extensive vitriol work was established on the Fisherrow 



SEQALITY 07 MUSSELBURGH. 67 

Links about five years ago, by the Messrs M*Ejnlay. The fisher- 
men complain that the material used is destructive of the mussel- 
beds. From whatever cause, the mussels are said to be rapidly 
disappearing, and bait has to be sought for at a considerable 
distance. 

There are also chemical works at Magdalen Bridge, and a 
Pithina food manufactory on the west side of the harbour. 

A gas- work, from which Portobello is supplied, was established 
at the west end of Musselburgh Links in 1831. 

A pretty extensive and thriving boat-building establishment 
has been carried on for the last twelve years by Mr Keir, at the 
harbour. The boats produced here are of the most substantial 
quality, and are in demand all along the coast. The present 
season (1857) has been a busy one at the yard. 

Near the harbour is Mr Dickson's large wood-yard. 

The Messrs Younger, brewers in Edinburgh, have very roomy 
malting-kilns in Fisherrow. 

THE FISHERY. 

The white fishing has long been a staple source of income. At 
what time a colony of fishermen was established at Fisherrow is 
unknown. They are most likely coeval with the burgh itself. 
It is absurd to suppose that they were of foreign extraction. 
The prevailing names are equally Scottish with the other pa- 
tronymics of the community. When Dr Carlisle wrote (1793) 
there were forty-nine fishermen and ninety fish-wives. Although 
there were so many men, there were only seven boats. The fish- 
women often sold the produce of the Fife boats as well as of their 
own, which was regarded as a benefit rather than otherwise to 
the community — so much so, indeed, that the Town Council 
prohibited all supplies of mussels to the Fife fishermen, unless 
to such as brought over fish. In 1727, all persons were dis- 



bo BISTORT OF THB . 

charged from selling mussels " to boats over the water */^ bat, in 
1784, this enactment was in so far modified that no iithabitant 
was to sell mussels to the Fife boats '^ unless they bring fish to 
seU." 

The fish-wives have always been considered a peculiar race. 
Dr Carlisle has recorded a few traits of them worthy of being 
repeated here : — " The fish-wives, as they are all of one class, 
and educated in it from their infancy, are of a character and 
manners still more singular than the former [the other carrying 
women], and particularly distinguished by the laborious lives 
they lead. They are the wives and daughters of fishermen, who 
generally marry in their own caste, or tribe, as great part of their 
business, to which they must have been bred, is to gather bait for 
their husbands, and bait their lines. Four days in the week, they 
carry fish in creels (osier baskets) to Edinburgh, and when the 
boats come in late to the harbour in the forenoon, so as to leave 
them no more than time to reach Edinburgh before dinner, it is 
not unusual for them to perform their journey of ^ve miles by 
relays, three of them being employed in carrying one basket, and 
shifting it from one to another every hundred yards, by which 
means they have been known to arrive at the Fishmarket in less 
than three-fourths of an hour.* 

" While haddocks were in abundance on the coast, great 
quantities were taken by the seven boats of Fisherrow ; though 
the best fish for many years have been brought, three times a- 
week from Eyemouth on horseback, and unloaded here, to be 
carried in creels to Edinburgh, by which means the carriers are 
enabled to reach home the same day. For seven years past, since 

* "It is a well-attested fact, that three of them, not many years ago, 
went from Dunbar to Edinburgh, which is twenty-seven miles, with each 
of them a load of herrings on her back, of 200 lb., in five hours. They 
sometimes carry loads of 250 lb." 



BSaALITT OF M178SBLfiUBOH. OV 

the haddocks have disappeared, and few fish are to be caught by 
the Fisherrow boatmen, on account of their distance from deep 
water, where the fish are to be found, it is usual for them to meet 
the boats from the east end of Fife, half-way down the Frith, and 
to purchase their fish. In the summer season the boats from 
that coast frequently run over to Fisherrow, and sell their 
cargoes to the fishwomen here. This they do rather than run up 
to Leith, because they can dispose of their fish immediately, and 
sail home again to their respective harbours, on the same day 
with the ebb tide. The fish- wives who carry to Edinburgh, 
gain at least Is. a- day, and frequently double and triple that 
sum." 

Such was the state of the fishing when Dr Carlisle wrote. In 
1839, when the New Statistical Account of the parish was written, 
there were 28 large boats, and 140 fishermen — ^the sajne proprie- 
tors having an equal number of small boats. The large boats, we 
are told, " average from 18 to 22 tons, and are from $3 to 37 feet 
long, from 10 to 13 wide, and about 6^ deep. About the middle 
of July the large boats are prepared for the Caithness fishing, 
from which they return about the middle of September. They 
then make use of their 'small boats to fish off North Berwick and 
GuUan till the herrings come into the Frith, which is generally 
in December, when they go to the deep-sea fishing, about twenty- 
five to thirty miles east of the Isle of May. In good weather 
a boat makes two trips in the week." 

Since 1839 there has been a very considerable increase both 
in the number of boats and men : — 

Boats engaged at the herring fishery this season, . 49 
„ of a less size for oyster dredging, (fee. (unused 

at present), 12 

Pilot boats, 2 

Total of sea-going boats, ... 63 



70 mSTORT OV THE 

An average of five men to each of the forty-nine boats gives in 
all 245 men. Of these, however, only about 180 belong to 
Fisherrow — most of the boats having one or more strangers, 
called half-share men (not having nets). A number of these are 
from Yarmouth, a few from Ireland, and elsewhere. 

The value of boats and nets engaged in the herring fishing this 
season, estimating each at £130, will not be less than £6370. 

In May 1852, a few of our more enterprising hands proceeded 
to the Yarmouth grounds, a distance of 300 miles. Their suc- 
cess stimulated others, and every season since the fleet has in« 
creased. This year there are twenty boats at Yarmouth — some 
of them quite new and large, having been built for the purpose, 
and costing considerably above £100. Averaging each of the 
twenty boats at that sum, and the nets (fifty each, being double 
quantity, al £3, lOs., including mounting) at £175, there will 
not be less than £5500 of property from Fisherrow embarked in 
the Yarmouth fishery this season. 

Although the fishing statistics are thus highly flattering to 
the industry of the place, it must be admitted that the commu- 
nity labour under great disadvantages, in consequence of their 
distance from the fishing grounds. In winter the men endure 
great hardships. They are often away two or three days at sea, 
encountering storms, and are frequently compelled to take shelter 
in strange ports, where the expense of maintaining a crew of five 
or six men soon swallows up a few days' gain. In winter they 
are certainly a badly remunerated class. 

The fishermen have a friendly society of their own, and a 
• number of them belong to the masonic order. A few are office- 
bearers in our churches. There is no seamen's chapel here, but 
a very nice place of worship was fitted up two years ago by the 
Auxiliary of the Scottish Coast Mission, where their agent, a 
ship-master, officiates, and occasionally the several ministers in 



&SGALITT Of MUSSSLBtJRGH. 71 

town. It is particularly well attended by the women in their 
fisher dress. 

Musselburgh had an act of the Royal Burghs, for " packing 
and peeling herrings," dated 3d July 1611. 

The opening of a branch of the North British Railway between 
Edinburgh and Musselburgh has added vastly to the facihties of 
comninnication. Even the fishwives find it profitable to travel 
by it. The station, which is handsome and commodious, is 
situated at the east end of the old bridge. 

SCHOOLS AND EDUCATION. 

Of the state of educa;tion in Musselburgh, Dr Carlisle speaks 
very highly. He says — " There has been a flourishing Grammar 
School in this place, under the patronage of the Magistrates and 
Town Council (with the minister), who, upon an agreement with 
the heritors of the parish, settled a salary on the master, payable 
out of their funds, in lieu of which they accepted of the dues 
arising from mortcloths at funerals, which were part of the funds 
at the disposal of the heritors. The schoolmaster has a salary of 
£28 per annum, and a good house and garden." 

There are numerous references to the schools of Musselburgh 
in the Council books ; though they do not go far enough back 
to record the period of their institution. The first we have 
noticed is as follows : — 

" 20 Feb. 1660.— The whilk day the BailUes and Counsell 
being frequentlie conveened in thair ordinar place of meitting, and 
taking to their serious considerationes sundne petitiones given in 
befor thame be Mr George Adie, mayster of thair gramer schoole,, 
for some augmentatione of his feall,* as also they considering and 
taking particular notice how carefullie and diligentlie he hes 
attendit upone the schoole and scoUeres committed to his charge 
since his entrie, and hes behaved himseK discretlie and piousHe 

♦ Salary. 



72 HisTOBT ot tax 

in his liffe and conversation, doe thairfor, all in ane voce, condis- 
cend and agree to give unto the said Mr George yeirlie, and ilk 
yeir dnreing his faithiuU and diligent service in the said schoole, 
the soume of ffourtie punds Scots of augmentation, at twa times 
in the yeir, whitsunday and martimes, proportionallie ; the whilk 
sowme the haillies and counsell doe for thameselves and thair 
successoris in thair places and offices, ordore to he payet be thair 
respective toun thesaurers to the said Mr George yeirlie and 
timelie as said is, notwithstanding (for reasones knawen to thame- 
selves) it be not insert in his tak. Beginnand the first termes 
payment thairof at witsunday next to cum, 1660 instant. In 
token heirof they have desyred me, George Vallange, thair toun 
clerk, to subscrybe thir presentes as foUowes. 

G. Vallange." 

The next notice shows that, although nineteen years later, 
there was also a Latin school : 

"22 Sept, 1679.— The Counsell condescends that Mr James 
Provane, master of the Latine Schooll, shall be continued as 
schoolmaster of the said school for the space of three years after 
the term of Mertimes next, and that the former contract betwixt 
the Counsell and him be renewed to that effect. 

Eod. die. 

" The Counsell condescends that John S;QQyth shall be master 
of the Scottish Schoole, and that he shall be obleiged to serve in 
the said office, as James Hodge, late schoolmaster therof, wes in 
use to doe of before, and noe utherwayes:" 

The school thus styled the Scottish School, in opposition to the 
Latin School, was no doubt the same institution spoken of before 
as the Grammar School. It is worthy of remark that schools 
for the mother tongue were called Scottish, not EngHsh, schools, 
prior to the Union. Showing that, whatever Chalmers and 
others have argued about the Scottish tongue being derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon, the belief at large was that it had a different 
origin. 

"3 Sept. 1686. — The Counsell appoynts their number to 



BEGALITT OV MUfiSBLBURGH. 73 

meet this day eiglit-days for choysing ane schoolmaster for the 
Grammar School, and condescends that the person to he admitted 
shall have 200 merks yeirly of salarie in tyme coming, he allways 
taking the test* befor his admission." 

24 March 1699. — This day the Councill being mett, have 
condescended, notwithstanding of the former Act of Conncill, to 
give a salarie of 120 IK Scots, which is heirby declared to be 
allenarly given att my Lo. Lauderdale's desire, and that the 
foresaid salarie is only to continue ay and while the schoolmaster 
shall gett the precentor's place, at which tyme the foresaid 
salarie is to be restricted to one hundred merks, and which 120 
lib. the C!ouncill heirby declares that they will give the said 
salarie to noe other person except Mr Toshoch." 

About the beginning of the last century there seems to have 
been some misunderstanding between the burgh and the heritors 
of the parish as to the support of the schoolmaster : — 

"18 Nov. 1700.— This day the Counsell appoynts BaiUie 
Smart, the thesaurer, and Eichard Douglas, to goe to Edinburgh 
to-morrow, to speak with Somebeggf and Sheriff Calderwood 
anent the provyding ane schoolmaster, and to report to the 
Counsell against the next meeting, and to signifie to them that 
the heritors are obleiged by Act of Parliament to provide his 
salarie.'' 

" 13 June 1702. — The Counsell appoynts the two present Bail- 
hes and Baillie Vemor, or any two of them, to speak with Sir 
Bobert Bicksone anent the getting of a schoolmaster, and to 
report." ^ 

Whether this misunderstanding occurred respecting the ap- 
pointoient of a new master to the Grammar School, or referred to 
a third teacher, does not appear. There never was any parochial 
school, however. At length the Council came to terms. On 
the 9th Nov. 1702 they agree to pay the salary of the school- 

* The Test Act^ which created so much disturbance amongst the Whigs 
of the west country. The Musselbui^h authorities seem to have been less 
squeamish. 

t Sir Robert Dickson of Somebeg. 



74 HISTORY OP TRfi 

master, with this proviso, that the heritors shall make him 
session-clerk and precentor, and have half .of the fees. 4th Feb. 
1703. — In consequence of a letter from Mr Wm. Calderwood, 
Mr James Bain is appointed schoolmaster for three years, and to 
have a salary of 200«merks. 

In 1714, after the Union, we find that what was called the 
Scottish is styled the English School. On the 22d May of this 
year, "Mr Wm. Keith, of late schooUmaister of an English 
schooll in Dalkeith,'* was appointed master. 

The following bequest affords some data in tracing the pro- 
gress of the Latin school :— 

" 25 Jan. 1731.— The Councill, considering that the deceased 
John Wightman of Mauldslie, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, had 
mortifyed the heretable bond he had on Andrew Coalzier's 
houses, with the bygane and current annual rents theirof to the 
town, in order that the annual rents theirof should by the 
Magistrates and Councill of Musselburgh be by them in all time 
coming bestowed on furnishing cloths to back-fallen burgesses 
sons, who should be educate at the Latine School of this burgh, 
the Councill tliairfor agree that their shall ane adjudication be 
forthwith led on the said heritable bond, to the effect that the 
bygane annualrents and penalty theirin contained, be united into 
the principall; and they .also, considering that the houses they 
formerly purchased as a schoolmaister's house, will not be by far 
so convenient as the houses contained ij^ the foresaid heretable 
bond for a schoolmaister, they therefor condescend that these 
houses shall be converted to that use, and that such sums as 
shall correspond with Provost Wightman's mortification shall be 
duly made good out of the toun's other funds, to the effect that 
his charitable design may subsist in all time coming, and agree 
to roup and sell the other tenement formerly bgught for a school- 
maister's house against Tuesday the ninth of February next to 
the highest offerer, at the Clerk's Chamber, by two o'cloaek, and 
that the money that shall arise from the sale thairof shall be 
bestowed in inclosing the ground at the back of the Tolbooth 
for a new mercat place, and for building a new court place above 



BEGALITT OF M173SELBI7BOH, 75 

the entry thairto, to enter ofif the present stair of the Tolhooth, 
and recommend it to any of the Councill that incline to attend 
fhe foTsaid ronp, and ordain it to he intimate through the tonn 
by tuck of drum." 

The following minute in reference to the Latin School we 
consider peculiarly interesting : — 

*' 27 April 1722. — Considering that there was a comparative 
iryall for a Latin schoolmaster, upon the third of Fehruary last, 
b^ore Sir David Dalrymple,* the Rev. Mr Alexander Carlisle,! 
Mr George Logan,| and Mr Hugh Blair,|| judges appointed for 
thiq said tryall, the said jadges, after hearing several candidates, 
found that Mr William Jeifry, now schoolmaster in this place, 
was fittest for the said office, therefore the baillies and Councill 
appointed him to be Latine schoolmaster ad cerium ut culptun in 
this place, and allow him the salarys and others, as mentioned in 
the act of Council, the first day of February last," <fec. 

Mr Jeffrey, who had the honour of so learned and famous a 
bench of judges, did not belie their decision. The Latin School, 
which had gone sadly down under his predecessor, speedily 
rallied, and he became so popular a teacher that numerous 
temptations were held out to him to remove to other localities. 
The magistrates, however, wisely resolved to augment his salary. 
Li 1758, it was necessary to build a new school-house for the 
accommodation of pupils. 

The English and Latin schools of former times are now known 
as the Grammar School, which has long enjoyed a high reputa- 
tion. The rector has a salary of £27, 4s. 5d., together with a 
house and school. There are other two schools supported by 
the burgh — one in Musselburgh, the teacher of which receives 

* LordHailes, well known for his nmn«roxtB works, "Hie Annals of 
Scotland/' &c., illastrative of Scottisli histoiy and antiquities. 

f Dr Carlisle, minister of Inveresk, nniversally reputed a learned and 
talented man. 

X Logan, the poet and divine. 
II Blair, author of the '' Belle Lettres,*" &c. 



76 HI8T0BY OF THE 

£12 and a house ; and one in Fisherrow, with a salary of £17, 
including house rent. There are, besides, three schools belong- 
ing to the Free Church, with an average attendance of 400 
children. 

Some year:^ ago a school was built and endowed near Magdalen 
Bridge, by the late Sir Charles Ferguson of Eiikerran, Bart. 

For nearly a century back there have been boarding schools 
for young ladies and gentlemen in Musselburgh, one of the most 
flourishing of which, for young gentlemen, has been conducted 
many years by the Eev. Thomas Langhome, Episcopal minister, at 
his pleasant villa of Loretto. Considerable additions, in hall and 
sleeping apartments, have just been made to this seminary, which 
will add greatly to its accommodations. The house occupies the 
ground where once stood the famous chapel of " our Lady," and 
is in the immediate vicinity of the Links and the sea. 

Mr Balfour, who lately resigned his situation as teacher of the 
Grammar School, and which he conducted for the last twelve 
years with eminent success, has just opened a boarding school for 
boys at Campie House. Having purchased this delightful villa, 
he has made considerable additions to it, and the arrangements 
are upon the most approved principles, ^he dormitories are 
large, airy, and elegant, and the dining-hall and other apartments 
are commodious and cheerful. The class-rooms are entirely new, 
well lighted, and well ventilated, while the play-ground — ^adapted 
for all states of the weather — is at once ample, open, and 
pleasant, yet retired. Campie House stands a short distance 
west of the old bridge of Musselburgh, and was originally built 
by the family of the late Admiral Milne. Subsequently the 
present Earl of Stair occupied it for some time. The house 
itself is in excellent repair, and the grounds, extending to about 
Ave acres, are laid out in gardens, shrubbery, and lawns, in the 
most tasteful manner. The boarders have free use of the 



BEQALITT OF MUSSELBUHGH. 77 

grounds, and the house is within easy access of the sea. We 
know of few more attractive localities for educational purposes. 

There is no parish school ; yet between public, congregational, 
and private establishments, no want of schools is felt either in 
Musselburgh or the various villages throughout the district. 

From the Rev. Adam Colt's report of the parish in 1627* we 
learn that before 1609 James YI. had endowed a music school 
in Musselburgh. He says : — *^ Item, there is ane musick schooll 
in Musselburgh, quhairvnto vmquhile King James, quha lait 
deceissit, of worthie memorie, giftit iij<^ merkis money furth of 
the yeirlie dewtie of the erectit lordeship of Newbattle. This 
pensioun wes gevin be the vmquhile Kingis majestie to vm- 
quhile Mr Andro Blakhall, minister for the tyme at the said kirk 
of Mussilburgh, and to his sone Mr Andro BlackhaU, present 
minister at Abirlady, to the vse and behove of the said musick 
schooll, and the said Mr Andro hes sauld and disponit the said 
pensioun, sua that the parochine and the schooll is frustrat of his 
majestie's gift." 

Amongst the town's papers there is a decreet of declaratoi^ 
(2(>th Jan. 1604), and for payment, at the instance of Mr 
Andrew Blackball, as music master of Musselburgh, against 
Mark Lord Newbattle, Sir Thomas Hamilton of Monkland, and 
others, declaring the extent of their possessions, and proportioning 
the same upon the lands belonging to Lord Newbattle, Sir 
Thomas Hamilton, and others. 

Besides the pension to the music master, or perhaps in conse- 
quence of its disposal by Mr Andrew Blackball, Charles I. gifted 
to Charles Earl of Dunfermline, as Bailie of the Lordship of 
Musselburgh, and to the Magistrates, Council, and inhabitants, 
the right of presentation of a music master to the buigh ; as 

* Report of the Ecclesiastical Bevennes of the Parishes, ordered by the 
Church in that year, published some time ago by the Maitland Club. 



78 SOBTOBr OF THB 

also to the Magistrates and Council the jeaxtj pension of two 
hundred pounds Scots, to be uplifted furth of the feu and blench 
duties payable to the Crown furth of the lordship and barony of 
Newbattle, belonging to the Earl of Lothian. This gift is dated 
15th July* 16S0. It is somewhat singular that the burgh does 
not atill enjoy the gift, and that there is no music school. 

DESCBIPTION OF THE BUBaH. 

Musselburgh and Fisherrow, to all intents and purposes one 
town, are delightfully situated at the mouth of the Esk — the 
river, wide, shallow, and clear, gliding gently between. Mussel- 
burgh proper runs along the eastern bank in a north-east direc- 
tion. It seems to have originally consisted of one main street, 
stretching from the West mill to Pinkie House. The street, as 
it now exists,* is a spacious one, blending an air of antiquity 
with modem elegance. The burgh was formerly enclosed with 
gateB at the eastern and western extremities. Two rather 
massive pillars mark where the former was placed. They bear 
the burgh arms, and have the date 1770. The western gate 
closed the old bridge against intrusion in that quarter. Part of 
the iron-work connected with it still remains in the parapets of 
the eastern arch. All without these gates were considered not 
" within buigh," but in the liberties. Hence the attempt, in 1702, 
to deprive the representatives of Newbigging and Fisherrow of 
their seats at the Council board. The village of Newbigging, 
which is of considerable antiquity, joins Musselburgh on the 
east, and forms a natural extension of the town in that quarter. 
The Mill HUl, a back street towards the river, derives its name 
from the site of the Sea mill, which, as well as the West mill, is 
Dtill maintained in excellent working order. 

* Fonneriy what was called the "NGdnw, from the Cross upwards, 
divided the street into two. 



REGALITT 07 MUSSELBUBaH. 79 

Fisherrow occupies the west bank of the Esk. It seexas to 
have originated in an irregalar line of fishermen's houses along 
the shore near the harbour. From the minute of Council (24th 
Sept. 1702) ab-eady quoted, we learn that Fisherrow, Bridgend, 
and Mercat-gate were distinct places. Together with the 
bridge the latter formed the highway to England from time 
immemorial till the erection of the new bridge in 1807. There 
had been a considerable space between Mercat-gate and Fisher- 
row in 1702. The sea is known to have washed up to the back 
of Main Street. Musselburgh and Fisherrow are connected by 
three bridges, two of stone, and one of wood for foot-passengers. 

Hie Old Bridge. — ^The oldest existing memorial of Mussel- 
burgh is apparently the old bridge. '^ It is most likely,'* says 
Dr Carlisle, ^ that it was a work of the Romans, as they certainly 
had many houses in what is now called Fisherrow, as well as 
their haven for shipping, and could not possibly suffer their 
colony to be divided, and their harbour separated from their 
fort by a river that is frequently impassable for many days 
together. This bridge has many marks of antiquity; and as 
several parts of the arches approach nearly to a straight line, the 
frame or coom on which it was raised must have sunk while it 
was building. The arches are 50 feet wide, their spring only 10 
feet. Whoever built it must have intended to place the 
approaches to it out of the reach of the tide, which is the case 
to this day, and demonstrates that the coast is not matmally 
changed, or that the sea has not gained on the land since that 
period, as the site of the harbour proves that it has not receded 
from it." It is generally considered that the sea has receded 
from the mouth of the Esk, in consequence of the bar, formed 
by the debris of the river, while it has encroached upon the land 
towards Portobello. In 1547, at the Battle of Pinkie, the 
English vessels of war came so close in to the town at the water 



80 niSTOBY Of THE 

mouth as to command the bridge, a feat which could not be 
done by similar vessels at the present day, owing to the shallow- 
ness of the water. 

The bridge leads in a direct line from what was the Eoman 
prastorium towards the harbour, and may have been constructed 
by the conquerors of Yalentia ; but it must have undei^gone so 
many repairs as to leave no vestige of Roman architecture in it. 
It has all the characteristics, however, of considerable age. The 
date assigned to it in the Maitland MSS. is about 1520, when it 
was either rebuilt or thoroughly repaired by Lady Janet Hepburn. 
In an engraving of the Battle of Pinkie, in 1547, published at 
the time, and attached to a French account of the engagement, 
reprinted by the Bannatyne Club, the bridge distinctly appeals 
with two arches only. The fact of the west gate having been 
placed at the end of the second arch, and the twist in the third 
to fjEice the old church road, seem confirmatory of its having been 
a more recent addition, yet it cannot be of a very modem date. 
Indeed, judging from present appearances, it is impossible to say 
which of the three atches is the most ancient. In 1597, the 
Scottish Parliament passed an Act for repairing the bridge t>f 
Musselburgh, and we know that it had again become dflapidated 
in 1687, in the Council minutes of which year the mid-how is 
specially mentioned. It is thus probable that the eastern arch 
was added in 1597, and the other two either wholly rebuilt or 
repaired upon the same model. 

The to\7n books show that frequent patchings were necessary. 
In 1687 it is spoken of as " the meikle bridge," implying that 
there were others : — 

" 27 June 1687.— ^The Counsell condescend to help the beat- 
rage at the meikle bridge, for securing the bridgend doores the 
most sure and convenient, at the sight of the present baillies, 
with such of the Counsell as can be present." 



REOALITT OF MUSSELBUBGH. 81 

This of course refers to the doors of the west gate ; but the 
following minute concerns the bridge itself : — 

" 18 June 1688. — The Counsell condescends that all within 
the libertie having carts shall lead three cartfull stones, each 
person, from the Magdalens or elsewhere, as shall be appoynted, 
for fortifieing the midland stook of the meikle bridge and 
beatrige at the Bridgend doores, and ordains the inhabitants, 
conforme to ane list to be made of them, to be wairned hj 
quarters for lifting and laying of the saids stones, and making 
ane cast through the mid-bow for ane new channell to the 
watter, under the penaltie of threttie shillings for ilke cart, and 
ten shillings for the persone who shall happen to be deficient. 

" 9 July 1688. — The Counsell condescends that ther number 
shall attend by turns upon the making of the cast at the meikle 
bridge, two each day, as they shall be advertised by the baillies, 
under the penaltie of 40s. who Miles.'* 

On the 19th July 1697 another minute occurs, directing the 
heatrehcU of the meikle bridge to be repaired. There were other 
two bridges— one over the Magdalen bum, and another at the 
eastern boundary of the parish — all of which the town was 
bound to keep in repair. A few years afterwards it was spoken 
of simply as the bridge : — 

'^ 2 July 1705. — The Counsell condescends to lay beatreachds 
about the landstoolls of the bridge, and also to help the beatrich 
at the Bridgend, and ordaines the same to be furthwith done,'' (fee. 

The floods in the river are repeatedly mentioned as having 
inflicted damage : — 

" il Oct. 1708.— The Counsell, considering that the frequent 
spets of the water has alreadie taken away good part of Leccass' 
Q-reen, and lyke to take away the remainder, therefor they con- 
descend that ilk inhabitant burges send a man, as they shall be 
wairned, to work and cast a gau for the current of the water, as 
they shall be directed by any of their number, and that ilk 
person who have carts also send the same' and their horses when 
wairned, under thie penaltie of twenty shillings Scots, totiea 



82 BISTORT OF TBI 

On the 29tb Nov. 1708, as the pellcUs of the bridge were 
likely to be taken away by the current, the inhabitants were 
ordered to be waimed to repair the same. In 1716 it is again 
spoken of as the meikle bridge. On the 8th July it is ordered 
that *' a bitrich be made above the meikle bridge," the water 
being ''Uke to break in upon the dam." By the dam we 
presume is meant the mill lead. 1st July 1628, the edgings of 
the meikle hridge were ordered to be repaired. Again : — 

" 15 May 1742.7— The bailUes and Counsell agree that the 
meikle bridge be instantly mended where tradesmen shall think 
proper, as cJso repair the cross and the trone in the toun of 
Musselburgh, as also that the bridge called the Maitland 
Bridge be looked to by tradesmen, and mended where they 
shall think proper." 

Such are a few of the notices found in the town records 
respecting the meikle hridge. It is a very picturesque structure- 
Down to 1807 it formed one of the principal passages across the 
Esk. Along it have marched the greater portion of those invad- 
ing or repelling forces, from the days of the Bomans downwards, 
in the numerous wars recorded in our history. Many a time 
has the chivalry of Scotland, as well as all that was kingly and 
noble, passed along its narrow pathway to do battle with their 
^^ auld enemies of England." So also has it borne the proud 
pennant of the South, under the Edwards, an4 their numerou"^ 
hosts, bent on the humiliation of the North. Cromwell, too, 
marched over it in triumph after the ill-managed affair of Dunbar. 
So did Prince Charles on his way to and from the easily-gained 
field of Prestonpans. It is now very properly preserved as a relic, 
foot-passengers only being allowed access to it. . 

The Tolhooth. — The next most striking object of antiquity is 
the Tolbooth, which stands nearly in the centre of the High 
Street. The body of the structure is understood to have been 
erected, in 1790, of materials taken from the famous Chapel of 



KEGALITY Of MT7SSBLBT7RGH. 83 

Loretto. The buflding, or rather rebuilding, of the Tolbooth with 
the stones of Laureit was perhaps the first sacrilege of the kind 
committed in Scotland, and, it is said, incurred the vehement 
denunciations of the Bomish Church; for although the Beforma- 
tion was nominallj accomplished in 1560, the Bomish priesthood 
continued for many years afterwards in possession of their 
livings. The Old Tolbooth, or Town-House of Musselburgh, 
was destroyed by the English under the Earl of Hertford in 
1544, and probably never had been reconstructed till 1590. Dr 
Moir states that the ancient charters of David I. and Pope 
Gregory IX. were made away with at that time; but he does 
not give his authority, and the fact seems more than doubtful, 
because the charters of David and the Pope were granted to the 
Monks of Dunfermline, and not to the magistrates of Mussel- 
burgh, consequently they were not likely to be in their archives. 
Besides, the destruction of the charters is attributed to a later 
event, after the disaster of Pinkie. The spiral steeple, over* 
topping the premises, probably formed a portion of the original 
building, and escaped the fire. It is of peculiar construction and 
great age. The old dial of the clock bore the date 1496. It 
was of a very primitive description, and is said to have been 
a present from the Dutch States, with which there was a 
trading intercourse in early times. It was renewed, however, in 
1852. A brass plate attached to the work, recording the fact, 
is supposed to have been stolen many years ago by^he person in 
charge of the machinery. The Council rooms and hall are of 
more recent erection, and bear the date 1762. They enter from 
the Tolbooth stair, over the doorway of which, in the lobby, is 
the following inscription, in black letter, with the buigh arms 
between : — 

" Magistrates do justice ) ^^^q ) He that God doth fear 
in the fear of God, ju. 16. j ^' ' ^' j will not to falsehood lend an ear." 



84 niSTORT OT THS 

The Tolbooth buildings are repeatedly mentioned in the Coundl 
books : — 

'' 4 Jan. 1700. — The Counsell condescends that the steeple be 
repaired, and for that effect appoynts Thomas Tod,* thesaurer, 
to buy timber to repair the lyning, and refers to the present 
baiUies and thesaurer to agree with workmen upon a penny for 
timber to the outside therof, and working the same." 

" 23 June 1701. — The Counsell condescends that the roof of 
the Tolbooth, the chappell gavell, the Cross, and east port, be 
repaired at the sight of the thesaurer and any two of the 
Counsell." 

In the Old Statistical Account, Dr Carlisle says — " Till about 
thirty years ago (1760) there was a middle row of houses east- 
ward from the Tolbooth, one of which had been a chapel, called 
Cfhapel Oavel" From the above minute, however, it seems that 
the building was simply called the Chapd, and that, like the roof 
of the steeple, the gavel of the chapel was to be repaired. The 
gavel had been- used for the support of flesh-hooks, hence its 
being in want of repair. Another, and a later miiiute seems to 
oonflrm our opinion : — 

" 22 Sept. 1761. — ^The Counsell agree that sheads, supported 
with timber, and covered with wood, and pitched and tarred, be 
erected in the west gavdl of the mid-raw of Musselbrugh, and 
another at the back of the Tolbooth stair, in order to shelter those 
who come with greens, <fcc., to the mercat." 

This chapel was probably called St Jameses — at least such a 
chapel is mentioned in Colt's report of the parish. 

The Mid-row, it would thus appear, existed in 1761. Its re- 
moval added greatly to the width and beauty of the street. The 
cross, however, a rare relic now-a-days, still occupies its position. 
It consists of a pedestal and pillar, surmounted by a lion rampant, 
bearing a shield with the arms of the burgh. 

* Thesaurer Tod depnrst 248 Ub. is. lod. Scots, for the reparation of the 
steeple at this time. 



RBGALITT OF MVSSELBtSGH. 85 

" 16 Jan. 1716.— The Councill consideriBg that the roofif of 
the Tolhooth is become rainons, and that the slaites are all loose 
and <Iropping off, they recommend to the Baillies to repair*the 
same wiUi the first good weather, and that they serk what is to 
be repaired with new deles.", 

The new CJouncil-House had not been built at this time, and 
curionsly enough there seems, from the following minutes, to have 
been no fire-place in the old Court-hall : — 

'* 16 Jan. 1716. — The which day the Councill, considering the 
disadvantage the magilstrates sustain in holding meittings, or 
keeping Courts in such cold weather, they allow the Baillies to 
affix a brace in the Council-house, to serve for a fyre in cold 
weather." 

A farther repair of the steeple took place in 1744 : — 

" 14 July 1744. — The Counsell, considering that the tpun 
steeple is much ffailed in the foundation of the timber work, and 
that it is in great danger of falling down, they unanimously agree 
that. James Yemor and John Heiiot, wrights in Musselburgh, 
view the said steeple, and directly fall to the repairing of it ; and 
appoynts George Young, the town treasurer, to attend at said 
work, and advise the tradesmen in the working said work." 

Again: — 

" X Jnly 1758. — The Counsell agree that the whole gray 
slates be taken off the roof of the Tolbooth, and the same be 
covered on both sides with blew slates ; and that Thomas Mur- 
ray, slaiter, execute the work at £4, 7s. 6d. per rood, he furnish- 
ing every material, and tirring the old roof, and that he furnish 
all scaffolding nails, for which he shall be allowed one pound 
sterling." 

On the 21st July 1758, it was agreed " that the side walls of 
the Tolbooth be raised as high as i^all bring the new roof to be 
put up eighteen inches below the square." 

The Tolbooth contains three rooms — a debtor*s room, a lock- 
up, and another cell. The Town-hall, clerk's chambers, and 



86 HISfOBT OF THE 

keeper *s apartment, are all, of course, in connection 'with the 
building. There is a list extant of all the rebel prisoners re- 
ceived into custody at the jail, between the 19th February 1746, 
and the 13th September of the same year, in which are recorded 
the time of their caption, the place where taken, the expense of 
their subsistence, and other particulars. They seem not to have 
been treated with any ceremony, as the following indorsement on 
this document, by the town treasurer, plainly hints — ^' Sot straw 
to ye prisoners, £5, 8s." 

Other Old Buildings. — There are still a few houses of early 
date in the main street of Musselbui^h, but the most ancient and 
interesting was removed in 1809. We allude to the house in 
which the great Randolph died. It was in good repair when Br 
Carlisle wrote, and stood near the east end of the town, on the 
east side."*" The Old Statistical Accownt contains an engraving, 
with a ground plan, of the premises. An erroneous account of 
this venerable building is given in the Oazetteer of Scotland. It 
was not '* a two-storied house, buttressed in front, with conical 
Flemish windows, each surmounted with a sculptured rose," f 
but a plain building. Dr Carlisle describes it, and the engrav- 
ing bears out the description — as " a vaulted house, of two rooms 
on the ground floor ; the rooms are about 14 feet square, and the 
arch 8 feet high, with a passage between them 6 feet wide. This 
might well have been the best house in the town 460 years ago." 
The walls were three feet in thickness. The Earl of Murray vras 
second in command at the battle of Bannockbum, and together 

* Dr Moir states that the site is now occupied by the two-storey house 
built by the Morrison's Haven Masonic Lodge ; but we have been assured 
that the real site is within what is now the enclosed grounds of Pinkie 
House. 

t On the west side, nearly opposite, there is an old-looking house, 
which, with the exception of the buttresses, externally answers this de- 
scription. 



BEGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 87 

with the "good Lord James Douglas," an especial favourite of 
Robert the Bruce, the ever-memorable assertor of Scotland's in- 
dependence. Bandolph was Regent at the time referred to. The 
Baliol insurrections— encouraged and aided by £ngland — after 
the death of Bruce, are well known. Dr Moir says that in con- 
sequence of preparations on the part of England to invade this 
country, Bandolph had advanced with an army as far as Cold- 
brandspath, on the frontier of Berwickshire, but on learning that 
a naval force threatened his rear, he returned homewards with 
the view of providing for the safety of the capital. On reaching 
Walliford, near the confines of the parish of Musselburgh, he was 
seized with a dangerous illness. The magistrates inunediately 
provided for his accommodation. He was conveyed on a litter to 
the nearest house within the east port, and the citizens are said 
to have watched, in relays, over the great man till his death, 
which occurred on the 20th July 1332. Grateful for their kind- 
ness, his nephew and successor, the Earl of Mar, desired them to 
make som^ request regarding the extension of their burgh privi- 
leges, which he would be happy to grant. Their answer was 
that they wished nothing, having only done their duty. Upon 
this the Earl is said to have observed, " Sure you are a set of 
honest fellows." Tradition has it that from this circumstance 
the motto of the burgh, " Honesty," was adopted. 

At the Dam Brae, a back street, there was, until lately, the 
Musselburgh Kilwinning Lodge, built in 1612.* This was, 
perhaps, the most ancient building devoted to masonry in Scot- 
land. Even Kilwinning, mother Kilwinning, possesses no such 
tangible evidence of her once proud position in connection with 
the craft. 

At the Dam Brae there is still a well, celebrated for the excel- 

* It has been rebuilt or remodelled, and now forms part of Mr Primrote'i 
hair-cloth manufactory. 



88 HiBToBT ov tme 

lence of its water, called " the vicar's well," from which it is 'be- 
lieved the present Manse occupies the site of the anci^it vicanqge. 
It lies to the south-east of the Brae, and the wall of thti ground 
approaches pretty close to the mill lead, or dam,- as it is called. 
It is well surrounded with old trees. The present Manse wi&s 
built in 1807, but the former building, on the same site, dated 
back to 1681, It was here where Dr Carlisle used to dra^r 
around him so many of the literati of last century. Robertson, 
Hume, Mackenzie, Campbell, Logan, Stuart, Home, SmdUet, 
Beattie, and Hill, were often amongst the visitants. A con- 
siderable portion of the Tragedy of Douglas was composed in the 
Manse, and it is well known that Dr Carlisle stood warmly in 
defence of the author when assailed by the Church Courts c(n 
account of it. The Old Statistical Account of Inveresk, written 
by the Doctor, contains a spirited censure of the Puritan party 
on that occasion. It was here, also, that the long-lost copy of 
Collins' sublime '^ Ode on the Superstitions of the Highlands " 
was discovered in its perfected state, amongst the Doctor's 
papers. At a still earlier period the sermons of the pious and 
scholastic Williamson were dated from the Manse of Mussel- 
burgh. 

On the Fisherrow side, and close to the river, stands the villa 
of Eskside, once the residence of Professor Stuart, father of 
Gilbert Stuart, who was one of the originators of the first ^«n- 
hwrgh Review, and known for his violence and recklessness as a 
public writer. Close to the garden wall, in front, at the south 
end of it, is a round two-storied building, so thickly overgrown 
with ivy as to look like a large bottle encased in green. This 
was the study of Gilbert, and the resort of not a few of the 
literati of the time. There is little else worth notice, in refer- 
ence to past times, on the west side of the Esk, save, perhaps, 
the small public-house in Market-gate, at the end of the old 



ftEOAUtr OF MDS8KLBUBQH. 89 

Bridge, known $a the " Thatched House Tavern/* where, it is 
helieved, Home and another party were taken prisoners by 
Charlie's men in 1745. They were volunteers in the Boyal 
cause, and had gone to Musselburgh as scouts to watch the 
motions of the Highlanders. Neglecting their duty in their 
conviviality, they were made captive. 



ST MICHAEL'S CHURCH. 

We have already spoken of the Church of Inveresk as included 
in the original grant to the Monks of Dunfermline. The present 
structure was built in 1805. When Dr Carlisle wrote the old 
fabric still existed. It occupied the same site — supposed to have 
been the prwtorium of the Romans, " St MichaeFs of Inveresk, 
the parish Church," says the Doctor, " is of great antiquity, but 
uncertain date. It is most likdy that it was built soon after the 
introductio}! of Christianity,* out of the riiins of the Roman fort. 
The stone it is built of appears to be the same with those dis- 
covered in the ruins of the pwetorium. There are evidently many 
old stones, and many Roman bricks in the building. There seems, 
besides, to have been no good reason for choosing a situation so 
distant from the towns, which have always been the most popu- 
lous parts of the parish, had it not been for the convenience of 
using the old materials. The body of the Church is 102 feet 
long, and only 24 feet wide within the walls ; but there are four 
aisles, two on each side of the Church, that have been built at 
different periods, and double rows of galleries in the ends of the 
Church." These aisles, no doubt, contained the several altars 

* Christianity is understood to have been introduced into East Lothian 
by St Baldred, a disciple of Kentigem, during the siicth century. Accord- 
ing to Bede, there was a Saxon monastery at Tyningham, dedicated to St 
Balther, the diocese of which ultimately extended oTer East Lothian. 



90 HISTOBT OT THE 

belonging to the ClinTcli in Catholic times. Elsewhere we give 
a sketch of the building as it stood in 1547. At that period it 
appears to have been cruciform^ with only two aisles, consequently 
the other two must have been added afterwards. In Dr Carlisle's 
time the whole superstrocture was " in a ruinous condition," and 
as such " truly a disgrace to the parish." The present Church is 
large enough, but plain in the extreme, with a miniature though 
beautiful steeple, which throws an air of burlesque over the huge 
building. The bell, which belonged to the old fabric, bears the 
following inscription : — Soli. deo. gloria, michael, Byrgdrhvys. 
me. fecit. Anno Domini 1624. Inuervijsk Kirk. 

In 1176, after the Church of Musselburgh had been placed 
under the Bishoprick of St Andrews, we find, from the ancient 
Taxatio, that it contributed 70 merks, being the highest of all 
the churches in Mid-Lothian. It was in the old Church of St 
Michael's that the celebrated Wishart performed divine service a 
short time prior to his martyrdom. 

The ministers of this Church, since the Eeformation, have 
been — 1. Mr Andrew Blackball, admitted previous to 1591, died 
in 1609 ; 2. Mr Adam Colt ; and, 3, his son, Mr Oliver Colt— 
who, together, filled up the rest of t^at century till 1679 ; 4. Mr 
Arthur Miller, ordained 1680 ; 5. Mr Richard Howieson,' or- 
dained 1690; 6. Mr John Williamson, ordained 1701, died 
1739 ; 7. Mr Frederick Carmichael, admitted 1739, translated 
to Edinburgh 1747-8 ; 8. Dr Alexander Carlisle, ordained in 
1748, died in 1805 ; 9. Dr Leslie Moodie, admitted 1606, died 
in 1840 ; 10. The present incumbent, Mr J. G. Beveridge, 
appointed assistant and successor in 1836. 

The prsBtorium, or churchyard, though not more than fifty feet 
above the level of the sea, commands an extensive and excellent 
view of the surrounding country. The Bomans could well ap- 
preciate such a position. '' There are, '^ says Dr Carlisle, *' two 



&EGALIT7 09 HUSS£LBUROH. ^1 

mounts, or ramparts, one on the north side, and another on the 
east end of the churchyard, that are called Oliver^ s Mounts^ and 
are supposed to have been batteries of Cromwell's, one to com- 
mand the bridge, and the other to defend his magazine, which 
was in the village of Inveresk." He farther adds, in a foot-note, 
that " the eastern rampart having been levelled five or six years 
ago to extend the burying-ground, and a foundation for a monu- 
ment having been lately dug, as deep as seven feet below the 
surface of the churchyard, and eleven below the top of the mount, 
there were found many human bones in full preservation, which 
seems to furnish proof that the ramparts had been erected since 
the field was enclosed for a churchyard." Lord Hailes was of 
opinion that they might have belonged to the Roman period. 
Dr Moir coincided with Lord Hailes, and chiefly because he 
fancies the mounds are indicated in Patten's rude diagrams of the 
field of Pinkie, besides being mentioned by that author in his 
prolix account of the battle. The passage which he quotes is as 
follows : — ^* We cam on spedily a both sydes, neither as thereto 
ony whit (I dare saye) ware of others entent : but ye Scots indede 
wt. a rounder pace : BetwerU the ii, hillockes hetwixt vs and the 
cJiurch, thei moustred somwhat#brim in our eyes, at whoom, as 
they stayed thear awhile, our galley shot of, and slewe the master 
of Greym, with a five-and-twenty nere him." The hillocks thus 
alluded to are believed by Dr Moir to have been the mounds 
facing east and north in the churchyard. The diagrams of Patten 
are so rude and inaccurate that no reliance can be placed upon 
them in matters of this kind. In fact there is only one hillock 
indicated, if hillock it is, and that to the east. Patten may have 
intended to mark the site of the Scots battery, for he knew that 
they had guns planted there. It was the design of the English, 
in moving from their encampment at Falside, to occupy the 
heights at Inveresk, so as to command the Scottish camp. They 

Q 



92 HISTOST Of THE 

intended to plant part of their ordnance in a turf lane, which led 
northward. *'It was not ye least part of our meaning also/' adds 
Patten, "herehy to wyn from them certein of their ordinatmce that 
lay nerest Um chu/rch" The English, however, were anticipated, 
for the Scots gained the church before they were half way to 
it. Approaching, as the English were, from their camp at Fal- 
side, and the Scots posting southwards with the view of gaining 
the hill, it is impossible that the latter could appear " sumwhat 
brim " in their eyes, " betwent the ii. hillockes betwixt vs and 
the church." However erroneously Patten might place the hil- 
locks in the diagram, he must have seen them from the south- 
east, consequently they could not be the two mounds in the 
churchyard. There was not space enough, even, for the Scots 
army so to muster between the ramparts. 

Dr Moir mentions another tradition, that they were Desses 
work, the French commander, Desse, having fortified the hill in 
1648, immediately after the battle of Pinkie. On the 10th of 
January 1548-9, the Privy Council ordered a fort to be built at. 
Inveresk. The town of Edinburgh was directed to furnish 300 
workmen, with proper tools, for six days. The same Council 
ordered, that every plough of oight oxen, between Linlithgow 
and Haddington, should furnish a man properly provided with 
entrenching tools, during the same time of six days, and eveiy 
potch plough to furnish two men, under pain of forty shillings * 
In the answer to the French memorial, 22d April 1550, the 
Governor and Council intimated that, to save charges, the fort 
of Inveresk would be kept by the Abbot of Dunfermline upon 
caution.f 

Musselburgh— defended on the north by the sea, and a strong 
gate to the east, with the village of Inveresk surrounded by a 
turf wall, planted with cannon — was the only town in the east 
of Scotland, except Dunbar, that offered any determined resist- 

* Keith's Appendix. f Caledonia. 



REGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 93 

ance to Cromwell — a fact in itself affording evidence that the 
mounds were of Desse's or his own times. When the old Church 
was demolished, a quantity of gunpowder was discovered in one 
of the vaults, supposed to have been placed there in 1660. 

In the engraving of the battle of Pinkie, formerly mentioned, 
and from which our sketch is taken, the Church, with the Scot- 
tish cannon, appears distinctly. The hill was then unenclosed 
as a burial-place, and there are no mounds indicated. It is thus 
manifest that they were of later construction. 

OUver's cavalry lay at Inveresk for six or eight weeks, while 
his foot were encamped on the links of Musselburgh. The 
Ohurch served as a stable for the horses. At the battle of Pinkie, 
in 1547, the Scots had several guns planted at the Church, and 
so had Prince Charles Stuart in 1745. 

Few notices occur in the Council books respecting the Church. 
The bailies, it is minuted on the 13th June 1702, were to meet 
the heritors about a fund for a helper to Mr John Howieson. An 
assistant was not at this time appointed.* In 1708 (11th Oct.) 
the north porch of the Church is ordered to be levelled, and the 
stair made. 

" 7 Sept. 1713. — The which day the Council being acquainted 
by the magistrates that the heritors were resolved to stent the 
parochin for repairing the church, they resolve to do nothing 
thereanent before they consult their assessor ; to see what way 
such reparations are appoynted by act of Parliament, and recom- 
mend to the present magistrates and thesaurer to meett with 
their assessor therabout als soon as possible, and to report att 
next meeting." 

The repairs executed on the kirk the following year, 1714, 
cost ihe town, as their share, 80^^^- 8»- Scots. 

*"llth May 1730, the Council agreed that Mr BonaJoy, theaecond 
minister, should have 'ane elk* to his stipends." 



94 . HtSTOBT OF THE 

LORETTO. 

Besides the parish Church, there were several chapels of old 
in the parish, all, of course, subordinate \o it. The chapel of 
Cousland is mentioned in the charter of David I.-, 1163 ; and, as 
we have seen, there was one in the Mid-Raw of Musselburgli (St 
James's) ; another had its site in a garden at the west end c»f 
Market-gate; a third in the grounds of New Hailes, called 
Magdalen Chapel, from which the bridge and saltpans take their 
names. No vestige of it now remains. 

One of the most famous of all the chapels in the parish of 
Inveresk, though unconnected with St Michael's or the Abbey 
of Dunfermline, was that of "our Lady of Loretto." It was 
situated at the east end of the town, on the opposite side of 
Pinkie House, but somewhat nearer the sea. A strange ignorance 
of the history of this place has all along prevailed. In both the old 
and new Statistical Accounts, it is spoken of as a place of " high 
antiquity," while the gazetteers, and* other topographical publica- 
tions, repeat the same statement. Following these authorities, 
Grant, in his recent historical novel of " The Yellow Frigate," 
is still more absurdly decided in his notions of its antiquity. ^' It 
belonged," he says, " to the Abbots of Dunfermline, and had 
been built in an age anterior to all written record ; so now, we 
know not when it was founded, or by Whom. The obscurity in 
which its early history was enveloped left fancy free, and thus 
the fane enjoyed a celebrity for holiness second only to the 
Cottage of the Nativity, like which, it became famous for effect- 
ing supernatural cures and conversions on visitors and devotees.' 
The shrine was not in existence " in the days of James III.," 
the era of Granti tale ; and his description of the chapel itself 
is altogether fanciful. The fact that it is not mentioned in old 
charters, or any historical work, save that of Leslie, or the account 
of the English expedition under the Earl of Hertford in 1544, 



REGALITT OV MUSSELBUfiGH. 95 

when it was either wholly or partially destroyed, might have 
awakened a suspicion that it could not be of such remote antiquity 
as supposed. Keith says, but erroneously, that it was connected 
with the Nunnery of Sciennes* near Edinburgh, which was built 
so late as 1517. 

Loretto was equally celebrated as the sanctuary of the Virgin, 
of whom it had an image, and the residence of a holy man, a 
hermit, who, it would appear from a charter of James V., in 1534, 
was the actual founder : — " Carta con. et mort. per Ballivos de 
Mussilburgh, de Thomae Duthy, Heremite ordinis Sti. Pauli, 
primi Heremite de Monte Sinay, et suis successoribus, de una 
petra terras territorij de Mussilburgh, pro edificatione unius 
capellae, in honorem Dei omni potentus .et Beatae Mariae de 
Laureto. Ed^ James V. 29 Julij 1534." Thus we learn that 
the hermit was called Thomas Duthy, or Duchtie, as he is styled 
elsewhere, of the order of St Paul, first hermit of Mount Sinai, 
and that he had a grant from the Bailies of a 'petra^\ or stony 
piece of land, in the territory of Musselburgh, for the erection of 
a chapel in honour of God and the Virgin Mary of Loretto. 
There can thus be no doubt that Thomas Duthy, who had 
brought an image of the Virgin from Loretto, in Italy, was the 
founder of the chapel. The circumstance, in fact, is recorded in 
the " Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents " : — " In this mene tyme 
(1533) thair come ane heremeit, callit Thomas Douchtie, in 
Scotland, quha haid bein lang capitane befoir the Turk, as was 
allegit, and brocht ane ymage of our Lady with him, and foundit 
the chappel of Laureit, besyid Musselburgh." The chapel was 

* See Maidment's Account of this Nunnery, printed for the Abbotaford 
aabinl841. 

t It would seem that at that time the site of the chapel, now one of the 
finest and richest in Musselburgh, was a piece of waste, stony land, washed 
probably by the sea, though the links now lie between it and the Frith. 



96 HISTOBY 0? TBJS 

thus probably founded in 1633, and confirmed by the charter 
already quoted in 1534. 

That Thomas was not only a Scotsman, but a native of Mus- 
selburgh, seems highly probable. Amongst the town's papers 
there is a precept for infefting George Preston in " ane croft of 
land called Halleswalls, lying on the south side of the village of 
Newbigging, within the liberties of the town, of Musselburgh, 
betwixt the lands some time of Thomas Dughiie^ on the south of 
the arable lands of Inveresk on the west," <fec. This precept is 
dated 6th January 1523, ten years prior to the hermit's arrival 
with the image. The individual here mentioned was probably 
himself or his father. If himself, he may have passed the inter- 
vening ten years in fighting against the Turks. The supposition 
of his being a native of the place accounts for his choice of a site, 
and apparent facility in procuring ground from the magistrates. 

Old writers styled the chapel St Allarit, or Lariet, but this 
must have been a corruption, a poetical license used by Sir Pavid 
Lyndsay of the Mount, the Earl of Glencaim, and others. The 
midsummer fair of Musselburgh was called St Lauretto's fair, the 
prototype of the chapel being that of Loretto in Italy. It was 
probably indebted for much of its rapid popularity to James V., 
who, according to Bishop Leslie, made a pilgrimage to it on foot 
from Stirling Castle, in 1536.* He had been driven back in the 
voyage to France, and thus besought the aid of the Virgin in his 
connubial expedition. Be this as it may, the chapel enjoyed a 
high degree of reputation, notwithstanding the progress of the 
Reformation. Its presiding genius, Thomas the Hermit, occupied 
a cell in connection withr the chapel, and continued to grant par- 

* It ia cnriouB that in all the accounts of Loretto we have seen the date 
of this pilgrimage is wrong. In the New Statittieal Account it is 1580 ; in 
Lalng's edition of JRow*8 History of the HrformcUion, it is 15Zi, but the real 
date, in Leslie, is 1536. 



SBQALITT OF MUSSBLBURGH. 97 

dons and indulgences for many years, while his power to work 
miracles was not disputed. According to Lyndsay — 

*' that Henneit of Lanreit, 

He put the common pepill in belief 

That blynd get sicht, and cruikit gat their feit." 

The Viigin, at the same time, was supposed to exercise a most 
benevolent sway over the destinies of " the sisterhood," and both 
at marriages and births her influence was zealously solicited 
ihrongh the medium of the avaricious priests who attended on 
the shrine. Frequent pilgrimages, in imitation of James Y., ^ 
were made to the Hermitage by the better class of both sexes, « 
and it latterly became notorious for its impurity. Sir David 
Lyndsay of the Mount did not fail to satirize such gatherings: — 

" I have Bene pass ane marvellous multitude, 
Young men and women fiingand on thair feit. 
Under the forme of f einzeit sanctitude. 
For till adore ane image in Laureit ; 
Mony came with thair marrowis for to melt/' &c. 

The celebrity of the Hermit and his sanctity became still more 
enhanced by the epistle of the Earl of Glencaim, one of the best 
" pasquinals" of the time, and which has been preserved by Knox 
in his "History of the Reformation." 

**Ane EpUttU direct fra the halte HermeU ofAlareit, to his Brethren 
the Qray Freira, 
** I Thomas Henneit in Lareit, 
Sanct Francis ordour do hairtiliegreit, 
Beseikand you with gud intent, 
To be wakryif and diligent. 
Thxr Lutheranis rissen of new. 
Our ordoure dailie dois persew. 
They smaikis dois set thair haill intent, 
To reid the IngUsche New Testament, 
And sayis we have them dein decevit ; 
Thairfore in haist they mon be stoppit. 



dS HISTORY OF THE 

Our stait hypocriBie thay prysse, 
And U8 blasphemis one this wyse^ 
Seyand, that we ar heretyckis, 
And false loud lying mastis tykes, 
Gnmerars and quellars of Christis Kirk, 
Sweir swongeors that will not wirk, 
Bot idillie our leving wynis, 
Devoiring woilfis into scheipis skynisy 
Huirkland with huidis into our neck. 
With Judas mynd to jouk and beck, 
Seikand Ohnstis pepill to devoir, 
The' doun thringers of Chistis gloir, 
* Professors of hypocrisie. 

And Doctours in Idolatrie, 
Stout fischeiiifl with the Feindis net> 
The updossers of Hevin's yet, 
Cankeart corruptors of the creid, 
Humlock sawers among gud seid. 
To trow in trators, that do men tyist 
The hie way kennand thame fra Christ, 
Monsters with the Beistis mark. 
Doges that nevir stintis to bark, 
Kirkmen that ar to Christ unkend, 
A sect ihat Satains self hes send, 
Lourkand in hoils, lyik trator toddis, 
Manteiners of idollis and Mb goddis, 
Fantastik fuillis and fenzeit fleicheorSt 
To tume fra treuth the verray teichers. 
For to declair thair haUl sentence, 
Wald mekill cumber your conscience ; 
To say your Fayth it is sa stark. 
Your cord and lousie cote and sark, 
Ye lippin may bring you to salyatioun^ 
And quyte excludis Christis passioun. 
I dreid this doctrine, and it last, 
Sail outher gar us wirk or fast ; 
Thairfoir with speid we mene provyde^ 
And not our profite overslyde. 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 99 

I Bchaip myself, within short quhill, 

To curs our Ladie in Argylle ; 

And thair one craftie wayis to wirk, 

Till that we biggit have ane kirk, 

Syne miracles mak be your advyoe ; 

They ketterells thocht thai had bot lyoe. 

The twa parte to us they will bring, 

Bot ordourlie to dress this thing : 

A gaist I purpois to gar gang. 

Be consaill of Frier Walter Lang, 

Quhilk sail mak oertane demonstratiounis, 

To help us in our procuratiounis, 

Your halie ordour to deooir : 

That practick he provit an'is befoir, 

Betwix Kirkaldie and Kinghome, 

Bot lymmaris maid therat sick scome. 

And to his fame maid sick degressioun, 

Sinsyne he hard nott^the King's confessioun, 

Thoicht at that tyme he come no speid ; 

I pray yow tak gude will as deid ; 

And sum amongest your self ressave, 

As ane worth many of the lave. 

Quhat I obtein may, throw his airt, 

Kessone wald ye had your parte. 

Your ordour handillis no money, 

Bot for uther casualitie, 

As beif, meill, butter, and cheiss, 

Or quhat we have, that ye pleis, 

Send your brethren, et haheUy 

As now nocht ellis, bot valete, 

Be Thomas your brother at comand, 

A culrun kythit throw mony a land. 

But the most damaging of all the circnmstances that befell the 
chapel of Loretto was the exposure of a pretended miracle wrought 
there in 1558 or 1559. The story is told very graphically in a 
MS. written about 1670, by way of addition to " the Coronis " 

r— -> : ^-::\ 



100 HISTOET OF THE 

of Row's ** History of the Kirk of Scotland."* The exposure is 
usually attributed to " Squire Meldram " — a character celebrated 
by Lyndsay — ^but from certain marginal explanations of the MS. 
in question, this appears to be incorrect. The hero of the story 
must have been Robert ColviUe of Cleish. He was master of the 
household to Lord James Stuart, afterwards the Regent Murray, 
and was a zealous promoter of the Reformation. He was slain 
at the siege of Leith, 7th May 1560, and Knox describes him as 
" a man stout, modest, and wise." His great grandson was 
raised to the Peerage in 1651, by the title of Lord Colville of 
Ochiltree, and not a few of his descendants repose in the church- 
yard of St Michael's of Musselburgh.f The story runs thus : — 
Mr John Row, the father of the historian, was brought up a 
Catholic, and passing to Italy, became somewhat famous at 
Rome. He was made agent for the Kirk of Scotland in 1556. 
He also graduated as Doctor of Laws at Padua. Gretting into 
bad health, he was advised to return to Scotland, commissioned 
as the Pope's JiCgate, to oppose the Reformation. He arrived at 
Eyemouth on the 29th September 1558. 

" After his arryvall," says the MS., " he did what he could to 
oppose the Reformation, both by disputations with Mr Knox and 
others the Reformers, and otherwayes, being armed with the 
Pope's power and authoritie. But he proved corbie messenger 
(as it is in the proverb) to his master the Pope ; for he himsehte, 
ere it wes long, wes converted to the trueth ; and quyting his 
master the Pope and Poperie, became one of the Reformers; 
whilk the Lord brought about verie wonderfuUie. 

" In these tymes there wes besyde Mussllburgh St Allarit's 
chapell, and in these tymes of ignorance and superstition, it was 

* Wodrow Society's edition. 
t Williion Meldrum of Cleish and Binns^ in Kinross-shire, the Squire 
Mddrum of Lyndsay, sold the property of Cleish about 1530, to Sir James 
Colville of Easter Weems, who, in 1587, made a grant of the lands to his 
natural son, Kobert Colville. Meldrum died about 1542. 



BEGALITT OV MUSSELBUROH. 101 

belived that if women that were in hard labour did send ane 
offering to the Priest and Freirs there, they wold get easie dely- 
verance : Ther wes in Fyfe, Esquyre Meldrum, so he wes copi- 
monlie called, [Robert Colvill, Laird of Cleishe, who thereafter 
wes killed at the seige of Leithe], a gentleman of good under- 
Btanding and knowledge, sound in the Reformed religion, and 
most zealous and stoute for th^ Reformation; but his ladie 
(commonlie called the Ladie Cleishe) wes a papist, [Cachune 
of the family of Luss] ; therefor shee, being in hard labour in 
chyld birth, posted away her servant (who wes also a papist) to 
St Allarite's chapell, with ane offering of gold to the Ladie and 
Baintes of AUarite, with her sarke, (according to the custome) 
that shee might get easie delyverie. Her husband, the Esquyre, 
[Laird of Cleishe,] so soone as he learned the matter, posted after 
the servant to hinder such a superstitious offering, but did not 
overtake him till he came to St Allarite's chappell, where he found 
the whole adjacent countrey of Mers, Tweedale, East, Middle, and 
West Lothians, conveened to see ane miracle wrought at St Aller- 
ites chapel ; for the Papists, perceiving the Reformation to goe 
on quicklie, and fearing that their religion should be abandoned, 
the kirkmen, the archbishops, Bishops, Preists, Freires, &c., con- 
sulted and advysed, and after deliberation resolved, that the best 
wayes to maintaine and uphold their Religion, wes to worke some 
miracle to confirme the people, (as they thought) that Poperie 
wes the true religion ; and, therefore, they caused proclame in 
Edinburgh that on such a day there wes a great miracle to be 
wrought at St Allerite's chapell, for a man that wes borne blind,' 
and had begged all his dayes, being a blind man, wes to be cured 
and receive his sight : therefore they willed all the people to come 
and see the miracle wrought, <fec. And so, upon the appointed 
day, (upon the verie quhilk day, at the tyme of the working of 
the lying wonder, the Esquyre, [Laird of Cleishe] came to the 
chapell to hinder the superstitious offering intended by his ladie 
(and the servant shee sent), and after some ceremonies performed, 
the blind man was cured and recovered his sight. The man upon 
whom the miracle was wrought, coming doune from the scaffold, 
rejoyced much among the people, and blessed God, Christ, St 
Marie, St Allarite, and all the saints, Preists, and Freirs that had 



102 HISTORY 0? THB 

cured him and given him his sight. And then the people began 
to give him money. 

" Esquyre Meldrum [Robert Colvill] seeing and hearing all 
his deceitfull worke, laboured to doe his ]jest to find out the 
lurking deceit whereby the people were miserablie deceived: 
wherefor he did cast himselfe to meet with the man, intending 
to goe to Edinburgh, who asked money of him as he had done 
from others, to whom the Esquyre [Robert Colvill] sayes, (giving 
him money more largelie than others,) " you are a verie remark- 
able man on whom such a miracle has been wrought, I will 
have you to goe with me to be my servant," &c. The man, 
glad of such ane offer, and receiving money largelie, wes willing 
to goe with him; and so the Esquyre caused him to ryde behind 
his servant to the tounie of Edinburgh. So soone as he came to 
his lodging house, and to the chamber where he wes to lye, put- 
ting his servant to the doore, and closing the chamber doore upone 
himselfe and the man, he looks to the man with a fierce counte- 
nance, and drawing his sword, and laying the naked sword upon 
the table, sayes to him : " Thou villane and deceiver of the people 
of God, either tell me the treuth of these things that I am to 
aske of you now presentlie, or els I will take upon me, with my 
sword, presentlie, to cutt off thy head ; for I am ane magistrate 
appointed by God to doe justice ; and I am assured that all the 
preists and freirs, all the saints, nor the Pope himselfe, cannot 
work a miracle such as they pretend to doe, viz., to cure a blind 
man : Therefor thou and they are but deceivers of the people ; 
and either tell me the veritie, or els with this sword (taking his 
naked sword in his hand) I will presentlie (as ane magistrate in 
this case) put ye to death." The poore man, trembling and 
astonished, sayes, " deare Sir, spare my life, and I sail tell you 
all the trueth and veritie, and let their knaverie be knowen." 
" Well, (said the Esquyre,) then answer me this question, and 
doe not lie as you love your life : — 1. Wes thou a born-blind 
man?' Answer, " No, Sir." 2. Q. " How cometh it then that 
yee have been thought to be a blind man, being led as if yee 
had been blind?" Ans. " Sir, I sail tell you all the treuth. 
When T wes a young lad I wes a herd, and keeped the sisters 
of the Sheines's* sheep, (in these dayes there wes a Nunrie in 
* The convent was dedicated to St Catherine of Sienna. 



EBGALITY OF MUSoELBUBGH. 103 

the Sheines besyde Edinburgh,) and in mj wantonness and pas- 
time I used often to flype up the lids of my* eyes, so that any 
bodie wold have trewed that I wes blind. I'using often to play 
this pavie, the nunnes, the sisters of the Sheines (so they were 
commonlie called) did sometjrmes see me doe it and laugh at me. 
Then the sisters send in word to Edinburgh that their sheppeard 
lad could play such a pavie. The kirkmen in Edinburgh hearing 
of such a thing, came out to the Sheines, and desired to see that 
sheppeard lad. I being brought, and playing this pavie befor 
them, walking up and doune with my eyelids up, and the whyte 
of my eyes turned up as if I had been blind. The kirkmen that 
conveened there to see me, advised the sisters, the Nunnes of the 
Sheines, to get another lad to keep their sheep, and to keep me hid 
in one of their volts or cellars for some years, ay till they thought 
meet to bring me out, and to make use of me as they nleased : 
(this the knave kirkmen did in their wicked policie and foirsight, 
that the memorie of such a boy might perish, and that notwith- 
standing he might be to the foir to be brought out to deceive the 
people of God when they thought fitt), and so, Sir, I wes keeped 
and fed in one of the volts (no bodie knowing that I wes there 
but the kirkmen and the nunnes of the Sheines) for the space 
of seven or eight years. Then, Sir, they conveened me againe, 
and brought me befor them, and caused me sweare a great oath 
that I sould faine my selfe to be a blind man, and they put one 
to lead me through the countrey that I might beg as a blind man 
in the day tyme ; but in the night, and also when I pleased, I 
put doune my eyelids and saw well enough, and I to this houre 
never revealed this to any ; yea, my leader knew not but I wes 
blind indeed." And thus after his discourse he played his pavie 
befor the Esquyre, walking up and doune the chamber as if he 
had been blind. The Esquyre glad, (for he easilie believed that 
he had told the trueth,) keepit him by him that night in his 
chamber ; and upon the morne sayes to him, " Now, seeing you 
have glorified God in revealing the knaverie of these villanes and 
deceivers, the kirkmen and nunnes, yee must doe something 
more yet, to let all the people know how these knaves has de- 
ceived them, and entysed you, for world's geer, (for they gave 
him monie liberallie,) to deceive the people of God." Ans. " Sir, 
since I have revealed th^ secret to you, and have taken me to you 



104 HISTORY OF THE 

as my master, I will doe any thing you will bid me doe." " Well, 
(said the Esquyre,) this you must doe, and I sail stand by you with 
my sword in my hand, that no man nor woman wrong you, Goe 
with me to the Crosse, and in few words (whilk the Esquyre 
taught him) tell the people, after you have cryed Oyesse thrise) 
how yee have been hyred and entysed to faine your selfe to be a 
blinde man, and that yee wes never blind, and that there wes no 
miracle indeed wrought upon you yesterday ; and therefor, desire 
the people to be no longer deceived by thir kirkmen, these knaves 
and blind judges that misleads the people, but bid the people 
take them to the true religion, &c. And after yee have thus 
spoken, I and yee sail quicklie muve doun the close besouth the 
Crosse, where my servant sail be waiting with my two horses in 
the Cowgate ; and if I were once betwixt the shoulders of my horse, 
and yee upon the other, I sail defy all the kirkmen in Edinburgh 
to overlaye me till I be in Fyfe, where the lords of the Congrega- 
tion are in arms for the defence of the true Keformed religion." 
The man undertaking to doe as he desired, they went to the 
Crosse together about eight a clock in the foimoone. When 
after the man had cried Oyesse thrise, the people who the day 
befor had seen him at St Allarites chapell on the scaffold, &c., 
running to heare what he had to say, heard him utter the words 
the Esquyre had taught him. Then quicklie the Esquyre and 
he horsed, and were gone towards the Queens-ferrie. The report 
of this running through the toune came quicklie to the preists, 
freirs, and the rest of that deceiving rabble, who raged, foamed, 
&c. : but what could they doe ? the man wes gone — they could 
not persewe — they durst not goe further than the Queenes-ferrie. 
" But to return to Mr John Row. The Esquyre coming home 
with the man, the Lord in his good providence so ordered that 
Mr John Row came to Cleishe to visite the Ladie, she being a 
papiste; and after he had stayed there a night, the Esquyre 
kindly intertaining him, they fell in conference about some points 
of religion. The Esquyre sayes to him, " Mr John Row, ye are 
a great scholer and lawyer ; yee have been bred at the Court of 
Rome, where there is both learning and policie enough. I am 
but a countrey gentleman, unlearned, hes not had breeding 
abroad; therefor I will not enter the lists for a dispute with you; 
I know I will be foyled, and whilk is worse, I will wrong my 



REOALITT OF MUSSXXBURQH. 105 

religion that way. But let me only conferre and cracke about 
some points of religion wherein yee and me differ." " Well/' 
(said Mr John Row) I am glad and well content to doe so ; we 
may do other good that way; I may teach you something yee 
know not, and it may be yee may teach me some thing I knew 
not befor.*' And so, after 'some conference, the Esquyre sayes, 
" Doe yee mantaine that the Pope, your master, and his clergie, 
can in thir dayes work any true and reall miracle ?'* Ans. " Yes : 
There is no doubt of that : It is certaine that the Pope or his clergie 
hare wrought miracles for the confirmation of the trueth of our 
religion." " Well, (sayes the Esquyre,) Have yee heard of yon 
miracle wrought latelie at St Allarites Chapell ?" Ans. " yes. 
What can you say to it ? What can any man say against that — a 
man borne blind is cured, and hes received his sight ? " Q. " But 
how know yee that he was a borne-blind man?" Ans. "Hes 
he not begged through Edinburgh, Dalkeith, Leith, Mussel- 
brugh, <&c. all his dayes, being a blind man?" The Esquyre 
replyes, " I am sorie, Mr John, that honest men, such as I take 
you to be, is so pitifullie deceived by false knaves, deceivers of 
the soules of the people of God." And so that he might con- 
vince him of their knaverie and undeceive him, he told him that 
he had the verie man on whom the miracle was thought to be 
wrought in his house ; and calling upon the man, brought him 
befor Mr John Row, and caused him reveale the whole matter, 
and play his pavie befor him ; whilk when Mr John Row had 
heard and seen, he was amased and nonplussed, and could pay 
nothing to defend his master or the deceiving kirkmen that had 
contryved the business. " Now, (sayes the Esquyre,) Mr John 
Row, yee are a great clergie man, a great linguist and lawyer. 
But I charge you, as yee must answer to the great God at the 
last day, that yee doe not now hold out any light that God* offers 
you, but that yoe will so soone as ye come to your studie close 
the doore upon you, and take your Byble, and earnestly pray to 
God that yee may understand the scriptures and the treuth of 
God revealed in them, that in his light yee may see light, and 
then when yee have prayed, as the Lord by his Spirit, who is the 
spirit of grace and supplicatioun, will instruct and teach you, take 
your Byble, and read 2 Thess. ii., and if yee doe not there see 
* Such is the word in Row's History, but it looks like a misprint. 



106 HISTORY OF THE 

your master the Pope to be the great antichrist who comes with 
lying wonders to deceive the people of Q-od, (as now he and his 
deceiving and tricking clergie in Scotland hes done latelie at 
Musselburgh,) ye sail say, Esquyre Meldrum [Robert Colvill] 
has no skill." 

The Chapel of Loretto, as already stated, was destroyed, to- 
gether with part of Musselburgh, by the English under the Earl 
of Hertford in 1544. It was soon repaired, however, and con- 
tinued to be a place of resort till the Reformation, which was 
accomplished in 1660, a year, or at most two, after the Laird 
of Cleish's exposure of the pretended miracle. The last chap- 
lain was Mr Gavin Walker, who also exercised the calling 
of a notary. There is a charter of confirmation by James VI., 
(10th Dec. 1569) "in favours of the Magistrates of Mussel- 
burgh, of a charter by Mr Gavin Walker, chapline of the chap- 
lainerie of Loretto, with the yeard and pertinents thereof." * The 
ground thus reverted to the town, by the bailies of which it had 
been originally gifted to the hermit. 

In 1590, it appears the chapel was demolished, and the mate- 
rials applied to building the tolbooth of Musselburgh. f Judging 
from the ground on which it stood, it was probably of considerable 
dimensions ; and it is allowed to have been of rather imposing 
architecture. " The old steps of the stair," says Dr Carlisle, 
" which was repaired not long since, were the bases of the pillars 
of this chapel, according to the report of masons still living 
(1793). This is said to have been the first religious house in 
Scotland whose ruins were applied to an unhallowed use, for 
which the good people of Musselburgh are said to have been 
annually excommunicated, till very lately, at Rome." 

Of the chapel " no vestige now remains," says Dr Moir, " save 

* Burgh Charters. ' 
t We have not seen any authority for this beyond the statement of Dr 
Carlisle, but have every reason to believe it correct. 



BEGALITT OF MUSSBLBURGH. 107 

a cell measuring twelve feet by ten, covered by a circular wooded 
mount. In the roof is inserted a strong iron bar, with an oaken 
pulley attached, but for .what purpose seems doubtful." The 
iron bar and oaken pulley, if they ever existed, are now removed. 
In 1831, " part of the earthen floor was dug up, when a number 
of human skulls were discovered, some of which were in complete 
preservation. Over the entrance is an antique carved stone, but 
from the date on it, 1634, it must have been placed there at a 
period subsequent to the destruction of the * chapelle of Lauret.* " 
A gold chain found in the cell, we have been told, was preserved 
for some time in Loretto villa ; but it was carried away, not long 
ago, by some avaricious person who probably did not know the 
peculiar value attached to it. Dr Moir is in error as to the 
figures on the stone. The date is 1647 — ^not 1634 — but this 
does not improve the antiquarian difficulty. The stone is in 
every respect a genuine remain, but not, we opine, of the chapel 
of Loretto, It has evidently surmounted some doorway or 
window in another building. Above the date there is a coronet, 
and an initial letter M., with which V. and L. seem to be inter- 
twined. If V. M. L., the letters might stand for the Virgin 
Mary of Loretto, But the chapel, as we have seen, was gifted to 
the Bailies of Musselburgh in 1569, and we have no reason to 
doubt that it was destroyed in 1590 — ^so that the stone could 
form no part of the building in 1647. It is more likely that the 
ornamental letters were meant simply for M. L., what appears to 
be a V. forming part of the M. K this supposition is correct, 
then the letters might signify Mailland of Lattderdahy which 
seems countenanced by the coronet. Maitland of Thirlstane had 
a gift of the lordship, church, chapels, and lands of Musselburgh 
in 1587 ; but his right was long disputed by the Queen, and it 
is possible that the date upon the stone may record the time 
when the Earl was put in undisputed possession of the lordship, 



108 HISTOBT OF THX 

and removed to Loretto, fr(»D its original positioii, tiket the 
family ceased to be overlords of Mnsselbargh. We laumot 
otherwise account for such a relic. 

The commodious villa now occupying the site of the chapel 
appears to have been built during the latter half of the last cen- 
tury, and is surrounded by delightful gardens and shrabbeiiea. 
The ground forming part of Loretto was feued to David Robert- 
son, Esq., 27th September 1766. 



MODEM PLACES OF WOfiSHlR 

The qttoad sacra church of North Esk, situated in Bridge 
Street, Fisherrow, was built from a plan by William Bum, Esq., 
and opened in 18BB. It is a very fine building, and cost 
£2600. 

There are other four places of worship in the parish. The 
Episcopal chapel has existed since the Eevolution. It was pro- 
bably called the meeting-house in former times. It is mentioned 
in a minute of the Town Council (17th April 1704) that the 
magistrates had been cited before the Privy Council, '' anent the 
meeting-house,'' and it was agreed to take Sheriff Calderwood's 
advice on the sul\ject. The cause of the summons does not trans- 
pire, but it possibly referred to the lawfulness of tolerating such 
a dissenting place of worship, A Burgher seceding meeting- 
house was built about 1768, and a Church of Belief in 1733. 
These now form part of the U. P. Church. Since the Disrup- 
tion, a commodious Free Church has been erected in Musselburgh. 



REGALnr <» lUrSSBLffUBQH. 109 



HISTOBICAL MEIIOBIALS. 



Situated on tliegreat eastern highway between the two countries, 
Musselburgh must have witnessed many imposing historical 
scenes — cavalcades of courtly or of warlike display — while its 
own immediate vicinity has been the field of more than one 
memorable event. In 1201 the baro is of Scotland assembled at 
**^Mufichellburg" to swear fealty to the infant son of William the 
Lion, afterwards Alexander IT. In 1544 the chapel of Loretto 
and part of the town were destroyed by the English expedition 
under the Eari of Hertford. Hertford was aided by the counsfel 
and assistance of Patrick, Earl of Bothwell, who was Sheriff of 
Edinburgh and Haddington, At Pinkie Cleugh, in 1547, Was 
fought the ill-concerted battle of Pinkie. On this occasion, also, 
Bothwell paid court to the enemy of his country. The disaster 
of Pinkie might have proved fatal to a nation so divided as Scot- 
land, but England was not altogether free of cabals, and Somerset 
could not venture upon pursuing his victory. Next year, five 
months afterwards, Lord Grey, who had commanded the cavalry 
at Pinkie, entered Scotland at the head of a large force, and 
ravaging the Merse and Lothian, razed the towns of Dalkeith and 
Musselburgh. Tytler states that on this occasion the archives 
and charters of the latter burgh were taken away and destroyed. 
The charter of 1562, formerly quoted, attributes this spoliation 
to the English " after the fatal battle of Pinkie," which is so far 
corroborative of the fact, and no mention is made by Patten of 
any damage done to the town on the retreat of Somerset. Four 
months after Lord Grey^s occupation of the Lothians, the Scots 
were aided by 6000 French troops, under D'Esse, including 3000 
Germans, and a body of Italians. D'Esse at once marched to 
Musselburgh, with the view of ofFering battle to the English on 
the field of Pinkie, but Lord Grey deemed it prudent to retire to 



110 mSTORT OF THB 

Haddington, Meanwhile, D*E8s6 employed his troops in throw- 
ing up some works at Inveresk, where a fort had been erected in 
the month of January previous. In 1567 (15th June) Carberry 
Hill, adjoining Falside Brae, witnessed the surrender of Mary 
Queen of Scots to the associated Lords. On the Links of Mus- 
selburgh, in 1638, the Marquis of Hamilton, as the representative 
of Charles I., was met by thousands of the Covenanters, whose 
power he had come to destroy, and establish Episcopacy. Li 
1650 the troops of Oliver Cromwell were encamped on the Links, 
where they remained nearly two months. The site of Oliver's 
own tent is still pointed out opposite Linkfield House. 

But other scenes of a more gala character — the courtly 
pageantry of Kings and Princes — must have often excited the 
enthusiasm of the loyal burghers of Musselburgh. What share 
they had, or what interest they took in these national occasions 
of joy, history fails to inform us. Unfortunately the records of 
the town are of too modem a date to throw any light on occur- 
rences prior to the beginning of the seventeenth century. From 
the burgh charter of 1562 we learn that the title-deeds of the 
town were burned by the English after the battle of Pinkie in 
1547. It is probable that all the other public documents were 
destroyed at the same time. It is supposed, also, that they 
suffered from the troops of Cromwell, as the regular Town 
Council books do not begin till 1679. A search among some 
loose and miscellaneous sheets, forming portions of the Bailie 
Court Book and Record of Sasines, beginning about 1653, with 
a single sheet or two dated 1605, discovered a pretty entire folio 
volume, unbound, but stitched together, going back to 1635. It 
is a mixed record of the Bailie Court and Town Council pro- 
ceedings, with the income of the town, the roupings of the 
customs, and shipping. It is thus likely that the burgh books 
had been allowed to go to waste more through the carelessness of 



B10ALIT7 OF MUSSELBTTROH. Ill 

those entrusted with them than the unsettled nature of the times. 
From these scanty records we shall quote such entries as may 
have a bearing on history, or are curious as illustrative of the 
social condition of Musselburgh in former times. The earlier of 
these carries us back to the civil wars during the reign of Charles 
I., when oppressive demands for men and means were made^upon 
every community by the Estates : — 

" xix Junii 1646. — The baillies and most pairt of the Counsell 
being convenet, condescend all in ane voce, that thair sail be ane 
collectioun gatlierit throw the haill inhabitants within the burgh 
and libeilie thairof, be such as they sail appoynt, and that for 
payment of the haill expenss and debursmentis wairet out and 
bestowit vpone be thame for the outputting of the sojoures in 
thair bands to Captain Eistein, in the regiment of the Mr of 
Yester, and for the payment of the haill armes bocht for ther 
outreitching, according to the ordour of the Committee of 
Estaits." 

" XX Julii 1646. — The quhilk day the baillies and maist pairt 
of the Counsell convenet, does statut and ordane that all extra- 
neans that are nether burges bairnes nor hes mareit burges 
dochteris, sail not be admitted burges and freemen of this burgh 
unless they give ane misket, bandleires, and ane sword, or else 
twenty merks tharfor, by and attour the soume of money to be 
imposit vpone tharae, to the baillies and Counsell for thair 
fredome and burgeship." 

The loose book above referred to, and from which these ex- 
tracts are given, is continued throughout the whole of the 
Cromwellian period. In 1662 (24th April) there was a grant 
by the Commissioners of Parliament of the Commonwealth of 
England for ordering affairs in Scotland, in favour of the burgh 
of Musselburgh, restoring them to the privileges of electing 
magistrates, and managing the Police of the burgh. This was 
followed by another grant from the Commissioners (17th April 
1656) nominating certain persons to act as Justices of the Peace. 
At the commencement of the book devoted to the Royal Com- 



112 BiBTOBT ov ma 

peny of Archem, as a record of the shooting for the silver anow, 
there is preserved the proceedings of the Justice of Peace Ooart, 
institated bj the Protectorate, from 1656 to 1661, when the 
Court was dissolved. The first entry refers to the constitaticni of 
the Court : — 

" 1 May 1656.— At the Court of his Heighnes the lord Pro- 
tector's peace for the burgh of Mussilbui^, befor the Bight 
honoured Henrie Whally and Timothie Wilkes, Esquires, Johne 
Calderwood, Robert Ramage, James Brown, Robert Strahane, 
and Thomas Smith, Justices of Peace for the said burgh and 
pairtes and pendicles thairof, by vertew of a commission granted 
in that behalf, by his Heighnes Councell in Scotland, daited 17 
Apryle 1656, and instructions of the said Councell for the Jus- 
tices of Peace in Scotland, beirand dait, 12 Dec' 1655." 

At the same time " Mr Johne Preston, nominated in the said 
commission, was also swome befoir the Justices of Peace," and 
"the said Henry Whailly" elected President of the Court. 
George Vallange, town-clerk, was nominated " clerk to the Peace, 
and to collect the fynes and unlawes." 

The cases brought before the Court refer chiefly to Sabbath- 
breaking, scandalous expressions, family feuds, personal injury, 
and drunkenness. It was a timo of extreme Puritanism — an 
approach to which has been attempted by the Agnews and Mac- 
kenzies of our own day. To get drunk was then punishable by 
law, and to drink, even in one's own house, on a Sunday, was a 
crime. A few extracts will help to illustrate what we say : — 

" 29 May 1656. — ^Bessie Fouler, widow in Fisherrow, actes 
hirself not to sell aill, beir, or strong waters,* to any persones 

* It is curious that we never find any word approaching to vkMy in 
the writings of the seventeenth, or early half even of the last eeotuiy. 
BonssayS' 

** Sages their solemn e'en may steek, 
An' raise a philosophic re^. 



ILZGALXTT Of UnSSSLBnAGH. 113 

whatsomneyeT on the Sabbaih-day, efter the last bell be rang 
out, aader the paine of ten pounds Scotes, totiea qrwties.*' 

*' Williain Cockbum, cordiner in Fisherrow, actes himself not 
to abuse nor molest any of the constables, in the execution of 
thair offices, neither to imper and hinder the inhabitants within 
the burgh of Musselburgh and pairtes and pendicles thairof to buy 
fishes at the harberie in tyme comeing, under the paine of ten 
pund Scots for ilk failzie." 

Cockbum seems to have been a common pest. 

" 19 Feb. 1657. — [Court holden be Mr Johne Prestoun, James 
Broun, Johne Makwraith, and Thomas Smith — Mr Johne Pres- 
toun, President.] Corapeired this day Johne Vaitche, and George 
Bamet, induellares in the toun of Fisherraw, and in respect the 
said Creorge hes beine wardet within the towbeith of Musselburgh 
certane dayes, as the away taker of, at leist as haveing in his 
custodie, thretteine peices of greene lether, which wes stoUenfrom 
Patrick Cuthbertsone, tanner in the Cannongait, and the said 
George Bamet being assoylied this day befor the Justice of Peace 
befoir written, in respect it was proven be famous witnesses that 
he boght the saids thretteine peices of lether in Fisherrow toun 
fjxmx two Inglish souldieres, called Henrey Greene and John 



An* physically causes seek 

In clime and season ; 
But tell me uihUhy'a name in Gredp, 

I'll tell the reason." 

It does not seem to have been known by that name even in SooUaad ; nor 
is distillation mentioned in any of our public documents till the reie:n of 
James Y. It is no doubt derived from the Gaelic usquebaugh, the water of 
life, aeland, in his Scots HudiJbraf—" The Highland Host " (1678), has 
ihe following lines : — 

" With dirk and snap-work, and snuff-miD, 
A bag which they with onions fill. 
And, as their strict observers say, 
A taste-horn filled with usquehay. 



114 HISTO&Y OF THB 

Donglas,* wha ar now fled away from thair cullouris, neverthe- 
less becaiis the buissienes is l^omewhat scandalous, thairfor the 
said Johne Vaitch becomes heirby baill -and surtie for the said 
George Barnet his guid behavior, and that he sail keip the peace 
towards his Heighnes, and all the people of the natioun, and sail 
not heirefter buy or recept any unlawfuU goods, nor haunt or 
keip cornpanie with any suspected persones, sua lang as he dwelles 
in Fisherraw, under the paine of ane hunder punds Scotts, and 
the said George Barnet obleisses him and his estait to releive the 
said Johne Vaitche of his cautionarie abovewritten, as also the 
said George becomes baill and surtie for Edward Barnet, his 
brother, his gud cariage and behaviour in tyme comeing, and that 
he sail betak himself to some lawfull trade and calling/* 

The " cutty stool "f was not without its occupants in Mussel- 
burgh as well as other parishes : — 

" 20 May 1657. — Adjudges Johne Donaldsone, Salter in the 
Westpanes, for his breache of the Sabbath day, in swa far as, 
efter he had comed from the repentance stoole, in the forenoon 
tyde, for fomicatioun committed be him with Agnes Maudie, as 
was confest, he went in the eftemoon tyde, in tyme of divine 
service, and swimmed in the sea, to the offence of God, and was 
thairfore ordained to pay xxxvi^ " 

It would appear that there were in these days what were called 
" makeres of pennie brydelles " — persons who made a profit by 
promoting such celebrations, and no doubt they were carried to 
great excess : — 

" 18 Jan. 1658. — [Court halden be James Broun, Johne 
Smart, and be Robert Strahane, elected President.] It is ordered 

* From these and similar records in various parts of the conntiy, it 
would appear that there were many Scotsmen in the Protector's army. 

f Dr Carlisle says, in a spirit of commendable liberality — "For twenty- 
five years past (about 1768) the Stool of Repentance, that relic of Popeiy, 
has been discontinued in this parish, and one strong temptation to the 
crime of child-murder, which formeriy prevailed so much, has been with- 
drawn." 



BIGALITY OF Mt7SSELBURGH. 115 

be the Court for putting in execution the Act anent such per- 
Bones, the makeres of pennie brydelles, wha have exacted any 
mor nor tuelff shillinges frome the man and ten shillinges frome 
the woman, since Michelmes last bypast, or that sail do the lyke 
ia tyme comeing : that every such pereone sail be unlawed and 
fyned in a penaltie of ten punds Scottes, toties quoties, but favor : 
And the Court does heirby impower James Wickershaw, con- 
stable, to uplift and resave the said penalties bygane, and to come 
and to mak compt and payment thairof to the appoynted col- 
lector of the said burgh, and for that effect to poynd or waird 
the contraveneres whill payment be maid, without respect of 
persones/' 

Horse-stealing is hardly called by its right name in the fol- 
lowing case : — 

" 26 Dec. 1668. — Adjudges Johne Steward, in Fisherraw, for 
his scandalous cariage in bringing away a horse out of Fyfe, 
quhilk horse was found with him at Fisherraw as a stollen horse, 
in respect he fled away when he heard that the owner of the horse 
was come to challeng him as steiller and awaytaker thairof, to pay 
xxiiij% and the said Johne actes himself, gif he sail be fund or 
apprehendit doeing the lyke, or committing ony uther manner of 
theft or recepting of stollen gudes, in tyme coming, to be banist 
this bounds." 

Peccadilloes of a certain character were visited with much 
greater severity : — 

"6 Apryle 1659. — Adjudges James Colyear, for committing 
fornication with Agnes Scott, in respect of thair awne confes- 
siones, to pay 9 lib., and ordanes the said Agnes to be convoyed 
throw Musselburgh and Fisherraw with the hangman as a noto- 
riouse ******j and gif ever she beis fund within the libertie at 
ony tyme heirefter she sail be scourgit throw both the tonnes." 

It is rather surprising that a Court instituted under the rule of 
the Protector should have been allowed to exercise its functions 
after the Kestoration. But such is the fact. The last sederunt 
of the Musselburgh Justice of Peace Court is dated 26th Decern- 



116 HIBtOBT OF THB 

ber 1661.* It conclndes thus: — " Memorandam, tliir sowmeflT 
ar pajed to the Kirk Session." These were the " imkwes," or 
fines. 

In subsequent times, the Gonncil complained that the Magis- 
tracy of Musselburgh were overlooked in the appointment of 
Jofitices of the Peace ; but it was not till 3d September 1751 
that the eldest bailie was made a Justice of the Peace. 

Prior to and during the Protectorate, as we have seen, Geoige 
Vallange was clerk of Musselburgh. . The first minute in the 
new Council-book — a small 4to — ^records the election of a new 
official : — 

" 2 June 1679. — This day the Counsell has appointed Robert 
Litster, wryttar in Edinburgh, to be ther clerke till Whitsunday 
1680, he having given his oath defideli administratiane*^^^ 

This was during the heat of those " risings " in the west country 
which preceded the Revolution. Musselburgh was perhaps but 
little affected by the covenanting spirit of the western Whigs, and 
eonsiderably under the influence of the courtly opposition to them 
— Lauderdale being in fact their feudal superior. We accord- 
ingly find the magistrates making provision for the safety of the 
burgh as follows : — 

"19 June 1679. — The Counsell, in respect of the present 

* The Cromwellian courts were &ot interfered with for a twelvemonth 
after the Restoration ; and it is generally acknowledged that justice had 
never been so impartially administered as under the Protectorate. 
f The clerk was elected only during the pleasure of the Council : — 
*' 17 May 1697. — The Baillies and Counsell haveing mett this day, and 
considering that the clerk place is now vacant by the deceafi of Hobert 
Litster, ther lat clerk, they unanimously condeshend ther being a new 
derk chosen presently, and that whoever shall be admitted to the said 
office he is to continue only during the Counsell's pleasure, and noe longer ; 
and also he is to pay ane hundreth merks Scots money for the toun^s books 
immediately at his admission, to be disponed upon by the Baillies and 
Counsell to such pious uses as they think fitting.'^ {The same day, Robert 
y ernor, writer in Edmburgh^ was admitted clerk.] 



BEQALITT OF M1788KLBUBGH. 117 

tToaUes, ooeasioned tbrongh the rkeing of the disaffected partie in 
armes in the west, condescend that there he a guard keeped nightly 
. within the hnrgh of Musselburgh and Eisherraw, which guard is 
to consist of 38 persones for the toune of Musselburgh, and 32 
peiBones for Fisherraw, each night, of the inhabitants of the said 
burgh and liberties thereof^ who arc to be advertised nightly to 
he ^kesent and attend the said guard by tuck of drum, under the 
paine of 40" Scottis each absent persone : Lykas the said Counsel! 
hes appointed Bobert Douglas, elder, late baillie, and Robert 
Douglas, the present thesaurer of the said burgh, John Strachane, 
Robert Duncan, Robert Wightman, Andrew Kerr, and Thomas 
Menzies, Counsellores, to be commanders of the samen guard 
provided within the burgh of Musselburgh, and George and 
Robert Smarts, Archibald Smith, Robert Craige, and John 
Broune, counsellors, Patrick Hereot and Richard Scott^ indwell- 
land in Eisherraw, to be commanders of the guard within the 
bounds of Eisherraw ; and ordanes each of the said persones re- 
spective above mentioned, who ar appoynted commanders, as said 
is, to attend the forsaid guards nightly, according to their turns, 
under the paine of ten marks^ money above specifeit." 

This was the era of Drumclog, fought on the 1st June 1769, 
of Both well Brig, and Aird's Moss. 

In olden times, we may fancy how frequently the burgesses 
were called upon to do honour to the Sovereign, the great men of 
the Court and State, or the royal officials, as they passed to 
England or the Borders, on expeditions of war, policy, or plea- 
sure^ prior to the Union of the Crowns or of the Parliaments. 
The following minutes illustrate what we mean : — 

*' 20 Nov. 1679. — The Counsell appoynts such of the inhabi- 
tants as sail be advertised to waite upon the baillies for meeting 
his Royal Highness the Duke of York, to be present under the 
paine of three pund Scottis ilk persone." 

The Duke of York, afterwards James 11. of England, resided 
for some time at Holy rood House, and made himself somewhat 
agreeable to the people. He opened the Scottish Parliament on 



118 HTSTORT OF THE 

the 28th August 1681, the day before which five recusant mini- 
sters were executed in the Grassmarket. When the Chancellor 
passed or repassed a similar mark of respect was paid : — 

" 26 Nov. 1694. — The Counsell condescends that the neigh- 
boures shall convoy the Chancellor* in his way to London the 
next week, and allows the baillies to waime whom they think 
fitt for that effect, under the pain of 40" ilka persone." 

** 17 April 1704. — The Counsell condescends to ryde and 
^leet the Chancellour when he comes by from London, under 
the paine of ten punds ilk absent." 

Are we to suppose that the Chancellor had remained in London 
from 1694 till 1704 — a period of ten years ! — ^and yet there is^no 
intermediate minute regarding his lordship's return I 

The notices in reference to the Ke volution and the reign of 
William and Mary are not numerous. Of the actual event itself 
there is not a word. The following year his birth-day is to be 
observed : — 

" 4 Nov. 1689. — Appoynts a proclamatione to goe through 
the liberties for observing K. William's birth-day, by putting on 
bonefires and observing uther solemnities, and ordaines the bells 
to ring at the ordinar tyme, under the penaltie of 40^ unforgiven." 

Before William's accession, the birth-day of the sovereign 
seems to have been celebrated in the month of May — at all events, 
some special holiday was then celebrated : — 

" 24 March 1680. — The Counsell ordaines a proclamatione to 
be made through the liberties for the due observance of the 29th 
day of May, and that bonefires be putt on by the respective in- 
habitants, and condescends that the baillies and haill members of 
Counsell shall meet togidder the said day, the ordinary tyme and 
place, for seeing the said solemnities keept, under the paine of 40* 
ilk baillie, and 20« every counsellor, who shall happen to be ab- 
sent the forsaid day, without ane lawfull excuse." 

" 18 June 1688. — The Counsell appoynts a proclamatione to 

* John, Marquis of Tweeddale, was the Lord Chancellor at this time. 



BBOAUTY OV MUSSELBURGH. 119 

goe through the liberties for bonfires on Thursday next for the 
Prince's birth day, under the penaltie of 6 Ub. ilke persone fail- 
zieing." 

This must have been the son bom to James II. on the 10th 
June 1688, a few months prior to his abdication of the throne. 
He was the Pretender of " Mar's Year," and the father of Prince 
Charles Edward, the hero of '45. 

The advent of King William, whose policy involved him in 
protracted continental wars, occasioned considerable demands on 
the resources of this country. His urgency for troops led to the 
disgraceful massacre of Glencoe, that he might be enabled to 
withdraw certain regiments from Scotland, The following mi- 
nute illustrates the mode of recruiting resorted to for the navy, 
and the amount of encouragement offered : — 

" 3 Feb. 1690. — The Counsell appoynts a proclamatione to goe 
through the burgh and liberties anent seamen, who will take on 
and list themselves in ther Majesties' service, and to make offer 
to them of pay and advance money in the termes of the Privie 
Counsell's order and proclamatione thereanent, which is 40^ ster- 
ling of advance money, and 6* Scottes per diem." 

The next prominent event in Scottish history is the rebellion 
of 1715, or " Mar's Year," as it is popularly styled. The mea- 
sures of protection resorted to by the authorities of Musselburgh 
on that occasion are fully recorded in the minutes : — 

" 9 Aug. 1715. — The which day the Baillie having produced 
ane letter from the Shirreff deputes, directed to him by order of 
the Marquis of Lothian, requiring his attendance against the 
eleventh instant, in the Inner Session House att Ed'., in order to 
concert with the other gentlemen of the shyre upon methods for 
the common saftie, and for averting the sad effects with which 
the nation is threatened ; which letter being produced to the 
Councill, they empower Baillie Ainslie to go and meett and treat 
with the gentlemen forsaid, and to report the result of the meet- 
ing to the Councill." 



120 HisTonr of tiib 

'* 18 Aug. 1715. — The wbkh day Baiilie AinsKe havmg p^ 
ported to the Councill that the gentlemen of the shTre had, on 
the 11th inst. resolved that all gentlemen, heretors, magistrateB 
of barghs and others, tshould, against Thursday the eighteenth 
instant, take up a particular Hst of what men live wit^ their 
respective precincts, from 16 years to 60 years of age, in obe- 
dience thereto the Councill resolve that Baiilie Ainslie, BaiUie 
Wilkie, George TumbuU, John Douglas, and the clerk, shall go 
thiOQgh the liberties of this burgh on this side of the water, and 
Baiilie Mitchell, Baiilie Smart, John Cathie, Alexander Young, 
and Thwnas Mitchell shall go through the liberties on the other 
side of the water against Monday the fifteenth instant, and take 
a list of the forsaid persons, and after this is done to present it 
to the Councill, and certifie it as they see fitt." 

" 27 Aug. 1715. — The Councill, considering the dangerous 
times, they condescend that their shall be ane guard &eept in 
every side of the water, consisting of ane captain of guard, ser- 
gand, corporall, and thirtie men, and that this guard begin on 
Monday next, entering at six of the clock at night, and lowsing 
att six of the morning, and for that end they condescend that all 
the guns and swords belonging to the inhabitants be lodged in 
the tolbooth against Monday morning, in order to choose out as 
many of the best of them as will be fitt to serve the guard 
nightlie, and that the captain to be named shall always at the dis- 
mounting of his guard take charge of the said guns and swords 
till the next succeeding captain conveen his guard att his 
house and gett them from him ^ and they condescend thiUit their 
be Iffour pound weight, of powder, and eight pound weight of 
lead bullets provided for each of the said guards." 

"13 Sept. 1715. — The whilk day the Councill, considering 
the hazardous times, and that although their is guard keept, yet 
their is no sufficient guns ffor defending the place, those tiey 
have being most partly broken and insufficient, ffor remeid 
whereoff, and that the toun may be better defended by having 
iBufficient anns, they therefor recommend to Baiilie Ainslie and 
the clerk to go to Edinburgh to my Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 
and see and procure sixtie guns upon the Baillie's receipt, and re- 
commend to them to take William Keid along with them." 

' 19 Sept. 1715.— This day the Baiilie signified to the Qcam- 



BSQALITT Of UVSBBLBURGH. 121 

fsSi that he hftd waited on the Provost of Edinburgh, and that he 
told him he coald spare no arms to the toun, he being straitened 
for arms to himself.** 

*• 21 Sept, 1816. — The which da;f the Council] being informed 
that the Baillies had attended this day at the church with the 
rest of the heretors, to concert methods for levying eighteen men, 
being their proportion of twentie-five appoynted to be marched 
in to Ed^ to-morrow be the liftenency of this shyre, for defence 
of the toun and castle of Edinburgh, they therefor recommend it 
to the present Baillies, Baillie Wilkie, Geo. TumbuU, and Alex. 
Gibson, to pitch on such persons within the libertie of this 
burgh as shall be fitt for the said service, and to fall on such 
methods as may secure the said persons they shall condescend on, 
till the time appoynted for their march.'' 

26th Sept. 1715. — Keceipt to be given for the arms to be 
delivered at Edinburgh to the quota of the militia raised by the 
respective heritors of the shire ; and on the 3d October a collec- 
tion is ordered for defraying the town's proportion of the militia. 
That proportion appears from another minute : — 

" 10 Oct. 1715. — The which day the Councill, considering 
that the Liftenency had ordered the levying of fiftie-two men to 
the eighteen that is alreadie levyed, and that as the full of their 
propoiiion of the militia, with fourtie days pay att sixpence per 
diem, which, with the levy money to be given them, will amount 
to upwards of one hundred pound sterling, and this being ane 
great sum, they recommend it to the baillies and the captain of 
the company 8, in each side of the water, to go through the place, 
and collect from the maisters, householders, and servants, three 
pound from some, fortie shillings Scotts from others, and twentie 
shilling Scotts from servants, in order to make up the forsaid 
sum, and to see and compleat the men that are wanting against 
Thursday next, so that the account of them be remitted to the 
Sheriflf Clerk against that time." 

" 18 Oct. 1715. — The which day the Councill, considering 
that they are to send in their proportion of militia this day, and 
that the extent of their week's pay amounts to one hundred and 
forty-seven pound Scotts, whereof there is not above twentie 



122 HISTORY OF THB 

pound in hand, they therefor empower the Baillies to borrow two 
hundred merks from any who will advance it, and they will grant 
Hecuritie for the same, and the Councill Appoint Baillie Wilkiej 
the thesaurer, John Douglas, Alexander Young, and the clerk to 
go in with them." 

"27 Oct. 1716. — This day the above-named persons gave 
account that they had delivered in sixtie- eight men, and paid 
them ten days pay each, at sixtie pence per day, and this day the 
* thesaurer acquainted the Councill that the other two men had 
gone in also, which makes up the town's full proportion, being 
seventie men." 

"We thus see to what trouble and expense the rising of 1715 
put the burgh of Musselburgh. The collection ordered by the 
magistrates does not seem to have come up to expectation, for, 
by a minute of the 27th October, the magistrates were empowered 
to borrow the money " to pay what is due to the militia." 

We come to the next more remarkable era in Scottish history 
subsequent to the Union — " the '45," and find the following 
minute : — 

" 9 Sept. 1745. — The magistrates and Councill, having mett 
anent the toun*s affairs, and haveing taken to their consideration 
ane order from his Majesty's advocate, dated the 3d instant, for 
detaining all the boats in Musselburgh Jiarbour or bay, and keep 
such a guard upon these boats as prevent them from going to sea, 
they therfor, in obedience to said order, in the first place agree 
to disable the whole boats in said harbour or bay, and that by 
drawing them up beyond the full sea mark, and carrying of 
their rudders, oars, and sails ; and further, they not only agree 
to keep a sufficient guard upon said boats, to prevent" their going 
to sea, but also for patrolling the streets and by roads within the 
jurisdiction of this burgh for the peace therof, and for apprehend- 
ing all vagrant persons that cannot give a sufficient account of 
themselves, and for detaining such persons until they be interro- 
gate by the magistrates, and the guard to be kept in Fisherrow, 
in the schoolhouse there, and agree that the guard each night 
shall consist of a captain, Serjeant, corj[;orall, and twenty privat 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 123 

men, the seijeant and corporall to be named by the captain, and 
that this guard begin to-morrow night, entering always at six at 
night, and continue till six in the morning, and ordain every 
person, householders as well burgesses as not burgesses, to turn 
out to the respective guard as they shall be wairned by the officer^ 
under the pain of ten pound Scots, totiea quotieB, and declares 
that each burges must attend himself, and not send a servant or 
any other in his name, unless he can give a very lawful excuse to 
the Captain of the guard for the time/' 

Prince Charles and his Highland army were at this time on 
their march towards the Lowlands. He left Perth on the 11th 
of September. To impede, or rather prevent their passage at 
Queensferry, all the boats on the north side had been removed to 
the 8o«th ; hence the resolution, in compliance with the Lord 
Advocate's order, to disable the boats in the harbour and bay of 
Musselburgh. 

After a brief stay in Edinburgh, Charles, on the 20th of 
September, passed with his small army through the market-gate, 
and along the. old bridge of Musselburgh, taking the old kirk 
road to Inveresk, on his way to meet the forces of Sir John 
Cope. 

The march, after breaking up the camp at Duddingstone, id 
somewhat poetically described in Chambers' ** History of the 
Rebellion " :— 

" Soon after falling into the post-road, the insurgents continued 
their march till they entered the market-gate of Fisher-row, an 
old narrow street leading to the bridge. One of their number 
then went up to anew house upon which the tilers were engaged, 
and took up a long slip of wood technically called a tile-lath ; 
from another house he abstracted an ordinary broom, which he 
tied upon the end of the pole. This he bore aloft over his head, 
emblematizing what seemed to be the general sentiment of the 
army, that they would sweep their enemies off the face of the 

earth The shouts with which the symbol was 

hailed testified the high courage and resolution of the troops, and 



124 BISTORT OF THS 

but too truly presaged the issue of the approaching conflict. 
Charles, in passing along the market-gate, bowed to the ladies 
who surveyed him from their windows, bending to those who 
were young and beautiful even till his hair mingled with the 
mane of his charger. To all the crowd he maintained an aspect 
of the most winning sweetness. There was there, also, many a 
fair young chieftain, and many a gay Angus cavalier, who imi- 
tated his polite behaviour, and rivalled his gallant carriage, 
though without coming in for a due share of that enviable obser- 
vation which, in Milton's phrase, was * rained' upon their leader. 
Never again shall that old street behold a scene so animating or 
so grand — ^ma/ it never witness one so pregnant with sorrow and 
with blood ! 

" The army now passed along the ancient bridge which there 
crosses the Eske ; a structure supposed to be of Boman origin, and 
over which the Scottish army had passed two centuries before, 
to the field of Pinkie ; * a structure over which all of noble or of 
kingly that had approached Edinburgh for at least a thousand 
years, must certainly have passed ; which has borne processions 
of monks, and marches of armies, and trains of kings ; which has 
rattled under the feet of Mary's frolic steed, and thundered be- 
neath the war-horse of Cromwell. Proceeding directly onward, 
the column traversed, not the to\vn of Musselburgh, but the old 
Kirk road, as it is called, to Inveresk, and entered the street of 
Newbigging about the centre. It then marched along the pre- 
cincts of Pinkie Clench, and sought the high grounds near Car- 
berry ; two localities memorable in Scottish history, for the 
disaster and the shame with which they are connected." 

The easily-gained victory of Preston having been accomplished, 
the Prince occupied Pinkip House for the night, and his army 
returned to Edinburgh next day. His Highness fixed his resi- 
dence at Holyrood House, where he lived for a time in regal 
state — and from thence levied contributions from most of the 
royal burghs and towns of any note. Musselburgh was mulcted 
in the manner thus noted in the records : — 

• This is not quite correct. Most of the anuy forded th« river- 



REGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 125 

" Oct. 1745. — This day was presented to the Councill, by 
Richard Lindsay and Thomas Yernor, a letter directed to the 
magistrates of Musselburgh, and of which letter the tenor 
follows : — 

* Holyroodhouse, 1st Oct. 1745. — Gentlemen, you are hereby 
ordered upon receipt of this to repair to the Secretary's ofl&ce, in . 
the Palace of Holyroodhouse, there to have the contribution to 
be paid by your town of Musselburgh for his Highness' use 
ascertained, which shall be done according and in proportion to 
the Duties of Excise arising out of the said toun of Musselburgh, 
for the repayment of which contribution the said dutie shall be 
assigned. This you are ordered upon pain of rebelhon furth- 
with to obey. By his Highness' command (sic subscribitur,) 

J. Murray.' 
" In consequence of which letter the saids Richard Lindsay 
and Thomas Vemor went to the Palace of Holyroodhouse yester- 
day, the second instant, and taving called for the Secretary, were 
ordered by him to wait upon Mr Steuart, his under secretary or 
clerk, who told them that the toun of Musselburgh must send in 
to the said Palace against Saturday next, the 5th instant, at ten 
o'clock forenoon, the sum of Two Hundred and Eighty Pounds 
sterling, or if they failzied so to doe the toun of Musselburgh 
would be pillaged ; and promised if the money was sent in that 
they would give ane assignation to the Excise of this place for 
the toun's reimbursement. 

" The Councill therefor agree that the saids Richard Lindsay 
and Thomas Vemor, and William Spence, present toun treasurer, 
shall give their credit in name and behalf of the Councill and 
community of this burgh for what shall be borrowed of the above 
sum." 

Whether the burgh was ever reimbursed for this money does 
not appear. The magistrates, at this critical period, seem to 
have been at a loss how to conduct themselves. Many of the 
community were no doubt favourable to Charles : — 

" 22 Nov. 1745. — The Councill haveing mett anent the affairs 
of the toun, and taking to their consideration the troubles and 
confusion of this country, by civil wars, a vote was put about 



126 HISTOBT 09 THK 

whether or not the community of this burgli should give a loyall 
address to his Majesty* It was carried by a majority of votes 
that the Councill should take advice of proper persons whether 
or not said address should be made by the community, and in 
what terms/' &q. 

The army of Prince Charles once more passed through Mussel- 
burgh towards the end of October, on the way to England, and 
encamped a little to the west of Inveresk Church, where they 
had a battery commanding the south-west. The camp was 
afterwards removed to a stronger position near Dalkeith. On 
the 31st of October, the Prince, accompanied by his life guards, 
rode into Musselburgh, again taking up his abode at Pinkie 
House. Next morning he joined the army at Dalkeith. 

After the defeat of the Highlanders at Culloden, and the sup- 
pression of the rebellion, the fears of the Hanoverian interest led 
to stringent, if not vindictive measures of precaution for the 
future. Judging, from the manner in which Edinburgh had 
yielded to the Prince, that there were among the magistracy not 
a few Jacobites at heart, an act was passed compelling all who 
held office to take what was called the Oath of Abjuration, by 
which they not only swore to be faithful to the reigning dynasty, 
but to abjure the Stuart pretensions. At the annual election of 
councillors in Musselburgh, in September 1746, a number of 
them detaurred to the oath, and on the 29th December, nine of 
them absolutely, and, under protest, refused to conform. These 
were — William Hay, "Bailie William Hog, treasurer, Charles 
Douglas, John Thomson, merchant, William Cochran, Thomas 
Berry, Thomas Cant, John Young, and Matthew Gray. By the 
20th January, however, they demitted their offices, which were 
immediately filled up by parties less scrupulous, or more enthu- 
siastic in the Hanoverian settlement. 



BEaALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 127 



CONDITION AND PROGRESS OF THE BUB6H. 

Musselburgh seems to have been by no means an exception to 
the general character of Scottish towns, a century or two ago, in 
regard to cleanliness. The Council minutes fully bear out the 
statement. There were few or no enclosures, and like other 
burghs, a town herd had to be kept to take charge of the cattle 
belonging to the freemen : — 

"25 March 1680. — The Counsell condescends that all the 
stages [horses] within the burgh and liberties be putt to the 
comone herd to be kept, with certificatione if any stages be found 
in the skaith without a herd herefter, the ouneris shall be lyable 
to pay the skaith to the partie, and farder punished at the baillies 
pleasure." 

'* 16 May 1682.-^The Counsell ordaines a proclamation to 
goe through their liberties, discharging all ther inhabitants to 
suffer any of ther suine to be found upon ther neighboures skaith, 
under the paine of 40s., by and attour the reparand of the 
skaith." 

" 28 Nov. 1726." — ^All the dunghills and other nuisances to 
be removed from the streets and lanes, because, as the Council 
allege, people are prevented from coming to settle in the burgh 
in consequence of the filth. 

" 3 Oct. 1730." — Another order on the part of the Council 
and magistrates for clearing the streets of dunghills and rubbish, 
and to have the water passages red, under a penalty. 

" 12 June 1752." — The streets of Fisherrow to be paved, and 
the proprietors to make a footpath before their tenements, and 
remove the dunghills every eight days, <fec. 

" 24 Dec. 1756." — Town's manure to be set for one year. No 
swine to be seen on the streets or lanes. 

" 17 Aug. 1760." — Gutters of Musselburgh to be causewayed. 

" 21 Feb. 1761."— Butchers not to kill on the streets. 



128 HTSTORI OF THB 

The untidy state of Mtuiselbtirgh, down to the latter lialf of 
last century, may thus be conceived. 

There are other minutes, of a miscellaneous description, which 
are not altogether without interest as illustrative of the condition 
and progress of the burgh : — 

"10 Apryle 1682.— The Counsell grants libertie to Lord 
Tweddall to breake ground in ther comone for ane Quarrie, 
whilk is to be done by advyce of some of their number, that the 
»ame be not prejudiciall to the comone, hot allowes noe stones to 
be winn therin till the baillies and Counsell consider the place 
that it does not wrong the town, highways, or arable land." 

" 16 Nov. 1686. — The Counsell condescends to plant with 
trees and fence the peace of marish ground upon the west end of 
Thomas Hayes land, at the head of Newbigging, and to be 
advysed theranent what trees will be most fitt." 

" 10 Jan. 1698."— Threttie pounds Scots yearly to be allowed 
to Mr George Adam's school doctor. 

'' 21 March 1698." — Stent masters appointed, four for each 
side of the water, to stent the inhabitants anent the quota of the 
taxl-roIL 

" 23 June 1701. — The Counsell appoynts the clerk to ordain 
the officers to wame the persones deficient in payment of Buchan's 
Cess to make payment of their severall proportions under the 
pain of poynding therfor," 

This tax was called Buchan's Cess from the name of the 
person by whom it was farmed. It is said he lost heavily by the 
transaction. 

'* 6 Nov. 1704." — No sheep to be pastured on the common, 
but " a kow or two," 

" 8 Aprile 1706 — The Counsell approves of Baillie Richard 
Douglas his labouring of the lands in the Breadmeadows, and 
sowing the same for the tonnes use, and ordaines the thesaurer to 
pay him the soume of 40**^- 16*- for the pryce of the seed and 
drink to the servants." 



REQALITT OF MUSSELBUKOH. 129 

" 5 Aug. 1717. — The whicli day the Councill have received and 
admitted off Thomas Feargreave, some time pyper in Tranent, to 
be toun pyper in lieu of the deceased James Wauch, their pyper, 
and hereby grant to him all the benefits that belonged to the 
said James Wauch, he being lyable to pay into James Wauch's 
relict the one-half of the next yiile wages and no more." 

It would thus appear that Musselburgh had always a piper, 
although this is the first and only notice of such an official. 

" 9 Oct. 1726. — The custom of calling 46 persons to witness 
the serving of sasines being now in disuetude over the kingdom, 
only the 15 persons made use of for the service is necessary. 

" 13 Feb. 1727."— Collection to be raised for the Town's 
Library. 

We know not whether the library was ever instituted. The 
present subscription library was established in 1812. 

" 1 Jan. 1750." — ^Proposition by the gentlemen to have turn- 
pikes in the shire — deputation to attend meeting. 

" 17 Oct. 1761." — Council resolve to oppose the erection of a 
turnpike in the street of Newbigging. 

This was the first of the system of turnpikes by which Scot- 
land has since been dotted. The year 1714 is supposed to be 
the epoch of turnpike roads in Edinburghshire. The first road 
act for Scotland was passed in 1555 ; but the first turnpike act 
was made for Haddingtonshire in 1750. The following year a 
similar act was passed for Edinburghshire. Toll-bars were every- 
where obnoxious when first instituted. 

"22 Sept. N. S., 1752.— The Counsell haveing taken to their 
consideration a plan sent them, and proposalls for building severall 
buildings in the toun of Edinburgh, for the behoof of the nation 
in generall, and the intention of enlarging the said toun, and as 
the same is proposed to be done by a voluntary subscription thro' 
the nation, they agree to give for the helping to execute said 
* proposalls the sum of twenty pounds sterling out of the toun's 



130 HI8T0BT 0? THB 

revenues, and that when called for by proper persons haveing 
authority for so doing." 

It is not generally understood that Edinburgh went a-begging 
in this way. 

" 7 Aug. 1763. — The Counaell agree to get twenty-four lea- 
ther buckets, to be employed in time of fires in the place ; and 
recommend to every member of Councill to inquire into the price 
of buckets at London and Edinburgh, and to get four long lad- 
ders for the above purpose." 

There were no fire-engines at this time. 

" 22 Sept. 1753."— The causeway, from the East Port to 
Tod's Bridge, to be repaired ; as also Fisherrow Street (now the 
main street) to be finished to the west end of the town. 

" 31 Dec. 1757."— Trees planted on the street as far as Tod's 
Bridge. 

" 24 March 1759." — New road to be made from the West 
Mill to the Bridge. 

" 21 April 1759." — ^No new houses to be covered with thatch. 
This was a precaution against £ie, 

"11 Aug. 1759. — The Counsell order that, from and after 
Thursday next, the 16th instant, all potatoes that shall be vended 
in the burgh and jurisdiction thereof be sold by weight, and that 
each boll weigh twenty-four stone trois weight, conmionly called 
oatmeal weight, and that every peck weigh 24^*^* weight, and 
half pecks and lippies in proportion, and that under the penalty 
of two shillings and sixpence sterling each transgression," <fec. 

" 22 Sept. 1759."— The treasurer to have £4, 10s. of salary. 

" 1 April 1760." — Mercat-gate to be repaired and causewayed 
where narrow. The rest to be made after the manner of turn- 
pike roads. 

" 10 May 1760."— Archibald Sanderson, tailor, had £4 for 
looking after the town's public works, utensils, highways, &c, 

Musselburgh seems to have been greatly burdened and an- 



KB6ALITT OF MUBSELBURGH. 131 

noyed by the billeting or quartering of the Eing*8 troops upon 
the inhabitants. They owed this probably to their proximity to 
the capital, and the salubriousness of the locality. Various mi- 
nutes occur in reference to this grievance : — 

" 26 Oct. 1687.— The Counsell condescends that such of ther 
inhabitants as shall happen to be quartered upon herefter by the 
gentlemen of the guard or others of his Majesty's troopes of 
horse, shall have ane proportionall assistance from the nighbour 
inhabitants, for bearing the expense of coall and candle, and 
other charges of the said quartering, and appoynts Baillie Douglas, 
elder, Baillie Vemor and Baillie Duncan, Robert Smart, And'^. 
Smyth and George Smart to be assistants, and meet with the 
present baillies for casting and proportioning the said assistant 
quarters among the inhabitants, as they shaU think fitt,'' 

This was a very equitable arrangement, and we find it repeat- 
edly renewed. There was properly no standing army before the 
Revolution, but the King contrived to maintain so many troops 
under the name of a^guard : — 

" 6 May 1689. — The Counsell condescends to buy threttie 
bolls oats for furnishing the troups of horse presently quartered 
within the burgh, which ar to be putt in John NicoU's hands to 
be retailed by him to the troupers, and for which he is to hold 
compt to the Counsell at the Convention's rates, being 8 shill. 
ster. the boll, and allowes the said John NicoU Scottes 

for his paines in doing the same." 

These were the troops raised by the Scottish Estates for the 
support of the Revolution. 

" 9 Oct. 1699. — The quhilk day, upon ane information had 
be the Counsell anent the quartering of some of the horse guards 
upon the place, therefore they appoynt Baillie Smart and Richard 
Douglas to goe to Edinburgh on this week to take such conve- 
vient methods as they think fitt to prevent the said quarter, and 
to report." 

"18 Dec. 1699.— The quhilk day Baillie Smart having given 
in the Counsell a representation of the abuses committed be 



182 HI8T0BT or THK 

Ensigne LabasB in Baillie Smart's own honse, and elaewhece, 
therefor they appoynt Baillie Douglas, Baillie Yemor, and B. 
Douglass to waitt upon the Major, and to represent the saids 
abuses to him, and to certi£e him that they will represent the 
same to the Privi Counsell." 

The conduct of the troops quartered in Musselburgh seems to 
have been of so riotous a character as to call for a stronger guard 
to restrain them : — 

" 19 Feb. 1700.— The Counsell appoynts a petition to be 
drawn, to be given to Major- General Bamsay, for craving assist- 
ance for the guard from the adjacent quarters, and appoynts 
Baillie Smart and Bichard Douglas to present the same to him.'' 

By a minute of the 9th July 1711, it appears that there had 
been certain abuses committed by one of the officers and a party 
of the soldiers quartered in the town. 

" 28 Nov. 1726." — James Buchanan, paymaster to Major 
Erskine's troop oiXhay Dragoons, accused of pressing with his 
own hands Bailie Douglas horses, and threatening to break his 
head. 

" 27 April 1752."— Petitions from the inhabitants of Mussel- 
burgh and Fisherrow about quartering. 



THE POOB. 

The state of the poor seems to have engrossed no small share 
of attention on the part of the Magistrates : — 

^' 3 Aprile 1699. — This day the Counsell mett, and, consider- 
ing the cans of the poor, who ar in a starving condition, and that 
there is a sowme of money in the Eirk sessions hand for supply- 
ing the poor of the buigh in such a calaniitie as this at present ; 
^they therefor impower Baillie Vemor, Bichard Douglas, or 
Charles Wilsone to goe to Edinburgh and speak with Mr Howie- 

* The Bev. Mr Howieson, miiuBter of the parish. He appeals to have 
resided, periiape tempanrily, in Edinbui^h. 



REGALIT7 07 MUSSELBURGH. 133 

sone * anent the uplifting of the said sowme for supplying the 
poor, and upon his refasall to protest against him therefor, and 
otherwayes to act therin according to law, as they shall be ad- 
vysed by the tounes advocat." 

" 20 Nov. 1699." — There was a voluntary contribution for 
the poor. 

" 27 Jan. 1724." — Owing to the increase of the poor, a con- 
tribution ordered to be gathered and mortified, to add to the 
usual collection. 

There was at this time no other means of supporting the poor 
save the church collections. The increase was attributed to the 
growing number of stranger paupers, to check which the Council, 
on the 26th April 1725, prohibited landlords from letting their 
houses to strangers in such circumstances. The first attempt at 
compulsory support was made in 1731. 

" 7 June 1731." — The Justices of the Pe^ce having enacted 
that the poor be supported in their own parishes, the Council 
order all lands and tenements to be valued within the liberties, 
and an assessment to be laid on rental. 

At length it was deemed expedient to erect a poor^s-house : — 

" 4 Dec. 1749. — ^The Councill agree to give of the town's 
funds twenty pounds sterling, towards the building of a poor- 
house ; as also any part of the town's common which is not 
already feued or sett in tack, in order to build the house and 
yaird on, providing the same be not prejudicial to the town. 

The poor's-house here mentioned was ready for the reception 
of the poor in 1762. Dv Carlisle says — " The best rules of 
management that could be devised or collected were ordained, 
and the house went on for many years, to the comfort of the 

poor, and the satisfaction of all concerned At the end 

of thirty years, many difficulties having occurred from the back- 
wardness of some to pay their assessments, and a constant in- 
trigue among the inhabitants about famishing necessaries, or 



134 mSTOBT OF THB 

employing the poor, the most disiaterested among the managers 
became heartily tired of the business. Add to this, that the 
house and famiture came now to need a thorough repair, which 
could not have cost less than £300 sterling ; all which, together 
with an opinion that the poor could be maintained cheaper in 
their own houses than in the poor's-house, induced the heritors, 
and all concerned, after two years' deliberations, to sell the 
house, and add the price to the poor's-funds, which was accord- 
ingly done in the year 1781." 

Since then the poor have been supported by out-door relief, at 
an expense of about £700 yearly. 

There is a charitable endowment called Bruce^s Fund, which is 
felt as a great benefit to the poor. In 1826, the late Charles 
Key Bruce, Esq., M.D., sometime of Philadelphia, United States, 
who had received his education in Musselburgh, left " £2000 
sterling, as a permanent fund, the interest of which to be applied 
to the relief of the poor of the town of Musselburgh." By the 
time the money was placed at the disposal of the trustees, it had 
accumulated to £8015, the interest of which is distributed 
amongst the poor. 

There is another fund called Eastie^a Fund, left by George 
Hastie, Esq., Mid-Calder. It is under the management of the 
idrk-sessions of the Established and Secession Churches, to be 
lent out to decent tradesmen and young men commencing busi- 
ness. The factor, according to the bequest, is to receive one- 
half of the^ interest, the other half to be added to the fund. 

A severe scarcity prevailed in 1757, The poor were so ill off 
in consequence that a steni had to be contributed by the inhabi- 
tants for their support, to which the Council contributed one 
pound. 



The population of the parish in 1755, when Dv Webster made 



REOALITT OV UUSSELBURQH. 135 

his calculations, was 4645 ; but it is generally admitted that his 
information was inaccurate. In 1792, when the inhabitants 
were ** carefully numbered " by Dr Carlisle, the result was 5392. 
In 1831, the census shewed 8961 ; and in 1851, 8653. 

There are several friendly societies^ both yearly and permanent, 
and a savings bank. Also a building society. 

There are two branch banks — agencies of the Western and 
Coniinercial. 



AMUSEMENTS. 

The Reformation left few days of relaxation and still fewer 
pastimes for the people. The occasions of indulgence observed 
by the Musselburgh citizens were : — 

The 29th of May, when bonfires were lighted by order of the 
magistracy, and at which they attended, " under the penalty of 
40^., to see the solemnities kept ;" but whether this was in honour 
of the King, or a relic of the old Druidical observance of Whit- 
suntide — the Beal-tine, or Baal-fires y of Celtic times — the records 
give no intimation. The Beal-tine, or Beltane, was kept up in 
a similar manner until lately in various parts of Scotland. 

The Ridvng of the Marches was an ancient and important 
ceremony before the system of enclosures became general. Dr 
Moir states that it " still holds here, once within the fifty years. 
They (the burgesses) appear mounted on horseback, and armed 
with swords. The seven incorporated trades, each headed by its 
captain, follow in the train of the Magistrates and Town Council ; 
the whole cavalcade being preceded by the town's officers, with 
their ancient Brabant spears, and a champion armed cap-a-pie. 
A gratuity is also allowed to a minstrel, who attends at the suc- 
ceeding feast, and recites in verse the glories of the pageantry." 
The procession would no doubt be preceded, in former times, by 



136 HISTORY or TBI 

the town piper, while the burgh flag proudly flaunted in the 
breeze. It seems to have been at one time an annual ceremony, 
performed on the morning of St Lauretto's fair. The Council, 
in a minute of 1711, already quoted, attributed the decline of 
the fair to the marches not having been ridden for many years, 
and resolve " that it shall be ridden this year with all the usual 
marks of antiquity and respect and grandor.'' The pageant was 
observed, as appears from the Council books, in 1682, 1711, and 
1760, and, as Dr Moir mentions, in 1809, on the jubilee of 
George III., and again in 1830. 

Another festive occasion, it seems, but which has been discon- 
tinued for many years, occurred on the annual payment of the 
burgh dues to the superior. It was called " The Hen Feast" — 
an entertainment given by the Magistrates— ^and originated in 
^^ the kain fowls" paid by the lessees of the burgh mills. 

None of these social meetings, however, are indicated in the 
records. 

The shooting for the " silver arrow" on Musselburgh Links is 
an ancient pastime still kept up with all its former interest. No- 
where has the practice of the bow been maintained with similar 
spirit, save at Kilwinning, in Ayrshire. The revival of it there 
dates no farther back than 1688 ; at Musselburgh it seems hardly 
distinguishable when the annual competition of the bow merged, 
as an exercise of war, into a pastime of peace. There is no re- 
cord of the transition. The Council books of Musselburgh go 
no farther back than 1635, if we except fragments of the burgh 
court book bearing the date 1605. The first notice we find of 
the silver arrow occurs in the following minute :— 

" 8 Sept. 1647. — Memorandum that notwithstanding Robert 
Dobie of Stainyhill this day v an the sylver arrow, being the 
third tyme quherby it became his owne, according to the ordoor, 
yet he, for the love and affection borne be him to the weili and 



BSGALITY Of UT78SSLBUBOH. 137 

standing of this burch, this same day giftit and gave bak agane 
the said silver arrow to Johne Calderwood, present baillie, in 
name and behalf of the baillies, connsell, and commnnitie of the 
same bnidi, to be keepit and used be thame at thair pleasour in 
time cuming." 

The institution, however, is of mnch more ancient date than 
this " m^norandum." In a book kept by the Town-Clerk, 
entitled the ' Band of the Royal Company of Archers," there 
ocenrs ^'ane accompt of the noblemen and gentlemen's names 
who did wonn the silver arrow of Musselburgh, with ane accompt 
how often and when they did wonn the same.'* The first on this 
list is the Earl of Haddington, year blank, who appends a piece 
of gold ; second, the Laird of Ardross, do., do. ; third, A. E. K., 
do., do. Then it begins with A. B., 1601 , and goes on enumerating 
the parties down to the year in which the list was written. It 
thus appears that the competition was instituted before the close 
of the sixteenth century, but how long it is impossible to guess. 
The three gold pieces mentioned are without date. But as the 
arrow was not shot for every year — a lapse of five, six, and seven 
years sometimes occurring — the first piece, by the Earl of 
Haddington, may penetrate a considerable way back into the 
century, reaching very nearly the era when the bow ceased to be 
used as an implement of war. 

In the New Stcitistical Account it is said that the arrow ^' has 
a series of such medals attached to it from 1603 to the present 
time, with the single exception of the perturbed 1745 ; '' but this 
is not correct. Dr Moir must also be in error when he says that 
" the most ancient medal attached to the silver arrow given by 
the magistrates of Musselburgh to be shot for annually over the 
Links by the Boyal Company of Archers, represents one of them 
(the Dobie family) in the costume of the time, and the date 
1603;* 



138 HISTOBT OF TEX 

The first minute ia the Royal Company's books is dated 12th 
Aagust, 1678 :— 

" The quhilk day the silver arrow of this hnrgh was wone be 
William Baillie, merchand in Edinburgh, and is delyvered ap to 
him, having twentie-eight peices appendent thereto, viz., thrie of 
gold and fyve and twenty of silver, and is to be keeped be him 
for ane year, conforme to the custome, and then be redelyvered 
with his own token thereto; and for his encouragement they have 
given him ane silver coup, in the form of ane mussel, therefor 
the said William Baillie binds and obleisses him to redelyver the 
said silver arrow, with the respective peices appendent therto, and 
with his own token thereat, and that betwixt the twentie fyft 
day of July next to cum, 1679 years ; and for his performing 
of the premisses Capitan John Broun, merchand in Leith, be- 
comes bund cautioner and souertie for and with him ; and the 
said William obleissed him to relieve his cautioner. In witness 
whereof they have subscrived thir presentes, tyme and place 
forsaid." 

It is worthy of remark that this William Baillie was, in all 
likelihood, the same person who, ten years afterwards (1688), 
was instrumental in, reviving the Papingo at Kilwinning. 
" William Baillie, merchant, Edinburgh," is the third name 
attached to the original constitution of the Kilwinning Company 
of Archers. His practice of the bow at Musselburgh, and his 
enthusiasm for the pastime, had probably inspired his Ayrshire 
friends with a kindred spirit. " William Baillie, merchant in 
Edinburgh, nephew to Major Hugh Bunten of Kilbride,'* married 
a daughter of the Laird of Enterkine, and bought the estate of 
Monkton, in Ayrshire, about 1688, at which period he resided 
in " that large house built by his uncle. Major Buntine of Kil- 
bride, on the south side of the Green of Kilwiiming." ' As his 
father, Hew Baillie, resided in Kilwinning, it is possible that his 
love for, and expertness in, the practice of the bow, were acquired 
there in youth. In 1714 he had a great accession to his fortune 



EEGALITT OF MTJSSELBXTRaH. 139 

by the death of Major Buntine, who left him the valuable 
barony of Kilbride, and he died in 1740, at the advanced age of 
eighty-four. 

The silver arrow of Musselburgh is annually competed for by 
the Royal Company of Archers. Dr Carlisle, in the Old Statis- 
tical Account, says : — " The victor receives £1, 10s. sterling from 
the town, and a riddel full of claret, viz., one dozen, and is bound 
to append a medal of gold or silver to the arrow before the next 
year's meeting." The custom now is for the archers to dine 
together in the Musselburgh Arms after the competition. 

Although none but the Royal Company, or Queen's Body 
Guard, are allowed to enter the lists, it is not discoverable from 
the books when this regulation was enacted. It is evident that 
the silver arrow was contributed by the burgh, with a view to 
promote a healthful pastime, and promote the interests of the 
community, and numerous minutes attest the Oouncirs entire 
control over both the prize and the pastime. For example : — 

*' 17 July 1682. — The Counsell condescends to give one token 
to William Baillie, merchant, who wone the silver arrow the last 
yeir, worth betwixt nine and ten pounds Scottes, and ordaines 
intimations to be made for shooting the same this yeir the second 
fair day upon the second day of August next peremptorilie, and 
ordaines a proclamatione for stockings and shoes the said second 
fair day." 

The competition was thus usually, though not always, held 
during St James's fair in August, at which there was a market 
for stockings and shoes, which explains the latter part of the 
minute. Again — 

"6 July 1702. — The Counsell condescends that the silver 
arrow be intimat to be shot this yeir, and a proclamation to goe 
through the tonne upon St James fair day for that end as use is, 
to be shot upon the 4th August, and that ther is noe token to be 
given to them that winneth the arrow, and whoever wins is to 



140 HtSTOBT Of THB 

find cantion for delivering the arrow back again betwixt and 
Whitsunday next, and the pieces to be numbered. It is heirby 
deckred that whoever winneth the arrow for three years altogether, 
may cary the same, and dispose thereupon at ther pleasure and 
noe otherwyse. There is 33 peices of silver, and 3 peices of gold 
att the arrow." 

This very absurd enactment was soon afterwards modified. In 
1705 the Council resolved to give a token of 20s. to the winner; 
and in 1709 it was entirely rescinded. The " C6uncill consider- 
ing the antiquity of the said arrow, and the many noblemen and 
gentlemen that ther are appended thereto, and how honourable 
it is for the burgh to have the same preserved," expressly declare 
that " in all tyme coming, how oft soever any person shall wonn 
the said silver arrow, shall be obleidged to find sufficient caution 
for re-delivering the same back to the toun." 

There are several instances of the arrow having been gained 
three times successively by the same individual. For example, 
Hr Drummond, Edinburgh, in 1711, had possession of it for the 
third year, and was complimented by the Council with " ffifty- 
nx pound Scotts for his civility in returning" it. 

The late Sir Patrick Walker also had the honour of gaining it 
for the third time in succession. 

In 1866 (last year) the arrow had 124 large pieces, and 37 
small (inclusive of the gold tokens) appended to it — making in 
all 161 — ^weighing 13 lbs. 8 oz., so that, although an arrow, it is 
no light matter. It is contained in a box, and is altogether a 
singular remain of old times. 

The game of golf has been an immemorial pastime on the 
Links. In Holland they have a game called kolf, which is played 
" in an enclosed rectangular area of about 60 feet by 25." 
Both the Dutch and Scotch names are probably from the Greek. 
The two games, however, are very different — the kolf* resembling 

* In the old SUUiiHeal Account an excellent description of this game ie 



BSOALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 141 

more the practice of the billiard table. Golf is a game of out- 
door recreation — exercise without fatigue, with sufficient accuracy 
and science to make it interesting. There is a good illustration 
of golf-playipg, and a historical account of the game, in Kay's 
Ediiiburgh Portraits. It is uncertain at what time it was intro^ 
duced into Scotland, but it is supposed to have been in the middle 
of the fifteenth century, at least to have then become of import- 
ance as a national amusement. It is not mentioned in the act of 
Parliament against football, in 1424, but is specially referred to 
in that of 1457. Football and golf were forbidden, that archery, 
which was useful in war, might be practised: Ck)lf was a favourite 
amusement with the citizens of Perth, as well as those of Edin- 
burgh, where, from "ane letter" of James VL, the business of 
club-making had become of such consequence as to require the 
royal protection. Charles I. is said to have been extremely fond 
of golf, and so was the Duke of York, afterwards James II., 
while he resided at Holyrood in 1681-2. Duncan Forbes, Lord 
President of the Court of Session, was so enthusiastic in the 
pastime, that he used to play on Leith sands when the Links 
were covered with snow. Leith and Musselburgh Links were 
the favourite resorts of the golfers. A golf club, consisting of 
the principal gentlemen of Musselburgh and vicinity, was formed 
in 1760, and still continues to flourish. " A handsome silver 
cup is annually played for, the winner of which retains posses- 
sion of it, and is captain of the club for one year, and attaches a 
gold or silver medal before the next competition." * The game 
is much practised by the youths attending the schools and board- 
ing schools, who rally in clubs under the names of their respective 
establishments. 

given from the pen of the Kev. Mr Walker, one of the ministen of 
Canongate, who had been resident in Holland for a number of yeun.. 
* Statiaical Accotintr 



142 axsTORT or thb 

Bowls were not unknown at Mosselbui^h about the middle of 
last century : — 

*' 2 May 1761. — The Counsell agree that, as some persons in- 
cline to make a bowling green at the east end of Musselburgh, 
the same shall be advertised for that purpose, and after staking 
off the same that the road from Musselburgh eastward be forth- 
with repaired." 

We know not whether this resolution was carried into effect. 
The public bowling green now in existence is at the west end of 
the town, near the Railway Station. There is also a private 
green, maintained at considerable expense. 

The horse races annually run over the course at the Links 
form, of course, part of the attractions at Musselburgh. They 
are, however, of Edinburgh origin, and were formerly held on 
Leith Sands. They were transferred to the Links in 1817, when 
the field was levelled, staked, and a handsome view-house built. 
The Links, situated at the head of Musselburgh, extend along 
the shore eastward towards Westpans. 



PROPERTY ABD INCOME OF THE BURGH. 

The process of disposing of the property of the burgh in feus 
— besides the mere sites for building upon — ^must have begun at 
a pretty early period. In a list of the charters granted by the 
town since the Revolution, there appears one of the Holmes to 
William Sheill and his wife, granted in 1697. John Smart, 
north side of Musselburgh, has one in 1699. William Coult has 
a precept of dare constat of lands in Newbigging in 1701. John 
Wauchope of Edmonston has a charter of certain lands east of 
Magdalene Bridge in 1701. Edward Jossy, Westpans, has 
another in 1711. John Gibson, gardener, Newbattle, has a 
charter of three acres of land in the North Common, 12th Nov. 



BEOALZTT Of HU8SSLBURGH. 143 

1711. Thomas Wilkie Las a charter of certain ground at 4he 
East Port, 15th Dec. 1715. Colin Campbell had a charter of 
the Sandy Haughs, 22d Dec. 1739. In 1729, Sir James Dal- 
rymple wished to feu the Common Myre, on the Fisherrow side, 
at a guinea the acre; but, owing to the clamour of the bur- 
gesses, the Council declined : — 

" 29 Sept 1730. — Day and date forsaid, the Counsell agree 
that Sir James Dalrymple have liberty to inclose that small 
gushet of common ground from the comer of Niel Stewart's 
house in a direct lyne to the comer of the little sommer house 
that was possesst by Robert Angus, in regard it is of little use 
to the toun, none of the common hirsle ever going that length 
by Oenties"* 

In 1743, in consequence of the town's pressure for money to 
build a new harbour, eleven acres of the Common Myre were 
feued to Sir James Dalrymple, at his former offer of one guinea 
per acre. In 1753, Mr Patoun had a rood acre at the east end 
of Inveresk for £37, lOs, being thirty years' purchase, at 258. 
and half a merk Scots yearly. 

In 1760 (11th April), the Council agree that the whole of the 
Town's Common, except the Links, should be let out to the 
highest bidder. 

Referring to the Links, Dr Carlisle says — " The inhabitants 
of Musselburgh had need to watch over this precious field for 
health and exercise, lest in some unlucky period the Magistrates 
and Council should be induced to feu it out, on pretence of in- 
creasing the revenue of the town. At present it is a common, to 
which every burgess has a right of pasturage ; although part of 
it has already been let off in feu, which has made the entry to 
the town, both from the east and west, less free and open than 
it formerly was, and greatly decreased the beauty and amenity 
of the place." These words of warning were not uncalled for. 
* The seat of the local custom called Oeatea. 



144 HISTOBY or THl 

Of late several feus have been disposed of, still farther encroach- 
ing upon the Links. Some spirited persons in the burgh, how- 
ever, have protested against the proceedings of the Gouncily and 
a plea, in consequence, is now in the Court of Session. 

REVENUE OF THE BUBGH. 
It would be difficult to ascertain precisely from the Conncil 
books what the income of the burgh amounted to in early times, 
the accounts are so run into one another. In the loose book, 
however, formerly mentioned, there is a distinct and intelli^ble 
statement, entitled, 

" Boll of the toun^s haill renttes, patrtmoniej and camalties^ 
made in presence of the BailUes and haill Counsell convenit 
the last of Sejar- 

1636. 
The common housses and fleshers buothis for Mar- 

tinmes and Whitsonday last 1636 - Ixxxxviji^^ 6" 8^ 
The customes of the Harberie, set to George Strachane i®i**^ 
The customes of the wechtis and firlottis of Fischer- 
row, set to George Smart - - icvi^^ 
The customes of the wechtis and firlottis and flesch 

stokis of Mussilburgh, set to W™- Stob - Ixxj^*^ 

The customes of the Magdalenis ' iij^xxiij^^ 6" 8** 

The fischingis of the dam and water, set to Alex! 

Johnestoun - - xlyj^^ xiij» 4** 

The toun's annuelis and burrow maills - lix^^ i* vij<* 

The Quhinnis (whins, or moor) - v'*** 8» 4<* 

Item, Johne Bairdis byrun few maills - xxxi"^ 4* 

Item, James Marteihis licence to sell and lay tynuner 

upon the shoire - - x'* 

Wm. Scott for his Littill Houss - xiij« 4* 

Gilbert Conquerynde, for his daill houss - x* 

The few duties of the Holmes - i^lxij** 6» 

The rude of the Brigend for libertie of casting dovettis, 

extending in the haill to - vii"^ xviij* 8* 

The haill teindsylver - - i^hdx^* x?« 



EEGALITT Of MU8SXLBU&0H. 145 

The mortclaiths - - - xxvi^^ 

The stallange roll of Mussilburgh and Fysherraw for 

this year 1636 - - xxxix^*^ vi« 8* 

The new maid bergesses - - i^'lxx^*^ vi" 8<*^ 

The bluds and troublantes* - i^'xxxii^i* 

The new given out ground and staires - xlij^^ 4« 

The maillis and dewties of the new given out lands of 

the south common - - iii^xxx^* 

The panherthis - - iii^*^ vi' viij^ 

Robert Duncan's fyne - xiij^^^ vi^ viij<* 

James Lithgow, curlmaker, his fyne - . Ivi"'* 

Walter Guthries composition - xij*^^ 13" 4* 

The rest of Kobert Penmanis entri for his new land 

xxxiij"^ 6' viij* 
David Eamage, sone to James Ramage, his vnlaw for 

not transporting of sum stanes bak agane to the 

schoire - - - v^ 



Summa of this charge jai ix^'lviij^^ 4" 3<^'' 

£1968, 4s. 3d. Scots; or £97, 18s. 4|d. sterUng. 

The income of the burgh in 1838 was £2244, Is. 2d. 

The town appears to have got pretty deeply into debt at an 
early period. This is attributed, in a minute of Coimcil of last 
century, to the fact of their having bought up no small portion 
of the superiorities. From a statement of the various bonds and 
their amount, it appears that the bonded debt of the town, in 1656, 
was 22,000 merks, or £1222, 4s. S^d. sterling. It was, in 1839, 
£16,406, 14s. 4d. In 1758, when Sir Robert Dickson was a 
member of Council, a reduction on the interest of the debt was 
thus effected : — the Council resolved that " every person who had 
money in the town's custody, for twelve years and upwards, be 
writt to, that unless they sink their annual rent to 4^ per cent., 
they vdll be paid up their whole principall and annual rent 
against Martinmas next.'' Most of the town^s creditors agreed. 

* Fines of the Buigh Coxui. 



146 HTSTORT or THB 

EARLY COMMERCE. 
It is said that the foreign trade of Musselburgh in the middle 
ages was ^' so large as to draw the special attention of the Dutch 
States, and excite their wishes for its continuance." This may 
have been the case ; but we have seen from the Council minutes, 
elsewhere quoted, that in 1700 it had no foreign trade whatever. 
In the loose book, formerly mentioned, there are yearly rolls of 
the ships entering the harbour. From these it appears that 
there was little other trade than that in wood. As somewhat 
curious, we shall quote the following list of arrivals during the 
summer of 1635.* 

" Roll of the Schippis enterit the Harherie of Fischerraw sen 
the first day of May 16 35 

Thomas Adamsone, in Carraill, the said ffirst of Maij 1635, 
enterit his bark, callit the Swan, with tapmast, laidened w* treis 
and daillis. 

4 Maij 1635. — Kobert Small, skipper in the Elie, enterit his 
schip, called the Margaret, laidened with xi*' daillis, and vij^^ 
double and single treis, and about i jai (1000) skewis, i^ stingis 
(poles), fadome of bumwode. 

6 Maij 1635. — Andro Thomsone, skipper, in the Elie, enterit 
his bark, w* twa topmastis, callit the Gtide Fortoun, laidined 
with iij<^ and half hundreth daills, ii® double and single treis, 
viij® stingis, vi skewis. 

xi Maij 1635. — David Muresone, in Monross, enterit his bark, 
called the Gift of God, laidneid w* nyne cha. beir. [chaldera 
bear.] 

xxi Maij. — ^Duncane Thomsone, in the Elie, enterit his schip, 
call the Ehpeth of the Elie, laidned w*. v^' treis, grit and small, 
and vij<^ daillis. 

5 Junii 1635. — William Adamsone, in Syllerdyk in fyfif, under 
the Laird of Balfoure, enterit his bark, callit the Providence, 
laidned w* ij<^ daillis. 

* It was enacted by the Scottish Parliament, so late as the reign of 
James Y., that ships should not go to sea between the 28th of October and 
the 2d of February. 



SEOALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 147 

xxij Junii 1635. — Johne Adamsone, in Curraill, enterit his 
schip, callit the Grewhound, laidned with vjo daiUis, ii*' treis, and 
sum stingis and humwood. 

William Tailzeour, in Carrail, enterit his bark, called the 
Margaret of Carraill, laidned with iij** treis, iiij^ daillis, xiiijc 
skewis or therby. 

10 Julij 1635. — James Wilkie, in Dysert, enterit his schip, 
called the Johne of Dysert, laidned with vij° treis, ij^ daillis, or 
tbairby, with sum stingis. 

Eod die. — Williame Wilsone, in the Livin, enterit his bark, 
called the David of Livin, laidned with iij° treis, iiij*' daillis, jai 
stingis or yrby. 

xiij Julij. — Thomas Watsone, in Anstruther, enterit his bark, 
called , laidned with iij^ daillis, j^ treis or yrby. 

xviij Julij 1635. — The said Johne Adamsone, skipper, in 
Carraill, enterit his said schip, called the Grewhound^ laidned 
with vj^ daillis, ij° treis, and sum stingis and humwood. 

xxij Julij 1635. — The said Williame Adamsone, in Syller- 
dykes, enterit his said bark, called the Providence, laidned with 
ix^ treis and daillis. 

xxiiij Julij 1635. — The said Thomas Adamsone, in Carrail, 
enterit his said bark, called the Qude Fortoy/n^ laidned with iiij° 
treis, i^ daillis, \\]^ stingis, jai skewis or yrby. 

Such was the description of shipping which frequented the 
port of Musselburgh in 1635. Most of the wood was brought 
from Norway. 

In 1856 the amount of shipping was as follows: — Arrivals 
coastwise, 108 vessels of 5162 tons; do. from foreign, 40 vessels 
of 2914 tons. Sailings coastwise, 11 vessels of 428 tons. 
Foreign arrivals consist of: — From Norway, 11 ; Belgium, 4 ; 
Denmark, 3 ; Holland, 2 ; Hanover, 1 ; Hanse Towns, 3 ; 
Prussia, 7 ; Russia, 8 ; Sweden, 1, 



GRAIN, AGRICULTURE, COLLIERIES. 
As to the prices of grain the Council Books supply only a few 



148 HISTOAr OV THB 

incidental notices. In 1682 (8tli Feb.) the " pryce of good and 
sufficient wheat'' was ^' seven pond Scottes'' (seven shillings 
sterling) — the boll, we presume, is understood. In 1689, ac- 
cording to the Convention's rates, com for the troops was 8s. 
sterling the boll. 

Mr Charles Wilson had been treasurer for some time, and died 
in the town's debt. His affairs were surrendered to a committee 
appointed by the Council : — 

" 12 Feb. 1706.— The whilk day the before named Conunittee 
having reported their commission, they give in accompt of the 
roup of Charles Wilson's comes, and his broun staig, as follows : 
Imprimis, sold to Patrick Herriot, yo^ a stack of oats for 68"^* 
10" Scots. Item, to Kichard Douglas, baillie, a stack of pease 
for 4"^ money forsd. Item, sold to Robert Vemor, late baillie, 
a stack of oats and some pease abore it, for 68*^^- Item, to 
Thomas Foot, a brown staig of two years old or yrby, for 30^^ 
money forsd. ; extending in haill to the soume of 345"^ 10^ , for 
which soumes every one of the above named persones have ac- 
cepted precepts payable to Patrick Herriot, elder, present thes'-, 
against the term of Whitsunday nixt, which precepts are dated 
the 5th of February instant, and appoynts the thes^ to grant dis- 
charges of their respective soumes, bearing warrandice att all 
hands; all which the Counsell approves." 

Prices appear at this time to have been very low. Of course, 
unless we knew the extent of the stacks it is impossible to judge 
of their value. It is otherwise with the horse — ^the " broun staig 
of two year old or thairby" — which cost only 30^^ or 30s. ster- 
ling ! 

Agriculture is supposed by Chalmers to have made some pro- 
gress in Mid-Lothian before 1070, the commencement of what 
he calls the Scoto-Saxon period. '' At that epoch, and for ages 
afterwards," however, he says, ^' this great district was covered 
with woods ;" a fact which proves that tillage could not have 
made much progress, although they might shelter large flocks 



REGALITY Of HUSSELBUBGH. 149 

lid herds, and numerous game. Near Edinburgh was the 
neet of Drumseilg (in Gaelic the hunting-ridge), where David I. 
I said to have been attacked by a stag. From his domain of 
dberton, he " conferred — among a thousand privileges— on the 
lonks of Holyrood, thirty cart-loads of brushwood ;" and Alex- 
l^der n. gave his forest of Gledehouse to the monks of New- 
Dttle/' The same monarch, in 1234, as already mentioned, 
ranted a free warren to the monks of Dunfermline over their 
(nds of Musselburgh. It does not appear from any of the early 
buiiers that the parish of Inveresk was at any time covered 
dth wood. The lower portion of it was probably of too light a 
»il to carry forest trees, as the granting of a free warren would 
idicate. It is probable that it was selected by the Eomans, as 
he site of a colony, chiefly because of its openness, in contrast 
rith the deep forests with which the countiy was covered. It 
B also probable that, during their protracted residence at Inver- 
jsk, they cut down much of what timber they found on the 
ligher grounds. Be this as it may, the Shirehaugh seems to 
uive been the only wooded portion of the parish in more recent 
imes. The Romans, in all likelihood, tilled the soil, though 
nuch of the art of agriculture may have been neglected in the 
lumerous wars which followed their evacuation of the country. 
A.11 the cereals — ^wheat, com, bear, rye, <fec. — ^were early culti- 
vated in Scotland. Sir John Dalrymple of Cousland was the 
first to introduce the sowing of turnips and planting of cabbages 
in the fields. He was also among the first to sow clover and 
lye-grass. 

It is known that the Eoman roads which intersected the parish 
continued, down to a recent period, to be the only means of 
coitimanication. ^' By the charter of David I." according to Dr 
Moir, in the New Statistical Account, '' confirmed by Pope Gregory 
in 1234, the right was conferred upon the Magistrates of Mus- 



150 BISTORT OV TEE 

selburgh of levying a toll at the western extremity of the pa- 
rish, for the purpose of upholding the Roman bridge over the 
Esk, and repairing the streets of Musselburgh." A toll is still 
exacted near to Magdalen Bridge, under the name of the Oentes 
Custom, How this appellation arose seems not to be understood. 
Dr Moir indeed refers to the " vague report that the first tacks- 
woman was named Janet^ and that familiarity afterwards changed 
the same from Jarwst to Janety^ and thence more remotely to 
G&rUe:' (!) In one of the minutes of Council (29th Sept. 1730), 
previously quoted, the place where the custom is exigible is called 
Genties, A scholar might suggest that it is derived from the 
Latin gens, gentis — a nation, a people ; for assuredly the bridge 
and street of Musselburgh .form a portion of one of the great 
highways of the kingdom, and therefore the imposition may 
truly be considered a national one. From this tax, as Dr Moir 
observes, " it is evident that wheel-carriages were not in common 
use at this period [when the tax was imposed], either here or 
elsewhere in Scotland ; yet are these mentioned not only by the 
same illustrious king [David I.] in his charter of Holyrood, but 
repeatedly for the next century, in the cartularies of the dif- 
ferent monasteries/* As we have elsewhere remarked, in refe- 
rence to the carts of Musselburgh, popular writers have been 
under a great mistake as to the recent use of carts in this country. 
It is quite possible, at the same time, that the badness of the 
roads, especially for long journeys, rendered the use of beasts of 
burden preferable. 

The whole statement, however, is incorrect. There is no men- 
tion of the custom in the charter of David I., nor in that of 
David II., or his successors, although it may have been autho- 
rised by " use and wont." In 1661 (20th Feb.), the Bailies 
and Council of Musselburgh petitioned the Commissioners for 
Trade and Bills for an increase of their bridge customs* They 



BEGAtlTT OV MUSSELBURGH. 151 

said they " were empowered for vpholding of the Medlen (Mag- 
dalen) bridge and other two bridges besyd the said tonne of 
publict concernment to exact ane Scottis pennie of each horse 
that past the saids bridges with loads, whereof they had been in 
possessione manie yeirs bygone, which being a most inconsiderable 
thing, came far short of the expenssis," &c. The Parliament 
accordingly passed an Act, of the same date, gifting to the burgh 
two pennies Scots for each horse load, and eight pennies Scots 
for each cart load, passing at the bridge of Musselburgh, for 
upholding thereof, and other bridges therein mentioned. Prior 
to 1661, it would thus appear the toll was called the Magdalen's 
Custom. Under this designation it forms one of the items in 
" the roll of the toun's haill rentes" in 1636; and it could hardly 
have originated so far back as the time of David I., since the 
Council only claim to have been in possession of it " manie 
yeirs bygane." The site of the custom is called " the Oenties^* 
in a minute of Council in 1730 ; and in 1782 (30th May and 
1st July) a contract was entered into " between the county of 
East Lothian and the town of Musselburgh, respecting Oentie's 
Toll,'* by which the Koad Trustees were to collect the custom 
and maintain the roads and bridges.* That the toll was 'Called 
the Gentes Custom before the gift of 1661 does not appear. 

That collieries and quarries were wrought in the parish of 
Inveresk as early as the reign of Alexander II., if not previously, 
is ascertained from a charter still in existence, granted by Seyer 
De Quiucey, Lord of the Manor of Tranent, to the Monks of 
Newbottle, confirmatory of their lands of Preston, bounded by 
the rivulet of Pinkie, with the right of working coal and stone, 
" carbonarium et quararium,** within these lands. This charter 

* This arrangement was perhaps never gone into, or continued only for 
a short time, as the town still collects the dues. 



152 BISTORT OV THl 

must haye been obtained between 1202 and 1218."^ From the 
cartulary of Kelso we learn that there was a pdarie — ^before the 
discovery of coal — on the lands of Camberon, Easter Dadding- 
ston, which is the western boundary of Inveresk parish. Coal 
has always been wrought in the parish since the charter of De 
Qnincey. In 1531 there was a contract between the Abbots of 
Dunfermline and Newbottle, by which the latter became bound 
to " drive the coill of Preston Grrange to the boundis of Pinkin 
(Pinkie) and Inveresk." " There is still extant," says Dr Moir, 
" a tunnel which runs under Eskgrove House, through which a 
part of the river Esk had at an ancient period been conducted to 
drive a wheel at Pinkie, used for draining the coal seams there. 
The expense, labour, and difficulty of making the tunnel must 
have been very great. It was begun in November 1742, and 
finished in May 1744. The north entrance to it is built up, and 
may be seen in the plantation within which Eskgrove House 
stands. The south entrance to it has not been traced. This 
extraordinary aqueduct was constructed by William Adam, archi- 
tect, of Edinburgh. That gentleman erected a coal-work at 
Pinkie in 1739, out of which he extracted the water by a horse- 
machine. This was, however, found to be inefficient, and he 
determined to cut an aqueduct through the hill on which Inveresk 
stands. Preparatory to this great undertaking, he cut a canal 
from the Esk to the foot of Inveresk hill, above a mile in length. 
Coming here upon a bed of sand, it became necessary to sink 
two shafts, one at each extremity of his intended aqueduct, to 
the depth of 50 feet. He then began his duct through the 
rock. Between these shafts the aqueduct is nearly 800 feet in 
length, 4 feet in width, and 6 in height, and about 100 feet 
below the surface of the hill on which the village is situated.'' t 

* ChalmerB* Caledonia. f New Statistical Account. 



SBGALITT OV HTJ8SILBUBGH. 153 

In the town charter chest, there is a contract by the magis- 
trates of Mosselbnrgh on the one part, andJb^n Adam, architect, 
on the other, allowing him to carry and drive an aqueduct from 
the main water of Musselburgh to his coal engine, upon the con- 
ditions therein expressed, * dated 16th Nov. 1749. We thus see 
that the statement of Dr Moir is wrong, both as to the Christian 
name of the party, and the date of the undertaking. 

As to the quarries, there was an official regularly appointed 
by the Magistrates and Council, called " The Town's Quarrier " : — 

*'20th Nov. 1713.— The Councill, considering that John 
Hunter, the toun's quarrier, is now deceased, they admit of James 
Tillerray to be quarrier in his place, only during the Councill's 
pleasure." 



EXTENT AND APPEARANCE OF THE PAEISH. 

The parish of Musselburgh extends, east to west, along the 
coast of the Firth, from the Eavenshaugh Burn to Magdalene 
Bridge, a distance of about two miles and a-half, in a semicircular 
form. It is neiirly of the same breadth, running southward from 
the sea into the interior. The situation is altogether delightful. 
The greater portion of it forms a flat of rich light soil, a few feet 
above the level of the sea, with the river Esk flowing down the 
centre. On the east the plain is bounded by a gentle rising 
ground ascending from the sea '^ in a swelling course to the hill 
of Inveresk, where stands the village of that name," and the 
parish church. The south side of the hill takes the form of a 
crescent, at the foot of which glides the winding Esk. 

The hill of Inveresk, in short, commands a most extensive 

* These conditions were that the aqueduct should be withdrawn when 
there was a deficiency to drive the burgh miUs. 



154 HISTORY OF THB 

prospect. Looking northwards, tlie town of Mnsselburgh, with 
its ^' red and blae'* covered houses, and ancient spire, spreads out 
along the shore of the Forth beneath; and away beyond the 
sail-covered estuary, appears "the kingdom of Fife," with its 
many towns, villages, and harbours. The Ochill Hills, and 
Benlomond, in clear weather, are also distinguishable. West- 
ward, Inchkeith, Portobello, and the shipping in the harbour of 
Leith are plain ; but the town itself, as well as Edinburgh, is 
hid from the eye. The extensive plain, of which the hills of 
Inveresk and Falside form the eastern boundary, sweeps away 
to the foot of Arthur's Seat, Duddingstone, and even the Pent- 
lands, leaving all between as distinct and beautiful as if it were a 
vivid picture spread out in canvass before the spectator. To the 
south the dark woods of Dalkeith and the blue hills beyond bound 
the range of vision in that direction. South-east Carberry Hill 
and Castle, with Falside, are seen ; but the woods of Eskgrove 
interrupt the view eastward, where the battle-field of Pinkie, and 
the House of Drummore, lie within a short distance. It is in- 
deed singular that, viewed from a particular position, the fields 
of Roslin, Carberry, Pinkie, and Prestonpans, are all within sight 
of each other; as the crow flies there is not more than eight 
miles between the extremities. 

It may be truly said that there are no scenes of striking magnifi- 
cence or grandeur in the parish — no mountains or glens of ro- 
Hiantic or fairy interest — but it is the very absence of these which 
lends to it that peculiar sweetness which every visitor feels and 
admires. With a fine light soil, and an extensive undulating 
plain — no dark high peaks to attract the watery clouds — ^there is 
a freedom and a buoyancy in the air which has the happiest effect 
upon the temperament. With abundance of spring water every- 
where, it would be difficult to conceive a more desirable or healthy 
summer residence. Inveresk, with its gentle elevation, gardens, 



RSOALITT OT MUSSEtBURQH. 155 

and woods, and delig^ol rambles, is pecaliarly so. MaitUnd, 
in his HisUm/ af Edinhwr^^ calk it ^^ the beautifal village q{ 
Inveresk ; which, from its sitoation, houses^ and salabrity ol air, 
is jnMly reckoned the finest Tillage, and most healthy place in 
Scotland.'' It lued to be styled the Montpeli^ of SeaUamd. 
" Snow nev«r lies for any length of time,'' says the New StcUisti- 
cal AceawU^ '^and frosts are much less intense than at higher 
elevations in the neighbourhood. A singular instance of the 
power of attraction is frequently observed in summer. The 
cloads, carried by a west wind along the Pentland Hills, are 
seen, on arriving at their eastern extremity, to diveige ^her to 
the south, passing along the ridge of Carberry, or to the north, 
emptying themselves into the waters of the Forth." 

The sea is within easy access for bathing, and its saline pro- 
perties renders the winter much more tolerable than in the higher 
altitude of Edinburgh. We know of few scenes so enlivening as 
the Esk presents in its gentle flow between the two towns. The 
bed of the river is wide, open, and free, and rows of trees adorn the 
walks on each side. Standing on the three-arched, h^h-centred 
old bridge, the visitor has a capital view both up and down the 
stream. Above it is spanned by a wooden bridge, over which the 
Musselburgh railway stretches to the terminus at the east end of 
the ancient frbrio. Farther down is the new bridge, by Bennie, 
an el^ant stone structure of five elliptic arches; and still lower a 
wooden one for foot passengers. Beneath, above, and below, the 
Esk is swarming with domestic dudss and geese, disporting them- 
selves in every kind of aquatic gambol, while on the banks possibly 
ascends the curling smoke from the washing fires of a party of 
flsherwomen. One would think that the hundreds, if not thou- 
sands of fowls thus mingled together, wouli render the claims of 
ownership somewhat difficult. Not so. ^' Soon as the evening 
shades prevail," strings of the feathered tribes, all in separate 

L 



156 HIBTOBT OF THB 

bands, and spotlesely clean, may be seen waddling home to their 
^V respective places of abode/' some of which are at a considerable 
distance from the river. In consequence of its amenity of cli- 
mate, Musselburgh is the resort of numerous families enjoying 
annuities, or of persons who have (retired from - business. The 
Links afford ample scope for the gentle exercise of golf, and 
there are a bowling-green and curling- pond for those who enjoy 
such pastimes. There are also delightful walks along the banks 
of the Esk as far as Dalkeith, and the town, on both sides of the 
river, is thickly planted with gardens and orchards. There is no 
lack of mental food besides, there being several bookselling estab- 
lishments and public and private libraries and reading-rooms. 
Altogether we look upon Musselburgh as one of the most pleasant 
residences on the coast. 

It was chiefly owing, we believe, to the healthiness of the loca- 
lity, that during the French war Musselburgh was selected as the 
site of extensive wooden barracks — extensive enough to accom- 
modate, as the building frequently did, upwards of 2000 men, of 
the militia and volunteer cavalry. In 1797, and subsequently. Sir 
Walter Scott, as quarter-master of the Edinburgh Light Horse, 
spent much of his time about Musselburgh. The presence of so 
many troops, and the consequent circulation of no small amount 
of money in the district, must have greatly enhanced the pro- 
sperity of the place. The breaking up of this depot, towards the 
close of the war, was of course severely felt. It is no doubt 
owing to the existence of the barracks for so long a period in the 
vicinity, that the churchyard of Inveresk records on its monu- 
mental stones the deaths of so many individuals connected with 
the army. 

It is probable also that from the salubrity of the district, 
Musselburgh and Inveresk are at present the sites of so many 
asylums for the insane. There are at least nine establishments 
of this kind in the parish. 



i 



KEQALITY OP MUSSELBURGH. 157 

UTEEART AND OTHEfi DISTINGUISHED PERSONS. 

Musselburgh may be considered classic land. It seems to have 
been a favourite resort of the literati not only of Edinburgh but 
elsewhere. The manse, in the days of Dr Carlisle, as we have 
already mentioned, was a hospitable retreat of the learned. At 
the west end of the High Street a house is still pointed out 
which figures in " Humphrey Clinker " as that in which Dr 
Smollett was received by Commissioner Cardonnell.* At the end 
of the wooden bridge, on the Fisherrow side, and close to the 
river, stands the villa of Eskside, once the residence of Professor 
Stuart, father of Gilbert Stuart. About the beginning of the 
present century, when Sir Walter Scott was quarter-master of 
the Edinburgh Light Horse, Monk Lewis, a well-known novelist, 
resided in Fisherrow; and in our own times it has been rendered 
famous as the birth-place and residence of Dr Moir, the Delta of 
Blackwood, to. whose memory a full-length statue upon a pedestal 
has been erected by the inhabitants of Musselburgh, at the east 
end of the new bridge. It bears the following concise but ex^ 
pressive inscription : — 

IN MEMORY 

OF 

DAVID MACBETH MOIE. 



BELOVED AS A UAK ; 

HONOURED AS A CITIZEN ; 

ESTEEMED AS A PHYSICIAN ; 

AND CELEBRATED AS A POET. 



BORN 6th JANUARY 1798, DIED ©TH JULY 1861. 

Macbeth was his mother's name. There is a feu-contract between 
the town and Eobert Moir and Elizabeth M^Beath, his spouse, 

* Mansfield Cardonnell, Esq., was elected one of the bailies 29th Sept. 1757. 



158 HIBTOBT Of TH« 

in coignnot fee and liferent, of ground next the Epieoopal Ckapel, 
dated 11th Sept. 1804. Dr Moir was the centre of a literary 
circle of the day. )Vith Gait, the novelist, who came to Hve 
at Eskgrove in 1823, he was npon the most intimate tenna. 
When Gait left hurriedly for America, his " Last of the Lairds " 
remained unfinished ; and such was his confidence in Dr Moir 
that he entrusted him with two or three of the concluding chap- 
ters — ^the winding up of the story. Nor did he see the finale 
for two or three years afterwards, when he laughed heartily at 
the manner in which his substitute had disposed of some of the 
characters. With the ** Modem Pythagorean" — ^Macnish of Glas- 
gow — Moir was on terms of close friendship; with Robert 
Chambers and Thomas Aird he maintained a happy intercourse ; 
and Professor Wilson frequently visited Musselburgh, spending 
the evening and night with his family, a welcome and honoured 
guest. His literary acquaintances may be said to have embraced 
the entire range of British living authors. 

In the words of the Rev. Mr Beveridge,* " the name which 
in modem days has reflected the greatest lustre on this parish Is 
that of David Macbeth Moir, Esq., the distinguished Detta of 
Blackwood*8 Magazmej who, amidst all the harrassing duties of 
the medical profession, has found time to embody in many chaste 
and touching strains those high imaginings which visit the mind 
of genius; as well as to stray into the paths of richest and 
broadest humour — ^witness 'Mansie Waugh's' irresistible drol- 
leries ; whose laborious history of the art which he has himself 
so successfully studied forms a most valuable acquisition to the 
practitioner ; whose songs, in the recent republication of ' Bums' 
Lyrics,* with music, take a deserved place beside those of the 
illustrious national minstrel ; of whose genius the fruits are to 
be found scattered over every department of periodical Hterature ; 
* New Statistical Acooimt. 



RSGALITT or MU8SSLB17BGH. 159 

and who with the gifU of gemufl has none of lliose defects of cha- 
racter which have too.frequently sullied the brightest talents.*' 

" The Poetical Works" <tf Dr Moir were published in 2 vols, 
poet 8vo, by Bladkwood and Sons, in 1862, They were edited 
by his friend Thcmas Aird^ who contributes an interesting me- 
moir of the author, from which it appears that he was bom at 
Musselburgh on the 5th of January 1798, As is well known, 
he prosecuted the medical profession with great diligence and 
success. He died at Pumfries on the 6th July 1851, his d^ath 
having been accelerated by an accident some years previoudy. 

Mr Aird, in his memoir of Delta, mentions *^ Andrew Picken, 
an ingenious young man belonging to the neighbourhood of 
Musselburgh," who, in 1826, consulted Br Moir as to some poetiy 
in manuscript whidi he wished to publish. His advice was 
such as to dissuade the author from rushing into print at that 
time; but he soon afterwards turned up in London, a literary 
adventurer. His *^ applications to Moir for literary help, in one 
scheme after another, were manifold and painful." Writing to 
him on one occasion, in reference to Oah's health, he says — 
" You «re well off, not to dep^id on literature as it has been of 
late. I can hardly wonder at Gait's being rather shame-faced 
about it, and the sort of reputation it brings even to such as he. 
I have tried to get out of it, and back to mercantile life, but 
cannot. There's in&tuation and poverty in it ! " Mr Aird says, 
in continuation — " Poor Picken! he could not, and did not get 
out of it. He died very soon thereafter, with the galling hamesg 
on his back. One warning m(»'e to young men, enforced with 
all the solemnities of suffering, sorrow, and death." Picken was 
the author of The Dominie's Legacy^ a work of considerable 
merijt. 

" It is a curious circumstance that William Walker, one of 
the most eminent portrait engravers in London, and Burnet, the 



BISSOBT or THK 

HailflB, it i« "well known, new hai woj partioniar taste for tin 
law. He onginallf contemplated s liteniy career, bat was in* 
duced to turn advocate, owing to the cunamstanoes of the &n]iy 
after the death <^ his £kher. In literature, as an antiqaaij and 
historian, Lord HaHes has left an impcrishahfo name. Bis 
Loidship Hyed ifx some years in the Mmt (3oae, hot his iavon- 
rite residence was New HaOes. He died in 1790. Leavii^ no 
aaale issae, the property fell into the haaMki of the FergasBons of 
Kilkeiran, his Lordship having maixied, secondly, Helen, 
daughter of Lord Eilkerran, grand&ther of Sir James FergosMii 
of Kilkerran, Bart. 

HentoTB. — The principal heriton are — 1* Tkb Duke of Buc- 
deuch and Queensbeny, who is patron of the pariah; 2. the fiari 
of Wemyss and March ; 3. Sir Archibald Hope, Bart, of CtEaig^ 
hall and Pinkie; 4. Capt. W. F. Elphinstone, B.N., of Carbeny; 
5. William Aitohison, Esq. of WaUifoid; ^. Sir James Fngns- 
sen, Bart., to whom belongs the estate of New Hailes ; 7. Joim 
Wauchope, Ksq. of Edmonstone ; 8. the Town of Mvsseibufgli, 
the property banging to which is held of the Duke cf Boc- 
deuch. 



MAGGIE DICKSON. 

Amongst the notable characters belonging to Musselbuigh we 
must not omit noticing *' half-hangit Maggie Dickson." Vr 
Oat'lisle says-r-" No person has been convicted of a capital fdony 
since the year 1728, when the famous Maggie Dickscm was con- 
demned and executed for child-murder, in the Gnussmarket of 
Edinburgh, and was restored to life in a cart, on her way to 
Musselburgh to be buried. Her husband had been absent for a 
year, working in the keels at Newcastle, when Maggy fell with 
diild, and to conceal her shame, was tempted to put it to duth. 



RBOAUTT or MCMKIiBUEOH. 163 

« 

Sh« kopt all ale-boase in a fieigkboiiring parish for maiij yean 
after she came to life again, which was much reaoried to from 
curiositj. Bnt Margaret, in spite of her narrow escape, was not 
leformed, according to the account given by her contemporaries, 
hut lived, and died again, in profligacy.*' It is said Maggie 
attended chnrch — a rather rare thing for her — ^the first Sunday 
after her recovery. 

Maggie was no doubt indebted for much of her feme to the 
poem, by " Alexander Pennecuik, gent.," entitled " The Merry 
Wives of Musselburgh's welcome to Meg Dickson." It was 
printed, amongst others, in a collection, and published as a " chap 
book." It is full of broad and coarse humour, well adapted for 
the country fire-sides of former times. In the ** Merry Wives," 
Maggie's fate is represented as having been deeply lamented by 
" three dav'ring carlings o'er their pot," when one of them, 
boasting of her " Shetland cockle shell '^ and her powers of 
witchcraft, exclaims — 

"At our aev key 111 shippiDg tak^ 
And if I bring blyth Maggie back, 
I think a* Mnsselbuigh may crack. 

And Fisherraw ; 
Girzie^ ride ye npo* my back. 

And well awa ! " 

Their project was, with ihe aid of " Jean Jap, who lives in Pit- 
tenweem," to " dance upon the^ ladder top," and " glamer cast " 
upon Hangie (John Dalgleish), bo that his usual succefSs might 
fail him. * Th^ third carHn, left behind, was to 

" ca' a' tiie kimmara ib. 

And be i^n a merry pin,** 

80 as to give Maggie a proper welccnae. The arrival of '' Meg 
Dickson, in her winding sheet," is described as having created 



164 H18T0BT OF THB 

mach consternation, and a flock of carlins gathered in to hear 
the story of the half-hanged woman's escape : — 

'''Out o'er the hallan keikt Namie Blair^ 
Gry'd, Cheat the woodie, are ye there, 
Ye're e'en the very wale o' ware, 

An' Bonaie dear, 
My heart's grown glad that was fa' sair, 

To see you here. 

" Now Maggie, HI harle in the stool. 
Although the sowin pot should cool, 
Fegs I could clatter here till Yule, 
And no think lang, 
Meg, tell me, ye've been at the school, 
Is't sair to hang I 

** Q^o' Meg, let me my story tell. 
Soon as I frae the gaUows fell, 
I came awa' in cockle shell. 

Which Bessie gave, 
Tis better In Musselburgh to dwell 

Nor a cauld grave. 

'' I took a rest at Pepper-mill, 
A het-pint and a double gill, 
Indeed it did not do me iU ; 

But meikle guid ; 
Peter Purdie, wha has right guid skill, 
Of nJe drew bluid. 
■»*♦♦♦♦• 

" Syne I came unco bravely hame. 
When I got sunkets in my wame ; 
rU tell ye a', and ne'er think shame, 

Sae wad ye a' ; 
Whan folk's half hang'd wha can them blame, 
To rin awa'. 



REGALITY OV MUSSBLBUEOH. 165 

" Now, kimmeirB, sin' I am come back, 
E'en let us birle about our pJack, 
What wad I gie'n for sic a crack, 

TJpo' the leather ! 
I dinna mind a word I spake 

Wh^ in the tether !" 



HOUSES ON THE EAST SIDE OF .THE ESK. 

CAKBERRY TOWER. 

The lands of Caerhairin (Carbeny) and Smeton, were included 
in the charter of the manor of Inveresk, granted by David I. to 
the Monks of Dunfermline. • Carberry House, which consisted 
originally of a single square fortalice, is situated on the northern 
slope of the hill, nearly at the southern extremity of the parish. 
Its history is obscure. It is not noticed by Patten, or any other 
of the historians of the battle of Pinkie, though it is known to 
have heen in existence at the time. That the tower was built 
more for strength than ornament is evident from its construction; 
but some years ago it underwent a thorough repair, rendering it 
more in nnison with the ideas of modern times. The under 
storey is strongly arched, and lined with oak pannelling ; and 
what is now used as the kitchen seems to have been at one time 
the keep. " The bartizan is characterised by the antique quaint- 
ness of its mouldings, and its garniture of " winged cherubs." 
In 1547, the tower and property of Carberry were the property of 
Mr Hugh Rigg, the King's advocate, who is frequently spoken 
of in the histories of Knox and Pitscottie. By the former he 
is mentioned as having, in 1534, witnessed the mental agonies of 
Cardinal Beaton, after that dignitary had condemned many of 
the Reformers to the flames ; and the latter states that he was 
one of the four to whom the governor, Arran, communicated the 
overtures of the Duke of Somerset, immediately previous to the 



166 HUTORT Of THE 

battle of Pinkie. Pitscottie sajs — '* These letters coming to the 
governor, he revealed the same only to his brother John, Arch- 
bishop of St Andrews, G^ige Dun, Abbot of Dnnfermline, 
Archibald Beaton, and Mr Hagh Bigg of Carberry, bj whose 
advice he concealed the Protector's letters and reasonable offerB 
from the nobilitj, for fear lest they embraced them." 

The lands of Carberry descended for several generations in the 
same family. Between 1557 and 1585, James Rig of Carbarrie 
had an assedation from the Abbot of Dunfermline '* of ye hmdis 
quhilk pertenit in tak to Bo! Lumsden." " Magister Qointiger- 
nus Big, haeres Jacobi Big de Carbarry, patris," was retoured 
in a tenement in Edinburgh, on the. 29th January 1600 ; and ha 
had a charter from Queen Anne of the lands of Garberrie, Ist 
April, 1600. Again the family is mentioned in the account of 
the parish by the Bev, Adam Colt, minister in 1627 ; — " Thir 
landis pertenis to James Big of Carbarrie, and ar in maynsing 
as he has tak of the teindis of the same, and ar possest be him- 
selfe." From this family the property was acquired by the 
Dicksons, who were descended from the well-known Mr David 
Dickson, Professor of Divinity in the University of Edinbni^fa. 
Sir Bobert Dickson of Carberry occurs in the Council books of 
Musselburgh in 1702. He was previously designed of Somebeg. 
He died in 1712, leaving his son a minor. This son, also Sir 
Bobert Dickson, was chief bailie of Musselburgh during the re- 
beUion of 1745. He died in 1760. 

From the Dicksons, which family is now extinct, or their hein, 
the estate was acquired by John Fullerton, Esq., brother of 
WiUi^m Fullerton, Esq. of Carstairs. On the death of Mr Fol- 
lerton, he was succeeded by the late CoL James FuUerten 
Elphinstone, in right of his grandmother. He was the fourth 
son of the Hon. William FuUerton Elphinstone, and EHzabeth 
FuUerton, his wife, niece of John Fnllarton, Esq. He died in 



HX6ALITT or UUSSILBtTRGH. 167 

1857. The property continues in the fiunily, and is now pos- 
sessed by Capt. W. F. Elphinstone, R.N. 

Garberry House is a beautiful residence. It forms the angle 
of a square which fronts south and westward. It is embosomed 
amid orchards^ Yenerable oaks, chestnuts, and elms. It com- 
mands a delightful view west, and of the Frith to the north. In 
the garden behind the south side of the building, " a dial stone, 
aged and green," bears the date 1579. The first, apparently, of 
the additions to the old tower is inscribed " 1765,'' and was no 
doubt built by Mr Fullerton. Considerable improvements are 
now in progress, which, when completed, will add greatly to the 
beauty of the house and grounds. In the tower there is a picture 
of the surrender of Queen Mary, taken from a painting in 
Buckingham Palace. * 

TOWER OP FALSYDE. 
The old castle of Falsyde, which overtops the ridge of the hill 
north-east of Carberry, is in the parish of Tranent, though it 
stands close to the boundaries, and can scarcely be omitted in any 
account of the more remarkable places connected with Mussel- 
burgh. '' Sir Eobert Sibbald, in his < History of Fife,' quotes a 
charter by the Earl of Winchester to Adame de Seton, in 1246, 
De Maritagio heroedis Alani de Fawside, from which, as well as 
from some incidental passages in Midtland's ^ History of the 
House of Setoun,' it is evident that Falsyde Castle was a heri- 
tage of the younger branches of the Seton family. It was first 
acquired by them from intermarriage with the De Quinceys.'*^ 
Yet we find, in the reign of Bobert I., a charter '^to John 
Muntfod of that part of Traument (Tranent) quilks was William 
Ferrers, Knight, et cum tenendrw toUus terre de Fausyde^ et 
anmuo redditu inde debUo qwynd. Alano la SucheJ* Subse- 

* Not«s to Delta's Poems. 



168 HlSTORY OP TlIK 

quently, however, Alexander Seton had a charter from the saine 
monarch, " of the harony of Traument, in constabulario de Had- 
dingtoun, et vie. de Edinburgh, whilks William Ferraris foris- 
fecit, the lands of Fansyde, whilk Allan Suche forisfecit," &c. 
The same lands are repeatedly confirmed to the family of Seton. 
In the reign of Robert 11., however, we find a change in the 
proprietorship. That monarch confirms a charter granted by 
William de Setoun to John de Fausyde, of the lands of Wester 
Fawside, in the barony of Tranent, A Malcolm de Fawside, in 
1366, grants a charter to which Simon de Preston, sheriff of 
Edinburgh, was a witness. The property continued with the 
Fawsides of that Ilk down to a late period, and had been held 
by them during the battle of Pinkie in 1547. Patten, in his 
history of^ Somerset's expedition, says that the castle was very 
busy all the time of the battle shooting at the English with their 
hand-guns and haxjkbuts, for which the Protector set the house 
on fire next day, and the inmates " for their good will brent and 
smothered within." The tower being of great strength, and 
arched to the top, did not sustain much damage, and seems 
to have been repaired. " Thomes Fawsyde de eodem" had a 
precept of sasine from the Abbot of Dunfermline between 1555 
and 1583. A large additional tower,- after a more convenient 
fashion, was built apparently about 1618, which figures, with 
the initials J. F., J. L., are above one of the windows. In this 
division the rooms are larger, and have been well Kghted, It 
would appear as if some attempt had been made at the same 
time to give better light to the old fabric by breaking out little 
windows. This division of the building has ^he appearance of 
considerable antiquity. The whole — ^ancient and modem — ^has 
long been in ruins. " The dove-cot of the ancient fortalice still 
remains, and within it is a curious place of concealment, secured 
by an antique grated door. There is a similar hole of secresy in 



RXGALIT7 OF MUSSELBUBGH. 169 

the staircase of the oldest part of the castle." As it stands, 
without tree or shelter of any kind, on the high ridge of the 
hill, the massive oblong block of stone and lime, crumbling 
away, has a truly bleak appearance. " It is now the property of 
Sir George Grant Suttie, of Prestongrange and Balgonie, having 
descended to him through his maternal ancestors, the Seatons, 
Earls of Hyndford.''* 

SHERIFFHALL. 
This house was situated at the extremity of the regality on 
the east side of the Esk. Musselburgh was at one time called 
Musselburgh-shirey and had* been the residence of a Sheriff. The 
Shire-mill and the Shire-wood took their name from this circum- 
stance. In " the buik with the blak covering," belonging to 
the Abbey of Dunfermline, extending from 1656 to 1683, we 
find a charter to " Jacohi Oiffard de Shereffhall" When the 
lordship of Musselburgh was confirmed to the Earl of Lauder- 
dale, Sheriffhall was excepted in favour of the Earl of Morton. 

SMETOUN, 
the old house of, stood at the south end of Inveresk village. 
According to the rental-book of Dunfermline, this property be- 
longed to a family of the name of Richardson. In 1667, James 
Richardson of Smeton, and Elizabeth Douglas, his spouse, to- 
gether with their son James, had a charter from the Abbot of 
DtinfermUne of the four com mills of Musselburgh. They had also 
a charter of the coal of Walliford : " Carta Jacobi Richardsone 
ejusqne filij de Carbonaria Wallefard." In 1686, " Jacobi Rich- 
ardsone de Smetonn ejusque spouse et filij," had a charter " de 
tribus de bonatisf terrarum de Inveresk." The same parties 

• Notes to Delta. 
f Are we to interpret " tribus honaiii^ as signifying the good people of 
the lands of Inveresk ? We know that slavery did exist in Scotland, and 



170 HISTOST Of IHK 

liad a charter of the lands of Smetonne and the mill of Muasel- 
bnigh '' de terns de Smetonne molendino de Musilbargh/" 20th 
Feb. 1694. Sir James Bichardson of Smeton oecars frcmi 
1620 till 1627. In 1628, James Bichardson, younger of Sme- 
ton, ratifies all dispositions granted by his &ther. The anoestor 
of the Bichardsons of Smeton was Bobert Bichardson, vicar of 
Eckford, in Boxbnrghahire, a wealthy chnrchman, afterwards 
Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, who acquired the estate of 
Oogar in 1555, and died in 1571. Matthew Anderson had a 
charter of Old Smetonne, 20th Jan. 1607. Smetoun is now the 
property of the Duke of Buccleuch, but it was still an indepen* 
dent holding at the beginning of last century. The " Laird of 
Smeton" is mentioned in a minute of the Town Council of 
Musselburgh, in reference to the Walk-mill in 1704. 

TNYEBESK. 
It is said that in 1547, when the Battle of Pinkie was fought, 
there were, besides the dinrch, only two shepherds' houses at 
Inveresk. Between 1557 and 1585, Peter Dury* had an 
as8edatio,n of the tithes of the lands of Inyeresk. In 1603 
(13th April), Bobert Douglass had " inquisitio quarundem 
terrarum Inyeresk." Agnes Keir had a charter of confir- 
mation of the lands of Inveresk, 1st March 1610. Inveresk 
now consists of a series of villas, commencing with Inveresk 
House, and sweeping round the brow of the hill, crescent- 
ways, overlooking the beautiful bend of the river westwards 
beneath, and the holm-land stretching beyond it. In summer 
the gardens and enclosures, from the river up the incline, appear 

was not legally set aside untQ the time of Cromwell. The tenantiy were 
gifted or sold along with the lands. 

* He was in all likelihood a relatiye of Greorge Durie, the last Abbot of 
Dunfermline, who was of the family of Dnrie of that Bk. He held the 
office from 1530 till the destruction ^f the monasteiy. 



RBGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 171 

in rich loxariance, while the spreading woods round the villas 
themselves afford the most gratifyingjshade. Nowhere is a more 
healthfdl or delightful community of self-contained mansions, 
— ^many of them of barom'al dimensions — ^to be found. Dtlta 
thus describes the scene in one of his sonnets to the Esk : — 

'< Down from the old oak forests of Dalkeith 
Where majesty snrroTrndB a ducal home, 
Between fresh pastures gleaming thou dost come, 
Bush, scaur, and rock, and haaelly shaw beneath ; 
Till, greeting thee from slopes of orchard ground, 
Towers Inveresk^ with its proud villas fair, 
Scotland's Montpelier, for salubrious air 
And beauteous prospect wide and far renowned. 
What else could be, since thou with winding tide 
Below dost ripple pleasantly, thy green 
And osiered banks outspread, where frequent seen, 
The browsiDg heifer shows her dappled side. 
And 'mid the bloom-bright furze are oft descried 
Anglers, that patient o'er thy mirror lean t 

The walls of Esk House grounds, belonging to John Hamilton 
Colt, Esq., of Gartsherrie, run close to the churchyard. The first 
of this family is said to have been one of the French Hugenots, 
who became a professor in St Andrews* College. His son, Oliver 
Colt, an eminent lawyer in the time of Queen Mary, was the 
father of Mr Adam Colt, appointed minister of Inveresk in 1609. 
This gentleman wrote an account of the ecclesiastical state of the 
parish in 1627, which has been printed by the Maitland Club. He 
was succeeded in the same charge by his son, Mr Oliver Colt, 
who died in 1679. The family are repeatedly mentioned in the 
burgh records. Sir Eobert Colt occurs in 1692, and again : — 

''4th Jan. 1700.— The Counsell condescends to uplift the 
1400 merks in Sir Kobert Coult's air's hands, against Whitsun- 
day nixt, and appoynts the thesaurer to make intimatione of tlid 
same to them." • 

M 



17'2 UISTORT Of THB 

The deceased Sir Robert was a distingoiahed lawyer. Tbe 
family have thus been connected with the parish for nearly three 
hundred years.* 

Eskgwve, divided only by the Newbigging road from Esk 
House, is a pleasant, and, as its name implies, a retired residence. 
It was acquired, together with the small property attached to it, 
by Sir David Rae, Bart., who succeeded Lird Braxfield as Lord 
Justice-Clerk in 1799. He was the son of the Rev. David Rae, 
an' Episcopalian clergyman of Edinburgh. He studied for the 
bar, and was admitted advocate in 1751. After a successful 
and honourable career, he was promoted to the bench in 1782, 
when he assumed the title of Lord Eskgrove. He was considered 
a sound and clear-headed lawyer, and had the honour of a ba- 
ronetcy conferred upon him in 1804, not long before his death, 
which occurred on the 4th October of that year. Lord Eskgrovef 
married Margaret, daughter of Dugald Stewart, Esq. of Blair- 
hall, a near relative of the Earl of Bute. 

His Lordship was succeeded by his eldest son. Sir David Rae, 
Bart., who had early entered the army. Sir David died, leaving 
no male issue, in 1815. Dame Helen Colt, his lady, died at 
Paris in 1820, 

Sir William Rae, Bart., the second son, succeeded his brother. 
He was long Sheriff of Edinburgh, and held the office of Lord 
Advocate from 1819 to 1830. He was again appointed to that 
office in 1835, on Sir Robert Peers accession to power. In 1837 
he represented the county of Bute in Parliament. He died in 
1842. His lady, Dame Mary Stuart, died in 1839. The Misses 
Rae, his daughters, reside at Eskgrove. 

Among the other distinguished occupants of the villas of In- 

* For an account of the family see Burke's " Landed (Jentry.** 
t There is a good likeness of Lord Eskgrove in Kay't Edinbttrgh Por- 
traits, accompanied by a brief memoir. i 



RBQALITY OV MUSSELBURGH. 173 

veresk may be mentioned, Lady Milne ; Lady Mary Ostoald, 
Manor House; ITm Fergusaon, Catharine Lodge; Major-Oene- 
ral W. B, Dundas^ O.B., Halkerston Lodge ; Sir David Wedder- 
homy Bart,, Liveresk Lodge, &c. Sir David represents the 
Wedderbums of Ballandean, in Perthshire, and of Blackness, in 
Forfarshire. His grandfather was taken at the battle of Cnllo- 
den, attainted, and eifecuted. His father, however, continued to 
assume the title, and was created a Baronet of Great Britain in 
1803. 

The villa belonging to the family of the late Admiral Sir 
David Milne is situated nearly opposite the Church, on the ridge 
of the crescent looking westward, and commands a beautiful view. 

WALUFORD, 

now the property of William Aitchison, Esq. of Drummore and 
WaUiford, is mentioned in an early charter of the monks of Dun- 
fermline, of the lands of Pentekyn. It belonged at one time to 
a family of the name of Binning, who were of some note in the 
law, and frequently consulted by the magistrates of Musselburgh. 
One of them, says Dr Carlisle, was a Lord of Session about 1672, 
and built the mansion-house of Walliford. The Binnings were 
in possession of the property in 1731. When Dr Carlisle wrote, 
(1793), Walliford belonged to James Finlay, Esq. 

DRUMMORE 

was known as Westpans, and belonged to a family of the name 
of Jossy. In 1711 (17th July), the magistrates of Musselburgh 
granted a charter of Westpans to Edward Jossy. His father, 
Robert Jossy, possessed the property previously. 

HALLIS WALLIS. 

There was an ancient property and mansion on the south side 
of Newbigging, called, in the title-deeds, Hallis Wallis, It was 



174 HIBTORT Of THE 

ultimately acquired hy the town, and from the title-deeds it ap- 
pean that in 1478 (19th Oct.), Heniy Froge, hoigefis of Miusel- 
bnrgh, granted a charter to Simon Preston (of OraigmillarX of a 
eroft of land called HaUis WaUis^ at Newbigging. On the 6th 
January 1623, a precept was granted by James, Commendator 
of Dunfermline, to the Magistrates and Council, for infefting 
Geoige Preston as heir to his father, Sinyn Preston of Onug-- 
miliar, in '* ane croft of knd called Halleiwiills, lying on the 
south side of the village of Newbigging, within the liberties of 
the town of Mussilburgh, betwixt the lands sometime of Thomas 
Dughtie on the south, the arable lands of Inveresk on the west," 
(fee. In 1663, John Buchanan, of that Ilk, was served heir 
in right of his mother, Elizabeth Preston, to the croft of 
land called Eallis WaUia, with mansion-house, yeard, and dove- 
oott of the same, &c. In 1630, Elizabeth Preston, spouse of 
George Buchanan of that Bk, as heir to David Prestoun of 
Craigmillar,* had a retour of HaHs Walls, &c. In 1670 (25th 
Aug.), William Sharp of Stonyhill had an instrument of sasine, 
proceeding on a disposition in his favour by John Buchanan of 
that Ilk, of all and haill the croft of land called Halis Walls, on 
the south side of Newbigging, and others therein mentioned. In 
1668, William Sharp of Stonyhill disponed the lands of Hallis 
Wallisy with the pertinents, to the Magistrates and Council of 
Musselburgh. 

wniTriRTTiL. 

The Prestotts of Whitehill were a branch of the Graigmillar 
family. The fii-st of them that occurs in the burgh charters is 
Mr Eich^rd Preston of Whitehill, who, in 1544, had a charter 
of certain lands from his father, Simon Preston of that Dk. In 
1576, John Preston of Whitehill, heir of his father, and Jean 

* Thus the aneient line of Preeton of OrajgmiUar tennmated in a female. 



RBGALITT OF MUSSSLBURaH. 175 

Crighton, his spouse, had sasine of the property. In 1588, 
David Preston was served heir to his father, John Preston of 
Whitehill. In 1689 there was Sir John Bamsay of Whitehill. 

PINKIE fiOUSK 
" Pinkie House" has long heen consecrated to the Scottish 



muse:- 



' By Pmlae House oft let me walk, 

And muse oV Nelly's channs i 
Her pladd air, her winniiig talk. 

Even envy's self disarms. 
O let me, ever fond, behold 

n&ose graces void of art ; 
lliose cheerful smiles that sweetly hold 

In williag J^hMm^ my heart. 

* O oome, my love f and bring anew 

That gentle turn of nund ; 
That gracefiilness 43! air in you 

By nature's hand designed. 
These, loToly as the blushing rose, 

First lighted up this flame, 
Whichy like the sun, for erer glows. 

Within my breast the same. 

' Ye light coquettes i ye aiiy things ! 

How vain is all your art ! 
How seldom it a loTsr brings ! 

How rarely keeps a heart 1 
O gather from my Nelly's channs 

That sweet, that graceful ease, 
That blushing modesty that warms, 

lliat native art to please ! 

' Come then, my love 1 O come along ! 
And feed me with Ihy charms ; 
Come, fair inspirer of my song, 
Oh fill my longing arms I 



176 HISTOET OF THE 

A flame like mine can nerer die, 

While charms so bright as thine, 
So heavenly fair, both please the eye. 

And fill the soul divine !** 

These verses were written to an old and sweet air, resembling a 
church melody called " Eothe's Lament," by Joseph Mitchell, 
who was bom in 1684, and died in 1738. He is said to have 
been the son of a stone mason, but the place of his birih is on- 
known. From his acquaintance with the locality, it is possible 
that he belonged to the Eegality of Musselburgh. In the author's 
time Pinkie House was regarded as one of the finest piansions in 
Scotland ; and popularly, though erroneously, believed to have a 
window for every day in the year. The name of the old air has 
long ago been superseded by that of " Pinkie House." Mitchell 
was by no means a man of genius, yet he became somewhat dis- 
tinguished in literature. He was the author of an opera called 
The Highland Fair^ and of two volumes of poems, published in 
1729. He was so liberally patronised by Sir Robert Walpole as 
to be usually styled the premier's poet. 

Much contrariety of opinion and ignorance prevails as to the 
building of Pinkie House. The general belief is, that it was 
built by the first Earl of Dunfermline, about the beginnii^ of 
the seventeenth century. Indeed, the Chronicle of the House of 
Seton distinctly says — " He acquired the lands of Pinkie, where 
he built ane noble house, brave stone dykes about the garden and 
orchard, with other commendable policie about it." An inscrip- 
tion on the front of the building, now hid by recent additions, 
bears "Dominus Alexander Setonius banc domum sedificavit, 
non ad animi, sed fortunarum etagelli modum 1613," the mean- 
ing of which is, that Lord Alexander Seton built this house, not 
after the fashion of his mind, but after that of his fortune and 
estate. In the New Statistical Account, Dr Moir derides this 



BEOALITT OF MUSSBLBUBGH. 177 

inscription as a vrniity^ which " can bear no reference to the 
foandation of the building. . . . It appears to have been originally 
a country seat, appertaining ex officio to the Abbots of Dnnfenn- 
line," and "from a minute examination," he continues, " we are 
convinced that many parts of the house must have been built 
long anterior to the time of the first Earl of Dunfermline, who 
died here in 1622, and whose body was afterwards laid out in 
state in the church of St Michael, at Inveresk. The primary 
mansion, which appears to have been intended as entire by itself, 
is the most northern part of the present edifice, and comprehends 
the massive square tower with its picturesque turrets. The 
walls are of great thickness, and the ground floor is strongly 
arched. It contains, besides, a number of quaint and curious 
apartments, accessible only at angles of the staircase, the spacious 
room, styled par eoccdlence * the King's Room' — ^from one of 
the abbots having entertained his Sovereign there, and which 
bears, in its stuccoed roof, the marks of an antiquity considerably 
antecedent to the seventeenth century.* The more southern 
portions of the building, containing the painted gallery and other 
fine rooms, are evidently not so ancient ; nor, indeed, are the 
floors on the same level, although doors have been opened through 
the original gable. But even to this second addition we cannot 
assign a date posterior to the removal of the Scottish Kings to 
England — as we are told that this gallery, which is 120 feet 
long, was used as an hospital for the wounded after the battle of 
Pinkie ; and its roof, painted in compartments throughout, ex- 
hibits all the traces of that mixture of mythology, heraldry, and 

* So drcumstantial is Dr Moir, that, in a foot-note, he adds — " Tradi- 
tional /oma whispers to us, that during one season, the holy Abbot gave 
up Pinkie House as a summer residence to James Y. — and that here the 
gay and gallant monarch enjoyed the society of his beautiful favourite 
Maigoret Oliphant." 



178 HIBTOfiT OF TDI 

romance, which characterised the mind and monaichy of the wise^ 
yet womanly, the emdite, yet pedantic, James VI." 

It may well be asked what connection there was between the 
era of Pinkie and the mind and monarchy of James YI., seeing 
that the battle occurred dnring the minority of his mother I Bnt 
the Doctor is not yet done. 

'^ Pinkie Honse, although a very large stnictnre, is evidently 
only part of a magnificent Gothic design, which has never been 
completed. It appears to ns that the building was intended to 
be quadrangular, and that the fountain of elaborate architecture, in 
the shape of a Papal mitre, which stands upon the green in front, 
should form the centre of the court. The original garden still 
remains, with its ornamental walls, and richly carved doorways, 
pilasters, and sun-dials; and the grounds which surround the 
whole are eminently beautiful." 

There is greatly more fiction than fact in this account of 
Pinkie House, and an almost inexcusable want of research. The 
Abbots of Dunfermline were no doubt over-lords of Musselburgh, 
and possessed the lands of Pinkie, but that they pandered to the 
well-known gallantries of '^ the gudeman of Ballangeich," in the 
manner described, is not at all probable, seeing that the '^ King^s 
Eoom'^ was not in existence in the reign of James Y., nor yet 
when the battle of Pinkie was fought. From the Dunfermline 
cartulary we learn that, between 1555 anA 1588, ^' Magistri 
M*GiU"* had a charter from the Abbot — " terrarum de Pinkie 
de Carse, cum fortalieio de Pinkie," from which it is evident 
that the square tower or fortalice only was then in eiostenoe. 
All conjecture is thus at an end. The addition, containing the 

* Ancestor of the late M'Gill Grichton, Esq. of Bankeillor, well-known for 
the part which he took in the Dkroption. When on the platform at Mnaad- 
burgh, on one occasion, he allnded to the oixomnstuice of his fore&then 
haying been connected with the place. 



HEGALITT O? MUBSILBUKGH. 179 

'^ King's Room," most have been bmlt subsequently to the 
granting of this charter. Mr James M'Gill was no doubt a kirk- 
man, or derk, from the prefix moffisterf which was only applied 
to the learned. He had also a charter of confirmation " de novo 
molendino de Mussilburgh," from the Abbot. 

• Under these circumstances, we see no reason to doubt the fact 
recorded by the inscription, and stated in the Chronicle of the 
Houee of Seton, that Pinkie House was built by the first Earl of 
Dunfermline — ^that is to say, the two additions containing the 
Bang's Boom and Painted Gallery, which in reality constitute 
the house. These additions were made in a straight line, ^n each 
side of the fortalice or tower, and in immediate connection with 
it, forming one side of a square only. The most northerly por- 
tion may have been the first erection, built soon after 1596, when 
the Earl was appointed keeper of Dunfermline Abbey by Queen 
Anne. He had then the title ot Lord Urquhart, with all the 
priyileges of a Peer of Parliament. The other was probably not 
finished till 1613, the date of the inscription over the old door- 
way. He was then Earl of Dunfermline, the patent being 
granted in 1605. The building has all the characteristics of the 
reign of James VI., which blended strength with convenience and 
ornament. The Tolbooth or Council-House of the Canongate, 
Edinburgh, with its tower and turrets, is not older than 1591, 
and the style is in several respects similar to Pinkie House. 

If proof were wanting, it seems to be confirmed in the fact 
that the initials of the Earl, " A. S.," intertwined together after 
the fashion of those of WilUam Schawy master of works at Dun- 
fermline, fill numerous compartments on the roofs of the two 
smaller apartments on the same floor with the King's Boom. 
These are interspersed with coronets and cinque foils, and are to 
be found as ornaments on numerous projections. Above the 
mantelpiece, in the smallest of the two rooms referred to, are the 



180 BISTORT OF TBI 

anns of the Earl moulded in stucco, and in excellent preservation. 
These are, as given in Wood — quarterly, Ist and 4th, or, three 
crescents within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered, 
gules ; 2d and 3d, argent, on a fess, gules, three cinque foils 
of the first. Orest — a crescent, gules. Supp&rters — ^two horses 
at liberty. Motto — Semper. The arms in Pinkie, however, in 
addition to the word semper above, have Ihe following below — 

"Nee cede adversiB Bebus, 
Nee erede secandus/' 

which is merely a variation of his father's — 

" In Adversitate, Patiens ; 
In Prosperitate, Benevolus. 
Hazard yet Forward.'' 

The first Earl of Dunfermline, it is well known, was Alexander 
Seton, fourth son of George fifth Lord Seton and Earl of Winton. 
His father, after the disaster of Langside, fled to the Continent, 
and for a time, it is said, drove a waggon and four horses in the 
Low Country for a livelihood. Hence his motto of patience in 
adversity. There was a picture of the wain in Seton long 
gallery. 

The Earl of Dunfermline had studied for the Church in the 
College of Jesuits, and had actually taken holy orders. He 
afterwards betook himself to the law, and became Lord President 
of the Court of Session. He was Lord Chancellor of Scotland as 
well, and enjoyed various lucrative offices. He was an .especial 
favourite, both with James VI. and his Queen, as indeed the 
whole family of Seton were. Brought up in the Roman Catholic 
persuasion, doubts were entertained of his Protestantism ; yet, 
whatever may have been his religious bias, he conducted himself 
with so much propriety and moderation, that he was ten years 
Provost of Edinburgh subsjequently to 1596. > 



RSGALIIT OV HTrSSKLBURGH. 181 

It is rather carious that Dr Moir gave no attention to the 
arms and initials of the Earl in the apartments referred to. In 
the King's Room, which has a finely painted roof, lofty and airy, 
they do not appear. Having thus demolished the traditional 
fama abont James V. and his favourite, it is perhaps necessary 
that we should account, on other grounds, for the title of the 
" King's Boom." As already stated, the Earl was a great 
favourite with their Majesties. "V^^en James VI. succeeded to 
the English throne in 1603, "Alexander Earle of Dumferme- • 
line," says the Chronicle of the House of Seton, " had left to his 
custody and keeping and government, by King James and Queen 
Ann, when their Majesties went to England, their second son, 
Charles, then not three years of age, whom he keeped in his house 
three years, and carried him into England himselfe, by land, to 
the King and Queen's Majesties, well and in health ; for which 
faithfiill service the King's Majestic was thankfcdl to him." In 
Douglas's Peerage it is stated that the Earl had also Prince 
Henry under his charge prior to the King leaving for England. 
Although these facts are perhaps enough to have associated the 
name of the apartment in question with royalty, it is quite pos- 
sible, from the kindly footing on which he stood with his Majesty, 
that King James himself made use of it when visiting — on some 
nnchronicled occasion — his futhful and illustrious subject. It 
may, moreover, have been fitted up as the King's apartment in 
prospect merely of a royal visit. 

The ?nore southern portion of the house, which contains 
the Painted Gallery, as already stated, may not have been 
finished till 1613. It is a spacious apartment, about eighty 
feet in length, with a high ceiling, called a coach roof, from 
its resemblance to some of the more antiquated coach pat- 
terns. It was probably built after the model of the Long 
Gallery at Seton, or the King's Hall at Falkland. The 



182 HISTOBT OV THB 

roof, which iB lined with wood, is elaborately painted in com- 
partments, the prevailing colours (water) being bine and red, 
mixed with gold. The subjects are chiefly iUnstratiye of the 
classics, and heathen mythology, no doubt snggested principally 
by the Earl himself, who was an excellent scholar. Most of them 
have appropriate Latin inscriptions. The centre painting is in. 
the form of A circle, resembling a Grecian theatre, and seems to 
be a representation of Apollo and the mnses. This compartment 
is much lighter than the rest, and throws its radiance, as it were, 
over all the others. The colours are no doubt much fiided, and 
the roof is beginning to give way a little, still it is a wonderfal 
apartment. Chambers, in his Picture of Scotlandj describes it as 
the ''most unique in Scotknd, except the stiUmore fiided King's 
Hall at Falkland." The difficulty of executing such a task may 
readily be conceived. The artist must have lain on a platform 
on his back ; and it is said that he died either before the work 
was finished, or immediately afterwards, from exhaustion. There 
are several fine paintings, consisting chiefly of portraits belongii^ 
to the Hope £unily, who are now the proprietors of Pinkie ; but 
there is one near the entrance, said to belong to the Setons. It 
is a three^fourth length portrait of a l^y, and a child standing 
by her knee. She is called ^' the green-lady," from the prevail- 
ing colour of the painting. Superstition has invested the picture 
with dread to the timid — and no doubt the servants and children 
were often frightened with stories of the Green Lady. The 
portrait is excellent as a piece of art. Her dress is a 
greenish silk or satin, and the body is neat and youthful, yet the 
features, though not unpleasant, have a peculiarly withered and 
ahno6te2t2rtc^ appearance. She is said to have been a Zocly Jane 
Setouy and to have murdered the child ; and it used to be believed 
by the domestics that her ghost haunted Pipkie House. The 
story, however, may be utterly unfounded, and we mention it 



BBGAUTT OV HUBSELBUBGH. 183 

merely to show that, like most other old baronial residences, 
Pinkie is not without its sapematoral legends. The only lady 
of the Seton family, who would at all answer to the time, was 
Lady Jean, daughter of the third Earl of Winton, who died un- 
married in 1636. There is a possibility that she might have 
lived in her latter days at Pinkie House, and died there. 

The wounded at the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, could not, as 
we have shown, been accommodated in the Painted Gallery ; but ^ 
it is probable enough that it was used as an hospital after Pres- 
tonpans, in 1745. Prince Charles is said, in the Picture of 
Scotkmdy to have passed two nights here — ^the night between 
the 31st October and the 1st November, and again on his return 
from the victory. It is more likely that he occupied the King's 
apartments. 

That the Earl of Dunfermline originally contemplated erecting 
" a magnificent Gothic quadrangular building" is somewhat 
doubtfuL The evidence of this Dr Moir found in the " fountain 
of elaborate architecture" which stands in front of the house, and 
the unfinished state of the south-east side of the square. Now 
this latter portion of the building is apparently of much later 
erection than the others, and may have been the work of the 
sncceeding proprietor. As finished by the Earl, the house seems 
to have been perfect in itself — ^built not after the fashion of his 
mind, hut after that of his fortunes and estate. And that this 
was no idle vanity, is corroborated by the fact that, although in 
possession of many lucrative offices, his lordship died poor. The 
fountain would no doubt form a beautiful centre ornament in a 
quadrangular building, but it was equally suited to adorn the 
lawn in front of the house. That the form of the Papal crown 
was selected for this piece of architecture, may be accounted for 
by the early education of the Earl at Bome, and the leaning of 
the family towards the Roman Catholic system of worship. It 



184 nisTOBif or TfiB 

was, besides, the most elegant and capable of beantifnl finish that 
could have been chosen. It is evidently of the same age as the 
house, though of later date than the fortalioe. All round it 
bears the cinque foil and initial ornament '^ A.S./' with which 
the more northerly interior apartments are decorated. And the 
following motto is inscribed under the crown of the tiara: — 
" Fonte hoc frigidior quo non vel purior alter et capiti et 
membris." 

The Earl of Dunfermline died at Pinkie House in April 1622, 
aged sixty-seven. In 1662, a poem was printed by the heirs of 
Andrew Hart, entitled "Teares for the Death of Alexander, 
Earle of Dunfermling, Lord Chancellor of Scotland." This 
poem, edited by James Maidment, Esq., has been reprinted by 
the Bannatyne Olub. The Earl appears to have taken no small 
interest in the affairs of Musselburgh. He procured the gift from 
Charles I. for the endowment of a music-school ; and there is 
among the town^s papers a recommendation by Queen Aim and 
the Earl, as bailie of the Lordsliip of Musselburgh, for contribut- 
ing to the building and support of the harbour, in consequence 
of the Bang's recommendation for that purpose. 

It is said by Dr Carlisle that the Tweeddale family acquired 
Pinkie on the forfeiture of the Dunfermline peerage in 1688. 
It mustj however, have been purchased by them at an earlier 
period. On the 10th April 1682, Lord Tweeddale obtained 
liberty from the Magistrates to break ground for a quarry in the 
common ; and on the 24th May 1683 they had a contract of 
excambion with John Earl of Tweeddale for upwards of twelve 
acres of land lying adjacent to his park of Pinkie, 

The new possessors 'made various alterations on the property. 
Conceiving the main entrance to be too near the town of Mus- 
selburgh, they altogether changed the frontage of the house, 
striking out a new and wide door towards the north-east, with 



REGALITT OF MU8SELBUKQH. 



1^6 



an approach from the Links. The date, 1697, still remains 
above the door-way, although it is now filled up, and the ori- 
ginal entrance restored. It is probable that the more southern 
and unfinished addition was made by this family, with the view 
of forming a quadrangle to the back. The square, in fact, is said 
to have been completed — ^perhaps temporarily, by a connecting 
wall. 

Pinkie was' acquired from the Tweeddale family by Sir Archi- 
bald Hope of Craighall in 1788. By purchasing some of the 
old houses of Musselburgh \yhich pressed in upon the house, 
and obtaining the privilege from the town of running the park 
wall out upon the waste ground towards the street, he was en- 
abled to enlarge his policy, and seclude the mansion more 
thoroughly from the town. This done, he built the present 
gateway at the east end of Musselburgh, took down the wall 
which formed the square, and restored the original front. He at 
the same time built a considerable addition, enlarging the en- 
trance-hall below, and affording some good rooms above. The 
inscription of 1613 was by this means covered up; and we 
cannot help thinking that the unity of the old fabric has been 
greatly marred by this eik^ which, jutting out beyond its proper 
place, mars the harmony of the whole. 

Notwithstanding that much of the romance associated with 
Pinkie House has been destroyed by the facts we have adduced, 
still we cannot help regarding it as a place of peculiar interest, 
and, like Mitchell, we could often walk over its fine grounds, if 
not to muse on Nelly's charms, at least to think and ponder on 
the past. 

The original barony of Pinkie* only contained about thirty 

* It was sometimes called Pinckin in old documents. There is a con- 
tract between the monks of Dunfermline and the monks of Newbottle, in 
1631, as to driving "the coill (coal) of Preston Grange to the bundis of 
Pinckin and Inueresk/' 



186 HISTORY OF THE 

acres, but it has been greatly increased bj purchases of land in 
recent times. The Sandj Haughs, for example, were acquired 
from the town bj Sir Archibald Hope in 1778, and enclosed. 
So were the Saltpans at the west end of Fisherrow, July 1792^ 
now called Pinkie Saltworks. 

The foregoing are the principal houses, old or modem, on tbe 
east side of the Esk. When MacfwlamA collected his topogra- 
phical gleanings, he enumerated the houses of '' Smeiton, In - 
veresk, town of Musselburgh and Pinkie, with a stone bridge of 
three bows — ^limiting himself apparently to such as were close 
upon the river side. 

HOUSES ON THE WEST OF THE ESK. 

" The houses upon the west side thereof," according to Mac- 
farlane, " were Newtoun, Monktoun, Monktounhall, StoniehiU, 
and the toun of Fisherrow." 

Newton is not within the parish as its boundaries are now 
settled. Monkton Souse is situated at the southern verge of it. 
It is a modern mansion ; but attached to it, as fann-offices, is 
an old structure, which, according to Dr Moir, tradition says was 
built by General Monk while in Scotland, and which was his 
favourite residence : hence the name of Monkton. This, how- 
ever, is mere gossip. Mwnketun is mentioned in one of the early 
charters of the Abbey of Dunfermline, of the lands of Pontekyn, 
to " Willio filio Ingeram, filii Edmundi, filii Pom, et suis heredi- 
bus," &c. The name, as in other places, was no doubt derived 
from its being the residence of some of the clergy in Koman 
Catholic times. It is mentioned, together with Monktonhall, in 
the rental of Dunfermline in 1661, a century before General 
Monk's time. 

MonktonJiall is a cluster of houses, about a mile south of the 



REGALITY 01* MX7SSSLBUBGH. 187 

old bridge, on the road to Dalkeith, When the Scottish army lay 
encamped, at the Raid of Mnsselburgh, in 1647, a Parliament was 
convoked at Monktonhall, wherein it was enacted that the nearest 
heir of any person who should fall in the battle, if an ecclesiastic, 
shonld receive a gift of his benefice, and if a layman, have his 
ward, non-entresse, relief, and marriage, free. The village is 
pleasantly situated on the rising ground overlooking the Shire- 
haugh. A lane at the west end of Market-g^te, southward, is 
called Campie'lane, from its having, we should suppose, led either 
to the old Boman or more modem Scottish encampment. Monk-^ 
tonh^ belongs to the Earl of Wemyss. 

STONYHILL, 

a short distance south-west of the Old Bridge, is also the pro- 
perty of the Earl. " The last remains of the original mansion," 
says Dr Moir, " were taken down during 1838, and the mate- 
rials exhibited every mark of a hoar antiquity. The wood work 
in the walls was KteraUy reduced to must, and some curious 
stones were exposed which had been built in over one of the 
mantel-pieces. The present occupant, Mr Park, caused a large 
block then found, and which exhibits a striking petrifaction of 
the roots of a tree, to be placed for the sake of preservation in 
the garden wall, where it is now to be seen." 

The earliest proprietor whom we find mentioned is JacoU 
Hammiltomh^ who had a charter of Stanehill from the Abbot of 
Dunfermlihe between 1655 and 1583, Next Joanis Fairlie 
had a charter of confirmation of Stainehillj 3d July 1598. 
Hichardi Ddbie et Mariote WeiVf swe eponse, had a charter, " ter- 
rarum de Staniehill^^^ dated 10th July 1600. Richard and Bo- 
hert Dohie had a charter of Staniehill, 8th August 1609. In 
1626 Bobert Dobie, " hseres Domini Boberti Dobie de Stanny- 
hill, militis, patris," was retoured in the lands of Stonyhill and 



188 HISTOBr 01 THK 

I 

Monktonball. 0^ the 8th September 1647, Bdb^ Dobie of 
Stainifhill won the silver arrow of Mnsselboigh for the third 
time. The same gentleman apparently had service of heirship 
of '^ sixteen oxgates of land in Monktonhall." 

Aocdrding to Dr Carlisle, Stonyhill was acquired from the 
Dobies by Sir William Sharpe, son of the Archbishop of St 
Andrews, who was murdered on Magos Mnir on his way home 
from a visit to his son. In 1668, there is a disposition by Mr 
William Sharpe of Stonyhill, in favour of the Magistrates of 
Musselburgh, of a property near Newbigging, called HaUis 
Wallis; and in 1670 (25th August) there is a precept of sasme 
in his favour of the same property. 

Nearer our own times, it belonged to the notorious Colonel 
Charteris. In the inventory of the town's papers, though the 
document itself has been lost, there is '' a declaration and oblidge- 
ment by Col. Charteris's factor, concerning the settling the 
marches betwixt the lands of Stonyhill, on the one side, where a 
bridge is built on the Col.'s expenses, and the community of 
Musselburgh, on the other,'' dated 13th December 1728. The 
Colonel was a gambler and libertine of the most unblushing 
character. He was tried at the Old Bailey, London, on the 
26th February 1730, for deforcement of one of his servant girls, 
and condemned to be executed. His friends interfering, the 
King pardoned him upon his settling a handsome annuity on his 
victim. He found it necessary, however, to retire &om the 
pubHc, and lived chiefly at Stonyhill, where, it is said, he in- 
dulged in all licentiousness till his death in 1732. Notwith- 
standing his gallantries, he was ^miserly in his disposition, and 
acquired a princely fortune, chiefly by gambling. Dr Pitcaim 
wrote a severe epitaph upon him. 

At the death of Colonel Charteris, says Dr Moir, '* it is tradi- 
tionally recorded here, that the populace assembled in the avenue 
down which the funeral procession of that wretched person had 



RSGAUTT Of MVaSBLBUROH. 189 

to pass, «td bespattered the hdarae with filth and garbnge/' The 
avenae, though interrapted by the railway, is still spadonSy and 
exhibits some fine old trees. 

'^ The existing mansion-houise of Stonyhill/' continQes Dr Moir, 
'' appears to have been originally the offices of the ancient villa ; ^ 
and behind it are the garden and orchard, enclosed by a g^^tic 
buttressed wall, apparently of great age. A mnlberry tree in 
one of the walks may well have been coeval with that of Shak- 
speare.'' 

Colonel Francis Charteris of Amisfield and Gosford — an old 
fjEonily in Haddingtonshire — ^married a daughter of Sir Alex- 
ander Swinton, and had an only daughter, Janet, married, in 
1720, to James, fourth Earl of Wemyss, whose second son as- 
sumed the name of Charteris, and inherited the maternal estates. 
In this way the properties of Stonyhill and Monktonhall came 
into the Wemyss family. 

" The gardens of Stonyhill and Monktonhall," says Dr Moir, 
" appear to have been among the earliest in this part of the 
island ; and entries in the household books of Dalkeith Palace 
shew that vegetables and fruits were procured from the latter 
upwards of two centuries ago.'' 

There is a curious entry in Amot's " Criminal Trials " on the 
breaking of gardens : — " John Eait and Alexander Dean were 
indicted at the instance of his Majesty's Advocate for breaking 
into the gardens of Bamton, Pilton, Banbrugh, Greycrook, 
Craigiehall, and Carlowrie, and stealing thence herbs, artichoke 
plants, sylxyus — i, e., young onions— and bee-hives. They had 
formerly been convicted before an inferior judicature for break- 
ing gardens in the neighbourhood of Musselburgh ; and by war- 
rant of the Privy Council they were sentenced to be taken to the 
Burgh Muir of Edinburgh and there hanged, 1623." 

* Knee the Doctor wrote a Dew house has been built near the old site. 



190 HIBTOBT or TBI 

A small field at the end of the avenue to Stonyhill, called 
** The Bogle's Hole/' was used for the incremation of witches. 
This is probably what is called " The Terror's Croft " in the rent- 
roll of the Abbey of Dunfermline in 1561. 

In 1661 there was a commission, dated Edinburgh, 22d May, 
" for bumeing some witches in Mussilburgh ; " and on the 28th 
following "a commission past for tryeing and judgeing some 
witches in Mussilburgh and Prestoun." Again—" Ed'. 25th 
June 1661. — Mr George M^Kenzie and Mr John Cuninghame 
haveing, in presence of the Parliament, given the oath of alled- 
giance and de fideli administratione, wer admitted justice deputs, 
and Mr Alex'. Colvine and they ordained to repair once in the 
week at least to Musselburgh and Dalkeith, and to try and judge 
such persones as ar ther or therabouts dilate of witchcraft." 

In Pitoaim's "Criminal Trials" there are several cases of 
witches having been " wirreit" and " burnt in assis" at Dalkeith, 
Prestonpans, Newbottle, and Longniddry, but none at Mussel- 
burgh. . 

During the Protectorate, it appears several commissions were 
appointed for the trial of witches in Scotland, but they either 
were not reported, or the records have been lost or diestroyed. 
As we have elsewhere shown, the courts of justice instituted 
under Cromwell still continued in 1661 ; hence the proceedings 
of the above commissions may not have been recorded in the 
" Books of Adjournal." The volume, however, for the early 
portion of 1661 is awanting ; but in that which follows we have 
a report of the " Court of Justiciary " held at Musselburgh on 
the 29th day of July 1661. On this occasion " compeired Mr 
John Prestoune, bailly of the regality of Musselburgh ffor the 
Earle of Lauderdale, and desyred to be admitted to sitt with the 
Justice depute in the tryall of the persones following, indweUan 
within the regality foirsd., whilk desyre the Justice granted." 



BEGALITT OV MUSSStBUSGH. 191 

The unbappj individnals put upon trial were — 

David Johnstoune. 

Agnes Loch, spouse to Pattrick Bobertsonne in Sunnysyd. 

Margaret Eamage. 

Janet Lyle, in Edn^istoune. 

Janet Dale, spouse to Greorge Bell, Oolzear. 

They were " indyted and accused for the crymes of sorcerie 
and witchcraft, in maner speed, in ye dittayes/' 

The ^^peraewer was Mr Bobert Dalglish for his Majestie's Ad- 
vocat." 

The " dittayes " were of considerable length, and couched in 
the usual style of the period. The charges were of a general 
nature ; and what seems astonishing to us at the present day, 
the culprits admitted their guilt. " The whilk pannall above 
written," says the record, " efter reading of their severall dittayes 
to them in judgment, confesses and acknowledges the same to be 
of verity, whairupone the persewar, for his Majestie*s Advocat, 
desired instruments," 

The assize, or jury, consisting of fifteen, were as follows : — 

Williame Thomsone, burges of Musselburgh. 

Wm. Leslie, burges thair. 

Thomas Baillie in Edmistoune. 

David Bos, burges in Musselburgh. 

Patrick Cars, in Sunnysyde: 

Adam Greenlaw, burges in Mussilburgh. 

Patrick Carfra, burges thair. 

David Alex>^., in Fisherraw. 

Baillie Clerk, in Mussilburgh. 

John Hill, in Edmistoune. 

Bobert Bobiesone, in Brunstonmylne. 

Thomas Hog, in Mussilburgh. 

Johne Meikle, in Bridgend. 

Oliver Calderwood, in Mussilburgh. 

Wm. Bamage, indwellar thair. 



192 HBSTOBT or THl 

The pannall were, in terms of their own confession, found 
gwltj. '^ Convict and bnmt," is the brief bat ezpressiye lan- 
guage of the record. 

This wonld seem to have been the last of the witch cases at 
Mnsselbnigh. Several trials afterwards occurred at Dalkeith 
and other places, but a milder regimen was b^jnning to pre- 
vail, and the trials were often delayed and the parties acquitted. 

New HaileSy the park wall of which bounds the highway 
entering Fisherrow from the west, was built by Sir James 
Dalrymple, a branch of the Stair &mily. He was desirous of 
feuing the common myre of Fisherrow, in 1729, with the view 
of enclosing it as a park, but the magistrates did not consent till 
1743. It was, says Dr Carlisle, " one of the first houses whose 
park was laid out and adorned with all the elegance of modem 
taste/' New Hailes is interesting to the literary world as the 
residence of Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, the distinguished 
historiographer and antiquary. His library is still preserved at 
New. Hailes. In the immediate vicinity of the house, there is a 
colunmar monument to the great Earl of Stair. A minnte of 
the Town Council bears that, on the 23d April 1763, before Sir 
David was raised to the bench, he was appointed assessor for 
Musselbuigh, with a salary of ten pounds a-year — Sir David 
giving the first year's salary as a donation to help to defray the 
extraordinary expenses of the Poor's House. 

Caualand CasUe was in Cranstoun parish, yet there is a small 
village called Cousland a short way above Inveresk. It is marked 
in the rude diagram of Patten's field of Pinkie. In 1557, Robert 
Lumisdane had an *^ assedatioun of ye half landis of Cousland." 
Cousland, indeed, is mentioned so fsgr back as the charter of David 
I., confirming the gift of Malcohn Caenmore to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline, in 1163 : — " Inuiresc cum omnibus pertinendis 
suis, et ecdesiam ejusdem ville cum capella de Cousland" 



BSOALITT or MU88ILBUBGH. 198 



THE BATTLE OF PINKIE. 

The battle of Pinkie, or Fawside, as it is sometimeB called, is a 
weU-known historical event ; and yet it has been passed ever hj 
most of our historians in a Tcry cnisory manner. Ty tier is almost 
the only one who does anything like justice to it. The Soots 
gave it the name of the '^ Black Saturday," from the loss sus- 
tained, and its being fonght on Saturday, the 10th of September 
1547. 

The policy of Henry Vlli. was to procure the subjection of 
Scotland by the union of the Prince c^ Wales with the young 
Qtieen (Mary). Many of the Scottish nobles, such as Glencaim, 
CassUlis, and Angus, were favourable to the proposal-*^and Tytler 
affirms that such was the disaffection amongst the Scots that 200 
noU^nen and gentlemen had signed the bond of allegiance to 
lingland. The advancement of the reformed religion was assigned 
as the cause of this ignoble bond — ^but it is generally understood 
that dislike to' the Governor, Arran, and the love of English gold, 
were the chief stimulants. Arran, the first Duke of Chatel- 
herault, was perhaps well>meaning, and in some respects a person 
of talent ; but he had his weaknesses, and as governor, was un- 
equal to the difficult task he had assumed. 

The Duke of Somerset became Protector of England after the 
death of the King, and followed out the precise line of policy 
dictated by his late royal master. Arran and the national party 
were opposed to the English project. Somerset at length resolved 
to enforce the marriage-proposal by an appeal to arms, and 
marched into Scotland at the head of a chosen band of '^ fourteen 
thousand two hundred men, of which four thouisand were men- 
at-arms and demi-lances, two thousand light horse, and two 
hundred Spanish carabineers mounted. The remaining eight 



194 HISTOBT Of THl 

thousand were footmen and pioneers. This force was divided 
into three principal battles. The vanward was led by Dudley, 
Earl of Warwick, afterwards the noted Doke of NorihmnberLind^ 
a captain of great experience and resolution, who had been bred 
to arms in the French wars of Henry the Eighth ; the main 
battle by the Protector in person ; and the rear by Lord Dacre 
of the North, a veteran who still possessed all the fire and vivacity 
of youth. Each battle was strengthened by wings of horse, oon- 
sisting of men-at-aims, demi-lances, hagbntters, and some pieces 
of artilleiy, ' every piece having its goard of pioneers to clear the 
way.' Lord Grey of Wilton, high marshal of the army, com- 
manded the cavalry, having under him Sir Francis Bryan, Sir 
Peter Mewtas, Sir Francis Fleming, master of the ordnance, and 
Bon Pedro de Gamboa, who conducted a fine body of mounted 
Spanish carabineers."* 

Somerset entered Scotland with this force, proceeding coast- 
wise, accompanied by thirty-four ships of war, and thirty trans- 
ports. He met with no opposition till he came to Musselburgh, 
within sight of which he encamped, on learning that the Scots 
were in great force on the opposite banks of the Esk. 

Notwithstanding the distracted state of Scotland, and the 
irreconcilable division of parties arising out of the Refonnation, 
Arran succeeded, by means of the fiery cross — a warlike symbol 
held in peculiar veneration — in assembling an army of thirty-six 
thousand men. This large body occupied a strong position on 
the west side of the river Esk, extending from the old bridge 
along the rising ground to Monktonhall village, where the Shire- 
haugh morass f thoroughly protected the right wing of the en- 

♦ Tytler^s History of Scotland. 
f This morass is now fine holm land. Formerly the ri^er flowed much 
nearer Monktonhall, leaving the greater portion of the moraat on the 
Invereak side of the river. 



REGALITT OV MUSSELBUSGH. 195 

campment southwards. In front flowed the Esk, which^ though 
not deep, was thickly margined with wood. To the north laj 
the Frith, protecting their left, which was also strengthened hy 
cannon commanding the bridge. Cannon were also planted at 
the Church of St Michael's, in front of the position on the side 
east of the river. In the print of the time, already mentioned, 
a good idea is afforded of the position of both armies, and their 
movements on the day of battle. The tents of the Scottish army 
were planted in regalar rows from the Bridgend upwards along 
the slope. 

Somerset encamped near Prestonpans, about three miles dis- 
tant. His right, resting on Drummore and Walliford, was 
protected by the Frith, and on his left rose the hill of Fawside, 
with its castle overtopping the summit. Along the face of this 
ridge lay the several divisions of the invading army. 

Though the Scottish army was numerically strong, and the 
troops of the best material, still it was in reality weak compared 
with the well-equipped array of England. It was deficient in 
cavalry, hagbutters, and ordnance. It was also deficient in 
experience and discipline, scarcely one of the leaders, and none of 
the men, having seen service anywhere save in the feuds and 
border raids of their own country. Even their position showed 
a want of military skill, for although strong according to the old 
practice of war, it was not judiciously chosen, considering that 
cannon now formed an important arm in military operations. The 
hill of Inveresk, where, after displacing the few guns of the Soots 
placed at the church, the enemy could easily have planted their 
ordnance, completely commanded the Scottish camp. Still it is 
believed that had the Scots kept their ground, the English would 
have been compelled to retreat. 

There was an evident want of generalship even at the outset. 
On the 9th of September-— the morning after the English had 



196 H18T0BT or THI 

encamped — Lord Hume, at tiie head of fifteen hnndied light 
hone, approached, by fording the river, from the right of the 
Scottish camp, along the rising ground at the base of Fawside 
hill, while five hundred foot lay in a sort of ambush. They 
galloped up to the English cavalry, shaking their lanoes by way 
of menace. Somerset, believing that so small and bdd a body 
of prickers must be supported by the army at large, gave cftdets 
for Mb troops to remain steady. Lord Orey, however, taunted 
by the challenge of Hume's light horsemen, obtained permiBsioiL 
to '' try the effect of a charge. Accordingly, as soon as ih^ 
came, ' scattered on the spur,' within a stonecast of the Sngiish, 
and after their usual shouting, were banning to wheel about, 
Qrey, with his demi-lauoes, and a thousand men-at-arms, charged 
them at full speed, upon which they ftced about and firmly 
received his onset. The weight of the men-at-arms, however, 
and their barbed steeds, was an overmatch for the slight, though 
hardy hackneys of the borderers ; and, after maintaining the 
conflict for three hours, they were entirely broken, and the greater 
part of them cut to pieces. The chase continued for three nul^s, 
from Fawside hill to the right wing of their army, which h^ to 
the south. In this unfortunate affair thirteen hundred men were 
slain within sight of their camp, Lord Hume was severely 
wounded, his son the Master of Hume taken prisoner, and the 
whole body of the Scottish cavahy nearly destroyed, a loss seri- 
ously felt in the next day's battle." * 

Though the border troopers displayed great gallantry under 
the circumstances, the affair was altogether most injudicious and 
unaccountable in military tactics. If it had really been intended 
to attack the English army, it was fool-hardiness to assail so 
large and superior a body of cavalry, unless supported, as Somerset 
imagined, with a powerful division, so as to promote a general 

♦Tytler. 



UBGALITT 01 IftrSSSLBUBGH. 197 

engagement and disconcert the enemy. If intended merely as a 
feint, to draw a body of the English cavahy into an ambosh, 
Home onght not to have withstood the charge, but retreated 
with his light troops until supported by the body of concealed 
footmen. 

" After this success the Protector, accompanied by a small 
party, descended from Faside hill, by a lane which led directly 
north, to the Church of Inveresk. His object was to examine 
the position occupied by the Scots, and he was enabled to do so 
effectually, as the course he took was almost parallel to their 

camp, which he could see distinctly It was 

evident to the English commander, upon a slight inspection, that 
if they chose to keep their position, it would be impossible to 
attack them with advantage, or bring them to a battle. Somerset, 
however, did not fail to observe that their camp was partially 
commanded by the hill of Inveresk, and by the higher parts of 
the lane which led from Faside hill ; and having resolvedto 
occupy these places with his ordnance, with the object of forcing 
them to dislodge from their strong ground, he rode back to his 
ovni camp. 

" On the road he was overtaken by a Scottish herald, with his 
tabard on, accompanied by a trumpeter, whe brought a message 
from the Governor. The herald said his first errand was for an 
exchange of prisoners ; his second to declare, that his master, 
eager to avoid the effusion of Christian blood, was willing to 
allow him to retreat without molestation, and upon honourable 
conditions. The trumpeter next addressed the Duke, informing 
him that, in case such terms were not accepted, his master, the 
Earl of Huntly, willing to bring the quarrel to a speedy conclu- 
sion, was ready to encounter him,*twenty to twenty, ten to ten, 
or, if he would so far honour him, man to man. To these mes- 
sages Somerset made a brief and temperate reply. He declared, 
turning to the herald, that his coming into Scotland had been at 
the first to seek peace, and to obtain such terms as should be for 
the good of either realm. His quarrel, he added, was just ; he 
trusted, therefore, God would prosper it ; and since the Governor 
had already rejected such conditions as would never again be 
proffered, he must look now to its being decided by arms ; ' and 



198 HI8T0RT Of THS 

as for thy master/ said he, addressing the trumpeter, * he lacketh 
some discretion to send his challenge to one, who, by reason of 
the weighty charge he bears (no less than the government of a 
Eng's person and the protection of his realm), hatli no power to 
accept it ; whilst there are yet many noble gentlemen here, his 
equals in rank, to whom he might have addressed his cartel, 
without fear of a refusal/ At this moment the Earl of Warwid^ 
broke eagerly in, telling the messenger that he would not only 
accept the challenge, but would give him a hundred crowns if he 
brought back his master's consent. * Nay,' said Somerset, 
' Huntly is not equal in rank to your Lordship : but, herald, tell 
the Governor, and the Earl of Huntly also, that we have now 
spent some time in your country : our force is but a small com- 
pany — ^yours far exceeds us ; yet bring me word they will meet 
us in a plain field, and thou shalt have a thousand crowns for thy 
pains, and thy masters fighting enough.' 

^' The herald and his companion were then dismissed, and the 
Protector pursued his way to the camp, where, after a consulta- 
tion with his officers, it was thought proper, notwithstanding the 
challenge so lately given, to make a final effort to avert hosti- 
lities. A letter was accordingly addressed to the Governor, in 
which Somerset declared his readiness to retreat fix)m the kingdom 
on the single condition that the Scots would consent to keep 
their youthful Queen in her own country, unfettered by any 
agreement with the French Government, until she readied a 
marriageable age, and was able to say for herself, whether she 
would abide by the matrimonial treaty with England. Had such 
moderate and equitable proposals been made previous to the de- 
claration of hostilities, they would probably have been accepted ; 
but coming at so questionable a moment, they appeared to the 
Governor to be dictated rather by a conviction in the Protector, 
that he could no longer support his army in an enemy's country, 
than by any real love of peace. On showing the letter to 
Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrew's, who was much in his 
confidence, he expressed the same opinion ; and it was agreed to 
suppress the communication entirely, whilst a report was spread 
that an insulting, instead of a conciliatory message had been 
transmitted, requiring the Scots to deliver up their Queen, and 
submit themselves to the mercy of their enemy." 



BEGALXTT Of MUSSELBiniGH. 199 

The English, though encouraged by the disaster of Hume and 
his light troopers, and possessing a superiority in everything 
save numbers, were under considerable dread of the Scots at this 
time. They had recently suffered at Ancrum Muir, and only the 
yjBar before, Sir Ralph Eure and his company had been cut to 
pieces by the Earl of Angus at Panierhaugh, and though the 
Protector was well aware that most of the Protestant lords were 
favourable to his policy, still he could not altogether rely upon 
their support. Mr William Patten, of London, who was an eye 
witness, and the principal historian of the battle of Pinkie, is most 
prolix in his description, and laudatory of the Protector and 
the other leaders. The victory was so unexpected and gratify- 
ing that he evidently could not make enough of it. And cer- 
tainly there was much room for glorification, for never was a 
field so lost through mismanagement. But to resume the 
narrative of Tytler. 

" Such being the result of this last attempt, nothing was left 
to either party but an appeal to arms ; and early on the morning 
of the 10th of September the Duke of Somerset broke up his 
camp, and gave orders for the army to advance towards the hiU 
of Inveresk, his design being to encamp near that spot, and to 
plant his ordnance on the eniinence commanding the Scottish 
position." He was supported by his war ships, the largest of 
which had anchored as close as possible to the shore of Mussel- 
burgh. " This movement was no sooner perceived by the Scot- 
tish Governor, than he embraced the extravagant idea that the 
Protector had commenced his retreat towards his fleet, which 
had removed two days before firom Leith, and now lay in Mus- 
selburgh bay, with the design of embarking his army. He in- 
stantly resolved to anticipate him, by throwing himself between 
the English and their ships ; and disregarding the advice of his 
best officers, who earnestly recommended him to keep his strong 
position till at least the demonstration of the enemy became more 
definite, he gave orders for the whole army to dislodge and pass 
the river. Angus, who led the vanward, deeming it madness 



HIBT0RT Off TBI 

to throw Bwayi their advantage, refosed to obey; bat bebg 
charged on pain of treason to pass forward, he forded the river, 
and was followed, although after some delay, by the Gk>vemor, 
who led the main battle, and the Earl of Huntly with his north- 
land men, who formed the rear.* The advance mnstered ten 
thousand strong, embracing the strength of Fife, Meams, Anges, 
and the west country ; it was flanked on the right by some 
pieces of artillery drawn by men, and on the left by four hundred 
light horse ; it included also a large body of priests and monks, 
who marched under a white banner, on which was painted a 
female kneeling before a crucifix, her hair dishevelled, and em- 
broidered underneath the motto, ' AfBictad Ecclesis ne oblivis- 
carisT 

" In the main battle was the power of Lothian, Fife,t Strathem, 
Stirlingshire, and the great body of the barons of Scotland, having 
on the right wing the Earl of Argyle, with four thousand West 
Highlanders, and on the left the Islemen, with Macleod, Mac- 
gregor, and other chieftains.]: It was defended also on both 
flanks by some pieces of artillery, as was likewise the rear, but 
the guns were clumsily worked, and seem to have done little 
execution 

'* This movement of the Soots, in abandoning their advantage 
and crossing the river, was viewed with equal astonishment and 
pleasure by the English commander. He had dislodged from 
his camp, and commenced his march at eight in the morning; 
and before he was half way to Inveresk, the enemy, having 
surmounted the hill, were seen advancing towards the English. 
Somerset and the Earl of Warwick, who happened to be riding 

* It is the opinion of Dr Moir and other local 'wiiteni that the Scottish 
army croesed by the bridge, and that the Master of Grahame and others 
were killed in doing so by a cannon-baU from the English gall^ in ibe 
Frith. It is probable that a division may have taken advantage of the 
bridge, but the great body crossed the Esk at different places ; and Patten 
says that it was while the army halted for a while at the hillocks that the 
Master of Grahame was killed. 

t Tf^eac mnst be mistaken. The strength of Fife could not be in both 
the first and second divisions. 

I Pitscottie by Dalyell, vol ii., p. 496. 



BBGALITT 01 MUSflBLBUBGH. 201 

together at this moment, instantly perceived their advantage, 
thimked God for the fortunate event, ordered forward their artil- 
lery, and taking a joyfril leave of each other, proceeded to their 
reBpective chaiges — the Earl to the vanward and the Diike to 
the main batfie, where was the King's standard. Warwick 
immediately arranged his division upon the side of the hill; 
the Protector form^ his battle chiefly on the hill, bnt his ex- 
treme right rested on the plain; the rear, under Lord Dacre, 
was drawn up wholly on the plain ; whilst Lord Grey, with the 
men-at-arms and the mounted carabineers, were stationed at 
aome distance on the entrance left. His orders were to take the 
mmay in flank, yet he was strictly interdicted from making any 
attack till the foot of the vanward were engaged with the enemy, 
and the main battle was near at hand for his support. By the 
time these arrangements were completed the Scots were consi- 
derably advanced, their object being to throw themselves betwixt 
the English and their fleet ; but in accomplishing this the wing 
of their rearward, which moved nearest to the Frith, found them- 
selves exposed to the fire of one of the English galleys, which 
galled them severely, slew the Master of Graham, with some 
others who were beside him, and threw Argyle's Highlanders 
into disorder.^ Checked in this manner, their army fell back 
from the ground which was thus exposed, and declining to the 
southward, took a direct line towards the west end of Faside 
Mil. Their object was to win this side of the hill, and, availing 
themselves of tibe advantage, to attack the enemy from the higher 
ground ; but as soon as the Protector perceived this movement, 
he conunanded Lord Grey and Sir Ealph Vane, with the veteran 
bands of the men-at-arms, called BuUeners [from their having 
been employed as the garrison at Boulogne], and the demi-lances 
under Lord Fitzwaters, to charge the right wing of the Scots, 
and, if they could not break it, at least to keep it in check till 
their own vanward might advance further on the hill, and their 
centre and rear coming up, form a full front against the enemyv 
This manoeuvre, although aware of its perilous nature, was exe- 

* This &ct 18 stated both in the English and Scottish accounts of the 
battle ; but in walking over the field I found it ^extremely difficult to ac- 
count f<)r it. — TyUer. 



202 mSTORT 01 THB 

cnted by Lord Qrey with the ntmost readiness and gallantry. 
Observing the Scottish infantry advancing at so round a pace 
that many deemed them to be rather cavalry than foot, he waited 
for a short space till Lord Warwick was pretty well np with the 
enemy, and then, commanding the trumpets to sound, charged 
down the hill at fall gallop, right against the left wing ef 
Angu8*s division. The shock at first was dreadful; but the 
superiority of infantry over cavalry was soon evinced. The 
Scottish foot were armed with spears eighteen feet ia length, fai 
exceeding that of the lances of the men-at-arms, and they knew 
well how to avail themselves of this advantage. Angus, on ob- 
serving the intention of the English, had commanded his men to 
form in that formidable order which had often eflfectually resisted 
the chivalry of England, Nothing could be more simple, but 
nothing more effective : the soldiers closed inwards, so near as 
to appear locked together shoulder to shoulder; the first line 
stooped low, and almost knelt, placing the butt-end of their pike 
against the right foot, grasping it firmly with both hands, and 
inclining its steel point breast-high against the enemy; the 
second rank crossed their pikes over their shoulders ; the third 
assumed the same position, and so on to whatever depth the 
column might be, giving it the appearance of a gigantic hedge- 
hog, covered with an impenetrable skin of steel bristles. Against 
such a body, if the men stood firm, the finest cavalry in the 
world could not make any serious impression. It happened also 
that a broad, muddy ditch, or slough, lay between the English 
and the Scottish foot, into which the horses plunged up to the 
counter, and with great dif&culty cleared it. Yet, undismayed 
by these adverse circumstances. Lord G-rey, heading his men-at- 
arms, struggled through, and with his front companies charged 
full upon the enemy's left. No human force, however, could break 
the wall against which he had thrown himself; and in an in- 
credibly short space of time two hundred saddles were emptied, 
the horses being stabbed in the belly with the spears, and the 
riders who had fallen speedily dispatched by the whingers^ or 
short double-edged daggers, which the Scots carried at their 
girdle. Such was the fate of Shelly, Ratcliff, Clarence, Preston, 
and other brave and veteran commanders of the Bulleners. 
Flammock, who carried the English standard, sav^ the colours, 



REGALITY OP MUSSELBURGH. 203 

but left the staff in the hands of the enemy. Losd Grey him- 
self was dangerously hart in the mouth and neck." 

" Shrilly arises Warwick's battle-cry. 

As from Falsyde his glittering columns wheel ; 
Hark to the rasp of Grey's fierce cavalry 

Against the bristling hedge of Scotland's steel ! 
As bursts the billow foaming on the rock, 

That onset is repelled, that charge is met, 
Flaunting, the bannered thistle braves the shock. 

And backward bears the might of Somerset." 

Patten, in describing this charge, is lugubriously minute : — 
" Herewith waxt it very hot on both sydes, with pitefdl cryes, 
horrible rore and terrible thunderinge of gunnes besyde, the day 
darkened abooue bed with smoke of shot, ye sight and appar- 
aunce of the enemye euen at hand before, the daunger of death on 
euery syde els, the bullettes, pellettes and arrowes fliyng each 
whear so thik, and so vncerteinly lightynge, that no whear was 
thear ony suerty of safety, euery man strooken with a dreadfull 
fear, not soo muche perchaunce of death as of hurt, which 
thinges, though they wear but certeyn to sum, yet douted of all, 
assured crueltie at the enemies handes without hope of mercy, 
death to flye and daunger to fyght. The hole face of the felde 
on bothe sydes vpon this point of ioining, both to the eye and 
to the ear, so heauy, so deadly, lamentable, furious, outragious, 
terribly confuse, and so quite against ye quiet nature of man." 
Honest Patten, it is evident, had experienced but little of the 
hon'ors of war. 

But to continue the narrative from Tytler : — 

" Many horses, furious from their wounds, and plunging in 
their agony, carried disorder into their own companies ; and such 
was soon the inextricable confusion into which the whole body 
of the men-at-arms was thrown, that a portion of them, breaking 
away, fled through the ranks of their own division, whilst Lord 





204 HISTORY OF THE 

Grey had the greatest difficulty in extricating the rest, and re- 
treating up the hill with their shattered and wounded remains. 
At this critical moment, had Angus been supported by the rest 
of the army, or had the Scots possessed any body of men-atarms, 
who, by a charge, might have improved their advantage, the 
English, would in all probability have been undone. But the 
cavalry had been nearly cut to pieces in the action of the day 
before, and the centre and rear under the Governor and Huntly 
were still at a considerable distance ; the vanward, therefore, 
unable to pursue the fugitives, and not choosing to advance 
against the main body* of the enemy till certain of support, 
halted for a brief space. The opportunity was thus lost, and the 
Earl of Warwick, aware of the infinite value of a few minutes 
gained at such a juncture, galloped through the wavering ranks 
of the advance, re-established their order, disengaged the men-at- 
arms from the infantry, and rallying them, with the assistance of 
Sir Ralph Sadler, pushed forward the company of the Spanish 
carabineers. These fine troops, armed both men and horse in 
complete mail, galloped up to the brink of the broad ditch, and, 
coming within half-musket range, discharged their pieces full iu 
the faces of the Scottish infantry. This attack was seconded by 
Sir Peter Mewtas, who brought up his foot bagbutters: the 
archers now moving rapidly forward, discharged a flight of arrows, 
and at the same moment the artillery, which had been judiciously 
placed on the hill, were made to bear upon Angus's division, who, 
dreading the effect of so complicated an attack, began to fall back, 
though in good order, to the main battle. At this instant the 
Highlanders, who, unable to resist their plundering propensities, 
were dispersed over the field stripping the slain, mistook this 
retrograde movement for a flight, and, seized with a sudden panic, 
began to run off in all directions. Their terror communicated . 
itself to the burgh troops ; these formed a main portion of the 
centre, and, starting from their ranks, although still a quarter of 
a mile distant from the enemy, they threw away their weapons 
and followed the Highlanders. * In the midst of this shamefdl 

* In the engraving of the battle formerly referred to, the flight of the 
Highlanders is seen at the rear of the first division, and the breaking away 
of the troops from the second. In reference to the Highlanders, Patten 



RSGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 205 

confdsion, the Governor, instead of exerting himself to rally the 
fagitives, shouted treason, a cry which only increased the dist 
order. The Earl of Warwick meanwhile was coming fast for- 
ward, the horsemen once more showed themselves ready to charge, 
and the English centre and rear hastened on at an accelerated 
pace. Had the Scottish vanward been certain that support was 
near at hand, they might, even alone, have withstood this for- 
midable attack ; but, deserted by the rest of the army, they did 
not choose to sacrifice themselves ; and the body which so lately 
had opposed an impenetrable front to the enemy, beginning first 
to undulate to and fro, like a steely sea agitated by the wind, 
after a few moments was seen breaking into a thousand fragments 
and dispersing in all directions. Everything was now lost : the 
ground over which the flight lay was as thickly strewed with 
pikes as a floor with rushes ; helmets, bucklers, swords, daggers, 
and steel caps, lay scattered on every side, cast away by their 
owners as impeding their speed , and the chase, beginning atone 
o'clock, continued till six in the evening with extraordinary 
slaughter. The English demi-lances and men-at-arms, irritated 
by their late defeat, hastened after the fugitives with a speed 
heightened by revenge, and passing across the field of their late 
action, were doubly exasperated by seeing the bodies of their 
brave companions, stript by the Highlanders, lying all naked and 
mangled before their eyes. Crying to one another to remember 
Papierhaugh, they spurred at the top of their speed after the 
fugitives, cutting them down on all sides, and admitting none to 
quarter but those from whom they hoped for a heavy ransom. 
The Scots fled in three several ways, some straight upon Edin- 
burgh, some along the coast to Leith, but the most part towards 
Dalkeith, with the object of throwing the morass, which had^ 
defended the right of their camp, between them and their pur- 
suers. Yet this proved so ineffectual a security, that before the 
chase was ended fourteen thousand were slain, the river running 

says — '^ Out gsJley shot of and slewe the master of Greym with a five and 
twenty nere by him, and thearwith so skarred the iiii thousand h'isk 
archers brought by the Erie of Arguile, that whear (as it was sayd) they 
shoulde have bene a wyng to the f orewarde, thei coold neuer after be made 
to cmn forwarde.*' 



206 HISTORY OF THE 

red with blood, and the ground for five miles in distance and four 
in breadth being covered, says an eye-witness, as thick with dead 
bodies as cattle in a well-stocked pasture field. It was recorded 
that in Edinburgh alone this day's battle made three hundred 
and sixty widows. Little pity was shown to the priests, multi- 
tudes of whom were slain, and found mingled amongst the dead 
bodies of the common soldiers, whilst their sacred banner lay 
trampled under foot and soiled with blood. 

'* The evening was now advancing to night, the pursuit had 
lasted for five hours, and the Protector causing a retreat to be 
sounded, the army mustered again on the ridge of Edmonstone 
Ed^e, beside the Scottish tents, where, joyous of their victory, 
they gave a loud shout, which, as they afterwards were told, was 
so shrill and piercing, that it was heard in the streets of the 
capital." 

The English afterwards encamped at Edgbuckling Brae for 
the night. 

The victory was^o doubt as welcome as it was unexpected, 
and the transition from a state of fear to one of security was well 
calculated to produce an excitement of joy. Had Arran displayed 
the most ordinary capacity, the English would have been com- 
pelled to retire as they came. If, as he was certain, that there 
was a strong party in the country opposed to him and the Queen - 
Mother, and who, in fact, had pledged themselves to the English 
policy, he should never have moved from his encampment ; but 
even in the field the blunder might have been remedied had he 
shown the slightest military talent, or the common attribute of 
firmness. With the exception of the loss of Hume's troopers on 
the previous day, almost the entire slaughter was sustained by 
the unarmed soldiers after the flight had commenced. The scene 
of the battle lay between Faside and Inveresk, near to the marsh 
(Howmire) in which Pinkie bum has its source. It is now a well 
cultivated country, suitable for the action of cavalry, but at that 
time drainage was not what it is now, and various spongy places 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 207 

existed to mar the action of troops. Angos's division was pre- 
vented from forming so compactly as it might have done, in 
consequence of a square turf enclosure, and the old-fashioned 
ridges were equally against steady movement. " In the centre 
of a circle of trees, at the eastern extremity of the grounds of 
Eskgrove, and opposite to Pinkie Bum^ a square pillar, sur- 
mounted by an antique stone representing a fleur-de-lis, marks 
the spot where the royal tent was pitched on the eve of the battle, 
and bears the following inscription : — 

" The Protectoe, Duke of Somerset, 
Encamped here, 10th September, 
1547. 

*' Sated with blood, and glad his prey to leave, 

Five hours in hot pursuit and carnage spent, 
In yon green clump, by Inveresk, at eve, 

Proud Somerset, the victor, pitched his tent : 
There, *mid its circle grey of mossy stone, 

A time-worn fleur-de-lis still marks the spot, 
Which els6 had to the searcher been unknown ; 

For of that field one other trace is not." 

The pillar was erected by the late Lord Eskgrove."* 

It is said that the slaughter was greatest on the mai-gin of the 
Howmire^ in the centre of the battle-field, and that the burn 
of Pinkie was in consequence tinged with blood for three 
days — ^thus realising the prophecy attributed to Thomas the 
Rhymer : — 

"At Pinken Glugh there shall be spilt 

Much gentle blood that day ; 

There shall the bear lose the guilt, 

And the eagle bear it away." 

There is another rhyme popularly referred to the same event — 
* Note to DeUas poems. 



208 HTSTOBY OP THE 

'' Between Seton and the sea, 
Mony a man ahall die that day." 

This couplet is quoted in Patten's account of Somerset's in^ 
vasion. 

Patten mentions that the slain of the English of the better 
class who could be recognized were buried on Sabbath, the day 
after the battle. In 1823, when the new road to London was 
formed, numerous ranges of skeletons were excavated at the 
eastern shoulder of Edgebuckling Brae.* They were enclosed in 
stone coffins, about four feet below the surface, and were no 
doubt the bodies of Englishmen slain at Pinkie. In Westmin- 
ster Abbey a superb monument is erected to the memory of one 
of the Thynne fanaily, an ancestor of the Marquis of Bath, who 
was amongst the slain. His body was carried home to England. 
Recently, on baring a quarry in the same vicinity, a number 
of skeletons were found. 

In 1838, similar ranges of stone coffins were discovered in 
trenching a field at New Fai-m, above Smeaton. The bones 
which they contained were in good preservation. In 1833, 
when levelling a bank at Pinkie-bum, immediately east of the 
streamlet, great quantities of bones, chiefly of horses, were found 
imbedded in the soil. The Hovymire^ the principal scene of the 
conflict, is in the immediate neighbourhood, and it is believed 
the Scottish cavalry had retreated down the precipitous banks 
of the streamlet, where they were overtaken and cut to pieces. 

One of the biographers of Sir William Cecil, afterwards the 
famous Lord Burleigh, states that he was present with his pa- 
tron, the Protector, at the battle of Pinkie, and that he " was 

* Edgebuckling Brae, where now stands Pinkie Mains, is about half & 
mile from the eastern boundary of the parish. It is the limit to the east, 
which commanded the personal service of the Archer Guard of the Scottish 
Kings, as Gramond Bridge was upon the west. 



REGALITY OP MUSSELBURGH. 209 

only saved from inevitable destruction by the generous interpo- 
sition of a friend, who pushed him out of the level of a cannon, 
and had his own arm shattered by the ball, which must other- 
wise have passed through Cecirs body." 

CARBERRY HILL. 

According to Chalmers, the name of this place is traceable to 
the British Caerhairin. It is celebrated for the surrender of 
Queen Mary to the associated Lords on the 15th June 1567. 
The circumstance is a well-known episode in Scottish history. 
It arose out of the murder of Damley, and her marriage with 
Bothwell, who had previously been created Duke of Orkney. 
Birrdy in his Diary ^ relates tlie fiewts with much brevity : — 

" The 15 of Maii, the Queine wes maried to the Duck of 
Orkney, in the chappel royaU of Holynidhus, by Adam Bothuel, 
Abbote of Holyrudhous ; and hes text wes ye 2^ of Genesis. 

" The 11 day of Junii, the Queine being in Borthuick cas- 
tell, upone ye suddaLue, certaine of ye nobility besett the castell 
round about in armes, verey well provydit. The principal of 
these wer, the Earles of Athole, Glencairne, Mortone, Mar, with 
Lordis of Home, Lindesay, Semple, Ruthuen, Sanquhair. The 
chieflFe of the small barrons and gentlemen yat accompanied them, 
wer, TulUbairdin, Drumlanricke, Cessfurd, Drumquhaill, Coldin- 
knowes, Lochleuin, Ker of Saldomesyde, Grange, and the tutor 
of Pittcur, with diverse uthers. They desyred ye Earll Bothuell 
might be delivered to them ; but the Lord Borthuick ansuered, 
that he wes fled to Dumbar. Therafter, they desyred the Queine 
to come and assist them in perseute of her husband's murther, 
and she altogether refusit. 

" This same 11 day of June, ye said Lordis, vith ther as- 
sistants, came to Edinburghe, being Thursday, at four houres in 
ye afternoon, quher ther wes proclamations at the crosse, yat all 
trew subjects vuld assist to persew the murther of ye King. 

" The 12 day of Junii, ye Queine and Duck rode to Dumbar, 
and sent proclamations throughe ye countrey, to raise in feare of 



210 HISTOBT OF THE 

weir, to assist her against these quho ver to persew her, and her 
husband ye Dnck of Orkney. 

" The 14 day, the Qaeine came to Settone, vith 4 companies 
of shonldionrs, and snndrey Earlls, Lords, and Barrons. The 
Lords in Edinbnrghe haveand intelligence therof, strake the 
alamm incontinent, and from thence marched to Bestalrigg' 
Links, qnher they rested till ye next morning. 

** The 15 day, being Sonneday, the armies came vithin view. 
The one stood npone Carberry Hills, with 4 regiments of 
shouldiours, and sex feild-peices of brasse : the uther armey stoode 
over against it, messingers going betwixt them all day till neir 
night ; dureing which parley, the Duck fled secretly to Dumbar, 
and the Queine came and randred herself prisoner to ye Lordis, 
quho convoyed her to Edinburghe to the Provost's lodgeing for 
vat night ; S^ Symeon Prestone of Craigmillar being Provost for 
ye time." 

The place of surrender, on the face of the rising ground, above 
Carberry Tower, is marked by a little circular mound, planted 
with trees, in the middle of a cultivated field. This copsewood 
was formed by John Fullerton, Esq., who was proprietor of 
Carberry in 1793. Farther up, on the ridge of the hill, in a 
wood, there formerly existed a small pillar, where it is said the 
Queen and her adherents held counsel during the day. She 
occupied a seat slightly elevated, by way of a throne. Such 
crowds of visitors were in the habit of repairing thither, and 
trespassing the grounds, that'the late Colonel Elphinstone, the 
proprietor, caused it to be taken down. 



Ovj> ^ K?^C^'^ - 



REGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 211 

MONUMENTAL INSCMFnONS 
IN THE CHURCHYARD OF INVERESK. 

1. Sacred to the memory of Captain Peter Burnei», late of the 14th 
Regiment of Foot, who died the 5th Feb. 1809, aged 82. Mis Burnet 
died the 18th Jan. 1811, aged 82 years. 

2. In memory of John Skeill, who died 25th Oct. 1790, aged 43 years. 
Also in memory of Helen Hunter, who died 6th Feb. 1816, aged 50 
years. Also ^eir son, Captain David Skeill, of the Rifle Brigade, who 
died here 11th June 1824, aged 40 years. 

3. To the memory of Elizabeth Cbaio, wife of Kobert Legat of Esk 
Park. Bom 24th May 1793 ; died 4th Aug. 1850. 

4. Sacred to the memory of John Johnstone, Esq., Barrack-Master, 
Miisselbnrgh, son of James Johnstone, Esq. of .Granton, near Mofiat, who 
died 25th Oct. 1808, and Anne M*Murdo, his wife, who died i5th May 1821. 
Also their daughters, Anne Johnstone, deceased 27th December 1818. 
Jane Johnstone, ^deceased 29th March 1820. Elizabeth Johnstone, 
deceased 22d Dec. 1827, and Phellaoelfhba Bedmund, their grand- 
daughter, deceased 1811. Also their son, Major John Johnstone, of the 
Berwickshire Militia, who died 3d January 1848, aged 62 years. 

5. Sacred to the memory of Martin Kilgoure, Esq., who died here 
18th Aug. 1822. 

MoUo—" Nobilis ira." 

6. Sacred to the memory of Francis Philip Stewart, Esq., Colonel of 
the Hon. East India Company's service, on their Madras Establishment, 
and youngest son of the late John Stewart, Esq. of Musselburgh, who- de- 
parted thu life on the 23d of August 1834, aged 53 years, 9 months, and 
21 days. An extensiye circle of sorrowing friends in that eastern land, 
where he had lived beloved and respected for a period of 33 years, will feel 
that this is in truth no common loss. Integrity, sincerity, and unbounded 
benevolence, marked the tenor of his way through life, and these virtues 
truly endeared him as a husband, brother, and friend. This monument is 
erected as a tribute of affection to his memory by his widow. 

Sacred to the memory of Richard Stewart, M.D., who died 18th Jan. 
1833, aged 64. 

In memory of John Stewart, Esq., 55 years surgeon in this parish, 
who died 28th Nov. 1824, aged 83, and of Sarah Jackson, his wife, who 
died 8th May 1813, aged 70. 

7. To the memory of Mrs Bathea Roohead, who departed this life at 
Inveresk, upon the 3d day of November 1790, aged 63. 

8. Near to this are interred the remains of Greneral the Eight Hon. 
Lord Adam Gordon, who died the 13th August 1801, aged 70 years. 

9. Near to this are interred the remains of Her Grace Jane, Duchess 
Dowager of Athole (or Argyle — tablet broken), who died on the 5th of Feb. 



212 HISTORY OF TRIfi 

1791, at her apartments in Holyrood Houae, Edinbuigfa, aged 72 (!) The 
memorial of virtue is etemaL 

10. SVancisco Lindsay dePinkiebmm, armigero, Tumue ei^tiitumpnefecto 
▼iro probo, honesto, ammi candore et mormn suavitate insigni. Qui post 
multa stipendia honorifica, tandem emeritus, pladde oonsenuit, in yillsk 
sua prope Musselburgum. Obiit anno setatis 82do mense November 1791. 
Frater supemes (alter ob alterius f unera ancelius), qui sacra exeroet, in 
eoclesia Listoniana, fratri carisaimo ob animum fere patemmn. Hoc 
monumentum ponendum curavit. Ja. Lindsay, 1791. 

In memoriam Alsxakdbi Lindsat de Pinkiebum, M.D., qui magna 
in arte sua eminentia in conjuncto munere Priniarii Chirurgi ad Hiber^ 
nicum exercitiun Begalium Tormentorum ac in urbi Eblana Medici 
aoquisita. 

Suifl omnibos devinctus amicis 

Ob ejus benignitatem cordis, 

Atqui indolis amoenitatem. 

Obiit 23tio die monsis Maii, a.d. 1820. set. 78. 

11. Hie juxta fratrem jacet Jacobus Lindsay de Pinkiebum, EcclesisB 
Listoniensis Pastor, vir liberalis et ingenui animi, horum fratrum uterque 
diversa sua munera, summa fidelitate semper exeronit ; 

Hie in rebus sacris, 

lUe in militaribus. 

" Concordes vivi mortui baud disjuncti." 

Obijt anno setatis 85, mense Novembris 1796. ^ 

To the memory of the Bev. John Watson, who was the fEuthfol and 
beloved Pastor of the Congregational Church, Fisherrow, and for 33 years 
the indefatigable, devoted, and honoured secretary ot the Congregational 
Union of Scotland, of which he was also the Founder. He died at Pinkie- 
bum on the 5th Aug. 1844, in the 67th year of his age. — *' Blessed are the 
dead who die in the Lord ; they rest from their labours and their works do 
follow them." 

In memory of Janb Lindsay of Pinkiebum, relict of the Eev. J. 
Watson. She peacefully closed a long life of piety, gentleness, and 
beneficence, on the 8th Jan. 1849. 

12. Sir John Hopb of Craighall and Pinkie, Baronet, Member of Par- 
liament for the County of Mid-Lothian, died 5th June 1853, in his 73d 
year. 

Sir Abohibald Hops, Baronet, of Craighall, died the 10th day of July 
1794, aged 59 years. 
Dame Elizabeth Patoun, relict of Sir Archibald Hope, Baronet, died 

5th January 1818, aged 59 years. 
j^3 ♦♦**♦*♦***♦♦ 

limitibus drcumscribendi pignus a vidua memoiisB Bobbbti Huhteb, 
armigeri, de Cample, consecratum est qui olim Daccse Bengaliensis merca- 
turam fecit et quarto Calendas Decembris anno orbis redempti, 1793, &>to 
concessit annos quadraginta Novem. natus. 

Desiderlum ejus constanter sentietur et sensibilitas miseris alienis 
excitatu facUEma et benevolentia ac luosa fideliter memoria tenebunter dum 



REGALITY Of MUSSELBURGH. 213 

unus etiom qui sepoldirmii lachrymis doloris manis hmnectet superest 
xncerens amicus. 

Sacred to the memory of the Bev. William Smith, A.M., 43 years 
Pastor of the Episcopal Congregation of Musselburgh, who departed this 
life, on 25th Jan. 1823, in the 74th year of his age, and 5l8t of his mims- 
try : His unaffected piety, sua^ty of manners, and great private worth, 
endeared him to his people, and a numerous circle of fnends, by whom his 
memory will long be cherished. Also of Mrs Mai^y Smith, mict of the 
Key. William Smith, died 12th Nov. 1833, aged 69 years. '* Blessed are 
the dead who die in the Lord." 

14. Here are interred the remains of Lieut.-Col. JoHir Hkndbbson, who, 
having with merit spent the prime of his life in the service of the Hon. 
'Eag^ India Company in Asia, died 7th March 1795, aged 59, in his native 
comitry. He delighted in doing good — ^the source of pleasure here and 
happiness hereafter. Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus tam can capitis. 

15. James Dalbymfle, Esq., late Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Bat- 
talion of the Koyals, died 21st Nov. 1791. 

Re«t yet awhile within thy narrow room, 
Te high prized relics of the hest of men, 
Till at the trumpet's sound thy faithful tomb 
Shall render up its trust to earth tjgeiji ; 
Then shall exulting choirs of ang^ cry, 
Happy the man whose talent is improved, 
Ck>me, heir of glory, to your master's joy — 
Come, taste the applauses of the God you love. 

, The Hon. Eliz. St Claib, relict of Lieut.-CoL James Dalrymple, died 
Nov. 13th, 1811. 

16. In memory of Abchibald Chbistib, Esq. of Ratho, bom 10th July 
1706, died 16th March 1796. Also Anna Gobdon his wife, grand-daughter 
of Sir James Gordon, Baronet, of Lismore. Bom 12th Jan. 1726 ; died 
11th April 1810. Also to their children— Ann, bom 8th Nov. 1767 ; 
died 4th Nov. 1888. Andbkw, bom 4th Oct. 1768 ; died 9th Jan. 1841. 

"As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive. "-^1 Cor. 
XV., 22. 

17. Janb Mylne, eldest daughter of James Mylne of Lenridge, wife of 
William Aitchison of Drummore, bom June 22, 1764 ; died Jan. 5, 1883. 
William Aitchison of Drummore, bom at Musselburgh 24th Julv 1763 ; 
died at Drummore, 3d May 1839. William Aitchison, their eldest son, 
bom at Edinburgh 10th January 1784 ; died at Drummore 17th January 
1846. Helen, daughter of William Aitchuionand Jane Mylne, died 30th 
December 1851, aged 62 years. 

Gbobge Aitchison, 4th son, bom March 1791 ; died at Portobello 23d 
April 1847. 

18. Sa^ed to the memory of Kobebt Mitchell, timber-merchant, 
Fisherrow ; his wife, Maboabet Livie \ and his two sons, John and 
Fbanois, all of whom fell victims to that awful visitation of Heaven, the 
cholera morbus, during the first week of February 1882. 

19. Sacred to the memory of Andbew Dobib, bom in the parish of 
Tinwald, Dumfriesshire, June 21, 1850 ; died at Hallcross House, Fisher- 



214 HISTORY OF THE 

row, Aug. 27, 1887. AJso Elizabeth Lawbon, relict of the above, bom 
in Belliogham, Northuxnbefrland, Sept. 5, 1750 ; died at Edinburgh, April 
23, 1889. 

20. In memory of Maby FLiMuro, wife of Abram Mofg&t ; died 16th 
May 1840, aged 58 years. Also their children, Catabiitea Fleming Love, 
aged 17 years ; AaiTES, 13 ; and Ghbistiait, 11 months. 

21. Sacred to the memory of Quarter-master John Boss, late of the 7l8t 
Kegiment, in which he seryed 47 years. On retiring from the r^ment, a 
Silver Vase was presented by his brother officers, out of respect to >>iTTi as 
a brave soldier and agreeable companion. His kindness to his relatives 
and benevolence to the poor wiU be long remembered. He died at Ssk- 
side, Musselburgh, on the 18th March 1837, in the 81st year of his age. 

22. To the memory of James Stuabt, Esq., Blairhall, who died Ist 
December 1814, aged 82 years ; and Maby Nicolson, his wife, who died 
8th April 1823, aged 72 years. 

23. Sacred to the memory of James Watson, painter in Edinburgh, 
who died there July 1809, aged 88 ; and of Janet Dawson, his relict, 
who di^ at Monktonhall, May 1835, aged 80. And of their three sons, 
James, who died in infancy at Edinburgh ; Stewabt, who died in Jamaica 
in 1805, aged 18 ; Geobge, who died in Jamaica in Apnil 1835, aged 55. 
This stone is erected as a tribute of respect and affection to their departed 
relatives by the three surviving daughters of the &mily. 

Elizabeth Watson died 6th June 1844. 

24. John S. Williams, yr. of Campie, died 20th Nov. 1850. 

26. Underneath are deposited the remains of Thomas Thomson, town- 
clerk of Musselburgh, who died Dec. 30, 1817, aged 87. In testimony 
of their filial affection, his Sons erected this monument. Also in memory 
of Maboabet Nelson, relict of Thomas Thomson, who died 14th Januarv 
1822, aged 76 years. 

In memory of Mr Geoboe Thomson, town-clerk, Musselburgh, who 
died 20th March 1846, aged 69 years. Also in memory of Maboabet 
Stewabt, his wife, who died 29th Sept. 1849, aged 71 years. 

26. To the memory of Alexandeb Laudeb« who died at Goshen, 21st 
May 1846, aged 76. Also of Fbancis Laudeb, who died 18th Nov. 1839, 
aged 43 ; and Isabella Laldlaw, his wife, who died 9th Sept. 1836, 
aged 35. 

James Soott. 
In memory of his son James, who died in London, 13th December 1849, 
aged 29 years. James Scott, sen., died 10th June 1853, aged 63 years. 

27. Burying-ground of Robbbt Wilson. 

In memory of James Milleb, merchant, Musselburgh, who died 17th 
May 1849, aged 72. 

28. Sacred to the memory of John M'Millan, boot and shoe maker, 
Market Street, Fisherrow ; bom 31st Jan. 1799, and died Nov. 3, 1849. 
Also Alexandeb McMillan, his brother, boot and shoe maker ; bom 23d 
August 1815, and died Nov. 21, 1847. Also John McMillan, thrar 
father ; bom 30th August 1774, died 3d July 1851. Also Mabion Bo- 
BEBTSON, his spouse; bom 23d August 1772, died 24th October 1851. Alfio 



BEGALITT OF MUSSELBURGH. 215 

Andbbw M'Millan, their son ; born 3d September 1800, died 5th April 
1852. 

29. In memory of Robert Macdonald, merchant, Fisherrow, who died 
4th April 1849, m the 69th year of his age. 

30. In memory of Mr William Millar, t&mier and merchant, Fisher- 
row, who died 9th April 1846, aged 68 years. 

31. The burial-place of Thomas Brown, late surgeon, Musselburgh, who 
died 20th August 1843, aged 75 years ; and Jane Cochran, his widow, 
who died 10th April 1849, aged f^O. 

Their son, Thomas M'Millan, died at Clifton, 18th July 1820, 
aged 22. 

32. Motto— "5i Detu Quia 0<mtra.'' 

Spens op Lathallan. 
Sacred to the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Spens, Manor 
House, Inveresk, late of the Hon. E.I.C.S. ; bom 22d June 1765, died 
15th May 1845. Also to Charlotte, his wife, daughter of Arundel 
Philip, Esq., of Exeter ; bom 6th January 1778 ; died at Nottinghill, 
near London, 31st January 1848. 

33. Erected in memory of Thomas Brown, who died 7th Dec. 1850, 
aged 84 ; and Jane Johnston, his spouse, who died 11th June 1839, aged 
65 y^ars ; both of GiffordhaU. " Blessed are the dead who die in the 
Lord." 

34. David Macbeth Moir, bom 5th January'1798, died 6th July 1851. 

35. Sacred to the memory of James Mitchell, of Gartocher Hill, Lan- 
arkshire, who departed this life on the 19th July 1819, aged 44 years. 

36. In memory of Mart Stewart ©rmesbt Bell, who died here 25th 
March 1849, at the age of 3 years and 11 months. She was the eldest 
daughter of the late Captain Bell of the Bengal Horse Artillery, who died 
in Calcutta, 21st December 1835. 

37. Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Webster, wife of Lieutenant 
W. Loudon, E.N. j died 22d September 1849, aged 47 years. 

Motto — '* Catbse ccmsit.'^ 

38. To the memory of the Hon. William Fullerton Elphinstone, 
second son of Charles," tenth Lord Elphinstone; bom September 1740, 
died May 1834. Also to Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of WiUiam Ful- 
lerton of Carstairs, and niece of John Fullerton of Carberry ; bom January 
1758, died May 1849. To Clementina, wife of Admiral Sir Pulteney 
Malcolm, G.C.B. ^ died November 1830. To John Fullerton, died 12th 
March 1854. To Charles, captain in the Royal Navy, lost in H.M. ship 
Blenheim, Febraary 1807. To Elizabeth, died October 1802. To Major- 
General William Keith, died in India, April 1842. To Anna, died 29th 
August 1850. To Diana Maria, only child of Charles Clavering, Esq., 
wife of Lieut.-Col. J. D. Elphinstone ; born 8th June 1801, died 24th 
December 1821. Interred in this vault, Anna Maria, wife of Lieut.-Col. 
.James Drummond BuUer Elphinstone, daughter of Vice- Admiral Sir 
Edward Buller, Bart. ; bom 3d November 1799, died at Carberry 2oth 
Febmary 1845. Lieut.-Col. James Fullerton JElphinstone, fourth son 



216 HI8T0BY OF THE 

of the Hon. W. F. Elphmstone ; bom 4th May 1788, died at Carberry 
8th March 1857. 

39. Sacred to the memory of the Bey. Lbslib Moodib, D.D., for thirty- 
four years minister of this parish, who died 27th July 1840, in the Izxiv year 
of his age and zIt of his ministiy. His amiable disposition, placid temper, 
manly intellect, an unbending integrity, united with polished manners and 
refined taste, have embalmed his memoiy in the hearts of his many friends ; 
while his genuine piety, firm faith, ardent zeal for the interests of religion, 
and enlightened yiews of diyine truth, enabled him to adorn the doctrine 
of God his Sayiour, fqithfuUy to preach His Word, and, after haying been 
chastened by protracted iUness, to finish his course with joy. Erected by 
his affectionate Widow. Here also are interred the mortal remains of Mrs 
Cathebinb Febgusson, widow of the aboye, who died at Eolkerran, in 
the county of Ayr, on the 27th July 1841, j^ed 70 years. " Be ye there- 
foie ready also, for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not,'* 
Luke xii. 40. " And I heard a yoice from Heayen saying unto me. Write, 
Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth ; yea, saith the 
Spirit, that they may rest from their labours, and their woiks do follow 
them.** 

Here lie interred the remains of Mart AitkBn, maid to Mrs Leslie 
Moodie, who died at Catherine Lodge, 17th October 1840, aged 27 ; in- 
scribed by her attached mistress as a mark of regard for her long and 
faithful seryices, and of respect for her pious and upright character. 

40. Sacred to the memory of Mabgarbt, eldest daughter of the deceased 
Patrick Kerr, Esq. of Abbotrule, who died at Eskside, parish of Inyeresk, 
the 15th of April 1832. A pious Qhristian and a faithM friend. 

41. Li memory of Kob<:bt Patullo, Esq., late of BalhouJSie, Fifeshire, 
died 16th July 1862, aged 76. Chablottb Stbwabt, his wife, died 14th 
January 1854, age 73. 

42. Sacred to the memory of Ghables Stbwabt, Esq., late commander 
of the H.E.I.C. ship Avrley Castle^ who died the 23d August 1817, in the 
70th year of his age ; and of Mabt Stbwabt, his wife, who died the 4th 
September 1825, in the 53d year of her age. Also of Wobtlib Stbwabt, 
their third daughter, who died the 26th June 1829, in the 27th year of 
her age— and who are all here interred. Also to the memory of Jahbs 
Stbwabt, their eldest son, who died in May 1790, aged 10 months ; of 
Fbanois Stbwabt, their second son, in the sendee of the Hon. E.LC, 
who died at St Helena the 23d December 1817| aged 21 years ; and of 
Waltbb Stbwabt, their third son, Uentenant in Uie Hon. E.I.G.'s 12th 
Regiment of Bombay Natiye Infantry, who died at Poonah the 2d October 
1826, aged 22. 

43. Sacred to the memory of Jambs Bubn, Esq., Maryfield, late mer- 
chant in Edinburgh — a man whose upright and beneyolent heart procured 
for him the loye of his friends and the respect of the world. He was bom 
February 22, 1751, and died July 22, 1829. 

44. Sacred to the memory of Thomas Milnb, merchant in Edinburgh, 
B. and G. Brother of the City, and of Campie House, in this parish, who 



REGALITY OF MUS8ELBUKGH. 217 

died 7th December 1809, aged 42 years. His goodness of heart was only 
equalled by his integrity of manners. 

Here also lies interred David Milne, of Campie House, who died the 
4th June 1818, aged 84 years, father of Thomas Milne, and many years a 
merchant in Edinburgh. Much esteemed and respected. 

45. In memory of Adnural Sir David Milnb, G.O.B., &c., &c., &c. 
For 60 years he served his country in the Royal Navy ; his gallant deeds 
are recorded in her annals. In all the relations of private life he was up- 
right, exemplary, and esteemed. He expired at sea on the 5th of May 
1845, aged 82 years, whilst returning to his native home from Devonport, 
at which station he had been for the three, previous years Commander-in- 
Chief. 

Here are deposited the remains of Gbaoe, wife of Rear-Admiral David 
Milne, who died at Bordeaux, in France, liie 4th of October 1814, where 
she had gone for the recovery of her health. Her remains were brought 
to this country by her affectionate husband, and re-interred here the 18th 
of February 1815. She was eldest daughter of Sir Alexandez Purves of 
Purves, Bart., by Mary Home, daughter of Sir James Home of Colding- 
bame, Bart., in the County of Berwick. Also a son, named Thomas, who 
died in infancy. 

46. This stone is erected to the memory of Geobge Duncan, Esq., by 
his family, Feb. 1841. 

47. Sacred to the memory of Robert Dickson, merchant in Mussel- 
burgh, who died 17th Dec. 1824, aged 73 years. Also his wife, Isabella 
DOBIE, who died 5th May 1822, in the 71st year of her age ; and their 
eldest son, RoBBBT Dickson, who died 80th April 1831. Also his wife, 
Mabt Ann Stbwabt, who died 27th Aug. 1839, aged 57 years, and their 
daughter, Elizabeth, who died in infancy. 

48. In memory of Jane Weir, wife of Andrew Balfour, died 5th June 
1847. 

49. In memory of Margaret M'Call, wife of Isaac Mercer, who died 
16th March 1851, aged 39 years. 

*' Not lost, but gone before." 

50. Here lies Andrew Anderson, merchant in Market-gate, who died 
29th April 1731, aged 36 years. Also Cathabine Simpson, his spouse, 
who died 8d March 1771, aged 77 years, and 5 of their children who died 
young. Also Robebt Andebson, their son, died 6th March 1812, aged 91. 
Jennet Hunteb, his spouse, died 7th Dec. 1811, aged 80, and here 
interred. 

51. Erected in memory of Elizabeth Jane, third daughter of William 
Miller, who died at Rose-Hall, on the 23d June 1852, aged 10 months. 

52. Sacred to the memory of John Thomson, Esq., who died 11th 
February 1800, aged 93. 

Sacred to the memory of Maby Looie, spouse of John Thomson, Esq., 
who died 21st December 1817, aged 70. 

53. Sacred to the memory of Mr John Gullan, who died 22d February 



218 HISTORY OF THE 

1805, aged 79 years. Also Mrs Ibabxlla Christie, spouse to John 
Gullan, Wright in Newbigging, who died 10th Jnly 1797, aged 70 years. 
Much esteemed in life, and regretted at death. 
EiiiZABBTH GuLLAK, their daughter, died in in&ncy. 

54. In memory of William Christie, late farmer in CraigmertouD^ 
county of Kincardine, who died at Newbigging, 25th Sept. 1776, aged 91 
years. 

55. In memory of David Gullan, who died 26th Tec. 1827, aged 64 
years, and Margaret Watson, his wife, who died 17th Jan. 1837, aged 
68 years ; also four of their sons, and four daughters. 

56. Here lyes the body of John Thomson, late march* in Musselburgh, 
who died Dec. 1, 1774, aged 74, and Margaret Martins, his spouse, who 
died April 15, 1765, aged 69 years. 

Be ye followers of those who, through faith and patience, inherit the 
promise — ** ^Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.** 

57. To the memory of Captain James Brown, late of the 55th Reg. of 
Foot, who departed this life. May 12, 1825, aged 65 years. Also Mart 
Brown, his sister, who died 30th May 1828. 

58. Sacred to Uie memory of Dr Soott of .Coats, Fife, his Family, and 
Descendants. 

59. Here lie interred the remains of Mrs Lillias Murray, daughter 
of John Murray, Esq., younger of Polmaise, and relict of William Buchan, 
Esq., younger of Drummakdl. She departed this life upon the 2d day of 
June 1776, aged 72 years. 

60. Sacred to the memory of John Burn, Esq., late a member of his 
Majesty's Honouiable Council in South Carolina, where he lived beloved and 
respected, as well for the virtues which adorned his private life, as for those 
which formed his public character. Returning to his native country to 
inspect the education of an only son, he was, by a premature death, in his 
43d year, deprived of that pleasing office, and delivered from the pain of 
seeing the ruin of his private fortune by the distraction of public affiiirs in 
the colonies. He died 29th December, MDCCLXXIV. 

Here also, Ann Burn, his widow, who tlied 20th March. 

endearing in the character of a wife, mother, and friend 

61. Sacred to the memory of Colonel Alexander Wedderrurn, late of 
the Coldstream Guards, and fifth son of the late Sir John Wedderbum, Bart. 
of Blackness and Balindean, whose remains lie here interred, bom 18th June 
1791 ; died 30th July 1839. Also Susan Weddsrrrun, bom January 18, 
1785 ; died February 3, 1840. 

Them that sleep in Jesus will Grod bring with him. 

Sacred to the memory of Dame Margaret Brown, Lady Wedderbum, 
bom 5th February 1775 ; died 14th February 1845. And 

Mrs Colville of Ochiltree, wife of Andrew Blackburn, Esq., died 
2d Dec. 1800, aged 74 years. 

Margaret Blackburn, daughter of Andrew Blackbum Colville of 
Ochiltree, bora 7th June 1766 ; died 9th February 1842. 



REOALITT or MUSSELBUBGH. 219 

Mn Blizabsth Wsddibbubn, wife of Andrew Wedderburn, Esq., * 
died 22d Dec. 1 803, aged 20 years. 

Jambs Wbddbbbubn Golyillb, Esq., died at Inveresk, 14th Dec. 1807, 
aged 78 yeftra. 

ISABBLLA Blackbubb Golyillb of Ochiltree, relict of James Wedder- 
bum Colville, bom 4th February 1756 ; died 14th Jan. 1821. 

6S. Hie jaoet Riohabdus Fishbb, armigeri de Loxgetto, qui propter pie- 
tatem, ingeninm humanam et civile, omnibus fuit cams. Hie etiam 
diormitat Elizabbtha, fUia ejus minima natu, quae formae morumque 
elegantia, nee non, animi doribus, et amore erra parentes : PrsB caeteris 
enituit. Eilia mortua est Miu«. 1790. Et. 24. Pater obut. 30 Maii 1793, 
Et55. 

Oonjuz et mater moestissima Mabgabbta Vbbb (cujus soror) parissima 
SusANKA ObiitJunii23, 1780. . . . 

64. The buiying-plaoe of Pbtbr Haitdtsidb, Greeuhall. 1832. In 
memory of Mrs Maboabet Vbbnob, eldest daughter of Robert Yemor of 
Holms, and wife of Peter Handyside, Greenhall, who died 18th January 
1837, in her eightieth year. Pbtbb Handtsidb, Greenhall, died 12th 
July 1839, in his eighty-second year. 

Mrs AONBS Handysidb, wife of John Amot, merchant, Edinburgh, 
died the 20th October 1832, aged 84 years. 

In memory of Agnbs, daughter of Peter Handyside, Fenton, East- 
Lothian ; died 30th January 1832, aged 7 years. 

It must be sweet in childhood to give back the spirit to its Maker, ere 
the heart has grown familiar with the paths of sin, and sown to gather up 
its bitter fruits. 

Also Mabgabbt, who died 20th March 1837, aged 7 months. JaKe 
Eliza, who died 12th October 1838, aged 7 months. 

In memory of Mabion, daughter of Robert Handyside, who died 4th 
November 1835, aged six weeks. 

65. In the hope of a blessed resurrection. Interred the remains of 
Jajtbt Soott Whitelaw, who died 16th January 1831. 

66. Sacred to the memory of Mabia, widow of the Hoil Colonel James 
Stuart ; died 30th July 1830. Also Henbt and Melnoth, children of 
the late John Campbell, Esq., Bengal Civil Service ; died 6th Nov. 1835. 
Jambs Stuabt, Esq., captain R.N., died 17th Nov. 1838. Mabia Stuart, 
spinster, died 15th Feb. 1843. Mabgabbt, widow of Archibald Douglas, 
Esq., died 24th April 1847. 

67. Here lyeth Jahbb Waleeb, mason in Musselburgh. 

68. Here lyeth William Tod, late Bsdlie of Musselburgh, who died 
upon the 3d of December 1675 ; his age 46 years. 

WUUam Tod. 

[Stone has representation of Justice, with 

appropriate inscription.] ^ 

69. In memory of Elizabeth Legat, wife of Robert Aitken, merchant, 
Musselburgh, who died 8th June 1849, aged 37 years. Also their soiu 
Robbbt, who died 16th May 1847, aged 8 years. 

Motto—" Live hut dreadJ" 



220 HI8T0BT or THS 

7(K Sacred to/the memory of Major-General Sir Patbiok LurDSSAT, 
K.C.B., who after a difltingmished service of more than XLiv years in almost 
every quarter of the globe, acquired a reputation of the highest order. An 
affectioiiate relative, a steadfast friend, a brave and accomplished soldieT, 
may the memory of his worth long survive this simple record of his namey 
and at the last may he be found acceptable to Him through whose merits 
alone we can be received unto eternal life. Nat. 21 February 1778, ob. 
14 March 1839. 

71 . The burying-place of GEOBax Robbbtsoh, who died 5th April 1842, 
aged 57 years. 

72. In memory of Thomas Lbgat, Trafalgar Lodge, 24 April 1850, 
aged 64 years. 

73. To the memory of Ghbibtina Gamfbsll, who died at Gordon 
Castle on the 5th of April 1828, aged 35 yean, and is buried close by the 
side of this wall. Erected by her affectionate husband, James Richardson, 
minister of the Scotch church at Hexham. 

To the memory of Bebtt Campbsll, who died at Gordon Castle on the 
13th of June 1824, aged 74 years. 

74. Sacred to the memory of John Stuabt, Esq., Blairhall, who died 
at his own house, Fisherrow, 2Gth February 1808 ; and his eldest daughter, 
Mabgabbt, who died in Ksherrow, 1st October 1806 ; and his youngest 
daughter, Wobtlet Mont AGUE MoiB, who died at Chantinghall, 2d March 
1832. 

75. In memory of John Pobtboub, smith. Market Street, who died 
7th February 18^9, aged 70 years. Also Isabella Young, his spouse, 
who died ith August 1809, aged 52 years. Also Ann M'Fablanb, wife 
of Andrew Porteous, who died suddenly on 9th of September 1846, aged 
52 years. Andbew Pobtbous died the 27th December 1848, aged 52. 
Isabella Pobteous, wife of James Stenhouse, farmer, Southfidd, who 
died 19th January 1857, aged 34 years. 

Andbew Pobteous died 14th September 1832, aged 4 years. 
Duncan Pobteous died 26th September 1832, aged 2 years. 

76. Sacred to the memory of Fbancis Schaw, who died the 24th of 
September 1809. Also to the nlemory of Albxandeb Schaw, who died 
the 9th November 1818, aged 73. 

77. Sacred to the memory of Thomas Scott, builder, InvereBk, who died 
December 24, 1819, aged 45 years. Here also are interred the remains of 
Bachel Scott, his only dbeiughter, who died 29th August 1831, aged 18 
years, to the inexpressible grief and regret of all her surviving Mends. 
Also Thomas Scott, his son, who died 5th July 1839, aged 20 years and 
six months. 

78. To THE Mbmobt of 

1. Alexandeb Cablyle, D.D., fifty-K>ne jesm minister of this pariah. 
Bom on the 26th of January 1772, died on the 25th of August 1805. 
Having thus lived in a period of great lustre to the oountiy, in arts and 
arms, in literature and science, in freedom, religious and dvil : He too was 
worthy of the times — learned and eloquent, liberal and exemplary in his 
manner, faithful to his pastoral charge, not ambitious of popular applause, 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBUROA. 221 

bat to his people a willing guide in the way of righteousnees and truth. 
In his priyate conneetionB, a kind relation, an asedduous friend, and an 
agreeable companion, not immersed in speculation, but earnest in action, 
to promote the merit he esteemed, or the public cause he espoused ; and 
, when full of years calmly prepared to die in peace. 

2. And Mart Boddam, his spouse, one of the two daughters and co- 
heiresses of Bobert Boddam, Esq., of Heathpool, in Northumberland ; 
younger by many years than her husband, died about a year before him. 
Megant and prepossessing in her person, frugal without meanness, know- 
ing without pretensions to learning ; and, wiSiout seyerity, a check to the 
foUies with which pretended learning is too often accompanied. To her ac- 
quaintances a continual model of good sense and propriety of manners ; 
and to her husband, whether in the progress or decline of life, a source of 
that comfort which understanding and beneyolence alone can supply. 

79. Here lyes Mr Andrew Blaoehall, Pastor of this church 35 years, 
who dyed 31 January 1609, aged 73. 

80. Here lyes Mr John Williamson, Pastor of this church 38 years, 
labouring incessantly for the good of his flock, which was ever dear to him, 
faithfully declaring the Gk^spelunto them to their great comfort. He dy'd, 
greatly uunented, on the 2d of February MDCCXL., in the Iz year of 
his age. 

81. Here lyes Christian Botd, spouse to Mr John Williamson, Pastor of 
this church, who dy'd Jan. 28 MDCCXXXTI., aged 1. years. Also three of 
their sons and four daughters, who dy'd betwixt the years of MDCCVIII. 
and MDCCXX., and between the i. & yi. year of their age. 

Benoyated by James Saunders Bobertson, Esq., W.S. 
Motto — " In omnia promptus." 

82. Sir David Bab of Eskgroye, Baronet, Lord Justice-Clerk of Scot- 
land, died 1804. 

Sir David Bae, Baronet, died 1815. Dame Helen Colt, his spouse, 
died at Paris, interred here, 1820. 

Bight Hon. Sir William Bae, Ban>net, Lord Advocate of Scotland, 
died 1842. Dame Mart Stuart, his«pouse, died 1839. 

Sacred to the memory of four sisters, Helen, Maroaret, Mart, and 
Grace, daughters of Sir David Bae, Baronet, who died abroad. 

88. Here lyes Bailie George Wilson, brewer in Musselburgh, who died 
6th Jan. 1793, aged 62 years. Jean Leitch, his spouse, di^ 21st July 
1804, aged 75 years. Also four of their children, who died yoimg. 

84. Sacred to the memory of Duncan Wileie, flesher, Newbieging, who 
died 2d April 1845, aged 75 years, and Mrs Elizareth Wilkie, his spouse, 
who died 25th Nov. 1843, aged 69 years, much regretted. Also their five 
sons, Edward, Charles, Samuel, George, and Lauchlan. This stone 
was erected by David WlLkie, their youngest son, as a token of his sincere 
and affectionate regard for his parents and brothers. 

85. Sacred to the memory of George Camprell, Eskside, who died 25th 
February 1828, aged 65 years. Also Mrs Jean Dudgeon, his spouse, who 
died nth August 1884, aged 66 years. 



222 HI8T0BT Of THX 

86. [Obelisk in good presenratioii ; said to have been cured by Archi- 
bald Handaeyde.] 

Sab hoc tomiilo Jadt JoAirvA, filia Archibaldi Handaflyde, Goementarii 
ConcbipolensiB, et Janksm Youvo, ejasdem nxoriSy qme omit 8Ui Oct. 1733 
anno, etatis 61o- 

In ape Reeu r rectionig, dneree unina fi]i» et daoram filiorum Aixn- 
▲NDBi DBmacoND, mercatoria Londini, degentie et Maodalefa Havda- 
8TDE, conJQgis ejus, hie requiescunt ; tis. 

EnPHXHiJB, que obiit 6 tftm. 1729 ann., seta. 4. Jaoobi, qui 28^o Mail, 
1730, mense leta. 15to, et Auxandbi, 2lBt Sept. 1786 anno, setatis lOmo. 

Sacred to the memory of EtJPHXMiA Hat, sponae ot James Wilkie, 
flesher, Fisherrow, who died the 26th of Dec. 1838, aged 61, nniversally 
lamented. 

87. Erected to the memory of Johk Cubbii, marble-eatter in Edinburgh, 
who d^arted this life on the 12th of May 1808, aged 51 yean. 

88. To the memory of Edward, aged di years ; and William, aged 5$ 
years, who both died in March 1834, sons at William Douglas, Portobello. 
Also of Annh Bbuok Allbv, hia grand-child, and daughter of J. It. 
Bailley,* Musselburgh, who died 18th August 1852, aged on/b year and ten 
months. 

89. Here are deposited ^e remains of William Smart, shoemaker, 
Fisherrow, who died 14th June 1819, aged 75. Also Mart Smart, his 
daughter, who died 15th June 1818, aeed 23. Also Hxlbm Brioob, 
spouse of William Smart, who died 27th Aug. 1822, aged 72. 

90. Interred here the remains of John Dudoxon, late flesher and por- 
tioner in Musselburgh, who died 1st of November 1801, aged 69 years. 
Also Ann Watson, his spouse, who died 11th of November 1810, aged 72 
years. 

91. Maroarrt Fbild, wife of John Taylor, Esq., died Ist November 
1828, aged 47. 

92. To the memory of Anns Sutherland, relict of Lieutenant Adam ' 
Gordon, who was bom in the parish of Kildonan, and died in Fishecrow, 
on the 25th May 1855, aged 75 yoffB* And Adam Gordon, their son, for 
many years Procurator-Fiscal and duperintendent of the burgh of Mussel- 
burgh, who also was bom in the pariMi of EJldonan, Sutherlandsfaire, and 
died at Edinburgh on the 2d December 1855, aged 51 years. 

93. In memory of John Dalrtmfle, who died in Dalrymple's Loan, 
5th Feb. 1828, aged 71 years ; and of Elizabeth Thomson, his spouse, 
who died 4th Jan. 1885, aged 80 years. Elizabeth, their eldest daughter, 
wife of Jobn Inglis, who died 26th July 1818, aged 35 years. John, 
their only son, who died 1st July 1819, aged 84 years. Jane, thdr third 
daughter, who died 11th Feb. 1840, aged 49 years. 

94. Sacred to the memory of Mart Richardson, spouse of Thomas 
Thomson, candlemaker, Musselburgh, who died the 3d of March 1818. 
Also, Jean, their daughter, who died the 31 st May 1818, aged 10 years ; 
and five children, who died young. 

* Writer and notary public. 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 223 

" Those lovely buds, «nd mother dear, 
Call'd hence by early doom ; 
Just came to slhow how these sweet flowers 
In Paradise would bloom.** 

95^ «•*♦*♦♦««*♦♦ 

Samuel Watt, who dfd .... 1795, aged 79 . . . Here 
lyes Jban and Mabget Watt, daaghters to Siunael Watt, smith. Also 
Mabgbet Dalbtmple, his spouse, who died May 17, 1779, aged 57 years ; 
and John Watt, son to Samuel Watt, who died Sept. 10, 1786, aged 25 
years. Bailie Willlui Watt, aged 51 years ; and 8 of his children, are 
interred here. 

96. Here lies interred the body of Mrs Ann Mosttn, Lite wife to Captain 
William Johnston, who departed this life the 13th of August 1801, aged 78 
years. This plain and unadorned stone is erected to her memory by an 
afifectionate husband, as a testimonial of her incomparable merits. Reader, 
she was one of the best of wives, and best of mothers. 

97. Here lyes John Psabson, second son of the deceased William 
Peanon, late of Eippenro^s, Esq., who died at Westbush, near Fisherrow, 
upon the 8th day of August, 1797^ aged 14 years. 

98. To the memory of John Mubbat, A.M., Bector of the Grammar 
Sdiool ol Musselbur^ who died 26th April 1794, in the 69th year of his 
affe, and of numerous descendants who are here interred. His son, Davtd 
MuBBAT, Esq., died at White House, Fisherrow, on 17th April 1847, in 
his 74th year, and is also here intm<ed. Here also lie the remains of 
Isabella Bbown, relict of the late D. Murray, Esq. She died at White 
House, Fisherrow, 5th May, 1830, aged 73 years. 

99. Interred here the remains oi John Laurie, who died 26th March 
1804, aged 56 years. Also Joanna Ballanttne, his wife, who died 25th 
Oct. 1801, aged 49 years. 

100. Here lyes Ann Hunteb, spouse to Bobert Dewar, merchant in 
Musselburgh, who died upon the 24th day of November 1778, aged 27 
years. 

101. In memory of Gabbiel WilbcAt, Esq., who died at Esksidt, 17th 
March 1839, aged 69 years. Willdlm Wilson, his son, died 20th March 
1824, aged 13 months. BaOSdbl Wilson, his daughter, died 24th Nov. 
1827, aged 7 years. Ann Wilson, his daughter, died 3d July 1831, aged 
2 years. 

^ 102. Erected by Thomas Hughes, Inveresk, and sacred to the memory 
of Mabt Goopeb, his spouse, who departed this life the 21st Jan. 1833, 
ageed 55 years, after a lingering and severe illness, which she bore with 
much fortitude and resignation. Here also lie the remains of Elizabeth 
Huohes, their daughter, who died 21st Sept. 1800, aged 11 months ; and 
of Joseph Nicholson, their nephew, who died 23a Jan. 1810, aged 1 
month. And of Elizabeth Goopeb, mother of the said Mary Gooper, who 
died 10th Nov. 1813, aged 70 years. Also of Betst Ann Nicholson, the 
beloved and only daughter of J. F. Nicholson, who died 12th April 1838, 
aged 20 years. She was pious in Uf e, patient under suffering, and resigned 
at deatbu Also Thomas Hughes, who died 16th April 1839, aged 63 



224 HISTORY OV THE 

yean. He wm generouB, humane, diaritable, pioos. Also Hiunr Goopkb, 
wife of J. F. Nicholflon, who. died at Inveresk, 8th May 1845, aged 64 
years. 

108. In memory of Edwabd Psaoook, merchant in Fxgherrow, who 
died 28d Jan. 1837, aged 86 years. 

104. To the memory of John Cbeb, merchant in Musselbm^gh, who 
died the 4th of May 1808, aged 57 years. 

105. To the memory of mLLUH Thomson, manon, in Market Street, 
Mu88elbux|rh, who died 29th April 1800, aged 71 years. Also Mabion 
HuNTEB, his spouse, jdied the 5th of December 1813, aged 70. And Jajos 
Thomson, their son, who died the 24th of Nov. 1802, aged 84. 

106. In memoiy of Jamss Bbbtsam, Esq., merchant in Edinburgh, who 
died on the /9th of Oct. 1810. 

107. To the memory of Hklen Hall, dau^ter ci the Rev. Samuel Hall, 
Ute vicar of Chatton, Northumberland, who died at Edinburgh 24th Jan. 
1840. 

'* Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.*' 

108. Sacred to the memory of Mabt Ansbbson, daughter of Joseph 
Astley, and wife of John Wilson Anderson, M.i>., died Sept. 25th 1838, 
aged 28. And to John Wilson Andebson, M.D., husband ci the fore- 
going, who died at Leith, Koy. 1st, 1835, aged 35 years ; and to Kbbbooa 
ASTLBT, widow of Joseph Astley, who died at Fisherrow, Sept. 19th, 1846, 
aged 65 years. 

109. Sacred to the memory of Josbph Abtlet, Esq., Edinburgh, die- 
mical manufacturer, who died the 24th June 1832, aged 54 years ; and of 
two of his duldren, viz., Ann, whodied the 3d July 1811, aged 7 months ; 
Phbbb Ann, who died the 29th Dec. 1814, aged 4 months. Also William 
Ghannino Andebson, son of J. W. Anderson, M.D., and of Mabt, 
eldest daughter of Mr Joseph Astley, died 8th Sept. 1851, aged 11 
months ; ^ of whom are here interred. And to Thomas Astlbt, manu- 
facturing chemist, Maj^dalene Bridge, Fisherrow, eldest son of the late 
Joseph Astley, died October 1st, 1850, aged 41 ^ears. 

110. Erected by Capt. McLaren, 1st Militia, in memory of his son, 
John K. M'Laben, who died in Musselburgh Barracks, 18th April 1807, 
in the 8th year of his age. 

111. This stone is erected by James Stewart, gardener. Pinkie, in 
memory of Gibstain Habvet, his mother, who died February 13th, 1800, 
aged 67 years. Also William Stewabt, his brother, who died 2d May, ' 
1806, ageid 34 years. Likewise Janbt Hilson, his spouse, who died 20tb 
Nov. 1806, aged 48 ; and four of their children, who died when young. 

112. In memory of the Rev. James Soott, Minister of the Gospel of the 
Associate Gongregation, Musselburgh, who died the 22d of March 1786, 
aged 42 years, and the 18th of his ministry ; much and justly regretted. 

*' Help, Lord, because the Godly man doth daily faid away. 

And from among the sons of men the faithful do decay. 

Also his spouse, Isabel Gbanbtoun, who died 11th March 1824, aged 80 ; 

and two daughters, Mabgabbt and Moffat, who died early in U£e, are 

also interred here. And Wiluam Scott, their son, died 26Ui July 1830, 



KBGAUTT OV MUSSKLBUBOB. 225 

a^^05 ymn. Also Ann WxsrwooDy his wife, died 2d May 1810, aged 
30 yean ; and Jambs Soon, their ion, died at St Andrews, 27th Aagust 
1844, aged 84. 

113. To the memory of the Rev. Jambs Soott, Minister of the Associate 
Congregation in Poiisburgh, Edinburgh, who died February 6th, 1795, in 
the twenty-second year of his age, and the second of his ministry. His 
dispositions were amiable and manly ; his conduct was suitable to the 
sacaed nature of his office ; and his talents, which he had just time to show 
to the world, promised to be highly nseful to the church. He was afifec- 
tionate as a relative, agreeable as an acquaintance, and faithful as a friend. 
He resigned his mortal life, in the hope of that immortality which was the 
business of his ministry to point out to others, as a source of consolation 
under trials, and of fortitude in the hour of dissolution. This stone was 
erected by his disconsolate congregation. 

114. Here lies the body of Jban NsiLaoN, spouse to John Bremner, 
hkte merchant in Nairn. She departed this life the 5th Nov. 1796, aged 
61 years. Also the body of Albxakobb Johnston, Ute merchant in 
Fisherrow, who died the 10th of June 1810, aged 50 years. 

115. Sacred to the memory of the late Rev. Wm. M'Keohnib of the 
Belief Church, Musselburgh, who died on 1st April 1828, in the 68th year 
of his age, and 43d of his ministry ; much regretted. Erected by the Relief 
Church in memory of their late minister, whose liberal mind and suavity of 
manners were pious without ostentation ; an affectionate friend, unassum- 
ing m life, and amiable in the social circle in which he moved. 

In classic fame, high in repute. 

Ah, now histructive tongue, thouVt mute. 

116. Sacred to the memory of Christian M'Millan, wife of WiUiam 
Watt, merchant, Fisherrow, who died 17th August, 1832, aged 37 years. 
Also four of their children, who died when young. 

117. Hero lys Yiolbt Douglas, spouse to James Ramage, ship-master 
in Fisherrow, and after his death, spouse to John Samson, wright in 
Musselburgh, .... 

Here lyes interred Kathbbinb Main, spouse to John Sam})Bon, 
1712, 

119. In memory of John MXbtin, bom 18th August 1837, died 12th 
January 1854 ; and of William Hamiux)N Mabtin, bom 1st June 1843, 
died 14th February 1854. 

To depart and be with Christ is far better.'* — Philip, i. 23. 

The departed were sons of the late Rev. ^muel Martin, Free Church 
Minister at Bathgate, who entered into his heavenly rest about four 
years before them. 

*' I am the resurrection and the life : he that beUeveth in me, though 
ho were dead, yet shall he live.*' 

120. The burying-place of Robert Gray. 

121. Here lies inteired the body of Ann Cbbb, (wife of William Ward, 
hkte vintner in Musselburgh), who died 224 of April 1853, in the 75th year 
of her age. She was a loving wife, a tender parent, and an affectionate 



226 HISTORY or THK 

friend. Her death will be long sad ainoerdy regretted by her dan^bter, 
who has erected this humble stone as a small mark of affection to the memory 
of a much-beloved and much-lamented mother. 

How still and peaceful is the graTe, 
When dayi of grief are past 

122. To Hie memory of GaoBai Stuabt, late merdiant, Bridge-oid of 
Fisherrow, who died 25th Feb. 1824, aged 51 years. JssfliE Stuabt, his 
youngest daughter, died 8th Nov. 1823, aged 17 years. Datid SrVABr, 
his third son, died 5th March 1830, aged 24 yean. JoHF Glabk Stuabt, 
his youngest son, died 25th Sept. 1880, aged 17 years. Gboboe Stuabt, 
his eldest son, late surgeon in North Berwick, died Deer. 1881, aged 33. 
Mrs Isabblla Kilooub, his sister-in-law, died 19th December 1854, 
aged 82. 

123. In memory of Maboabbt and Sliza Scott, who died in infimcy, 
and were interred here in June 1824. St Luke, ch. xviii. ▼. 16. — '' Suffer 
little children to come unto me, for of such is the kingdom of Grod.*^ 

124. In memory of Mabgabet Philips, relict of John Donaldson, land- 
surveyor, Dunfermline, who was interred here upon the 12th Sept. 1827, 
aged 75 years. She was a sincere Christian, an affectionate mother, and & 
faithful friend. 

Only the actions of the just smell sweet and blossom in the dust. 
At the S.£. comer of this stone is the resting-place of BOBXBT Flbkiits, 
of the Excise, who died 30th Sept. 1855, ag^ 83 years. As an honeei 
man he lived highly respected, and died greatly regretted. 

125. In sacred and lively remembrance of the Bev. Albxawpbb Black, 
who was bom at Dunfermline, 30th June 1764, and ordained at Mussel- 
burgh 27th August 1788, to be Minister of tiie Secession, now the United 
Presbyterian Church, this tablet is erected by Mrs Jean Black, formerly 
Martin, his widow, who was united to him in marriage for the period of 
53 years. Among friends of all denominations, in the town-hall of Mussel- 
burgh, 27th August 1838, he commemorated the close of the fiftieth year 
of Ins ministry, and died at Musselburgh, 30th January 1846, in his 82d 
year. A monumental tablet has been erected to his memory in the United 
Presbyterian Church, Bridge Street, bearing this inscription : — ** In him 
were blended in beautiful proportions, those qualities which constitute the 
Christian scholar, the Christian minister, and the Christian friend : having 
adorned the gospel which he preached by the simplicity of his piety, and 
the blamelessness of his li£^ and having a good report of all men and of 
the tmth itself, he rested from his labours 30th January 1846. 

Alexandeb, eldest son of the Rev. Alexander Black, and Mrs Jean 
Black, formerly Martin, died 4th May 1814, in the 19th year of his age. 
Mabgabet, their eldest daughter, died 4th January 1819, in the 20th year 
of her age. Patbick, their youngest son, died 31st January 1847, in the 
37th year of his age. 

126. David Mabtin, brewei: in Musselburgh, died on the 1st of April 
1793, aged 64 years. Mabgabet Cabse, his spouse, died on the 8th Nov. 



BEGALITT OF MV8SSLBUB0H. 227 

1769, aged 55 yean ; two of their children, David and Aitn, died when 
young. 

127. B.ere lyes the body of AVN Oambbon, wife of Donald Cameron, of 
the Aberdeenshire Militia, who departed this life 4th Kov. 1807, aged 36 
years. 

128. This monument is erected by Jean Cochrane, in memory of her 
deceased parents. 

To the memoiy of Gbobgs Coohbane, Utte tenant in Black Hill, who 
died on the 2d March 1779, aged 82 years ; and Jean Gbibve, his spouse, 
who died on the 7th May 1782, aged 62 years. Also Gbobob Coghbane, 
their eldest son, who died at Musselburgh on the 11th Nov. 1790, aged 
48 years ; and John Coohbane, their second son, who died at Edinburgh 
on the 17th March 1817, aged 70 years. 

Also their youngest son, Alkxaitoeb Coohbane, who died at London, 
on the 23d Oct. 1815, aged 58 years. Also the said Jean Coohbane, their 
youngest daughter, widow of James Cowan, Candlemaker in Edinburgh, 
who died at Musselburgh on the 17th Sept. 1 826, aged 74 years. A woman 
eminent for piety and good works. 

Maboabet Wilson, relict of Greorge Cochrane, died on the 21st Aug. 
1826, at Musselburgh. Her religion was sincere, and her patience under 
a tedious illness exemplary. Two of their sons, Geoboe and Alexander, 
died, the former aged 24, and the Utter aged 28 years. 

129. Sacred to the memory of David Stewabt, late flesher, Fisher- 
row, who departed this life, 24th May 1817, aged 57 years. Also Mab- 
oabet Stewabt, his daughter, who died 4th December 1807, aged 15 
years ; and James Stewabt, son of the deceased Dayid Stewart, who 
died 18th April 1821, aged 25 years. 

180. Here is interred the remains of Geoboe Hastie, mariner, who 
died April the 6th, 1787, aged 55 years ; and Mabt Ainblib, his spouse, 
who died 3d April, 1814, aged 80. Also their children, Bobebt, who 
died in Jan. 1780, aged 17. Janet, who died 3d July 1803, aged 42 ; 
and near this Maboabet, spouse of James Bolton, who died 10th March 
1813, aged 34. 

131. Erected by John Adam Hunter, merchant, Fisherrow, in memory 
of his children, Thomas Hunteb, died Feb. 11, 1791, aged 3 years. John 
Adam Hunteb, died Feb. 28, 1791, aged 1 year, Mabtin Hunteb, died 
Feb. 5, 1793, aged 1 year. 

132. Mr James Mobtimeb, portioner, Inveresk, died 23d July 1815, 
aged 87. And James Mobtimeb, son to James Mortimer, portioner in 
Inveresk, who died June 26th 1773, aged 3 years. 

133. Sacred to the memory of Henbt Cabmiohael, late of Musselburgh, 
who died 27th May 1828, aged 66 years ; and of his beloved wife, Janet 
Thomson, who died 25th May 1818, aged 49 years. 

They passed through a life of many trials with most exemplary upright- 
ness, fortitude, and resignation, highly respected by aU who knew them. 
They were sincere and consistent Christians. Also of Mabt, their eldest 
daughter, who died on the 10th of March 1856, aged 66 years. 



228 HISTORY or the 

This stone is erected as a tribute of respect to tJiememoiyof aSbctiaiiate 
and beloved parents, by their children. 

134. In memory of William Wood, bom at Eskbank, 2d Feb. 1817 ; 
died at Musselburgh 20th Dec. 1852. 

** Behold the Lamb of Grod, which taketh away the sins of the world." 

135. Sacred to the memory of Habbibt Dsan, bom in Manchester 
Jmie 11th, 1818 ; died at Musselburgh Dec. 30th, 1855. 

186. Sacred to the memory 6f Edwabd Joseph Hauqubt, who died at 
Musselburgh, 29th Feb. 1856, aged 73 years. 

137. Sacred to the memory of Ann Stbblb, who died 2d Nov. 1852, 
aged 75 years. 

188. In memory of Maboabbt Laubib, wife of James Forrester, who 
died suddenly on the 9th Nov. 1852, aged 62 years. 

139. Here are deposited the remains of Thos. Baity, vinter in Mussel- 
burgh, who died 6th Sept. 1816, aged 69 years. Also Janbt Holmes, his 
spouse, who died 2d March 1820, aged 73 years ; andJiABGT. Batft, tiheir 
diaughter, who died 10th Aug. 1819, aged 29 years. 

140. Sacred to the memory of Bobebt Millab, late fisherman in Fisher^ 
row, who departed this life Oct. 12, 1813, aged 42 years. 

141. Hie jacit Jaoobi Thomson, Faber Calcearius, in Fisherrow, nuper 
ThesaurariuB Mussdbuighensis, natus erat, 2 Mail 1689 ; mortuus est, 28ih 
Aprilis 1759. Mabqabet Gibson, his spouse, died 7th March 1782, 
a^72. 

Two of their children, who died young — J as. Thomson, clothier in 
Musselburgh, died 6th Dec. 1792, aged 40. Isabella Thomson, died 
April Ist, 1804, aged 50. Also Catheen Thomson, died 11th Nov. 1809, 
aged 79 years. Also Mabgabet Thomson, died 3d Jan. 1810, aged 82 
years. 

142. Here lys David Vbitch, farmer in Musselburgh, who departed 
this life 18th Feb. 1750, in the 40th year of his age ; and 3 children of 
David Veitch and Marion Feddie^ his spouse, viz., Maboabet, Gathbike, 
and Jane. 

143. In memory of Mabt, an only sister, obt. 14th August 1840, aged 
27. 

144. Sacred to the memory of Mr William Gowan, late sculptor in 
Edinbuigh, who died 25th January 1828, aged 62 years. His memory 
will long be deservedly dear to his surviving family, who had the best op- 
portunities of knowing and appreciating his worth. Also in memory, 
of Cathabinb Gbeio, his spouse, one of the best of wives and mothers, who 
died 16th May 1836, aged 58 years. 

145. Near this place Ues the body of Gbezixl Boss, wife of David 
Gowan, in Musselbui^h, who departed this life, July the 25th, 1774, aged 
66 years. 

146. Sacred to the memory of Sabah Wilson Mubbat, spouse of Wil- 
liam Walker, merchant, Glasgow, who died at Eskside, Musselburgh, 7th 
December 1851. 

1471 Here lyes Bessie Annan, spouse to George Young, wright in 



BMQAUTi OF MUS8BLBUBQH. 229 

Fishenrow, who dyed the 26 of Jan. 1785, aged 52 years. Also 8 of their 
children lyes here. 

Here lyes the woman that bath shown 
All virtues that her sex oou*d own ; 
Nor dare my praise too lavish be. 
Lest her dust blush, for so would she : 
Nature can scarce form such an one, 
For, ah ! her pattern now is gone. 
Reader, if thou hast a tear. 
Stop a while and shed it here. 

Here lyes Gbobob Young, wright in Fishenow, who dy'd the 1st May 
1747, aged 60 years. Also James Young, merchant in Fishenow, who 
dyd the 15th Jan. 1748, aged 27 years ; and John Young, brewer and 
faimer in JPisherrow, who dy'd 4th April 1753, aged 86 years. Also Eliza- 
beth Young, spouse to Robert Handyside, farmer in WhitcMl, who dy d 
6th July 1758, aged 82 years. 

148. Mabgabbt Ooohran of Ashkirk died 18th Oct. 1833. 
Abohibald Goohran of Ashkirk died 2d June 1841. 

149. ** The memory of the Just is beloved." 

The burial-place of John Chbibtian, Esq., late of this parish, and of Mrs 
Janbt Fobbbb, his granddaughter, daughter of the Bey. William Forbes, 
Episcopal minister in Musselburgh, and wife of James Skinner, writer in 
Edinburgh, who died 13th December 1818, aged 74 years. With an ex- 
cellent understanding, she was pious vrithout affectation, dutiful as a wife, 
affectionate as a mother ; indeed, she possessed in a pre-eminent degree all 
the virtues of a consistent Christian. 

Also of Jban YeIinob, his second spouse, who died the 11th of October 
1828. And lastly, James Seinnbb, who died 10th February 1840, aged 
89 years. Also John B. Seinneb, W.S., his son, who died Ist September 
1849, aged 63 years. 

150. In memory of Mabgabet Buchan, spouse of John Chalmers of 
Fisherrow ; died 29th March, 1811, aged 61 years, whose piety and un- 
assuming manner through life made her respected, and her death sincerely 
r^ietted. And of the said John Chalhebs, who died 4th August 1829, 
aged 87 years ; and Mrs Elizabeth Bltth or Chalmbbs, who died 
20th March, 1844, aged 62 years, spouse of Francis Chalmers, his son ; 
and of the said Fbancis Chalhebs painter, Edinburgh, who died on 12th 
May 1853, aged 63 years. 

151. In memory of Elizabeth Milleb, wife and cousin of James 
Paterson, a benevolent, amiable, and excellent woman, who died suddenly 
on the 8th October 1 834, aged 34 years. Also of their four sons and two 
daughters, being all their family. 

Also of James Patebson, Deputy-Assistant Commissary-General during 
the service in Egypt, the Peninsula, and at Waterloo, who died on the 
25th of December 1854, aged 73 years. 

BUs energy, industry, and integrity, with a high sense of honour, and 
much kmdness of disposition, gained for him general respect and esteem, 
as well when engaged in the fishing-nel^ manufactory at Musselburgh, the 
ingenious machinery for which was almost exclusively his own invention. 



230 HISTORY OP THE 

1. Janet Patsbsok, sister of James Patenon, died 2d May 1847. 

2. Fbancis W. Hadbn, bom 18th May 1820, died 29th May 1820. 
Jessib, bom 8d September 1821, died Ist November 1821. 
Fbanoib W. Haden, bom 19th April 1824, died Ist July 1824. 
Eliza, bom 10th December 1826, died 80th January 1827. 
James, bom 12th January 1828, died 8th May 1833. 

Hugh, bom 8th October 1830, died 12th December 1830. 

162. Erected by Mt grand-ckUdren — *' AlexandHa, Corunna, Pyrenees.*" 

Sacred to the memory of Major-General Jahbb Stiblino, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Cork, and for forty-two years an officer in the 42d, Hoyal 
Highlanders. With a wing of that national corps he annihilated the 
French Invincibles in Egypt, and took their standard with his own hand. 
He commanded that r^pment through the Peninsular war, and after twenty- 
seven years of foreign service he retired in 1813 into private life, where, 
cultivating the virtues which adorn the Christian character, he died, full 
of years and honours, at his villa of Eskbank, 12th December 1834. His 
remains, borne hither by his veteran companions in arms, are here in- 
terred. 

[On a scroll are the words "Alexandria," "Corunna," " Pyrenees," the 
whole surmounted by a sword and hat, and the French standard with ei^le, 
and the word " Lodi," in which battle the Invincibles took part, inscribed 
upon it. In the Milne indosure there is an elegant tablet to the memory 
of Admiral Milne and others of the family.] 

Sacred to the memory of James Stiblino, captain of the 42d B.H. 
regiment, who, after a brief but not inglorious military career, departed 
tfau life 20th January 1818, aged 25 years and three months. Also of his 
sister, Joan Stiblino, spouse of John Hume, Esq., who died 29th March 
1828, aged 43 years. 

The former was the only son, and the latter the only daughter, of Major- 
General James Stirling. 

Sacred to the memory of Jean Fisheb, relict of Major-General James 
Stirling ; died 12th August 1844, aged 94 years. Also of John Home, 
lieutenant and paymaster 42d Boyal Highlanders, 1795 to 1820. Received 
the Sultan's gold medal for Egypt, 1801, and the Peninsular war medal, 
with seven clasps, for Corunna, Salamanca, I^n^enees, Nivelle, Nive, 
Orthes, and Toulouse ; died 13th April 1849, aged 72 years. 

153. Sacred to the memory of Edmund Fbbguson, Esq., of Baledmimd, 
Perthshire, who died at Inveresk on the 16th July 1817, aged 78. 

154. To the memory of Mabt Bbooks, aged 29 years, who with her 
niece, Agnes Bbooks, aged 15 years, lost their lives while on a pleasure 
sail in the bay, off the Pease Bridge, Berwickshire, on the 15th May 1819. 

We murmur not nor mourn that thou art gone, 

Beloved daughter ! to the realms of rest ; 
Since sin and sorrow dwell on earth alone, 

And thou on high hast mingled with the blest 

155. Erected by Alexander Bob^rtson, in memory of Henb. A. Balfoub, 
his mother-in-law, who died 19th July 1822, aged 52 years. Also the said 
Alexandeb Bobsbtson, corn-merchant, Joppa» who died Ist January 1851, 



REQALITT Of MUSSBLBUROH. 231 

aged 5S years ; and Gathxbins Dablin«, his spouse, who died on the Slst 
day of August 1853, aged 60 years. 

156. Hie sltum est quidquie mori potuit yiri vere probii Thom^ Ck)CH' 
BAN) qui quum onmia magistratus in oppido Musselburgho munia ssepuis 
obcundo eximiam sibi famam tandem q. comparasset in ipso magistratu 
prid. Gal. Apr. anno Sal. Hum. MDOOXLY, letat L annis. Eheu ! lugendus 
diem obit. 

157. Sacred to the memory of lieutenoat-Golonel John Sutherland 
SiKOLAiB, Royal Artillery, who died at Edinburgh, 12th April 1841, aged 
62 ; and of lus eldest son, Gbobos Suthbbland Sinolaib, W.S., who 
died 18th January 1884, aged 80 ; and of his daughter, Euphb]|IA Mab- 
QABBT Sinclair, who died 12th October 1836, aged 11 ; and of his son, 
Thomas Buohan Sinolaib, who died 30th April 1838, aged 9. Also of 
his youngest daughter, NiooLA Hblxn Mebedith Sinclaib, who died at 
St Leonards-on-Sea, 24th November 1855, aged 16. 

158. Erected in memory of Jaoob Sandbbson, Monktonhall, who died 
7th November 1831, aged 56 years ; and Ann Lumsdbn, his wife, who 
died 7th October 1825, aged 48 years. 

Elizabbth Sandebbon, theur daughter, died 5th March 1848, aged 42 
years. 

John Bobebtson, their grandson, died 3d August 1889, aged 3 years. 

Isabella Sandebson, their granddaughter, died 19th December 1841, 
aged 3 years. 

Maboabbt Inous, their daughter-in-law, died 11th May 1851, aged 
41 years. 

159. Erected to the memory of the dearly-beloved and justly-regretted 
Jean Aitken, who died May 1847, aged 16 years, daughter of Archibald 
Aitken, merchant, Fisherrow ; also her six brethren and sisters, who died 
young. 

160. In memory of Mabt Burn, wife of John Gulland, Monktonhall ; 
died the 13th of January 1845, aged 48 years. 

161. Sacred to the memory of Thomas Ejbdzlie, flesher in Fisherrow, 
who died on the 19th January 1836, in the 60th year of his age. His in- 
dustrious habits, integrity of conduct, and kindness of disposition, will be 
long remembered by his mourning friends. 

162. Sacred to the memory of Maboabbt Hamilton, wife of James 
Crighton, builder, Edinburgh, who having fulfilled the duties of a virtuous 
wife and an affectionate mother, a pious Christian and a sincere iriend, 
departed this life on the 18th January 1809, aged 52 years. 

Bethba, their eldest daughter, aged 28 years, and three other children, 
who died young, are likewise interred here. 
James Cbiohton died 1st October 1824, aged 69. . 

163. In memory of Walteb Bitchie, brewer in the Fisherrow, who 
died 1st February 1748, aged 37 years. Also Maboabet Kobebtson, his 
spouse, who died 24th April 1750, aged 36 years. And their only son, 
Walteb Ritchie, who died 17th September 1820, aged 74; and his 
spouse Elizabeth Cabmichael, who died July 1801, aged 57. 



HISTOfiY or THE 

164. Erected to the memory of Biohabd Hbitoibson, akter and glasier, 
Mnnelburgh, who died the 14th October, 1781, aged 55 years. 

165. To the memory of Jaket Bitchib, apouse to Robert Duncan, 
fiaherman in Fiaherrow, who died 29th July 1835, aged 63 yean. She 
was a loving wife, a tender parent, and a aiooere friend. 

166. Thomas Gilohbist. James Gilchrist. Hslbn Lawsov, hia 
spouae, died on the SOth April 1829, aged 64 yean. GiOBOi Gilghbist. 

167. Eternity! Eternity! 

How long art thou. Eternity! 

Erected by the Aaaodate Edinburgh Young Men's Society to the me- 
mory of XtOBEBT Walkeb, one of its memben, who died at Edinburgh, 
27th August 1847, aged 21. Active and intelligent, warm and affectionate, 
sealous in promoting many a good work, he lived in the esteem of all who 
knew him, and died in the consolation and hopes of the righteous. 

Improve the present time, for all beside 
Is a mere feather on a torrmt's tide. 

His father, Mr William Walkeb, teacher, Musselburgh, and his 
mother, Isabella Ellis, are also interred here. 

168. In memory of Jamks Fobbes, servant, Garbeny Hillhead, who 
died 11th April 1831, aged 66. Also Agnes Fobbes, daughter of John 
Forbes, who died 18tii May 1829, aged 2 months. Also Maboabbt Bar- 
ton, spouse df John Forbes, Biggarshiels, who died Ist November 1834, 
aged 35 years, much and deeply regretted by all who knew him. 

169. In memory of William Chables, late flesher in Musselburgh, 
who died 28th August 1804, aged 74 years ; and of Gbizzbl Glabk, his 
spouse, who died 29th August 1831, aged S6 years. 

Their daughter, Janet Chables, who died 27th July 1813, aged 40 
yean. 

Their daughter, Gbace Chables, who died 15th May 1817, aged 38 
yean. 

Their son, Bobebt Chables, late flesher in Musselburgh, who died 18th 
M^ 1848, aged 67 years. 

'fheir son, Hugh Chables, surgeon, Boyal Navy, who died 23d Oct. 
1849, aged 64 years. 

Also, Thomas, Alexandeb, uid Euphemia, who died in infancy. 

170. Here lyes David Nisbet, indweller in Fisherrow, who died April 
29, 1760, in the 55th year of his age. Also Agnes Napieb, his spouse, 
who died Nov. 17, 1782, aged 77 years. Also five of thdr children. 

171. Here lyes Bobebt Falooneb, smith in Musselburgh, bom Dec. 15, 
1673 ; dyed Nov. 17th, 1733 ; and Aones Moib, his spouse, dyed August 
15th, 1735, in the 69th year of her a^e ; and 3 of their children. 

Here Ijres the body of Stbilla Howison, spouse to William Falconer, 
who dyed 14th Feb. 1771, aged 66 years. Also the body of William 
Falooneb, smith in Musselburgh, who departed this life, 23d March 1771, 
aged 73 years ; and 3 of their (Siildren. 

Here Wes William Moib, smith in Musselburgh, dyed 14 April 1724. 
Lilua vsitoh, his spouse, dyed 26th Nov. 1760. 



aiGALITT OT MUSSBLBUAOH. !23o 

172. Sacred to the memory of Mn Mabt Smtth, relict of the Ber. 
Bichftrd Shiell, of Hampstead, Middlesex, who died at Inyerask, 24th 
Dec. 1887, in the 79th year of her age ; and of Thohas Milleb Shublls, 
their only son, who died at Fisherrow, 2d Dec. 1888, aged 39 years. 

Also of their daughter, Bbbsoca Stonehabd Shislls, who died 27 1 
Feb. 1826, aged 27 years ; and Sabah Sawkiks Shiblls, who died a 
Hampstead, Slst Oct. 1855, aged 59 years. 

173. In memory of James GtOUBLAT, mason, died Sepfamber 17, 1819, 
aged 24 years. Also Elisabeth Andison, wife of Robert Gourlay, who 
died 5th February 1833, aged 64 years. 

174. Here are interred ^e remains of Mabtin Bsao, merchant, Mussel- 
burgh, who died 22d June 1831, aged 74 years. Also Eufhan Sfbnob, 
his wife, who died 18th March 1836, aged 73 years. Also Elizabeth Beoo, 
their daughter, bom 28th Feb. 1797 ; died 16th Dec. 1844. Also Mabtin 
Beqg, their son, bom 15th May 1795 ; died 26th Oct. 1855. 

175. Here lyes John Kbdzlib, former and brewer in Newbigging, who 
dyed 8d July 1746, aged 48 years ; and 3 sons and 4 daughten, who 
died young. And also EIatbine Donaldson, his spouse, who dyed . . . 
April 1782, aged 78 years. 

176. This stone was erected by Kathrine Binifing, in memory of John 
Davidson, her husband, who died 23d day of August 1778, in the 72d 
year of his age. Also Wif. Vallanoe, nephew of the above Kathrine 
Binning, who died 20th Nov. 1818, aged 83 ; and Mabgabet EIedzlie, his 
spouse, who died Oct. 1822, aged 84. Also Mabgabet Vallais'Ce, 
daughter of Jas. Vallance, their son. 

177. Here lyes Gbobge Watson, bazter and burgess of Musselburgh, 
who (tied December 16th, 1708, aged 33 years, and his spouse, Alison 
Beobib, who died May2d, 1706 years, aged 19. 

178. In memory of William Dudgeon, flesher, who died at Leith, 16th 
Nov. 1847, aged 46 years. In life he was much beloved, and in death 
deeply and sincerely lamented, by all who knew him. 

Here lies Thos. Cowan, flesher in Musselbuigh, who died Jan. 20th, 
1751, aged 27 years. Also John and Cathbine, children of Thos. Cowan 
and Ami M'Millan, his spouse, who died young. Thos. Cowan, flesher 
in Musselburgh, died August 20th, 1782, aged 37. Also Mabgabet 
Cowan, his diuighter, who dyed young. Thos. Cowan, flesher in Mussel- 
burgh, died 29th April 1807, aged 37. Albxandeb Cowan, son of John 
Cowan, candlemaker, freeman and burgess of the dty of Edinburgh, who 
died the 14th April 1809, aged 8 years. Mabgabet Cowan died 25th 
Sept. 1811, aged 87 years. John Cowan died 17th Dec. 1814, aged . . . 
years. 

The burying ground of John Cowan. 

179. Here are interred the remains of Thomas Bbown, merchant, 
Fisherrow, and Maby Watson, his spouse. Also the remains of their 
son, Robbbt Bbown, merchant, Musselburgh, and Euphemia M'Millan, 
his spouse.* 

* On the back of this old stone, there is an inscriptioD, the following part of which 
only ia legible : — 



2S4 mSTORT Of THE 

Here are intened the renuuns of EmABCTH THOlcaos, wife of Bobert 
Brown of East Kewton, who died 16ih May 1848, aged 60. 

Hero are intened the reniaina of Edphmpa M'MniLAW, spome of Bobert 
Brown, merchant in MosseUraighY who died 30th May 1825, aged 81 
yean. A fikithfnl widow and hommred parent. Also those of ihiaT son, 
BobkbtBbowh of Gliaton, bom 26th March 1769 ; died 18th Oct. 1853. 

Bobert Brown of Whiteom, Newton, Writer to the Signet> died 28th . 
Dec 1855. 

180. Erected by Jean Grey, in memory ol her hnaband^ Thomas Sts- 
▼BNBON, siyewright^ f^enow, who died 13th July 1810, aged 70. 

"For if we believe tluKt Jesus died and rose again, even so them also widah sleep 
in Jesus wiU God brinsr with him.**— 'niesB..tv. 14. 

181. Here lyes Maboabbt Himpstsd, spoDse to William Hay, Bailie of 
Mnaaelbm^h, ¥^o dyed 13th Ang^ust 1744, aged 58 years. 

Here lyes Williax Hay, portioner of Fisherrow, and. late Baifie of 
MnBselbargh, whored 8th Dec. 1748, aged 61 years. 

Here aim lyes William Hat, clotlder and firmer in fisherrow, and 
portioner there, who dyed the 13th June 1759, aged 43 years. 

182. Here lie the bodies of John Bambat, and Masoabet Febguson, 
his spouse, who both died in the year 1750. This stone was erected by 
Margaret, their ddest daughter, in the year 1809. 

183. Near this spot are deposited the remains of Mr Ghablbs Combes, 
late of Ha-Mille, near Southiunpton, Qoartermaster of the Pembrokeshire 
Fendble CaTalry, died Sept Ist, 1797, aged 42. His sister, as a tribute 
of affection, erected this tablet to the memory of a kind and good 
brother, . . • 

184. Erected by Alexander Aitken, smith, Easter Daddingston, in me- 
mory of his wife, Mabbiok Bobebtsoh, who died 26th Angast 1813, 
aged 25 years, and of his son John, who died 2d March 1814, aged nine 
months. 

185. In memory of Bighabd Sandilandb, smith, Inyeresk ; died 8th 
October 1853, aged 60. Bachel Millib, his wife, died 3l8t August 1839, 
aged 54. 

186. In memory of Jambs Bobebtson, smith, Newbigging, Mussel- 
burgh, who died 9th March 1851, aged 52 years. Also John lEtoBEBTSOir, 
his son, who died 23d July 1833, aged 2 years ; and daughter and grand- 
son, who died in in&ncy. Also Fbanoes Thomson, his wife, who died 
16th August 1855, aged 56 years. 

187. John Gabfbae, smith in Inveresk, died 28th Dec. 1792, aged 52 
years. Also Maboabbt Gabfbae, his spouse, who died Jan. 80th, 1813, 
aged 74 ; and three of their children, who died young. 

188. Sacred to the memory of Mabt Seatton, spouse to William Beid, 
who died 27th Jan. 1810, aged 74 years. Also William Beib, her 
husband, gardener, who died the 13th March 1810, aged 82 years. 

" Here lyes Jambs , Dmddkn jAVsaDaBDnsK 

and Janet Kersb. 

In memory of . . . Robbbt B&own, shipmaster, Fisherrow, who died 

1724. Drtdoh, hit spouse. 



REGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 335 

189; Sacred to the memory of William Reed, earthenware manufac- 
turer, Musselburgh, who died 13th day of Oct. 1835, aged seventy years. 
Also John Reid, his youngest son, who died 25th Feb. 1846, aged 22 
years. And Mabion Reid, aged 7 years ; and Isabella Reid, who died 
in infancy. 

190. Sacred to the memory of Robt. Caied, fisherman in Fisherrow, 
who died 20th Feb. 1818, aged 64 years. 

Through life's perplexing seas, 

His course he steer'd 
■ With steady hand ; 

He all their danger clear'd, 
Tiiranchor'd sure. 

When all the storms were o'er ; 
He's driven, we hope. 

Safe on Emmanuel's shore. 
Where dangers cease, 

And storms assail no more. 

191. Interred here Heney Williamson, fisher, Fisherrow, who died 
17th Oct. 1812 , aged 56, sacred to friends, and numerous acquaintances, 
Maegabet Caied, wife to Henry Williamson, died the 2d of April 1810, 
aged 61. Exemplary as a wife, a Brother, and a friend. Also Mabqaeet 
Williamson, their daughter, who died the 4th of April 1818, aged 21 
years. 

'192. Erected in memory of Petee Bouehill, baker in Musselburgh, 
died 29th March, 1810, aged 75 years. And Janet Hill, his wife, died 
18th Dec. 1805, aged 74 years. Also interred here Geobge Bouehill, ■ 
their son, died 4th May 1836, aged 73 years. Isabella Moffat, his wife, 
died 30ih March 1814, aged 83 years. Three of their children, who died 
in infancy. Petee Bouehill, their son, died 18th Dec. 1838, aged 82 
years. Isabella Bouehill, their daughter, died 12th Nov. 1847, aged 35 
years. Alison Bouehill, their daughter, and wife of Andrew Balfour, 
died 20th July 1850. 

193. Sacred to the memory of Thomas Beeby, Esq. of Brotherston, late 
one of the Magistrates of Musselburgh, who died the 12th January 1776. 
Also Mabgaeet Watson, his spouse, who died the 12th July 1803, aged 
79 years. William Scott, died on the 17th December 1834. Also his 
son, James Scott, who died 22d September 1849. 

194. The burying-ground of James, William, and Robert Millar, fishers, 
Fisherrow, 1827. 

195. John Cathie, merchant in Musselburgh, died on the 12th of Oct. 
1793, aged 48 years.' Maeion Simpson, his spouse, died on the 5th ot 
July 1791, aged 46 years, l^ine of their children died when young, and 
are also interred here. Also Jean Scaeth, wife of Peter Cathie, timber 
merchant, Fisherrow, who died 18th Sept. 1814, aged 29. Peteb Oathib, 
merchant, FisheiTow, died 28 th March 1821, aged 40 years ; and his re- 
mains are interred here. 

196. Sacred to the memory of Janet Millae, spouse of John Clark, 
junr., mason, Fisherrow, who died 29th August 1826, aged 29 years. 

Afflictions sore, long time I bore, 
Physicians were in vain ; 



386 HISTORY OF THE 

Till God at length did call me hence. 
And eas'd me of my pain. 

Died alflo his son, a^ed one year and five months. Also Mabgaret 
MoiB, spouse of John Clark, who died at Musselburgh, 16th December, 
1638. 

1854. 

197. Erected by Francis CroU, merchant, Fisherrow, in memory of his 
wife, EuPHEMiA Baihd, died 27th October 1846, aged 63 years. Cathbine 
Croll, died 30th Oct. 1827, aged 9 years. Fbancis Cboll, junr., en- 
graver, died 12th Feb. 1854, aged 27 years. 

Burying groundy John Hart. 

198. Sacred to the memory of John Habt, flesher, Fisherrow, who died 
28th May 1842, aged 61 years ; and of Anne Porteou3, his spouse, who 
died 16th January 1843, aged 47 years. Also Ankb, their daughter, who 
died 15th May 1836, aged 10 years ; and Joan, their daughter, who died 
23d Sept. 1838, aged 4| years. 

Rest^-while affection oft will drop the tear, 
Till fate shall summon us to join y< u there. 

199. Elizabeth Nisbet, died 19th May 1854. 

'200. Sacred to the memory of John Thomson, late Captain of the 69th 
Begiment of Foot, who died 31st Oct. 1823, aged 82 years. 

201. This is the burying ground of Captain JRamsay, "R.N. 

David Bamsat, Esq., Post-Captain in the Royal Navy, died 18th Nov. 
1818, aged 68, 

Mabt, relict of Captain Ramsay, R.N., eldest daughter of John Mac- 
leod of Macleod, died 8th August 1829, aged 77. 

The remains of Eliza Isabella, daughter of M^or Sinclair, R.A., rest 
hei*e, died 18th June 1816, in her ninth year. Also of Fbancis, wife of 
Major Sinclair, R.A., daughter of Capt. D. Ramsay, R.N., died 20th Jan. 
1823, aged 27. 

Deposited here are the remains of Louisa, wife of J. H. Home, Esq., 
of Longformacus, daughter of Captain Ramsay, R.N., died 3d June 
1823. 

Here are interred the remains of Anne, second daughter of Captain and 
Mrs Ramsay, who died 17th October 1830. Also of Mabt Emilia, their 
eldest daughter, the last survivor of their family, who died 10th March 
1834. 

Here are deposited the remains of Mabt Emilia, wife of W. Narman 
Ramsay, Captain in the Royal Horse Artillery, eldest daughter of Lieut.- 
General Macleod of Macleod. Died 10th August 180.^. 

The remains of Cathebine Ramsat, -daughter of Captain, R.N., are 
here interred. Died 4th October 1844. 

David Ramsat, Lt. R.N., 4th son of Capt. Ramsay, died on the Jamaica 
station July 1816, aged 22 years. 

The remains of Anne Cummino, relict of Wm. Ramsay, Esq. of Temple 
Hall, are here interred. Died 13th May 1810. 



BBGALITY OF MUSSELBURGH. 337 

John Ramsay, Lt. R.N., 2d sod of Capt. Bamsay, died on the Leeward 
iBland Station, May 1807, aged 19 years. 

Sacred to the memory of Major William Norman Rambat, of the Royal 
Horse Artillery, eldest son of Captain David Ramsay, Royal Navy ; who, 
having served throughout the varioutf campaigns in Holland, Egypt, Por- 
tugal, Spain, and France, from the year 1799, and distinguished himself in 
all, fell at the battle of Waterloo on the 18th of June 1815, aged 33. His 
remains, preserved through the affection of his brother officers and the 
support of his troop, were, to fulfil his own wish, removed to this place, 
and laid beside those of his beloved wife. 

Alexander Rambat, Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, third son of 
Captain Ramsay, R.N., gallantly fell in the batteries before New Orleans, 
on the 1st of January 1815, in his 24th year. 

203. Robert Vbrnor died 6th Nov. 1809, aged 80 years. Also Jean 
Beounlie, his spouse, died 25th July 1810, aged 76 years. 

204. Sacred to the memory of Major Robert Vernor, late of the Scots 
Greys, in which distinguished cordis he served upwards of thirty years. 
Died 10th August 1827, aged 64 years. 

And of Elizabeth Vernor, his spouse, who died the 10th April 1 838, 
a^ed 75 years. Also of Charlotte Thomson Gillon, spouse of James 
Vernor, who died 3d July 1856, aged 46 years, beloved and respected by 
all who knew her. 

205. Sacred -to the memory of Agnes Boyle, wife of Charles Stewart ; 
died Ist June 1824, aged 38 years. Also Agneb Stewart, her daughter, . 
who died at Melbourne, N.S.W., 17th February 1841, aged 24 years. 
Also of Charles Stewart, of Sweethope, died 13th October 1854, aged 
73 years. 

Alibon Douolab, wife of Charles Stewart, died 18th March 1789. 
Charles Stewart, of Sweethope, died 21st December 1826, aged 74 
years. 
Janb Stewart died 17th July 1851, aged 71 years. 

206. Sub hoc lapide situs est Joannes Taylor, puer eximia spe, filius 
uuicus Joannis Taylor, armigeri, et Agathise Coutts, cnjus immaturam 
mortem (obiit Novem. tantuni annos natus xvi calend. Novem^res) moes- 
tissimi parentes nunc. Eheu ! progenie orbati, lugent et lugebunt. Anno 
mdcolxxxii. 

Hie etiam situs est juxta filium pater Joannes Taylor, qui diro conflic- 
tatus morbo, et tandem fatis succumbens, magnum sui desiderium apud 
amicos reliquit. Anno setatis xlix, mensis Januarii xviii, mdcclxxxv. 

207. Hie in Duncanorum sepulturse loco inhumata jacet Margareta 
Duncan, Roberti Litsterii, notarii, Musselburghen., uxor quae mulium 
deplorata decessit 15 Sept. 1690, set 29-30. 

Casta modesta gravis cubat hie sine vulnere fanue foemina spectatis 
atq. side. 

208. Here are deposited the remains of Janet Miller, widow of John 
Gairdner, Esq., younger of North Tarrie. She died July 1st, mdccxxxii, 
aged 56 years. 



338 HI8T0RT OF TflB BBOALITT 01 iniBSlLBUBaH. 

Maiy Miller, her sister, 'widow of Lieutenant James Pateraon, erected 
this monument in 

209. This stone is erected by Mrs Eleanora Patten, to the memory of 
her affectionate husband, Captain Thomas Patten, Paymaster of the 7ih 
Dragoon Guards, who departed this life on the 28th September 1805, aged 
67 years. 

210. Here lie the remains of Captain JOHir Camfbbll, late of her 
Majesty's 22d Begiment of Foot, and of Maby Pliddel, his spouse. He 
was nephew to the first Duke .of Argyle, and cousin-german to his son, 
the great and worthy John ; but distinguished not more by his lineage 
than by an honourable discharge of the duties of his profession, by mild 
and amiable disposition, and by a conduct becoming a steady friend and 
an honest man. He died on the 11th day of November 1783, in the 70tli 
year of his age. 



[The foregoing comprise, with perhaps one or two exceptions, 
the entire legible inscriptions ih the churchyard. They will be 
interesting to relatives and others at a distance, and may prove 
serviceable to the genealogist. The reading on some of the 
stones is wholly effaced, and on several very much decayed. 
Many of the places of sepulture are well enclosed, and not a few 
of the monuments, obelisks, and tablets are very creditable spe- 
cimens of art. The ground, though not laid off in the style of 
our modem cemeteries, is kept in good order.] 



\ 



r \ 






"' * •* wjy 




I